Skip to main content

Full text of "The testament of Our Lord, translated into English from the Syriac with introduction and notes"

See other formats


BARNES REFERENCE LIBRARY 



THE GIFT OF 



ALFRED C. BARNES 



•mmmmmmmmtmmmmtmmmrm'mmmmm^itmiMj, 



jn^-nn,TTn ^„„„^„,,^,^^ „„ 



CORNELL 

UNIVERSITY 

LIBRARY 




GIFT OF 
Alfred C. Barnes 



Date Due 



.'\^ 






.t<f^ 



Intertib ] 




ft 







Ahy 17' TT" * 



jaiv J! 



lar 



PRINTED IN 



(Si 



NO. 2SS33 



Conwll Unlvewlty Ubrary 
BS29eO.T6 C77 
Te.tament.ofq.ur.Lord^„.a.«^ 



olln 



as ^ 

^17 



oT^ 



THE ANTE-NICENE CHRISTIAN LIBRARY 

A Collection of all the Works of the fathers of 
the Christian Church prior to the Council 
of Nicsea. Translated into English. 

In Twenty-four handsome 8vo Volumes, price 
£Q, 6s. net; or a Selection of Four Volumes 
for £1, Is. net. 

For detailed List see eTid of this Volume. 
EDiNBURan : T. & T. CLARK, 38 George Street. 



THE TESTAMENT OF OUR LORD 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/cletails/cu31924029296170 



THE TESTAMENT 
OF OUR LORD 



Translated into English from the Syriac 
With Introduction and Notes 



BY 



JAMES COOPER, D.D. 

PROFESSOR OF ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY IN THE 
UNIVERSITY OF GLASGOW 



ARTHUR JOHN MACLEAN, M.A., F.R.G.S. 

SOMETIME DEAN 6f ARGYLL AND THE ISLES 



EDINBURGH 

T. & T. CLARK, 38 GEORGE STREET 

1902 

J5 



, i i;;j|,ivti '• 

PRINTED BY 
MORRISON AND GIBB LIMITED, 

FOR 

T. & T. CLARK, EDINBURGH. 

LOSDON : SlMPIilN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, KENT, AND CO. LIMITED. 
NEW YORK : CHARLES SCRIBNRR'S SONS. 



PREFACE 



In submitting this Translation to the Public, I may be 
permitted to say, in the first place, a few words as to the 
Testament itself, and the principles which have guided its 
present Translators ; and I feel bound, in the second place, to 
indicate the respective parts which Canon Maclean and I, 
while jointly responsible for the work as a whole, have taken 
in producing it. 

The Testament is one, and not the least interesting, of a 
series of writings, whereof the DidacM or Teaching of the 
Twelve Apostles is the first, and the so-called Apostolic Constitu- 
tions one of the last, whose aim seems to have been to provide 
the clergy of the Early Church with a manual of their duties, 
and especially with directions for the proper fulfilment of 
the offices of Public Worship. None of these books is 
authoritative in the sense of having been issued by those who 
had pubhc authority given them in the Church to do so ; nor 
did any of them succeed by their own merits in obtaining 
such acceptance as was won by the Great Liturgies. But 
they certaialy helped to prepare the way for the Great 
Liturgies, and the Testament in particular became influential 
in the process which led to the formation of the Ethiopic 
and Coptic service books. The fact that they were not 
themselves accepted is proof sufficient that they never quite 
represented the mind or embodied the ideals of the Church, 
or of any considerable local section of it. They are coloured, 
no doubt, by the private idiosyncrasies of their unknown 
authors. But at least they exhibit to us ideas that were 
entertained among Christians at the time when they were 
severally written, and they show how, in the formative 



VI PREFACE 

period of the Church's worship, the minds of those 
professionally interested in the subject were working. 

The Testament possesses the special interest of being the 
production of the very period — the very moment, we may 
say — -when the great transition in the Church's fortunes, 
from Imperial persecution to Imperial favour, was leading 
to the inevitable transformation of her buildings and her 
services to suit her altered circumstances. She was not 
going to break with the past : far from it. There was a 
great deal stiU in the Empire — in the Government offices, 
in the Army, in society, that rendered it spiritually unsafe 
for her members to have much to do with them ; and 
made it needful for her still to take precautions against 
casting her pearls before swine. There might even be, if 
Julian's reign was to be prolonged, a recrudescence of pagan 
persecution. All the same, the Church breathed more 
freely. She could build for herself churches, baptisteries, 
clergy-houses, hospices, according to her own ideas of what 
these ought to be ; and she could so order her services, that if 
those who were not Christians attended them, they might be 
impressed by their dignity and holiness. At the same time, 
it was eminently needful that the discipline and order of the 
Church should be preserved, and that there should be no 
lowering of the spiritual tone of her ministers and office- 
bearers. 

The Testament reflects this state of things as in a mirror. 
It vibrates, moreover, with the pulsation of the great contro- 
versies — ^Arian, Macedonian, Apollinarian — through which 
the Church was passing, or into which she was just about to 
pass. The volume is thus far more than a mere antiquarian 
curiosity. It had a message to its own time : it has a message 
to all time, and very distiuctly to the time now present. In 
this light, even its Apocalyptic Prelude — bold as it is, to the 
verge of profanity — has nevertheless this measure of apology, 
that our Lord is, in point of fact, no mere figure of the past, 
but the Living Head of His Church, from whom each of His 
ministers iu succession derives his charge, in and by whom 
alone he lives, and to whom he must answer at the last. 



PREFACE VU 

Probably enough the Compiler meant, by prefixing his 
startling Prelude, to claim for his work the authority of an 
undefiled tradition, in which were gathered up those counsels 
of the Great Forty Days during which the Eisen Saviour 
spake to His disciples the things concerning the Kingdom of 
God (Acts i. 3) ; but beyond that, there may well have been 
in his mind the thought now indicated, of the abiding relation 
between Christ and His Church. That relation, at least, is 
no pretence, however crude or objectionable the form may 
be by which the Compiler endeavoured to express it. 

Apart from this, the Testament is a veritable mine at 
once of devotional expression and liturgical lore ; while its 
witness to the state of doctrine and the ecclesiastical order 
and organisation in Eastern Christendom in the middle or 
third quarter of the fourth century, is of surpassing 
value. 

On account of its devotional merit, my first thought was 
to render it, or at least its prayers, in such a form as might 
most easily be used for purposes of worship ; but that is a 
task which the reader who desires thus to use the book may 
perform for himself. More and more did it become clear 
both to Canon Maclean and to myself that our busiaess was 
to give it as literally as possible, so that the English reader 
might come as near as might be to the sense and feeling of the 
Syriac. Perhaps this may be found to be best even for him 
who may search the book for the making of prayers : it is 
certainly what the student of history, of dogma, and of the 
usages of the Ancient Church is entitled to look for at our 
hands. 

The full Syriac text of the Testament was published, 
along with a Latin translation, by the Patriarch Ignatius 
Ephraem II. Eahmani, at Mainz in 1899. In January 1900 
his work was put into my hands by the late learned Eev. 
Professor Dickson, D.D. of this University. A first cursory 
perusal sufficed to show me something of its historical and 
liturgical importance, and my impression was deepened 
when I set myself to make an English translation, for my 
own use, of Eahmani's Latin rendering. I felt that the 



VUl PREFACE 

Testament deserved a place in the Ante-Nicene Library of 
Messrs. T. & T. Clark, even if its date might turn out to 
be somewhat later than that of the First General Council of 
the Church. I communicated my views to Messrs. Clark, 
was encouraged by them to go on with the translation I 
had begun, and I wrote to the Patriarch requesting his per- 
mission to issue this ; but it very soon became evident that 
what was reaUy needed was a critical examination and 
independent rendering of the Syriac text. This I was not 
competent to supply; and I should have given up the 
attempt altogether, had I not, very forttmately, been able to 
secure the collaboration of the Eev. Canon Maclean, whose 
long residence in the East, on the staff of the Archbishop 
of Canterbury's Mission to the Assyrian Christians, his 
knowledge of Syriac, and his experience as the Editor of the 
Syrian Liturgy of Adai and Mari, combined to give him 
special fitness for the task. He has performed by far the 
greater part of it. He has collated the Syriac text. His is 
the translation : his, in great part, the Introduction, the 
Notes, the Appendices, and even the Index. It is he, not I, 
that the Enghsh reader has to thank, should this book prove 
of the use we hope it will to the student of the thought 
and worship of the Church in the fourth century. 

It remains only that we acknowledge the kind interest 
taken in this work by such friends as the Right Eev. the 
Lord Bishop of Salisbury, and the help derived from the 
books of the writers whose names are mentioned in the table 
printed below. 

JAMES COOPER. 



8 The College, Glasgow. 
September 1902. 



CONTENTS 



Inteoduotion— 








SEC. PAGE 


i. Scope of the Work ...... 3 


ii. The Manuscripts .... .5 


iii. The Parallel Literature . . 7 


iv. Question of a Montanist Original . . . .15 


V. Theology and Characteristics . . . .16 


vi. Date ....... 25 


vii. Place of Writing . . . . . .42 


The Testament op our Lord— 


I. 1-18. Prelude, etc. . . ... 49 


19. The Church Buildings . 




62 


20-22. The Bishop ..... 




64 


23-27. The Eucharist 




69 


28. The Mystagogia . 




84 


29-32. Presbyters 




90 


33-38. Deacons ..... 




97 


39. Confessors .... 






105 


40-43. Widows . 






105 


44. Subdeacons .... 






111 


45. Eeaders . 






112 


46. Virgins .... 






112 


47. Charismata 






114 


II. 1-7. Catechumens 






. 115 


8, 9. Baptism and Confirmation 






. 124 


10. Baptismal Eucharist 






. 128 


11, 12. Maundy Thursday, Pentecost, etc. 






. 129 


13. The Agape 






. 130 


14. First Fruits 






. 131 


15. Property 






. 131 


16. First Fruits 






. 132 


17. Christian Meals . 






. 133 



PAGE 



X CONTENTS 

The Testament of ode Loed — contd. 

II. 18-20. Paschal Solemnities ... 133 

21. Visiting the Sick . 135 

22. The Psalms . . 135 

23. Burials . . 135 

24. Hours of Prayer ... .136 
25-27. Conclusion 137 

Appended Notes to Book I. . . . 141 

Appended Notes to Book II. . . . 207 

Appendix I. The Abyssinian Anaphora of our Lord 245 

Appendix II. The Mystagogia of the Arabic Didascalia . . 252 

Index op Quotations fbom and Refbeences to the Bible 255 

Index op Subjects and Authoes ..... 258 



PRmCIPAL MODERN AUTHORITIES CITED 



AcHELls, Die Ganones Hippolyti in Texte und Untersuchungen (Leipzig : 
Hinrich, 1891). 

Arendzen, Articles on the Apocalyptic Prelude of tlie Testament in 
Journal of Theological Studies, vol. ii., and on the Apostolic 
Ghurch Order in J.T.S., vol. iii. (London : Macmillan, 1901). 

Brightman, Liturgies, Eastern and Western, vol. i., Eastern Liturgies 

(Oxford University Press, 1896). 
The Sacramentary of Serapion of Thmuis in J.T.S., vol. i. (1900). 

BuNSBN, Analecta antenicaena, vol. ii. [—Christianity and Mankind (in 
English), vol. vi.], the portion cited here by de Lagarde (London, 
1854). 

Db Lagarde (formerly Bbtticher), Gonstitutiones Apostolorum (Leipzig : 
Teubner ; London : Williams & Norgate, 1862). 

Reliquiae juris ecclesiastici antiquissimae (Leipzig, 1856). 

Aegyptiaca (Gbttingen, 1883). 

Didascalia Apostolorum Syriace (Leipzig, 1854). 

Duchesne, Origines du culte chrdien (Paris : Thorin, 1889, 1st edition ; 
1898, 2nd edition), for the Pilgrimage of SUvia. 

Funk, Die Apostolischen Konstitutionen (Rottenburg, 1891). 

Hammond, Liturgies, Eastern amd Western (Oxford University Press, 
1878, old edition of Brightman), for the Western Liturgies. 

Hauler, Didascaliae Apostolorum Fragmenta Veronensia Latina, vol. i. 
(Leipzig : Teubner, 1900). 

Hbfele (Bishop of Rottenburg), Conciliengeschichte (A History of the 
Christian Councils from the Original Docmnents), vols, i., ii., English 
translation (Edinburgh : T. & T. Clark, 1872, 1876). 

Jambs, Apocrypha Anecdota in Texts and Studies (Cambridge University 
Press, 1893). 

LuDOLF, Ad suarni historia/m aethiopicam commentarius (Frankfort-on- 
Main, 1691). 



xii PRINCIPAL MODERN AUTHORITIES CITED 

Patnb-Smith, Thesomrus Syriacus, 2 vols. (Oxford University Press, 

1870-1901). 
Platt, The Ethdopic Didascalia, with English translation (London, 1834). 

Rahmani (Uniat Syrian Patriarch of Antioch), Testamentum Domini 

nostri Jesu Ohristi (Mainz : Kirkheim, 1899). 
Smith and Cheetham, Dictionary of Ghrinlian Antiquities, 2 vols. 

(London : Murray, 1875, 1880). 
Smith and Wacb, Didiona/ry of Christian Biography^ 4 vols. (London : 

Murray, 1877-1887). 
Tattam, The Apostolical OoTistitutions or Canons of the Apostles in Coptic, 

with an English Translation (London : W. H. Allen & Co., 1848). 
Wordsworth, J. (Bishop of Salisbury), The Ministry of Grace (London : 

Longmans, Green, & Co., 1901). 
Two Articles on The Testament of our Lord in Church Quarterly 

Review for January and April 1900 (London : Spottiswoode 

& Co.). 
Article on The Testamsnt of our Lord in Revue Internationale de 

thMogie for 1900 (vol. 31). 
Bishop Sarapion's Prayer-Book (London : S.P.C.K., 1899). 

In the quotations from the above dictionaries and magazines, from 
Brightman's Liturgies, Lagarde's Constitutions, Hauler's Fragments, 
Ludolf's Commenta/ry, and Wordsworth's Ministry of Grace, the 
numbers denote the pages or columns. Superior numbers, when 
given, denote the lines on the page. 



ABBREVIATIONS 



Test. 


O.H. 


Const. H. 


Eg. CO. . . . 


Eth.C.O. . 


H 


Copto-arab. 


Ap. 0.0. 


Ar.D. . 


Cyr. Jer. (Cat. Lect.) 


A.C. 


Ap. Can. . 


J.T.S. 


Diet. Chr. Biog. 


Diet. Chr. Ant. 



C.Q.E. 



Testament of our Lord. 

Canons of Hippolytus. 

Constitutiones per Hippolytuin. 

Egyptian Church Order. 

Ethiopia Church Order. 

Hauler's Verona Latin fragments. 

Translation of Testament into Arabic from Coptic. 

The Apostolic Church Order. 

The Arabic Didascalia. 

St. Cyril of Jerusalem's Catechetical Lectures. 

The Apostolic Constitutions. 

The Apostolic Canons. 

Journal of Theological Studies. 

Smith and Wace, Dictionary of Christian Bio- 
graphy. 

Smith and Cheetham, Dictionary of Christian 
Antiquities. 

Church Quarterly Review. 



Words in the Translation enclosed by square brackets are not in the 
Syriac text. 

Manuscripts or the Testament. 

M Codex Mosulanus. 

B. . . . Codex Borgianus. 

S Codex Sangermanensis. 

C Codex Cantabrigiensis. 



ADDITIOI^S AND C0ERECTI0N8 



Page 40, line 10. — Add: "The complete cycle of the festivals in the 
Pilgrimage of Silvia is : Epiphany (i.e. the Nativity) with octaves ; 
the Presentation of our Lord in the temple, forty days later ; Palm 
Sunday ; Easter, with octaves ; the fortieth day after Easter ; Pente- 
cost ; the Dedication (Holy Cross Day). The commemoration on the 
fortieth day after Easter seems not to have been of the Ascension, 
which was commemorated at Pentecost together with the descent of 
the Holy Ghost (so in the Testa/ment the Passion and Resurrection 
were probably commemorated together, p. 39). Possibly there was 
a Martyrs' festival in Silvia, but the manuscript breaks oflf at this 
point." 

Page 152, line 22.— DeZeic; "The use of the name. ... p. 1356." Add: 
" Perhaps the earliest use of the name ' archdeacon ' is found in the 
Pilgrimage of Silvia, though it there does not, apparently, represent 
in any way a separate office, but the principal deacon, whose duty 
it is to call people to prayer, is so called." 

Page 159, line 37.— Add: "The idea so strikingly brought out in the 
Prayer fw the Laying on of Hands on a Bishop, of the Holy Angels 
as the prelates and priests of God's upper sanctuary, finds a curious 
illustration in the armorial bearings of the Scottish burgh of 
Dumfries, in which the Archangel Michael appears mitred and 
habited as a Western mediaeval bishop, and pierces the Dragon with 
his pastoral staff instead of a sword or spear. (See also Diet. Ghr. 
Ant. i. 87)." 



INTRODUCTION 



THE TESTAMENT OF OUR LORD 



INTRODUCTION 

§ i. The Scope and Chaeactee of the Book 

The Testament of our Lord, of which an English translation 
is here offered to the reader, is an apocryphal work of un- 
certain date, which professes to give us the words of our 
Lord Himself, and to tell what He said to the disciples after 
His resurrection and before His ascension. It is supposed to 
be the last Will or Testament which He gave them, and to 
provide them with rules for the conduct of their work. It 
professes, in fact, to give in detail " the things " which He 
spake " pertaining to the kingdom of God " (Acts i. 3). The 
First Book begins with a preface and an introductory chapter, 
and then proceeds to an apocalyptic discourse about the end 
of the world (I. 2-14). Then come four chapters which 
join on that discourse to the " Church Order " which follows. 
This " Church Order," of which we find several parallel forms 
elsewhere, contains minute regulations as to the Church, its 
buildings, and its organisation, with ordination prayers and a 
liturgy complete. The Church buildings are first described 
(I. 19); then the qualifications, ordination, and duties of a 
bishop (I. 20-22); then the Eucharistic Liturgy, with its 
pre-anaphoral prayers (I. 23-27); then a "mystagogic" 
instruction for festivals — that is, the teaching of the mysteries 
of the Christian faith to the baptized (I. 2 8) ; then the quali- 

3 



4 INTRODUCTION [§ i- 

fications, ordination, duties, and daily prayers of a presbyter 
(I. 29-32); then the qualifications and duties of a deacon, 
the Eucharistic Litany said by him, and his ordination 
(I. 33-38) ; regulations as to confessors in persecution (I. 39) ; 
rules about the order of widows and their prayers (I. 40-43) ; 
about subdeacons, readers, virgins, and gifts of healing, etc. 
(I. 44-47). The Second Book deals first with baptism ; it 
decides who are to be admitted as catechumens, who re- 
jected (II. 1, 2) ; it gives rules about the instruction (II. 
3-5), exorcism (II. 6, 7), baptism (II. 8), confirmation (II. 9), 
and communion (II. 10) of the candidates. It then passes to 
the fast before, and ceremonies of, Easter (II. 11, 12, 18—21), 
the agap^ or love-feast (II. 1 3), offering of first fruits (II. 1 4, 1 6), 
rules for burial and property (II. 15, 23), grace before meals 
(II. 17), methods of singing (II. 22), hours of prayer (II. 24), 
and concludes with a return to the pretence of a " Testament." 
This work, which is undoubtedly Greek in origin, is only 
known in translations into Syriac, Ethiopic, and Arabic. 
Selections from it were first published by Lagarde in Syriac 
from the Codex Sangermanensis 38, and the same editor 
attempted a restoration of the underlying Greek of those 
selections in 1856 in the Reliquiae jwris ecclesiastici anti- 
quissimae, pp. 80—89. But although complete copies of the 
work were on the shelves of several European libraries — at 
Cambridge, Eome, and Florence — no European scholar seems 
to have thought it worth while to read, or at any rate to 
make known, the whole book. The credit of publishing this 
most interesting and curious composition is due to Mgr. 
Ignatius Ephraem ii. Eahmani, the Uniat Syrian Patriarch 
of Antioch, who published it at Maintz in 1899, using all the 
manuscripts which are mentioned in the next section, with 
the exception there noted. Mgr. Eahmani has added prole- 
gomena and dissertations which are mentioned several times 
in the following pages. If we cannot in all cases agree with 



§§ i., ii.] SCOPE OF THE BOOK 5 

the views of his Holiness, his work is always suggestive and 
stimulating. 

The Testament was translated from Greek into Syriac, as 
its subscription testifies, by the celebrated James of Edessa in 
the seventh century ; and it is this translation which makes 
the work known to us. But there are other translations, not 
yet published, into Ethiopic and Arabic, the latter at least 
having been very freely altered in its course through Coptic 
into its present form. There is much evidence that the book 
was greatly valued, especially in Monophysite circles, and it 
has left very distinct traces of its influence on the liturgies 
and ordinals of later times, particularly on those of the 
Abyssinians and Copts. A short notice of James of Edessa 
will be found in the Notes to II. 27. 

It may here be stated that the aim of this volume is to 
elucidate the meaning of the Testament, and to investigate the 
customs of the Early Church as they really were, without any 
consideration of their bearing on modern controversies. It 
may be further premised, that in this volume the name 
"Testament Compiler" is used for the writer who put the 
book, either exactly or approximately, into its present shape. 
The date of his work of compilation will be discussed below, 
in § vi. 

§ ii. The Manuscripts 

The following are the Syriac manuscripts used by Eah- 
mani : — 

(1) A codex now in the library of the Uniat [Western] 
Syrian Metropolitan of Mosul, on the Tigris. This contains 
the Bible and the " Syrian Octateuch " (see below, § iii.), the 
first two books of which are our Testament. This codex was 
written by one Behnam in the monastery of the Syrian saint 
of that name, near Mardin in Mesopotamia, in the year 1654 
A.D. (or 1652 ?). This codex is called " M." in these pages. 



6 INTRODUCTION [§ "• 

(2) A codex now in the Borgian Museum at Kome, but 
coming from Mount Lebanon, and dated a.d. 1576. It con- 
tains the whole "Syrian Octateuch," and is noted here as 
" B." 

(3) The St. Germain manuscript (Codex Sangermanensis 
38), mentioned in § i. as having been used by Lagarde, and 
noted here as " S." It is much more ancient than the above 
manuscripts, being referred to the eighth century. It con- 
tains extracts only from the Testament, but those extracts are 
taken from all parts of the book, and it is clear that the 
translation of James of Edessa lay complete before the scribe, 
with the probable exception of our I. 32 (see Note to I. 33). 
This codex does not contain the liturgical portions of the 
Testament, and is professedly very fragmentary in the second 
book. A few additions to Eahmani's collation of Lagarde's 
edition will be found in this volume. 

In addition to these three Syriac manuscripts, Eahmani 
has used a translation made through Coptic into Arabic, the 
manuscript of which is in the Borgian Museum at Eome ; he 
promises also to publish this translation, and to his present 
book the notices of it in this volume are entirely due. The 
date of the translation into Arabic is the year "643 of the 
martyrs, which agrees with the year 313 of the Hegira." 

Besides these authorities used by Eahmani, there are Syriac 
texts in the Malabar Bible of the University of Cambridge, 
and in a book of Church Ordinances in the Laurentian Library 
at Florence ; and there are two copies of an Ethiopie trans- 
lation of uncertain age, perhaps made from the Coptic or 
from the Arabic, in the British Museum. But none of these 
are published. 

There is a very short fragment of the apocalyptic pre- 
lude in a Latin translation in a manuscript at Treves (Codex 
Treverensis 36). This fragment has been published by Dr. 
M. E. James in Apocrypha Anecdota, pp. 151-154 (Cambridge 



§§ ii., iii.] MANUSCRrpTS 7 

Texts and Studies, ii. 3, 1893). This has been taken to be the 
original form of the prelude, but the evidence is not conclusive, 
and some reasons are given in the Appended Note at the 
beginning of Book I. for supposing that it is at least possible 
that it may be an abbreviation of our prelude, and even 
that it may- be translated not from the Greek, but from a 
Syriac version. 

Very important for our purpose is an independent Syriac 
version of the prelude in a Cambridge manuscript (Cod. 
Cantab. Add. 2919), published by Dr. Arendzen in the 
Journal of Theological Studies for April 1901 (J.T.S. ii. 401 
ff.), and therefore after the publication of Eahmani's Work. 
This manuscript contains I. 2-1 4a; it is headed, "From the 
Book of Clement on the End " ; it professes to give our Lord's 
own words, but it is only an extract from a longer work, and 
omits expressly our I. 10. Dr. Arendzen supposes that this 
translation was made later than that of James of Edessa, but 
that in some cases it may represent the Greek more faith- 
fully. The chief differences are given in the footnotes, and 
there is some discussion of them in the Appended Notes, where 
the question is raised whether this Cambridge manuscript 
(here called " C") does not represent a Greek text of the 
prelude even independent of and prior to the Testament Com- 
piler himself. There is something to be said on both sides 
of this last question ; but if it should prove that C. gives us 
the prelude as it was before our Testament Compiler in- 
serted it into his work, it would follow that he got his whole 
idea, if not the name, of a " Testament " from the original of C. 
This Cambridge manuscript is dated A.D. 1218. 

§ iii. The Parallel Litbeatuee 

1. Chuech Oedeks of the same Eokm. It has already 
been mentioned that the Testament is one out of many 



8 INTRODUCTION [§ iii- 

" Church Orders " which are replicas of one original, with 
highly interesting variations indeed, but all reproducing the 
same general outline, and built on the same framework. For 
a full, yet compendious, description of them — the best that has 
yet appeared — reference may be made to the newly published 
Ministry of Grace by the Bishop of Salisbury (Dr. John 
Wordsworth), who in his Introduction gives an admirable 
account not only of these parallel Church Orders, but of a 
large mass of other illustrative literature. Only the shortest 
summary is made here ; but it is necessary that the reader 
should have a conspectus of the Orders before him, or he will 
be unable to unravel their undoubted intricacies. The con- 
tents of these Orders, where they illustrate the Testament (and 
it is often only by a reference to them that we can make any 
sense out of our book), is discussed and summarised in the 
Appended Notes ; their approximate date is shortly spoken of 
below in § vi. Here a list of them is given, with a note of 
the books in which they may conveniently be found. 

(a) We must, probably, postulate a " Lost Church Order " 
as the original of the rest. By extracting the common parts 
of the others, we might restore conjecturally a considerable 
portion of this original. It has been thought, with much 
probability, to represent the usage of the Early Eoman Church, 
though, as Dr. Wordsworth points out, it might have been 
brought to Eome from the outside. 

(/3) The Canons of Hippolytus (" C.H."), which represent 
perhaps the Eoman Church Order of the first part of the 
third century, are now only known in an Arabic version — a 
version of a version — and in what is clearly a later form. 
Their date will be very shortly discussed in § vi. ; here it 
may suffice to say that if Professor Achelis' supposition is 
correct, they are an interpolated form of a third century 
book. It might be thought that they represent the original 
of the other Church Orders, and that we need not postulate a 



§ iii.] PARALLEL LITERATDEE 9 

" Lost Church Order." But they contain so much of which 
there is no trace in the parallel, or rather later, Orders, that 
we must look on them rather as a collateral than as an 
ancestor.'- They were edited in Arabic with a Latin trans- 
lation in 1870 by D. B. von Haneberg. But the most 
convenient form of them for most readers will be that pub- 
lished by Professor Hans Achelis. He gives a Latin trans- 
lation of the Arabic, with parallels from the Egyptian and 
Ethiopic Church Orders, the " Constitutions through Hippolytus," 
and the Apostolic Constitutions, for all of which see below. 
The sections of C.H. used in this volume are those of Achelis. 
These Canons do not contain a Liturgy, but they have full 
Ordination prayers. 

(7) The Egyptian Church Order (" Eg. CO.") forms the 
second book of the Egyptian Heptateuch (see below). It does 
not contain a Liturgy or Ordination prayers, and is very much 
shorter than the Testament, with the general outline of which 
it agrees. The most convenient form of this Order for the 
English reader will be found in Archdeacon Tattam's The 
Apostolical Constitutions or Canons of the Apostles in Coptic, 
which gives the Coptic and English side by side. But 
this book is scarce. Achelis prints a German translation 
(see ;8), and Lagarde gives the text in his Aegyptiaca, pp. 
248-266. 

(S) The Mhiopic Church Order (" Eth. CO.") forms part of 

the "Ethiopic Statutes" (Stat. 21 ff.). A portion only of 

them has been published, namely, by Job Ludolf (Leutholf ) in 

his Ad suam historiam aethiopicam Commentarius. This book 

is also very scarce. Ludolf, who gives the Ethiopic text with 

a Latin translation, publishes first the " Apostolic Church 

Order" (see 2, below), which takes up Stat. 1-20 inch, 

' The following sections of C.H. are wholly wanting in the Testament : 1-6, 
55-58, 81-90, 93-96, 100, 164-163, 169, 178-185, 195, 196, 201-204, 206-214, 
216-219, 222, 226-232, 239-241, 243, 245, 247-261, also some parts of the 
Ordination prayer in C.H. for a bishop, etc. 



10 INTRODUCTION [§ i"- 

and then, in Statutes 21, 22, 23 (pp. 323-328) gives the 
first part of the Ethiopia Church Order, with Ordination 
prayers for bishops and presbyters, and an Eucharistic Liturgy. 
But he unfortunately leaves off just before the Ordination 
prayer for a deacon. Achelis gives a German translation in 
his parallels (see ^8), and an edition of the whole of the 
Statutes is promised by the Eev. George Horner. 

(e) Tlie Verona fragments, published by Hauler (" H."), are 
scattered portions of a compilation in Latin containing the 
Didascalia, Apostolic Church Order (for which see 2 ^, 3, 4 7, 
below), and a Church Order which is another form of that we 
are now considering. The last is of the greatest interest for 
our purpose, as it forms a connecting link between the Testa- 
ment and the rest, and with some confidence we may consider 
it to be a direct source of the former. It contains Ordination 
prayers for a bishop and presbyter, and (in part) for a deacon, 
an Eucharistic Anaphora, part of a description of baptism, 
rules for the agap^, etc. Only the first volume of Dr. Hauler's 
work has been published, the Commentary not yet having 
been brought out. 

(^ The Testament of our Lord is the form of the " Church 
Order " which is the subject of this volume. 

(v) The Arabic Didascalia, §§ 35-39 incl. (" Ar. D."), also 
contains a portion of a similar Church Order. It is obviously 
either the immediate source, or the immediate descendant, of 
the parallel portions of the Testament. Eeasons are given in 
the Notes (I. 19-28) for believing it to be derived from the 
latter. These chapters (only) are published by Dr. F. X. 
Funk in his work, Die Apostolischen Konstitutionen, in a 
German translation (pp. 226-236). 

(d) The Cpnstitutions through Hippolytus (" Const. H."), so 
called, are usually thought to be a first draft of part of the 
eighth book of the Apostolic Constitutions, and reproduce part 
of the " Lost Church Order." A portion is given by Achelis 



§ iii.] PARALLEL LITERATURE 11 

(see jS) ; the text may be conveniently seen in Lagarde's Be- 
liquiae, pp. 1—18 (see above, § i.). For a brief discussion of 
this work and an excellent summary of the parallel Hterature, 
see Brightman's Liturgies Eastern and Western (" L. E. W."), 
pp. xvii.— xxiv. 

(t) The Apostolic Constitutions (" A.C."), in book viii., also 
reproduce large portions of the Lost Church Order. See on 
" Compilations " below (4 S). The so-called " Clementine 
Liturgy " is part of this book. 

2. Other Church Orders, (a) The well-known Didachi 
or Teaching of the Apostles, first published by Bryennios, 
may be called an elementary " Church Order." It contains 
moral discourses on the " Two Ways," and rules concern- 
ing baptism, the Eucharist, fasting, etc. It probably dates 
from the first quarter of the second century. It may be 
conveniently seen in Bishop Lightfoot's posthumous Apostolic 
Fathers (London, 1891), where it appears with Greek text, a 
short introduction, and an English translation. 

(/S) The Apostolic Church Order (also called " Canones 
ecclesiastici sanctorum apostolorum ") is a short work which 
takes the discourse of the " Two Ways " from the Didachi, 
divided so that a portion is put into the mouth of each of 
the twelve Apostles, who are enumerated somewhat curiously, 
Peter and Cephas appearing as different Apostles. It is found 
in six different languages, and the English reader may study 
it in Tattam (see iii. 1 7, above), or in the English version of 
Bunsen's Analecta Antenicaena, or more conveniently, and with 
some important variations, in Dr. Arendzen's article in the 
Journal of Theological Studies for October 1901 (J.T.S. iii. 
59 ff.). Dr. Arendzen has published for the first time a com- 
plete Syriac text, from the Cambridge Malabar Bible, and 
from the Mosul Codex used by Mgr. Kahmani for the Testa- 
ment (see ii. 1, above). This "Apostolic Church Order" has 
had a considerable influence on the Testament. [See Notes on 



12 INTRODUCTION [§ i"- 

I. Preface, 16, 19 (division of the presbyters), 20 (marriage 
of bishops), 40 (widows), all portions which we must probably 
ascribe to the pen of the Testament Compiler himself.] The 
date of this work in its present form has been argued to be 
about 300 A.D., though it must reproduce a Church Order of 
an age earlier than TertuUian, as it places readers before 
deacons. Its Montanistic features, and the chief place it 
ascribes to St. John, will lead us probably to fix on Asia Minor 
as its place of origin. 

3. The Didascalia does not immediately affect us in the 
present investigation, though it is of considerable use for illus- 
tration. It is supposed to be originally a work of the third 
century, and is extant in several forms. Lagarde has pub- 
lished it in Syriac (Leipzig, 1854), and has restored the Greek 
in Bunsen's Analecta (see 2 ^, above). This is the earliest 
form known. It reappears in Latin in Hauler's Verona 
fragments (see 1 e and 4 7), in the Arabic Didascalia, §§ 1—34 
incl. (not published), in the Ethiopic Didascalia, published in 
Ethiopic and English by Piatt (London, 1834), and in a much 
enlarged form in the first six books of the Apostolic Constitu- 
tions (see below). The Didascalia consists of moral instructions 
with ecclesiastical regulations interspersed, and, in some forms, 
with a certain amount of liturgical matter. 

4. Compilations. From the above and other material 
several compilations have been made. 

(a) The Syrian Odateuch. The first two books consist of 
our Testament ; the third book, of the Apostolic Church Order ; 
the other five correspond to the eighth book of the Apostolic 
Constitutions and to the Apostolic Canons ; these last five 
have not been published. 

(j8) The Egyptian Heptateuch, or " Sahidic Ecclesiastical 
Canons." The first book contains the Apostolic Church 
Order ; the second, the Egyptian Church Order (1 7) ; the 
last five correspond generally to the eighth book of the 



§ iii.] PARALLEL LITERATURE 13 

Apostolic Constitutions and the Apostolic Canons. The 
Heptateuch may be read in English (and Coptic) in Tattam, 
(pp. cit., see 1 7, above). Both the Syrian Octateuch and the 
Egyptian Heptateuch are probably derived from the Apostolic 
Constitutions, and so treat the matter dealt with in the 
" Testament " and " Egyptian Church Order " respectively 
twice over, though in different ways ; in their early books 
giving those works, and in the later reproducing the divergent 
treatment of the same material in A.C. viii. 

(7) Hauler's Verona Latin fragments are a compilation con- 
tainiag (first) the Didascalia, (second) the Apostolic Church 
Order, and (third) the form of the Church Order parallel to 
our Testament (see 1 e, above). It is this last part which 
is of supreme importance for our present purpose. For 
the interesting connecting link in Hauler, see Note to Test. 
I. 15. 

(S) The Apostolic Constitutions (Greek). These eight books 
are so well known that the briefest description here will 
suffice. The first six books are an enlargement of the Didas- 
calia. The seventh reproduces the Didachd with variations, 
and contains liturgical matter, on baptism, etc., of which the 
source is not known. The eighth book begins with a Hippo- 
lytean treatise On Spiritual Gifts (which also appears in Const. 
H.), and then proceeds to a " Church Order " parallel to our 
Testament (see 1 t, above). In the manuscripts, the so-called 
Apostolic Canons (which are later than the Apostolic Constitu- 
tions, and perhaps date in their present form from 400 a.d.) 
follow the eighth book. For an excellent account in English 
of the Apostolic Constitutions, see Brightman, L.E.W. xvii.- 
xlvii. ; the most complete work on the subject is that (in 
German) of Dr. Eunk (see It), above). The Greek text has 
been published by Lagarde, as also by Ultzen and others ; the 
sections used in this volume are those of Lagarde. There is 
an English translation in the Ante-Nicene Christian Library 



14 INTRODUCTION [§ iii. 

(Edinburgh : T. & T. Clark). The Apostohc Canons are given 
in Hefele's Councils (at the end of vol. i., Eng. trans.). The 
compiler of the Apostolic Constitutions has been with the 
greatest probability identiiied with the interpolator of the 
Ignatian Epistles. 

5. Other Illustrative Literature. Of a large mass of 
early Christian books, the following may be specially mentioned 
as throwing light on the subjects dealt with in the Testament 
of our Lord. 

(a) Sarapidn's Prayer Book. Sarapion (or Serapion) was 
Bishop of Thmuis in the Nile Delta in the middle of the 
fourth century, a great friend of St. Athanasius, and an 
opponent of the Arian party. His Prayer Book has been 
published in Greek, with full notes, by Mr. Brightman 
(J.T.S. i. 88 ff., 247 ff.), and in English by the Bishop of 
Salisbury. It contains Ordination prayers, a Liturgy, etc., 
but only the bishop's part is given. The date is about 
350 A.D. 

(/S) The Pilgrimage of Silvia (so called) is an account of a 
journey made at the end of the fourth century by an anony- 
mous lady from Gaul to Jerusalem, in order to visit the Holy 
Places. She describes fully the services at Jerusalem, and 
her account is therefore most valuable for our purpose. The 
book was discovered by Gamurrini in 1884, and first edited 
by him in 1888; it has since been published by Geyer in 
Itinera HieroBolymitana (Vienna, 1898), and (in English) by 
Dr. Bernard (London, 1891). 

(7) The Catechetical Lectures of St. Cyril of Jerusalem 
(English translation in the Oxford Lih^ary of Fathers). 

For an account of other literature, especially of the 
Statuta ecclesiae antiqua (conveniently called by Dr. Words- 
worth the " Gallican Statutes ") and the Edessene Canons, the 
reader may be referred to Bishop J. Wordsworth's Ministry 
of Grace. 



§ iv.] A MONTANISTIC ORIGINAL ? 1 5 

§ iv. A Supposed Montanistic Oeiginal of the 
Testament 

Several features of the Testament have led to the con- 
jecture that it was once a Montanist Church Order, or, to put 
it more accurately, that the work we know is derived from 
such a source. Dom Morin of Maredsous first called atten- 
tion in the Bevue Binidictine for January 1900 to this 
subject. The following have been noted as Montanistic 
features. The dislike of digamy (I. 20 Note), revelations 
and gifts (I. 29 Note, 23, 47), the mention of the prophets^ 
as continuing, and the frequent references to prophets and 
prophetic utterances (I. 19*, 22*, 23* deacon's admonition, 
26*, 27*, 28*, 31*, 35*, 38*, 43*; II. 1*, 9*, 24, etc.), 
the mention of the Paraclete in the prayer over the oil (I. 
24* ; but only there,^ and then in connection with the 
Constantinopolitan "the Lord"), presbyteresses (I. 35*, 43*; 
II. 19*), the college of clergy (I. 19*), the frequent references 
to the Apocalypse, the absence of Phrygia in I. 10 (but this 
is in the probably independent Apocalyptic Prelude, see 
Appended Note), the passage about the Souls in I. 40* which 
recalls Tertullian (but only distantly), the alleged ascetic 
tone (but on this see § v.), the frequent references to works of 
the Spirit, also to the bearing of the Cross {e.g. I. 1 3 [but this 
is the prelude], 18*, 23* deacon's admonition, 26*, 28*, 
40*, 46* ; II. 7*), to children of the light (§ v.), etc. But 
of these passages, those marked with an asterisk are found, by 
comparison with the parallels, to be not improbably the Com- 
piler's own work, or at least the Compiler's interpolations in 
his sources. 

On the other hand, there are non-Montanistic features. 

^ But the absence of the prophets in the quotation of Eph. ii. 20 (I. 35) is 
remarkable. 

" The name is several times found in A.C., etc. 



16 INTRODUCTION [§§ iv., V. 

There are no prophetesses, widows are ordered to be silent in the 
church (I. 40*), virgins are not bidden to be veiled ordinarily 
(I. 46*), and there is no reference to general fasts except the 
two days before Easter and the ordinary weekly ones (these are 
not explicitly fixed). The "monarchical episcopate" (I. 21*) 
has also been noted as a non-Montanist feature ; but the Testa- 
ment has " monarchical Church," not " monarchical episcopate." 
On reviewing these instances which have been alleged, 
we are struck by the fact that some of these " Montanistic " 
features occur in the Prelude, for the joining of which on to 
the supposed Montanistic Church Order there is no evidence, 
and also by the fact that some of them occur in passages 
interpolated into sources such as Hauler's Verona fragments, 
and therefore can hardly have occurred in the supposed 
Montanist Church Order. On the whole, while the evidence 
is not strong enough to say positively that such an Order 
existed, we may at least conclude that the Testament, both in 
its Prelude and in the ecclesiastical part, shows distinct traces 
of Montanistic influence, as also does the Apostolic Church 
Order. It would seem, however, to be an over-statement of 
the case to look on the Testament as a Montanist Church 
Order merely edited or touched up by a later hand. The 
evidence rather points to the work of a later compiler who 
used earlier, and probably Montanistic, material. 

§ V. Theology and Characteristics of the Testament 

1. Theology. From its theological side the Testament may 
be regarded as a strong protest against Arianism and undue 
subordinationism. Starting from this point of view, Bishop 
J. Wordsworth has written an article in the Church Quarterly 
Review for April 1900, with the thesis that the Testament 
sprang from the school of ApoUinarius of Laodicea (in Syria). 
ApoUinarius (or Apollinaris) the Younger was long recognised 



§ v.] THEOLOGY 17 

as orthodox, and was admired by St. Athanasius and St. 
Basil for his classical learning, and especially for his opposi- 
tion to Arianism. But he fell into error on the other side, and 
late in life he propounded a heresy which, while upholding 
the true divinity of our Lord, did not recognise His true 
humanity. Dividing man (with Plato) into body (o-w/xa), soul 
(>}rvxv), and spirit (Trvevfia), he ascribed to Christ a true body 
and a true " soul " — i.e. that soul which man has in common 
with an animal {^v^-q aXoyo^, anima animans) — but denied 
that He had a rational spirit {'^'ux^ \o<yiKij or irvev/jia, anima 
rationalis), saying that the divine Word or Logos took the 
place of it. In this way, by denying the real humanity of 
our Lord, he paved the way for the Monophysitism of the 
next century. He said that Christ was not complete (o\os) 
man nor God, but a mixture of God and man. For further 
particulars, reference may be made to Dr. Schaff 8 article in 
Smith and Wace's Dictionary of Christian Biography (i. 134). 
Apollinarius seceded from the Church in 375, and died about 
392. After his death his disciples early perverted and 
exaggerated his doctrine, and the school of ApolUnarius 
soon became famous for their pseudepigraphic writings. We 
must notice that the Arians also put the Logos in the place 
of our Lord's human spirit, but they asserted His changeable- 
ness (T/oeTTTOTiy?), while Apollinarius strongly maintained with 
the Church the contrary (Schaff, uhi supra). 

The passages of the Testament which Bishop Wordsworth 
marks as ApoUinarian (C.Q.E., April 1900) are chiefly in the 
Mystagogia^ (I. 28*). Notably the reference to our Lord 
in His soul ( = efj.yjrvxo'i ?) going down to Hades, the division 
of man into flesh, soul, and spirit, the ascription of the saving 
work of our Lord to His Spirit, the "indivisible mind" "in- 
comprehensible," " passible yet not passible " (but see Note on 

' In what follows an asterisk is affixed to the passages which are probably 
the Testament Compiler's own work. 
2 



18 INTRODUCTION [§ V. 

I. 28), "in all its kinds," and the conclusion about the Spirit 
and the Voice of God through whom our Lord praised the 
Father. Dr. Wordsworth finds these or similar phrases in 
Apollinarius' writings. He also finds a parallel to the inter- 
polation in the Baptismal Creed (" who came from the Father, 
who is of old with the Father," II. 8*), which is peculiar to the 
Testament Creed, in the words " who is ever with the Father " 
{ael avvovra tw iraTpi) of the " Detailed Creed " {Kara fiepoi 
ttio-tk), which is ascribed to Apollinarius, and was perhaps 
written about 375. The "Detailed Creed" also speaks of 
the " consubstantiality " of the Holy Ghost, as Test. I. 41* 
(see Note there and at II. 8, where it is remarked that in 
Eg. GO. we have the expression " the consubstantial Trinity "). 
Bishop Wordsworth's other quotations are more doubtful for 
our purpose, and can hardly be relied on. 

We note in these instances the phenomenon that the 
Testament and Apolhnarius agree in certain striking phrases, 
especially if the "Detailed Creed" be the work of Apollin- 
arius. We may equally suppose that the Testament borrows 
from Apolhnarius, or vice versd ; or we may suppose that the 
phrases common to both were current in extreme anti-Arian 
circles in the fourth century. Dr. Wordsworth somewhat 
rashly assumes that the Testaymnt must borrow from Apollin- 
arius. But here the curious fact is to be noticed, that in 
spite of this connection with Apollinarius there is no actual 
heresy in the Testament ; and this will be a very important 
factor in determining its date (§ vi.). If the Testament was 
written after Apollinarius had separated from the Church, the 
writer would either have agreed with the heresiarch, or have 
disagreed : if the former, he would have quoted his heresy ; if 
the latter, he would not have quoted his writings at all. 
There is a similarity in phrases, not in heresy. This con- 
sideration points either to a date before the secession of 
Apollinarius, or— but other things make this alternative 



§ v.] THEOLOGY 19 

unlikely — to a date when the heresy was long past. Thus 
Dr. Wordsworth hardly seems to have proved his thesis, but 
his calling attention to the undoubted connection between 
the two writers is invaluable. "We may notice in passing the 
absence from Test, of such characteristic phrases of ApoUin- 
arius as the " incarnate mind " (vov's eva-apKo^) in Christ, or 
that He " passed through the Virgin Mary." 

Let us ask, however, what is the theological " tendency " 
of the Testament ? Bishop Wordsworth (ubi supra) sug- 
gests that it is a polemic against the writer of the Apos- 
tolic Constitutions, and that the latter is the " adversary " 
of the Testament Prelude. Now, putting aside the question 
of the priority and independence of the Prelude, it must be 
remarked that the A.C. writer was not an Arian, although he 
had leanings towards that heresy, and that he probably 
denied our Lord's human soul (cf. Brightman, L.E.W., p. 
xxviii.). He says that " some of (the heretics) impiously 
pretend that Christ is bare man (ylriXov avOpmirov), thinking 
He is of a soul and body," and the interpolations in the 
Ignatian Epistles more strongly deny His human soul than 
A.C. itself does. Thus a writer with Arian leanings makes 
a strange statement which causes Funk (though Lightfoot 
does not agree with this) to think that he was an ApoUinarian. 
The safer conclusion to draw from the facts is that very 
loose theological ideas on this point were current in the fourth 
century in widely different schools of thought ; and perhaps 
the quasi- ApoUinarian phrases of the Testament are merely 
other instances of the same fact. 

We must certainly conclude that the Testament writer had 
a dislike of an exaggerated " subordination " of the Son, such, 
for instance, as we see in A.C. ii. 30, 44, viii. 12 (Lagarde, 
59* ff., 73*, 25410): the order of the Persons of the Holy 
Trinity in the Invocation in the Liturgy (I. 23*), where the 
Son precedes the Father, would be enough to show this. The 



20 INTRODUCTION [§ V. 

Test, writer shows a great fondness of prayers to the Son 
{e.g. I. 26*), and in several prayers there is a confusion of the 
Persons addressed {e.g. I. 23* oblation and concluding thanks- 
giving, 30*, 43*, II. 7* ; in the conclusion of I. 23* the 
confusion is much worse in the derived Anaphora of our Lord ; 
see Appendix I.). The Compiler had also a firm hold on 
the personality of the Holy Spirit, especially, for example, as 
compared with Sarapion (cf. I. 41*). He dwells on the work of 
the Holy Spirit {e.g. I. 28*, II. 9*, 10*). He ascribes to the 
Holy Ghost the Constantinopolitan phrases " the Lord " (I. 24*) 
and "Maker of life" (I. 41*), unless these are later additions. 
He calls the Holy Spirit consubstantial with the Father (I. 41). 
He uses the name "Trinity" in L 19*, 21* (see Note), 23* 
(thrice), II. 7*. 

One reservation must possibly be made. It is just possible 
that the Mystagogia (I. 28), which hangs very loosely on to the 
rest, is an addition by an editor later than the Compiler. 

2. Other Chaeactbeistics. It will be useful here to 
keep in mind the portions of the Testament which are either 
the Compiler's own work, or at least are not to be found in 
any of the earlier parallels. The following include the prin- 
cipal of these portions, though there is besides scattered over 
the whole work a multipUcity of phrases and sentences inter- 
polated by the Compiler : — in Book I., the Preface, §§ 1, 15—18, 
large parts of 21 (especially the formula said by all the 
bishops, the first part of the Ordination prayer and other inter- 
polations in the same), 22, large interpolations in the Euchar- 
istic prayer, concluding prayer, etc., of 23, 24, 26, 28, 30 
(some part), 31, 32, 35 (in the main), 37, 38 (large part), 
40-43 ; in Book II., §§ 5 (prayer of dismissal), 7 (prayer 
of exorcism), 9 (interpolations in Confirmation prayer), 12, 
15, 18, 19, 22, 23 (large parts of it), 25 (last sentence), 
26, 27. 

Of the general cliaracieristics, in addition to the theological, 



§ v.] CHARACTEEISTICS 21 

may be mentioned the enthusiastic praise of widows, and to a 
lesser extent of deacons, asceticism with regard to celibacy, 
especially as compared with A.C. (but the writer does not 
explicitly express all that he would wish, hinting rather than 
laying down hard and fast rules ; see especially Notes to I. 
20, 29, II. 1); but, on the other hand, less strict asceticism 
with regard to fasting, the rules as to this being less stringent 
and the fasts less numerous than in A.C. Among general 
characteristics we must name great diffuseness, especially in 
the interpolated passages of the prayers. 

The characteristics of phraseology are very striking, and 
some of the principal ones are noted here. An asterisk is 
placed against the references when the Compiler's own work 
is probably in question. 

(a) " He who sent me " (or the like), I. Preface*, 3, 8, 
17*, 18*, 26*, 43* (cf. A.C. ii. 59, Lagarde, 901"). 

(h) " Children of light," light opposed to darkness (especially 
darkness of error), illumination, etc. (a very favourite idea), 
I. Preface*, 1*, 3, 12, 15*, 21* (interpolation in the Ordina- 
tion prayer), 23* (deacon's admonition, Eucharistic thanks- 
giving interpolation, concluding prayer), 26* (passim), 28*, 
30* (in interpolation), 31*, 32*, 37*, 38* (interpolation in 
Ordination prayer, twice), 43*, II. 5*, 7* (often), 9* (inter- 
polations), 24 (so in Eg. CO. and H.), 27*. Cf. A.C. ii. 46 
(Lagarde, 741"). 

(c) Types. The fondness of the writer for finding a type 
in making ecclesiastical rules and in his teaching, is frequently 
shown. Thus we have the Eucharistic species as a type, 
I. 23* (omitted in the derived Anaphora of our Lord), II. 10 
(where it is not peculiar to Test. ; see Notes at both places) ; 
lights for a type (I. 19*; see Note there, and cf. II. 11); the 
number of loaves to be offered as a type (I. 23* ad init.) ; the 
double Amen of the communicant, typical of the Body and 
Blood (L 23* s.f.) ; the dimensions of the baptistery are typical 



22 INTRODUCTION [§ V. 

of prophets and apostles (I. 19*); the "place of commemora- 
tion" is a type of heaven (I. 19*); good women are figures 
of the kingdom of heaven (I. 16*) ; the triple song is a figure 
of the kingdom (I. 26*, third prayer), as also are the gospel- 
life (I. 28*) and Easter Even night (II. 19*), cf. also I. 32* 
(third prayer) ; our Lord in His Incarnation showed a type 
of incorruption (I. 28*) ; priests are to be types of archangels 
and of holiness (I. 3 1 * si.) ; the " princes and priests " are types 
of heaven, and the three days' feast of the resurrection (I. 
21*) ; the bishop's fasts are a type of our Lord's " entrances '' 
to His passion (I. 22*); the oil is a type of spiritual fatness 
(I. 24*)_; late comers are types of the day of judgment 
(I. 36*); souls have "figures" before God (I. 40*); evening 
is a type of the resurrection (II. 24, also in the parallels). 

(d) Personification of Power, Thought, Wisdom, etc., as 
names of our Lord, and fondness for the name " the Word " — 
e.g. I. 23* (Eucharistic prayer), 26* (often), 28* (so in 
Arabic Didascalia), 30* (interpolation), 31* (perhaps), 32*, 
38* (the parallel phrase in Hauler personified), 43*, II. 7*, 
16* (in interpolation), 24* (also in H., but more full in Test., 
" His Word and Wisdom "). 

(e) Christ in or with Christians, I. Preface, 1*, 8, 17*, 
18*, 22*, 40*, IL 25* (in interpolation). 

(/) Christians as holy vessels, I. 3, 30* (presbyters), 
41* (widows), IL 9* (in interpolation). Cf. A.C. ii. 24 
(Lagarde, 49«) of St. Paul. 

(fir) "A work" (or the like), L 13, 31* (often), 35* 
(thrice), 36*, 37* (see Note there), 40*, 42*, 46*, 47*, IL 
3, 10, 24* (in interpolation). 

(A) Antithesis, of corruption and incorruption, light and 
darkness, etc., I. 28* (often), II. 7* ; and see (&), above. 

{i) Eternal or heavenly habitations (or the like), I. 1*, 
21* (in interpolation), 26*, 32*, 45*, IL 7*, 9* (in inter- 
polation). Cf. I. 18 si. 



§ V.j CHARACTERISTICS 23 

(/) God " loving man " (<})iXdv6pco'7ro<;), and " love of man " 
((j)iXap0pw7ria), I. 23* si., 31*, II. 9* (in interpolation). 
(Jc) The "Testament," Title*, I. 17*, 18*, II. 26* 
(I) The bishop a "shepherd," I. 28* (twice), 39*, II. 5*, 
10*, 13*. Only once in Ap. CO. (§ 18). In Test. I. 39, 
II. 1 and 1 3 it represents " bishop " of the Eg. CO. parallel. 
Perhaps Test, got the name from Ap. CO. In the Prelude 
(I. 8) " shepherds " is used of the clergy generally. 

(m) Among other phrases, etc., may be mentioned the 
angels visitrag man (I. 22*, 23* deacon's admonition, 35); 
"incorruptibility" (I. 23* in interpolation, 28* passim, 
26*, 32*, II. 7*); our Lord clothing Himself with man 
(I. 28*); the angel hierarchy (I. 23 [Eucharistic prayer — 
the reference much enlarged in Test.], 28*, 32*, II. 7*, 24); 
nature trembling (I. 23* oblation, 26* third prayer, II. 
7*, 8 in interpolation); souls bound by death (1.26*, 28*, 
II. 7*); the nails — fixing of our Lord on the Cross (II. 7*, 
24 [so in Eg. CO. parallel]) ; humiliation (I. 8, 11. 7*); test- 
ing spirits (I. 8, 14, both in the perhaps independent Prelude ; 
in I. 22*, 31*, II. 6*, the "testing" is repeated, but the 
word " spirits " is there absent) ; " rest " (L 35*, 44*, IL 15*, 
and cf. Notes on I. 18, 37); "meekness" (passim, e.g. 1. 21*, 
23* in interpolation, 31*, 41*, 44*, IL 3*, 6, 9* in inter- 
polation). 

Other phrases have been already referred to in § iv. as 
bearing on the question of a Montanistic source. Turning to 
characteristics which are rather remarkably absent, we may 
note that the Compiler had little hold on the doctrine of 
justification by faith, and the Prologue writer had as little 
(cf. I. 12); and that we find nothing about being buried with 
Christ in baptism. 

3. Quotations from the Bible. The Compiler is not so 
fond of quoting Scripture as the A.C writer is. This may, partly 
at least, be due to the " apocryphal pretence." A comparison 



24 INTRODUCTION [§ V. 

of the quotations shows that the Compiler drew very freely 
from the Pauline Epistles, especially 1 Tim., Eom., and 1 Cor., 
and that he clearly used disputed books like 2 Peter, Hebrews, 
and Eevelation. In using N.T. quotations from O.T., he follows 
St. Paul and not the O.T. [a reservation must here be made, 
however, that James of Edessa might have altered these quota- 
tions to suit the form he knew best himself]. The Compiler 
seldom quotes O.T., seldom even the Psalms. Of the Gospels 
he shows the influence of St. John most. He usually uses no 
formula of citation ; when he does he makes an egregious blunder 
(I. 28 s.f.). In translating quotations into Syriac, James of 
Edessa seems to have rendered the Greek directly, without 
having his Bible open before him. In quoting 2 Peter he 
uses the text now commonly printed in Syriac Bibles (I. 31). 

4. Deliberate Omissions of what the Compiler had before 
him in his materials. The most striking instances are, " This 
do in remembrance of me," our Lord's words over the Cup, and 
the mention of the Holy Spirit in the Invocation (I. 23), 
the milk and honey for the newly baptized, and a formula in 
administering the Cup (II. 10). See Notes in those places. 
Perhaps we must add the clause about the Eesurrection in the 
Baptismal Creed. See Note to II. 10. 

5. Does the Testament emanate from a Sect ? It has 
been thought from the alleged severity in the case of post- 
baptismal sin (but see Note to I. 37), from the prohibition of 
military service (but see Note to II. 2 ; the parallel Orders are 
nearly as unpractical), and the generally ascetic tone (but see 
p. 21, above), that the Testament is a sectarian work. The 
number of bishops in I. 21 points rather the other way. And 
with all his supposed Apollinarian leanings, the Compiler 
exhibits no actual heresy. We may compare the Apostolic 
Constitutions, which are the work of a not very orthodox indi- 
vidual, yet not, probably, of one who founded a sect or was in 
any way separated from the Church. Similarly it is unneces- 



§§ v., vi.] DATE 25 

sary to suppose that the Testament was written for the use of 
a sect. Loose theological expressions were current in many 
widely different circles before the nomenclature of theology 
was fixed. An example from (perhaps) the same age as the 
Testament Compiler is seen in the extraordinary Invocation of 
the Word in Bishop Sarapion's Prayer Book (see Note to 
I. 23). 

§ vi. Date 

The question of the date of the Testament is made ex- 
tremely difficult by its almost entire dependence on internal 
evidence. We need not wonder, then, that different writers 
have ascribed it to different ages. Mgr. Eahmani considers that 
it belongs to the age of Irenaeus, the end of the second century. 
But no other scholar follows him here. Dr. Zahn attributes 
it to about 350 a.d. (see § vii., below); Dom Morin dates it 
not later than that year ; Bishop Wordsworth ascribes it to the 
school of ApoUinarius, and names about 400 A.u., with which 
date on other grounds Prof. Harnack in his "Preliminary 
Eemarks " on the Testament agrees ; M. Batiffol in the Rivue 
Bihlique Internationale of the Dominican Convent of ^St. 
Stephen at Jerusalem, thinks it is not earlier than the fifth 
century, and may be later ; and Dr. Funk generally agrees 
with this. 

Before discussing this question, it will be proper to re- 
mark that the argument from the absence of a custom or 
office in these Church Orders must be treated with some care. 
^They are only indirectly books of canons. They are the 
works, probably, of individual authors, whereas canons are put 
out by synods. Hence the Church Grdeirs need not be ex- 
pected to be complete, and the argument from silence, always 
precarious, is unusually so in their case. 

1. The Question here considered. So great a diverg- 



26 INTRODUCTION [§ vi. 

ence of view about the date as that mentioned above may 
be partly due to another question not having been first 
settled, namely: What do we mean by the date of the 
Testament ? If by this word we mean the year in which the 
last touch was put to it, there is no reason why we should 
not date it from the time of James of Edessa himself, who 
may not improbably have added something to the work (see 
below). But the question we are now considering is not when 
the last touches were put to it, but when the apocryphal 
writer composed the book as a book. A late feature may 
conceivably be an addition by a later copyist. An early 
feature, on the other hand, may as conceivably have been put 
in by the apocryphal writer to give the work an antiquarian 
air. Therefore we must first ask. What was the aim of the 
writer ? Was he a conscious forger, who wished his work 
actually to pass as the words of our Lord, or did he merely 
put his words into our Lord's mouth for dramatic effect ? 
The Jewish and early Christian apocryphal or pseudepigraphic 
Old Testament literature was hardly what we should call 
forgery. There is no need to suppose that the writer or 
writers of the Book of Enoch actually intended the reader to 
think that it was written before the Flood. Similarly we 
can suppose that the writer of Ecelesiastes put his book into 
the mouth of Solomon as a mere dramatic fiction. Thus, 
although no doubt writers of the fourth or fifth century were 
capable of producing a deliberate forgery, it is not a priori 
necessary to suppose that an apocryphal work of those ages was 
meant actually to deceive its readers and to pass as an ancient 
book. It was the fashion to ascribe these Church Orders 
to the Apostles. Our writer has gone a step further, and 
has ascribed his to our Lord. 

The question of a conscious forgery largely depends on 
the motive of the work. If a forgery, it must have been 
forged with some object. But, in this case, such an object is 



§ vi.] DATE 27 

difficult to find. It could hardly be to propagate Apollin- 
arianism, for if so that heresy would have been clearly stated, 
which is not the case (see p. 18, above). None of the 
" tendencies " mentioned in § v. (not, for instance, one of the 
most clearly marked, the advocacy of a ministry of " widows " 
for women) is strong enough to make it probable that we 
have here a conscious forgery, ia which the author deliberately 
takes the obsolete customs of an earUer age and describes 
them as if they were going on in his day. The obvious and 
undisguised anachronisms in the Testament {e.g. I. 35*, the 
" foundation of the Apostles " ; I. 43*, " God of the Apostles " ; 
II. 8, " the ascension and session of our Lord"; II. 9*, "the 
holy Apostles " ; II. 24*, " the Apostles singing psalms ") make 
such a conscious forgery unhkely ; as also do the profuse 
references to and direct quotations from the New Testament. 
These are not abstruse points which might well escape a 
forger's notice, Hke the word " its " in Chatterton's poems, but 
anachronisms which any one would see at the first glance. 
These considerations lead us rather to take up the idea of 
a " dramatic fiction." 

The important result of such reasoning will be that the 
customs described and the Compiler are in the main con- 
temporary. The writer would mean his work to be used ; 
and we can hardly conceive that (if he is not a conscious 
forger) he introduced obsolete forms of worship and customs 
wholesale. It would indeed be permissible to suppose that 
he allowed some antiquarianisms to remain, provided that 
they did not pervade the whole work. It makes all the 
difference whether he retained what was in his sources, giving 
sometimes a slightly different turn to an obsolete phrase (as, 
for example, where it is possible to suppose that he retained 
references to persecutions, applying them not, as before, to 
the ill-treatment of Christians by the heathen, but to that 
inflicted by one Christian body upon another ; see, however, 



28 INTRODUCTION [§ vi. 

below), or whether he invented, an antiquated feature. There 
is no trace of the latter in the Testament; the former is what 
is done at this day by all Christians who use ancient liturgical 
formularies. Also it would be permissible to suppose that a 
later editor has added a few phrases, or even a complete 
section, provided again that these additions also did not 
pervade the whole book. Further, the above argument 
would not preclude the independence and priority, in whole 
or in part, of the Apocalyptic Prelude (see Note at the 
beginning of Book I.) 

2. SuPEEiOR Limits. We may with some confidence (but 
with the reservations mentioned below) say that the Testament 
is later than the Canons of Hippolytus, the Egyptian and 
Ethiopic Church Orders, and Hauler's Latin fragments. 

(a) That Test, is later than the Canons of Hippolytus 
(allowing for some interpolations in the latter) appears from 
G.H. not having an apocryphal form, from their having only 
one Ordination prayer for bishops and presbyters (Test, has 
two), and from their being simpler in that prayer, in festivals, 
in not developing the ministry of women, and so forth. 
What then is the date of C.H.? It is impossible here to 
reproduce the arguments used for an early date by Achelis, or 
for a late one by Eunk ; and reference may be made to Die 
Canones Hippolyti of the former, and to Apost. Konstitutionen 
of the latter. Achelis considers that they date, if we omit 
interpolations, from the beginning of the third century, and 
that they are the work of Hippolytus. This date is agreed to 
by Duchesne and Bishop J. Wordsworth, though they dispute 
the Hippolytean authorship ; Brightman also agrees with 
this date. Dom Morin thinks they were the book which 
Dionysius of Alexandria, probably early in the third century, 
sent to the Eomans " by Hippolytus " (Eusebius, H.E. vi. 46). 
Funk, however, differs greatly from these views. He thinks 



§ vL] DATE 29 

that the eighth book of the Apostolic Constitutions is the 
original of the " Constitutions through Hippolytus " (§ iii. I 6), 
and that of the Egyptian Church Order, and that both of the 
Canons of Hippolytus and of our Testament; and thus he 
assigns C.H. to the sixth century or perhaps later. His 
arguments appear to be inconclusive, and Achelis' hypothesis 
of an early document with later interpolations is much more 
probable. 

(^) That the Egyptian Church Order is earlier than Test. 
aippears from its having, like C.H., only one Ordination prayer 
for bishops and presbyters ; from the much less decided tone 
of its theology, as if the great Arian controversy had not then 
arisen ; and from a careful comparison of passages in Test. 
{e.g. about confessors, I. 3 9 ; catechumens, II. 6 ; the agape, 
II. 13 ; prayer at the sixth hour and evening, II. 24), which 
are almost impossible to understand by themselves, with the 
parallels in Eg. CO. which explain them. It would be 
difficult to obtain the good sense of the latter out of the 
chaos of the former. It is generally agreed that Eg. CO. 
precedes Test.^ But what is its date ? Probably the very 
beginning of the fourth century, before the rise of Arianism. 
This does not mean that the Egyptian Heptateuch dates from 
that time ; the last part of that compilation is derived, 
probably, from A.C viii. ; and, as Harnack (on the Canons of 
the Apostles) has pointed out, ' St. Athanasius still held the 
Didach^ in honour ; therefore he probably did not know the 
Apostolic Church Order which replaces the Didach^ (§ iii. 
2 (8), and which forms the first book of the Heptateuch. 
Also this need not mean that Eg. CO. in its Coptic transla- 
tion is as early as the date named. But the Greek original 

' Test. , however, derives some parts from C. H. independently of Eg. CO.; 
e.g. the formula of submission to God in baptism, not in Eg. CO. (H. wanting 
here) ; and in much of the baptismal section Test, is nearer to C H. and H. than 
Eg. CO. ; in II. 11 s.f.. Test, derives from C.H. 164 ff. without reference to 
Eg. CO. or H. 



30 INTRODUCTION [§ vi. 

may be assigned to that time ; and with this conclusion 
Harnack agrees. 

(7) Is the Ethiopic Ohwreh Order earlier than Test. ? In 
the sections which follow, the various arguments are treated 
shortly, and references are given to the Notes where they are 
dealt with in detail. As only a portion of the Ethiopic 
Statutes has as yet been printed, it is not easy to assign a 
date to them ; we can, however, arrive approximately at a date 
for Statutes 21—23, which Ludolf has published, or rather for 
the Greek which underhes them. These Statutes supplement 
the Eg. CO. by giving us ordination prayers and a liturgy, 
and these forms must be pronounced certainly earlier than 
the corresponding parts of Test. The latter are greatly 
amplified ; and amplification in liturgical parts is more likely 
than compression, as we see in later liturgies, which are all 
greatly amplified, not condensed. There can hardly be any 
qiiestion that the Test. Eucharistic Liturgy (see Note in I. 23) 
is derived from Eth. CO. by interpolation, and so the prayer 
for the ordination of presbyters^ (I. 30). Again, the Test, 
arrangement in which all the bishops say a formula in ordain- 
ing a bishop, and then one bishop says the ordination prayer 
itself, appears to be a combination of two practices which the 
Compiler had before him, namely, that of Eg. CO., where one 
bishop says everything, and that of Eth. CO., where all the 
bishops say everything (see Note on I. 21). Thus we must 
assign the priority to the Eth. CO. forms. But this need 
only mean that their Greek original is earlier than Test., and 
that the Eth. CO. Compiler was perhaps more conservative in 
retaining ancient material than the Test. Compiler. What 
then is the date of the Greek original of Eth. CO. ? The 
absence of the Sanctus and the simphcity of the liturgy, for 
example, as compared with A.C vui., would point to a date 
before the middle of the fourth century. 

1 This prayer in Eth. CO. shows that that Order is later than Eg. CO. 



§ vi.] DATE 31 

(8) Hauler's Verona Latin fragments, or rather their Greek 
originals, are probably a direct source of Test. Their 
Eucharistic Liturgy, down to the blessing of the oil, and their 
Ordination prayer for a presbyter, are almost the same as those 
of Eth. CO., and the remarks made above apply to them. H., 
however, gives part of the Ordination prayer for a deacon, 
which is clearly the original of the Test, prayer (see Note on 
I. 38). Moreover, in the presbyter's Ordination prayer, where 
H. differs from Eth. CO., Test, follows the former as against 
the latter (see Note on I. 30); and so in the phrase about 
the deacon being the counsellor of the clergy (I. 34), Test, 
follows the wording of H. rather than of Eth. CO., though it 
flatly contradicts them both. In parts of H. and Test, 
which are not in Ludolf's Eth. CO., we find them agreeing 
together against other authorities. In the Baptismal Creed 
(II. 8) both insert "living" or its equivalent before "from 
the dead," and have the past tense "He sat down." Both 
omit the formula of baptism given by CH. (Eg. CO. omits 
it also). The anointing and invocation after baptism in 
Test. (II. 8, 9) is an amplification of H., not of C H. In 
the communion of the people. Test. (II. 10), while omitting 
the milk and honey of H., etc., agrees with H. in speaking of 
the water as the " sign of the laver " and of the " inner 
psychic man," phrases not in CH. or Eg. CO. In the 
agap^. Test. (II. 13) agrees nearly with the phrase of H. 
about that which remains over, as against the others. In the 
first fruits, H. and Eg. CO. are almost the same ; Test. (II. 
16) amplifies the prayer, but omits details of the fruits. In 
the fast before Easter, Test, agrees with H. in mentioning 
women with child, while Eg. CO. speaks of any sick man 
(masculine). In the hours of prayer, where H. and Eg. CO. 
are almost one. Test. (II. 24) personifies " verbum suum " of 
H. into " His Word and Wisdom," just as in I. 38 the 
" desiderium " of H. is personified into " Thy Thought, Thy 



32 INTRODUCTION [§ vi. 

Wisdom, Thine Energy, Thy beloved Son Jesus Christ," in 
the characteristic manner of Test. This last peculiarity 
would be sufficient in itself to show the priority of H. ; the 
converse change is inconceivable. All these considerations, 
which are dealt with in detail in the Notes to the passages 
cited, make it probable that the Greek original of H. is a 
source of Test. What then is the date of these fragments ? 
Dr. Hauler assigns the Greek original to the first part of the 
fourth century. We are not here concerned with the date of 
the compilation, that is to say, the date when the Didascalia, 
Ap. CO., and the form of our Church Order were joined 
together in H., but merely with the date of the Greek 
original of the last part ; and the same considerations which 
enabled us to put that of Eth. CO. before 350 a.d., will lead 
us to agree with Dr. Hauler's opinion as to the Verona 
fragments. 

3. Infeeioe Limits. The Testament seems to be earlier 
than the Apostolic Constitutions (as compiled in their present 
form), than the Arabic Didascalia, the Abyssinian Anaphora 
of our Lord, and the fifth century developed Htm'gies, such as 
the East Syrian (Nestorian) Liturgy of the Apostles Addai 
(Adai) and Mari. 

(a) The Apostolic Constitutions in their present form must 
probably be pronounced later than Test. The eighth book gives 
us the best material for comparison, as containing in part a 
form of the " Lost Church Order." A.C. is more elaborate 
than Test., its prayers have more interpolations ; it has the rule 
of three bishops ordaining a bishop, not found in any of its 
predecessors, but probably founded on the rule of Nicaea 
(which, however, has a somewhat different meaning ; see Note 
on Test. I. 21); it has a much more elaborate system of 
festivals (Ascension, Pentecost, Easter, Christmas, Epiphany, 
Apostles' Days, St. Stephen and All Martyrs) ; subdeacons. 



§ vi.] DATE 33 

readers, and deaconesses are appointed by laying on of hands 
(contrast Eg. CO., Test., and, for readers, C.H. and Const. H.) ; 
catechumens, demoniacs and penitents are sent away before 
the Eucharist with elaborate dismissals ; in the Liturgy the 
recital of the work of creation and redemption is very much 
more elaborate than in Test., and the Sanctus, wanting in 
Test., is given ; in the Oblation (" Eemembering therefore," 
etc.) A.C. is much more freely interpolated than Test., while 
the latter is more freely interpolated than Eth. CO. and H. ; 
the intercession in A.C is elaborate, while that of Test, is 
rudimentary (see Note there, I. 23) ; and the A.C intercession 
does not refer, as Test, does, to the charismata ; the A.C 
invocation is of the later style, specifying the transformation 
of the elements, unlike Test., H., Eth. CO. ; the deacon's 
litany after the Eucharistic Intercession and the bishop's 
accompanying prayer are in A.C much more elaborate than in 
Test., where there is only one sentence ; in the communion 
the charismata are not mentioned in AC as in Test, (but 
they are referred to in A.C viii. 25= Test. I. 47); and the 
post-communion thanksgiving and dismissal are more elaborate 
in AC The only part of the Liturgy where Test, develops a 
point not found in A.C is the prayer said by the communicant. 
Again, the renunciation and submission at baptism in AC 
vii. 41 are more elaborate than in Test. II. 8. In A.C 
viii. 31 the rule as to rejecting soldiers, found in Test. II. 2, 
Eg. CO., etc., is softened down. These considerations make 
it extremely probable that Test, is older than A.C. as we now 
have it ; and as it is generally agreed that A.C. is to be dated 
about 375 a.d., it follows that Test, must be put earlier than 
that year. 

(j8) The Arabic Bidascalia borrows from Test., and is 

therefore a later document. Eeasons for saying that Ar. D. 

35—39 are derived from Test., and that the obligation is not 

the other way, are given in the Notes to Test. I. 21, 22, 28, 

3 



34 INTRODUCTION [§ vi. 

and especially 23. Bishop J. Wordsworth's suggestion (Bevue 
Internat. de tMol. vol. xxxi. p. 461), that the Mystagogia in 
Ar. D. is of an older form than that in Test., appears to be 
unnecessary in itself (see Note to I. 28), the process having been 
probably that the Ar. D. writer suppressed phrases which by 
his time had acquired an Apollinarian meaning : it involves, 
moreover, an extremely complicated hypothesis, unless we 
further suppose that the other chapters (3 5-3 8) of Ar. D. are 
also earHer than the Test, parallels, which it is almost impossible 
to beheve (see Notes to Test. I. 21, 22, 23). For, if not, the 
suggestion would mean that Test, had a predecessor very like 
itself, having an older form of the Mystagogia, and also using 
the name " Testament," which appears in the title to the 
Mystagogia in Ar. D. (see Appendix II.). Then, are we to 
suppose that the points in which Ar. D. differs from Test. — 
such as the dimensions of the oblong baptistery — are derived 
froln this hypothetical predecessor of Test. ? All this is eom- 
pHcated and imnecessary. It is far more probable that the 
Ar. D. writer, in quoting Test., altered what he did not approve 
of. As to the date of Ar. D., it is difficult to come to a 
determination, as we do not Imow its §§ 1—34 which have not 
been pubUshed. In § 38 it mentions incense in the pre- 
anaphoral service. Incense is mentioned in the Pilgrimage of 
Silvia, about 385 a.d. And from verbal coincidences and 
simplicity of the Liturgy described in Ar. D. (the text is not 
given), it seems probable that it and Test, are not very greatly 
removed from one another in time. We may probably date 
Ar. D., as far as the chapters we know are concerned, between 
380 and 400 A.D. 

(7) The Abyssinian Anaphora of our Lord (see Appendix I.) 
is clearly derived from Test., but inserts an Invocation of the 
later form (retaining that of Test.), and adds a very rudiment- 
ary intercession in the middle of the Eucharistic Thanksgiving, 
like the modern Abyssinian and Coptic Liturgies. But, like 



§ vi.] DATE 35 

Test., it has no Sanctus, and does not give our Lord's words 
over the Cup ; and from its form it is unlikely to be later 
than the beginning of the fifth century. This date is given 
on the supposition that the diptychs with " Genetrix Dei " 
are a later insertion. If they are an integral part of the 
Anaphora of our Lord, we must date that Anaphora a few 
years later. 

(S) The East Syrian {Nestorian) Liturgy of the Apostles 
Adai (Addat) and Mari has little in common with Test., 
but it may help us to decide the date of the latter ; for 
some considerable interval is necessary for the development 
of such a Liturgy by a remote people, from a very much 
less formed type such as that of Test., Eth. CO., etc. But 
it is difficult to believe that this East Syrian Liturgy can 
date from after 431 a.d. It has not the slightest reference 
to the Nestorian controversy ; and its very rudimentary 
Invocation, greatly resembling that of Eth. CO., and its 
omission of the Words of Institution, both point to a date 
not later than the first quarter of the fifth century (see 
Notes on I. 23). 

4. Various Marks of Date. Most of these are treated 
elsewhere in detail, and will only be shortly referred to in 
this place. 

{a) The theology of the Testament (see § v. 1, above) 
points to a date before the actual outbreak of ApoUinarianism, 
but when phrases which were afterwards used by Apollinarius 
were current in anti-Arian circles ; it necessitates a date later 
than the rise of Arianism. This limits us to the half-century 
325-375 A.D. The omission of the mention of the Holy 
Spirit in the Eucharistic Invocation (considering the devotion 
of the Compiler to the Holy Spirit) points to a date before 
the rise of the Macedonian controversy (see Note on I. 23, 
and below o). 



36 INTRODTTOTION [§ vi. 

(6) References to persecution and the Empire (cf. I. 8, 23,^ 
35, 39, II. 5, for persecutions; I. 26, third prayer, "the 
prince and his people," and I. 35 twice, for the Empire). 
Other considerations make it impossible to suppose that the 
Test. Compiler lived before Constantine, and the direct refer- 
ences to the Emperor and the Empire are such as we should 
expect of post-Constantinian times. The fact that regular 
church buildings are assumed as a matter of course to be 
universal, with other buildings attached, leads us to the same 
conclusion. But, on the other hand, the references to perse- 
cution tend the other way. Are we then to take these as 
deliberately inserted to produce an antiquarian effect ? A 
more probable solution is that given above (p. 27). The Com- 
piler seems to have adopted references to persecution which 
occurred in his predecessors' works, and which these (or their 
originals) applied to heathen persecutions, and to have applied 
them to the persecutions of the Catholics by the Arians, or (if 
a later date be the right one) of the Apollinarians by the 
Catholics. It is not unlikely, however, that the author, who 
possibly remembered the heathen persecutions in his childhood, 
thought that they might probably recur, especially if the alter- 
native date given below be correct, namely, during the reign 
of Julian the Apostate. In connection with the references to 
the State, we must notice the prohibition of military service 
and the theatrical profession. The latter prohibition calls for 
no remark, as it was universal in the fourth century. For 
the former see Note to II. 2. The Test. Compiler is hardly 
more stringent than his predecessors, though much less so 
than A.C., and this makes for a comparatively early date. 

(c) The "chief deacon." See Notes to I. 19, 34. The 
limited reference in Test., which implies that neither the 

' This is a very slight reference interpolated into the Euoharistio Thanks- 
giving. It is very noteworthy that there is no reference to the persecuted in 
the Eucharistic Intercession in I. 23. 



§ vi.] DATE 37 

name nor the distinct office of an archdeacon was yet known, 
will suit any date in the fourth century, especially one some- 
what early in the century. The " chief deacon " is merely 
one of the deacons chosen for a special duty because of his 
special qualifications, and is not of a distinct rank. There 
seems to be no reason for saying that the references necessitate 
a date about 400 A.D. On the contrary, the menial offices 
ascribed to the deacons imply an earlier date (I. 34, II. 
23, etc.). 

(d) The mention of a stole in I. 34 (see Note there) as a 
badge of office, not as used in service, is a mark of date a 
good deal earlier than the Council of Laodicea {eir. 380 ?). 

(e) Absence of metropolitans. There are none in Test, nor 
yet in A.C. In Ar. D. there is just a trace of a primacy, and 
possibly in Eg. CO. (see note to I. 21). Metropolitans are 
mentioned by name in 325 A.D. at Nicaea (can. 6), and 
towards the end of the fourth century at Laodicea. But the 
name was not used in Africa in the fourth century (Hefele, 
Councils, ii. 396, 410, Eng. trans.); and only some districts 
were then organised as provinces. Thus no deduction can 
be made from the absence of metropolitans in Test., except 
that it is not likely to have been compiled later than the 
fourth century. A sort of province is implied by the " neigh- 
bouring bishops" in I. 21. 

(/) Absence of chorepiscopi. They are first mentioned in 
Asia Minor at the beginning of the fourth century (Councils of 
Ancyra, Neocaesarea, Nicaea) ; in the West, not till the Council 
of Eiez in 439. They were afterwards numerous, especially 
among the East and West Syrians (Nestorians and Jacobites). 
Their absence from Test, is a mark of early date. The rise of 
this order was probably not universal even in the East, and we 
can well understand that by the middle of the fourth century 
they were unknown or little known in some countries. 

(g) Absence of penitential " stations." They were common 



38 INTRODUCTION [§ "''i- 

in early times ; the penitents were divided into classes called 
" stations." They are taken for granted in the councils of 
the fourth century (Ancyra, Nicaea, Neocaesarea, Laodicea), 
and we find traces of them {e.g., the " hearers ") in Tertullian 
and Cyprian, though some hold that those fathers apply that 
term to the catechumens, and not to penitents (but in TertuU. 
de Poenitentia 6, " auditor " applies to a " penitent " almost 
certainly). The " stations " are found in A.C., in the writings 
of St. Basil, St. Gregory of Nyssa, etc. At Elvira in Spain 
(dr. 305 A.D.) we do not find distinct traces of "stations " ; 
the assembled fathers divided the penitents into natural 
classes, according to their offences, and as common sense 
dictated. The same remark applies to the Council of Aries 
in Gaul in 314 a.d. 

All this would show us that there were different 
customs in different places. The Test. Compiler refers to 
penitents (I. 37, see Note there), but not to '' stations." 
Probably in his time and in his country the latter were dying 
out, or had never been used. Public penitential stations were 
apparently abolished at Constantinople about 400 a.d. (see 
Brightman, L.E.W. 532^). On the whole, the bearing of the 
question on the date of the Testament is indecisive. 

(h) Absence of monasticism. Neither monks nor ascetics 
are mentioned. In A.C., similarly, ascetics are only once 
mentioned (viii. 12, Lagarde, 259^^). Monastic communities 
seem to have arisen in the fourth century for the first time 
in the Christian Church, and at the end of that century we 
find frequent references to them, and they were vigorously 
promoted by St. Basil, St. Jerome, St. Chrysostom, and St. 
Augustine. The absence of them, and also of any class of 
ascetics, in a writer given to strictness like the Test. Compiler, 
must be pronounced to be a distinct mark of a date earlier 
than the last quarter of the fourth century. 

(i) The Singers do not form a class or order. See Note on 



§ vi.] DATE 39 

I. 26. This indicates a date before the Council of Laodicea 
and A.C. 

(_/) The " widows who sit in front " (irpoKaOijfievai), also 
called " presbyteresses." See Note on I. 40. Eeferences to 
them pervade the work, and cannot be a mere antiquarianism. 
Test, represents them as not merely existing, but as in their 
f uUest vigour ; they are far from being a survival only. This 
is a decided mark of the priority of Test, to the Council of 
Laodicea (dr. 380?), for by its time they were dying out. 
In Epiphanius' writings, at the end of the fourth century, 
there are no presbyteresses as an official class (see Note to 

I. 40). 

(Jc) The doxologies to the prayers. A decided mark of 
early date. See Note to I. 21. 

(l) The anomaly of the Son being addressed in the 
Eucharistic prayers of Test., and the confusion which arises 
both there and elsewhere from the sudden transitions, the 
Father being addressed and then the Son in the same prayer, 
or vice versd (see above, § v.), are examples of the sort of thing 
which led to the prohibition of the practice at Hippo in 393 
(see Note to I. 23, Invocation). 

(m) The fasts in Test, are rather remarkably few in a 
book which on some points (e.g., celibacy) has an ascetic tone. 
The forty days of Lent are merely times for solemn prayer, 
and only the Friday and Saturday of Holy Week are ordered 
as fasts. This is an indication of early date, before A.C., bk. v. 
In an ascetic community the strictness of neighbours was 
likely to be imitated. Fasting for forty days grew up and 
spread rapidly in the fourth century (see Note on I. 22 and 

II. 8). And therefore it is unlikely that Test, is to be put 
late in the fourth century. From the first fasting increased 
out of emulation. In this connection we note that in Test. 
Good Friday is not mentioned as the day of commemorating 
the Passion, but as a preparation for Easter. The Passion 



40 INTRODUCTION [§ ^i- 

and Eesurrection seem to have been commemorated together 
on the Sunday. 

