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Cornell University Library 
BV2040 .E56 1904 

Encyclopedia of ni ss ons. Descriptive, h 

3 1924 029 338 187 ^ 

olin O^ers 


Cornell University 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 










Edited under the Auspices of the Bureau of Missions 

Rev. henry OTIS DWIGHT, LL.D., Rev. H. ALLEN TUPPER, Jr., D.D. 


New Yokk and London 


A . \ ^1 fO 7 (. 

Copyright, 1904, bt 

(Registered at Stationers' Hall, London) 
Printed in the United States of America. Published October, 1904 




Preface to the First Edition vii 

Preface to the Second Edition xi 

List of Contributors of Special Articles xiii 

Abbreviations Used in the Encyclopedia xiv 

The Encyclopedia of Missions 1 


I. directory of foreign missionary societies ....... 817 

II. chronological table of the extension of PROTESTANT MISSIONS 








THE standpoint of this Encyclopedia is, primarily, that of one who, interested in 
foreign mission work, seeks to enlarge his vision and increase his knowledge; 
secondarily, that of one who, looking forward to a personal share in it, seeks to inform 
himself as to its various phases, that he may the more readily decide where he can prob- 
ably labor to the best advantage. The basis is the Society in which each individual 
is more especially interested; its history, organization, development; its missions and 
stations. Then the view broadens to take in the countries, races, and religions in their 
relations to the work, not only of his own, but of other denominations. Special topics 
open up, individual workers stand out in prominence, and as one step after another 
is taken, it becomes apparent that the work is not divided, but is one; and all these 
with varied names are but portions of the one great army of the Church. 

The plan thus includes two general departments: 1. The organized work — the 
societies, their origin and growth at home, and their work abroad; 2. The countries in 
which, the races for which, that work is carried on, and the religious beliefs that are 

Accessory to these are : 1. A gazetteer of Mission Stations ; 2. Biographical sketches 
of Missionaries; 3. Description and enumeration of Bible versions; 4. Articles on 
special topics closely related to the work of Foreign Missions; 5. Maps, appendices 
of bibliography and statistics, and indices. 

It became early evident that to accomplish so much, minutiae must give place to 
perspective. However fascinating the details might be, they must be constantly used 
merely as illustrations. To do more, would not only have so enlarged its extent as 
to make the book unwieldy, but have blurred the distinctness of the impression that 
it has been sought to give. Thus in the accounts of the societies and their work per- 
sonal terms are few. The history of Missions, both at home and abroad, is largely the 
history of individual men and women. Those who have stood at the helm and guided 
these great organizations were and are no less missionaries than those who have gone 
to the foreign field, yet even to mention the names of all within the space allowed would 
have almost made the work a mere chronicle. So of the countries and stations, the 
races and religions. The effort has been to give so much geography, history, etc., as 
would serve as a framework for pictures of missionary work and spiritual need. 

With regard to the biographical sketches, it became evident very early that it 
would be necessary to draw the line sharply to exclude the living, and that to mention 
all, even of the dead, would be impossible. The sketches, too, must be brief, indicating 
rather than describing the work each did. So of the Bible versions; brief paragraphs 
were all that could be attempted. 

When the question of special topics came up, the scope seemed unlimited. There 
were city missions; home missions; missions in their relations to commerce, music, the 
liquor traffic, the slave-trade; early Christian and medieval missions; the various 
questions under discussion in regard to methods of missionary work, — the lay element, 
education, self-support of native churches, etc. To treat even a few of these thoroughly, 
tho eminently desirable, would be impracticable. As careful a selection as possible has 
been made, and as much space given as seemed proportionate to the general scope of 
the work. 

The plan led also to the decision to embody statistics and general lists in the form of 
appendices, which could easily be changed in subsequent editions, as the work developed. 
These appendices include: (a) A bibliography; (b) Lists of Bible versions, arranged 
alphabetically and geographically, showing the languages and dialects, the number of 
people reached by them, the linguistic families to which they belong, the characters 


in which they are written, the amount of translation work done, and the society under 
whose auspices they have been prepared, and in the Index the page of the Encyclopedia 
where they are referred to; (c) A list of missionary societies with the addresses of their 
secretaries, the date of organization, and the page of the Encyclopedia where they are 
spoken of; (d) A list of missionary stations, giving their geographical location, the, 
societies carrying on work in them, the number and sections of the maps where they are 
found, and the page of the Encyclopedia where they are described; (e) Tables of statis- 
tics: (1) By societies and missions; (2) By countries and societies; (3) A summary of 
the whole. The General Index includes names of persons mentioned, places referred to, 
and general subjects treated. The maps cover all important mission-fields with as 
much fulness as is practicable. The effort has been made to locate every mission station 
of importance, and in some cases the outstations. The importance of political influence 
in Africa and of the languages of India has led to the furnishing of a map of each country 
specially designed to bring out those characteristics. 

Specific statements as to the appendices will be found in prefatory notes to them. 

Many questions came up for consideration. In the alphabetical arrangement of 
articles a difficulty arose in regard to the location of the societies. To place them under 
their corporate names would be confusing, and the effort has been made to designate 
each by the term by which it is most widely known, with cross-references wherever it 
seems necessary. If there is difficulty in finding any one, a reference to Appendix C 
will easily give the solution. 

Then came the question of spelling. The spelling of foreign names is in hopeless 
confusion. No two societies agree. Often the same society is not consistent with 
itself. Governments have laid down rules, which few follow; and no two Governments 
make the same rules. Should we spell Beirut, Beyrout, or Beyroot; Maulmain or 
Moulmein; Harpoot, Harput, or Charput; Foochow or Fuhchau; Gurhwal or Garhwal; 
Punjab or Pan jab; Hyderabad or Haidarabad; Assiout, Assyoot, or Siout; San Paulo 
or Sao Paulo; Otjimbenque or Otyimbingue? 

But instances almost innumerable could be added. The reader will find a few 
of the perplexities noted in Appendix D. To be absolutely logical or consistent was 
impossible. In India names the spelling of Hunter's Encyclopedia has been adopted. 
In Africa, the Church Missionary Society and the ABCFM reports have been followed 
in the main; elsewhere the editor has done the best he could, and if in any instance 
some mission station eludes the patient search of the reader, let him make a note of his 
failure for the benefit of future workers in this line. 

Numerous requests have come in for an indication of the pronunciation of the 
names of places. To do this, however, was so manifestly impossible that no effort 
has been made. Each reader is at perfect liberty to pronounce Kachchh or Njenhangli 
as he chooses. 

Another difficulty arose from the recurrence of the same name. If one is perplexed 
to distinguish the Washingtons that occur in every State of the Union he will under- 
stand the danger of confounding the various Salems of Africa, the Bethels of the West 
Indies and India, or the Bijnaurs (Bijnours?) of the Northwest Provinces and Oudh. 

The question of statistics was also a perplexing one. After much consideration it 
was decided to give the general statistics in the form of tables in an appendix, intro- 
ducing into the body of the Encyclopedia only such as were necessary in order to indi- 
cate the general nature and scope of the work in the different stations. So far as 
practicable, these have been brought up to date of publication. 

At the commencement of the work blanks were sent to every mission society and 
mission station that could be learned of. The societies in almost every case responded, 
and many of the stations. With these as a basis and the careful study of the reports 
of the societies, the various Encyclopedias, etc., the great majority of the statements 
were prepared. In a few instances the society statements came from outside parties. 
Thus the article on the American Baptist Missionary Union was furnished by Dr. L. P. 
Brockett; that on the Moravian Missions, by Rev. B. Romig of Herrnhut; and so of a 
few others. _ Whenever it was practicable these statements were referred to persons 
connected with or specially informed regarding the societies, with a view to their being 
free from inaccuracy. Some countries, etc., were described by writers specially 
acquainted with them. Thus the India articles were prepared by Rev. C. W. Park, of 


Birmingham, Conn., formerly of Bombay; Japan, by Rev. W. E. Griffis, D.D.; Brazil, 
by Rev. J. Beatty Howells, long a missionary in that country. The subjoined list 
will indicate most of the writers. The biographical sketches are chiefly the work of 
Rev. Samuel Hutchings, D.D., whose eighty-three years of age have not dimmed his 
interest or dulled the keenness of his pen. For the lists of Bible versions we are indebted 
to the kind courtesy of R. N. Oust, LL.D., of London. The sketches of the versions 
have mostly been prepared by Dr. Bernhard Pick, of Allegheny, who has made the 
subject a special study. The Arabic version, however, has been described by its trans- 
lator. Rev. Dr. C. V. A. Van Dyck, of Beirut; the Turkish version by Rev. H. O. Dwight, 
of Constantinople. 

In seeking for any title look first in the Encyclopedia; also in the Index of Appendix 
B for Bible versions ; in Appendix C for societies or faith missions ; in Appendix D 
for Mission Stations; and in the general Index for all. The page references in the 
appendices refer only to articles, not to places where mention of any topic is made in 
other articles; e.g., the station of Allahabad will be found, by Appendix D, on page 
41 of Vol. I. It will also be found, by the general Index, on page 250, Vol. II., etc. 
So of the versions. Any person desiring to look up the whole work of a Society will 
turn from the account of the Society itself to that of the country where it works, the 
stations it occupies, and the biographical sketches of its missionaries, as he finds them 
mentioned in the different articles. In giving accounts of stations only those have 
been included in the body of the work with regard to which some definite information 
is given beyond the mere fact of their being occupied by a certain society. The com- 
plete list appears in Appendix D. 

It is a pleasant duty to acknowledge the kind courtesy of the many who have 
assisted in the work: of the publishers, who have furnished the means and have left 
the editor so free to carry out the plan as fully as was practicable; those who have 
worked in the office with an interest that has shown their task to be no mere perfunctory 
duty; the contributors, whose patience, consideration, and ability have done so much 
to make the work not merely instructive, but entertaining; the officers of the Mission- 
ary Societies, whose unfailing willingness to answer innumerable questions has been 
so often put to the test. To name each one would be to give the list of all with whom 
the editor has come in contact in his work ; yet he cannot but make special acknowledg- 
ments to Dr. Dalman, of Leipzig, for his article on the Jews; to the Rev. S. M. Jackson, 
for the Bibliography; to Dr. Cust, of London, for his table of Bible versions; to the 
officers of the Church Missionary Society, for the free use of their atlases of India and 

That errors and omissions, some apparently inexplicable, will be noticed, must 
be expected. Any report of such to the publishers will be gladly received. 

The work in truth has been a labor of love, and the highest return that can come 
from it will be the consciousness that it has furnished a link in the chain that is to bind 
together the great divisions of the one great army of the Church, as they come through 
its pages to know and understand each other better. 

Edwin Munsell Bliss. 
New York City, March, 189L 


NO long series of reasons need be given why The Encyclopedia of Missions demands 
revision after twelve vears. Political changes have parceled out among the nations 
the islands of the Pacific, have brought one at least of the Asiatic nations into parity 
of influence with Western Powers in shaping the destinies of the Far East, and have 
marked all Africa with the familiar national colors of Europe and made her mysterious 
central regions a field for the personally-conducted tourist, and a participant in the 
privileges of the Universal Postal Union. The body of experience in the mission field 
has crystallized into what is sometimes called a "Science of missions," made up of 
more or less exact principles of labor, which are more and more widely accepted by 
missionaries of all nations as fundamental. The mere increase of missionary enter- 
prises and the expansion of mission fields are notable facts, while above every other 
reason the growth of the Christian community in almost every non-Christian land 
requires the rewriting of every descriptive paragraph in the book. When the editors 
asked valued advisers in Europe and America what faults of The Encyclopedia of Mis- 
sions most loudly called for correction in a Revised Edition, .the answer, as unanimous 
as if the question related to some text-book of science written twelve years ago, was 
"Its antiquity." 

It is with grave misgivings, nevertheless, that this revision is offered to the public. 
Rigorous compression has been required in order to keep the Revised Edition within 
limits of bulk and cost which permit a considerable reduction of price. 

Articles dealing with the various Missionary Societies have most persistently 
rebelled against our limitations of space. The history of societies of the first magnitude, 
the story of their origin, development and expansion under providential leadings; the 
record of the stedfast faith which has been demanded for their support, together with 
hints of the reasons why they are now recognized as instruments of a Divine purpose 
to shape the destinies of the race, would demand several volumes of the size of the one 
now offered. 

The editors have, therefore, had no option but to give mere sketches of the Societies, 
showing salient points of history and general characteristics of effort rather than details 
of labors. Even so it has been impossible to mention, except in the Directory, many 
Societies which are doing noble work with narrow means and with but a handful, per- 
haps, of missionaries in the field. It is merely an introduction to the study of the mis- 
sionary movement in the various nations and denominations which can be offered in 
this work. The great characteristics belonging to all the Societies in common: their 
motive, aim, difficulties, methods, mutual helpfulness, general relations and influences, 
direct and indirect, are treated in separate articles, all of which should be read by the 
student of the work of any one Society who would comprehend the fulness of its might 
as an agency for Christian civilization and the dignity of its position before those who 
hope for the elevation of the race. 

One important change in the plan of the book, which some may regret, is the omis- 
sion of maps. None of the old maps could be republished without radical and expensive 
changes. It is hoped that the wide circulation attained by Dr. Beach's fine " Geography 
and Atlas of Protestant Missions " will go far to relieve inconveniences resulting from 
the absence of the maps in the Encyclopedia. As a further relief, an effort has been 
made, in describing mission stations, so to define their location that their approximate 
place can be found in any good atlas. 

Descriptive notes of about 5,000 cities, towns, and villages are furnished in this 
work. Our aim has been to give some data concerning all places in non-Christian lands, 
which are of present importance in the missionary enterprise. In deciding what places 


to omit through lack of space for all, we have tried to limit such omissions to outstations, 
and to stations which have shown little growth in a number of years, and may be regarded 
as in a dormant condition. The task of describing places, hundreds of which are found , 
in no existing atlas or gazetteer, invites errors which we cannot hope to have escaped, 
and for which we must crave the leniency of critics. The spelling of the names of these 
places has caused much perplexity owing to diversity and even inconsistency of usage 
among the Missionary Societies. In order to avoid adding to the confusion we have 
thought best to follow as a general rule the system adopted by Beach in his "Atlas of 
Protestant Missions." 

Success in our undertaking could not be possible without the collaboration of the 
officers of Missionary Societies all over the world. This has been freely asked, and 
we gratefully realize that it has been most cordially given. Moreover, many mission- 
aries and others have placed at our disposal their knowledge as experts, or have pre- 
pared for the Encyclopedia articles on special subjects. A list of these contributions 
to the value of the book we give below, indicating at the same time the names of those 
whose a-rticles in the first edition we were able to use without important modification. 
We would also make special acknowledgment of our indebtedness to Dr. Beach's 
"Atlas of Protestant Missions," whenever his laborious research has served to correct 
or to supplement our own endeavors. The general information found in Dr. J. S. Dennis' 
"Centennial Survey of Foreign Missions" has also been of great value in preparing 
for the Appendix the Directory of Missionary Societies and the List of Bible Translators. 

In sending out this new edition of The Encyclopedia of Missions we cannot refrain 
from mentioning the astonishment mingled with awe aroused in our own minds by 
our close study of the growth of the missionary enterprise since the first edition was 
issued. It is our belief that if any will study this rapid advance and growth they will 
find the conviction unavoidable that this enterprise and its present power in the non- 
Ghristian world is the fruit of more than a merely human impulse. This book presents ' 
again an illustration of the fact that the " stone which the builders rejected is become 
the head of the corner. It is the Lord's doing and it is marvelous in our eyes I " 


*AndruSi Rev. A, N Mardin, Turkey. 

*Atterbury, Rev. W. W., D.D.. . New York City. 

Barrows, Mrs. J. H Oberlin, Ohio. 

♦Barton, Rev. J. L Boston, Mass. 

Beach, Rev. H. P New York City. 

*Brockett, L. P., M.D Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Brown, Rev. A. J., D.D New York City. 

CarroU, Rev. H. K., LL.D New York City. 

♦Chambers, Rev. R Erzroom, Turkey. 

Chester, Rev. S. H., D.D Nashville, Tenn. 

*Cobb, Miss M. L East Orange, N. J. 

Coe, Rev. E. B., D.D New York City. 

Condit, Rev. J., D.D San Francisco, Cal. 

Conklin, Rev. J. W., D.D New York City. 

Crawford, Rev. L. S., D.D Trebizond, Turkey. 

Cronkhite, Rev. L. W Greenwich, N. Y. 

*Crowell, Miss K. R East Orange, N. J. 

Cushing, Rev. J. N Rangoon, Burma. 

*Cust. R. N., LL.D London. 

Dennis, Rev. J. S New York City. 

Doremus, Miss S. B New York City. 

*Eddy, W. W New York City. 

♦Ellinwood. Rev. F. F., D.D New York City. 

Fletcher, Miss A. C Washington, D. C. 

Gamewell, Rev. F. D New York City. 

♦Gates, Rev. O. H Berlin, Germany. 

♦Gihnan, Rev. E. W., D.D 

♦Gracey, Rev. J. T., D.D President International Mis- 
sionary Union. 

Greene, Rev. F. D New York City. 

♦Griffls, Rev. W. E., D.D Boston, Mass. 

*Grout, Rev. Lewis (late of 

South Africa) 

Haas, Rev. John A. W., D.D.. . .New York City. 

Hand, Chas. W., Esq New York City. 

Haven, Rev. W. I., D.D New York City. 

♦Howells, Rev. J. B Jaher, Brazil. 

♦Hulbert, Prof. H. B Seoul, Korea. 

♦Hulbert, Prof. H. W. (late of 

Beirut, Syria) Marietta, Ohio. 

♦Hutchings, Rev. S., D.D. (late 

of Madras, India) 

♦Jackson, Rev. S. M New York City. 

♦Kalopothakes, Rev. M. D Athens, Greece. 

♦Labaree, Rev. B., D.D Urmia, Persia. 

♦Laurence, Rev. E. A 

♦Laurie, Rev. T., D.D. (late of 
Mosul, Turkey) 

♦Loomis, Rev. S Newark, N. J. 

♦Lovett, Rev. R London, England. 

♦Marshall, C.J Salvation Army, New York 


♦Martin, Rev. Chalmers (late of 

Bangkok, Siam) Pittsburg, Pa. 

Martin, Rev. Paul Princeton, N. J. 

♦McFarland, Rev. H. H Woodhaven, L. I. 

Mackay, Rev. R. P., D.D Toronto, Ont. 

♦McLaurin, Rev. J Woodstock, Can. 

♦McLeman, Rev. D Akaroa, New Zealand. 

♦Morse, R. C New York City. 

Ohl, Rev. J. F. F., Mus.D Philadelphia, Pa. 

♦Panaretoff, S., Prof Robert (jollege, Constanti- 

♦Park, Rev. C. W. (late of 
Bombay, India) 

♦Parsons, Miss E. C New York City. 

♦Pick, Rev. B., Ph.D., D.D New York C ity. 

♦Romig, Rev. B Herrnhut, Germany. 

♦Russell, Rev. F., D.D New York City. 

Sailer, Mr. T. H. P., Ph.D New York City. 

♦Shedd, Rev. J. H., D.D 

Shedd, Rev. W. A Urmia, Persia. 

♦Shelton, Rev. C. W Birmingham, Ct. 

Smith, Rev. G. B New York aty. 

Speer, Mr. R. E New York City. 

♦SprouU, Rev. W. J Latakiyeh, Syria. 

♦Starbuck, Rev. C. C 

♦Steele, Rev. R., D.D Sydney, Australia. 

♦Taylor, Rev. J. Hudson London, England. 

♦Thomson, Rev. A., D.D 

TisdaU, Rev. W. St. Clair, D.D. .Bedford, England. 

Turner, Mr. F. P New York City. 

♦Watson, Rev. A., D.D Alexandria, Egypt. 

Wells, Mr. Amos R Boston, Mass. 

♦Whitney, Rev. J. F. (late of 

♦Wilshere, Rev. D Nassau, Bahamas. 

Wishard, Mr. L. D Chicago, 111. 

♦Wood, Rev. I. F. (late of Cey- 

♦Wood, Rev. J Ottawa, Can. 

♦Wright, Rev. W., D.D 

♦Contributora to the First Edition whose work has been available for the present work. 


ABCFM American Board of Commiasioners for 

Foreign Missions. 

ABHMS American Baptist Home Mission Society. 

ABMU American Baptist Missionary Union. 

ABS American Bible Society. 

ACM Australian Church, Missionary Society. 

AFFM American Friends' Board of Foreign 


AMA American Missionary Association. 

AME African Methodist Episcopal Missionary 

AWM Australian Wesleyan Methodist Mission- 
ary Society. 

B Basel Missionary Society. 

Ber Berlin Missionary Society. 

BFBS British and Foreign Bible Society, 

BMP Foreign Mission Board of the Baptist 

Convention of the Maritime Provinces. 

BMS Baptist Missionary Society. 

BOQ Foreign Mission Board of the Baptist 

Convention of Ontario and Quebec. 

BTS Bible Translation Society. 

BZM Baptist Zenana Missionary Society. 

CA Christian and Missionary Alliance. 

CC Christian Church Missionary Society. 

CEZ Church of England Zenana Missionary 


CIM China Inland Mission. 

CMS Church Missionary Society for Africa and 

the East. 
CP Cumberland Presbyterian Missionary 

CSFM Church of Scotland Foreign Missions 

CWBM Christian Woman's Board of Missions 


DBS Danish Bible Society. 

DMS Danish Missionary Society. 

DS Danish Santal Mission. 

EA Evangelical Association. 

ECS Episcopal Church in Scotland Mission- 
ary Society. 
ELGC Evangelical Lutheran General Council 

ELGS Evangelical Lutheran General Synod 

ELUS Evangelical Lutheran United Synod of 

the South. 

Erm Ermelo Missionary Society. 

FCMS Foreign Christian Missionary Society 


FCS Free ( hurch of Scotland Missions. 

FFMA Friends* Foreign Missionary Associa- 

FMS Finnish Missionary Society. 

GES German Evangelical Synod of the 

United States. 

GM Gossner Missionary Society. 

HEA Hawaiian Evangelical Association. 

Her Hermannsburg Missionary Society. 

Ind Independent Missionary. 

JB Jamaica Baptist Missionary Union. 

JU Jerusalem Union of Berlin. 

KIM Kurku Inland Mission. 

Leipz Leipzig Missionary Society. 

LMS London Missionary Society. 

MCC Missions of the Methodist Church in 

ME Missionary Society of the Methodist 

Episcopal Church in the United 

MES Board of Missions of the Methodist 

Episcopal Church, South. 
MM Melanesian Mission Society. 

Mor Moravian Missions. 

MP Methodist Protestant Missionary Society. 

MR Mission Romande (French Switzerland). 

NAM North African Mission. 

NBC Foreign Mission Board of the National 

Baptist Convention of America. 

NBS National Bible Society of Scotland. 

Neth Netherlands Missionary Society. 

Neth.B Netherlands Bible Society. 

Neth.M Netherlands Mennonite Missionary 


Neuk Neukirchen Missionary Institute. 

NHM New Hebrides Mission. 

Nor Norwegian Missionary Society. 

NSM Netherlands State Missionary Society, 

OV Old Version. 

P Paris Evangelical Mission Society. 

PB Christian Mission (commonly called the 

Brethren) . 

PCC Foreign Mission Committee of the Pres- 
byterian Church in Canada. 

PCE Foreign Mission of the Presbyterian 

Church in England. 

PCI Foreign Mission of the Presbyterian 

Church in Ireland. 

PE Protestant Episcopal Church of Amer- 
ica Missionary Board. 

PMMS Primitive Methodist Missionary Society. 

PN : . . .Board of Foreign Missions of the Presby- 
terian Church in the U. S, A. 

Pruss. BS Prussian Bible Society. 

PS Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A. 

(South) Board of Foreign Missions. 

RBMU Regions Beyond Missionary Union. 

RBS Russian Bible Society. 

RCA Reformed Church in America (Board of 

Foreign Missions). 

Rhen Rhenish Missionary Society. 

RP Syixod of Reformed Presbyterian Church 

in North America, 

SA Salvation Army. 

SAMS South American Missionary Society. 

SBC .Southern Baptist Convention (For- 
eign Missionary Board). 

Scand Scandinavian Alliance of the U. S. A. 

SDA Mission Board of the Seventh Day 


SPCK Society for Promoting Christian Knowl- 

SPG Society for the Propagation of the Gos- 

SPG J London Society for the Propagation of 

the Gospel among the Jews. 

Swed.M Swedish Missionary Society. 

Swed.N Swedish National Missionary Society. 

Swed.U Swedish Missionary Union. 

UB United Brethren in Christ. 

UE United Evangelical Missionary Society. 

UFS United Free Church of Scotland. 

UM Universities' Mission to Central Africa. 

UMFC United Methodist Free Churches (Home 

and Foreign Missions). 

UP United Presbyterian Church of North 

America Board of Foreign Missions 

UPS United Presbyterian Church of Scot- 
land Board of Foreign Missions. 

Utr Utrecht Missionary Union. 

WCM Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Missions. 

