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Henry W, Sage 

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Saint Paul's Epistle to the Ephesians: t 


3 1924 029 294 209 











[The Bight of Translation and Reproduction is reserved.] 

The materials for this edition of the Epistle to the Ephesians were left by 
<vy Father in a condition which called for very careful editing. This task I 
ntrusted to my friend the Rev. J. M. Schulhof, M.A., of Glare College, Cam- 
ridge, Fellow of St Augustine's College, Canterbury, and sometime Scholar of 
"rinity College, Cambridge : who has brought to bear on the work not only the 
oyal zeal of a very faithful disciple, who for long years has studied my Father's 
writings and, while it was still given, sat at his feet; but also u. care and 
liscrimination truly worthy of the best Cambridge traditions. To him all 
eaders of the book will owe a deep debt of gratitude for the infinite pains tliat 
.e has bestowed on this labour of love. 



A DELAY of four years — which have elapsed since the duty 
was committed to me of preparing for the press the late 
Bishop Westcott's work on the Epistle to the Ephesians — may 
be thought to demand some explanation. 

My original mandate, as given by the> Bishop's Executors, 
involved a twofold responsibility, — first that of editing the 
Commentary on the Epistle, left in manuscript by Dr Westcott, 
and secondly that of constructing, on the basis of such materials 
as might be found among his papers, an Introduction, and an 
Appendix of Essays and Additional Notes. 

The former task appeared to present no other difficulties 
than those which attach to the determination, here and there, 
of the purport of an unfinished sentence, the treatment of an 
occasional lacuna in the notes, and the verification of references. 
But it was early interrupted, and for the space of some eighteen 
months, by the discovery that the notes on Chapter II were 
missing : a circumstance which was variously interpreted ; one 
opinion, very confidently expressed, being that for some cause 
no notes had ever been written by Dr Westcott on that portion 
of the Epistle, — in other words, that the expected posthumous 
Commentary was after all in no sense complete. I make no 
apology for having obstinately resisted an urgent recommenda- 
tion, addressed to me at that time, to presume the non-existence 
of these notes and publish the Commentary ' as it was.' 

Eventually the missing notes were discovered by the 
Reverend Henry Westcott between the pages of a volume 
which he had inherited from his father's library. 

Meanwhile the heavier and more delicate task of con- 
structing an Introduction, and an Appendix, had been begun 
on the lines proposed. 

It was attended, however, with unusual difficulties owing to 
the unexpected scantiness of the materials actually extant from 
the hand of the Bishop. In point of fact those materials consisted 
mainly of fragmentary notes and jottings, a few summary 
analyses of projected sections or dissertations, lists of occurrences 
in the New Testament or elsewhere of words or phrases requiring 
investigation, and other brief indications of topics to be discussed. 
Accordingly it soon became evident that only a very small 
proportion of the language or argument of any such Intro- 
duction and supplementary Essays would be of Dr Westcott's 
workmanship. And the immediate question came to be 
whether the pen of a disciple might usefully and acceptably 
provide the desired Prolegomena and Appendix, incorporating 
all that could be found of Dr Westcott's own conclusions and 
hints, but without pretence of offering anything less or more 
than a disciple's elucidation of problems opened, but not 
continuously treated or always finally resolved, by the departed 

At this point and on the issue thus declared the judgment 
of four or five representative exponents of academic opinion in 
Cambridge was emphatically adverse to the plan originally 

That plan was accordingly abandoned. 

The book, as now published, may probably be less useful 
to the general student than it might otherwise have been; 
Dr Westcott's unfinished work being, like a classic document, 
of a quality to need, and to justify, ancillary interpretation and 


focussing. But, if less generally useful, the book, as it stands, 
will, we have reason to hope, be specifically more acceptable to 
scholars, at any rate in the University which owes so much to 
the great teacher, whose 'vanished hand ' no other can simulate, 
even as no pupil, or follower, can re-awaken, however he 
may yearn once again to hear, the tones of the 'voice that 
is still.' 

It remains to indicate, as briefly as may be, the lines on 
which the present volume has been compiled. 

In place of the full Introduction originally contemplated, 
I have prefixed to the Text and Notes a nominal Introduction, 
formally analogous to that which Dr Westcott has given us in 
his edition of the Epistle to the Hebrews, but, as regards 
matter, essentially, though unequally, defective in every part. 

The section on 'Text' reproduces, with such modification 
as was necessary or appropriate, the statistical matter of the 
corresponding section in Hebrews. 

Under the section-headings 'Title and Destination' and 
'Date and Place of Writing,' a- few relevant paragraphs, 
from original authorities or from Dr Westcott's papers, are 
printed, and, for the rest, reference is made to Lightfoot's 
'Colossians' and 'Biblical Essays,' Hort's 'Prolegomena' and 
Professor T. K. Abbott's 'Introduction.' 

For the section on ' Canonicity and External Evidence ' it 
has seemed reasonable, and sufficient, to print in parallel 
columns the chief early patristic passages and the portions 
of the text of Ephesians, which they appear to presuppose; 
leaving it to the reader to estimate, as he may, in each 
instance, the alternative probabilities of purposed citation, 
reminiscence or coincidence. For guidance he can always 
refer to the published views of the scholars above named 
or others. 

But in so far as the parallel presentation of the canonical 

and patristic texts may be held to imply the view, that the 
Epistle was known to and used by the early Christian witnesses 
adduced, the section, thus regarded, has Dr Westcott's authority: 
all the patristic passages given being cited in the footnotes and 
appendix to his History of the Canon; of which, therefore, 
this section may be accounted an excerpt printed ' in extenso.' 

The Section ' Internal Evidence of Authorship ' is made up 
almost entirely of matter drawn from Dr Hort's Prolegomena, 
and arranged under the subdivisions adopted in the 'Abstract 
of Lectures on Ephesians ' printed at the end of that volume. 

In view of the long and memorable service of collaboration 
which has linked together indissolubly the names of Westcott 
and of Hort, it will, I hope, be felt to be fitting that where in 
this Epistle the one is silent and the other happily has left a 
record, already published, of his conclusions, appeal should be 
made to the latter to supplement the unfinished work, now 
edited, of the former. 

With regard to the Section ' Style and Language ' I regret 
that, owing to an error of marking on my part, the fragmentary 
notes left by Dr Westcott appear in smaller, instead of in larger, 
type than the lexical statistics appended. The oversight, how- 
ever, when discovered, did not seem to me of sufficiently grave 
importance to demand correction, which would have meant 
disturbance of several pages of proof. 

The three following Sections on the relation of this Epistle 
to the Colossian Letter, to other Pauline documents, and to 
certain other, non -Pauline, Apostolic writings respectively, will, 
I think, speak for themselves. 

The ' References to the Gospel History ' constituting the 
tenth Section are Dr Westcott's own. 

For Section XI, 'Characteristics' of the Epistle, I have 
ventured to bring together the judgments of four writers, all 
sometime (and at the same time) Fellows of Trinity College, 


Cambridge, namely, Dr Westcott himself, and his three lifelong 
friends, Bishop Lightfoot, Dr Hort, and Dr Llewelyn Davies — 
of whom now the last alone survives. 

The twelfth and last Section, exhibiting the ' Plan of the 
Epistle,' is, again, Dr Westcott's own, and is printed exactly 
as it stands in his manuscript. 

The Text of the Epistle is reprinted from the last edition of 
Westcott and Hort's 'New Testament.' 

The few critical notes are gathered mainly from the ' Notes 
on Select Readings' in the Appendix to Westcott and Hort's 
Introduction ; a small residue being adapted from Dr Sanday's 
Delectus Lectionum in the Clarendon Press Appendices ad 
Novum Testamentum, or from Tregelles's Apparatus Criticus. 

One note, partly critical, partly exegetical (on iv. 2 1 ), is taken, 
at the instance and by the kind cooperation of Dr Murray, 
Warden of St Augustine's College, Canterbury, from the private 
correspondence of Dr Westcott with Dr Hort. 

After the Greek Text and Notes, and before the Appendix, 
I have printed the texts of the Latin Vulgate version of the 
Epistle and of two early English versions, namely, those of 
Wiclif, as revised by Purvey (c. 1386), and of Tyndale (1525). 

The English versions will, I think, be felt to be an appropriate 
addition to a volume containing the latest exegetical labours 
of a theologian who is also the author of the ' History of the 
English Bible.' Both versions are reprinted from Messrs 
Bagster's English Hexapla, and as regards the earlier I have 
ventured, for the sake of brevity, to retain in the title-heading 
the inexact description, 'Wiclif, 1380,' although it is now the 
opinion of, I believe, all expert authorities that the version 
here given is Purvey 's revision, made in or about 1386 (after 
Wiclif's death), of Wiclif s own translation of 1380. The tech- 
nical inaccuracy is lessened by the fact that in ' Ephesians' the 
difference between Wiclif and his reviser amounted to very little. 

The Appendix is made up of (i) an analytical conspectus of 
the theology of the Epistle, (ii) a series of Additional Notes on 
particular words or topics, (iii) a Greek Vocabulary of the Epistle. 

The title ' Heads of Doctrine/ given to the first of these 
divisions, is taken from a Summary, or Table of proposed 
Contents, prepared by Dr Westcott for a projected work, which 
he eventually abandoned, on ' Christian Doctrine.' And nearly 
all the subject-headings given are selected from that Summary ; 
that is to say, those subjects in the list have been taken, which 
admitted of illustration from the Epistle to the Ephesians. But 
in the treatment of them no uniform rule has been observed. 
In some cases nothing has been set down beyond the mere 
words of those verses of the Letter which contain reference to 
the subject in hand. In other cases brief comment has been 
interposed either by repetition from one or more of the notes 
in the text or by citation from one or other of Dr Westcott's 
published works. And in a few cases, when this was suggested 
by anything from Dr Westcott's pen, the occurrence of a term 
or topic has been traced through other Pauline Epistles or even 
throughout the New Testament. 

But for the most part any such treatment of a subject has 
been reserved for the Additional Notes. 

In these, with the exception of a few sentences from Dr Hort's 
posthumously edited works and a few editorial observations 
enclosed in square brackets, nothing has been introduced which 
is not either (a) Biblical Text, (/3) statistical matter drawn and 
digested from Text and Concordance, (7) express quotation 
from works actually cited, or used, by Dr Westcott in connexion 
with this Epistle, or (S) comment of his own, gathered partly 
from extant manuscript material, partly from relevant passages 
in his published Commentaries and other writings. 

With regard to the several subjects treated the facts are 
these. In most cases an Additional Note on the subject was 

definitely projected by Dr Westcott. In many cases prospective 
reference to the intended Note had been made in the Com- 
mentary. More often than not the general outline of the Note 
existed in the form of classified groups of instances or brief 
summary statements with or without accessory matter. In no 
case had it been brought into a form that could be regarded as 

It thus became necessary either to leave these collectanea 
infertile or to supplement them. In adopting the latter course 
I have observed the restrictions stated above. Scriptural and 
other testimonies, cited by reference, have been verified and 
given in full : outlines left by Dr Westcott have been filled 
in and illustrated, where this was practicable, from his own 
writings or from sources quoted by him elsewhere. 

The few titles not expressly emanating from Dr Westcott 
cover topics which he has indicated as calling for separate 
treatment. There is therefore no need to specify or defend 

For the Vocabulary or Index of Greek Words used in the 
Epistle, and also for the short Index of Subjects, I am solely 

The foregoing explanation may, I am inclined to hope, 
suffice to justify the Introduction and the Appendix. 

But, if not, it is no great matter. Disapproval signifies 
merely that, in the judgment of those who disapprove, the 
'Addenda' would have been better unpublished than thus 
arranged, filled in, and edited. It may be so. 

After all, it is the Commentary which matters. And in 
this none can fail to recognise the unalloyed expression of the 
author's mind and heart; a last, clear word of consolation, 
strong and unfaltering, from one who through many years had 
ever, in the intervals of official work, turned with loving joy to 
the task of the interpretation of this Epistle. 


In conclusion I desire to make grateful acknowledgment to 
those who in one way or another have helped me to make this 
book less imperfect than otherwise it would have been and less 
unworthy of him whose name it bears. More particularly I am 
indebted to the Rev. Professor T. K. Abbott, Litt.D., of Trinity 
College, Dublin, for kind permission to use a note (v. inf. p. 194) 
from his Commentary on the Epistle ; to the Rev. J. Llewelyn 
Davies, D.D., Vicar of Kirkby Lonsdale, and sometime Fellow 
of Trinity College, Cambridge, for a most courteous letter 
cordially assenting to the incorporation in this edition of the 
Epistle of some paragraphs from his own Introduction ; to the 
Rev. J. H. Moulton, Lit.D., late Fellow of King's College, 
Cambridge, and now Tutor of Didsbury College, Manchester, 
for assistance in verifying a reference to the works of the late 
Dr Dale ; to H. M. Chadwick, Esq., M.A., Fellow and Librarian 
of Clare College, Cambridge, for facilities, kindly accorded me, 
of access to and use of books from the College Library, as well 
as for advice regarding early English versions ; to the Rev. 
J. 0. F. Murray, D.D, Warden of St Augustine's College, 
Canterbury, formerly Fellow and Dean of Emmanuel College, 
Cambridge, for valuable aid and counsel in several points of 
detail ; to the Rev. Arthur Westcott, M.A., Rector of Crayke, 
for information regarding papers left by the Bishop; to the 
Rev. F. B. Westcott, MA., Head Master of Sherborne School 
and Hon. Canon of Salisbury, for his prolonged forbearance and 
patience with the slowness of my handiwork ; to my relative, 
the Rev. H. Brereton Jones, M.A., Senior Curate of St Giles-in- 
the-Fields, for his kindness and extreme care in reading great 
part of the proofs ; and, not least, to the officials of the Pitt Press 
for the unfailing courtesy with which they have met my requests 
and fulfilled their part in the printing of the book. 

And last of all there is one to whom my purposed word of 
thanks can never now be rendered. 


After lung delays, due largely to causes explained above, 
though partly to pressure of other work, I had at length, in the 
early autumn of last year, fully determined that nothing should 
prevent the immediate completion of the book with a view to 
its publication at latest by the day of the Feast of St John the 
Evangelist. So I proposed. But the Angel of Death forbade. 

For in the meantime the gentle hand, which not long since 
had copied out for me with a mother's wonted care two passages 
from Ruskin now printed in the Appendix, had ceased to write ; 
and the beloved voice, which had so often made kindly enquiry 
as to the progress of the work, had been stilled for ever. And 
so it befell that other and sadder thoughts and duties intervened, 
disabling me from these, and compelling me to relinquish for a 
while the task of final revision. 

Now that I have been enabled to resume and in a manner 
finish this work of editing, I can but trust that, notwithstanding 
the many faults by which (as I am deeply conscious) it is 
marred, it may yet, by the mercy of God, not wholly fail of 
the end to which it has been directed, that of presenting, 
clearly and truthfully, the total ascertainable result of Bishop 
Westcott's meditation on ' the Epistle of Paul the Apostle to 
the Ephesians.' 

J. M. S. 
Ascension Day, 1906. 


rpO the foregoing acknowledgments of help received I have 
now, on the eve of publication, to add my very sincere 
thanks to two eminent Cambridge scholars, who have given me 
the benefit of their judgment on certain parts of the section 
'Text,' as printed in the proof, of the Introduction; namely, 
to the Regius Professor of Divinity, Dr Swete, for a valuable 
criticism of my reference to Theodore of Mopsuestia, which I 
have amended accordingly; and to Professor Burkitt for a note 
which he has most kindly contributed on the lost text of the 
Old Syriac and also for information regarding the Sahidic 

One other avowal I would make in anticipation of a com- 
parison that may not improbably be instituted. 

I have purposely refrained from looking at the Dean of 
Westminster's edition of the Epistle, published since the death 
of Bishop Westcott. 

J. M. S. 

June 1906. 



1. Text xix 

II. Title and Destination xxiii 

III. Date and Place of Writing xxiv 

IV. Ganonicity and External Evidence of Authorship xxv 
V. Internal Evidence of Authorship xxxiii 

VI. Style and Language xxxvii 

VII. Relation to the Colossian Epistle xlii 

VIII. Relation to other Pauline Documents xlvii 

IX. Relation to other Apostolic Writings liv 

X. Historic References to the Gospel lxi 

XL Characteristics lxiii 

XII. Plan of the Epistle lxvii 


Chap. i. i — 14 3 

The words iv 'Ec^tcna 19 

Chap. i. 15— ii. 22 21 

Chap, iii 4 2 

Chap. iv. 1 — 24 5 6 

On the reading of iv. 21 70 

Chap. iv. 25— vi. 9 72 

On the readings of v. 14, v. 30 and v. 31 91 

Chap. vi. 10 — 24 9 2 

Bpistula ad Bphesios Latine Interprete Hieronymo ... 105 

Wiclip's (eevised by Purvey) and Tyndale's English 

Versions of the Epistle 114 



Heads of Doctrine in the Epistle 127 

Additional Notes. 

On the expression to c7rovpavia 15 2 

'Evcpyeia and evepyelv in the N.T. 1 55 

Wisdom and Revelation 158 

Intellectual claims and gifts of the Gospel 160 

The Sacrament of Baptism 162 

On Sin in the Pauline Epistles 165 

The Pall of Man 166 

The Kingdom of God — Kingdom of Christ 167 

The Christian Society and the Apostolic Ministry ... 169 

' The Church' in the Epistle to the Ephesians 172 

Use of the word dnoKaKvyjns in the N.T. 178 

On the use of the term in the N.T. 180 

On the phrases iv XpiarcS, iv Xpicrra 'It)(tov k.t.A. ... 183 

The expression to navra 186 

'H o~6§a in the Epistle to the Ephesians 187 

Words in the N.T. denoting resurrection 189 

On the meaning of Kv&eta 194 

Spiritual Powers ib. 

Use of Kara c. ace. in the Epistle 195 

The phrase iv o-apni ib. 

Prophets of the New Covenant 196 

Buskin on Eph. iv. 17 and on Conflict with Evil 197 

The world, the flesh and the devil 198 

Use of the Old Testament in the Epistle 200 




W. EPH. 


The Epistle is contained in whole or in part in the following 
sources : 

i. Greek MSS. 

(i) Primary uncials : 

X, Cod. Sin., saec. iv. Complete. 

A, Cod. Alex., saec. v. Complete. 

JB, Cod. Vatic, saec. iv. Complete. 

C, Cod. Ephraemi, saec. v. Contains ii. 18 — iv. 17. 

D 2 , Cod. Claromontanus, saec. vi. Complete. (Graeco- 

[E 3 , Cod. Sangermanensis, saec. ix. A transcript of D 3 .J 

[F 2 , Cod. Augiensis, saec. ix. A transcript of G 3 .] 

G 3 , Cod. Boernerianus, saec. ix. Complete. (Graeco- 

(ii) Secondary uncials : 

K 2 , Cod. Mosquensis, saec. ix. Complete. 

Lj, Cod. Angelicus, saec. ix. Complete. 

P 3 , Cod. Porphyrianus, saec. ix. Complete. 

O b , Cod. Mosquensis, saec. vi. Contains Eph. iv. 1 — 18. 

% Cod. Athous Laurae, saec. viii. — ix. Complete. 

[To these must be added the Damascus Palimpsest of 
Eph. iv. 21 dAifflaa — v. 4, described by Von Soden, 
Schr. d. N.T. 1. 244.J 


xx TEXT. 

The following unique readings of the chief MSS. illustrate their 

Unique readings: 

(a) Of K. 

i. 18 rfjs Kkr/povopias rrjs 8o|i)r. 
ii. I i. apapnais cavrav. 

4 om. iv. 

7 6eov yap i< 
V. 7 to cppovTjpa t. Kvpiov. 

(b) Of A. 

i. IO Kara rf/v olKovopiav. 
vi. 23 k. i\eos. 

(c) OfB. 

i. 13 tatppaylirBr). 

21 i£ovcrias k. apxfjs- 
ii. I k. T. €7ri6vp.iais vfiav. 

5 T. irapcmTcipjuriv + Kal reus imSvpiais. 
V. 17 T. Kvpiov + ypav. 

(d) Of D. 

i. 6 Sof^s praef. t!js. 

1 6 irav< 
ii. 15 Karapriaas. 
iii. 12 eV rffl f\ev0cpa6i)vcu. 

(iii) Cursives : 

Some four hundred [Von Soden, £cA»\ rf. i^.T 1 . 1. 102 ff.] are 
known more or less completely, including 1 7 (Cod. Colb., 
saec. xi., = 33 Gosp.), 37 (Cod. Leicestr., saec. xiv., = 69 
Gosp.), 47 (Cod. Bodl., saec. XI.), 67** (saec. xi.). 

2. Versions. 
i. Latin : 

The Epistle is preserved in two Latin texts. 

(a) Old Latin. 

d 2 , lat. 1 of Cod. Claromontanus, saec. vi. Complete. 
g 3 , lat. 1 of Cod. Boernerianus, saec. ix. Complete. 

1 Which have ' a genuine Old Latin out into verbal conformity with the 
Text ' as basis, ' but altered through- Greek text.' Hort, Intr. p. 82. 

TEXT. xxi 

r, Fragm. Freisingensia, saec. v. vel vi. Contain i. 
i — 13, i. 16 — ii. 3, ii. 5 — 16, vi. 24. 

m, 'Speculum' pseudo-Augustini, saec. ix. Contains 

(6) The Vulgate. 

[v. inf. pp. 103 ff.] 

ii. Syriac : 

(a) The Peshito. 

(b) The Harclean (Philoxenian) Syriac. 

['A Version which if it survived would be among our most valuable 
authorities is the Old Syriac. . For the Old Syriac text of the Pauline 
Epistles our chief extant authority is the running Commentary of S. 
Ephraim, preserved only in an Armenian translation : a Latin translation 
of this Armenian was issued by the Mechitarists in 1893. In using this text 
for critical purposes allowance must always be made for the influence of the 
Armenian Vulgate upon the Armenian translator of 8. Ephraim 1 .' f. c. b.] 

iii. Egyptian : 
(a) Memphitic or Bohai/ric. 

(6) Thebaic or Sahidic. 

Complete save for minor lacunae in c. vi. 

(c) Bashmuric. 

The Epistle is found in the later versions, Armenian, Ethiopic, 
and (with lacunae v. 11 — 16, v. 30 — vi. 8) Gothic. 

3. Pateistic Commentaries and Quotations. 
Ante-Nicene Commentaries. 

' A small portion of Origen's Commentaries is virtually all that remains 
to us of the continuous commentaries on the New Testament belonging to 
this period; they include— many verses of— Ephesians.' (Westcott and 
Hort, Introduction, p. 88.) 

1 [For this note on the lost text of who adds: 'Ephesians will be found in 
the Old Syriac Version I am indebted the Armenian edition of S. Ephraim's 
to the kindness of Professor Burkitt, Works, vol. in. pp. 138—153.' J. M.S.] 


Post-Nicene Commentaries and continuous series of homilies written 
before the middle of the fifth century : — 

'Theodore of Mopsuestia' — 'in a Latin translation.' 

' Chrysostom's Homilies.' 

'Theodoret': — founded on Theodore and Chrysostom. 

'Cyril of Alexandria': — fragments. 

'Fragments by other writers' — in Catenae. (id. ib.) 

Account is also taken of Quotation* made by Marcion (as reported by 
Tertullian or Bpiphanius) ; Irenaeus, Hippolytus, Clement of Alexandria, 
and Origen ; Tertullian, Cyprian and Novatian ; Peter of Alexandria, 
Methodius, and Busebius ; Lucifer, Hilary, and Victorinus Afer. 

[The Latin version of the Epistle incorporated in the Latin translation 
of the Commentary of Theodore of Mopsuestia contains many 'ante- 
Hieronymian renderings' (Swete, Theodore of Mopsuestia on the Minor 
Epistles of St Paul, vol. I. Intr. p. xliv), and is illustrated by the following 
' Old Latin renderings ' collected by Dr Swete. 

i. 4 coram eo. 


. in conspectu eius. 

13 audientes. 


cum audissetis. 

15 propter hoc. 



18 inluminatos habere oculos. 


inluminatos oculos. 

19 fortitudinis. 



ii. 3 voluntates ra de\jpaTa. 



4 multam. 



12 abalienati. 






20 existente Svtos. 


ii. 3, 9 mysterium. 



16 confortari. 



19 cognoscere. 



iv. 2 sustinentes. 



14 remedium. 



16 partis. 



19 et avaritiae. 


in avaritia. 

22 concupiscentiam. 



25 alterutrum. 



v. 5 fornicarius. 



vi. 4 nutrite. 



9 haec eadem facite ad eos. 


eadem facite illis. 

12 principatus. 



16 super omnibus = «Vi naaiv. 


in omnibus = <rV tt. 




To these may be added 

iii. 18 profundum et altitude 


sublimitas et profundum. 

iv. 16 incrementum. 





[On the subject of the Title and Destination of the Epistle reference 
may be made to : Additional Note on i. i. The words iv 'E<pio-<p (inf. 
p. 19); Lightfoot, Biblical Essays; Hort, Prolegomena to St Paul's 
Epistles to the Romans and the Ephesians (pp. 75—98) ; T. K. Abbott, 
Introduction to the Epistle to the Ephesians, § 1, pp. i— ix (in Inter- 
national Critical Commentary) ; Lightfoot, Destination of the Epistle to 
the Ephesians in Biblical Essays, pp. 377 sq.]. 

Origen (fA.D. 253) : 

E71-1 fiovav 'E0t trio) v evpo/iev Kei/ievov to tois ay Lois tois oZo~i • Ka\ fijToCfif v, 
ei firj Trrtpe A/c€i irpoo-icelfievov to tois dyiois tois ovo-i, t'i dvvarai OTHiaivetv ■ opa 
ovv ei pr) ao-irep iv Ty 'E£6Sg> ovopa (pr/a-lv iavra 6 xpr)naTi£a>v Moxrci to a>v, 
oi/tcbs 01 p.ere)(OVTes tov ovtcs yiyvovrai ovrts, KaKov/ievoi oiovci ix tov pr) eivai 
els to €Li'at- etjeoe^aro yap 6 debs to jxr) ovTa, tprjalv 6 avra HavXos, Iva Ta ovra 
KaTapyrjo-rj k.t.A. 

Should the position of to be altered — tcpoo-n. tois dyiois to to'is ovo-i, ? 
At all events Origen's reasoning seems to be 'unless tois ovo-i attached 
to tois dyiois is redundant or superfluous.' (Lightfoot, Biblical Essays, 
p. 378 n.) 

' Origen could not possibly have said that this statement is 
made of the Ephesians alone, if he had read the words as they stand 
in the common texts. In this case he would have found several 
parallels in the Epistles of St Paul. Cf. Rom. i. 7, 1 Cor. i. 2, 
2 Cor. i. 1, Phil. i. 1.' (Lightfoot, B. E., p. 378.) 

Basil, conVr. Eunom. ii. 19 (ed. Gam. i. p. 254) : 

a\\a KaX tois "Eqbeo-iois itTUTTeWav as yvT]0~l(os r)v(op.4vois Ta ovti oV 
imyvao-eios, ovras avTovs Idta^ovrois atvopaaev, elirav tois dyiois tois ovo-i Kai 
7tutto1s iv XptO"T<p 'i^o-ov. ovtco yap Kai 01 jrpb rjfiav irapahtftdtKao-i, Kai rjixeis 
iv tois TraKaiols t5>v dvriypdqtxov evprJKafiev. 

Tertullian, adv. Marc. v. 1 1 (a.d. 207) : 

' Praetereo hie et de alia epistola, quam nos ad Ephesios praescriptam 
habemus, haeretici vero ad Laodicenos.' 

ib. v. 17: 'Ecclesiae quidem veritate epistulam istam ad Ephesios 
habemus emissam, non ad Laodicenos, sed Marcion ei titulum aliquando 
interpolare gestiit, quasi et in isto diligentissimus explorator. Nihil autem 
de titulis interest, cum ad omnes apostolus scripsit, dum ad quosdam.' 

Epiphan. {Haeres. xlix.) : 

ov yap edo£e T<3 eKeeivoTaTta MapKitavi dwb Trjs irpbs 'Eo^ec/ovs TaiiTrjv tt)v 
p,apTvpiav \iyeiv, aKka Trjs rrpbs AaoSiKeas, rrjs pr) ovarfs iv T<p diroo-roKa. 



'Of all St Paul's letters it is the most general, the least personal. 
In this respect it more nearly resembles the Epistle to the Romans 
than any other.' (Lightf. B. E. p, 388.) 

' Scribit Ephesiis hanc epistulam beatus Paulus eo modo quo et Romania 
dudum scripserat quos necdum ante viderat.' (Theod. Mops., Argum. ad 
Eph. i. p. 112, ed. Swete.) 

'Yet though this Epistle so little fulfils our expectation of what 

St Paul would have written to his converts, it is beyond a question 

that the early Church universally regarded it as an Epistle to the 

Ephesians. It is distinctly referred to as such by the writer of the 

Muratorian Canon, by Irenaeus, by Tertullian, by Clement of 

Alexandria, even by Origen himself, in whose text, as we have 

seen, there was no direct mention of Ephesus.' 

'Murat. Canon, p. 148 (ed. Credner) ; Iren. Haeres. i. 3, i. 4> PP- J4, 16, 
i. 8. 4, p. 40, v. 2. 36, p. 294 (ed. Stieren) ; Tert. adv. Marc. v. 17, de 
Praescr. 36, de monogam. 5 ; Clem. Alex. Strom, iv. 65, p. 592, Paedag. i. 
18, p. 108 (ed. Potter); Orig. c. Gels, iii. 28 (xviii, p. 273, ed. Lomm.).' 
(Id. ib.) 


[For discussion see Lightfoot, Philippiam, Introd. pp. 29—45. 'Order 
of the Epistles of the Captivity'; Hort, Prolegomena, pp. 99—110; T. K. 
Abbott, Introduction to the Epistle to the Ephesians (International Critical 
Commentary), § 6, pp. xxix — xxxi.] 

The Historical Situation implied by the Language or the 
Epistle to the Ephesians. 

There is in the Epistle no charge to spread, no sign of anxiety 
for spreading the message of the Gospel. 

That message, it is felt here as in the First Epistle of St John, 
will vindicate itself. 

Again there is no sign of persecution of Christians by the Roman 
power. St Paul's ' bonds ' were due to Jewish hostility evoked by 
his activity on behalf of Gentiles (eyu LIav\os o Scct/hios tov -^purrov 
Irj<rov vTrip ujuuiv twv iOv&v, iii. 1). His afflictions (iii. 13) were all 
connected with his preaching to the Gentiles. 

In this respect the Epistle presents a contrast to the situation 
implied in the First Epistle of St Peter. 



(Westcott, Canon of the New Testament, 4th edn., pp. 48, 91, 199, 225, 
280, 292, 296, 305 f., 308, 335, 585.) 

Clemens Romanus. 

C. 36. t]veiix8r)o-av rjpwv oi d(p8aX- 
pol rrjs KapSias. 

C. 38. 2a>£eo-8a>...r)pwv oXov to 
tra/ia iv Xp. 'IijcoO, kcu vko- 
t au a i<r 6 <u eKao-Tos ra irXrj&iov 
avrov. * 


1. l8. ITeCptBTlO'peVOVS T. 6<p8a\- 

povs rrjs KapBias [ypav]. 

V. 21. vnorao-aopevoi dXXijXois 
iv (j)6(ia> XpioroO. 

IV. 3 f. o-KOvhd^ovres Tqpeiv rr\v 
evorrjra tov Trvevparos...ev o~atpa K. ev 

ii. IO. eirl epyois dyadois. 

IV. 4* ev o~atpa K. ev irvevpa, 
KaBds [tai] iK\rj8r)re iv pia iXniSi 

lb. iv epyois ayaBols. 

C. 46. r) ovxl eva 8ebv e\opev 
Kai eva Xptorov Ka\ ev nvevpa rijs 
\apiros to eKxydev e<p' rjpas; kcu pia rrjs KXrjo-eios vpSiv els Kvpios, pia 
Kkfjaris evXpio-ra ; rricms, ev ficmTto-pa- els 8ebs k.tX. 

C. 64. navreiroTrTTfs debs K. i. 3> 4- o Sebs k. narr)p t. Kvpiov 

8eo~TroTT)s t. irvevpdrav k. Kvpios iraoris tjpav 'iijtroS Xpiarov, 6 ev\oyr)o-as 
o-apKOS, 6 fK\e£apevos rbv Kvpiov i)pas iv irao-fl evXoyiq wvevpartKJj iv t. 
hjo-ovv Xpiorbv k. rjpas 8t avrov els iirovpaviois iv Xpiaret, Kadds i£e\e- 
Aaov nepiovotov. £aro rjpas iv avra...eivai rjpas ayiovs 

K. ap(opovs...npoopio-as rjpas els vlo- 
8eo-iav Si 'IpjctoO Xp. els avrov. 

Ignatius, ad Ephesios. 

The ' opening address contains several obvious reminiscences of Eph. i. 
3 f.' (Lightfoot, Apostolic Fathers, Pt. 11. p. 22 note.) 

rjj evXoyrjpevrj ev peyedei Beov 
warpbs wXrjpapari rjj irpompio-- 
pevrj irpb altovtav eivai Sid Travrbs 
els 86£av wapdpovov arpewrov, rjva>- 
pevji Kai eK\e\eypevr] ev ird8ei dXrj- 
flivw iv 8e\rjpaTi tov warpbs Kai 
'Ir/o-ov Xpio-Tov roil Beov rjpav, 
tji €KK\r)<Tiq rjj d^iopampiara Ttj over) 

Eph. i. 3 f. 8ebs Kai Trar>jp... 
tov K. 17. 'I. Xp. 6 ev\oyrj<ras rjpas 
iv ndo-rj ev\oyla...Kada>s i£e\e£aro 
...irpb Kara{io\rjs Koarpov, elvai 
rjpas ... dpdpovs ... irpoopioas rjpas 
...Kara tt)v evdoKiav tov deArjparos 
avrou . . . 8ta tov alparos avrov . . . 
rrpoopiadevTes Kara ttjv /3ov\r)v 


Ignatius, ad Ephesios. 

iv 'Ecptcrffl \rrjs 'Acrias], irXeia-Ta iv 'I. 
Xp. Kai iv dpdpco \ a P? X al P f '"• 

'The direct mention of the Epistle 
to the Ephesians, which is supposed 
to occur at a later point in this 

letter (§ 12 IIaiJXoi'...or iv irdar) 

iirioTo\rj fivrjjiovevfi vp&v) is ex- 
tremely doubtful ;— but the ac- 
quaintance of Ignatius with that 
Epistle appears from other passages 
besides this exordium.' 

C i. pip.r)Tal ovTes Beov. 

' The expression is borrowed from 
St Paul, Eph. v. 1, thus exhibiting 
another coincidence with this same 
Epistle.' (Lightfoot, ib. p. 29.) 

C iv. /ie'Xij ovras tov vlov avTov. 

C. viii. M^ ovv tis vpas i£aira- 
Tario, asatrep ov8e itjairarao-Be , oXo< 
ovres Beov,..OTav yap prjoepia iiri- 
Bvpia ivTjpeujTai iv vp.1v tJ dvvapevrj 
vpas ftaaaviaat, apa Kara Beov ff/re. 

C. ix. <us cures \IB01 vaoii' irpor)- 
Toipaapevoi els olnooop7iv Beov 
ffarpos, ava<pepopevoc els ra v^rrj 81a 
rrjs prjxavris 'irjcroii Xplarov, OS 
io-Tiv o-ravpoSf o")(oivi<o xpt&pevoi 
rep nvevpaTi red dylto' fj de tt'io-tis 
ipav dvaymyevs ipav, 17 be dydirrj 
080s rj dvacpepovo'a els Beov. 

'The metaphor (X/0oi vaov), and 
in part even its language, is sug- 
gested by Eph. ii. 20—22 ; cf. 1 Pet. 
ii. 5/ (Lightfoot, ad loc.) 

'The metaphor [prjxavijs...o-xoivia) 
...avaymyevs...K.T.\.] is extravagant 
but not otherwise ill-conceived. The 
framework, or crane, is the Cross of 
Christ, the connecting instrument, 
the rope, is the Holy Spirit; the 


tov UeXrjpaTOS avrov. ..eis to eivai 
r)pas els irraivov 86§r]s avrov. 

(Cf. iii. 21. koto irpoBeaiv to>v 

Eph. v. 

yiveaoe ovv piprjrai tov 

?Eph. V. 30. on pe\r) iapev tov 
o-aparos avTov. 

Eph. iv. 22 fF. drroBeoBai vpas... 
T. 7ra\atov avBpairov t. (pBeipopevov 
Kara. Tas eniBvplas rijs diraTT}S, 
dvaveovadai 8e tw irvevpaTi tov vobs 
vpav KoX ivovaaaBai tov Katvbv avBpa- 
irov tov Kara Beov KTio-Bevra k.t.X 

and ib. V. 6, prjbels vpas dtraTara 


Eph. ii. 2off. iiroiKoooprjBevTes 
irri tu BepeXla r. diroo-ToXav k. irpo- 
(prjToav, ovtos dxpoyavialov avrov Xp. 
'I., iv (a irdaa oiKodopf/ avvappoXoyov- 
pevrj av£ei els vabv dyiov iv Kvpia, iv 
a Kai vpets avvoiKoftope'icrde els 
KaTotKrjTTjpLov T. Beov iv nvev- 

Cf. ib. V. 10. avrov yap io-pev 
iroiripa, KTio-Bevres iv Xp. 'I. iirl 
epyois dyaBois ols nporjTolpao-ev o 
Beos Lva iv avrols irepara.Trio-ap.ev, and 
V. 1 6, k. dWoKOTaXXdfi; iv ev\ am pan 
to) 6e^ 81a tov o-Tavpov: also V. 
18, on 81' avrov e)(opev rr/v jrpocra- 
yayr/v...iv ev\ irvevpari ffpos tov 

In iii. 12, iv a> e\opev t. irappr)o-iav 


Ignatius, ad Ephesios. 

motive power, which acts and keeps 
the machinery in motion, is faith ; 
the path (conceived here apparently 
as an inclined plane) up which the 
spiritual stones are raised that they 
may be fitted into the building, is 
love' (id. inf. on dvayayeis 'a lifting- 
engine '). 

C xil. UavXov o~vppvo~Tai tov 
ijyiao-pevov, tov pepaprvprjpevov, a(-io- 
fiaKapicrTov, ov yevotro poi vtto Ta 
iX"1 evpeBrjvai, otov 6eov eViru^eo- 
os ev natTT) eirioToAri pvrjpovevet vptav 
ev XptoTG) *I??0"o{). 

'i.e. fellow-recipients, fellow-stu- 
dents, of the mysteries, with Paul ' ! 

C. xvii. iva irverj rfj ckkXijo-io dcp- 

C. xviii. 6 yap 6eos fipav 'I. 6 XP- 
eKvo<popij6rj virb Mapias kclt oIkovo- 
piav etc (Tirepparos pev Aavud, irvev- 
paros 8e dylov. 

'The word oUovopla came to be 
applied more especially to the In- 
carnation (as here and below, § 20, 
fis rjp^aprjv ol<ovoplas K.r.X.) because 

this was par excellence the system 
or plan which God had ordained for 
the government of His household 
and the dispensation of His stores.' 
(Lightfoot, ad loc.) 


K. Trpoo-ayayyv iv TrenoiBtjo-ei Sia 
rijs iriVrfffls avTov, freedom of ac- 
cess (St Paul says) is ours through 
our faith in Christ: — in v. 2 trepi- 

TraTeiTt iv dyairji [he bids the 
' Ephesians 'J walk in love ; and in 
VI. 23 elprjvr) -i . dbe\<po\s *.. dydnrj 
pera ttL<t Teas faith is the condition 
of appropriating peace and love. 

This was signally true of the 
Ephesians, among whom St Paul 
resided for an exceptionally long 
time (Acts xix. 10 sq., xx. 31), with 
whom he was on terms of the most 
affectionate intimacy, — and who were 
the chief, though probably not the 
sole, recipients of the most profound 
of all his epistles. The propriety of 
the language here is still further 
enhanced by the fact that St Paul, 
in the Epistle to the Ephesians 
more especially dwells on the Gospel 
dispensation as pvo-rripiov (i. 9, iii. 3, 
4, 9, v. 32, vi. 19). Elsewhere (Phil, 
iv. 12) he speaks of himself as pepvrj- 
pivos (Lightfoot, ad loc). 

Eph. vi. 24. iv a<p8apo-Lq. But 
d<pdapo-ia occurs also in Rom. ii. 7 ; 
1 Cor. xv. 42, 50, 53, 54 ; 2 Tim. i. 
10, Tit. ii. 7. 

Eph. i. IO. els olKOVopiav tov 
TrXrjpapaTOS Tav tcaipav, dvaKe(paXaia- 
aaaBai to. irdvra iv ra xP L0 " r f De- 
note ad loc.~\. 

' The first step towards this special 
appropriation of olxovopia to the 
Incarnation is found in St Paul : 
e.g. Eph. i. IO els olieovopiav k.t.A.' 

(Lightfoot, Apostolic Fathers, 11. ii. 
P- 75-) 


Ignatius, ad Ephesios. 

C. xix. Kal eXadev tov apxovra 
tov alavos tovtov 7) irapuevia 
Maplas Kal o tokctos avrrjs, opoltat 
Kal 6 SavaTos tov Kvptov Tpia fiv- 
trrijpia Kpavyrjs, anva iv T/<nj^/a 
6eov firpdx&r). nas ovv i<pavcp<S6r) 
Tots aiuxriv; 

' Here xpavyq is the correlative to 
ijo-u^ia, as revelation is to mystery. 
"These mysteries" Ignatius would 
say "were preordained and prepared 
in silence by God, that they might 
be proclaimed aloud to a startled 
world." It is an exaggerated ex- 
pression of the truth stated in Rom. 
xvi. 25 to Kijpvypa 'irjaov Xpio-rov 
KaTa aTTOKaKvyjnv p.vcrTr]plov xpovois 
aiatviois o~eo~iyrjp£vov, (pavepw- 
devTos 8e vvv toIs alaaiv — 'to the 

past and future, which are 
here personified. It seems probable 
that in St Paul's expression, p.vo-Trj- 
ptov a7roKeKpvp.p.4vov wirb Tap ulavatv 
(Eph. iii. 9, Col. i. 26), the prepo- 
sition should be taken as temporal 
(see the note on the latter passage) ; 
but Ignatius may have understood 
it otherwise.' (Lightfoot.) 

C. XX. Eis tod Kaivbv avBpioirov 
Irjoovv XptaTov, iv T77 avTov ■jrio'Tei 
Kal iv rjj avTov dying. 'The Katvbs 
avdpmros of Ignatius is equivalent 
to the ea-xaTOs 'ASa/x, the devrepos 
avBpamo? of St Paul (1 Cor. xvi. 45, 
47). The Apostle himself seems to 
use o Kaivbs avBpcoTros in a different 
sense, Eph. iv. 24.' (But see note 

Ignat. ad Polycarpum, § 5, dyanav 
Tas o-vp/alovs, oil 6 Kvpios 1-171/ e'n- 
K\rjo-lav 'a reminiscence of Eph. 
v. 29.' (Lightfoot.) 


Eph. iii. 9. tov fivo-rriplov tov 
diroKCKpvu,u.evov dnb Tav aldvcov 
iv to 8fa...'wa yviapio-6% vvv rals 
apxais k. rals i£ovo-lats iv rots 

Col. i. 26. to p,vo-Tijpiov to diro- 
KiKpvpfxivov djib Tav almvav Kal 
atro Tav yeveav, vvv de i<j>avepta6t] 
rots dylots avTov. 

Eph. iv. 24. n. ivSvo-ao-Bai tov 
Kaivbv avSpcairov tov Kara Oebv 
KTiadivra iv BiKaioiruvrj k. oo-iorrjTi t. 
dkrjdeias [v. note ad loc.J 

Eph. v. 29. Ka0a>£ /cai o xpicr- 
tos rrjv iKKkrfo-iav. 

[Of. V. 25. dyatrare ras yvvaiKas, 
Ka&ms Kal 6 xpioror yyairtjarcv rf/v 



C. 1. elSores cm xapirl icrre cre- 
crcoo-pevoi, ovk e£ epycov, dWa 6e\r/- 
part veov dia 'irjtrov XptoroO. 

c. xii. modo, ut his scripturis 
dictum est, irascimini et nolite 
peccare et sol non occidat super 
iracundiarn wstram. 


ii. 8. tt) yap xapiri itrre o-eo-coo-pe- 
voi bia wicrreas' Kal tovto ovk i£ 
vfiav 3 6eov to 8&pov' ovk e£ epycov^ 
Iva py tis KavxJo-rjTai. 

iv. 26. 6pyl£ea6e k. prj apaprdvere 
(Ps. iv. 5)" o y\ios pf/ iirihverco iirl 
napopytcrpco vpcov. 

('The Two Ways.') 

AlSa^i) T. aTTooroAcuv. 

iv. 10, 1 1. oi3k iirira^eis SouXra 

crov 17 sraiSiovci;, tols eVt t. avrov 

Oebv i\7rl£ovo-iv, iv iriKpia o~ov... 

vpels Se ol dovXoi viroTayr^creorSe 

TOLS KVptOlS Vp(OV (OS TV7TCO deoV iv 

alcrxyvy Kal <fiofla>. 


xix. C. J. vnoTayycTT) Kvplois cos 
rvwco deov iv alaxyvji Kal cpofico. ov 
prj iiriTd^gs Sov\co crov rj iraibicTKy iv 
7riKpi'a, rots iirl tov avrov 8ebv i\7rl- 

Hermae Pastor. 

Mand. iii. § I. 'AXjdeiav aydira, 
Kal iracra dAijdeta c'k tov crToparos 
crov eKiropevio-&<o...oTL 6 KVpios 
d\rj$Lvbs iv iravrl prjpari Kal ovdcv 
Trap' avTco ■^revb'os.... 

ib. § 4. eSei yap ere <bs Beov 
8o£iXov iv aX. nopeveaBai... prjSe 
Xviryv inayeiv to irvevpaTi t$ 
crepveo ko\ dXtjOeT. 

(Cf. X. § 2. q \virr)...iKTpifiei ro 
irvevpa to dyiov.) 

Sim. ix. C. 13. ovTio Kal ol Triorev- 
(ravrcs rco Kvplco dta tov vlov avrov... 
earovrai els ev irvevpa, els ev o~apa, 
Kal fila XP° a T * IpaTtapav avTtov — 

ib. C. 17. "Kafiovres otiv ttjv creppa- 
ylba p. lav cppovrjcriv ecrxov Kal eva 
vovv, Kal pla nlo-Tis avTav iyevero 
Kal pla dydirrj. 

(Cf. inf. ev irvevpa k.%v crapa it. 
ev evSvpa.) 


vi. 5> 9- Of &oS\oi, vwaKOveTe 
toXs Kara crdpxa xvpiois perdcpofSov 
Kal rpopov iv dTrXorrjri t. xapSias 
vpcov as r& xp'0-Tcp...(os Tea Kvpico Kal 
ovk dv6p(O7T0is,...Kal ol xvpwt. Ta avTa 
jroielre irpbs ovtovs, dviivres ttjv direi- 
Xr/i/, eldores on Kal avrav Kal vpMv 6 
Kvpws ioriv iv ovpavols. 


iv. 25. Ato diro6ep.evot to ^/reOfio? 
XaXetre d\r}6eiav eKaaros pera toO 
irKrfcriov avTov.... 

ib. 29. 7ras Xoyos aairpbs c/t tov 
0-Top.aTos vpcov pri iKiropev.eo~6(o. 

ib. 30. is. pfj Xwelre to TTvevpa 

to ayiov tov 6eoi (whereas in Is. 
lxiii. 10 it is napa>£vvav to irvevpa to 
dyiov avTov). 

ib. 3—6. dvej(6p.evoi dXXi/Xa>i> iv 
dyairt), o-irovfta£ovres TrfpeXv T. ev6rt)Ta 
tov Trvevparos iv Ta avvSecrpco rfjs 
elprjvqs' ev trmpa Kal ev ■irvevp.a...els 
Kvpws, pia Tricris, ev fidnTio-pa. 


Epist. ad Diognetum. 

c. ii. "Aye 8f) xaddpas aeavrbv dirb 
■navrtav tg>v irpoKarexbvrojv <rov 
tt)v 8tdvotav \oyio~poiv Kai rrjv aira- 
rao-dv <re cvvtjdeiav airocrKevaaa- 
pcvos, Kai yevopevos ao-rrep e£ apxV s 
Kaivbs avOpcoiros, as av Kai Xoyov 
kiuvov . . .aKpoarr/s eaopevos, i8e k.t.X. 


iv. 21 f. ipeis be ovx ovras epd- 
8ere t. xpiarov, ei ye ijKOiKrare, K. 
ibibdx8r]Te...d , iro8eo-8ai vpas Kara 
tt)v npoTtpav dvao-rpocp^v rbv tra- 
\atbv av8pa>7rov rbv <p8etpopevov Kara 
ras iiri6vpias rtjs diraTT]s, dvaveov- 
<t8cu 8e rm nvevpaTt rov vobs vpav 
Kai ei>86o w ao~8ai rbv Kaivbv avdpanrov 
t. Kara Bebv KTiaBevra ev 8iKatoo-vvfj K. 
daiorryrt rfjs dXj)8etas. 

Theophilus Antiochenus, ad 

ii. p. I02. dpa he Kai in\ 7r\etova 
Xpbvov, yj3ov\eTO aTrXovv Kai dxepatov 
8iapeivat rbv avdpanrov VT]jrid£ovra- 
tovto yap oo-tov cart, ov pdvov irapa 
6ea, dWa Ka\ irapa dvBpdirots, to ev 
aTrXorrjri Kai aKaKia virora<ro~eo~0ai 
rois yovevaiv en be \PV Ta reKva 
rois yovevaiv viroTao-o~eo~8ai, el 
be XPV T - TtKva r. yovevaiv virordo-- 
oeo-Qai, TTotrto paWov rai Beta Kai 
Trarpl rav oXav. 


V. 20. evxapiarovvres iravrore... 
tS> dew K. Trarpl (cf. iv. 6 6. k. n. 
ndvrcav), vnoTaaaopevot. dWqXois 
ev (pofia) Xpiarov. 

vi. I. ret reKva, vnaKOvere rots 
yovevaiv vpcov ev Kvpia' tovto yap 
eartv biKaiov. 

ib. 5- 01 8ov\oi, viraKovere rols Kara 
aapKa Kvplois perd ypofiov K. rpopov ev 
aTrXoTTjTt tt}s Kapdias vpav as t. 

Ophitae, ap. Hippol. adv. 
Haeres. v. 7 f . 

p. 97 (ed. Miller), p. 136 (ed. 
Duncker). Iv' ovv reXe'cos g KeKparr)- 
pevos 6 peyas avOpairos avco&ev, d<p' 
ov, Kadas \eyovai, jraaa narpia 
ovopa£opevrj ewl yrjs Kai ev rois 
ovpavois avvearrjKev, e86dr/ avra Kai 
tyvxy K.T.X. 

p. 104 (M.), p. 146 (D.). irepl rovrav, 
(prjo-iv, rj ypa(pfj \eyer "Eyeipai 6 
Kadevbav Kai e£eyep8r]Ti, Kai ewt- 
<pavo~ei o-ot, 6 xP 10 ~t°S' 

p. 107 (M.), p. 156 (D.). nave, nave 
ttjv do-\ip<j)aiviav tov Koo-pov Kai 7ro«j- 
oov elptjvrjv ro'is paKpav, TovreoTi 
rols uXixoir Kai ^oixoir, Kai elpr)vt)v 
7-ois e'yyifr, Tovreo-Ti ro'is irvevpari- 
koIs K. voepols, rekeiois dvdpton-ots. 


111. 15. e'f o^ nao-a irarpia ev 
ovpavots Ka\ en-1 yrjs dvopd£erat 

followed by (». 16) 

iv a 8o> vpiv Kara to 7r\ovros t. 
b6§t]s avroii bvvdpei KparataBijvai 81a 
t. irvevparos els rbv eo-u> avQpwivov. 

V. 14. bib Xe'-yei 
"Eyeipe, 6 Ka8ev8av 
Kai dvdara eK Ttov veKpmv, 
Kai enKpavo-ft aroi 6 XP'CTos. 

11. 17- Kai e'X&ui/ evrjyye\io-aTO 
elpqvT]v vpiv rois paKpctv Kai eipi)- 
vi)v rois e'yyus. 


Basilides, ap. Hippol. adv. 
Haeres. vii. 25. 

p. 239 (M.), p. 370 (!>•)• V^e r& 
evayye\iov els tov Koapov, kuI Sif/Xde 
81a natrrjs dpx^js Kai e£ovo~las 
Ka\ KvpLorrjros Kai navros 6vo- 
paros dvopa£op,evov. 

p. 241 (M.), p. 374 (D-)- °>°- 
Ka\v<p6fjvai to pvorypiov, o rats 
TrpoTe pais yeveals ovk eyvaplo'BTjj 
KaOas yeypairrat, cprjo-t' Kara diro- 
Kakvtyiv eyvapltrdrj p.01 ro pv- 

Valentinus (? seu Valentiniani), 
ap. Hippol. vi. 3. 

p. 193 (M.), p. 284 (D.). Toiiro 
eVri, <t>ri<ri, to yeypappevov ev Trj 
ypctfprj. Tovtov %apiv Kapirroi Ta 
yovara pov irpbs tov debv Kai rra- 
rcpa Kai Kvpiov tov Kvplov rjfiaiv 'I. 
Xp., iva Sat] ip.1v 6 debs KaToiKrj- 
o~ai tov xpio~Tov els tov eo~a av- 
Bpairov, TovTto-Ti tov tJtvxikov, ov tov 
a-apariKov, Iva ef io-xi5o-ijre vorjo-ai 
t[ to fiaSos, oirep iariv 6 iraTrjp Tav 
okav, km ri ro 7rXaros, owep eoriv 
6 o-TavpoSj 6 opos tov TrXriptopaTOSy rj~ 
ri to p.rJKOs, TovTeori to irkrjpapa 
Tav aldvav. 

Ptolemaeus 1 , ap. Irenaeum. 
i. 8. 5 (ed. Massuet). ToGro 8e Kai 

6 VLav\os Xeyei' Hav yap tcl <pave- 
povpevov <pas eo-rtv. E7ret toivvv 
e'epavepaae k. eyevvrjae tov re Avopa- 
7rov Kai tt/v 'EkkXtjo-Iov 17 Zo)^, (pas 
elpj}o~0ai avrav. 

lb. 8. 4. Kai ras av£vyias 8e rar 
evrbs irKr^paparos tov TlavXov eiprj- 
Kevai <pao-Kovo-iv eVi evbs Sel^avra. 
irepi yap Tffs nepi tov fiiov a-vfyyias 
ypd<f>a>v eCprf To u-vo-rrjpiov tovto 

peya ea-Tiv, eye 

be Xevo> els 

Xpio-Tbv Kai ttjv 'EKK\rio-iav. 

1 'Ptolemaeus was a disciple of 

Valentinus. ..and it appears that he 

reduced the Valentinian system to 


i. 21. virepavto irdo-tjs dpxfjs Kai 
c£ovcrias Kai Svvdpeas Kai Kvpio- 
ttjtos Kai navTos ovopaTOs ovo~ 
pa£opevov ov pbvov ev Ta aldvi 
TOVTto dXXa Kai ev ra peXKovri. 

iii. 3 f. Kara drroKaKv^nv eyvapio-Bt] 
poi to pvo-Tripiov...o erepais ye- 
veals ovk eyvapio-drj tois viols r. 


iii. I4ff. Tourov x^P lv KapirTiD 
ra yovara pov irpbs tov irarepa, 
e£ ov K.T.\....1va 8a vpXv...Kparaia- 
6tjvai...elsTbveo~a avBpairov KaTOi- 
ev r. Kapdtais vpdv...iva e^io~xv- 
o-rjTe /caraXa|3eo-flai...rt ro TrXaros 
Kai p.rJKOs Kai v\jros Kai fiados K.T.X. 


V. 13. nav yap to (pavepovpevov 
<pas ecFTiv. Sto k.t.X. 

V. 32. To p.voTi)piov tovto peya 
eo'Tiv, eyd b*e \eya els Xpia-rbv Kai 
[els] Trjv eKKkrjo-iav. 

order and presented it under its 
most attractive aspect ' (Westcott, 
Canon of the N. T. p. 313). 


Theodotus 1 , ad calc. Clem. Alex. 

§ 7. <f>rjo\ yap 6 aWooToXoy ' 
yap dvafias avros io~rt Kai q Kara- 
/3a S "(cf.§43)- 

§ 19. Kai d IlaOXor "eVSuo-oji tov 
Katvbv av6pamov tov Kara 6ebv kti- 

§ 48. Sio Kai Xeyet d aTrdoroXos 
" Kai pfj XtureiTe to irvevpa to 
ayiov tov 8eov, iv <£ io-<ppayi- 

lb. wvevpara rfjs irovrjpias, 
■npbs a rj ttoKt] 


iv. 10. 6 Karaj3as avros eotiv 
(cat 6 avafias VTTfpdva iravrav t. ov- 

iv. 24. Kai ivhvo-ao-6ai rbv Kai- 
vbv avdpairov tov Kara 6ebv kti- 

iv. 30. Kai p.rj X«7reiTf to irvevpa 
to ayiov tov deov, iv 10 io-<j>payt- 
o-0r)re k.t.X. 

vi. 12. on ovk co-Tiv fjp'iv i) TraXij 
7rpbs...a\\a...Trpbs ra nvevpariKa. 
rrjs 7rovrjplas.... 

Irenaeus, adv. Haer. i. 8, 5. 
ToSro 8c Kai 6 IlaOXos Xc'yei- nav yip rb $>avepovp.evov (pas iariv. 

id. ib. V. 2, 3. Ka6as 6 paKapios UavKbs (piqaiv iv rjj 7rp6i 'Eq)eo-iovs 
iirio-rokjj- on peXrj io-fiev tov 0-ap.aros. 

Clemens Alexandrinus, Paedag. i. 18. 

o-afpia-Tara Se 'TZfaariois ypa<pav (6 d»rdo-roXor) direKakvtye to £i]Tovp.€VOv 
\4ya>v' p-ixP 1 KaTavrf\o-a>pev airdvres els tijv ivorrjra rfjs nia-reas. 

id. Strom,, iv. 65. Sib Kai iv rfj irpbs 'E(peo-Lovs ypdqief vnorao-o-opevoi 
dXXi/Xois iv <p6{3<a deov. 

Tertullian, adv. Marc. v. 1 1 (v. supra, p. xxiii) : 

Praetereo hie et de alia epistola, quam nos ad Ephesios praescriptam 

1 'At the end of the works of xp° vm s imroiud).... The books of the 

Clement of Alexandria is usually New Testament to which they contain 

published a series of fragments en- allusions... are these: the Four Gospels; 

titled Short Notes from the Writings the Epistles of St Paul to the Romans, 

of Theodotus and the so-called 1 Corinthians, Ephesians, Galatians, 

Eastern School at the time of Valen- Philippians, Colossians, 1 Timothy ; 

tinus (eV t&v QeoSbrov Kai tjjs avaro- the First Epistle of St Peter ' (Canon, 

XiKijs SidaaxdMas Kara rois OiaXevrlvov p. 317 n.). 



Theories, which find in the Epistle indications of (a) Montanist 
or (j3) pseudo-Gnostic influence, being discarded, ' a view ' of the 
Epistle 'which has... to be considered' is that maintained by 
Holtzmann, Pfleiderer, and Von Soden, who ' ascribe it to an 
advanced disciple of St Paul.' Also 'it is... alleged that there are 
marks of simply different authorship, differences of language, style, 
and the like.' (Hort, Prolegomena, pp. i2of.) 

A. Doctrine. 

' Is the Paulinism later than St Paul ? ' ' No one who carefully 
reads the Epistle to the Ephesians can doubt that its doctrinal 
contents do differ considerably from those of any one of St Paul's 
earlier Epistles or of all of them taken together.... What we have 
to ask is whether the differences are incompatible with identity of 
authorship.' (Prolegomena, p. 123.) 

' Some of the chief combinations of identity and difference 
between St Paul's earlier recorded theology and that of the Epistle 
to the Ephesians.' (ib. p. 125.) 

(i) Relation of Jews to Gentiles as Christians. 

(a) In Ephesians ' the duty of Jewish and Gentile fellowship 
is deduced from the eternal purpose of God and the very idea of the 
Christian faith, not, as in earlier Epistles, from arguments about 
the Law and the Promise. Yet this is only the teaching of the 
Epistle to the Romans a little more unfolded.' (ib. p. 126.) 

(b) 'In both Epistles alike' (Romans and Ephesians) 'the 
need for the universal salvation is made to rest on the universality 
of the previous corruption.' Eph. ii. 1 — 3 answers to Rom. i. 18— 
32, ii. 17—29, iii. 9. 

(c) As to 'Circumcision,' with Eph. ii. 11 compare Rom. ii. 

28 f. 

W. EPH. c 


(ii) The Church. 

In Ephesicms ' we for the first time hear Christians throughout 
the world described as together making up a single Ecclesia, i.e. 
assembly of God, or Church ; and here for the first time we find the 
relation of Christ to the or a Church conceived as that of a Head to 
a Body.' (Prolegomena, p. 128.) 

But these thoughts stand in closest connexion with what 

(a) An 'impulse towards laying stress on the unity of the 
society of Christians throughout the world doubtless came from the 
position of St Paul as* writing from Borne.' 

' Nor... would it be strange that he should use the name Ecclesia 
in this new and extended sense, although hitherto... applied only to 
the Christian community of Jerusalem or Judaea or to individual 
local Christian communities outside the Holy Land.' (ib. p. 129.) 

(/3) Though the language of Eph. i. 22, iv. 15 f. (and Col. i. 18), 
compared with that of 1 Cor. xii. 1 2 and Bom. xii. 4 f . 'is new,' 
the new image is Pauline (cf. 1 Cor. xi. 3) ; also the image of the 
Corner-stone (cf. Mt. xxi. 42, Mk. xii. iof., Lk. xx. 17, Acts iv. 11) 
cannot have been 'either unknown to St Paul... or rejected by him.' 
(ib. p. 134.) 

(iii) Person and Office of Christ. 

(a) 'Earlier Epistles imply His Pre-existence' (cf. 2 Cor. viii. 9, 
Gal. iv. 4, Bom. viii. 3). 

'Colossians (i. 16 f.) carries back His Lordship to the beginning 
of things.' 

'Ephesians (i. 10) makes the reconciliation — effected by His 
death — include all things, and carries back His Headship of the 
Ecclesia to a primordial choosing of its members "in him" (iii. 14).' 
But of this there is anticipation in 1 Cor. viii. 6, xv. 45 f . 

(/3) 'In Eph. ii. 16 it is Christ' — whereas in 2 Cor. v. 28 f. it 

is God "through Christ" — 'who appears as the Beconciler.' 'But 

the two forms of language are consistent.' 

(y) So also variation of language of Eph. iv. 11 from 1 Cor. 
xii. 28, as to the source of gifts, is due to context, (ib. pp. 134 ff., 


(iv) The Holy Spirit. 

' The contrast with the Epistle to the Colossians is great in this 
respect ; but there is no similar contrast with the earlier Epistles ' 
(e.g. Rom., i Cor.). 

'In the First Epistle to the Corinthians and in that to the 
Ephesians alike St Paul is anxiously insisting on the mutual 
duties of members of the Christian community and therefore has 
need to go back to the inner principle of its life, the one uniting 
Spirit' (id. ib. pp. 140 f.). 

. (v) The Present and the Future. 

In Ephesians ' the immediate imminence of the Coming of the 
Lord has faded out of view ' : and ' a sense of present blessedness 
has arisen' (i. 3 ff., iv. 11 — 16) and of 'a long and gradual growth 
reaching far out into the future from age to age.' 

But 'in the earlier Epistles themselves there is a certain 
gradation in this respect : — Romans suggests the ordering of 
the ages': and it was 'natural... that a change like this should 
come over St Paul's mind' in view of 'the spread of the faith 
through the Roman Empire.' 

(vi) ' Apostles and Prophets.' 

'The two names represent the two types of guidance specially 
given to that earliest age' (Prolegomena, p. 145). 

Eph. iii. 5. air€Ka\v<l>Ori t. dytois cwrooroXois aurov kcu irpoc/nfrcHS 
iv irveiifjiaTi, elvai ra Wvr) <rvvK\r]pov6[ii.a k.t.X. ' does but sum up in a 
pregnant form what had been the real course of things' (cf. e.g. 
Acts xiii. 1 — 4). 

Eph. ii. 20. i7TOLKo8ofi.yj0evTes iirl ra 0e/xe\ia> t<3v aTrooroXcov /cat 
■7rpo(f>r)Tah> gives 'the historical order of the actual structure and 
growth of the Ecclesia itself, not any authority over the Ecclesia.' 
'And St Paul himself could fitly... speak thus; and use the special 
image of the foundation.' 'Nor would he by so using it... con- 
tradict...! Cor. iii. 10 f. For there he is not speaking of the 
Christian society, but of the Christian faith' (ib. p. 147). 

Again 'Apostles and prophets stand first in list of gifts' in. 

1 Cor. xii. 28 as in Eph. iv. 11. 



(vii) St Paul himself. 

Language of Eph. iii. i f., iv. i, vi. 20 paralleled by Rom. xi. 13, 
xv. 16. With Eph. iii. 8 cf. (besides 1 Cor. xv. 9) Gal. i. 13—16. 

B. Style, Vocabulary, and Phraseology. 

(a) Causes of difference of style — as compared with earlier 

(1) 'Sense of dangers surmounted, aspirations satisfied, and a 
vantage ground gained for the world-wide harmonious development 
of the Christian community under the government of God' 

(2) 'that now for the first time St Paul is free, as it were, to 
pour forth his own thoughts in a positive form instead of carrying 
on an argument' (ib. p. 153). 

(6) ' The bulk of the vocabulary is in accordance with Pauline 
usage* (ib. p. 158). 

'Unique words are due to quotation, context, brevity, or 
accident' (ib. p. 156). 

(c) ' Unique phrases prove little, being common elsewhere in 
St Paul' (ib. p. 192). 

' Those who cannot read the Epistle to the Ephesians without 
being awed by the peculiar loftiness, by the grandeur of conception, 
by the profound insight, by the eucharistic inspiration, which they 
recognise in it, will require strong evidence to persuade them that 
it was written by some other man who wished it to pass as St Paul's. 
Apart from the question of the morality of the act, imitators do not 
pour out their thoughts in the free and fervid style of this Epistle. 
Nor can we easily imagine how such an imitation could have been 
successful either near the time of St Paul or at any subsequent 
period. It is not conceivable that it should have made its ap- 
pearance without exciting wonder and inquiry. In the lifetime of 
St Paul the pious fraud would not have been attempted. Within 
a few years after his death the difficulty of deceiving his friends 
and the Church in such a matter must have been very great. At a 
later time the estimation in which St Paul's writings were held 
would have ensured the careful scrutiny of any previously unknown 
work put forward in his name.' (Llewelyn Davies : Introduction to 
Ephesians, p. 9.) 



Words characteristic of the Ephesian Epistle : 

livarr/piov [v. inf. p. 1 80]. 
86£a [v. inf. p. 187]. 

evepyeia \v. inf. p. 1 5 5]. 
jrpoo-ayaiyij [see note on ii. 18]. 
nKifpovv [see notes on i 23, v. 18]. 
Tth/jpana [see notes on i. io, 23]. 
fiidoSela [see note on vi. 1 1]. 

Also the expressions : 

ev m/eviiari. 

to. ewovpavia [». inf. p. 152]. 

Among words, which do not occur in this Epistle, are, it is to be 
remarked, the following :, 


[All these words occur in the Epistle to the Colossians and frequently 
in that to the Philippians.] 


The various grammatical modes of expressing end or purpose, used in 
the Epistle, may be noted. 

(1) The Simple Infinitive : 

i. 4. elvai T)(ii5y ceytovs k.tX. after i^ekit-aro 17/xar (cf. Hi. 6). 
iii. 17. KaroiKrjo-ai t. xpiorbv...iv r. KapSiais vp.&v. 
vi. 19. yva>pio-ai. 

(2) (is to C. inf. 

i. 12. els to elvai 17/xas. . . after irpoopio-devres. 
18. els to elbevai rffias... after we<paTiO'p.ivovs. 

irpbs to c. inf. 
vi. II. ev&iaao~6e...irpbs to hvva<r8ai v/xas. 

(3) '""• 

t 17. waSar/... after fiveiav Troiovp-evos. 

ii. 7, 10, 15. 

iii. 9f., 14 &., 18. 

iv. 14, 28 (bis). 

v. 25 ff., 33. 

vi. 3, 13, 19, 20, 21, 22. 


Repetition of phrases — in one context — is found at: 

i. 6, 12, 14. «f eiraivov &6§T)s (bis)...«s c. Ttjs bofzqs.... 

il. I, 5- Kai vfias ovTas veicpovs . . .tcai oPTas ypas veKpovs — 
iii. 2, 7- ff/s xaptror tov deov rfjs hoBciarjs poi (bis). 

Interrupted constructions occur : 

ii. 3, 1 1 f- 
iii. 1. 

Aorist and Present tenses [in near conjunction or sequence] are found : 
i. 13. iritTTevcravTes, 19 TncrTevovras. 
ii. 20. iTroiKo8op,7]6ivT€S, 22 o~vvotKo8op,e'io~0€. 
iv. I. irepmaTrjcrai, 17 irepiiraTeiv. 
V. 29. ipicrTjcrc-v, itcTpicpei k. BaXiret. 
vi. IO. ivftvvapovcrde, 1 1 ivdvo~acr6e. 

Perfect Participles are frequent : 

i. 12. nporjXirucoTas, 1 8 necpcoTicrpevovs. 
ii. 5) 8. crecrcocrpivoi, 12 dfrrj\\oTptcop.€VOi. 
iii. 9- cmoKeKpvppAvov, 17 ippi^copivoi K. Te6epf\icop,ivoi. 
iv. 17. icTKOTCopivoi, 18 dirr]XkoTpicop4voi, 19 dn-i/Xy^Kores. 
vi. 16. 7Te7rvpwfj.€va. 

Parallel Clauses occur : 

i. II, 13. iv <p kcu ix\r]pcidr)pev..., 

iv co Kal vpeis aKOvo-avres...iv <S Kal mcrrcvcravTes, icrcppa- 
ii. 2. Kara tov alcova tov Koapov tovtov, 

Kara tov ap^ovra Trjs i§ovo-las tov dipos. 
21 f. iv ci iiao-a olnoo'ou.r)...av£ei...iv Kvpico, 

ev co Kal vpc-ls o~vvoiKo8opeicrBe,..iv nvevpaTi. 
111. 7* Kara t. Scopeav t. ^aptros r. 0eoO, 

Kara r. ivipyetav r. dvvdpccos ovtov. 
iv. 13. els t. ivortyra r. jrurrews k. t. imyvdo-eas, 
els avdpa ri\eiov, 
els pirpov q\iKtas. 
18. Sia t^v ayvoiav iv avroiy, 

dta r^v ircoptotriv r. Kapo'Las avTcov. 

[The foregoing notes on Style and Language. are those actually left by 
Dr Westcott. The following statistics have been editorially compiled.] 

Words found nowhere in tlie New Testament except in the 
Epistle to the Ephesians. 

(a) Nouns. ivdrijs. 


avoids. evvoia. 

/JcAos. evrpaireXia. 










(c) Verbs. 

















(b) Adjectives. 







(d) Adverb. 



Words common to ' Ephesicms ' and ' Colossians,' but not used 
elsewhere in the New Testament. 

(a) Nouns. 





(b) A djective. 

(c) Verbs. 








Common and peculiar to 'Ephesians,' 'Colossians' and 'Philemon' 
is avrJKtv (v. to dvfJKov). 


Words peculiar to the Pauline- Epistles, occurring in ' Ephesians ' 
and also in some Epistle other than ' Colossians.' 

(i) Common to ' Ephesians ' and ' Philippians.' 
imxopriyia. (but kwi^opiryuv 2 Cor., Gal., Col., 2 Pet.). 
Kd/x-irTeiv (also twice in O. T. quotations in Rom.). 

(ii) Common to ' Ephesians ' and one or more of the six earlier 
Epistles (1 and 2 Thess., 1 and 2 Cor., Gal., Rom.). 
ayaOtaavvt] (2 Th., Gal., Rom., irofyfia (Rom., Eph.). 
aXrjOeveiv (Gal., Eph.). [Eph.). irpecrfievtiiv (2 Cor., Eph.). 
avaKtipaXaiovadac (Rom., Eph.). irpoeroifud^eiv (Rom., Eph.). 

dvefixn'aoTos (Rom., Eph.). irpoo-aywyq (Rom., Eph.). 

dppafiiov (2 Cor., Eph.). TrporfflevOai (Rom., Eph.). 

6dX.TT€iv (1 Th., Eph.). mo0«ri'a (Gal., Rom., Eph.). 

■n-epiKe<j>a\aia (1 Th., Eph.). VTrepftdWeiv (2 Cor., Eph.). 

TrXeoj/eVn^ (1 Cor., Eph.). virepeKirepi<T<rov (1 Th., Eph.). 

Also the connective dpa ovv (1 Th., 2 Th., Gal., Rom., Eph.). 

(iii) Common to 'Ephesians,' 'Philippians,' and one earlier 

eicoSta (2 Cor., Phil., Eph.). 

7reTroi077<Tis (2 Cor., Phil., Eph.). 
(iv) Common to 'Ephesians,' 'Colossians,' and one or more of 
the earlier Epistles. 

d7rXoTijs (2 Cor., Rom., Col., Eph.). 
Qayopdtfiiv (Gal., Col., Eph.). 

(v) Common to 'Ephesians,' 'Colossians,' 'Philippians,' and earlier 

htpyua (2 Th., Phil., Col., Eph.). 

(vi) Common to ' Ephesians,' the ' Pastorals ' and one or more 
of the earlier Epistles. 

oio-xpo's (1 Cor., Eph., Tit.). 

dtpBapaia (1 Cor., Rom., Eph., 2 Tim., Tit.). 

vovOaria. (1 Cor., Eph., Tit.). 

ot'/cetos (Gal., Eph., 1 Tim.). 


(vii) Common, and peculiar, to the Epistles of the Captivity 
and the 'Pastorals,' and occurring in 'Ephesians.' 
Xovrpov (Eph. v. 36, Tit. iii. 5 only). 

(viii) Common to 'Ephesians' with ' Colossians,' 'Philemon,' or 
' Philippians,' earlier Epistles, and the 'Pastorals.' 

fnveia (1 Th., 2 Th., Rom., Phil., Philem., Eph., 2 Tim.). 
Trpaomjs (1 Cor., 2 Cor., Gal., Col., Eph., 1 Tim., 2 Tim., Tit.). 
XprjOTOTrjs (2 Cor., Gal., Rom., Col., Eph., Tit.). 

Words occurring in 'Ephesians,' common, and peculiar, to Pauline 
Epistles, and Speeches of St Paul in 'Acts.' (Acts xx. 26, Gal. v. 3, Eph. iv. 17). 
vwi (Acts xxii. 1, xxiv. 13, 1 Cor., 2 Cor., Rom., Col., Philem., 
Eph., and v.l. in Heb. viii. 6). 

Words common to 'Ephesians,' other Pauline Epistles, 
and the Gospel of St Luke or 'Acts.' 

evSofos (Lk. vii. 25, xiii. 17, 1 Cor., Eph.). 

eiayye\Ca-Tr]i (Acts xxi. 8, Eph., 2 Tim.). 

/teraSiSovat (Lk. iii. 11, 1 Th., Rom. i. 11, xii. 8, Eph.). 

oiKovo/uxa (Lk. xvi. 2, 3, 4, 1 Cor., Col., Eph., 1 Tim.). 

ovo/ia&iv (Lk. vi. 13, 14, Acts xix. 13, 1 Cor., Rom., Eph., 

2 Tim.). 
iravovpyia (Lk. xx. 23, 1 Cor., 2 Cor., Eph.). 
irpoopifciv (Acts iv. 28, 1 Cor., Rom., Eph.). 
cru/*/?i/3a£eiv (Acts, 1 Cor. lxx., Col., Eph.). 
cruVSeaytos (Acts viii. 23, Col., Eph.). 

Words common, and peculiar, to ' Ephesians ' and the 
Gospel of St Luke or 'Acts.' 

dirtifa], aireA.iri£eiv (v. I.), octioti/s, iraroirXia, iroXtTeta, cruyica0i£eij>, 
crconjpiov, tppovqo-is, xapiTow. 




Parallel passages in ' Colossians ' and ' Ephesians.' 


i. 14. iv <a expfiev rr)v arro\v- 
rpaxriv, rfjv a(peo-lv rav apaprtav. 

ib. 20. K. fit 1 avrov airoKaraKkd^ai 
to. Travra els avrov, elprjvoiroi^o-as 81a 
tov alparos tov trravpov avrov, fit 
avrov e'ire ra iiti rfjs yrjs fire ra iv 
rois ovpavols. 

ib. 3, 4* ev\apto~Tovpev ra> Sea 
irarpi tov Kvplov r)pa>v 'Irjaov XptoroD 
irdvrore irepi vpcov irpoo-evx6p.evot' 
aKoiaavres rr)v izia~Tiv vpa>v ev Xp. I. 
Kai rr)v dydirrjv r)v e\ere 6 ' ff irdvras 
tovs aylovs. 

ib. 27. ots rjBiXrjO-fv 6 6ebs yvaplo-ai 
ri to ttXovtos rrjs 8o|i)9 tov fivo-rriplov 

TOVTOV iv TOtS edveaiV, O io~TlV XplOTOS 

iv vpiv, rj e\7Tis rfjs Sogrjs. 

ii. 12. 81a rfjs irlo-Ttas rr)s ivep- 
yelas tov deov tov iyelpavros avTov ck 

i. 16 — 19. on iv avTco eKriaBr) to. 
rrdvra iv tois oipavols Kai iiri ttjs yr)s, 
ra opara Kai to dopant, e'lre Bpovoi 
e'lre' KvpioTrjns eire ap^at etre i£ov- 
o~taf ra ndvra fit* avrov Kai els avrbv 
eKTio-Tat- Kai avrbs eo-riv TTpb navrav, 
Kai Ta rrdvra iv avra o-vveo~TTjKev, Kai 
avTos iartv ff Ke<pa\rj tov o-taparos, 
rr)s iKKkrjalas 1 os io~Ttv dpxq, 7rpcord- 
tokos ix ra>v vexpav, tea yevrjrai iv 
irdo~tv avros Trparevav' 6V1 iv avra 
evSoKtfO'ev irav to irXypcopa Karoi- 


i. 7. iv to e\opev ttjv aVoAurpttto-ti' 
bid roil alfiaroi avrov, rr)v acpeo-tv toiv 

ib. 10. dvaKeCpaXaiaa'aaOai ra 
irdvra iv ra xpiora, ret iiri rots 
ovpavots Kai ra eVt ttjs yr}s. 

ib. 15 — 17- 8«a tovto Kaym, okov- 
aas rr)v Ka8' vpas irto-riv iv ra Kvpiq 
'Itjo-ov Kai tt)v els ndvras tovs aylovs, 
ov iravopai ev^apio-rmv virep vpav 
pvelav iroiovpevos ctti rav npoo~evxav 
p.ov, tva 6 6ebs tov Kvplov r}pmv 'I. Xp., 
o itaTr)p rr)s do^rjs, darj vp.iv k.t.\. 

ib. 18. ets to elSevat vpcis ris ianv 
7) eKiris rfjs K\rjo-ea>s avrov, ris o 
irXovros rr)s do^r/s ttjs K\rjpovoplas 
avroit ev rols ay'tais. 

ib. 19. to vnepfiaWov ^tfye^os t. 
dvvapeas avrov els Tjptas tovs 7rio~Tevov- 
ras Kara ttjv ivepyeiav r. Kpdrovs T. 
lo")(vos avrov rjv evr]pyr]Kev ev rta 
Xptcrra iyelpas avrbv eK veKpatv. 

ib. 21 — 23. virepdva TraoTjs dpxvs 
Kai i£ovo-las Kai dvvap,eas Kai Kvpto- 
Ti/ros Kat TTavrbs 6v6p.aTOS dvop.a£o- 
p.€vov ov p.ovov iv ™ alavi tovtg) 
aKka Kai iv ra peWovrf Kat ndvra 
VTTtra^ev vnb tovs nodas avrov, ku\ 
avrbv eda>Kev Ke<pa\r)v vjrep irdvra rjj 
eKK\r)o-lq, r)ns iarri ro o~ap.a avrov, to 
irkrjpa>p,a roC ra ndvra iv nao-iv ttXi;- 

Colossians. Ephesians. 


lb. 21. teal i5/ias 7Tore ovras k.t.X. 

11. 13. icai vfias veKpovs ovras rois 
iraparrrdpao-iv K . Ttj aicpo/3tio-ria r. 
o-apieos vpav o-vve£a>oiro[r)o-ev vpas <rvv 

lb. 12. iv a Kal ovvrjyepdrjre (cf. 

iii. 1). 

1. 21. Kal vpas jroTe ovras dirrpWo- 


ii. 14. i^a\elyj/as to Kad' r]pav 
Xeip6ypa<frov rois boypao-iv, o i)v vtt- 

L 20. it. St' avTou diroKaTaXka^ai 
T. iravra els avrov, elprjuoiroiTjo-as 81a 
tov atparos rov o~ravpov avrov. 

ii. 7- eppifapevoi k. (TTOiKoSofiov- 
p.evoi iv avrcS Kal Peftaiovpevoi rij 


i. 23 — 26. ov iyevoprjv eya HavXos 
Suikovos. NCv %aipa> ev T. naBr/pao-iv 
vnep vpav, k. dvravanXrjpa r. voTepr)- 
para r. ffhtyeav r. xpto-roS «" *"■ 
crapKi pov vjvep T. o-ap.aros avrov, o 
iarriv r) eKKXi;o-ta- j)s eyevopr/v iya> 
hiaKOvos Kara rrjv otKOvofilav rov 8eov 
tt)v dodelvdv poi els vpas, ir\r]pao~ai 
T. \6yov r. Beov, to pvarrjpiov to 
dirOKeKpvppevov dnb r. aldvav k. otto 
r. yeveav, vvv he e<pavepa8rj rois 
dytois avrov. 

ib. 29. els o Kal KOTnd dyavi£6- 
pevos Kara ttjv evepyeiav avrov ttjv 
evepyovpJvrjv iv ipol iv bvvapei. 

ii. I. Kal vpas ovras k.t.X. 

lb. 5. Kal ovras rjpas veKpovs rois 
napairrafxaa-Lv o~vve£ao7roir]o , ev rat 

ib. 6. 

Kai avvr/yetpev. 

ib. 12. on TJrera Kaipoi eKeivat (cf. V. 
1 1 on nore vpels) ^oopis XpioToO dirrjk- 
Aorpta>pevoi r. noXiTeias r. y \o~parp\. 

ib. 15 f. rrjv e^Bpav iv rij o-apKi 
avrov, rov vopov rav evroXav iv 
boypaanv, Karapyr]o-as iva r. bio Krio-fl 
ev avrm eis eva Kaivov avQpamov iroiaiv 
elprpnpi, Kal aVoKaraAAa^ roiis dp- 
(porepovs iv evl crapari rm 6eat bib. 
rov aravpov. 

ib. 20 f. e7roiKobopr]6evTes. . .ovtos 
aKpoyaivuxlov avrov Xp. 'I., iv <J irdaa 
olKobopr) K.r.\....(cf. iii. 17 ipptga- 
pevoi k. re6epe\i<opevoi). 

ill. I — 3) 5* Tovrov \^P LV e V^ 
Ilavkos o SeV/i-tos rov xpiarov 'Jr/o-ov 
virep vpaiv r&v idvav,...e? ye rjKOvo-are 
tt)v o'iKOVop.iav rrjs x° L P lT °^ T °v Seov 
rr)s bo6elo-r]S /ioi els, on Kara 
diroKdXvyjnv iyvaplo-drj p.01 to p.vaTtj- 
piov...o erepais yeveats ovk eyv<opio-8rj 
T. viols 1. avdpayjratv as vvv dire- 
Ka\v<p6rj rois dyiois diroo-TuXois avrov 
k. irpo<prjrais iv 7rvevpan. 

ib. 7. ov iyevT)8r)v hiaKovos Kara 
tt)v Supeav r. x^P lT °^ T - deov r. 
bodeio-ris p.01 Kara rr)v evepyeiav rfjs 
os at/rou. 

ib. 27. to irkovros t. bo%qs 1. ib. 8i. rots edveo-tv evayyeXio-ao-dai 

HVOTripiov tovtov iv r. Wvtcriv, o ioTiv to dve^ixviaaTov ir\ovros r. xP l orov, 
Xpto-rbs iv K - QuTurai ris 17 o'tKovopta r. p,vo-rripiov 

t. a7TOKeKpvpp.evov awb r. alcovatv. 




iii. 12 ff. Taireivofypoo-vvrjv, irpav- 
Ttjra, fi.aK.po6vft.iav dvexbpevoi aXXij- 
\av. . .fVi iraaiv be tovtois tt)v dydjrrjv, 
5 e'oriv o-vvbea-pos rijs TekewTrjTos. 
Kal rf elprjvj] toii xpitTToi f3paf3ev€TO) 
ev t. Kapbiais vfiaiv els rjv Ka\ eK~kr]8r]Te 
ev evl aaifiaTt. 

ii. 19. ov Kparav tt)v nc(pa\rjv, e£ 
ov rrav to o~apa bid t&v a<pav Kal 
avvbeapav eirixoprjyovpevov Kal avv- 
(3if3a£6pevov av£ei Tr)v av^rjciv tov 

i. 21. ovras dirrfWoTpiaipevovs Kai 
ex^povs ttj biavoiq ev r. epyois t. 

iii. 8 ff. vvvl be dir68eo~8e Kal vpels 
rd naura, opyr]v, dvpov, KaKiav, |8Xa- 
o-cpr/plav, alaxpokoyiav ex. tov aropaTos 
vpav firj TJ/evbeaOe els oXXt/Xovs* 
direKbvo-dpevoi tov irahaibv avOpoyjrov 
avv rats irpd^euiv avrov, Kal ivbvo'd- 
pevoi tov veov, tov dvaKaivovpevov els 
enlyvaicriv Kar elxdva tov KTiaavros 

ib. 12 f. ivhvo-ao-de ovv, as ckXckt-oi 
toii deov, ayioi k. rjyairrjpevoi, o-irkay- 
Xva oiKTippov, xP1<^ r 0TrjTa, Taireivo- 
<t>poa-vvT]V, irpavTTfTa, paKpoBvpiav, 
avexofievoi aXA^XaJf Kal x a l n £°P fv0L 
iavTois, lav tis irpos Tiva exv pop<prjv 
Kadas Kal 6 Kvpios c'xapio-aTo vp'iv, 


IV. 2 — 4* pera irdaijs Taireivotfrpo- 
o-vvrjs K. irpavTrfTos, pera paxpodvplas, 
dvexofievoi d\\rj\av ev dyairji, o-irovbd- 
£ovres Trjpeiv ttjv evdrryra tov irvev- 
fiaTOs ev T(S o-vv&eo-fico rijs elprjvr)S' ev 
o-apa xal ev irvevpa, KaOais Kal ckXt/- 
BrjTe ev uia e'Xnibi rijs K\rja , eas vpav. 

ib. 15 £ av£rjo-apev els avrbv ra 
irdvra, os iariv r) KecpdKrj, Xpio-ros, i£ 
ov Ttav to o-apa avvappoXoyovpevov 
Kal avvlSif3a£6u.evov Sid tsdoifs d(j>fjs t. 
eirixopriyias near' ivepyeiav ev perpco 
evbs eKao-Tov fiepovs t. ai^rjo-iv tov 
o-dpaTos iroielrai. 

ib. 18. eo~KOT(Ofievoi ttj biavoiq 
ovtcs, dirrjKXorputifievoi rfjs f<oijr tov 

ib. 22 ff. dwodecrSai vpas Kara tt)v 
irpoTepav dvao~Tpo(pr)v tov wa\aibv 
dv6pw7rov tov (pBeipopevov Kara t. 
iiridvpias r. dndrrjs, dvaveovo'Oai be 
Ta irvevfiaTt tov vobs vpav, Kal evbv- 
o~aa~dai tov Kaivbv dvSpaTTOV tov Kara 
Qebv KTio-&evra ev biKaioavvrj k. 6o~lo- 
TTfTi r. aKrfdelas. 

Aw dnoOepevoi to ^/evbos XaXerre 
akr)8eiav eKaoTos fieTa toii nXrjO'iov 

ib. 2g. iras \oyos aawpos ex tov 
orofwros vpav p.?) eKiropeveodui.,.. 

lb. 31. irdo-a wiKpia nai Bvpbs Kal 
opyr) Kal Kpavyr) Kal fSkao-fyrfftia dpdrfra 
dq>' vfiav avv irdo-ji KOKiq. 

ib. 32 — ^v. I. yiveo-8e be els aXXi;'- 
Xour xpijorot, eioirkayxvoi, x a P l C°~ 
pevoi eavrols Kadtbs Kal 6 0ebs ev 
Xpiirra) exipio-aro vplv. yiveoSe ovv 
piprfral tov 8eov, o)s TeKva dyairrfTa. 

ib. 5 f. veKpao-are o!v to. pSkrj ra 
eiri rr}s yr)s- Tropveiav, aKa6apo-iav, 

V. 3 — 6. nopve'ia be Kal dxaBapa-ia 
irao-a t] rrXeo»e|i'a ujjbe ovopa^eoSa 




iraBos, iwiBvpiav koktjv, Kai rr)v jrXeo- 
ve^iav, fjris io-Ttv elhaXoXarpeia, hi a 
epX*rai t) opyr) tov deov. 

iv. 5- iv ao(f>ia ireparareiTf irpos 
tovs ?£<», tov Kaipbv i£ayopa£opevoi. 

iii. l6ff. hihd&KOVTts Kai vovde- 
Tovvrfs eavTovs y^aXpois, vpvois, ahais 
TrvevpaTiKais iv tji xdpin, qhovres iv 
Tais Kapdiacs vpav ra 6ea, Kai irav 
oti eav TroifJTe iv Xoya tj iv epya, 
iravra ev ovofian Kvpiov 'lrjo~ov, evx a ~ 
piOTOVvres Ta Bern iraTpi hi avTov. 

Ai yvvaiKes, VTrordo-o-eo-Be tois dv- 
Spdiriv, as dvrJKev iv Kvpia. Oi dvhpes, 
ayanare ras yvvaiKas ■ . ..Ta TeKva, V7ra- 
Kovere tols yovevo~iv Kara irdvra • tovto 
■yap evdpeo-Tov io'Tiv iv Kvpia. Ot 
iraTepes, pr) ipeBi^ere ra tckvo vpav, 
Xva pr) dOvpdoiv. Ol hoiiXot, viraKOvere 
Kara irdvra rots koto. ardpKa Kvpiois, 
pr) iv 6<b6aXpohovXeiq as dvBpa- 
*rrdpeo~Koi, aXX ev airXoTrjTi Kaphias, 
cfyofiovpevoi tov Kvpiov, b idv iroirjTe, 
i< yjrvxijs ipyd£ecr8e as Ta Kvpia Kai 
ovk dvBpdirois, elhorres oti otto Kvpiov 
diroX-qptyeo-Be ttjv dvTairoboaiv ttjs 
xX-qpovopias- ra Kvpia Xpiara hov- 
XevcTC 6 yap ahiKav Kopio-erai o 
inhiKr/o-ev, xal ovk eari irpoo-airoXrip^lia. 

iv. I. Oi Kvpioi, to hUaiov Kai tt)v 
io-orrjTa rois hovXots irapexeo~Be, 
■elhuTts oti Kai vpeis exere Kvpiov iv 

ib. 2. Tij irpoo-evxfl irpoo-KaprepelTe, 
■yprjyopovvTes iv avTjj iv evxapttTTiq 1 
■Trpoo'evxopevoi apa Kai irepi rjpav, iva 


iv k. aiaxpoTrfs K. papoXoyia... 
oti iras iropvos t) aKadapros rj irXeo- 
viKTrjs, o io'Tiv elhaXo\aTprjS> ovk exei 
KXtjpovopiav iv T. (JacriXeiq t. xptaroi! 
k. 8eav....hia TavTa yap epxerai r) dpyr) 
tov Beov iirl tovs viovs Tr)s airtiBeias. 

ib. 1 5 f. /3X«rere ovv aKpiftas iras 
irepiiraTeiTe, p.r) as ao-o(f>oi aXX' cos 
cro^oi, i£ayopa£6p,evoi tov Kaipov. 

lb. 19. AaXouires iavTols ^a\p.o1s 
Kai vp.vois Kai ahals TrvevpxiTiKais, 
ahovres Kai T^aXXovres rij Kaphia vpav 
Ta Kvpia, evxapio-ToivTes irdvroTe vnep 
irdvTav iv dvopaTi tov Kvpiov rjpav 
'Itjo-ov Xpio-rov ra 8ea Kai iraTpi, 
VTTorao'O'opevoi aXX^Xotff iv (faofta 


At yvvaiKcs, tols Ihiois dvhpdo-iv as 
Ta Kvpia, OTI K.T.X. 

ib. 24. Ot avhpes, dyarraTe Tas 
yvvaiKas, KaBas k.t.X. ... 

vi. I — 9- Ta TiKva, viraKovcre to'is 
yoveiiviv vp.av iv Kvpia. tovto yap 
io-ri hiKaiov ripa k.t.X. ...Kai oi 
irarepes, pr) 7rapopyi£ere ra reKva 
vpav, dXXa iKTpicj)eT€ avra iv iratheiq 
Kai vov8eo~Lq Kvpiov. Ol hov\oi \ma- 
kovctc rois Kara o~dpKa Kvpiois pera 
cf)6j3nv Kai Tpopov iv dirXoTTjTi r. 
Kaphias vpav as ra xpiirro, pr) kot 
6(j>da\pohovXiav as dvOpairdpeaKoi, 
aXX' as SoCXot Xpto-rov iroiovvres to 
SeXr/pa tov 8cov, ck ifrvxys per 
evvoias hovXevovTes, as ro3 Kvpia Kai 
ovk dvSpa7rois, elhoTes oti eKao-ros, 
idv ti ■noir\o-t] dyaBov, tovto Kopio-crai 
napa Kvpiov, etre SoCXos eire iXevBepos. 
Kai 01 Kvpioi, Ta avra iroiiire irpbs 
avToiis dviivres ttjv aTreiXrji/, elhoTes 
oti Kai avTav Kai vpav 6 Kvpios io'Tiv 
iv ovpavois, Kai TTpoo~airoXr)p'<\ria ovk 
€o~tiv Trap avra. 

ib. 18 — 20. 81a irdo-r]s irpoo-evx'js 
Kai herjaeas irpoirevxopevoi iv iravrl 
Kaipa iv irvevpari, Kai els avro a- 


Colossians. Ephesians. 

o 6eos aVotfg ripiv dvpav tov Xoyou, ypvtrvovvres ev rrdo-rj T!poaKapTepr\o-ei 
\a\ij<rai to pvo"rrjpiov tov xptaToi), ®'' Ka ' 8eyo~ei "*/>' vdvratv twv ayuav, km 
o Kai 8e8epai, tva (pavepcocra) avTo as vnep epov, iva pot 8o6rj Xoyos- ev 
8el pe XaXfjffai. dvoi£ei tov o-roparos pov, ev Trapptjala 

yutopto-QL to pvorijpiov T. evayyeXiov, 
virep ov 7rp€o-f3evca ev akvo'ei, iva ev 
avTa Trapprjmaircopat. ios Set pe 

lb. y. Ta /car ipe iravTa yvapicrei lb. 21. "iva 8e elSfJTe Kai vpels Ta 

vp.1v Tv)(ikos 6 ayaTrrjTos d8e\(p6s Kai kot ipe, t'i irpao-cra, iravra yvapiarei 

ino-ros SiaKOVos Ka\ o-vv8ov\os ev vp'iv Tv^ticos o dyairt]Tos a8e\<pos Kai 

Kvptw bv eirep\jfa irpos vpas els mo-ros 8iAkovos ev Kvplm- ov eirepyjra 

avTo tovto, tva yvaT€ ra nepl rjptov 7rpbs vpas els avTo tovto iva yvaTe Ta 

Kai wapaKakeo-r) raj Kap&ias vpav. irepl -qpav Kai 7rapaKaXea-rj Tas Kapfttas 


Parallel phrases in passages otherwise not parallel. 
Colossians. Ephesians. 

i. 22. dyiovs Kai apapovs k. avey- 1.4. dyiovs Kaldpapavs KaTev<07riov 

k\t]Tovs KaTevairtov avTov. avTov. 

lb. IO. nepmaTrjaai d£las tov IV. I. d§ia>s nepmaTTjo-ai t. Kktjcreas 

Kvpiov. §s eKKrfOryre. 

' It is difficult indeed to say, considering the patent coincidences 
of expression in the two Epistles, whether the points of likeness or 
of unlikeness between them are the more remarkable. No one can 
doubt that either one Epistle was an intentional copy of the other 
or else that both were written at very nearly the same time by the 
same author. It is when we are considering the doctrinal substance 
of the Epistles that the latter conclusion forces itself upon us most 
irresistibly as the true one. These two letters are twins, singularly 
like one another in face, like also in character, but not so identical 
as to be without a strongly marked individuality.' (Davies : The 
Epistles of St Paul to the Ephesians, the Colossians and Philemon, p. 7.) 

'The Epistle to the Ephesians stands to the Epistle to the 
Colossians in very much the same relation as the Romans to the 
Galatians. The one is the general and systematic exposition of 
the same truths which appear in a special bearing in the other.' 
(Lightfoot : Biblical Essays, p. 395.) 



(a) ' Ephesians ' and the Epistle to Philemon. 


V. I. Haii\os, hecrpios Xpiarov 

V. g. naOXor, 7r/>e<r/3uri/s vvvl 
Si xai Seorpios Xpurrov 'Iyjctov. 


111. I. iyta UavXos 6 beapios tov 
XPivrov 'ir/o-ov. 

VI. 20. virep ov irpeo-fteva iv 

V. 5. tj]v wia-nv fjv <?X fls "V" 5 T0V i- IS- T V V Ka &' "A 1 "? irto-Tiv iv t£ 

Kvpiov 'Irjaovv nal els irdvras roils Kvpico 'Itjctov kcl\ 1-1)1/ els irdvras Toils 


t>. 4. evxapio-Ta Tta 0eco pov irdv- 
TOTe pveiav crov iroiovpevos iirl tcov 
irporrevxav pov. 

V. 6. ono3s 17 Koivcovia rfjs irio'Tecos 
crov evepyf/s yevrjrai iv eiriyvanrei 
iravros ayadov tov ev rjpiv els Xpiarov. 

V. 16. dSeXcpbv ayanrfTov. 


ib. 16. ov iravopai evxapio'Tcov virep 
vpdv pveiav noiov/aevos iirl tcov 
npoo-evx&v pov. 

ib. 17. 

ev e7riyva>o~ei avrov. 

IV. 13. eLS t. evonyra Trjs irio'Tecos 
teal Trjs iiriyvwo-ecos r. vlov T. Beov. 

vi. I. o dyairrjTos d8e\<f>6s (cf. 
CoL iv. 7). 

(6) ' Ephesians ' and the Epistle to the Philippians. 


i. I f . (a) UavKos Kal Tipodeos, 
SoCXot Xp. 'I. 

(6) iracriv to'is ayiois ev Xpicrrco 

'llJCTOV Tols OVffLV iv QlkilTITOlS vvv 


(c) X"P ls vp.1v K. elprjvr] airb Beov 
iraTpbs ypcov k. Kvpiov 'I170-0O Xpio~TOV. 

ib, 3. evx a P l0 ~™ r< ? ^ e ¥ ^ i iracr V 
TTj pve'iq. vpcov iravroTe iv irao-r/ Serjcrei 
pov virep irdvrav vpmv. 

ib. 9. Iva 17 dydnr\ vpav...irepicr- 
aevtj iv in ly vcocrei tcaiiracrr] ato~8r]0~et, 
els to boKip,d£ew vpas ra Siacpi- 


i. I f. (a) XlavXos diroo-roXos Xp. 
'I. dia BeXtfparos 8eov* 

(6) Tols ayiois tois ovaw [iv 
'j£<peo-a>] leal mo-rots ivXpiorco 'irjtrov- 

(c) X"P ls Vfuv k. elpqvri airb deov 
irarpbs rjpcov K. Kvpiov 'Irjo-ov Xpitrrov. 

ib. 16. ov navojiai evxapiorcov virep 
vpcZv pveiav 7roiovp.evos eVl tcov 
irpoo-evx&v p-ov. 

ib. 17. tva...8c6t] vpXv irvevp.a 
o-o<pias K. airoKakv-fyeas iv imyvtocrei... 
els to elbevai vp.ds tis 6 it\ovtos...k. 
Ti to iSjrep/SaXXov p.eye8os.... 




ib. II. Kapnbv iiKaia<Tvvr]s (cf. 
Amos vi. 12, Ja. iii. 18). 

ib. 27. d£las t. evayy. t. \. iro\i- 
Teveade (cf. iii. 20 fjpav to tto\L- 
Tevp.a iv ovpavols virdpxei)- 

ib.2"jf. oti o-T^Kere iv evl irvev- 
fiari, pia ^vxv o-vvaffkovvTes...p.r) 
irrvpopevoi W rcov dvri.Keip.evav.... 

ii. 2. rbev (ppovoivres. 

ib. 3. TJI Ta7TflVO<ppOO-VVT] dX- 

XtjXous fjyovpevoi mepexovras cau " 

V. 9. o...Kapiros t. (pcoros ev murg 
dyadaxrvvrj k. bucaioavvj). 

ii. 12. t. iroXtreiaf t. 'lo-par/X. 
ib. 19. <rvp.7ro\iTai t. dylav k. 


vi. 13. Iva hvvT)6riTe dvTio~n\vai. . . 
(TTTJvaL. (rr^Kere ovv K.T.X.... 

ii. 18. iv iv\ irvevpaTt. 

iv. 3. o-irovhd^ovres rtjpelv T. evo- 
TTjra T. Trvevfiaros. 

ib. 4. ev tra/ia K. ev irveifia. 

ib. 2. fiera iraar\s Taneivo(ppoo-v- 
vrjs...dvexopevot dWrfXav ev ayairrj. 

ib. 9. o debs avrbv virepvTJrao-ev k. 
i^apto-ciTo avra to ovofia to virep trav 

ib. 10. iirovpavlav k. iiriyciav 
K. KaTa\6ovi<ov. 

ib. 12. fiCTO, (poPov Kal rpofiov. 

iii. 3. i/fieis yap eapev J/ irepirop^, 
•ol izvevpari 6eov \arpevovres Kal 
K.av\(op.evoi ivXp. 'I. Kal ovk iv trapKi 

ib. IO. tov yvavai avrbv Kal rfjv 
dvvap.Lv ttjs dvaardaeas avrov 
K.T.X. . . . 

ib. 21. Kara. rr)v ivepyeiav tov 
dvvaadai avrbv k.t.\ — 

iv. 6. iv iravrl Tjj npoaevxy <al 
■rrj Severe* ra alrrjpara vpav yvapi- 

ib. 18. 00-p.rjV evaSias, 8vo-iav 
iSeKTr/v evdpearov T<p 6 fa. 

i. 20 f. xadio-as iv 8e£<a avrov iv 
t. eirovpaviois virepdva irao~r)S dpxvs 

k.t.X n. navrbs ovoparos dvop.a£o- 


t. yrj s. 

vi. 5. pera (pofiov Kal rpopov. 

ii. II. ol Xeyopevoi aKpoftvoria 
vtto rrjs Xeyopevrjs 7repLTopfjs iv 
aapKi x €l P 07roll i TOV - 

i. l8f. to elbevai...ri to . . ,u,eye6os 
T. Svvdpeas avrov els r) r. 
iriarevovras Kara rr)v ivepyeiav tov 
Kpdrovs ttjs lo~xvos avTov, 7\v evr\p- 
yrjKev ev t. ^ptoxB iyelpas avrbv iK 

vi. 18. 8m iraarjs rrpoaevx^s 
Kal Seqo-e as npoo-evxbpevoi iv navrl 

V. 2. npoo-cpopav Kal 6vo-Lav Ta 
6ea els oo-ptjv eva&ias. 


(c) Comparison with the Address at Miletus. 