(n) The festivals of Test, are Easter, Pentecost, and 
Epiphany only. Contrast the A.C. cycle of festivals as noted 
above (p. 32). The "Epiphany" was the commemoration 
of the Nativity ; and throughout the fourth century, January 
6 was observed in the East as this festival {ra eiri^dvua 
or TO. deo^dvio). In the "West, December 25 was ob- 
served. The Western Christmas was introduced to Antioch 
in addition to the Epiphany about 375 (in A.C. they 
are two distinct festivals). In Silvia, however, the later date 
alone is observed at Jerusalem. Silvia, moreover, gives us 
another Jerusalem festival for the end of the fourth century, 
namely. Palm Sunday. For the Festival of the Cross, see 
below, § vii. Now in Test, there are indications that even 
the Epiphany is of recent introduction. It is only just 
mentioned, and no directions are given for it as for Pascha 
and Pentecost. This simplicity of the festal cycle points to a 
date in the first half of the fourth century. 

(o) A possible mark of later date is the use of the phrases 
" the Lord," " Maker of Life," of the Holy Spirit, in I. 25, 41. 
These were added by the General Council of Constantinople 
(I.) to the Nicene Creed in 381 a.d. But that was only the 
culmination of a controversy which had been raging for a 
whole generation ; and there is no reason to suppose that these 
phrases were novelties when they were added at Constanti- 
nople. The Test. Compiler being a strong anti-Arian, and 
holding firm to the Nicene faith as regards the Son, was not 
the least tempted towards the Arian or semi-Arian position 
which proceeded to attack the divinity of the Holy Ghost. 
He speaks of the Third Person as consubstantial with the 
Father (I. 41 ; see Note there) ; and it is therefore not 
unlikely that he would use the phrases " the Lord," " Maker 
of Life," of the Holy Ghost, before they were formally 



§ vi.] DATE 41 

adopted at the General Council. Epiphanius used both, and 
A. C. the latter, before 381 (see Note to I. 41). It is a sound 
principle that the faith was in the Church, and had found 
expression, before a council put it in its creed. It is of course 
possible, if we adopt an early date for Test., that the words 
are interpolations by a later hand. But this is not a necessary 
supposition. As has already been said (p. 35), the Test. 
Compiler probably wrote before the Macedonian controversy, 
or at any rate before it became acute. But his predispositions 
were all in the direction of those who resisted the Macedonian 
heresy. We note that there is nothing in Test, about the 
procession of the Holy G-host, which was much discussed at 
the end of the fourth century (see Dr. Swete's article. Holy 
Ghost, Diet. Chr. Biog. iii. 113 ff.). 

5. Conclusion. In reviewing the evidence, three poss- 
ible hypotheses emerge — (a) That the author was an ApoUin- 
arian writer about 400, who inserted obsolete customs and an 
obsolete liturgy as a forgery. Want of motive makes this 
unUkely ; (&) that he was an anti-Arian writer about the 
middle of the fourth century, who was a precursor in his 
doctrinal phraseology of Apollinarius ; (c) that he was an 
anti-Arian writer about the middle of the fourth century, but 
that a later editor inserted the Mystagogia, and perhaps a 
few other interpolations. The second of these hypotheses 
appears to be the most probable ; but in a case of this sort it 
is impossible to be dogmatic. It can only be said that a date 
about 350 a.d. seems to cover most fully all the facts. 

An alternative, however, may be suggested. It is possible 
that the Compiler may have written in the reign of Julian 
the Apostate (361-363 a.d.), or at any rate after he be- 
came Caesar (356 A.D.). Julian was on his way to 
Antioch in 362, probably at Ancyra or Pessinus, when he 
issued the oppressive edict which forbade Christians to teach, 



42 INTRODUCTION [§§ vi., vii. 

and (indirectly) their children to leam. The Testament 
Compiler might well anticipate at his hands a repetition of 
the cruelties of Galerius. There was actual persecution at 
Antioch in 362. All this would account for the retention in 
the Testament of the references both to persecution and to 
military service. And further, the attempt to rebuild Jeru- 
salem might possibly have suggested to the Compiler that 
Julian was Antichrist himself, and supplied the reason why he 
added the probably older Apocalyptic Prelude to his Church 
Order. It would not have been safe for him to speak very 
clearly of the reigning Emperor, but he might revive an old 
tract on the End, with a covert reference to a present or anti- 
cipated persecution. After Julian's death the anticipation of 
pagan persecution would have been much less strong. 

This alternative suggestion would probably not greatly 
militate against the indications of early date mentioned in the 
foregoing pages, especially if we fix on a date shortly after 
356, though in that case we must perhaps give up the Anti- 
christ suggestion. 

6. Possible Additions by James of Edessa. The general 
conclusion arrived at above will not be affected if it be found 
that the translator added something to bhe work. There are 
some instances of paronomasia in the Syriac of I. 18, 28, 
30 (?), II. 7 (see Notes to those passages), which may be due 
to him. Also a clause in the Eucharistic Thanksgiving and 
the past tense in the Benedidus qui venit may be his work 
(see Notes to I. 23 and to Appendix I.). 

§ vii. Place of Wkiting 

This is even more difficult to ascertain than the date. 
That it was some place near the sea is determined by the 
direction to the deacon in I. 34 (not in Eg. CO.) to search for 



§ vii.] PLACE OF WRITING 43 

those who have been drowned and thrown up by the sea. 
Travellers by sea are mentioned in I. 35. In the Copto- 
Arabic translation there is a reference to the sea in I. 19 (see 
Note there on the three Entrances). On the other hand, 
Test, omits the reference of Eg. CO. to sailors (II. 20). From 
II. 8 we see that the writer's country was well watered, the 
reference of Eg. CO. to scarcity of water in baptism being 
omitted. 

Again, it was not a bilingual country. The absence of 
interpreters in Test, shows this. Sarapion (§25) has them. 
Syria (including Palestine) and Egypt are the only countries 
in which we have evidence for interpreters. Thus the 
absence of them in Test, argues to some extent against those 
countries. 

Palestine is the country named in II. 27 (Jerusalem). 
But this is only part of the " apocryphal pretence." Palestine 
would seem to be precluded in a fourth century document by 
the absence of any festival of the Cross, especially when so 
much is made of the Cross as in Test. This festival was 
the anniversary of the dedication of Constantine's churches 
at Jerusalem in 335 a.d. Also the fact that the Jews are 
not mentioned makes Palestine unlikely. 

We might get a clue from the countries where Test, 
exercised an influence. That influence has been chiefly felt 
in the Monophysite churches of Western Syria and Abyssinia, 
which appear to have greatly reverenced the Testament. It 
has left traces on the West Syrian ordinal (see I. 21), and on 
the Abyssinian liturgy (see I. 23 and Appendix I.) and htany 
(I. 35, 36). As far as is known, it only exists now in 
Syriac, Ethiopic, and Arabic translations. These considera- 
tions might point to Syria or Egypt as the country of origin. 

Taking Syria first, we notice in its favour the mention of 
Syria in I. 10 before all other countries ; and the connection 
between the language of Test, (see p. 17, above) and that of 



44 INTRODUCTION [§ vii. 

ApoUinarius, Bishop of the Syrian Laodicea. On the other 
hand, the chapter I. 10 is part of the Prelude, which is not 
improbably altogether independent of the Test. Compiler (see 
Appended Note at beginning of Book I.). And the second 
indication assumes — whatever date we fix upon for Test.- — 
that the phraseology and influence which we may call 
" ApoUinarian " were confined to the country of ApoUinarius, 
a very unlikely assimiption. Against the probability of Syria 
being the place of writing, we must set the absence of inter- 
preters, the unhkeness of the Benediction before the Sursum 
Corda to Syrian usage (see Note to I. 23), the unhkeness of the 
ideas and theology to those of the ApostoHc Constitutions, the 
fact that the forty days of Pascha include Holy Week, while 
in A.C. V. 13 (Lagarde, 141i<'ff.) they do not do so, and the 
fact that in Test, there are no professed widows other than 
presbyteresses, while in A.C. there are (see Note on I. 40). 

Next, taking Egypt, we have in its favour the fact that 
Eth. CO. contains a som-ce of the Test. Eucharistic Liturgy 
(but this consideration is discounted by the fact that the 
Verona fragments also have it ^), and especially the likeness 
of the Benediction before the Sursum Corda to Egyptian (and 
Eoman) usage as against aU the rest of the East, and the 
position of the Benedictus qui venit (see I. 23 Notes) ; as also 
the fact that at any rate the Greek original of Eg. CO. was 
probably before the Test. Compiler when he wrote. But the 
dehberate omission of the milk and honey at baptism (this 
edifying ceremony was preserved at Alexandria and in 
Abyssinia till modern times, cf. Diet. Chr. Ant. 164), the 
absence of the stated Wednesday and Friday fast, the absence 
as yet of the forty dajs' fast of Lent, the great difference of 
the Baptismal Creed from that of Eg. CO., the plentifulness 

^ Bishop Wordsworth remarks that the mention of presbyteresses in H. 38^ 
makes it unlikely that the Verona fragments are either Eoman or Alexandrian 
(^Ministry of Grace, 29). 



§ vii.] PLACE OF WRITING 45 

of the water (II. 8, see above), and the absence of interpreters, 
all tend to make Egypt unlikely. 

A clue may be obtained if we consider attentively the 
material used by the Test. Compiler. Whether or no it be 
correct to conjecture a Montanist Church Order as such a 
source (see § iv., above), we may at least see distinct traces 
of Montanist influence in the Test. Church Order and in the 
Prelude; as also we see it in the Apostolic Church Order, 
which had so much influence on the Test. Compiler (§ iii. 
2 /3, above). This would lead us to think of Asia Minor as a 
probable place of writing for the fourth century Test. Com- 
piler. Dr. Zahn has conjectured that Test, emanated from 
an Audian community in Asia Minor about 350 A.D. We 
must, however, remember that the Compiler was not a Quarto- 
deciman (of. Note to II. 8, and see also § v. 5, above). The 
absence of chorepiscopi may also make Asia Minor less pro- 
bable (see p. 37, above). On the bearing of the phrase " day 
and night " on Asia Minor as the place of origin, see Note 
to I. 21. 

On the whole, setting one probability against another, 
and disclaiming any wish to be any more dogmatic on this 
question than on that of the date of the work, we may 
conclude that while Syria is not an impossible country of 
origin, Asia Minor is the most probable country that has yet 
been suggested. 



THE TESTAMENT OF 
OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST 



47 



THE^ TESTAMENT, OR WORDS WHICH OUR 
LORD, WHEN HE ROSE FROM THE DEAD, 
SPAKE TO THE HOLY APOSTLES, AND 
WHICH WERE WRITTEN IN EIGHT BOOKS 
BY CLEMENT OF ROME, THE DISCIPLE OF 
PETERS 

THE FIRST BOOK 

It came to pass, after our Lord rose from the dead, and 
appeared unto us, and was handled ^ by Thomas and Matthew 
and John, and we were persuaded that our Master * was 
truly risen from the dead, that falling on our faces we blessed 
the Father of the new world,* God, "Who hath saved us by 
Jesus Christ our Lord ; and being held ^ in very great fear, 
we waited prostrate as babes which speak not.'^ But Jesus 
our Lord, putting His hand on each one of us separately, 
lifted us up, saying. Why hath your heart thus fallen, and 
are ye stricken with great astonishment ? Know ye not that 
He who sent Me can do glorious things for the salvation of 
them that have from the heart believed on Him ? Stand not 
then as [men] astonished, and staring,* neither [be] slothful, 

^ The number 77 is prefixed in M. 

^ Codex S. : The first book of Clement, which is called the Testament of our 
Lord Jesus Christ ; the words which, after He rose from the dead. He spake to 
the holy Apostles. The Copto-Arabic version renders it with several varia- 
tions. In Codex C. the preface is : And it came to pass after our Lord returned 
to life and rose from the grave on the third day and revealed Himself to His 
holy disciples and spake with them, they said unto Him afterwards : Tell us, 
our Lord (as in chapter 2). 

'Lit.: touched. 1 John i. 1. *Lit.: Teacher. ^S.: worlds. 

* S. has ' ' we trembled " (root HED), as Lagarde renders it (see Payne-Smith's 
Thesaurus Syriacus, col. 1367). 

' Lit. : without voice. Copto-arab. : we fell to the ground as dead. 

* So S. B. understand it (Lagarde, ineol aldoinevoi). Or : as astonished ones, 
fa.shioned [like statues]. 

4 



50 TESTAMENT OF OUR LORD [l- 1, 2 

but as the children of light.^ ask of My Father which is in 
heaven the Spirit of counsel and might,^ and He will fill you 
with the Holy Ghost and grant you to be with Me for ever. 



Chapter 1^ 

And we returned answer, saying, Lord,* what is the Holy 
Ghost, and what is His power, whom Thou badest * us to 
ask for ? And our Lord said unto us. Verily I say unto you 
that ye shall not be the children of the light ^ except by the 
Holy Ghost. And we returned answer to Him, and said, 
our Lord, give us this [Spirit]. And immediately Jesus * 
breathed on us.^ And after we had received the Holy Ghost, 
He said unto us. Verily ^ I say unto you, that ye who have 
been made disciples unto the kingdom of heaven, and who 
have believed in Me with undoubting heart, and have cleaved 
unto Me, shall be with Me ; and all those who through you 
know and do the will of My father, who keep My words and 
know My sufferings,^ shall be made holy, and shall dwell in 
the habitations ^^ of My Father, and shall be deUvered from 
the evil days that are about to come ; and I will be with them, 
shewing them My ways in which they shall live. 

Chaptee 2 11 

And Peter and John answered and said unto Him : — Tell 
us, our Lord, the signs of the end,!^ and all the deeds which 
shall then be [done] ^^ by them i* who live in this world, so 
that we also may make [them] known to them who believe in 

' Eph. V. 8 ; 1 Thess. v. 5 ; St. Luke xvi. 8 ; St. John xii. 36. 

" Isa. xi. 2. Lagarde reads ; " of glory and of perfection " (t^s Sifijs xal ttjs 
TeXcfArijros). This is due to a recent hand in S. 

' C. omits this chapter. ■■ S. : our Lord. 

^ Lit. : saidst. " S. (recent hand) : our Lord Jesus. 

' St. John XX. 22. 8 g . Verily, verily. 

9 Of. Phil. iii. 10. i» Cf. St. John xiv. 2. 

" S. (in red ink) inseiis : Questions of the Apostles (addressed) to our Lord 
about the end. 

'2 St. Mark xiii. 3, 4. ^ Lit. : are then [done]. 

" C. : all the troubles which shall then be from them . . . 



I. 2, 3] PROLOGUE 51 

Thy Name in all the nations, that those ^ generations may 
observe ^ [them] and live. But Jesus answered and said : — 
' Did I not, before I suffered for those that dwell on the earth, 
tell you some things about the end ^ ? We answered and 
said, [Yea,] our Lord ; but now we desire to know the 
deeds which [are] the signs of the end of this world, if our 
Lord hath judged that this is fitting for us to know * — for us, 
and for those who [shall] hear. 

Chapter 3 ^ 

And Jesus answered and said : — In the time when I 
was in the world,^ I spoke unto you before I should be 
glorified, of signs that the end is near, thus: — that there 
shall be on earth famines and pestilences,^ tumults, and 
commotions, risings of nations against nations, and those 
other things whereof I have told you.^ But I commanded 
you to watch and pray.^ And now hear, ye children of the 
light ; for My Father who hath sent Me to His inheritance 
hath predetermined ^^ in His foreknowledge,^^ that in the last 
days, out of the latest generation,^^ there should be vessels ^^ 
[of grace] holy, and honoured, and elect. Wherefore I make 
known unto you exactly [what are] the things which are 
about to be, and when he shall arise," that Son of Perdition,i^ 
the Enemy, the ^* Adversary ,^^ and what he is like. 

^ M. B. : all the. ^ Or : guard against. C. reads : may be preserved. 

' C: before I suffered, tell you somethmg concerning those that shall dwell 
on the earth in the latter time. 

* Cf. Acts i. 7. * S. inserts : Of the signs of the end. 

' Lit. : in the time of my age (or world). S. reads : in my time ; C. : at the 
time of my persecution. 

'St. Matt. xxiv. 7. The Syriao words for "tumults," " commotions," not 
as Pshitta. 

^ C. : which are written in the Gospel (anachronism). 
St. Matt. xxvi. 41. 

^^ Or (as C. ) : hath predetermined His inheritance. Copto-arab. : My Father, 
foreknowing the calamities which shall be in the last days, hath predetermined 
His inheritance and honoured vessels . . . 

'^ Lit. : foreknowing. ^^ So M. B. C. ; S. : generations. 

1' Of. 2 Tim. ii. 20, 21 ; Acts ix. 15. 0. reads : men. " Lit. : ariseth. 

■' Lit. : destruction. 2 Thess. ii. 3 ; St. John xvii. 12. 

«S.: and the. " 2 Thess. ii. 4. 



52 TESTAMENT OF OUR LORD [l. 4-6 



Chaptee 4 

There shall, then, be signs when the kingdom is approach- 
ing such as these. After the famines and pestUences and 
tumults among the nations,^ then there shall rule, and rise to 
power,^ princes who love money, who hate the truth, who kiU 
their brethren, liars, haters of the faithful,^ proud, lovers of 
gold,* allied by relationship but not allied in counsel,* for 
they wish each to destroy the life of his fellow. But there 
shall be in their hosts great affliction, and flight,^ and blood- 
shed. 

Chapter 5 ^ 

But there shall arise also in the West a king of foreign 
race, a prince of great craft, godless,^ a homicide, a deceiver, a 
lover of gold, great at devices,^ a hater of the faithfulj^" a 
persecutor " ; and he shall bear rule also over barbarous 
nations, and shall shed much blood. At that time silver 
shall be despised and gold be honoured ; and in every city 
and every country there shall be spoiling and robbery, and 
there shall be ^^ spilling of blood. 

Chapter 6 ^^ 

Then there shall be signs in heaven. A bow " shall be 
seen, and a horn,^* and lights ; and noises out of season,^^ and 

^ So S. 0. ; M. B. : seas (by alteration of one letter). 

'^ Lit. : the head. ^ C. omits : who kill . . . faithful. 

* See Appended Note for the remarkable addition of C. and Copto-arab. 

5 Lit. : thought. « So S. M. C. ; B. omits : and flight. 

' S. : Of the king of foreign origin. 

^ C. inserts other epithets : valiant, a boaster. 

» M. B.: reasoning. " C. : of the faith. 

'' C. adds : of the Christians. 
^^ Lit. : is. S. omits : there shall be. 

'3 S. : Of the signs of heaven. The Treves fragment begins this section 
(having prefixed our L 11) : But before this there shall be other signs in heaven. 
" C. adds : in the heavens ; Treves fragm. similarly. 
" M. B. : sounds ; S. 0. and Treves fragm. as text. 

i« 0.: lightnings and thunders. Treves fragm. omits "out of season" and 
has " a sound and voice and raging of the sea," etc. 



I. 6-8] PROLOGUE 53 

sounds,^ and ragings of the sea^ and a roaring^ of the 
earth. 

Chapter 7 * 

But on the earth shall be signs ; the birth ^ of dragons 
from mankind, and likewise also of wild beasts ^ ; and young 
women newly wedded shall bring forth ' babes who speak 
perfectly ^ and announce * the last times, and pray " to be 
put to death. And their looks shall be the looks of [men] 
far advanced in years ; they shall be grey-headed when they are 
born." Also women ^^ shall bear babes with four feet : some ^^ 
shall bear spirits only, and some ^^ shall bear their progeny 
with ^* unclean spirits. Others [there] shall [be who] practise 
divination in ^^ the womb, and shall speak with famihar 
spirits ^^ ; and there shall be many other horrible signs.^^ 

Chapter 8 ^^ 

But in the assemblies,^^ and^" nations, and churches, 
there shall be many tumults, for there shall arise evil 

' C. : a sound of all sorts of storms. ^ St. Luke xxi. 25. 

' Lit. : crying; S. : cryings. ^ S. : Of [signs] on earth. 

= So C. M. B. Treves fragm. ; S. : births. 
^ Treves fragm. : serpents. 

' C. : others who being but boys take wives shall bring forth (sic) ; see Note. 
Cf. 2 Esdras vi. 21. Treves fragm. has "a newly wed young woman shall 
bring forth " (mox nubserit femina pariet !). 
^ Lit. : perfect words. So also Treves fragm. 
" Or : signify. '" Lit. : persuade. 

'' Lit. : those who are born shall be white. (So Treves fragm. also ; C. : old 
men). 

12 Treves fragm.: other women. 

'^ Lit. : these. Trfeves fragm. : but other women shall bring forth wind only 
(singular ; the same Syriac word in plural is "spirits") ; cf. Isa. xxvi. 18. 

" Oopto-arab.: possessed with. Treves fragm., as S. M. B. C, has "with" 
only. 

^^ Or : take omens by. Treves fragm. : in utero divinabunt. 
^ 0. omits : and shall . . . spirits. 
" For monstrous births, cf. 2 Esdras v. 8. 

'* S. : Of disturbances and tumults of nations and shepherds (Lagarde ; of 
disturbance and tumult, etc.). 

^' C. omits : the assemblies and ; so also Treves fragm. 
de : of. 



54 TESTAMENT OF OTTR LORD [I- 8 

shepherds/ unjust ^ slothful,^ avaricious, lovers of pleasures/ 
lovers of gains/ lovers of money," talkative, boastful,^ 
haughty, gluttonous,''' perverse, rash, given to dehghts, vain- 
glorious,^ opposing the ways of the Gospel and fleeing 
from the strait gate,^" removing from themselves every 
humiliation and not sorrowing for My humiliation,^^ reject- 
ing all the words of truth, and despising ^^ all the ways of 
piety, and not mourning for their sins. Therefore ^^ there 
shall be shed abroad among the nations unbelief," hatred of 
the brotherhood,!'* wickedness, bitterness, slothfulness.^" envy, 
hatred, strife, theft, oppression, drunkenness, debauchery ,i^ 
lasciviousness,!^ licentiousness, fornication, and all such works 
as are contrary to the commandments of life. For from 
many mourning and gentleness shall flee away, and peace 
and meekness, and poverty and piety, and tears,!^ because the 
shepherds heard ^^ these things, and did not do them, and 
moreover did not shew^^ My commandments, seeing that 
they [themselves] are examples of wickedness in the nation.^^ 
But the time shall come when some of them will deny Me, 
and will stir up^* confusions in the earth,^* and put their 
trust in a corruptible ^ king.^" But they who in My Name 
endure^' unto the end shall be saved.^^ Then they shall 
ordain commandments for men, [commandments] unlike the 

' Cf. Zech. xi. 15-17. 

^ C. omits " unjust," and gives the adjectives in different order. 

* Or : despisers. * S. : pleasure. 

^ S. margin : that is, unjust gains. " 2 Tim. iii. 2. 

' So S. C. ; M. B. omit : gluttonous. » Kej'65o|os translated. 

9 So S. M. C. ; B. omits : the ways of. "> St. Matt. vii. 13. 

" Lit. : wounding. Cf. IL 7. Lagarde : the humiliation (ffwrpi^i}) of my 
[people]. C. adds : for my sake. 

'2 0. : slandering. " Lagarde : then. 

" 0. adds : recklessness. is C. S.: the brethren. 

'* Or : contempt (so Lagarde). " 0. : avarice. 

IS C. omits : lasoiviousness ; S. : strifes, thefts, oppressions, drunkennesses, 
debaucheries, lasciviousnesses. 

" Lit.: weeping. =» So S. 0. (cf. St. Jas. i. 22) ; M. B.: hated. 

21 I.e. teach. 22 c. ; in their own persons. ^s y^^^ . make. 

2"' 0. inserts : they shall become great. 26 j^ mortal. 

2" S. 0. : kings ; Copto-arab. : mortal kings. Cf. Ps. cxlvi. 3, 4. 
" St. Matt. X. 22, xxiv. 13 ; St. Mark xiii. 13. 
2* Lit. : live (so constantly iu Syriac). 



I. 8] PROLOGUE 55 

book of commandments ^ in which ^ the Father is well 
pleased * ; and My elect * and My holy ones shall be 
rejected^ by them, and called among them, as it were, the 
polluted. Yet these are the upright ones, pure, sad, merciful, 
quiet, kind, always knowing Him who is among them^ at 
all times, and they shall be called mad for My sake, who 
have saved ^ them. It shall come to pass also in those days 
that My Father shall gather together^ out of that generation 
the pure ones, even the pure and faithful souls, those to 
whom I will appear, and with whom I will make My 
habitation, and I will send to them the understanding* of 
knowledge and of truth, and the understanding ^ of holiness, 
and they shall not cease praising i" and giving thanks to 
their God,^^ My Father who sent Me ; and they shall speak 
the truth at all times, and they shall teach [others] whose 
spirit they have tried ^^ [and have found] that they are up- 
right '^ and worthy, as for the kingdom,^* and shall instruct 
them in knowledge and strength and prudence. And those 
who suffer persecution because they live in piety shall receive 
the reward of their praise. And it shall be in those times 
that all the kingdoms shall be disturbed, and all the world ^^ 
also [shall see] affliction ^* and want ; and all this world shall 
be reputed as nothing ; and all its possessions shall be destroyed 

■^ S. : and the commandment. 

^ I.e. the commandments. Lagarde : in whom (but the text of S. is prob- 
ably wi'ong). 

^ C. : precepts not according to my will, and traditions in which My Father 
is not well pleased. 

■* So C. S. ; M. B.: my men (viri). ^ Or : despised. 

" Lagarde : knowing that he is among them (the text of S. is apparently 
corrupt). 

' So C. M. B.; S.: commanded. » St. Mark xiii. 27. 

^ Or : reasoning. ■"' Or : glorifying (so frequently). 

^1 Misprint in Eahmani's Syriac here. 

^^ Lit. : try ; C. : whom My Father hath tried and chosen. Of. 1 John 
iv. 1. 

^' Lagarde : they shall teach them that if they test their spirit they are 
upright. 

" C. : rightly directed in their hearts towards the kingdom. 
^^ Lagarde puts a full stop here. 

^^ C: all the kingdoms of the whole earth shall be swept together, and it 
shall be in want and affliction. 



56 TESTAMENT OF OUR LORD [l- «-10 

by many [destroyers], and there shall be great scarcity of 
crops, and the winter shall be very severe ; and the princes ^ 
shall be few in number and small, who have rule over ^ gold 
and over silver, and are rich in all those things which are in 
this world ; and the children of this world shall hold their 
storerooms and barns, and shall have rule over the markets of 
buying and selling.^ Many shall be afflicted,* and on that 
account shall call upon their God that they may be delivered. 
Blessed are they who are not [alive] at that time ; and [blessed] 
they [also] who shall be ^ [alive indeed], but « [shall] endure. 
For when these things shall come to pass, then soon she that 
travaileth is near to bring forth,'' for the ^ time is fulfilled. 



Chapter 9 ^ 

Then shall come the Son of Perdition, the Adversary, 
who boasteth and exalteth himself,!" working many signs and 
miracles,!! that he may deceive the whole earth,!^ and over- 
come the innocent,!^ My holy ones. Blessed are they who 
endure in those days. But woe to those who are deceived. 

Chapter 10" 

But Syria shall be plundered, and shall weep for her sons. 
Cihcia shall lift up her neck until He who judgeth her shall 
appear. The daughter of Babylon shall arise from the throne 
of her glory ,!^ that she may drink that !® wiue ^^ which is mixed 
for her. Cappadocia, Lycia,!^ Lycaonia shall bow down the 

^ C. omits : princes. ^ I.e. possess. ' Of. Rev. xiii. 17. 

* C. : my faithful ones shall be afflicted, and so on (see Note). 

' Lit. : are. " Lit. : and. ' Of. Mio. v. 3. 

8 So M. B. ; C. S. : her. » S. : Of the coming of the Devil. 

" 2 Thess. ii. 4 ; lit. : is uplifted and upraised. '^ 2 Thess. ii. 9. 

^^ Of. Rev. xii. 9 ; also St. Matt. xxiv. 24. 0. reads : all that is under the 
heaven. 

'^ 0. omits : the innocent. The text of S. is corrupt here. 

" S. : Of the destruction of the countries. C. omits this chapter and goes on 
to § 11 with "After a little." 

« Cf. Isa. xlvii. 1. " B. omits : that. 

" Lit. : mixture. Cf. Rev. xvi. 19. ^' Copto-arab. : Africa. 



I. 10, 11] PROLOGUE 57 

back, for many multitudes shall be depraved by the corruption 
of their wickednesses.^ And then shall be opened the camps of 
the barbarians, for many chariots shall go forth so as to cover 
[the face of] the earth. In all Armenia, and in Pontus, and 
in Bithynia ^ the young men ^ shall fall by the sword, and the 
sons and the daughters shall be captives. [The sons and the 
daughters] of Lycaonia shall be mingled in [their] blood. Pisidia 
which boasteth, and trusteth in [her] riches, shall be over- 
thrown [even] to the ground. The sword shall pass through 
Phoenicia, because [her inhabitants] are children of corruption. 
Judaea shall clothe herself with lamentation, and shall be made 
ready for the day of destruction, because of her uncleanness. 
Then shall she gather together the abomination of desolation.* 
The East shall be opened * by him ® ; also the ways shall be 
opened ' by him. Sword and flame [are] in his hands : he 
burneth with anger and fiery indignation. This is the armour 
of the judgment of the corruption of them that are born in 
the earth ; the extermination of the faithful, the way * of 
bloodshed ® ; for his way is in error and his power is to blas- 
pheme,^" and his hand for deception, his right hand in misery, 
and his left hand in darkness. 



Chapter 11 ^^ 

And these are the signs of him ^^ : his head [is] as a fiery 
flame ^^ : his right eye shot with blood, his left [eye] blue- 
black, and he i* hath two pupils. His eyelashes ^^ are white ; 

^ S. : wickedness. 

'^ S. : to cover the land of all Armenia and of Pontus and of Bithynia. 

' S.: islands ; M. B. as text. * St. Matt. xxiv. 15. 

° Perhaps, taken by assault. 

' I.e. by Antichrist. S. : her (a manifest error). 

' See note 5, above. ^ M. : ways. 

"Lit.: effusion. "Lit.: for blasphemy. 

^^ S. : Of the signs of the appearance and likeness of the Devil, what they are 
like. C. begins : Concerning the Son of Perdition he saith. 
'^ I.e. of Antichrist. So explicitly the Treves Latin fragm. 
'2 Lit: a flame of fire. So S. and Trfeves fragm.: M. B.; a flame that 
burneth. Treves fragm. adds : his eyes are those of a cat (fellini, for felini). 
" Sic ; see Note. 0. has : the left one hath two pupils {Trhyes fragm. similar). 
'° C. : eyebrows. So Treves fragm. 



58 TESTAMENT OF 0T7R LORD [l. 11-13 

andi his lower lip is large; but his right thigh slender;^ his feet 
broad ; his great toe* is bruised* and flat. This is the sickle of 
desolation.'^ 

Chapter 12 

Therefore I say unto you, [ye] children of the light, that 
the time is at hand, and the harvest is ripe ® that sinners 
should be harvested in judgment. And to many the Judge 
shall arise as one who is kind,^ and shall impute to them their 
own works.^ But when He ' shall be at hand, a sign shall 
be given to i" the elect, who keep the law ^^ of My Father. 

Chapter 13 i^ 

Then ^* those who fear My words, and do them in truth 
and with a faithful mind,'* shall watch and pray ^* without 
ceasing,^^ reckoning continual supplication as a work, in nothing 
wandering or going about ^^ in this world, and in nothing 
anxious, but '^ with an austere ^^ soul and a mind that doubteth 
not,^" daily taking on them the cross,^'^ to do the will of My 

' S. omits : and. 

^ Treves fragm. : his right thigh lean, the shin bones slender. So in the 
Apocryphal Apocalypse of John, Antichrist has the legs of a cock (James, Apoc. 
Anecd. 156, 187). 

'Or: finger. * Treves fragm.; broken. 

^ M. B. omit this clause. See Note for other MSS. 
^ Of. Rev. xiv. 15 in the Greek. See Note for the reading of C. 
' Lagarde vocalises the Syriao differently, and renders us if inBcalq.. This 
is improbable. 

^ I.e. for merit ; lit. : shall raise over them their works, sc. for a shield in 
the day of trial. In the day of judgment, they shall be justified by their works. 
Of. II. 15, and p. 23. Possibly there is a reference to Rev. xiv. 13. See Notes 
for the Treves fragm. 

3 C: that Son of Perdition. '» Lit. : with. 

'' B. : laws ; C. : laws and precepts. 
'^^ S. : Of the approach of the time of judgment. 

" Copto-arab. : Then our Lord Jesus Christ commanded us, saying : Say to 
them who fear My words and fulfil them in truth that they pray . . . 
'* C. omits : with a faithful mind. '" St. Matt. xxvl. 41. 

IS 1 Thess. V. 17. " Or : wrapped up. 

>8 M. B. : also not. " S. margin : contrite. 

'^ B. : a doubting mind (error) ; C. : when also they take up with nothing but 
with a manly soul and unhesitating mind. 
21 Of. St. Luke ix. 23. 



I. 13-15] PROLOGUE 59 

Father which is in heaven, with a meek heart. For He who 
is anxious about them that trust in the truth, and careth for 
them,^ is the Lord ; and He sendeth to them those things 
which are right and fitting ^ — those things which He knoweth, 
and by the hands of them whom He knoweth. 

Chaptee 14 

I have told you these things, therefore, that wherever ye 
go, ye may test the souls that are holy,^ and tell them those 
things which are fitting and right, and those things which are 
about to be,* and all those things which, before I was ^ glorified,® 
I gave you in commandment,^ so that believing [them] they 
may truly hve.* From henceforth shall be ^ the beginning of 
travail,^" and the mystery of destruction.^^ Turning therefore 
to the Church,^^ setting right,'^^ duly ordering, and arranging, 
and doing all things in uprightness and holiness, speak to every 
man as is helpful to him,^* so that your Father which is in 
heaven may be glorified.^* Be ye wise, that ye may persuade 
those who are in captivity to error,^® and those who are sunk 
in ignorance, that coming to the knowledge of ^^ God, and 
living piously and purely, they may praise My Father and 
your God.^^ 

Chaptek 15 

Now after Jesus had spoken these words, Peter and John 

1 Cf. 1 Pet. v. 7. 

- C. omits the rest of this chapter, but adds : to their souls. 

' Lit. : holy souls. * C. omits : and those . . . ahout to he. 

'Lit.: should be. 'C. : suffered. 'Lit.: commanded you. 

* C. : while they believe in you they may live purely and holily. 

3 C. : worketh (2 Thess. ii. 7). '» St. Matt. xxiv. 8 ; St. Mark xiii. 8. 
" C: inquity (2 Thess. ii. 7). Here 0. breaks off with : That of the Son 
of Perdition is ended without diminution. 

-^ B.: Churches. '' S. here breaks off, and resumes in § 31. 

" Copto-arab. : for "Turning . . . helpful to him," reads: Consolidate the 
Churches, and ordain for (impress upon) them the offices which suit each. 
'^ St. Matt. V. 16. "° Or : who lead captive into error. 

" Lit. : knowing. 

^^ Cf. St. John XX. 17. Copto-arab.: My Father who is your Father, and my 
God who is your God. 



60 TESTAMENT OF OUR LORD [l. 15-17 

and Thomas and Matthew and Andrew and Matthias (?) and 
the rest said : our Lord, truly Thou hast spoken to us now 
also words of warning and of truth, and though we are not 
worthy Thou hast bestowed upon us many things, and hast 
granted also to those of future generations who are worthy, to 
know Thy words and to flee from the snares of the Evil One. 
But, our Lord, we beseech Thee, make Thy perfect light to 
shine upon us, and upon those who are foreordained and 
separated to be Thine. Because ^ that we have many times 
asked Thee, we pray Thee teach us of what sort he ought to 
be who standeth at the head of the Church, or with what rule 
he should raise up and order the Church. For it is urgent 
that when we are sent to the nations to preach the salvation 
which is from Thee, it should not escape us as to how it is 
fitting to arrange the mysteries of the Church. Therefore 
from Thy mouth,^ our Saviour and Perfecter, we desire to 
learn without omission how the Chief of the holy things ought 
to please Thee, and [likewise] aU those who minister in Thy 
Church. 

Chapter 16 ^ 

Then Martha and Mary, and Salome, who were with us,* 
answered and said : — Yea, O our Lord, teach us to know what 
we ought to do, that our souls may live unto Thee. Then 
Jesus answered and said unto them : I will that, persevering 
in supplication,^ ye should always serve My Gospel, and be 
examples of ^ holiness, for the salvation of those who trust 
patiently '' in Me ; and in all things be figures of the kingdom 
of heaven. 

Chapter 17 

But to us also Jesus said: — Because that ye also have 
asked Me concerning the rule ecclesiastical, I deliver and 
make Imown to you how ye ought to order and command 

' Copto-avab. abbreviates from here to the end of the chapter. 
^ Lit. : voice. s Copto-arab. omits this chapter. 

" Cf. Acts i. 14. M Ti„ ^ 5_ 

"Lit.: in. 'Or: endure. 



I. 17, 18] PROLOGUE 6 1 

him who standeth at the head of the Church, and to keep the 
perfect and just and most excellent rule, in which My Father 
who hath sent Me is well pleased. Verily I say unto you, 
that he who knoweth the power of this commandment and of 
this testament, and doeth according to those things which are 
written therein, shall be made like^ unto the angels who 
praise My Father,^ and shall be holy unto God. 

But My Father is mediator,^ and all His host, that if 
their sins are as the sand of the sea[shore] which cannot 
be numbered,* and any of them, understanding these words, 
shall do them, these sins shall be forgiven him, and he 
shall Mve in Me. 

Chaptek 18 

But because in the midst of the assembly of the people 
[there are], more and more, many carnal desires, and the 
labourers are feeble^ and few, only My perfect labourers 
shall know the multitude of My words, all also which at 
times ^ I spake to you in private before I should suffer, and 
which ye know; ye both have them and understand them. 
For My mysteries are given to those who are Mine, with 
whom I shall rejoice and be glad with My Father. When 
they shall be loosed from [this] hfe they shall come to Me. 

But these remaining words, determining and appointing 
them, speak ye in the Churches. 

But from the day that My faithful ones also have the 
desire to know, that they may do the things of My Father, 
what[soever is] in this My testament, I will be with them, 
and will be praised among them, and I will make My habita- 
tion with them, by power informing them of the will of My 
Father. 

See that ye give not My holy things to the dogs, and 
cast not pearls before swine,^ as I have often commanded you. 

' Or : shall be like. There is a reminiscence of St. Luke xx. 36 (?). 
^ B. : the glorious angels of My Father. 
' Or : arbiter. 

^ Jer. xxxiii. 22 (order altered and words applied to an altogether different 
object). 

^ Or : small. " Or : many times. ' St. Matt. vii. 6. 



62 TESTAMENT OF OUR LORD [l. 18, 19 

G-ive not My holy things ^ to defiled and wicked men who do 
not bear My cross, and are not subject [to Me] ; and My com- 
mandments shall be for derision among them. And it ^ shall 
be to him that is embittered ^ and doeth them not, but giveth 
My words without profit, for the destruction of their souls. 

But it * shall be spoken and given to those who are firm 
and fixed, and do not fall away, who keep* My command- 
ments and this tradition, [to the end] that they, keeping these 
[things], may abide holy and upright and strong in Me, 
fleeing from the downfall of iniquity and the death of sin ; 
the Holy Ghost [also] bestowing upon them His grace, that 
they may believe uprightly,^ that they may in the Spirit 
spiritually know the things of the Spirit,' and in hope* 
endure labour, and in joy serve My Gospel,* and bear the 
reproach of My cross, not doubting but [rather] glorying ^ ; 
for verily I say unto you, that such as these [men] and such 
as these [women] shall, after death, dwell ^" in the third order 
of My Father who hath sent Me. 

[Chaptek 19"] 

I tell you therefore how the sanctuary ^^ ought to be ; 
then I will make known the holy rule of the priests of the 
Church. 

Let the church then be thus : let it have three entrances 
as a type of the Trinity. 

Let the diaconicum ^^ be on the right of the right band 
entrance, that the eucharists, i* or offerings which are offered, 
may be seen. Let there be a fore-court, with a portico ^^ 
going round, to the diaconicum. 

' M. : thing. 2 jj;^g_ s Qi- ; provoketh [Me]. 

^ Fem. « Lit.: do. « I.e. rightly. ' Of. 1 Cor. ii. 10-14. 

^ Paronomasia in the Syriao between these two words. 
» Or : boasting. Cf. Gal. vi. 14. 

"Perhaps we should read: "after the rest (or quiet) of My Father who 
hath sent Me, shall dwell ..." See Note. 
" Number omitted in the Syi-iao. 

" Lit. : house of holiness. is Lit. : house of the deacons. 

" eiixa/JicTTiai. The Greek is transliterated into Syriac from aocus. pi. 
" o-rod transliterated. See Note. 



I. 19] THE CHURCH BUILDINGS 63 

Then within the fore-court let there be a place [to serve] 
for a baptistery/ its length twenty-one cubits as a general^ 
type of the prophets, and its width twelve cubits as a type of 
those who have been determined to preach the Gospel,^ with 
one entrance and three exits. 

Let the Church have a house of the catechumens, which 
shall be also the house of the exorcists. Let it not be de- 
tached from the Church, but so that those who enter and are 
in it may hear the lections * and spiritual hymns of praise 
and psalms.* 

Let there be a throne by the altar ^ ; on the right and on 
the left [let there be] the places of the presbyters, so that on 
the right may sit those who are more exalted and honoured, 
and those who labour in the word ' ; but those who are of 
middle age* on the left hand. But that place where the 
throne is, let it ^ be raised three steps, for there the altar 
ought to be. 

Let that house have two porches, on the right and on 
the left, for men and for women. 

Let all the places be lighted, both for a type, and also for 
reading. 

Let the altar have a veil of pure linen, for it is without 
spot. 

Also the baptistery hkewise, let it be under a veil. 

Let a place be built as for commemoration, so that the 
priest and chief deacon sitting with the readers may write the 
names of those who offer the oblations, or of those for whom 
they have offered [them], so that when the holy things are 
offered by the bishop, the reader or chief deacon may name 
them by way of commemoration, which the priests^" and 

^ Lit.: Let a house be for the house of baptism. Cf. I. 34 ad Jin. 
^ Or : complete ; not same word as in I. 2-3, below. 
3 The Twelve Apostles. ■■ Of Holy Scripture. 

5 Cf. Eph. V. 19, and Col. iii. 16. 
= So the MSS. (M.B.). See Note. 

' Cf. 1 Tim. V. 17. * Lit. : stature. 

" In Sjriae masc. ; it refers to " throne " which is masc, and should refer to 
' ' place " which is fem. 
"B.: priest. 



64 TESTAMENT OF OUR LORD [l. 19, 20 

people offer for them with supplication. For there is this- 
type also in heaven.^ 

Let the place of the. presbyters be within the veil, beside 
that place of commemoration. 

Let the house of the offering and the treasury be quite ^ 
beside the diaconicum. 

But let the place of the lection * be a little outside the altar. 

Let the house of the bishop be beside that place which is 
called the fore-court. 

Also that of those widows who are called " those that sit 
in front." 

Also let that of the presbyters and deacons be behind 
the baptistery.* 

Let the deaconesses abide beside the door of the Lord's 
house. 

Let the Church have a house for entertaining near by, 
where the chief deacon shall entertain strangers. 

Chapter 20 

Now after the house is [built] as is fitting and right, let the 
bishop ^ be appointed, being chosen by all the people accord- 
ing to the will of the Holy Ghost,® being without fault,' chaste,* 
quiet, mild,^ without anxiety, watchful,!" jjq^ g^ money-lover,^! 
blameless,!^ not quarrelsome,^^ ready to forgive, a teacher,^* 
not given to much speaking, a lover of good things,!^ a lover 
of labour, a lover of widows, a lover of orphans, a lover of the 

^ There is a reference perhaps to St. Luke x. 20. Of. Rev. xiii. 8, xvii. 8, 
xxi. 12. 

" Lit. : all of it. ^ Or : of reading. 

* Lit. : behind that of the baptistery. 

" The Pshitta in Tit. i., 1 Tim. iii., passages parallel to this, has qashishS, 
(presbyter) for iirliTKOTos. 

« Of. Acts xiii. 2, xx. 28. ' 1 Tim. iii. 2 (but not as Pshitta). 

8 1 Tim. iii. 2 ; Tit. i. 8. "1 Tim. iii. 3. '» 1 Tim', iii. 2. 

" &<pi.'Kdpyvpos, 1 Tim. iii. 3. " Same root as Tit. i. 6. 

" 1 Tim. iii. 3. " 1 Tim. iii. 2. 

^^ (piKAyaOos, Tit. i. 8., where E.V. renders "a lover of good," A. V. "a 
lover of good men," and A.V. margin, as has been done here by the Pshitta and 
by James of Edessa, ' ' a lover of good things. " 



I. 20, 2l] THE BISHOP 65 

poor, experienced in the mysteries,^ not lax ^ and distracted 
in company with this world, peaceful, and in all good things 
perfect, as one to whom the order and ^ place of God is 
entrusted. It is good indeed that * he be without a wife, but 
at any rate that he have been ^ the husband of one wife only,^ 
so that he may sympathise with the weakness of widows. 
Let him be appointed when he is of middle age, not a youth. 

Chapter 21 

Being such as this, let him receive ordination ^ on the first 
day of the week, all consenting to his appointment, and bearing 
witness to him, with all the neighbouring presbyters and 
bishops. Let those bishops lay hands on him, having first 
washed their hands, but let the presbyters stand beside them, 
not speaking, in fear, lifting up their hearts in silence. 

After [that], let the bishops lay hands on him, saying : 

We lay hands on the servant of God, who hath been 
chosen in the Spirit, for the true and pious ^ disposing ^ of the 
Church, which alone hath the principality ,1" and which is not 
dissolved, of the invisible [and] living God, and for the de- 
livering of true judgment and divine and holy revelations, 
and of divine gifts and faithful doctrines of the Trinity, by 
the cross, by the resurrection, by the incorruptibility, in the 
holy Church of God. 

After this, one bishop, commanded by tJie other bishops, shall 
lay hands on him, saying his calling of appointment; thus : 

PRAYER OF ORDINATION 11 OF A BISHOP 

God, who hast done ^^ all things in power, and hast 
established them, and hast founded the inhabited world in 
reason, and hast adorned the crown of all these things which 

' Or : sacraments. ^ M. B. : carried away. ' M. : or. 

* B. inserts : also. ^ Or : was. 

' Not worded as 1 Tim. iii. 2 and Tit. i. 6 ; though the reference is clear. 
See Note. 

' Lit. : laying on of the hand. ' rfire/Siis translated. So always. 

' KarAffTaffis transliterated. ■" Prohably Greek iibvapxas (see p. 16). 

'' XeipoTovla transliterated. '^ Or : made. 

5 



66 TESTAMENT OF ODR LORD [l. 21 

were made by Thee; who hast given to them to keep 
Thy commandments in fear ; who hast bestowed upon us 
the understanding of the truth, and hast made known unto 
us that good Spirit of Thine; who didst send Thy beloved 
Son, the only Saviour, without spot, for our salvation ; God 
and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, Father of mercies and 
God of all comfort,! ^j^^g ijj ^jie p^^g heights dost dwell 
eternally, who art high and adorable, dreadful^ and great; 
who seest all things, who knowest all things before they are, 
with whom all things were before they were [made] ^ ; who 
gavest illumination to the Church by the grace * of Thy Only- 
begotten Son, having foreordained from the beginning those 
who delight in just things, and do those things that are holy, 
to dwell in Thy habitations ; who didst choose Abraham, who 
pleased Thee by his faith,^ and didst translate holy Enoch " 
to the treasure-house of life ; who hast ordered princes and 
priests in Thine upper "^ sanctuary ; Lord, who didst call 
[them] to praise and glorify the Name of Thee and of Thy 
Only-begotten in the place of Thy glory ; Lord God, who 
before the foundation of the world didst not leave Thine 
upper ^ sanctuary without a ministry, and also, since the 
foundation of the world, hast adorned and glorified Thy 
sanctuaries [on earth] with faithful princes and priests, after 
the pattern ^ of Thine [own] heaven ; Thou, Lord, even now 
also art * well pleased to be praised, and hast vouchsafed that 
there should be princes for Thy people : Cause to shine forth 
and pour out understanding, and the grace which cometh i" 
from Thy princely Spirit, which " Thou didst deUver to Thy 
beloved Son Jesus Christ ; give wisdom, God, [give] reason- 
ing,!2 strength, power, unity of spirit ^^ to do all things by Thy 

1 2 Cor. i. 3. 2 Lit . feared. 

' Perhaps a paraphrase of Rev. iv. 11. 
■* Or : lovingkindness. So often. 

° Cf. Heb. xi. 8. « Heb. xi. 5. ' Lit. : high. 

" Or : type. " Lit. : wast. w Lit. : Is. 

" Sic. In the parallels the relative refers to the Holy Spirit. See Note on 
this passage. 
^' M. : give glorious {or praised) wisdom, God. 
" There is, perhaps, a reference to Ps. Ixxxvi. 11, and to Phil. ii. 13. 



I. 21] THE BISHOP 67 

co-operation.i Give the Spirit which is Thine, holy God ; 
send to Thy holy and pure Church, and to every place which 
singeth to Thee "Holy," Him who was given to Thy Holy 
One ; and grant, Lord, that this Thy servant may please 
Thee ^ for doxology,^ and for laud without ceasing, God, for 
fitting hymns of praise, and for suitable times,* for acceptable 
prayers, for faithful asking, for an upright mind, for a meek 
heart, for the working of hfe and of meekness and of truth, 
for the knowledge of uprightness. Father, who knowest 
the hearts,^ [grant] to this Thy servant whom Thou hast 
chosen for the episcopate, to feed Thy holy flock, and to stand 
at the head of the priesthood without fault, ministering to 
Thee day and night ; grant that Thy face ^ may be seen by 
him ; vouchsafe, Lord, that he may offer to Thee the offer- 
ings of Thy holy Church carefully [and] with all fear ; bestow 
upon him that he may have Thy powerful ' Spirit to loose all 
bands, as Thou didst bestow [Him] on Thy apostles, to please 
Thee in meekness ; fill him full of love, knowledge, under- 
standing, discipline, perfectness, strength, and a pure heart, 
when he prayeth for the people, and when he mourneth for 
those who commit folly and draweth them to [receive] help ; 
when he offereth to Thee praises and thanksgivings and 
prayers for a sweet-smelling savour^ through Thy beloved 
Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom [are given] to Thee 
praise and honour and might, with the Holy Ghost, both 
before the worlds, and also now, and at all times, and for ever 
and ever without end. Amen. 

And let the people say: Amen. And then lei them^ cry 
out : He is worthy, He is worthy, He is worthy. 

After he is [ordained], let the people keep the feast 
three days, according to the mystery that in three days [our 

' Lit. : work. 

^ Or : that this Thy servant who pleaseth Thee, may be for. 

^ So^oKoyla translated. So always. 

* Lit.: time ; perhaps the Greek had "fitting and opportune hymns.'' 
= Acts i. 24 (of our Lord). 

* irpbira-wov transliterated. 

' Or : free ; not the same adjective as before. See Note. 

* Eph. V. 2. " Or : him. 



68 TESTAMENT OF OUR LORD [l. 21, 22 

Lord] rose from the dead. And let every one give him the 
Peace. 

Chapter 22 

Let him be constant at the altar ; in prayers let him be 
persistent day and night, especially at the obligatory times of 
night ; at the first hour, at midnight, and at early twilight 
when the star of the dawn riseth. Then also in the moming,i 
at the third, sixth, ninth [hours, and the] twelfth hour at the 
lamp [lighting]. If also at every hour he offer prayers with- 
out ceasing for the people and for himself, he doeth well. Let 
him abide in the house of the Church alone. If he have one 
or two likeminded ^ with himself, it is good that he should be 
with them for united supplication in unison.^ For where two 
or three are gathered together in My Name, ye know that I 
have said unto you that I am in the midst of them.* But if 
he cannot abide all night long, yet let him remain these hours 
that I have said. For then the angels visit the Church. 

Let him fast three days each [week] ^ (?) all the year. 
But for three weeks after his appointment let him maintain 
the fast according to the number of the eighteen Exalted 
Entrances by which the Only-begotten passed when He came 
to the passion. But on the first day of the week only let 
him feed on bread with oil and honey and salt, and all fruits of 
trees ; but let him in no wise taste wine, except only the cup 
of the Offering. This ® let him use whether iU or well. For it 
is good that this be for the priests only.'^ And so after these 
weeks all the year, let him fast three days each ^ [week] ; and 
for the rest of the time let him fast according to his strength. 
But in no wise let him eat meat,* not because if he taste or 
eat [meat] he is to be blamed, but because when he loveth 
infirmity these strong meats are not fitting.i" and in order that 
he may watch. 

^ Oopto-arab. : at the first hour of the day. 

2 So Phil. ii. 20 (in Harklean Version). s 6ynA<^WTOs translated. 

* St. Matt, xviii. 20, almost exactly. 

^ Lit.: three three days all the year. Cf. I. 31, and below. 

« Perhaps : this [rule] (?) ' St. Matt. xii. 4. « Lit. : three three days. 

» Lit. : flesh. " B. : he doth not use these strong [meats]. 



I. 22, 23] THE EUCHARIST 6 9 

Let the Offering ^ only be on Saturday, or on the first day 
of the week, and on a fast-day. On the eve ^ let him instruct 
and teach these things in the manner of a mystery to ^ those 
whom he hath tested* as having ears to hear.^ But if he be 
sick in body, let him quickly take care to heal himself, feeding 
on fish, and constantly [taking] a little wine of the Holy thing, 
that the Church may not also come to an end because he is 
lying sick ; but [that] those who learn may receive joy. But 
when teaching in the Church, let him speak thus carefully, as 
a man who knoweth that he is speaking for a testimony the 
doctrine of all the ministry of the Father of all, that [doctrine] 
which is accurately written. Let him say all these things^ — all 
those which he accurately knoweth and remembereth of old.^ 
For if he knoweth what he saith, he may have hope that his 
hearers also [will] have known these things. And with all 
his labour, let him beseech the Lord, so that his word may 
bring forth the fruits ^ of the Holy Spirit in them that hear. 

Let him do everything in order, and with knowledge. 
Let him dismiss the catechumens after he hath admonished 
them with meditations * and admonitions of the Prophets and 
Apostles,^ with instructive words, so that they may know Him 
whom they confess. But let him teach the faithful after the 
manner of a mystery, having first dismissed the catechumens ; 
and after the instruction in the mysteries let him offer, so that 
knowing in what mystery they are taking part, they may offer 
with fear. 

Chaptek 23 

Let him offer on Saturday three loaves for a complete 
symbol i" of the Trinity ; but on the first day of the week let 
him offer four loaves for a complete symbol ^^ of the Gospel. 

' I.e. tlie Holy Eucharist. ^ Lit. : in the evening. 

' M. B. : and to. ^ Lit. : testeth. 

' Deut. xxix. 4 (not as in N.T. Pshitta). ' Or : beforehand. 

' So pi. in Gal. v. 22, Pshitta. * M. : meditation. 

' Lit. : prophetical and apostolic admonitions. 

"" Not the same word as in I. 19, above ; lit. : the filling up ; so at end of 
this chapter, page 77. Or : according to the complete [number] of the Trinity 
. . . according to the complete [number] of the Gospel. 



70 TESTAMENT OF OUR LORD [l. 23 

Because that the ancient people erred, when he offereth 
let the veil in front of the door be closed/ and within it let 
him offer with the presbyters and deacons and the canonical 
widows, and subdeacons and deaconesses and readers [and] 
those who have gifts. But let the bishop stand first in the 
middle, and the presbyters immediately behind him on either 
side, and the widows immediately behind the presbyters on 
the left side, and the deacons also behind the presbyters on 
the right hand side ; the readers behind them, and the sub- 
deacons behind the readers, and the deaconesses behind the 
subdeacons. 

Let the bishop then place his hand on those loaves which 
have been set on the altar, and let the presbyters place their 
hands together with him, and let the rest stand only.^ 

Let not the loaf of catechumens ^ be received ; not even 
if he have a believing son or wife and wish to offer on their 
behalf ; let it not be offered * unless he is baptized.^ 

Before the bishop or presbyter offereth, let the people 
give the Peace ® to one another. 

Then, a great silence being made, let the deacon say 
thvs: 

ADMONITION OF THE DEACON ON THE EUCHARIST ' 

[Lift up] your hearts to ^ heaven. 

If any man have wrath against his companion, let him be 
reconciled." 

If any man have^" a conscience without faith, let him 
confess [it]. 

If any man have a thought foreign to the commandments, 
let him depart. 

If any man have fallen into sin, let him not hide himself : 
he may ^^ not hide himself.i^ 

' Lit. : spread. = ^<.. , without speaking. 

" So the MSS. (M. B.). Rahmani uoiijectures : a catechumen. 

■* Or : let him not approach. o Cf. Lev. xxii. 25. 

« The Kiss of Peace. v ei^apurrla transliterated. 

' ^^^■' i"- " St. Matt. V. 24. 

"Lit.: be in. n Or : can. 

'^ Cf. Gen. iii. 8-10 ; Ps. l.xix. 5 ; Jer. xvi. 17. 



I. 23] THE EUCHARIST 71 

If any man have a disordered reason, let him not draw near. 

If any man be defiled, if any man be not firm, let liim 
give place. 

If any man be a stranger to the commandments of Jesus, 
let him depart. 

If any man despise the prophets,^ let him separate himself : 
from the wrath of the Only-begotten let him deliver himself. 

Let us not despise the cross. 

Let us flee from threatening. 

We have our Lord as onlooker, the Father of Lights ^ with 
the Son, [and] the angels * who visit [us]. 

See to yourselves that ye be not in * anger against your 
neighbours. 

See that no man be in wrath : God seeth. 

[Lift] up your hearts to offer for the salvation of life and 
of holiness. 

In the wisdom of God let us receive the grace which hath 
been bestowed upon us. 

Tlien let the bishop say, giviiig and rendering thanks with 
an aioed voice : 

Our Lord [be] with you. 
And let the people say : And with thy spirit. 
Let the bishop say : [Lift] up your hearts. 

Let the people say : They are [lifted up] unto the Lord. 

Let the bishop say : Let us give thanks to the Lord. 

Arid let all the people say : It is meet and right. 
And let the bishop cry: Holy things in holy [persons]. 
And let the people call out: In heaven and on earth without 

ceasing. 

EUCHAEIST* OK THANKSGIVING OVER THE OFFERING^ 

Let the bishop immediately say : 

We render thanks to Thee, God, the Holy One, Con- 

' 1 Thess. V. 20. 

^ B. ; Let us flee from the threatening of the Lord. "We have an onlooker, 
the Father of lights. Cf. St. Jas. i. 17. 

^ 1 Cor. xi. 10. . * Lit. : keep not. 

" eixajO'iTTia transliterated. *M. : offerings. 



72 TESTAMENT OF ODE LORD [l- 23 

firmer of our souls, and Giver of our life, the Treasure of 
incorruptibility, and Father of the Only-begotten, our Saviour, 
whom 'in the latter times Thou didst send to us as a Saviour 
and Proclaimer of Thy purpose.^ For it is Thy purpose ^ that 
we should be saved in Thee. Our heart giveth thanks unto 
Thee, Lord, [our] mind, [our] soul, with all [its] thinking,^ 
that Thy grace may come upon us, Lord, so that we may 
continually praise Thee, and Thy Only-begotten Son, and Thy 
Holy Ghost, now and alway, and for ever and ever. Amen. 

Thou Power of the Father, the Grace of the nations. 
Knowledge, true Wisdom, the Exaltation of the meek, the 
Medicine of souls,^ the Confidence of us who believe,* for Thou 
art the Strength of the righteous, the Hope of the persecuted, 
the Haven of those who are buffeted, the Illuminator of the 
perfect, the Son of the living God,^ make to arise on us, out of 
Thy gift which cannot be searched into, courage, might, reliance, 
wisdom, strength, unlapsing faith, unshaken hope, the know- 
ledge of Thy Spirit, meekness [and] uprightness, so that alway, 
Lord, we Thy servants, and all the people, may praise Thee 
purely, may bless Thee, may give thanks unto Thee, Lord, at 
all times, and may beseech Thee. 

And also let the hisliop say : 

Thou, Lord, the Founder of the heights, and King of the 
treasuries of light, Visitor of the heavenly Sion, King of the 
orders of archangels,^ of Dominions, Praises, Thrones, Eaiments, 
Lights, Joys, Dehghts, the Father of kings, who boldest all in 
Thy hand, and suppliest ^ [all] by Thy reason, through Thine 
Only-begotten Son who was crucified for our sins : Thou, 
Lord, didst send Thy Word, who is of Thy counsel and 
covenant,^ by whom Thou madest all things, being well pleased 
with Him, into a virgin womb ; who, when He was conceived, 

'Or: tliouglit. Of. Jer. xxix. 11. '^ Or : the intelligence. 

' So Eahmani conjectures from the Ethiopic translation ; M. B. read ; 
Medicine of the meek, Exaltation of souls. 

* Lit. : of us believers. 5 g(;_ jj^tt. xvi. 16. 
^ Lit. : of the arohangelic orders of Dominions, etc. 

' Or : managest. 

* Lit. ; Son of [Thy] counsel and Son of Thy promise. 



I. 23] THE EUCHARIST 73 

[and] made flesh, was shown to be Thy Son, being batn of the 
Holy Ghost and the Virgin i; who, fulfilling Thy /will, and 
preparing a holy people,^ stretched forth His hands ^ to suffer- 
ing, that He might loose from sufferings and corruption and * 
death those who have hoped in thee ; who when He was 
betrayed to voluntary suffering that He might raise up ^ those 
who had sUpped, and find those who were lost, and give life 
to the dead, and loose [the pains of] death, and rend the 
bonds of the Devil, and fulfil the counsel of the Father, and 
tread down Sheol, and open the way of life, and guide the 
righteous to light, and fix the boundary, and lighten the dark- 
ness, and nurture the babes, and reveal the resurrection ; 
taking bread, gave it to His disciples, saying, Take, eat, this 
is My Body which is broken for you for the forgiveness of 
sins.^ When ye shall do "^ this, ye make ^ My resurrection. 
Also the cup of wine which He mixed He gave for a type of 
the Blood which he shed for us. 

And also let him say : 

Eemembering* therefore Thy death and resurrection, we 
offer to Thee bread and the cup, giving thanks to Thee who 
alone art God for ever, and our Saviour, since ^ Thou hast 
promised i" to us to stand before Thee and to serve Thee in 
priesthood. T Therefore we render thanks to Thee, we Thy 
servants, Lord. 

A7id let the people say likewise. 

And also let [the hishop] say : 

We offer to Thee this thanksgiving, Eternal Trinity, 

' Or : a virgin. " 1 St. Pet. ii. 9 ; Ex. xix. 6. 

^ Cf. St. Jolm xxi. 18. * So MSS. Eahmani conjectures : of. 

° Lit. : set upright. 

^ The wording differs considerably from that in the F.T. It resembles most 
nearly St. Matt. xxvi. 27, 28, and 1 Cor. xi. 24, 25. 

' The Syriao does equally well for "offer " in both eases. Cf. 1 Cor. xi. 26. 

* Or ; commemorating. 

' i<p' Sffo, literally translated into Syriac. 

'" Eahmani conjectures : hast made us worthy, by omitting two letters in the 
Syriac. 



74 TESTAMENT OF OUR LORD [l- 23 

Lord Jesus Christ, Lord the Father before ^ whom all 
creation and every nature trembleth fleeing into itself, Lord 
the Holy Ghost ; we have brought ^ this drink and this food 
of Thy Holiness [to Thee] ; Cause that it may be to us not 
for condemnation, not for reproach, not ^ for destruction, but 
for the medicine and support of our spirit. Yea, O God, 
grant us that by Thy Name every thought of things dis- 
pleasing to Thee may flee away. Grant, God, that every 
proud conception may be driven away from us by Thy Name 
which is written within the veils * of Thy sanctuaries, those 
high ones — a Name which, when Sheol heareth [it], it is 
amazed, the depth is rent, the spirits are driven away, the 
dragon is bruised,* unbelief is cast out, disobedience is sub- 
dued, anger is appeased, envy worketh not, pride is reproved, 
avarice rooted out, boasting taken away, arrogance humbled, 
[and] every root of bitterness ^ destroyed. Grant therefore, 
Lord, to our innermost eyes to see Thee, praising Thee and 
glorifying Thee, commemorating'' Thee [and] serving Thee, 
having a portion in Thee alone, Son and Word of God, 
who subduest® all things. Sustain unto the end those 
who have' gifts of revelations.^" Confirm those who have* 
a gift of healing. '^^ Make those courageous who have * the 
power of tongues. ^^ Keep those who have* the word of doctrine^* 
upright. Care for those who do Thy will alway." Visit the 
widows. Help the orphans. Eemember those who have 
fallen asleep in the faith. And ^^ grant us an inheritance with 

^ Lit. : from. ^ See Note for the reading of M. 

' M. omits : not. ■* Lit. ; faces of tlie doors. 

^ Cf. Rom. xvi. 20. 

^ Lit.: every nature that begetteth bitterness. The text has " master" here 
for "bitterness," but it seems to be either (1) a misprint of one letter — the 
correcting of which would yield "bitterness, or (2) "master" is taken for a 
masterful and overweening spirit, which would rather rule than be ruled, rather 
teach than be taught. Cf. St. Jas. iii. 1. Sec Appendix I for the parallels 
in the Abyssinian Anaphora of our Lord. 

' Or : remembering. 

' Or possibly : to whom all things are subdued. 

" Lit. : are in. i» 1 Cor. xiv. 26, 30. " 1 Cor. xii. 9. 

'^ 1 Cor. xii. 10. ^^ 1 Cor. xii. 8. 

" " Alway " may refer to either verb. "> B. omits : and. 



I. 23] THE EUCHARIST 75 

Thy saints/ and bestow [upon us] the power to please Thee 
as they also pleased Thee. Feed the people in uprightness : 
sanctify us all, God ; but grant that all those who partake 
and receive of Thy Holy Things may be made one with Thee, 
so that they may be filled with the Holy Ghost, for the 
confirmation of the faith in truth, that they may lift up 
always a doxology to Thee, and to Thy beloved Son Jesus 
Christ, by whom praise and might [be] unto Thee, with Thy 
Holy Spirit for ever and ever. 

Let the people say : Amen.^ 

The deacon : Earnestly let us beseech our Lord and our 
God that He may bestow upon us concord^ of spirit.* 

The bishop: Give us concord^ in the Holy Spirit, and 
heal our souls by this offering, that we may live in Thee in 
all the ages of ages. 

The people : Amen. 

Let the people also pray in the same \words\ 

After these things the seal of thanksgiving thus : Let the 
Name of the Lord be blessed for ever. 

The people : Amen. 

TJie priest : Blessed is He that hath come ^ in the Name 
of the Lord.^ Blessed [is] the Name of His praise. 

And let all the people say : So be it, so be it. 

Let the bishop say : Send the grace of the Spirit upon us. 



' Eph. i. 18 ; Col. i. 12. ^ 1 Cor. xiv. 16. ^ o/iSfoia translated. 

* Or : of the Spirit. Not as Phil. ii. 1, Pshitta. ^ B.: oometh. 

» St. Matt. xxi. 9. 



76 TESTAMENT OF OUR LORD [l- 23 

If the. bishop be polluted,^ let Mm not offer, but let a^ 
presbyter offer. Also let him not receive of the mAjsteryf not 
as though he were defiled, but because of the honour of the altar. 
But after he hath fasted and bathed in pure water, let him 
approach and minister. Similarly also a presbyter. And if 
also a ividow he menstruous, let her not approach. Similarly 
if a woman or a layman or any of the company [of tJie clergy 
be polluted], let him not approach, for the honour [of the altar] 
except after fasting and bathing.*" 

Let the priests first receive, thus : the bishops, presbyters, 
deacons, widows, readers, subdeacons. After these those that 
have gifts, those newly baptized, babes.^ The people thus : old 
men, virgins,^ and the rest. The women [thus] : deaconesses, 
and after that the rest. 

Let each one when he receiveth the thanksgiving '' say before 
he partaketh: Amen. After that let him piray thus ; after that^ 
he receiveth the Eucharist * let him say : Holy, Holy, Holy, 
Trinity ineffable, grant me to receive unto life ^^ this Body, 
[and] not unto condemnation. And grant me to bring forth 
the fruits that are pleasing to Thee, so that when I shall be 
shown to be pleasing to Thee I may live in Thee, doing Thy 
commandments ; and [that] with boldness I may caU Thee 
Father,ii when I call for Thy kingdom and Thy will [to come] 
to me.i^ -May Thy Name be hallowed ^^ in me, Lord; for 
Thou art mighty and [to be] praised, and to Thee be praise 
for ever and ever. Amen. 

After the prayer let him receive. 

' iv dveipii^ei translated. 2 Qj. . ^jjg 

3 Or : sacrament. * Cf. Heb. x. 22. 

» Gf. St. Matt, xviii. 1-4 ; St. Mark x. 15. 

* I.e. male. Cf. 1 Cor. vii. 32, and Rov. xiv. 4. 

' eixapi-trTla is here translated from the Greek, not transliterated as before. 

' B. (recent hand) : before that. 

" eixapLnHa transliterated. i» Or: salvation. 

" Or : call on Thee, Father. Cf. 1 St. Pet. i. 17 (?). 
'2 Cf. St. Matt. vi. 9-13. 



I- 23, 24] THE EUCHARIST 77 

When he taketh of the Cup, let him say twice Amen,^ for a 
complete symbol ^ of the Body and Blood. 

After all receive, let them pray, giving and rendering thanhs 
for the reception, the deacon sayiiig : 

Let us give thanks unto the Lord, receiving His Holy 
Things, so that the reception [of them] may be for the life 
and salvation of our souls. Let us beg and beseech [His 
grace], raising a doxology to the Lord our God. 

After that let the bishop [say] : 

Lord, Giver of light eternal,^ the Helmsman of souls, 
the Guide of saints ; Give us understanding eyes which always 
look to Thee, and ears which hear Thee only, so that our soul 
may be filled with grace. Create * in us a clean heart,^ 
God ; so that we may alway comprehend Thy greatness. ® 
God, Wonderful, who lovest man,'' make our souls better, and, 
by this Eucharist * which we, Thy servants, who fail in much,^ 
have [now] received, form our thoughts so that they shall not 
swerve : for Thy kingdom is blessed, Lord God, [who art] 
glorified and praised in Father and in Son and in Holy 
Ghost, both before the worlds, and now, and alway, and for 
the ages and for ever and ever without end. 

The people : Amen. 



Chapter 24 

If the priest consecrate oil for the healing i" of those who 

^ There may be a reference, in the saying of the Amen tiiHce, to the words 
of Gen. xli. 32. 

^ See at the beginning of this chapter, page 69. 

' Or : Eternal Giver of light. ■» Lit. : form. 

° Ps. li. 10. * M. : of (a manifest error), 

■' (fiCK&vBpuwo^ translated. ' eixapiarla transliterated. 

' Lit.: thy deficient servants. '"' See St. Jas. v. 14-16. 



78 TESTAMENT OF OUR LORD [l. 24-26 

suffer, let him say thus, quietly} placing the vessel before the 
altar : 

Lord God, who hast bestowed upon us the Spirit, the 
Paraclete,^ the Lord,^ the saving and unshaken Name, which 
is hidden from the foolish but revealed xmto the wise * ; 
Christ, who didst sanctify us, and by Thy mercies dost make 
the servants whom Thou choosest wise with the wisdom that 
is Thine, who didst send the knowledge of Thy Spirit to us 
sinners by the holiness which is Thine, bestowing on us the 
power of the Spirit ; who art the Healer of every sickness and 
of every suffering^; who didst give the gift of healing^ to 
those who were counted worthy of this by Thee ; send on 
this oil, which is the type of Thy fatness, the delivering 
[power] of Thy good compassion, that it may deliver those 
who labour and heal those who are sick, and sanctify those 
who return, when they approach to Thy faith ; for Thou art 
mighty and [to be] praised for ever and ever. 

The people : Amen. 

Chapter 25 
Likewise, the same also over water. 

Chapter 26 

At early dawn let the bishop assemble tJie people, so that 
the service may be finished before the rising of tJie sun? 

When he saith the First Hymn of Praise, of the Davn, the 
presbyters and deacons and the rest, the faithful also, [standing] 
close by, let him say thus : 

I I.e. in a low voice. = Here only in Teat. 

» As in Constantinopolitan Creed. See Introduction, pp. 20. 40. 
■" Not as in St. Matt. xi. 25. or St. Luke x. 21. The reference would rather 
be to St. John xiv. 17. 

» St Matt. iv. 2;i. » St Mark xvi. 18 ; 1 Cor. xii. 9. 

' Lit. : until the sun riseth, 



I. 20] THE EUCHARIST 79 

Praise to the Lord. 
And let the people say : It is meet and right. 

HYMN OF PRAISE FOE THE DAWN 

The Ushop : It is meet and right that we should praise 
and laud and give thanks to Thee, who didst make all, 
ineffable (jod. Stretching forth ^ our souls upward, we raise 
to Thee, O Lord, a hymn of praise for the morning, — to Thee 
who art all-wise, powerful, great in mercies, God, the Con- 
firmer and Eaiser-up of our souls ; we praise Thee, the Word 
who before the worlds wast begotten of the Father, and 
restest alone with Thy saints,^ who art praised with the 
hymns of the archangels, — Thee the Maker, who wast not 
made with hands, and who makest known holy things 
which are invisible, pure, and spotless, — Thee who hast made 
known to us the hidden mysteries ^ of wisdom, and didst 
promise to us immortal light ; we lift up praise to Thee in 
pure holiness, we Thy servants, Lord. 

And let the people say: We praise Thee, we bless Thee, 
we give thanks to Thee, Lord ; and we beseech Thee, 
our God. 

Also [let] the bishop say: God, the Begetter of light, 
the Principle * of life, the Giver of knowledge, the Gift of 
grace, the Maker of souls, who makest things [that are] 
beautiful, the Giver of the Holy Ghost, the Treasure of 
Wisdom, and the Maker of good things, the Lord, the Teacher 
of holiness, who rulest ^ the worlds by Thy will, the Eeceiver 
of pure prayers ; we praise Thee, the Only-begotten Son, the 
JFirst-bom and Word of the Father, who didst bestow all Thy 

' B. : having stretoted forth. 

" Or : delightest alone in. Of. Ps. iv. 3 and xvi. 3 ; and, by contrast, the 
Morning Psalm, v. 4. 

3 Cf. 1 Cor. il. 6, 7. ^ Lit. : head, or beginning. 

' Lit. : holdest. 



80 TESTAMENT OF OUR LORD [l. 26 

grace on us who call upon Thee, the Helper, and upon the 
Father who begat Thee ; who hast an essence that cannot be 
injured, where neither moth nor worm ^ doth corrupt ^ ; who 
givest to all that with all their heart trust in Thee those 
things which the angels have desired to behold ; * who art the 
Guardian of light eternal and [of] treasures incorruptible ; who 
hast by the will of Thy Father shed light on the darkness 
which [is] in us ; who from the depth hast raised us up to 
Kght ; who hast given us life out of * death, and bestowed 
upon us freedom out of * slavery ; who by the cross hast made 
us of the household of ^ Thy Father, and by Thy gospel hast 
guided us to the heights of heaven, and hast comforted us by 
Thy prophets ; who in Thine own Person hast made us of 
the household of ^ God the Father of lights * ; grant us, 
Lord, that we may praise Thee, our God, so that always with 
unceasing thanksgiving''' we may speak praises to Thee, we 
Thy servants, Lord. 

The people : We praise Thee, we bless Thee, we give 
thanks to Thee, we beseech Thee, our God. 

Let the bishop also say: We sing to Thee with our 
mouths this triple hymn of praise as a figure of Thy kingdom, 
Son of God, who [art] by ^ eternity; who [art] above all, with 
the Father ; whom all creation praiseth, trembling with fear 
of Thy Spirit; at whom all nature trembleth in fear and 
[whom] every soul of the righteous blesseth; with whom 
all we have taken refuge ; who hast made confusion, storms, 
[and] wind to cease from us ; who hast been to us an haven 
of rest,* and a place to flee unto from corruption ; in whom 
we have hope of eternal salvation ; who makest the peace- 
fulness of fine weather lo for those who are buffeted on the 
seas and with the tempests ; who in sicknesses ^^ art 

1 Not rust. See Thes. Syr. 180. 2 St. Matt. vi. 19, almost exactly. 

' 1 St. Pet. i. 12. <■ Lit. : from. » Or : brought us home to. 

« St. Jas. i. 17. ' B.: thanksgivings. 

' Or : through (the preposition is causal, not temporal). 

« Lit. : rests. i» Of. Ps. cvii. 29 sqq. " B. : sickness. 



I. 26] THE EDCHARTST 8 1 

entreated and healest without price ; who art with those that 
are shut up in prison ; who hast loosed us from the bonds of 
death ; [who art] the Comforter of the poor, and of those who 
mourn, and of those who have laboured and wearied them- 
selves with the cross ; who turnest away from us every 
menace ^ ; who for us hast reproved the craft of Satan ; who 
drivest away his menaces,^ and givest us courage ; who 
thrustesb away all error from those that trust in Thee ; whom 
the prophets and apostles praised secretly : we praise Thee, 
Lord, we lift up to Thee a doxology, so that, having known 
Thee, we may rest in the habitations of life, doing Thy will 
alway. And grant to us, Lord, to walk according to Thy 
commandments, and in mercy visit us all, both small and 
great, the prince and his people, the shepherd and his flock ; 
for Thou, Lord, art our God, and blessed and praised [is] 
Thy kingdom — [the kingdom] of the Father, and of the Son, 
and of the Holy Ghost, both before the worlds, and now and 
always, and for the ages, and for ever and ever without end. 

And let the people say : Amen. 

Let them sing psalms and four hymns of praise ; one ^ hy 
Moses, and of Solomon, and of the other prophets. Thus : little 
singing-hoys * ; two virgins ^ ; three deacons ; three presbyters. 
And so let the hymn of praise he said hy the bishop, or hy one 
of the presbyters. 

Let it he said thus : The grace of our Lord [be] with you all. 

And let the people say : And with thy spirit. 

And let the priest say : Also let us praise our Lord. 

' Or : assault. ^ Or : assaults. 

^ In M. this (rightly) refers to the hymns ; in B., to the Psalms. 
* Or : little psalm-singing boys ; lit. : psalm -singers, little boys ; or : singers, 
little boys. 

^ Masculine, as above, p. 76. 

6 



82 ^ TESTAMENT OF OUE LORD [l. 26 

And let the people say : Meetly and rightly. 

Let the priest say : Let your hearts be fixed. 

And let the people say : We have [them fixed] with the Lord. 

HYMN OF PEAISE OF THE SEAL ^ 

Lord, the Father, the Giver of light, the Author of all 
power and of all spirits, the Sealer of eternal light, and the 
Guide of life, the Maker of felicity and immortality, who hast 
made us to pass through material darkness, and hast bestowed 
upon us 2 immaterial light ; who hast loosed the bonds of dis- 
obedience and crowned us with the faith which is Thine ; who 
dost not keep far off from Thy servants, but art in them 
always ; who dost not neglect those [souls] which with labour 
and in Thy fear beseech Thee ; who knowest all things before 
they are thought,^ and searchest out all things before they are 
considered,* and givest what Thou wilt give ^ before we ask 
Thee ^ ; who art well pleased to hear ^ those who with heart 
undoubting serve Thee, King of the highest lights and the 
soldiery^ of heaven, who hearest the archangels when they 
praise Thee,^ and art pleased in them ; Answer us, Lord, we 
beseech Thee. Grant us with boldness [with] unceasing voice 
to praise Thee, to laud Thee, to lift up to Thee a doxology ; 
so that being guarded by Thee and guided in light, we Thy 
servants, Lord, may constantly praise Thee. 

The people: We praise Thee, we bless Thee, we give 
thanks to Thee, Lord ; and we beseech Thee, our God. 

The priest: Lord Jesus, hear us, Holy One, who 

1 I.e. Blessing. 2 g oj„its . upojj us_ 

' Lit. : before reasoning. ■• Lit. : before thoughts. 

= Future (not "wiliest to give"). 

' This is the literal translation ; the meaning, however, may be : "who givest 
before we ask Thee to give." Of. Isa. Ixv. 24. 
' Lit. : Thou Good Will to hear. 

' Lit. : heavenly soldiers ; or : workmen ; or : servants. 
" Lit. : art the Hearer of the archangels who praise Thee. 



I. 26] THE EUCHARIST 83 

wast the Voice of the dumb and the irrational, the Strength 
of the paralysed, the Giver of light to the blind, the Guide of 
the lame, the Cleanser of the lepers, the Curer of material 
fluxes, the Healer of the deaf and dumb, the Eeprover of 
death, the Tormentor of darkness, the Eay of light, and the 
Lamp that is not quenched,^ the Sun that is not darkened ^ 
[and] resteth [not] ; but who always givest light unto * Thy 
saints ; who hast established all things together for the good 
likeness * of comeliness ; who art the well-tempered Eeason ; * 
who hast plainly given light to all ; who art the Saviour of 
the sons of men,* and the Converter of souls ; who art the 
Provider of all things as is right, the Maker of the angels, who 
adornest all ; the Thought of the Father ; who didst found 
the worlds in prudence and wisdom, and didst establish them 
together ; and wast sent from Thy eternal Father unto us ; 
the Intelligence of the Spirit who may not be apprehended or 
understood, the Maker-known of things invisible ; Thou art 
glorious, and Thy Name is Wonderful.' Therefore we also. 
Thy servants, Lord, give praise to Thee. 

The people : We praise Thee, we bless Thee, we give thanks 
to Thee, Lord ; we beseech Thee, our Lord. 

The priest : We sing, holy Lord, this threefold hymn of 
praise to Thee, who didst give us a faith in Thee which cannot 
be loosed, whereby Thou didst make us to conquer the bonds 
of death ; who didst create upright minds in ^ them that trust 
in Thee, that they might be gods " ; who by the Spirit didst 
give unto us to tread under foot all the power of the enemy ^^ 
that we ^^ may not profane those things which may not be 

1 Cf. 2 Sam. xiv. 7 and xxi. 17. 

2 Cf. Eccl. xii. 2 and Isa. Ix. 20. M. : quenched. ^ Lit. : in. 

* Perhaps ei/iopipla translated. 

^ Lit.: Eeason of well-temperedness {eiKpauia). 

* Common Syriac expression for "mankind." ^ Isa. ix. 6. 
^ Lit. : to ; or : for. 

° There is a reference perhaps to Ps. Ixxxii. 6, with our Lord's commentary 
thereon, St. John x. 34 ; or to 2 St. Pet. i. 4. 
1" Cf. St. Luke X. 19. " Or : he. 



84 TESTAMENT OF OUR LOKD [l- 26-28 

profaned ; who by Thy mediation hast made friendship for us 
with Thy Father. Answer us Thy servants, Lord, [Thou] 
whom without ceasing^ we entreat,^ who at our supplication 
givest ^ [us] power against the adversary ; whom alway we 
ask, as [it were], for the overthrow of the Evil one ; Hear us, 
King Eternal ; comfort the widows, help the orphans ; pity 
and cleanse those who are possessed with unclean spirits, give 
wisdom to the unwise * ; convert those who go astray ; deliver 
those who are in prison ; guard us all, for Thou, Lord, art 
our God ; blessed and glorious is Thy kingdom. 

The people : Amen. 

Chaptee 27 

After this let the prayer be completed, and let the reader 
then read the Prophets and the rest ; let the presbyter or 
deacon read the Gospel ; and then let the bishop or presbyter 
teach those things which are convenient and profitable. After 
that let there be a prayer, and let the catechumens receive a 
laying on of the hand. 

Chapter 28 

After that let the bishop teach the mysteries^ to the 
people. But if he be not present,* let a '' presbyter speak so 
that the faithful may know to whom they are approaching 
and who is their ^ God and Father. Then let the teaching * 
of the mysteries be said thus : 

[MYSTAGOGIA ok] initiation 9 INTO THE MYSTERIES WHICH 
IS SAID BEFORE THE OFFERING TO THE FAITHFUL 

[We confess] Him who is pre-existent,^* and was present, 

'Lit.: remission; or: neglect. ^lAt.: persuade. 

2 The text has " gavest"— a mistake occasioned by the misplacing of a point. 
■* B. : unwise [things] ; or : unwise [women]. 
'' Lit. : the things of the mysteries. 6 Lit. : near. 

''Ov.Vne. 8 Lit.: to them. 

•■> These are different words in the Syriac ; the latter is exactly ^mrayuyyia 
translated into Syriac. 

1" Or : wont before ; or : was before. 