WMS Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society. 

WU. Woman's Union Missionary Society. 

YMCA Young Men's Christian Association. 

YWCA Young Women's Christian Association. 

j^BM Zenana Bible and Medical Mission. 

^AM Zambesi Industrial Mission. 



OF Missions 

AADTA: A settlement in Upolu, Samoa; station 
of the LMS. 

ABACO ISLAND. • See Great Abaco. 

ABADjnrEH: A village in Palestine near the 
southern end of the Sea of Tiberias; mission 
station of the Friends' Foreign Mission Society, 
with a school and a dispensary. 

ABASA: Village E. of Cape Coast Castle, Gold 
Coast, W. Africa; outstation of the WMS, with 
six village schools and about 600 professing 

ABBOTABAD : Town in the district of Pesha- 
war in the northwest frontier province of India ; 
mission station of the CMS, and of the Church of 
England Zenana Missionary Society, with a 
dispensary and a number of pupils in the zena- 

ABDUL MASIH (Servant of Christ) : The new 
name which was adopted by Sheikh Saleh, con- 
verted through the influence of Henry Martyn 
in 1809; and soon afterward admitted to the 
Church at Calcutta. He was born at Delhi, was 
Persian and Arabic Moonshi of Luoknow, then 
became keeper of the King of Oudh's jewels and 
was for years a most zealous Mussulman. Just 
after he had been horrified by the atrocities of 
his coreligionists in the Rajput State of Jodhpur, 
he became deeply impressed by Martyn's preach- 
ing, and accepted Christ as his Savior. The 
Sheikh Saleh's conversion caused great excite- 
ment among his former associates ; and he became 
an able and influential minister of Jesus Christ. 
He was the first native pastor under the Church 
Missionary Society in India. 

ABEBIFY: Town in the Gold Coast Colony, 
W. Africa; 4,000 inhabitants using the Ashanti 
language and worshiping idols or fetishes; 
station of the Basel Missionary Society, having 
connected with it 17 outstations, in which are 
15 village schools. The Christians of this place 
number 735. Name also given as Abetifi. 

ABEEL, David: Born June 12, 1804, at 
New Brunswick, N. J. He accepted the position 
of chaplain of the American Seamen's Friend 
Society at Canton, with a conditional appoint- 
ment as missionary of the American Board at 
the end of a year, and sailed with Mr. Bridgman, 
October 14, 1829, for China. In December, 
L 1 

1831, Mr. Abeel entered the service of the Amer- 
ican Board, and sailed on the 27th for Batavia, 
partly for his health, but chiefly to visit the 
churches planted by the Dutch, two centuries 
before, in the islands of southeastern Asia. 
While visiting London, July 25, 1834, he told 
of the degradation of the women of the East, 
and presented an appeal to the Christian women 
of Great Britain, which resulted in the formation 
of the Society for Promoting Female Education 
in the East. October 17, 1838, he returned to 
Canton, but the "opium war" preventing his 
usefulness there, he visited Malacca, Borneo, 
and other places. On account of ill health he 
returned to New York, April 3, 1845, and died 
at Albany, N. Y., September 4, 1846, aged 42. 
He published A Journal of a Residence in China; 
A Missionary Convention in Jerusalem; The 
Claims of the World to the Gospel. 
Williamson (G. R.), David Abeel, New York, 1849. 

ABEIH: A village of the Lebanon district in 
Syria, 25 miles S. of Beirut. A mission station 
established by the ABCFM, but in 1870 trans- 
ferred to American Presbyterian Board. The 
Theological Seminary which was founded there 
in 1869 was transferred to Beirut in 1874. 
Depending upon the 4 stations of the Lebanon 
district are 45 outstations, and as many primary 
schools, with about 650 church members. The 
missionary statistics of Abeih are included in 
those of the district thus described. 

ABENAQUI: This is a dialect of the Micmac 
language of the North American family. It was 
first reduced to writing by missionaries of the 
American Board, and is written with Roman 

ABEOKUTA: Capital of the Yoruba district 
(Lagos Protectorate), W. Africa. It stands on 
the E. bank of the Ogun river, about 60 miles N. 
of Lagos, with which it is connected by railroad. 
It occupies the two highest of several detached 
hills which ascend gradually to the N. E., and 
terminate in a bluff surmounted by masses of 
smooth gray granite. This bluff gives the place 
its name, which means "under the rock." Wars 
ruined the Yoruba country in the early part of 
the 19th century and the fugitives from many 
towns gathered here, slowly forming the city 
which now has 150,000 inhabitants, and is an 



important commercial center. The growth of 
the city was greatly stimulated about 1840 by 
the arrival there from Sierra Leone of freed and 
Christianized slaves, who were natives of the 
Yoruba country. These men set themselves 
against the human sacrifices and other cruelties 
of the fetishism, and the atrocities of the slave- 
trade of which this city was a center. They also 
prepared the way for the establishment of 

A mission was opened in the city by the CMS 
in 1846; by the WMS about the same time, and 
by the SBC (of America) in 1856-1876. Hos- 
tility of slave merchants and liquor dealers to the 
enlightening effect of Christianity has led to 
several fierce attempts to destroy a reform 
which opposed both. At last a general uprising 
against the English took place in 1867, during 
which all white men were driven from the city, 
and 400 native Christians fled for their lives; 
the churches were sacked, and Christian influ- 
ence might have been destroyed for years had 
not Mr. Johnson, the able negro preacher, held 
to his post throughout the troubles. At present 
the four native chiefs who rule the city attend 
church regularly, and form a regular Council of 
Government. A Board of Education for the 
Yoruba region under these chiefs has taken the 
place of the savage councils of the fetish priests, 
which terrorized the land in the first half of the 
19th century. Intemperance and polygamy 
are forces which still resist advances of spirit- 
uality among the people, and the influx of foreign 
traders facilitated by the railway is not an 
unlimited benefit to the city. 

Paganism, Mohammedanism and Christianity 
are the prevailing religions at Abeokuta. There 
is a Roman Catholic mission there. The Prot- 
estant Christian community consists of about 
5,000 souls, of whom 1,700 are communicants. 
There are 11 missionaries, and 73 native workers, 
men and women, connected with the three 
missions. The CMS carries on, in connection 
with Abeokuta Station, 21 village schools, a 
theological class and a dispensary, besides main- 
taining a special work for lepers. The WMS 
has 22 outstations, and 3 village schools, and 
the SBC reports 2 outstations and 1 village 

ABETIFI. See Abebify. 

ABKHASIANS: A warlike tribe, inhabiting the 
country between the Black Sea and the Caucasus. 
Under the Roman Emperor Justinian they be- 
came Christians, but subsequently adopted 
Mohammedanism, to which religion they still 
nominally belong, though their religion in fact 
consists of a barbarous mixture of Christian, 
Mohammedan and heathen notions and usages. 
The greater part, of these people have been in- 
duced by the Turkish government to remove 
to Asiatic Turkey, where they form agricultural 
communities, living apart from the rest of the 

ABOA: Town on the Rombi river in the Ger- 
man Colony of Kamerun; station of the German 
Baptist Missionary Society, opened in 1900. 
Also written Abo. 

ABOKOBI. See Agbogea. 

ABOMEY: The capital of Dahomey. It was 
captured by the French in 1892. It is not a 
mission station, but has been reached by the 
Wesleyan Missionary Society. It has about 
20,000 inhabitants. 


tendency of colonists from the so-called civilized 
countries to disregard the rights of natives of 
territory which they desire to occupy has had 
many painful illustrations in Australia, the 
Pacific islands, and various parts of Africa, not to 
mention other better known regions. Feelings 
of revulsion from such injustice and of sympathy 
for its victims caused the formation of this. 
Society in 1837. The Society aims steadily to- 
champion the rights of tribes, especially in Africa, 
which are oppressed by the thoughtlessness,, 
carelessness, or greed of white settlers. It seeks 
to prevent settlers from crowding natives off 
from lands actually in occupancy, and to secure 
just legislation regulating the distribution of land 
to white settlers, limiting or forbidding the sale of 
liquor to natives, and otherwise placing legal bar- 
riers in the way of injury to those who through, 
ignorance or weakness cannot defend their own 
interests. The methods so far used by the Society 
have been by appeal to public sentiment through, 
the press, and by direct application to the Govern- 
ment. This Society is not in any sense a mission- 
ary organization. Nevertheless its object is one 
which coincides with the purpose and wish of all 
missionaries, which fosters the spread of civiliza- 
tion among backward races and which attracts, 
them toward the adoption of that Christian prin- 
ciple of good will to all on which the existence of 
the Society is based. Headquarters, Broadway 
Chambers, Westminster, London, S. W., England. 

ABURAH: A town N. E. of Kumassi in the 
Gold Coast Colony, W. Africa; station of th& 
WMS, with 1 missionary, 49 native workers,, 
men and women, 75 outstations and 550 church, 

ABURI: A town of 6,500 inhabitants in the- 
Gold Coast Colony, W. Africa. A station of the 
Basel Missionary Society, established in 1847. It 
has 6 missionaries and 18 native workers, men and 
women. It has 9 outstations, 10 village schools 
and 700 church members. Also station of the 
WMS, with 4 missionaries and 93 native workers^ 
men and women. It has 14 village schools, 1 
high school and 650 church members. 

ABYSSINIA : The name is derived from Arabic 
"Habash" = "mixed" population. The inhabi- 
tants call themselves Itiopavians= Ethiopians. 
The region now included under the common 
name Abyssinia has been called most appro- 
priately the "Switzerland" of Africa. It consists, 
for the most part, of a mountainous plateau, 
averaging 9,000 feet above sea level, precipitous-- 
on the east, and falling away more gradually in 
other directions, everywhere being intersected by 
profound ravines and dominated by lofty snow- 
capped peaks. A desert, stretching from the Red 
Sea to the base of the mountains, still further 
isolates this Alpine region. Abyssinia, made up- 
of the provinces of Tigrfi, Lasta, Amhara, Gojam, 
Shoa, and adjoining lands, covers about 150,000 
square miles. The average climate on this lofty 
plateau is delightfully temperate, the depths of 
the ravines being thoroughly tropical, while the 
higher mountain shoulders are decidedly Arctic. 
The soil is fertile, and supports a great variety of 
vegetable and animal life. Rich mines of great 
variety abound, and the country furnishes every 
necessity for a highly developed civilization. 

The people of Abyssinia number about 
3,500,000; they are much superior in every 
respect to their African neighbors. 



The Introduction of Christianity: Abyssinia has 
been called the first and only mission field of the 
Coptic Church. It was converted to the Christian 
faith early in the 4th century, in this wise: 
Meropius, a philosopher of Tyre, went on a voy- 
age for purposes of travel and observation to 
"India" — a much-abused title, supposed to desig- 
nate in this case South Arabia. He had with 
him his two young nephews, Frumentius and 
Edesius. The ship put into a port on the west 
coast of the Red Sea and its passengers were 
promptly slain by the natives. Frumentius and 
Edesius alone were saved alive as slaves, and 
taken to Axum, the ancient capital of Abyssinia. 
Frumentius was instrumental in introducing 
some knowledge of Christianity among the people 
and, having asked help in his missionary labors 
from the Church in Egypt, he himself was conse- 
crated bishop of Abyssinia. He is known in the 
church of that land as Abu Salama, "the Father 
of Peace." 

The venerable translation of the Bible into 
Ethiopio dates from the 4th century and, if not 
finished by Frumentius, was doubtless set under 
way through his zealous foresight. Upon this 
book rests whatever power Abyssinia had in its 
best days. 

The Abyssinian Christians are connected 
ecclesiastically with the Coptic Church of Egypt, 
but hold to certain observances of Judaism. The 
clergy being the only educated people and hold- 
ing great power in their hands, conservative 
influences and deep suspicion of foreigners have 
ruled the policy of the kingdom up to the present 
time. In the new Africa, Abyssinia is destined 
to play an important part. That its Christianity 
should be revived and made to live in the hearts 
of its adherents is the most pressing duty of the 
Christian Church. 

The Jesuit Episode: In 1490 A.D., the Abys- 
sinian Christians were rediscovered by the naval 
officers of John II. of Portugal, who had sailed 
all the way around southern Africa. The Chris- 
tian world thought that at last the famous 
"Prester John" was found away up in the Abys- 
sinian Mountains. The King of Portugal sent 
Petro Cavilham, the Jesuit, to push the interests 
of Portugal in Africa. This interference was 
resented. The Abyssinians came to blows with 
the Portuguese soldiers, who worked under orders 
from the Jesuits. At one time these zealous 
churchmen were victorious, and 8,000 enemies 
lay dead upon the battle-field. As the young 
Abyssinian Prince Facilidas, whom the Jesuits 
had half won over, walked through the heaps of 
slain, he is reported to have come to this conclu- 
sion: "A religion which causes so much bloodshed 
cannot be good. We had better, tho vic- 
torious, return to the faith of the conquered and 
remain faithful, as they were." When he became 
king he expelled the Jesuits, and all further 
attempts on their part to get a footing in the 
country failed. The attempt, in 1621, when 
the Jesuits installed a patriarch in Abyssinia, 
Vas especially disastrous. Over a century later 
(1750-1754) a third attempt was unsuccessful. 
French influence now seems paramount in Abys- 
feinia and the construction of a railroad to Harrar 
from the French seaport of Jibuti on the Red Sea 
has greatly strengthened this influence. 

Protestant Missions in Abyssinia: In 1830 
Bishop Gobat and Mr. Kugler were sent on a 
mission to Abyssinia by the CMS. The work 
began with bright prospects. Bishop Gobat 

traveled extensively and learned the Amharic, 
the common language of the people, a dialect of 
the ancient Ethiopic, which, though still used in 
church services, has become a dead language, 
even to many of the priests who go through the 
ceremonies. Bishop Gobat broke down in 
health, and had to leave the country. Mr. 
Kugler died. Later, Mr. Isenberg and Dr. Krapf 
took up the work. The Jesuit cloud again 
appeared on the horizon in tlie shape of Sapeto, 
who was sent out by the Propaganda. His 
intrigues aroused the old suspicions of foreign 
interference, and all foreigners were expelled 
the country in 1838. Krapf and Isenberg went 
to Shoa, and were received in a kindly manner 
by the Idng. There they compiled an Amharic 
dictionary, as well as a geography and prayer- 
book. Before this the Bible had been translated 
at Cairo, in 1808, into Amharic by an Abyssinian 
monk, Abu Rumi, assisted by the French Consul 
Asseline. In 1840 the ms. was bought and 
revised by the British and Foreign Bible Society. 
Altho the Protestant missionaries had been 
expelled, the work went on. The Protestant 
missionaries remained on the borders of Abys- 
sinia until 1859, when they were allowed to return 
to the capital only to be imprisoned in 1862 
through a Frenchman's intrigue with the ignorant 
and suspicious king Theodore. An English mill- ■ 
tary force released the captives in 1868, and the 
CMS has not renewed its efforts for the Abys- 
sinians. The Swedish Evangelical National 
Society in 1866 began a mission near Massaua 
on the Red Sea in what was Abyssinian territory, 
but is now the Italian colony of Eritrea. Its 
missionaries have gradually pressed toward the 
Abyssinian frontier and now they have 5 
stations W. of Massaua manned by 18 mission- 
aries and 13 native workers, both men and 
women, and with a printing house, schools, and 
about 300 communicants connected with their 

The Sacred City of the Ethiopians, Bent (T.), London, 1893; 
The British Mission to Abyssinia, Rassam (H.), London, 
1869, 2 vol^. Wanderings Among the Falashas of Abys- 
sinia, Stern (H.), London, 1862; Abyssinia, Vivian (H.), 
London, 1901. 

ACCA, See Acre. 

ACCRA: A town on the Gold Coast, W. Africa; 
station of the WMS, with 3 missionaries and 34 
native workers, men and worpen. It has 30 
outstations and 2 village schools. The National 
Baptist Convention (U. S.) also opened a station 
here in 1900. The number of professing Chris- 
tians found at Accra is about 650. The name 
is also written Akra. 

ACCRA, or Ga language: This language 
belongs to the negro family of African languages, 
and is spoken by about 100,000 people living in 
the region of the Volta river. Gold Coast Colony, 
W. Africa. It is written with Roman letters. 

ACRE (St. Jean d'Acre) : A seaport on the coast 
of Palestine, which was celebrated during the 
Crusades. It is a strongly Mohammedan town, 
surrounded by a wall and used as a place of 
detention for political prisoners. One of the 
recognized heads of the Babis resides here in 
banishment, and hence directs and encourages 
his followers in Persia and elsewhere. Acre is a 
station of the CMS, with 7 missionaries and 20 
native workers, men and women; there is also 
a hospital with two dispensaries in the outsta- 
tions, and there are 8 schools. Taking the town 
and its outstations together, the number of com- 



municants is about 100, mostly from branches of 
the Oriental Church. 

ADABAZAR: A town of Asiatic Turkey, about 
■60 miles E. of Nicomedia; a station of the 
ABCFM. Mission work resulted early in the 
establishment of a strong church, which supports 
its own pastor and schools and has become a 
center of great influence among the villages of 
that section. The church has taken upon itself 
responsibility for a girls' boarding school, the 
Board furnishing three unmarried women mis- 
sionaries as its teachers. 

ADALIA: A seaport on the southern coast of 
Asia Minor, the ancient Attaleia. The popula- 
tion is about 13,000 Mohammedans, with quite 
a number of Greeks. It is not occupied as a 
mission station, but is visited by colporteurs of 
the BFBS. 

ADAMS. See Amanzimtote. 

ADAMSHOOP: Town in the Orange River 
"Colony, S. Africa, founded by the son of a slave. 
Station of the Berlin Mission Society since 1867. 
One missionary and 20 native workers form the 
force at this station and 4 outstations and 500 
church members. 

AD ANA: A city of 45,000 inhabitants, the seat 
of government of the province of the same name. 
S. of the Taurus Mountains in Asiatic Turkey. 
The people of the city are mostly Mohammedans, 
but there are a considerable number of Armeni- 
ans, some Nusairiyeh and a small Greek com- 
munity. The people of Adana are noted for 
energy and force of character. It is a station 
of the ABCFM, with a working force of 5 mis- 
sionaries and 32 native workers, men and women. 
It has an excellent girls' boarding school, an 
orphanage, a fine church building with 650 
church members. 

Adana is also an outstation of the RP for 
work conducted in Arabic. 

The ABS has a Bible depot and subagency 

ADDA, or Ada: A town on the Gold Coast, 
W. Africa; station of the Basel Missionary Socie- 
ty, with several outstations and 6 village schools 
and a kindergarten. The number of professing 
Christians is about 250. 

ADDYMAN, John: Born in Leeds, county of 
Yorkshire, England, on October 22, 1808. Con- 
verted at sixteen, he at once threw himself 
earnestly into evangelistic work, first in Leeds 
and then in London. He was at this time con- 
nected with the Wesleyan Methodists, but his 
views on the subject of church government hav- 
ing undergone some change, he left the Wesleyan 
community and united himself with the Method- 
ist New Connexion. He was called into the 
ministry of that body in 1833. Just at this time 
the subject of commencing a mission in Canada 
was seriously occupying the members of the New 
Connexion and Mr, Addyman was chosen to be 
the pioneer of the movement in the Far West. 
His labors in Canada were very trying, involving 
great privations and dangers, and often attended 
by romantic experiences. During what is known 
as the Canadian Rebellion he was in great peril, 
his life being threatened ; being suspected as a 
spy, he was arrested and kept for some time in 
prison. At length, through his arduous toils and 
trials, his health failed, and in 1845 he returned 
to his native land, having been the main instru- 
ment in establishing 177 churches, which con- 

tained more than 4,000 membsrs, but which have 
since expanded into large and flourishing centers, 
and now form part of the Methodist Church of 
Canada. He died June 7, 1887. 

ADELAIDE: A village of 1,200 inhabitants, on 
the left bank of the Koonap River, in Cape 
Colony, S. Africa. Religion, the denominations 
common in Britain and America; the native 
fetishism also exists. It is a mission station of 
the UFS, established in 1861, and has a working 
force of a missionary and his wife with a native 
worker. There are 185 church members. 

ADEN: A fortified seaport at the southwestern 
corner of Arabia, belonging to Great Britain, 
having been bought from the Turks in 1839 by 
the British East India Company. The climate 
is hot and very trying to Europeans. The popu- 
lation is almost exclusively Mohammedan, but 
of several races and tribes who go to Aden for 
commerce from the interior of Arabia and from 
Africa. The UFS has a mission station at 
Shuikh Othman in the district of Aden. Three 
missionaries and 2 native workers, men and 
women, compose the force which carries on a 
high school, a hospital, and a dispensary. 

ADMIRALTY ISLANDS: A group of islands 
lying N. E. of New Guinea, belonging to Ger- 
many and forming a part of Bismarck Archi- 

ADOWA: Capital of Tigr6, Abyssinia; a town 
of about 3,000 mhabitants. It has not now any 
missionary enterprises. 

ADRIANOPLE: Capital of the Turkish prov- 
ince of the same name (Turkish Edirneh), on the 
Maritza (ancient Hebrus), in Thrace, 130 miles 
northwest of Constantinople. Population, 
85,000 Mohammedans, Greeks, Armenians, Jews, 
with a few Roman Catholics and a small group 
of Protestants. The scenery of the city is 
beautiful, the gardens of the wealthy citizens 
delightful, and the appearance of the 40 mosques 
most picturesque. The trade, centered in a 
capacious bazaar, is considerable, and the city 
possesses strategic importance. Founded by 
Emperor Hadrian in 125. Mission station of 
British Society for Propagating the Gospel 
among the Jews; 1 Jewish missionary; also an 
outstation of Constantinople (ABCFM) ; it has a 
native Evangelical church, and a Bible depot of 
the ABS. 

AFGHANISTAN: A country of Central Asia, 
N. E. of India, which it separates from Russia 
and Persia. It is a mountainous country, with 
lofty tables and deep ravines, few rivers, and a 
climate that presents a great variety, changing 
from intense cold to tropical heat. The popula- 
tion is estimated at about 5,000,000 Moham- 
medans of the Sunnite sect, divided into two 
classes, Durranes and Ghilzais. They are a 
fierce, turbulent people, constantly at feud and 
difficult to govern. No mission work can be 
attempted at present in Afghanistan, but the 
British and Foreign Bible Society have published 
the New Testament, Psalms, and. historical books 
of the Old Testament in Pashtu, or Afghani. 

AFRICA: The continent of Africa is equal in 
area to Europe and North America combined, 
comprising nearly 12,000,000 square miles. Its 
greatest length is 5,000 miles, and its greatest 
breadth, 4,600. Both tropics cross it, and the 
equator mtersects it ' a little below the center. 
By far the largest portion of its territory is 



therefore intertropical. In its physical configu- 
ration Africa has been happily compared to an 
inverted saucer. It is rimmed on a great part 
of its seaboard by a narrow strip of low land; 
at a distance of from 50 to 200 miles from the 
coast the land rises rapidly to an average height 
of from 2,000 to 3,000 feet, and in some parts 
to lofty mountain ranges; then the whole 
interior is a vast table-land, sinking slightly in 
the middle. In this hollow lie the great lakes 
^whence flow the mighty rivers that drain the 
whole country. 

These rivers are the dominating features of 
African geography. The problems that have 
chiefly concerned the explorer have been to 
ascertain and locate the sources and the courses 
of the four great streams, the Nile, the Niger, 
the Congo, and the Zambesi; and the triumphs 
of modern African exploration are almost all 
connected with these four names. The Nile is 
by far the longest of the four, having a course 
extending over 37° of latitude; but the Congo 
exceeds it in volume and in the dimensions of 
its basin. Of the four great lakes of what is 
usually called Central Africa, Victoria Nyanza 
and Albert Nyanza belong to the Nile system; 
Tanganyika belongs to that of the Congo, and 
Nyasa to that of the Zambesi, one of whose 
tributaries, the Shir6, flows out of it. 

I. Geographical and Political Divisions: The 
following table shows the divisions of Africa as 
constituted at the present time (1903). The 
process of delimitation is still going on in north- 
ern central Africa, but by consulting the latest 
maps in connection with this table it will be 
seen that the process of partition is practically 
completed. For areas, populations, missionary 
and other facts the different divisions should be 
studied under their respective heads. The 
abbreviations in parentheses after the names in 
the table indicate the government under whose 
influence or into whose possession the territory 
named has fallen, viz.: B — Great Britain; F — 
France; G — Germany; I — Italy; Ind — Inde- 
pendent State; P — Portugal; S — Spain; T — 

Abyssinia (Ind). 

Algeria (F). 

Angola (P). 

Basutoland (B). 

Bechuanaland Protectorate (B). . 

British East Africa (B). 

Cape Colony (B). 

Central African Protectorate or Nyasaland (B). 

Congo Free State (Ind). 

Dahomey (F). 

Egypt (T& B). 

Egyptian Sudan (T & B). 

Eritrea (I). 

French Congo (F). 

French Guinea (F). 

French Somaliland (F). 

Gambia (B). 

German East Africa (G). 

German Southwest Africa (G). 

