(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The archæology of baptism"

"*:*•■■* yw 






OJotttcU Itttuctaitg ffilthtarg 

atljaca. Kent ^orb 

BOUGHT WITH THE INCOME OF THE 

SAGE ENDOWMENT FUND 

THE GIFT OF 

HENRY W. SAGE 

1891 



Cornell University Library 
BV808 .C84 




olln 



3 1924 029 335 746 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924029335746 




BAPTiyTBR? IN CATACOMB OP' S. PONZIANO, EOME. 







THE 



RCH^OLOGY 



BAPTISM. 



/ 



WoLFi^ED Nelson poTE, 



ROME. ITALY. 



YATES AND ALEXANDER, 

2 1, Castle Street, Holborn. 



1876. 



COPYRIGHT RESERVED. 



TO 



REV. CHARLES STOVEL, 

OF LONDON, 
THIS BOOK IS 

BY 

THE AUTHOR. 



PREFACE. 




N offering this Work to the public, the 
Author desires to express his deep sense 
of obligation to Messrs. Thomas Coats, of Paisley; 
Thomas Joseph, of Cardiff; William Matthewson, 
of Culross ; Joseph Tritton, of London ; and George 
Edmonstone, of Torquay ; who have generously 
provided the pecuniary means necessary for the 
prosecution of his researches on the subject of 
Baptism. 

The Author would also express his acknowledg- 
ments to Rev. Dr. Angus, of Regent's Park 
College, London, for many valuable and judicious 
suggestions, and to Mr. Edwin M. Gardner, a 
talented American artist, who has copied a large 
number of the illustrations contained in this Work 
from ancient manuscripts in the libraries of Rome, 
Paris, and London. 

Rome, January ibtli, 1876. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST 

OF THE 

PEINCIPAL AUTHOES COXSULTED IN THIS WOEK. 



Albaspinus (Gabr.). De reteribus Ea-Icxiir- ritibm. 

Alcuini'S. De Divinis officiis, 

Amalakius. JDe Ecclesiastico officio. 

Anastasius BiBLioTHECAEirs. Be vilis Rrimanorum ponfijicim, cum notis Blan- 

chinii. 4 vols. fol. 1718-1723. 
Aringhi. Roma subterranrn. Fol. 2 vols. EoiriEB, 16.51-lfi-")0. 
Abnaud Claudius. Thesaw. Sacr. Ritiaim. 
As.semanus (Jos. Sim.). Bibliotkeca Orientalis Okinentino Vaticaiio. 

Bartholinus (Joan). De Baptismo per aspersionem. Hasniaj, 10.57. 

Bar-zuoli (Job.). De Baptismo. 

Basnage (Samuel). Excrcitationes Sisti:rirn-Critic(r. 

Bernardixus Fekrarius. De ritn sncrnruni Ecclesice vefms concioui/w, cum 

pr(tfafione Joanni Oeorgii Grmvii. Veronfe, 1731. Ito. 
Sertoli Francesco. Notizie delle Future ecr. d' ItaVm, 
Bertoluzzi. Nuoviss. Gu'ida della Citta di Banna. 
BiANCoxi. Della C'hiesa del s. Sepolcro di Bologna. 

BiBLIOTHECA magna VETERUM PATRUM ET ANTiaUORUM SCRIPTORUM ECCLESIASTI- 

coRUM. 1644. 
Bingham. Antiquities of the Christian Church. 9 vols. London, 1843. 
Blanchinius. Demonstratio historic ecclesiasticm comprobata monumeniis perti- 

nentibua adfi4em- temporum et gestorum. Romse, 1762. 3 torn. fol. 
Boldetti. Osservazioni sopra i cimiteri d^ santi martiri cd antichi CrUtiani di 

Roma. Fol. Roma, 1720. 
Bona (J.). De Rebus Liturgicis. 
Bottari. Sculture e pitture sagre estratl.f dai cimiteri di Roma, pubblicnte gid 

dagli antori della Roma sotterranca, cd ora vuovamcnte date in hice colle spiega^ 

zioni. Eoma, 3 vols. fol. 1737-1754. 
Brandolese. Ze Pitture, Sculture, ecc. di Padovn descrittc. 
Bugati (Gaetano). Memorie storiche intorno le reliquie ed il culto di B. Celso 

martire, Oin un' appendice nella quale si spiega nn dittico d'arorio della chiesa 

mefropolitana di 3[ilar,o. In Milano, 1782. 4to. 

a 



Vlll LIST OF AUTHORS CONSULTED. 

BuoNARRUOTi. 1». Ossenazioni sopm almni frammenti di vast antic/d di retro, 
ornate di figure trocati ne' cimiteri di Roma. Firenze, 4to. 1716. 2°. Osscr- 
vazioni istoriche sopra aleiitii medaglioni antiehi. In Koma, 1698. 3". 1 Hen 
antichi. 

Cabasilas (Nicolas). Expositio Liturgies. 

Cabassutics (J.). Dissertatio de ritibus Mm Baptismo adhiieri solitis; and also 

De Diptyelns Ecchsice, 
Cabham (Tho3.). De Baptismo. 

Calixtus (F. U.). De antiquis circa Baptismum ritibus. 1630. 
Calvoer. Sitiia!. Ecelesiast. 

Canisii (Jac). Fons sahitis, sire primum Sacrameutoriim omnium Baptismiis. 
Casalius. De veteribus sacris Ghristianoriim ritibws explanatio. Eom£B, 1647. 

Fol. 
Cave. Driinitive Christianity. 
Cavedoni. 1°. Ragguaglio critieo dei monumenti delle arti Crisiiane primitive. 

Modena, 1849. 8vo. 
CiAMPiNi. 1°. Vetera monumenta, in quibus pracipue musiva opera, sacrariim 
profanarumque cedium structura, ae nomiulli antiqui ritits dissert ationibus iconi- 

busquc illustrantiir. 1690-1699. RomsB, 2 vols. fol. 2°. De sacris (edificiis a 

Constantino Magno oonstructis. Eom£e, 1693 Fol. 
Coccius. Thesaurus Ecclesiastic us. 

Coleman (Lyman). Antiquities of the Christian Church. 
CosTADONi. Chiesa di Torcello. 

Dal;eus (J.). [De cultib, relig. Zatinor. 1. ix.) De Baptismi ctereinoniis. 

Dale (Van Ant.). Sistoria Baptismorum cum Heiraicorum turn Christianorum . 

Del Torre. Lett, intoi'no dlcunc ant. Crisiiane. 

DoNATi (Sebastiano) . De' dittici degli antichi, profani e sacri, libri fre, coll' 

appcndiee d'aleuni necrologi, e calendari. Lucca, 1753. 
DuRANDi. Rationale divini officii. Mogunt., 1459. Fol. 
DuRANTi. De ritibus Ecelesice catholicm. 12mo. Lugduni, 1594. 

Fabretti (Raphael). Inscriptionum antiquaruir explicatio. Romas, 1699. Fol. 

Faericius. Bibliotheca Orceca. Hamburg, 1712. 

Fresne (Du). Glossaritim, 

Fridericus (Jo.). Liturgia Vetus et Nova, sive eollatio ritmim liturgieorum 

Eccles. Christ. Jenae, 1705. 
Frontonis (Jo.). De Moribus et vita Christianorum in primis Ecclesia saculis. 
FcRiETTi (Jos. Alex.). De Musivis. Fol. Eomfe, 1752. 

Gavanti (Barthol.). Thesaurits Saerornm Riiiium. 1763. 

GrERBERT. Theologia Liturgica. 

GiESELER. Ecclesiastical Sistory, 

Gill (Jobn). Ancient Mode of Baptizing. 

GoAR (Jac). 'Zvypxifiov, seu Ritiiale Grcecorum. Paris, 1647. 

GoDARD (Abbe). Archiologie Sacrie. 

Gregorius turonensis. Opera. 

Gt'Dii (Marc). De Clinicis sen Grnlmtariis ret. Eccles. 



LIST OF AUTHORS CONSULTED. IX 

HiLDEBRAND (J,). Sitiiulf Sapttsmi feteiis. 
HoNORins (Augustodunensis). Sacramentariitm. 
HooRNBEOK (J.). (Miscellanea Sacra.) Be Baplismo veteruiii. 

IsABELLE. J^dif, circidaires. 

IsiDORus (Hispaleneis). He Ecclesiasticis offlciis. 

Jani (Jo. Guill.). Be Liturgiis Orientalibus. Viteberg, 1724. 

Krazer (Aug.). De Apostolicis necnon Aiiti^uis Eodesice Occident. Liturgiis. 
1756. 

Langemack (G.). Historia Catechetica. 

Lopez (Michaele). II battistero di Parma. Parma, 1864. 

Maffeus. 1°. Mtis(sum Veronmse. 1729, fol. 2°. Verona illustrata. Fol. 

Verona, 1732. 
Mamachi. lo. Origines et antiquitates Christiana. Eomaa, 1749-1752. 5 vols. 

4to. 2°. De' costumi de' primitivi Cristiani. Roma, 1753-1754. 3 vols. 8vo. 
Marchi. I monumenti deile arti Cristiane primitive nella metropoli del Oristian- 

esimo. Koma, 1844. 
Maringola (Aloisio). Antiquitatitm Christianarum instittitiones. Neapoli, 1857. 

2 vols. Sto. 
Maetene. 3e antiquis Ecolesim ritihus. 4 vols. fol. Venetiis, 1783. 
Martini. Theatrxim Basilica Fisancc. Eomse, 1728. 
Moroni. J)izionario di erudiz. storico-ecclesiast. 
Mosheim. Sistory of the 0/irixtian Church. 
MuRATOBius (Ludovicus Antonius). Liturgia Eomana vetus. 

Odelon. Dissertatio dc diaconissis Primitivm Ecclesice. 

Oleakh (J. Gothofr.). Bibliotheca scriptorum ecclesiasticorum. Ien£E, 1711- 
2 vols. 4to. 

Paciaudi. 1°, De cultit S. Joannis Baptists. 4to. RomsB, 1755. 2". De sacris 

Ckristimwrum balneis. 4to. Romse, 1758. 
Perret. Les Catacombes de Boiiie. 
Peaef (C. M.) De Liturgiis. 
PiBiE (Al.). Dissertation on Baptism, 

Eabanus (Maunis). De Institutionc clericorum et emremoniis Ecclesia. 
Easponi (Cses.). De basilica et patriarch. Lateranensi. Eomae, 1656. Fol. 
Eeiche (J. Or.). De Baptismi origine et necessitudine, 
Renaudot. Ziturgiarum Orientalium coUectio. 
-Riddle (J. E.). Manual of Chri.<:tian Antiquities. London, 1839. 
RixNBR (Henr.). De Institutis et ritibus veterum Christianorum. 
Robinson (R.). History of Baptism. 
Rossi (J. B. De.) 1°. Inseriptiones Christiance urbis Bomre septimo sceculo 

antiquiores. 2". De Christianis monumentis IX0TN exhibentibiis. S^. lioma 

sotteranea C'ristiana. 
RuPERTUs. De Divinis offlciis. Libri xii. 

Salig. De diptychis veterwn. 

Schelstbate. Antiquitatis Ecolesitr dissertnfiones, moini mentis ac notis ilhis- 
tratce. Libri tres. Romae, 1C92, Fol. 

a 2 



X LIST OF AUTHORS CONSULTED. 

ScHREiEEE (Mich.). Se dilatione JSaptismi. 

Schubert (A. C). De ritibiis Ecclesia primitivm Baptismalibics. 

Selvaggio. Antiqiiitattim Christianaruni iiistitittimies. Vercellis, 1778. 6. vole. ^ 

12mo. 
SociNus. De Baptismo, 

Steabo (Walafrid). He Exor4iis H Iiicrementis Serum Ecdesiastiearum. 
SuicEETJS. Thesaurus. 

ToMAsi. Institutiones theohgicte antiqmrimi Pdtritm. Eomse, 1705 seqq. 2 vols. 

4to. 
Teombellius (Joan. Chrysostom) . Tractatus de Sacramentis,—de SiipUsmo. 5 vola. 

Bononias, 1773. 

ViCEcoMES (Joseph). Oiservationum Ecclesiasticarum. Vol. I. in quo de antiquis 

Baptismi ritihus ac cseremoniis agitur. 
ViscoNTi (Pietro). Sposizioiie dialcune antiche iserizioni Cristiane. Roma, 1824. 

8vo. 
VosRius. Be Baptismo Bissertatio. 

"Walch (J. G.). Mitus Baptismales. 

"Walcker (Mich.). Be CatecMsatione v.eterum. 

Wall (W.). Sistort/ of Infant Baptism. 

Wedbkkampius (J. H.). Be Baptismo veteriim. 170.3. 

"Weidling (C. W.). Be baptisteriis vetenim Christianorum. Lips. , 1737. 4to. 

Zaccaria (Fr. Ant.). 1°. SaceoUa di dissertazioni di storia eeelesiastica. Roma, 
22 Tols. Svo. 1792-1797. 2<>. Bihliotheca rittialis. Romfe, 1776. 3 vols. 4to. 
3o. Be veteyum Christianaruni inscriptionum usu in rehus theologicis. Romse. 

Zeltner (Grust. Georg.). Bissertatio de Mersione in baptismo apostolico, 1720. 

Zentghartos. Be ritibiis baptismi. 

Ziboler (Gaspar.). Be diaeonis et diaconissis veteris Ecclesia. Wittehergaj, 
1688. 4to. 

Zt5!mermann. Commentarius de Baptismo. 



Most of the above works, and the writings of the Fathers, may be consulted 
at the Biblioteca Casanatense, a library attached to the convent of the Domini- 
cans, and the richest in Rome in printed works. It contains one hundred and 
twenty thousand volumes, besides a valuable collection of ancient manuscripts. 




ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PAGE 

Baptistery in Catacomb of S. Ponziano . . . Frontispiece 

Inscription at Autun, France . . ... . . 15 

Baptism of Christ, Fresco ia Catacomb of S. Ponziano 32 

Baptism of Christ, Fresco in Catacomb of Santa Lucina 3.3 

Fresco Painting in the Catacomb of St. Callixtus . . .34 

Baptism of a Convert by Cyril ...... 3.5 

Baptism of Christ, from a 31S. in the Library of La Minerva, Rome 37 

Baptism of Christ, from a Meuologue of the Ninth Century, in the 

Vatican Library . . 39 

Baptism of the Eunuch by Philip . 40 

Baptism of Jewish Converts . . .41 

Baptism according to the Russian Kite .... 42 

Baptism of Aristides, from a MS. in the Library of the Vatican 43 

St. Sylvester baptizing Converts . . . . .44 

Baptism of Christ, from a MS. in the Library of British Museum . 46 

Cubioula in Catacombs of St. Agnese 79 

Blessing of the Font, from a MS. in the Library of La Minerva, Rome . 104 
Inscription in the Catacomb of Priscilla . . . ..121 

Baptism of Catechumens and Infants, from a MS. of the Ninth Century . 126 
Plan of Baptistery in Catacomb of S. Ponziano, Rome . . 152 

Section of Ditto . . . 152 

Section of Frigidarium of Bath, Pompeii . 154 

Plan of Ditto 155 

Plan of an Ancient Christian Basilica 157 

Plan of Baptistery of Constantino . . . . 105 

Plan of Baptistery of S. Costanza, Rome 170 

Plan of Baptistery of Nocera dei Pagani . . . 172 

Sectional View of Ditto . . . 173 

Plan of Font in the Baptistery of St. Stephen . 176 

Plan of Baptistery of Ravenna . . . . . 177 

Baptism of Christ. Sculpture on Door of Baptistery of Florence . .178 
Peter Administering Baptism. Painting in Church del Carmine, Florence 180 
Section and Plan of Baptistery of Citta Nuova, Istria . . . 186 

Plan of Baptistery of Pesaro ... .... 187 

Section of Baptistery of Aquileja . . . 188 

Plan of Baptistery at Florence . ... 191 

Interior of Baptistery at Florence . I'i'i 

Plan of Baptistery at Verona . 195 



Xll 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Elevation of Baptistery of Verona 

Plan of Baptistery of Cremona 

Exterior of the Baptistery of Cremona . . . • 

Plan of Cathedral and Baptistery of Torcello . 

Plan of Baptistery at Pisa ..... 

Exterior of the Baptistery at Pisa .... 

Baptism of Christ in the Jordan, has-relief. 

Plan of Baptistery at Puy, France 

Baptism of King Clovis 

Font at Chartres, France . 

Font at ThouveU, France 

Baptism of Richard, Earl of Warwick . 

Plan of Saxon Cathedral, Canterhury 

Font at Bridekirk 

Font at Linley 

Font at Darenth 

Sculptures on the Font at Darenth .... 

St. Donlough's WeU, Ireland 

Font at Li^ge, Belgium 

Baptistery at Bonn ........ 

Baptism of an Infant, from a Saoramentary of Cathedral of 
Baptism of the Collegians, or Ehynsburgers, Germany . 
Modem rite of Baptism in the Russian Church . 
Plan of the Coptic Church, Ol-d Cairo 

Ruins of St. John, Tyre 

Section of Baptistery at the Old Cathedral of Tyre 

Plan of Ditto 

Church and Baptisteries at Kassahar, near Myra . 



Metz 



PAGE 
196 

197 
198 
199 
201 
202 
207 
211 
212 
221 
222 
237 
241 
244 
246 
248 
248 
253 
256 
258 
260 
265 
270 
815 
324 
325 
•327 
331 




INDEX 



Atlution, a common religious rite, 1. 
used in worship of Mithra, 
Egyptians, and Greeks, 1, 2. 
Abyssiuians, mode of "baptism, 307. 
'ASiX^oi, a title of Christians, 64. 

of the baptized, as distinguished 
from Catechumens, 64. 
^Ifric, bishop in England, 230. 
Aflfusion in the Church of Rome, 136, 

138. 
Agath, Council of, 79. 
Agde, Council of, 79. 
Alouinus, 10. 
Alcuinus Avitus, 25, 
Alvarez, Father, 311. 
Ambo, or the reader's desk, 157. 
Ambrosius, Archbishop of Milan, 9, 52, 

71, 91, 117, 173. 
Anastasius, 162, 163, 164, 166, 171. 
Andrea Pisano erects the Baptistery 

of Piatoia, a.d. 1337, 207. 
Andrea Tafi, 192. 

Anointing before baptism, 51, 52, 53. 
Anselmus, Bishop of Laon, 219. 
Apostolical Constitutions, 19, 65, 72, 

79, 87, 102. 
Aqua LustraHs, see Water of Purifica- 
tion. 
Aquileja, baptistery of, 188. 
Aquinas, Thomas, 28. 
Area, or open space around a church, 

158. 
Armenia, baptism in, 285. 
A3Codruta3, baptism rejected by, 141. 
Aspersion in England, 239. 
Assemanni, 185. 
Assemanus, 287. 



Athanasius, 89. 

Audientea, see Catechumens. 

Augustine, 12, 14, 24, 62, 64, 69, 92, 

97, 109, 118, 156. 
Austin, Bishop, conference with, 227. 
Autun, ancient inscription at, 15. 

Balsamo, 89. 
Baptism : 

administrators of, 58, 156. 

a perpetual ordinance, 7. 

a symbol, 7. 

bas-reUefs of, 40, 195, 207. 

clinic, 59, 79. 

forms and ceremonies accompany- 

ing, 49, 51. 
import of, 7, 8, 9, 10. 
in Persia, 306. 
instituted by Christ, 6. 
John's, 6. 

Justin Martyr on, 17. 
lay baptism, 58. 

Lord's Supper administered im- 
mediately after, 60. 
mode of administering, 30, 31, 177. 
names or appellations of, 109. 
of Cedoaldo, 54. 
of Christ, picture of, at Verona, 

196. 
of infants, 110, 127. 
of Jewish proselytes, 5. 
of Theodosius the Younger, 54. 
of Valerian, 42. 
ordinary mode in primitive 

churches, 16. 
pagan, 2. 
required by Apostles, 6. 



XIV 



INDEX. 



Baptism: 

Russian, 267. 

sometimes made compulsory, 120, 
121, 217, 231. 

TertuUian on, 18. 

times for, 56, 69, 153, 156, 234. 

vicarious, of the living for the 
dead, 143. 

where administered, 149, 150. 

who admitted to, 62. 
Baptisteries : 
in the East — 

Cairo, 315. 

Kassabar, near Myra, 331. 

Sagalassus, 336. 

Smyrna, 333. 

Tyre, 325. 
in France — 

Aix, 211. 

Chalons, 211. 

Fr^jus, 211. 

Mar.soilles, 212. 

Poitiers, 210. 

Puy, 211. 

Eheims, 213. 

Ste. Genevieve, Paris, 210. 

St. Jean Le Rond, Paris, 209. 
in Germany — 

Bonn, 257. 

Cohern, 257. 

Meutz, 258. 

Ratisbon, 257. 
in Great Britain — 

Saxon Cathedral, Canterbury, 241. 

St. Doulough's Well, Ireland, 253. 
in Italy — 

Aquileja, 188. 

Asooli, 199. 

Bologna, 194. 

Catacomb of San Ponziano, 152. 

C:itta Nuova, 186. 

Cividale, 196. 

Cremona, 197. 

Florence, 190, 

Milan, 173. 

MQan Cathedral, 175. 

Naples, 185. 

Nocera dei Pagani, 172. 



Baptisteries : 
in Italy — 
Novara, 189. 
Padua, 200. 
Parma, 204. 
Pesaro, 186. 
Pisa, 200. 
Pistoia, 207. 
Ravenna, 176, 180. 
Rome : 

of Constantine, 164. 
of Sta. Costanza, 169. 
of St. Peter's, 208. 
of St. Stephen, 175. 
San Giovanni in Fonte, 170. 
Santa Maria in Cosmedin, 180. 
Torcello, 199. 
Verona, 195. 
derivation of word, 154. 
internal arrangement, 155. 
list of, in Italy, 160. 
shape, 154. 
J , situation and size, 156. 
)^3arnabas, 16. 
Baronius, Cardinal, 38. 
Basil, 23, 58, o9, 90. 
Basilica, Ancient Christian, 157. 
Basnage, on sprinkling-, 136. 
Bas-EeUefs, 207, 222, 245, 249, 250, 255. 
in baptistery at Verona, 195. 
on Font at Thorpe Savin, 250. 
Bathing : 

at Eleusinian mysteries, 2. 
by priests, 2. 
of Proselytes, by Jews, 5. 
Baths, 163 166. 
Bede, 13, 26, 151, 223, 226. 
Benedetto Antelmi designs baptistery 

at Parma, 204. 
Benedictus XIII. (1725) prepares font 

at Rome for immersion, 209. 
Bernard, 30. 
Beroldus, 174. 
Bertoli, 189. 
Bishop Bernardo rebuilds baptistery of 

Verona, a.d. 1135, 195. 
Blessing of the Font QBeuedictio 
Fontis), 104. 



INDEX. 



XV 



Boldetti, 33. 

Bottaii, 13, 31. 

Bugati, 38. 

Ballion, Cardinal, 208. 

Bunseu, on Baptism, 81. 

Byzantine Art, il. 

Cau'O, baptistery at, 315. 
Calcuith, Council of, 232. 
Callixtus builds baptistery at Cividale, 

A.D. 737, 197. 
Cambridge, Church of Holy Sepulchre, 

2i2. 
Carthage, Council of, 101. 
Catacombs of Rome : 

baptisteries in, 151 . 

paintings in, 11, 12, 13, 31-35. 

sepulchral chapels ia 78. 

water, how obtained, 153. 
CutBchists : 

Apostles' creed used by, 72. 

office of, 70. 

place for instruction, 77. 
Catechumenate, duration of, 7S. 
Catechumens : 

first class, Audientes, or hearers, 65. 

second class, Genuflectentes, or 
kneelers, 66. 

third class, Competentes, or Electi, 
68. 

examination of, 70. 

females taught by deaconesses, 71. 

going veiled, 70. 

learn the creed, 70. 
Celchyth, Council of, 231. 
Celestine, Pope, 27. 
Ceremonies : 

anointing, 51, 52, 53. 

attendants clothed in white, 54, 55. 

bread given with milk and honey, 
56. 

insufflation, 51. 

kiss of peace, 55, 60. 

milk and honey given, 52, 56. 

tapers, 55. 

turning to the East, 50. 

washing the feet, 36. 

wearing white garments, 53, 55. 



Chaldeans, The, 304. 

Charlemagne, Decree of, 217. 

Chrysostora, 8, 52, 55, 59, 62, 87, 91, 
94, 143. 

Ciampini, 42. 

Clemens Alexandrinus, 3, 4, 14, 17, 94. 

Clement of Home, 20. 

Clement, Presbyter of Alexandria, 71. 

Clinics, not allowed to receive ordina- 
tion, 60. 

Clovis, King, baptism of, 213. 

Cologne, in Germany, fresco at, 260. 

Communion, 60. 

none but believers and baptized 
partake, 61. 

Competentes, or Electi, see Catechu- 
mens. 

Constantino, Emperor, 153, 164, 185. 

Copts, mode of baptism, 5, 311. 

Cornelius, 136. 

Cross, sign of the, a preliminary of 
baptism, 280, 300. 

Cubicula in Catacomb Sta. Agnese, 78. 

Cyprian, 21, 52, 59,\11, !)5, 101, 109, 
114-116, 134, 140. 

CjTil of Alexandria, 102. 

GyrU of Jerusalem, 22, 50, 51, 52, 68, 
70, 109, 156. 

Damasus, 208. 
Dante, 193. 

Deaconesses teach female catechumens, 
71. 
qualifications of, 71. 
Diotisalvi, architect of baptistery of 

Pisa, 200. 
Diptych at San Celso, Mian, 36. 
Disciples of St. John, The, 305. 
Doctor Audientium, 71. 
Doddridge, 116. 
Dominica in Albis, 57. 
Doulough's, St., baptistery of, 253. 
Durantus, Bishop of Mende, 220. 

Easter, baptismal season, 56. 
Ecclesiastical Institutes, 232. 
Edmund, Constitutions of, 235. 
Eigbright, Excerptions of, 231, 233. 



XVI 



INDEX. 



Elvira, Coimcil of, 58, 79. 
Epiphanius, 22, 143, 145. 
Epiphany, season for baptism, 57. 
Ephrem, Deacon of Edessa, 91. 
Erasmus, 113. 
Eimodius, 174. 
Eimomians, 145. 
EuseMus, 21, 63, 87, 88, 109, 136, 

325. 
Eustorgius II., Bishop of Milan, 174. 
Euthymius, 142. 
Exorcism preceding baptism, 49, 50, 

51, 318. 
EzzeUno da Romana, 205. 

Eish: 

figurative designation of our Lord, 

13, 14, 16, 102, 210. 
symbol of baptism and the Lord' s 
Supper, 13. 
Fonts : 



gium — 

Li^ge, 255. 

Tirlemont, 255. 
in England — 

Bamswood, 247. 

Brideldrk, 245. 

Brighthelmstone, 249. 

Darenth, 247. 

Fincham, 247. 

Hendon, 246. 

Lewes, 246. 

Malvern, 244. 

Eomsey, 246. 

St. Martin's, Canterbury, 245. 

Thorpe Savin, 250. 

Walsingham, 250. 
in France — 

Chartres, 221. 

Limay, 221. 

Louvre, Museum of the, 221., 

Montdidier, 2.21. 

Pont du Mousson, 222. 

Thouveil, 221. 
in Germany — 

Magdeburg, 257. 

Nuremberg, 257. 



Fonts : 
in Italy — 
Ascoli, 199. 
baptistery of Constantine, 166, 167, 

169. 

Cividale, 196. 

Cremona, 198. 

MUan, 175. 

Padua, 200. 

Parma, 205, 206. 

Pisa, 203. 

Pistoia, 207. 

Ravenna, 177, 180. 

St. Peter's, Rome, 208. 

TorceUo, 200. 

Verona, 195. 
in Scotland, 252. 

when placed within the Tvalls of 
churches, 160. 
Font, Greek, 266. 
Frescos of Baptism : 

in Cathedral of Carlisle, 235. 

Catacomb of S. Ponziano, 31. 

Cathedral of Cologne, 260. 
Frigidarium at Pompeii, 154. 
Fulbertus, Bishop of Chartres, 218. 

Galasius, Pope, Sacramentary of, 127. 

Ganges, Hindoo reverence for, 5. 

Garrucci, 35. 

Genuflectentes, see Catechumens. 

Georgians, or Iberians, 288. 

Germany, circular churches of, 257. 

Gerson, 219. 

Ghiberti, artist of bronze doors at 

Florence, 192. 
Giotto, 191. 

Gregory the Great, 10, 28. 
Gregory of Nazianzen, 12, 55, 59, 90, 

109, 116. 
Gregory of Nyssa, 7, 57, 59, 69, 102. 
Gregory Thaumaturgus, 21. 
Gregory of Tours, 213, 216. 
Greek Menologue in Vatican Library, 

38. 
Guericke on Infant Baptism, 110. 

Hendon, font in church of, 246. 



INDEX. 



XVll 



Herodotus, 2, 4. 

Hesychius, 2. 

Hilary, 14. 

Hindoos, Atlutiou of, 5. 

Hippolytus, 81. 

Honorius Augustus, 150. 

Honorius, Bishop of Autun, 219. 

Hugue de St. Victor, 219. 

HyginuB, 80. 

Iberians or Georgians, 288. 
Iceland, Baptism in, 284. 
Ignatius, 58. 
Immersion, simple, 28. 

trine, 9, 10, 19, 28, 49, 260, 268. 
Import of baptism : 
Alcuinus on, 10. 
Ambrosius on, 9. 
Chrysostom on, 8. 
Gregory the Great on, 10. 
Gregory of Nyssa on, 7. 
Justin Martyr on, 7. 
Leo the Great on, 9. 
Maximus on, 9. 
Theodulphus on, 10. 
Theodulus on, 9. 
Ina, Decree of, 231. 
Inscription discovered near Autun, 15. 
iu baptistery at Cividale, 197. 
Mentz, 258. 
Naples, 185. 
Novara, 190. 
Pisa, 204. 

St. Peter's, Rome, 
209. 
basUica of St. Stephen, 175. 
church at Bologna, 194. 
Citta Nuova, 186. 
Inscriptions in Catacombs, 121, 126. 
Insufflation, 51. 
Intercession of Saints, 124. 
Ireland, Baptism in, 254. 
Irensus, 18, 143. 
Isidore, 100. 

Jacobi Sirmondi, 176. 
Jerome, 13, 3.3, 51, 53, 58, 70, 93, 113, 
169. 



John's baptism, 6, 149. 

Justin Martyr, 4, 7, 17, 57, 60, 61, 81, 

83, 109, 149. 
Justinian, Emperor, 79. 
Justinian, Decree of, 79. 
Juvenous, 25. 
Juvenal, 3. 

Kiss of peace, 55, 60. 

Lacroix, Quotation from his Renais- 
sance, 47. 
Laotantius, 21, 95. 

Lady's "Well, in Northumberland, 225. 
Laodioea, CoancU of, 60, 90. 
Leo the Great, 9. 

Leo Isaurian, Emperor of Constanti- 
nople, 77. 
Leo of Modena, 6. 
Luitprandus, 194. 
Luther on Baptism, 261. 
Liturgies : 
of Greek Church, 271. . — 

James of Edessa, 317. 

Nestorians, 290. 

Ravenna, 181. 

Remy, Bishop of Rheims, 215. 

Roman, 105, 127, 137, 168. 

Mabillon, collection of rituals by, 168. 
Magdeburg, font at, 257. 
Magnus, Bishop of Sens, 218. 
Manicheans, 2. 
Manuscripts — 
in Bibliothfeque Nationale, Paris, 44. 

Library of British Museum, 45. 

Library of Duke of Devonshire, 45. 

Vatican Library, 42. 

Miniatures in, 36, 47. 
Mar Abd Teshua, 289. 
Marcionites, 143. 
Marcus Gazensis, 54. 
Maronites, mode of baptism, 317. 
Martene, on Rituals, 134. 
Martin of Tours, 63. 
Maximus, Bishop of Turin, 9, 26. 
Menander, 145. 
Melito, 14. 



XVI 11 



INDEX. 



Mennonites, 263. 
Messalians, 142. 
Mileri, Second Council of, 119. 
Mingrelians, 306. 
Moutanists, 14-5. 
Montfaucon, 4. 

Moaaics in baptistery of S. Costanza, 
170. 

Florence, 192. 

Kavenna, 177, 179. 
Mosheim, 119. 

Names of the faithful, 63, 64, 65. 
Neander on Baptism, 85. 
Infant Baptism, 110. 
Nectarius, Bishop of Constantinople, 

91. 
Neo-Cesarea, Council of, 60, 88. 
Nestorians, Baptismal Liturgy of, 290. 
Nicsea, Council of, 87. 
Nicholas, Bishop of Myi-a, 329. 
Nocera dei Pagani, baptistery of, 172. 
Northumberland Synod, Decree of, 231. 
Novatian, Baptism of, 136. 

Olearius, 269. 

Optatus, 14, 102. 

Oratory of St. Venantius, 78. 

Origen, 20, 50, 85, 86, 111, 112, 326, 
328. 

Orso, Archbishop of Eavenna, 17C. 

Orso Orseolo, Bishop of Torcello, re- 
builds the Cathedral, 199. 

Otho, Blissionary in Pomerania, 259. 

Ovid, 3. 

Paciaudus, 178. 
Paintings of Baptism — 

Aries, 221. 

BasOica of St. Clement, 35. 

Bourges, 221. 

Catacombs, 11, 12, 31-35. 

Ciclo Biblico, 11. 

Church of San Lorenzo, Rome, 31. 

Miniatures in ancient manuscripts, 
36, 38, 41-47. 

Rheims, 213. 

Sens, 221. 



Pallassonus, Johannes, makes font at 
Parma, a.d. 1299, 205. 

Paulianists, 145. 

Paulinus, Bishop of Nola, 156. 

Paulinus, Bishop of Tyre, 325, 328. 

Paulinus, Missionary in England, 2fi, 
150. 

Paulus Warnefridus, 54. 

Persian Christians, 306. 

Photius, Decree of, 121. 

Photizomenoi, or the illuminated, 64. 

Pliny, 154, 

Pope Leo, 102. 

Pope Innocent, 140. 

Polycarp, 332. 

Prayer-book of Edward VI., 49, 238. 

Priscillianists, 145. 

Prosper, 13. 

Prudentius, 25, 208. 

Pulpit : 

in baptistery at Ascoli, 199. 

Raveima, 177. 

Quintillianists, 141. 

Reading, Constitution at, 233. 
Red Sea, passage of, a, figure of bap- 
tism, 12, 13, 
Eemy, Bishop of Rheims, 213. 
Rheinwald, 110. 
Ehynsburgers, 264. 
Rituals of Baptism — 

Greek Church, 271. 

Church of Ravenna, 181. 

James of Edessa, 317. 

Orleans, 220. 

Pope Gelasius, 127. 

Remy, of Rheims, 215. 

S. Giovanni in Fonte, Rome, 168. 
Rossi, Signor, 11. 

Eufinus, presbyter of Aquileja, 113. 
Russia, baptism in, 267. 

Salmasius, 83, 262. 
San Giovanni alle Fonti, Milan, 174. 
San Giovanni in Fonte, Rome, 164. 
San Stefano alle Fonti, 174. 
Saturus, 19. 



INDEX. 



XIX 



Seleusians, 142. 

Seneca, 166. 

Sena, painting of baptism in cathedral 

of, 221. 
Severus, Alexandrinus, 51.' 
Socrates, tte historian, 69, 80, 156. 
Sponsors, 259, 269, 310. 
Sprinkling of children in font at 
Parma, 206. 

of water of Purification, 3. 

over food at religious repasts, 4. 
St. Clement, 35. 
St. Doulough's Well, 253. 
St. Petronius huilds monastery at 

Bologna, a.d. 430, 194, 
Stephen II., Pope, on sprinkling, 136. Jl 
Strabo, Walafrid, 82, 92, 150. 
Suicerus, 83. 
Sulpicius Severus, 63. 
S3'mbols of Baptism, 7, 10, 11, 12, 13. 
Syrian Christians, 316. 

Taxa Samadha, The, 290. 

TertuUian, 3, 11, 14, 18, 19, 49, 50, 

62, 56, 58, 61, 62, 84, 95, 101, 

109, 140, 149. 
Theodoretus, 4, 141, 142, 223. 
Theodorus of Mopsuestia, 71. 
Theodosius, Emperor, baptism of, 91. 
Theodulphus, 10. 
Theodulus of Ccele-syria, 9. 
Theophilus, 18. 
Toledo, Decree of Council, 28. 



Trent, Council of, 104. 

Trine Immersion, its import, 9, 10, 28, 

49, 
Tritheists, 145. 
Tyndal, 238. 
Tyre, 323. 

Unction, 52. 

Valentinians, 143. 
Valerian, baptism of, 42. 
Vansleb, leather, 314. 
Venantius Fortunatus, 54. 
Virgil, 3. 

Walafrid Strabo, 82, 92, 150. 
Wall, Dr., 239. 
Warnefridus, Paulus, 54. 
Warwick, Baptism of Earl of, 236. 
Water of Purification, 3. 

sprinkling on worshippers in the 

Roman temples, 3. 
used in forum, 3. 

in funeral rites, 4. 
by Jews, 4. 
Westminster, Council of, 235. 

Wulfred, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, 234. 

Yves, Bishop of Chartres, 219. 

Zeno, Bishop of Verona, 196. 




PART I. 

BAPTISM. 



THE 



ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 



Part I. 



BAPTISM. 




I HE natural tendency of the human mind is to 
adopt a physical and outward act as a sign, 
figure, symbol, or representation of an inward 
and spiritual state. This tendency has always been strong, 
especially in the earlier and ruder states of society. The 
purification of the body by water, for example, has, in all 
ages and in every religion, been considered as an emblem 
fitted to express that purity of the soul with which man 
should approach the Deity, and has been therefore adopted 
as an important religious ceremony. 

Ablution was one of the principal rites of initiation to 
the worship of Mithra, a goddess held in high veneration 
by the Persians. It was also practised by the followers of 
Zoroaster. The ancient Persians carried their infants to 
the temple a few days after they were born, and presented 
them to the priest, before the sun and the fire, which was 
his symbol. There the priest bathed the child for the 

B 



2 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

purification of the soul. Sometimes he plunged it into a 
great vase full of water. When the child had arrived at 
fifteen years of age, he was presented again to the priest, 
who confirmed him by giving him the robe called the 
soudra, and the girdle. The custom was subsequently 
adopted by the Manichaeans.* (See Beausobre, Liv. ix. 
chap. vi. sect, xvi.) 

The Egyptians appear to have practised ablutions from 
the earliest antiquity. Herodotus, in the Second Book 
of his History (chapter xxxvii.) informs us that the 
priests of Isis and Osiris bathed twice during the day 
in cold water, and as often in the night. (Aovtm Se St? 
T?7S rjixkpa^ eicdar'rjt; ■<frv)^pa), Koi Sl<; eKacrTrji; vvkt6<;.) Those 
initiated into the sacred mysteries of these divinities were 
bathed in water by the priests. The annual festival of 
Isis lasted eight days, during which a general purification 
took place. 

The use of water in religious rites was known to the 
ancient Greeks, who employed it under various forms. 
No one could be admitted to the Eleusinian mysteries 
until he had been plunged in the waters of the 
River Ilissus, consecrated to the Muses. Hesychius 
{Lexicon) calls the priest, whose office was to purify 
thus the initiated, vSpavo's, or the waterer. He also 
informs us that the Greeks used to plunge in water 
the infants, and those who had been in danger of 
death ; hence these were called hevrepoTroTiMoi,, or 
v(TTep6iroTp,oi. Reference is made to these Pagan bap- 



* The Manichaeans were a sect of heretics in the third century 
the followers of Manes, who made his appearance in the reign of 
the Emperor Probus, pretending to be the Comforter whorn our 
Saviour promised to send into the world. He taught that there are 
two principles, or gods, co-eternal and independent of each other- 
the first principle, or light, the author of all good ; the second 
principle, or darkness, the author of all evil — a doctrine which he 
borrowed from the Persian Magi. 



GREEK AND ROMAN WRITERS. 3 

tisms by Clemens Alexandrinus,* in the Fifth Book of 
his Stromata, and Tertullian,t in his Prcescriptionibus 
(c. xl.), and De Baptismo (c. v.) 

Ovid, Virgil, and Juvenal make frequent allusions in 
their writings J to the aqua lusiralis, or water of purifi- 
cation, used in the religious ceremonies of the ancient 
Romans, who were scrupulous in employing it before 
they performed a sacrifice. It was commonly placed at 
the entrance of the temple, and sprinkled upon the wor- 
shippers as they entered, with a small olive branch. A 
vessel containing it was also placed in the Forum, for 
the use of the citizens assembled there. This lustration 



* Clemens, a converted philosopher and presbyter of Alexandria, 
who died about A.D. 218. He is esteemed the most profoundly 
learned of the Fathers of the Church. He is the author of several 
important works: amongst them the Protrepticon (TrpoTpeTTTiKoi Xdyos), 
or exhortation to the Gentiles; the Pczdagogus, ox a treatise, on 
Christianity ; the Institutes ; and the Stromata, or Miscellany, in 
eight books. 

f Tertullian, a celebrated Father of the Church, who died about 
A.D. 220. He has left a great variety of tracts on the vices and 
customs of his age, and is the author of an Apology, of a tract 
agiinst Marcion, and a treatise on Baptism. 
+ Ovid:— 

Est locus in Tiberin qua lubricus influit Almo, 

Et nomen magno perdit ab amne minor. 
Illic purpurea canus cum veste sacerdos 
Almonis Dominam sacraque lavit aquis. 

(Fast.lib.'w. 337-8). 
(There is a spot where the rapid Almo flows into the Tiber, and 
the lesser stream loses its name in that of the greater. There does 
the hoary priest in his purple vestments wash the lady (goddess) 
and her sacred utensils in the waters of the Almo). 
Virgil:— 

Spargens rore levi, et ramo felicis olivae 
Lustravitque viros. {^neid, 6.) 
(Sprinkling the men with the light spray and a branch of the 
prolific olive). 
Juvenal : — 

Portabit aquas ut spargat in aede 
Isidis. {Satyr, vi.) 

(She will bring water, to sprinkle in the temple of Isis). 

B 2 



4 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM, 

was administered at the termination of the funeral rites, 
to remove the defilement supposed to be contracted by 
approaching a dead body. According to Theodoretus* 
{Hist. Eccles. lib. iii. c. xiv.), it was usual to sprinkle 
water over the food served up at the epulm, or solemn 
religious repasts. The Emperor Julian, out of spite to 
the Christians, used to order the victuals in the markets 
to be sprinkled with holy water, on purpose, either to 
starve, or force them to eat what, by their own principles, 
they esteemed polluted. (Hospinianus, De orig. Templor. 
1. 2, c. 25). The learned Montfaucon says {Antiq. t. 2, 
p. I, 1. 3, c. 6) that the vase of the aqua lusfralis, placed 
at th« entrance of the temples, was called aquaminarium, 
or amula. The same vessel was by the Greeks called— 
■n-epippavTrjpwv—Perirranterion ; two of which, the one of 
gold, the other of silver, were given by Crcesus to the 
Temple of Apollo at Delphi (Herodotus, 1. i. 5 1 ; Clemens 
Alexandrinus, Stromata, 1. i), and the custom of sprinkling 
themselves was so necessary a part of their religious 
offices, that the method of excommunication seems to 
have been by prohibiting offenders to approach 
or use the holy water vase. (CEschines, Orat. contra 
Ctesiphon, 58). Justin Martyr,t in his First Apology {sect. 
Ixi.), alludes to these Pagan customs in the following 
terms : — " The demons no sooner heard of this washing 
spoken of by the prophet, but they too set up their puri- 

* Theodoretus, an eloquent ecclesiastical writer, was Bishop of 
Cyrus, in Syria. He wrote a History of the Church extending 
from A.D. 325 to 429. 

f Justin Martyr, a Greek writer of the second century, and the, 
author of several important works in defence of Christianity. 
Amongst them may be mentioned his First Apology, in which he 
gives a detail of the manners, rites, and doctrines of the early 
Christians ; his Second Apology, which is a complaint of the treat- 
ment of the Christians ; his Dialogue with Trypho the Jew, a work 
containing various arguments to demonstrate that Jesus is the 
Messiah. 



SYRIAN, COPTIC, AND JEWISH. 5 

fications, and made such as go to their temples and 
officiate in their libations and meat offerings, first sprinkle 
themselves with water by way of lustration, and they 
have brought it to such a pass, that the worshippers are 
washed from head to foot before they approach the 
sacred place where their images are kept." Lustrations 
by water were also used by the Druids of Great Britain. 

It is well known that all the Oriental religions abound 
in ablutions. The Syrians, Copts, etc., have their 
annual solemn washings. The Mahommedans practise 
ablutions most punctiliously, and in the greatest number. 
Their purifications are of two kinds, either bathing, or 
only washing the face, hands, and feet. The superstitious 
attachment of the Hindoos for the River Ganges is such, 
that ablution in its streams is placed among the first 
duties of religion ; and when, from necessity, they cannot 
reach that river, if, in bathing, they use the exclamation, 
" O Ganges, purify me! " the Brahmins assure them that 
the service is equally efficacious. (Encyclopaedia Metro- 
politana.) 

In accordance with Divine directions, the Jews intro- 
duced into their religious rites the use of the water of 
purification. (Numbers ix.) Several ceremonies of the 
Mosaic law were accompanied by ablutions, Bathing in 
water is said by some Jewish authors to have been 
used, together with circumcision, in the admission of 
proselytes. These were required to renounce idolatry and 
believe in Jehovah, were interrogated while standing in 
the water, and, after baptism, were declared to be. clean 
and holy, and were admitted to all the privileges of the 
Jewish nation. As the sacred writers make no mention 
of this custom, nor is there any reference to it in the best 
Targums, in the apocryphal books, in the writings of 
Josephus and Philo, nor in the Fathers of the first three 
centuries, it is probable, if not in fact certain, that this 



6 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

rite was introduced only after the destruction of Jerusalem, 
when the sacrifices had ceased. This custom still exists. 
Leo of Modena, Rabbi of Venice, says, in his book De 
Ritibus et Usis Judaorum, pars i. c. 3, " He who desires 
to become a Jew is first circumcised, and a few days after 
is entirely bathed in water in presence of three Rabbis 
who have examined him. He is then considered a Jew 
like the others." 

The introduction of John's baptism was, to a certain 
degree, in harmony with the long established usages of 
the Jews — the frequency of lustrations which constituted a 
part of the Mosaic ceremonial, and were practised on 
various occasions both by the priests and by the people. 
Ablution in the waters of the River Jordan was well fitted 
to represent the washing away of sins through repentance 
and faith in the coming Messiah, the Lamb of God, who 
was to take away the sin of the world. 

When our Saviour entrusted to His disciples th6 great 
commission. He instituted baptism as one of the peculiar 
rites of His church and kingdom. " All power is given 
unto Me in heaven and in earth. Go ye therefore, and 
teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the 
Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost ; teaching 
them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded 
you : and, lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of 
the world." And again, " He that believeth and is bap- 
tized shall be saved. He that believeth not shall be 
damned." (Matt, xxviii. 19, 20; Mark xvi. 16.) 

In obedience to the Divine command, the apostles 
required of all who received baptism a confession of faith 
in Christ. The language of Peter, on the day of Pentecost 
to the Jews and Gentiles at Jerusalem, was this : " Repent 
and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus 
Christ for the remission of sins." " They that gladlv 
received the word were baptized " to the number of three 



NEW TESTAMENT USAGE. 7 

thousand. (Acts ii.) When the Holy Ghost fell on all 
who heard his preaching in the house of Cornelius, Peter 
said : " Can any man forbid water, that these should not 
be baptized, which have received the Holy Ghost as well 
as we ? " (Acts x. 47.) "When the eunuch requested to be 
baptized by Philip, his answer was : " If thou believest 
with all thine heart, thou mayest." (Acts viii. 37.) Thus 
was fully established Christian baptism, which implied, 
not only repentance and the washing- away of sins, but 
also faith in a risen Saviour and allegiance to Him. 
It was' an outward and visible sign that the convert took 
upon himself the profession of Christianity. By this act, 
he renounced his Jewish or heathen opinions and prac- 
tices, and adopted the principles of the Christian faith. 

Instituted by our Lord as a perpetual ordinance of His 
religion, baptism is the symbol of His death, burial, and 
resurrection. It represents, as regards the believer, death 
to sin and the world, and resurrection to a new life. 
" Know ye not, that so many of us as were baptized into 
Jesus Christ were baptized into His death ? Therefore we 
are buried with Him by baptism into death ; that like as 
Christ was raised up from the dead by the glory of the 
Father, even so we also should walk in newness of 
life. For if we have been planted together in the likeness 
of His death, we shall be also in the likeness of His resur- 
rection." (Romans vi. 3-5.) In his comments upon these 
passages, Justin Martyr [Apolog. ii.) says : " We celebrate 
in baptism the symbol and sign of His death and resur- 
rection." Gregory of Nyssa,* in his sermon on repentance, 
remarks : "The old man is buried in water, the new. man 
is born again, and grows in grace." [De Pcenitentia.) 



* Gregory, Bishop of Nj'ssa, born inA.D. 330. He is the author 
of several homilies, orations, and letters. His Twelve Books against 
Eunomius are his best works. 



8 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

Chrysostom* says, in one of his celebrated Homilies : " In 
this symbol (baptism) are fulfilled the pledges of our 
covenant with God : death and burial, resurrection and 
life; and these take place all at once. For when we 
immerse our heads under the water, the old man is buried 
as in a tomb below, and wholly sunk for ever ; then, as 
we raise them up, the new man rises again. As 
it is easy for us to dip and lift our heads again, so it is 
easy for God to bury the old man and show forth the 
new ; and this is done three times, that you may learn 
that the power of the Father, the Son, and the Holy 
Ghost, fulfiUeth all this."t In a Homily on the Epistle 
to the Romans, Chrysostom says : " For as His body 
(Christ's), by being buried in the earth, brought forth as 
the fruit of it the salvation of the world, thus ours also, 
being buried in baptism, bore as fruit righteousness, 
sanctification, adoption, countless blessings ; and it will 
bear also hereafter the gift of the resurrection. Since, 
then, we were buried in the water. He in the earth ; we 
in regard to sin. He in regard to His body ; this is why 
he (Paul) does not say, 'We were planted together in 
His death, but in the likeness of His death.' "J 

* Chrysostom, Bishop of Antioch (354-407), a judicious, eloquent, 
and energetic expositor of Scripture. 

I ©cTa TcAtirat cv duTcu crvfj./io\a, TOLcfiOS Kal viKpuxri^, Kal dvacTTacrts kol 
^ojrj, Kal ravra Ojxov yiVcrat TrdvTa. Ka^aTrtp yap iv tlvl Tatj^u), tu! vSari 
KaraSvovTwi/ yjjj.uiv to.'S Kecpaka^, 6 vaXaios avdponro^ BaTmrai, Kal, KaraSBs 
KOLTO), KjouTTTerat 0A.0S KaOairaQ ctra avav€vovrijn> rjfjiiov, 6 /catvos dvcto"t TrdAtv. 
"^cnrep yap cvKoXov y)plv ^aTTiO'ao'Oat /cat di^aveijcrat, ovrtos evKoXov tco 0ec3 
Odijjai, Tov avdpwTTOV rov TraXaiov, Kal dvaScT^ai tov viov. TpiVov Se tovto 
"yiVerai, Lva jxaOyj';, on 8wa/xts Trarpos Kal vlov Kal TTvev/xaros dyi'ov aivavra 
TaCra TrXrjpoX. {Horn. xxv. In Joannem^ 

\ KadaTT^p yap to aZfia avTov Ta<j>h> ev ttj yrj Kapirov rijs oiKovp.ivq'i 
TrjV criDTrjpiav ■^veyKiV' ovto) Kal to ■r^p.inpov Ta<^ev cvtS /SaTrTtV/iiaTi, KapTrbv 
^veyKC TTjv SiKaiocrvvriv, tov dytatr/xov, Trjv vlo$£<TLav, ra pLvpia ayaOa.' oicrei 
§€ Kal TO T^s avaa-Ta.Teoi'; vo-repov Suipov. 'Ettci. ovv r/p.^ls jU-ev iv {JSari, airo? 
8c iv yyj, Kal i7/ie"s /xei' Kara tov rijs d;U,apTias koyov, eKtivos 8e KaTo. tov 
TOV auJ/ittTos (.Tdcj>r], 8ia toTto ovk EtTre 'S,vp.rj}VT0i Tui OavaTio, dXXa T£ 
oji.oi<iijj.aTi TOV OdvoTov. (Horn. xl. In Epist. ad Rom!) 



THE FATHERS. 9 

Ambrosius* says in his De Officiis (iii. c. 4.) : " In the 
sacrament of baptism the whole outer man perishes." 
(In baptismatis Sacramento interit homo totus exterior.) 

Leo the Great,t in his fourth letter to the Bishops of 
Sicily, writes : " Trine immersion is an imitation of the 
three days' burial ; and the rising again out of the water is 
like the rising from the grave. (Sepulturam triduanam 
imitatur trina demersio, et ab aquis elevatio resurgentis 
instar est de sepulchro.) 

Theodulus, Presbyter of Coelesyria (died about A.D. 490), 
in his Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans, says : 
" As the body of our Lord was buried in the earth, so our 
body is buried by baptism." Then, referring to the custom 
in his- time of immersion repeated three times, he adds : 
"The three burials and resurrections, typified by the 
threefold dipping, symbolise His death and resurrection."+ 

Maximus,§ in his Homilia de Juda traditore, says : 
" Baptism is to us burial with Christ, in which we die to 
sin and iniquity ; and, the old man being destroyed, we 
rise again to new life. It is a burial, by which we lay 
down our life, and receive it anew that we may live. 
Great, therefore, is the grace of this sepulture, through 



* Ambrosius (340-397), Archbishop of Milan, a bold defender of 
the faith, and one of the most celebrated Fathers of the Church. 
He raised his See to such a power that it dared to resist Rome 
herself, up to the twelfth century. Ambrosius published annota- 
tions on Scripture, discourses, and miscellaneous treatises. 

I Leo the Great was elected Pope of Rome in 440, and is at the 
head of the writers of the Latin Church in the fifth century. The 
most important of his works are his Letters and Sermons, of which 
there are two volumes. 

\ Theodulus : " Adeo corpus Christi Domini in terra sepultum, 
sic et nostrum corpus per baptisma sepultum. Nam tres obitus et 
ortus, hoc est, triplex ilia tinctura, mortem et resurrectionem signi- 
ficant." — Comment, in Epist. ad Rom. 

§ Maximus, Bishop of Turin in the fifth century, and a well- 
known Latin writer. 



lO THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

which a useful death is brought to us, and a still more 
useful life freely bestowed. Great is the grace of this 
sepulture with Christ, which purifies the sinner and gives 
life to the dying."* 

Gregory the Great :t "We also, when we immerse three 
times, symbolise the three days of Christ's burial.":J: 

Alluding to the words of our Saviour ■ " For as Jonas 
was three days and three nights in the whale's belly, so 
shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the 
earth" (Matt. xii. 40), Alcuinus§ says, in his Sixty-ninth 
Epistle : " The three immersions may represent the three 
nights." II 

Theodulphus, an ecclesiatical writer of the ninth century, 
writes in his De Ordine Baptismi: " We die to sin when 
we renounce the devil and all his works ; we are buried 
with Christ when we descend into the font of washing, as 
into a sepulchre, and are immersed three times in the 
name of the Holy Trinity; we rise with Christ when, 

* " Baptismum igitur Christi nobis est sepultura, in quo peccatis 
moriemur, criminibus sepelimur, et veteris hominis conscientia 
resoluta, in alteram nativitatem rediviva infantia reparamur. Baptis- 
mum, inquam, Salvatoris nobis est sepultura, quia et ibi perdidimus 
ant6 quod viximus, et ibi denuo accipimus, ut vivamus. Magna 
igitur sepulturae hujus est gratia, in qua nobis et utilis mors infertur, 
et vita utilior condonatur ; magna, inquam, hujus gratia sepul- 
turae, quse et purificat peccatorem et vivificat morientem." — Maxi- 
mus, Horn, de Juda traditore. 

f Gregory the Great was elected Pope in.A.D. 590. His chief 
works are letters, of which there are more than eight hundred. He 
is also the author of a Commentary on Job, a Pastorale, or Treatise 
on Pastoral Duties, and several Homilies. 

+ " Nos autem quod terti6 demergimus, triduanae sepulturae 
sacramenta signamus." — Gregorius, Eib. i. Ep. xl. 

§ Alcuinus, or Albinus, the most distinguished scholar of the 
eighth century, the confidant and adviser of Charlemagne, and 
author of numerous works, which consist principally of poems 
elementary treatises on the different sciences, letters on a variety of 
theological subjects, and other works, some of which are lost. 

II " Possunt tres noctes tres mersiones designare." — Epist. Ixix. 



EARLY PAINTINGS. I I 

purified of all our sins, we come out of the font as from a 
tomb."* 

Several allusions to baptism are found among some of 
the paintings of what Signor De Rossi, in his work 
" Roma Sotterranea," calls the " Ciclo Biblico," that is, 
the series of purely scriptural subjects which are represented 
in many of the Catacombs of Rome, and which belong to 
an earlier period of Christian Art than those of special 
saints, martyrs, Bishops of Rome and of other Sees, which 
are also found there. Thus the Deluge and the Ark of 
Noah are represented in the Catacombs as symbols of 
baptism, according to the words of the Apostle Peter : 
" The ark, wherein few, that is, eight souls, were saved by 
water ; the like figure whereunto even baptism doth also 
now save us, not the putting away of the filth of the flesh, 
but the answer of a good conscience toward God, by the 
resurrection of Jesus Christ." (i Peter iii. 21.) Tertullian 
expresses himself on this subject, in the following terms : 
'As after the waters of the Deluge, in which the old 
iniquity was purged away, as after that baptism (so to call 
it) of the old world, a dove sent out of the ark and return- 
ing with an olive branch, was the herald to announce to 
the earth peace, and the cessation of the wrath of heaven ; 
so, by a similar disposition with reference to matters 
spiritual, the dove of the Holy Spirit sent out from heaven, 
flies to the earth, that is, to our flesh as it comes out of 
the bath of regeneration after its old sins, and brings 
to us the peace of God." {De Baptismo, viii.) f 

* "Moriemur ergo peccato, quando abrenuntiamus diabolo et 
omnibus quae ejus sunt, consepelimur Christo ciim sub invocatione 
Sanctae Trinitatis sub trina mersione, in fontem lavacri quasi in 
quoddam sepulcrum descendimus ; consurgimus Christo, ciim exuti 
omnibus peccatis, de fonte quasi de sepulchre egredimur." 

t Quemadmodum enim, post aquas diluvii, quibus iniquitas 
antiqua purgata est, post baptismum (ut ita dixerim) mundi, pacem 
coelestis irse praeco columba terris annuntiavit demissa ex area, et 
cum olea reversa ; quod signum etiam apud nationes paci praetend- 



12 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

Another painting, representing a man inclosed in an ark 
and receiving the olive branch from the mouth of the 
dove, painted upon the walls of a chapel in the Cata- 
combs, was intended to show that the faithful, having 
obtained the remission of their sins through faith in Christ 
and baptism, had received from the Holy Spirit the gift of 
divine peace, and are saved in the mystical ark of Christ 
from the destruction which awaits the world. And if the 
same picture be rudely scratched on a single tomb, it 
denotes the same fact and the hope of the survivors that 
the deceased, being a faithful servant of Christ and a 
member of His body, had died in the peace of God, and 
had now entered into His rest. 

The passage of the Red Sea was also represented as a 
figure of baptism, in accordance with the words of the 
Apostle Paul : " Moreover, brethren, I would not that ye 
should be ignorant, how that all our fathers were under the 
cloud, and all passed through the sea ; and were all baptized 
unto Moses in the cloud and in the sea." (i Cor. x. i, 2.) 
In his thirty-ninth sermon, Gregory of Nazianzen* says : 
" Moses truly baptized in water by causing the Israelites to 
pass through the sea and under the cloud. The sea repre- 
sents the waters of baptism, and the cloud the Holy Spirit." 

Augustine,t in his three hundred and fifty-second 

itur : eadem dispositione spiritualis effectus, terrae, id est, carni 
nostrae, emergenti de lavacro post vetera delicta, columba sancti 
Spiritus advolat, pacem Dei afferens, emissa de coelis, ubi Ecclesia 
est area figurata. 

* Gregory of Nazianzen, also called the Theologian, from his 
erudition in sacred literature, was born a.d. 328, and became one 
of the first orators, and most accomplished and thoughtful writers 
of his time. His surviving works consist chiefly of about fifty- 
three orations, two hundred and forty-two letters, and one hundred 
and fifty-six poems, besides meditations, descriptions, etc. 

f Augustine, one of the most illustrious Fathers of the Latin 
Church in the fourth century. His works are comprised in eleven 
volumes ; one of the best editions is that of the Benedictines of 
St. Maur. 



CHRIST, AS PISCIS. 13 

Sermon, says : " Per mare transitus haptismus erai," and 
then, developing this figure, he adds : " The Red Sea 
typifies baptism ; Moses leading through the sea, Christ 
himself; the Israelites passing through represent the 
faithfiil; and the death of the Egyptians, the destruction 
of our sins." {De Pcenttenita.) Prosper, an ecclesiastical 
writer of the fifth century {De Promiss. pars. i. c. 38), and 
the Venerable Bede* {Qucest. sup. Exod. xx.), make remarks 
of a similar character. A picture of the passage of the 
Red Sea was lately discovered on a sarcophagus of the 
Catacomb of the Vatican, a reproduction of which may be 
seen in Bottari.f The triumphal arch of Santa Maria 
Maggiore contains a celebrated mosaic on this subject. 

But the symbol to which the Fathers of the Church seem 
to have attached the greatest importance, as bearing 
directly upon the subjects of baptism and the Lord's 
Supper, was that of the Fish. In the language of the 
Christian writers, both in the East and the West, from the 
second century onwards, our Lord is spoken of as I^QTX, 
or " Piscis," " Piscis Noster," and the like, and that for a 
variety of reasons. First, the fish, blessed to the feeding 
of great multitudes and of His own disciples, by our Lord 
Himself while on earth, was regarded as a type of' that 
heavenly food which He gave for the life of the world, 
Secondly, as fish was, in primitive times, very generally 
in use as an ordinary article of food, it served to designate 
the wholesome doctrine of Christ, and particularly the words 
of truth contained in Holy Scripture. Thus Jerome,J on 

* Bede (672-735), sumamed the Venerable on account of his 
learning, piety, and talents. He wrote several theological books, 
commentaries on the Holy Scriptures, homilies, lives of saints, and 
an ecclesiastical History of England. 

f Bottari, Sculture e Pitture sacre estratte dai Cimiteri di Roma. 

% Jerome (331-420), one of the most learned and eloquent of the 
Latin Fathers. He translated or revised the Vulgate ; wrote com- 
mentaries on most of the books of Scripture, controversial treatises, 
and lives and works of preceding ecclesiastical writers. His 
opinions are often exaggerated and fanciful. 



14 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

Matt. xiv. 17 {Op. t. iv. p. 60), and again {ibid. t. vii. p. 119), 
says : " In the seven loaves and the small fishes are found 
the types of the gospel of Christ. The seven loaves are 
the seven books of the Old Testament, which we call the 
Heptateuch, and the small fishes are the smaller books 
of the New Testament." Clemens Alexandrinus, in his 
Stromata{\S!o. vi.), speaks of the fishes and barley loaves, as 
typifying the TrpoTraoBela, or preparatory teaching of the 
Greeks and the Jews. 

This practice of figuratively designating our Lord as 
IX&TS, or Piscis, led the Fathers naturally to speak of 
the waters of baptism. The earliest example of this is the 
well known passage in TertuUian : " We, smaller fishes, 
after the example of our Fish, are born in the water, and 
it is only by continuing in the water that we are safe." * 
{De Baptismo, c. i .) 

Melito, Bishop of Sardis (about a.d. 160), is the earliest 
writer who furnishes us with an authority for the applica- 
tion of the term pisces to the Christians, when he says : 
"Fishes are the holy ones of God," Pisces sandi ; for 
so it is written : " Traxerunt rate plenum piscihus magnis," 
John xxi. II. {Clavis, xl. 2.) Elsewhere (cap. xii. n. 25J, 
he refers to the same : " Centum quinquaginta tres omnes 
electi." Hilaryt {In Matt.), OptatusJ {De Schism. Donat. 
1. iii. c. 2), and Augustine {Confessionwn, lib. xiii. c. 23), 
express the same idea. The second-named writer informs 
us that the Greek Ix^v^; represents the first letters of 
" Irjffov'i Xpiaro'; Qeov TCo<i SwTrjp," "Jesus Christ, Son 
of God, Saviour," and adds that, owing to the presence 



* Sed nos pisciculi secundum IxOvv nostrum Jesum Christum in 
aqua nascimur ; nee aliter quam in aqua permanendo salvi sumus. 

t Hilary (305-368), Bishop of Poitiers, occupies an important 
part in the patristic literature of the Western Church. His most 
valuable work is that on the Trinity ; he wrote also on the Councils 
against the Arians, and a commentary on the Psalms and Matthew! 

X Optatus, Bishop of Milevi (about a.d. 370), a celebrated 
ecclesiastical writer. 



INSCRIPTION AT AUTUN. 



15 



in the waters of the Fish, the basin containing the 
baptismal waters was called " piscina ^ a fishpond* 

A remarkable inscription of great antiquity was dis- 
covered a few years ago, buried in the soil of an ancient 
cemetery in the vicinity of Autun (Augustodunum), a town 



ixero( 

XPH C6AaI! 



foNreNocwropicmff 

rNAMBPOTOMNIPOTW 



oeairauiNrMNTHNCHNfflOTcofrx! 






mmm 






Fig. 1. Stone at Autun, Fkance. 

in France, where many ruins of Roman temples, gates, and 
triumphal arches still exist. This inscription, represented 
in the above engraving, is of the fourth century, or 



* The following is the passage referred to: " Hie {i.e. Christus) 
est piscis, qui in baptismate per invocationem fontalibus undis 
inseritur ut qua aqua ficerat, k pisce etiam piscina vocitetur, 
Cujus piscis nomen secundum appellationem Grascam, in uno 
nomine per singulas litteras turba-n sanctorum nominum continet 
IX0YS, quod est latinum Jesus Christus Dei Filius Salvator, {De 
Schism. Donat. lib. iii. c. 2.) 



1 6 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

perhaps of the fifth. It is a sepulchral one, in memory 
of a certain Pectorius, a son of Aschandeius, and seems 
to have been placed near the baptistery of a church, and 
to have been designed as an invitation, first, to receive 
the ordinance of baptism, and next, to partake with 
earnest desire and devout reverence of the Lord's Supper. 
This inscription is as follows : — 

'I ■x^6uo(; o\ypaviov 6e]iov yevo^, rjropb aejxvw 
X prjaai, Xa/3ft)[)' ^a>\riv dfi/3poTov eV ^poTioi<i 

Q ecnrecrlcov vSarcav rrjv aijv cjjlXe doK-rreo ■^v)(r]v 
'T Saaiv aemot? ttKovtoBotov 5'o(^w?9 : 

S wrrjpo'i S'ayifov fieXirjSea Xdfi^avt I3p[(jiiaiv\ 
"Eadie irlve [\a/3] wv, 'Ix^w e^f^v TraXdp.aL'i. 

and has been translated thus : — 

" O thou divine offspring of the Heavenly Ichthus 
(Christ), use with a reverent heart when thou hast received 
the immortal life of Divine Waters among mortals. O 
my friend (who hast been baptized), quicken thy soul with 
the ever-flowing waters of wealth-giving wisdom. Come, 
and receive the honey-sweet food of the Saviour of the 
saints. Take, eat, drink, holding Ichthus in thy hands." 

In the primitive Church, and down to the fourteenth 
century, the ordinary mode of baptism was by the im- 
mersion of the whole body in water. The original term 
haptizo conveys the meaning of immersion, and no other. 
On this point we have most valuable testimony from 
the Fathers of the Church, and other ecclesiastical 
writers. They invariably designate baptism as the act 
oi dipping, bathing, or washing, and following the language 
of the Apostle Paul, who calls baptism the washing of 
regeneration (Titus iii. s), use these two terms as 
equivalents. Thus Barnabas, a companion of Paul, in 
an epistle ascribed to him, says : " We go down into 
the water full of sins and pollutions, but come up out 



BAPTISM : A SYMBOL OF REGENERATION. 1 7 

again bringing forth fruit, having in our heart the fear 
and hope which is in Jesus by the Spirit."* 

The author of the book entitled The Shepherd (0 Uot/i^v), 
alludes to " the water of baptism, in which men go down 
bound to death, but come up appointed to life " (Book iii. 
Similitude ix. chapter 16), and, speaking of the apostles, 
he says, that " they went down into the water with them 
(converts) and again came up. " Clemens Alexandrinus 
quotes this passage in his Stromata (lib. ii. cap. 6) as 
follows : KaTej37jcrav ovv aiirwv eh to vBeop. 'AW^ ovtoi fj,ev, 
^Mvre^ KUTe^Tjcrav, koI fcovre? ave^rjaav. 

Justin Martyr, in his Dialogue with Trypho the Jew (c. 
14), speaking of baptism, says : " Through the washing of 
repentance and knowledge of God, therefore, which was 
instituted for the sin of the people of God, as Isaiah says, 
we have believed, and we make known that the same bap- 
tism which he preached, and which is alone able to cleanse 
those who repent, is the water of life. But the cisterns 
which you have dug for yourselves are broken, and 
are of no use to you ; for what profit is there in that 
baptism which cleanses the flesh and the body alone ? 
Let your souls be baptized from anger and from covet- 
ousness, from envy and hatred, and lo ! the whole body 
is pure.f 

* Barnabas — ''On r)fi,w IJ-h> KaTa^aivofjiev eis to vSoip yt/xovres 
afxapTiZv Koi pvirov, Koi di/a/SaiVo/Aev Kapiro<^OjDouvT€5 iv Trj Kapoia tov 
<j}6fiov, KOL TTjV iX-TTiSa El? TOV 'trjo-ovv €;;^oj'Tes iv tS> irveiJ/i.aTi. i^Epist. 
Catholica, c. xi.) 

+ Ata TOV Xovrpov ovv r^s /u.eTai/01'as Kal rijs yi'Mcreus To5 Oeov, o vTrtp 
TTJ's dvo/xtas tSv XaSv tov 6eov yiyovev, (is 'Ho-ai'as^oa, i^/xet? CTrio-TCwa/iei', 

^ /!- ? r ' "._"; /„„,,_A fl„'_.„^„„ .^A llA„r.„ ^r,ft„ni'r,-n, 




Lpv^are AaxKOvs eauTOts, crvvTeTpLp.p.evoL 
yap oc^cXos Ikclvov tov /SaTTTiarfJiaTO';, o Ty)v crapKa Kai fxovov to a-u>fj,a 
<t)atSpvvei ; ISairTtcrOrjTe Tr]V xpvx^v a-n-o opy^'S Koi dirb TrXcovt^tas- ixTro 
(j>66vov, a-rro fulaovr koI ISov to aSifjia KaBdpov IdTU {Dialog, cum 
Tryphoneo Juda, c. 14.) 

C 



I 8 THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

Theophilus,* in his second book, Ad Auiolycum, says : 
"Men receive remission of sins through the water and the 
washing of regeneration {Zlo, vSaro'; km XovTpov)." 

Irenajus.t in his work Adversus Hcereses (lib. iii. c. 19), 
speaking of baptism, says : " Our bodies through this 
bath (lavacrum) have received that which leads to an 
incorruptible unity." 

Referring to Naaman, Irenaeus says, in one of his Frag- 
ments : " He dipped in Jordan seven times. Not in vain 
in old time was Naaman, being a leper, baptized and 
cleansed, but for our information, who, being lepers in our 
sins, are cleansed by the holy water and invocation of the 
Lord from our old transgressions, as newborn children 
spiritually regenerated, as the Lord, too, saith : Except a 
man be born of water and of the Spirit he cannot enter 
into the kingdom of heaven. J 

TertuUian wrote on the subject of baptism a whole treatise 
to establish the necessity of that ordinance in refutation of 



* Theophilus was Bishop of Antioch in the second century. He 
wrote three books in defence of the Christian faith, addressed to 
Autolycus, a learned heathen, with whom he was acquainted. 

f Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyons, a.d. 170. He was a disciple of 
Poiycarp. His principal work is that which is commonly cited as 
Adversus Hareses (Against Heresies), which he wrote in the reign of 
Commodus, that is, after the year 180. His other works are most 
of them doctrinal, and are known only by fragments. 

\ Kai ijSaTTTlcraTO (j>T](nv iv ™ lopSdvT] lirraKt?. Oi fiarrjv TnxAat 
Nai/iotv XcTrpos &v ySaTTTtcr^ets cKa^atpeTO, dAA'cZs tvSet^iv r/fJieTepaV ov XeTrpol 
ovTcs Iv rais a/iaprtais 8ia tov dytou i'Saros Koi t^s toi) Kupioi) JiriKXijcreMS 
KaOapL^op-eOa. tu>v TroLXaiSv TTapavT<j)p.aTuiv, u)s TratSia veoyova TrvcvfJiaTLKUii 
avayevvoip-evoi,, KaOwi koI 6 Kijptos e^Jj' "Eav /aij tk avay(.vvy]6rj Zl i'Saros 
Kol TTveiJ/xaTOS, ov fir] etcreXeva-eTai eU ttjv ^SacriXctav tCjv oipavCiv. {Inter. 
Fragmenta, xxxv.) This fragment is extant in Card. Mai. Bibl. Nova 
Patrum, iii. 447, and is taken from Codex S. Marci, Venice, 534, fol. 
220, V. ; it is extant likewise in Cod. Coislin. 3, in the Biblioth^que 
Nationale at Paris, from whence the Benedictines are said to have 
got it ; this MS. contains just the same catena as the one at Venice ; 
and there is another MS. of it at the Escorial in Spain, marked 
2 ii. 19- 



BAPTISM: A SYMBOL OF CLEANSING. 19 

the opinion of a female, named Quintilia, who maintained 
that faith alone (we suppose faith without works) was suf- 
ficient for salvation. In this tract, TertuUian, who at 
times makes use of somewhat exaggerated expressions, 
speaks strongly of the efficacy of baptism in procuring the 
remission of sins, and the descent of the Holy Ghost, and 
connects it with regeneration ; he also discusses many ques- 
tions relating to this rite as practised in his time. In this 
and other tracts of his, TertuUian makes mention of trine 
immersion, which, he says, was done after the Three Persons 
of the Godhead. "With great simplicity, without any 
pomp or showy preparations, the candidate is let down 
into the water, and dipped in each interval between the 
words (of the formula). " {De JBapiismo, Adversus Quinti- 
liani, c. 2.) " We affirm before the bishop that we renounce 
the devil, his pomps, and angels, and are then immersed 
three times (ter mergitamur)." [De Corona, iii.) "We are 
dipped not once only, but at the name of each Person of 
the Godhead." [Adversus Prax.) 

In the acts of Perpetua and Felicttas, who suffered 
martydom in the time of TertuUian, it is said that when 
one Saturus, a catechumen, was thrown to a leopard in the 
arena of the Colosseum of Rome, and at the first bite 
was covered with blood, the people gave him the testi- 
mony of the second baptism, as it were, by crying : 
" Salvum loium! salvum loium!" Baptized, or more literally, 
"washed and saved, washed and saved." {Acta Sanc- 
torum, lib. i.) 

In the Apostolical Constitutions, or Canons, we find 
these words : " If any bishop, or presbyter, shall have 
administered but one immersion, and not three immersions 
(tres immersiones) at the initiation (baptism), he must 
be deposed. For our Lord has said, 'Go ye, teach all 
nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, 
and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.'" [Canones 

c 2 



20 THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

Aposiolorum, per Clementem, n. 49.) The Apostolical 
Constitutions, or Canons, are a collection of regulations 
attributed to the apostles, and formerly supposed to have 
been compiled by Clement of Rome, whose name they 
bear. It is now the general opinion, however, that 
they are spurious, and that Clement had no hand in 
them. They have no external evidence to support them, 
not being quoted by any of the Christian writers of the 
first three centuries. They are also destitute of internal 
evidence, as they contain many superstitions, profane 
comparisons, mystical expositions, and ascetic regula- 
tions, together with glaring inconsistencies, and much 
false history, which destroy all claim to apostolical origin. 
They appeared first in the fourth century, but have 
been much changed and corrupted since that time. 
They are divided into eight books, consisting of a great 
number of rules and precepts, relating to the duties of 
Christians, and particularly the ceremonies and discipline 
of the church. Though destitute of apostolical sanction 
and authority, these Canons are valuable as describing 
the form, customs, and the ceremonies of the churches, 
about the year 300. We shall have occasion to quote 
them again. 

Origan,* in his Commentary on the Gospel of John 
(t. viii.), makes the following statement on the subject 
of baptism : " The washing of water {to vSaTo<; Xovrpov) 
is the symbol of the purification of the soul cleansed of 
all impurity of sin.f In his Commentary on the Gospel 



* Origen (184-254) was at the head of the Catechetical School 
at Alexandria, and was one of the most eminent of the early Chris- 
tian writers. He compiled a Hexapla, or Polyglot Bible, and wrote 
commentaries on Scripture, treatises on the resurrection, martyrdom, 
prayer, and a defence against Celsus. 

f^OiVojs Koi. TO Sta ToC i'Saros \ovrpov, o-i;/x/3oA.ov Tuyxavov KaOapiov 
^vxri'i TTavrn pvTrov airo kokm^ o.TroTrXvvop.h'-q'S. {Comment in loan 
t. vi.) ■ ■' 



BAPTISM : A SYMBOL OF CLEANSING. 2 I 

of Matthew, he says : " We are therefore, through this 
washing (Xovrpov) buried with Christ in regeneration." 

Cyprian* in his Second Letter to Donatus, calls baptism 
lavacru7ii salutare — the salutary bath ; also aqua salutaris 
lavacrum — the bath of salutary water (epist. ii. Ad Donat.), 
and lavacrum vitale — vital bath (epist. vii. Ad Juhaian). 
In his tract, De Baptisnio, he writes : " Water cleanses 
indeed the body, but the Holy Ghost sets His seal upon 
the soul, so that with our bodies washed in clean water, 
and our hearts purified, we may draw near to God."t 

Gregory Thaumaturgus,+ in his Sermon on Christ's 
baptism, speaks of " the immersion of Christ, which 
took place in the River Jordan." 