Address at Miletus 
(Acts xx. 1 8 — 25). 

XX. 19. b*ov\eva>v ru Kvpia fiera 
irdo-Tjs Ta'rreivofppoo'vvrjs. 

ib. 20. ttjv els deov /lerdvoiav Kai 
tt'mttiv els tov KVpiov r]p,av '\t)O0vv. 

ib. 23. to irvevp-a to ayiov... ftta- 
fiaprvperaL p.01 \eyov oti deapd Kai 
dXiyjreis p.e [levovo-tv. 

lb. 24. ttjv diaKOviav t)v ?Xa/3oy 
wapa tov KVpiov 'lrjo-ov, 8iap.aprv- 
pao-8ai to evayyeXiov rfjs ^(iptroj 
tov deov. 

ib. 26. iv 01s 8ii)\6ov KTjpvo-o-av 
ttjv fiaaiXeiav. 

ib. 27. dvayyeTXai irdo~av ttj v 
fiovXr/v tov 6eov. 

ib. 28. iravri TiS, iv a vfias 
to 7rv€vp.a to ayiov eQeTO erriO'Ko- 
irovs, iroiu-aiveiv ttjv iKKX-rjoiav 
TOV 6(011. 

ib. 2g. rjv 7Tepie7Toirjo~aTO 61a 
tov alfiaTos tov 18iov. 

W. EPH. 

vi. 7. dovXevovres as to Kvpia 
Kai ovk avOpconois. 

iv. 2. fiera irdo-rjs TaTreivoq^po- 

i. 15. ttjv Kaff vpas nio-Tiv iv Tto 
Kvpia 'lrjo~ov Kai ttjv els irdvTas tovs 

iii. 13. iv Tats dXiyj/eo-iv p.ov 
inrep vpav. 

iv. I. eyio o Seajiios. 

i. 15. iv rj Kvpico 'Iijcrov. 

iii. 6, 7. did tov evayyeXiov, ov 
iyevTjdijv SiaKovos Kara ttjv Sapedv 
ttjs \dpiTos tov deov ttjs dodeio-rjs 

V. 5. ovk e\ei Khr)povop,iav iv ttj 
ficuriXelq tov xptorov Kai 6eov. 

i. II. Kara ttjv ftovXrjv tov de\rj- 
paros auTOv. 

iii. 20. avT& r) bo£a iv ttj iK- 
KXrjo-ia iv Xpia-ra '\rjo-ov. 

IV. 3. ttjv evoTTjTaTov nvevjiaTos. 

ib. 4- ev o-apa, ev rrvevpa. 

ib. II. K. avTos edaKev tovs pev 
d7roo~To\ovs...TOvs 8e rroipevas Kai 

ib. 30. to irvevpa to ayiov tov 

i. 6f. iv t& rjyarrripevm, iv a 
e\opev ttjv d7roXvTpti)o~iv did tov 
aipaTOS avTov. 

ib. 14. els drroXvrpao-iv rijs nepi- 
7Toii](rea>s . 



Address at Miletus. Ephesians. 

ib. 32. Kai to. vvv irapariBepai ib. l6f. pveiav iroiovpevos em 

vpas tco Kvpla Kai Ta Xoyo) ttjs to>v npoaevxmv pov, iva 6 debs 
Xapiros avrov rta bvvapevco oIko- t. Kvplov rjpatv I. doirj vpiv...eis to 
8oprjo~ai Kai SovvaLrrjV K\r)povopiav elbevai vpas...rls 6 ttAoCtos r. 86£rjs 
iv to'is r\yiao-pevois irao-ai. rfjs Khrjpovopias avrov iv tois 


iv. 12. wpbs T. Karaprio-pbv t. 
ayicav..., els oiKodoprjv rov ataparos 
r. xP lo ~ TOV ( c f- *• 2 9 itpos olKO&oprjv 
r. xpelas). 

(d) ' Ephesians ' and ' Romans.' 

' St Paul has two comparatively general Epistles, the Epistle to 
the Romans and the Epistle to the Ephesians and the contrast 
between them illustrates both. Both are full of the especially 
Pauline Gospel that the Gentiles are fellow-heirs, but the one 
glances chiefly to the past, the other to the future. The unity 
at which the former Epistle seems to arrive by slow and painful 
steps, is assumed in the latter as a starting-point with a vista of 
wondrous possibilities beyond.' 

(Hort, Prolegomena to the Epistle to the Romans, p. 49.) 

With Rom. i. 18 ff. 'AiroKaXwreTat yap opyr/ 8eov k.t.X.. 

compare Eph. v. 6. 

„ Rom. v. 1 ff. Ai/cauoflei/Tts ovv...elpyin)v Zx<up-€v k-t.X. 

compare Eph. ii. 17 f. 

„ Rom. viii. 28 — 30 — irpoeyvut. . .rrpoiapio-ev — k.t.X. 

compare Eph. i. 11 — 14. 

,, Rom. xi. 15 — p.y] t,o}Tj €k veKpwv ; — 

compare Eph. ii. 1 ff. 

,, Rom. xi. 33 ff. S> fiaOos ttXovtov k.t.X. 1 

,, Rom. xii. 1 — 8 TrapaKaXiS ovv vp.a<; k.t.X. J 

fEph. iii. 16 — 1 a. 
compare j 

„ Rom. xiii. 11— 14 compare { P ' V- 7 "' 

( „ vi. 10—13. 


(e) ' Ephesians ' and the i Pastorals/ 


(a) vi. iof. Tov \ol7tov ivbvva- 
p.ova-6e iv Kvpta k. iv tg> Kparei r. 
Itrxyos avrov. £v8v<rao-8e r. iravoirXiav 
r. 6eov irpos to bvvaa-Qai vpas o-rrjvat 

7TpOff...' OTl OVK €0~TLV rjptv Tj 7ToXrj 7TpQS 

...aXXa 7rpos...' bta tovto dvaXdfieTe 
rrjv iravoirXiav t. Qeov, tva bvvr)8fJTe 
dvrio'rTJv at. . .o-rrJT€ ovv. . .ivbvardpevoi 
r. $copa<a t. dtKatoo~vvr}s...ev irao~iv 
avaXafiovres tov 6vpebv Trjs 7rio-rea)ff, 
iv to bwrjo-eaQe irdvra tcl ftiXt] t. irovrj- 
pov . . .o-fieo-at k.t.X. 

ib. II. 

raff peSobtas tov 8ia{3o- 

(b) iv. 13- fttXP 1 K^TavTrjo-copev oi 
irdvTes els ttjv ivorrjTa Trjs iriaTeoos k. 
t. iiriyvao-eas t. viov t. deov — 

ib. 5* e ' 9 Kvpios...e Is debs K. 
7ra.TT)p irdvTav 

i. 6 f. els eiratvov bo^rjs r. x^P lT0S 
avTov, rjs ixapLTairev ijpas iv Tip 
rjyairrjpevcoj iv a exopev tt)v airoXv- 
Tpa>o-w — 

V. 2. k. irapibaKev eavTov virep 

ib. 25 f. XP L0 ~ T0S rjydirqo-ev r. itt- 
KKrja-lav k. eavTov irape8(OKev virep 
avTTjS' tva clvttjv dyido-rj tcaOapiaas 
Tea Xovrpa t. vbaros. 


1 Tim. i. 18. tva o-TpaTevrj iv 
avTais t. Kakrjv o-Tpareiav, e%(ov irivTiv. 

ib. vi. 12. dyavifav r. KaXbv dymva 
Trjs irio~T€<as. 

ib. II. BiaiKe biKaioo-vVTjv, irla-- 
tiv, dydirrjv, viropov^v, 7Tpavira6eiav. 

2 Tim. ii. I. ivbvvapov iv Tjj Tf} iv Xp. 'I. 

lb. 3- o~vpKaK07ra6rjo'ov as KaXbs 

0-TpOTL(OTT]S XplOToO , Ir)a'ov. 

ib. 5* iov be Kat d&Xjj tis ov 
o~T€(j)avovTai idv prj ddXrjo-rj. 

IV. 7« T0V KaXbv ayoUva rjyavicr- 
pai, tov bpdpov TereXetca, tt)v irio~Tiv 


1 Tim. iii. 7. irayiba tov bia- 

2 Tim. ii. 26. ck tt)s t. biafidXov 

1 Tim. ii. 4. tovto yap KaXbv kol 
dirobeKTOv ivairiov tov o~(OTrjpos r]pav 
Oeov, off irdvTas dvdpcdTrovs 6e\et 
0~<a6r)vaL k. els €7rlyvcoo'iv dXrjdelas 
iXSelv. els yap Beds, eis p&o-iTr)s Oeov 
k. dv&p&TTQbVf avdpGYnos Xp. 'irjo-ovSf o 
bovs eavTov dvTiXvTpov virip ivav- 


2 Tim. ii. 25. pi) 7roT€ bar) avTols 
6 3eos perdvoiav els e7riyvcoo~tv aXri- 

Tit. ii. 13 f. npoabexopevoi r. 
paxapiav iXTriba *. inKpaveiav t. 
bd^ris 1. peydXov deov <a\ o-coTrjpos 
ijpav 5 I. XptaroC, os ebaKev eavTov 
vnep -qpav, tva XvTpco arjTac r]pa.s 
dnb 7rdo-T)s dvoplas k. KaSaplcrri iavra 

iii. 5* eo~<0o~ev T]pds bta Xovrpov 





ii. 7 £ ^ va ivBei^rjTat iv r. alvKrw 

T. €7T€p)(Ofl€VOLS TO V7T€pfiaWoV TrkoVTOS 

t. xaptros avrov iv xprjo-TOTTjTi icff 
rjpas iv Xp. 'lr)0~ov. rrj yap yapvri 
co~T€ (reoGHTfxevoi 81a. irttrTeas' kcu 
tovto ovk ef, 8eov to B&pov' 
ovk lf~ epy<ov 7 iva pr] tis Kavx r ) (rr ) Ta{ " 
avTov yap icrpev iroirjpaj ktio~&€vt€s iv 
Xp. 'I. iir\ epyaLS dyaBoXs ols irpor}- 
Toipao~ev 6 $ebs Iva ev avTots neptira- 


ib. 12. on qTe Tffl fcaipai iiccivtp 

XtdpiS XpiO~TOV. 

ib. 13. vvvl de iv Xp. *Ir)o~ov vpels 
ol irore ov*es paKpav.... 

lb. I ff. t. apapTtaiSj iv als wore 
we pL€7rar^a'aT€ koto, tov alava tov 
fcoo-pov tovtov...t. viols Trjs airei- 
6eias* iv ois <al -qpets irdvres 
dv€o~Tpa(f>i]fjLiv ttot€ iv rats e tt t - 
dvplats t. aapKos ypav. 

iv. 22. Kara tcis iiriBvpias tt)s 
air arris. 

ib. II. tovs Se evayyeXi&Tas. 

i. 13. aKOvo-avTes tov \6yov rrjs 

(c) ii. I9ff. dXka. core <ru/«roAiTai 
r. dylcov ko.\ oIkeloi tov @eov, 
iirotKobop,r}6£vT€s iirl rai 6ep,e- 
Xio) tcoi* diroo-To\a>v k. TrpocfirjT&V) 
ovtos aKpoyoavtaiov ovtov XptaroO 
'irjcrov, iv <u Tratra oiKoftopr) avvapfi, 
av£et els vaov ayiov iv /cupi'a), iv w 
Kal vpels a , vvoiKodop,elo'$€ els kotoi- 
KTjTTjpiov deov iv nvevpaTi. 

iii. 17. «. Te8epe\uopivoi. 

iv. 3. o-TTOvbd^ovTes Trjpeiv T. 
evoTrjTa t. irvevparos iv t<£ vvvbta-pa 
Trjs elpTjvrjs. 


ib. I 4* VTTOflifAVTfO-Ke avTOvs dp- 

X a w if-ovQ-Lais viroTao-o-eo-Oai ireiQap- 
X^ v 9 irpos irav epyov dya86v 
eToipovs eivatj fjLrjbeva ($\ao m (f)t)p,e'iv, 
dfiaxpvs eivai iirteiKeXs^ Ttavav iv- 
beiKvvpevovs irpavTryra irpos 7ravras 
dv6p<D7rovs. rjpev yap ttotc koi 
rjpels dvorjToi, direiBels, TrXavtapevot, 
dovkevovTes €7ri8vp,iats k. rjdovals 

7TOlKl\aiS....OT€ 8e r] XprjO'TOT^S k. 1) 

<j)i\av8p(onia e7re(f>dvrj r. o-caTrjpos rjfiav 
8eov } ovk i£ epytovT. iv 8iKaLoa , vvrj 
a 67r otrjorapev rjpets, dWa. Kara to 
avTov ekeos.... 

ii. 12. iva dpvrjQ-dpevoi, t. do~i~ 
fieiav k. ras Koo-p.LKas em&vpias 
aaxjipovais k. 8tKai<os k. evarefi&s 
£r)o-a>p,ev iv to) vvv alwvi. 

2 Tim. iv. 3. KaTa tcis Iblas 
iiri8vpias...K. diro t. dkrjOeias r. 
aicoTjv dnooTpexj/ovcLVj iirl de t. pvOovs 


lb. 5- epyov ttoltjoov evayye- 

ii. 15. 6p6oTop.ovvTa tov \6yov 
T?fs d\r)delas. 

1 Tim. iii. 15. Iva eldfjs nas Set iv 
o'ikco Oeov dvao~Tpe<f>eo-daij t)tls io~Tiv 
iKK\r}0-ia Oeov {gUvtos, o-tvXos koi 
ebpal&pa tt)s dXTjdeias. 

2 Tim. ii. 19. fiivTot orepebs 
OepiXtos tov 6eov eo-Ttjicev, e^wi/Tjji/ 
o-fppaylda tovtyjv "Eyvo) Kvptos tovs 
ovTas avTov, kcl\ ' A7TO(tt?;to> diro 
dhiKias Trds ovopd^tov to ovop,a 

ib. 15. o~7rovbao~ov aeavTov Soki- 
pov irapao-Trjo-at r« Oeto. 




10. 2. fifTa 7raoT]s Tairtivo(ppoo"vvrjs 
K. irpavTtfTos, fiera fia.KpodviJ.ias, 
avexoitfvoi dXXqXcov iv ayairrj. 

V. 27. tva irapao-Tr/a'Tj avros 
eavTa ev8o£ov r. inKKrio-lav, prj ?^ov- 
<rav o~ttlXov rj pvrlda rj tl twv toiov- 
Tav, a\\ tva g dyia Kal ufiatjxos. 

{d) i. 15. TTjV Kaff VpJlS TTIO-TIV 

€1/ ra Kvpia 'irjaov. 

(e) vi. 4- CKTpcfperc avra iv 
vraiheiq k. vovdeo'iq Kvpiov. 

iv. II f. rois 8e irotfiivas Kal 
StdaaKaXovs, irpbs tov KarapTia- 
fibv t. ayiav eiy tpyov dcaxovias. 

vi. 5 f- OlhovXoi, vtraKovere 
Tots Kara aapKa Kvpiois-.-iv dirX6T7)Ti 
Trjs Kapdlas vfj.av...eK yjrv\jjs /xer* 
evvoias hovXevovTts- 

V. 21. vnorao-iTOfievoi aXXrjXoi.s. 


lb. 22. Si'oiKf fie hiKaioo-vvrjv, irio-Tiv, 
aydirrjv, eiprjvrjv pera t. eViKaXou- 
pivav t. Kvpiov ck Kadapas Kapdias. 

ib. 24. dvc£tKaKov, iv irpavTrjTi 
TraiSeioVTa rois avTihiaTiBepivovs. 

lli. IO. ttj nio-Tci, tji paKpo- 
dvfiiq, tji dydirrj, rjj vnopovij. 

1 Tim. V. 14. TTjpijaaL (re Trjv 
evroXrjv ao-mXov avtiriXripirTov 
H-*XP l T 7 E inKpaveias t. Kvpiov jpwv 
'I. Xp. 

iii. 13. iv nto-Tei Ty iv Xpurra 

2 Tim. iii. 19. 81a jriVreajs rijs 
iv Xpiorai 'lijo-ov. 

ib. 16. a<peXifios irpbs 8i8a(TKa- 
Xtav, irpbs iXeypov, irpbs iiravop3(oo-iv, 
7rpbs 7rai8elav ttjv iv 8iKawavvrj, tva 
aprios rj 6 tov 6(ov avBpamos, irpbs 
irav epyov dyadbv i£r]pTio~p,ivos. 

I Tim. vi. I. Oo~oi elaiv virb £vybv 
doOXoi, tovs ib'iovs decriruTas 
irdarfs Ttprjs a£iovs yyeloSao-av. 

Tit. ii. 9- SovXovs ifiiots beo-iro- 
Tais v7roTdo , o , eo~3ai iv 7rao~tv, 
evapio-rovs elvat. 

'In the Epistle to the Ephesians the great mystery of the 
Christian Society is set forth under two images which include the 
essential truths of all later speculations. It is the Body of Christ 
in virtue of the one life which it derives from Him who is its 
Head, and it is the Temple of God, so far as it is huilt up in 
various ages and of various elements on the foundations which 
Christ laid, and of which He is the comer-stone. In the Pastoral 
Epistles this teaching is realised in the outlines of a visible society.' 
[History of the Canon of the N.T., p. 32.) 




(a) The Epistle to the Ephesians and the First Epistle 
of St Peter. 

' The connexion, though close, does not lie on the surface. It is 
shewn more by identities of thought and similarity in the structure 
of the two Epistles as wholes than by identities of phrase.' 

(Hort, Introductory Lecture to First Epistle of St Peter, p. 5.) 

' The truth is that in the First Epistle of St Peter many 
thoughts are derived from the Epistle to the Ephesians, as others 
are from that to the Romans ; but St Peter makes them fully his 
own by the form into which he casts them, a form for the most part 
unlike what we find in any Epistle of St Paul's.' 

(id. Prolegomena to Ephesians, p. 169.) 

[The 'parallelisms,' as here exhibited, are for the most part noted either 
in Dr Westcott's Commentary itself or in Hort's notes on 1 Pet. i. 1 — ii. 17 
or in Prof. Abbott's Introduction, pp. xxiv ff., if not in all of these works.] 


i. 3. Eu'Xoyj/Tor o 6ebs Kai 
irarfip tov xvpiov q/iaiv 'Ir/o-ov 
XpitrrotJ, o evXoyijo-as rjpas ev 
naafl evXoyia irvevfiariKfl ev Tots 
eirovpavlois ev Xptorai, Ka6as e£e- 
Xe£aTo...7rp KaTaftoXrjs Koo~pov... 
Ttpoopio-as rotas els viodealav 81a "I. 
Xp — els eiraivov So^r/s r. \aptros 
avTOV...ev ra Tjya7rrjp.eva, ev a e^opev 
t. airoXvTptoo-iv bia r. atfiaros 

lb. 12. els to elvai y/xas e Is eiraivov 
b6£rjs avToii...ev t. %p. 

ib. 13. ev <u koI vpets aKovo-avres 
T. Xoyox Trjs dXtjBeias, to evayyeXwv 
Ttjs a-aTTjplas vpav, ex & Kai moTev- 
aavres eo-rppayio-dr/Tc r<3 irvevpari 

1 Peter. 

i.3. EvXoyrjTos odeos Kai iraTr/p 
Toil Kvpiov fipaiv 'irjo-ov Xpio-Tov, 
o Kara To iroXv avTOv eXeos dvayev- 
vi)o-as r) els eXir'iba £wo-av 81' 
avao-Tao-eas 'Iijerov Xpto-Toii c« 
vexpav, els k\j] povofilav dq^daprov 
Kai apiavrov Kai dpapavrov, reri/pi/- 
p.evr\v ev ovpavols els vp,as toiis 
ev Svvapei 6eov qSpovpovpevovs bid 
Wio-T€as els o-WTr/p lav eroipirjv diro- 
KaXvcpdrjvai ev Kaipa eo~xd.Ta. ev co 
ayaXXiaV#e, oXiyov. . .XvirrjOevTes . . . iva 
to boKip.iov vp,av r. irloTens...evpe8ri 
eis eiraivov Kai S6£av Kai Tiptfjv ev 
diroKaXvijrei 'Itjcrov Xptorov. ov ovk 
idovres ayairare, els bv Spn prj opavres 
ivio-TevovTes be ayaXXiire \apaaveK- 
XaXiJro) Kai de8ogao-p.evfl, Kopi£6- 




rrjs eTrayyeXias rip dyiat, o eanv 
dppajSav i. xXripovofiias fipnv. ..els 
eiraivov t. 86£r]s avrov. 

lb. 15. Aia rovro.... 

lb. l8f. els rb el8evai v/ias ris eoTi* 
ij eXjrts rfjs Khrjtrews vp.wv, rls 6 
jrAoOros r. 86£ris r. Kkrjpovou.ias 
avrov ev rois ayiois, ko.1 ti rb virep- 
jSaXXoi' fieyeOos rrjs dupd/ieas auroi) 
ets ?7/.tas r. irio-revovras Kara. r. 
evepyeiav r. Kpdrovs r. lo~xvos ai?ToC 
y]v evrjpyqKev ev 1. XP 10 ~ T 4} eyelpas 
avrov eK veKpav KaBlaas ev 8e£ta 
avrov ev t. enovpavtois virepavai 
wao-t)s dpxv* Kal e£ov<rlas Kal 
8vvdfiea)s...K. irdvra vireral-ev. 

ii. 2 f. ev ais iroTe Trepienarnaare 
Kara rbv alava * . Koap.ov rovrov, 
Kara rbv apxovra r. e^ovaias r. aepos, 
r. rrvevaaros r. vvv evepyovvros ev 
r. viols ttjs d7rei6elas' ev 01s Kal 
ijjuets wdvres dveo-rpa(prjp.ev irore 
ev ra'is eirtBvpiais r. o-apKos ypwv. 

11. 18. on 61 avrov exopev rrjv 
wpoaaycoy^v ol dptporepoi ev evi 
TTveifiari irpbs rbv irarepa. 

lb. 19 f. olneioi toS Beov, eiroiKO- 
SofitjBevres eirl r<5 6ep.e\ia...ovros 
aKpoycovtaiov avrov TLpurrov hjo-ov, 
ev to irao-a olKo&o/iri . . .aii £ e 1 els vaov 
ayiov ev Kvpiat, ev a Kal vfiels 
(rvvoiKohofielaBe els KaroiKrjTTj- 
piov rov Beov ev nvevpari. 

i. 20. Ka8io-as ev 8c£ia k.t.\. (#. 

i Peter. 

p.evoi rb re\os rrjs ■jriareats aarrjpiav 
yjrvx&v. Tie pi qs cra>Tt]pias e£e£q- 
rrjo-av . . . irpofpfjrai . . . ols direKa\v<pdr) 
on ovx eavrois 8e SitjKovovv 
avrd, a vvv dvtjyyeXr] 81a r&v 
evayyeXio-aaevoiv vu-as 
dyia dwoo-raXevn an ovpavov. 

ib. 13. Alb.... 

lb. 14. ibs reKVa viraKorjs, /xi) 
avvo-XTjpjm^ouevoi rats irporepov ev 
rfi dyvoia vpav emdvu.iais, dXKa 
Kara rbv Kakeo-avra vfias ayiov Kal 
avroi dytoi ev 770077 avao~rpo<pjj 

ib. 17. Ka\...ev (p6(3tB...dvao~Tpa- 
qbrjre' elBores on ov (pdaprois... 
e\vrpa&r]Te e< rijs paraias vucHv 
dvaarpocprj s ... 3 aWa...aip,ari... 
Xpiarov, irpoeyvu>o-p.evov p.ev irpb 
Kara^oXr/s Koo-p.ov t (pavepadevros 
Se elf iaxarov rav xP°" a >" &<■' vpds, 
t. 81 avrov mo-Tovs els 8ebv rbv 
eyeipavra avrbv c'k veKpav K. 86£av 
avrw 86vra. 

ii. 3. tva ev avrw av§r)8ijre els 

ib. 4 — 6. wpbs ov jrpoo-epxop,evoi, 
\180v fiSi/ra. ..(cal avrol as "Kldoi 
£wvres olKo8op.e\o'6e olkos irvev- 
uariKos els Updrevfia ayiov. 

iii. 18. tva i|/t5s npoo-aydyji rat 

ib. 22. or eanv ev ht^ia Beov 
nopev6e\s els ovpavbv virorayevrcov 
avroi dyyeXav Kal e£ovo-iav Kal 




iv. 2. p.eTa...Tairetvocppoo'Vvr]s. 

ib. 22, diro&eo-Bai vaas...T. Tra- 
\aibv avBpairov. 

ib. 25. 810 diroBepevoi to TJrev- 

ib. 31 f. iraaa ntKpia.. Kal Bvpbs 
Kai 6pyrj.,.Kal (3\ao-<pr]p,ia apBrfra 
d<f> vfiav <tvv ndcrij KaKia. yiveaBe 
8e els a\\i]\ovs XPV°" ro h evo~7r\ay- 

V. 22. At yvvalKes Tots I8101S 
dv8pdo~iv (uTroratro".). 

ib. 25. Ol av8pes, dyairare r. 

VI. 5. Ol 8ov\ot, viraKovere rols 
Kara crdpica Kvpiois pera <po[3ov 
k. rpopov. 

Words common, and peculiar, 

1 Peter. 

ii. I. ' AiroBepevoi ovv iran-av 
KaKiav K. irdvra 86\ov k. vtto- 
Kpiaeis k. <f>B6vovs K. Kara\a\ids. 

iii. 18. 6p,6<ppoves, o-vpiraBeis, 
(pikd8eK(poi, evo"ir\ayxvoi, rairei- 

ib. I. 'Ofioias vnoratr- 
a-opevai rots idiots dv8pdo~iv. 

ib. 7- Oi av8pes opoias . . . as 
do~BeveoTepa o~Kevei r(p yvvaiKeia 
dirovepovres ripr/v. 

ii. 18. Ot oiKerat viroraa-cropevoi 
ev iravrl <p6fta> rols 8eo-itorais. 

to Ephesians and 1 Peter. 

(b) Relation to Johannine Books. 

(1) 'Ephesians' and the Apocalypse. 
(a) The Church as the Bride of Christ. 

Ephesians. Apocalypse. 

V. 25. Oi Sv8pes dyairare ras 
yvvaiKas, KaBas Kal 6 xpia-ros 
qyaTTTjo-ev t^i/ eKKKrjo-iav Kai eavrbv 
napedwKev vnep avTTjs, tva avTTjv 
dyiao-ji xaBapioas ..., Iva irapaorq- 
crji...ev8o^ov rtjv eKKXr/o-iav. 

ib. 29. eKTpe(pei k. BaXirei avrijv, 
s Ka\ 6 xpio-ros ttjv ckkXtj- 

lb. 32. to pvorqpiov tovto peya 
eoriv, eya 8e Xf'ya) els TLpiorbv Kal 
[fis] TT)v eKK\ij(riav. 

xix. 7- o" faBev 6 ydpos tov 
dpviov, Kal 17 yvvij avrov -qrolpao-ev 
eavrrjv, Kal e868rj avrrj Iva nepi^aKjyrai. 
fivo-aivov Xapirpbv KaBapov to yap 
fSvaffivov Ta 8tKai(ofiaTa tg>v dyitov 

XXI. 2. Kai rrjv iroXiv rrfv dyiav 
'lepovo-akrjp, Kaair/v eiSov. . 
vrjv as vvpKpqv KeKoo-prjpevrjv rat 
av8pl avTTJs. 

W. 9- 8ei£a 0-01 ttjv vvp(prjv tt)v 
yvvaiKa toG dpviov. 

xxii. 17. Kal to irvevpa Kal ij 
vvp<pr) \eyovo-tv "Ep^ou. 



(£) The Apostles as foundation-stones of the Church. 


11. 20. enoiKodop.7]devTes iirl Tta 
BefieXla tuv a7roo"ToXo)V Kai Tcpo- 

ib. 21. iv a natra oiKo&opr) a-vvap- 
fioXoyov/iivr) av^ei els vabv dyiov iv 
Kvpia, iv a> (cm u^eis o-vvoiKobofie'io-Be 
els KaTOiKTjTijpiov tov Beov iv 


xxi. 14. Kai to Tei\os rrjs 7r6Aea>s* 
e\a>v Bep.e\iovs ScoSexa Kai in avrav 
Scobexa dvofxara T0v dwdeKa aVoerro- 
\<av roil dpviov. 

ib. IO. rrjv irbXiv t. dylav 'lepov- 
o-aKrjp.. . .t?xov<rnv rrjv bo£av tov Beov. 

lb. 22. zeal vabv ovk eibov iv avT7J t 
6 yap xvpios, 6 8 eos, 6 TravTOKpdrap, 
vabs avTrjs io-Tiv. 

xxii. 3. it. 6 Bpovos t. Beov K. T. 
dpviov iv avTij eo-Tai. 

[It has been more than once observed that there is little in common 
between St Paul's Epistle 'to the Ephesians' and the Epistle, in the 
Apocalypse, addressed 'to the Angel of the Church in Ephesus.' Regarded 
as a Pastoral, written to the Churches of the province of Asia generally, 
the Pauline Epistle may naturally be compared rather with the Seven 
Letters in the Apocalypse taken together. The following are possible 
parallelisms, suggested by such comparison.] 


(Conflict with powers of evil, 
steadfastness and victory.) 

vi. IO — 13. ivbvvafiovo-Be iv Kvpia. 
ivbva'ao'Be T. iravoifhiav r. Beov. 
aTrjvai npbs t. fieBoblas r. diajSdXov. 
OTi...tffilv r\ 7rdXij k.tX. 
tva bwrjBiJTe avruTTTjvai. 

lb. 14. 0~T7JT€ OVV K.T.A. 

ib. 15. dva\a{36vrcs tov Bvpebv t. 

ib. 18. rfjv jidxaipav tov irvev- 
paTOS, b io-Tiv pfjp-a Beov. 

Apocalypse i. — iii. 


ii. 3. K. vnou-ovf/v e^eis K. iftdoraaras 
bia to ovofid fMOv- 

ib. 5- ttjv dydnrjv crov t. Trpdrtjv 

ib. 7. TB viKavri. 

ib. IO. ylvov iriaTas a)(pi Bavd- 


ib. II. 6 vtKav. 


ib. 16. K. iroKefirjO-w p.eT avTav iv 
Tij pofi(pala tov aTofiaros fiov (cf. 

ib. 17. Tcp be viKavTi. . .ovofia Kaivbv. 

(Faithfulness and love.) 

i. I. r. ay lots rois ovo'iv \ev 'Efpeaai] 
Kai marols ev Xptoroi 'lijo-ov. 

vi. 21. 6 ayairr)TOS d&e\(pbs Kai 

JTKTTOf 8iaKOVOS €V Kvplcp. 

ib. 23. ayarrrj peril nlo-reas. 

V. 25. KaSas Kai 6 xptorbs yya- 
nrja-ev t. eKKkjjo-lav. 


ii. 19. tcl epya arov K. T. dyairrfv 
k. t. nio-nv k. t. biaKovlav k. t. 
VTTOfiovrjv <rov. 

ib. 26. 6 vutav. 


iii. 2. ov yap evfnjxd aov epya 

(The new Society and Temple 
of God.) 

ii. 1 5- iva t. diio ktIot] ev avTW els 
eva Kaivov dvBpayirov. 

ib. 19. ovpiroXlTai t. dylav k. 
oIkcIoi t. deov. 

ib. 20 f. enoiKo8op.rj6evTes K.T.X.... 
vabv dywv. 

(Eyes of the heart.) 

i. 17. Trecjxoria-fievovs tovs o(p- 
6a\u.ovs T. Kapdlas. 

(Exaltation of the Ascended Christ 
and of His own with Him.) 

ib. 20. k. Kadi&as ev het-ia avrov 
ev t. eirovpavlois. 

ii. 4 £ d 5e Bebs...ripas...fTvve- 
Ka&Mrev ev r. eirovpavlois ev JipurTa 


ib. 7. d viKtbv . . . 7roi7]<ra> avrbv 
orvXov ev tg> vaa r. 6eov p.ov. 

ib. 9. k. yvoHTiv on tjyairrj(ra tre. 

ib. 12. ypcfyiB en avrbv to ovofia 
T. 6eov p,ov k. t. ovopa rfjs iroXeas 
tow deov p,ov, t. Kaivrjs 'lepovo-aKrjfi. 


ib. 18. eyxplo-ai tovs b<p6a\fiovs 
o-ov Iva ^Xeirr/s. 

o~ai per' efiov ev rffl dpova pj>v, as 
Kayo) evUrio-a Kai eKadiaa fiera tov 
irarpbs pov ev t£> Bpbva avrov. 

(2) ' Ephesians ' and the Gospel of St John. 


St John. 

1. 12 f. ev 7-6) xpio-7-"?, *" <p Kai '• '7 - V X"P' S Kal "? d\i]6eia 81a 

vpels aKovo-avrts rbv \6yov rfjs aAij- 'hjirov Xpio-rov eyevero. 

iv. 9 f. to 8c 'Avefit] tL eo-nv el iii. 13. Kai ovSels dva^e^Kev els 

p.r) bri Kai Karefir)...; 6 Kara^as rbv ovpavbv el 6 ex tov ovpavov 

avTos e'arw Kai d a v a/3 as k.t.X. Karafias. 




V. II. K. flfl UVVKOlVWVi'iTe T. 

epyois t. ditapirois t. ctkotovs, 
fiaWov fie Kai cXe-y^re. 

ib. 13. ra fie navra e'Xe y%6p,eva 
wo toO (parbs (pavepovrai, irav 
yap to (pavepo vpevo v (pas io-riv 

(v. note ad foe). 

ib. 9. vvv fie (pms iv Kvpia. 

IV. 4j 7- cv o-dua *• «" irvevjia k.t.X. 
ivl fie eKatrra tJ/lioji/ idodj] 17 ^apiy 

Kara to perpov ttjs fiwpea? tov 

i. 6. t. xapiros avrov, ys e^aptrutrc v 
ijpas ev rffl Tjya7rrjpeva. 

V. 6. fiia Taura yap ep^erat 1; 
opyr] tov Oeov eVi rovff utouy tt/t 

a7Tf t^et'as 1 . 

ii. 5j 6. k. ovras ijpar veKpovs... 
O~VVe£<B07T0LT)O~eV ru XpiO"TG>...Kai 

iv. 4 f. ei* <rc5pa...Ka^<off...€KX77- 
6r)Te iv pia iknidi ttjs (cAiJ(rea)s 
vfiav els Kvpios, p.ia tt'kttis. 

St John. 

iii. 19. i/yajrijo-af 01 avBpairoi 
paKXov to o~kotos rj to <pas. 

ib. 20. nas yap d (pauXa wpao-aav 
lutrti to (f>ws Kai ovk epxerai irpbs 
to $<os iva p,rj iXeyxdfj to epya 
avrov- 6 fie iroiav ttjv dXr/Seiav 
ep^eTai irpbs to <pa>s, Iva (pavepoidfj 
avrov to. epya on iv Sea io-riv 

ib. 34. ov yap direareikev Beos 
ret prjuara t. Beov \a\et, ov yap ix 
perpov dldao~iv to irvevpa (cp. 

vii. 39). 

ib. 35. 6 rrarrjp dyairq rov vibv 
cat TTcaiTa didaKev if rjj X f 'P' 
auToO (cp. X. 17). 

ib. 36. d fie dweidav T& via ovk 
o-tyerai £a>iji', aXX' ij dpyi) tow #eo0 
p.evet in avrov. 

V. 21. ao-irep yap 6 jraTijp iyelpet 
Toils vexpovs Kai £a iz 1 e 1 , outo>s 
Kai o uios oxj j #e\et ^woTTOtet. 

ib. 25. epxerat. a>pa Kai pui' eo-Tii> 
6Ve 01 vtKpol aKovo~ovo-iv t. (ptovrjs 
T. viov T. Beov Kai oi aKova-avres 

X. 16. Kai aXXa 7rpd/3aTa e^m a 
ouk eo"tiv tK t^s aiJX^r TaVTJJS - KO- 
Kelva Sti pe dyayeiv, Kai ttjs (pavfjs 
p.ov okovo-ovo-iv, Kai yevijo-ovrai pi'a 
iroip.VT), els ■noip.r^v. 

xvii. 20. iva iraiTf s cv toaai. 

(3) 'Ephesians' and the Epistles of St John. 
Ephesians. 1 John. 

V. 8 f. tjtc yap itotc o-kotos, vvv i. 6. iav eiirwpev on Koivtaviav 

fie (j>as iv Kvpia- as Teaia (jjarbs 'ixopev p.(T avrov Kai iv Ttg o-kotci 

irepuraTelTe. irepiitaTapev, ■fyevbop.eBa Kai ov 

, ii/ iroiovfLCV Ttjv d\rj8nav iav fit iv 

iv. >;. a\ndevovT€s...ev ayairn. - . , - . , > 

•> 1 if Ta (p aTt irepurarafiev as avros 

tariv iv ra (pari.... 





V. 26. iva avTT]V ayiatrQ Ka0a 
pi a as t& Xovrpa. 

i. 9. iva d<pfj T)piv Tas ap.apTLas 

Kal Ka8api(TT) r\pas airo irdoijs abiKias 

(cp.V.7, to alpa'l....Ka6api£ei rjpas 
I. 7. ev w eyoaev t. airoKvTpao'iv , \ , t , \ 

. T , „ , „ , <«ro iraarr/s apaprtas). 

01a tov aiparos avrov, Tt)V a(peo-iv 

r. napairTtopaTOiv. 

iv. 25. dirodepevoi to i^cCSor 

v. 8. Teitva (paTos (v. supra). 

ib. 6. prjdels vpas anaTaTa . 

t&. 9. o Kapiros tov (payros ev irdo~ij 
dyaflao'vvr] teal biKaioavvrj *. a\i;- 

*'&. 13. Ta...?nWa...u7ro rou (payrus 

ii. 3. k. r/peOa T&Kva (pvarei opyrjs. 

ii. 21. wav yffev8os Ik tt\s akr\- 
Seias ovk eoTiv. 

hi. 2. dyamtyroi, vvv tckvo deov 
ea-pev (cp. i. 5i o #«or <£c»s eoriv). 

ib. 7 f- TeKvia, pr]8elt irXavdrat 
vpas' o iroiav diKaioo-vvrjv SiKaios 
eariv 6 iroiav r. dpapriav eK r. 
biafiokov €0~TIV. 

lb. IO. ev TOitTfo (pave pa eoriv Ta 
rexva tov deov Kal tci reKva r. 81a- 
(3o\ov Tray 6 pr) iroitav Tr)v 8tKaioo~vvrjv 
ovk %o-tiv eK tov deov. 

V. IO. boKipd^ovTes Ti eo'Tiv IV. I. boKipa^eTe Ta 7rvevpaTa el 

evdpearov r<S Kvp'ia (cp. Rom. xii. 2). eK tov deov eo-riv. 

11. 2. ev ais 7TOTe TrepieTraTT)<raTe 
Kara. t6v alava tov Kotrpov tovtov 3 
Kara tov apxpvTa T. e^ovoias r. depos, 
T. TrvevpaTos tov vvv evepyovvTos ev 
T. viols Trfs direidias. 

IV. 13. 

irpbs 1. pedobiav ttjs 

46.15. dKrjdevovres ev dydirrj. 
V. 2. TrepnraTe'iTe ev dydwrj. 

ib. 4 ff. on pel£a>v iariv 6 ev vpiv 
r) o ev Tta Koa-pco- avTol eK t. KOo~pov 

rjpe is eK tov deov eo-pev. 

yivdo-Kopev to irvevpa ttjs dXrjdeias 
K. to irvevpa rrjs 7r\dvris. 

2 John. 

V. 3. ev aXrjSela Kal dydirrj. 

V. 6. k. avTrj eariv fj dydirt) Iva 
■rrepnraTapev Kara t. evrokds ovtov- 
avTrj T) evToKij eariv...iva ev avry 

' St Paul had brought home to believers the divine majesty of 
the glorified Christ : St John laid open the unchanged majesty of 
"Jesus Christ come in the flesh".' 

(Introduction to Gospel of St John, p. xv.) 



The Incarnation and life of Christ on earth. 

ii. 15. 'having abolished the enmity. . .the law of commandments 
in ordinances... to His flesh,' i.e. under the conditions of our mortal 

The Passion. 

i. 7. 'in Whom we have our redemption through His blood 
(Sia tov al/xaroi airov).' 

ii. 13. 'were made near (eyevqOrjre cyyiis) in the blood of the 
Christ' — the reference being "to the — redemption of the Gentiles 
once for all accomplished by Christ's— Passion." 

ib. 16. 'and reconcile them... to God through the cross (81a tov 

v. 2. 'even as Christ also loved you and gave Himself up 
(irapih'wKev lavrov) for US.' 

ib. 25. 'even as Christ loved the Church and gave Himself up 
for it.' 

The Descent into Hades is probably [included in that] which is 
described in the words KaTefirj eh to. KaTwrepa rrjs yrjs (iv. 9) and 
d KdTa/Jas (v. 10) \y. notes ad loc.\ 

The Resurrection. 

i. 19, 20. 'according to the working of the might of His 
strength, which He wrought in the Christ, when He raised Him 
from the dead' (eyetpas avrbv Ik veKpwv). 

ii. 6. ' and raised us up with Him (pwqyeipcv).' 


The Ascension. 

i. 20. ' and made Him to sit at His right hand in the heavenly 

iv. 8, 10. 'When He ascended up on high (dvctjSas eh v>j/o<s)... 
Now this He ascended (to Se 'Avt/3rj)...'He that descended He 
Himself is also He that ascended far above all the Heavens.' 

The absence from the Epistle of any clear reference to the 
' Return ' is to be noted. (But cf. iv. 30 ets rjiiipav a7roAurpiuo-e<os 
and notes on i. 14; also i. 18.) 

The descent of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost as a special gift to 
the Church is implied in i. 13 f., 'in Whom ye also, having heard 
the word of the truth, the gospel of your salvation, — in Whom, 
having also believed, ye were sealed with the Spirit of promise, the 
Holy Spirit, which is an earnest of our inheritance ' \y. not. ad loo.]. 

With iv. 1 1 ' pastors (7roi/i«vas) and teachers,' the only place [in 
the N. T.] in which Troifiyv is the definite title of an office [v. not. ad 
loc] may be compared Jo. xxi. 16 'He saith unto him, Tend 
{ttoi/muvc) my sheep.' 



1 In this Epistle St Paul still dwells on the same class of truths 
as in the Epistle to the Colossians. Only whereas in the Colossians 
he combats error directly, he here combats it indirectly; whereas 
there he is special, distinct, personal, here he speaks broadly and 
generally.' (Lightfoot, Biblical Essays, p. 395.) 

' Besides this, St Paul has given to his teaching a new centre. 
In this Epistle it revolves about the doctrine of the Church. The 
same truths which in the Epistle to the Colossians are advanced to 
combat a peculiar phase of false doctrine, have here a place as 
leading up to the doctrine of the Church. Compare, for example, 
the treatment of the subject of Christ the Logos in Col. i. 1, ii. 9 
with Eph. i. 22, or of the law of ordinances in Col. ii. 14 with 
Eph. ii. 14, 15, or again the practical lessons of the relations of 
husbands and wives in Col. iii. 18, 19 with Eph. v. 25 f., 32. The 
propriety of this new centre of teaching is obvious when we remember 
that it is addressed not in a special letter to an individual Church, 
but in an encyclical to several Churches.' (id. ib.) 

The Epistle to the Ephesians ' conducts us from the two peoples 
who are so prominent in the Epistle to the Romans to the one 
people, or one man, which in that Epistle is nowhere explicitly set 
forth, though it is implied in its teachings and aspirations..., but 
now in the Epistle to the Ephesians is to be brought into clear 
prominence.' (Hort, Prolegomena, p. 179.) 

'This idea— of the unity of Christians as forming a single 
society with Christ for its invisible Head — which in different forms 
dominates the whole Epistle, was the natural outflow of the Apostle's 
mind at this time, as determined by the course of outward and 
inward history on the basis of his primary faith. It was needed 
to be set forth for the completion of his Gospel. On the other 


hand it was equally needed for the instruction of the no longer 
infant churches of Western Asia Minor.' (id. ib.) 

In reading the Epistle we all feel the grandeur of the vision, 
which it opens, of the unity of Creation. 

Experience more and more shews us that we were born to strive 
for it. It is brought ever nearer. 

St Paul enforces this truth when he tells of the ' mystery ' 
entrusted to him — the incorporation of the Gentiles in the Body of 

Having set forth the truth — unsearchable, inexhaustible, and 
extending ' unto all the ages of the ages,' he goes on to shew that it 
yet finds its application in the commonest virtues. 

'Walk worthily,' he says, 'of the calling wherewith ye are called.' 

The consummation depends on the co-operation of all to whom 
the truth has been made known. 

' There is one God and Father of all, Who is over all and through 
all and in all.' 

Here is our sufficient, and unfailing hope. 

' But to each of us ' — here is our strength and our responsibility 
— ' was given ' — not ' will be ' in the future, but ' was ' given — the 
grace which we severally need for the fulfilment of our specific 

While we keep in mind the whole, we must do our part. 

And our part is determined for us, that we may contribute to 
the great whole. 

Our grace — the Divine help accorded us — is proportional to the 
place which our part has in the great unity. 

The unity of life, of all life, nay of all being, of the seen and the 
unseen : and, specially the fellowship of man with men and of man 
with God. 

The Epistle to the the fewest words commends 
this aspect of Creation to us, and it is... of intense practical 


If we believe in the unity shewn under three different aspects in 
Eph. ii. 14 — 18, hope and confidence will return, when we look on 
the unfathomable sadnesses of life ; if we believe that for each of us 
a work is prepared which we can do, if we surrender ourselves to 
God (ii. 10), we shall be saved from the restless anxiety of 
self-chosen plans ; if we believe that all the details of ordinary life 
have a spiritual side and opportunities of service (v. 20 f. : cf. 
Col. iii. 17), we shall be enabled perhaps to preach our Gospel a 
little more effectually in life. 

[Part of the foregoing is taken from a letter, published in the 
'Life and Letters' of Bishop Westcott, vol. ii. p. 232, the rest from 
notes for an unpublished sermon.] 

' The forces of Nature, so to speak, are revealed to us as 
gathered together and crowned in man, and the diversities of men 
as gathered together and crowned in the Son of Man ; and so we 
are encouraged to look forward to the end, to a unity of which 
every imaginary unity on earth is a phantom or a symbol, when the 
will of the Father shall be accomplished and He shall sum up all 
things in Christ — all things and not simply all persons — both the 
things in the heavens and the things upon the earth (Eph. i. 10).' 
(Christus Consummator, p. 103.) 

' Men, so to speak, furnish the manifold elements through which 
(in the language of St Paul) a body of Christ (Eph. i. 23) is shaped; 
just as the world furnishes the elements through which man himself 
finds expression for his character.' (ib. p. 106.) 

' In the Epistle to the Ephesians St Paul lays open a vision of 
the spiritual origins and influences and issues of things temporal, 
and confirms the truth which lies in the bold surmise of the poet 
that earth is in some sense a shadow of heaven. 

'Now he sees in the fabric of the material Temple with its "wall 
of partition " a figure of the state of the world before the Advent, 
and then passes to the contemplation of its living antitype, built on 
the foundation of apostles and prophets with Christ for its head 

W. EPH. e 


corner-atone. Now he traces in the organisation of the natural 
body the pattern of a glorious society fitly framed together by the 
ministries of every part, and guided by the animating energy of a 
Divine Head. 

' Now he shews how through the experience of the Church on 
earth the manifold wisdom of God is made known to the heavenly 
hierarchy. Now he declares that marriage, in which the distinctive 
gifts and graces of divided humanity are brought together in 
harmonious fellowship is a sign, a sacrament in his own language, 
of that perfect union iu which the Incarnate Word takes to Himself 
His Bride, the firstfruits of creation.' (The Incarnation and Common 
Life, p. 161.) 

'The concluding appeal or peroration (vi. 10 — 20), breathing a 
very lofty and eloquent tone, contains a carefully-wrought account 
of the warfare between the Church and the powers of darkness and 
evil which brood over the world. It is to be observed that here as 
generally throughout the Apostolic writings, the imagery is borrowed 
from the poetical books of the Old Testament. Most of it may be 
found in the book of Isaiah. The warfare described is not the 
battle of the individual Christian for his own salvation, but the 
greater conflict in which Christ leads His forces against the enemy, 
the war of the Gospel against the powers which keep mankind in 
slavery. But individual Christians are the soldiers in this war, and 
the armour mentioned is such as individual Christians must put on. 

' The sentences with which the Epistle closes, — the mention and 
commendation of the messenger who was to carry it, and the usual 
benedictory prayer, — remind us that this was a bond fide pastoral 
letter, addressed to Christians, who looked up to St Paul as their 
teacher.' (Llewelyn Da vies, Introduction to the Ephesians, p. 25.) 



A. The Christian Dispensation. 

The Unity and Universality of the Church, eternal pacts 
now at last revealed (i. — iii.). 

Salutation (i. t, 2). 

I. A Hymn of Praise to God for the redemption and 
consummation of things created in Christ (i. 3 — 14). 

1. The work of the Divine love : the fulness of the Divine 
blessing realised 'in Christ' (v. 3). 

2. The bestowal of the blessing (4 — 14) 

(a) wrought out before time in the eternal order according 
to the Divine idea (4 — 6), 

(6) and realised in time in spite of man's fall (7 — 14). 

II. Thanksgiving for Faith realised : Prayer for deeper 
Knowledge : General exposition of the work of Christ for 
men (i. 15 — ii. 22). 

1. Thanksgiving for the faith of the Ephesians (i. 15, 16 a). 

2. Prayer for their fuller enlightenment (i. 16 b — 21). 

3. The work of God for men in Christ,- — overcoming personal 
disqualifications (i. 22 — ii. 10). 

4. Union of Jews and Gentiles in one Divine Body (ii. 11 — 22). 

III. The grandeur of the Eevelation made to St Paul. 
Prayer for fuller understanding in those who receive it (iii.) 

1. Revelation to St Paul of the central truth, or 'mystery,' of 
the universality of the Gospel (1 — 13). 

2. Prayer that those who receive it may be enabled to apprehend 
its lessons (14 — 19). 

Doxology (20, 21). 


B. The Cheistian Life (iv. i — vi. 20). 

1. The ground, the geowth, the chaeactee op the Cheistian 

LIFE (iv. I — 24). 

i. The correspondence of life and faith (1 — 3). 

2. The unity and harmonious growth of the Christian Society, 
that Body of which Christ is the Head (4 — 16). 

3. Contrast of the old life and the new (17 — 24) : 

(a) the old life (17 — 19), 

(b) the new life (20 — 24). 

II. The outward manifestation of the Christian Life, 
personal and social (iv. 25 — vi. 9). 

1. Special features in the Christian character (iv. 25 — v. 14) : 
truth (v. 25), control of anger (26 f.), honest labour (28), good 
language (29 f.), tenderheartedness (32), lovingkindness (v. 1 f.), as 
opposed to impure and selfish indulgence. The Christian life the 
life of a child of light (7 — 14). 

2. Cardinal social relationships (v. 15 — vi. 9). 

(a) Social conduct and temper in general (15 — 21). 

(6) Wives and husbands (22 — 33). 

(c) Children and parents (vi. 1 — 4). 

(d) Servants and masters (5 — 9). 

III. The Christian warfare (vi. 10 — 20). 


Personal message (vi. 21, 22). 
Benediction (23, 24). 

npos E^ESIOYS 

W. EPH. 


A. The unity and universality of the Church, eternal 


Salutation: i. i, 2. 

I. A Hymn of Praise to GOD for the redemption and 
consummation of things created in Christ (i. 3 — 14). 

II. Thanksgiving for faith realised : prayer for deeper 

FOR MEN (i. 15 — ii. 22). 

III. The grandeur of the revelation made to St Paul. 
Prayer for fuller understanding in those who 
receive it (iii.). 

npos E^ESIOYS 

I1AYAOC AnOCTOAOC XpurroO 'Ina-ov ha 6e\ti- 
fjLaTO<s deov rots ctyiois Tots ovaiv [iv 5 Gd>e<r<»] Kal 

I om 

.. -. i, 2. Salutation. 

1 Paul, an apostle of Christ 
Jesus through the will of God, to 
the saints which are at Ephesus and 
faithful in Christ Jesus : * Grace 
to you and peace from God our 
Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. 

i. naCXoy] In the cognate letters 
to the Colossians and Philemon, St 
Paul joins with himself 'Timothy our 
brother.' The Epistles to the Romans, 
Galatians and the Pastoral Epistles 
are written in his own name alone. 

anoa-Tokot X. 'I.] Compare Tit. i. i 
SoCXos 8fov airotrroKos 8e 'I. X. ; Phile- 
mon i Setr/jLios X. 'I. The title marks 
the writer as the accredited envoy of 
his Lord : comp. John xvii. 18. 

Sia 6t\. 6eoi] i Cor. i. i; 2 Cor. 
i. i ; Col. i. i. The thought is ex- 
panded in Gal. i. i and Rom. i. i, 5, 
which form the best commentary on 
the phrase, though the controversial 
colouring present there has no place 
here. Conscious dependence upon 
God Who had called him is the source 
and strength of St Paul's ministry. 
Self is lost in God (comp. c. ii. 10). Per 
voluntatem Dei, subauditur Patris, 
non meis meritis (Primas.). The ori- 
ginal Divine call was the foundation 
for the Apostle's separation for his 
special work : Acts xiii. 2. 

The thought finds a somewhat dif- 
ferent expression in 1 Tim. i. 1. 

iv 'Etp&y K*B67**coddvet ap Bas. 

Man's freedom lies in the acceptance 
of God's will as his will. The Apostle 
feels God's purpose for him and 
welcomes it. All he does is (in pur- 
pose) the fulfilment of the will of 

7-oIs dyi'ois...'li)cro{i] St Paul ad- 
dresses not the organised body 'the 
[local] Church' (as in writing to the 
Thessalonians and Corinthians, comp. 
Acts xx. 17; Apoc. ii. 1 &c.) or 
local 'churches' (as in writing to the 
Galatians), but ' the saints ' (as in the 
Epistles to the Romans, Philippians, 
Colossians), using the title which was 
common to all Christians. The word 
suggests the idea of a Catholic Church, 
in which 'the saints and faithful' 
scattered throughout the world were 
united. Even in this slight trait we 
can recognise the influence of the 
conception of the empire on the 
Apostle. Compare c. iii. 18. 

The clause rots ova-iv iv 'E0eVa> is 
intercalated naturally in the funda- 
mental phrase Tots aylois koi irurrois 
to the saints and faithful. The cor- 
responding enlargement in Col. i. 2 
rois iv KoXotrtrais ayiois Kal ■trurro'is 
ddf\4>ois brings out the meaning 
clearly. The words iv X. 'I. go with 
the whole sentence : ' being as you 
are in Christ Jesus': incorporated 
in Him and living by His life. The 
words are not to be taken here or in 

I — 2 


[I 2 

TTKnois iv Xptcrrto 'Iti&ou' "^ojms v/uiiv kcci eiptivrj diro 
6eou 7rarj0os q/uuSu Kal Kvp'iov 'lt]<rov XpurTou. 

I Cor. iv. 17 with niaror. Comp. c. vi. 
21 ; and Addit. Note on iv Xpurrw. 

For the sense of ayios see 1 John 
ii. 20 and for the absolute use of 
■m-ioToy see Acts x. 45 ; 1 Tim. iv. 3, 
J2 ; v. 16; vi. 2; Tit. i. 6. 

The three characteristics saints, 
faithful, in Christ Jesus, give a 
complete and harmonious view of 
those to whom St Paul writes. He 
addresses men who are consecrated 
to God in a Divine Society {saints), 
who are inspired by a personal devo- 
tion towards Him (faithful), who are 
in Him in Whom the Church finds its 
unity and life (c. iv. 1 6). Thus the order 
saints, faithful, is seen to be perfectly 
natural. The two thoughts are com- 
plementary : God's will, man's answer. 
So the thought of the social consecra- 
tion to God precedes the thought of 
the continuous individual faith by 
which the members of the body keep 
their place in it. 

The word ma-Toit may mean either 
(1) 'trustworthy,' or (2) 'believing.' 
The rendering ' faithful ' contains ele- 
ments of both and best represents the 
meaning here. 

The fundamental idea of ayms is 
consecration to God. Consecration to 
God implies either in purpose or in 
attainment conformity to His will. 

The word is found of Christians in 
Acts xxvi. 10 (St Paul) ; in all St Paul's 
Epistles except that to the Galatians ; 
in Hebrews, Jude, Apocalypse ; but 
it is not found in the Epistles of 
St James, St Peter and St John. 

2. x"P ls Kal e VV v 'l] The uniform 
salutation of St Paul in his Epistles 
to Churches. The words of common 
•courtesy become words of solemn 
blessing. Christ Himself blesses 
through the believer. 

For flprfvr) see Phil. iv. 7 ; John xiv. 
.27; Col. iii. 15. 

anb 6eov irarpos rjp,av. ..] The tjh&v 
is omitted in the salutations 2 Thess. 

i. 2 ; 1 Tim. i. 2 ; 2 Tim. i. 2 ; Tit. i. 4 ; 
and in the corresponding phrase e. vi. 
23. For the different shade of thought 
compare the use of o jrarijp and o 
irarijp p.ov in St John. (Addit. Note 
on 1 John i. 2.) 

Kal k. 'I. X.] The Lord Jesus Christ 
is united with the Father in all the 
salutations of St Paul The language 
in 1 Thess. i. 1, 2 Thess. i. 1 — 2 and 
Tit. i. 4 is specially worthy of notice. 

Primasius adds justly : cum ab 
utroque gratia optatur, unum (c v John 
x. 30) esse monstrantur. 

I. A Hymn op Praise to GOD for 



The whole passage is a Psalm of 
praise for the redemption and con- 
summation of created things, fulfilled 
in Christ through the Spirit according 
to the eternal purpose of God. 

This fulfilment is contemplated 
specially in the relation of believers 
to Christ, chosen in Him, redeemed, 
enlightened, sealed. 

That which has been done already 
is the pledge of that which shall be. 

The general sequence of thought is 
clear. The work of the Divine love is 
summarily characterised in v. 3 ; and 
then it is analysed in detail, as it was 
wrought beyond time in the eternal 
order (vv. 4 — 6), and then historically 
realised in time in the experience of 
believers, both Jews and Gentiles 
(vv. 7—14)- 

From first to last the fulness of the 
Divine blessing is shewn to be realised 
'in Christ' (v. 3). 

In Him God chose us (». 4). 

In the Beloved He graced us (v. 6). 

In Him we have our redemption 
(v. 7) ; even as God purposed in Him 
to sum up all things in the Christ 
(v. 10). 

In Him the faithful of Israel were 
made a Divine heritage (v. 11). 


3 €.vAoyriTOS 6 deos Kal Trarrip tov Kvpiov y/uaiv 
In Him the Gentiles found a place arranged according to the succession 

t rr- i. of the Princip* 1 clauses ; and at the 

In Him they were sealed by the same time some obscurities of con- 
Spirit (v. 13), the pledge of a larger struction will be removed when atten- 

S? ^ l 4 \ tion is fixed on the dominant finite 

Ihe rhythmical structure of the verbs (as in Phil. ii. 6— n). 
passage will be apparent, if it is 

3 EuXoyijros 6 6ebs Kal narr)p rot Kvpiov r}pav 'ir/irov Xpiorov, 

o ev\oyt](ras rjpas iv irao-Q evXoyia irvevpariKrj 
iv rots eirovpavlots 
iv XptoTai, 

4 Ka6cos i£e\e£aro rjpas iv avra irpb KaTafioXijs Kotr/iov, 

eivai rjpas aylovs Kal apdpovs Karevnijriov avrov iv ayairr/, 

5 vpoopiaas r]pas els vlo8eo-iav 81a 'Irjo-ov Xpurrov els avrov, 

Kara. rr)v evSoxiav rov 6e\rjparos avrov, 
o els eiraivov {S6£rjs rrjs xapiros avrov 

rjs ixapirao-ev rjpas iv r& rjyamjpeva, 

7 e v a> ej(ouev rrjv airo'kvTpaaiv bib. rov atparos avrov, 

rtiv a<peaiv rav wapairrauarov, 
Kara ro ir\ovros rrjs x°P lTOS avrov 

8 171 iirepiaaevaev els rjpas iv itaarj <ro<£ia Kal (ppovrjaei 

9 yvaplaas rjpiv rb pvarrjpiov rov 6e\rjparos avrov, 

Kara rrjv evboKtav avrov rjv irpoeBero iv avrca 

10 els oiKovoplav tou irXrjpdparos rav Kaipav, 
avaKe(pa\aitoo-ao~6at ra. iravra iv t<5 xpi<rra>, 

ra eirl rots ovpavois Kal 
ra eVl rrjs yrjs' 

1 1 iv aura), iv a Kal (Kkripddrjpev 


Kara irpodeaiv rov ra irdvra ivepyovvros 
Kara rrjv (Sov\r)v rov 6e\rjparos avrov, 

12 els ro eivai rjpas els eiraivov bo^rjs avrov 

robs TtporjKm.Koras i v ra xptora ' 

13 iv a Kal vpeis aKovo-avres rbv \6yov rrjs d\t]6eias, 

rb evayyeXiov rrjs aatrrjpias vpwv, 
iv a Kal iriorevo-avres, io-<ppayio-6t)re ra irvevpari r. iirayye\ias r. ayia, 

14 o iariv dppajlav rrjs Kkrjpovopias rjp&v, 

els diroXvrpaaiv rrjs irepmoirjo'etas, 
els eiraivov rrjs bo^rjs avrov. 

(1) The work of the divine love: EuXoy....'I. X.] The whole phrase 

the blessing of Him Who blessed (v. 3). is found again in 1 Pet. i. 3, in thanks- 

Blessed be the Goo and Father of giving for the gift of new birth, to- 

our Lord Jesus Christ, Who blessed gether with the prospect of an eternal 

us in all spiritual blessing in the inheritance ; and in 2 Cor. i. 3 in 

heavenly order in Christ. thanksgiving for effective consolation 

3. The verse is man's adoring re- in distress, 

sponse to God for the manifestation The word ev\oyrjr6s expresses the 

of His love. claim to be blessed as of right. In 


'lri(rov Xpiarrov, 6 evXoy^a-as jj/xas ev iracrr} evXoyia 

this respect it stands in contrast with 
cvKoyrjuevos, which is used of a person 
who has been visited with blessing 
(Lk. i. (28), 42 [contrast i. 68]; xiii. 35 ; 
xix. 38, &c; in John xii. 13 D, reads 
eiiXoyjyros). The distinction is recog- 
nised by Philo de rnigr. Apr. 19. 
EuXoyjjj-ot is used in the N. T. of God 
only eight times (St Mk xiv. 61 6 
vibs rov evKoyrjrov, St Lk., St Paul, 
1 Pet.). In the lxx. it is used of 
men, but not absolutely (Gen. xxvi. 29 
i57ro Kvplov; Deut. vii. 14; Ruth ii. 20; 
1 Sam. xv. 13, &c). 

Compare Ezra Abbot, Essays p. 410; 
Hort on 1 Pet. i. 3. 

It is uncertain whether elrj or ea-riv 
is to be supplied with .eiXoyrjTos — : 
whether the phrase is a wish or an 
afBrmation. The other instances in 
the N. T. give no clear decision. The 
examples in 2 Cor. i. 3 and 1 Pet. i. 3 
are exactly parallel. Luke i. 68 sug- 
gests 'be' by the following on. Rom. 
ix. 5 is uncertain. The affirmative 
sense is definitely expressed in Rom. 
i. 25 (or co-tiv e£\.), and 2 Cor. xi. 31 
(d av ev\.). On the whole the render- 
ing Blessed be... seems to be the most 
natural. V. L. benedictus est. 

6 6ebs leal irarifp t. k. ij'fi. 'I. X.] Both 
titles may be taken with the genitive : 
'the God and Father of our Lord 
Jesus Christ.' He Who is 'our Gob 
and Father ' is also ' the God and the 
Father 1 of the Lord: John xx. 17 
jrpos tow rrarepa pov Kal rrarepa vpav 
Km deov fiov Kal 6tbv Vfiav. The title 

'the God of our Lord Jesus Christ' 
occurs v. 17 (compare Heb. i. 9 ; 
Matt, xxvii. 46); but 'the Father of 
our Lord Jesus Christ' in c. iii. 14 is 
a false reading. 

On the other hand the correspond- 
ing phrase in Col. i. 3 t<£ deco warpl 
rov k. 17. 'I. X. is unambiguous — God 
the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ; 
and the words here can be understood 
in this sense : God Who is also lather 
Of our Lord Jesus Christ. In this 

case the article is taken with the 
whole compound phrase 6ebs Kal 
n. t. k. 'I. X. : ' He Who is God and 
is further revealed as Father of our 
Lord Jesus Christ.' 

There is the same ambiguity in the 
other places where the phrase occurs : 
2 Cor. i. 3 ; xi. 31 ; Rom. xv. 6 ; 1 Pet. 
i. 3. But in Apod i. 6 Tia 6e(f Kal 
irarpl avrov (i.e. "I. X.); I Cor. xv. 24 
orav wapa8i8(p Trp> ftacr. Tffl 8fZ Kai 

irarpi the sense appears to be clear. 

d ev\oyij<Tas...J Who blessed..., 
not 'who blesses' or 'who will bless.' 
The work of God for us is potentially 
complete. Probably the time to which 
St Paul looks is the call of each be- 
liever when he was made partaker of 
the truth of the Incarnation. 

The divine blessing is regarded 
under three co-ordinate aspects (ev, 
ev, iv) : ev jr. evXoyla, the atmosphere, 
as it were, by which it encompasses 
us ; ev tois inovpavlois, the order in 
which it is realised ; ev Xpicrra, the 
living Person in Whom it is centred. 
A true personal sense of this blessing, 
which is a matter of experience and 
not of testimony, gives the right inter- 
pretation of life and duty and service. 

For the use of the aorist in regard 

to the Divine work of redemption in 

different relations, compare v. 4 f |eXc- 

|aro, V. 5 irpoopio-as, V. 6 exapiTioirev. 

'2 Tim. i. 9; Tit. iii. 5. 

ij/*ay] St Paul unites himself in 
this respect with his fellow-believers ; 
compare 1 John ii. 1 f. note. He 
assumes that his own experience is 
theirs. He is not teaching a new 
truth, but reminding them of one 
with which they were familiar. The 
repetition of ij^cis throughout this 
section is to be noticed. Elsewhere 
the passage from the general thought 
of Christian privileges to the special 
grace shewn to the Gentiles is most 
suggestive: vv. 12, 13; cc. i. 18 — 20; 
iii. 8 — 10; iv. 1, 7, 13, 20; vi. 11 — 20. 

ev iraaji ev\. nr.] in all 

I 3] 


blessing, in spiritual blessing of every 
form (». 8 iv irao-r] <ro<pia ; iv. 2 fiera 
iraarjs Tairetvgcfrpoo-vvqs note), blessing, 

that is, which quickens and finds its 
place in our highest life. All human 
powers can be spiritually affected. 
Compare i Cor. i. 30; Col. ii. 9f. 
'Spiritual' is opposed to that which is 
earthly and sensuous (1 Cor. xv. 44 ff.) 
in its source and form and object; 
compare 1 Pet. ii. 5. With this ex- 
ception the word TrvevpariKos is found 
(more than twenty times) only in St 
Paul's Epistles. The temporal bless- 
ings of the Old Covenant are con- 
trasted by implication with the spirit- 
ual blessings of the New. 

iv rols iirovpavlois] Vg. in caeles- 
tibw, in the heavenly order. The 
phrase (ra iirovpavia), as it is here 
used, is peculiar to this Epistle (not in 
Colossians). It describes the supra- 
mundane, supra-sensual, eternal order, 
or, as we should say, generally 'the 
spiritual world,' which is perceived 
by thought and not by sight (2 Cor. 
iv. 18). This is not distant or future 
but present, the scene even now of 
the Christian's struggle (c. vi. 12), 
where (for we are forced by the 
limitation of our minds to localise 
the conception) his life is already 
centred (PhiL iii. 20 foav to Tt6Kirevp.a 
iv oipavois vnapxei; comp. a ii. 19), 
and his strength is assured to him, 
and his triumph is already realised 
(cc. i. 20 ; ii. 6). Nay, even more, the 
work of the Church is to make known 
in this region of a higher life the 
facts of the Lord's Coming (c. iii. 10). 
Comp. Orig. Spa el bvvarai to iv to'ls 
iirovpavioK eivai dvrl tov iv rots votjtok 
koI e£a> alo-dr\ae<av. 

Elsewhere the adj. inovpavws is 
used for that which belongs to the 
spiritual world : John iii. 12 (of 
heavenly truths) ; Heb. viii. 5 note ; 
ix. 23 (of the heavenly archetypes of 
the Levitical institutions) ; 2 Tim. 
iv. 18 (the heavenly kingdom); Phil, 
ii. 10 (as contrasted with iwiyeios and 
KaraxOovws). Compare also 1 Cor. 
xv. 48 f., where this word is applied 

to Christ as the 'spiritual,' 'supra- 
mundane' man. 

iv XpifTTa] In virtue of our union 
with Him, 'in Whom are all the 
treasures of knowledge and wisdom 
hidden' (Col. ii. 3), of which we 
potentially become partakers. See 
v. 1 and additional note. 

Observe the continual reiteration of 
the thought throughout this section : 
4 iv avra ; 6 iv ra TjyairqpMvtp ; "] iv a; 
9 iv avra ; 10 iv ra Xpurra ; 1 1 iv 
avra; iv tp ; (12 iv t&> XptoriS;) 13 iv 
<b, iv a. Contrast 81a 'I. X. v. 5. 

The blessing which God has be- 
stowed upon us is, to sum what has 
been said, spiritual in its essence, 
spiritual in the sphere of its action, 
spiritual in its personal realisation. 
Compare Col. iii. 1 — 4. The life of the 
Christian is ideally lived 'in Christ,' 
' in the heavenly order.' Contrast the 
blessing 'in Christ' with the blessing 
' in Abraham ' (Gen. xii. 3). 

The repetition of the cognate forms 
cvXoyrjTos, ev\oyij<ras, evkoylq, though 
in somewhat different senses, for God 
blesses in deed and we in word, is 
characteristic of St Paul. Compare 
2 Cor. v. 18 ff. So below v. 6 rrjs 
Xapvros..,T)s ixapiraxrev rjfias. 

(2) The bestowal of the blessing 
(4 — 14) (a) wrought out before time 
in the eternal order, according to the 
Divine idea (4 — 6), (6) and realised 
in time, in spite of man's fall (7 — 
I4 ). 

The blessing described generally in 
v. 3 is now regarded in the details of 
its bestowal. In describing these, the 
Apostle brings into sight the work 
of each person of the Holy Trinity : 
of the Father in the eternal purpose 
of His love {vv. 4 — 6) ; of the Son in 
His Incarnation (»». 7 — 12) ; of the 
Holy Spirit in giving now to each 
believer the earnest of His inheritance 
(»». 13, 14). Compare 1 Cor. xii. 4 — 6. 

The form of the whole section is, 
as has been already said, that of a 
lyrical doxology ; and the close of each 
division is marked by the solemn 
burden, found only here, which de- 



irvevfiaTiicfi ev toTs errovpaviois ev XpurTw, *kci6(ijs e£e- 
Xe^aro rjfias ev avTW trpo KaTafioAfjs k6<t[aov, eivai tj/uas 

clares that the several aspects and 
stages of Redemption are unto the 
praise of the glory of God (vv. 6, 

12, 14). 

(a) The blessing wrought out before 
time in the eternal order according to 
the Divine idea (vv. 4 — 6). 

In this work we notice : 
an election to holiness (v. 4), 
resting on predestination to son- 
ship (v. 5), 
followed by the gift of God's grace 
whereby we are made meet 
for His presence (v. 6). 

* Even as He chose us in Him before 
the foundation of the world, that we 
should be holy and without blemish 
before Him in love; s having fore- 
ordained us unto adoption as sons 
through Jesus Christ unto Himself, 
according to the good pleasure of His 
will, 6 to the praise of the glory of 
His grace, which He freely bestowed 
on us in the Beloved. 

4. KaSms...] The several points 
which follow display the mode and 
the measure of the blessing with 
which God has blessed us. The 
historical fulfilment in time corre- 
sponds with the eternal Divine will. 
St Paul piles up phrase on phrase 
to shew that all is of God's timeless 

i |eXe|aro] He chose us (i.e. Chris- 
tians as a body v. 3) for Himself out 
of the world. The word (Kkiy«r@ai 
is found in the Epistles only in 1 Cor. 
i. 27, 28 and James ii. 5 in addition 
to this place. The theological sense 
of the word is seen most clearly in 
the words of the Lord recorded by 
St John: vi. 70; xiii. 18; xv. 16 — 19. 
(Compare Mk xiii. 20; Acts xiii. 17.) 
The derivatives ^kXcktos (Synoptists, 
St Paul, 1 Peter, 2 John, Apoc.) and 
«Aoyr; (Acts, St Paul, 2 Pet.) must be 
considered with iK\i£ao-8ai. The 
middle voice emphasises in all the 
places, where eicKeljao-Bcu is used in the 

N. T, the relation of the person 
chosen to the special purpose of him 
who chooses. The 'chosen' are re- 
garded not as they stand to others 
who are not chosen, but as they stand 
to the counsel of God Who works 
through them. Compare Lightfoot, 
Col. iii. 12. The ixKoyij, like the e«c- 
kKjio-Io, is preparatory to a wider work 
(vv. 10, 14). 

npb kot. k.] Vg. ante mundi con- 
stitutionem, before the foundation of 
the world. As the thought of 'the 
heavenly order,' the scene of the 
Christian's life, lifts us above the 
limits of space, so the origin of his 
life is placed beyond the limits of 
time. The members of Christ are 
placed in an eternal relation to Christ 
their Head. The same phrase (npb 
kot. k.) is used of the love of the 
Father for His Son, John xvii. 24, 
and of the work of Redemption in 
the Son (1 Pet. i. 20). Compare also 
I Cor. ii. 7 itpb rav aliivav, 2 Tim. i. 9 
itp'o xP° va>v aiiaviiov || Tit. i. 2. The 
Jewish Covenant was from Abraham, 
late in time: the Christian Covenant 
was before all time : compare John 
viii. 56 S. Contrast with trpb kot. k. 
the corresponding phrase mrb kot. k, 
from the foundation of the world, 
since time began : Matt. xxv. 34 ; 
Lk. xi. 50; Heb. iv. 3; ix. 26; Apoc. 
xiii. 8; xvii. 8. Comp. Rom. xvi. 25 
(xpovots alaviois). A like difference 
lies between iv dpxfi John i. 1 f. and 
an apx^s i John i. 1. 

For Km-a^oKij see 2 Mace. ii. 29. It 
is not used elsewhere in lxx. Kara- 
fiaWtiv, fiaWeadat and KOTa^oXiJ are 
used rarely in classical writers of 
'foundation,' literal or metaphorical. 

fiwu >j/uas...] that we should be 
holy (as devoted to Him) and with- 
out blemish (as acceptable offerings) 
before Him, in whose sight no evil 
can stand. For Syiot see v. 1. "ApM- 
p.os is properly 'blameless' morally 



ayiovs Kai a/xw'juous KaTevwiriov avrov iv dyct7rri, s irpo- 
opio-as >}//as ek vlodecriav Bid 'lycrou XpurTov ets civtov, 

5 X/hotoB 'IijffoO B ; text eodd rel Or. 

but in the lxx. it came to be used for 
victims which were 'without blemish,' 
and this sense prevails here, and in 
i Pet. i. 19 ; Heb. ix. 14. The addi- 
tion of aveyitXfiTovs in the parallel 
passage of the Colossians (i. 22) gives 
a moral colour to the word there, 
and this meaning is dominant in Jude 
24 and Apoc. xiv. 5. The combination 

aytm Kai a/iaipoi (comp. C. V. 27) gives 

the fulness of the conception posi- 
tively and negatively. Chrysostom 
expresses another aspect of the com- 
bination : ayws eo-nv 6 rfjs Trioreats 
/ierextov, afia/ios 6 aveiriKrfirrov /3/ov 

For the thought compare 2 Tim. i. 9. 

The use of the simple infinitive 
(e'rat) as distinguished from els to 
ehai (v. 12) marks the purpose as 
potentially realised and not simply as 
aimed at. So far as Christians are 'in 
Christ,' living in Him and He in them 
— and so far only do they live — they 
are 'holy and blameless' (Gal. ii. 20; 
1 John iv. 16). In capite omnia 
membra benedixit et elegit, ut nos 
faceret sanctos et immaculatos ; non 
quia futuri eramus sed ut essemus 

Karevdiriov avrov] before Him, in 
His sight before Whom every fault is 
patent (Heb. iv. 13). There appears 
to be a reference to the appointed 
inspector of victims, the p.ap.oo-Konos: 
comp. Philo i. 320; Clem. Alex. Strom. 
iv. 18 § 117. 

iv aydjrrj] These words may be 
taken either with what follows or 
with what precedes. But the con- 
nexion with npooplo-as, having in 
love foreordained us, is against the 
rhythm ; and the qualification of the 
participle generally follows (c. iv. 2, 
15, 16 ; c. iii. 1 7. is doubtful, see note ; 
CoL ii. 2 ; cf. c. v. 2, 1 Thess. v. 13). If 
then they are joined with what pre- 

cedes (so Vg. in carilate qua praed.), 
as seems on the whole to be best, 
they complete the description of the 
Christian character. As Christians 
are 'holy and blameless' towards Gob, 
so do they bear themselves one toward 
another 'in love' (1 Cor. xvi. 14) which 
they have appropriated as God's great 
gift: 1 John iii. 1. Compare ce. iii. 17; 
iv. 1 5 f. ; v. 2. 

A special reference to the love of 
God, which is indeed the spring of 
human love (1 John iv. 10 f.) does not 
appear to be called for here. The 
actions described are a manifestation 
of it. 

5. TTpoopl<Tai...cls avrov] For jrpo- 
opifeiv compare v. 11; Acts iv. 28 ; 
1 Cor. ii. 7 ; Rom. viii. 29 f. The 
'choice' of God (0. 4) rested on the 
fact that He had 'foreordained us 
unto adoption as sons.' For vlo6eo-ia 
compare GaL iv. 5 ; Rom. viii. 15, 23 ; 
ix. 4. This new relation expresses 
the special position of Christians. 
Yids, as distinguished from riitvov (c. 
v. 1), suggests the idea of privilege 
and not of nature. Comp. note on 
1 John iii. 1. That which was in type 
the privilege of Israel was prepared in 
spiritual fulness for believers. God 
not only chose us in Christ — He might 
have chosen us as His servants — but 
He also destined for us through Christ 
the right of sonship, bringing us into 
fellowship with Himself (els avrov) ; 
and this not in regard to our merits, 
but according to the good pleasure 
of His will, which is absolute and yet 
not arbitrary. His will is directed (as 
we apprehend it) to the accomplish- 
ment of the highest good (Rom. xii. 2 ; 
Hebr. x. 7 fif. ; Apoc. iv. 1 1 rja-av). 

Out of the privilege of 'sons' grows 
the character of sons. In the fullest 
sense therefore the realization of the 
adoption is still future : Rom. viii. 23. 




KctTa ty\v euZoKiav tou 6e\rnxa.TO<2 avTOu, 6 ets kiraivov 

The use of ftia 'Iijo-oC Xpurrov (as' 
contrasted with ev Xptorai) is signi- 
ficant. The 'many sons' (Hebr. ii. 10) 
are regarded in their personality and 
not as incorporated in their Lord. 
Under this aspect their life comes 
'through Him,' and they are brought 
personally to God (tJs avrov). The 
phrase does not occur again in the 
Epistle (c. iii. 9 is a false reading). 

For els avrov in a wider sense com- 
pare Rom. xi. 36; Col. i. 20; and, as 
applied to the Son, Col. i. 16. 

xara tjjv (v8ok. t. 8. at).] Vg. secun- 
dum propositum (placitum : Hier. 
beneplacitum) voluntatis suae. Com- 
pare V. 9 to pvarqpwv tou 0c\. avrov 
and v. II rfjv fiovX^v tov 6eX. avrov. 
These phrases stand by themselves, 
and encourage us to see God's will as 
the expression of His gracious purpose, 
disclosed to us in the Incarnation, and 
carried to its issue ttoX vp.fpms kcu ttoXv- 
rporras in what we with our limited 
faculties regard as a plan. 

Origen notices that evdoKia is strange 
to classical Greek. It occurs not un- 
frequently in the lxx. (Pss., Ecclus.). 

6. eis «r. 8. t. x- <*"•] The adop- 
tion of men as sons of God leads to 
the praise of the glory of His grace. 
The grace of God is, as is explained 
in the next clause, the free and boun- 
teous goodness with which He has 
visited us in His Son. The glory of 
this grace is the manifestation of its 
power as men are enabled to perceive 
it. Each fresh manifestation calls out 
a fresh acknowledgment of its sur- 
passing excellence. Christians there- 
fore in whom it is effective are set to 
reveal the perfections of Christ — the 
Son made known in the many sons — 
and by revealing them, to call out the 
thankful adoration of men. Compare 
Phil. i. 11. 

For T?)y x"P lT °s compare v. 7 to 
jtXoOtos ttjs x°P'tos avrov, c. ii. 7 ro 
imtpfiakXov ttXovtos r. x a P- avrov. So 

St Paul reckons his own apostolic 
commission (ij x°P ls c - ">• 2 > 7> 8) an d 
the endowment of each Christian (7; 
xapis c. iv. 7) as God's bounteous gift. 
qs exapiraaev jjfi.] Latt. in qua 
gratificavit nos. Wherewith He 
highly favoured us, which He freely 
bestowed upon us. For rjs see c. iv. 1 ; 
2 Cor. i. 4. It may represent tjv {x*P lv 
xapirovv) or 5, though the attraction 
of the dative is very much rarer. See 
v. 8. Xapirovv is to affect with x°P ls t 
which may be taken either subjectively 
'to endue with grace,' 'to make gra- 
cious,' or objectively 'to visit with 
grace,' 'to treat graciously.' The 
former sense is found in Ecclus. xviii. 1 7 
Trapa dvdpi Kf^apiTca/itVo) and Ps. xvii. 
(xviii.) 26 Symm. pcra toO K^xapira- 

pthov xop'™^ ^! an( i is given by 
Chrysostom here : ov p.6vov dp.apn)p.arav 
dirijXXa£ev d\Xa kcu iwepdarovs iirol- 
rjo-ev. But it appears to be contrary to 
the context which dwells on the great- 
ness of God's gift. Nor does St Paid 
use xap ls °f human grace, not c. iv. 29, 
nor Col. iv. 6 (yet see Lightfoot 1. a). 
On Kexapirafiivt) in Lk. i. 28 Bengel 
remarks truly : non ut mater gratiae 
sed ut filia gratiae appellatur. 

At the same time the working of 
God's gracious gift by incorporating 
the believer in Christ makes him 
capable and meet for the presence 
of God. 

iv t(5 ijyan-.] Latt. in dilecto jilio 
sua: in the beloved. There is the 
same ambiguity in this translation as 
in blessed (v. 3). Two forms are thus 
rendered, the verbal dyartrjrds (an- 
swering to ev\oyt]Tos) claiming love by 
its very nature ; and Tfyamj^eW, which 
(like euXoyijfieVos) suggests in every 
case some special manifestation of 
love. 'Ayajnjros is used of Christ by 
the heavenly Voice : Matt. iii. 17 (Mk 
i. 11; Lk. iii. 22) ; Matt xvii. 5 
(2 Pet. i. 17 ; Mk ix. 7 ; not Lk. 
ix. 35) ; and it is used of men fre- 

I 7] 



rpycnrtifxevip, 7 eV a> 'i-)(Ofxev Trjv dwoXuTpaxriv Stcc tov 

quently. This is the only place in 
which qyawripevos is used of Christ in 
the N. T., and it is evident that stress 
is laid upon the manifestation of God's 
love to His Son which He had even 
then made in His exaltation to heaven. 
This was itself the pledge of man's 
exaltation (c. ii. 6). For this reason a 
unique title is used in place of iv 
Xptorffl. 'Hyammevos is used of men 
i Thess. i. 4 ; 2 Thess. ii. 13 (lxx.) ; 
Rom. ix. 25 (lxx.) ; Col. iii. 12 ; and 
of Christ in Bam. ep. iii. 6 (with 
the note of Gebhardt and Hamack) ; 
iv. 3 (8). 

(6) The blessing realised in time 
in spite of man's fall (vv. 7 — 14). 

So far the Apostle has described 
the eternal purpose and work of the 
Father, for with Him purpose and 
work are one. He now passes on to 
the historical fulfilment of the Divine 
counsel after sin entered the world, and 
shows that the redemption wrought by 
Christ through His blood (v. 7) has 
been made known in its universal 
power (8 — 10), for which glorious con- 
summation Israel had been prepared 
by a long discipline (11, 12) and in 
which the Gentiles by faith had found 
a place (13), receiving the Holy Spirit, 
the pledge of the final victory of God 


7 In Whom we have our redemp- 
tion through His blood, the forgive- 
ness of our trespasses, according to 
the riches of His grace * which He 
made to abound toward us in all 
wisdom and prudence, ^having made 
known unto us the mystery of His 
will, according to His good pleasure, 
which He purposed in Him "unto a 
dispensation of the fulness of the 
seasons, to sum up all things in the 
Christ, tlie things in the heavens and 
the things upon the earth ; in Him, 
I say, "in Whom we were also made 
God's portion, having been foreor- 
dained according to the purpose of 
Him, Who worketh all things after 

the counsel of His will, "to the end 
that we should be to the praise of His 
glory, we who had before hoped in 
Christ; * 3 in Whom ye also are, 
having heard the word of the truth, 
the gospel of your salvation, in 
Whom, having also believed, ye were 
sealed with the Holy Spirit of pro- 
mise u which is an earnest of our 
inheritance, unto the redemption of 
God's own possession, unto the praise 
of His glory. 

7. The great counsel of God, which 
was interrupted by man's sin, was ac- 
complished by the redemptive work 
of Christ. 

iv w. ..irapinrTapaTuv] In Whom, 

as incorporated with Him and made 
members of His Body (Rom. iii. 24 
tt/s diroXvTpdtrcas rrjs iv X. 'I.), we 
have and enjoy (c. ii. 18 ; Rom. v. 1) 
redemption, or, more emphatically, our 
redemption — the redemption which is 
the outcome of our Christian faith — 
through His blood, even the forgive- 
ness of our trespasses. Men as sinners 
are represented under a twofold as- 
pect. They are captives at once and 
debtors : captives to the devil from 
whom they are ransomed ; debtors to 
God Who remits what they owe to 
Him. For cmoKiirpaais compare Ad- 
dit. Note on Hebr. ix. 12. 

81a tov alp. o,vt.~\ On the meaning of 
'blood' as essentially distinct from 
' death,' see Notes on 1 John i. 7. It 
may be observed that davaros, cmo- 
Baveiv (common elsewhere : Col. i. 22 ; 
ii. 20 ; iii. 3) do not occur in the 

The various constructions under 
which 'the blood' of Christ is pre- 
sented in relation to the redemption 
and salvation of men should be care- 
fully studied. We have 

(1) 8ta c. gen., through, by means of. 
Acts xx. 28 ; Eph. i. 7 ; Hebr.ix. 12. 

(2) 8id c. ace, by reason of. 
Apoc. xii. 11. 

(3) iv in, implying a living con- 
nexion of the believer with the source 




ai/xaros avTOV, rrjv a<pe<riv tu>v 7rapg.7rTUifi.dTwv, kcito. 
to 7r\ovTO<5 Ttjs ^aoiTOS avTOV 8 »js ewepicrtrevcrev ets 

of life, the life, as it were, encompass- 
ing him. 

Rom. v. 9 ; Eph. ii. 13 ; Hebr. 
x. 19 ; Apoc. i. 5 ; v. 9 ; vii. 14. 

Compare Rom. iii. 2551 Cor. xi. 25 ; 
Hebr. ix. 22, 25 ; xiii. 20. 

(4) simple dat. of the instrument 
1 Pet. i. 19. 

Aia and iv are used in the same 
context : 1 John v. 6 note. 

tt)v a(f>. t. wap.] the forgiveness of 
our trespasses. 

The exact phrase does not occur 
elsewhere. In the parallel, Col. i. 14, 
the commoner phrase tt)v a<peatv t&v 
apapriav is used, which recurs ten 
times in the Synoptists and the Acts, 
but not again in the Epistles. The 
original of the expression (afpihai 
irapcmT.) is found in Matt. vi. I4ff. ; 
Mk xi. 25f. The difference between 
' trespass ' and ' sin ' seems to be, that 
' trespass ' brings out the idea of the 
violation of a definite law, while ' sin ' 
expresses the essential estrangement 
from God implied in the act whereby 
man misses his true end. Compare 
Eom. v. 12 — 21, where the proper 
meaning of the two words can be 
seen plainly. The parallel of ' forgive- 
ness of trespasses ' with ' redemption ' 
lies in the fact that through forgive- 
ness man is placed in his true relation 
to God : he has ' received the atone- 
ment' (Rom. v. n), and is 'atoned' 
to Him. The past with its results is 
that which holds us in bondage. The 
removal of these bands brings free- 
dom. It is not unlikely that some 
false interpretation of ' redemption ' 
as a deliverance from the fetters of 
physical law caused the Apostle to 
emphasise its moral nature. Comp. 
Lightfoot on Col. i. 14. 

Kara to 7rX. t. x- av.] This character- 
istic form of expression is peculiar to 
St Paul : 2 Cor. viii. 2 ; Rom. ii. 4 ; 
ix. 23; Phil. iv. 19; Col. i. 27; ii. 2; 
and below v. 18; cc. ii. 7; iii. 16. 

8 — 10. This revelation of His grace 
God has made known to us in its 
immeasurable issues. 

8. ^s £itep....(ppovqo-ci] Latt. quae 
superabundant in nobis, which 
(grace) He made to abound toward 
us in all wisdom and prudence.... 
The rhythm of the sentence deter- 
mines that the words iv ir. o-otp. ko.1 
tppov.axe to be joined with iircplo-oevo-tv 
and not with yvapio-as. The parallel 
phrase in Col. i. 9 Iva irXrjpadrJTe 7-171/ 
iirlyvtaaiv tov 8ekr}p.a.Tos avrov seems 

to be no less decisive for the interpre- 
tation of jr. o-o(f>ia xa\ (ppovqaei as de- 
scribing the manner in which the grace 
of God was manifested in those on 
whom it was bestowed. The applica- 
tion of 'wisdom and prudence' to God 
in Prov. iii. 19 (lxx.) and the use of 
TroXu^oiKiXor o-o(j>la in c. iii. 10 does 
not justify the reference of nao-a o-o(f>. 
koX <j>pov. to God here. On the other 
hand the fact that His grace issued in 
such gifts to men implies that they 
found exercise in the contemplation 
of His working. Through these be- 
lievers are enabled to trace the con- 
nexion between the successive revela- 
tions which he made iro\vp.epas km 
noXvTporras, all leading up to the final 
revelation in His Son; and yet more 
the complete and harmonious fulfil- 
ment of His earthly work in His Birth, 
His Death, His Resurrection, His As- 
cension, followed by the descent of the 
Holy Spirit. The same gifts have 
also a further application. St Paul's 
thoughts necessarily turned to the 
contemplation of the special privileges 
of the Jews (comp. Rom. ix. 4 f.) ; but 
we can now observe the signs of 
God's counsel in the training of 'the 
nations' and in the slow realisation 
of manifold lessons of the Gospel in 
post-Christian history. 

For the ti-ansitive sense of iirepio-- 
o-fvo-ev see 1 Thess. iii. 12; 2 Cor. iv. 
15; ix. 8, The intransitive sense 

I g, 10] 



rifxas ev Tra.<ry arocpla Kal <ppovq<rei 9 yvtapi<ra^ rj/uuv to 
fxvarTripiov tov deXti/uaTOs avTov, Kara ty\v evSoKiav 
auTOv r\v irpoeOeTO ev avTta I0 ek oiKOvofxiav tov wXripco- 

' wherewith He abounded' would re- 
quire fa to be an attraction from ij 
which is very much rarer than the 
attraction from rjv. 

For irda-g compare v. 3 note. The 
distinction of <ro<f>ia and <pp6vr)o-is is 
marked from the time of Aristotle 
{Eth. Nic. vi. 7). 

' Wisdom' deals with principles : 
'prudence' with action. In this way 
'prudence' may be called 'the child of 
wisdom' (Prov. x. 23 lxx. ij o-ocfria. 

avdpl tlktci. (ppovriaiv). Qpovrjaris Occurs 

in the N.T. again only in Lk i. 17, 
but the corresponding adjective occurs 
frequently (e.g. Matt. x. 16 ; xxv. 2). 

9. yva>pitras...Tov Se\. au.] Vg. ut 
notum faceret sacrament um volun- 
tatis suae. Having made known — in 
that He made known — the mystery, 
the Divine counsel now revealed, which 
was the expression of His will. The 
fact of a revelation is always implied 
in the word 'mystery' in the N. T. (see 
c. iii. 3 note), even in the Apocalypse, 
where the revelation is imminent. 
The phrase ro /wot. rrjs @ov\fjs occurs 
in Judith ii. 2. Compare 2 Tim. i. 9 f. 

9, IO. KaTarfjv evboidav. . .] accord- 
ing to His good pleasure — gracious 
purpose — which He purposed (set 
before Himself) to accomplish in Him, 
the Beloved, destined to issue in a 
dispensation belonging to and, as it 
were, springing out of the fulness of 
the seasons — when the full measure of 
their appointed course, with all their 
lessons of preparation and discipline, 
should be accomplished — namely, to 
sum up all things in the Christ.... 

irpoedcro] Rom. i. 13; iii. 25. See 
irp6de<ris v. 1 1. 

iv avrai] Latt. in eo, in the Beloved. 
The Incarnate Son embodied the 
purpose of God. The end of Creation 
was reached in Him through Whom it 
had its origin (Hebr. i. 2). 

The common text iv iavra adds 
nothing to the force of npoidero. 

olicavop.Lav\ dispensation. The origi- 
nal word describes the function of a 
'steward' (olxovofios 1 Cor. iv. 1 f.), as 
indeed does the English word accord- 
ing to its derivation. It occurs (in 
addition to Lk. xvi. 2 ff.) in 1 Cor. ix. 
17; Col. i. 25 (1 Tim. i. 4); c. iii. 2, 9. 
The exact meaning which it conveys 
appears to be in each case that of a 
distribution of Divine treasures, which 
have been committed by God to 
chosen representatives, that they may 
be faithfully administered by them. 
All earlier 'dispensations' were crown- 
ed by that of Christ, in Whom are 
all the treasures of wisdom and 
knowledge hidden (Col. ii. 3). These 
He dispenses with perfect righteous- 
ness and love, giving Himself for and 
to 'His brethren.' The act of 'dispen- 
sation' passes naturally into the scheme 
of dispensation. Compare Lightfoot 
Col. 1. c. 

tov jrXrjp. r. Kaipav] Latt. plenitudinis 
(Tert. adimpletionis) temporum, the 
fulness of the seasons. The phrase 
differs characteristically from that in 
GaL iv. 4 T0 TXiipw/ii tov -upovov the 
fulness of t/te time (contrast Mark i. 
15). t6 nXrjp. t. xP° v0V marks the 
limit of an appointed term : to nXr/p. 
t. Kmpmv, the close of a series of criti- 
cal periods, each of which had its 
peculiar character and was naturally 
connected in some way with the final 
issue: comp. Mk i. 15; John vii. 8; 
Lk. xxi. 24. The words 'times' and 
'seasons' are connected in Acts i. 7 ; 
i Thess. v. ij Tit. i. 2 f. (a singu- 
larly instructive passage as to their 
difference): see c. v. 16. 'Time' 
(xpovos) expresses simply duration : 
'season' (xaipos) a space of time de- 
fined with regard to its extent and 



[I ii 

fxaTOs twv Kaipwv, dpcucecpaAaiwa'ao-dai to. wavTa ev rq> 

XpKTTW, TCL &7TI TOIS OVpCtVOK Kdl TO. C7TI Trjl yfjs'- iv 

avTw, "ev u> Kai eK\npoo6r]fxev TrpoopurdevTe^ Kara irpo- 

6\vaKe<f>akauoo-ao6ai\ Latt. instau- 
rare: Tert. (Ir. int.)Hier. recapitulare, 
to sum up, specially to gather into a 
brief compass the heads of an argu- 
ment or statement (Rom. xiii. 9). 
The word here expresses the typical 
union of all things in the Messiah, a 
final harmony answering to the idea 
of creation, just as the corresponding 
word airoKaraWagai used in Col. i. 20 
expresses the reconciliation of the 
parts of creation one to another and 
to God in view of the separation and 
estrangement wrought by sin. Even 
apart from sin the dvaKe(pa\ala>cris of 
created things was required that they 
might attain their unity in God (Rom. 
xi. 36); and sin introduced the ne- 
cessity for an atonement (naTaXKayij 
Rom. v. 1 1 ). Comp. Ps.-Hipp. c. Beron . 

2 tjs {i.e. Trjs avrov o-oyp-arao-eas) epyov 
y twv okt&v eo~r\v els avrov dvaKetpa- 
AmWts. Just. M. ap. Iren. iv. 6 (11), 
2...unigenitus Pilius venit ad nos, 
suum plasma in semet ipsum recapi- 
tulans... This consummation lies be- 
yond the unity of the Church, the 
Body of Christ, which contributes 
towards its realisation. 

Ov p.6vov 01 KaTaKep/JUZTitTfiol rav 
otKovop.ovp.evav Kai oi naQ* eva \6yoi 
rav bioiKovp,eva>v cl<riv ev ™ toO 6eov 
Aoyta Kai Tjj o-ocpiq avrov, dWa Kat 
fi uvaKctpakaLaxns Kai, toy av e'lTToi tis, 
(rvyuMpaXaiao-is TiavTav (Orig.). 

T-a iravra...] Whereas navTa (Jo. i. 3, 

Heb. iii. 4) denotes all things taken 
severally, ra navra properly signifies 
all things in their unity, actual or ideal 
— the sum of all things. Compare vv. 
11, 23; cc. iii. 9; iv. 10; Col. i. 16, 17, 
20; and especially Heb. i. 3, where see 

iv ra xP' " 1 " 1 ?] in the Christ, in the 
Messiah. The title appears to be used 
here with a distinct reference to the 
Lord as the expected Saviour. With 

the article (as in this Epistle: cc. i. 12, 
20 ; ii. 5, 13 ; iii. 4 (6), 8, 17, 19 ; iv. 7, 
12, 13, 20; v. 2, S, 14, 23 ff. ; vi. s) 
'Christ' is dominantly, if not exclu- 
sively, the title of the office and not 
simply a proper name. Creation was 
brought under the consequences of 
sin through man (Gal. iii. 22) and so; 
redemption came to creation through 
man. Comp. 1 Cor. xv.28 ; Rom.yiii. 19. 

ra em tois ovp....] t/is things in the 
heavens.... This sublime revelation of 
the extent of redemption as com- 
mensurate with the whole creation is 
brought out especially in the Epistles 
of the Roman Captivity : Phil. ii. g, 
10; Col. i. 20; v. 2i. The solitary 
prisoner could see farthest into the 
glory of the Divine counsels, even as 
the martyr 'saw the heavens opened 
and the Son of Man standing at the 
right hand of God ' (Acts vii. 56). At 
the same time the outward unity of 
the Empire furnished an image of the 
Divine reality. 

It is altogether arbitrary to intro- 
duce any limitation into the inter- 
pretation of to. iravra. The truth 
transcends our comprehension, but 
we can see that it answers to the fact 
and purpose of creation (Apoc. iv. 1 1 
fjo-av ; Rom. xi. 36). 

The slight difference of construction 
between «Vi toU ovp. and eVi T?jr y. 
will be noticed. With the dot. evi 
denotes simple position, with the gen. 
extension over. 'En-l rots ovp. is a 
unique phrase ; elsewhere in corre- 
sponding connexions ev is undisturbed : 
Matt. vi. 10 ; xxviii. 18 ; 1 Cor. viii. 5 ; 
Col. i. 16, 20 ; Apoc. v. 13 ; c. iii. 15. 

11,12. For which consummation a 
preparation had been made by the 
discipline of Israel. 