Gold Coast Colony (B). 

Italian Somaliland (I). 

Ivory Coast (F). 

Kamerun (G). 

Lagos (B). 

Liberia (Ind). 

Natal (B). 

Nigeria (B). 

Orange River Colony (B). 

Portuguese East Africa (P). 

Portuguese Guinea (P). 

Rhodesia (B). 

Rio de Oro (S). 

Rio Muni (S). 

Senegal (F). 

Senegambia and Niger (F). 

Sierra Leone (B). 

Somaliland Protectorate (B). 

Togoland (G). 

Transvaal Colony (B). 

Tripoli (T). 

Tunis (F). 

Wadai (F). 

Zanzibar (B). 

The New International Encyclopedia gives 
the following approximate statistics of the di- 
vision of the area and population of Africa among 
the various powers : 

Country Area Sq. miles. Pop. 

France 4,000,000 32,635,910 

Great Britain 2,700,000 41,773,360 

Germany 1,000,000 14,200,000 

Portugal 800,000 8,197,790 

Turkey 400,000 1,300,000 

Italy 200,000 450,000 

Spain 80,000 136,000 

II. Geographical Exploration: The first of 
modern travelers was Bruce, who traveled 
through Nubia and Abyssinia in 1768-73, and 
traced the course of the Blue Nile. After that 
the Niger was for a half century the goal of suc- 
cessive explorers. Mungo Park reached its 
upper waters in 1796; Denham, Clapperton, 
and Laing followed; but it was not till 1830 
that Lander, sailing down the stream, discov- 
ered its outlet in the Gulf of Guinea. In 1816 
Tuckey attempted to explore the Congo, but 
fell a victim to the climate. Central Africa 
proper still remained untouched. In 1845 Sir 
Roderick Murchison, President of the Royal 
Geographical Society, said: "Our knowledge 
of Africa advances slowly, and is confined almost 
exclusively to the coast;" and in 1851 another 
president, Captain Smyth, said: "All beyorid 
the coast of Central and Southern Africa is still 
a blank in our maps." 

The wonderful discoveries of the last 60 years 
begin with the two missionaries of the Church 
Missionary Society, Ludwig Krapf and John 
Rebmann, who were the earliest explorers of 
Africa, from the eastern side (1844-46). Reb- 
mann's discovery of Mount Kilima-Njaro, in 
1848, was the first great step forward in what 
has been well called the Recovery of Central 
Africa. In the following year Livingstone 
made his first important journey, in the far 
south, and reached the small lake Ngami. In 
1854 Baikie took the second Niger expedition 
(with which was S. Crowther) up the Benu6 
branch more than 600 miles from the sea; and 
about the same time Barth was prosecuting his 
extensive journeys in the Sudan and around 
Lake Chad. Livingstone was then gaining his 
great reputation in the south, particularly by 
his journey across Africa from Loanda to the 
mouth of Zambesi, by which the course of that 
river was determined (1854-55). In 1857 Bur- 
ton and Speke, stimulated by the researches of 
Krapf and Rebmann, which had for several 
years pointed to a great inland sea somewhere in 
the interior, made their great journey from the 
East Coast, and in the following year discov- 
ered Lake Tanganyika and the Victoria Nyanza. 



In 1859 Livingstone discovered Nyasa, and, not 
knowing tliat thie mystery of the inland sea, 
heard of by Rebmann, had been solved, wrote 
home; "This (Nyasa) must be what the Church 
Missionary Society has been thinking of for 
many years." (The Portuguese, however, knew 
of Nyasa; and Cazembe's capital, in the heart 
of the lake region, had been reached by Lacerda 
as far back as 1798, and by Monteiro in 1831.) 
In 1862 Speke, on his second journey with Grant, 
discovered Uganda, and the outflow of the Nile 
from the Victoria Nyanza, and sent home his 
famous message, "The Nile is settled." Mean- 
while several Egyptian officers with Petherick 
had ascended the White Nile nearly to the Albert 
Nyanza, which, however, was first seen by 
Baker in 1864. In 1866 Livingstone, abandon- 
ing his southern fields, began his later travels in 
the lake regions, around Tanganyika, and on 
what are now known to be the headquarters of 
the Congo. The search for him, when his long 
absence caused anxiety, led to Stanley's first 
journey (1871), and to that of Cameron. The 
latter was the first to cross Africa from east to 
west (1874-75); but his too southern route 
missed the course of the Congo, which was 
determined by Stanley on his second journey 
in 1876-77. This was the journey in the course 
of which Stanley explored the Victoria Nyanza 
and visited Uganda. Meanwhile, the remark- 
able explorations in the Sudan of Schweinfurth, 
(1869-71) and Nachtigal (1869-74), partic- 
ularly those of the former in the territories west 
of the Upper White Nile, revealed to the world 
countries and peoples utterly unknown before, 
notably the Monbuttu and Nyam-Nyam dis- 
tricts and races. 

The Congo particularly, within eight years of 
the discovery of its course, became a compara- 
tively familiar stream. The vast territories 
drained by it have, by European treaty, been 
formed (so far as commerce is concerned) into 
a Congo Free State. 

Among the events and ongoings that in more 
recent years have contributed to the enlarge- 
ment of our knowledge of Africa, may be men- 
tioned the protectorate practically assumed 
over Egypt by Great Britain since 1883, the long 
continued troubles in the Sudan, and especially 
events that culminated in the overthroAv of the 
Orange Free, State and the South African Repub- 
lic, and reduced them to British colonies. To 
these happenings should be added the activity 
manifested by Great Britain in pushing its 
African railway enterprises, aided by some other 
powers, a process that promises to bring into 
railway connection with the whole world the 
entire east coast and the eastern portion of the 

The more recent explorations have been 
undertaken less to discover new regions than to 
increase our knowledge of regions already 
reached. The best known of the expeditions 
since 1885 was that of Stanley, undertaken to dis- 
cover tlie fate or whereabouts of Emin Pasha 
(Snitzer). This went up the Congo, traversed 
the vast forests of equatorial Africa, and crossed 
into Zanzibar. In 1899 an expedition led by 
E. S. Grogan and Arthur Sharp crossed the con- 
tinent from north to south, investigating the 
feasibility of a "Cape to Cairo" railroad, and 
making many valuable discoveries. Donaldson 
Smith explored Somaliland with good results, 
Foureau crossed the Sahara to the Congo, and Mar- 

chand made his memorable "mission" to Fashoda 
within the period named. The future explor- 
ation of the continent will certainly be con- 
ducted from motives chiefly commercial and m a 
scientific manner, assuring to the next genera- 
tion a knowledge of this vast continent as accu- 
rate and full as that which we now have of the 
better known regions of the earth. 

///. Races and Languages of Africa: The mis- 
sionary problem of this vast "dark continent is 
intimately related to the character of the races 
and languages found within its boundaries. 
The population of Africa is estimated by the 
more recent authorities at 175,000,000, or about 
one-eighth of the entire population of the earth. 
Deniker, in his "Races of Men" (London, 1900), 
gives a complete classification of the African 
races from which we derive the following 
abstract : 

1. Arabo- Berber, or Semito- Hamites: This 
stock is found in N. Africa to as far as 15° S. lat. 
It includes about three-fourths of the so-called 
Arabs of N. Africa, who in fact are Berbers 
speaking Arabic. There are four sub-races (1) 
Djerbas, the Berbers of the Tunisian coast (2) 
the Elles type, of Central Tunis, (3) the present 
Berber type of Algeria-Tunisia, and (4) the Jerid 
or Oasis type. The Fellahin of the Nile valley 
below the first cataract belong to this stock. 
The ancient Egyptian language preserved as the 
Coptic dialect is spoken by about 500,000 to 
750,000 Berbers, and the Arabo-Berber tribes of 
the Nile valley between the first and fourth cata- 
ract number about 190,000. 

2. Ethiopians, or Kushito- Hamites, or Nubians: 
This stock inhabits N. E. Africa from the 25th 
deg. to the 4th deg. S. lat. They occupy the 
coast of the Red Sea, and of the Indian Ocean 
from the Gulf of Aden to Madisha. The prin- 
cipal divisions of this stock are (1) Nubians, 
speaking the Amharinga and Tigrenga dialects, 
(2) the Gallas, or Oroma, who are nearly pure 
Ethiopians, (3) the Somalis, who are Gallas mixed 
with an Arab stock, and (4) the Afari, or Danakil. 

3. Fulah-Zandeh Group: This comprises a 
whole series of populations of mixed Ethiopians 
and Nigritians, extending in a belt five or six 
degrees wide across the continent, including 
with many other tribes, the Masai, of the eastern 
section, the Nyam-Nyam, or Zandeh, and on the 
more westerly side, the Fulah-Zandeh. 

4. Nigritians: These comprise all the negro 
populations that do not speak the Bantu dia- 
lects, and which are conveniently divided into 
four sections, viz: those of the Eastern, Central 
and Western Sudan, and the coast of Guinea, 
embracing many tribes and subdialects. 

5. Negrilloes: These are a stock of pigmies, 
extending in a belt reaching in general three 
degrees on either side of the equator entirely 
across Africa. 

6. BantuGroup: This group embraces numerous 
peoples of Central and S. Africa, whose dialects 
form the Bantu linguistic family, distinct from 
the Nigritian. They are conveniently divided 
into Western, Eastern and Southern sections, 
embracing many tribes and families. To the 
southern section of this group belong the well- 
known Zulu tribes. 

7. Bushmen- Hottentots: A people reduced by 
the more warlike Bantu tribes to a few thousand 
families, many of them nomads and forest hunt- 

The ethnological divisions have not been easy 



to fix, but the best authorities are fairly agreed in 
arranging them by language, and the linguistic 
grouping has made such progress of late years 
that the above may be taken to be a fairly con- 
sistent outline grouping of the races of the con- 

IV. Religions of Africa: The missionary to 
Africa has the task of making himself acquainted 
with a greater variety of religious customs and 
superstitions than can be found in any other 
quarter of the world. These religions are charac- 
terized in general by a belief in some sort of 
surpeme being, in many quarters by the worship 
of ancestors, somewhat as in China, by Fetish- 
ism with its priests, sorcerers and groveling 
rites, and by superstitious fears, incantations, 
charms and barbaric ceremonials. Idolatry, in the 
sense of the making and worshiping of images, 
is not so widely diffused as might be supposed. 
There is nothing in Africa like the elaborate 
image-worship of India. Hideous idols are com- 
mon among the West African Negroes; but in 
Central Africa, so far as is known, none are to be 
found. But what is called fetish worship is uni- 
versal. A fetish is a charm; and almost any 
object — a tree, a stick, a stone, a shell, a plant, 
the limb of an animal, a vessel filled with some 
strange compound — in fact, anything whatever — 
may have power imparted to it by certain medi- 
cine-men — power to preserve the owner or bearer 
from danger, or power to injure his enemies. 
Particular fetishes fulfil particular purposes. 

All these native religions may be comprised 
under the term pagan. Of the pagans on the 
entire globe, six-sevenths are in Africa, which is 
therefore emphatically the pagan continent. Of 
the imported religions of Africa the leading repre- 
sentative is Mohammedanism. Carried in the 
7th century by fire and sword over North 
Africa, this faith has, in the last two centuries, 
advanced its borders considerably, and now pre- 
vails widely in both the Western and Eastern 
Sudan, in West Africa and along the east coast, 
and its missionaries are more or less actively 
spreading their faith among the populations of 
Central Africa. 

The Christian populations of Africa comprise 
the Copts, descendants of the Monophysites of the 
5th century, numbering about 750,000; the 
Abyssinians, whose ecclesiastical system depends 
upon that of the Coptic Church; Roman Catholics 
who have had missionaries in Africa continuously 
since the 16th century, and now aggregate 
about 2,450,000; and Protestants, numbering 
about 3,250,000, including the English and 
Dutch of South Africa. 

Hindus, chiefly dwelling on the east coast of 
the continent, number about 250,000 in Africa; 
and according to varying estimates there are 
from 550,000 to 750,000 Jews, chiefly on the 
Mediterranean coast. 

V. Missionary Work in Africa, General View: 
The first Protestants to undertake evangelizing 
work in Africa were the Moravians, who began in 
1792. Since that time nearly every Protestant 
denomination has undertaken missionary work 
in some part of the "dark continent." For 
details of this work the reader should consult the 
articles upon the political and territorial divi- 
sions of the continent, and particularly the 
statistical tables found in the Appendix to this 

Statistics naturally take no account of the 
great number of Christian men and women in 

Africa not directly related to missions, but who 
exercise evangelizing influences in innumerable 
ways. The established and self-supporting 
churches are naturally evangelizing agencies, 
and it is farther to be considered that very much 
work by Christians cannot be identified nor 
reduced to statistical form. 

Obstacles and Difficulties encountered in Mis- 
sionary Work in Africa: These are many, but 
not insurmountable. The first is the climate of 
many parts to which missionaries have under- 
taken to go. This is deadly to Europeans 
or Americans who spend any time on the coast 
or in the lowlands. 

The vast number of languages spoken by the 
175,000,000 or more of the inhabitants of Africa 
is a very serious obstacle to missionary labor. 
Nowhere is a universal speech more of a desider- 

Slavery and the appearance of the Arab slave- 
trader are still real terrors in many regions, and 
sadly interfere with the progress of the Gospel; 
but there is reason to hope that this great crime 
against humanity is permanently under restraint, 
so that its vitality will steadily fail. 

The traffic in liquor is another obstacle to the 
missionary enterprise and the spread of the 
Gospel, particularly on the west coast of Africa. 
Steps have been taken to limit this evil. 

Other difficulties and problems that confront 
the missionary in Africa can be only mentioned. 
The brutal animal nature of the natives in many 
regions makes the instilling of a pure religion 
seem nearly impossible. Polygamy and the 
degradation of women to the level of mere 
beasts are facts to be counted on. The influence 
of the sorcerer and wizard, based on the nearly 
universal belief in evil spirits, is encountered 
everywhere, and such men are the natural ene- 
mies of the missionary because they are the 
religious leaders of their tribes. The greed of 
commercial enterprise, resulting in age-long abuse 
of the natives, who have been wronged by the 
white man since the earliest times, also weighs 
in some parts of the continent to make entrance 
into the confidence of the African people more 

Nevertheless, most Africans are hospitable to 
the foreigner, naturally docile under the influence 
of stronger minds, and especially curious and 
eager to learn new things. In this latter trait 
they are far more easily reached than are the 
Chinese with their fixed and retrogressive tem- 
perament. The Africans, moreover, are not 
naturally atheistic, and have many ideas and 
beliefs that prepare them to believe the Gospel. 
A history that shows individual Africans, like 
Bishop C^owther of Yorubaland, or national 
development, as in Uganda, promises like fruit 
from Christian teaching elsewhere. 

Keane, Africa (Stanford's Compendium of Geography and 
Travel), London, 1895; White, Development of Africa, 
London, 1892; Brown, Story of Africa and lis Explorers, 
London, 1892-95; Keltie, The Partition of Africa, London, 
1895; Johnston, History of the Colonization of Africa by 
Alien Races, Cambridge, 1899; Livingstone, Missionary 
Travels and Researches in South Africa, New York, 1858; 
Last Journals of David Livingstone in Central Africa, Lon- 
don, 1874; Cameron, Across Africa, New York, 1877; 
Stanley, Through the Dark Continent, New York, 1878; 
Drummond, Tropical Africa, ^ ew York, 1888; Stanley, 
Jn Darkest Africa, New York, 1890; Johnston, Livingstone, 
and the Exploration of Central Africa, London, 1891 ; 
Bryce, Impressions of South Africa, New York, 1897; 
Lloyd, In Dwarf Land and Cannibal Country, London, 1899. 

AFRICA, German East. See German East 


Aim of Christian 


AFRICA, German Southwest. See German 
Southwest Afhica. 

CHURCH ; Parent Home and Foreign Missionary 
Society of the, (1847): The foreign mission work 
of the African Methodist Episcopal Church is 
found in Africa, South America, West Indies 
and Hawaii. The first foreign field of the church 
was Haiti (1824), where the society now reports 
10 stations and 2,000 adherents. In British 
Guiana it reports 20 stations and 5,000 ad- 
herents. It reports 15 missionaries in the 
Windward Islands, and 3 missionaries in Cuba. 
Its missions in Africa include stations in Sierra 
Leone, Liberia, the Lagos Colony (on the West 
coast of the continent) , in Cape Colony in South 
Africa, extending northward as far as Northern 
Rhodesia. In Africa it reports altogether 300 
preachers and a membership of 11,000. The 
origin of the work of this organization in South 
Africa was the withdrawal, in 1894-95, of a 
number of native church members from the 
WMS churches in the Transvaal. The seoeders 
formed a new body which adopted the name, 
"Ethiopian Church." The movement was in 
some measure a protest against a color line in the 
churches of Africa. In 1896 the Ethiopian church 
united with the African Methodist Episcopal 
Church of the United States, and the movement 
is spreading with some energy among native 
churches in Africa. 

The Woman's Parent Mite Missionary Society 
(1872), and the Woman's Home and Foreign 
Missionary Society (1892), are auxiharies, the 
last named having its chief support in the 
Southern States. The headquarters of the 
society are: 61 Bible House, New York City. 
Organ : Voice of Missions. 

Bay, North Wales) : This Institution was founded 
in 1889 by the Rev. W. Hughes for the purpose 
of giving a thorough English training to excep- 
tionally gifted Africans. The plan was heartily 
approved by many of the African Christian 
clergy and others, and is supported by auxiliary 
committees established at several points in W. 
Africa. The Training Institute is located in a 
delightful part of Wales, at Colwyn Bay, and 
has already shown its usefulness. It has edu- 
cated more than 200 Africans, who are now 
working at about 15 places in W, Africa, mainly 
in the Congo region, and who, by so much, 
become the direct channels of the influence of 
the Institute. The Institute teaches its pupils 
some of the arts which will find place for appli- 
cation in Africa and it has 5 auxiliary or prepara- 
tory schools in Africa, the most intelligent of 
whose graduates will be taken to complete their 
training in the mother in.stitution. The number 
of students now in training is about 75. 

AGARPARA: A village near Calcutta, India; 
station of the CMS, with one unmarried woman 
missionary in charge of a house for female 

AGBOGBA, or ABOKOBI: A town N. of Accra 
in the Gold Coast Colony, W. Africa; station of the 
Basel Missionary Society, with 21 outstations and 
IS village schools. The number of professing 
Christians is about 500. 

AGNEW, Miss Eliza: Sailed from Boston to 
Ceylon, under the ABCFM, in 1839, and for 
forty-three years she labored as a missionary of 
the Cross, never returning to native land. 

She was the first unmarried woman sent as a 
missionary to Ceylon, and for forty years she 
was the efficient principal of the girls' school at 
Oodooville. In June, 1883, Miss Agnew received 
a paralytic shock, and during the same month 
she passed into her heavenly rest. 

AGRA: A city of about 170,000 inhabitants, 
capital of the district of the same name in the 
United Provinces, British India. It has several 
magnificent architectural relics of the Mogul 
Empire, and is venerated by the Hindus as the 
scene of the incarnation of Vishnu. It is an 
important center of Mohammedanism. The 
climate is good except from April to September. 

It is a station of the BMS, opened in 1811, and 
now carried on by 5 missionaries, men and 
women, and 24 native workers. There are 2 
outstations and 9 village schools, an orphanage, 
and 70 church members. 

It is also a station of the CMS, commenced in 
1853, and now having a working force of 21 
missionaries and 38 native workers, men and 
women, who carry on 7 village schools, 5 high 
schools and a fine college. There are 205 com- 
municants connected with this mission. 

The BZM commenced a station here in 1871 
and has 5 missionaries and 11 native workers, 
all women, with 5 village schools and more than 
400 women pupils in the zenanas. 

The Edinburgh Medical Mission Society has a 
training class here. 

The ME has a station here with a missionary 
and his wife and 32 native workers, 20 village 
schools, and 550 church members. 

AGU: Town in the German colony of Togo- 
land, W. Africa; station of the N. German Mis- 
sionary Society, opened in 1900. 

AGUADILLA : Town on the W. shore of Porto 
Rico; a flourishing station of the Presbyterian 
Home Missionary Society, with about 150 

AGUASCALIENTES: Capital of the smallest 
State in the Mexican Republic, 270 miles north- 
west of Mexico City. It takes its name from 
the hot springs which abound in the vicinity. 
It is surrounded by rich gardens abounding in 
olives, figs, vines, pears, etc. Climate, temper- 
ate; population, 32,000 Mexicans; language, 
Spanish; religion, Roman Catholic. Mission 
station of Cumberland Presbyterian Church 
(1888); 1 missionary and wife, 2 unmarried 
women, 7 native workers, men and women, a 
printing house, 2 industrial schools, 1 outstation, 
3 common schools, and 105 church members. 

AHMADABAD: The capital of the district of 
the same name, Bombay, British India. It was 
formerly one of the most magnificent cities of 
India, and its superb architectural monuments 
still testify to the fact. It is an important 
center of the Parsees. It is a mission station of 
the PCI, established in 1861; with 6 missionaries 
and 30 native workers, men and women, a 
theological seminary, 2 orphanages, a high 
school, and 11 common schools. There are 100 
members in the church. 

It is also occupied as a mission station by the 
ME, with 1 missionary and his wife and 5 native 
workers, and by the Christian and Missionary 
Alliance, and the Salvation Army, statistics in 
regard to which are lacking. 

AHMADNAGAR: A city in the presidency of 
Bombay, British India, standing on the Deccan 


Aim of ClirlMtian 

plateau and on a line of rail joining Dhond on 
the Bombay and Madras line, with Manmad on 
the Bombay and Calcutta line. It has 35,000 
inhabitants, of whom 3,572 are Cliristians, for 
the most part connected with the mission of the 
ABCFM. This mission was commenced in 1831. 
Up to 1855 the whole number of converts 
amounted only to 78. But then a movement 
arose which spread to about 100 villages, and 
brought over 600 communicants into the church. 
A convert, Krishnarao, introduced, in 1862, the 
Kirttan at the meetings — songs on the life of 
Christ, sung with instrumental accompaniment. 
The present force of the mission consists of 17 
missionaries, men and women, of whom 2 are 
physicians and 3 industrial instructors. It 
maintains 1 theological seminary, 1 training 
school for women workers, 2 high schools, 1 
industrial school of great efficiency, 1 industrial 
school for women, 1 hospital, 1 dispensary. Con- 
nected with the mission are 2 churches in the city 
which pay the expenses of their own Christian 
work and contain 634 members. In the district 
superintended from the city are 17 other churches 
with 1,280 members and 18 common schools. 

The SPG entered Ahmadnagar in 1870, and 
has its headquarters outside of the city with a 
somewhat extensive work in the district to the 

The Christian Literature Society for India has 
a publishing house in the city and conducts a 
normal training-school. 

The Industrial Missions Aid Society has a rug 
factory in the city which gives employment to 
boys trained in the industrial schools of the 

It is a notable fact that while the population 
of the district decreased by 52,000 in 10 years, 
1891-1901, the Christians of the district increased 
in the same time from 6,734 to 20,864. 

AHOUSAHT : Village on the W. coast of Van- 
couver Id.; station of the Presbyterian Church 
in Canada, with 1 missionary and his wife, 1 
missionary woman, 1 Sunday-school and 1 village 

AIDIN: A city 57 miles southeast of Smyrna, 
Turkey. Population, 35,000, chiefly Mohamme- 
dans, but with a few Greeks and Armenians. 
It is picturesquely situated on the Mfeander 
River, and built out of the ruins of the ancient 
city of Tralles, once occupying this site. Out- 
station of the ABCFM worked by the mission- 
aries at Smyrna. 

AILSA CRAIG: Village in West Shire, Nyasa- 
land, Africa; station of the Zambesi Industrial 
Mission, with an industrial school and 2 village 

foreign missions is not to be confused with the 
aim of the Christian Church in the world, or of 
the Christian nations of the world. There are 
many good and Christian things which it is 
not the duty of the foreign missionary enterprise 
to do. And we must not confuse the aim of for- 
eign missions with the results — an easy con- 
fusion — because there is no other force so powerful 
to accomplish results accessory and indirect. It 
is misleading also to confuse the ultimate issues 
with the immediate aims; it is not only mis- 
leading, it is fatal. Some things can only be 
secured by those who do not seek them. Mis- 
sions are powerful to transform the face of 
society, because they ignore the face of society, 

and deal with it at its heart. They yield such 
powerful political and social results, becauss 
they do not immediately concern themselves 
witifi them. Again, we must not confuse the aim 
of missions with the methods of missions. It is 
an easy thing to select a method with the view 
to the accomplishment of some given end, and 
then because the end is difficult of accomplish- 
ment, because the method is easy of operation, 
because its results, apart altogether from the 
main aim, are good and useful in themselves, it 
is easy to exalt the method into the place of the 

Having cleared the ground so far, what is the. 
aim of foreign missions? It is a religious aim. 
It cannot be stated too strongly in an age when 
the thought of men is full of things, and when 
the body has crept up on the throne of the soul, 
that the work is not immediately and primarily 
a philanthropic work, a political work, a secular 
work of any sort whatsoever. It is a spiritual 
and a religious work. Of course religion must 
express itself in life, but the missionary does not 
go into the world primarily as trustee of a, 
better social life. He goes as the trustee of His 
life Who said of Himself, "Except ye eat the 
flesh of the Son of man, and drink His blood,, 
ye have no life in you." "I came that they 
may have life, and may have it more abundantly." 
"The bread which I will give is my flesh, which 
I will give for the life of the world." President 
Seeley's lectures on Christian Missions have the 
great merit of laying chief emphasis on this 
predominance of the religious and spiritual char- 
acter of the aim of missions. 