Lactantius : § " When man, cleansed by the holy 
washing ; " lavacrum. {De Divinis Institutionibus, lib. viii.) 

Eusebius,|| in his Ecclesiastical History (i. c. lo), makes 

* Cyprian (died a.d. 258) was Bishop of Carthage, and an il- 
lustrious Father of the African Church. He is the author of some 
remarkable letters, addresses, and treatises ; among these latter may 
be mentioned the De Gratia Dei (On the grace of God), and De 
Idolorum Vanitate (On the Vanity of Idols). 

f "Aqua san6 mundat corpus, Spiritus autem signat animam, ut 
abluti in corpore aqua munda, et repurgati in corde accedamus ad 
Deum." — Cyprian. De Baptisnio. 

\ Gregory Thaumaturgus, so called on account of the number of 
miracles he is said to have performed during his life and after his 
death, was Bishop of Neo Csesarea, and flourished a.d. 245. He 
composed a panegyrical discourse on Origen, a creed, a paraphrase 
on Ecclesiastes, and some sermons, 

§ Lactantius (died a. d. 825) was an eminent Christian writer, 
and a most elegant Latin writer. He is the author of the remark- 
able treatise De Divinis Institutionibus (On the Divine Institutes), 
in which he exposes the errors of heathenism and sets forth the 
truth and excellence of Christianity. He wrote also on the Death 
of Persecutors, and the Wrath of God. 

II Eusebius (270-340), Bishop of Cssarea, in Palestine, was a 
writer of great learning and vast research, and the father of eccle- 
siastical history. His chief works are the Chronicon, a history of 
the world down to the year of our Lord 327 and 328 ; the Evan- 
gelical preparation, in fifteen books, a collection of such extracts 



2 2 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

use of the following expression: "That we might be 

plunged in the bath of baptism " I" 

the succeeding chapter, he alludes to the cleansing of 
the body and that of the soul. 

Cyril of Jerusalem,* in his Discourses to the catechu- 
mens he was preparing for baptism, says to them : 
"You are about to descend into the baptistery in order 
to be plunged in water (et? to vSup Kara^aiveiv), (Catech. 

iii.) For he who is plunged in water is 

surrounded on all sides by water; thus the Apostles 
were baptized in the Holy Ghost, but with this differ- 
ence, however, that whilst the water can reach only 
the outer surface of the body, the Holy Spirit cleanses 
in a mysterious manner the inner soul ! " (Catech. xvii.) 
The discourses of Cyprian give us a minute and in- 
teresting account of the rites of baptism and the Lord's 
Supjjer. 

Epiphanius, t in his Treatise on Heresies, writes : 
" Instituting the washing (Xovrpbv) of baptism, He (the 
Saviour) said : " Go ye, and baptize in the name of 



from the old heathen authors as were fitted to make the mind re- 
gard the evidence of Christianity in a favourable hght ; the Evan- 
gelical Demonstration, in twenty books, written to convince the Jews 
of the truth of Christianity ; and the Ecclesiastical History, in ten 
books, vi^hich extends to the year 324. 

* Cyril (315-386), Bishop of Jerusalem, was an eminent church 
Father, whose writings are exceedingly valuable on account of their 
theology as well as their vigour, profundity, and beauty. He is well 
known for his catechetical discourses, of which there are twenty- 
three still extant. They are divided into two classes ; the first 
eighteen are addressed to catechumens deemed worthy of baptism, 
and are a brief exposition of the general doctrines of Christianity ; 
the remaining five are addressed to persons already baptized ; they 
are distinguished by the name of Mystagogical Lectures, and are 
chiefly devoted to the explanation of the nature of the ordinances. 

t Epiphanius (born about a.d. 330) was Bishop of Salamis. 
Among his writings the most important is his Panarion, or Cata- 
logue of All Heresies (eighty in number). 



A SYMBOL : CYRIL, BASIL. 23 

the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost," 
(Haereses, vii.) 

Basil,* in his sermon De Bapttsmo, says : " How can 
we be placed in a condition of likeness to His death ? 
By being ' buried with Him in baptism.' How are we 
to go down with Him into the grave ? By imitating 
the ' burial ' of Christ in baptism ; for the bodies of the 
baptized are in a sense buried in water. For this reason, 
the Apostle speaks figuratively of baptism, as a ' laying 
aside the works of the flesh : ye are circumcised with the 
circumcision made without hands, in putting off the body 
of the sins of the flesh by the circumcision of Christ, buried 
with Him in baptism,' which, in a manner, cleanses the 
soul from the impurity of its natural carnal affections, 
according as it is written, ' Wash me, and I shall be whiter 
than snow.' This is not like the Jewish purifications, 
washing after every defilement, but we have experienced 
it to be one cleansing baptism, one death to the world, 
and one resurrection from the dead, of both of which 
baptism is a figure. For this purpose the Lord, the giver 
of life, hath instituted baptism, a representation of both 
life and death, the water overflowing as an image of 
death, the Spirit animating as an earnest of life. Thus we 
see that water and the Spirit are united. Two things are 
proposed in baptism to put an end to a life of sin, lest it 
should issue in eternal death, and to animate the soul to a 
life of future sanctification. The water exhibits an image 
of death, receiving the body as into a sepulchre : the 
Spirit renews the soul, and we rise from a death of sin into 
a newness of life. This is to be ' born from above, of water 



* Basil (329-379), Bishop of Cssarea, in Cappadocia, is one of 
the most eminent and eloquent of the Greek Fathers. He was 
surnamed the Great on account of his learning and piety. He 
wrote homilies, expositions, panegyrics, a revision of the 
Septuagint, and letters. 



24 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM 

and the Spirit ;' as if by the water we were put to death, 
and by the operation of the Spirit brought to life. By 
three immersions, therefore, and by three invocations, we 
administer the important ceremony of baptism, that death 
may be represented in a figure, and that the souls of the 
baptized may be purified by divine knowledge. If there 
be any benefit in the water, it is not from the water, 
but from the presence of the Spirit ; for baptism does not 
' save us by putting away the filth of the flesh,' but by 
• the answer of a good conscience towards God.' " 
(Robinson's History of Baptism, pp. 65, 66.) 

Augustine, in his sermon De Mysterio Baptismatis (On the 
Mystery of Baptism), expresses himself in the following 
manner: "In this font, before we dipped your whole 
body, we asked you : ' Believest thou in God the 
Omnipotent Father? .... After you averred that 
you believed, we immersed three times your heads in the 
sacred font. For you are rightly immersed three times, 
who receive baptism in the name of the Trinity. You 
are rightly immersed three times, you who receive 
baptism in the name of Jesus Christ, who rose the 
third day from the dead. Trine immersion is the symbol 
of the burial of the Lord, by which you are buried with 
Christ in baptism, and with Christ rise again by faith, 
that, purified of your sins, you may live following Christ 
in the holiness of virtue." * Here Augustine quotes the 



* Augustine : In hoc ergo fonte, antequam vos toto corpore 
tingueremus, interrogavimus : " Credis in Deuna Patrem Omnipo- 
tentem ? .... Postquam vos credere promisistis, terti6 
capita vostra in sacro fonte demersimus. Rectil enim terti6 mersi 
estis, qui accepistis baptismum in nomine sanctas Trinitatis, 
Rect^ tertii mersi estis, qui accepistis baptismum in nomine Jesu 
Christi, qui die tertia resurrexit amortuis. Ilia enim tertio repetita 
demersio typum dominicse exprimit sepulturse, per quam Christo 
consepulti estis in baptismo, et cum Christo resurrexistis in fide : 
ut peccatis abluti in sanctitate virtutum Christum imitando vivatis." 
(Hom iii. ap. Gratian de Consecrat. distinct, iv. c. Ixxviii.) 



A SYMBOL : PRUDENTIUS, ETC. 25 

words of the Apostle Paul in his Epistle to the Romans 
(vi. 3-5)- 

Juvencus,* a Christian poet of the fourth century, 
paraphrases Matthew iii. 14, in the following manner: — 

" Deign not be immersed in water by my hands, 
Since thine own washing can cleanse me better. 
Said John." f 

Prudentius,+ in his Psychomachia, refers to baptism as 
follows : — 

" Then the immortal tunic, which, with skilful hands. 
Holy Faith has woven, and which affords an impenetrable 
covering, she herself gives to those, who, with their 
bathed chests, are to be born again." § 

Alcuinus Avitus, Archbishop of Vienna (A.D. 481), says 
in his hymn De Diluvio Alundi : 

* Juvencus, a Christian poet, who flourished in the time of 
Constantine, and wrote a number of poems, all of which are lost, 
except his Historia Evangelica. This is an account of our Saviour's 
life and actions, in four books. It is written in hexameters, and 
closely adheres to the narrative of the Evangelists. It may be seen 
in the Bibliotheca Fatrum. 

f Tu ne meis manibus digneris mergior undis, 
Ciim tua me melius possint mundare lavacra 

Dixit Joannes 

{Historia Evangelica.) 

X Prudentius, a Christian poet of the fourth century, was a native 
of Spain. His principal works are the Cathemerinon, twelve hymns 
for daily use ; the Apotheosis, a defence of the doctrine of the 
Trinity ; the Hamartigeneia, a work on the origin of evil ; the 
Psychomachia, the triumph of the Christian graces in the soul of the 
believer ; Contra Symmachum, a polemic against the heathen gods ; 
Peri Stephanon, fourteen poems in praise of Spanish and other 
martyrs ; and lastly the Diptychon, or forty-eight poems on scrip- 
tural incidents and personages. Prudentius has been called the 
" Horace and Virgil of the Christians." 

§ Prudentius : 

" Post immortalem tunicam, quam pollice docto 
Texuit alma fides, dans impenetrabile tegmen, 
Pectoribus lotis, dederat quibus ipsa renasci." 

[Psychomachia, sect, vi.) 



26 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

"Whoever is washed with Christ's baptism is in the 
ark." * 

Maximus, Bishop of Turin, writes, in his third treatise 
on baptism, ''■Hie in f ante homo mergitur: " Here in the 
font man is immersed. In his Historia Ecclesiastica 
Gentis Anglormn (lib. ii. c. 14) the Venerable Bede gives 
the following account of the missionary labours of 
Paulinus in the North of England. 

" King Edwin, with all the nobility of the nation and 
a large number of the people, received the faith and the 
washing of the holy regeneration, in the eleventh year 
of his reign, which is the year of the incarnation of our 
Lord, six hundred and twenty-seven. He was baptized 
at York, on the holy day of Easter, being the 12th of 
April, in the church of St. Peter the Apostle, which he 
himself had built of timber, whilst he was being cate- 
chized and instructed in order to receive baptism. . . . 
So great was then the fervour of the faith, as is 
reported, and the desire of the washing of salvation 
among the nation of the Northumbrians, that Paulinus 
at a certain time coming with the king and queen to 
the royal villa, called Adgefrin, stayed there with 
them thirty-six days, fully occupied in catechizing and 
baptizing; during which days, from morning till night, 
he did nothing else but instruct the people, resorting 
from all villages and places, in Christ's saving word ; 
and when instructed, he washed them with the water of 

absolution in the River Glen.f These 

things happened in the province of the Bernicians ; but 
in that of the Deiri also, where he was wont often to be 
with the king, he baptized in the River Swale, which 



* Alcuinus : 

" Quicunque est Christi baptismate lotus in area." 
t Now called Bowent. 



A SYMBOL: DEATH, PURIFICATION. 27 

runs by the village Cataract ; * for as yet oratories or 
baptisteries could not be made in the early infancy of 
the church in those parts. "f 

In a plan of Paulinus' second edifice (The Metro- 
politan Church of St. Peter's at York) the probable 
position of a wooden baptistery, enclosing a spring 
still remaining, is pointed out. Bede mentions this 
oratory as being built in haste for the express purpose 
of baptizing King Edwin. This circumstance would 
seem to indicate that baptisteries were formerly erected 
in England. 

Pope Celestine, + in his Opusculum Odavum, writes : 
" Baptism is the washing of the body {corporis ablutio), 
which represents the inner purification of the soul. How 
great, therefore, the virtue of water, since it can reach the 
body, and at the same time cleanse the heart ! " 



* Catterick, in the North Riding of York. 

f Accepit rex Edwinus cum cunctis gentis suae nobilibus ac 
plebe perplurima fidem et lavacrum sanctae regenerationis, anno 
regni sui undecimo, qui est annus Dominicse incarnationis sex 
centesimus vicesimus septimus, Baptizatus est autem Eboraci die 
sancto Paschae, pridie iduum Aprilium, in ecclesia Sancti Petri 
Apostoli, quam ibidem ipse de ligno, cum catechizaretur atque ad 
percipiendum baptisma imbueretur, citato opere construxit . . . 
Tantus autem fertur tunc fuisse fervor fidei ac desiderium lavacri 
salutaris gente Northanhumbrorum, ut quodam tempore Pau'inus 
veniens cum rege et regina in villam regiam, quae vocatur Adgefrin, 
triginta sex diebus ibidem cum eis catechizandi et batipzandi 
officio deditus moraretur ; quibus diebus cunctis a mane usque ad 
vesperam nil aliud ageret quam confluentem, eo de cunctis viculis 
ac locis plebem Christi verbo salutis instruere, atque instructam in 
fluvio Gleni, qui proximus erat, lavacro remissionis abluere . . . 
Hsec quidem in provincia Berniciorum ; sed et in provincia Dei- 
rovum, ubi saepius manere cum rege solebat, baptizabat in fluvio 
Swalua, qui vicum Cataractam praeter fluit. Nondum enim oratoria 
vel baptisteria in ipso exordio nascentis ibi ecclesiae poterant 
aedificari. 

{Hist. Eccl. lib. ii. cap. xiv.) 

\ Celestine, Pope of Rome, in the thirteenth century. 



2 8 THE ARCHiEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

Thomas Aquinas * makes the following important state- 
ment in his Summa TheologicB (p. iii. qu. 66, art. 7) : " The 
symbol of Christ's burial is more expressively represented 
by immersion, and for that reason, this mode of baptizing 
is more common and more commendable." {In immersioiie 
expresstics reprcBseniatur figura sepulturcE Christi, et ideo hie 
modus haptizandi est communior et laudabtltor.) 

Trine immersion is prescribed in the Sacramentary 
of Gregory the Great : — " Baptizet sacerdos sub trina 
mersione, tantum sanctam Trinitatem semel invocans, 
ita dicendo : baptizo te in nomine Patris, et niergat semel, 
et Filii, et mergat iterum, et Spiritus Sancti, et mergat 
tertio." Let the priest baptize with a triple immersion, 
but with only one invocation of the Holy Trinity, saying : 
I baptize thee in the name of the Father (then let him 
dip the person once), and of the Son (then immerse him a 
second time), and of the Holy Ghost (and immerse him 
the third time). 

The fourth Council of Toledo, held in A.D. 633, decreed 
but one immersion, saying that it was not necessary to 
immerse the candidate three times. [Nan oportere ter 
mergere eum qui haptizetur. Can. vi.) This change, which 
occurred in the Spanish churches, was introduced in 
consequence of the misinterpretation and abuse of the 
ceremony by the Arians in Spain, who made the three 
immersions to denote a difference, or degrees of divinity 
in the Divine Persons of the Trinity. Gregory the Great, 
in his reply to Leander, Bishop of Seville, who had 



* ThomasAquinas, or Thomasof Aquino (1224-1274), is the most 
remarkable representative of the scholastic theology of' the middle 
ages. His chief works are A Commentary on the Four Books of Sen- 
tences of Peter Lombard ; the Summa Theologice, which is the first 
attempt at a complete theological system ; Q^iastiones Distutata et 
Quodhbetales, and Opuscula ThelogkcB. Aquinas was often called by 
his enthusiastic scholars the " Second Augustine." 



TRINE IMMERSION. 29 

written to him for his advice and decision in this case, 
said : — 

"Concerning the three immersions in baptism, you 
have judged very truly already that different customs do 
not prejudice the Holy Church, whilst the unity of the 
faith remains entire. The reason why we use three 
immersions is, to signify the mystery of Christ's three 
days' burial, that whilst an infant is thrice lifted up out of 
the water, the resurrection on the third day may be 
expressed thereby. But if any one thinks this is rather 
done in regard to the Holy Trinity, a single immersion in 
baptism does no way prejudice that ; for so long as the 
unity of substance is preserved in Three Persons, it is no 
harm whether a child be baptized with one immersion 
or three ; because three immersions may represent the 
Trinity of Persons, and one immersion the Unity of 
Godhead. But forasmuch as heretics now baptize the 
infant with three immersions, I think you ought not to do 
so, lest the immersions be interpreted as a division of the 
Godhead." * 

This decision was afterwards confirmed by the Council 
of Toledo referred to above. But both the simple and 
triple forms of immersion continued to prevail in the 
Latin churches, whilst the Greek churches persisted in 

* " De trina mersione baptismatis, nil responderi verius potest, 
quam quod ipsi sensistis : quod in una fide nihil afficit sanctae 
ecclesiae consuetudo diversa. Nos autem quod tertio demergimus, 
triduanse sepulturae sacramenta signamus, ut dum tertio infans ab 
aquis educitur, resurrectio triduani temporis exprimatur. Quod si 
quis forte etiam pro summse Trinitatis veneratione sestimet fieri, 
neque ad hoc aliquid obsistit, baptizando semel in aquis mergere, 
quia dum in tribus Personis una substantia est, reprehensibile esse 
nullatenus potest, infantem in baptismate in aquam vel ter vel semel 
immergere, quando et in tribus immersionibus personarum Trinitas, 
et in una potest divinitatis singularitas, designari. Sed quia nunc 
hucusque ab haereticis infans in baptismate tertio mergebatur, 
fiendum apud vos esse non censeo ; ne dum mersiones enumerant, 
divinitatem dividant." (Gregor. lib. i. epist. x). Ad Zeand.) 



30 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

practising trine immersion, and still hold to it. In the 
Ordo Romanus, a ritual composed in the eighth century, 
we find trine immersion prescribed in the following form : 
" Ego te haptizo in nomine Patris, et niergit semel; et Filii, 
et mergii iterum; et Spiritus Sandi, et mergit tertio." I 
baptize thee in the name of the Father (and immerses 
once), and of the Son (and immerses a second time), and 
of the Holy Ghost (and immerses the third time). 

The Gothic Missal * contains the following form of 
prayer, which was used at the ceremony of the benediction 
of the baptismal fonts : " We pray our Lord God that He 
will sanctify this font, so that all who will descend into 
this font {ut omnes qui descenderint in hunc fontem) may 
receive through the washing of the most blessed re- 
generation {lavacrum beatissimcB regenerationis) the remission 
of all their sins." 

Bernard,! in his Sermon on the Lord's Supper, says : 
" Baptism is the first of all the sacraments, in which we are 
planted together into the likeness of His (Christ's) death. 
Hence trine immersion {trina fitersio) represents the 
triduum (or three days), which we are about to celebrate." 
{In Caena Domini^ 

As regards the manner in which baptism used to be 
administered, TertuUian says that the Christians of his 
time were immersed by lowing down with great simplicity, 
without pomp, and in a few words. " Quoniam tanta sim- 
plicitate, sine pompa, sine apparatu novo aliquo, denique 



* This Gothic Missal is from a very old manuscript, the date of 
which is uncertain. It differs in some respects from the Roman. 

t Bernard (died a.d. 1153) was one of the most influential theo- 
logians of the middle ages. He was called the Mellifluous Doctor, 
and his writings " a river of paradise." His works are exceedingly 
numerous. They consist of four hundred and thirty-nine letters, 
addressed to the leading persons of his time on ecclesiastical and 
public affairs ; of three hundred and forty sermons ; and of some 
devotional and controversial tracts. 



MODE OF ADMINISTRATION, PAINTINGS. 31 

sine sumptu homo in aqua demissus, et inter pauca verba 
tinctus." {De Baptismo, c. 2.) The meaning oi demtsso ca- 
fite, demtsso voltu, demissis oculis, is familiar to every clas- 
sical scholar. The primitive mode appears to have been 
this : The administrator and candidate both standing in 
the water * the former placed his right hand on the head 
of the candidate, and, pronouncing the baptismal words, 
gently bowed him forward,! till he was completely im- 
mersed in the water. J In some very ancient paintings, the 
candidate is represented as standing in the water up to his 
waist and the administrator by his side bending him 
forward. The most remarkable of these paintings is that 
of the Catacomb of San Ponziano, outside of Rome, in the 
chapel called " Cappella del Battisterio." § The Baptism 
of the Saviour is roughly sketched and painted in the old 
technical style (Fig. 2). In his work, Roma Solterranea,\\ Bot- 
tari gives the following explanation of this painting. He 
says : " Upon the wall, over the arch, the Redeemer is re- 
presented up to His waist in the waters of the River Jordan, 
and upon His head rests the right hand of John the Baptist, 
standing on the shore. It is by mistake that modern 
artists represent Christ in the Jordan up to His knees only, 
and John pouring water upon His head. And although on 
the portico of the church of San Lorenzo, outside of the 
walls of Rome, that saint is seen in a painting pouring 
water upon the head of San Romano, this was certainly 



* See Ambrosius, De Sacrament, lib. i. c. 5 ; and Gregory, De 
Sacram. lib. De Sab. Pentecost. 

I This is the meaning of Prudentius, when he speaks of the 
candidates with their " bathed chests : " pectoribus lotis. 

% Pauli Aringhi, Roma Subterrannea, ii. lib. 6. c. 4, De Baptismo 
Joan Ciampini, Vetera Monumenta. 

§ Chapel of the Baptistery, a picture of which forms our 
frontispiece. 

II Bottari, Roma Sotterranea, t. i. p. 194.. 



32 



THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 



not the case, as that picture is far more modern * than 
those of the first centuries, and the artist was evidently 
ignorant or wrongly informed concerning the acts of San 
Lorenzo. It is not improbable, however, that subse- 




Fig. 2. Baptism of Chuist. Fresco in the Catacomb of San Ponziano. 

quently it became customary to pour water upon the head 
of the catechumen after he had been immersed. 

" On the other shore an angel is seen upon a cloud, hold- 
ing the Saviour's robe ; the Holy Ghost descends like a 
dove and alights upon the Redeemer. John places his 

* It is of the twelfth century. — W. N. C. 



MODE OF ADMINISTRATION; PAINTINGS. 



33 



hand upon the head of Christ to immerse Him. A hart is 
also seen standing on the shore and looking fixedly at 
the water ; symbol of the catechumen ardently desiring 
the waters of baptism, according as Jerome says in his 
commentary on the Forty-second Psalm : ' He wishes 
to come to Christ in whom is the source of light, that, 
being washed by baptism, he may receive the gift of 
the remission of sins.' " 

Below is painted on the wall a cross set with 
precious stones, and ornamented with flowers and leaves, 
and two candlesticks (see frontispiece). The cross descends 
into the water. 




Fig. 3. Baptism of Christ. 

The symbols of the Redeemer, A and SI (Alpha and 
Omega) are seen suspended from the arms of the cross. 
Inwoven in this manner these letters formed a frequent 
symbol in the early church, and were considered as 
expressive of the supreme divinity of our Saviour, His 
eternity and immutability. His creative and all-em- 
bracing presence and energy. According to Boldetti * 
these paintings belong to the fifth or sixth century. 

The above engraving (Fig. 3) represents a fresco 



* Boldetti, Osservazioni sopra i Cimiteri dei Sanli Martin ed Antichi 
Crutiani di Roma. 



34 



THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 



painting of the Baptism of Christ, found in a crypt of the 
Catacomb of Santa Lucina, over which stands the Basilica 

of St. Paul outside 
of the walls of 
Rome. John the 
Baptist, standing 
upon the shore, 
holds out his right 
hand to the Sa- 
viour, and assists 
Him in ascending 
the brink of the 
river. The Holy 
Ghost, in the form 
of a dove bearing a 
leaf, is seen flying 
down to alight up- 
on the Redeemer's 
head. This picture, 
which is of great 
antiquity, probably 
of the fourth or 
fifth century, pro- 
duces a very pleas- 
ing effect. 

The annexed 
woodcut (Fig. 4) 
represents a fresco 
painting which was 
found in the Cata- 
comb of St. Cal- 
lixtus, and has 
given rise to con- 
siderable contro- 
versy. According to the celebrated archffiologist, Signer 




EARLY PAINTINGS. 



35 



De Rossi, the author of Roma Sotterranea (Subterrane3,n 
Rome), this picture represents the baptism of a youth by 
affusion; but Father Garrucci, who is preparing a magni- 
ficent illustrated work on the history of Christian Art, 
asserts that " the youth, quite naked, is entirely immersed 
in a cloud of water," and that " this bath is represented 
by streaks of greenish paint thrown with a brush, 
around the body and above the head of the person." * 

It should be remarked that it is impossible to ascertain 
the precise age of the pictures in the Catacombs of Rome. 
They range in date through several centuries, some of 
them not being earlier than the middle ages. 

The annexed engraving 
(Fig. 5) reproduces a fresco 
found in the ancient Basilica 
of St. Clement, at Rome, 
lately discovered by ex- 
cavating the soil beneath the 
modern church of the same 
name. This painting, which 
is on the southern wall, near 
the western angle, represents 
an archbishop, with the Greek 
pallium, baptizing by im- 
mersion a young man of bar- 
baric type. From its vicinity 
to another painting, alluding 
to St. Cyril's first mission to 
the Bulgarians, it probably represents the baptism of the 
Cham of the Chazari, if not that of Rastices, Duke of 
Moravia, or of Borgoris Michael, Duke of Bohemia, for all 

* " Un giovanetto, tutto ignudo, h immerso interamente in un 
nembo di acqua. II quale bagno d rappresentato da grossi sprazzi 
di verdemare, gittati col penello attorno alia persona e fin disopra 
alia testa di lui. E cosl' figurato il battesimo," {Sioria della arte 
Cristiana, vol. II. p. 12.) 

D 2 




Mg. 5. 



Baptism op a Convert by 
C rRiL. 



36 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

these three were converted by St. Cyril and his brother 
Methodius.* This fresco is probably of the ninth century. 

There is a miniature of the eighth or ninth century, re- 
presenting the rite of baptism by immersion, which belongs 
to an unnumbered manuscript in the large library of the 
Minerva in Rome. The Redeemer stands in the water 
up to His neck, John places his right hand upon the 
Saviour's head, and on the other side of the stream are 
ministering angels (Fig. 6). The inscription beneath this 
painting runs thus : " Qui pedihus super te amhulavit, et a 
Johanne in Jordane in te bapiizatus est" (Who walked 
with His feet upon thee, and was baptized by John 
into thee in the Jordan). The title of this valuable 
manuscript is " Benedictio Fontis," or. Blessing of the 
Font. The short figures and the draperies of this manu- 
script, are even more reminiscent of the antique than 
the Terence, No. 3868, which is of the eighth or ninth 
century, and is now preserved in the Vatican. It 
contains fourteen miniature paintings on eight parch- 
ment leaves. These paintings and other ornaments 
prove that this manuscript was intended for the use of 
an exalted personage, and the words " Landolfi Episcopi 
sum," makes it probable that its possessor was the 
Archbishop of Capua of that name, who lived about 
851 or 879. The following are of this opinion : Ciampini, 
" De perpetuo azymorum usu ; Gerbert, Vetus littcrgia 
Alemannica ; and Mamachi, Delle Origine Cristiane." 

In the sacristy of the ancient church of San Celso, at 
Milan, is still preserved an antique diptych, or church 
book, in which were inscribed the names of the Competentes, 
or candidates for baptism. This diptych contains a pic- 
ture of the baptism of Christ. In his Memoir of St. Celsus, 



* "St. Clement and his Basilica in Rome," by Rev Toseoh 
Mullooly. J r 



EARLY PAINTINGS. 



37 



=s 


t 


& 


g 




J . 


^ 


CIS 




^ 


z 


O 


\. 




M 




.^ 


1 


C 


.g 


r—i 


02 


^ 


••'^ ^ 




rt 









38 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

who was a bishop at Milan, Bugati, a canonical priest, 
alludes to this picture as follows: "The Redeemer is 
represented immersed in the water according to the 
ancient discipline of the church, observed for many 
centuries in the administration of baptism. John holds in 
his left hand a curved and knotty staff, and places his 
right upon the Saviour's head. Finally, the Holy Spirit 
descends from heaven in the form of a dove. This scene 
is found depicted on the most ancient Christian monu- 
ments."* According to Bugati, this picture is of the fifth 
or sixth century. 

The following picture (Fig. 7), representing the Bap- 
tism of Christ, is taken from the Greek Menologue or 
Calendar, one of the most valuable manuscripts in the 
library of the Vatican. It contains four hundred and 
thirty miniature paintings. The engraving of this work, 
with a Latin translation, was commenced by Pope 
Clement XL, continued by his two successors, Innocent 
XIII. and Benedict XIIL, completed by his nephew, 
Annibale Albani, and published under the following 
title : — " Menologium Graecorum, jussu Basilii impera- 
toris Grsece olim editum .... munificentia et 
liberalitate S. D. N. Benedicti XIIL, nunc primum Graece 
et Latine prodit," etc. Urbini, 1727, 3 vols. fol. 

Cardinal Baronius (Anxal. Eccles.) ascribes this manu- 
script to A.D. 886. The words at the beginning, "Rex 
totius terras, sol purpuras Basilius," etc., prove that the 
work was executed for an Emperor Basilius, most probably 
for Basilius II. in the tenth century, who could say of him- 
self in the words of the son of Marcus Aurelius, 
" Imperatoria purpura me suscipit simulque sol hominem 
me vidit et principem. (Herodianus, Hist lib. i.) 

The great door of the ancient Basilica of St. Paul's, 



Bugati, Memoria di San Ceho — Appendice. 



EARLY PAINTINGS. 



39 



outside the walls of Rome, burnt in 1823, and replaced by 
the modern magniiicient basilica of the same name, was 
enriched with figures, engraved in outline in the bronze, 




g 

O 

.a 



a 

OS 

-a 

o 



O 



pq 



and filled in with silver. This door had been cast in 
Constantinople in the eleventh century. The whole front 
was divided in six equal parts in width, and nine in 



40 



THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 



height, giving fifty-four oblong compartments, contain- 
ing subjects, figures, and inscriptions. The subjects 
were taken from the life of Christ, from the annuncia- 




tion and birth to the ascension, and the coming of the 
Holy Ghost. In the second square of the first segment 
on the left hand was a figure of the Baptism of Christ 



EARLY MANUSCRIPT PAINTINGS. 



41 



Our Saviour was represented standing up to His waist 
in the middle of the River Jordan, His clothes lying 
by, and John on the bank, with his right hand on the 
shoulder of Jesus. On the upper part was the word 
"baptism." This sculpture is faithfully reproduced in 
the Storia delle Arte of Agincourt. 

In the Barberini Library, at Rome, there is a Greek 
Psaltery of the eleventh century which contains a picture, 
representing the Baptism of the Eunuch by Philip (Fig. 8). 
The Eunuch is standing up to his neck in a pyramid of 
water, the usual form in the earliest representations of 




Fig. 9. Baptism op Jewish Cokveets. 



Christian baptism. Philip is clothed in purple. Close 
by, the two are seen in a chariot with four horses driving 
away at full gallop. This painting exists also in a 
Byzantine MS., in quarto, of the eleventh century, in the 
British Museum. 

The above drawing of the baptism administered by 
John to the Jewish converts (Fig. 9), is taken from a 
MS., of the eleventh century, in the Biblioth^que 
Nationale at Paris, and is interesting from the fact 
that the candidate is represented entirely 'covered with 
water. 

The woodcut (Fig. 10) represents the ceremony of 



42 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

baptism according to the Russian rite. It is taken from a 
Bulgarian chronicle, a Runic manuscript of the thirteenth 
or fourteenth century, which is preserved in the library of 
the Vatican. 

In his work on the ancient Christian monuments, 
Ciampini reproduces a picture of the baptism of Valerian 
by immersion, taken from an antique fresco, painted by a 
master of the Greek school established in Italy in the ninth 
or tenth century. It was still to be seen in Ciampini's time, 
although partially injured, in the ancient church of St. 
Andrea, in Barbara, which was built on the ruins of the 




Fig. 10. Baptism accoeding to the Russian Rite. 

ancient Basilica Sicimana in the fifth century. It is, 
however, now quite destroyed.* 

Mention might be made of many other ancient paint- 
ings of baptism by immersion, but time and space forbid. 
We will merely, for the present, indicate to our readers 
the following MSS. in the library of the Vatican, in 
which baptism is represented according to the primitive 
mode : — 

I- — Vatican Codex MS. 1156, a Greek Evangelisterium 
of the twelfth century— Baptism of Christ. 

2.— V. MS. Palatine 871. Latin. Historia Sacra.— Bap- 
tism of Christ. Fourteenth century. 



Ciampini, Vetera monumenta, t. i. c. 8. 



EARLY MANUSCRIPT PAINTINGS. 



43 



3. — V. MS. 8541, Acta Sanctorum. Several pictures of 
baptism by immersion and by affusion. Fifteenth cen- 
tury (Fig. 11). 

4. — V. MS. Palat. 413. Baptism of Christ. Fifteenth 
century. 

5. — V. MS. Reginse, 99. fol. 24. Baptism of Christ in 




Fiff. U. Baptism or Aristides. From a MS. in the Library of the VaticaE. 

the Jordan. On the following page, the dipping of 
Naaman is represented much in the same way. This MS., 
written in Latin verses, is a sacred history, and is of the 
fifteenth century. Beneath the Baptism of Christ are the 
following words : 

" Flumis baptizam imersione." 



44 



THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 



6.— V. MS. Palat. 26. 
7.— V. 1643. 

8— V. MS. Codex xlviii. fol. 148. Edited by Joseph, a 
monk in Egypt. This MS. is in the Arabic language, and 
is a Liturgy of Basil the Great. 

Coptic MSS. Meno- 
logues or Calendars 
of the Copts. 
II. — ^V. Codex. Lat. 149. 



g. — V. Codex, cdxcvii. fol 
10. — ^V. Codex, cdlxxii. fol 



-V < 

• 533- I 
•527- j 




Fig. 12. St. Sylvester Baptizing Converts. 

12. — V. MS. Lat. 278. Edited by Cardinal Baronius. 

13. — V. Codex. Lat. 4931. Ambrosius, De mysteriis 
sive Sacramentis Ecclesiasticis. 

14. — V. Codex. Lat. 4361. 

15. — V. Codex. Greek. 752. Pars i. fol. 193 (Fig. 12). 

MSS. in the Bibloth^que Nationale, at Paris : — 

I. — Supp. Lat. 641. Liber Precum (Prayer book). 
Baptism of Christ. It is a miniature of the ninth century. 



EARLY MANUSCRIPT PAINTINGS. 45 

2. — MS. No. 94. Greek Gospels, tenth century. Ten 
pictures of baptism by immersion. 

3. — MS. Greek. 1528. fol. 182. twelfth century. 

MSS. in the Library of the British Museum : — 

I. — B. M. Harleian Lib. No. 18 10. Greek Gospels. 
Eleventh century. 

2 — B. M. Nero. c. iv. Latin Psaltery, twelfth century, 

3. — B. M. Arundel Lib. 157. Psalterium. Thirteenth 
century. 

4 — B. M. 21. 926. Thirteenth century. A Latin Psaltery, 
which belonged formerly to J. de Grandison, Bishop of 
Exeter. 

5. — B. M. Harleian. 1527. Novum Testamentum figuris 
depictis illustratum. This MS. contains twenty-seven 
pictures of baptism by immersion, and is of the thirteenth 
century. This illustrated New Testament is divided in 
four parts, viz., the Gospels as an Harmony, the Acts of 
the Apostles, the Epistles, and the Apocalypse. This book 
seems to have been made in France about six hundred 
years ago, and is painted and gilded after the best man- 
ner used in that time. It was formerly, without doubt, a 
part of that splendidly illustrated Bible Manuscript which 
was given to the Bodleian Library by Sir Christopher 
Heydon. 

6. — B. M. Harleian. 2928. Liber Diurnus. Sermo in 
lingua Romantica. Baptism of Christ. Anno mcxxxv. 

7. — B. M. 18,719. Historia Veteris ac Novi Testamenti, 
figuris illustrata. Thirteenth century. This illustrated 
Bible contains seventy-nine miniatures of baptism. 

8. — B. M. Cotton Lib. Caligula. A. vii. Harmony of 
the Gospels. A poem in Anglo-Saxon. Baptism of 
Christ on p. 8 (Fig. 13). Probably of the year 1150, or 
rather later. 

In the valuable library of the Duke of Devonshire, 
there is a manuscript of the tenth century, which con- 



46 



THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 



tains a picture of the baptism of Christ by immersion. 
This MS. is a folio on vellum, measuring eleven inches 
and a half by eight and a half, and is composed of one 
hundred and nineteen leaves, of a thick and soft quality, 
in extraordinary preservation. This book is illuminated 
with thirty different miniatures, all of which are repro- 
duced in the Dissertation on St. .zEthelwold's Benedic- 




Fig. 13. Baptism op Cheist. From a MS. in Library of British Museum. 

tional, communicated by John Gage, Esq., F.R.S., in a 
letter to the Right Honourable George, Earl of Aberdeen, 
President of the Society of Antiquaries in London. (See 
Archalogia, vol. xxiv. pp. 1-117.) The baptism of Christ 
is represented on the 6oth page of this volume. In this 
miniature the figure of the Jordan is classically symbo- 



EARLY MANUSCRIPT PAINTINGS. 47 

lized with golden horns, and holding the urn from which 
the water is poured. 

The name of .lEthelwold is enrolled in the calendar 
of the English saints. He received the monastic habit 
from St. Dunstan, at Glastonbury, was made Abbot of 
the Royal Monastery at Abingdon in 948, consecrated 
Bishop of "Winchester in 963, and died in 984. This 
great prelate co-operated with Dunstan and Oswald in 
reforming the monks and in restoring learning. 

Baptism by immersion is represented in a miniature 
painting oi L' Histoire de la Belle Helene, a manuscript of the 
fifteenth century, preserved in the Royal Library of 
Brussels. 

De Vert (t. xi.) reproduces the same subject taken from 
a drawing in a very ancient MS. of Gregory Nazianzen on 
baptism. The minister is an apostolic figure, who is in 
the act of pronouncing the formula. The godfather 
(patrinus) stands ready with a cloth or vestment, and with 
a countenance of much devotion, to receive the catechu- 
men from the baptistery. 

We will again refer to this subject in our description of 
the various baptisteries and fonts of Europe. 

The miniatures which are found in the MSS. we have 
examined, prove that, even after the middle of the 
thirteenth century the painters adhered frequently, more 
or less, to the art of the first Christian centuries, and 
hence the general sameness of forms, attitudes, vest- 
ments, etc., which is so characteristic of the Byzantine 
school. They show that, during the period justly de- 
nominated the dark ages, the state of the art of painting 
was extremely low. On this point, M. Paul Lacroix, 
in his valuable work, Le Moyen-Age et la Renaissance, 
makes the following judicious observations : — 

" Christian painting, when once established as an art 
on the banks of the Bosphorus, assumed a certain immo- 



48 THE ARCHiEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

bility of character. Forms, attitudes, groups, and vest- 
ments — all were regulated by ecclesiastical prescription. 
There was, as it were, an inflexible text -book, to which 
artists were bound to submit. Delicacy of colouring and 
nobility of attitude were the only things to recall the 
beauty of ancient art. Even in our days, the Greek and 
Russian painters follow a similar plan, drawing and 
arranging their figures in the same manner as their 
ancestors of the time of Honorius and the Palaeologi. 

" In -the West, the case was nearly the same, so long as 
the practice of painting remained almost exclusively 
confined to artists coming from Constantinople. Thus in 
some celebrated manuscripts of the eighth and ninth cen- 
turies we find compositions that give a very exact 
representation of the state of the art in those remote times, 
though the paintings themselves have been destroyed by 
the Iconoclasts. In fact, during ten centuries, it seemed 
that the Western races resisted any expression of artistic 
individuality or invention. Throughout this long period 
we find Greek painters the supreme arbiters of taste and 
knowledge in the countries of Western Europe, forcing 
upon them their own barren style, and teaching them 
their contracted perceptions. Art among them seemed 
always to be but a mere instinct. Constant emigrations 
took place which were continually leading them to every 
point in Western Europe ; but none of them ever brought 
anything novel in art beyond what their predecessors 
had already introduced. If they took root in a new coun- 
try, the son repeated the works of the father. The pupil 
took no means to enlarge his thoughts ; he adopted as 
his model and his ideal nothing but the work of his master, 
and the poor form of tradition was continued without 
enthusiasim and without progress. Genius is altogether 
wanting, or if its sacred spark sprung forth from heaven, 
it was soon extinguished when it reached the earth for 



ADDITIONS TO THE ORDINANCE. 49 

want of a soul which could receive it, and be kindled by- 
its fire. The Greek masters doubtless affected some pride 
in the grandeur of their native name ; but they were 
none the less living proofs that the sources from which 
flowed the inspiration of a Zeuxis, a Protogenes, or an 
Apelles, had since those far distant days been long dried 
up. The East had terminated its ancient character of 
artistic creation, and the most it seemed destined to 
achieve during the middle ages was to preserve the germ 
which the West was to bring again into active life." 

The picture of" The Baptism of Christ," by Mr. Goodwyn 
Lewis, of London, is a production of art worthy of the 
highest commendation, and forms a pleasing contrast with 
the rude, stiff, disproportionate drawings of the early and 
middle ages. The author has shown, in this beautiful 
composition, considerable technical skill, a practised eye 
and hand, and has exhibited a poetic spirit, which forms 
a striking conception of the historical event the picture 
represents. 

The custom of trine immersion, which began as early as 
the third century, and was, according to the admission of 
TertuUian, "more than the Lord prescribed in the Gospel" 
(amplius quam Dominus in Evangelio determinavit, De 
Coron. Milit. c. iii.)j continued till the Reformation. It 
was enjoined in the Prayer Book* of Edward VI. of 
England, but was afterwards omitted. 

Baptism was accompanied in the earlier times of the 
church with various forms and ceremonies, some of which 
are still retained in the Greek and Romish churches. 
These additions to the simplicity of the ordinance began 
at a very early period. Thus it became customary to 
exorcise the converts previous to their receiving baptism. 
This exorcism, which was at first nothing else than calling 

* This Prayer Book was compiled by Cranmer and Ridley, 
assisted by eleven other divines, and published in 1549. 

E 



50 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

upon them to renounce the devil and all his works, was 
subsequently modified so as to include certain prayers, 
adjurations in the name of Christ, commanding the demon 
to quit the persons about to be baptized, and imposition 
of hands. Tertullian, in his Apology (c. xxiii.), and 
Origen, in his work Contra Celsus (lib. vii.), speak of 
exorcism as of ordinary occurrence ; and the Council of 
Carthage, in A.D. 256 decreed that heretics and schismatics 
were first to be exorcised with imposition of hands, and 
then to be baptized before they could be admitted as true 
members of the Catholic Church. In the passage alluded 
to above, Tertullian thus speaks of the benefits conferred 
upon the pagans by exorcism : " Were it not for the 
Christians, who could rescue your souls and bodies from 
the power of the hidden enemies that destroy everything ? 
I allude to the demons, who continually beset you, and 
whom we cast out of you without reward or payment. We 
might have satisfied our revenge by merely leaving you 
an undisputed prey to the impure spirits. And you, for- 
getting the benefit of our protection, prefer to treat as 
enemies us, who not only do you no harm, but are even 
necessary to your welfare — we are enemies, it is true, not 
of men, but of error." Cyril of Jerusalem attached great 
importance to exorcism, for in one of his Lectures he says : 
" As mixed metals cannot be purged without fire, so 
neither can the soul be purged without exorcisms, which 
are divine, and gathered out of the Scriptures." {Catech. 
xvii.) 

From various passages of this author, it appears that 
exorcism in his time was twofold ; a longer form being 
used some time previous to baptism during the candidate's 
course of preparation, and a shorter immediately before 
the act of immersion. [Catech. Mystag. i. 2 : Pro-Cateches. 
sect. 5, seq. ; Cateches. i. 5, xvi. 19.) 

Turning to the East, as a symbol of turning to God, 



EARLY ADDITIONS. 51 

was one of the ceremonies connected with baptism in 
ancient times. When the persons to be baptized entered 
the baptistery, where they were to make their renunciation 
of Satan, and their confession of faith, they were placed 
with their faces towards the West, and commanded to 
renounce Satan with some gesture or rite ; this they did 
by striking their hands together as a token of abhorrence, 
by stretching out their hands against him, by exsuffiation, 
and by spitting at him, as if he were present. They were 
then turned round to the East, and desired to lift up their 
hands and eyes to heaven, and enter into covenant with 
Christ, the Sun of Righteouness. " The West," says Cyril, 
" is a place of darkness, and Satan is darkness, and his 
strength is in darkness. For this reason ye symbolically 
look towards the West when ye renounce that prince of 
darkness and horrors." {Catech. Myst. ii.) Jerome says : 
" First, we renounce him that is in the West, who dies to us 
with our sins ; and then, turning to the East, we make a 
covenant with the Sun of Righteouness, and promise to 
be His servants." {Comment, lib. iii.) Severus Alexan- 
drinus,* referring to this custom, says, in his treatise De 
Baptismo : " He anoints the whole body of him who is to 
be baptized, and leads him into the baptistery, with his 
face turned towards the East." 

Insufflation was next added ; it consisted in breathing 
upon the catechumen before baptism, to signify the 
expulsion of the devil, and again after immersion, to 
symbolize the gift of the Holy Ghost. Cyril of Jerusalem 
exhorted his catechumens "to receive exorcism with 
diligence in the time of catechising ; for whether it was 
insufflation or exorcism it was to be esteemed salutary 
to the soul." [Catech. xvii.) 

TertuUian informs us that it was the custom in his 

* Severus, Bishop of Alexandria, flourished a.d. 646. He is the 
author of several treatises. 

E 2 



52 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

time to give the baptized person a portion of milk and 
honey, to denote his entrance into the Promised Land 
of Canaan, and that he belonged to the spiritual Israel. 
{De Corona, lib. xv.) Milk and honey were also given 
in token of his spiritual youth, and of his reception of 
spiritual gifts and graces. This custom seems to have 
been discontinued after a few centuries. 

Another addition was made, that of anointing the 
catechumen with oil before baptism, and with unguent 
after. This custom is mentioned by Tertullian,* Cyprian,! 
Cyril,t and Chrysostom.§ Unction symbolized the gift 
of the Holy Spirit, and also indicated that the baptized 
person was ready as a wrestler in the ancient games to 
fight the good fight of faith. Ambrosius observes, as a 
comment on this practice, "Thou wast anointed as a 



*■ Tertullian: — " Exinde egressi de lavacro perimgimur benedicta 

unctione de pristina disciplina, qua ungi oleo de cornu in sacerdotium 

solebant. Ex quo Aaron a Moyse unctus est, unde Christus dicitur 

a chrismate, quod est unctio, quse Domino nomen accommodavit, 

facta spiritualis, quia spiritus unctus est a Deo Patre, sicut in 

Actis : ' Collecti sunt enim vere in ista civitate adversus sanctum 

Filium tuum, quem unxisti' (Acts iv. 27). Sic et in nobis carnaliter 

currit unctio, sed spiritaliter proficit ; quo modo et ipsius baptismi 

carnalis actus, quod in aqua mergimur ; spiritalis effectus, quod 

delictis liberamur " {I)e Bapt. 7). After this, having come out of 

the bath, we are anointed with a blessed unction, according to the 

ancient rule, by which they used to be anointed for the priesthood 

with oil out of an horn. Wherefore Aaron was anointed by Moses ; 

whence Christ is named from chrism, which is anointing, which, 

being made spiritual, furnished a name for the Lord, because he 

was anointed with the Spirit by God the Father, as it is said in the 

Acts (iv. 27) : " For of a truth against Thy Holy Child, whom 

Thou hast anointed, they were gathered together in that city." 

So in us also the ointment runs over us bodily, but profiteth 

spiritually, as likewise in baptism itself the act is carnal, in that 

we are dipped in water, the effect is spiritual, in that we are 

delivered from our sins. {On Baptism, 7.) 

t Cyprian, Epist. Ixiii. Ad Juhaian. 

\ Cyril, Cat. Myst. ii. 

§ Chrysostom, Homilia, xxii. 



EARLY ADDITIONS. 53 

champion of Christ, to fight the fight of this world." 
(Unctus es, quasi athleta Christi, quasi luctamen hujus 
sseculi luctaturus, De Sacrament, lib. i. c. ii.) The form 
in the Liturgy of Edward VI. was : " Almighty God, the 
Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who hath regenerated 
thee by water and the Holy Ghost, and hath given unto 
thee remission of all thy sins ; may He vouchsafe to anoint 
thee with the unction of His Holy Spirit, and bring thee 
to the inheritance of everlasting life. Amen." Anointing 
with oil was retained in the Church of England for a 
short time after the Reformation. It is still practised 
in the Church of Rome. The Greek Church anoints 
the whole body ; the Romish the crown of the head 
only. 

After baptism it was customary to wear white garments, 
in token of the innocence of soul, which by this rite 
the converts were supposed to have acquired.* These 
garments, which were commonly worn eight days, were 
metaphorically called the garments of Christ, or the 
mystical garments. Jerome, writing to Fabiola, alludes 
to this custom in these words : " We are to be washed 
with the precepts of God, and when we are prepared 
for the garment of Christ, putting off our coats of skins, 
we shall put on the linen garment that hath nothing of 
death in it, but is all white, that, rising out of the waters 
of baptism, we may gird about our loins with truth, 
and cover the former filthiness of our breasts." Praeceptis 
Dei lavandi sumus, et cum parati ad indumentum Christi» 
tunicas pellicas deposuerimus, tunc induemar veste linea, 
nihil in sese mortis habente, sed tota Candida : ut de 
baptismo consurgentes, cingamus lumbos in veritate, 
et tota pristinorum peccatorum turpitudo celetur. (^Ad 



* Tertullian, De Resurreclione Carnis. Cyril of Jerusalem, Caiech. 
xviii. 



54 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

Fabiolam, Epist. cxxvii.) Gregory the Great, in his 
Sacramentarium, gives the following charge at the de- 
livery of the white robes to the neophytes : " Receive 
the white and immaculate garment, which thou mayest 
bring forth without spot before the tribunal of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, that thou mayest have eternal life. 
Amen." 

In his account of the baptism by immersion of Cedoaldo, 
King of the Anglo-Saxons, by Sergius, Pope of Rome, 
Paulus Warnefridus says : 

" Fonte renascentis quem Christi gratia purgans 
Protinus Albatum vexit in arce poll." 

{De Gestis Lungohard, lib. vi. c. 15.) 

(Whom the grace of Christ, purifying in the font, forthwith 
carried, white — that is, in white robes — into the citadel of Heaven.) 

Venantius Fortunatus* writes in one of his poems : 

" Candidus egreditur nitidis exercitus undis, 
Atque vetus vitium purgat in amne novo. 
Fulgentes animas vestis quoque Candida signat 
Et grege de niveo gaudia Pastor habet." 

(This white army come out of the pure water, and purify their 
former sins in the new flood. The white garment symbolizes the 
resplendent souls, and the Shepherd is full of joy on seeing His 
snowy flock.) 

At the baptism of great men many of the attendants 
clothed themselves also in white. In an epistle of Marcus 
Gazensist it is recorded that, at the magnificent baptism 
of Theodosius the Younger, a splendid procession accom- 
panied the newly-baptized prince from the church to the 
palace. The leaders on the occasion were clothed in 
white garments, which made the company look as if it 



* Venantius Fortunatus, Bishop of Poitiers, flourished a.d. 560. 
He wrote eleven books of poems, and short treatises on the Lord's 
Prayer, and the Apostles' Creed. 

f Marcus, a writer of the fourth century. 



EARLY ADDITIONS. 55 

had been covered with snow ; and all the senators and 
men of quality, and soldiers in their ranks, carried lamps 
in their hands, that one would have thought the stars 
had appeared upon earth. 

The white garment was made to fit the body- 
tightly, and was bound round the middle with a girdle- 
sash ; the sleeves were either plain, like those of a 
cassock, or else full, and gathered close on the wrists, 
like the sleeves of a shirt. It resembled much the tunic 
worn by the ancients, and which was called by the 
Greeks podere's (reaching to the feet), and by the Romans 
fcilarts (reaching to the ankles). It was also designated 
as the Alha, or Alb, from its white colour. This garment 
was usually made of linen, but sometimes of more costly 
material. 

Amongst the other ceremonies which were practised 
immediately after baptism had been administered, 
Gregory Nazianzen enumerates that of a lighted taper 
being carried by the neophyte. " The lamps," he says, 
in his fortieth oration on the baptized, "which, imme- 
diately after baptism, thou shalt light, are emblems of 
those lamps of faith with which we, radiant and virgin 
souls, shall meet the bridegroom."* 

The kiss of peace, which the neophytes received after 
baptism, denoted that they were brought into the new 
spiritual relations of Christian brotherhood and church 
fellowship. Chrysostom makes allusion to this custom, 
when, comparing the spiritual with the natural birth, he 
says : " Here no suiFerings, no tears, but greetings, kisses, 
and embraces of brethren, who acknowledge their new 
member.'' {Sermo. i.) This custom was subsequently 

* At Aa/iTTciScs, acrirep avutpei?, T^s iKeW€v (jxDTayiDyta's fhvcrrripiov, 
fjiid' rj'; avavTrjorofXiV Toi vvfji.(j)vui (f>aiSpal Kol wapOevOi ipvyial, (^aiSpais rat? 

Xa/jiTrdo-L TTJ's TTUTTeMs. (Greg. Naz. OruL XL. In sanclui/i Baplisina.) 



56 THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

superseded by the simple salutation, " Pax tecum " (Peace 
be with thee). 

In the ancient African Church it was usual to give, with 
milk and honey at baptism, a portion of bread seasoned 
with salt, that the neophyte might have a foretaste, as it 
were, of the Holy Supper. 

The custom of putting a little salt in the mouth of the 
baptized, to signify the wisdom and taste for heavenly 
things, which every Christian should have, and that of 
touching his nostrils and ears with spittle, to denote that 
his ears are to be ever open to truth, and that he should 
ever feel the sweet odour of virtue ; these two ceremonies 
are mentioned in the rituals of the Latin Church sub- 
sequent to the fifth and sixth centuries. They are still 
retained in the Romish Church. 

The washing of the feet of the baptized neophyte used 
to be practised in some churches. 

From a period as early as the second and third cen- 
turies, Easter and Pentecost (including the fifty days' 
interval) were considered solemn times for the adminis- 
tonrati of baptism ; thus derogating from the apostolic 
practice, which was to baptize converts whenever oppor- 
tunity served. TertuUian informs us that baptism was 
confined, except in cases of urgency, to these two great 
festivals. {De Baptismo, xix.) Easter was celebrated in 
memory of Christ's death and resurrection, and Pentecost 
was chosen as the anniversary of the great Jewish feast, 
when the apostles were baptized with the Holy Ghost 
and with fire, and they themselves commenced their 
public ministry by baptizing three thousand persons. 
The rite of baptism was performed on Easter Sunday 
eve and Pentecostal eve, that is, on the preceding 
Saturday evening, when there was a special ceremony 
of blessing the font. The neophytes used to wear the 
white garments (^Alb) then given them throughout the 



TIME OF YEAR WHEN ADMINISTERED. 57 

following week, which obtained from this custom the 
name of Septimana in Alhis* The Sunday following 
was called Dominica in Alhis depositis, because those who 
had been baptized then threw off their white robes, which 
were laid by in the church as evidence against them if 
they broke their baptismal vows. Whitsunday (White 
Sunday), the English name for Pentecost, is supposed to 
have been so called from the white garments worn by 
the newly-baptized catechumens, to whom that ordinance 
was administered on the vigil of Pentecost. 

Epiphany was also one of the stated times for the 
performance of the rite of baptism in the Greek Church 
(See Le© the First, epist. xvi.), and in the churches of 
Africa (Victor of Utica, De Persecut. Vandal, lib. ii.). In 
the celebration of Epiphany, the Greek Church appears to 
have dwelt more strongly than the Latin Church upon the 
baptism of our Lord and His manifestation {eTri^dveia) to 
the world. Hence it is termed by Gregory Nyssenus 
"ri rifiepa tcov (fxoTcov" — the day of lights — and by others, 
" TO, (poJTa" or " ajM ^cora " — the lights, or holy lights — ■ 
because baptism itself was generally called ^w? and (jxorta-fMa, 
light and illumination, on account of the instruction in the 
Christian religion which was given to the catechumens 
before they were admitted to the ordinance. Justin 
Martyr (apol. i.) says that this laver is called "illumi- 
nation " because the minds of those who learn these 
things are enlightened. [KaXetrai Be tovto to XovTpbv 

* Inscriptions have been discovered on some sepulchral slabs, 
indicating that the deceased had died shortly after receiving baptism, 
and during the eight days in which the white garments were worn. 
Thus, ' In albis recessit ; Albas Suas Octavas Pasch^ ad 
Sepulcrum deposuit." " He departed in the albs (that is, the 
white garments). He laid at the sepulchre his white garments." 
Gregory of Tours, in his History of France {^Epitome, c. xx.), 
makes allusion to the following inscription, which attests the 
same fact: "In Albis recessit Ingomeres." " Ingomeres 
departed in the albs." 



58 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

(pQ)Ti,a-fio<:, w? ^aiTi^ofiivwv rrjv Sidvoiav twv Tavra fJ-av- 
davovrcDV.) 

In France and Spain it was customary, at a very 
early period, to administer baptism at Christmas, and 
on the festivals of apostles and martyrs. (Second 
Council of Macon, can. 3. A.D. 583 ; Siricii epist. ad 
Himer., c. 2). 

With respect to the persons in whom is vested the office 
of administering baptism, TertuUian says, that it belonged 
to the bishop {De Baptismo, xvii.), although he admits the 
validity of lay-baptism, when administered by laymen in 
cases of urgent necessity ; * so does the Council of Elvira 
in Spain, A.D. 305, and also Jerome {Adversus Luci- 
fermnos), who says: "Hence it appears that without 
permission from the bishop no presbyter nor deacon has 
the right of baptizing ; still, if there be absolute necessity, 
we know it is allowed to laymen to baptize." f Basil, 
however (epist. i. Ad AinphiL), seems to have held the 
contrary opinion, and the Apostolical Constitutions, 1. iv. 
cap. X., forbid laymen to baptize. Ignatius (epist. Ad 



* TertuUian : — " Dandi quidem habet jus summus sacerdos, qui 
est episcopus ; dehinc presbyteri et diaconi ; non tamen sine 
episcopi auctoritate, propter Ecclesias honorem ; quo salvo, salva 
pax est. Alioquin etiam laicis jus est : quod enim ex aequo accip- 
itur, ex £equo dari potest : nisi episcopi jam, aut presbyteri, aut 
diaconi vocantur, discentes. Domini sermo non debet abscondi ab 
ullo. Proinde et baptismus, seque Dei census, ab omnibus exerceri 
potest. " Tiie right of giving it (baptism), indeed, hath the chief 
priest, who is the bishop : then the presbyters and deacons, yet, 
not without the authority of the bishops ; for the honour of the 
Church, which, being preserved, peace is preserved. Otherwise 
laymen have also the right, for that which is equally received may 
equally be given, unless the bishops, presbyters, and deacons be 
called disciples. The Word of God ought not to be hidden from 
any ; wherefore also baptism, which is equally derived from God, 
may be administered by all." 

f Jerome : — Sine episcopi jussione neque presbyter neque dia- 
conus jus habet baptizandi, quod frequenter, si tamen necessitas 
coget, scimus etiam laicis licere. {Adv. Lucif, c. 4.) 



CLINIC BAPTISM. 59 

Sniyrn.), and Chrysostom (De Sacerdotis, lib. iii.j are also 
opposed to lay-baptism. 

Under the impression that baptism was in itself an 
actual washing away of all former sins,* there were many 
persons in the early ages of Christianity, who, though 
convinced of the truth of the gospel, delayed submitting to 
the rite till near the close of their lives, hoping thereby to 
die released from the guilt of sin, and to secure their 
admission into heaven, This baptism was called clinic, 
from the Greek word kXLvi], a bed ; and the persons thus 
baptized were known as the clinici, or clinics. (See 
Cyprian, epist. Ixxvi.) Against this custom the Fathers 
of the Church, Gregory Nyssen.f Gregory Nazianzen,+ 
Basilius,§ and others inveighed in powerful language. 

In one of his homilies, Chrysostom, speaking of the 
clinics, says : " They receive their baptism laying upon 
their beds, you receive it in the bosom of the church, which 
is the mother of all the faithful ; they receive it weeping, 
and you with joy ; they with groans, and you with thanks- 
giving; they in the heat of a fever, and you under the 
sense of the Heavenly grace. Everything here has a 
relation to the grace received ; there everything disagrees 
with it ; there are sighings and tears, while the sacrament 
is administered ; children cry, the wife tears her hair, 
friends are dejected, servants weep, the whole house is in 
mourning; and if you consider the spirit of the sick person, 
you shall find it more full of sorrow than that of the 
bystanders ; for as a stormy sea divides into several waves, 
so his soul, being agitated by troubles, is torn by a thousand 
disquiets and racked with infinite troubles.'' 

* Clemens Alexandrinus, Sttomata, lib. iv. c. 24. 
t Gregory Nyssenus : " Adversus eos qui differunl Baplismum 
ratio ; " in his Opera, t. ii. p. 222. 
X Gregory Nazianzen, Oratio Ix. c. 28. 
§ Basil, Hom.il. in Baptism, c. 3-4. 



6o THE ARCHj^OLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

The Council of Neo-Cesarea (a.d. 350.)* and that of 
Laodicea (a.d. 363), decreed that no clinic should ever be 
considered as qualified for ordination to the Christian 
ministry. 

It was customary to administer the Lord's Supper to the 
neophytes immediately after baptism. In the account 
which Justin Martyr gives of the celebration of the com- 
munion, he says : " After washing him who has professed 
and given his assent, we bring him to those who are called 
brethren ; while they are assembled together, to offer 
prayers in common both for ourselves and for the person 
who has received illumination, and all others everywhere, 
with all our hearts, that we might be vouchsafed, now we 
have learned the truth, by our works also to be found good 
citizens and keepers of the commandments, in order that 
we may obtain everlasting salvation. We salute one 
another with a kiss when we have concluded the prayers ; 
then are brought to the president of the brethren, bread 
and a cup of water and wine, which he receives ; and offers 
up praise and glory to the Father of all things in the name 
of His Son and of the Holy Ghost ; and he returns thanks 
at length for our being vouchsafed these things by Him. 
When he has concluded the prayers and thanksgiving, all 
the people present express their assent by saying ' Amen.' 
This Hebrew word ' amen,' means ' so be it' ; and when the 
president has rendered thanks and all the people have 
assented, they whom we call deacons give to each of those 
who are present a portion of bread and wine and water, 
and carry also to them who are absent. This food is called 
by us Eucharist, of which no one is allowed to partake, 
unless he believes the truths we teach, has been washed in 
the laver for forgiveness of sins and remission, and lives as 

* Council of Neo-Cesarea: " He that is baptized, -when he is 
sick, ought not to be made a priest, for his coming to the faith is 
not voluntary, but from necessity." (Can. 12.) 



BAPTISM AND THE LORD'S SUPrER. 6 I 

Christ has directed. For we do not receive them as 
ordinary bread and ordinary wine." 

It is evident, from this passage of Justin Martyr, that 
only baptized believers were admitted to the Lord's 
Supper in the early ages of Christianity. That this was 
the invariable rule is clearly attested by the form of 
celebration, contained in the Apostolical Constitutions (lib. 
viii. 12). It begins thus : — 

" The deacons shall say, 

" ' Let none of the catechumens, none of the hearers, 
none of the unbelievers, none of the heterodox stay. Ye 
who have prayed the former prayer (the prayer for the use 
of the catechumens) depart. Mothers take away your 
children. Let no one have aught against any man. Let 
us stand upright to present unto the Lord our offerings 
with fear and trembling,' " etc. 

TertuUian thus refers to the entrance of the baptized 
neophyte into the church : " When the declaration of faith 
and the promise of salvation (baptism) are pledged under 
Three (the Trinity), then follows necessarily a mention of 
the church ; forasmuch as, where the Three are, that is. 
Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, there is the church which is 
a body of the Three. {De Baptismo.)* In his other treatise, 
De Corona Militis, TertuUian speaks of baptism, and then 
of the Lord's Supper. He says : " We are plunged three 
times, fulfilling more than our Lord required in the gospel. 
Having arisen (from the water), we taste a portion of milk 
and honey. Then for a whole week we abstain from 
washing our bodies. We receive the sacrament of the 



* TertuUian : — Ciim autem sub tribus et testatio fidei et sponsio 
salutis pignerentur, necessario adjicitur Ecclesise mentio : quoniam 
ubi tres, id est Pater et Filius et Spiritus Sanctus, ibi Ecclesia, quae 
trium corpus est. {De Bapt. 6.) 



62 THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

Eucharist in meetings, which are held before daylight." * 
The same father says, elsewhere : " The flesh is washed 
that the soul may be cleansed ; the flesh is anointed, that 
the soul may be consecrated ; the flesh is signed (sign of 
the cross), that the soul may be guarded ; the flesh is over- 
shadowed by imposition of hands, that the soul may be 
illuminated by the Spirit ; the flesh is fed by the body 
and blood of Christ, that the soul may receive nourish- 
ment, or fatness from God." t 

"Baptism," says Chrysostom, "and fellowship in the 
divine mysteries, make a man a brother." " 'ABekipbv yap 
TO ^aTrrtcTfia epya^irat, Kal rj tmv deiaiv /j^vaTTjpLcov KOivcovia 
(Hom. Ixxix. ht Matt.) 

In his treatise, De Peccatorum Remissione, Augustine, 
alluding to the Lord's Supper, says that none draw near 
to it unless they are baptized + and in his second book of 
Animadver stones testifies that the Eucharist was not accus- 
tomed to be given to unbaptized persons. § 

In the apostolic age, the converts, that is, all who re- 
pented of their past sins, and professed to believe in Jesus 
Christ, were at once baptized and received into the church ; 
but, afterward, this ceased to be the case. None were 
admitted to baptism, until they had been fully instructed in 

* Tertullian : — " Ter mergitamur, amplius aliquid respondentes 
quam Dominus in evangelio determinavit. Inde suscepti, lactis et 
mellis concordiam praegustamus ; exque ea die, lavacro quotidiano 
per totam hebdomadem abstinemus. Eucharisti^ sacramentum 
. . . . sumimus. {Be Cor. Mil.) 

f Tertullian : — " Caro abluitur, ut anima emaculetur. Caro ungi- 
tur, ut anima consecretur. Caro signatur, ut et anima muniatur. 
Caro manus impositione adumbratur, ut et anima Spiritu illuminetur. 
Caro corpore et sanguine Christi vescitur, ut et anima de Deo 
saginetur. {De Resurrect, c. viii.) 

X Augustine : " De sacramento sanctas mensse suce, quo nemo 
rite nisi baptizatus accedit." {De Peccat. Remiss. lib. i.) 

§ " Quia Eucharistia iis dari non solebat, nisi postquam baptizati 
fuerunt." {Animadv. t. ii.) 



CATECHUMENS. 63 

all the principles of the Christian religion, and had passed 
through a period of probation. Hence arose the distinc- 
tion between believers and catechumens. In his Demon- 
stratio Evangelica, Eusebius speaks of the faithful (Trto-rot) 
and of " those who had not as yet been judged worthy of 
regeneration through baptism." (Lib. vii. p. 200.) The 
practice of giving religious instruction to children is not 
only of great antiquity in the Christian Church, but may 
be traced as far back as the commencement of the Mosaic 
Dispensation, being derived from the command of God 
Himself (Deut. iv. 9; vi. 7.) Hence the Jews were 
especially careful to provide for the proper instruction of 
their children in the principles of their law and religion 
(Josephus, Ant. Jtid. lib. iv. c. 8), and to the progress 
they had made in the doctrines, which it was necessary 
they should understand. Previously to this examination, 
they were under the care of a person, who was publicly 
appointed in every village for this purpose, and was called 
the " Instructor of Babes," to which office St. Paul 
appears to allude in Rom. ii. 20. When approved by 
the doctors, they were styled, " Children of the Precept," 
that is, were obliged to keep to the whole law, and 
were thenceforth answerable for their own sins. It is 
supposed that our Saviour, on account of the early 
maturity of His intellect, voluntarily offered Himself to 
this examination at the age of twelve years, when He 
remained behind in the Temple, and was found by His 
reputed earthly parents, exciting the surprise and admira- 
tion of all who witnessed His "understanding and 
answers," (Luke ii. 45, 47.) 

Persons were admitted into the state of catechumens 
by imposition of hands, prayer, and the sign of the 
cross, and were called Christians, but were not as yet 
numbered among the faithful. Sulpicius Severus says 
of Martin of Tours that, passing through a town 



64 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

where they were all Gentiles, and preaching Christ 
unto them, and working some miracles, the v/hole multi- 
tude proposed to believe in Christ, and desired him to 
make them Christians ; upon which he immediately, as 
he was in the field, laid his hands upon them and made 
them catechumens." (Fideliter postulantes, ut eos faceret 
Christianos. Nee cunctatus, in medio ut erat campo, 
cunctos, imposita universis manu, catechumenos fecit. Vti. 
Martin, dialog, ii. c. iv.) (See also Ambrosius, De Sacrament. 
lib. i. c. I.) Augustme alludes to this distinction in the 
following terms : " Ask a man, 'Are you a Christian \ ' If 
he be a pagan or a Jew, he will answer, ' I am not a 
Christian.' But should he say, ' I am a Christian,' then 
ask him further, 'Are you a catechumen, or one of the 
faithful \ ' " {Tract, xliv. In Joan. c. ix.) There is, there- 
fore, no pleonasm, in the inscription Christianus Fidelis, 
which is sometimes found on ancient sepulchral slabs, for 
it indicates that the deceased was a baptized Christian. 
Augustine speaks of a certain Pontianus as " Christianus 
quippe et fidelis," * meaning that he had been baptized, and 
was therefore one of the faithful. 

The faithful were in full communion with the church, 
and had various names, such as " dSeX(pol " — brethren ; 
"dyooo" — holy; " electi" — chosen; " suscepti" — received; 
"accepti"- — accepted, etc. They were also named 
" <j)(OTii^6fievoi," — the enlightened; " illuminati" — the illumi- 
nated, either on account of the knowledge which they had 
acquired, or again because ^wTto-yUo? — enlightment — was 
the common name for baptism. Owing to the supposed 
analogy between baptism and the rites of initiation to the 
sacred mysteries of the heathen, the faithful were also 
called " fiefivvfievoi," " fivaTol," or " fivaTayoyyrjToi," — the 
initiated ; in opposition to which the catechumens were 



* Confess, viii. 6. 



CATECHUMENS. 65 

designated as " ayi,vr)roi'' " a^varoi," or " a.jjLva-ra'yai'^rjroi" — 
the uninitiated. These terms came into general use 
during the fourth century. Occasionally the believers 
were called " TeXeiol, or " TeXeiovfievoi " — the perfect, in 
allusion to their being qualified for the Lord's Supper, 
which was mystically denominated "reXerrj reXeraiv" — the 
perfection of perfections. The faithful could attend all 
religious assemblies, while from some the catechumens 
were summoned to retire. They were permitted to 
repeat the Lord's Prayer aloud, while the catechumens 
could only do it in silence. Hence the Lord's Prayer was 
called " evxv ruv Tria-Toiv " — the prayer of the faithful. The 
baptized believers were admitted to the Lord's Supper, but 
the catechumens were excluded. The faithful took part in 
public ecclesiastical business, in the election of ministers, 
and the exercise of discipline. They were also expected 
to receive a more thorough instruction in the doctrines of 
Christianity. 

The catechumens were divided into three classes. 
I. The Audiences, or Hearers, who were so denominated 
from their being permitted to hear sermons and the 
Scriptures read in the church, but who were not allowed 
to stay and participate in the prayers.* The sixth book 
of the Apostolic Constitutions prescribed to the deacon to 
give them notice to depart, as soon as the bishop had 
ended his sermon, in the following terms : " Ne quis 
audientium, ne quis injidelium " — " Let none of the hearers, 
none of the unbelievers, be present ; " and then he was to 
call upon the other catechumens and the faithful to pray 
for them : "Orate, catechumeni, et omnes fideles, pro illis cum 
attentione orent." The Audientes usually assembled in the 
narthex, or ante-temple. Augustine's treatise De Cate- 
chizandis Rudihus, was especially designated for this class 



* Tertullian, De Pccniteniia. Cyprian, epist. xiii. 

F 



66 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

of catechumens ; it was written for the use of the deacon 
Deogratias, who had under his charge the Audientes of 
Carthage. 

The second class of catechumens were designated 
under the name of Genufledentes, or Kneelers, because 
they received the bishop's benediction on their knees. 
A great part of the liturgy particularly applied to this 
class ; it was called " KaTrj^oviMevaiv euxv " — the prayer 
of the catechumens, and came immediately after the 
bishop's sermon. {Apostolical Constitutions, lib. viii.) 

This Liturgy runs as follows : — 

" After the Scriptures have been read, and the bishop has 
delivered his word of exhortation and instruction, the 
deacon, having proclaimed silence and attention, shall 
say : — 

" Pray, catechumens ! Let all the faithful pray for them 
earnestly and seriously {KaTo. Bodvoiav), and say, Lord, have 
mercy upon them ! (Kvpie eKerjaov.) 

" And the deacon shall pray for them, and say: — 

" Let us all call upon God for the catechumens, that He, 
who is good and gracious unto all men, may mercifully 
hear their prayers and supplications. May He accept their 
petitions, and vouchsafe unto them His aid. May He fulfil 
their desires and petitions, as may be most expedient for 
them (7r/3os to av/j-ipepov). May He reveal to them the 
gospel of H'"s Christ. May He enlighten and cheer their 
souls. May He instruct them in divine knowledge. 
May He teach them His commandments and His 
judgments. May He inspire them with His holy and 
wholesome fear. May He open the ears of their hearts, 
that they may occupy themselves in His statutes day and 
night. May He confirm them in godliness. May He cause 
them to be reckoned among His holy flock. May He 
count them worthy of the laver of regeneration, the 
garment of immortality, the true life. May He keep them 



SERVICE FOR CATECHUMENS. 67 

free from all wickedness, and grant that the enemy may- 
have no advantage over them. May He keep them clean 
from all pollution of flesh and spirit. May He dwell in 
them, and walk in them by His Christ. May He bless 
their coming in and their going out, and guide them in all 
their undertakings for their good. 

" And we do also heartily pray for them, that they may 
obtain remission of their sins by the initiation (81 a tjj? 
fivijcreax;, i.e., baptism,) and become worthy partakers of 
the holy mysteries (twv dyltov fivarr^piwv, i.e., the Lord's 
Supper), and the communion of saints. 

"Rise up, catechumens, and pray for the peace of 
God through His Christ. Pray for the day of peace, 
and for deliverance from sins through the whole course 
of your life, for a Christian end, for a good and merciful 
God, and for forgiveness of sins. Give up yourselves 
to God, the only-begotten, through His Christ. Bow 
down, and receive the blessing ! 

"And the people shall answer to all that the deacon says: 
Kyrie eleeson (Lord, have mercy). Let the children say 
it first* 

" When they have lowed their heads, the bishop shall pro- 
nounce over them the following benediction: — 

"O Almighty, unbegotten, and immortal God, the 
only true God, who art the God and Father of Thy 
Christ and Thine only-begotten Son, Thou God of the 
Comforter (6 ^eo? tov HapaicKriTov, i.e., of the Holy 
Spirit), and Lord of all things, who, through Christ, 
didst make the disciples teachers of righteousness, look 
now, we beseech Thee, on Thy servants who have been 



* We learn from Basil and Chrysostom that, in their time 
children, and especially boys, were stationed about the preaching- 
desk, for the purposes of singing, and otherwise taking part in the 
offices of divine worship. These were afterwards the regularly- 
trained choristers. 



F 2 



68 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

instructed in the Gospel of Thy Christ, give unto them 
a new heart, and renew within their souls the spirit 
of pure trust and confidence, that they may both know 
and obey Thy will with all their heart, and with a 
willing mind. Grant that they may be worthy of the 
sacred initiation {i.e., baptism), and incorporate them 
into Thy Holy Church. Grant that they may be 
partakers of the divine mysteries {i.e., the Lord's 
Supper) through Christ, our hope, who died for them. 
Through whom be unto Thee all glory and adoration, 
in the Holy Spirit, for ever. Amen. 

" Then shall the deacon say: Catechumens, depart in 
peace ! " 

The third and last class was called by the Greeks 
/SaTTTtto/ievot and (jxcTi^o/ievoi, and by the Latins Com- 
petentes and Electi, which words, among the ancients, 
denoted the immediate candidates for baptism, who had 
delivered their names to the bishop, signifying their 
intention to be baptized at the next approaching festival 
of Easter, or of Pentecost. From their petitioning for 
this favour they were termed Competentes* (petitioning 
together), and from the bishop's approbation or choice, 
they were styled Eledi.^ Cyril of Jerusalem, in his 
third Catechetical Lecture, terms this class " (pwTi^o- 
fievoi," or illuminated, as having received the illumina- 
tion of catechetical instruction, and the author of the 
Apostolical Constitutions uses the word " ^aimi^ofievoi,," 
not for those who were already actually baptized, but 
for those who were desirous of receiving that rite. The 
Competentes were required to give their names, which 
were registered in the diptychs, or church books. 



* Augustine, Sermo De Baptismo. 

\ See Leo the Great, epist. xvi. Ad Epuc. Silic. ; and also 
Siricius, epist. i. c. 2, n. 3. 



SERVICE FOR CATECHUMENS. 69 

(See Socrates,* Hist. Eccles. vii. 21.) Augustine, in his 
Hundred and thirty-second Sermon, says : " Ecce Pascha 
est, da nomen ad hapttsmum" — "Here is Passover, give 
thy name for baptism." In his Sermon addressed to 
those who deferred being baptized, Gregory Nyssenus 
invites them in the following terms : " Give me your 
names, that I may inscribe them in the books .... 
God will write them on tables which cannot be 
destroyed." A special form of prayer was offered for 
the candidates; it will be found in the Apostolical 
Constitictions (lib. viii. c. 7, 8), as follows : — 

" The deacon shall say : Pray, ye candidates for baptism ! 
and let us, all the faithful, pray heartily for them, that 
the Lord would make them worthy, having been initiated 
{i.e., baptized) into the death of Christ, to be raised up 
together with Him, and to be partakers of His kingdom 
and sharers of His mysteries [i.e., the Lord's Supper) ; 
that He may elect them and incorporate them with those 
who are redeemed in His Holy Church. Redeem them, 
and raise them up, by Thy grace ! 