11. ev av. ev <»....] in Him, I say, in 

Whom we were also made God's 

portion .... Christians are a new Israel 


oecriv tou tcl irdvTa ivepyovvTO? Kara Tqv (BovXrjv tou 

(comp. Deut. xxxii. 9) : Gal. vi. 16 ; 
comp. Gal. iv. 28 ; Matt. iii. 9. It is 
through the Church in the New Dis- 
pensation, as through Israel in old 
time, that the counsel of God is 
wrought out for the world. 

The sense of iKkr)pti8r) is difficult 
to determine. The word, is not found 
elsewhere in the N. T. The nearest 
parallel is in Acts xvii. 4 irpoo-e- 
Kkripwdrfaav ra llavXu were assigned 
by God to Paul.... So here it may be 
' we were assigned,' that is, to God ; 
while the conception of Israel as 
God's K.\ijpos served to define the idea 
(Deut. ix. 29). Compare Pind. 01. 

viii. 19 Vfi/ie 8' cKkapaxrc iroTpos ZjjvL 

It has also been taken to mean 'we 
were made partakers of the Divine 
inheritance.' This is in harmony with 
Col. i. 12 ; but it is difficult to obtain 
the meaning from the form. The 
parallels quoted are not to the point. 
Early writers take the simple sense 
' we were appointed (Vg. sorte vocati 
sumus ; Ambr. sorte constituti ; Aug. 
sortem consecuti; Ambrst. sortiti)... 
to the end that....' This is perfectly 
legitimate, but the context seems to 
require a reference to the Divine 
Kkrjpos (Acts xxvi. 18; Col. i. 12). 
Comp. 0. 18. 

npoopurdeires...] having been fore- 
ordained (v. 5 TTpoopitras) to occupy 
this position... to the end that we 
should be.... 

Kara irpd6e<jw\ Comp. C. iii. 1 1 Kara 
irp66e(riv t&v aldvav ; Rom. viii. 28 ; 
2 Tim. i. 9; Rom. ix. 11. 

The word 7rp6deeris is used of 'pur- 
pose' generally: Acts xi. 23; xxvii. 13; 
2 Tim. iii. 10. 

tov to. Ttavra ivcpy. ...] of Him who 
icorketh all things after the counsel 
of His will. The language which 
describes the action of God must of 
necessity be figurative. The phrase 
PovXri tov BehripaTos, which occurs here 
only in the N. T., expresses that His 
will is not arbitrary, but, if presented 

in terms of human experience, guided 
by a settled counsel. BouX>j (only in 
the Pauline group of Epistles) ex- 
presses counsel with reference to 
action : 6i\qpa (in all groups) will 
generally. Comp. Acts ii. '23 tjj dpia- 

pivr/ j3ouXj7 Kal irpoyvmo-ei tov @eov 
€K$otov ; iv. 28 oo~a 1) x e ' L P °~ ov * a ' V 
fiovXri irpodpurcv yevco-dai ; xx. 27 Ttauav 
Trfv $ovkrp> tov 6eov. Hebr. vi. 17 to 
dp.€Ta9(Tov rfjs jSovXijr avrov. Lk. vii. 
30 rtjv liovKf/v tov Beov rjOirrjo-av eis 

iavTovs. Acts xiii. 36. Comp. Matt, 
i. 19. 

ra 7T. ivepyovvros] Comp. I Cor. xii. 6 
6 ivepyav ra ndvra iv itaaiv ; V. 1 1 
Ttavra Si ravra ivfpyei to iv Kal to 
avro irvevpa. Gal. iii. 5 o... ivepyav 
dvvapeis iv vp.1v ; ii. 8 ivepyqvas XleTpto. 
Phil. ii. 13 6f6s ioTiv 6 ivepyav iv ijilv 
Kal to Bekeiv Kal to ivepyeiv. The 

verb ivepyeiv brings out the idea of 
the personal power which is opera- 
tive rather than the result produced 
(ipyd£ea6ai c. iv. 28). It has refer- 
ence always to action in the human 

12 f. The general statement that 
Christians as Christians were made 
God's portion through their incor- 
poration in Christ (iKKrjpioBripev with- 
out ypels) i s now defined. The new 
Israel included both Jews and Gen- 
tiles. The Jews with whom St Paul 
identifies himself (els to etvai rjpas...) 
who had fixed their hopes on the 
promises of the Deliverer, were in a 
peculiar sense 'for a praise of God's 
glory' now that their expectations 
had found fulfilment, witnessing to 
the accomplishment of His purpose 
•prepared through their national dis- 
cipline (comp. 1 Pet. i. 12). At the 
same time the Gentiles also, of whom 
the Ephesians were representatives 
(icai vp.eis), had found a place in the 
same Divine fellowship, when they ac- 
cepted the message of the truth which 
was brought to them and the larger 
hope of the prophets was fulfilled. 



[I 12, 13 

deXruuaros auTOu, ,a ek to eivai »)/uds eh eiraivov §o£»js 
aVTOV TOl/S 7TjOO>j\7rtKOTaS ey t«5 xpuTTW' I3 eV a> /cat 
vjuets dKOvaravTe<z tov \6yov Ttjs aXr/deia?, to euay- 
ye\iov Trjs trcoTripias v/uuSv, ev to Kal vrurTevcravTes, 

12. els to e ivai r)] Contrast v. 4 
«viu. See note ad loc. 

The r) is emphatic : ' we Jews 
who through all delays and disappoint- 
ments clung to the teaching of the 

els enaivov oo|t)S ovtov] see v. 14. 
Thenoteof Primasius is worth quoting : 
Ut per signa quae facimus laudetur 
gloria Dei. 

tovs nporjhir. ev ™ XP'] Comp. 
I Cor. XV. 19 r)\itiKarres eo-pev ev Xptorffl 
(not Matt. xii. 21 ; Phil. ii. 19 is differ- 
ent) ; 2 Cor. i. IO els bv r)\iriKap,ev. 
I Tim. iv. IO rjkir. eVi 8eip faSvTi; vi. 17 
rjXn. iiri irkovrov abrjkorrjTi ; v. 5 l^rr. 
«ri t6v Beov. I Pet. iii. 5 ekir. els. 

npoe\iri£eiv occurs here only in the 
BT. T. The irpo is limited not by the 
belief of the Ephesian Gentiles ('be- 
lieved before you') but by the Advent 
('believed before Christ actually came')- 
The per/, indicates that the spirit of 
this faith still remained. 

13,14. And with Israel the Gentiles 
were now associated by faith, having 
received the Holy Spirit, the pledge 
of the victory of God. 

13. ev <o...] in Whom ye also are — 
as members of His Body,— having 
heard. It appears to be simplest 
to take the first iv a as parallel to 
the second and not as resumed by it. 
Two thoughts are marked, the first 
that the Gentiles are included in the 
new Israel, and the second that being 
included they have received the gift • 
of the Holy Spirit. These two bless- 
ings correspond with the quickening 
of the Church with the Divine Life on 
the Day of the Resurrection (John xx. 
22 f.) and the endowing of the Church 
on the day of Pentecost ; and in the 
experience of the individual with Bap- 
tism and the Laying on of hands. 

Kal vfitls] Comp. Acts xi. 18 Spa 
iea\ toIs eBveoiv debs rr)v iieravoiav 
els £a>r)v cdoKcv. 

tov \oyov rrjs dX.] the word, the 
message, of the truth. Comp. 2 Tim. 
ii. 15 op8oTop.ovvra tov \6yov rrjs dX. 
James i. 18 Xdyor dX. Christianity, as 
a message, is essentially ' the truth ' : 
John i. 17 (note) ; 2 Thess. ii. 12 ; 
2 Cor. iv. 2 ; 1 John iii. 19 (note). It 
presents the right view of the ultimate 
relations of man, the world, and God. 
Comp. v. 9 note. 

The substance of Christ's message 
is Christ Himself, Who is the Truth 
(John xiv. 6). 

Similar phrases are : 2 Cor. v. 19 

d Xdyos rrjs KaraWayrjs, Acts xiii. 26 
d Xoyos ttjs <TOiTr]pias Tavrr/s, Acts 
xiv. 3, XX. 32 d Xdyos ttjs \apiTos 

to evayyeXlov Tr)s o~g>t. i;.] the gospel 

— the glad tidings — of your salvation 

(Gal. ii. 7 r b evayy. ttjs aKpofivorias), 

proclaiming that 'to the Gentiles' also 
' was sent the salvation of God ' (Acts 
xxviii. 28 ; xi. 18 ; xv. 7). 

The phrase is unique. Comp. Acts 
XX. 24 to evayye\iov ttjs ^dpo-or roO 
Beov, 2 Cor. iv. 4 ™ e-iayyekiov tt)s 
ho^r)s tov \pio-Tov, I Tim. i. II TO 
evayy. ttjs 8o|ijs toC paKapiov Beov. 

13 ft. The incorporation of the 
Gentiles in the Body of Christ leads 
on to the wider thought of the action 
of the Spirit through the Church 
which brings the consummation of 
the Divine will. The relation of man 
and of humanity to God is essentially 
established through the action of the 
Word, the Son, in Creation and in 
Redemption. The Holy Spirit is a 
special gift to the Church and Chris- 

iv § Kal jrio-T. «r<pp.] in Whom, as 

I l 4 ] 



etrcppccyiardriTe tw TrvevfxaTi t»js e7ra<yye\ia^ tw dyito, 
14 6 i(TTiv dppaficov <rfjs KX^povofiiai ti/unav, ets diroXv- 
Tpwtriv tjjs 7T€jOt7rot»7crett)s, eis 'enaivov tjjs c5o'£»js avTOV. 

14 8s 
6' ABG3L47; 8s ND 2 Ki7 37 

united with Him, having also believed 
(Acts six. 2) «/e ware sealed.... It is 
possible to take eV a? in connexion 
with evayycXioi/, 'and when ye be- 
lieved in it, as not hearers only, ye 
were sealed....' This construction is 
justified by Mk i. 15, but it seems to 
be less natural than that which has 
been adopted. 

eo-n3pay«r<J>7re] See C. iv. 30 fir/ 
\v7reiTe to irv. to ay. toB deoii iv <j> 
eo-(ppayio-0riTe els qpipav arrokvTpa- 

2<ppayls is used of a visible attesta- 
tion of the reality of a spiritual fact : 
1 Cor. ix. 2 ; Rom. iv. 1 1 ; 2 Tim. ii. 19. 
Comp. Apoc. vii. 3 ff. ; ix. 4. The 
'seal' openly marked the servants of 
God as belonging to Him (2 Cor. i. 
22), and assured them of His protec- 
tion. So they were solemnly recog- 
nised as His sons (comp. John vi. 27) 
and on the other hand pledged to His 

T<3 7rv. Trjs enayy. T(o ay.J with the 

Spirit of promise, the Holy Spirit : 
the Spirit who had been the subject 
of the promises of Gob through the 
prophets and of the Incarnate Son: 
Luke xxiv. 49; Acts i. 4f. ; ii. 17, 33; 
John xiv. 15 ff. ; xvi. 7 ff. ; Gal. iii. 14. 
The emphatic order which fixes atten- 
tion on the characteristic attribute of 
the Spirit (ra ayia) leads on to the 
description of His work in v. 14. 
Comp. 1 Thess. iv. 8 to ttv. ovtov to 

Here the Spirit is regarded as the 
instrument with which (t«S nv.) be- 
lievers are sealed: in c. iv. 30 as the 
element, so to speak, in which they 
are immersed (iv <b: comp. Matt. iii. 
11). Those who are 'in Christ' are 
also 'in the Spirit' Here the thought 
of the gift is dominant: there the 

W. EPH. 

thought of the Person. For to nv. 
rrjs iTrayy. compare Hebr. xi. 9 els rqv 
yf/v rfjs ewayyeXias. 

14. o eo-Tw...] which is an earnest 
of our inheritance, unto the redemp- 
tion of God's own possession (Vg. in 
redemptionem acquisitionis (V. L. 
adoptionis)), unto the praise of His 
glory. The partial gift — partial be- 
cause it is limited by our present 
capacity — shews surely that to which 
it leads, and in which it will find its 
consummation. What we have re- 
ceived is a pledge of that which God 
has prepared for us as sons. When we 
gain our end, then creation also shall 
find deliverance from corruption and 
enter on ' the freedom of the glory of 
the children of God,' and all things 
shall declare the praise of their Maker 
and Redeemer. Rom. viii. 18 — 25 is a 
pregnant commentary on the verse. 

appafia>v\ An 'earnest': 2 Cor. i. 
22 ; V. 5 [o] &ovs rbv dppaficova tov irvev- 
fiaros. 'AppafitAv is properly a deposit 
paid as security for the rest of the 
purchase money; and then, by a 
natural transference, the first instal- 
ment of a treasure given as a pledge 
for the delivery of the remainder. 

For the thought compare Rom. viii. 
1 5 ff- ; 23 (tt/v airap-xrjv tov irvevpaTos 

els ottoA vTpwo-tv. . .] leading unto.... 
The temporal sense, until. . . is possible, 
but the parallelism of the two clauses 
els airo\vrp....els erraivov... is decisive 

for the other sense. The redemption 
of God's own possession, and the 
consequent praise of His glory are, so 
to speak, the final cause of the work 
of Christ and the Mission of the 

tijs irepmoujo-eas] Gob's own pos- 
session, all that which God has made 



[I 14 

His own in earth and heaven, not 
men only, who had fallen from Him, 
and earth which had shared the con- 
sequences of man's fall, but all created 
things, gathered together in the last 
crisis of their history. 'Creation' 
held 'in the bondage of corruption' 
required redemption. God has made 
us His sons 'that we should be a kind 
•of flrstfruits of His creation' (James 

.1 1 8 dnapx^v Ttva rav avrov KTKTfia- 

7w). Our inheritance is preparatory 
to (els) a larger blessing. The crown 
of the inheritance of Christians is that 
their consummation in Christ leads to 
His complete triumph. Creation waits 
for their revelation as the sons of God 
(Rom. viii. 19 f.). Then shall it also 
be 'delivered from the bondage of 
corruption into the liberty of the 
glory of the children of God.' 

The interpretation which has been 
given to irepmoirio-ts (after the Syriac 
and (Ecumenius) is not without dim- 
culty. Hepmoirja-is is properly the 
acquisition of something: 1 Thess. 
V. 9 els irepmolrffriv aarrjplas, 2 Thess. 
ii. 14 els irepi7roiT)(riv 8o£ijs, Hebr. x. 
39 els nepm. ^fvxrjs. In 1 Pet. ii. 9 
Christians are spoken of as \abs els 
irepmoitjo-iv in words borrowed from 
the lxx. (Mai. iii. 17 eaovral p.01.. .els 
Trepmoiria-tv). God in His infinite 
■ patience and love wins His creatures 
to HimseE The avrov in the last 
clause gives colour to ttjs irepmoiy- 
o-eas. The thought is of the complete 
fulfilment of God's purpose. There 
is therefore nothing unnatural in the 
use of 1) Trepnroirja-is in this widest 


Additional Note on i. i. The words iv 'E<f>eaq>. 

i i] <[iu 'E<j)tar<o] K*B "the older of the MSS" consulted by Bas. 67** 
(Marcion, see below) Orig. loc. (distinctly) Bas. (expressly). Orig. interprets 
rots oSaiv absolutely, in the sense of 1 Cor. i. 28, as he could not have done 
had he read iv 'E^cVa : Bas. probably has Orig. in mind when he refers for 
this reading to 'predecessors,' from whom however Bas. manifestly dis- 
tinguishes MSS consulted by himself (outo yap Kal ol irpb ypav napaSe8(OKao-i 
Kal tjfie'is iv rots TraXauns tS>v dvriypacpav evpr)Kap,ev). It is doubtless again to 
Orig. that Hier. refers when he speaks of 'certain' as interpreting the passage 
in this manner 'with unnecessary refinement' (curiosiug quam necesse est) : 
— a remark which shews on the one hand that Hier. was not himself 
acquainted with the reading, and on the other that Orig. in his unabridged 
commentary can have made no reference to any MSS as containing iv 
'lE(p4a-a, since otherwise Hier. could not have treated the question as though 
it affected interpretation alone. Tert. distinctly states that Marcion retained 
this Epistle, but under the title ' To the Laodicenes.' Epiph. is silent on 
this point in his short account of Marcion's readings in the Ep., but after the 
conclusion of his remarks on all the epistles (374 A ?rpos QiKimrrjo-Lovs 1 ■ ovrat 
yap Trapa ra Mapxiavi Keirai io-xarr/ Kal 8e/c<iri)) he Subjoins a confused notice of 
a reading of Marcion (Eph. iv. 5) " from the so-called Ep. to the. Laodicenes, 
in harmony with the Ep. to the Ephesians "; so that the unknown source from 
which he borrowed his information about Marcion's text seems to have con- 
tained a misunderstood reference to the title used by Marcion. It is hardly 
credible that the Epistle should have received this title, either in a text 
followed by Marcion or at his own hands, if the words iv 'E^eVm had been 
present. It does not follow that iv AaoSixia replaced it : a change of the 
address in the body of the Epistle itself would hardly have been passed 
over in silence ; and it seems more likely that the title was supplied from a 
misapplication of Col. iv. 16 in the absence of any indication of address in 
the text of the Epistle. Text N<AD 2 G:3K 2 L 2 P 2 later MSS consulted by Bas. 
(see above) cu pl w omn Cyr. al. Thes. 280 pp ser pp lat . 

Transcriptional evidence strongly supports the testimony of documents 
against iv 'Eqbio-a. The early and, except as regards Marcion, universal 
tradition that the Epistle was addressed to the Ephesians, embodied in the 
title found in all extant documents, would naturally lead to the insertion of 
the words in the place that corresponding words hold in other epistles ; and 
on the other hand it is not easy to see how they could come to be omitted, 
if genuine. Nor again, when St Paul's use of the term ol aywc (e.g. 1 Cor. xvi. 
1) and his view of irlo-ns in relation to the new Israel are taken into account, 
is it in itself improbable that he should write " to the saints who are also 
faithful (believing) in Christ Jesus." The only real intrinsic difficulty here 
lies in the resemblance to the phrases used in other epistles to introduce 
local addresses. 

2 — 2 


The variation need not however be considered as a simple case of 
omission or insertion. There is much probability in the suggestion of Beza 
and Ussher, adopted by many commentators, that this Epistle was addressed 
to more than one church. It is certainly marked by an exceptional generality 
of language, and its freedom from local and personal allusions places it in 
strong contrast to the twin Ep. to the Colossians, conveyed by the same 
messenger. St Paul might naturally take advantage of the mission of 
Tychicus to write a letter to be read by the various churches which he had 
founded or strengthened in the region surrounding Ephesus during his long 
stay, though he might have special reasons for writing separate letters to 
Colossse and Laodicea. Apart from any question of the reading in i. i, this 
is the simplest explanation of the characteristics of the Epistle ; but, if it 
represents the facts truly, it must have a bearing on the reading. An epistle 
addressed to a plurality of churches might either be written so as to dispense 
with any local address, or it might have a blank space, to be filled up in 
each case with a different local address. The former supposition, according 
to which <ai irio-ToU would be continuous with rois dyiois, has been noticed 
above. In this case iv 'E$eVo> would be simply an interpolation. On the 
other view, which is on the whole the more probable of the two, iv 'E<j>co-<a 
would be a legitimate but unavoidably partial supplement to the true text, 
filling up a chasm which might be perplexing to a reader in later times. 
Since it is highly probable that the epistle would be communicated to the 
great mother church first, and then sent on to the lesser churches around, 
there is sufficient justification both for the title IIP02 E*E2I0Y2 and for 
the retention of iv 'E^e'o-m in peculiar type in the text itself. Whether 
Marcion's title was derived from a copy actually sent to Laodicea, or, as 
seems more likely, was a conjectural alteration of IIP02 E*E2I0Y2, Ephesus 
must have had a better right than any other single city to account itself 
the recipient of the Epistle. 

1 15, 16] 



IS Aia tovto icdyw, dicovcras rrjv Kad' Oyuas tticttiv 
ev Tto Kvpiw 'Irffrou nat Trjv ets TrdvTccs toi)s ctylovz, 
ov 7ravofxai ev-^apio-Ttov virep vjjlwv, fj.veiav ttoiov- 

15 Kal+rt)i> iydir^v K'-'DjGjKLj vg syrr bo. 


II. Thanksgiving for faith re- 

work of Christ for men (i. 15 — 
ii. 22). 

(1) Thanksgiving for the faith of 
the Ephesians (i. 15, 16 a). 

(2) Prayer for their fuller enlight- 
enment (i. 16 & — 21). 

(3) The work of God for men in 
Christ : personal disqualifications over- 
come (i. 22 — ii. 10). 

(4) The union of Jews and Gentiles 
in one Divine Body : national differ- 
ences set aside (ii. 1 1 — 22). 

i. 1 5 — ii. 22. The opening hymn of 
praise is followed by a thanksgiving 
for the faith of the readers (». 15, 16 a), 
and a prayer for their fuller knowledge 
of the privileges of the Christian faith 
(166 — 21), which leads to a description 
of the work of God for men through 
Christ (i. 22 — ii. 10), and specially of 
the union of Jews and Gentiles in one 
body (ii. 1 1 — 22). 

(1) Thanksgiving for the faith of 
the Ephesians (15, 16 a). 

15 For this cause I also having 
heard of the faith which is among 
you in the Lord Jesus and which 
ye shew toward all the saints l6 cease 
not to give thanks for you. 

15. Sia tovto. . .] For this cause. . . 
even that the Gentiles have now been 
included within the Church, so that 
the fulness of salvation has been 
brought within sight. 

Kayo] I also, though as a Jew I 
might have been inclined to cherish 
jealously the peculiar privileges of my 

cLKovo-as . . .tovs aytovs] having heard 
of the faith which is among you 
resting in the Lord Jesus and 
which ye shew unto all the saints. 
The phrase ttLo-tis ev t& Kvplm 'Irja-ov, 

which forms as it were a compound 
word (comp. Col. i. 4 nio-ns vpav ev X. 'I.), 
represents faith not only as ' directed 

to ' (irpos, I Thess. i. 8 77 TriOTtr vpav rj 

irpos 6e6v) or ' reaching to (into) ' (els, 

Acts xxvi. 18 irio-Tei rfj eh efie), but 

as 'grounded and resting in' the 
Lord Jesus. Thus we find iriaris r] ev 
X. 'I. 1 Tim. iii. 13; 2 Tim. iii. 15 
(in Gal. iii. 26 ev X. 'I. is probably to 
be taken with ufoi iare and not 
with irioreas). The use of o Kvpios 
'Iijo-oOr is significant. The confession 
' Kvpios 'Jrjo-oiis' was the earliest Chris- 
tian creed : 1 Cor. xii. 3 ; Rom. x. 9 
(e'av opoKoytjo-ijS to prjp,a...0Ti. Kvptos 

Ka\ rijv els w. t. ay.] The insertion 
of tt)v ayan-qv after rai in the later 
text is borrowed from Col. i. 4. ' The 
faith shewn to all the saints ' was the 
practical expression of the faith which 
rested on union with Christ. Comp. 
Philem. 5 T V V tioth» i)v e\eis...els 
navras tovs ayiovs. 

16. ov navofiai . . ,7Tpoo'ev\av /iov] 
This combination of prayer with 
thanksgiving is characteristic : 1 Thess. 
i. 2 ; Rom. i. 8 ff. ; Phil. i. 3 f. ; Col. i. 
3 (2 Tim. i. 3). With ov navopai 
compare navTOTe, c. v. 20 ; 1 Thess. i. 
2 ; 2 Thess. i. 3, 1 1 ; ii. 13 ; 1 Cor. i. 4 ; 
Rom. i. 10 ; Col. i. 3 ; Phil. i. 4 ; aftia- 
Aem-rws 1 Thess. ii. 13 ; v. 17 (1 Thess. 
i. 2 ; Rom. i. 9) ; ev navrl 1 /Thess. v. 

In orationibus, non ut quidam [in] 
jucunditate convivii : mihi autem nihil 
oratione jucundius (Primas.). 

(2) Thanksgiving is combined with 
prayer for their fuller enlightenment 

16 Making mention of you in my 
prayers, * 7 that the Gov of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, 
may give unto you a spirit of wisdom 



[I 17 

/mevos €7ri twv tt pocrev^wv /uov, 17 'iva 6 6eo<s tov KVpiov 
tj/uwv 'Iricrov Xpi(rTov, 6 irarrrip ttjs do^ris, r Sft)V vfiiv 
irvevfjia <ro(bias kcci d7T0Ka\v\j^eaK ev ew lyvtaarei clvtov, 

1 7 Sd ■g v. 8$ 

and revelation in the knowledge of 
Him ; l8 to the end that having the 
eyes of your heart enlightened ye 
may know what is the hope of His 
calling, what the riches of the glory 
of His inheritance in the saints 
19 and what the exceeding greatness 
of His power to us-ward who believe, 
according to the working of the 
might of His strength '" which He 
wrought in the Christ when He 
raised Him from the dead and made 
Him to sit at His right hand in the 
heavenly order, "far above all ruUj 
and authority and power and do- 
minion, and every name that is 
named not only in this age but also 
in that which is to come. 

fivelav TroLovpevos] The object 'of 
you and your faith ' is naturally sup- 
plied from the preceding clause (Rom. 
i. 9 ; Philm. 4). 

17. lva...~\ that, in order that.... 
The two titles which the Apostle 
applies to God bring out his confi- 
dence and the full scope of his prayer. 

6 6e6s...'l X.] the God of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, the God whom He 
acknowledges and at the same time 
reveals. Comp. v. 3 note ; and see 
also 1 Cor. xi. 3 ; xv. 27 f. 

6 Trarfip rfjs Sd|j/r] the Father of 
glory, from Whom all Divine splendour 
and perfection proceed and to Whom 
they belong ; the source and the ob- 
ject of all revelation. 

For rijs 8d|i;s compare Acts vii. 2 6 
debs tt)s bii-r]s (Ps. xxix. (xxviii.) 3). 
James ii. I tov Kvptov ^pmv 'I. X. rfjs 
66£rjs. I Cor. ii. 8 tov Kvptov tt)s 8d£i)9. 
Hebr. ix. 5 Xepov/3f Iv h&^qs. 

For d irarrjp compare James i. 17 

6 IT. TWV CpWTlOV. 2 Cor. i. 3 O 7T. T<3l/ 

olKTtppmv. Hebr. xii. 9 6 w. t£>v nvfv- 
On r) h6£a see Additional Note. 

bar) ifiiv nv. trotj). a. a7ro»caXt!i^.] On 
Wisdom and Revelation see Dr Dale, 
Ephesians, p. 133 [v. App. p. 158]. 

ttv. o-o(pias teat diroK. iv eiriyv. avTov] 

a spirit of wisdom and revelation. 
In all corresponding phrases 'the 
spirit' is that through which the prin- 
ciple or power or feeling or character- 
istic, to which it is referred, becomes 
effective in the man. 80 we read of 
Trvcifia itpaanyros (i Cor. iv. 21 ; Gal. 
vi. i); Trvevpa ayuoavvrjs (Rom. i. 4)) 
Trvevfia dov\eias,7TV€vp.a vioBeaias (Rom. 
viii. 15); wvcifia Karavv£ea)s (Rom. xi. 
8) ; irveipa 8et\ias (2 Tim. i. 7) ; irvevpa 
{afjs (Apoc. xi. 11); and in a definite 
form to nvevpa tov Koo-pov (1 Cor.ii. 12) ; 
rd irvevpa rrjs ir\avr)S (l John iv. 6) ; 
rd irvevpa ttjs dKTjdeias (John XIV. 17 j 
XV. 26 ; I John iv. 6) ; to irvevpa Ttjs 
7rioT€o>9 (2 Cor. iv. 13) ; to irvevpa ttjs 
\apiTOS (Hebr. X. 29) ; rd irvevpa ttjs 
irpo(pr)Teias (Apoc. xix. 10) ; to irvevpa 
tov voos (c. iv. 23). 

In accordance with this usage ' the 
spirit of wisdom and revelation ' will 
be that spirit, that influence and 
temper, through which 'wisdom and 
revelation,' wisdom and the materials 
for growth in wisdom, enter into 
human life. Such a spirit is a gift of 
the Paraclete 'Who takes of that 
which is Christ's and declares it' to 
believers (John xvi. 12 ff.). Through 
it the Christian is at once able to test 
and to receive and to communicate 
Divine truths (1 Cor. ii. 6 ff.). 

The characteristic work of the 
Spirit is indeed the revelation of the 
Son, through Whom the Father is 
known. He comes 'in the Son's 
name ' (John xiv. 26), even as the Son 
came ' in the Father's name ' (John v. 
43). So it is that till the Mission of 
the Paraclete the Son could not be 
known by men. This fact explains 


7T60ft)Tto-//eVous -rows 6(j)da\iu.ovs t>js KccpS'ias [v/jlcov] eh 

the remarkable form of the Lord's 
words in Matt. xi. 27, ovdets iinywrn- 
o-Kei tov vlbv el juij 6 jranjp, oufic tov 
mirepa tis eiriyivdo-Kei el fir/ d vlos, k<u 
o> eai> /3ov\)jrai d ihoj airoxaXv^ai. 
The absence of a second clause after 
d narrip shews that the sentence took 
shape before the Revealer of the Son 
had been sent. 

This work is not for one age but for 
all ages. It finds its application iv 
imyvoio-ei \tov 6e oO] and this knowledge 
can never be final. All that can be 
learnt of the course of Nature and 
History becomes under the action of 
the 'spirit of wisdom and revelation' 
a disclosure of fresh truth as to the 
character and purpose and working of 
God. The eternal life itself consists 
in this (John xvii. 3 iva yivdo-Kao-i). 
He that loveth is begotten of God and 
knoweth (yivao-Kei) God (i John iv. 7). 
We know that the Son of God is 
come (fJKei) and hath given us an 
understanding that we may know 

Him that is true (Sidvoiav Iva yivmo-KO- 

Imcv [-(ccb/hew] 1 John v. 20, see notes). 
In this lies the real glory and hope of 
experience and labour. 

iv iiriyvtio-ei avrov] in the know- 
ledge of Him, i.e. of God, as in rrjs 
kXi/o-cois avrov, rfjs itKripovofilas avrov, 
ttjs 8vvdu.ea>s avrov, rrjs lo-^vos avrov 
(vv. 18, 19). 'Enlyvao-is has always a 
moral value and is used in the NT. 
exclusively in reference to facts of the 
religious order and specially in refer- 
ence to the knowledge which we are 
enabled to gain of God and of His pur- 
pose for man's salvation. It is peculiar 
to the Epistles. It occurs first in the 
Epistle to the Romans, and is found 
in all the later Epistles of St Paul, in 
Hebrews and 2 Peter. The passages 
will repay careful study, and furnish a 
commentary on the thought here. 

(a) Rom. i. 28 ovk rbv 
8ebv exeiv *" ciriyvatret. 

Rom. x. 2 (fikov 6eov e\ovaiv aXX' 
ov near' iirtyvaa-iv. 

Eph. iv. 13 fie'xpi KaTavrqo-auev ot 
Ttdvres els Tr/v evbrn)Ta. ..rrjs iiriyvdo-eas 
tov viov TOV 0COV. 

Col. i. IO av£avop.evoi rrj iiriyvtio-ei 
tov Oeov. 

2 Pet. i. 2 X'¥" s vpiv xa\ elpyvt] 
irXrjBvvdeirj iv iiriyvao~ei tov Qeov Kai 
'Jrjo'ov tov Kvplov TJUUV. 

id. i. 3 irdvra ... to. irpbs faijv... 
SffioopTjjueVrjf Sib. ttjs imyvaaeas tov 
Ka\eo~avros yaas. 

id. i. 8 ovk apyovs...Ka6Lo-rr)a , iv els 
•ri)v tov Kvplov r/fiav 'Irjaov XpuTTov 

id. ii. 20 amotpvyovres ra ptdo-uara 
tov Koo-p.ov iv eiuyvaaei tov Kvpiov Kai 
o-a>TT)pos 'Iijctou Xpia-Tov. 

(b) Col. i. 9 Iva 7r\t)p<o6riTe tijv eVi- 
yvwo-iv tov de\ijuaros ovtov. 

id. ii. 2 els inlyvao-iv tov u.vo~rr)plov 
tov Beov, Xpio-rov. 

1 Tim. ii 4, 2 Tim. ii. 25, iii. 7, Tit. 
i. I iniyvaais aK-qGeias. 

Hebr. X. 26 17 eniyvmais rr\s aki)6e[as. 

(c) Rom. iii. 20 81a vopiov iniyvaais 

Phil. i. IO iva 77 dyairrj...7repio-o-evrj iv 
imyvdo-ei k. ndo-rj alo-8qo-ei tls to Soki- 
udfceiv vuas ra hiaxpepovra. 

This iiriyvwo-is is at once the condi- 
tion and the result of growing con- 
formity to the Divine likeness : 

Col. iii. 10 ivSvo-daevoi rbv veov 
[avdpairov] rbv dvaKaivovaevov els iiri- 
yvtao'iv Kar elKova tov KTio'avTOS avrov. 

For the verb iinyivao-Keiv see Matt, 
xi. 27; Luke i. 4 ; 2 Pet. ii. 21 ; 1 Cor. 
xiii. 12 ; 2 Cor. i. 13 f. ; Rom. i. 32; 
1 Tim. iv. 3. 

The subject, with which this ' spirit 
of wisdom and revelation' is to deal, 
is of all the most overwhelming, — that 
men are destined to share in the glory 
of the exaltation of 'the Lord Jesus 

18. ire<p<OT. ... elSevai] to the end 

that having the eyes of your heart 
enlightened ye may know.... The 
construction is obscure and perhaps 
confused. It is possible that re<pcoT. 


to e'ibevai v/uas t/s ecrTiv *] eKirh Trjs /cA^'trews avTOv, 

tovs o<p8. may be paralleled with irv. 
o-ocp. Kai anon, and depend directly on 
Sari (give you the eyes of your heart 
enlightened, i.e. enlighten them). But 
this is an unnatural construction, and 
the enlightening of the eyes of the 
heart is not so much a new element 
in the Divine teaching as a special 
result involved in the gift of the spirit 
of revelation. It is therefore best to 
connect the words with vpiv, the case 
being determined by the following 
infinitive (els to elhivai v/ias) with 
which it goes closely. There are 
somewhat similar irregularities of 
order : c. iii. 18 ; Luke xxiv. 47 (ap£dp. 
airo I. vpels pdprvpes). 

roils 6<f>8. rrjs Kapdias] The 'heart' 
expresses the whole personality of 
man. Comp. c. iv. 17, 18 (vovs, didvoia, 
Kapbla) note. Spiritual sight includes 
the action of feeling as well as of 

For the image ite<pa>Tio-p.evovs see 
John i. 9 ; 1 John i. 7 ; ii. 8 Iff. ; Apoc. 
xxii. s (xxi. 23) ; Hebr. vi. 4 ; x. 32 
(notes): 2 Cor. iv. 6; cc. iii. 9; v. 8, 13 
notes ; 2 Tim. i. 10. Compare 2 Cor. 
iv. 4, 6. The corresponding 'darken- 
ing' is described Rom. i. 21. 

18, 19. t'is io-Ttv 17 e\iris.,.rls 6 
7r\ovTos...Ti to vnepft. pty....'] Three 
distinct objects of spiritual knowledge 
are set before us. Two concern the 
nature of our destiny — the hope of 
our calling, and the wealth of the 
glory of God's inheritance ; and the 
third, the power of God by which it 
is fulfilled. As we pass from thought 
to thought, we pass more and more 
from man to God, from our feeling to 
His works, though all is of Him and 
referred to Him : it is His calling ; 
His inheritance ; His might ; the call- 
ing which He has given, the inherit- 
ance which He has prepared, the 
power which He has shewn ; there is 
at the same time an increasing fulness 
of development in the successive 
stages : 

(i) Tis ij i\n\s rfjs Kkrjo-tas avrov. 

(2) TIS 6 7T\OVT09 Ttjs ftofyrjS Ttjs (tXl)p. 

avrov iv to'is ayiois. 

(3) t'i to virepfiaKKov fieyedos rijs 

Svvdfietos avrov 
fls ijfiaj tovs mo-Ttvovras 
Kara Tr)v evepyeiav tov Kparovs 

tt)s lo~xvos avrov 
rjv evrjpyrjKev iv rffl xpior<5. 

The three great moments correspond 
with the experience of life, which 
brings out into evidence evils, capaci- 
ties, failures, which a growing intelli- 
gence of the nature and will and 
working of God alone can meet. We 
can face the sorrows and sadnesses of 
personal and social history 'in the 
hope of God's calling.' We can rejoice 
in the possession of capacities and 
needs to which our present circum- 
stances bring no satisfaction when we 
look to 'the wealth of the glory of 
God's inheritance in the saints.' We 
can overcome the discouragements of 
constant failures and weaknesses by 
the remembrance of the power of God 
shewn in the Raising of Christ. 

t'is io-Tiv r) eXirir...] The question 
in each case (tIs...tls...tL..) is of the 
essence and not of the quality (noia). 
What is the hope of His calling, 
the hope, the 'one hope of their 
calling' for all Christians (c. iv. 4), 
kindled and sustained in us by the 
fact that God has called us to His 
presence. Such a Divine call is a 
revelation of human destiny. Man 
can in Christ behold God and live 
(comp. 1 John iii. 2 f.; 2 Cor. iii. 12). 
His hope enters within the veil where 
Christ has entered in (Hebr. vi. 19 f.). 
Compare 1 Pet. i. 3, 5. His hope is a 
hope of righteousness (Gal. v. 5). 
Without God man has no hope (c. ii. 1 2). 

KX^o-ir is used in regard to the 
circumstances of the call to the out- 
ward society of Christians (1 Cor. i. 
26 ; vii. 20), but more especially of the 
call as a divine invitation (as here and 
C. iv. 4 ; Rom. xi. 29 ape Tap.i\t)Tos 17 

I i 9 ] 




apoic, 19 Kai t'i to vwepfiaWov fxe'yedos tjjs dui/a'/uews 
avrov ets »j//as toi)s 7rt<rrei/ovTas Kara t>)i/ evepyeiav 

K\rj<ris tov Scov ; Phil. iii. 14 jj ava> 
kKtio-k tov deov), a holy calling (2 Tim. 
i. 9), a heavenly calling (Hebr. iii. 1 
#cXi;o-«os iirovpavlov /ic'to^oi note), which 
carries with it great obligations (c. iv. 1 

a£io\s irepiiraTTJo-ai rfjs (cXifc-ems) calling 

for responsible effort on the part of 
those who had received it (2 Pet. i. 10 

OTrouSao-are ftefiaiav vpav ttjv kXtjo-iv... 

iroteio-dat), and corresponding with a 
unity of corporate life (c. iv. 4). 
Cbmp. 2 Thess. i. 1 1 irpo<revx6p.cda 

...iva a^iao-ri Ttjs K\tjo-ea>s 6 6e6s 
T}p<*>v. ... 

The verb nakkiv is used characteris- 
tically of God (yet see Gal. i. 6 ; v. 8) 
and the call, as His act, is treated as 
effectual (1 Cor. i. 9; Rom. viii. 30; 

1 Pet. ii. 9 ; v. 10). At the same time 
the call is continuous (1 Thess. ii. 12 
tov Kahovvros ; v. 24 6 KaKav). Under 
the human aspect it needs effort (1 Pet. 
i. 15 ; 1 Thess. iv. 7 ; 1 Tim. vi. 12 ; 

2 Thess. ii. 14). In 1 Cor. vii. 17 ff. 
the call appears to be to the outward 
society only. 

6 ttXovtos t. Sdfijs...] Men are not 
only called by God and so assured that 
it is His will that they should come 
to His Presence (Ps. xvi. 1 1 ; xvii. 1 5), 
but the nature of their inheritance is 
already known to them ' in the saints' 
Every unfulfilled aspiration is a pro r 
phecy of that which shall be. Already 
in the Christian fellowship there is a 
beginning and a promise. The future 
consummation grows out of that which 
is. 'Christ in us' expresses shortly 
what is 'the wealth of the glory' 
prepared for men (Col. i. 27), the 
fulness of their 'inheritance' (Acts xx 
32). On the idea of ' inheritance ' see 
Hebr. ix. 15; xi. 7 ff. 

The phrase d n-Xouror Ttjs 86£r)s 
occurs in three other places : Rom. ix. 
23 Iva yv<opi<ri) rbv itKovtov Ttjs 86£t)s 
avTov eirt crxeiii; iXiovs a irpot)ToipAioev 

els 86£av ; Eph. iii. 16 iva S<3 v. Kara 

TO 7r\oVTOS Ttjs 86^TfS avTOV. . .KpaTCUU)- 

&Tjvcu...cls tov eo-o) avQpumav, KaroiKtjo-ai 
tov xP t0 " r bv...iv Tah Kapfii'ats...; Col. 
1. 27 ljdiXrjo-ev 6 8eos yvaplo-ai t'i to 
ttXovtos Ttjs ftoijtjs tov pvo-TTjpiov TOVTOV 
...o earn/ Xpiordr iv, 17 iXnls tt\s 

In each case union with the Incar- 
nate Word is the spring and the 
measure of the glory. All is summed 

up in I Cor. iii. 23 iravra vpav, vptls 
8e Xptorov, XpiaTos 8e Beov. 

19. ti rou7rep/3oXXoi'...] The attain- 
ment of this transcendent glory is 
seen to be possible when we consider 
what God has done in the Christ. 
The Resurrection and the Ascension 
furnish the type of his working on 
behalf of believers, who are members 
of His body. 

McycBos occurs here only in N.T. 
For virepfldWov comp. e. ii. 7 ; 2 Cor. 
iii. 10 ; ix. 14 ; and 2 Cor. iv. 7. 

Kara ttjv ivepyeiav...Ttjs ur^. czJtou] 
Compare for Kar ivepyeiav C. iii. 7 Kara 
ttjv ivepyeiav ttjs Bvvapetas avTov, C. iv. 1 6 
KaT ivipyeiav iv /xerpo) evbs eKacTov 
pepovs. Col. i. 29 noma dya>vi£6pevos 
Kara ttjv ivipyeiav avTov. Phil. iii. 21 
peTao-xypaTto-ei. . .Kara ttjv ivipyeiav tov 
8vvao~6ai avTov Kai virord^ai avra ra 
■noma. 2 Thess. ii. 9 ov io-Tiv 1) napov- 
aia tear ivipyeiav tov Sarava. The 

active exercise of the power of God in 
the case of the Messiah, the Son of 
man, supplied a standard of the help 
which He would bring to His people. 
The combination Kparos ttjs laxvos 
occurs again c. vi. 10. A corresponding 
phrase is found in Col. i. 1 1 to Kparos 
rtjs 8o§tjs. Kparos is might, strength 
regarded as abundantly effective in 
relation to an end to be gained or 
dominion to be exercised : tabu's is 
strength absolutely. For Kparos see 
Hebr. ii. 14 ; and (in doxologies) 1 Tim. 



[I 20, 21 

tov KpaTOVs t»7S to^vos avTOv rjv evt]pyr]Kev ev tw 
%jOi<TTft? eyeipas clvtov e'/c veicpwv, Kal kaOicac eN aeSia 
aytoy ei/ Tots eTrovpaviois n virepavta Tracnvs dp%fjs Kai 
i^ovcrlas Kal Swa/mews Kal KuptOTriTos Kal TravTos ovo- 
juaros dvopLa^pfievov ov fiovov ev tw almvi tovtw a'AAa 

20 tvi)pyr\aev 

vi. 16 ; 1 Pet. iv. n ; v. 11 ; Jude 25 ; 
Apoc. i. 6; v. 13; and for lax&s 
2 Thess. i. 9 ; 1 Pet. iv. 11; 2 Pet. 
ii. 11. 

20 f. As St Paul touches on 'the 
working of the might of God's strength' 
in the exaltation of Christ as the sure 
ground of Christian confidence, he 
seems himself to be overpowered by 
the wonders which it involves, and 
follows its consequences through the 
orders of the heavenly hierarchy and 
successive stages in the accomplish- 
ment of God's counsel, that he may 
indicate the unimaginable dignity of 
which humanity is found capable in 
its Head. 

20. j] v e'vijpy. iv to) xpiiTTa] which 
He hath wrought (or wrought) in 
the Christ. The title— the Christy- 
emphasises the relation in which the 
Lord stood to His people in the age- 
long counsel of God. 

The Divine work for the Messiah 
is summed up in the two facts that 
God (i) raised Him from the dead, 
and (2) set Him at His right hand in 
sovereign power. This was the first 
apostolic message : Acts ii. 32 ff. ; v. 
30 ff. 

The exaltation of Christ was the 
sign and pledge of the triumph of 
the Christian. Comp. 1 Pet. i. 21 ; 
2 Cor. iv. 14; Rom. viii. 11. 

eye ipas] This is the uniform teach- 
ing of the apostles : Acts iii. 15; iv. 
10; v. 30; x. 40; xiii. y]\ 1 Thess. i. 
10; 1 Cor. vi. 14; xv. 15; 2 Cor. iv. 14; 
Gal. i. 1 ; Rom. iv. 24 ; viii. 1 1 ; x. 9 ; 
Col. ii. 12 ; 1 Pet. i. 21. The words 
of the Lord in John x. 18 indicate the 
complementary aspect of the truth 
which is not further developed. 'To 

take life again' is different from 'to 
rise.' Comp. c. ii. 5. See Additional 
Note [p. 189 ff.]. 

Ka&io-as] Ps. ex. 1. Comp. Hebr. 
i. 13 note. 

21. virepava irairrjs dp^....J Comp. 

iii. 10 and Additional Note. 

For imepava comp. c. iv. 10; Hebr. 
ix. 5. V.L. gives super omne initium. 

iravrbs ovofiaTos] A name describes 
a dignity more personal and essential 
than an office. The name is designed 
to express what he who bears it is and 
not simply what he holds. Comp. Phil, 
ii. 9. 

01J p.6vov...] For the implied con- 
trast between 'this age' and 'the age 
to come,' see cc. ii. 2; vi. 12. The 
apostle looks forward to 'coming ages,' 
springing one out of the other els 
ndaas ras yeveas tov alwvos twi* alavav 
e. iii. 21 note. 

For 'the coming age' see Hebr. 

vi. 5 (ii. 5 OLKOvp.evr]v tt]v fieWovtrav). 
It occupies a far less prominent 
place in the apostolic teaching than 
might have been expected. All is 
summed up in the irapovvia, which 
however is not mentioned in this 
Epistle. Primasius dimly feels that 
the contrast between the two ages 
is not in succession of time but in 
character: infuturo hoc est in caelesti 
quod nobis futurum est, non Deo nee 

(3) A summary account of the work 
of God for men through Christ (i. 22 — 
ii. 10). 

22 And He put all things in sub- 
jection under His feet; and He 
gave Him to be Head over all things 
to the Church 23 which is His body, 
the fulness of Him Who reaches 

I 22] 



Kai iv too /meAAovTC aa icai ttanta -fneTASeN ytto toyc no^c 
aytoy, Kai avTOv e'SftJKei/ Ke<j)aArjv virep iravTa Trj e/c/c/Vfj- 

His fulness through all things in 
all; ii. ' and you He quickened when 
ye were dead through your trespasses 
and sins * wherein aforetime ye 
walked according to the course of 
this world, according to the prince 
of the power of the air, of the spirit 
that now worketh in the sons of dis- 
obedience; 3 among whom we also all 
once lived in the lusts of our flesh, 
doing the will (lit. wills) of the flesh 
and of the mind (lit. thoughts), and 
were children by nature of wrath, 
even as the rest of men : — * but God 
being rich in mercy, for His great 
love wherewith He loved us, 5 even 
when we were dead through our tres- 
passes quickened us together with the 
Christ (by grace have ye been saved), 
6 and raised us up with Him and 
made us to sit with Him in the 
heavenly order in Christ Jesus; 7 that 
in the ages to come He might shew 
the exceeding riches of His grace in 
kindness towards us in Christ Jesus: 
— s for by grace have ye been saved 
through faith ; and that not of your- 
selves: 9 it is the gift of God, not of 
works tliat no man should glory — 
10 For it is His workmanship we are, 
created in Christ Jesus for good 
works, which God afore prepared 
that in t/iem we should walk. 

22. St Paul suddenly changes the 
form of his wilting. In the preceding 
verses he has set out the truths which 
the Ephesians were to master for 
themselves through the teaching of 
'the spirit of wisdom and revelation' : 
He now declares directly what God 
has done. The transition is prepared 
naturally by the reference to the 
Resurrection and Ascension of Christ. 
These facts were not only events fitted 
to confirm the greatest hopes of Chris- 
tians: they were the beginnings of a 
new order. Not only was Christ 
Himself exalted to the heavens : He 
is invested with universal sovereignty 

(comp. Matt, xxviii. 18). He is even 
now Head of His Church on earth ; 
and He has already exercised His 
sovereignty by the gift of His quicken- 
ing grace. 

The three points are distinctly 
marked and just as in the former 
section they are described with in- 
creasing fulness : 

( 1 ) iravra vireTa£ev viroTovsirodas avrov. 

(2) avrov eStOKev Ke<pa\r)v virep iravra 

ttj eKK\rjo-ia, 
7)TLS i(TTiv to (rcafia avrov, 
to ir\rjpapu tov to. iravra ev traaiv 


(3) vpas ovras vexpovs tois irapairTta- 

paaiv Kai Tois apaprlais vfiav. . . 
ev ols [tois viols Trjs direi&ias} Kai 
rjpelsirdvres dveo~rpdcprjpev irore. . . 
Kai ovras r] veKpovs rols irapa- 

o~vve£a>07rolr]0~cv [ev] Tcp xpiara... 
iva evhei^qrai. . . 

avrov yap ecrpev iroirjpa 

In the last section the construction 
is sacrificed to the crowding fulness 
of the thoughts. 

22. Kai iravra... avrov] Ps. viii. 6. 
The treatment of this passage in Hebrl 
ii. 5 ff. furnishes a commentary on the 
words here. Compare also I Cor. xv. 
27 ff. 

Kai avrov eS<oK€i/...J The unusual 
order gives emphasis. 'And He it 
was — none other— Whom God gave to 

KecpaXr/v] The image occurs in a 
different yet cognate application in 

I Cor. xi. 3 iravrbs dvbpbs r] Ke<pakrf o 
Xpio-Tos (otiv, KecpaKr) hi yvvaiKos 6 
dvr/p, KeCpaXf/ He tov ^pio-rov 6 Beos. 

Comp. c. v. 23. The thought of sove- 
reignty, already given, is now con- 
nected with that of vital union with a 
glorious organism which draws its life 
from Him (c. iv. 15; Col. ii. 19). 

virep iravra] Sovereign over all the 
other elements included in it. 

Trj e'/cKXi)<ri'a] See App. [p. 172 ff.} 


aia, 33 jjTiS ecrTiv to (Tu>\JLa avTOv, to TrXriptofxa rod ra 

23. rjns itrriv to o\ avi\ which 
is — seeing it is — His body. The 
qualitative relation has its full force. 

For the development of the idea of 
the Church as the Body of Christ see 
Additional Note (in App.). 

to 7rXi;p<»/ia...] the fulness of Him 
Who reaches His fulness through all 
things in all. Latt. qui omnia in 
omnibus adimpletur {impletur) : some 

The active sense which is generally 
given to ir\r)povp.ivov {who filleth) 
finds no support in the use of the 
word in the N.T. Both voices occur in 
this Epistle : cc. iii. 19 ha v\rjpa>8fjTe 
€iff (or ha n\T)pu>6fi) nav to Tr\rjpa>p.a 
roil dcov. V. 18 7r\r)povo-0e iv irvev- 
fiari and again iv. 10 ha 7r\r)p<£o-rj to 

Again even if the active sense were 
possible it does not appear to fall in 
with the context. It is indeed true 
that Christ does 'fill all things' (c. iv. 
10). That is the relation in which He 
stands to them. But here the thought 
is of the converse relation of created 
things to Christ. For while, on the 
one side, Christ gives their true being 
to all things by His presence (Col. i. 17 ; 
cf. Acis xvii. 28) and Christians in 
a special sense reach their 'fulness,' 
their complete development, in Him 
(c. iv. 15; Col. ii. 10); on the other 
side, all things are contributary to 
Him, and He himself finds His fulness 
in the sum of all that He brings into 
a living union with Himself. Thus 
the Church is His Body, in which, 
gathering to itself the first-fruits of 
creation, He is Himself presented to 
the eye of faith. The fulness, if we 
may so speak, is at present represen- 
tative only. The end is not yet, but 
it is prepared and prefigured. It will 
be reached through the summing up 
of all things in Christ through the 
Church, that God may be all in all 

(Col. iii. 1 1 navra Kai iv itaaiv Xpio-Tos, 
I Cor. XV. 28 Tore xa\ avros 6 viot 

\moTayrjO~€Tai tw virora^avri avTa ra 
iravra, ha jj 6 6ebs navra iv iraaiv). 

The present n\r]povnivov shews that 
the process is continuous till all things 
are brought into subjection to Christ. , 

The construction of ra iravra with 
ir\rjpovp.ivov is illustrated by the re- 
markable phrase in Col. i. 9 ha ir\t)pm- 
Bf]T€ T7)v iiriyvaatv tov 6e\rjpaTos avTOV. 

The knowledge itself constituted the 
fulness for which the Apostle looked. 
Comp. c. iii. 19. 

For n\ripa>iia see Lightfoot, Col.i. 19. 

Primasius gives the main sense : 
Qui [Christus] totus in membris om- 
nibus adimpletur non in singulis, ne 
ulla diversitas meritorum sit ; quando 
omnes crediderint et perfecti fuerint, 
tunc erit corpus perfectum in omnibus 

ii. 1 — 10. In describing the third 
element in the Lord's present work, 
St Paul enlarges the scope of his 
original statement, and shews how the 
mercy and love of God was extended 
not only to Gentiles (1, 2) but to all 
Christians alike, whether Jews or 
Gentiles (3 — 6), who are a new creation 
designed for the fulfilment of His will 

The development of the truth, 
though the construction is irregular 
and broken by parentheses, is perfectly 
natural. After characterising the 
former life of the Ephesians as answer- 
ing to the influence of 'the spirit that 
now worketh in the sons of disobedience ' 
(1, 2), he adds that he and all with 
him shared their life, and following 
the impulses of nature were 'children 
of wrath' as all other men ; and then, 
having thus exhibited the wider need 
of God's quickening love, he contem- 
plates the whole Christian society, 
and no longer the Ephesians only or 
specially, as the objects of salvation in 
Christ (4 — 6) and a proof of God's 
exceeding goodness to all future ages 
(7). For a moment he returns again, 
as in a brief parenthesis before (v. 5 

II 1,2] 



TTavra ev 7ra(riv ir\r]povjJLevov. II. * Kal i/^uas ovtcls 
veicpovs toIs TraponrTcbfACKTiv Kal rats a/zap-nats vfxwv, 
'ev ats 7roTe 7repi67raTr)(raTe Kara tov aldova tov koct/uiov 
tovtov, KciTa tov ap^ovra 777s e^ov(ria<z tov ae'joos, tov 

Xa'pin' 6 ore ereo-MO-ftcVx), to the Ephes- 

ians (8, 9); and then shews how the 
testimony of the Church will be 
delivered by the performance of the 
works which are prepared for believers 

1. Kaivpas...] A nd you He quick- 
ened when ye were dead through your 
trespasses and sins. The clause is 
strictly parallel to the two which go 
before : And he put all things in 
subjection... And he gave Him to be... 
And you he quickened.... 

veKpovs rois Trap. Kal du.i\ For veKpovs 

see c. v. 14; Matt. viii. 22 || Lk. ix. 60; 
Lk. xv. 24, 32; John v. 25 (21); Rom. 
vi. 13 (xi. 15); Apoc. iii. 1. For veicp. 

tois wapairT. dead through offences 

compare Col. ii. 13 veKpovs ovras Tols 
wapanrdv-ao-tv Kal rfj aKpofivo-Tiq rrjs 

o-apKos vpdv, cp. i Pet. i. 1 8. Contrast 

Rom. viii. IO to pev o-dpa veKpbv di 

Neicpoj describes generally the 
complete absence of the characteristic 
power of that to which it is referred. 
Sin is dead (Rom. vii. 8) when it is 
unable to work its effects. On the 
other hand men are regarded as 'dead 

to sin' (Rom. vi. 1 1 vcKpoiis rrj dpapria) 

when they are held to be incapable of 
sinning. Faith is dead (James ii. 17, 
26) when it fails to produce its corre- 
sponding works. Works are dead 
(Hebr. vi. i, note; ix. 14) when they 
are destitute of that divine element 
which alone gives them reality. Men 
are dead in respect to that which is 
the true characteristic of man when 
they are without that power through 
which they grow to the Divine like- 
ness for which men were made. This 
comes from the indwelling of Christ 
(Gal. ii. 20 ; John xiv. 6 ; xi. 25 f.). 
Sin excludes Him. 

The variations in order, v. 1 nai 
ovtus veKpovs, V. 5 Kal ovras fipas 
veKpovs, Col. ii. 13 xal vpas veKpovs 

Svras are to be noticed as indicating 
subtle differences of emphasis. The 
position of omas is unusual, yet it 
occurs again v. 20 ; Rom. v. 6 (contrast 
v. 8); xvi. 1. Comp. Acts xix. 31; 
xxvii. 2, 9. 

2. ev als nore 7repic?r.] Sins were 
more than occasional acts; they were 
the medium, the atmosphere, of their 
ordinary life. 

Ilepj7ra7-elv is used of personal action, 
in regard to the man himself: dva- 
o-Tpeqbeo-8ai of social action, converse 
among other men (v. 3 ev oh dveo-rpa- 
<pT)p.ev [contrast Col. iii. 6 ev ots (neut.) 
Kal vp.ets nepieiraTrio-aTe] ; 2 Cor. i. 12; 
1 Tim. iii. 15; even when this is not 
expressly defined, Hebr. x. 33 ; xiii. 18 ; 
1 Pet. i. 17; 2 Pet. ii. 18); o-roixelv 
of action directed on particular lines 
(Gal. vi. 16; Rom. iv. 12; Phil. iii. 16). 

For nepmare'iv ev see i John i. 6 

Kara, tov aimva t. k. t.] Latt. secun- 
dum seculum mundi hujus, according 
to the course of this world. The use of 
aldv recals the familiar phrase 'cor- 
rumpere et corrumpi seculum vocatur' 
(Tac. Germ. 19). Aldv describes an 
age marked by a particular character : 
koo-ums the whole constitution of things. 

Kara tov apx-..] According to the 
prince of the power of the air, of the 
spirit that now worketh in the chil- 
dren of disobedience. 'The course of 
the world' corresponds with the being 
who is its god (2 Cor. iv. 4 8e bs tov 
almvos tovtov). This temporary and 
contingent power (Lk. iv. 6 n-apaSe- 
8otoi, John xii. 31) is contrasted with 
the universal sovereignty of God, 
I Tim. i. 17 o j3ao"iXeir rav aldvav. 



[II 3 

7ri/eufjaTOS tov vvv evepyovvros ev tois viols Trjs airei- 
6ias' z ev ols Kal ijfieis iravTes dvea-Tpatp^fxev ttotc iv 
rats eTrSvjj.iai'i ttjs arapKos r\fxwv, iroiovvTes to. OeXrifxaTa 
Ttjs trapicos Kal twv hiavoiwv, Kal rj/uieda Tewa (f>vo~ei 

Comp. John xii. 31 ; xvi. 11 6 Spxav 

TOV KO<Tfl.OV T0VT0V J xiV. 30 6 TOV KOO-flOV 


I Cor. ii. 6 twv dpftovroiv tov alavos 
tovtov Tav Karapyovfievatv. 

For the use of Kara compare koto. 
6e6v c. iv. 24; 2 Cor. vii. 10, n ; Rom. 
viii. 27 ; I Pet. v. 2 ; Kara tov KaXeo-avra 
I Pet. i. 15; Kara Xp. 'I. Rom. xv. 5 ; 
Kara Xp. Col. ii. 8 ; Kara Kvpiov 2 Cor. 
xi. 17; Kara avBpairov I Cor. iii. 3; 
ix. 8 ; xv. 32 ; Gal. i. 11; iii. 1 5 ; 
Rom. iii. 5 ; (vii. 22) ; 1 Pet. iv. 6 
(Kara dvOpcoTrovSf kclto. Beov). 

See Additional Note [App. p. 195]. 

'The power of the air' is the 'spirit' 
which is active -in 'the sons of dis- 
obedience,' and is subordinate to a 
higher, 'personal,' power (o apxav rrjs 

e£. tov aepos). 

The phrase r) i£ovo-la tov aipos 
(compare Col. i. 13 epva-aro r) ck. 
t!js il-avo-Las tov o-rotovs) is borrowed 
from the language of current thought 
which regarded the lower regions of 
the sky (ar)p, compare 1 Thess. iv. 17) 
as tenanted by evil spirits; and the 
adoption of the idea by St Paul justi- 
fies us in believing that we can so 
most truly represent to ourselves our 
relation to the unseen adversaries by 
which we are surrounded. They are, 
so to speak, within reach of us; and 
110 fact of experience is more clear 
than that we are exposed to assaults 
of evil from without. 

iv toIs violr tt)s air.] Latt. in filiis 
diffidentice (al. incredulitatis, inobe- 
dienticn, infidelitatis). So in c. v. 6 
(inserted by transcribers in Col. iii. 6). 
Compare Matt. viii. 12; xiii. 38 01 viol 
rrjs /3ao-iXei'ar; Matt. ix. 15; Mk ii. 19; 
Lk. v. 34 °i vloi tov vvp.<pavos, XX. 36 
Ttjs avao-Taaeas viol ovres, John xii. 36; 
i Thess. v. 5 viol (pcoros; 1 Thess. v. 5 

wol 17/ifpas. And note the special title 
6 vios tt)s dtraXfias John xvii. 12 
(Judas); 2 Thess. ii. 3 6 avBpamos ttjs 
dvo/iias (or dfiaprias). 
Similar phrases are formed with 

tckvov, see V. 3 Tfuva (fcvo-ei opyrjs 

and note. 

'Disobedience,' conscious resistance 
to the will of God, lays men open to 
the working of Satan and his hosts 
(John iii. 36). 

3. At this point St Paul is con- 
strained to recognise that the descrip- 
tion which he has given of the moral 
condition of the Ephesians applied 
also to himself, a Jew by birth, and his 
fellow-believers. Before their con- 
version they were not separated from 
the 'sons of disobedience,' among 
whom, he adds, we all also once 
lived... doing the will (lit. wills) of 
the flesh and of the mind-. The 

plurals ra 6ehr)p.aTa and tq>i> biavoiuiv 
(v.l. consiliorum, V. cogitationum, 
Hieron. Comm. mentium) do not 
admit of a simple translation. The 
thought is of the multiplicity of 
purposes suggested by 'the flesh' and 
by the many thoughts of a discursive 

For ra 6e\rju.aTa comp. Acts xiii. 22 
and var. led. Mk iii. 35 ; and for 
twv Siav. Hebr. x. 16 var. led. (lxx.). 

For the general description compare 
1 Cor. vi. 9 ff. ; Tit. iii. 3 ; 1 Pet. 
iv. 3. 

Kal rjfLtBa TeKva tpvo~ei opyrjs. . .] Latt. 

et eramus (fuimus) natura (al. na- 
turaliter, al. naturales) filii irm (ira- 
cundiw JUii)\ and were children by 
nature — as we followed our natural 
impulses — of wrath even as the rest 

1 Hier. ad loc. Quidam pro eo quod nunc ex- 
posuimue et eramus natura Jttvi irce pro natura, 
prorsus sive omnino, quia verbum tfrvtret ambigu- 
um est, transtulerunt. 

II 4-6] 



opyijs cos Kai ol Xonroi' — 4 o Se deos 7r\ov<rios wv iv eXeei, 

via ty\v itoWy)v d<yd-jrt]v avTOV rjv r\<y airier ev »?/>tas, s kcli 

ovtws »|^as i/eK(0Ovs tois irapairTw/jLaa-iv (rvvefyoo'jroirjcrev 

™ ^(OttTTftJ, — yapiTi eaTe tretrwtr/zeVot, — 6 Kal (rvv^yeipev 

5 <?>- 

S t$] praem &Bi773ii8vg (eoddal) bo arm 

Having shown the universality of 
spiritual need, St Paul cannot com- 
plete the sentence which he has 
begun. To say '(and you...) He quick- 
ened' would be to neglect the real 
scope of Christian work. So he merges 
the less in the greater and continues : 
'but God being rich in mercy, for 
His great love wherewith he loved 
us even when we were dead through 
our trespasses, quickened us — us no 
less than you — with the Christ.' 

4. nXovtrios ev e'Xeei] Compare 
James ii. 5 irkovaiovs ev irio-rci, I Tim. 
vi. 18 irXovrelv ev epyots Kakois. 

The image is characteristic of the 
tone of thought iu the Epistle. See 
i. 18 note. 

With iv ikeet 8ta rfjv noXkr/v (v.I. 
multam, V. nimiam) dyairrjv compare 
I Pet. i. 3 o Kara to no\v avrov e\eos 
dvayevvyo-as rjpas, Tit. iii. 5- The 

motive of God in the redemption of 
the world is simply mercy and love. 
This truth is affirmed alike by St Peter, 
St Paul and St John (iii. 16). 

5. Kai ovras rjuas] even when we 
were... His love survived our spiritual 
death (John iii. 16; 1 John iv. 10). 

o~vve£. (rvvrfy. (rwe/cd#.] The three 
words express a climax in the mani- 
festation of the love of God. He 
quickened the dead with life : He 
restored them to the full use of the 
powers of their former life : He raised 
them, without the loss of the perfec- 
tion of their humanity, to a life in the 
heavenly order. 

The Latin forms convimficavit, con- 
resuscitavit (v.I. coexcitavit) are cha- 

<Tvve£aojrotr)o-ev] Col. ii. 13. 

xapiri e'a-Tf crecrao-fi.] by grace ye 

of men. The word <f>vo-ei. is in itself 
ambiguous. In other passages in the 
N.T. where it occurs it means 'by 
birth' (Gal. ii. 15 foeis (jyvo-ei 'lov8awi); 
'by constitution' (Gal. iv. 8 rots cpvo-et 
fir) ovo-t tfeoir) and 'by the exercise of 
natural powers' (Rom. ii. 14 orav... 
(f)v(Tei ra tov vofiov lroiacriv). In this 

place it describes the result of man's 
action so far as he is unaided by the 
Spirit of God. There is in his nature, 
as the Jew found in spite of God's 
covenant with him, that which issues 
in sin. Actual Sin is in fact universal 
and this deserves God's wrath till an 
atonement is found (John iii. 36 ; comp. 
Deut. xxv. 2 a son of beating). And more 
than this : m ortality itself , as it is , iSj 
according to the teaching of the Bible, 
the sign of sin , of man's fall from the 
divine ideal (Gen. ii. 17 ; iii. 19 ; 
James i. 15; comp. Hebr. ii. 14 f.). 
In this sense also, as sharers in a 
mortal nature, Jew and Gentile alike 
can be spoken of as objects of God's 
displeasure. Origen, translated by 
Jerome, combines the two thoughts : 

rifie is olop.e6a 81a ro <rafia rrjs Taweiva- 
o-eas yeyovevai TeKva (pvo~ei opyrjs, ore 
(1. on) tvexeiTO j)p.S>v r\ bmvoia eVl 
ra irovrjpa i< yeon/ros. 

The record of Bp Butler's death 
offers an impressive commentary on 
the phrase : Bartlett's Life, pp. 221 f. 

T4Kva...opyqs] Compare c. v. 8, 

TeKva (Jxotos, I Pet. i. 14 TeKva viraKorjs, 
2 Pet. ii. 14 Rarapas TeKva (Gal. iv. 28; 
Rom. ix. 8 TCKva iirayyikias). The 

general difference which holds between 
vioi deoi and riKva Beov (see on 1 Jo. 
iii. 1, with Additional Note) appears to 
underlie these wider uses of reicvov and 
vios (see v. 2 note). 



[II 7-10 

Kai (rvveKa.di<rev ev rots eTrovpavioi<s ev Xpurrw '\r\<rov, 
"I'tva ivSei^riTai ev rots aitoariv rots eTrep^o /nevoid to 
v7rep/3a\\ou 7tAoutos Trjs %dpiTO$ avTOv ev ^prjcrTOTrirt 
i(p' q^as ev Xpurrip '\r\crov. s rrj yap ^dpiri eVxe cretrw- 
(Tfxevoi hid 7rto"Teft)s" kgc* tovto ovk e£ v/maJv, deov to 
Zcopov 9 ovk e£ epywv, 'iva fxr\ ti<s Kavyr\o"r\Tai. *° clvtov 

have been saved. The abrupt return 
to the second person (so v. 8) is 
natural and full of force. The tense 
must be noticed. It can be said of 

the believer, o-dgtrai, aa>6r)o-(Tai, c<ria8t], 
oweoo-Tai. I Cor. i. 1 8 ; 2 Cor. ii. 15 
(01 <ra(6iuvoi) ; Rom. v. 9 f. (o-oj^o-o- 
fieda); Rom. viii. 24 (e'<7<o%iei<) ; 2 Tim. 
i. 9 (rou crdcravTos ij/iSr). 

6. o-up»;y«pe!/] Col. ii. 12; iii. 1. The 
Resurrection of Christ was ideally the 
quickening of all believers, the first- 
fruits of humanity. 

<rvv(Ka6i<Tiv\ Compare Phil. iii. 20. 

These acts which are complete on 
the Divine side have to be realised on 
the side of man : Rom. viii. 1 1 ; 2 Cor. 
iv. 14; Apoc. iii. 21. Of. Rom. vi. 

For man, as for the Son of man, the 
victory is completed in the triumph. 

7. Thought cannot give distinct- 
ness to the vision of the counsel of 
God wrought out in the succession of 
ages. Through all redeemed man 
seen in Christ Jesus is seen as a 
glorious witness to the amazing 
wealth of God's grace, moving, it may 
be, other races to faith and hope 
and love, to thanksgiving and praise, 
through which their destiny will be 

Comp. 1 Pet. i. 12; 1 Cor. iv. 9. 

to vircpfi. 7rX. r. x-] His grace 
corresponds with His power: c. i. 19 
to virepfi. fxey. rrjs Svv. airov. 

iv xpio-tot?)t(] That kindness which 
is tender and considerate. Among 
human graces it stands in Gal. v. 22 
between long-suffering and goodness, 
in 2 Cor. vi. 6 between long-suffering 
and holy spirit, and in Col. iii. 12 

between tender compassion and 
humility. As a Divine attribute 
it is joined with forbearance and 
long-suffering in Rom. ii. 4, with 
(ftiXavBpama in Tit. iii. 4, and con- 
trasted with dnoTopia in Rom. xi. 22. 

Compare Matt. xi. 30; Lk. vi. 35; 
1 Pet. ii. 3 [cit. from Ps. xxxiv. 8]. 

8, 9. These verses are parenthetical, 
repeating and developing the brief 
parenthesis in v. 5. 

rrjyapx.] It is as if the Apostle said : 
I dwell on these facts of the grace and 
the kindness of God, familiar to us 
from past experience, lest any thought 
of deserving should arise in your 
minds, 'for it is by grace ye have 
been saved through faith.' 

8. Kai toCto...] And this saving 
energy of faith is not of yourselvei : 
it is a gift, and the gift is God's. The 
variation in construction occurs not 
unfrequently : 4( v. evolved as it were 
from the action of personal powers. 

There is an underlying reference to 
the Law: cf. Rom. iii. 20, 24. 

For Kai tovto introducing a new 
element see 1 Cor. vi. 6, 8 ; Phil, 
i. 28. 

^foO to 8.] Comp. John vi. 44. 

9. ovk e£ cpyav] It is not the 
result of a natural evolution of 
character, and yet more, it is not the 
result of self-originated and self- 
supported effort: it is not of works, 
that no man may boast. 

iva p,ri tis Kav\.] Latt. ut neguis 
glorietur (al. extollatur). Self-asser- 
tion is fatal to spiritual life. 

Comp. 1 Cor. i. 29; Rom. iii. 27. 

There is indeed a right boasting : 
1 Cor. i. 31; 2 Cor. x. 17; Gal. vi. 14. 




yap ia-fxev iroir\iJ.a, KTurdevres eu Xpurrw 'Incrov eirl 
epyois dyadols ois TrporiToijiacrev 6 deos tva iv avroTs 

The group of words KavxStrdai, 
«"5ffl/m, Kwixria-K, is characteristic of 
St Paul. They occur in all groups of 
his Epistles excepting the Pastoral; 
elsewhere only in St James (i. 9 ; iv. 16) 
and Hebr. iii. 6. 

IO. avrov yap ia-pev n.~\ V. Ipsius 
enim sumus factura (v. 1. figmentum). 
For it is His workmanship — of His 
making — we are. . . The position of the 
pronoun is emphatic. Cp. vn. 14, 18. 

jroiij/ia] Rom. i. 20 ; Is. xxix. 1 6. 
Very frequent in Eccles. e.g. viii. 9. 

Diligenter observa quia non dixerit 
Ipsius figuratio sumus atque plas- 
matio, sed ipsius factura sumus... 
Factura primum locum tenet, deinde 
plasmatio (Hier. ad loc). 

KTurBevres . . . TrepiiraTyaafifv] creat- 
ed in Christ Jesus for good works 
•which God afore prepared that in 
them we should walk. The words 
give the whole history of the 
Christian life from the divine and 
from the human side. The Christian 
is a new creation (2 Cor. v. 17), not 
alone and independent, but in Christ: 
he is not left to self-chosen activity, 
but set for the accomplishment of 
definite works which God has made 
ready for his doing: his works are 
prepared, and so the fulfilment of his 
particular duty is made possible; and 
still it is necessary that he should 
accept it with that glad obedience 
which is perfect freedom. 

KTiirde pro] That which is realised 
in time through faith is referred to its 
origin in the primal Divine action. 
Comp. c. i. 4 ; CoL i. i6f. 

Ki-i'f<» emphasises a new beginning, 
a creation. It is used characteristically 
of the creation of the natural order : 
Mc. xiii. 19; Rom. i. 25 ; Eph. iii. 9; 
CoL i. 16; Apoc. iv. 11; and of 
particular parts of it : 1 Cor. xi. 9 ; 
1 Tim. iv. 3; Apoc. x. 6. It is used 

W. EPH. 

also of spiritual acts of creation both 
social: c. ii. 15, archetypal: c. iv. 24 
(Col. iii. 10), and personal as here. 

However definitely the action of 
the Christian may be limited by his 
inheritance and his environment, by 
his powers and his circumstances, he 
is still responsibly free ; and by true 
service he can realise his freedom. 
No necessity constrains him, but 'in 
Christ' he can fulfil his own part. 

«Vi epyois dyadois] Latt. in operibus 
bonis : some more adequately in opera 
bona, on the condition of... for... 
Comp. I TheSS. iv. 7 eVi aKadap<ria, 
Gal v. 13. 

TrporiToip.atTfv\ Rom. ix. 23. We 
ourselves and our works, so far as they 
are our true works, are alike of God's 

(4) The special significance of the 
call of the Gentiles (ii. 1 1 — 22). After 
indicating the great mysteries of the 
Christian Faith, which he prays that 
the Ephesians may be enabled to 
understand more thoroughly(i. 1 5 — 21), 
and the present action of Christ, 
exalted to be Saviour and King 
towards and through His people 
(ii. 1 — 10), St Paul returns to mark 
more clearly their peculiar blessings 
as Gentiles. He points out the broad 
contrast between their past and 
present condition (1 1 — 13) ; and then, 
after describing the atoning work of 
Christ (14 — 18), shews in detail its 
result for them now that they are 
incorporated in the one Church of 
God (19 — 22). 

11 Wherefore, remember that once 
ye, the Gentiles in the flesh, those 
called Hhe Un circumcision' by thai 
which is called. Hhe Circumcision' 
in the flesh made by hands, — " that 
ye tcere at that time apart from 
Christ, alienated from the common- 
wealth of Israel, and strangers to the 



[II ii 

"Aio fxvt]fJLOveveTe otl 7rore tJ/xets to. edvrj iu arapKi, 
ol Aeyo/mevoi dKpo0uo~Tia vtto t»/s \eyojuevris TrepiTO/uLrjs 

covenants of the promise, having no 
hope and without God in the world. 
n But now in Christ Jesus ye that 
once were ' afar' are made 'near' 
in the blood of the Christ. M For He 
is our peace, He who made both one, 
and broke down the middle wall of 
partition, having abolished in His 
flesh the enmity, even the law of 
commandments expressed in ordin- 
ances ; that He might create (form 
afresh) the twain in Himself into one 
new man, so making peace; l6 and 
might reconcile them both in one 
body unto God through the cross, 
having slain the enmity thereby; 
11 and He came and preached the 
glad tidings of peace to you that 
were far off and peace to them that 
were near; lB because it is through 
Him we both have our access in one 
Spirit to the Father. Z9 So then ye 
are no more strangers and sojourners, 
but fellow-citizens with the saints and 
of the household of God, '"built upon 
the foundation of the apostles and 
prophets, the head corner-stone being 
Christ Jesus Himself; " in Whom 
each several building, fitly framed 
together, groweth unto a holy sanc- 
tuary in the Lord; "in Whom ye 
also are builded together for a 
habitation of God in the Spirit. 

ii — 13. Gentiles must remember 
that they were once apart from 
Christ, alienated from the divine 
commonwealth, strangers to the 
covenants, hopeless and godless, but 
that now they were brought into the 
same position as the chosen people in 
the blood of the Christ. 

11. 816...} Wherefore remember 
that once ye, the Gentiles in the flesh, 
those called 'the Uncircumcision' by 
that which is called 'the Circum- 
cision' in the flesh made by hand. . . 
Wherefore, in view of the glorious 
privileges brought to believers by the 

victory and triumph of Christ, and 
the revelation which they bring of 
the purpose and obligations and 
capacities of life, remember... 

fivrjfiovevcTe] Remembrance is en- 
joined also in the Apocalypse on the 
Angels of the Churches of Ephesus 
and Sardis (Apoc. ii. 5 ; iii. 3). 

to edvt] iv a-apxi] The Gentiles, 
regarded as a class in their outward, 
natural, human character and position, 
in contrast with 17 Xey. 7repiTopfj iv 

With iv irapKi, where 'flesh' is 
regarded as an element of life, must 
be compared Kara o-dpxa, where 'flesh' 
is regarded as the standard and rule 
of life. The two phrases are used 
together in 2 Cor. x. 3. Compare 
Rom. viii. 4, 5, 8ff., 13. 

The characterisation of Gentiles 
and Jews by the addition 'in the 
flesh' serves a double purpose. It 
marks the definite exclusion of the 
Gentiles from the only Covenant 
which God had then made with men, 
and at the same time the inadequacy 
of that Covenant, received only out- 
wardly, to meet human needs even 
provisionally. The Gentiles were out- 
side the Society, to which God had 
been pleased to make His promises, 
and therefore necessarily disqualified 
for its blessings: the Jews, on the 
other hand, keenly alive to the 
inferior position of all other men, too 
often rested in the outward mark of a 
divine relationship, by which they 
were distinguished, and so in their 
pride missed the spiritual teaching, of 
which circumcision was the symbol 
and the preparation (Rom. ii. 25 ff.). 

ol Xey. d. — r. Xey. 7r.] The masc. is 
determined by vptit. 'H dupoSvo-ria 
is used of the uncircumcised : Gal. ii. 
7 ; Rom. ii. 26. 

X^'poiroi^Tov} Elsewhere of the 
Tabernacle and the Temple: Hebr. 

I 12] 



ev <rapKi x ei P 07ro W TOV i — u otl fire tw Kaipw iicelvq) 
%ftj(Ots Xpurrov, dirriKKoTpiufxevoi t^s 7ro\iTems tov 
'l<rparj\ ical £ivoi twv hadritctav tj/s e-jra<y<ye\ias, eXiriha 

ix. ii ; Mk. xiv. 58; Acts vii. 48; 
xvii. 24; Hebr. ix. 24. 

12. on 1JT(...] Remember that 
once ye... that ye were at that time 
apart from Christ, alienated from 
the commonwealth of Israel, and 
strangers to the covenants of the 
promise, having no hope and with- 
out God in the world. Kmpos retains 
its qualitative sense: 'under those 
circumstances,' 'at that season,' and 
not simply 'at that point of time.' 

'Exeii/or has the same force as in 
John xi. 49. 

For the simple dat. compare c. iii. 5 

trepan yeveais. 

X<»p's Xpurrov — Koo-fia] These five 
points summarise the wants of the Gen- 
tiles in their personal, social, spiritual 
relations. They were separate from 
Christ ; they were alienated from the 
divine society which existed, and 
ignorant of the provisions for one 
more comprehensive ; they were with- 
out hope, and without God in a world 
unintelligible except through the sense 
of His Presence. 

X">pis XptoT-oS] Apart from,without 
Christ, not as v. 13 tov xp^o-tov. The 
thought is of the personal relation- 
ship now recognised and not of the 
national hope. Comp. John xv. 5. 

djrrjW cirayytklas] alienated from 

(and not simply 'outside') thecommon- 
wealth of Israel, and strangers to 
(not only unacquainted with but un- 
qualified to enjoy) the covenants of 
the promise. These words indicate 
the two most impressive character- 
istics of Judaism, its inclusiveness 
(not exclusiveness) and its larger hope. 
All who accepted its conditions were 
admitted to its privileges. It claimed 
no finality, but pointed to a universal 
Church. But the Gentiles were 
alienated from (not alien to) the 
institutions of the people of God. 

By Creation they were fitted for the 
Divine fellowship; but, though the 
fundamental promise to Abraham 
included blessing for them, they had 
no place in the Covenants by which 
the blessing was brought closer to the 
life of the chosen race. 

awqWorpiajievoi] C iv. 1 8 drrijXX. 
r!)s (afjs tov deov ; Col. i. 21 <i7ri;\- 
'\oTpiti>p.cvovs sc. tov 6eov. Alienated 
from the commonwealth and so ex- 
cluded from the citizenship. 

iroXiTetas] Latt. a conversatione 
(societate). For iroXtrcia see Acts 
xxii. 28 (citizenship). Here the word 
expresses the 'commonwealth' of 
Israel as including the spiritual 
privileges which were conveyed by 
its divine ordering. 

l-evoi t. 8] Latt. hospites (al. pere- 
grini) testamentorum. The word 
|evos had a technical sense in the 
city-states of Greece, and carries on 
the image of the former clause (comp. 
v. 19). It is used in the same con- 
struction in classical Greek (Soph. 
(Ed. R. 219). 

twv Siadqicav rrjs eVayy.] The one 

promise was brought nearer to realisa- 
tion by successive Covenants. The 
many promises (Rom. ix. 4) were 
summed up in one: Gal. iii. i6f.; 2if. 
Comp. Hebr. x. 36, xi. 9 note, xi. 13 

i\mo~a p.)) €^.J 'We need,' it has 
been truly said, 'an infinite hope'; 
and faith in God alone can give it. 
Faith in God, if we consider what are 
the grounds of our confidence, alone 
justifies our belief in the permanence 
of natural 'laws.' By faith alone we 
enter on the future and the unseen 
(Hebr. xi. 1 note) and so find hope. 
The phrase occurs again in view of 
death (1 Thess. iv. 13). 

ikir. p.rj e%. km a6eoi iv ra Koa-fia] 
There is a strange pathos in the com- 


fxri e)(ovTe<5 ko.1 adeoi iv tw Koa-fxw. 13 vvvl Se ev Xpicrrto 
'Iricrov v/ueis o'l iroTe bvTes makp^n eyevrjdriTe erryc ev 
™ at/maTi tov xptarTOv. I4 Autos yap ecrTiv r\ eipHNH 

bination. They were of necessity face 
to face with all the problems of nature 
and life, but without Him in Whose 
wisdom and righteousness and love 
they could find rest and hope. The 
vast, yet transitory, order of the 
physical universe was for them with- 
out its Interpreter, an unsolved 

The Gentiles had, indeed, 'gods 
many and lords many,' and one God 
as 'a first Cause' in philosophic 
theories, but no God loving men and 
Whom men could love. 

13. The contrast of the present 
position of the Ephesians with their 
past desolation and hopelessness is 
given by a reference to a prophetic 
word (Is. lvii. 19) which spoke of 
'Peace' to those afar and to those 
near: this Peace had been given to 
all in Christ. But novo in Christ 
Jesus ye that once were 'afar' are 
made 'near' in the blood of the 

There appears to be a fulness of 
meaning in the choice of the two 
titles 'in Christ Jesus,' 'in the blood 
of the Christ' 'The Gentiles were 
now united in Him Who was Son of 
man, 'Jesus,' no less than Christ: 
their redemption was wrought by the 
offered life of Him Who was the hope 
of Israel, 'the Christ.' The combina- 
tion recals John xx. 31, and shows 
how the fulness of the Gospel is 
expressed by that summary of the 
scope of the Evangelic narrative. 

Compare vv. 5, 6. 

iv X. 'I.] in Christ Jesus, united in 
Him by a fellowship of life, as mem- 
bers of His body. 

iyevrj8r)Te\ not yeyovare, or tore — 
'were made' by one decisive act. 
The reference is primarily to the 
ideal redemption of the Gentiles 

once for all accomplished by Christ's 
victorious Passion. 

From the first proclamation of the 
Gospel on the day of Pentecost it was 
recognised that the promise was 'for 
all those that were afar' (Acts ii. 39). 

iv tw alfiari tov xpitrrov] Compare 

Hebr. X. 19 els rf/v c'lcroSov rav ay lav 

iv to> aluaTi 'iijcroC. The offered life 
was not only the means of reconcili- 
ation (Sm), but the atmosphere, as it 
were, in which the reconciled sold 
lived. The blood of Christ is 'the 
blood of the New Covenant': Matt. 
xxvi. 28. 

14 — 18. Having used the language 
of Isaiah to describe the change in 
the position of the Gentiles, St Paul 
goes on to show how the prophet's 
central thought was fulfilled in Christ. 
For He is our Peace. He broke down 
the outward barriers which separated 
Jew and Gentile, uniting both and 
reconciling both in one body to God ; 
and coming — after His victory — pro- 
claimed Peace to all far and near, 
because it is through Him that both 
Jew and Gentile have their access to 
the Father, as alike children. 

14. avrbs yap...~\ For He is our 
Peace, He who made both one and 
broke down the middle wall of parti- 
tion, having abolished the enmity, 
represented by that separation, in His 
flesh, even the law of commandments 
expressed in ordinances... St Paul 
speaks first of the two organisations, 
systems (to. dfKporepa), under which 
Jews and Gentiles were gathered as 
hostile bodies, separated by a dividing 
fence, and then afterwards of the two 
bodies themselves (roiis dvo [dvdpd- 
irovs]) included in them. Christ broke 
down the barrier by which the two 
organisations were kept apart and 
made them one, abolishing the enmity 

II i S ] 



tifiiSi/, 6 7rotjjo"a5 toe ct/uKpOTepa ev k<xi to /uecroToixov tov 
(ppwyiiov \v(ra<s, %5 Tr]v k^dpav iv Trj crapici ccvtov, tov 
vojjlov twv ivToXwv iv Soy/'iv, KctTapyticras , 'Iva toi)s 

which was shewn openly in the Law 
(comp. Rom. v. 13 f.), hy His life of 
perfect obedience, the virtue of which 
He offered to Jew arid Gentile alike. 
Thus all men were made capable of a 
living unity. 

avrbs yap...] For He — He Himself 
and no other (compare Matt. i. 21 
avrot yap o-do-ei, and v. 10 note) — is 
our peace both in our relations one to 
another, and in our relation to God. 
He is our peace, as He is the Way 
and the Truth and the Life. He does 
not bring it only, or shew it. So it is 
that St Paul speaks of the Gospel — 
the Gospel of our Salvation (c. i. 13) 
—as 'the Gospel of peace' (c. vi. 15). 

6 Tvoirjo-as ra dfirp. ev] The two 
providential systems under which 'the 
nations' and 'the people' lived up to 
the Coming of Christ, the orders of 
Nature (comp. Rom. ii. 14 ff.) and of 
the Law, are first noticed, and then 
the corresponding 'men' (v. 15). 
Christ removed the partition between 
the systems, which became enmity 
between the peoples, and united both 
'men' in Himself. 

to p.eaoToi\ov tov <ppayp.ov] Latt. 
medium parietem maceriae (sepis). 
For rppaypos see Matt. xxi. 33 and 
parallels. The word peo-oroixov is pro- 
bably suggested by the Chel (7'n) or 

" partition which separated the Court 
of the Gentiles from the Temple 
proper.'' The <ppayp.6s was the p.eo-6- 
toixov : for this use of the genitive see 
c. vi. 14 note. 

\vcras] Comp. John ii. 19 Xi/o-aTt 
tov vabv tovtov. Acts xxvii. 41 ; 
2 Pet. iii. 10 ff. ; 1 John iii. 8 Iva 

\vo~7] Ta epya tov 5taj3oXou. 

1 5. ttjv exdpav] The Pall brought 
to men a twofold enmity, an enmity 
between themselves and an enmity 
towards God (v. 16). The Law 

brought both into clear light. It 
revealed Sin in those who received it 
(Rom. vii. 7 ff.), and fixed a gulf 
between them and other men. Christ 
in His flesh, as has been well said, 
'went behind' the Law, and by 
fulfilling the will of God (Hebr. x. 5 ff.), 
of which the Law was an imperfect 
symbol, abolished it, offering to men 
the pattern and the power of the 
freedom of perfect obedience. That 
which was a barrier between hea- 
thenism and Judaism became ne- 
cessarily a cause of .active enmity 
between Gentile and Jew. 

iv t% o-apKi] Under the conditions 
of our mortal life. Comp. Col. i. 22 

To crap.a ttjs o~apKos avTov, the body 
which answered to these conditions. 
tov v6p.ov tcov ivr. iv 8oy/u.] Comp, 
Hebr. vii. 16 Kara vop.ov cvto\tjs 

The addition iv defines 
the commandments as specific, rigid, 
and outward, fulfilled in external 
obedience (Lk. ii. 1 ; Acts xvi. 4 ; 
xvii. 7; Col. ii. 14 (20)). 

Karapyjo-as] Latt. evacuans (de- 
stituens). The Law was abolished, 
annulled, because it was fulfilled, 
and taken up into something wider 
and deeper (Matt. v. 17 f. ; compare 
2 Cor. iii. 14. In this sense St Paul 
can say (Rom. iii. 31) v6p.ov ovv narap- 

yovpev 81a Trjs niorecos ; nrj yivovro, 

aWa vopov The phrase 
used by him in 1 Cor. xiii. 11 Karrfp- 
yrjKa rii tov vrfrriov presents the 

thought very vividly. The words, 
the conceptions, the reasoning of 
the child are valid for the child. 
But by a normal development they 
pass away and are lost in the ripe 
judgments of the man. 

That which is complete in the 
Divine act may be yet future in 
historic realisation. 'Our Saviour 



[II 16 

5i/o KTitrri iv avrw et? eva icaivov avdpvoirov iromv elpri- 
vrjv, l6 Kal diroKctTaWd^ri toi)s ct/uKJiOTepovs iv ivi trwfxctTi 

Jesus Christ abolished death' (2 Tim. 
i. IO KuTapyq&avros fieu tov 6dvarov...), 
and yet 'we see not yet all things put 
under Him' (Hebr. ii. 8) : we wait till 
the Father hath put all His enemies 
under His feet. The last enemy that 
is abolished is death (1 Cor. xv. 26 
ea-^aros i\6pos Karapyelrai 6 ddvaros). 
80 we look in patience for the fulfil- 
ment of the Divine will in other 
things, sure of the final issue (1 Cor. i. 
28 iva ra ovra KaTapyr)aj]. Rom. vi. 6 
iva KaTapyr/Brj To trapa Trjs dpaprias. 
Hebr. ii. 14 iva 8id tov dav&Tov 
Karapyrjo-rj tov to Kpdros e%ovra tov 
davarov, tovt eari tov SiafioXov). 

Iva tovs 8io] The object of Christ 
in abolishing that which divided men 
was twofold: (1) that He might unite 
the two bodies, the two 'men' in 'one 
new man,' and (2) that He might 
reconcile both to God (». 16). This 
object He gained, though the result 
is not open to our vision. Humanity 
is in Him 'one new man.' The 
'enmity' is slain, though we live 
among the fruits of its earlier vitality. 

The abrupt, unprepared, transition 
from to. iipfp/iTfpa to tovs 8vo, from 
the systems to the men who lived 
under them, and the gathering up of 
those two bodies of men into two 
representative men is a most instruc- 
tive illustration of the thought of a per- 
sonal unity, which Christ has brought 
to creation by 'becoming flesh.' This 
thought fills the apostle. The institu- 
tions of society, as he regards them, 
pass over, as it were, into the men 
whom they have moulded ; and the 
men into the one man, in whom they 
find their full corporate expression. 

kt'utji iv avra els e. k. a.] That He 
might create the twain in Himself, 
taking humanity to Him, and form 
them into one new man. St Paul 
speaks here of 'the two' and not 
of 'both,' in order to mark their 

separateness. By the assumption of 
human nature He gave ideally new 
life to all who share it (2 Cor. v. 17). 
In Him humanity, if we may so speak, 
gained its personality. This truth, 
so far as it is realised in the Church, 
finds expression in the words to the 
Galatians irdvres v/tfis els ('one man' 
not ev) eare iv XpiaTtf (GaL iii. 28). 

For kt'utji els see v. 21 av£ei els, 
v. 22 avvoiKobopelo-de els. 

The 'new man' must be 'put on' by 
those who are ideally included in him : 
c. iv. 24 note. Every man can find 
his place in the divine whole. 

iroiCiv elprpn\v\ Comp. James iii. 18. 

16. Km airoKaTa\kd{;7]...] and re- 
concile them both in one body to God 
through the cross, having slain the 
enmity thereby. 'Through the cross,' 
using it as an altar (comp. Hebr. xiii. 
10 note), Christ offered Himself with- 
out spot to God (Hebr. ix. 14) and 
having taken humanity to Himself 
'reconciled' Jews and Gentiles united 
in one body to God.' By His death 
he slew the enmity. In Him humanity 
bore the doom of sin, and the power 
of sin was abolished. The unity of 
humanity was gained by the Incar- 
nation, the reconciliation of humanity 
to God by the Cross. 

Jerome notices the error of the 
Latin Versions, which give in semet 

ipso reading ev avrtp for ev avrm. 

Comp. Col. ii. 1 5. 

anoKaT....diroKTeivas] The two acts 

are coincident. 

For imoKttTaXXaa&eiv See Col. i. 20 
airoKaraWaf-ai to ndvra els ai>Tov, v. 
21 f. upas . . .dffOKaTijWa^ev ev r<a fffopari 
Trjs cap/cos avrov bia Toil Bavdrov. The 

use of the neuter ndvra will recal the 
remarkable Western reading in John 

xii. 32 ndvra cXkiio-co npos epavrov. 

For aravpos compare 1 Cor. i 17 f. ; 
Gal. v. 11; vi. 12, 14; Phil. ii. 8; 
iii. 18; Col. i. 20 ii. 14; Heb. xii. 2 



™ vew hid tov (rravpov d7roKTeiva<s tt\v eyQpav ev 
avTW' I7 /cat iXdtov efHrreAi'cATo eipHNHN v/uuv toTc 
M*Kp<\N ka'i eipHNHN Toic eprfc ,s oTt St' CtVTOV £X°~ 
fxev Tt]v 7rpo(raycoyrjv 01 d/uKpoTepoi ev evi Trveiifxari irpos 

note. The double construction 8m toC 
(rravpov, iv avra is significant. In the 
former the Cross is the instrument 
which the Lord uses : in the latter 
it is, so to speak, the vehicle of His 
activity in which He is present He 
as Crucified slew the enmity. 

awoKTclms] That which seemed to 
be defeat was victory. To men's eyes 
He was slain : in truth He slew. 

17. Ka\ e\6wv...~\ When the work 
of reconciliation was accomplished, 
and the enmity slain, the fruit of 
victory was proclaimed to men : and 
He came and preached the glad 
tidings of peace to you that were 

far off and peace to them that were 

i\8mv] According to His promise 
(John xvi. 16 ff. ; xiv. 18). At His 
first appearance among the disciples 
He gave a twofold greeting of 'Peace' ; 
and in the outpouring of the Spirit 
the Apostles at once recognised the 
presence of the Lord: Acts iii 26. 
The record of the Acts— the Gospel 
of the Spirit — is the history of the 
extension of the message of peace to 
the whole world, beginning at Jeru- 
salem and closing in Rome. 

evTfyye\. elp.] Of. C. vi. 1 5 note. 

1 8. This message of Peace through 
the work of Christ is universally 
effective, because it is through Him 
■we both have our access (introduction) 
in one Spirit to the Father. 

There is an impressive correspond- 
ence between the clauses which describe 
the atonement and the issue of the 

(tva) airoKaTa\Xd£ii tovs au.(poTepovs 
iv evi trafiari 
t<5 Oea. 
exopfv Tr)V irpoo-ayayhv ol ap,<poTepoi 
ev ev\ irvevuMTL 

irpos tov irarepa. 

Si avToii] For order compare v. 10 

e\ou.ev rr/v jrpocray.] Compare C. i. 
7 e)(op.ev Tr/v aTroK6rpta(Ttv, For Tf]V 

it poo-ay. see c. iii. 12; Bom. v. 2 81' ou 

icai tt\v npoo-ayayrjv eo~xn<op.ev. The 
word emphasises the work of the Lord 
in 'bringing us to God' (i Pet. iii. 18). 
Our 'access' is gained only through 
Him. Compare John xiv. 6 ; Hebr. 
iv. 14 ff. 

ev ev\ 7TV.] Comp. 1 Cor. xii. 13 eV evi 
TrvevuMTi...e^aTrria6rju.ev, PhiL i. 27 
orijKfTf ev evi irvevu-ari. The Spirit is, 
as it were, the surrounding, sustaining, 
power, as in the corresponding phrase 
Hebr. X. 19 ?xo»Te? trapp^aiav els rfjv 
etaodov rav ay. iv t<5 atpxtri Ijjo~ov. 

The difference from 810 tov trv. (c. iii. 
16) is obvious. 

We might have been inclined to 
transpose dm and ev : ' in Him (as c. 
iii. 12).. .through one Spirit...' But 
St Paul here is thinking of the work 
of Christ (». 17). The encompassing 
energy of the Spirit makes this effec- 
tive for us. Compare c. iii. 5 note. 

irpos tov naTepa] The use of this 
title emphasises the effect of the 
atonement, which restores to its true 
character the relation of God to men. 
The absolute use of 6 irarijp is very 
rare in the Epistles except in the 
Epistles of St John. Comp. c. iii. 14; 
Col. i. 12. 

St Paul, without any definite pur- 
pose, bases the doctrine of the Holy 
Trinity upon facts of Christian experi- 
ence. Comp. 1 Cor. xii. 4 ff. See 
also 1 Pet i. 2. 

19 — 22. After the description of 
the results of Christ's work bringing 
peace to men as men, St Paul returns 
to the blessings which it had brought 
to the Gentiles, and shews in detail 
how completely it removed the spirit 

4 o 


[II 19, 20 

tov 7rarepa. ir 'Apa ovv ovkcti iare £evoi Kai irdpoucot, 
dWa ecrre (rvvTroKiTai twv d<yiu)v Kal oiiceloi tov deov, 
i °eTTOiKO^onr]6evTe<s irrl tw 6efie\iw twv dwoa-ToXtov icai 

tual disadvantages which they had 
suffered. No longer aliens and stran- 
gers they were 'fellow-citizens of the 
saints and of the household of God.' 
Without hope before, they were now 
included in the solid future of the 
Church resting on Christ Himself. 
No longer without God, they were 
made, in fellowship with all believers, 
a dwelling-place for Him. 

The rhythmical structure, which 
characterises the Epistle is seen 
with remarkable distinctness in this 
section : 

*Apa OVV OVKeTt €0~T€ £eVOL Kal TTapOLKOl 

dWa co~T€ o~Vfnro\iTai T&v dyimv Kal 

otKeiot tov deov, 
iwotKoSo/irjdevTfS eirl r<5 Bep.eXia 

t<Si> dirooroXcoi' Kai TrpotpTjTwv, 
ovros aKpoytovtaiov 

avrov Xptorou 'lrjo~ov, 
iv & iraaa olKo8op,r) o-vvapii.6Koyovji.ivrj 


els vaov dyiov ev Kvpla, 
ev a Kal vp-els o-vvoiKobojieio-de 

els KaToiKrjTrjptov tov 6eoi ev irvev- 

19. apa ovv... tov Beov] So then 
ye are no more strangers and so- 
journers but fellow-citizens with the 
saints and of the household of God. 
This conclusion follows directly from 
the equal privilege of all sons in 
Christ in regard to their heavenly 

&pa ovv] Comp. Rom. v. 18 ; vii. 3, 
25; viii. 12; ix. 16, 18; xiv. 12, 19; 
Gal. vi. 10; 1 Th. v. 6 ; 2 Th. ii. 15. 
This combination is, in the NT., if not 
absolutely, peculiar to St Paul. 

^ivoi Kal napoiKoi] Destitute of all 
privileges in the state or only enjoy- 
ing a provisional toleration. For 
|e'»oi see v. 12; and for ndpoixos I Pet. 
ii. 1 1 napotKoi Kal TrapiTriSrjfioi ; Acts 
vii. 6 rrdpotKov ev yfj aXKorpla ; id. 29 

napotKo: ev yfj MaHinp: napoiKelv Lk. 

xxiv. 18; Hebr. xi. 9. 

o-vvrr. tSiv ayioav] fellow-citizens (v.l. 

concives) with the saints of the spiri- 
tual Israel. For the image see Hebr. 
xi. 16, 19; xii. 22 ff.; xiii. 14. 

oiKe'ioi tov 8eoxi] Gal. vi. IO irpos 

TOVS olKe'lOVS TTjS 7TtO"T6£i)ff, I Tim. V. 8. 

The singularly happy translation — ' of 
the household of God' — is due to 

20. eiroiK Xptoroti "iijcov] The 

new Society was more than a Common- 
wealth ; it was a fabric in which the 
several parts were joined together on 
one divine plan. In this the Gentiles 
were built upon the foundation of 
the apostles and prophets, the head 
corner-stone being Christ Jesus Him- 

iiroiK. iirl ™ 6ep.i\ The image is 
worked out in detail in i Cor. iii. 10 ff. 
Comp. Col. ii. 7; Acts xx. 32. 

twv arsoaT. Kal 7rpo<pr)Tmv] The order 
of the titles seems to shew beyond 
doubt that the reference is to the 
apostles and prophets of the New 
Covenant : those who had divine 
authority to found and to instruct 
the Church. Under this aspect they 
form one body (twv aw. Kal np.). Else- 
where they are considered separately. 
Comp. cc. iii. 5 tois dylois dnoo'ToKois 
avTov Kal Trpotpijrat y, iv. 1 1 edaiKev 
Toils p.ev airoo-Tokovs tovs de 7rpo<prjTas. . . . 
I Cor. xii. 28 f. edero ev rjj eKK\t]0-la 
irpatTov djrooroAous bevrepov irpo<prp-as... 
i Cor. xiv. 29, 32, 37; Apoc. xviii. 20; 
xxii. 9. So we read of prophets in the 
early history of the Church : Acts xi. 
27; xiii. 1 ; xv. 32; xxi. 10. 