The aim of missions, then, to borrow Dr. 
George Washburn's phrase, is to make Jesus 
Christ known to the world. Other phraseology 
may be used. We can say the aim of missions, 
is the evangelization of the world. Or, we can 
say the aim of missions is to preach the Gospel 
to the world. And if we understand these terms 
in their Scriptural sense, they are synonymous 
with the phrase just quoted. But many persist 
in using them at less than their Scriptural value. 
It makes clear what the aim of missions is, to 
say : The aim of foreign missions is to make 
Jesus known to the world. 

And almost any method, almost any agency, 
may be recognized as legitimate which subjects 
itself with fidelity to this supreme aim. As 
Alexander Duff said in 1854, in the first Mission- 
ary Conference in New York City, "The chief 
means of divine appointment for the evangeliza- 
tion of the world are the faithful teaching and 
preaching of the pure Gospel of salvation, by 
duly qualified ministers and other holy and con- 
sistent disciples of the Lord Jesus Christ, accom- 
panied with prayer, and savingly applied by the 
grace of the Holy Spirit; such means, in the 
providential application of them by human 
agency, embracing not merely instruction by the 
living voice, but the translation and judicious 
circulation of the whole written Word of God, 
the preparation and circulation of evangelical 
tracts and books, as well as any other instru- 
mentalities fitted to bring the Word of God 
home to men's souls, together with any processes 
which experience may have sanctioned as the 
most efficient in raising up everywhere indige- 
nous ministers and teachers of the living Gospel." 
This is fair and broad. It sets out openly a 
range of mission effort that will throttle and 
restrict no useful missionary enterprise, and it 

Aim of Christian 



exalts to a predominant and singular place the 
supreme aim of making Jesus Christ known to 
His world. Philanthropy and education will 
have a large part among the methods of mission- 
ary work, but they are its methods and not its 
end. By these and all other agencies the enter- 
prise seeks to plant in humanity the principle of 
the divine life itself, to live and bear fruit in a 
thousand fold more social amelioration and intel- 
lectual improvement than the missionary move- 
ment as such could accomplish. 

This description of the missionary aim does 
not lift from our shoulders the burden of respon- 
sibility that we cannot escape, and it does not 
lay there a burden of responsibility that we can- 
not bear. We dare not say that we have done 
our duty when we have spoken Christ's name to 
the world ; nor that we have made Jesus Christ 
known to the world when we have given the 
world such a proclamation of Christ as would 
suffice for us who already know Him to take in 
the full meaning of the message. Neither, on 
the other hand, are we left to struggle hopelessly 
under the burden of the world's spiritual con- 
version or moral regeneration. We cannot con- 
vert one single soul; how shall we convert the 
world? Midway between the position of no 
responsibility, and of all responsibility, the 
Church stands, sharing something with God, 
sharing also something with the world. We 
cannot sever ourselves from that link of loving 
sympathy which binds us to its death; we can- 
not sever ourselves from that link of sympathy 
which binds us to His life. We are meant to 
be between His life and its death, channels of 
the grace and salvation of God. 

The aim of missions is to make Jesus Christ 
known to the world with a view to the salvation 
of men for that eternity which embraces alike 
the time that is to come and the time that now 
is. We cannot narrow salvation to but one 
world, this one or the next. And further we 
must not state the aim of missions in purely 
individualistic terms. Our duty lies certainly 
to our generation, but it does not stop there. 
We are bound to preach to every person in the 
world the Gospel of the only Savior; we are 
bound also to make known to the world that 
there is a body of Christ which is His Church, 
and to gather up all responsive men into visible 
churches, which shall be outward evidence of 
the body of Christ, and shall secure to the Gos- 
pel an influence and perpetuity which institu- 
tions and not individuals must supply. Henrj' 
Venn, Dr. Warneck and Rufus Anderson have 
given proper emphasis to this element in mis- 
sionary policy and duty. We are to establish 
and foster native churches, self-extending, self- 
maintaining, self-directing, which shall carry 
out to their own people, whom we may not reach, 
the message that has come to them, and which 
shall carry down into the generations to 
come after them, the blessings which we have 
given them as their own. This is the aim of 
foreign missions, to make Jesus Christ known 
to the world, with a view to the full salvation 
of men, and their gathering into true and living 
churches to which the missionary enterprise 
may commit the larger and enduring Christian 
duty as it passes on to "regions beyond." 

This is the supreme aim. It is a. just thing to 
challenge the world to sympathy with missions, 
because of the philanthropic and social results 
that missions achieve, and the heroic spirit 

which they display. But their supreme aim is 
neither to establish republics or limited mon- 
archies throughout the world, nor to lead Chinese 
or Hindu people to wear our dress, nor to re- 
model their social institutions, where these are 
already wholesome and clean. The supreme 
aim is to make Jesus Christ known. Any true 
view of the world must make room for other 
forces than missions. God is King, and so 
surely as His hand is upon the work of missions, 
it is upon all the great forces that are making 
the world. We cannot acknowledge that the 
force of political influence has escaped from His 
control, that He stands impotent before the 
commerce and civilization of the world. His 
hand is upon these things. They play at last 
into His almighty purposes. They are but part 
of His influence. They and all the forces of life 
run resistlessly on to the great goals of God. 
But these forces are only supplementary to the 
power that the missionary holds in his hands 
from His pierced hand Who died and rose again, 
and Who is King of them that reign as kings, 
and Lord of them that rule as lords. 

This aim of missions should have determining 
authority. We sometimes allow ourselves to 
drift into methods of work that presuppose a 
quite contrary aim. When we lift off the 
shoulders of a new native church, for example, 
the burdens that it must bear if it is ever to 
grow, the act seems like kindness, while it ia 
fatal to the Church and neglectful of the supreme 
missionary aim. It is easy to slip into indirect 
conceptions of duty, or to do what God can do 
through other agencies. Missions are to do 
their own work, and not the work of other 
agencies 6r other forces. Methods of work, in 
their proportion and in their perpetuation, 
should be ruled by the supreme and determining 
aim of the missionary movement. 

And not alone the method of missions, but the 
spirit of the enterprise should be ruled by that 
aim. It proposes no promiscuous and indefinite 
project. It has its own clean-cut piece of work 
to do. To be sure it is often confused enough 
in the actual work among men, but the cir- 
cumstances which confuse it show also how 
important its clear perception and prosecution 
are. If this is the aim of missions, the enter- 
prise is not a miscellaneous and undefined task. 
It is a clear and practicable project, well justify- 
ing the words of Simeon Calhoun, the "Saint of 
the Lebanon:" 

"It is my deep conviction, and I say it again 
and again, that if the Church of Christ were 
what she ought to be, twenty years would not 
pass away till the story of the cross would be 
uttered in the ears of every living man." 

AIMARA LANGUAGE: In Bolivia nearly 400,- 
000 people speak this language. It belongs to the 
South American family, but has been modified 
by the Spanish. It is written with Roman 

AINU LANGUAGE: Classed among the abo- 
riginal languages of the Extreme Orient family, 
the Ainu has no literature and has been written 
for missionary purposes and in Roman letters 
only. It IS spoken by about 150,000 people 
found m Japan. 

.u^W^?/ .T"bes inhabiting Saghalien, Yezo, 
the Kurile islands and various adjacent regions 
partly under Japanese and partly under Russian 
jurisdiction. As in the case of many aboriginal 



Aim of Christian 

races the name of this race means simply men. 
Tradition says that the Japanese were originally 
Ainus, and only became a distinct race by inter- 
marrying with the Chinese. The Ainus are dif- 
ferent from other Mongolian tribes, and in their 
more vigorous physical formation resemble the 
Caucasian type. Tho armed and painted 
like savages, they are inoffensive and hospitable, 
but rather shy. They are pagans, and practise 
polygamy. Groups of 10 or 12 families live 
together in miserable huts, with a chief for each 
group. ^ They support themselves by hunting 
and fishing. Those of them who have been con- 
verted to Christianity have shown sturdiness and 

AINTAB: A city of Asiatic Turkey, about 35 
miles west of the Euphrates, in the province of 
Aleppo. It has 30,000 inhabitants, chiefly 
Mohammedans and Armenians. One of the most 
flourishing stations of the ABCFM, with a large 
female seminary and a college founded in 1874. 
There are 4 large churches, 2 of them having 
stone buildings, with accommodation for over 
1,000 each. The Protestant community is one 
of the most influential in Turkey. The effort in 
1863, to establish an Episcopal cathedral failed. 
The common schools are on the graded system, 
are supported entirely by the people, and are of 
very marked efficiency. The Central Turkey 
College at Aintab altho independent, is closely 
connected with the mission. The hospital and 
dispensary has been most efficient. The work of 
the station is carried on by 12 missionaries and 
132 native workers, men and women. It has 27 
outstations, 61 primary schools, 7 high schools 
and an orphanage. The number of church mem- 
bers in the field is about 3,500. 

AIN-ZAHALTA: A village in the Lebanon dis- 
trict of Syria; station of the British Syrian Schools 
Society, with a dispensary, 6 outstations and 6 
village schools. 

AITUTAKI ID. See Hervey Lslands. 

AIYANSH : A station of the CMS in the diocese 
of Caledonia, British Columbia, founded in 1883. 
It is carried on by a missionary and his wife and 5 
native workers, men and women. An industrial 
school and a publishing establishment are car- 
ried on, and the number of communicant Chris- 
tians is 78. 

AJERItANDIDI : A mission station of the 
Netherlands Missionary Society in the Minahassa 
Peninsula of Celebes. 

AJMERE: A territory in Rajputana, India, 
governed by a Chief Commissioner, appointed by 
the Governor General of India. Its area, inclu- 
ding the district of Merwara, which forms its 
southern portion, is only 2,711 square miles, and 
its population (1901), 476,912. 

Hinduism is the prevailing religion. Moham- 
medans are also found and a small number of 
Christians. The language is Hindustani. 

The province adjoins the Rajputana desert, 
has a limited rainfall and is subject to destructive 

Missionary work is carried on in Ajmere by the 
CMS, the UFS and the ME. The whole number 
of places occupied as stations by these societies 
is four. 

AJMERE: Capital of the commissionership of 
Ajmere in British India. Its population num- 
bers (1901) 73,839. The prevailing religions are 
Hinduism, Jainism and Mohammedanism. It 

has a very fine and old Mosque built on the site of 
a Jain temple. It is a mission station of the 
UFS (opened in 18G2). The ME and the SPG 
also have native workers here. The UFS has a 
publishing establishment, a dispensary and a hos- 
pital in this place. The aggregate working force 
IS 8 missionaries and 140 native workers of both 
sexes. The total number of communicant 
Christians is about 700. 

AJNALA: A town in the di-strict of Amritsar, 
Punjab, India; .station of the CMS, with 21 native 
workers, and of the CEZMS, with 4 women mis- 
sionaries, and 8 native women workers, 4 village 
schools, 1 high school and 1 hospital. There are 
33 communicants. 

AKABE: A town on the Benue river, Nigeria, 
W. Africa; station of the CMS, opened in 1897. 
The people are in the main fetish worship- 
ers, with a few Mohammedans among them. 

AKIDU: A village on Lake Kolar, Madras, 
British India. A flourishing station of the BOQ, 
established in 1880, and operated by 3 mission- 
aries and 42 native workers, men and women. It 
has 9 outstations, a dispensary, a high school and 
22 common schools, with 1,700 communicants in 
the field under its supervision. 

AKITA: A city in the island of Hondo, Japan, 
with 30,000 inhabitants. A station of the FCMS, 
with 3 missionaries and 4 native workers, men and 
women. It has a dispensary, a nurses' training 
class, 9 outstations and 220 church members. It 
is also an outstation of the ME in charge of 2 
native workers. 

AKKAWAY, or Acawaio : This is a language of 
the South American family spoken by a limited 
number of the people of Guiana. For mission- 
ary purposes, it has been written with Roman 

AKROPONG: A town in the Gold Coast Colony, 
W. Africa, in the domain of the Ashauti lan- 

The religion of the people is Fetishism. The 
Basel Missionary Society opened a station here in 
1835, which has been very successful. Ten mis- 
sionaries and 38 native workers, men and women, 
form the corps of instructors for the people of the 
town and of 14 outstations. The total number of 
communicant Christians is 2,100. 

AKWAPIM: A dialect of the Otshi language 
spoken in parts of the Ashanti country in W. 

ALABA IS. : The northernmost group (com- 
monly known as the Torres Is.), of the New 
Hebrides Islands. The Melanesian Mission has 
kept teachers in the Torres Islands since 1878. 

ALASKA: The northwestern corner of 
North America, formerly known as Russian 
America, and purchased by the United States 
in 1867 for $7,200,000. It embraces all of the 
N. American continent W. of the 141st meridian 
of W. longitude, together with a narrow strip of 
land between the Pacific ocean and the British 
dominions, and also all islands near its coast, as 
well as the Aleutian archipelago. Including 
islands, its area is 590,883 miles; an area about 
equal to that of the Northern States east of the 
Mississippi, with the addition of the Virginias, 
Kentucky and Tennessee. The exact eastward 
bounds of the southern coast strip of Alaska are 
still unsettled. The population (1900) is 63,592, 
of whom 25,000 are Indians and Eskimos. The 
white population is rapidly increasing in conse- 




quence of the discovery of several very rich 
deposits of gold in the western and central part 
of the country. The native tribes of Alaska 
are pagans, mostly worshipers of departed 
spirits, cruel in their rites, and superstitiously 
subservient to their medicine men or religious 
leaders. The climate of Alaska in its southern 
coast regions and in its islands is much less 
severe than in the same latitude on the eastern 
coast of the continent. On the central plateau, 
600 miles long from east to west an-d 400 miles 
wide from north to south, the summers are quite 
hot, altho the winters are very cold. Because 
of the hot summers the cereals and many vege- 
tables of the temperate zone can be grown, and 
Alaska may yet prove to be an agricultural 
region with a large population. Access to the 
interior of the country is facilitated during the 
summer by the Yukon River, which is one of 
the great rivers of the continent, being navi- 
gable for 1,500 miles. 

The Russian (Greek orthodox) Church had 
opened missions among the Aleutian islanders 
and at one or two points on the mainland 
before the cession of Alaska to the United States, 
and had made some converts. Since the country 
became a dependency of the United States, 
various Protestant denominations and the 
Roman Catholic Church have established mis- 
sion stations in various places. The Protestant 
missions in Alaska have about 20 stations, occu- 
pied by 118 missionaries and 13 native workers, 
men and women, with places of worship, schools 
and hospitals. These missions are maintained 
by the Presbyterian Home Missionary Society, 
the Protestant Episcopal Domestic and Foreign 
Missionary Board, the Moravian Church, the 
Friends', the Methodist Episcopal, the Baptist, 
the Congregational, and the Lutheran Churches 
(Swedish and also Norwegian), the American 
Missionary Association and some smaller societies. 
Some of the mission stations occupied are within 
the Arctic circle, where daylight in winter is a 
sunless sort of twilight of but three hours duration. 
One station (Point Barrow), on the northern- 
most point of the territory, is reached by rein- 
deer post. A considerable number of Indians 
and Eskimos have been drawn under the influence 
of these missions. In the southern part of the 
country, men engaged in the liquor traffic 
seduce and destroy a certain number of the 
simple-minded natives. But in all the stations 
education, especially industrial education, 
has been made an ally of religion in lifting the 
ideals and enriching the lives of the people. 
The total of Protestant Christian natives is 
(1900) 7,600 souls. 

Alaska: Government Printing Office, Washinffton, 1900; 
Missionary Review of the World, Vol. XI, p. .513; Vol. XII, 
p. 500; Vol. XIV, pp. 481, 499; .lackson {S.) Alaska and 
Missions on the North Pacific Coast, New York, 1880; 
Education in Alaska, Wafihin^iori, 1^9G; Knapp (F)., and 
Childe (R. L.), Thlinkets of S. E. Alasfca, ChicaRo, 1897; 
BurrouEhs (.J.), and others of Harriman Expedition, 
Alaska, 2 vols.. 1901. 

ALBANIA: The region called Albania includes 
the two provinces of Janninaand Skodra (Scutari) 
in European Turkey, stretching along the eastern 
shore of the Adriatic from 39° to 43° north lati- 
tude, and from 18° 24' to 21° 48' east longitude. 
Its extreme length is about 300 miles from 
Montenegro to the Gulf of Arta and the frontiers 
of Greece, while its breadth varies from 50 to 
100 miles, from the Adriatic to an irregular line 
on the east, generally following lofty mountain 

ranges. It is a mountainous region throughout, 
being traversed by two or three elevated ranges 
which run parallel, in general, to the shore of 
the Adriatic Sea. It is also well watered,, 
altho its rivers are not navigable. Its large 
lakes of Jannina, Castoria, Ochrida, and Scutari 
impart a peculiar interest to the country. 

The earliest authentic notices of the country- 
occur in connection with the Greek colonies of 
Epidamnus, or Dyrrachium (now Durazzo), the 
ancient port of transit from Brundusium (Brind- 
isi) and Epidaurus, in Dalmatia, to which we may 
add the later colony of Jannina, which seems, 
to have grown up almost unnoticed, not far 
from the ancient Oracle of Dodona, on the 
western shore of the lake of the same name. 

The name Albania, first applied to this country 
in 1079, originated from Elbassan, the seat of 
the tribe of Albani in the center of the land. 
Anciently the region from Prevesa to the mouth 
of the Voyussa was called Epirus, and was con- 
sidered more or less as a province of Greece, 
while all north of Voyussa was known as lUyri- 
cum. Hence we may conclude that the Apostle 
Paul himself preached the Gospel in Albania,, 
when he tells us (Rom. 15: 19), that "from 
Jerusalem, and round about unto Illyricum, I 
have fully preached the Gospel of Christ." 
Albania is the least civilized of all the provinces 
of Turkey. Except at rare and short intervals, 
under honest and energetic Pashas, brigandage, 
with its cruel murders and atrocities, may be said 
to be an almost constant feature of the country; 
so much so, that the districts of Dibra, Jakova, 
Ipek have long been inaccessible to outsiders, 
while the Mirdites, southeast of Scutari, retain 
even now a barbarous semi-independence, to 
guard which all strangers are jealously excluded. 

The soil is fertile, and in several districts is 
well cultivated; but much of it lies waste, partly 
from defective methods of agriculture, but also 
from the* insecurity of life and property in eon- 
sequence of the bands of robbers that so fre- 
quently infest the country and commit the most 
frightful excesses. It is difficult to form any 
reliable estimate of the population, but prob- 
ably 2,000,000 may not be far from the truth. 

There is no missionary station in Albania. 
The BFBS has colporteurs and book depots at 
various points, and the ABCFM has native 
workers who are Albanians teaching one or two 
schools in the borderland between Albania and 
The Balkan Peninsula, Laveleye (E. A.), 2 vols., London, 


ALBANIAN LANGUAGE: As the term "bar- 
barian" was applied by the Greeks to all who 
spoke a different language from their own, we 
know that the Pelasgi in Greece itself, the Epi- 
rotes, and the lUyrians, with many of the Mace- 
donians, spoke not Greek, but a different lan- 
guage, which there is every reason to believe is 
the same as the Albanian, now spoken by their 
descendants. The origin and character of the 
Albanian have been the subject of much discus- 
sion, some regarding it as belonging to the Indo- 
Germanic class, and others pronouncing it a 
Turanian language. In fact, like the Armenian, 
it partakes of the characteristics of both these 
classes; but from its undoubted analogy in its 
peculiar roots to the Greek, Latin, Sanskrit, 
Celtic, etc., it is classed by many scholars not 
as a derivative from any of these, but as a sister 
of equal antiquity. A great obstacle to the 




critical study of Albanian is the absence of any 
literature except of comparatively recent origin. 
No Albanian alphabet exists. The Gheg, or 
northern, dialect has been written with Roman 
letters, while the southern or Tosk dialect has 
been written with Greek letters. A modification 
of the Roman alphabet will probably prevail as 
the one mode of writing Albanian. 

Not a little care is needed to distinguish the 
original terms and forms of the language from 
the many words adopted later from the Greek, 
Latin, Slavic, Turkish, and other languages. 
The subject has engaged much attention, and we 
may notice as preeminent in this department 
Dr. Hahn, who compiled an Albanian dictionary 
and grammar, with many characteristic speci- 
mens of the language, and Demetrio Camarda, 
who studied the language chiefly among the 
Albanian colonies of Calabria and Sicily, and has 
written largely on its structure and affinities. To 
promote these studies care is now taken to com- 
mit to writing such historical ballads as have 
been handed down to the present time, as well 
as other poems which have been preserved in 
various forms of writing. The publications also 
of the British and Foreign Bible Society and a 
few also by the Religious Tract Society, of Lon- 
don, have greatly aided these studies. Several 
grammars also have been published, among 
which we may mention that for the use of Greeks, 
by Mr. C. Christophorides, a native of Elbassan. 
It is worthy of note that the prelates of the 
Greek Church in Albania and the religious teach- 
ers of the Mohammedan body alike oppose with 
some violence every effort to transform the 
Albanian into a written language. The cause of 
this opposition seems to be the same in each case 
— political intolerance of independent growth in 
a subject people. 

ALBANIANS: A people chiefly found in Euro- 
pean Turkey, whose subordinate political exist- 
ence, lack of literature, and tendency to wander 
abroad have arrested their national development 
and obscured their origin and racial affinities. 
Groups of Albanians are found in Sicily, in 
Calabria, in Greece, and in some islands of the 
Greek Archipelago. Traces of the Albanian lan- 
guage or of a tongue closely allied to it are also 
found in Southern Italy. These and other con- 
siderations have led some to conclude that the 
existence of isolated groups of Albanians points 
to their being the remnants of a people originally 
inhabiting Greece and Southern Italy, and retain- 
ing to this day their distinct language and racial 

According to this view the Albanians are of 
one stock with the ancient Pelasgi. However 
this may be, they cling with an intense nation- 
ality to their language and their tribal organiza- 
tion and the wild diversities of physical sur- 
roundings which belong to Albania. Their 
strong clan feeling has prevented anything like 
cohesion to maintain a national unity. But their 
modern history offers instances of a temporary 
union of the clans to resist a common enemy. 
Such a general union took place in resisting the 
Bulgarian invasion of Albania in 517-550, and 
again under Prince George Castriotes in resisting 
the Turkish invasion in 1443-78. The military 
ability shown by Albanians in these episodes of 
their history and in such a case as that of Ali 
Pasha of Jannina, is a quality by which the Turks 
still profit. The flower of the Turkish army is 
composed of Albanians; and of the great Alba- 

nians who have risen to distinction in the service 
of the Sultan, it is only necessary to recall the 
name of Mehemmed Ali Pasha, the renovator of 
Egypt and founder of the present Khedival 
house, to see that Turkey does well to seek 
Albanians for positions requiring initiative and 

The Albanians are called "Arnaouts" by the 
Turks. They call themselves, however, "Ski- 
petar," — the Eagle People. They are divided 
into clans so sharply separated as to introduce 
dialects into the language. Their clan feeling 
the Turkish Government has used with skill to 
foment jealousies that shall prevent the Alba- 
nians from uniting to throw off a hated yoke. 

Since the conquest of Albania by Turkey in 
1478 the Albanians have been alternately 
harassed and tempted by appeals to their love 
for a military life, and about one-half of their 
number have become Mohammedans, still cling- 
ing to their own language, however, and not 
regarded as thoroughly orthodox in belief because 
still admitting the ties of race. Of the Albanians 
who have refused to accept Mohammedanism, 
those living in the southern part of Albania 
belong to the Greek Church, and those in the 
northern part, including the semi-independent 
Mirdites, are Roman Catholics. In each case the 
ineradicable love of the Albanians for their 
language has tended to keep the masses of the 
people in dense ignorance. The Roman Catho- 
lic Albanians are taught to read in Italian or in 
Servian. The Greek Church follows its usual 
policy, insisting that schools and churches among 
its Albanian adherents shall use the Greek 
language. As to the Mohammedan Albanians, 
their schools are conducted in Turkish, and their 
religious worship in .Arabic. Whatever their 
religious connection, worship is an unintelligible 
pantomime, and education, an opportunity for 
culture in a foreign tongue from which a few 
may and do profit, but from which the masses 
derive little benefit because the women are 
wholly illiterate and the "bookless Albanian" is 
the sole language of the home-life. 
Races of European Turkey, Clark (E. L.), New York. 1878; 
Turkey in Europe, by Odysseus, London, 1900; Albania 
and the Albanians in 1898, Callan (H.), Scottish Geog. Mag., 
Vol. 1.5, pp. 337-330, Edinburgh, 1899; Roman Catholic 
Albania, Nyon (R.), Blackwood's Magazine, Vol. 173 
pp. 476-487, London, 1903. 