"Those who are about to be dedicated to God through 
Christ shall here bow themselves, and receive the blessing 
of the bishop in these words : O Thou, who by the holy 
prophets hath said to those who are about to dedicate 
themselves to Thee : Wash you, make you clean ; and who 
hast appointed a spiritual regeneration through Christ, 
look now, we beseech Thee, upon these persons soon 
to be baptized ; bless them, sanctify them, and make 
them worthy to partake of Thy spiritual gifts, the true 
adoption. Thy spiritual mysteries, and to be received 
into the body of the redeemed, through Christ our 
Saviour, through whom be unto Thee all glory, honour, 
and worship, in the Holy Ghost, for ever. Amen. 

'" Socrates, a celebrated church historian of the fifth century. 



70 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

"Then shall the deacon say: Depart, ye who are to 
be illuminated {i.e., baptized)." 

Previously to their reception of the rite of baptism, the 
catechumens were repeatedly examined concerning the 
proficiency they had made in Christian doctrine. They 
were all exorcised for twenty days (Cyril, Catech. i.), during 
which they were obliged to frequent fastings,* prayers, 
confession of their former sins, which confession was 
sometimes public and sometimes private, as the wisdom 
of the church directed. f At this time, the Competentes 
were taught to repeat the creed, which they were obliged 
to say before the bishop at their examination for bap- 
tism. J With the creed they were also taught to make 
the proper responses in baptism, particularly the form 
of renouncing the devil and covenanting with Christ. 
(Jerome, Adv. Luciferian.) Some days before baptism 
they were veiled, or with their faces covered, in order 
that their mind might be more at liberty, and that 
the wandering of their eyes might not distract their 
soul. 

With respect to the instruction of the catechumens, 
it does not appear that any distinct order of ministers 
officiated as catechists, but that it was only a particular 
employment, which might devolve on any officer of the 
church, and which we find, at different times, attached 
to all the orders of the ministry Thus this office was 
sometimes discharged by the bishop himself, especially 
on Palm Sunday, on which day, after the sermon, he 
would take the catechumens apart and explain to them 

* Apostolical Constitutions, vii. c. 23 ; Tertullian, De Baptismo, 
XX. ; Jerome, epist. Ad Pammach. ; Augustine, De Fide et Oper. 
V. 8. 

f Tertullian, De Pallio ; Eusebius, In Vita Constantini, iv. 61; 
Gregory of Nazianzen, Serm. in Sacr. Lavacr. 

X Cyril, Catech. My stag. ii. 



INSTRUCTION OF CATECHUMENS. ?! 

the creed. (Ambrosius, epist. 33 ; Theodoras,* Lector 
Collect, lib. ii.) The presbyters and deacons were also 
entrusted with this office. 

Clement, presbyter of Alexandria and disciple of 
Pantaenus, was master of the school in that city, and 
catechist of the catechumens belonging to the church there. 
He wrote an exhortation to Patrena for the use of catechu- 
mens un der his charge. In some cases the office of catechist 
was confided to a reader, who was called for that reason 
Doctor Audientmm—iea.cher of the Audientes. (Cyprian, 
epist. xxiv.) It was no doubt to avoid scandal and sus- 
picion, that the female catechumens were generally taught 
by that ancient order, the Deaconesses. In the East, where 
the strict separation between male and female society was 
then, as now, proverbial, this measure was quite indispens- 
able. The duties of a deaconess consisted in the instruction 
of female catechumens, and assisting at their baptism ; f in 
visiting sick persons of their own sex ; and in performing 
all those offices, which could not with propriety be exercised 
by the deacons themselves. The African churches, in a 
decree of the Council of Carthage, specify among the 
qualifications of a deaconess,, " ut poss-it apto et sano sermone 
docere imperitas et rusticas mulieres^' etc,—" that she be able 
to teach with suitable and sound doctrine the ignorant 
and rude women." In the Eastern Church, deaconesses 
continued to be appointed so late as the twelfth century 
(Balsamon. i. 381.). In the Western Church, according 
to Cardinal Bona (Rer. Liturg. i. xxv. 15), they did not 
altogether cease until the tenth or eleventh century. 

It was the office of the catechists to prepare the candi- 
dates for baptism by a course of instruction suited to each, 

* Theodorus, Bishop of Mopsuestia, in Cilicia, flourished a.d. 
392. He wrote commentaries, of which only a few fragments 
remain. 

f Chrysostom, c^i^i. Ad Innoc. 



72 THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

but in what their teaching generally consisted at first, we 
know no further than that the sum and substance of it was 
repentance and faith. Such was, in fact, the character of 
the teaching of the apostles and others to an unconverted 
audience. In Paul's addresses to the Jews at Jerusalem, 
and to the Gentiles at Athens and Rome, his teach- 
ing approaches nearest to catechetical instruction. This 
method was subsequently adopted by the Fathers of 
the Church, who usually began their discourses with 
the doctrines of repentance and remission of sins, the 
necessity of good works, and the nature and use of 
baptism. Then followed, in the second and third centuries, 
an explanation of the so-called Apostles' Creed, which, 
as we have already said, was always used before the 
administration of baptism, when the catechumen made 
an open confession of his faith ; * hence the creed was 
called " MadrjiMu," or the lesson, because the catechumens 
were obliged to learn it. To the explanation of the 
creed, some Fathers added that of the nature and immor- 
tality of the soul, and an account of the canonical books 
of Scripture. No mention, however, was made of the 
Lord's Supper, because, as our readers already know, it 
was not given to catechumens until after baptism. 

The Apostolical Constitutions (book vii.) contains the 
following directions for the instruction of catechumens : — 

" He, therefore, who is to be catechized in the Word of 
Piety, must be instructed before his baptism (iraiBeveado} irpo 
Tov iSaTTTla/j.aTO'i) in the knowledge of the unbegotten God, 
in the acknowledgment of His only-begotten Son, in the 
assured belief of the Holy Ghost. Let him learn the 
order of the several parts of the creation, the series of 
Providence, the different dispensations of the law. Let 



* Tertullian, Adversus Praxeas ; Cyprian, epist. Ixx. ; Cyril of 
Jerusalem, Caiech. Mystag. ii. ; and Jerome, Adversus Lucef'erianos. 



INSTRUCTION OF CATECHUMENS. 73 

him be instructed why the world was made, and why 
man was appointed to be a citizen of the world; let 
him also know his own nature, of what sort it is ; let 
him be taught how God punished the wicked with water 
and fire, and glorified the saints in every generation : I 
mean Seth, and Enos, and Enoch, Noah, Abraham and 
his posterity, Melchisedeck, Job, Moses, and Joshua, Caleb, 
and Phineas the priest, and those that were holy in 
every age ; and how God still took care of and did not 
reject mankind, but called them from their error and 
vanity to the acknowledgment of the truth at various 
times, leading them from bondage and impiety to liberty 
and godliness, from injustice to righteousness, from 
death eternal to everlasting life. Let him that comes to 
baptism learn these and like things whilst he is being 
catechized ; and let him who lays his hands upon 
him adore God, the Lord of the whole world, and thank 
Him for His creation of man, for His sending Christ 
His only-begotten Son that He may save man, by 
blotting out his transgressions, and that He may remit 
ungodliness and sins, and may purify him from all 
filthiness of flesh and spirit, and sanctify man according 
to the good pleasure of His kindness ; that He may 
inspire him in the knowledge of His will, and open the 
eyes of his heart to consider His wonderful works, and 
make known to him the judgments of righteouness, so 
that he may hate every path of iniquity, and walk in 
the way of truth, that he may be thought worthy of the 
laver of regeneration (jov Xovrpov t^? -n-aXiyyevea-ia';) to the 
adoption of sons, which is in Christ, that, being planted 
together in the likeness of the death of Christ (Rom. 
vi. 3) in the hope of a glorious resurrection, he may be 
dead to sin and live to God in mind, word, and deed, 
and be numbered in the book of the living. After this 
thanksgiving, let him be instructed in the doctrines of 



74 THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

our Lord's incarnation, passion, resurrection from the dead, 
and ascension. 

" When the catechumen is about to be baptized, let 
him learn what concerns the renunciation of the devil 
and association with Christ. For 'tis right he should 
first abstain from things contrary, and then be admitted 
to the mysteries {i.e., baptism and the Lord's Supper) ; 
he must beforehand purify his heart of all wickedness 
of disposition, of all spot and wrinkle, and then partake 
of the holy things. For as the husbandman first purges 
his ground of the thorns that have grown on it, and 
then sows his wheat, so ought you also take away all 
impiety from them, and then sow in them the seeds of 
godliness, and give them baptism. For our Lord in 
this manner exhorted us, saying: First, make disciples 
of all nations, and then He adds, baptize them in the 
na-me of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. 
Let, therefore, the candidate for baptism renounce as 
follows : — 

" I renounce Satan and his works, his pomps and 
his worship, his angels and his devices, and all things 
that are under him. After this renunciation let him 
say : I associate myself with Christ, and believe, and 
am to be baptized unto one unbegotten Being, the only 
true God Almighty, the Father of Christ, the Creator 
and Maker of all things ; and unto the Lord Jesus 
Christ, His only-begotten Son, the firstborn of the 
whole creation, who before the ages was begotten by 
the good pleasure of the Father, by whom all things 
were made, both in the heaven and on the earth, visible 
and invisible, who in the last days descended from 
heaven, took our flesh, was born of the Holy Virgin 
Mary, lived a holy life according to the precepts of 
His God and Father, was crucified under Pontius Pilate 
died for us, and rose again from the dead the third 



BAPTISM OF CATECHUMENS. 75 

day after His passion, ascended to heaven, and sits at 
the right hand of the Father, and again will come at 
the end of the world with glory to judge the quick 
and the dead, of whose kingdom there shall be no end. 
And I am to be baptized unto the Holy Ghost, the 
Comforter, who wrought in all the saints from the 
beginning of the world, but was afterwards sent also 
from the Father to the Apostles, according to the pro- 
mise of our Saviour and Lord Jesus Christ ; and, after 
the Apostles, to all those who believe in the holy 
Catholic Church, unto the resurrection of the body, the 
remission of sins, the kingdom of heaven, and the 
life of the world to come. ^ 

"And after this vow he comes in order to be anointed 
with oil. Now this is blessed by the high priest for 
the remission of sins, and the preparation for baptism. 
For he calls thus upon the unbegotten God, the Father 
of Christ, the King of all sensible and intelligent natures, 
that He would sanctify the oil in the name of the 
Lord Jesus, and impart spiritual grace and efiScacious 
strength, the remission of sins, and the preparation for 
the confession of baptism, so that when he is anointed 
he may be freed from all ungodliness, and may become 
worthy of initiation according to the command of the 
Only-begotten. 

"After this, the priest comes to the water, and blesses 
and glorifies the Lord God Almighty, the Father of 
the Only-begotten God, and returns thanks, that He 
has sent His Son to become man on our account, that 
He may save us ; that He had permitted that He should 
in all things become obedient to the laws of that in- 
carnation, to preach the kingdom of heaven, the re- 
mission of sins, and the resurrection from the dead. 
Moreover, He adores the only-begotten God himself, 
after His Father and for Him, giving Him thanks that 



76 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

He undertook to die for all men on the cross, the type 
of which He has appointed to be the baptism of re- 
generation. He glorifies Him also for that God, who 
is the Lord of the whole world, in the name of Christ, 
and by His Holy Spirit, has not cast off mankind, but 
has adapted His various providences to the different 
times, at first giving to Adam in Paradise the Paradise 
itself for an habitation, and afterwards giving a com- 
mand, and casting out the offender justly, but through 
His goodness not utterly casting him off, but instructing 
his posterity in succeeding ages in various ways. For 
him at the conclusion of the times He sent His own 
Son to become man for man's sake, and undergo all 
human passions without sin. Him, therefore, let the 
priest even now call upon in baptism, and let him say : 
Look down from heaven and sanctify this water, and 
give grace and power so that he who is to be baptized 
according to the command of Thy Christ, may be cruci- 
fied with Him, may die with Him and be buried with 
Him, and may rise again with Him to the adoption 
which is in Him, that he may be dead to sin and live 
to righteousness. And after this, when he has baptized 
him in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of 
the Holy Ghost, let him anoint him with ointment and 
add as follows : O Lord God, who art without genera- 
tion, and without a superior, the Lord of the whole 
world, who hast scattered the sweet odour of the 
knowledge of the Gospel among all nations, do Thou 
now grant also that this ointment may be efficacious 
upon him that is baptized, so that the sweet odour of 
Thy Christ may continue upon him firm and fixed, and 
now that he has died with Him, may he arise and live 
with Flim. 

" Let him say these and like things, for this is the 
efficacy of the laying-on of hands on every one, for 



BAPTISM OF CATECHUMENS. 77 

unless there be some such an invocation made by a 
pious priest, the person baptized only descends into the 
water (et? vScop fiovov KaTa^alvet) as do the Jews, and 
he only puts off the filth of the body, not that of the 
soul. After this let him stand up, and recite that 
prayer which the Lord taught us. But of necessity he 
who is risen again ought to stand up and pray, because 
he that is raised stands upright. Let him, therefore, 
who has been dead with Christ, is raised up with Him, 
stand up. But let him pray towards the east, for this 
is also written in the Second Book of the Chronicles, 
that after the temple of the Lord had been finished by 
King Solomon, at the feast of dedication, the priests, 
Levites, and singers stood up towards the east, praising 
and thanking God with cymbals and psalteries, and say- 
ing: 'Praise the Lord, for He is good, and His mercy 
endureth for ever.' 

"But let him pray thus after the foregoing prayer, 
and say: O God Almighty, the Father of Thy Christ, 
Thine only-begotten Son, grant me a body undefiled, a 
pure heart, a watchful mind, an unerring knowledge, the 
coming of the Holy Ghost for the possession and assured 
enjoyment of the truth, through Thy Christ, by whom 
glory be to Thee, in the Holy Ghost, for ever. Amen. 

"We have thought it right to make these constitu- 
tions concerning the catechumens." 

The catechists, merely as such, were not allowed at 
first to instruct their catechumens in the church, but 
only in private auditories appointed for that purpose. 
That there were such catechetical schools in many places 
is evident from the Sixty-seventh Novella of the Emperor 
Leo* who calls them " Karrj-x^ovfievia," and says that 



* Leo, furnamed the " Isaurian," was Emperor of Constanti- 
nople ; died a.d. 741. He wrote a few treatises, which were called 
Novella, or " New Works." 



78 THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF BAPTISM, 

they were a kind of buildings attached to the church. 
Subsequently, the catechumens received their religious 
education and training in a portion of the church ex- 
pressly reserved for that object* or in a hall adjoining 
the baptistery. Thus the large room attached to the 
Baptistery of Constantine in Rome, and now designated 
by the name of Oratory of St. Venantius, was formerly 
used for the instruction of catechumens, and is still em- 
ployed for teaching the Romish catechism to children. 
In the Catacombs of Rome there still exist cuMctda or 
sepulchral chapels, which contain several graves, and in 
the angles are seats cut in the rock. There have been 
found two of these chapels in the Catacombs of St. 
Agnese, which are supposed to have served as places 
of meeting for catechumens, the seats being for the in- 
structing bishop or deacon. One of these, the larger, 
was for male catechumens, and the other, on the opposite 
side, for females. (Fig. 14.) In a cubiculum of the 
Catacomb of St. Callixtus, there is a low seat or bench, 
with two higher ones, destined probably for catechumens 
and their instructors. 

As no limit was fixed for the period during which 
persons were to continue in the state of catechumens, 
the practice varied at different times. During the apos- 
tolic age, catechizing and baptizing accompanied one 
another ; but afterwards some interval was thought ad- 
visable, the duration of which varied according to cir- 
cumstances, and to the diligence and zeal of the cate- 
chumens themselves. In cases of desperate sickness 



* Anciently the inner parts of the portico of churches were 
divided into small places of retirement, sometimes called cuhicula, 
or small chambers, where worshippers might retire for meditation 
and prayer. They were regarded as a portion of the caiechumenia, 
or belonging to the Catechumens. " Cubicula intra porticus qua- 
terna, longis basilicse lateribus inserta, secretis orantium, vel in 
lege Domini meditantium." (Paulinus, ep. xii. ad Setter.) 



TIME BEFORE BAPTISM. 



79 



they were allowed clinic baptism. " Quod si aliquo 
periculum infirmitatis intra prsescriptum tempus incur- 
rerint, et disperati fuerint, baptizentur. [Cone. Agath. 
c. xxxiv.) With the exception, however, of extreme 
cases, a considerable time was judged necessary, not 
only to make trial of their conversion, but also to in- 
struct them fully in the principles of the Christian 
religion. By the Forty-second Canon of the Council of 
Elvira, the duration of the catechumenate was limited 
to two years, on condition, however, that the candidates 



B 



aiL 



n n 



A 



jr... 



Fig. 14. CuBiGULA IN Catacombs of St. Agnese. 

A A Gallery of Cemetery. B C Cubicula, or sepulchral chapels opening out of it. d d Arcosoliaj 
or Sarcophagi, e e Seats for Instructors or Catechists. g g Loculi, or graves. 

had led irreproachable lives. f'" Si boncR fuerint eonver- 
sationis.") The Emperor Justinian* required also a 
probation of two years for the Jews embracing Chris- 
tianity. Three years are indicated by the Apostolical 
Constitutions; but the Council of Agde (a.d. 506) decreed 



* Justinian (a.d. 483-575) was a Roman emperor, who gained 
great renown as a legislator. He compiled a code, which com- 
prised all the constitutions of his predecessors, and which is known 
as the Justinian Code. He harmonized and published, under the 
title of Digesta Pandecta, the authoritative commentaries of the 
jurists. His Institutes is a systematic treatise on the laws, for the 
guidance of students and lawyers. 



8o THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

that a probation of eight months was sufficient. This 
rule was not rigidly adhered to, for we read in the 
account Socrates (lib. vii. c. 30) gives us of the con- 
version of the ancient Burgundians, that they were 
catechized and baptized in the course of eight days. 

At an early period of the Church, certain persons were 
required to be present at the baptism of its member-s, 
who should serve as witnesses of the due performance 
and reception of the rite, and should also be sureties 
for the fulfilment of the engagements and promises then 
made. In his excellent work on Christian Antiquities, 
the Rev. Mr. Riddle accounts for the presence of sponsors 
at baptism, by referring to the customs of the Roman law. 
" Baptism," he says, " was at an early period regarded 
in the light of a stipulation, covenant, or contract ; on 
all matters of this nature the Roman jurisprudence was 
very exact and careful in its institutions, and it is likely 
that the leaders of the early Church, many of whom , 
before their conversion, were engaged in the inter- 
pretation or administration of the Roman laws, would 
endeavour to give security and solemnity to the sacred 
covenant in a way corresponding to that which they 
had been accustomed to observe in civil transactions. 
Tradition says that the office of sponsors was appointed 
by Hyginus, or Iginus, a Roman bishop, about the 
year 154. A time of oppression and persecution in the 
Church is likely to have given rise to an institution 
intended for the attestation and security of the pro- 
fession of the Christian religion. And, we know, as a 
matter of fact, that the sponsor's office had been so far 
introduced during the second and third centuries, that 
it was in full operation throughout the fourth and fifth."* 



* Christian Antiquities, by the Rev. J. E. Riddle, M.A., of St. 
Edmund's Hall, Oxford. 



BUNSEN S TESTIMONY. 8 1 

In his work on Hippolytus,* and his age (about the 
beginning of the third century), Baron Bunsen, a 
German writer of extraordinary erudition, says : — " The 
Apostolic Church made the school the connecting link 
between herself and the world. The object of this 
education was admission into the free society and 
brotherhood of the Christian community. The Church 
adhered rigidly to the principle, as constituting the 
true purport of the baptism ordained by Christ, that 
no one can be a member of the communion of saints, 
but by his own free act and deed, his own solemn vow 
made in presence of the Church, It was with this 
understanding that the candidate for baptism was im- 
mersed in water, and admitted as a brother upon his 
confession of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost. 
It understood baptism, therefore, in the exact sense 
of the First Epistle of St. Peter (iii. 21), not as 
being a mere bodily purification, but as a vow made 
to God with a good conscience, through faith in Jesus 
Christ. Justin Martyr calls baptism a dedication of 
ourselves to God. This vow was preceded by a con- 
fession of Christian faith, made in presence of the 
Church, in which the catechumen expressed that faith 
in Christ, and in the sufficiency of the salvation offered 
by Him. It was a vow to live for the time to come, 
to God and for his neighbour, not to the world and 
for self; a vow of faith in his becoming a child of 
God through the communion with His only-begotten 
Son in the Holy Ghost ; a vow of the most solemn 
kind, for life and for death. The keeping of this pledge 

* Hippolytus, an ancient Christian writer, who was born in the 
latter part of the second century, and who died a martyr in the 
reign of the Emperor Maximinus, about a.d. 236. A Greek work, 
found among the literary treasures on Mount Athos, is believed to 
be from his pen. 

G 



82 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

was the condition of continuance in the Church ; its 
infringement entailed repentance or excommunication. 
All Church discipline was based upon this voluntary- 
pledge, and the responsibility thereby self-imposed. But 
how could such a vow be received without examination ? 
How could such examination be passed without instruc- 
tion and observation ? 

"As a general rule, the ancient Church fixed three 
years for this preparation, supposing the candidate, 
whether heathen or Jew, to be competent to receive 
it. With Christian children, the condition was the 
same, except that the term of probation was curtailed 
according to circumstances. Pedobaptism, in the more 
modern sense, meaning thereby baptism of newborn 
infants, with the vicarious promises of parents or other 
sponsors, was utterly unknown to the early Church ; 
not only down to the second, but indeed to the middle 
of the third century. We shall show, in a subsequent 
page, how, towards the close of the second century, 
this practice originated in the baptism of children of 
a more advanced age. 

" Hence we find in the Christian school of that 
period, four great acts, three of which were common 
both to the new converts and to Christian children : 
previous examination of the Jewish or heathen candi- 
dates who presented themselves ; instruction ; exami- 
nation immediately before immersion and the taking 
of the vow; and lastly, that ceremony itself" (Vol. 
ii. p. 105, 2nd Ed.) 

The learned Walafrid Strabo, who wrote a book on 
the Beginnings and Additions in Ecclesiastical Affairs 
(De Exordiis et Incrementis Rerum Ecclesiasticarum), 
makes the following statement : — " It is to be noted that 
in primitive times, the grace of baptism was accustomed 
to be given only to those who, in body and mind, had 



SALMASIUS AND SUICERUS. 85 

come to such maturity as to be able to know and under- 
stand what benefit is to be obtained in baptism, what 
is to be professed, and what to be believed, and finally 
what is to be observed by the newborn in Christ." 
(Notandum quod primis temporibus illis solum modo 
baptism! gratiam dari solitam qui et corporis et mentis 
integritate jam ad hoc pervenerant, ut scire et intelligere 
possunt quid emolument! in baptismo consequendum, 
quid confidendum atque credendum, quid postremo 
renatis in Christo esset servandum.) 

Salmasius, and Suicerus who quotes him, state that, 
" for the two first centuries, no one received baptism, who 
was not first instructed in the faith and doctrine of Christ, 
so as to be able to answer for himself, that he believed, 
because of those words, ' He that believeth and is bap- 
tized.' " (Primis duobus sseculis nemo baptismum 
accipiebat, nisi qui, in fide instructus et doctrina Christ! 
imbutus, testari posset, se credere, propter ilia verba, 
" Qui crediderit et baptizatus fuerit." TAes. Eccles. !!.) 

These statements rest upon abundant proofs furnished 
us by the history of the earliest centuries of the Christian 
era. Justin Martyr, in his First Apology, informs us 
that baptism was administered only to adults. He 
says : " We were (corporeally) born without our will 
(/car' avd'yKrjv), but we are not to remain children of 
necessity and ignorance, but in baptism are to have 
choice, knowledge, &c. This we learned from the 
Apostles." He speaks of the baptism of believers 
as follows : — " They who are persuaded and believe 
that those things which are taught by us are true, 
and promise to live according to them, are directed 
first to pray and ask of God, with fasting, the forgive- 
ness of their former sins, and we also pray and fast 
together with them. Then we bring them to some 
place where there is water, and they are regenerated 

G 2 



84 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. " 

by the same way of regeneration by which we were 
regenerated ; for they are washed in water in the name 
of God the Father and Lord of all things, and of our 
Saviour Jesus Christ, and of the Holy Spirit." * 

In the same Apology, Justin Martyr says that "this 
washing is called illumination, because they who learn 
these things are enlightened in their mind." t 

TertuUian advises the postponement of baptism in the 
case of young children in the following terms : — 

"According to the condition, disposition, and age of 
each, the delay of baptism is peculiarly advantageous, 
especially in the case of little children. Why should 
the sponsors be brought into danger ? For they may 
fail by death to fulfil their promises, or through the 
perverseness of the child. Our Lord, indeed, says : 
' Forbid them not to come unto me.' Let them come, 
then, when of adult age. Let them come when they 
can learn, when they are taught whither they are 
coming. Let them become Christians when they shall 
have learned Christ. Why hasten that innocent age to 
the forgiveness of sins (baptism). In worldly matters men 
observe greater caution, so that he is entrusted with 
divine things, to whom those of earth are not confided." 
(Pro cujusque personse conditione ac dispositione, 
etiam aetate, cunctatio baptismi utilior est ; praecipue 
tamen circa parvulos. Quid enim necesse est sponsores 

Ocrot av 7retcr^aJo"t Kat Trto'revoxTiv dXyjOrj ravra to. v(f) rju.oiv 
otoauKO/ieva Kai Xiyofjieva elvai, Koi (iiovv ovtui^ Svvaadai vTn(r)(yu)VTai, 
iV)(i(T6ai re koI alruv VTicrreijovTts Trapa tov Oiov twv Trportu.aoTnu.iviitv 
a^ecriv oioa(TKOVTai, yjjxuiv crvvtvy^oixauiv Kat (TvvurjfrTevovToyv avroLi. 
EireiTa ayovrat i<f> rjfjLuiv f.v6a vSuip ian, koi rpoTrov avay€vvrjmm<;, ov 
/cat ijjaets avToi aviy€vvi^6rjp.ev, avayevvutvrai. 'Ett' ovo/iaros yap tov 
Trarpos tSv o/Vcov Kai Aeo-n-orov 0€ov, koL tov o-wr^pos rj/xtov Irjcrov Xpto-rov, 
Kai TTveu/xaTos ayiov, to iv to) vSan t6t€ XovTpbv TroiovvTai. (Justin 
Martyr, ApoL i. 6i.) 

f KaXcirat Se tovto to Xovrpov <j>o)TLa-/ji6<;, (Ls (jficoTi^o/icvcov ttjv Sidvoiav 
tS)V Tavra fji.av9av6vTU)v. {Apol. i. c. 6i.), 



TERTULLIAN AND ORIGEN. 85 

etiam periculo ingeri ? Quia et ipsi, per mortalitatem 
destituere promissiones suas possunt, et proventu malae 
indolis falli. Ait quidem Dominus : " Nolite illos pro- 
hibere ad me venire." Veniant ergo, dum adolescunt. 
Veniant dum discunt, dum quo veniant docentur. 
Fiant Christian! cum Christum nosse potuerint. Quid 
festinat innocens eetas ad remissionem peccatorum r 
Cautius agetur in ssecularibus, ut cui substantia terrena 
non creditur, divina credatur. De Baptismo, c. xviii.) 

Alluding to this passage, the well-known Church 
historian, Neander, says : — " Tertullian evidently means 
that children should be led to Christ by instructing 
them in Christianity; but that they should not receive 
baptism until, after having been sufficiently instructed, 
they are led from personal conviction, and by their own 
free choice, to seek for it, with sincere longings of heart." 
(Church History, vol. i. p. 312. — Torrey's translation.) 

Origen says, in his fourth Homily on the Book of 
Joshua : — " I beseech you not to come to baptism but 
with great circumspection. Show previously fruits 
meet for repentance, spend some time in godly con- 
versation, preserving yourselves from all defilements and 
vices, and then you will receive the remission of sins." 

In his thirteenth Homily on the Book of Numbers, 
the same Father addresses thus the members of the 
church : — " Let each one of the believers recall to mind 
when he first came to the waters of baptism, when he re- 
ceived the first symbols of the faith, when he approached 
the fountain of salvation, what words he there used at that 
time, how he renounced the devil, that he would not use 
his pomps, nor his works, nor comply at all with any of 
his services and pleasures."* 

* Origen : — Recordetur unusquisque fidelium, ciim primum venit 
ad aquas baptismi, cim signacula fidei prima suscepit, et ad 
fontem salutaris accessit, quibus ibi tunc usus sit verbis, et quid 



86 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

In his work against Celsus (book iii. chapter 59), a 
passage is quoted from Celsus in which after men- 
tioning what intelligent and respectable persons are 
invited to initiation in the sacred mysteries among 
the heathen, this acute and bitter adversary of Chris- 
tianity proceeds thus : — 

"And now let us hear what persons the Christians 
invite. Whoever, they say, is a sinner, whoever is 
unintelligent, whoever is a mere child, and, in short, 
whoever is a miserable and contemptible creature, the 
kingdom of God shall receive him." * 

Origen then subjoins : " In reply to these accusa- 
tions we say, It is one thing to invite those who are 
diseased in the soul to a healing, and it is another to 
invite the healthy to a knowledge and discernment 
of things more divine. And we, knowing the differ- 
ence, first call men to be healed. We exhort sinners 
to come to the instruction that teaches them not to 
sin, and the unintelligent to come to that which pro- 
duces in them understanding, and the little children to 
rise in elevation of thought to the man, and the miserable 
to come to a fortunate state, or (what is more proper 
to say) to a state of happiness. But when those of the 
exhorted that make progress show that they have been 
cleansed by the word, and, as much as possible, have 
lived a better life, then we invite them to be initiated 
among us {i.e., baptized.)" f 

renuntiaverit diabolo, non se usurum pompis ejus, neque operibus 
ejus, neque uUis omnino servitus ejus ac voluptatibus pariturum 
(Horn. xiii. In Numeros). 

* 'YTraKovaoificv Se Ttvas ttotc ovtoi, KaXovaiV outis {(fifjalv) a/iapToiXos, 
oVtis dcrwtTOs, oarii vqttlo'S, kol cos aTrASs eiiriiv, oo-jis KaKoSaLfjiwv 
TOVTOV rj ySacrtXcta tov 6eov Se^erat. 

]' IIpos Tavra Sc tfiafjiev oti ov TavTov eort vocrovvTa's ttjv \f/v)(Tjv IttI 
depcLTrelav KaXeZv, koI vyLaiVovrai eTri rfjv tS>v Oeiojeprnv yi/(U(Ttv Koi 
hruTTrjjXTiv. Kat ij/Aets §€ a/x^oTepa ravra ytyi/couKOVTCS, Kar a.p)(rjv [lev 



BAPTISM FOLLOWS INSTRUCTION. 87 

In the Apostolical Constitutions, we find the fol- 
lowing direction : — " Instruct the catechumens in the 
elements of religion, and baptize them." (Tou? Karr]- 
'XpvjjL.evov'i a-Toi,^eiaiaavTe<s ParrTiaaTe). Const. Apost. lib. 
vi. 18. 

The fifth book of the Constitutions contains these 
words : " Though he be but a catechumen let him 
depart without trouble, for his suffering for Christ 
will be to him a more genuine baptism, because he 
does really die with Christ, but the rest only in a 
figure."* 

Chrysostom, in his forty-sixth Homily on the Acts 
of the Apostles, relates that " The wrath of God once 
fell upon (a city), and he being very young, (was) in 
the order of deacon. The bishop was absent at the 
time, and of the presbyters none took thought for the 
matter, but indiscriminately they caused in one night 
immense numbers of people to be baptized all at once, 
and they did indiscriminately receive baptism, all of 
them ignorant of everything." f 

In the year 325, at the Council of Nicaea, Eusebius, the 



wpoKoAov/u-evot an to OepaTrevd-rjvaL tov<s av6pwTrov%' TLpoTpiirofjiev tovs 
afjLapTUiXow -^Keiv im tov'S StSao-Kovras Xoyovs fJ-rj a/xapTavetv, kol tous 
acrvviTovs e^t roi)^ ifjiTroLovvrai crvve.(jLV, koI toii; vqTriovi eis to ava/Saiveiv 
(jipov^p.aTi IttI tov avSpa, Koi Toiis ciTrAais KaKoSat/xoras iirl tvSaip.ovLav rj 
{oirep KvpiSn-epov icrriv d-n-eiv) iirl fiaKapiOTrjTa. 'E-n-av S' 01 Trpo/coirroi/Tes 
Twv TTpoTpa-irevTiDv irapatTTijcroocrt to K€Ka0a.p6ai viro tov \6yov, /cat, oarj 
Swa/its, /SiXTiov PejiimK^ai, to T7jviKa.Se /caAov/xev avrov^ im Tas Trap' 
fiplv TtXeTas. 

* Kav KaTT}\ovp,(.vois rj, aXuTros arrLTix)' to yap iraOo'i to virep ILpiaTOv 
eo'Tat avTw yvijcnurrepov ^aTTTter/xa" oti avTo'; /xev Trctpa ovvaTTodvqa'Ku T(3 
KvpiM, ol 8e AoiTTot, Tvma. (^Ap. Const, lib. v. c. 6.) 

f Chrysostom : — ETrcTrccrev opyfj T^ore TOV Beov, koX a<f>6Spa ve'os 
SiV CKUVO'S, Koi £V Trj TOV SiaKovov TOL^u Tvyyiavwv, lirii tote 6 liricTKOTroi 
€TV-)(a' airwv Kar iKcivov tov Katpov, Kal tu>v 7rpea-l3vTe.po)V ouSets ec^povTt^ci/, 
a\\' d7rXa)9 i-rroir]<jav <()uyTia-6rjvai aOpoov iv fJLiS, vvktI /tvpiaSas TroXXag, 
Kol a?rXu)S Ijia-KTiifiVTO irdvTcs ovSiv eiSoTes. (Hom. xlvi. In Act. 

Apost.) 



88 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

ecclesiastical historian, prepared a document for the sig- 
nature of the 3 1 8 bishops who were there, and read it 
in the presence of Constantine the Great, and of the whole 
council. It is preserved in the Greek original, both by 
Socrates and by Theodoret, in their ecclesiastical his- 
tories ; and in it Eusebius says : " As we have received 
from the bishops that were before us, both in the previous 
catechetical instrii,ction and also when we received the laver ; 
as we have learned from the Divine Scriptures, and as, 
in the presbytery itself, and also in the episcopate, we 
have believed and taught, so also now believing, we 
set forth our belief, and it is this : ' We believe,' etc. 
(Ka6a)<; vapeXd/Sofiev -rrapa twi' "rrpo rifiSiV eTriaKOTrav, koI 
ev TT) TTpcoT'T] KaT7]~)(r)aei, koX ore Koi to Xovrpof eKap,l3dvofjLev, &c. 
Socrates, lib. i. c. 8; Theodoret, lib. i. c. 12). In his 
Evangelical Demonstration, Eusebius informs us that 
" there are three orders in each church : one, that of 
the leaders, and two, those of persons under them ; the 
people of the Church of Christ being divided into two 
orders, into that of believers, and into that of the 
persons not yet esteemed worthy of regeneration by the 
laver." {Tpia Ka%' eKacTTTjv eKKkijalav rdyfiara, ev fiev to 
Tcov rjyovp,evQ}V, Svo Se to, tcov VTTO^e^rjKOTOiV, tov tij? iKK\'r]aia<; 
Tov XpiaTOv Xaov ei? Svo TdyfiaTa hi7)p7}fievov, e't? re to tcov 
TTt^TWj', Kol tS)v firjSeTTO) T»5? Bod XovTpov •jraXiyyeveaia'i 
rj^iwp,evQ)v. Demonstrat. Evangel, lib. vii.) 

In the year 315, a Council was held at Neo-Caesarea, 
in Asia Minor. Among the canons adopted by this 
assembly is the following : " Concerning a woman who is 
pregnant (we decide) that she ought to be baptized when- 
ever she pleases ; for, in this matter, the mother com- 
municates nothing to the child, since the deliberate 
purpose in the profession of faith is declared each one's 
own." (Ilepl Kvo(f>opova7j^, otv Set (prnTo^ecr^ao oiroTe /SouXeTai' 
oiiBkv yap iv tovtw KOivcovel 17 TiKTOvaa Tat Tt,KT0/j,ev(p, Sid 



GROTIUS AND ATHANASIUS. 89 

TO eKacTTov ISiav rrjv Trpoalpecnv Trjv eVt rrj ofioXoyia SeiK- 
vva-^^ai.) In his note on Matthew xix. 14, Grotius mentions 
this canon, and adds : " For, however diversely interpreters 
may explain, it is manifest that the question was there- 
fore moved concerning the baptism of the pregnant, 
because the child might appear to be baptized at the 
same time with the mother, while the custom was not to 
baptize any, unless upon one's own choice and profession." 
(Utcunque enim aliovorsum trahant interpretes, adparet, 
ideo de baptismo praegnantium motam questionem, quod 
videretur cum matre simul proles baptizari, quae tamen 
baptizari non soleret, nisi super propria voluntate ac pro- 
fessione. In Novum. Test. Annotat. vol. i. p. 385. Edit. 
1 755-) In his Compendium of Canons, a Greek com- 
mentator, Balsamo, says in reference to the decision 
of the Council : " The child cannot be baptized, because 
it is not yet born, and has not the deliberate purpose 
of the profession connected with the divinely-appointed 
baptism." {Ov Suvarai, ^coria^vai Boa to firjKiri, et? (f)a><; 
iX^etv, fiTjSe irpoaipeaiv 'iyeiv t^? 6fio\oyM<; rov S-et'ov 
^aTTTia-fiaroq.) Another writer, Zonaras, with equal 
clearness, expresses himself thus : " The embryo needs 
baptism when it shall be able to have the deliberate 
purpose." (To e/x^pvov ■x^p^^ei ySaTrrio-yaaTO? ore irpoai- 
pelaSat Swijaerai..) (From Infant Baptism, by Rev. Dr. 
Chase.) 

Athanasius, in his exposition of Matthew's Gospel, says : 
" For this cause our Saviour has not simply commanded 
to baptize, but first He said ' teach,' and then ' baptize in 
the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost,' so 
that faith might come from learning, and the perfecting of 
baptism added to faith." {Aia tovto yovv koI 6 2«bt^/c» ov'^^ 
airXSyi ivereiXaro /SaTTTtfeiv, aXXa irpMTOv cprjat,, MadrjTevarjTe 
eld^ oiiTO) Pairri^ere et? ovofia UaTpo^, Koi vlov, Kol ayiov 
TTvevfiaTO^ iV e/c Tr)^ fia6^creco<;, V Trt'crTts opOrj yivTjTai, KaX 



90 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

(lera 7rt'crTea)<f r) tov ^aTTTiafiaro'i reXelaxn^ vpoaTedrj. OratlO 
ii. contra Arianos.) 

The Council of Laodicea, held in A.D. 360, decreed that 
" those who are to be baptized must learn the faith, and 
on the fifth week rehearse it to the bishop or to the pres- 
byter." {"Oti, Sei TOV<; (pcoTi^ofj^ivov; rrjv TTuaTiv eKfiayddvuv, 
Koi TTJ TrefjbTTTrjTov 6/38o/xaSo? aTrajyeXXeiv tw einaKOTra), r] Tax's 
irpea^vrepoi'^. Canon xlvi.) 

Gregory of Nazianzen, though born after his father 
became a bishop, and most carefully educated, it is well 
known, was not baptized till he was nearly thirty years 
old. He was, in many respects, a great and a good 
man. His piety was ardent and sincere, and his bene- 
volence led him to devote the whole of his income to 
the relief of the poor and afflicted. This celebrated 
Fatljer advised delay in administering baptism to children 
till " they were three years old, or a little less or more, 
for then," he adds, " they are able to hear and answer 
the mystical words, and though they do not perfectly 
understand, they may receive impressions. . . ." (^IlepX 
Si Twv dWcov SlSai/jiai yycofitjv t^v Tpierlav avap.eivavTa';, 
rj fJUKpov evTO's TOVTOV, rj virep tovto, 'qviKa koX aKovaal to 
fJivaTiKOV, Kal airoKpiveadai SvvaTOV' el kol fjirj crvvievTa 
TfiXeco?, aXK ovv TVTroviJ,eva, ovTU)<i dytd^eiv koX ■^v)(a<; Kal 
acofiuTa Tbi fiejdXm fivaTrjpLcp ttj? TeXetcocreo)?. {Orat xl. De 
Bapi.) 

Basil the Great was not baptized until he was twenty 
years old, though his parents and grandparents were 
persons of distinguished piety. Addressing catechu- 
mens, some of whom at least were children of Christians, 
he says : " Do you demur, and loiter, and put it off, when 
you have been from a child catechized in the Word ? 
Are you not acquainted with the truth ? Having been 
always learning it, are you not yet come to the know- 
ledge of it .? A seeker all your life long, a considerer 



CHRYSOSTOM AND AMBROSIUS — WHEN BAPTIZED. 9 I 

till you are old ? When will you become one of us ? 
Last year you were for staying till this year, and now 
you have a mind to stay till next. Take heed that, by 
promising yourself a longer life, you do not quite miss 
of your hope. You don't know what change to-morrow 
may bring." [Oratio. Exhort, ad Baptism)^ 

Ephrem, Deacon of Edessa, and a learned writer of 
the Syriac Church (died A.D. 379) was born of parents 
who "were ennobled by the blood of martyrs in their 
family, and had themselves both confessed Christ be- 
fore the persecutors, under Diocletian or his successors." 
They consecrated Ephrem to God from his cradle, like 
another Samuel, but he was eighteen years old when 
he was baptized. {Lives of the Saints, Art. "St. Ephrem.") 

The Emperor Theodosius was baptized in the thirty- 
fourth or thirty-fifth year of his age, though he had 
been trained up from his childhood in the Christian 
faith. 

Nectarius, the immediate successor of Gregory Nazi- 
anzen, was baptized only after he had been elected 
to succeed him as bishop of Constantinople. 

Chrysostom, the golden-mouthed preacher, also bishop 
of Constantinople, and born of Christian parents, re- 
ceived baptism at the age of twenty-eight, and after 
having been catechized during three years by Melitus, 
Bishop of Antioch. 

Ambrosius, Bishop of Milan, was a citizen of Rome 
and born in France in A.D. 340. At the time of his 
birth, his father was preetorian prefect of Gallia Nar- 
bonensis, but upon his death the widow repaired to 
Rome with her family. Ambrosius received a religious 
education, and was reared in the habits of virtuous 
conduct by his mother, who was an accomplished woman, 
and eminent for piety, but he was not baptized till he 
had reached the age of thirty-four. 



92 THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

For such persons who were not yet deemed suitable 
for baptism, according to the so-called Apostolic Consti- 
tutions, special prayer in their presence was offered, 
"that God would teach them His commands and His 
ordinances, implant in them His saving and holy fear, 
open the ears of their hearts, strengthen them in piety, 
and tmite them to and 7iumher them with His flock .... 
O God, who through Thy Christ didst appoint the 
disciples to be teachers, tha.t men might learn piety ; 
do Thou Thyself even now look down upon Thy servants 
who are catechized in the gospel of Thy Christ, and 
give them a new heart, and renew a right spirit in their 
inward parts, that they may both know and do Thy 
will with full purpose of heart, and with a willing soul. 
Account them worthy of the holy initiation (baptism), 
and unite them to Thy holy Church, and make them 
partakers of the holy mysteries, through Christ our 
hope, who for them suffered death ; through whom 
glory and worship be given to Thee in the Holy Spirit, 
for ever. Amen." (Book viii. c. 6.) 

" Augustine, in the book of his Confessions," says 
Walafrid Strabo, " relates, concerning himself, that he 
continued a catechumen almost to the age of twenty- 
five years, with the intention that, through this delay, 
he, instructed distinctly on each subject, might be led 
to choose freely for himself, and the ardent passions 
of the slippery age cooling off, he might be better 
able to preserve what was to be obtained in baptism" 
(De Rer. Eccles.). And yet, we know that Augustine's 
mother, Monica, was a woman of great piety, and 
instructed him carefully in the principles of the Christian 
religion. In his early youth he was in the rank of 
the catechumens, and, falling dangerously ill, earnestly 
desired to be baptized ; but the violence of the dis- 
temper ceasing, his baptism was delayed until, after 



INSTRUCTION FIRST : BAPTISM AFTERWARDS. 93 

a course of idleness and dissipation, he became a 
penitent believer. 

Jerome, who was baptized at the age of thirty-one, 
says, in his Commentary on Matthew xxviii. 16-20: — ■ 
" Primum docent omnes gentes, deinde doctas intingunt 
aqua : Non enim potest fieri, ut corpus baptismi recipiat 
sacramentum, nisi ante anima fidei susceperit veri- 
tatem .... Ordo praecipuus : jussit apostolis ut 
primum docerent universas gentes ; deinde fidei intin- 
gerent sacramento, et post fidem ac baptisma, quae essent 
observanda preeciperent." " First they teach all nations, 
then baptize the taught with water, for it cannot be that 
the body should receive the sacrament of baptism, unless 
the soul shall have first received the truth of the 
faith .... The order is important : He commands 
the apostles first to teach the whole of the nations, then 
to baptize them with the sacrament of faith; and after 
faith and baptism, to teach them the things which are 
to be observed." 

Important words, which, if obeyed, would have pre- 
vented the baptism of men by tribes and nations, and 
the making of Christians by sacramental acts ! 

From a very early period, undue importance was 
attached to baptism because of its supposed relation 
to the forgiveness of sins and to regeneration. Some 
of the Fathers, especially Chrysostom, Clement of 
Alexandria, Cyprian, and Augustine, in treating of 
this subject, often indulge in exaggerated language, in 
fanciful and absurd allegories, and in symbolical in- 
terpretations.* They held that baptism was necessary to 
salvation; that forgiveness accompanied it; that infants 
were purged by it from the pollution of original sin ; 
and that all persons dying without baptism were lost. 

* Hagenbach's History of Doctrines. 



94 THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

Thus Chrysostom says: "When we had committed 
many and grievous sins, and had not ceased from 
youth to extreme old age to defile our souls with ten 
thousand evil deeds, for none of these sins did He 
demand from us a reckoning, but granted us remission 
of them by the washing of repentance, and fully gave 
us righteousness and sanctification." {Horn, xxviii. 
on John.)* 

And again : " We risk no common danger ; for if it 
should come to pass, and may it never happen, that 
through the sudden arrival of death we depart hence 
uninitiated (unbaptized), though we have ten thousand 
virtues, our portion will be no other than hell, and the 
venomous worm and fire unquenchable, and bonds in- 
dissoluble." {Horn. XX. on John.) 

Clement of Alexandria : " This work (Baptism) is 
called Grace, Illumination, Perfection, Washing, by 
which name it is called because it cleanses us from our 
sins ; it is called Grace because it remits the punish- 
ment due to our sins ; Illumination, because that holy 
Light gives a clear insight into salvation, i.e., sharpens 
our visions with respect to the Divine ; Perfection, be- 
cause with it we need nothing more." {Pcedagogus, lib. i-. 
cap. 6.) 

"These bonds of sin are immediately broken by the 
faith of man and the grace of God. Sins are remitted 
to us by this admirable remedy of baptism, and we 
immediately cease to be sinners. From being blind, 
as we were before, we became clear sighted, for what 
is taught to the catechumens is purely instruction to 



* "Oti Trpaf avras TroAAa Koi yaXeKo. afxapTi^jxaTa, koX ov SiaXiTrovras diro 
vcoTijTOS €ts i(T)(aTOV y^pas /xwptots ttjv i/'u^tji' KaTappvTraiveiv iavTu>v 
KaKoIs, ouSevos tovt<i)V a.TTaiTrj(T€v evOvva.'; 17/Aas twv afxaprrjixciTuiv, aXX 
cScDKEV avTuiv a</>ecriv Slo. XovTpov TraAiy-ycvecrtas Koi SiKaLoavvrjv Koi 
dyLaa-ixoi/ ixapia-aro. {Hem. xxyiii. In Joan.') 



BAPTISM : A SYMBOL OF FORGIATENESS. 95 

guide them to that faith, which is thus internally con- 
veyed by the Holy Ghost." * (Ide?}i.) 

Lactantius : " By one washing all wickedness is taken 
away." {On Divine Institutes, bk. iii. ch. 26.) " Unolavacro 
malitia omnis absolvitur." {De Div. Inst. lib. iii. c. 26.) 

TertuUian : " In truth there is nothing which s o 
hardeneth the minds of men, as the simplicity of the 
divine works which is visible in the act, and the great- 
ness which is promised in the result ; so that, in this 
case also, because a man bows down into the water and 
is washed therein with few words, with so much simplicity, 
without pomp, without any novel preparation, and finally 
without expense, riseth again, not much, or not a whit 
cleaner, therefore his gaining eternity is thought in- 
credible." {On Baptism, 2.)t 

Cyprian: "All sins are put off in baptism." He 
cites as proof, i Cor. vi. 9-10. "But ye are washed, but 
ye are sanctified in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
and by the Spirit of our God." J 

* KaXetrat Se 7roAAa;)(ms to epyov tovto ^dpicrfJLa, Koi <^a)Ttcr/xa, /cat TeActov, 
Koi X.ovTp6v' \ovTp6v jjikv, 81 ov Tots afjcapTM's a.7roppvTrT6/j.(6a' y^dptcrfia Se, 
(0 TO. IttI Tots ajxapTYiaamv iiriTLfjLLa dveirat" ^ojTicr/ia Se, SI ov to ayiov 
exetvo <^(iis TO o'wTT^piov i-n-OTTTeveraL, TOvrio'Tiv 81 ov to Oetov 6^v(iiTrovfX.a/' 
TiXeiov Se, to aTpoo-8e£S (^a/xev. {Pcsdagogus, lib. i. cap. 5.) 

To, Se Sea/JLO. Tavra, rj Ta;^os, avLerai' iriimi pXv dvOptaTrivy], Oeirj 8e 
TTj ^aptTt" dtjiiefieuoiv Twv TrXyjfji^eXrjpLaroiV ivi Hatcovto) ^ap^a/cw, Xoyt/cw 
/SaTTTio'jj.aTL, TlavTa /j.ev ovv diro\ov6ix.i$a to. djxapTrjp.aTa, ovkItl 8e 
io-ix€v irapd iroSa? KaKoi. {Idem.) 

f Nihil adeo est quod tam obduret mentes hominum, quam sim- 
plicitas divinorum operum quae in actu videtnr, et magnificentia 
quae in effectu repromittitur : ut hie quoque quoniam tanta sim- 
plicitate, sine pompa, sine apparatu novo aliquo, denique sine 
sumptu homo in aqua demissus, et inter pauca verba tinctus, non 
multo vel nihilo mundior resurgit, eo incredibilis existimetur con- 
secutio Eternitatis. {De Baptismo, 2.) 

\ (Dmnia delicta in baptismo deponi. In Epistola Pauli ad 
Corinthios prima: Neque fornicarii, neque idolis servientes, neque 
adulteri, neque, &c. 

Et haec quidem fuistis, sed abluti estis, sed sanctificati estis, in 
nomine Domini Jesu nostri Christi et in Spiritu Dei nostri. (i 
Cor. vi. 11; Teslimoniorum, lib. iii. 65.) 



96 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

"I used to think that second birth, which Divine 
mercy promised for my salvation, a hard saying accord- 
ing to the life I then led ; as if a man could be so 
quickened to a new life in the washing of the healing 
water, as to put off his natural self, and keep his former 
tabernacle, yet be changed in body and soul ! How 
is it possible, said I, for so great a conversion to be 
accomplished, so that both the obstinate defilement 
of our natural substance, and old and ingrained habits, 
should suddenly and rapidly be put off?" {Epistle to 
Donatus, 3).* 

" But after that life-giving water succoured me, washing 
away the stain of former years, and pouring into my 
cleansed and hallowed breast the light which comes 
from above ; after that I drank in the Heavenly Spirit, 
and was created into a new man by a second birth, 
then marvellously what before was doubtful became 
plain to me ; what was hidden was revealed ; what 
was dark began to shine ; what was before difficult 
seemed easy; what had seemed impossible could be 
achieved ; what was in me of the guilty flesh now 
confessed that it was earthy ; what the Holy Spirit 
quickened in me began to grow unto God." {Epistle 
to Donatiis, 4).t 

* Difficile prorsus ac durum pro illis tunc moribus opinabar, quod 
in salutem mihi divina indulgentia pollicebatur, ut quis renasci 
denu6 posset, utque in novam vitam lavacro aquae salutaris 
animatus, quod prius fuerat, exponeret, et corpora licet manente 
compage, hominem animo ac mente mutaret. Qui possibilis, 
aiebam, est tanta conversio, ut repente ac perniciter exuatur, quod 
vel genuinum situ materise naturalis obduruit, vel usurpatum diu 
senio vetustatis inolevit ? {Epist. ad Donatum, 3.) 

t " Sad postquam undse genitalis auxilio superioris asvi labe 
detersa, in expiatum pectus ac purum desuper lumen infudit ; 
postquam, caelitus spiritu hausto, in novum me hominem 
nativitas secunda reparavit ; mirum in modum protinus confirmare 
se dubia, patere clausa, lucere tenebros.a, facultatem dare quod 



B A.PTISM — PURIFICATION — AUGUSTINE. 9 7 

All, indeed, who proceed to the divine laver by the 
sanctification of baptism, do there put off the old man 
by the grace of the saving laver, and, being renewed 
by the Holy Spirit, are cleansed from the filth of the 
old contagion by a second nativity. {On the Dress of 
Virgins, xxxiii.)* 

Augustine : — " They who are baptized and forthwith 
depart out of this life, come up (from the font) without 
any debt ; without any debt they leave the world." 
{^tith Serin, on Matt, vi.. Lord's Prayer ^-^ 

" See, you are on the point of being baptized ; then 
all your sins will be blotted out, none whatever will 
remain. Whatever evil you have ever done, in deed, 
or word, or desire, or thought, all will be blotted out." 
{Serm. Iviii. 8.)+ 

" By the grace of baptism and the bath of regeneration, 
both the guilt itself wherewith thou wast born has been 
done away, and all thy past acts of consent to evil 
lust, in whatsoever deed, whether of impurity, or violence 
in whatsoever evil thought, in whatsoever evil word, 
all have been effaced in that font, wherein thou didst 



prius difficile videbatur, geri posse quod impossibile putabatur, ut 
asset agnoscere terrenum fuisse quod prius carnaliter natum delictis 
obnoxium viveret, Dei esse coepisse quod jam Spiritus Sanctus 
animaret." (Epist. ad Donat, 4.) 

* Omnes quidem qui ad divinum lavacrum baptismi sanctifica- 
tione perveniunt, hominem illic veterem gratia lavacri salutaris 
exponunt, et innovati Spiritu Sancto a sordibus contagionis 
antiquae iterata nativitate purgantur. {De Hahitu Virginian, 
xxxiii.) 

t " Qui baptizantur et exeunt, sine debito ascendunt, sine debito 
pergunt." {Serm. Ivi. in Mall, vi., De Oral. Dom.) 

\ " Ecce baptizabimini, omnia ibi vestra peccata delebuntur : 
nullum omnino ibi remanebit. Si quid mali aliquando gessistis, 
fecistis, dixistis, concupistis, cogitastis, totum delebitur. {Serm. 
Ivii. 8.) 

H 



98 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

enter a slave, whence thou earnest out free." (152nd 
Sermon?) * 

" Mark — Lo even now in the name of Christ by 
His blood, whom they have now confessed, who are 
called infants (the newlyrbaptized neophytes), have all 
their sins been forgiven. They came in old, they went 
out new. How, came in old, went out new ? Old men 
they came in, infants they went out. For the old life 
is old age with all its dotage, but the new life is the 
infancy of regeneration." {^Treatise \st on John's Epistle^ t 

" Man in holy baptism is washed every whit, not 
excepting the feet, but the whole man altogether." 
{Trad Ivi. 4.)$ 

" You see, then, the whole unhappiness of the Jews 
was, not that they had sin, but that they died in their 
sins. This it is that every Christian ought to fly from ; 
because of this, men run to baptism ; because of this, they 
who are in danger by sickness, or any other cause, desire 
us to come to their succour ; because of this, even the 
sucking babe is by its mother with pious hands borne 
to the church, that it may not depart without baptism, 
and die in the sin wherein it was born. Most unhappy 
the condition, wretched the lot, of those to whom it 



* " Per gratiam baptismatis et lavacri regeneraiionis solutus est at 
ipse reatus, cum quo eras natus, et quidquid antea consensisti 
malae concupiscentiEe, sive quolibet flagitio, sive quolibet facinore, 
sive qualibet mala cogitatione, sive qualibet mala locutione, omnia 
deleta sunt in illo fonte, quo servus intrasti, unde liber existi." 
{Serin, clii.) 

f " Attendite : Ecce jam in nomine Christi per sanguinem ejus, 
quern nunc confessi sunt isti qui appellantur infantes, mundata sunt 
omnia peccata ipsorum. Veteres intraverunt, novi exierunt. Quid 
est, Veteres intraverunt, novi exierunt ? Senes intraverunt, infantes 
exierunt. Senectus enim veternosa, vetusta vita ; infantia autem 
regenerationis, nova vita." {Tract i. in Epist. Joan.) 

X " Homo in sancto baptismo totus abluitur, non praeter pedes, 
sed totus omnino." {Tract Ivi. 4.) 



BAPTISM— PURIFICATION. gg 

was said by the mouth of truth, In your sins ye shall 
die." (TVai^/xxxviii. 6.)* 

"Every man that is not absolved by the water of 
regeneration, is tied and bound by the guilt of the original 
bond. But that which the water of baptism avails for 
us, this either faith alone did of old in behalf of infants, 
or for those of riper years, the virtue of sacrifice, or 
for all that came of the stock of Abraham, the very 
mystery of circumcision. For that every living being is 
conceived in the guilt of our first parent the Prophet 
witnesses, saying : And in sin hath my mother conceived 
me (Psa. li. 5). And that he who is not washed in 
the water of salvation, does not lose the punishment 
of original sin, Truth plainly declares in these words : 
Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit he cannot 
enter into the Kingdom of God," John iii. 5. {Morals on 
Job, book iv.)t 

" Since we derive original sin from our parents, and 
are loosed from it only by the grace of baptism, we 



* " Tota ergo infelicitas Judasorum ipsa erat, non peccatum 
habere, sad in peccatis mori. Hoc est quod debet fugere omnis 
Christianus ; propter hoc ad baptismum curritur ; propter hoc qui 
segritudine vel aliunde periclitantur, sibi desiderant subveniri ; 
propter hoc etiam sugens parvulus a matre piis manibus ad 
ecclesiam fertur, ne sine baptismo exeat, et in peccato quo natus 
est moriatur. Infelicissima conditio, misera sors istorum, qui de 
ore veridico audierunt, "In peccatis vestris moriemini." {Tract 
xxxviii. 6.) 

f Quisquis regenerationis unda non solvitur, reatu primi vinculi 
ligatus tenetur. Quod vero apud nos valet aqua baptismatis, hoc 
egit apud veteres vel pro parvulis sola iides, vel pro majoribus 
virtus sacrificii, vel pro his qui ex Abrahae stirpe prodierant, 
mysterium circumcisionis. Nam quia unusquisque cum primi 
parentis culpa concipitur, Propheta testatur, dicens : " Ecce em'm 
in iniquitaiibus conceptus sum. (Psal. li. 7.) Et quia is qui salutis 
unda non diluit, originaHs culpas suppUcia non amittit, apert^ per 
semetipsam Veritas perhibet, dicens : " Nisi quis renatus fuerit 
ex aqua et Spiritu Sancto, non habebit vilam CBternam." {foan. iii. 5 ; 
Moralium. in fob, lib. iv.) 

H 2 



100 THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

bear with us the sins of our very parents, seeing that 
surely we are still one with them. And so ' He visiteth 
the iniquity of the fathers upon the children,' when, on 
account of the guilt of the parent, the soul of the 
offspring is polluted by original sin. And again He 
does not 'visit the sins of the fathers upon the 
children,' in that we are freed from original sin by 
baptism, we no longer own the sins of our fathers, but 
those which we have ourselves been guilty of." {Morals, 
book iv.) * 

Isidore,! in his work De Offic. Ecclesiast. (c. 24), says 
that " in baptism the stains of sin are washed away 
through the bath of regeneration {ahluunfur per regentra- 
tionis lavacritni) ; " and adds, " Therefore, when we are 
baptized in Christ, we are born again of water {per aquam 
renascimur), that being purified we might live." 

These extracts might be increased a hundredfold. 
This opinion of the absolute necessity of baptism arose 
from a wrong understanding of our Lord's words, " Ex- 
cept a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot 
enter the kingdom of heaven." The Christian Fathers 
seem to have unwittingly revived the notion of opus 



* Peccatum quippe originale a parentibus trahimus, et nisi per 
gratiam baptismatis solvemur, etiam parentum peccata portamus : 
quia unum adhuc videlicet cum illis sumus. Reddit ergo peccata 
parentum in filios, dum pro culpa parentis, ex originali peccato 
anima polluitur prolis, et rursum non reddit parentum peccata in 
filios, quia cum ab originali culpa per baptismum liberamur, jam 
non parentum culpas, sed quas ipsi committimus, habemus. 
{Morali. lib. xv.) 

f Isidore, Bishop of Seville, flourished at the beginning of the 
seventh century. He is among the earliest representatives of the 
church in Spain, and was one of the most distinguished ecclesias- 
tical writers of his time. His works, bearing on theological, 
ascetical, liturgical, historical, and philosophical subjects, are very 
numerous. The Mosarabic Liturgy, which became the text-book of 
Spanish worship, was principally from his hand. 



TERTULLIAN — CYPRIAN. I o I 

operahim which was so rife among the Romans in a state 
of paganism, as would appear from the verses of Ovid : 

Ah nimium faciles, qui tristia crimina caedis 
Tolli fluminea posse piitatis aqua, {Fasl. 2, 45.) 

(Ah, easy fools, to think that a whole flood 
Of water e'er can purge the stain of blood ! ) 

That the water used in baptism was believed to possess 
the magic power of cleansing away every sin and purify- 
ing the soul, is evident from the following statements 
found in the writings of the Fathers. TertuUian says : 
" The waters are made the sacrament of sanctification by 
invocation of God. The Spirit immediately descends 
from heaven ; and, resting upon them, sanctifies them 
by Himself; and they, being so sanctified, imbibe the 
power of sanctifying." (Aquae sacramentum sanctifi- 
cationis consequuntur, invocato Deo. Supervenit enim 
statim Spiritus de coelis, et aquis superest, sanctificans 
eas de semetipso, et ita sanctificatsB, vim sanctificandi 
combibunt. De Bapt. c. iv.) 

Cyprian asserts that the water must first be cleansed 
and sanctified by the priest, that he may, by his baptism, 
wash away the sins of the man who is baptized ; for the 
Lord says by the Prophet Ezekiel : " Then will I sprinkle 
clean water upon you, and ye shall be cleansed from all 
your filthiness, and from all your idols will I cleanse you ; 
a new heai't also will I give you, and a new spirit will 
I put within you." {Epistle Ixx. i.) * 

The whole Council of Carthage, in the time of Cyprian, 
says : " The water, sanctified by the prayer of the priest, 

* Cyprian : Oportet ergo mundari et sanctificari aquam prius a 
sacerdote, ut possit baptismo sue peccata hominis qui baptizatur 
abluere ; quia per Ezechielem prophetam Dominus dicit : " Et 
aspergam super vos aquam mundana, et mundabimini ab omnibus 
immunditiis vestris, et ab omnibus simulacris vestris emundabovos, 
et dabo vobis cor novum, et spiritum novum dabo in vobis." 
{Epist. Ixx. I.) 



102 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

washes away all sins." (Aqua, sacerdotis prece sancti- 
ficata, abluit delicta. Ap. Cyprian, p. 233.) 

Cyril of Alexandria tells us "that the water is trans- 
muted or changed in its nature, by the Holy Ghost, to a 
sort of divine and ineffable power." [Aia t»5? tov JJvev- 
/u,aTO<i ivepyeia^ to aladrjTov vScop tt^o? Belay riva kol dppTjTov 
avacTToix^covTat, Siiva/xiv. In Joan, iii, 5). 

Gregory Nyssen says : " Do not contemn the divine 
laver, nor despise it as a common thing, because of the 
use of water : for great and wonderful things are wrought 
by it." (M^ Karacppov^ar]'; tov Oelov Xovrpov, firjSe m? KOtfov 
dvrb 6^evTeXia7j<i, Bia Trjv ■y^prjaiv tov vSaTof to yap 
evepyovv p-e<ya, Kau air' iiceivov Oav/naaTa yiveTai Ta TeXov- 
fieva. De Bapt. Christi.) 

Pope Leo goes one step further, and tells us, " that 
baptism makes a change not only in the water, but in the 
man that receives it ; for thereby Christ receives him, and 
he receives Christ ,- and he is not the same, after baptism, 
that he was before; but the body of him that is regene- 
rated is made the flesh of Him that was crucified." 
(Susceptus a Christo, Christumque suscipiens, non idem 
post lavacram, qui ante baptismum fuit, sed corpus re- 
generati fit caro crucifixi. Serin, xiv. de Passiona.) 

Optatus affirms that Christ comes down by the invo- 
cation, and joins Himself to the waters of baptism. 
" This is the Fish (meaning Christ), which is brought 
down upon the waters of the font in baptism, by invo- 
cation and prayer. (Hie est Piscis, qui in baptismata 
per invocationem fontalibus undis inseritur. Co7ti. 
Pannen. lib. iii.) 

In the Apostolical Constitutions, we find a form of 
prayer for the consecration of the water. It goes under 
the title of " thanksgiving over the mystical water." 
The priest blesses and praises the Lord God Almighty, 
the Father of the only-begotten God, giving Him thanks. 



THE BLESSING OF THE WATER. 103 

for that He sent His Son to be incarnate for us, that 
He might save us ; that He took upon Him, in His in- 
carnation, to be obedient in all things ; to preach the 
kingdom of heaven, the remission of sins, and the re- 
surrection of the dead. After this, he adores the only- 
begotten God ; and for Him gives thanks to the Father, 
that He took upon Him to die for all men upon the 
cross, leaving the baptism of regeneration as a type 
or symbol of it. He further praises God the Lord of 
all, that, in the name of Christ and by the Holy Spirit 
not rejecting mankind. He showed Hiniself at divers 
times, in divers providences, towards them ; giving 
Adam a habitation in a delicious paradise ; then laying 
upon him a command, in His providence, upon the trans- 
gression of which He expelled him in His justice ; but 
in His goodness, did not wholly cast him off, but disci- 
plined his posterity in divers manners ; for when, in 
the end of the world. He sent His Son to be made man 
for the sake of man, and to take upon Him all the 
affections of men, sin only excepted. After this thanks- 
giving, the priest is to call upon God, and say : " Look 
down from heaven, and sanctify this water ; give it 
grace and power, that he that is baptized therein, ac- 
cording to the command of Christ, may be crucified 
with Him, and die with Him, and be buried with Him, 
and rise again with Him, to that adoption which 
comes by Him ; that, dying unto sin, he may live unto 
righteousness." ("Ort KUTiSe i^ ovpavov, kol ayiaaov to 
iihcop TOVTO' So? Be X'^P'-^ '^^' Suuafiiv, waTe tov ^aTTTO^ofievov, 
Kar'evro\rjv tov XpiaTov aov, avTw> avaTavpa>drivai, koI 
a-vvarroOavelv, Kal avvTa<^rjvai, kol avvavaarrjvaL et? viodealav, 
TTjv iv avTO), tS veKpwOrjvai jJbev tjj af^apTia, ^rjaai Se ttj 
BiKaioavvrj. Lib. vii. c. xliii.) 

This prayer was subsequently developed into the 
following liturgy called the "Benedictio Fontis," which 



I04 



THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 



may be found in a manuscript of the ninth century at 
the library of the Minerva in Rome. The Blessing of the 
Font is represented in the annexed woodcut (Fig. 15), in 
which the bishop, surrounded by his clergy, pronounces a 
special blessing upon the baptismal waters, previous to 
administering the rite. This liturgy forms part of the 
Roman Missal, restored agreeably to the decree of the 
Council of Trent, edited by order of Pius V., and revised 
and ratified by the authority of Clement VIII. and 
Urban VIII. 

The Blessing of the Font (Benedidio Fontis) . 
" The reading of the Prophecies being concluded, the 
priest, going to bless the font, puts on a violet-coloured 




fig. 15. Blessing of the Font. From a MS. in Library of La Minerva, Rome. 

pluvial, and, preceded by the cross, with candelabra, 
and the hallowed taper lighted, descends to the font 
with the clergy, &c., chanting : — 



Omnipotens sempiterne Dens, 
idesto magnae pietatis tus mys- 
teriis; adesto sacrameutis; et ad 
recreandos novos populos, quos 
tibi fons baptismatis parturit, 
spiritum adoptionis emitte ; ut 



PRAYER. 

Almighty and everlasting God, 
be present at the mysteries of 
Thy goodness ; be present at 
Thy sacraments, and send forth 
the spirit of adoption to regene- 
rate the new members whom 



THE BLESSING OF THE WATER. 



105 



quod nostrse humilitatis geren- 
dum est ministerio, virtutis tuae 
impleatur eifectu. Per Christum 
Dominum nostrum. Amen. 



Deus, qui invisibili potentia 
tua, sacramentorum tuorum 
mirabiliter, operaris affectum, et 
licet nos tantis mysteriis exe- 
quandis simus indigni ; tu tamen 
gratise tuae dona non deseris, 
etiam ad nostras preces auras 
tuae pietatis inclina. Daus, 
cujus Spiritus super aquas inter- 
ipsamundi primordia ferebatur ; 
ut jam tunc virtutem sanctifica- 
tionis aquarum natura conciperet . 
Deus, qui nocentis mundi 
crimina per aquas abluens, re- 
generationis speciem in ipsa 
diluvii effusione signasti ; unius 
ejusdemque element! mysterio 
et finis esset vitiis, et origo 
virtutum. 



Respice, Domine, in faciem 
ecclesias tuae, et multiplica in 
regenerationes tuas ; qui gratiae 
tuae effluentis impetu laetificas 
civitatem tuam ; fontemque bap- 
tismatis aperis toto orbe ter- 
rarum gentibus innovandis ; ut 
tuae Majestatis imperio sumat 
Unigeniti tui gratiam de Spiritu 
Sancto. 



Hie sacerdos manu extensa 
dividit aquam in modum crucis, 
et earn statim linteo extergit, 
dicens : — 

Qui hanc aquam regene- 
randis hominibus praeparatara 



the fountain of baptism brings 
forth to Thee; that what the 
ministry of our humility is about 
to perform may be filled with 
the efficacy of Thy might. 
Through Christ our Lord. Amen. 

Then elevating his voice, and 
joining his hands, he proceeds 
as follows : — 

O God, who, by the invisible 
power, marvellously workest the 
effect of Thy sacraments, al- 
though we be unworthy to take 
part in so great mysteries, Thou 
wilt not forsake the gifts of Thy 
grace, but wilt incline Thine 
ears to our prayers. O God, 
whose Spirit moved on the 
waters at the beginning of the 
world, so that the nature of the 
waters might conceive the virtue 
of sanctification. O God, who, 
washing away the crimes of the 
wicked world by water, didst 
signify a kind of regeneration in 
the affusion of the deluge, that 
by the mystery of one and the 
same element an end might be 
put to sin and a beginning to 
virtue. 

Look, O Lord, upon the face 
of Thy Church, and multiply 
therein Thy regenerations, who 
makest joyful Thy city with the 
quick flowings of abundant 
grace ; and dost open the foun- 
tain of baptism for the renewing 
of the nations of the whole 
world ; that at the command of 
Thy Majesty, it may receive 
from the Holy Ghost the grace 
of Thy Only-Begotten. 

Here the priest, stretching 
out his hand, divides the water 
in the shape of the cross, and 
having wiped his hand in a 
towel, proceeds : — 

May He (Holy Ghost) render 
prolific this water prepared for 



io6 



THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 



arcana sui luminis admixtione 
fcecundet; utsanctificatione con- 
cepta, ab immaculato divini 
Foiitis utero in novam renata 
creaturam progenies coelestis 
emergat. . . . Procul ergo hinc, 
jubente te, Domine, omnis 
spiritus immundus abscedat : 
procul tota nequitia diabolicse 
fraudis absistat. Nihil hie loci 
habeat contrariae virtutis admix- 
tio ; non insidiando circum- 
volet ; non latendo subripiat : 
non inficiendo corrumpat. 
Sit hsec — (aquam manu tangit) 
— sancta at innocens creatura, 
libera ab omni impugnatoris 
incursu, et totius nequitiae pur- 
gata discessu. Sit Fons vivus, 
aqua regenerans, unda puri- 
ficans : ut omnes hoc lavacro 
salutifero diluendi, operante in 
eis Spiritu Sancto, perfectas pur- 
gationis indulgentiam conse- 
quantur. Unde — (facit tres 
cruces supra fontem, dicens :) — 
Benedico te, creatura aquae, per 
Deum + vivum, per Deum + 
verum, per Deum + sanctum : 
per Deum, qui te in principio 
verbo separavit ab arida, cujus 
Spiritus super te ferebatur. ( Hie 
manu aquam dividit, et effundit 
earn versus quatuor mundi partes, 
dicens) : — ^Qui te de paradisi 
fonte manare fecit, et in quatuor 
fluminibus totam terram rigare 
praecepit. Qui te in deserto 
amaram, suavitate indita, fecit 
essepotabilem; etsitienti populo 
de petra produxit. Benedico te 
et per Jesum Christum, Filium 
ejus unicum Dominum nostrum. 
Qui te in Ghana Galilae signo 
admirabili suapotentia convertit 
in vinum. Qui pedibus super te 
ambulavit, et k Johanne in Jor- 
dane in te baptizatus est. Qui 
te unam cum sanguine de latere 



the regeneration of men by the 
secret inward admixture there- 
with of His Deity ; that a sanc- 
tifying energy being conceived 
in it, there do emerge from the 
immaculate womb of the divine 
Font a heavenly progeny, born 
again into a new creature. . . . 
Therefore, far hence away, at 
Thy bidding, O Lord, let every 
unclean spirit depart : far hence 
all subtletyand malice of devilish 
deceit keep aloof. No mixture 
of adverse power here have 
place : nor hover round ensnar- 
ing, nor creep in secretly lurk- 
ing, nor mar by infecting. Be 
this — (he touches the water with 
his hand) — creature holy and 
innocent, free from all incursion 
of the assaulter, and purified by 
the departure of all wickedness. 
Be it a quickening Font, a re- 
generating water, a purifying 
flood ; that all who shall be 
washed in this saving laver may 
attain, by the Holy Ghost 
operating on them, the blessing 
of perfect purgation. Where- 
fore — (here he makes three 
crosses over the font) — I bless 
thee, thou creature of water, by 
the living + God ; by the true 
+ God ; by the holy + God ; 
by the God, who in the begin- 
ning by the Word did separate 
thee from the dry land, whose 
Spirit moved over thee. (He 
divides the water, and pours it 
forth towards the four quarters 
of heaven, saying) : — Who made 
thee to flow from the font of 
Paradise, and in four rivers to 
water the whole earth : who im- 
parted sweetness to thy bitter- 
ness in the desert, made thee 
drinkable, and drew thee from 
the rock to satisfy the people, 
I bless thee ; and by Jesus Christ, 



THE BLESSING OF THE WATER. 



107 



suo produxit, et discipulis suis 
jussit; ut credentes baptizarentur 
in te, dicens : Ite, docete omnes 
gentes, baptizantes eos in nomine 
Patris, et Filii, et Spiritus Sancti. 



Hsec nobis prscepta servanti- 
buSjtuDeus omnipotensclemens 
adesto ; tu benignus aspira. Tu 
has simplices aquas tuo ore bene- 
dicito ; ut prseter naturalem 
emundationem, quam lavandis 
possunt adhibere corporibus, 
sint etiam purificandis mentibus 
efficaces. (Hie sacerdos paulu- 
lum demittet cereum in aqua ; 
et dicit) : — Descendat in banc 
plenitudinem fontis virtus Spi- 
ritus Sancti. (Deinde extractum 
cereum de aqua, iterum pro- 
fundius mergit, aliquanto altius 
repetens : Descendat in lianc. 
Postea cereum rursus de aqua 
extractum tertio immergens us- 
que ad fundum, altiori adhuc 
voce repetit, Descendat, ut 
supra. Et deinde sufBans ter 
in aquam secundum banc 
figuram *, prosequitur): — 



Totam hujus aquas substantiam 
regenerandi foecundet efFectu. 
(Hie tollitur cereus de aqua, 
prosequitur): — 



His only Son, our Lord ; who in 
Cana of Galilee, by a wonderful 
sign of His power, turned thee 
into wine ; who walked with His 
feet upon thee, and was baptized 
by John in thee in the Jordan ; 
who produced thee,mingled with 
blood from His side, and com- 
manded His disciples that they 
should baptize in thee those 
that believed, saying : Go, teach 
all nations, baptizing them in 
the name of the Father, and of 
the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. 

These commands being ob- 
served by us, be graciously pre- 
sent. Almighty God. (Breathing 
thrice into the water in the 
form of a cross, he adds) : O 
Lord, breathe Thou graciously 
herein. Bless these simple 
waters with Thy mouth, that, in 
addition to the natural cleansing 
power which they can apply to 
the washing of the bodies, they 
may be efficacious also to the 
purifying of the minds. (Here 
the priest lets down the waxen 
taper a little into the water, 
saying) : May the power of the 
Holy Ghost descend into the 
fulness of the font. (Then, 
extracting the taper from the 
water, he again plunges it 
deeper, saying, in a higher tone : 
The might of the Holy Ghost, 
&c., as before. He does the 
same a third time, plunging it 
to the bottom, and saying the 
same words in a still higher tone. 
Then blowing thrice into the 
water, according to this figure, 
*, he says) : — 

And impregnate the entire 
substance of this water with the 
power of regeneration. (Here 
the taper is taken out of the 
water, and he proceeds, say- 
ing) :— 



io8 



THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 



Hie omnium peccatorum ma- 
culas deleantur : hie natura ad 
imaginem tuam condita, et ad 
honorem sui reformata principii, 
cunctis vetustatis squaloribus 
emundetur : ut omnis homo 
hoc sacramentum regenerationis 
ingressus, in verse innoeentiae 
novam infantiam renaseatur. 
Per Dominum nostrum Jesum 
Christum, Filium tuum, qui ven- 
turus est in Spiritu Sancto 
judicare vivos et mortuos et 
saeculum per ignem. Amen. 