I. 28] MYSTAGOGIA 85 

and is, and cometh ^ ; who suffered and was buried,^ and rose, 
and was glorified by the Father ; who loosed our cords from 
death, who rose from the dead ; who is not only Man * but 
therewith also God; who by the Holy Ghost restored the 
flesh of Adam with [his] soul to immortality, because He 
preserved * Adam by the Spirit ^ ; who clothed Himself with 
dead ^ Adam and made him to live ; who ascended into heaven ; 
under whom, after the cross,'' Death fell, and^ was conquered, 
when its bonds, whereby the Devil sometimes ^ waxed strong 
and prevailed against us, were dissolved ; [and] through whose 
passion [Death] was manifested useless and weak when [Jesus] 
cut his cords and his power, when his snares were cut, and He 
struck him on his face,^" [even Death] who was filled with dark- 
ness and was shaken, and feared, beholding the Only-begotten 
Son ; who in His [human] soul ^^ descended in the Godhead 
into Sheol ^^ ; who descended from the pure heights above the 
heavens; Him [we confess] the indivisible Thought who is 
from the Father, and [is] of one will with Him^^; Him the 
Maker, with His Father, of heaven ; who is the Angels' Crown, 
the Archangels' Strength, the Eaiment of the Hosts and the 
Spirit of the Dominions; Him, the Euler of the everlasting 
Kingdom, and Prince of the Saints, the unfathomable Intelli- 
gence of the Father; Him who is the Wisdom, the Power, 
the Lord, the Thought, Intelligence, Hand, Arm^* of the 
Father." 

As we believe, we confess Him who is our Light, Salva- 
tion, Saviour, Protector, Helper, Teacher, Deliverer, Kewarder, 
Assister, Strength, Wall ; our Shepherd, Entrance, Door, Way, 

' Rev. i. 8. ^ Cf. Constantinopolitan Creed (cf. p. 110). 

^ Lit. : Son of Man. ^ Or : in order that He might preserve. 

' This seems the best rendering, but other translations might be given, "in 
spirit" or "in the spirit." 

* Rahmani renders : "qui Adam jam mortuum induit," but his "jam" is 
not in the Syriac. 

' I.e. the crucifixion. * M. omits : and. ' Or : once. 

'" Trpda-airov transliterated ; not the usual word. ^' See Note, p. 184. 

'2 Gr. Hades : the "Hell" of the English version of the Apostles' Creed. 
" Lit. : the Equality in His will. " Of. Isa. li. 9, liii. 1 . 

'' In the Syriac all the above is one sentence, depending on the "we con- 
fess " of the next paragraph. 



86 TESTAMENT OF OUR LORD [l- 28 

Life, Medicine, Provision, Drink, [and] Judge. We confess 
Him passible [yet] nob passible. Son ^ [yet] not created,^ dead 
[yet] alive, the Son of the Father, incomprehensible [yet] com- 
prehensible ; who, [Himself] sinless, hath borne ^ our sins 
when He left the Father's heaven ; whose Body being broken 
becometh our salvation, and [His] Blood and Spirit [our] life 
and holiness, and the water ^ our cleansing ; who giveth light * 
to the hearts of those who fear Him, being with them in all 
things ; who hath made us strangers to the whole way of the 
Devil ; the Eenewer of souls, in whom we all have put our 
trust. 

He, being God, and before the worlds with ^ the Father, 
eternal God,* when He saw the world perishing in the bonds 
of sin, and trodden down by the power of a crafty wild beast, 
and made subject to death through ignorance and error, deter- 
mining to heal the race of mankind, came to a virgin womb, 
though hidden from all the camps of the heavenly ones, and 
east into ignorance [the] opposing hosts. But when [He], the 
Incorruptible, clothed Himself with corruptible flesh, making 
flesh which was under death to be incorruptible, He thus 
showed in the flesh of dead Adam, wherewith He clothed 
Himself, an example ^ of incorruptibility, by which example ' 
the things of corruption were abolished. 

He delivered indeed holy commandments through the 
Gospel, which is the fore-proclaiming of the kingdom ; by 
which Gospel as^ a figure of the kingdom we learned to 
live^; through which Gospel the bonds of the Devil have 
been cut, so that we may attain i" immortality instead of ^^ 
death, and instead of ^^ ignorance may receive [the grace] of 
watchfulness. 

He, then, having become Man,^^ ^jjg Qqq ^f q^^^ ^jjg Lqj,^^ 
who took [on Him] the dead race of Adam in all its kinds.^^ 
by emptying [Himself ^*], He who is the First, came to birth, 

' Paronomasia. " Or ; taken away. 

■* So Rahmani conjectures (see Note, p. 184). 
" These words seem to refer to our Lord. 
* B. omits : as. 

'" iinTvxSinev, " Lit. : from. 

'« Lit.: by kinds. See Note, p. 185. " Phil. ii. 7 (same root). 



= &., 


from His side. 


"■ Sic. 


, not (as Rahmani) ex. 


'Or: 


type. 


"Or: 


to live as a figure, etc. 


12 Or; 


Son of Man. 



I. 28] MYSTAGOGIA 87 

as Man,^ though He is God ; He who was foreknown by the 
prophets,^ and preached by the apostles, and lauded by angels, 
and glorified by the Father of all.* He was crucified for us ; 
and His cross is our life, our strength, [our] salvation, for it 
is the hidden mystery,* the ineffable joy, and through it the 
whole nature of mankind,^ always bearing it, is made insepar- 
able from God, for it is the virtue ^ benign ^ and inseparable ^ 
from God, that cannot be spoken as is meet by these lips, 
[and] that was hidden from the beginning ; but now the 
mystery which is revealed, which is for the faithful, shall be, 
not as it seemeth to be, but as it is. 

This cross in which we boast, so that we may be glori- 
fied, [and] the bearers whereof, the faithful and perfect, 
separate their souls from everything that can be felt, from 
everything that is seen, as from a thing which is not true,^ 
— by this ask for yourselves, ye who quit you like men ^° ; 
make deaf your visible ears ^^ ; make blind your bodily ^^ eyes ; 
so that ye may know the will of Christ and all the mystery 
of your salvation. Holy men ^^ and women, whose property 
it is to make your boast in the Lord, listen to the inward 
man.i* 

Our Lord, when He taught us and appointed to us a 
covenant, and made us of [His] household, and came, after 
His passion,^* into Sheol, made captive all the earth — He who 
made the nature of death captive to life, and Death when it 
saw Him descending in His souP^ to Sheol, was deceived, and 
hoped that He was food for him, as was his custom. But 
when he saw in Him the beauty of the Godhead, he cried out 
with [his] voice, saying : Who is this that hath clothed 
Himself with Man i* who [was] under me, and hath conquered 

' Or : Son of Man. " Of. Rom. xvi. 25, 26. 

3 The allusion is clear to 1 Tim. iii. 16. « Cf. 1 Cor. ii. 7. 

° Lit. : sons of men. " Or : excellence. 

' Or : pitiful. ' Lit. : cannot be separated. 

* The paragraph here in Bahmani's text seems wrong. 
" 1 Cor. xvi. 13. (1 Sam. iv. 9 is different.) 

"Lit.: hearings. '^Lit. : open; or: revealed. 

12 Viri. " Homo ; lit. : Son of Man. " Lit. : after He suffered. 

1* Lit. : endowed with a (human) soul ; as above. 



88 TESTAMENT OF OUE LORD [l- 28 

me ? Who is this that snatcheth from destruction flesh 
which was bound by me ? Who is this ^ that hath clothed 
Himself with earth but [Himself] is heaven ? Who is this 
that was born in corruptibility, but suffereth no corruption ^ ? 
Who is this [that is] a stranger to my laws ? Who is this 
that maketh captive those that are mine ? Who is this that 
striveth with the power of burning Death,^ and conquereth 
darkness ? What is this new glory which [is] in this vision 
that preventeth me from doing the things which I would ? 
Who is this new dead One without sin ? Who is this that 
by the abundance of light extinguisheth darkness, and doth 
not allow* me to have rule over those that are mine, but 
draweth to heaven the souls which were given unto me ? 
What is this glory which preventeth the body from being 
corruptible ? Who is this whom I cannot touch * ? What is 
this glory unsearchable " to its surroundings ? Woe ^ is me ! I 
am put to flight ^ by Him and by those things which are His, 
for I cannot ' injure them. 

He, being the Christ, who was crucified, by whom the 
[things] that were on the left hand were i" [placed] on the 
right hand, and those which were beneath [were] as those which 
[were] above, and those which [were] behind as those which 
[were] before, when He rose from the dead, and trod down 
Sheol, and by death slew Death ^^ ; after ^^ He rose on the third 
day He gave thanks to the Father, saying : I give thanks to 
Thee, My Father, not with these lips which are fixed 
together, nor yet with a corporeal tongue through which truth 
and lying ^^ go out, nor with this created and material 
word 1* ; but I give thanks to Thee, the King, with that Voice 
which through Thee understandeth all [things], which cometh 
not by a bodily organ, which falleth not on carnal ears, which 

1 B. omita : this. ^ cf. Acts xiii. 37. ' Lit. : the flame of Death. 

■•Lit.: give. "^ Lit. : handle. " dcefix"'"'^"' t''anslated. 

' Rahmani's paragi'aph seems to be wrong. 

8 Or : I have fled from Him. » Lit. : I have nothing whereby to. 

■"> Lit. : became. " Heb. ii. 14. 

'2 B. : He who lefore. M. and Arab. Didascalia as text. 
" Cf. St. Jas. iii. 10. 
" Lit. : worrl (or speech) which goeth out of workmanship, thus material. 



I. 28] MYSTAGOGIA • 89 

is not in the world and is not left on earth, but with this 
Voice, the Spirit who^ is in Us, only spealdng to Thee, 
Father, loving Thee, praising Thee, through whom^ also the 
whole choir of perfect saints calleth Thee beloved, [calleth] 
Thee Father,^ [caUeth] Thee Sustainer, [calleth] Thee Helper ; 
for Thou art all, and all [are] in Thee ; for whatever is, is 
Thine and not another's, but is Thine alone, who art for ever 
and ever. Amen; 

Let the shepherd know the mysteries ^ of all * nature. 
After I have prayed to the Father, as ye know and see, 
I am taken up, saith Jesus. 

Therefore it is right that the shepherd should speak 
the teaching of the Initiation into the mysteries,* so that 
they may laiow of whom in the holy things they are par- 
taking, and what ^ memorial they are makiag "^ through the 
Eucharist.* 

Arid at the end, after this, let Mm say thus: As then 
we also have taken refuge in Him, and have learnt that it is 
in Him alone to give, let us beg from Him those things which 
He said that He would give ^ us, which eye hath not seen and 
ear hath not heard, and [which] have not entered ^'^ into the 
heart of man,i^ the things which God hath prepared for them 
that love Him,^^ as Moses ^^ and some of the saints have said. 
As then we have hoped in Him, let us give to Him praise ; 
and to Him be glory and might for ever and ever. Amen. 

Let the people say : Amen. 

' Masculine ; therefore it means the Holy Ghost. 

^ There is a reference to Kom. viii. 15 ; Gal. iv. 6. 

^ B. : mystery. ^ Or : every. 

° See p. 84, footnote. ° Or : whose ; or : of what. 

' Or : offering. * eixapiarla transliterated. 

" Lit. : giveth. ^'' Lit. : gone up. '' Lit. : a son of man. 

^^ 1 Cor. ii. 9 (almost exactly) ; not as in Isa. Ixiv. 4. 

'' The reference is perhaps to Deut. xxix. 4 ; hut it is more probably a 
blunder. 



90 TESTAMENT OF OUR LORD [l- 28-30 

After the people are taught the Initiation ^ into the 
mysteries, let the Eucharist be offered; but let not the 
Initiation into the mysteries be said each time, but only at 
Pascha,2 on Saturday, and on the first day of the week, and 
on the days of the Epiphany and of Pentecost. 



Chapter 29 

of what soet a presbyter ought to be 

Let a presbyter be ordained,^ being testified to by all the 
people, according to what has been said before * ; skilled in 
reading, meek, poor,^ not money-loving,^ having laboured 
much in ministrations among the weak, proved to be pure, 
without blame ; if he have been as a father to the orphans, if 
he have ministered to the poor ; if he have not grown cold 
[in his love] for the Church '' ; if * in all things he be pious, 
quiet, so that being [thus] he may in all respects be worthy 
to have "those things that are fitting and suitable revealed to 
him by God, and also may be counted wortjiy of the gift of 
healing. 

Chapter 30 

TJien let the appointment " of the presbyter he thus. All the 
priestly company conducting him, the bisJiop laying his hand on 
his head, the presbyters touching him and holding him, let the 
bishop begin, and say thus: 

' See at the beginning of this chapter, p. 84, footnote. 

^ irdcTx"- transliterated. So always. 

^ XeipoTovriBdi transliterated from accusative singular (?), but the termination 
is misprinted in Rahmani's Syriac text. 

■* Copto-arab. adds : in the chapter about the appointment of the bishop. 

'' Copto-arab. : a lover of the poor. 

» i.tt>i.\6.j>yvpos. See I. 20. 

' B. : if he have not neglected (or left uncultivated) the Church ; Copto- 
arab. : diligently frequenting the church. 

8 Lit. ; that. 

" The Greek word underlying this would be KaT&aTaais. So often. See 
Note on L 20, p. 153. 



I. 30] PRESBYTERS 91 



PRAYER OF ORDINATION ^ OF A PRESBYTER 

God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the In- 
effable One, the Light,^ who hast neither beginning nor ending,^ 
the Lord, who hast ordered* all things, and set bounds to 
[them ^], and by reason hast defined the order of all things by 
Thee created ; Hear us, and look upon this Thy servant, and 
make him partaker of, and grant unto him, the Spirit ^ of 
grace and of reason and of strength, the Spirit^ of the 
presbyterate ^ who doth not grow old,^ and is indissoluble, 
homogeneous,* loving the faithful, rebuking, that he may help 
and govern Thy people by labour, by fear, by a pure heart, 
by holiness, by excellency, by wisdom, and by the working of 
the Holy Spirit, through Thy care, Lord. In like manner 
as when Thou didst look upon Thy People, the Chosen, Thou 
didst command Moses* to ask for the elders.^" and filling 
[them] with Thy Spirit didst bestow Him on Thy minister,ii 
so now, Lord, bestow ^^ on [this man] abundantly '^ Thy 
Spirit, whom Thou didst give to those who by Thyself were 
made disciples, and to all those who through them truly 
believed in Thee.^* And make him worthy, being filled with 
Thy wisdom and Thy hidden mysteries, to feed ^^ Thy people 
in holiness of heart : pure, and true ; praising, blessing, laud- 
ing, giving thanks, offering a doxology alway, day and night, 
to Thy holy and glorious Name ; labouring with cheerfulness 
and patience to be a vessel of Thy Holy Spirit ; having and 
bearing alway the cross of Thy Only-begotten Son, our Lord 
Jesus Christ, through whom [be] praise and might to Thee 
with the Holy Ghost for ever and ever. 

' XeipoTovta transliterated. ^ Or : the Shining One. 

^ Heb. vii. 3 ; Rev. xxi. 6, xxii. 13. " I.e. set in order. 

° Lit. : placed [them] in a boundary. 

^ Masculine, and therefore the Holy Spirit ("Spirit" is otherwise feminine 
in Syriac). 

' Paronomasia. See Note, p. 188. ' biioyevfi^ translated. 

" Num. xi. 17-29. " Or : presbyters. 

" Moses. See Note, p. 187. '^ M. : Thou hast bestowed. 

'' Lit. : without lack. 

" St. John xvii. 20. For the confusion of Persons, see p. 20. 
"Lit.: to! 



92 TESTAMENT OF OUR LORD [l- 30, 31 

Let the people say : Amen. 

Let loth the priests and people give him the Peace, with an 
lioly lass} 

Chapter 31 

After he is [ordained] let him be constant at the altar, 
making prayers laboriously without ceasing. But sometimes 
alone in some house let him take a rest from the things 
which belong to ^ the house of the Lord ; but not ceasing, or 
diminishing [one] hour, from prayers. 

Let him fast three days each [week ?] all the year, [on 
the] one [hand] that he may be perfected in intelligence ; and 
moreover [let him fast] according to his strength, not wander- 
ing about and going hither and thither with every spirit, but 
doing everything with energy. 

If it be revealed to a presbyter or bishop to speak, let 
him speak ; but if not, let him not neglect and despise his 
work. 

If it be revealed to a presbyter to visit his parishes,^ and 
speak the word, let him go ; but if not, let him entreat God * 
with supplication ; and if it be revealed to him to speak to 
them, let him speak to them, always taking the burden and 
load of Him who was crucified for him, and praying for all 
the people. 

Let not a presbyter or bishop be anxious about food or 
raiment.^ God taketh thought and careth for His own in 
the [things^] which He knoweth. But if, when he receiveth 
from any one food or clothing,'' it be said to him that he 
should receive also from another, let it suffice him to receive 
from [the first] alone, and that [only] in so far as is fitting, 
and as he needeth, and not to excess. 

In respect of firmness of faith, let a presbyter always be 
unchangeable ; for it is such as these that God desireth ; 

^ Rom. xvi. 16, etc. ^ Are in. " TapoiKlax translated. 

B. omits : God. " Allusion to St. Matt. vi. 25 ff. 

Or : [ways]. " Lit. : a covering. 



I. 31] PRESBYTERS 93 

and let him prove the heart of each one ; lest evil/ kept 
and buried within, make him a stranger to the grace 
of God. 

Let him not allow tares to grow in the good wheat, but 
let him take them away from it, and cut off, those who bring 
[them] into it. Let not darkness cover his light. Let him 
teach all the faithful at all times that they accomplish their 
course, as it were, in the day ^ ; because the children of light 
walk not in darkness.^ Let the teaching of the presbyter 
be fitting, and quiet and moderate, coupled * with fear and 
trembling ; and that of the bishop also in like manner. And 
in teaching let them not speak vain things ; but let him say 
such things as the hearers when they hear may keep [in 
memory]. Let the presbyter be mindful of all the things that 
he teacheth. For in the day of the Lord the Word, it will be * 
demanded [of him] that he should testify to the people the 
things which he spake, so that those who did not hear^ may 
be reproved. For he must'' stand before the glory of God,^ 
speaking those things which he hath taught. Thus, then, 
let him teach,* that he perish not. Let him pray for those 
who hear, that the Lord may give them understanding of the 
Spirit, of knowledge, of truth ; and let him not vainly cast 
pearls before swine ^^ ; but let him search out [those] who are 
worthy, those who have heard and have performed ^^ ; lest 
if the Word have not brought forth fruit in them, but have 
perished, he himself should prove the cause ^^ of its perishing. 
Let him not give the holy things to dogs.^" Let him discern 
the signs of those who hear the word and bring forth good 
fruits. But in all things let him, without anxiety, keep [the 
matter] for the bishop. 

Let him not neglect nor despise those who do good works ^^ 

' So Eahmani conjectures ; M.B.: "in evil." 

2 Rom. xiii. 13. " St. John viii. 12. 

* Lit. : mingled. ^ Lit. : is. 

° Or : paid no attention. ' Lit. : is about to. 

' Rom. xiv. 10 ; 2 Cor. v. 10. " B. omits these five words. 

" St. Matt. vii. 6. " Lit.: done. 
" Lit. : he give the reason {or word) of its perishing. 
'' B. omits : those . . . works. 



94 TESTAMENT OF OUR LORD [l. 31 

through teaching.! But let him watch for signs in them; 
[and] of those [signs appearing] in them let him judge 
spiritually^ by [their] sighs, weeping, earnest conversations, 
silence, sadness, patience, humble bowing of the head.* But 
that which best traineth and causeth suffering is weeping 
and groaning. 

But the work [these do] is watching, continence, fasting, 
quietness, unceasing prayer, meditation, faith, meekness, 
philanthropy,* labour, weariness, love, subjection, goodness, 
gravity, and every [work of] light.* 

[On the other hand], the signs of those who do not bring 
forth the fruits of life are [these] : — sloth, love of pleasure, 
eyes wandering in all directions, disobedience, complaining, 
restlessness,^ a laziness'' that will not move,® wandering 
about. 

But the work [these do] is gluttony, debauchery, anger, 
unbelief, idle and unseasonable laughter, confusion, neglect, 
error, disturbance, wantonness, love of gains, love of money, 
envy, contention, drunkenness, high-mindedness,^ vain talking, 
love of praise, and every [work of] darkness. ^^ 

Let him recognise products such as these, and let him 
speak to those who are worthy. But let him not waste time ^^ 
upon those who do not receive [his teaching]. For those 
who sow on earth without fruits shall reap miseries. 

Let 1^ the presbyter, as is right and fitting, go about to the 
houses of those who are sick with the deacon, and visit 
them ; let him consider and say to them those things that are 
fitting and proper, especially to the faithful. Let him exhort 
that the sick who are poor be helped by the Church, so that 
they also who do [deeds] of kindness may enter into the joy 

'As the Syriac is punctuated, "through teaching" qualifies "neglect or 
despise.'' 

" M. : [being] spiritual, — a reference perhaps to 1 Cor. ii. 15. 

' Lit.: asceticism (or voluntary poverty) of the head. 

* tj>CKav0po>irla translated. ^ Lit. : all light. 

"Or: fidgeting (literally, spasms). ' So Rahmani's text ; M.B. : slothful. 

8 Lit. : without moving. " Lit. : exaltation of thought {or mind). 

'" Lit. ; all darkness. " Lit. : delay. 

''^ S. resumes here with a title : — 35 [sic) That the presbyter should visit 
the sick, and especially the faithful. 



1. 31, 32] PRESBYTERS 95 

of their Lord.^ Let ^ him confirm those who have newly 
become catechumens^ with prophetical and evangelical utter- 
ances, with the word of teaching. Let him not neglect his 
prayers, for he is the figure of the archangels : but let him 
know that God did not spare the angels who sinned.* 

Let him fast ; and if it is proper, let him receive of the 
cup. Let wine suffice him, as much as, in his judgment, 
profiteth and helpeth him, lest that drink which was for [his] 
healing he receive to [his] loss. In sickness, let him eat 
herbs and fish,° and also that he may have care for his work. 
In everything let the priest be an example ^ to the faithful of 
the work of holiness.'' 

Let the presbyter praise and give thanks in the same way 
as the bishop. 

Chapter 32 

Let them say the daily hymn of praise in the Church, each 
of them at his own time, thus : 

DAILY HYMN OF PKAISE 

The grace of our Lord [be] with you all. 

The people : And with thy spirit. 

The priest : Praise ye the Lord. 

The people : It is meet and right. 

The priest : Thee, Father of incorruptibility. Deliverer 
of our souls, Confirmer of the thoughts, and Guardian of our 
hearts, who hast illumined our hearts and hast brought to an 
end the darkness of our intelhgence, by the knowledge which 
is in Thee ; who hast by the cross of Thy Only - begotten 
brought back anew* to incorruptibility the old man^ which 
was given over to corruption ^° ; who hast brought error to an 

1 St. Matt. XXV. 21. 

^ S. : 36. Also how a presbyter ought to conduct himself, and how he 
should teach and not neglect his prayers. 
^ M. B. : become disciplined. 

■* 2 St. Pet. ii. 4 (usual printed version) almost exactly. 
' Plural ; S. : a fish. « Lit. : type. ' Here S. breaks off. 

' Lit.: renewed again. * Lit.: sou of man. '" Eph. iv. 22. 



96 TESTAMENT OF OUE LORD [l. 32 

end, and by Thy commandments hast made man ^ to pass to 
immortality ; who didst seek that which was lost, we [Thy] 
servants [and] also [Thy] people praise. 

The people : "We praise Thee, and the rest. 

The priest : We praise Thee, Lord, whom continually 
the unceasing doxologies of the Archangels singing praise, 
and the hymns of praise ^ of Glories,^ and chants of Dominions 
praise. We praise Thee, Lord, who didst send Thy Thought, 
Thy Word, Thy Wisdom, Thy Energy,^ [namely] Him who 
[is] of old, and was with Thee before the worlds, the uncreated 
Word of the Uncreated one, but appeared, incarnate, in the end 
of times, for the salvation of created * man,^ Thy beloved Son 
Jesus Christ, who made us free from the yoke of slavery. 
Therefore we also, as we are accustomed, [we] Thy servants, 
Lord [and] also [thy] people, praise Thee. 

Tlie people : We praise Thee, and the rest. 

The priest : We sing to Thee a triple hymn of praise from 
our hearts, Lord who givest life, to Thee who dost visit 
the souls of the poor, and neglectest not the spirits of those 
who are afflicted, the Assister of those who are persecuted, 
the Helper of those who are tossed on the sea, the Deliverer 
of those who are buffeted, the Provider for those who are 
hungry, who takest vengeance for those who are wronged, 
the Lover of the faithful, the Companion of the saints, 
the Habitation of the pure, the Dwelling-place of those 
who call on Thee in truth, the Protector of widows, the 
Liberator of orphans, who givest to Thy Church a right 
government, and hast founded^ in it love-feasts, ministra- 
tions, receptions ' of the faithful, the partaking of the Spirit, 
gifts of grace and powers. We praise Thee ; we cease not 
alway in our hearts picturing the image of^ Thy kingdom 
in ourselves, for Thy sake [and] also [for the sake] of Thy 
beloved Son Jesus Christ, by whom [be] praise and might to 
Thee with the Holy Ghost, for ever and ever. Amen. 
And let the people say : Amen. 

' Lit. : son of man. ^ Same root. ' Or : Action. 

'' Lit. : made. ° Lit. : sons of men. " Lit. : planted. 

' I.e. feasts. ° I.e. prefiguring. 



I. 32-34] DEACONS 97 

But if also any one saith prophetical words, let him say 
[them] ; he hath a reward. 

But at midnight let the sons of priestly service, and those 
of the people who are more perfect, give praise by themselves. 
For also in that hour our Lord, rising, praised His Father. 

See, Children ^ of the light ; he who believeth the words 
of the Lord, walketh as He walked in this world, that where 
He is, there he may be also. 

Chapter 33 ^ 
of deacons 

The deacon is appointed,^ chosen like the things which 
have before been spoken of. If he be of good conduct,* if 
he be ® pure, if he have been chosen for purity and for ab- 
stinence from distractions ^ ; if not, yet [if he] be the husband 
of one wife,' borne ^ witness to by all the faithful, not en- 
tangled* in the businesses of the world, not knowing a 
handicraft, without riches, without children.^ But if he be 
married ^° or ^^ have children,^ let his children ^ be taught to 
work piety ^^ and to be pure, so that they may be approved 
by the Church.^^ according to the rule of the ministry. But 
let the Church take care for them, so that they may per- 
severe in the law and in the work of the ministry. 

Chapter 34 " 

But let him accomplish in the Church those things which 
are right. Let [his] ministry be thus. First, let him do 

1 Or ; Sons. 

" S. resumes here with the words : 37. Of the deacon. 

' S. : let the deacon be appointed. For the word, see p. 90. 

* ei^loTos or (Lagarde) efirpoiros translated. 

' M. omits : he be. * Or : enticements. 

' Lit. : of (or from) the marriage of one wife. Of. 1 Tim. iii. 12. 

' S. : and borne. ^ S. [Lagarde] : disturbed by. 

i» Lit. : if he be from (of) a wife. " S. : and if he. 

'^ So S. ; M. B. : work fear well (error). 
'^ M.B. : as they are who are approved, etc. 
" S. carries this on as a part of the preceding chapter. 

7 



98 TESTAMENT OF OUR LORD [l- 34 

only those things which are commanded by the bishop as for 
proclamation ^ ; and let him be the counsellor of the whole 
clergy,^ and the mystery * of the Church ; who ministereth 
to the sick, who ministereth to the strangers, who helpeth 
the widows, who is the father of the orphans, who goeth 
about all the houses of ' those that are in need, lest any be 
in affliction or sickness or misery. Let him go about in the 
houses of the catechumens, so that he may confirm those 
who are doubting and teach those who are unlearned.* 

Let him clothe those men * who have departed," adorning 
[them] ; burying '' the strangers ; guiding those who pass 
from their dwelling, or go into captivity. For the help ^ of 
those who are in need let him notify the Church ; let him 
not trouble the bishop ; but only on the first day of the week 
let him make mention about everything, so that he may 
know. 

Let him be watchful at the hour of the assembly, going 
about in the church, and let him see that no one be [there 
who is] proud, or ^ a buffoon, or a spy,^'' or one who speaketh 
idle [words]. Let him rebuke [such], every one seeing and 
hearing, and let him thrust out him whom he hath con- 
demned ^^ to receive punishment, so that the others also may 
fear.^^ And if [the offender] persuade him to permit him to 
partake, let him give ^^ him comfort. But if the man persist 
in his transgression 1* or disorderliness, let him take [word] 
about him up to the bishop, and let him be separated seven 
days, and then called ; so that he be not taken captive.^*" 
But if when he cometh he still continue and persist in his 
folly, let him be cut off until he, repenting truly, come to 
himself, beseeching [to be received back]. 

If he be in a city on the seashore, let him go quickly ^^ 

» S. : patience (error). See Note, p. 190. = KXrjpos transliterated. 

' Or ; sacrament. '' ISiurai, transliterated. ' Viros. 

' Lit. : finished ; S. (margin, first liand) : dead. 

' Lagarde reads QRR (when it is cold) for QBH (burying). 

* So S.; M.B. have : memorial {or, remembrance). 

" S. : and. " S. : a disturber. » S. : who is guilty. 

" Lit. : obtain fear. '' Lit. : make. " Lit. : fall. 

" Sc. by the Devil ? " S. omits : quickly. 



I. 34, 35] DEACONS 99 

about the places on the seashore, lest ^ there be any one 
dead in the sea ^ ; let him clothe him and bury him. Similarly 
also let him search out the guest house,^ lest there be any 
one who is staying in the place sick or in need or dead; and 
let him make [it] known to the Church, so that it may 
provide what is right for each one. Let him cause the 
palsied and infirm to bathe * as is right, so that they may 
have a breathing space from their pains.^ Let him give 
through the Church to each one what is right.^ 

In the Church let twelve presbyters, seven deacons, four- 
teen subdeacons, thirteen widows who sit in front,' be known.^ 

But of the deacons let him who is considered among them 
to be most earnest, and best in governing, be chosen to be 
the receiver of strangers. Let him alway be in the place ^ 
of the guest house which is in the church, clothed in white 
garments, a stole ^^ only on his shoulder. 



Chapter 35 

Let him be in everything as the eye of the Church, with 
fear admonishing,^^ so that he may be an example to '^ the 
people of piety Let him admonish thus : 

ADMONITION OF THE DEACON 

Let us arise. 

Let every one know his place. 

Let the catechumens depart. 

See [that] no one polluted, no one slothful [remain]. 

[Lift] up the eyes of your hearts. 

The angels are looking on. 

See [that] he who trusteth not, withdraw. 

' I.e. to see if. ^ See p. 42. ^ S. : guest houses. 

* Or : wash the palsied and infirm. ' Or : diseases. 

' S. here breaks off and goes on to the middle of I. 36. 
' Same words as in I. 19, p. 64. ^ I.e. recognised. 

' Lit.: house ; of. I. 19, p. 63, a place for a baptistery? 
'" Gr. Orarium transliterated. '' Lit. : making known ; see p. 70. 

'* Lit. : a type of. 



100 TESTAMENT OF ODR LORD [J- 35 

Let UB beseech in concord.^ 

Let no fornicator, no wrathful man^ [remain]; if one 
who is a servant of evil be [here], let him withdraw. 

See, as children " of the light, let us beg [and] beseech 
our Lord and our God and our Saviour Jesus Christ. 

When the presbyter or hishop leginneth the prayer, let the 
people pray and kneel.*" 

Then let the deacon say thus : 

For ^ the peace which is from heaven let us beseech, that 
the Lord in His mercy may give us peace. 

For our faith * let us beseech, that the Lord may grant 
unto us to keep truly unto the end the faith which is in 
Him. 

For harmony and concord let us beseech, that the Lord 
may keep us together in concord of the Spirit. 

For patience let us beseech, that the Lord may bestow 
[upon us] patience unto the end in all afflictions. 

For the Apostles let us beseech, that the Lord may grant 
to us to please Him, as they also pleased Him, and may make 
us worthy of their inheritance. 

For the holy prophets let us beseech, that the Lord may 
number us with them. 

For the holy confessors let us beseech, that the Lord God 
may grant us to fulfil [our course] with the same mind [as 
they]. 

For the bishop let us beseech, that our Lord may grant 
him to us for length of days ' in faith, rightly dividing ^ the 
word of truth, and standing at the head of the Church purely 
and without blame. 

For the presbyterate let us beseech, that the Lord may 
not take away from them the spirit of the presbyterate, but 
bestow on them earnestness and piety until the end. 

For the deacons let us beseech, that the Lord may grant 

' biibvoia translated. '■= Homo. 

' Or : sons. ■• Or : genuflect. 

' Or : With reference to (so throughout). 

" Misprinted. ' Lit. : long in days. 

» Lit.: cutting. 2 Tim. ii. 15. 



I. 35] DEACONS 101 

unto them to run a perfect course, and to perfect holiness, 
and that He may remember their work and their love. 

For the presbyteresses let us beseech, that the Lord may 
hear their supplications and keep their hearts perfectly in the 
grace of the Spirit and help their work. 

For the subdeacons, readers, deaconesses let us beseech, 
that the Lord may grant to them to receive a reward in 
patience. 

For the faithful laymen let us beseech, that the Lord may 
grant unto them to keep the faith perfectly.^ 

For the catechumens let us beseech, that the Lord may 
grant unto them to be counted worthy of the laver of forgive- 
ness, and may sanctify them with the seal of holiness. 

For the kingdom let us beseech, that the Lord may 
bestow upon it tranquillity. 

For the exalted powers let us beseech, that the Lord may 
grant to them prudence and the fear of Him. 

For all the world let us beseech, that the Lord may 
provide for each one such things as are meet. 

For those who travel by sea,^ and those who go on 
journeys let us beseech, that the Lord may guide them ^ with 
the right hand of mercy. 

For those who are persecuted let us beseech, that the 
Lord may grant to them patience and knowledge, and may 
bestow on them also a completed * labour. 

For those who have fallen asleep from the Church let us 
beseech, that the Lord may bestow upon them a place of rest. 

For those who have fallen * let us beseech, that the Lord 
may not remember their follies unto them, but moderate [His] 
threats unto them. 

And let us all also, who need prayer, beseech that the 
Lord may protect and keep us with the® peaceful Spirit. 

Let us persuade and beseech the Lord, that He may 
receive our prayers. 

After the deacon commemorateth, let the hishop make a sign 
with his hand. 

' B. : perfect faith. ^ Lit. : who sail. ' B. omits : them. 

* Or : perfect. ' Lit. : are in a fall. " Or : in a. 



102 TESTAMENT OF OUR LORD [l. 35, 36 

Let the deacon say : Let us arise in the Holy Ghost, that, 
being made wise, we may grow in His grace, boasting in His 
Name ; being built on the foundation of the Apostles,^ let us 
beg [and] beseech the Lord that, being persuaded, He may 
receive our prayers. 

Tlien let the bishop complete [the prayer]. And let the 
people say : Amen. 

Chaptee 36 

Let the deacon be such as this, so that he may appear 
with fear and modesty and reverence. With regard to fervour 
of spirit,^ let him have a perfect manner of life. Let him 
observe and look at those who come into the house of the 
sanctuary. Let him investigate who they are, so that he may 
know if they are lambs or wolves. And when he asketh, let 
him bring in him that is worthy, lest, if a spy enter, the 
liberty of the Church be searched out,^ and his sin be on his 
head. 

If* any one come late to the [service of] praise,^ either 
when that of the dawn ^ is being said or when the Offering 
is being offered, whoever he be, let him remain outside, and 
let not the deacon bring him in, — for it ' is a type of the day 
of judgment ® which ' is to come, — lest by the noise of the 
entrance there be distraction to those who are praying. But 
when he cometh and findeth that the door is shut,^ let him not 
knock, because of what hath been said already. 

But after the hymn of praise which is placed first is 
finished, let the faithful man or faithful woman enter. Let 
the deacon say, either. Over the offering": or, For^" the 

' Epli. ii. 20. See p. 15. 

^ B. : because he is the shewing forth {or example) of the Spirit. Rom. 
xii. 11. 

'^ I.e. attacked. 

* Here S. resumes with the title : 49. Of those who come late to the church, 
that they enter not when the service is going on, hut be outside till it endeth. 

° S. : service. o S. : the beautiful one (transposition of a letter). 

' Or ; he. s st_ ^att. xxv. 12. 

" S. : offerings. i» Or : with regard to, as in Chap. 35. 



I. 36, 37] DEACONS 103 

hymn of praise, let us beseech that the Lord may write our 
supplication ^ in the book of life, and [that] God who 
[is] for ever may remember us in His holy habitations of 
light. For ^ [this] brother who is late, let us beseech that 
the Lord may give him earnestness and labour, and turn away 
from him every bond ^ of this world, and give him the will of 
affection and love and * hope. 

Similarly also^ for^ a sister or for^ a deaconess, for^ 
those who are ' late or remain ^ outside, let him admonish ® 
that all the people may beseech for them. For thus when 
a deacon mentioneth and admonisheth about them,!" earnest- 
ness is strengthened and the bond of love ^^ is fulfilled, and the 
despiser and the slothful is disciplined. 

Chaptek 37 

If ^^ any woman whatsoever suffer violence from a man, 
let the deacon accurately investigate if she be faithful ^^ and 
have truly suffered violence ; if ^* he who treated her with 
violence was ^^ not her lover. And if she be accurately thus, 
and if she that suffered mourn about the violence that 
happened to her, let him take it up to the hearing of the 
bishop, that she may be shewn to be in all things in com- 
munion with^^ the Church. If he who treated her with 
violence be faithful, let not the deacon bring him into the 
church for partaking,^' even if he repent. But if he be a 
catechumen and repent, let him be baptized and partake. 
Let the deacon catechise ^^ those who repent and bring them 
to the presbyters or to the bishop that they may be catechised 
and taught knowledge. But if [his] power suffice ^^ to accom- 

^ S. : supplications. ' Or : with regard to. '^ S. : all the bonds. 

* So S. ; M. B. : in. ^ S. : either. " Or : with regard to. 

' Lit. : were. ^ Lit. : remained. " Lit. : make known. 

" Masculine (i.e. both sexes). " Of. Col. iii. 14. 
"^ S. inserts title : 43. Of a woman who is treated by a man with violence. 
■" S. omits : if she be faithful. 

" S. inserts : also. '* B. : is. 
'* Lit. : daughter of the partaking of. 

" So S. ; M.B. omit : for partaking. '* Or : instruct. 
'* Eahmani conjectures : doth not suffice. 



104 TESTAMENT OF OUR LOKD [l. 37, 38 

plish perfectly the office of the diaconate, let him abide only 
in prayer ; and let him consider supplication and meditation, 
love, the ^ way, mourning, and [to have] fear before his eyes, 
as a work ; and he shall be called a son of the light. 



Chapter 38 

Let the appointment of a deacon be thus. Let the bishop 
alone lay a hand ^ on him, because he is not appointed to the 
priesthood, but for the service of attendance on the bishop 
and the Church.^ Over the deacon then, let the bishop say 
thus: 

PBAYER OF ORDINATION * OF A DEACON 

God, who didst create all things, and didst adorn [them] 
by the Word ; who dost rest ^ in the pure ages ; ® who didst 
minister to us eternal life by Thy prophets ; who didst en- 
lighten us with the light of knowledge ; God, who doest 
great things,'' and [art] the Maker of all glory ,^ Father of our 
Lord Jesus Christ,® whom Thou didst send to minister to Thy 
will,^" that all the race of mankind might be saved, and didst 
make known to us and didst reveal Thy Thought, Thy Wisdom, 
Thine Energy, Thy beloved Son, Jesus Christ, the Lord of 
light, the Prince of princes, and God of gods ; give the spirit 
of grace and earnestness to ^^ this Thy servant, that there may 
be given to him earnestness, quiet, strength, power to please 
Thee ; give him, Lord, as a worker in the law without shame, 
kind, a lover of orphans, a lover of the pious, a lover of 
widows, fervent in spirit,!^ a lover of good things ^^ ; and 

^ S. : and the way. Lagarde coujectures : the duty of the way. 
' S. : hands. 

" Here S. breaks off and goes to Chap. 46. * xeiporovla. transliterated. 

'^ Or : delightest. « Or : w6rlda. 

' Job V. 9 (as printed in the Pshitta, didst). 
8 Or : praise. » Rom. xv. 6. 

" Or: to minister Thy will (as Hauler's Verona fragments, p. 110"). 
" Lit.: in (of. Hauler vii sup., " in hunc servum tunni"). 
•'' Rom. xii. 11? (not as Pshitta). " (piMyaBos, Tit. i. 8. 



I. 38-40] CONFESSORS, WIDOWS 105 

enlighten,^ Lord, him whom Thou hast loved and chosen to 
minister to Thy Church, offering in holiness to Thy holy 
place ^ those things which are offered to Thee from the 
inheritance of Thy high priesthood ; so that ministering 
without blame and purely and holily and with a pure con- 
science, he may be counted worthy of this high and exalted 
office, by Thy good will, praising Thee continually through 
Thy Only-begotten Son Jesus Christ,^ our Lord, by whom [be] 
praise and might to Thee for ever and ever. 
TM people : Amen. 

Chapter 39 

[of confessoes] 

If [one] be borne witness to and confess that he was in 
bonds and in imprisonment and in afflictions * for the Name 
of God, a hand is not therefore laid on him for the diaconate. 
Similarly not for the presbyterate. For he hath the honour 
of the clergy,^ having been protected by the hand of God, by 
[his] confessorship. But if he be appointed bishop, he is also 
counted worthy of laying on of the hand. And [even] if he be 
a confessor who hath not been judged before the power, and 
hath not been buffeted in bonds, but only hath confessed, he 
is counted worthy of laying on of the hand. For he receiveth 
the prayer of the clergy. But let him^ not pray over him 
repeating '' all these words ; but when the shepherd advanceth,? 
he will receive the effect. 

Chapter 40 

of widows 

Let a widow be appointed,^ being chosen, if for a long 
time past she have abided without a husband ; if though often 

' M. : Thou hast enlightened. ^ Or : to Thy sanctity. 

■'' B. omits : Christ. * B. : affliction. " k\t)pos transliterated. 

* I.e. the bishop ? ' B. : again. ^ See p. 116 below. 

" Same word as above, pp. 90, 97, etc. 



106 TESTAMENT OF OUR LORD [l. 40 

pressed by men^ to be married,^ because of the faith she 
have not been married.^ But if not, it is not yet right that 
she should be chosen ; but let her be proved for a time, if she 
be pious, if having ^ children she have brought them up * in 
hoUness, if she have not taught them worldly wisdom, if she 
have made them examples of the holy law and of the Church, 
if she have loved and honoured strangers,^ if she have been 
constant in prayers," if she have lived meekly, if she have 
cheerfully aided those who are afflicted,^ if it have been re- 
vealed to the saints about her, if she have not neglected the 
saints,* if she have ministered ^ with all her power, if she be fit 
to bear and endure the burden, being one who prayeth without 
ceasing,* being perfect in all things, being fervent in spirit,' 
having the eyes of her heart ^^ opened in everything, being 
alway kind, loving innocency, not possessing anything in this 
world, but alway taking and bearing about the cross, crucify- 
ing 11 all evil, by night and by day ^^ abiding by the altar, 
working cheerfully and secretly. If she have one or two or 
three likeminded ^^ in my Name, I am among them." But let 
her be perfect in the Lord, as one who is visited by the Spirit. 
Let her do the things which are made known to her with fear 
and earnestness. Let her instruct those women who do not 
obey ; let her teach those ^^ [women] who have not learnt ; let 
her convert those who are foolish ; let her instruct them to be 
grave ^^ ; let her prove the deaconesses ; let her make those 
who enter ^^ to know of what sort and who they are ; also let 
her instruct them that they abide. To those who hear ^^ let 
her patiently counsel those things which are proper. To 
those who are disobedient after three instructions let her 
not speak. Let her love i" those who desire to be in virginity 

' homines ; lit.: sons of men. ' Lit. : for a husband. 

* Lit.: having gained, or possessed. ^ Same word as in 1 Tim. v. 10. 

" Cf. 1 Tim. V. 10. 6 B.: prayer. ' M.: heard. 

8 1 Tliess. V. 17. » Rom. xii. 11. i" Eph. i. 18. 

" Or : torturing. " See Note, p. 159. " See pp. 68, 109. 

" St. Matt, xviii. 20. The var. lect. of M. (wliich is not grammatical) is the 
Pshitta nnaltejcd. " Feminine pronouns throughout. 

'« Not 1 Tim. iii. 8, 11, or Tit. ii. 2, Pshitta. 
" Heathen enquirers. '^ Catechumens. '» Or : cherish. 



I. 40] WIDOWS 107 

or in purity ; those who oppose themselves let her correct 
modestly and quietly. With every one let her be peaceful. 
Let her privately shut the mouth of ^ those who talk much 
and idly ; but if they do not hear, let her take with her an 
aged woman, or let her take [it] up to the hearing of the 
bishop. But in the church let her be silent.^ In prayer let 
her be persistent. Let her visit those [women] who are sick ; 
on each first day of the week let her take with her one deacon 
or two and help them.* If she have any possession * let her 
give^ it for the poor^ and the faithful.'^ But if she have 
nothing, let her be helped by thd Church. Let her do no 
secular work, as it were for a trial. But let her have these 
works of the Spirit ; let her continue in prayers and fasts ; let 
her ask for nothing deep ; let her receive those things which 
the Lord giveth ; let her not be anxious for [her] children ^ ; 
let her dehver them to the Church, so that they living in the 
house of God may be fit for the service of the priesthood 
Her requests to God will be acceptable ; they are the sacrifice 
and altar of God. For those ^ who have ministered well shall 
be praised ^^ by the archangels. But as for them who are 
dissolute and raging and drunken, and babblers and curious 
and evil, that is, those who love pleasures much, the figures of 
their souls, which stand before the Father of light, perish and 
are carried to darkness to dwell. For their deeds which are 
visible, going up before the most High, drag them easily ^^ to the 
pit, so that after this world is changed and passeth away the 
figures of their souls may stand against them as witnesses, not 
allowing them to look up. For the figure and type of every 
soul standeth before God from the foundation of the world.^^ 
Therefore let her be chosen who can go to meet the holy phials. 
Of them 1* are the twelve presbyters who praise My Father who 
is in heaven. These who receive the prayers of every holy 
soul, offer [them] to the most High [as] a sweet savour. 

1 Lit. : muzzle. Cf. St. Matt, xviii. 16. = Cf. 1 Tim. ii. 12. 

' Fem. (i.e. the siclc women). * Lit. : anything of her possession. 

° Or : offer ; lit. : make. " Text : a poor man (points om. by error). 

' Plural. 8 Lit_ . so„g_ 9 Feminine. " Or : glorified. 

" Or : plainly ; or : openly. '■^ Does this illustrate St. Matt, xviii. 10? 

''Maso. (phials is fem.). Cf. Rev. v. 8. 



108 TESTAMENT OF OUR LORD [l- 41 



Chaptek 41 

Let the appointment ^ be thus. As she prayeth at the 
entrance of the altar,^ and looketh down, let the bishop say- 
quietly, so that the priests may hear, thus : 

PKAYEE OF THE INSTITUTION^ OF WIDOWS WHO SIT IN FKONT 

God, the Holy One, the Most High, who seest the 
[things] * that are humble,^ who hast chosen the weak ^ and 
the mighty ; ^ the Honoured One who hast created '' also * those 
[things] which are despised ; give, Lord, the spirit of power 
to ^ this Thine handmaid, and strengthen her with Thy truth, 
so that doing Thy commandment and serving ^^ in the house of 
Thy sanctuary, she may be an honoured vessel ^^ unto Thee, and 
may glorify ^^ [Thee] in the day ^^ when Thou wilt glorify ^^ Thy 
poor, Lord. And i* grant to her power cheerfully to accom- 
plish Thy teachings which Thou hast determined for a rule for 
Thine handmaid. Grant to her, Lord, the spirit of meek- 
ness and of power and of patience and of kindness, so that, 
bearing with ineffable joy Thy burden, she may endure labours. 
Yea, Lord God, who knowest our weakness, perfect Thine 
handmaid for the praise ^^ of Thine house ; strengthen her for 
edification and a good example,^^ sanctify [her], make [her] 
wise ; comfort [her] God ; for blessed and glorious ^' is 
Thy kingdom, God the Father. And to Thee [be] praise, 
and to Thine Only-begotten Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, 
and to the ^^ Holy Ghost [who is] good and adorable and 
the Maker of life,^" and of equal essence with Thee,^" now 

^ Same word as before, pp. 90, 97, 105. 

^ See above, I. 19 (p. 63) and Note, p. 149. B. has : east (one letter 
different ; of. conjecture on p. 149 f.). 
' M. has a letter wrong in this word. 

* Or : women (fem. pronoun). ^ Or : meek. 
" Masculine. Cf. 1 Cor. i. 27. ' B. . called. 

* B. omits : also. " Lit. : on. '" Or : working. 
" Rom. ix. 21 ; 2 Tim. ii. 21. " Or : praise. 
'^M.: Name. " B. omits: and. '"Or: glory. 
"Lit.: type. " Or : praised. '» g . Thy. 

^^ fwoTToiis translated (p. 40), ™ o/ioouVios translated. 



I. 41, 42] WIDOWS 109 

and before all the worlds and for the ages and for ever 
and ever.i 

Tlie people : Amen. 

Chapter 42 

After she is [appointed] thus,^ let her not be anxious 
about anything, but let her remain solitary and having leisure 
for supplications of piety. For the foundation of holiness 
and life for a widow such as this is solitude.^ For she hath 
loved none other but the God of gods, the Father which is in 
heaven. But at fixed * times let her give praise by herself, in 
the night [and] at dawn. If she be menstruous let her abide ^ 
in the temple and not approach the altar ,^ not that she is as 
it were polluted, but that the altar * may have honour. After- 
wards, when she fasteth and batheth, let her be assiduous [at 
the altar]. In the days of Pentecost, let her not fast. In the 
feast of Pascha, let her give of those things which she hath 
to the poor, and let her bathe, and so let her pray. But when 
she giveth thanks or praise, if she have friends ^ like-minded,^ 
virgins, it is well that they pray with her for the sake of the 
Amen. But if not, [let her pray] alone by herself, both in the 
church and in the house, especially at midnight. The times 
in which she should give praise are : Saturday,^ the first day 
of the week, either Pascha or Epiphany or Pentecost.^" At 
other time[s] let her give thanks meekly with psalms, with 
hymns of praise, with meditations ; and thus let her labour. 
For the Most High will sanctify them^^ and will forgive 
all [their] sins, those which were before written ^^ against ^^ 
them, and their error ; My Father, the Heavenly One, shall 
strengthen them and enlighten their faces i* as the faces ^* of 

' M. adds : Amen. ' B. adds : as has been said. 

' M. ; solitary (error). * Or : the appointed. 

^ B. omits : let her abide. ° I.e. the sanctuary, as I. 19. 

' Female. ^ So pp. 68, 106, above. 

» Lit. : Sabbath. '" See Note to I. 28, p. 184. 

" Fem. 

'^ Fem. verb, " sins " being masculine, probably by forgetfulness of translator 
(as another form of the word " sin " is fem.). 
13 Lit.: to. 
" irptxTairov transliterated, not the nsnal Syriac word. 



110 TESTAMENT OF OUR LORD [l. 42, 43 

My sanctuaries ; ^ they shall shine ^ in My glory in the day of 
recompense. 

Chapter 43 
Let her hymns of praise he said thus quietly : 

NIGHT HYMN OF PEAISE OF WIDOWS 

Holy, holy, without spot, who hast Thy dwelUng in the 
light, God of Abraham, and of Isaac, and of Jacob, God of 
Enoch and David, of Elijah, of EUsha, of Moses, of Joshua, 
and of the prophets and of the others who in truth preached 
Thy Name, God of the Apostles, the God who hast guided all 
things by Thy reason ^ and hast blest them who lovingly trust 
in Thee ; my soul praiseth Thee * with the power of the spirit 
of my power, my heart praiseth Thee, O Lord, and Thy might, 
alway. Let all my power praise Thee, Lord, for if Thou 
wilt, I am Thine, God, the God of the poor ; for Thou art 
the Helper of them that lack, and Thou art He that looketh 
on the meek, and the Assister of the weak ; assist me, O 
Lord, because by Thy grace ^ Thou wast well pleased in me 
that I should be Thine handmaid, for Thou hast bestowed 
upon me a great name, that I should be called a Christian. 
Thou who hast freed me from servitude that I may serve a 
servitude to God, the Mighty One who [art] for ever, who seest 
all, that I may praise Thee uncondemned. Yea, Lord God, 
confirm my heart in Thee until it is perfected in the Holy 
Ghost. Rejuvenate us for the edification of Thy holy Church, 
Son and Word and Thought of the Father, the Christ who 
camest for the salvation of the race of man,^ who didst suffer 
and wast buried, and didst rise, [and] also wast glorified by Him 
who sent Thee, turn, help, Lord, set upright our thoughts'' 
by the strong faith of the Spirit. Glorify Thy Name in us. 

' Or : holj' things. = Or : appear. = B. : reasonings. 

* B. omits this clause (blank space left). 

•' Or : in thy lovingkindness (so throughout). 

" Not in B. (space left) ; lit. : of sons of men. ' Lit. : reasonings. 



I. 43, 44] WIDOWS, SUBDEACONS 111 

For in Thy Father and in Thee and in the Holy Ghost is our 
hope for ever and ever. 

With those who are vnth her let her say : Amen. 
But let her say the hymn of praise at dawn thus : 

HYMNS OF PRAISE AT DAWN OF WIDOWS WHO SIT IN FEONT 

Eternal God, Guide of our souls. Maker of light, 
Treasure of life, who restest^ in the praises and prayers of 
the holy ones. Lover of compassion,^ merciful, kind. King of 
all, and God, our Lord, my spirit praiseth [Thee], sending 
[up] to Thee the unceasing voices of Thine handmaid, Lord, 
who beseecheth Thee that Thou mayest perfect in Thine 
handmaid the spirit of reason and of piety and of right know- 
ledge. I praise Thee, Lord, who didst take away from our 
poverty all disturbance and confusion (?), wrath and all con- 
tention and evil habit, who didst prepare [and] change the 
feeUngs of my understanding that I might serve Thee only, 
God; who hast adorned Thy holy Church with various 
ministries, who drivest away from Thine handmaid all doubt- 
fulness, fear, weakness ; and boldest the thoughts of those who 
rightly serve Thee ; I praise Thee, God, who hast enlight- 
ened me with the light of Thy knowledge, through Thine 
Only-begotten Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom [be] praise 
and might to Thee for ever and ever. Amen.^ 

And with those ivho are with her let her say: Amen. 

Chapter 44 

of subdeacons* 

Similarly let a subdeacon be appointed ^ who is chaste,® the 
bishop praying over him. Let the bishop say over him on the 
first day of the week, in the hearing of all the people, thus : 

' I.e. deUghtest. ^ 0iX^Xeos translated. 

^ B. omits : Amen. ' inroSiiKovos transliterated. 

^ Same word as before. " Or : modest. 



112 TESTAMENT OF OUR LORD [l. 44-46 

Thou, N., miniBter and hear the Gospel in the fear of 
God. Cultivate ^ holily the knowledge of thy soul ; keep pure- 
ness ; discipline thyself ; observe and obey and hear meekly ; 
neglect not prayers and^ fasts, so that the Lord may give 
thee rest and make thee worthy of a higher degree.^ 

And let all the priests say : So be it, so be it, so be it. 

Chapter 45 
of the reader 

A reader is instituted * [who is] pure, quiet, meek,* wise, 
with much experience, learned and of much learning, with 
a good memory,^ vigilant, so that he may deserve a higher 
degree.^ First let the book be given him in the sight of the 
people, on the first day of the week. But a hand is not laid 
on him. But he heareth from the bishop [the following] : 

Thou, N., whom Christ hath called to be a minister '' of 
His words, be careful, and strive that thou mayest appear 
approved^ both in this rule and in a higher degree,^ even by 
our Lord Jesus Christ ; so that He in His everlasting habita- 
tions may pay thee a good reward for these things. 

And let the priests say : So be it, so be it, so be it. 

Chapter 46 ^ 

of male and female virgins ^° 

A male or female virgin is not instituted ^^ or appointed ^^ 
by man,^^ but is voluntarily separated and i* named [a virgin]. 

^ Or: work out ; or: serve (M.: serving, etc.). 

2 B. omits : and. 

^ Or : office. Same word as in 1 Tim. iii. 13. 

* Of. I. 41, p. 108, above. = M. omits : meek. 

" Or : well remembered. ' Same word as "deacon." 

' 2 Tim. ii. 16 (not as Pshitta). 

" Here S. resumes, and numbers the chapter 52. 
'' S.B.i Of virginity ; but S. margin (later hand) has : Of monks. 
" Same word as above. i^ Same word as before. 

^' Homo. " M. omits : and. 



I. 46] VIRGINS 113 

But a hand is not laid on him, as for virginity. For this 
division^ is of [their] own free will. But it is right for 
virgins ^ that they be fixed and bound in the suffering of a 
sound body, that they be constant in fasts and in prayers, in 
weeping and in mourning daily ; but * that they alway expect 
a departure from the flesh, and strive as at * the departure. 
Let them not serve ^ raging or debauchery or drunkenness or 
vain talking, or [be engaged] in worldly work or in distrac- 
tion," but they are as one who is on ' the cross ; let their 
hearts be [lifted] up, with all meekness of thought and comeli- 
ness, with meditation on the Holy Scriptures, with faithful 
thoughts,^ with kind consolations, so that when they pray 
they may be answered ^ concerning those things which they 
ask for the faithful who wish to provide for them. Let them 
not despise ^^ [these things (?)],^^ so that through them also ^^ 
a portion of hfe may be divided to those.^^ Let them be 
confirmed in love and kindness and in true and perfect 
grace.^* Let them be constant in consolation,^® consoling their 
neighbours, catechising ^^ and teaching those who have lately 
been made faithful, in ^'' understanding and in knowledge 
and in kindness, inciting ^^ those who are very young, being ex- 
amples ^® of holiness among them in all good things. Similarly 
also let the females do. But in order and in grace ^* and in 
knowledge let them speak and work,^" that they may truly be 
the salt of the earth ^^ as it is called. But ^^ let females ^^ 
who are virgins have their heads covered in the church, and 
let them hide only their hair ; but let them be counted worthy 

' Or : class. ' Masc. ' B. omits : but. 

'' B. : expect as it were. * Or : cultivate. ' Or : enticement. 

' Lit. : in. 

*S. : thoughts, faithfulnesses (error of one letter). 

^ Lagarde conjectures (unnecessarily ?) o-xoXdfaiffi. 
'" Or : reject. 

'' Lagarde puts a stop after " ask " and goes on : Let them not despise the 
faithful who . . ., perhaps rightly. 

'^ M. B. omit : also. ^ The faithful. '^ Or : lovingkindness. 

'°M.B. : consolations. '^ Or : instructing. " S. omits : in. 

'8 S.: let them incite. "Lit.: types. 20Or: visit. 

21 St. Matt. V. 13. =2 S. omits : but. 

-' So S. ; M. : old women ; S. marg. adds : The name of male and female 
virgins in Greek are {sic) not distinguished from one another in diction. 

8 



114 TESTAMENT OP OUR LORD [l. 46, 47 

of honour from every one, in order that the rest [of the 
women] who desire, may emulate them. 

Chapter 47 ^ 

OF A GIFT 

If any one appear in the people to have a gift of healing 
or of knowledge or of tongues,^ a hand is not laid on him, 
for the work is manifest. But let them have honour. 

The First Book of Clement is ended. 
^ S. omits this chapter. ' 1 Cor. xii. 1-10. 



THE SECOND BOOK OF CLEMENT 

COMMANDMENTS AND RULES AND A DEFINI- 
TION'^ WHICH OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST 
LAID DOWN FOR THE ORDERS OF THOSE 
WHO ARE BAPTIZED^ 

Chapter 1 

of laymen thus: 

Let those who first come* to hear the Word, before they 
enter among ^ all the people, first come * to teachers ^ at 
home,' and let them be examined as to all the cause ^ [of 
their coming] with all accuracy, so that their teachers may 
know for what they have come, or with what will. And if 
they have come with a good will and love, let them be dili- 
gently taught. But let those who bring them be such as 
are well on in years, faithful who are known by the Church ; 
and let them bear witness about them, if they are able to 
hear [the word]. Also let their life and conversation be 
asked about : if they be not contentious, if quiet, if meek, 
not speaking vain things^ or despisers or foul speakers,^" or 
buffoons or leaders astray ,^^ or ridicule mongers. Also if 

' Sic, singular. Perhaps error (plural points omitted). 

^ T({f IS transliterated (so constantly). 

" Title in B. : A commandment which has in it the definition which our 
Lord Jesus Christ laid down. S. has only extracts from this book, headed : 
From the Second Book of Clement. 

* Lit. : approach. ^ Lit. : to. 

^ B. : doctrines. ' Or : to the house. 

* Or : reason ; B. : causes, ' imTaidKlr^oi, translated. 

1° alaxpoKbyoi translated. " B. omits : or leaders astray. 



116 TESTAMENT OF OUR LORD [n. 1 

any of them have a wife or not ; and if of his own free will ^ 
he have nfit [a wife], let him ^ be instructed ^ carefully and 
diligently and persuaded with all kindness to amend his 
failings. And let the bishop provide for him in the Lord 
with prophetical instructions which lead him to purity ; and 
if he maketh progress,* also with apostolic doctrines^ and 
then with Gospel [doctrines] and with the perfect word of 
doctrine ; and i£ he be worthy, let him be baptized. And if 
thus he be worthy of the hidden things, let him hear [them] 
by himself, and also make progress in that which is 
hidden. 

Let® there be no obstacle at all to him who desireth to 
marry, so that he be not caught by the Evil One with fornica- 
tion. But let him marry a Christian, a faithful [woman] of 
the race of the Christians, who is able to keep her husband 
in the faith ; at the bidding of the bishop, he thus providing 
for him. 

And also let him who cometh ^ be asked if he be a slave or 
free ^ ; and if the slave of one who is faithful, and if also his 
master permit him, let him hear. But if his master be not faith- 
ful and do not permit him, let him be persuaded to permit him. 
And if [his master] say ^ truly about him that he ^^ wisheth ^^ 
to become a Christian because he hateth his masters, let him be 
cast out. But if no cause be shewn of hatred of servitude, 
but [if] he [really] wish to be a Christian, let him hear. But 
if his master be faithful and do not bear witness to him, let 
him be cast out. Similarly if [a woman] be the wife of a 
man,i^ let the woman be taught to please her husband in tlie 
fear of God. But if both of them desire to serve ^^ purity 
in piety, they have ^* a reward. 

' As the text is puaiotuated, these go with "instructed " ; S. has "with tlie 
word of instruction " in margin (first hand). 

' Lit. : this one. ' Or : made a catechumen (so often). 

* Or : advanceth (same word as at p. 105). 

* M. : doctrine. * S. here resumes and has all the rest of §§ 1 , 2. 
' Lit. ; approacheth. * Lit. : son of the free. 

' S. inserts : accusations ; or : causes. " M. B. ; and he. 

^' S. : and sheweth that he wisheth. [There is a misprint in Eahmani's 
note.] 

" Homo. ^' Or : cultivate. " S.: shall have. 



11. 1, 2] CATECHUMENS 117 

Let him who is unmarried ^ not commit fornication, but 
let him marry in the law. But if he desire to persevere 
thus, let him abide ^ in the Lord. 

If any one be tormented with a devil, let him not hear 
the Word from a teacher until he be cleansed. For the 
intelligence, when consumed^ with a material spirit, doth 
not receive the immaterial* and holy Word. But if he be 
cleansed, let him be instructed in the Word. 

Chaptee 2 

If a fornicatress,^ or brothel keeper,^ or a drunkard, or a 
maker of idols,'' or a painter, or one engaged in shows,^ or a 
charioteer,^ or a wrestler ,1" or one who goeth to the contest,^^ or 
a combatant [in the games],^^ or one who teacheth wrestling,^^ or 
a public huntsman,!* or a priest of idols, or a keeper of them, 
be [among those that come], let him not be received. 

If any such desire to become faithful, let him cease ^^ from 
these [things] ; and being in deed faithful, and being baptized,!^ 
let him be received and let him partake. And if he do not 
cease,!^ let him be rejected. 

If any one be a teacher of boys in worldly wisdom, it is 
well if he cease.^^ But if he have no other craft ^^ by which 
to Uve, let him be excused. ^^ 

' Lit. : without marriage. - 1 Cor. vii. 40. 

' Lit. : burnt ; S. : weighed down by. ■* M. : material (error). 

* M. . any fornicator. 

^ iropvopo(TKbs (translated), as in the parallels. The Syriao phrase might be 
translated, "one (masc. ) delighting in fornication." It occurs again in the 
Pshitta of Prov. xxix. 3, where the LXX has Ss irotixalvcL irdpvas. 
' elSoiKoTroi6s translated. 

^ = A. C. : tQv iirl ffK7}v7]s tis dv^p ^ yvv^. ^ rjvioxo^ transliterated. 

'" /mvo/jAxos as a. C. ? " araSioSpbixos as A. C. ? 

'^ dXv/MJTiKSs as A.C.? " S. omits this phrase. 

'^ Lit. ; » huntsman of the public treasury {or of the State ; dri/ido-iov 
transliterated). 
'* Lit. : remain. 

'* Or : when he in very deed believeth and is baptized ; or : when he is by 
labour faithful, etc. (Lagarde, fiiyis). For "being baptized" B. reads "doing" 
(error of one letter). 

" Or : profession. ^' Lit. : have forgiveness. 



118 TESTAMENT OF OUR LORD [n. 2 

If any one be a soldier or in authority, let him be taught 
not to oppress or to kill or to rob, or to be angry or to rage and 
afflict any one. But let those rations^ suffice him which are given 
to him. But if they wish to be baptized in the Lord, let them 
cease ^ from military service * or from the [post of] authority, 
and if not let them not be received. 

Let a catechumen or a believer of the people, if he desire 
to be a soldier, either cease from his intention,* or if not let 
him be rejected. For he hath despised God by his thought, 
and leaving the things of the Spirit, he hath perfected himself 
in the flesh,^ and hath treated the faith with contempt. 

If a fornicatress or a dissolute man or a drunkard do not " 
[these things], and desire, believing, to become catechumens,'^ 
they may [be admitted]. And if they make progress, let them 
be baptized ; but if not let them be rejected. 

If a concubine of a man* be a servant, and desire to be 
faithful,*" if she educate those who are born [of her] and she 
separate from her master, or be joined ^'^ to him alone in 
marriage, let her hear ; and being baptized let her partake in 
the Offering,!^ but if not let her be rejected. 

He who doeth things which may not be spoken of,^^ or a 
diviner or a magician ^^ or a necromancer ,i* these are defiled 
and do not come to judgment. Let a charmer,^'' or an 
astrologer," or an interpreter of dreams, or a sorcerer, or one 
who gathereth together the people, or a star-gazer, or a diviner 
by idols, either cease,^ and when he ceaseth let him be exorcised 
and baptized ; or if not let him be rejected. 

If a man* have a concubine, let him divorce her and 
marry in the law and hear the word of instruction." 

' Allusion to St. Luke iii. 14 ; but the word is not the same as in the 
Pshitta. 

^ Lit. : remain. 'M.; the work. * Lit. : reasoning. 

^ Syriac BSEA ; S. reads : he hath despised (Syr. BSE), sc. the faith. 

" I.e. have ceased to do. ' Or : to be instructed. « Homo. 

'Lit.: to believe. " Lit.; partake with. " B.: offerings. 

'^ dppTjTOTToiAs translated, as in the parallels. 
" Or : magian. '■• veupbiiavni translated. 

" Or : snake-charmer. 

" Lit. : a speaker by the stars ((lirTfioXii7os translated). 
" S. goes on from this point to § 8. 



ii. 3, 4] catechumens 119 

Chapter 3 

Let him who is instructed ^ with all care and heareth the 
perf ectness ^ of the Gospel, be instructed not less than three 
years, and if he, loving, strive to be baptized, let him [then] 
be baptized. 

But if he be quiet and meek and earnest, and persevering 
and abiding with him who teacheth him, with labour, with 
watching,^ with confession,* with subjection, and with prayers, 
and [if] he desire to be baptized sooner,^ let him be baptized. 
For it is not the time that is considered,^ but the will of faith.'' 

Chapter 4 

Let those who are instructed, after the teacher ceaseth, 
pray apart from the faithful and go out, so that the faithful 
may learn,^ when the presbyter or deacon readeth the New 
[Testament] or Gospels.' 

Let the faithful women stand in the church by themselves 
and the female catechumens by themselves apart from the 
faithful [women]. But all the [women] apart from the men ; 
the girls also apart, each according to her order. 

The men on the right and the women on the left ; the 
faithful virgins ^^ first, and the [women] who are being instructed 
to virginity behind them. 

After the prayer let the female catechumens give the Peace 
to one another ; also men ^^ to men ; also women to women. 

Let every woman ^^ cover her head with her hair also. Let 
the women becomingly and decorously show their modesty in 
their adornment,^^ and let them not be adorned with plaited 
hair ^^ or with [precious] stones, lest the young men who are in 
the church be caught, but with modesty and knowledge. But 

' Same word as for "catechumen." ' Or : concord. 

' B. : dawn (error). * Or : giving of thanks. 

" Lit. : quickly. ^ Lit. : judged. 
' Letter omitted in Syriao text. 
' B. omits: and go . . . learn (homoiotel.). 

' Sc. plural, unlike usual Syriac usage. " Fem. 

" Viri. '2 Married women ? ^^ 1 Tim. ii. 9. 



120 TESTAMENT OF OUR LORD [H. 4-6 

if not, let them be instructed by the widows who sit in front. 
But if they rebelliously resist, let the bishop reprove them. 



Chaptee 5 

After the catechumens pray, let the bishop or presbyter, 
laying on them a hand, say the prayer of the laying on of the 
hand of catechumens : 

PRAYER OF CATECHUMENS 

God, who dost send thunderings and preparest lightnings ; 
who hast founded the heaven and established ^ the earth, and 
enlightenest the faithful and convertest them that err ; who 
hast quickened those who were dead and hast given hope to 
those who [were] without hope, and hast freed the universe 
from error by the coming down of Thy Only-begotten Son 
Jesus Christ ; hear us, Lord,^ and give to these souls intelli- 
gence, perfectness, undoubting faith, knowledge of the truth, 
that they may be in a degree higher than this, through the 
holy Name of Thee and of Thy beloved Son Jesus, our Lord, 
through whom [be] praise and might to Thee with the Holy 
Ghost, both now and alway and for ever and ever. Amen. 

After this let them be dismissed. If any one, being a 
catechumen, be apprehended for My Name and be judged 
with tortures, and hasten and press forward to receive the 
laver, let not the shepherd hesitate, but let him give [it] to 
him. But if he suffer violence and be killed, not having 
received the laver, let him not be anxious. For, having been 
baptized in his own blood, [he is] justified.^ 

Chapter 6 

But if they are severally chosen to receive * the laver, let 
them be proved and investigated first,"* how they have lived 

' Or : spread. s B. omits : Lord. 

' Or : [God] justifietli [him]. ^ Lit. : who received. 

" B. transposes these verbs. 



11.6,7] CATECHUMENS 121 

while catechumens/ if they have honoured widows, if they 
have visited the sick, if they have walked ^ in all meekness and 
love,^ if they were earnest in good works.^ But let them be 
borne witness to by those who bring them. 

And when they hear the Gospel, let a hand be laid on 
them daily. 

Let them be exorcised from that day when they are 
chosen. And let them be baptized in the days of Pascha. 
And when the days approach, let the bishop exorcise each one 
of them separately by himself, so that he may be persuaded that 
he is pure. For if there be one that is not pure, or in whom is 
an unclean spirit, let him be reproved * by that unclean ** spirit. 

If then any one is found under any such imagination,^ let 
him be removed from the midst [of them], and let him be 
reproved and reproached that he hath not heard the word of 
the commandments and of instruction faithfully, because the 
evil and strange spirit abided in him. 

Let those who are about to receive the laver be taught on 
the fifth day of the last week only, to wash and bathe ^ their 
heads. But if any woman then ^ be in the customary flux, let 
her also take in addition another day, washing and bathing 
beforehand.^ 

Let them fast both [on] the Friday and [on] the Saturday. 

Chaptek 7 

On the Saturday let the bishop assemble them who receive 
the laver, and let him bid them to kneel while the deacon 
proclaimeth.i" And when there is silence let him exorcise 
[them], laying a hand on them, and saying : 

EXORCISM BEFOEE THE LAVEE 

God of heaven, God of the lights,^^ God of the arch- 

1 Or : being instructed. ^ Eph. v. 2. ■ ^ Tit. ii. 14. 

■' Or : he will be convicted. " B. omits : unclean. 

* Or : suspicion. ' Or : cleanse. ^ M. omits : then. 

' "Washing " and "laver " have the same root. 
" Not same word as "admonish " on pp. 70, 99. " Cf. St. Jas. i. 17. 



122 TESTAMENT OF OUR LORD [n. 7 

angels who are under Thy power, God of the angels who are 
under Thy might, King of glories and of dominions,^ God of 
saints,^ Father of our Lord Jesus Christ ; ^ who hast loosed the 
souls that were bound by * death ; who hast enlightened him 
that was bound in darkness and fixed firm, by the firm-fixing ^ 
of the suffering of Thy Only-begotten ; who hast loosed oui- 
cords and hast loosed every weight from [off] us; who hast 
repelled from us every attack ^ of the Evil One ; Son and 
Word of God, who hast made us immortal by Thy death ; who 
hast glorified us with Thy glory ; who hast loosed all the 
bands of our sins by Thy passion ; who hast borne the curse 
of our sins by Thy cross, and by Thy resurrection hast taught 
[mankind] to pass from [being] sons of men to become gods ; 
who hast taken on Thee our humiliation ^ ; who hast trodden 
the way to heaven for us ; who hast changed us from corrup- 
tion to incorruptibility ** ; hear me, Lord, who cry to Thee in 
pain and fear, Lord God, and Father of our Lord Jesus 
Christ,^ before Him before whom stand the holy hosts of 
archangels and of cherubim and armies ^° without number, of 
princes and of seraphim ; whose veil [is] the light, and before 
whose face " [is] fire ; the throne of whose glory is ineffable ; 
the habitations of whose delights, which Thou hast prepared 
for Thy saints, are ineffable, the raiments and treasures of 
which are visible to Thee alone and to Thy holy angels ; 
before whom all things tremble, giving praise ^^ ; whose 
glance measureth the mountains, and whose Name, when 
uttered, cleaveth the depths ; whom the heavens which are 
shut up by Thy hand, hide from view ; before whom the earth 
and the depths together tremble ; before whom the sea and 

1 Col. i. 16. 2 ifot Eev. XV. 3 (Syr. as R.V.). 

' Eom. XV. 6. ^ Or: unto. 

* Simply inserted for paronomasia. Perhaps with reference to the nails ; 
same root as in II. 24, below. 

* Lit. : war. 

' Same word as p. 54 ; lit. : breaking ; or : wounding. 

^ Gf. 1 Cor. XV. 50-54, where the Pshitta apparently makes a difference 
between "that which is not in a state of corruption," and " incorruptibility." 

" Eom. XV. 6. '" Or : ministries. 

'' Tpdaairov transliterated ; not the usual Syriac word. 
^' Or : glorifying [Thee]. 



11. 7] CATECHUMENS 123 

the dragons that [are] in it quake ; of whom the wild beasts,^ 
trembling, stand in awe ; through whom the mountains and 
the firmament ^ of the earth melt with fear : at whose power 
the tempest of the winter quaketh and trembleth, and the 
raging whirlwind keepeth its limits ; because of whom the 
fire of vengeance doth not overpass that which hath been 
prescribed to it, but abideth when reproved by Thy command- 
ment; because of whom the whole creation travaileth, groaning ^ 
with groans, being bidden to tarry till its time ; from whom 
all nature and creation that opposeth itself fleeth ; because of 
whom the whole army of the adversary is subdued, and the 
Devil is fallen, and the serpent is trodden down, and .the 
dragon is killed ; because of whom the nations which have 
confessed Thee are enlightened * and strengthened in Thee, 
Lord ; because of whom life is revealed and hope confirmed, 
and faith strengthened and the Gospel ^ preached ; because of 
whom corruption is brought to naught and incorruptibility 
waxeth strong ; through whom man ^ was fashioned from the 
earth, but having believed in Thee he is no longer "^ earth ; 
Lord God Almighty, I exorcise these in the Name of Thee 
and of Thy beloved Son Jesus Christ. 

Drive away from the souls of these Thy servants every 
disease and illness, and every stumbling block and all un- 
belief, all doubt and all contempt,* every unclean spirit that 
worketh,* that is a witch ,1" that killeth, that is under the 
earth, that is fiery, dark, evil-smelling, given to witchcraft, 
lascivious, loving gold, uplifted,^^ money loving, wrathful. 

Yea, Lord God,'^ overthrow from these Thy servants 
who have been named in Thee the weapons of the Devil, all 
magic, witchcraft, fear of idols, divination, astrology ,i^ necro- 
mancy,^* observation of the stars, astronomy,^* pleasure of the 

' Lit. singular. ^ Lit. plural. ^ Rom. viii. 22. 

*Lit. : shine; or: burn. ""Lit. : annunciation. 

^ Lit.: the son of man. ' Lit. : not also. ' Or : negligence. 

' Or : visiteth. '" "spirit " is feminine in Syriac. 

" I.e. proud. '= B.: my God. 

" Lit. : speaking of the stars (do-rpoXoyia translated). 
" Lit.: divination by the dead {yeKpofuivTela translated). 
■° Lit. : legality of the stars {iaTpovo/da translated). 



124 TESTAMENT OF OUR LORD [ll. 7, 8 

passions, love of disgraceful things, sadness, love of money, 
drunkenness, fornication, adultery, lasciviousness, contumacy, 
contentiousness, wrath, confusion, wickedness, evil suspicion.^ 
Yea, Lord God, hear me, and breathe on these Thy servants 
the spirit of tranquillity, that, being guarded by Thee, they 
may bring forth in Thee fruits of faith, of virtue, of wisdom, 
of purity, of self-discipline,^ of patience, of hope, of concord,* 
of modesty,* of praise. For by * Thee they have been called 
as servants, in the Name of Jesus Christ, being baptized in 
the Trinity, in the Name of the Father and of the Son and of 
the Holy Ghost, the angels, glories, dominions, all the heavenly 
army being witnesses. Lord, the real-essence '^ of our life 
and theirs, guard their hearts, God, for Thou art mighty and 
glorious '' for ever and ever. 

And let all the people, also the priests, say : Amen, So be it, 
so be it, so be it. 

If any one be in the endurance of any thing, rise 
suddenly while the bishop is saying [these words], and weep 
or cry out, or foam [at the mouth] or gnash with his teeth, 
or stare * or be much uplifted or altogether run away, being 
quickly carried off, let such an one be put aside ^ by the 
deacons, so that there be no disturbance while the bishop 
is speaking, and let such an one be exorcised by the priests 
until he be cleansed, and so let him be baptized. 

After the priest exorciseth those who have drawn near, 
or him who is found unclean, let the priest breathe on them 
and seal them between their eyes,'" on the nose, on the heart, 
on the ears ; and so let him raise them up. 

Chapter 8 
In the forty days of Pascha, let the people abide in the 

' Or : expectation. " Or : asceticism. ' o/nAcoia translated. 

■• Or : chastity. ^ Or : to. 

" Qn(ima. See Note to I. 26, p. 180. ' Or : praised. 

* Lit. : looketh hard. 9 Lit. : hidden. 

'° Or : on their foreheads. 



n. 8] BAPTISM 125 

temple, keeping vigil and praying, hearing the Scriptures and 
hymns of praise and the books ^ of doctrine.^ 

But ^ on the last Saturday let them rise early * in the 
night, and ^ when the catechumens are being exorcised till the 
Saturday midnight.® Let those who are about to be baptized 
not bring anything else with them except one loaf for the 
Eucharist.' 

But let them be baptized thus. When they come to the 
water, let the water be pure and flowing. First the babes, 
then the men, then the women. 

But if any one desire to approach as it were to virginity, 
let him ^ first be baptized by the hand of the bishop. 

Let the women, when they are baptized, loose their hair. 
Let all the boys who can answer in baptism make the 
responses ® and answer after the priest. But if they cannot, 
let their parents make the responses for them, or some one of 
their households.^" 

But when they who are being baptized go down [to the 
water], after they make the responses and say [the answers], 
let the bishop see if ^^ there be any of them — either a man 
having a ring of gold, or a woman having on her gold ; for no 
one should have with him any strange thing in the water, but 
let him deliver it to those who are near him.^^ 

But when they are about to receive the oil for anointing, 
let the bishop pray over it and give thanks, and let him 
exorcise another [oil] with an exorcism, the same as in the 
case of catechumens. And let the deacon bear that which is 
exorcised, and let the presbyter stand by him. Let him then 
who standeth by that [oil] on which a giving of thanks over ^^ 
the oil [is said] be on the right hand ; but him who standeth 
by that which is exorcised, on the left. 

^ Or : treatises. ' B. : doctrines. 

^ S. resumes here, prefixing the words " And after a little." 

^ Or : come early ; or : hasten. * B. omits : and. 

* Lagarde conjectures a lacuna here. ' eiSxapiffTia transliterated. 

" Lit. : this one. " S. : enter (error of a letter). 

" Lit. : from their houses. " S. : lest. 
'= S. here breaks off, and with "After a little" goes on to § 13 (s./.). 
IS Lit.: of. 



126 TESTAMENT OF OUK LORD [n. 8 

ATid when he taketh hold of each one, let him ask — he that 
is being baptized turning to the West — and let him say: Say, 
I renounce thee, Satan, and all thy service,^ and thy shows,^ 
and thy pleasures,^ and all thy works. And when he hath 
said these things and confessed, let him be anointed with that 
oil which was exorcised, he who anointeth him saying thus: I 
anoint [thee] with this oil of exorcism for a deliverance from 
every evil and unclean spirit, and for a deliverance from 
every evil. And also, turning him * to the East, let him ^ say : 
[Say,«] I submit ' to Thee, Father and » Son and » Holy Ghost, 
before whom all nature trembleth and is moved. Grant me 
to do all Thy will* without blame. 

Then after these things let him give him over to tJie pres- 
byter who baptizeth. And let them stand in the v;ater naked. 
But let the deacon descend ivith him similarly. But when he 
who is beivA) baptized goeth down into the ivater, let him that 
baptizeth him say, putting his hand on him, thus : Dost thou 
believe in God the Father Almighty ? Let him that is being 
baptized say : I believe. Let him immediately baptize him once. 
Let t/ie priest also say : Dost thou beheve also in Christ Jesus 
the Son of God, who came from the Father, who is of old 
with the Father, who was born of Mary the Virgin by the 
Holy Ghost, who was crucified in the days of Pontius Pilate, 
and died and rose the third dsLy,^" [who] came to life from the 
dead, and ascended into heaven and sat down on the right 
hand of the Father, and cometh to judge the quick and the 
dead ? But when he saith : I believe, let him baptize him the 
second time. And also let him say : Dost thou beheve also in 
the Holy Ghost, in the holy Church ? And let him who is 
being baptized say : I believe ; and thus let him baptize him the 
third time. 

Then when he cometh up let him be anointed by the pres- 
byter with oil over which the giving of thanks has been said, 

' Lit. : military service. = Lit. : theatres. 

^ Misprinted in Rahmani's Syriao text. * The baptized. 

<> The baptizer. « So Kahmani conjectures. 

' Lit. : consent. s 3_ omits ; a^j (twice). 

» Lit. : wills. i» Lit. : to three days. 



II. 8, 9] CONFIRMATION 127 

[the presbyter] saying over him : I anoint thee with oil in the 
Name of Jesus Christ. But let women be anointed by widows 
who sit in front, the presbyter saying over tJiem [the words']. 
And let those widovjs in baptism also beneath a veil receive them 
by a veil, the bishop saying those Confessions, and so those ^ 
whom they^ cause them to renounce? 

Chapter 9 

Then let them be togetJier in the Church, and let the bishop 
lay a hand on tliem after baptism, saying and invoking over 
them thus: 

INVOCATION OF THE HOLY GHOST 

Lord God, who by Thy beloved Son Jesus Christ didst 
fill Thy holy apostles with the Holy Ghost, and by the Spirit 
didst permit Thy blessed prophets to speak ; who didst count 
these Thy servants worthy to be counted worthy in Thy 
Christ * of forgiveness of sins through the laver of the second 
birth,* and hast cleansed them of all the mist of error and 
darkness of unbelief ; make them worthy to be filled with 
Thy Holy Spirit, by Thy love of man,^ bestowing upon them 
Thy grace, so that they may serve Thee according to Thy 
will, truly, God, and may do Thy commandments in holi- 
ness, and cultivating alway those things which are of Thy 
will, may enter into Thine eternal tabernacles, through Thee 
and through Thy beloved Son Jesus Christ, by whom [be] 
to Thee praise and might with the Holy Ghost for ever 
and ever. 

Similarly, pouring the oil, placing a hand on his head, let 
him say : Anointing I anoint [thee] in God Almighty, and in 
Jesus Christ and in the Holy Ghost, that thou mayest be 
His ^ soldier/ having a perfect faith, and a vessel pleasing to 
Him. 



^ I.e. the remmciations. The genders are confused in the text. 
' So Eahmani conjectures. The MSS. (M. B.) have ; by Thy oil. It is not 
certain that the MSS. are wrong. 

* Lit. : birth again. Tit. iii. 5. ' (j>i.\avBponTla translated. 

^ Lit. : to Him. ' Or : workman. 



128 TESTAMENT OF OtTR LORD [ll. 9, 10 

And sealing him on his forehead, let him give him the 
Peace, and say: The Lord God of the meek be with thee. 
And let him who has been sealed ansvjer and say : And with 
thy spirit. And so each one severally. 