6ep.e\t<f rmv dn-oor.] Comp. Apoc. 
xxi. 14. 

aKpoyavialov] Is. xxviii. 16 LXX. els 
Ta 8eiie\ia Seiav \L60v iroXvreXr) e\- 
XeKTov aKpoywviaiov : I Pet. ii. 6. 



7rpo(f)riTwv , 6i/tos AKporuNiiioy avTOu Xpurrov 'Iriffov, 
at ev do TTatra o\Koho[ir\ (rvvap/moXoyov/mevr] av^ei ets vaov 
cvyiov iv Kvpiw, M iv do Kai v/meTs a-vvoiKO^o/uieia-de el<s 
KaToiKr]TripLOV tov deov iv irvevpiaTi. 

21 iraffa oIkoSo^ti S*BD 2 G 3 KL 17 37 47 etc; Cl-Al Chrys; iraaa i) oIkoSo)i.t) S a A 
CP al pi ; Syrr (ut videtur) 

Cf. Mk. xii. 10; Lk. xx. 17; Acts iv. 
1 1 K€<j>aKfi yavias: Ps. cxviii. (cxvii.) 22. 

21. ivS...iv xupi'o)] in whom each 
several building fitly framed together 
groweth unto an holy sanctuary in 
the Lord. The fabric in which the 
Ephesians were built was destined to 
become a sanctuary. It was not merely 
put together by the workman's skill : 
it had in it a principle of life. The 
foundation was unchangeable, but, 
while this underlay all, there was 
room for a harmonious development. 
The structure, like the Jewish Temple, 
included many 'buildings' (Mk. xiii. 
1 f.), but all these were to be equally 
parts of the Sanctuary in the new 
Temple. The image appears to mark 
the consecration of all the ministries 
of life in the New Order, in corre- 
spondence with the equal inclusion 
in it of all the races of men. 

iv <S] The fabric has its foundation 
and its harmonious development in 
Christ Jesus. In Him too as 'the 
Lord ' it finds its consummation. 

waa-a otKoSofiff] every building, each 
several building: council chambers, 
treasuries, chambers for priests, clois- 
ters, all become part of the sanctuary 
(yaos not lepov), the parts contributing 
to the one whole, as the limbs to the 
one body. And this whole is divine, 
so that in the end the whole city — 
the New Jerusalem — becomes a Holy 
of Holies: Apoc. xxi. 16. 

For naa-a see c. i. 3 note. In Acts ii. 
36 was oIkos 'io-pcnJX is probably to be 
rendered 'every house of Israel,' each 
in its peculiar place and with its 
peculiar character. 

crvvapfioXoyoviievr]] Compare c. iv. 

This harmonious fitting together of 
the parts and the building up of the 
whole (v. 22) are present and con- 
tinuous processes. Contrast c. iii. 17 

e ppt£a)fi€vat Kai Te^e/icXtw/iei/ot. 

a$£ei] Matt. vi. 28; xiii. 32; Lk. i. 
80 ; ii. 40 ; Col. ii. 19. Each several 
building is incorporated in the whole 
and grows not by itself but with the 

The phrases au£« eh. . .<twoikoSo- 
neiaBe «r...shew that the end is not 
yet reached. 

f is vaov ay. iv Kvpiai] The presence 
and influence of the Lord with His 
sovereign power secures the hallow- 
ing of every part. 'Ev Kvpia is to be 
taken with av$ei. Comp. cc. iii. 1 1 ; vi. 
1, 10. 

22. In the structure of this Sanc- 
tuary, which is not a shrine of the 
Divine glory only, but a dwelling-place 
of God, the Ephesians have a place, 
as incorporated in Christ. 

iv <S...iv 7rvevp.aTi] In whom ye 
also are builded together for a dwel- 
ling-place nf God in the Spirit. 

iv oi>] taking up the iv a in the 
former verse (comp. c. i. 13). 

Kai vfieU <tvvoik.] ye also are joined 
with the earlier people of God. Even 
now the process of incorporation is 
going forward. 

KaroiKrjTijpLov] Compare and contrast 
Apoc. xviii. 2. 

tov deov] of the Triune God, the 
Father (John xiv. 23), the Son (Matt, 
xxviii. 20), and the Holy Spirit (John 
-xiv. 17). 

iv Trv(vp.aTt] Compare c. iii. 5 note. 
Opposed to iv o-apKi, Rom. viii. 9. The 
indwelling is realised in the highest 
part of our nature. 



[Ill i 

III. * Tovtov X"P lv ^7^ riavXos 6 Seoyitos tov 

III. The grandeur op the reve- 
lation made to St Paul. Prater 
for further understanding in 


i. The revelation to St Paul of a 
universal gospel (iii. i — 13). 

2. Prayer that those who receive 
it may be enabled to apprehend its 
lessons (iii. 14 — 19). 

Doxology (20, 21). 

The Apostle has declared sum- 
marily his great Gospel of the unity 
of Jew and Gentile in the Christian 
Church, both alike coming to One 
Father in One Spirit through One 
Mediator, and he prepares to draw 
the practical consequences which fol- 
low from this divine calling. But he 
is twice interrupted in his purpose 
by the thought of the marvellous 
privileges which are involved in his 
mission, for himself, and for his 

First (». 2) when he recalls his 
peculiar charge he shews that his 
misery and shame, as they might 
seem to others, were to those who 
knew the cause for which he suffered 
a ground of highest praise for the 
light which they brought to the coun- 
sel of God (iii. 1 — 13). 

And then again when (v. 14) he 
resumes the broken sentence, it is 
for the loftiest prayer and thanks- 
giving, before he can at last (c. iv. 1) 
enter on direct instruction (iii. 14 — 21). 

iii. z For this cause I Paul, the 
prisoner of Christ Jesus (or of the 
Christ, even Jesus) on behalf of you, 
the Gentiles, 'if at least ye heard 
of the dispensation {administration) 
of the grace of God which was given 
me to you-ward: 3 how that by reve- 
lation was made known unto me the 
mystery— as I wrote afore in a few 
words, 'whereby ye can, as ye read, 
perceive my understanding in the 
mystery of the Christ, s which in 
other generations was not made 

known unto the sons of men, as 
now it was revealed unto His holy 
apostles and prophets in the Spirit — 
6 to wit, that the Gentiles are fellow- 
heirs with Israel and fellow-mem- 
bers of the one body and fellow- 
partakers of the promise in Christ 
Jesus through the Gospel, 7 whereof 
I became a minister, according to 
the gift of the grace of God that was 
given to me, according to the working 
of His power — s to me who am less 
than the least of all saints was this 
grace given — even to preach to the 
Gentiles the unsearchable riches of 
Christ ; ?and to bring to light what 
is the dispensation of the mystery 
which from all ages hath been hid 
in God Who created all things, '"hid, 
I say, to the intent that now to the 
principalities and the powers in the 
heavenly order may be made known 
through the Church the manifold 
wisdom of God, "according to an 
eternal purpose (a purpose of the 
ages) which He accomplished in the 
Christ, even Jesus our Lord: "in 
Whom we hate freedom of address 
and access (to God) in confidence 
through our faith in Him. " 3 Where- 
fore I beg you not to faint at my 
tribulations for you, seeing they are 
your glory. 

1. tovtov x"piv\ ' Considering that 
so great a blessing has been bestowed 
on you.' As contrasted with bio (v. 13 ; 
cc. ii. 11 ; iv. 8, 25 ; v. 14) this phrase 
seems to suggest an idea of personal 
feeling and obligation. The reference 
is generally to that which is the 
ground (because this is so) and not 
the object (for the sake of obtaining 
this) : v. 14 ; Tit. i. 5, 1 1 ; Lk. vii. 47. 

The sentence, which is broken, is 
resumed v. 14 tovtov x^P iv na/mra.... 

eyw LTmiXor...] The abrupt intro- 
duction of the name emphasises the 
strength of personal feeling. The 
truth which has been announced is 
no abstract speculation, but one which 


XPkftov 'lri<rov vmp v/ucwv twv idvwv, — Vi ye riKOixraTe 

has been proved in life by the man 
who declares it. The name calls up 
all his history. It is as if the Apostle 
said : I the Pharisee of old time, I 
whom you know, of whose labours you 
have heard, I to whom this great 
truth has been revealed and who have 
suffered for it, I to whom you owe 
your knowledge of the Faith, I who 
can no longer serve you by my pre- 
sence pray for you. 

Comp. i Thess. ii. 18 ; Gal. v. 2 ; 
2 Cor. x. 1 ; Col. i. 23 (v. Lightfoot's 
note); Philm. 19. Cf. 2 Thess. iii. 17; 

1 Cor. xvi. 21 ; Col. iv. 18. 

6 Sea-fiios rod ^.'1.] St Paul was not 
simply the 'bond-servant' of Christ, 
he was His prisoner, the one to whom 
this privilege of suffering was specially 
given by his Lord (contrast Philm. 1 
84<rpios X. 'I.). He was a prisoner, but 
not for crime or through man's design : 
he was the Lord's prisoner, prisoner 
by His will and at the same time 
prisoner for His work ; Christ's cause 
kept him in bonds (comp. Philm. 13 
iv rots Seo-pxtls tov euayyeXtou). 

Compare Philm. 9 biaru.ios X. 'I. ; 

2 Tim. i. 8 tov Sio-fuov avrov [tov Kvpiov 

rjfiwv]. These examples seem to shew 
that the words in c. iv. 1 6 iv 
Kvpla are to be taken together. Con- 
trast Acts xxiii. 180 hio-fiios n. 

The combination 6 xP lo " ros 'l^covr 
without addition does not (as far as 
I have observed) occur again in St 
Paul 'O xP UTT ° s ' s common, and d 
'Iijo-oOs occurs 1 Thess. iv. 14 ; 2 Cor. 
iv. 10 f. ; Eph. iv. 21. In Rom. xvi. 25 
we read to Krjpvypa 'Irjo-ov XptoToC. 

The construction of Col. ii. 6 <&s nape- 

Xii/3eTe tov xpiarbv 'hjaovv tov Kvpiov 

appears to be, 'received the Christ, 
even Jesus the Lord' (see Lightfoot 
ad loc). It is therefore probable 
that the construction here also is 
' the prisoner of the Christ — the hope 
of Israel — even Jesus, the Son of man, 
the Saviour of the world.' This at 

least is the thought of the names. 
Comp. v. 1 1 note ; c. iv. 20 f. 

virep ip.av t. idvav] 'I the prisoner' 
for 'you the Gentiles.' Both are re- 
presentative. Comp. c. ii. 1 1 : contrast 
Gal. ii. 15 ; Rom. xi. 13. 

2 — 13. The thought of his helpless 
position leads St Paul to unfold its 
true meaning. His zeal to bring the 
Gospel to the Gentiles had brought 
him into bonds. These very bonds, 
therefore, which might at first sight 
seem to be a cause of discouragement, 
eally witnessed to the greatness of 
the work which he had done (v. 13). 

'Yes,' he says, 'for your sakes, as 
indeed ye know, if — and it .cannot be 
otherwise — ye heard, when the mes- 
sage of the Gospel came to you, what 
was my special commission, based on 
the revelation made to the apostles 
and prophets of Christ, that the Gen- 
tiles are fellow-heirs with Jews of the 
Divine promise of redemption, a truth 
which it was specially given to me to 
proclaim, a truth which now at last 
discloses to the hosts of heaven through 
the Church God's counsel of wisdom 
and love. Thus the sufferings which 
are due to the faithful fulfilment of 
my office are in fact your glory. My 
chains are the signs of my victory.' 

Each part of the statement is der 
veloped under the influence of the 
Apostle's gratitude for the charge 
which he had received. His Gospel— 7 
that ' the nations ' share equally with 
'the people' in all Divine blessings, — 
was not gained by the experience of 
earlier generations, but given in due 
time by special revelation to appointed 
ministers. And he was enabled so to 
declare it as to set in full light before 
men the eternal counsel of God, that 
at last through the Church the powers 
of heaven might recognise God's wis- 
dom seen in the Incarnation of the 
Son in Whom believers can draw 
near to His presence. 



[HI 3 

tjji/ oiKOvofxiav t/js -fcapiTOs tov deov Trj<z $o6ei<rris fioi 
ets v/uas, 5 [oti~] Kara dTTOKaKv^iv 6<yvu>pio~6ri /uoi to 

3 Sri om B 

In structure the passage may be 
compared with i. 3 — 14. 

The key words ' mystery,' ' minister 
[of the Gospel],' ' the wisdom of God,' 
suggest in succession fresh parentheses 
which are in essence overflowings of 
adoring thankfulness. 

2. ei ye..] if at least ye heard, and 
this is assumed : c. iv. 21; Gal. iii. 4 ; 
Col. i. 23 (2 Cor. v. 3). In such lan- 
guage I can see nothing inconsistent 
with St Paul having been the teacher 
of those to whom he is writing. 

qKovaare] c. iv. 21 ; Gal. i. 13 f. : ye 
heard at the crisis when I declared to 
you the Divine message and you ac- 
cepted it. 

tt)v oh. t. x-] St Paul does not say 
simply 'of the grace of God which was 
given to me,' but 'of the noble respon- 
sibility which was laid upon me of 
administering the grace which was 
given to me in a new and unexpected 
way.' It was exactly this character- 
istic of his preaching to which he 
wishes to call attention. 

ttjv (iiKovo/iiav] V. dispensationem, 
V.L. dispositionem (as v. 9 ; c. i. 10). 
The image is natural and frequent. St 
Paul describes himself as 'entrusted 
with a stewardship' (1 Cor. ix. 17), 
which he was bound to fulfil. Apostles 
were 'ministers of Christ and stew- 
ards of God's mysteries (revealed 
truths),' which it was their duty to 
dispense faithfully (1 Cor. iv. 1 f.). 
Comp. Tit. i. 7. This stewardship 
involved a wise and just dealing with 
the varied wealth of the Divine 
treasury (Matt. xiii. 52). All believers 
share in it, having severally gifts which 
they must minister to the body («'r 
eavrovs) as 'good — generous (xaXoi) — 
stewards of the manifold grace of 
God ' (1 Pet. iv. 10). 

Comp. c. i. 10 (note); Col. i. 25 ; 
1 Tim. i. 4. 

t!js x- T - ^-] The ministry itself 
with all its glorious and awful issues 
was a favour — a grace — of God. The 
word x<*P iS i s characteristically used 
of apostleship : vv. 7, 8; 1 Cor. iii. 10; 
Gal. ii. 7 ff. ; Rom. i. 5 ; xii. 3 ; xv. 1 5. 

It is perhaps worthy of notice that 
Xapuriw. (1, 2 Cor.; Rom.; 1, 2 Tim.; 
1 Pet.) is not found in the Epistle. 

€11 v/ias] to bring unto you, to reach 
unto you. Comp. c. i. 19; Rom. 
xv. 26. 

3. on. . .] how that by revelation was 
made known unto me the mystery.... 
This was the ground of St Paul's 
mission, that to him was communi- 
cated the central truth of the uni- 
versality of the Gospel. 

The words Kadds irpoiypa>\ra...v. 5 
iv wvevpan are parenthetic, unfolding 
St Paul's peculiar endowments as 
compared with men of old time. 

Kara aTroK(!ih.v\fnv] not only in direct 
communications at the crises of his 
life (Acts ix. 4 ff.; xxii. 7 ff., 18 ff.; 
xxvi. 17 ff. ; Gal. i. 12; ii. 2) but 
through widening experience laid in 
the light of the Gospel (v. 4 ttjv 

avveaiv pov Iv r. fivtrr. tov XP-)* 

There is a difference between Kara 
diroKakv\jnv (Rom. xvi. 25; Gal. ii. 2) 
and 81' airoKaXvifreas (Gal. i. 1 2). The 
former describes the general mode of 
communication : the latter the specific 

to /ivo-Tqptov] Comp. c. i. 9 note. 
Truths which are the characteristic 
possessions of Christians are 'mys- 
teries.' Among these the universality 
of the Gospel — v. 6 etrai to edm/... 
iv Xpto-Tw — is preeminently ' the mys- 
tery.' The single occasion on which 
the word is used in the Gospels em- 
phasises this thought (Matt. xiii. n ; 
Mk. iv. 11; Lk. viii. 10) The par- 
able of the Sower implies that the 
Word is for all. This suggestion natur- 

in 4 , s] 



pva-Tripiov, Kadws Trpoeypayjsa. iv 6\lyu>, "Vpos o $vva<r6e 
dvaytvwo-Kovres voija-cu tjji/ (rvveo-iv jjlov ev to /mva-Trip'ta) 
tov xpia-Tov, 5 6 eTepais yeveaTs ovk eyvcopiadf] rots 
viols twi/ dvdpwwwv ws vvv dTreKaAxHpdr] toIs dyiois 

ally caused that perplexity to the 
disciples which appears strange to us. 

In addition to those parallel texts 
the word is found in the N.T. only in 
St Paul and in the Apocalypse. It is 
used both (i) in the full comprehen- 
sive meaning of the Christian reve- 
lation, and (2) in regard to special 
details in it. All the passages deserve 
to be studied: (1) 1 Cor. ii. 7; Rom. 
xvi. 25; Eph. i. 9; iii. 4, 9; vi. 19; 
Col. i. 26 f. ; ii. 2 ; iv. 3 ; 1 Tim. iii. 9, 
16 ; Apoc. x. 7 ; (2) 2 Thess. ii. 7 ; 
1 Cor. iv. 1 ; xiii. 2 ; xiv. 2 ; xv. 51; 
Rom. xi. 25 ; Eph. v. 32 ; Apoc. i. 20; 
xvii. 5, 7. 

irpoeypayjra] in an earlier part of the 
Epistle: c. ii. 10 ff. 

ev oXiyia] V. in brevi, V.L. in modico : 
briefly, in a few words. Comp. Acts 
xxvi. 28. 

4. npbs o...] whereby, looking to 
which summary statement of the truth, 
ye can, as ye read, perceive my un- 
derstanding.... The Apostle is careful 
to shew that his teaching is not the 
repetition of a form of words once 
given to him and to be simply received 
by his disciples. It had cost him 
thought and it claimed thought. His 
readers could see for themselves how 
it was contained in the right appre- 
hension of the historic Gospel ; and 
he assumes that they will use their 

Jvaytpno-KovTes] The word implies 
that the letter was circulated and 
copied and studied by individual 
Christians. Comp. Apoc. i. 3; Matt. 
xxiv. 15 || Mk. xiii. 14; Acts viii. 28. 
The variant in Gal. iv. 21 (ivayani- 
o-Kf re) is interesting. 

rrjv o~vv. p.. ev Tffl p.vo-T.j St Paul had, 
in the common phrase, entered into 
the revelation of Christ. His natural 

faculties had found scope in shaping 
the message which he delivered 

For voelv comp. Matt. xxiv. 15 || 
Mk. xiii. 14; 1 Tim. i. 7 &c. ; and for 
o-weo-ts comp. Lk. ii. 47 ; Col. i. 9 ; 
ii. 2. The two words occur together 
2 Tim. ii. 7. For the omission of the 
article before ev ra p. see Winer iii. 
20, 26. 

to fivtrr. tov \p.] Col. iv. 3 XaX^<rae 

TO p,VO~TqpiOV TOV XplffTOV. 

5. The truth which was made 
known to St Paul by revelation was 
not made known in other generations 
to the sons of men as now in our own 
time it was revealed to Christ's holy 
apostles and prophets in the Spirit. 
The as suggests that some partial 
knowledge was conveyed in earlier 
times to those who sought for it 
through ' the light that lighteth every 
man.' The prophets looked for the 
incorporation of 'the nations' in Israel, 
but not for their equality with 'the 
people' in the new Church, though this 
was in fact included in the promise to 
Abraham : John viii. 56 ; Gal. iii. 8. 

erepais ye veals] dative of time as in 
Lk. viii. 29 (7roXXois xporatj). The use 
of erepais suggests the thought of two 
series of generations, one before and 
one after the Incarnation. 

toIs viols t. d.] The phrase occurs 
again Mk. iii. 28, and in the lxx. 
As contrasted with tois Ay. diroar. ai. 
Kol irp. it describes those who repre- 
sented the natural development of 
the race. 

viv] now, in our age. Even to the 
Twelve the universality of the Gospel 
was a revelation (Acts x. 47), and St 
Paul looks back to the crisis when 
it was acknowledged (aneKa\v<pdr]). 
There were indeed abundant traces 
in the teaching of Christ of this 

4 6 


[Ill 6 

cc7ro(TT6\oi<s avTov Kal Trpo<pt]Tai<s ev 7rveviuaTi, 6 eivai 
to. e6vri trvvKXripovofxa Kai <rvvarwp.a Kal arvi//j.eTO^a tjjs 

truth — it lies in the fundamental par- 
able of the Sower, which naturally 
perplexed the hearers — but like His 
teaching on His own Death and Resur- 
rection they were unintelligible at the 
time. Through the experience which 
is recorded in the early chapters of 
the Acts their meaning was made 
plain by the Spirit. Compare Rom. 
xvi. 25 ff. ; 1 Pet. i. 10 ff. 

rots dy. anorrT. av. Kai irpo<pJ] to those 
whom He charged with an authorita- 
tive office and endowed with spiritual 
insight. Comp. c. ii. 20 note. 'Ayiois 
does not express personal character, 
but consecration. Comp. Lk. i. 70 ; 
Acts iii. 21. The avrov naturally goes 
back to Xpio-roC. In Col. i. 26 the 
thought is differently expressed. 

iv irvevpan] The phrase appears 
to correspond to iv XpioT-<j>. It is of 
rare occurrence : Apoc. i. 10 iyevopr/v iv 
irv. ; iv. 2; xvii. 3 || xxi. 10 dirqveynt iv 
irv. ; Matt. xxii. 43 iv irv....Ka\el (|| Mk. 
xii. 36 iv ra irv. t. ay.); Jo. iv. 23 
iv ttv. k. a"k. ; Rom. viii. 9 itrri. . .iv ttv. ; 
Eph. V. 18 ir\r]pov&6e iv irv. ; vi. 18 
irpoaev\6pevoi iv irv. (II Jude 20 ev ttv. 
ay.); Col. i. 8 brjKaxras rf/v dydirr/v iv 
irv.; I Tim. iii. 16 ihiKaiciBr) iv ttv. 'Ev 
T6> vve vpan occurs also : Lk. ii. 27 rj\6c v 
iv r. irv. ; iv. I Jfyero ev ra irv. ; and iv 
irv. ayin : Rom. ix. I o-vfiiiaprvpovo-rjs... 
iv irv. a. ; xiv. 17 x a P a *" nv - "• > XT> 1 ^ 
yyiaapivrj iv irv. a.; I Cor. xii. 3 tire ttv, . . 
iv irv. a. ; I Pet. i. 12 e vayyeXi&api vav. . . 
iv irv. a. Compare fiairrlfriv iv irv. ay. 

Matt. iii. 1 1 and parallels. The general 
idea of the phrase is that it presents 
the concentration of man's powers in 
the highest part of his nature by 
which he holds fellowship with God, 
so that, when this fellowship is 
realised, he is himself in the Holy 
Spirit and the Holy Spirit is in him. 
6. This then is the revelation that 
the Gentiles are (not shall be) fellow- 
heirs with the natural Israel of the 
great hopes of the spiritual Israel, 

and fellow-members with them of the 
one Divine body, and fellow-partakers 
in the promise which was fulfilled in 
the mission of the Holy Ghost (Acts 
x. 45), in virtue of their union in 
Christ Jesus through the Gospel. 

The threefold fellowship of the 
nations with the people of God is 
established by their incorporation in 
Christ, which is wrought through the 
Gospel. In the announcement that 
the Word became flesh all partial 
and transitory privileges are lost in 
one supreme and universal blessing. 
Jerome (ad loc.) says truly 'hereditas 
nostra Deus' and 'ubi una compar- 
ticipatio est, universa communia sunt.' 
On the translation he remarks : Scio 
appositionem conjunctionis ejus per 
quam dicitur cohaeredes, et concor- 
pora/es et comparticipes indecoram 
facere in Latino sermone sententiam. 
Sed quia ita habetur in Graeco, et 
singuli sermones, syllabae, apices, 
puncta, in Divinis Scripturis plena 
sunt sensibus, propterea magis volumus 
in compositione structuraque verbo- 
ruin quam intelligentia periclitari. 

that] The position of the verb gives 
singular emphasis to the statement : 
that in spite of all difficulties and all 
opposition 'the Gentiles are....' Com- 
pare Hebr. xi. 1 iari note. 

a'WKKripovop.a] Rom. viii. 17 crvyicA. 
XpioroO. Hebr. xi. 9 criryieX. rrjs iiray- 
yeXias. I Pet. iii. 7 (rvyiik. \apvros 

a~iva-ap.a\ Not elsewhere in the N.T. 
or in the lxx. Nor is the word found 
in classical writers. 

o-vvpiroxa] Cf. C. V. 7 note. 

ttjs iirayyeXias] Acts ii. 33. The 

Gentiles were admitted to the Church 
because they had been made par- 
takers of the gift of the Holy Ghost : 
Acts x. 47. Comp. c. i. 13. This 
specific reference is at once more 
forcible and, under the circumstances, 
more natural than the general refer- 

Ill 7-9] 



€7rayyeAtas iv Xpi<rT(£ 'lr\(rov Zid tov evayyeXiov, 1 ov 
eyevrjoriv Sicucovos kclto. ty\v Swpedv t»Js ^(dpiTO's tov 
6eov t»js Sofletcnjs /ulol Kara Trjv evepyetav TJjs hvvdfiews 
avTOu — i/uoi tu> e\a^KTTOT6j0ft) irdvTWV dyioov eSo'&j 
jj X a pi$ ctirri — -reus edvecriv evayyeXia-ao-dai to dvef- 
iyyia<nov 7tA.outos tov xpi&Tov, 9 k<zi (pioTLO~ai T Tts r\ 

9 Trdvras 
9 +TrdvTas BN C CD 2 etc vv Tert Victor ; om N*A Hil 

ence to the promised salvation which 
is included in o-vyKK-qpovlipa. There 
is an expressive sequence in three 
elements of the full endowment of the 
Gentiles as coequal with the Jews. 
They had a right to all for which 
Israel looked. They belonged to the 
same Divine society. They enjoyed 
the gift by which the new society 
was distinguished from the old. And 
when regarded from the point of 
sight of the Apostolic age, the gift of 
the Holy Spirit, 'the promise of the 
Father' (Lk. xxiv. 49; Acts i. 4; ii. 33; 
38 f.), is preeminently 'the promise,' 
to which also o-vppiToxa perfectly 

8ia roil euayy.] Comp. I Cor. iv. 15. 

7. St Paul's service as a minister 
of the Gospel was determined by two 
conditions: the original gift of the 
grace of God that was given to 
him, and the continuous working of 
God's power in him. The two clauses 
Kara t})v Sapcav..., Kara rfjv iuepyeiav 
...are parallel (comp. c. ii. 2) and the 
latter clause is not to be connected 
with &o6eio-r\s. The whole phrase ttjs 
Xap. t. 8. rrjs 808. p.. is repeated from 
v. 2 and is complete in itself. With 
tov cvayy. BtaK. compare 2 Cor. iii. 6 
Kaivfjs Sia8. 8. For Kara rrjv evepy. 

compare c. i. 19 ; Col. i. 29. 

In the N.T evipyeia and ivepyeiv 
are characteristically used of moral 
and spiritual working whether Divine 
(e.g. Col. i. 29; ii. 12; Phil. iii. 21) 
or Satanic (2 Thess. ii. 9, 11). 

For 8a>ped see c. iv. 7 note. 

8. The construction of the first 

clause ip.o\...avTri is doubtful. It may 
be taken to begin a new sentence, so 
that evayyc\. will be the explanation of 
i) x"P ls "VTT), or it may be a paren- 
thetical reflection of the Apostle. On 
the whole the second arrangement 
seems to be most consonant with St 
Paul's style. In this case fvayyik. will 
be connected with 8id<ovos. 

t(£ e'Xaxurrorepo)] Latt. minimo {in- 
ftmo, nomssimo). For the form of the 
word see Winer ii. 11, 2 6. For the 
thought compare 1 Cor. xv. 9 ; 1 Tim. 
i. 15. There is nothing in this con- 
fession at variance with the claims 
which St Paul asserts for that which 
God had given him : 2 Cor. xi. 5. 

evayyeKlo-ao-Bcu...] The SCOpe of the 
Apostle's ministry was twofold: (1) to 
proclaim the Gospel to the Gentiles, 
and (2) to shew to (all) men its fulness 
to solve the manifold problems of life 

to dveitxv. 7rX. tov ^.] Vulg. al. in- 
investigabiles divitias Christi. (Com- 
pare Prov. v. 6 ; Rom. xi. 33 f.) The 
fulfilment of his work disclosed to St 
Paul, as we can see from his Epistles, 
ever-widening views of the scope and 
power of the Gospel. His own ex- 
perience assured him that no one 
could exhaust its depths. And all lies 
in the Person and work of Christ (Col. 
i. 27 ; ii. 2 tov pvarrjpiov tov 8eov, 

9. km (ptoTtaai...] to bring to light 
what is.... In addition to his special 
office of evangelising the Gentiles, and 
indeed through the accomplishment 
of it, St Paul was called to shew how 

4 8 


[Ill 10 

oiKovofxia tov /uvcTTripiov tov 0nr0KeKpviJ.iJ.6v0v airo tcov 
aiwvwv ev tw dew ™ ra iravTa KTuravTi, 10 'lva yvco- 
pio~6fj vvv rats cLp%ais kcli rats epovcricus iv toIs eirov- 
paviois (W ttjs eKK\rjo-ias f\ 7roAu7rot/«Aos o~o(p'ia tov 

9 okovopia NBAD 2 G 3 K 2 L 2 P 2 17 37 47 vv omn Tert Hil; Koivuvla rec c 37 mg al paue 

the truth made known to him met 
the various needs of men. The uni- 
versality of the Gospel — the 'mystery' 
opened to him — rested upon the fact 
of the Incarnation. This, as a wise 
steward, he shewed to furnish a har- 
mony of God's dealings with men, 
bringing it into true relation with the 
course of human life. ' The dispensa- 
tion of the mystery' is, in other words, 
the apostolic application of the Gospel 
to the facts of experience. 

Elsewhere in the N. T. <j>a>Tt(ei.v has 
a direct object. 

tov cmoRiKp tva ■yi/iop.] The truth 

had been hidden in order that it 
might be made known at the right 
moment, in 'the fulness of time,' 
c. i. 10. Comp. Rom. xvi. 25 f. See 
also Mk. iv. 22 (ira). 

ano rav <u.] from the beginning of 
time. Col. i. 26. Comp. Lk. i. 70; 
Acts iii. 21 ; XV. 18 an almvos. John 
ix. 32 ex tov almvos. Contrast npb t&v 
aldvav (l Cor. ii. 7). 

iv rm &o>] God, as the Creator of 
all things, includes in the one creative 
thought all the issues of finite things. 
Compare Apoc. iv. 11 810 to diXripa 
o-ov rio-av Kai iKTio-Bjja-av, John i. 3 f. 
o yeyovev ev avrm far] 7}v. See also 

Col. iii. 3. 

10. The personal ministration of 
the Apostle had a wider scope than 
the gaining individual converts. It 
subserved to the display of God's 
wisdom before the intelligences of the 
heavenly order. This was the work 
of the Church gathered by apostolic 
teachings. In various ways the re- 
sults of age-long discipline of 'the 
people' and of 'the nations' were 
made contributory to the universal 
society, and thus the Divine purpose 

was seen to be justified by its fruits. 
There can be no doubt that St Paul 
was conscious of the debt which he 
owed to the spectacle of the organisa- 
tion of the Roman Empire in his later 
conception of the Catholic Church. 
And if he could not clearly anticipate 
how the tribute of other peoples would 
enrich Christendom, yet he recognises 
the principle of national service to 
the City of God (Apoc. xxi. 24). He 
foresaw that, as in the past, so in 
the future the history of the several 
families of mankind would vindicate 
7ro\vfiepas teal noXyTponas God's edu- 
cation of the world for Himself. 

vvv] in the fulness of time : c. i. 10 ; 
Gal. iv. 4. 

roXi dpx- xai t. c|.] The effect of 
the Gospel reaches through all being 
(Eph. i. 10 ; Col. i. 20), and we are 
allowed to see — though we are neces- 
sarily unable to give distinctness to the 
vision — how other rational creatures 
follow the course of its fulfilment. 
Compare 1 Pet. i. 12 ; Lk. xv. 7, 10; 
Apoc. v. 13. 

The allusions to different classes 
in the heavenly hierarchy — 'Thrones, 
dominations, virtues, princedoms, 
powers' — give a vivid conception of 
fulness and ordered intercourse in the 
unseen life which we have no faculties 
to realise ; but such indications, how- 
ever indefinite, correct our natural 
tendency to narrow the range of 
rational existence. In this sense the 
Gospel anticipates and deals with the 
thoughts suggested by our present 
knowledge of the immensity of the 
universe. Comp. c. i. 21 ; Col. i. 16 
(with Lightfoot's note). 

Stn r^r «kAj/o\] In the Church 
humanity advances towards its true 



veov, "Kara irpode&iv twv aiwvwv fjv e7roit]<rev iv TtS 
%pto"TO) 'lrj(rov tw Kvpia) jj/uwv, "eV tl e^Ofxev ty\v irap- 
pr\<riav kcu irpoa-aytayriv ev Treiroi6ri(rei Sja Trj<s 7n(TT6a>s 
avTov. I3 Aio aiTOv/mai fxrj evKaiceiv ev tcus 6\i^e(riv fiov 
vtrep vfJLwv, jjrts ea-Tiv So^a v/ulujv. 

unity, and at the same time the whole 
creation in man, who is its head. 
Comp. Rom. viii. 18 ff. ; James i. 18. 

1; TroXviroU. <ro<p.] Latt. multiformis 
sapientia. This wisdom is seen in the 
adaptation of the manifold capacities 
of man and the complicated vicissi- 
tudes of human life to minister to 
the one end to which 'all creation 

11 f. This marvellous harmony of 
all the parts of creation and life, as 
tending to one end, now at last made 
manifest by the coming of the Son of 
God, answered to an eternal purpose 
which was thus fulfilled. The same 
Lord Who is the stay of our faith and 
hope is also the crown of the whole 
development of the world. 

11. Kara irpod. t. aj.] V. secundum 
praefinitionem (V. L. propositum) 
saeculorum, according to an eternal 
purpose, a purpose to the accomplish- 
ment of which each age contributed 
in turn, and which bound all the ages 
together as ministrant to the one 
supreme issue. If this purpose has 
only lately been disclosed, it was 
eternally designed. Through all the 
changes of time God prepared the 
way to the fulfilment of His counsel 
unceasingly, and now at length the 
steps towards it can be seen. 

For TTpodea-is see c. i. 11; Rom. 
viii. 28 ; ix. 11; 2 Tim. i. 9. 

fjv iiroir/crcv ev...] which He accom- 
plished, brought to fulfilment, in... 
(not formed or purposed). Comp. 
Apoc. xvii. 17. For noiciv see "Winer, 

iii. 38, 5- 

The rendering ' which he purposed ' 
gives finally the same general mean- 
ing, but it is less forcible, less suitable 
to the context, and it would have 

W. EPH. 

naturally required 'in the Christ' 
without the Lord's historic name. 

iv ra x- I- "}> k. ?j.] in the Christ, 
the hope of Israel, even Jesus, the 
Son of man, our Lord. Compare 
v. 1 (note). In the two parts of this 
title we have a summary of the first 
characteristic confessions of Jew and 
Gentile : ' Jesus is the Christ ' (Acts 
v. 42 ; xvii. 3 ; comp. ix. 34), and 
'Jesus is the Lord' (1 Cor. xii. 3; 
Rom. x. 9). 

12. iv a...] in Whom, in vital 
fellowship with Him, we have freedom 
of address and freedom of access to 
God. The right of address and the 
right of access are coupled together 
{rr/v Trapp. icai izpoa., not rrjv irapp. Kai 
ti\v npotr.) as parts of the right of 
personal communion with God. 

For irapprja-ia see Hebr. iii. 6; iv. 16; 
x. 19 ; 1 John iii. 21; v. 14. For 
irpotrayioyq see c. ii. 18 (note). 

iv rrenoid.'] The privilege of com- 
munion is realised in personal con- 
fidence through our faith in Christ. 
For TrenolBrjcris see 2 Cor. iii. 4. 

rijs Trior. avrov\ our faith in Him. 
Comp. Mk. xi. 22 ; Gal. ii. 16, 20 ; 
iii. 22 ; Rom. iii. 22 ; Phil. i. 27 ; iii. 9 ; 
James ii. 1 ; Apoc. xiv. 12. 

13. St Paul goes back to the 
thought of his imprisonment (v. 1 
o bia-paoi) and points out that his 
readers should not be disheartened 
at the afflictions which his teaching 
had brought to him (comp. c. vi. 22). 
These were as nothing in comparison 
to the privilege of preaching the 
Gospel, so that they were their 'glory,' 
inasmuch as they shewed the grandeur 
of the truth which they had received. 

816...] therefore, since the message 
of a universal Gospel is immeasurable 




iraTepa, is i£ ov irao-a Trarpid ev ovpavols /ecu eirl yfjs 

14 rbv iraripa + toS Kvplov tiiiSiv 'IijffoD XpioroO K°DEG 8 K 2 L 5 Vulg oodd latt ap 
Hier, Theod Mo-lat : ssyrr vg-hr \ Victn Text N*BACP 2 17 67 bo CI al Or | Hier ad 
loe "non ut in Latinis codieibus additum est ad Patrem Domini nostri Jesu Ghristi, 
sed simplioiter ad Patrem legendum" Cyr-Hier, Cyr-Al 

in its range and the spring of personal 

aiToS/iai] / beg you. The rendering 
'I pray that I may not lose heart' 
appears to be equally inconsistent 
with the whole tenor of the passage 
and with the language. 

tJtis] seeing they are. For the 
attraction compare c. vi. 17 ; 1 Cor. 
iii. 17 ; 1 Tim. iii. 15. 

1 4 — 1 9. St Paul resumes his broken 
sentence (v. 1), but again only to con- 
template in prayer the view of God's 
providence opened by the coming of 
Christ. Just as (in vv. 2 — 13) he had 
dwelt on the grandeur of his own 
mission, he now is filled with the 
thought of the opportunities offered 
to his readers. Their own experience 
would, if rightly interpreted, throw 
fresh light on the Divine wisdom ; and 
therefore he prays that they, through 
the presence of Christ within them, 
might, with fuller knowledge of the 
sphere and power of Christ's love, be 
enabled to discharge their office for 
the whole body. 

14 For this cause I bow my knees 
unto the Father, ls from Whom every 
family in heaven and on earth de- 
rives its name, l6 that He may grant 
you, according to the riches of His 
glory, that ye may be strengthened 
with power through His Spirit in 
the inward man : '? that Christ may 
dwell in your liearts through faith ; 
to the end that having been rooted, 
and grounded in love l8 ye may be 
strong enough to apprehend with all 
the saints what is the breadth and 
length and height and depth, "' and 
to know the love of Christ which 
passeth knowledge, that ye may be 
filled unto all the fulness of God. 

14 f. tovtov xop*"] as in v. 1 having 
regard to the new view of life laid 
open by the universal Gospel. 

(tn^TTToi ra y.] The phrase is found 
in lxx. 1. Chron. xxix. 20, and in Phil, 
ii. 10; Rom. xi. 4 (a quotation from 
1 K. xix. 18 not lxx.) ; xiv. 1 1 (from Is. 
xlv. 23 lxx.). More commonly we find 
Beivai ra y. (Lk. xxii. 41 ; Acts vii. 
60, &c). Clement (i. 57) speaks of ra 
yovara rfjy KapSlas. On the attitude in 
prayer see D.C.A. s.v. Genuflexion. 

wpbs rbv Trarepa'] The absolute title 
expresses an important truth. In 
prae-Christian times God had revealed 
Himself as Father to one race : now 
it is made known that all the races of 
men are bound to Him in Christ by a 
like connexion ; and far more than 
this (v. 1 5). He Who is the Father of 
men is also the source of fellowship 
and unity in all the orders of finite 
being. The social connexions of earth 
and heaven derive their strength from 
Him ; and represent under limited 
conditions the power of His Father- 

The preposition irpos implies ' com- 
ing before Him,' ' addressing Him in 
prayer,' a fuller thought than the 
simple dative (Rom. xi. 4). 

15. <?£ ov . . . ovopagf rat ] Every 
'family,' every society which is held 
together by the tie of a common head 
and author of its being, derives that 
which gives it a right to the title 
from the one Father. From Him 
comes the spirit by which the mem- 
bers have fellowship one with another 
and are all brought together into a 
supreme unity. 

irao-a irarpia] Latt. omnis pater- 
nitas, every family, every group of 
beings united by a common descent 



ovofta^ETai, l6 'iva Sw vfuv KctTa to 7t\oi/tos t»?s So'£»js 
avTOv ovva/nei Kparatwdfjvai Sta tov irvevfiaTO'i avTOV 
ets tov e<Tft) avOpiawov, I? KaTOLKt]o~ai tov xp iarTOV ^ ia 
Trjs 7rt<rT€ais ev Tctis icapS'iais v/jlcov iv a.^anrr\ eppi^co- 

or origin. Comp. Lk. ii. 4; Acts iii. 
25 ; Gen. xii. 3, xxviii. 14. 

Familia was naturalised by Rab- 
binic writers. 

iv ovp. Ka\ «ri y.] It is character- 
istic of St Paul to recognise the 
variety and unity of the manifold life 
in earth and heaven. Origen en- 
deavoured to give precision to the 
thought by supposing that there were 
races in heaven corresponding to the 
races on earth. 

The phrase ev ovpavols ko.\ eVi yijs is 
apparently unique and to be noticed 
(comp. c. i. 10 ; Col. i. 16, 20 ; 2 Pet 
iii. 13). Generally ovpavos and yf/ are 

dvopagerai] derives its name, and 
further, since the name is designed to 
express the essence of that to which 
it belongs, 'derives that which truly 
makes it what it is.' 

16 — 19. The prayer corresponds 
with that in c. i. 16 ff. In both cases 
the Apostle enforces the need of 
spiritual illumination for the full un- 
derstanding of the Gospel. In the 
former prayer he begins with the 
thought of personal enlightenment 
which leads to a living sense of the 
greatness of the Divine power : in 
this he begins with the thought of 
personal strengthening which issues 
in higher knowledge and completer 

16. iva...] depending on the idea 
of prayer involved in Kapirra ra y. 
v. 15. See Mk. xiii. 18; xiv. 35; 
1 Cor. xiv. 13, &c. 

Kara to ttX. t. 8.] The glory of God 
is the sum of His perfections as mani- 
fested to us. This, in its inexhaust- 
ible wealth, is the only limit of our 
prayers. Comp. Rom. ix. 23. 

8vv. Kpar....els t. i. av6p.~\ that ye 
may be strengthened (V. corroborari, 

V.L. confortari) withpower answering 
to your need through His Spirit, so 
that each access of vigour shall pene- 
trate to and find scope in the inward 

' The inward man ' is the true self, 
which answers to the Divine pattern ; 
and is contrasted with 'the outer 
man' (2 Cor. iv. 16), the material 
frame, through which for a time the 
'self' finds expression in terms of 
earth. Comp. 2 Cor. iv. 160 earn rjp&v 
avQpamos; Rom. vii. 22. This is ac- 
cording to God's will our informing 
personality, moulding, if it fulfils its 
part, all that comes within its in- 
fluence. This idea is suggested by 
the variant 6 e<ra6ev avBpairos in 2 
Cor. I. c. 

Thus the prayer is that Divine 
influence may reach to the master 
spring of the whole life and not simply 
contribute to the development of any 
one part of it. 

17. The object of the prayer is 
expressed in another and a final form, 
even the continual indwelling of 
Christ according to His promise 
(John xiv. 23) which is the most 
perfect strengthening. Karoticfjo-ai is 
parallel with KpaTuad^vai, and in both 
cases the aorist marks the decisive 
act by which the blessing is conveyed. 

For KaroiKflv the permanent dwel- 
ling, as opposed to irapoace'iv the 
temporary sojourning (Lk. xxiv.- 18 ; 
Hebr. xi. 9), see Col. i. 19 ; ii. 9 ; and 
compare KaToiKrj-njpiov c. ii. 22 ; Apoc. 
xviii. 2. 

ev Tmf KapSLats] the seat of char- 

81a r. n.] through the constant 
action of Christian faith, which is at 
once the expression and the support 
of personal strength. 

ev ay. eppi(. ku\ redep.] The con- 




fxevoi Kal TedefxeXuanevoi, l8 'iva k^uryycrryre Ka.Ta\.a(Se- 
<rdai <rvv waariv Tots dyiois t'l to 7r\aros kcu /urjico's icai 
i/^os Kal fiddof, t9 yvwvai re rr\v virepfSdWovo-av t»js 

18 pd8os xal Cif/os 
18 il^os k. p&Oos BCD 2 G S 17 37 Vulg syr-vg bo ; p&Bos k. (ifos SAK 2 L 2 47 Or 


struction of these words is most 
difficult. It is possible to connect iv 
dying alone or the whole clause with 
the preceding sentence. In favour of 
connecting iv ay. with what precedes 
the parallels of i. 4, iv. 2 may be 
urged; but the usage in the Epistle 
is not uniform (vi. 7 /mt' evv. 801A.), 
and the words give a peculiar force to 
ippi£. xal rcSe/i. which seem to require 
some such definition. On the other 
hand the examples which are quoted 
to justify the connexion of the whole 
clause with the foregoing sentence as 
an irregular nominative are not really 
adequate. In Ool. ii. 2 o-v/i/3i/3a<7- 
8evres is equivalent to al <ap8iai, and 
in other cases c. iv. 2 ; Col. iii. 16, 
&c, the transition is part of a com- 
plete change of construction. It 
seems best therefore to connect the 
clause with what follows : that having 
been rooted and grounded in love — 
this would be the characteristic fruit 
of Christ's presence — ye may be strong 
enough.. .to know the love of Christ.... 
The peculiar emphasis on iv dying 
explains the irregular position of Iva 
as in similar cases, Acts xix. 4 ; 2 Cor. 
ii. 4, &c. A like reason explains the 
order in Lk. xxiv. 48 f. dpf n/ifvot anb 
'lepovcr. ifieis fiapr. t. ; and in c. i. 18 
ne(pa>T. t. 6<t>6. t. K. els to elSivai and 
C. vi. 18 8«i irao-rjs 7rpo<Tevxfjs xal 
Serftremr irpoo-tvxofievoL. 

The words ippt-C <a\ red. combine 
without confusing the images of the 
vine and the temple, the ideas of life 
and stability (comp. 1 Cor. iii. 9). Love, 
which Christ's presence brings (John 
xvii. 26), is the source of growth and 
the stay of endurance. The perfects, 
which express the abiding result of 
Christ's dwelling, do not exclude the 

idea of progress which is marked in 
the parallel phrase in Col. ii. 7 ippifa- 

fievoi Kal inoiKobojioifievoi. 'JLppifa- 

fiivui (Latt. radicati) occurs in the 
N. T. only in these two passages. For 
T(8ffie\iw)i.ivoi see Col. i. 23. 

18. i^to-xvo-iyre] may be fully 
strong enough. 'lo-xvs describes 
strength absolutely, power re- 
latively, KpaTos might as overpowering. 

KaTa\a^ea6ai\ to apprehend. See 
Acts iv. 13 ; x. 34 ; xxv. 25. 

o-vv naaiv toIs ay.] Such knowledge 
is not an individual privilege, but a 
common endowment. The co-oper- 
ation of all is required for the attain- 
ment of the full conception. Saint- 
ship — consecration — is the condition 
of spiritual knowledge. 

ri to wX. Kal p.rJK....Kal f$a8as\ The 
form of the clause shews that the 
four words express one thought, the 
whole range of the sphere in which 
the Divine wisdom and love find 
exercise. Though space has only three 
dimensions, we naturally in common 
language distinguish height and depth 
as well as length and breadth. The 
words are not to be interpreted sepa- 
rately : this would require W to likaros, 

Tl TO /ufJKOf, &c. 

19. yvaval re...] First we come 
to apprehend the dimensions (so to 
speak) of the sphere in which the 
Divine counsel finds its fulfilment and 
then we come to know the love which 
occupies it. 

rqv ay. r. \-] '^* l° ve °f Christ 

simply as His, answering to His very 
nature, without any distinct definition 
of the object to which it is directed, 
including both His love for the Church 
and for the believer (comp. John xv. 
9 f.). 


yvwo~eu)s dyd.TTY)v tov xP ia " r °v> tva r 7r\ripco6fJTe ei<P irav 
to 7r\rjpuifia tov deov. 

° T w oe ovvafxevw virep irdvTa 7rotfjo-at inrepeKTrepur- 
o-ou tav aiTov/j.e6a tj voovfxev kcltcL Ttjv Bvva/uiv tvjv 
ivepyovfxevriv iv nfjuv, %l avrw ri Z6£a ev Trj €KK\ri<ria ko.1 

19 Tr\rip(a8y 
19 irXtipuB^Te eis KACD 2 G 3 K 2 L 2 P 2 cui> lur vv» mn ; TrX^wSg B 17 73 116 

yvavat...yvatrcas] Latt. scire (ooff- 
noscere) supereminentem scientiae 
caritatem. A natural paradox : to 
know that which never can be known. 
The thought in Phil. iv. 7 r) elpjjvr/ t. 
6. 1; vwcpexovira wavra vovv is different. 

Iva ir\rip....Tov 6eov\ Latt. Ut im- 

pleamini in omnem plenitudinem 
Dei: that ye may severally be filed 
with the gifts of God's grace, and so 
be made contributory unto all the 
fulness of God. 'The fulness of God ' 
is that perfect consummation of finite 
being which answers to the Divine 
idea. This is reached representative- 
ly when every member of Christ 
brings his full share to the perfecting 
of that glorious humanity which is 
the Body of Christ ; and finally when 
the corresponding work of the Church 
for creation is accomplished (James 
i. 1 8). Comp. c. i. 23 note. 

The reading of B Iva n\ripa6rj it. -, . 
7rA. r. 6. gives substantially the same 
sense more simply and directly : 'that 
through your individual completeness 
the whole fulness of God may be 

20, 21. The contemplation of the 
glorious fulness of Divine blessing in 
the Gospel, both in relation to the 
mission of the Apostle and in relation 
to the opportunities of believers, 
naturally closes with a Doxology of 
singular simplicity and depth, in 
which God's work in man is regarded 
as issuing in His glory ' in the Church 
and in Christ Jesus' to the last de- 
velopment of life in time. 

Similar Doxologies are found : Gal. 

i. 5 ; Rom. ix. 5 ; xi. 33 ff. ; 1 Tim. 
i. 17; 1 Pet. iv. ii. 

°° Now to Him that is able to do 
exceeding abundantly beyond all that 
we ask or think, according to the 
power that icorketh in us, " to Him 
be the glory in the Church and in 
Christ Jesus unto all the generations 
of the age of the ages. 

20 f. ™ hi bvv....avTta tj 8i>£a] We 

may supply either elrj or earl, 'be the 
glory' or 'is the glory.' The one 
thought passes into the other. Man 
does not offer of his own to God, but 
recognises and ascribes to Him what 
is His. In this sense angels and men 
can 'give glory to God' by acknow- 
ledging in that which stirs their 
wonder and gratitude a revelation 
of His power and love : Lk. xvii. 
18 ; John ix. 24 ; Acts xii. 23 ; Rom. 
iv. 20; Apoc. iv. 9; xi. 13; xiv. 7; 
xvi. 9 ; xix. 7. 

vrrip ir....vircpei(7rfp. <bv.,.] Latt. 
omnia facere super abundanter{super- 
abundantius) quam... all. super omnia 
...abundantius quam...&,c: beyond 
all, abundantly beyond all that... 
'Ov depends upon v7rtpeiaTept<r<Tov 
which emphasises virep (iravra). 'Ynep- 
ticirepuTo-ov occurs again 1 Thess. iii. 
10; v. 13. Comp. Mk. vi. 51 ; xiv. 31. 

ah. r) voovp.ev...] Some thoughts 
occur to us which we do not shape 
into petitions ; God's gifts go beyond 
petitions and thoughts alike. 'His 
power working in us ' is the measure 
of that which He does. Comp. Col. 
i. 29. 

21. r) Sri^a] This characteristic 


€V XpicrTui '\r\(Fov ets 7ra<ras xas <yevea<> tou aicovos twv 
alwvusv dfxr\v. 

use of the article in the doxologies 
implies that all perfection which is 
disclosed to us flows finally from God. 
' The glory,' through which whatever 
is glorious gains its splendour, belongs 
to Him only. Comp. [Matt. vi. 13]; 
Gal. i. 5 ; Rom. xi. 36 ; xvi. 27 ; Phil, 
iv. 20; 2 Tim. iv. 18 ; Hebr. xiii. 21 ; 
1 Pet. iv. 11 ; v. 11 ; 2 Pet. iii. 18 ; 
Apoc. i. 6 ; v. 13 ; vii. 12 ; xix. 1. 
Yet see 1 Tim. i. 17 ; Jude 25 (Lk. 
ii. 14 ; xix. 38). 

iv ttj e'/e/cX. Kai iv X. 'I.] in the Church 
and in Christ Jesus. The combina- 
tion presents different aspects of the 
same truth, and perhaps points to 
different orders of the Divine work- 
ing. The Church is the Body of Christ 
and the Bride of Christ (c. v. 32). As 
the Church approaches to its ideal, 
humanity embodies more and more 
perfectly the idea of God in creation, 

and Christ is revealed in further per- 
fection as the spring of man's growth. 
So the glory of God is shewn, as the 
universe moves forward to its end, by 
the fulfilment of God's will in man 
and by the offering of man's service 
in Christ to God. Yet it may be that 
Christ's work through the Church does 
not exhaust His action (i. 10). 

fls ndaas t. y. tov al. r. at.] V. in 
omnes (unwersas)generationessaeculi 
saeculorum. V.L. in omnia saecula 
saeculorum : unto all the generations 
of the age of the ages. Two main 
thoughts underlie this most remark- 
able phrase : (1) the natural succession 
and development of things represented 
by successive generations; and (2) the 
immeasurable vastness of the Divine 
plan expressed in terms of time. The 
units of the great age are contri- 
butory ages. 

B. The Christian Life (iv. i — vi. 20). 


Christian Life (iv. 1 — 24). 
II. The outward manifestation of the Christian Life, 

PERSONAL AND SOCIAL (iv. 25 vi. 9). 

III. The Christian conflict (vi. 10 — 20). 
Personal message (vi. 21, 22). 
Blessing (23, 24). 



[IV t, 2 

IV. * FlapaKaXtS ovv vfxa<i iyia 6 Secrjuios iv Kvpita 

St Paul at length after the twofold 
digression in c. iii. proceeds to apply 
to practice throughout the remainder 
of the Epistle the great truths which 
he has already unfolded. But the 
truths themselves are never out of 
sight. The simplest duties are shewn 
to be grounded upon them. The 
Christian life is the natural applica- 
tion of Christian doctrine to our 
special circumstances : Christian con- 
duct rests upon ' supernatural ' sanc- 
tions. He first gives a general view 
of the Christian life (iv. I — 24) ; and 
then examines it in detail (iv. 25 — 
vi. 9), adding a vivid description of 
the Christian warfare (vi. 10 — 20). 

I. The ground, the growth, the 


(iv. 1—24). 

St Paul states briefly that the Chris- 
tian life must correspond with the 
Christian faith (iv. 1 — 3). This prin- 
ciple brings into relief the cardinal 
lessons of unity and harmonious growth 
(4 — 16) ; and leads to a general con- 
trast between the Gentile and the 
Christian life, the old life and the new 

(1) The correspondence of life and 
faith ( 1 — 3). The wonderful greatness 
of the heritage of Christians might 
tempt them to pride, self-confidence, 
self-assertion. St Paul lays down that 
they are bound to cultivate the oppo- 
site graces of lowliness, meekness, 
long-suffering. It is through these 
that the unity of the Church is estab- 
lished and maintained. Our Faith 
sets before us not our own greatness 
but the greatness of God. We are 
all, the strongest no less than the 
weakest, dependent on Him in all 
things. Therefore in view of His 
glorious purpose for us, we must 
strive to attain to a corresponding 
life, first recognising in deepest humi- 
lity our true relation towards Him. 

'/ beseech you therefore, I the 
prisoner in the Lord (or, I beseech 
you therefore, I, the prisoner, beseech 
you in the Lord) to walk worthily of 
the calling wherewith ye are called, 
"with all lowliness and meekness, 
with long-suffering, forbearing one 
another in love ; 3 giving diligence to 
keep the unity of the spirit in the 
bond of peace. 

1. impaicakob ovv...] I beseech — en- 
treat — you therefore, I the prisoner 
in the Lord... or, / beseech you there- 
fore, I, the prisoner, beseech you in 
the Lord. The connexion of iv xupio) 
is very doubtful It may be taken 
with 7rapaKaA<S, ' I beseech you in the 
Lord'; or with o 8<f'o>uoj, 'the prisoner 
in the Lord.' The first connexion is 
supported by v. 17 (/ adjure you in 
the Lord, see note) where the words 
are resumed : comp. 1 Thess. iv. 1. But 
the connexion with 6 bio-puts is also 
correct: c. vi. 21 ; Phil. i. 14 ; Rom. 
xvi. 10 — 13 ; and 6 ScV/no? by itself 
is perhaps abrupt, though the position 
of eyoi relieves the abruptness. In 
any case St Paul refers to his position 
in order to shew that his sufferings 
had not lessened his joy in that faith- 
ful service to which he calls his 
readers. Comp. Philem. 9. Ign. ad 

Trail. 12 irapaKake? vpas ra Secr/ici jiov. 

For ovv compare Rom. xii. 1 ; 1 Cor. 
iv. 16 ; 1 Tim. ii. 1. 

d£tW] 1 Thess. ii. 12; Rom. xvi. 2; 
Phil. i. 27; Col. i. 10; 3 John 6. 

xXijcrfcos] Compare c. i. 18, and 
Epict. Diss. i. 29, 46 f. (quoted by 
Lightfoot on Philippians p. 314 note). 

qs ex\i;0i;re] The tense carries back 
the thought to the decisive moment 
when they accepted the Gospel. Comp. 
iJKovo-are c. iii. 2; v. 21. For the 
attraction %s (for fjv) see c. i. 6. 

2. pcra it. ran-....] The test of our 
true apprehension of the Gospel is 
our sense of the majesty of God. 

IV 3 ] 



7raa-ri<s Tcnreivo<ppo(rvvt]s Kal 7rpavTr)Tos, fxexa jxaKpo- 
uupias, dve^ofxevoi ocAAfjAwi/ iv dyonrr), z (nrovdct^ovTes 
Ttjpelv Tt]v evoTrjTa tov irvevfJLaTO^ ev too tri/j/SeV/xw rfjs 

Humility, which answers to reverence, 
is the sign of a noble character. The 
proud man only looks at that which is 
(or which he thinks to be) below him; 
and so he loses the elevating influence 
of that which is higher. 

Tancivocppoavvri and irpavTqs are 

closely related. ' Humility ' is a thank- 
ful sense of dependence upon God, as 
opposed to pride and self-confidence. 
Meekness is a consideration for others 
even under provocation, as opposed to 
self-assertion. 'Long-suffering' has 
regard to a different kind of trial 
which comes from the mysteriousness 
of the ways of Providence and the 
unreasonableness of men. 'Long- 
suffering' supports us when we are 
disappointed in not finding the results 
for which we naturally looked. 

' Meekness ' and ' humility ' are 
claimed by the Lord for Himself: 
Matt. xi. 29 ; and the perversity of 
man brings out the 'long-suffering' 
of God : 2 Pet. iii. 9, 15 ; 1 Pet. iii. 20. 

The three graces occur together 
with others CoL iii. 12. 

ird<rr)t] in all its forms: Acts xx. 19; 
c. i. 8; iv. 19, 31; v. 3, 9; vi. 18, &c. 
It is to be taken with both nouns. 

The use of pera in place of the 
simple dat. gives greater distinctness 
to the qualities : 2 Cor vii. 15. 

d«x- aXX.] Latt. supportantes (sus- 
tinentes, sufferentes), forbearing one 
another in the case of real grievances : 
CoL iii. 13. The motto of Epictetus 

was avi\ov Kal dirix ov (Aul. Gell. XVU. 

19). The nom. is used for the accus. 
as the entreaty passes into a com- 
mand (comp. Col. i. 10). Such exhor- 
tations point to the fact that even in 
the Apostolic Churchfaultsof self-asser- 
tion and occasions of offence existed. 

3. But, while there is need of for- 
bearance in the Christian, there is 
need of effort also. We must give 

diligence 'to keep the unity of the 
spirit.' As yet there was no outward 
organisation binding together local 
Churches. Their unity lay in their 
common vital relation to Christ, 
maintained by the spiritual sympathy 
which held together the members of 
each Church. External peace tends 
to guard this inner fellowship. 

a-nov8d£ovTf s] 2 Tim. ii. 15; Hebr. 
iv. 1 1 ; 2 Pet. i. 10 ; iii. 14. 

ti)v iv. r. irv.~\ the unity of the 
spirit. The phrase is ambiguous. It 
may mean either 'the unity which 
finds expression in the human spirit,' 
or ' the unity which is inspired by the 
Holy Spirit.' In the end the two 
thoughts are coincident; for the unity 
which rules man's spirit cannot but 
be a gift of the Spirit of God. Yet 
the parallel of v. 13 rf)v iv. rfjs irio-Teas, 
the only other place where ivorys 
occurs in the N.T., is in favour of the 
first interpretation. Unity in the faith 
which we hold corresponds with unity 
in the spirit by which we are animated. 
Oneness in the faith and the know- 
ledge of Christ must issue in oneness 
of spirit. 

In Col. iii. 14 love is spoken of as 
' the bond of perfectness,' but it is not 
possible to suppose that St Paul used 
such a periphrasis as 'the bond of 
peace ' for love itself. Peace itself is 
the bond ; for this use of the gen. see 
c. vi. 14. The destruction of peace is 
self-seeking {ifKeovc^ia). 

(2) The unity and harmonious 
growth of the Christian Body (4 — 

Having spoken of ' the unity of the 
spirit,' the keeping of which is the 
aim of Christian effort, St Paul seems 
to pause for a while, and then, moved 
by the greatness of the thought, he 
thinks, as it were, aloud and lays open 


eipijvw 4 eV trvi>\xa Kalev Trvevfxa, k<x6w<s [/ca*] €K\t]6rjTe ev 

a view of the unity of the whole 
Christian society, first in its objective 
foundation (4 — 6) and then in the 
provision for its vital realisation (7 — 

The whole paragraph is essentially 
parenthetical, and the line of thought 
in w. 1 — 3 is resumed in v. 17. 

4 There is one body and one spirit, 
even as also ye were called in one 
hope of your calling ; 5 one Lord, one 
Faith, one Baptism ; ° one Goo and 
Father of all, Who is over all and 
through all and in all. 

7 But to each one of us was the 
grace given according to the measure 
of the gift of the Christ. 8 Wherefore 
the Psalmist sailh 

When He ascended on high He 
led a host of captives in His train, 

And gave gifts unto men. 

9 Now the statement He ascended, 
what is it but that He descended 
[first] into the lower parts of the 
earth ? ,0 He that descended, He 
Himself is also He that ascended 
far above all the heavens, that He 
might bring all things to their com- 
pleteness. "And He gave some as 
apostles, and some as prophets, and 
some as evangelists, and some as 
pastors and teachers, "with a view 
to the perfecting of the saints for 
a work of ministering, for building 
up the Body of Christ, "3 till we all 
attain unto the unity of the faith 
and of the knowledge of the Son of 
God, unto a full-grown man, unto 
the measure of the stature of the 
fulness of Christ, "that we be no 
longer children, storm-tossed and 
carried about with every wind of 
doctrine, victims of (in) fraud, of 
(in) craftiness, directed to further the 
wiles of error ; l *but, living the truth 
in love, may grow up into Him in 
all things, Who is the Head, even 
Christ ; ' 6 from Whom all the Body 
filly framed and knit together, through 
every contact, according to the effec- 

tive working of that which is supplied 
in due measure by e"ch several part, 
maketh for itself the growth of the 
Body, unto the building up of itself 
in love. 

4 — 6. The unity of the Christian 
Society is witnessed by its unity in 
itself, which answers to the Christian 
call (v. 4) ; by its historical foundation 
(v. 5); by the unity of God Whose 
will it expresses (v. 6). 

4. %v a-, cat Ik irv.] The Christian 
Society is one in its visible constitu- 
tion and one in its informing spirit. 
The body and the spirit (as in v. 3) 
refer to the human, earthly organism. 
Outwardly and inwardly this is one. 
The spirit is necessarily in fellowship 
with the Holy Spirit, but a personal 
reference to the Holy Spirit seems to 
be foreign to the context, though His 
work is recognised in the formation 
of the Church. 

Kadas icai €K\rjd....vficiv] The unity 
of the corporate life of Christians 
corresponds with the unity of hope 
involved in their 'heavenly calling' 
(Hebr. iii. 1). The call to fellowship 
with God 'in Christ,' if welcomed, 
could not but issue in unity. Comp. 
i. 18 note. 

The hope is coincident with the 
calling (1 Thess. iv. 7 ; Gal. i. 6 ; 1 Cor. 
vii. 15) and not consequent upon it 
(koKiiv els) as in 1 Cor. i. 9; Col. iii. 15; 
1 Tim. vi. 12. 

For Ka8a>s Knl as in fact see v. 17 

5. The historical foundation of the 
Christian Society also witnesses to its 
unity. It is established by the ac- 
knowledgment of one Lord as sove- 
reign over all life : it confesses one 
faith in proclaiming that 'Jesus is 
Lord' (1 Cor. xii. 3) : it is entered by 
one Baptism, in which the believer is 
brought into fellowship with Christ 
Jesus (Gal. iii. 27). 

We might naturally have looked 
for a reference to Holy Communion 

IV 5, 6] 



fxia e/\7r/St t^s K\tjo-€ws v/ulcov 5 eh Kvpios, p.ia tt'lo-tk, ev 
pcnrTicr/ucf 6 eh Beds Kal 7rccTrjp TrdvTwv 6 iirl iravrtav 

in which, as the Apostle shews else- 
where, 'the one bread' is the pledge 
that ' the many' are 'one body' (i Cor. 
x. 17 R.V. mg.). But the Apostle is 
speaking of the initial conditions of 
Christian life. Holy Communion be- 
longs to the support and development 
of it. 

pia ttiotis] For the objective sense 
of niaris see v. 13; Col. ii. 7 (xaBas 
i&itSdxOrrre) ; Gal. i. 23 (see Meyer) ; 
Rom. x. 8 ; xii. 6 ; 1 Tim. iii. 9 ; iv. I, 
6 &C. ; Jude 3 (rij . . . napa&oBe'uTji ... 
irio-rei), 20 ; Apoc ii. 13. 

The essential substance of the 
Christian Creed is given in the words 
already quoted : Kvpws 'Iijo-ous (1 Cor. 
xii. 3) opposed to the declaration of 
the apostate 'Avddepa 'Itjo-ovs (I.e.). 
Comp. Rom. x. 9 iav o/ioAoyijo-i/s to 
pfjfia...oTi Kupios 'Irjaoi/s. 

6. Yet more the unity of the 
Christian Society is involved in the 
very conception of one Goo and 
Father of all made known by the 
Incarnate Son. He who sees the 
range of the Divine action must find 
in it the strongest possible motive 
for guarding the unity already realised 
in the Church, which is the beginning 
and the pledge of a wider unity (James 
i. 18). 

els 8. Kal irarfip jr.] Cf. C. v. 20 to 
dew Kal jrarpi. [See Appendix.] The 
revelation communicated to the Church 
is of the universal Fatherhood of God. 
This is the power of its missionary 
activity. "We can appeal to men be- 
cause in a true sense they are God's 
children. At the same time the vision 
of a universal sovereignty (Apoc. xxi. 
24, 26 ; xi. 1 S) is continually present. 
All progress is a foreshadowing of the 
end. The addition of i}/taw in v. 7 
emphasises the simple travrav here. 
Perhaps the most dangerous symptom 
in popular theology is the neglect of 
the doctrine of God in His unity. 

o eVi 7i. Kal hiti jr. <cai iv »r.] Latt. 
super omnes et per omnia, al. super 
omnia, per omves. The reference is 
not to the Person of the Father, but 
to the triune God, ruling, pervading, 
sustaining all. Cf. Rom. xi. 36. [See 

The address of Marcus Aurelius to 
Nature (iv. 23) i< aov iravrn, iv am 
iravTa, els irk iravra recognises part of 
St Paul's thought. 

7 — 16. Unity is stamped on the 
Christian Society by the form, the 
method and the ruling idea of its 
institution. St Paul now goes on to 
consider how provision is made for 
the practical realisation of that idea 
in the Body of Christ. In this he 
marks first the types of ministry with 
which the Church is endowed (7 — 1 1) ; 
and then he shews how they serve for 
the perfecting, the guiding, the har- 
monising of every part of the complex 
whole (12 — 16). The one section 
passes into the other. 

7 — 11. The unity of the Christian 
Society is due to the combination and 
ministry of all its members. Some 
things are common to all ; but each 
has a special function, and each re- 
ceives the grace which is necessary 
for the fulfilment of his own office. 

This manifold endowment of the 
Christian Society is foreshadowed in 
the Psalmist's description of the tri- 
umph of the great Conqueror. 

Even in a work of art the perfection 
of details, as contributory to the 
design, is necessary to its complete- 
ness. It is only when we neglect 
to recognise the specific differences 
of parts that we miss the truth that 
they belong to a whole and suggest a 
larger unity. 

St Paul first states the fact of the 
individual endowment of the several 
members of the Christian Society 
(v. 7) ; he then points out how the 



[IV 7, 8 

teal Zia TTavTwv Kal iv iracriv. 1 'Evl Se e/Ca(7Tft) VfXWV 
ehoBt] \fj\ x<*p K Kara to fj.erpov rfj<s Soopeas tou xP l(rT0 ^- 
8 S/o Ae'7€t 

'AnaBac eic f'yoc HXMAAooTeyceN aixmaAgoci'an, 


many gifts taken together form the 
Divine endowment of the whole (vv. 
8 — io) ; and lastly notes that certain 
special gifts have been made for its 
due government (v. n). 

7. eVi S<= e. >;.] But to each.... 
Passing from the largest vision of the 
working of God, St Paul shews how 
preparation is made in the Church for 
giving effect to it. We believers 
recognise this crowning truth of the 
unity of the. Christian body, but, look- 
ing at our own position we see that 
to each one of us teas the grace given 
which we severally need and which 
we have according to the measure of 
the gift of Christ. 

ibodri] when each took his place in 
the body. Compare Rom. xii. 6ff. ; 
1 Pet. iv. 10. 

Kara to fierpov...] The fulness of 
the endowment of the Church accord- 
ing to Christ's boundless love and 
wisdom is the rule which determines 
each man's special endowment. There 
is perfect order and a true relation to 
the whole in His several gifts. Comp. 
Rom. xii. 6. 

The word Saped is specially used of 
a spiritual and bountiful gift : c. iii. 7 ; 
John iv. 10; Acts ii. 38 &c. ; Rom. v. 
1552 Cor. ix. 15; Hebr. vi. 4. 

tov xptoroC] The Christ in Whom 
all the hopes of Israel were concen- 
trated and all the traits of the 
Messianic king fulfilled. 

8 — 10. The Christian Society re- 
ceived its spiritual endowment from 
the ascended Lord at Pentecost, and 
St Paul finds this outpouring of Divine 
gifts prefigured in the triumph-song 
of the Messianic king. But in apply- 
ing the Psalm he substitutes for the 
words ' received gifts among men ' the 

very different phrase ' gave gifts unto 
men.' The same rendering is found 
in the Targum, and it probably repre- 
sents a gloss which was current in 
St Paul's time. The origin is obvious. 
It seemed more natural that the 
Divine Conqueror should bestow gifts 
than receive them, or rather, as St 
Paul applies the thought, that he 
should return to men what he took 
from them fitted for nobler uses. So 
Rashi distinctly paraphrases the text : 
' took that thou mightest give.' 

8. 810 Xcyet...] Wherefore the 
Psalmist saith... Ps. lxviii. (lxvii.) 18. 
There is, that is, a necessary correspon- 
dence between the actions of God at 
all times. What is recorded of the 
Divine King of old must find its com- 
plete fulfilment in the Christ. The 
King's ascent to the sanctuary in 
Zion foreshadowed Christ's ascent to 
the Father's throne : His royal magni- 
ficence, Christ's royal bounty. 

The subject of \eyei is either 'Scrip- 
ture ' generally, or, more simply, 'the 
sacred writer,' ' the Psalmist.' Comp. 
c. v. 14 ; Gal. iii. 16; 1 Cor. vi. 16. Geor 
is not to be supplied unless it is 
implied by the context (2 Cor. vi. 2). 

flXliak. ai^/*.] he led a host of cap- 
tives in his train, and these, unlike 
earthly conquerors, he numbered a- 
mong his own people and enriched 
and used them. Their presence im- 
plies the conquest of his enemies, and 
far more, for he made those whom he 
conquered his ministers to men. Com- 
pare 2 Cor. ii. 14 to 6c$ x"P ls T Q 
jrairoTe dpuip./3(vovTt rj^iar, Col. ii. 15. 

For al)(fia\aio-la see Judg. v. 12 ; 
1 Esdr. v. 56 ; Jud. ii. 9 (lxx.). 

efi. Sop., t. dpdp.] Those whom he 
had taken he gave to serve others. 


9 to de 'AnsIBh t'l €<ttiv ei /ut) oti Kal Karrkfin T eis rd 
KctTWTepa fxepr] t»js 777s ; I0 d Kara/Sets ai/ro's e<TTiv icai 
6 dvapas virepdvw irdvTwv rdav ovpctvwv, tva Tr\ripw<rr] 

9 irpwrov 
9 + TTpurov BK 2 L 2 P 2 37 syrr ; om NACD 2 G 8 bo 

Compare the promise made under a 
different figure in Lk. v. 10. 

Similarly the Levites are spoken of 
as 'a gift to Aaron and his sons' 
(Num. viii. 19 86p.a lxx. ; xviii. 6). 

See Just. M. Dial. 39 ihwux R6p.ara 

rols avBp. : 87 eda)Ke do/xara Tois viols 
rav av6p. 

9 f. to 8e 'Ave&ri...~\ Now the im- 
plied statement 'He ascended' 

Comp. Gal. iv. 25 and Lightfoot's note. 

The words that follow are beset by 
diffi culties. To what does Kark £77 refer ? 
What is described by ra KaraSYepa p.kpi\ 
rrjs yfjS ? 

Kare^r] has been taken for the 
descent at the Incarnation, the descent 
to Hades, the descent through the 
Holy Spirit at Pentecost. 

So 7a KaTcirepa /ikpr] t. y. (V. inferi- 
ores partes terrae, V. L. inferiora 
terrae) has been held to describe the 
earth itself, lower in respect of heaven, 
and again to describe the regions 
lower than the earth, that is Hades. 
Why again is stress laid on the 
identity of him who ascended with 
him who descended? 

The answer to these questions may 
be given most satisfactorily by con- 
sidering the scope of the whole pas- 

The central thought is the endow- 
ment of the Church by the ascended 
Christ. To understand this we must 
recognise what the Ascension was in 
relation to the gifts. Ascension im- 
plies a previous descent. The Lord 
left ' the glory which He had ' (John 
xvii. 5) to enter on a true human life 
on earth, and more, to share man's 
death and. fate after death. Thus He 
perfectly learnt all man's needs and 
by rising again overcame man's last 

enemy. In this work He won to 
Himself some who were alienated 
from Him. When He ascended to 
reassume in His glorified humanity 
His place on the Father's throne, 
these ascended with Him (c. ii. 5), 
and these He gave to minister to 
men. His personality is throughout 
unchanged. As the Son of man, still 
truly God, he passed through all the 
scenes of man's life : as the Son of 
God, still truly man, he ascended far 
above all the heavens, that He might 
bring all things through man, their 
appointed representative and head, to 
the end proposed for them in the 
counsel of creation (cf. i. 23 note). 

The insertion of npwrov is a true 

9. Kal KaxefSri] The word 'ascended' 
used of Christ, Whose pre-existence is 
assumed, implies a descent also. Comp. 
John iii. 13. 

to. KaT<oTepa p.. r. y.] It is most 
unlikely that such a phrase would be 
used to describe the earth. Meprj has 
no force whatever in such a case. But 
Hades might, according to the preva- 
lent cosmogony, reasonably be called 
either ra ncaTairepa [/iepij] rfjs yrjs or ra 
(taTiuVara Ttjs yrjs (Ps. lxiii. IO, LXX.). 
It may be observed that in c. i. 10 and 
Col. i. 20 there is nothing directly 
answering to ra KaraxOopia in Phil, 
ii. 10. 

10. o Karafias avros itrnv. ..] lie 
that descended, He Himself, is also 
He that ascended.... The sense is 
given substantially by the grammati- 
cally incorrect rendering 'is the same 
also that....' Comp. John iii. 13. 

Iva TT^r/pda-rj] That He might by 
His presence bring all things to their 
completeness, give reality to all that 



tcc TravTa. " kcu civtos eXooxeN rows /uev aVotrToAoi/s, 
tous Se 7rpo(j)riTas, toi/s Se eua'yy e '^' " 7 ' as > tovs §e 7roi- 


the universe of created things pre- 
sented in sign and promise. Christ 
first 'fulfils' all things and then receives 
them to Himself when brought to their 
true end. Time is no element in this 
work. It is essentially like creation 
itself 'one act at once, 1 though it is 
slowly realised under the conditions 
of earthly being. 

II. koX avros i'Sancci*. ..] And in 
fulfilment of His victor's work He 
Himself, of His own free love (avros), 
gave.... The gift was a double gift. 
Christ first endowed the men, and 
then He gave them, so endowed, to the 

tovs fiev...] Some of those whom 
He had taken and fashioned for His 
service as apostles, and some, as pro- 

The three groups 'apostles,' ' pro- 
phets," evangelists/represent ministers 
who had a charge not confined to any 
particular congregation or district. 
In contrast with these are those who 
form the settled ministry, 'pastors and 
teachers,' who are reckoned as one 
class not from a necessary combination 
of the two functions but from their 
connexion with a congregation. 

For (BrooT-oXos see Lightfoot on Gal. 
i. 17. 

The ny>o0i)Vrjs was an inspired 
teacher : Acts xv. 32 ; 1 Cor. xiv. 3. 
The prophets are frequently combined 
with the apostles as having peculiar 
authority : c. ii. 20; iii. 5; Apoc. xviii. 
20. There is a vivid description of 
their work at a later period in the 
Teaching of the Apostles cc. xi. ff. 

The work of the et)ayyfXiorr/r was 
probably that of a missionary to the 
unbelieving (Acts xxi. 8). Comp. 
2 Tim. iv. 5. 

This is the only place in which 
Troi/iiji/ is the definite title of an office. 
But in addressing the 'elders' at 

Miletus, St Paul bids them 'take 
heed to the flock in which the Holy 
Ghost had made them "bishops" and. 
feed (Troipalveiv) the Church of God' 
(Acts xx. 28); comp. 1 Pet. v. 2; John 
xxi. 1 6. Christ Himself is spoken of as 
'the shepherd and bishop of our souls' 
(1 Pet. ii. 25), and 'the great Shep- 
herd' (Hebr. xiii. 20). For SMo-kuXos 
see Acts xiii. 1 ; 1 Cor. xii. 28 f. 

From a consideration of these pas- 
sages it is evident that there was not 
as yet a recognised ecclesiastical hier- 
archy ; while there is a tendency to 
the specialisation of functions required 
for the permanent well-being of the 

See Additional Note. 

12 — 16. The object of this mani- 
fold ministry is the perfecting of every 
member after the pattern of Christ 
(12, 13), that all realising the truth in 
life may grow up to complete fellow- 
ship with Him (14, 15), "Who provides 
through the ministry of every part 
for the growth of the whole body in 
love (16). 

12. irpbs tov KaTopT....els epyov... 
els oik.] Latt. ad consummationem. . . 
in opus ministerii, in aedifccationem 
...With a view to the perfecting of 
the saints for a work.... The work 
of the ministry is directed to the 
preparation of the saints — the whole 
body of the faithful — for the twofold 
work which in due measure belongs 
to all Christians, a personal work and a 
social work. Every believer is charged 
with the duty of personal service to 
his fellow-believers and to his fellow- 
men (2 Pet. i. 7 <pi\ao~e\<pia, ayaivrj), 

and has some part in building up the 
fabric of the Christian Society. 

A consideration of the scope of the 
whole passage in which special stress 
is laid upon the ministry of every part 
to the welfare of the whole, seems to 



ayiwv ets kpyov StaKOVias, eis oiKO^o/JLrjv tov crw/uaTOs 

tov xpiarTov, i /me^pi KctTavTri<ru)iuL6v 01 7roti/T£s ets -rr\v 
evoTtjra rfjs TTKneta^ ko.1 rm eiri'yvwaeass tov v'lov tov 
veov, ets avSpa TeXeiov, eh jxeTpov riXucias tov 7r\ripw- 
[mxtos tov xpio-TOv, I4 iW /uriKeTi (S/uev wfarioi, kXvZwvl- 

be absolutely decisive as to the inter- 
pretation Of els epyov fitaK. els oIkoS. 
t. cr. r. x- The change of the preposi- 
tion shews clearly that the three 
clauses (npbs...els...eis...) are not co- 
ordinate, and however foreign the idea 
of the spiritual ministry of all 'the 
saints ' is to our mode of thinking, it 
was the life of the apostolic Church. 
The responsible officers of the congre- 
gation work through others, and find no 
rest till every one fulfils his function. 
The personal dealing of Christian with 
Christian necessarily contributes to 
the extension and consolidation of the 

KaTapna-pos does not occur else- 
where in the K T. Comp. KarapTco-ts 
2 Cor. xiii. 9 ; and KarapTifa Lk. vi. 40 ; 
1 Thess. iii. 10; 2 Cor. xiii. 11 ; Gal. 
vi. 1 ; Hebr. xiii. 21 ; 1 Pet. v. 10; {i£ap- 
Ti'fu 2 Tim. iii. 17). The idea is of 
the perfect and harmonious develop- 
ment of every power for active service 
in due relation to other powers. 

t5>v ay lav] See c. i. 1, note. 

ds epy. Siax.] There is no evidence 
that at this time hicucovla or SiaKoveiv 
had an exclusively official sense. Comp. 
1 Cor. xii. 5 ; xvi. 1 5 ; Hebr. vi. 10. 

els 01x08. t. <r. t. x-] The metaphor 
is expressive and accurate. The body 
of Christ, like our own frames, is built 
up by the addition of each element 
which is required for its completion. 
Comp. v. 16; 1 Pet. ii. 5 ff. 

13. pe\pi (carai/r.] Latt. donee 
occurramus. The limit, unattainable 
under present conditions, is an effec- 
tive call to unceasing endeavour. For 
KaTavTijooipe v see Phil. iii. 11; Acts 
xxvi. 7. The origin of the image in 
Acts xxvii. 12 &c. 

ol iravTes] we Christians all as a 

body, not simply iravres : i Cor. x. 17 ; 
Rom. xi. 32; Phil. ii. 21. 

«9...ets...fir...] St Paul distin- 
guishes three stages or aspects of 
Christian progress. The first is intel- 
lectual, where faith and knowledge 
combine to create unity in the soul, 
the object of both being the Son oi 
God. The second is personal maturity. 
The third is the conformity of each 
member to the standard of Christ in 
whom all form one new man (Gal. iii. 
28 els; c. ii. 15. 

Trjs eiriyvdaeas] See C. i. 17 note. 

tov viov t. 6\] Gal. ii. 20. The 
express title is very rare in St Paul's 
Epistles, though it is found not un- 
frequently by implication : Rom. i. 3, 
9 &c. ; Col. i. 13. The force of the 
title is conspicuous in the Epistle to 
the Hebrews : iv. 14 ; vi. 6 ; vii. 3 ; x. 29. 

els a. rekeiov] I Cor. ii. 6; xiv. 20; 
Col. i. 28; iv. 12 ; Phil. iii. 15 ; Hebr. v. 
14. The phrase seems to point on- 
ward to that perfectness of ideal 
humanity in Christ in which each 
believer when perfected finds his place 
(Gal. iii. 28 quoted above). 

els perpov..i\ Latt. in mensuram 
aetatis plenitudinis Christi. The per- 
fection of each Christian is determined 
by his true relation to Christ to Whose 
fulness he is designed in the counsel 
of God to minister. This ideal fulness 
is the standard of his personal aim. 
For iJXtxi'a, maturity of development, 
see John ix. 21, 23. 

14. This verse appears to be co- 
ordinate with v. 13 and not dependent 
upon it. The ministry of the Church 
serves both for growth and for pro- 

vr\ttwi\ opposed to reXetoi (Hebr. 

6 4 


^o/mevoi teal irepKpepofJievoi ttclvti dve/uup t»js StSacncaAtas 
iv Trj Kvfiela twv dvdp(07ru)v iv iravovpyia irpos Ttjv /uedo- 
$iav Trjs wXdvri'i, Is d\ridevovTes Se iv dyct7rri av£r]<rwiu.ev 
eh avTov ra irdvTa, os itrriv r\ KetyaXri, Xpiovos, lfi e£ 
ov Trdv to crdofjia a-uvap/uoXoyoviuevov ko.1 trw/3t/3a£b- 
jxevov Bta 7rctcrjjs a^)>js ty\<z e7ri^opr]'yia^ kclt ivepyeiav iv 

KKvhavi^oiKvoi] Latt. fluctuantes. 
The word does not occur elsewhere 
in N. T. Comp. James i. 6. 

irepup.'] This word (in the passive) 
occurs in the New Testament here 
only. In Heb. xiii. 9, as also in Jude 
12, it is a false reading. But the 
former passage (hSaxms irouci'Xair *. 
i-evais fir) 7rapa<f>epeo-8c) is to be com- 
pared, as describing the same dangers 
under a slightly different image, — that 
of being 'carried away from the straight 
course' (see note ad Inc.). [Here the 
Ephesians are warned against being 
carried about hither and thither by 
various winds of erroneous doctrine, 
which are thus characterised in contrast 
with the unity of Christian teaching.] 

rrjs 8i8a<ric.] The teaching of such as 
lead astray. 

€v rrj ku/3....] Latt. in nequitia 
(fallacia, ittusione) hominum, in 
astutia ad circumventionem {remed- 
ium,machinationem) err oris: encom- 
passed, as it were, by the fraud (or the 
gambling spirit) of religious adven- 
turers, who turn them by their selfish 
ability after the scheming of error. 

KvfieLa] The word Kvftela occurs in 
the literal sense of 'dice-playing' in 
PI. Pliaedr. 274 d ; Xen. Mem. i. 3, 2 
&c. It is used metaphorically in Arr. 
Epict. ii. 19; iii. 21. The word was 
transliterated in Rabbinic. [See Add. 

7ravovpyla] Luke xx. 23; i Cor. iii. 
19; 2 Cor. iv. 2; xi. 3. (2 Cor. xii. 16 


For 7rpos r. ji. see Gal. ii. 14; Lk. 
xii. 47 ; and for fiedobia c. vi. n. 

15. akrjdfvovTts...] Latt. veritatem 
facientes, living the truth in love, 

not simply speaking the truth. The 
appropriation of the truth is not 
intellectual only but moral, expressed 
through our whole being, in character 
and action. 

ai)£ijo-. (Is av.] Latt. crescamus in 
illo: may realise our fellowship with 
Him more closely as our growth 
advances and be conformed to Him 
more perfectly. 

16. e'£o£...] from Whom, as the 
source of all vital energy, all the body 
...maketh for itself the growth of 
the body unto the building up of 
itself in love. While Christ is the 
one source of life, the gradual for- 
mation of His body, the Church, is 
still described under the two comple- 
mentary figures of 'a growth' and 'a 
building up.' Av£ij<nr obviously refers 
to av^aa/xev in v. 15. The increase 
of the Church depends in part on the 
due development of its members, and 
in part on their harmonious combina- 

The process of increase is continuous 
(trvvapnokoyoiipevov pres. as C. ii. 21 f.), 
and it involves the putting together 
of parts {irvvapfi.. c. ii. 21), and the 
combination of persons (cru^/3i|3. Col. ii. 


Sm 7r. <i.] Latt. per omnem junc- 
turam subministrationis, through 
every contact. Wherever one part 
comes into close connexion with an- 
other, it communicates that which it 
has to give. For the sense of a<£>i; 
see Lightfoot on Col. ii. 19. 

The construction of rf/s emxoprjylas 
is uncertain. The only connexion 
which gives a satisfactory meaning 
appears to be tj/s itnx- kot' eVpy. 

IV i 7 ] 



jxeTpui evos etcaarTov r fiepov<P Tqv av£r\<riv tov o-wfiaTOi 
7roi€iTai eU o'iKO$0[j.rjv iavTOv iv dyonrri. 

i7 7ovto ovv Xeyw kcu ev KVpiw, fxriKen 
v/uas 7repnraT6iv /cot0as /cat ra edvr] TrepiwaTei ev /uaTaio- 

16 pi\ovs 
16 p.4povs BXDjGjKjLaPjj 17 37 Iren ; /uAous AC vg syr-vg bo 

The unusual order is intelligible from 
the emphasis on i-ijs eVix- (comp. iii. 17 
note). The sense will then be : 'ac- 
cording to the effectual working of 
the service rendered in due measure 
by every part' If ev utrpa cannot be 
used absolutely, then in uerpcp i. e. ft. 
gives the same meaning. 

The rendering 'through every con- 
tact with the supply' gives no clear 
sense. The 'supply' is not a definite 
current of force, but varies with every 
part. In any case the sense is clear. 
Each part as it is brought into contact 
with other parts, fulfils its own office 
and contributes to the growth of the 

ewixopr/yla occurs again Phil. i. 19. 

ev ayairrj] The words re-echo the 
language of v. 2. The repetition of ev 
dyairn is characteristic of the Epistle : 
i. 4; iii. 18; iv. 2, 15; v. 2. 

(3) The contrast of the old life and 
the new (17 — 24). 

The old life (17—19). 

The new life (20 — 24). 

'' This I say therefore and adjure 
you in the Lord that ye no longer 
walk as the Gentiles also walk in the 
vanity of their mind, lS being dark- 
ened in their understanding, alien- 
ated from the life of God, because 
of the ignorance that is in them 
because of the hardening of their 
heart; ' 9 in that having lost feeling 
they gave themselves up to lascimous- 
ness to work all uncleanness in 
selfishness. '"But ye did not so learn 
the Christ, "if at least it was He 
Whom ye heard, and it was in Him 
ye were taught, even as there is truth 
in Jesus ; that ye put away, ~ 

W. EPH. 

regard to your former conversation, 
the old man, which waxeth corrupt 
after the lusts of deceit; S3 and that 
ye be renewed in the spirit of your 
mind, "■and put on the new man T 
which hath been created after God 
in righteousness and holiness of the 

17 — 24. St Paul now returns to the 
practical counsels on which he had 
entered (vv. 1 — 3), and contrasts 
generally the old life (17 — 19) and the 
new (20 — 24). 

17. toCto ovv X. Koi p-apr.^ This I 
say therefore and adjure you in the 
Lord.... The words take up irapaicaXa 
ovv of v. 1. Here there can be no 
question of the connexion of c'v Kvpica 
with paprvpopat : I adjure you, re- 
cognising as I do so my fellowship 
with the Lord, speaking as in Him. 
Comp. 1 Thess. iv. 1. For similar 
combinations see 2 Thess. iii. 4 nevai- 
Baptv iv k. ; Gal. v. 10 ; Phil. ii. 24 ; 
Rom. xiv. 14 iriireio-pai ev k. 'I. ; xvi. 2 
?va irpoabe^r]o-8e . . .ev *. ; Phil. ii. 29; 
ii. IO e\iri£a> ev k. ; iv. 10 ix°PV * v K - > 
Col. iv. 17 irapeXaftet ev K. 

p-qKiri vfias. . .KaBas kcu to. «.] that you 

who have embraced the faith walk no 
longer as in fact the Gentiles walk. 
No longer should it so be that there 
is no difference between your life and 

In xaBas xai, the kcu emphasises the 
words which follow : c. iv. 4, 32 ; v. 2, 
25, 29, &c. 

The description of heathen hfe is 
closely parallel both in thought and 
language with Rom. i. 21 ff. 

iv iiarcuorriTi t. v.] V. in vanitate 
sensus sui, V.L. mentis suae, so v. 23. 




18 > 

ty]ti tov voo<s avTwv, "etTKOTtofxevoi Trj Siavola oWes, 
ct7rt]WoTpi(aiuevoi Trjs ^cofjs tov 6eov, did Trjv ayvoiav 
ty\v ov(rav ei/ avTols, dia ty\v 7riopw(riv Trj<s KapMas 
avTwv, ,9 oiTti/es a7r>/\'y»7KOTes eavToiis Trapedcoicav Trj 
dcreXyeia ets epycuriav dKadap<ria<s Trdo~r\<; iv TrXeovepiq. 

19 A.Trj\yr)K6Tes codd plur : syr hoi bo : Cl-Al Or Chrys Theod-Mops (nan vers 
lat) ; item agnoseit Hieron ; d.irrjKir wires DEG codd latt ap Hierou ; m Vg syr-vg 
arm ; aeth ; Viotn ; Theod-Mops-lat 

Rom. i. 21 i fiaraimdrjaav iv Toll 8ia- 
\oyurp.ots avrwv. Their hold on the 
spiritual and eternal was lost. Oomp. 
Rom. viii. 20 tji fia.Tcu6TT)Ti r) kt'utis 
v7T€Tayrj. I Pet. i. 1 8 €K Ttjs fiaraias 

ifimv dva<TTpo(j>rjs. Idols were essen- 
tially ftaraia Acts xiv. 1 5. 

1 8. citkotujjx. tjj biav. Kvres] Rom. 
i. 21 etricoTicrOrj r) d<rvV€Tos avroav 
KapSia. Comp. c. v. 8, 1 1 ; 1 John 
ii. 11. That which should have been 
light was darkened : Matt. vi. 23. The 
converse change is noticed c. i. 18 
fffCpioTio-fievovs tovs 6<p8a\povs rrjs 

For Siavoia see Hebr. viii. 10; 1 Pet. 
i. 13 ; 2 Pet. iii. 1 ; 1 John v. 20. It 
is combined with KapSia Lk. i. 51. 

The rhythm of the sentence is 
decisive for the connexion of Svtcs 
with ia-KOTcojiivoi, in spite of the 
parallel Col. i. 21, the only other 
passage in the N.T. in which the 
double participle is found. 

airrjWoTp. t. £. T. O.j For a7rr]XkoTp. 

see c. ii. 12. The life of God is that life 
which answers to the nature of God 
and which He communicates to His 
children. This had become wholly 
foreign to their nature. Their spiritual 
darkness corresponded with a moral 
alienation from God. 

See Ruskin Modern Painters ii. 
Pt. iii, c. 2 § 8, p. 18 small edn. 

Ignorance or forgetfulness of God 
is the spring of all error, as ' the fear 
of God is the beginning of wisdom.' 
Comp. 1 Thess. iv. 5 To. cdvtj ra p,r) 
elSoTa tov dehv [a description which 
goes back to Jer. x. 25 ; Ps. lxxix. 6]. 

bid ti)v ayv....bia rr\v jrdp....] Latt. 
per ifrnorantiam quae est in Mis, 
propter caecitatem.... The style of 
the Epistle suggests that these two 
clauses are coordinate. Even if they 
are so taken, it still remains true that 
their ignorance was due to harden- 
ing of their heart, though the two 
are noted separately; and it must 
be admitted that rrjv ovirav iv avTois 
has more force if it is joined directly 
with what follows : ' the ignorance 
that is in them because of....' 

For irdpcoo-ts see Rom. xi. 7, 25 ; 
2 Cor. iii. 14 (emap. ra voT/fiara) ; and 
specially in connexion with xap8la : 
Mk. iii. 5 ; vi. 52 ; viii. 17 ; John xii. 40. 
The root of the word is napos, callus. 

19. The issue of moral insensibility 
and guilty ignorance was gross cor- 
ruption of life. This is represented 
as the result of their own action here 
{kavT. irapihaiKav tjj nireAy.), and on the 

other hand is ascribed to God in Rom. 
i. 24 irapihatKev avroiis 6 0f6s...fU dtta- 
6apo-iav. ... God does that which follows 
from the laws that express_ His will ; 
yet man does not lose his responsi- 

oiTivis] being such that they.... 

cbnpXyqicorcs] Hier. dicamus in- 
dolentes sive indolorios, having lost 
feeling, expresses exactly the result 
of irmptoo-is. The reading dirrjkmKarfs, 
Latt. desperantes, is inadequately 
supported and less suitable to the 

rr) ao-eXyem] as a mistress. 

els ipyairiav an. 7r.] They made a 
business (Acts xix. 24 f.) of impurity, 


6 7 

, ' ei ye avrov 

V/tets oe ov;^ oi/tws e/mddeTe tov xpurTov 
riKov<raT€ icai iv avTtp e^i^d^driTe, r /ca0«s eamv dkydeia 
ei/ 1 tw 'Irjcrov, ^diroQecQai v/uas Kara Trjv wpOTepav 

21 KaOlbs iOTU> aK-qddq., iv 

not simply yielding to passion but 
seeking out deliberately the means of 
sensual gratification. 

For epyao-la see Plat. Protag. 353 b 
rrjs qfSovrjs ipyao-lav. [For the word 
cf. also Lk. xii. 58 80s epyao-iav and 
for the mode of speech the phrase 

ipyarai dSiKias (Lk. xiii. 27), which 

itself comes from Ps. vi. 8.] 

iv w\eove£la] in selfishness. This 
appears to be the general sense of 
irXeovegla, whatever form it may take. 
The commonest and most typical form 
is when one sacrifices another to the 
gratification of his own appetite, as 
here : c. v. 3. This sense of the word 
is constant in the NT. : Mk. vii. 22 ; 
Rom. i. 29 ; 2 Pet. ii. 14 : compare 
1 Thess. iv. 6. Self takes the place 
of God (Col. iii. 5). 

20 — 24. In contrast with the old 
life which was summed up in ' selfish- 
ness,' St Paul sketches the new life 
which answers to 'the new man,' an 
embodiment of Christ Himself in 
Whom the isolated self is lost. 

20. vpeis 8c'...] taking up v. 17 

p.T)K€Ti But ye did not so 

learn the Christ.... This is not the 
life which answers to faith in Him. 
Christ is Himself the sum of the 
Gospel. He is preached, received, 
known (Phil. i. 15 ; Col. ii. 6; Phil, 
iii. 10). No similar phrase is quoted. 

21. ei ye avTov...Ka\ iv aiJr<5...] If 

at least it was He Whom ye heard 
(c. i. 13) when He called you, and it 
was in fellowship with Him ye were 
further taught, as ye were then en- 
abled to receive further instruction, 
that you as Christians should put 

Ka8a>s eo-TLv...'hio-ov] even as there 
is essentially truth in Jesus. The 
humanity of Christ {Jesus) gives reality 
to our limited conceptions. Truth is 

no convention. Just as the Lord said 
' I am the Truth,' so His disciples may 
say, perplexed by the many conflicting 
appearances and representations of 
things and duties, 'There is Truth — 
we can find it — in Jesus.' The Son of 
man helps us to find that there is 
something substantial under all the 
fleeting forms of earthly phenomena. 
'Ev tw 'I. refers back to tov %. The 
Messiah was revealed in Jesus in terms, 
so to speak, of human experience. As 
we look to Him we see that Pilate's 
question (John xviii. 38) T/ io-nv 
akriBaa; is answered. Compare the 
converse declaration John viii. 44 iv 
rfj aKr)8eia ovk eo-rrjKev, on ovk eo~riv 
a\q0eia iv avrm. [v. Add. Note, p. 70.] 

For the position of iorlv see Hebr. 
xi. 1 note ; and for the anarthrous 
dKjdeia v. 2$ ; c. v. 9 ; 2 Cor. xi. 10 ; 
Rom. xv. 8 [contrast iii. 7] ; Jo. xviii. 38. 

The whole structure of the passage 
seems to shew that the clause is 
parenthetical. It seems to indicate 
why Christian conduct must corre- 
spond to Christian doctrine. 

22 ff. The new life is realised by 
three processes :" the putting off ' the 
old man,' the renewal of spiritual 
power, the putting on 'the new man.' 
The first and third are acts done once 
for all (airo64o-6ai, ivhio-ao-8ai) ; and 
the second and third are connected 
together (dvaveovo-Bai 8e'...K<n ivbvo:) 

so that the decisive change is appre- 
hended little by little by growing 
spiritual discernment. The infinitives 
depend on ibihaxBrfrt in v. 21. 

22. diro8io-6ai v....] that you 
should put away. The word, though 
it is used of garments (Acts vii. 58), 
appears to be chosen instead of 
iKhvo-ao-Bat (2 Cor. v. 4), airenhvo-aaBai 
(Col. iii. 9), the natural correlative 
to ivBvo-ao-8ai (v. 24) as expressing a 




[IV 23, 24 

dvao-rpocpriv tov TraXaiov av6pw7rov tov (pdeipojievov 
Kcvra Tas eTr idvfxia^ t»/s a7raT»js, " 3 dvaveovadai Be TtS 
irvevfiaTL tov voos vfxwv, i4 Kal evhva , ao~6ai tov kccivov 

more complete separation : v. 25 ; 
Rom. xiii. 12 ; Col. iii. 8 ; Hebr. xii. 1, 
&c. The v/i5s is emphatic, 'you as 
Christians' (vv. 17, 20). 

koto t. up. av.~\ having regard to.... 
Their former conversation was the 
measure and rule of their renuncia- 

For avaorpcxprj see Hebr. xiii. 7. 
[Comp. Gal. i. 13; Ja. Hi. 13; 1 Pet i. 