(Deinde perassistentes sacer- 
dotes spargitur de ipsa aqua 
benedicta super populum. Et 
interim unus ex ministris ec- 
clesiae accipit in vase aliquo de 
eadem aqua ad aspergendum in 
domibus et aliis locis. His 
peractis, sacerdos qui benedicit 
fohtem, infundit de oleo cate- 
chumenorumin aquam inmodum 
crucis, intelligibili voce dicens) : 

Sanctificitur et fcecundatur 
fons iste oleo salutis renascenti- 
bus ex eo in vitam seternam. 
Amen. 

(Deinde infundit de chrismate 
modo quo supra, dicens) : — 

Infusio chrismatis Domini 
nostri Jesu Christi, et Spiritus 
Sancti Paraclete, fiat in nomine 
Sanctse Trinitatis. R. Amen. 

(Postea accipit ambas ampul- 
las dicti olei sancti et chrismatis, 
et de utroque simul in modum 
crucis infundendo, dicit): — 

Commixtio chrismatis sancti- 
ficationis, et olei unctionis, et 
aquae baptismatis, pariter fiat, in 
nomine Pa+tris, et Fi+lii, et 
Spiritus + Sancti. R. Amen. 



May the stains of all sins be 
here blotted out. Here may 
human nature, formed after 
Thine image, and refashioned 
to its pristine glory, be cleansed 
from its old and wretched defile- 
ments, so that every man, having 
received this sacrament of re- 
generation, may be born again 
to the new infancy of true inno- 
cence. Through our Lord Jesus 
Christ, Thy Son, who shall come 
to judge the quick and dead, 
and this world by fire. Amen. 

(Then some of the same hal- 
lowed water is sprinkled by the 
assisting priests on the people. 
Meanwhile one of the ministers 
of the church takes in a vessel 
some of the same water for 
sprinkling in dwellings and 
other places. After which, the 
celebrant pours catechumenal 
oil into the water, in the form of a 
cross, saying, in an audible voice): 

Be this font sanctified and 
made prolific by the oil of sal- 
vation to those that are to be 
born of the same unto eternal 
life. R. Amen. 

(Then he pours in some 
chrismal oil, saying) : — 

Be there an infusion herein of 
the chrism of our Lord Jesus 
Christ and of the Holy Ghost, 
in the name of the Holy Trinity. 
R. Amen. 

(Next, he takes both the pots, 
that of the holy oil and that of 
the chrism, and pouring in from 
both at once, in the form of the 
cross, he says): — 

Be there an admixture alike 
together of the chrism of sancti- 
fication, and the oil of unction, 
and the water of baptism. In 
the name of the Fa+ther, and 
of the -\- Son, and of the Holy 
-\- Ghost. R. Amen. 



BAPTISM : HOW DESCRIBED. 109 

(Tunc miscet ipsum oleum (This done, he blends the oil 

cum aqua, et spargit manu sua with the water, and scatters it 
per omnem fontem.) with his hand over every part of 

the font.) 

From its supposed spiritual effects, baptism was styled 
the " laver of regeneration " (\ovTpbv TraXi,yy6vecrla<;, 
Greg. Nazianzen, Orat, xl. De Bapt), " the water of 
life" [vScop ^'coij?, Justin Martyr, Dialog.), "remission of 
sins" (remissionem peccatorum, Cone. Roman, can. vii.), 
"sacrament of grace" (sacramentum gratiae, Augustine. 
De Bapt. lib. v. c. 21), " death of sins" (mors peccatorum, 
in TertuUian, Cyprian, and other writers), " grace " 
{'Xapiafia, Greg. Nazianzen, Orat. xl. De Baptismo), " re- 
generation of the soul " (TraXiyjeveaia '^v')(rj<;, Cyril, Cat. 
Prcefat. n. x.), " token of salvation or sanctification " 
crvyb^oKov cra)T7jpia)Se<; or tov dyiaafiov ; vita, hye ; virtutum 
via, the way to virtue; "Oyjuxa ■n-po<i 0eov, conveyance to God, 
'E<f)6Bi,ov, viaticum ; that is, the necessary provision for 
the journey of life ; ^vXaKT-qpiov ; baptism being re- 
garded as a preservative against the artifices and power 
of evil spirits ; E't'soSo? t?)? ^corj'^ alaviov, entrance upon 
eternal life; "EvSv/na a<^9ap(7la<s, garment of immortality ; 
Ceelestis regni comparatio, attainment of the kingdom of 
heaven; Innocentise portus, gate of innocence" Salus, 
^(nrrjpia, salvation (See several writers). Gregory 
Nazianzen, introducing a person pleading for liberty 
to delay his baptism, makes him speak after this 
manner : " I stay only for my father, or mother, or 
brother, or wife, or children, or friends, or some near 
relations, and then I will be saved " (rrjvtKavTa aaOij- 
a-o/iai, Orat. xl. De Bapt). Constantine is said by 
Eusebius to ask baptism at the hour of death, in these 
words : " Now is the time for me to enjoy the ' seal of 
immortality ' (t'^? adavaroTroioO a-cfipaylSoi;) ; now is the 
time for me to obtain the ' seal of salvation ' (SoTTjpiov 
a-cfypayicr/xaTO'i)," De Vita Const, lib. iv. c. 62. 



no THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

In his work on the History of the Christian Church, 
the celebrated Neander accounts as follows for the in- 
troduction of infant baptism. He says "when now 
• . . . on the other hand, from the want of duly 
distinguishing between what is outward and what is 
inward in baptism— the baptism by water, and the 
baptism by the Spirit — the opinion became more fully 
established, that without external baptism no one could 
be delivered from that inherent guilt (original sin), could 
be saved from the everlasting punishment that threatened 
him, or raised to eternal life ; and when the notion of a 
magical influence, a charm connected with the sacra- 
ments, continually gained ground, the theory was finally 
evolved of the unconditional necessity of infant baptism. 
About the middle of the third century this theory was 
generally admitted in the North African Church . . . 
But while in theory the necessity of infant baptism was 
admitted, still in practice it was very far from being 
generally prevailing." (Vol. i. pp. 313, 314 — Torrey's 
translation.) 

Rheinwald, in the Christian Review (vol. iii. p. 193), 
says : " The first traces of infant baptism are found in 
the Western Church after the middle of the second 
century, and it was the subject of controversy in pro- 
consular Africa towards the end of this century. Though 
its necessity was asserted in Africa and Egypt in the 
beginning of the third century, it was, even to the end 
of the fourth century, by no means universally observed — • 
least of all in the Eastern Church. Notwithstanding the 
recommendation of it by the Fathers, it never became 
a general ecclesiastical institution till the age of 
Augustine." 

Guericke, in his Handbuch der Kirchengeshichte, 
states that " already in the third century the necessity 
of infant baptism was in theory pretty commonly 



ORIGEN ON INFANT BAPTISM. 1 1 I 

acknowledged, but it was not until about the middle of 
the fifth century that the exhortations to its observance, 
given by the most distinguished church teachers, led, 
with the greatest difficulty, to its being carried out in 
practice in the East." 

Origen is the first Father who clearly alludes to 
infant baptism. In his Eighth Homily on Leviticus, 
according to Rufin's Latin version, he says ; " Everyone 
is born in original sin," which he thus proves from the 
words of David : " I was conceived in iniquity, and in 
sin did my mother bear me ; " '■' showing," he adds, " that 
every soul that is born in the flesh, is polluted with the 
filth of sin and iniquity ; and that, therefore, it was said, 
as was mentioned before, that none is clean from pollu- 
tion, though his life be but of the length of one day. 
Besides all this, it may be inquired, what is the reason 
why the baptism of the Church, which is given for 
remission of sins, is, by the custom of the Church, given 
to infants also ? Whereas, if there were nothing in 
infants that wanted remission and indulgence, the grace 
of baptism might seem needless to them." * In another 
place he says : " Infants are baptized for the forgiveness 
of sins. Of what sins .? Or when have they sinned ? 
Or how can any reason of the laver in their case hold 
good, unless, according to that sense, which we have 
just mentioned ? None is free from pollution, though his 

* Origen: "Audi David dicentem: 'In iniquitatibus conceptus 
sum, et in peccatis peperit me mater mea ' ; ostendens quod quae- 
cunque anima in carne nascitur, iniquitatis et peccati sorde 
polluitur ; et propterea dictum esse illud, quod jam superius 
memoravimus ; quia ' Nemo mundus i sorde, nee si unius diei 
fuerit vita ejus.' Addi his etiam illud potest, ut requiratur quid 
causae sit, quum baptisma ecclesiae in remissionem peccatorum 
detur, secundum ecclesiae observantiam etiam parvulis baptismum 
dari ; quum utique si nihil esset in parvulis quod ad remissionem 
et indulgentiam pertinere, gratia baptismi superflua videretur." 
(Hom. viii. In Levit. Rufin's Latin Version.) 



112 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

life be but the length of one day upon the earth. And 
because, through the sacrament of baptism, the pollution 
of nativity is removed, therefore children also are 
baptized. For ' Except one be born of water and the 
Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of heaven.' " * 

In his Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans 
(lib. v. c. 6), according to Rufin's Latin version, Origen 
refers to the law in which "it is commanded that a 
sacrifice be offered for the child that is born, ' a pair of 
turtle-doves or two young pigeons, of which one is for 
a sin-offering, the other for a burnt-offering.' For what 
sin is this one pigeon offered .' Can the newborn child 
have committed any sin ? And yet it has sin, for which 
the sacrifice is commanded to be offered, and from which 
even he, whose life is but of one day, is denied to be 
free. Of this sin, therefore, David is to be supposed to 
have said that which we mentioned before, ' In sin did 
my mother conceive me,' for no sin of his mother is 
affirmed in history. For this also the Church has re- 
ceived a tradition from the Apostles to give baptism 
even to children, for they to whom the secrets of the 
divine mysteries were committed, knew that there is in 
all persons the natural pollution of sin, which must be 
washed away by water and the Spirit ; by reason of 
which even the body itself is called the ' body of sin.' " f 

* Origen : Parvuli baptizantur in remissionem peccatorum. 
Quorum peccatorum ? vel quo tempore peccaverunt .'' Aut quo- 
modo potest ulla lavacri in parvulis ratio subsistere, nisi juxta ilium 
sensum de quo paulo ante diximus : nullus mundus a sorde, nee si 
unius diei quidem fuerit vita ejus super terram ? Et quia per baptismi 
sacramentum nativitatis sordes deponuntur, propterea baptizantur 
et parvuli. Nisi enim quis renatus fuerit ex aqua et spiritu, non 
poterit intrare in regnum ccelorum. (Horn. xiv. In Luc. according to 
Jerome's Latin version.) 

t Denique et in lege pro illo qui natus fuerit, jubetur ofFerri 
hostia, par turturum aut duo pulli columbini ; ex quibus unus pro 
peccato, et alius in holocausto mata. Pro quo peccato ofFertur hie 



ORIGEN. 1 1 3 

These passages do not exist in the language in which 
Origan wrote them, but only in the Latin, into which 
they were translated near the close of the fourth century, 
by the Church Fathers, Jerome and Rufinus. De la Rue, 
the editor of the Benedictine edition of the works of 
Origen, remarks, that we need not wonder if the writings 
of Origen contain indications of a later age, as they were 
translated by " Jerome, whose usual manner in trans- 
lating Greek," he adds, " the learned know, to have been 
to insert occasionally some things of his own." (See the 
Preface to that edition). As regards the translation of 
Rufinus, Dr. Redepenning, Theological Professor in 
Gottingen, says that " his work is intermediate between 
a translation and a treatise — a reproduction adapted to 
the views and wants of the later age in which it was 
prepared." {^Origines : Dar stall, s. Lebens u. s. Lehre, 
vol. ii. p. 190.) The learned Erasmus complains of this 
translation, that the reader is " uncertain whether he 
reads Origen or Rufinus." The licences taken by 
Rufinus were severely attacked by Jerome. In self- 
defence he replied that he had followed the example 
given by Jerome himself: — " To translate word for word," 
he says, "thou hast heretofore pronounced to be stupid 
and malicious. In this I have followed thee. Of this 
dost thou wish me to repent, because thou hast lately 



pullus unus ? Numquid nuper editus parvulus peccare jam potuit } 
Et tamen habet peccatum pro quo hostia jubetur offerri, k quo 
mundus negatur quis esse, et si unius diei fuerit vita ejus. De 
hoc ergo etiam David dixisse credendus est illud quod supri 
memoravimus : quia in peccato concepit me mater mea. Secundum 
historiam enim nullum matris ejus declaratur peccatum. [Pro hoc 
et ecclesia ab apostolis traditionem suscepit, etiam parvulis bap- 
tismum dare. Sciebant enim illi quibus mysteriorum secreta com- 
missa sunt divinorum, quia essent in omnibus genuinae sordes 
peccati, quse per aquam et Spiritum ablui deberent ; propter 
quas etiam corpus ipsum corpus peccati nominatur.] (/« Rom. 
lib. v. c. vi., according to Rufin's Latin version.) 



114 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

changed thine opinion, and sayest that thou translatest 
word for word ? If, respecting the faith, there occur 
things that are unedifying, thou hast omitted them ; and 
yet not so as to cut them away entirely and in all places 
. . . . I, too, have done the same very frequently, 
and have either omitted some expressions, or given them 
such a turn as to present a sense more beneficial. For 
these acts dost thou think that I ought to repent ? I 
do not believe that thou thinkest so." (" Invectives" third 
book, inserted among the works of Jerome, Benedictine 
edition, Paris, 1706, vol. iv. p. 438.) The authenticity of 
the passages from the writings of Origen in support of 
infant baptism, is, as our readers can well see, exceed- 
ingly doubtful, and must remain so, inasmuch as we 
cannot find the Greek original.* 

The next Father who speaks of baptism is Cyprian, 
Bishop of Carthage, in North Africa, about the middle 
of the third century. "As far as lies in us," he says, 
" no soul, if possible, is to be lost. It is not for us to 
hinder any person from baptism and the grace of God ; 
which rule, as it holds to all, so we think it more 
especially to be observed in reference to infants, to whom 

* "If we possessed a collection of Origen's writings, mentioned 
by ecclesiastical authors, we should in all probability derive con- 
siderable knowledge on the subject of the doctrines and discipline 
of the ancient church. But the greater part is lost, and in those 
which remain in the Latin version of Rufinus, so many additions 
and retrenchments have been confessedly made, that it is difficult, 
or rather impossible, to ascertain what portion was composed by 
Origen, and what portion was inserted by his translator. Allusion 
to Latin words, expressions unknown to Ante-Nicene Fathers, 
mention of practices not introduced into the Church at the period 
at which the original work was written — such are the evident 
interpolations which perplex and mislead the investigator. The 
translations of Jerome, also, were disfigured by unwarrantable 
alterations. The version, still extant, of the Commentary on 
Matthew, which, according to Huet, may have been made in the 
time of Cassiodorus, is both barbarous and incorrect ; whole pages 
are added or retrenched." {EncychpcBdia Metropolilana.) 



CYPRIAN. 115 

our help and the Divine mercy is rather to be granted ; 
because by their weeping and wailing at their first 
entrance into the world, they do intimate nothing so 
much as that they implore compassion." 

To the question put by Fidus, an African bishop, 
whether infants were to be baptized immediately after 
their birth or not till the eighth day, as in the case of 
circumcision, Cyprian, and a council of sixty-six bishops, 
returned the following answer : — " As regards infants, 
whereas you judge that they ought not to be baptized 
within two or three days after they are born, and that 
the rule of circumcision should be observed, so that 
none should be baptized and sanctified before the eighth 
day after he is born, we were all in our council of the 
contrary opinion. It was our unanimous resolution and 
judgment, that the mercy and grace of God is to be 
denied to none. For if the greatest offenders, and they 
that have before sinned most grievously against God, 
have afterward, when they believe, forgiveness of sins, 
and no person is kept off from baptism and grace, how 
much less reason is there to prohibit an infant, recently 
born and has no other sin, save that, being descended 
from Adam, according to the flesh, he has, from his 
birth, contracted the contagion of death formerly threat- 
ened. For that reason, he receives more easily the for- 
giveness of sins, inasmuch as they are not his own, but 
the sins of others that are forgiven him."* 



* Cyprian : Quantum ad causam infantium pertinet, quos dixisti 
intra secundum vel tertium diem quo nati sunt, constitutes bap- 
tizari non oportere, et considerandam esse legem circumcisionis 
antiquee, ut intra octavum diem eum qui natus est baptizandum et 
sanctificandum non putares ; longe aliud in concilio nostro 
omnibus visum est. In hoc enim, quod tu putabas esse faciendum 
nemo consensit ; sad universi potius judicavimus nulli hominum 
nato misericordiam et gratiam Dei denegandam. Porr6 autem si 
etiam gravissimis delictoribus et in Deum multum ante peccantibus, 

12 



n6 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

In another place, Cyprian, describing the wickedness 
of those that lapsed in "time of persecution, represents 
children pleading against their parents at the day of 
judgment, and saying : — " This was no fault of ours ; we 
did not, of our own accord, forsake the meat and cup of 
the Lord, to run and partake of those profane pollu- 
tions; it was the unfaithfulness of others that ruined 
us ; we had our parents for our murderers ; they denied 
us God for our father, and the Church for our mother ; 
for, whilst we were little, and unable to take care of 
ourselves, and ignorant of so great a wickedness, we 
were ensnared by the treachery of others, and by them 
drawn into a partnership of their iniquities."* It is 
evident from these words, that children were made par- 
takers of the Lord's Supper. 

The celebrated Doddridge remarks that "Cyprian is 
allowed by all to speak expressly of infant baptism as 
generally used in the church ; but," he adds, " it is 
justly answered, that he speaks as expressly of infant 
communion in the Eucharist, and that, consequently, the 
divine original of the latter may as well be argued from 
him as that of the former, yet almost all Paedobaptists 
allow that to be an innovation." {^iscell. Works, p. 494.) 

Gregory of Nazianzen, in his Fortieth Oration on Bap- 



quum postea crediderint, remissa peccatorum datur, et k baptismo 
atque k gratia nemo prohibetur ; quanto magis prohiberi non 
debet infans, qui recens natus nihil peccavit, nisi quod secundum 
Adam carnaliter natus, contagium mortis antiquae prima nativitate 
contraxit } Qui ad remissam peccatorum accipiendum hoc ipso 
facilius accedit, quod illi remittuntur non propria, sed aliena 
peccata. {Episi.lix. ad Fidum.) 

* Cyprian : Nos nihil fecimus, nee derelicto cibo et poculo 
Domini ad profana contagia sponte properavimus ; perdidit nos 
aliena perfidia, parentis sensimus parricidas. Illi nobis ecclesiam 
matrem, illi patrem Deum negaverunt ; ut dum parvi et improvidi, 
et tanti facinoris ignari, per alios ad consortium criminum jungimur, 
aliena fraude caperemur. (Z?« Lapsis.) 



AMBROSE. ( 1 1 7 

tism, advises the baptism of infants, in case of danger. 
He says, " But, some ask, what is your opinion of infants 
who are not capable of judging either of the grace of 
baptism, or of the damage sustained by the want of it ; 
shall we baptize them, too ? By all means if there be 
any apparent danger. For it were better they were 
sanctified without their knowing it, than that they should 
die without being sealed and initiated." Udyv ye enrip rt? 
eireir/oi kivSvvo<;' Kpelcraov yap dvai,cr6ijTa}<; ayiacrOrjvai, r) 
aireXdelv acrcppdyiara Kal aTeXecrTa' (Orat. xl. De Bapt?) 
Gregory then goes on to say that his opinion is that 
where there is no danger, the baptism of children may 
be deferred till they are three years of age or thereabout, 
when they can hear and answer questions and receive 
impressions. As we have already stated, this Father 
did not receive baptism till he came to years of discre- 
tion, and yet at the time of his birth his father was a 
minister of the gospel. This fact proves that infant 
baptism had not as yet entered into general practice 
in the Eastern Church. 

Ambrosius, Bishop of Milan, asserts that " no person 
comes to the kingdom of heaven but by the sacrament 

of baptism There is no exception even of an 

infant or of a person prevented by necessity. (Nemo 
ascendit in regnum ccelorum, nisi per sacramentum baptis- 
matis .... Utique nullum excipit, non infantem, non 
aliqua pra&ventum necessitate. {De Ahrah. lib. ii. c. ii.) 

He also speaks of great numbers of infants coming at 
Easter to be baptized. " This," says he, " is the paschal 
gift : pious fathers and holy mothers bring their new- 
born progeny in great multitudes, by faith, to the holy 
font,__from wh^se womb, being regenerated under the tree 
of faith, they shine with the innocent ornament of lights 
and tapers." (Hoc paschae donum : Hinc casti patres, 
pudicae etiam matres, novellam per fidera stirpem prose- 



Ii8 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

quuntur innumeram. Hinc sub fidei arbore ab utero fontis 
innocuus cereorum splendet ornatus. De Mysterio Pascha.) 
The practice of infant-baptism, which had sprung up in 
North Africa, gradually extended itself, through the 
powerful influence of Augustine, who was its chief 
defender and promoter. His main argument was that 
baptism removed the defilement of original sin. Like 
Cyprian, he advocated also the administration of the 
Lord's Supper to infants. In his work on the remission 
of sins and the baptism of children, he says : — " Most 
excellently the Carthaginian Christians call baptism 
itself nothing else than salvation, and the sacrament of 
the body of Christ nothing else than life. Whence is 
this, unless from ancient, as I think, and apostolical 
tradition, by which the Churches of Christ hold, as a 
fixed fact, that without baptism and participation of the 
Lord's table, no one of mankind can come either to the 
kingdom of God or to salvation and eternal life ? " * In one 
of his epistles he expresses himself as follows : — " No one 
who remembers that he is a Christian of the Catholic faith 
denies, or doubts, that children unbaptized {i.e., not having 
received the grace of regeneration in Christ) and not having 
partaken of the Lord's body and blood, have not life in 
themselves, and thus are exposed to eternal punishment." f 
Augustine also makes mention of " children, infants, 
little ones, sucklings, hanging on their mothers' breasts," 

* Augustine: Optime Punici Christiani baptismum ipsum nihil 
aliud quam salutem, et sacramentum corporis Christi, nihil aliud 
quam vitam vocant. Unde, nisi ex antiqua, ut existimo, et apos- 
tolica traditione, qua Ecclesiae Christi insitum tenant, prseter 
baptismum et participationem mensae Dominicae, non solum ad 
regnum Dei, sed nee ad salutem et vitam seternam posse quemquam 
hominum pervenire .'' {De Peccator, lib. i. cap. xxiv. 34.) 

f Nullus qui se meminit Catholicae fidei Christianum negat aut 
dulsitat parvulos non recepta gratia regenerationis in Christo, sine 
cibo carnis ejus et sanguinis potu, non habere in se vitam, ac per 
hoc pcense sempiterns obnoxios. {Epist. 106 ) 



AUGUSTINE, 119 

coming at Easter to be baptized among adult persons ; 
whence Palm Sunday was called on their account 
" OdavcB tnfantmm," the octave of infants. (Hodie 
octavae dicuntur infantium .... Illi pueri, in- 
fantes, parvuli, lactantes, maternis uberibus inhaerentes, 
at quantum in eos gratiee conferatur nescientes, ut ipse 
videtis, quia infantes vocantur, et ipsi habent octavas 
hodie : et isti senes, juvenes, adolescentuli, omnes 
infantes. Serm. clx. De Tempore^ 

With respect to the character of Augustine, the Church 
historian, Mosheim, observes, that his fame filled the 
whole Christian world, and " not without reason, as a 
variety of great and striking qualities were united in the 
character of that illustrious man. A sublime genius, an 
uninterrupted and zealous pursuit of truth, an indi- 
fatigable application, an invincible patience, a sincere 
piety, and a subtle and lively wit, conspired to establish 
his fame upon the most lasting foundations. It is, how- 
ever, certain, that the accuracy and solidity of his judg- 
ment were by no means proportionable to the eminent 
talents now mentioned ; and that, upon many occasions, 
he was more guided by the violent impulse of a warm 
imagination, than by the cool dictates of reason and 
prudence. Hence that ambiguity which appears in his 
writings, and which has sometimes rendered the most 
attentive readers uncertain with respect to his real 
sentiments ; and hence, also, the just complaints which 
many have made of the contradictions that are so 
frequent in his works ; and of the levity and precipitation 
with which he set himself to write upon a variety of 
subjects, before he had examined them with a sufficient 
degree of attention and diligence." [Hist. Christian Ch.) 

The second Council of Milevi, in Africa, held A.D. 416, 
and presided over by Augustine, passed a decree in the 
following terms : — " It is the pleasure of the bishops to 



I20 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

order that, whosoever denies that newly-born infants are 
to be baptized, or affirms that they are indeed baptized 
for the remission of sins, but that they derive no original 
sin from Adam .... let him be accursed." 

" Padohaptism, in the most ancient sense of the word, the 
baptism of children capable of professing their faith in Christ, 
passed gradually, and in different countries more or less 
rapidly, though with comparative silence, into infant-baptism 
in the more 77iodern sense, the baptism of newborn babes. For 
the most part, historical light in regard to the primitive 
churches shone but dimly. It is not strange, if even the 
acute and powerful Augustine sometimes has his vision 
obscured in the heat and dust of controversy. We are 
not at all surprised at the manner in which he, in the fifth 
century, used the word parvulus, while, with consummate 
skill and energy, he confirmed and made triumphant, in 
Africa and elsewhere, that system of infant baptism 
which, according to the most reliable evidence, began to 
be authoritatively established in that country by the 
ardent and popular Cyprian, about the middle of the third 
century." [hifant Baptism, by Rev. Dr. Chase.) 

The administration of baptism to infants was subse- 
quently rendered compulsory by an edict of the Emperor 
Justinian, who reigned from A.D. 527 to A.D. 565. He 
enacted "that such pagans as were yet unbaptized, 
should present themselves, with their wives and children, 
and all that appertained to them, in the Church ; and 
there they should cause their little ones immediately to be 
baptized, and the rest, as soon as they were taught the 
Scriptures, according to the canons. But if any persons, 
for the sake of a public office, or dignity, or to get an 
estate, received a fallacious baptism themselves, but, in 
the meantime, left their wives, or children, or servants, 
or any that were retainers, or near relations to them, in 
their ancient error, their goods, in jbhat case, are ordered 



THE CATACOMBS : CHILDREN. I 2 I 

to be confiscated and their persons punished by a com- 
petent judge, and excluded from bearing any office in the 
commonwealth." 

Photius repeats this law in his Nomocanon, and adds 
to it another of the same nature, concerning the Samari- 
tans : — "That though they themselves were not to be 
baptized till they had been two years catechumens, yet 
their little ones, who were not capable of instruction, 
might be admitted to baptism without any such delay or 
prorogation." [Bingham' s Church Antiq. bk. xi. c. iv. s. 19.) 

In the valuable French work by M. Louis Perret, on 
the Catacombs of Rome, we find ninety epitaphs or 
inscriptions respecting children. Only nine of these 
make any reference to baptism. The earliest allusion to 
the baptism of a child is A.D. 348, the child being, at the 
age of five years, eight months, and eleven days, newly 
ba,ptized : — t 

MIRE'INDVSTRIAEADQVE 

BONlTATlSCERT'lNNOCEWriA 
PREDITVS FLAVR'LEONI 
mFITO*QVRlX(?ANN-V 
MllhDlES-Xh REQVEV 
VINONtA/LFILIPPO'ET'SALLlA 

coNss-LEOP - mw- 

Fig. 16. Inscription in the Catacomb or Peiscilla. 



122 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

Mire industriae adque bonitatis cert(a) innoeentia 
preditus, Fl(avio) Aur(elio) Leoni, neofito, qui vixit 
ann(os) V., m(enses) VIIL, dies XI. Requev(it) VI., non(as) 
jul(ias) Filippo et Sallia cons(ulibus) Leo piissim(us).* 

The next earliest is found in the following inscription, 
which dates from the year 371 : — 

ROMANO, NEOFITO BENE MERENTI, QUI VIXIT ANNOS 
VIII., D(IES) XV. REQUIESCIT IN PACE D(OMINI) N(OSTRI). 
FL(AVIO) GRATIANO AU(GUSTO) II. ET PETRONIO PROBO 
C(ON)S(ULIBUS). 

" To Romanus, a well-deserving Neophyte, who lived 
eight years and fifteen days. He reposes in the peace 
of our Lord. Flavins Gratian Augustus II. and Petro- 
nius Probus being consuls." 

The next after this dates from the year 374. It is as 
follows : — 

BENE MERENTI IN PACE LIBERA(e) QUE (v)lXIT AN(NIS) 
VIII., NEOFITA DEP(OSITA EST) DIES III. NONAS t MAIAS, 
CONS(ULIBUS) GRATIANO III. ET EQUITIO. 

" To the well-deserving in peace, Liberia, who lived 
eight years, a neophyte, buried on the third day of the 
nones of May, Gratian III. and Equitius being consuls." 

In the cemetery of Agnes we find the following inscrip- 
tions : — 

IJtcrTO? eK TTicrTOiv Zci>aifio<; ivddBe xelfie, ^rjaaa- ereaiv /3', 
fM7)(vl) a, rjjjieipali) kL 

" Believer descended from believers, I Zosimus lie here, 
having lived two years, one month, and twenty-five days. 

furia(e sep)timiae inn(o)centi neofite, quae 
vixit annis duobus, menses v, diebus xxv, deposita 



* The letters placed between the brackets are wanting in the 
original inscriptions. 

t Nones, in the Roman calendar, the fifth days of the months 
January, February, April, June, August, September, November, and 
December ; and the seventh of March, May, July, and October. 



THE CATACOMBS: CHILDREN. 123 

(est) V IDU(S) jan(uarias). FURIUS CALLISTRATUS ET 

aur(elia) justa filiae dulcissime. 

" To Furia Septimia, innocent neophyte, who lived two 
years, five months, and twenty-five days. She was 
buried on the fifth ide* of January. Furius Callistratus 
and Aurelia Justa to their lovely daughter." 

These two inscriptions bear no indication of the time 
at which they were made. It is known, however, that 
no inscription has been found in this catacomb of an 
earlier date than the end of the second century ; indeed, 
the greater part of it may be referred to the third and 
fourth. 

In the Catacomb of Calepodus, beyond the gate of 
St. Pancrazio, we find the following inscriptions, the age 
of which is unknown : — 

IN hag (a)terna domo resqxji(escit flo)rentina 

INNOCES NE(OFITA) Q(AE VIX(IT) ANNO UNO, M(ENSIBXJS) X., 
DEP(0SITA est) KAL(ENDAS)t AUG(USTAS) IN PACE. 

" In this eternal home rests Florentine, blameless 
neophyte, who lived one year and ten months. She 
was deposited here on the kalends of August, in peace," 

FLORENTIUS FILIO SUO APRONIANO FECIT TITULUM 
BENE MERENTI, Q(UI) VIXIT ANNUM ET MENSES NOVE(m), 
DIES QUINQUE. CUM SOLDU AMATUS FUISSET A MAJORA 
SUA, ET VIDIT HUNC MORTI CONSTITUTUM ESSE, PETIVIT 
DE ECCLESIA UT FIDELIS DE SECULO RECESSISSET. 

"Florentius has made an inscription to his well-de- 
serving son Aspronianus, who lived a year, nine months, 
and five days. As he was much loved by his grand- 
mother, and she saw that he was about to die, she 
requested of the church that he might depart from the 
world a believer." 

* The ides were the days near the middle of the months, 
f The kalends were the first days of the different months. 



124 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

These inscriptions reveal the fact that the doctrine of 
the saving efficacy of baptism had already penetrated 
into the church. When we take into account that the 
Catacombs of Rome served as places of refuge and 
of Mrorship to the earliest followers of our faith during 
the persecutions they had to suffer under the prede- 
cessors of Constantine, and of repose after death to 
thousands of Christians down to the sixth century; 
when we remember, moreover, that the catacombs were 
repeatedly repaired and embellished by order of the 
reigning popes,* we are not surprised that they should 
contain paintings and inscriptions that are a faithful 
reproduction of the errors which have crept gradually 
into the church. Thus we find the first indications of 
the intercession of saints in the following inscriptions 
discovered in the Catacomb of Priscilla and that of 
Domitilla : — *' 

ANATOLIUS FILIO BENEMERENTI FECIT, QUI VIXIT ANNIS 
VII, MENSIS VII, DIEBUS XX. SPIRITUS TUUS BENE 
REQUIESCAT IN DEO; BETAS PRO SORORE TUA. 

" Anatolius made (this inscription) to his well-deserving 
son, who lived seven years, seven months, and twenty 
days. May thy spirit rest well in God ; pray for thy 
sister." 

K.aT{a6eai<;) Tr) irpo ty KaX(avSS>v) lovv{J,wv). Avyevhe, 
^■i]aat,<; iv K{vpl)(o Kal ipdara inrep rjixSiV. 

" Burial on the thirteenth kalends of June. Augende, 
live in the Lord, and pray for us." 

To return to our subject, we will remark that while 



* Paintings were made in the Catacomb of Priscilla by order of 
Pope Celestine, who reigned in a.d. 422. This catacomb, that of 
Nerea and Achillea, and others, were restored by John I., who was 
pope in A.D. 523. It is said of John III. (a.d. 560), that "amavit 
et restauravit ccemeteria sanctorum martyrum." The same may 
be said of Paul I. (a.d. 757) and Leo III. (a.d. 795). 



THE CATACOMBS: CHILDREN. 125 

some of the epitaphs in the catacombs clearly allude to 
the fact that baptism had been in a few exceptional 
instances administered to infants in articulo mortis, 
hundreds of inscriptions which relate to children make no 
reference whatever to baptism. Examples of these 
epitaphs may be found in the following : — 

CYRICUS ANIMA DULCIS, IN PAC(e), VIXIT ANNUM I, 
d(ies) LXXIII. 

" Cyricus, lovely spirit, in peace, lived one year and 
seventy-three days." 

INNOCENTISSIMO PAULO, QUI VIX(it) M(ENSES) X., 

d(ies) xiii deposit(us est) prid(ie) non(as) 

DECE(MBRES) in PACE, CONSTANTIO III ET CONSTATE II 
CONSCULIBUS). 

" To the most pure Paul, who lived ten months, 
thirteen days. He was buried on the day before the 
nones of December, in peace, Constantius and Constans 
being consuls." That is, in 342 A.D. 

QUIRIACE, QU^ VIXIT ANNOS N(UMERO) QUATOR. 

" To Quiriace, who lived four years." 

HIC POSITA EST ANIMA DULCIS, INNOCUA, SAPIENS ET 
PULCHRA, NOMINE QUIRIACE, QUE VIXIT ANNOS III, 

m(enses) III, d(ies) VIII. d(e)p(osita est) in pace IIII 
id(us) jan(uarias), cons(ulibus) d(omino) n(ostro) 

TEUDOSIO AUG(UST0) II ET MEROBAUDE V(lRO) C(LA- 
RISSIMO) III. 

" Here was deposited a lovely spirit, blameless, wise, 
and fair, Quiriace by name, who lived three years, three 
months, and eight days. She was buried in peace on 
the fourth ide of January, Theodosius Augustus and 
Merobaud, a celebrated man, being consuls." (A.D. 388.) 

ASELLU, BENE MERENTI, QUI Vl(XIT ANNU(s) SEX, 
MENSIS OCTO, DIES XXVIII. 

"Asellu, well- deserving, who lived six years, eight 
months, and twenty-eight days." 



126 



THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 



These inscriptions, which might be' indefinitely multi- 
plied, do not contain the slightest allusion to baptism. 




£=G==3 



Mg. 17. Baptism op Catechumeks and Infants. From a MS. of ninth 

century. 

The children are styled "innocent, well-deserving, 
lovely," and a,ll that a parent's fondness would naturally 



BAPTISM OF INFANTS. 127 

imagine, but nothing more. The infants and children 
rest " in peace." 

The earliest pictorial representation of the baptism of 
infants we have found, is in a manuscript of the ninth 
century in the Library of La Minerva at Rome. It is 
entitled " Benedictio Fontis " and has already been 
alluded to. Below the ceremony of baptism, which is 
reproduced in the annexed engraving (Fig. 17), is an 
inscription as follows ; — " Ite, docete omnes gentes, bapti- 
zantes eos in nomine Patris, et Filii, et Spiritus Sancti." 
(Go, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of 
th e Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.) This 
manuscript contains fourteen miniatures, on eight sheets 
of parchment, descriptive of the various ceremonies per- 
formed in connection with the rite of baptism. It is one 
of the oldest illustrated rituals of baptism in existence, 
and prescribes immersion in the following terms : — Et 
baptizat sub trina mersione, ita dicendo : Ego te baptizp 
in nomine Patris, et mergit semel, et Filii, et mergit 
iterum, et Spiritus Sancti, et mergit terti6. "And he 
baptizes with trine immersion, saying: I baptize thee 
in the name of the Father, and dips once; and of the Son, 
and dips again ; and of the Holy Ghost, and dips a third 
time. 

"We now give a synopsis of the Baptismal Liturgy, 
which formed part of the Sacramentary of Pope Gelasius 
(a.d. 492). It was taken from a Codex manuscript, more 
than a thousand years old, by Cardinal Thomasius in 1748. 

On the fifth Sunday in Lent the priest offers the follow- 
ing prayer : — 

Concede, Domine, electis Grant, O Lord, unto our 
nostris, ut sacris edocti mys- Elects,* that, having learned 
teriis, et renoventur fonte bap- Thy sacred mysteries, they may 



* Elects, or chosen — candidates for baptism. Tliey were signed with tlie sign of tlie cross, 
and were received witli prayer and imposition of hands. 



128 



THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 



tismatis, et inter ecclesiae tuse 
membra numerentur. Per Chris- 
tum Dominum nostrum. 



be regenerated in the font of 
baptism, and numbered among 
the members of Thy Church. 
Through Christ, our Lord. 



Praeces nostras, qusesumus, 
Domine, clementer exaudi ; et 
hos electostuos crucis dominicK, 
cujus impressione signamus, vir- 
tute custodi ; ut magnitudinis 
glorise rudimenta servantes, per 
custodiam mandatorum tuorum 
ad regenerationis pervenire glo- 
riam mereantur. Per .... 



Benedictio Salis. 

Exorcizo te, creatura salis, in 
nomine Dei Patris omnipotentis, 
et in charitate Domini nostri 
Jesu Christi, et in virtute Spiritus 
Sancti. Exorcizo te per Deum 
vivum et per Deum verum, qui 
te ad tutelam humani generis 
procreavit, et populo venienti ad 
credulitatem, per servos suos 
consecrare prscepit. Proinde 
rogamus te, Domine Deus noster, 
ut hsec creatura salis in nomine 
Trinitatis efficiatur salutare 
sacramentum ad effugiendum 
inimicum : quam tu, Domine, 
sanctificando sanctifices, bene- 
cendo benedicas, ut iiat omnibus 
accipientibus perfecta medicina 
permanens in visceribus eorum. 
In nomine Domini nostri Jesu 
Christi, qui venturus est judicare 
vivos et mortuos et saeculum per 
ignem. 



Et post hanc orationem, 
pones sal in ore infantis, et 
dices: Accipe sal sapientiae pro- 
pitiatus in vitam aeternam. 



Mercifully hear our prayers, 
O Lord, we beseech Thee, and 
keep with Thy might these Thy 
Elects, whom we seal with the 
impression of the Lord's cross ; 
that, retaining the rudiments of 
the greatness of Thy glory, they 
may merit through the keeping 
of Thy commandments to come 
to the glory of regeneration. 
Through . . . 



Blessing of the Salt. 

I exorcize thee, thou creature 
of salt, in the name of the Al- 
mighty God the Father, and in 
the charity of Jesus Christ our 
Lord, and in the might of the 
Holy Ghost. I exorcize thee, 
by the living God, and by the 
true God, who created thee for 
the protection of mankind, and 
commanded thee to be conse- 
crated by his servants for the 
people coming to faith. Where- 
fore, we pray Thee, O Lord our 
God, that this creature of salt 
be made a saving sacrament, in 
the name of the Trinity, for 
putting to flight the enemy ; that 
Thou, O Lord, by sanctifying 
Thou sanctify, and by blessing 
Thou bless, that it become to 
all receiving it a perfect medi- 
cine, abiding in their inward 
parts. In the name of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, who will come to 
judge the quick and the dead, 
and the world by fire. 

After this prayer, put some 
salt into the mouth of the infant, 
and say : Receive thou the salt 
of wisdom, being propitiated 
unto life everlasting. 



BAPTISMAL LITURGY. 



129 



Benedictio. 
Post datum salem. 
Deus patrum nostrorum, Deus 
universae conditor veritatis, te 
supplices exoramus : ut hunc 
famulum tuum respicere digneris 
propitius : ut hoc primum 
pabulum salis gustantem, non 
diutiiis esurire permittas, quo 
miniis cibo expleatur ccelesti ; 
quatenus sit semper, Domine, 
spiritu fervens, spe gaudens, tuo 
semper nomini serviens : per- 
ducat eum ad novae regenera- 
tionis lavacrum, ut cum fidelibus 
tuis promissionum tuarum 
aeterna praemia consequi 
mereatur. Per Dominum. 

Exorcismi super Electos, 
Quos acolythi, imposita manu 
super eos, dicere debent. 

Deus Abraham, Deus Isaac, 
Deus Jacob, Deus, qui Moysi 
famulo tuo in Monte Sinai 
apparuisti, et filios Israel de 
terra ^gypti eduxisti, deputans 
eis angelum pietatis tuae, qui 
custodiret eos die ac nocte ; 
Te, quaesumus, Domine, ut 
mittere digneris sanctum an- 
gelum tuum : ut similiter cus- 
todiat et hos famulos tuos, et 
perducat eos ad gratiam bap- 
tismi tui. 

Ergo, maledicte Diabole, 
recognosce sententiam tuam : 
et da honorem Deo vivo et 
vero : et da honorem Jesu 
Christo filio ejus, et Spiritui 
Sancto : et recede ab his famulis 
Dei. Quia istos sibi Deus et 
Dominus noster Jesus Christus 
ad suam sanctam gratiam et 
benedictionem fontemque bap- 
tismatis donum vocare dignatus 
est. Per hoc signum sanctae 



Then follows this prayer : 
God of our Fathers, God the 
author of universal truth, we 
humbly beseech Thee that Thou 
wouldst graciously condescend 
to regard this Thy servant, and 
having tasted for the first time 
this nourishment of salt, permit 
him to hunger no more, but that, 
being filled with heavenly food, 
he may always be fervent in 
spirit, rejoicing in hope, and 
serve Thy name. May he be 
brought to the laver of the new 
regeneration, that he may desire 
to obtain the eternal reward of 
Thy promises with Thy faithful 
people. Through Christ. 

Exorcisms upon the Elect, 
Which the acolyths, with the 
hand placed upon them, 
should say. 

God of Abraham, God of 
Isaac, God of Jacob, God, who 
revealed Thyself to Moses Thy 
servant on Mount Sinai, and led 
the Children of Israel out of 
the land of Egypt, sending unto 
them the angel of Thy mercy, 
to keep them by day and by 
night : we beseech Thee, O 
Lord, condescend to send Thy 
holy angel, that he may in a 
similar way guard Thy servants, 
and lead them to the grace of 
baptism. 

Therefore, thou accursed 
devil, acknowledge thy sentence, 
and give honour to the living 
and true God, give honour to 
Jesus Christ His Son, and to the 
Holy Ghost ; and withdraw from 
these servants of God, seeing 
that God and Jesus Christ our 
Lord hath vouchsafed to call 
the same to His own grace and 
benediction, and the font of 
baptism. And never, thou ac- 

K 



I30 



THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 



crucis frontibus eorum quod nos 
damus, tu maledicte Diabole, 
nunquim audeas violare. 
Item super fceminas. 



Exorcizo te, immunde Spiritus, 
in nomine Patris, et Filii, et 
Spiritus Sancti ; ut exeas et 
recedes ab his famulis Dei. 
Ipse enim tibi imperat, maledicte 
damnate, qui pedibus super mare 
ambulavit, et Petro mergenti 
dexteram porrexit. Erg6, male- 
dicte, .... iut supra). 



Oratio, quam sacerdos dicere 

debet, 
^ternam, ac justissimam 
pietatem tuam deprecor, Domine 
sancte Pater, omnipotens seterne 
Deus luminis et veritatis, super 
hos famulos et famulas tuas : 
ut digneris eos inluminare 
lumine intelligentiae tuse, munda 
eos et sanctifica. Da eis scien- 
tiam veram ; ut digni efficiantur 
accedere ad gratiam baptismi 
tui ; teneant firmam spem, con- 
silium rectum, doctrinam sanc- 
tam ; ut apti sint ad percipiendam 
gratiam tuam. Per. 



Incipit expositio Evangeliorum 
in aurium apertionem ad electos. 



cursed devil, dare to violate this 
sign of the holy cross, which we 
give to their foreheads. 

The same for the women. 

Then follow another prayer 
and a second exorcism. 

I exorcize thee, thou unclean 
spirit, in the name of the Father, 
and of the Son, and of the Holy 
Ghost, that thou come out of 
and withdraw from these ser- 
vants of God. For He who 
commands thee, cursed and 
damned, is He who walketh 
upon the sea, and stretched 
forth His hand to Peter sinking. 
Therefore, thou accursed . . . 
. . . {as ab 



Credo in unum Deum, Patrem 
omnipotentem, factorem coeli 
et terrae, visibilium omnium 
et invisibilium. Et in unum 
Dominum Jesum Christum, 
Filium Dei unigenitum, de Patre 
natum ante omnia ssecula ; 



Prayer by the Priest. 

Lord, our Holy Father, 
omnipotent and eternal God of 
light and truth, I implore Thine 
everlasting and righteous mercy 
upon these Thy servants (^male 
and female) ; that Thou wouldst 
condescend to enlighten them 
with the light of Thy know- 
ledge ; purify and sanctify them. 
Give unto them the true know- 
ledge, that they may be made 
worthy to come to the grace of 
Thy baptism. May they hold a 
firm hope, a right counsel, the 
holy doctrine, that they may be 
prepared to receive Thy grace. 
Through. 

Then follow an exposition of 
the Gospels, an explanation of 
the Lord's Prayer, and the re- 
citation of the following Creed : 

1 believe in one God, the 
Father Almighty, Maker of 
heaven and earth, of all things, 
visible and invisible ; and in 
one Lord Jesus Christ, the only- 
begotten Son of God, begotten 
of the Father before all ages ; 



BAPTISMAL LITURGY. 



131 



lumen de lumine, Deum verum 
de Deo vero ; natum, non 
factum : consubstantialem Patri : 
per quem omnia facta sunt : qui 
per nos homines, et propter 
nostram salutem descendentem 
de coelis ; et incarnatum de 
Spiritu Sancto, et Maria Virgine, 
et humanatum: crucifixum etiam 
pro nobis sub Pontio Pilato, et 
passum, et sepultum, et resur- 
gentem tertia die, secundiim 
scripturas ; et ascendentem in 
coelos, et sedentem ad dexteram 
Patris ; et iterum venturum cum 
gloria judicare vivos et mortuos : 
cujus regni non erit finis. Et 
in Spiritum Sanctum Dominum, 
et vivificatorem ; ex Patre pro- 
cedentem : qui cum Patre et 
Filio simul adoratum, et con- 
glorificatum, qui locatus est per 
Prophetas. In unam sanctam, 
Catholicam, et Apostolicam 
Ecclesiam. Confiteor unum 
baptisma in remissionem pecca- 
torum. Spero resurrectionem 
mortuorum, et vitam futuri 
saeculi. Amen. 



Sabbatorum die mane red- 
dunt infantes symbolum. Prius 
catechizas eos, imposita super 
capita eorum manu. 

Ind^ tanges ei nares et aures 
de sputo, et dices ei ad aurem : 
Ephata (quod est, Adaperire), 
in odorem suavitatis. Tu autem 
efFugare, Diabole, ad propin- 
quavit enim judicium Dei. 

Posted ver6 tanges ei pectus, 
et inter scapulas de oleo exor- 



Light of Light, very God of 
very God ; begotten, not made ; 
of one substance with the 
Father, by whom all things were 
made ; who, for us men and our 
salvation, came down from 
heaven, and was incarnate of 
the Holy Ghost and the Virgin 
Mary, and was made man, and 
was crucified for us under 
Pontius Pilate, and suffered, and 
was buried ; and the third day 
He rose again, according to the 
Scriptures, and ascended into 
heaven, and sitteth on the right 
hand of the Father, and shall 
come again, with glory, to judge 
the living and the dead ; of 
whose kingdom there shall be 
no end. And in the Holy 
Ghost, the Lord and Giver of 
Life, who proceedeth from the 
Father; who, with the Father 
and the Son together, is wor- 
shipped and glorified ; who 
spake by the prophets. And in 
one Catholic and Apostolic 
Church. I confess one baptism 
for the remission of sins, and 
hope for the resurrection of the 
dead, and the life of the world 
to come. Amen.* 

On Saturday morning, the 
children recite the Creed. First 
catechize them, the hand placed 
upon their heads. 

Then touch his nostrils and 
ears with spittle, and say to him 
in his ear, Ephata (which is. 
Be thou opened), in odour of 
sweetness. But flee away, O 
Devil, for the judgment of God 
is at hand. 

Then touch his breast, and 
between the shoulders with ex- 



* The Nicene (or Constantlnopolitan) Creed was introduced into the service of the Western 
Churches about the latter end of the sixth century, and was said in the Mediaeval English 
Churches. 

K 2 



132 IHE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

cizato, et vocato nomine, sin- orcized oil, and, calling him by 

gulis dices : name, say to each one : 

Abrenuntias Satans ? Dost thou renounce Satan ? 

R. Abrenuntio. Answer. I do renounce him. 

Et omnibus operibus ejus } And all his works ? 

R. Abrenuntio. Ans. I do renounce them. 

Et omnibus pom.pis ejus ? And all his pomps ? 

R. Abrenuntio. Ans. I do renounce them. 

Ind6 ver6 dicis symbolum, Recite the Creed, with the 

imposita manu super capita hand placed upon their heads, 
ipsorum. 

Postei ver6 dicatur eis ab Then the Archdeacon shall 

Archidiacono : Orate, Electi, say to them : Pray, ye Elects, 

flectite genua. Complete ora- bow the knee. Finish your 

tionem vestram in unum, et prayer at once, and say, Amen, 
dicite: Amen. 

Et respondent omnes : Amen. And all shall answer : Amen. 

Iterum admentur ab Archi- The Archdeacon shall again 

diacono his verbis : Catechu- give them notice, as follows : 

meni recedant. Omnes cate- Let the Catechumens draw back, 

chumeni exeant foris. Let all the Catechumens go out. 

Iterum dicit Diaconus : Filii The deacon says again : Dearly 

charissimi, revertimini in locos beloved sons, return to your 

vestros, et expectantes horam, places, and wait for the hour in 

qua possit circa vos Dei gratia which baptism may be operated 

baptismum operari. in you by the grace of God. 

Oratio in Sabbato Sancto. Prayer for Holy Saturday. 

Omnipotens, sempiterneDeus, Omnipotent and Eternal God, 

respice propitius ad devotionem behold propitiously the devotion 

populi renascentis ; qui sicut of Thy regenerated people, who, 

cervus,aquarumexpectatfontera; as a hart, seek the fountain of 

et concede propitius, ut fidei waters, and grant that the ardour 

ipsius sitis, baptismatis mys- of their faith, through the mys- 

terio, animam corpusque sancti- tery of baptism, sanctify both 

fleet. soul and body. 

[Ind6 procedunt ad fontes Then they proceed to the 

cum litania ad baptizandum.] fonts, chanting the litany used 

for baptizing. 

Then follows the liturgy for the consecration or blessing 

of the font, which we have already reproduced. After 

blessing the font, the priest is directed to put the 

following questions to the candidate : — 

IndS bendicto fonte, bap- 

tizas unumquemque in ordine 

suo, sub his interrogationibus : . 



BAPTISMAL LITURGY. 



133 



Credis in Deum Patrem omni- 
potentem ? 

R. Credo. 

Credis at in Jesum Christum 
Filium ejus unicum, Dominum 
nostrum, natum, et passum .'' 

R. Credo. 

Credis et in Spiritum Sanctum, 
sanctam Ecclesiam, remissionem 
peccatorum, carnis resurrec- 
tionem ? 

R. Credo. 

Deinde per singulas vices 
mergis eum terti6 in aqua. 
Posted cum ascenderit i fonte 
infans signatur k Presbytero in 
cerebro de chrismate, his 
verbis : 

Deus omnipotens. Pater 
Domini nostri Jesu Christi, qui 
te regeneravit ex aqua et Spiritu 
Sancto ; quique dedit tibi re- 
missionem omnium peccatorum ; 
ipse te linit chrisma salutis in 
Christo Jesu Domino nostro in 
vitam Kternam. 

R. Amen. 

Deinde ab episcopo datur eis 
Spiritus septiformis, ad consig- 
nandum imponit eis manum in 
his verbis : 

Deus omnipotens, Pater 
Domini nostri Jesu Christi, qui 
regenerasti famulos tuos ex 
aqua et Spiritu Sancto ; quique 
dedistis eis remissionem omnium 
peccatorum ; Tu, Domine, in- 
mitte in eos Spiritum Sanctum 
tuum, Paraclitum : et da eis 
spiritum sapientias et intellectus; 
spiritum consilii et fortitudinis ; 
spiritum scientiae et pietatis. 
Adimple eos Spiritu timoris Dei, 
in nomine Domini nostri Jesu 
Christi : cum quo vivis et regnas, 
Deus semper cum Spiritu Sancto, 
per omnia saecula sseculorum. 

R. Amen. 



Believest thou in God, the 
Almighty Father ? 

Ans. I do believe. 

Believest thou in Jesus Christ, 
His only Son, our Lord, who 
was born and suffered ? 

Ans. I do believe. 

Believest thou in the Holy 
Ghost, the Holy Church, the 
remission of sins, and the resur- 
rection of the dead .'' 

Ans. I do believe. 

Then immerse him three 
times in the water. When the 
child has come out of the font, 
let him be signed on the head 
with chrism, the following words 
being said : 

Almighty God, the Father of 
our Lord Jesus Christ, who hath 
regenerated thee by water and 
the Holy Ghost, and hath given 
unto thee remission of all thy 
sins, may He anoint thee with 
the chrism of salvation unto life 
everlasting. 

Ans. Amen. 

Then the Bishop shall give 
them the sevenfold Spirit, by 
imposition of hands, saying : 

Almighty God, Father of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, who didst 
regenerate these Thy servants 
by water and the Holy Ghost, 
and hast given them remission 
of all their sins ; Thou, O Lord, 
send unto them Thy Holy Spirit 
the Paraclete, and grant unto 
them the spirit of wisdom, and 
of understanding, the spirit of 
counsel and of fortitude, the 
spirit of knowledge and piety. 
Fill them with the spirit of the 
fear of God, in the name of our 
Lord Jesua Christ, with whom 
Thou livest, and reignest ever 
God, with the Holy Ghost, for 
all ages of ages. Ans. Amen. 



134 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

Posted signal eos in fronte He then signs them on the 

de chrismate, dicens : forehead with chrism, saying : 

Signum Christi in vitam The sign of Christ unto life 

seternam. eternal. 

R. Amen. Ans. Amen. 

Pax tecum. Peace be with thee. 

R. Et cum spiritu tuo. Ans. And with thy spirit. 

Ind^ verdcumlitaniaascendit From hence, chanting the 

ad sedem suam, et dicit : litany, he ascends to his seat, 

Gloria in excelsis Deo. and says : 

Glory to God in the highest. 

It is a mistake to suppose, as many have done, that the 
practice of immersion was abandoned as soon as infant 
baptism became prevalent. The baptism of infants, in 
cases of necessity or danger of death, had become general 
in the sixth century, but the practice of immersion con- 
tinued until the thirteenth or fourteenth, and in fact has 
never been formally abandoned or entirely renounced. 
Father Martene {De Ant. Eccl. Descript. c. i, art. 14) says : 
" In all the pontificals and rituals I have seen, and I have 
seen many, ancient as well as the more recent, immersion 
is prescribed. I must except, however, the ritual of the 
Church of Madeleine de Beaulieu (the age of which does 
not exceed three hundred years), in which the priest is 
directed to pour water on the head of the infant. (Certe 
in omnibus quoscumque viderim — vidi autem plures — 
libris ritualibus aut Pontificalibus manuscriptis tam 
antiquis quam recentioribus praescribitur immersio, si forte 
unum excipias cenomanensem ad usum' ecclesiae S. Mag- 
dalenae Bellilocensis exaratum, cujus character trecentos 
annos vix superare videtur ) 

We will again refer to the rituals of baptism in our 
description of the baptisteries and fonts in the different 
countries. 

Cyprian is the first who defends affusion in the adminis- 
tration of baptism to the sick. He writes thus to Magnus, 
who had submitted to him this question : " An habendi 
sint Christian! legitimi, eo quod aqua salutari non loti 



AFFUSION : CYPRIAN. 135 

sunt, sed perfusi ?" that is, " Whether they are to be 
esteemed legitimate Christians, who are not washed in. 
the water, but only poured about." 

" Thou hast inquired also, dearest son," replies Cyprian, 
" what I think of those who in sickness and debility 
obtain the grace of God, whether those are to be accounted 
legitimate Christians, in that they are poured upon, not 
washed, with the saving water. Diffidence and modesty 
forbid me to judge beforehand any one that thinks, as 
he deems right, and acts as he thinks. I, as far as my poor 
ability conceiveth, account that the Divine blessing can 
in no respect be mutilated and weakened, nor any inferior 
gift be imparted, where what is drawn from Divine bounty 
is accepted with full and entire faith both of the giver and 

the receiver In the saving sacraments, when need 

compels and Grod vouchsafes His mercy, His compendious 
methods confer the whole benefit on believers. 

" Nor should it disturb any one that the sick seem only 
to be sprinkled or affused with water, when they attaint he 
grace of the Lord, since the Holy Scripture speaks." (Here 
Cyprian quotes Ezek. xxxvi. 25, 26; Numbers xix. 7, 19, 
20; viii. 5, 6, 7 ; xix. 9.) "Whence it is apparent that the 
sprinkling of water has like force with the saving wash- 
ing, and that when it is done in the Church, where the 
faith of the giver and receiver is entire, all holds good 
and is consummated and perfected by the power of the 
Lord and the truth of faith."* 



* Cyprian, Epist. Ixix. ad Magnum : Qagsisti etiam, fill carissime, 
quid mihi de illis videatur, qui in infirmitate et languore gratiam 
Dei consequuntur, an habendi sint legitimi christiani, eo, quod 
aqua salutari non loti sunt, sed perfusi. Qua in parte nemini 
verecundia et modestia nostra prsejudicat, quo minus unusquisque 
quod putat, sentiat, et quod senserit, faciat. Nos, quantum concipit 
mediocritas nostra, aestimamus in nullo mutilari et debilitari posse 
beneficia divina, nee minus aliquid illic posse contingere, ubi plena 
et tota fide et dantis et sumentis accipitur, quod de divinis 



136 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

The question propounded by Magnus had reference to 
the case of Novatian, which occurred about the middle 
of the third century, and is recorded by Eusebius as fol- 
lows : " He (Novatian) fell into a dangerous disease, and 
because he was very likely to die, was poured over in the 
bed where he lay, if, indeed, it is proper to say that such 
an one could receive (baptism)." The doubt expressed by 
Eusebius as to the validity of this manner of receiving the 
ordinance was shared by the Christian Church in general. 
Cornelius, in a letter to Fabius, Bishop of Antioch, 
asserts, in reference to Novatian, " that all the clergy 
and a great many of the laity, were against his being 
chosen presbyter; because it was not lawful (they said) 
for any one that had been poured over, as he had been, to 
be admitted to any office of the clergy." 

The introduction of affusion in the Church of Rome is 
referred by some writers to a canon of Pope Stephen II., 
who, during his residence in France, in 754, was consulted 
by the monks of Cressy, as to the lawfulness of " baptizing 
an infant, in case of necessity occasioned by sickness, by 
pouring water on its head, from a cup or the hands." The 
Pope, in reply, said : " Such a baptism performed in such 
a case of necessity, in the name of the Holy Trinity, shall 
be accounted valid." " This," remarks the learned Basnage 
; {^Monument, vol. i. prsef. c. v. sec. 4), " is the first law against 
i immersion. The Pontiff, however, did not dispense with 



muneribus hauritur. . . In sacramentis salutaribus, necessitate 
cogente et Deo indulgentiam suam largiente, totum credentibus 
conferunt divina compendia. Nee quemquam morere debet quod 
aspergi vel perfundi videntur segri cum gratiam dominicam con- 
sequuntur, quando Scriptura sancta per Ezechielem prophetam 
loquatur, et dicat. (Here Cyprian quotes Ezek. xxxvi. 25, z6 ; 
Num. xix. 7, 19, 20 ; viii. 5, 6, 7 ; xix. 9). Unde apparet, aspersio- 
nem quoque aquae instar salutaris lavacri obtinere ; et quando hsec 
in ecclesia fiunt, ubi sit et accipientis et dantis fides Integra, stare 
omnino et consummari ac perfici posse majestate Domini et fidei 
veritate. 



BAPTISM: MODE. 137 

immersion, except in cases of extreme necessity. The 
authenticity of this canon is denied by some Catholics ; 
and many laws were made after this time in Germany, 
France, and England, to c ompel dipp ing, and without any 
provision for cases of necessity. This law, therefore, did 
not alter the mode of dipping in public baptisms, and it 
was not until five hundred and fifty-seven years after, that 
the legislature, in a Council at Ravenna, in the year 1 3 1 1 , 
declared immersion and pouring indifferent." 

The General Rubric of the Baptismal Liturgy in the 
Roman Ritual, edited by order of Paul Y., contains the 
following directions : — 

" The water to be used in baptism must have been 
blessed in the same year, on Holy Saturday, or on the 
Sunday of Pentecost. If it shall have failed, the parish 
priest must bless other water for baptism, according to 
the form hereinafter prescribed. 

" If the hallowed water have been so diminished as to 
seem scarcely enough for the baptism, other water, not 
hallowed, may be mixed with it, but yet in a lesser 
quantity. 

" Though baptism may be administered by affusion, or 
immersion, or aspersion, yet let the first or second mode, 
which are more in use, be retained, agreeably to the 
usage of the churches ; so, however, that with a triple 
ablution the head of the person to be baptized be 
drenched or immerged in the form of the cross, precisely 
at the same time that the words are being uttered ; and 
the same person that applies the water must utter the 
words. 

"The upper part of the head must be washed. 
Particular care must be taken that the water touch imme- 
diately the skin of the head (Sedulo curandum est ut 
pellem capitis aqua immediate tangat). If, therefore, the 
person to be baptized has hair, the priest must separate 



138 THE ARCILEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

the hair, where it is thick, with the fingers of his left hand, 
while he pours on the water with the right. He must 
take care that the water flow not from the head of the 
infant into the holy font, but into the sacrarium of the 
baptistery built near the font; or that being received 
in a vessel had ready for the purpose, it be poured 
into the sacrarium of the baptistery, or into that of the 
church. 

" Of course the lawful minister of baptism is the parish 
priest. The Latin presbyter shall always use the Latin 
form ; but whenever an infant or adult is in danger of 
life, he can be baptized without solemnity in any language, 
and by any person, whether cleric or laic, whether man or 
woman ; provided, however, the form and intention of the 
church be observed. 

"In case there is danger of death, a child must be 
baptized before it is born, as soon as any part of it 
appears, whether head dr hand, or foot, or a:ny other 
part ; provided, however, that if it be not the head, it be 
rebaptized. 

" The sacred chrism and holy oil of catechumens which 
are needful in baptism, must have been blessed by the 
bishop in the same year, on Holy Thursday." 

This ritual, which is now used in the Roman Catholic 
churches, directs affusion : — ■" Then the godfather or god- 
mother, or both, holding the infant, the priest takes the 
baptismal water in a little vessel or jug, and p.ours the 
same three times upon the head of the infant in the form 
of the cross, and at the same time, he says, uttering the 
words once only, distinctly and attentively : — 

"N. I baptize thee in the name of the Fa+ther — he 
pours firstly ; and of the +Son — he pours a second time ; 
and of the Holy+Ghost — he pours a third time." 

" Immediately after the baptism is conferred, the priest 
dips his thumb in the sacred chrism, and anoints the 



BAPTISM: HOW ADMINISTERED. 139 

baptized one, on the crown of the head, in the form of the 
cross, saying : — 

"Almighty God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ," 
etc., as in the Liturgy of Pope Gelasius, which we have 
already given. 

"Then he wipes with silk, or something like it, his 
thumb, and the places anointed by him, and lays upon 
the head of the baptized a small white linen in lieu of the 
white robe (loco vestis albse), saying : — 

" Accipe vestem candidam, quam immaculatam perferas 
ante tribunal Domini nostri Jesu Christi, ut habeas vitam 
aeternam. R. Amen. Receive this white garment, and 
see that thou carry it without stain before the judgment- 
seat of our Lord Jesus Christ, that thou mayest have 
eternal life. Answer. Amen. 

"After this he gives to him, or to the godfather, a 
lighted candle, saying: — N. Accipe lampadem ardentem, 
et irreprehensibilis custodi baptismum tuum ; serva Dei 
mandata, ut cum omnibus Sanctis in aul4 coelesti, habeas- 
que vitam seternam, et vivas in ssecula saeculorum. R. 
Amen. N. Receive this burning light, and keep thy 
baptism, so as to be without blame ; keep the command- 
ments of God, that when the Lord shall come to the 
nuptials, thou mayest meet Him in the company of all the 
saints in the heavenly court, and have eternal life, and 
live for ever and ever. Answer. Amen. 

" Last of all he says :— N. Go in peace, and the Lord 
be with thee. Answer. Amen." 

A rubric is added, directing that if several are to be 
baptized at once, the first interrogation of the name, the 
exsufflation, the impressing of the cross, the touching of 
the ears and nostrils with the priest's spittle, the renounc- 
ing interrogations and answers, the anointing with the 
catechumenical oil, the interrogation of faith or the 
creed, the baptizing act, the anointing with the chrism, 



140 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISII. 

the laying on of the white robe, and the delivering of the 
lighted candle, must all be done to each individually, first 
to the males, and next to the females. 

At an early period of ecclesiastical history, we find 
confirmation administered in immediate connection with 
baptism. TertuUian speaks expressly of confirmation as 
following immediately after the administration of baptism, 
{De Baptismo, c. 7,8) and traces the use of the chrism to 
the ancient practice of anointing the priests under the 
Jewish law. {De restirrect. earn. c. 8.) Baptism being 
regarded as a solemn compact, or covenant, it was 
natural to look upon confirmation as the seal by which the 
contract was ratified or completed, and hence confirmation 
was usually administered, not by the baptizing presbyters 
or deacons, but by the bishop, as the chief minister of the 
church. Pope Innocent, in one of his decrees, says : — 
" Infants are not to be sealed or confirmed by any but 
the bishop." (Ep. i. c. 4.) The permanent separation of 
confirmation from baptism cannot, perhaps, be assigned 
to an earlier date than the thirteenth century. 

A question was referred by Cyprian to Stephen, Bishop 
of Rome (Cyprian, £!J>. 72, ad Steph^, whether it was 
necessary to rebaptize heretics who sought admission to 
the catholic church, or it should be deemed sufficient, 
proceeding upon the acknowledged validity of their 
baptism, to receive them with the simple ceremony of 
imposition of hands, and ecclesiastical benediction ? The 
Roman bishop, in reply, acceded to the latter opinion. 
But the African bishops, on the other hand, declared the 
baptism of heretics to be null and void, and would not 
recognize their confirmation at the hands of a catholic 
bishop as sufficient for their reception into the church. 
They demanded another baptism, to be followed by the 
usual confirmation. Notwithstanding this demonstration 
of their sentiments, the Church of Rome persevered in 



ANABAPTISM NOT ALLOWED. 141 

maintaining that the baptism of heretics, provided only 
that it was administered in due form, was valid and 
sufficient, and that the sacrament ought not to be repeated. 
This opinion finally prevailed ; and even the African 
churches at length agreed on this point with those of 
Rome, Gaul, Spain, and Asia Minor. And hence the 
practice was generally established, that all heretics or 
schismatics, except those who did not baptize in the 
name of the Trinity, or who denied the validity of catholic 
baptism, should be received as members of the catholic 
church, upon recantation of their former errors, by the 
mere imposition of hands, or confirmation. (See Cone. 
Constantinop. I. a.d. 381, can. 7; Cone. Arausiac I. A.D. 441, 
can. 8; Cone. Arelat. 11. A.D. 455, can. 26; Cone. Epaon. 
A.D. 517, c. 16.) 

Baptism was wholly rejected by several sects, who spoke 
of it in a disparaging manner. Theodoret {H(zret. Fahul. 
lib. i. c. X.) describes the Ascodrutse, who were a sort of 
Gnostics, as asserting that " Divine mysteries, being the 
images of invisible things, were not to be performed by 
visible things, nor incorporeal things by what is sensible 
and corporeal ; therefore, they never baptized any that were 
of their sect, nor celebrated any part of the mystery of 
baptism among them ; for they said, the knowledge of all 
things was their redemption." 

The followers of Quintilla, a woman preacher at 
Carthage, were opposed to baptism, pleading that " faith 
alone was sufficient to save men, as it did Abraham, who 
pleased God without any other sacrament but that of 
faith."* Against this doctrine, TertuUian, as we have 
already noticed, wrote his Treatise on Baptism. 



* Adeo dicunt, baptismus non est necessarius, quibus fides satis 
est : nam et Abraham nullius aquae nisi fidei sacramento Deo 
placuit. {De Bapiismo.) 



142 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

The Archontici rejected baptism and the Eucharist as 
foreign institutions, given by Sabaoth, the God of the 
Jews, and the giver of the law, whom they blasphemously 
distinguished from the Supreme God. (Epiphanius, 
Hares . xi. de Archonticis, and Theodoret, Haret. Fabul. 
lib. i. c. xi.) 

The Seleusians and Hermians pretended that baptism 
by water was not instituted by Christ, because John the 
Baptist, comparing his own baptism with that of Christ, 
says, " I baptize you with water, but He that cometh after 
me shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost and with fire." 
(Augustine, De Hares, c. lix.) Some of them, when they 
had baptized men in water, also made a mark upon their 
ears with fire, thus joining, as they thought, water baptism 
with baptism by fire. 

The Messalians, or Euchites (from evyj), prayer), resolved 
all religion into prayer. They seem to have denied the 
spiritual efficacy of baptism, and to have participated in 
the reaction against the high notions almost universally 
entertained respecting the supernatural powers of this 
ordinance. Euthymius {Panopl. part. ii. titul. xxii.) 
describes them as maintaining "that baptism did not 
eradicate sin, that neither baptism nor participation of the 
Eucharist could give a man the perfection of a Christian, 
but only such prayer as they pretended to." See also 
Harmenopolus, De Sectis. c. xviii. in Bibliotheca Patruni — 
Greek and Latin i. p. 536. Theodoret says: — "Baptism 
is not like a razor only, as the Messalian enthusiasts call 
it, which takes away sins that are past, though it has this 
effect among many others ; for if this were the only work 
of baptism, for what reason should we baptize infants, 
who have never yet tasted of sin ? for the sacrament does 
not only promise this effect, but greater and more perfect 
things than that. It is the earnest of future good, the 
type of the resurrection to come, the communication of 



BAPTISM FOR THE DEAD. 143 

our Lord's passion, the participation of our Lord's resur- 
rection, the garment of salvation, the clothing of joy, and 
the robe of light, or rather light itself" [Fabul. Haretic. 
lib. V. c. xviii.) From this it would appear that the 
Messalians or Euchites rejected not the baptism of water, 
but the opinion that it conferred any special gift upon the 
candidate. 

The Marcionites, regarding the Good Deity as holding 
married life in detestation, admitted none to baptism and 
the Lord's Supper but the unmarried.* Epiphanius 
informs us that they permitted women to baptize, used 
water in the cup, and repeated baptism three times. 
[Hares. 42.) They practised also the vicarious baptism 
of the living for the dead, which is described by Chry- 
sostom {Horn. xl. In i Cor.) as follows : " When a 
catechumen dies, they conceal a living person under the 
bed of the departed. Then they stand before the bed, and 
ask the dead person whether or not he is willing to be 
baptized ? Instead of the dead, who is unable to answer, 
the person under the bed replies in the affirmative. 
Hereupon they baptize him instead of the deceased, and 
thus make quite a farce of the whole matter. Such power 
has Satan over the minds of foolish men. And if you 
complain of this transaction, they appeal to the words of 
the Apostle Paul, who speaks of being ' baptized for the 
dead.' " 

The Valentinians used a mystical invocation in the 
administration of baptism. Irenaeus, in his book against 
Heresies, alludes to those heretics in the following terms : 
" Some of them frame a bridal chamber, and solemnize 
an initiation, with certain invocations upon those who are 



* TertuUian, Adversus Marc. lib. iv. c. 34. He shows that 
iptism ought to be administered to all, and defends the 
stitution of marriaare. 



bapt — 

institution of marriage 



144 THE ARCILEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

being perfected, and they say that what they do is a 
spiritual marriage, after the similitude of the marriages 
on high. Others bring them to the water, and, baptizing, 
use these words, ' Into the name of the unknown Father of 
all, into Truth the mother of all, into Him that descended 
upon Jesus, for the union, redemption, and communion of 
their virtues.' While others utter certain Hebrew names, 
the more to astound the initiated, thus : ' Basema, 
Chamassi, Baaenaora, Mystadia, Ruada, Cusia, Babephor, 
Calathi.' • Of which the interpretation is as follows : 
' That which is above all power of the Father I invoke, 
which is named Light, and a good Spirit and Life ; for 
thou hast reigned in the body.' And others, again, 
rehearse the form of redemption thus : ' The name 
which is hidden from all Godhead, and Dominion, and 
Truth, which Jesus of Nazareth put on in the lives of the 
light of Christ the Lord, who lives by the Holy Spirit 
unto angelical redemption.' The name of restitution : 
' Messia Uphareg, Namamsaeman, Chaldaeam, Moso- 
medaea, Acphranae, Psana, Jesu Nazaria.' Of these the 
interpretation runs thus : ' I divide not the Spirit, the 
heart, and the Supercelestial Power, the merciful One. 
May I profit by Thy name, O Saviour of Truth ! ' And 
while the initiators themselves rehearse these forms, the 
initiated answers, ' I have been confirmed and ransomed, 
and ransom my own soul from this world, and from all 
things that are of it, in the name of Jao, who" purchased 
His own soul unto redemption, in Christ the living.' Then 
those who are present subjoin, ' Peace to all upon whom 
this Name resteth.' Then they besmear the initiated 
with the juice of balsam ; for this ointment they say is 
the type of the fragrance that is above all." 

" Some of them, however, say that bringing to the water 
is superfluous, but mix oil and water together, and, with 
invocations like what we have said, cast it on the head of 



BAPTISM: HOW ADMINISTERED. 145 

the initiated. And this they will have to be redemption, 
and they, too, anoint him with balsam." [Agatnsi Heresies, 
book i. chap, xxi.) 

The Tritheists and Priscillianists, Gnostics who first 
introduced the doctrine of three Gods into the world, 
instead of baptizing in the name of the Father, Son, and 
Holy Ghost, administered the ordinance in the name of 
three unoriginated principles, as we learn from one of the 
so-called apostolical canons, which is directly aimed at 
them in these words : " If any bishop or presbyter baptize 
not according to the command of Christ, ' In the name of 
the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost,' but in three unorigi- 
nated principles, or in three Sons, or in three Paracletes 
or Holy Ghosts, let him be deposed." * 

Menander, who was a disciple of Simon Magus, taught 
that no one could be saved except he was baptized in 
his name. (See TertuUian, De Prescription, c. xlvi.) 
Irenaeus and Epiphanius tell us that this Menander pro- 
fessed " to be the Messiah ; for he taught that he was the 
person sent for the salvation of men, and to gather a 
church by mysteries of his own appointing, to deliver 
men from the dominion of the angels, and principalities, 
and powers that made the world." {Adv. Hceres. i. c. xxi. 
and Hares, xxii. n. i.) 

The followers of Montanus, who took upon him to be 
the Holy Ghost, and had under him two prophetesses, 
Priscilla and Maximilla, in the administration of baptism, 
added these names to the Father and Son, instead of the 
Holy Ghost. 

The Paulianists, or disciples of Paulus Samosatensis, 
Bishop of Antioch, who denied the divinity of Christ, 
baptized without mentioning the persons of the Trinity. 
The Eunomians and other sects used this form : " I 

* Can. Apost. xlix. 



146 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

baptize thee into the death of Christ." Against this 
practice is directed one of the Apostolic Canons, which 
says : " If any bishop or presbyter use not three immer- 
sions in the celebration of baptism, but one only given 
in the death of Christ, let him be deposed, for our Lord 
did not say, ' Baptize into My death,' but, ' Go, teach all 
nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and 
the Son, and the Holy Ghost.' " {Can. 1.) 




PART II. 



BAPTISTERIES AND FONTS. 



Part II. 



BAPTISTERIES AND FONTS. 




N the times of the apostles and their immediate 
successors, the converts were baptized in a river, 
a lake, a sea, and wherever water in sufficient 
quantity could be found for the administration of the rite 
by immersion. Thus, John the Baptist immersed, in the 
River Jordan at Enon, where there was much water, and 
so did the disciples of Christ. [John iii. 22.) But baptism 
could be administered in any other river or place of water, 
as appears from various passages in the Acts of the Apostles. 
The Ethiopian Eunuch went down into water lying by 
the roadside to receive baptism at the hands of Philip. 
It is not unlikely that Paul baptized Lydia and her 
household in the river that runs by the city of Philippi. 
In his Second Apology, Justin Martyr states that this was 
the custom in his time ; he says that the converts were 
" led to a place where there was water," and baptized. 

TertuUian observes that " it makes no difference whether 
one is washed in a sea or in a pool, in a river or in a 
fountain, in a lake or in a channel ; nor is there any 
difference between those whom John dipped in Jordan, 
and those whom Peter plunged in the Tiber; for" he 
adds, " the waters are made the sacrament of sanctiiica- 
tion by invocation of God. The Spirit immediately 



150 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM, 

descends from heaven, and resting upon them, sanctifies 
them by Himself; and they, being so sanctified, receive 
the power of sanctifying." (Nulla distinctio est, mari 
quis an stagno, flumine an fonte, lacu an alveo diluatur ; 
nee quicquam refert inter eos quos Joannes in Jordane, et 
quos Petrus in Tiberi tinxit .... etc. {De BapHsmo, 
c. iv.) 