Chapter 10 

Thenceforward let them pray together with all the people. 
Let the oblation be offered by the deacon. And so let the 
shepherd give thanks. But the bread is offered for a type of 
My body. Let the cup be mixed with wine, — mixed with 
wine and water, for it is a sign ^ of blood and of the laver ^ ; 
so that also the inner man, that is to say, that which is of 
the soul,^ may be counted worthy of those things which are 
like [them],* that is to say," those things of the body also. 
And ^ let all the people, according to what hath been said 
before, receive with Amen of the Eucharist ^ which is offered. 
Let the deacons hover over [them],^ as hath before been 
said." 

Let him who giveth [the sacrament] say : The Body of Jesus 
Christ, the Holy Ghost, for the healing of soul and body. 
And let him who receiveth say : Amen. 

He who spilleth i" of the cup gathereth up judgment to 
himself. Similarly also he who seeth and is silent and doth 
not reprove him, whoever he may be. Let those who take 
the Offering be exhorted by the priests to be careful to do 
good works, to love strangers,^^ to labour in fasting, and in 
every good work to engage ^^ in servitude. And let them be 
taught also about the resurrection of the body ^^ ; before any 
one receiveth baptism let no one know the i* word about the 

^ Or : shewing forth. 

^ So B. ; M.: a sign (shewing forth) of blood and water of the laver. 

' The Greek seems to have been \j/vxiK6s, not irvev/iaTiKSs. 

* I.e. the antitypes. " M.S. omit : that is to say. 

" S. : of (error). ' eixapurHa transliterated. 

^ Or : wave [fans ?]. 

" So text is punctuated, but the punctuation is loose throughout. 
1" Lit. : poureth forth. " Heb. xiii. 2. 

'^ Lit. : serve ; or : cultivate ; not same root as ' ' servitude. " 
" Lit. : bodies. " Or : a. Of. Rev. ii. 17. 



11.10,11] MAUNDY THURSDAY, ETC. 129 

resurrection, for this is the new decree, which hath a new 
name that none knoweth but he who receiveth [it]. 

The deacon doth not give the Offering to a presbyter. 
Let him open the disc^ or paten,^ and let the presbyter 
receive. 

Let the deacon give [the Eucharist] to the people in their 
hands.* Let * the deacon, when the presbyter is not present, 
of necessity baptize. 

Chaptee 11 

If any one receive any service ^ to carry to a widow or 
poor woman or any one constantly engaged in a Church work, 
let him give it ^ the same day ; and if not, on the morrow, 
let him add something to it ^ from his own [property] and so 
give it.^ For the bread of the poor hath been kept back in 
his possession. 

But in the last week of Pascha, on the fifth day of the 
week, let the bread and the cup be offered. And he who 
suffered for that which he hath offered, he [it is] who draweth 
near. 

Let the lamp be offered ^ in the temple by the deacon, 
saying ^ : The grace of our ^ Lord [be] with you all And let 
all the people say : And with Thy spirit. And let the little 
boys say spiritual psalms and hymns of praise by the light 
of the lamp.'" Let all the people respond Hallelujah to the 
psalm and to the chant sung together, with one accord, with 
voices in harmony ; and let no one kneel until he who 
speaketh cease. Similarly also when a lection is read or the 
word of doctrine is spoken. If then the Name of the Lord 

' Tricaf transliterated. 

" KPPTA, an unusual word. 

'Lit.: in his hand ("people" being masculine and singular). Or: with 
his [the deacon's] hand. But this hardly makes sense. 

^ B. omits from here to "possession" in II. 11. 

^ Or : administration (fem.). ^ Maso. (error). 

' Or : brought near. ' B. : and let him say. 

« B. : the. 

'" Sic. Lit. : by [or close to) the burning of the lamp ; or : the flame of the 
lamp. 

9 



130 TESTAMENT OF OUR LORD [ll. 11-13 

be spoken, and the rest, as hath sufficiently been made known, 
let no one bow, having come creeping in.^ 



Chapter 12 

Let the end ^ of Pascha be after the Saturday, at mid- 
night. 

[At] Pentecost let no one fast or kneel. For these are 
days of rest and joy. 

Let those who bear the burdens of labour refresh ^ them- 
selves a little in the days of Pentecost, and on every first day 
of the week. 

Let "the bishop, before he offereth the Offering,* say what 
is fitting for the Offering, while those who are clothed in 
white receive from one another and say [to one another] 
Hallelujah. 

Chapter 13 
[the agape] 

In the supper or feast, let those who have come together ^ 
receive [a portion ?] thus from the shepherd, as for a blessing. 
But let not a catechumen receive. 

If any one be of the household of, or related to,^ one who 
is a teacher of heathenism,' let him not accord with ^ him and 
give praise with him, also let him not eat with him because 
of relationship or for concord, lest he deliver ineffable things 
to a wolf ^ and he receive judgment. 

Let those who are called with the bishop to the house of 
one who is faithful, eat with gravity and knowledge, not with 
drunkenness or to debauchery ,1" and not so that he who is 
present may laugh, or so as to annoy the household ^^ of him 

1 Meaning? Verha.-ps private devotions forbidden duving public service. 
' Lit. : dissolution ; or : loosing. ' Lit. : assist. 

* Lit. : before the oblation of the Offering. 
" Lit. : come near together ; or : are present together. 
8 M. omits : to (error). ' Lit. : other things. 

' Or : consent to ; or : deliver [himself] to. " Cf. Acts xx. 29. 

'" Allusion perhaps to 1 Cor. xi. 21. " Lit.: house. 



II. 13-15] FIRST FRUITS, PROPERTY 131 

that called him ; but so let them enter that he who called 
[them] may pray that the saints may enter into his house. 
For ye are the salt of the earth.^ [as] ye have heard. 

Because^ when they eat, let them eat abundantly, [but] 
so that there may be left over both for you [and] also for 
those to whom he that called you wisheth [to] send, so that 
he may have them ^ as foods * left over ^ by the saints, and 
that he may rejoice at that which remaineth over. 

Let ^ those who come to a feast, being called, not stretch 
out' a hand before them that are elder. But let the last 
eat ^ when ^ the first shall have done. 

Let not those who eat strive ^^ in speech, but let them eat 
in silence ; but if any one desire, or the bishop or presbyter 
ask [a question], let him return answer. 

But when the bishop saith a word,^i let every one quietly, 
praising [him],^^ choose silence for himself, until he also ^^ be 
asked [a question]. 

Chapter 1 4 1* 

[first fruits] 

If any one bring forward ^* fruits or the first produce of 
crops as first fruits, let him offer [them] to the bishop. ^^ 

Chapter 1 5 ^'^ 

[property] 

If any one depart from the world, either a faithful man 
or a faithful woman, having children, let them give their 

1 St. Matt. V. 13. 2 Sic, text. 

' Masc. The text is ungrammatical. ^ Fern. 

' Masc. ^ Here S. resumes. ' Lit. : throw. 

* Or : let them eat last. " Lit. : and. 

'" S. : be offended. " Or : speaketh the word. 

'^ Or : giving praise. " M. omits : also. 

" This chapter is'also in S. '* Or : present ; lit.; make. 

'* So punctuated. Perhaps "let him offer [them] as first fruits to the 
bishop." Lagarde thus punctuates, perhaps rightly : ei m Kapiroii . . . iroiei, 
Tcts dTrapx^s Trpo(r<t>ep^T(a t(^ iinaKdinp. 
" This chapter is also in S. 



132 TESTAMENT OP OUR LOED [n. 15, 16 

possessions to the Church, so that the Church may provide 
for their children, and [that] from the things which they 
have the poor may be given rest, that God may give mercy 
to their children and rest to those who have left [them] be- 
hind.i But if a man ^ have no children, let him have not 
much possessions, but let him give much of his possessions 
to the poor and to the prisoners,^ and only keep* what is 
right and sufficient for him[self]. If a man ^ have children,'^ 
and he desire to discipline himself in virginity, let him give 
all his possessions to the poor, and discipline himself^ and 
abide in the church, being constant in prayers and thanks- 
givings.^ 

Chapter 16 
[first fruits] 

The fruits which are offered^ to the bishop let him bless 
thus : 

Grod, we give thanks to Thee alway, and also in this 
day when we offer to Thee the first fruits of the fruits which 
Thou hast given us for food, having ripened^ them by Thy 
power and by Thy Word, having commanded from the 
beginning of the creation^" of the worlds that the earth 
should bring forth different fruits for the joy and delight of 
man ^^ and of all beasts.^^ We praise Thee, Lord, for all 
these things with which Thou hast benefited ^^ us, adorning for 
us all the earth with various fruits. Bless also this Thy servant 
N., and receive his earnestness and his love, through Thine 
Only-begotten Son Jesus Christ, through whom [be] praise 
and honour and might to Thee with the Holy Ghost for ever 
and ever. Amen. 

' S. : fallen asleep. ^ Homo. 

' Lit. : prisons. * Lit. : possess. 

■'' S. : possessions. Qy. : no children. ^ S. : be constant. 

' Here S. breaks off, and with ' ' After a little " goes on to § 20. 

* Or : brought near. » Lit. : perfected. 

'» Lit. : making. " Lit. : sons of men. 

1^ Or : living creatures. " eiepyeriu translated. 



II. 16-19] PASCHAL SOLEMNITIES, ETC. 133 

Vegetables are not blessed, but fruits of trees, flowers,^ 
and the rose and the lily. 



Chaptek 17 

of all the faithful who receive and bat 

Let them give and return thanks and not eat with 
offence or scandal. Let no one taste that which is strangled 
or sacrificed to idols.^ 

Chaptek 18 

[paschal solemnities] 

On the days of Pascha, especially in the last days, on 
Priday and on Saturday, by night and by day, let the prayers 
be according to the number of the hymns of praise. But let 
the word be interpreted at length,^ and let the lections [be] 
various and continuous.* And let the vigils and anticipations 
of the night be in good order.^ 

Chaptee 19 
OF the deacons who go and pass among women, lest 

THEEE be DISOEDEELY YOUNG CHILDEEN * 

Let the readers assist them. Similarly also the sub- 
deacons. Let them not allow them to sleep.' For that 
night is a figure of the kingdom, and especially that of the 
Saturday. 

Those who labour and work, let them work ^ till midnight. 

Let the catechumens first be dismissed, having received 
blessings ® from the bread which is broken. 

' B.: flower. " Of. Acts xv. 29. ' Lit.: thick ; or : well filled. 

* Lit. : dense. " eia-raS'ns translated. " Lit. : babes (see p. 178). 

' Lit. : nod. ^ M. : weep. 

' eiXoylai translated ; B. : a blessing. 



134 TESTAMENT OF OUR LORD [ll. 19, 20 

When the faithful are dismissed, let them go in order i 
and knowledge to their houses. In their feasts ^ let them not 
forget the prayers. 

Let the priests not abbreviate their ministrations. 

Let the women go, each one cleaving to her husband. 

Let the widows stay till dawn in the temple, having food 
there. 

Let the virgins ^ abide together in the temple, and let the 
bishop help and provide for them, and let the deacons minister 
to them.* 

Let the presbyteresses stay with the bishop till dawn, 
praying and resting. 

Similarly also those who were lately baptized. 

Let virgins ^ who are ready for marriage go, cleaving to 
their mothers. This is thus fitting. 

Chapter 20* 

Let the bishop command that they proclaim^ that no one 
taste anything until the Offering is completed. And the whole 
body of the Church shall receive a new food. Then in the 
evening ' let those who are to be * baptized be baptized, after 
one lection. 

But if any one before he approacheth and receiveth of 
the Eucharist ® eat something else, he sinneth and his fast is 
not reckoned to him. 

When the catechumens are dismissed, let a hand be laid 
on them. 

If a faithful because of sickness remain [away], let the 
deacon carry the Offering to him. 

If any one be a presbyter who cannot come, let a presbyter 
carry [it] to him. 

Similarly if a woman be pregnant [and] sick, and cannot 
fast these two days, let her fast that ^"^ one day," taking on the 

' B. : in their orders. » ^he Agap^ ?— B. : in a feast. = Yem . 

* B. masc. (error). ' Here S, resumes. « Or : preach. 

' Lit. : from the evening. ^ Lit. : being. 

" eixapurrla transliterated. " S. omita : that. " S. omits : day. 



11. 20-23] THE SICK, PSALMS, BURIALS 135 

first [day] bread and water. And if she cannot come, let a 
deaconess carry [the Offering] to her. 

Chapter 21 ^ 

of those who are sick 

Let them take [it] up to the hearing of the bishop, so that 
if it seem good ^ to the bishop he may visit them ; for the 
sick [man] is much comforted when the high priest re- 
membereth him, and * especially when he is faithful.* 

Chapter 22 
[the psalms] 

In answer to him who singeth the psalms in the church, 
let the virgins ^ and boys respond and sing. But if they sing 
the psalms in a house privately, if they be two or three, let 
them respond to one another, singing the psalms. Similarly 
the men. 

Chapter 23 
[burials] 

If a poor man die, let those who provide for each one, 
provide for his clothing. If any one who is a stranger die and 
he have no place to be buried, let those who have a place give 
[it]. But if the Church hath [a place] let it give [it]. And 
if he have no covering, let the Church similarly give it. But 
if he have not grave clothes, let him be shrouded. 

But if a man be found to have possessions, and do not 
leave them to the Church, let them be kept for^a time; and 
after a year let not the Church appropriate them, but let 
them be given to the poor for his soul. 

But if he desire ^ to be embalmed, let the deacons provide 
for this, a presbyter standing by. 

^ This chapter is also in S. " M.B. : satisfy (letter omitted). 

' S. omits : and. ' Here S. ends. 

" Fem. ^ Lit, : persuade. 



136 TESTAMENT OF OUR LORD [n. 23, 24 

If the Church have a graveyard, and there be one who 
abideth there and keepeth it, let the bishop provide for him 
from the Church, so that he be no burden to those who come 
there. 

Chaptek 24 
[hours of peayee] 

Let the people alway take care about the early dawn, that 
arising and washing their hands they immediately pray. And 
so let each one go to the work which he willeth. 

Let all take care to pray at the third hour with mourning 
and labour, either in the church, or in the house because they 
cannot go (to the church). For this is the hour of the fixing ^ 
of the Only-begotten on the cross. 

But at the sixth hour similarly let there be prayer with 
sorrow. For then the daylight was divided by the darkness. 
Let there be then that voice which is like to the prophets, 
and to creation mourning. 

At the ninth hour also let prayer be protracted, as with 
a hymn of praise that is like to the souls of those who give 
praise to God that lieth not, as one who hath remembered His 
saints, and hath sent His Word and Wisdom to enlighten 
them. For in that hour life was opened to the faithful, and 
blood and water were shed from the side of our Lord. 

But at evening, when it is the beginning of another day, 
shewing an image of the resurrection. He hath caused us to 
give praise. 

But at midnight let them arise praising^ and lauding* 
because of the resurrection. 

But at dawn [let them arise] praising ^ with psalms, because 
after He rose He glorified the Father while they * were singing 
psalms. But if any have a consort ^ or wife [not •'J faithful, 

' See p. 122, above. ^ Lit. : in a praising manner. 

" Lit. ; in a lauding manner. * The apostles. 

" Lit. : daughter of the partaking of marriage. 

° So Rahmani conjectures from Copto-arab. translation. 



II. 24-26] CONCLUSION 137 

let the husband who is faithful go and pray at these times 
without fail.^ 

Let those who are chaste not lessen [them]. For the 
adornments of heaven give praise, the lights, the sun, the 
moon, the stars, the lightnings, the thunders, the clouds, the 
angels, the archangels, the glories, the dominions, the whole 
[heavenly] army, the depths, the sea, the rivers, the wells, 
fire, dew, and all nature that produceth rain. 

All the saints also give praise and all the souls of the 
righteous.^ These, then,^ who pray are numbered together in 
the remembrance of God. 

Chapter 25 

[conclusion] 

When ye the faithful accomplish these things, teach and 
iustruct one another, causing the catechumens to make pro- 
gress, as loving all men * ; ye do not ® perish, but will be in 
Me and I wiU be among you.® 

But alway let the faithful take care that before he eat he 
partake of the Eucharist,^ that he may be incapable of receiv- 
ing injury. 

When ye teach these things and keep [them], ye shall be 
saved, and evil heresy ^ shall not prevail against you. 

Lo, then, I have taught you now all [things] that ye 
desire ; and those things * which I have spoken with you [of] 
from the beginning, and have taught and commanded you 
before I should suffer, ye know. 

Chaptee 26 

And thou ^^ especially John, and Andrew and Peter, even 
now ye know all [the things] which I have spoken to you 

■* Lit. : of necessity. 

2 Cf. Song of the Three Children, verses 35-65. 

^ Rahmani's text is misprinted. ^ Lit. : every man. 

= I.e. will not. « St. John xiv. 20. 

' eixoi'Pta^Tla transliterated. ° a'ipeais transliterated. 

'M.: and so. ^^ Sic. 



138 TESTAMENT OF OUR LORD [n. 26, 27 

while I am with you, as also that which [is] in this Testament, 
in order that when ye deliver [them] to the nations the will 
of My Father may alway be accomplished, abiding ^ firm in 
carefulness, so that there may be good fruits in them that 
hear. 

Ye know that I have spoken with you that a good tree 
cannot bring forth evU fruit.^ All [things], then, that I have 
commanded you openly and secretly, do. And the Grod of 
tranquillity be with you.^ 

Chapter 27 

And falling down we worshipped Him, saying. Glory to 
Thee, Jesus, Name of light, who didst give us the teaching 
of Thy commandments, so that we may be like unto Thee,* 
we and all those who hear Thee. And when He spoke to us 
and taught and commanded us, and showed many loosings^ 
and miracles. He was taken up from us, giving us tranquillity.^ 

John and Peter and Matthew wrote this Testament, and 
sent [it] in copies from Jerusalem by Dositheus "^ and Silas 
and Magnus and Aquila, whom they chose to send [them] to 
all dioceses.^ Amen. 

The Second Book of Clement is ended, translated from the 
Greek to the Syrian language by James the poor,^ in the year 
998 of the Greeks.i" 

' I.e. the will. 2 gj, ji^tt. vii. 18. 

* Rom. XV. 33 ; 2 Cor. xlii. 11 ; Phil. iv. 9, but not as Pshitta. 

■* Perhaps suggested by 1 John iii. 2 (cf. Rom. viii. 3 ; Phil. ii. 7, etc.), but 
quite different wording. ^ I. e. healings ? 

" Or peace. But it is a different word from the [kiss of] peace. Cf. St. John 
xiv. 27 (but different word) ; cf also St. Luke xxiv. 51. 

' M. : Dositha. ^ Tra.pai.Klai. translated. 

" Thus a scribe usually describes himself ; so also the scribes of the ancient 
Irish and Scottish churches: — "The wretchock (misellus) who wrote it." 
Book of Daer, Ix. " a.d. 887. 



NOTES 



189 



NOTES 



BOOK I 

Throughout these Notes the "Testament Compiler" means 
the person who put the book, exactly or approximately, into 
its present form, probably in the fourth century, but possibly 
in the fifth. The phrase leaves the question of a later editor 
untouched. See Introduction, pp. 16, 25-42. 

Title. The ascription to Clement of Kome is found also in 
the title of the Egyptian Church Order (Tattam, p. 32, etc.), 
and in the Apostolic Constitutions and in the heretical Clemen- 
tine books. 

The Apocalyptic Pselude consists strictly of I. 2-14a in- 
clusive, but has passages prefixed and added to weld it into the 
framework of the Testament. It appears in a perhaps earlier 
form than we have it here, in an eighth century uncial Latin 
manuscript in the Stadtbibliothek at Treves (Trier), known as 
Codex Treverensis 36. The fragment found there was pub- 
lished by Dr. M. E. James in his Apocrypha Anecdota, i. 153, 
154 (Cambridge Texts and Studies, 1893). It has our I. 11, 
with a sentence from I. 12, and then goes on to our I. 6 and 
I. 7, and ends with the beginning of I. 8 : " And in the peoples 
and Churches shall be many disturbances. But all these 
things shall be before the coming of Antichrist. Dexius shall 
be the name of Antichrist. The End." Harnack, in his Pre- 
liminary Remarks on the Testament, suggests that ''Dexius" 
is Decius disguised, and that therefore we may date the Latin 
fragment about A.D. 250. When the Decian persecution was 
long past, the name Dexius would be omitted. Possibly the 
Latin fragment gives the original order and contents of the 
Prelude. 

It is proper, however, to mention some considerations 
which rather point to the Treves fragment being a curtailment 
of the longer form than the original of it. The fragment adds 



142 NOTES 

a sentence to I. 11 ("and many as it were Christ shall stand 
by ") which, we can hardly doubt, is taken from our I. 12 ; it 
is scarcely possible that our 1. 12 could have been enlarged out 
of this Treves sentence. And the addition before our I. 6 of 
" But before this " in the Treves fragment looks as if, having, 
taken two previous chapters from its original, the writer in- 
serted these words in order to tack those chapters on to 1. 11 ; in 
Test, the connexion of I. 5 and I. 6 is very natural But a more 
forcible consideration is that in four instances the text of the 
Treves fragment points to a Syriac, not a Greek original. This 
certainly is not conclusive. For the original Greek might have 
been in the form of the fragment, then translated into Syriac, 
and thence into the Latin we have, before (ex hypothesi) it was 
enlarged into our I. 2-14a. But a more simple supposition is 
that the longer form was translated into Syriac (possibly in the 
shape given in Codex C, see below), and that the writer of the 
Treves fragment took excerpts from that Syriac form. The 
four instances are: {a) In I. 7 Treves has "serpents" ( = 
Syr. HWWTA) where C. has " beasts "(= Syr. HIWTA), 
S.M.B. also having a similar word for " wild beasts." We can 
well understand the Treves writer mistaking a Syriac / for W, 
but " beasts " could hardly have been got out of " serpentium." 
(6) Treves reproduces the error in its sentence added to I. 11 
(from 1. 12, see Note, p. 147), ^iri voXXoTc, to many, for l-jrl •jriiXaic, 
at the gates, as if it had already been made in the Syriac, as in 
fact James of Edessa, at least, read it, and so passed into the 
Latin fragment, (c) Treves reads in 1. 11 "sinister [i.e. oculus] 
gaudens." This may, of course, be a mistake of the copyist for 
"glaucus"; "blue black" is the reading of C.S.M.B. {ZMRTA). 
But it looks as if the writer of the fragment had the Syriac 
before him, and read ZMRTA (as he might do) as if it meant 
"singing," and so rendered it "gaudens." (d) At the end of 
I. 11 the Treves fragment has "fallax dilectionis," which may 
be a mistake of the copyist for " falx desolationis," the sickle 
of desolation. But he may have had the Syriac given in Codex 
S. before him, namely, MGDLA DHUBBA, the tower of deso- 
lation, and misread it MDGLA BHUBA, which would be 
" fallax dilectionis." The last two suggestions are due to Mr. 
Norman M'Lean, Fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge; see 
James, Afoa. Anecd. 187. These considerations, then, make it 
at least possible that the Treves fragment is an abbreviation, 
and that our longer form is the original. 

But taking the other supposition as a working hypothesis, 
that the Treves fragment is the original, we may conjecture 



NOTES 143 

that the next form which it took was that which we now 
have in Test. I. 2-14a ; and if so the question arises, who thus 
enlarged it ? Was it the Testament Compiler, or some earlier 
writer ? It may be the former, and certainly some of his 
favourite expressions, such as "He who sent me" (I. 8), 
" children of light " (I. 3, 12), " vessels " (I. 3), " a work " (1. 13), 
appear in these chapters, so that if he were not the author 
of them he at least borrowed some phrases from them. On 
the other hand (see Introduction, p. 23), some phrases, such as 
" testing spirits," " shepherds," are used in one way in the 
Prelude and in another in the rest of the work. Also the 
preface and I. 1, as also I. 15-18, read as if they were added 
rather clumsily by another hand, in order to join them on to 
the Church Order which follows. The style of these portions 
is quite different from that of the Apocalyptic part ; they 
introduce the idea of a " Testament." Probably also the latter 
portion of I. 14, " Turning therefore to the Church," was added 
by the later hand in order to pave the way for the change 
from the apocalyptic prophecy to the ecclesiastical organisation. 
It seems probable, therefore, that the chapters I. 2-14a are older 
than the Testament Compiler. 

The evidence of Codex C, which Dr. Arendzen has only 
just brought to light, points in the same direction. It is a 
translation independent of James of Edessa, and looks as if 
it represented a Greek text altogether independent of Test. 
Compiler. Both it and S. break off in the middle of I. 14, and 
C. expressly says that the passage about the End is finished 
there. With regard to S., which certainly reproduces James's 
translation of the Testament in part, its breaking off only seven 
words lower down than C. and in the middle of a sentence, 
and its frequent following of C. as against M.B. (see the 
footnotes), raise the conjecture that the S. scribe knew the 
Prelude in an independent form, and that he was much in- 
fluenced by it. (A somewhat similar phenomenon in the MSS. 
of the Apostolic Church Order, where S. is also concerned, is 
called attention to by Dr. Arendzen in J.T.S. for October 
1901, iii. 74 ; he suggests that a marginal note in the Greek 
original or a comparison with the Didach^ may account for the 
codices being of equal extent.) 

The obvious anachronism of C. in I. 3 (" which are written 
in the Gospel") is indecisive, because C, like the other MSS., 
professes to give our Lord's words. But the addition of 0. in 
I. 4 about the kings in the East (see Note, p. 145), of which 
the Copto-arabic translator gives only a reminiscence, points 



144 NOTES 

in the directiou of independence (see also Notes on p. 146 f.). 
On the other hand, we cannot assume that I. 10 was written 
by the Test. Compiler because it is omitted in C, for it, or 
something in its place, must have been in the original of C, 
which professedly has a lacuna here. This is important when 
we consider the place of writing (see pp. 42-45). The only 
things which point in the other direction are that the author- 
ship of the C. fragment is ascribed to Clement, and that it pro- 
fesses to represent our Lord's words. This, however, only 
shows that the Test. Compiler did not invent the Clementine 
authorship, which we know from other sources ; and it is quite 
possible that the Compiler's idea of using our Lord's authority 
instead of that of the Apostles was not original with him, but 
was borrowed from this C. form of the Prelude. 

On the whole, then, it seems probable that the Apocalyptic 
Prelude I. 2-14a existed in its present form before it was 
added on to the Church Order which follows. We may per- 
haps assign it to about the year a.d. 300, or even a good deal 
earlier, if the Treves fragment is derived from it. Possibly 
it was one of the " Apocryphal books " about Antichrist that 
St. Cyril of Jerusalem speaks so slightingly of in his Cate- 
chetical lectures (xv. 16). 

If this be the case, we have yet to ask, who added it to the 
Church Order ? The absence of the enlarged Prelude I. 1-18 
in any form, and similarly of the concluding chapters of Book 
II., from any other Church Order, makes us think of the Test. 
Compiler. There is no good reason for connecting the Prelude 
with the supposed " Montanistic Church Order," from which 
the Test. Compiler is thought to have borrowed. It seems 
rather as if he had wished to make an " improvement " on the 
Apostolic authorship of other Church Orders, by prefixing the 
(already existing) Prelude, by adding his own chapters to join 
it on, and by ascribing the whole work to our Lord. In the 
absence, therefore, of evidence to the contrary, we may sup- 
pose that the Prelude was added by him. Harnack seems to 
have reached this conclusion. 

Preface. Probably "Thomas, Matthew, John" are here 
selected because the two last were Apostles and Evangelists, 
and St. Thomas was expressly invited to touch the risen Lord 
(St. John XX. 27). In II. 26 we have " John, Andrew, Peter," 
and in II. 27, " John, Peter, Matthew." Note that St. John 
comes in all these lists, and that in Ap. CO. § 1, " John, 
Matthew, Peter, Andrew " come first, St. Thomas later, and St. 
John expressly (§ 3) " speaks first." "We see here, as often, 



I. 1-4] NOTES 145 

the influence of Ap. CO. on Test. The preface and first 
chapter are probably the work of Test. Compiler himself. 



Chapter 1 

Those who through you know and do.\ Cf. I. 30 and St. 
John xvii. 20; also A.C. viii. 1 (Lagarde, 231'), "those who 
believe through us " [the Apostles]. 



Chapter 2 

In St. Mark xiii. 3, St. James and St. Andrew unite with 
St. Peter and St. John in asking this question. 

Chapter 4 

Lovers of gold.] C. has a remarkable addition after this : 
" Kings then there shall be reigning in the East, inglorious, 
thoughtless, not grown up, boys, lovers of gold " (sic, a second 
time). The passage may well have been omitted by homoio- 
teleuton, whether by Test. Compiler or by his translator, James 
of Edessa. It is probably a real part of the Prelude ; cf. the 
mention of the West just below. Dr. Arendzen suggests 
Alaric as the king of another race, Arcadius and Theodosius li. 
as the boy kings in the East ; but he notes that " every one 
of them shall try to destroy the life of his fellow " would not 
be applicable to them. His supposition would necessitate a 
date about 410 for these chapters. But surely there is no 
reason for these historical investigations. It is clear that the 
writer had a vivid imagination, and could invent without 
merely chronicling what was already past. — Copto-arab. 
similarly adds after " allied in counsel " : " there shall arise 
in the East those who do not follow the precept." As this 
last translator treats Test, with the utmost freedom, we cannot 
argue from this that he had the C. passage in his original ; his 
words may have been inserted because of the "West" just 
below, but he may have had an independent knowledge of the 
Prelude, apart from the Testament. He inserts his addition in 
a different place from C. The concurrence of S. M. and B. in 
omitting the passage of C. makes it unlikely that it occurred, 
at least, in James of Edessa's translation. 



146 NOTES [1- 5-11 

Chapter 5 

Gold shall he Jwnoured.] Kahmani conjectures " only gold.'' 
Arendzen suggests inserting "not," but C. omits it as well 
as the other MSS.; he translates (alternatively) "gold shall 

Robhery\ lit.: prey of robbers. The Syr. of M. is PBADA, 
of B., Pi2Z'^, = praeda transliterated? S. reads PDRA, for 
which Lagarde suggests that as if'tipa, a siege, does not suit, 
liTiipoiiri, an attack, was the underlying word. But the reading 
of M.B. is more likely. 

Chapter 7 

Young women newly wedded.] Dr. Arendzen (J.T.S. ii. 
407) suggests that the Greek was viiya/ioi, which C. took 
wrongly as masculine, though it correctly gives " bring forth." 

Chapter 8 

The reward of their praise (p. 55).] The underlying 
Greek word would be do^a.. Lagarde thinks that James of 
Edessa should have rendered it by " opinion." C. agrees with 
James here. 

Many shall be afflicted (p. 56).] From the reading of C, " and 
so on," Arendzen conjectures that the Greek had xal rh rlXcr or 
aal TsXo;, and at last, and that C. thought this meant " and so on," 
and put another xal after it to join it to the next sentence. 

She that travaileth.] The words of Micah are often inter- 
preted of the B.V. Mary, but here apparently of the mother 
of Antichrist. Cf. Keble, Zyra Innocentium, Judas's Infancy. 

Chapter 11 

His left {eye) blue black.] Blue eyes and fair hair are 
considered to be very unlucky by Mohammedans and by 
many Eastern Christians; any one possessed of the latter 
invariably dyes it. The Treves fragment has "gaudens," a 
slip perhaps for " glaucus " ; but see above, p. 142. 

He hath two pupils.] It is not improbable that in Eah- 
mani's Syriac text the masculine (he) is a misprint for the 
feminine (it). If it is masculine in the MSS., the gender may 
be due to oip6aXf/.6g being masculine in Greek. The Treves 
fragment and C. show that the pronoun refers to " the eye," 
not to Antichrist. Dr. James quotes Pliny, N.H. vii. 16, as 



I. 11-15] NOTES 147 

showing that a double pupil is the sign of the evil eye {Apo- 
crypha Anecdota, p. 187). 

The sickle of desolation.] This is only the reading of a mar- 
ginal note of S., but it is found perhaps in the Treves fragnaent 
(" fallax dilectionis " for " falx desolationis " ? see p. 142), and 
is confirmed by C, which reads : " his little finger large as a 
sickle, that is the sickle of desolation." M.B. omit "This is 
the sickle of desolation," probably not understanding the 
phrase. S. has "the tower of desolation," reading MGJDLA, 
tower, for MGLA, sickle (see p. 142). — The passage gives to Anti- 
christ a sickle, as in Eev. xiv. 15 the Angel has one (cf. what 
follows in I. 12). Perhaps the "sickle of desolation" is a 
reminiscence of the " abomination of desolation " in St. Matt. 
xxiv. 15 (the Syriac word for "desolation" being the same 
here as in Pshitta of St. Matthew); Test, seems to connect 
that passage with the prophecy of 2 Thess. ii. 4.- — The Treves 
fragment adds at the end of this chapter : " And many as it 
were Christ will stand by," from the next chapter. 

Chapter 12 

The harvest is ripe . . . own works.] C. reads: the time 
for reaping [or : he that reapeth] is at the gates (i.e. lirt irhXaic, 
rightly for i'^i toXXo??, to many, S.M.B.), and they shall be reaped 
and he shall praise their deeds. The reading " at the gates " ' 
is almost certainly correct, but the error i'tti ToXXoyf must have 
been a very early one, for the Treves fragment has it (p. 142). 

Chapter 15 

The Testament is probably intended to supply what our 
Lord is not recorded to have said. This chapter, with the 
last part of the preceding and with the three which follow, 
seems to be the work of the Test. Compiler himself (see Note 
on Apocalyptic Prelude, p. 143). There is no such connect- 
ing hnk in the Egyptian Heptateuch between the Apostolic 
Church Order, which is its first book, and the Egyptian Church 
Order, which is its second. In Hauler's Verona fragments 
there is such a connexion, though only of a few lines. Com- 
pare with Test., " of what sort he ought to be who standeth at 
the head of the Church," Hauler (103*), " that they may know 
how those who are over the Church ought to be delivered and 
kept (?, tradi et custodiri). Hauler has only the germ, which 
Test, expands in its own manner. 



148 NOTES [l- 16-19 



Chaptek 16 

Martha and Mary and Salome^ The idea is taken from 
the Ap. CO. 26-28, which introduces Martha and Mary in 
order to throw some slight on women's ministry. Test, adds 
Salome and takes away the slight, as antagonistic to its en- 
thusiastic advocacy of the same. Indeed, the chapter seems 
to be inserted in order to emphasise the teaching that women 
are among " those who minister " in the Church (I. 15). 

Chaptek 17 

The Compiler, by a bold adaptation of Eev. i. 3, audaciously 
puts his " Testament " on a level with the Apocalypse. 

Chaptek 18 

Cast not pearls before swine.] Quoted in A.C. iii. 5, of 
widows being forbidden to teach mysteries to outsiders. 

My commandments and this tradition.] So the Syriac ; 
but there seems to be a mistake here, and a letter ( = " and ") 
is wrongly inserted. If so we must read : " But this tradition 
shall be spoken and given to those who are firm and fixed, 
and do not fall away, who keep my commandments, [to the 
end] that they, keeping them, may abide." Eahmani has 
" tradition " twice ; it is only once in the Syriac. 

The third order.] Perhaps the same as the " third heaven " 
of 2 Cor. xii. 2. The "rest" is perhaps the "refreshment" 
(amvaudig) of the disembodied state of the faithful departed. 
See Note on p. 195 ; and cf. 1. 35, II. 15, and (in a rather different 
sense) I. 44, all these passages being the Compiler's own work. 

Chaptek 19 

Description of the Church Building. The Arabic 
Didascalia, § 35, has this chapter ; it seems to be much shorter 
than Test., but Funk only summarises it. Ar. D. then goes on 
(§§ 36-39 incl.) to Test. T. 20, 21, 22, summary of 23, and 28. 
The chief differences are given in the Notes. These are the 
last chapters of Ar. D., for at the end of its § 39 we read, " The 
Didascalia is ended, the doctrine of our Fathers the Apostles, 
consisting of 39 chapters." Apparently these are the only 
chapters which correspond to Test, (see Introduction, pp. 33,34). 

The Church with Three Entrances. The word in 



I. 19] XOTES 149 

Syriac for " Church," as in other languages, stands for both 
the building and the congregation of the faithful. — In A.C. ii. 
57 is a description of the church building. It has porticos (to 
'TraeroipopiTa) to the east ; it is oblong and turned to the east. 
It is like a ship, the bishop like the helmsman, etc. (Lagarde, 
8418, 8420, 862). The description of the church in the Ethiopic 
Didascalia (Piatt, § 10) is very similar. The doors in Ar. D. 35 
are on south, west, and north ; in the Copto-arab. translation 
of Test, they are, south, west, and " towards the sea." For the 
type of the Trinity, see Note on p. 157. The three entrances 
seem to lead, not into the church itself but into the courtyard. 
The Diaconicum. In Ar. D. 35 the offerings are not to be 
seen ; this chamber is called (according to Funk's summary) 
the Sacristy. 

The Baptisteey. (1) The dimensions. In Ar. D. 35 also 
we find an oblong baptistery, not found elsewhere. All other 
known early examples are circular or octagonal (Diet. Chr. Ant., 
s.v. " Baptistery "). But the dimensions in Ar. D. are different ; 
they are 24 x 12, " as a symbol of the four and twenty elders 
[of the Apocalypse ; perhaps in Ar. D. there were twenty-four 
presbyters in the Church, see Note, p. 192], and . . . the twelve 
Apostles." (2) The twenty-one prophets. The number may be 
made up by adding to the four major and twelve minor 
prophets, Samuel, Nathan, Elijah, Elisha, and another (David, 
or Baruch, or St. John Baptist). Note that Eahmani's " com- 
plete number of the prophets " is a paraphrase only ; there is 
no " number " in the Syriac, and the resemblance to the " inter 
prophetas completum numero" of the Muratorian fragment 
vanishes on inspection. (3) The one entrance and three exits. 
The symbolism is noteworthy. The candidates enter to the 
font confessing the faith which was before the Gospel, of the One 
God ; in the font they will confess the three Divine Persons 
whom Christians know to exist within the one Divine Essence, 
and so they will leave the baptistery professed believers in them. 
The House of the Catechumens. Apparently a chamber 
is meant opening on to the church, though there is nothing 
in the text to decide at what part of the structure this chamber 
was, whether as a narthex at the west end opposite the altar, 
or as a "side chapel" in the church. Not mentioned in 
Funk's summary of Ar. D. 

The Altar, Sanctuary, and Bishop's Throne. (1) The 
Syriac word for " altar " is constantly used, like iugiaerrjpiov, in 
two senses — alike for the Holy Table and for the Sanctuary. 
(2) The throne by the altar. Eahmani conjectures " on the east" 



150 NOTES [l- 19 

(Syr. MDNHA for MDBHA); ef. the various reading in I. 41. 
In Ar. D. 35 we read that on the east is a " ksrdstirin," by 
which Funk supposes an apse and presbytery is meant, and this 
makes Eahmani's conjecture probable. (3) The arrangement. 
Of. Eev. viii. 3, where the " golden altar " is before the throne. 
This apparently is the arrangement here, the Holy Table being 
set some little way in front of the bishop's throne, perhaps at 
the chord of the apse. Such a position has been common both 
in East and West; in the orthodox Eastern Church to this 
day the ordinary position of the Holy Table is some distance 
away from the east wall. In the East Syrian (Nestorian) 
churches, however, the altar is built into the east wall, or, in 
the older buildings, into a recess in the east wall. In A.C. 
ii. 57 (Lagarde, 85i) the bishop's throne is in the middle, the 
presbyters on either side, the women apart and silent. Cf. 
A.C. viii. 12 (Lag. 248i8). (4) The orientation. This was not 
universal. In Constantine's Church of the Eesurrection at 
Jerusalem, the Holy Table was at the west (Diet. Chr. Ant., 
s.v. " Church," p. 369J). (5) The division of the presbyters. In 
Ap. CO. 18 there is the same arrangement, but twelve are 
meutioned on each side; the twenty- four presbyters clearly 
there refer to the Kevelation, and we note that the passage is 
put into the mouth of St. John ; also in Ap. CO. those on the 
right are more honourable (see Note on the "holy phials," 
p. 200). In Ar. D. 35 the presbyters sit on the right; the 
left side is for those that follow them; in the middle is 
the throne for the president (T^offTarjjc). The root-idea of 
dividing the presbyters is found in 1 Tim. v. 17. (6) The three 
steps. This arrangement, whose Trinitarian symbolism is 
obvious, was not infrequent in the mediaeval churches of the 
West. Scottish examples occur in the cathedrals of Elgin and 
Brechin, and in the little chapel of Hermitage in Liddesdale. 

The Two Porches foe Men and Women. This seems to 
refer to the church proper; the "porches" (sroa!) would be 
aisles divided by pillars from the central portion of the nave. 
Constantine's basilica at Jerusalem is said by Eusebius (Life 
of Constantine, bk. iii.. Diet. Chr. Ant. p. 369tt) to have had 

two such " porches " (dlrrm eroSiv). 

Light foe a Type. Cf. the offering of a lamp in IT. 11. 
This is a very favourite piece of symbolism in the Testament ; 
no idea is more frequent than the opposition of light and 
darkness. The exact meaning of the symbolism, however, 
is not very clearly defined. We might take it as expressive 
of watchfulness, the loins being girded, the lights burning 



I. 19] NOTES 151 

(St. Luke xii. 35). But more probably in the sense that Christ 
is the Light of the world ; namely, that as light expels darkness, 
truth came by Him (St. John i. 17). In Him all Christians 
are the light of the world (St. Matt. v. 14). The preference 
evinced by our Lord (St. Luke xxii. 12) and the Apostolic 
Church for an " upper chamber " and the " many lights " which 
illuminated that one at Troas (Acts xx. 8) may have been due 
in part to a similar feeling for a symbolism at once obvious 
and instructive. The choice certainly served to bring into 
sharper prominence the difference between Christianity and 
those Eastern pagan cults, such as that of Mithras, which 
chose caverns underground instead of upper chambers, and 
" loved the darkness rather than the light, because their deeds 
were evil" (St. John iii. 19; cf. Eom. xiii. 12; Col. i. 13; 
1 Thess. V. 5, etc.). At the same time practical purposes were 
not lost sight of. The light is " also for reading." 

The Sanctuary Veil. Ar. D. mentions in addition a screen 
round the altar. The veil is mentioned by St. Athanasius, 
Hist. Arian. 56 (see Brightman, L.E.W. 506^^), and in the 
Canons of Hippolytus 188, 210 (but these sections are thought 
by Achelis to be interpolations in C.H.). The Test, rule of 
" pure linen " (Ar. D. similar) may contain a reference to the 
"pure offering" of Malachi i. 11. See Note on p. 168. Veils 
have been common at least ever since the fourth century. 
The Eastern Churches of the present day show three stages. 
In the Armenian Churches, which are most modernised, a veil 
is drawn before the altar ; the Orthodox have a screen, usually 
of wood (the iconostasis), with veiled entrances in the middle and 
at the sides ; the Eastern Syrians (Nestorians), the most con- 
servative of Orientals, have a solid wall reaching to the roof, 
with a single opening in the middle closed by a veil and 
sometimes by doors. 

The Place of Commemoeation (not in Ar. D.). The " com- 
memoration" is probably the deacon's litany (of. I. 35), in 
which benefactors would be mentioned. Note the high place 
of the readers, which is a mark of early date ; they are allowed 
to " name the benefactors by way of commemoration," that is, 
probably, to say the litany (see Note on p. 204). This mark 
of early date (for this section) makes it improbable that the 
" chief deacon " mentioned in the same section (see below) is 
the later "archdeacon." — James of Edessa uses the word 
" commemoration " in his own writings in the sense of the 
Great Intercession for the Church after the Invocation in the 
Eucharistic Liturgy (Brightman, L.E.W. 4921").— In Pere- 



152 NOTES [l- 19 

grinatio Silviae (see Introduction, page 14) the Bishop at Jeru- 
salem " commemorates " at the morning service. He " recites 
the names of those whom he wishes to commemorate." In 
the same work the deacon " commemorates " at vespers (4 p.m.) 
and the children answer Kyrie Eleison (Bishop J. Wordsworth 
gives some extracts in English from this book, on the Day- 
Hours at Jerusalem, in his Ministry of Grace, pp. 348-350). — 
In Test, the place of commemoration is a place to receive the 
offerings ; the " house of the offering " seems to be a place to 
keep them in. — ^With the mention of naming the donors, com- 
pare A.C. iii. 4 (Lagarde, 98^% " tell them [who receive alms] 
who is the giver, that they may pray for him ly name." See 
also Test. II. 16 (p. 132). 

The Chief Deacon is twice mentioned in this chapter ; but 
not yet as belonging to a separate order, as an archdeacon. 
In I. 34 s.f., the same deacon is referred to as one "who is 
considered among them [the deacons] to be most earnest and 
best in governing," and therefore chosen as guest-master ; but 
he is not there called a " chief deacon." The Greek original 
could not have had &pxiSiii''-'>i'oc in this present chapter, or 
James of Edessa would have rendered it by the usual Syriac 
transliteration of that word. The use of the iiame apxiiia'^owg 
seems not to date, as far as we know, from before the Council 
of Ephesus, A.D. 431 (Diet. Chr. Ant. p. 135&). But Theodoret 
{H.II. i. 26) speaks of Athanasius as the leader of the chorus 
of deacons (oroS x''P''^ ™'' ^'""oi'wi' vyoufiLevog). In Test, the "chief 
deacon," besides entertaining strangers, helps the priest to 
write the names of the offerers. It is not correct to speak of 
the Testament as mentioning archdeacons. For the bearing 
of these passages on the question of date, see Introduction, 
p. 36. The Ar. D. does not mention the chief deacon. 

The Place of the Lection. In Av. D. it is to the north, 
also outside the "altar" (sanctuary). The arrangement seems 
to be somewhat like that of some Eastern churches of the 
present day. The Eastern Syrians have a sort of platform 
(roughly corresponding to the eoxia, of ecclesiastical Greek) out- 
side the sanctuary wall, and from it they read the lections. 
This platform, which they call the hema, is separated from the 
nave by a dwarf wall. The Western Syrians also have a 
platform outside the sanctuary wall, called (Eahmani tells us, 
p. 154) QSTRUMA {= ■x.arasTputi.u, which in classical Greek 
means the deck of a ship). 

The House of the Bishop]. In Ar. D. it is " above the 
church to the north of it." 



I. 19, 20] NOTES 153 

The Widows that sit in Feont. See Note on p. 198. 

The Guest House. The systematic support by the Church 
of " the strangers sojourning among us " is mentioned by 
Justin Martyr, Apol. i. 67. Cf. p. 99. 

Chapter 20 

Zet the bishop be appointed.] The Syriac word for "appointed " 
has no reference to the imposition of hands. It is often used 
of ordination of clergy, but also of any appointment or election, 
e.g. of an emperor. It seems to refer to the whole action from 
election to ordination inclusive. The corresponding word in 
Greek, which is probably here underlying the Syriac, namely, 
xardaragi:, is the jnost common word for ordination as a com- 
plete act. See Brightman in J.T.S. i. 273, 274, for a collection 
of instances. See below, p. 186, and often. 

Qualifications of a Bishop. These are not given in C.H., 
Eg. CO., or Eth. CO. ; very shortly in A.C viii. 4 and ii. 2 
(the latter referring to the Pastoral Epistles, as does Test.). 
But it is mentioned in all that the bishop must be chosen by 
all the people: CH. 7 ; H. 103^ Eg. CO. 31 (Tattam, p. 32) ; 
Eth. CO. 21 ; A.C. viii. 4 ; contrast canon 13 of Laodicea. — 
Ar. D. says nearly the same as Test, as to the qualifications. 

Marriage of Bishops. (1) Other Church Orders, etc. None 
of the earlier Orders which are of the same family as Test, 
have anything about the marriage of the clergy; CH. 7, 
Eg. CO. 31, Eth. CO. 21, and H. say nothing about it. But 
Ap. CO. 16 in the Syriac (Introduction, p. 11) has : " It is a good 
thing if he be without a wife, but if not that he should be from 
one wife (cf. p. 154). The form of Ap. CO. which appears in 
the Egyptian Heptateuch (i.e. prefixed to Eg. CO.) softens this 
down by adding that he is to abide with a wife having children 
(Tattam, p, 18). A.C ii. 2 have, "having been'the husband of 
one wife, and monogamous, ruling well his own house ... if 
he have or had a holy and faithful wife, if he has brought up 
children well," etc. In A.C. viii. 4 the bishop's marriage is not 
referred to, but his household (ohoc) is mentioned. A.C. show 
no preference for celibate bishops, but rather the other way. 
In Ap. Can. 6 or 5 (dr. 400 A.D.?), bishops, presbyters, and deacons 
are forbidden to put away their wives for religion (in canon 40 or 
39 the bishop is not prevented from leaving property to his 
wife or children) ; so Antioch in Encaen. can. 24, in A.D. 341 
(Hefele, Councils, ii. 73, Eng. trans.). Both Ap. Can. 17 and A.C. 
vi. 17 forbid digamists to be clerics. The Synod of Gangra 



154 NOTES [l- 20 

(Hefele, ii. 329), the date of which is uncertain, but which was 
held against the Eustathians about the time of the Council of 
Laodicea, probably in the latter half of the fourth century, 
says (can. 4) that married priests may offer the sacrifice (the 
Eucharist). In the Ethiopia Didascalia (Piatt, § 3), which 
exhibits a much shorter form of the Didascalia than A.C. i.-vi., 
a bishop need not be a widower ; " a man that hath married 
one wife, a woman befitting him, who can govern his house, 
who hath brought up his children in purity." The Ar. D. is 
less ascetic than Test. The bishop may be married, though a 
celibate is preferred ; he need not be a widower. The phrase 
about widowhood is : " that he may not be painfully seized by 
the evils of widowhood," a phrase which could easily have come 
from the parallel in Test., but could not have suggested it. 
(2) Marriage after ordination is not explicitly forbidden in the 
Church Orders, but the tone of the books which mention 
marriage at all is against it. It was first forbidden by civil 
law by Justinian in a.d. 528 {Cod. Just. i. 3, 41, quoted by 
Bishop J. Wordsworth, Ministry of Grace, 224). Hippolytus (?), 
in his Refutation of Heresies, ix. 12, disallows post-ordination 
marriage, but Pope Callistus allowed it ; the Councils of 
Ancyra in A.D. 314 (can. 10) and Neo-Caesarea in a.d. 315 
(can. 1) forbid it, the latter for presbyters, and the former for 
deacons unless they have given notice of marriage before 
ordination (Hefele, i. 210, 223). (3) Interpretation of 1 Tim. 
iii. 2 as referring to widowers. We are not here concerned 
with the true interpretation of this verse, but with the meaning 
given to it by the writers of the Church Orders, etc., which 
refer to bishops' marriage. Probably the Syrian Ap. CO. at 
least interpreted the passage of widowers ; that the bishop's 
wife must be dead (see p. 153). This is the most natural 
interpretation of " from one wife." The Test. Compiler inserts 
here a reference to sympathy with widowhood. In I. 33 of 
deacons he does not definitely say, but only hints, that it is 
good if they be celibates ; but he goes on to say that at any 
rate a deacon must be one who is "from the marriage of one 
wife . . . He should not have children, but if he is from a wife 
or [S. : and] have children," etc. These latter phrases seem to 
be an echo of Ap. CO. ; and they look as if Test. Compiler 
understood St. Paul to mean that bishops and deacons must be 
widowers. On the other hand, as far as we know, deacons at 
least have never been obliged in the East to be widowers or 
celibates. The point of view may be illustrated by the Pshitta 
version of the passage. [We may note in passing that the 



I. 20, 21] NOTES 155 

Pshitta has qashtsha ( = presbyter) for ImnxoTos, and "pres- 
byterate " for ImsxcTrii in 1 Tim. iii. 1, 2, Tit. i. 7 (to suit Tit. i. 
5) ; but here it is not a question of what Bible text James of 
Edessa had before him, but what the Test. Compiler was think- 
ing of.] In the Pshitta of 1 Tim. iii. 2, 12, widowership is 
probably implied: "and he was the husband of one wife" 
(ver. 2 and Tit. i. 6) ; " such as had one wife " (ver. 12). This 
might have led us to suspect that the suggestion of widower- 
hood is due not to the Test. Compiler, but to James of Edessa, 
influenced by his Syriac Bible ; but the Ap. CO. " from one wife," 
and the parallel passage in Ar. D., show that this can hardly be 
the case, and that the Test. Compiler wrote a somewhat similar 
phrase in his Greek. But here, as elsewhere, he hints more 
than he explicitly commands. He would like his clergy to 
be more ascetic than he thinks that he is likely to persuade 
them to be. For the marriage of presbyters, see Note to 
I. 29, p. 186. 

Chapter 21 

Bishops' Ordination on Sunday. So Eg. CO. 31, A.C 
viii. 4 ; Ar. D. 36 says nothing about it ; Eth. CO. 21 has 
"Sunday" according to Achelis, but Ludolf gives "in die 
Sabbati " (p. 823). CH. 7 have : In ea . . . hebdomade in qua 
ordinatur, in that week when he is ordained; Eahmani 
(p. xxxvi.) suggests that it should be : in eo sabbato, on that 
Saturday, as Ludolf, the Arabic for " Saturday " and " week " 
being pronounced alike. 

The neighbouring presbyters and bishops.] This is a sign 
that Test, was not only meant for a small and insignificant 
sect (p. 24). AG. viii. 4 have a similar phrase, " with the pres- 
byterate and the bishops who are present," and so H. lOS^", 
Ar.D., etc. 

Saving vjashed their hands.] In A.C viii. 11 (Lagarde, 
248*) there is a lavabo at the Offertory. Not in the parallels 
except Ar. D. 

The presbyters . . . in silence.] So Eg. CO. 31 (Tattam, 
p. 32), Eth. CO. 21, H. 103". Ar. D. substitutes " the whole 
congregation," and C.H. 9 are similar. 

The Declaration said by all the Bishops. The usage in 
Test, is the same as in Ar.D. (but there "the first bishop 
among them " says the prayer, words which show some trace 
of a primacy), and appears to be halfway between two opposite 
customs — that of all the bishops saying the prayer of consecra- 
tion or ordination (there is no difference in the nomenclature 



156 NOTES [l- 21 

at this early date), and that of only one bishop saying it. In 
Hauler 103" one bishop " asked by all," says, all others being 
silent : " God and Father of our. Lord Jesus Christ," etc., and 
lays on a hand. In C.H. 9, 10, all (not only the bishops) pray 
for him, saying : " God, strengthen him whom Thou hast pre- 
pared for us " ; then'" one of the bishops and presbyters " (unus 
ex episeopis gt presbyteris) is chosen to lay on a hand, and 
prays : " God and Father," etc. [For a discussion of the 
curious phrase just mentioned, see Bishop J. Wordsworth, 
Ministry of Grace, 128.] In Eg. CO. 31 all pray silently for 
the Holy Ghost, and the chief (or chosen, -rpoapiTos) of the 
bishops lays on hands (or hand, see below), and prays (the 
words of the prayer not given) ; all the bishops, however, have 
previously laid on hands, praying silently for the descent of 
the Holy Ghost. But in Eth. CO. 21 (Ludolf, p. 323), which 
has much affinity with Test., all the bishops lay on hands and 
each one says the prayer : " God and Father " (see also below 
on I. 23, p. 165). In A.C viii. 4 three bishops are selected, 
the rest of the bishops and presbyters praying in silence, the 
deacons hold open the Gospels on the ordained's head ; " one 
of the first bishops with two others standing near the altar 
. . . says to God . . ." What do the two bishops do ? Do 
they lay on hands ? This is probable, though imposition of 
hands is not mentioned. Do they also say the prayer ? Per- 
haps from the other bishops being expressly bidden to be. silent 
we may infer that they do repeat the words. The fourth canon 
of Nicaea throws no light on the question, as it only says that 
three bishops must come together for the ordination (y^eiporovla.), 
which need not at all mean that all three must lay on hands, but 
ensures that no bishop be appointed except when three bishops 
of the neighbourhood have met ; yet this canon may have sug- 
gested to A.C the number "three." All the above Church 
Orders imply a number of bishops being present. The formula 
in Test, (which Copto-arab. varies slightly) is almost the same 
as that still used in the West Syrian Ordinal (Eahmani, p. 29). 
The declaration seems to be the work of Test. Compiler himself. 

Chosen in the Spirit (p. 65).] In Ar. D., " in the Name of 
Father, Son, and Holy Ghost." 

The Church which alone hath the principality, and which is 
not dissolved^ i.e. the monarchical and indissoluble Church. 
Ar. D. has " one and immaculate Church." This has been 
noted as a non-Montanistic feature, but see p. 16. 

Holy revelations.'] See Note on I. 29, p. 186. This is 
omitted by Ar. D. 



I. 21] NOTES 157 

The Trinity.} So A.D. ; cf. Eg. CO. baptismal formula of 
submission given in Note to II. 8 ; found in Test. I. 19, 21, 23 
(thrice), II. 7; in C.H. 2 (bracketed by Achelis), where see 
Achelis' note (p. 38) ; he quotes Hippolytus c. Noet. c. 14 ; 
53, 16. 

The Ordination Prayer in other Church Orders. It is 
not given in Eg. CO.; C.H. 11-18 have a prayer from which we 
may, by omitting the itahc portions as not being in the other 
Church Orders, conjecturally restore that of the supposed 
original " Lost Church Order." The prayer in C.H. is : 

God, Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, Father of mercies and 
God of all comfort, who dwellest in the heights and lookest on 
humble things, who knowest all things before they are ; Thou 
who hast constituted the bounds of the Church ,i by whose 
power (imperio) it is that from Adam there should remain a 
just race (var. lect., genus sublime) in the mannsr (ratione) of 
this bishop, who is great Abraham,^ who hast constituted pre- 
lacies and principalities * (praelaturas et principatus),* look on 
N. Thy servant, giving Thy power (virtutem) and effectual 
(ef&cacem) Spirit,* whom Thou gavest to the holy Apostles 
through our Lord Jesus Christ, Thy only Son, to them who 
founded the Church in every place to the honour and glory of 
Thy holy Name. Forasmuch as Thou ^ knowest the heart of 
each one, grant to him ' that without sin he may see (videat) 
Thy 'people, that he may be worthy to feed Thy great [and] 
holy flock. Cause also that his life may he an example (mores 
ejus sint superiores) to all the people without any falling away. 
Cause also that he may le envied by all for (his) excellence, and 
receive his prayers and offerings, which he shall offer to Thee 
day and night, and may they be to Thee a sweet savour. Give 
also to him, Lord, the episcopate, and a mild (clementem) 
spirit, and power to forgive sins; and give him the ability 
(facultatem) to loose all bonds of iniquity of demons, and to 
heal all diseases; and bruise Satan under his feet quickly, 
through our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom be glory to Thee, 
with Him, and the Holy Ghost, for ever. Amen. 

[H. 103, Eth. CO. 21 (Ludolf, p. 323), and Const. H. 2 have very 
nearly the same prayer, omitting the italicised words. The principal 
variations are here noted : 

1 H., Eth. CO., Const. H. add : through the word of Thy grace. 
Test, has in its own manner personified " word." 

2 H.: the race of the just men, Abraham ; so Eth. CO. and Const. H., 
but with " from Abraham." 

^ H.; princes and priests ; Eth. CO.: judges and priests ; Const. H.: 
rulers and priests. 



158 NOTES [l- 21 

* H. adds (Eth. CO. and Const. H. similar) : and didst not leave Thy 
holy [place] without a ministry, and from the beginning of the world 
wast pleased to be preached (or to preach) in those whom Thou hast 
chosen. 

^ For " effectual spirit " and the following words, see below, p. 159. 

« H. and Eth. 0.0. (not Const. H.) insert "Father" as Test. 

' The endings in H., Eth. CO., and Const. H. are very like each other, 
but the order of CH. is a good deal altered ; thus H. has : grant to 
this Thy servant whom Thou hast chosen to the episcopate, to feed Thy 
flock, and to perform the chief priesthood {apxieparevfiv, Const. H.) to 
Thee, serving without blame night and day, constantly to reconcile 
(iXaoTKeo-^at, Const. H.; cf. A.C. viii. 5) Thy face and to offer the gifts of 
Thy holy Church, to have in the spirit of the chief priesthood (ra irvei- 
fMTi ra apxifpariKm, Const. H.) power to forgive sins according to Thy 
command, to give lots according to Thy precept, to loose every bond 
according to the power which Thou gavest to the Apostles, to please Thee 
in mildness and a pure heart, offering to Thee a sweet savour, through, 
etc. Eth. CO. has "priesthood" for "chief priesthood," "ordines" for 
" lots," and " may see Thy face " (cf. Test.) for " reconcile." These Church 
Orders are an interesting link between C.H., or rather the " Lost Church 
Order," and the Testament.'] 

The Ar. D. has some differences, though in the main it is 
the same as Test., having the passage interpolated before 
" God and Father." It adds to " Name of Thee and of Thy 
Only-begotten " the words " and of Thy Holy Ghost " [which 
might well be added by a writer coming after Test., but could 
hardly have been omitted by Test, if Ar. D. had preceded; 
Test, had a clear conception of the personality of the Holy 
Spirit (Introduction, p. 20), and would be very unlikely to omit 
this phrase if he had it before him] ; for " after the pattern of 
Thy heaven " it has " as a pattern of the virgin Church in 
heaven." It gives thrice the name of the ordained; for 
" princes for Thy people " it has " president of the priests " ; 
it varies the phrase about the " princely Spirit " (see p. 159) ; 
for " Father who knowest the hearts " it reads " O God, who 
triest the hearts and reins," as if conscious of the incongruity 
of applying "who knowest the hearts" (xapSioyvuiBTris) to the 
Father when in the Acts it is the epithet of our Lord [in A.C. 
ii. 24 (Lagarde, 49') and iii. 7 (Lagarde, 104') it is applied to 
our Lord, but in A.C. viii. 5 (Lagarde, 2381'*), ^tjg parallel to 
this passage, it is used of the Father, as here] ; it omits " to 
stand at the head of the priesthood," and is more full in the 
clauses about the erring people, and has some other minor 
variations. On the whole, the Ar. D. prayer is probably 
derived from Test., and not vice versd. 

The prayer in A.C. viii. 5 is very much longer than C.H., 
Eth. CO., etc., and is largely interpolated. 



I. 21] NOTES 159 

The Ordination Pkayek in the Testament (p. 65). 
(1) The preamble [down to " God and Father "] is probably 
the work of the Test. Compiler; it is not in the parallels, 
except Ar. D. It seems to be an expansion of the " Omni- 
potens " with which Eth. CO. (unlike C.H. and H.) begins 
(so Ludolf, p. 323, but Achelis, p. 42, has omitted it).— (2) Thy 
princely Spirit, etc. Evidently the Greek had jj/e^ov/xoV. The 
Syriac word used by James of Edessa is found in the Syriac 
version of Clement of Eome's quotation from Ps. li. (Clem. 
Eom. xviii. 12) ; but the Pshitta in that psalm renders " thy 
glorious Spirit." The parallels in this prayer have : C.H. 
(Achelis), efi&cacem ; Const. H. and A.C. viii. 5, ^ys^ov/xo'v ; 
Eth. CO. (Ludolf) and H., principalis ; Ar. D., Almighty. — 
(3) There is a curious variation in the words which follow : 
which Thou didst deliver to Thy beloved Son Jesus Christ. 
Eth. Co., H., and A.C. viii. 5 (Lagarde, 238^^) are similar to 
Test. But Ar. D. has " whom Thou hast given to Thy* holy 
Church through Thy dear Son," and so Const. H. and C.H. 
(but with " Apostles " for " Church ") ; and the modern Coptic 
and Abyssinian omit the reference to our Lord here. — (4) Bay 
and night : so pp. 68 (but see below), 91, and so also C.H. 16 ; 
but Eth. CO. 21, Hauler 105", Const. H. 2, and A.C. viii. 5 
have " night and day." The latter phrase seems to allude to the 
Eastern division of time, in which a new day begins at sunset ; 
the former to the Eoman division, in which a new day began at 
midnight (cf. Test. II. 12, 19). The biblical usage varies, St. 
John preferring the former, St. Mark and St. Paul the latter, 
St. Luke being indifferent (Wordsworth, Ministry of Grace, 
p. 305). The Test, usage would point, perhaps, to a connexion 
with Asia Minor (cf. p. 45), but that Test, is inconsistent with 
itself, passages on pp. 68, 106, 133, 136, showing the opposite 
custom. For the context, cf. Acts xxvi. 7, Rev. vii. 15 ; but 
" ministering " in Test, would be XimvpyoZvTa,, as Const. H. and 
A.C., whereas Acts and Eev. use XarpiOnv. — (5) Thy powerful 
Spirit, to loose, etc. This is not the same word as before (Syr. 
mshaltS,) ; perhaps the Greek was ^amXixov (cf. Ar. D., " royal 
Spirit ") here. But Const. H. has apxii/>ar(x6v, high-priestly. 

DOXOLOGIES TO THE PrAYBRS IN THE TESTAMENT. The 

general form is "through whom (the Son) glory be to the 
Father, with the Holy Ghost (L 21, 23, 30, 32, IL 5, 9, 16 ; 
and, omitting the Holy Ghost, I. 38, 43). We have, however, 
in the beginning of the Eucharistic thanksgiving (p. 72), " that 
we may praise Thee and Thy Only-begotten Son, and Thy 
Holy Ghost, now and alway and for ever and ever " [but see 



160 NOTES [I. 21 

p. 249], and at the end of, that chapter (p. 77), "glorified in 
Father and in Son and in Holy Ghost"; also (I. 26), "praised 
is the kingdom of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy 
Ghost"; in I. 41, "to Thee [be] praise and to Thine Only- 
begotten Son, . . . and to the (var. lect.. Thy) Holy Ghost " ; and 
in I. 43, " in Thy Father, and in Thee, and in the Holy Ghost 
is our hope for ever." That the general form is as above is 
instructive in an anti-Arian document. The form " to the 
Father, through the Son, in the Holy Ghost," is the unvarying 
one in Sarapion, and Mr.' Brightman (in J.T.S. i. 92) deduces 
an early date for that prayer-book from the words. For though 
that form is found occasionally in St. Athanasius, yet in Egypt 
Didymus (de Trin.i. 32, 34,iii. 23, quoted by Brightman) treats 
it as simply heretical. It occurs in A.C. viii, but that writer's 
semi-Arian bias would fully account for this. That one so 
violently anti-Arian as the Test. Compiler should ordinarily 
use it, implies an early date. 

Bishops as High Pkiests. The name " high priest " 
{apyjipixii) is not actually used in this chapter ; but it is implied 
by phrases like " head of the priesthood," and it is used ex- 
pressly in II. 21. It is not found in Sarapion. It is in 
C.H. 200 (" a principe sacerdotum "), the passage correspond- 
ing to Test. 11. 21. And in the bishop's ordination prayer 
H. mentions " chief priesthood " (not Eth. CO. ; see above). 
Probably the earliest explicit use of the name " high priest " 
in this connexion is in Tertullian, de Baft. Yl ; he says " the 
high priest (summus sacerdos), who is the bishop, has the right 
of giving baptism" (Migne's Tertullian, vol. i. 1326). Thence- 
forward the expression became common. St. Clement of Eome 
(I. 40) has the germ of the idea; he compares the Christian 
ministry to the Jewish : " Unto the high priest his proper 
services have been assigned, and to the priests their proper 
office is appointed, and upon the levites their proper ministra- 
tions are laid [cf. AC. ii. 25, Lagarde, 546, jj. 371^ ff.]. The 
layman is bound by the layman's ordinance." St. Justin Martyr 
{Dial. 116) says of the Christians: "We are the true high 
priestly race of God {ap-x^npamiv rh aXriSivbv yivo; sa,u,iv roD hoZ). 

The Kiss of Peace. So the parallels ; Eg. GO. 31 (Tattam, 
p. 32), Eth. GO. 21, H. lOG^, GH. 19. In AC. viii. 5 it comes 
after enthronisation, which is not mentioned in Test, or the 
above parallels, though it is alluded to in C.H. 30, 32. In 
Copto-arab., at the end of the ordination prayer, there is a 
rubric directing the bishops to give the kiss of peace to the 
new bishop. 



T. 21, 22] NOTES 161 

Laying on op Hands, singular or plueal. The usage 
varies, though the singular (laying on of one hand) is hy far 
the commoner custom. The following is a conspectus : 

(1) Bishop's ordination. Test, here and Eg. CO. 31 
(according to Lagarde, but not according to Tattam) plural, 
and so Eth. CO. 21 (but there all the bishops lay on hands 
throughout, and all say the whole prayer) ; but C.H. 10 and 
H. 103^^ singular. Laying on of hands not mentioned in A.C 
viii. 4. 

(2) Presbyter's ordination. Test. I. 30, H. lOSis, Eth. CO. 22, 
and A.C viii. 15 singular; C.H. 30 do not say, but "all is 
like a bishop's ordination " ; Eg. CO. 32 plural (so both Tattam 
and Lagarde), yet in a reference to a presbyter's ordination 
in Eg. Co. 33 the singular is used. 

(3) Beacon's ordination. Test. I. 38 singular (but Codex S. 
plural), and so C.H. 38, Eth. CO. 23, and " Galilean Statutes " 4 
(Wordsworth, Ministry of Grace, p. 166 n.) ; but Eg. CO. 33 
plural (twice mentioned ; so both Lagarde and Tattam), and so 
A.C. viii. 16, H. 109i5. 

(4) Minor orders. N"o laying on of hands in Test, or earlier 
parallels. In A.C. viii. 18 ff., for deaconesses and subdeacons 
plural, for readers singular. 

(5) Benediction of catechumens. Test, singular in I. 27 
(but there it merely represents yjipoheia), and expressly in 
IL 5, 16, 20. In Eg. CO. 45 plural (cf. confessors : Note on 
p. 197). 

(6) At exorcism before baptism. Singular in Test. II. 7 and 
Eg. CO. 45 ; plural in C.H. 108, but only there a stretching 
out of hands. 

(7) Confirmation. Singular in Test. II. 9, C.H. 136, Eg. CO. 
46. The reading in H. Ill* is doubtful. 

Chapter 22 

Hours of Prayer for the Bishop. We note that they 
begin in the evening as the first hour of the whole twenty-four - 
(see II. 24 and Note on "day in night" on p. 159). — Test, has 
" the twelfth hour [of the day] at the lamp [lighting] " ; the 
parallel phrase in Ar. D. has " at the beginning of the night." 
Thus Test, identifies the twelfth hour (6 p.m.) as the lamp 
lighting. Silvia, who visited Jerusalem in winter, describes the 
tenth hour as the "lamp lighting" (see Note on II. 24, p. 238). 

/ have said unto you.] Ar. D. has " the Lord hath said " ; 
it seems to have purposely removed the " Testament " pretence. 



162 NOTES [I- 22 

The Bishop's Fasts. The eighteen exalted entrances, or steps, 
are identified in Test, with the three weeks' fast after Ordina- 
tion, that is, six to each week, Sunday being expressly excepted. 
But why eighteen? Clearly Ar.D. did not understand (see 
below). It is possible that the Test. Compiler had before him 
some devotional work under this name, just as a modern 
devotional book has been entitled The I will's of Christ. If 
we examine the Gospels to find such entrances, we shall find 
very few in St. Matthew or St. John, but, curiously enough, St. 
Luke yields exactly eighteen. Thus (1) Entrance to Samaria 
and Gralilee on the way to Jerusalem, xvii. 11 ; (2) to Jericho, 
xix. 1 ; (3) to Zacchaeus's house, xix. 6 ; (4) to Bethphage and 
Bethany, xix. 29 ; (5) to Jerusalem on Palm Sunday, xix. 38 ; 
(6) to the Temple on Sunday, xix. 45 ; (7) to the Temple on 
Monday, xxi. 37 ; (8) to the Temple on Tuesday, ib. ; (9) to the 
Temple on Wednesday, ib.; (10) to Jerusalem for the Passover, 
xxii. 14, cf. ver. 10 ; (11) to the Mount of Olives, xxii. 39 ; 
(12) to Caiaphas, xxii. 54 ; (13) to the Council, xxii. 66 ; (14) to 
Pilate, xxiii. 1 ; (15) to Herod, xxiii. 7 ; (16) to Pilate the second 
time, xxiii. 11; (17) to Golgotha, xxiii. 33; (18) to Paradise, 
xxiii. 46, cf. ver. 43. Thus it is possible to conjecture a refer- 
ence to a devotional work founded on St. Luke. 

In Ar. D. 38 these eighteen entrances were not understood, 
and they are reduced to three (death, resurrection, ascension), 
connected with the three days' fast a week all the year round. 
The explanation is not happy, as the last two entrances in 
Ar. D. are not entrances to the Passion. But the fact that 
Ar. D. explicitly explains the entrances, however mistakenly, 
and that Test, assumes that his readers will understand with- 
out explanation, points to the latter being before the former. 
Test, could never have increased three to eighteen without 
explaining why ; but we can well understand that Ar. D., not 
understanding eighteen, reduced them to the three which he 
could easily explain. 

The food mentioned in Ar. D. (bread, oil, etc.) is " for that 
year during which he fasts." Ar. D. is apparently speaking of 
a year's fast after ordination, and perhaps this is the meaning 
of Test., in which case " the rest of the time " means " after the 
first year." In the three weeks' fast, Ar. D. says expressly that 
nothing is to be eaten till the Saturday. It omits the clause 
about the Eucharistic Cup; Copto-arab. does the same, and 
also omits " whether he be well or iU." Both Ar. D. and Copto- 
arab. also make an exception to the three weeks' fast when 
the bishop is " consecrated in the days of the Fifty (Pentecost)," 



I. 22] NOTES 163 

and say that the fast is to be broken on Saturday. Note that 
Ar. D. has exactly the same obscure phrase about the three 
days' fast each week that appears in Test. — The " wine of the 
Holy Thing" in Test. (p. 69) is probably " wine such as is pro- 
vided for the Eucharist." See I. 31, pp. 95, 188. 

We notice that Test, does not say on which days the bishop 
is to fast. Wednesday and Friday are not mentioned, as they 
are in Ar. D. 38. Particular fast days are not laid down in 
Test, except two before Easter. Now Wednesday and Friday 
are mentioned as fasts, about 120 a.d. (?), in the " Didach^ " or 
Teaching of the Twelve Apostles, and we find many early refer- 
ences to those days ; they were observed diligently in Egypt, 
but, if Bishop Wordsworth's conclusion from the evidence be 
correct (Ministry of Grace, p. 327), the practice of fasting on 
these days was not used, or else was dropped, in the rest of the 
East, until it was somewhat vehemently taken up at the end of 
the fourth century by Epiphanius and others. It is found in 
A.C. v. 15 (Lagarde, 145^^); and Ap. Can. 69 (68) says that a 
clerk not observing these days, unless let by sickness, is to be 
deposed. The absence, then, in Test, of any reference to these 
days is an early and non-Egyptian characteristic. 

Bishops not to eat Meat. So in Ar.D. 38. This rule still 
obtains among both East and West Syrians (Nestorians and 
Jacobites), the former, at least, insisting that the bishop shall 
not have eaten meat during the whole of his lifetime, nor yet 
his mother during her pregnancy. Contrast Ap. Can. 51 and 
53 (50 and 52), which expressly allow meat to bishops, and 
also wine, though not to excess (cf. A.C. viii. 44). 

Days for the Euchaeist. Test, says that the Eucharist is 
to be celebrated only on Saturday or Sunday and on a fast day. 
From the directions at the beginning of I. 23 it is probable that 
we must, by the omission of a single letter (Aleph), correct or 
into and; Ar.D. 38 says "Saturday and Sunday," and adds 
" festivals which fall on week days, unless the festival fall oh 
Wednesday or Friday," but perhaps it allows the Eucharist 
on these days after 3 p.m. ; Copto-arab., with reference to the 
last point, says merely " festivals occurring in the week." In 
A.C. ii. 59 (Lagarde, 90^) Saturday and Sunday are specially 
appointed for divine service ; but in the parallel passage in 
H. 441*, Sunday only is mentioned. In C.H. 201 the bishop may 
celebrate the Eucharist " as often as he wishes to enjoy the 
mysteries " ; that a celebration and not only a reception of the 
Holy Communion is intended, is seen by the mention of " white 
vestments, more beautiful than [those of] all the people, 



164 NOTES [l- 22, 23 

especially splendid." In Ar.D. 38 daily communion is pre- 
scribed for the bishop, but this would probably be by reserva- 
tion ; see Note on II. 25, p. 239. 

The question of a Saturday Eucharist is an obscure one. 
Mr. Brightman (in J.T.S. i. 92) observes that Sarapion only 
provides for a Sunday Eucharist, as Prayer 19 is entitled "The 
First Prayer of the Lord's Day " ; but this seems hardly to be 
conclusive. He says that the observance of Saturday was 
coming into use in the East in 375, and was already established 
in Egypt in 380. Saturday was regarded as a fast in the West 
(see canons 23, 26, of the Council of Elvira in Spain, dr. a.d. 
305), but as a feast in the East, where feeling was influenced 
by opposition to the Marcionites, who were stringent in making 
it a fast. — If for " a fast day " we read " Wednesday and Friday," 
as in other parts of the world in the fourth century, the Test, 
rule would give exactly the communion usage of St. Basil, who 
speaks of Sunday, Wednesday, Friday and Saturday as days 
when he communicated, though, he says, some received daily 
(Ep. 93 ad Caesariam). St. Basil's seems to have been a 
common practice, but it does not follow that there would be an 
Eucharist on each of these days (see p. 239). 

The Bishop instructing on the Eve (lit., in the evening). 
This means the evening before, which is still reckoned as the 
evening of the day itself in the East. See above. Note on I. 21 
(p. 159), "day and night." 

The Catechumens admonished with Meditations of the 
Prophets and Apostles. Perhaps we should render" Apostle," 
i.e. St. Paul. The " Apostle " is constantly used in later times 
for the liturgical Epistle. 

Chapter 23 
the eucharistic liturgy 

Probable order of Service at Daavn. (None of it is 
appointed to be said daily, the Eucharist expressly not daily.) 

Three " hymns of praise," or prayers, with two antiphons 
between them (I. 26). 

Psalms and four O.T. canticles (I. 26). 

Preface and concluding " hymns of praise," with two anti- 
phons between them (I. 26). 

The " prayer is completed " (I. 27 ; see Note on p. 193). 

The lections ; and instruction by bishop or presbyter (I. 27). 

Prayer (extempore ?) and dismissal of catechumens (I. 27). 



I. 23] NOTES 165 

Deacon's litany, the bishop "completing the prayer" 
(I. 35). 

Mystagogic instruction on festivals (I. 28). 
Deacon's short " admonition " (I. 23). 
Preface and Eucharistic thanksgiving (I. 23). 
Benedictiis qui venit, etc., and communion (I. 23). 
Thanksgiving after reception (I. 23). 

Liturgies of other Church Orders, etc. 

(1) The Canons of Hippolytus 20-29 do not give a liturgy, 
but say that the deacon brings the offerings, and the new 
bisliop lays his hand on them with the presbyters, saying, The 
Lord be with all, etc., and Sursum Corda, after which he says 
the prayer and finishes the Offering (•jrpoaipopd ?). They then 
refer to the prayer over the oil and first fruits, if any, ending 
with the Gloria Patri in the form " Glory to Thee, Father and 
Son and Holy Ghost, for ever and ever. Amen." 

(2) The Egyptian Church Order 31 (Tattam, p. 32) also 
gives no Liturgy, and only says that the deacons bring the 
offering to the new bishop, who lays his hand on it with the 
presbyters, and says, giving thanks, The Lord be with you all, 
etc., and Sursum Corda, and so he prays the rest which follows 
according to the order of the Holy Offering. 

(3) The Ethiopia Church Order 21 gives the anaphora in 
full. The Ethiopic and Latin are in Ludolf, pp. 324 ff., and an 
English translation in Brightman, L.E.W. pp. 189 ff. It is a 
shorter form of the Testament Liturgy. Note especially that 
the presbyters say the eucharistic prayer with the bishop [cf. 
p. 156 for all the bishops joining in the ordination prayer in Eth. 
CO. ; in all these orders the bishop offers with the presbyters 
(but in Copto-arab. this rule is somewhat altered) ; and cf. the 
rule of Test, that the people are to say " Pemembering Thy 
death " with the bishop (p. 73), and also another passage on 
p. 75]. In the Eucharistic thanksgiving Test, begins as Eth. 
CO., but interpolates after " Proclaimer of Thy purpose " down 
to " Thou, Lord, didst send Thy Word" (a long interpolation, 
p. 72), after which it follows Eth. CO. almost word for word, 
with very sHght variations and interpolations [note Test, and 
H. " fix the boundary " = Eth. CO. " establish a covenant," 
which Abyss. Anaphora of our Lord (see p. 247) follows, 
against Test.]. Etli. CO. does not have "for the forgiveness 
of sins," or St. Paul's words, or the phrase about the cup 
and the type, but gives our Lord's " This is My blood " (p. 73). 
In " Eemembering Thy death " Test, follows Eth. CO. almost 



166 NOTES [I- 23 

exactly to " serve Thee in priesthood," after which the latter 
gives the Invocation, quite different from Test., mentioning 
the Holy Spirit, but saying nothing about transforming the 
elements (see p. 174, Note on the Invocation). Eth. CO. has 
no Intercession for the Church ; it has a prayer over oil, 
prayers for communicants, Sancta Sanctis, " One is the Holy 
Father," etc., " The Lord be with you," etc., and communion, 
but does not give the words of administration (cf . Test.) ; then 
it adds the thanksgiving after reception and the blessing. 
Test, does not follow Eth. CO. after the Invocation, but the last 
part of the Eth. CO. Invocation, "fulfilling with the Holy 
Ghost . . .," is almost word for word like the end of the Inter- 
cession in Test., "that they may be filled ... for ever and 
ever" (p. 75). One may conjecture that Eth. CO. originally 
had nothing after the blessing of the oil ; see Hauler, below. 

(4) Hauler's Verona fragments give an Anaphora almost 
exactly like the preceding to the end of the blessing of the 
oil ; the rest is omitted. H. does not say that all the pres- 
byters are to say the Eucharistic prayer with the bishop as 
Eth. CO. does, and we note a similar difference in the ordination 
of a bishop (Note on I. 21, p. 156). A few differences may be 
noticed. In the Eucharistic thanksgiving, where Test, has 
" Thy Word ... by whom Thou madest all things, being well 
pleased with Him," H. has " Thy inseparable Word by whom 
Thou madest all things, and (who) was well pleasing to Thee," 
and Eth. CO. has "the Word from Thee, in whom Thou 
madest all things by Thy will" ; and in the following sentence 
H. is nearer to Test, than to Eth. CO. ; it has (lower down) 
" lighten the just " like Test., where Eth. CO. has " lead forth 
the just." In the Invocation, which follows Eth. CO. closely, 
H. has before "fulfilling with the Holy Ghost" the words 
"gathering (them) together into one, give to all the saints 
who receive, for fulfilling . . ."; compare the words of Test, 
which immediately precede. H. has the benediction of oil as 
Eth .CO. (nearly), and adds a blessing of cheese and olives. It 
then goes on immediately, without a lacuna, to the ordination 
of a presbyter. On the whole, H. is interesting as a connect- 
ing link between Eth. CO. and Test., though it is much nearer 
to the former. 

(5) The Arabic Didascalia in its parallel chapter (38) does 
not give a Liturgy, but describes it. Besides the German 
of Funk, Brightman gives an English translation of this part 
from an Oxford MS. (L.E.W. 510, 511). It adds incense 
when the presbyter brings the elements ; the bishop goes thrice 



I. 23] NOTES 167 

round the altar with incense, and the presbyter then takes 
the censer through the congregation (Silvia mentions incense 
in the pre-anaphoral service; cf. also Ethiopic Didascalia, 
Piatt, § 14). Ar. D. mentions psalmody, " sections from the 
Apostolic word " by the deacon " and a section from the 
Psalms " ; then the Gospel. It goes on to speak of the prayer 
for the Church, which is more developed than Test. ; the sick, 
travellers, the needy, are mentioned; prayers are offered for the 
fruits of the earth, for kings, rulers, the departed, benefactors, 
catechumens, the universal Church, the bishop and clergy, and 
the whole congregation (see p. 176, Note on the Intercession). 
It also mentions the waving of fans by the deacons [cf. A.C. 
viii. 12 (Lagarde, 248^^), and the (later?) Egyptian Liturgy 
given by Brightman, L.E.W. 461-463, and perhaps Test. II. 
10 q.v.], and linens (?) " like the wings of the cherubim." A 
sanctuary veil is mentioned, and bishop, presbyters, deacons, 
subdeacons, the reader, and widows " who are deaconesses and 
have spiritual gifts," stand within. 

(6) TJie Abyssinian Anaphora of our Lord (given in 
Ethiopic and Latin by Ludolf, 341-345 ; see Appendix I.) is 
taken with some variations from Test. It has an Invocation 
of the later form. It is specially interesting as being the 
connecting link between the modern Abyssinian and Coptic 
Liturgies and the Testament, to which they, through it, are 
greatly indebted. 

(7) In tJie Oopto-arabic translation of Test, the text of the 
Liturgy has been somewhat altered and modernised ; the Sanctiis 
is introduced, an Invocation addressed to the Holy Ghost (so 
Eahmani), long diptychs, and the Lord's prayer before com- 
munion have been inserted. 

(8) The Apostolic Constitutions, book viii., have a very much 
more elaborate Liturgy than the older forms, but as it is so well 
known it need not be described here at length ; after diffuse 
dismissals of catechumens, etc., follow the litany, kiss of peace, 
lavabo, deacon's short admonition, the bringing in of the 
elements, Sursum Corda with benediction, an Eucharistic 
prayer, very long, with Sanctus, the words of Institution, 
Oblation, an Invocation of the later form, and a long Inter- 
cession, then a Benediction, Short Litany, Sancta Sanctis, 
Benedictus qui venit and Hosanna, Communion, Thanks- 
giving after reception, and Dismissal. See Introduction, p. 33. 