ALBERNI: Town in Vancouver Id., British 
Columbia; station of the Canada Presbyterian 
Church, which has an industrial school there for 
the Indians. 

ALBINA: A town on the Maroni river in Suri- 
nam ; station of the Moravian Missions, opened 
in 1894 for East Indian coolies. It has 2 chapels 
and 2 village schools with about 40 professing 

ALCHUKA-FU (A-she-ho) : Town of some im- 
portance on the Transsiberian Railway, in 
Manchuria ; station of the UFS. One of the resi- 
dent missionaries is a physician. There are about 
60 professing Christians there. (Also written 

ALEPPO : A city of Asiatic Turkey, on the bor- 
ders of the Syro-Arabian Desert, and capital of 
the province of the same name. The city is 
encompassed by low, barren hills and irregular 
mounds, intersected by fertile valleys. It is a 
city of thoroughly Oriental type, with extensive 
bazaars, numerous mosques, and a people remark- 
able for their elegant bearing. The streets are 

Alert Bay 



unusually good for the East ; and the stone houses 
are very well built. The city, being on the only 
safe route between Syria and Eastern Asia, is a 
center for the Damascus and Bagdad caravans. 
The inhabitants are noted for their shrewdness in 
trade. There has been a considerable European 
colony in Aleppo since the middle of the 16th 
century. It was the principal factory of the 
English Levant Company until Napoleon's Med- 
iterranean enterprises broke up their trade. The 
city has about 120,000 inhabitants, chiefly 
Mohammedans. There is also a strong Roman 
Catholic element in the population besides 
Greeks, Armenians and Jews. The ABCFM has 
occupied Aleppo as a station at various times but 
has abandoned it on finding no extensive response 
to effort. The PCE opened a station there in 
1895 for work among the Jews. It has 2 mission- 
aries and 4 native workers, with a primary school 
and a dispensary. 

ALERT BAY: A settlement of the KwagutI 
tribe on the northern coast of Vancouver Island ; 
station of the CMS, with 2 missionaries and their 
wives, 2 unmarried women and 2 native workers. 
There is a high school, an industrial school and 
a primary school. The communicants number 

ALEUTIAN: This language is spoken by the 
people of the Aleutian Islands, and belongs to the 
Arctic Coast branch of the North American fam- 
ily. It has been written with Russian letters. 

ALEXANDER, Bishop Michael Solomon : Born 
in Prussian Poland, 1799. He was brought up in 
the strictest principles of Rabbinical Judaism. 
When he was 16 he was a teacher of the Talmud 
and the German language. At the age of 21 he 
went to England, having not the slightest ac- 
quaintance with Christianity, not even knowing 
the existence of the New Testament. He settled 
in a country town as tutor in a Jewish family. 
Whilst there the sight of a handbill of the London 
Society for the Conversion of the Jews aroused his 
curiosity, and he obtained and read the New 
Testament. Shortly afterwards he accepted the 
post of Rabbi at Norwich and subsequently at 
Plymouth. There in the providence of God, he 
became acquainted with the Rev. B. B. Golding, 
curate of Stonehouse, to whom he gave lessons in 
Hebrew, and through whom, after much inward 
conflict, he almost came to a conviction of the 
truth of Christianity. He used to steal silently 
down to Stonehouse Church on Sunday evenings, 
and, under the shadow of its walls, would stand 
riveted to the spot, while he listened to the songs 
of Christian praise, in which he dared not as yet 
take part. His congregation heard of his leanings 
towards Christianity, and he was suspended from 
his duties as Rabbi. Further trials awaited him, 
but the Lord strengthened his faith and on June 
2, 1825, ill St. Andrew's Church, Plymouth, he 
was baptized in the presence of 1,000 people. 
His wife's baptism followed six months later. In 
1827 he was ordained deacon in Dublin, where he 
had settled in order to gain a livelihood as a teach- 
er of Hebrew. Here, through his consistent 
Christian character, he made many friendships. 
Eventually he became a missionary of the 
Society, laboring first in Danzig and later in 
London, where he held the post of Professor of 
Hebrew and Rabbinical Literature in King's Col- 
lege, until 1841, when he was consecrated the first 
Anglican Bishop in Jerusalem. His work there 
was full of blessing, two prominent Jerusalem 

rabbis being baptized. It was a great blow to. 
the Society's mission there when, m 1845, Bishop 
Alexander suddenly died, his last act being one 
of prayer, before he retired to sleep to awake in 
another world. One of his grandchildren is a 
CMS missionary in Japan. 

ALEXANDER, T. T.: Born in Mt. Horeb, 
Tenn., October 8, 1850; sent by the Presby- 
terian Board (North) to Japan in 1877. Died at 
Honolulu, November 14, 1902. During his life 
in Japan he had been active in the opening of new 
stations, had taught theology in the Mejii Gakuin 
in Tokio, and just prior to his departure from 
Japan had been in charge of the evangelistic work 
in the city of Kioto, where also he was helping the 
Congregational missionaries in the Theological 
Department of the Doshisha. 

Dr. Alexander was a man of great ability, one of 
the best Old Testament scholars in Japan; a man 
of rare openness of mind and beauty of character; 
a lover of peace; always forgetful of himself, 
modest and gentle in all his ways, yet a man of 
iron principle and of unswerving devotion to what 
he believed to be right. Few foreigners in the 
Empire were so highly valued as he by the Japan- 
ese, both for the purity and sweetness of his 
Christian character and for the value and solidity 
of his counsel and judgments in their perplexities. 
He did much at the time when the liberal move- 
ment was strong in Japan, to help many to find 
solid standing ground. 

For the last seven or eight years of his life. Dr. 
Alexander was alone on the field, Mrs. Alexander 
and the children residing in Maryville, Tenn., for 
the education of the children. Happily, the 
eldest daughter. Miss Emma, under appointment 
as a missionary to Japan, had stopped in Hono- 
lulu for a brief visit with her father and was pres- 
ent with him at the time of his death. 

ALEXANDER, William Patterson: Born in 

Paris, Ky., U. S. A., July 25, 1805; studied 
Latin and Greek at Bourbon Academy; taught 
school to obtain the means to go to college; 
entered Center College, Ky., 1826; graduated at 
Princeton Theological Seminary, 1830; ordained 
by Presbytery of Cincinnati, October 12, 1831; 
embarked November 26, 1831, as a missionary 
of the American Board for the Hawaiian Islands, 
reaching Honolulu, May 18, 1832. Soon after 
his arrival he was appointed one of a deputation 
from the Hawaiian Islands to go to the English 
Mission at the Society Islands, and also to visit 
the Marquesas Islands to ascertain if it would be 
expedient to establish a mission there. A favor- 
able report having been made, it was decided at 
a meeting of the mission in April, 1833, to under- 
take a mission at the Marquesas Islands, and 
Messrs. Alexander, Armstrong, and Parker were 
appointed to commence the new mission. 
They reached Nukahiva, the largest island, 
November 10. After spending eight months 
among the cannibals, they left the Marquesas 
Islands to the LMS, whose missionaries were then 
on their way thither, and returned to Honolulu, 
arriving May 12, 1834. Mr. Alexander's first 
station in the Hawaiian Islands was at Waioli, 
on the island of Kauai, where he remained from 
1834-43. A great revival occurred 1836-38, 
when the natives came incessantly from early 
in the morning till late at night to converse on 
religion. In 1837, Mr. Alexander translated 
Legendre's Geometry, and prepared a text-book 
on surveying and navigation for the Lahaina- 



Alert Bay 

luna Seminary. His efforts, in conjunction with 
Dr. Armstrong, to establish a boarding-school 
for the missionaries' children, resulted in the 
founding of the Ponahue School (chartered in 
1853 as Oahu College). Failure of health 
requiring a change to a drier climate, Mr. Alex- 
ander lett the Waioli parish, and took charge of 
the seminary at Lahamaluna, on Maui, in 1843. 
This was a high-school established for the 
special purpose of educating teachers. Mr. 
Alexander's health having suffered from his 
sedentary employment, he was granted, in 1849, 
a year of respite from school-teaching. This 
year he spent in surveying land for the Hawaiian 
Government on East Maui. During this period 
the Hawaiian Government was changed from 
an absolute to a constitutional monarchy, and 
the poor serfs were granted their homesteads in 
fee simple. In this movement Mr. Alexander 
was greatly interested, and gave its leaders his 
earnest cooperation. Besides his labors in the 
Lahainaluna Seminary, he published a Pastor's 
Manual, common school and Sunday school 
books, two standard books on the Evidences of 
Christianity, and A System of Theology. He 
died at Oakland, Cal., in 1884. 

ALEXANDRETTA: A seaport in the province 
of Aleppo, Asiatic Turkey, at the extreme north 
of the Syrian coast. It is the chief port of entry 
for the trade of Mesopotamia. It is low, marshy, 
and unhealthy, and most of those who do business 
there reside in the city of Beylan, on the moun- 
tains, about 12 miles distant. It is also called 

ALEXANDRIA: A city of Egypt, on the 
shore of the Mediterranean. Founded by Alex- 
ander the Great, 332 B.C. During the Roman 
Empire it was the capital of the country and a 
large and important city. It was the seat of a 
patriarch, and an important center of learning 
m early Christian history. During the Middle 
Ages it declined greatly in importance, and at 
the time of the Mameluke rule (1300-1800 a.d.) 
the inhabitants were reduced to about 5,000. 
Under the Turkish rule, however, and especially 
during the reign of Mohammed Ali (1811) 
Alexandria grew rapidly, and now the popula- 
tion numbers about 320,000. Of these 250,000 
are natives (chiefly Mohammedans), speaking 
the Arabic language. The remainder are from 
every country in Europe and almost of the 
world, so that it is even more of a Babel than is 
Constantinople. The presence of a large num- 
ber of Europeans resident there throughout the 
year has had a great influence in making the 
city one of the most attractive in appearance 
on the Mediterranean, with broad streets, fine 
buildings and pleasant drives. Being on the sea, 
the heat is not as intense as at Cairo, and there 
have grown up a number of suburbs, among 
which Ramleh is one of the most popular. 

The general character of the people is very 
low, the natives having acquired most of the 
vices of the Europeans. Some of these foreign 
residents, however, are men who take an interest 
in the public welfare, and are liberal in sustain- 
ing hospitals and other benevolent and philan- 
thropic undertakings. 

The Mohammedans have acquired a very bit- 
ter feeling toward the Christians and the Jews, 
and are ever ready to join in any demonstration 
or insurrection against them, if they have any 
reason to suppose that such a movement is agree- 

able to the rulers of the city. This feeling found 
expression in a massacre during Arabi Pasha's 
rebellion, when the city was bombarded by the 
British fleet, June 11, 1882, and occupied by 
British troops the next day. 

Next to the Mohammedans the Syrian Cath- 
olics are quite strong. The Greek Church is 
wealthy and influential, but the Coptic com- 
munity is small and feeble. 

Mission work is carried on chiefly by the 
Missions of the United Presbyterian Church of 
the United States, who maintain 2 schools, 
one for boys and a very flourishing and eflicient 
one for girls. 

The Kaiserswerth Deaconesses also have a fine 
school here, opened in 1857. The Bible distri- 
bution is under the care of the BFBS. The 
Church of Scotland has a mission to the Jews in 
the city carried on by 10 missionaries, men and 
women, who have 4 schools. The North Africa 
Mission, the Egypt Mission Band, and the WMS 
also have stations in this city. 

ALGERIA: A colony of France in North 
Africa, lying on the Mediterranean between 
Morocco on the west and Tunis on the east, 
indefinitely bounded on the south by the Sahara. 
It has an area of about 184,474 square miles, 
and a population of 4,739,931 (1901). Of this 
the French population numbers 292,464, the 
Jews 57,132, Tunisians and Moroccoans 26,266, 
Spaniards 155,265, Italians 38,791, and about 
25,000 other foreigners. The Algerian Sahara 
contains about 125,000 square miles and has 
about 50,000 inhabitants. 

The native population is wholly Mohammedan, 
and consists mainly of Berbers (75 per cent.) 
and Arabs (15 per cent.). The Roman Cath- 
olic Church has 2 bishops and 386 priests. 
There are in the colony 21 Protestant pastors 
and 7 Jewish Rabbis. Government grants to 
the religious establishments are shared by the 
Protestants in proportion to their numbers. 
Oran, Algiers and Constantine are the capitals, 
respectively, of the three districts of the same 
names into which the colony is divided. 

Laws of the colony protecting Mohammedan- 
ism as the prevaiHng religion restrict Christian 
missionary effort in Algeria. The Protestant 
missionary societies laboring there are the 
French Society for the Evangelization of the 
Jews, the Penny Collection Fund for Israel, the 
Algiers Spanish Mission, Miss Trotter's Mission, 
the Swedish Missionary Society, the NAM and 
the PB. Four central towns are the field occu- 
pied by these Societies. 
Atterbury, Islam in Africa, New York, 1899; Bridgeman, 

Winters in Algeria, New York, 1899; SomerviUe, Sands of 

Sahara, London, 1901 ; Wilkin, Among the Berbers of 

Algeria, London, 1900. 

ALGIERS: Capital of the French colony of 
Algeria, North Africa. Population (1901), 
96,542, French, 20,000, including Jews, 6,000, 
who own most of the land in the city, and 
native Arabs. The town is built in the form 
of an amphitheater, on an elevation of 500 feet, 
and, seen from a distance, presents a very impos- 
ing appearance, heightened by the dazzling 
whiteness of its houses, which rise in terraces 
on the side of the hill. The climate is so equable 
as to make it a health resort. It is a strong 
Roman Catholic center. It is the seat of an 
agency of the BFBS with a Bible depot, col- 
porteurs and Bible women. The North Africa 
Mission also has a station there with 6 mission- 




aries, men and women. Several societies espe- 
cially devoted to Jewish work also have mis- 
sionaries there. 

ALIGARH: City and railway station in the 
United Provinces, India, southeast of Delhi. 
Population of city and suburbs (1901), 70,434. 
The religions found here are Hinduism, Jainism, 
Mohammedanism. There are also a very few 
Christians. The climate is changeable and 
uncertain in temperature. The CMS estab- 
lished a station here in 1863 which has now an 
important work among the women, carried on 
by 3 unmarried missionaries. There is a dis- 
pensary here. The general work is under charge 
of a married missionary and his wife, with 31 
native workers, both men and women. There 
are 3 outstations, 10 village schools and about 
100 communicants. 

ALI-ILLAHI: A sect existing among the 
Mohammedans of Persia and Turkey. They are 
known under different names, as Dawudi, 
Abdulbegi, etc. There is great resemblance 
between their religious beliefs and those of the 
Wusairiyeh of Syria, if indeed the sects are not 
one and the same. They hold their real opin- 
ions in secret, while professing before Moham- 
medans to be strict Muslims, and in their pres- 
ence conforming to all the rites of Islam. But 
to Christians they declare their hatred of the 
Mohammedan prophet and law, and do not 
hesitate to violate the Mohammedan ritual. 
Nevertheless, even to Christians they will not 
reveal their secret doctrines or practices with 
any particularity. They have no books. The 
Dawudi division profess to have great respect 
for the Psalms of David. Apparently this 
strange religion is but a heathenish conglomer- 
ation of Pagan, Mohammedan, Jewish, and 
Christian superstitions. Its adherents number 
many hundred thousands in Persia. It is under- 
stood that many of them are becoming Babis. 
Considerable attempts have been made to lead 
them to Christianity, but with little success. 
Their gross superstitions and ignorance, with 
their great fear of the Mohammedan rancor of 
bigotry, hold them fast in their present deplor- 
able condition. 

ALIWAL NORTH: Town and railway station 
on the Orange river in Cape Colony, South 
Africa; mission station of the Primitive Meth- 
odist Society, with 4 missionaries of both sexes 
and 5 native workers. It has an industrial 
school, 2 theological classes, 2 village schools, 
and about 1,200 professing Christians. 

ALLAHABAD: Seat of the Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor of the United Provinces, British India; 
situated at the confluence of the Ganges, Jumma' 
and Saraswati rivers; the stronghold of Hindu- 
ism, which for centuries has fought successfully 
in this region against Mohammedanism The 
population is (1901) 172,032, Hindus, Moham- 
medans and Christians, with many less import- 
ant religious groups. It was the first point in 
India occupied by the CMS (in 1813). It is 
now a station of the CMS, the PN, the ME the 
Zenana, Bible and Medical Mission, and' the 
Woman's Union Foreign Missionary Society of 
Ainerica. The total force stationed at Alla- 
habad by these societies consists of 37 mis- 
sionaries and 109 native workers, men and 
women. The various enterprises which they 
carry on include a Divinity school, a training 
school for women, 4 high schools, 3 orphanages 

43 village schools, a dispensary and a hospital 
The Bible Societies and the YMCA also make 
this a center for their work in the Province. 
The total of communicants connected with the 
various missions is about 550. 

ALLEN, David Oliver: Bom in Barre, Mass., 
September 14, 1799; graduated at Amherst 
College, 1825; graduated at Andover Theological 
Seminary, 1827; ordained and sailed as a mis- 
sionary of the American Board for India, June 
6, 1827. There he was connected with the 
mission press for many years. In 1847 an 
edition of the whole Bible in Marathi, translated 
by the members of the two missions, was revised 
by Mr. Allen, editorial superintendent of the 
American Mission Press, and member of the 
Committee of the Bombay Bible Society. Dr. 
Allen was a faithful worker and wise counselor. 
His services, especially in connection with the 
press and the translation of the Scriptures, were 
of great value to the missionary cause. Dr. 
Allen published a valuable work on India, 
Ancient and Modem, and was the author of 
several articles in periodicals. He resided at 
Lowell, Mass., from 1860 until his death, from 
congestion of the lungs, July 17, 1863. 

ALLEPPIE: A seaport at the foot of the 
western Ghats, in Travancore, India. Popu- 
lation, 22,000. In 1816 the CMS founded a 
station there, principally for the purpose of 
redeeming the Syrian (Jacobite) community, 
which had been settled there since ancient times, 
but had utterly degenerated. In the beginning 
the undertaking seemed destined to succeed. 
The Syrians even allowed the missionaries to 
preach in their churches. But in 1836 a new 
bishop suddenly broke off all relations with the 
mission, and the missionaries addressed them- 
selves to the heathen. The mission is now car- 
ried on by one missionary and his wife with 26 
native workers, men and women. It has 8 
schools and a special mission to lepers. The 
Mission to Lepers in India and the East also has 
a station and Leper Asylum here. A reform 
movement originating in the Jacobite Church 
now promises good results. 

Missionary Societies op. 

ALLUR: Town in the Nellore district, Madras, 
India. It was occupied as a station by the 
ABMU in 1873, and has a missionary and his 
wife and 10 native workers, men and women. It 
has 5 outstations, 2 preaching places and about 
300 church members. 

ALMORA: Capital of the Kumaun district, 
United Provinces, India, situated among the 
Himalayas, 5,337 feet above the sea, near the 
frontier of Tibet. Climate temperate, making it 
a resort for invalids during the hot and rainy sea- 
sons. Population of the district, 493,599 — 
Hindus, Muslims, Europeans. Language, Hin- 
di (Kumauni dialect). Mission station LMS 
(1850), with 10 missionaries and 48 native work- 
ers, men and women. It has 10 outstations, a 
college, a hospital, 6 dispensaries, a leper asylum, 
a high school and 18 common schools. 

ALVAY: Village near Point Pedro on the N. 
side of the Jaffna peninsula, Ceylon ; occupied as 
a mission station by the WMS in 1880. It now 
has 1 missionary and 23 native workers, men and 
women, with 6 outstations and 8 primary schools. 




ALWAR: A city of 53,000 inhabitants in Raj- 
iPutana, India, and capital of the native state of 
the same name. A station of the UFS was estab- 
lished here in 1880. It is occupied by a mission- 
lary and his wife and 28 native workers, witli 6 
common schools and 2 outstations. Also called 

ALWAYE: Village in Cochin, S. India, S. E. of 
Trichur. It is a station of the CMS since 1881 
and is occupied by a missionary and his wife, and 
21 native workers. There are 3 outstations and 
4 village schools. 

AMALAPURAM: Town in the delta of the 
Godavari river, Madras, India, occupied by the 
Plymouth Brethren as a station with a mission- 
ary and his wife and 3 unmarried women. 

AMALIENSTEIK: A village in Cape Colony, 
S. Africa. Mission station of the Berlm Mission- 
ary Society (1853). The mission premises were 
originally presented to the mission by a German 
lady enthusiastically interested in missions, and 
her name is perpetuated by the name of the sta- 
tion. The work is carried on by 4 missionaries 
and 23 native workers, men and women. There 
is an outstation and there are more than 600 
communicants, mostly Hottentots. 

AMANZIMTOTE: Town in Natal, South Africa, 
S. W. from Durban; station of the ABCFM, 
which has founded there important educational 
institutions, including a girls' boarding school, 
an industrial school and a theological class. It 
is also called Adams. 

AMARWARA: A village in the Chhindwara 
district in the Central Provinces, India. The 
Swedish National Missionary Society has a sta- 
tion there, opened in 1886, and now occupied by 
4 missionaries and 4 native workers. There is a 
hospital there and 2 outstations. 

AMASIA: A city of about 30,000 inhabitants 
in the province of Sivas, Asiatic Turkey. It was 
the birthplace of Strabo, and the capital of the 
last kings of Pontus, of whose tombs and defen- 
sive fortifications there are remains. It lies on 
the Yeshil Irmak River, about 60 miles from the 
Black Sea coast. It is an important trade cen- 
ter. There is a small German colony in the city 
and a Protestant Armenian community of some 
vigor connected with the ABCFM. The majority 
of the inhabitants are Mohammedans. 

AMATOLE: A village S. of Stutterheim, Cape 
Colony, S. Africa, where there are 8 outstations 
and more than 400 church members under the 
care of native workers connected with the Wes- 
leyan Missionary Society of South Africa. 

AMBALA: City of (1901) 78,638 inhabitants on 
the Punjab Railway, and capital of the district of 
the same name in the Punjab, India. It is on the 
whole a healthy place of residence. The majority 
of the population are Mohammedans, but a little 
more than one-third of the inhabitants are 
Hindus. Both the Punjabi and Urdu languages 
are in use. 

The PN Society has a station there occupied by 
7 missionaries and 19 native workers. There are a 
hospital and dispensary, special work for lepers, 
2 high schools and 4 village schools. 

The WMS also has a station here under the care 
of a missionary and 2 native workers. 

Also written Umballa. 

AMBALANGODA: Town on the S, W. coast of 
Ceylon; station of the WMS with 1 missionary 
and 15 native workers, men and women. There 

are 3 outstations, 2 preaching places, 5 common 
schools and 25 church members. 

AMBARAWA: Town S. of Samarang in Java; 
station of Neukirchen Mission, with a missionary 
and his wife, and 6 native workers and 6 outstations. 

AMBATO: Town of Ecuador, South America, 
S. of Quito; station of the Gospel Missionary 
Union, with a missionary and his wife and one 
unmarried woman missionary. 

AMBATOHARANANA : A town of Madagascar, 
near Antananarivo. Has a college founded in 
1881 by tlie SPG and a community of nearly 700 
Christians connected with that Society. 

AMBATOMAICANGA : A district in the out- 
skirts of Antananarivo, Madagascar; station of 
the LMS (1831) with 2 missionaries and their 
wives and 1 unmarried woman and 292 native 
workers; 1 high school and 48 village schools, 
and 3,116 church members. 

AMBATOMANGA: A village S, E. of Antana- 
narivo, Madagascar; station of the Paris Evan- 
gelical Society, with 1 missionary and his wife and 
1 unmarried woman and 99 native workers, men 
and women. It has 40 outstations and 40 village 
schools, 1 high school, 1 industrial school, 1 dis- 
pensary and 900 church members. 

AMBOHIBELOMA : A town in the province of 
Imerina, west of Antananarivo, Madagascar. 
Mission station of the Paris Evangelical Society, 
transferred from the LMS after the French occu- 
pation of the island. It has 1 missionary, 92 
native workers, men and women, 32 outstations, 
25 village schools, 1 high school, a dispensary and 
about 200 communicant Christians. 

AMBOHIDRATRIMO : A village in Madagas- 
car, situated about 10 miles N. W. of Antanana- 
rivo. Formerly capital of a petty kingdom. 
Station of the LMS (1901) formed by separating 
a portion of the Amparibe district, including 40 
churches. It now has (1903) 1 missionary and 
his wife, 350 native workers, men and women, 58 
day schools and 5,331 professed Christians, of 
whom 1,839 are church members. 

AMBOHIMAHASOA: A town in the eastern 
part of Madagascar, north of Fianarantsoa; sta- 
tion of the LMS (1890), with a missionary and his 
wife and 119 native workers, 40 village schools, 1 
dispensary and 1,200 church members. 