Tertullian also speaks of their going from the church to 
the water, and then making their renunciations there as 
they had done in the church before. (Aquam adituri, 
ibidem, sed et aliquanto prius in ecclesia sub antistitis 
manu contestamur nos renuntiare diabolo, et pompae, et 
angelis ejus. {De Corona Milit. c. 3.) 

The author of the Recognitions, under the name of 
Clemens Romanus, represents Peter preaching to the 
people, and telling them " they might wash away their 
sins in the water of a river, or a fountain, or the sea, by 
invoking the name of the blessed Trinity upon them." 
(Ut in praesenti quidem tempore diluantur peccata vostra 
per aquam fontis, aut fluminis, aut etiam maris, invocato 
super vos Trino Beatitudinis nomine. {Clem. Recognit. lib. 
iv. c. 32.) 

Walafrid Strabo acknowledges that the believers in the 
times of the apostles were baptized with great simplicity 
in rivers or fountains.* The same admission is made by 
Honorius Augustus, in his Gemma Animce (lib. iii. 
c. io6).t We have already seen that Paulinus baptized 
the Northumbrian converts in the rivers Glen and Sarle 
in the North of England. In the Acts of ApoUinarius and 

* " Sciendum autem, prim6 simpliciter in fluviis vel fontibus 
baptizatos credentes ; ipse enim Dominus noster Jesus Christus, 
ut in nobis idem consecraret lavacrum, in Jordane baptizatus est i 
Joanne, et sicut alibi legitur ; erat Joannes baptizans in /Enon, 
juxta Salim, quia aquae multae erant." {De Ritibus Eccles. c. 26.) 

f " Sciendum est, qudd apostoli, et eorum discipuli in fluviis, 
vel stagnis, vel in fontibus baptizabant." 



BAPTISM: WHERE FIRST ADMINISTERED. 15 1 

Victor, it is mentioned that these two missionaries led 
their catechumens to the sea to administer to them the 
rite of baptism.* 

In his Book on Holy Places, Bade says : " In the place 
where our Lord was baptized, stands a wooden cross as 
high as a man's neck, and sometimes covered by the 
water. From it to the farther, that is, the eastern bank, 
is a sling's cast ; and on the nearer bank is a large 
monastery of St. John the Baptist on a rising ground, and 
famous for a very handsome church, from which they 
descend to the cross by a bridge supported on arches, to 
offer up their prayers. In the farther part of the river is 
a quadrangular church, supported on four stone arches, 
covered with burnt tiles, where our Lord's clothes are 
said to have been kept whilst he was baptized. Men do 
not enter this church, but come together around it from 
all quarters ; from the place where the Jordan leaves the 
Sea of Galilee, to where it enters the Dead Sea, is a 
journey of eight days." f 

During the dark days of imperial persecutions the 
primitive Christians of Rome found a ready refuge in the 
Catacombs, where they constructed baptisteries for the 
administration of the rite by immersion. The most 
remarkable of these is the baptistery in the Catacomb of 

* Martene, De Antiq. Eccks. Ritih. i. p. 3. 

f Bede : In loco, in quo Dominus baptizatus est, crux lignea 
Stat usque ad collum alta, quse aliquotiens aqua transcendente 
absconditur : k quo loco ripa ulterior, id est, Orientalis in jactu 
fundse est, citerior ver6 ripa in supercilio monticuli grande 
monasterium gestat B. Johannis Baptists ecclesia clarum ; de 
quo per pontem arcubus suffultum solent descendere ad illam 
crucem, et orare. In extrema flurninis parte, quadrata ecclesia est 
quatuor lapideis cancris superposita, coctili creta desuper tecta, 
ubi Domini vestimenta ciim baptizaretur, servata esse dicuntur. 
Hanc non homines intrare, sed undique cingere ac penetrare 
solent. Ab eo loco, quo de faucibus maris Galilaea Jordanis 
exit, usque ubi Mare Mortuum intrat, octo dierum iter est. {De 
locu Sanctis Libellus, cap. xiii.) 



152 



THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 



San Ponziano, on the right side of the Via Portuensis, and 
at a short distance beyond the modern Porta Portese. 
Through this cemetery a stream of water runs, the 
channel of which is diverted into a reservoir, which was 
.used for administering baptism by immersion from the 




-b 



' ' 



d 



-I S iO 15 ZO FEET. 

Fiff. 18. Plan of Baptistebt in Catacomb op S. Ponziano, Eome. 

first to the fourth centuries. A perspective view of this 
antique baptistery will be found in the Frontispiece. 

The dimensions of the reservoir, which is still full of 
water, are four and a half feet in length, three feet and a 







Fig. 19. Sectional view op Baptistery in Catacomb of S. Ponziano. 

half in width, and three feet and a half in depth. The 
annexed engravings (Figs. i8 and 19) give the plan and a 



FIRST BAPTISTERY. 153 

sectional view of this interesting baptistery, in which the 
neophytes were immersed by standing or kneeling in 
the water, and bending forward under the hand of the 
administrator. 

The Catacombs of the Vatican and St. Alexander con- 
tained natural springs, those of St. Priscilla and St. 
Callixtus received water by means of canals into cisterns, 
vestiges of which still remain. 

The first mention of a baptistery, or a place appro- 
priated to the purposes of baptism, occurs in the Gesta S. 
Marcelli, in Surii vit. S. D. 16 Jan.; and this baptistery 
was in a private house. 

It was only after the conversion of the Emperor Con- 
stantine to Christianity that its rites were permitted to be 
celebrated in public. Under his reign churches were 
erected with great splendour. In addition to the basilica 
itself, it was necessary to have a building in which the 
baptism of the people who were converted to the gospel 
might be administered. This rite being performed by 
immersion, and the number of persons being considerable, 
because in general it took place only at the two most 
solemn festivals of the year, a spacious building for this 
purpose was required, and one was usually erected in the 
vicinity of a church. In the iifth and sixth centuries, 
baptisteries or baptismal churches (ecclesiae baptismales) 
were general, and sometimes very large. The church of 
Santa Sophia, at Constantinople, had a most spacious 
baptistery attached to it, in which one of the councils of 
the Church assembled.* An idea of the size of some of 
these edifices may be formed, when we remember that in 
some places, as Antioch, no less than three thousand 
persons sometimes received baptism at one time. 



* The baptistery of Sta. Sophia was called /^cya ^utio-t-^/diov 
" the great illuminatory." 



154 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

The word "baptistery" is derived from the Greek 
/SaTTTicTTijpiov, a large vase, labrum, or piscina of the 
frigidarium in the ancient Roman baths, which was used 
to bathe in. It was called by the Romans hapttsterium. 
Pliny mentions a large baptistery he had in his house.* 
The Christian baptisteries were circular or octagonal 
in form. The oldest were circular, copied, as some archae- 
ologists think, from the circular Roman temples, which 
supplied a graceful model for buildings that were not to 
be so large as churches. It is more probable, however, 
that the form of these buildings was imitated from some 
apartment in a Roman bath, most likely the frigidarium, 
or cold bath, a round hall, a plan of which is shown in the 
annexed engravings. (Figs. 20 and 21.) They represent the 




Fig. 20. Section of Fkigidarium or Bath, Pompeii. 

frigidarium of the Pompeii baths, discovered some years 
ago. It is a round chamber, with a ceiling in the form of 
a truncated cone ; near the top is a window, from which 



* Pliny ; Inde apodyterium balinei laxum, et hilari excipit cella 
frigidaria, in qua baptisterium amplum atque opacum. (Lib. v. 
epist. 6.) 



BATHS : POMPEII. 



155 



it is lighted. The plinth, or base of the wall, is entirely 
of marble, and four niches are disposed round the room 
at equal distances, with seats for the convenience of the 
bathers. The alveus, or basin, is twelve feet and ten 
inches in diameter, three feet deep, and entirely lined 
with white marble; two marble steps facilitate the descent 
into the basin. (Fig. 21.) The water ran into this bath 




Fig. 21. Plan of Feigidarium of Bath, Pompeii. 
in a copious stream, through a spout placed in the wall, 
three feet and seven inches from the edge of the basin. 
At the bottom of the alveus is a small outlet for the 
purpose of emptying and cleansing it. This frigidarium 
had been highly decorated, and is still remarkable for its 
preservation and beauty.* 

The internal arrangement of the ancient baptisteries 
strictly corresponds with the above plan.f They are 
in most cases circular buildings, surmounted with a 
dome or cupola. In the centre is a large basin, which 
was called by the Latins baptisterium, lavacrum (bath) 



* Encyclopadia, Article Bath. 

t The baptistery at Nocera, now known as the church of Santa 
Maria Maggiore, was formerly a Roman bath. 



156 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

and natatorhim (swimming place), and by the Greek 
ecclesiastical writers " KoXvfiPrjdpa " or pool. Socrates, in 
his Church History (vii. 17), expressly distinguishes the 
font, or central basin, from the baptistery, or the outer 
building, with which it has sometimes been confounded, 
and perhaps latterly become synonymous, as "the pool 
of the baptistery " (^KoXvfi^')]6pa tov ^aTTTiaTrjpcov). Some 
of the baptisteries were erected over natural rivulets ; 
others were supplied with pipes. The baptisteries are 
usually situated in the approach to the western or prin- 
cipal gate of the church, to typify the initiation of the new 
Christian. They were generally constructed of large size, 
in order to afford accommodation to the great number of 
persons baptized at the three principal festivals of Easter, 
Pentecost, and Epiphany, and for this additional reason, 
that as the right of baptizing was reserved only to the 
bishop, however numerous might be the churches in the 
larger cities, still there was but one general baptistery to 
which all resorted, and which was attached to the Metro- 
politan, or Bishop's church. 

Baptisteries are mentioned by Cyril of Jerusalem, in 
whose time they were divided into two parts, outer and 
inner, in the former of which the preparations for baptism 
were made, and in the latter the ordinance itself was 
administered {Catech. Mysiag. i. 2, ii. i ; Ambros. De Init 
c. 2, 5 ; De Sacr. lib. iii. c. 2, epis. 33). Augustine speaks 
of a part of the baptistery appropriated to women — ui in 
parte fceminaru7n olservanti ad laptisterium. 

Paulinus, Bishop of Nola, speaking of the generosity of 
his friend Severus, says he built two churches, and a 
baptistery between them both. It consisted of a irpoavXio'; 
olKOf (a porch or ante-room), where the persons to be 
baptized made their confession of faith, and an eVwre/Do? 
oIkov (or inner room), where the ceremony of baptism was 
performed. 



AN ANCIENT BASILICA. 



157 



The accompanying woodcut represents a plan of an 
ancient Christian basilica, or church, with its outer build- 
ings. fSee Fig. 22.) 







LOeua eUBSTRATORUMj 

, "^ LDCU« 9 AUOIEHXIUM r^ 

I g t « ^ 

I 1.0CUS -+ UJCENTIUM 

LOCUG HTEMANTIUM . 



ATRIUM 61U£ MESAUUOM 



H 



SC£N0RHVLAC1UJ^A 




aAPTlSXERlUM 



PASTOPHORIA 

I i 



Fiff. 22. 



Flak of an Ahcient Christian Basilica. (From Bingham's 
Christian Antiquities.) 



1. Entrance into the Area before the Church. 2. Atrinm, or Area leading from the Porch 
to the Church. 3. Fonntain of water in the middle of the square. 4. Porticoes about the 
Area, called the Exterior Narthex of the Church and place of Mourners. 6. The great gate 
of the Church. 6. The two lesser gates. 7. Northern and Southern gates. 8. Cloisters on 
the North and South side of the Church. 9. taterior Narthex where the Catechumens and 
Hearers stood. 10, Place of the Substrati, or third degree of Penitents. 11. Reading Desk. 
12. Ascent on both sides of the Reading Desk. 13. Inner Porticoes for Men below. 14. Cate- 
chumia, or Upper Galleries for the Women. 15. Rails of the Chancel. 16. The Bema, or 
Chancel. 17. The Altar, or Communion Table. 18. Arched Canopy round the Altai. 
19. The Bishop's Seat. 20. The Seats of Presbyters. 21. The Inner Vestry. 22. Paratorium, 
or place for receiving the Offerings of the Pceple- 23. Scenophylacium, or the Great 
Repository. 24. The Baptistery. 25. The Font, or Basiuin the Middle of the Baptistery. 
26. Pastophoria, DwelUng Houses for the Ministers, with Schools, Libraries, t&c, on each 
side of the Church. 

Churches, especially after the fourth century, consisted 
of three principal divisions. At the east was the iema 
choir, sanctum or place of the altar, reserved for the 
bishop and clergy — often in the form of a semi-circular 
recess or apsis, and railed oflF from the nave by cancelli, or 
rails. The nave {vao<;, a ship) was the body of the church, 
or place of usual assembly for the people, having in it the 
ambo, or reader's desk or pulpit. The sexes were usually 



158 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

kept separate during worship, the men being on the south 
side and the women on the north side. The catechumens 
were placed behind the believers, according to their 
various classes, and behind them again were placed a 
certain class of penitents. Round the wall were recesses 
for private meditation and prayer, and aisles (alae) sepa- 
rated the nave from those chambers. Lastly, there was 
the narthex (ante-temple or portico), occupying the front 
of the edifice, and entered by three doors from the outer 
porch ; and there were three entrances inward from it, 
the principal one opening into the nave, directly opposite 
to the altar. Two of the doors, consisting of two folding 
leaves, were named the priests' door and the men's door. 
The vestibule, properly so called, was the place appro- 
priated to certain catechumens and penitents. There also 
stood the font, or cantharus, for washing prior to entrance ; 
and here, in Abyssinia, the worshippers put-off their 
sandals. 

The exedrae, or buildings outside the church, compre- 
hended generally the wings and exterior apartments, and 
also separate buildings, such as the baptistery. The court 
and atrium was the open space between the outside walls 
and the church, and there stood such outcasts as were not 
permitted to enter the church. There were other build- 
ings, such as the vestry, or repository for sacred utensils 
{aimeliarcheion) ; and sometimes there were also prisons 
(called decanica). Libraries, schools, and houses for the 
officiating clergy sprang up round the church ; hospitals 
for the sick, and diversoria, or places for the entertainment 
of strangers. 

It was enacted, by laws both of Church and State, that 
baptism should be performed only in the public bap- 
tisteries. In Justinian's 58th Novel, in which oratories in 
private houses are allowed, it is forbidden in general to 
celebrate any of the sacerdotal offices (lepal XeiTovpylai) 



BAPTISTERIES. 159 

in them ; and in Novella 42, c. 2, the administration of 
baptism and the Lord's Supper are expressly interdicted. 
However, in cases of necessity, sickness, imprisonment, 
journeying, and the like, this rule was not enforced. We 
read of martyrs baptized in prison, clinics on the sick-bed, 
and others at sea, or on a journey. Jerome says "that 
in villages and castles, and places remote from the bishop's 
church, men were baptized by presbyters and deacons." 
{Dialog, cum Lucifer, c. 4.) 

In some large dioceses and cities, and by the liberality 
of emperors, the number of baptisteries was sometimes 
increased ; in which cases, however, the cathedral bap- 
tistery always retained a certain degree of preference. 
(Duranti. Rit. Eccl. lib. i. c. 19.) 

" If it is clear that from the third or fourth centuries 
infant baptism was sanctioned and practised in cases of 
sickness or danger of death, it is equally clear that, for 
many centuries, adult baptism was much more commonly 
adopted. As plenary immersion was insisted upon, the 
baptisteries always contained a large bath, into which the 
neophytes descended by steps. The men and women 
were baptized on different days. In the case of adults, it 
was customary to unite coniirmation with baptism. At 
first, the bishop alone was authorized to administer the 
sacraments, as he was supposed to impart to them their 
mysterious virtues. But the inconvenience of large multi- 
tudes, and the labour which was entailed upon the bishop, 
often an infirm old man, gradually led to a change of 
system ; the parochial minister was authorized to baptize. 
This alteration caused the baptisteries to be multiplied, 
and at length united to, or rather changed into, parish 
churches. 

" When, in the course of time, adult baptism became the 
exception, and infant baptism the rule, the baptisteries 
were deserted, and fonts large enough for the immersion 



i6o 



THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 



of infants were, for the most part, placed in the church, 
near the entrance ; a position emblematical of the 
admission of the newly-baptized into the congregation." 
(Knight's Church Architecture^ The latest baptistery, 
that of Pistoia, in Italy, was erected A.D. 1337. 



ITALY. 

We now give a full list of the baptisteries in Italy, with 
indication of their form and the time of their foundation.* 



BAPTISTERIES. 



FORM. 



EPOCH OF 
CONSTRUCTION. 



Rome, St. John of Lateran . 

„ S. Costanza . . . 
Naples, S. Stefano . . 

Nocera, S. Maria Maggiore. 
Milan, S. Giovanni, for men 
Milan, S. Stefano, for women 

Pesaro 

Rome, Basilica S. Stefano 
Classe, Delia Petriana . 
Ravenna, S. Giovanni 

,, S. Maria in Cos- 

medin . . . 
Canosa, in Apulia 
Trieste, in Istria 
Parenzo, 
Pirano, 
Cittanova, 
Capodistria, 
Aquileja 
Grado . 
Brescia 
Novara 
Asti . . 
Baveno, on Lake Maggiore 

Como 

Lenno, on Lake Como . 
Gravedona, ,, ,, 



Octagonal 
Circular . 



Octagonal 



Square 
Octagonal 



Twelve-sided 
Octagonal 



Circular . 
Octagonal 

Circular . 
Octagonal 
Polygonal 
Circular . 
Octagonal 



4th century. 



About A.D. 440. 



A.D. 550. 
6th century. 



End of 6th century. 



6th or 7th century. 



See II Battisiero di Parma da Michaele Lopez, pp. 124, 125. 



BAPTISTERIES. 



i6i 



BAPTISTERIES. 



Pro 



Menaggio, on Lake Como . 
S. Giovanni, in Atrio, on 

Lake Como . . . 
Galliano, Prov. of Como 
Arsago, Prov. of Milan 
Berzan6 ,, ,, ,, 
Mazzo, Prov. of Valtellina 
Castrocaro, near Forli 
Florence . . . 
Lucca .... 
Bologna . . . 
Serravalle . . . 
Pavia, for men . 

,, for women 
Verona . . . 
Cividale, in Venetian 

vinces .... 
Pola, in Istria . . 
Albenga .... 
Ascoli . . . 
Volterra .... 
Biella, in Piedmont 
Chieri, ,, 

Agliate, Prov. of Milan 
Mariano, Prov. of Como 
Varese, „_ „ „ 
Rovigno (Istria) . . 

•Cremona 

Domo, Prov. of Como 
Castel-Seprio, ,, 

Oggiono „ 

Abiasca, Diocese of Milan 
Faido, ,, ,, ,, 

Torcello . . . 
Murano . . 
Chioggia . . . 
Padua .... 
Vigolo Marchese, 

Piacenza . . 
Genoa, S. Giovann 
Reggio, in Emilia 
Pisa „ 
Parma ,, ,, 
Pistoia .... 



Prov 



of 



FORM. 



EPOCH OF 
CONSTRUCTION. 



Long square. 6th or yth century. 



Octagonal . 
Irregular 

it 
Octagonal . 

>j 
Circular . . 
Octagonal . 
Square . . 
Twelve-sided 
Octagonal . 

»» 
? 
Octagonal . 



Greek Cross . 
? 

Square . . 
Octagonal . 
Greek Cross. 
Octagonal . 



Heptagonal . 
Octagonal . 

? 
Hexagonal . 
Octagonal . 

? 

? 
Octagonal . 

j> 
Circular . . 
Square . . 

Circular . . 
Octagonal ? . 

? 

Circular . . 
Octagonal . 



yth century. 



8th century } 
8th century. 



8th or 9th century, 
gth or loth century. 



gth century. 
A.D. goo } 
nth century. 



A.D. loog. 
nth century. 

nth or 1 2th century. 



? 
? 

A.D. II53. 
A.D. I 196. 
A.D. 1337. 



M 



1 62 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

In his De Vitis Romanorum Pontificum, Anastasius 
Bibliothecarius* mentions the erection and restoration of 
baptisteries in connection with several churches in and 
near Rome, as those of S. Prassedef and S. PudentianaJ 
by Pius I. (a.d. 142-157); S. Anastasio, § SS. Rufina 
6 Secunda, II and S. Pietro on the Appian Way^ by 
Hadrian I. (772-95) ; S. Susanna** and S. Andrea Apo- 
stolo on the Appian Way,tt by Leo III. (795-816); 



* Anastasius Bibliothecarius lived in the 9th century, and was 
present at the CEcumenical Council held at Constantinople in 869. 
He is the author of the Liber Pontificalis, which contains the lives 
of the Popes as far as Nicholas I. (a.d. 858), and of an Ecclesiastical 
History. 

f Et rogavit Beatum Pium Episcopum (Virgo Praxides) ut 
Thermas Novati, quae jam in usu non erant, ecclesiam dedicaret 

et placuit Sancto Pio Episcopo, et dedicavit 

ecclesiam Thermas Novati, in nomine beatse Praxedis Virginis, 
quam et titulum constituit in urbe Roma, in vico qui appellatur 
Laterica. In quo et baptisterium consecravit sub die tertio idus 
majas. (Ex MS. Liberiano apud Anatasium, De Vitis Rom. Pont, 
cum notis Blanchinii, t. ii. p. 124.) 

% Hie ex rogatu Beatse Praxidis dedicavit ecclesiam Thermas 
Novati in Vico patritii in honorem sororis suae sancto Pudentianae, 
ubi et multi dona obtulit, ubi saepius sacrificium Domino efferent 
ministrabat ; immo et fontem baptismi construi fecit, manu sua 
benedixit et consecravit, et multos venientes ad fidem baptizavit in 
nomine Trinitatis. (Anastasius, In Vita Pii.) 

§ Basilica vero monasterio beati Anastasii Christi martyris, una 
cum baptisterio (Anastasius, In Vita Hadriani.) 

II Imo et basilicam Stae. Rufinae et Secundae, quae ponitur in 
episcopio Silvae Candida, quae olitana vetustate marcuerat una cum 
baptisterio summo studio renovavit. {In Vita Hadriani.^ 

\ Basilicam beati Petri Apostoli sitam Via? Appia in Silice ultra 
sanctum Thomam Apostolum non procul a tricesimo, desolatione, 
ruinisque praeventam a novo una cum baptisterio restaurans mole 
magnitudinis decoravit. {In Vita Hadriani.^ 

** Sad et baptisterium ibi constituit, et dona obtulit. {In Vita 
Leonis, sect. 365.) 

ft Saepedictus vero antistes sanctissimus ecclesiae beati Andras 
Apostoli, sitas in tricesimo Via Appia in Silice, sarta tecta noviter 
renovavit, una cum baptisterio et porticus. {In Vita Leonis, 
sect. 380.) 



BAPTISTERIES IN ROME. 163 

S. Maria Maggiore* and S. Maria in Trasteveref by 
Benedictus III. (855-58). Most of these were restorations. 
At S. Andrea Apostolo, the baptistery is expressly de- 
scribed as a large circular building, with a spacious basin 
in the centre.J No vestiges of these baptisteries remain. 

Baths were frequently attached to the churches. Anas- 
tasius often mentions the construction of them ; he tells 
us, for instance, that the Pope Symmachus erected a bath 
for the church of S. Pancrazio, near Rome, and that at 
the Basilica of St. Paul he introduced water behind the 
apsis, and constructed a bath (post absidem aquam intro- 
duxit ubi et balneum a fundamentis fecit. In Vita 
Symmachi). Blanchinius, the learned annotator of Anas- 
tasius, is of opinion that these baths were used for the 
administration of baptism by immersion, according to 
usage. (Ubi aquarum copia suppeteret ad baptismum per 
immersionem de more celebrandum. De Vitis Rom. Pont, 
cum notis Blanchinii, vol. iii. p. 36.) 

In his life of Marcellus, Pope of Rome A.D. 304, 
Anastasius informs us that twenty-five parochial churches 
were established by that prelate, in the city, for the 
administration of baptism to the multitudes, who were 



* Et in basilica sanctae Dei Genetricis, semperque Virginis 

DominEe nostrae, quae ad praesepe nuncupatur in 

qua veto basilica baptisterium destructum multo per tempera 
manserat, celeri studio, futuram sperans a Domino retributionem, 
restauravit, et ad pristinum statum perduci procuravit. {In Vita 
BenedictilW. sect. 567.) 

t In ecclesia beatae Dei Genetricis, semperque Virginis Mariae 
Dominae nostrae, quae ponitur trans Tylserim' .... porticum 
atque baptisterium cum sacratoria omnia et in omnibus sarta tecta 
noviter renovavit. {In Vita Benedicti, sect. 572.) 

\ Quia angustior locus populi existebat qui ad baptismum 
veniebat isdem praesul a fundamentis ipsum baptisterium in rotun- 
dum ampla largitate construens in meliorem erexit statum, atque 
sacrum fontem in medio largiori spatio fundavit, et in circuitu 
columnis porphyreticis decoravit, etc. {In Vita Leonis III. sect. 397.) 

M 2 



164 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

brought over from paganism. (XXV. Titulos in urbe 
Roma constituit, quasi dicBceses propter baptismum et 
poenitentiam multorum, qui convertebantur ex paganis. 
In Vita Alarcelli.) 

BAPTISTERY OF CONSTANTINE. 

We may now proceed to speak of this baptistery, which 
has been ascribed to Constantine, and in which some 
antiquarians have been willing to discover the remains 
of thermcB, or baths, originally within the precincts of the 
imperial palace. This building stands at a short distance 
from the church of St. John of Lateran, and now bears the 
name of San Giovanni in Fonte, an appellation usually 
given to the baptisteries in the peninsula. All this region 
was originally occupied by the house and gardens of a 
wealthy Roman, Plautius Lateranus, who was put to 
death by Nero.* The house, subsequently, became one of 
the imperial palaces. Constantine possessed it in his 
turn, until he left Rome for his new capital in the East. 

That this baptistery cannot be justly entitled to the 
name it bears, is sufficiently evident from the well-attested 
fact that Constantine, though he declared himself a 
Christian, postponed the rite, which was then believed to 
wash away the stain of every sin, till he found his end 
approaching, and then was baptized, not at Rome, but at 
Nicomedia. In fact, this baptistery was not constructed 
till the pontificate of Sixtus III., who died in A.D. 440. 
Anastasiusf says that it was he who placed the eighth' 
porphyry columns, which decorate the interior of . the 
building. The probability is that these columns had 
been the ornament of some palatial mansion, a nym- 
phaeum, or baths, in the gardens of Lateranus ; that 

* Rasponus, De Basilica Laterensis. 
f Anastasius, In Vita Sexti III. 



BAPTISTERY OF CONSTANTINE. 



165 



Sixtus, wishing to construct a baptistery in connection 
with the Church of St. John, availed himself of these 
precious materials, and that the baptistery derived its 
name from the palace in which Constantine had 
once resided. In 1153, Anastasius IV. raised the walls 
of the building, and covered it with a new roof.* He 
must have added the second tier of smaller pillars, 
which support the attic. Other popes, at different times, 
contributed additional embellishments. Gregory XIII., 
in 1572, added the panelled ceiling. Urban VIII., in 1628, 
and Innocent X., in 1644, enriched the ceiling and the 




Fig. 23. Plan or Baptistery or Constantine. 

walls with frescoes by the best masters. A chapel opens 
out of each side of the baptistery ; the one dedicated to 
John the Baptist, the other to John the Evangelist.f 

In the centre of the building is a magnificent circular 
basin, three feet deep, lined and paved with marble. It 



* Ciampini, De Sacris ^dificiis, cap. 3. 
f Knight, Architecture in Italy. 



1 66 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

occupies a large proportion of the building, being about 
twenty-five feet in diameter. Anastasius, in his Life of 
Pope Sylvester,* and Damuscus,t describe the basin exist- 
ing in their time as being of porphyry, and covered 
entirely both within and without with silver, the weight of 
which was estimated at three thousand and eight pounds. 
In the middle of the basin stood a column of porphyry, 
bearing on its top a golden phial full of precious ointment. 
On the edge of the font were figures of seven harts of 
solid silver, and a lamb in massive gold, which poured 
water into the basin, previous to the administration of 
baptism. The water was conducted to the font from the 
adjoining Claudian aqueduct, the remains of which are 
still seen. J This magnificence is in harmony with the 
descriptions given of the baths in Rome, at the time 
of Agrippa, and the Emperors after Augustus, which 
were built and finished in a style of luxury almost 
incredible. In his Eighty-sixth Epistle, Seneca, who 
inveighs against this luxury, observes that " a person was 
held to be poor and sordid, whose baths did not shine 
with a profusion of the most precious materials, the 
marbles of Egypt inlaid with those of Numidia; unless 
the walls were laboriously stuccoed in imitation of paint- 
ing; unless the chambers were covered with glass, the 
basins with rare Thasian stone, and the water conveyed 
with silver pipes." These were the luxuries of plebeian 
baths. Those of the freedmen and the nobility had " a 
profusion of statues, a number of columns supporting 
nothing, placed as an ornament merely on account of the 
expense ; the water murmuring down the steps ; and the 



* Anastasius, In Vila S. Sylvestri. 

"t" Damascus, In Pontific. de Sylvest. Pap. 

\ Onofrius, Le Sette chiese di Roma. 



BAPTISTERY OF THE LATERAN. 167 

floor of precious stones.* These baths of which Seneca 
speaks were private baths. 

Though the baptistery of the Lateran has not on the 
whole that appearance of antiquity, which one might 
ascribe to a building of the fourth century, still it is 
certain that the exterior and the general arrangement of 
the interior have been preserved from the beginning, as 
may be seen from a design of the ancient building in 
the baptistery itself, bearing the following inscription : 
" Baptisterium restituit." 

A descent of three steps leads to the bottom of the 
basin, which is provided with a small outlet, which was 
used for the purpose of emptying it after the ceremony of 
baptism by immersion had been performed. That this 
basin was formerly used for the administration of the rite 
according to the primitive method is evident from the 
following inscription in Latin verses upon the architrave 
supported by the columns of porphyry which surround the 
basin : — 

GENS SACRANDA POLIS HIC SEMINE NASCITUR ALMO 

QUAM FECUNDATIS SPIRITUS EDIT AQUIS. 
VIRGINEO FCETU GENITRIX ECCLESIA NATOS, 

QUOS SPIRANTS DEO CONCIPIT, AMNE PARIT, 
CCELORUM REGNUM SPERATI HOC FONTE RENATI : 

NON RECIPIT FELIX VITA SEMEL GENITOS. 
TONS HIC EST VITA, ET QUI TOTUM DILUIT ORBEM, 

SUMENS DE CHRISTI VULNERE PRINCIPIUM. 



* Pauper sibi videtur ac sordidus, nisi parietes magnis et pre- 
tiosis orbibus refulserunt ; nisi Alexandrina marmora Numidicis 
crustis distincta sunt ; nisi illis undique operosa et in picturae 
modum variata circumlitio prsetexitur ; nisi vitro absconditur 
camera ; nisi Thasius lapis, quondam rarum in aliquo spectaculum 
tempio, piscinas nostras circumdedit, in quas multa sudatione 
corpora exinanita demittimus ; nisi aquam argentea epistomia 
fuderunt. Et adliuc plebeias fistulas loquor ; quid, quum ad 
balnea libertinorum pervenero ? quantum statuarum, quantum 
columnarum est nihil sustinentium, sed in ornamentum positarum, 
impensse causa ! quantum aquarum per gradus cum fragore 
labentium ! (Seneca, Epist. Ixxxvi.) 



1 68 THE ARCILEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

MERGERE PECCATOR, SACRO PURGANDE FLUENTO 

QUEM VETEREM ACCIPIET, PROFERET UNDA NOVUM. 
INSONS ESSE VOLENS, ISTO MUNDARE LAVACRO, 

SEU PATRIO PREMERIS CRIMINE, SEU PROPRIO. 
NULLA RENASCENTUM EST DISTANTIA, QUOS FACIT UNUM 

UNUS FONS, UNUS SPIRITUS, UNA FIDES. 
NEC NUMERUS QUEMQUAM SCELERUM, NEC FORMA SUORUM 

TERREAT. HOC NATUS FLUMINE, SANCTUS ERIS. 

(A people to be consecrated for heaven is born here of a divine 
seed, which the Spirit produces after fecundating the waters. The 
Mother Church brings forth in a river sons she has conceived by the 
breath of God. You, who are born again in this font, may hope to 
enter the kingdom of heaven. The life of happiness receives not 
those who are born but once. This font is life, a font which derives 
its source from the wound of Christ, and which washes the whole 
world. Plunge thyself, sinner, in this sacred and purifying flood. 
It will receive thee, an old man, and restore thee a renewed man. 
If thou wilt be innocent, purify thyself in this bath, whether thou 
be oppressed by the sins of thine parents or thine own. There 
is no difference among those who are born again, and are made 
one through one font, one spirit, and one baptism. Let neither the 
number nor the nature of his crimes frighten any one. Born in 
this flood, thou shalt be holy). 

The following extract is taken from the tenth and 
twelfth ordinals in Father Mabillon's collection, written 
by a cardinal in the latter part of the twelfth century. It 
relates to the ordinance of baptism as performed in this 
baptistery by the Pope himself. 

Ordo Romanus XII. From Ordo Romanus XII. 
Tunc Pontifex surgit, et vadit Then the Pontiff arises, and 
ad ecclesiam Sancti Johannis goes to the church of St. John 
Evangelistae, et aliquantulum re- the Evangelist, and there rests 
quiescit ibi. Deinde procedit some time. Afterwards, he pro- 
ad fontes et benedicit eos. Hoc ceeds to the fonts and blesses 
facto, revertitur ad eandun ec- them. This being done, he re- 
clesiam, ibique exuit se de pallio turns to the same church, and 
et planeta, et induit bracalia takes ofi' his pallium and planet 
(semolia ?) cerata, et rivertitur and puts on waxed drawers, and 
ad fontes et baptizat tres par- returns to the font and baptizes 
vulos. three children. 

Ordo X. From Ordo X. 

At praesentis sibi infantibus, The children, John, Peter, or 

Johanne scilicet, sive Petro et Mary, being brought before him, 

Maria, interroget off"erentem. he interrogates the person who 



BAPTISTERY OF S. CONSTANZA. 



169 



Quis vocaris ? Resp. : Johannes. 
Inculcat et dicit : Johannes, credis 
in Deum Patrem Omnipotentem, 
Creatorem cali et terrcB ? Resp. : 
Credo. Interrog. : Credis et in 
Jesum Christum, Filitis ejus uni- 
cum, Dominum nostrum, natum et 
passum ? Resp. : Credo. In- 
terrog. : Credis et in Spirilum 
Sanctum, sanctam Ecclesiam ca- 
tholicam, sanctorum communionem, 
remissionem omnium peccatorum, 
carnis resurrectionem, vitam CEttr- 
nam ? Resp. : Credo. Interrog. 
et dicit : Johannes, vis baptizari ? 
Resp. : Volo. Tunc baptizat eum 
sub trina immersione, Sanctam 
Trinitatem semel tantum invo- 
cando, sic: Et ego te baptizo 
in nomine Patris (et immergat 
semel), et Filii {et immergat se- 
cundo), et Spiritus Sancti (et 
immergat tertio), est habeas vitam 
CBternam. Resp. : Amen. Simili- 
ter Petrum et Mariam. His 
vero tribus baptizatis, imman- 
tatus manto super dalmaticam 
Pontifex vadit ad chrismarium, 
juniore diaconorum cardinalium 
et sacerdotibus canonicis bap- 
tizantibus reliquos parvulos. 



presents them. What is your 
name .'' Ans. : John. Then he 
goes on and says : John, dost 
thou believe in God the Father 
Almighty, the Creator of heaven 
and earth .? Ans. : I do believe. 
Quest. : Dost thou believe in 
Jesus Christ, His only Son, our 
Lord, who was born and suf- 
fered .'' Ans. : I do believe. 
Quest. : Dost thou believe in 
the Holy Ghost, the holy Catho- 
lic Church, the communion of 
saints, the remission of sins, the 
resurrection of the body, and 
life eternal. Ans. : I do believe. 
Quest. : John, wilt thou be bap- 
tized 1 Ans. : I will. Then 
he baptizes him by trine im- 
mersion, mentioning the Holy 
Trinity but once, as follows : 1 
baptize thee in the name oj the 
Father (and dips him once), and 
ojthe Son (and dips him a second 
\.\m&),andoJ the Holy Ghost (dLXiA 
dips him a third time), that thou 
mayest have eternal lije. Ans. 
Amen. The same to Peter and 
Mary. The three being bap- 
tized, the Pope, with a mantle 
thrown over his surplice, goes 
to the place where is the chrism, 
whilst the younger of the chief 
deacons and the canon priests 
baptize the remaining children. 

In the centre of the basin now stands a modern font, 
raised on steps of marble, and composed of an antique urn 
in porphyry, which serves to contain the holy water used 
in sprinkling infants. 

BAPTISTERY OF S. COSTANZA. 

Beyond the Porta Pia, near the church of S. Agnese, is 

a circular building erected by Constantine as a baptistery, 

and in which the two Constantias, his sister and daughter, 

are supposed to have been baptized. This baptistery is 



lyo THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

about eighty feet in diameter ; the interior is adorned by 
a double range of columns supporting arches, on which 
rises the drum, or circular part, supporting the dome, 
which is pierced with a clerestory of twelve windows. In 
the square niche opposite the entrance stood a sarco- 
phagus of porphyry, belonging to the family of Constan- 
tine. It has now been removed to the museum of the 
Vatican. (Fig. 24.) 




Fig. 24. Flak op Baptistery op S. Costanza, Rome. 

Some persons have imagined that this building was 
neither the work of Constantine, nor, originally, a 
Christian fabric. They admit that it was the burial place 
of Constantia and Helena, the daughter of Constantine, 
because they are unable to account in any other way for 
the sarcophagus of porphyry found within its walls. But 
they assert that it was an ancient temple of Bacchus, 
transferred to a new destination by Constantine or his 
sons. This opinion is principally founded on the mosaics 
with which the ceiling of the aisles is adorned, and which 
represent vine-leaves, bunches of grapes, and different 
operations of the vintage. But, in the first place, the 



BAPTISTERY OF S. COSTANZA. 171 

vine is a Christian emblem,* and was so frequently- 
introduced in the decoration of Christian places of 
worship, that little weight can be attached to this circum- 
stance. In the second place, it was not till the time of 
Theodosius that the heathen temples were invaded. It 
would not have been safe for Constantino to have 
disturbed the deities that were still revered by so large 
a proportion of his subjects. In the third place, the 
architecture of this building is in conformity with the 
style of the time of Constantino, and does not agree with 
that of a much earlier date. 

We find that Anastasius, in his Life of St. Sylvester, 
says that Constantine built a baptistery close to the 
church of St. Agnes. f On the other hand, Ammianus 
Marcellinus says that Constantia and Helena were buried 
in exactly this situation ; and finally, as we have already 
said, the porphyry sarcophagus was discovered within the 
walls of this building. From this fact, coupled with the 
testimony of the historians, it cannot be doubted that this 
building was eventually used as a sepulchral chapel, but 
as it is so distinctly stated that Constantine built a bap- 
tistery in this situation, and as there are no vestiges ot 
any other buildings, the probability is that the baptistery 
and the sepulchral chapel are one and the same. It might 
be built for one purpose, and afterwards used for another, 
in the case of persons of such consideration as the sister 
and daughter of Constantine, and it was in accordance 
with the custom of those times that they should be buried 



* Several tombs and sepulchral chapels in the catacombs are 
decorated with figures of vines and grapes, emblematical of Christ 
and His Church. See Bottari, plate Ixxiv. 

f Eodem tempore fecit basilicam S. Martyris Agnetis ex rogatu 
Constantiae filiee suaft, et baptisterium in eodem loco ubi et baptizata 
est soror ejus Constantia cum filia Augusti a Sylvestro episcopo. 
(Anastasius, Vita S. Sylveslri.) 



172 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

in the immediate vicinity of holy ground, as was, for 
example, the cemetery in which the remains of St, Agnes 
and other martyrs had been discovered. In 1254, the 
building was converted into a church by Pope Alexander 
IV., and was then dedicated to another Constantia, who 
is believed to have founded or rebuilt the adjacent church 
of St. Agnes.* 

BAPTISTERY OF NOCERA DEI PAGANI. 

At Nocera dei Pagani, on the railroad from Naples to 
Castellamare, is a very interesting church, named Santa 
Maria Maggiore, which was formerly a Roman bath, 
restored and employed as a baptistery in the fourth 
century. It is very similar in plan and general arrange- 
ment to the baptistery of Constanza at Rome, though 




Mg. 25. Plan of Baptisteky of Noceea dei Pagani. 

somewhat larger, being more than eighty feet in diameter. 
(Fig. 25.) Its arched roof is supported by a double row 
of twenty-eight columns of different orders and lengths, of 
which five are of Oriental alabaster, and the rest mostly 

* Knight, Church Architecture of Italy. 



BAPTISTERY OF NOCERA. 



173 



ancient marbles. The columns are without entablature ; 
in lieu of which arches spring across the intercolumnia- 
tion, and sustain a hemispherical dome, perforated with 
occasional openings, which admit light to the interior. 
The dome is without a drum, and is placed immediately 
on the capitals. In the centre is a large basin, circular in 
the interior, and octagonal externally. A descent of three 
steps leads to the bottom of the basin, which bears a 
strong resemblance to that of the baths of Pompeii, and 
was evidently used for the administration of baptism by 
immersion.* (See Fig. 26, which gives a sectional view 




'^io ixt. 



Fig. 26. Sectional View op the Baptistebt of Nooeba dei Pagani. 

of this font.) This baptistery is certainly one of the most 
valuable monuments of antiquity, and is well worth a visit 
from all who are interested in the study of Christian 
archaeologyi 

BAPTISTERIES OF MILAN, 

In a letter to his sister Marcellina, the celebrated Arch- 
bishop of Milan, Ambrosius, refers to the baptisteries, 



* Agincourt, Storia deU'Arie, tav. 8, Nos. 9, 10, Archil. Isabelle, 
Edifices Circulaires, p. 87, pi. 39. Ricci, Storia deW Archiiettura in 
Italia, t. i. p. 158. 



174 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

which existed in that city in his time.* One of these 
is attached to the southern wall of the church of San 
Lorenzo, is about forty-five feet in diameter, and is 
approached by a vestibule in the same manner as that of 
Constantine at Rome, and as in the tomb of his daughter 
Constantia. This baptistery, now known under the name 
of San Giovanni alle Fonti, was exclusively used for the 
baptism of men, and it was here that St. Augustine was 
buried with Christ in baptism. This baptistery was much 
injured by the invasion of the Goths, but was restored by 
Lorenzo, Bishop of Milan, about the end of the fifth 
century. Another baptistery for the women, erected on 
the opposite side of the church, was designated under the 
name of San Stefano alle Fonti. Eunodius, speaking of 
this baptistery in his Epigrams,t says that it was recon- 
structed by Eustorgius II., Bishop of Milan, who provided 
it with a hydraulic contrivance, by means of which the 
water was made to descend from above the font in the 
form of rain, and fill the large basin previously to the 
administration of baptism. These two baptisteries still 
existed in their original form at the beginning of the 
twelfth century, and are mentioned by Beroldus,J who 
wrote about the year 1130. Since then very great changes 
have been made, and they have been so altered, that 

* " Octachorum sanctos templum surrexit in usus, 
Octogonus fons est munere dignus eo : 
Hoc numero decuit sacri baptismatis aulam 
Surgere ; quo populo vera salus rediit." — Ambrosius. 

(An octagonal temple is erected for sacred usages. An 
octagonal font is worthy of this function. It is right that a 
baptismal hall be erected with this number, by which true salvation 
was restored to the people.) 

f Lib. ii. Carm. Epigr. 149. 

X Ordo Cerim. Eccl. Ambr. Med., De Vigilia Nat. Dom. See also 
Muratori, Ant. -Med. .^vi, Dissert. 55 ; and Giulini, Memor., etc., 
t. ii. p. 151. Fasti delta Chiesa, vol. vi. p. 153. 



BAPTISTERY OF ST. STEPHEN. 175 

little remains to attract the attention of the archaeologist 
besides the bare plan of the buildings. 

In the magnificent Cathedral of Milan, there is a 
modern baptistery, a small square temple supported by 
four columns of marble. It contains an ancient labruni, 
now used as a font, and taken from a bath of the Lower 
Empire, the rite of baptism by immersion being required 
by the Ambrosian ritual. 

BAPTISTERY OF ST. STEPHEN, NEAR ROME. 

Leaving Rome by the Porta San Giovanni, the Via 
Appia Nuova immediately crosses the Mariana stream, 
and soon after separates from that leading to Frascati. 
At the second milestone we cross the ancient Via Latina, 
the direction of which is marked by a line of ruined 
sepulchres, two of which, in brick, and now converted into 
temporary farm-buildings, at a short distance on the line, 
are in good preservation. At this point, and beyond 
where the modern road intersects the Via Latina, and in 
the space between them and the Claudian aqueduct, upon 
the farm of the Arco Travertino, or del Corvo, excavations 
were made in 1858, which led to the discovery of some 
most interesting sepulchral monuments of the age of the 
Antonines, and of the Basilica of St. Stephen, founded in 
the pontificate of Leo the Great, in the middle of the fifth 
century. Several marble columns with ancient Composite 
and Ionic capitals, have been dug out, some of the latter 
with the cross sculptured on the volutes, and two curious 
inscriptions, one relative to the foundation of the primitive 
church by Demetria, a member of the Anician family, the 
other to the erection of the bell-tower by a certain Lupus 
Grigarius, in the middle of the ninth century, thirty years 
after the rebuilding of the basilica by Pope Leo III. On 
the right or north-side of this basilica is a square 
baptistery, with a sunk semi-circular font in the centre, 



176 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

evidently for baptism by immersion, which could be easily 
performed by kneeling into the water and bending for- 
ward.* In his works, Jacobi Sirmondi makes mention 




Fig. 27. Plan of the Font in the Baptistery op St. Stephen. 

of another baptistery erected in the vicinity of the 
ancient basilica of St. Paul, on the Ostian Way, by Leo 
the Great in the middle of the fifth century.f This 
baptistery, which was octagonal in form, is no longer 
existing. 

BAPTISTERIES OF RAVENNA. 

There are at Ravenna two baptisteries, which are 
among the most interesting monuments of that city so 
famed for its edifices of the Roman-Byzantine period. 
The oldest of these baptisteries is that of San Giovanni 
in Fonte, which is attached to the original basilica of 
Ravenna, and is said to have been erected in the fourth 
century by Orso, archbishop of that city, and restored 
by his successor Neon, who adorned it with mosaics, in 
A.D. 45 1. + Externally it is a plain octagonal building, 



* See Murray's Handbook for Rome. 

t Jacobi Sirmondi, Opera Varia, t. i. col. 1909. 

X Neom .... Fonfes Ursianice Ecclesia pulcherrime decoravit. 
Mtisivo . . . Agnelli, Lib. Pontificalis, part i. p. 237. Isabelle, 
Edif. Circulaires, tav. 42, p. 92. Fabri, Sagre Memorie di Ravenna 
antica, p. 165. 



BAPTISTERY OF RAVENNA. 



177 



surmounted by a circular dome, or cupola. On entering 
the front door, you find yourself in an octangular hall 
of about thirty- two feet in diameter. (Fig. 28.) In the 
centre is a large bath of white Grecian marble, ten feet 
in diameter, and three and a half feet deep, and provided 




Fig. 28. Plan op Baptistery of Ravenna. 

with an outlet for the purpose of emptying it. Attached 
to this basin is a marble pulpit, from which the admi- 
nistrator addressed the catechumens before the perform- 
ance of the rite of baptism. 

The cupola is divided into three circles, the smallest of 
which is the medallion centre of the vault, where the 
baptism of the Saviour is depicted in mosaics of great 
magnificence. The Redeemer stands up to His waist in 
the River Jordan ; above Him is the dove representing the 
Holy Ghost ; John stands on the bank to the left, one foot 
raised on a stone, his head erect, and with his right hand 
he pours the water from a cup on the Saviour's head. 
With his left he holds a jewelled cross. 

Much stress has been laid by some writers on the fact, 
that in these mosaics, which are of great antiquity, John 
is represented as pouring water on the Saviour's head ; 
therefore, they conclude that baptism in primitive times 
was administered both by immersion and affusion. It is 
well to note, however, that the mosaics of this baptistery 

N 



178 



THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 



have been repeatedly restored, and well informed critics 
are of opinion that unwarrantable additions and alterations 
have been made in this magnificent work by incompetent 
artists. These restorations have been rendered necessary 
by the leaky condition of the cupola, a defect which 
unfortunately still exists. 

The head, right shoulder, and right arm of the Saviour 
have been restored ; and also the head, right shoulder, right 
arm, and right leg and foot of John the Baptist. Thus we 
may be indebted to a restorer for the cup, which John 
holds in his right hand, and the jewelled cross in his left, 
for in every other painting of the same period, he is 
represented holding a reed in his left hand, and placing 
his right on the Saviour's head. The mosaics of this 
famed baptistery have therefore lost much of their archaeo- 
logical value, in consequence of these restorations and 
alterations. 




Mg. 29. 



The Baptism or Christ. Sculpture of the fourteenth century, on 
southern door of baptistery of Florence. 



Paciaudus, in his De Cultu S. Joannis Baptists, attributes 
these alterations to the ignorance of the painters, who 



BAPTISTERY OF RAVENNA. I 79 

were unacquainted with the historical facts, which they 
attempted to represent. We quote his own words : — 

" Numquid Christus Dominus adsperswne baptizatus ? 
Tantum abest a vero, ut nihil magis vero possit esse con- 
trarium, sed errori et inscientiae pictorum tribuendum, qui 
quum historiarum seepe sunt ignari, vel quia quidlibet 
audendi potestatem sibi factam credunt, res, quas effigunt, 
mirifice aliquando depravant." (Was our Lord baptized 
by aspersion ? This is so far from being so, that nothing 
can be more contrary to truth, but it must be attributed 
to the error and ignorance of painters, who, being often 
unacquainted with history, or believing they could dare 
every thing, sometimes greatly altered the subjects they 
portrayed). (Figs. 29 and 30.) 

Referring to the mosaics in the baptistery of Ravenna, 
Messrs. Crowe and Calvacasella, in their valuable History 
of Painting in Italy, remark very rightly that " it is 
ludicrous to suppose that restoration is suificient if the 
original cause of damage remains. The roof of the 
baptistery of Ravenna is not waterproof, and the rain 
filters even through the repairs lately made. A new 
roof is required." "Again" they add, " it might be 
advisable when restorations are undertaken, to intrust 
them to skilful hands and not to mere mechanical 
mosaists, ignorant of form and design, however able 
they may be in the technical difficulties of the art. Before 
touching monuments such as these, Italy should possess 
a school devoted to the study of the character and style 
of art in various periods. A competent person should 
be employed to study the mode in which emblems and 
accessories were used in different epochs. For there is no 
doubt that the period in which a monument was erected 
or adorned may be detected by the peculiar character of 
its emblems and accessories ; and the use of false ones by 
restorers produces endless deception." (Vol. i. p. 22) 

N 2 



i8o 



THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 



The other baptistery was erected by the Arians under 
the reign of Theodoric, and now forms part of the oratory 




Fig. 30. Peter Administering Baptism. Painting of the fifteenth century, 
in Church del Carmine, at Florence. 

of the church Santa Maria in Cosmedin. There still 
remains in the centre a round block of granite, about eight 
feet and a half in diameter, believed to be a part of the 



ORDINAL OF BAPTISM. l8l 

ancient baptismal font. This baptistery has a domical 
vault, and is supposed to have been adorned with mosaics 
after the expulsion of the Goths, which took place in the 
year A.D. 540. The cupola is divided into circles like 
that of the earlier baptistery. The same subjects adorn 
the basin of the dome and the circle immediately beneath 
it. In the baptism the Saviour is represented youthful 
and beardless, standing in the Jordan up to his waist ; a 
nimbus surrounds his head, and the dove sheds green fays 
upon his features. John, on the right, finely shaped, with 
long hair and beard, holds a reed in his left hand, and 
places his right on the Saviour's head. The water is 
level, and not raised into a hillock in the absurd manner 
afterwards introduced in the middle ages.* 

The following is a synopsis of the office of Baptism, 
found in a manuscript of the twelfth century, which 
belonged formerly to the church of Ravenna, and was till 
lately in the possession of Father Jos. Baptista Martini, 
of the Conventual Minors of St. Francis, in Bologna. It 
now forms part of the library of the University in that 
city. 

This ritual begins with the Blessing of the Salt, as 

follows : — 

Exorcizo te, creatura sails, in I exorcise thee, creature of 

nomine Dei Patris omnipotentis salt, in the name of the Father 

+, et in charitate Domini nostri Almighty +, and in the charity 

Jesu Christi +, et in virtute of our Lord Jesus + Christ, and 

Spiritus Sancti +. Exorcizo te in the might of the Holy + 

per Deum vivum +, per Deum Ghost. I exorcise thee by the 

verum +, per Deum sanctum +, living God +, by the true God+, 

per Deum qui te ad tutelam by the holy + God, by the 

humani generis procreavit et God who created thee for the 

populo venienti ad credulitatem protection of mankind, and com- 

per servos suos consecrari prae- manded thee to be consecrated 



* D'Aglncourt, Archit. tav. 17, Nos. 16 and 63 ; Nos. 18 and 19. 
Bellenghi, Dissertazione su i Battisteri. Ciamplni, Vetera Monumenta. 
Ricci, Sioria delVArchitt. in Italia. 



I«2 



THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 



cepit,ut in nomine Sanctae Trini- 
tatis efficiaris salutare sacramen- 
tum ad efFugandum inimicum. 
Proinde rogamus te, Domine 
Deus noster, ut banc creaturam 
salis sanctificando sanctifices +, 
et benedicendo benedicas +, ut 
siat omnibus accipientibus per- 
fecta medicina, perananens in 
visceribus eorum. In nomine 
ejusdem Domini nostri Jesu 
Christi, qui venturus est judicare 
vivos et mortuos, et sseculum 
per ignem. R. Amen. 



Deinde immiltat salem in ote in- 
fanti: Accipe salem sapientise ; 
propitiatio sit tibi in vitam 
fflternam. Amen. {Tribus vici- 
biis.) 

Deus patrum nostorum, etc. 



by his servants for the people 
coming to faith ; that in the 
name of the Holy Trinity thou 
be made a saving sacrament for 
putting to flight the enemy. 
Wherefore we beseech Thee, O 
Lord our God, that by sanctify- 
ing Thou sanctify +, and by 
hallowing Thou hallow +, this 
creature of salt, that it become 
to all receiving it a perfect 
medicine, abiding in their in- 
ward parts. In the name of the 
same our Lord Jesus Christ, 
who is to come to judge the 
quick and the dead, and the 
world by fire. Ans. Amen. 

Then he shall put some salt 
into the mouth of the infant, 
saying: Receive thou the salt of 
wisdom ; be it unto thee a pro- 
pitiation unto life everlasting. 
Amen. (Three times.) 

Then he recites the prayer, 
" God of our fathers, etc., as in 
the Roman Ritual ; or another 
prayer beginning with the words, 
' ' God of Abraham, God of Isaac," 
etc., as in the ritual of the 
baptism of adults." 



The priest theti exorcises the Prince of Darkness, and 



says :— 

Ergo, maledicte diabolo, re- 
cognosce sententiam tuam, et 
da honorem Deo vivo et vero ; 
et da honorem Jesu Christo filio 
ejus, et Spiritu Sancto: et recede 
ab hoc famulo Dei, N . . . 
Quia iste sibi Deus et Dominus 
noster Jesus Christus ad suam 
sanctam .... (the word 
gratiam is wanting) benediction- 
em et donum .... 

Deus coeli, Deus terras, etc. 



Audi, maledicte Satana, etc. 



Therefore, thou accursed devil, 
acknowledge thy sentence, and 
give honour to the living and 
true God, give honour to Jesus 
Christ His Son, and to the Holy 
Ghost, and withdraw from this 
servant of God, N : seeing that 
God and Jesus Christ our Lord 
hath vouchsafed to call the same 
to his own .... blessing 
and gift ... (of baptism). 

God of heaven, God of earth, 
&c., as in the Roman Ritual in 
the ordinal for adult baptism. 

Hear, accursed Satan, etc. 



ORDINAL OF BAPTISM. 183 

Then follows the recitation of the Creed. All the above 
is done outside the church. The priest, after another 
prayer, spreads the extremity of his stole over him that is 
to be baptized, and brings him into the church, saying : — 
" Ingredere in templum Dei, adora filium Dei, ut habeas 
partem cum Christo in vitam aeternam. Amen. R. : Pax 
tibi et cum Spiritu tuo." " Come into the temple of God, 
adore the Son of God, that thou mayest have part with 
Christ unto life everlasting. Amen. Ans. : Peace be 
with thee and thy spirit." 

And he places him upon the floor, in the centre of the 
church, and says : — " Stand in the midst of the church, 
that thou mayest be entirely filled with the Holy Ghost." 

He then reads a lesson from Isaiah Iv. 1-3. "Ho, every 
one that thirsteth, come ye to the waters, and he that hath 
no money ; come ye, buy, and eat ; yea, come, buy wine 
and milk without money and without price. Wherefore 
do ye spend money for that which is not bread ? and your 
labour for that which satisfieth not ? hearken diligently 
unto me, and eat ye that which is good, and let your soul 
delight itself in fatness. Incline your ear, and come unto 
me ; hear, and your soul shall live." 

A Gradual. " Come, ye children, hearken unto me : I 
will teach you the fear of the Lord. Look unto him, and 
be lightened : and your faces shall not be ashamed." 
(Psalm xxxiv.) 

The priest then reads in Mark x. 13, the account of 
Christ blessing the children. — The Lord's Prayer and the 
Creed are repeated, and the child lifted up from the pave- 
ment of the church. 

If a sick person be brought for baptism, the reading of 
the Scriptures may be omitted, and the prayer, " ^ternam 
ac justissimam pietatem," etc., will be offered. This 
being done, recite the Lord's Prayer and the Symbol and 
catechize as follows : — 



1 84 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

The beginning of the Gospel according to St. Matthew, 
" The book of generations," etc., as far as " Jesus who 
was called Christ." 

The beginning of the Gospel according to St. Luke, to 
the words, " in the ordinances of the Lord." 

The beginning of the Gospel of St. Mark, as far as 
" Thou art my beloved Son." 

The Gospel according to St. John, from the first verse 
to the words, " full of grace." 

The priest touches with spittle the nostrils and ears of 
the person to be baptized, and says into his right ear, 
" Ephphatha" (be thou opened), etc. 

The priest proceeds : — 

Dost thou renounce Satan and, etc. .' 

Answer : I do renounce him, etc. 

The priest anoints the person between the shoulders ■ 
and on the breast with exorcised oil, saying: I anoint thee 
with the oil of salvation in Christ Jesus our Lord, that He 
may abide with thee eternally. 

An abbreviated litany is chanted. Then follows the 
consecration of the water. After this ceremony is over, 
the priest interrogates the candidate as follows : — 

Dost thou believe in God, etc. .' and so on to the end of 
the Creed, making it into three questions. 

Then, taking him, he baptizes him with trine immer- 
sion (sub trina mersione), saying : Wilt thou be baptized } 
Answer : I will. Three times. And I baptize thee in the 
name of the Father, and dips him once (et mergit semel), 
and of the Son, and dips him the second time (mergit iterum), 
and of the Holy Ghost, and dips him the third time (mergit 
tertio), and taking him out of the font, the presbyter 
anoints him on the crown of the head, in the form of a 
cross, saying: In the name of the Father +, and of the 
Son +, and of the Holy Ghost +. Amen. Dominus 
vobiscum. (The Lord be with you.) Then he says: Deus 



BAPTISTERY OF NAPLES. 1 85 

Pater omnipotens, Domini nostri Jesu Christi, etc. (Al- 
mighty God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ), as in 
the Roman Liturgy. The infant is clothed with a white 
vestment, and a lighted taper is placed in his hand. The 
priest afterwards gives him the Lord's Supper, saying : 
The body of our Lord Jesus Christ keep thine spirit unto 
life everlasting. Amen. And he then leads him to the 
bishop in order to be confirmed." 

BAPTISTERY OF NAPLES. 

The baptistery of Naples is an irregular square 
building, surmounted by a cupola. An old inscription in 
this baptistery, which is now called San Giovanni in 
Fonte, supports the tradition that Constantine erected the 
building in 303. This fact is confirmed by the chronicles 
of the church of Santa Maria del Principio in Villani, but 
contradicted by Assemanni, a modern writer, who pre- 
tends that the erection took place under the auspices ot 
Bishop Vincenzo, between A.D. 556 and 570. The evidence 
of the mosaics is less favourable to the theory of Assem- 
anni than to the tradition which assigns them to an earlier 
date.* The mosaics represent four symbolical figxires of 
the Evangelists. John in the form of an angel, has the 
head of an aged man and the regular features of the 
classic Roman period. In the centre of the cupola is the 
Greek monogram and cross. Scenes from the life of the 
Saviour, such at least as might serve to impress the 
multitude with the idea of His supernatural power and 
benevolence adorned the cupola, but are so altered by 
restoring as to be worthless. 

A circular pavement of white marble, six feet eight 
inches in diameter, now covers the space formerly 
occupied by the baptismal font. 

* Catalan!, Le Chiese di Napoli, vol. ii. pp. 46, 47. 



i86 



THE ARCH/EOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 



This baptistery is attached to the church of Santa Resti- 
tuta, the ancient basilica or cathedral of Naples.* 

BAPTISTERY OF CITTA NUOVA. 

According to a fragment of an inscription found on one 
of the steps of this baptistery, it was erected and adorned 
by Bishop Mauritius, in the sixth century, t (Fig. 31.) 
Like the ancient baths it has internally all around the 
building three steps, which rise from the floor. A descent 
of three steps also leads into the font or basin, which is 





Fig. 31. Section and Plan of Baptistery op Citta Ncova, in Istria. 

surrounded by six columns. The diameter of the building 
is about forty feet, and that of the basin ten feet. The 
accompanying plans are taken from D'Agincourt's work 
on architecture.J 

BAPTISTERY OF PESARO. 

This baptistery, which dates from the fourth century, 
was discovered, some years ago, by the Abbot Giordani 
Olivieri, who gives a description of it in his treatise 
Deir Antico Battistero della S. Chiesa Pesarese, from which 
we have copied the annexed sketch. (Fig. 32.) The letter 



* Mazzocchi, De Caih. Eccl. Nap. p. 25 and following. 
I Ughelli, Italia Sacra, t. v. p. 229. 
X Agincourt, Archil, pi. Ixiii. 13, 14. 



BAPTISTERY OF PESARO. 



187 



A indicates the main entrance of the building, which was 
towards the east, so that the catechumens made their 
solemn renunciations with their face turned towards the 
west, according to the ancient custom. In the centre ot 
the edifice is a font of hexagonal form. The pavement of 
this basin is made of large slabs of Grecian marble. At 
the time these ruins were excavated, there were but two 
steps left, but it is probable that there had been three, in 
accordance with the usual number. To the right of the 




Fig. 3?. Plan op Baptistery op Pesako. 

main door was discovered another baptismal font, with 
three steps to descend into it. At the bottom was found a 
large tube, made of lead, to carry oiF the water. This 
second basin was probably used for the baptism of the 
women, who, as we know, received the rite separately 
from the men. Martene says in his works (Opera, cap. i. 
et ii. No. 13), that the women "Separatim a viris sacro 
fonte immergebantur," — "Were immersed in the sacred 
font apart from the men." 



THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 



BAPTISTERY OF AQUILEJA. 
The epoch in which this baptistery was erected is not 
known with certainty; but that this edifice is of great 




Fig. 33. Section op Baptistebt or Aqtjileja. 

antiquity is evident from its rustic simplicity, the con- 
struction of the basin, which contains three steps all 



BAPTISTERY OF NO VARA. I 89 

around, and the ancient name this baptistery bore, that of 
Ecclesia Paganorum. The building was subsequently- 
united to the more modern cathedral, built by Patriarch 
Poponius, in A.D. 103 1.* A good plan of this baptistery 
(Fig. 33) may be seen in Bertoli's well-known work on the 
antiquities ofAquileja.f He says: " The diameter of the 
building is seventeen feet. The steps are made of flag- 
stones, well joined together, and the remaining portion of 
the baptistery is covered with hard mortar. The bottom 
of the font, which is composed of internal and external 
steps, is made of one large stone, five feet in diameter, 
and in the centre is an outlet for the escape of the water 
after the baptismal function. Some years ago a large 
drain was discovered in the churchyard, lying in a 
straight line from the baptistery to the river, and is sup- 
posed to have served as a subterranean canal, which 
carried off the water of the font, and emptied it into the 
stream. The external height of the basin is two feet and 
nine inches, and its depth four feet and a half; so that a 
man standing in the font would have the water up to his 
neck. The church adjoining has a picture of baptism by 
immersion, which rite was practised for more than nine 
centuries." {Antichita d' Aquileja.) 

BAPTISTERY OF NOVARA. 

Opposite the great door of the Duomo, or Cathedral of 
Novara, opens the curious octagonal baptistery, supported, 
as is the case with almost all the very early edifices of the 
kind, by ancient columns ; and hence the tradition, almost 
invariably annexed to these buildings, of their having 
been Pagan temples. These columns, of white marble, are 



* Michael Lopez Dissert, su i Baitist. 

\ Bertoli, AntichUa d' Aquileja. Da Rubeis, Mon. Eccl. Aquil. 



19° THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

fluted and of the Corinthian order, and have originally 
belonged to an edifice of a good Roman period.* In the 
centre of the octagonal basin is a circular Roman urn, 
bearing an inscription to Umbrena Polla which is as 
follows : — 

VMBRENAE 

A. F. POLLAE 

DOXA LIBERTA 

T. F. I. 

This sepulchral urn was formerly used for baptism by 
immersion.t The large basin which contains it, and was 
undoubtedly the original baptismal font, is octagonal in 
form, and provided with three steps inside and an outlet 
for the escape of the water. It is about four feet deep and 
eight feet wide. 

BAPTISTERY OF FLORENCE. 

The building which is now the baptistery of Florence 
has been the subject of much discussion, having by some 
been considered to be the original temple of Mars^ but 
Lami, in his Lezioni Toscane, has set this matter at rest by 
showing that, though the baptistery is almost entirely 
composed of antique pillars and marbles, yet, as these 
materials are irregularly put together, and as the capitals 
of the pillars are not the same, this building cannot be 
Roman work, and must have been constructed in subse- 
quent times. 

The exact time at which this edifice was constructed 
is unknown. That it was a finished building in A.D. 725 
is clear from a letter of Speciosus, who was bishop of 
Florence at that time, and who speaks of it as his church. 
Originally this building was not the baptistery, but the 



* Murray's Handbook /or Notthern Italy. 
t Racca, Del Duomo e del Battistero di Novara. 



BAPTISTERY OF FLORENCE. 191 

cathedral. It stood without the walls, but in those times 
it was not unusual for cathedrals to be so placed. In the 
thirteenth century, the citizens of Florence determined to 
have a cathedral on a larger scale, and when this was 
accomplished, St. John's became the baptistery.* 




Fig. 34. Plan op Baptibtebt at Florence. 

Originally, like the Pantheon at Rome, this building 
was open at the top. It was secured from the weather f 
in 1150, but the mosaics of the dome were not added 
till 1225. 

This celebrated baptistery is an octagonal structure 
(Fig. 34), measuring about one hundred feet in diameter. 
It stands detached from, but in the immediate vicinity of 
the Duomo, or cathedral. It is built of black and white 
marble, in the style which Giotto is said to have intro- 
duced, and which is peculiar to Tuscany. Internally, a 
gallery, which runs nearly round the whole building, 



* Knight, Church Architecture 0/ Italy. Richa, JVottz. delle Chies. 
Fior. 

\ Lami, Index Chronologicus. 



192 



THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 



is supported by sixteen large granite columns, and the 
vaulted roof is decorated with mosaics by Andrea Tafi, 
the pupil of Cimabue. This baptistery is celebrated espe- 
cially for its three great bronze doors, with their beautiful 







Fig, 35. Interior op Baptistery at Florence. 

bas-reliefs. Two of these doors, sculptured by Ghiberti, 
were immortalised by Michael Angelo with the name of 
Gates of Paradise.* 

On the pavement of the baptistery is a large circle of 
copper, with numerical figures and signs of the zodiac 



Sgrilli, Descrizione del Battishro di Firenze. 



BAPTISTERY OF FLORENCE. 1 93 

upon it, and in the centre of this stood originally a very 
fine octangular basin of a diameter of twelve feet. 
(Fig. 35.) This font, made in 1371, was surrounded by 
three steps, and was four feet and a half deep. It was 
capable of containing twelve persons at the same time. 
At the alternate angles were cavities in which stood the 
priests who administered the rite of baptism. (Boccacio, 
Giovanni. MS. note on Dante.) This large font was 
destroyed by Francesco de' Medici upon the occasion of 
the baptism of his son Philip, in 1576, greatly to the 
displeasure of the Florentines, who carried away, as relics, 
the fragments of marble and mortar.* 

In his immortal work on the Inferno, the poet Dante 
speaks of this building " mio hel San Giovanni" as if he 
delighted in it, though his mischance in breaking some 
part of the baptismal font for the purpose of saving some 
one from drowning, occasioned one of the many unjust 
charges for which he suffered during his troubled life. 
Speaking of the cavities in which sinners guilty of simony 
are punished, he compares them to the fonts : — 

" Nel mio bel San Giovanni, 

Fatti per luogo de' battezzatori ; 
L'un degli quali, ancor non h. molt' anni, 
Rupp' io per un che dentro v'annegava : 
E questo sia suggel ch'ogni uomo sganni." 

{Inf. xix. 17-21.)! 

(In my beautiful St. John's, erected for the use of the baptizers, 
one of these (fonts) I broke, not many years ago, to save one who 
was drowning. Be this the motive, that every man be undeceived.) 

It is not known to a certainty which font it was that the 
poet broke, for it appears that the baptistery of Florence 
was provided with a number of fonts, where, at Easter, 
baptism was administered by immersion. 



* 



Richa, Notiz. delle Chiese Fiorent. t. v. part. i. Lami, Lezioni 
di Antich. Toscane, torn. i. lez. 5a. 
f Murray's Handbook for Italy. 



»y4 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

BAPTISTERY OF BOLOGNA. 

No record remains of the origin, or date, of the circular 
church of San Stefano ; but the most probable hypothesis 
appears to be, that it was the ancient baptistery of 
Bologna, and that it was built either by the Lombard 
king Luitprandus,* or by the people of Bologna, in the 
eighth century.t In the immediate vicinity of this build- 
ing stands a church, of which the predecessor was the 
original cathedral of Bologna, near to which, about the 
year 430, Petronius, who was at that time bishop of 
Bologna, built the monastery of San Stefano, which after- 
wards gave its name to the whole region.J The monastery 
and the church were almost entirely destroyed by the 
Hungarians in A.D. 903, but were rebuilt about a century 
afterwards. The baptistery appears to have escaped with 
little injury. After the Crusades, and when the baptismal 
rite was transferred to the church, the baptistery was 
converted into a chapel of the Holy Sepulchre, for which 
destination it was already adapted by its circular form. 

The name of Luitprandus is associated with this building 
on account of a large marble basin, which is yet to be 
seen in the court of the adjacent church, and which bears 
an inscription in which the name of Luitprandus appears. 
But there is no evidence to show whether he built the 
whole edifice, or only presented it with a font ; and the 
short time during which he was in possession of Bologna 
(which in those days formed a part of the Exarchate of 
Ravenna), makes the latter more probable than the 
former. § 

* Hope, History of Architecture, Italian edition, p. 106. 

t Ricci, Star, dell' Architt. t. i. p. 239. Bianconi, Delia Chiesa 
del S. Sepolcro. 

\ Sigonius, Hist. Bononiensis. 
§ Knight, Architecture in Italy. 



BAPTISTERY OF VERONA. 



195 



BAPTISTERY OF VERONA. 
This baptistery, called S. Giovanni in Fonte, was 
rebuilt in a.d. 1135 by Bishop Bernardo, the older 
building having been destroyed by an earthquake in 11 16. 
In the centre is a large octangular basin of marble, 
twenty-eight feet in circumference, hewn out of a single 
block of Venetian marble.* By actual measurement, we 




Fig. 36. Plan op Baptistery at Verona. 

found the depth of this font to be four feet and a half. 
A frieze of small Lombard arches, supported by grotesque 
heads, runs round the summit. On the faces are repre- 
sented the following subjects : The Annunciation, the 
Visitation, the Birth of our Lord, the Angels appearing 
to the Shepherds, the Adoration of the Wise Men, Herod 
commanding the Slaughter of the Innocents, the Execu- 
tion of his Decree, the Flight into Egypt, the Baptism 
of Christ in the Jordan. In the last-mentioned subject, 
the water of the Jordan is raised into a hillock, and our 
Saviour is being immersed in it. Two angels stand on 



Maiifei, Verona lllustrala, part iii. cap. 3. 



'96 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

the shore holding His garments. There is also a picture 
of the baptism of Christ over the high altar. 




Fig. 37. Elevation of Baptistery at Verona. 

Zeno, Bishop of Verona, who died about A.D. 390, 
says, in his second Invitation to Baptism : " Hasten, my 
brethren, to be purified. The water, vivified by the Holy 
Ghost, and rendered tepid by an agreeable fire, already 

invites you with its sweet murmur Rejoice, 

therefore ; you are immersed naked in the font, but you 
rise again, clothed in a white and heavenly garment, 
which he who does not defile shall inherit the kingdom 
of heaven."* Zeno's writings contain eight invitations 
to the font, a sermon for those who are to be baptized, 
and seven addressed to the neophytes after baptism. 
They may be found in the Bibliotheca Magna Patrum, 
tom. ii. 

BAPTISTERY OF CIVIDALE. 

Cividale, in the Province of Venetia, the ancient Forum 
Julii, is interesting from its numerous Roman antiquities. 
Its duomo, or collegiate church, founded in A.D. 750, 
is a remarkable mediaeval edifice, and contains a hand- 
some baptismal font. It is an octagonal basin, four feet 
and a half in diameter and three feet deep, and was 

* Zeno: Properate benfe loturi, fratres. Aqua viva Spiritu Sancto, 
et igne dulcissimo temperata, blando murmure jam vos invitat. 
. . . . Gaudete itaque, in fontem quidem nudi demergitis, 
sed aetherea veste vestiti, mox candidati inde surgitis, quam qui 
non poUuerit, regna coelestia possidebit per Dominum Jesum 
Christum. {Invitat. II. ad Bapi. Bihl. Max. Pair, tom II. p. 442.) 



BAPTISTERY OF CREMONA. 



197 



formerly used for the administration of baptism by im- 
mersion. This elegant font stood in former times in 
the centre of the baptistery erected near the cathedral 
by Callixtus, Bishop of Aquileja, in A.D. 773. But after 
the destruction of the building, which took place in 1645, 
the font was transferred to the church, where it is still 
to be seen. It is surrounded by eight columns elegantly 
sculptured, which support semi-circular arches, adorned 
with figures, symbols, and various inscriptions.* 

BAPTISTERY OF CREMONA. 
Neither ancient nor modern writers agree in deter- 
mining the epoch of the construction of the magnificent 
baptistery of Cremona, but it is generally thought to be 




Fig. 38. Plan op Baptistery of Cremona. 

not much posterior to the tenth century. The building is 
octagonal, about sixty feet in diameter, and has sixteen 



* Zancarol, Ant. Civ. For. Jul. lib. iii. De Rubeis, EccL Aquil 
Mon. Del Torre, Lett. Intorno alle Ant. Crist. 



198 



THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 



columns of Veronese marble, which support the roof and 
cupola. (Fig. 38.) In the centre is a large octagonal 
marble basin of a diameter of six feet.* The building is 
in a plain and simple Lombard style. It has, what is 
very rare in this class of edifices, a fine projecting porch. 




jfiff. 39. Baptistehy of Ckemona. 

supported by lions. The windows, by which it is scantily 
lighted, might serve for a Norman castle. The walls 
within are covered with ranges of Lombard arches, and 
ragments of frescoes are seen in the gloom.f (Fig. 39.) 



* Merula, Saniuario di Cremona- Aporti, Eccl. Crem. 
t Murray's Handbook for Italy. 



BAPTISTERIES OF ASCOLI AND TORCELLO. igg 

BAPTISTERY OF ASCOLI. 

On the north side of the cathedral there is a detached 
baptistery, a building of the ninth or tenth century. It 
is square at the base and octagonal above. Recent ex- 
cavations* have brought to light a large circular basin, 
built of travertine marble, and which stood in the middle 
of the baptistery. To it was attached a square pulpit, 
from which the administrator addressed the catechumens 
previous to admitting them to the rite of baptism. f The 
style of the whole building is Byzantine. 

BAPTISTERY OF TORCELLO. 

Torcello was the parent island of the Venetian States ; 
the spot to which the unfortunate inhabitants of Altinum 
and Aquileja fled for safety when their homes were made 
desolate by the northern invaders. Thus peopled, Tor- 
cello became a town, and had its cathedral and its bishops 



Fig. 40. Plan of Cathedral and Baptistery of Tokcello. 

long before the existence of St. Mark's at Venice. The 
cathedral stands in the same state in which it was rebuilt 
in the beginning of the eleventh century by Orso Orseolo, 
Bishop of Torcello, and son of the celebrated Doge, Pietro 
Orseolo. 



* Orsini, Descrizione delk Pitt. Ecc.ddla Citta di Ascoli. Lazzari. 
Ascoli in Prospettiva. 

f Lopez, Battisteri, p. 269. 



200 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

In front of the west door of the cathedral may still 
be traced the remains of a very perfect baptistery. (Fig. 
40.) This was a square building externally, measuring 
thirty-seven feet each way, and internally an octagon, 
with the angles cut into hemispherical niches. In the 
centre stood a large font, in the form of an octagon.* 

BAPTISTERY OF PADUA. 

This baptistery is said to have been built about the 
middle of the twelfth century, although Italian authors 
disagree as to the precise time in which it was founded. 
All agree, however, in stating that it was finished and 
adorned in A.D. 1376. The building is square at the base 
and circular above. In the centre stands a large circular 
font, five feet across, and four feet deep. It was formerly 
used for immersion. 

BAPTISTERY OF PISA. 