(9) St. Cyril of Jerusalem gives the following as the order 
of service at Jerusalem in 348 {Cat. Lect. xxiii. ; he dehvered 
these lectures while yet a presbyter). The clergy wash their 



168 NOTES [1-23 

hands ; kiss of peace ; Sursuin Oorda and preface with Sanctus ; 
Invocation [no mention of our Lord's words, nor of the oblation, 
but see Note, p. 170, on the former] ; Intercession for quick and 
dead ; the Lord's prayer ; Sancta Sanctis and communion (no 
fraction mentioned) ; thanksgiving after reception. 

(10) Sarapion, dr. 350 A.D., gives a Liturgy as used (pre- 
sumably) at Thmuis in the Nile l3elta ; he writes the parts said 
by the bishop in full, but not the deacon's or people's part. 
The Sursum Corda is referred to ; then follow the preface with 
Sanctus, the Oblation with recital of our Lord's words, Invoca-. 
tion of the Logos, addressed to the Father, Intercession, fraction, 
prayer, and communion, with a benediction, a post-communion 
thanksgiving, and an oblation of oil and water. 

The above descriptions show the essential unity of structure 
in all these early liturgies. 

Hours of the Eucharist. In Test, it is to be over by 
sunrise (I. 26, p. 78), to begin before dawn. So Pliny in his 
letter to Trajan {ante lucem), Tertullian de Cor. Mil. 3 (ante- 
lucanis coetibus, but Bishop Wordsworth thinks that this is 
exceptional, and that generally it was in day light), St. Cyprian 
E-p. 63, 16 (mane). See Wordsworth, Ministry of Grace, 317. 

The Sanctuaey Veil, why closed (see also page 151). 
The allusion here is difficult (p. 70). The mention of the 
veil suggests Exod. xxxiv. 30, 33 (where the Israelites' fear to 
approach the shining face of Moses might be the " erring of 
the ancient people") and 2 Cor. iii. 13; but in neither of 
these passages is there any mention of an offering. [It may 
be noted that the Syriac word here used for a veil is not the 
same at that employed in the Pshitta to denote the veil on 
Moses' face; it is the same as that used for the veil of the 
tabernacle.] Perhaps Test, means that the reason there was 
for it under the Law — which he states — subsists under the 
Gospel ; though, if that be his doctrine, it is not easy to re- 
concile it with St. Matt, xxvii. 51, and Heb. x. 20. Can he 
mean by the "ancient people" the Corinthian Christians of 
the first age, whose excesses led St. Paul to put things " in 
order " at the celebration of the Eucharist (1 Cor. xi. 17-34) ? — 
St. Augustine often contrasts the openness of the Gospel with 
the secrecy of the Law, as symbolised by the taking away of 
the veil and the rending of the veil of the Temple ; cf. Jffom. 
in N. T. 24 (74), 5 ; 87 (137), 6 ; 110 (160) 6. 

Widows within the Veil. Test, and Ar. D. alone allow them 
inside the veil. The Council of Laodicea (can. 44) says that 



I. 23] NOTES 169 

" women may not approach near the altar." The Test, arrange- 
ment would point to a very large number of widows, as they 
on the one side of the Sanctuary correspond to deacons, readers, 
subdeacons, and deaconesses on the other. We note the 
inclusion of deaconesses, though they are expressly excluded 
from the "priesthood" later on in this chapter (p. 76). — Those 
tvith gifts. Of. Ar. D. (above), " widows who are deaconesses 
and have gifts." In both, " gifts " (xaplc/^arot., the supernatural 
gifts of the Holy Ghost, 1 Cor. xii. 4) are taken for granted as 
going on in the writer's time. See I. 47 for the parallels. 

Deacon's Admonition before the Suesum Coeda (p. 70). 
Copto-arab. has slightly modernised this. For "despise the 
prophets " it has " reject the divine Scriptures." For " Let us 
not despise the cross" it has "Whoso is ashamed to confess 
the cross of Christ, let him depart." It also omits some 
clauses. — The whole " admonition " bears a strong resemblance 
to the old-fashioned " Fencing " or " Debarrings " once common 
in Scotland. — In the last two clauses, "Lift up your hearts 
to offer, ... let us receive the grace," the twofold character of 
the Eucharist is recognised ; " offer " answering to our Lord's 
" This do," etc., and " receive " to " Take eat," etc.— The word 
"admonition" in the Syriac is not the usual word for the 
deacon's Litany or Ectene in Syriac literature. 

Benediction befoee Suesum Coeda (p. 71). This bene- 
diction in the various liturgies takes two forms : (A) " The 
Lord be with you," or the like ; (B) " The grace of our Lord 
Jesus Christ," etc., as 2 Cor. xiii. 14. Test, has A with the 
Egyptian rite alone among Eastern liturgies; C.H. also have 
A (which is based on the salutation of Boaz to his reapers 
and their reply, Euth ii. 4) ; and we thus see a connexion 
between Test., Egypt, and Eome; also the following have A 
— Eth. CO. 21, H. 1067, St. Mark in Greek (Brightman, L.E.W. 
125), modern Coptic (Br. 164), modern Abyssinian (Br. 228) ; 
so of Westerns, Eoman, Ambrosian (Hammond, L.E.W. p .322). 
On the other hand, the following have B — the Antioch Liturgy 
as shown in St. Chrysostom's writings (Br. 473), A.C. viii. 12 
(Lagarde, 248"), St. James in Greek and Syriac (Br. 49, 85), 
all three East Syrian (Nestorian) Liturgies now extant (Addai 
and Mari, Theodore, Nestorius), St. Basil, St. Chrysostom, and 
the Armenian (Br. 321, 384, 435), early Byzantine (Br. 529); 
and note especially that James of Edessa in his own writings 
(letter to Thomas the Presbyter, Br. 491) has this B form, and 
expressly calls attention to the difference between his custom 
and that of the "Alexandrine fathers"; also the Egyptian 



170 NOTES [I- 23 

Anaphora (Sahidic Eccl. Canons 65, Tattam, p. 118), which 
Brightman conjectures to be an adaptation of A.C. viii. (Br. 
xx.^i), has B; and it is found in the Mozarabic alone of 
Westerns (Hammond, L.E.W. 321). We see then that in this 
respect, as we cannot suppose Test, to be an Egyptian docu- 
ment (see Introduction, p. 44), it stands in a peculiar position. 

The Sancta Sanctis (p. 71). Its position after the Sursum 
Corda is peculiar, as is the response which Test, adds, analogous 
to that of Sursum Corda. It is found in Eth. CO. just before 
communion (but perhaps this part of Eth. CO. is a later 
addition, see above, p. 166), and so in Cyr. Jer. xxiii. 19 ; in 
A.C. viii. 12 (Lagarde, 259^^) it comes just before the " One 
Holy " and the " Benedictus qui venit." 

Absence of Sanctus. It is omitted in Eth. CO. and H. as 
in Test. It occurs in fourth century liturgies, however — in 
Sarapion and A.C. viii. 12 (Lagarde, 254*), and in St. Chrysostom's 
writings (Brightman, L.E.W. 474^*). The germ of it is in Test, 
in the words " Thou, Lord, the Founder of the heights . . ." 
(p. 72). It will be observed that seven of the angelic orders are 
there enumerated. The inclusion and conjunction among them 
of Eaiments and Lights remind us of Ps. civ. 2. See I. 28, p. 85. 

Words of Institution. (1) We notice that Test, omits, 
though it refers to, our Lord's words over the Cup. This 
cannot be for reverence, as the words over the Bread are given. 
Justin Martyr quotes them even in an apology to the heathen 
{Apol. i. 66), but not there as part of the service. It is 
perhaps more than a curious coincidence that whereas here in 
Test, the words over the Cup are omitted, in II. 10 the words 
in administering the Cup are not given (see Note, p. 222), and 
that in II. 8 our Lord's baptismal formula is omitted, no words 
for baptizing being given. The Ethiopic translation of Test, 
supplies the omission here (in I. 23) with the words, " Also the 
cup of wine which He mixed, He gave to His disciples, saying. 
Take drink it all of you. This is My blood which is shed for 
you." The omission in Test, is no mistake of the manuscripts, 
as Kahmani suggests, for it occurs in the derived Abyssinian 
Anaphora of our Lord (see Appendix I., p. 247). 

(2) There are perhaps other instances of the omission. St. 
Cyril of Jerusalem does not mention our Lord's words in the 
service at all. The argument from silence is precarious in 
what is only a description of the service, and the omission of 
our Lord's words is somewhat discounted by the omission of 
the Oblation also. On the other hand, (a) St. Cyril describes 
the preface rather fully, the mention of heaven, earth, sea, . . . 



I. 23] NOTES 171 

angels, archangels, etc., yet says nothing of any recital of the 
work of redemption, and his " then " (iTto) after the Sanctus is 
rather strong; he says, "then, having hallowed ourselves by 
these spiritual hymns " (the Sanctus), " we call upon (•jmpaHa- 
XoD/ask) God, who loveth man, to send the Holy Spirit . . . " ; 
and (6) later on, in defending the intercession for the dead, he 
says, " We, when we offer to Him our supplications for those who 
have fallen asleep, . . . offer up Christ, sacrificed for our sins, 
propitiating our merciful God both for them and for ourselves," 
thus perhaps referring to the Oblation (Cat. Zed. xxiii. 6, 7, 10). 
Certainly St. Cyril comments elsewhere on our Lord's words 
(xxii.), but not in connexion with the service ; yet his words 
there seem to have a liturgical reminiscence. Brightman 
(L.E.W. 469, Note 11) calls attention to the phrase "His 
undefiled hands and feet" (xx. 5) as corresponding to St. 
James's Liturgy, Greek and Syriac. 

(3) Our Lord's words are omitted altogether in the oldest 
of the three East Syrian anaphoras (Addai and Mari, probably 
of the first part of the fifth century ; they occur in the two 
later anaphoras). With the omission must be compared the 
early form of Invocation in that Anaphora (see Note on the 
Invocation, p. 175). It has been thought that the words have 
always been recited as a tradition, though not written ; but 
there is no evidence for this, and the omission must be 
considered significant, as this anaphora seems to represent a 
type earlier than that of the great fifth century anaphoras, and 
was the product of a far-distant Church not greatly influenced 
by the liturgical changes of its Western neighbours until its 
third anaphora (of Nestorius, so called, which depends much 
on Byzantine work) was composed. 

(4) On the other hand, the words of our Lord are found in 
full in Eth. CO., H., Sarapion, A.C. viii. 12 (Lagarde, 2552=*-), 
and in St. Chrysostom's writings expressly (Brightman, L.E.W. 
474, 479), and Test, has accordingly omitted what he had before 
him. It will thus be seen that the theory of Mr. Efoulkes 
(Primitive Consecration of the Eucharistic Oblation, chap, v.), 
that the early liturgies had only the Invocation, without our 
Lord's words, considering the latter as properly represented by 
the words of administration of the elements, and that the 
A.C. writer first inserted them in the interests of Arianism, 
is not well founded. But we may not improbably deduce 
from the evidence the conclusion that in the fourth century 
(as among the Orthodox Easterns very generally now) the 
recital of our Lord's words was regarded as a historical state- 



172 NOTES [I. 23 

ment prefatory to the Oblation and Invocation; it is to be 
noted that wherever they occur they precede the Invocation, 
there being no pre-Eeformation authority, as far as is known, 
for placing them after it. We may probalDly further infer that 
the " Western theory of consecration," that the only essential 
words are " This is my Body, etc. . . . This is my Blood," etc., 
all prayers and invocations being but edifying additions, is not 
that of the fourth century. As the Bishop of Salisbury points 
out {Ministry of Grace, p. 382), it is difficult " to get free from 
the presupposition that a certain form of words is necessary to 
consecration," but it is probable that we shall be led to the 
conclusion that the Eucharist, Confirmation, and Holy Orders 
have no fixed and certain form, according to ancient ideas. 

(5) St. Paul's words (1 Cor. xi. 26) introduced into the Words 
of Institution. This is not uncommon. Test, introduces them 
in the curious form, " When ye shall do this ye make My 
resurrection." There is no such introduction in Eth. CO. or 
H. or Sarapion; but it is found in A.C. viii. 12 (Lagarde, 256^), 
and in the Abyssinian Anaphora of our Lord (which, however, 
changes the Test, words " My resurrection " to " commemoration 
of Me "). It is found in many later liturgies : " Ye do shew 
My death and confess My resurrection and ascension till I 
come " (St. Mark, Brightman, L.E.W. 133) ; " Ye do confess My 
resurrection, ye do make My memorial till I come " (Coptic, 
Br. 177) ; " As often as ye do this, make ye memorial of 
Me [and the people answer : We show Thy death, Lord, and 
Thy holy resurrection, we believe Thine ascension, etc.] " 
(Abyssinian, Br. 232) ; " This be ye doing till I come, for when- 
soever ye eat ... ye commemorate My death till My coming " 
(East Syrian, " Liturgy of Nestorius ") ; cf. " This be ye doing 
whensoever ye come together for My memorial" (East Syrian, 
'' Liturgy of Theodore "). 

(6) The Gup ... a type of the blood. So in II. 10 (p. 128), 
" the bread ... for a type of My body . . . the cup ... a 
sign (or shewing forth) of blood and of the laver." Not in Eth. 
CO. or H., parallel passages to this, but H. and Eg. CO. have it 
in the parallels to II. 10, and there are many examples of the 
expression. Tertullian (Adr. Marc. iv. 40, Migne, vol. ii. col. 
491), in maintaining the reality of our Lord's body, calls the 
Eucharistic bread " the figure (figura) of " Christ's " body," and 
says that unless the body were real it could not have a figure. 
Cf. also the Pfaffian fragment (of Irenaeus ?) quoted on p. 174 in 
the Note on the Invocation. Sarapion, § 1, in giving the Words 
of Institution, has : " This bread is the likeness {o//.o!ui/-a) 



I. 23] NOTES 173 

of the holy body, ... we have offered also the cup, the 
likeness of the blood." So St. Cyril of Jerusalem (xxiii. 20) 
says : " When we taste we are bidden to taste not bread and 
wine, but the sign (avTiruTrov) of the body and blood of Christ " ; 
in xxi. 1 he calls oil the " sign " of the Holy Ghost in Con- 
firmation ; in XX. 6 he says that baptism is the " sign " of the 
sufferings of Christ. We may also compare an early fragment 
of the Latin Canon of the Mass (Pseudo-Ambrose de Sacra- 
mentis iv. 5, qu. by Wordsworth, Ministry of Grace, 82) : " this 
oblation . . . which is the figure (figura) of the body and blood 
of our Lord Jesus Christ." Also (besides the parallels to II. 10) 
Eg. CO. 60 (Tattam, p. 80) has, " If thou hast . . . partaken of 
(the Cup) like as of the blood of Christ," etc. ; and Hauler, 
117^^ "Thou hast received (the Cup) as it were the antitype of 
the blood of Christ." 

The Oblation. (1) Bemembering therefore, etc. (p. 73). 
In Eth. CO., and probably in parallel liturgies, these words 
are the corollary of " This do in remembrance of Me." But in 
Test, (even in the interpolated form of the Ethiopic translation, 
for which see above, p. 170) this last phrase is absent, and 
"Eemembering therefore" is out of place. This is another 
instance (we shall see a third in the. Note on the Invocation, 
and yet another in the omission of milk and honey in II. 10) 
where Test, has omitted what was before it in its authorities, 
not seeing the connexion between what it omitted and the 
words which it retained. We note that Sarapion also omits 
" This do," etc., but then he also omits "Eemembering therefore," 
and after reciting our Lord's words, continues : " Therefore we 
also have offered the Cup," etc. Mr. Brightman (in J.T.S. i. 
96) remarks that the Byzantine Liturgy of St. Ohrysostom 
alone of the great rites omits " This do," etc. 

(2) The people repeating this passage with the priest (cf. 
p. 165, for the Eth. CO.). The text does not say how much the 
people are to repeat ; probably from " Eemembering therefore." 
In analogous cases in East Syrian MSS., a large red asterisk 
shows how much is to be repeated, but in them it is the priest 
who is to say the passage twice, a favourite custom. 

(3) Text of the concluding passage. " We have brought this 
drink and this food of Thy holiness [to Thee] " (p. 74). In 
the translation the reading of B. has been followed, and it is 
supported by the Abyssinian Anaphora of our Lord, which 
reads (p. 247) : " We give Thee this gift ; not food nor drink do 
we offer to Thy holiness. Cause that it," etc. M., followed by 
Eahmani, has : " Bring this drink and this food of Thy holiness 



174 NOTES [I. 23 

[to us]," making the Invocation begin at " Bring." But this 
scarcely makes sense. The Invocation in B. is still addressed 
to the Holy Trinity, the imperative being feminine in Syriac 
to agree with " Trinity." An emendation of the Syriac might 
be suggested, namely, to read " to Thy holiness " instead of " of 
Thy holiness," by the change of one letter {L for D), as in the 
Anaphora of our Lord. 

The Invocation ok Epiclesis (p. 74). The Test. Invoca- 
tion is remarkable for two things — (1) that it is addressed to 
the Holy Trinity, the Son being named first in the preceding 
sentence ; and (2) that it does not pray expressly for the Holy 
Spirit to transform the elements, but asks that they may be 
beneficial to the communicants. 

1. The Invocation, to whom addressed. We may notice that 
" Invocation (svix'KriBig) of a Person " may mean either praying 
for Him to come, or praying to Him. But in the expression 
" Invocation of the Holy Trinity " we must apparently under- 
stand Invocation addressed to the Three Persons. Irenaeus 
uses the word szh'i-.riBii as well known in his day : he speaks of 
the Invocation of God, or of the Father, or of the Holy Ghost, 
or of the Holy Trinity, and also uses the word Invocation by 
itself, absolutely. The Pfaffian fragment, ascribed to Irenaeus 
(but this is more than doubtful), has : " We invoke the Holy 
Ghost to declare this sacrifice both the bread the body, the 
cup the blood of Christ, that they who receive the antitype 
may obtain remission of sins and everlasting life " (see Ffoulkes, 
Primitive Consecration of the Eucharistic Oblation, p. 62). Here 
the Holy Ghost seems to be addressed. In St. Cyril of Jeru- 
salem the evidence is not quite clear. In Gat. Lcct. xxiii. 7 
the Father is apparently addressed : " We call upon the merci- 
ful God to send forth His Holy Spirit " ; but in xix. 7 the Holy 
Trinity : " Things also hung up at idol festivals . . . which are 
polluted by the invocation of unclean spirits. . . . For as the 
bread and wine of the Eucharist before the holy invocation of 
the adorable Trinity was simple bread and wine, while after 
the invocation the bread becomes the body of Christ and the 
wine the blood of Christ, so in like manner such meats belong- 
ing to the pomp of Satan . . . become profane by the invoca- 
tion of the evil spirit." The " invocation of the unclean spirits " 
must mean invocation addressed to the unclean spirits, and so 
the "invocation of the Trinity" must mean invocation ad- 
dressed to the Trinity. In xxii. 3 we read of the " invocation 
of the Holy Ghost " in the Eucharist ; here the meaning seems 
to be prayer for the Holy Ghost. On the whole, St. Cyril 



I. 23] NOTES 175 

seems to support the Testament. The Council of Hippo, in 
North Africa, in 393 (can. 21, Hefele, Councils, ii. 398, Eng. 
trans.), forbade such invocations addressed to any but the Father. 
" In prayer, no one shall address the Son instead of the Father, 
or the Father instead of the Son, except at the altar, when 
prayer shall always be addressed to the Father. No one shall 
make use of strange forms of prayer without having first con- 
sulted well-instructed brethren." Bishop J. Wordsworth {Rev. 
int. de thiol. 1900, p. 471) suggests that this was prompted by 
the Testament. For the order of the three Persons in the 
latter, cf. Ignatius (Magnes. 13), "in Son and Father and in 
Spirit," and 2 Cor. xui. 14. The Ignatian passage is omitted by 
the interpolator (who is the same as the compiler of A.C.), but 
that would be accounted for by the Arian leanings of the latter, 
and therefore there is no good reason for supposing, with 
Bishop Wordsworth (C.Q.E. April 1900), that it is not genuine. 
— In Eth. CO. and H. and (though less explicitly) in Sarapion 
the Father is addressed. In St. Chrysostom's writings (Bright- 
man, L.E.W. 474) the priest " calls the Holy Ghost to come 
and touch the oblations " (to. ■jrpox.sifiiva) ; here, as in the 
Pfaffian fragment, the Holy Ghost seems to be addressed. 
In De Sacerdotio, iii. 4 [179], St. Chrysostom speaks of the priest 
bringing down, not fire like Elijah, but the Holy Ghost. 

2. What is prayed for in the Invocation. In the later 
forms, at least, the prayer is for the descent of the Holy Ghost 
to transform the elements that the communicants may receive 
a blessing. Sarapion is unique in asking God to send His 
holy Word to come (£mSrifirisa.Tu, a favourite word with him) on 
the elements, " that the bread may become (yhnrai) body of the 
Word," "that the cup may become blood of Thy Truth," with a 
prayer for the recipients. Sarapion has not a very clear hold on 
the personality of the Holy Ghost. Justin Martyr {Apol. i. 66) 
appears to call the Holy Ghost the Word of God. " As Jesus 
Christ was made flesh by the Word of God, ... so the food 
which has been given thanks over {ib^apiernMrnv) by prayer of 
the Word (or : prayer for the word ?) which is from Him (a/ 
ih-X/iQ Aoyou rov 'sa.f ain-oC), etc. TertuUian also seems to con- 
fuse the Word and the Spirit of God (adv. Praxeam 26, Migne, 
vol. ii. col. 212). — All other known anaphoras seem to ask 
definitely for the Holy Ghost; but Eth. CO., H., St. Chrysos- 
tom's writings {uhi supra), and the East Syrian Addai and 
Mari (see above, p. 171) have no prayer for the transforming of 
the elements, only one for the communicants. The Invocation 
of the last named is, " May Thy Holy Spirit, my Lord, come 



176 NOTES [I. 23 

and rest upon this oblation of Thy servants, and may He bless 
it and hallow it, and may it be to us, O my Lord, for the 
pardon," etc. The later East Syrian anaphoras have Invocations 
of the ordinary later type. Eth. CO. and H. have not even 
"bless it and hallow it." The Test. Invocation deliberately 
omits a reference to the Holy Ghost which was in its pre- 
decessors. On the other hand, A.C. viii. 12 (Lagarde, 256^^) 
have : " Send down upon this sacrifice Thy Holy Spirit, . . . that 
He may declare (or make, an(pri\iri) this bread the body of Thy 
Christ, and this cup the blood of Thy Christ, that they who 
partake," etc. And the Egyptian Anaphora, derived apparently 
from A.C, has : " Let the high priest pray over the oblation 
that the Holy Ghost may descend on it, making the bread 
the body of Christ, and the chalice the blood of Christ" 
(Sah. Eccl. Can. 66, Tattam, p. 122; Brightman, L.E.W. 
462). Also the Anaphora of our Lord, while retaining the 
Test. Invocation, clumsily adds another of the later type. [See 
an interesting article by Dr. Swete on Early Eucharistic Belief 
in J.T.S. iii. 161 (published since the above was written).] 

It would seem that after the rise of the Macedonian con- 
troversy the invocation of the Holy Ghost became universal, 
probably as a protest against the Pneumatomachi. As the 
Test, writer is very precise as to the personality and divinity 
of the Holy Ghost, we may conclude that his liturgy was 
written before the controversy arose. It is otherwise incon- 
ceivable that he would have erased an already existing petition 
for the Holy Spirit. 

The Inteecbssion (p. 74). The earlier anaphoras have 
either no Intercession or little developed ones. Eth. CO. and 
H. have none ; in Sarapion this feature is but little developed, 
but he recites the names of those prayed for, departed [and 
living?]. The Test. Intercession is simple, whereas that in 
Ar. D. is much more elaborate (see note above, p. 167; this is 
another sign of the priority of Test.). St. Chrysostom describes 
a rather elaborate Intercession at Antioch (Brightman, L.E.W. 
474). It would seem, however, as if the Intercession was 
developed earliest in Jerusalem, for St. Cyril's description is 
very full, for the first half of the fourth century. He mentions 
prayers for the common peace of the Church, for the tranquillity 
of the world, for kings, soldiers, allies, the sick and afflicted, 
and all who need; the departed are commemorated, "first 
patriarchs, prophets, apostles, and martyrs, that at their 
prayers and intervention God would receive our petition; 
afterwards also on behalf of the holy fathers and bishops who 



I. 23] NOTES 177 

have fallen asleep before us," and for all the faithful departed 
{Cat. Led. xxiii. 8, 9). 

The Benedictus qui venit (p. 75). (1) Itsposition in Test, 
before communion is noteworthy. So in A.C. viii. 12 (Lagarde, 
259^^). In the modern Coptic it comes just before the com- 
munion of the women. It is not found in Eth. CO. (which also 
has no Sanctus), nor in St. Mark (Greek), nor in the modern 
Abyssinian. It is joined to the Sanctus (perhaps a later arrange- 
ment) in most of the great liturgies (St. James, Greek and 
Syriac, all three East Syrian, and St. Basil, St. Chrysostom, and 
the Armenian). It is not joined to the Sanctus in Sarapion, 
but it is not mentioned elsewhere, as not belonging to the 
priest's part. It is not mentioned in Cyr. Jer. (2) The past 
tense (" that hath come "). In the Gospel passages of the 
Pshitta, as usually read, the present is used, but Pusey and 
Gwilliam (TetraevangeliuTn, Sanctum, Oxford, 1901) give as a 
variation " came " in St. Matt. xxi. 9 from the margin of a 
ninth or tenth century MS. (Massora 2), and from the text of 
a sixth century Vatican MS., which also has the past tense 
in St. Luke xiii. 35. Thus we cannot be sure that James of 
Edessa had a past tense before him in his Greek copy of Test. ; 
he might have been influenced by the biblical phrase which 
was familiar to him ; in his description of the Liturgy of his 
own day, in his letter to Thomas the presbyter (Brightman, 
L.E.W. 490 ff.), he does not mention the Benedictus. With 
the " hath come " we may perhaps compare the Syrian inter- 
pretation of Maranatha (an Eucharistic watchword, connected 
in Didach^, x. 6, with the Hosanna) as meaning " The Lord 
hath come." As A.C. (uhi supra) has "cometh" in the Bene- 
dictus, it is not unlikely that the past tense is due to James. 
(3) There is no Hosanna in Test., as there is in A.C. viii. 12 
(ubi supra). It is not mentioned in Sarapion nor in St. Cyril 
of Jerusalem. 

Communion. (1) The rule about not communicating (p. 76). 
Cf. Lev. XV. 16, 19, and A.C. vi. 27 (Lagarde, 1892sff-), where it 
is denied that the Jewish ceremonial law remains, though the 
Jewish moral law is upheld by quotation as for all time. The 
A.C. writer says that mere physical pollution cannot separate 
any one from prayer, only moral pollution can do so. (2) Com- 
munion of the clergy. We notice that all the clergy from 
bishops to subdeacons, including widows, but not deaconesses, 
are called " priests." It may be remarked here that there are 
two Syriac words equivalent respectively to hpivc, sacerdos, 
and vpigBiiTipoc, presbyter, the former denoting office and 



178 NOTES [l- 23 

duty, the latter denoting rank, and usually confined to the 
second order. In this translation " priest " renders the former, 
and "presbyter" the latter. In Syriac the abstract word 
" priesthood " denotes the ministry in all its grades ; thus St. 
Ephrem Syrus, who was a deacon, says that he was of the 
" priesthood." (3) Communion of the people. The communi- 
cant apparently says the prayer while holding the Holy Loaf 
in his hand, before consuming it. For the words of admini- 
stration and the administrators, see pp. 222-224 The Syriac 
word for " babes " means either infants or children under five (so 
II. 8, 19, and elsewhere). The prayer said by the communicants 
is almost exactly the same as that now said by the priest in 
the modern Coptic (Brightman, L.E.W. 185^^), and by the 
faithful in the modern Abyssinian (Br. 241'). Note the 
" Amen " before it in the Coptic, and the double " Amen " after 
it " to apply to the body and the blood." Cf. modern Abys- 
sinian, in Br. 241*, 241^'. (4) The lord's Prayer. It does not 
occur in Test. But in the communicants' prayer there is a 
clear reference to it. It is absent also from Eth. CO., Sara- 
pion, and A.C. viii., but Brightman (J.T.S. i. 97) thinks that it 
is implied in Eth. CO. and Sarapion. It was used at Jeru- 
salem in St. Cyril's time in the Liturgy {Cat. Zed. xxiii. 
11-18); he comments on it (omitting the doxology) and places 
it directly after the Intercession, before the San eta Sanctis 
and Communion. St. Chrysostom mentions the Lord's Prayer, 
but his language (in Gen. xxvii. 8) does not necessarily imply 
that it was said publicly as part of the service, though that is 
probable (Brightman, L.E.W. 480, note 28). In Didach^ (viii. 
3) it is to be said (in private ?) thrice daily. The doxology in 
the Test, communicants' prayer, such as it is, is a variation of 
the common doxology of the Lord's Prayer, and illustrates the 
way in which it crept into the text of St. Matt. vi. 13 ; the doxo- 
logy of the Lord's Prayer seems to be still more clearly aUuded 
to at the end of the post-communion thanksgiving of Test. 

Thanksgiving after Eeception (p. 77). For the phrase 
" helmsman of souls," see the description of the church in A.C. 
ii. 57, noted above on I. 19 (p. 149). 

Absence of Vestments, Trisagion, Fraction. (1) Vest- 
ments. In I. 34 the deacon is ordered to wear a white vest- 
ment, but not at the Church service. Eucharistic vestments 
are referred to in C.H. (see p. 163). (2) The Trisagion (Holy 
God, Holy Mighty, Holy Immortal, have mercy on us), after- 
wards such a favourite feature, was probably not introduced 
into the Byzantine Liturgy till a.d. 434-446 (Brightman 



I. 23-26] NOTES 179 

L.E.W. 531"). We find it first at Chalcedon (ih. 590). 
(3) The Fraction. This is a more remarkable omission. It is 
not in Cyr. Jer., but it is in Sarapion and in the baptismal 
Eucharist of Eg. CO. and H.' for which see p. 221 f. 

Chaptees 24, 25 

Peayee ovee Oil and Watee. This prayer is quite different 
from those in Eth. CO. and H. They have no reference to 
" gifts of healing " (but generally to strengthening and sanctify- 
ing) or to the Paraclete. The Test, prayer seems to be the 
work of the Test. Compiler, or, as the use of the name " Para- 
clete" (here only in Test.) suggests, perhaps of the supposed 
Montanist Church Order which he used. The name "Paraclete" 
is used in A.C., e.g. in the bishop's ordination prayer (viii. 5, 
Lagarde, 237^^), where it is an interpolation by A.C, not being 
in Const. H. or CH. or Eth. CO. there. So in A.C. ii. 26 
(Lagarde, 55^^), etc. — The oil and water are for the sick. In 
Sarapion 5 there is a " prayer concerning the oils and waters " 
that are offered, with a reference to healing as Test. In 
Sarapion 17 the water is to be drunk (" that it may be to those 
who partake . . ."), and so in A.C. viii. 28 (Lagarde, 266^" : 
" water for drink and cleansing "), where the bishop or presbyter 
blesses oil and water, mentioning the power of healing and 
putting evil spirits to flight. But in some cases it was poured 
or sprinkled (Brightman in J.T.S. i. 261). Test, does not say 
which. Sarapion 17 mentions the blessing of oil, bread, and 
water for the sick. We notice that the healing of the soul as 
well as of the body is referred to in Test, and elsewhere as in 
St. James v. 14, 15.^ — ^For the use of the name " the Lord " of 
the Holy Spirit, see pp. 40, 201, 241. 

Chaptek 26 

The Pee-anaphoeal Peayees. This chapter, which shows 
an enthusiastic love of prayers addressed to our Lord, is 
apparently the work of the Test. Compiler. There are a great 
many of these prayers in Sarapion, but they are quite different 
from those of Test. For characteristic phrases of Test., see 
Introduction, p. 21 ff. 

Hymn of praise.] This word is used for the canticles as 
well as for those prayers which offer praise. For some instances 
of East Syrian " hymns of praise," see Maclean, Hast Syrian 
Daily Offices, p. 156, etc. 



180 NOTES [I- 26 

We praise Thee, etc.] This response is an instance of anti- 
phonal singing, in which the minister says a verse and the 
people answer with another ; cf. the Gloria Patri and Ps. cxxxvi. 
See below, p. 181. 

That cannot be injured (p. 80).] Compare the rule about 
Communion, pp. 137, 239. 

In Thine own person (p. 80).] Syr. qnftma. In the Euty- 
chian and Nestorian controversies of the fifth century, the 
Eutychians maintained one qnum^ and the Nestorians two 
qntlmas in our Lord, while both taught one Parsopa. 

Four hymns of praise (p. 81).] The hymns of Moses would 
be Exod. xv. 1-21 and Deut. xxxii. 1-43 ; the hymn of Solomon, 
the Song of Songs ; those of the Prophets, the Song of Isaiah 
(Isa. xii.), the Song of Hezekiah (Isa. xxxviii. 10-20), the Song 
of Habakkuk (Hab. iii.), the Song of Hannah (1 Sam. ii. 1-10), 
and the Song of the Three Children (Apocryphal part of Daniel ; 
cf. Test. II. 24). See Bona, Div. Psalmod. xvi. 12, as to songs 
from Scripture used in the Latin Church, and the reason he 
gives why the Song of Solomon is not used. 

Tliree deacons, three presbyters (p. 81).] See p. 192. This 
number, of course, does not mean the whole number in the city. 
For the choir, see below. 

The applied Sursum Gorda with Benediction (p. 82). Test, 
applies this from the Eucharist to the other offices; at the 
beginning of this chapter there is also a reminiscence of the 
Sursum Corda. The East Syrians similarly apply it in the 
baptismal office. 

The Tormentor of darkness, the Ray of light (p. 83).] If 
the reference is to St. Matt. viii. 29, the " darkness " would 
be the powers of darkness, Satan and his angels. Compare 
Milton's " Of the eternal, co-eternal Beam." 

Who adornest all (p. 83).] The same thought is found in a 
prayer in the (thirteenth century) Pontifical of Bishop David 
de Bernham of St. Andrews. 

The Choir (p. 81). It is not very easy to reconcile the 
notices here and in II. 11, 22, either as to the composition of 
the choir or as to the method of antiphonal singing. Some 
features, however, are prominent. (1) The singers are not 
yet a separate " order " (a mark of early date), whereas in A.C. 
iii. 11 (Lagarde, lOG^") they are distinctly so (oJfiou?); so in 
Ap. Can. 43 (42) and 69 (68); and at Laodice'a (can. 23) 
cantors are not allowed to wear a stole, a sign that they wished 
to do so and were pushing their claims as an order. The 
"boys" are mentioned in all the three Test, passages; cf. 



I. 26, 27] NOTES 181 

Silvia's account of the boys answering Kyrie Eleison to the 
litany (p. 152). But here male virgins besides deacons and 
priests are mentioned, while II. 1 1 only refers to the boys, and 

II. 22 only adds female virgins. (2) Method of singing. We 
should not expect any mention of instrumental music. This 
was not introduced till at least the seventh century, and then 
in the West. The notices of antipJwnal singing in Test, at once 
attract our attention. That in some form or other this method 
of singing was used by the Christians from the earliest ages, is 
clear from Pliny's letter to Trajan (" saying to one another in 
turn ") ; and this we should have expected from the example 
of the Jews. There are, however, two methods of antiphonal 
singing: (1) that in which one singer says a portion, and the 
others answer ; and (2) that in which two choirs answer each 
other. The latter was the Jewish custom, and it is common in 
Christian Churches to this day, both in the West, where it is 
the usual custom, the choirs being divided into the sides of the 
dean (decani) and of the precentor (cantoris) ; and in the East, 
especially, for example, among the East Syrians, who name 
their daily office book " Before and After," from the " first " 
and " second " choirs which alternately begin the singing. But 
in Test, there seems to be no certain trace of this method, un- 
less it is referred to in II. 22 in the one case of psalms said 
in private houses. In the first clause of II. 22 the other method 
is prescribed : '' In answer to him who singeth the psalms . . . 
let the virgins (fern.) and boys respond and sing." This is 
probably the method here, in I. 26. The people adopt it in the 
response " We praise Thee " (see p. 180), and perhaps in the 
psalms and canticles the choir do similarly, one singer saying 
a clause and the rest responding with the next; and so in 
II. 11. The people do not join in the psalms and canticles, 
but in II. 11 they join in with Hallelujah. In A.C. ii. 57 
(Lagarde, 85^^) one sings the psalm and the people answer (6 
Xabc r& aTiposTi^ia Ivo-^aXXiro)). The first method of antiphonal 
singing is attributed by Socrates {H.E. vi. 8) to St. Ignatius of 
Antioch, and may have been common in that city. For a full 
discussion of the subject, see Bishop J. Wordsworth, Ministry 
of Grace, 203, 341. 

Chapter 27 

Let the prayer he completed.'] See Note to I. 35, p. 193. 

The Lections. There are none except at the Eucharist, 
save as noted in II. 18, and so in Silvia and A.C. The words 
" the prophets and the rest " must include the " Apostle " (St. 



182 NOTES [I- 27, 28 

Paul); see the latter specially mentioned in the instruction 
of catechumens in I. 22, II. 1 ; and it is probably intended by 
the "New [Testament]" in II. 4 In I. 31, however, only the 
Prophets and Gospel are mentioned in the catechtmiens' teach- 
ing (p. 95), For the readers of the lections, and for the posi- 
tion of the order of " readers," see pp. 203 f. 

PiiEACHiNG. We note that, though the Mystagogia is not 
to be said before every Eucharist, yet there is to be always 
teaching before the mysteries (cf. the reason in I. 28). So the 
Western Eeformers insisted on a sermon at the Sacraments. 
The " bishop or presbyter " teaches in Test. ; in A.C. ii. 57 
(Lagarde, 86^) each one of the presbyters exhorts, and then last 
of all the bishop, whose special work it was to preach. Bishop 
J. Wordsworth {Ministry of Grace, 164 f.) thinks that presbyters' 
preaching in the fourth century was more common in the East 
than in the West, and a revival. He mentions as evidence for 
apostolic times, 1 Tim. v. 17 ; for the second century, Pseudo- 
Clemunt (2 Clem, ad Cor. xvii. 3) ; for the fourth, the Council 
of Ancyra in 314 (can. 1), Silvia, A.C. as above, and St. Chryso- 
stom (ITovi. 2 in verbis Esaiae). Sozomen tells us that preach- 
ing was uncommon at Eome (vii. 19). 

Dismissal of Catechumens. In A.C. ii. 39, 41, the penitents 
as well as the catechumens leave the church after the lections 
(in AC. viii. there are elaborate dismissals). Penitents in 
AC. are restored with laying on of hands. In Test, they are 
not mentioned as a class (see p. 194). — For the " laying on of 
the hand" in the sense of a benediction, cf. II. 5, 6, 20. The 
underlying Greek word is j^s/^o^sir/a, which, with its Syriac 
parallel, is constantly used both for an actual contact and for 
a mere stretching forth of the hand in blessing ; e.g. cf. A.C. viii. 
36-38, where y^nfokaia. is used for a benediction. Note that 
yjifoTona, on the other hand, is used both of laying on of hands 
in ordination {e.g. in A.C. viii.) and of the election or appoint- 
ment of the clergy. 

Chapter 28 

The Mystagogia. The Arabic Didascalia lias tliis in its 
last chapter (printed below in Appendix II.), but in a different 
form, on the whole shorter than the Test, form, though the 
Address of Death is slightly longer. The principal differences 
are, the alteration of the tri]ile division of Adam in Test, into 
body, soul, and spirit (p. 85 ?), the omission twice of the phrase 
about our Lord descending into Hades in His soul (pp. 85, 87) ; 
it omits or alters the antitheses " passible yet not passible. Son 



I. 28] NOTES 183 

yet not created, incomprehensible yet comprehensible" (p. 86), 
but retains " dead yet alive " ; it omits about our Lord's hiding 
Himself from the armies of heaven (p. 86), but adds that He 
placed Himself in union with the Virgin's body ; it omits about 
our Lord's self-emptying, and alters " the dead race of Adam in 
all its kinds " (or properties, see p. 185) to " Adam and his race " 
(p. 86); it alters "through it the whole nature of mankind, 
always bearing it (the cross), is made inseparable from God " 
(p. 87), to " who (or which ? — the cross) at all times standeth 
on the highest grade of perfection." It retains, however, the 
personification of Thought, Intelligence, so characteristic of 
Test., and the reference (p. 86) to the blood and spirit of our 
Lord being our hfe and holiness (but in this case with a slight 
change). The Address of Death is slightly enlarged in Ar. D. 
Not improbably this address was familiar in many different 
forms, quite apart from the Mystagogia (see p. 185) ; and the 
Ar. D. writer would naturally insert the form which he knew. 
The strange conclusion in Test., identifying the Spirit with 
the " Voice " of God through whom our Lord gives thanks to 
the Father, is shortened and altered in Ar. D. into an equally 
strange form which has reminiscences of Test., and which could 
have hardly been the original of the latter, but which could well 
have been derived from it. In Ar. D. Jesus thanks " the Word 
of Qod, the Father" for the speech through which the world was 
made ; " that is the icord that through the Spirit is in Us, which 
speaketh with Thee alone . . ." The Bishop of Salisbury {Rev. 
int. de thiol. 1900, p. 461) thinks that the Ar. D. form is the 
older. It is certainly shorter ; and, had we been dealing with a 
prayer, this would be suggestive of priority. It will be noticed 
(compare the section on the theology of Test, in the Intro- 
duction, p. 18 f.) that Ar. D. has not got the clauses which Dr. 
Wordsworth marks as Apollinarian, and the inference which 
appears to be most probable is that the Ar. D. writer omitted 
phrases which by the time that he wrote (though not in the 
time of the Test. Compiler) had become discredited as tainted 
with Apollinarian heresy. In the concluding section Ar. D. 
certainly appears to be later ; it is difficult to conceive the 
Test. Compiler evolving his conclusion from the short section 
of Ar. D. And as the preceding chapters of Test, are almost 
certainly earlier than Ar. D. (cf. pp. 154 f., 158, 161 f., 167, 176), 
we conclude that Ar. D. is derived from Test., and not vice versd. 
The Testament Mystagogia. Eahmani's version is a para- 
phrase. In the Syriac there is no " ille est," " ipse est," etc. ; 
the whole of the first part down to " Provision, Drink, and 



184 NOTES [I- 28 

Judge " is one sentence, probably depending on " we confess." 
— When said. The Mystagogia is clearly meant to be said on 
Easter Even and Easter Day (in addition to Epiphany and 
Pentecost), and not on every Saturday and Sunday, though the 
Syriac would be patient of the latter interpretation. Cf. the 
times for the widows' " giving praise " in I. 42 (p. 109). 

Dead Adam (p. 85).] Adam seems to be taken for man as 
he was in Adam, as in the Epistle to the Eomans. 

Who in His (human) soul descended in the Godhead into Sheol 
(p. 85).] The Syr. has mnaphshS, = Lat. animatus, perhaps = 
Gk. 'iiJ.'^Mypi;, i.e. endowed with a soul. We might render it "the 
animated one." See the Introduction (p. 17) for the alleged 
Apollinarian theology of Test. The phrase seems to mean that 
our Lord, who had laid aside His body, was still clothed with His 
human soul, which was (as Test, proceeds to state) continuously 
united to His Godhead. 

Of one will with Rim.] We may perhaps render " in con- 
cord with him" (Payne-Smith, Thesaurus Syriacus, 4083, 
quoting St. Ephrem). The Ar. D. has here "one shepherd," 
which (if it be translated from or influenced by the Syriac) 
might have come by mixing up the Syr. B 'lA, shepherd, with 
B 'IN A, mind. If so, perhaps the Greek here had oiUvma. 

The Angels' Grown, etc. (p. 85).] The angelic hierarchy here 
somewhat resembles that in I. 23 (p. 72), but it is not so numer- 
ous. Probably there was no fixed scheme of a hierarchy in the 
Compiler's mind, as later there was of the ninefold order corre- 
sponding to the nine divisions of the priesthood, a favourite 
Syrian idea. 

Passible {yet) not passible, etc. (p. 86).] Quoted by Bishop 
Wordsworth as Apollinarian. Note that A.C. viii. 12 (Lagarde, 
255^1), where the tendency is all the other way, has a passage 
not unlike this : " The Judge judged, the Saviour condemned, 
the Impassible was nailed to the Cross, and He who by nature 
is immortal died, the Life-giver (o ^wotto/o;) was buried that He 
might loose from suffering and take forth for Himself {l^i\7]Tai) 
from death those for whom He came {■jrapiyiviro), and break 
the bonds of the devil (cf. Test.). C.H. 196 has also, " that the 
impassible Lord of the universe suffered for us " ; but this is 
bracketed by Achelis. 

Who giveth light (p. 86).] This is Eahmani's conjecture 
{i.e. Syr. DMNHB) ; if so, the MSS. have left out a letter, as 
they read DMNH. The Ar.D. has "who maketh glad." 
Possibly, therefore, we should read BMNIH, " who delightest 
in." 



I. 28] NOTES 185 

Cast into ignorance the opposing hosts (p. 86).] Alike the 
good angels and the fallen ones are here described as kept in 
ignorance of the Incarnation. The ignorance of the devil was 
a common theme in early Christian times ; cf. Ignatius, Eph. 
xix. 1. 

Immortality instead of death (p. 86).] The meaning may 
be that we may be made worthy to pass from death to im- 
mortality. It is very doubtful if there is any reference to St. 
John V. 24. Ar. D. has " that we by His death might have a 
title to freedom from death and wake up in the real world." 

The dead race of Adam in all its kinds (p. 86 ).] Lit., by 
kinds. The Syr. word for "kinds" is eldog transliterated. 
Bishop Wordsworth renders " in its properties." He remarks 
that ApoUinarius represents our Lord as continuing h toTs 
avSpoiirhoi; ihuifj^aei, in His human properties, even after His 
Ascension (C.Q.E. April 1900). For the Ar. D. parallel, see 
p. 183. ifboi was one of the Greek words on which James of 
Edessa wrote a commentary (Diet. Chr. Biog. iii. 333). 

Come to birth as man, though He is God (p. 87).] Compare 
the Christmas hymn — 

"Man is worsliipped by Angels, 
And God comes to birth." 

The mystery which is revealed . . . as it is (p. 87).] The 
literal translation is given in the text. Eahmani's paraphrase 
perhaps gives the real sense, " which once was hidden, but now 
the mystery is opened, and is plain to the faithful, not as it 
seems to be, but as it is." 

By this (cross) ask for yourselves (p. 87).] The meaning 
seems to be: Make your petitions depend upon the cross. 
We might render : Ask this for yourselves ; or : Seek to this 
(cross, as an oracle) ; or : Ask of this. 

The Address of Death (p. 87).] The subject of our Lord's 
descent into Sheol and the " harrowing of Hades " was very 
common in early Christian literature. There is something 
like the Test, passage in the apocryphal Gospel of Nicodemus, 
xv.-xvii. inclusive. Compare especially Test., " flesh bound by 
me," with Nic. xvii. 11, xviii. 4, "sufTereth no corruption," 
with Nic. xvii. 3 (Hone's sections). The descent into hell was 
made much of by the Marcionites. . It is also mentioned in the 
legend of Addai (Thaddeus) preaching to Abgarus, as given 
(literally translated from Syriac) by Eusebius (H.K i. 13) in its 
older form : " Thaddeus said ... I will preach . . . concerii- 
ing the coming of Jesus, how He was born, . . . and His 



186 NOTES [I- 28-30 

abasement and humiliation, and how He humbled Himself, 
and died, and abased His divinity, and was crucified, and 
descended into Hades, and burst the bars which from eternity 
had not been broken, and raised the dead, for He descended 
alone, but rose with many, and thus ascended to His Father." 

Things that were on the left hand, etc. (p. 88).] There is a 
connexion between this allusion to the Judgment and the 
honourable position given to the older presbyters in 1. 19 (cf. p. 
150). 

After Re rose on the third day (p. 88).] If B.'s reading 
" before " be right, we might compare the thanksgiving which 
follows with Jonah's psalm out of the belly of Sheol. 

Chapter 29 

Presbyters' Marriage. Nothing is said about it ; bishops 
and deacons are only mentioned in this connexion (I. 20, 33), 
perhaps because in the Pastoral Epistles only " bishops " and 
deacons are referred to. In Ap. CO. 18 it is suggested that 
presbyters should not be married. Test, seems, however, to 
hint at more than he actually enjoins. He would prefer 
celibacy for all the clergy, but feels that he cannot press it. 
He makes no provision for the support of the children of 
presbyters or bishops, as he does for thpse of deacons (I. 33). 

Eevelations expected. This has been noted as a Mon- 
tanistic feature. They are mentioned frequently: I. 21, p. 65 
(bishops); 23, p. 74; here (presbyters, and gift of healing 
added); 31, p. 92 (presbyters and bishops); 32, p. 97 (prophet- 
ical utterances by any one) ; 40, p. 106 (to the saints about 
widows, and to the widows themselves). In I. 47 gifts of 
healing, knowledge, and tongues are to be expected by any 
Christians (p. 114). 

Chapter 30 

Appointment of the Presbyter, xardaraaii would be the 
underlying Greek word. See p. 153. 

Presbyters assisting at the Ordination of a Presbyter. 
This is not in C.H. 30 or A.C. viii. 15 (Lagarde, 2618"). But 
it is in Eg. CO. 32 (so Tattam and Lagarde), Eth. CO. 22, 
H. 1082°, and ^^e " Galilean Statutes " 32. Bishop Wordsworth 
conjectures that the introduction of the custom into the 
Eoman Ordinal was from Gaul {Ministry of Grace, p. 58). In 
the Eoman Ordinal the bishop lays on hands first alone, and 
afterwards with the presbyters. See Note on I. 38, p. 195. 

Ordination Prayer for Presbyters. In C.H. 30 the prayer 



I. 30] NOTES 187 

is said to be the same as that for ordaining a bishop; only 
" the name of bishop " and " episcopate " are to he changed to 
"presbyter" and " presbyterate " [not sacerdos, sacerdotium], 
and enthronisation is omitted. The Eg. CO. 32 (Tattam, p. 34) 
says likewise, " Let him pray over him, according to the form 
which we have spoken of concerning the bishops." But 
Eth. CO. 22 has a separate prayer, very simple, and the germ 
of Test. It is as follows (Ludolf, p. 337) : 

my God, Father of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, look on this 
Thy servant, and bestow upon him the spirit of grace and the counsel of 
holiness, that he may govern Thy people in integrity of heart. As Thou 
lookedst upon the chosen people [the Israelites],^ and commandedst Moses 
to choose elders whom Thou filledst with the same spirit which Thou 
didst give to Thj' servant and minister (famulum) Moses. Now, my 
Lord, give to this Thy servant grace which hath never failed, preserving 
for us the grace of Thy Spirit and our fitting portion, supplying in us 
Thy worship in the heart (cultum tuum in oorde), that we may sincerely 
celebrate Thee, through Thy Son Jesus Christ, in whom be praise to 
Thee, and power to Father and Son and Holy Spirit in Thy holy Church, 
both now and always and for ever and ever. Amen. 

Hauler (108^^) has an almost exactly similar prayer. But 
note: (1) Eth. CO. "govern Thy people " = H. "to help the 
presbyters and to govern Thy people " = Test, "to help and 
govern Thy people (so A.C viii. 15) ; (2) Eth. CO. and H. and 
A.C viii. 15 have "commandedst Moses to choose elders," so 
that Eahmani's conjecture that we must correct the " ask " of 
Test, into " choose " is probably right, James of Edessa having 
taken s-/.xi-/iiv wrongly in the former sense rather than in the 
latter ; (3) H. and Test, have simply " bestow Him on Thy 
minister," which, as Eth. CO shows, refers to Moses ; (4) 
neither Eth. CO. nor H. has the Test. " made disciples by 
Thee," a confusion of persons being characteristic of Test. ; 
(5) the close is slightly different in all three, the prayer being 
for " us " in Eth. CO. and H., for the ordinand in Test. 

A.G. viii. 15 have a separate ordination prayer very like 
Test. Sarapion's, however, is different. We notice that in 
Eth. CO. and Sarapion the name " presbyter " is not mentioned, 
in H. only incidentally; in Eth. CO., H., Test., no priestly 
function is mentioned, and none but reconciliation in Sarapion. 
A.C mention rris iipoupyiag (sacrifices or priestly duties) on 
behalf of the people (Lagarde, 262^2). 

For the phrase "Spirit of the presbyterate," see page 195. 
The idea is taken from the mention of the spirit in the case 
of Moses' elders (N"umb. xi. 17, 29). The words "who doth 
^ Ludolf 's bracket. 



188 NOTES [I- 30> 31 

not grow old " represent a paronomasia which is often found, 
as in St. Clement of Eome {ad Cor. i. 3), perhaps in Hermas, 
Vis. ii. 4, and in Ap. CO. 18 (Tattam, p. 20) : " It behoves the 
presbyters that they should be in the world after the manner 
of old men," etc. But this is not in the Syriac Ap. CO. 
(Arendzen in J.T.S. iii. 69). Cf. p. 202. Polycarp, FUl. v. 2. 

Chaptee 31 

The Copto-arabic translation has altered and modernised 
this chapter much, and has omitted several things in it. The 
chapter seems to be the work of the Test. Compiler. 

Presbyters' Fasts. See Note on I. 22, p. 162. 

Presbyter to visit his Parishes (p. 92). This is nrafoi- 
■A.ia.1 translated ; cf. II. 27, 1 Pet. i. 17. The word is used in 
the sense of "diocese" in A.C. vtii. 10 (Lagarde, 245^, singular; 
245", plural), and A.C. ii. 58 (Lagarde, 88*, 88i5), and Ap. 
Can. 14, 15 (13, 14). 

Presbyters' or Bishop's Food and Eaiment (p. 92). Note 
that the Sermon on the Mount is here specially applied to the 
clergy. 

Tares in the Wheat (p. 93). It would almost seem from 
this that the writer regards the Christian dispensation as that 
" end of the world " in which, in the parable, God is to send 
forth His angels, and perhaps that these angels are the clergy. 
The prefixing of the Apocalytic prelude " on the End " lends 
some probability to this hypothesis. Otherwise, in the face of 
the parable, this is presumptuous in the extreme. 

In the day of the Lord, the Word, etc. (p. 93).] Perhaps 
" The Lord, who Himself is the Word of God, and thus the 
Judge of those that hear," is the meaning. But not improb- 
ably the Greek had "The word will be demanded of him," 
though the Syriac gender is wrong for this. 

Let him confirm, . . . with the word of teaching (p. 95).] 
Copto-arab. inserts instead of this : " Let the presbyter have the 
power of a bishop in all things except ordination and consecra- 
tion of holy places and the altar ; and therefore a presbyter 
should exercise the works of virtue which also a bishop should 
exercise." Copto-arab. also omits the paragraph, " Let him fast 
. . . care for his work." 

Let him receive of the cwp (p. 95).] That is (perhaps) 
ordinary wine, but such as is used for the Eucharist. See 
p. 163. The text is translated literally, but Eahmani suggests, 
it may be rightly : " If it is proper that he should receive wine 



I. 31-33] NOTES 189 

of the cup, let so much suffice him as . . ." This requires an 
extra letter {D). 

Chapter 32 

Peesbyters' daily Hymn of Praise. This chapter is 
apparently the Test. Compiler's own work, and is modelled on 
I. 26. There appears to have been no fixed time for these 
prayers, but each presbyter would say them " at his own time," 
with some of the faithful to respond. As there were to be 
twelve presbyters, they would be repeated twelve times. At 
any rate they are not part of the public dawn service (see 
Note to I. 23, p. 164); the pre-anaphoral part of the latter 
is only appointed to be said when the Eucharist is celebrated^ — 
that is, not daily. Compare II. 24 (see Note, p. 236 f.) on the 
Hours of prayer. There nothing is laid down as to what 
prayers are to be said at those times. It would appear that 
these latter prayers were less formal and were not fixed. 
Daily services are more developed in A.C. vii. 47 and viii. 
34-39. We find there fixed Psalms and the Gloria in excelsis. 
There is no table of psalms or lessons, however. Cf. A.C. ii. 
59. In the treatise Be Virginitate, of the end of the fourth 
century, much is added : fixed psalms, Nunc Dimittis, Bene- 
dicite. For Silvia's description of daily service at Jerusalem, 
see Note, p. 238. At Eome daily public service was not intro- 
duced till at least the fifth century ; and Bishop Wordsworth 
{Ministry of Grace, 347) thinks that daily public morning and 
evening prayers were not known even in the East till the 
third quarter of the fourth century. This is only an argu- 
ment from silence, but the evidence of Test, favours it, for 
it lays down no formal public daily prayers for all men. 

Love Feasts (p. 96). Lit., "rests," the same word as in 
2 Pet. ii. 13, Jude 12. In other writers it also means funeral 
feasts; cf. C.H. 169, AC. viii. 42-44 (Lagarde, 276=* tf.). 

A revmrd for saying prophetical words (p. 97). See I. 29, 
Note on Eevelations, p. 186. Copto-arab. omits this sentence. 

Chapter 33 

S. numbers this 37, and the last part of our § 31 is 
numbered by S. 35 and 36, the number 35 going straight 
on from 14; the numbers 15-34 are omitted, whereas no 
notice is taken by S. in its numbers of our § 32 being omitted. 
This would show that S. is copied from a MS. which had not 
our § 32, since S. did not invent its own numbers. 



190 NOTES [l. 33, 34 

Deacons' Makriage. See pp. 153 ff., 186, especially for the 
phrase " from a wife." Deacons' marriage is expressly allowed 
(but once only) in Ap. CO. 20. 

A handicraft.] Copto-arab. adds : " which may keep him 
from works of piety." 

Chaptek 34 

For proclamation (p. 98).] Lagarde suggests sV; rpofiri, but 
he does not like it. "Proclamation" does not make good 
sense, and S. did not understand it. It may be permissible to 
conjecture Z'BDTA, for service, instead of LSBBTA, for 
proclamation, as R and I) are constantly interchanged in 
Syriac. It will then agree with Eg. CO. 33 (Tattam, pp. 34, 
36), " he shall not be ordained for the priesthood, but for the 
service of the bishop," as in Test. I. 38, where see Note (p. 195). 

The Deacon the Counsellor of the whole Cleegy 
(p. 98). Eg. CO. 33 (Tattam, p. 36) says that he is not the 
counsellor (irii/i/SouXos) of the whole clergy ; Eth. CO. 23 says 
he is not appointed to be the teacher of all the ordajned ; 
H. 109^° says he is not partaker of counsel in the clergy. 
Test, deliberately here extols deacons, and separates this pre- 
cept from the beginning of I. 38, with which it is connected in 
the other Church Orders. The tendency to disparage deacons 
found in much fourth century literature is not found in Test. 
But see II. 10, and p. 223. 

The Deacon the Mystery of the Church (p. 98). Lagarde, 
ff6,u./3oXo( or /Muarripm. Perhaps the former is what James of 
Edessa read, but he may have mistaken it for adfiBouXog. In 
that case the Test. Compiler would mean " the counsellor of 
the whole clergy, yes, the counsellor of the Church." Lagarde 
compares A.C ii. 28 (Lag. 57'), which speaks of the presbyters 
as the counsellors (a{i/j.^o-jXoi) of the bishop and the crown of 
the Church. For they are the senate and council (ewiSpiov xai 
/SouXjj) of the Church. Copto-arab. reads : " that he may accom- 
plish those things which the rule orders him (to do), with 
reference to the bishop and presbyter, that he may warn them 
about the things' which are necessary, that he may be faithful 
as regards the mysteries of the Church." The translator evi- 
dently did not understand how a deacon could be a " mystery." 

Deacons burying the Dead. See p. 235. 

Deacons keeping Order. See pp. 133, 232. Copto-arab. 
transfers these rules to the chapter about the Liturgy (I. 23). 

Deacons and the Sick. See p. 234. Cf. A.C. ii. 32, 44, 
iii. 19, where they are to tell the bishop, and so Eg. CO. 33 



I. 34] NOTES 191 

(Tattam, p. 36), unlike Test., which leaves them with a larger 
discretion. Later there were special officials who visited the 
sick, especially in pestilence; they were numerous at Alex- 
andria, and were called parabolani {■KapaBo^a.viTg). Their office 
ceased soon after Justinian. In the fifth century they became 
a somewhat turbulent body, and they distinguished them- 
selves for their violence at the Eobber Synod of Ephesus in 449 
(Diet. Chr. Ant. 1551 ; Wordsworth, Ministry of Grace, 196). 
Deacons gradually endeavoured to extend their power, and to 
devolve their minor duties on subordinates. It is a mark of early 
date'of Test, that so many menial works are given to deacons. 
Chief Deacon entertaining Strangeks (p. 99). See 
Note on I. 19, p. 152. 

The Stole (p. 99). This is probably the first mention of 
this vestment in known Christian literature. Here it is used 
by the chief deacon (cf. I. 19) in the guest house, presumably 
as a badge of office. It is not mentioned as being used in 
service time. Outside Test., stoles are first mentioned at the 
Council of Laodicea in Phrygia (can. 22, 23), the date of which 
is uncertain, but which was probably held in the last half or last 
quarter of the fourth century. Those canons forbid subdeacons 
to wear them ; they were evidently not then new things, and 
the reference is to their use in service. Their use in Test, 
merely as a badge of office, and only by the chief deacon (the 
other deacons and the subdeacons had not yet put forward a 
claim to wear them), would seem to point to a date earlier than 
Laodicea. We" notice that the deacon wears the stole on one 
shoulder, as is the case at the present day. 

Number of the Clergy. This will be a convenient place 
to consider the numbers of clergy in the different ranks. Test. 
here (p. 99) enumerates twelve presbyters, seven deacons, 
fourteen subdeacons, thirteen widows who sit in front. Copto- 
arab. says there are not to be more than twelve presbyters in 
the Church, seven deacons, four subdeacons and readers, three 
widows, and singers (it does not say how many of the last). 
The twelve presbyters would correspond to the Apostles, or to 
half the elders of the Apocalypse (cf. pp. 149 f., 200). The seven 
deacons are as in Acts vi. Test, omits here (but not elsewhere) 
readers, and we are perhaps (like Copto-arab.) to include them 
in the subdeacons. Kahmani conjectures from Copto-arab., 
and also from the number (three) of widows in Ap. CO. (see 
below), that we are to amend the Test. " fourteen and thirteen " 
to " four and three." But this is unlikely, as from the arrange- 
ment at the altar (see pp. 7&s: 169) there must have been a 



192 NOTES [I. 34, 35 

very large number of widows. The following is a summary of 
the different orders, and is indebted for some of the references 
to the Ministry of Grace, p. 152 ff. : 

(1) Presbyters. Ap. CO. 17, 18, mentions three, but refers 
to the twenty-four of the Apocalypse ; perhaps three is meant 
to be the minimum, twenty-four the proper number in the 
whole city. There were thirty-six (or forty-six) at Eome in 
251, according to Cornelius' list in his letter to Fabius of 
Antioch (Eusebius, JI.K vi. 43) ; Wordsworth suggests thirty- 
six as nearly half of Moses' elders ; but it is possible that it 
is the half of the seventy-two disciples of our Lord — " Seventy- 
two disciples " being a common substitute for " the Seventy " in 
Syriac literature, and also, e.g., in the Abyssinian Anaphora 
of our Lord (see p. 249)? The late and untrustworthy 
Eutychius, Arab patriarch of Alexandria in the tenth century, 
mentions twelve presbyters in that city in early times, and 
the number is highly probable. St. Ignatius compares the pres- 
byters to the Apostles' college, and they may have numbered 
twelve at Antioch (Trail, iii. 1); A.C. ii. 26 (Lagarde, 55*) and 
H. 37^^ also liken the presbyters to the apostles. 

(2) Beacons. Seven in Cornelius' list at Eome in 251, also 
at Neocaesarea in 315 (can. 15, referring to the Acts). So 
Prudentius, ii. 18, v. 157. But Ap. CO. 20 in Syriac (Arend- 
zen, J.T.S. iii. 71) names three, quoting St. Matt, xviii. 16 ; 
Tattam's version (p. 22) reads with less probability, " let the 
deacons be appointed by three testifying," etc. 

(3) Subdeacons. Seven in Cornelius' Eoman list in 251. 
Not mentioned in Ap. CO. At Constantinople, later, there 
were seventy (Diet. Chr. Ant. 1939). 

(4) Readers. As to their numbers we have no information. 
Not in Ap. CO. Cornelius mentions fifty-two " exorcists and 
readers." 

(5) Widows. In Ap. CO. 21 three (see below on I. 40, p. 
198). 

We note that there were in the East no acolytes, of whom 
Cornelius mentions forty-two at Eome in 251 ; and that in 
Test, there are no exorcists or doorkeepers as separate classes. 
Cornelius has no deaconesses, virgins, nor psalmists (singers). 

Chapter 35 

THE deacon's UTANY 

This chapter is omitted in the Copto-arabic translation ; it 



I. 35] NOTES 193 

is apparently in the main the Test. Compiler's own composition. 
For the word "admonition," see p. 169. 

The Deacon the Eye of the Chuuch (p. 99). Cf. A.C. 
ii. 44 (Lag. 73^), where the deacon is to be the hearing, eye, 
mouth, heart and soul of the bishop. 

The Litany. (1) The ectene or litany is said in Test, 
before the Eucharist, as in all later rites; in the West, in 
mediaeval times, it took the form of the procession before 
Holy Communion ; but in the East a litany is said at other 
services, in the evening as well as in the morning. In Silvia 
a litany is said at the " lamp lighting " service at 4 p.m. 
(see pp. 152, 238). 

(2) The modern Abyssinian Litany is clearly derived from 
this Testament one. See Brightman, L.E.W. Ixxvi. and 206- 
208, where it is given, and note especially the petition for late 
comers, as in Test. I. 36. The Abyssinian has " martyrs " for 
Test. " confessors," " widows and celibates " for Test. " presby- 
teresses" (for which see p. 199), omits deaconesses and catechu- 
mens, but adds singers, virgins, and ascetics; it has "excom- 
municated" for the Test, "persecuted," and adds several clauses. 
The petition for late comers is inserted at the end, thus : " Let us 
draw nigh and ask the Lord that He may hear and accept our 
prayer. For our thanksgiving we beseech that the Lord 
write our petition in the book of life, and the eternal God 
remember us in the resting place of saints in His own light. 
For those of our brethren and sisters who lag behind we 
beseech that the Lord grant them to have a fervent desire and 
turn away from them the bondage of this world, and give them 
a good conscience and love and good hope. For the sake of 
the body and blood of the Son of God, so be it, so be it." 

(3) No response of the people is given in the Test. Litany, 
but from the example of Silvia and of later litanies we cannot 
doubt that they said " Lord have mercy " after each clause. 

Bishops eightly dividing the Woed of Teuth (p. 100). 
So frequently of bistops : e.g., A.C. viii. 10 (Lagarde, 245"), and 
later litanies; so again in A.C. ii. 43, viii. 12 (Lag. 72i6, 2562^). 
Here James of Edessa doubtless translates direct from the 
Greek. The Pshitta has " preaching." For Length of days 
(p. 100), cf. A.C. viii. 10 (Lag. 245i9). Except for these two 
points the A.C. Litany differs greatly from Test. 

The Bishop completing the Pkayee (p. 102). Compare the 
presbyter or bishop beginning the prayer a little before (p. 100). 
Cf. 1. 27. Can this mean giving a blessing before and after 
the litany, or is it left to the bishop (or presbyter) to pray ex- 

13 



194 NOTES [I- 35-37 

tempore ? In A.C. viii. 11, there is a long prayer after the 
deacon's Utany said by the bishop (Lag. 2463<>). In the Liturgy 
of Addai and Mari (see p. 35) the deacon " completes " (says a 
bidding prayer ? — Brightman, L.E.W. 271). 

Chaptek 36 

Late comeks. (1) Instead of " that of the dawn," S. reads 
" the beautiful one." Lagarde understands it thus : " If any 
come late to the service, either when the SrS/iEv xa'KZs, let lis 
stand upright (lit., beautifully), is being said, or when the offer- 
ing is being offered . . ." according to a marginal gloss in S. 
But the 2rw/isv xaXuig does not occur in the Test. Liturgy ; and 
though no doubt this was what the S. scribe, or at least the 
S. glossator, understood by " the beautiful one," M.B. probably 
have the original reading. By the "hymn of praise of the 
dawn" we must then understand the pre-anaphoral prayers. 
(2) Lagarde renders "let him beseech" (instead of "let us 
beseech ") as if these words were part of the canon. But the 
new context of our § 35 shows that this is wrong. (3) The 
words about, late comers are inserted by Copto-arab. in the 
chapter about the Liturgy (I. 23). It says that before the 
Liturgy the subdeacon is to shut the doors. For these words 
in the modern Abyssinian Litany, see p. 193. 

Chaptee 37 

This seems to be the work of Test. Compiler. Copto-arab. 
omits almost all of it. 

Treatment oe post-baptismal Sin. " Let not the deacon 
bring him in, . . . even if he repent." This has been treated 
by Bishop Wordsworth {Ministry of Gh-ace, 30) as an example 
of extreme severity, and as Montanistic. The only parallel 
instance in the Catholic Church would be the ultra-rigorist 
Council of Elvira in Spain, dr. 305 a.d. But this seems to be 
a mistaken interpretation of Test., and has nothing else to bear 
it out in the rest of the work. The meaning appears to be 
merely that the deacon is not to have the power of dealing 
with the case. Much discretion is given to the deacon (cf. 
especially Note on p. 190), but in this case the matter is 
taken out of his hands. 

Penitents. This is almost if not quite the only reference 
to them in Test. There are no stations of penitents. See 
Introduction, p. 37. 



I. 37, 38] NOTES 195 

A work.] This is a characteristic phrase (Introduction, p. 
22). Cf. A.C. ii. 61 (Lagarde, 92*) : " Let such an one know that 
the handicrafts {ri-^^vai) of the faithful are activities {iiripyia), 
and that godliness is a work," but the context is different. So 
A.C. ii. 27 (Lag. 55") : " If any one does anything apart from 
the bishop, he does it in vain, for it will not be reckoned to 
him as a work." 

Last Paeageaph. Copto-arab. says : "If the deacon accom- 
plish these [works of piety], let him not neglect the sacred 
ministry of the Church, which belongeth to his degree and which 
placeth the fear of God always before his eyes, and inciteth love 
to the places of the rest of God " (cf . 1. 1 8 s/. ?, and Note on p. 148). 

Chaptee 38 

The Deacon not appointed to the Peiesthood. (1) This 
phrase itself would be sufficient to show that Syriac was not 
the original language of the Testament. See Note on the Com- 
munion of the Clergy in I. 23 (p. 178). (2) This passage is 
found in the Other Church Orders. C.H. 33, 34 say (but not in 
reference to the bishop alone laying on the hand) that a deacon 
does not belong to the preshyterate but to the diaconate, as 
[becomes] a servant of God. Let him minister to the bishop and 
presbyters in all things, not only at the time of the Offering, 
and minister to the sick. Eg. CO. 33 (Tattam, pp. 34, 36) says 
that the bishop alone lays hands on the deacon, because the latter 
is not ordained for the priesthood (Lagarde, hpsiav) but for the 
service of the bishop, that he may do those things which he 
shall command him. It goes on about his not being the coun- 
sellor of the clergy (see p. 190). So Eth. CO. 23 and H. 109i8 ; 
both these agree with Eg. CO. in referring to the " spirit of the 
preshyterate " which the deacon does not receive, and which 
Test. (I. 30) refers to in the ordination of a presbyter, where 
the others do not mention it. [Test, personifies it, and refers 
to it also in I. 35.] H. also fills a gap in Eth. CO. 
(Ludolf) here, and adds that the presbyter receives and does 
not give the " common and similar spirit of the clergy " (com- 
munem et similem cleri spiritum), and therefore does not 
ordain the clergy, but at a presbyter's ordination he " seals " 
(consignat) when the bishop ordains ; then the presbyters lay 
on hands in addition (superimponant manus). We may com- 
pare C.H. 47, which say that a confessor, though he does not 
receive the form of the presbyterate, yet has got its spirit (see 
next chapter). In H. 40* and the Ethiopic Didascalia (Piatt, 



196 NOTES [I- 38, 39 

§ 16), it is said that the deacon does service for presbyters as 
well as for the bishop. The Statuta Ecclesiae Antiqua, § 4 
(qu. by "Wordsworth, Ministry of Grace, 166, who calls them the 
" Galilean Statutes "), give the same reason for the bishop alone 
ordaining a deacon — "because he is consecrated not to the 
priesthood (sacerdotium), but for service (ministerium). The 
eighteenth canon of Nicaea says that deacons are the servants 
(i-jnjpirai) of the bishop. 

Ordination Prayer for a Deacon. The prayer in C.H. 
39-42 is quite different ; it alludes to St. Stephen. Sarapion's 
prayer, which again is different, alludes to the seven deacons. 
Eg. CO. gives no prayer, as in the case of the other ordinations. 
Eth. CO. is deficient here (Ludolf breaks off just before the 
prayer). H., however (which breaks off in the middle of the 
prayer), gives us what seems clearly to be the original of the 
first part of the Test, prayer, as follows (110®) : 

God, who didst create all things and didst ordain (perordinasti) 
[them] by the Word, Father of our Lord Jesus Christ whom Thou didst 
send to minister Thy will, and to manifest to us Thy desire (desiderium), 
give the Holy Spirit of grace and earnestness (sollicitudinis) and diligence 
(industriae) to (in) this Thy servant whom Thou hast chosen to minister 
to Thy Church and to offer . . . [lacuna]. 

Note that Test, has personified, in its usual manner, the 
" desiderium " of H. into " Thy Thought, Thy Wisdom, Thine 
Energy." The converse change would be very unlikely, and 
here we have an almost certain indication of the priority of H. 

Chapter 39 

Confessors in other Church Orders. (1) C.H. 43-47 
give, perhaps, the original of the later Orders. A confessor 
before the judgment seat who is punished and is then released 
deserves the grade of the presbyterate in God's sight, not 
according to episcopal ordination, for his confession is his 
ordination ; but if he becomes a bishop, let him be ordained. 
If any one having confessed is not tormented, he is worthy of 
the presbyterate, but let him be ordained by the bishop. Such 
an one, if a slave, if tormented, is a presbyter to the flock, he 
has the spirit of the presbyterate (see Note, p. 195) ; let the 
bishop therefore omit that part of the prayer [of ordination ?] 
which relates to the Holy Spirit. Whatever else may be 
thought of this dictum, it is at least quite intelligible, which is 
more than can be said of the Test, passage. (2) Eg. CO. 34 
(Tattam, pp. 36, 38) agrees generally with the first part of the 



I. 39, 40] NOTES 197 

above, but omits about the torture. It says that they shall not 
lay hands (pi.) on him for a service (cf . Test. " the diaconate ") 
or priesthood, for he hath the honour of priesthood by his 
confession. If appointed a bishop, he is to have hands (plural) 
laid on him. It goes on to say that if a confessor is not 
brought before rulers, or bound or imprisoned or condemned 
unjustly, but has been insulted . . . and privately punished 
and has confessed (Christ), being worthy of every sacerdotal 
office, he is to be ordained. The bishop is to give thanks 
as aforesaid, but he need not be tied down to the exact words 
so long as he prays in an orthodox manner. (3) Eth. CO. 
(Ludolf) and H. are wanting here. — We see that Test, has 
softened down the assertion of C.H. that confessorship is 
ordination, and omits the rather slighting reference to episcopal 
ordination, as does Eg. CO. The last part of the Test, chapter 
seems to mean the same as Eg. CO., but without the latter it 
would be impossible to make sense of it. (4) A.C viii. 23 
(Lagarde, 264^^) say much the same that Test. (I. 46) says of 
virgins. A confessor is not ordained; it is of his own will 
{yviifiri) and endurance ; but he is worthy of great honour ; if he 
is wanted for a bishop or a presbyter or a deacon, he is to be 
ordained. A self -asserting confessor is to be cast out. 

When the shepherd advanceth,] or "reacheth forth [his 
hand]." But the former interpretation agrees with the same 
phrase in II. 1 (p. 116, "make progress") and with Eg. CO. 
(Tattam, p. 38), "if when he again prays." 

For the relative position of confessors, see on I. 45 (p. 203). 

But let him not pray, etc.] Copto-arab. omits this last 
sentence, probably because the translator, not inexcusably, 
failed to understand it. 

Peksecution. See Introduction, pp. 35, 36. 

Chaptee 40 

Widows. This and the following three chapters seem to 
be the work of the Test. Compiler, perhaps working on the 
supposed " Montanist Church Order." 

Widows in other Church Orders. These do not develop 
the subject nearly so much as Test. (1) In C.H. 59 widows 
are to be honoured for abundant, prayers, care of the sick, and 
frequent fasts. (2) In Eg. CO. 37 (Tattam, p. 40) a widow is 
to be appointed " for prayer " ; nothing is said of her teaching 
women. (3) A.C. have much fuller notices of widows. In viii. 25 
(Lagarde, 265® £f.) it is said that a widow is not to be ordained, 



198 NOTES [I- 40 

but if she has long lost her husband and lived well she may 
be admitted to the widows' list {x^pmv). For ii. 57 see p. 199. 
In iii. 6 (Lag. lOO^^)^ as in Test., women are not allowed to 
teach in the church. In iii. 7 (Lag. 1041^) widows are subject 
to deaconesses. They are chiefly for receiving alms and pray- 
ing for the donors. In ii. 26, iii. 6, 14 (Lag. 551^, lOl^, 108i), 
a widow is called "the altar of God," as in H. 37^^ and Polycarp, 
Phil. 4 ; so in Test, her prayers are the " sacrifice and altar of 
God." In iii. 3 the widow must be " pious, having brought up 
her children well, and having entertained strangers without 
blame." (4) In Ap. CO. 21 two widows are appointed for "prayer 
for every one who is in temptations " and for thanksgiving, and 
one for visiting sick women ; so Tattam (p. 24). But the Syriac 
(Arendzen in J.T.S. iii. 71) adds, "for revelations and in- 
structions concerning what is required " ; Hauler 95^^ only adds 
" for revelations about whatever is necessary " (cf. the Test, 
words in this chapter about " widows visited by the spirit "). 
But on the whole Ap. C.O. discourages widows as much as 
Test, encourages them, with an argument (§§ 24—28) from 
which it logically would follow that women ought not to 
communicate, though it does not say so. For the revelations, 
see Note on p. 186.— In Test, widows receive support when 
necessary for themselves and their children, but they are 
appointed for ministry and are among the clergy ; though they 
do not receive laying on of hands they are appointed by special 
benediction, unlike deaconesses. They are not allowed to 
speak in the church (so Eg. 0.0. 37, Tattam, p. 40 ; and A.C. 
as above). 

Monogamy of Widows is implied in Test., but not absolutely 
stated. Second marriages for women were little liked, or at 
least monogamy was approved, in all early ages. St. Paul testi- 
fies to this, but he directs younger [widows] to marry, 1 Tim. 
V. 14 E.V. Copto-arab. expressly mentions monogamy, and 
like St. Paul mentions sixty as the age for admission. 

Widows who sit in Front. Cf. I. 19, 41, 43, II. 4, 8, etc. 
The Greek was no doubt TpoxaS^/nmi. That this was a recog- 
nised technical expression is seen by I. 19, where we read 
" widows who are called •apoxaOri/iivai." We notice that in Test, 
there are no other widows, as an order, than these " who sit in 
front." The same expression occurs at the Council of Laodicea 
in Phrygia (can. 11), where the appointment of these widows 
is forbidden for the future (Hefele, Councils, ii. 305, Eng. trans.). 
" The appointment of the so-called presbyteresses {'?rpia^{jTidig), 
or they that sit in front {vpoKaSri/iimi), shall not take place in 



I. 40] NOTES 199 

the Church." This can hardly be only intended to forbid the 
appointment taking place within the walls of a church, but 
must, as Hefele shows, forbid the appointment altogether. 
Certainly these canons were not universally binding ; but this 
prohibition in Laodicea is evidence that these widows {■jrpoT.a^n- 
/js,£\iai) were dying out, at any rate in Phrygia, probably all over 
the East. We therefore conclude that Test, dates some con- 
siderable time before the Council of Laodicea, which probably 
belongs to the last quarter of the fourth century. 

Presbyteresses (I. 35, II. 19) and Widows who sit in 
Feont. Are these the same ? We may almost certainly assert 
the affirmative in Test. In I. 35, in the litany, presbyteresses 
are mentioned between deacons and subdeacons, as in these 
chapters (living confessors are apparently not mentioned by 
name as a class in the litany). In II. 19 widows and presbyter- 
esses are indeed mentioned separately, but probably there 
the "widows" mentioned first are ordinary widows, as they 
follow the married women; the presbyteresses mentioned 
afterwards would be the "widows who sit in front." At 
Laodicea they clearly are the same (see above). But it does not 
follow that this nomenclature was universal. The very words 
" that are called " at Laodicea and in Test. I. 19 would imply 
perhaps the contrary. In Syria it would seem that there were 
other professed widows than the presbyteresses. In A.C. ii. 57 
(Lagarde, 86^"), the virgins, widows, and presbyteresses (tpss- 
SuTides) are to sit in front, in the congregation, however. The 
Bishop of Salisbury points out (Ministry/ of Grace, 271, note 18) 
that the " presbyteress " of A.C. iii. 5 (Lagarde, 100^") replaces 
" widow " of the earlier Didascalia. The " widows " of A.C. ii. 
57 would be professed widows, but the "presbyteresses" a 
higher class of professed widows. Epiphanius, Haer. 79, 4 
(quoted in Ministry/ of Grace, 275), distinguishes between 
•TrpialSuTii and -irpia^uTipk or hpieea, allowing the former as an 
elder widow, but not tolerating the latter names or functions. 

Peesbyteeesses (Widows) and Deaconesses. In Test, 
these are quite distinct (see I. 23, 35, 40). The former bear 
to the latter somewhat the same relation that presbyters bear 
to deacons. Yet deaconesses are less important in proportion 
than deacons; they are expressly not included among the 
clergy, whereas widows are (see Note on the Communion of 
the Clergy in I. 23, p. 177). There is a somewhat close 
parallel to Test, usage in the Acts and Martyrdom of Matthew, 
§ 28, a recension of Gnostic Acts (Diet. Chr. Biog. i. 30a ; Diet. 
Chr. Ant. 2036&), where a king's wife is ordained as wpie^Znc, 



200 NOTES [l- 40 

and his son's wife as a deaconess. There is no benediction of 
deaconesses in Test. In Ar. D. 38 widows are identified with 
deaconesses (p. 167). Neither widows nor deaconesses are 
mentioned in Sarapion. In A.C. their relation is entirely- 
reversed (p. 198). There are no deaconesses in C.H. nor in 
Eg. CO. 

Widows taking Deacons with them. So in A.C. ii. 26 
(Lagarde, 54^°) deaconesses are to do nothing apart from the 
deacon. 

The Figures of the Souls. This has been noted as a 
Montanistic feature. Bishop Wordsworth (C.Q.E. April 1900) 
compares Tertullian, de Anima, 9 s.f. (Migne, vol ii. 702). 
This work was written by Tertullian after he became a Mon- 
tanist ; he ascribes to the soul a certain corporeality. Dives 
had a tongue in Hades, Lazarus a finger, Abraham a bosom ; 
the souls of the martyrs were seen by St. John in the Spirit. 
But though there is a general likeness of this Test, passage to 
Tertullian, the resemblance is not very close. 

The Holy Phials and the Twelve Presbyters. This 
passage seems to be explained by Ap. CO., which here, as 
often, has left its mark on Test. In Ap. CO. 18 we read : " All 
. . . said . . . There are twenty -four presbyters, twelve at 
the right and twelve at the left. John said: Well do ye 
remember [the Apocalypse here ascribed to St. John the 
Apostle ?] my brethren ; for those at the right, when they 
have received the vials (so Syr., but Tattam, p. 20, has 
" censers ") from the archangels (Tattam, " angels "), offer to the 
Lord, but those at the left bear rule over (Tattam, " shall be 
sustained by") the multitude of the angels." Then earthly 
presbyters are spoken of. In Rev. v. 8 each of the twenty- 
four elders has a harp and golden vials full of incense, which is 
the prayers of the saints. But Ap. CO. seems to limit the 
vials to the twelve on the right hand, who are more honour- 
able than those on the left. It expressly makes the earthly 
presbyters on the right hand have the honoured office of 
caring for those who labour at the altar, while the presbyters 
on the left hand have the care of the multitude of the people. 
Test, seems to follow this interpretation of Eev. v. 8, and we 
note that it makes the twelve presbyters " praise my Father 
who is in heaven " : they (in the words of Ap. CO.) " offer to 
the Lord." Nothing short of this very highest honour is to 
be the ideal of the widow. Eahmani conjectures that James 
of Edessa read (piaXn for puXii, and that we should render : " go 
to meet the holy bands ; of these are the twelve presbyters." 



I. 40-42] NOTES 201 

But, in view of what has been said, this is very improbable. 
The passage is obscure also in Copto-arab. 

Chapter 41 

Entrance of the Altar. See Note on I. 19, p. 149. 