AMBOHIMANDROSO : A town of south central 
Madagascar. The neighboring districts are 
thickly populated, the native population being 
Betsileo. The uneducated people are extremely 
dull, superstitious, and suspicious. Mission 
station of the LMS since 1875. There are 8 
missionaries and 260 native workers, men and 
women. There is a dispensary, and a belt of 
91 village schools in the surrounding region. 
The church members number about 1,000. 

AMBOHIMANGA : A town N. of Antananarivo, 
Madagascar, station of the LMS (1862), with 2 
missionaries and their wives and 242 native 
workers, 46 village schools and 2,063 church 
members. Station also of the SPG, with 1 native 
worker. Station also of the Norwegian Mission- 
ary Society; no statistics. 

AMBOHIMIADANA : A town in the western 
part of Madagascar; station of the Friends For- 
eign Mission Association, with 1 unmarried 
woman missionary and 187 native workers, men 
and women, 18 outstations, 1 dispensary, and 
475 church members. 

American Baptist 



AMBOHIPOTSY: A district S. W. of Antanan- 
arivo, Madagascar; station of tlie LMS (1863) 
with 1 missionary and his wife and 306 native 
worlcers, 42 Sunday-schools, 42 village schools, 
and 3,000 church members. 

AMBOINA. See Molucca Islands. 

AMBONIRIANA : A town in the central portion 
of Madagascar, near Betafo; station of the 
Friends Foreign Mission Association (1899), with 
1 missionary and 54 native workers, men and 
women, 1 industrial school and 24 outstations, 
and 63 professing Christians. 

AMBOSITRA: A city of South Central Mada- 
gascar; station of the LMS transferred in 1898 
to the Paris Evang. Society. It has 5 mission- 
aries and 150 native workers operating in about 
100 outstations, with a dispensary, a Bible depot, 
4 high schools, a trainmg class for women 
workers, and 80 village schools. The number of 
professing Christians is 1,200. 

AMBRYM. See New Hebrides. 

AMBUR: Town of 10,000 inhabitants in the 
Eastern Ghats, not far from the border of 
Mysore, in the Madras Presidency, India; station 
of the mission of the German Evangelical Luther- 
an Synod of Missouri, Ohio, etc. ; with a mission- 
ary and his wife and 2 native workers and 2 
common schools. 

AMEDSCHOVHE: A town in German Togo- 
land, W. Africa; station of the North German 
Missionary Society (1889), with 4 missionaries, 
3 married women, and 25 native workers, men 
and women, 7 outstations, 11 village schools, 1 
college and 358 communicants. 

UNION: The Society was formed in the city of 
New York in the year 1849, for the uniting of all 
Christian denominations in the work of the world' s 
evangelization. Its early labors were among tlie 
so-called alien populations of our own country, 
especially in the large cities. It also wrought 
vigorously in foreign lands, with main reference 
to giving God's Word and the preaching of the 
Gospel to those who were in the territories of 
Roman Catholicism. Italy, Bohemia, Austria, 
France, Spain, the countries of South America, 
the West Indies and Mexico were included in its 
wide field. 

As the denominations became more numerous 
and strong, there arose the not unnatural ten- 
dency to conduct their missionary labors through 
their own denominational agencies. Hence the 
Society found its resources gradually lessened, 
and was compelled to limit the field of its work. 
At present it devotes its energies to the evangeli- 
iation of France. 

The Union owns the site and building of the 
American Church, 21 Rue de Berri, Paris. The 
maintenance of that most important church is 
included in the Union's care. It also cooperates 
with the French missionary societies. At the 
same time the Union is trustee of the funds raised 
in this country for the building of an American 
church in Berlin. 

Headquarters: The Chelsea, 222 W. 23d St., 
New York. 

The constituency of this society is composed of 
the Baptist Churches of the Northern and West- 
ern States. The Lott Carey Convention (colored) , 
and the German Baptist Churches of North 
America cooperate with it in several missions. 

A. History: The Baptists in America entered 
heartily into the missionary movement at the 
beginning of the 19th century, and as early 
as 1812 had afforded substantial assistance to 
the English Baptist Mission at Serampur, 
India. Many of the missionaries of that society 
had been obliged to go to India _ by way of 
America, because passage was denied them in 
the vessels of the East India Compariy. While 
their presence and addresses in the United States 
had aroused much enthusiasm, no organization 
to promote foreign missions was formed until, 
in consequence of their careful study of the Bible 
on the passage to India, Mr. and Mrs. Adoniram 
Judson, and Luther Rice, of the newly organized 
ABCFM, became Baptists and were baptized at 
Calcutta. Mr. and Mrs. Judson remained to estab- 
lish a mission wherever Providence might indi- 
cate, while Mr. Rice returned to America in the 
hope of inducing the Baptists in this country 
to undertake their support. The conversion of 
these missionaries to Baptist views was regarded 
as a Providential indication of the will of God, 
and the work of collecting funds to support the 
enterprise thus thrown upon their hands was 
entered upon by the Baptist churches with 
enthusiasm. A meeting of delegates representing 
all sections of the country was called to meet at 
Philadelphia; and there, on May 18, 1814, was 
formed the "General Convention of the Baptist 
Denomination in the United States of America for 
Foreign Missions." This body was incorporated 
June 15, 1821, when the words "and other 
important objects relating to the Redeemer's 
Kingdom" were added to the title. 

From its organization, in 1814, until 1845, this 
Triennial Convention was supported by the 
churches of the whole denomination in the 
Southern as well as the Northern States; but the 
period, 1840-45, had been one of great excitement 
and agitation on the subject of slavery, and in 
1845, upon the appearance of divergences of 
view as to the eligibility of slaveholders to 
appointment as missionaries, the churches in all 
the Southern States withdrew from the Triennial 
Convention, and a separate association, with the 
title of the Southern Baptist Convention, was 
organized. This action necessitated a reorgani- 
zation of the friends of missions in the Northern 
States, which was brought about at an extra 
session of the Triennial Convention, held in New 
York City in November, 1845, when a new con- 
stitution was adopted, and the new Convention 
went into operation in May, 1846, under the 
name of the American Baptist Missionary Union. 
The enthusiasm of both the November and May 
meetings was greatly increased by the presence 
of Dr. Judson, then visiting his native land for 
the first time since he left it, in 1813. Missions 
about to be abandoned were reinforced, upo,i 
Dr. Judson's earnest pleadings, and new work 
was entered upon. The debt of the Convention, 
amounting to $40,000, was paid, and contrilDU- 
tions were largely increased. 

B. Organization and Constitution: "The single 
object of the American Baptist Missionary Union 
is to diffuse the knowledge of Jesus Christ, 
by means of missions, throughout the world." 
"The Union is composed of missionaries in service, 
life-members and honorary life-members. It 
meets annually the fourth Tuesday of May, when 
its officers— president, two vice-presidents, re- 
cording secretary, and the Board of Managers- 
are chosen by ballot. The Board of Managers is 



American Baptist 

composed of 75 elective members, of whom not 
more than three-fifths shall be ministers, and not 
less than one-fifth shall be women. Immediately 
after the annual meeting, the Board of Managers 
elects its officers and an executive committee of 
15 (not more than 8 ministers), whose duties 
comprise the management of the entire mission- 
ary work of the Union, and the control of the 
finances at home and abroad, the latter in 
accordance with the instructions and approval 
of the Board of Managers. 

All the officers and members of the Board of 
Managers, the secretaries, and all missionaries 
employed by the Executive Committee must 
be members in good standing of regular Baptist 

C. Development of Work: 1. Asiatic Missions: 
Owing to the fact that, when Mr. and Mrs. 
Judson were compelled by the East India Com- 
pany to leave Madras, the only vessel in which 
they could secure passage was bound for Ran- 
goon, the missionary work of the Baptist Conven- 
tion had its commencement in Burma rather 
than in India, as was the first intention. The 
mission thus started for the Burmese in Rangoon, 
in 1813, was gradually extended, and included, 
in addition to stations among the Burmese, the 
Sgau-Karen, Pwo-Karen, Shan, Kachin, and 
Chin races. In 1831 the mission to Siam was 

In 1835 the Board of Managers were author- 
ized by the Triennial Convention to "establish 
new missions in every unoccupied field where 
there was a reasonable prospect of success." 
Accordingly, that same year the Telugu Mission 
of India was established, and the following year 
work was begun in Assam at the request of the 
English Commissioner in that country. The 
same year the Bangkok Mission in Siam was 
removed to Hongkong, the work being chiefly 
among the Chinese. In 1872 a mission was com- 
menced in Japan, a mission having been pre- 
viously begun in the Lu Chu Islands. In 1884 
the Livingstone Mission in Africa was transferred 
to the Union, and in 1900 work was begun in 
the Philippine Islands. The Society also sup- 
ports or aids Baptist work in France (1832), 
Germany, Austria and Bohemia (1834), Den- 
mark (1891), Sweden (1855), Finland (1889), 
Spain (1870), Russia (1887), and Norway (1892). 

The Woman's Baptist Foreign Missionary 
Society, Tremont Temple, Boston, Mass., was 
organized in 1871 as the result of appeals from 
the wife of a missionarj' in Burma for single 
women to work among the women of that coun- 
try. In response, a general meeting for women 
was convened in Boston, in April, 1871; a con- 
stitution was presented and endorsed by the two 
hundred women present ; the object of the Society, 
as stated in the constitution, was "to furnish sup- 
port, through the American Baptist Missionary 
Union, to Christian women employed by said 
Union as missionaries, native teachers or Bible 
women, together with the facilities needed for 
their work, such laborers being recommended 
by this Society." In December of the same year 
their first missionary was sent out, and at the 
end of the first year they had six missionaries in 
the field, while the home organization numbered 
141 auxiliaries, and the receipts were $9,172. 

The Home Department consists of a Board of 
Managers, meeting twice each month for an 
entire day to transact the business of the Society; 
this Board is divided into various committees 

which meet more frequently. State secretaries 
are appointed by the Board, and they in turn 
appoint Association secretaries. The Home 
Department includes (1902) 1,523 circles with 
37,646 members; 419 young ladies' circles with 
8,591 members; 452 junior organizations with 
12,705 members. Total receipts, $121,771.26. 
There are 78 missionaries on the foreign field, 
433 schools with 16,690 pupils, and 134 Bible 

The Woman's Baptist Foreign Missionary 
Society of the West was organized in 1871 on 
the general lines of the other Woman's Society, 
working through the ABMU. The first mission- 
ary was sent to Burma in December, 1871, and 
the receipts for the first year were $4,245. Its 
Home Department (1902) reports 17,873 con- 
tributors in the senior circles; 62 young ladies' 
circles, and 134 junior organizations. Total 
receipts, $60,280. It now has 35 missionaries on 
the foreign field; 220 schools with 6,771 pupils; 
and 100 Bible women. 

The Woman's Baptist Foreign Missionary 
Society of California was organized in 1875, in 
San Francisco, and the Woman's Baptist Foreign 
Missionary Society of Oregon was organized in 
1878. In 1902 a joint committee of the Mission- 
ary Union and the Woman's Societies was 
appointed to consider the relation of the latter 
to the Union. This committee recommended 
that the Societies of California and Oregon be 
merged into the Society of the West. This was 
accordingly done in 1903. 

D. The Fields: I. Burma (1813): On being 
driven from Bengal by the East India Company, 
Dr. and Mrs. Judson went to Madras intending 
to found a mission in the Penang Straits. Failing, 
however, to find a ship for Penang, they em- 
barked for Burma, not wishing to wait at Madras 
lest the East India Company should compel 
their return to England. They landed in 
Rangoon July 13, 1813. In 1816 G. H. Hough 
and wife joined them, bringing a printing press 
given by the Serampur Mission. June 27, 
1819, the first convert was baptized, and others 
soon following a church was formed. The 
Emperor of Burma having died, the brutal con- 
duct of his successor brought on the first Burmese 
War with England (1824-26). On the capture 
of Rangoon by the English in 1824 Mr. Judson 
and Dr. Price were arrested and imprisoned 
by the Burmans, their captivity culminating 
in the horrors of Oung-pen-la, from which they 
were released only in January, 1826, when the 
king needed Mr. Judson's services as interpreter 
in the negotiations for peace. The mission was 
reinforced after the restoration of peace, and 
supplied with a skilled printer and all appliances 
for issuing books and tracts. In 1834 Mr. Judson 
completed the translation of the Scriptures 
into the Burmese language, and it as well as 
the other issues of the Mission Press were 
eagerly received. The Religious Herald, which 
is still continued, was founded in 1844. After 
the death of Dr. Judson in 1852, the extension 
of the British possessions in Burma gave oppor- 
tunity for the enlargement of the mission. The 
station at Rangoon was reoccupied at once, and 
there the missionaries found a small group of 
15 church members who had survived the 16 
years of persecution. A general convention 
of the missionaries in Burma assembled at 
Maulmain in 1853, which decided that Burma 
missions should be at once permanently estab- 

American Baptist 



lished in Rangoon, Bassein, Henzada, Prome, 
Taungngu and Shwegyin; constituted a pub- 
lication committee for the control of the Mission 
Press; recommended increased attention to 
preaching in the native tongues, the ordin- 
ation of a larger number of native pastors, and 
the missionary supervision of schools as a "means 
of Christian instruction rather than of imparting 
a secular education." The establishment in 
the principal stations of Normal schools for 
training teachers and preachers was approved ; 
the founding of other boarding schools, and the 
teaching of English were discouraged. Some 
of the decisions of the Convention have been 
modified on subsequent experience, but this 
Convention must always be regarded as one 
of the most important events in the history of 
the Burma missions. 

Since the overthrow of the Burmese Kingdom 
in 1885 and the incorporation of its territories 
in the Indian Empire, the prospects of the work 
among the Burmans have materially improved. 
Work for the Karens was commenced by Rev. 
and Mrs. George Dana Boardman at Tavoy 
in 1828. That year Ko-thah-byu, the first Karen 
convert, afterward known as"theKaren Apostle," 
was baptised. The first church was formed 
in 1830. In 1832 the Karen language was 
reduced to writing and the first book printed. 
In 1843 the New Testament was printed in 
Karen, and publication of the Morning Star, 
a Karen journal, was commenced. The Karen 
Theological Seminary was instituted in Maul- 
main in 1846, and in 1848 the Karen pastors 
in the Bassein district assumed self-support. 
In 1850 a Home Missionary Society was formed, 
entirely under the direction of the Karens. 
The jubilee of the Karen Mission was celebrated 
at Bassein, in 1878, by the dedication of the 
Ko-thah-byu Memorial Hall, paid for by the 
Bassein Karens, and set apart for the use of the 
Bassein Sgaw Karen Normal and Industrial 

In 1883 the entire Scriptures were issued in 
Pwo Karen. This completed the work of giving 
the Scriptures to the Karens. 

A mission among the Shans, who are very 
bigoted Buddhists, was established in 1860 
by Dr. Bixby at Taungngu. Ten thousand Shans 
had settled in the district shortly before Dr. 
Bixby arrived there, they having fled from 
civil war in their own land. It being impossible 
to enter the Shan country, schools were estab- 
lished for them at Taungngu, where a small 
church was soon organized. In 1871 the Gospel 
of Matthew and a grammar of the Shan lan- 
guage were printed. In 1885 the first edition 
of the Shan New Testament was published 
and the entire Bible in 1891. 

After the deposition of King Thibaw and the 
annexation of Burma by the English in Decem- 
ber, 1885, Shanland itself was open to the mission- 
aries. A station was opened at Hsipaw, in the 
Northern Shan states, in 1890, and at Mone, 
South of Mandalay, in 1892. In both stations 
medical work has an important part. 

The Chins are allied to the Karens and are 
nominally Buddhists. They are found on both 
sides of the western Yoma range of mountains, 
stretching from Arkan to the Naga hills of 
Assam. Those to the south are divided into 
4 tribes using different dialects; those of the 
north are less known. The Chin convert 
was baptized by Dr. Francis Mason at Tavoy, 

in 1837. TheChinlanguagewasreduoed to writing 
twenty years later by a Karen preacher from 
Bassein, who baptized 40 of these wild people. 
It was not until 1884 that an American mission- 
ary established himself in the Chin country. 

The Kachins, also allied to the Karens, are 
found in northeastern Burma, their country 
extending into China and Assam and north to 
Tibet. They are a wild and savage people. 
Among these tribes work was opened by Rev. 
J. U. Gushing, in 1877. Several Karen teachers 
from Bassein were then sent into the Kachin 
mountain villages and since then Karens have 
been laboring among them, wholly supported 
by the Karens in Bassein. The first Kachin 
Church was formed in 1882 at Pumwai. The 
Kachin language was reduced to writing by the 
Rev. Ola Hansen, who also translated the Gospel 
of St. John, a catechism and some smaller works. 
Since then a system of applying the Roman 
letters to the Kachin language has been adopted 
by the missionaries and by the Government. 

In 1894 Rev. and Mrs. W. F. Armstrong were 
especially set apart to work among the half million 
Telugus and Tamils, who have migrated to 
Burma. They have a large and self supporting 
church at Rangoon, Other missionaries are 
doing more or less work among them. 

The ABMU has in Burma (1903) 27 stations 
and 640 outstations; 173 American mission- 
aries and 1,756 native workers, men and women; 
741 churches with 41,770 communicants; 2 
theological schools, 33 boarding and high schools, 
and 511 elementary schools. The aggregate 
number of pupils in all these educational insti- 
tutions is 19,430. 

//. Assam (1836): Direct evangelistic work 
is done among the Assamese, Bengalis, Kols 
(imported from Nagpur to work in the tea- 
gardens) and the hill men such as the Garos, 
Nagas, Mikirs, etc. Rev. Nathan Brown and 
Rev. O. T. Cutter and their wives commenced 
the mission in Assam at Sadiya in 1836, being 
followed in 1837 by Rev. Miles Bronson, D.D., 
who was stationed at Jaipur. Both of these 
stations were given up later, in favor of Sibsagar 
and Nowgong. The Scriptures have been 
translated into Assamese and printed in Roman 
letters and schools have been opened. But the 
Assamese do not seem to have been deeply 
touched by the Gospel. The Assamese churches 
at these two stations number about 725 
members, while the Garos and other hill men 
and the immigrants from Bengal are far more 
ready to receive Christianity with heart and 
soul. The first two Garo converts were baptized 
in 1863. They instantly began working among 
their own people, with such success that when 
Dr. Bronson visited the Garo country in 1867, 
a church of 40 members was formed at Raja- 
simla. Since then the missions among Garos 
have been most successful. 

There are (1903) in Assam 12 stations and 
147 outstations; 54 American missionaries and 
238 native workers; 76 churches; 7,150 commu- 
nicants; and 146 schools with 2,739 pupils. 

///. India; Telugu Mission: The enterprise 
of the ABMU in India was begun by Rev. and 
Mrs. S. S. Day at Vizagapatanr in 1836. In 
1840 the force removed to Nellore. Schools 
were opened at various points; the first Telugu 
convert was baptized in 1840, and a second in 
1843. But soon both missionaries broke down 
and returned to America. The mission prop 



American Baptist 

erty, schools, and the little church of seven 
members, including the two Telugus, was left 
in the care of a Eurasian preacher, and the 
question of abandoning the Telugu Mission 
was seriousljr considered. Mr. Day, however, 
recovered his health and, with Rev. Lyman 
Jewett, returned in 1848. The next five years 
were full of struggle. In 1853 a deputation 
sent by the Society to examine the Asiatic 
Missions having visited Nellore, advised that 
the mission be either strongly reinforced or 
relinquished at once. The Board of Managers 
of the ABMU threw the responsibility on the 
denomination, as represented in the annual 
meeting, which decided to reenforce and con- 
tinue the mission. Other difficulties having 
arisen, in 1862 the question of abandoning 
the mission was again raised. The missionary 
map, always in view at the annual meetings 
of the Union, had upon it a number of red marks 
to indicate the stations in Burma. These 
marks looked like a cluster of stars, while across 
the Bay of Bengal there was one lone star, 
indicating the only station of the Board in India ; 
and at one of the meetings, when the question 
of abandoning or reenforcing this mission was 
under discussion, it was spoken of as the "Lone 
Star Mission." Dr. S. F. Smith, author of 
"My Country, 'Tis of Thee," wrote that night 
a poem picturing in place of the one star, a 
glorious constellation in that region. The 
prophecy has been fulfilled. 

In 1864 the working force was increased by 
Rev. J. E. Clough, the "Missionary for Ongole." 
The following year four Telugus were baptized 
and from that moment fruit from the long 
period of seed-sowing began to appear. At the 
end of another decade there were nearly 4,000 
baptized converts in that mission field. Then 
came a time of trial; famine, flood, cholera, 
and another and a terrible famine. Sorely 
were the new converts tried, but neither their 
faith nor the faith of the missionaries failed. 
During the period of famine the missionaries 
deemed it wise to put off all baptisms until the 
work of distributing relief was over. Then 
between June 15 and September 17, 1878, 
9,147 were baptized, 2,222 in one day. The work 
went steadily on, and in December, 1890, another 
revival occurred, when 1,671 persons were 
baptized in one day and during the following 
five months nearly 10,000 were baptized at the 
various stations. 

There are (1903) 26 stations and 388 outstations 
in the Baptist Telugu Mission, 99 American 
missionaries and 1,008 native workers; 116 
churches with 54,995 communicants; 1 theo- 
logical school with 149 students; and 549 other 
schools with 10,664 pupils. 

IV. Missions in China: In 1833 Rev. J. _T. 
Jones, of the Burma mission, in consultation with 
his associates went to Bangkok and turned his 
attention to the translation of the New Testa- 
ment and the creation of a Christian literature. 
Altho his work was in the Siamese language, the 
first converts in Bangkok were three Chinese. 
From the first the work among the Chinese was 
more promising than that for the Siamese, and on 
the arrival of reenforcements one of the mission- 
aries removed (in 1842) to Hongkong and another 
(in 1849) to Ningpo. 

The mission at Bangkok has not been largely 
successful in itself. But through the Chinese 
converts in Bangkok an entrance to the people of 

China was secured before that Empire was open to 
foreigners. It is continued as a part of the enter- 
prise of evangelizing China. 

The first Baptist Church in China was formed 
in the Portuguese colony of Macao and the first 
convert was baptized in 1837. In 1843 the sec- 
ond Baptist Chinese Church was organized at 
Hongkong. In 1846 it was decided to remove 
the mission to the mainland and Swatow wa.g 
chosen as the central station. In 1881 a branch 
of the Swatow mission took up work among the 
Hakkas of the highlands. 

Stations have been established in several cen- 
ters in the Swatow region. The work of the 
Baptist Southern China mission embraces 5 sta- 
tions and among other enterprises it includes a 
biblical school for preachers; a training class for 
Bible women ; Bible translation ; elementary and 
high schools; general dispensary and hospital 
work and a medical class for students. 

The Eastern China Mission of the ABMU was 
begun at Ningpo by J. D. Macgowan, M. D., in 
1843. A hospital was opened and the good will 
of the people gained by the successful treatment, 
of difficult cases. The first convert in this field 
was baptized in 1849. Gradually the force was 
increased until the mission now has 5 stations 
and about 800 church members. 

Rev, Josiah Goddard did important work in 
translating the New Testament into the Ningpo 
dialect, and his son, Rev. J. R. Goddard, was the 
chief translator of the Old Testament, which was 
put into Roman letters in 1901. 

A boys' boarding school was opened about 1880 
by the native Christians. This has since been 
maintained without expense to the Union. 

The Western China Mission was begun by W. 
M. Upcraft, formerly agent for the BFBS, and 
Mr. George Warner in 1889. The first station 
was HsU-chau, in the province of Sze-chwan. 
During the first year seven converts were bap- 
tized. Medical work was begun by Mrs. Warner 
in 1891. Two new stations were opened in 1894. 
The following year the Sze-chwan riots occurred; 
the missionaries were obliged to flee, and the mis- 
sion premises were totally destroyed. Opera- 
tions were resumed in 1896 with increased vigor, 
and hope was large for continued expansion of the 
work, when the Boxer Movement of 1900 swept 
through the land and the missionaries were 
obliged to flee and the mission property was 
again destroyed. Many foreigners and native 
Christians were massacred. The work was 
resumed in 1901 and increased opportunities are 
everywhere manifest. 

The Central China Mission was commenced in 
1893 at Han-yang-fu by Rev. and Mrs. J. S. 
Adams and Rev. and Mrs. W. F. Gray. In 1895 
the First Baptist Church was organized. Medical 
work was begun in 1897 by Rev. G. A. Huntley, 
M. D., and each year has witnessed a steady 
growth. In 1902 a mission hall and dispensary 
were erected and the new Metropolitan Taber- 
nacle of the Baptists in mid-China was erected 
and dedicated. 

There are (1903) in the southern, eastern, 
western and central China Missions 15 stations 
and 202 outstations; 77 American missionaries 
and 232 native workers; 85 churches with 3,870 
communicants; 2 theological schools with 49 stu- 
dents; 6 boarding and high schools with 313 stu- 
dents and 35 other schools with 534 pupils. 