This magnificent baptistery has deservedly excited the 
admiration of travellers. It was begun in A.D. 1153; 
Diotisalvi was the name of the architect,! but he did not 
bring the work to a conclusion. It remained unfinished 
a number of years, from a deficiency of funds. At length, 
the citizens of Pisa levied a rate for the purpose. An 
inscription on the south side of the interior, near the 
floor of the gallery, cut deep in the circular wall, 
indicates that the work was resumed in 1278. There is 



* Costadoni, Osservazioni inlorno la Chiesa Catted, di Torcdlo, 
P- 33- 

f The following inscriptions are found on two pilasters within 
the building: — 

MCLIII MENSE AVG. FVNDATA FVIT HiEC ECCLESIA. 
DEO TI .SALVI MAGISTER HVIVS OPERIS. 

(This church was founded in the month of May, in the year 11 53. 
Diotisalvi, master of this work). 



BAPTISTERY OF PISA.. 



20I 



reason to believe, from the date on the monument of 
an operarius, or builder, within the fabric, that it was 
not completed before the fourteenth century; all which 
sufficiently accounts for the finials and ornaments in the 
pointed style which appear in the upper parts of the 
building* 

This baptistery is of singular design. The plan is 
circular, with a diameter of one hundred and sixteen feet 




Fig. 41. Flan of Baptisteky at Pisa. 

(Fig. 41); the walls are eight feet thick, the building is 
raised on three steps, and surmounted with a dome in the 
shape of a pear. (Fig. 42.) The external elevation is divided 
into three stories ; in the basement the columns, twenty 
in number, are engaged, and have arches springing from 
column to column, with a bold cornice above. In the first 
story the columns are smaller, stand out in relief, and are 
placed closer together, and the order is surmounted with 
pinnacles and high pediments, placed at equal distances : 
the terminations of these parts are crowned with statues. 



* Knight, Ecclesiastical Architecture of Italy. Morona, Pisa 
Illustrata. 



202 



THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 



Above this is an attic story, decorated with other high 
pediments, pinnacles, and statues. The dome, which is 
covered with lead, is intersected by long lines of very 
prominent fretwork ; all the lines meet in a little cornice 




Fig. 42. Baptistery of Pisa. 

near the top, and terminate in another dome, above which 
is a statue of John the Baptist. The interior is much 
admired for its proportions ; light columns of granite, 
placed between four piers decorated with pilasters, are 
arranged round the basement story, which support a 
second order of piers, arranged in a similar manner, on 
which the dome rests. This dome is famous for its echo. 



BAPTISTERY OF PISA. 203 

as the sides produce the well-known effect of whispering 
galleries* 

The principal entrance facing the east and the duomo, 
is by a decorated doorway ; on the frieze above is the 
martyrdom of John the Baptist, and various scenes 
relating to our Saviour ; among these is a representation 
of baptism by immersion, the Saviour standing in the 
water up to His neck.f This sculpture is similar to that, on 
the ancient bronze door of the cathedral. Above are the 
busts of eleven figures of sacred persons ; the frieze on 
which they are sculptured supports the figures of the 
Madonna and Child, St. John the Baptist, and John the 
Evangelist. There is a descent of three steps round the 
building ; the space between the steps and the wall was 
provided for the accommodation of the persons assembled 
to witness the ceremony of baptism. 

In the centre of the baptistery is a large octagonal 
basin, fourteen feet in diameter, and four feet deep. It is 
provided with an outlet for the escape of the water. The 
basin is filled by means of a subterranean canal. At the 
alternate sides of the font are four small conical basins, 
which are supposed to have been used when the baptism of 
infants by immersion was practised.^ The font is composed 
of a variety of marbles ; the brim and base are of broca- 
tello, the mouldings and divisions, containing sculpture, 
are Carrara. The pavement of the basin consists of two 
sorts of marbles, white and blue, in the form of waves. 
The ancient Romans frequently ornamented their baths in 
this manner. Round the interior is a band of white 
marble, with the following inscription : — 



* Penny Encyclopaedia, Article Baptistery. Milani, Battistero di 
Pisa. Isabelle, Edif. Circulaires. 
f Martini, Theatrum BasiliccE Pisana, Appendix. 
X Michael Lopez, Sopra i Battisleri. 



204 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

HUNC OPE FIDELI FONTEM QUO GAUDIA CCELI 

DAT BAPTIZATIS TOTIUS PONS BONITATIS ; 

ET QUI TAM MIRO LAVACRO PIA DONA DEDERE, 

ET QUI CONSILIUM, PRECOR HOS BAPTISTA TUERE 

PER DOMINUM XTUM FONTEM QUI PROTEGAT ISTUM. 

(I pray thee, O John the Baptist, to guard with thine faithful 
protection this font, in which the source of all goodness gives the 
joys of heaven to the baptized. Protect also those who have made 
pious gifts, and given advice for the erection of this admirable font, 
through our Lord Christ, who protects it.) 

In the centre of the pavement existed formerly a circular 

base or pedestal, whence the water was made to issue by 

several openings ; on this was placed a small column, 

supporting the figure of John the Baptist, in bronze. On 

the plinth were the following words : — 

LAURENTIUS JACOPI DE ANCROJACANPIS AC 
TEMPLI RECTOR D. M. PRAECURSORIS JOAN 
BAPT. IMAGINEM CONSTITUI ET ERIGI 
JUSSIT, A.D. MDXX. 

(Laurentius of Jacop of Ancrojacan, and rector of the temple, 
commanded that the image of John the Precursor be erected and 
established.) 

The altar is placed to the west of the font, and conse- 
quently the priest would have his face towards the east, 
as was the ancient and general usage. Upon the altar is 
placed a vase of marble and alabaster, within which, 
according to Martini, was kept the Eucharist for those 
newly baptized. Opposite the altar is another font, of 
delicate marble, supported by brackets, highly carved, 
adapted to the ceremony as practised at the present day. 

BAPTISTERY OF PARMA. 
The baptistery at Parma was commenced in A.D. 1196, 
and constructed after the designs of Benedetto Antelmi.* 



* Upon the architrave of the northern door of the baptistery is 
the following inscription: — 

BIS : BINIS : DEMPTIS : INCEPIT : DICTUS : 

ANNIS : DE MILLE OPUS ; HOC : SCULPTOR 

DUCENTIS : BENEDICTUS : 



BAPTISTERY OF PARMA. 205 

But the work experienced many interruptions, especially 
during the supremacy of the powerful and ferocious 
Ezzelino da Romana, who, in the middle of the thirteenth 
century, governed the north of Italy in the name of 
the Emperor, and who, displeased with the inhabitants 
of Parma, forbade them access to the quarries of the 
Veronese territory, from which the marble with which 
the baptistery was built was obtained.* In consequence 
of these interruptions, the building was not finished before 
1281 ; which will sufficiently account for the appearance 
of the round style in the lower part of the building, and 
of the pointed, above. Externally, this baptistery is an 
octagon, six stories in height, ending in a dome, which 
is covered by a flat wooden roof. The lowest and the 
highest stories are solid, the others are galleries supported 
by small columns. The interior has sixteen sides, from 
which spring converging ribs, that form a pointed 
dome. The portals are enriched with mouldings and 
pillars, but without imagery. In the interior of the 
baptistery the walls are ornamented with frescoes of the 
thirteenth century, meagrely executed, but well pre- 
served. f 

In the centre stands a very large octagonal basin, cut 
out from one block of yellowish-red marble. It appears 
from an inscription* cut on the rim that this font was 
made by Johannes Pallassonus in 1299. It is about eight 
feet in diameter, four feet deep, and contains another 
basin in the form of a Greek cross, in which the adminis- 



* Storia della Ctltd di Parma di Angela Pezzana. Thesaurus 
EcclesicB Parmensis. Afr6, Sioria di Parma. 

f Knight's Ecclesiastical Architecture of Italy. 
\ The following is the inscription : — 

MCCLXXXXVIIII 

JOHANES DE PALLASONO I. PP.' 



206 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

trator stood during the performance of the rite.* That 
this font was formerly used for baptism by immersion, is 
clearly attested by the following extract, taken from the 
of&cial report forwarded to the Pope on November 21st, 
1578, in which is given a full description of the baptistery 
and its uses. This report is still preserved in the church 
records of Parma. The extract is as follows : — 

" In eadem Ecclesia adest Baptisterium, et adsunt fontes 
separati a Baptisterio. 

" Ad sacri fontis consecrationem parochi civitatis non 
conveniunt. 

" Officium baptizandi pertinet ad duos sacerdotes qui 
appellantur Dogmani ; attamen ipsi non baptizant, sed 
habent substitutum qui eorum vices supplet. 

" Baptizant per immersionem." 

In one corner of the baptistery is a smaller font, or, at 
least, what is now used as such, covered with Runic foliage 
and strange animals; it stands upon a lion setting his 
paws upon a ram. All the children born in Parma are 
now brought to this font to be sprinkled, a practice which 
was introduced after the seventeenth century, and men- 
tioned for the first time in i622.t 

On the pilasters and lunette of the northern gate are 
carved the roots of Jesse and of Joachim, and scenes from 
the life of the Saviour and John the Baptist. In the 
baptism they are both represented standing up to the 
middle in the waters of the Jordan, which are raised into 
a hillock in the absurd manner so generally adopted in 
the middle ages. A sketch of this sculpture is presented 
in the accompanying woodcut. J (Fig. 43.) 



* Michael Lopez, Battistero di Parma, p. 161. His description 
of this baptistery is very complete. 

t Ihid. p. 120. 

f Ihid. p. 170. 



BAPTISTERY OF PISTOIA. 2.0-7 



In the third course of the dome are also scenes from the 
life of John the Baptist, amongst which one, the Baptism 
of Christ, is represented in a form which is but an 
amplification of that adopted in the catacomb of San 




Fig. 43. Baptism of Chxist in the Jordan. A Bas Belief in the Baptistery of 
Parma ; 13th Cenlury. 

Ponziano at Rome. The Redeemer is placed in the 
middle of a running stream; John on the right bank 
places his hand on the Saviour's head ; on the left bank 
stand three angels holding His clothes. The scene is 
repeated in a second baptism on the wall behind the altar. 
It is almost obliterated. 

BAPTISTERY OF PISTOIA. 

This baptistery stands opposite the cathedral of Pistoia, 
and is called San Giovanni Rotondo, although it is an 
octagon in shape. According to Vasari, this building 
was erected in the year 1337 by Andrea Pisano. The 
style of the exterior is Italian- Gothic. The walls are 
covered with black and white marble in alternate layers, 
and surrounded by columns decorated with mosaics. 

The interior of the baptistery is bare and without 
decoration, and in its primitive simplicity presents a 
pleasing contrast with the profuse artistic and idolatrous 
display so universal in Italy. In the centre stands a large 
square basin, ten feet in diameter, and four feet deep, 



208 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

which can contain about nine barrels of water, according 
to information kindly furnished by an ecclesiastic attached 
to the cathedral. This font, which is of fine marble, is 
said to be older than the present building, probably of 
1256. 

BAPTISTERY OF ST. PETER'S AT ROME. 

In his Memorte Sacre delle Sette ckiese di Roma, Giovanni 
Severanus, describing the old basilica of St. Peter, 
informs us that " in the middle of the transept, that is, in 
the space between the pilasters of the cupola and the 
pulpit, towards the north, Pope Damasus, who reigned in 
the year 367, erected a basin for baptism, by collecting 
the numerous streams of water which flowed from the 
Vatican hill, and caused damage to the catacomb under- 
neath." Prudentius, the well-known Christian poet, 
refers to this font in his Twelfth Hymn, in which he gives 
a description of the ancient church, and the martyrdom of 
the Apostles. Damasus himself records this fact in a 
marble inscription, which is still preserved in the subter- 
ranean crypts of the modern basilica. " Invenit fontem 
preebet qui dona salutis," etc. " He devised a font, which 
offers the gifts of salvation." Cardinal Bullion, in his 
Historia Templi Vattcani, says that " this basin was large 
and deep, for the administration of trine immersion, accord- 
ing to the rite of baptism in those times." (Notandum est 
fontem ilium spatiosum fuisse, ac profundum, ut nempe 
regenerandos per trinam immersionem recipere posset, pro 
ut ritus baptismi eo tempore ferebat. Cap. xxii.) This 
font was pulled down together with the ancient basilica. 

In the chapel of John the Baptist, the first on the left of 
the modern magnificent basilica, there is an ancient vase 
of red porphyry, which formed the cover of the tomb of 
the Emperor Otho II., as it did more anciently that of 
Hadrian, and which now serves as a baptismal font. 



FRANCE. ^^jy 

When the church was erected, this font was raised on 
three marble steps, but Benedictus XIII., elected Pope 
in 1724, being anxious to conform to the ancient rite 
of administering baptism by immersion, ordered the 
construction of two steps below the pavement, forming 
thus a large basin, in which persons could be immersed 
with ease. Now that the primitive rite is definitively- 
abandoned, this basin is partly closed with a wooden 
pavement.* A commemorative inscription, engraved in 
gilded letters on a marble slab beneath the large picture 
behind the font, reads as follows : — 

BENEDICTVS XIII. PONT. MAX. 

ORD. PR^DICATORVM. 

HVMAN^ REGENERATIONIS FONTEM 

VETERI RITV INSTAVRAVIT 

ANNO SAL. MDCCXXV. 

PONT. SVI ANNO. II. 

(Benedict XIII., Supreme Pontiff, of the order of Preachers, 
constructed this font of human regeneration for the ancient rite, in 
the year of salvation, 1725, the second year of his pontificate.) 



FRANCE. 



Tvlost of the ancient baptisteries in France have been 
destroyed. The church of St. Jean Le Rond, at Paris, 
was the baptistery of the cathedral of Notre-Dame, in the 
vicinity of which it was erected. It was taken down in 
1748, and not a vestige of the foundations remains. This 



* II fonte battesimale poi, quando venne costruito, ergevasi su 
tre gradini di lumachella (MartinelH, Basilica Vaticana, lib. ii. p. ij6). 
Ma Benedetto XIII. , volendo uniformarsi all' antico rito di conferire 
il battesimo per immersione, commandii che fosse collocato due 
gradini sotto al pavimento, formando cosi un vano in cui potessero 
con agevolezza immergersi que' che si battezzavano. Oggi per6^, 
dismesso affatto I'antico rito, il vano d chiuso in parte da un piano 
di legno. (Valentini, Basilica Vaticana, t, ii.) 

P 



210 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

baptistery took its name from the round form of the 
oratory, in which was the basin for the administration of 
baptism. 

Another baptistery was situated near the house of 
Ste. Genevieve, the patron of Paris, and was known by 
the name of St. John the Baptist in 88 1. (Lebceuf, 
Histoire de la ville et du diocese de Paris, i. 20, 437.) 

The ancient church of St. John, at Poitiers, was 
formerly the baptistery of that city. This edifice has the 
form of an elongated parallelogram, and contains marble 
columns of various dimensions. In the centre existed 
formerly a basin, which was excavated in 1804, by 
M. Siauve, who reports as follows the results of his 
discovery : — " The workmen," he says, " had no sooner 
removed the soil with their pickaxes, than an octagonal 
wall came to the light. I then recalled to mind the 
following passage of Don Martene : — ' The church of 
St. John was formerly the baptistery of the entire city of 
Poitiers. There were some steps to descend into the font 
it contained.' On continuing the excavations, one of the 
steps was discovered. The pavement of the basin, which 
was probably made of stone or marble, had disappeared, 
but a canal, which carried off the water, was traced from 
the font to a drain in the vicinity. I found only two steps, 
but judging from the thickness of the surrounding walls, 
and the level of the ancient pavement, there must have 
been three steps at least." M. de Caumont remarks, in 
his Cours d' Antiquitis Monumentales, that one of the 
Corinthian columns which support the open arcade of 
this baptistery is decorated with figures of fishes. This 
would confirm the baptismal character of that building, 
since the fish, as we have already seen, was considered an 
emblem of baptism, and the font was called " piscina " a 
fish-pond, from the supposed presence in it, by invocation, 
of IX&TS (The Fish), an acrostic, composed of the initial 



BAPTISTERY OF PUY. 



211 



letters of our Saviour's several titles, Jesus Christ, the 
Son of God, Saviour. 

The annexed engraving (Fig. 44) represents the plan of 
a small building at Puy, which was in former times the 
baptistery of that city. It is an octagon, with a circular 




Fig. ii. Plan op Baptistery at Puy, France. 

recess for the altar, and was built in the course of the 
twelfth century. 

One of the most interesting features of the cathedral 
of Frejus is to be found in the ancient baptistery 
which belongs to it. This edifice is separated from the 
church by a porch, and is supported by eight columns of 
granite, bearing Corinthian capitals of white marble. 
Chapels have been placed in the intervals between the 
columns. 

At Aix, there is a baptistery which communicates with 
the nave of the cathedral, and is lower than the pavement 
of the church. It was restored a few years ago. Eight 
antique columns of polished granite support the dome of 
this baptistery. 

The baptistery of Chalons was built in the vicinity of 
the mother-church, or cathedral, and dedicated to John the 
Baptist. The small chapel built by the side of it, and 

p 2 



2 I 2 



THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 



which Still exists, was restored in the eleventh century, 
and consecrated under the same name. 




Fig. 45. BArTisM of King Clovis. 

A baptistery of the fifth century, was excavated 
recently in close approximation to the ancient cathedral 
of Marseilles 



BAPTISM OF CLOVIS. 2 13 

Gregory of Tours, in the third book of his History of 
France, designates under the title of Tcmphtm Baptisterii, 
the temple of the baptistery, the ediiice at Rheiras, in 
which King Clovis was solemnly baptized by Remigius.* 
This important event, represented in the accompanying 
woodcut (Fig. 45), is thus recounted by Gregory of 
Tours :— " The news of the conversion of the Franks is 
carried to St. Remy, who, filled with joy, orders the 
sacred fonts to be immediately prepared ; decorated 
draperies overshadow the streets; the churches are 
ornamented with curtains ; the baptistery is put in order ; 
clouds of perfume arise ; sweet scented tapers are burning, 
the entire temple of the baptistery is filled with a divine 
odour, and the Lord gave His grace to the assistants in 
such abundance that they fancied themselves surrounded 
by the perfumes of Paradise. The king was the first to 
.request baptism from the pontiff. Another Constantino, 
he advances towards the bath, which is to wash away 
his leprosy — he comes to purify in the fresh water the 
hideous stains of his past life. As he is about to enter 
into the font, the saint of God says to him in an eloquent 
voice : — ' Sicamber, bow humbly thy head ; adore what 
thou hast burnt ; and burn what thou hast adored.' The 
king, having confessed his belief in one all-powerful God 
in the Trinity, was baptized in the name of the Father, 
the Son and the Holy Ghost, and was anointed with the 
holy chrism administered with the sign of the cross of 
Christ. More than three thousand men of his army were 
also baptized, as well as his sister Albofleda, who, not 
long after, died in the Lord."t 



* Remigius or Remy, bishop of Rheims, was so distinguished 
for his zeal that he has obtained the appellation of The Apostle of 
the Gauls. 

t Gregory of Tours : Nuntiantur hsec antistiti, qui gaudio 
magno repletus, jussit lavacrum prseparari. Velis depictis adum- 



2 14 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

The baptistery is represented by a quadrilateral edifice, 
without a dome, and pierced with a number of windows. 
Clovis, in a state of complete nudity, stands erect in the 
water, which reaches up to his waist. His hands are 
joined, his features are calm. All the assistants are in 
the attitude of surprise and expectation — the pretended 
miracle of the holy ampulla takes place, a shining dove 
penetrates into the baptistery, holding in its beak the 
precious ampulla ; Remy in his episcopal robes, watches 
the descent of the Holy Ghost and renders thanks to God 
for this manifestation of His favour. The clergy, the 
courtiers, and the people, are full of admiration. Near 
the font are represented two of Clovis' soldiers, who are 
about to imitate his example. 

The following liturgy was used by Remy in the admi- 
nistration of baptism. It is taken from a manuscript 
about one thousand years old. 



brantur platese, ecclesiae cortinis albentibus adornantur, baptisterium 
componitur, balsama diffunduntur, micant flagrantes odore cerei, 
totumque templum baptisterii divino respergitur ab odore ; talem- 
que ibi gratiam adstantibus Deus tribuit, ut ^stimarent se 
paradisi odoribus conlocari. Rex ergo prior poposcit se & ponti- 
fice baptizari. Procedit novus Constantinus ad lavacrum, deleturus 
leprae veteris morbum, sordentesque maculas gestorum antiquorum 
recent! latice deleturus. Cui ingresso ad baptismum, sanctus Dei 
sic infit ore facundo : " Mitis depone colla, Sicamber, adora quod 
incendisti, incende quod adorasti." Igitur rex Omnipotentem 
Deum in Trinitate confessus, baptizatus est in nomine Patris, et 
Filii, et Spiritus Sancti, delibutusque sacro chrismate cum signa- 
culo crucis Christi. De exercitu verb ejus baptizati sunt amplius 
tria millia. Baptizata est et soror ejus Albofleda, quas non post 
multum tempus migravit ad Dominum. {De Gestis Francorum, 
lib. ii.) 

Gregory of Tours (a.d. 539-593) is esteemed the father of 
Gallic history ; his writings disclose considerable diligence, but 
little judgment. Levity and credulity are the characteristics of his 
Annals of the Franks, his Miracles or Lives of the Saints, and of his 
other writings. His tasteless history is the' authority most nearly 
contemporary with, and, in fact, the only original and detailed 
chronicle of the reign of Clovis. 



LITURGY OF REMY. 2 15 

" On Sabbath morning the children recite the Creed. 
Catechize them previously, with the hand placed upon 
their heads, saying : — ' Remember, Satan,' &c., as in the 
Roman ordinal. Then touch the nostrils and ears of the 
child, and say : Ephpheta, Ephpheta, &c. Afterwards, 
apply the exorcised oil to his chest and between his 
shoulders, and calling each one by name, say : Dost 
thou renounce Satan ? &c. I anoint thee with the oil of 
salvation unto life everlasting. Then recite again the 
Creed, with the hand placed upon their heads. The arch- 
deacon says : Pray, ye elects, bow the knee, &c. He 
gives the following notice : Let the catechumens retire, 
&c. The deacon says : Dearly beloved sons, return to 
your places, &c. 

" This done, the pontiff proceeds from the church, 
accompanied by every order of the priesthood, chanting 
the litany, and preceded by two tapers of the height of 
a man, with thuribles and tymias, goes to bless the 
font. The litany having been chanted around the font, 
silence is restored, and the pontiff says: — 'The Lord be 
with you. And all answer : And with thy spirit. He 
then makes the following prayer : — Almighty and ever- 
lasting God, be present, &c., as in the Roman Ritual. 
Taking some of the chrism in a small vase, he pours it in 
form of a cross upon the water, and sprinkles with it the 
font and the bystanders. The presbyter interrogates 
each one (of the candidates) as follows : — Believest thou 
in God the Father Omnipotent ? Answer : I believe, &c. 
Wilt thou be baptized ? &c. 

"The presbyters or the deacons, or, if need be, the 
acolyths, having put on other robes, proceed to the font, 
and enter into the water, and receiving them from their 
parents, baptize, first the males, and then the females, by 
trine immersion, with but one invocation of the Lloly 
Trinity, saying: I baptize thee in the name of the 



2l6 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

Father, and dip once, and of the Son, and dip again, and 
of the Holy Ghost, a^id dip the third time. (Et ingredi- 
untur presbyter! aut diaconi, etiam si necesse fuerit, 
acolythi discalceati, induentes se aliis vestibus mundis, et 
ingrediuntur ad fontes intro in aqua, et accipientes eos a 
parentibus suis baptizantur primi masculi, deinde feminae 
sub trina mersione, tantum Sanctam Trinitatam semel 
invocantes, ita dicendo : Baptizo te in nomine Patris, et 
mergis semel ; et Filii, et mergis iterum ; et Spiritus 
Sancti, et mergis tertio.) 

" When they have come out of the font, the presbyter 
dips his thumb in the chrism and anoints them, on the 
crown of the head, in the form of the cross, saying • 
Almighty God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, &c. 

" They are then received by the sponsors, and the pontiff 
walks out of the font and takes his seat in the church. 
The children are brought to him, and he gives them a 
stole, a chasuble, the chrism, and ten silicas, and then the 
children are clothed. They afterwards attend mass, and 
they are recommended not to take any food till after they 
have received the communion." 

Gregory of Tours, in the Fifth Book of his History, 
gives an account of the conversion and baptism of a 
number of Jews at Clermont, through the labours of the 
bishop Avitus. " The Jews for a long while hesitated and 
wavered ; but on the third day they sent him (Avitus) an 
answer in the following terms : ' We believe that Jesus 
is the Son of the living God, often announced by the 
prophets, and therefore beg of thee to wash us with 
baptism, that we may not persevere in our sin.' On 
learning this, the pontiff, filled with joy, proceeded to the 
baptistery, situated outside of the walls of the city ; there 
a multitude fell upon their knees before him, entreating to 
be baptized. Weeping for joy, he washed them all in the 
sacred water, and anointed them with the holy chrism. 



BAPTISMS IN FRANCE. 217 

and added them all to the Church, their mother. There 
were more than five hundred who received baptism.* 

Alluding to the persecutions inflicted upon a young 
maiden in order to force her to abjure the Catholic faith, 
Gregory says that, " after she had endured many suffer- 
ings and lost all her earthly riches, she was led to a new 
baptism. While she was being plunged in this filthy 
bath, she exclaimed : ' I believe that the Father, the 
Son, and the Holy Ghost, are of one substance and one 
essence.' She was then taken out of the bath and sub- 
mitted to the rack according to the law, and after passing 
through the excruciating tortures of the flames and the 
iron spikes, was decapitated, and thus consecrated to the 
Lord." t 

Charlemagne (a.d. 742-814) decreed a law punishing the 
refusal of baptism with the penalty of death, a fact which 
degrades his bigotry even below the ignorant ferocity of 
Clovis, or the fanatical proselytism of the Koran. Finding 
that the sturdy Saxons resisted all the persuasions and 
entreaties of the priests sent to offer them the rite of 



* Gregory of Tours : Uli autem diu sestuantes atque dubitantes, 
tertia die, conjuncti in unum ad eum mandata remittunt, dicentes : 
"Credimus Jesum filium Dei vivi, nobis prophetarum vocibus 
repromissum ; et ideo petimus ut abluamur baptismo, ne in hoc 
delicto permaneamus." Gavisus autem nuntio pontifex, nocte 
sancta Pentecostes, vigiliis celebratis, ad baptisterium foras mura- 
neum egressus est ; ibique omnis multitudo coram eo prostrata, 
baptismum fiagitavit. At ille, pras gaudio lacrymans, cunctos aqua 
abluens, chrismate liniens, in sinu matris ecclesiae congregavit. 
Fuerunt autem qui baptizati sunt, amplius quingenti. {De Geslis 
Francorum, lib. v.) 

t Gregory of Tours : Post multas quaestiones, post ablatos 
terrenarum divitiarum thesauros, cum ad hoc frangi non posset, 
ut beatam scinderet Trinitatem, ad rebaptizandum invita deducitur. 
Cumque in illud coenosum lavacrum vi cogeretur immergi, pro- 
clamaret: " Patrem cum Filio, ac Spiritum Sanctum unius credo 
esse substantias essentiaeque." Exhinc ad legitimam deductam 
quaestionem, post equuleos, post fiamrnas et ungulas, Christo 
Domino capitis decisione dicatur. (Lib. ii.) 



2l8 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

baptism, Charlemagne resorted to acts of the most savage 
cruelty. Four thousand of them who refused to submit 
were butchered in one day, on the banks of a small river 
which discharges itself into the Oder. At another time, 
besides ravaging their country with fire and sword, he 
decimated in cold blood all the inhabitants, and obliged 
them, by the most rigorous edicts, to make a seeming 
compliance with the doctrines and ceremonies of the 
Romish Church. 

In a treatise on the Mystery of Baptism, written by 
Magnus, archbishop of Sens, in obedience to a command 
of Charlemagne, we find the following definition of the 
ordinance : — " Baptism, a Greek-Latin word, means 
dipping or washing, because in it man is renovated by 
the grace of the Holy Ghost. For this reason the infant 
is immersed three times in the sacred font, that by this 
triple mystical immersion may be represented the burial 
of Christ during three days, and the rising out of the 
water, the resurrection of Christ from the sepulchre." 
(Baptisma graecum nomen est, quod in Latinam linguam 
conversum tinctio vel lavacrum interpretatur, quod ibidem 
infans, vel etiam cujuscumque setatis homo per gratiam 
Spiritus Sancti renovatur in melius. Idcirco mergitur 
infans tribus vicibus in sacris undis, ut mystice triduanam 
designes Christi Domini nostri sepulturam. Demersio 
trina et elevatio ab aquis similitudo Christi est de 
sepulchro resurgentis). This treatise, which gives the 
symbolical import of each rite performed in connection 
with baptism, is reproduced by Martene [De Antiquis 
Ecclesics Ritihus) from an old manuscript in the National 
Library at Paris. 

Fulbertus, bishop of Chartres in the eleventh century, 
teaches also the doctrine of baptismal regeneration in the 
following terms: — "We know, and know truly, that we 
were polluted by our first birth, and purified by the second ; 



FRANCE: VARIOUS TESTIMONIES. 2ig 

therefore we are buried and we die with Jesus Christ, that 
we may be born again and quickened with Him. The 
water and the Holy Ghost are united in that sacrament ; 
the water denotes the burial, the Holy Ghost the life 
eternal. As Jesus Christ lay buried three days in the 
ground, so man is dipped, and, as it were, buried three 
times in the water, that he may rise again by the Holy 
Spirit." * 

In their numerous writings, Anselme of Laon (1030- 
II 17), Yves of Chartres (1115), Honorius of Autun, Hugue 
of St. Victor, mention three immersions. Pierre Lombard, 
in the Fourth Book of his Distinctiones, in answer to the 
question how many times immersion should be adminis- 
tered, said : " Either once or thrice, according to the 
various custom of the church. (De immersione vero si 
quaeritur quoties fieri debeat, precise respondemus vel 
semel, vel ter pro vario ecclesise more.) Thomas Aquinas 
(1227-1274) says that in baptism is performed trine immer- 
sion in water. (In baptismo fit trina immersio in aquam. 
In Symbol Apost.c. 13.) The celebrated Gerson, Chancellor 
of the University of Paris, and author of The Imitation of 
Jesus Christ [h..V>. 1363-1429), informs us that in his time 
single or trine immersion was practised, according to the 
different usages of the churches. In answer to the 
question : Quoties debet immergi } (How often should one 
be immersed?) he says: "Secundum consuetudinem eccle- 



* Fulbertis: Scimus et vere scimus, nos prima nativitate pollutos, 

secunda nativitate mundatos Common enim cum 

Christo, et sepeliri ad hoc tendit, ut cum illo resurgere possimus, 

et cum illo vivere Proinde aqua et Spiritis Sanctus 

sociantur causis, sed beneficiis separantur. Requiritur sane in 
baptismalis sacramentis aqua propter sepulturam, Spiritus Sanctus 
propter vitam aeternam. Sicut ergo Dominus noster Jesus Christus 
tribus diebus et tribus noctibus corporaliter sub terr» sepulcro 
conditus fuisse describitur, et homo ita sub cognato terras elemento 
trina vice demersus operitur, ac sic vitalis imitatione mysterii dum 
demergitur sepelitur, dum educitur suscitatur. 



2 20 THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

sise, vel semel propter imitatem diviiiee essentiae, vel ter 
propter Trinitatem Personarum." (According to the usage 
of the church, either once, to denote the unity of the 
Divine essence, or three times, to represent the Trinity of 
the Persons. 

A learned monk, in the library of the Minerva at Rome, 
has kindly favoured us with the following extract from a 
manuscript of the fourteenth century, which contains the 
directions of Guillaume Durant, bishop of Mende from 
1286-1296, to the clergy of his diocese. In the chapter on 
baptism, the bishop says : " Each basilica should be pro- 
vided, if possible, with stone fonts. Otherwise, let there 
be a. wooden basin made expressly for the purpose. . . 
Teach frequently your people the form of baptism, in 
order that they may, in case of necessity, observe it 
scrupulously, to wit : that he who baptizes, after giving a 
name to the child, and made the sign of the cross upon 
the water, must plunge the infant three times in the form 
of the cross, in warm or cold water, saying: P ... or 
C . . . I baptize thee in the name of the Father, and 
of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Amen. And if he 
cannot say the words in Latin, let him pronounce them in 
the common language. Should he have immersed the 
child but once, and forgotten to give it a name, and not 
used the word ego., I ; if he has said the remaining part of 
the form, the child shall be considered as duly baptized 
. . . (Baptizans infantem . . . ter in modum crucis 
immergat ilium in aquam calidam vel frigidam. . . .) 

M. de Moleon, in his Voyages Liturgiques de France; 
alludes to the existence at Orleans of a ritual of the year 
1 58 1, in which trine immersion is directed as follows: — 
"Dicit Presbyter puero, et ego baptizo te in nomine Patris, 
mer gat semel; et Filii, mergat secundo; et Spiritus Sancti. 
Amen. Mergat tertio. 

There are still existing in several churches of France 



BAPTISTERY OF CHARTRES. 



221 



paintings of baptism by immersion. In the cathedral 
of Sens a painted window contains a representation of the 
baptism of Eutropus by Simon and Jude. Under the 
portico of the cathedral of Bourges, Ursinus is shown as 
baptizing by immersion the son of Leocades, governor of 
the Gauls. Upon the entrance of the church of St. 
Trophimus, at Aries, is sculptured a baptismal scene : a 
child is plunged into a font, and the Holy Ghost descends 
upon it in the form of a dove. 

The annexed figure (Fig. 46) represents a stone font of 




Fig. 46. Font at Chartres, France. 

the twelfth century, which is now in the crypt of the 
church of Notre Dame, at Chartres. 

The font in the church of Thouveil (Fig. 47) is of the 
eleventh century, and has the form of a trough, in which 
the infant was laid down, and thus immersed in the water. 
It is about one foot and a half in width, and four feet and 
a half in length. The baptismal fonts in the church of 
Limay, near Nantes, are of the same shape. 

In the church of St. Peter's, at Montdidier, is a font, 
which was made in the latter part of the eleventh century. 
In the museum of the Louvre, at Paris, is a font, richly 
ornamented, brought from the East on the occasion of the 



222 



THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 



baptism of the sons of St. Louis. The font of Pont de 
Mousson has the shape of a tub, and is decorated with 
bas-reliefs, which represent John the Baptist preaching 
to publicans and soldiers, and baptizing two Jews, who 
stand in the water up to their waist. Another bas-relief 




Fig. 47. Font at Thouveil, France. 

shows the Precursor in the act of baptizing our Saviour, 
with the waters of the Jordan rising up to the middle of 
the body. 

The Roman Ordinal of baptism, edited by order of 
Clement VIII. and Urban VIIL, is now used in all the 
Catholic churches of France. It directs, as we have 
already seen, three affusions, instead of three immersions. 



GREAT BRITAIN. 

It is an opinion commonly received, that Christianity 
was first planted in Britain when the Romans began to 
colonise the island, and to establish magistrates and 
jurisdiction. Eusebius, the friend of Constantine, who 
was proclaimed emperor in Britain, specifies the British 
Islands among the countries where the Gospel had 



GREAT BRITAIN. 223 

been preached, (e-n-l ra? KaXovfievw; BpLTTaviKo,^ vijaov^. 
Demonst. Evangelica:) Theodoret (torn. iv. serm. 9), names 
the Britons in his enumeration of the different nations 
converted by the Apostles. Tertullian, in his treatise 
Against the Jews {Adversus Judmos), speaks of the 
■wide extension of Christianity in Britain. (Britannorum 
inaccessa Romanis loca, Christo ver6 subdita.) A 
Christian Church subsisted there, though not always 
in an equal degree of vigour, till the persecution of 
Diocletian. It then acquired new strength and 
reputation from the pious fortitude of its martyrs, 
amongst which may be mentioned Alban, Aaron, and 
Julius. 

The church of London was in existence as early as the 
latter part of the second century, though it is not until 
the sixth that we find any actual reference to it. But at 
that period a very interesting incident occurred in the 
church, which Bede dramatically relates in his Eccle- 
siastical History : — " When Sebert, the founder of West- 
minster Abbey, and the joint founder (according to Bede) 
with Ethelbert, king of Kent, of St. Paul's, died, he left 
his three sons, who were yet pagans, heirs of his temporal 
kingdom. Immediately on their father's decease they 
began openly to practise idolatry (though whilst they 
lived they had somewhat refrained), and also gave free 
license to their subjects to worship idols. At a certain 
time these princes, seeing the bishop (of London, 
Mellitus,) administering the sacrament to the people in 
the church, after the celebration of mass, and being puffed 
up with rude and barbarous folly, spoke, as the common 
report is, thus unto him : — ' Why dost thou not give us, 
also, some of that white bread which thou didst give unto 
our father, Saba (Sebert), and which thou dost not yet 
cease to give to the people in the church } ' He answered, 
' If ye will be washed in that wholesome font where your 



2 24 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

father was, ye may likewise eat of this blessed bread 
whereof he was a partaker; but if ye contemn the lavatory 
of life, ye can in no wise taste the bread of life.' 'We 
will not,' they rejoined, ' enter into this font of water, for 
we know we have no need to do so ; but we will eat of 
that bread nevertheless.' And when they had been often 
and earnestly warned by the bishop that it could not be, 
and that no man could partake of this most holy oblation 
without purification and cleansing by baptism, they at 
length, in the height of their rage, said to him, ' Well, if 
thou wilt not comply with us in the small matter that 
we ask, thou shalt no longer abide in our province 
and dominions ; ' and straightway they expelled him, 
commanding that he and all his company should quit the 
realm." 

In the seventh century, before Rome had succeeded in 
bringing the British Christians under her despotic spiritual 
power, the missionary labours of such men as Paulinus, 
Aiden, Coleman, and the Venerable Bede, were attended 
with wonderful success among the native pagans of 
Britain, especially in Northumberland. We have already 
seen that Paulinus baptized King Edwin at York, A.D. 
627, and at the village of Rigin he immersed a great 
number of people in the river Glen, and again in the 
rivers Swalva and Trehenta (Swarle and Trent). Rev. 
Dr. Cathcart, in the London Freeman, describes one of the 
natural baptisteries in which Paulinus is said to have 
baptized three thousand on one occasion. " About eleven 
miles from the Cheviot Hills, separating England and 
Scotland, and about the same distance from Alnwick 
Castle, the celebrated seat of the Dukes of Northumber- 
land, and near the village of Harbottle, there is a remark- 
able fountain. It rises on the top of a slight elevation, and 
at the present time it is thirty-four feet long, twenty feet in 
breadth, and two feet in depth, but it is capable of being 



ENGLAND : NORTHUMBERLAND. 225 

made deeper by placing a board over an opening at one 
side. A stream issues from the spring which forms a 
little creek. A few shade-trees and benches surround it, 
bearing the usual knife-marks of visitors. The traditions 
of Northumberland point out this fountain as one of the 
baptisteries of Paulinus, the apostle of the North of 
England, where he immersed three thousand during the 
Easter of A.D. 627. The 'History of Northumberland' 
contains and confirms the testimony of tradition. The 
spring is a place of public resort for the population for 
many miles, and for numerous strangers, on account of 
its early baptismal associations. The writer saw several 
visitors during a half-hour which he spent beside its clear 
waters. An ancient statue, as large as life, which formerly 
lay prostrate in the spring, now stands against a tree on 
its margin. The drapery of the ' bishop,' as the statue is 
called, shows that it was set up at a very remote period, 
probably only two or three centuries after Paulinus, whom 
it was doubtless intended to represent. A large crucifix 
now stands in the centre of the fountain, erected under 
the superintendence of the aged vicar of the parish (a 
clergyman who graduated at Oxford), which bears the 
following inscription : ' In this fountain, called the 
" Lady's Well," on the introduction of Christianity, in the 
Saxon reign of Edwin, and early in the seventh century, 
Paulinus, an English bishop, baptized three thousand 
people.' A short distance from the spring is the village 
of Holy Stones, where a nunnery once stood, to which the 
well belonged. Some scanty remains of the convent are 
still to be seen, and the stones can easily be detected in 
the houses of the hamlet. This establishment was located 
near the spring, at an early day, to gain a special blessing 
from so holy a fountain; and it is strong corroborative 
evidence of the sacred use to which Paulinus devoted its 

crystal waters The Lady's Well is some thirty or 

Q 



2 26 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

forty miles from Newcastle, and is full of interest to the 
antiquary and the traveller." 

Bede recounts the following conversions and baptisms : 
" Byrinus preached in the province of Gevisses, and 
baptized both the king and the people, and Oswal, king 
of Northumberland, being present, received him as he 
came out of the bath." (Eum de lavacro exuentem 
suscepisse.) 

" When Wilfrid converted the South Saxons, and Edil- 
malch, their king, was baptized in Mercia, King Wolfhere 
being present, received him when coming out of the water 
as his godson." (A quo etiam de fonte egressus loco filii 
susceptus est.) 

" The holy days of Lent were at hand, and were 
rendered more religious by the presence of the priests, 
insomuch that the people, being instructed by daily 
sermons, resorted in crowds to be baptized ; for most of 
the army desired admission to the water of the saving 
bath. The army advanced, still wet with baptism." * 

Speaking of a little boy who had been delivered from 
death by his father's prayers, he adds : — " When he had 
lived there a long time after, and applied himself to the 
reading of the Scriptures, he was informed that he had 
not been regenerated by the water of baptism, and being 
then washed in the font of the saving bath, he was after- 
wards promoted to the order of the presbytery." f {EccL 
Hist. b. i. ch. xxiv.) 



* Beda : Aderant Quadragesimae venerabiles dies, quos reli- 
giosiores reddebat przesentia sacerdotum, in tantum, ut quotidianis 
prasdicationibus instituti, certatim populi ad gratiam baptismatis 
convolarent ; nam maxima exercitus multitude undam lavacri 
salutaris expetiit . . . Madidus baptismate procedit exercitus, 
fides fervet in populo, et conterrito armatorum praesidio, divinitatis 
expectatur auxilium. {Hist. Eccl. lib. i. cap. xx.) 

f Beda: — Cum multo post hagc tempore viveret, et Scripturis 
legendis operam daret, tandem didicit se aqua baptismatis non 



ENGLAND : AUSTIN. 227 

Alluding to a Christian soldier who had suffered martyr- 
dom, Bede says : — " Though he was not washed in the 
font of baptism, yet he was cleansed by the washing of 
his own blood, and rendered worthy to enter the kingdom 
of heaven." * [Eccl. Hist. b. i. ch. vii.J 

Austin, a monk in the convent of St. Andrew, at Rome, 
was sent in the year 589, by Pope Gregory, as Primate 
of Britain ; but was unable to reduce the British clergy 
to conformity with the Church of Rome, and to prevail on 
them to admit the slightest change in their ancient 
customs. From the account given by Bede, we learn that, 
before the final conference held with Austin and his 
companions, the British bishops solicited the advice of an 
anchorite of great reputation for sanctity and wisdom, 
and besought him to give an opinion on the difiicult 
question, whether they ought to abandon the customs and 
usages of their ancestors and adopt those' of Austin. His 
answer was that he saw no reason why they should adopt 
any alterations in their religion, simply on the bare 
request of a stranger ; but since the essence of religion 
consisted in love and unity, not in forms, if the stranger 
were a holy man, and sent from God, they should follow 
him. This answer occasioned a second question, by what 
marks they should discern whether he were a holy 
man or not ? The answer of the anchorite was worthy 
of his reputation : he told them to judge the character 
and pretensions by the conduct of the man who 
supported them; if he were meek and humble, then 
they might conclude that he was the disciple of Him 



esse regeneratum, et mox fonte lavacri salutaris ablutus, etiam 
postmodum ad ordinem presbyterii promotus est. {Hist. Ecdes. 
lib. i. cap. xxiv.) 

* Quia etsi fonte baptismatis non est ablutus, sui tamen est 
sanguinis lavacro mundatus, ac regni coelestis dignus factus est 
ingressu. {Hist. Ecdes. lib. i, cap. vii.) 

Q 2 



2 28 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

who had taught men to bear His yoke ; but if the 
stranger were haughty and arrogant, then it was certain 
that he could not be sent from God, whatever might 
be his pretensions. The Britons, still unsatisfied, 
demanded what were those marks of gentleness and con- 
descension by which they might discern of what spirit 
the stranger was animated ? " His spirit," the sage 
replied, " you will discern in this : let him and his 
companions first come to the synod, and if, on your 
approach, he shall rise up in condescension and love, and 
greet you, then look upon him as a servant of Christ, and 
submit to whatever he shall ordain ; but if he shall 
contemptuously refuse to rise up to you who are the 
greater number, then let him see that you despise his 
insolence and disclaim his authority." 

After some further deliberations, the British bishops, 
seven in number, with Dinoth, abbot of Bangor, and 
some other learned men, consented to meet Austin at a 
second conference. The archbishop and his companions 
were seated in the place of meeting before the Britons 
entered, and as Austin did not rise from his seat to 
receive them, they acted in conformity with the advice of 
the hermit, and opposed all his overtures of union with 
great spirit and perseverance. After a violent contest, 
Austin addressed them in these words : — " In many things 
you act contrary to our customs as well as to the usages 
of the Catholic Church. Notwithstanding, if you will 
submit to my authority in these three matters, namely, 
in observing the Easter festival after our manner, in 
administering baptism according to the custom of the 
Church of Rome,* and in joining with us to convert 

* Ut ministerium baptizandi, quo Deo renascimur, juxta morem 
Sanctse Romance ApostolicEe Ecclesiae, compleatis. " That you 
complete the administration of baptism, by which we are born 
again unto God, according to the custom of the Roman Apostolical 



ENGLAND : AUSTIN. 229 

the Saxon pagans, in all other things which you do con- 
trary to our customs, we will bear with you." To this 
demand the Britons answered that they would not comply 
with any one of the three particulars, neither would 
they acknowledge him for their archbishop. Austin, 
fired with indignation at this refusal, answered them 
with threats, and plainly intimated that if they would 
not accept peace from their brethren, they must expect 
war from their enemies, and if they would not preach 
the Word of Life to the Saxons, they should themselves 
suffer death. (Bede, Eccl. Hist. lib. ii.) 

A judicious writer speaks as follows of the character and 
career of Austin: — "The personal merit of this missionary 
will bear no comparison with that of the first Christian 
Apostles. While Paul and his brethren, in their journeys 
for the propagation of the Gospel, exposed themselves to 
innumerable perils, without any prospect of temporal 
advantage, this apostle travelled under the protection of 
princes, enjoyed the support and assistance of the civil 
power, and found his spiritual labours the direct path to 
worldly honour and emolument. A pope was his master ; 
a king was first his patron, and then his disciple ; and the 
sole government of his new church, with all the advan- 
tages of supremacy in a well-arranged hierarchy, was his 
recompense. That which decisively fixed the reproach of 
inordinate ambition in his character is, that he not only 
seized the metropolitan dignity in the English Church 
before it was well formed, but endeavoured to bring the 
ancient and independent British churches under his yoke ; 



Church." The precise defect intended is left to conjecture. The 
baptism of infants seems most probable, for it had already been 
adopted in the Church of Rome, through the prevailing influence 
of Augustine, and enforced under pain of excommunication by 
several councils. The reader will presently see that, in answer to 
an inquiry made by Austin, the Pope recommended him to baptize 
infants williuut delay in case of danger of death. 



230 THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

and that, meeting with more resistance than he expected 
from the free spirit of the ancient Britons, his haughty 
temper could not brook the opposition, and he at least 
meditated revenge. We can only judge of the character 
of this apostle by his actions, imperfectly recorded, for 
none of his writings remain." {Oxford Encyclopcedia.) 

The doctrine of the saving efficacy of baptism and the 
administration of that ordinance to infants, seem to have 
been introduced in Great Britain in the seventh century. 
Bede designates baptism under the appellation of the 
saving bath, "lavacrum salutare." Pope Gregory (A.D. 60 1), 
in a letter to Austin, advises him to baptize the child 
in the very hour of its birth if there be danger of death ; 
" For," he adds, " as the grace of the holy mystery is to 
be with much discretion provided for the living and the 
understanding, so it is to be without any delay offered to 
those who are on the point of death, lest, while a further 
time is sought to confer the mystery of redemption, a 
small delay intervening, the person to be redeemed should 
be no more."* (Bede's Ecclesiastical History, book i. 
chap. 27.) 

Bishop ^Ifric in his Easter Homily, teaches, " That the 
heathen child is baptized, and changes not its outer form, 
although inwardly converted ; it is carried to the font, 
sinful through Adam's transgression, and is washed 
inwardly from all its sin, yet changes not its outward 
form. So also the holy font-water, which is called the 



* "Baptizare autem vel enixam mulierem vel hoc quod genuerit, 
si mortis periculo surgetur, vel ipsa hora eadem qua gignit, vel 
hoc quod gignitur eadem qua natum est, nullo mode prohibetur; 
quia sancti mysterii gratia sicut viventibus atque discernentibus, 
cum magna discretione providenda est, ita his quibus mors 
imminet, sine ulla dilatione oflferenda, ne dum adhuc tempus ad 
praebendum redcmptionis mysterium quaeritur, interveniente paulu- 
lum mora inveniri non valeat, qui redimatur. (Beda, Hist. Eccles. 
lib. i. cap. xxvii.) 



ENGLAND: ANGLO-SAXONS. 231 

wellspring of life, is outwardly like any other water and 
subject to corruption ; but the Holy Ghost descends with 
power upon the corruptible water, through the blessing 
of the priest, and through that spiritual power, all sin is 
washed away both of the body and the soul." 

The baptism of infants was enforced by severe enact- 
ments. The laws of Ina, king of Wessex, made at a 
West-Saxon Witenagemot, held in A.D. 690, provide that 
parents should bring their children for baptism within 
thirty days after birth, under forfeiture of as many 
shillings. If the infant died unbaptized, all the parents' 
property was forfeited.* 

A decree of the tenth Northumbrian Synod orders : — 
" Let every child be baptized in good time, within nine 
days, under the penalty of six ore : and if a child die a 
pagan (that is, without baptism) within nine days, through 
negligence, let satisfaction be made to God without any 
worldly mulct ; and if after nine days, let satisfaction be 
made to God, and twelve ore be paid, because he was a 
heathen so long.f 

The ninety-fifth Excerption of Eigbright (a.d. 740) is as 
follows : — " Let the parent, whose child is dead without 
baptism through his neglect, do penance one year, and 
never live without penance. If the priest, whose duty it 



* Be cildum. Of children. 

II. Cild, binnan thritagum 2. Let a child, within thirty 

nihta, siegefulwad. Gifhitswa days, be baptized. If it be not 
ne sie, xxx. scill. gebete. Gif hit so, let him make " bot " with xxx. 
dhonne sie dead butan fulwihte ; shillings. But if it die without 
gebete he hit mid eallum dham baptism, let him make "b5t" for 
dhe he age. it with all that he has. 

j- Quilibet infans mature baptizatur intra ix. dies, sub poena vi. 
orarum, et si infans paganus intra ix. dies per negligentiam 
mortuus sit, emendent apud Deum absque mukta mundana ; et si 
supra ix. dies fuerit, emendent apud Deum, et solvant xii. oras 
parocho illi quod ethnicus tarn diu fuerit. {Leges. Presbyt. Norlhumb. 
X. A.D. 950.) 



232 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

was, neglected to come, though asked, let him be chastised 
of the doom of the bishop for the damnation of a soul. 
But all the faithful may do this when they find any dying 
unbaptized ; nay, it is commanded that men should snatch 
a soul from the devil by baptism ; that is, by baptizing 
them with water, simply blessed in the name of the 
Lord, by immersing them, or pouring water upon them, 
in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost. 
Therefore, they who can, and know how to baptize, 
faithful monks especially, ought always to have the 
Eucharist with them, though they travel to places far 
distant." This collection of Excerptions, like a code 
of canons for the province of York, has undergone 
numerous alterations, having been augmented, curtailed, 
and transposed at discretion. (Spelman, Concilia Magncz 
Britannia^ 

In the tenth century the 17th of the Ecclesiastical 
Institutes orders that, " If any one bring a sickly child to 
a mass-priest, be it of whatever mass-priest's district it 
may, then let him baptize it forthwith, and for no business 
let him neglect to baptize it, be it from whence it may. 
If he on any account neglect it, and it die without baptism, 
then be it known to him that on doomsday he shall 
render an account for that soul to God. (Wilkins, Concil. 
tom. i. p. 218.) 

The great festivals of Easter and Whitsuntide were the 
ordinary times appointed for the administration of 
baptism. These festivals, we have already shown, had 
long been signalized by the observance of this rite in the 
Roman Church. In England this regulation was solemnly 
enacted at the Council of Calcuith, in A.D. 787 {Cone. Calc. 
can. 2); and is also mentioned in the reports of the 
legates, Gregory and Thyophylact, to Pope Adrian I. of 
their proceedings in Great Britain. This report contains 
the following recommendation : — 



ENGLAND : ANGLO-SAXONS. 



2^2, 



Ut baptismus secundum ca- 
nonica statuta exerceatur, et non 
alio tempore, nisi pro magna 
necessitate : et ut omnes gene- 
raliter symbolum et orationem 
Dominicam sciant, et illi qui 
parvulos de sacro fonte susci- 
piunt et pro non loquentibus res- 
pondent, ob renunciationem 
Satanse, et operum et pomparum 
ejus, seu fidei credulitatem, 
sciant se fidejussores ipsorum ad 
Doroinum pro ipsa sponsione, 
ut dum ad perfectionem setatis 
pervenerint doceant eos praedic- 
tam orationem Dominicam et 
symbolum ; quia nisi fuerint, dis- 
trict^ ab eis exigetur, quod pro 
non loquentibus Deo promittitur. 
Ideo generaliter omni vulgo 
prjecipimus, hoc memoriae man- 
dari. {Proemium ad Adrianum 
Papam I.) 



" That baptism be practised 
according to the canonical 
statutes, and not at any other 
time, except in great necessity ; 
and that all in general know the 
creed and the Lord's Prayer ; 
and that all who take the chil- 
dren out of the font and answer 
for them that cannot speak, know 
that they are sureties to the 
Lord, according to their spon- 
sion, for the renouncing of 
Satan, his works, and pomps ; 
and for their believing of the 
creed ; that they may teach 
them the Lord's Prayer aforesaid, 
and the creed, while they are 
coming to ripeness of age ; for 
if they do not, what is promised 
to God in behalf of them that 
cannot speak, shall be with 
rigour exacted of them. There- 
fore we enjoin that this be 
charged on the memories of all 
the people in general. 



The tenth Excerption of Eigbright requires, " that the 
rite and time of baptizing at proper seasons, according to 
the institutions of canons, be most cautiously observed by- 
all priests." * 

The Fourth Constitution, adopted at Reading, in a.d. 
1279, says: — -"We think lit to explain what is provided 
in this present constitution concerning the reserving of 
children to be baptized till the general baptizing at 
Easter and Pentecost, out of our regard to that statute, 
which seems to have been hitherto neglected, namely, 
that children born within eight days before Easter, and 
as many before Pentecost, be reserved to be baptized 
at those times, if it may be done without danger; so 



* Ut a cunctis sacerdotibus jus et tempus baptismatis tempo- 
ribus congruis, secundum canonicam institutionem, cautissime 
observetur. i^Excerp. Eigberti. x, a.d. 740.) 



2 34 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

that they receive instruction between the time of their 
birth and their receiving perfect baptism, so that im- 
mersion alone remains to be performed on the day of 
baptism." * 

The regulation designating Easter and Pentecost as the 
legitimate times for baptizing, and limiting to them the 
administration of this ordinance, failed of meeting with 
universal acquiescence in Great Britain ; for the tenth 
among the laws of the Northumbrian prie.sts, which we 
have already quoted, enjoins baptism within nine days 
after birth, and imposes penalties for default. Towards 
the close of the twelfth century this appropriation of 
Easter and Whitsuntide fell silently into disuse, 
neither pope nor council authorizing the change, or 
seemingly observing it. (Dalleus, De ctdtibus religiosis 
Latinorum). 

Baptism was administered in England by immersion, 
and priests were expressly forbidden to pour water upon 
the head. The sixth Canon of the Council of bishops 
of the province of Canterbury, held at Celchyth, A.D. 8i6, 
under Wulfred, archbishop of Canterbury, and Kenulf, 
king of Mercia, says — " Let ministers take notice that 
when they administer the holy baptism, that they do 
not pour the holy water upon the heads of the infants, 
but that they be always immersed in the font; as the 
Son of God has in His own person given an example 
to every believer, when He was thrice immersed into 

* Quod in constitutione cavetur de pueris baptizandis, usque ad 
generale baptismo Paschae at Pentecostes videlicet reservandis, 
pro ipsius statuti reverentia quod hactenus videtur esse neglectum, 
sic duximus declarandum : ut pueri per octo dies ante Pascha, et 
dies totidem ante Pentecostes ilati, si absque periculo servari 
valeant, usque ad tempora ilia reserventur baptizandi ; ita tamen 
quod medio tempore inter nativitatem puerorum hujusmodi et per- 
fectum baptismum recipiant catechismum, solaque diebus baptismi 
supersit immersio facienda. {Constiluliones Peccham, iv.) 



ENGLAND : WESTMINSTER COUNCIL. 235 

the waters of the Jordan. In this manner it ought to be 
observed." * 

That this canon prevailed afterwards, is evident from 
the following resolution adopted by a Council held in 
Ireland in A.D. 1172 : "Ut pueri deferrentur ad ecclesiam, 
et ibi baptizentur in aqua mundi trina mersione." (That 
the boys be brought to church, there to be baptized in 
pure water with trine immersion.) 

The Third Canon of the Westminster General Council, 
held in A.B. 1200, says : — " If a layman baptize a child in 
case of necessity, let all that follows after immersion 
(the chrism, the putting on the white garment, and the 
delivering of the lighted taper) be performed by the 
priest." (Si vero in necessitate puer baptizetur k laico, 
sequentia immersionem non praecedentia per sacerdotem 
expleantur. Concilium Londinese, can. iii. A.D. 1200). 

The Twelfth among the Constitutions of Edmund 
(A.D. 1236) recommends that, " If a child be baptized by a 
layman, let what goes before (the exorcisms and catechism) 
the immersion, and what follows after, be fully supplied 
by the priest." (Si vero baptizatus fuerit puer k laico, 
praecedentia et subsequentia mersionem expleantur vel 
suppleantur k sacerdote. Constit. Edmundi, can. 12.) 

In the old cathedral at Carlisle there is a fresco which 
represents St. Austin in a font up to his waist, and the 
minister ready to immerse him. This painting was made 
in the eleventh century. 



* Sciant etiam presbyteri, quando sacram baptismum ministrant, 
ut non efifundant aquam sanctam super capita infantium, sed 
semper mergeantur in acria ;* sicut exemplum praebuit per semet- 
ipsum Dei Filius omni credenti, quando asset ter mergatus in 
undis Jordanis. Ita necesse est secundum ordinem servari et 
haberi. (From a manuscript in the British Museum, Cotton, 
Vespasian, a. xiv. fo. 147-151- It is the only known ancient copy, 
and contains many corruptions in spelling and grammar.) 

* This word stands for aqua^ water. 



236 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

" Among the plates published by Mr. Strutt ( View of 
Manners, Qfc, vol. II. plate viii. p. 121), there is one from 
a manuscript life of Richard, Earl of Warwick, which 
represents 'how he was baptized, havyng to his godfathers 
King Richard and Seynt Richard Scrope, then (1381) 
Bishop of Lichefield, and after, in processe of tyme, he was 
Archebishop of Yorke.' This plate (see Fig. 48) Mr. Strutt 
took from ' a very curious and valuable manuscript in the 
Cotton Library, marked Julius E. IV. The original 
delineations, together with the writing, are all done by 
the hand of John Rouse, the Warwickshire antiquary and 
historian, who died the 14th of January, 1491, the seventh 
year of Henry the Seventh. It is illustrated with fifty- 
three excellent delineations, which fully explain the 
manners and customs of the times in which they were 
done.' Round a neat Saxon font the company stand. A 
bishop is holding the child, stark naked, and just going to 
be dipped, over the font. The hand of the royal godfather 
is on his head. The archdeacon, according to custom, 
stands by the bishop, holding up the service book open, 
which implies that the baptism is being performed 
according to the ritual. As the child's face is toward the 
water, this is the last of the three immersions, and the 
bishop may be supposed now uttering the last clause 
of the baptismal words, — and of the Holy Ghost. Amen. 
The priest on the other side of the officiating bishop is 
holding the chrism. Fonts, like medals, form a history, 
and from a history of fonts incontestible evidence rises to 
prove that, during the whole reign of Popery (in England), 
public ordinary baptism was administered by immersion ; 
that the mode was not changed to sprinkling here, any 
more than on the Continent, for such considerations as 
climate or timidity, rank or caprice ; and that, in the 
public opinion, there was no hazard to health in dipping 
infants. The noble babe, whose baptism is here rep re- 



BAPTISM OF THE EARL OF WARWICK. 



237 



sented, was born on the twenty-eighth of January, at 
Salwarp, in the county of Worcester." (Robinson's 
History of Baptis^n. A very valuable work, full of inter- 
esting researches.) 




Fiff. 48. Baptism of Richard, Earl of Warwick. 

A Catechism published in 1548 alludes to baptism as 
follows : — " What greater shame can there be, than a man 
to professe himself to be a Christen man because he is 
baptized, and yet he knoweth not what baptisme is, nor 
what strength the same hath, nor what the dyppyng in the 
water doth betoken .... when God is added 
and joyned to the water, then it is the lathe of regene- 



238 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

racion .... a bathe that washeth our soules by the 
Holy Ghoste, as Saynct Paule calleth it, saying, God hath 
saved us thorowe hys mercye by the bathe of regeneracion 
. . . . for baptisms and the dyppynge into the water 
doth betoken that the olde Adam, with all his sinne and 
evel lustes, ought to be drowned and kylled by daily 
contrition and repentance." * 

William Tyndal, otherwise called, Hychins, thus speaks 
of baptism: — " The plungynge into the water sygnyfyeth 
that we dye and are buryed with Chryst, as concernynge 
the old lyfe of Synne which is Adam. And the pullynge 
out agayn sygnyfyeth that we ryse agayn with Chryst in 
a newe lyfe." {The Obedyence of a Chrysten Man.) 

The first Prayer-Book of Edward VI., following the 
Manual of Sarum,t directed the priest to dip the child in 
the water three times ; " first, dypping the right side ; 
secondly, the left side ; the third time dypping the face 
towards the fonte." J (2, Edw. VI. A.D. 1548.) But in the 
second Prayer-Book the direction for trine immersion was 



* Catechismus, that is to say, a short instruction into Christian 
religion for the syngular commodite and profyte of childre and 
yong people. Set forth by the mooste reverende father in God, 
Thomas, Archbishop of Canterbury, Primate of all England, and 
Metropolitane. {Gualierus Lynne, excudebat. 1548.) 

■j- Manual of SaxnTa :^" Deinde accipiat Sacerdos infantem per 
latera in manibus suis, et interrogato nomine ejus, baptizet eum sub trina 
tmmersione, tantum sanctum Trinitatem invocando, ita dicens : N. Et 
ego baptizo te in nomine Patris : e/ mergat eum semel versa facie ad 
aquilonem, et capite versus orientem : et Fili : et iterum mergat semel versa 
facie ad meridiem : et Spiritus Sancti. Amen: et mergat tertio recta 
facie versus aquam. {Ritus Baptizandi.) The Sarum Ritual was 
drawn up about a.d. 1085, by Osmund, bishop of Salisbury, and 
chancellor of England. It was adopted by almost the whole of 
England, Wales, and Ireland, and continued in use until the reign 
of Edward VI. 

X Then the Prieste shall take the childe in his hands, and ask 
the name : and naming the child, shall dyppe it in the water 
thryse : First, dypping the right side ; Secondly, the left side ; the 
third time dypping the face toward the fonte. 



ENGLANB : RUBRIC. 239 

omitted, and the priest was simply directed to dip the 
child discreetly and warily. " But if they (the godfathers 
and godmothers) certify that the child is weak, it shall 
suffice to pour water upon it." This is the first authentic 
permission for altering the mode of baptism we find in the 
ecclesiastical annals of Great Britain.* 

Dr. Wall, in his History of Infant Baptism, says : — 
" In the Church of England, it being allowed to weak 
children (in the reign of Queen Elizabeth) to be baptized 
by affusion, many fond ladies and gentlewomen first, and 
afterwards, by degrees, the common people, would obtain 
the favour of the priest to have their children pass for 
weak children, too tender to endure dipping in the water. 
As for sprinkling, properly called, it seems it was, at 1645, 
just then beginning, and used by very few." 

The alteration of the rubric in 1661 shows that immer- 
sion was no longer the rule : " If they shall certify him 
that the child may well endure it, he shall dip it in the water 
discreetly, &c. The custom of sprinkling in England has, 
in a great measure, arisen from the principles laid down 
in the Directory of 1644, when the Presbyterian power 
had, during the Protectorate of Cromwell, gained the 
ascendency over the Anglican Church. The Assembly 
of Divines then debated the manner in which baptism 
should be directed in their formula, and decided by a vote 
of twenty-five to twenty -four, that sprinkling alone should 
be mentioned without reference to immersion ; but, as we 
have already seen, the episcopal ritual still retains the 



* S, 6, Edward VI. . . . (a.d. 1551.) 

Then the Priest shall take the child into his hands, and shall 
say to the godfathers and godmothers, Name this child ; and 
then naming it after them (if they shall certifie him that the child 
may well endure it), he shall dip it in the water, discreetly and 
warily ; But if they certifie that the child is weak, it shall suffice to 
pour water upon it. 



240 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

direction for immersion, although it admits sprinkling or 
pouring as equally valid. 

In the Prayer-Book of 1549, the administration of 
baptism was followed immediately by two ancient 
customs, which were omitted in 1552 — the putting on 
the chrism, or white vesture, and the anointing. The 
signing of the cross upon the child was retained. The 
address to the congregation, with the Lord's Prayer, and 
the thanksgiving that follows, were placed in the Prayer- 
Book in 1352. It is an addition which unequivocally 
expresses the regeneration of each baptized infant. It is 
as follows : — 

" Then the Minister shall say, 

"We receive this child into the congregation of Christ's 
flock, and do sign him with the sign of the Cross, in 
token that hereafter he shall not be ashamed to confess 
the faith of Christ crucified, and manfully to fight under 
his banner, against sin, the world, and the devil ; and to 
continue Christ's faithful soldier and servant unto his life's 
end. Amen. 

" Seeing now, dearly beloved brethren, that this child 
is regenerate, and grafted into the body of Christ's 
church ; let us give thanks unto Almighty God for these 
benefits ; and with one accord make our prayers unto 
Him, that this child may lead the rest of his life according 
to this beginning. 

" We yield Thee hearty thanks, most merciful Father, 
that it hath pleased Thee to regenerate this infant with 
Thy Holy Spirit, to receive him for Thine own child by 
adoption, and to incorporate him into Thy holy church." 

Robinson, in his History of Baptism, acknowledges 
that baptisteries, which imply an intermediate state of 
the ordinance between that in rivers and that in fonts, 
were but few in Britain. Yet he adds, "there were, 



ENGLAND : CANTERBURY. 



241 



however, as Bede observes, some of these oratories or 
baptismal chapels erected here at first." The period of 
these is between the coming of Austin and the conquest 
by the Normans. 

In his account of Edwin's conversion to the Christian 
faith, Bede informs us that a wooden booth was hastily 
erected at York, which was called St. Peter's Church, 
and in which the king and many of the nobility were 
catechised and baptized. On this very spot, Edwin after- 
wards built a stately and magnificent church of stone. 
Robinson refers a chapel of the Abbey of Braintree in 
Essex to that period ; he notices also a Roman bath, at 
the west end of the parish church of St. Mary at Dover, 
which he thinks had been used at first for the church 
baptistery. 

The accompanying plan of the old cathedral and 
baptistery of Canterbury (Fig. 49), is taken from a paper 




Fiff. 49. Plan op Saxon Cathedral, Cantekbury, a.d. 950. 
A. Nave. BB. Towers. C. Chapter. D. Choir. E. Baptiatery. 

on Choirs and Chancels, read by Arthur Ashpitel, Esq., 
F.S.A., before the Society of Antiquaries in London, on 
January 15th, 1857. 

The church of the Holy Sepulchre, at Cambridge, is 
remarkable for the antiquity and peculiarity of construc- 

R 



242 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

tion of the older part, which is believed to be the oldest 
remaining specimen of the circular churches in England — 
the others being those of Northampton, Little Maplestead 
in Essex, and the Temple Church in London. It is probable 
that round churches, wherever they occur, were originally 
baptismal oratories. The round church at Cambridge, de- 
dicated under the title of the Holy Sepulchre, is supposed 
to have derived its circular shape from the church in 
which the small chapel of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem 
is contained. It is forty-one feet in diameter, and has a 
peristyle of eight (the mystic number, according to 
Ambrosius in his notice of the baptisteries of Milan) rude 
massive pillars, supporting circular arches with chevron 
mouldings. Of the origin of this church no record exists. 
Report has ascribed its foundation to the Templars, and 
as bathing for chivalrous* purposes was occasionally 
performed on the Continent in the baptismal churches of 
St. John,t the erection of baptisteries by the Knights 
Templars, both for parochial and chivalrous uses, would 
appear to be neither inconsistent nor improbable. 

" Most of the fonts in the mediaeval Gothic churches of 
England either belonged to the original Saxon wooden 
churches or to the succeeding Norman ones. When these 
churches, in their turn, became much dilapidated, the 
Gothic church was either grafted on the Norman or 
erected on the same foundation as the original site, which 
was still observed. The Christianised pagans, under the 
Roman dominion in England, generally selected the sites 
of the demolished heathen temples for their new places of 
worship, at first setting up a mere wooden shed for 



* The bath and white garment of the novice, says Gibbon 
(vol. xi. p. 38), were an indecent copy of the regeneration of 
baptism. 

f Robinson's History of Baptism. 



ENGLAND : CONSTITUTION OF EDMUND. 243 

temporary baptismal purposes, but a permanent church 
was afterwards generally erected over the font. In Ifley 
church, Oxfordshire, which is supposed to have been 
originally built by the Anglo-Normans, there is an Anglo- 
Saxon font, for total immersion, which was the practice 
adopted in the first ages of Christianity." {Sacred Archi- 
tecture, by R. Brown.) 

By an ancient Ecclesiastical Constitution* (a.d. 1236) a 
font of stone was required to be placed in every church, 
and it was to be capacious enough for total immersion. 

At this early period fonts appear to have been regarded 
with peculiar reverence, and are frequently preserved, 
whatever changes the church may have undergone ; for 
this reason Norman fonts are very numerous ; they are 
frequently richly ornamented and well worthy of preserva- 
tion ; their form is usually square, supported on five legs, 
or small pillars ; or circular, at first supported also upon 
legs, but at a subsequent period assuming the form of a 
cup, supported on a single pillar or pedestal, and richly 
ornamented, many examples of which occur during the 
later Norman period ; sometimes they are in the form 
of a tub, richly decorated, or with four small pillars 
placed against it, giving it the appearance at first sight of 
being square ; they are sometimes octagonal. The fonts 
are usually placed at the west end, near the south 
entrance of the church. 

* " In every baptismal church let there be a baptistery of stone, 
or, however, one that is sufficient (large enough for dipping such 
as are baptized in it, says Lynwood in his Constitutiones AnglicB), 
handsomely covered and reverently kept, and not used for any 
other purposes. Let not the water in which a child has been 
baptized be kept in the baptistery above seven days." Baptisterium 
habeatur in qualibet Ecclesia Baptismala lapideum, vel ahud com- 
petens (sub quod baptizandus possit in eo mergi) (vas) quod 
decenter cooperiatur, et reverenter observetur. Aqua ver6, in qua 
baptizatus fuerit puer, uhra septem dies in baptisterio non servetur. 
(Constitutiones Edmundi, can. 10, a.d. 1236.) 

R 2 



244 



THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 



A font of great antiquity is to be found in the noble 
church of Malvern. This font, like all those which were 
in use amongst our ancestors, having been adapted for 




Fig. 50. Font at Bridbkibk. 



immersion, is of large dimensions, being nine feet two 
inches in circumference, and thirteen inches in depth ; the 
form is circular, without ornament of any kind, and an 
orifice remains in the centre for carrying off the water. If 



ENGLAND : CUMBERLAND. 245 

not of Saxon workmanship, it is doubtless of a period not 
later than the twelfth century. 

In the ancient church of St. INIartin's, near Canterbury, 
is a most curious font, of great antiquity, ornamented with 
rude carved work, in which are no legendary images, or 
any superstitious figures whatever. It more resembles a 
great tub than a basin, and stands low on the floor, 
so that a person might much more easily step into it, 
according to the ancient mode of baptizing, than stoop 
down to it, in order to receive the sprinkling of water. 
(King's Monumenta Aniiqua.) The form as well as the 
ornaments of this font pleads strongly in favour of its 
antiquity. 

At Bridekirk, a parish in thd" county of Cumberland, 
there is a church dedicated to St. Bridget ; a very ancient 
edifice which contains a singular font, a large open vessel 
of greenish stone. (See Fig. 50.) It exhibits in rude 
relief various designs symbolical of the serpent and the 
forbidden fruit, the expulsion of Adam and Eve from 
Paradise, the baptism of Christ, &c,, likewise a Runic 
inscription which has been variously interpreted by 
different antiquarians. In the baptism of Christ, He is 
represented standing naked " in a kind of font or vase, 
with a nimbus, almost defaced, round His head, and over 
Him is a dove." By the side of the font stands John 
the Baptist, with his left hand behind the shoulders of the 
Saviour, and his right on His side. 

Referring to this font and the representation of baptism 
upon its eastern side, Bishop Nicholson wrote to the 
famous antiquarian. Sir William Dugdale, "Now, Sir, I 
need not acquaint you that the sacrament of baptism was 
anciently administered by plunging into the water in the 
western as well as the eastern parts of the Church, and 
that the Gothic word ^^[1^71 ^JL N (Mark i. 8, and Luke iii. 
7 and 12), the German word Tai^ffe^i, the Danish Dobe, and 



246 



THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 



and the Belgic Doopen, as clearly make out that practice as 
the Greek word Bairriafxa!' (See Gibson's Camdeii. p. 841.) 
There is a font of considerable interest in the abbey 
church of Romsey. It is constructed upon an elevated 
platform of stone, paved with tiles, of the height of above 
fifteen inches. The depth of this font is three feet six 
inches, the width two feet ten inches, and consequently is 
large enough for the total immersion of an infant. There 
is at the bottom a perforation for drawing off the water. 



^■H^ 




Fig. 51. Font at Linlet. 

The font in the upper church at Lewes is shaped like a 
barrel ; the body adorned with fretwork, and an upper 
and lower band or fascia of rounds and quatrefoils. This 
font is set against a pillar. 

The font in Hendon church stands on the left hand of 



ENGLAND : DARENTH. 247 

the principal entrance, and is very remarkable for the 
antiquity of its appearance. It is made of stone, lined with 
lead, and has a brass plug at the bottom (almost decayed 
by time) to let the water out. This font is of a square 
form, and very large, having its sides ornamented with 
columns supporting circular arches, which are of Saxon 
workmanship and rudely executed. 

The old font at Barnswood, in Gloucestershire, which is 
still preserved, was lined with lead, and is of considerable 
dimensions. It was evidently intended for immersion, 
for which Bishop Lyndwood says a font is required. 
(Quod baptizandus possit in eo mergi.) Some escutcheons 
and rude sculpture remain ; but the arms are destroyed. 

At the west end of the nave of the church at Fincham, 
in Norfolk, stands a large stone font, with a basin about a 
yard square. On the south side or square are the figures 
of three men under three arches of stone, in a very rude 
and antique dress. They represent Christ rising from the 
tomb, and the soldiers guarding the sepulchre. The north 
side clearly exhibits the baptism of Christ, and the descent 
of the dove over Him. 

We are indebted to William Newman, Esq., of South- 
ampton, for the annexed engravings, which represent the 
celebrated font at Darenth church, in the county of Kent 
(Figs. 52 and 53). In his History of Kent, Mr. Samuel 
Bagshaw informs us that " this font was removed from an 
old chapel dedicated to Hilles St. Margaret, about a mile 
south-east from Darenth church, the chapel having fallen 
to decay. The ruins of the chapel are still seen in a field 
a little south-west of the manor house." Mr. Newman 
writes : — " When I was last at the church, about twenty- 
six years ago, the font was closed inside with wood, which 
came within a few inches of the top, and formed a cover 
on which was placed a small modern font with cover, 
quite large enough to sprinkle the whole congregation ; 



248 



THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 



but finding a small hole in the centre, I, with a piece of 
wire, found the depth from the top to be nineteen inches 




Fig. 62. Font at Dabenth Church. 

and a half inside, the diameter at the top thirty-five inches, 
and the height from the floor forty-eight inches." 





Fig. 53. ScuLPTUBES on the Font at Daeenth. 

The curious sculptures on the Darenth font have claimed 
the attention of several antiquarian writers. The subjects 
present a singular mixture : they comprise David playing 



ENGLAND : BRIGHTON. 249 

the harp ; the baptism of an infant by immersion ; a Sagit- 
tarius ; a crowned king holding a short staff, surmounted 
by a disc ; three strange monsters, and another beaten by 
a man. Some antiquarians have regarded these curious 
representations as partly sacred and partly cabalistic, 
whilst others would trace a symbolical import. Mr. 
Bagshaw says : — "Some of the figures on the font appear 
to be chimerical, and others symbols of the sacraments. 
One represents King Edgar, who raised Dunstan to the 
See of Canterbury ; another illustrates his conflicts ; one, 
Dunstan playing on the harp ; another shows the sharp 
encounter he had with the devil, in beating whom he 
broke his pastoral staff." {History of Kent ^ 

The date of the costume is considered to be of the 
twelfth century. Each of the eight compartments is 
enclosed by plain columns, bearing round arches, which 
spring from regular Norman capitals, and with raised 
ornamental bosses. The decorative details are apparently 
of the Norman period. 

The font in Brighthelmstone church, Sussex (See 
design in Antiquarian Reporter, iii. 185), is undoubtedly of 
great antiquity. It is circular, surrounded by bas-reliefs, 
divided into several compartments, each representing a 
Scriptural or legendary subject. The largest represents 
the Lord's Supper. The figure of Christ, distinguished by 
a nimbus emanating from His head, seems as in the act 
of blessing the elements. Only six of the Apostles are 
here introduced. The compartment to the left contains 
the figure of a man standing in the water up to his waist. 
One on the right holding his clothes, and another on the 
left dressed in a ceremonial habit, like that of a priest, is 
presenting two rolls of linen. This sculpture represents 
the baptism of some great man converted to Christianity. 
These figures are shown as if standing under arches, 
probably meant for those of a baptistery. 