CoNSUBSTANTiAL. This is used of the Holy Ghost, and is 
undoubtedly 6/ioousiog in the Greek. But James of Edessa does 
not use the ordinary Syriac equivalent for that expression, 
" son of the nature of " ; he translates it more literally for 
himself, transliterating o'jala into Syriac. This word at once 
shows us that the book cannot be of Eahmani's early date ; 
indeed, he notes it as an interpolation. See section on 
Theology in the Introduction (p. 16), and Note on the Eg. GO. 
parallel to Test. II. 8, p. 214. For declarations of fathers in the 
middle of the fourth century as to the consubstantiality of the 
Holy Ghost, see Dr. Swete in Diet. Chr. Biog. iii. 121. — In the 
Creed in the Antiphonary of Bangor (Irish, between 680 and 
691), the Holy Ghost is described as "having one substance 
with the Father and the Son " (unam habentem substantiam). 
It does not use the same words regarding the Son. 

This passage of Test, joins to the word " consubstantial " 
the phrase "Maker of life" (^wo-^roio's), used at the General Council 
of Constantinople (381 a.d.) ; so in I. 24 it uses "the Lord" as 
in the Creed of that Council. But in that Creed the word 
" consubstantial " is not used of the Holy Ghost. Thus 
it is not probable that Test, is quoting from the Creed in 
using " Maker of life." The substantive comes from 2 Cor. 
iii. 6: "The Spirit giveth (lit., maketh) life" {'(uowoisf). 
y^aomoc is used in the Creed in the Ancoratus of Epiphanius 
(374 A.D.), and Epiphanius, in introducing it, bids his readers 
" tell (your children) that this is the holy faith, ... as the 
Church received it from the holy Apostles of the Lord to 
keep." And so A.C. (see p. 184). Thus Z^mmoi was certainly 
used before Constantinople. Epiphanius {Ancoratus) also calls 
the Holy Spirit " the Lord." For the bearing of these phrases 
on the date of Test., see pp. 40, 241. 

Chapter 42 

The Temple, i.e. in the nave. This is still the East Syrian 
name for the nave of a church. Copto-arab. omits the prohi- 
bition. 

Bathing at Pascha. This was a common practice on 
Maundy Thursday. In II. 6 the catechumens hathe themselves 



202 NOTES [l. 42-45 

on that day. The Council of Elvira {dr. 305 a.d. ; can. 48) 
forbade priests or clergy to wash the feet of the newly bap- 
tized. Pseudo-Ambrose {de Sacramentis, iii. 1 ; Hefele, Councils, 
i. 158, Eng. trans.) says that this was the custom at Milan, but 
not at Eome. Probably the usage may be connected with our 
Lord's washing His disciples' feet on that day. Bishop Hefele 
(Councils, i. 158, Eng. trans.) points out that in the Gallican 
Church there was a pedilavium of the newly baptized. 
The Days of Pentecost. See Note, p. 218, on Pascha. 

Chapter 43 

FiEST PEAyER SAID BY WiDOWS. Copto-arab. turns this 
into a night prayer for the whole of the faithful, by a slight 
change. Test, says it is to be said " quietly " ; cf . I. 40, where 
the widow may not speak in church. In the word " Eejuvenate " 
(p. 110) we may see an allusion to presbyteresses (cf. p. 188). 

Chapters 44, 45 

Eeaders and Subdbacons. For their position, see below. 
At Laodicea and in A.C- a subdeacon is called l-irnpeTt);. In 
Test, there is no laying on of hands for either subdeacon or 
reader (see I. 45). But both are to be appointed on Sunday. 
Copto-arab. omits this, and in it the exhortation to a subdeacon 
begins : " I say to thee, N., pay attention in the fear of God 
that thou minister under the presbyters and deacons, and 
follow justly the precepts of the Gospel." 

Promotion. We note that this is spoken of for subdeacons 
and readers ; and the promotion of catechumens to being bap- 
tized Christians is mentioned. But there is no reference in 
Test, to promotion of deacons or presbyters. In A.C. viii. 22 
(Lagarde, 264^^) promotion is spoken of for readers, and in 
viii. 17 (Lagarde, 2631°) f^j. deacons. The reference both in 
Test, and in A.C. is to 1 Tim. iii. 13. There is no reference to 
the promotion of subdeacons or readers in Eg. CO. 35, 36 
(Tattam, pp. 38, 40). On the other hand, the Council of 
Sardica, cir. 347, says (can. 10, if genuine) that a bishop must 
have been a reader, deacon, and presbyter in succession. The 
fear was of the sudden promotion of a rich or influential man. 

Naming the Candidates. In Test, the bishop says the 
name in appointing both subdeacons and readers. In Eg. CO. 
36 (Tattam, p. 40) we read of the subdeacon, "he shall be 
named." But Eg. CO. contains no prayers for ordinations or 



I- 44, 45] NOTES 203 

appointments of the clergy in any of their grades. The 
" name " is not mentioned in A.C. viii. 20, 22 (Lagarde, 263 f.). 

Eelative Position of the Minor Oedees, and Eeadees 
OF THE Lections. In Test, there are traces of two features of 
ecclesiastical organisation which were obsolete in the fourth 
century, namely, the high position of the reader, and his privi- 
lege of reading the Gospel. (1) There is an inconsistency 
in Test, as to the reader's position. In I. 23 twice, in the 
arrangement at the altar and at the communion of the clergy 
(pp. 70, 76), he comes before the subdeacon. In the latter 
passage widows come before either, as in the present chapters. 
But in I. 35, and here, the subdeacon comes before the reader. 
In ancient times the position of the reader had been a high 
one, but at Eome in 251 he had fallen far below subdeacons 
(see Note on the number of the clergy on p. 192). In C.H. 48, 
Eg. CO. 35 (Tattam, p. 38), he is above the subdeacon (49 of C.H., 
on subdeacons, is bracketed by Achelis as an interpolation; 
but in § 48 the reader comes after the deacon ; in the passage 
C.H. 217, " subdeacons " must clearly be altered to " deacons," 
as Achelis points out; if he is correct, the uninterpolated 
C.H. did not mention subdeacons at all). In Ap. CO. 19, 20, 
he comes even before the deacons ; this Church Order does not 
mention subdeacons. In TertuUian (de Praescr. 41, Migne ii. 
69) the reader comes after the deacon. On the other hand, in 
A.C. viii. 20—23 subdeacons come first, ordained (unlike the 
other Church Orders) by laying on of hands ; then readers, also 
ordained by laying on of hands. We may notice also that in 
C.H., Eg. Co., and Test., confessors come before them both ; 
whereas in A.C, confessors, virgins, and widows come after 
subdeacons and readers. Widows in Eg. CO. 37 come after 
readers and subdeacons (Tattam, p. 40); in Ap. CO. 21 
(Tattam, p. 24), after readers and deacons; but in Test, 
they come before subdeacons and readers. Bishop Words- 
worth {Ministry of Grace, 189 n.) says that in Eth. CO. 27 
readers come before subdeacons, but after widows. This part 
of Eth. CO. has not yet been published. This is another mark 
of affinity between Test, and Eth. CO. Hauler's fragments 
are wanting here ; but note subdeacons in H., both in the Didas- 
calia and in the Church Order (40'', 116^1). 

(2) Reading of the lections. At one time the reader was 
allowed to read the liturgical Gospel. St. Cyprian says that 
he did so in his time (^pp. 38, 39), although by his time 
he had already fallen in rank below the subdeacon. Bishop 
Wordsworth {Ministry of Grace, 191 n.) suggests that the 



204 NOTES [l- 44, 45 

phrase " minister of His words " in Test. I. 45 points to the 
reader's reading the Gospel in old times. In I. 27 the pres- 
byter or deacon reads the Gospel, the reader the Prophets [and 
Apostle, see Notes on pp. 181, 210]. As the reading of the 
Prophets went out, the oifice of reader seems to have gradually- 
gone out also. In 1. 45 only " the book " is given him, whereas 
in C.H. 48 the Gospel is given to him ; in Eg. CO. 35 the " book 
of the Apostles " is given him ; in Const. H. § 11, merely a book, 
as in Test. In A.C. viii. 22 (Lagarde, 264iiff.) the prayer for 
a reader refers to his reading the holy Scriptures and " Thy 
laws," and mentions Ezra ; the passage ii. 57 (Lag., 85', 85^') 
gives the same rule as to the Gospel and Prophets as Test., 
and mentions the Acts and Pauhne Epistles, but it merely says 
" they are read," and does not say by whom ; perhaps by the 
reader. In Ar. D. 38 the deacon reads the " Apostolic word " 
and also the Gospel. In Justin Martyr {Apol. i. 67) the reader 
is apparently distinct from the President and deacons. When 
the reader ends, the President prays and preaches, and the 
deacons give communion. In the Diocletian persecution the 
readers were much persecuted because they had charge of the 
books ; subdeacons are also mentioned at that time (Words- 
worth, uM supra, 189). From the fourth canon of the first 
Council of Toledo (Hefele, Councils, ii. 420, Eng. trans.), we 
learn that subdeacons read the Epistle and Gospel in Spain up 
to 400 A.D., and that readers and doorkeepers were classed 
together as not being able to do so. Among the Eastern 
Syrians (Nestorians) to the present day the bishop, or failing 
him the presbyter, reads the Gospel. In the fifth century, at 
Alexandria, the archdeacon exclusively read the Gospel (Isid. 
Pel. Up. i. 136); elsewhere deacons, in some places presbyters, 
but on great occasions bishops, read it, as at Constantinople 
(Brightman, L.E.W. 507, note 5). — There are no benedictions 
of minor orders in Sarapion, but in the preanaphoral prayer 
numbered twenty-five the following are prayed for in order : 
the bishop, presbyters, deacons, subdeacons, readers and inter- 
preters, solitaries and virgins, etc. Nothing is said about the 
reading of the lections. 

(3) Two further points in Test, illustrate the old position 
of readers. In I. 19 the reader is allowed (as an alternative 
to the chief deacon) to say the " commemoration," that is prob- 
ably the litany, or the suffrages of the litany on behalf of 
offerers (p. 151). Also in 1. 45 the reader is to be " with much 
experience." This is not found in the other Church Orders, 
except in Ap. CO. 19 (which, as we have seen, places the reader 



I. 44-47] NOTES 205 

above the deacon). There the reader must have been " proved 
by a great trial " (Tattam, p. 22 note), words that are much 
more emphatic than those used of deacons. In C.H. 48 the 
reader must have the " virtues of a deacon." 

With regard to the prohibition of laying hands on con- 
fessors, widows, subdeacons, readers, etc., Bishop Wordsworth 
justly remarks {Ministry of Grace, 286) that prohibition of a 
thing generally means that some one wanted to do it. In A.C. 
viii. 18 &., deaconesses, subdeacons, and readers are ordained 
by the laying on of hands. 

After I. 45 Copto-arab. adds a chapter about the appoint- 
ment of a singer. 

Chapter 46 

ViEGiNS, Male and Female. In Test, they are not an 
order, and nothing is said of any breach of their vows. Their 
condition is of their own choosing, or free will {irponifimg). But 
still they are used for teaching, catechising, visiting, and singing 
(here and I. 26, p. 81). Their prayers for the faithful are recog- 
nised as especially fruitful, and are given in exchange for the 
alms of the people. There are no communities of celibates 
in Test., and no profession nor formal vows are mentioned, nor 
is the metaphor of female virgins being brides of Christ used. 
Virgins are not to have a hand laid on them, and so also we 
read in Eg. CO. 38 (Tattam, p. 40) and A.C. viii. 24 (Lagarde, 
265^). But C.H. 51 allow laying on of hands if a mature age 
is reached. C.H. seem to speak only of men, Eg. CO. only of 
women. Here in Test, virgins' veils are mentioned. But this 
is not a ceremonial veiling. Virgins are put on a par in this 
respect with married women. Cf. II. 4. 

Chapter 47 

Gifts of Healing, Knowledge, Tongues. See Note on 
p. 186. This chapter is omitted in Copto-arab. — C.H. 53, 54, 
say that if any one wishes to be ordained because he has the 
gift of healing, he is not to be ordained until it is made clear 
that the gift is of God. Eg. CO. 39 (Tattam, p. 42) says that 
if any has received the gift of healing by revelation he is not 
ordained, for his trustworthiness is shown by the result ; here 
Test, introduces the characteristic phrase "the work." A.C. 
viii. 25 (Lagarde, 26 5^^) say that an exorcist is not ordained, 
... he who receives the gift of healing is shown by God 



206 NOTES [I. 47 

through revelation, the grace within him being evident to all. 
But if he is needed as bishop, priest, or deacon, he is ordained 
(cf. A.C. on Confessors, in Note on 1. 39, p. 197). Thus Test, adds 
the gifts of " knowledge and tongues " from 1 Cor. xii. 1-10 ; 
the others speak only of the gift of healing. See Note on 
I. 23 (p. 169). 



BOOK II 

Chapter 1 

" New Comers " in other Church Orders. (1) C.H. 60-64 
give a very short form of this chapter; new comers to be 
examined as to the reason for their coming ; if this is good, 
they are to be asked as to their trade, and be taught by the 
deacon, and learn in church to renounce Satan. If any be the 
slave of a heathen, he may only be baptized with his master's 
consent ; let him be content that he is a Christian. If he die 
unbaptized, he is not to be separated from the rest of the flock 
(cf. Note, p. 211). There is nothing in C.H. about catechumens' 
marriage. 

(2) Eg. CO 40 (Tattam, p. 42) is also shorter than Test. 
Note the provision as to marriage. If the "new man" is 
unmarried, let him learn not to commit fornication, but either 
marry in the law or abide in the law. Test, hints a little more 
strongly at celibacy : " if he desire to persevere thus, let him 
abide in the Lord." 

(3) A.C. viii. .31 (Lagarde, 267^^ ff.) say that new comers 
are to be examined as to reasons for coming, their introducers 
to bear witness to them ; their manners (rpomi) and life to be 
asked about; whether slaves or free; if a slave come, his 
master is to be asked if he witnesses for him ; if not, he is to 
be rejected until he shows himself worthy to his master. If 
married, new comers are to be content with their consorts ; if 
unmarried, to learn not to commit fornication, but to marry in 
the law. Nothing is said about catechumens and celibacy. A 
demoniac is to be taught piety, but not to be received into 
communion till cleansed. A.C. is nearer to Eg. CO. than 
Test. is. 

[Hauler is wanting from the middle of the ordination of a 
deacon to the middle of the Baptismal Creed.] 

Lagarde suggests a lacuna in Test, after "providing for 
him." But M.B. show that if so it was before the time of 
James of Edessa. 

207 



208 NOTES [n. 2 



Chapter 2 

FOEBIDDEN TkADES AND PROFESSIONS AND MILITARY SER- 
VICE IN OTHER Church Orders. (1) C.H. 65-79 have a long 
list of those who are not to be admitted — idol makers, actors, 
gladiators, huntsmen, idol priests; and (later on) it excludes 
fornicators, those who make a gain out of fornication, astrologers, 
etc. If they do these things after baptism, they are to be 
expelled until they do penance. A grammarian, a teacher of 
little boys, if he know no other art to get a living, is to 
repudiate the heathen gods whom he teaches. No man who has 
received the power of hilling, or is a soldier, to be received. But 
those who, being soldiers, are commanded to fight, but have 
abstained from evil talk, and have not placed crowns on their 
heads, but " omne signum adepti sunt " [meaning ?] . . .(here 
there is a lacuna ; Achelis suggests " may be received "). Any 
one in office who does not clothe himself with justice to be cut 
off. Christians are not voluntarily to become soldiers; if 
compelled, they must beware lest they be guilty of blood; if 
they have shed blood, they are not to receive Holy Communion 
till they repent. If a Christian, having lived with a special 
concubine who has borne him a son, wishes to cast her off and 
marry, he is a murderer unless he has found her in fornication 
(contrast Test.). 

(2) Eg. CO. 41 (Tattam, p. 44), headed " Of Actions and 
Works," does not apparently forbid military service to those 
who are already soldiers ; here also we read " a soldier leing in 
authority." It goes on, " he who has the power of the sword " 
[but Eahmani, p. xxi. n., thinks that this ought to be a governor 
of a maritime district] " or a city governor clothed with purple " 
[note C.H., above] to be rejected or else cease (from their 
profession). Catechumens or baptized persons wishing to be 
soldiers to be rejected because they have despised God. Eg. CO. 
has almost the same rule as Test., one which seems to be im- 
possible in practice, that Christians are not to become soldiers. 
Yet Eg. CO. probably represents a code actually in existence. 
The C.H. rule (see above) is hardly less impracticable. For 
how can a soldier help killing an enemy in war ? The Council 
of Nicaea (canon 12), perhaps referring to the special case of 
Licinius, who required his soldiers to apostatise, says that 
soldiers who have given up the military service and return to 
it are to do penance for many years. The third canon of Aries 
(A.D. 314) is very obscure; it perhaps forbids Christians to be 



II. 2] NOTES 209 

gladiators, or it may (but this is unlikely) forbid soldiers to 
give up their service during peace. It says that those are to 
be excommunicated " qui arma projiciunt in pace " (see com- 
ments of various writers in Hefele, Councils, i. 185, Eng. trans.). 
There seem to have been many contrary opinions in early 
times on the subject of military service, from that of TertuUian, 
who treats Christianity as an exclusive sect having no interest 
in political affairs, to that of those who looked upon Christians 
as being bound to fulfil the duty of citizens. We know that 
in the third century there were large numbers of Christians 
in the army. But, on the other hand, we read of many in the 
persecutions who renounced their service, even in war, and were 
put to death in consequence. The Church Orders lean to the 
stricter view. But we cannot therefore ascribe them to sectarian 
bodies, who kept themselves aloof from ordinary Christian life ; 
they, like many other teachers, only lay down precepts which 
it is impossible to follow strictly. — In forbidden trades, etc.. 
Eg. CO. agrees generally with Test., as to grammarians exactly, 
as to immoral persons, astrologers, and the like, generally. It 
says that magicians are not to be brought to judgment (apleig ; 
cf. Test.), i.e. need not be examined as to their fitness for the 
catechumenate until they give up their trade (cf . " judged " in 
Test. II. 3). As to concubines, it says that a concubine slave, 
having borne children to her master and devoting herself to 
him alone, may hear (come under instruction), but otherwise 
not. If a man have a concubine, he must cease and marry 
in the law, or else be cast out. We notice that here, as in 
Test, and A.C. (see below), two distinct precepts as to con- 
cubines are given, one treating of the man and the other of 
the woman. 

(3) A.C. viii. 31 (Lagarde, 268i^ff.) agree generally about 
forbidden trades, but altogether soften down the words about 
military service. A soldier is to be taught as in St. Luke 
iii. 14 (note how Test, uses the same text, p. 118). A concubine 
slave of a heathen who devotes herself to him only may be 
received, but if she commits impurity with others she is to be 
cast out. If a believer have a slave or free concubine, he must 
cease and marry in the law, or else be cast out. 

Copto-arab. alters this chapter — (a) as to grammarians ; if 
a teacher of heathenism have no other craft, he is to be warned 
by the priest not to bring forward the names of idols [before 
his scholars], and so he may be received ; (h) as to military 
service and authority ; all this is omitted, and also about the 
catechumen wishing to become a soldier. 

14 



210 NOTES [II. 3, 4 



Chapter 3 

Length of Catechumenate. C.H. 91 eay that a worthy 
catechumen is not to be hindered by the time, and the teacher 
is to judge when he should be baptized ; no period is mentioned 
for the catechumenate. Eg. CO. 42 (Tattam, p. 48) appoints 
three years, but if any show zeal it is not the time but the 
character (Lagarde, r/ioVos) which is judged. So A.C. viii. 31 
(Lagarde, 269") almost word for word. 

In Spain at the beginning of the fourth century we find 
two years named (Elvira, can. 42). St. Cyril of Jerusalem 
does not mention a period. St. Jerome says {Ejp. 61) that in 
his time forty days was the usual period. Later, in 506, the 
Council of Agde ordered eight months for Jewish converts as 
an excessively long probation. Thus the evidence shows that 
there was no fixed or even normal period in early times. 
Probably both before and after the fourth century the two or 
three years were not ordinarily maintained as the proper time 
of the catechumenate. 

Chapter 4 

Kiss of Peace, etc. (1) In C.H. 92, when the teacher has 
ended his daily instruction, catechumens are to pray apart 
from the Christians (in C.H. 63 a catechumen wishing to be 
baptized but prevented is called "a Christian"; see Note on 
p. 207, above). In C.H. 97, 98, women are to be separated 
from the men ; younger women, virgins on coming to woman- 
hood, to veil themselves like older women with a large covering, 
not with a thin veil. 

(2) Eg. CO. 43 (Tattam, pp. 48, 50) is shorter than Test. 
Catechumens are to pray alone when the teacher ceases; 
women to pray apart whether believers or catechumens. The 
catechumens are not to receive the kiss of peace when they 
have done praying ; the faithful receive it, the men from men 
and the women from women. All women are to be veUed, not 
only with a linen covering. 

(3) In A.C. ii. 57 (Lagarde, 87^^) the men kiss the men, the 
women the women; in viii. 11 (Lagarde, 247'") the laymen 
greet laymen, the women the women. In ii. 57 (Lagarde, 88*) 
women are veiled for communion. 

(4) In Ap. CO. 27 Syr. (not Tattam or Hauler) women are 
veiled for communion. Cf. Test. I. 46, pp. 113, 205. 

" The New [Testament] " here seems to mean the Epistle. 
See Note on p. 181. — The phrase " new " used absolutely for the 



11. 4-6] NOTES 211 

N.T. is not uncommon in classical Syriac. See Payne-Smith, 
Thesaurus Syriacus, col. 1207. 

This chapter is almost entirely wanting in Copto-arab. 

Chapter 5 

Dismissal of Catechumens. Copto-arab. has somewhat 
modernised this and the following chapters ; it inserts a prayer 
for blessing the font in II. 8, and omits in this chapter the 
passage about a martyred catechumen. 

In C.H. 99 the teacher lays a hand on catechumens before 
dismissing them. So Eg. CO. 44 (Tattam, p. 50) expressly, 
" whether ecclesiastic or layman." A.C. viii. 31 merely say 
that the teacher may be a layman if learned and holy, for 
" they shall all be taught of God " (Lag. 269i2). Eg. CO. refers 
to the teacher praying, but the prayer in Test, is peculiar to it, 
and is probably the work of the Compiler. 

Maktyeed Catechumens. C.H. 101 say that a martyred 
catechumen is to be buried with the other martyrs, for he has 
been baptized in his own blood (cf. Note on p. 207, above, on 
C.H.). Eg. CO. 44 (Tattam, pp. 50, 52) says that a catechu- 
men apprehended for the Name of the Lord is not to hesitate 
concerning martyrdom (or the testimony ; Test, gives another 
turn to this), for if ill-treated "he will be justified in the 
forgiveness of his sins," for he has been baptized in his own 
blood. 

For the " laying on of the hand," see Note on I. 27, p. 182. 

Chapter 6 

The Competentes, or Selected Candidates for Baptism. 
(1) In C.H. 102-107 they are to be witnessed to as to their 
life, if they have visited the sick, if they have been meek, etc. ; 
the bishop himself is to approve them ; the appointed Gospel 
for the season (evangelium illius temporis) is read over then;, 
and they are several times interrogated. They are to bathe 
(see Note on page 201) and eat on [Maundy] Thursday, and 
to fast on [Good] Friday. A menstruous woman not to be 
then baptized, but her baptism is to be put off till another day 
[this is perhaps the meaning of Test.]. 

(2) In Eg. CO. 45 (Tattam, pp. 52, 54) they are to be 
examined, if they have lived chastely, honoured widows, visited 
the sick, fulfilled every good work; if they that introduce 
them bear witness to them, they are to hear the Gospel, and 



212 NOTES [n. 6, 7 

when they are dismissed " let them lay hands upon them in 
that day [the " daily " of Test, is in neither C.H. nor Eg. CO.]. 
When the day of baptism approaches, the bishop exorcises each, 
" that he may know that they are pure. If any one is not good 
or clean, he is to be put apart that he may not hear the word 
with the faithful [contrast Test. " faithfully "], for a stranger 
can never be concealed " [contrast Test.]. The competentes are 
to wash and be made free on the fifth Sabbath (Lagarde rightly, 
rlji ttifL'KT'fl rm ea.^^a.Tm, 071 the, Thursday ; cf. Test., " on the fifth 
day of the last week ") ; to fast on the Friday (Tattam, " on the 
preparation of the Sabbath " ; Lagarde simply rri irapasxsvrj, on the 
preparation, the usual name for Friday), but " on the Sabbath " 
to be assembled, etc. [Test, seems to have read as Tattam, but 
to have understood it "on the preparation and (for of) the 
Sabbath, but on the Sabbath let the bishop assemble them," 
etc., thus enjoining two days' fast where Eg. CO. enjoins one.] — 
Test, seems to have had here \irieri\iuv with direct accusative ; cf. 
II. 12, Didache viii. 1, A.C v. 15 (Lag. 145"), Oxyrhynchus 
Logia 2. 

Chapter 7 

EXOKCISM OF THE COMPBTENTES. In CH. 108-110 the 
bishop assembles them on the Saturday (Easter Even), and 
warns them to kneel facing East, and stretching out his hands 
over them prays to expel the evil spirit (the words of the prayer 
are not given), breathes on them and signs them on the breast, 
forehead, ears, and mouth. 

In Eg. CO. 45 sf. (Tattam, p. 54) they are assembled by 
advice of the bishop, commanded to pray and kneel; the 
bishop lays his hand (singular) on them and exorcises strange 
spirits (the words of the exorcism are not given), breathes on 
them, seals (signs) their foreheads, ears, mouths, nose (Tattam 
conjectures that this should be omitted), and raises them up. 

The long exorcism given in this chapter seems to be the 
work of the Test. Compiler. The Syriac used by James of 
Edessa for " laver " (lit., washing) is a common word for baptism, 
and is used in the Pshitta of Tit. iii. 5 ; it represents Xourpo'v. 

Demoniacs. In Spain, at the beginning of the fourth 
century (Elvira, can. 29, 37), those who became mad after 
baptism were debarred from communion till their death or 
recovery, while those who were mad and unbaptized could not 
be baptized till their deathbeds. 

The Seal. This name is frequently used, as here and II. 
9, for the sign of the cross, both in Syriac and Greek {sipfayk) ; 



II. 7, 8] NOTES 213 

e.g. St. Cyril of Jerusalem {Gat. Led. xiii. 36), says : " Be the 
cross our seal made with boldness by our fingers on our brow, 
and in everything; over the bread we eat and the cups we 
drink; in our comings in and goings out; before our sleep, 
when we lie down and when we awake ; when we are in the 
way, and when we are still. . . . Despise not the seal, because 
of the freeness of the gift ; but for this the rather honour thy 
Benefactor." But the " Seal " is also used for the Eucharistic 
bread (Brightman, L.E.W. Glossary, p. 587), and, as in Test. I. 
26, etc., for a conclusion of the service (p. 82). 

Chapter 8 

Baptism in other Church Orders, etc. (1) In C.H. 111- 
134 the competentes keep vigil all night with sacred dis- 
courses and prayers ; at cockcrow they are to stand near flow- 
ing, pure, prepared, sacred water of a stream {sic, see p. 215). 
Sponsors are to unclothe the infants, adults unclothe them- 
selves, women unclothe women. Women are to lay aside 
ornaments and unloose their hair, lest any thing strange of 
strange spirits descend into the water with them. The bishop 
prays over the oil of exorcism, and gives it to a presbyter on 
his left, then prays over the oil of anointing, " that is the oil 
of thanksgiving," and gives it to another presbyter on his 
right. The candidate turns to the West (So Test, and Cyr. 
Jer., but not Eg. CO.) and says : " I renounce thee, Satan, with 
all thy pomp (company)." The presbyter anoints him with 
the oil of exorcism, that every evil spirit may depart from 
him. Then he gives him to the presbyter who stands over 
the water, and that presbyter, " performing the office of a 
deacon," takes his right hand, turns his face to the East in the 
water. Before he goes down to the water, turning to the 
East (so Test, and Cyr. Jer., not Eg. CO.), the candidate says : 
" I believe and bow myself before Thee and all Thy pomp 
(company), Father, Son, and Holy Ghost" (so Test.; cf. Cyr. 
Jer., not Eg. CO.). Then he goes down to the water, and the 
presbyter lays his hand on his head and asks him the Creed 
(see p. 217) in three divisions, dipping him between each, 
keeping his hand on his head. At each time he says : " I baptize 
thee in the Name of the Father and of the Son and of the 
Holy Ghost, who is equal " [Achelis brackets the last three 
words as an interpolation]. When the baptized comes out of 
the water the presbyter takes the chrism of thanksgiving, and 
signs his forehead, mouth, breast, and anoints his whole body 



214 NOTES [n. 8 

and head and face, saying : " I anoint thee in the Name of the 
Father and of the Son and, of the Holy Ghost (contrast Test., 
Eg. CO., and H.). For the continuation of these Church 
Orders, see the Notes to the next chapter (p. 219 f.). 

(2) In Eg. CO. 46 (Tattani, pp. 54-60) they pray at cock- 
crow over the water (no blessing of the water in CH. or Test, 
as in Eg. CO., A.C vii. 43, Sarapion, Cyr. Jer., etc.) ; the water 
to be drawn into the font, or flowing into it, unless it be 
scarce (see p. 215). The candidates undress themselves, the 
youfig are to be first baptized (of. Test., " babes " ; see page 178), 
to answer for themselves if they can; if not, theii* parents 
answer, or a relation. After the great men (adults) the 
women, having loosed their hair and laid aside their ornaments 
(so CH.; Test, extends this rule to the men also), to be 
baptized. None to take a strange garment into the water. 
The bishop gives thanks over the oil of thanksgiving and puts 
it into a vessel ; another oil he exorcises over, and calls it the 
oil of exorcism. A deacon bears the oil of exorcism, and stands 
on the left of the presbyter. The presbyter takes hold of each 
candidate and make him renounce, saying : " I renounce thee, 
Satan, and all thy service and all thy works." He anoints 
him with the oil of exorcism, saying : " Let every spirit depart 
from thee." Then the bishop or presbyter receives him un- 
clothed, and places him in the water. The deacon goes with 
him into the water, and teaches him to say the formula of 
submission : " I believe in the only true God, the Father 
Almighty, and in His Only-begotten Son Jesus Christ, our 
Lord and Saviour, and in the Holy Spirit, the Quickener ; the 
Trinity of the same essence (riiv of/,oo{iam rpidba) ; one sove- 
reignty, one kingdom, one faith, one baptism ; and in the 
holy catholic apostolic Church, and in the life everlasting. 
Amen." The candidate then repeats : " I believe this," and 
"he who bestows it" (baptism) lays his hand on his head, 
dipping him thrice, confessing these things each time. After- 
wards he says the Creed (see p. 217) while still in the water, 
and again says : " I believe," and they go up, and the presbyter 
anoints him with the oil of thanksgiving, saying : " I anoint 
thee with the holy anointing oil in the Name of Jesus Christ " 
(cf. Test, and H. ; contrast CH.). No formula of baptism 
is given. 

(3) Hauler, 110, 111, begins in the middle of the Creed, 
after a lacuna. The baptizer lays a hand on the head of the 
candidate and baptizes, as in CH, and Test., between each part 
of the Creed. They go up, and the presbyter anoints him 



11. 8] NOTES 215 

with the hallowed oil, saying : " I anoint thee with holy oil in 
the Name of Jesus Christ." No formula of baptism is given. 

(4) St. Cyril of Jerusalem describes baptism at Jerusalem 
in the middle of the fourth century in Cat. Led. xix.-xxi. incl. 
The candidates enter the outer hall of the baptistery, and, 
facing west, say : " I renounce thee, Satan, and all thy works 
and all thy pomp and all thy service." Then, turning to the 
East, they say : " I believe in the Father and in the Son and 
in the Holy Ghost and in one baptism of repentance." Entering 
the inner baptistery, they put off their garments, are anointed 
with the oil of exorcism all over the body, and then led 
to the font and asked if they believe in the Father, Son, and 
Holy Ghost; they descend three times into the water, and 
ascend again (the formula of baptism is not given). Then 
they are anointed, and reference is made by St. Cyril in con- 
nexion with the anointing to the Christ (xxi. 1-5), " now ye were 
made Christs by receiving the emblem of the Holy Ghost" 
(cf. formula of anointing in Test., Eg. CO., and H.). It does 
not appear from Cyr. Jer. that any other formal creed was 
used at baptism ; though from the lectures as a whole may be 
deduced a creed like that of Nicaea. 

(5) In A.C. vii. 41-45 the candidate says : " I renounce 
Satan and all his works," etc. Then he says : " I submit to 
Christ," and a long creed (turning to the West and East not 
mentioned) resembling the Nicene, but without the Homoou- 
sion and otherwise altered. He is then anointed, the "high 
priest " blessing the oil. They come to the water, and a long 
prayer is said to hallow it. The candidate is baptized in the 
name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost ; 
after a prayer for blessing the myrrh, he is anointed with it, 
and perhaps laying on of hands is indirectly referred to (§ 44, 
Lag. 227^^). The Lord's Prayer is said, to the East, followed 
by another prayer. — In A.C. iii. 16 (Lag. 111^) the bishop 
anoints the baptized with myrrh ; cf. ii. 32 (Lag. 60^^). The 
presbyter or bishop baptizes (iii. 16, Lag. 110^^), and the deacon 
receives the men, the deaconess the women. 

A comparison of Test, with these other authorities suggests 
several points : 

(a) The water in Test, must be pure and flowing. So 
Didach^, vii. 1 {b Uan Z,mr,), C.H. 112, Eg. CO. 46 (but this is 
not so strict in case of necessity). Hauler is deficient here. 
Note that in C.H., according to Achelis, the water must be sea 
water. But this seems to be a mistake. As Mr. Burkitt shows 
in J.T.S. i. 279, it is merely a flowing stream that is ordered. 



216 NOTES [n. 8 

In C.H. 213 we ought likewise, in all probability, to under- 
stand the Arabic rendered by Achelis, " aquam maris undosi," 
of a river merely. The rule in these Church Orders seems to 
be that the water is to flow into and out of the font. 

(6) It is possible to conjecture, especially when we read 
the evidence of Cyr. Jer., that the formula of submission re- 
presents the most ancient expression of the faith, and that the 
creed is an addition. 

(c) In all these authorities except A.C. the baptismal action 
is split up. There is a curious parallel in the East Syrian 
(Nestorian) rite as used to this day; in it the formula of 
baptism is divided to suit the triune immersion, and " Name " 
is said three times: "He immerses him thrice, at the first 
time saying : N. is baptized in the Name of the Father. They 
answer: Amen. At the second: In the Name of the Son. 
They answer : Amen. At the third : In the Name of the Holy 
Spirit for ever. They answ;er : Amen." 

(d) There is oil of exorcism in C.H., Eg. CO. (H. has a 
lacuna). Test., Sarapion 15 (but not by that name), Cyr. Jer. 
Not in Justin Martyr, TertuUian, Cyprian, or Augustine. 

(e) There is no formula of baptism given in Test, or Eg. CO. 
or H., as there is in Didach4 vii. 1, C.H., Ethiopic Didascalia 
(Piatt, § 16), A.C. iii. 16, vii. 43 (Lag. llO^s, 227*). None is 
given in Sarapion, but as that is only a pontifical, it would not 
be expected there. It is implied, however, in Test. II. 7, p. 124. 

(/) The anointing with chrism after baptism. In Test., as 
in C.H., the presbyter applies chrism blessed by the bishop ; 
then in Test, the bishop says an invocation of the Holy Ghost, 
and lays his hand on the baptized and anoints him again and 
signs him with the " seal " ; in C.H. he prays, lays on a hand 
and signs; so Eg. CO. In Sarapion 16 the bishop consecrates 
the chrism, and no more is said. Bishop J. Wordsworth 
{Bishop Sarapion's Prayer Book, p. 56) conjectures that this 
was all the bishop had to do, and that the presbyter did the 
rest, the bishop superintending its application. We notice 
that in Test, the oil of exorcism and the chrism are blessed at 
the time of baptism. 

(g) Widows anointing women in Test. Elsewhere deacon- 
esses do this, as in A.C. iii. 15, Ethiopic Didascalia, § 16 
(Piatt) ; in the latter the deaconess anoints the women before 
baptism, clothes them again afterwards, and the bishop anoints 
both men and women on the forehead. In A.C. iii. 15 (Lag. 
IIO^") the deacon anoints the forehead of women; in iii. 16 
(Lag. 110^") the bishop anoints the head of either sex. 



II. 8] 



NOTES 



217 



The Baptismal Creed. In C.H., H., and Test, this is the 
Eoman Creed ; in Eg. CO. it is of the Nicene type. The first 
three are placed for comparison in parallel columns : 



Testament. 

Dost thou believe in God 
the Father Almighty ? 
Dost thou believe also iu 
Christ Jesus, the Son of 
God, who came from the 
Father, -who is of old with 
the Father, 

who was born of Mary 
the Virgin by the Holy 
Ghost, 



who was crucified iu the 
days of Pontius Pilate and 
died, and rose the third 
day (lit., to three days) ; 
[who] came to life from the 
dead, 

and ascended into heaven, 
and sat down on the right 
hand of the Father, and 
Cometh to judge the C[uick 
and the dead ? 
Dost thou believe also in 
the Holy Ghost, 



in the holy Church ? 



Can. Sipp, 

Dost thou believe in God 
the Father Almighty ? 
Dost thou believe in Jesus 
Christ, the Son of God, 



whom Mary the "Virgin 

bore of (ex) the Holy 

Ghost, 

[who came to save the 

human race] 

who was crucified [for us] 

under Pontius Pilate, who 

died and rose from the 

dead the third day. 



and ascended to heaven, 
and sitteth at the right 
hand of the Father, and 
shall come to judge the 
quick and dead ? 
Dost thou believe in the 
Holy Ghost [the Paraclete, 
proceeding from theFather 
and the Son] ? 



Hauler's Ver. fragm. 

[Lacuna] 

Dost thou believe in 
Christ Jesus, the Son of 
God, 



who was born of (de) the 
Holy Ghost of (ex) Mary 
the Virgin, 



and was crucified under 
Pontius Pilate, and died 
and was buried and rose 
the third day, 
living from the dead, 

and ascended into heaven, 
and sat down on the right 
hand of the Father, being 
about to come to judge 
the quick and dead ? 
Dost thou believe in the 
Holy Ghost 



and the holy Church, and 
the resurrection of the 
flesh? 



For the interpolated passage, " who came from the Father," 
etc., in Test., see p. 18, and cf. p. 961". j^g brackets in the middle 
column are those of Achelis, who considers the passages so 
marked as interpolations. The last bracketed passage is 
obviously of later introduction. Dr. Sanday remarks that the 
"vivus" (living) of Hauler (cf. Test.) is a characteristic of 
Spanish Creeds, and found also in Nicetas of Eomatiana (J.T.S. 
iii. 4). 

The Egyptian Church Order Creed is as follows: "Dost 
thou believe in our Lord Jesus Christ, the only Son of God the 
Father ; that He became man in a wonderful manner for us, 
in an incomprehensible unity, by His Holy Spirit, of Mary the 
holy Virgin, without the seed of man ; and that He was cruci- 
fied for us under Pontius Pilate, and died of His own will once 
for our redemption, and rose on the third day, loosing the 



218 NOTES [II. 8 

bonds (of death) ; He ascended up into heaven and sat on the 
right hand of His good Father on high, and He cometh again 
to judge the living and the dead at His appearing and His 
kingdom ? And dost thou believe in the Holy good Spirit, 
and Quickener, who wholly purifieth in the holy Church ? " — 
It will be noticed that the belief in God the Father is omitted, 
though it is contained in the formula of submission before 
baptism (see above, p. 214). 

In Pseudo-Ambrose, de Sacramentis, ii. 7, there is a very 
short Baptismal Creed : Dost thou believe in God the Father 
Almighty ? [then the baptized is dipped the first time]. Dost 
thou believe also in our Lord Jesus Christ and in His cross ? 
[then he is dipped the second time]. Dost thou believe also in 
the Holy Ghost ? [then he is dipped the third time]. In this 
passage the writer refers to the baptized being buried with 
Christ. 

The Forty Days of Pascha (or Lent). This expression 
occurs in Ap. Can. 69 (68), " the holy forty days of Pascha," 
rriv a,y!a\i rigSapaxonTriv tou 'irda-^a, but there it is a strict fast. In 
Test, it is a time of prayer and vigil, specially iised for the 
preparation of catechumens for baptism, but it is not a fast. 
So in Nicaea (can. 5) it is mentioned as a season (the holding 
of synods is the subject) without reference to fasting. In his 
early years St. Athanasius only speaks of a week of fasting. 
The custom of fasting for forty days grew in the fourth 
century ; and in 347 St. Athanasius orders a forty days' fast. 
Throughout Test. " Pascha " does not mean Easter Day, but the 
season. So " Pentecost " is the whole season of fifty days from 
Easter Day to Whitsunday (I. 42, II. 12, etc. ; cf. Nicaea, can. 
20). In I. 28 (p. 90) we have " the days of Epiphany and of 
Pentecost." In Test, the forty days include Holy Week ; not 
so in A.C. V. 13 (Lagarde, 141"), where the forty days are a 
fast; cf. Pseudo-Ignatius (who is identical with the A.C. 
Compiler), Phil. 13. At Eome, Socrates (JI.£. v. 22) mentions 
three weeks' fast before Pascha, excluding Saturday and 
Sunday. Duchesne supposes the three weeks were alternate. 
With this we may perhaps compare the East Syrian (Nestorian) 
custom of specially marking the alternate weeks of Lent as the 
" weeks of the mysteries." 

We notice that the Test, writer is not a Quartodeciman. He 
specially mentions Sunday as lilaster Day. 

For the parallel Church Orders, see p. 233. 



n. 9] NOTES 219 

Chapter 9 

Confirmation in other Church Orders [continued from 
the last chapter]. 

(1) In C.H. 135-140 the presbyter wipes the baptized dry 
with a cloth, and brings him clothed into the church. The 
bishop lays his hand on all the baptized, and says a prayer 
[the words are given, but are quite unlike Test, or Eg. CO. ; no 
invoking in C.H.], signs their foreheads and kisses them with : 
The Lord be with you. The baptized answer : And with thy 
spirit. So each separately. [He does not anoint them after 
the prayer.] 

(2) In Eg. CO. 46 (Tattam, pp. 60, 62) the baptized are 
clothed and brought into the church. The bishop lays his hand 
on them with affection, and says a prayer which is the germ of 
Test.: Lord Cod, as Thou hast made these worthy to receive 
the forgiveness of their sins in the coming world [ = Test. 
and H., " through the laver of the second birth "], make them 
worthy to be filled with Thy Holy Spirit, and send upon them 
Thy grace, that they may serve Thee according to Thy will, for 
Thine is the glory, the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost in the 
Holy Church now and always and for ever and ever. [Test, 
substitutes its favourite doxology (see Note on p. 159), and 
omits " in the Holy Church " (see H., below). Note how Test. 
interpolates iuto this prayer its favourite phrases, dwells on 
the work of the Holy Spirit, darkness of unbelief, God's love 
of man.] Eg. CO. continuing, directs the bishop to anoint the 
baptized with the oil of thanksgiving, and to put his hand on 
his head, saying : I anoint thee with the holy anointing oil, 
from God the Father Almighty and Jesus Christ and the Holy 
Ghost. He seals him on the forehead, kisses him and says : The 
Lord be, etc. The sealed answers : And with, etc. So for each. 

(3) In Hauler 111 the baptized wipe themselves dry (con- 
trast C.H.), are now clothed, and go into the church. The 
bishop lays a hand (or hands ?) on them and invokes (cf. Test.), 
saying: Lord God, who hast made them worthy to merit 
(mereri) forgiveness of sins by the laver of the regeneration of 
the Holy Spirit, send upon them Thy grace that they may 
serve Thee according to Thy will, for to Thee is the glory, 
Father, Son, and Holy Spirit in the Holy Church (cf. Eg. CO.), 
now and for ever and ever. Amen. Then the bishop pours the 
hallowed oil, and laying (a hand ?) on the head of the baptized, 
says : I anoint thee with holy oil in (cf . Test.) the Lord the 
Father Almighty and Jesus Christ and the Holy Ghost. He 



220 NOTES [II. 9, 10 

seals him on the forehead, kisses him, and says : The Lord be, 
etc. The sealed answers : And with, etc. So for each. [The 
Test. " God of the meek " is the Compiler's interpolation.] 

We see that in Test., Eg. CO., and H. there is a double 
anointing after baptism, but not in C.H. All these Church 
Orders mention the laying on of hands as distinct from the 
anointing. Tertullian (de Bapt. 7, 8 ; Migne, vol. i. col. 
1315, 1316) mentions both: "Then, having come out of the 
laver, we are anointed with the blessed unction. . . . After 
that a hand is imposed, calling on and inviting the Holy Spirit 
by a benediction." Of. his later work, De resurrectione carnis 
(§ 8 ; Migne, ii. 852) : " The flesh is washed ... the flesh is 
anointed . . . the flesh is signed . . . the flesh is over- 
shadowed by the laying on of the hand . . . the flesh feeds on 
the body and blood of Christ." St. Cyril of Jerusalem does 
not mention the laying on of hands nor yet a second unction. 
To come to later times, the East Syrians (Nestorians) alone of 
Christians have always retained the laying on of the hand as a 
deliberate act in confirmation; ia their ritual the anointing 
after baptism is not expressly mentioned, though it is the 
custom of some at least of their priests to anoint at the time 
of laying on the hand. The Latin Church lays on the hand 
indirectly by touching the baptized in the act of anointing. 
But the Orthodox Easterns anoint in practice with a spoon 
(though this is not mentioned in the Eitual), and have no 
laying on of hands in confirmation. 

Chapter 10 

The Baptismal Euchaeist. At first sight it seems as if 
we had in Test, two separate compilers, to one of whom the 
Liturgy in I. 23 is due, and to another the supplementary 
account in the present chapter. But this is not the case. The 
other Church Orders have all the same peculiarity; and 
Achelis (Die Canones Hippolyti 192) points out that Justin 
Martyr (Apol. i. 65-67) similarly gives two descriptions, one of 
the Baptismal Eucharist and the other of the ordinary Sunday 
rite. The usage of baptism before the Eucharist is natural ; 
though the East Syrians (Nestorians) reverse the order and 
have baptism after the Eucharist. But they do not in practice 
communicate the newly baptized at baptism. 

Baptismal Euchaeist in other Church Oedees. (1) In 
C.H. 141-149 the baptized pray with all the people, who kiss 



II. lo] NOTES 221 

them ; then the deacon [begins to sacrifice],^ the bishop brings 
down " reliquias mysteriales " [of the body and blood of our 
LordJ.i Then he communicates the people, the presbyters bear- 
ing other cups of milk and honey, to teach the communicants 
that they are born again as infants. If there are no presbyters, 
the deacons bear the cups. The bishop says : This is the body 
of Christ, and This is the blood of Christ ; to each they answer : 
Amen. Then they take milk and honey (cf. Tertullian, de Cor. 
Mil. 3, Migne ii. 99). Now, being perfect Christians, they are 
to persevere in good works. 

(2) In Eg. CO. 46 (Tattam, pp. 62-66) the people all pray 
together, and all the baptized, and say the Peace with their 
mouths. The deacons (Lagarde, " deacon ") Iring the Eucharist 
to tJu iishop (note Test, and the parallels, and Note, p. 222), who 
gives thanks over the bread because it is the type of the body 
of Christ, and over the cup because it is (the type of ?) the 
blood of Christ. Milk and honey are mixed [not so C.H.], and 
Exod. iii. 8 is referred to : " this is the body of Christ which was 
given for us, that those who believe on Him should be nourished 
by it as infants " (cf . C.H.). . . . The bishop divides and gives 
the bread, saying : This is the bread of heaven, the body of 
Christ. The communicant answers, Amen. If there are not 
more presbyters, the deacon takes the cup and gives them the 
blood of Christ Jesus our Lord, and the milk and honey. He 
who gives the cup says : This is the blood of Christ Jesus our 
Lord. Answer, Amen. [Test, altogether and deliberately omits 
the milk and honey. See pp. 24, 171, 173, 176, 223, 224] 
Then they are to hasten to do good works, making progress in 
the service of God (cf. Test.). The teaching of the resurrection 
is then referred to, but the passage is not clear. The bishop 
is to declare anything else that is fitting to the baptized. 
" This is the white stone," etc. (see p. 224). 

(3) In Hauler 111-113 the newly baptized pray with all the 
people, not praying before with the faithful unless they have 
done (as commanded). Then they pray and give the Peace, and 
the oblation is to be offered (offeratur) by the deacons to the Iishop 
(see p. 222), and he gives thanks [over] the bread as for an 
example (exemplum), which the Greek {sic) calls an antitype, of 
the body of Christ, [and over] the cup mixed with wine for an 
antitype, which the Greek calls a similitude (cf. Test.) of the 
blood which was shed for all who beheved in Him ; milk and 
honey (" melle " — error) mixed together for a complete symbol 
(ad plenitudinem ; cf. Test. I. 23, p. 69) of the promise to the 
fathers, which He said [was] a land flowing with milk and 

' Achelis' brackets. 



222 NOTES [ll. 10 

honey, which Christ also gives as His flesh, through which the 
babes (parvuli) who believe are nourished, [Christ] in the 
delight (suavitate) of the word making the bitter things of the 
heart sweet, and [making] water for an offering for a sign of 
the laver, so that also the inner man, which is animal, may 
follow [siG 1 but ungrammatical] like things, as also the body 
(aquam vero in oblationem in indicium lavacri ut et interior 
homo quod est animale similia consequantur sicut et corpus). 
[This passage is extremely obscure both in H. and Test., and is 
clearly original in neither. The "animale" would represent 
■^ux'X'Oii; Eahmani's " spiritualis " is clearly wrong.] H. con- 
tinues : The bishop is to give the reason of all these things to 
those who partake; breaking the bread, he gives to each a 
portion, saying: The heavenly bread in Christ Jesus. The 
recipient answers : Amen. If there are not enough presbyters, 
the deacons are to hold the cups, and stand by with honesty 
and moderation, one holding the water, the second the milk 
[mixed with honey, see above], and the third the wine [mixed 
with water, see above]. The communicant to taste of each, the 
administrator saying thrice: In God the Father Almighty. 
Answer : Amen. Then : And [in] the Lord Jesus Christ and 
the Holy Ghost and the Holy Church. Answer : Amen. So for 
each one. Then every one is to hasten to do good work (operam). 

Oblation offered by the Deacon. The Syriac word vnll 
do for "offered" or "brought near." Eg. CO. favours the 
latter meaning, H. the former ; the meaning in C.H. is doubtful. 
The word " to offer " (offerre), for the deacons bringing the ele- 
ments to the bishop to consecrate, is uncommon. It is used 
generally for the act of consecrating the Eucharist, as at the 
Council of Aries, A.D. 314, which forbade deacons to " offer " 
(can. 15), that is, clearly (cf. canon 19) to celebrate the 
Eucharist. For this sense see also the eighteenth canon of 
Nicaea, which denies that deacons can offer ('upoapipnv) ; and 
A.C. viii. 27 (Lagarde, 2661^), « the deacon . . . does not offer " 
(ou T/>offpsf£;). It seems, however, sometimes to be used in the 
sense of administering the elements; see Hefele, Councils, 
i. 427, Eng. trans. 

The Euchaeistic Type. See p. 172. The expression occurs 
also in the Eg. CO. and H. parallels to this chapter. 

Deacons waving [Fans ?], see Note on p. 167. 

WoEDS OF Administeation. In Test, these are only given 
for the Eucharistic Bread (see I. 23, Note, p. 170). Bishop J. 
Wordsworth, indeed, suggests (Rev. int. de thiol. 1900, p. 472) 
that here we have two formulae, the first part being said over 



IT. 10] NOTES 223 

the bread, the second over the cup; he compares with the 
second half the Mystagogia expression (I. 28) : " whose body- 
being broken becometh our salvation, and [His] blood and spirit 
[our] life and holiness, and the water our cleansing" (p. 86). 
But the Abyssinian Anaphora of our Lord, which is derived 
from Test., has : " The body of Jesus Christ which is of the Holy 
Ghost, to hallow soul and spirit " (Brightman, L.E.W. 240 note ; 
Ludolf does not give the Communion). It is more probable 
that the words " which is of " — that is, three letters in the 
Syriac, DMN — should have dropped out of the Syriac text, than 
that the Anaphora of our Lord should have inserted them to 
make sense. The Abyssinian " Anaphora of the Elders " has 
as the words of administration : The holy body of Emmanuel 
our very God, which He took of the Lady of us all (Brightman, 
L.E.W. 241 note). Mark the Hermit (c. Nestorian. 24, qu. by 
Brightman, L.E.W. p. civ.. Addenda) at Ancyra, dr. 430 a.d., 
gives words of administration in one kind : " For thou hearest 
the priest (say) : The Holy Body of Jesus Christ, unto eternal 
life." In A.C. viii. 12 (Lagarde, 259^5 ff.) we have the double 
formula : The body of Christ. Answer : Amen. The blood of 
Christ, the cup of life. Answer : Amen. And similarly in the 
other Church Orders noted above. 

The Administeatoes. In Justin Martyr, Apol. i. 65, the 
deacons administer both the bread and the cup. And this is 
probably the meaning of Test., but Copto-arab. has omitted the 
words (see also page 234). In the Church Orders and later 
liturgies the practice varies. In C.H. 146, 147, the bishop 
administers in both kinds, and so in Ar. D. 38, TertuU. de Cor. 3. 
But in C.H. 214, 216, the bishop or presbyter may give leave 
to the deacon to administer. In Eg. CO. and H. the bishop 
administers the bread, and the presbyters the cup (H., " cups "), 
or if there are not enough presbyters, then the deacons. There 
is no direction in Eth. CO. (Ludolf). In A.C viii. 12 (Lagarde, 
259^^ ff.) the bishop gives the bread, the deacon the cup. So in 
the Egyptian Liturgy derived from A.C. (Sah. Eccl. Can. 66 ; 
Tattam, p. 124; Brightman, L.E.W. 462). In the modern 
Abyssinian the priest gives the bread, the deacon the cup. 
The matter is not clear in St. Mark's Liturgy and in the modern 
Coptic. — The prohibition against deacons communicating 
presbyters is found in the eighteenth canon of Nicaea, which 
also forbids deacons to receive before bishops ; the deacons are 
to receive after the presbyters, a bishop or presbyter administer- 
ing to them ; deacons also are not to sit among the presbyters ; 
this is said to be against the canons. The Council of Aries 



224 NOTES [ll. 10 

(can. 15, 18) also forbade deacons to put themselves forward. 
See pp. 190, 234. 

It is noteworthy that in this matter Test, shows an earlier 
characteristic than C.H. or Eg. CO. This, however, is a part 
of the honour given in Test, to deacons. 

Spilling the Chalice. The other Church Orders have 
injunctions somewhat similar to Test. C.H. 209 say that 
the administrators and recipients of the mystery are to see 
that nothing fall to the ground lest an evil spirit get possession 
of it. Eg. C.O. 59 (Tattam, p. 78) says that every one is to 
take care that no unbeliever or mouse (Arab., a fly) or other 
creature eat of the Eucharist, or that any other thing have 
fallen into it which , has strayed, for it is the body of Christ. 
So H. 117^^, but it has " or lest any of it fall (cadeat for cadat) 
and perish." C.H. 207 speak of a fly or any thing falling into 
the cup. Eg. C.O. 60 (Tattam, p. 80) enjoins care about spill- 
ing the cup. lest a strange spirit lick it up (so H. 117^). — 
Copto-arab. adds a sentence about portions of the bread falling 
to the ground. Cf. TertuUian, de Cor. Mil. 3 (Migne ii. 99). 

Teaching of the Eesuerection after Baptism. We note 
that the clause " the resurrection of the flesh " is not in the 
Test. Baptismal Creed (II. 8) as it is in Hauler. The present 
passage leads us to suppose that it was purposely omitted. 
The postponement of teaching on the resurrection till after 
baptism seems to be a peculiarity of Test. St. Cyril taught 
his catechumens about it before baptism (Gat. Lect. xv.). 

The new Decree or Stone. The parallel passage of 
Eg. C.O. 46 (Tattam, p. 66) has : " This is the white stone {h 
'liripoi 71 \ivy.ri, Lagarde) about which John said that a new 
name is written on it, which no one knoweth but he who shall 
receive the stone." The passage is not in C.H., and H. breaks 
off before this. This is clearly a quotation from Eev. ii. 17 and 
an instructive early exegesis of that verse (for the " new name," 
cf. Isa. Ixii. 2 ; Eev. iii. 12, xix. 12). Probably the Test, writer 
also wrote aurjj esriv ri ■4'. fj X., and James of Edessa (who did 
not verify his quotations carefully, as we see elsewhere in Test.) 
misread Xim^, white, into namri, new (from the next line), and 
then translated fi ■^. v %aivri, the new decree (Syr. PSQA). This 
Syriac word is used for a translation of -^nipH (which has also 
the sense of " decree ") in Syriac editions of Cyril of Alexandria 
and Athanasius (Payne-Smith, Thesaurus Syriacus, 3198), and 
it is noteworthy that the Syriac translator of the Apocalypse 
(perhaps Thomas of Harkel, a.d. 622) renders ^^^log by hush- 
hkak (computation), though he retains the adjective " white." 



II. 10, ii] NOTES 225 

It would thus appear that two Syriac writers of the seventh 
century, Thomas and James, did not understand the -^npoi of 
Eev. ii. 17 to mean " a stone." — Achelis {Die Can. Hipp. 285) 
gives a Hippolytean fragment (but he brackets this passage as 
interpolated), which says of asceticism : " This is the precious 
stone (lapis pretiosus) which, as John bears witness, no one 
knows except he who has received it." — What is the antecedent 
of " this " in Test, and Eg. 0.0. ? The doctrine of the resurrec- 
tion, or baptism, or the Eucharist ? In Test, apparently the 
resurrection ; in Eg. 0.0. probably the complete course of Ohrie- 
tian doctrine, including the resurrection ; in the Hippolytean 
fragment, self-denial. In the Eevelation we have no clue ; the 
interpretation of that passage by later writers may be seen in 
Alford's commentary, which mentions also a Rabbinical tradition 
that there fell together with the manna precious stones (lapides 
pretiosi ; cf. Hipp, fragm. above) and pearls.^ In any case we 
must in Test, supply " it," i.e. the ■xj/^pos, after " receive," not " the 
Eucharist" as Eahmani conjectures. — In this passage Oopto- 
arab. has made an alteration. It reads : " Let no one know 
the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven before holy baptism is re- 
ceived. This is the offering which has a new name, which none 
can know unless he has deserved the baptism of the Gospel." 

Opening the Disc. This perhaps argues the use of a veil 
or cover. For the veil, see Brightman's Glossary, L.E.W. 591a, 
where it is explained that covers of metal or the like are 
sometimes used in the East. The West Syrians (Jacobites) 
and Greeks use •jr/rag, the word transliterated in Test., for a 
disc or paten (Br., L.E.W. 584&). The second word used by 
James of Edessa (KPPTA) is used by St. Ephrem for a paten 
(Payne Smith, Thesaurus Syriacus, 1793). 

Deacons baptizing. Contrast A.C. viii. 27 (Lagarde, 266^*) : 
" The deacon . . . does not baptize." In Spain, at the begin- 
ning of the fourth century, the Council of Elvira (can. 77) 
allows deacons to baptize if there is no priest in the place; 
and (can. 38) permits laymen to baptize in case of necessity. 
Eg. 0.0. 46 (Tattam, p. 58) is indefinite ; it merely speaks of 
him " who bestows it " (baptism). This one would suppose to 
be the presbyter ; but the deacon is not forbidden to baptize. 

Ohaptee 11 

The Service to cakey to a Widow, etc. So in A.C. iii. 13 
(Lagarde, 107^") Siaxovla is alms given to a widow. The whole 

' Dr. Milligan {Oommentary on the Mevelation) understands by the stone, 
the plate on the high priest's mitre. 

15 



226 NOTES [n. 11 

passage (which is not in Eg. CO.; H. is deficient here) should 
be closely compared with C.H. 160-163. C.H. say that the 
alms is to be given the same day, or if anything of necessity 
remain, then on the next morning, and if anything again 
remain, on the third day. The man at whose house it is kept 
is not to deduct anything (?), but " let pity alone (and that com- 
plete) bring to the man who shows it the reckoned reward " 
[i.e. the bearer of the alms is to be actuated only by pity, and 
that will be his reward ; this seems to be the sense of a not 
very easy passage : " ah eo autem in cujus domo asservatur, 
nihil computetur ex lis rebus; sola misericordia eaque tota 
afferat ei qui eam exhibet, computatam mercedem"]. "Let 
the distributer obtain nothing, for the bread of the poor delays 
too long in his house through negligence." C.H. 164-168 then 
go on to say that an Agape, if there is one, is to be on Sunday 
at lamp lighting, the bishop being present, the deacon to rise to 
light the lamp, the bishop to pray, psalms to be sung, and the 
people to be dismissed before dark (see below). This last part 
has been turned by Test, into a vigil before Good Friday. This 
explains why II. 11& and 12 come between II. 11a and 13, 
which refer to the Agap^. — It appears that the passage about 
the alms is not original to either C.H. or Test., as it is extremely 
obscure in both, though its general sense is plain. Probably it 
belongs to the " Lost Church Order," was early corrupted, and 
was omitted by Eg. CO. because it was not understood. 

The Maundy Thursday Euchakist. This, in Test., is an 
exception (p. 163). Eahmani (p. 200) conjectures that this is 
an Agap^ only. The phrase " he who suffered," etc., is extremely 
obscure. It seems to be the work of the Test. Compiler, but 
to have become corrupt either before or after the time of 
James of Edessa. Copto-arab., either misunderstanding the 
text or reading it differently, has : " On Thursday let the 
priest offer in the evening bread and the cup mixed with wine 
and water to fulfil the mystery of Pascha. Let him do the 
same on the Saturday." Here Copto-arab. has taken " in the 
last week of Pascha " to be " to fulfil the mystery of Pascha." 
The words "in the evening" of Copto-arab. are probably 
original, and have dropped out by homoioteleuton ; James 
having, we may suppose, written " bramshS, bkhamsha bshabS,," 
in the evening on Thursday. But how does Copto-arab. get " to 
fulfil the mystery " out of " in the last week " ? Possibly (if 
he translated from the Greek and not from the Syriac) by 
confusing nXeurdu, to fulfil, and TiKiuraTog, last, and e{)fi,^o\ov, a 
symbol, and ea^^arm, a week. 



II. U, 12] NOTES 227 

As the first clause of the sentence seems thus to have been 
early corrupted, it is not improbable that the text of the 
obscure second clause is also corrupt. Copto-arab. clearly did 
not understand it. If, however, we are to take the clause as it 
stands, it may be mentioned that the last two verbs must be 
either " hath offered " (past) or " draweth near " (present), or the 
first may be the one and the second the other. Bishop Words- 
worth {Ministry of Grace, 372), renders "He who suffered 
instead of that which He offered, Himself is the offerer " ; but 
the Syriac will necessitate the past tense for the last words : 
" Himself [it is] who hath offered. Bishop Wordsworth under- 
stands that the writer " agreed with St. Augustine in thinking 
the sacrifice of the Eucharist to be especially that of the 
mystical body of Christ, his Church, and that he held the 
Maundy Thursday celebration to be especially one in which 
Christ is the priest who offers His people to God." The Syriac 
past tense of the last verb (if indeed the meaning "hath 
offered" is correct) appears to militate against this view. 
Perhaps it should be, however, " He who suffered instead of 
that which He offered (the Church), Himself [it is] who 
draweth near." But the more probable explanation is that 
the text is corrupt, especially as the beginning of the chapter 
is obscure and the last clause hopeless. 

Psalms and Canticles by the Light of the Lamp (?), lit., 
by the flame (or brightness) of the Lamp. The above seems 
to be the sense of the Syriac, though Eahmani renders " at the 
lamp lighting" (ad accensionem lucernae), which certainly agrees 
with the "psalm at the lighting up of the lamps," at daily 
evening service in A.C. viii. 34 (Lag. 271^^), and in Silvia 
(see p. 238). — For the antiphonal singing, see p. 181. The 
present passage perhaps means that the boys are to sing psalms 
and hymns and that then the people are to sing a chant all 
together, and answer Hallelujah to all three (cf. II. 12). — Dr. 
Wordsworth {Ministry of Grace, 386) suggests a possible con- 
nexion between this " offering of a lamp " by the deacon and the 
Paschal taper. Cf. 1. 19, Note on " Light for a type " (p. 150 f.). 

Chapter 12 

Pascha ending on Saturday at Midnight. See Note on 
" Day and Night " in I. 21 (p. 159), and on IL 19 (p. 232). 

Pentecost. This means the fifty days before Whitsunday. 
Cf. Note on Pascha in II. 8 (p. 218). This was the usual 
meaning of the term in Christian antiquity, and Pentecost was 



228 NOTES [11. 12, 13 

a season of rejoicing when kneeling was not permitted (of. 
Tertullian, de Cor. Mil. 3, Migne, ii. 99). The Council of 
Nicaea (can. 20) ordered all to stand for prayer on Sunday 
and "on the days of Pentecost." On the other hand, the 
Council of Elvira (can. 43) talks of the " day of Pentecost." 

Sunday a Day of Eefeesument. Cf. A.C. viii. 32 (Lagarde, 
2692iff.), where work is not to be done on Saturdays and Sun- 
days, or in Holy Week or Easter Week. 

White Baptismal Eobes. The reference is perhaps to 
Eev. vii. 13, 14, which ancient commentators referred to the 
baptism of martyrs in their own blood (see Alford's Com- 
mentary, in loc). — In II. 9, where the parallels mention the 
" clothing " (but not in white), Test, says nothing about it. — 
For another mention of white robes, see I. 34, p. 99. 

Chapter 13 

The Agap^ in other Church Orders, as far as they illus- 
trate Test. (1) In C.H. 170-177 catechumens receive the 
bread of exorcism (?), but are not to sit at the Agap6 (cf. 
Didach^ ix. 5 ?). [Christians] are to eat and drink to satiety, 
but not to drunkenness. " Let no one talk much or cry out, 
lest they laugh at you ; and let them not be a scandal to men, so 
that your host is turned into ridicule. . . . But let each one pray 
that the saints may enter under his roof, for our Saviour says. 
Ye are the salt of the earth." When the bishop speaks, sitting, 
the rest will have gain, nor will he himself be without gain. 

(2) In Eg. CO. 47-50 (Tattam, pp. 66-70) there is a section 
on fasting, from which Test, has borrowed a sentence about 
the bishop eating with the people. " Let them receive from the 
hand of the bishop a portion of the same bread, before each 
one shall divide the bread which is for him, for this is a bless- 
ing (luXoyla, Lagarde) and is not an Euchnrist, like the body 
of the Lord." People are to "say grace" before they drink 
("take the cup"). Catechumens are to receive the bread of 
exorcism and a cup. They are not to come into the Lord's 
Supper [i.e. the Agap^] with a faithful person. ..." When ye 
eat and drink in tranquillity (Arab., in purity or modesty), drink 
not that ye may be drunken, that men may deride you, and 
he who has called you be sorrowful for your dissoluteness 
(Lagarde, rjj 'jrapajSaaei L/iSv). But that he may pray the saints 
to go in to him. For He hath said i Ye are the salt of the 
earth." [Can Test, have misunderstood tv) Tapa^dau i/im, and 
read rjj xpoaavaSaeei i/iSm, " SO let them enter that . . . ? 



II. 13] NOTES 229 

Eahmani suggests that James of Edessa found tiyofLai in his 
text, and read it "pray" when he should have read "boast 
that the saints enter," etc. But the parallels forbid this.] 
Eg. CO. continues : " When you have been called to eat, eat 
only what suffices you, that he who has called you may do 
what he pleases with what remains, so that they may remain 
over for the saints, and that he may rejoice at your entering 
in to him." [This is not in C.H. ; Test, has modified it. The 
words "what suffices" (to, ■/.o.^^xovto,) get into "sufficienter" in 
H. (see below), and so into " abundantly " in Test.] The eaters 
are to eat in peace and not in strife, to answer the bishop when 
questioned ; then to be silent with attention (Lagarde, ■rapa- 
T7]j>o\JiTai) until they are again questioned. [Test, has altered 
'^apa.Trjp. to "choose" (cf. C.H. 102).] Eg. CO. then goes on to 
allow a presbyter or deacon to preside if the bishop is absent. 

(3) Hauler 113, 114, says after a lacuna, "you who are 
present, and so feast." Catechumens are to receive the bread of 
exorcism, and each one is to offer a cup ; they are not to be at 
the Lord's Supper (Agap^), . . . (and so on as in Eg. CO., not 
Test.). Eaters and drinkers to eat and drink honestly and 
not to drunkenness, and not so that any one should laugh at 
(you) or the host be grieved at your inquietude, but that he 
may pray to be made worthy that the saints may enter in to 
him. "For, Ye are the salt of the earth, He says." If an 
offering is made to all in common, called in Greek apoforetum, 
receive it from him, but, that all may taste, taste sufficiently, 
that also there may be left (somewhat), and that he who called 
you may send (it) to whom he will, as of the relics of the saints 
(tanquam de reliquiis sanctorum), and rejoice in trustfulness 
(gaudeat in fiducia). [Note that H., Eg. CO., and Test, are all 
involved here ; the original must have been early corrupted.] 
The guests are to eat in silence, not striving with words, but 
(hearing ?) what the bishop exhorts ; and if he questions about 
anything he is to be answered ; and when the bishop speaks a 
[or, the] word, all modestly praising him (cf. Test.) to be 
silent till again questioned ; and so on as Eg. CO. 

The idea in Test, of " eating abundantly " at the Agapd (cf. 
H., above) is found elsewhere. Thus Didach(^ x. 1 : "After ye 
are satisfied (e^TrXjjff^^ra;), thus give ye thanks." So Tertullian, 
4^0^.39 (Migne, i. 540): "They are satisfied (saturantur)." 

The expression in Eg. CO., " This is a blessing (ivXoyia,)," 
needs some comment. The name euXoy/a. (see Brightman, 
L.E.W. 577, 597, and Keating, The Agapi and the Eucharist, 
p. 130) was used for the bread offered at the offertory in the 



230 NOTES [n. 13-15 

Eucharist, probably as being a gift of the people. The offer- 
ings were originally made for the purposes of the Agap6 as 
well as for the Eucharist. The name sv}.oyla was afterwards 
used for bread formally blessed (though not consecrated) and 
distributed at the end of the Liturgy. This custom, which is 
still common in both East and West, is thought by Dr. Keating 
to have dated from the time when the Agap^ died out. The 
" bread of exorcism " mentioned above seems to have been 
something of the same sort as the evXoyla. In Test. II. 19 the 
catechumens are to receive ivXoyiai. 

We notice that in aU these Church Orders the Agap4 and 
Eucharist are quite distinct. In Eg. CO. and H. the Agap^ 
is called " the Lord's Supper." C.H. 172 speak of " the Lord's 
Agapae." For fuller information on this point, as on the 
whole subject of the Agape, reference may be made to Dr. J. F. 
Keating's learned book mentioned above, and published since 
these notes were written. Chancellor Keating gives succinctly 
all that is known on the subject, and traces the influence of 
the heathen and Jewish love meals on the Christian Agape. 
He holds that the Eucharist and Agapd were at first celebrated 
together, but that by PUny's time (112 a.d.) they were separ- 
ated, at least in parts of the Church; and that later the 
separation became universal. 

Chapter 14 

First Fruits. (1) C.H. 186, 187, say that one who has 
first fruits is to bring them to the bishop into the church ; so 
the first fruits of the threshing floor, and of wine presses, oil, 
honey, milk, wool, and merchandise, with first fruits of trees. 

(2) Eg. CO. 53 (Tattam, p. 72) merely says : Let every one 
hasten to take to the bishop at all times the first fruit of the 
fruits (Arab., the first ripe dates), and the first of the produce 
(Arab., of all kinds of grain). 

(3) H. 115' says that all are to hasten to offer the first fruits 
to the bishop. 

(4) A.C. viii. 29 (Lagarde, 267* ff.) say that first fruits are 
to be brought to the bishop and presbyters and deacons for their 
support, and tithes for the support of the rest of the clerks 
and virgins and widows and the poor. 

Chapter 15 

Property, Test, has interpolated this section (apparently 
the work of the Compiler) between the two on first fruits 



II 15, 16] NOTES 231 

(14 and 16), which are consecutive in Eg. CO. and C.H. and 
H. It arises out of the question of offerings to the bishop. 
See II. 23. 

Chapter 16 

Blessing of the First Fruits. (1) In C.H. 188-194 the 
priest (sacerdos) says the thanksgiving [the offerer stand- 
ing outside the veil].^ The thanksgiving is quite different 
from Eg. CO., H., and Test. The bishop is then directed to 
bless all vegetables of the earth, and all produce (poma) of trees 
and all " fruits of the earth of cucumber fields," and those who 
bring them. 

(2) In Eg. CO. 53, 54 (Tattam, pp. 72, 74), the bishop 
receives the fruits with thanksgiving, and blesses them and 
names the name of the offerer (cf. Test, prayer). The prayer 
is nearly that of Test., and runs : We give thanks to Thee, 
Lord God, and we present to Thee the first fruit of the fruits 
which Thou hast given unto us to partake of them, which Thou 
hast perfected by Thy word, and Thou bast commanded the 
earth to produce every fruit for use and for gladness and food 
for the race of men and of all creatures. We bless Thee, 
God, for these and all other things by which Thou hast bene- 
fited us. Thou hast adorned all creation with the various 
fruits, through Thy holy Son Jesus Christ, our Lord, by wbom 
glory be to Thee and Him and the Holy Ghost, for ever and 
ever. Amen. — Eg. CO. names as to be blessed : the vine, fig, 
pomegranate, olive, prune, apple, peach, cherry, almond (Arab., 
apricot); as not to be blessed: garlic, the onion, melon, 
cucumber, melon-cucumber, immature date, or any other pot 
herb. They may offer of flowers, the rose and the lily {sic, 
singular as "Test.), but not the rest. . . . 

(3) Hauler 115^^ has almost exactly the same prayer as 
Eg. C.O. It adds to the Eg. CO. fruits, as to be blessed, the 
pear, mulberry, and damson. It does not mention the imma- 
ture date, but says "no other vegetable" is to be blessed. 
Sometimes flowers are offered. "Let, then, the rose and the 
lily (singular) be offered, but not others." . . . 

(4) In the A.C prayer for blessing fruits (viii. 40, Lagarde, 
274*ff.) we have the sentence : " who hast perfected all things 
by Thy word, and commandedst the earth to produce different 
fruits for our joy and nourishment." 

' Achelis' bracket. 



232 NOTES [ll- 17-19 



Chaptek 17 

Of Eating. This chapter corresponds to the words in 
Eg. CO. 54 and H. 116«, following those which have been 
quoted in the last chapter. Eg. CO. says : " Everything which 
they shall eat they shall give thanks to God for. And when 
they shall taste, then they shall give glory to Him." H. says : 
" In all things which are received let them give thanks to the 
holy God, receiving them to His glory." The last clause about 
things strangled is an addition of Test. ; the rule is implied in 
the second canon of the Council of Gangra (end of fourth 
century ?), and still holds among Eastern Christians. Note 
that Test, omits the " blood " of Acts xv. 29. St. Augustine 
(c. Faustum, xxxii. 13) says that the rule was only observed in 
his time by few people. See Hefele, Councils, ii. 328, Eng. trans. 

Chapter 18 

JjECTIONS at Pascha. These are exceptional; see p. 181. 
This chapter is peculiar to Test. In Eg. CO. and H., Pascha 
is treated directly after what was said above, but they go on to 
our II. 20. CH. also go on to the Holy Week fast, but with 
passages which are not in Test. For " day and night," see 
Note on I. 21 (p. 159). 

Chapter 19 

The Paschal Vigil. This chapter is peculiar to Test. For 
the deacons and subdeacons keeping order, of. A.C. viii. 11 
(Lagarde, 248iff.), where the deacons keep order among the men 
and women (children specially mentioned), " to see lest any 
beckon, whisper, or nod " ; deacons stand at the men's doors, 
subdeacons at the women's. Deacons keeping order is also 
mentioned twice in A.C ii. 57 (Lagarde, 85*, 86^^); but in that 
chapter there is a different arrangement (Lagarde, 86^), the 
doorkeepers (•TruXapol) watching the men's entrances, the 
deacons the women's, and the tabernacle is referred to as a 
type. See also Test. I. 34, 36. 

Saturday Night. This must mean our Saturday night, 
not our Friday night. See pp. 159, 164. 

Catechumens receiving Eulogiae. Cf. II. 13 (Note on 
C.H., Eg. CO., and H., p. 2281). 

Widows and Presbyteresses. See Note on p. 199 ; for 
the food in the temple, see the next page. 



11. 20] NOTES 233 



Chaptbk 20 

The Fast before Easter. The rule in this chapter about 
fasting before communion applies to the Lenten fast. For 
the general rule, see Note on p. 239. The fast before Easter 
in Test, is an absolute fast of two days. It ends at the mid- 
night between Saturday and Sunday (II. 12), and therefore 
the widows who "stay till dawn in the temple" take food 
with them. 

The other Church Orders. (1) In C.H. 150-152 (bracketed 
by Achelis) the newly baptized and others who fast with them 
are to taste nothing before they take of the body of Christ, 
for that would be reckoned not as a fast but as a sin (cf. 
Test.). After the Offering they may eat as they please. In 
§ 195, C.H. say that the week when the Jews keep Pascha 
is to be observed by all with the greatest zeal, and they 
are to take care especially that on those days they remain 
fasting from all desire (cupiditate), etc. Then follows the 
passage already quoted above in I. 28, Note (p. 184) ; and in 
§§ 197, 198, we read that the food suitable for Pascha is 
bread with only salt and water (cf. Test.). Any sick person, 
or one in the country far away (cf. Eg. CO.), is to fast after 
Pentecost. See also Note to II. 6 (p. 211 f.). 

(2) Eg. CO. 55 (Tattam, pp. 74, 76) says in its title that no 
one is to take anything at Pascha before the time when the 
fast is completed (Tattam, " before the time in which it ought 
to be eaten"). It continues: "They shall not compute this 
fast thus, if they have celebrated Pascha before the time when 
the fast is completed [reference to Quartodeciman practice ?]. 
But if any one is ill and cannot fast two days, he is to fast on 
the Saturday on account of the affliction [Lagarde, iia rrii 
amyxriv ; See H. below], contenting himself with bread and salt 
and water." [In Test, this refers to pregnant women only.] 
Sailors at sea, and not knowing the proper day, are to fast 
after Pentecost [cf. C.H. ; Test, has not got this]. 

(3) Hauler 116' says that no one is to partake [of food?] 
in Pascha before the Offering takes place ; for if so the fast is 
not imputed to him. But if any one is pregnant and ill and 
cannot fast two days, she is to fast on Saturday of necessity 
(propter necessitatem), being content with (contenens) bread 
and water. Travellers by sea or a person in any necessity to 
fast after Pentecost. [This is much more like Test, than the 
other two are.] 

We see that Eg. CO., H., and Test, prescribe only a one or 



234 NOTES [II. 20, 21 

two days' fast before Easter, but it is, except in cases of 
sickness, absolute ; C.H. perhaps prescribes the whole of Holy- 
Week, but it is only a partial fast. See further on II. 8 
(p. 218). Copto-arab. says : If a pregnant woman is sick and 
cannot observe the Quadragesimal fast [note this], she is to 
fast on the Wednesday and Friday. 

Hand laid on Catechumens. See p. 182. 

Deacons and Deaconesses caekying the Eucharist. 
Copto-arab. says : If a believer, man or woman, cannot, through 
sickness, come to church, let the presbyter or deacon carry the 
mysteries to them. It then supersedes Test, about deaconesses 
carrying the Eucharist. — In Justin Martyr the deacons take 
the Eucharist to the absent {Apol. i. 65). — The provision in 
Test, for the deaconess carrying the sacrament to the sick 
women is remarkable, as in II. 8 widows do the part usually 
ascribed to the deaconesses at baptism. But no doubt here 
this duty is given to the latter to make a parallel with the 
function of the deacons in this respect. 

Sick Presbyters. In C.H. 215, if a presbyter is sick, a 
deacon is to carry the mysteries to him, but the presbyter alone 
is to receive them, i.e. he is to administer the Eucharist to 
himself; cf. Test. II. 10. Here, in Test., a presbyter is to 
carry the sacrament to a sick presbyter. 

Chapter 21 

Bishop and Deacons visiting the Sick. (1) In C.H. 199, 
200, the deacon goes round with the bishop and points out the 
sick. " For it is a great thing for a sick man to be visited by 
the high priest ; he recovers from his sickness when the bishop 
comes to him, especially if he prays over him, for the shadow 
of Peter healed a sick man." 

(2) Eg. CO. 56 (Tattam, p. 76) agrees with the first part of 
the above. But in the latter part it is shorter : " For the sick 
are consoled when they see their high priest visiting them, 
and they are remembered." 

(3) Hauler 116^^ says that each deacon with the suMeacons 
is to observe (or pay respect to) the bishop (ad episcopum 
observent) ; to tell him of the sick, that he may visit them if he 
see fit. " For the sick man is much delighted when the high 
priest remembers him." 

We note that Test, only says, " let them take it up." Clearly, 
if we compare I. 34, 40, deacons are meant, and perhaps sub- 
deacons and widows also. It is noteworthy that Test., Eg. CO., 



n. 21-23] NOTES 235 

and H. have no reference to the gift of healing or the " shadow 
of Peter " as C.H. have — a mark of early date in the last. Yet 
Test. I. 47 refers to the gift of healing, though generally and 
without detail. — The phrase " especially when he is faithful " 
is peculiar to Test. For the name " high priest," see p. 160. 



Chaptee 22 

Antiphonal Singing. See Note on I. 26 (p. 181). This 
chapter is peculiar to Test. 

Chapter 23 

BuEiAL. The Church Orders from this point differ some- 
what in arrangement and order. C.H. 220, 221, say that 
dying people are not to be cast out to sleep in the cemetery, 
but among the poor. He who has a house of his own is not to 
be taken when sick into God's house, but is only to pray, and 
then to return to his own house. Eg. CO. 61 (Tattam, p. 80) 
says they are not to burden a man to bury men in the 
cemeteries, for this is the work of all the poor. They are to 
give wages to the grave digger and a gift to the keepers [of the 
cemetery], and " to those in that place who have had the care 
of it." The bishop is to support them, so that no one may 
press upon them among those who go to those places. This is 
not in Hauler at all. 

The words of Test., " those who provide for each one," seem 
to point to a guild or society of burial authorities. The clauses 
about leaving property (cf. II. 15) and embalming and en- 
shrouding are peculiar to Test. Embalming was common in 
Egypt up to at least the fifth century (Brightman in J.T.S. 
i. 262). No prayers are given in Test, for funerals. Sarapion 
(§ 18) gives a prayer asking for the refreshment (am<!rauirig) of 
the soul of the departed and for his future resurrection. The 
churchyard keeper mentioned in Test, and Eg. CO. is probably 
the xovidrr,g of Epiphanius and the Fossarius or Fossor of the 
Church of Cirta (Wordsworth, Ministry of Grace, p. 195); the 
officers were skilled artisans, carvers, etc., not mere grave 
diggers. The mention of deacons in Test, in connexion with 
burial is a mark of early date (cf . I. 34). The early deacons had 
special duties to the dead. But gradually they gave up much 
of their work to subdeacons and, in the West, to doorkeepers. 
For Oblations for the departed, cf. TertuU. de Cor. 3 (Migne, ii. 99), 
Cypr. Up. i. 2, C.H. 169 (?) ; and see Dr. Swete in J.T.S. iii. 167. 



236 NOTES [n. 24 

Chapter 24 

Hours of Prayer in the Church Orders and other 
Authorities. The reference in this chapter is apparently to 
private prayers, whether in the church or at home. At least 
there is no form of prayer laid down for these hours. 

(1) C.H. 223-225, 233-238, say that Christians are to pray 
at dawn, washing their hands always when they pray, and to 
do the same before every several work (cf. Test. ; and C.H. 241, 
where a Christian is told to wash his hands whenever he 
prays). Then follows (226-232) a passage about assembhes in 
the church " for the word of God," i.e. instruction. C.H. con- 
tinue : They are to pray at the third hour because our Lord 
was crucified then ; at the sixth hour because all creation was 
disturbed by the Jews' wicked deed ; at the ninth hour because 
Christ then prayed and gave up the ghost ; at sunset because 
it is the end of the day (cf. Test.); then at lamp lighting 
because David said, "I speak by night"; and at midnight 
because of David, Paul, and Silas [these two hours bracketed 
by Achelis]. 

(2) Eg. CO. 57, 62 (Tattam, pp. 76, 80-86), is much longer 
than C.H. or Test. Believers on waking to pray before work- 
ing, and so to approach their works. They are to go to church 
if there be instruction. On rising they are to wash their hands 
and then proceed to their works [repetition ; and direction 
about going to church for instruction repeated more fully, as 
C.H.]. The prayer at the third hour is only in a house or 
chamber, not in the church ; then Christ was nailed to the 
wood (cf. Test.) ; the shewbread, the lamb, the bread from 
heaven are mentioned. At the sixth hour Christ was crucified, 
and the day was divided and there ,was great darkness (cf. 
Test.). "Let them pray at that time with a fervent prayer, 
helping them by the voice of Him who prayed, causing all 
creation to be dark, by reason of the unbelief of the Jews " [cf. 
Test. ; the passage in both is obscure, showing that it is original 
in neither; in Test, it is barely intelligible]. At the ninth 
hour there is to be a great prayer and praise ; "like the souls 
of the righteous they shall bless the Lord God of truth ; He 
who remembered the saints sent His Son, who is His Word, to 
them, who enlightened them; then the side of Christ was 
pierced and blood and water came out." [This is clearly the 
original of Test., which however is shorter ; it is evolved out of 
Christ's prayer in C.H.] " The rest of the day it was light till 
evening ; therefore thou also if thou hast slept (at that hour), 



II. 24] NOTES 237 

thou shalt remember another day and make the type of the 
resurrection " (see below). 