1 5 ev iraa-g avatrrpcxptj (where see Hort's 
note), 18 €K ttjs fiaralas vputv dvatTTpo- 
<pr)s TraTpoirapadoTov, ii. 12, iii. I, 2, 16. 
The manner of life and intercourse to 
be renounced has already been de- 
scribed by St Paul in c. ii. 2, 3 iv als 

wore Trepieirarqo-aTe * ivols Ka\ rj/ieis 

rravres dvfuTpa(f>rnj.ev iron iv rals iiri- 
Gvfiiais Trjs crap/cds ij/i<3c] 

tov rra\. &.] the whole character 
representing the former self. This 
was not only corrupt, but ever grow- 
ing more and more corrupt (<f>6eip6- 
fifvov. cf. Rom. viii. 2} rijr douXems 
ttjs (pBopas) under the influence of 
lusts, of which deceit was the source 
and strength (cf. Hebr. iii. 13). To 
follow these was the exact opposite to 
' living the truth ' (v. "1 5). 

Compare Rom. vi. 6 ; Col. iii. 9. 
Corresponding phrases are 6 kcuvos av8. 
v. 24 note ; fo-a avd. e. iii. 16 note ; 

6 KpVTTTOS TTJS KOpbias &v8. I Pet. Hi. 4 J 

6 av6. ttjs dpaprias [al. dvo/iias] 2 Thess. 
ii. 3 ; o avd. tov 8eov I Tim. vi. 1 1 ; 
2 Tim. iii. 17. 

There is much in the general temper 
of the world — self-assertion, self-seek- 
ing — which answers to ' the old man.' 

23 f. Two things are required for 
the positive formation of the Christian 
character, the continuous and pro- 
gressive renewal of our highest faculty, 
and the decisive acceptance of 'the 
new man.' 

dvavtovo-8m St...] and on the other 

hand that ye be.... The word dvaveoi- 
o-6ai occurs here only in the N.T. ; 
dvaKaivovo-Qai occurs CoL iii. 10; 2 Cor. 
iv. 16 {avoKalvao-is Rom. xii. 2 ; Tit. 
Hi. s). The general distinction of vios 
and kcuvos passes into the two words. 
The variations in CoL iii. gi. are in- 
structive : aire KHvad/j-e vol tov waKawv 
avdpamov aiiv Tais 7rpa§€o-tv avTov, Kai 
evovo'ap.evot tov viov tov avaKaivovpevov 
eis cirtyv<Do~tv kot tiKova tov KTiaavTos 

™ trv. tov v.] The spirit, by which 
man holds communion with God, has 
a place in his higher reason. The 
spirit when quickened furnishes new 
principles to the voOs (comp. Arist 
Eth. N. vi.) by which it is deHvered 
from pjaTaiorrjs (». 17). This St Paul 
Speaks of as j} dvaxaivaais Toil voos 

(Rom. xii. 2). When the spirit is 
dormant, man is led astray elKJj (pvo-iov- 
p.evos viro tov voos Tijs crapKos avTov 
(Col. ii. 18), a vivid description of 
'vanity of the mind.' But the woCs 
itself must fulfil its true function : 
1 Cor. xiv. 14. 

24. iv&io: t. k. S.] Comp. Gal. iii. 27 
Xptorov ivfSvo-aadf. Rom. xHi. 14 
ev8vo-ao-0e tov Kvpiov 'I. Col. Hi. 10. 
Christ is 'the new man' (1 Cor. 
xv. 45 ff.) Who through His Divine 
personality makes His human nature 
effective in due measure for every 

tov k. 8. kt.] This ideal humanity 
already exists, answering perfectly to 
the will of God ; but it has to be 
personally appropriated. 

For Kara 6t6v see 2 Cor. vH. 9 ff. ; 
c. ii. 2 note. 

ev Sue. Kal dor. T . aX.] finding its ex- 
pression in righteousness and holiness 
— in the fulfilment of duties to others 
and to self — inspired and supported 
by the influence of the truth. 


av6pa)7rov tov kcitcc deov KTitrdevTa iv Zucaioavvt] Kal 
6<rioTriTi tjjs dArideias. 

6mirr)s is found only here and [In 1 Thess. ii. 10 oa-ias Kai StxatW k. 

Lk. i. 75 in the N.T. [In the Song dpinirras and Tit. i. 8 SUaiov, oa-wv 

of Zacharias, I.e., as here, it is con- we see how, as here and in the 'Bene- 

joined with SiKatotrvi/ri. So too Wisd. dictus,' the two qualities are co-ordi- 

ix. 3.] For oo-tos see Hebr. vii. 26. nated and complementary.] 


Additional Note on the reading of Eph. iv. 21. 

{The following discussion of the text of Epkiv. 21 is taken by permission 
from the private correspondence between Dr Westcott and Dr ffort 
preparatory to the formation of the text of the Epistle in their edition 
of the Greek Testament.) 

Ka8as eoriv aKj]8(ia iv rtf 'ItjctoO 

Dr Hort writes: 'I have never from a boy been able to attach any 
meaning to the nominative here.' 

He accordingly proposes to read 

KaBt&s iarw d\t)8eia iv rtp 'lrj<rov 
' with or without a comma after dXrideia, though the comma seems to give 
a fuller and truer sense.' 

Dr Westcott replies: 'I cannot construe dXr/Beia. And ihibaxdrfre 
requires SK-qBcta as does v. 24. Surely such a use of the dative with such 
a pregnant word as d\j6tta is inconceivable, to say nothing of authority.' 

Dr Hort rejoins : ' Not a word to help me to the right meaning ! Mine 
may be wrong ; it only seems more likely to me than others to which I can 
attach no meaning. 

' In v. 24 rfjs aKTjdfiat simply corresponds to rrjs drraTrjs of 0. 22 according 
to St Paul's favourite antithesis, and needs no other explanation. Again, 
even if I took dXrjdda (cf. Phil. i. 18) as only equivalent to d\r)6as, I do not 
know why every single word is bound to be pregnant. But it seems to me 
that I give it its full theological sense, as full as in St John's Epistles. What 
is the alternative ? Surely not with Meyer to join it with what follows " as 
it is in Jesus for you to put off..." I could easier believe with Credner 
(and, apparently, Origen) that it means ' As He is in truth in Jesus ' • but 
then that is only my own sense in a clumsy and unnatural form. All the 
other multitudinous renderings in Meyer convey nothing to my mind. A 
modification of Meyer's own view has just struck me as imaginable : " were 
taught that, as is truth in Jesus, ye should put off..." But (1) this renders 
the Greek horribly obscure, and (2) it requires iv rm xp»orij>. The right 
interpretation must be one which justifies the transition to iv ra 'Ij/o-oO. 
Surely iv ai)™ HsMxSriTe needs nothing to follow : first the learning Him, 
then the expansion of that by all manner of teaching received, but still 
in Him.' 

Dr Westcott replies: 'I thought that I had indicated my meaning 
clearly enough. My idea is that, just as the Lord said " I am the Truth," 
so here St Paul reminds the Ephesians that there is Truth in Jesus, i.e. in 


the true humanity of the Word, whereby all the offices of life are revealed 
in the right relations. This appears to me obvious and pointed.' 

Dr Hort rejoins : ' Your construction fits the Greek (if dXijtff «a is read) 
better than any other ; but the chasm which divides it from your interpre- 
tation is surely wide. I cannot by any process read such a sense into the 
statement, surely on any view a strange understatement, " there is truth in 
Jesus." The idea seems to me on the other hand to be already given in my 

interpretation in the words avrov ijieouVare Ka\ iv aura ehihax^V Te i an< i 

without some such sense as mine I do not see how you can pass from rbv 
XP'otov (v. 20) to to 'Iijo-oC, all the more as this is the only passage of 
Ephesians where 'Iijo-ovi occurs not combined with Xp»<rror. 

' The whole idea may be thus analysed : 
(a) Jesus is the truth of the Christ 
(|3) The Christ is the truth of humanity, 
(y) The Christ is the truth of God. 

' Now according to my view v. 20 expresses (/3), the special doctrine of this 
Epistle, and v. 21 expresses (a), shewing that those who had received the 
Gospel had implicitly received (0). But it seems to me that your view 
either omits (a) or confuses it with (j3), and fails to explain either kcl6ws or 
T-a> 'Ii/o-oO. The use of aXiy&i'a seems to me analogous (at a different level) 
to the use of aKyOivos in 1 Jo. v. 20 : the God in His Son is the true God. 
I must claim margin for dXijfleio, iv.' 

Dr Westcott replies: 'I don't in the least degree admit the force of 
your objections to my interpretation, nor see the possibility of such a dative 
as akx)6eiq ; but I admit your " claim " as a freeborn Englishman — till you 
give it up ! ' 

Dr Hort writes finally : ' I don't see how margin can be dispensed 
with, as your interpretation seems to me absolutely impossible ; and, as far 
as I can find, it is as completely without authority as, I fear, mine is. But 
your construction has all authority; so I do not ask for text, as I have failed 
to persuade you.' 

Dr Westcott replies : ' Very well.' 

• (As a result of this discussion Dr Hort's proposed emendation KaBds 
cartv aXijffcia, iv was placed in the margin, as an alternative reading to that 
of the text, in Westcott and Hort's edition.) 


[IV 25 

II. The outward manifestation 
of the Christian Life personal 
and social (iv. 25 — vi. 9). 

1. Special features in the Chris- 
tian character (iv. 25 — v. 14). 

2. Cardinal social relationships 
(v. 15— vi. 9). 

After completing the general view 
of the Christian Life, St Paul illus- 
trates it in detail. He first deals 
with some personal characteristics of 
Christians (iv. 25 — v. 14) ; and then 
with the cardinal social relationships 
(v. 15— vi. 9). 

(1) Some personal characteristics 
of Christians (iv. 25 — v. 14). 

St Paul notices first special traits 
as to truth (iv. 25), self-control (26 f.), 
labour (28), language (29 f.), tender- 
ness (31 f.). He then marks the 
fundamental contrast between self- 
sacrifice and selfishness (v. 1 — 6) ; 
and develops the thought that the 
Christian life is the life of a child of 
light (7—14)- 

" 5 Wherefore, putting away false- 
hood, speak ye the truth each one 
with his neighbour, because we are 
members one of another. * 6 Be ye 
angry, and sin not: let not the sun 
go down upon your sense of provoca- 
tion, * 7 nor give place to the devil. 
* s Let him that stealeth steal no more; 
but rather let him labour, working 
with his hands the thing that is good 
that he may have whereof to give to 
him that hath need. ' 9 Let no corrupt 
speech proceed out of your mouth, 
but whatever is good to supply (build 
up) that which is needed, that it 
may give grace to them that hear. 
30 And grieve not the Holy Spirit of 
God, in Whom ye were sealed unto 
a day of redemption. 3 *Lel all bitter- 
ness and wrath and anger and 
clamour and railing be taken away 
from you, with all malice ; 3 'and 
shew yourselves kind one to another, 
tender-hearted, forgiving each other, 
even as God also in Christ forgave 
you. v. 'Shew yourseloes therefore 
imitators of God, as beloved chil- 

dren; 'and walk in love, even as 
Christ also loved you and gave Him- 
self up for us, an offering and a 
sacrifice to God for an odour of 
fragrance. 3 But fornication and all 
uncleanness or selfishness, let it not 
even be named among you as becometh 
saints; *and so of filthiness and 
foolish talking or jesting, which are 
not befitting ; but rather giving of 
thanks. s For this ye know by what 
ye observe, that no fornicator nor 
unclean person nor selfish man, 
which is an idolater, hath any in- 
heritance in the kingdom of Christ 
and God. 6 Let no man deceive you 
with empty words ; for because of 
these things comelh the wrath of 
God upon the sons of disobedience. 
7 Do not therefore shew yourselves 
partakers with them ; e for ye were 
once darkness, but now are light in 
the Lord : walk as children of light — 
'for the fruit of light is in all goodness 
and righteousness and truth— *° prov- 
ing what is well-pleasing to the Lord; 
"and have no fellowship with the 
unfruitful works of darkness, but 
rather even shew them in their true 
nature (convict them); "for the 
things which are done by them in 
secret it is a shame even to speak of. 
13 But all things when they are shewn 
in their true nature (convicted) by 
the light are made manifest; for 
everything that is made manifest is 
light. '* Wherefore the poet saith 
Awake thou that steepest 
and arise from, the dead, 
and Christ shall shine upon thee. 
iv. 25 — 32. At first sight the Apostle 
appears, as in vv. 1 — 3, to descend to 
humble deductions from great prin- 
ciples ; but the point of his teaching 
lies not in the precepts themselves, 
but in the sanctions by which he 
enforces them. Christian action is 
shewn to be ruled not by law, but 
by love. The obligations of Christian 
to Christian, determined by their 
personal relation to Christ, reveal and 
determine the relations of man to 


5 Aio diroBifxevoi to A^euSos AAAerre aAhieeiAN Ikactoc 

M6ta tot ttAhci'on aytoy, oti ea-^ev dWtiXwv iue\ri. 

oprizecee ka! mh <\MApTAN6Te - 6 r/Xtos fjirj eir&veTW eirl 

Trapopyia-fxw v^wv, 3 V^e S/Sore tottov ™ Ziafiohw. 

6 KXeiTTWV WKeTl K\€7TTeTU), fxdXXov 06 KOTTIOLTW 

epyago/xevos rate T ^epa-iV to dyadov, 'Iva exn pera- 

28 idiacs 

28 7-ais + i«(a« NAD 3 G 3 K 2 37 bo :— text BK°L, vg (am) :— om r. vcdo-Ik Po i 7 m ; 
Cl-Al " 

man. Here also the cardinal truth 
that love rests on the love of the 
brethren finds its application. 

25. 810...] Wherefore, seeing that 
Christ is your life (Gal. ii. 20), putting 
away all falsehood speak ye truth.... 
(Zech. viii. 16). For dirodtfievoi see 
v. 22 and note. To i/ccCSos, 'the lie,' 
expresses falsehood in all its forms. 

Falsehood is unnatural: it is dis- 
loyalty to Christ in Whom we all are. 
In a healthy body the eye cannot 
deceive the hand. 

a\A^A(ai» /ie\?j] Latt. invicem mem- 
bra. Compare Rom. xii. 5; 1 Cor. 
xii. 12 flf. See also Marcus Aurelius 
ix. 1. 

26. Men claim truth from us ; and, 
if they move our just resentment, they 
claim the moderation of self-control. 
' Opyi£e<r0e assumes a just occasion for 
the feeling. 

d^fXjos...] Perhaps as if he would 
say 'Let the returning calm of nature 
restore calm to your soul,' or simply 
'Let the feeling of provocation end 
with the day.' This rule was followed 
by the Pythagoreans: Plut. de am. 
frat. p. 488 b. 

ejri napopyurpa v.] Latt. super 
iracundiam vestram. Uapopyia-fios, 
which occurs here only in N.T., is 
not the feeling of wrath but that 
which provokes it (cf. c. vi. 4 p.<j nap- 
opyifcrf, Deut. xxxii. 21, Rom. x. 19). 
The first keenness of the sense of 
provocation must not be cherished, 

though righteous resentment may re- 

27. /ii;8e...] Unchecked passion 
leaves the way open to the Tempter. 

Compare and contrast Rom. xii. 19 

fir) iavTois ti(8i<ovvTes, ayairrjTol, dWa 
86tc TOTTOV Tfj opyrj. 

™ Sia/3.] c. vi. 11. The word does 
not occur elsewhere in St Paul 
except in the Pastoral Epistles (1, 2 
Tim., Tit.). It is found in St Matthew, 
St Luke, St John, Acts, Hebr., Cath. 
Epp. and Apoc. 

28. o (cXem-tow. . .] Let him that 
steuleth.... If sins from the old life 
still remain, they must be abandoned 
under the constraining force of a new 
obligation. Our faith constrains us to 
serve one another. Stealing is the 
typical form of using the labour of 
another to supply our wishes, while 
it is our duty to make our own labour 
minister to the needs of others. The 
inspiration of labour is not personal 
gain but fulness of service. 

'O KKiirrav must mean 'he that 
stealeth' and not 'he that used to 
steal ' (Vulg. qui furabatur). 

fifraStSovai...] Latt. unde tribuat 
(V.L. tribuere) necessitatem patienti 
(indigenti, cui opus est). Lk. iii. 1 1 ; 
Rom. xii. 8. In the gift there is the 
thought of fellowship. 

29 f. We wrong by action and we 
wrong by word. Evil speech corrupts : 
our duty is to edify. And more than 
this : evil speech grieves the Holy 



BiSovai Ttt xpeiav tyovTi. a9 7ras Ao<yos acnrpos e/c 
tov (TTo/xaros vjJLuiv firi eiaropeve<rdu), a'AAa e'i Tts 
dyados 7TjOOS ot/coSo^wji/ t»js %peias, iVa Sw X a P LV TO ' s 
duovovcriv. 3 °Kai /urj XvirelTe to Trvevfj-a to ayiov tov 
6eov, ev w eo~<f)payi(rdriTe ets r\ixepav diroXuTpwcrettis. 
^ircura iriKpia Kal dvjuos Kal 6p<yr] Kal Kpavyrj Kal /3\a- 
o~<priiuua dpdriTio d(f>' v/nwu o~vv traarr\ Kaic'ia. ^•yiveo'de 

29 xpe'as KBAK 2 L 2 P 2 17 37 vg (am et fu) bo sab. syrr Cl-Al Chrys Theod-Mops-lat ; 
TtffTews D 2 E S G 3 46 vg (codd al) codd lat ap Hier in loe ("Pro eo autem quod nos 
poauimus ad aedificationem opportunitatis, hoe est quod dioitur Gracce t^s xpefas, 
in Latinis codicibus propter euphoniam mutavit interpres et posuit ad aedificationem 
fidei ") Greg-Nyss Bas Tert Cypr 

Spirit. By using it we offend man 
and God. 

29. 7ras...fifi EKirop.] A Hebraism 
which emphasises the negation. ' Let 
every corrupt speech, if it is suggested 
in thought, be refused utterance.' It 
is, so to speak, a positive form of ex- 
pressing the negation. Comp. 1 John 
ii. 21 note. 

o-anpos] elsewhere used in N.T. only 
of material things. The word conveys 
the idea of life corrupted or lost: 
Matt. vii. 17 f. ; xii. 33 ; xiii. 48. 

dXX' t" tis...] but wlmtever is.... 
Matt, xviii. 28 'An-oSos «i " o(f>e£keis : 
2 Cor. ii. 10. 

n-por oIkoS. t. xp-] Latt. ad aedifica- 
tionem fidei, Hier. ad aedif. oppor- 
tunitatis, to supply that which is 
needed in each case. The need 
represents a gap in the life which 
the wise word 'builds up,' fills up 
solidly and surely. Of the Latin text 
Jerome says : propter euphoniam 
mutavit interpres. 

8a xapiv t. an."] That which is 
elsewhere a Divine prerogative (Acts 
vii. 10; 1 Cor. i. 4; Rom. xii. 3; xv. 
15; Eph. iii. 8; iv. 7; 2 Tim. i. 9; 
James iv. 6; 1 Pet. v. 5) is here 
attributed to human speech. Words 
can, by God's appointment, convey 
spiritual benefit to those who hear 
them. Their influence reaches beyond 
those to whom they are addressed. 

30. fif/ Avjr«Te...] cf. Is. lxiii. 10 to 
■n-vevfia t. ay....] the indwelling Spirit. 

iv a e<r<ppay.] Comp. Matt. iii. 1 1 
avros vfias j9a7rriWi iv irv. ayt'w Ka\ 
irvpi. For e<r(ppaylo-6riT( see C. i. 13. 
Compare Apoc. vii. 3 ff. 

airoKvTpd<T(u>s] See note on c. i. 14. 
Comp. Rom. viii. 21. 

31 f. Prom sins in word St Paul 
passes on to sins in temper which 
often find expression in word. All 
these must be taken away from among 
Christians, who must strive to shew 
to their fellows the tender love which 
they had received in Christ. 

31. n-urpia...] There is a natural 
progress : bitterness, passion, anger, 
loud complaint, railing accusation. 
All these must be utterly removed. 
In v. 26 St Paul had spoken of anger 
just in itself but requiring control. 
Here he speaks of that which is 
itself wrong. For aptijra see Col. ii. 
14; 1 John iii. 5. 

6vp.6s...Spyj...~\ Comp. Rom. ii. 8; 
Col. iii. 8; Apoc. xix. 15. Qvp.6s is 
the special, transient excitement: 
opy>J the settled feeling ; see" Lk. iv. 
28 ; Acts xix. 28 ; Hebr. xi. 27 ; Matt, 
ii. 16. 

apBrira] Comp. Matt. xiii. 12; xxi. 
21 &c. ; 1 Cor. v. 2. The difference 
in thought from airo8io-6ai, dirodip.- 
evot (ve. 22, 25) will be noticed. 

a-iiv 7r. KaKiaj i Pet. ii. i. Ill-feeling 




[oe] ets dAAtiXovs xpti<TToi, evcnrXay^i/oi, x a P l ^l u€V ° l 
iavroh kclOws kui 6 deos ev Xpi(nip ex<*pi(raTO r v/uuvS 
V. 1 <yivea-6e ovv /uu/uLrfTai tov deou, ojs re'/ci/a d<ycnrr)Tci, 
Kai TrepnraTeiTe ev dydrrri, Kadws Kai 6 xpurTos t}<yd- 
wricrev iv/xas teal wapehtaKev eavrov virep r vfxwv 1 npoc- 
4>opAN kai eyciAN tiS 6etS e!c ocmhn 6ycoAi'ac. 


is the spring of the faults which have 
been enumerated. 

32. xPV< rro ^] a Divine trait : see 
Lk. vi. 35 ; 1 Pet. ii. 3. 

evawKayxvoi] I Pet. iii. 8. 

\apt£inevoi...(x a P---] V. donantes 
invkem (V.L. nobis) sicut et Deus in 
Christo donavit nobis. Perhaps more 
than 'forgiving,' though this is speci- 
ally brought out in Col. iii. 13 (comp. 
Lk. vii. 42 f. ; 2 Cor. ii. 7, 10; CoL ii. 
13), — 'dealing graciously with. 1 

For the thought comp. Lk. vi. 36; 
Matt, xviii. 33 ; 1 John iv. 1 1. 

eavTois] V. The pronoun suggests 
the thought of their corporate union 
in Christ : Orig. dia to o~vo~o~&povs r^ias 

Comp. Col. iii. 12 (and Lightfoot's 
note) ; 1 Pet. iv. 8 — 10. 

ev Xpurra] Compare 2 Cor. v. 19 
Seos ijv iv XpHTTiu Koa-fiov KaraWdo'O'&v 
eavrm. So in Col. iii. 13 6 Kvpios 
e\apio-aTo vptv. 

v. i — 6. The thought of the loving- 
kindness of God in Christ leads St 
Paul to speak of the self-sacrifice of 
Christ which is our pattern (1, 2), as 
contrasted with the life of selfish 
indulgence (3, 4), which is exposed to 
the wrath of God (5, 6). 

1. yivc<r6e ovv...] Shew yourselves 
therefore, touched by the love of God. . . 
1 John iv. 10 f.; iii. 1. Tiveo-de is 
emphatic : c. iv. 32 ; James i. 22 ; 
Apoc. ii. 10; iii. 2. Contrast 1 Cor. 
iv. 16 ptprjTai pov yiveo-de ; XV. 58 ; 
Phil, iii 17 ; Col. iii 15 ; 1 Tim. iv. 12; 
1 Pet. i. 16. The attainment of the 
Divine character is a process of life 
and growth. It was purposed and 

2 7}fiWV 

prepared at the Creation, Gen. i. 26 
'after our likeness.' This expressed 
purpose is the true Protevangelium. 

lufujTal tov #.] Elsewhere of human 
examples : 1 Cor. iv. 16 ; xi. 1 ; 1 Thess. 
ii. 14; Heb. vi. 12; 1 Pet. iii. 13; 
2 Thess. iii. 7, 9 ; Heb. xiii. 7 (pipe'io-Bai), 
Compare Matt. v. 45, 48 ; Luke vi. 
36 yiveo-de oiKTippoves KaBms 6 irorrfp 
vfidv oiKTippav ioriv. 

as rcKva ay.] as sharing His nature 
and conscious of His love. The child 
grows up by effort to the Father's 
likeness. For tckhov see v. 8 note. 
Note the sequence ayanrjra, iv dyan-^, 

2. irepm. iv a.] in love, which is the 
essence of God : 1 John iv. 8, 16. For 
nepmaTeXv see Rom. vi. 4 iv KaivorrjTi 
C<»rjs ir. ; 2 Cor. x. 3 ; Col. iv. 5 ev 
o-o<piq it. irpos roils etja ; I John i. 6 ev 
to o-Koret, it. ; 2 John 4 n. iv aXrjdeia. 

Ka6ds xai. . .] c. iv. 17 note. The love 
of Christians answers to the love of 
Christ : John xiii. 34 ; xv. 12 f. ; 1 John 
iii. 16. 

Tjya7T. . . . Kai napeS. . . .] Gal. ii. 20 tov 
dyair^o'avTos pe Kai trapabovTos eavTov 
vnep ipoii. Ilape8a>Kev is absolute (not 

to be taken with ra 8e£). 

irpoo-<p. Kai 6va-.~\ The one word 
expresses the devotion and the other 
the sacrifice of life. Comp. Hebr. x. 5. 

els 60-. tiJoiS.] Latt. in odorem sua- 
vitatis, for an odour of fragrance. 
The phrase (cf. Bzek. xx. 41 iv io-pfj 
evabias npooSe^opai vpas) is used in 
the O.T. only of free-will offerings. 
In Christ the free-will offering and 
the sin-offering are combined. 

So Christian teachers are 'a fra- 

7 6 


[V 3 -5 

3 llopveia Se Kal ctKadapcrla Traaa rj irXeove^ia pride 
ovopa^ecrdw ev v/uiv, Kctdws irperrei dyiois, 4 icai aia-^po- 
tyi<s Kal /uiwpoXoyia rj evTpaweXia, a ovk dvfjicev, dXXa 
fxdXXov ev^apicrria. 5 tovto yap icrTe yivtocrKOVTe^ oti 
ird% Tropvos rj d.Kc&apToi r) TrXeoveKTrjs, 6 £o~tiv eidooXo- 

grance of Christ (Xpurrov evaSla) to 
God,' 2 Cor. ii. 15. 

In Phil. iv. 18 St Paul describes the 
gifts received by him, Christ's apostle 
and bondservant, from the Philippians 
(ra nap' vp.a>v) as 6crp.rjV evathias, Qvalav 
hcKTrjv, (vape<TTOi> ra Ota [language 
which recals not only Ez. xx. 41, but 
also Mai. iii. 3, 4 Kal taovrai ra Kvpia 
npoaayovTes Bvtriav iv StKaiotrvvr], Kal 
apeaet, ra Kvpia Ov(ria 'lovba Kal 'iepou- 
aaXijp. KaOats at rjpepai tov alavos Kal 
KaOats ra €Ttj ra %p.npoo-0ev\. 

3. Love answers to holiness, and 
honours and cherishes the highest in 
all. All sins of self-indulgence there- 
fore, in which a man sacrifices another 
to himself, or his own higher nature 
to the lower, are diametrically opposed 
to love. 

nopvcia] This is a general term for 
all unlawful intercourse, (1) adultery : 
Hos. ii. 2, 4 (lxx.) ; Matt. v. 32 ; xix. 9 ; 

(2) unlawful marriage, 1 Cor. v. 1 ; 

(3) fornication, the common sense as 

a.Ka6. it. rj TrXeov.] One sin under 
two aspects as affecting the man him- 
self and others. For w\eove£la, which 
here evidently means sensual indul- 
gence at the cost of others, see c. iv. 
19; and cf. 1 Thess. iv. 6. 

luibt oko/u.] Such sins are not to be 
spoken of. This simple sense is better 
than that no occasion should be given 
for even a rumour of their existence 
among Christians. 

npinei] Comp. 1 Tim. ii. 10 ; Tit. 
ii. 1 ; Hebr. ii. 10 (with note), vii. 26. 

4. Kal aiVxp-] that is, let it not be 
named among you. AiV^porT/s (Latt. 
turpitudo) occurs here only in N.T. 
It is probably not to be limited to 
language (aitrxpokoyia Col. iii. 8). 

p.a>p. */ evTpaff.] Latt. stultiloquium 
aut scurrilitas, foolish talking, or — 
if it is called by its fashionable name — 
ready wit. For p.a>po\nyia see Plut. 
Moral, p. 504 B. For eirpairekia see 
Arist. Eth. Nic. ii. 7, 13, Rhet. ii. 12, 

a oCk avfjK.] Latt. quae ad rem non 
pertinet (-ent). See Lightfoot's note 
on Col. iii. 18. 

dXka p.aXKov] a sharper opposition 
than paK\ov bi (v. 11). It occurs also 
Matt, xxvii. 24 ; Mk. v. 26 ; 1 Tim. vi. 
2 ; while paXKov 8c is found also in 
c. iv. 28 ; Acts v. 14 ; 1 Cor. xiv. 1 ; 
Gal. iv. 9. 

cvxapto-ria] It is our duty to look 
at the noble, the divine, aspect of 
things and not at the ludicrous, as 
recognising the manifold endowments 
of humanity, and the signs of God's 
love in every good thing. In the 
reverent mind not 'the thought of 
past years ' alone, but the great spec- 
tacle of life and nature 'doth breed 
perpetual benediction.' Compare 1 
Thess. v. 18; Col. ii. 7; and 0. 20. 
The words evx a P laTe '"'> evxapurria, are 

characteristic of St Paul. 

5, 6. Such sins as have been enu- 
merated exclude from the kingdom of 
God and bring down the wrath of God 
upon those who are guilty of them. 

5. tovto yap tore yip ] Latt. hoc 

enim scitote (scire debetis) intelligen- 
tes. For this ye know by what you 
observe. . .. Actual experience confirms 
the lessons of the teacher. The indi- 
cative appears to be more suited to 
the context than the imperative. 

whs. . .ovk. . .] Compare c. iv. 29 note. 

For nXfoveKTrp see c. iv. 19 note. 

o e'orii/...] Latt. quod est idolorum 
servitus : which character is.... In 

V6— 8] 



XaTprjs, ovk e^et KXnpovoixiav iv Trj ficuriXeia tov %pt- 
(ttov am ueov. 6 M>j($efs i^uas d7rard.Tio /cei/oZs Aoyots, 

oia TauTa yap ep^CTai r\ opyr) tov deov iirl toi)s viovs 
t»js djreidias. 7 fir) ovv yiveo-Qe a-fi/yue'ro^ot avTwv s r)re 
yap 7tot€ c/cotos, vvv Se <^>ftjs iv Kvpiw- ws Teicva <f>WTOs 

subservience to selfish desires there is 
a form of idolatry to which converts 
from heathenism are exposed. Comp. 
Phil. iii. ig <Sv 6 8ebs r) koiXi'o. 

e%ei Kkrjpov.] Cf. Heb. vi. 12 (Add. 
Note); ix. 15. 

iv rrj jiatj. roil xpio-Tov Kai 6eov] The 
phrase is without parallel. The king- 
dom is spoken of as ' the kingdom of 
the Son of [God's] love' (Col. i. 3). 
And again it is said ' The kingdom of 
the world is become the kingdom of 
our Lord and of His Christ ' (Apoc. xi. 
15). The names occur substantially 
in a different order in 2 Thess. i. 12 
Kara tt)v \^P lu T0V 6*ov rjpmv Kai Kvplov 
'I. Xp. ; I Tim. v. 21 ivcimov tov dtov 
Kai Xp. 'L ; I Tim. vi. 1 3 ivtoirwv tov 
&eov tov £<ooyovoi>vros Ta iravra Km Xp. 
'L tov paprup. iirl It. n.... ; 2 Tim. iv. I 
evcoTTiov tov Seoii Kai Xp. '1. Toil pAXKov- 
tos Kpiveiv fcSiras Kai vcKpovs. Compare 
also Tit. ii. 13 roupeyaXou 0cov Kai o-toTrj- 
pos rjp.wv Xp. 'I. ; 2 Pet. i, I tov dfoii 

r)p.£v Kai o-a>Tr)pos 'I. Xp. Prom these 
passages it appears that XptoroS and 
Seoii are to be treated as proper names. 
But the combination under a common 
article brings them into a connexion 
incompatible with a simply human 
view of the Lord's Person (comp. Tit. 
ii. 13 ; 2 Pet. i. 1). 

6. p.t]Sels v. a.] The vpas is em- 
phatic. Let no one deceive you who 
have learnt the truth.... The p^oVis 
probably refers to heathen friends who 
thought lightly of the offences. 

d7rardYo>] deceive you by giving a 
false appearance to the sins : 1 Tim. 
ii. 14 ; James i. 26 ; i^airaxav 2 Thess. 
ii. 3 ; 1 Cor. iii. 18 (». I.) ; 2 Cor. xi. 3 ; 
Rom. vii. 11 ; xvi. 18. 

epxerai\ even now. 

77 opyr) r. 6.] John iii. 36 ; Col. iii. 6 ; 

Apoc. xix. 15. Compare Rom. iii. 5 
ix. 22. See also Rom. i. 18 (opyr) 8.) 
1 Thess. ii. 16 (ij opyrj) ; Rom. v. 9 
xii. 19. 

The phrase is not to be limited to 
any particular manifestation of God's 
wrath. So He regards such offenders 

iirl t. vi. t. aw.] Conscience gave 
the law and they disobeyed it. Comp. 
ii. 2 note. 

7 — 1 4. The lessons already enforced 
are now gathered together under the 
familiar contrast of darkness and 

7. p,r) ovvylv....] Do not there/ore, 
knowing God's judgment, shew your- 
selves partakers with them in such 
conduct. The present (yiVo-oV) indi- 
cates the imminence of the danger: 
v. 17; John xx. 27; Rom. xii. 16; 
1 Cor. vii. 23; x. 7; xiv. 20; 2 Cor. vi. 


0-vvp.eToxot] Latt. participes {com- 
participes), partakers with them in 
their sins and in their punishment : 
c. iii. 6. Contrast o-vyKoivavos 1 Cor. 
ix. 23; Rom. xi. 17; Phil. i. 7; Apoc. 
i. 9. See v. 1 1. 

8. fJTe...o-KOToi\ Not simply iv 
o-KoTet. The thought is dominantly 
not of individual character but of 
social influence. No parallel to this 
use is quoted. 

(p£s iv Kvpla] Light in fellowship 
with Him Who is the light of the 
world (John viii. 12), which you are 
called to be derivatively (Matt. v. 14). 

TiKva (p.] Compare John xii. 36 
viol (p. ; Lk. xvi. 8 01 viol r. <p. ; 1 Thess. 
v. 5. TfKj/oe indicates a community 
of nature as vibs marks privilege. See 
1 John iii. 1 t4kvo dtoii (and note). 

In a figurative sense tckvov is com- 




•Kepnrarelre, 9 6 yap tcapiros tov (pcoTO<s iv Traariy dyavas- 
crvvt] Kal SiKauxruvt] Kal d\t]6eta, ^SoKifxa^ovres ti bcttiv 
eudpea-Tov ™ icvpitd' " Kal /arj crvvKoivooveiTe tojs epyois 
Tois ctKapTTOis tov (TKotov^, fxctWov Se Kai eXeyxere, 

9 0WTM KBAD 2 E 3 G 3 P 2 17 al, vg syr-vg bo arm, Lueif Yiot-Afr ; irveiimTOS D° 2 K 2 L 2 
etc, syr-hcl, Chrys Theod-Mops-lat 

paratively rare and occurs only in the 
plural: r. (o-o(pias) Lk. vii. 35; r.opyrjs 
Eph. ii. 3 ; t. (fxoros Eph. v. 8 ; t. vwa- 
Korjt I Pet. i. 14; t. tcarapas 2 Pet. ii. 14 
(t. eirayye\las Gal. iv. 28, Rom. ix. 8 
is different). 

Yior is widely used and is found 
both in the singular and in the plural : 
tii. t^s /3a<riAei'as Matt. viii. 12 ; xiii. 38 ; 
vi. ydvvr)s Matt, xxiii. 15 ; vl. elpijvr/s 
Lk. x. 6 ; Hi. (tov) (paras Lk. xvi. 8 ; 
Joh. xii. 36 ; 1 Thess. v. 5 ; vl. tov 
hlatvos tovtov Lk. XX. 34 j V L Tys dva- 
o-TatTfios Lk. XX. 36 ; vl. rijs dnaXeias 
Joh. xvii. 12; 2 Thess. ii. 3; vl. rmv 
irpo(pr]TcZ>v Kal rfjs 8ia6qKt)s Acts iii. 25 ; 
vl rrjs airtiBelas Eph. ii. 2; v. 6; Col. 
iii. 6 ; vl. -qpipas I Thess. v. 5. To 
these may be added the interpreta- 
tions of two names ; vl. Ppovrrjs Mk. iii. 
17; vl. wapa.Kkrio-eas Acts iv. 36. 

9. o yap k.] Light will reveal itself 
in action (nepiiraTeiTe)for the fruit of 
light is.... There is a definite character 
in life which follows naturally from 
'the light.' For o Kapirhs t. (p. comp. 
Gal. v. 22; Rom. vi. 2 if; Phil. i. 11; 
and John xv. 2 ff. 

iv BW17...] The life in light is not 
rigid and monotonous. It is shewn in 
every form of goodness and righteous- 
ness and truth, in all moral duties 
reckoned under the familiar classifi- 
cation, the good, the right, the true. 
The first includes personal character, 
the second social dealings, the third 
ruling principles, marking generally 
our obligation to self, our neighbours, 

For aya&axrivr) see Lightfoot on Gal. 
v. 22. 

10. SoKipafavTes] Each step in 
action involves careful thought. We 

cannot divest ourselves of the respon- 
sibility of judgment. An important 
part of the discipline of life lies in the 
exercise of that power of discrimination 
which God quickens and strengthens. 
Comp. Rom. xii. 2. For doKifiafciv see 
1 Thess. v. 21 ; Gal. vi. 4; Rom. ii. 18; 
xii. 2; I John iv. I. 

evapeo-Tov] V. beneplacitum. 'Evd- 
pea-Tos is used both of things, Rom. 
xii. 1,2; Phil. iv. 18 ; Col. iii. 20 ; Hebr. 
xiii. 21 ; and of persons, 2 Cor. v. 9 ; 
Rom. xiv. 18 ; Tit. ii. 9. 

ra Kvpiio] The Lord Jesus. His 
judgment is the judgment of God : 
Rom. xii. 1 ; xiv. 18. 

II. pr) o-WKOivaveiTf] Latt. nolite 
communicare. PhiLiv. 14 ; Apoc. xviii. 
4. In this word, as in o-vyxoivaivos 
see v. 7 note, the idea of personal 
fellowship prevails over that of parti- 
cipation in something outward. Comp. 
Hebr. ii. 14 {KCKOLvavrjKep, pereaxev) 

rois cpyois rois die.] The form of 
expression, as distinguished from rois 
an. epyois, gives emphasis to the epi- 
thet: 'the works, the fruitless works.' 
Comp. c. vi. 13, 16; Col. i. 15, 21 ; iv. 
14 &c. 

diedpirois] The self-originated sinful 
deeds of men have no 'fruits,' divinely 
ordered issues of lasting good, though 
terrible results follow them. Notice 
Gal. v. 19 ff. contrasted with v. 22 ; 
and compare Rom. ii. 7 £»^v aldviov, 

9 dpyt) icai Bvpos. 

paKXov Se'...] The Christian is not 
only to have light ; but as he is light, he 
must spread it, and that in virtue of 
its very nature. He must not only 
avoid evil : he must expose it. 

ekeyxere] Shew it to be what it 



to. yap Kpv<pfj yivofxeva uV ccvtclv a'ur^pov eaTiv Kai 
Xeyeiv ' 3 t« oe iravTa eXeyj^ofxeva vtto tou (pcoTOS (pave- 
povTai, irav yap to <pavepovp.evov (ptos ktrriv. I4 Sio Xiyei 
' €.yeipe, 6 Kadevhwv, 
Kai auacrTa e/c twi/ vetcpwv, 
Kai i7ruj)au<rei croi 6 %jOt<TTos. 

14 iwupaiaei aoi 6 xP laT ^ codd Graec tan turn non omnes ; vg, Maroion (ap 
Epiph) Naasseni (ap Hipp) Cl-Al Orig Hipp Chrys Theod-Mops-lat Hier ; <?7n^aiWs 
toC xP'otoC D 2 eodd ap Chrys ap Theodrt et (ut videtur) ap Theod-Mops Viet-Af 
Ambst ; continget te Christvs quidam ap Hier (? codd ap Theod-Mops) Ambst ed Eom 
Aug ed Ben 

truly is : Matt, xviii. 1 5 ; John iii. 20 ; 
xvi. 8; 1 Cor. xiv. 24. 

12. ra yap...] Their offences re- 
quire only to be recognised as what 
they are in order that they may be 
condemned at once ; while we natu- 
rally shrink from discussing them. 

vtt' airav] i.e. the source of dis- 
obedience v. 6. The verses 8 — 10 are 
substantially parenthetical, and v. 11 
takes up v. 7. 

13. And yet more follows: the evil 
is not only condemned, it is destroyed. 
All things, when they are convicted, 
tried, tested, shewn to be what they 
really are, by the light, are made 
manifest; and that only can bear 
the light and be made manifest, which 
is akin to it. Darkness perishes in 
its presence. For everything that is 
made manifest is light (Latt. omne 
enim quod manifestatur lumen est), 
it is manifest only so far as it partakes 
of the light. A man who receives the 
light of Christ reflects it. He cannot 
receive it except so far as he has 
affinity with it, and he cannot receive 
it without reflecting it. The light 
is itself a purifying force. When it acts 
it brings out all that is able to sustain 
its presence. All else 'is null, is 

Compare John iii. 20 f. which serves 
as a commentary on this passage. 

The course of the argument is cer- 
tainly obscure, but. it is inconceivable 

that after tpavepovrai, which is unques- 
tionably passive, the (pavepavpevov in 
the next clause which obviously refers 
to it should be 'middle.' Nor indeed 
is there any force in the statement 
'for everything that makes manifest 
is light.' On the other hand if we 
suppose that St Paul is filled with 
the thought that darkness flies before 
the light, the nav yap (pavepovpfvov 
becomes intelligible : 'All things being 
tested by the light are made manifest. 
And this is what we desire ; the dark- 
ness goes from them; for everything 
that is made manifest is light.' This 
thought is illustrated by the quotation 
which follows. So Primasius : Incipit 
lumen esse cum credit et nobis jun- 
gitur. There is a similar assumption 
of an unexpressed consequence in 
v. 29. 

14. Sib \eyei...] Wherefore, be- 
cause the light has this transforming 
power, the poet saith.... Just as the 
subject of Xeyei in iv. 8 is the author 
of the familiar Psalm, so here the 
subject is the author of the Hymn, 
of which however no other trace has 
been preserved. Comp. Is. lx. 1. 

eyeipf...drao-7-a] awake from sleep 
...arise to action. 

avcuTTa ck r. v.] John V. 25 apijv a/1171/ 
Xeyw on epxerai mpa Kai vvv iariv 
ore oi vexpol aKovaovaiv rrjs (pavrjs rov 
viov rov 6( oi! Kai 01 aKovaavrcs (tftrovmv. 
For t&v v. comp. Col. i. 18 || Apoc. i. 18 



[V 15, 16 

I5 8\e7reTe ovv d/CjOi/3«s 7rws 7repnrareire, fxri ws 
ct(ro<j)oi ctW ftis a~o(poi, l6 e^a<yopa^6fxevoi tov icaipov, 

(not Col. ii. 12): elsewhere (40 times) 
iK vexpav. 

imqbavaei o-ot] V. illuminahit (il- 
lucescet) te (libi), Christ shall shine 
upon thee, and in His light thou too 
shalt become light. For i7i«p. see 
Gen. xliv. 3. The V. L. implies the 
reading tmtyaio-ci 0-01 6 xP l<TT ° s or 
cm\jravaeis tov \purTov and gives 
eontinget te Chrislus or continges 

In looking back over the sanctions 
on which the different precepts (iv. 
25 — v. 14) are based, it will be seen 
that they spring from the relation of 
the believer to Christ. The loftiest 
Christian doctrine becomes the motive 
of the simplest duty. Truthfulness 
rests on the position in which we 
stand towards one another as members 
of one body (iv. 25). Undisciplined 
resentment opens a way to Christ's 
adversary (27). Honest labour en- 
ables us to fulfil our corporate duty 
(28). Evil speech grieves the Holy 
Spirit, Who works through good, 
words (29, 30). All bitterness is alien 
from Christ's mind and work (31, 32). 
Generally all sensual self-indulgence 
is opposed to love (v. 1—6). The 
light which Christ has given must 
have its perfect work (7 — 14). 

At the same time positive duties 
are enjoined. 'Thou shalt' is added 
to 'Thou shalt not': 'put on' com-, 
pletes 'put off' : iv. 25 speak truth : 
28 let him labour : 29 give grace to 
them that hear: 32 be kind: v. 1 walk 
in love : 4 giving of thanks : 8 walk as 
children of light : 1 1 reprove works 
of darkness. 

Christian morality cannot be sepa- 
rated from the Christian revelation. 
In Christ man is seen in new relations. 
His conduct cannot be rightly con- 
sidered apart from these. 

(2) Cardinal social relationships (v. 
1 5— vi. 9). 

St Paul now passes on to the con- 

sideration of social duties. As 'light' 
Christians must affect those among 
whom they live. Both in their general 
temper (v. 15 — 21) and in the relations 
of the family (v. 22 — vi. 9) they will 
shew the power of their Faith. 

v. 15 — 21. The general temper of 

15 Look therefore carefully how ye 
walk, not as unwise but as wise, 
16 buying up the opportunity, because 
the days are evil. " 7 For this reason 
do not shew yourselves foolish, but 
understand what the will of the Lord 
is. l8 And be not drunken with wine 
wherein is riot, but be filled in spirit, 
19 speaking one to another in psalms 
and hymns and spiritual songs, sing- 
ing and making melody with your 
heart to the Lord; = ° giving thanks 
always for all things in the name of 
our Lord Jesus Christ, to our God 
and Father ; " subjecting yourselves 
one to another in the fear of Christ. 

15. |3Xe7rerf ovv...] Look therefore 
carefully how ye walk, because you 
are called to a great service and are 
enabled to fulfil it. Conduct is diffi- 
cult ; and it is for action not for 
knowledge we were made. 

dspi/Mr] Comp. v. 10. The Divine 
light does not make man's carefulness 
less needful. For pAeVert see 1 Cor. 
iii. 10. 

lifj as...] The negative is deter- 
mined by the implied command. 

16. et-ayop. t, k.] Latt. rcdimtntes 
tempus, buying up the opportunity, 
making your own at all cost the season 
for action. For each one there is 
but a limited time for service and that 
under special conditions. Each one 
therefore must make himself master 
of his position and use all the helps 
and occasions which it brings. 

Elsewhere i£ayopa£eiv (act.) is used 
for to redeem Gal. iii. 13; iv. 5; and 
some have supposed that it has that 
sense here : redeeming the season from 



brt at v/uiepai Trovripai etcrtv 

17 diet tovto jujj yiveal 


a(ppoves, ctWd arvvieTe t'i to deXtj/na tov Kvpiow ,8 /cat 
mh MeeycKecee oTno), eV do earTiv ctcrwTia, aA\a 7rA»j- 
povtrde iv 7rvevjj.aTt, I9 \a\ovi/Tes eaurots T yj^aXfioTs icat 

19 iv 
19 ^a\|«ois] praem. iv BP 2 17 vgViot-Af 

the evil powers who are lords of the 
world (c. vi. 12 ; 1 John v. 19). The 
use of the middle in Col. iv. 5 is 
parallel to the use in this passage ; 
and there can be no doubt that in 
these two places the word means 
'buying up for yourselves.' 'E|ayopd- 
£eiv occurs in Plut. Crass. 2 : i. 543 e 
and in Polyb. iii. 42, 2 in the sense of 
'buying up,' and this sense of « in 
compounds is justified by abundant 
examples {e.g. cittSairavaa> 2 Cor. xii. 1 5). 
Comp. Dan. ii. 8 Kaipbv vpets i£ayopa- 
fere : Polyc. Mart. 2, Sta p,ias (Spas ttjv 
alaviov Kokaaiv i£ayopa£op.evoi. 

on ai )j/i....] because the days are 
evil, and the season for action is brief 
and precarious and precious. The 
connexion in Col. iv. 5 is different : 
walk in wisdom toward them that 
are without, buying up the oppor- 
tunity. Wise conduct in some degree 
disarms opposition and makes it easier 
to obtain our end. 

17. hia tovto...] For this reason, 
because the danger is great and the 
need of walking carefully is urgent,... 
do not fall to a lower level, but.... 

For pf/ yiveo-6e see v. 7 note. Such 
degeneracy is noticed Hebr. v. n 
vadpoi yeyovare rait d<oais ; vi. 12 iva 
firi vto6po\ yemjaoe. 

"Aqbpav, as distinguished from ao-o- 
<pos, expresses a want of practical 
judgment : 1 Cor. xv. 36 ; 1 Pet. ii. 1 5. 
Compare i. 8 note. 

o-vviere t'i to 6. r. /t.J understand 
by careful consideration of the cir- 
cumstances in each case what the 
witt of the Lord is, which it is your 
purpose to recognise and to fulfil. 
Generally we read to 6i\. tov 6eov 

W. EPH. 

e. vi. 6; 1 Thess. iv. 3; Hebr. x. 36; 
1 Pet. ii. 15, &c. But to 6€K. tov 
Kvpiov is found Acts xxi. 14. 

18. kcu pf) pied.] The transition to 
a particular precept is abrupt. But 
the precept affects the whole temper 
of the Christian like the teaching of 
»». 15—17. It expresses in the most 
striking form the necessity of guard- 
ing carefully the completeness of 
self-control in the times of highest 
exaltation. Men naturally seek for 
times of keener life in which feeling, 
thought, expression are quickened. 
This is good, but do not, St Paul 
says, look for your exhilaration from 
unlawful sources. Be not drunken 
with wine, in which indulgence is 
not healthy excitement but riot, but 
be JUled in spirit : seek a loftier 
inspiration : let your highest faculty, 
not your lowest, be richly supplied 
with that which you crave, so that 
its especial powers are called into 
play. It is assumed that the Spirit 
of God can alone satisfy the spirit of 

do-oTici] Latt. luxuria (lascivia). 
The word occurs Tit. i. 6 ; 1 Pet. iv. 4. 
Compare Arist. Eth. N. iv. 1,4 f. 

Tski\povo-6t\ be filled, that is, let your 
utmost capacities be rightly satisfied : 
find the completest fulfilment of your 
nature. For this absolute sense of 
Tfkqpovo-Bai compare c. iii. 19 (i. 23) ; 
Phil. iv. 18 ; Col. ii. 10. 

iv irvevpaTi is Opposed to iv o-apieL 

19 — 21. The intenser quickening of 
the higher life shews itself in many 
ways, in the joy of intercourse, in 
personal feeling, in thanksgiving to 
God, in mutual consideration. 




[V 20, 21 

IfivoK Kctl wSats TTvev/maTiKctis, aZovTes Kal yjsctWovTes 
Ttj Kapoia v/uhSu Tto Kvpiio, a0 ev%apt<rTOvvTes irdvTOTC 
vicep 7ravT(nv iv ovo/maTi rod Kvpiou q/uicov '\r\crov XpurTOv 
t<£ dew Kal irarpl, %1 viroTa(r(r6ne.voi aAAijXois eu <p6/3w 

19. Men whose spirit is kindled by 
noble emotion express themselves in 
the highest forms of speech, and their 
hearts are in harmony with their 

XaXouj/Tfs iavrois] Vulg. loquentes 
■vdbismet ipsis. The Christian congre- 
gation as Christian joins in the various 
forms of praise ; and the same strains 
which set forth aspects of God's glory 
elevate the feelings of those who join 
in them. 

In the earliest picture of a Christian 
service which has been preserved (Plin. 
epist. x. 97) Christians in the reign of 
Trajan (a.d. 98 — 117) are described as 
' soliti stata die ante lucem con venire 
carmenque Christo, quasi Deo, dicere 
secum invicem.' 

This ' divine music,' however, is not 
to be confined to religious assemblies 

ty. Ka\ v. »cat m. ttk.] Jerome after 
Origen says : Quid intersit inter psal- 
mum et hymnum et canticum in 
Psalterio plenissime discimus. Nunc 
autem breviter hymnos esse dicen- 
dum, qui fortitudinem et majestatem 
praedicant Dei et ejusdem vel bene- 
ficia vel facta mirantur.... Psalmi 
autem proprie ad ethicum locum 
pertinent, ut per organum corporis 
quid faciendum sit et quid vitandum 
noverimus. Qui vero de superioribus 
disputat et concentum mundi omni- 
umque creaturarum ordinem atque 
concordiam subtilis disputator edux- 
erit, iste spirituale canticum canit. 

The Codex Alex. A includes a 
rudimentary collection of Psalms, 
Canticles and Hymns. 

&S. Kal \jfaX\. tji «.] The outward 
music was to be accompanied by the 
inward music of the heart. 

20. evxapiaroiivTes...] The chief ele- 

ment in all is thanksgiving to God : see 
v. 4. This springs out of the sense of 
our relation to 'our Lord Jesus Christ.' 

iv ovofi....] 2 Thess. iii. 6; 1 Cor. 
v. 4; vi. 11 ; Col. iii. 17. 

t& 8. Kal 7t.] So James i. 27 ; 6 8. Kal 
it. jfiav i Thess. i. 3 ; Gal. i. 4 ; Phil, 
iv. 20 ; comp. c. iv. 6 6. Kal w. iravrav ; 
6 debs irarijp Col. iii. 17; [o] 8. 6 
irarlip 2 Thess. ii. 1 6. Comp. 6 Kvpios 
Kal irartjp James iii. 9. 

21. Each man feels his own place 
in the unity of the one body in Christ. 
In mutual subjection all realise the 
joy of fellowship. Such harmonious 
subjection of one to another is the 
social expression of the personal feel- 
ing of thankfulness. 

iv <p6£}<p Xp.] 2 Cor. v. 1 1 rbv <pol3ov 
tov Kvplov ; Acts ix. 31. 

The special family relationships 
(v. 22 — vi. 9). 

After describing the general temper 
of Christians, St Paul goes on to illus- 
trate their mutual subjection by their 
fulfilment of the special family rela- 
tions, (1) wives and husbands (22 — 33), 
(2) children and parents (vi. 1 — 4), (3) 
servants and masters (5 — 9). In each 
case he considers the weaker first ; 
and the fulfilment of duty by the 
weaker is met by the answering duty 
of the stronger : subjection by love ; 
obedience by tender education ; obe- 
dient and sincere service by corre- 
sponding service. 

It is to be observed that he limits 
his instructions to the members of 
families. He says nothing of civic 
relations. The home, in its fullest 
sense, is a creation of the Gospel, the 
immediate application of the Incarna- 
tion to common life. 

In each case the obligation is based 

V 22, 23] 







uttov. i3 Al yvvaTices, tois iS/ots dv$pouriv T ws 

13 6ti r dvr\p 6<ttiv Ke<f>a\rj^ tjjs yvvaacds ft5s Kai o 

22 {nroTa<r<T4<r0w<rav 
22 + iTOTaaaiirdaaav KAP 2 17 vgme Cl-Al 308 Or; om. B codd ap Hier Cl-Al 591 
viroriaaeaBe KX, syrr item (ante t. JS. dvSp.) D 2 G 3 . ' Hoc quod in Latinis exem- 
plaribus additum est, subditae sint, in Graecia codicibus non habetur ; siquidem ad 
superiora refertur et subauditur Subjecti invicem in timore Christi, ut diro koivov 
resonet subjectae et mulieres viris suis sicut Domino. Sed hoe magis in Graeco 
intelligitur quam in Latino.' Hier. ad loo. . 

23 d.VT)p K€(pa\7j iffTLV 

23 avTip] praem 6 47 Cl-Al rec. Text BNAD 2 G 3 K s L 2 P a 17 37 

on the connexion of the believer with 
Christ (v. 22 cos- t<S Kvpla. vi. 1 iv 
Kvpla. vi. 5 <»s ™ xpio~T&). We are 
to see Christ in those to whom we owe 
subjection and reverence. Our duty 
does not depend on their personal 

It may be added that there is more 
instruction on the duties of home in 
the Epistles to the Ephesians and the 
Colossians than in all the rest of the 
New Testament. 

Wives and husbands (22 — 33). 

The Apostle deals first with the 
relation which is the foundation of 
ordered human life. He points out 
that the wife is to the husband as the 
Church to Christ. In this we find 
the type of the wife's subjection (22 — 
24), and of the husband's love (25 — 30). 
Marriage issues in a vital unity which 
points to the ideal consummation of 
humanity (31, 32). 

22 Wives, be in subjection to your 
men husbands, as unto the Lord. 
^For a husband is head of the wife, 
as Christ also is head of the Church, 
being Himself Saviour of the body. 
""■But as the Church is subject to 
Christ, so let the wives be to their 
husbands in everything. 3S Husbands, 
love your wives even as Christ also 
loved the Church and gave Himself 
up for it; *that He might sanctify 
it, having cleansed it by the bath of 
water accompanied by a confession 
of faith (a word), "'that He might 

present the Church to Himself a 
glorious Church, not having spot or 
wrinkle or any such thing; but that 
it should be holy and without blemish. 
'"Even so ought husbands also to love 
their own wives as being their own 
bodies. He that loveth his own wife 
loveth himself; ''for no one ever 
hated his own flesh ; but nourisheth 
and cherisheth it, even as Christ the 
Church, ^because we are members of 
His body. **For this cause shall a 
man leave his father and mother, 
and shall cleave to his wife, and the 
twain shall become one flesh. ^ This 
revelation (mystery) is great; but I 
speak looking to Christ and to the 
Church. 33 However, do ye also 
severally each so love his own wife 
as himself ; and let the wife see that 
she fear her husband. 

22. ai yvvaiices...] We must supply 
vtroTao-o-eo-6e from the previous verse. 

tfiiW dv&p.] etiamsi alibi viderentur 
meliora habere consilia (Beng.). Comp. 
1 Cor. vii. 2 ; xiv. 35 ; Tit. ii. 5 ; 1 Pet. 
iii. 1. 

as tiS Kvpito] All natural authority 
comes from Him. 

23. The relation of husband to wife, 
like that of Christ to the Church, points 
to a unity included in the idea of 
creation (vv. 31 f.). 

avjp...Kc(p. t. 7.] a husband is head 
of the wife. Compare 1 Cor. xi. 3, 
where the relations are differently 

The marriage relation of ' the Lord ' 


8 4 


[V 24—27 

^ptCTOS K€(f>a\r] Trjs eK/c\)j<rtas, ai/Tos <rwrjjjO tov (rco/ma- 
tos. a *dX\d ws ri €KK\r](ria VTTOTacrareTaL Tta xpurTw, 
01/Tws teal al yvvcuices tois dvSpdcriv ev iravTL. 35 0l 
avfipes, dycnraTe xas <yvvaiKa<s, Kadcos Kal 6 %pi<TTOS 
tfydrrrio-ev t\]v eKK\ti<riav Kal iaurov TrapehtoKev virep 
avTrjs, s6 iW avTriv d<yidxrr\ Kadapitras ™ XovTpw t6v 
i/Saxos ev pqfMtTi, 27 iva tt apaxnr\(rr\ «i5tos eavTw evfio^ov 

23 aiirfs] praem «ai K°D 2 K.,L 2 P 2 17 37 47 syrr. Text BKD 2 G 3 vgba Cl-AlOr 
27 airos] BKADG 3 L 2 P 2 17 47 vg syr-hcl Or (ter) ; airyv D C K 2 37° (eavrriv 37) syr-vg 

to Israel runs through the O.T. The 
application of this relation to Christ 
and the Church — the spiritual Israel 
— implies His Divinity. 

The Church offers to Christ the 
devotion of subjection, as the wife to 
the husband. Christ offers to the 
Church the devotion of love, as the 
husband to the wife. Both are equal 
in self-surrender. 

avros a-, rov o\] being Himself not 
only head but saviour of the body. 
This cannot be said of the husband 
except in a far inferior sense. 

24. aKKa ds...] But, though the 
parallel is not complete, and the 
husband does not hold towards the 
wife the unapproachable preeminence 
whi6h Christ holds towards the Church 
as its Saviour, still as the Church is 
subject to Christ, so let. . .. 

ev iravrl] The connexion is supposed 
to fulfil the ideal. 

25. As the duty of the wife is 
subjection, so the duty of the husband 
is love, answering to the love of Christ 
crowned by His sacrifice of Himself. 

rjyarrrio-ev rf)v ekkA.] Comp. Acts 
xx. 28. So Christ spoke to the repre- 
sentatives of the Church on the eve of 
the Passion : John xiii. 34 ; xv. 9, 12. 
Christ loved the Church not because 
it was perfectly lovable, but in order 
to make it such. 

For e. irapebatKev see V. 2 ; Gal. ii. 20. 
The word is used of the Father in 
relation to the Son : Rom. viii. 32 virep 
yp&v iravrtav ; 

ev avrov. 

26 — 7. The purpose of the self- 
sacrifice of Christ for the Church is 
described as threefold, (1) to hallow 
it (Jva ayiAo-rj), (2) to present it to 
Himself a glorious Church (Iva napa- 
o-Tifo-jj...€i'8o|op), (3) that it may con- 
tinue to be holy and without blemish 
(iva y iy. Kal ap.). Under the imagery 
which is chosen, the bride is first 
prepared for her Husband (Apoc. xxi. 
2, 9) : she is then presented to Him : 
and afterwards in fellowship with Him 
she fulfils her work. 

26. iva.. .ay. na8ap....] The initia- 
tory sacrament of Baptism is the haL> 
lowing of the bride. In this she is, 
as by a bridal bath, at once cleansed 
and hallowed. The actions are coin- 
cident (ayiatrri KaSapla-as comp. i. 8, 9). 

t<5 X. tov Z8.~] by the bath of water. 
Comp. Tit. iii. 5 8m AoiwpoC iraKivye- 
veo-ias, and 1 Cor. vi. I I dWa a7rcAoi5- 
o~ao~6e, aKKa qyLaadrjTe, dWa e8utatm~ 
0r]T€ ev r«5 ovopaTi tov icvplov rfpatv 
'lrj&ov XpioroC Kal ev r<5 irvevpaTi tov 

6eov -qpitv. For tov vSaTos see Acts 
x. 47. 

ev pijp,an] accompanied by a con- 
fession of the Christian Faith. For 
pfipa compare Rom. x. 9 eav opoKo- 
yyo~T]S to prjpa ev tgj o-TopaTi o~ov oti 
Kvpios 'ii/troCs.... There can be little 
doubt that this simple creed mpios 
'lyo-ovs (comp. 1 Cor. xii. 3) was the 
Baptismal Confession. This Confes- 
sion is involved in the baptismal for- 
mula els to ovojia tov irarpos Kal tov 
viov xal tov dylov irveipaTos (Matt. 

V 28, 29] 



tv}v iiacAtio-iav, fxrj exovtrav (ririXov rj pvTiba rj tl twv 
toiovtcov, dW \va r) dyla kcii ajAWfios. s8 oi/Tft)s 6d>ei- 
\ov<riv [tat] oi avfipes dyairav ras eavTwv yvvcuicas ale 
Ta eavTwu <rw/j.aTa' 6 dycnrwv Trjv eavTov yvvaiKa 
eavTOV dyaTra, S9 ouSets yap 7tot€ Trjv eavTOv capKa 
ijui<rri<rev, aAAa eicrpecpei /cat ddXwei avTrjv, kclOcos icai 6 

xxviii. 19). The use of the formula 
implies the acceptance of it. Both 
ra X. and iv prolan are connected with 
Kadapio-as, the different relations of 
the effect to the material act and 
the spiritual accompaniment being in- 
dicated by the change from the instru- 
mental dative to the preposition. 
The omission of the article is intelli- 
gible on the ground that St Paul 
wishes to insist on the fact of a per- 
sonal response in the administration 
of the sacrament and not on the con- 
tents of it. For iv compare c. vi. 2 
iv lirayyekia. 

The two phrases t& \ovrpa (or 8m 
AouT-poO) and h pr)p.aTi mark what was 
afterwards known technically as the 
'matter' and 'form' of the sacra- 

Compare Aug. in Joh. lxxx. 3 (on 
John xv. 3) : Quare non ait, Mundi estis 
propter Baptismum quo loti estis, sed 
ait Propter verbum quod locutus 
sum vobis, nisi quia et in aqua verbum 
mundat ? Detrahe verbum et quid est 
aqua nisi aqua ? Accedit verbum ad 
elementum et fit sacramentum, etiam 
ipsum tanquam visibile verbum.... 
Unde ista tanta virtus aquae ut corpus 
tangat et cor abluat, nisi faciente 
verbo, non quia dicitur sed quia 
creditur ? Nam et in ipso verbo aliud est 
sonus transiens, aliud virtus manens. 

27. Iva irapcur. avrbs e — ] In this 

case it is the work of the Bridegroom 
to prepare and to present (avrbs eavra) 
the bride. Her fitness and her beauty 
are alike due to His sacrifice of Him- 

wapavr. ...evS.rfiv exicK. . . .] present the 
Church— the one Church— to Himself 

in glorious majesty, without one trace 
of defilement or one mark of age. 

Trapaarrjo-rj] So 2 Cor. xi. 2 irapBevov 
ayvr)v irapa(TTfj(rai t& xpurra. Comp. 

Rom. vi. 13 ; xii. i ; Col. i. 22, 28. 

dXX' ha 3] and not only without 
spot or wrinkle for the marriage ; but 
that it should be abidingly holy and 
blameless. For ayla <a\ a^ia/ios see c. 
i. 4 note. 

28 — 30. The love of Christ for the 
Church is the pattern and measure 
of the husband's love for his wife. 
He loved the Church not because it 
was holy, but in order to make it 
holy by union with Himself. The hus- 
band's love must bear the same test, 
and overcome all failings in the wife. 
She is part of him, as Christians are 
of Christ, and claims the same tender 
affection which Christ bestows on the 

28. ovtcds...] Even so ought hus- 
bands also.... For 6<peC\ov<nv see 
Hebr. ii. 17 note. 

ray iavr. yvv.] answering to to'ls 
llslois avbpaa-iv in v. 22. Notice the 

repetition : ras eavTav y., ra eavratv 
o\, Trjv eavrov y. t Trjv eavTOV <r. 

as Ta i. a-dp.] as being their own 
bodies, not 'as they love their own 
bodies.' As the Church is Christ's 
body, so in a true sense the wife is 
the husband's body. Through her 
he extends his life. 

29. ouSels yap...] The conclusion 
which follows from the last verse is 
assumed but not expressed : The hus- 
band therefore must love his wife, for 
no one ever.... 

rr)p iavToi <r.] The words quoted in 
v. 31 are already in the Apostle's mind. 



[V 30—33 

^(Oitrros Trjv eKKXrjtriav, 3 °ori fxe\ri e<Tfxev tov (rco/uccros 

'npdc TH'n rYNAIKA 1 A^TOY, KAI eCONTAI oi A V 6IC 

capka mian. 3 "to fxvtTTripiov tovto /ueya io-Tiv, iyw Se 
Xeyco eh Xpurrou Kal [ek] tt\v e/c/cAjja-taj/. 33 7r\rjv Kal 

30 toC it<6/hotos airov] + 4k tt)s aapK&s airov Kal 4k twv btrriav airov K c D s E 3 G s L !! P a 
al vg syrr Iren-gr lat Chrys Theod-Mops Victor Ambst al. Text BKA 17 67 me aeth 
Meth Euthal cod : item (nt videtur) Or. Cant. (lat. Euf.) 

31 tj yvvtuKl 

3 1 Kal irpoirKoXXi;* ijo-erat 71716s r^v yvvatKa airov] om ? Mansion Tert (ut vid) Cyp 
Hier. Text BKAD 2 G 8 K 2 L i ,P i! cu° m ° vv omn Or. Gels. v. App. 

Zkt. Kal 0.] The words answer to 
the elementary needs of food and 
raiment. 'EKTpe<petv occurs again in 
e. vi. 4 ; and BaKirtiv in 1 Thess. ii. 7. 

xp'ords] as in w. 23, 25, 32. 

30. on fii\i) eo-iiev...] The change 
of form is most significant. St Paul 
does not say simply, following the 
language of the preceding sentence, 
'because the Church is His body,' 
but he appeals to the personal ex- 
perience of Christians, 'because we 
are members of His body and know 
the power of His love.' 

The words that follow in the com- 
mon text are an unintelligent gloss, 
in which an unsuccessful endeavour 
is made to give greater distinctness , 
to the Apostle's statement, [v. inf. 
p. 91, Addit. Note.] 

31. dvrl tWtou...] For this cause, 
in consideration of this unique con- 
nexion of the husband and the wife, 
a man shall leave.... The words are 
to be understood literally as in Gen. 
ii. 24. At the same time the union 
of husband and wife points to that of 
Christ and the Church and suggests 
what Christ gave up for the accom- 
plishment of His work. 

%aovTm...els a-, p.] Latt. erunt duo 
in came una. 

32. to fivar^piov toCto...] This 
revelation of the unity of man and 
woman in one complex life is of great 

moment. It opens before us a vision 
of a higher form of existence, and 
enables us to feel how parts whichi 
at present are widely separated mayl 
be combined into some nobler whole] 
without ceasing to be what they are./ 
But I speak looking to Christ and 
to the Church. In this final union 
we can see that humanity reaches its 

After writing the words ro pvo-rrfpwv 
tovto piya io-riv, St Paul seems to 
pause for a while and contemplate 
the manifold applications of the primi- 
tive ordinance (comp. 1 John iii. 1); 
and then he marks the greatest of all. 

eyw St...] Other thoughts may oc- 
cur to reverent students of the Divine 
word, but 1 — as indeed I have already 
shewn — speak looking to.... 

Xe'yo> «'t...] Latt. in Christo (-um) 
0t in ecclesia (-am). 

The exact form of expression ctr 
Xpio-Tov Kal els Trjv CKKkrjO'lav [if not- 
withstanding B and the early patristic 
evidence for omission of the els we 
accept the reading which retains it] 
is significant. St Paul, speaking of 
'Christ and the Church,' has regard 
not to their connexion only, he thinks 
also of each in its distinctness. 

Xpio-roy] It will be observed that 
here, as in v. 21, St Paul uses the per- 
sonal Name, not tov xpurrov. 

It will be noticed that in this last 

VI I, 2] 



vfxeis 01 Kad' eva efcacrros Trjv iavTov yuvcuKa ovtois 
aycnraTus we iavTov, »j Se yuvri 'iva (pofifJTai tov avZpa. 

VI. * Td TSKva, vwcucoveTe toi<s •yovev<rw vjjlwv [iv 
Kvpita], tovto yap i<TTiv ZiKatov 'ti'ma ton n^Tep* 

i iv Kvplifi] om BDG S non hab Cl-Al 308 Tert (vel Maro ?) adv Marc Cypr. Ins. 
XAD C K 2 L 2 P 2 vg syrr me Or 

image of marriage the relation of 
Christ to the Church is presented 
somewhat differently from the view 
given in c. i. 22 f. and c. iv. 15 f. In 
the image of the body of which Christ 
is the head the Church has, so to 
speak, no completeness as a Church ; 
but as the bride of Christ the Church 
has her own perfect beauty. Yet this 
is not apart from Christ : the Church 
is still in a true sense His body, and 
believers are members of it The 
complex thought is summed up in 
earlier words of St Paul : Gal. iii. 28 
eir ioTe iv Xp«rr<3 'iijtroO. There is 
the personality of the body {eh) and 
it is realised in fellowship with Christ. 
Here, as it appears, we attain to the 
final conception which we can reach 
of life in the unseen order: to jjakt- 
Tijpiov tovto fiiya iariv. 

Compare ' The Gospel of Creation,' 
Epistles of St John, p. 309. 

It is scarcely necessary to remark 
that this passage does not in any way 
support the opinion that marriage is 
a sacrament, a conclusion which has 
been drawn from the rendering in the 
Vulgate Hoc sacramentum magnum 
est. JAvo-TTJpwv is commonly rendered 
by sacramentum in that version. 

33. wXyv xai u/ielr...] However, 
not to pursue this overwhelming sub- 
ject, dp ye also severally each in his 
humble position, as Christ in His 
majesty, love his own wife as himself. 
For lik-qv see 1 Cor. xi. 1 1 (w\fiv ovtc 
yvvfi x">p<r avSpos ovre avfip X<°P' S yvvai- 
kos iu Kvplcf) ; Phil. iii. 16 ; iv. 14. 

oSr iavTov] as himself, not as his 
body or as his own flesh : the personal 
feeling is supreme (». 28). 

17 Se y. Iva $0|8.] and let the wife see 
that she fear.... 
In such fear there is nothing servile. 

Children and parents (vi. 1 — 4). 

vi. " Children, obey your parents 
in the Lord; for this is just. * Hon- 
our thy father and mother — seeing 
it is the first commandment with 
promise — ^that it may be well with 
thee and so thou shalt live long 
upon the land. * And, ye fathers, 
provoke not your children to wrath; 
but nurture them in discipline and 
admonition of the Lord. 

1 — 4. The exposition of the re- 
lation of the wife to the husband is 
followed naturally by an exposition 
of the relation of children to parents. 
Obedience (1 — 3) is met by loving 
education (4). 

1. tci t. {man. r. y.] Obedience is 
substituted for subjection (v. 22 f.) 
here and in v. 5, parallel with Col. iii. 
20, 22. For iiraKovciv, vnaKoij, com- 
pare Horn. vi. 16 f. ; Hebr. v. 8 f. 

iv Kvpia] The child can recognise 
his spiritual relation to Christ in 
the earliest years, before doctrine is 
grasped intellectually. There is from 
the first a Divine element in all the 
parts of human life, and St Paul 
assumes the ideal as the standard. 
[Origen, Cat. Cr. Eph. 208 observes 

dfMpiftoXov io~Ti to prjrov' ijTOi yap Tots 
iv Kvpia yovfvo-iv xpt) viraxovfiv ra 
TeKva t iv Kvpla 8ei vnaKovcw ra rcxi/a 
Tots yovtvo'tv.'] 

Siicaiov] The obligation lies in the 
nature of the relation. Compare 
Acts iv. 19; Phil. i. 7; 2 Thess. i. 6; 
2 Pet. i. 13. 



[VI 3, 4 

COY KAI THN M H T e p A, »JTtS €(TTIV ivToXf] r 7T|0ft>T»J 6V 

e7rayye\ia, 3 f n a -1 ef coi r e n h t a i kai e c h MAKpoxpo- 
nioc en i thc thc. 4 Kai ol Trarepes, fxfi 7Tdpopyi^€T€ 
to. TCKva v/jloSv, dWa eKTpe(j)eTe avrd iv nAiieiA teat 

2, 3 wptl>T7i, iv irayye\la iva 

2. Ti/ia] Obedience must be found- 
ed on honour and find expression, 
not only in act but in feeling. The 
general command (iwaKoieTt) is sup- 
plemented by the personal command 
(W/ia) from the Decalogue (Ex. xx. 12). 
[Of. Deut. V. 16 ripa t. irarcpa trov k. t. 
Iirirepa aov, ov rpomov ivfreiXaro <rot 
Kvpios 6 0e6s crow, ha k.t.\.] The com- 
mandment (fVoXi)) is quoted [but 
without the promissory clause] in the 
Gospels: Matt. xv. 4; xix. 19 and 
parallels (Mk. vii. 10; Lk. xviii. 20). 

For npav see 1 Tim. v. 3 ; 1 Pet. ii. 
17 (iravrat Tip.qira.Te, r. fiaaikia ripare). 

rJTis] c. iii. 13 ; seeing it is and 
therefore claims regard. The inter- 
pretation of fVroX^ 7rpi»Tij iv iirayye\iq 
is extremely uncertain. The words 
may mean 'seeing it is a command- 
ment of primary importance accom- 
panied also by a promise' (comp. Matt. 

xxii. 38 ovtj] i<TTiv ij pey. Kai npdrr) ivr., 

cf. Mk. xii. 28) ; or, as Chrysostom ap- 
pears to take it, 'seeing it is a com- 
mandment preeminent in the promise 
which is attached to it' (ov rfi rdgei 
fiTTfv avrrjv 7rptarrjv aWa ttj inayyeXiq). 
Others take it as 'the first command- 
ment in the Law to which a promise 
is attached,' or, since the words are 
addressed to children, 'the first, ear- 
liest, commandment to be leamt....' 
No explanation seems to be wholly 
satisfactory. [The alternative punc- 
tuation it parr], iv inayyekiq iva (West- 
cott and Hort marg.) leads to a 
slightly modified form of the first of 
the interpretations here recognised : 
'a primary commandment, carrying 
with it the promise — the offer and 
the benediction — that it may be well 
with thee and that thou shalt live 
long upon the land.'] 

3. lva...yivryrai Kai etrp...] A simi- 
lar combination of moods with ha in 
the reversed order is found in Apoc. 
xxii. 14, and Iva occurs elsewhere with 
the future: 1 Cor. ix. 18; Gal. ii. 4. 
The difference between the moods is 
preserved: that it may be well... and 
so thou shalt be.... 

e'n-i rfjs yfjs] upon the land. The 
remainder of the quotation is assumed 
to be known. 

4. Kai ol iraripes...] The duty of 
parents is connected closely with the 
duty of children (so v. 9). There is 
no Kai in c. v. 25. 'Fathers' stand in 
place of 'parents' (». 1), because the 
government and discipline of the 
house rest with them. 

pf/ 7rapopyi'£efe] Latt. nolite ad 
iracundiam provocare. The verb 
occurs Rom. x. 19 (a citation from 
the lxx. Deut. xxxii. 21). In c. iv. 26 
we have irapopyurpos. In Col. iii. 21 
the word used is ipedi&Te. Even in 
children there is a keen sense of 
injustice and inconsiderateness. 

iKTpitpere] V. educate, V. L. nutrite 
(enutrite) : cf. c. v. 29. The eic- is in- 
tensive as in iKiretp&((tv, iKwXripovv, 
iKTeXelv &C. 

t'v 7rai8. (cal vovSetriq t. k..] Latt. in 
disciplina et correptione domini, in 
discipline and admonition not self- 
chosen or self-invented but answering 
to the mind of the Lord, adminis- 
tered through them. Bengel says truly 
'harum altera occurrit ruditati, altera 
oblivioni et levitati.' UaiStia is dis- 
cipline generally (2 Tim. iii. 16 irpbs 

irai&elav rf/v iv dtKatoavvrj ; Hebr. xii. 

5 ff.); vovSeo-ia special admonition (1 
Cor. x. 1 1 iypaKpr) 8e 7rpor vovBeaiav 
T)pa>v\ Tit. iii. IO pera piav Kai Sevripav 


VI 5-7] 



NOY8eci& Kypioy. * 01 SovXoi, viraKOuere tok Kara 
<rapKa Kvpiois jxera (poftov /cat Tpofxov ev aVAoVfjTt ttjs 
KajoSias v/ULuiv ws tw xpt<TTa>, 6 /urj kcit ocpdaX/moSovXiav 
w's ctvdpu)7rap6(TKOi dXX' w's SovXoi XpUTTOV TTOLOVVTeS TO 
OeKrifJia tov deov, eic \jsvxfj<s ifxeT evvoiws hovXevovTes, ais 

Servants (slaves) and masters (5 — 9). 

5 Servants (slaves), be obedient to 
them that according to the flesh are 
your masters, with fear and trem- 
bling, in singleness of heart as unto 
Christ ; 6 not in the way of eye- 
service, as men-pleasers ; but as ser- 
vants of Christ, doing the will of 
God; 7 doing service from the heart 
with good-will, as to the Lord and 
not to men; s knowing that what- 
soever good thing each one doeth, 
this shall he receive again from the 
Lord, whether he be bond or free. 
9 And, ye masters, do the same things 
in dealing with them, and forbear 
threatening; knowing that both their 
Master and yours is in heaven, and 
there is no respect of persons with 

5 — 9. The third typical relation in 
the household was that of servants 
(slaves) and masters. The servant 
must remember that he renders his 
service to Christ (5 — 7), and that he 
will receive his reward from Him 
(8). The master must remember that 
in heaven the servant's Master is his 
own also (9). 

The position of slaves (Soi/hoi) is 
touched on in 1 Tim. vr. 1 f. ; Tit. ii. 
9 f. ; and I Pet. ii. 18 (oiKeTat). 

In the Pastoral Epistles and 1 Peter 
the master of the slave is Secra-oT^s. 

5. to'is k. <r. k.] Earthly relations 
are not neutralised by heavenly (Rom. 
xiii. 7). At the same time Kara 
a-apKa suggests the limit of the au- 
thority of earthly masters. 

On this Primasius remarks: Non 
venit Christus mutare conditiones sed 

Hera <t>. km rp.] with fear lest any 
duty should be left undone and 

trembling: the feeling and the sign 
of it. The phrase recurs in 2 Cor. 
vii. 15 ; Phil. ii. 12; comp. 1 Cor. ii. 
3 ; and is not uncommon in the lxx. : 
Gen. ix. 2; Is. xix. 16; Ps. ii. 11. 

Such feelings have a right place in 
the relations of men to men. 

iv (ittX. t. k. v.] in singleness of 
heart, without hypocrisy or one secon- 
dary or selfish thought. For dn-Xdriji 
see Col. iii. 22; 2 Cor. i. 12. The obe- 
dience is to be rendered as unto 
Christ, 'Who knoweth the hearts of 
all men.' 

as ra XP-1 ®' 7 &ov\evovT€s (os T<£ 

Kvpia. Comp. Col. iii. 24. 

6. pr) kclt 6<p8. ws av8p^\ Latt. 
non ad oculum servientes.... 

Kar o(pd.~\ Col. iii. 22 iv 6<p8a\p,o- 
DovXims. The word is not quoted from 
any earlier writer. 

av8pamapeo~Koi\ Col. iii. 22. The word 

is found in Ps. Iii. (liii.) 6 (lxx.) ; 
Ps. Sol. iv. 8, 10, 21. 

cos- fioOAoi Xp.) Comp. i Cor. vii. 
22 ; i Pet. ii. 1 6 coj SoCXoi 6eov. The 
phrase in a spiritual sense is the 
chosen title of apostles : Rom. i. I ; 
James i. I ; 2 Pet. i. I ; Jude I ; 
Apoc. i. i. 

7roi. to 8. t. 8.] Mk. iii. 35 ; John 
vii. 17 ; ix. 13 ; Hebr. x. 36 ; xiii. 21 ; 
1 John ii. 17. Comp. Matt. vii. 21 ; 
xii. 50; xxi. 31; Lk. xii. 47; John 
iv. 34. The absolute use of the 
phrase in these passages suggests that 
it is so used here, and that ix i/'ux^s 
is to be joined with the words which 
follow. True service bears two marks. 
It is rendered under a sense of a 
personal relation to Christ, and with 
a recognition of the Divine law 
written in the heart. 

7. (c'k ^vxrjs) per ev. SouX.] The 



[VI 8, 9 

TO KVp'ltO KCLl OVK dv6pC07TOK, 8 6tSoT6S OTl €Ka<TTOS, idv 

ti 7roiti<rri dyadov, tovto KO/nitreTai irapd KVpiov, e'ire 
SovXos eiTe iXeudepos. 9 Kai ol Kvpioi, t« ai/Va iroieiTe 
irpos clvtows, dvievTes Tr\v direiXriv, eiZores oti Kai avTwv 
Kai v/umv 6 Kvptos i(TTiv iv ovpavoTs, Kai 7rpo<ru)7ro- 
Xrnnyjsia ovk e&Tiv Trap' avTto. 

9 Kai airwv xal v/iCif] B (X iavr&v) ADP 2 17 37 vgCl-Al ; xal i/xwv Kai airuiv (K e 
iavrwv) L 2 m syr-hol Petr-Al Cypr ; Kai airwv i/uw D C 2 G 3 ; Kai iinwv airwv K 2 ree 

connexion of i< i\r. with this verse is 
supported by the parallel in Col. iii. 
23 ; and the two phrases i< i/'- an d 
Hit evv. combine to characterise the 
service completely, in relation to the 
servant (« ^r.) and to the master 
(per tvvoias, V. cum bona voluntate, 
V.L. cum benign itate). For ex V'. see 

Col. iii. 23 o idv irotrJTC, f< TJrvxys ipyd- 
£eo-t9e, o>? ra Kvpla xal ovk dvBpmitois ; 
i Mace. viii. 25, 27 ; Mk. xii. 30 (not 33). 
BSvoia occurs here only in N.T. Kindly 
feeling must underlie loyal service. 

ds to Kvpiifi] The change of the 
title here (0 xp- v - 2 3> 2 4> 2 5i 2 9> 
v. 5 ; Xp. v. 32 ; v. 6) is natural. Stress 
is laid on the thought of sovereignty. 

8. «8ot«...] The Divine judgment 
lies essentially in each deed of man. 
The good which we do remains ours 
still; and the evil (Col. iii. 25) also. 
The doer in each case will receive 
what he has done. Cf. 2 Cor. v. 10 

iva}Tai €Kao~Tos ra fita tov o~<ofia- 
tos irpbs a iirpai-tv, (ire dyadov elre 
(pai\ov; Col. iii. 25; 2 Pet ii. 12 f. 
Comp. Job xxxiv. u dXXa aWoo'idoi 
dvOpdna Ka8a iroiet ckoo'tos avrav. 
This thought gives final expression 
to the truth of proportionate retribu- 
tion : Matt. xvi. 27 xat Tore c'mo&da-t 1 
(kiutto) Kara ttjv irpa^iv avrov, Rom. ii. 
6 or anohaxrei exao-reo Kara ra fpya 
avrov (Ps. lxii. 12; Prov. xxiv. 12), 1 
Pet. i. 1 7 tov a7rpoo"a)7roX7/i7rro)s Kpivovra 
Kara to (koxttov cpyov, Apoc. xxii. 12 
dirobovvai exdarta as to cpyov coriv 
avrov (cf. Ps. xxviii. 4 ; Jer. xvii. 10). 
KOfiio-cTai] receive again as his own. 
See Hort on 1 Pet. i. 9. 

9. xal ol k....] And ye masters do 
the same things — fulfil your obliga- 
tions with the same sincerity— in 
dealing with them : recognise their 
equality with you as men in virtue of 
their nature and in regard to one 
sovereign Lord. Td avra nocelv ex- 
presses identity of spirit and not 
identity of outward action. 

iroie'ire irpbs av.] in regard to, in 
dealing with them. The construction 
appears to be unique in the N. T. 

Comp. I Thess. iv. IO noteirc avrb (Is 
irdvras rovs abeKfyovs. ... 

dvievres t. a'.] Latt. remittentes 
minas {laxantes iracundiam) : for- 
This clause applies ra avrd jroifiTf. 

Earthly law allows you to exercise 
practically irresponsible power : to 
enforce your will by fear of punish- 
ment. For dviivrcs cf. Thuc. iii. 10, 2. 

eiSoW r] answering to el&ores in v. 8. 
An appeal is made to conscience to 
witness to two truths: 'there shall 
never be one lost good ' ; no wrong 
is condoned. 

avrav Kai v. 6 k.] their Lord and 
yours.... Comp. Bom. xvi. 13 rf/v 
fxnTepa avrov koX efiov. 

7Tpoo-a>iro\rip,tyla~] Comp. Rom. ii. 1 1 
ou yap foriv TrpotTairo\t]u.\lria irapd t& 
Bern ; Col. iii. 25 o yap dSixav Kopicrerai 
o ^diKijaev, Ka\ ovk €o~tiv irpoo~airo\r]p.- 
\jria ; James ii. I p.r) iv irpoo-airoXqp.- 
\jriatc ?X eTf T V" TtOTW t. k. fjp.av 'L 
X. t. bo£r)S. Tlpoo-a>iro\r)p.iTTeiv occurs 
James ii. 9 ; npoo-anoXripwrris Acts x. 
34 (cf. Deut x. 17); and dirpoo-amo- 
XiJfMTTas 1 Pet i. 17. 


Additional Notes on v. 14, v. 30, and v. 31. 

v. 14 eirupavo-ei. aoi o xpurros] invtyavo-eis tov xpiorov Western (Gr. 
Lat.); incL MSS mentioned by by Chr and by Thdt (the 
two latter probably not independently) Orig. Jos. lat. Ruf; Cant. lat. Ruf ; 
not G 3 Marcion (ap. Epiph) Naasseni (ap. Hipp) Clem Orig. toe.; Ps z 
Hipp. Ant Amb Hier ' Vig'. The supposed intermediate reading imtyavo-ei 
o-oi 6 xP'o'Tor appears to be due to the transcribers of Chr, though Aug 
once, at least as edited, and Ambst. cod have continget te Christus. The 
two imperatives doubtless suggested that the following future would be in 
the second person, the required c stood next after enapavo-ci, easily read as 
emyjravo-ei, and then the rest would be altered accordingly. 

V. 3 roil (rafiaros avrov\ + €K rrjs (rapicos avrov Kai e< Tav otTTftav avrov 
Western and Syrian (Gr. Lat. Syr. Arm); incl. Iren. gr. lat. Text X* AB 17 
67** me aeth Meth (anon. [?Tit. bost] Le. 88 Cramer) EuthaL cod: also 
probably Orig. Cant. lat. Ruf, who quotes nothing after o-oi^nros avrov. 
Prom Gen. ii. 23. 

V. 31 Kai jrpoo-KoWrjdrjaeTai irpbs ttjv yvvalxa avrov] < (Marcion, see below) 
Orig. loc. expressly (the scholium, though anonymous, is certainly his) 
Tert (apparently, as well as Marcion) Cyp. Ep. 52. codd. opt Hier. loc 
(doubtless from Orig). Text KABD 2 G 3 K 2 L 2 P 2 cu° mn w omn Orig. Cels ; 
(IMt. gr. lat) Meth Victorin pp"" 4 - 8 "'. A singular reading, which would 
not be improbable if its attestation were not exclusively patristic : the 
words might well be inserted from Gen. ii. 24. They are absent from the 
quotation as it occurs in the true text of Mc. x. 7 ; but were there inserted 
so early and so widely that the only surviving authorities for omission are KB 
It 48 go. 



[VI 10, ii 

10 Tov Xoittov r eV<Wa//oi'<r0e 1 iv Kvpiw Kal iv tu KpaTei 
Trjs tff^vos wutov. " ivdvo~ao m 6e Trjv 7ravo7r\iav tov Beov 

io dwafiovade 

io toC XohtoB] (v. rb \oiirov) + A5e\(t>oi AN°G 3 37 47 vg syrr. Text BK 17 (D 2 ) 
Luc Cal Swa/uoOo-ee] B 17 Or (?) Cat-Gr 

III. The Christian warfare (vi. 
10 — 20). 

The general survey of the condi- 
tions of social life which St Paul 
has now completed leads him to con- 
sider the whole range of the Christian 
conflict. This deals with the unseen 
as well as with the seen. In order to 
understand its character we must 
take account of spiritual hosts of 
wickedness by which we are assailed 
and of the heavenly forces which are 
within our reach. He first shews our 
actual position (10 — 12) ; and then 
describes in detail the Divine equip- 
ment of the Christian soldier (13 — 17) 
passing to the duties of intercession 

10 — 12. The Christian position. 
Claim all the help which God offers 
you. Your enemies are not men only 
but the whole hierarchy of evil. We 
must face the stern, tragic view of 

'° In the future, be made powerful 
in the Lord, and in the might of His 
strength. " Put on the whole armour 
of God, that ye may be able to stand 
against the wiles of the devil. " Be- 
cause our wrestling is not against 
blood and flesh, but against the prin- 
cipalities, against the powers, against 
the world-rulers of this darkness, 
against the spiritual forces of wicked- 
ness in the heavenly order. 

10. tov XoiwoB] Latt. de cetero. 
This phrase occurs again Gal. vi. 17, 
in the future. We should expect to 
Xootoi/ (which is less well supported) 
for the future (2 Thess. iii. 1 ; 1 Cor. 
vii. 29 ; Phil. iv. 8 ; Hebr. x. 13). 
Perhaps both here and in Galatians 
the thought is turned to special crises 
of trial. 

evSwa/wvo-fc...] Latt. confortamini 
(conflrmamini) : be made powerful 
for your work in the Lord and, 
through fellowship with Him, in the 
might of Sis strength. 'Ev8ui/a- 
liovo-6e is certainly passive (Acts ix. 
22 ; Rom. iv. 20 ; Hebr. xi. 34. Comp. 
Col. i. 11 ; Lk. i. 80; ii. 40. The 
active occurs Phil. iv. 13 ; 1 Tim. i. 12 ; 
2 Tim. iv. 17), and has respect to the 
work to be done. 'lo-xvs expresses 
strength positively : uparos might as 
abundantly effective for the end con- 
templated. To xp. rfjs lo-x- occurs 
again c. i. 19 note. 'Ev t& Kparci 
answers to iv Kvpia : by fellowship 
with Him we share in all that is His. 

II. ivSvo-acrBe tt/v Tray....] Armour 
represents the aspect of Divine help 
in reference to the Christian warfare. 
The image occurs in each group of 
St Paul's Epistles : 1 Thess. v. 8 ; 2 
Cor. vi. 7 ; x. 4 ; Rom. vi. 13 ; xiii. 12. 
Comp. Wisd. V. 17 ff. XtycTcu navo- 
trXiav tov tffkov avTov K.r.X. ; Is. lix. 
16 f. 

rqv irav. t. #.] V. arma (omnia 
arma), V.L. armaturam: the full, 
complete, armour of God, that is, 
which God supplies (v. 13 ; comp. Lk. 
xi. 22). 'H iravonXia was properly the 
equipment of the heavy-armed soldier. 

Polyb. vi. 23, 2 ff. "Eo-™ 8' q 'Po>- 

paLKrf 7ravo7r\ia irparov piv Ovpeos 

apa de Tto 8vpe<a pn\aipa t ...irpbs fie 
tou'tois vo-o~o\ bio, Ka\ npoo-Ke(paXaia 
Xa\ierj, Kal irpoKvrfpis...Ol pev ovv vo\- 
Xol •npoo~\a$ovTes \a\Kwpn o~7ri6apialov 
fovrj iravras, o irpooriBevrai pev irpb 
Tav o-Tepvav, KaXoJo-i de Kapfito(pvXaKa, 
reXeiav e%ovo-t rf/v Kad6ir\io-tv oi Si 
vivip raff pvplas riptapevoi 8pa%pas dvri 
tov Kapbio(pv\aKos o-vv toIs aWois dXv- 
artSaiTovs irepiriBevrai ddpanas. 

VI 12] 



77y)os to Svvao-dai v/mas <TTrjvai ttjOOs tos fxedoSias tov 
SiafioXow Is OTt ovk ea-Tiv "jjfui/" 1 jj 7rd\r] 7r,oos aifia Kai 
crapica, aWa 7Tj0os tccs dpya^, 77-jOos ras e^ovo-'tas, 7rpos 

12 I'l/UK 

1 2 6pti/] BDG S m syr-vg go aeth Luo-Cal 

irpbs to 8ii»....] that ye may be — 
with a view to your being — able to 
stand.... The conflict is regarded 
from afar. Contrast v. 13 7ra Suvijflijre 
which expresses the immediate object. 

o-njvainpbs...] to stand — hold your 
position — against, in face of. Comp. 
John vi. 52 ; Hebr. xii. 4 oSira pc^pis 
ai/iaros aiTiKai-eorijre wpbs rrjv ap.ap- 
Ttav avray(ovi£6ncvoi. 

ras ped. r. 6\] Latt. adversus 
insidias (maehinationes, nequilias, 
■tersutias): the wiles of the devil, 
the supreme leader of the powers of 
evil (c. iv. 27 note). 

MeSoBfla (c. iv. 14) is not found in 
class, writers or in the lxx. though 
tie6oSfva> occurs. As ficBobtla describes 
the general system, pedoSriat are the 
many forms in which it is embodied. 

Compare Polycarp, ad Phil. 7 (ed. 
Lightfoot, p. 918) Kai bs &v p.^ ofiokoyfi 
to papTvpiov tov aravpov, ck tov 8ia/3o- 
\ov iariv' Kai bs av ittBobevi) rii Xoyia 
tov Kvpiov irpbs Tas Ibias eVi^upiflff Kai 
Xry« [?Xe'yij] pijTe avaorao-iv tivai pyre 
Kplaiv, ovros irpurroTOKos iori TovHarava, 

and Lightfoot's note (ad loc.) on pe&>- 
dcvj) ; for which he cites Polybius 
xxxviii. 4, 10 7roXXa irpbs raunjv 7171/ 
vrrofleaii' 4prroptva>v Ka\ pcBobevofievos 

and Philo Vit. Moys. iii. 27 on-ep 

lieBobevovo-iv 01 XoyoBijpai Ka\ (ro(pt<7Ta(. 

[The verb occurs in the lxx. of 2 Sam. 

xix. 27 p.eOciSfVO'eu iv ™ SovXoj crov, 
but not in the N. T. Commenting on 
fiedoSeia here Chrysostom says fiedo- 

Sevo-ai eo-ri to dnaTf/o-ai Kat 81a o-vvro- 
pov cXt iv. For p.e6oSos in this sense 
cf. Plutarch, Moral. 176 A e8avp.a(t 
ttjv piBobov tov av&pairov (quoted by 
Lightfoot I. c.) and 2 Mace. xiii. 18 
Kareirelpao-f ita p.t86ba>v roiis roiroui.] 

12. OTl OVK (OTIV 1/ 7T....] Latt. 

quia non est nobis colluctatio (lucta, 
pugna). Because our wrestling.... 
The order throws emphasis on ijpli/. 
All life is a struggle, but our struggle 

The metaphor (ka\r) here only in 
N. T.) is changed in order to bring 
out the personal individual conflict. 
Comp. 2 Tim. ii. 4 f. 

alfia koa <r.] blood and flesh. This 
unusual order is found also in Hebr. 
ii. 14. Perhaps afpa is placed first as 
representing the vital principle in 

AWa Trpos ras dp^as...] but against 
the principalities.... All is definite 
and organised in the array of our 
spiritual enemies. Each is to be 
dealt with severally: Trp6s...np6s... 
irp6s...irpas. Compare John xvi. 8 
7repi'...7repi...7repi. The three classes 
distinguished all belong to ' this dark- 

The forces with which we have to 
contend are not ultimately human. 
Our earthly adversaries are stirred by 
powers of another order (John xiii. 2 ; 
Acts v. 3). Comp. August, de verbo 
Dom. 8 Vasa sunt, alius utitur : 
organa sunt, alius tangit (Meyer). 

roiis <coo-poKp.] Latt. mundi rec- 
tores: the world-rulers. The title 
stands in significant contrast with 
irai/TOKpaTap (2 Cor. vi. 18 ; Apoc. i. 8, 
iv. 8, xi. 17, xv. 3, xvi. 7, 14, xix. 6, 15, 
xxi. 22). Compare John xii. 31 <5 Sp- 

\av tov Koo-pov tovtov ; xiv. 30 O TOV 
Kocrfiov apx«tv ; 2 Cor. iv. 4 6 Bebs roC 
almvos tovtov. The Tempter speaks of 
his power over the world as 'delivered 
unto him ' (Lk. iv. 6 cpol irapa8c8oTat). 
The word Koo-poxparap was translite- 
rated and used by Rabbinical writers 
for 'ruler of world-wide power.' 



[VI 12 


1 2 toO o-kotovs] + Tou alwvos K c D 1 E t L,P a Or semel (codd) Did Chrys Theod-Mops-- 
lat ; om. BXAD 2 G 3 i 7 67° 80 m vg syr-vg me Cl-Al (bis) Or (bis v. ter) Tert Cypr Viet 

See also Iren. i. 1. 10 'Ek di ttjs 

\vnrjs to nvtvpariKa ttjs wovrjpias 8iSa- 
(TKovtri (sc. ot OvaKivrivov padr/Tai) ye- 
yovevar o$ev tov diaftoXov ttjv yiveo-tv 
fo-\rjK€vat, ov ical Koo-poKpdropa KaKovm, 
Kai ra dat/iopta, Kai tovs dyyikovs, Kai 
■naarav tt)v irvevpariKTjv ttjs TTomjpias 
Test. xii. Patr. Sym. (ircpi <p66vov) 

§ S. Kai vpas ovv, TCKva pov dyasrijrd, 
ayairrjfyaTe eKaaros rov dde\<pbv avrov 
iv dyadjj Kapbia Kai diroorrjaaTc d(p' 
vpav to vrvevpa tov (j>86vov, on dypioi 
tovto ttjv TJrvxyv *ol <p6dpei to crapa, 
opyfjv Kai noXepov Trape^ei to bia^SovXiov 
(v. I. rffl Siaf}ov\ia>) Kai els aipara irapo- 
£uvet Kai els eKarao-iv ayet ttjv biavoiav 
Kai ovk ia ttjv o~vveo~iv dvdpairois ivep- 
yelv' aXAa Ka\ tov vttvov aKpatpel Kai 
kXovov jrape^ei rfj tyvxti Ka ' Tpopov tw 
ca/xaTt' OTi Kalye iv VTrva Tis £fj\os 
Kaxias avrov <j>avrd£ovara KaTeoSLet Kai 
iv irvevfiaTi irovT/pois hiaTapao-o-ei ttjv 
yjn))(r)v avrov Kai eicdpoeladai to trapa 
iroiei Kai iv Tapaxfi bivirvifea-Oai tov vovv 
Kai as nvevpa novrjpbv Kai iojSoXop t\av 
ovtcos (paiveTai toIs dvOpmirois. 

[Harvey (on Irenaeus I. c.) quotes 
also Didascalia Orientalis (ad ealc. 
Clem. Al. Hypotypos.) § 48. % Kal n-otft 

eK T&v vkiKutv to pev eVe \vtttjs ovo-imbes, 
ieri£w wvevpariKa ttjs irovqpias jrpos a 
r) ttoKtj r)plv.~] 

roil o-kotovs rovrov] Oomp. c. v. II; 
Lk. xxii. 53 ; 1 Cor. iv. 5 ; Rom. ii. 19; 
xiii. 12 ; Col. i. 13 ; 1 John i. 6 ; and 
a-KOTia John i. 5; viii. 12; xii. 46; 
1 John ii. 8 f. ; 11. 