250 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

The font at Walsingham is decorated with all the 
charms of art; with all the blandishments of sculpture, 
architecture, and Romish superstition. When first raised 
it must have excited admiration, bordering on enthusiastic 
devotion. The whole consists of three portions, or 
divisions, in height, a base, or steps; a shaft; and a capital, 
or basin. In the first are two tiers, or series of steps, 
raised above the pavement, each of which is ornamented 
on the exterior face with various panels and tracery. 
Each is also subdivided into two steps ; the upper step, or 
surface, is formed of two divisions in its elevation, and 
eight in its horizontal plan. From the centre of this 
rises the shaft, which is surrounded by canopied niches, 
pinnacles, buttresses, pediments, and statues. At the 
angles are eight smaller statues, standing on pedestals, 
and a series of trefoil leaves extends round the upper 
member of this shaft, which is surmounted by the basin 
or font. This consists, like all the other parts, of eight 
faces, each of which displays a canopied recess, filled with 
a group of figures in baso-relievo, representing the seven 
sacraments of the Romish Church, with the Crucifixion : — 
I. Baptism. 2. Confirmation. 3. Penance. 4. The Eucha- 
rist. 5. Ordination. 6. Marriage. 7. Extreme Unction. 
(Britton's Architectural Antiquities of Great Britain}) 

In a letter to the Duke of Leeds, Mr. Holden gives a 
description of the reliefs on the font at Thorpe Savin, in 
Yorkshirfe. He says : — 

" This font has attracted the notice of several anti- 
quaries, who have spoken of it as a very extraordinary 
thing of the kind, though I have not heard that any one 
has ventured to give an explanation of it ; and, indeed, 
the sculptor himself had no other idea than a few devices 
purely symbolical. Many of these ancient fonts have 
been charged with representations of some marvellous 
actions of legendary saints or bishops, and others seem 



ENGLAND: THORPE SAVIN. 25 1 

to have had nothing in view but to remind the spectators 
of some circumstance in the life of our blessed Saviour, 
or some ceremony in the Christian Church. Of the latter 
sort I take this font to be ; the two first compartments 
being evidently a representation of the baptism of a child, 
in which a monk is preparing to immerse it in a font, 
whilst four sponsors are stretching out their hands in 
token of their vow. In the next is a man tying up sheaves 
of corn with a sickle under his girdle. The fourth com- 
partment presents a person on horseback, riding over a 
bridge, and holding in his hands a censer, out of which 
seems to issue something like flames. Next is a man 
with a helmet on his head, and a basket hung by a belt 
across his shoulder, out of which he appears to be sowing 
seed ; and next to him is a person who is about to seat 
himself in a chair, or rather a tub, which, from the 
appearance of the top, seems to have some allusion to the 
Papal dignity. . . . All these figures are 'cut in stone in 
alto-relievo, and, as far as one may judge from the circular 
arches and mouldings, which are beautifully cut, are of 
Saxon origin, and probably contemporary with the church 
itself." {Archaologta, vol. xii.) 

Mr. Francis Douce thinks that four of the compartments 
represent the seasons of the year. " Winter is figured by 
an old man warming himself before a fire in the chimney ; 
Spring, by ope riding out a-hawking, as would probably 
appear from an attentive inspection of the original ; 
Summer, by a man reaping corn and. bundling it up into 
sheaves ; and Autumn, by a husbandman sowing seed. 
The other compartments exhibit the ceremony of baptism 
with the parents and sponsors." 

" I think the sculptor's design was to intimate that the 
baptismal rite might be performed at all times of the 
year ; in contradistinction to that of marriage, which was 
not allowed but at particular seasons. Among our Saxon 



252 THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

ancestors, baptism was required to be administered within 
nine, or sometimes within thirty days, under a certain 
penalty. Among other nations, during the earl}' periods 
of Christianity, baptism was not permitted but at Easter 
and Whitsuntide, a practice that continued in France 
until after the year 1200, as appears from several councils. 
I think this is a presumption in favour of the antiquity 
of the font in question, which. is probably Saxon. The 
figures of the seasons are borrowed from the representa- 
tions of particular months, as we find them in very ancient 
calendars." (See Archceologia, vol. xii., which contains a 
representation of these bas-reliefs.) 

Most of the ancient fonts in Scotland were destroyed at 
the time of the Reformation, by the people inflamed by 
anti-Popish zeal. There is one at Morton, which was 
found buried in a heap of rubbish in a neglected corner of 
the churchyard. It is an octagon of red freestone, with 
different crosses neatly carved upon each side, and has 
a hole at the bottom, of an inch in diameter. Another 
font has been found in the churchyard of Dalgaron ; it is 
an octagon of white freestone, with a hole in the bottom, 
but no carving upon it. The third was at the old church 
of Dunscore ; it is of red freestone, much broken, and 
has no hole for the letting out of the water. On it are the 
arms of Kirkpatrick, of Closeburn. All these fonts were 
large enough for the immersion of infants. 

The Edinburgh Encyclopcedia thus describes, in its 
article on Baptism, the introduction of sprinkling into 
Scotland: — "In this country, however, sprinkling was 
never used in ordinary cases till after the Reformation. 
During the persecution of Mary, many persons, most of 
whom were Scotch, fled from England to Geneva, and 
there greedily imbibed the opinions of that church. In 
1556, a book was published at that place, containing 
'the forms of nravpr and ministration of thp sarramprifc 



SCOTLAND : IRELAND. 



253 



approved by the famous and godly learned man, John 
Calvin,' in which the administrator is enjoined to 'take 
water in his hand, and lay it upon the child's forehead.' 
These Scottish exiles, who had renounced the authority of 
the pope, implicitly acknowledged the authority of Calvin ; 
and returning to their own country, with Knox at their 
head, established sprinkling in Scotland." 

At St. Doulough's, a parish in the county of Dublin, 
Ireland, there is an ancient church, which is still tolerably 
entire, and is one of the oldest and most singular religious 
edifices in the country. It is situated on an eminence at 
the extremity of an avenue about fifty yards in length, at 
the entrance of which is a low granite cross, supposed to 




Fig. 54. St. Doulough's Well. 
have been originally placed over the south porch. The 
church is about forty-eight feet long, and eighteen feet 
wide, with a massive square embattled tower, and is built of 
the limestone found in the neighbourhood. This building 
is supposed to have been erected in the tenth century. 
Near the church is a well dedicated to St. Catherine, 
enclosed within an octagonal building, represented 
in the above engraving (Fig. 54) ; the interior is circular, 
and has three deep recesses in the walls, in which 
are stone seats. In the centre of the area is the well, 
encircled by a ring of stone, two feet in depth and five 
inches thick on the edge. In each spandril of the arched 



2 54 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

ceiling, and over each recess in the walls, is a sunken 
panel, and the interior was formerly decorated with 
paintings of Scriptural subjects. {Topographical Dictionary 
of Ireland^ 

Mr. W. F. Wakeman, in his Archaologia Hibernica, thus 
describes this interesting edifice :— " The well of St. 
Doulough, which was probably also used as a baptistery, 
is quite in keeping with the singular character of his 
church. The spring, which is covered by a stone-roofed, 
octagonal building, rises through a circular basin, cut out 
of a single stone, and was, not many years ago, thought 
to possess miraculous powers. According to tradition, 
the interior of the octagon building was anciently 
decorated with pictures, and holes are pointed out as 
having been made by the iron pins by which they were 
fastened to the wall. Adjoining is a most curious sub- 
terranean bath. It is supplied by the well, and even 
yet the water rises to a considerable height within it. 
According to Mr. D' Alton, the well was dedicated to the 
Blessed Virgin, and the bath was called St. Catherine's 
Pond." 

Immersion was still practised in Ireland during the 
sixteenth century. In an account of a voyage, written 
by Mr. Edward Waight, in 1589, he says: — "Their manner 
of baptizing differeth something from ours ; part of the 
service belonging thereto is repeated in Latin, and part in 
Irish. The minister taketh the child in his hands, and 
first dippeth it backwards, and then forwards, over head 
and ears into the cold water, in the midst of winter, 
whereby also may appear their natural hardiness." 



255 



BELGIQM. 

The Archaeological Museum in Brussels contains a 
brass font from Tirlemont, of the middle of the twelfth 
century, with a representation of the baptism of Christ, 
who appears as a child half immersed in the water ; the 
Baptist standing at the right side, and the Holy Ghost 
as a dove occupying the upper part of the figure. This 
font is figured in Stahnepken's Tresor de I'art ancien 
en Belgique, pi. 23, pp. 19, 20, and is fully described in 
Didron's Annales, torn. xix. p. 188. 

At Li^ge, in the Romanesque church of St. Bartho- 
lomew, is a bronze font of great interest, and of far higher 
artistic merit than that in the Brussels Museum. It is 
cylindrical, resting on a base surrounded by twelve bulls, 
symbolising, as appears by the inscription accompanying 
them, the twelve apostles. (Fig. 55.) There is, doubtless, 
an allusion to the brazen sea in the court of Solomon's 
Temple. On the outside are sculptured, in very high 
relief, and in a very masterly style, the five following 
scenes: — i. John the Baptist preaching to the publicans 
and the soldiers, with the following inscription : — Facite 
ergo fructus dignos poenitentiae. 2. John baptizing two 
Jews in the river Jordan — Ego vos baptize in aqua, venit 
autem fortior me post me. 3. The baptism of Christ 
The Saviour is represented of small size, half immersed 
in the Jordan, which rises in the centre of the composition 
like a small mountain ; the Baptist stands on the left side, 
and the " angeli ministrantes " (ministering angels) as 
designated by the inscription, on the right. The Eternal 
Father is represented above looking down, as if from a 
rainbow, and the Holy Ghost descends as a dove on the 
head of the Saviour. — Ego a te debeo baptizari et tu venis 
ad me. 4. The baptism of Cornelius, the centurion, by 
Peter. — Cecidit Spiritus Sanctus super omnes qui audie- 



25b THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

bant verbum. 5. The baptism of the philosopher Craton 
at Ephesus, by John. On an open book in the hand of 
the Evangelist, is inscribed — Ego te baptizo in nomine 
Patris, et Filii, et Spiritus Sancti. Amen. 

In the last two groups each of the figures is immersed 
to the breast in the circular font, and the blessing of God 
is represented by a hand issuing from a rainbow above, 




Fig. 65. Font at Liege in Belgium. 

with the fingers extended, according to the Roman mode 
of benediction, and with a triple ray of light emanating 
from the out-stretched hand. This font was wrought at 
Dinant, by Lambert Patras, in the year 11 12. A detailed 
account, with engravings of some of the groups, is given 
by Didron in his Annates Archeologiques, tom. v. p. 21, 
as well as by Cahier and Martin, in the Melanges Archeo- 
logiques, vol. iv. 



257 



GERMANY. 

The circular churches in Germany ceased to be used 
after the beginning of the eleventh century, except in rare 
and isolated instances. At that date all the barbarian 
tribes had been converted, and the baptism of infants 
was a far less important ceremony than the admission 
of adults into the bosom of the church, and one not 
requiring a separate edifice for its celebration. 

The circular church called the Baptistery at Bonn 
(Fig. 56), which was removed only a few years ago, was 
one of the most interesting specimens of this class of 
monuments. No record of its erection has been pre- 
served, but its style is evidently of the eleventh century. 

There is another small edifice called a baptistery at 
Ratisbon, built in the latter part of the twelfth century. 
It is a square surrounded by three apses, and surmounted 
by an octagonal dome. 

At Cobern, on the Moselle, is a little chapel, hexagonal 
in plan, with an apse. The details of this building are 
remarkably elegant. (Ferguson's Architecture.) Dr. 
G. W. Anderson says, that there is a font at Magdeburg, 
in the cathedral, which probably dates from the fourteenth 
century. " It is about three feet in diameter, and a foot 
and a half in depth. In the church of St. Sebaldus, at 
Nuremberg, is a very remarkable baptistery. It is made 
of copper, and is one of the earliest specimens of metal 
work of that old mediaeval city. Two things make it 
specially worthy of note ; in it the Emperor Wenzel was 
baptized in 1361, and it is furnished with a grate beneath 
for the purpose of warming the water, a thing doubtless 
much needed in a country where, even at the present day, 
there is a great deficiency in the means of warming some 
of the churches. This font is three feet in diameter, and 
eighteen or twenty inches deep." 

s 



258 



THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 



The size of these fonts testifies to immersion as being 
formerly the common mode of baptism in Germany. 
Mandus, Archbishop of Mentz in 847, says : — " After the 
baptized come up out of the font, the presbyter," &c. In 
his De Institutione Clericorum, lib. i. cap. 28, he refers to 
trine immersion as representing the three days' burial of 
our Saviour, in accordance with the words of the Apostle : 




Fig. bd. Baptistery at Bonn. From Boisseree's " Nieder Rhein." 

" So many of us as were baptized into Jesus Christ, were 
baptized into his death." (Potest et haec trina mersio 
triduanam Domini sepulturam significare, maxime cum 
dicat apostolus ; Quicumque baptizati sumus in Christo 
Jesu, in morte ipsius," etc.) 

Referring to the ancient baptistery of Mentz, Venantius 
Fortunatus says : — 

ARDUA SACRATI BAPTISMATIS AULA CORUSCAT, 
QUO DELICTA AD^ CHRISTUS IN AMNE LAVAT. 
HIC PASTORE DEO PURIS GREX MERGITUR UNDIS, ETC.* 

(The lofty hall of sacred baptism shines ; in which Christ washes 
the sins of Adam in a flood. Here by the Shepherd the flock is 
immersed unto God in pure water.) 



Carminum, Lib. JL De BapUsteno Maguntia. 



THE POMERANIANS. 259 

In the year 1125, Otho, with his assistants, apostles to 
the Pomeranians, baptized at Julin and Strettin, within 
two months, twenty-two thousand. The Abb6 Fleury, in 
his Histoire EccUsiastique, gives the following account of 
this mission : " The bishop," says he, " clothed in his 
pontifical robes, ascended an elevated place, and, through 
an interpreter, addressed the people, who were anxious 
to hear him. ' May you be blessed of the Lord,' said he, 
' for the kind reception you have extended to us. Already 
you know the cause of our coming from so far. We seek 
your salvation and happiness, for you will be eternally 
happy if you acknowledge your Creator and serve Him.' 
As he was thus exhorting the people with these simple 
words, they declared with but one voice that they were 
ready to receive his instruction. He employed seven days 
in catechizing them carefully with the assistance of his 
priests and pupils. He then directed them to fast during 
three days, wash themselves, put on a white garment, and 
thus prepare themselves for the ordinance. He ordered 
the erection of three baptisteries, in one of which he 
himself was to baptize the young boys, and the two others 
were to be used by the priests for baptizing the men and 
women separately. These baptisteries were great vats 
sunk into the ground, and surrounded with curtains 

supported by small poles When the people came 

to receive baptism, the bishop made them an exhortation 
suited to the occasion, and having placed the men on the 
right, and the women on the left, administered to them 
the unction of the catechumens, and then sent them to 
the baptisteries. Each person went accompanied by a 
sponsor, to whom he consigned the lighted taper, and the 
garment, which the godfather held before his face until 
the ceremony was concluded. No sooner was the priest 
notified that some one was standing in the water, than he 
gently moved aside part of the curtain, and baptized the 

s 2 



26o 



THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 



catechumen by dipping his head three times. He then 
anointed him with the holy chrism, handed him a white 
garment, and told him he might come up out of the water. 
In winter, baptism was administered in warm water, in 
baths perfumed with incense and other spices." 

An ancient ritual, found in a manuscript codex of the 
monastery of Glogan, in the diocese of Cologne, directs 
the presbyter to receive the children from their parents 
and baptize by trine immersion, first the males, and then 
the females, saying : " I baptize thee in the name," &c. 
(Eo autem ordine sic peracto, presbyter accipiens infantes 
a parentibus eorum, sicut justum est, et ab eis rogatus 
sub trina mersione primum masculos, et postmodum 
foeminas nominando baptizet his verbis : Ego, baptizo te 
in nomine," &c.) 




Fig. 57. 



Baptism of an Infant. From a Saoramentary of Cathedral of Meta, 
in Germany. 



In St. Peter's Church, at Cologne, is a fresco repre- 
senting the immersion of Rubens, the painter, when an 
infant, in 1577. 

Chrismann, of the Order of the Minor Brethren of St. 
Francis des Recollets, in his Regula Fidei CatholiccB ei 



LUTHER. 261 

Collectio Dogmatum Credendorum, asserts that " the rite of 
immersion in the administration of baptism was in general 
use during the first twelve centuries, both in the Latin 
and Greek Churches, but that from the fourteenth century 
it was abandoned by nearly the entire Latin Church, not 
in consequence of any solemn decree of a council, but 
from desuetude, and then the rite of pouring prevailed." 

Martin Luther, in his works (vol. ii. p. 76, edit. 1551), 
says : " On this account (as a .symbol of death and 
resurrection), I could wish that such as are to be baptized 
should be completely immersed into water, according to 
the meaning of the word, and to the significance of the 
ordinance, not because I think it necessary, but because it 
would be beautiful to have a full and perfect sign of so 
perfect a thing; as also, without doubt, it was instituted 
by Christ." 

The following prayer seems to have been originally 
composed by Luther, and from his form of baptism it 
was taken into that provided for the reformed service of 
Cologne, where it follows the examination and exorcism : — 

" Almighty God, who in old time didst destroy the 
wicked world with the flood, according to Thy terrible 
judgment, and didst preserve only the family of godly 
Noah — eight souls, of Thy unspeakable mercy ; and who 
also didst drown, in the Red Sea, obstinate Pharaoh the 
king of the Egyptians, with all his army and warlike 
power, and causedst Thy people of Israel to pass over 
with dry feet: and wouldst shadow in them holy baptism, 
the laver of regeneration ; furthermore, who didst conse- 
crate Jordan with the baptism of Thy Son Christ Jesus, 
and other waters to holy dipping and washing of sins, we 
pray Thee for Thy exceeding mercy, look favourably upon 
this infant ; give him true faith, and Thy Holy Spirit, 
that whatsoever filth he hath taken of Adam, it may be 
drowned, and be put away by this holy flood, that being 



262 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

separated from the number of the ungodly, he may be 
kept safe in the holy ark of Thy church, and may confess 
and sanctify Thy name with a lusty and fervent spirit, and 
serve Thy kingdom with constant trust and sure hope, 
that at length he may attain to the promises of eternal 
life with all the godly. Amen." 

In their work on Theology, Doctors Storr and Flatt 
express themselves in the following terms : — " The old 
custom of immersion was also retained a long time in the 
Western Church, at least in the case of those who were 
not indisposed. And even after aspersion had been fully 
introduced in a part of the Western Churches, there yet 
remained several who for some time adhered to the 
ancient custom. Under these circumstances, it is certainly 
to be lamented that Luther was not able to accomplish 
his will with regard to the introduction of immersion in 
baptism, as he had done in the restoration of wine in the 
Eucharist." (Vol. ii. p. 291.) 

Salmasius, Professor in the University of Leyden, in 
1632, and author of eighty printed works, asserts that " the 
ancients did not baptize otherwise than by immersion, 
either once or thrice ; except clinics, or persons confined 
to their beds, who were baptized in a manner of which 
they were capable ; not in the entire laver, as those who 
plunge the head under water, but the whole body 
had water poured upon it. Thus Novatian, when sick, 
received baptism, being TrepfyyOeii;, poured over, not 
/SaTTTto-^et?, haptized." 

The baptism of infants was opposed by several religious 
communities in Germany, and especially by the Menno- 
nites. 

According to an Account of the Origin of the Dutch 
Baptists, published at Breda, in 1 819, by Doctor Ypeij, 
Professor of Theology at Groningen, and Rev. J. J. 
Dermont, chaplain to the king of the Netherlands, the 



THE MENNONITES. 263 

Mennonites are descended from the Waldenses, who were 
driven by persecution into various countries, and who, 
during the latter part of the twelfth century, fled into 
Flanders, and into the provinces of Holland and Zealand. 
In the year 1500 many people were discovered in Flanders, 
who condemned the custom of baptizing infants, and 
admitted to that ordinance only those who were of a 
competent age, and had given a rational account of their 
faith. The appellation of Mennonites was given to these 
Anabaptists, in 1536, from Menno, a converted priest, 
who joined them about that time and became their 
leader. 

Mr. Mosheim says : — " The true origin of that sect 
which acquired the denomination of Anabaptists, and 
derived that of Mennonites from the famous man to 
whom they owe the greatest part of their present felicity, 
is hidden in the depths of antiquity. . . . The Menno- 
nites are not entirely in erro]- when they boast of their 
descent from the Waldensians, Petrobrusians, and other 
ancient sects, who are usually considered as witnesses of 
the truth in the times of general darkness and super- 
stition." {Ecclesiastical History, cent. xvi. sect. iii. part ii. 
chap, iii.) 

The number of Mennonites now existing in Holland 
is said to be small, there being only about one hundred 
and fifty congregations of them. The sect numbers 
about five thousand in Russia, and fourteen thousand 
in Prussia. 

The following ceremony is performed by the Menno- 
nites, in the administration of baptism. This ordinance is 
given after the sermon ; those who are to receive it go to 
the minister or teacher, who comes down from the pulpit 
to perform that function. He asks them if they are willing 
to be baptized ; they answer by an inclination or bending 
forward their body. The candidates kneel, and the 



264 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

minister, in the same posture, says his prayers ; which 
being ended, the reader or chanter of the assembly comes 
with a basin full of water, and follows the minister, who 
goes to each of the neophytes, still kneeling; and, pouring 
some water upon the head of each of them, he says, "N. N. 
I baptize you with water ; may our Lord Jesus Christ 
baptize you with and by His Spirit." When they have 
all been baptized, the minister raises them one by one, 
congratulating them on being admitted into the society of 
the faithful, and gives them the kiss of peace. 

This mode of baptism is in reality a wide departure 
from the views of Menno, who says : " After we have 
searched ever so diligently, we shall find no other baptism 
but dipping in water, which is acceptable to God and 
approved in His word." {Opera, fol. i. seq.) 

The following picture (Fig. 58) represents baptism as it 
is practised by the Collegians or Rhynsburgers. It is 
taken from Les Ceremonies et Coutumes Religieuses par 
Bernard Picard, a valuable work published at Amster- 
dam, in 1736. The ceremony is thus described : — 

"The candidate for baptism makes publicly his pro- 
fession of faith on a Saturday, in the morning, before an 
assembly of Rhynsburgers held for that purpose. A 
discourse is pronounced on the excellency and nature of 
baptism. The minister and candidate go together to a 
pond, behind a house belonging to the sect (we might 
call it an hospital, since they receive for nothing those 
who have not wherewithal to pay their hotel bills). In 
that pond the neophyte, catechumen, or candidate is 
baptized by immersion ; if a man, he has a waistcoat and 
drawers ; if a woman, a bodice and petticoat, with leads 
in the hem, for the sake of decency. The minister, in the 
same dress as the men wear, is also in the water, and 
plunges them in it, pronouncing at the same time the 
form used by most Christian communities. This being 



266 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

over, they put on their clothes, go back to the meeting, 
hear an exhortation to perseverance in complying with 
the precepts of Christ ; a public prayer is said, and some 
hymns or psalms sung." 



RUSSIA. 



The font {KoXvfi^jjdpa) in the Greek Church, is a far 
less conspicuous ornament than it is in the Latin. Baptism 
by immersion has been retained in the East, but the font 
seldom or never possesses any beauty. The material is 
usually either metal or wood. In Russia, the colum- 
bethra is movable and only brought out when wanted. 

According to the orthodox confession of faith of the 
Greek Church, baptism is a washing away, and rooting 
out of original sin, by being thrice immersed in water ; 
the priest pronouncing these words : In the name of the 
Father, Amen; and of the Son, Amen; and of the Holy 
Ghost, Amen. After which regeneration by water and the 
Spirit, a man is restored to the grace of God, and the way 
opened him into the kingdom of heaven ; as our Saviour 
said. Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he 
cannot enter into the kingdom of God. (John iii. 5.) But 
this mystery being once received, is not to be again 
repeated ; provided the person who administered the 
baptism believed orthodoxly in three Persons in one God ; 
and accurately, and without any alteration, pronounced 
the aforementioned words, namely. In the name of the 
Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, Amen. As 
the Holy Catholic and Orthodox Church directs.* 

To ^a.itTicr[i.a, elvat ix,ia iKTrXvaK, Koi dvaipetris toO TrpoTraropLKOv 
d/AapT77jU,aTos, Sta t^s Tpirrjs KaTa8v(r6(i)s w to i'Scop, Xe'yovTos Tov tepeios 
TO, Xoyta TavTO., €is to ovo/xa tow IlaTpos, a.[j.ijV Kal tov 'YioS, afn-qv' koI 
TOV ayiov Tlv€VfjLaTO<; d^ijv, Koi fxera. Tyjv avayivvyjcnv TavTrjv ii i'SaTos 



THE GREEK CHURCH. 267 

The Greeks take care to bring their children, as soon 
as they are eight days old, to the church door. This 
religious custom is very ancient amongst them, and may 
be regarded as an imitation, or subsequent figure, of the 
presentation of Jesus in the temple of Jerusalem. If an 
infant, however, be in any apparent danger of death, he 
is baptized immediately, for fear he should die in darkness, 
or as they express it, out of the light. The priest goes to 
the church door, in order to receive the infant and give 
him his benediction, as the aged Simeon did formerly to 
our blessed Saviour. At the same time he marks him 
with the sign of the cross on his forehead, his mouth and 
chest. These are the preliminary ceremonies to baptism, 
and are styled, putting the seal upon an infant. The 
initial ceremony is followed by a prayer repeated by the 
priest ; after which he takes the infant and raises him in 
his arms, either before the church door, or the image of 
the Virgin, making upon him several signs of the cross. 

The baptism is performed by a threefold immersion ; 
but before he administers the sacrament, the priest 
breathes three times on the infant, which is looked upon 
as an exorcism, deliverance from the power and malice of 
the devil. Afterwards, he plunges him three times all 
over in the baptismal font, and at each immersion names 
one of the three Persons in the Trinity. The relatives, 
who bring the child to be baptized, take care to have the 
baptismal water warmed, and throw into it a collection of 



KoX IIvevyaaTos, ytVcrat 17 StaAXay^ tov avOpwTrov /jlI tov Omv, kol 
(Tvyy>u>piiTai rj cicroSos €ts rrjv ^acriXuav tZv ovpavSiv, Kara to, Xdyia tov 
(Tuyrripo^ r)jxoiV, Xeyoi'Tos" lav jxyj tis yevvfjdrj i^ i'Saxos Koi Hvivfiaro^, 
ov Svyarai elo'eXOeZv eh ttjv /SacriXeLav tov Oeov' tovto to fiAxiTripiov ixlav 
<f>opa.v Xa/M^avoixevov, Skv StScrat Sevrepov, p,ovov Ikuvo^ ottov /SaTrriftt va 
TTUTTetrq opOoSo^uK iva Oebv TpuTviroo'Ta.Tov, Koi va. eiirev aKpi/3S)'; koX 
aTTapaXXaKToys to. rrpopprjOivTa \6yia' ets to ovop-a tov IlaTpos, koI tov 
'Ylov, Koi TOV ayiov ni/eu//,aTOS, a.p.rjv' Kara Trp/ yv<afji,rjv T^s KaOoXiK^s (cai 
opOoSo^ov fKKX-qtria';. 



2 68 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

the most odoriferous flowers. Whilst the water is being 
warmed, the priest sanctifies it by a prayer, breathes 
upon it, and then pours oil into it, and with the same oil 
anoints the infant in the form of a cross. The oil is a 
symbol or figure of man's reconciliation with his Maker ; 
and this unction is performed by the priest upon the 
child's forehead and breast, all around about his ears and 
upon his loins, during which he pronounces the following 
forms of words in anointing the forehead : The servant of 
the Lord is anointed; in anointing his breast, For the cure 
of his soul and body; and at the unction of his ears, he 
adds, that the faith may be received by hearing. 

If the infant that is to be baptized be a male child, the 
godfather stands before the font ; but if it be a female the 
place is occupied by the godmother. 

The three immersions in the baptismal font imply the 
death, resurrection, and immortality of a Christian. The 
first buries the old man, the second regenerates and 
restores him again to life, and the third entitles him to 
eternal life. This allusion, by which the Greek Church 
characterises and describes the ordinance of baptism, is an 
incontestible proof of the Trinity being represented in 
their three immersions, and it is likely or presumable, 
that this ceremony was formerly introduced to distinguish 
between the orthodox and some particular anti-Trinitarian 
heretics. 

The Greek Church baptizes and confirms at the same 
time. After the last prayer in the office of baptism, the 
infant is confirmed by the priest, who, on applying the 
chrism, in the form of a cross, to the forehead, eyes, nose, 
mouth, ears, breast, hands, and feet of the infant, says : 
Behold the seal of the gift of the Holy Ghost. Seven 
days after baptism, the infant is brought to church in 
order to be washed. The priest, pronouncing the prayers 
directed in their ritual, washes the infant's body with a 



THE GREEK CHURCH. 269 

new sponge or a linen cloth prepared for that purpose, 
and dismisses him with the following words: Thou art now 
baptized, surrounded with a celestial light, sanctified and 
washed in the name of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy 
Ghost. 

The last ceremony is that of the tonsure, which, 
according to some writers, typifies the dedication of the 
person baptized to the service of God, the cutting off 
the hair being considered as a mark of servitude. At 
the end of the baptism, the priest, at the request of the 
parents, usually hangs a little cross of gold, silver, or 
other metal, round the infant's neck, which some of the 
Russians, especially of the lower people, hold in great 
estimation. 

The following picture (Fig. 59) and account of the 
ceremony of baptism are borrowed from Picard's inter- 
esting work, Les Ceremonies et Coutumes Religieuses. 

"As soon as an infant comes into the world, the parents 
send for a priest to purify him. This purification extends 
to all those who are present at the ceremony. They 
baptize their infants, according to Olearius, as soon as 
they are born; but according to other historians, those 
who are in good circumstances are not so strict, and defer 
the ceremony for some time. The godfathers and god- 
mothers of the first child must stand sureties for all the 
other children in that family, however numerous they 
may be. After their entrance into the church, the god- 
fathers deliver nine wax-tapers into the hands of the 
priest, who lights them all up, and sticks them in the 
form of a cross about the font or vessel in which the 
infant is to be baptized. The priest thurifies the god- 
fathers, and consecrates the waters, after that, he and the 
godfathers go thrice in procession round it. The clerk, 
who marches in the front, carries the image of John the 
Baptist. They then all range themselves in such a 



THE GREEK CHURCH. 27 I 

manner that their backs are turned towards the font, as a 
testimony, says Olearius, of their aversion to the three 
questions which the priest proposes to the godfathers, 
that is to say:— I. Whether the child renounces the 
devil. 2. Whether he abjures his angels ; and 3. 
Whether he abhors and detests their impious works. 
At each question the godfathers answer Yes, and spit 
upon the ground. The exorcism follows, which is per- 
formed out of the church, lest the devil as he comes out 
of the infant, should pollute or profane it. The baptism 
which ensues, is performed by triple immersion. The 
priest, having put a grain of salt into the infant's mouth, 
anoints him several times in the form of a cross, and puts 
on him a clean shirt. The water in the font is changed 
at every baptism, because the Russians are of opinion 
that it is defiled or tainted with the original sin of such as 
are therein baptized. 

Proselytes to the Russian religion are baptized in some 
rapid stream or adjacent river. They are plunged therein 
three times successively, and if it happens in the winter 
season, a hole is made in the ice for the performance of 
the ordinance. If, however, a person is of too weak a 
constitution to undergo immersion, a barrel full of water 
is poured over his head three times one after another." 

The following Baptismal Office is taken from the 
General Liturgy of the Greek Church : — 

LITURGY OF THE GREEK CHURCH. 
Prayers on initiating a Catechumen. 

The Priest unties the girdle of the person who desires to he sanctified, 
takes off his clothes, and turns him towards the east ; having only one 
garment loose, his head uncovered, his feet naked, and his hands held 
down : the Priest then blows in his face thrice, and signs him on the 
forehead and on the breast thrice, and lays his hand upon his head, 
saying : — 

Let us pray unto the Lord. 

In Thy name, O Lord the God of truth, and in the name of 
Thine only-begotten Son, and Holy Ghost, I lay my hand upon 



2 72 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

this Thy servant {by name), who fleeth unto Thy holy Name, that 
he may be defended under the covering of Thy wings. Put away 
from him his former error, and fill him with faith in Thee, with 
hope and charity, that he may confess Thee the only true Ged, 
and Thine only-begotten Son, Jesus Christ our Lord, and Thy 
Holy Spirit. Grant him to walk in the ways of Thy command- 
ments, and to do such things as are well pleasing in Thy sight, 
which if a man do he shall live by them. Write him in the book 
of life, gather him in the fold of Thine heritage. Let Thy holy 
name, and the name of Thy beloved Son Jesus Christ our Lord, 
and of Thy life-giving Spirit be glorified in him. Let Thine eyes 
look upon him always in mercy, and let Thine ears be open to his 
prayers. Make him to rejoice in the work of his hands, and in all 
his generation, that he may confess Thee, and worship and glorify 
Thy great and exalted name, evermore praising Thee all the days 
of his life. 

Exclamation. For all the powers of heaven celebrate Thee, and 
Thine is the glory of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy 
Ghost, now and for ever, even unto ages of ages. Amen. 

The first Exorcism. 

Let us pray unto the Lord. 

The Lord rebuketh thee, O Satan ; He who came into the 
world and dwelt among men to destroy thy tyranny, and deliver 
mankind from thy sway ; He who triumphed on His cross over 
every adverse power, while the sun was darkened and the earth 
did quake, the graves were opened, and the bodies of the saints 
arose ; He who destroyed death by His death, and vanquished 
him who had the power of death, that is, the devil. I adjure thee 
by God, who showed the tree of life, and appointed the cherubim 
and a flaming sword turning on every side to guard it : rebuked 
shall thou be. I adjure thee by Him who walked upon the back 
of the sea, as upon the dry land, and calmed the tempest of the 
winds ; by Him at whose look the depths are dried up, at whose 
threat the mountains are dissolved. It is He who commands thee 
now by us : tremble, depart, flee from this His creature, nor dare 
to return again, nor dare to lurk concealed within him, or to meet 
him, or to meditate against him, either in the evening or the 
morning, at midnight or at noonday. Hie thee to thy own hell 
until the day prepared for judgment. Fear God who sitteth upon 
the cherubim, and who pierceth the abyss with His look : while 
angels and archangels, thrones, dominions, principalities, powers, 
virtues, the many-eyed cherubim, and the fix-winged seraphim 
tremble before Him. Flee, depart from this new warrior enlisted 
under the standard of Jesus Christ ; by Him I adjure thee, by Him 
who walketh upon the wings of the winds, and maketh His angels 
a flaming fire ; Flee, depart from this His creature, with all thy 
angels and all thy power. 



LITURGY OF THE GREEK CHURCH. 273 

Exclamation. For the name of the Father, and of the Son, and 
of the Holy Ghost, is glorified, now and for ever, even unto ages 
of ages. Amen. 

The Second Exorcism. 

Let us pray unto the Lord. 

The holy, dreadful, and glorious God, whose power is incom- 
prehensible, and whose ways are past finding out. He who pre- 
pared the punishment of eternal torments for thee, O Satan, 
commands thee now by us, His unworthy servants, to depart with 
all thy powers from him, who is here signed in the name of Jesus 
Christ our Lord, the true God. I adjure thee, therefore, thou 
wicked, thou unclean, impure, abominable, and alienated spirit ; 
I adjure thee by the might of Jesus Christ to whom all power is 
given in heaven and on earth, who said to the devil that was deaf 
and dumb. Depart, and confess the insufficiency of thy strength ; 
who hadst not power even over the swine, remember Him who at 
thy request permitted thee to enter into the herd of swine. Fear 
God, by whose command the earth was founded on the waters, who 
created the heavens, who weighed the mountain in scales, and 
the valleys in a balance, who placed the sand for bounds to the 
sea, whose pathway is in the great waters ; He who toucheth the 
mountains and they smoke, who decketh Himself with light as 
with a garment, and spreadeth out the heavens as a curtain ; who 
laid the foundation of the earth so strong that it cannot be moved 
for ever ; who calleth up the waters of the sea and poureth them 
on the face of the earth: begone, depart from him who is prepared 
for this holy illumination. I adjure thee by the saving passion of 
our Lord Jesus Christ, by His precious body and blood, and by 
His fearful advent, for He shall come and shall not tarry ; He 
shall come to judge the world, and thee and thy combined powers, 
and shall condemn thee to hell-fire, and cast thee into outer 
darkness, where the worm dieth not and the fire is not quenched. 

For Thine is the power, O Christ our God, with the Father and 
the Holy Spirit, now and for ever, even unto ages of ages. Amen. 

The Third Exorcism. 

Let us pray unto the Lord. 

O Lord of Sabaoth, the God of Israel, who healest every sick- 
ness and every infirmity, look down upon Thy servant ; search him 
out and examine him, and deliver him from all the snares of the 
devil. Rebuke the evil spirits and cast them out, and purify the 
work of Thine own hands, and by Thy speedy help beat down 
Satan under his feet. Give him victory over him, and all his 
unclean spirits ; that by Thy mercy he may be worthy of Thy 
immortal and heavenly mysteries, and glorify the Father, the Son, 
and the Holy Ghost, now and for ev«r, even unto ages of ages. 
Amen. 



2 74 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

The. Fourth Prayer. 
Let us pray unto the Lord. 

O Lord, who ruleth over all, who didst create man in Thine own 
image and similitude, and gavest him the capacity of obtaining 
eternal life, and didst not contemn him even when, through sin, 
he had fallen ; but didst dispense salvation to the world by the 
incarnation of Thy Christ ; receive into Thy heavenly kingdom 
this Thy creature, who is delivered from the bondage of the 
adversary. Open the eyes of his understanding that he may 
behold the brightness of Thy Gospel. Set the angel of light to 
guard his life, to deliver him from the snares of the enemy, from 
the evil which besets him, from the noonday phantasms, and from 
evil dreams. 

The priest then blows upon his mouth, upon his forehead, and his 
chest saying : — 

Drive away from him every evil and unclean spirit that lurketh 
in him, and hath made itself a nest in his heart. {This he repeats 
three ti?nes.') 

The spirit of error, the spirit of impiety and of all covetousness, 
the spirit of lying and of all uncleanness, inspired by the craft 
of the devil ; and make him a rational sheep of the fold of Thy 
Christ, a member of Thy Church, a son and inheritor of Thy 
kingdom. Grant that He may order his conversation according to 
Thy precepts, that he may preserve the seal unbroken, and Thy 
garment undefiled, and so attain the blessedness of the saints in 
Thy kingdom. 

Exclamation. Through the grace and mercy, and loving kind- 
ness of Thine only-begotten Son, with whom Thou art blessed, 
together with Thy most holy, good, and life-giving Spirit, now and 
for ever, even unto ages of ages. Amen. 

The priest then turns the catechumen to the west, uncovered, without 
shoes, and his hands lifted up, and says : — 

Dost thou renounce the devil and all his works, all his angels, 
all his service, and his pomps ? 

The catechumen then answers, or his sponsor if it'- he a pagan or a 
child, and says : I do renounce. 

The priest then repeats the same question the second and the third 
time, and he answers the same to each. 

The priest : Hast thou renounced the devil .'' 

The catechumen : I have renounced. 

The same question and answer three times. 

The priest : Blow and spit upon him. 

Which he does; and the priest turns him to the east, holding his hands 
down, and then says to him : Art thou joined unto Christ t 

The catechumen or sponsor : I am joined. 

The same question and answer three times. 



LITURGY OF THE GREEK CHURCH. 275 

The priest : Hast thou been joined unto Christ ? 

Answer: I have been joined. 

Priest : Dost thou believe in Him ? 

Answer: I believe in Him as King and God, and then repeats the 
creed, I believe in one God, to the end. 

The same questions and answers, and the creed, are repeated a second 
and a third time. 

The priest : Hast thou been joined unto Christ } 

And he answers thrice : I have been joined. 

Priest: Worship Him. 

The catechumen, lowing, says: I worship the Father, the Son, and 
the Holy Ghost, the consubstantial and undivided Trinity. 

The priest : Blessed be God who would have all men to be 
saved, and to come to the knowledge of the truth ; now and for 
ever, even unto ages of ages. Amen. 

Then he says this prayer. 

Let us pray unto the Lord. 

O Lord our God, who rulest over all, we beseech Thee to call 
this Thy servant {by name) to Thy holy sanctification, and grant 
unto him the grace of Thy holy baptism ; put off from him the 
old man, and renew him for eternal life ; replenish him with Thy 
Holy Spirit, and join him to Thy Christ, that he may no longer be 
a child of the flesh, but a child of Thy kingdom. Through the 
loving-kindness and grace of Thine only-begotten Son, with whom 
Thou art blessed, with Thy most holy, good, and life-giving 
Spirit, now and for ever, even unto ages of ages. Amen. 

Prayers on signing the child with the sign of the cross, when it 
receives its name on the eighth day after its birth. 

// is to he observed that the midwife must carry the child to church on 
the eighth day after its birth, and stand with it before the doors of the 
church.* 

The priest begins : Blessed is our God : Trisagion : Pater noster : 
After the exclamation, the troparion of the day, or of the saint of the 
church. 

The priest then signs the child on the forehead, on the mouth, and on 
the breast, and says this prayer. 

Let us pray unto the Lord. 

O Lord our God, we implore Thee, and we pray unto Thee : 
let the light of Thy countenance be signed upon this Thy servant 
{by name)] and let the cross of Thine only-begotten Son be signe<? 
in his heart and in his mind ; to drive away all worldly vanities, 

* The child is always carried directly into the church j but this direction, and many others 
of this sort, allude to the ancient manner of building churches, with a refectory and narthex. 
i' Here he gives the child its name. 

X 2 



276 THE ARCHEOLOGY OK BAPTISM. 

and protect him from the deceitful wiles of the adversary ; that he 
may obey Thy commandments. Grant, O Lord, that Thy holy 
name may remain upon him never to be renounced, that in Thy 
good time he may be joined to Thy holy church, and made perfect 
in the tremendous mysteries of Thy Christ ; that living after Thy 
commandments, and preserving this seal inviolable, he may 
obtain the blessedness of the elect in Thy kingdom ; through the 
grace and loving-kindness of Thine only-begotten Son, with whom 
Thou art blessed, together with Thy most holy, good, and life- 
giving Spirit, now and for ever, even unto ages of ages. Amen. 

Then he stands he/ore the church doors or before the image of the most 
holy Virgin, and makes the sign of the cross with the infant, saying: 

Hail, O Virgin full of grace, the mother of God ! for from thee 
did Christ our God, the Sun of Righteousness arise, to enlighten 
those who sat in darkness. Rejoice, too, thou righteous old man 
(Simeon) 1 who didst hold in thy bosom the Saviour of our souls, 
Him who gave us the resurrection unto life. 

Then follows the dismission; and a direction exhorting not to delay 
baptizing the infant, if it appears in danger of dying, concludes the 
ceremony^ 

The Office of Holy Baptism. 

The priest goes into the church, and puts on his white sacerdotal 
garment, and his epimanikia, and after the candles are all lighted, he 
takes the censer and incenses the font all round ; then he gives away the 
censer and bows. The deacon then says. Bless, Master. 

The priest aloud. 
Blessed be the kingdom of the Father, and of the Son, and of 
the Holy Ghost, now and for ever, even unto ages of ages. 
Amen. 

Deacon. Let us pray unto the Lord in peace, for heavenly peace, 

and the peace of all ; for His holy house ; for the archbishop, that 

he may sanctify this water by the virtue, operation, and descent of 

the Holy Ghost ; that He may send down upon it the grace of 

redemption, the blessing of the River Jordan ; that the purifying 

virtue of the super-substantial Trinity may rest upon it. Let us 

pray the Lord to illuminate us with the light of knowledge and 

piety, by the coming of the Holy Ghost ; that it may report every 

machination of all enemies, visible and invisible. Let us pray the 

Lord to make him, who is baptized therein, worthy of His immortal 

kingdom. Let us pray the Lord for him who now comes to this 

holy illumination and for his salvation, to make him a child of light 

and an heir of everlasting blessings ; that he may be planted in, 

and be partaker of, the death and resurrection of Christ our God. 

Let us pray the Lord that he may preserve the garment of baptism 

and the clothing of the spirit spotless and immaculate in the dread 

day of Christ our God. Let us pray the Lord that this water may 



LITURGY OF THE GREEK CHURCH. 277 

be the laver of regeneration, for the remission of sins, and for the 
garment of incorruption. Let us pray the Lord that our Lord 
God may hear the voice of our petitions. Let us pray the Lord to 
deliver us from all afBictions, strife, and necessity. Protect us, 
save us, be merciful unto us. 

While the deacon says these words, the priest, in a low voice, says 
this prayer. 

O most merciful and gracious God, who alone searchest the 
heart and reins, and knowest the secret thoughts of men ; for 
nothing is hid from Thy sight, but all things are open and naked 
before Thee. O Thou vcho seest what is in me, reject me not, nor 
turn away Thy face from me ; but pardon mine offences at this hour. 
It is Thou who forgivest the sins of men upon true repentance ; 
wash away the pollutions of my body, and the defilements of my 
soul. Sanctify me thoroughly by Thine all-perfect and invisible 
power and Thy spiritual right hand ; lest, after I have preached 
liberty to others, and declared it through faith in Thy unspeakable 
love to mankind, I myself, as a servant of sin, should be a castaway. 
Let me not be confounded, O Lord, for Thou only art good and 
merciful. Send down Thy power from above, and strengthen me 
for the ministration of this great and heavenly mystery. Fashion 
Thy church in him who is now to be regenerated, and build him 
up on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, that he may 
not be thrown down ; plant him as a plant of truth in Thy holy, 
catholic, and apostolic church, that he may not be plucked up ; 
but that, growing in piety, he may glorify Thy holy name, of the 
Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, now and for ever, 
even unto ages of ages. Amen. 

// is to he observed that he is not to elevate his voice at the end of this 
prayer, hut say Amen to himself, and then this prayer in a loud voice. 

Great art Thou, O Lord, and wonderful are Thy works ; nor can 
words express the praise of Thy marvellous acts. {Thrice.) For 
Thou, of Thine own good pleasure, didst bring all things out of 
nothing into being; Thou upholdest them by Thy power, and 
governest the world by Thy providence. Thou hast composed the 
creation of four elements ; Thou hast crowned the year with four 
seasons. To Thee, all-intellectual, powers are subject ; the sun 
shines to praise Thee, the moon to show forth Thy glory, the stars 
are present at Thy call, the light pays homage to Thee, the 
abyss trembles before Thee, and the fountains are obedient to Thy 
will. Thou didst spread the heavens as a curtain, and didst found 
the earth upon the waters ; Thou didst set the sand for bounds to the 
sea, and exposed the air for our respiration. Thee do the angelic 
virtues obey. Thee do the choirs of archangels adore, the many-eyed 
cherubim, and the fix-winged seraphim which surround Thee, 
hide themselves for fear of Thine inaccessible glory. For Thou, 
who art God incomprehensible, without beginning, and inefl!"able, 



2 78 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

didst descend upon the earth, and took on Thee the form of a 
servant, being made in the lilieness of man. For Thou, through 
the bowels of Thy mercy, couldst not behold the human race 
subjected to the tyranny of the devil, therefore didst Thou come 
to save us. We confess Thy grace, we declare Thy mercy, and do 
not hide Thy loving-kindness. When Thou didst deliver the 
human race, Thou didst sanctify the Virgin's womb: every creature 
hailed Thy appearance, for Thou our God wast visible upon the 
earth, and didst converse among men. Thou didst sanctify the 
water of Jordan, Thou didst send down Thy Holy Spirit from 
heaven, and bruise the heads of the serpents which were lurking 
there. 

Be present therefore, O merciful King, and by the coming of 
the Holy Ghost sanctify this water [thrice); endue it with the 
grace of redemption, wherewith Thou didst bless the River Jordan; 
make it the fountain of incorruption, the gift of holiness, the water 
of absolution of sins, powerful to heal bodily sickness, deadly to 
every evil, inaccessible to every adverse power, and abounding 
with angelic virtue, that all who would beguile may flee from it. 
Therefore have I called upon Thy name, O Lord, which is 
wonderful and glorious, and tremendous to Thine adversaries. 

Then, breathing upon the water, he signs it three times with the sign 
of the cross, and says : — 

Let all adverse power be confounded under the sign of Thy 
cross [thrice') ; make all aerial and invisible idols to depart from us ; 
let not the demon of darkness be concealed in this water ; and we 
beseech Thee, let not the evil spirit, which bringeth darkness of 
thoughts and trouble of mind, let it not descend with the person to 
be baptized ; but do Thou, O Lord of all, consecrate this water, 
that it may be the water of redemption and sanctification for the 
purifying of the flesh and spirit, for loosening the chains, for 
remission of sins, for enlightening the mind, the laver of regenera- 
tion, the grace of adoption, the garment of incorruption, the 
fountain of- life. For Thou, O Lord, hast said. Wash, and be 
clean ; Thou hast given us from above the regeneration by water 
and the Spirit. Show Thy power in this water, O Lord, and 
grant that the person to be baptized therein may be renewed, that 
he may put off the old man, which is corrupt after the lust of 
seduction, and put on the new man after the image of Him who 
made him, that, being planted in the likeness of His death by 
baptism, he may be partaker of His resurrection ; that preserving 
the gift of Thy Holy Spirit, and abounding in grace, he may 
obtain the prize of his high calling, and be numbered with the 
firstborn that are written in heaven, in Thee our Lord and our 
God, Jesus Christ, to whom be glory and power, with Thine 
Eternal Father, and Thy most holy, good, and life-giving Spirit, 
now and for ever, even unto ages of ages. Amen. 

Peace be with you all. 



LITURGY OF THE GREEK CHURCH 279 

Deacon. Bow down your heads to the Lord. 

The priest then blows thrice into the vessel of oil, and signs it thrice 
with the sign of the cross, that is, the oil which the deacon holds, who 
then says : — 

Let us pray unto the Lord. 

The priest says this prayer. 

O Lord God of our fathers, who rulest over all ; who didst save 
Noah in the ark, and didst send unto him the dove, carrying in 
his mouth the branch of olive, the symbol of reconciliation ; and 
by his preservation from the flood, didst typify the mystery of 
grace ; and hast appointed the fruit of the olive for the consum- 
mation of Thy holy mysteries, whereby Thou didst give Thy Holy 
Spirit to them who were under the law, and dost now perfect those 
who are under grace. Bless, we beseech Thee, this oil, by the 
virtue, operation, and presence of the Holy Ghost, that it may 
become to those who are anointed with faith and are partakers 
thereof, the unction of incorruption, the armour of righteousness, 
the renewing of soul and body ; for turning aside all machinations 
of the devil, and for deliverance from all evil : to Thy glory, and 
the glory of Thine only-begotten Son, of Thy most holy, good, 
and vivifying Spirit, now and for ever, even unto ages of ages. 

Choir. Amen. 

Deacon. Let us attend. 

The priest sings, Halleliija, thrice with the people, and pours the oil on 
the top of the water, making three crosses with it ; then he says aloud — 

Blessed be God, who enlighteneth and sanctifieth every man 
that Cometh into the world, now and for ever, even unto ages of 
ages. 

Choir. Amen. 

The person to he baptized is then presented ; the priest takes some of 
the oil, and makes the sign of the cross on his forehead, his breast, and 
between his shoulders, saying : — 

N. The servant of God is anointed with the oil of gladness, in 
the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, 
now and for ever, even unto ages of ages. Amen. 

Then he signs him on the breast and the middle of the hack. As he 
signs him on the breast, he says : For the healing of soul and body. 
{Then on the ears, saying): For the hearing the faith. {Then on 
the feet) That thy steps may advance. {Then on the hands) Thy 
hands have made me and fashioned me. 

The whole body being thus anointed, the priest baptizes him, holding 
him upright, and turning his face towards the east, saying : — 

IV. The servant of God is baptized in the name of the Father, 
Amen; and of the Son, Amen; and of the Holy Ghost, Amen; 
nov/ and for ever, even unto ages of ages. Amen. 



2 8o THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

Immersing him at each sentence, and leading him out of the water.* 
The priest after the baptism, washes his hands, and, with the people, 
sings : — 

Blessed are they whose sins are forgiven, and whose iniquities 
are taken away. Blessed the man ; and the rest of the Psalm. This 
he says three times. Then he puts on the baptized person's garment, 
saying : — 

N. The servant of God is clothed with the garment of righteous- 
ness, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy 
Ghost, now and for ever, even unto ages of ages. Amen. 

This troparion is then sung. 

Grant me the garment of light. Thou who art clothed with light 
as with a garment, O most merciful Christ our God. 

After he is clothed, the priest says this prayer. 
Let us pray the Lord. 

Blessed art Thou, O Lord God Almighty, the fountain of all 
good things ; the Sun of righteousness, who hast enlightened 
those who sat in darkness by the appearance of Thine only- 
begotten Son, our God, as the Sun of salvation ; and hast vouch- 
safed unto us, unworthy as we are, a blessed purification by holy 
water, and a divine sanctification by the vivifying chrism; and hast 
now been pleased to regenerate this Thy newly-enlightened servant 
by water and the Holy Ghost, and to grant him pardon of his 
sins voluntary and involuntary ; grant him, O Lord, the most 
merciful ruler of all things, the seal of the holy, omnipotent, and 
adorable Spirit, and the participation of Thy holy body, and of the 
precious blood of Christ. Keep him in Thy holiness ; confirm 
him in the true faith ; deliver him from the evil one, and all his 
insidious snares ; and by the salutary fear of Thyself, preserve his 
soul in purity and righteousness ; that in all his actions and words 
he may do that which is well-pleasing in Thy sight, as Thy child, 
and an heir of Thy heavenly kingdom. 

Exclamation. 

For Thou art our God, the God of mercy and salvation ; and to 
Thee we offer up our praise, to the Father, the Son, and the Holy 
Ghost, now and for ever, even unto ages of ages. Amen. 



* Kai 0T6 ixpi'0'9yj bXov to crSifxa /3airTt^et avrov o tepcvis opOiov avrov 
KaT(.)(<x>v, KoX ySAeVovTa Kara, dvaroXas, koI Xeyuiv' 

BaTTTtferat o SoBAos tov deov, 6 Setva, cts to ovofia. tov Trarpos, dfj.'^V 
Kol rov vlov, d/xrjV Kai tov ayiov irvevfjiaTO'S, afiLrjV vvv koX det, koX eis 
Tovs diSvas Toiv atravMV. Ajjbrjv. 

'EKao'Ty TTpoaprjO-ii, KaTaywv avrov Kai avaymv. 



LITURGY OF THE GREEK CHURCH. 28 1 

The Holy Chrism. 

The foregoing prayer being finished, the baptized person is anointed 
with the holy chrism, the priest making therewith the sign of the cross 
on his forehead, eyes, nostrils, mouth, ears, breast, hands, and feet, saying 
at each part : The seal of the gift of the Holy Ghost. Amen. 

The priest then, with the sponsor and child, goes round the font thrice, 
turning from the right to the left. 

The choir in the meanwhile sings : — 

As many of you as are baptized unto Christ have put on Christ. 
Hallelujah. Three times. 

Then the Prokimenon. The Lord is my light and my salvation ; 
whom then shall I fear ? 

V. The Lord is the defence of my life, of whom then shall I be 
afraid ? 

The Epistle. 
Romans, chap. vi. vers. 3-12. 
Priest : Peace be with thee. 
Deacon : Wisdom. Let us attend. 
Reader: Psalm. Hallelujah. Three times. 

The Gospel. 
St. Matthew, chap, xxvii. vers. \b to the end. 

Ec tenia. 

Have mercy upon us, O God, according to Thy great goodness. 

Again we pray for {the sovereign by name). Again we pray for 
{the imperial family by name). Again we pray for the holy legislative 
synod. Again we pray for mercy, life, peace, health, salvation, 
and forgiveness of sins to the servant of God \J)y name), the sponsor. 
Again we pray for the newly-enlightened servant of God ifiy name); 
that he may be preserved in the faith of a pure confession, in 
purity, and in fulfilling the commandments of Christ all the days 
of his life. For Thou art the merciful God, the lover of mankind, 
and to Thee we offer up our praise; to the Father, and to the Son, 
and to the Holy Ghost, now and for ever, even unto ages of ages. 

Choir: Amen. 

Priest: Glory to Thee, O Christ our God, our hope, glory be to 
Thee. 

Glory: both now. 

Lord, have mercy upon us. Thrice. 

Give the Benediction. 
The priest gives the Dismission. 

The Ablution after Holy Baptism. 
After seven days the person is again conducted to church to be washed, 
when the priest unties his girdle and his linen garment, and says the 
following prayer : — 



282 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

Let us pray unto the Lord. 

O God, who, by Thy holy baptism, hast bestowed upon this Thy 
servant redemption from sin and regeneration of life ; grant, O 
Sovereign Lord, that the light of Thy countenance may always 
enlighten his heart, and the shield of his faith protect him from 
the assault of his enemies ; and do Thou, O Lord most gracious, 
according to the multitude of Thy mercies, preserve the garment 
of incorruption he has assumed spotless and undefiled, and the 
spiritual seal of grace inviolable. For Thy great and glorious 
name is blessed and praised of the Father, and of the Son, and of 
the Holy Ghost, now and for ever, even unto ages of ages. Amen. 

Second Prayer, 
Let us pray unto the Lord. 

Choir. Kyrie Eleeson. 

O Lord our God, who rulest over all ; who dost give Thy 
heavenly light to those who are baptized ; who hast regenerated 
Thy newly-enlightened servant by water and the Spirit, and hast 
granted him remission of sins voluntary and involuntary ; protect 
him in virtue and goodness by the imposition of Thy mighty hand; 
preserve in him the pledge of Thy grace inviolable, and make him 
worthy of Thy favour and of everlasting life. 

For Thou art our sanctification, and to Thee we offer up our 
praise : to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost, now 
and for ever, even unto ages of ages. Amen. 

Peace be with you all. 

Choir. And with thy spirit. 

Deacon. Bow down your heads to the Lord. 

Choir. To Thee, O Lord. 

Priest. He who hath put on Thee, O Christ, doth now with us • 
bow down his head unto Thee : make him an invincible champion 
against those who strive in vain against him and us ; and grant 
that we may all be victorious to the end, and receive Thine incor- 
ruptible crown. 

For to Thee belong mercy and salvation, and to Thee we offer 
up our praise with Thine everlasting Father, and Thy most holy, 
good, and life-giving Spirit, now and for ever, even unto ages of 
ages. 

Choir. Amen. 

Then he uniies the girdle of the child and its linen clothes, and 
washes it with clean water, and sprinkling it, saying : — 

Thou hast been justified, enlightened, and sanctified in the 
name of the Lord Jesus Christ, and with the Spirit of our God. 

Then taking a new sponge, moistened with water, he washes his face, 
breast, &c., saying: — 

Thou hast been baptized, enlightened, anointed, sanctified, 
washed, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the 
Holy Ghost, now and for ever, even unto ages of ages. Amen. 



LITURGY OF THE GREEK CHURCH. 283 



Prayers on the Tonsure of the Hair. 

Deacon. Let us pray unto the Lord. 

Choir. Kjrie Eleeson. 

O Lord our God, who rulest over all, and hast composed man, 
whom Thou didst adorn with Thine own image, of a reasoning 
soul and a beautiful body, that the body might be subject to the 
soul ; and on the superior part of the body didst place the head, 
in which many senses are so disposed as not to hinder each other's 
operation ; and didst cover his head with hair, to guard it from 
the changes and intemperature of the air ; and didst so marvellously 
and aptly order all his members, that by them all he might glorify 
Thee, the Supreme Artificer: Do Thou, O Lord, who by Thy 
Apostle Paul, Thy chosen vessel, didst command us to do all 
things to Thy glory, give Thy blessing to this Thy servant {hy name) 
who is now come to offer to Thee his firstfruits, the tonsure of his 
head ; bless him together with his sponsor, and grant that they 
may walk in Thy law, and do those things which are pleasing in 
Thy sight. 

For Thou art the merciful God, the lover of mankind, and to 
Thee we oifer up our praise, to the Father, and to the Son, and to 
the Holy Ghost, now and for ever, even unto ages of ages. 

Choir. Amen. 

Priest. Peace be with you all. 

Choir. And with thy spirit. 

Deacon. Bow down your heads to the Lord. 

Choir. To Thee, O Lord. 

The priest says this prayer. 

O Lord our God, who from the fulness of the baptismal laver of 
Thy goodness dost sanctify those who believe on Thee, bless this 
child, and send down Thy benediction on his head ; and as Thou 
didst bless David the king by the prophet Samuel, so give Thy 
blessing on the head of this child (by name) by my sinful hand. 
Enlighten him with Thy Holy Spirit, that as he advances in age 
even unto grey hairs, he may show forth glory, and see Jerusalem 
in prosperity all the days of his life. 

For all glory, honour, and adoration are due unto Thee, the 
Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost, now and for ever, even 
unto ages of ages. Amen. 

Choir. Amen. 

Then the priest cuts his hair* cross-wise, saying : — 

N. The servant of God is shorn in the name of the Father, and 



* He cuts off some locks of the hair with a pair of scissors, in four places on the crown of 
the head j which he wraps up in a small piece of wax, and throws into the water in the font. 



284 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, now and for ever, even unto 
ages of ages. 
Choir. Amen. 

Then the ectinia : — Have mercy upon us, O God, according to 
Thy great goodness ; t'n which mention is made of the Sovereign, the 
sponsor, and the newly-enlightened. 

And the common Dismission. 

END OF THE ORDER OF HOLY BAPTISM, 



ICELAND. 

It is known from Landnama Bok, and the Shedae of 
Are, that the Norwegians found some traces of Christianitjr 
on their arrival in Iceland. There were also some few 
Christians among these new colonists who, however, soon 
apostatized to the heathen religion, so that it became 
general there. It is not known whether any attempts had 
been made to introduce the Christian religion before the 
year 981, when a certain bishop, Friedric, arrived there 
from Saxony, and was obliged to return, after a stay of 
five years, without having made any great progress. 

However, a church was built in 984 by Thorvard 
Bodwarson, and some persons received baptism ; but 
others, though they had no objection to the Christian 
doctrine, could not be prevailed upon to suffer themselves 
to be baptized, as they pretended it would be indecent to 
go naked into the water like little boys to receive baptism, 
which, according to the custom of these times, could only 
be done by submersion. Some, however, to show their 
detestation of paganism, suffered themselves to be signed 
with the cross, which they called Primsigning. These 
were not considered either as Christians or heathen ; 
however, they were allowed to eat with the former, and 
to be buried close to the churchyard. (From Letters on 
Iceland, by Uno von Troil, D.D., first Chaplain to his 
Swedish Majesty, in 1772.) 



285 



ARMENIA. 

The Church in Armenia is said to have been founded in 
the third century of our era, by St. Savorich or Gregory, 
who converted Taridates, king of that country, by his 
preaching and miracles. The Armenians are generally 
considered as Monophysites, or those who confound the 
two natures of Christ. They have a confession of great 
antiquity, which they attribute to their apostle of the 
third century, St. Gregory the Illuminator. Their church 
government is episcopal, and their clergy are subject 
to the patriarch, who resides at the great monastery of 
Echmi}''adzin, about ten miles distant from Erivan. 

The Armenians baptize their children in the following 
manner : — The officiating priest receives the infant at the 
church door, which is locked ; he there reads a psalm and 
several prayers, to which he adds an exorcism, which he 
repeats three times as he turns himself toward the west. 
After that, turning himself three times towards the east, 
he proposes a number of distinct questions on the articles 
of the Christian faith. Then the door of the church is 
opened, and they move forward towards the font, where 
the priest anoints the infant, blesses the water, plunges in 
the crucifix, and pours into it the chrism. After these 
ceremonies, the celebrant asks the parents the name they 
have resolved to give the infant, and on naming it, he 
plunges it three times, with utmost care and circumspec- 
tion. The Armenian priests, as well as the Greek, when 
their fonts are too small, wash the infant all over with 
their wet hand, in order that the baptismal water may 
touch each member of the body, and make the child 
thereby become, as they believe, a second Achilles, invul- 
nerable in every part, and able to resist, by virtue of this 
ablution, all the temptations of the devil. 

According to Tournefort, the Armenians baptize their 



2 86 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

infants on Sundays only, except they are in danger of 
death ; and the priest frequently gives them the name of 
the saint, to whose service that or the following day is 
peculiarly devoted. After baptism, the godfather carries 
back the infant to its mother, with drums and trumpets 
sounding; but it is always carried to the church by the 
midwife. Upon the reception of her child, the mother 
prostrates herself to the ground, and the godfather salutes 
her.* 

The Armenians unite affusion and immersion in the 
administration of baptism. The following directions are 
taken from their Ritual, translated from the original into 
Latin by Assemanus in his Codex Liturgicus: — 

He (the priest) then places the infant in the font, and 
pours with his hand some water upon his head, saying : — 
N .... is baptized in the name of the Father, and of the 
Son, and of the Holy Ghost ; redeemed by the blood of 
Christ from the slavery of sin, he obtains the liberty of 
the adoption of the children of our Heavenly Father, that 
he may become joint-heir with Christ, and a temple of the 
Holy Ghost, now and for ever, and to ages of ages. This 
he says thrice and immerses him three times, burying 
in the water the sins of the old man, and in order to 
represent the three days' burial of Christ, and His 
resurrection. He then washes the whole body, and says : 
As many of you as have been baptized into Christ, have 
put on Christ. Hallelujah. As many of you as have been 
illuminated in the Father, the Holy Ghost shall rejoice in 
you. (Deinde deponit parvulum in fonte, et de ipsa aqua 
immittit manum supra caput illius, dicens ter : N . . . , 
Baptizatur in nomine Patris, et Filii, et Spiritus Sancti, 
redemptus sanguine Christi a servitute peccatorum, con- 
sequitur libertatem adoptionis filiorum Patris coelestis, ut 

* Ceremonies et Couiumes Religieuses, par Bernard Picard. 



THE GEORGIANS, OR IBERIAKS. 287 

fiat cohaeres Christi, et templum Spiritus Sancti, nunc et 
semper, et in saecula saeculorum. Haec autem dicens ter 
mergit, in aqua sepeliendo peccata vetustatis. Significat 
quoque triduanam Christi sepulturam et resurrectionem. 
Abluens vero totum corpus, dicit : Qui in Christo bap- 
tizati estis, Christum induistis. Alleluia. Qui in Patre 
illuminati estis, Sanctus Spiritus gaudebit in vobis.) 

This Liturgy is also found in a manuscript of the Library 
of the College Propaganda Fide, in Rome. 



THE GEORGIANS, OR IBERIANS. 

The inhabitants of Georgia, an Asiatic province on the 
southern slope of the Caucasus, and anciently called 
Iberia, were converted to Christianity in the fourth cen- 
tury. The Georgian Church forms an integral part of the 
orthodox Eastern Church, but is distinguished from the 
other branches by the peculiarity of delaying the baptism 
of children until their eighth year. In the performance 
of that ceremony, they adopt the following method. In 
the first place, the priest reads a great number of prayers 
over the child ; and when he comes to that form of words 
in which, according to the Romish Church, the essence of 
the sacrament is made to consist, he never breaks off, but 
reads on without baptizing the child at that time. As 
soon as the lesson is ended, the child is stripped and 
baptized by the godfather, and not by the priest, which 
ceremony is performed with only a repetition of a few 
words which were pronounced before. When they baptize 
their children, they confirm them and administer to them 
the Lord's Supper. {Ceremonies et Coutumes Reltgteuses) 



THE MINGRELIANS. 

Mingrelia forms a part of Western Georgia, in Asia, 
and was ancientl)' called Colchis. The inhabitants of 
that country call themselves Christians; their service is 
according to the rites of the Greek Church, with a mixture 
of Judaism and Paganism. In regard to their baptismal 
ceremonies, as soon as an infant is born, the papa or 
priest makes the sign of the cross on his forehead, and 
eight days afterwards anoints him with the myrone, that 
is, their consecrated oil ; but he never baptizes him till 
two years after, and the following form is observed. The 
child is brought to the church, and presented to t\ie papa, 
who immediately asks his name, and lights a small wax 
taper ; after which he reads a long lesson, and repeats 
several prayers suitable to the occasion. After that the 
godfather undresses the child, and plunges him naked 
in a font full of tepid water mixed with walnut-oil, and 
washes his body all over, the priest taking no share in 
this part of the ceremony, nor pronouncing a single 
syllable during the whole of this time. After this general 
ablution, however, he advances towards the font, and 
gives the myrone to the godfather to anoint the child. 
The godfather accordingly anoints his forehead, nose, 
eyes, ears, breast, the soles of the feet, and the crown of 
his head. After this ceremony is over, he plunges him 
again into the font, and offers him a piece of consecrated 
bread and a small portion of wine. If the child swallows 
them, it is looked upon as a happy omen. In conclusion, 
the godfather returns the child to his mother, saying 
three times : " Yoti delivered him into my hands a Jew, and 
I return him to you a Christian." {Ceremonies et Coutumes 
Religieuses) 



289 



THE NESTORIANS. 

This is the name of an important and early sect of 
Christians, the followers of Nestorius, a Syrian by birth, 
who became patriarch of Constantinople in 428, under 
the reign of Theodosius II. This prelate agitated the 
Christian world, after the Arian controversy had been 
settled, by the introduction of certain subtle disputations 
concerning the incarnation of Christ, from whence debates 
and contentions arose which harassed the Church for the 
space of more than two centuries. He taught that there 
were two persons in Jesus Christ, and that the Word or 
Divinity, had not become man, but had descended upon 
the man Jesus, born of the Virgin Mary, and that the two 
natures became morally united, as it were, but not hypo- 
statically joined in one person ; and that when Jesus died, 
it was the human person, and not the Divinity that 
suffered. His partisans have continued to this day to 
form a separate church, which is rather numerous, espe- 
cially in Mesopotamia, where the patriarch resides at 
Diarbekr. The Nestorians at one time spread into Persia, 
and from thence to the coast of Coromandel, where the 
Portuguese found a community of them at St. Thome, but 
they persecuted them and obliged them to turn Roman 
Catholics.* 

The following definition of baptism is taken from the 
Juval, written by Mar Abd Yeshua, Nestorian Metro- 
politan of Nisibis and Armenia, A.D. 1298: "Baptism is 
the immersion in, and the washing with, water, and of this 
there are five kinds : i . The washing off of the filth of 
the body, as is commonly done by all men. 2 . The legal 



* Histoire du Nestorianisme, by Father Doucin, a Jesuit, 1698; 
and a Dissertation on the Syrian Nestorians, in the fourth volume of 
the Bihliotheca Orientalis, of J. S. Assamanus. 

U 



2 90 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

washings, whereby it was believed that purity towards 
God from all carnal uncleanness was attained. 3. Those 
of the traditions of the elders, such as ' the washing of 
cups, and pots, brazen vessels, and tables,' and as ' when 
they come from the market, except they wash, they eat 
not.' 4. The baptism of John, whereby he preached only 
repentance and the forgiveness of sins. 5. The baptism 
of our Saviour, which is received, through the Holy 
Ghost, for the gift of adoption, for the resurrection from 
the dead, and for everlasting life ; which is, ' the circum- 
cision made without hands, in putting off the body of the 
sins of the flesh by the circumcision of Christ. For as the 
circumcision of the flesh was given for a sign denoting 
those who were of the family of Israel of old according 
to the flesh, so the baptism of Christ is a sign of spiritual 
relationship to the new Israel, viz., those who are called, 
and the children of God ' Those who received Him, 
to them gave He power to become the sons of God.' 

" The matter of baptism is water, ' Except a man be 
born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the 
kingdom of God.' The form of baptism ' in the name of 
the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost,' according to the 
words of the Saviour. 

" There is also a sixth baptism, that of blood, as our 
Lord has noticed : ' I have a baptism to be baptized 
with, and how am I straitened until it is accomplished.' 
Also a seventh baptism, of tears, after the saying of the 
Fathers. These two are allied to the fifth, which is an 
emblem of death and the resurrection." (Chapter iii.) 

The Taxa Samadha, 

or office for the administration of Holy Baptism, according to the 
Nestorian Ritual. 

Priest. Glory to GoD in the highest, and on earth peace, good 
will toward men. 

Our Father which art in heaven, etc. 



THE TAX A SAMADHA. 2gi 

Prayer. 
In Thy compassion, O Lord, strengthen our weakness, that we 
may administer the holy sacraments of sin-forgiving baptism, 
which were given for the salvation of our race, through the grace 
of Thy overflowing mercy, O Lord of all, Father, Son, and 
Holy Ghost. Amen. 

Psalm Ixxxiv. 

Prayer. 

In Thy compassion restore us to Thyself, and make us of Thy 
household, O Thou righteous Shepherd, who didst go forth to 
seek after us, and didst find us out in our wanderings, and desired, 
in Thy grace and mercy, our return, O Lord of all, Father, Son, 
and Holy Ghost. Amen. 

Then the priest shall pronounce this, laying on hands over those who 
are to be baptized. Laying his hands on each, he shall say with a 
loud voice : — 

The promise of Thy mercy, which Thou didst promise us, is 
fulfilled (Jo be repeated) : Ask, and ye shall receive ; knock, and it 
shall be opened unto you. The effect surpasses the word spoken, 
and the fulfilment exceeds the promise ; since Thy gift is not 
bestowed upon the wise and prudent only, and the door of Thy 
mercy is not open to them alone, but also unto this Thy servant, 
whose infancy nature ranks with such as have no understanding, not 
whom Thy grace has dragged into the life-giving net, and cast 
into the holy vessel of sin-forgiving baptism, that he may thence 
be born again spiritually, and grow in faith, and that his body 
being undefiled by the filth of sin, he may receive an unchanging 
purification, and become a member of Christ, and be nourished at 
the table of His sacraments, and that in him bodily stature and 
spiritual advancement may grow together, and that Thy grace may 
teach him the power of the world to come, of whichThou dost now 
give him the figure without his asking it, as Thou hast also opened 
the door unto him without his requesting it, that with all the true 
children of Thy sacraments he may thank Thee for the gift which 
Thou hast imparted to us, and ascribe unto Thee honour, dominion, 
and worship, now and for ever and ever. Amen. 

Then he shall sign every one of them with the sign of the cross 
between the eyes with the oil of unction, with his forefinger, signing 
them from the bottom of the face upwards, and from right to left, 
saying : — 

A. B. or B. A., be thou signed with the oil of unction, in the 
name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. 
Amen. 

And as he signs them, all shall enter into the baptistery with censer, 
lights, cross, Gospel, and all the other utensils, and they shall commence 
with this hymn : — 

U 2 



2 92 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

Antiphon. Open unto me the gates of righteousness. The 
gates of heaven are opened. 

The gates of the spiritual chamber of the Bridegroom are 
opened for the forgiveness of the sins of men, and through the gift 
of the Spirit from on high, mercy and peace are now vouchsafed 
to all mankind. Enter in, therefore, O ye who are called ; enter 
into the joy which is prepared for you, and with pure and sanctified 
hearts, and true faith, give thanks unto Christ our Saviour. 
Glory be to the Father, etc. 

O Thou true Door, open to the lost, and call us to enter Thy 
treasury on high. 

Then shall he said the following prayer : — 

Gather us, O Lord unto Thyself, and make us to enter into Thy 
fold, and seal us with Thy sign, and endue our infancy with 
wisdom through Thy truth, that we may ever praise Thy holy 
name, O Lord of all. Father, Son and Holy Ghost. Amen. 

Then they shall chant Psalm xlv. My heart is inditing a good 
matter, etc, after which the deacons shall say the following : — 

In the depth of contrition and humiliation we oflFer this prayer 
to the Divine Essence of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, the 
Author and Creator of all things visible and invisible. Who, from 
the beginning, made man mortal and corruptible for the trial of 
their free will, and now, in these latter days, has promised them a 
resurrection from the dead through the advent of the Saviour of 
all, who, being in the likeness of God, took upon Him the form of 
a servant, and opened unto us a new life through spiritual signs, 
having submitted the primogeniture which He took from our race 
to be baptized by John the preacher in the River Jordan, figuring 
and disclosing to us, by His own holy baptism, a real resurrection 
which shall be given to us in reality at the end of the world. 
And He gave to the holy apostles the holy sacrament of baptism 
when He sent them to call the Gentiles, and to restore mankind, 
and He commanded them to hold it as the beginning of faith, and 
as a schoolmaster in the fear of God, and as the sign of those who 
should return out of darkness into a knowledge of the truth, and the 
apostles handed down this ordinance to the priests and to the 
pastors of Christ's flock, to be to them a sign wherewith to make 
disciples to all generations. And now behold Thy servants are 
ready to receive the gift of baptism as a token of their confession 
of the adorable passion of our Saviour, and that their spirits 
embrace in faith and love Him who, in the new birth, renews our 
frame, pardons our sins, and restores us from our fall, and that 
they wait to become, through the holy sign of sin-forgiving baptism, 
members and likenesses of Him, who is the Head of the church, 
and the firstfruits of the dead. And we also supplicate with them, 
and beseech the compassionate God on their behalf, to make them 
fit to become incorruptible creatures after the likeness of Christ, 



THE TAX A SAMADHA. 293 

who is the firstfruits of the resurrection of life, and that He may 
send down upon them the gift of the Spirit to strengthen the 
infirmity of their nature, lest they should in any way doubt the visible 
sacraments, whereby they receive the unfading benefits to come, 
and that He may, through the grace of Christ, pour out the efficacy 
of his gift upon the oil and water wherewith the figure of death and 
resurrection, and of the heavenly pledge, is consummated. 

Prayer. 

Elect us, in Thy compassion, with a good election, that we may 
labour before Thee with a spiritual labour, O Thou who didst 
discover our wanderings ; gather together our dispersions and bring 
near to Thy house our goings astray, O Lord of all, Father, Son, 
and Holy Ghost. Amen. 

Then they shall chant Psalm ex. The Lord said unto My Lord, 
etc. {the sentence. Therefore shall He lift up His head, to he repeated 
three times). After which the deacon shall say : — 

Let us pray. Kneel. 

Let us humbly thank, and meekly supplicate, and in faith beseech 
God the Father, who in His great love toward us, sent His only- 
begotten Son into the world, and by the light of His advent saved 
us from the errors of darkness in which we stumbled through the 
works of the devil, who led us away captive. 