(3) Hauler 119 begins a fragment thus: "God who heth 
not, who remembereth His saints, and sent out His Word, 
illuminating them. Therefore at that hour Christ was pierced 
in (His) side, and poured out water and blood, and illuminating 
the rest of the day brought (them) to the evening. Pray also 
before going to bed. At midnight wash the hands and pray." 

In Eg. C.O. and H. the sunset prayer is omitted. But as 
we find it in C.H., and also (see below) in A.C., St. Jerome, and 
Silvia, distinct from that of the ninth hour, it is probable that 
Test, purposely altered the phrase in Eg. C.O. and H. about our 
Lord illuminating the rest of the day (which is much involved, 
and which Test, probably did not well understand), and made 
a separate hour of prayer out of it. In the Test, midnight 
prayer the words " because of the resurrection " are an addition, 
as is the second reference to the dawn. In the latter, note the 
obvious anachronism about the apostles singing psalms. For 
the " beginning of another day," see Note on "Day and night " 
in I. 21 (p. 159). 

(4) In A.C. viii. 33 (Lagarde, 270i8ff.) the hours are dawn, 
the third, sixth, ninth, evening, cockcrow ; prayers to be said 
publicly or privately ; the evening and dawn congregations are 
to be convened by the bishop. The reasons for these hours 
are not the same as in Test., but are similar in kind. If 
they cannot go to church because of the unbelievers, the bishop 
is to assemble them at home (kut' oTxov) — apparently if the 
ungodly have taken possession of the church. If there cannot 
be a congregation, each one, or two or three, are to pray, etc., in 
private. The appointed service in A.C. viii. is only for evening 
and dawn, in that order. 

(5) St. Jerome, Ep. 27, speaking of Paula's convent at 
Bethlehem at the end of the fourth century (see Diet. Chr. 
Biog. iv. 218; and Wordsworth, Ministry of Grace, 347), 
mentions the hours of prayer as the morning, the third, sixth, 
and ninth hours, evening, midnight. But here he carries us a 
step further, for he is speaking of community prayers at these 
hours ; they say the Psalter together in order. In Ep. 7, ad 
Lactam, he names these hours as times for private devotion, 
substituting " in the night " for " midnight " ; and " lamp light- 
ing " and " evening " are synonymous. Cassian {Inst. iii. 3, 
quoted by Wordsworth) says the full order of hour services 
at Bethlehem was only established during his stay there, 
A.D. 390-403. 



238 NOTES [ll. 24, 25 

(6) Silvia (Duchesne, Origines, pp. 471-473 ; Wordsworth, 
Ministry of Grace, 348) describes service at Jerusalem at dawn, 
the sixth, ninth, and tenth hours. The last is equivalent to the 
" lamp lighting " (it was winter) — " an immense illumination." 
Many psalms, hymns, litanies, and prayers, but no lections. 
Solitaries and virgins, with some presbyters and deacons, also 
keep vigil from before cockcrow to dawn. 

For the absence of fixed, formal, public daily prayers in 
Test., see Note to I. 32 (p. 189). 

Peayees of Married Men. C.H. 242 say that married 
men are to pray whenever they wish to rise from the side of 
their wives. For marriage does not stain. Eg. CO. 62 (Tattam, 
p. 86) says that a married man is to pray with his wife ; if she 
is still heathen, he is to withdraw and pray alone and return 
to his place. A married man is not to refrain from prayer, for he 
is not defiled ; those who have washed need not wash again, for 
they are purified and clean. So H. 119^* exactly. Test, has 
omitted the caution about marriage not defiling. 

The Benedicite Omnia Opera. The reference is fuUer in 
Test, than in the other Church Orders. C.H. 244 say : " Pray 
at midnight ; our fathers said that at that time all creation was 
prepared for the service of the divine glory and the orders of 
the angels and the souls of the just blessed God." Eg. CO. 
says : " The stars and the trees and the waters are as all the 
host of angels who stand around ; serving with the souls of the 
just, praising God Almighty at that time " [during the night]. 
So H. 120^ very closely. C.H., Eg. CO., and H. then go on 
with a paragraph about the coming of the bridegroom, which is 
not in Test. 

Chapter 25 

Mutual Instruction. The opening sentence is from 
Eg. CO. 62 (Tattam, pp. 88, 90). " All ye beUevers, if ye fulfil 
these things, and remember to teach one another and to instruct 
the catechumens to perform them, nothing shall try you, and 
ye shall not mourn for ever." Hauler 120^^ has a very similar 
passage, but it reads : " Ye will not be able to be tempted or 
to perish (of. Test.), as ye ever have Christ in memory " [note 
how Test, has characteristically turned this]. C.H. 246-251 
have a much shorter form than the above : " Let us with the 
catechumens teach one another about the service of God; 
then the demons cannot sadden us, when in every prayer we 
remember Christ." They then refer to the sign of the Cross and 



II. 25] NOTES 239 

the Paschal Lamh, as also do Eg. CO. and H., but Test, omits 
these. 

Fasting Communion and Eeseevation. The rule in Test, 
apparently involves private reservation for daily communion, 
as daily Eucharists are not allowed (I. 22). It implies a 
general rule for fasting communion, though this is not ex- 
plicitly stated as in C.H. 205 ; the rule for fasting communion, 
indeed, had some exceptions; thus in the neighbourhood of 
Alexandria and in the Thebaid they communicated on Saturdays 
not fasting, apparently after an agapd (Socrates, H.E. v. 22 ; 
see Brightman, L.E.W. 509, note 27). And in a.d. 397 the 
third Council of Carthage (can. 29, not given by Hefele) excuses 
fasting communion on Maundy Thursday. The practice of 
private reservation in the third and fourth centuries is well 
known ; the Eucharist was carried by travellers and others, 
and regarded as an antidote. [Eeferences besides the Church 
Orders are : Tertullian, ad Uxorem, ii. 5 (Migne, i. 1408) ; St. 
Ambrose, Oratio in ohitum fratris, i. 43 ; St. Basil, Sp. 93 ; see 
Brightman, M&i supra; Wordsworth, Ministry of Grace, 320.] 
It seems probable that, as the sacrament was thus carried about 
by private individuals, reservation must have been in one kind. 
Bishop Wordsworth {Ministry of Grace, 380) draws attention to 
the old (but not original) Eoman method of communion on Good 
Friday in the eighth or ninth century, with the bread conse- 
crated the day before, and the unconsecrated chalice into which 
a portion of the consecrated bread was placed without any 
words being said over it. 

The other Church Orders are as follows : (1) C.H. 205 say 
explicitly that none of the faithful are to taste anything unless 
they have first taken of the mysteries, especially on the days 
of the sacred fast. There is no idea of an antidote here. 

(2) Eg. CO. 58 (Tattam, p. 78) says conversely that every 
believer is to hasten to partake of the Eucharist before he 
tastes anything else. If they believe in it, if any one have 
given them deadly poison it will not hurt them [cf. St. Mark 
xvi. 18]. 

(3) Hauler 1171" has the same.— Thus Test., Eg. CO., and 
H. agree in the reference to the antidote. 

Concluding Sentence. The Test. Compiler's material ends 
with " prevail against you." Here C.H., Eg. CO., and H. con- 
clude with admonitions to keep the rules laid down [the passage 
C.H. 255-257 about the night of the resurrection is bracketed 
as an interpolation by Achelis]. C.H. has no "apocryphal 
pretence," Eg. CO. 62 (Tattam, p. 92) refers to the rules as 



240 NOTES [ll- 27 

traditions of the apostles. " For thus many heresies (cf. Test.) 
increase, because those who preside are not willing to learn the 
doctrines of the Apostles." H. 121 breaks off at the beginning 
of the conclusion. Test, proceeds with the fiction of our Lord's 
words : " Lo, then, I have taught you," and in the next chapter 
introduces once more the word " Testament " as in I. 17, 18. 

Chaptek 27 

The Messengees to the Dioceses. For " dioceses " (vapoi- 
xlai), see p. 188. One may conjecture that the names Dositheus, 
Silas, Magnus, and Aquila are local names of the Test. Com- 
piler's own country. If we are to seek for historical characters 
bearing these names, one may suggest for two of them Silas 
and Aquila of Pontus, St. Paul's companions ; for though St. 
Paul is not mentioned in Test, by name, this would be part of 
the dramatic fiction, and not from opposition to the Apostle, 
whose writings are quoted constantly. Silas might be men- 
tioned (if Zahn's conjecture as to authorship have any elements 
of truth in it; see p. 45) out of compliment to the Audian 
bishop Silvanus (bishop among the Goths in Moesia), who died 
before 377 ; or because a " Silvanus " carried St. Peter's First 
Epistle to Asia Minor (1 Pet. v. 12), if that country be the 
place of writing (see Introduction, p. 45). Bishop J. Words- 
worth (C.Q.E. April, 1900) suggests for " Aquila " the legendary 
brother of Clement. In A.C. vii. 46, Aquila (St. Paul's com- 
panion) and Nicetas are said to be bishops of Asia Minor (rSiv 
■/Lara. ' &.eiav •jra.poixiuv). Bishop J. Wordsworth Suggests that 
Dositheus was the Samaritan heresiarch ; this is hardly likely. 
Possibly a bishop of Seleucia (in Syria ?) who confuted Sabel- 
lianism is referred to (Diet. Chr. Biog. i. 905). Or Dorotheus, 
Bishop of Tyre at the end of the third century, may be meant 
(ibid. 899); he wrote much on ecclesiastical history, and 
Lagarde publishes at the end of his " Apostolic Constitutions " 
(p. 282 ff'.) a fragment purporting to be by him and Hippolytus, 
" Bishop of Eome," on the districts where the " disciples of the 
Lord " preached the Gospel. About Magnus no probable con- 
jecture appears to have been made. But it must be added that 
none of these guesses are very likely, and one is inclined to 
suppose either that the names are purely imaginary, or else, as 
has been said, that they are local names, contemporary with 
the Compiler. 

The Teanslatoe, James of Edessa. The note ascribing 
the translation to James is apparently in both M. and B, 



II. 27] NOTES 241 

James was a notable character of the seventh century. He 
was appointed Monophysite (West Syrian, or Jacobite) Bishop 
of Edessa, or Ur-hai, in Mesopotamia, in a.d. 651, but after a 
short episcopate of about four years he retired from his see on 
account of internal troubles in his diocese and province, and 
devoted himself to literary work. He was invited back to his 
see on the death of his successor, and was reinstated in it ; but 
died only four months after his reinstatement, in a.d. 708 or 
710. The Testament must have been translated by him during 
his retirement, perhaps at Tel 'Ada, where he spent nine years, 
and where he afterwards died. This place is described as being 
between Beroea and Edessa, and would therefore be south- 
west of the latter city. James, who had travelled much and 
had visited Alexandria, knew Greek well, though Syriac was 
his native tongue ; and he translated many Greek works into 
Syriac. He was also a great liturgical writer, a historian, 
a commentator on the Scriptures, and a grammarian. He is 
thought to have introduced the Greek vowel signs into Syriac. 
He was a great letter writer, and one of his epistles, to the 
presbyter Thomas, has already been noticed (see ISTotes on the 
Benediction before the Sursum Corda and the Benedictus, I. 
23, pp. 169, 177). For a fairly full account of his life and 
writings, see Mr. 0. J. Ball's article in Diet. Chr. Biog. iii. 332 
(Jacobus Edessenus). 



ADDITIONAL NOTE 

On the Testament and the Creed of Constantinople 

There is some trace of a creed of an Eastern type in the 
Testament other than the baptismal creed, which is of a 
Western type (see p. 217). Thus we find " suffered and was 
buried" twice (pp. 85, 110); the Holy Ghost is called "Para- 
clete" (p. 78), "the Lord" {il), "Maker of life" (?wo^o/os, 
p. 108), " Consubstantial with the Father " (ih^ ; and we have 
" crucified for us " (p. 87 ; so Eg. CO., see p. 217), but in Test, 
without "under Pontius Pilate." None of these expressions 
occur in the Nicene Creed; but all except "Paraclete" and 
" Consubstantial " (of the Holy Ghost) in that of Constanti- 
nople. Thus it might be thought that the Testament is necess- 
arily later than 381. But the creed put forth by the Council 
of Constantinople was not really a new one. Already, in 374, 
Epiphanius in his Ancoratus had published a very similar, 
i6 



242 NOTES 

though longer, creed, and this contains all the above articles, 
except " Consubstantial " and " Paraclete," which last is found 
in Epiphanius' Second Formula (also of date 374). Epiphanius 
was bishop of Salamis (Constantia) in Cyprus, and it is prob- 
able that the formulary in his Ancoratus was the baptismal 
creed of his Church; it was in existence before him. Dr. 
Hort has shown that it represents the old baptismal creed of 
Jerusalem, with additions from the Mcene Creed and from 
St. Athanasius and St. Cyril of Jerusalem (Diet. Chr. Biog. 
iii. 122&). With regard to the twice occurring " suffered and 
was buried," it should be noticed that it is the combination of 
the two articles which is worthy of remark, and the combina- 
tion occurs in Epiphanius as well as at Constantinople. The 
article " suffered " is Nicene ; and " was buried " is found in 
early Western forms — such as the profession of faith of Mar- 
cellus of Ancyra and the Old Koman Form (Diet. Chr. Biog. 
i. 708), both of which are before 341. No doubt the words of 
St. Paul in 1 Cor. xv. 4 assured for this article an early and 
wide popularity. — In addition to the authorities for f^uo^oios 
given on p. 201, we should probably add the Eg. CO. baptismal 
creed, which has "the Quickener" (p. 218, cf. p. 214). 

We cannot, then, base on the above phrases an argument 
for a date for the Testament later than 381. It may be added 
that the Confession of Charisius, a presbyter of Philadelphia, 
which was read at Ephesus in 431, concludes thus :".... 
the Spirit of truth, the Paraclete, Consubstantial with the 
Father and the Son, and in the holy catholic Church, in 
the resurrection of the dead, in life eternal " (Diet. Chr. Biog. 
i. 702a). 

See also pp. 40, 201, and Dr. Swainson's article (The 
Creed) in Diet. Chr. Biog. i. 695 ff., and Hefele, Cowicils, ii. 
349 (Eng. trans.). 



APPENDICES 



APPENDICES 



APPENDIX I 

THE ABYSSINIAN ANAPHOEA OP OUE LORD 

Translated from the Latin of Ludolf, given in his Commentarius ad 
suam historia/m aethiopicam, pp. 341-345. 

EucHAEisTic Prayer of oue Lord and Saviour 
Jesus Christ 

We give thanks to Thee, God the Holy One, the End 
[or. Aim] of our souls. Giver of our life, the incorruptible 
Treasure, the Father of Thy Only-begotten Son, our Savioiir, 
who hath proclaimed Thy will. For Thou hast willed that 
we should be saved through Thee. Our heart giveth devout 
(devotas) thanks to Thee, Lord. Thou art the Power (virtus) 
of the Father and the Grace of the nations. Knowledge of 
uprightness, the Wisdom of them that err, the Healer of souls, 
the Exaltation (magnitudo) of the meek ; Thou art our Refuge 
(arx, asylum), the Staff of the just, the Hope of the exiles, the 
safe Haven of those who are buffeted as in the sea, the Light 
of the perfect, the Son of the living God. Shine upon us with 
Thine immovable grace, with the foundation and strengthen- 
ing of trustfulness (fiduciae) ; with the wisdom and efficacy of 
inflexible faith and of unchangeable hope. Bestow the intelli- 
gence of the Spirit on our humility, so that we may ever in 
uprightness be Thy pure servants, Lord, and that all nations 
may praise Thee. 

The deacon saith : 

For the most blessed and holy Patriarch Abba NN., and 
Abbuna the most reverend our Metropolitan Abba NN., who 
praise Thee with their prayers and their intercessions. 

Stephen the protomartyr. Zacharias the priest, and John 



246 APPENDIX I 

the Baptist. For all saints and martyrs who have fallen 
asleep in the faith of Christ. Matthew and Mark, Luke and 
John, the four Evangelists. Mary the mother (genetrix) of 
Grod. Simon Peter and Andrew, James and John, Philip and 
Bartholomew, Thomas and Matthew, Thaddaeus and Nathanael, 
James the son of Alphaeus and Matthias, the twelve apostles ; 
and James the Apostle, brother of our Lord, Bishop of Jeru- 
salem, the house of the Sanctuary; Paul and Timothy, Silas 
and Barnabas, Titus, Philemon, Clement, the Seventy-two 
disciples and their five hundred companions ; the Three himdred 
and eighteen orthodox fathers. May the prayers of all of them 
be fulfilled [in] us. 

With them visit us, and remember the apostoUc Church 
which is over all congregations in peace, which was brought 
forth (parta) by (per) the precious blood of Christ. And 
remember all patriarchs, archbishops, bishops, presbyters, and 
deacons who guide (dirigunt) the way of the word in truth. 
The people answer : 

Have mercy, Lord, on the souls of Thy servants and 
Thy handmaidens who have eaten Thy body and have drunk 
Thy blood, who have fallen asleep in Thy faith. 
The priest saith : 

Yea, Lord, we render thanks to Thee and bless Thee, and 
ever ask Thee, God, Father of the heights, v.'ho rulest the 
treasuries of light, visit Jerusalem from heaven ; Lord of 
Powers, of archangels, and Strength of dominions (virtus domiu- 
antium). Glory of thrones, Eaiment (amiculum) of luminaries, 
Joy of delights, King of kings. Father who boldest all things 
[as it were] in (Thy) hand and governest. And by Thy 
counsel Thy Son Jesus the Only-begotten was crucified for our 
sins. (Thou) who by the Word of Thy covenant hast made 
all things, being well pleased in Him, and didst send Him into 
the womb (uterum) of a virgin ; He was conceived in the womb 
(ventre) ; He was made flesh ; and His birth was known (cog- 
nita fuit) by the Holy Spirit, when He was born of the Virgin 
that He might fulfil Thy will and constitute a holy people for 
Thee. He stretched out His hands to suffering, He suffered 
that He might save them that suffer, them who put their trust 
in Thee. He was betrayed of His own will to torture that 
He might save those who are tortured and strengthen them 
that totter (nutantes), find those who are lost, and give life to 
the dead, and take away death and rend the bonds of Satan, 
and fulfil the will of His Father ; that He might tread down 
Sheol and open the gates of life ; that He might give light to 



ABYSSINIAN ANAPHORA OF OUR LORD 247 

the righteous, might ratify a treaty, might remove darkness, 
nurture the babes, and reveal His resurrection. 

In that night in which they betrayed Him He took bread 
into His hands holy blessed and without spot. He gave thanks. 
He blessed. He brake and gave to His disciples, saying : Take, 
eat, this bread is My body which is broken for you for the for- 
giveness of sins; and when ye shall have done this, make 
(facitote) a commemoration of Me. Likewise also the cup of 
wine after they had supped, mixing, giving thanks, blessing 
and sanctifying. Thou didst give to them. Thy true blood 
which was shed for our sins. 

Now, therefore, Lord, we remember Thy death and re- 
surrection, we trust in Thee, and offer to Thee bread and the 
cup, giving thanks to Thee, to Thee alone who [art] the 
Saviour, God from eternity, since Thou hast commanded us 
to stand before Thee and to serve Thee as (instar) priests. 
Therefore we also Thy servants, Lord, ask Thee, Lord, 
and beseech Thee to send the Holy Spirit and power (virtutem) 
upon this bread and upon this cup, [that] He may make (it) 
the \>odj and blood of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, 
world without end.^ 

Furthermore, we offer to Thee this thanksgiving, Eternal 
Trinity, Lord, the Father of Jesus Christ whom every 
creature and (every) soul venerate.^ We give Thee this (istud) 
gift; not food nor drink do we offer to Thy holiness. Cause 
that it may not happen (cedat) to us for condemnation and the 
reproach (obtrectationem) of the enemy, nor for destruction, 
but (for) the medicine of our bodies and for the strength of 
our spirit. Yea, our God, grant (largire) us for the sake of 
Thy Name that we may flee from all thoughts which displease 
Thee. Lord, grant (da) to us that every counsel of death may 
be driven away from us, who in Thy Name have been inscribed 
on the inner veil of Thy most high sanctuary. Let death hear 
Thy Name and be amazed ; let the depths be rent, the enemy 
be trodden down; let the malignant spirit tremble; let the 
dragon draw back ; let unbelief be cast far off (elongetur), and 
the apostate be afflicted ; let anger grow weak ; let envy work 
nothing ; let the obstinate be reproved, and all the avaricious 
be rooted out ; let vexation (molestia) be taken away ; let the 
deceiver be overthrown, and let all kinds of sorceries (venefi- 
ciorum) languish. Grant, Lord, to the innermost eyes of our 

' Ludolf here notes that in the printed Liturgy the people say ; Lord, 
have mercy on us (twice), Lord, be propitious to us. 

2 Ludolf suggests that this passage is corrupt. Perhaps there is a lacuna. 



248 APPENDIX I 

heart to gaze on Thee, to praise and laud Thee, remembering 
Thee, and to serve Thee, for Thou alone art their portion, the 
Son and Word of God to whom all things are subject. Perfect 
and strengthen those to whom Thou hast by [Thy] grace 
revealed [Thyself]; heal those who are in grace; keep those 
who by the power (virtute) of the tongue celebrate the faith, 
and guide those who have become learned in the sound of the 
tongue (voce linguae). Ever save those who do Thy will. 
Visit the widows. Sustain the orphans. Sustain those who 
have fallen asleep in the faith. 

Grant to us also, Lord, a portion with aU Thy saints ; 
grant to us strength to please Thee as they pleased Thee. 
Feed Thy people in uprightness and holiness ; Lord, give to 
us all who receive Thy holy things a union of minds [that] we 
may be filled with the Holy Ghost and with the strength of 
the true faith ; that we may give thanks to Thee for ever, and 
to Thy beloved Son Jesus Christ, for Thine is the honour and 
glory, world without end. 

Helmsman of souls. Guide of the just and Glory of the 
saints, give to us, Lord, understanding eyes^ which may 
alway look to Thee, and ears also which may hear Thy word 
only, after that now our soul is filled (saturata) with Thy 
grace. Make in us a clean heart, God, so that we may 
always observe (consideremus) Thy greatness, who art good 
and lovest man, our God; make (habe) our soul grateful^ 
(gratam), and grant to us a constant mind, who have received 
Thy body and Thy own blood ; we (are) Thy humble servants, 
for Thy kingdom, Lord, is illustrious and glorious, Father, 
Son, and Holy Ghost, now and for ever, and world without 
end. Amen. 

Notes on the Anaphoka of cue Lord 

1. It is taken with a few alterations from the Testament. 
It is not clear from Ludolf whether it is in actual use in 
Abyssinia as an alternative hturgy for certain days, or if it is 
obsolete. In any case it is later than the Testament, and 
Ludolf only gives the Anaphora. On the analogy of other 
Eastern rites, we may conclude that the pre-anaphoral portion of 
the Liturgy would be the same as in other Abyssinian liturgies, 
and that it would include the Testament Litany (see Note on 
I. 35, 36, p. 193 f.) as modified and still used in Abyssinia. 

2. It is probably translated into Ethiopic from the Greek, 
' Lit. : eyes of knowledge. - Or : well pleasing (to Thee). 



ABYSSINIAN ANAPHORA OF OUK LORD 249 

not from Syriac : (a) because it seems to be earlier than James 
of Edessa ; (&) because the Syriac would not have been current 
in Egypt or Abyssinia. Therefore it is possible that where it 
differs from the Testament it reflects the Greek more faithfully 
than the Syriac. Some of the differences may be due to James 
of Edessa's translation of the Testament into Syriac. 

3. The Sursum Corda no doubt immediately preceded the 
Eucharistic prayer; but as the Communion is absent from 
Ludolf, it is impossible to say whether the Sancta Sanctis 
followed the Sursum Corda as in Test., or if it came later 
as in other liturgies. 

4. First paragraph. An. of our Lord omits the clause of 
Test. (p. 72) " whom in the latter times . . . Saviour " (homo- 
iotel.?). It is in Eth. CO. 

It also omits the clause of Test, (ib.) " our mind, our soul . . . 
for ever and ever. Amen." All this, to the mention of the 
Incarnation, is not in Eth. CO. Could the above clause have 
been interpolated in Test, by James of Edessa ? (Eahmani 
remarks on the Amen being out of place in Test.) 

exiles = Test. (ib.) " those who are persecuted." (Persecution 
being a thing of the past.) 

Shine upon us = Test. " make to arise." The Syriac word 
is used esp. of the sun (like avaTsWa, which was probably the 
Greek word used), and may be translated " make to shine." 

5. Diptychs not in Test. This is a characteristic of the 
later Egyptian rite : the intercession fand diptychs are in- 
serted in the middle of the Eucharistic thanksgiving in this 
place. An. of O.L. shows the germ of what is found in St. 
Mark, Modern Coptic, and Modern Abyssinian; in these the 
priest adds a long intercession. The diptychs in An. of O.L., 
recited by the deacon, are almost word for word the same as the 
beginning of the modern Abyssinian intercession (Brightman, 
L.E.W. 228) ; but the people's response is not in the latter. 

Seventy-two disciples (so Modern Abyssinian and often in 
Syriac literature) = LXX St. Luke x. 1. See p. 192. 

Jive hundred companions, 1 Cor. xv. 6 ? 

Three hundred and eighteen orthodox fathers, of Mcaea. 

guide the way of the word in truth, paraphrase of oph- 
rofiouvTot, rh Xoym r^? aXtikiae, 2 Tim. ii. 15, but here applied to 
all the clergy, not to bishops only, as in Test. I. 35 and else- 
where (see p. 193). 

6. The priest saith (p. 246). Note the grouping here as in 
the first paragraph, " Glory of thrones, Eaiment of luminaries," 
etc., instead of a long list of unconnected substantives as in Test. 



250 APPENDIX I 

hy Thy counsel; this in Test. (p. 72) goes with what precedes. 

gates of life = Test. (p. 73), " way of life " (the latter is 
common in O.T., esp. Jer. xxi. 8, opp. "way of death," and 
Ps. xvi. 11, Prov. vi. 23, xv. 24; the phrase "gates of life" 
comes probably from a confusion with Ps. cxviii. 19). 

ratify a treaty (p. 247) = Test, (ib.), "fix the boundary." 
Eth. CO. has " establish a covenant." Probably this is the 
meaning also in Test. 

his hands holy blessed and without spot. So many later 
liturgies ; e.g. modern Abyss. (Brightman, L.E.W. 232) ; not in 
Test. [Cyr. Jer. xx. 5 has " Christ received the naUs in His 
undefiled hands and feet." Of. p. 171.] 

bread, not in Test. 

make a commemoration of Me = Test. (p. 73), " ye make My 
resurrection" (emendation in An. of O.L. in order to bring 
in our Lord's words ; it also has the reference to 1 Cor. xi. 26). 

An. of O.L., like Test., omits our Lord's words over the 
cup, though Eth. CO. has them. But " after they had supped," 
" giving thanks," " blessing and sanctifying," are not in Test.; 
and An. of O.L. suddenly changes the address from the Father 
to the Son [sign of antiquity]. 

Thy true blood (verum sanguinem tuum), probably a protest 
against, and correction of, the Test. (p. 73), " type of the blood." 
Cf. also "Thy own blood" in Post-Communion prayer of An. of 
O.L. (p. 248), which is not in the corresponding passage of Test. 

our sins, not in Test. 

7. Oblation and Invocation (p. 247). 

we trust in thee, not in Test, or Eth. CO. 

An. of O.L. here rather clumsily interpolates an Invocation 
of its own, in the later style ; like the Eth. CO., it asks for the 
Holy Ghost ; but unlike it, it specifies the transforming of the 
elements. It then adds the Test. Epiclesis (p. 74) as an 
addition, addressing it, as Test., to the Holy Trinity. It 
corrects the order of the Persons (Jesus Christ, the Father, the 
Holy Ghost) into " Father of Jesus Christ," omitting " the 
Holy Ghost " [perhaps because the Third Person is mentioned 
in the interpolated Epiclesis] and " fleeing into itself." It 
inserts " we give Thee this gift " [which comes strangely out 
of place after the interpolated Epiclesis], and also adds a 
negative, " not food nor drink do we offer to Thy holiness," i.e. 
"not common food" [cf. Just. Mart. Apol. i. 66: "For not 
as common bread or common drink," etc.]. 

See Note on the Invocation, p. 173 ff. 

of the enemy and of our bodies, not in Test. 



ABYSSINIAN ANAPHORA OF OUR LORD 251 

counsel of death — Test. (p. 74), "prottd conception." 
who in Thy Name have heen inscribed. In Test, (ib.) it is the 
name which is inscribed. The oratorical passage which follows 
is grammatically altered. 

sorceries = Test, (ih., see footnote), " that begetteth bitter- 
ness." 

8. The Intercession (p. 248) comes here as in Test., but in 
St. Mark, Modern Coptic, and Modern Abyssinian it does not 
come here, but is joined on to the Diptychs (see above). In 
An. of O.L. the references to revelations and gifts of healing, 
etc., are altered, and the phrase " power of tongues " is given 
a more modern turn. 

9. The Communion is not given by Ludolf. Brightman 
(L.E.W. 240, note) gives from the Anaphora of our Lord : " The 
body of Jesus Christ which is of the Holy Ghost to hallow soul 
and spirit." See Test. II. 10 and Note there (p. 223). 

10. Post-Communion, "0 Helmsman of souls" (p. 248). 
That this is meant for a post-communion is seen by the past 
tense (" who have received Thy body "), whereas in the pre- 
ceding paragraph we have the present, " who receive Thy holy 
things." So in Test. (p. 77). 



APPENDIX II 

THE LAST CHAPTER OF THE ARABIC DIDASCALIA 
From the German of Funk, Apod. Konst. p. 234 flf. 

§ 39. The Mystagogia of Jesus Christ, our God 

The faithful shall lift it upon high before the holy Liturgy, 
the Testament that He hath taught to the holy Apostles. 

He who was from the beginning, and who is present and 
who is to come, He who died and was buried and rose again 
and was crowned with glory by the Father; He who hath 
loosed the bond of death, and who rose again from the dead ; 
and not only art Thou Man, but Thou hast become Man without 
change; He who by the Holy Spirit took possession of the 
body of Adam and made him living ; He who put on the Adam 
of death and made him awake, and with the body hath ascended 
up into heaven ; He who overcame death and burst its bonds by 
His death, and shamed the Devil who this long time was set as 
lord and king over us, after he had discovered His entrance 
and His power, and He had burst his bonds ; as his [death's] 
face was full of darkness, he grew fearful and was agitated 
when he saw the Only-begotten Son of God put on a body from 
a Virgin and come down to Hades. And He is the indivisible 
Counsel and the one Shepherd with the Father, the Maker of 
heaven with the Father, the Crown of angels, the Order of the 
highest angels, the Will of hosts, the Spirit of the glory, the 
Master of the eternal kingdom, the Prince of the pure, the in- 
comprehensible Intellect of the Father. He is the Wisdom of 
the Father, He is the Power, He is the Eight, He the Intelli- 
gence, He is the Counsel, He is the Hand, He is the Arm of 
the Father. We believe and confess that He is the Light of 
our redemption, the Helper, Teacher, Eewarder; who taketh 
us up ; who hath won the victory thereby ; our Fortress, our 
Shepherd, our Support, the Founder of life, our Medicine, our 
Food, our Judge. The confession which we confess is this: 
that He suffered and was born without being created ; that He 



ARABIC DIDASCALIA 253 

died while He was living, Son of the living, Son of the Father, 
the indivisible. Who while He was without sin took upon 
Him our sins ; who came forth from the bosom of the Father ; 
who distributed His redeeming body and His life-giving blood, 
(being) the spirit of life and purity ; who made us pure through 
the water of baptism ; who maketh glad the hearts of those who 
fear Him, since He is with them at all times ; who hath re- 
moved us from all onsets of Satan ; who hath renewed our souls, 
since we all exist in Him. He is God before all times, and 
He was with God the eternal, the everlasting. When He saw 
that the world was ruined through the chains of sin, and 
through the ignorance and the blindness that worked the error 
of those helHsh thoughts (?), and when He desired to heal the 
human race. He made the Virgin's body His goal, and He placed 
Himself in union with it, and He healed all our senses, and He 
made all the adversaries' hosts to disappear, and He put on a 
weak body; He who is incomprehensible made the mortal 
body incorruptible. And therefore He appeared in the body 
of Adam, in order to make manifest a likeness (Bild) of in- 
corruption in the body of Adam ; He who put on an incorrupt- 
ible likeness and died in that likeness, and through the Gospel 
freed those who had fallen into ruin and gave them holy com- 
mandments ; He who is the Word of the kingdom of heaven in 
this Gospel. And the Devil's bonds are broken off from men, 
that we by His death might have a title to freedom from death, 
and wake up in the real world. He who is the Christ, the Son 
of God, hath become man, and hath taken to Him our mortal 
nature, which belongeth to Adam and his race. He is the first 
who became man, and He is the God whom the prophets began 
to recognise, who is proclaimed to us by the Apostles, and 
whom all men confess, and by God is crowned with glory, and 
is celebrated by the angels, and for us was crucified, whose 
cross is our life ; who is our Support and our Saviour, the hidden 
Mystery, the indescribable Joy, who at all times standeth on the 
highest grade of the perfection which is beloved, which is in- 
separable from God, whose worth (Wert) cannot be uttered by 
these lips, the hidden mystery which the faithful know that 
they know though it is invisible. He is the Crucified, it is He 
who hath been extolled, as crowned with glory ; it is He in 
whom we, the perfectly faithful ones, believe ; and we free our 
pure souls from the senses, so that it is as if in truth they were 
not there at all, and thereby we are strong. Keep away from 
all transitory things, and become deaf with these pure ears, 
that ye may find what is well-pleasing to God, and that ye 



254 APPENDIX 11 

may learn to know the secret of your redemption. Ye, men 
and women, who boast that ye belong to Christ, must become 
one with the inner man, ye in whom Christ hath confirmed His 
covenant, and into whom He hath put His Spirit. And He 
hath also descended to Hades after He died, and hath made 
them all to live. And when Death saw Him who had come 
down to him, he was struck, and thought that he had found in 
Him a^oo(i)after his desire. But when he saw the beauty of 
His Divmity in Him, he cried aloud and said : Who is He that 
conquereth me and is not like the men who are with me ? 
Who is He that rescueth (lit., reneweth) from destruction the 
body which I killed? Who is He that is born without sin 
and destroyed sin, being Himself without sin? Who is He 
that put on the carnal man, being Himself from heaven ? Who 
is He that is a stranger to my law ? Who is He that robbed 
me of the nations which belonged to me ? Who is He that 
giveth food through the strength of fire and death, while He 
hath gained the victory over them ? Who is He whom the 
bonds of darkness could not bind ? Who is He in this new 
apparition, whose power preventeth my doing what I will ? 
Who is this new one, wrapped in a shroud, who is without sin ? 
Who is He that destroyeth the treasurer of darkness by His glory, 
and who doth not let the souls come to me which have been 
delivered up to me, but causeth them to rise upwards ? Who 
is this glory that is one and the same with the Imperishable 
One, and which doth not let me destroy him ? Who is He 
whom I cannot touch ? Who is He, surrounded by this light, 
which doth not diminish ? Who is He that hath deposed me, 
lest I should destroy those belonging to Him who are worth 
nothing ? It is the Christ who was crucified, on account of 
whom those that are on the left go to the right, and who hath 
raised those that were below so that they are now above, and 
hath made those that were behind to be before. He is raised 
from the dead, and hath conquered Hades, and hath by His 
death destroyed Death. And after His resurrection on the 
third day He thanked the Word of God the Father, while He 
said: I thank Thee, King, for the speech (Rede) through 
which the whole creation hath come into existence from Thy 
side. That is the word that through the Spirit is in Us, which 
speaketh with Thee alone. 

The Didascalia is ended, the doctrine of our Fathers the 
Apostles, consisting of thirty-nine chapters. 



INDEX OF QUOTATIONS FROM AND REFERENCES TO 
THE BIBLE IN THE TESTAMENT OF OUR LORD 



OLD TESTAMENT AND APOCRYPHA 





PAGE 








PAGE 


Genesis iii. 8-10 


. 70 


Isaiah ix. 6 






83 


Exodus xix. 6 . 


. 73 


xi. 2 . 






. 50 


Leviticus xxii. 26 


. 70 


xxvi. 18 . 






53 


Numbers xi. 17-29 


91 


xlvii. 1 . 






. 56 


Deuteronomy xxix. 4 


69, 89 


li. 9 






. 85 


2 Samuel xiy. 7 . 


. 83 


liii. 1 . 






. 85 


xxi. 17 . 


. 83 


Ix. 20 . 






. 83 


Job V. 9 . 


. 104 


Ixy. 24 . 






. 82 


Psalm iv. 3 


. 79 


Jeremiah xvi. 


17 




. 70 


xvi. 3 . . . 


79 


xxi. 8 . 






73 (of. 250) 


li. 10 . . . 


77 


xxix. 11 . 






. . 72 


12 . 


. 66 


xxxiii. 22 






61 


Ixix. 5 . 


. 70 


Micah V. 3. 






. 56 


Ixxxii. 6 


. 83 


Zeehariah xi. 


15- 


17 


. 54 


Ixxxvi. 11 


66 


2 Esdras v. 8 






. 53 


cxlvi. 3, 4 


54 


vi. 21 . 






. 63 


Proverbs xxix. 3 


. 117 


Song of the Three 


Chi 


Idren 35-66 137 


Ecclesiastes xii. 2 


83 











NEW TESTAMENT 



St. Matthew Mv 


23 . . .78 


St. Matthew xviii. 20 


68, 106 


V. 13 . 


. 113, 131 


xxi. 9 . . . 


76 


16 


69 


xxiv. 7 . 


. 61 


24 


70 


8 . 


. 69 


vi. 9 if. 


. 76 


13. 


. 54 


19 . 


. 80 


15. 


. 57 


25 ff. 




. 92 


24. 


. 56 


vii. 6 




61, 93 


XXV. 12 . 


102 


13 




. 54 


21 . 


. 95 


18 




. 138 


xxvi. 27, 28 . 


. 73 


A. 22 




. 54 


41. 


51, 58 


xii. 4 




. . 68 


St. Mark xiii. 3, 4 . 


. 50 


xiii. 25 




. 93 


xiii. 8 . 


. 69 


xvi. 16 




. 72 


13 . 


54 


24 




. 58, 81, 87, 106 


27 . . 


. 55 


xviii. 10 


. 107 


xvi. 18 . 


. 78 


16 


. 107 


St. Luke iii. 14 . 


. 118 



^ In the case of parallel passages occurring in more than one of the Synoptists, the refer- 
ence to St. Matthew alone is ordmarily given. 

255 



256 



INDEX OF QUOTATIONS, ETC. 



St. Luke ix. 23 






PASE 

58 


1 Corinthians xvi. 13 


PAOB 

. 87 


X. 19 . 






83 


2 Corinthians i. 3 


. 66 


20 . 






64 


V. 10 . 


. 93 


xvi. 8 






50 


xii. 2 . . . 


. 62 


XX. 36 . 






(il 


xiii. 11 . 


. 138 


xxi. 25 . 






58 


Oalatians iv. 6 . 


. 89 


xxiv. 51 






188 


V. 22 . 


. 69 


St. John V. 24 






86 


vi. 14 . . . 


. 62 


viii. 12 . 
X. 34 . 






. 98 
83 


Ephesians i. 18 . 
ii. 20 . . . 


75, 106 
. 102 


xii. 36 . 






50 


iv. 22 . . . 


. 95 


xiv. 2 . 






50 


V. 2 


67, 121 


3 . 






97 


8 . . . 


. 50 


17 . 






78 


19 . . . 


. 63 


20 . 
27 . 






187 
138 


Philippians ii. 7 
ii. 13 . . . 


. 86 
. 66 


xvii. 12 . 






51 


20 ... f 


)8, 106, 109 


20 . 






50, 91 


iii. 10 . . . 


. 50 


XX. 17 . 






59 


iv. 9 . 


. 138 


22 . 






50 


Colossians i. 12 . 


. 75 


xxi. 18 . 






73 


i. 16 . 


. 122 


Acts i. 7 . 






51 


iii. 14 . . . 


. 103 


i. 14 






60 


16 . . . 


. 63 


24 






67 


1 Thessalonians v. 5 . 


. 50 


ix. 15 . 






51 


V. 17 . 


58, 106 


xiii. 2 . 






64 


20 . . . 


. 71 


37 . 






88 


2 Thessalonians ii. 3 . 


. 51 


XV. 29 . 






133 


ii. 4 


51, 56 


XX. 28 . 






64 


7 . . . 


. 59 


29 . 






130 


9 . . . 


. 56 


xxvi. 7 . 
Romans viii. 15 






67 
89 


1 Timothy ii. 9 . 
ii. 12 . . . 


. 119 

. 107 


viii. 22 . 






123 


iii. 2, 3 . 


64, 65 


ix. 21 . 






108 


12 . . . 


. 97 


xii. 11 . 




102, 10 


4, 106 


13 . . . 


. 112 


xiii. 13 . 






93 


16 . . . 


. 87 


xiv. 10 . 






93 


V. 5 


. 60 


XV. 6 . 




. 10 


4, 122 


10 . . . 


. 106 


33 . 






138 


17 . . . 


. 63 


xvi. 16 . 
20 . 






92 

74 


2 Timothy ii. 15 
ii. 20, 21 


100, 112 
. 51 


25, 26 . 






87 


21 . . . 


. 108 


1 Corintliians i. 


27 




108 


iii. 2 


. 54 


ii. 6, 7 . 






79 


Titus i. 6 . 


64, 65 


7 






87 


i. 8 


64, 104 


9 






89 


ii. 14 . . . 


. 121 


10-14 






62 


iii. 5 . . . 


. 127 


15 . 






94 


Hebrews ii. 14 . 


. 88 


vii. 40 . 






117 


vii. 3 . 


. 91 


xi. 10 . 






71 


xi. 5, 8 . 


. 66 


24, 25, 26 






73 


xiii. 2 . . 


. 128 


xii. 1-10 






114 


St. James i. 17 . . 71, 


30, 107, 121 


8 . 






74 


i. 22 . 


. 54 


9 . 






74, 78 


iii. 10 . . . 


. 88 


10 . 






74 


1 Peter i. 12 . 


. 80 


xiv. 16 . 






75 


i. 17 . 


. 76 


26, 30 






74 


ii. 9 


. 73 


XV. 50-54 






122 


v. 7 


. 59 



INDEX OF QUOTATIONS, ETC. 



257 









PAOB 










PAGE 


2 Peter i. 4 . . . .83 


Revelation v. 8 . . . .107 


ii. 4 






95 


vii. 15 . 






. 67 


13 . 






96 


xii. 9 








. 56 


1 John i. 1 






49 


xiii. 8 








64 


ii. 6 






97 


17 








. 56 


ill. 2 






138 


xiv. 13 








. 58 


iv. 1 






55 


15 








. 58 


St. Jude 12 






96 


xvi. 19 








. 56 


Revelation i. 3 






61 


xvii. 8 








. 64 


i. 8 






85 


xxi. 6 








. 91 


ii. 17 . 






. 129 


12 








. 64 


iv. 11 . 






. 66 


xxii. 13 








. 91 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS AND AUTHORS 



Abgaeits, 185. 

Abyssinian Church, 5 ; its liturgy, 34, 
43, 167, 169, 172, 177, 178, 223, 
249 f. ; used milk and honej' at bap- 
tism, 44 ; its litany, 43, 193 f. See 
Anaphora of our Lord. 

Achelis, Professor. 9, 10, 28, 29, 151, 
155, 157, 159, 203, 208, 213, 215- 
217, 220 f, 225, 231, 233, 239. 

Acolytes, at Rome, 192 ; none in the 
East, ib. 

Acts and Martyrdom of Matthew, 199. 

Adai (Addai), PreachiTig of, 158. 

Adai (Addai) and Mari, Liturgy of, its 
date, 35; omits Words of Institution, 
35, 171 ; its Invocation, 35, 176 ; 
benediction before Sursum Corda 
in, 169 ; deacon "completing" in, 
194. 

" Adam" used for man, 85, 86, 184. 

Administration of Eucharist, 76, 128, 
177 f., 220-224, 251. 

Admonition, see Deacon. 

Africa, 56 ; name of metropolitan not 
used in, in fourth century, 37. 

Agape, the, 29, 31, 96, 130 f., 134, 189, 
226, 228-230. 

Agde, Council of, 210. 

Alaric, 145. 

Alford, Dean, 225, 228. 

Alms {di.a.Koi'la) to be delivered 
promptly, 129, 225 f. 

Altar, the, 63, 64, 68, 70, 78, 92, 149 f. 

Ambrose, St., 239. 

Ambrosian Liturgy, 169. 

Ambrosiaster, 173, 202, 218. 

Amen of communicants, 21, 76 f., 128, 
178, 221 f. 

Anachronisms of the Testament, 27 ; 
of Codex C, 51, 143. 

Anaphora of our Lord (Abyssinian), 21, 
34 f., 74, 165, 167, 170, 172 f., 176, 
192, 223, 245-251. 

Ancyra, Council of, 37, 154, 182. 



Angelic hierarchy, 23, 72, 85, 96, 122, 
124, 137, 170 f., 184, 246, 249, 252. 

Angels visiting man, 23, 68, 71, 99. 

Anointing, see Baptism, and Oil. 

Antichrist, 42, 51 ff., 56-58, 141, 144, 
146. 

Antidote (the Eucharist), 137, 239. 

Antioch, Council of, in Encaeniis, 153. 

Antioch, Liturgy of, see Chrysostom. 

Antiphonalsinging, 129, ]35,180f.,227. 

Antithesis, fondness of, 22, 86, 122, 123, 
182-184, 252 f. 

Apocalypse and Testament compared, 
148. 

Apocalypse of John (Apocryphal), 58. 

Apocalyptic prelude, whether indepen- 
dent, 141-144 ; its connecting link 
with the Church Order, 147. 

ApoUinarians, 17, 36. 

ApoUinarius, his heresy and character- 
istic phrases, 16 ff., 35, 43, 44, 183- 
185. 

"Apostle," the (St. Paul), the litur- 
gical Epistle, 164, 181, 204. 

Apostles, 21, 27, 63, 69, 81, 87, 100,102, 
110, 136 ; festivals of, iu A.C., 32. 

Apostolic Canons, their date, 13, 153 
on marriage of the clergy, 153 
forbid digamy to the clergy, ib. 
allow bishops to eat meat, 163 ; on 
Lent, 218 ; on Wednesday and 
Friday fasts, 163. 

Apostolic Church Order, 9 ; its scope 
and date, 11, 12, 29 ; its influence 
on the Testament, 11, 45, 145 ; its 
Montanistic characteristics, 12, 45 ; 
its place of origin, 12 ; on the order 
of the Apostles, 12, 144 ; slights 
women's ministry, 148, 198 ; divi- 
sion of presbyters in, 150, 200 ; dis- 
likes marriage of bishops and 
presbyters, 153 ff., 186; allows 
deacons' marriage, 190 ; widows in, 
191 f., 198; number of presbyters 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS AND AUTHORS 



259 



and deacons in, 192, 200; on the posi- 
tion of readers, 203 f. ; on women's 
veils, 210 ; manuscripts of, 143. 
Apostolic Constitutions, their scope 
and date, 11, 13, 29, 32 ; theology 
of, 19, 24, 44 ; on our Lord's human 
soul, 19 ; subordinationism in, 19 ; 
festivals in, 32, 39 ; fasts in, 39, 
163 ; probably later than the Testa- 
ment, 32, 33 ; no metropolitans in, 
37 ; stations of penitents in, 38 ; 
ascetics in, 38 ; the "Lifegiver" in, 
40, 184 ; church buildings in, 149 ; 
bishop's throne in, 150 ; on marriage 
of clergy, 153 ; on qualifications and 
choice of a bishop, 153 ; on enthron- 
isation of a bishop, 160 ; on laying 
on of hand or hands, 161 ; lavabo 
in, 155; day for ordinations in, 155 ; 
bishop's ordination prayer in, 158 ; 
the three bishops in, 32, 156 ; form 
of doxologies in, 160 ; appoint Satur- 
day and Sunday for divine service, 
163 ; allow wine to bishops, 163 ; 
liturgy in, 33, 167; Eucharistic Inter- 
cession in, 33, 167 ; Sanctus in, 170 ; 
position of Benedictus in, 177 ; on 
the ceremonial law, 177 ; Words of 
Institution in, 171 f. ; Invocation 
in, 33, 176 ; blessing of oil and 
water in, 179 ; use of the name 
" Paraclete " in, 179 ; singers in, 38, 
180 f. ; on preaching, 182 ; on bene- 
dictions, 182 ; dismissal of penitents, 
etc., in, 33, 182 ; antithesis in, 184 ; 
on ordination of a presbyter, the 
other presbyters not acting, 186 f.; 
daily service in, 189, 227 ; number 
of presbyters in, 192 ; on the office 
of a deacon, 193 ; on deacons visiting 
the sick, 190 f. ; on deacons keeping 
order, 232; litany in, 33, 193 f.; on 
confessors, 197 ; on widows and 
deaconesses and presbyteresses, 33, 
44, 197-199 ; use the name "Life- 
giver," 184, 201 ; on the position and 
ordination of readers and subdeacons, 
33, 202 f., 205 ; on the promotion of 
readers and deacons, 202 ; on virgins, 
205 ; on charismata, 33, 205 f. ; on 
"newcomers," 207 ; forbidden trades 
in, 209 ; on soldiers, 33, 209 ; on length 
ofoatechumenate, 210 ; kiss of peace 
in, 210 ; veiling of women in, 210 ; 
on teaching and dismissal of cate- 
chumens, 33, 211 ; on baptism and 
anointing, 33, 215 f.; on Lent and 
Holy Week, 39, 44, 218 ; forbid 
deacons to baptize, 225 ; words of 



administration of Eucharist in, 223 ; 
psalmody in, 227 ; on days of rest, 
228 ; on first fruits, 230 f. ; on hours 
of prayer, 237. 

"Appointment" of clergy (/corii- 
araais), 90, 97, 104, 105, 108, 111, 
112, 153, 186. 

Aquila, 138, 240. 

Arabic Didascalia, last five chapters of, 
10, 12 ; date, 33, 34 ; probably later 
than Test., 33 f., 154 f., 158, 161 f., 
167, 176, 183 ; trace of a primacy in, 
37, 155 ; church buildings in, 148 ff. ; 
baptistery, diaconicum, lectern, 
bishop's house in, ib. ; screen in, 
151 ; allows bishop's marriage, but 
prefers celibacy, 154; bishop's ordina- 
tion prayer in, 155 f., 158; omits 
revelations, 156 ; on days for the 
Eucharist, 163 ; on bishops' fasts 
and the three "Entrances," 162; 
daily communion of bishops in, 164 ; 
description of Eucharist in, 166 f. ; 
incense in, 167 ; allows widows to 
be inside the sanctuary, 167 f. ; 
developed Intercession in, 167, 176 ; 
Mystagogia in, 34, 88, 182 ff., 
252-254 ; identifies widows and 
deaconesses, 167, 200 ; theology of, 
34 ; psalmody, etc., in, 167 ; on 
readers of lections, 204. 

Arabic translation of TestameTii, see 
Copto-arabic. 

Arcadius, 145. 

Archdeacons, none in the Testament, 
36, 152 (see Deacon, chief) ; at 
Alexandria read Gospel, 204 ; the 
name, 152. 

Arendzen, Dr., 7, 11, 143, 145, 146, 
188, 192, 198. 

Arianism combated in the Testament, 
16 ff., 35, 40, 160. 

Arians, 36. 

Aries, Council of, 38, 208, 223. 

Armenia, 57. 

Armenian Church, its liturgy, 169, 
177 ; its churches, 151. 

Ascension, the, 27, 32, 126, 138, 217 f. 

Asceticism, 15, 21, 24, 94. 

Ascetics, 38 ; see Solitaries. 

Asia Minor, 12 ; considered as place of 
writing of Test., 45, 159, 240 ; chor- 
episcopi in, 37. 

Astronomers and astrologers not to be 
catechumens, 118 (of. 123), 209. 

Athanasius, St., 17, 29, 224, 242; on 
Lent, 218 ; on doxologies, 160 ; on 
veils, 151 ; as leader of the deacons, 
152. 



260 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS AND AUTHORS 



Audiaus, 45, 240. 

Augustine, St., 38, 168, 216, 227, 232. 

Babes, 73, 76, 125, 178, 213 f. 

Babylon, 56. 

Ball, Rev. C. J., 241. 

Bangor, Antiphonary of, 201. 

Baptism, time for, 121 ; order of, 
12511, 213 ff.; water must be flow- 
ing at, ib. ; responses at, ib. ; renun- 
ciations and submissions at, 33, 126, 
213 fl'. ; anointing before and after, 
126 f., 213 ff. (see Confirmation); 
Eucharist after, 128, 220 ff. ; formula 
absent, 214, 216 ; action split up, 
216. See Creed. 

Baptism of blood, 120, 211. 

Baptistery, 21, 34, 63 f., 149. 

Basil, St., 17, 38, 164, 239 ; Liturgy 
of (so-called), 169, 177. 

Bathing at Pasoha, 109, 121, 201 f. 

Batiffol, P., 25. 

Beginning of the day, 136, 159, 161, 
164. 

Benedicite Omnia Opera, 137, 238. 

Benediction, two forms of, before 
Sursum Corda, 44, 169. See also 
Laying on of the hand, and 
Seal. 

Benediotus qui venit, 42, 44, 75, 167, 
177. 

Bilingual countries, 43. See Inter- 
preters. 

Bishop, the throne of, 63, 149 ; house 
of, 64 ; offers the oblations,, 63 ; 
qualifications of, 64, 153 ; marriage 
of, 65, 153 ff.; ordination of, 65 ff., 
155 ff. ; age of, 65 ; no enthronisa- 
tion mentioned in Testament, 160 ; 
as high priest, 135, 160, 234 f. ; 
concurrence of other bishops at 
ordination of, 30, 65, 155 f. ; whether 
one or several bishops say the words, 
30, 155 f.; ordination on Sunday, 
65, 155 ; hours of prayer of, 68, 161 ; 
lasts of, 22, 68, 162 f. ; food of, 68, 
69, 162 f. ; teaching and preaching 
of, 69, 84-90, 130, 164, 182 ; daily 
communion of, in Arab. r)ida3c.,164 ; 
dividing the word of truth, 100, 193 ; 
exorcising, 121-124, 212 ; breathes 
on catechumens, 124, 212 ; at Agaj)6, 

130 f., 228 f.; receiving first firuits, 

131 f., 231 ; visiting sick, 135, 234 ; 
providing for sexton, 136, 235 ; pro- 
vides for the marriage of catechu- 
mens, 116 ; provides for virgins, 134. 
See Shepherd. 

Bithynia, 67. 



Blessings, see Ealogiae, and Benedic- 
tion. 

Bona, 180. 

Book of Deer, 138. 

Boys, see Singers. 

Bread, blessing of, for the sick, 179. 
See Eulogiae. 

Bread of exorcism, 228 f. 

Brightman, Rev. F. E., 11, 13, 14, 19, 
28, 38, 151, 153, 160, 164-167, 169- 
173, 175-179, 193f.,204, 213, 223, 
225, 229, 235, 239, 249-251. 

Bryennios, Archbishop, 11. 

Bunsen, 0. J., 11, 12. 

Biirial of the dead, 98, 135, 235. 

Burkitt, F. C, 215. 

Byzantine rite (early), 169. 

Callistus, Pope, 154. 

Canons of Hippolytus, scope of, 8, 9 ; 
date of, 28 ; not the original of 
these Church Orders, 8, 9 ; sanctuary 
veil in, 151 ; their silence about 
celibacy of the clergy, 153 ; bishops 
chosen by people in, 153 ; bishop's 
ordination ■ prayer in, 28, 156, 157; 
on laying on of hand or hands, 161 ; 
on bishops as chief priests, 160 ; 
enthronisation of bishops in, 160 ; 
communion of bishops in, 163 ; 
liturgy described in, 165 ; vest- 
ments in, 163, 178 ; antithesis 
in, 184 ; presbyters not said to act 
with bishop in ordaining a pres- 
byter, 186 ; ordination prayer of a 
presbyter same as for bishops, 28, 
186 f.; restricts deacons, 195 ; ordi- 
nation of deacon in, 196 ; on con- 
fessors, 196 ; on widows, 197 ; 
absence of deaconesses in, 200 ; on 
the position of a reader, 203 f. ; no 
subdeacons (?) in, 203 ; on virgins, 
205 ; on charismata, 205 ; on "new- 
comers," 207 ; forbidden trades in, 
208 ; on soldiers, 208 ; length of cate- 
chumenate in, 210 ; on sejiaration of 
sexes, 210 ; on dismissal of cate- 
chumens, 211 ; on martyred cate- 
chumens, 211 ; on competentes and 
their exorcism, 211 f. ; on baptism 
and confirmation, 213, 219 ; creed 
in, 217 ; baptismal Eucharist in, 
220 ; on administrators of Eucharist, 
223 ; on care of the Eucharistic 
species, 224 ; on almsgiving, 226 ; 
Agapd in, 228, 230 ; first fruits in, 
230 f. ; on fasting communion, 233, 
239 ; on the Lenten fast, 233 ; on 
bishops visiting sick, 234 ; on sick 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS AND AUTHORS 



261 



presbyters, 234 ; on the dying, 235 ; 
on hours of prayer, 236 ; on 
married men's prayers, 238 ; con- 
clusion of, 239. 

Canticles, 63, 81, 129, 133, 179-181. 

Cantors, see Singers. 

Cappadooia, 56. 

Carthage, Third Council of, 239. 

Cassian, 237. 

Catechumens, 29, 38 ; house of, 63, 
149 ; dismissed with "laying on of 
the hand," 84, 120 f, 134, 182, 
211 f. ; celibacy of, 116, 207 ; not to 
offer loaf for Eucharist, 70 ; or to 
be at the Agap6, 130, 228 f.; inter- 
cession for, 101 ; rules for reception 
and marriage of, 115 ff., 207 ; length 
of instruction of, 119, 210 ; who to 
be admitted and who refused, 115 if., 
207 ff.; exorcism of, 121 ff., 212 f.; 
if martyred before baptism, 120, 
211 ; called "Christians," 207, 210 ; 
to pray apart, 119, 210 ; to be ex- 
amined, 120 f., 211. 

Celibates, Celibacy, see Bishop, mar- 
riage of. Asceticism, Catechumens, 
and Virgins. 

Ceremonial Law of the Jews, 177. 

Chalcedon, Oecumenical Council of, 
179. 

Characteristic phrases in Testament, 
21 ff. 

Characteristics of Testament, 20 ff., 
143. 

Charisius, 242. 

Charismata, 15, 33, 76, 78, 114, 169, 
205 f. 

Chief deacon, see Deacon. 

Children of light, see Light. 

Choirs, see Singers. 

Chorepiscopi, 37, 45. 

Chrism, 216. See Baptism. 

Christmas, .see Epiphany. 

Chrysostom, St., encourages monas- 
ticism, 38 ; Eucharistio Intercession 
in writings of, 176 ; benediction be- 
fore Sursum Corda in, 169 ; Sanctus 
in, 170 ; Words of Institution in, 
171 ; Invocation in, 175 ; on the 
Lord's Prayer, 178 ; on preaching, 
182 ; Liturgy of (so-called), 169, 
173, 177. 

Church, double meaning of, 149 ; 
buildings of, 36, 62-64, 148-153. 

Churchyards, 135f. ; keeper of, 136, 235. 

Cilicia, 56. 

Cirta, Church of, 235. 

Clement of Eome, St., 7, 49, 114, 115, 
138, 141, 144, 159 f., 188. 



Clement, Pseudo-, Ancient Homily by, 
182. 

Clergy, list and number of, 99, 191 ; 
college of, 15, 64. 

" Commemoration," 63, 101, 151. 

Communicants, prayer of, 33, 76, 178. 

Communion of clergy, 76, 177 ; of 
people, 76, 128, 178, 221 ff.; of the 
sick, 134 ; a "new food," 134. 

Competentes, 120 ff., 211 f. 

Concelebration, 70, 165. 

Concubines, 118, 208 f. 

Confessors, 29 ; in the litany, 100 ; 
not to be ordained unless appointed 
bishops, 105, 196 f.; relative position 
of, 203. 

Confirmation, 127, 219 f. 

Confusion of Persons, 20, 39, 91, 187, 
247, 250. 

Constantino, 36 ; his churches at Jeru- 
salem, 43, 150. 

Constantinople, penitents at, 38 ; first 
Oecumenical Council of, 40 ; Creed 
of, 20, 40, 78, 85, 201, 241 f. 

Constitutiones per Hippolytum, 10, 
29 ; bishop's ordination prayer in, 
157 f. ; appointment of readers in, 
33, 204. 

Oonsubstantial, 20, 40, 108, 201, 241 f. 

Coptic Liturgy, 5, 34, 167, 169, 172, 
178, 223, 249. 

Copto-arabio translation of Testament, 
6, 42, 43, 49, 51-54, 56, 58-60, 68, 
90, 136, 143, 145, 156, 160, 162 f., 
165, 167, 169, 188-192, 194 f., 197 f., 
201, 202, 205, 209, 211, 223 f., 225- 
227. 

Cornelius, his list of clergy at Rome in 
251 A.D., 192. 

Courtyard, the, 62 f. 

Creed at baptism, 31, 44, 126, 217 f., 
224 ; at Jerusalem and Rome, 215, 
,242. 

Cross, taking up the, 15, 58, 62, 71, 
81, 87, 91, 106 ; festival of the, 40, 
43. 

Cup of the Eucharist, see Mixed 
Chalice ; spilling the cup, brings 
judgment, 128, 224. 
Cyprian, St., 216 ; on readers, 203 ; on 
hours of service, 168 ; on "hearers," 
37 ; on oblations for the dead, 235. 
Cyril of Alexandria, St., 224. 
Cyril of Jerusalem, St., 14, 242, 250 ; 
Liturgy in, 167 f. ; Sanctus in, 171 ; 
on the Eucharistio type, 173 ; Eu- 
charistio Intercession in, 168, 176 ; 
Lord's Prayer in, 178 ; Sancta 
Sanctis in, 168, 170; no Fraction 



262 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS AND AUTHORS 



in, 179 ; does not mention Words of 
Institution in the Liturgy, 170 f. ; re- 
ference to Oblation, 171 ; Invocation 
in, 168, 171, 174 ; speaks slightingly 
of apocryphal books on Antichrist, 
144; on the "Seal," 213 ; on 
baptism, 215 ; creed in, 215 f. ; oil of 
exorcism in, 216 ; on confirmation, 
220 ; on the teaching of the resur- 
rection, 224. 

Daily service, 95 ff., 189. 

Date of Testament, 25-42 ; of Treves 
fragment, 141 ff. 

David de Bernham, Bishop of St. 
Andrews, his ponbifioal, 180. 

Dawn, order of service at, 164 f. 

Day, see Beginning of the day. 

Deaconesses, 33, 64, 70, 76, 101, 
106, 135, 169, 192, 198-200, 205, 
216, 234. 

Deacons, praise of, 21, 190 ; menial 
duties of, 37, 191 ; the chief deacon, 
36, 63 f., 152, 191; house of, 62, 
64 ; position of, in church, 70 ; 
admonition, or ectene, or litany of, 
33, 70, 99-102, 103, 121, 169, 192- 
194 ; as singers, 81 ; visiting the 
sick and needy, 94, 98, 190 f., 234 ; 
communion of, 76 ; qualifications of, 
97 ; marriage of, 97, 190 ; admonish 
catechumens, 98 ; burial duties of, 
98, 99, 235 ; as almoners, 98, 99 ; 
keep order in the church, 98, 102, 
133, 232; as "counsellors of the 
clergy and mysteries of the Church," 
31, 98, 190 ; as ministers of the 
bishop, 98, 104, 193, 195 f. ; as gnest 
masters, 64, 99 ; number of, 99, 
191 f.; as the eye of the Church, 99, 
193 ; disciplinary duties of, 102, 
103, 194, 232 ; admonish penitents, 
103 ; discretion of, 194 ; ordination 
of, 104, 196 ; not appointed to the 
priesthood, 104, 195 f. ; at baptism, 
125 f., 213-215; at the baptismal 
Eucharist, 1 28, 221 f. ; as adminis- 
trators of the Eucharist, 129, 223 ; 
baptizing in case of necessity, 129, 
225 ; carrying the Eucharist to the 
sick, 134, 234 ; but not to presby- 
ters, 129, 134, 234 ; prayed for in 
the litany, 100 ; offering a lamp, 
129 ; "offering" the Oblation, 222 ; 
waving fans, 128 (?), 167, 222. 
Death, Address of, 87, 88, 183, 185 f., 

254. 
Decius, see Dexius. 
De Lagarde, see Lagarde. 



Demoniacs, 33, 117, 121, 124, 212. 
Departed, the faithful, prayers for, 74, 

101, 132, 135, 177, 235 ; oblations 

for, 235. 
Descent into hell, see Harrowing of 

Hades. 
"Detailed Creed," the, 18. 
De Virginitate, Tract, 189. 
Dexius, 141. 

Diaconicum, 62, 64, 149. 
Didach^, 11, 13, 143, 163, 177 f., 212, 

215, 228 f. 
Didascalia, 12, 13, 199. See Arabic 

Didascalia, Ethiopic Didascalia, 

Apostolic Constitutions, Verona 

Fragments. 
Didymus, 160. 
Digamy, 15 ; forbidden to clergy, 153 ; 

of women, 198. 
Diocese {irapoLda), 92, 138, 188, 240. 
Diocletian persecution, 204. 
Dionysius of Alexandria, 28. 
Diptychs, 167, 245 f., 249. 
Disc ( = paten), 129, 225. 
Doorkeepers, 192, 232, 235. 
Dorotheus, 240. 
Dositheus, 138, 240. 
Doxologies to prayers, 39, 159 f. 
Doxology of the Lord's Prayer, 178. 
Dreams, see Interpreters. 
Duchesne, Abbe, 28, 218, 238. 

East, the, 57 ; of a church, 63, 108, 
149 f. 

East Syrians (Nestorians), their 
churches, 151 f. ; their baptism, 216, 
220 ; their confirmation, 220 ; their 
liturgies, 35 (see Adai, Nestorius, 
Theodore) ; their Lent, 218 ; their 
chorepiscopi, 37 ; forbid bishops to 
eat meat, 163 ; their hymns of 
praise, 179 ; apply the Sursum 
Corda, 180 ; their choirs, 181 ; their 
lections, 204 ; their repetitions, 173. 

Easter, see Pasoha. 

Easter Even, 22, 121, 133, 212, 226, 
233. 

Eastern Church (Orthodox), 151, 220, 
225. 

Ectene, see Deacon. 

Edessene Canons, 14. 

Egypt, interpreters in, 43 ; considered 
as place of writing of Testament, 44, 
163, 169. 

Egyptian Church Order, scope of, 9 ; 
date of, 29 ; does not touch on 
Arianism, 29 ; on the choice of 
bishops by the people, 153 ; says 
nothing of clerical celibacy, 153; 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS AND AUTHOES 



263 



omits bishop's ordination prayer, 
156 f. ; has same form for bishops 
and presbyters, 29 ; on the laying 
on of hand or hands, 161 ; on the 
kiss of peace, 160 ; desci-iption of 
liturgy in, 165 ; fraction in, 179 ; 
on the ordination of presbyters, 
186 f. ; restricts deacons, 190, 195 ; 
on confessors, 196 f. ; on widows, 
197 f., 203 ; no deaconesses in, 200 ; 
on the position of the reader, 203 ; 
on virgins, 205 ; on charismata, 
205; on "newcomers," 207; for- 
bidden trades in, 208 f. ; on soldiers, 
ift. ; length of cateehumenate in, 

210 ; on separation of sexes, 210 ; 
dismissal of catechumens in, 211 ; 
on competentes and their exorcism, 

211 f. ; on baptism and confirmation, 
214, 216; creed in, 217 f., 242; on 
the Eucharistic type, 222 ; baptismal 
Eucharist in, 221 ; administrators of 
Eucharist in, 223 f. ; on care of the Eu- 
charistic species, 224 f.; the "white 
stone " in, 224 f. ; Agap6 in, 228 f. ; on 
first fruits, 230 f. ; on the fast before 
Easter, 233 ; on bishops visiting the 
sick, 234 ; on burial of the dead, 
235 ; on hours of prayer, 236 f. ; on 
married men's prayers, 238 ; on 
fasting communion, 233, 239 ; on 
mutual instruction, 238 ; Greek 
original of, 29, 44 ; reputed author- 
ship of, 141 ; conclusion of, 239. 

Egyptian Heptateuch, 12, 13, 29, 147, 
153. See the preceding and fol- 
lowing. 

Egyptian Liturgy derived from Ap. 
Const., 167, 170, 176, 223. 

Elvira, Council of, 38, 164, 194, 202, 
210, 212, 225, 228. 

Embalming, 135, 235. 

Emperors, Empire, see State. 

Entrances to church and baptistery 
and exits, 62, 63, 148 f. 

"Entrances," the eighteen exalted, 
22, 68, 162. 

Ephesus, Oecumenical Council of, 152, 
242 ; Robber Synod of, 191. 

Ephrem Syrus, St., 178, 184, 225. 

Epiclesis, see Invocation. 

Epiphanius, on presbyteresses, 39, 199 ; 
on fasts, 163 ; on sextons, 235 ; uses 
"the Lord," "the Lifegiver " of the 
Holy Ghost, 40, 201, 241 f. 

Epiphany, 32, 39, 40, 90, 109. 

Ethiopic Church Order, scope of, 9 ; 
date of, 30 ; bishop's ordination 
prayer in, 157 f.; on choice of 



bishops by the people, 153 ; says 
nothing about clerical celibacy, 153 ; 
on laying on of hand or hands, 161 ; 
liturgy in, 30, 165 ; absence of 
Eucharistic intercession in, 166, 
176; meaning of "Remembering 
therefore " in, 173 ; position of 
Sancta Sanctis in, 170 ; Words of 
Institution in, 171 f. ; Invocation in, 
175 f. ; ordination prayer for presby- 
ters in, 30, 187 ; restricts deacons, 
190, 195 ; on widows, readers, and 
subdeacons, 203 ; its liturgy a 
source of Test., 30, 44. 

Ethiopic Didascalia, 12 ; allows bishops 
to be married, 154 ; incense in, 167 ; 
on deacons, 195 f.; on baptism of 
women, 216. 

Ethiopic Statutes, see Ethiopic Church 
Order. 

Ethiopic translation of the Testament; 
6, 43, 170, 173. 

Eucharist, days for, 69, 163 ; on Satur- 
day, 69, 163 f.; hour for, 78, 163, 
168 ; liturgy in the Testament, 
69 ff. ; in other Church Orders, 
165 flf. ; after baptism, 128 f. , 220 ff. ; 
administration and administrators 
of, 128 f., 222 if. See also Com- 
munion, "Type, Offering. 

Eulogiae, 130, 133, 228-230. 

Eusebius of Caesarea, 28, 150, 185, 
192. 

Eustathians, 154. 

Eutychianism, 180. See Monophysit- 
ism. 

Eutychius, 192. 

Exorcism, see Catechumens ; oil of, 
125 f., 213-216. 

Exorcists, house of, 63 ; number of, at 
Rome, 192; in A.C., 205 f. 

Fallen, intercession for the, 101. 

Fans, i28 (?), 167. 

Fasts, 16, 21, 39, 44 ; of bishops, 22, 
68 ; of presbyters, 92 ; before Easter, 
39, 121, 134, 163, 233 ; before com- 
munion, 76, 134, 137, 233, 239; 
Eucharist on fast days, 69,163 f. ; fast 
days in the week, 16, 44, 163. 

Feast kept after bishop's ordination, 
22, 67. 

Festivals, in Testament, 39, 40 ; in 
Ap. Const., 32, 39. 

Ffoulkes, Dr., 171, 174. 

First fruits, 31, 131-133, 230 f. 

Forbidden trades, 117 f., 208 f. 

Forecourt, see Courtyard. 

Forgery, question of, 26 if. 



264 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS AND AUTHORS 



Fraction, absence of, in Testament, 179 ; 

found in other authorities, ih. 
Funerals, see Burial of the Dead ; 

feasts at, 189. 
Funk, Dr., 10, 13, 19, 25, 28, 29, 

149 f., 166, 252. 

Galmoan Statutes, 14, 161, 186, 
196. 

Games, participants in, not to be cate- 
chumens, 117, 208. 

Gamurrini, J. F., 14. 

Gangra, Council of, 153 f., 232. 

Geyer, Dr., 14. 

Gifts, see Charismata. 

Gloria in excelsis, 189. 

Good Friday, 39, 121, 211 f., 226, 239. 

Gospel, by whom read, 84, 119 ; in 
instruction of catechumens, 95, 119, 
121, 211. 

Grace at meals, 133, 232. 

Grammarians, 117, 208 f. 

Graveyard, grarediggers, see Church- 
yard. 

Gregory of Nyssa, St., 38. 

Guest house, the, 64, 99, 153. 

Gwilliam, Rev. G. H., 177. 

Habitations, eternal, heavenly, 22, 

50, 66, 81, 96, 103, 112, 122, 127. 
Hammond, Rev. C. H., 169 f. 
Haneberg, Dr. von, 9. 
Harklean Version of Bible, 68. 
Hamack, Dr., 25, 29, 30, 141, 144. 
Harrowing of Hades, 74, 85, 87, 88, 

185, 254. 
Hauler, Dr., see Verona fragments. 
Hearing (= becoming a catechumen), 

106. 
Hefele, Bp., 14, 37, 153 f., 175, 198 f., 

202, 204, 209, 222, 232, 239, 242. 
Hermas, 188. 
Hermits, see Solitaries. 
High priest, see Bishop. 
Hippo, Council of (a.d. 393), 39, 

175. 
Hippolytus, 13, 28, 154, 157, 225, 
240. See Canons of Hippolytus, and 
Conatitutiones per Hippolytum. 
Holy Ghost, personality and divinity 
of the, 20, 35, 40, 158,176 ; proces- 
sion of the, 41. 
Holy week, 39, 218, 232, 234. 
Homoonsion, see Consubstantial. 
Horner, Rev. G., 10. 
Hort, Dr., 242. 
Hosanna, 167, 177. 

Hours of prayer, 29, 31, 68, 109, 136 f., 
236-238. 



Huntsmen, public, not to be catechu- 
mens, 117, 208.' 
Hymns, see Canticles. 

ICONOSTASIS, the, 151. 

Idols, priests and makers of, to be 
rejected, 117. 

Ignatius, Pseudo-, 14, 19, 175, 218. 

Ignatius, St., on the Holy Trinity, 
175 ; said to have introduced anti- 
phonal singing, 181 ; on presbyters, 
192 ; on the ignorance of the devil, 
185. 

Ignorance of angels and demons about 
the Incarnation, 86, 185. 

Imposition of the hand, see Laying on 
of the hand. 

Incense, 34, 166 f. 

Incorruptibility, 23, 65, 72, 80, 86, 
88, 95, 123. 

Infants, see Babes ; baptism of, 125, 
213 f.; communion of, 76. 

Instrumental music, absence of, 181. 

Intercession at Eucharist, 74 f., 246 if. ; 
developed, 33, 34, 167, 176, 251. 

Interpreters, 43, 44, 204 ; of dreams, 
to be rejected, 118. 

Invocation, in Eucharist, 24, 33, 35, 
74, 166-168, 174-176, 247, 250 ; in 
confirmation, 127, 216, 219 f. 

Irenaeus, St., on Invocation, 174. See 
Pfaffian fragment. 

Isidore of Pelusium, 204. 

Jacobites, see West Syrians. 
James, Dr. M. R., 6, 58, 141 f., 146. 
James, St., Liturgy of, 169, 171, 177. 
James of Edessa, 5, 6, 7, 24, 26, 42, 

64, 138, 142 f., 145, 151 f.. 155, 159, 

169, 177, 185, 193, 200, 212, 224- 

226, 229, 240 f., 249. 
Jerome, St., 38, 210, 237. 
Jenisalem, 43, 138 ; considered as place 

of writing of Testament, 43. See also 

Silvia, Constantino, Cyril. 
Jews, not mentioned in Testament, 43 ; 

their choirs, 181 ; their Pascha, 233. 
Judaea, 57. 

Julian the Apostate, 36, 41, 42. 
Justification, 23, 58. 
Justin Martyr, St., 153, 160, 170, 204, 

216, 220, 223, 234, 250. 
Justinian, 154. 

Keating, Dr. J. F., 229 f. 

Kiss of peace, see Peace. 

Kneeling at prayer, 100, 121, 129 f., 

227 f. 
Kyrie Eleison, 152, 181, 193. 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS AND AUTHORS 



265 



Lagaede, Dr. de, 4, 6, 9, 11, 13, 49, 
50, 53-55, 58, 97, 98, 104, 113, 117, 
125, 131, 145 f., 150, 155, 158-161, 
163, 167, 170-172, 176 f., 179 f., 
186-190, 192-195, 197-199, 202- 
205, 207, 209-212, 215 f., 218, 221- 
225, 230-233, 237, 240. 

Lamp, offering of the, 129, 150, 227. 

Laodioea (in Phrygia), Council of, 
date, 37, 154, 191; metropolitans at, 
37 ; forliids women to be near the 
altar, 168 f.; on singers, 38, 180; 
on the use of the stole, 37, 180, 
191 ; on widows "who sit in front," 
39, 198 f. ; on the choice of bishops, 
153 ; on subdeaeons, 202. 

Laodioea (in Syria), 16, 43. 

Late comers, prayers for, 102, 103, 
193 f. ; typical of Day of Judgment, 
22, 102. 

Lavabo, see Washing of hands. 

Laver of regeneration, baptism the, 127, 
219. 

Laying on of the hand, singular or 
plural, 161 ; as benediction, 182. 

Laymen, intercession for, 101 ; baptiz- 
ing, 225. 

Lectern, 63 f., 152. 

Lections, 63 f. ; at Eucharist, 84, 181 f. ; 
at Pascha, 125, 129, 133, 232 ; 
readers of, 84, 167, 203 f. 

Lent, see Pascha. 

Licinius, 208. 

Lifegiver, the, 20, 40, 108, 201, 214, 
218, 241 f. 

Light, 15, 21, 50 f., 58, 60, 63, 66, 71, 
72, 77, 79, 80, 82, 83, 85, 86, 88, 
91, 93-95, 97, 100, 103-105, 107, 
111,120-123,138; how typical, 150f. 

Lightfoot, Bishop, 11, 19. 

Linen, pure, 63, 151. 

Litany, see Deacon. 

Liturgy, see Eucharist. 

Lord, the (the Holy Ghost), 20, 40, 
78, 179, 201, 241. 

Lord's Prayer, absence of, in Testament 
and other liturgies, 178 ; allusions 
to, 76, 77, 178 ; doxology of, 178 ; in 
Didache, ib. ; in A. C. at baptism, 215. 

Lost Church Order, 8, 157 f., 226. 

Love feasts, see Agap6. 

Ludolf, Job, 9, 30, 31, 155-157, 159, 
165, 167, 187, 195-197, 223, 245, 
247-249, 251. 

Lyoaonia, 56, 57. 

Lycia, 56. 

Macedonian heresy, 35, 41, 176. 
M'Lean, N., 142. 



Magicians not to be catechumens, 118 

(of. 123). 
Magnus, 138, 240. 
Maker of life, see Lifegiver. 
Manuscripts of Testament, 5-7. 
Maranatha, 177. 
Marcellus of Ancyra, 242. 
Marcionites, 164, 185. 
Mark, St., Liturgy of, 169, 172, 177, 

223, 249. 
Mark the Hermit, 223. 
Marriage after ordination, 154. See 

Bishops, Presbyters. 
Married men's prayers, 136 f., 238. 
Martyred catechumens, 120, 211. 
Martyrs, festivals of, in A.C., 32. 
Maundy Thursday, 121, 129, 201 f., 

211, 226 f., 239. 
Meat forbidden to bishops, 68, 163. 
Metropolitans, absence of, 37. 
Militai'y service forbidden, see Soldiers. 
Milk and honey at baptism, 24, 44, 

221 f. 
Milligan, Prof., 225. 
Mithras, 151. 

Mixed chalice, 73, 128, 221 f., 247. 
Monarchical and indissoluble Church, 

16, 65, 156. 
Monasticism, absence of, 38. 
Monophysitism and Monophysites, 5, 

17, 43. See West Syrians. 
Monstrous births, 53. 
Montanistio influence on Testament, 

15, 16, 44, 45, 144, 186, 194, 197, 

200. 
Morin, Dom G., 15, 28. 
Mozarabio rite, 170. 
Muratorian fragment, 149. 
Mystagogia, 17, 20, 34, 69, 84-90, 

182-186, 252 ff.; when said, 90, 184. 

Naming, of subdeacons and readers, 
112, 202 f.; of the offerer of first 
fruits, 132, 231 ; of offerers for the 
Eucharist, etc., 63, 152. 

Necromancers, see Magicians. 

Neocaesarea, Council of, 37, 154, 192. 

Nestorianism, 35, 180. 

Nestorians, see East Syrians. 

Nestorius, Liturgy of (so-called), in- 
fluenced by Byzantine rite, 171 ; 
benediction before Sursum Corda in, 
169 ; Words of Listitution in, 171 f. ; 
Invocation in, 176. 

"New-comers," 115 ff., 207-209. 

New stone or decree, the, 129, 224. 

New [Testament], the, 119, 182, 210 f. 

Newly baptized, the, 76, 128, 130, 
134. 



266 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS AND AUTHORS 



Nicaea, First Oecumenical Council of, 
32, 37, 156, 196, 208, 218, 222, 223, 
228, 249 ; Creed of, 40, 241 f. 

Nicetas, 240. 

Nicetas of Komatiana, 217. 

Nicodemus, Gospel of, 185. 

Numbers of chapters in Codex S., 189. 

Oblation, the, at the Eucharist, 33, 
73, 165-168, 170-174. See Offerings. 

Offering, by deacons, 128, 222 ; house 
of, 64, 152. See Eucharist. 

Offerings, 62-64. See First fruits. 

Oil, blessing of, 77, 78, 179 ; of an- 
ointing, 125 ff., 213 ff.; of exorcism, 
125 f., 213 ff.; a type, 22, 78. 

Old age and the presbyterate, 91, 110, 
187 f., 202. 

Omissions in the Testament, 23 f., 171, 
173, 176, 221, 223, 224. 

Order of the dawn service, 164 f. 

Orientation of churches, 150. 

Orthodox, see Eastern Church. 

Oxyrhynchus Logia, 212. 

Paibshnb considered as the place of 

writing of TestaTnent, 43. 
Palm Sunday, 40. 
Parabolani, 191. 
Paraclete, 15, 78, 179, 241 f. 
Parents or kinsfolk to be sponsors for 

babes at baptism, 125, 214. 
Parish, see Diocese. 
Paronomasia, 42, 62, 91, 110, 122, 

187 f., 202. 
Pascha, 32, 39 f., 90, 109, 129 f., 133, 

232 f.; forty days of, 39, 44, 124, 

218. 
Paschal taper, 227. 
Paula, 237. 

Payne-Smith, Dean, 49,184, 210, 224 f. 
Peace, kiss of, 68, 70, 92, 119. 128, 

160, 168, 210. 
Penitents, 37 f., 103, 194; no stations 

of, 37, 38, 194. 
Pentecost, 32, 39, 40, 90, 109, 130, 

162, 218, 227 f. 
Persecutions, 27, 35, 36, 41, 72, 96, 

101, 249. 
Person (theological), 180. 
Personification of absti-acts, 22 (where 

see references), 31, 183, 196. 
Peter, shadow of, 234 f. 
Pfaffian fragment, 172, 174. 
Phials, the holy, 107, 200. 
Phoenicia, 57. 
Phrygia, 15, 199. 
Pilgrimage of Silvia, see Silvia. 
Pisidia, 57. 



Place of writing of Testament, 42-45. 

Piatt, see Ethiopic Didascalia. 

Pliny, letter to Trajan, 168, 181, 230 ; 
on the evil eye, 146 f. 

Pneumatomachi, see Macedonian 
heresy. 

Polycarp, 198. 

Pontus, 57. 

Porches, 62, 63, 149 f. 

Post-baptismal sin, 24, 194. 

Prayer "completed," 84, 102, 193 f.; 
extempore (?), 164, 193 f. 

Prayers to the Son, 20, 39, 179. 

Preaching, 133, 182. See Bishop. 

Pre-anaphoral prayers, 78-84, 179 f. 

"Presbyter" and "Priest," 177 f. 

Presbyterate, spirit of the, 91, 100, 
187, 195 f. 

Presbyteresses, 15, 38, 39, 44, 101, 
110, 134, 198-200, 202. 