The phrase ro o-k6tos tovto is 
moulded on <5 alav ovtos, 6 xoapos ovtos. 

irpos to nv. r. it. iv t. iir.] against the 
spiritual forces of wickedness in the 
heavenly order. This clause sums up 
in an abstract form all the powers of 
evil which work in the unseen order. 
Man's conflict, in man's life, is partly 
on earth and partly in ' the heavenly 
realm.' He is met by spiritual enemies 

in both. We are not to conceive of 
this heavenly realm as properly local, 
though we are constrained so to re- 
present it. The term describes rather 
a mode of existence than a place. 
Comp. i. 3 note. 

There appears to be no force in the 
combination of iv t. in. with to ttv. t. 
irov. as if the heavenly realm were 
their dwelling-place (comp. c. ii. 6). 

It will be noticed that ' the world ' 
itself is not spoken of as our antagon- 
ist, but the evil powers which have 
usurped the rule over it. We must 
'overcome' the world (1 John v. 5) 
even as Christ 'overcame' it (John 
xvi. 33) by suffering. Compare RusMn, 
Modern Painters, v. p. 385 (small 

'I do not know what my England 
desires, or how long she will choose 
to do as she is doing now ; with her 
right hand casting away the souls of 
men and with her left the gifts of 
God. In the prayers which she dic- 
tates to her children, she tells them 
to fight against the world, the flesh, 
and the devil. Some day, perhaps, it 
may also occur to her as desirable to 
tell those children what she means by 
this. What is the world which they 
are to "fight with," and how does it 
differ from the world which they are 
to " get on in " ? The explanation 
seems to me the more needful, because 
I do not, in the book we profess to 
live by, find anything very distinct 
about fighting with the world. I find 
something about fighting with the 
rulers of its darkness, and something 
also about overcoming it ; but it does 
not follow that this conquest is to be 
by hostility, since evil may be overcome 
with good. But I find it written very 
distinctly that God loved the world, 
and that Christ is the light of it.' 

When does 'the world, the flesh, 
and the devil ' first appear ? 



fiariKa tt/s irovripias iv toTs eirovpavioi's. I3 $id tovto 
avaXapere Tt\v iravoirSxav tov deou, 'iva Svvr]dfJTe avTi- 
<TTr\vai iv Trj vfxepa ttj irovt\pa Kai airavra KaTep<ya<rd- 
fxevoi CTTfjvai. 1 *o-TrJTe ouv nepizooc<\MeNoi thn 6 c <b y n 


The Christian armour (13 — 17). 

13 For this reason take up the 
whole armour of God, that ye may 
be able to withstand in the evil day 
and, having accomplished all, to 
■stand. zi Stand therefore having 
girded your loins with truth, and 
having put on the breastplate of 
righteousness, ,s and having shod 
your feet in the preparedness of the 
gospel of peace, l6 in all taking up 
the shield of faith, in which ye shall 
be able to quench all the darts of the 
evil one that are set on fire. I? And 
receive the helmet of salvation, and 
the sword of the Spirit, which is the 
word of God. 

13. 8ta tovto] For this reason, 
that our conflict is essentially spirit- 
ual. There is a perceptible difference 
in tone between 81a tovto and dt<5 : 
the former appears to point to a 
specific, the latter to a general reason. 
See also iii. 1 tovtov x"P lv - 

dvaXafiere t. jr.] V. 1 6 (Acts vii. 43), 

opposed to Kara6eo-6ai. The armour 
is laid at the feet of the warrior. 

iva 8w.] the conflict is imminent : 
the adversaries are on the field (dvri- 
o-rrjvai). ' AvTiorrjvai is not used abso- 
lutely elsewhere in the N. T. 

iv t. 17. r. 7t.] the day preeminently 
evil in evil days (c. v. 16) : in the 
most violent outbreak of the powers 
of evil. Comp. Lk. iv. 13 ; John xiv. 

cmavra Karepy. or.] V. in omnibus 
perfecti stare : having accomplished 
all, to stand, having accomplished all 
that belongs to your duty and to your 
position, still to hold your ground. 
KaTepyafcoScu implies the accomplish- 
ment of something grave and difficult : 
Phil. ii. 12; Rom. vii. 15, 17, 20 

(xarepyaft (T#ai, npdo-o-eiv, iroietv). The 

Christian has not only to repel assaults 
but also to achieve great results. The 
rendering 'having overcome' is un- 

For arrival see Apoc. vi. 17 km ris 
dvvarai oradrivai ; (Lk. xxi. 36). 

14 — 16. o-TfjTe oiv...] stand there- 
fore.... In this confidence take up 
the position which you will be enabled 
to maintain to the end, having duly 
equipped yourselves (irepifao-aiievoi, 
f'v8vo-diiei/oi, vnoSr/o-afievoi, dvdkaflov- 


irepifao-dpcvoi ... dva\aj36vrcs] As 
the first preparation for the conflict 
the combatant braces up himself. 
The value of his arms must depend 
on his own vigour. Truth, perfect 
sincerity, perfect reality, is the stay of 
the Christian character. Hypocrisy 
or falsehood paralyses one who is 
strong as a believer. Before all things 
the Christian warrior is true. Such a 
man applies truth to life. In his 
dealings with others he aims at 
intellectual and moral rectitude. He 
puts on the breastplate of righteous- 
ness, which guards the heart. 

Yet further (v. 15) he secures his 
foothold and power of vigorous ad- 
vance, having shod his feet with the 
preparedness of the gospel of peace. 
And, as affecting all he has to do, he 
takes up the shield of faith, to be a 
protection against spiritual assaults. 

14. ircpiC<ao-ajievoi\ Comp. Lk. xii. 
35, 37 ; xvii. 8 ; 1 Pet. i. 13 (avafao-.). 

Isaiah (xi. 5 Ka ' co-rat biKaioo-ivji 
e'faxr/uei/or rfjv oo-<pvv avrov Kai dXrjdeia 
etXr)p.4vos ras 7rXf vpds) indicates the 
close connexion between righteousness 
and truth. 

rov 6d>p. tt\s diK.] the breastplate of 

9 6 


A I K A I O C f N H C, IS KCtl VTTol)1f}ardfAeVOL TOfc TTOAAC iv 6TOL- 

jjLcuria toy efArre^i'oY T " c e 1 p h n h c, l6 iv Tra<riv dva- 
\a/3oj/res tov Qvpeov Trjs 7rta"Teft>s, ev to Buvrjo-ea-de ttclvtu 
Ta /3eA>j tov irovripov [tcc] TreTrvpwjxeva arjiecai' *' Kai 

righteousness, truth applied to our 
relations with others (Acts x. 35), 
illuminated, purified, strengthened by 
the grace of Christ. Comp. Is. lix. 17 
evebva-aro BiKatoavvTjv as 6(opa<a ; 
Wisd. v. 19 ivhvaerai BmpaKa Siieaio- 
<riw\v. In 1 Thess. v. 8 St Paul 
speaks of 'faith and love' as the 
Christian breastplate. The two state- 
ments are completely harmonious. By 
faith we are able to realise the Divine 
will and the Divine power and by love 
to embody faith in our dealings with 
men : this is righteousness. 

The gen. ttjs SiKawo-vvr)s describes 
that which constitutes the breastplate, 

just as in V. IJ (rfjv irepucerf>. ToC 

traiTripiov) salvation is the helmet. 

Comp. ii. 147-0 peo-OTOixov T ov qbpaypov ; 
iv. 3 ev tw arvvheo-pm rijs elprjvijs ; Bom. 

iV. 1 1 0-TjpeiOV TTepiTOU.fjS \ Col. Hi. 24 

tt)v dvranoSoaiv rijj KKrjpovopias. 

15. v7ro8r)<rdp.evoi t. 7r....] having 

slwd your feet in. . .. Comp. Acts xii. 

8 f(3o-<u Kdi VTTohj]aai to. aavhakia aov. 

ev iroip,. r. ev. t. tip.] in the pre- 
paredness of the gospel of peace. 
In the midst of the conflict that 
which brings alacrity at once and 
firmness is the consciousness of a 
message of peace for the world. 
Warfare is the work of an enemy 
whom our Lord has overcome. 

'Eroinao-m occurs in the lxx. in the 
sense of 'preparedness' in Ps. x. 17 
(ix. 38 LXX.) tt)v eroijiairiav xjjr Kap&ias 
avTwv: but more commonly in the 
sense of 'preparation,' as Wisd. xiii. 
12 els eraifiairlav Tpo<j>fjs, or 'pre- 
pared foundation,' as Ps. lxxxix. 14 
(lxxxviii. 15) hiKaiotriw] k<u xpipa eroi- 
fiaaia tov dpovov <rov ; Ezra ii. 68 tou 
o-Trjtrm ovtov eiri tt)v avrov 
(cf. Dan. xi. 7, Theodot). 

tov evayy. Trjs eip.] The phrase is 

unique, but the thought is given in 
Nahum i. 15 01 irobes evayye\t£onivov 
(tai SmayyeKKovTos elprpirjv ; Is. lii. 7 > 
C. ii. 17 <a\ eXdtav evrjyye\io~aTo elprjvrjv toXs p.axpav (ca! elptjvtjv toIs eyyvs ; 
Rom. x. 15. Compare Lk. H. 14; 
John xiv. 27 ; Acts x. 36. 

Similar titles are found: Acts xx. 
24 to evayy. Trjs \apiros tov 6eov. 2 
Cor. iv. 4 T0 evayy. Trjs Bo^rjs tov 
Xpio-Toi. I Tim. i. II to evayy. Trjs 
8o£r]s tov panapiov Beov. C. i. 1 3 to 
evayy. Trjs 0~a)TT]pLas vp.cov. 

Compare 6 6ebs rrjs elprjmjs 1 Thess. 
v. 23 (2 Cor. xiii. 11); Rom. xv. 33; 
xvi. 20 ; Phil. iv. 9 ; Hebr. xin. 20 ; 
2 Thess. Hi. 16 6 xvptos Trjs elp. 

1 6. ev irao-iv avaK.] in all — as affect- 
ing your whole action — having taken 
up the shield of faith.... For dva- 
\aP6vres see v. 13. The Bvpeos (scu- 
tum) was a large oblong shield capable 
of being used as a protection for every 
part. This is the quality of faith, and 
specially in this the Christian is able 
to quench all the darts of the evil one 
that are set on fire (as they strike 
harmlessly upon it). 

to. /3....ra 7Tf7rt;p.] Such irvp(popoi. 
oio-Toi (Thuc. ii. 75), malleoli (Arum. 
Marcell. 23, 4) were used in Greek 
and Roman warfare : see also Ps. vii. 
13 and Hupfeld. The image de- 
scribes vividly the manifold and 
deadly malignity of the attack of the 
Evil One. 

tov irovripov] Latt. nequissitni 
(maligni). This title is not found 
elsewhere in St Paul. It is character- 
istic of the first Epistle of St John 
(ii. 13 f. ; Hi. 12 ; v. 18 f.). It occurs 
also in Matt. v. 37 ; vi. 13 ; xiii. 19, 38 
(not Lk. xi. 4) ; John xvii. 1 5. 

17. When the Christian soldier 
has taken his stand, well-girt with 

VI 1 8] 



thn nepiK€(t>AAAi<jkN toy c Go t h p i o y Se'£a<r0e, Kal THN 
iw&x&ipAN toy UNeyMMOc, 6 i<rriv f>hm<\ OeoY, l8 &a 
Trctxrri's 7rpoo-euxrjs Kal Seticrem, Trpo<rewxpiJ<£voi ev wavri 

breastplate, shoes, shield, he yet needs 
helmet and sword. So St Paul con- 
tinues, changing the construction, <ai 

. . .8c£airdc. 

ttjv nepiK. rov o-cdt. Si^aaSe] receive 
— accept from God — the helmet of 
salvation.... A«|ao-flf suggests a per- 
sonal welcome of God's gift, and a 
glad appropriation of it : 2 Cor. vi. i ; 
viii. 17 ; 2 Thess. ii. 10. 

The helmet guards the centre of 
life. The sense of salvation puts life 
beyond all danger. 

For the image compare Is. lix. 17 

Ka\ irtpUSeTO nepiKeKpakmav tratTrjpiov 
iiri rrjs Ke<pdkrjs. In i Thess. V. 8 St 
Paul describes 'the hope of salvation ' 
(e'Xjr. <ra>Tt]pias) as our helmet. 

To a-omjpiov is used frequently in 
the lxx. for salvation. 

In the N. T. it occurs (to <tu>t. tov 
6cov) Lk. ii. 30 ; iii. 6 (Is. xl. 5) ; Acts 
xxviii. 28. The phrase expresses 
rather 'that which brings salvation' 
than ' salvation ' itself. 

ttjv p.d\- T °v *■"■] the sword which 
the Spirit provides and through which 
it acts. 

prjpa 6eov] a definite utterance of 
God : Matt. iv. 4 ; John vi. 63. Comp. 
c. v. 26 note. The pij/un-a are mani- 
fold expressions of the Aoyor : Hebr. 

The Christian spirit (18 — 20). 

18 In all prayer and supplication 
praying at every season in spirit, 
and watching thereunto in all per- 
severance and supplication for all 
the saints; " 9 and on my behalf, 
that utterance may be given me in 
opening my mouth to make known 
with boldness the revelation (mystery) 
of the gospel, *° for which I am 
an ambassador in chains; that in it 
I may speak boldly, as I ought to 

w. EPH. 

The description of the armour of 
the warrior is followed by the de- 
scription of his spirit. He must use 
the vital powers and the instruments 
of service which he has received in 
unceasing prayer for all his fellow- 
believers. Prayer is naturally con- 
nected with action. 

Sin 7rao-7;r...] V. in omni instantia 
et obsecratione pro omnibus. The 
universality of the duty as to mode, 
time, persons, is enforced by 7rao-ijr, 
navri, iraajj), itdvraiv. Upoo-cvxv is 
addressed to God only and includes 
the element of devotion : Siijo-ts is 
general in its application and includes 
some definite request. The words 
occur together Phil. iv. 6 (see Light- 
foot's note) ; 1 Tim. ii. 1 ; v. 5. 

Am marks the condition 'in every 
prayer,' that is, while you use every 
prayer : compare 2 Cor. ii. 4 8w iroWav 

It appears to be most natural to 

connect &ia it. upon. Kal Sfijir. with 

irpoo-evx6p.ei>oi, and not to take them 
absolutely : ' using every kind of 
prayer and supplication, praying....' 

iv it. k.] I Thess. V. 17 (ddtaXftVraf) ; 
Rom. xii. 12 (irpoo-Kaprepovvres) ; Phil, 
iv. 6 (iv itavri). 

iv nvEv/um] in spirit, not in form 
or in word only, but in that part of 
our being through which we hold 
communion with God. Thus praying 
in spirit, when viewed from the other 
side, is 'praying in the Holy Spirit' 
(Jude 21). Comp. c. ii. 22 note ; iii. 5 

Ka\...dypvtr.'\ not merely praying 
under the influence of a natural de- 
sire, but also watching thereunto with 
resolute effort. 'Aypvirvelv is found 
in N.T., Mark xiii. 33 ; Lk. xxi. 36 ; 
Hebr. xiii. 17 avrol yap dypvirvovaiv 
iwip rav yjfv\^v vpav lis Xdyop aVoSm- 
o-ovres: and in the lxx., Ps. cxxvii. 

9 8 


[VI 19, 20 

Kaipta ev irvevfiaTi, Kai ets avro aypvirvovvre's ev ira<rr\ 
7rpo(TKapTeprj(rei Kai Zet]<rei irepi irdvTwv TtSv dy'uov, 
I9 Kai inrep ifxov, 'iva fxoi Sodij A070S ev dvoi^ei tov <tto- 
/xgcto's fxov, ev irappriaia yvwpicrai to ixv<nr\piov [tov 
evayyeXiov] M v7rep ov irpecrfievw ev d\u<rei, 'iva ev avTw 
7rappt}<rid<r(Ofxai ols Set fie \a\i}<rai. 

(cxxvi.) I iav fif) 6 Kvpios <pv\a£r] irokiv, 
els fidrrju tjypvTrvrfo-fV 6 <pv\a<r<Ta)V, 
Wisd. vi. 15 o aypvrrvtjo-as 81 avrijv 
Taverns tarai. Compare CoL 
iv. 2 (yprjyopovvrts). 

«s avro] The power of prayer is 
gained by systematic discipline. 

iv iratrri irpotrK....] in all perse- 
verance, steadfastness.... The word 
npoo-icapTepritTis is found here only. 
npo<TKaprepelv is used in connexion 
with prayer : Acts i. 14 ; vi. 4 ; Rom. 
xii. 12 ; Col. iv. 2. 

ncpl n. r. ay.] in close connexion 
with irpoaevxoiievoi. The words be- 
tween define the nature of the prayer 
as constant, spiritual, resolute, mani- 

The combatant even in the stress of 
personal conflict thinks of all with 
whom he is united (dyiav) ; and in 
this way — to regard the truth from 
the other side — the weakest and 
simplest Christian can take part in 
the efforts of the strongest. There is 
now no difference of Jew and Gentile. 
Comp. v. 24; c. i. 15 ; iii. 18. 

19, 20. Specially the Apostle asks 
for prayer on his own behalf, that he 
may declare his message boldly. 

19. <a\ xmkp ipov] and on my 
behalf.... More direct and definite 
than for, v. 18 (irepi). 

ha pai. 8o8jj...] The one thing 
which St Paul asks is, not success, 
not deliverance, but simply boldness 
to deliver the Gospel which had been 
revealed to him. The first was an 
encouragement but not a ground for 
self-confidence. Day by day he looked 
for a new gift through the prayers of 
Christians. For Xoyos see 1 Cor. xii. 8 

<j uev yap 8ta tov irvfiiparos fii'Sarat 

Xoyos aocplas, aXXo> 8e Xoyos yv<ao~ea>s 
Kara to avro wvevpa. 

iv dvoitjei t. o-T. ft.] in opening my 
mouth, that is probably ' when I open 
my mouth to speak'; or the words 
may be closely connected with 8o8jj 
Xoyos in the sense 'that utterance 
may be given me by God when He 
opens my mouth.' This interpretation 
is suggested by Col. iv. 3 {Iva 6 debs 

avoi^ji ijpiv dvpav tov \6yov, XaXiJom 
to pvo-rripiov tov XP l<rrov \ though the 

image there is different. In either 
case dvolyav to o-Topa marks some 
weighty deliverance : Matt. v. 2 ; Acts 
viii. 32, 35. 

iv napp. yi\] The structure of the 
sentence no less than the sense favours 
the connexion of iv jrapprjo-ia with 
yvapio-ai and not with the preceding 
words. That which was before 'spoken 
in proverbs' is now 'spoken plainly 1 
(John xvi. 25). 

to pvo-T. tov evayy.] the revelation 
of the gospel, the revelation contained 
in the gospel. The phrase is unique. 

20. 7rpeo-j3. iv dX.J Latt. legatione 
fungor in catena. The words are an 
oxymoron. The dignity of the am- 
bassador of the great king remains, 
though he is a prisoner and bearing 
the marks of bondage. Compare the 
language of Philemon 9 toiovtos &v as 
IlauXos npeafivTTjs wv\ 8e koX deo-fiios 
XpioTov 'l-no-ov, and Lightfoot's note. 

For Skvo-is see Acts xxi. 33 ; xxviii. 
20; 2 Tim. i. 16. 

"va iv av. napprjo-.] This clause is 
parallel with "va poi 8o6jj Xoyos (com- 
pare Gal. iii. 14). For irapprfo-idtrapai 
see Acts ix. 27 f. ; xiii. 46 Trapprfaiaad- 
fitvol re 6 IlaOXos Kai 6 Bapvdftas elirav 
k.t.\. ; xix. 8 iirappr]0-ta£cTO iirl pr/vas 



Iva oe etoijTe Kai i/jiteis' rot /car e/xe, Tt 7rpa<r(r(o, 
ttclvto. yvaipicret vfxiv Tv%iko$ 6 a<ya7r»jTOS a8e\d)os /cat 
Tricrros dta/coi/o? eV Kupiia, 3S oV eVe/x^a 7rpos i)/xas €ts 
ai/TO toi/to ij/a yvcSre to. irepl t]jj.cov Kai 7rapaKa\e<rri 
ras Kapdias v/awv. 

2 I Koi i/cieis riSiJTe 

Tpets SiaXfyo^tf tos leal ireiBav ircpt rfjs 
fiao-ikeias tov deov ; I Thess. ii. 2 eirap- 
prjcriacrapeBa ev ra fley ; and for ev 

avra compare Col. iv. 2 ; 1 Tim. iv. 1 5 
ev tovtois la-Qi. 

ds 8el pe XaX.] So Col. iv. 4 iva 
<pavepatr(0 avro tos bet pe \a\rj(rai. 

Set] cf. Hebr. ii. 1 8m toOto fiel 
irepiaaorepais npoa-exetv qpds rots 


21, 22. Personal tidings. 

" But that ye also may know my 
circumstances, how I fare, Tychicus 
the beloved brother and faithful 
minister in the Lord shall make 
known to you all things, ""whom I 
sent to you for this very purpose, 
that ye may know our affairs and, 
that he may comfort your hearts. 

21. Ka\ ipels] ye also as others. 

ra. Kar epe...] my circumstances, 
> I fare.... Col. iv. 7 ; Phil. i. 12. 
The next verse suggests (wapaK. t. k. 
v.) that disquieting rumours had 
reached them. 

■niana . . . Tvx'kos ...] There is no 
reserve in his communication. For 
Tychicus (Acts xx. 4 'Aa-iavoi 8* Tvx«- 
kos Ka\ Tpo(pipos; 2 Tim.iv. 12 TvxtKov 
8e aireo-Tcika els "E<f>ecrov ; Tit. iii. 12 
orav Trepyjra 'Aprepav irpos ae f/ Tu^i- 
kov) see Lightfoot on Col. iv. 17. 
This is the single personal reference 
in the Epistle, as is the reference to 
Timothy in the Epistle to the Hebrews 
(c. xiii. 23). The words 6 ayair....iv 
Kvpla form one compound clause. The 
spiritual kinsmanship of Tychicus with 
St Paul and his service were alike 
realised in fellowship with the Lord 
(cf. Rom. xvi. 8f.). This interpretation 

appears to be more consonant with 
St Paul's manner than to confine ev 
Kvpim to ■niarus 8taKovos. 

22. els avro t. ha...] Comp. 2 Cor. 
ii. 9 ; Rom. xiv. 9 ; 1 Pet. iii. 9 ; 1 John 
iii. 8. 

iva yvaire. ..Ka\ irapaKaKetrr)] For the 

change of person compare Col. iv. 8 Iva 

yvSrre — Kai irapaKaKearj (as here), Phil, 
ii. 28 iva Idovres avrov iraKiv x°PV Te 
Kaya aKvnoTepos 0). 

ra nepi rjpav] St Paul now joins his 
companions with himself: compare 
Col. iv. 10 f. ; Philemon 23 f. 'Ena<ppas 

6 trvvatXpaXtBTOs pov ev XpiOTG) 'Ijprov, 
MripKos, ' KpioTapxps, Arjpas, AovkSs, 01 
vvvepyoi pov. 

The words TrapaKaKeo-jj ras Kapbias 
vpav imply that the readers had been 
troubled by news which had reached 
them perhaps as to St Paul's approach- 
ing trial: comp. c. iii. 13. The phrase 
is found again in Col. iv. 8. 

2 3 Peace be to the brethren and love 
with faith from Gob the Father and 
the Lord Jesus Christ. 2 * Grace be 
with all them that love the Lord 
Jesus Christ in incorruption. 

A double salutation and blessing. 

23, 24. St Paul first addresses the 
special society (01 d8e\<poi) ; and then 
'all that love the Lord Jesus.' The 
variation elpr/vt) TO<y...i) x^P K perd... 
is to be noticed. Peace is God's gift 
complete in itself: grace is realised 
through man's cooperation. Yet in 
the opening salutations St Paul writes 
X<ipts vplv. In this connexion x°P l * is 
always anarthrous. 

The form of the salutation in the 
third (not the second) person differs 




[VI 23, 24 

ois Kal d<ydirr\ juera 7r'urTews 

83 Giprivri toTs d$e\(p 
diro deov waTpos Kal Kvpiou 'lycou Xpiarou. * 4 'H 

^CtjOiS fXeTOL TTOLVTIOV TtidV dya7TWVTU)V top Kvpiov rj/Awv 

'Iritrovv XpurTov eV d<p6ap<ria. 

from St Paul's usual manner. But 
compare Gal. vi. 16. 

23. elpijvrj t. a. Kal ay. p.. ir.] 'With 

faith ' is to be taken with ' peace ' and 
'love,' since 'from God' belongs to 
both. Peace and love are God's gifts, 
and faith is the condition of appro- 
priating them. 'Love' occurs in bene- 
dictions I Cor. xvi. 24 (i) ay. /iov) ; 
2 Cor. xiii. 13 (?) ay. t. deov); and 
'peace' 2 Thess. iii. 16 ; Gal. vi. 16 
(cf. Rom. xv. 33) ; 1 Pet. v. 14. 

toIs dfi.] here only in the Epistle 
(v. 10 a false reading). Comp. ». 21 6 
a'<5fX$or. It occurs in Col. i. 2 ; iv. 15. 

airh 6. 7t.] GaL i. 3 v. 1. ; 2 Tim. i. 2 ; 
Tit. i. 4. 

24. rj x- P- ""•] 'H x^P LS stands 
thus absolutely in benedictions : Col. 
iv. 18 ; 1 Tim. vi. 21 ; 2 Tim. iv. 22 ; 
Tit. iii. 15 ; Hebr. xiii. 25. Elsewhere 

St Paul writes ij xapis tov Kvpiov 'I. 
[Xp.]. It is uniformly followed by 
fura. Comp. v. 23 note. 

7t. rav ay 'L Xp.] Compare 1 Pet. 

i. 8 bv ovk 186vtcs dyairarf, James i. 12, 
John viii. 42, xiv. 1 5, 23. 

iv axp8apo-la\ with a love free from 
every element liable to corruption. 
The Lord 'brought incorruption (<?- 
<p6apo-lav) to light' (2 Tim. i. 10). Thus 
He revealed the eternal in things 
perishable in form. The Christian 
realises this in his love for his Lord. 
He knows Him no more after the 
flesh (2 Cor. v. 16). His love is directed 
to that which is beyond change, and 
is itself unchangeable. Primasius 
describes in part the character of 
such believers : in quorum corde nullo 
adulterino saeculi amore Christi di- 
lectio violatur. 



Ephesians i. iS 

Deut. xxxiii. 2, 3, 4 


.. Ps. ex. I 


viii. 6 

ii. 13 ... 

.. Is. lvii. 19 

17 ... 

lii. 7, lvii. 19 


xxviii. 16 

iv. 8 ... 

.. Ps. lxviii. 7, 8 

25 ... 

.. Zech. viii. 16 

26 ... 

Ps. iv. 4 

v. 2 

xl, 6 

Ezek. xx. 41 

18 ... 

Prov. xxiii. 31 (lxx.) 

31 ... 

.. Gen. ii. 24 

vi. 2 f . 

.. Ex. xx. 12; Deut. v. 16 

4 ... 

.. Prov. ii. 2 (lxx.), 5 

iii. 11; Is. 1. 5 

14 ... 

.. Is. xi. s, lix. 17 

IS ... 

lii. 7, xl. 3, 9 

17 ... 

lix. 17 

xi. 4, xlix. 2; Hos. vi. 5 

• i_ £.,11 ~— «« nnn oai 1 

[The passages 






I. De Sanctis, quod ante constitutionem mundi in domino 
Christo electi sint, et de omni sapientia et prudentia 
sacramenti, et renovatione omnium in domino Christo quae 
in caelis sunt et quae in terra. 
II. De apostolo pro Ephesiis depraecante, et resurrectione 
domini et ascensu et potestate. 
III. De principe potestatis aeris huius spiritus. 
IIII. De deo per divitias misericordiae sanctos cum Christo 
domino convivi[fi]cante et in caelestibus conlocante. 
V. De Sanctis, quod non virtute sua ad domini gratiam veniant 

sed dono et benevolentia dei. 
VI. De praeputio et circumcisione. 
VII. De domino legem mandatorum in sententiis evacuante ut 

duos conderet in semet ipso. 
VIII. De civibus sanctorum et domesticis dei, et de aedificatione 
IX. De mysterio domini, quod ante passionem ipsius genera- 
tionibus aliis non fuerit revelatum. 
X. De gloria tribulationis. 
XL De omni patre in caelis et in terris, et homine interiore, et 

plenitudine scientiae dei. 
XII. De domino super omnia quam a Sanctis petitur abundantnjs 

XIII. De unitate et mutua sustentatione sanctorum. 
XIIII. De una fide et unum baptismum. 
XV. De diversitate gratiae donationis dei et aedificationis 
corporis domini, et viro perfecto in mensuram aetatis 
plenitudinis Christi. 
XVI. De stultitia gentium et libidine et omni turpitudine delic- 



XVII. De exponendo veterem et induendo novum hominem, et de 

mendacio et veritate. 
XVIII. De ira sed innocenti, et opera manuum. 
XIX. De abstinentia mali sermonis et non contradicendo spiritum 

sanctum, et de mutua sustentatione sanctorum. 
XX. De dilectione, et quod sancti debeant deum in omnibus 

XXI. De abstinentia scurrilitatis et omnium vitiorum. 
XXII. De seductoribus et impudicis. 
XXIII. De cantione vivendi et sapientia. 
XXIIII. De subiectione mulierum ad maritos. 
XXV. De viris, ut diligant coniuges suas. 
XXVI. De obsequio filiorum. 
XXVII. De parentum erga filios temperamento. 
XXVIII. De servorum obsequio. 
XXIX. De temperamento dominorum. 
XXX. De indumento armorum dei et insidiis diaboli et conlucta- 

tione adversus potestates. 
XXXI. De fidebtate et ministerio Tychici. 




i ^aulus apostolus Christi Iesu per voluntatem dei Sanctis omnibus 
qui sunt Ephesi et fidelibus in Christo Iesu. 2 Gratia vobis et pax a 
deo patre nostra et domino Iesu Christo. 3 Benedictus deus et pater 
domini nostri Iesu Christi, qui benedixit nos in omni benedictione spiri- 
tali in caelestibus in Christo, 4 sicut elegit nos in ipso ante mundi 
constitutionem, ut essemus sancti et immaculati in conspectu eius in 
caritate, 5 qui praedestinavit nos in adoptionem filiorum per Iesum 
Christum in ipsum, secundum propositum voluntatis suae, 6 in laudem 
gloriae gratiae suae, in qua gratificavit nos in dilecto, 7 in quo habemus 
redemptionem per sanguinem eius, remissionem peccatorum, secundum 
divitias gratiae eius, 8 quae superabundavit in nobis in omni sapientia 
et prudentia, 9 ut notum faceret nobis sacramentum voluntatis suae, 
secundum bonum placitum eius quod proposuit in eo 10 in dispensa- 
tionem plenitudinis temporum, instaurare omnia in Christo, quae in 
caelis et quae in terra sunt, in ipso, n in quo etiam sorte vocati sumus, 
praedestinati secundum propositum eius qui omnia operatur secundum 
consilium voluntatis suae ; 12 ut simus in laudem gloriae eius, qui ante 
speravimus in Christo, 13 in quo et vos, cum audissetis verbum veritatis, 
evangelium salutis vestrae, in quo credentes signati estis spiritu pro- 
missionis sancto, "qui est pignus hereditatis nostrae in redemptionem 
adquisitionis, in laudem gloriae eius. 2 I5 Propterea et ego, audiens fidem 
vestram quae est in domino Iesu et dilectionem in omnes sanctos, 
16 non cesso gratias agens pro vobis, memoriam vestri faciens in ora- 
tionibus meis, "ut deus domini nostri Iesu Christi, pater gloriae, det 
vobis spiritum sapientiae et revelationis in agnitione eius, 18 inlumi- 
natos oculos cordis vestri, ut sciatis quae sit spes vocationis eius, quae 
divitiae gloriae hereditatis eius in Sanctis, 19 et quae sit supereminens 
magnitudo virtutis eius in nos qui credidimus secundum operationem 
potentiae virtutis eius, ^quam operatus est in Christo, suscitans ilium 


a mortuis et constituens ad dexteram suam in caelestibus a supra 
omnem principatum et potestatem et virtutem et dominationem et 
omne nomen quod nominatur non solum in hoc saeculo sed et in 
futuro, 22 et omnia subiecit sub pedibus eius, et ipsum dedit caput 
supra omnia ecclesiae, ^quae est corpus ipsius, plenitudo eius quia 
omnia in omnibus adimpletur. 


3 *Et vos, cum essetis mortui delictis peccatis vestris, 2 in quibus 
aliquando ambulastis secundum saeculum mundi huius, secundum 
principem potestatis aeris huius, spiritus qui nunc operatur in filios 
diffidentiae; 3 in quibus et nos omnes aliquando conversati sumus in 
desideriis carnis nostrae, facientes voluntatem carnis et cogitationem, 
et eramus natura filii irae sicut et ceteri. 4 4 Deus autem qui dives est 
in misericordiam, propter nimiam caritatem suam qua dilexit nos, 5 et 
cum essemus mortui peccatis, convivificavit nos Christo, gratia estis 
salvati, °et conresuscitavit et consedere fecit in caelestibus in Christo 
Iesu, 7 ut ostenderet in saeculis supervenientibus abundantes divitias 
gratiae suae in bonitate super nos in Christo Iesu. 5 8 Gratia enim estis 
salvati per fidem; et hoc non ex vobis, dei enim donum est: 9 non ex 
operibus, ut ne quis glorietur: "ipsius enim sumus factura, creati in 
Christo Iesu in operibus bonis, quae praeparavit deus ut in illis ambu- 
lemus. 6 "Propter quod memores estote quod aliquando vos gentes in 
carne, qui dicimini praeputium ab ea quae dicitur circumcisio in carne 
manu facta, 12 quia eratis illo in tempore sine Christo, alienati a con- 
versione Israhel et hospites testamentorum promissionis, spem non 
habentes et sine deo in mundo : 7 13 nunc autem in Christo Iesu vos qui 
aliquando eratis longe, facti estis prope in sanguine Christi. "Ipse 
est enim pax nostra, qui fecit utraque unum, et medium parietem 
macheriae solvens, "inimicitias in carne sua, legem maudatorum de- 
cretis evacuans, ut duos condat in semet ipsum in unum novum 
hominem, faciens pacem, ie et reconciliet ambos in uno corpore deo 
per crucem, interficiens inimicitiam in semet ipso. 17 Et veniens evan- 
gelizavit pacem vobis qui longe fuistis et pacem his qui prope, 18 quoniam 
per ipsum habemus accessum ambo in uno spiritu ad patrem. 8 19 Ergo 
iam non estis hospites et ad venae, sed estis cives sanctorum et domestici 
dei, 20 superaedificati super fundamentum apostolorum et prophetarum, 
ipso summo angulari lapide Christo Iesu, 21 in quo omnis aedificatio 
constructa crescit in templum sanctum in domino, ^in quo et vos 
coaedificamini in habitaculum dei in spiritu. 



9 ^uius rei gratia ego Paulus vinctus Christi Iesu pro vobis genti- 
bus, 2 si tamen audistis dispensationem gratiae dei quae data est mihi 
in vobis, 3 quoniam secundum revelationem notum mihi factum est 
sacramentum, sicut supra scripsi in brevi, 4 prout potestis legentes 
intellegere prudentiam meam in mysterio Christi, "quod aliis genera- 
tionibus non est agnitum filiis hominum, sicuti nunc revelatum est 
Sanctis apostolis eius et prophetis in spiritu, "esse gentes coheredes 
et concorporales et conparticipes promissionis in Christo Iesu per evan- 
gelium, 'cuius factus sum minister secundum donum gratiae dei, quae 
data est mihi secundum operationem virtutis eius. 8 Mihi omnium 
sanctorum minimo data est gratia haec, in gentibus evangelizare in- 
vestigabiles divitias Christi, 9 et inluminare omnes quae sit dispensatio 
sacramenti absconditi a saeculis in deo qui omnia creavit; 10 ut innotes- 
cat principibus et potestatibus in caelestibus per ecclesiam multiformis 
sapientia dei, "secundum praefinitionem saeculorum quam fecit in 
Christo Iesu domino nostro; 12 in quo habemus fiduciam et accessum 
in confidentia per fidem eius. 10 "Propter quod peto ne deficiatis in 
tribulationibus meis pro vobis, quae est gloria vestra. 11 "Huius rei 
gratia flecto genua mea ad patrem domini nostri Iesu Christi, 15 ex 
quo omnis patemitas in caelis et in terra nominatur, 16 ut det vobis 
secundum divitias gloriae suae virtute conroborari per spiritum eius in 
interiore homine, "habitare Christum per fldem in cordibus vestris, 
18 in caritate radicati et fundati, ut possitis conpraehendere cum omni- 
bus Sanctis quae sit latitudo et longitudo et sublimitas et profundum, 
19 scire etiam supereminentem scientiae caritatem Christi, ut impleamini 
in omnem plenitudinem dei. 12 20 Ei autem qui potens est omnia facere 
superabundanter quam petimus aut intellegimus secundum virtutem 
quae operatur in nobis, a ipsi gloria in ecclesia et in Christo Iesu in 
omnes generationes saeculis saeculorum, amen. 


13 1 Obsecro itaque vos ego vinctus in domino ut digne ambuletis 
vocatione qua vocati estis, "cum omni humilitate et mansuetudine, 
cum patientia, subportantes invicem in caritate, s solliciti servare uni- 
tatem spiritus in vinculo pacis. "Unum corpus et unus spiritus, sicut 
vocati estis in una spe vocationis vestrae. 14 5 Unus dominus, una fides, 
unum baptisma, "unus deus et pater omnium, qui super omnes et per 
omnia et in omnibus nobis. 15 'Unicuique autem nostrum data est 
gratia secundum mensuram donationis Christi. 'Propter quod dicit 


Ascendens in altum captivam duxit captivitatem, dedit dona hominibus. 
"Quod autem ascendit, quid est nisi quod et descendit in inferiores 
partes terrae? "Qui descendit, ipse est et qui ascendit super omnes 
caelos, ut impleret omnia. u Et ipse dedit quosdam quidem prophetas, 
quosdam quidem apostolos, alios evangelistas, alios autem pastores et 
doctores, I2 ad consummationem sanctorum, in opus ministerii, in aedifi- 
cationem corporis Christi, 18 donee occuramus omnes in unitatem fidei 
et agnitionis filii dei, in virum perfectum, in mensuram aetatis pleni- 
tudinis Christi, 14 ut iam non simus parvuli fluctuantes et circum- 
feramur omni vento doctrinae in nequitia hominum, in astutia ad 
cirenmventionem erroris, "veritatem autem facientes in caritate cres- 
camus in illo per omnia, qui est caput, Christus, 16 ex quo totum 
corpus conpactum et conexum per omnem iuncturam subministrationis 
secundum operationem in mensuram uniuscuiusque membri augmentum 
corporis facit in aedificationem sui in caritate. 16 "Hoc igitur dico et 
testificor in domino, ut iam non ambuletis sicut gentes ambulant in 
vanitate sensus sui, 18 tenebris obscuratum habentes intellectum, alien- 
ati a vita dei, per ignorantiam quae est in illis, propter caecitatem 
cordis ipsorum, 19 qui desperantes semet ipsos tradiderunt impudicitiae 
in operationem inmunditiae omnis in avaritia. 17 20 Vos autem non ita 
didicistis Christum, 21 si tamen ilium audistis et in ipso edocti estis 
sicut est Veritas in Iesu, M deponere vos secundum pristinam conver- 
sationem veterem hominem, qui corrumpitur secundum desideria er- 
roris: 23 renovamini autem spiritu mentis vestrae, ^et induite novum 
hominem qui secundum deum creatus est in iustitia et sanctitate 
veritatis. m Propter quod deponentes mendacium loquimini veritatem 
unusquisque cum proximo suo, quoniam sumus invicem membra. 
18 26 Irascimini et nolite peccare : sol non occidat super iracundiam ve- 
stram. ^Nolite locum dare diabulo. ^Qui furabatur, iam non furetur, 
magis autem laboret operando manibus quod bonum est, ut habeat 
unde tribuat necessitatem patienti. 19 w Omnis sermo malus ex ore vestro 
non procedat, sed si quis bonus ad aedificationem • oportunitatis, ut 
det gratiam audientibus. S0 Et nolite contristare spiritum sanctum dei, 
in quo signati estis in die redemptionis. ai Omnis amaritudo et ira et 
indignatio et clamor et blasphemia tollatur a vobis cum omni malitia : 
32 estote autem invicem benigni, misericordes, donantes invicem sicut et 
deus in Christo donavit nobis. 

20 'Estote ergo imitatores dei, sicut filii carissimi, 2 et ambulate in 
dilectionem, sicut et Christus dilexit nos et tradidit se ipsum pro nobis 


oblationem et hostiam deo in odorem suavitatis. 21 s Fornicatio autem 
et onmis inmunditia aut avaritia nee nominetur in vobis, sicut decet 
sanctos, 4 aut turpitudo aut stultiloquium aut scurrilitas, quae ad rem 
lion pertinent, sed magis gratiarum actio. B Hoc enim scitote intelle- 
gentes, quod omnis fornicator aut inmundus aut avarus, quod est 
idolorum servitus, non habet hereditatem in regno Christi et dei. 
22 "Nemo vos seducat inanibus verbis: propter haec enim venit ira dei 
in filios diffidentiae. 'Nolite ergo effici participes eorum. 8 Eratis enim 
aliquando tenebrae, nunc autem lux in domino : ut filii lucis ambulate ; 
9 fructus enim lucis est in omni bonitate et iustitia et veritate ; 10 pro- 
bantes quod sit beneplacitum deo, "et nolite communicare operibus 
infructuosis tenebrarum, magis autem et redarguite. 12 Quae enim in 
occulto fiunt ab ipsis, turpe est et dicere : "omnia autem quae argu- 
untur a lumine manifestantur : omne enim quod manifestatur, lumen 
est. "Propter quod dicit Surge qui dormis et exurge a mortuis, et 
inluminabit tibi Christus. 23 16 Videte itaque, fratres, quomodo caute 
ambuletis, non quasi insipientes, sed ut sapientes, 16 redimentes tempus, 
quoniam dies mali sunt. "Propterea nolite fieri inprudentes, sed 
intellegentes quae sit voluntas dei. 18 Et nolite inebriari vino, in quo 
est omnis luxuria, sed implemini spiritu, "loquentis vosmet ipsis in 
psalmis et hymnis et canticis spiritalibus, cantantes et psallentes in 
cordibus vestris domino, 20 gratias agentes semper pro omnibus in 
nomine domini nostri Iesu Cbristi deo et patri, 21 subiecti invicem 
in timore Christi. 24 "Mulieres viris suis subiectae sint sicut domino, 
ss quoniam vir caput est mulieris, sicut Christus caput est ecclesiae, 
ipse salvator corporis. 24 Sed ut ecclesia subiecta est Christo, ita et 
mulieres viris suis in omnibus. 25 25 Viri, diligite uxores vestras, sicut 
et Christus dilexit ecclesiam et se ipsum tradidit pro ea, 26 ut illam 
sanctificaret mundans lavacro aquae in verbo, 27 ut exhiberet ipse sibi 
gloriosam ecclesiam, non habentem maculam aut rugam aut aliquid 
eiusmodi, sed ut sit sancta et immaculata. ^Ita et viri debent diligere 
uxores suas ut corpora sua. Qui suam uxorem diligit, se ipsum diligit : 
29 nemo enim umquam carnem suam odio habuit, sed nutrit et fovet 
earn, sicut et Christus ecclesiam, 30 quia membra sumus corporis eius, 
de carne eius et de ossibus eius. a Propter hoc relinquet homo patrem 
et matrem suam et adherebit uxori suae, et erunt duo in carne una. 
^Sacramentum hoc magnum est, ego autem dico in Christo et in 
ecclesia. ^Verum tamen et vos singuli unusquisque suam uxorem 
sicut se ipsum diligat, uxor autem ut timeat virum. 



26 1 Filii, oboedite parentibus vestris in domino : hoc enim iustum est. 
2 Honora patrem tuum et matrem, quod est mandatum primum in 
promissione, 3 ut bene sit tibi et sis longevus super terrain. 27 4 Et pa- 
tres, nolite ad iracundiam provocare filios vestros, sed educate illos in 
disciplina et correptione domini. 28 6 Servi, oboedite dominis carnalibus 
cum timore et tremore, in simplicitate cordis vestri, sicut Christo, 
6 non ad oculum servientes quasi hominibus placeatis, sed ut servi 
Christi facientes voluntatem dei ex animo, 'cum bona voluntate ser- 
vientes sicut domino et non hominibus, 8 scientes quoniam unusquisque 
quodcumque fecerit bonum hoc percipiet a domino, sive servus sive 
liber. 29 9 Bt domini, eadem facite illis, remittentes minas, scientes quia 
et illorum et vester dominus est in caelis et personarum acceptio non 
est apud eum. 30 10 De cetero, ftatres, confortamini in domino et in 
potentia virtu tis eius. n Induite vos arma dei, ut possitis stare ad- 
versus insidias diaboli; 12 quia non est nobis conluctatio adversus 
carnem et sanguinem, sed adversus principes et potestates, adversus 
mundi rectores tenebrarum harum, contra spiritalia nequitiae in caeles- 
tibus. ls Propterea accipite arma dei, ut possitis resistere in die malo 
et in omnibus perfecti stare. "State ergo succincti lumbos vestros in 
veritate, et induti lorica iustitiae, 16 et calciati pedes in praeparatione 
evangelii pacis, 16 in omnibus sumentes scutum fidei, in quo possitis 
omnia tela nequissimi ignea extinguere. 17 Et galeam salutis adsumite, 
et gladium spiritus, quod est verbum dei, 18 per omnem orationem et 
obsecrationem orantes omni tempore in spiritu, et in ipso vigilantes 
in omni instantia et obsecratione pro omnibus Sanctis, 19 et pro me, ut 
detur mini sermo in apertione oris mei cum fiducia notum facere mys- 
terium evangelii, 20 pro quo legatione fungor in catena, ita ut in ipso 
audeam prout oportet me loqui. 31 21 Ut autem et sciatis vos quae 
circa me sunt, quid agam, omnia nota vobis faciet Tychicus carissimus 
frater et fidelis minister in domino, ^quem misi ad vos in hoc ipsum, 
ut cognoscatis quae circa nos sunt et consoletur corda vestra. "'Pax 
fratribus et caritas cum fide a deo patre et domino Iesu Christo. 
24 Gratia cum omnibus qui diligunt do'minum Iesum Christum in incor- 



W. EPH. 


WICLIF 1 — 1380. 

1. POUL the apostle of ihesus crist, 
bi the wille of god, to alle seyntis that 
ben at effecie, and to the feithful men 
in ihesus crist, 2 grace be to 3011 and 
pees of god oure fadir and oure lord 
ihesus crist. 3 Blessid be god and the 
fadir of oure lord ihesus crist : that 
hath blessid us in al spiritual blessynge 
in heuenli thingis in crist, 4 as he 
hath chosun us in hym silf, bifor the 
makynge of the world : that we weren 
holi and without wemme in his sijt in 
charite, 5 whiche hath bifore ordeyned 
us in to adopcioun of sones bi ihesus 
crist in to him, bi the purpos of his 
wille 6 in to the heryinge of the glorie 
of his grace, in which he hath glorified 
us in his dereworthe sone, 

7 in whom we han redempcioun bi 
his blood : for3euenesse of synnes, aftir 
the richessis of grace, 8 that aboundid 
gretli in us, in al wisdom and prudens : 
9 to make knowe to us the sacrament 
of his wille, bi the good pleasaunce of 
hym the whiche sacramente he pur- 
posid in hym : 10 in to dispensacioun 
of plente of tymes, to enstore alle 
thingis in crist : whiche ben in 
heuenes & which ben in erthe in hym, 

[v. supr. Preface, p. ix.] 

TYNDALE— 1534. 

1. PAUL an Apostle of Iesu Christ, 
by the will of God. 

To the saynctes which are at Bphe- 
sus, and to them which beleve on 
Iesus Christ. 

2 Grace be with you and peace from 
God oure father, and from the Lorde 
Iesus Christ 

'Blessed be God the father of oure 
lorde Iesus Christ, which hath blessed 
vs with all maner of spirituall bless- 
inges in hevenly thynges by Chryst, 
4 accordynge as he had chosen vs in 
him, before the foundacion of the 
worlde was layde, that we shuld be 
saintes, and without blame before 
him, thorow loue. 6 And ordeyned vs 
before thorow Iesus Christ to be 
heyres vnto him silfe, accordinge to 
the pleasure of his will, 6 to the prayse 
of the glorie of his grace where with 
he hath made vs accepted in the 

7 By whom we have redemption 
thorow his bloude euen the forgeve- 
nes of synnes, accordynge to the 
riches of his grace, 8 which grace he 
shed on vs aboundantly in all wis- 
dome, and perceavaunce. 8 And hath 
openned vnto vs the mistery of his 
will accordinge to his pleasure, and 
purposed the same in hym silfe 10 to 
have it declared when the tyme were 
full come, that all thynges, bothe the 



WICLIP— 1380. 
11 in whom we ben clepid bi sorte 
bifor ordeyned, bi the purpos of him 
that worchith alle thingis : bi the 
counceil of his wille, 12 that we be in 
to the heriynge of his glorie : we that 
han hopid bifor in crist, 13 in whom 
also 3e weren clepid, whanne 3e herden 
the word of truthe, the gospel of 30ure 
helthe, in whom 3e bileuynge ben 
markid, with the holi goost of biheest. 
11 whiche is the ernes of 3oure eritage : 
in to the redempcioun of purchasynge 
in to heryinge of his glorie, 

15 therfor I herynge 30ure feith that 
is in crist ihesus, and the loue in to al 
seintis : 16 ceese not to do thankingis 
for 30U, makynge mynde of 30U in my 
preyers, 17 that god of oure lord ihesus 
crist, the fadir of glori : 3eue to 30U 
the spirit of wisdom and of reuela- 
cioun in to the knowynge of hym, 

18 that the i3en of 30ure herte ly3tned : 
that 3e wite whiche is the hope of his 
clepynge, and whiche ben the richessis 
of the glorie of his eritage in seyntis, 

19 and whiche is the excellent greet- 
nesse of his vertu in to us that han 
bileued bi the worchynge of the my3t 
of his vertu, 20 whiche he wrouste in 
crist reisynge hym fro deeth, and 
settynge him on his risthalf in heuenli 
thingis : 21 aboue eche principat and 
potestat, and vertu & domynacioun 
and aboue eche name that is named, 
not oonli in this world : but also in 
the world to comynge, 22 and made 
alle thingis suget vndir his feet : & 
3af hym to be heed ouer al the chirche 
23 that is the bodi of hym, & the 
plente of hym whiche is al thingis : 
in alle thingis fulfillide. 

TYNDALE— 1534. 
thynges which are in heven, and also 
the thynges which are in erthe, shuld 
be gaddered togedder, even in Christ : 
n that is to saye, in him in whom we 
are made heyres, and were therto 
predestinate accordynge to the pur- 
pose of him which worketh all thinges 
after the purpose of his awne will : 
12 that we which before beleved in 
Christ shuld be vnto the prayse of his 

13 In whom also ye (after that ye 
hearde the worde of trueth, I meane 
the gospell of youre saluacion, wherin 
ye beleved) were sealed with the holy 
sprete of promes, u which is the ernest 
of oure inheritaunce, to redeme the 
purchased possession and that vnto 
the laude of his glory. 

15 Wherfore even I (after that I 
hearde of the fayth which ye have in 
the lorde Iesu, and love vnto all the 
saynctes) 16 cease not to geve thankes 
for you, makynge mencion of you in 
my prayers, "that the God of oure 
lorde Iesus Christ and the father of 
glory, myght geve vnto you the sprete 
of wisdome, and open to you the 
knowledge of him silfe, 18 and lighten 
the eyes of your myndes, that ye 
myght knowe what that hope is, 
where vnto he hath called you, and 
what the riches of his glorious inheri- 
taunce is apon the sainctes, 19 and 
what is the excedynge greatnes of his 
power to vs warde which beleve 
accordynge to the workynge of that 
his mighty power, w which he wrought 
in Christ, when he raysed him from 
deeth, and set him on his right honde 
in hevenly thynges, a above all rule, 
power, and myght and dominacion, 
and above all names that are named, 
not in this worlde only, but also in the 
worlde to come : 22 and hath put all 
thynges vnder his fete, and hath made 
him aboue all thynges, the heed of 




WICLIP— 1380. 

2. AND whanne 3e weren deed in 
30ure giltis : and synnes 2 in whiche 
3e wandriden sumtyme, aftir the 
couris of this world, aftir the prince 
of the power of this eire, of the spirit 
that worchith now in to the sones of 
vnbileue, 3 in whiche also we alle 
lyueden sumtyme in the desiris of 
oure fleisch, doynge the willis of the 
fleisch & of thou3tis, and we weren bi 
kynde the sones of wraththe as other 

4 but god that is riche in merci : for 
his ful myche charite in whiche he 
loued us, 6 3e whanne we weren deed 
in synnes, quykened us to gidre in 
crist, bi whos grace 30 ben saued, 
6 and a3enreisid to gidre : and made 
to gidre to sitte in heuenly thingis in 
crist ihesus, 7 that he schulde schewe 
in the worldis aboue comyng: the 
plenteuous richessis of his grace in 
goodnes on us in crist ihesus, 8 for bi 
grace 3e ben saued bi feith : and this 
not of 30U, for it is the 3ifte of god, 
9 not of werkis : that no man haue 
glorie, 10 for we ben the makynge of 
hym made of noirjt in crist ihesus 
in good werkis whiche god hath 
ordeyned : that we go in tho werkis, 

11 for whiche thing be 3e myndeful : 
that sumtyme 30 weren hethen in 
fleisch, whiche weren seide prepucie : 
fro that that is seide circumcisioun 
made by hond in fleisch, la & 3e weren 
in that tyme without crist, alienede 
fro the lyuynge of israel and gestis of 
testamentis, not hauynge hope of 
biheest : and withouten god in this 

TYNDALE— 1534. 
the congregacion n which is his body 
and the fulnes of him that fllleth all 
in all thynges. 

2. AND hath quickened you also 
that were deedin treaspasse andsynne, 
2 in the which in tyme passed ye 
walked, accordynge to the course of 
this worlde, and after the governor 
that ruleth in the ayer, the sprete 
that now worketh in the children of 
vnbelefe, 3 amonge which we also had 
oure conversacion in tyme past, in the 
lustes of oure flesshe, and fulfilled the 
will of the flesshe and of the mynde : 
and were naturally the children of 
wrath, even as wel as other. 

4 But God which is rich in mercy 
thorow his greate love wherwith he 
loved vs, 6 even when we were deed 
by synne, hath quickened vs together 
in Christ (for by grace are ye saved) 
6 and hath raysed vs vp together and 
made vs sitte together in hevenly 
thynges thorow Christ Iesus, r for to 
shewe in tymes to come the excedynge 
ryches of his grace, in kyndnes to vs 
warde in Christ Iesu. 8 For by grace 
are ye made safe thorowe fayth, and 
that not of youre selves. For it is the 
gyfte of God, 8 and commeth not of 
workes, lest eny man shuld host him 
silfe. 10 For we are his worckman- 
shippe, created in Christ Iesu vnto 
good workes, vnto the which god 
ordeyned vs before, that we shuld 
walke in them. 

11 Wherfore remember that ye beynge 
in tyme passed gentyls in the flesshe, 
and were called vncircumcision to- 
them which are called circumcision 
in the flesshe, which circumcision is 
made by hondes : 12 Remember I saye, 
that ye were at that tyme with oute 
Christ, and were reputed aliantes 
from the commen welth of Israel, and 



WICLIF— 1380. 
world, 13 but now in crist ihesus, 3e 
that weren sumtyme fer, ben made 
ny3 in the blood of crist, 14 for he is 
owe pees, that made bothe oon, & 
vnbindynge the myddil walle M of a 
wal with out morter enemytees in his 
fleisch, and a voidide the lawe of 
maundementis, bi domes : that he 
make .ij. in hym silf in to o newe 
man, makynge pees : M to recounceile 
bothe in o bodi to god bi the cros, 
sleynge the enemytees in hym silf, 
17 and he comynge prechid pees to 
3011, that weren fer : and pees to hem 
that weren ny3, 18 for bi hym we bothe 
han ny3 comynge : in o spirit to the 

19 therfor now 3e ben not gestis, and 
straungers : but 3e ben citeseynes of 
seintis : & housholde meyne of god, 
^aboue bildid on the foundement of 
aposths & of profetis, vpon that Insist 
corner stoon crist ihesus, 21 in whom 
eche bildynge made : wexeth in to an 
holi temple in the lord, 22 in whom 
also 3e be bildid to gidre in to the 
habitacle of god in the hooli gooste. 

3. FOR the grace of this thing, I 
poul the bounden of crist ihesus for 
30U hethen men : 2 if netheles 30 han 
herde the dispensacioun of goddis 
grace that is 30UUH to me in 30U, 3 for 
bi reuelacioun the sacrament is made 
knowuu to me, as I aboue wrote in 
schort thing : 4 as 3e moun rede and 
vndurstonde my prudence in the my- 
nysterie of crist, s whiche was not 
knowun to othere generaciouns to the 
sones of men : as it is now schewid to 

TYNDALE— 1534. 
were straungers from the testamentes 
of promes, and had no hope, and were 
with out god in this worlde. 13 But 
now in Christ Iesu, ye which a whyle 
agoo were farre of, are made nye by 
the bloude of Christ. 
14 For he is oure peace, whych hath 
made of both one, and hath broken 
doune the wall that was a stoppe 
bitwene vs, 15 and hath also put awaye 
thorow his flesshe, the cause of hatred 
(that is to saye, the lawe of com- 
maundementes contayned in the lawe 
written) for to make of twayne one 
newe man in him silfe, so makynge 
peace : 16 and to reconcile both vnto 
god in one body thorow his crosse, 
and slewe hatred therby : 17 and came 
and preached peace to you which 
were a farre of, and to them that 
were nye : 18 For thorow him we both 
have an open waye in, in one sprete 
vnto the father. 

19 Now therfore ye are no moare 
straungers and foreners : but citesyns 
with the saynctes, and of the hous- 
holde of god : 20 and are bilt apon the 
foundacion of the apostles and pro- 
phetes, Iesus Christ beynge the heed 
corner stone, 21 in whom every bildynge 
coupled togedder, groweth vnto an 
holy temple in the lorde, 22 in whom 
ye also are bilt togedder, and made 
an habitacion for god in the sprete. 

3. FOR this cause I Paul am in the 
bondes of Iesus christ for youre sakes 
which are hethen : 2 Yf ye have hearde 
of the ministracion of the grace of god 
which is geven me to you warde. 3 For 
by revelacion shewed he this mistery 
vnto me, as I wrote above in feawe 
wordes, 4 wher by when ye rede ye 
maye knowe myne vnderstondynge in 
the mistery of Christ, 5 which mistery 
in tymes passed was not opened vnto 
the sonnes of men, as it is nowe de- 



WICLIP— 1380. 

hise holi apostlis and profetis, in the 
spirit, 6 that hethen men ben euen 
eiris, and of o bodi : and parteneris 
to gidre, of his biheest in crist ihesus 
bi the euangeli, 7 whos mynystre I am 
made by the 3ifte of goddis grace : 
whiche is 3ouun to me bi the worch- 
ynge of his vertu, 

8 to me leest of alle seyntis, this 
grace is 30uun to preche among hethen 
men, the vnserchable richessis of crist, 
9 & to li3tene alle men whiche is the 
dispensacioun of sacramente hidde fro 
worldis in god : that made alle thingis 
of nou3t, 10 that the myche foold wis- 
dom of god be knowun to princis & 
potestatis in heuenli thingis, bi the 
chirch : u bi the bifor ordenaunce of 
worldis whiche he made in crist ihesus 
oure lord, 12 in whom we han trist and 
ny3 comynge : in tristenynge bi the 
feith of hym. u for whiche thing I axe : 
that 3e faile not in my tribulaciouns 
for 30U whiche is 30ure glorie, 

14 for grace of this thing I bowe my 
knees to the fadir of oure lord ihesus 
crist, u of whom eche fadirheed in 
heuenes and in erthe is named, 16 that 
he 3eue to 30U aftir the richessis of 
his glorie : vertu to be strengthid bi 
his spirit in the ynner man, lr that 
crist dwelle bi feith in 30ure hertis, 
that 30 rootid, and groundid in 
charite : 18 moun comprehende with 
alle seyntis whiche is the breed and 
18 the lengthe, and the hi3ist and the 
depnesse, also to wite the charite of 
crist more excellent thanne science : 
that 30 be fillid in al the plente of 
god, 20 and to hym that is my3ti to do 
alle thingis more plenteuousli thanne 
we axen, or vndirstonde bi the vertu 

TYND ALE— 1534. 
clared vnto his holy apostles and 
prophetes by the sprete : 8 that the 
gentyls shuld be inheritours also, and 
of the same body, and partakers of 
his promis that is in Christ, by the 
meanes of the gospell, 7 wherof I am 
made a minister, by the gyfte of the 
grace of god geven vnto me thorow 
the workynge of his power. 
8 Vnto me the lest of all sayntes is 
this grace geven, that I shuld preache 
amonge the gentyls the vnsearchable 
ryches of Christ, 9 and to make all 
men se what the felyshippe of the 
mistery is, which from the begynnynge 
of the worlde hath bene hid in God 
which made all thynges thorow Iesus 
Christ, 10 to the intent, that now vnto 
the rulars and powers in heven myght 
be knowen by the congregacion the 
many folde wisdome of god, u accord- 
inge to the eternall purpose, which he 
purposed in Christ Iesu oure lorde, 
la by whom we are bolde to drawe nye 
in that trust, which we have by faith 
on him. u Wherfore I desire that ye 
faynt not because of my trybulacions 
for youre sakes : which is youre 

14 For this cause I bowe my knees 
vnto the father of oure lorde Iesus 
Christ, u which is father over all that 
ys called father In heven and in erth, 
16 that he wolde graunt you acordynge 
to the ryches of his glory, that ye 
maye be strenghted with myght by 
his sprete in the inner man, lr that 
Christ maye dwell in youre hertes by 
fayth, that ye beynge roted and 
grounded in loue, 18 myght be able 
to comprehende with all sayntes, 
what ys that bredth and length, 
deepth and heyth : 19 and to knowe 
what is the love of Christ, which love 
passeth knowledge : that ye might 
be fulfilled with all manner of fulness 
which commeth of God. 



WICLIF— 1380. 
that worchith in us : 21 to hym be 
glorie in the chirche, and in crist 
ihesus in to alle the generaciouns of 
the worldis Amen. 

4. THERFOR I bounden for the 
lord bisech 3011, that je walke worthili 
in the clepynge in which 30 ben 
clepid, 2 with al mekenesse, and 
myldenesse : with pacience, support- 
inge eche other in charite, 8 bisie to 
kepe vnyte of spirit : in the boond of 
pees, 4 bodi and o spirit : as 30 ben 
clepid in oon hope of 3oure clepinge, 
6 o lord, o feith, baptym, 6 o god, and 
fadir of alle, whiche is aboue alle men, 
and bi alle thing-is and in us alle, 

7 but to eche of us grace is souun : 
bi the niesure of the 3euynge of crist, 
8 for whiche thing he seith, he stiynge 
an hi3 : ledde caitifte caitif, he 3af 
3iftis to men, 

9 but what is it that he stied up : no 
but also that he cam doun first in 
to the lower partis of the erthe. 10 he 
it is that cam doun and that stied 
on alle heuenes : that he schulde fi lie 
alle thingis, u and he 3af summe 
apostlis : summe profetis, other euan- 
gelistis, other schepardis, and techers : 

12 to the ful endynge of seyntis, in to 
the werke of mynysteri : in to edifi- 
cacioun of cristis bodi, 13 til we rennen 
alle in to vnyte of feith, and of know- 
ynge of goddis sone : in to a perfi3t 
man, aftir the mesure of age of the 
plente of crist, " that we be not now 
litil children mouynge as wawis: &be 
not borun aboute with eche wynde of 
techynge, in the weywardnesse of 

TYNDALE— 1534. 
20 Vnto him that is able to do 
excedynge aboundantly above all that 
we axe or thynke, accordynge to the 
power that worketh in us, 21 be prayse 
in the congregacion by Iesus Christ, 
thorowout all generations from tyme 
to tyme Amen. 

4. I therfore which am in bondes 
for the lordes sake, exhorte you, that 
ye walke worthy of the vocacion 
wherwith ye are called, 2 in all hum- 
blenes of mynde, and meknes, and 
longe sufferynge, forbearinge one 
another thorowe love, 3 and that ye be 
dyligent to kepe the vnitie of the 
sprete in the bonde of peace, 4 beynge 
one body, and one sprete, even as ye 
are called in one hope of youre 
callynge. ' Let ther be but one lorde, 
one fayth, one baptim : 6 one god and 
father of all, which is above all, 
thorow all and in you all. 

7 Vnto every one of vs is geven grace 
acordinge to the measure of the gyft 
of christ. 8 Wherfore he sayth : He 
is gone vp an hye, and hath ledde 
captivitie captive, and hath geven 
gyftes vnto men. ° That he ascended : 
what meaneth it, but that he also 
descended fyrst into the lowest 
parties of the erth ? 10 He that de- 
scended, is even the same also that 
ascended vp, even above all hevens, 
to fulfill all thinges. 

"And the very same made some 
Apostles, some prophetes, some Evan- 
gelistes, some Sheperdes, some Tea- 
chers : 12 that the sainctes might have 
all thinges necessarie to worke and 
minister with all, to the edifyinge of 
the.body of christ, u tyll we every one 
(in the vnitie of fayth, and knowledge 
of the sonne of god) growe vp vnto a 
parfayte man, after the measure of 
age of the fulnes of Christ. 14 That we 
hence forth be no moare chyldren, 
wauerynge and caryed with every 



WICLIP— 1380. 

men, in sutil witte, to the disceyuynge 
of errour, 

16 but do we truthe in charite and 
wexe in him bi alle thingis, that is 
crist oure hed, I6 of whom al the bodi 
sette to gidre, and bounden to gidre 
bi eche ioynture of vndir seruynge bi 
worchynge in to the mesure of eche 
membre : makith encreesynge of the 
bodi in to edificaciouns of it silf in 
charite. 17 therfor I seie and witnesse 
this thing in the lord : that 3e walke 
not now, as hethen men walken in the 
vanyte of her wit, 18 that han vndir- 
stondynge derkned with derknessis, 
and ben aliened fro the liif of god, bi 
ygnoraunce that is in hem : for the 
blyndenesse of her herte, 19 whiche 
dispeirynge bitoken hem silf to vn- 
chastite : in to the worchynge of alle 
vnclennesse in coueitise, M but 3e han 
not so lernd crist : a if netheles 3e 
herden hym, and ben tau3te in hym : 
as is truthe in ihesus, ' a do 3e awey bi 
the oold lyuynge, the oolde man that 
is corrupt bi the desiris of errour, 
23 And be 3e renewid in the spirit of 
30ure soule : M and clothe 30 the newe 
man whiche is made aftir god in 
ri3twisnesse and holynesse of truthe, 
25 for whiche thing 3e putte aweye 
lesynge : and speke 30 truthe eche 
man with his neisbore, for we ben 
membris eche to othir, * be 3e wrooth, 
and nyle 30 do synne, the sunne falle 
not doun on 30ure wraththe ; w nyle 
30 3eue stede to the deuel, ^he that 
stal, now stele he not, but more 
traueile he in worchynge with hise 
hondis, that that is gode, that he haue 
wherof he schal 3eue to the nedy, 

TYNDALE— 1534. 
wynde of doctryne, by the wylynes of 
men and craftynes, wherby they laye 
a wayte for vs to deceave vs. 

16 But let vs folowe the trueth in 
loue, and in all thynges growe in him 
which is the heed, that ys to saye 
Christ, 16 in whom all the body ys 
coupled and knet togedder in every 
ioynt wherwith one ministreth to 
another (accordinge to the operacion 
as every parte hath his measure) and 
increaseth the body, vnto the edyfy- 
inge of it silfe in love. 

17 This I saye therfore and testifie in 
the lorde, that ye hence forth walke 
not as other gentyls walke, in vanitie 
of their mynde, 18 blynded in their 
vnderstondynge, beynge straungers 
from the lyfe which is in god thorow 
the ignorancy that is in them, because 
of the blyndnes of their hertes : 
19 which beynge past repentaunce, 
have geven them selves vnto wan- 
tannes, to worke all manner of vn- 
clennes, even with gredynes. ^But 
ye have not so learned Christ, 21 if so 
be ye have hearde of him, and are 
taught in him, even as the trueth is in 
Iesu. 22 So then as concernynge the 
conversation in tyme past, laye from 
you that olde man, which is corrupte 
thorow the deceavable lustes ^and 
be ye renued in the sprete of youre 
myndes, u and put on that newe man, 
which after the ymage of God is shapen 
in ryghtewesnes and true holynes. 
^Wherfore put awaye lyiuge, and 
speake every man truth vnto his 
neghbour, for as moche as we are 
members one of another. 26 Be angrye 
but synne not let not the sonne go 
doune apon youre wrathe ^nether 
geue place vnto the backbyter. ffl Let 
him that stole, steale no moare, but let 
him rather laboure with his hondes 
some good thinge that he maye have 
to geve vnto him that nedeth. 



WICLIF— 1380. 
^eche yuel word go not of 3oure 
mouth, but if ony is good to the edifi- 
cacioun of feith, that it 3eue grace to 
men that heren, 3u and nyle 30 make 
the holi goost of god sorie : in whiche 
30 ben markid in the dai of redemp- 
cioun, 31 alle bittirnesse & wraththe 
and indignacioun, and crie and blas- 
femy, be takun aweye fro 30U, with al 
malice, 32 and be 30 to gidre benyngne, 
merciful, for3euynge to gidre as also 
god fo^af to 30U in crist. 

5. THERPOR be 30 folowers of 
god : as moost dereworthe sones, 
2 and walke 36 in loue : as crist loued 
us, and 3af hym silf for us an offrynge 
and a sacrifice to god : in to the 
odour of swetnesse, 3 and fomycacioun 
and al vnclennes or auarice be not 
named among 30U : as it bicometh 
hooly men, 4 ethere filthe or foli speche 
or harlotrie that perteyneth not to 
profi^t! but more doynge of thank- 
yngis, 6 for wite 30 this and vndir- 
stonde that eche lecchour, or vnclene 
man or coueitous, that serueth to 
mawmetis : hath not eritage in the 
kyngdom of crist & of god, 

6 no man disceyue 30U bi veyn wordis, 
for whi for these thingis : the wraththe 
of god cam on the sones of vnbileue, 
7 therfor nyle 3e be made parteners of 
hem, 8 for 30 weren sumtyme derk- 
nessis, but now list in the lord, walke 
36 as the sones of li3t : ° for the fruit 
of li3t is in alle goodnes and ri3twis- 
nesse and truthe, I0 and preue 3e what 
thing is wel plesynge to god, u & nyle 
30 comyne to vnfruytuous werkis of 
derknessis : but more repreue 36, 12 for 
what thingis ben don of hem in pryuy : 
it is foule 36 to speke, 13 and alle 
thingis that ben repreued of the li3t : 
ben opunly schewid, for al thing that 

TYNDALE— 1534. 
20 Let no filthy communicacion pro- 
cede out of youre mouthes : but that 
whych is good to edefye with all, 
when nede ys : that it maye have 
faveour with the hearers. ^And 
greve not the holy sprete of God, by 
whome ye are sealed vnto the daye 
of redempcion. sl Let all bitternes 
fearsnes and wrath, rorynge and 
cursyd speakynge, be put awaye from 
you, with all maliciousnes. 32 Be ye 
courteouse one to another, and merci- 
full, forgevynge one another, even as 
god for Christes sake forgave you. 

5. BE ye folowers of god as dere 
children, 2 and walke in love even as 
Christ loved vs and gave him silfe for 
vs, an offerynge and a sacrifice of 
a swete saver to god. 3 So that forni- 
cacion and all vnclennes, or covet- 
eousnes be not once named amonge 
you, as it be commeth saynctes : 
4 nether filthynes, nether folishe talk- 
yng, nether gestinge which are not 
comly : but rather gevynge of thankes 
6 For this ye knowe, that no whor- 
monger, other vnclene person, or 
coveteous person which is the wor- 
shipper of ymages, hath eny inheri- 
taunce in the kyngdome of Christ and 
of God. 

6 Let no man deceave you with vayne 
wordes. For thorow soche thinges 
commeth the wrath of God vpon the 
chyldren of vnbelefe. 7 Be not ther- 
fore companions with them. 8 Ye 
were once dercknes, but are now 
light in the Lorde. 

Walke as chyldren of light. 9 For the 
frute of the sprete is in all goodnes, 
rightewesnes and trueth. "Accept 
that which is pleasinge to the Lorde : 
11 and have no fellishippe with the 
vnfrutfull workes of dercknes : but 
rather rebuke them. 12 For it is 
shame even to name those thinges 
which are done of them in secrete : 



WICLIP— 1380. 
is schewid : is li3t, " for whiche thing 
he seith, rise thou that slepist rise up 
fro deeth, and crist schal lijtne thee, 

16 therfor britheren se 3e : hou warli 
3e schuln go, not as vnwise men, 16 but 
as wise men a3enbiynge tyme, for the 
daies ben yuel, ,7 therfor nyle 3e be 
made vnwise : but vndirstondynge, 
whiche is the wille of god, 18 and nyle 
3e be drunken of wyne in whiche is 
leccherie : but be 3e flllid with the 
holi goost, 19 and speke 3e to 30U silf 
in salmes & ympnes and spiritual 
songis syngynge, and seiynge salme 
in 30ure hertis to the lord, ^euer 
more doynge thankyngis for alle 
thingis in the name of oure lord 
ihesus crist : to god and to the fadir, 
21 be 3e suget to gidre in the drede 
of crist, 

22 wymmen be thei suget to her hous- 
bondis, as to the lord, ^for the man 
is heed of the woman : as crist is 
heed of the chirche, he is sauyour of 
his bodi, M but as the chirche is suget 
to crist so and wymmen to her hous- 
bondis in alle thingis. * Men loue 30 
30ure wyues : as crist loued the 
chirche, and 3af hym silf for it, M to 
make it holi, and clensid it with the 
waischynge of watir, in the word of 
liif ? ' B to 3eue the chirche glorious to 
him silf, that it hadde no wemme ne 
reuelynge, or ony suche thing, but 
that it be holi & vndefoulid, 

28 so & men loue thei her wyues, as 
her owne bodies, he that loueth his 
wiif : loueth him silf, ^for no man 
hatid euer his owne Heisch : but 

TYND ALE— 1534. 
13 but all thinges, when they are 
rebuked of the light, are manifest. 
For whatsoever is manifest, that same 
is light. u Wherfore he sayth : awake 
thou that slepest, and stond vp from 
deeth, and Christ shall geve the 

15 Take hede therfore that ye walke 
circumspectly : not as foles : but as 
wyse M redemynge the tyme : for the 
dayes are evyll. 17 Wherfore, be ye 
not vnwyse, but vnderstonde what the 
will of the Lorde is, 18 and be not 
dronke with wyne, wherin is excesse : 
but be fulfilled with the sprete, 
19 speakynge vnto youre selves in 
psalmes, and ymnes, and spretuall 
songes, synginge and makinge melo- 
die to the Lorde in youre hertes, 
20 gevinge thankes all wayes for all 
thinges vnto God the father, in the 
name of oure Lorde Iesu Christ: 
21 submittinge youre selves one to 
another in the feare of God. 

22 Wemen submit youre selves vnto 
youre awne husbandes, as vnto the 
Lorde. ^For the husbande is the 
wyves heed, even as Christ is the 
heed of the congregation, and the 
same is the saveoure of the body. 
24 Therfore as the congregacion is in 
subieccion to Christ, lykwyse let the 
wyves be in subieccion to their hus- 
bandes in all thinges. ffi Husbandes 
love youre wyves, even as Christ 
loved the congregacion, and gave 
him silfe for it, M to sanctifie it, and 
clensed it in the fountayne of water 
thorow the worde, ^to make it vnto 
him selfe, a glorious congregacion 
with oute spot or wrynckle, or eny 
soche thinge: but that it shuld be 
holy and with out blame. 

28 So ought men to love their wyves, 
as their awne bodyes. He that loveth 
his wyfe, loveth him sylfe. '■'For no 
man ever yet, hated his awne flesshe : 



WICLIF— 138a 
nurischith and fosterith it, as crist 
doith the chirche, ^and we ben 
membris of his bodi : of his fleisch, 
and of his boonys, 31 for this thing 
a man schal forsake his fadir and 
modir : and he schal drawe to his 
wiif, and thei schuln be tweyne in 

fleisch, ^this sacrament is greet, 3e 

1 seie in crist, and in the chirche, 
^netheles 30 alle, eche man loue his 
wiif as hym silf, & the wiif drede hir 

6. SONES obeisch 30 to 30ure fadir 
and modir in the lord, for this thing 
is ri3tful, 2 onoure thou thi fadir and 
thi modir, that is the first maunde- 
ment in biheest, 3 that it be wel to 
thee, & that thou be long lyuynge on 
erthe, 4 and fadris nyle 3e terre 30ure 
sones to wraththe : but nurische 36 
hem in the techynge and chastisynge 
of the lord. 6 Seruauntis obeische 30 
to fleischli lordis with drede and 
tremblynge in symplenesse of 3oure 
herte as to crist, 6 not seruynge at the 
i3e, as plesyng to men : but as ser- 
uauntis of crist, doynge the wille of 
god bi discrescioun 7 with good wille : 
seruynge as to the lord : and not as 
to men, witynge that eche man 8 what 
euer good thing he schal do : he schal 
resceyue this of the lord, whether 
seruaunt whether fre man, 9 & je 
lordis to do the same thingis to hem : 
forieuynge manassis, witynge that 
bothe her lord and 30ure is in 
heuenes : and the takynge of per- 
souns is not anentis god. 

i°here aftirward britheren be 30 
counfortide in the lord : and in the 
my3t of his vertu, "clothe 30U with 
the armure of god, that 30 moun 
stonde a3ens aspiyngis of the deuel, 
12 for why stryuynge is not to us a3ens 
fleisch and blood but a3ens the princis 
and potestis, a3ens gouernouris of 

but norissheth and cherisseth it even 
as the lorde doth the congregation. 
30 For we are members of his body, of 
his flesshe, and of his bones. 31 For 
this cause shall a man leave father 
and mother, and shall continue with 
his wyfe, and two shalbe made one 
flesshe. 3J This is a great secrete, but 
I speake bitwene Christ and the con- 
gregacion. 33 Neverthelesse do ye so 
that every one of you love his wyfe 
truely even as him silfe. And let the 
wyfe se that she feare her husbande. 

6. CHYLDREN obey youre fathers 
and mothers in the Lorde : for so 
is it right. 2 Honoure thy father and 
mother, that is the fyrst commaunde- 
ment that hath eny promes, 3 that 
thou mayst be in good estate, and 
lyve longe on the erthe. ''And ye 
fathers, move not your children to 
wrath : but bringe them vp with the 
norter and informacion of the Lorde. 
6 8ervauntes be obedient vnto youre 
carnall masters, with feare and trim- 
blinge, in singlenes of youre hertes, as 
vnto Christ : 8 not with service in the 
eye sight, as men pleasars : but as the 
servauntes of Christ, doynge the will 
of God from the herte 7 with good will 
servinge the Lorde, and not men. 
8 And remember that whatsoever good 
thinge eny man doeth, that shall he 
receave agayne of the Lorde, whether 
he be bonde or fre. 9 And ye masters, 
do even the same thinges vnto them, 
puttinge awaye threateninges : and 
remember that even youre master 
also is in heven, nether is ther eny 
respecte of person with him. 
10 Finally my brethren, be stronge in 
the Lorde, and in the power of his 
myght. u Put on the armour of God, 
that ye maye stonde stedfast agaynst 
the crafty assautes of the devyll. 
12 For we wrestle not agaynst flesshe 
and bloud : but agaynst rule, agaynst 
power, and agaynst worldly rulars of 



WICLIF— 1380. 

the world of these derknessis, a3ens 
spiritual thingis of wickidnesse, in 
heuenli thingis, 

13 therfor take 30 the armure of god, 
that 30 moun a3enstonde in the yuel 
dai, and in alle thingis stonde parfi3t, 
"therfor stonde 3e and be 30 girde 
aboute 30ure leendis in sothfastnesse, 
and clothid with the haburioun of 
ri3twisnesse, 15 and 30ure feet schode 
in makynge redi of the gospel of pees, 
16 in alle thingis take 3e the scheeld of 
feith in whiche 30 moun quenche alle 
the firi dartis of the worst, 17 and take 
3e the helme of helthe, and the 
swerde of the goost, that is the word 
of god, 18 bi alle preier and bisech- 
ynge preie 3e al tyme in spirit : and 
in hym wakynge in al bisynesse, and 
bisechyng, for alle holi men 19 and for 
me, that word be 30uun to me in 
openynge of my mouth : with trist to 
make knowun the mysterie of the 

20 for whiche I am sette in message 
in a chayne, so that in it y be hardi to 
speke, as it bihoueth me, 21 and 3e 
wite, what thingis ben about me, 
what I do : titicus my moost dere 
brother, and trewe mynystre in the 
lord schal make alle thingis knowen 
to 30U, n whom I sente to 30U for this 
same thing : that 3e knowe what 
thingis ben aboute us, & that he com- 
forte 30ure hertis, n pees to britheren 
and charite with feith of god oure 
fadir, & of the lord ihesus crist, 
24 grace with alle men : that louen 
oure lord ihesus crist in vncorrup- 
cioun Amen. 

TYND ALE— 1534. 

the darckenes of this worlde, agaynst 
spretuall wickednes for hevenly 

u Por this cause take vnto you the 
armoure of God, that ye maye be 
able to resist in the evyll daye, and 
to stonde perfect in all thinges. 

"Stonde therfore and youre loynes 
gyrd aboute with veritie, havinge on 
the brest plate of rightewesnes, I6 and 
shood with showes prepared by the 
gospell of peace. 18 Above all take to 
you the shelde of fayth, wherwith ye 
maye quenche all the fyrie dartes of 
the wicked. ir And take the helmet 
of salvacion, and the swearde of the 
sprete, which is the worde of God. 
18 And praye all wayes with all manner 
prayer and supplicacion : and that in 
the sprete : and watch thervnto with 
all instance and supplicacion for all 
saynctes, 19 and for me, that vttraunce 
maye be geven vnto me, that I maye 
open my mouth boldly, to vtter the 
secretes of the gospell, ^wherof I 
am a messenger in bondes, that 
therin I maye speake frely, as it be- 
commeth me to speake. 

21 But that ye maye also knowe what 
condicion I am in and what I do, 
Tichicus my deare brother and fayth- 
full minister in the Lorde, shall shewe 
you of all thinges, ffl whom I sent vnto 
you for the same purpose, that ye 
myght knowe what case I stonde in, 
and that he myght comfort youre 

23 Peace be with the brethren, and 
love with fayth, from God the father 
and from the Lorde Iesu Christ. 
24 Grace be with all them which love 
oure lorde Iesus Christ in puernes. 





God the Father. 


The Holy Spirit. 

Doctrine of the Holy Trinity. 

The Will of God. 

The World and Creation. 

Man : — Body— Soul — Spirit. 

The Heart. 

The Unseen World. 

Angels — Evil Powers. 

The Devil. 


Predestination and Divine Purpose. 

Redemption — Atonement. 



Peace — Righteousness — Truth. 


Knowledge and Wisdom. 

Faith— Hope — Love. 

Light — Life. 

Good Works. 

Thanksgiving — Prayer. 

The Church. 

The Communion of Saints. 

Christian Sacraments. 

The Christian Ministry. 


God the Father, (i. 2.) 

' The Father, from whom every family in heaven and on earth 
derives its name' — derives that which gives it a right to the title — 
and — that which truly makes it what it is. (iii. 14 and notes.) 

' The Father of glory ' — the source and the object of all reve- 
lation — ' the God of our Lord Jesus Christ ' — the God whom He 
acknowledges and at the same time reveals, (i. 17 and notes.) 

' One God and Father of all (els 0eos kou waTrjp TrdvTiav), Who 
is over all and through all and in all.' (iv. 6.) 

[The notes on this verse, as left by Dr Westcott, are probably to be 
regarded as incomplete. — More particularly the note on the words 6 M 
icivTwv Kai Sia iravruv xal if iraaiv would probably have been longer, had 
the Commentary received the author's final revision, and would have 
contained some further explanation of the statement that in these words 
'the reference is not to the Person of the Father, but to the triune God — .' 
Comparison of c. v. 20, cited in the previous note on els 6ebs k. iravijp 
ir&vTun>, indicates that here, as there, God the Father is contemplated as 
revealed by, and approached through, ' our Lord Jesus Christ,' the ' one 
Lord' of iv. 5.] 

Cf. The Historic Faith, Lect. ix. p. 52, 1904 ed. : — 'Looking 
then to this trust in a common redemption, let us hold fast our 
belief in one Church, in one Body of Christ knit together by the 
rites which He Himself appointed, one in virtue of the One Spirit 
Who guides each member severally as He will, of the One Saviour 
Who fulfils Himself in many ways, of the One God and Father 
of all, Who is over all and through all and in all.' 

See also Gospel of St John, p. 3, note on Jo. i. 1 : 'Thus we are 
led to conceive that the Divine nature is essentially in the Son 
and at the same time that the Son can be regarded, according to 
that which is His peculiar characteristic, in relation to God as 
God. He is the " image of God " (cikcov rov 6eov) and not simply 
of the Father.' 

' Giving thanks always for all things in the name of our Lord 
Jesus Christ to our God and Father' (tc3 6e<S ko.1 irarpi). (v. 20.) 



(a) 'Grace to you and peace from God our Father and our 
Lord Jesus Christ.' (i. 2.) 

' Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.' (i. 3.) 

' He chose us in Him before the foundation of the world — 
having fore-ordained us unto adoption as sons through Jesus 
Christ unto Himself.' (i. 4, 5.) 

'The Son of God.' (iv. 13.) 

(6) The Divine counsel — now revealed — according to His 
gracious purpose — ' to sum up all things in the Christ, the things 
in the heaven and the things in the earth.' (i. 10.) 

'In Him' and 'through Him' and 'unto Him' (Col. i. 16) 
were all things made. 

He is the 'first-born,' 'the beginning' of all creation. Man 
was formed in His Image; and in Him men find their con- 
summation. The forces of Nature, so to speak, are revealed to 
us in the Bible as gathered together and crowned in man, and the 
diversities of men as gathered together and crowned in the Son of 
Man ; and so we are encouraged to look forward to the end, to 
a unity of which every imaginary unity on earth is a phantom or 
a symbol, when the Will of the Father shall be accomplished and 
He shall sum, up all things in Christ — all things and not simply 
all persons — both the things in the heavens and the things upon the 
earth. (Eph. i. 10.) 

We see, inscribed upon the age-long annals in which the 
prophetic history of the world and of humanity has been written, 
the sentence of inextinguishable hope ' From God unto God.' 
We see when we look back upon the manifestation of the Divine 
plan that the order which we trace — nature, humanity, Christ — 
corresponds inversely with our earnest expectation of its fulfilment. 
Christ, the sons of God, nature. We see, in short, while we thus 
regard the universe, as we must do, under the limitation of 
succession, from first to last a supreme harmony underlying all 
things — a holy unity which shall hereafter crown and fulfil creation 
as one revelation of Infinite Love. 

(Christus Consummator, pp. 103, 108, 111.) 

'One Lord.' (iv. 5.) 

(c) ' His grace, which He freely bestowed upon us in the 
Beloved.' (i. 6.) 

'In Whom we have our redemption through His blood, the 
forgiveness of our trespasses.' (i. 7.) 


'In the blood of Christ' (ii. 13) the Gentiles, once afar, were 
made near. 

'For He,' — uniting — and reconciling— Jew and Gentile — 'in 
one body — to God — proclaimed Peace' — glad tidings of peace — 
'to all far and near.' (ii. 14 — 17.) 

'Through Him we have our access — to the Father' (ii. 18) — 
' freedom of access ' (irpotrayioyijv) and ' freedom of address ' (7rap- 
prjcriav) — and thus personal communion with God. (iii. 12.) 

And an eternal purpose was thus fulfilled. The same Lord, 
Who is the stay of our faith and hope, is also the crown of the 
whole development of the world. 

Through all the changes of time God prepared the way to the 
fulfilment of His counsel ; — all creation and life tending to one 
end, now made manifest by the coming of the Son of God (iii. 11). 

' Even as God also in Christ forgave — dealt graciously with 
(ixapio-aro)- — you.' (iv. 32.) 

The thought of the lovingkindness of God in Christ leads 
St Paul to speak of the self-sacrifice of Christ. 

' Walk in love, even as Christ also loved you and gave Himself 
up for you.' (v. 1.) 

' Christ loved the Church and gave Himself up for it.' (v. 25.) 

'The love of Christ which passeth knowledge' (iii. 19) — a 
love — answering to His very nature — including His love both for 
the Church and for the believer. 

(d) The work 'which He wrought in the Christ, when He 
(1) raised Him from the dead and (2) set Him at His right hand 
in sovereign power, (i. 20 f.) 

Exalted to the Heavens — invested with universal sovereignty 
(i. 22) — He is even now Head of His Church on earth (ib.) — and 
has exercised His sovereignty by the gift of His quickening 
grace, /ii. 1 f.) 

The Christological passages in the Epistle [declare] that God is 
the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ (i. 3), that Jesus 
Christ is the Son of God (iv. 13), the Beloved (i. 6), the centre and 
source of blessing, sanctification, adoption, grace, redemption to 
believers (i. 3 ff.). One Lord (iv. 15), to Whom God has given 
universal dominion (i. 21 f.). He is the Head of the Church, His 
Body (i. 22 f., v. 23). In Him we were quickened, raised, set in 
heaven (iv. 5 f.), created 'for good works' (ii. 10). In Him the 
Gentiles are united with Israel in one body and reconciled 

W. EPH. 9 


(ii. 13 f.). He is the chief corner-stone of the spiritual sanctuary 
(ii. 20) : in Him and in the Church God's glory is revealed through 
all the ages (ii. 21). The Ascended Christ (i. 20) endows His 
Church (iv. 7 f.), which in and through Him reaches its complete- 
ness (iv. 16). In Him (Jesus) is Truth (iv. 21) : He communicates 
Himself to His people (iv. 24). In Christ God forgives (iv. 32, 
cf. i. 7). Christ gave Himself an offering and a sacrifice to God 
for us (v. 2), gave Himself for the Church, to sanctify it (v. 25), 
is to it as husband to wife (v. 32). He is the source of light 
(v. 14), the saviour of the Body (v. 23). 

Present to God before Creation (i. 4), He took flesh (ii. 5). 
By His Blood (i. 7) and Cross (ii. 6) He is to men the source of 
peace with God (i. 2, vi. 23). The Ascended Christ fills all things 
(iv. 10); in Him is the fulfilment of God's purpose (iii. 11) : — the 
future kingdom is the ' kingdom of Christ and God ' (v. 5) : ' the 
wealth of Christ ' is unsearchable (iii. 8). He dwells in the hearts 
of His people (iii. 17); our progress in the faith is measured by 
increasing knowledge of ' the Son of God ' (iv. 13). 

The Holy Spirit. 

'Sealed with the Spirit of promise, the Holy Spirit.' (i. 13.) 
The ' spirit of wisdom and revelation ' (cf . i. 1 7) is a gift of the 

'In one Spirit.' (ii. 18.) 

The Spirit — the surrounding, sustaining power. 

' Revealed to Christ's holy apostles and prophets in the Spirit.' 

(iii- S)- 

' That ye may be strengthened with power through His Spirit 
in the inward man.' (iii. 16.) 

' Giving diligence to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond 
of peace.' (iv. 3.) [But see note ad loc] 

' One body and one spirit, even as also ye were called in one 
hope of your calling.' (iv. 4.) 

Here a personal reference to the Holy Spirit seems to be 
foreign to the context, though His work is recognised in the 
formation of the Church, and the informing spirit of the Christian 
Society is necessarily in fellowship with the Holy Spirit. 

'And grieve not the Holy Spirit of God, in whom ye were 
sealed (cf. i. 13, Apoc. vii. 3 ff.) unto a day of redemption.' (iv. 30.) 

'The sword of the Spirit.' (vi. 17.) 

The sword which the Spirit provides and through which it acts. 


With these Ephesian passages are to be compared 
I Thess. i. 5 iv irvcvfiari dyi(j> xai ir\ijpo<^opio iroWy. 

1 Cor. vi. 11 ev T(3 iri'tv/ian tov 6eov tjfiwv. 

„ xii. 3 «/ 7rvev/xaTi #eo0 XaXaJi/ — iv irv. dyiai. 

» 13 ev evt 7ri'eup.aTt — irdvTts tis ei> criup.a i/3airri<r6r)/i.ev. 

2 Cor. vi. 6 iv irvev/jLan dyiw, iv aydirr] avviroKpiTia (cf. Gal. 

v. 22). 
Rom. viii. 9 ouk tore iv <rapKi, dXX' er ?rvevp.aTi, airep iri/efyia 

#eov oikci ev 
„ ix. I, xiv. 17, xv. 16 iv irv. &yi<o. 
Phil. i. 27 on (TTijKcr€ ei> en irveofiwri. 
Col. i. 8 njv vfxwv aydirijv iv irvev/iaTi. 
I Tim. iii. 16 iSiKauaOrj iv irvevfiari. 
I Pet. i. 12 t.'tt)!' upas irve.Vjji.aTi dytai diro(TTa- 

XtvTt air oiparov. 
Jude 20 «v nrevpaTi iiyi'a) irpo<rev)(6fievoi. 
Apoc. i. 10, iv. 2, xvii. 3, xxi. 10. 

Doctrine of the Holy Trinity. 

By St John glimpses are opened to us of the absolute 
tri-personality of God. From the statement that ' God is Love ' 
— Love involving a subject, and an object, and that which unites 
both — we gain the idea of a tri-personality in an Infinite Being. 
In the Unity of Him, Who is One, we acknowledge the Father, 
the Son, and the Holy Spirit, in the interrelation of Whom we 
can see Love fulfilled. 

Other Apostolic writers, as St John elsewhere, deal with the 
Trinity revealed in the work of Redemption — the ' Economic 

St Paul, in 1 Cor. xii. 4-6 had written : oWpEcm? Se 
^apLcr/xdrmv elaiv, to 8i avrb irvtvp-a' xai Statpecrets StaKOVKuv tio-tV, 
/cat 6 airos Kvptos - /cat SiatpeWts ivepyijixdrmv tlcriv, 6 8e avros #eos 
6 ivtpyutv to. Travra. iv irauiv, in 2 Cor. xiii. 13 17 X**P' S T- KV P^ov yjp-iSv 
"I. Xp. *. rj aydirr) t. 6eov *. rj KOivtavia t. dyiov HT€wp.aTOS /Aero, irdvTinv 
ipuiv, and in Rom. xv. 30 irapaitakw Si ipas, <5ta t. Kvpiov »7/<u>r 
'I. Xp. k. Sta t. dydirtfi tov irvcu/xaTos (rvvaywvicraadaC fioi iv t. 
7rpo<re«x a ' s virip i/J.ov irpos T. 6cov. 

In the Epistle to the Ephesians the doctrine of the ; Holy 
Trinity is brought into sight in more than one passage. 

First in the Hymn of Praise (i. 3-14) which immediately 



follows the opening salutation, the work of each Person of the 
Holy Trinity is shewn : — of the Father (6 Oeos ko.\ Trarrjp tov Kvpiov 
rjliiav 'I. Xp.) in the eternal purpose of His love (w. 4-6) : of the 
Son (t. ■qyaTnjp.evio) in His Incarnation (vv. 7-12): of the Holy 
Spirit (t<3 ■n-vevfj.a.Ti Trji eirayycA^'as T(3 aytco) giving to believers the 
pledge of a larger hope. 

Then in the passage (ii. 11-22) describing the union of Jews 
and Gentiles in one Divine Body, the doctrine of the Holy Trinity 
is based upon facts of Christian experience, St Paul declaring the 
message of Peace brought by Christ to be universally effective 
'because (ii. 18) through Him (Christ Jesus) we have our access 
in one Spirit (ev evl TrvevfiaTi) to the Father (717365 tov irarepa).' 

And in the parenthetical view (iv. 4-14) of the unity and 
manifold endowment of the Christian Society there is reference 
(w. 4-6) to the Triune God, ruling, pervading, sustaining all ; 
and the work is recognised of a Holy Spirit, of Christ Jesus our 
Lord, and of ' One God and Father of all,' made known by the 
Incarnate Son. 

The Will of God. 

(a) 'Paul by the will of God an apostle of Christ Jesus.' (i. 1.) 
(6) ' According to the good pleasure of His Will ' (i. 5) : — 

where we see God's Will as the expression of a gracious purpose. 
' Having made known the mystery of His Will ' (to pvo-rypiov 

tov OiX^/iaros awroB) : — that is, the Divine counsel now revealed, 

which expressed His Will. (i. 9.) 

'According to the purpose of Him, Who worketh all things 

after the counsel of His Will.' (i. 11.) 

[v. inf. on 'Predestination and Divine Purpose.'] 
(c) ' Doing the will of God — as servants of Christ.' (vi. 6.) 
The phrase ' the will of the Lord (t. Kvpiov) ' occurs at v. 17 

own tovto fir] ytv€o-0e cu^povcs, aAAa cwieTe rC to 6iX.rnj.a tov Kvpiov, — 

and elsewhere only in Acts xxi. 14. 

The World (6 koo-ju.os, 6 aliov). 

Alwv describes an age marked by a particular character: koo-iaos 
the whole constitution of things. 

(a) ' He chose us in Him before the foundation of the world ' 
(irpo Kara/3oX^s koV/aov). (i. 4.) 

The members of Christ are placed in an eternal relation to 
Christ their Head — beyond time, before all time. 


(6) ' Without God (aOeoi) in the world (iv T(3 ko't/ko). (ii. 12.) 
' The world ' — the order of the physical universe. 

(c) ' Not only in this world — or age — (ev iwr<j> t<JS ai<3vi), but 
'also in that which is to come.' (i. 21.) 

' That in the ages to come (ev tois abocrw tow orepxojuivois) He 
might shew the exceeding wealth of His grace.' (ii. 7.) 

The Apostle looks forward to a succession of ages — units of 
the great age (iii. 2 1 eis irao-as Tas ytvea<s tov cuon-os tiHv a'uavwv). 

(d) ' According to the course of this world ' (xara iw alwva. 



The phrase irpb Ka.Ta/3o\r}<s icdoyxou is used also in i Pet. i. 20 of 
the work of Redemption in the Son (irpotyvuKT/j-fvov p.h> irpb Kara- 
po\rjs koo"ju.ov, <pavep(i>8ivTos 8e lir eo"x<iT<ov Ttov xpovav St' vp-as) and 
in Jo. xvii. 24 of the love of the Father for the Son (oti r/yan-170-as 
p.€ irpb Ka.Ta/3o\rjs KoVftou). This is ' the only place where St Paul 
has it ' : but ' the idea of the designation of Messiah in the counsel 
of God before all worlds is expressed more or less distinctly in 
other language in Eph. i. 9, 10; iii. 9-1 1 ; Col. i. 26, 27; 2 Tim. 
i. 9 ; cf . 1 Cor. ii. 7 ; Rom. xvi. 25 ' (Hort on 1 Pet. i. 20). The 
phrase is not used in the lxx. or elsewhere than in the N.T. 

[Hort, however, I.e. compares Plutarch, Moral, ii. 956 a tA ef &PXW Kal 
iifia rjj irpdyrri Karaj3o\7J tCjv i.vdp&irtav.'] 

The corresponding phrase dirb Kara/SoXr}? Kotr/iov, likewise not 
found in the lxx., is used in Heb. iv. 3 (tw ipytav dirb. /caTa/SoXijs 
Koo-p.ov ysvrfiivTuw), ix. 26 ; Apoc. xiii. 8 ; xvii. 8 (cov oi yeypairrai 
to ovop.a hn to ^l/3\iov t^s ^(orj'S airb Ka.Ta/3o\rjs Koo-fiov) ; Mt. XXV, 
34 ; Lk. xi. 50. 

' In God, Who created all things (t<3 tci irdvra ktIvovti) ' has 
been hidden (iii. 9) from all time (dirb t<ui> aww) an eternal 
purpose now made manifest and fulfilled by the coming of the 
Incarnate Son : — in Him, in the Christ, it was the purpose and 
good pleasure of God to sum up all things (i. 9 f .) — ' the things in 
the heavens and the things upon the earth.' 

Mom in himself. 

Body. Soul. Spirit. 

Man's body : v. 29 <us toi cavT<3v o-wfiaTa. 
Man's soul : vi. 7 ex >frv)(rjs ewoi'as SovXevovrts. 
Man's spirit : the highest part of his nature, by which he holds 
fellowship with God. 


ii. 22. 'The Lord, in Whom ye also are builded together for 
a dwelling-place of God in the spirit (iv Trvf.vp.aTi) ' : cf . iii. 5. 

iv. 23. ' And that ye be renewed in the spirit of your mind 
(rip irvevfiaTi tov vobi vp.wv). 

Contrast iv. 17 iv pMrcuoTr/Ti tov vobs airuiv (of the Gentiles) 
and Col. ii. 18. 

v. 18. ' But be filled in spirit (irXripovo-Oe iv Trv€vp,a.T<) : where 
iv irve.vfw.Ti is opposed to iv crapKi. 

vi. 18. 'Praying at every season in spirit.' 

The Heart (xapSia). 

(a) 'To the end that, having the eyes of your heart (tovs 
ofpOaXpovs Tr}<> Kaohias) enlightened, ye may know....' (i. 18.) 

(b) The heart — the seat of character. 

' That Christ may dwell in your hearts through faith.' (iii. 17.) 

' Because of the hardening of their heart.' (iv. 18.) 

' In singleness (airXoTrjTi) of heart (t^s Kap&'as vp.uiv) as unto 

Christ ' — i.e. without hypocrisy, as unto Christ, Who knoweth the 

hearts of men. (vi. 5.) So Col. iii. 22. 

(c) ' Singing and making melody with your heart to the 
Lord.' (v. 19.) 

The outward music to be accompanied by the inward music of 
the heart. So Col. iii. 16. 

' That He may comfort (TrapaKakioy) your hearts.' So Col. iv. 
8, ii. 2. (vi. 22.) 

In Col. iii. 15 1; eipijvri tov xpio-TOv Ppafitvirm iv Tats KapSiais 


The Unseen World. . 