With all our heart and mind let us give thanks to the very Son 
of the essence of the Father, who, of His own will, humbled Him- 
self, and in His mercy took upon Him our body, and thereby 
brought us near unto Himself, and renewed us by the truth of His 
doctrine, and opened unto us the way of light and the path of life. 

With tears of penitence, and with the voice of pure thoughts, let us 
supplicate Jesus Christ, the physician of souls, who did not despise 
our pitiable estate, neither was He offended with our putrifying 
sores ; but in His compassion was long-suffering towards us, and 
in His gracious mercy waited patiently over our obstinate diseases, 
and with the medicine of His word cured our stripes, healed our 
sicknesses, and raised us from our fallings. Whilst our knees are 
bent in prayer let us give thanks unto Him who humbled Himself 
to be baptized of John — the voice calling to repentance — not that 
His purity and holiness needed to be baptized with water, but that 
He might, through His own holy baptism, sanctify us who are 
polluted with sin, and that He might sanctify the water, in order 
that by the hidden power and the weapons of the Spirit, wherewith 
those are endued who are baptized in faith, Satan, our enemy, 
may be overcome. 

Let us give thanks to our righteous King, who desireth not 
the death of a sinner, but rather that he should repent of his sin 
and live ; and who, in His Gospel, calls upon the penitent, saying : 
Ask, and a treasure of mercy shall be given you. Let us, there- 
fore, all we who are the beloved sons of holy baptism, pray for 



294 THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

this our son, who is about to receive the sign of life by renouncing 
the devil and all his works, that he may be perfected in the faith 
of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, and that, he may be made 
fit to receive this great and wonderful gift of grace, and that he 
may throw off, through sin-forgiving baptism, the old man, which 
is corrupt according to the deceitful lusts, and that he may put on, 
through the washing of the holy water, the new man which is 
renewed of God in righteousness and true holiness, that he may 
be made fit to receive from the holy altar the body and blood of 
Christ, a pledge of the resurrection to a new life, and that on 
his account there may be joy among the holy angels in heaven, 
and throughout the holy church, because he has become one of 
Christ's flock, and that he may in righteousness and holiness of 
life keep the gift of the unspeakable mercy which he receives 
through the Holy Ghost, which shall guide him from this world 
to the abode of light and life, and that he may become an inheritor 
of Christ. 

And let us pray also for our holy fathers, Mar , Catholicos 

and Patriarch, and for Mar , Bishop and Metropolitan, who 

are the medium of this great, and wonderful, and incomprehensible 
gift ; to whom God has been pleased to commit this fountain of 
life, given in mercy for the forgiveness of the children of men, 
and through whom it is opened ; which gift was given to them 
by Him that they might rule over their flocks and the sheep 
redeemed by the precious blood, committed to their guidance, 
to be nourished and to be increased by adding to them such as 
repent, in the rest of the Church, and in peace throughout the 
world ; so that by keeping them entire, and by overseeing them 
as is meet, they may be fit to say unto our Lord, with a shining 
face : Behold, here are we, and the children which Thou hast 
given us ; we have been kept through Thy compassion. And to 
hear the voice of our Lord saying unto them : Well done, good 
and faithful servants, ye have been faithful in little things, 
therefore great things shall be given unto you. And now let us 
together ascribe praise to the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, 
that we may be worthy of the new and never-fading life in the 
kingdom of heaven through the grace of Christ. 

Rise up by the power of God. 

Prayer. 
Praise be unto Thee, who hast healed the diseases of our bodies 
with the oil and water which Thou hast poured into our wounds, 
and by Thy Spirit, as with a sponge, hast wiped off" the filth of 
sin from our souls, that Thou mightest make us pure temples of 
Thy glory, O Lord of all, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. Amen. 

Canon. 
Antiphon. Lord, remember David and all his trouble ; how he 
sware unto the Lord, and vowed a vow unto the Almighty God 
of Jacob. 



THE TAX A SAMADHA. 295 

Blessed is He who has set up His church after a heavenly 
figure, filled it with glory, and committed unto it a sin-forgiving 
baptism for sinners. O Thou Holy One, who didst descend upon 
Mount Sinai, and didst bless it after a fearful manner, let Thy 
peace descend upon Thy Church to sanctify it. 

Deacon. Peace be with us. 

Prayer. 

We thank and praise Thee unceasingly in Thy holy Church, 
which Thou hast filled with all aid and blessing, for all Thy 
unrequitable benefits and grace towards us, for Thou art the Lord 
and Creator of all, O Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. Amen. 

Prayer. 
Then shall they {the Priest and Deacon) say as follows : — 

Unto Thee, O Lord of all, we give thanks ; unto Thee, O 
Christ Jesus our Lord, we off"er praise ; because Thou art He 
who quickenest our bodies and savest our souls. 

Then they shall pour water into the font sufficient to rise above the 
head of the person about to be baptized, and shall say : — 

The voice of the Lord is upon the waters ; the glorious God 
hath thundered. 

Prayer. 

Thou, O Lord, art in truth the quickener of our bodies, and 
Thou art the righteous Saviour of our souls, and the preserver of 
our frames continually. Unto Thee, O Lord, we are bound at all 
times to offer thanksgiving, worship, and praise, O Lord of all. 
Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. Amen. 

Then they shall say : — 

O Holy God, O Holy Mighty, O Holy Immortal, have mercy 
upon us. 

Prayer. 

Enlighten, O Lord our God, the motions of our thoughts, that 
we may attend to and understand the sweet sound of Thy life- 
giving and divine commandments ; and in Thy grace and mercy 
vouchsafe that we may derive therefrom the fruits of love, hope, 
and salvation, as may be profitable to our souls and bodies, and 
we will ever and unceasingly sing praises unto Thee, O Lord of 
all, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. Amen. 

Then the Epistle shall be read by the deacon, saying : — 

The Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Corinthians. 1 Cor. 
ix. I, to the end. 

Then shall be said the following anthem. 
Antiphon. Let the height and depth join with us, and let us 



296 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

together give thanks unto the essence which created us, and which 
shall renew us. 

The friend of the Bridegroom saw among the multitude the 
living Lamb coming to be baptized, and he cried out in fear and 
trembling : I have need to be baptized of Thee ; whilst the mul- 
titude regarded with awe the living sacrament of Baptism. As 
he was baptizing in Jordan, John beheld a great wonder ; he 
beheld the Cherubim singing Alleluia, and the Seraphim chanting 
Holy, Holy, Holy, and the Spirit descending, and the Son being 
baptized, and the Father declaring : This is My beloved Son, in 
whom I am well pleased. 

Deacon. Be silent. Peace be with you. 

R. With thee and with thy spirit. 

Priest. The Holy Gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ from the 
Gospel of Saint John. St. John ii. 23 to the end, and iii. 1-9. 

R. Praise be unto Christ our Lord. 

Then shall follow two litanies (used also in other offices). 
Prayer. 

We pray and beseech Thee, O Lord the mighty God, to perfect 
in us Thy grace, and to pour out through our hands Thy gift, 
and that Thy pity and compassion may pardon and absolve the 
iniquities of Thy people, and of all the sheep of Thy flock which 
in Thy grace and mercy. Thou hast chosen for Thyself, O Lord 
of all. Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. Amen. 

Deacon. Bow your heads for the laying-on of hands, and receive 
ye the blessing. 

Then the priest shall say this, laying-on of hands, silently : — 

O, Thou Treasurer, who dost enrich those who possess Thee, — 
the rich One who doth not deal unjustly with His servants, — the 
Lord who doth not neglect those who serve Him, — in Thy com- 
passion, O Lord, listen to the prayer of Thy servant, and accept, 
in Thy mercy, the supplication of Thy worshippers, and answer, 
in Thy pity, the petitions which we offer, out of Thy rich and 
overflowing treasury, and by Thy grace keep from all evil the flock 
of Thy beloved people, and cause Thy peace and safety to dwell 
among them for ever. 

Then, with a loud voice, he shall say : Whilst our souls agree in 
the one and perfect faith of the glorious Trinity, we all, in one 
concord of love, are met to ascribe unto Thee praise, honour, 
glory, and worship, O Thou Lord of all. Father, Son, and Holy 
Ghost. Amen. 

Deacon. He who is not baptized, let him depart. 
Then shall be said the following Anthem. 

Ant. Holy and reverend is His name ; there is no end of His 
greatness. Thy baptism of water sanctifieth our souls, and 



THE TAXA SAMADHA. 297 

preacheth our resurrection. The spiritual ones who were with 
John looked on with wonder when they beheld Him, who sanc- 
tifieth the nations by His own baptism, receiving baptism at the 
hands of His servant, in order to free the race of the dying. {To 
be repeated.) Glory be to the Father, etc. 

In the River Jordan, John baptized the Lamb of God, and as 
He came up out of the water the Holy Spirit of Truth, in the 
form of a dove, descended upon the head of our Saviour after 
His baptism. 

Then the priests and deacons shall stand, some on the right and some 
on the left, and one of the former shall take the horn in his hand, and 
shall take his place on the right side of the altar, which is set up in the 
baptistery ; but if there be no other than the officiating priest present, 
then the proto-deacon shall take the horn in his hand, and shall stand 
by the altar, which shall have lights upon it, and shall say : I believe 
in one God, the Father Almighty, etc. 

Then the priest shall prepare to bless the oil, and shall kneel before 
the altar, and the deacon shall repeat the Prayer of Commemoration 
{taken from the Liturgy.) After which, the priest shall say, with a 
loud voice, as follows : — 

our righteous God, who in the time appointed by Thy 
wisdom didst conceive a good end to Thy creatures, and according 
to the desire of Thy mercy didst save them from death, make me 
a worthy channel of this ministry, — me, whom Thou hast appointed 
a minister to administer Thy gift. Not because I am blameless, 
neither because my life maketh me worthy to be sent by Thee, 
hast Thou chosen me to offer unto Thee the creatures of Thine 
own formation ; but through Thy unbounded riches and Thy 
unspeakable mercies, Thou hast ordained that Thy riches should 
be dispensed by my hands to those who need the gift of Thy 
grace, that they may receive Thy perfect gift. 

Canon. 

We ascribe unto Thee glory, honour, praise, and worship, now 
and for ever and ever, and world without end. ( Whilst saying this, 
the priest shall sign himself with the sign of the cross.) 

Priest. Peace be with you. 

R. With thee and thy spirit. 

Then he shall raise the cloth from the vessel {containing the oil) and 
shall say : — 

The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and 
the fellowship of the Holy Ghost, be with us all, now and for 
ever and ever. Amen. Whilst repeating this he shall make the sign 
of the cross over the vessel, and shall say : — 

Lift up your hearts. 

P. Unto Thee, O God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, the King 
of Glory. 



298 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

Priest. Let us give thanks, worship, and praise to God the 
Lord of all. 

R. It is meet and right so to do. 

Deacon. Peace be with us. 

Priest {in a low voice). We pray and beseech Thee, who art rich 
in love, liberal in compassion, benevolent in goodness, and whose 
glory is unspeakable, our Lord, and Creator, and Benefactor, 
that by Thy will, O God the Father, and by the will of Thy holy 
Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, grace from the Holy Ghost, who 
is perfect in essence of Thee, and one with Thee in substance and 
in the work of creation, may descend and mingle with this oil, 
and bestow upon all who shall be anointed therewith, the pledge 
of the resurrection from the dead, perfect adoption, salvation from 
the pangs of sin, and joy in the rest of heaven. In Thy wise 
providence Thou hast raised the minds of men, by the advent of 
Thine Anointed, to know Thy Trinity, and hast given them spiritual 
gifts enabling them to attain to the knowledge of faith in Thee. 
The holy oil which Thou didst give in former days for the ordina- 
tion of a temporal priesthood and a transitory sovereignty. Thou 
hast now committed to the priests of the church to be a sign and 
emblem of those who are translated from earthly things to heavenly 
in an immortal body and an unchanging spirit, being circumcised 
thereby with a circumcision without hands, by the throwing 
off of the body of sin, through the circumcision of Christ, and 
are thereby made worthy to praise, with fear and trembling, the 
mighty and sovereign Lord of all, with all the holy and heavenly 
powers. 

Canon. 

Who, with a loud voice, cry out one to another, saying [here the 
people join with the priest'), Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of Hosts, 
heaven and earth are full of Thy glory. Hosanna in the highest. 
Hosanna to the Son of David. Blessed is He who came and who 
cometh in the name of the Lord. Hosanna in the highest. 

Then the priest shall say with a low voice : — 

And now, O Lord, let this great and divine sacrament be 
administered by Thy grace, and let the grace of the gift of the 
Holy Ghost descend upon this oil ; bless it, seal it, and sanctify 
it, in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, that by the 
power of Thy grace this oil may be for unction, and convey true 
and perfect sanctification and exalted communion in the kingdom 
of heaven to all such as shall be anointed therewith, with the life- 
giving sign, in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, 
through this baptism which is consummated after the image of the 
passion, death, and resurrection of our Lord Jesus Christ. 

Cano7i. 

To whom with Thee and the Holy Ghost we ascribe glory, 
honour, thanks, and worship, now and for ever and ever. Amen. 



THE TAXA SAMADHA. 299 

Here the priest shall sign the oil with the sign of the cross. Then he 
shall take the horn 0/ unction fro?n the hands 0/ hitn who holds it, and 
shall sign with oil therefrom the vessel contaitiing the oil on the altar, 
with the sign of the cross from east to west, and from right to left, and 
shall say : — 

Let this oil be signed, consecrated, and mixed with this holy oil, 
that it may be an incorruptible emblem in sin-forgiving baptism, 
in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy 
Ghost. 

R. Amen. 

Then the priest shall return the horn to him who before had held it, 
and shall say : — 

Fit us ever, O Lord our God, to stand before Thee with a pure 
heart, without blame, with open face, and in that favour which was 
mercifully given to us by Thee, and that we may unitedly call upon 
Thee, and say : — 

R. Our Father which art in heaven, &c. 

Then they shall draw near to the font, and shall stand on the right 
and left of it, with one carryitig the censer ; and they shall place the 
cross and Gospel upon the font, towards the east, until the water is 
blessed ; and they shall remove the cloth which covered the font, and the 
priest shall kneel. Then shall the deacofi say : — 

Let us pray. Peace be with us. 

{J2anon said by the priest.^ 

The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and 
the fellowship of the Holy Ghost, be with us all evermore. 
Amen. {Here he shall sign the water with the sign of the cross.) 

Deacon. Mentally pray that peace may be with us. 

Priest {in a low voice). May the necessities of Thy creatures be 
supplied, O our Creator, through Thy grace, which is a fountain 
of the water of life, and may petitions such as are meet, be 
offered up unto Thee that they may bring down liberal gifts, and 
that from the riches of Thy great mercy we may obtain help to the 
rest and confirmation of our nature. In Thy inscrutable wisdom 
Thou didst bring us into this world with a corruptible origin, and 
when it pleased Thee Thou didst make known to us the doctrine 
of our renewal and regeneration through our Lord Jesus Christ, 
who in His baptism figured forth our resurrection from the dead, 
and commanded us to impart, in the sacrament of baptism, a new 
and spiritual life to those who believe. The Holy Ghost, of Thy 
glorious essence — He who descended and rested upon our Saviour 
when He prefigured this baptism — through the visible water, and 
according to His will, renews our old creation, and in His grace 
communicates to us an incorruptible pledge. May that same Spirit 
descend, O Lord, upon this water, that it may be efficacious for 
the help and salvation of him who is to be baptized therein. 



3O0 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

Deacon. In fear and silence stand and pray. Peace be with us. 

Canon {by the priest in a loud voice). That, becoming perfect in 
body and soul, he may ascribe unto Thee glory, honour, praise, 
and worship, now and for ever and ever. 

Here the priest shall sign the water, and he shall then take the horn of 
the holy oil of unction, and shall sign the water with the sign of the 
cross with the oil therein contained, and shall say : — 

May this water be signed and blessed with the holy oil, that it 
may become a new and spiritually regenerating bosom through 
sin-forgiving baptism, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, 
and of the Holy Ghost. 

i?. Amen. 

Priest. This holy thing is meet for the one and Divine essence. 

R. The one Father is holy, the one Son is holy, the one Holy 
Ghost is holy. Glory be to the Father, to the Son, and to the 
Holy Ghost, He who is holy for ever and ever. Amen. 

Deacon. Praise the living God. 

Then shall he said one of the hymns appointed for Epiphany, lest the 
congregation should be unemployed ; and the priest, who consecrates, is to 
stand by the vessel containing the oil, and another by the font, with their 
faces turned towards the east, and the deacons shall bring the children 
into the baptistery undressed, their earrings, rings, and bracelets having 
been taken off, and they shall inquire the names to be given to the children, 
and shall communicate the same to the priest. The deacons shall then 
bind up their loins, and shall place their stoles under the vessel containing 
the oil. And every child who is admitted shall be provided with a napkin 
to be wrapped in after baptism, which shall he carried by the deacon on 
his shoulder. And when the children are brought in, the priest shall 
sign every one of them with the sign of the cross upon the breast, with his 
three fingers, from below upwards, and from right to left, and shall 
say : — 

A. B., Be thou anointed in the name of the Father, and of the 
Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Amen. {To signify that the 
knowledge of the Trinity is sealed to him from on high!) 

Then those present shall carefully and properly anoint all over the 
person of him whom the priest anointed, and they shall turn him so that 
all his back may be anointed, and they shall not leave ahy part of him 
unanointed. Then they shall take him to the priest standing by the 
font, who shall place him therein, with his face to the east, and he 
shall dip him therein three times, saying at the first time: A. B., be 
thou baptized in the name of the Father. R. Amen. The 
second time: In the name of the Son. R. Amen. And at the 
third time : In the name of the Holy Ghost. R. Amen. In 
dipping him he shall dip up to the neck, and then put his hand upon 
him so that his head may be submerged. Then the priest shall take him 
out of the font, and give him to the deacon, who shall wrap him in a 
white napkin, and commit him to his godfathers. Then his clean clothes 



THE TAX A SAMADHA. 301 

shall be put on, hut his head must be left bare until the priest shall 
bind on his head-dress after the last signing ; and the same shall be 
done with all the infants one after the other. But take heed, my brethren, 
and be very careful that you do not take the infants into the bema, as 
some do who have no understanding ; for this is highly improper, and 
note that great circumspection and chastity must be exercised in the 
anointing of female children. 

After those who have been baptized are dressed, the priest shall come 
forth through the great door of the bema, and with him the deacons 
with the cross, Gospel, censer, lights, and the horn of unction, and he 
shall cause the baptized to be brought near to the door of the bema, and 
say this 

Prayer. 

Glory be to Thee, O Lord, who hast chosen Thy church in Thy 
Christ, and hast adorned her with Thy heavenly adornment, and 
hast made of her children treasures to distribute Thy riches to such 
as are in need of them, O Lord of all. Father, Son, and Holy 
Ghost. Amen. 

Glory be to the Most High, who descended and took the body 
of our humiliation, and made it His in everything appertaining to 
His Divinity, and promised that thereby we all should become 
heirs of His glory, and conformed to the image of His honour, O 
Lord of all, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. Amen. 

Canon. 

Ant. O come, let us sing unto the Lord, let us heartily rejoice 
in the strength of our salvation. Let us come before His presence 
with thanksgiving, and show ourselves glad in Him with psalms. 
For the Lord is a great God, and a great King above all gods. In 
His hands are all the corners of the earth, and the strength of the 
hills is His also. The sea is His, and He made it, and His hands 
prepared the dry land. O come, let us worship and fall down, and 
kneel before the Lord our Maker. For He is the Lord our God, 
and we are the people of His pasture, and the sheep of His hand. 

The Lord, by His baptism, has mercifully delivered us from 
error, sin, and death ; let us, therefore, worship and praise Him. 
O Thou who didst say in Thy Gospel, Knock, and I will open ; 
open the door to our prayers. 

Prayer. 

Accept, O Lord, in Thy mercy, the sheep and lambs which have 
been signed with Thy holy sign, and write their names among the 
church of the first-begotten in heaven, that they may ever praise 
and worship Thy Holy Trinity, O Lord of all. Father, Son, 
and Holy Ghost. Amen. 

Then the priest shall say this confirmation in a loud voice, moving his 
hand the meanwhile from one to another. 

O Lord, great are the wonderful works of Thy providence, our 



302 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

nature is incapable of uttering them. In the beginning of our 
creation we contemned the honour of our free will through the 
temptation of Satan, who led us away captive, and we have done 
despite to the confession of Thy divinity by worshipping that 
which was not God ; but Thy mercy did not leave us to the 
destruction which we deserved through our wickedness, but by the 
appearance of Thy only-begotten Son Thou didst restore us to 
Thyself, and didst make us worthy to know Thee, and hast raised 
up our fallen nature by taking a primogeniture from us, and hast 
made us inheritors of unfading blessings to come. And when the 
time arrived when we looked for Him to give us the gift of 
adoption for the salvation of our bodies, Thou didst impart to us 
the pledge of comfort in the grace of the Holy Ghost, which is 
conveyed to us through the holy sacraments of spiritual baptism, 
even as this Thy servant has to-day come forward and taken Thy 
gift, and thereby has been loosed from the torment of sin, and has 
become a pure member of the body of Christ, who is the origin of 
our life, and has obtained the hope that Thy grace will keep him 
in chastity of living, and purity of conversation, so that, being 
filled with faith and righteousness, he shall finally attain unto the 
glorious appearance of our Lord Jesus Christ, and exult in a 
new and unfading life, and ascribe unto Thee glory, honour, praise, 
and worship, now and for ever and ever. Amen. 

This prayer of confirmation shall be said over one or over many. 
Then he shall sign every one with the sign of the cross, saying : — 

The pledge of the Holy Ghost which thou hast received {or, 
which ye have received), and the sacrament of Christ, of which 
thou hast partaken {or, of which ye have partaken), and His life- 
giving sign which thou hast received {or, which ye have received), 
and the new life unto which thou hast attained {or, unto which ye 
have attained), and the weapons of righteousness which thou hast 
put on {or, which ye have put on), keep thee {or, you) from all 
evil, and from the powers thereof, and sanctify thee {or, you) in 
holiness ; and may the sign which thou hast {or, which ye have) 
taken, be unto thee {or, you) for unfading benefits to come at the 
appearance of our Lord Jesus Christ from heaven ; and in the 
new world may He place thee {or, you) on His right hand, when 
thou shalt {or, ye shall) ascribe unto Him glory, honour, praise, 
and worship, for ever and ever. Amen. 

Then he shall sign them betwixt their eyes with the sign of the cross 
with the thumb of his right hand, from above downwards, and from 
right to left, saying : — 

A. B. is baptized and confirmed {or, perfected) in the name of 
the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Amen. 

Then they shall re-enter the baptistery, and begin* with the following 
anthem : — 

Ant. Holy and reverend is His name. 



THE TAX A SAMADHA. 303 

Our Father, which art in heaven, hallowed be Thy name. Thy 
kingdom come, Thy will be done. 

Ant. He is the Lord our God. 

There is one Lord, one Father, and one baptism for the 
remission of sins. 

Ant. Thou art God above all gods. 

Our King is with us ; our God is with us ; our help is in the 
God of Jacob. 

Ant. Blessed are the people who are in such a state. 

Blessed are the people who have the Lord for their God. 

Ant. For He is one God. 

O Christ, who wast baptized, and who appearedst and gavest 
light to all, let Thy peace dwell with Thy elect people. 

Ant. Create in me a clean heart, O God. 

O Christ, grant that with a clean heart, and with good works, 
we may perfect Thy will. 

Ant. Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy 
Ghost. 

In the Jerusalem above, before the seat of Christ, there may 
the names of Thy servants be written. 

Ant. As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world 
without end. 

The Epiphany, O Lord, has given joy to the creation, the 
pledge of blessings, and life everlasting. 

Then the priest shall take the horn, and, standing over the font, he 
shall pour hack the oil that was in the vessel, into the horn, and should 
any oil remain attached to the vessel he shall throw it into the font, 
saying ; — 

It is meet, O Lord, that we should ever offer praise, honour, 
glory, and worship, to Thy adorable Trinity, for the gift of Thy 
holy sacraments, which, in Thy mercy, Thou hast given us for the 
forgiveness of sins, O Lord of all, Father, Son, and Holy 
Ghost. Amen. 

Or this. 

Blessed is that Majesty, which is worshipped in the highest. 
O Thou who forgivest our iniquities and our sins, and who wipest 
out our transgressions through Thy glorious, holy, life-giving, and 
divine sacraments, O Christ, the hope of our race, now and for 
ever. Amen. 

Concluding Prayer. 

Let us offer unto Thee glory, honour, praise, and worship, O 
Thou highest who descendedst, and tookest the body of our 
humiliation, and raadest us one with Thee in everything, and pro- 
misedst that Thou wouldest make us inheritors of Thy glory and 
heirs of Thy inheritance, by making us partakers of Thy excellency. 
Let Thy mercy and peace ever dwell with us all ; and now unto 
Thee, through Thee with the Father and the Holy Ghost, be 
praise. Amen. 



304 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

Prayer for loosing the water (from its previous sanclification.) 

Thou, O Lord, art blessed, holy, and immortal, and Thy depth is 
past finding out. In Thy own will Thou didst create us, and when 
we called upon Thee Thou didst not deny unto us Thy gift, but 
didst send to us the Holy Ghost, and this water was sanctified by 
Amen, and by the same Amen it is loosed from its sanctity and 
returns to its former nature. For all these Thy mercies towards 
us, we would ascribe unto Thee glory, honour, praise, and worship, 
now and for ever and ever. Amen. 

He shall not sign the water with the sign of the cross, hut shall insert 
his hand into it, and shall wash the vessel with the water of the fordan 
{^font), then stir the water about, and quickly withdraw his hand as if 
he was taking something therefrom. Then he shall pour a little plain 
water into the font, and the priest who had administered the rite 
of baptism, and those who had anointed, and all who had taken any 
part therein, shall wash the vessel, and their hands and face also in 
the font ; then the water shall he poured out into a clean place which is 
not trod upon. If there he an outlet in the font, the water shall be let 
out therefrom, in order that it may not be trampled on, as it is when it 
is poured over the body of the church by those who lack knowledge. And 
if any other person should come to be baptized, this same water is not to 
be used ; but fresh water is to be brought. And be it known that with- 
out consecration {of the water) no baptism is to be administered, except 
in the case of one in the article of death. 

The Chaldeans, who are in communion with the Church 
of Rome, have made several alterations in the above 
office, the principal of which are : first, the addition of 
the renunciations, profession of faith, and the concluding 
answers made by the sponsors on the part of the person 
about to be baptized, which have been taken chiefly from 
the Roman ritual ; and, secondly, the use of meiroom, or 
chrism, after the prayer of confirmation. It has been 
seen that the oil of unction is used by the Nestorians only 
before baptism, and that the invocation for grace with 
imposition. of hands, and the sign of the cross, withoul oil, 
form the principal rites of confirmation with them. The 
Chaldeans have preserved the former anointing entire, 
but after the imposition of hands, the officiating priest is 
directed to anoint the baptized person a second time, as 
follows : — 



THE DISCIPLES OF ST. JOHN. 305 

Then the priest shall sign the infant with the ointment of the holy 
chrism, with the thumb of his right hand, between the eyes, from the 
chin upwards, and from right to left, saying : — 

I anoint thee with the sacrament of confirmation, and with the 
chrism of salvation, in the name of the Father, of the Son, and 
of the Holy Ghost. Amen. 

Then he shall bind a crown on his head, and shall say : — 
May the crown of A. B. be bound for joy and exultation, and for 
days of rejoicing, now and for ever and ever. Amen. 

Then the priest shall pray as follows, with his hand laid upon the 
baptized person. "The pledge," &c., as in the Nestorian office* 



THE DISCIPLES OF ST. JOHN. 

The Disciples of St. John are an ancient Eastern sect 
found on the borders of Persia and Arabia, but chiefly at 
Bassora and the district around. They amount to about 
twenty-five thousand families. Another branch, calling 
themselves Galileans, exists in Syria, but is much smaller 
in number. Their origin is involved in obscurity. They 
claim the Baptist as their founder. The religion of this 
sect seems to be a compound of the Jewish, Christian, and 
Mahomedan. They originally inhabited the country 
about Jordan, but some time after the death of Mahomet, 
the persecutions of his successors, the Caliphs, obliged 
them to fly for refuge into Mesopotamia and Chaldea. 
They did not fix their residence in any city or town that 
is not built upon the banks of some river. Their creed is 
contained in a book which they call the Divan. They call 
themselves by the name of Mendai-Jahia, that is, the 
Disciples of St. John, and afiirm that they have received 
from him their faith, their religious books and customs. 
They celebrate a solemn festival once a year, which is 
continued five days successively, when all, young and 
old, flock to their patriarch and are baptized in a flowing 

* The Nestorians and their Rituals, by G. T. Badger. 

X 



306 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

river by him. They never baptize in any place but in 
rivers, and at no time but on Sunday. The infant, before 
he is baptized, is brought to church, when the bishop 
reads some prayers over it, suitable to the occasion. 
The child is thence carried to a river, where both the 
men and women who are present at the ceremony go 
up to their knees in water with the bishop. The form 
of baptism runs thus :— " In the name of the Lord, the 
first and most ancient of the world, the Almighty, who 
knew all our actions before the beginning of light, &c. 

After that, he throws water upon the infant three 
times successively, and as soon as he or some priest, his 
attendant, begins to read again, the godfather, who has 
the child in his arms, plunges him into the water. This 
ceremony of baptism is performed, as is evident, in the 
name of God only, for they do not acknowledge Jesus 
Christ to be God or the Son of God, but look on Him 
as a person far inferior to John the Baptist. It is said, 
however, that they call Him, as the Mahomedans, the 
Spirit of God. {Ceremonies Religieuses) 



PERSIA. 

There are vast numbers of Armenian Christians in 
Persia, whose religion is tolerated. Their former country 
of Armenia is now the province of Erivan. In baptism 
they immerse, but do not sprinkle. The priest must 
officiate in his sacerdotal garb, with a crown on his head, 
and must have two assistants in holy vestments also, but 
without crowns. {An account of the East Indies, by Captain 
Alexander Hamilton, 1688 to 1723.) 

In the province of Mingrelia, they anoint the fore- 
heads of their children with the oil called myrone as 



THE ABYSSINIANS. 307 

soon as they are born, but baptize them not till a long 
time after, and then they wash them all over with water. 
{Travels into Persia, by Sir John Chardin.) 



THE ABYSSINIANS. 

The inhabitants of Abyssinia are supposed to have 
received the Gospel from the Ethiopian Eunuch, or Prime 
Minister of their Queen Candace, although their general 
conversion to Christianity was not effected before the 
middle of the fourth century, when Frumentius visited 
that country in 333. They are described as a branch of 
the Copts or Jacobites, with whom they agree in admitting 
but one nature in Jesus Christ, and rejecting the Council 
of Chalcedon ; on which account they are also called 
Eutychians and Monophysites. The term Copt properly 
applies only to those Christians who live in Egypt, Nubia, 
and the countries adjacent. The Abyssinian Church is 
governed by a bishop, or metropolitan, styled Abuna, who 
is appointed by the Coptic patriarch of Alexandria, 
residing at Cairo. The churches are very numerous, 
owing to the prevalence of the opinion among the great, 
that whoever leaves a fund to build a church, or has 
erected one during his life, makes a sufficient atonement 
for all his sins. They are usually erected on eminences, 
in the vicinity of running water, in order to afford 
facilities for the purifications and ablutions, which the 
Abyssinians practise according to the Levitical law. 
Many of the ceremonies and observances in their mode of 
worship are obviously derived from the ceremonial rites 
of the Jewish religion. The religion of the Abyssinians 
is, in reality, a strange compound of Judaism, Christianity, 
and superstition. They practise circumcision, observe 
both Saturday and Sunday as Sabbaths, and eat no meats 

X 2 



308 THE ARCH.S;OLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

prohibited by the law of Moses. Their festivals and 
saints are numberless. 

The Christians of Abyssinia baptize infants, but not 
before the boys are forty days old and the girls eighty, 
and as soon as an infant has been baptized, the com- 
munion is administered to him. Mr. Salt describes a 
baptism at which he was present, and the ceremonial 
appears so singular that we shall copy his own statement. 
"The officiating priest was habited in white flowing robes, 
with a tiara, or silver-mounted cap on his head, and he 
carried a censer with burning incense in his right hand ; 
a second of equal rank was dressed in similar robes, 
supporting a large golden cross ; while a third held 
in his hand a small phial containing a quantity of 
consecrated oil, which is furnished to the Church of 
Abyssinia by the patriarch of Alexandria. The attendant 
priests stood round in the form of a semicircle, the 
boy being placed in the centre, and our party ranged 
in front. After a few minutes' interval, employed in 
singing psalms, some of the priests took the boy and 
washed him all over very carefully in a large basin of 
water. While this was passing, a smaller font, called 
me-te-mak (which is always kept outside of the churches, 
owing to an unbaptized person not being permitted to 
enter the church), was placed in the middle of the area, 
filled with water, which the priest consecrated by prayer, 
waving the incense repeatedly over it, and dropping into 
it a portion of the meiron, or consecrated oil, in the shape 
of a cross. The boy was then brought back, dripping 
from head to foot, and again placed naked and upright 
in the centre ; and was required to renounce the devil and 
all his works, which was performed by his repeating a 
given formula four separate times, turning each time 
towards a different point of the compass. The godfather 
was then demanded, and on my being presented, I named 



THE ABYSSINIANS. 309 

the boy George, in honour of his present majesty, when I 
was requested to say the Belief and the Lord's Prayer, and 
to make much the same promises as those required by our 
own church. The head priest afterwards laid hold of the 
boy, dipping his own hand into the water, and crossed 
him on the forehead, pronouncing at the same moment, 
' George, I baptize thee, in the name of the Father, Son, 
and Holy Ghost' The whole company then knelt down, 
and joined in reciting the Lord's Prayer." 

We find the following account of the ceremony of 
baptism in M. Picard's interesting work Les Ceremonies 
et Coutumes Religieuses : — 

"The mother, dressed in her best clothes, attends at the 
church door with her infant in her arms. Then the priest 
who officiates, pronounces several long prayers for a 
blessing on them both, beginning with those peculiarly 
appropriated to the mother. Afterwards he conducts 
them into the church, and anoints the infant six times 
with the oil consecrated for exorcisms. These first 
unctions are accompanied with- thirty-six others, ad- 
ministered with galilacum or catechumen's oil, each 
on a distinct part of the infant's body. After this, he 
blesses the font, pouring consecrated oil into it twice, 
and making, each time, three different signs of the cross 
with myrone, all of which ceremonies are accompanied 
with several long prayers. As soon as the benediction 
of the font is over, he plunges the infant into it three 
times successively. At the first, he dips one-third part 
of the infant's body into the water, saying, / baptize 
thee in the name of the Father; he then dips him lower, 
about two-thirds, adding : / baptize thee in the name of 
the Son; the third time he plunges him all over, saying : 
/ baptize thee in the name of the Holy Ghost. Confirmation 
and the Eucharist are administered after this baptism, 
which is solemnized before the mass. 



3IO THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

"The myron, or meiron, just mentioned, is their chrism ; 
and the galilacum is the oil of their catechumens. The 
former is consecrated by the patriarch with certain cere- 
monies, which it would be tedious here to enumerate, but 
•there is little or no variation in them from those observed 
by the Greeks. After the benediction of the new meiron, 
the old is distributed amongst the bishops. The patriarch 
of the Copts sends some of it to the metropolitan of 
Abyssinia, and the emperor is consecrated with it. The 
galilacum is an oil, which, after it has been employed in 
scouring the vessels in which the meiron was contained, 
becomes sanctified by its intermixture with the drops of 
the meiron remaining in them. 

" In case the infant should be sick, they bring it to the 
church, and lay it on a cloth spread before the font, into 
which the priest dips his hands three times and rubs the 
infant all over with them, wet as they are, from head to 
foot. If the infant happens to be carried to church in the 
evening, or at any other time when there is no mass, the 
mother tarries there with her infant till the next day, that 
the babe may receive the communion. This custom is 
observed because baptism can be administered in no 
place but in the church, and by the ministry of a 
bishop or a priest. If the infant be indisposed, and it 
be dangerous to carry it to church, the priest attends 
at the parent's house, where, after pronouncing several 
prayers for the mother, and performing the six unctions 
of exorcism on the infant, he asks it three times whether 
it believes in one God in Three Persons. When its 
sponsors have answered, Yes, he then pronounces a 
few prayers more, and after giving the benediction, 
immediately withdraws. This ceremony is grounded on 
one of the Coptic canons which says, 'that if an infant 
dies after the last unction, or even after the first, such 
anointing has the same prevailing power and virtue 



THE COPTS. 3 I I 

as a regular baptism ; and the infant is in a state of 
salvation.' " 

The Abyssinians also practise an annual ablution, 
which they term baptism, and which they consider 
necessary to wash away the defilement of sin. This 
general ablution takes place on the festival of Epiphany^ 
in commemoration of Christ's baptism. Father Alvarez 
describes it as follows : — 

"On the 4th of July, 1521," he says, "the Abyssinian 
priests assembled in a numerous body, on the vigil or eve 
of this festival, and sang all night, in order to bless the 
lake, into which they threw some holy water. The king 
himself came there at midnight, and was first baptized 
himself, then the queen, and then the abuna. The 
conservatory of water in which they were baptized, was a 
large square enclosed font, covered over with an oil-cloth. 
There were six steps to go down into it. The water was 
conveyed into it through a pipe, at the mouth of which a 
bag was fastened to receive and refine it. The crowd was 
very great in the morning. A venerable old man stood 
up to the shoulders in the water, and plunged every one 
that came to him, saying, / baptize thee in the name of the 
Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. They were 
all stripped, and entirely naked ; those who were of low 
stature did not go down to the bottom of the steps." * 



THE COPTS. 



This is the name given to the Christian descendants of 
the ancient Egyptians. With the exception of a small 
proportion who profess the Romish or Greek faith, 
the Copts are Christians of the sect called Jacobites, 



Relazione di un viaggio in Africa. 



312 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

Eutychians, Monophysites, and Monothelites, whose creed 
was condemned by the Council of Chalcedon, A.D. 451. 
The Coptic version of the New Testament is valuable on 
account of its antiquity, dating, according to several 
critics, as early as the third century, and not later than the 
fifth, at the lowest computation. The number of churches 
and convents in ruins proves that the Copts were once far 
more numerous than at present ; they number about one 
hundred and fifty thousand, and nearly ten thousand of 
them reside at Cairo. Their hierarchy consists of a 
patriarch, a metropolitan of the Abyssinians, bishops, 
arch-priests, priests, deacons, and monks. The patriarch 
is styled " Patriarch of Alexandria," but generally resides 
in Cairo. The metropolitan of Abyssinia, who always 
resides within his diocese, is appointed by the patriarch, 
and retains his office for life. The number of Coptic 
churches and convents is said to amount to one hundred 
and forty-six, but the former are few in comparison with 
the latter. The seven great festivals are as follows : — 
The nativity of Christ, Baptism, the Annunciation, Palm 
Sunday, Easter, the Ascension, and Whitsuntide. Baptism 
is practised under a belief that if the ceremony be omitted, 
the child will be blind in the next world.* 

" On the occasion of the administration of baptism, the 
Copts celebrate a mass after midnight, accompanied with 
sundry prayers. After they have sung for some time, 
the deacons carry the children to the altar, who are there 
anointed with chrism, to signify the putting on of the new 
man. That part of the ceremony being closed, they begin 
to sing again, and anoint the neophytes a second time, 
signing them with thirty-seven different crosses, which is 

* Description de F Egypie, par Denon ; Didymi Taurinensis, Lite.- 
ralurcB Copiicts Rudimcntwn ; Account of the Manners and Customs of 
liTodern Egyptians, written in Egj'pt during the years 1833-35, by 
Edward W. Lane, 2 vols. London, 1835. 



THE COPTS. 313 

looked upon as a kind of exorcism. Then they continue 
their singing, and the women who are present at the 
ceremony make loud noises as a demonstration of their 
joy. In the meantime water is prepared and put into the 
baptismal fonts. The officiating priest now blesses the 
water, pouring chrism into it in the form of a cross. 
After this he takes the infant with one hand, by the right 
arm and the left leg, and with the other by the left arm 
and the right leg ; making a sort of cross with the limbs 
of the infant, who is dressed on that occasion in a little 
white vestment. During the ceremony the priests both 
read and sing all the time, and the women make loud 
acclamations or rather hideous howlings. In conclusion, 
the priest breathes three times upon the face of the child, 
in order that he may receive, as they imagine, the Holy 
Ghost. As soon as the child is baptized, the priest 
administers to him the Eucharist, and this he does by 
dipping his finger into the chalice, and putting it after- 
wards into the infant's mouth. At the end of all these 
ceremonies, the wax tapers are lighted, and a procession 
is made round the church, all the assistants singing as 
they move along. The deacons carry the children in their 
arms, and the priests march before them, the men and 
women v/ho assist at the ceremony coming after. The 
latter continue their howlings all the time.* 

"The Coptic Church is something like the Greek Church 
in its ceremonies. At baptism they plunge the child three 
times into the water, and then confirm it, and give it 
the sacrament, that is, the wine ; the priest dipping the 
end of his finger in it, and putting it to the child's mouth, 
which is done after they have administered the sacrament, 

for they do not keep the consecrated mysteries 

If the child happens to be sick, before it is baptized, it 

* Ceranonies d Coutumcs Religieuses. 



314 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

is brought to church, for they cannot baptize out of the 
church ; they lay the child on a cloth near the font, and 
the priest dips his hands in the water, and rubs it all over. 
If the child is so ill that it cannot be brought to church, 
they then only anoint, according to the form they have 
for this purpose, which they say is good baptism." (From 
Travels in Egypt, by Richard Pococke, LL.D., F.R.S. 
London, 1743.) 

Independently of the festivals observed by the Greeks, 
the Copts have, as we have already said, their Epiphany. 
The following description of the ceremony performed on 
that occasion is taken from Father Vansleb's narrative, he 
was an eye witness (although, perhaps, a prejudiced one) 
of that festival at Old Cairo. He says : — " As soon as the 
midnight service was over, which was read at the con- 
servatory of water in which they were to plunge, the 
patriarch withdrew to the vestry, whence he returned 
in a short time, dressed in all his pontifical robes, and 
attended by a priest and a deacon with his cope on. The 
former officiated in his alb, and the latter carried a steel 
cross. As soon as they reached the conservatory, the 
patriarch began his benediction of the water by reading 
several lessons, some in the Coptic language, and others 
in the Arabic, out of the Old and New Testaments. After- 
wards he purified the water, and stirred it several times 
crosswise with his pastoral staff. The priests, who were 
present, repeated the same ceremony after him. During 
this benediction, there was a large iron sconce with three 
branches, about six feet high, and in each of them a wax 
candle burning. After the benediction, the congregation 
were allowed to plunge themselves, or were plunged into 
the conservatory ; and as the three who could get there 
first had the privilege of being dipped by the patriarch 
himself, one can imagine the hurry and confusion which 
this act of devotion must create, when no regard was paid 



THE COPTS. 315 

to common decency nor to modest behaviour. After all 
the men had been plunged in this holy water, they with- 
drew into the choir, and the women moved afterwards 
with the same irregularity, to bear a part in this immodest, 
religious ordinance, which may justly be compared to the 
lewd and dissolute festivals of the Pagans." 




Fig. 60. Plan of the Coptic Churgh, Old Caiko. 
A. Altar. B. Baptistery. C. C. Entrance. 

In his description of the ancient Coptic churches at 
Old Cairo, Rev. Alfred Charles Smith says : — " What 
answers to our ante-chapel at the extreme of the nave, 
contains beneath a large trap-door a broad and deep tank, 
called " the Well for Epiphany immersions," and in which 
at that festival men and boys dip in commemoration of 



3l6 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

our blessed Lord's baptism The baptistery is 

usually a small side apartment, generally very dark, with 
a sunk font; in this the baptized are immersed, sprinkling 
only with water being unknown."* 

Rev. Dr. Bitting informs us that "in the Coptic 
church, Aboo Sirgeh, at Old Cairo, there is a baptistery 
of parallelogram shape, sunk in the floor of the court 
opposite the altar. It measures inside seven feet and 
eleven inches in length, five feet nine inches in width, and 
is four feet two inches deep. It seems to be masonry 
faced with stone." The preceding sketch (Fig. 60) 
represents a plan of that interesting church, taken 
during our recent journey in the East. 



THE MARONITES. 

The term Maronites is the ecclesiastical, and now 
national, name of a Syrian tribe anciently known as the 
Mardaites, and inhabiting the slopes of Lebanon and 
Anti-Lebanon. Their present name is derived from one 
Maro or Maron, an abbot who lived in the fifth century, 
and whose life was written by Theodoret. Although in 
union with Rome, they have not made an unconditional 
surrender of their church liberties. While acknowledging 
a titular supremacy in the pope, they have always elected 
their own hatrak, or patriarch, and they still retain their 
own liturgical customs. 

The Maronites preserve no water in their fonts, which 
has been consecrated on Easter-eve for the administration 
of baptism, according to the custom of the Romish 
Church ; but whenever any one is to be baptized, they 
bless the water with a great number of prayers ; then they 

* The Nik and Us Banks, 2 vols. 



THE MARONITES. 31 7 

plunge the neophytes three times in the water, which is 
previously made warm. They never use any salt, and 
they not only anoint the head, but also the breast, with 
the palms of their hands. They, moreover, anoint their 
bodies from head to foot. Besides this unction, which is 
performed before baptism, they have another after it, 
which is, properly speaking, the confirmation amongst 
the Eastern nations; but that custom has been nearly 
abolished ever since the reconciliation with the Romish 
Church. At baptism, the godfather never holds the infant 
at the font; when dipped, the priest takes it out and 
wraps it up in a linen cloth. 

The Maronites make use during the ceremony of 
baptism, of the liturgy of James of Edessa,* which was 
also the form authorized by Gregory Abu'lfaraj. 

In this baptismal office, after the Gloria, and a short 
'introduction, there follows the 51st Psalm, the Baptismal 
Psalm of the Syriac Church, and a Canon. 

"Have mercy upon me, O God. Astonishment came upon me 
nigh to Jordan, and I saw a marvel, how the glorious Bridegroom 
appeared, that He might make a feast for the Bride and might 
sanctify her. 

" Wash me thoroughly. I beheld Him, my brother, full of 
marvels, and the crowds that stood before Him, and Christ the 
Bridegroom, who was revealed to the son of the barren, that he 
might be baptized by him. 

" Before Thee, Thee only. The Bride is ready, yet she knoweth 
not who is the Bridegroom, but awaits Him. The paranymphs 
are gathered together ; the desert is full ; and our Lord lies hid 
among them." 

Next we have a prayer of benediction over the catechu- 
mens, and a psalm. After this a short bidding prayer 
by the deacon, and an ascription of " Glory to One Eternal 
Nature ; to One Equal Will ; to One Infinite Virtue ; to 
One Mighty Power; to One Divine Operation;" ushers 



James of Edessa was prelate of Syria, from a.d. 684-708. 



3l8 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

in a long prayer for the catechumens. To this follow 
two sets of troparia, the Epistle from Romans vi, 3 ; the 
gradual; the Gospel from St. John iii. i ; the signing, 
without oil, of the catechumen ; a prayer for him ; the 
exorcism, which is very strongly marked. It is as 
follows : — 

Do thou hear, O perverse and rebellious one, who hurtest this 
creature of God. I adjure thee, enemy of justice, and transgressor 
of Divine and Holy laws, by the Glory of the Great 'King, depart 
with fear, and be thou subject to the terrible Lord, who by His 
commandment hath stretched out the earth above the waters, and 
hath established it, and fixed the sand as the bound of the sea. I 
adjure thee by Him, who hath all power in Heaven and on earth; by 
whom all things were created, and are preserved ; by Him through 
whom things celestial exist, and the things that are upon earth are 
strengthened. I adjure thee by Him, who sent the legion of devils 
into the abyss by means of the swine ; and who overwhelmed 
Pharaoh in hardness of his heart, together with his chariots and 
horsemen. I adjure thee by Him, who with Divine power, said 
to the deaf and dumb spirit, Depart from this man, and enter no 
more into him. Fear the terrible name of God, at which every 
creature of angels and archangels tremble ; in whose sight all the 
army of ministering spirits stand with fear ; on whom cherubim 
and seraphim dare not look ; whom the heavenly spirits fear, and 
at whom the abysses tremble. Fear the terrible name of God, 
who cast down the rebellious demons with chains of darkness 
into the deep. Fear the future judgment ; tremble ; approach not 
the creature of God ; adhere not to the creature of God ; for it is 
not the habitation of devils, but the temple of God. For Himself 
hath said : I will dwell in them, and walk in them, and I will be to 
them a God and they shall be to Me a people ; but thee He hath 
made a spirit deformed, and void and impure. I adjure thee by 
God, the holy and pure. Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, but thou 
afar from the servants of God ; and depart into a land desolate, and 
without water, since there is thy place. Be eradicated ; be dis- 
sipated ; and depart, accursed, from the creature of God ; spirit of 
impurity, spirit of error, fuel of fire. Depart, nor dare to oppose. 
For God, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, shall utterly 
pluck thee forth, casting thee out from all His creatures, and casting 
thee into the fire that cannot be quenched ; and liberating this 
work of His hands even unto the day of redemption ; for His is the 
might," &c. 

After the renunciation, the neophyte makes the following confession : — 

I, N., who am to be baptized, believe in Thee, O Christ our 
God, and all Thy divine doctrines, which Thou hast inspired by 



THE MARONITES. 319 

Thy prophets, apostles, and orthodox doctors. I confess and 
believe, and am baptized in Thee, and in Thy Father, and in Thy 
living and Holy Ghost. 
Then the neophyte recites the Nicene Creed. 

The water is poured into the font, and covered with " a white 
veil, from the veil which belongs to the church." The unction 
follows ; then the prayer of incense ; the font is uncovered ; and 
then comes the following doxology : — 

" A fountain of life in baptism is set open ; and the Father, the 
Son, and the Holy Ghost, have sanctified it according to their 
loving-kindness. The Father, by exclaiming. This is My Son, My 
Beloved ; the Son, by bowing the head and receiving baptism ; 
the Holy Ghost, by descending in the form of a dove upon Him. 
Holy Trinity, by whom the worlds have received life. Hallelujah, 
cleanse our impurity. 

Pried. Prayer of inclination.* Thou hast given us the fountain 
of true cleansing, to purify us from all sin ; these waters, which 
are sanctified by the invocation of the Holy Ghost, and by them 
we have received the purification given unto us by the baptism of 
Thy Christ. Give, O Lord, power to these waters. Who by the 
passion of Thine only-begotten Son, didst bestow on us expiation 
from all sin to the reception of the Holy Ghost. 

Aloud. For Thou art the giver and bestower of all good things, 
and to Thee we ascribe glory, and to Thine only-begotten Son, and 
to Thy Holy Ghost, now and ever, and to ages of ages. Amen. 
_ Prayer of inclination. Lord God Almighty, creator of all things, 
visible and invisible; Who hast made the heaven, and the earth, 
and the sea, and all things that are in them ; Who didst gather 
together the waters into one place, and the dry land appeared ; 
Who didst close up the deeps of the sea, and restrain them with 
sand. 

Aloud. Thou hast strengthened the sea with Thy power ; Thou 
hast broken the heads of the dragons in the waters. Thou art to 
be feared ; and Who is able to resist Thee 1 Look down, O Lord, 
on this Thy creature of water, and give it the grace of Thy salva- 
tion, the blessing of Jordan, the sanctification of Thy Holy Ghost ; 
that they all may depart from it, who hurt the works of Thine 
hands ; since Thy name, by which it is called, is great and terrible 
to Thine enemies. 

He breathes upon the water three times, from west to east, and from 
right to left ; and says this prayer in a low voice. 

Let the head of the murderous dragon be bruised under the 
sign of the cross. 

Deacon. Amen. 

* The inclination, ox prayer of inclination, alternates with the prayers to be said aloud in the 
Syriac offices. The former are said secretly, the hands being crossed, and the head bowed ; in 
the latter, the priest stands upright, and extends his arms in the form of a cross. 



320 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

Let invisible and airy spirits fly, I pray Thee O Lord ; and let 
not the "devil, the lover of darkness, lie hid in this water. 

Priest' Neither let the foul spirit of darkness descend with 
him who is to be baptized, introduced with the thoughts of his 
heart. But repel from him the operation of the accurser. 

Deacon. Amen. 

Aloud. And grant to it, O Lord, Thy divine breath, which 
Thine only-begotten Son breathed upon His holy disciples, and 
remove all remains of idolatry from their hearts, disposing them 
to the reception of Thy Holy Ghost, and the remission of sins, 
through Thine only-begotten Son, our Lord and God, with Whom, 

&c. 

Prayer of inclination, and invocation of the Holy Ghost. 
Manifest Thyself, O Lord, upon these waters, and sanctify them 
by the illapse of Thy Holy Ghost ; that he who is jto be baptized 
in them may be changed, and may put off the old man, which is 
corrupt according to the deceitful lusts, and may put on the new 
man, which is renewed after the image of Him that created him. 
He raises his voice, and at each invocation makes a part of the cross : — 
t (Icode) At this letter the priest stretches his hand to the East. 

'^(Lomad) West. 

^(Beth) North. 

1 * (Olaph) South. 

O Lord Almighty, make these waters, waters of quiet ; ^ waters 
of joy and exultation ; ^3 waters mystically foreshown by the death 
and resurrection of Thine only-begotten Son ; ] waters of expia- 
tion. Amen. 

.Purification of the filth of the flesh and spirit ; "^ loosing of 
bands ; tS remission of transgressions ; ] illumination of souls and 
bodies. 

. The laver of regeneration ; ^ the gift of the adoption of sons ; 
..3 the garment of immortality ; } the renovation of the Holy Ghost. 

Amen. 

Waters that purge away all sin. For thou, O Lord, hast said : 
Wash you ; make you clean ; put away evil things from your hearts. 
Thou hast given regeneration by water and the Holy Ghost, and 
to Thee we ascribe, &c. 

The priest takes the horn of holy chrism, and pours it into the waters 
three times in the form of a cross. Then he says : — 

We pour forth holy chrism into these waters of baptism, that by 
them the old man may be turned into the new man. In the name 

* The word 13^ * , by these initials, signifies the cj-oss. 



THE MARONITES. 



321 



+ of the Father. Amen. Alleluia. In the name + of the Son. 
Amen. Alleluia. In the name + of the Holy Ghost. Amen. 
Alleluia. 

Prayer of inclination. Thou who didst send down Thy Holy 
Ghost upon Thine only-begotten Son, God the Word, (Who 
fulfilled upon earth the dispensation of baptism,) in the shape of a 
dove, and didst sanctify the streams of baptism ; let it please Thee, 
O Lord, that Thy Holy Spirit may descend upon this Thy servant, 
who is to be baptized, and perfect him, and make him a servant of 
Thy Christ, purifying him in this divine laver. 

Aloud. That he, being illuminated, renewed, and filled with 
His grace and virtue, may safely keep the treasure of Thy salvation, 
and may he so be directed to that incorruptible and blessed life, 
that he may become a partaker of those eternal joys which Thou 
hast promised to them that love Thee, through the grace and mercy, 
and love to men of Thine only-begotten Son, by whom, &c. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. Peace be to all. 

People. And with thy spirit. 

The priest waves his hands over the waters, saying aloud : — 

The waters are sanctified that they may be for a divine laver of 
regeneration. In the name ■\- of the living Father for life. Amen. 
In the name + of the living Son for life. Amen. In the name -j- 
of the living and Holy Spirit for life, for ever and ever. Amen. 

The priest pours the oil of unction into the palms of his hand, and 
anoints the whole body of him that is to he baptized, and says : — 

Wherefore God, even Thy God, Alleluia ; hath anointed thee 
with the oil of gladness above thy fellows. Alleluia ; all thy 
garments smell of myrrh, aloes, and cassia, Alleluia ; out of the 
ivory palaces whereby they have made thee glad. Alleluia. 

The deacons sing. 

With holy oil God commanded that Aaron should be anointed 
and sanctified. With holy oil let them be sanctified, the simple 
lambs that have come to baptism. 

With this oil were priests, prophets, and kings anointed, who 
have been illustrious and who were crowned. With this same 
they are anointed, the simple lambs, and become sons of the 
heavenly Father. 

Moses prefigured to us a type in the desert ; and King David 
made known to us its mystery. Behold, in the church they are 
signed with the same, the simple lambs that have come to baptism. 

With holy oil kings were anointed, with the same the priests of 
the law were anointed. With holy oil they are anointed, the simple 
lambs that have come to-day to baptism. 

The priest stands by the font, and invokes the Spirit, who 

Y 



32 2 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

descends from on high, and rests on the waters, and sanctifies 
them, and makes new sons to God. 

When the child is plunged into the water, the priest says : — 

N. is baptized for sanctity and salvation and a blameless life, 
and a blessed resurrection from the dead, in the name of the 
Father. Amen. And of the Son. Amen. And of the living and 
Holy Ghost, for life everlasting. Amen. 

The deacons sing. 

Descend, our brother, marked with the cross ; and put on our 
Lord ; and be mingled with His race ; for it is a mighty race, as 
is said in His parable. 

And when the child comes out of the water, they sing : — 

Expand thy wings. Holy Church ; and receive the simple lamb, 
which the Holy Ghost has begotten from the waters of baptism. 

Of this baptism prophesied the son of Zacharias. I, said he, 
baptize with water ; but He which is to come, with the Holy 
Ghost. 

The heavenly army surround the baptistery; that from its waters 
they may receive sons like to God. 

From the waters Gideon chose him men, that they might go 
forth to battle. From the waters of baptism Christ hath chosen 
worshippers to Himself. 

The foregoing office will give a sufficient idea of the 
Syrian rites of baptism. (From Neale's History of the 
Eastern Church.) 

The bathing of the Syrian Christians in the river 
Jordan, must be reckoned amongst their religious 
customs, but the ceremony itself is very idle, and, accord- 
ing to some eye-witnesses, ridiculous. These people, 
however, practise it as an act of devotion, and Greeks, 
Nestorians, Copts, &c., wash themselves naked in the 
river, with great solemnity, in commemoration of Jesus 
Christ's baptisiTQ. In this instance, they concern them- 
selves as little in regard to the difference of the sexes as 
of the sects ; for men and women jump promiscuously 
into the river and plunge down to the bottom. Some of 
the most zealous devotees dip their handkerchiefs in the 
sacred stream, others carry a quantity of the water away 



TYRE. 3,3 

with them in bottles ; and the very dirt, sand, and grass 
that grows upon the banks, are all looked upon as sacred 
relics.* 

Twenty yards distant from the convent of Mar Behnam, 
in Syria, is the baptistery ; this is a plain building, of an 
oblong form, with a semi-circular recess at the eastern 
end, in which the font is placed. The font is three feet in 
diameter, and stands about four feet above the ground. 



TYRE. 

A Christian church was established in this famed city 
before A.D. 58. (Acts xxi. 3-7.) This church prospered 
for several centuries, and councils were held here. During 
this period, Tyre was still a strong fortress, as it was also 
in the age of the crusaders, by whom it was only taken 
twenty-five years after they had gained Jerusalem. It 
was in the hands of the Europeans till 1291, when it was 
finally yielded to the Moslems. Its fortifications, which 
were almost impregnable, were demolished, and since the 
reconquest of the city by the Turks, it has been in a 
ruinous condition, and often almost without inhabitants. 
At present it is a poor town, called Sour. It was half 
ruined by an earthquake in 1837. 

On the eastern side of Sour, are the remains of a church 
of Gothic architecture. As the early Christians were in 
the habit of converting heathen temples to the worship of 
the true God, by way of reparation, this may probably be 
built upon the site, and with the materials of the temple of 
Jupiter Olympus, which was destroyed by Constantine the 
Great, or of that Hercules, who was particularly honoured 
by the Tyrians. The interior is divided into three aisles. 



Ceremonies el Coutumcs Religieuses. 

Y 2 



324 



THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 



separated by rows of granite columns. At the extremities 
of the two branches of the cross were two towers, the 
ascent to which was by a spiral staircase, which still 
remains entire. This was, no doubt, the cathedral of 
which Eusebius speaks in his dedication sermon, calling 
it the most magnificent temple in Phoenicia, of which 
Paulinus was the founder and the bishop. This see was 
dependent upon the Patriarch of Antioch, but had under 
it fourteen suffragan bishoprics. 




Rg. 61. Ruins of St. John at Tyre. 

An ancient baptistery has lately been discovered at 
Tyre. Rev. Dr. Fish gives the following designs and 
account of this interesting relic of primitive Christianity : 

" I write this sitting on the ruins of ancient Tyre, on 
the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. As the subject of 
prophecy, especially by Ezekiel, and a city of vast 
influence in the days of its glory. Tyre possesses a 
thrilling interest to the thoughtful visitor. I have time to 
speak, however, of only one thing. We were fortunate 



TYRE. 



325 



enough to reach here when excavations are being made, 
under German patronage, by Professor Sepp, on the site 
of the famous church edifice, built about the year 315 after 
Christ, by Paulinus, bishop of Tyre. Eusebius preached 
at its dedication. The sermon is in his Ecclesiastical 
History. 

" Professor Sepp received us very cordially, and showed 
us some wonderful columns of red granite, and other 
remains, some of them, probably, of a heathen temple that 
once stood on the same site. Judge of our interest when 
he said, ' Here is the old baptistery,' as we stood beside 
a marble structure, close to the wall, evidently as old as 




Fig. 62. Section of Baptistery at the Old Cathedral op Tyre. 
a. FaJse Bottom. 5 Jt. 6 in. length in the clear. 3 feet deep in clear, mcluding false hottom 

the church, and an original part of it. I took my tape- 
measure and noted the dimensions. It is of white marble, 
in the shape of a cross. There are four steps at either 
end, leading down into it, and a hole is seen on the level 
of the floor for letting out the water. The extreme length, 
inside, is five feet and six inches. The depth is three feet. 
The width three feet and seven inches. Professor Sepp 
said, ' They immersed people here.' 

" After a little, I said, ' Did they not also baptize the 
children } ' 



326 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

" He replied, ' Oh, no ; they only baptized the grown 
people then.' 

" ' But,' said I, ' is it not rather small, taking out the 
space occupied by the steps.' 

" He at once went down into it, and lowered himself 
below the level of the top, saying, ' This is the way they 
baptized themselves.' 

" As we know, candidates often knelt in the water, and 
projected the head and shoulders forward, doing it, 
perhaps generally, three times. There is ample room for 
this, as one readily sees. The officiating minister stood 
beside the baptistery. It is cut from a solid block ; and 
the floor was somehow cracked, so that a false bottom of 
marble and cement was put in. One side is now pretty 
much broken away ; otherwise it is in a good state of 
preservation. It will likely be removed, with other 
antiquities, to Germany. 

" Here, then, is a new witness for the ancient practice 
of immersion, and I feel a pleasure in having seen it and 
called attention to it. " It must be remembered that this 
reaches back very far; and even if the baptistery were 
found to be less ancient than the church (which I feel 
sure is not the case), it would only strengthen the force of 
this evidence ; — showing the prevalence of the practice 
still later. 

" The celebrated Origen was buried in this church ; so 
was the great Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. This very 
day a tomb under the church floor was opened, and I saw 
the bones and parts of the shroud. Perhaps it was 
Origen's, or Barbarossa's. 

" Four renowned names are thus connected with this 
silent, but eloquent witness for scriptural baptism, 
entombed for centuries under some ten feet of rubbish. 
These names are Eusebius, Origen, Paulinus, and Barba- 
rossa. Add to this the fact that no church in all 



TYRE. 



327 



Phoenicia, as Eusebius says, compared with this for size 
and splendour. It was two hundred and sixteen feet long, 
one hundred and thirty-six feet broad, and had a tower 
which he describes as ' rising to the heavens,' and ' a 
quadrangular space (for the audience), with inclined 



Rim 4 incheB thick. 



Kim 4 inches thick. 



Fig. 63. Plan of Baptistery at the Old Cathedral of Tyre. 

a Rim. h Steps, c Bottom, d Extensions. Extreme length 6 ft. 6 in. Size of bottom 
43 X 36 in. Extreme width 43 in. All are in the clear. 

porticoes, supported and adorned with pillars on every 
side.' Specimens of these splendid rose-granite columns 
remain. 

" Tyre early became a Christian city. Paul, on his visit 
to Jerusalem from Greece, found disciples here, with 
whom he spent a week, and on parting with them on this 
same sea-shore, ' they kneeled down and prayed.' And 
there are no other foundations of an original church 
ediiice, in any state of preservation like this, so ancient, 
in all the world. That founded by Helena at Jerusalem, 
by the Holy Sepulchre, is twenty-one years later, and 
almost no part of it remains." 

The following description of this baptistery is by Rev. 



328 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

Dr. Harvey. He says : — " The ruins of the old cathedral, 
at the north-east angle of the modern wall, are at present 
the most interesting in Tyre. The church was built by 
Paulinus early in the fourth century, and is described by 
Eusebius as the most splendid in Phoenicia. It was two 
hundred and sixteen feet long, one hundred and thirty-six 
wide, with nave, transept, and triple apse. Its walls are 
still partly standing. Its architecture is of the massive 
and rich order of the later Corinthian. Among the 
prostrate columns I observed two double ones of red 
granite, immense in size. Here the great Origen was 
buried ; and in a later age, the remains of the celebrated 
Emperor Frederick Barbarossa were deposited beside 
him. Among other remains disentombed is a remarkable 
baptistery, standing on the lower floor of the church, and 
evidently in its original position. It is made from a solid 
block of white marble, and is unique in its form. Its 
interior dimensions, as we took them, are : length, five 
feet three inches ; width, three feet seven and a half 
inches; depth, three feet eight and a quarter inches. 
Steps descend into it at each end. The candidate evi- 
dently entered the pool by the steps at one end ; he then 
knelt down, and, according to the ancient usage, his head 
was bowed forward into the water by the administrator, 
who stood outside and pronounced the formula ; and after 
being thus baptized he passed out by the steps at the 
other end. The baptistery was plainly used for adult 
immersion ; for otherwise there is no explanation of the 
steps ; and found, as it is, on the lowest floor, there can 
be no doubt that it belonged to the original church. It 
is, therefore, an interesting monument, attesting the form 
of baptism in the fourth century. The bottom of the 
baptistery seems to have been fractured in some later 
age, and is now repaired by a slab of marble, which 
somewhat reduces the original depth." 



MYRA AND KASSABAR. 



329 



We give the list of the 
in the Oriens Christianus:— 

Cassius. 

Marinus. 

Tyrannius (Martyr). 

Methodius. 

Dorotheus I. 

PauUnus. 

Zeno I. 

Paulus. 

Vitalis. 

Uranius. 

Zeno II. 

Diodorus (a.d. 379). 

Reverentius. 

Cyrus. 



bishops of Tyre, as it appears 



Beronicianus. 
Irenseus (a.d. 449). 
Photius I. 
Dorotheus II. 
Joannes Co.donatus. 
Epiphanius. 
Eusebius (a.d. 553). 
Thomas. 
Sabas. 
Photius II. 
CyriUus. 
Sophronius. 



Hieremias. 



MYRA AND KASSABAR. 

Myra was one of the six chief towns of Lycia, in Asia 
Minor. At a late period of the Roman Empire, it became 
the metropolis of that province. Meletius says that Myra 
was originally a Rhodian colony, and he boasts that its 
bishop was the metropolitan of thirty-six suffragan sees. 
This important town lay about a league from the sea, 
upon a rising ground, at the foot of which flowed a 
navigable river with an excellent harbour at its mouth. 
The present race of Greeks consider Myra as a place of 
peculiar sanctity. Here, say they, Paul preached ; here is 
the shrine of St. John, and above all, here are deposited 
the ashes of St. Nicholas,* their patron saint. Their 

* Nicholas, Bishop of Myra, flourished under Constantine the 
Great, was persecuted and imprisoned during the reign of Dio- 
cletian and Licinius, and died about a.d. 342. He Hved in great 
sanctity, and is said to have performed some miracles. Justinian 
erected at Constantinople a church to his memory. He is the 
patron saint of Russia, and his feast is celebrated on the sixth day 
of December. Nicholas is distinguished among the ecclesiastical 
writers of his period. 



330 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

claim, however, to this ultimate privilege may be doubted, 
for, according to Murator {Annalt d' Italia, torn, vi.), both 
Venice and Bari dispute the honour of having carried 
away his body. 

In the vicinity of Myra have been discovered the 
remains of " a large Christian cathedral of early 
Byzantine architecture, one of the most interesting and 
picturesque ruins in Lycia. It is a noble fabric, and one 
which excited, on examination, a deep interest. It is but 
little incommoded by rubbish and bushes, so that we 
were enabled to place ourselves at once without difficulty 
under the lofty dome in the centre of the body of the 
church, and survey its interior, where the noisy chat of 
a disturbed jackdaw, as it took wing through a large 
aperture in the vaulted roof, was the only sound to break 
the solemn stillness then reigning within this impressive 
ruin. Its eastern end is terminated by a semicircle 
interrupted by long windows, the tall stone and brick 
pillars between them standing disconnected, their arches 
above being broken down. The greater part of this 
cathedral, however, still remains perfect ; and it was 
pleasing to see the tenacity with which stone, brick, and 
mortar, had so long held together against the ravages 
of time, and through which, in all probability, will be 
preserved yet many ages this venerable relic of the early 
days, when Christianity flourished in this country. We 
had entered Lycia with a thirst for relics of the earlier 
days of its history. Lycian tombs, Lycian monuments, 
and Lycian cities, were the principal objects of our 
search, but here that interest was unexpectedly arrested, 
and the solemn grandeur of the old and solitary Christian 
church, towering above the Pagan temple and the Moslem 
mosque, excited a warmer and healthier admiration, 
though its age were comparatively modern and its 
architecture barbarous." 



MYRA AND KASSABAR. 



331 



" St. Paul, when on his way to Rome, put into Myra, 
and there changed ship ; whether the seed of Christianity 
was then first sown in Lycia, sacred history does not 
mention ; but we may infer from the zeal and diligence 
always evinced by that great apostle, that the opportunity 
was not lost. Myra was, however, the capital of the 
bishopric of Lycia for many centuries afterwards, and 
as there are no remains at Myra itself, indicating the 
existence of a cathedral, we probably behold in this 
ruin the head church of that diocese, planted there from 
motives of seclusion and security." {Travels in Lycia, by 
Messrs. Spratt and Forbes.) 




Fig 6t. Chukch and BAhTisTEaiEs at Kabsabar. 

At a short distance from Myra, in the Valley of Kas- 
sabar, in Asia Minor, exist the ruins of a large church 
and two baptisteries, which are thus described by Messrs. 
Spratt and Forbes : — 

"The church is a large edifice of early Byzantine 
architecture, and is one of the most interesting and 
picturesque, as well as best preserved ruins in the pro- 
vince of Lycia, in Asia Minor. It is situated in a most 



332 



THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 



sequestered spot near the remains of the ancient Trabala. 
The eastern end of this building is terminated by a 
semicircle interrupted by large windows, the tall stone 
and brick pillars between them standing disconnected, 
their arches above having broken down. The octagonal 
erections north and south of the choir were probably 
baptisteries, one for the men, the other for the women. 
{Travels in Lycta.) 

List of the bishops of Myra, according to the Oriens 
Christianus. 



Nicander (Martyr). 

Nicholas I. 

St. Nicholas II. (Martyr). 

Tatianus. 

Serenianus. 

Romanus. 

Petrus. 

Philippus. 

Polydactus. 

Theodorus I. 



Nicholas III. 

Nicetas (Heretic). 

Theodosius I. 

Leo. 

Theodosius IL(a.d. 1143). 

Christophorus (a.d. 1166). 

Eustathius. 

Matthaeus. 



SMYRNA. 

Christianity was early established in this city, chiefly 
owing to the zeal of Polycarp, who is said to have been 
the first bishop of Smyrna, and to have suffered martyrdom 
there (Iren^us, v. 34.) Few traces of the ancient city are 
now to be seen. The warm baths, on the declivity of 
Mount Corax, have scarcely a vestige of the buildings 
which formerly covered them, and the remains of the 
neighbouring Temple of Apollo have entirely disappeared. 
The enclosure of the ancient castle on the summit of the 
hill, its gate ornamented with rude sculptures, a fragment 
of the entrance to the theatre, and the ruins of Polycarp's 
church are almost the only relics of antiquity which can 



SMYRNA. 333 

now be found. The stadium, of which the ground-plot 
only remains, is supposed to be the place where Polycarp, 
the disciple of John, and probably the angel of the Church 
of Smyrna (Rev. ii. 8), to whom the Apocalyptic message 
was addressed, suffered martyrdom. The Greeks of 
Smyrna hold the memory of this venerable person 
in high honour, and go annually in procession to his 
supposed tomb, which is at a short distance from the 
stadium. 

At the ruins called the Baths of Diana, east of the 
modern town, little except the clear and copious spring is 
any longer to be seen. It smokes in winter, and to the 
hand, even in mild weather, appears tepid, but its heat, 
when ascertained by the themometer, is not higher than 
the mean temperature of the spring water in that latitude. 
The Rev. Mr. Arundell, who was for many years chaplain 
of the English Episcopal Church in Smyrna, inclines to 
think that this spring was the original baptistery of that 
city. He says : — " With all due respect for the character 
of Diana, I would willingly indulge in the supposition, 
that in later times this beautiful crystal water might have 
been used as a baptistery for the catechumens of the 
Church of Smyrna, if not in the days of Polycarp, a 
century or two later. At least it is evident that 
here was a circular enclosure, and the pillar, which is 
still standing, resembles in form and material those 
which are to be seen near the Jewish quarter in the 
Turkish cemetery, the undoubted site, in my belief, of 
the earliest, if not the iirst, Christian church. It 
was probably the church of the beloved disciple, for 
it is at a short distance from the present church of 
St. John. Numerous pillars are still erect, either entire 
or broken, which ran in a direction nearly north and 
south, above five hundred feet." {Discoveries in Asia 
Minor.) 



334 



THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 



List of the bishops 

Or tens Christianus : — 

Aristo I. 

Strataeus. 

Aristo II. 

Bucolus. 

Polycarp (Martyr). 

Papyrius. 

Camerius. 

Thraseas. 

Eudasmon. 

Eutychius. 

Idduas. 

CEthericus (a.d. 448). 

Photius. 

Calloas. 

Stephanus. 



of Smyrna, as collected in the 



Theodoras I. 

Studita. 

Metrophanes. 

Nicetas. 

Theodorus II. 

Joannes. 

. . . . (a.d. I 166). 

Georgius (a.d. 1220). 

Calophorus. 

Isaacus. 

Temp. Andronic. Imper. 

Theodorus III. 

... . (a.d. 1334). 

Gabriel (a.d. JS7S). 

Ananias (a.d. 1721). 



SAGALASSUS. 

Sagalassus was one of the chief towns of Pisidia, in 
Asia Minor. This city is noted by Strabo, Pliny, Ptolemy, 
and Hierocles, and also by the Ecclesiastical Notices 
and the Acts of Councils, which prove it to have been a 
bishopric. The ruins of the ancient Sagalassus are in the 
vicinity of the modern village of Allahsun : — 

"There is, I believe, no other ruined city in Asia 
Minor," says Mr. Hamilton, "the situation and extensive 
remains of which are so striking, or so interesting, or 
which give so perfect an idea of the magnificent combina- 
tion of temples, palaces, porticoes, theatres, and gymnasia, 
fountains, and tombs, which adorned the cities of the 
ancient world. Between the main portion of the town 
and the scarped cliif which rises to the north of it, an 
irregular terrace, partly natural and partly artificial, 
extends for nearly half a mile, following the outline of the 
hills, and rising gently towards the centre. Its general 
direction is from W.N.W. to E.S.E.; on it are the remains 



SAGALASSUS. 335 

of several buildings, apparently temples or sepulchres ; 
but at the western extremity is one which appears to have 
been a church, extending from S.E. to N.W. At its north- 
west end are the remains of a portico of fluted columns, 
and at the other extremity is a high wall with an angular 
niche, and surmounted by a frieze and a cornice. Within 
are several shafts of fluted marble columns, some of 
granite very large and plain, and also many tiles lying 
on the ground ; the length of the building is forty-five 
paces. Near it are the remains of a small circular 
building, which may have been a fountain." {Discoveries 
in Asia Minor ^ 

Referring to this Christian church, Rev. Mr. Arundell * 
says that " it is constructed of large blocks of marble ; 
the architecture is of the richest style, the columns are 
fluted, with Corinthian capitals, and are two feet in 
diameter. The building stands east and west ; its total 
length is about one hundred and sixty feet, and the 
breadth of the nave about seventy-five. The bema is not 
circular, but angular, its breadth as that of the nave, 
seventy-five feet, and the depth twenty-one. Between the 
bema and the nave is a transept extending sixteen feet 
on either side beyond the nave, making the entire breadth 
of this part about one hundred and seven feet. From 
each of these sides a doorway opened into what was 
probably a side portico with pillars. There were three 
gates or doors at the great entrance, the centre one, as 
usual, very large. The portico, or pronaos was twenty- 
seven feet long, and beyond this, the walls were still ex- 
tended on either side. From the number of columns lying 
in all directions, some fluted, others plain, it is possible 
that there was a nave and side aisles, but there are no 
foundations to support this conjecture, and the columns 



* Arundell, Discoveries in Asia Minor. 



336 THE ARCHEOLOGY OF BAPTISM. 

may have belonged to the front and side colonnades. On 
the upper part of the walls, which are standing on the 
north-eastern end, are a number of small figures, for the 
most part grotesque, as masks, &c., but executed in a 
very spirited style. A large cross is cut deep into one of 
the blocks of the principal entrance. Beyond the church, 
on the west side, at the distance of about one hundred 
feet, is a large heap of enormous stones, belonging 
to either a circular or semicircular edifice ; that which 
remains of the circle being towards the west, not the east, 
as a bema. There is little doubt that it was circular and 
elevated on a basement with steps to ascend to it. If 
there had been one on the other side, but I saw no 
remains, the church with those additions would have 
resembled the supposed church of St. John at Pergamos, 
supposing they had been carried to the same height. The 
diameter does not appear to have been more than fifteen 
feet. If a conjecture as to its destination may be hazarded, 
I should take it for a baptistery." 

According to the Oriens Christianus the following were 
the bi.shops of Sagalassus, viz.: — Jovius, Forteianus, 
Theodosius, and Leo. 




YATES AND ALEXANHEIl, CHANCEIIV BUILDINGS, CHANCEllY LANE, LONDON.