Presbyters, position and division of, in 
church, 63, 70, 150, 200 ; house of, 
64 ; communion of, 76 ; as singers, 
81 ; qualifications of, 90 ; maiTiage 
of, 186 ; ordination of, other pres- 
byters assisting, 90-92, 186-188 ; 
duties and fasts of, 92-95, 162, 

188 ; teaching of, 93 ; visiting the 
sick, 94, 188 ; food of, 92, 95, 188 ; 
to celebrate the Eucharist like 
bishops, 95 ; daily prayers of, 95 ff., 

189 ; carry Eucharist to sick priests, 
134, 234 ; number of, 99, 191 f., 200 ; 
in baptism, 125 f., 213-215; when 
sick, 134, 234 ; prayed for in litany, 
100 ; the twelve, with phials, 107, 
200. 

President (= bishop), 150, 204. 

' ' Priesthood " in Syriac, 178. 

Prisoners, 81, 132. 

Promotion of clergy, 112, 202 ; of 

catechumens, 120. 
Property of Christians, 131 f., 135, 

230 f. ; of widows, 107. 
Prophecy, gift of, 15, 97, 186. 
Prophetesses, absence of, 16. 
Prophets, 15, 22, 63, 69, 81, 84, 87, 

100, 104, 110, 116, 127, 136, 181, 

204 ; number of, 149. 
Prudentius, 192. 
Psalmists, see Singers. 
Psalm-singing, 63, 81, 129, 135, 136, 

167, 181, 189, 226. 
Psendo- Ambrose, see Ambrosiaster. 
Pseudo-Clement, see Clement. 
Pseudo-Ignatius, see Ignatius. 
Pshitta version of the Bible, 51, 64, 

69,' 75, 104, 106, 112, 122, 138, 147, 

155, 159, 168, 193, 212. 



INDEX OP SUBJECTS AND AUTHORS 



267 



Psychic man, the, 31, 128, 222. 
Pusey, P. E., 177. 

QuALiMCATiONS of clergy, see Bishop, 

Presbyters, Deacons. 
Qnartodecimans, 45, 218, 233. 
Quotations from the Bible, 23, 24, 255. 

Rahmani, Mgr., 4, 6, 11, 25, 55, 70, 
72, 73, 85, 86, 87, 88, 90, 93, 103, 
116, 126 f., 136 f., 146, 148, 149, 
152, 155 f., 167, 170, 173, 183-185, 
187 f., 191, 200f., 208,222, 226f., 
229. 

Readers, position of, in church, 70 ; 
communion of, 76 ; intercession for, 
101 ; numbers of, at Rome in 251 
A.D., 192; promotion of, 112, 202; 
appointment of, on Sunday, 112 ; 
not in Test, by laying on of hands, 
33, 112, 205 ; naming of, 202 f. ; read- 
ing lections, 84, 203 f.; experience 
required in, 204 f. ; relative position 
of, 203 f. ; associated with chief 
deacon in writing and reciting names 
of offerers, 63, 204 ; keep order in 
the church, 133 ; in Sarapion, 204. 

Renunciations in baptism, 33, 126, 
213-216. 

Repetitions, 173. 

Reservation of Eucharist, 137, 164, 239. 

Responses at baptism, 125 f., 213 ff. 

"Rest," 23, 62, 101, 112, 132, 148, 195. 

Resurrection, not taught till after 
baptism, 128 f., 221, 224 f.; typified 
by the evening, 22, 136. 

Revelations, supernatural, 15, 65, 74, 
92, 106, 156, 186, 198, 205 f., 251. 

Riez, Council of, 37. 

Roman ordinal, 186. 

Rome, Lent at, 218 ; Good Friday 
communion at, 239 ; early service 
books at, 8, 169 ; daily service at, 
189 ; number of clergy at, 192 ; 
position of clergy at, 203. 

Sahidio Ecclesiastical Canons, 12 f., 
167, 170, 176, 223. See Egyptian 
Heptateuch. 

Sailors, 42, 233. 

Sanota Sanctis, 71, 167 f., 170, 249. 

Sanctuary, see Church, Altar, Veil. 

Sanctus, absence of, in Testament, 170 ; 
absence of, in other liturgies, 30, 35 ; 
found in some ancient liturgies, 
167 f., 170. 

Sanday, Professor, 217. 

Sarapion, Bishop of Thmuis, prayer- 
book of, 14 ; on the Holy Spirit, 20, 



175 ; interpreters in, 43 ; doxologies 
in, 160 ; on the Sunday Eucharist, 
164; liturgy of, 168; Eucharistic 
type in, 172 f.; Sanctus in, 168, 
170 ; Invocation in, 25, 175 ; 
Eucharistic Intercession in, 176 ; 
Words of Institution in, 171 ; 
omits "This do," etc., 173; frac- 
tion in, 179 ; blessing of oil and 
water in, 179 ; ordination prayer of 
a presbyter in, 187 ; of a deacon, 
196 ; no benediction of minor orders 
in, 204 ; oil of exorcism in, 216 ; no 
widows or deaconesses mentioned in, 
200 ; prayers for the faithful de- 
parted in, 235. 
Saturday, Eucharist on, 69, 163 f.; 

whether a fast or a feast, 164. 
Sohaff, Dr., 17. 
Sea, the, travellers by, 42, 101, 233 ; 

water of, 215 f.; sea-shore, 42, 98 f. 
Seal, the, 82, 124, 128, 195, 212 f., 216. 
Sectarian work, Testament not a, 24 f. , 

155. 
Serapion, see Sarapion. 
Sermon on the Mount, application of, 

92, 188. 
Seventy-two disciples, 192, 249. 
Sextons, 136, 235. 
Shepherd, the bishop as, 23, 81, 89, 

105, 120, 128, 130. 
Shepherds, the clergy as, 23, 53, 54. 
Sick, the, see Visiting. 
Sickle of Antichrist, 58, 142, 147. 
Sign of the Cross, see Seal. 
Signs of the end, 50 ff. 
Silas, Silvauus, 138, 240. 
Silvia, Pilgrimage of, description of, 
14 ; Christmas in, 40 ; Palm Sunday 
in, 40 ; "commemoration " in, 151 f., 
193 ; incense in, 34, 167 ; singing 
boys in, 152, 181 ; on preaching, 
182 ; lections in, 181 ; daily service 
in, 161, 189, 227, 238 ; hours of 
prayer in, 237 f. 
Singers, 38, 81, 129, 135, 180 f, 191 f., 

205. 
Slaves, rules for reception of, 116, 118, 

209. 
Smith and Cheetham, Dictionary of 
Christian Antiquities, 44, 150, 152, 
191 f., 200. 
Smith and Wace, Dictionary of Chris- 
tian Biography, 17, 41, 199, 201, 
237, 240-242. 
Socrates, 181, 218, 239. 
Soldiers, Christians forbidden to be, 

24, 33, 36, 118, 208 f. 
Solitaries, 204. 



268 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS AND AUTHORS 



Son of perdition, see Anticlirist. 

Sorcerers, see Magicians. 

Soul of our Lord, 17, 19, 85, 87, 182, 184. 

Souls have "figures," 15, 107, 200. 

Sozomen, 182. 

Spirit, works of the, 15. 

Sponsors, at baptism, 125, 213 f. 

State, references to, 35, 36, 101. 

Stations, see Penitents. 

Statuta ecdesiae antiqua, see Galilean 
Statutes. 

Stephen, St., festival of, in A.C. 32. 

Steps, of bishop's throne, 63. See En- 
trances, exalted. 

Stole, use of, by chief deacon, 37, 99, 
191 ; by cantors, etc., 180. 

Strangled things not to be eaten, 133, 
232. 

Subdeacons, position of, in church, 70 ; 
communion of, 76 ; number of, 99, 
191 f. ; intercession for, 101 ; not 
ordained in Test, by laying on of 
hands, 32, 202-205 ; promotion of, 
112, 202 ; not in O.H (?) or Ap. 
CO., 203 ; appointment of, on Sun- 
day, 111, 202; naming of, 202 f. ; 
keeping order in church, 133, 232 ; 
visiting the sick, 234 ; relative posi- 
tion of, 203 ; reading lections, 204 ; 
in Sarapion, 204. 

Submission, formula of, at baptism, 29, 
33, 126, 213-216. 

Subordinationism, 16, 19. 

Sunday, day of refreshment, 130, 228 ; 
of Eucharist, 69, 163 f. ; of ordina- 
tion, 65, 111, 112, 155, 202. 

Sursum oorda, 71, 165-169, 249 ; ap- 
plied to other offices, etc., 79, 81f., 
95, 99, 180. 

Swainson, Dr., 242. 

Swete, Dr., 41, 176, 201, 235. 

Syria, 43, 56, 199 ; considered as place 
of writing of Testament, 43. 

Syrian Octateuch, 5, 6, 12. 

Syrians, see East Syrians, "West 
Syrians. 

Tabeknaoles, see Habitations. 

Tares in the wheat, 93, 188. 

Tattam, Archdeacon, 9, 11, 13, 141, 
153, 155, 160 f., 165, 170, 173, 176, 
186-188, 191 f., 196-198, 200, 202 f., 
205, 210-212, 223-225, 228, 230 f., 
233 f., 236, 238 f. 

Teaching of the Apostles, see Didaoh^. 

"Temple," the, 109, 201. 

Tendency of Testament, 19, 27. . 

Tertullian, on bishops as high priests, 
160 ; on the Eucharistic type, 172 ; 



on hours of service, 168 ; on the 
Word, 175 ; on readers, 203 ; on 
Pentecost, 228 ; passage about the 
souls, 15, 200; on "bearers," 37; 
no oil of exorcism in, 216 ; on con- 
firmation, 220 ; on milk and honey 
at baptism, 221 ; on administrators 
of Eucharist, 223 ; on spilling the 
elements, 224 ; on the Agap^, 229 ; 
on oblations for the departed, 235 ; 
on reservation of Eucharist, 239. 

Testament, the name, 3, 4, 23, 34, 49, 
61, 138. 

Testing spirits, 23, 55, 59, 69, 93, 120. 

Thaddaeus, see Adai. 

Theatrical profession foi-bidden to 
Christians, 36, 117 f., 208. 

Theodore, East Syrian Liturgy of (so 
called), 169, 171 f., 176. 

Theodoret, 152. 

Theodosius II., 145. 

Theology of Testament, 16 ff., 35. See 
Apollinarius. 

"Third Order," the, 62, 148. 

Thomas of Harkel, 224. 

Throne, see Bishop. 

Tithes, 230. 

Toledo, First Council of, 204. 

Translations of the Testament, 6, 43. 

Travellers, intercession for, 101 ; by 
sea, 233 ; carry the sacrament, 239. 

Treasury, the, 64, 152. 

Treves fragment of Prelude, 6, 52, 53, 
57, 58, 141 f., 14Gf. 

Trinity, 20, 62, 65, 69, 74, 76, 124, 
150, 157, 174 f., 250. 

Triple division of man, 17, 182. 

Trisagion, 178. 

Type, the Eucharistic, 21, 73, 128, 
172 f., 250. 

Types, 21 f., 60, 62, 63, 64, 66, 67, 68, 
69, 77, 78, 80, 86, 96, 102, 107, 133, 
136, 150 f., 221 f., 232. 

Ultzen, Dr., 13. 

Veil, of the sanctuary, 63, 151, 167 f.; 
why drawn at the Eucharist, 70, 
168 ; of the baptistery, 63 ; at 
baptism, 127 ; of the paten (?), 129, 
225 ; of married women, 119, 210 ; 
of virgins, 16, 113, 205. 

Verona fragments (Dr. Hauler's), de- 
scription of, 10, 12, 13, 16 ; date of, 
31, 82 ; not Roman or Alexandrian, 
44 ; connecting link between the 
two Church Orders in, 147 ; ordina- 
tion prayer for bishops in, 1 57 f. ; say 
nothing about the celibacy of the 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS AND AUTHORS 



269 



clergy, 153 ; on the choice of the 
bishop by the people, 153 ; on laying 
on of hand or hands, 161 ; on bishops 
as chief priests, 158, 160; liturgy 
in, 31, 166 ; "Words of Institution in, 
171 ; fraction in, 179 ; on the Euchar- 
istio type, 173 ; Invocation in, 166, 
175 f. ; no Eucharistio Intercession 
in, 176 ; on presbyters assisting the 
bishop at a presbyter's ordination, 
186 ; ordination prayer for presbyter 
in, 31, 187 ; for deacons, 31, 104, 
196 ; supplies link between Ethiopic 
Church Order and Testament, 166, 
196 ; close connection with Testa- 
ment, 31, 44 ; restrict deacons, 195 ; 
on baptism and confirmation, 214 f., 
219 f.; baptismal creed in, 31, 217, 
224 ; on the Eucharistic type, 222 ; 
the baptismal Etioliarist in, 221 f. ; 
administrators of Eucharist in, 223 ; 
on care of the Eucharistic species, 
224; AgapiS in, 31, 229; on first 
fruits, 31, 230 f.; on the fast before 
Easter, 31, 233 ; on bishops visiting 
the sick, 234 ; on hours of prayer, 
31, 237 ; on fasting communion, 
239 ; on mutual instruction, 238 f. 

Versions of the Testament, 6, 43. 

Vessels, holy, 22, 51, 91, 108, 127. 

Vestments, not mentioned in the Testa- 
ment for the services, 37, 178 ; in 
C.H., 163, 178. See White robes. 

Vigil of Easter, 125, 133, 213, 226, 
232. See Easter Even. 

Virgins, 76, 81, 106, 112-114, 119, 125, 

134, 135, 181, 192, 204 f.; no hand 
to be laid on them, 113, 205 ; veils of 
female virgins, 16, 113, 205 ; female 
virgins as brides of Christ, 205. 

Visiting the sick, 94, 107, 121, 134, 

135, 198, 234 f. 

Washing of hands, 65, 136, 155, 167, 

236. 
Water, to be flowing for baptism, 125 ; 

no blessing of, for baptism, 214 ; 



blessing of, for the sick, 78, 179 ; 
plentiful in Test., 43, 44. 

West Syrians (Monophysites), 5, 37, 43, 
152, 163, 225, 241 ; their ordinal, 
156. 

White robes of the newly baptized, 130, 
228 ; of chief deacon, 99. 

Widowers, bishops as, 154. 

Widows, "who sit in front," 21, 38, 
39, 64, 108, 111, 120, 127, 198 f.; 
no other professed widows in the 
Testament, 44, 199 ; house of, 64 ; in- 
cluded among the clergy, and within 
the veil at the Eucharist, 70, 167 tf. ; 
communion of, 76 ; number of, 99, 
191 f., 198; qualifications of, 105 f., 
197 f. ; monogamy of, 198 ; identical 
with presbyteresses in Testament, 
199 ; to teach women, 106 f., 120, 
197 f.; relation to deaconesses, 106, 
198-200 ; their prayers are the altar 
of God, 107, 198 ; to assist deacons, 
107, 200 ; prayer of the institution 
of, 108 ; hours of prayer of, 109 ; not 
to speak in the church, 16, 107, 198, 
202 ; form of prayer used by, 110, 
111 ; functions of, at baptism, 126, 
216 ; their appointment forbidden at 
Laodicea, 39, 198 f. ; relative posi- 
tion of, 203 ; receiving alms, 107, 
129, 198, 225 f. 

Wine, 68, 69, 95, 163, 188 f. 

Women treated with violence, 103. 

Women's ministry slighted in Apost. 
Ch. Order, 148, 198. See Widows. 

Words of Institution, 24, 73, 170-172, 
247, 250; incorporating 1 Cor. xi. 26, 
73, 172, 247, 250. 

Wordsworth, Bishop J., 8, 14, 16-19, 
25, 28, 34, 152, 154, 156, 159, 161, 
163, 168, 172f., 175, 181-186, 189, 
191 f., 194, 199 f., 203-205, 216, 222, 
227, 235, 237 f., 240. 

Work, Works, 22, 68, 94, 101, 104, 
107, 113, 114, 119, 128, 136, 195. 

Zahn, Dr., 25, 46, 240. 



PKIMTUU BY MOKUlbON AND tilBB LIMITED, BDINBURQH 



T. & T. Clark's Publications. 



THE ANTE-NICENE CHRISTIAN LIBRARY. 

The Ante-Nicene Christian Library. A Collection of all the 
Works of the Fathers of the Christian Church prior to the Council 
of Nicsea. Edited by the Rev. Professor Roberts, D.D., and 
Principal Jambs Donaldson, LL.D., St. Andrews. In Twenty-four 
handsome 8vo Volumes, Subscription Price £6, 6s. net; or a 
selection of Four Volumes for £1, Is. net. 

Any Volume may be had separately, price 10s. 6d. 
This Series has been received with marked approval by all sections of the Christian 
Church in this country and in the United States, as supplying what has long been 
felt to be a want, and also on account of the impartiality, learning, and care with 
which Editors and Translators have executed a very difficult task. 

The following Works are included in the Series : — 

Apostolic Fathers, comprising Clement's Epistle to the Corinthians ; Folycarp to the 
Ephesians ; Martyrdom of Folycarp ; Epistle of Barnabas ; Epistles of Ignatius (longer and 
shorter, and also the Syriac Version) ; Martyrdom of Ignatius ; Epistle to Diognetus ; Pastor 
of Hermas ; Fapias ; Spurious Epistles of Ignatius. One Volume. Justin Martyr ; 
Athenagoras. One Volume. Tatlan; Ttaeoptallus; The Clementine 
Reco^itions. One Volume. Clement of Alexandria, comprising Exhortation 
to Heathen ; The Instructor ; and the Miscellanies. Two Volumes. Hlppolytus, 
Volume First; Refutation of all Heresies, and Fragments from his Commentaries. 
Irenseus, Volume First. Irenseus ompletion) and Hlppolytus (completion); 
Fragments of Third Century. One Volume. Tertullian against Marclon. 
One Volume. Cyprian ; The Epistles and Treatises ; Novatlan ; Mlnuclus Felix. 
Two Volumes. Origen: De Principiis ; Letters; Treatise against Celsus; and Life of Origen. 
Two Volumes. Tertullian : To the Martyrs ; Apology ; To the Nations, etc. Three 
Volumes. Methodius; Alexander of liycopolis; Peter of Alexandria 
Anatolius; Clement on Virginity; and Fragments. One Volume. Apocry- 
phal Gospels, Acts, and Revelations ; comprising all the very curious Apocryphal 
Writings of the first Three Centuries. One Volume. Clementine Homilies; 
Apostolical Constitutions. One Volume. Arnoblus. One Volume. Gregory 
ThaumaturguB ; Dionyslus ; Archelaus ; Syrian Fragments. One Volume. 
Iiactantius ; together with the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, and Fragments of 
the Second and Third Centuries. Two Volumes. Early Iiiturgies and Remaining 
Fragments. One Volume. 
N.B. — Additional Volume, containing ' Ebcently Discoverbd MSS.,' 4to (pp. 540), 

pricel2s.6d.net. (See next page.) 

ST. AUGUSTINE'S WORKS. 

The Works of Aurelius Augustine, Bishop of Hippo. 

Edited by Makcus Dods, D.D. In Fifteen Volumes, demy 8vo, 

Subscription Price £3, 19s. net. 

Any Volume may be had separately, price 10s. 6d. 
The ' City of God.' Two Volumes. 



Writings in connection with the 

Donatist Controversy. One Volume. 
The Anti-Pelagian Works. Three 

Volumes. 
Treatises against Faustus the 

Manichsan. One Volume. 
On the Trinity. One Volume. 
Commentary on John. Two Volumes. 

'For the reproduction of the "City of God" in an admirable English garb we are greatly 
indebted to the well-directed enterprise and energy of Messrs. Clark, and to the accuracy and 
scholarship of those who have undertaken the laborious task of translation.'— CArisiion, Ohserver. 

N.B. — Messrs. Clark offer a Selection of Four Volumes from either or both of 
those Series at the Subscription Price of One Guinea net (or a larger number at 
same proportion). 



The Harmony of the Rvangelists, 
and the Sermon on the Mount. 

One Volume. 
* Letters.' Two Volumes. 

On Christian Doctrine, Enchiridion, 
on Catechising, and on Faith 
and the Creed. One Volume, 



Confessions.* With Copious Notes by 

Rev. J. G. PiLKINGTOK. 



T. & T. Clark's Publications. 



MEYER'S COMMENTARY ON THE NEW TESTAMENT. 

'Meyer has been long and well known to scholars as one of the oery ablest of the German 
expositors of the New Testament. We are not sure whether we ought not to say that he Is 
unriualled as an interpreter of the grammatical and historical meaning of the sacred writers. 
The Publishers have now rendered another seasonable and Important seruioe to English students In 
producing this translation,'— Gvakvias. 

Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Ne^v 
Testament. By Dr. H. A. W. Meter, Oberconsistorialrath, 
Hannover. Under the editorial care of Rev. Dr. Dickson, late 
Professor of Divinity in the University of Glasgow. In Twenty 
handsome 8vo Volumes, price £5, 5s. net. Or a selection may 
now be made of any Four Volumes for One Guinea net (or a 
larger number at the same proportion). 

Any Volume may be had separately, price lOe. 6d. 

ST, MATTHEW'S GOSPEL, Two Volumes ; MARK AND LUKE, Two Volumes ; ST. JOHN'S 

GOSPEL, Two Volumes; ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, Two Volumes; ROMANS, 

Two Volumes; CORINTHIANS, Two Volumes; GALATIANS, One Volume; 

EFHESIANS AND PHILEMON, One Volume; FHILIPFIANS AND COLOSSIANS, 

One Volume; THESSALONIANS, One Volume; TIMOTHY AND TITUS, One 

Volume; HEBREWS, One Volume; JAMES AND JOHN, One Volume; PETER 

AND JUDE, One Volume. 

The series, as written by Meyer himself, is completed by the publication of Ephesians 

with Philemon in one volume. But to this the Publishers have thought it right to add 

Thessalonians and Hebrews, by Dr. Lunemann, and the Pastoral and Catholic Epistles, 

by Dr. Huther. 

' I need hardly add that the last edition of the accurate, perspicuous, and learned 
commentary of Dr. Meyer has been most carefully consulted throughout ; and I must 
again, as in the preface to the Galatians, avow my great obligations to the acumen and 
scholarship of the learned editor.' — Bishop Ellicott in Preface to his Commentary on 
Ephesians. 
' The ablest grammatical exegete of the age.' — Philip Sohaff, D.D. 



Recently Discovered Manuscripts, and Origen's Commkn- 
TARiKs ON Matthew and John. Being an Additional Volume to 
' The Ante-JSTicene Christian Library.' Edited by Professor Allan 
Mbnzies, D.D., St. Andrews University. Containing : Gospel of 
Peter (by Professor Aemitagk Robinson) — Diatessaron of Tatian — 
Apocalypse of Peter — Visio Pauli — Apocalypses of the Virgin and 
Sedrach — Testament of Abraham — Acts of Xanthippe and Polyxena 
— Narrative of Zosimus — Apology of Aristides — Epistles of 
Clement (Complete Text) — Origen's Commentaries on Matthew 
and John, etc. In One Volume, 4to (pp. 540), price 12s. 6d. net. 
'It was a happy idea which occurred to the publishers of " The A nte-Nicene Library " 
to supplement that series with a volume containing translations of the more important 
discoveries of recent years. A judicious arrangement has been observed in grouping 
the recovered treasures. ... It has been compiled with great care, and the Introduc- 
tions are short and to the point.' — Record. 

Works of John Calvin. Commentaries, Forty-five Volumes. 
Tracts on the Reformation, Three Volumes. 

A Selection of Six Volumes (or more at the same proportion) for 21s. , with the exoBntinn 
of PSALMS, Vols. I. and V.; HABAKKUK ^ui CORINTHIANS TvoU- 
whioh are now out of print. Any separate Volume (with the above exceptions) bp 

THE LETTERS, Edited by Dr. Bonnet, Two Volumes, lOs fid 

THE INSTITUTES, Two Volumes, Translated, 148. 

THE INSTITUTES, in Latin, Two Volumes, Tholuck's Edition, price 14s net 



PUBLICATIONS OF 

T. &c T. o Xj ^ i^ :ec, 

38 GEORGE STREET, EDINBURGH. 

LONDON: SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, KENT, & CO. LIMITED. 

Abbott (T. K., B.D., D.Lit.) — Ephesians and Colossians. {Inter- 
naiional Critical Commentary.) Post 8vo, 10s. 6d. 

Adam (J., D.D.) — An Exposition of the Epistle oe James. 8vo, 9s. 
Adamson (Rev. T., D.D.) — Studies of the Mind in Christ. Post 

8vo, 4s. 6d, 

The Spirit of Power. Second Edition, fcap. 8vo, Is. 

Ahlfeld (Dr.), etc. — The Voice from the Cross. Cr. 8vo, price 5s. 

Alcock (Deborah) — The Seven Churches of Asia. Is. 

Alexander (Prof. W. Lindsay) — Biblical Theology. Two vols. Svo, 21s. 

Alexander (Rev. Dr. W. M.)— Demonic Possession in the New 
Testament. Post Svo, 5s. 

AUen (Prof. A. V. G-., D.D.) — Christian Institutions. {International 
Theological Library.) Post Svo, 12s. 

Ancient Faith in Modem Light, The. Svo, 10s. 6d. 

Andrews (S. J.) — The Life of our Lord. Large post Svo, 9s. 

Ante-Nicene Christian Library — A Collection of all the Works 
OF THE Fathers of the CHRisTiAif Church prior to the Council of 
Nic^A. Twenty-four vols. Svo, Subscription price, £6, 6s. Selection 
of Four Volumes at Subscription price of 21s. Additional Volwme, 
containing MSS. discovered since the completion of the Series, 12s. 6d. net. 

Augustine's Works — Edited by Marcus Dods, D.D. Fifteen vols. 
Svo, Subscription price, £3, 19s. net. Selection of Four Volumes at Sub- 
scription price of 21s. 

Balfour (R. G-., D.D.) — Central Truths and Side Issues. Crown 
Svo, 3s. 6d. 

Ball (W. E., LL.D.)— St. Paul and the Eoman Law. Post Svo, 4s. 6d. 

Ballard (Prank, M.A., B.Sc.)— The Miracles of Unbelief. Fourth 
Edition. Post Svo, 6s. 

Jesus Christ : His Origin and Character. 6d. net. 

Bannerman (Prof.) — The Church of Christ. Two vols. Svo, 21s. 
Bannerman (D. D., D.D.) — The Doctrine of the Church. Svo, 12s. 
Bartlet (Prof. J. Vernon, M.A.)— The Apostolic Age : Its Life, 
Doctrine, Worship, and Polity. {Eras of Church Sistory. ) Crown Svo, 6s. 
Baumgarten (Professor) — Apostolic History. Three vols. Svo, iss. net. 
Bayne (P., LL.D.)— The Free Church of Scotland. Post Svo, 3s. 6d. 
Beck (Dr.)— Outlines of Biblical Psychology. Crown Svo, 4s. 

Pastoral Theology of the New Testament. Crown Svo, 6s. 

Bengel — Gnomon of the New Testament. With Original Notes, 

Explanatory and Illustrative. Five vols. Svo, Subscription price, 31s. 6d. 
Cheaper Edition, the five volumes bound in three, 24s. 

Besser's Christ the Life of the World. Price 6s. 

Beyschlag (W., D.D.) — New Testament Theology. Two vols. 

demy Svo, Second Edition, 18s. net. 
Bible Dictionary. Edited by Jas. Hastings, D.D. Special Prospectus 
cm application. Now complete in lour Volumes, imperial Svo, price per 
Volume, in cloth, 28s. ; in half- morocco, 34s. Sets can also be had in 
various styles of leather bindings. 

*^* Detailed Catalogue free on application. 



T. and T. Clark's Publications. 



Bible-Class Handbooks. Crown 8vo. Forty-five Volumes, Is. 3d. to 

3s. each. Edited by Prof. Makous Dods, D.D., aud Alex. Whyte, D.D. 

Detailed List free on application. 
Bible-Glass Primers. Forty now issued in the Series. Edited by 

Prino. S. D. E. Salmond, D.D. Paper covers, 6d. each ; free by post, 7d. 

In cloth, 8d. ; free by post, 9d. Detailed List free on application. 
Bigg (Prof. C, D.D.) — St. Peter and St. Jude. (International 

Critical Commentary.) Post 8vo, 10s. 6d. 

Blaikie (Prof. W. G-., D.D.)— The Preachers or Scotland from the 

6th; to the 19th Century. Post 8vo, 73. 6d. 
Blake (Buchanan, B.D.)— How to Read the Prophets. Part I. — 

The Pre-Exilian Minor Prophets (with Joel). Second Edition, 4s. Part II. 
— Isaiah (ch. i.-xxxix.). Second Edition, 2s. 6d. Part III. — Jeremiah, 4s. 
Part IV. — Ezekiel, 4s. Part V. — Isaiah (oh. xl.-lxvi.), and the Post-Exilian 
Prophets. The Series leimg now complete, Messrs. Clark offer the Set of Five 
Volumes for 15s. 

■ Joseph and Moses : Founders of Israel. Crown 8vo, is. 

Bleek's Introduction to the New Testament. 2 vols. Svo, i2s. net. 
Briggs (Prof. 0. A., D.D.) — General Introduction to the Study 

OF Holy Sokiptuiie {Replacing the Author's 'Biblical Study,' entirely 
re-written and greatly enlarged). Svo, 12s. net. 

The Messiah of the Apostles. Post Svo, 7s. 6d. 

The Messiah of the Gospels. Post Svo, 6s. 6d. 

The Bible, the Church, and the Eeason. Post Svo, 6s. 6d. 

Brockelmann (C.) — Lexicon Sykiacum. With a Preface by Professor 

T. NoLDEKE. Crown 4to, 30s. net. 
Bruce (Prof. A. B., D.D,) — The Training of the Twelve ; exhibiting 
the Twelve Disciples under Discipline for the Apostleship. Fifth Edition, 
Svo, 10s. 6d. 

The Humiliation of Christ. 5th Edition, Svo, 10s. 6d. 

The Kingdom of God ; or, Christ's Teaching according to the 

Synoptical Gospels. New Edition, post Svo, 7s. 6d. 

Apologetics; or, Christianity Defensivfxy Stated. 



(^International Theological Library.) Third Edition, post Svo, 10s. 6d. 

St. Paul's Conception of Christlanity. Post Svo, 7s. 6d. 

The Epistle to the Hebrews: The First Apology for 

Christianity. Second Edition, post Svo, 7s. 6d. 

Bruce (Rev. B,., D.D., Hon. Canon of Durham Cathedral.) — Apostolic 

Okdek and Unity. Crown Svo, 2s. 6d. net. 
Bruce (W. S., D.D.) — The Ethics of the Old Testament. Cr. Svo, 4s. 

The Formation of Christian Character. Crown Svo, 5 s. 

Buchanan (Prof.) — On Comfort in Affliction. Crown Svo, 2s. 6d. 

On Improvement of Affliction. Crown Svo, 2s. 6d. 

Buhl (Prof. F.) — Canon and Text of the Old Testament. Svo, 

7s. 6d. 
Bungener (Felix) — Rome and theCouncil in 19™Centuky. Cr.8vo,5s. 
Burton (Prof. E.) — Syntax of the Moods and Tenses in New 

Testament Greek. Post Svo, 6s. 6d. net. 
Calvin's Institutes of Christian Religion. (Translation. ) 2vols. Svo, 1 4s. 

Commentaries. Forty -five Vols. Price on application. 

Calvini Institutio Christianae Beligionis. Curavit A. Tholuck. 

Two vols. Svo, Subscription price, 14s. 

Candlish (Prof. J. S., D.D.)— The Kingdom of God, Biblically and 
Historically considered. Svo, 10s. 6d. 



T. and T. Clark's Publications. 



Candlish (Prof. J. S., D.D.) — The Christian Salvation. Lectures 

on the Work of Christ. 8vo, 7s. 6d. 

Caspar! (C. E.) — A Chronological and Geographical Introduc- 
tion TO THE Life of Chkist. 8vo, 7s. 6d. 
Gaspers (A.) — The Footsteps of Christ. Crown 8vo, 7s. 6d. 
Oassel (Prof.) — Commentary on Esther. 8vo, 6s. net. 
Cave (Principal A., D.D.) — The Scriptural Doctrine of Sacrifice 

AND Atonement. Second Edition, 8vo, 10s. 6d. 

An Introduction to Theology. Second Edition, 8vo, 12s. 

Chapman (Principal C, LL.D.) — Pre-Organic Evolution and the 

Biblical Idea of God. Crown 8vo, 6s. 
Christlieb (Prof. T., D.D.)— Modern Doubt and Christian Belief. 

8vo, 6s. net. 

Homiletic: Lectures on Preaching. 7s. 6d. 

Clark (Professor W. E., LL.D., D.C.L.)— The Anglican Eeforma- 
TION. {Eras of Church Eistory.) 6s. 

The Paraclete. The Person and Work of the Holy Spirit. 

Crown 8vo, 3s. 6d , 

Pascal and the Port Eoyalists. Crown 8vo, 3s. 

Witnesses to Christ. A Contribution to Christian Apolo- 



getics. Crown 8vo, 4s. 
Clarke (Professor W. N., D.D.)— An Outline of Christian 

Theology. Twelfth Edition, post 8vo, 7s. 6d. 
What shall we think of Christianity 1 Cr. 8vo, 2s. 6d. 

Can I believe in God the Father ? Crown 8vo, 3s. 

Concordance to the Greek Testament— Moulton (W. F., D.D.) and 

Gedbn (A. S., M.A.). Second Edition, crown 4to, 26s. net. 

Cooper and Maclean. — The Testament of our Lord. With 
Introduction and Notes by Prof. Cooper, D.D., and Canon Maclean, M.A. 
8vo, 9s. 

Crawford (J. H., M.A.)— The Brotherhood of Mankind. Post 8vo, 5s. 

Cremer (Professor) — Biblico-Theological Lexicon of New Testa- 
ment Greek. Third Edition, with Supplement, demy 4to, 38s. 

Crippen (Rev. T. G.)— A Popular Introduction to the History 

of Christian Doctrine. 8vo, 9s. 
Cunningham (Principal) — Historical Theology. Two vols, 8vo, 21s. 
Curtiss (Dr. S. I.) — The Levitical Priests. Crown 8vo, 5s. 

Franz Delitzsch : A Memorial Tribute. Portrait. Cr. 8vo, 3s. 

Dabney (Prof. R. L., D.D.)— The Sensualistic Philosophy of 

THE Nineteenth Century considered. Crown 8vo, 6s. 
Dahle (Bishop) — Life after Death. Demy 8vo, 10s. 6d. 
Dalman (Prof. G.)— The Words of Jesus. Demy 8vo, 7s. 6d. net. 
Davidson (Prof. A.B., D.D., LL.D.)— An Introductory Hebrew 

Grammar. With Progressive Exercises in Reading and Writing. 17th 
Edition, 8to, 73. 6d. 

A Syntax of the Hebrew Language. 3rd Ed., 8vo, 7s. 6d. 

The Called of God. With Biographical Introduction by 

A. Taylor Innbs, M.A., Advocate, and Portraits. Post 8vo, Second Ed., 6_s. 

Davidson, Dr. SamueL Autobiography and Diary. Edited by his 

Daitshtbr. 8vo, 7s. 6d. 
Davies (Principal D. C.)— The Atonement and Intercession of 

Christ. Crown 8vo, 4s. 
Deane (Wm., M.A.) — Pseudepigrapha: An Account of Certam 

Apocryphal Writings of the Jews and Early Christians. Post 8vo, 7s. 6d. 
Deissmann (Dr. G. A.)— Bible Studies. Second Edition, 8vo, 9s. 



4 T. and T. Clark's Publications. 

Delitzsch (Prof.)— System of Biblical Psychology, 8vo, 6s. net; 
New Oommentaby on Genesis, 2 vols. 8to, 12s. net ; Psalms, 3 vols., 18s. 
net; PkoVbebs, 2 vols., 12s. net; Song oe Solomon and Ecclbsiastes, 
6s. net; Isaiah, Fourtli Edition, rewritten, 2 vols., 12s. net; Hebrews, 
2 vols., 12s. net. 
*»* Any Four Volumes may be had at original Subscription price of 21s. net. 

Dictionary of the Bible, A. {Seepage!.) 

DiUmann (Prof. A., D.D.) — Genesis : Critical and Exegetical Com- 
mentary. Two vols., 21s. 

Doedes — Manual of JNew Testament Hermeneutics. Cr. 8vo, 3s. 

Bollinger (Dr.) — Hippolytus and Callistus. 8vo, 7s. 6(1. 

Declarations and Letters on the Vatican Decrees, 

1869-1887. Authorised Translation. Crown 8vo, 3s. 6d. 

Domer (Professor) — History of the Development of the Doctrine 

OF THE Peeson OF Cheist. Five vols. Subscription price, 26s. Z'\. net. 

System of Christian Doctrine. Subscription price, 21s. net. 

System of Christian Ethics. Bvg, 14s. 

Driver (Prof. S. K., D.D.) — An Introduction to the Literature 

OF THE Old Testament. (Internaticmal Theological Library.) 8th 
Edition, post 8vo, ]2s. 

Deuteronomy : A Critical and Exegetical Commentary. 

[International Critical Gommenta/ry.) Third Edition, post 8vo, 12s. 

Drummond (R. J., D.D.) — The Relation op the Apostolic 

Teaching to the Teaching of Christ. Second Edition, 8vo, 10s. 6d. 

Du Bose (Prof. W. P., D.D.)— The Ecumenical Councils. {Eras 

of Church History. ) 6s. 

Duflf (Prof. David, D.D.)^The Early Church. Svo, 12s. 

Dyke (Paul Van) — The Age of the Eenascence. With an Intro- 
duction by Henry Van Dyke. {Eras of Church History.) 6s. 

Eadie (Professor) — Commentaries on St. Paul's Epistles to the 

Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians. New and Revised Editions, Edited 
by Kev. Wm. Young, M.A. Three vols. 8vo, 10s. 6d. each ; or set, 18s. net. 

Ebrard (Dr. J. H. A.) — The Gospel History. Svo, 6s. net. 

Apologetics. Three vols. Svo, 18s. net. 

Commentary on the Epistles of St. John. Svo, 6s. net. 

Edgar (R. M'C, D.D.) — The Gospel of a Risen Saviour. Post Svo, 
7s. 6d. 

Elliott — On the Inspiration of the Holy Scriptures. Svo, 6s. 
Eras of the Christian Church — Now cpmplete in Ten Volumes — 

Dn BosE (Prof. W. P., D.D.)— The Ecumenical Councils. 6s. 

Waterman (L., D.D.) — The Post- Apostolic Age. 6s. 

Dyke (Paul Van) — The Age of the Kenascence. 6s. 

Locke (Clinton, D.D.) — The Age of the Great Western Schism. 6s. 

Ludlow (J. M. , D. D. )— The Age of the Crusades. 6s. 

Vincent (Prof. M. R., D.D.)— The Age of Hildebrand. 6s. 

Clakk (Prof. W. R., LL.D., D.C.L.)— The Anglican Reformation. 6s. 

Wells (Prof. 0. L.) — The Age of Charlemagne. 6s. 

Bartlet (Prof. J. Vernon, M.A.)— The Apostolic Age. 6s. 

Walker (Prof. W., Ph.D., D.D.)— The Protestant Reformation. 6s. 
Emesti — BiblioalInterpretationofNewTestament. Two vols. 8s. 
Ewald (Heinrich)— Hebrew Syntax. Svo, 8s. 6d. *' 

Revelation : Its Nature and Record. Svo, 6s. net. 

Old and New Testament Theology. Svo, 6s. net. 

Expository Times. Edited by James Hastings, D.D. Monthly, 6d. 
Fairbaim (Prin.)— The Revelation of Law in Scripture, Svo, 10s. 6d' 
EzEKiEL and THE Book of his Prophecy. 4thEd.,Svo,'l0s. 6d 



T. and T. Clark's Publications. 



Fairbaim (Prin.) — Prophecy. Second Edition, Svo, 10s. 6d. 

Pastoral Theology. Crown Svo, 6s. 

Fairweather (Rev. W., M.A.) — Origen and Greek Patristic 

Theology. 3s. 
Falconer (J. W., B.D.) — From Apostle to Priest. A Study of 

Early Church Organisation. Crown Svo, 43. 6d. 

Fisher (Prof. G. P., D.D., LL.D.) — History of Christian Doctrine. 

[Iriiernational Theological Library.) Second Edition, post 8yo, 12s. 

Forbes (Prof.) — Symmetrical Structure oi' Scripture. Svo, 8s. 6d. 
Analytical Commentary on Romans. Svo, 10s. 6d. 

Studies in the Book oe Psalms. Svo, 7s. 6d. 

The Servant of the Lord in Isaiah xl.-lxvi. Cr. Svo, 5s. 

Foreign Theological Library — Four Volumes for One Guinea. Be- 
taiUd List on application. 

Forrest (D. W., D.D.)— The Christ of History and of Ex- 
perience. Fourth Edition, post Svo, 6s. 
Frank (Prof. F. H.)— System of Christian Certainty, svo, 6s, net. 
Funcke (Otto) — The World of Faith and the Everyday World, 

As displayed in the Footsteps of Abraham. Post Svo, 7s. 6d. 
Garvie (Alex., B.D.)— The Ritschlian Theology. 2nd Ed., Svo, 9s. 
Gebhardt (H.) — The Doctrine of the Apocalypse, and its relation 

TO THE DOOTKINE OF THE GOSPBL AND EPISTLES OF JoHN. Svo, 6s. net. 

Gerlach — Commentary on the Pentateuch. Svo, 10s. 6d. 
Gieseler (Dr. J. C. L. ) — Ecclesiastical History. Four vols. Svo, 2 1 s. 
Gifford (Canon) — Voices of the Prophets. Crown Svo, 3s. 6d. 
Given (Rev. Prof. J. J.) — The Truth of Scripture in connection 

WITH Revelation, Inspiration, and the Canon. Svo, 6s. 
Gladden (Washington, D.D., LL.D.) The Christian Pastor and 

THE WoBEiNG Chukch. (Interiiotional Theol. Library.) Post Svo, 10s. 6d. 

Glasgow (Prof.) — Apocalypse Translated and Expounded. Svo, io/6. 
Gloag (Paton J., D.D.) — The Messianic Prophecies. Cr. Svo, 7s. 6d. 
Introduction to the Catholic Epistles. Svo, 10s. 6d. 

Exegetical Studies. Crown Svo, 5s. 

Introduction to the Synoptic Gospels. Svo, 7s. 6d. 

The Primeval World. Crown Svo, 3s. 

Godet (Prof F.)— An Introduction to the New Testament— 

I. The Epistles of St. Paul. Svo, 12s. 6d. net. 
II. The Gospel Collection, and St. Matthew's Gospel. Svo, 6s. net. 
Commentary on St. Luke's Gospel. 2 vols. Svo, i2s. net. 

Commentary on St. John's Gospel. 3 vols. Svo, iss. net. 

Commentary on Epistle to the Romans. 2 vols. Svo, i2s. net. 

Commentary on 1st Epistle to Corinthians. 2 vols. Svo, 

12s. net. 

*^* Any Four Volumes at the original Subscription price of 21s. net. 

Defence of The Christian Faith. Crown Svo, 4s. 



Goebel (Siegfried)— The Parables of Jesus. Svo, 6s. net. 
Gotthold's Emblems ; or. Invisible Things Understood by Things 
that aee Made. Crown Svo, 5s. 



T. and T. Claris Publications. 



Gould (Prof. E. P., D.D.)— St. Mark. (International Critical 

Cornnwniary.) Post 8to, 10s. 6d. . , ^ .j. 7 

Gray (Prof. G. Buchanan, M. A.)— Numbers. {International Critical 

Commentomi.) ^ [In the Press. 

Grimm's Geeek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, irans- 
lated, Revised, and Enlarged by Joseph H. Thayer, D.D. Demy 4to, 363. 
Guyot (Arnold, LL.D.)— Creation; or, The Biblical Cosmogony m the 

Light of Modern Science. With Illustrations. Crown 8to, 5s. 6d. 

Hagenbach (Dr. K. R.)— History of Doctrines. 3 vols. 8 to, 18s. net. 

History of the Reformation. 2 vols. Svo, 1 2s. net. 

Halcombe (Rev. J. J., M.A.)— What Think Ye of the Gospels 1 A 

Handbook of Gospel Study. Svo, 3s. 6d. 
HaU (Newman, D.D.)— Divine Brotherhood. 3rd Ed., cr. 8vo, 4s. 
Hamilton (T., D.D.) — Beyond the Stars; or. Heaven, its Inhabitants, 

Occupations, and Life. Third Edition, crown Svo, 3s. 6d. 
Harless (Dr. C. A.)— System of Christian Ethics. Svo, 6s. net. 
Harris (S., D.D.)— God the Creator and Lord of All. Two 

vols, post Svo, 16s. 
Haupt (Erich) — The First Epistle of St. John. 8vo, 6s. net. 
Havemick (H. A. Ch.) — Introduction to Old Testament. 6s. net. 
Heard (Rev. J. B., M.A.)— The Tripartite Nature of Man — Spirit, 

Soul, and Body. Fifth Edition, crown Svo, 6s. 

Old AND New Theology. AConstructiveCritique. Cr. 8vo,6s. 

Alexandrian and Carthaginian Theology contrasted. 

The Hulsean Lectures, 1892-93. Crown Svo, 6s. 

Hefele (Bishop) — A History of the Councils of the Church. 

VoL I., to A.D. 325. Vol. II., A.D. 326 to 429. Vol. III., a.d. 431 to the close 
of the Council of Chalcedon, 451. Vol. IV., a.d. 451 to 680. VoL V., a.d. 
626 to 787. Svo, 12s. each. 
Hengstenberg (Professor) — Commentary on Psalms, 3 vols. Svo, 

18s. net; Eoolesiastbs, etc., Svo, 6s. net; Ezekiel, Svo, 6s. net; The 
Genuineness of Daniel, etc., Svo, 6s. net ; Histoet of the Kingdom 
OF God, 2 vols. Svo, 12s. net; Chkistologt of the Old Testament, 4 
vols., 21s. net ; St. John's Gospel, 2 vols. Svo, 21s. 
*^* Any Four Volumes at the original Subscription price of 21s. net. 
Herkless (Prof. J., D.D.) — Francis and Dominic. Crown Svo, 3s. 

Herzog — Encyclopaedia of Living Divines, etc., of all De- 
nominations in Europe and Amekioa. (Supplement to Herzog's Eivyyclo- 
pcedia.) Imp. Svo, 8s. 

HiU (Rev. J. Hamlyn, D.D.) — The Earliest Life of Christ 

EVER Compiled from the Four Gospels : Being ' The Diatessaron of 
Tatian' Literally Translated from the Arabic Version, and containing the 
Four Gospels woven into one Story. With an Historical and Critical 
Introduction, Notes, and Appendix. Svo, 10s. 6d. 

St. Ephraem the Syrian. Svo, 7s. 6d. 

Hilprecht (Prof. H. V.) — Explorations in Bible Lands. [/» tJic Press. 
Hodgson (Principal J. M., M.A., D.Sc, D.D.)— Theologia Pectoris: 

Outlines of Religious Faith and Doctrine. Crown Svo, 3s. 6d. 

Holborn (Alfred, M.A.)— The Pentateuch in the Light of To-day. 

a Simple Introduction to the Pentateuch on the Lines of the Higher 
Criticism. Crown 2s. net. 

Hutchison (John, D.D.)— Commentary on Thessalonians. Svo, 9s. 

Commentary on Philippians. Svo, 7s. 6d. 

Our Lord's Signs in St. John's Gospel. Demy Svo, 7s. 6d. 



T. and T. Clark's Publications. 7 

Innes (A. D., M.A.)— Cranmer and the English Eeformation. 

Crown 8vo, 3s. 

Innes (A. Taylor)— The Trial of Jesus Christ. In its Legal 

Aspect. Post 8vo, 2s. 6d. 
International Critical Commentary. 

Driver (Prof. S. R., D.D.)— Deuteronomy. 12s. 
MooBE (Prof. G. F., D.D.)— Judges. 12s. 
Smith (Prof. H. P., D.D.)— Samuel. 12s. 
Tot (Prof. C. H., D.D.)— Proverbs. 12s. 
Gould (Prof. E. P., D.D.)— St. Mark. 10s. 6d. 
Plummee (Alfred, D.D.)— St. Luke. 12s. 

Sandat (Prof. "W., D.D.) and Hbadlam (A. C, B. D. )— Romans. 12s. 
Abbott (Prof. T. K., B.D., D.Lit.)— Ephesians and Oolossians. 10s. 6d. 
Vincent (Prof. M. R., D.D.)— Philippians and Philemon. 8s. 6d. 
Bigg (Prof. C, D.D.)— St. Peter and St. Jude. 10s. 6d. 
Foj- List of future Volvm.es see p. 15. 
International Theological Library. 

Deivee (Prof. S. R., D.D.)— An Introduction to the Literature of the Old 

Testament. 12s. 
Smyth (Newman, D.D.) — Christian Ethics. 10s. 6d. 
Bruce (Prof. A. B., D.D.)— Apologetics. 10s. 6d. 
Fisher (Prof. G. P., D.D., LL.D.)— History of Christian Doctrine. 12s. 
Allen (Prof. A. V. G., D.D.) — Christian Institutions. 12s. 
MbGiFFERT (Prof. A. C, Ph.D.)— The Apostolic Ago. 12s. 
Gladden (Washington, D.D.)— The Christian Pastor. 10s. 6d. 
Stevens (Prof. G. B., D.D.)— The Theology of the New Testament. 12s. 
Rainy (Prin. R.) — The Ancient Catholic Church. 12s. 
For List of future Volumes see p. 14. 

Janet (Paul) — Final Causes. Second Edition, demy 8vo, 12s. 

The Theory of Morals. Demy 8vo, 10s. 6d. 

Johns (C. H. W., M.A.) — The Oldest Code of Laws in the World. 

The Code of Laws promulgated by Hammurabi, King of Babylon, B.C. 2285- 
2242. Crown 8vo, Is. 6d. net. 

Johnstone (P. De Lacy, M.A.) — Muhammad and his Power. 3s. 

Johnstone (Prof. R., D.D.) — Commentary on 1st Peter. 8vo, 10s. 6d. 

Jones (B. E. C.) — Elements of Logic. Svo, 7s. 6d. 

Jouffroy — Philosophical Essays. Fcap. Svo, 5s. 

Kaftan (Prof. J., D.D.) — The Truth of the Christian Religion. 

Authorised Translation. 2 vols. Svo, 16s. net. 
Kant — The Metaphysic of Ethics. Crown Svo, 6s. 

Philosophy of Law. Trans, by W. Hastie, D.D. Cr. Svo, 5s. 

Principles of Politics, etc. Crown Svo, 2s. 6d. 

Keil (Prof.) — Pentateuch, 3 vols. Svo, 1 8s. net; Joshua, Judges, 

AND Ruth, 8vo, 6s. net ; Samuel, Svo, 6s. net ; Kings, Svo, 6s. net ; 

Chrontoles, Svo, 6s. net ; Ezra, Nbhemiah, Esther, Svo, 6s. net ; 

Jeremiah, 2 vols. Svo, 12s. net; Ezbkiel, 2 vols. Svo, 12s. net; Daniel, 

Svo, 6s. net ; Minor Prophets, 2 vols. Svo, 12s. net ; Introduction to 

the Canonical Scriptures of the Old Testament, 2 vols. Svo, 12s. 

net ; Handbook of Biblical Aech^iologt, 2 vols. Svo, 12s. net. 

*^* Any Four Volumes at the original Subscription price of 21s. net. 
Keymer (Eev. N., M.A.) — Notes on Genesis. Crown Svo, Is. 6d. 
Kidd (James, D.D.) — Morality and Eeligion. Svo, 10s. 6d. 
EaUeu (Prof.) — The Framework of the Church. 8vo, 9s. 

The Old Catholic Church. Svo, 9s. 

The Ignatian Epistles Entirely Spurious. Cr. Svo, 2s. 6d. 

Kilpatrick (Prof. T. B., D.D.)— Christian Character. 2s. 6d. 



8 T. and T. Clark's Publications. 

Kdnig (Dr. Ed.) — The Exiles' Book of Consolation (Deutero-Isaiah). 

Crown 8vo, 3s. 6d. 

Kouig (Dr. P. E.)— The Eeligious History of Israel. Cr. 8vo, 3s. 6d. 
Krause (P. C. P.) — The Ideal of Humanity. Crown 8vo, 3s. 
Krummacher (Dr. P. W.) — The Suffering Saviour ; or, Meditations 

on the Last Days of the Sufferings of Christ. Eighth Edition, crown 8vo, 68. 

■ David, the King of Israel. Second Edition, cr. 8vo, 6s. 

Autobiography. Crown 8vo, 6s. 

Kurtz (Prof. )— Handbook of Church History (from 1517). 8vo, 7s. 6d. 

History of the Old Covenant. Three vols. 8vo, 18s. net. 

Ladd (Prof. G. T.) — The Doctrine of Sacred Scripture: A 

Critical, Historical, and Dogmatic Inquiry into the Origin and Nature of the 
Old and New Testaments. Two vols. Svo, 1600 pp., 243. 

Laidlaw (Prof. J., D.D.) — ^The Bible Doctrine of Man; or. The 

Anthropology and Psychology of Scripture. New Edition Revised and 
Rearranged, post Svo, 7s. 6d. 

Lane (Laura M.) — Life of Alexander Vinet. Crown Svo, 7s. 6d. 

Lange (J. P., D.D.) — The Life of our Lord Jesus Christ. Edited 

by Marcus Dods, D.D. 2nd Edition, in 4 vols. Svo, price 28s. net. 

Commentaries on the Old and New Testaments. Edited 

by Philip Sohapf, D.D. Old Testament, 14 vols. ; New Testament, 10 
vols. ; Apooktpha, 1 vol. Subscription price, net, 16s. each. 

St. Matthew and St. Mark, 3 vols. Svo, 18s. net; St. Luke, 

2 vols. Svo, 12s. net; St. John, 2 vols. Svo, 12s. net. 
•»* Any Four Volumes at the original Subscription price of 21s. net. 

Le Camus (E., Bishop of La Rochelle)— The Children of Nazareth. 

Foap. 4to. 43. 

Lechler (Prof. G. V., D.D.)— The Apostolic and Post- Apostolic 

Times. Their Diversity and Unity in Life and Doctrine. 2 vols. cr. Svo, 16s. 
Lehmann (Pastor) — Scenes from the Life of Jesus. Cr. Svo, 3s. 6d. 
Lewis (Tayler, LL.D.)— The Six Days of Creation. Cr. Svo, 7s. 6d. 
Lidgett (Rev. J. Scott.)— The Fatherhood of God in Christian 

Truth and Life. Svo, 8s. net. 
Lilley (J. P., M.A)— The Lord's Supper : Its Origin, Nature, and 

Use. Crown Svo, Ss. 

The Pastoral Epistles. 2s. 6d. 

Principles of Protestantism. 2s. 6d. 

LiUie (Arthur)— Buddha and Buddhism. Crown Svo, 3s. 
Lindsay (Prin. T. M., D.D.)— Luther and the German Eeforma- 

TiON. Crown Svo, 3s. 

Lisco (P. Or.) — Parables of Jesus Explained. Fcap. Svo, 5s. 
Locke (Clinton, D.D.)— The Age of the Great Western Schism. 

{Eras of Church History.) 6s. 
Lotze (Hermann)— Microcosmus : An Essay concerning Man and his 
relation to the World. Cheaper Edition, 2 vols. Svo (1450 pp.) 24s 

Ludlow (J. M., D.D.)— The Age of the Crusades.' (ijras of 

Church History.) 6s. 
Luthardt, Kahnis, and Brtlckner — The Church. Qxovrn Svo, 5s. 
Luthardt (Prof.)— St. John the Author of theFourth Gospel. 7s. 6d. 

Commentary on St. John's Gospel. 3 vols. Svo, 18s. net. 

■ History of Christla.n Ethics. Svo, 6s. net. 

Apologetic Lectures on the Fundamental (7 Ed.), Saving 

(5 Ed.), Moral Truths of Christianity (4 Ed.). 3 vols. cr. Svo, 6s. each. 



T. and T. Clark s Publications. 



Macdonald — Introduction to Pentateuch. Two vols. 8vo, 12s. net. 

The Creation and Fall. 8vo, 6s. net. 

Macgregor (Rev. Jas., D.D.) — The Apology of the Christian 

Keligion. 8vo, 10s. 6d. 

The Eevelation and the Eecoed : Essays on Matters of 

Previous Question in the Proof of Christianity. 8vo, 7s. 6d. 

Studies in the History of New Testament Apologetics. 



8vo, 7s. 6d. 

Macgregor (Kev. G. H. C, M.A.)— So Great Salvation. Cr. 32mo, Is. 
Macpherson (Rev. Jolm, M.A.)— Commentary on the Epistle to 

THE EPHKSIANS. 8vO, lOs. 6d. 

Christian Dogmatics. Post 8vo, 9s. 

McCosh (James), Life of. 8vo, 9s. 

McGiffert (Prof. A. C, Ph.D.)— History of Christianity in the 

Apostolic Age. (Interncaional Theological Library.) Post Svo, 12s. 

The Apostles' Creed. Post Svo, 4s. net. 

M'Hardy (G., D.D.)— Savonarola. Crown 8vo, 3s. 

M'Intosh (Rev. Hugh, M.A.)— Is Christ Infallible and the 

Bible Teue ? Third Edition, post 8vo, 6s. net. 
M'Realsham (E. D.)— Eomans Dissected. A Critical Analysis of the 
Epistle to the Eomans. Crown Svo, 2s. 

Mair (A., D.D.)— Studies in the Christian Evidences. Third 

Edition, Revised and Enlarged, crown 8vo, 6s. 

Martensen (Bishop)— Christian Dogmatics. 8vo, 6s. net. 

Christian Ethics. (General — Individual — Social.) 

Three vols. Svo, 6s. net each. 

Matheson (Geo., D.D.)— Growth of the Spirit of Christianity, from 

the First Century to the Dawn of the Lutheran Era. Two vols. Svo, 21s. 

Meyer (Dr.) — Critical and Exegetical Commentaries on the 

New Testament. Twenty vols. Svo. Subscription price, £5, 5s. _ net ; 
selection of Four Volumes at Subscription price of 21s. ; Non-Subscnption 
price, 10s. 6d. each volume. , „ t o i 

St. Matthew, 2 vols. ; Makk and Ltjkb, 2 vols. ; St. John, i vols. ; 
Acts, 2 vols. ; Romans, 2 vols. ; Corinthians, 2 vols. ; Galatians, one vol. ; 
Ephesians and Philemon, one vol.; Philippians and Colossians, one vol. ; 
Thessalonians {Dr. Liinemann), one vol. ; The Pastoral Epistles {Br. 
Buiher), one vol. ; Hebrews {Dr. Liinemann), one vol. ; St. Jambs and bi. 
John's Epistles {Huther), one vol. ; Peter and Judb {Dr. Iluther), one vol. 

Michie (Charles, M.A.)— Bible Words and Phrases. 18nio, Is. 
Mniigan (George, B.D.)— The Theology of the Epistle to the 

Hebrews. Post Svo, 6s. 
Milligan (Prof. W., D.D.)— The Eesurrection of the Dead. 

Second Edition, crown Svo, 4s. 6d. 

MiUigan (Prof. W., D.D.) and Moulton (W. F., D.D.) — Com- 
mentary ON THE Gospel of St. John. Imp. Svo, 9s. 

Moffatt (James, D.D.)— The Historical New Testament. Second 

Edition, demy Svo, I63. 

Moore (Prof. G. P., D.D.) — Judges. {International Critical Com- 
mentary.) Second Edition, post Svo, 12s. 

Morgan (J., D.D.)— Scripture Testimony to the Holy Spirit. 7s. 6d. 

Exposition of the First Epistle of John. Svo, 7s. 6d. 



lo T. and T. Clark s Publications. 

Moulton (W. P„ 1).D.) and Geden (A. S., M.A.)— A Concordancb 
TO THE Gkebk Testament. Crown 4to, 26s. net, and 31s. 6d. net. 

Muir (Sir W.) — Mohammedan Controversy, Etc. 8vo, 7s. 6d. 

Indian Mutiny. Two vols. 36s. net. 

MtQler (Dr. Julius)— The Christian Doctrine of Sin. 2 vols. 8vo, 

12s. net. 

Murphy (Professor) — Commentary on the Psalms. 8vo, 12s. 

A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Exodus. 9s. 

Naville (Ernest) — The Problem of Evil. Crown Svo, 4s. 6d. 

— The Christ. Translated by Eev. T. J. Despri^s. Cr.8vo,4s.6d. 

Modern Physics. Crown 8vo, 5s. 

Neander (Dr.)— Church History. Eight vols. Svo, £2, 2s. net. 
Nicoll (W. Robertson, M.A.., LL.D.)— The Incarnate Saviour. 

Cheap Edition, price 3s. 6d. 

Novalis — Hymns and Thoughts on Eeligion. Crown 8vo, 4s. 
Oehler (Prof.) — Theology of the Old Testament. 2 vols. 8vo, 

12s. net. 

Olshausen (Dr. H.) — Biblical Commentary on the Gospels and 

Acts. Four vols., 21s. net. Crown Svo Edition, four vols., 24s. 

Eomans, one vol. Svo, 6s. net ; Corinthians, one vol. Svo, 

6s. net ; Philippians, Titus, and First Timothy, one vol. Svo, 6s. net. 

Oosterzee (Dr. Van) — The Year of Salvation. 2 vols. Svo, 6s. each. 

Moses : A Biblical Study. Crown Svo, 6s. 

Orelli (Dr. 0. von) — Old Testament Prophecy; Commentary on 
Isaiah ; Jeremiah ; The Twelve Minor Prophets. 4 vols. Subscription 
price, 21s. net ; separate vols., 6s. net, each. 

Owen (Dr. John) — Works. Best and only Complete Edition. Edited 
by Kev. Dr. GooLr. Twenty-four vols. Svo, Subscription price, £4, 4s. 
The ^Hebrews' may be had separately, in seven vols., £2, 2s. net. 

Palestine, Map of. Edited by J. G. Bartholomew, F.E.G.S., and 
Prof. G. A. Smith, M.D., D.D. With complete Index. Scale — 4 Miles to 
an Inch. In cloth, 10s. 6d. ; mounted on rollers, varnished, 15s. 

Philippi (F. A.) — Commentary on the Eomans. Two vols, svo, i2s. net. 

Piper — Lives of Leaders of Church Universal. Two vols. Svo, 21 s. 

Popular Commentary on the New Testament. Edited by Philip 
SoHAFE, D.D. With Illustrations and Maps. Vol. I. — The Synoptical 
Gospels. Vol. II. — St. John's Gospel, and the Acts or the Apostles. 
Vol. III. — Romans to Philemon. Vol. IV. — Hebrews to Revelation. 
In four vols, imperial Svo, 12s. 6d. each. 

Plummer (Alfred, D.D.)— St. Luke. (International Critical Com- 
mentary.) Fourth Edition, post Svo, 12s. 

Pressens6 (Edward de) — The Eedeemer : Discourses. Crown Svo, 6s. 

Profeit (Eev. W., M.A.)— The Creation of Matter; or. Material 
Elements, Evolution, and Creation. Crown Svo, 2s. net. 

Piinjer (Bemhard) — History of the Christian Philosophy of 

Religion from the Reformation to Kant. Svo, 16s. 
Rabiger (Prof.) — Encyclopaedia of Theology. Two vols. Svo, i2s. net. 
Rainy (Principal) — Delivery and Development of. Christian 

Doctrine. Svo, 10s. 6d. 

The Ancient Catholic Church. {International Theo- 
logical Library.) Post Svo, 12s. 

Reusch (Prof.)— Nature and the Bible: Lectures on the Mosaic 
History of Creation in relation to Natural Science. Two vols. Svo, 21s. 

Reuss (Professor)— History of the Sacred Scriptures of the ISTew 

Testament. 640 pp. Svo, 15s. 



T. and T. Clark's Publications. 1 1 

Eiehm (Dr. E.)— Messianic Prophecy. New Edition. Post 8vo, 7s. 6d. 

Ritchie (Prof. D. G., M. A.)— Plato. Crown 8vo, 3s. 

Kitschl (Albreoht, D.D.)— The Christian Doctrine of Justifi- 

CATION AND RECONCILIATION. Second Edition, 8to, 14s. 

Bitter (Carl) — Comparative Geography of Palestine, i vols. 8vo, 213. 
Eobinson (Kev. S., D.D.)— Discourses on Redemption. 8vo, 7s. 6d. 
Bobinson (E., D.D.) — Greek and Eng. Lexicon of the N. Test. 8vo,9s. 
Booke (T. G., B. A.)— Inspiration, and other Lectures. 8vo, 7s. 6d. 
Boss (C.)— Our Father's Kingdom. Crown 8vo, 2s. 6d. 
Bothe (Prof.) — Sermons for the Christian Year. Cr. 8vo, 4s. 6d. 
Saisset — Manual of Modern Pantheism. Two vols. 8vo, 10s. 6d. 
Sahnond (Princ. S. D. F., D.D.)— The Christian Doctrine of 

Immoetalitv. Fifth Edition, post 8vo, 9s. 
Sanday (Prof. W., D.D.) and Headlam (A. C, B.D.)— Romans. 

(International Critical Oominentary.) Third Edition, post 8vo, 12s. 
Sartorius (Dr. E.) — Doctrine of Divine Love. 8vo, 6s. net. 
Sayce (Prof A. H., LL.D.) — The Religions of Ancient Egypt and 

Babylonia. Post 8vo, 8s. net. 
Schaflf (Professor) — History of the Christian Church. (New 

Edition, thoroughly Eevised and Enlarged.) Six 'Divisions,' in 2 vols, 
each, extra 8vo. 
1. Apostolic Chkistianitt, a.d. 1-100, 2 vols. 21s. 2. Ante-Nioenb, 
A.D. 100-325, 2 vols., 21s. 3. Nicenb and Post-Nicene, a.d. 325-600, 
2 vols., 21s. 4. MEDliEVAL, A.D. 590-1073, 2 vols., 21s. (Completion of 
this Period, 1073-1517, in preparation). 5. The Swiss Reformation, 
2 vols., extra demy 8vo, 21s. 6. The German Rbfoemation, 2 vols., extra 
demy 8vo, 21s. 

Schleiermacher's Christmas Eve. Crown 8vo, 2s. 

Schubert (Prof H. Von., D.D.)— The GcJspel of St. Peter. Synoptical 
Tables. With Translation and Critical Apparatus. 8vo, Is. 6d. net. 

Schultz (Hermann) — Old Testament Theology. Two vols. 1 8s. net. 

Schiirer (Prof.) — History of the Jewish People. 5 vols. Subscrip- 
tion price, 26s. 3d. net. 

*^* Index. In separate Volume. 2s. 6d. net. 

SchwartzkopfF (Dr. P.) — The Prophecies of Jesus Christ. Crown 
8vo, 5s. 

Scott (Jas., M.A., D.D.) — Principles of New Testament Quotation 

Established and Applied to Biblical Criticism. Cr. 8vo, 2nd Edit., 4s. 

Sell (K., D.D.) — The Church in the Mirror of History. Cr. 8vo, 3/6. 

Shaw (Rev. R. D., B.D.) — The Pauline Epistles : Introductory and 

Expository Studies. 8vo, 8s. net. 

Shedd — History of Christian Doctrine. Two vols. 8vo, 21s. 

Sermons to the Spiritual Man. 8vo, 7s. 6d. 

Dogmatic Theology. Three vols. ex. 8vo, 37s. 6d. 

Sime (James, M.A.) — William Herschel and his Work. Cr. 8vo, 3s. 

Simon (Prof) — Reconciliation by Incarnation. Post 8vo, 7s. 6d. 

Skene-BickeU — The Lord's Supper & The Passover Ritual. 8vo, 5s. 

Smeaton (Oliphant, M.A.)— The Medici and the Italian Renais- 
sance. 3s. 

Smith (Prof. H. P., D.D.) — I. and II. Samuel. (International Critical 
Commentary.) Post 8vo, 12s. 



1 2 T. and T. Clark's Publications. 

Smith (Professor Thos., D.D.)— Medieval Missions. Or. 8vo, 4s. 6d. 

Euclid : His Life and System. Crown 8vo, 3s, 

Smyth (John, M.A., D.Ph.)— Truth and Reality. Crown 8vo, 4p. 

Smyth (Newman, D.D.) — Christian Ethics. (International Theo- 
logical Library.) Third Edition, post 8vo, lOs. 6d. 

Snell (P. J., M. A.)— "Wesley and Methodism. Crown 8vo, 3s. 

Somerville (Rev. D., D.D.)— St. Paul's Conception of Christ. 9s. 

Stahlin (Leonh.) — Kant, Lotze, and Ritschl. 8vo, 9s. 

Stalker (Prof. Jas., D.D.)— Life of Christ. Large Type Edition, 
Crown 8vo, 3s. 6d. 

Life of St. Paul. Large Type Edition, crown 8vo, 3s. 6d. 

Stanton (V. H., D.D.) — The Jewish and The Christian Messiah. 

A Study in the Earliest History of Christianity. 8vo, 10s. 6d. 

Stead (P. H.)— The Kingdom of God. Is. 6d. 

Steinmeyer (Dr. P. L.) — The Miracles of our Lord. 8vo, 7s. 6d. 

The History of the Passion and Resurrection of our 

Lord, considered in the Light of Modern Criticism. 8vo, 6s. net. 
Stevens (Prof G. B., D.D.)— The Theology of the New Testament. 
[International Theological Library.) Post 8to, 12s. 

Stevenson (Mrs.) — The Symbolic Parables. Crown 8vo, 3s. 6d. 
Steward (Rev. G.) — Mediatorial Sovereignty. Two vols. 8vo, 21s. 

The Argument of the Epistle to the Hebrews. 8vo, 10s.6d. 

Stier (Dr. Rudolph) — On the Words of the Lord Jesus. Eight 

vols. 8vo, Subscription price of £2, 2s. Separate volumes, price 6s. net. 

The Words of the Risen Saviour, and Commentary on 

THE Epistlb op St. James. 8vo, 6s. net. 

The Words of the Apostles Expounded. 8vo, 6s. net. 



Stirling (Dr. J. Hutchison) — Philosophy and Theology. Post 8vo, 9s. 

Darwinianism : Workmen and Work. Post 8vo, 10s. 6d. 

What is Thought? 8vo, 10s. 6d. 

Strachan (Rev. J., M.A.), Hebrew Ideals ; from the Story of the 

Patriarchs. Crown 8vo, 2s. 

Tholuck (Prof) — The Epistle to the Romans. Two vols. fcap. 8vo, 8s. 

Thomson (J. E. H., D.D.) — Books which Influenced our Lord 

AND Hi.s Apostles. 8vo, 10s. 6d. 
Thomson (Rev. E. A.) — Memorials of a Ministry. Crown 8vo, 5s. 
Tophel (Pastor G.) — The Work of the Holy Spirit. Cr. 8vo, 2s. 6d. 

Toy (Prof. C. H., D.D.)— Proverbs. {International Critical Com- 
mentary.) Post 8vo, 12s. 
Troup (Rev. G. ElmsUe, M.A.)— Words to Young Christians : 

Being Addresses to Young Communicants. On antique laid paper, chaste 
binding, fcap. 8vo, 4s. 6d. 

Uhlhom(G.)— ChristianCharityintheAnoientChurch. Cr.8vo,6s. 
Ullmann (Dr, Carl) — Reformers before the Reformation, princi- 
pally in Germany and the Netherlands. Two vols. 8vo, 21s. 

The Sinlessness of Jesus. New Reprint, crown 8vo, 5s. 

IJrwick (W., M.A.)— The Servant of Jehovah : A Commentary 

upon Isaiah lii. 13-liii. 12; with Dissertations upon Isaiah xl.-lxvi. 8vo, 3a. 



T. and T. Clark's Publications. 13 

Vinet (Life and Writings of). By L. M. Lane. Crown 8vo, 7s. 6d. 

Vincent (Prof. M. R., D.D.) — The Age of Hildebrand. {Eras of 
Church Sistory.) 6s. 

Philippians and Philemon. {International Critical Com- 
mentary.) Second Edition, post 8vo, 8s. 6d. 

Walker (James, of Camwath) — Essays, Papers, and Sermons. 

Post 8vo, 6s. 

Walker (J., D.D.) — Theology and Theologians of Scotland. 

New Edition, crown 8vo, 3s. 6d. 
Walker (Prof. W., D.D.) — The Protestant Pv.eformation. {Eras 

of Church Sistory. ) 6s. 
Walker (Kev. W. L.) — The Spirit and the Incarnation. Second 

Edition, 8vo, 9s. 

The Cross and the Kingdom. 8 to, 9s. 

Warfield (B. B., D.D.)— The Eight of Systematic Theology. 

Crown 8vo, 2s. 

Waterman (L., D.D.) — The Post-Apostolic Age. {Eras of Church 

Sistory. ) 6s. 

Watt (W. A., M.A., D.Ph.) — The Theory of Contract in its Social 

Light. 8vo, 3s. 
A Study of Social Morality. Post Svo, 6s. 

Watts (Professor) — The Newer Criticism and the Analogy of 

THE Faith. Third Edition, crown 8vo, 5s. 

The Reign of Causality : A Vindication of the Scientific 

Principle of Telic Causal EfBciency. Crown Svo, 6s. 

The New Apologetic. Crown Svo, 6 s. 



Weir (J.F., M.A.) — The Way : The Nature and Means of Salvation. 

Ex. crown 8vo, 6s. 6d. 

Weiss (Prof) — Biblical Theology of New Testament. 2 vols. 8vo, 

12s. net. 

Life of Christ. Three vols. Svo, 1 8s. net. 

Welch (Rev. A. C, B.D.) — Anselm and his Work. 3s. 

WeUs (Prof. 0. L.)— The Age of Charlemagne. {Eras of the 

Christian Church.) 6s. 

Wendt (H. H., D.D.) — The Teaching of Jesus. 2 vols. Svo, 21s. 

The Gospel according to St. John. 8vo, 7s. 6d. 

Wenley (R. M.) — Contemporary Theology and Theism. Crown 

8 TO, 4s. 6d. 

White (Rev. M.) — Symbolical Numbers of Scripture. Cr. Svo, 4s. 
Williams (E. P., D.D.) — Christian Life in Germany. Crown Svo, 5s. 
Wilson (S. Law, D.D.) — The Theology of Modern Literature. 

Post Svo, 7s. 6d. 

Winer (Dr. G. B.)— A Treatise on the Grammar of New Testa- 
ment Gkeek, regarded as tlie Basis of New Testament Exegesis. Third 
Edition, edited by "W. F. Moulton, D.D. Ninth English Edition, Svo, 16s. 

Witherow(Prof . T. ,D.D. ) —The Form ofthe Christian Temple. Svo,io/6. 
Woods (F. H., B.D.) — The Hope of Israel. Crown Svo, 3s. 6d. 
Workman (Prof. G. 0.)— The Text of Jeremiah; or, A Critical Investi- 
gation of the Greek and Hebrew, etc. Post Svo, 9s. 
Wright (0. H., D.D.)— Biblical Essays. Crown Svo, 5s. 



14 



T. and T. Clark's Publications. 



THE INTERNATIONAL THEOLOGICAL LIBRARY. 



The following eminent Scholars have contributed, or are 
engaged upon, the Volumes named : — 



An Introduotlon to the Literature of 
the Old Testament. 

Christian Ethics. 

Apologetics. 

History, of Christian Doctrine. 

A History of Christianity In the Apostolic 
Age. 

Christian Institutions. 

The Christian Pastor. 

Theology of the New Testament. 

The Ancient Catholic Church. 
Theology of the Ola Testament. 

The Literature of the New Testament. 

Old Testament History. 

Canon and Text of the New Testament. 

The Latin Church. 

Encyclopaedia. 



Contemporary History of the Old Testa- 
ment. 



Contemporary History of the New Testa- 
ment. 

Philosophy of Religion. 

The Study of the Old Testament. 

Rabbinical Literature. 

The Life of Christ. 



The Christian Preacher. 



By S. R. Driver, D.D., Regiu!^ Professor 
of Hebrew, and Canon of Christ Church, 
Oxford. [Seventh Edition. 12s. 

By Newman Smyth, D-D., Pastor of the 
First Congregational Church, New Haven, 
Conn. [Third Edition. 10s. 6d. 

By the late A. B. Bruce, D.D., Professor of 
New Testament Exegesis, Free Church 
College, Glasgow. [Third Edition. los. 6d. 

By G. P. Fisher, D.D., LL.D., Professor 
of Ecclesiastical History, Yale University, 
New Haven, Conn. 

[Second Edition. j2s. 

By Arthur Cushman McGiffert, Ph.D., 
D.D., Professor of Church History, Union 
Theological Seminary, New York. [12s. 

By A. V. G. Allen, D.D., Professor of 
Ecclesiastical History, Episcopal Theo- 
logical School, Cambridge, Mass. [12s. 

By Washington Gladden, D.D., Pastor 
of Congregational Church, Columbus, 
Ohio. [los. 6d. 

By George B. Stevens, Ph.D., D.D., Pro- 
fessor of Systematic Theology in Yale 
University, U.S.A. [12s. 

By Robert Rainv, D.D., Principal of The 
New College, Edinburgh. [12s. 

By the late A. B. Davidson, D.D., LL.D., 
Professor of Hebrew, The New College, 
Edinburgh. 

By S. D. F. Salmond, D.D., Principal, 
and Professor of Systematic Theology and 
New Testament Exegesis, United Free 
Church College, Aberdeen. 

^>C,.H: P- Smith, D.D., late Professor of 
Biblical History and Interpretation, 
Amherst College, U.S.A. 

By Caspar Ren« Gregory, Ph.D., Pro- 
fessor in the University of Leipzig. 

By Archibald Robertson, D.D., Principal 
of King's College, London. 

^^S- ^- Briggs, D.D., Professor of Biblical 
Iheology, Union Theological Seminary, 
New York. 

By Francis Brown, D.D., Professor of 
Hebrew and Cognate Languages, Union 
Iheological Seminary, New York. 

By Frank C. Porter, Ph.D., Yale Uni- 
versity, New Haven, Conn. 

By Robert Flint D.D.. LL.D., Professor 
or Divinity in the University of Edinburgh. 

By the Right Rev. H. E. Ryle, D.D., Lord 
Bishop of Exeter. 

\^;h "'??''■"''''?■ ^■^;,' R'^derin Talmudic 
in the University of Cambridge. 

By William Sanday, D.D., LL.D., Lady 

Margaret Professorof Divinity, and'Canon 
of Christ Church, Oxford. 

By John Watson, D.D. (' Ian Mac- 
I.AREN ), Sefton Park Presbyterian Church 
ot tngland, Liverpool. 



Publications. 



15 



THE INTERNATIONAL CRITICAL COMMENTARY. 

TEN VOLUMES NOW READY, viz. :— 

Deuteronomy, Judges, I. and II. Samuel, Proverbs, S. Mark, S. Luke, Romans, 

Ephesians and Colossians, Phillpplans and Philemon, S. Peter and S. Jude. 

Tlie following other Volumes are in course of preparation ; — 



Genesis, 

Exodus. 
Leviticus. 

numbers. 

Joshua. 

Kings. 

Isaiah. 

Jeremiah. 

Minor Prophets. 
Psalms. 

Job. 
Daniel. 

Ezra and Nehemiah. 
Chronicles. 



THE OLD TESTAMENT. 

T. K. Cheyne, D.D.J Oriel Professor of the Interpretation of Holy 
Scripture, Oxford, and Canon of Rochester. 

A. R. S. Kennedy, D.D., Professor of Hebrew, University of Edinburgh. 

J. P. Stennino, M.A., Fellow of "Wadham College, Oxford ; and the late 
Rev. H, A. White, M.A., Fellow of New College, Oxford. 

G. Bdchanan Gray, M.A., Professor of Hebrew, Mansfield College, 
Oxford. [/u i?i6 Frzss. 

George Adam Smith, D.D., Professor of Hebrew, United Free Church 
College, Glasgow. 

Francis Brown, D.D., Professor of Hebrew and Cognate Languages, 
Union Theological Seminary, New York. 

The late A. B. Davidson, D.D., LL.D., Professor of Hebrew, New 
College, Edinburgh. 

A. F. KiRKPATRiCK, D.D., Regius Professor of Hebrew, and Fellow of 
Trinity College, Cambridge. 

W. R. Harper, Ph.D., President of Chicago University. 

0. A. Briggs, D.D., Edward Robinson Professor of Biblical Theology, 
Union Theological Seminary, New York. 

S. R. Driver, D.D., Regius Professor of Hebrew, Oxford. 

Rev. John P. Peters, Ph.D., late Professor of Hebrew, P. B. Divinity 
School, Philadelphia, now Rector of St. Michael's Church, New 
York City. 

Rev. L. W. Batten, Ph.D., Professor of Hebrew, P. E. Divinity School, 
Philadelphia. 

Edward L. Curtis, D.D., Professor of Hebrew, Yale University, New 
Haven, Conn. 



Synopsis of the 

Four Gospels. 

IS at the w. 



Acts. 

Corinthians. 

Galatians. 

I. and II. 

Thessalonians. 

The Pastoral Epistles. 

Hebrews. 

James. 

The Johannine 

Epistles. 

Revelation. 



THE NEW TESTAMENT. 

W. Sanpay, D.D., LL.D., Lady Margaret Professor of Divinity, Oxford ; 

and Rev. W. C. Allen, M.A., Exeter College, Oxford- 
Rev. WiLLOUGHBY C. ALLEN, M.A., Chaplain, Fellow, and Lecturer in 

Theology and Hebrew, Exeter College, Oxford. 

Feedebick H. Chase, D.D., Christ's College, Cambridge. 

Akch. Bobeetson, D.D., Principal of King's College, London. 

Rev. Ernest D. Bueton, A.B., Professor of New Testament Literature, 
University of Chicago. 

E. H. Feame, M.A., Assistant Professor of Biblical Literature, Union 
Theological Seminary, New York. 

Walter Lock, D.D., Dean Ireland's Professor of Exegesis, Oxford. 

Rev. A. Naiene, M.A., Professor of Hebrew in King's College, London. 

Rev. James H. Ropes, A.B., Instructor in New Testament Criticism in 
Harvard University. 

S. D. P. Salmokd, D.D., Principal, and Professor of Systematic Theology, 
United Free Church College,, Aberdeen. 

BobeetH. Charles, D.D., Professor of Biblical Greek In the University 
of Dublin. 

Other engagements viMl ie announced shortly. 



i6 



1. ana i. L.iar/es Jr^uOlications. 



CDe World's €pocD=maker$ 

Edited by OLIPHANT SMEATON. 

Messes. T. & T. Clark hare much pleasure in announcing that they have 
commenced the publication of an important new Series, under the above title. 

The following Volumes haue now been issued : — 



Buddha and Buddhism. By Arthur 

LiLLIB. 

Luther and the German Reformation. 

By Principal T. M. Lindsay, D.D. 

Wesley and Methodism. By F. J. 
Snell, M.A. 

Cranmer and the English Reforma- 
tion. By A. D. Innes, M.A. 

William Herschel and his Work. 
By James Sime, M.A. 

Francis and Dominic. By Professor 
J. Herkless, D.D. 

Savonarola. By G. M 'Hardy, D.D. 

Anselm and his Work. By Rev. A. 
C, Welch, B.D. 

Origen and Greek Patristic Theology. 
By Rev. "W. Fairweathee, M.A. 



Muhammad and his Power. By P. 

Db Lacy Johxstose, M.A. (Oxon.). 

The Medici and the Italian Renais- 
sance. By Oliphant Smeatox, 
M.A., Edinburgh. 

Plato. By Professor D. G. Ritchie, 

M.A. , University of St. Andrews. 

Pascal and the Port Royalists. By 

Professor W. Clark, LL.D., D.C.L., 
Trinity College, Toronto. 

Euclid. By Emeritus Professor Thomas 
Smith, D.D. 

Hegel and Hegelianism. By Pro- 
fessor E. Mackintosh, D.D., Lanca- 
shire Independent College, Man- 
chester. 



The following have also been arranged for: 



Socrates. By Eev. J. T. Forbes, 
M.A., Glasgow. 

Marcus &urelius and the Later Stoics. 
By F. W. BussBLL, D.D., Vice- 
Principal of Brasenose College, Oxford. 
[/«. the Press. 

Augustine and Latin Patristic Theo- 
logy. By Professor B. B. Warfield, 
D.D., Princeton. 

Scotus Erigena and his Epoch. By 

Professor R. Latta, Ph.D., D.Sc, 
University of Aberdeen. 

Wyclif and the Lollards. By Rev. 
J. C. Careick, B.D. 

The Two Bacons and Experimental 
Science. By Rev. W. J. Couper, M. A. 

Calvin and the Reformed Theology. 

By Principal Salmoxd, D.D., U.F.C. 
College, Aberdeen. 
Leasing and the New Humanism, 

By Rev. A. P. Davidson, M.A. 



Descartes, Spinoza, and the New 
Philosophy. By Professor J. Iverach, 
D.D., U.F.C. College, Aberdeen. 

Hume and his Influence on Philo- 
sophy and Theology. By Professor 
J. Orh, D.D., Glasgow. [In the Press. 

Rousseau and Naturalism in Life 
and Thought. By Professor W. H. 
Hudson, M.A., Leland Stanford 
Junior University, California. 

[/?i tJie Press. 

Kant and his Philosophical Revolu- 
tion. By Professor E. M. AVenlby, 
D.Sc.,'Ph.D., University of Michi- 
gan. 

Schleiermacher and the Rejuven- 
escence of Theology. By Professor 
A. JlARTiN, D.D., New College, 
Edinburgh. 

Newman and his Influence. By 
C. Sarolea, Ph.D., Litt. Doc, 
University of Edinburgh. 



Published Price, THREE SHILLINGS per Volume.