Of the relation of Man to the Unseen St Paul speaks 
(a) in earlier Epistles : 

1 Cor. ii. 9 f . : ' things which eye saw not and ear heard not.' 
(Is. lxiv. 4.) 

2 Cor. iv. 18 : ' while we look not at the things which are seen 
(to. f3\tir6p.tva), but at the things which are not seen (toi /xt; /SAeiro- 
p.fva) : for the things which are seen are temporal ; but the things 
which are not seen are eternal.' 

Bom. i. 20: 'For the invisible things (to — do'para) of Him from 
the Creation of the world are clearly seen (KaOopaTai), being 
understood (vooujucva) by means of the things that are made (tois 
wonjfiao-iv), even His everlasting power and Godhead.' 


(b) in the Colossian and Ephesian Epistles. 

Col. i. 15 ff. : 'things visible and things invisible — thrones or 
dominions or principalities or powers.' 

Eph. i. 3 : ' The God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, Who 
blessed us in all spiritual blessing in the heavenly order (6 eiXoyyo-as 
i?/Aas iv iraxrg ev\oyiq. irvevpaTiKfj iv rots iirovpavioi,?) in Christ.' 

Eph. i. 20 : ' when He raised Him from the dead and made 
Him to sit alt His right hand in the heavenly order (ev t. 

Eph. ii 6 : ' raised us up with Him and made us to sit with 
Him in the heavenly order.' 

Eph. iii. 10 : 'to the intent that now to the principalities and 
the powers in the heavenly order may be made known through 
the church the manifold wisdom of God.' 

Eph. vi. 12: ' our wrestling is — against the principalities, 
against the powers, against the world-rulers of this darkness, 
against the spiritual forces of wickedness in the heavenly order.' 

Cf. Phil. iii. 20 i;'ju.(3v yap to woAtVev/na iv oiparois wrapxei, ii ov 
(cat <T<DTqpa a7reic8eYop.e#a k.t.X. and 2 Tim. iv. 18 pvatrai p-e 6 
Kvpios air6 iravTOs ipyov Trovrjpov, xai o-aitm eis rr/v j8a<rtXeiav avrov 
rr)V iirovptaiiov. 

The expression to. iwovpavia [v. Add. Note, p. 152] is character- 
istic of the Epistle to the Ephesians. 

At iii. 10 (v. supr.) we have reference to intelligences of the 
heavenly order, to whom ' the manifold wisdom of God ' should be 
made known through the Church; while at ii. 2 is indicated 
organisation of powers of evil (koto, tov apxpyra r^s e£oixrtas tov 
ac'pos), to whose assaults we are exposed, and at vi. 12 man's 
connexion with another — a spiritual — order, in which work powers 
of evil (7rpos to. irvevp-aTLKo. t^s Trovr]pia.<i iv t. brovpavlots). 

The devil (6 SuiffoXos). 

(a) ' Nor give place to the devil' (iv. 27) — 'the devil' — the 
Tempter [to whom] unchecked passion leaves open the way. 

(6) ' That ye may be able to stand against the wiles of the 
devil ' — ' the devil ' — the supreme leader of the powers of evil. 

The word does not occur elsewhere in St Paul except in the 
Pastoral Epistles (1 Tim. iii. 6, 7 ; 2 Tim. ii. 26). 

(c) The title 'the Evil One' (6 ironypo's), occurring in 
Mt. v. 37, vi. 13, xiii. 19, 38; Jo. xvii. 15, and characteristic of 


the First Epistle of St John (ii. 13I, iii. 12, v. 18 f.), is found 
Eph. vi. 16, — 'the shield of faith,' whereby the Christian is 'able 
to quench all the darts of the evil one that are set on fire,' — but 
not elsewhere in St Paul. 

(d) 'The prince of the power of the air' (ii. 2) — a temporary 
and contingent power — is the 'god of this world' (6 0eos tov 
alwvos tovtov) of 2 Cor. iv. 4 — a personal power [to whom] is 
subordinate the spirit which is active (tov ivepyovvros) in the sons 
of disobedience — ' the prince (or ruler) of this world ' (6 apx<»v tov 
Koo-fjLov tovtov) of Jo. xii. 31, xiv. 30, xvi. n, [is] the one great 
enemy [of whom] all other enemies are, as it were, instruments. 


' You, when you were dead through your trespasses (irapairTo!- 
/Murtv) and sins (d/wipi-tais), wherein aforetime ye walked according 
to the course of this world ' (ii. 1.) 

' Us, when we were dead through our trespasses, God quickened 
together with the Christ.' (ii. 5.) 

' In Whom we have our redemption through His blood, the 
forgiveness of our trespasses.' (i. 7.) 

' Be ye angry and sin not.' (iv. 26, from Ps. iv. 5, lxx.) 
[See Addit. Note.] 

Predestination and Divine Purpose. 

' Having foreordained (irpoopio-a.%) us unto adoption as sons 
through Jesus Christ unto Himself.' (i. 5.) 

' In Whom we were also made God's portion, having been 
foreordained ' (irpoopLo-devTes, praedestinati) to occupy this position 
' according to the purpose of Him, Who worketh all things after 
the counsel of His Will.' (i. 11.) 

The word Trpoopi^etv occurring in these two verses of the 
Ephesian Letter, had previously been used by St Paul in two 
passages only of his Epistles, namely once in the First Epistle to 
the Corinthians (1 Cor. ii. 7) 'But we speak a wisdom of God in 
a mystery, the wisdom which has been hidden, which God fore- 
ordained (irpod>pLo-ev) before the ages unto our glory,' and twice, in 
one context, in the Epistle to the Romans (Rom. viii. 29 f.) 
'Because whom He foreknew (irpoiyvw), them He also foreordained 
(irpoiipio-ev, praedestinavit) to be conformed to the image of His 
Son, that He might be the firstborn among many brethren : and 
whom He foreordained, them He also called : and whom He 


called, them He also justified j and whom He justified, them He 
also glorified.' 

It occurs in no other Epistle. 

But it is used in Acts iv. 28 : 'to do whatsoever Thy hand and 
Thy counsel (17 x«p o-ov «. 77 /JouA.17) foreordained to come to pass.' 

The word wpooWts, used of 'purpose' generally Acts xi. 23, 
xxvii. 13, 2 Tim. iii. 10, is found (in connexion with irpoopifev) 
of God's eternal purpose in both the Roman and the Ephesian 
Epistles, and in no other excepting the Second Epistle to Timothy : 
and the verb irpoldero likewise occurs only in Romans and 

In Rom. iii. 25 St Paul writes (iv Xp. I.) ov irpoiQero 6 debs 
IkacrTqpiov, 'Whom God set forth (R.V. marg. purposed) to be a 
propitiation': in viii. 28 'And we know that to them that love 
God all things work together for good, even to them that are 
called according to His purpose (roh Kara. irpoQvrw kXijtois ovo-iv) ' : 
and in ix. 11 ' that the purpose of God according to election 
(77 k<it iKkoyrjv irpdtfecris tov Oeov) might stand.' 

Here in the Epistle to the Ephesians we have i. 9 ' according 
to His good pleasure, which He purposed (irpoiOtro) in Him,' i.e. 
in accordance with the gracious purpose which He set before 
Himself to accomplish in Him (sc. iv t(3 ■qya-Trrjfx.evta) : then i. 1 1 
'foreordained according to the purpose (Kara irpodeaiv) of Him, 
Who worketh all things after the counsel of His will («ara t. 
Povkrjv tov Oek-qpaTos avrov) : and lastly iii. 1 1 ' according to a 
purpose of the ages (Kara irp66eo-iv twv aiiavuiv) which He accom- 
plished in the Christ, even Jesus our Lord.' 

The word fiovkij is used of God in Luke vii. 30, Acts ii. 23, 
xiii. 36, xx. 27, and in Heb. vi. 17 to dinerddtTov TJ79 ftovkrjs avrov, 
as well as in the passage in Acts above quoted (iv. 28) where it 
occurs with the verb Trpowpure, and in the verse of this Epistle 
just cited (i. 11) in connexion with irpoB&rvs. The 'counsel' 
referred to in the Epistle to the Hebrews was that of bringing 
universal blessing to men through the seed of Abraham : and so 
in this Epistle it is through Israel in old time, and now through 
the Christian Church, a new Israel, that the counsel of God is 
wrought out for the world. 

BovA.eo-0<u is used of the Divine purpose in 1 Cor. xii. 1 1 
trdvTtx Si to-vtol evepyei to ev kol to avrb jrveS/iia, Siaipovv tSi'a tKaora) 
Kadws /WA.6Tai, Ja. i. 18, 2 Pet. iii. 9, Mt. xi. 27 (=Lk. x. 22), as 
well as in Heb. vi. 17 Trepio-aoTepov /SovXdp.iro-i 6 0e6s «ri8«£ai k.t.X.. 


(v. supr.), where, as elsewhere, it regards a purpose with respect 
to something else — God being minded to shew more abundantly to 
man's apprehension — and not (like OeXeiv) a feeling in respect of 
the person 'willing' himself (cf. Col. i. 27 ots ^OiXiijo-ev 6 Oebs 
yvtopio-ai, tL to ttXovto's rfjs So^iys t. /Avo-rrjpiov tovtov iv r. Wvarw). 
The verb (fio£kio-Qa.i) does not occur in the Ephesian Epistle. 

The Will of God is "not arbitrary, but guided by a settled 
counsel (Jlovkq). 

The revelation of this Divine counsel — or ' mystery ' — is thus 
the expression of His Will. 

To the fulfilment of His counsel God prepared the way through 
all the changes of time unceasingly, and now at length the steps 
towards it can be seen. 

By the coming of the Son of God an eternal purpose was 
fulfilled — a purpose eternally designed, if only lately disclosed. 

With the Father purpose and work are one. 

Historically, the great counsel of God, interrupted by man's 
sin, was accomplished by the redemptive work of Christ. 


The words connected with the idea of ' redemption,' found in 
the New Testament (for their use in the lxx. see Add. Note on 
Heb. ix. 12, Hebrews, p. 295) are Xvrpov, avrikvrpov, \vrpovo-dai, 
X.VTpionj's, XijTpaxris, airo\vrp<Dcris. 

Of these \vrpov alone occurs in the Gospels, and only in 
Mt. XX. 28 (=Mk. X. 45) Sovvai Trjv <l/vxqv avVoO Xvrpov avrl 
7ro\A.<uv : while XvrpaiTrjs is found only in Acts vii. 35, of Moses. 

With the exception of the single occurrence of Xvrpov in the 
Synoptic narrative, the whole group of words is confined to the 
Epistles of St Paul and writings (including 1 Peter) which are 
strongly coloured by his language. They are entirely absent from 
the writings of St John. 

Of one or other of the three words Xvrpovo-Oai, ' to redeem,' 
Avrpaxj-tf, airo\vTpaxn5, we have the following instances : 

(a) In earlier Epistles of St Paul : 

1 Cor. i. 30 : ' in Christ Jesus, Who was made unto us 
(iyevrj0rj) wisdom from God, both righteousness and sanctification 
and redemption' (aToXvTpwo-is). 

Rom. iii. 24 : ' being justified freely by His grace through 
the redemption that is in Christ Jesus' (Sia t^s aTroXurpcuVews itjs 
iv Xpiora! 'Jrjcrov). 


Rom. viii. 23 : 'the redemption of the body' (t. dirokvTpuxriv t. 
cai/uot/ros) . 

(6) In the Epistles of the Captivity : 

Col. i. 14, and here in Eph. i. 7 : 'in Whom we have our 
redemption ' («V <5 k\op.ev rrjv d.Tro\vTpuxnv) — the redemption which 
is the outcome of our faith — a redemption wrought by Christ 
'through His blood' (v. 7) — 'our redemption which is nothing 
less than the remission of our sins' (Lightfoot, Golossians, p. 137). 

Eph. i. 14: 'unto the redemption of God's own possession' 
(eh d.Tro\vTp<jia-Lv rfjs irepnronjo-eux;) — this, and the consequent 'praise 
of His glory,' being the final cause of the work of Christ and of 
the Mission of the Spirit (v. 13). 

Eph. iv. 30 : 'in Whom ye were sealed unto a day of redemp- 
tion (cts rj/xepav diro\.VTp(ti<Teu>s). 

The 'redemption' is of captives from bondage — from the 
bondage of sin. 

(c) In the Pastoral Epistles \vrpovo-6ai occurs once: Tit. ii. 14 
iva XwpwijTat 17' oiro irdtrrjs ai'O/xias, and dvTikvTpov once, I Tim. 
11. 6 Xpwrros lyo-ovs, 6 Sovs eavrbv dvTiXvrpov virep TrdvTiav. 

(d) In 1 Peter i. 18 o» fp6a.pTois...e\vTpw6riTe eV tijs /xaraias 
v/*<3v avao~rpo<prjs . . .dXXa. ti/u<i> ai/xari — we have some 'words — 
apparently founded on Is. lii. 3 (ov p.era dpyvpiov X-vrpwdijo-eo-Oe) ' : 
while ' the idea of the whole passage is — deliverance through the 
payment of a costly ransom by another ' (Hort, ad foe). 

(e) In the Epistle to the Hebrews we have Avrpcoo-is at ix. 1 2 
altaviav \vTpw<riv tvpdp.evo's and aVoA.vrpaKris at ix. 1 5 «ts dTroXvTpwo-iv 
twv iiri Trj irprnT-rj SiaOrjicr] irapa/3do-£<i>v as well as at xi. 35 ov 
TTpoo~8e£dfi.evoi t. aTroXvrpwo-iv. 

Christ ' entered in once for all into the Holy place, having 
obtained an eternal Redemption' — an eternal, not a temporary, 
deliverance for His people (ov\ iavrm, -mas yap 6 dva/i.dpTr]To<s ; dXXa. 
t<3 \a<3 avrov. Oecumenius). He is Mediator of a New Covenant, 
that a death having taken place 'for redemption from, the trans- 
gressions that were under the first covenant they that have 
been called may receive ' what had been promised — an eternal 

(/) In the Synoptic Gospels, besides 'our Lord's saying in 
Mt. xx. 28 (=Mk. x. 45) "The Son of Man came not to be 
ministered unto, but to minister kol Sovvai tijv ij/v)(rjv avrov Xvrpov 


(a ransom) ovti iroXUv " — the starting-point of this and all similar 
language in the Epistles' (Hort on iXvrpwOrjrc, i Pet. i. 18) — 
we have 

Lk. i. 68 : iiroirjo'tv XvTpuxriv t<3 \aZ avrov (from lxx. of 
Ps. cxi. 9 XvTpuxriv diriartiXev r<a XaiS avrov). 

Lk. ii. 38 : tois rrpocrSe)(opivoLi \vrpwtriv 'lo-patjX. 

Lk. xxi. 28 : ap^opivmv Si tovtuiv yiveaOai dvaKvipare k. iirdpare 
t. KitpaXhs vptov, Sum eyyifei ■q diroXvTpuMTis vpuiv. 

Lk. xxiv. 2 1 : yXrr^optv on avrds ianv 6 peXXmv \vrpovo-0ai rov 

In the Epistle to the Ephesians Redemption (airoAurpcoo-is) is 

(1) as wrought by Christ, Whose 'blood' in relation to the 
redemption and salvation of men, appears at i. 7 as that by means 
of which (Sia toC aipxiTos airov) and at ii. 13 as that in which 
(iv t. alp., r. x-\ a s in an encompassing life and atmosphere, the 
believer is ransomed and lives; 

(2) as made known by God to Christians in its universal 
power and as commensurate with the whole of Creation (i. 10, 21 : 
cf. Col. i. 20, Phil. ii. 9, 10); 

(3) in connexion with the gift of the Holy Spirit, whereby 
believers are 'sealed' (i. 13, iv. 30). 

Further : 

(4) in Eph. i. 7 ' the Apostle defines rrfv diroXvTptao-iv as rip/ 
d<p€o-iv rwv rrapairrutpdriav ' (Lightfoot on Col. i. 14). The past 
with its results is that which holds us in bondage. Not unlikely 
that some false interpretation of ' redemption ' as a deliverance 
from the fetters of physical law caused the Apostle to emphasise 
its moral nature. 

Atonement (Reconciliation). 

In earlier Epistles (1 Cor., 2 Cor., Rom.) the words KaraX- 
Xdo-o-fiv and KaraXXayrj are used in connexion with the death of 

'The reconciliation is always represented as made to the 
Father. The reconciler is sometimes the Father Himself (2 Cor. 
V. 18, 19 €K rov Otov rov KaraXXd£avros ijjtios cavT<3 81a XpioroS... 
6tb<> rpi kv XpioraS Kocrpov KaraXXao-auiv lavnp), sometimes the Son 
(Rom. v. 10, 11 : cf. Eph. ii. 16).' (Lightfoot on Col. i. 20.) 


' In the Colossian and Ephesian Epistles the double compound 
airo/caTaAAaercreij' is used... in place of the usual KaTa\\d<r<reiv. It 
may be compared with diroKardaracrvs, Acts iii. 21. — The word 
diroKaTaXkao-creit' corresponds to airrjXXoTpHOjiteVous . . . implying a 
restitution to a state from which they had fallen, or which was 
potentially theirs, or for which they were destined.' (id. ib.) 

As in Col. i. 19-22: 'For it was the good pleasure of the 
Father that in Him should all the fulness dwell, and through 
Him to reconcile (aVoKaraXAa^ai) all things unto Himself, having 
made peace (elprjvoTronja-a'i) through the blood of His cross ; 
through Him — whether things upon the earth or things in the 
heavens; — and you, though ye were once estranged, and enemies 
in your mind in (the midst of) your evil works ; yet now hath he 
reconciled (aTroKanjWa^ev : v.l. diroKaTqWdyrjTe) in the body of His 
flesh through death,' — so here in Eph. ii. 16, the reconciliation of 
humanity to God by the Cross is expressed in the words Kal 
aTTOKaTaWd^g . . .to> 6ea> Sta tov oravpoS, and Christ, Who thus 
Himself is our Peace (v. 14 avrbs ydp £<ttlv ij elpijvr) -qfx,Sv), and, 
after His victory, 'proclaimed peace' (v. 17) to all far and near, 
[is presented as] uniting and reconciling both Jew and Gentile in 
one body to God, abolishing the enmity, the twofold enmity, 
which the Fall had brought to men and the Law had fixed and 
revealed between themselves and towards God. 


' In Whom we have our redemption through His blood, the 
forgiveness of our trespasses' (rrjv a<pecriv t<Zv vapairTiofidrmv). 

The word a^eo-is occurs in the Pauline Epistles only here and 
in the parallel Col. i. 14 (t. acpeaiv t. apapTitov). 

The verb d<f>ievai in the sense of 'forgive' is not found in 
St Paul's writings except (Rom. iv. 7) in a quotation from lxx. 
Ps. xxxii. 1. 

But the verb x a P^ ecr ^ a ^ ' deal graciously with ' is used by 
St Paul in eight Epistles (1 Cor., 2 Cor., Gal., Rom., Phil., Col., 
Eph. and Philem.) and in some of these passages (as in Lk. vii. 
42 f.) ' forgiving ' is [the bounty] specially [intended], namely in 
2 Cor. ii. 7 wore rovvavriov ifias )(a.pura.(rf)cu, 10 a> Se ti xapt£ecr#e, 
Kayo) - Kal yap iyw o Ke^apicr/xoi, ft ti Kt^apurfiai, &i v/ iv irpoKrwmo 
XptcrToO, in Col. ii. 13 ^apia'a/twos r/fjiiv iravra ra Trapairnilfi.a.Ta., ib. 
iii. 13 xapi£o'/t€Voi tavTols.. KaOtiK Kal 6 /cupios i\apiiraTO i/xiv ovTtos 


km. vfiet<s ; and in this Epistle twice in the verse iv. 32 : 'Be ye 
kind one to another, tender-hearted, forgiving each other even as 
God also in Christ f6rgave (l^apiaaTo) you.' 

Grace (^apis). 

(a) The grace — the free and bounteous goodness — of God. 

' Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord 
Jesus Christ.' (i. 2.) 

'To the praise of the glory of His grace, which He freely 
bestowed upon us in the Beloved, in Whom we have our redemp- 
tion through His blood, forgiveness of our trespasses, according to 
the riches of His grace.' (i. 7.) 

' The exceeding riches of His grace.' (ii. 8.) 

'By grace have ye been saved' (ii. 5) — 'by grace — through 
faith' (v. 7). 

(6) Apostleship — a stewardship of the Grace of God. 
' The administration (stewardship) of the grace of God which 
was given me to you-ward." (iii. 2.) 

'The gift of the grace of God that was given to me.' (iii. 7.) 
' To me — was this grace given.' (v. 8.) 

(c) Specific grace given to each member of the Christian 

' But to each one of us was the grace given according to the 
measure of the gift of Christ.' (iv. 7.) 

' Grace be with all them that love the Lord Jesus Christ in 
incorruption.' (vi. 24.) 

That which is elsewhere a Divine prerogative is, however, 
once (in iv. 29) attributed to human speech : ' no corrupt speech 
. . .but whatever is good . . .that it may give grace to them that hear.' 

Peace (elp-qvyj). 

' Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord 
Jesus Christ' (i. 2) — 'Peace to the brethren — from God the 
Father and the Lord Jesus Christ' (vi. 23). 

Cf. Phil. iv. 7 'the peace of God,' CoL iii. 15 'the peace of 

The Divine gift of peace which (Jo. xiv. 27) the Lord in 
departing left behind as His bequest to His disciples (elprjvrjv 
d<pirjfii, tlpijvrjv ttjv iprjv Si'8a>/« vp.iv) — the realised confidence 
of faith and fellowship with God — attends the Church during the 
period of gradual revelation. 


'For He' — He Himself and no other — 'is our Peace' recon- 
ciling Jews and Gentiles in Himself — and both thus united in one 
body — to God (ii. 14). Thus 'making peace' (v. 15) He (v. 17) 
proclaimed 'Peace to all.' 

' In preparedness of ' this ' Gospel of Peace ' Christian warriors 
will stand, (vi. 15.) 

'To keep the unity of the spirit in the bond of peace.' (iv. 3.) 
Righteousness (SiKaiotrvvr)). 

The fulfilment of duties to others. 

' The new man which has been created after God in righteous- 
ness and holiness of the truth.' (iv. 24.) 

' For the fruit of light is — is shewn — in all goodness and right- 
eousness and truth.' (v. 9.) Cf. Is. xi. 5, xxxii. 17. 

'The breastplate of righteousness' (vi. 14) — righteousness, 
which guards the heart. 

So Isaiah lix. 17 'And he put on righteousness as a breast- 
plate ' and Wisd. v. 19' He shall put on righteousness (as) a 
breastplate ' {ivSvatrat Oiopaxa SucaioiTvvrjv). 

Truth (dXrjdeia). 

(a) ' The word — the message — of the truth — the Gospel of 
your salvation.' (i. 13.) 

For tov Xoyov ttjs aA.i/6Vas cf. 2 Tim. ii. 15. 

(6) ' The new man, which hath been created after God in 
righteousness and holiness of the truth.' (iv. 24.) 

(c) ' Wherefore putting away falsehood (to i/reBSos) speak ye 
truth each one with his neighbour.' (iv. 25.) 

, From Zech. viii. 16 sq. \a\elrt d\r)0€iav Ikokttos irpb's rbv 
■rrkr]<riov avrov, dXrjOeiav Kal Kpi/JLa elprjviKOV Kpivare iv rats TruXats 
ifiuiv, Kal exaaros Tijv Kaxiav tow TrXrjtriov aurov p.rj A.oyi£eo"#« Iv Tats 
KapStais vpuiv, Kal opKOV {j/evSrj p.r) aycwraVe. 

(d) ' For the fruit of light is — is shewn — in all — in every 
form of — goodness and righteousness and truth.' (v. 9.) 

In Phil. i. 11 Kapirov StKatoo-uVr/s (cf. Amos vi. 12, Prov. xi. 30, 
Ja. iii. 18 Kap7ros Se SiKaioo-w»/s iv tlpyvri a-Kziperai tois iroiowtv 
eip-qvqv), 'righteousness in Christ [is regarded as] in its very 
nature fruitful : it is indeed the condition of bearing fruit ' 
(Lightfoot ad loc.) 

(e) ' Stand ye therefore, — having girded your loins with truth ' 
(vi. 14) : truth — sincerity — the stay of the Christian character. 


Revelation (awoKaXvij/i';). 

'a spirit of wisdom and revelation' (i. 17). 
' by revelation was made known unto me the mystery ' (iii. 2). 
' as now it was revealed (arreKaXvtpOri) unto His holy apostles 
and prophets ' (iii. 5). 

Knowledge and Wisdom. 

The importance of Knowledge and Wisdom appears from the 
passages of the Epistle in which one or more of the words yiwis, 
iiriyvoxTis [v. note on i. 17], <ro<f>la, <j>p6vrjcris, or corresponding 
verbs or adjectives occur. 

In addition to, and through the accomplishment of, his office 
of evangelising the Gentiles it was given to St Paul ' to bring to 
light what is the dispensation of the mystery which from all ages 
has been hid in God Who created all things — hid, I say, to the 
intent that now to the principalities and the powers in the 
heavenly order may be made known (yvwpio-Oy) through the Church 
the manifold wisdom (17 iroXviroiKiXos <ro<j>wi) of God' (iii. 9 f.). 

And his thanksgiving (i. 16) for the faith of the readers of 
the Epistle is combined with prayer ' that the God of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give unto you a spirit of 
wisdom and revelation in knowledge (e7rtyvtocr€i) of Him' (i. 17). 

'Eirtyi/fcxris recurs iv. 13: * till we all attain unto the unity of 
the faith and of the knowledge of the Son of God' (v. inf. s.v. Faith). 

' In all wisdom and prudence ' (i. 8) is the phrase (parallel to 
Col. i. 9 iv iraxry <ro<f>ia k. (rvvccei irviv/naTLKrj) describing the manner 
in which the grace of God was manifested in those on whom it 
was bestowed. Wisdom deals with principles : prudence with 
action. Through these gifts believers are enabled to trace (a) the 
connexion between successive revelations which He made 'by 
divers portions and in divers manners,' all leading up to the final 
revelation in His Son, (/3) the complete and harmonious fulfilment 
of His earthly work in His Birth, Death, Resurrection, and 
Ascension, followed by the descent of the Holy Spirit, (y) the 
signs of God's counsel in the training of ' the nations ' and in the 
slow realisation of manifold lessons of the Gospel in post-Christian 
history. $>p6vt)<ri<; occurs in N.T. only here and Lk. i. 17; but 
<j>p6vi/j.os frequently, viz. (a) in Pauline Epistles : 1 Cor. iv. 10, 
x. 15, 2 Cor. xi. 19, Rom. xi. 25, xii. 16; (b) in Synoptic Gospels, 
Mt. vii. 24, x. 16, xxii. 45, xxv. 2, 4, 8, 9, Lk. xii. 42, xvi. 8. 


While in i. 16 ff. the Apostle's prayer began with the thought 
of personal enlightenment, his prayer in iii. i6ff. begins with the 
thought of personal strengthening, but a strengthening which 
shall issue in fuller knowledge (iii. 18 f.) 'that ye may be strong 
to apprehend (KaTaXaj8«r0ai) with all the saints what is the breadth 
and length and height and depth, to know (yviorai) the love of 
Christ which passeth knowledge, that ye may be filled with all 
the fulness of God.' [rvwcrcs here only in Eph.; Col. ii. 3, Phil. iii. 8.] 

The other passages are : 

v. 15 : 'Look therefore carefully how ye walk, not as unwise, 
but as wise (o-o'<£oi).' 

v. 1 7 : ' For this reason be not foolish, but understand (owiert) 
what the will of the Lord is.' 

vi. 8 f. : 'Knowing (ctSores) that whatever good thing each man 
doeth, that shall he receive again from the Lord.' 

' Knowing that their Master and yours is in heaven.' 
[See Additional Note on ' Intellectual claims and gifts of the Gospel.'] 

Faith (irtoTis). 

(a) ' The faith which is among you (ko.6' u/iSs) in (i.e. grounded 
and resting in) the Lord Jesus.' (i. 15.) 

(6) 'The faith shewn to all the saints' (ib.) — the practical 
expression of (a). 

(c) 'Saved through faith (Sid Tnoraos) — by God's grace (rrj 
Xapn-i) — not of yourselves — not of works.' (ii. 8.) 

(d) ' Freedom of address and access to God through our faith 
in Christ (Sid rijs irun-cws avrov).' (iii. 12.) 

(e) ' That Christ through faith (Sua. rrjs n-ioreus) may dwell in 
your hearts.' (iii. 17.) 

(/) ' One faith ' (fua n-ums) — in its objective sense, (iv. 5.) 
(g) ' The unity of the faith (tjjv ewmjra t^s irto-Teois) and of 

the knowledge (k. rijs en-iyi/too-cois) of the Son of God ' — the Son of 

God being the object of both — faith and knowledge, (iv. 13.) 
Faith is a principle of knowledge. The special object of Faith 

is a Divine Person made known to men and recognised by them. 
(h) 'The shield of faith' (t. 0vptbv t^s 7r«rr«os). (vi. 16.) 
(i) ' Peace to the brethren and love with faith ' — faith being 

the condition of appropriating God's gifts of peace and love. (vi. 23.) 

W. EPH. • IO 


Hope (IXttis). 

'The hope of His calling' — the hope — kindled and sustained in 
us by the fact that God has called us to His presence — the call 
being a Divine invitation, (i. 18.) 

' Even as also ye were called in one hope of your calling ' — the 
hope being [here] coincident with the calling, (iv. 4.) 

'Apart from Christ — strangers to the covenants of the promise 
— having no hope (i\mSa ixvj exovrcs) and without God in the 
world' — face to face with the problems of nature and life, but 
without Him in "Whose wisdom and righteousness and love they 
could find rest and hope. 

Love (dyaTrrj). 

(a) ' God — for His great love (Sia rrjv iroWrjv dydmjv avrov) 
wherewith He loved us — quickened us.' (ii. 4.) 

(b) ' And to know the love of Christ which passeth knowledge ' 
— " including both His love for the Church and for the believer." 
(iii. 19.) 

(c) ' Peace be unto the brethren and love with faith from 
God the Father and Lord Jesus Christ' — peace and love being 
God's gifts and faith the condition of appropriating them, 
(vi. 23.) 

(d) 'Be ye — imitators of God, as beloved children, and walk 
in love, even as Christ also loved you' (v. 1, 2)— the love of 
Christians answering to the love of Christ : cf. Jo. xiii. 34 
ivroXrjv leaivrjv 8iS(o/u.i vfuv, iva dyairare aWi^Xovs, Ka0<os yydirr)<Ta 
u/u,as, Iva Kal v/Atis dyairare dAAiJ\ous (and xv. 12, and 1 Jo. 
iii. 16 sq.). 

(e) ' That we should be holy and without blemish before Him 
in love ' — love, which they have appropriated as God's great gift. 

(/) ' Forbearing one another in love.' (iv. 2.) 

(g) ' Living the truth in love ' (veritatem facientes) : ' Christ 
— from Whom all the Body, fitly framed and knit together, 
through every contact, according to the effective working of that 
which is supplied in due measure by each several part, maketh for 
itself the growth of the Body, unto the building up of itself in 
love.' (iv. 15, 16.) 

Truth and Love (2 Jo. 3) describe an intellectual harmony 


and a moral harmony ; and the two correspond with each, other 
according to their subject-matter. 

Love is truth in human action ; and truth is love in regard to 
the order of things. 

(h) ' Rooted and grounded in love.' Love— the source of 
growth and the stay of endurance. 

Light (<pm). 

(«) ' For ye were once darkness (o-kotos), but now are light 
(<p<as) in the Lord (ev Kvpiio) — light in fellowship with Him, Who 
is the Light of the World.' (v. 8.) Cf. v. 14, iirupavo-ti <roi 6 

' Walk as children of light.' (ib.) 

' For the fruit of light is in all goodness and righteousness and 
truth.' (v. 9.) 

On the other hand, ' with the unfruitful works of darkness ' 
the Christians must 'have no fellowship.' (v. 11.) 

Darkness perishes in the presence of light : 

' All things, when they are shewn in their true nature by the 
light are made manifest : — for everything which is made manifest 
is light (<f><5<s eoriv).' (v. 13.) 

(b) ' Having the eyes of your heart enlightened (7re(£«imo-- 

(JLCVOVS).' (i. 18.) 

(c) In addition to preaching the Gospel to the Gentiles, 
St Paul was called ' to bring to light (^>omo-ai) what is the 
dispensation of the mystery which from all ages hath been hid 
in God.' (iii. 9.) 

Life {t,wri). 

' Alienated from the life of God (1-175 t,<n/!js tov Oeov) —that life 
which answers to the nature of God and which He communicates 
to His children, (iv. 18.) 

' But God — even when we were dead through our trespasses 
quickened us together with (a-vve^oxnroirja-e) the Christ.' (ii. 5, 6.) 

The word Odvaros, ' death,' is not found in the Epistle. But 
vexpovs t. Trapa.TTTtaixa.o-iv occurs ii. 1, 5 (v. supr.) : while Ik veKpwv 
occurs i. 20, and ck t<3v v«cp<3v (v. 14) in the Hymn ' Awake, thou 
that sleepest, and arise from the dead.' 

Of the future resurrection of men nothing is [directly] said in 
the Epistle. 



Good Works. 

' For it is His workmanship we are, created in Christ Jesus 
for good works (iirl epyois ayaflois) which God afore prepared that 
in them we should walk.' (ii. 10.) 

In Gal. v. 22, 23 'love, joy, peace, longsuffering, kindness, 
goodness, faithfulness (irums), meekness, temperance ' are as 
'fruit of the Spirit' contrasted with 'the works of the flesh.' 

Here in Ephesians 'the fruit of light,' in contrast with 'the 
fruitless works of darkness' (v. 10), is said to be shewn 'in all 
goodness and righteousness and truth' (v. 9) — a classification of 
moral duties marking our obligation to self, our neighbour, God ; 
while in another place (iv. 2) humility (raireivocppoa-vvr]), meekness 
(7rpai5Tijs), and longsuffering (fia.Kpo6viJ.ia.) are named as graces, 
which Christians are bound to cultivate, ' forbearing one another 
in love ' and living 'in the bond of peace.' Kindness (xpjyoroTiys), 
joined with these in Col. iii. 1 z, stands in Ephesians (ii. 7) as a 
Divine attribute. But in iv. 32 St Paul speaks of the duty of 
Christians to be to one another kind (xp-qo-Toi) and tender-hearted 
(flJorrXayxvoi), and thus (v. 1) 'imitators of God.' 

Thanksgiving (euxapio-ua). 

' But rather giving of thanks ' (v. 4) — our duty — recognising 
the signs of God's love in every good thing. 

' Giving thanks (evxapio-TovvTes) always for all things in the 
name of our Lord Jesus Christ to our God and Father.' (v. 20.) 

So St Paul's opening Hymn of Praise (i. 3 — 14) is followed by 
thanksgiving for the faith of the Ephesians : — 

' For this cause I also, having heard of the faith which is 
among you in the Lord Jesus, and which ye shew toward all the 
saints, cease not to give thanks for you.' 

Prayer (irpoo-evxy)- 

(a) ' In all prayer (irpoo-evxijs) and supplication (SeijVews), 
praying (Trpoa-eu^ofievoi) at every season in spirit ' — not in form or 
in word only, but in that part of our being through which we hold 
communion with God — and also ' watching thereunto (eis awro- 
dypwrvovvres) in all perseverance and supplication for all the 

(6) So at i. 16 in the Epistle — after thanksgiving Prayer: — 
' making mention (of you) in my prayers (tVl rmv ■n-pocrevxtov p.ov)~ 


The Church. 

(a) ' And He gave Him to be Head over all things to the 
Church, which is His body, the fulness of Him Who reaches His 
fulness through all things in all.' (i. 22 f.) 

(6) ' That now to the principalities and the powers in the 
heavenly order may be made known through the Church the 
manifold wisdom of God.' (iii. 10.) 

(c) ' To Him be the glory in the Church and in Christ Jesus 
unto all the generations of the age of the ages.' (iii. 21.) 

(d) 'For a husband is head of the wife, as Christ also is 
Head of the Church, being Himself Saviour of the body. But as 
the Church is subject to Christ, so let the wives be to their 
husbands in everything. Husbands, love your wives even as 

Christ also loved the Church and gave Himself up for it; that 

He might present the Church to Himself a glorious Church, not 
having spot or wrinkle or any such thing ' (v. 23 — 27.) 

Cf. v. 29, 'nourisheth and cherisheth it, even as Christ the 

' But I speak looking to Christ and to the Church.' (v. 32.) 

The Communion of Saints. 

' That we should be holy (ayiovs) and without blemish before 
Him in love.' (i. 4.) 

' The faith which is among you in the Lord Jesus and which 
ye shew to all the saints.' (i. 15.) 

'But ye are fellow-citizens (o-u/*iroXiTai) with the saints.' (ii. 19.) 

' Which in other generations was not made known unto the 
sons of men as now it was revealed unto His holy apostles and 
prophets in the Spirit — that the Gentiles are fellow-partakers 
of the promise in Christ Jesus.' (iii. 5.) 

' That being rooted and grounded in love ye may be strong 
enough to apprehend with all the saints what is the breadth ' 

(iii. 17 f.) 

' With a view to the perfecting of the saints for a work of 
ministry.' (iv. 12.) 

' Watching thereunto in all perseverance and supplication for 
all the saints.' (vi. 18.) 


Christian Sacraments — 

' One Lord, one Faith, one Baptism ' (iv /Janrioyia). (iv. 5.) 

' That He might sanctify it (the Church), having cleansed it 
by the bath of water accompanied by a confession of faith (' with 
a word': iv p^fian).' (v. 26.) 

The pfjit-a — the Baptismal Confession — was, there can be little 
doubt, the simple creed that 'Jesus is Lord' (Rom. x. 9 lav 
o/toXoyijtrijs to prjfia iv To5 UTOfiari aov on xvptos 'IijcroiJs). 

' Detrahe verbum et quid est aqua nisi aqua ? Accedit verbum 
ad elementum et fit sacramentum.' (Aug. in Joh. Ixxx. 3, on 
John xv. 3.) 

[v. Add. Note on ' The Sacrament of Baptism.'] 
Holy Communion. 

To the Sacrament of Holy Communion there is no reference in 
the Epistle. 

The Christian Ministry. 

Mention is made (in iv. 11) of (a) 'apostles,' (6) 'prophets,' 
(c) 'evangelists,' (oT) 'pastors and teachers.' 

But, while there is thus evidence of specialisation of functions, 
there is no sign in the Epistle of the existence of any outward 
organisation or ecclesiastical hierarchy. 

[See Additional Notes on 

'The Christian Society and the Apostolic Ministry.' 
' The Church in the Epistle to the Ephesians.' 
' Prophets of the New Covenant.'] 



On the expression to, tTrovpavia. 

'Evepyeia and ivtpytiv in the N. T. 

Wisdom and Revelation. 

Intellectual claims and gifts of the Gospel. 

The Sacrament of Baptism. 

On 'Sin' in the Pauline Epistles. 

The Fall of Man. 

The Kingdom of God, — Kingdom of Christ. 

The Christian Society, and the Apostolic Ministry. 

' The Church ' in the Epistle to the Ephesians. 

Use of the word a7ro/«xA.ui/ri? in the N. T. 

On the use of the term p.vcrT-ijpiov in the N. T. 

On the phrases iv XpicrraS, ev XpicrTuJ 'Irjo-ov, ev tu> xpioroi. 

The expression to. 7raVra. 

'H 8d£a in the Epistle to the Ephesians. 

Words in the N. T. denoting Resurrection or Raising from 

Death : eyetpeiv, dv<x<rr!jvai, aVao-rao'is. 
On the meaning of Kvfiela (Eph. iv. 14). 
Spiritual Powers. 

Use of Kara c. ace. in the Epistle to the Ephesians. 
Use of the phrase ev vapid. 
Prophets of the New Covenant. 
Ruskin on Eph. iv. 17 and on Conflict with Evil. 
'The world, the flesh, and the devil.' 
Use of the Old Testament in the Epistle. 


On the expression rd ivovpavia. 

The adjective hcovpdvios [apart from the particular phrase to 
(■rrovpdvia] is used 

(a) by St Paul: 

i Cor. xv. 40. ' celestial bodies.' 

48. 'the heavenly (man) the heavenly (men).' 


49. ' the likeness of the heavenly (man).' 

Phil. ii. 10. 'of things in the heaven (eVovpavtW) and on the 
earth and under the earth.' )( iiriytiutv and Kara^ovuav. 

2 Tim. iv. 18. k. (Tuxrti eis rrjv ficurikctav avrov rrjv iirovpaviov. 

(/8) by other writers of the N. T. ; 

Mt. xviii. 35. A v. 1. for ovpdvios. 
Heb. iii. 1. icAi/trews iirovpaviov. 

vi. 4. T. Stupeas t. iirovpaviov. 

xi. 16. (cpetTTovos (sc. iraTpt'Sos) . . .tovt Iotiv iwovpaviov. 

xii. 22. lipovcrah^p. ivovpaviuf. 

The phrase ra iiravpavia is used 

(o) by St Paul : in the Epistle to the Ephesians only, viz. 

Eph. i. 3. 6 tvkoyri<ra.s i?/iSs — iv t. iTrovpavioK. 

20. k. KaSiaas iv Sc^ta avrov iv r. eir. 

ii. 6. (Tvvrjytiptv k. &vvcKa8i<TCv iv T. or. 

iii. IO. yviopurOf] — T. apyaw n. t. e£ov(ri(us ev T. iir. 

vi. 1 2. wpos Tot irvevpiaTiKa. t. nwiypias iv t. iw. 

(ft) in the Epistle to the Hebrews : 

viii. 5. inroStiy/xan k. ctkiR — t. iwovpaviiav. 
ix. 23. avra — to iirovpdvia. 

(y) once by St John : Jo. iii. 1 2. iav tlirm to i-r ovpavia. 

The adj. oipavtos is used only by St Matthew and St Luke. 
Mt. v. 48. 

vi. 14, 26, 32. 

xv. 13. J- In every case with o iranjp (fiov v. v/uaSv). 

xviii. 35. I 

xxiii. 9. I 

Lk. ii. 13. w\)}0os orpanSs oipaviov. 
Acts xxv. 19. tjJ ovpavim oirratna. 


The phrase ev oipavoh or iv (once eVi) tois oipavols is used 

(a) by St Paul in 

2 Cor. v. I. auoviov iv t. ovpavols. 

Phil. iii. 20. rjjjiiov — to TrokCTev/xa iv ovpavois virdp^ei. 

Col. 1. 5. 81a t. oWi'Sa t. diroKei/xiv-qv £/up eV tois oupavois. 

1 6. to. ev tois ovpavois k. to. eirl t. yijs. 

20. eire to. «7ri t. yijs eiTe Ta ev tow ovpavois. 

Eph. i. 10. to iiri tois oipavois k. ra eVi t^s yiys. 

ill. 15- iv ovpavois koL iirl yfj<s. 

vi. 9. k. avriav n. v/xmv 6 Kvptos eoriv iv ovpavois. 

(b) by St Peter : 1 Pet. i. 4. 

„ the author of ' Hebrews ' : viii. 1, ix. 23, xii. 23. 

„ St Matthew and »S< Mark, passim : they also use the sing. 

iv (t<3) oipavw. 
,, St Luke once only (x. 20) : iypd\pij iv t. ovpavols. 

In the Apocalypse and in the Gospel of St John only the 
lar is found. 

The general idea of the phrase — which is not found in the 
lxx. — is that of ' the heavenly order,' the scene of the spiritual 
life with the realities which belong to it. 

In Hebr. ix. 23 the phrase avra ra iirovpdvia expresses those 
things, answering to the sanctuary with all its furniture, which 
have, their proper sphere in the heavenly order ; while at viii. 5 
it means the realities of heaven generally, of which the Taber- 
nacle presented the ideas in figures — copy and shadow. 

By faith to. iirovpdvia are in one sense realised on earth. 
to 17/ieVepa (says Theophylact, following Chrysostom) iirovpdvia ■ 
orav yap /Jir/Biv iiriyeiov, aWa. irdvra Trvtv/xariKa. iv tois p.vorriptois 

k.t.X. orav 17/xoiv to irokirevp.a iv ovpavois virdp^fi, irais ovk 

iirovpdvia Ta nad' rj/xas; 

So Primasius : caelestia, id est spiritalia quae in veritate vnodo 
in ecclesia celebrantur. 

In Jo. iii. 1 2, to. iirovpdvia is used of the ' heavenly ' in con- 
trast with the ' earthly ' elements of the Lord's teaching — of those 
truths which belong to the higher order — which are in heaven and 
are brought down thence to earth as they can become to men. 

As used in Ephesians, the phrase is peculiar to the Epistle 
(cf., however, 6 iirovpdvios, sc. dvOpmiros, of 1 Cor. xv. 48 f.), and 
describes the supra-mundane, supra-sensual, eternal order — ' the 


spiritual world ' generally, and not, as elsewhere, something which 
belongs to the spiritual order. 

On the other hand, 'the metaphor of the heavenly citizenship' 
(Lightfoot on Phil. i. 27) occurs once in the Epistle to the 
Ephesians (ii. 19, o-u/ihtoXitoi t. a'yiW) and twice in the Epistle to 
the Philippians, i. 27, iro\iTfv€<T0e d£iu>s tov evayye\iov tov y^punov 
(cf. Polyc. § 5), and iii. 20, where, after telling us that 'our 
citizenship is even now (virdpxti) in heaven ' — ' for the Kingdom 
of Heaven is a present Kingdom ' (Lightfoot ad loc.) — St Paul 
goes on to say, ' from heaven hereafter we look in patient hope 
(aTreKSexofieOa) for a deliverer' (id.) — 'even the Lord Jesus Christ, 
who shall change the fashion of this body of our humiliation to be 
conformable to (o-v/j.ixop<f>ov) — "take the abiding form of" — the 
body of His glory : " for such is the working of the mighty 
power whereby He is able to subdue all things alike unto Him- 
self" (id. ib.). 

This universal sovereignty of the Lord Jesus Christ is again 
dwelt upon, in the same Epistle, at ii. 10, Iva Iv t<3 ovo/nan 'Irjo-ov 
wai/ yovv ku'/ui/'ij iirovpavi<av Kal itriytLiav Kal KaTa^Bovimv (cf. Ignat. 
Trail. § 9, jiXeirovTtav tup iirovpavimv k. £7riy£«ov k. viroyOovitav, and 
Polyc. Phil. § 2, <3 vTcrdyr] to, irdvTa, iirovpdvia Kal iiriyeia), where 
eirovpivia, as contrasted with iirlytia and Kara)(0ovia, is (ace. to 
Lightfoot) not to be explained of one of three ' different classes of 
intelligent beings ' (e.g. of ' angels ') — ' limitation to intelligent 
beings is not required by the expression ' — but rather of ' all 
created things in heaven' (Lightfoot, Philippians, p. noi). 

Man's life is partly on earth, partly in the ' heavenly ' realm. 

There is one life which finds expression in many forms, but 
that life is greater, deeper than all. 

This vast life, which reaches through all time, is in its nature 
beyond time. 

In itself the spiritual life — of which the Communion of Saints 
is the foretaste — belongs to another order. 

Yet — eternal life is here. Our blessings and our struggles lie 
now ' in the heavenly realms ' (iv tois iirovpavtois). 

The power by which we grasp the unseen — the eternal — is 


evepyeia and evepyeiv in the N.T. 

In the New Testament ivepyeia and ivepyeiv are characteristically 
used of moral and spiritual working, whether Divine (Eph. i. 19, iii. 7, 
Col. i. 29, ii. 12, Phil. iii. 21) or Satanic (2 Th. ii. 9, n). 

(a) Usage of St Paul. 

1 Th. ii. 13. Aoyov 6tov, os Kai ivepyeirai iv v/uv tow tn- 

2 Th. ii. 7. to yap fi.vcmjpi.ov iji)^ ivepyeiTai rijs avo/uas. 

9. ov icrriv ~q irapovaia Kar ivipyeiav tov crajava. 
II. iripvirn avTOis o Oeos ivipyeiav irXavijs. 
I Cor. xii. 6. ko.1 Siaipecreis ivepyy)p.dTu>v elo~iv, 6 Bk avVos Oeos 6 
ivepyuiv ra iravTa iv irao-iv. (Cf. V, 10 a\Aa> Se ivepytffiaTa 8vvafieu>v.) 

1 Cor. xii. II. iraWa Se TaOVa ivepyei to iv Kai to avTO iri/eSjua. 

2 Cor. i. 6. virip t^s v/uSf irapaK\iyo"e<os r^s ivepyovfuevrjs ev 
vwo/aovq twv avrwv ira6r]fW.Tu>v. 

2 Cor. iv. 12. wort o #aVaTos tv i;/ui> ivepyivrat, 17 he £0)17 eV 


Gal. ii. 8. o yap eVepyifo-as IleTpa) eis a7roo-To\i)v Trjs Trepnofx.rj's 
ivqpyrjcrtv i/nol eis to Wvq. 

Gal. iii. 5. 6 ovv iiri)(opriyijiv vp,iv to TrvtVfia ko.1 ivepy&v Swa/ieis 
iv v/iiv. 

Gal. v. 6. TriOTts 81" aydVijs ivepyov/xevrj. 

Rom. vii. 5. to! Tra8yp.aTa tiSv dfiapniov Ta Sid tov vo/aov 
ivrjpyeiTo iv Tots fxeketriv ■ 

Phil. ii. 13. 6 6eos — 6 evepywr iv ip.iv Kai to dikeiv Kai to 
evepyeiv virip t^s ev&OKias. 

Phil. iii. 21. Kara tijv ivipyeiav tov Svvao-6ai avrov Kai virora£ai 
avrui Ta iravTa, 

Col. i. 29. Ka/ra Trjv ivipyeiav avrov rtjv evepyovjxevrjv iv i/noi iv 

Col. ii. 12. Sia tiJs wiOTtais T17S ivepyeias tov Oeov tov iyeipavros 
avrov e« vexpdiv. 

Eph. i. II. tov Ta Trdvra ivepyovvTOS KaTa rrjv fSovkrjv tov 
6eX.7]/j.aTOi avrov. 

Eph. i. 19 f. KaTa rrjv ivipyeiav tov /cpaTOVs tijs io-^vos avTov, 
17V ivqpynjKev iv tu XpioTai eytipas avVoV ck vexpcuv. 

Eph. ii. 2. tov 7rvev/xaTos tov vvV cVepyovVTOS iv tois viois njs 


Eph. iii. 7- Kara t^v evipyeiav rrjs owd/tews. 

20. Kara rvjv Swa/uv riqv b>ipyovp.ivyjv hi Tjp.iv. 
iv. 16. rfj<i tw i\ofyr)y Ca% kcit Ivipyuav. 

(/8) Use in non-Pauline Books. 

Ja. v. 16. Sinj(TK Sixaiov ivepyovfitvrj. 

Mt. xiv. 2. ai Svvdfieis ivtpyovaiv iv avrdt. \\ Mk. vi. 14. 

According to Lightfoot (on Gal. v. 6) ivepyturOai 'is never 
passive in St Paul,' but 'the Spirit of God or the spirit of evil 
ivepyel ; the human agent or the human mind kvtpydrat ' (middle). 

The adjective evepy^s occurs 1 Cor. xvi. 6, Philem. 6, and 
Hebr. iv. 12. 

Divine working is denoted in 

1 Th. ii. 13. 'Ye accepted it not as the word of men, but, as 
it is in truth, the word of God, which also worketh in you that 

1 Cor. xii. 6. ' And there are diversities of workings (lve.pyr)- 
/iarfov), but the same God, who worketh (6 Ivipymv) all things in 
all.' (Cf. v. 10 ' workings of miracles.') 

ib. v. 11. ' But all these worketh the one and the same Spirit, 
dividing to each one severally even as He will.' 

2 Cor. i. 6. ' Or whether we be comforted, it is for your 
comfort, which worketh (evtpytiTai) in the patient enduring of the 
same sufferings which we also suffer.' 

Gal. ii. 8. ' For He that wrought for Peter (6 ivepyy<ras 
IlcVpa)) unto the apostleship of the circumcision wrought for me 
also unto the Gentiles.' 

Gal. iii. 5. ' He that supplieth to you the Spirit and worketh 
miracles among you.' 

Phil. ii. 13. 'God it is Who "worketh in you both to will 
and to work " in fulfilment of His good pleasure ' (' His benevolent 
purpose,' Lightfoot, q.v.) : 

where 'the 6i\eiv and the ivipyilv correspond respectively to 
the "gratia praeveniens" and the "gratia cooperans" of a later 
theology ' (Lightfoot ad loc). 

Phil. iii. 2 1. ' According to the working (i.e. by ' the exercise 
of the power,' Lightfoot ad loc.) whereby He is able also to 
subject all things unto Himself: 

where, as in 'Eph. i. 19 rijv ivipytiav tov Kparous rrjs io-\voi 


auToB [and iii. 7 vrjv tvlpytiav r>}s Svva/xcws outoC], the expression 
tiJv evepyeiav tov Swao-flai involves the common antithesis of owa/u? 
and ivepyeta ' (Lightfoot ad toe). 

Col. ii. 12. 'Through your faith in the working (tiJs evepyeias) 
of God, Who raised Him from the dead.' 

Eph. i. 1 1. 'Of Him, "Who worketh all things after the counsel 
of His Will': 

where the verb ivepytlv brings out the idea of the personal 
power which is operative rather than the result produced. 

ib. v. 19. 'According to the working of the might of His 

Eph. iii. 7. 'Whereof I became a minister according to the 
working of His power.' 

ib. v. 20. ' According to the power that worketh in us.' 

[where, as in Col. i. 29, 1 Th. ii. 13, and Gal. v. 6, the middle ivepyov/iivriv 
is used, apparently because there is a human agent transmitting the Divine 

On the other hand Satanic working is denoted in 

2 Th. ii. 7. 'For the mystery of lawlessness doth already 

ib. v. 9. ' Whose coming is according to the working of Satan 
with all power and signs and wonders of falsehood.' Cf. v. 11. 

Eph. ii. 2. 'Of the spirit that now worketh in the sons of 

Of the Ephesian passages [the first (i. 11) recalls] 1 Cor. xii. 
6, 11 (v. supr.); [the next (i. 19) refers to] the active exercise of 
the power of God in the exaltation of Christ, [a third (iii. 7) 
shews how] the continuous working of His Power in the Apostle 
was a determining condition of his ministry, [another (iii. 20) 
tells us] that His power working in believers generally is the 
measure of that which He does. In ii. 2 the Ephesians [are 
reminded that] resisting the Will of God lays 'the sons of dis- 
obedience ' open to the working of a personal power of evil. [For 
the meaning of kixt htepydav in iv. 16, v. note ad loc.\ 


Wisdom and Revelation (Eph. i. 17). 

' These Ephesian Christians had already received Divine illumina- 
tion, or they would not have been Christians at all ; but Paul prayed 
that the Divine Spirit who dwelt in them would make their vision 
clearer, keener, stronger, that the Divine power and love and greatness 
might be revealed to them far more fully. And perhaps in these days 
in' which men are making such rapid discoveries in inferior provinces 
of thought, discoveries so fascinating and so exciting as to rival in 
interest, even for Christian men, the manifestation of God in Christ, 
there is exceptional need for the Church to pray that God would grant 
it "a spirit of wisdom and revelation"; if He were to answer that 
prayer, we should no longer be dazzled by the knowledge which relates 
to " things seen and temporal," it would be outshone by the tran- 
scendent glory of "things unseen and eternal."' 

(Dale : The Epistle to the Ephesians : Its Doctrine 

and Ethics, p. 133.) 

' By the inspiration which was granted to Jewish prophets they 
saw in the history of their nation — as their uninspired contemporaries 
did not see — the Divine laws which the history illustrated. 

The inspiration which was granted to apostles enabled them to 
discover what was already contained in the life, teaching, death and 
resurrection of the Lord Jesus Christ. Special revelations were given 

to them : but the main substance of what they 

knew about God and the Divine method of human redemption they 
discovered in the history and teaching of Christ. Their inspiration 
enabled them to see what that revelation of God really meant. . . . 
The great revelation was made in Christ; the inspiration of the 
apostles enabled them to see the truths and laws which the revelation 

And so the "spirit of wisdom" may also be called the "spirit of 
revelation"; for until the spirit of wisdom is given, the revelation is 
unintelligible. It becomes an actual revelation when it is understood. 

To the apostles inspiration was given in an exceptional measure. 
They were appointed by the Lord Jesus Christ to lay the foundations 
of the Christian Church. They had authority to teach all nations in 


His name. Later ages were to learn His mind from their lips . . . 

But in kind the inspiration of the apostles was the same as that which 
St Paul prayed might be granted to the Christians at Ephesus, the 
same as that which we ourselves may hope to receive from God.' 

(id. ib. pp. 135 ff.) 

'Perhaps the safest description of the gift which is promised to 
all Christians is that which is contained in the text. It is the " spirit 
of wisdom." It is not a blind impulse, resulting in a conviction having 
no intelligible grounds ; it is not an impression having nothing to 
justify it except the obstinacy with which we hold to it. When the 
Spirit of God illuminates the mind, we see the meaning of what Christ 
said and of what Christ did. We simply find what was in the 
Christian revelation from the beginning.' 

(id. ib. p. 142.) 

' If I am asked how we are to distinguish between what is revealed 
to us by the Spirit of God and what we discover by the energy and 
penetration of our own thought, I can only reply that the question 
seems to me to rest on a misconception of the nature of spiritual 
illumination. The " wisdom " which the Spirit grants us is not a 
" wisdom " separable from the ordinary activity and discernment of 
our own minds ; it is not something alien to our own higher life ; it 
becomes our own wisdom, just as the vision which Christ miraculously 
restored to blind men was not something foreign to them, but their 
own. They saw what before they had only handled, and the nobler 
sense revealed to them what the inferior sense could not make known ; 
they saw for themselves what they had only heard of from others. 
The reality of the supernatural work was ascertained by the new 
discoveries it enabled them to make of the world in which they were 
living. Analogous effects follow the illumination of the Holy Spirit. 
When the "spirit of wisdom and revelation" is granted to us, "the eyes" 
of our heart, to use Paul's phrase in the next verse, ai-e " enlightened " 
— our own eyes, — and we see the glory of God.' 

(id. ib. p. 142 f.) 


Intellectual claims and gifts of the Gospel. 

In i Cor. ii. — the main Pauline passage — St Paul has spoken of a 
' wisdom — not of this world (ov tov alwvo's tovtov) nor of the rulers of 
this world' (v. 6) — a wisdom 'that hath been hidden' — 'God's 
wisdom' which 'we speak — in a mystery' — wisdom 'which God pre- 
ordained before the world unto our glory ' (v. 7). For ' unto us God 
through the Spirit revealed — even the deep things of God' (v. 11) — 
things ' which eye saw not, and ear heard not (Is. lxiv. 4) and which 
came not up into man's heart ' (v. 9) — things which ' God prepared 
for them that love Him.' 

'Through the Spirit.' For 'the Spirit searcheth (ipawa) all 
things ' : and as none ' knoweth the things of a man, save the spirit 
of the man which is in him, so none knoweth the things of God 
save the Spirit of God' (v. 10) Now 'we, that we may know the 
things freely given us by God,' have received — not the spirit of the 
world (tov Koo-ft-ov), but — the Spirit which is from God (to Trvevfia to 
in tov deov). Now a * natwral man ' (i/ru^ncds avOpanros) receiveth not 
the things of the Spirit of God — they are foolishness to him — he 
cannot know them — because they are judged spiritually. But the 
spiritual man (6 wi>€ty«iTiKos) judgeth all things.' 

This ' wisdom' — God's wisdom — 'we speak (says St Paul in v. 6) 
among the full-grown ' (Iv tois TeXeiois). 

In the Epistle to the Ephesians St Paul tells of God's grace 
abounding (cf. i. 8) 'in all wisdom and prudence': — and (v. i. 17) of 
his prayers to God — ' making mention of you in my prayers ' — for ' a 
spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of Him ' — ' having the 
eyes of your heart enlightened (v. 18) that ye may know.' 

At ii. 6 he contemplates Christians ' saved by grace ' in contact 
with the heavenly order; and then (v. 11) all, that is realised in time 
through faith, is seen to be of God's ordering. Among the great 
mysteries of the faith, which he has prayed that the Ephesians may 
be enabled to understand, is that of the vital unity — the ' one man ' — 
of ii. 10 — wherein Christ, by the assumption of human nature, by 
His death, united in one body and ' reconciled ' to God, Jews and 

But ' to comprehend (KaTaXafteo-Oai) what is the breadth and length 
and height and depth, and to know the love of Christ' — a, 'love 
which passeth knowledge (iii. 18) — to know that which never can be 


known — the co-operation of all is required (crw iracri t. ayiois). Con- 
secration is the condition of such knowledge. There is need of effort. 
And there is a corresponding power — God's gift : His ' power working 
in us ' (iii. 20 f.). 

In the unity of the Christian body each of its members has his 
part, a special function and a special endowment, (iv. 7. ' But to 
each one of us was the grace given according to the measure of 
the gift, of the Christ '). 

Yet unity of knowledge, as of faith, — of the faith and knowledge 
of the Son of God — is the final issue and limit of the work and 
manifold ministry of all. 

Appropriation of the truth is not intellectual only, but is ex- 
pressed in character and action (iv. 15, a\r]deuovT*s iv ayaTrrj). 

The spring of all error is ignorance, or forgetfulness, of God. So 
it was with 'the Gentiles' (rot Z&vq). And this 'ignorance (oyvota) 
which was in them ' was due to moral conditions (Sia t. ■n-tapwa-iv t. 
(copStas avTioV). 

The Christian is to have [in him], and to be, light (<£cos)— light 
is fellowship with Him, Who is the Light of the World (Jo. viii. 1 2 : 
cf. Mt. v. 14). And the life in light is shewn in moral duties — 
' in every form of goodness and righteousness and truth ' — the good, 
the right, the true. 

In action — there is need of moral discrimination (v. 10 SoKifid- 
£ovtes Tt eortv iidpea-rov tc3 Kvpiio), and of effort and carefulness in wise 
conduct, (15 f.) firj o>s aa-o<j>ot, d\V cos crdc/xn), need to 'understand 
(trwiert) what the will of the Lord is.' 

In the imperfect, transitory relations of earthly life (vi. 6 ff.) 
higher duties are involved : — ' servants ' must remember (etSoTes) that 
service is rendered to Christ, 'masters' must remember (ciSotcs) that 
in heaven the servants' Master is their own also. 

In conflict with the spiritual hosts of wickedness (vi. 12 f.) the 
Christian warrior stands having his 'loins girded with truth.' He 
applies truth to life. 

Religion includes thought or knowledge, as well as feeling and 
action. Each of these three implies, needs, and is strengthened by 
the other two. Knowledge in excess leads to Gnosticism or to dead 
orthodoxy. But realisation in thought of absolute Truth as revealed 
in the Incarnation is apprehension of a fact, which can be made the 
basis of a Science and yet is not for speculation only or for aesthetic 
contemplation only, but is essentially ethical. 

W. EPH. ! x 


The Sacrament of Baptism. 

The rite of Baptism was connected with the work of Messiah by 
the prophets Ezekiel and Zechariah. 

Ezek. xxx vi. 25 f. : 'And I will sprinkle clean water upon you, 
and ye shall be clean : from all your filthiness and from all your 
idols will I cleanse you. A new heart also will I give you, and a new 
spirit will I put within you : and I will take away the stony heart out 
of your flesh, and I will give you an heart of flesh.' 

Zech. xiii. 1 : ' In that day there shall be a fountain opened to the 
house of David and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem for sin and for 

(Cf. Is. Hi. 15.) 

We cannot but believe that Christ, when (Jo. iii. 22, 25) He 
administered a baptism through His disciples (iv. 2), explained to 
those, who offered themselves, the new birth which John's baptism 
and this preparatory cleansing typified. At the same time He may 
have indicated, as to Nicodemus (iii. 5 f.), the future establishment 
of Christian Baptism, the sacrament of the new birth. 

The sacrament of Baptism presupposes the Death and Resurrection 
of Christ. 

In St John's record of the incident of the ' feet-washing ' (Jo. xiii. 
4 — 14), where the symbolic meaning of the act as a process of cleansing 
is introduced at v. 10 ; ' He that is bathed needs not save to wash his 
feet,' it seems impossible not to see a foreshadowing of the idea of 
Christian Baptism in the word 'bathed' (Jo. xiii. 8 6 XcXou/x^os) 
as contrasted with 'wash' (id. ib. vCxf/ao-dai). 

There is, however, no evidence to shew that the Apostles them- 
selves were baptized unless with John's baptism. The ' bathing ' 
in their case consisted in direct intercourse and union with Christ (cf. 
Jo. xv. 3, ' Already ye are clean because of the word which I have 
spoken unto you '). 

It was His office to baptize with the Spirit. So Jo. i. 33 : ' the 
same is He which baptizeth with (or 'in') the Holy Spirit': the Holy 
Spirit being the atmosphere, the element of the new life. The trans- 
ference of the image of baptism to the impartment of the Holy 
Spirit was prepared by such passages as Joel ii. 28 (quoted in Acts 
ii. 1 7), ' and it shall come to pass afterward that / will pour out of my 
Spirit upon all flesh. ' 

In Jo. iii. s, ' Except a man be born of water and (the) Spirit (e£ 
vSaroi k. TV€V[iaTos) ' the preposition used (e£) recalls the phrase (Mt. 


iii. 11) 'I baptize (plunge) you in water; He shall baptize you in 
Holy Spirit and fire,' — so that the image suggested is that of rising, 
reborn, out of the water and out of the spiritual element, so to speak, 
to which the water outwardly corresponds. The combination of the 
words water and spirit suggests a remote parallel and a marked 
contrast. They carry back the thoughts of hearer and reader to the 
narrative of Creation (Gen. i. 2), when the Spirit of God brooded on 
the face of the waters. But (2) Water symbolizes purification and 
Spirit quickening : the one implies a definite external rite, the other 
indicates an energetic internal operation. The two are co-ordinate, 
correlative, complementary. Interpretations, which treat the term 
water here as simply figurative, are essentially defective. The words, 
taken in their immediate meaning, set forth as required before entrance 
into the Kingdom of God the acceptance of the preliminary rite 
Divinely sanctioned — John's baptism — which was the seal of repent- 
ance (Mt. iii. 11, £« /ieravotav) and so of forgiveness, and, following 
on this, the communication of a new life, resulting from the direct 
action of the Holy Ghost through Christ. But they have also a fuller 
sense, a final and complete sense for us. They look forward to the 
fulness of the Christian dispensation. 

After the Resurrection the baptism of water was no longer sepa- 
rated from, but united with, the baptism of the Spirit — united with it 
in the "laver of regeneration" (Titus iii. 5 ia-iacrev 17/xas Sia. Xovrpov 
7raAiyyev€<rtas koj. araKau-ajcreui; irveu/uaTOs dyioti), even as the outward 
and the inward are united generally in a religion which is sacramental 
and not only typical. 

Christian baptism, the outward act of faith welcoming the promise 
of God, is incorporation into the Body of Christ [cf. 1 Cor. xii. 13, 
Gal. iii. 27] ; and so being born (the birth) 'of the Spirit' is potentially 
united with being born (the birth) ' of water.' The general insepara- 
bility of these two is indicated (in Jo. iii. 5) by the form of the 
expression ' born of water and Spirit ' (e| vSaros koX 7rceu/mTos) as 
distinguished from the double phrase 'born of water and of Spirit' 

(/«U €K TTVeVJiaTOS). 

With the huL Xovrpov iraXiyyeveo-ias of Tit. iii. 5 may be compared 
t(3 Xovrpw tov vSaro's of Eph. v. 26. Here the initiatory sacrament 
of Baptism is the hallowing of the Bride. In this she is at once 
cleansed and hallowed (Iva av-n/v ayido-y xa^apiVas). The actions are 

To the Corinthians St Paul had written (1 Cor. vi. 11): 'But ye 
were washed (direXovo-aurOe), but ye were sanctified (-jyido-drjTe), but ye 

II — 2 


were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and in the Spirit 
of our God'; and (xii. 13) Tor in one Spirit we all were baptized into 
one Body.' 

And to the Romans (Rom. vi. 3) : ' all we who were baptized into 
Christ Jesus were baptized into His death. We were buried therefore 
with Him through our Baptism (Sia tov /3airTio-p.a,Tos) into death : that 
like as Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of the 
Father, so we might also walk in newness of life.' 

In the Epistle to the Colossians these ' two complementary aspects 
of baptism' (Lightfoot ad loc.) appear in the passage ii. 18 (parallel to 
Eph. ii. 45 ) : ' being buried with Him (trwTa^en-es av™) in the act of 
baptism (iv rm ftairTicrfiw), in Whom also ye were raised together with 
Him (avvrjyipOrjTi) through your faith in the operation (the working) 
of God, Who raised Him from the dead and quickened together with 
Him you, that were dead by reason of your transgressions ' [v. Light- 
foot's note]. 

Here in the Epistle to the Ephesians St Paul (at iv. 4 — 6) lays 
open a view of the unity of the whole Christian Society in its objective 
foundation : and while (as) its unity is established by the acknowledg- 
ment of one Lord : and (6) in proclaiming that ' Jesus is Lord,' it 
confesses one Faith : (c) it is entered by one Baptism. [Cf . 1 Cor. 
xii. 13.] 

And of this 'material act' that confession (pJ7p.a) is the spiritual 
accompaniment, a Confession involved in, and implying the acceptance 
of, the Baptismal formula (Mt. xxviii. 19) 'Into the name of the 
Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost.' 

The ' teaching of baptisms ' (fla.inurp.uiv SiSax^v) °^ Heb. vi. 2, where 
the plural and the peculiar form seem used to include Christian 
Baptism and other lustral rites, would naturally be directed to shew 
their essential difference. And the 'different washings' (8ia<£opois 
/3a7TTtcr/xoTs) to which reference is made in the same Epistle (ix. 10) as 
accompaniments of the Levitical offerings (cf. Ex. xxix. 4, Lev. xi. 
25 ff., xvi. 4, 24 f., Num. viii. 7, xix. 17) recall the 'washings, or 
baptizings, of cups and pots and brazen vessels ' (j8a7rTio"p;oiis Trorrjpliav 
teal fecnw koX x<iA.kiW) and other ceremonial lustrations (k. aV dyopas 
iav jut) pavTifTwvrai — V. I. fiairTio-tovrai — otjk icr6iov<nv) of Mk. vii. 4 
[v. Swete ad loc.]. 

The outward rite draws its virtue from the action of the Spirit. 

[Cf. 1 Pet. iii. 21 : 81' uSai-os - 6 kol v/*as avTiruirov vvv cra)£ei /8air- 
Tio-fw., ov crapKOS diroOiai'S pvirov aAAa crw«8)?(Te(i>s dyadiji iirepoirrnjui eis 
6iov, 8i' aVaoTacrecos '\r)<rov Xpiaroti.] 


On 'Sin' in the Pauline Epistles. 

Apostolic writers distinguish clearly between 'sin,' the principle, 
and 'sins,' specific acts. 

1. Sin (a/xapTia, yj a/xapTia). 

The singular is found (apart from 2 Th. ii. 3, where B has 
avo/uas) in four only of the Pauline Epistles, namely those of the 
second group, 1 and 2 Corinthians, Galatians, and Romans : 

1 Cor. XV. 56. to 8e Kairpov T. 6a.vd.T0v tj apapria, 17 8k Swa/us 
rij<s (tyiapTias 6 vop.os. 

2 Cor. v. 21. toV /X77 yvovTa. a/xapriav virip rj/xwv d/uapTtav 

2 Cor. xi. 7- V afiapriav eiroiij<ra ip.avrov Tairzivuiv ; 

Gal. ii. 17. apa Xptoros d/iapTias Sujlkovos; 

hi. 22. (rvveK\ei<7€v 17 ypa<jyq to. iravra uxo a/xapTiav. 
Rom. iii. — viii. passim. 

xiv. 2 1 . irav 8e o ovk ck irtOT£a>s apapria eortV. 

Neither apapria, nor tj ap.apria, in the singular occurs in the 
Epistle to the Ephesians or any of the Epistles of the Captivity, 
nor yet in the Pastoral Epistles. 

2. Sins (d/xapTtai). 

The plural is found in all groups of the Pauline Epistles, 
(a) I Th. ii. 16. ets to dvairXripoicrai avrtov Tas a/uxpTias irdvTOTe. 
I Cor. XV. 3. Xpto-rds dircOavev vircp T(3v dp.apTtt3v rjfxujr Kara 
Tas ypa<pd<s. 

1 Cor. XV. 1 7. ?ti eoTt iv Tats d/xaprtats. 

Gal. i. 4. toB Sovtos cavrov «7rep t<3v d/iapTLmv ij/iciiv. 

(5) Col. i. I4. TTJV <X(p£0-lV T<3v d/XapTltOV. 

Eph. ii. 1. vexpovs tois'Lv Koi Tats djiiapTiats ip.<j)V. 

(c) I Tim. v. 22. dp.apTtais oXAorpiots. 

v. 24. tiv<3v dvOpunrmv at d/xapriai irpo'8iyA.ot euriv, 
irpoayov(rat ets icpio-iv, rurlv 8e feat «raKoAov#ovo"iv. 

2 Tim. iii. 6. •yvvaiKapia o-coxopeu/xei'a djuapTtats. 

3. The word a.p.dpTrjp.a occurs 1 Cor. vi. 18 7raV dp.dpTr)p.a o iav ttoiijotj 

dv0pu>7ros, Rom. iii. 25 81a. tijv irdptaw t. irpoyeyovoTaiv a.p.a,prrip.a,Tu>v, 
— and Rom. v. 16. 


The verb dpjipTdvuv, afiaprttv is used by St Paul as follows : 

(a) i Cor. vi. 18, vii. 28, 36, viii. 12, xv. 34. 
Rom. ii. 12, in. 23, v. 12, 14, 16, vi. 15. 

(b) Eph. iv. 26. dpyi£co-6t koX p) afiaprdvert. 

(c) 1 Tim. v. 20. toOs dp.apTdvovTa<: ivwirvov irdvTa>v ZXeyxe. 
Tit. ill. 11. eiSak on i^ta-Tpdirrat, 6 toiovtos k. dfLaprdvti. 

The word Trapdirr<ap.a., 'trespass,' bringing out the idea of 
violation of a definite law, occurs 

(a) repeatedly in Romans, iv. 25, v. 15 — 29, xi. 11, 12, as 
well as in 2 Cor. v. 19 and Gal. vi. 1. 

(6) in the Epistles of the Captivity, Col. ii. 13, where irapa- 
irrwiMLTa are ' actual definite transgressions ' (Lightfoot ad he.), 
Eph. i. 7 t. d<f>t<riv t. TrapaTTTtu/taTcuv, ii. I t. TrapaTTTw/iaa-iv k. t. 
dfnapruui (v. supr.), and ii. 5. 

The word irapdfiaxTVi, 'transgression,' occurs Gal. iii. 19 tw 
■7rapa/3a<re<jiv x a P lv > R° m . ii- 2 3 Tijs irapafidareuys t. vop.ov, iv. 15 
ov yap ovk lori voju.os, oiSe Tapa'yScuns, v. 14 r. ir. 'ASa/i, and 
1 Tim. ii. 14. 

2%e JViZZ of Man. 

The story of the Fall is the Divine parable of the origin of sin; 
implying self-assertion and violation of dependence, — seeking not a 
wrong end, but a right end in a wrong way. 

We know so little of our spiritual relations one to another that 
there is no greater difficulty in supposing that the earthly destiny of 
humanity was imperilled in a representative than in believing (as we 
do) that the restoration of humanity was obtained by the Son of Man. 

In any case this is the simplest way of presenting a fact which is 

The consequence of self-assertion necessarily descended to all 
generations. (See Hegel's analysis of the Pall in his 'Logic.') 

It is most important to notice that it is not ' death ' as the passage 
to another order, but the circumstances of death, which are due to sin. 

The effects of an act may be retrospective as well as prospective ; 
that is to say, the certainty that something will be modifies what goes 


The Kingdom of God, — Kingdom of Christ. 

A. Usage of St Paul. 

(a) 1 Th. ii; 12. a'£uos t. 0eov toC KaXoiWos u/xas eis tijv 
tauTov j3a<Ti\etav k. 8o£av. 

2 Th. i. 5. €is to Kara^uiiBrjvai v/xas rijs j8ao"iXtias toC fltoS. 

I Cor. iv. 20. oi yap ev Xoya> rj jSaciXeia tov 6eov, aXX' ev 

I Cor. vi. g. rj ovk oiSore oVt aSiKoi fleov /JaciXeiav oi K\rjpovo- 
pvrjo-ovo-iv ; (Cf. «. TO.) 

I Cor. xv. 24. eiTa to TeXos, oVav irapaSiSoi tijv /Jao-iXeiav tu 
0ec3 Kat Trarpi. 

1 Cor. XV. 5°. 0"ap£ (cai aT/xa /3ao-iXeiav #eoi) K\t)povofx,rjaai. ov 

Gal. v. 21. 01 ToiowTa irpao"o-ovT« /3acriXeiav 0eov ov Kkr/povo- 

Rom. xiv. 17. ou yap eariy r) /8ao-iXeia t. 0eoO j8ptoo-is Kat 7roo-is, 
aXXa. SiKawo-vvr] koX tlpr/vr] ko.1 \apa iv rrvevpMTi dyi'a>. 

(6) Col. i. 13. os ipvcraro 17/xas ck r^s e£ovo-ias tov o-kotovs 
Kal /j.eTto-rrjo-ev eis T77V /JacnXeiav tov vioii tijs ayairijs avTOv. 
Col. iv. 11. <rvvepyol eis ty/v jSao-iXei'av tov deov. 
Eph. v. 5. ev rj} jSao-iXeta tov xpio-Tov Kai 0eov. 

(c) 2 Tim. iv. 1. Xpiorov 'I^o-ou, tov p.eXXovTos Kpiveiv £«JvTas 
k. vtKpovs, Kal rrjv eVi<paVeiav avrov Kal rr/v /8ao"iXeiav avrov. 

2 Tim. iv. 18. pvaerai p,e 6 Kvpios airo irai/TOs epyov irovrjpov k. 
cra)0"« eis tijv fJcunXetav avTov rrjv eVovpanov. 

B. Use in other Epistles. 

(a) Heb. i. 8. r] pa/JSos t^s /8ao-iXeias (from lxx. of Ps. xlv. 7). 

xii. 28. /3ao-iXeiav ao-aXevTov 7rapaXa/x/3avovTes. 
(6) Ja. ii. 5. K\r)povopx>vs ri)% /Jao-iXeias 77s eV^yyeiXaTO toTs 
dyairwo-w avrov. 

(c) 2 Pet. i. 11. eis T);V ataiviov |8ao-tXeiav tou Kvpiov rjpMV 

Kal 0"(l)T)Jp09 I^0"OV XpiOTOV. 

C. Use in the Synoptic Gospels and in 'Acts.' 

(a) In the Synoptists, besides rj fJatriXeia o-ov of the Lord's 
Prayer, the expression r} fiao-iXeta tov 6eov is of constant occurrence, 


except in the Gospel of St Matthew, where it is found four times 
only (vi. 33, xii. 28, xix. 24, xxi. 43), being elsewhere replaced by 
the phrase -q /J. t<2v ovpaviSv. Three times in St Matthew (iv. 23, 
ix. 35, xxiv. 14) we have to evayye'Xiov itJs /Sao-iXct'as, — 'the Gospel 
of the Kingdom' — and once (xiii. 19) tov Xdyov rfjs /2ao-iX«as — 
'the word of the Kingdom.' 

[Note especially Lk. xxii. 29 Kayio 8iaTi0e/i<n vjuv, icadus 
8i£#eTO /x.oi 6 iraTqp p.ov PcuriXeCav, Iva ecrOryre Kal irivrjTe iirl 7-175 
rpaTrefijs p-ov Iv tt/ (iacriXeia /xou, kcu KaOfjcrOt iirl dpoviav Tas StuScKa 
tpvkas Kpivovrei tov 'IcrpayX. 

(b) In ' Acts ' the phrase to. irepi rq<s /JacnXetas t. Oeov occurs 
thrice (i. 3, viii. 12, xix. 8). The other references to 'the Kingdom 
of God' are xiv. 22 e'ureXOeiv e« t. /Sacrikeiav t. 0., xxviii. 23 
8ia/J.apTvpo/*evos t. fjcuriXeiav t. 6., ib. 31 K-qpva-o-iav t. /J. t. 0.: in 
xx. 25 nv)pvcr(TU)v t. /JacriXetW (om. t. Oeov) is read: — cf. i. 6. 

D. Use in Johannine writings. 

(as) Apoc. i. 6. *. iirotrjcrtv ■ flacnXiiav tepeis to 6e<a k. 
Trarpl avrov. 

Apoc. i. 9. <rvvK0Lvu>vbs iv tt/ dktya k. y3a<riXeia k. virop.ovf) iv 

Apoc. v. 10. eirotrj(7as avTovs T<3 8e<o ijp.u>r jSao-iXciay k. lepels, 
/cat /3a(Ti\ev(rov(TLv iirl tjJs y^s. 

Apoc. xi. 15. iyivcro ■q jSacriXeia tov koct/aoii tou Kvpiov -qfuav 
koi tov xpurrov avTOv, k. |8ao"iXeuo-ei eis tovs aiuii/as T<3v aia>vd>v. 

Apoc. xii. 10. rj /SacriXtca toB 6eov r/p-uiv iv. 17 i£ovo~£a tov 
\pio~TOv avrov. 

(b) Jo. iii. 3. lav p.17 t« ytvvqOrj avtaOtv, ov ovvarcu iSetv rrji' 
/JacriXetav toD #eov. 

Jo. iii. 5. tlo-fXOav eh T-qv /JacriXciav row Oeov. 

Jo. xviii. 36. 1; /Sao-iXci'a ); £7x17 o£k tortv e« tov Koo-fiov tovtov 
et Ik tov Kocrfiov tovtov i/v 17 /3acriXa'a J7 tp-i;, 01 virqpeTai 01 «p,oi 
■qymvitpVTO av, Iva /x-q irapaSoOw rots 'IouScu'ois - vvv 8e 17 /3ao-iXeia q 

iflr] OVK «TTIV ivTtvBtV. 

' The Kingdom ' [implies] ' a Sovereign of whose Personal Rule His 
subjects would be conscious and by Whose Will they would be guided, 
an organization, by which the relative functions and duties and 
stations of those included within it would be denned and sustained, 
a common principle of action, and common rights of citizenship.' 

(Gospel 0/ the Resurrection, p. 195.) 


The Christian Society, and the Apostolic Ministry. 

'Our bodies (1 Cor. vi. 15) are members of Christ' (/*eXi? X/hotov) ; 
and conversely (1 Cor. xii. 27) a Christian society is 'a body of Christ' 
(<r<3/ia Xpia-Tov) — [a body of which Christ is the Head]. — [Such is] each 
Christian society — 'a body of Christ,' of which the members are 
charged with various functions and gifts. And these ' bodies ' again 
are ' members ' of other ' bodies ' wider and greater, and thus at last 
' members * of that universal Church which is the ' fulness of Christ,' 
its Heavenly Head. (G. of R. pp. 177 — 182.) 

In the providential ordering of the Christian Society these various 
functions and graces have been variously concentrated ; but all belong 
alike to the new life, which the Risen Christ breathed into His Church. 

To this Body, as a whole, the Risen Lord communicated the virtue 
of His glorified Life. 

For it is a fact of the highest importance and clearly established 
by the documents — that the commission given on the evening of the 
first Easter Day — the ' Great Commission ' — was given to the Church 
and not to any class in the Church — to the whole Church — and not to 
any part of it, primarily. 

The Commission and the Promise, like the Pentecostal blessing 
which they prefigured, were given to the Christian Society, and not to 
any special order in it. 

Not that every member of the Church has in virtue of the corporate 
gift a right to exercise it individually. 

The very fact that the commission is given to the body renders it 
impossible for any member to exercise it except by the authority of the 

When the Body is quickened and endowed, then the Spirit works 
out its purpose through the several parts. 

It is indeed a general law of life that differentiation of organs 
answers to [the] increasing fulness of life. The particular power of 
the living being finds expression through the organs. The specialisa- 
tion of functions required for the permanent well-being of the Church 
[appears, when] in Eph. iv. 7 — 11 St Paul marks the types of ministry 
with which the Church is endowed. He states the fact of the indi- 
vidual endowment of the several members of the Christian Society 
(v. 7); and (v. 11) notes that certain special gifts have been made for 
its government. 


' Receive ye the Holy Ghost ; whosesoever sins ye forgive, they are 
forgiven unto them ; whosesoever sins ye retain, they are retained.' 
(Jo. xx. 22 f.) 

The words are the Charter of the Christian Church, and not simply 
the Charter of the Christian Ministry. 

The gift is conveyed once for all. It is made part of the life of the 
whole Society, flowing from the relation of the body to the Eisen Christ. 

Before His Passion Christ had given to His disciples 

(a) the power of the keys to open the treasury of the Kingdom of 
Heaven and dispense things new and old ; 

(b) power to bind and to loose, to fix and to unfix ordinances for 
the government of the new Society. 

Now (c) as Conqueror He added the authority to deal with sins. 

The message of the Gospel is the glad tidings of sin conquered. 
To apply this to each man severally is the office of the Church and so 
of each member of the Church. To embrace it personally is to gain 

He to whom the word comes can appropriate or reject the message 
of deliverance which we as Christians are authorised to bear. As he 
does so, we, speaking in Christ's name, either remove the load by 
which he is weighed down or make it more oppressive. 

To this end all the sacraments and ordinances of Christianity 
combine, to deepen the conviction of sin and to announce forgiveness 
of sin. 

In the first age, however, it is perfectly clear from the Pauline 
Epistles, that the Christian Society was not as yet under any rigid 
organisation ; there was not as yet a recognised ecclesiastical hierarchy. 

In some of these Epistles, particularly in r Cor. xii. 28 and 
Eph. iv. 11, specific offices are named. 

Thus in 1 Cor. xii. 2 7 St Paul says to the Church of Corinth, ' Ye 
are a body of Christ, and members in particular'; and then in v. 28 
' God — set (?0ero) — in the Church first apostles, secondly prophets, 
thirdly teachers, — then miracles, then gifts of healings, helps, govern- 
ments, divers kinds of tongues.' 

And in Eph. iv. n he writes, 'And He Himself gave some as 
Apostles, and some as prophets, and some as evangelists, and some as 
pastors and teachers.' 

But the offices named are not parts of a hierarchy. They are 
related to personal gifts. 


The language of the verse in the Ephesian Epistle, indeed, clearly 
excludes the idea of the existence, at that time, of any Divinely ordered 

The gift which Christ ' gave ' to the Church was a gift of ' men.' 
It was a double gift. He first endowed the men, and then gave them, 
endowed, to the Church. 

Through their work the character of permanent offices became 

There is in the New Testament no trace of any rigid universal 
constitution of the Christian Society. 

Divine gifts for its edification are recognised. 

These appear to be general, and stand prominent. 

There are also ecclesiastical offices. 

The presbyterate, as yet identical with the episcopate, is practically 

Deacons are treated of by St Paul as universal : though there is no 
trace of any perpetuation of ' the seven.' 

There is no definition of the respective duties of presbyters or of 

Timothy appears to have apostolic functions by ordination 1 . 

The Church appears guided by a self-widening ministry — apostles 
and prophets. 

Of a primitive hierarchical ministry there is no record or tradition. 

And there is no provision for all time. The provision of a per- 
manent and universal organisation of the Church was, in fact, wholly 
alien from the thought of the first age. The vision was closed by ' the 
Coming.' At the close of it the Lord was to come Himself. 

1 1 Tim. iv. 14 rod iv <rol x'V'cM'woj, * iiiSri <roi Std. irpotp-qrelas /nerd imOlffews t. 
X^ptav toO irpefffivreplov. 

2 Tim. i. 6 rd x < *P'°7 ia T °v BeoO, S ianv iv aol Sii rip iinBiaeus twv x«'/><3" A""". 


' The Church ' in the Epistle to the Ephesians. 

The word ckkXijo-ki occurs in the Gospels in two places only 
(Mt. xvi. 18; xviii. 17): in the former place in the sense of the 
universal Church (ko.1 en-t Tavrg rfj irirpa oiKoSo/xi/tra) fiov ttjjv IkkXijo-lov), 
and in the latter of a special Church (lav hi irapaKovcrrj avrmv, e'nrbv tjj 
eKfcXijo-ta, eav Se xat t^s eKKA^crias TrapaKOvo-rj, otto) <toi a>OTrep 6 i&viitbs 
Kal 6 T£k<avr)<s). 

Both senses are found in the Acts. 

In the Apocalypse; as also in St James (v. 14) and in 3 Jo. 6, 9, 
10, the word is used in the special sense only. 

In the Epistles of St Paul both senses are found. 

In the Epistle to the Ephesians the Christian Society — the Church 
— is a commonwealth, but it is more than a commonwealth. 

The Church is a spiritual building — the temple of the Spirit. 
„ „ a living organism — the Body of Christ. 
„ „ the Bride of Christ. 

The word JK/cXijo-ia is used nine times in the Epistle to the 
Ephesians. But of these instances six occur in one and the same 
context in the fifth chapter, and the nine occurrences of the word are 
thus practically reducible to four. 

(i) i. 22 f. Kal avrov eSoiKev KtcpaXijv VTrcp iravTa. rrj ckkXijitioi, rjTil 
i&rlv to uojju.a avrov, to TrXrjpwpM tov ra iravra. iv wacriv ir\-qpovp.ivov. 

Not only was Christ Himself exalted to the heavens : 

(a) He is invested with universal sovereignty (cf. Mt. xxvii. 28 
iSo&r] p.01 7ra<ra i^ovcria, iv ovpav<2 Kal eirl rrjs y^s). 

(6) He is even now Head of His Church on earth: 

' Head over all things to the Church, which is His body ' — 

(c) He has already exercised His sovereignty by the gift of His 
quickening grace. 

So in the parallel passage, Col. i. 18 : icai a^Tos eoriv 17 Ke$a\ij tou 
o-to/iai-os, Tfjs IkkXtictms (cf. v. 24), i.e. (as Lightfoot paraphrases) ' not 
only does He hold this position of absolute priority and sovereignty 
over the Universe — the natural creation — He stands also in the same 
relation to the Church — the new spiritual creation. He is its head, 
and it is His body.' 


' The Creator of the World is also the Head of the Church '— ' the 
head, the inspiring, ruling, guiding, combining, sustaining power, the 
mainspring of its activity and the centre of its unity, and the seat of 
its life.' 

The image (of Christ as the Head) occurs in a different yet cognate 
application in 1 Cor. xi. 3 Travros dvSpbs ij Ke<pa\y 6 xpto-To's Zotiv, 
K€<f>a\rj Se r. xpurrov 6 6eo<s. 

Moreover the relations of the Church to Christ are (as Lightfoot 
points out) described— by St Paul— in his earlier Epistles— under the 
same image : 1 Cor. xii. 12— 27 : 'For, as the body is one and hath many 
members, and all the members of the body, being many, are one body ; 
so also is Christ. For in one Spirit were we all baptized into one 
body, whether Jews or Greeks, whether bond or free; and were all 
made to drink of one Spirit. For the body is not one member, but 

many Now ye are the body of Christ, and 

severally members thereof (fyms — eore a-wp.a Xpurrov kcu /acAi? i K 

1 Cor. vi. 15. 'Know ye not that your bodies are members of 
Christ' Cf. x. 17. 

Rom. xii. 4 sq. ' For even as we have many members in one body, 
and all the members have not the same office ; so we, who are many, 
are one body in Christ and severally members one of another ' (ev o-<3/xa 
ia/jLev iv Xp«TTu>). 

But the Apostle there takes as his starting-point the various 
functions of the members, and not, as in these later Epistles, 'the 
originating and controlling power of the Head.' (Col. p. 157.) 

Here (in Ephesians i. 22) 'the thought of sovereignty, already given, 
is now connected with that of vital union with a glorious organism 
which draws its life from Him, — that one Divine society, — the Body of 
Christ, — to which the life of every individual believer is a contributory 
element and in which every individual life finds its consummation.' 
(Revelation of the Risen Lord, Pref. p. xxvi.) 

And while, on the one side, Christ by His Presence gives to all 
things their true being and Christians in a special sense reach their 
'fulness,' their full development, in Him, on the other side — He 
Himself finds His fulness in the sum of all things that He thus brings 

into living union with Himself. 

(2) iii. 10. tva yvtopurdrj vvv Tax's ap^ais xal Tats e£ouo"tais iv tois 
iirovpaviois 81b. ttjs eKKXrjo-tas 7} 7roA.urrotKiA.os crorpi'a tov 0eov. 
In the Church humanity advances towards its true unity. 


And ' the display of God's -wisdom before the intelligences of the 
heavenly order was the work of the Church.' 

'The effect of the Gospel reaches through all being, — and we are 

allowed to see how other rational creatures follow the course of its 


The manifold wisdom of God is seen in the adaptation of the 
manifold capacities of man and the complicated vicissitudes of human 
life to minister to the one end to which " all creation moves." 

(3) iii. 21. avr<5 -q Sofa ev rrj £KicA.ijo"ta Kal iv Xptorai 'lrjcrov eis 
■7raa"os ras yeveas tov altovos t<3i> auovcov d/xrjv. 

The contemplation of the glorious fulness of Divine blessing in the 
Gospel — closes with a Doxology — in which God's work in man is 
regarded as issuing in His glory ' in the Church and in Christ Jesus ' 
to the last development of life in time. 

The glory of God is shewn, as the Universe moves forward to its 
end, by the fulfilment of God's Will in man and by the offering of 
man's service to God. 

(4) V. 23 f. dvrjp ioTiv Ke<pa.X.T} rrj'S yvvaiKos <os ko.1 6 y/hotos KnpaXrj 
Ttjs 6KkA.ijo-«xs, avros o-amjp tov 0-cojuo.tos. 

dXka tos 17 €KK\rjo-ia vTrorao-crtTai T<3 xpicrT<3, ovto>s ko.1 k.t.X.. 

01 (u'Spes, ayairare tos yuvaucas, /caucus Kal 6 y/>io"tos ■qyamjcrev ryjv 
iKKXrjcriav Kal eavrbv TrapeoWsv virtp avrijs, iva avnjv dyiao-17 KaOapio-as 
T(p Aovrpai toS uSaTos iv prjpMTi, Iva TrapaaTqcry avros eavrai IpSofov rrjv 
iKK\rj(riav, pvrj e)(ov<rav ottiXov fj pvuSa r) Ti rmv toiovtiov, aXX' Iva rj dyi'a 
Kal a/x<o//.09. 

The Apostle — points out that the wife is to the husband as the 
Church to Christ. 

The relation of husband to wife, like that of Christ to the Church, 
points to a unity included in the idea of creation. And of the primi- 
tive ordinance that 'a man shall leave father and mother and shall 
cleave to his wife, and the twain shall become one flesh' (v. 31, from 
Gen. ii. 24), the greatest of all the manifold applications is [and the 
highest fulfilment is] the union of Christ and the Church : 

to fjLvcrrrjpiov toSto fieya coriv, ey<3 8e A.e'y<i) eis Xpurrdv Kal [ets] rijv 

The marriage-relation of 'the Lord' to Israel runs through the 
Old Testament. 

And the application of this relation to Christ and the Church — the 
spiritual Israel — implies His Divinity. 


Christ offers to the Church the devotion of love. And such is the 
duty of the husband to the wife. 

The Church offers to Christ the devotion of subjection, as is the 
duty of the wife to the husband. 

Christ loved the Church (c> 25 : Acts xx. 28) not because it was 
perfectly lovable, but in order to make it such ; not because it was 
holy, but in order to make it holy by union with Himself. 

The love of Christ — for the Church — was crowned by His sacrifice 
of Himself. 

And the purpose of the self-sacrifice of Christ for the Church is 
(1) to hallow it, (2) to present it to Himself — glorious — without spot 
or wrinkle, (3) that it may continue — holy and blameless ('without 
blemish '). 

Further in ii. 20 ff. [though the word iKKXr/o-ia does not occur] the 
new Society of believers is a fabric, destined to become a sanctuary : 

€TroiKoSo/j.r]6€VT€s itrl T<3 Oep.e\iia tw ciirocrToXuv kcu TrpocpTjrwv, ovtos 
aKpoy o)via[ov avrov XpioroB 'lrjirov, iv o< irao-a oIkoSo/jltj a-vvapfioXoyov/xivrj 
av£ii eis vabv ayiov iv Kvpito, iv <o kcu. v/xtlq (TvvoiKO&op.eL<r6e eis KaroiKrjTijpiov 
rov 0€ov iv Trvev/iuiTi. 

To the Corinthians St Paul had said (1 Cor. iii. 17) 'Ye are a 
temple of God (raos Oeov) and the Spirit of God dwelleth in you ' ; and 
also (ib. xii. 28), ' And some God set in the Church, first apostles, 
secondly prophets, thirdly teachers'; and again (2 Cor. vi. 16), 'For 
we are a temple of the living God (vabs Oeov e<r/ucv £<3vtos).' 

Now in Ephesians he writes (ii. 19 — 22): 'Ye are fellow-citizens 
with the saints and of the household of God, being built upon the 
foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being 
the chief corner stone ; in Whom each several building, fitly framed 
together, groweth into a holy temple in the Lord ; in Whom ye also 
are builded together for a habitation of God in the Spirit.' 

We see then that in the Epistle in which he opens the widest 
prospect of the being and destiny of the Church, St Paul uses two 
images [besides that of the Bride] to describe it, — that of a ' body ' — 
a body of which Christ is the Head (i. 22 f.) — and that of a spiritual 
building or 'sanctuary ' (ii. 20 f.). 

At the same time he combines the two images together. Thus in 
the passage cited, ii. 21 f. (v. supr.), the many buildings are said to 
grow into a sanctuary — a ' holy temple ' : and on the other hand the 
body is built: the body, 'fitly framed and knit together' — maketh 
* increase unto the building up of itself in love' (iv. 16). The body is 
built ; the temple grows. 


We need both images, of building and of growth, in order to 
understand our position socially and personally. The progress which 
we observe in human society and in our own several lives is due in 
part to human effort and in part to vital forces, which lie beyond our 
reach. Everywhere we find this twofold action of ' building ' and of 
' growth.' 

Thus in the material building we have to notice the influence of 
natural powers which we cannot control. The sunshine and the rain ; 
— the silent, ceaseless action of the air, — bring to the fabric some of 
its greatest charms. 

In the body again there is room for the effects of care and discipline. 
We grow by a force which is independent of our will : but of ourselves 
we can within certain measure retard or hasten or guide the growth. 

So God Himself works, and He works also through us. As His 
fellow-workers we recognise on the one side inexorable laws, on the 
other the results of personal endeavour. 

This thought applies alike to the individual Christian and to the 

It applies, I say, to the Church, the Society of Christian men. 
For the Church is built and yet it grows. Human endeavour and 
Divine energy co-operate in its development. 

The Church a Temple. 

The Church is 'a structure complex and multiform — a dwelling- 
place of the Holy Spirit ' — a temple ' reared through long ages, each 
stone of which fills its special place and contributes its share to the 
grace and stability of the fabric' It includes many buildings, but all 
equally parts of the sanctuary (vaos). Of this temple Christ Himself 
is the corner-stone ; Apostles and Prophets, united with and having 
authority from Him, form its foundation (cf. Apoc. xxi. 14). 

The Church the Body of Christ. 

Again, the Church is 'a Body, where a royal will directs and 
disciplines and uses the functions of every member ' — Christ being 'the 
Head, from which the body receives its divine impulse.' 

' The Body is one : it is multiform ; and it is quickened by a power 
which is not of itself but from above.' 

'For unity is not uniformity. Differences of race, class, social 
order obviously have no influence upon it. They are of earth only. 
But more than this, it is consistent with serious differences in the 
apprehension of the common faith in which it reposes. ...The Unity of 


the whole is consistent with a wide variety of parts, each having 
to a certain degree a corresponding unity in itself.' 

' And the essential bond of union is not external but spiritual ; it 
consists not in one organization, but in a common principle of life.' 

' It follows — that external, visible unity is not required for the 
essential unity of the Church.' 

' But though the principle of the unity of the Christian Church is 
spiritual and not necessarily connected with uniformity of constitution 
or even with intercommunion, it by no means follows that the outward 
organization of the whole of the constituent Churches is a matter of 

' The range of variation in the constitution of the Christian societies 
must be limited by their fitness to embody the fundamental ideas of 

' Divisions, as we see them, are ' indeed ' a witness to human 
imperfection.' But, 'if we regard the imperfection of our nature, — 
division appears to be the preliminary of that noblest catholicity, 
which will issue from the separate fulfilment by each part in due 
measure (Eph. iv. 16) of its proper function towards the whole. Thus 
the material unity of Judaism is transformed into the moral unity of 
the Apocalypse.' 

The Chivrch the Bride of Christ. 

The image used in prophetical books of the Old Testament (Hos. ii. 
19, Ezek. xvi., Mai. ii. 11) to describe the relation between Jehovah 
and His people, is in the New Testament applied to Christ and the 
Church. Suggested, in the Synoptic Gospels, by the imagery of the 
Parables of the Marriage-feast (Mt. xxii. 1 ff.) and of the Ten Virgins 
(id. xx v. 1 ff., also Mt. ix. 15) is signified in the Gospel of St John by 
the language of the Baptist (Jo. iii. 29 f.) : ' He that hath the bride is 
the bridegroom : but the friend of the bridegroom, which standeth and 
heareth him rejoiceth greatly because of the bridegroom's voice : this 
my joy therefore is fulfilled. He must increase, but I must decrease.' 
The Christ was gathering round Him the disciples who were the 
beginnings of His Church — representatives of the spiritual Israel — the 
divine Bride — brought by the forerunner to Christ — the Bridegroom. 

In 2 Cor. xi. 2 £ijA<3 yap vp.S.'S 6eov £77X01, ■qpiM<Ta'ix,t)v yap fyias hi 

avSpl irapOivov ayv-qv ■n-apaurrjirai ™ \purrio, St Paul applies the figure to 

the connexion of Christ with a particular body of Christians ; even as 

in Ephesians (v. 32 ff.) he uses it (v. supr.) of the relation of Christ to 

W. EPH. 12 


His Church as a whole, — the Church ' contemplated as distinct from 
Christ, though most closely bound to Him as His bride.' 