V. Missions in Japan: Jonathan Goble was 
sent to Japan by the American Baptist Free 

American Baptist 
American Bible 



Mission Society in 1860, where he labored for 
his own support in part until 1872, when the 
Free Mission Society became a part of the ABMU, 
which assumed Mr. Goble's support and appointed 
Rev. Nathan Brown as their first missionary. To 
him the Japan mission largely owes its early 
development. The first Baptist Church in Japan 
was organized at Yokohama in 1873 with eight 
members, and the following year a station was 
opened in Tokio. In 1878 Kobe was occupied, 
and Sendai in 1882. In 1886 a station was 
opened in Shimonoseki, in Southern Japan, but 
the mission headquarters were later transferred 
to Chofu. In 1891 native helpers were sent from 
Kobe to work among the people of the Lu Chu 
Islands, locating in the city of Nafa. Osaka was 
occupied in 1892, Mito in 1899 and Otarun in 
1902. The progress in all these stations has 
from the first been stead}' and substantial. 

There are (1903) 9 stations and 86 outstations; 
58 American missionaries and 137 native workers, 
30 churches, with 2,157 communicants; 1 theo- 
logical school with 19 students; 5 boarding and 
high schools with 332 students; 6 other schools 
with 313 pupils. 

VI. Missions to Africa; Liberia: The Triennial 
Baptist General Convention was disposed very 
early to aid the African Baptist Missionary Soci- 
ety in planting a mis.sion in Africa in the vicinity 
of the present republic of Liberia. That Society 
had sent missionaries to Liberia in 1821. But 
the unusual difficulties of the field and the mor- 
tality among its white missionaries led the 
ABMU to suspend its mission there in 1856. 

Congo: Henry M. Stanley, after crossing Africa, 
appeared at Boma, near the mouth of the Congo, 
August 7, 1877. When news of his feat reached 
England, it aroused a desire to begin mission 
work in this hitherto untouched region. The 
responsible management of the new enterprise 
was placed in the hands of Mr. and Mrs. H. Grat- 
tan Guinness. The first missionaries of this 
"Livingstone Inland Mission" sailed for the Con- 
go in 1878, and by 1883 six stations had been 
established, extending from the coast to the head 
of Livingstone Falls. A steamer for the naviga- 
tion of the Upper Congo was launched on the 
Pool, in November, 1884. The staff then con- 
sisted of 26 missionaries; one of the languages 
had been reduced to writing; a grammar and dic- 
tionary had been published and a hopeful begin- 
ning made in various lines of missionarj' activity. 
At this time the mission was transferred to the 
care of the ABMU. In August, 1886, Ijegan the 
remarkable revival at Bansa Manteke, known as 
"the Pentecost on the Congo," and in November 
of that year the first church on the Congo was 
formed with 42 members by the Rev. Henry 
Richards, after seven years of apparently fruit- 
less labors. A training school for native evangel- 
ists was opened at Bansa Manteke, and other sta- 
tions speedily founded. At every point the suc- 
cess at Bansa Manteke has been duplicated in 
smaller degrees. From 1890-97 the progress of 
the work was hindered by difficulties between the 
natives and the Congo State officials. Largely 
through the intervention of the missionaries, 
however, the troubles were .settled, and since 
t-hen, with increased facilities for communication, 
openings for aggressive missionary work have 
steadily multiplied. 

There are (1903) 8 stations and 98 outstations; 
33 American missionaries and 217 trained Chris- 
tian native workers; 8 churches with 3,104 com- 

municants; 1 theological school with 20 students; 
5 boarding and high schools with 36 students |; 
107 other schools with 3,249 pupils. 

VII. Philippine Islands Mission: The interest 
of the American Baptists centers in the Visayan 
group of islands. Rev. Eric Lund, for 20 years a 
missionary of the ABMU in Spain, was chosen to 
open the Avork. Early in 1900 Mr. Lund arrived 
in Iloilo in the island of Panay, accompanied by 
Sefior Branlio Manikan, a young Visayan who 
had been sent from the Philippine Islands to 
Spain to be educated for the priesthood, but had 
been converted at Barcelona,, in the mission under 
the care of Mr. Lund. By an interdenomina- 
tional agreement the district north from Iloilo 
on Panay and the western provinces of Negros 
became the distinctive field of the Baptists, and 
Jaro, which is an important trade center, was 
chosen as the headquarters for the work. Reen- 
forcements were sent out, and in June, 1901, a 
church of 43 members was organized at Jaro. 
Tracts and leaflets were distributed by the thou- 
sand, a religious newspaper was founded, and the 
work continued with accelerating movement. 
In Negros, as in Panay, the work reached from 
the central station into the surrounding country. 
Already a remarkable company of native leaders 
has been raised up, and the work has everywhere 
developed with marvelous rapidity. While the 
educated classes are friendly, the work is mainly 
among the peasants. Medical work was begun 
in 1902 and proves an important factor in gaining 
all classes of the people. Persecution has been 
severe, and as a result some 8,000 people have 
left their villages and established a Protestant 
town on the mountain side, calling it Calvary. 
There are (1903) 2 stations and 5 outstations; 11 
American missionaries and 7 native workers, and 
3 churches with 372 communicants. 

VIII. European Missions: European missions 
were not contemplated in the original purpose of 
the Triennial Convention. Aside from a few 
points on the western frontier of the United 
States, where domestic missions were maintained 
for a few years, and a mission to the North 
American Indians, the founders of the Con- 
vention thought of missions to the heathen as 
the only ones within their scope; and when the 
way was opened for missionary work in Europe, 
a distinction was soon established between mis- 
sions to lands where the Greek or Roman Cath- 
olic is the State Church, and those where Prot- 
estantism prevails. Thus, missions to France 
(1832), Greece (1836), and, later, Spain (1870), 
were conducted as foreign missions, and mis- 
sionaries were sent to them from the United 
States, their work to be supplemented, as in Asia, 
by native preachers; while the missions in Ger- 
many (1834), Sweden (1834), and in other Prot- 
estant countries were from the first prosecuted 
by native preachers, the Convention exercising 
only a general superintendence, and rendering 
counsel and financial aid when necessary. 

The work of the ABMU in France dates from 
1832, and was the result of the report of a com- 
mittee sent by the Union to investigate the need 
and opportunity for missionary work in that 
country. Under Louis Philippe, the American 
preachers were not molested, tho native preach- 
ers were arrested. Progress was slow, altho the 
Rev. Reuben Saillens, associated with the 
McAll Mission, gave much assistance. Since 
1891 Mr. Saillens has devoted himself specially 
to the work, and great advance has been made, 



American Baptist 
American Bible 

and 31 preachers, 30 churches, and 2,409 mem- 
bers are reported (1903). 

Baptist work in Germany was inaugurated by 
the baptism, by President Barnes Sears of 
Brown University, of seven men at Hamburg 
(1834). One of these, Johann Gerhard Onoken, 
then an agent of the Edinburgli Bible Society, 
and a boolvseller, became the leader of tlie 
Baptist movement in Germany. Every effort 
was made by the ecclesiastical and civil author- 
ities to stop the work. The leaders were impris- 
oned and fined, but the work progressed and 
extended into Denmark and Russia. There are 
reported (1902) in Germany, 203 preachers, 231 
churches, 41,552 members; in Denmark, 40 
preachers, 29 churches, 3,928 members. 

The Missionary Union has had no American 
missionaries in Germany, tho Dr. Bickel and 
some others had been pastors here; but it has 
sustained a part of the missionaries, aided in 
building chapels and churches, helping the 
theological seminaries, etc., especially in their 
missionary work in Austria, Hungary, Ru- 
mania, Bulgaria and East Switzerland. Emi- 
gration has carried off large numbers of their 
members and will do so still, but they show a 
fair net increase. 

The Baptist work in Russia was commenced 
as a mission enterprise from Germany in 1851, 
at the same time as work in Lithuania and the 
Silesian Mountains. Progress was rapid not- 
withstanding severe opposition, and in 1888 
the Russian churches hitherto included in reports 
from Germany were set apart. There are (1902) 
117 preachers, 108 churches, 22,244 members; 
and in Finland 12 preachers, 34 churches, 
2,133 members. 

On the ship that carried Messrs. Colman and 
Wheelock to Burma (1817) were several Swedes 
and Norwegians. Some of these were converted 
and commenced work in their homes. Other 
sailors were converted in New York and Hamburg. 
One was ordained and a church was organized 
in Gothenburg in 1848. Soon after the Rev. 
Andreas Wiberg, a well known scholar of the 
Lutheran church in Sweden, joined the Baptist 
community, others of influence were added, and, 
by the help of the American Baptist Publica- 
tions Society and the ABMU, the work has 
grown until there are (1902) in Sweden 764 
preachers, 568 churches, 42,011 members, and 
in Norway, 16 preachers, 35 churches, with 
2,707 members. 

In 1870 the ABMU adopted a work com- 
menced in Spain a few years earlier by Prof. 
W. J. Knapp, an independent missionary. The 
work has not progressed rapidly. There are 4 
preachers, 4 churches, and 135 members. 

Summary: The Society was organized in 1814 
with two missionaries in the foreign field, and 
with but a single convert from heathenism in 
1819, had, in 1840, 97 missionaries, 68 churches, 
44 schools, and more than 2,900 baptized be- 
lievers; and an income of $56,948.42. In 1870 
the number of communicants had grown to 
48,763; the force of missionaries was 127, the 
income amounting to $217,510.56. In 1902 
478 missionaries of the Union were laboring in 
7 heathen countries and preaching the Gospel in 
more than 25 languages. The converts in 
heathen lands alone numbered 111,650, organ- 
ized into 1,003 churches, of which 668 were 
entirely self-supporting. In heathen lands there 
were 1,473 schools of all grades with 37,356 

pupils, 2 colleges and 7 theological and Bible 
schools for the training of a native ministry. 
The receipts from all sources (1902) reached 
$624,713.79 and the average annual income for 
the previous five years was $653,777. 
Periodic.\l9 published by the Society and Auxiliaries: The 
Baptist Missionary Magazine; The Helping Band (Wom- 
an's Societies) ; Around the World (for young people). 
General Literaturr; Smitli (S. F.), Missionary Sketches, 
Boston, 1879 and 1883 ; Rambles in Mission Fields, Boston, 
1884; Downie (D.), The Lone Star (the TeluRU Mission), 
Philadelphia, 189.3; Saillens (R.), /1m Pays des Tenebrea; 
Histoire de la Premiere Mission au Congo, Paris, 1889; 
Titterington (Mrs. S. B.), A Century of Baptist Missions, 
Philadelphia, 1891; Jubilee Conference of ABMU Mission 
in Assam, Calcutta, 1887. 

Bible House, Astor Place, New York City, U.S.A. 

Undenominational, representing all the evan- 
gelical communities of the United States. Com- 
bines both home and foreign work. 

History: Prior to the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, the American colonies of Great Britain 
had been dependent on the mother country for 
all their English Bibles. The hostilities which 
ensued cut off the supply of books printed in 
London, and a memorial was addressed to the 
Continental Congress urging that body to under- 
take the publication of an edition of the Scrip- 
tures. The committee to which the matter was 
referred, after consultation with printers in 
Philadelphia, reported that the cost of an edition 
of the Bible would exceed £10,000, and that 
neither the type nor the paper could be procured 
in this country, but recommended the purchase, 
at the expense of Congress, of 20,000 copies in 
Holland, Scotland, or elsewhere. During the 
next thirty years private enterprise did much 
to meet the immediate wants of the nation, but 
failed of course to reach the homes of indiffer- 
ence and poverty. 

The British and Foreign Bible Society was or 
ganized in 1804 at London, and its first foreign 
edition of the Scriptures was The Gospel of John 
(2,000 copies), in Mohawk and English. This 
was followed by efforts to secure an organization 
in America which resulted in the formation of 
the Philadelphia Bible Society in 1809. Similar 
societies were also formed in Connecticut, Mas- 
sachusetts, New Jersey and New York, all with 
the well-defined object of putting the Scriptures 
into every destitute family within the immediate 
circle of their direct influence, and through the 
thinly settled regions on the frontier. 

Samuel J. Mills, one of the four who, at the 
haystack prayer-meeting at Williams College, 
gave the impulse that resulted in the formation 
of the ABCFM, after his graduation from An- 
dover Seminary in 1812 made two tours of 
investigation, and his report that the number 
of famUies found without the Bible far exceeded 
all expectations raised a deep conviction that 
some more efficient means must be found for 
meeting the want. 

Early in 1816 Elias Boudinot, President of 
the New Jersey Bible Society made a public 
communication in favor of a national Bible 
movement. The New York Bible Society fol- 
lowed this with formal action, resulting in the 
calling of a convention, which met May 8, 
1816, in the consistory of the Reformed Dutch 
Church in Garden Street, and organized the 
American Bible Society. Thirty-five local organ- 
izations united in this action, and eighty-four 
became auxiliary to it during the first year of its 

American Bible 



In the earlier years the offices of the Society 
were in the lower part of New York, but the 
great increase of work necessitated better accom- 
modations, and in 1S53 it took possession of its 
present quarters. The outlay involved in this 
building was provided for by individual sub- 
scriptions made for the purpose and by rentals 
received after its completion, no funds raised for 
publication and distribution being invested in it. 

Constitution and Organization: The American 
Bible Society is incorporated under the laws of 
the State of New York for the sole purpose of 
publishing and circulating the Holy Scriptures 
without note or comment. It is required oy its 
by-laws to put the prices of all its publications 
as low as possible, and practically sells them at 
lower prices than would be charged if all the 
ordinary elements of cost were taken into 

The business of the Society is conducted by a 
Board of Managers consisting of thirty-six lay- 
men, residents of New York or its vicinity, one- 
fourth of whom go out of office every year, but 
may be re-elected. Any minister of the Gospel 
who has been made a life-member by the con- 
tribution of thirty dollars is entitled to be present 
and vote at the monthly meetings of the Board, 
with all the power of an elected manager. The 
executive officers are three corresponding secre- 
taries and a treasurer; district secretaries are 
employed in the United States, while the foreign 
work is chiefly under the care of specially ap- 
pointed agents. A large number of Auxiliary 
societies are in close relation with the National 
Society. These are expected to see that their 
own districts are well supplied through deposi- 
tories, colporteurs, or voluntary agents, and to 
donate any surplus to the National Society for 
the general work. Until 1874 the Society had 
only two special agencies, in the Levant and La 
Plata. That number has been increased, until 
now it has its own representatives in Brazil, 
Central America, China, Cuba, Japan and Korea, 
La Plata, The Levant, Mexico, Philippines, 
Porto Rico, Siam and Venezuela. These agencies 
are, some of them, quite large, and have the 
charge of the translation and manufacture of 
Bibles, as well as of their distribution, chiefly 
through colporteurs. It also acts through the 
various missionary societies that naturally look 
to it as an American organization for assistance 
in their Bible work, or through other local Bible 
societies — e.g., the Bible Society of France. This 
action takes the form of grants of Scriptures 
when the versions used are published by the 
Society, and of sums of money for expense of 
colportage or printing or purchase of Scriptures 
not published by the Society. 

In the foreign field the aim is always to work 
in complete harmony with other organizations 
of whatever kind that have the same end in view. 
Whether at home or abroad, it is the conviction 
of the Society that the best results are reached 
by sale, tho without profit, rather than by free 
distribution. This does not preclude special 
grants, but such are discouraged rather than 

Versions and Translations of the Bible Cir- 
culated: As early as 1818 plates of the New Testa- 
ment in Spanish were procured for the Spanish- 
speaking nations of America, and at the same 
time provision was made for giving the printed 
Gospel to some tribes of North American Indians. 
Others followed, until the whole number com- 

S rises more than eighty languages and dialects, 
[any of these have been printed on the Society's 
own presses, or immediately at its own expense, 
while others have been printed or purchased by 
means of grants to missionary societies. 

A large portion of these versions have been 
prepared by missionaries, the expense of publi- 
cation having been assumed by the Bible Society. 
Within the first seven years $37,000 was thus 
expended. The establishment of distinct for- 
eign agencies has lessened the amounts paid 
directly to the Missionary Boards, but the Society 
aways looks to the missionaries of every name 
for the hearty cooperation which it has received 
in the past, and tho "the Board will favor 
versions in any language which in point of 
fidelity and catholicity shall be conformed to the 
principles upon which the American Bible 
Society was originally founded," ordinarily no 
translation is printed and published until a. 
committee of missionaries or other persons 
skilled in the language have given it their appro- 

Among the more important versions are the- 
Chinese (Mandarin, classical, and a number of 
colloquials) ; Japanese; Siamese; Korean;: 

Mongolian; Armenian; Bulgarian; Turkish; 
Arabic; several of the dialects of the Pacific 
islands, and a number in Africa. Conspicuous 
among them all stands the Arabic version, pre- 
pared at the sole expense of the American Society, 
and which is recognized by scholars everywhere 
as one of the finest versions of the Bible in exist- 

Development of Foreign Work: It was natural 
that the attention of the Society should be 
directed to the Spanish colonies of America. In 
1818 plates of the New Testament in Spanish 
were procured, and a few years later a special 
report in regard to Mexico led to the sending of 
supplies of Scriptures to that country. South 
America also was visited about the same time 
by an exploring expedition sent out by the 
American Board, and in 1833 the Bible Society 
sent a special representative to report on the 
conditions along the west coast. No continuous 
work was done, however, beyond the making of 
grants to the missionary societies, until 1864, 
when a regular agent, Mr. Andrew W. Milne, was. 
placed in charge of the La Plata field. 

The development of missionary work in other 
parts of the world was not overlooked, and grants, 
m aid of versions and for the distribution of 
Scriptures were made in many countries. In 
1836 the Rev. Simeon H. Calhoun was appointed 
to represent the Society in Syria, but he served 
only a few years, and it was not until 1854, whea 
the Rev. C. N. Righter was sent to Constanti- 
nople, that the Levant Agency was fairly inaugu- 
rated. In 1876 there was a new impulse given 
to the work by the sending of the Rev. Luther 
Halsey Gulick, M.D., to China and Japan, and 
of the Rev. A. L. Blackford to Brazil. It was. 
not long before Dr, Gulick realized that the field 
entrusted to him was too large for any one man, 
and he devoted himself to China, leaving Japan,, 
with the subsequent addition of Korea, to form 
a separate agency. From that time the advance 
was rapid. Special agents were appointed in 
1878 for Mexico; 1882 for Cuba; 1888 for Venez- 
uela; to which Colombia has been added, 1890- 
for Siam and Laos; 1892 for Central America. 
The opportunities opened up by the war with 
Spain were promptly met; both as regards th& 



American Bll>le 

needs of the army and of the newly acquired 
provinces; and special agents were commissioned 
to Porto Rico and the Philippines. 

In this general development, as was inevitable, 
the Society's work has frequently come into close 
relations with that of the British and Foreign 
Bible Society. In some cases there has been 
arranged a division of territory; in others, a com- 
bination of forces; while in others the two great 
societies have worked side by side, each realizing 
that there was work enough for both. 

Statement of Foreign Work: South America: 
The American Bible Society has three agencies 
in South America: the La Plata, Brazil, and 
Venezuela and Colombia. The La Plata agency 
covers all of South America not included in the 
other two, especially Argentina, Uruguay, Para- 
guay, Ecuador, Peru, Chile and Bolivia. The 
Rev. Andrew W. Milne is still in charge (1903) 
after nearly forty years of service, with his head- 
quarters at Buenos Aires, Argentina. The lan- 
guage used is chiefly Spanish, though there are 
versions of portions of the Bible in some of the 
Indian dialects, notably the Quichua and 
Aimara. This Agency has had from its inception 
to contend not only with the bitter hostility of 
the Roman Catholic priesthood, but with the 
opposition of the new governments to every form 
of evangelical work, which, however, is changing 
to a more favorable attitude. The following 
summary by decades shows how vigorously the 
work has been prosecuted : 

Decades. Bibles. Testaments. Portions. Totals 

From 1864 to 1870... . S,S79 7,631 10,417 23,627 

From 1871 to 1880.. . . 15,347 18,347 45,415 79,467 
From 1881 to 1890.. . . 37,671 41,193 117,644 196,508 
From 1891 to 1900... . 69,699 60,765 145,866 266,220 

118,196 127,936 319,332 565,822 

The Brazil Agency is distinct from the rest of 
South America on account of the use of the 
Portuguese language. The work of Bible distri- 
bution from the headquarters at Rio de Janeiro 
is rendered easier than in the La Plata agency 
by the railways recently built and by the river 
navigation ; but the general conditions are much 
the same : hostility on the part of most of the 
ruling class (with a few notable exceptions), as 
well as of the ecclesiastics; and absolute indiffer- 
ence on the part of the people. Each year, how- 
ever, shows advance, and the total (1902) of 
330,772 volumes distributed since 1876 shows the 
seed sown. 

The Agency for Venezuela and Colombia, which 
has its headquarters at Bucaramanga, Colombia, 
is probably the most difficult field occupied by 
the Society. The continued revolutions, with 
the consequent disturbance of economic and 
social conditions; the rigid censorship, making it 
impossible for the agent to report fully and freely, 
have (1902) hampered severely. Yet, even 
under such conditions, more than 90,000 Scrip- 
tures were circulated in thirteen years; and with 
the establishment of peace and the opening of 
the Panama canal, great advance is looked for. 

Central America : This agency covers all the 
States of Central America and has its headquar- 
ters at Guatemala City, Guatemala. The present 
agent (Rev. F. G. Penzotti) had a long and most 
trying experience in Bible work in South Amer- 
ica, and the circulation of over 94,000 volumes 
in nine years, mostly in Spanish, is witness to 
his activity and success. 

Mexico: From his headquarters at Mexico City, 
the agent of the Bible Society superintends the 

work both in Mexico and along the frontier in 
Texas. In no agency has there been more of 
individual labor, and special reference should be 
made to the work of Miss Melinda Rankin on the 
Texan border in 1852 and later. The circulation 
is chiefly in Spanish, and during the twenty-three 
years from the founding of the agency, numbered 
over 408,000 volumes. 

Cuba and Porto Rico: The headquarters of these 
two agencies are at Havana and San Juan. The 
circulation in both is chiefly in Spanish and 
amounted in Cuba in nineteen years to 98,000 
volumes, and in Porto Rico in three years to 
about 10,000, while in 1902, as many more were 

The Levant: The prominent part taken by 
American missionary societies in the Levant ha's 
marked it from the first as a special field of the 
American Bible Society. The agency was at 
first somewhat undefined in extent, but included 
in general the entire Turkish Empire, in Europe, 
Asia, and Africa, with Greece and Persia, while 
a general superintendence of southern Russia and 
the Caucasus was conducted from the headquar- 
ters at Constantinople. Northern Africa, west of 
Egypt, was dropped; Greece was handed over to 
the British and Foreign Bible Society; Persia was 
for a few years made a separate agency, and the 
share of the American Society in Russia was con- 
fined to assistance rendered to the Russian Bible 
Society. At present the agency includes Bul- 
garia, European Turkey, Asia Minor, Mesopo- 
tamia, Syria, Egypt, and the Sudan. The 
agent's office is at the Bible House, Constanti- 
nople, and there are subagents at Beirut and 

Few agencies reach so great a number of races 
and languages. The Scriptures are sold in 
Arabic, Turkish (printed in three characters — 
Arabic, Armenian, and Greek), Armenian (An- 
cient, Ararat, and Modern), Greek (Ancient and 
Modern), Kurdish, Persian, Syriac (Ancient and 
Modern), Hebrew, Judeo-Spanish, Bulgarian, 
Slavic, Rumanian, Croatian, Russian, besides all 
the languages of Europe. 

One characteristic feature of this agency is that 
the great majority of the Scriptures distributed 
in it are manufactured at the Bible House, Con- 
stantinople, and the Presbyterian Mission Press 
at Beirut. The work done at both places com- 
pares very favorably with the best work in the 
United States. Special versions have been pre- 
pared, some of them of the whole Bible, as the 
Arabic, Turkish, Armenian, Bulgarian; others of 
portions in special dialects. These have been 
printed in numerous editions to suit the taste of 
every class of men, from the Turkish or Christian 
ecclesiastic to the poorest day laborer. The total 
circulation of nearly 2,000,000 copies has been 
almost entirely by sale, the prices, however, being 
placed within the reach of the people, with com- 
paratively little regard to the cost of the book. 
Thus a Bible in plain binding, which costs the 
Society $2 for printing and binding alone, is sold 
for 60 cents. 

In Persia the British and Foreign Bible Society 
occupies the southern portion of the field, and 
the American Society's work in Northern Persia 
is conducted through the Presbyterian Mission. 

China: The first regular agent of the American 
Bible Society to China was Rev. Luther H. 
Gulick, M.D., who was appointed in 1876. A 
son of a veteran missionary to the Hawaiian 
Islands, and himself connected with mission 

American Bible 
American Board 



work in Micronesia, and afterward in Italy and 
Spain, lie proved admirably adapted to the work 
of organization that devolved upon him. Japan 
was also at first included with China under Dr. 
Gulick's care, but was, in 1881, made a distinct 
agency, and Siam was added, but was itself also 
made independent in 1889. 