In the Apocalypse (xix. 7, xxi. 2, 9, xxii. 17) the Holy City, the 
New Jerusalem is seen 'as a bride adorned for her husband': and 'the 
bride ' is ' the wife of the Lamb.' 

The Church Universal. 

' Every Family,' every Fatherhood, derives that, in virtue of which 
it is what it is, from the One Father (Eph. iii. 15); from Him comes 
all fellowship and unity in heaven and on earth. 

The Church, of which the Family is the type and monument, is the 
herald and witness of the revelation of a living God, — ' the interpreter 
of the world in the light of the Incarnation,' — ' the appointed organ of 
the gifts of Christ.' 

And it is in the Epistle to the Ephesians that the idea of the One 
Church, having a mission thus manifold and universal, is first developed. 

' Here, for the first time, we hear Christians throughout the world 
described as together making up a single Ecclesia, a single assembly of 
God, or Church' (Hort : Prolegomena, p. 128). 

Use of the word airoKaXvtyi<; in the N. T. 

A. Pauline usage : — 

2 Th. i. 7. ev 17; airoKaXvif/ei T. Kvpiov 'Iijo"oB air' oipavov. 

1 Cor. i. 7. rijv diroKa\.v\j/iv t. Kvpiov ij/nuiv 'I. XjoiotoS. 

xiv. 6. vj iv diroKakvif/a rj iv yvwcrei 17 ev TrpotprjTtia rj ev SiSa^. 
26. \jm\fibv — SiSa^r/v — dTroKakvij/iv. 

2 Cor. xii. I. oVrcunas km. <X7roicaA.ityeis Kvpiov. 

7. tjj VTrepl$o\.fi riov avoKaXvij/etav. 

Gal. i. 12. Si* d.7roKa\v\j/(0K IijcroC XptoroS. 

ii. 2. dvlfiv)v Se KaTCi aTTOKaXv^/iv. 

Rom. ii. 5. iv yp-epq. opyfjs Kot cwroicaAvi/'ectfS Si/caioicpio-ias tov Oeov. 

viii. 19. ttjv diroKaXv^riv tiov vluiv tov oeov. 

xvi. 25. Kara. diroKa\vij/iv p.vorqpiov. 

Eph. i. 17. •Kvc.vp.a aotpias k. aTTOKakvij/ews. 

iii. 3. Kara diroKakvij/iv iyvuypio-drj /aoi to p.vo'Tqpiov. 

B. Use by other writers : — 

1 Pet. i. 7. ev aTTOKaXvij/et 'Irjo-ov Xpurrov. So again v. 13. 

iv. 13. ev tjj diroKoAvi/rei Trjs 8d£r/s. 

Lk. ii. 32. eis'tv e0v<ov. 

Apoc. i. I. cwro/caXvi/'is 'Itjo-ov Xpioroi). 


The verb a , 7ro/«iA.v7rTeii' is used : — 

(A) by St Paul (13 times) in six Epistles (2 Th., 1 Cor., Gal., 
Rom., Phil., Eph.), 

<B) in the First Epistle of St Peter, and in the Gospels of 
St Matthew and St Luke. 
Except in a citation (xii. 38) from the lxx. of Is. liii. 1, it 
is not used by St John. 

Revelation, in the New Testament, is 

(a) of Jesus Christ. 

2 Th. i. 7, 1 Cor. i. 7, Gal. i. 16 (cf. 2 Cor. xii. 1). 
1 Pet. i. 7, 13; Lk. xvii. 30. 
Apoc. i. 1 (v. Hort on 1 Pet. i. 7). 

(b) of the Father. Mt. xi. 27 || Lk. x. 22. 

(c) of 'the righteous judgment of God.' Rom. ii. 5: 'wrath' 

ib. i. 18. 

(d) of 'the sons of God.' Rom. viii. 19. 

(e) of a 'glory.' Rom. viii. 18, 1 Pet. iv. 13, v. 1. 

(/) of a salvation and deliverance. 1 Pet. i. 5. 

(g) of an evil power. 2 Th. ii. 3, 6, 8. 

(11) of a faith. Gal. iii. 23. eh t. //.eWovcrav iriariv diroKa- 

(i) of whatever is covered (KeKa\vp.p.evov). Mt. x. 26 || Lk. xii. 2. 
(k) of heavenly truths. 1 Cor. ii. 10. to fidOy to5 Oeov. 

Rom. xvi. 25. /j.v(TTrjp(ov xpdi/ois aicoviots aemyr] fievov. 
Eph. iii. 3, 5. ro /jLvo-njpiov. 

Mt. xi. 25 II Lk. x. 21. OTi iupvipa.'s raCra diro (rocptov k. 
trvviTwv koX dirtKaXv^as aura vrj-irion. (Cf. Phil. iii. 15.) 
Mt. xvi. 17. crapf k. at/xa ovk airtKdXwpiv <jol aW 6 
Trarijp p.ov 6 iv t. ovpavols. (Cf. v. 16.) 

With Revelation is co-ordinated ' knowledge,' ' prophecy ' and 
'teaching.' 1 Cor. xiv. 6. 

With Revelation is co-ordinated 'wisdom.' Eph. i. 17 (v. supr. 
p. 158, Dale on 'Wisdom and Revelation'). 

' Revelation is always (probably even in Gal. iii. 23) in the strictest 
sense an unveiling of what already exists, not the coming into existence 
of that which is said to be revealed.' (Hort on 1 Pet. i. 5.) 



On the use of the term pvo-rr/piov in the N. T. 

The word pvo-rqpiov (which in the lxx. occurs Judith ii. 2, Wisd. 
vi. 24, Ecclus. xxii. 22, Tob. xii. 7, 21, 2 Mace. xiii. 21 and elsewhere; 
also in Theodotion's version of Dan. ii. 18 ff., Ps. xxv. 14 and Prov. xx. 
19) is found, in the Synoptic Gospels in the parallel texts (Mt. xiii. 11, 
Mk. iv. 11, Lk. viii. 10) of the Parable of the Sower, but elsewhere in 
the N. T. only in the Epistles of St Paul and in the Apocalypse. 

It is used (1) comprehensively of the Christian Revelation or of the 
central truth of the universality of the Gospel, (2) of special truths in 
that revelation. 

But always in the N. T. the fact of revelation, actual or imminent, 
is implied. 

(1) In the comprehensive meaning the word is used 13 times by 
St Paul and once in the Apocalypse. 
A. (a) I Cor. ii. I. KaTayyiX.\<av to fiAXTTijpiov tov 6 tov. 

6 f . (rotpiav Se \ ev tois reXetois (those who 

are fully initiate), (ro<piav Se oi tov auovos tovtou ovSc k.t.\ 

a'Ua XaXov/itv deov <ro<piav ev [ivo-Tr/pm. 
Kom. xvi. 25 f. Kara aTTOKaAin/ai' /ivo-rrjpiov xpovois auovtois 
0-eo-iyrjp.evov tpaveptoOivros S« vvv Sia re ypa<ptov Trpo<j>irnK<jiv 
KO.T tTriTayijv tov almvlov 6eov ch VTraKorjV irio-T£a>s «S travTa 
to. Wvr) yvtapio-devTo<s. 
(6) Col. i. 26 f. to /ivanqpiov to d.iroK£Kpvp.p.evov airb tu>v aloivrnv *. 
airo twv yeveav, vvv 8e i<pavep(a6r] tois ayiois, ots ■qOiKrjcnv 6 
0eos yvu>piaai tl to ttXovtos rijs Sdfijs tov fixo-rripiov tovtov iv 
tois edveo-iv, o ioriv Xpioros iv i/xiv, 17 eXircs Trj<s Sdfqs. 
(v. Lightfoot's note.) 
Col. ii. 2. eis iirtyvoyo-LV tov /xvo-Tripiov tov Otov Xpiorox! iv <p 
tialv 7raiT£S 01 fli/o-aupoi "ri/s o"0(pias kcu yi/<oo-e<os airottpvcpoi — 
' God's mystery, which is nothing else than Christ — Christ 
containing in Himself all the treasures of wisdom and 
knowledge hidden away.' (Lightfoot, ad loc.) 
Col. iv. 3 f . iva 6 Oeos dvoi^y rjpZv Ovpav tov \6yov, \a\rjcrai to 
p.vo-njpiov toB xpkttoC, 816 Kai SeSep-ai - Iva. <f>a.vcpu>o~u> ovto, ojs 
8ei fte \aXijo"at. 
Eph. i. 9. yvo)pio-as 57p.1i' to ixvo-rrjpiov tov SeA^p-aTOS avroS — 
' the mystery of His will ' — the Divine counsel now re- 
vealed, expressing God's Will. 


Eph. iii. 3. Kara'iv iyvuipiaOy] fioi to fj,vo~Trjpiov. 
4. iv T<3 fx.v<mjpim tov xpioroC. 
The ' mystery of the Christ ' was (v. 6) the truth, revealed 
to the Apostles, that the Gentiles, by incorporation in 
Christ, were, equally with Jews, heirs of all the hopes of 
the people of God, members of one Divine society, and 
partakers of the gift of the Holy Spirit. 

Eph. iii. 9. 7] olKovofiia tov fi.v<TTr)piov toB diroKeKpvp.fievov euro 
T<av altovav iv t<3 Bern tu> to. ttolvto. ktio-ovti. 
The words recall the language of Rom. xvi. 25 f. (v. supr.) 

Eph. vi. 19. iv irappijcria yvupitrai to fivcrTr/piov tov eiayye\Cov 
— 'the mystery of the Gospel ' — the revelation contained in 
the Gospel, 
(c) 1 Tim. iii. 9. exovras to fj-vorrfpiov ■nj's irio-Teeos iv KaOapa 
o-vve&ijo-ei — 'holding the mystery of the faith in a pure 

I Tim. iii. 16. *. 6fioX.oyovp.evoK fieya eortv to rrjs cwreyScias 
/j.vorT]piov — 'the mystery of godliness.' 

B. Apoc. x. 7. Kal ireKio-Orj to fivoTrfpiov tov Oeov, <os evyjyyekio-ev 

tovs iavTov SouXovs tovs TrpofprjTas — where 'the mystery of 
God ' is a revelation now imminent (v. 6 ' there shall be 
delay no longer ' : cf . Dan. xii. 7) and the language is that 
of Amos iii. 7 ' Surely the Lord God will do nothing, but 
He revealeth his secret unto His servants the prophets.' 

(2) In the sense of a particular truth, or detail, of the Christian 
revelation, the word occurs seven times in St Paul, and three times 
in the Apocalypse. 

A. (a) 2 Th. ii. 7. to yap fivo-njpiov 17817 ivepyehai ttjs avo/uas. 

I Cor. iv. I. vir7]pera<s XpioroC a. oiKOVOfiovi fj.vo-Tr)piu>v 6 tov. 
xiii. 2. Kav i\u> Trpo<prfTeLav Kal ei8<3 Ta fivorajpia woaito.. 
xiv. 2. irveupjxTi Se XaXet fivo-rr/pia. 

xv. 5 1. ISov, fivo-Tijpiov Xeym — 'a mystery' — a heaven- 
ly truth — revealed to me. 
Rom. xi. 25. oi yap 8e\u> fyxas dyvoeiv to fj.vo-Trjpi.ov tovto — oti 
jrwpojo-is airo /xepovs T<3 'Io-paiJX yiyovev a)(pi ov to ■7rXrjpoifj.a 
tSiv iBvSsv eicrekdrf k.t.X. 
(b) Eph. V. 32. t6 fivo-TTjpwv tovto p.iya io-Tiv, iyib Se kiyot eh 
Xpio-Tbv (cat [ek] rrjv £KicXi?o-iay— ' this mystery' — this re- 
vealed truth of a unique relationship. 


' The law of marriage laid down in Genesis as given to 
Adam was for St Paul a preliminary indication of a hidden 
Divine purpose or ordinance, the full meaning of which 
was to be revealed only by the revealing of Christ as the 
Head of His spouse the Church' (Hort : Prolegomena to 
Romans and Ephesians, p. 160). 

B. Mt. xiii. II. Seoorai yvwvai to. /wo-rqpia. rrjs ySao-iWas t. 

ovpavmv, eKciVois Si ov Se'Sorat (Lk. viii. 10 tois Si Xowrois iv 


[Mk. iv. ii has to p.vo-rypiov SeSorai, where perhaps 

the singular may be regarded as = yvwvai ra p,va-Trjpia of 

Mt. and Lk., and, for the second clause, eWvots Si rots efu 

iv irapapoXcus ra ■ko.vto. ytverai.] 
Apoc. i. 20. to jx,vtTTqpLov r<Sv eWa dorepiov — 'the mystery 

of [the inner meaning of the truth signified by] the seven 

Apoc. xvii. 5. k. ivr\ to perumov avrrjs ovopa. yeypap.pivov, 

pvcTTrjpiov, Ba|8vA.(i>v k.t.X. — where pvo-Tijpiov = ' name sig- 
nificant of a spiritual truth.' 
Apoc. xvii. 7. iyia epw trot to pv(mqpiov [the mystery — the 

inner significance of — the unseen fact signified by] t^s 

•ywai/cos k. tov Orjplov. 

[The history of the use of the term in pre-Christian Greek deserves 
further study. Already in Plato, Theaet. 156 a, SXKol 8c Kop.\j/oT€poi, 
(Sv piWai 0-01 to. p.vo-njpia \iyeiv the word is used metaphorically, not, 
that is, of the actual, ceremonial, ' mysteries ' or mystic implements, 
but of philosophical doctrines belonging to men of a particular School 
and expounded with authority by them alone, though the exposition 
may be subsequently transmitted by a hearer to others. Already the 
idea of secrecy is subordinate to that of special discovery or possession.] 

" But, when adopted into the Christian vocabulary by St Paul, the 
word signifies simply ' a truth which was once hidden, but now is 
revealed,' 'a truth which without special revelation would have been 
unknown.' Hence p.vo-njpiov is almost universally found in connexion 
with words denoting revelation or publication ; e.g. aTroKaXvirreLv, 
aVoKaAvi/as, Rom. xvi. 25, Eph. iii. 3, 5, 2 Th. ii. 7 ; yvtapi^eiv, Rom. 
xvi. 26, Eph. i. 9, iii. 3, 10, vi. 19; <pavtpovv, Col. iv. 3, Rom. xvi. 26, 
1 Tim. iii. 16; kaKeiv Col. iv. 3, 1 Cor. ii. 7, xiv. 2 ; Xeyeiv 1 Cor. xv. 
51." (Lightfoot on Col. i. 26.) 

The word is characteristic of the Epistle to the Ephesians. 



On the phrases ev XpiaTm, iv Xpiarip 'Irjcrov, ev Tcp %pio~T<p. 


The phrases ev Xpiorui 'Iijo-ov 
found in the Epistles of St Paul 

ev XpHJT<3 Irjcrov 

1 Th. ii. 14 
v. 18 
1 Cor. i. 2, 4, 30 
iv. 15 
xv. 31 
xvi. 24 
Gal. ii. 4 

iii. 14 (W.H. mg.) 

28 7j-avr« — v/uets eis 
«7T£ ev X. I. 
v. 6 
Rom. iii. 24 

vi. 11, 23 
viii. 2, 39 
xv. 17 

xvi. 3 crvvepyovs p.ov iv 
X. *I. 

(b) Phil. i. 1 

ii- 5. I0 
iii. 3, 14 
iv. 7 

Col. i. 4 

Eph. i. 1 

ii. 6, 7, 10, 13 
iii. 6, 11, 21 

Philem. 23 

(c) 1 Tim. i. 14 

iii. 13 
2 Tim. i. i, 9, 13 
ii. 1, 10 
iii. 12, 15 

and ev Xp«rr<3 (without 'hjtrov) are 
as follows : 

ev Xpiorc3 

(a) 1 Th. iv. 16 01 vexpol ev X. 

1 Cor. iii. 1 

iv. 10, 15, 17 

XV. l8 01 KOlfirj6£vT€S 

iv X. 

19 jJXiri/cores ev X. 

2 Cor. ii. 17 

iii. 14 ev X. KarapyciTai. 
v. 17 et tis ev X. 

19 0eos rjv iv Xpiar<3 
Kocr/xov Karak- 
Xacrtrwv eavT<3 
xii. 2, 19 
Gal. i. 22 
ii. 17 
Rom. ix. 1 

xii. 5 ev (Ttofnd eo"p.ev ev X. 
xvi. 7, 9 

(b) Phil. i. 13 

ii. 1 

iv. 19, 21 
Col. i. 2 t. ev Ko\. dytois ko! 
ttmttois aSeX^ois ev X. 
Eph. i. 3 

iv. 32 
Philem. 8 iroWrjv iv X. irap- 
pij(7iav ex<av 
20 avairavcrov y.ov ra 
o'lrXay^va ev X. 


Outside the Pauline Epistles there is no instance of iv Xpio-rw 
'Irj<rov. But iv Xpiorcu is found in 

1 Pet. iii. 16. 

V. 10 [with V. 1. iv T(3 xpioTui]. 

It is also the reading of A in Apoc. i. 9. 

The phrase iv t<3 xP" r7 "<? i s found only in 
2 Cor. ii. 14. t<3 TravTore 6ptap.f$c.vovn 17/ iv tc3 )(pi<rT<o. 

Eph. i. 10. dvaice<£a\ai<D<ra(r#ai Ta 7ravTa iv t<2 xpior<3. 
1 2. toiis irjoorjXiriKOTas «v ™ ^pio-Tcp. 
20. 171/ ivqpyrjKev iv T<3 xpurrm. 

(ii. 5. W. & H. mg. and so also 1 Pet. v. 10.) 

[In Gal. iii. 14 cv 'Irjcrov Xpioro! is read (W. H. text).] 

In Eph. iv. 2 1 occurs the unique phrase iv tw 'Itjo-ov (v. Add. Note, 
p. 70); and in Apoc. i. 9 the reading of [adopted by W. & H.] is 
iv rfj 6X.ii//ti k. f3a.(ri\.(ia k. virop,ovfj iv 'Irjcrov. 

None of the phrases iv Xpi<rT<3, iv Xpi<ri-<3 'Irja-ov and iv rta xptoro! 
occur in Hebrews or in any (save 1 Pet.) of the Catholic Epistles. 
Apart from 1 Pet. (11. cc.) they are exclusively Pauline. 

It will be seen that the short phrase iv Xpicrnii does not occur in 
the Pastoral Epistles. 

Otherwise iv Xpto-T<3 and iv Xpio-rcS 'Vqaov occur with about equal 
frequency, both in the earlier Epistles and in the Epistles of the 
Captivity. , 

On the other hand the unusual phrase iv tco xpiarai is characteristic 
of the Epistle to the Ephesians, occurring in other Epistles nowhere 
excepting 2 Cor. ii. 14. 

In Ephesians c. i. and more especially in the great Hymn of Praise 
(i, 3 — 14) the three forms of expression all occur, and, besides the 
instances of actual occurrence above cited, one or other of them is 
implied also in v. 4 (ev airy), v. 6 (ev ™ rjya.Tr-qp.ivia), v. 7 (iv w), 17.11 
(iv air<3), v. 13 (iv w). 

Indeed in the rhythmical passage i. 3 — 14 the relation of the 
believer to Christ is shewn by development of the expression iv 


It is ' in Christ ' (iv Xpiora!) that the Divine blessing is bestowed 
upon us (i. 3). Eternal election ' in Him ' is spoken of (v. 4) as resting 
on a predestination to sonship : in Him too grace (v. 6; ii. 7; iv. 32) 
and redemption (i. 7) are ours. In Him, the Incarnate Son, God's 
purpose (i. 9) was embodied and accomplished, and would (v. 10) find 


its consummation. In Him the faithful of Israel had found fulfilment 
of their hope (w. 11, 12); in Him Gentiles received (v. 13) the glad 
tidings of salvation and the gift of the Holy Spirit. 

In the passage (ii. 1 — 10) describing what God in His mercy and 
love has done for man, it is ' in Christ Jesus ' that man is seen to be 
(ii. 6) quickened, restored, and exalted: — in Him it is (v. 7) that the 
wealth of God's grace and goodness is manifested; in Him that 
Christians, a new creation, can do the works which God has prepared 
for them. 

The other instances of eV XpiorcS 'Irjaov in this Epistle are : 

II. 13. vvvi oe ev Xpioroi 'Ir/crov v/xeis 01 wore ovres /laKpav iytvq0r)Te 

€yyus, — followed by ktio-q ev aura! eis IVa avOpotTrov 
(v. 16). 

III. 6. en at Ta iOvr] (rvvKXripovofia Kal crwcriop.a Kai o-wp-iro^a tijs 

€7rayye\ias iv Xptcrrip 'lr/crov. 
lii. 21. ol£t(3 17 $d£a iv TJ7 iKK\rjo-ia Kal iv Xpiorip 'lijtrov [where 
see note ad loc.]. 

The only other occurrence of iv Xpurrw in the Epistle is at iv. 32 
Kadtos Kal 6 #eos Iv Xpiorai ixaplaaro, — which recalls 2 Cor. v. 19 
(v. inf.). 

In Eph. iii. 11 iv t<o xpicrrai 'Irjcrov t<3 Kupuo 7/p.cov we have the same 
combination and order of titles as in Col. ii. 6 cos ovv irapekafiere tov 
Xpiorov 'Ir/vovv tov Kvpwv, iv airtp 7rtpnraT€iTC (cf. Eph. iv. 20, 21). 

This twofold title brings together the confession tov xpwrov 'Iijo-ovv 
(Acts v. 42), implied in the tov xpio-tov 'I-qo-ov of Eph. iii. i, with the 
confession Kvptos 'lyo-ovs (1 Cor. xii. 3, Rom. x. 9) implied in the iv 
rep Kvpia) 'Irjo-ov of Eph. i. 15 : — a phrase which occurs nowhere else in 
St Paul'. 

(The combination ev Xpiorip 'I-qo-ov tc3 xvptai ijp.coi' occurs 1 Cor. xv. 31, 
Horn. vi. 23, viii. 39.) 

The simple phrase iv Kvplu> is found 
(a) 1 Th. iii. 8 

v. 12 

2 Th. iii. 4 

1 Cor. i. 31 
iv. 7 

vii. 22, 39 
ix. 1 f. 
xi. 11 
xv. S 8 

1 Cor. xvi. 19 

2 Cor. ii. 12 

x. 17 
Gal. v. 10 

Rom. xvi. 2, 8, nfE, 22 
(b) Phil. i. 14 

ii. 19, 24, 29 
iii. 1 xatpere iv k. 
iv. 2, 10 


Eph. vi. I v7raKOveTe r. yovev- 
aiv v/iiav [tv K.J 
10 evSvva/iova-de iv k. 

21 7T10T0S 8lO.K0V0S €V 

Philem. 16, 20 
(c) nowhere in the Pastoral Epis- 

Col. iii. 18, 20 

iv. 7, 17 
Eph. ii. 21 au£ei eis vaoi/ ayiov 
iv Kvpim 

iv. I Trapa.Ka\<2 — d Sc'o-- 

/X(05 iv K. 

17 (lapTvpo/xai iv K. 
v. 8 iw 8e <£<3s eV k. 

It does not occur in Hebrews or in any of the Catholic Epistles. 

Outside St Paul's writings it is found only in Apoc. xiv. 13 fnaxapioi 
01 vwpoi 01 ev Kvplip airo6vrj(rKovres air' apri. 

Both expressions iv Xpurrw and iv Kvp'm, signify fellowship and 
vital union with Him, in Whom the life of the Christian is ideally 

' The Christian lives — in Christ. It is from Christ that he draws 
his energy— it is as a member of Christ that he fulfils his part in the 
great economy of the world. By his faith in God Incarnate and Man 
ascended he stands forth as a witness of the essential unity of the seen 

and the unseen, of earth and of heaven Doubtless it is hard to 

endure as seeing the invisible; but when the spiritual eyes grow dim, 
the thought of Christ risen, in Whom we are, will remove the mists 
which cloud them. If once we realize what these words 'we are in 
Christ ' mean, we shall know that beneath the surface of life lie depths 
which we cannot fathom, full alike of mystery and of hope.' 

(The Christian Life, pp. 34, 35.) 

The expression rd iravTa. 

to. iravra occurs 

A. in Epistles of St Paul 

(a) I Cor. viii. 6. eis Kvpios I. Xp. Si ov (v. 1. ov) to, iravra. 
xi. 1 2. Tct 8e iravra eic rov 6eov. 
xii. 6. #eos d evepydiv ra. 7ravra ev irao~iv. 
xv. 2 7 f . r. virord^avros avT<3 to. 7ravTa. 
2 Cor. iv. 15. to. yap iravra 01 u'/ta?. 

v. 18. to Se iravra i< rov $eov. 
Gal. iii. 22. owe/cXeicrev 17 ypaip-q ra. iravra viro a/iapriav. 
(In i Cor. xii. 19 the reading is doubtful.) 
(6) Phil. iii. 8. 6Y 6V to. iravra i£,rip.i<ti6r)v. 

21. Kara, rr/v ivipyfiav rov &vvao~6ai avrbv xai virora£ai 


Col. i. 16. iv avr<3 cktio-Oij to, iraWa — ra iravra Si' airov k. ell 


IJ. k. ra iravra iv airm o-vvio~rr)Ktv. 
20. k. 81 avrov diroKaraXXd^ai ra. iravra. 
111. 8. airodecrOt Kal v//.€is to. iravra, 
Eph. i. 10. di/aK£^><ucracrdat to iravra iv tu xpior<3. 
1 1 . tov to iravra ivepyovvros. 

23. to ir\rjpo)fi.a rov ra. iravra iv irb\o~iv irX-qpovii.ivov. 
111. 9. cv t<3 0e<o r<5 to. iravra Krio-avri. 
iv. 10. iva irXrjpmo-g to. iravra. 

15. avfijcw/tev eV avrcS Ta iravra. 
V. 13. Ta 8e iravra iXty^o/itva virb rov <£(3ros. 
(c) 1 Tim. vi. 1 3. t. 0£oB t. ^tooyoi/oiWos to, a-aWa. 
B. Elsewhere in the N. T. 

Heb. i. 3. (pepuiv — to. iravra rm pij/ji.ari rrjs 8wo/i€ios avrov. 
ii. 10. 81 ov to, jravTa xai 8t' ov to, TravTa. 
[In ii. 8 the irdvra of t& iran-a is a repetition of the word from the quota- 
tion preceding. 'The to irdvTa takes up the irdvra. of the Psalm' (note 
ad loc.).~\ 

Apoc. iv. II. OTi uv eKTKras to. iravra Kal 81a to 6iXrjp,d crov 
170-av Kal iKTi&Orjcrav. 
Ta. TravTa, signifying all things in their unity, — the sum of all 
things, seen and unseen, in the heavens and upon the earth, whatever 
their sphere of being, their mode of existence, or their relation of 
dependence upon God, — may be contrasted with iravra, which denotes 
all things regarded severally. 

Eor iraWa cf. 1 Cor. iii. 22, ix. 22, xv. 27, 28, Col. iii. 11, Eph. i. 22 
(iii. 20, vi. 21), Heb. iii. 4, Jo. i. 3 (where see note). 

In Eph. i. 22 iravra virera£ev virb tovs irdSas avrov is a quotation 
from Ps. viii. 6, the same passage being cited [in close agreement with 
the lxx.J in Heb. ii. 8 (q. v.). 

On the other hand to. iravra stands in contrast with rb irav, — a term 
familiar in Greek philosophy and implying a self-contained unity. 
To irav is not Scriptural. 

'H Soga in the Epistle to the Ephesians. 

In the Epistle to the Ephesians 
(o) Sofa, without the article, is found three times: 
i. 6. eis hratvov Sdfijs T^g xdpiros airov. 
12. eU hraivov Sdfrjs airov [where see note]. 

iii. 13. i7 Tts *°" r ' &°£ a vfiiSv 

(cf. Col. iii. 4, Phil. i. n, ii. 11, iv. 19). 


(6) ?J Sd£a is found five times : 

i. 14. €ts ewaivov rfjs §6ip)% aflroS. 

17. 6 7ra/njp tjJs Sdfiys. 

1 8. tis 7t\oi3tos T^s 8d£r/s t. xAr/poi'o^ii'as avroC ev T. dytots. 
ili. 16. Kara to it\oi!tos tijs So^s avroC. 

21. avnji r; 8d£a ev TT/ e(CK\r/<rta k. er 'Irjo-oC XpMrra>. 

The other occurrences of 17 Sd£a in the Epistles of the Captivity are : 
Col. i. II. koto, to KpaTos T17S S0I77S auTov. 


Phil. iii. 21. O"up.p.op0oi' t<3 0"<iip,aTi tijs So^rjl avrov. 
(Compare in contrast 0. 19 rj S. iv t. alaxfoy airdv.) 
IV. 20. T(3 Se 0e<i! «<u iraTpi ■qjiuiv ij 86£a. 

' The glory of the Lord' — is a key- word of Scripture. — The Bible is 

one widening answer to the prayer of Moses (Ex. xxxiii. 18) ' Shew me 

Thy glory.' — And God has been pleased to make Himself known in 

many parts and in many fashions — as man could bear the knowledge : 

(a) by material symbol (Ex. xxiv. 16, Lev. ix. 23, Ex. xl. 35, 

1 K. viii. ii, Ezek. xliii. 4ff., Apoc. xxi. 22 f.), 

(/?) through human Presence : 

(i) in the Messianic nation (Is. xl. 5), — and (id xlii. ff., 

liii. 3 ff.) the Figure of the ' Servant of the Lord,' 

(ii) finally in the Incarnation of the Son of God, in the 

Life and Resurrection of the Son of Man (Jo. i. 14, 

ii. 11), the perfect revelation on earth of the Glory 

of God. 

{Revelation of the Fattier, pp. 164 f.) 

The 'glory of God' is the full manifestation of His attributes 
according to man's power of apprehending them, 'all His goodness' 
(Ex. xxxiii. 19 ff.). Of it—under the Old Dispensation the Shekinah 
was the Symbol. (Note on Heb. i. 3.) 

'It is the majesty, or the power or the goodness, of God as manifested 
to men.' (Lightfoot on Col. i. 11.) 

It is the sum of His manifested perfections. 

The 'glory of His grace' (Eph. i. 6)' is the manifestation of the 
power of His free and bounteous goodness. 

The 'Father of Glory' (Eph. i. 17) is He, Whom Our Lord Jesus 
Christ has revealed as Father, — from Whom all perfection proceeds— 
the source or subject of all revelation. 

(In Acta vii. 2 the phrase ' the God of glory' recalls Ps. xxix. 3; while in 

1 Cor. ii. 8 Our Lord Jesus Christ, Whom 'the rulers of this world crucified' is 

' the Lord of glory ' : of. Ja. ii. 1.) 


'The wealth of the glory' of God (Eph. i. 18, iii. 16)— a phrase 
occurring also in Col. i. 27 and in Roin. ix. 23— signifies the inex- 
haustible fulness of His Majesty and abundant goodness, as revealed 
to man. 

The Doxology in Eph. iii. 21 : 'To Him be the glory in the Church 
and in Christ Jesus unto all the generations of the age of the ages' 
may be compared with the doxologies in 

Gal. 1. 5. a) ■q 80'fa eis t. a£<uras t. aitavmv. 

Rom. xi. 3 f. avT<<) rj Sofa eh t. aiuWs (cf. xvi. 27). 
Phil. iv. 20. t<3 8e Oetjj k. irarpl ij/xuiv 17 8ofa eh t. ai. t. ai. 
Apoc. i. 6, v. 12 f., vii. 12, xix. 1. k.t.X. 
In all these instances the Doxology is addressed to God the Father. 
In 2 Tim. iv. i8u 77 80'fa eh t. «. t. u. the Doxology is addressed to 

Christ (pvo-erai p.e 6 Kvpios) ; and so in 2 Pet. iii. 1 8, and in Apoc. i. 6 : 

possibly also in Heb. xiii. 21 (v. note), and 1 Pet. iv. 11. 

The article in all these doxologies implies that to God only belongs 
that through which whatever is glorious gains its glory — His is 'the 
glory ' (7/ Sofa). 

Words in the New Testament denoting resurrection or raising 
from death. 

'E>yei|Oetf, dvacrrfjvai, avaaTacns. 

A. In the Pauline Epistles. 

(a) eyeipeiv, eytipeo~6ai, iyeipai, eyepBrjvai are used. 

I Th. i. IO. OV TfyeipeV €K IW ViKptOV. 

I Cor. vi. 14. 6 Se #eos xai tov Kvpiov riyeipev k<u ?7p,as e£eyepet (v. 1. 
efrfyeipev) Sia T779 Swd^Euis aiTOv. 

XV. 4. k. on eyqyepTai rrj Tjp-epa. rrj TpiTt). 

12. OTt ck veKpuiv iyijytpTai. 

13. ovSe Xptoros eyr/yepTai. 

14. ei 8e Xp«7Tos ovk eyrr/eprai (So «. 17.) 

15. oTi ,fy.apTvpy](rajj.ev Kara tov 6eov on rjyeipev tov 

XptcrTOv, oV ovk r/yeipev, enrep apa veKpol ovk eyei- 

16. el yap veKpol ovk eyeipovrai, oiSe Xptoros eyrfyeprai. 
20. vvvl 8e XpwrTos iyrjyeprai Ik vtKpwv. 

29. si — vexpol ovk eyeipovrai. (So v. 32.) 
35. 7T<3s eyeipovrai 01 veKpoi ; 


1 Cor. xv. 42 ff. iyeiperai iv atpdapo-La. — i. iv Solg — i. iv Swd/xu e. 

<7<3jU,a irvevp,arix6v. 
52. 06 vexpoi iyepdrjo-ovrai d<p8aproi. 

2 Cor. i. 9. t(3 iyeipovri tovs vc/cpovs. 

iv. 14. 6 iyeipas tov xvptov 'Iyjo-ovv xal tJ/juis <tvv 'li)(rov iyepel. 

v. 15. to) virep airiov dvodavovri xal iyepOevru 

Gal. i. 1. k. Oeov mxTpds tov iyeipavros airbv ex vexpmv. 

Rom. iv. 24. T. iyeipavra 'Irjcrovv r. xvpiov ■qfLmv ix vexpav. 

2 5- "■ Vy e P0V & la T V V Sucomimtiv rjp.a>v. 

vi. 4. yjyepOrj XptcrTOs £K V£Kp<3v. 

9. Xp. eyep0eis ex v. 

vu. 4. t(3 ck v. iyf.pBi.vri. 

viii. 10. t. iyeipavros r. 'I. e« v. — 6 iyelpa% e/t v. X. 'I. 

34. fiaXXov 8c iyepOek. 

X. 9. OTt 6 #eds avTOv rjyeipev ix v. 

Col. ii. 12. roj 0eoO toC iyeipavTOS avroi/ « vexpmv. 

Eph. i. 20. eyeipas avrov ek veKpuJv. 

2 Tim. ii. 8. Xpiaroi' iyTjyepp.evov eV vexpmv. 

(^8) The verb dvio-racrOai, dvao-rrjvai, is used 

I Th. iv. 14. on °Ii;o-oi!s cwreflavev Kai aveo-rrj. 

16. 01 vexpoi iv Xp«rT<3 draoTTjcroj'Tai irpcoTOv. 
(On Eph. v. 14, v. infr.) 

The noun aWo-rao-is occurs 

1 Cor. xv. 12. Xiyovo-Lv — on avaorao-is vexpmv oix eariv. 

13. el Si avaorcuris v. oix eariv. 

2 1 . xal oV dvdpmrrov avaorao-is v. 

42. ovto) /cat »y avaorao-is t. v. 
Rom. i. 4. t. bpio-8evros vlov Oeov — ef avaarao-eeos vexpuiv. 

vi. 5. aAAA Kai t^s avao"T<xo"«(i)S icrofneda. 

Phil. iii. 10. t»Jv Svvap.iv rfjs aVaarao-ea>s avroJ. 

2 Tim. ii. 18. AeyovTes aVdarao-tv ^8tj ycyovcVai. 
Also once e£avdoTao-is. 

Phil. iii. II. ets rijv i£avdcrrao-iv rqv e« veicpaiv. 

B. In non-Pauline Epistles. 
(a) iyeipeiv x.t.\. are found 

Heb. xi. 19. Xoyio-a/tevo? ori xal ix vexpmv iye.Cpe.iv Swai-os 6 6eo<s 

(where see note). 
I Pet. i. 21. Oeov tov iyeipavra airbv ix vexpmv. 
[See Hort's note ad loc] 


(/3) The verb aviaraa-Oai k.t.X. does not occur. 

But ava'oTcuris is found : — 

Heb. vi. 4. avao-rao-£<DS veKptov k. Kpip.aros aioiviov. 

XI. 35. ekafiov yvvaiKK i£ avaorao-ews t. veKpovs auTwi/. 
ib. tva xpeiTTovos avaorao-eo)? Tuxwcriv. 
I Pet. 1. 3. o Kara to ttoKv eavToB IXeos dva.yevvqaa.'i 1/ els 
eXiri'Sa £<ocrav 81' avaorao-eios 'lrjfrov Xpiorov eic 
i'€icp<3>'. [where see Hort's note.] 
ill. 21. o-aS£ei — 81' avao-rao-EOJS 'Ir/trov XpiaTov. 

O. Usage of Synoptic Gospels and .4cte. 

In the Synoptic Gospels both verbs — kyeipeo-6ai (iyepOrjvai k.t.X.) and 
avifTTOurOai (dvao-rrjvai k.t.\.) are used : also avaorao-is. 

(a) Raising of the daughter of Jairus. 
Mk. v. 41. eyeipe — aveo-rq. 

Mt. ix. 25. -qyipOr). 

Lk. viii. 55. eyeipe — dvecrTrj. 

(b) Charge to the disciples. 
Mt. x. 8. v£icpot>s iyeipere. 

(c) Message to the Baptist. 

Mt. xi. 5 = Lk. vii. 22. veKpol iyeipovrai. 

(d) Herod and John the Baptist. 

Mk. vi. 14 ff. iyyjyeprai Ik veupwv — yyepOr) (v. 16). 

Mt. xiv. 2. r/yepO-q drrb r. vtKpiSv. 

Lk. ix. 7. on 'Ioxxi'ijs rjyipdr) in veKp&v. 

8. oti irpocpTqnqs tis t. dp^aiW dveo-rrj. 

(e) Answer to the Sadducees. 

Mk. xii. 26. irept 8c t. veicpaiv on iyeipovrai. 
Lk. xx. 27. oti 8e iyeipovrai oi veKpoi. 

Here also the noun dvdo-rao-is is used : — 
Mk. xii. 18, 22, Mt. xxii. 23, 28, 30, 31, Lk. xx. 27, 33, 35, 36. 
(It also occurs Lk. xiv. 14 iv r% dvatrrdo-ei rZv SikcuW.) 

if) The Lord's predictions of His Passion and Resurrection. 
Mk. ix. 31, X. 33, dvaorqa-erai, xiv. 28 eyepOrjvai. 
Mt. xvi. 21 iyepOrjvai, xx. 19 eyepdijo-erai (v. 1. dvao-rqa-erai), xvii. 9 
iyep&jj (v. 1. ovao-Tj)). 


Lk. ix. 2 2. lyepOrjvai (v. 1. aVao-riJyai), xviii. 33 dyacmjireTai. 
Cf. Mt. xxvii. 63 f. iyelpo/Mi — i)y{p8r]. 

(g) Parable of Rich Man and Lazarus. 
Lk. xvi. 31. lav tis Ik vtKpwv dvaxrrrj. 
(h) Records of the Resurrection. 

Mk. xvi. 6. ■qyipQr) (cf. v. 9 dyacrrds, v. 14 eyrjyep/jLevov). 
Mt. xxviii. 6. r\ykpBi\, v. 7 -qyipOr) dirb r. ye/cptoy. 
Lk. xxiv. 6. rjyipfh), v. 7 avaorr^yai. 
34. ovTux; riyipOrj. 
The noun eyepcris occurs once, Mt. xxvii. 53 /tern rrjv eyeptrtv avroS. 
In Acts again both verbs are used : — 
(a) rjyeipev (sc. d 0eos) in iii. 15, iv. 10, v. 30, x. 40, xiii. 30, 37; 

and eyeipei in xxvi. 8. 
(/?) ayeoTT/crey or dyaa-nfo-as (sc. d #eos) in ii. 24, 32, iii. 26, xiii. 33, 
34 (Ik v.), xvii. 31 (J/c v.). 

The noun dydoratris occurs n times in Acts, viz.: — 
Acts i. 22. jxaprvpa tijs ayaoracrecDS auToS. 

ii. 21. t. ay. t. xptcrToi!, iv. 33 t. ay. t. Kvpiov 'Iijcov. 
xvii. 18. I. Kal Ti/y aydtrrao'iy. 
xxiii. 8. p.17 etyai dydoraaw. 

iv. 2. T. ayatTTacny nrjv ex i/cicpaiy. 
xvii. 32, xxiii. 6, xxiv. 15, 21, xxvi. 23. ay. veicpwy. 

D. In St John. 

(a) iyelpav k.t.X. is used 

Jo. ii. 19. ey Tpicriv r)p.ipais cyepaS avrov, and «. 20 eyepcis. 

22. ore ovy ■qyipOi} ex yeicpaiy. 

v. 21. eyeipei toiis vtKpovs. 

xii. i, 9. oy tfyeipev ex yeicpcSv, and #.17 (of Lazarus). 

xxi. 14. iyepBels €K vtKpwv. 

(y8) ayitrrayai, dytaracrflai, dyaor^yai occur 

Jo. vi. 39. aVaanf(ra> avro (ot. 40, 44, 54 ayaan/(r<i) avroy) ti} 
(vel ey T$) iayaTQ rjp.ipa. 
xi. 23. aVaoTjyereTai d a8«X^os om>. 

24. oTSa OTi dyaori7<reTai — ey t. itr\. ■qp.ipq.. 
31. dviwrq k. t£r)\6iv. 
XX. 9. oti 8«t airoy e/c yexpwy dyaorijyai. 


(y) ovocrTao-ts occurs 

Apoc. XX. 5. r/ aVaoTacris 77 irpwrij, v. 6 iv rjj dv. t. it. 
Jo. v. 29. cis avacTTacriv £10175 — eis av. Kpt'crews. 

xi. 24. ev tij aVacrrao-ei. 

25. Eyio ei/u 17 avao-Tatris k. 77' £0)17. 

The phrases aWoTao-is i/eicp<3v and 1; avaorao-is 17 ex veicpaJi' must be 
distinguished. And the contrast between aVao-rao-ts £a>^s and oVaoracris 
Kpt'crews ('resurrection which issues in judgment') is to be noted. 

Cf. 2 Mace. vii. 9. d hi rov koct/xou ftaenkevs mroOavovTas ■ijp.a.'i wrep 
T<ov ain-ou vo/xcov eis auovioi' dvafiiuxriv £0)175 17' aVatrT?7o-€i. 

Also ta. to. v. 14. atperoi/ p.eraXXacrcroi'Tas in-' dvOpunrwv ras inro tou 
peou 7rpoo - ooKa>' cXirt'Sas trdXiv dvacrTijcreirdai vtr avrov- <roi /lev yap ara- 
crracrts ets £0)171' ovk lorai. 

Reference to this Maccabean history of the seven brethren is made 
in Heb. xi. 35 dXXot Si eTV/XTravia-Brjarav, ov 7rpocrSefap.€i'Oi 7-77V aVoXv- 
rpuMTiv, Iva. KpctTTOfos aVaoracreo>s ti^oio-iv («. supr.), ' where in KpeiTTovos 
comparison is made implicitly, though not directly, between resurrection 
to eternal life and resurrection to an earthly life.' (Note ad loc.) 

The words ' shall raise us up — unto an eternal renewal of life ' (in 
v. 7) and ' but as for thee, thou shalt have no resurrection unto life ' 
(in v. 14) of the passage in 2 Maccabees [bring us near to the 
language of the New Testament]. See on Jo. v. 29. 

Cf. Lightfoot on Phil. iii. 11:" The ' resurrection from the dead ' 
(t. cfai/aorao-iv rrjv e/c veKpwv) is the final resurrection of the righteous 
to a new and glorified life. The general resurrection of the dead, 
whether good or bad, is 17 aVao-Tao-is twv veKpwv (e.g. 1 Cor. xv. 42) ; on 
the other hand the resurrection of Christ and of those who rise with 
Christ is generally [77'] dracn-acrts [17'] f« veKpwv (Luke xx. 35, Acts iv. 2, 
1 Pet. i. 3). The former includes both the aVaaracris £0117? and the dvd- 
cn-acrts icpio-eois (Jo. v. 29) ; the latter is confined to the avaoracrts £0)175." 

In Ephesians there is no direct reference to the future resurrection 
of men. 

The words of c. v. 14 : 
"Eyetpe, 6 KaOevSwv, 
/cat aVaora Ik twv veKpdiv, 
/cat i-iri<pav<rei aoi xpurTos 
signify an awakening from the sleep of spiritual death (cf. ii. if.) and 
an arising to spiritual life and action in the present. 

The words, in fact, express a paradox — a present miracle of trans- 
lation from death to life, such a rising, and restoration to life, of the 

W. EPH. 13 


dead as is signified in the miracles of Christ. We may compare the 
language of Jo. iii. 14 |U.ETa/8ej8?7Ka//,ev Ik tov eis ttjv £10771/. 

The realisation of the eternal in the present dominates the thought 
of the Epistle. 

O11 the meaning of icvfiela (Eph. iv. 14). 

' Kv/Jet'a from kv/3o<s is properly ' dice-playing ' and hence ' trickery, 
deceit.' Von Soden prefers to take it as expressing conduct void of 
seriousness; these persons 'play with' the conscience and the soul's 
health of Christians. But this is not the ordinary sense of the word. 
The iv is instrumental, the words expressing the means by which the 
irepi<£. k.t.A. is attained.' 

(Dr T. K. Abbott, International Critical 
Commentary on ' Ephesians,' p. 122.) 

[The foregoing explanation of Kvfida is taken, by kind permission 
of Professor T. K. Abbott of Dublin, from that scholar's admirable 
Commentary on Ephesians in the ' International Critical ' Series. 

Permission to do this was asked on the following grounds. 

There is evidence (a) that Dr Westcott was at first uncertain as to 
the precise meaning of Kvfiua. in this passage, but (6) that he eventu- 
ally came to the decision that it here means ' fraud.' 

There is also evidence that during the last months of his life and 
while engaged on ' Ephesians ' Dr Westcott, who seldom read modern 
commentaries, consulted this work of Prof. Abbott, some of the MS. 
notes of his own Commentary now published being found within the 
pages of a copy of the International Critical Commentary. 

It is reasonable to infer that his ' Additional Note,' promised but 
never written, would have contained a reference to Prof. Abbott's 
note, — in which a meaning, practically identical with that finally 
accepted by Dr Westcott, is given to Kv/3da. j. m. s.] 

Spiritual Powers. 

The existence of other orders of rational (spiritual) beings about us 
is most natural. 

That it is possible for us to hold communication with them under 
certain circumstances is not unlikely. 

That it is wrong for us to seek such intercourse is probable. 

That we may be subject to their assaults seems to be justified by 


The statements of Holy Scripture, however, on this subject are 
marked by singular reserve. 

Use of Kara c. ace. in the Epistle to the Ephesians. 

(as) Kara Oeov. iv. 24. 

,, tt)v Siaptav tijs \apiTOS t. Oeov. iii. 7. 
„ to fierpov T19S Swpeas. iv. 7. 
„ to 7t\o{!tos Trjs x<ipLTo<; avrov. i. 7- 
„ ,, „ ,, 8d|r;s auTOv. iii. 16. 

,, rqv tvSoKiav tov 0eA.17p.aTOs avrov. i. 5, 

„ „ „ O.VTOV. i. 9. 

„ Trjv ^ovXr/V tov 0iX.ijp.aTOi avrov. i. II. 

„ irpoOeo-tv tov to. irdvTa eVepyovvTos. ib. 

„ ' ,, tiSv alwvuiv. iii. 1 1. 

,, ttjv evepyetav tov KpaVous t. i&yyos avrov. i. 19. 

„ „ „ Trjs b'vvdp.tuts avrov. iii. 7. 

(b) Kara tov dp^ovTa rrj<s eifoucrias r. depos. ii. 2. 
„ tov aioii'a Toi; koo-jU,ou tovtou. ib. 
„ ti\v irporipav dvaarpotp-qv. iv. 22. 
„ Tots imdvp.ia'S ttjs dtra.Trj';. ib. 
(0) koto, crap ha. vi. 5. 

kcit' 6<f>0aX.p.oSovX.eLav. vi. 6. 
koit' eWpyeiav. iv. 16. 
/ca# i. 15. 
koit' ep.e. vi. 21. 

£/se of the phrase iv o-apKi. 

Gal. ii. 20. 6 Se V«V £<0 €V O-apKl, iv TTlO'Til £lO TlJ T. VtOU T. OiOV. 

vi. 12. ocroc #e'A.ovo-6i' tvirpoo-unrrjcrat iv aapKi. 
2 Cor. X. 3. iv aapKi. . .irepnraTovVTe;. 

Rom. viii. 8 f. 01 iv aapxl ovTes...ovK iv o~apKi, dXX iv irvcvpuxTi. 
Phil. i. 2 2. tl 8e to t,rjv iv crapKi, tovto p.01 Kapirb's ipyov. 

iii. 3 f. ol TrvivpaTi dtov Xarpevovres . . .ovk iv crapKi weiroiOoT&s. 
Col. ii. I. ocoi ov% iwpaKao~i to irpocrunrov p.ov iv o~apxi. 
Philemon 16. Kal iv vapid nal iv Kvpito. 

Eph. ii. TI. to. eBvT) iv o-dpKi...T. Xtyopevrj's 7rep1.T0p.77s iv crapKi. 
I Tim. iii. 16. icpavtpwOrj iv crapKi, iSiKaiiiOrj iv Trvevpari. 
I Pet. iv. 2. T. iiriXoiirov iv capKi /3i<3crai -^povov (cf. v. l). 
I Jo. iv. 2. o'p.oA,oyei 'I. X. iv o-apKi iXrjXvSoTa (cf. 2 Jo. 7). 



Prophets of the New Covenant. 

(a) irpo<pTJTr]s. 

Mt. X. 41. 6 Se^onievos Trpo^rJTrjv eis ovofna irp. /xurObv irp. kyif/erai. 
Acts xi. 27. KarrjXOov airo 'lepov<ra.\yfi, irpocprJTai. 
xiii. I. Trpofprjrai k. SiSdcncaXoi. 
xv. 32. Koi avrol irpocpTJTai ovtcs. 
xxi. 10. KarrjXdiv tis a7ro rijs 'IouSaias irpo<pijTr]s. 
I Cor. xii. 28. /cai ofis juev e^ero o debs iv 177 iK/ckr/aia wpcoTov 
ewrooToXoDS, Zevrtpov Trpotp-qras, rpirov SiSowtkoXovs. 
29. pvrj TravTCS Trpo<pr]Tat; 
XIV. 29. TrpofpTjTai 8c Svo 17 i-peis XaXeiTaxraj/. 

32. irvevp-aTa irpocpr/Twv ■7rpo<f>ijTai<; virordfraiTai. 
37- «' tis 8o/c£t Trpo<pT]Tri<s elvai iq irveu/iaTiKo's. 
Eph. ii. 20. €7rt T(3 6ep.e\.ia> r. airoo-ToXwv *. irpocprjTiSv. 
iii. 5- T. ayiois a7rocrToA.ois auToi! k. TrpocpijTai.'s. 
iv. II. toiis /xev a7rocrTo\oi;s, tows Se irpoifiiJTas, r. Se evayycXto-ras. 
Apoc. xviii. 20. r. 01 ayioi k. o'l aTrdoroXoi k. 01 irpcxprJTai. 

24. oi/u,a irpoeprjTwv koX ayiW (cf. xvi. 16, x. 7, xi. 18). 
xxii. 6. 6 #eos Ttuv ■Trvevp.dTiDv tSiv TrpotjfqTiav (cf. xi. 10). 

9. owSouXos o-ov £l/U k. t. aSeX^xup cov T(OV Trpo<f>r]Tu>v. 

(b) Trpo<f>rJTis. Apoc. ii. 20. Xeyouo-a lavTiJi' irpotpfJTiv (cf. Lk. ii. 36). 

(c) irpofpriTeveiv. 

1 Cor. xi. 4, 5, xiii. 9, xiv. 1, 3, 4, 5, 14, 31, 39 (^XoSte to 

Mt. vii. 22. t<3 era! ovop-ari iirpO(f>r)Tev<rap.ev. 

Acts xix. 6. eXaXouv re yXwcrtrats k. eVpo^Teuov (cf. ii. 17, xxi. 9). 
Apoc. xi. 3. Sioo-cu t. Svcrlv p.dpTV<7iv jwv k. trpo<jiy]Ttv<TOva'i.v (cf. X. n). 

(d) irpo(f>7jTeia. 

I Th. v. 20. 7rpocj>riT€ia.s p.rj i£ov$eveiTe. 
I Cor. xii. 10. aXXa) ttjoo^ojtcio. 

xiii. 2. Kav £^to Trpotprfreiav K. £i8a> Ta jxvcmqpia. iravra. 

8. irpo<fyi)T£iai KaTapyrjdrjcrovTaL. 
xiv. 6. >; eV 7rpo<pyireia 7j iv hiBaxU- 

22. 17 8e irpo<]>r)Teia. ov t. airioTOis dXXa t. irioreuouo'ii'. 
Rom. xii. 6. x a P'°"/ u ' aTa --- £ ' Te 7rpo<£ijTei<xi'...£iTe SiaKonav. 
I Tim. i. 18. Kara ras irpoayouo-as eVl (re Trpo<pr)Teias. 

iv. 14. i&66r) croi 81a. ivpo<pr)Ttia.<i. 
Apoc. i. 3. t. Xdyovs t^s Trpofptqrua.'s (xxii. 7, 10, 18 f.). 
XI. 6. T. rj/i.epa<; T. Trpo<py]Tiia% auTcoi'. 


Buskin on Eph. iv. 17, and on Conflict with Evil. 

(a) [In the notes on Eph. iv. 17 reference is made to Ruskin's Modern 
Painters, Pt in. c. ii. § 8. The section is entitled 'Ideals of Beauty, how 
essentially moral.' The sentences quoted below are from the latter part of 
this section and from the beginning of § 9, 'How degraded by heartless 

Having shewn that ' it is evident that the sensation of beauty is 
not sensual on the one hand, nor is it intellectual on the other, but 
is dependent on a pure, right, and open state of the heart : dependent 
both for its truth and for its intensity, insomuch that even the right 
after-action of the Intellect upon facts of beauty as apprehended is 
dependent on the acuteness of the heart-feeling about them,' Ruskin 
proceeds : ' And thus the Apostolic words come true, in this minor 
respect, as in all others, that men are " alienated from the life of God 
through the ignorance that is in them, having the Understanding 
darkened because of the hardness of their hearts, and so, being past 
feeling, give themselves up to lasciviousness." For we do indeed see 
constantly that men having naturally acute' perceptions of the 
beautiful, yet not receiving it with a pure heart, nor into their 
hearts at all, never comprehend it, nor receive good from it ; but 
make it a mere minister to their desires, and accompaniment and 
seasoning of lower sensual pleasures, until all their emotions take the 
same earthly stamp, and the sense of beauty sinks into the servant of 
lust. Nor is what the world commonly understands by the cultivation 
of "taste" anything more or better than this; at least in times of 
corrupt and over-pampered civilization, when men build palaces and 
plant groves and gather luxuries, that they and their devices may 
hang in the corners of the world like fine-spun cobwebs, with greedy, 
puffed-up, spider-like lusts in the middle. And this, which in Christian 
times is the abuse and corruption of the sense of beauty, was in that 
Pagan life, of which St Paul speaks, little less than the essence of it, 
and the best they had.' 

(6) [A reference, in Dr Westcott's note on vi. 12, to Ruskin's Modem 
Painters, was for some time difficult to identify owing to an uncertainty as to 
the page-number. Ultimately the passage intended was discovered, beyond 
all doubt, to be a passage in Pt ix. c. xii. § 18; which has accordingly been 
printed in the Commentary ad loc. But the following two passages, which the 
Index to Modern Painters in the first instance suggested as perhaps intended, 
may be felt to be worth citing in addition to the other ; which in one or two 
points they illustrate and supplement] 

' The reason of this I believe to be that the right faith of man is 
not intended to give him repose, but to enable him to do his work. 


It is not intended that he should look away from the place he lives in 
now, and cheer himself with thoughts of the place he is to live in next, 
but that he should look stoutly into this world, in faith that, if he does 
his work thoroughly here, some good to others or himself, with which 
however he is not at present concerned, will come of it hereafter. And 
this kind of brave, but not very hopeful or cheerful, faith I perceive to 
be always rewarded by clear practical success and splendid intellectual 
power ; while the faith which dwells on the future fades away into rosy 
mist and emptiness of musical air. That result indeed follows naturally 
enough on its habit of assuming that things must be right, or must 
come right, when probably the fact is that, so far as we are concerned, 
they are entirely wrong, and going wrong : and also on its weak and 
false way of looking on what these religious persons call " the bright 
side of things," that is to say, on one side of them only, when God has 
given them two sides and intended us to see both.' 

[Modern Painters, vol. v. p. 229, small edition; Pt ix. c. ii. § n.) 

' Now, as far as I have watched the main powers of human mind, 
they have risen first from the resolution to see fearlessly, pitifully and 
to its very worst, what those deep colours mean, wheresoever they fall ; 
not by any means to pass on the other side, looking pleasantly up to 
the sky, but to stoop to the horror, and let the sky, for the present, 
take care of its own clouds. However this may be in moral matters, 
with which I have nothing here to do, in my own field of inquiry the 
fact is so ; and all great and beautiful work has come of first gazing 
without shrinking into the darkness. If, having done so, the human 
spirit can by its courage and faith conquer the evil, it rises into 
conceptions of victorious and consummated beauty.' 

{id. ib. v. p. 232; Pt ix. c. ii. § 13.) 

The world, the flesh and the devil. 

[The question raised by Dr Westcott, after quoting Ruskin, in his 
notes on vi. 1 2, ' When does " the world, the flesh and the devil " first 
appear ? ' remains unanswered. 

There can indeed be little doubt that the actual co-ordination in 
English, and in this unqualified form, of the three familiar terms, as 
well as the introduction into the Baptismal Office of the same threefold 
classification, though in a different and more ancient order, of ultimate 
sources of evil, is due to Cranmer. 


But on the other hand it is to be noted : — 

(a) That although in the earlier English, as in the Roman, 
Offices 'the devil' or 'Satan' with 'his works' (operibus eius) and 
'his pomps' (pompis eius) stood alone as the object of baptismal 
renunciation, — in the Gallican Office, as also (with slight variants) 
in Luther's Taufbiichlein and Hermann's Consultation, the 'pomps of 
the world' (pompis seculi) and 'its pleasures' (voluptatibus eius) are 
co-ordinated with ' Satan ' — a collocation which, there is evidence, had 
very early authority, both Eastern and Western (cf. Cyprian, ad 
Bogatianum, Amforos. de Initiatis, c. 2, Macarius, Horn. 49). 

(b) That in several ancient Litanies, Greek and Latin, ' deceits 
of the world' or 'desires of the flesh,' or the like, had been co-ordinated 
in deprecation with ' snares of the devil.' 

(c) That S. Thomas Aquinas had explicitly (Summa 11. 114, 3), 
discussed the question ' Utrum omnia peccata procedunt ex tentatione 
diaboli ? ' and had concluded that not all sins were committed at his 
instigation, but some ' ex libertate arbitrii et carnis corruptione ' ; and 
had also (1. 65, 1) explained that 'the devil' is said by St Paul to be 
' the god of this world ' (deus huius seculi) because ' seculariter viventes 
ei serviunt.' 

(d) That in the Imitatio Christi (11. 12, 9) occurs the sentence : 
' Si ad te ipsum respicis, nihil huiusmodi ex te poteris ; sed si in 
domino confidis, dabitur tibi fortitudo de caelo, et subicientur ditioni 
tuae mundus et caro ; sed nee inimicum diabolum timebis, si fueris fide 
armatus et cruce Jesu signatus.' 

Rightly to examine and interpret these and other data involves 
argument which, if presented here, would constitute a material 
departure from the rule, adopted in the editing of this volume, that 
beyond statistics and matter of common knowledge no conclusions 
should be advanced other than such as have the authority of Bishop 
Westcott himself. J. M. s.] 



Use of the Old Testament in ' Ephesians.' 

Gen. ii. 24. eveKev tovtov KaraXei^jfe 1 
avBpairos top narepa avrov Kai rr)v 
[it)Tepa avrov Kai irpo<TKoWi)6ri<TfTm rfj 
yvvatKt (E npos t. y.) avrov' Kai ctrovrat 
01 Svo els crdpKa plav. 

Ex. XX. 12 (Deut. V. 16). ri/ia top 
rrarepa (rov (cai rfjv p.rjrepa crov. 

Deut. xxxiii. 2 f. k. eire<pavev ex 
2i)ei.p ijfuv k. Kareo-nevaev i£ opovs 
*apai/ o-ii/ livpiacrt Kafirs (Heb. from 
the ten thousands of the holy ones, 

R. V.)...*. i<peio~aro rov Xaov avrov, 
Kai rrdvres 01 r\yiao-p.evoi vnb ras 
Xeipds aov...K. edej-aro... vofxov, bv e've- 
relXaro Moicrjs, KXrjpovofilav 
avvayayyais 'lo"par/X. 

Ps. iv. 4 (5). 6pyl£eo~8e Kai p.rj 
duapravcTe (Heb. Stand in awe and 
sin not, E. V.). 

ib. viii. 6 (7). Kai Kareo-rrjcras avrov 
€7rl rci epya xeipiav o~ov irdvra vwera^as 
VTTOKara -i. 7rodav auToii. 

ib. xl. (xxxix.) 6 (7). Bvo-lav Kai 
Trpocrfpopdv ovk ljBeXrjo-as, a*<5/xa 8e 
Karriprio-to /tot, 

ib. lxviii. (lxvii.) 18 (19). dvafids els 
vijros j/x/xaXcoretitras alxpaXcoaiav, eXa- 
/3es Sofiara f» dvBpama (B a .XR a -ois). 

(Heb. Thou hast ascended on high, 
Thou hast led Thy captivity captive, 
Thou hast received gifts among men, 

ib. ex. (cix.) I. TLtirev 6 Kuptof ra 
Kvpioi p.ov KaBov f« 8e£iav fiov. 

PrOV. ii. 2 (LXX.). k. napafiaXels 
Kapbiav (rov els aiiveo-iv, napa^aXels §e 
avrf/v eVi vovderrjoiv ra via o-ov. 

ib. 5. Tore o-wtjaeis (po|3oc xvpiov 
Ka\ eniyvaaw Beov evp-qo-eis- 

ib. iii. II. vie,p.ri oXiyapei naiSelas 
Kvplov (cf. Is. 1. 5)- 

Epb. V. 31. dvrl tovtov KaraKei^rei 
avBpanros \rbv] irarepa Kai \ttjv] firjrepa 
Kai 7rpocrKo\\r)6rjo-eTai irpbs Ti)V yvvaixa 
[v.L Tfl •yuvatKi] avrov Kai eo~ovrai els 

aapKa plav. 

ib. vi. 2. rifia rov ware pa o-ov Kai 
Trjv firjrepa. 

ib. i. 18. tls 6 7rXoCroff ri)s 8o£tjs 
Ttjs K\r)povop.ias avrov ev Toir 

. iv. 26. dpyi£eo~de Kai p.r) dpaprd- 

ib. i. 22. Kai irdvra virera^ev imb 
rovs nodas avroVj k.t.X. 

ib. V. 2. k. rrapeoaKev eavrbv virep 
Tifimv irpo&cpopav Kai Bv&iav ra Bern. 

ib. iv. 8. fito X/yei 'Ava/Sas els vyj/os 
■gXp.aka>revo-ev al)(fiaXao-iav [cat] e8u>Kev 
Sofiara rois dvBpamois. 

ib. i. 20. eyeipas avrov eK veKpav 
Kai KaBlaas iv 8e£ta avrov. 

ib. vi. 4. eKrpeKpere avra ev natbeia 
Kai vovBeo-ia Kvplov. 


20 1 

Prov. xxiii. 31 (lxx.). pr) pe8vo-Ke- 
o-8e ev olvois (Heb. Look not thou 
upon the wine when it is red). 

Is. xi. 4. k. nard£ei yrjv r<3 \6ya 
Tov o-roparos avrov, Kal ev irvcvpari 
fiia xu\iasv Ave XeT dtrf/3/j. 

«6. xlix. 2. k. i'OrjKfv to aropa pov 
<os paxaipav 6£eiav. 

ib. xi. 5. Kal eo-rai hiKcuoo-vvji e'foxr- 
pevos t. 6o-<pvv avrov, Kal d\rj8eia 
eiXrjpevos Tar jrXevpar. 

l6. XXViii. 16. 81a touto outoji \eyei 
Kvpws Kvpws 'iSoii e'yd epfidWa els ri 
8epe~\i.a2(ian' \lBov iro\vreXr) eKkeKrbv 
dxpoytoviaiov evripov els t<j BepeXia 
aifTijr, Kal d 7r«rretJo>i' ov fii) Karaia-- 

ib. xl. 3. eroiud<raTf r^K dSox 
Kvpiov (cf. ». 9, d evayyeXifdfifKOs). 

l'6. lii. 7. cos nodes evayye\t£o- 
pevov aKof/v elpr)Vi)s k.t.X. 

ib. lvii. 19. elpr)vr)V en' elprjvrjv 
ro'is paKpav Kal Toif eyyiis ovo-iv. 

ib. lix. 17. Kai fircdvo-aro 8t/cato- 
o-vvtjv as BdpaKa, Kal nepUBero 
irepiKe<pa\alav o-arrjpiov em tj}s 

Ezek. XX. 41. ei/ do-fig eva>8las 
npoo-Se^opai v/tas. 

Hos. vi. 5. aireKreiva avrovs ev 
popart, aroparos pov, k. to Kplpa pov 
tas <f>£s e§e\evo~eTai. 

Zech. viii. 16. AaXeiTe dXrjBelav 
eitao-TOS irpbs tov riXr}o-iov avrov. 

Eph. v. 18. pr) peBvo-Kecrde olva. 

ib. vi. 17. Kal rr)v pa\aipav tov 
nvevparos, eo~rai prjpa Beov. 

ib. 14. nepi£<oo-dpevoi rfjv oV- 
(pvv vpav ev dXrjBeia. 

ib. ii. 20. enoiKohoprjBevres «V1 ra> 
8epe\i(f rax diroorokav Kal npo<pryr£>v, 
ovros aKpoyaviaiov avrov Xpiorov 
'irjo'ov, ev <$ K.r.X. 

ib. vi. 15. vnoHrjadpevoi rovs 
noSas ev eroipacrla rov evayye- 
Xi'ou rr)s elprjvrjs. 

ib. ii. 17. K. eKBav evr)yye\io-aro 
e\pr)vr)v vptv rots paxpav Kai etprjvrjv 
rots eyyvs (cf. 1). 13). 

i6. vi. 14. Kal evbvo-dpevoi tov 
BdpaKa rfjs hiKaioo~vvj]S. 

ib. 17. k. t^v 7reptK6<paXai'av toC 
o-a>TTjplov he^aaBe. 

ib. v. 2. npoo-(popav K. Bvalav r. Beq 
els do'prjv eva>8ias. 

ib. vi. 17. T. pd\aipav r. irvevparos, 
o eariv prjpa Beov. 

ib. iv. 25. XaXfiTe dXijtfemi/ eKao-ros 
pera tov nXrjffiov atiToO. 


* Signifies ' found nowhere in N. T. except in Ephesians. ' 

t ,, 'found (in N. T.) only in Ephesians and Golossians.' 

t „ 'found (in N. T.) only in Pauline Epistles.' 

dya06s ii. 10, iv. 28, 29, vi. 8 

%6,yad(xi<r6vi} v. 9 

ayairdv i. 6 (iv Tt£ ijyaTTfn4v(p) s ii. 4, 

v. 1, 25, 28, 33, vi. 24 
aydini i. 4, 15 (v. 1.), ii. 4, iii. 18, 19, 

iv. 1, 15, 16, v. 1, vi. 23 
&yawryr6s v. 1, vi. 21 
dyidfeiv V. 26 (-do"j;) 
07101 i. i, 4, 13, 15, 18 (t£ ttv. — t. d'7.), 

ii. 19, 21, iii. 5, 8, 18, iv. 12, 30 (to 

irv. to ay. toC 6.), v. 3, 27, vi. 18 
&yvoia iv. 18 
aypvirveLV vi. 18 
&5e\<p6s vi. 21, 23 (-o?s) 
drip ii. 2 
*fl0eos ii. 12 

aT/ta i. 7, ii. 13, vi. 12 (at. *. <rdpica) 
atpetv iv. 31 

JoirxP 05 T - I2 ("°" ^""0 

* al<rxp&Ti]s v. 4: 'vox N. T. propria' 

afreiaBat iii. 13, 20 
alxpa\uo-ia iv. 8 (lxx) 
* alxim\wTeiet.v iv. 8 (lxx) 
ata? i. 31, ii. 2, 7 (pi.), iii. 9 (pi.), n 

(pi.), 21 (t. alQvos t. aiwvwv) 
axaSapffla iv. 19, v. 3 
AicdSapTOS v. 5 
axapiros v. n 

dfcotku' i. 13, 15, iii. a, iv. 21, 29 
d/cpi/3ws v. 15 
dxpo/Suoria ii. n 
dupoyaviaios ii. 20 
dX»J0«a i. 13, iv. 21, 24, 25, v. 9, vi. 14 

tdXijfleOeii' iv. 15 

dX\d i. 21, ii. 19, iv. 29, v. 4, 15, 17, 

18, 24, 27, 29, vi. 4, 6, 12 
dXXiJXaw iv. 2, 25, 32 (-ovs), <?. 21 (-ois) 
dXwris vi. 20 
d/Aaprdi'ei*' iv. 26 
dfiaprla ii. 1 (t. dp.apWais) 
d/iT/i' iii. 21 

dfitpdrepoi ii. 14 (-a), 16, 18 
aiuop.os i. 4, v. 27 
dvaflalvelv iv. 8, 9, 10 
avayiv&ffKGiv iii. 4 
Jdi'a/re0aXaio0cr0ai i. 10 
avakafleiv vi. 13, 16 
*dvoi'eoD<r9ai iv. 23 
ava<jTT\vai. V. 14 
dvaarpi(peiv ii. 3 
dvatTrpo(pT) iv. 22 
Ave/ios iv. 14 
Xdvefyxvlaaros iii. 8 
dx^xea-flat iv. 2 
Jdvij/cei v. 4 (dK^ff) 
dvi}p iv. 13, v. 22, 23, 24, 25, 28, 33 
fdv0pwirdpe<rKO$ vi. 6 
d»0pw7ros ii. 15, iii. 5, 16, iv. 8, 14, 22, 

24, v. 31, vi. 7 
dpi&'tzt vi. 9 
*dW£<s vi. 19 
dvrf v. 31 
avTtffTrjvat vi. 13 
d|(us iv. 1 

*d7ra\yeiv iv. 19 (-i;X77)K0Tes) 
dwavra vi. 13 
d7raTO>' v. 6 



dircLTT} iv. 22 

dweldeia ii. i, v. 6 

djreiXij vi. 9 

AveKirlfrw {v. 1.) iv. 19 (-i;\7riic6Tes) 

^aTnjXKoTpLiafihoi. ii. 12, iv. 18 

$a7rX4TJ)S vi. 5 

a7r6 i. 2, iii. 9, iv. 31, vi. 23 

diroBiadtu iv. 2#, 25 

d7roKa\t!7TTetz' iii. 5 

d7r0KdXu^is i. 17, iii. 3 

t diroKaraWdcrtreiv ii. 16 

diroKpiwTeiv iii. 9 

diroKretpeiv ii. 16 

diroXtfT/KiHTis i. 7, 14, iv. 30 

&t6(tto\os i. i, ii. 20, iii. J, iv. 11 ow ii. 19 

%dppaf}(!>v i. 14 

Apxn i. 21, iii. 10, vi. 12 (pi.) 

apxwv ii. 2 

d(rA7«a iv. 19 

*dVo0os v. 15 

dawrla v. 18 

taffijeij' ii. 21, iv. 15 

ta(f£);<r!s iv. 16 

atfrd vi. 9 (t& atfrd) 

atfris ii. 14, iv. io, 11, v. 23, 27: airbv 

i. 20, 22, iv. 15, 21 
atfrd tovto vi. 18, 22 
oi)t<£ i. 4, 10, ii. 16, iii. 21, iv. 21, vi. 

9, 20 

&(p£(FlS i. 7 

+d0ij iv. 16 
Jd^flapWa vi. 24 
dfpfiwv V. 17 

/3d0os iii. 18 

(36,TTi(Tfia iv. 5 

/3a<nXe£a v. 5 

*/S<*Xos vi. 16 (-»)) 

fi' iv. 31 

pXiireiv V. 15 

jSouX?) i. 11 (t. /3. t. 9e\7i/iOTos) 

7d/3 ii. 8, 10, 14, v. 5 ff., 12 f., 29, vi. 1 

ye iii. 2, iv. 21 (el ye) 

yeved iii. 5, 21 (pi.) 

yij i. 10, iii. 15, iv. 9, vi. 3 

ylvecBai ii. 13, iii. 7, iv. 32, v. 1, 7, 

12, 17, vi. 3 
ywtbiTKeiv iii. 19, v. 5, vi. 22 
yvuplfav i. 9, iii. 3, 5, 10, vi. 19, 21 

yvwvis m. 19 

yoveh vi. 1 

ybvv iii. 14 

ymrli v. 22, 23, 24, 25, 28, 31, 33 

Si 16 times 

847)<ns vi. 18 (bis) 

5e? vi. 20 

5e%L& i. 20 (iv 8. airov) 

84<r/uos iii. 1, iv. 1 (else in Pauline Epp. 
only in 2 Tim. i. 8, and Philem. i. 9, 
but also Acts xxiii. 18, xxv. 14) 

Si%ead(u vi. 17 

Sid c. gen. i. 1, 5, 7, ii. 8, 16, 18, iii. 

6, 9, 10, 12, 16, 17, iv. 6, 16, vi. 18: 
0. ace. i. 15, ii. 4, iv. 18, v. 6, 17, vi. 13 

Sidfio\os iv. 27, vi. 11 
SiaBtficr) ii. 12 (pi.) 
SiaKovla iv. 12 
SidKovot iii. 7, vi. 21 

Sldvoia i. 18, ii. 3, iv. 18 

dtdatrKaXta iv. 14 

5i5d<r/caXos iv. 1 1 

SiddffKeiv iv. 21 (£8i8dx0we) 

SiSovai iv. 27: Sovrai i. 17, 22, iii. 2, 

7, 8, 16, iv. 7, 8, 11, 27, 29, vi. 19 
81k<uov vi. 1 (ion 8.) 

SiKMoaivr) iv. 24, v. 9, vi. 14 
5i6 ii. 11, iii. 13, iv. 8, 25, v. 14 
Sbyiia ii. 15 (pi.): plur. else in N.T. 
only Col. ii. 14 and Acts xvi. 4, xvii. 7 
8oKi/j.d£etv v. 10 
86/j.a iv. 8 (from lxx) 
56fa i. 6, 12, 14, 17, 18, iii. 13, 16, 21 
8ov\e6eiv vi. 7 
SoCXos vi. 5, 6, 8 
Siva/us i. 19, 21, iii. 7, 16, 20 
Svraatlai iii. 4, 20, vi. II, 13, 16 
8io ii. 15, v. 31 (0! 8.) 
Sloped iii. 7, iv. 7 
S&pov ii. 8 

edp vi. 8 (8 Or) 

iavrdv (-08, -ds, -otfs, -aw, -ois, -?js) 16 times 

iyyis ii. 13, 17 

iyeipetv i. 20, v. 14 

iy/caKeta iii. 13: peculiar to St Paul 

(2 Cor., Gal., 2 Tb..) save for Lk. xviii. 1 
cyi6 iii. I, iv. 1, v. 32: ifiov vi. 19; /u>v 

6 times: i/iol iii. 8; /mh 4 times: </,u<? 

vi. 21 ; p.e vi. 20 



l8vos ii. 11, iii. ,, 6, 8, iv. 17 (pi. T . m.) 

et ye iii. 2, iv. 21 

e£ /«} iv. 9 

elStvai i. 18, V. 5 (fore), vi. 8, 9, 21 

el8ta\o\drpris v. 5 

dwu (inf.) i. 4 , 12, iii. 6 : ^^ ii. I0> 
iv. 25, v. 30: 4<tt4 ii. 5, 8, 19: elat 
v. 16: i)p.e8a ii. 3, #re ii. 12, v. 8: 
wW iv. 14 : rj v. 27 : up, fores, -os, 
oiW <fec. i. 1, ii. 1, 4, 5, 13, 20, iv. 18 : 
fut. v. 31, vi. 3 

elpfyri i. . x , ii. 14, IS) I7) iv. 3j vi. 15, 23 

els 31 times in various significations 

rfs (ft<a, epos, h>l) ii. 15, iv. 5, 6, 7, 16, 
v. 33: Iv (eVl) ii. 14, 16, 18: p.1* iv. 4, 

S. v - 31 
e?7-e vi. 8 (bis) 
« i. 20, ii. 8, 9, iii. 15, iv. 16, 29, v. 14, 

30, vi. 6 
Skoo-tos iv. 7, 16, 25, v. 33, vi. 8 
eVeiVos ii. 12 (eV t. Kcuptp e.) 
iKK\r]<rla i. 22, iii. 10, 21, v. 23, 24, 25, 

27, 29, 32 
e'tche'yeo-Ba.i i. 4 
tKiropefieoBai iv. 29 
*iKTp£<peiv v. 29, vi. 4 
*£Xax' OT ^ TE P os iii. 8 
iXiyxeif v. II, 13 
£Xeos ii. 4 
i\e68epos vi. 8 
Att(s i. 18, ii. 12, iv. 4 
cV 112 times 

ivdeiKvOo-Bai ii. 7 (-Se^rat) 
IvSo^os v. 27 

evSiaaffdai. iv. 24, vi. 11, 14 
ipdvvafiovedcu vi. 10 
thtpyeia i. 19, iii. 7, iv. 16 
tvepyeiv i. 11, 20, ii. 2, iii. 20 
*^6ti;s iv. 3, 13 
eVroXi} ii. 15, vi. 2 
Xi%ayop&,fri.v v. 16 (else Col. iv. 5, Gal. 

iii. 13, iv. 5) 
*i^u7xieiv iii. 18 
i^ovala i. 21, ii. 2, iii. 10, vi. 12 
iirayyekla i. 13, ii. 12, iii. 6, vi. -i 
liraivos i. 6, 12, 14 
iirepxtifievos ii. 7 (t". alwffi r. eV.) 
ejrf c. gen. i. 10, 16, iii. 15, iv. 6, vi. 3 : 

u. dat. i. 10, ii. 10, 20, iv. 26, vi. 16: 

e. ace. ii. 7, v. 6 
iirlyvwais i. 17, iv. 13 

*iiriSieiv iv. 26 

imSufila ii. 3, iv. 22 pi. 

*e , 7rupaicrei v. 14 

t^irixopijvfo iv. 16 (and Phil. i. 19) 

iTroi.KoSop.eiv ii. 20 

(wovp&vios i. 3, 20, ii. 6, iii. io, vi. 12 

ipydfwBai iv. 28 

Ipyao-la. iv. 19 

tyryov ii. 9, 10, iv. 12, v. 11 

tpxeo-eat ii. 17 (eX0wi<), v. 6 

t!(r<i> iii. 16 

h-epos iii. 5 

*iroipao-la vi. 15 (lxx) 

eJ vi. 3 

eiayyiXiov i. 13, iii. 6, vi. 15, 19 

eiayye\l?eo-8cu ii. 17, iii. 8 

eiayye\urTr)s iv. 11 

etidpetTTos V. 10 

etfoofcla i. 5, 9 

eiXoyeiv i. 3 (-7Jiras) 

etfXoyijros i. 3 

eHKoyia i. 3 

*ctfyota vi. 7 

etfo-7r\o7X' , os iv. 32 (and 1 Pet. iii. 8) 

*eirpaTe\la v. 4 

eixapurTeTv i. 16, v. 20 

edxapurrla V. 4 

Jeiwcjia V. 2 

"E0e(ros i. 1 

exetx i- 7> "• 12, 18, iii. 12, iv. 28, v. 5, 27 

IxSpa. ii. 15, 16 

f«i) iv. 18 (r. fwi/s r. 0.) 

t) iii. 20, v. 3, 
ijkuda iv. 13 
?;X«>s iv. 26 

V«« (n-) ii- 3 ■ 
r)pjpa iv. 30, v. 

4. 5- 27 

other oases 28 times 
16, vi. 13 

%8d\wei.v iii. 29 

BiKiiiia i. 1, 5, 9, n, ii. 3, v. 17, vi. 6 
8ep£Kios ii. 20 
8ep.e\iovv iii. 17 

Beds abs. i. 1, ii. 8, iv. 24, vi. 17 {prjpui. 
B.): B. ii. 4, 10, 16, 19, 22, iii. 2, 

7, 9, 10, 19, iv. 13, 18, 30, 32, v. 1, 2, 
5, 6, vi. 6, 11, 13: B. k. rrari)p i. 2, 
vi. 23 : off. ft. irwrl)p i. 3, v. 20 : 

8. it. it. iv. 6 
8Xi\//is iii. 13 



8vp,6s iv. 31 
*6vpe6s vi. 16 
Bvata v. 2 
8(l>pa£ vi. 14 

IBios iv. 28 (marg.), v. 22 

'Irjo-offs i. 15 (h> t. Kvplcp'l.), iv. 21 (iv r. 
'Itjoov): 'I. XpuTT. i. 2, 3, 5, 17, v. 20, 
vi. 23, 24: Xp. 1. i. 1 (bis), ii. 6, 7, 13, 
20, iii. 6, 21 : t. xp- 'I. iii- i, n 

tva i. 17, ii. 7, 10, 15, iii. 10, 16, 18, 19, 
iv. io, 14, 28, v. 27, 33, vi. 3, 13, 19, 
20, 21, 22 : t ftrj ii. 9 

'I<r/)aij\ ii. 12 

ftrxi/s i- 19, vi. 10 

jc«7c6 i. 15 

tmBaplfcui v. 26 

KaBeidoi V. 14 

KaBlaai i. 20 

jcafliis i. 4, iii. 3, iv. 4, 17, 21, 32, v. 2, 

3> 25, 29 
koX (adv.) i. 11, 13 (bis), 21, ii. 3 (bis), 

22, iv. 4, 9, 10, 17, 32, v. 2, n, 12, 23, 

24, 25, 29, 33, vi. 9, 21 
/caipis ii. 15, iv. 24 
Kaip&s i. 10, ii. 12, v. 16, vi. 18 
Kaida iv. 31 
KaXeTv i. 11, iv. 1, 4 
%K6.p.Tneiv iii. 14 

xapSla i. 18, iii. 17, iv. 18, v. 19, vi. 5, 22 
Kapwds v. 9 
xard 0. ace. i. 5, 7, 9, 11, 15, 19, ii. 1, 

iii. 3, 7, 11, 16, 20, iv. 7, 16, 22, 24, 

v. 33' vi - 5. 6, 21 
xara^rjvac iv. 9, 10 
KaTafioXri i. 4 
KaraXafiio-Bca iii. 18 
.KaTaXefirEic v. 31 
KaTaj/r^crat iv. 13 
Karapyeiv ii. 15 
* KaTapritrpAs iv. 12 
.KaTeK(iTiov i. 4 
Karepydfefftfeu vi. 13 
/caroi/ceo' iii. 17 (-^ffat) 
KaroLKTjT^iptov ii. 22 
*Ko.Ti!>T(pa iv. 9 (k. ji^pi;) 
.Kauxa<r#at ii. 9 
kcv6s v. 6 

Ke0a\i) i. 22, iv. 15, v. 23 (bis) 
jtXiTrreiv iv. 28 (bis) 

Kkqpovopla i. 14, 18, v. 5 
* KkqpowBai i. 11 
kX^o-is i. 18, iv. i, 4 
*K\v8avlfco-Ba<. iv. 14 
Kowavla v. 1. in iii. 1 
KopifccBai vi. 8 
Koirta^ iv. 28 
* Koap.oKpa.Twp vi. 12 (pi.) 
KbaiJ.01 i. 4, ii. 2, 12 
KparaioSaBai iii. 16 
np&Tos i. 19, vi. 10 
upavyq iv. 31 
*KpV(j>TJ v. 12 

Krlfciv ii. 10, 15, iii. 9, iv. 24 

*icvf3eia iv. 14 

Ki)/Hos i. 2, ii. 21, iv. 1, 5, 17, v. 8, vi. 1, 

4, 8, 10, 21, 23: ok. i. 3, 15, 17, iii. 

11, v. 10, 17, 19, 20, 22, vi. 7, 9, 24: 

ol k. vi. 5, 9 
Kvpi/mis i. 21 

XaXetv iv. 25, v. 19, vi. 20 

\iyeai ii. 11, iv. 8, 17, v. 12, 14, 32 

Xiflos (v. 1. ii. 20) 

Xoyos i. 13, iv. 29, v. 6, vi. 19 

Xo«r6s ii. 3, iv. 17 : t. XoiiroB (adv.) vi. 10 

%kovrpbv v. 26 

XiieiK ii. 14 

\\rrreiv iv. 30 

puxpdv ii. 13, 17 

paKpoBvpda iv. 2 

p.a.Kpoxpo'vt.01 vi. 3 

(traXXiw iv. 28, v. 4, 11 

pa.vBi.vav iv. 20 (fyuifleTe) iv. 17 

(UaratiT^s iv. 17 

pAxaipa. vi. 17 

^7ets v. 32 

*piycBos i. 19 

*p,e6odeta iv. 14, vi. 11 

fieBtio-Keo-Bcu v. 18 

p.i\\wv i. 21 

/iAos iv. 16 (v. 1.), 25, v. 30 

ixiv iV. I I 

p.ipos iv. 9, 16 

*pr.e<r6roixov ii. 14 

jueTd 0. gen. iv. 2, 25, vi. 5, 7, 23, 24 

peradidSvai iv. 28 

pirpov iv. 7, 13, 16 

M^XP' (conj.) iv. 13 



/"} ii. 12, iii. 13, iv. 26, 29, 30, v. 7, 11, 

15, 17, 18, 27, vi. 4, 6 
tir/St iv. 27, v. 3 
/uijSeis v. 6 

Mi?K^rt iv. 14, 17, 28 
Htjkos iii. 18 
/tt^Tifp v. 31, vi. 2 

/*l/UJJTl}s v. 1 

liuretv v. 29 

J^xefa i. 16 

fivrmovetieiv ii. n 

fi6vov i. 21 

IwuTiipiov i. 9, v. 31, vi. 19 

*/iu>p6Koyla v. 4 

yo6s ii. 21 

V£Kp6s i. 20, ii. 1, 5, v. 14 

yi}7rtos iv. 14 

voeiv iii. 4, 20 

j'i/tos ii. 15 

$KouSe<r/a vi. 4 

vovs iv. 17, 23 

vvv ii. 3, iii. 3, 10, v. 8 

vvvl ii. 13 

1-tvos ii. 12, 19 

XoIkgios ii. 19 (-01 t. 0eoO) 

oiKooo,ur) ii. 21, iv. 12, 16, 29 

clKovofiia i. io, iii. 2, 9 

ctvos v. i 8 

<5\i7<>s iii. 3 (&> ciXtyv) 

ovo/ia i. 21, v. 20 (^k iv. 1. k. ^.) 

Apo/t&fcu> i. 22, iii. 15, v. 3 

dprrf ii. 3, iv. 31, v. 6 

dpylfeffdaL iv. 26 

hoitm)* iv. 24 

<i<rym} v. 2 

6itt4ov v. 30 

oorts i. 23, iii. 13, iv. 19, vi. 2, 8 

6(T(j>is vi. 14 

#ri ii. 11, 12, 18, iii. 3, iv. 9, 23, v. 5, 

16, 23, 30, vi. 8, 9, 12 

oi, oin, ovx i- 16, 21, ii. 8, 9, iii. 5, 

iv. 20, v. 4, 5, vi. 7, 9, 12 
ovdels V. 29 
o&k4tl ii. 19 

cuv ii. 19, iv. 1, 17, v. 1,7, 15, vi. 14 
oipavds i. 10, iii. 15, iv. 10, vi. 9 (all pi.) 
ofrroj iii. 8 (avrri), i. 15, ii. 8, iv. 17, v. 5, 
i7> 32> vi. i, 8, 13, 18, 22 (all tovto), 

v. 6 (Sick roCra), ii. 2, iii. i, 14, v. 31, 

vi. 12 (all roirov), i. 21 (-cjj) 
outws iv. 20, v. 24, 28, 33 
6(pel\ct.v v. 28 
^&<p8ahp.o$ovKeLa vi. 6 
6tpffa\/x6i i. 18 (-01 t. napti.) 

iraiSeia vi. 4 

TraXauSs iv. 22 (r. ?r. avtipuirov) 

*TraKri vi. 12 

7raeo7rX/a vi. ii, 13 

iravovpyla iv. 14 

irdvTore V. 20 

7ropci c. gen. vi. 8 

•jrapaSovvai iv. 19, v. -z, 25 

irapaffaXci} iv. 1, vi. 22 

irap&irrwpLa i. 7, ii. 1, 5 

irapLffTtiveiv V. 27 (TrapacrTijfffl) 

ir&poiKos ii. 19 

irapopylfrw vi. 4 (and lxx, Bom. x. 19) 

*irapopyurp.6s iv. 26 

Trappyela. iii. 12, vi. 19 (& ir.) 

TrapprjfXtd^o^ai vi. 20 

min-a (n. pi.) i. 22, iii. 20, vi. 21: ri. 

ir&vTa i. 10, 11, 23, iii. 9, iv. 10, 15, 

v. 13. Other forms of iras 36 times. 
ir&Trip i. 2, 3, 17, ii. 18, iii. 14, iv. 6, 

v. 20, vi. 23 : (of men) v. 31, vi. 1, 4 
irarpii. iii. 15 
HaOXos i. 1, iii. 1 
iravo/xai i. 16 
vi^iru vi. 22 
%ireiroWi)<;is iii. 12 
irept u. gen. vi. 18, 22 
TrcpifrtbtivvtrSai vi. 14 (-{bxrdjuei'oi) 
t7repifce0aAo(a vi. 17 
irepurareiv ii. i, 10, iv. 1, 17, v. 2, 8, 15 
irepiirolyiais i. 14 (t^s irep.) 
irepurtrefiu) i. 8 (&rept , cr<rev<r«') 
irepiropyfi ii. 11 
TrepLtptpetrdai iv. 14 
iriKpla iv. 31 

iruTTeiieiv i. 13 (-(raKTas), 19 (-octos) 
fl-foris i. 15, ii. 8, iii. 12, 17, iv. 5, 13, 

29 (v. 1.), vi. 16, 23 
7ricrr6s i. 1 (r. iriffTots), vi. 21 
fl-Xtix!) iv. 14 
ttMtos iii. 18 
$ir\eoviKTTis V. 5 
TrXeocefia iv. 19, V. 3 
7rXi7C V. 33 



Tr\T)povv i. 23, iii. 19, iv. 10, v. 18 

irMipa/ia i. 10, 23, iii. 19, iv. 13 

vkrialov (tov it.) iv. 25 

ir\oi<rios ii. 6 

ir\ovTOS i. 7, 18, ii. 7, iii. 8, 16 

irpev/m i. 13, 17, ii. -i, 18, 22, iii. 5, 16, 

iv- 3. 4. 23> 30. v. 9, 18, vi. 17, 18 
irvevfiaTiK6s i. 3, v. 19, vi. 12 
iroieTv ii. 3, 14, 15, iii. 11, 20, vi. 6, 8, 9 
iroieiffflai (m.) i. 16, iv. 16 
Jirobj/ia ii. 10 
irot.ii.i)v iv. 11 (iroiiiivas) 
7ro\iTela ii. T2 
*iroXv7ro£/a\os iii. 10 
7roXi)s ii. 4 (t. TroXXrjj' d7d7nj)') 
trovrjpia vi. 12 

irovripbs v. 16, vi. 13, 16 (tou Trcwifpou) 
iropvela v. 3 
irbpvos V. 5 

7Tot^ ii. 2, 3, iv. 13, v. 8, 29 
ttoBs i. 22, vi. 15 (jnSSas) 
irpdir<rta vi. 21 
jTrpauTijs iv. 2 
irp&irei v. 3 
Xirpea^eiia vi. 20 
irpA i. 8 

vpoypi^eiv iii. 3 (-^ypa^a) 
*7rpoeXjrifeii' i. 12 (t. irpoTjXjrocAras) 
j7rpoeTOiudfeH' ii. II (irporiTol/mtreir) 
irpASeoxs i. 11, iii. 11 (caret irp66W«') 
Trpaoplfriv i. 5 (-(eras), 11 (-tcrfl&res) 
Trp6s c. ace. ii. 18, iii. 4, 14, iv. 12, 14, 29, 

v. 31, vi. 9, 11, 12, 22 
Xirpoaaywyii ii. 18, iii. 12 
rpoireixfaScu vi. 18 
irpoiyevxh i. 16 (-k''), vi. 18 (-^s) 
*irpotTKapTipri<ris vi. 18 
rpoffKoWav V. 31 (-ijftJffeTai) 
Trpo(T(pop& V. 2 
irpocr(itiro\7j/j,^ia vi. 9 
irpirepos iv. 22 
iirporWeaBai i. 9 
irpo<jyfiTTis ii. 20, iii. 5, iv. 11 
irpuroc (adv.) iv. 9 
TrpwTos vi. 2 

irvpovvBai vi. 16 (ir«rupwyit6'a) 
xaSpwtrts iv. 18 
7rws v. 15 

p^ua v. 26, vi. 17 
tpifouc iii. 17 (^pptftyu&oi) 

*pWs (-Wo) v. 27 

<rawp6s iv. 29 

<rdp{ ii. 3, 11, 15, v. 29, 30, 31, vi. 3, 

afiewiuv vi. 16 (trpMaai) 
ffKortfa (-6(d) iv. 18 
(tk6tos v. 8, 11, vi. 12 
<jotj>la i. 8. 17, iii. 10 
alxpos v. 15 
(rjriXos v. 27 
a'TrouSd^eH' iv. 3 
cravph ii. 16 
(TT^yoi vi. 11, 13, 14 
arbixa iv. 29, Vi. 19 
avyKadtfciv ii. 6 
<rvyK\iipov6iws iii. 6 
avyKOivtavetv V. 11 
<ru i ii|8i/3<£f«>' iv. 16 
*ffv/j.fUraxos iii. 6, v. 7 
*av)iiro\lTr)s ii. 19 
ciV iii. 18, iv. 31 
*(rvvapfLo\oyelv ii. 21, iv. 16 
vivSefffios iv. 3 
ftrvveydpew ii. 6 
<riveins iii. 4 
t(n/i'fwo7roieti' ii. 5 
owiA/ai v. 17 
*<rvvotKoSojj.etv ii. 22 
*<r6<r<riti/ios iii. 6 
a<j>paylfreu> i. 13, iv. 30 
atbfriv ii. 5, 8 (<re<rwoyi&'ot) 
effi/ia i. 23, ii. 16, iv. 4, 12, 16, v. 23, 

28, 30 
aurri\p V. 23 
(rwTTjpla i. 13 
irdrr^piov vi. 17 

raTretvotftptxrivrj iv. 2 

re i. 10, iii. 19 

t^ct-ov ii. 3, v. 1, 8, vi. 1, 4 

tAeios iv. 13 

TrjptLV iv. 3 

rip-ap vi. 2 

ns, n ii. 9, iv. 29, v. 27, vi. 8 

t(s, t( i. 18, 19, iii. 9, 18, iv. 9, v. 10, 17, 

vi. 21 
rotouros v. 27 
tAttos iv. 27 
rpijuos vi. 5 
Ttfx'fos vi. 21 



SSap v. 26 

tviodtala i. 5 

vlds ii. z, iii. 5, iv. 13 (t. vlov t. 8.), v. 6 

ti/xeis (n.) i. 13, ii. n, 13, 22, iv. 20, 

v - 33> v i- *' : other oases 37 times 
tS/ivos v. 19 
i!'7raKO<'eii> vi. 2, 5 
iir^p c. gen. i. 16, iii. i, 13, v. 2, 20, 25, 

vi. 19, 20: c. ace. i. 22, iii. 20 
ivep&vu) i. 21, iv. 10 (else only Heb. ix. 5) 
Jiixep^dXXeii/ i. 19, ii. 7, iii. 19 
Ji;7repcK7rept(rffoi) iii. 20 
iir6 c. gen. ii. 11, v. 12, 13 : 0. ace. i. 22 
vwodei<r8ai vi. 15 
6woT&<r<reLv i. 22, v. 21, 22, 24 
ityos iii. 18, iv. 8 

</>avepovv v. 13 (bis) 
tpdetpav iv. 22 
0oj3«cr0ai v. 33 
0AjSos v. 21, vi. 5 
rppayfius ii. 14 
<ppt>vrjOis i. 8 
0i5<ns ii. 3 (-et) 
0ffls v. 8 (bis), 9, 13 (bis) 
ipwrlfciv i. 18, iii. 9 

Xapfffo-flai iv. 32 (bis) 

X<lpw (prep.) iii. 1, 14 

Xt&pis i. 2, 6, 7, ii. 5, 7, 8, iii. 2, 7, 8, iv. 

7, 29, vi. 24 
xap'ToOc i. 6 
Xtlp iv. 28 
XetpcwrotajTos ii. 1 1 
Xpe/a iv. 28, 29 
Xpi/<rr6s iv. 32 
+XP'? < 'Tfrn? s ii. 7 
Xpioros (alone) i. 3 (i» Xp.), iv. 15, 32 

(iv Xp.), v. 21, 32, vi. 6 (SoBXoi Xp.). 

For use with 'IijcroCs before and after 

v.s. 'Iijo-oCs. '0 x/" " 7 "* 5 ( v - on *■ I2 ) 

occurs 20 times 

Xupk ii- l2 

ipdWem v. 19 
yj/aSpMs v. 19 
^eOSos iv. 25 
\j/vxfl vi. 6 (& iA"X? s ) 


v. iy 

us ii. 3, iii. 5> v. 1, 8, 15, 

vi. 5, 6, 7, 20 

22, 23 28, 33, 

liWep V. 24 

W. EPH. 



p. 12, 1. 32, col. 2, for 'he' read 'He'. 

p. 66, note on rjj Aae\yei(f, after 'as' insert 'to'. 

p. 72, col. 1, 1. 3, 'us' should, to accord with text, be 'you'. 

p. 85, 1. 15, col. •£, for apuanos read a/uofws. 

p. 93, 1. 27, col. 1, for 'p. 918' read 'Pt. ii. vol. iii. p. 334'- 

,, „ 1. 40, in 2 Sam. xix. 27 for '& t<p SoiiXy' the reading in Prof. Swete's 

edition is 6 ooCXos. 
p. 168, 1. 10, after 'ItrparfK insert ] 


Apocalypse, lvi 
Apostles, 40, 170 f. 
Armour, Christian, 95 
Ascension, lxii 
Atonement, 140 
Authorship, xxv, xxxiii 

Baptism, 84, 162 
Barnabas, Ep. of, xxix 
Basil, xxiii 
Basilides, xxxi 
Benediction, 99 
Blessing, 5 f. 

Body (of Christ), 58, 83, 176 
Bride „ 177 

Canonicity, xxv 
Character, Christian, 72 
Characteristics, lxiii 
Children, 87 
Christ, 127, 183 
Christology, 129 
Church, 83, 149, 172 
Colossians, xlii f . 
Conflict, 92, 197 
Creation, 133 

Date, xxiv 
Destination, xxiii 
Devil, 135 
Doxology, 53 

Ephesus, xxiii, 19 f. 
Evil, 94 f., 197 

Faith, 143 

Fall of Man, 166 

Fatherhood, 50 

Flesh, 195 
Forgiveness, 141 

Gentiles, 33 
Glory, 187 
God the Father, 123 
Good works, 148 
Gospel, lxi, 16 
Grace, 142 

Heart, 134 

Heaven, 152 

Hebrews, 137, 153, 164, 190 f. 

Hermae Pastor, xxix 

Holy Spirit, 130 

Hope, 146 

Husbands, 84 f . 

Hymn of Praise, 5 

Ignatius, xxv f. 
Ignorance, 66 
Inheritance, 25 

Jesus (Christ, the Lord), 21, 67, 

184 f. 
John, St (Gosp. and Epp.), lv 

Kingdom of God, 167 
Knowledge, 23, 144 

Language of Epistle, xxxvii 
Life, 147 
Light, 147 
Lord, 128 f., 185 
Love, 75, 146 

Man, 133 
Masters, 89 f. 



Miletus, Address at, xlix 
Ministry, Apostolic, 151, 169 
Music, 82 
Mystery, 180 

Nature of Man, 31 

Old Testament, 101, 200 
Origen, xxiii 

Parents, 87 f. 

Passion (of Christ), lxi, 130 

Pastorals, li 

Paul, St, 1, 42 

Peace, 100, 142 

Peter, St (First Ep.), liv 

Philemon, xlvii 

Philippians, xlvii 

Polycarp, xxix 

Prayer, 21, 148 

Predestination, 136 

Prophets, 170 

Quotations of O.T., 101, 201 

Eedemption, 138 
Relationships, Social, 82 
Eesurrection, lxi, 189 
Eevelation, 144, 178 
Righteousness, 143 
Romans, 1 
Ruskin quoted, 94, 197 

Sacraments, 150 
Saints, -i, 149 

Salvation, 16, 32 

Septuagint, 201 

Servants, 89 

Sin, 136, 165 

Speech, 74 

Spirit, of man, 81, 134 

,, Christian, 97 
Style, xxxvii 

Temple, 41, 176 
Tertullian, xxiii 
Text, xvii 

Thanksgiving, 21, 148 
Title, xxiii 
Trinity, 131 
Truth, 148^^ 
Tyndale, 114 

Unity, s7 *■ 

Universality of Church, 178 

Unseen world, 134 

Valentinus, xxxi 
Versions, Ancient, xx f. 
„ English, 114 
Vulgate, xxi, 103 

Warfare, Christian, 92 

Wiclif, 114 

Will (of God), 132 

Wisdom, 144, 158, 160 

Wives, 83 f. 

Word = message, 16 

Words, Pauline, &c, xxxviii f. 

World, 132 



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