The flexibility that has marked the conduct of 
the Society's work is illustrated in China, where 
the entire agency is divided into six colporteur 
districts, each under the care of a foreign superin- 
tendent to whom the native colporteurs report, 
while the general agent has his headquarters at 

As was natural, the first efforts of the agency 
were put forth in the line of Bible translation, and 
as fast as portions could be prepared they were 
offered for sale. The number of copies sent out 
from two of the three presses dunng the first 
year was 39,371, of which over 33,000 were por- 
tions. This number was nearly doubled the next 
year, and in 1901 the total circulation was 
428,927, including 12,341 Bibles, 32,334 Testa- 
ments and 384,252 portions; and this was a 
considerable falling off from the previous year 
owing to the Boxer outbreak. 

The work of translation still continues, the 
different missionary societies uniting with the 
British and Foreign, Scotch National, and Ameri- 
can Bible Societies to secure as great uniformity 
and accuracy as possible. The manufacture is 
carried on chiefly at Shanghai, but also at 
Fuchau and at Yokohama, in Japan. A concep- 
tion of the work will be gained from the following 
table of publications in 1901 : 

Place of 
Publication. Dial C;. Book. Volumes. Pag^.^. 

Shanghai. Mandarin New Test . . .5,000 2,750,000 

Genesis 20,000 2,160,000 

Matthew... 40,600 2,764,000 

Mark 40,000 1,760,000 

Luke 40,600 3,008,000 

John 40,000 2,320,000 

Acts 40,000 2,880,000 

Classical New Test . . 2,000 580,000 

Matthew... 500 25,000 

Shanghai Colloq...Gen.-Ruth .500 211,600 

Soochow " Gen.-Ruth 500 211,500 

Tuchau, Classical Bible 3,000 3,576,000 

Fuchau Colloquial New Test . . 6,000 5,118,000 

Mark 3,000 228,000 

Yokohama,Mandarin Bible 6,000 6,410,000 

New Test.. 12,000 6,600,000 

Psalms.... 6,000 756,000 

Canton Colloquial. New Test. . 2,000 1,136,000 
Classical New Test . . 7,000 4,608,000 

Total 273,700 48,102,000 

An interesting and significant fact in Bible 
work in China was the interest taken in it by 
the young Emperor and the preparation and 
presentation to the Empress Dowager of a mag- 
nificent copy of the Scriptures in 1899. 

Japan and Korea: On receiving information in 
1872 that a Japanese version of some of the Gos- 
pels was nearly complete, the Society promptly 
made a grant to promote its publication. It sub- 
sequently assumed the support of Drs. S. R. 
Brown and D. C. Greene, and bore a considerable 
part of the expense of translating the New Testa- 
ment, which appeared in parts and was com- 
pleted in 1880. The next year Japan was made 
a separate agency, and was so conducted until 
1890, when the narrowness of the field and the 
peculiar intermingling of interests led to an 
arrangement between the American Bible Society, 
the British and Foreign Bible Society, and the 
National Bible Society of Scotland to act in uni- 
son, apportioning the territory between them, 

and acting under a general Bible Society's Com- 
mittee consisting of six missionaries appointed 
by the American Bible Society, four by the 
British and Foreign Bible Society and two by the 
National Bible Society of Scotland. The Ameri- 
can Society is represented by an agent residing at 
Yokohama. The work done is indicated by the 
figures of circulation in 1901: 5,505 Bibles; 
27,615 Tests.; 148,372 portions; total, 181,492. 
It is notable that nearly one-third of the Bibles 
and Testaments were in English. Of the total, 
about one-half was assigned to the American 

The work in Korea, under the general care of 
the agent at Yokohama, is as yet not fully 
organized. The work of translation is still going 
on and the distribution is for the most part 
under the care of the missionaries. 

Siam and Laos: Bible work in Siam was for 
many years carried on by the missionaries of the 
PN under the general direction of Dr. Guliek; 
but as the work enlarged both in China and Siam, 
a division became necessary, especially as the 
advance included the Laos people on the north. 
The headquarters of the agent are at Bangkok, 
where also most of the printing is done. From 
the organization in 1890 to 1902 the circulation 
was 282,954, the last year showing 37,216, an 
advance of 5,484 over the previous year. Of 
these, the great majority, 32,521, were Siamese, 
3,615 Chinese, 942 Laos, the remainder Tamil, 
Cambodian, Malay and English. 

Philip-pine Islands: This latest agency of the 
Society was established in 1899, and covers the 
entire archipelago. The agent's office is in 
Manila. The circulation for the first year was, 
naturally, small, but the second year rose to 
52,793, and in 1902 to 91,260. The New Testa- 
ment in Tagalog has been completed by the 
BFBS, which had commenced the translation 
before the outbreak of the Spanish War. As 
yet only the Gospels have been translated into 
Pampanga and Ilocano, but the work is going on 
as rapidly as possible. The printing is done in 

The total issues of the Society for the year 
1902 were 1,993,558, of which 734,649 were dis- 
tributed in the United States (including Porto 
Rico and Hawaii), and 1,258,909 copies in foreign 
lands. The total issues of the Society in 87 
years amounted to 72,670,783 copies. 
The Bible Society Record, an illustrated monthly, is the 
Society's official organ. 


/. History: In 1806 Samuel J. Mills, with 
three other students of Williams College, fled 
for refuge from a thunder storm to the shelter 
of a hay-stack, and while waiting there pledged 
themselves to the work of foreign missions. 
Later they entered Andover Theological Sem- 
inary. In 1810 Samuel J. Mills, Gordon Hall, 
Adoniram Judson, Samuel Newell and Samuel 
Nott, students in the Seminary, conferred with 
the faculty, and a number of prominent min- 
isters, in the home of Professor M. Stuart, 
and were counseled, "Go in the name of the 
Lord, and we will help." The next day two of 
these ministers, Drs. S. Spring and S. Wor- 
cester, outlined a plan for organizing the Amer- 
ican Board of Commissioners for Foreign Mis- 
sions, which three days later, on the twenty- 
ninth of June, was adopted by the General Asso- 
ciation of Congregational Churches of Massa- 



American Bible 
American Board 

chusetts at Bradford, Mass., and on September 
5, 1810, at Farmington, Conn., a constitution 
was adopted and officers were elected. Dr. 
Worcester, the first secretary, prepared an ad- 
dress to the churches, and every effort was 
made to arouse interest in the new enterprise. 
The following year (1811) Judson was sent to 
England to confer with the London Missionary 
Society as to the advisability of cooperation, 
but the distance between the two organizations 
was deemed to make this inadvisable and he 
returned. In September of the same year 
Burma was selected as a promising field for the 
first enterprise of the Board. Owing to financial 
straits, it seemed unwise to attempt anything 
beyond what the actual cash on hand would 
warrant, and at a meeting of the Prudential 
Committee, January 27, 1812, there was at 
first but one vote — probably Dr. Worcester's — 
in favor of pledging the support of the men 
already appointed, but that one vote carried 
the day. It was decided to trust God, it was 
His work, and go forward, believing that the 
funds would be obtained. From this principle 
the Board has never departed. 

By a special effort six thousand dollars was 
collected, and on February 6, 1812, Messrs. 
Judson, Hall, Newell, Nott and L. Rice were 
ordained at Salem, Mass., and before the end of 
the month Messrs. Judson and Newell, with their 
wives, sailed from Salem, and Messrs. Hall, Rice 
and Nott, with Mrs. Nott, from Philadelphia, 
for Calcutta. 

The work thus being fairly inaugurated, the 
next step was to secure a charter from the 
Massachusetts Legislature. This met with some 
opposition, but at length on the 20th of June, 
the charter was granted, and the American 
Board had a legal existence. 

It is doubtful whether the founders of the 
Board anticipated the support of other than 
Congregational churches, but at its second 
meeting in 1811, a proposition was made to the 
General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church 
for the organization of a similar society with 
which the Board might cooperate. The Assem- 
bly declined to do this, but recommended the 
Presbyterian churches to work through the 
American Board. Accordingly at the next 
meeting of the Board, in 1812, eight commis- 
sioners were added to represent the Presbyterian 
Church. In 1814 the number of Commissioners 
was increased by one number from the Associate 
Reformed Church, in 1816, by one from the 
Reformed (Dutch) Church, and later one from 
the Reformed German Church was added to the 

In 1825 a proposition was made by the United 
Foreign Missionary Society (Presbyterian), 
formed in 1817 for work among the Indians, 
for union with the American Board. This 
was cordially endorsed by the General Assembly, 
and for twelve years the Board represented 
officially the Presbyterian Church. In 1837, 
on the separation between the Old and New 
Schools, the former withdrew from support of 
the Board, and adopted the Western Foreign 
Missionary Society, formed in 1812, as their 
own organization. The New School branch of 
the Presbyterian Church continued to work with 
the American Board until 1870, when they with- 
drew to support the Board of Foreign Missions 
of the reunited Presbyterian Church. In 1857 
the Reformed Dutch Church established its 

own Board; the next year the Associate Re- 
formed Presbyterians became a part of the 
United Presbyterian Church, and took up a 
distinct work; and in 1865 the Reformed Ger- 
man Church did the same, so that since 1870 
the Board has practically represented Congre- 
gationalists alone. 

The ABCFM now (1902) has in the different 
fields an aggregate of 549 American mission- 
aries, 3,581 trained Christian native workers, 
524 churches with 55,645 communicants, 14 
theological schools, 118 boarding and high 
schools, with 10,895 students, 1,134 other schools 
with 46,149 pupils. Contributions from mis- 
sionary fields in the year ending in July, 1902, 
were $167,512; in America, $677,593.85; total 
receipts, $845,105.85. 

Coordinate with the growth of the Board 
itself has been that of its great auxiliaries, the 
three Woman's Boards. As far back as 1812 
several missionary associations of women aided 
the ABCFM, and these were gradually so system- 
atized that in 1839 there were no less than 
680 with nearly 3,000 local agents. 

In 1868, the Woman's Board of Foreign Mis- 
sions was organized, auxiliary to the American 
Board. At first the formation of an inter- 
denominational society was contemplated. On 
the first Tuesday of January, 1868, about forty 
ladies met in Boston, and a proposition of the 
American Board for cooperation with it was 
submitted to them, and a resolution was adopted 
"to cooperate with the American Board in its 
several departments of labor for the benefit of 
our sex in heathen lands." Committees of 
ladies were appointed to prepare a constitution 
and list of officers; and on the ensuing week, 
at the same place, the New England Women's 
Foreign Missionary Society was organized. 

By the special request of leading members of 
other denominational Boards, and in accordance 
with the original plan of union of evangelical 
sects, the first article of the constitution was 
adopted as follows: — 

"The object of this Society is to engage the 
earnest, systematic cooperation of the women 
of New England, with the existing Boards for 
Foreign Missions, in sending out and supporting 
unmarried female missionaries and teachers to 
heathen women." 

While there was to be union under the organ- 
ization, in conference, prayer, and the home 
department of work, the treasurer was to keep 
a denominational account, crediting each relig- 
ious body composing the union with the sums 
received from its constituents, and paying the 
aggregate amount to the Foreign Missionary 
Society with which it was connected. 

In September of the same year the constitu- 
tion was altered, and the work of the Society 
was limited to the fields of the American Board. 
The restriction of work to New England was also 
removed, by changing the name to The Woman-'s 
Board of Missions, whereby ladies in any part 
of the land in sympathy with the American 
Board could become auxiliary to its work. 

The following year the Woman's Board was 
incorporated by the Legislature of Massachu- 
setts. Auxiliaries were formed among the 
women of the churches, and these were gath- 
ered into "Branches" having regularly ap- 
pointed officers, constitutions, etc., each com- 
prising not less than 20 auxiliaries and mission 

American Board 



During the first year the support of 7 mis- 
sionaries and 11 Bible women was assumed. 
The field of work has been extended gradually 
until the support of all single and some married 
women, of girls' boarding and day schools, of 
primary schools in part, of kindergarten worlv 
and of all Bible women laboring in the fields of 
the ABCFM ia now provided by the Woman's 
Boards, which also sustain an extensive medical 

There are (1902) 24 branches with 1,136 
senior and 573 junior auxiliaries and mission 
circles, and 221 cradle rolls, a total of 1,930 
organizations, which hold, upon an average, as 
many as 12,000 meetings yearly. Christian 
Endeavor Societies, King's Daughters and Sun- 
day Schools are affiliated. The Woman's Board 
of Missions now has 131 missionaries in 18 fields; 
33 girls' boarding schools, 300 day schools, 200 
Bible women. Its annual receipts are $139,- 

The Woman's Board of Missions of the Interior, 
also organized in 1868, and embracing the sixteen 
States of the interior and northwest, has its 
headquarters at 1.53 LaSalle Street, Chicago. 
It publishes a monthly magazine. Mission 
Studies, and provides a department in Life and 
Light for Woman. The whole number ot 
societies contributing last year was 2,320, of 
which 1,154 were seniors, 102 young ladies, 542 
Christian Endeavor societies, and 522 children's 
societies, including Junior Christian Endeavor, 
mission bands, Sunday-schools, and wee folks' 

It supports 72 missionaries, 70 native Bible 
women, 136 native teachers, 2 colleges, 17 
boarding schools, 2 training schools for Bible 
women, a kindergarten training school, and a 
large number of village and day schools; also 
evangelistic and medical work. Receipts, 

The Woman's Board of Missions of the Pacific 
was organized in 1873, and has five branches — 
Northern California, Southern California, Oregon, 
Washington, and TJtah. It supports five mis- 
sionaries, and helps in educational and medical 
work in India, China, and Japan. Receipts, 

//. Constitution and Organization : The 
ABCFM is a company incorporated under the 
laws of the State of Massachusetts, U. S. A., 
"for the purpose of propagating the Gospel in 
heathen lands by supporting missionaries and 
diffusing a knowledge of the Holy Scriptures." 
It is composed of corporate members, of whom 
one-third are by law laymen, one-third clergy- 
men, and the remaining third may be chosen 
from either of these two classes. It is self-per- 
petuating, having full and sole power to fill all 
vacancies in its own body, elect officers, and to 
gave final decision on all matters relating to the 
management of the missions under its charge. 
It has no ecclesiastical character or relations, 
no organic connections with any church or body 
of churches, and is legally amenable to no 
authority except that of the Legislature of the 
State of Massachusetts, and to that only if it 
violates the terms of its charter. There has 
been, however, of late years an increasing desire 
on the part of the Congregational churches for 
closer, if not organic relations with the Board, 
and this has been recognized and met by the 
Board itself. The number of corporate mem- 
bers was increased to 350, and again to 500. 

Efforts have been made to secure uniform 
representation from the different parts of the 
country, based in general on the proportion of 
annual contributions from each section. Nom- 
inations to membership in the Board are made 
by the various State Conferences or Associations, 
the Board itself reserving the right of election. 
The regular meetings of the Board are held in 
different sections of the country, in the month 
of October of each year. 

The actual business of the Board is entrusted 
to a Prudential Committee consisting of the 
President and Vice-president ex officio, and 
twelve members, six ministers and six laymen. 
The executive officers are three Secretaries, an 
Editorial Secretary, and a Treasurer. The 
offices occupied in the earlier years of the Board's 
history were generally small rooms in tenement 
houses, except in 1820-21, when they were in 
the basement of Lyman Beecher's Church in 
Hanover Street. For many years they were at 
33 Pemberton Sq., the property of the Board. 
They are now in the Congregational House, 14 
Beacon Street, Boston. 

///. Development of Foreign Work: The two 
missionary parties that sailed for Calcutta in 1812 
had Burma for their objective point, but the hos- 
tility of the East India Company and a change of 
views on baptism by Messrs. Judson and Rice 
resulted in the establishment of the Marathi Mis- 
sion at Bombay in 1813. The next step, in 1816, 
to Ceylon, where Newell and his wife had visited, 
was a natural one. Meanwhile the interest grew, 
and mindful of the need of the heathen nearer 
home, the Board sent an exploring committee 
through Georgia and Alabama, whose report 
resulted in missions to the Cherokees, in 1817, 
and to the Choctaws, in 1818. In 1825 several 
missions started by the United Foreign Mission- 
ary Society were transferred to the Board, and in 
1830-35 several other tribes were brought within 
the scope of their work. 

Attention was then turned to the Levant. In 
1819, Pliny Fisk and Levi Parsons landed at 
Malta, then removed to Smyrna, and from there 
visited Palestine, Alexandria, Syria and Cyprus. 
These visits and the translation and press-work 
done at Malta and Smyrna laid the foundation for 
the missions to Syria, Egypt, Asia Minor, Persia, 
Greece and Bulgaria. 

Simultaneously with the sailing of Fisk and 
Parsons for the Levant, Bingham and Thurston, 
with several associates, set sail for the Hawaiian 

The ten years from 1819 to 1829 were chiefly 
spent in strengthening the work already com- 
menced; but then again the impulse forward 
could not be resisted. Bridgman and Abeel 
sailed for Canton and Eli Smith and Dwight con- 
ducted a grand exploring tour through Asiatic 
Turkey and Persia, which resulted in the com- 
mencement, in 1831, of the station at Constanti- 
nople, the general enlargement of work among 
the Armenians throughout Asia Minor, and the 
establishment, in 1834, of the mission to the Nes- 
torians at Persia. The struggle of the Greeks for 
national existence had attracted the attention of 
the Christian world, and in 1831 Jonas King com- 
menced a station at Athens. Abeel's journey 
from Canton to Singapore and Bangkok resulted 
m the formal opening of mission work in those 
places two and three years later. The slavery 
question and the efforts of the colonization soci- 
eties had excited much interest in Africa, hardly 



American Board 

yet known even as the Dark Continent, and the 
Gaboon mission on the West Coast was started 
at Cape Palmas in 1834, and that to the Zulus 
in Southeastern Africa in 1835, but it was not 
until the bequest of Asa Otis, amounting ulti- 
mately to over a million dollars, that the ABCFM 
felt_ able to undertake work in other parts of 

The early growth of the missions was rapid, 
new fields ever opening before the Board. In 
1834 work was begun in Madura, India; in 1836, 
Eastern Turkey; in 1847, Central Turkey and 
Fuehau, China. Assyria was occupied in 1851; 
Micronesia in 1852; North China in 1854; Euro- 
pean Turkey in 1859; Japan in 1869; Bulgaria in 
1871. In 1872 the Board consented to under- 
take the care of the fields of the American and 
Foreign Christian Union in Papal Lands, and 
adopted the missions in Spain, Austria, Italy and 
Mexico. In 1880 it entered West Central Africa; 
in 1882 Shan-si, China; in 1883 East Central 
Africa; and in 1902 the Philippine Islands. 

In 1857 the Amoy Mission in China and the 
Arcot Mission in India were transferred to the 
care of the Reformed Church in America, and 
in 1860 the Assyrian Mission was merged in that 
of Eastern Turkey; in 1870 the Persian, Syrian 
and Gaboon Missions, and two of the Indian Mis- 
sions were transferred to the reunited Presby- 
terian Church; the other missions to the North 
American Indians were either developed into 
self-supporting churches or transferred to other 
societies; in 1871 the Hawaiian Islands practi- 
cally assumed self-support. 

IV. The Missions of the Board; 1. Marathi 
Mission: Driven from Calcutta, on their arrival in 
1812, and deprived of their associates, Mr. and 
Mrs. Nott and Mr. Hall, after many trials, estab- 
lished themselves at Bombay in 1813 They 
found the Governor, Sir Evan Nepeau, a warm 
friend, a vice-president of the BFBS, and imme- 
diately began to preach, and set about the work 
of preparing a translation of the Bible and other 
Christian literature, and opened schools. Other 
missionaries were sent to join them and new sta- 
tions were opened. The first convert was Kader 
Yar Khan, a Muslim, baptized in 1869. The 
first church was organized at Bombay in 1826 
and the first pastor ordained in 1854. The mis- 
sion has suffered from the famines 1876-8 and 
1896-7 and from the bubonic plague 

The mission has (1902) 8 stations and 124 out- 
stations; 42 American missionaries; 553 native 
workers; 54 churches with 5,607 communicants; 
185 Sabbath schools; 20 schools for higher educa- 
tion with 3,597 pupils; 156 common schools, and 
the grand total under Christian instruction in the 
mission is 9,093. Industrial and medical work 
are carried on; orphanages and widows' homes 
have been established; Christian Endeavor Soci- 
eties flourish; the Dnyanodaya, a weekly paper, 
and the Balbodh Mewa, a monthly illustrated 
magazine for young people, are issued regularly. 

2. Ceylon: In 1813 Mr. Newell had urged the 
occupation of Ceylon, and in 1816 Messrs. Rich- 
ards, Meigs and Poor reached Jaffna, followed by 
Messrs. Spaulding, Woodward, Myron, Winslow 
and John Scudder. The Ceylon Mission began at 
Battycotta and Tillipally in the ruins of Portu- 
guese churches older than the settlement of 
America, and at Oodooville in the residence of an 
ancient Franciscan friar. From the very first 
great attention was paid to education and the 
preparation of literature. In 1826 Battycotta 

Seminary and Oodooville Female Boarding 
School were established, and in 1872 Jaffna Col- 
lege, which in 1895 organized the first college 
Association in the mission field. The work in 
Ceylon has been among the Tamils, and from the 
first the spiritual development has been notice- 

There are now (1902) in this mission 6 sta- 
tions and 31 outstations; 13 American mission- 
aries; 412 native workers; 18 churches with 
2,100 communicants; 5 schools for higher educa- 
tion; 136 common schools, and the aggregate of 
those under Christian instruction is 11,039. 
Jaffna College with 108 pupils is independent of 
the mission, but is in close relations with it. It is 
affiliated to Calcutta University. The churches 
have a native Evangelical Society for Home Mis- 
sions, while a Students' Foreign Mission Society 
and a Woman's Society each support a mission- 
ary in Madura. The Christian Endeavor and 
YMCA also do good work. 

3. Madura: In 1834 the Ceylon Mission sent 
Levi Spaulding to learn the condition of the 
Tamils of Soutliern India and the result was the 
establishment of the American Board's Madura 
Mission. The population of over 2,000,000 was 
overwhelmingly Hindu and largely of the weaver 
caste. The bitter hostility to the missionaries 
as the "pariahs" of the white people was met by 
the marked courtesy of the English, and largely 
overcome by the vigorous educational policy 
carried through by Mr. Poor. The most impor- 
tant educational institution, Pasumalai College 
and Training Institute, was opened in 1842 at 
Tirumangalam, but three years later was moved 
to Pasumalai, near Madura City. It has steadily 
increased in grade and expects to be affiliated to 
Madras University. Medical work, industrial 
training and publication of literature are carried 
on effectively. The Madura Mission has (1902) 
11 stations and 355 outstations; 35 American 
missionaries; 645 native workers; 38 churches 
with 5,036 communicants; 268 Sabbath schools 
with 7643 pupils ; 16 schools for higher education ; 
192 other schools, and the aggregate under Chris- 
tian instruction in the mission is 8,059. The 
Christian Endeavor and YMCA are flourishing 
institutions. The mission has a printing house at 
Pasumalai, from which two periodicals are issued. 

4. Madras: In 1836 Messrs. Winslow and Scud- 
der established at Madras a printing house for 
works in the Tamil language. There was cordial 
cooperation with the missionaries of the LMS and 
the work grew until, by 1842, 53,180,467 pages had 
been printed, and the press was able not only to 
refund the purchase money, but to pay all ex- 
penses and to aid the general mission work by its 
profits. The death of Dr. Scudder in 1855, the 
removal of Mr. Winslow in 1864, the entrance of 
other societies led to the transfer of the press to 
other hands and the close of the station in 1866. 

5. Arcot: The Arcot Mission was commenced by 
Dr. H. M. Scudder in 1850, in connection with the 
Madras Mission of the ABCFM, but in 1858 was 
transferred to the care of the Reformed Church in 

6. Sumatra: Messrs. Munson and Lyman with 
their wives sailed in 1833 to explore the East 
Indian Archipelago; they reached Batavia in 

Leaving their wives they proceeded to Tapan- 
uli in Sumatra, and from there went to visit the 
Battas of the interior, arriving at the village of 
Saooa in June, 1834. A petty war was in prog- 

American Board 



ress and both fell victims to the rage of the com- 
batants. When it became known that tlie 
strangers were good men who had come to help 
the people, the neighboring villages leagued 
together and laid Sacca waste. A thick jungle 
covers the spot, and even the name has passed 
from the place. The mission was not resumed. 

7. Siam: In 1831 David Abeel commenced 
work at Bangkok, finding a friendly reception 
from the Portuguese Consul, but great hostility 
on the part of the King. He was, however, com- 
pelled to leave by ill health. Three years later 
reenforcements were sent to carry on the work, 
but found Mr. Abeel's converts organized into a 
church by a missionary of the ABMU. They 
remained for a time, devoting themselves largely 
to education and the preparation of literature, 
but with the entrance of other societies the work 
of the ABCFM was dropped in Siam in 1850. 

8. Singapore: Work was begun in 1834 as a cen- 
tral point from which to reach southeastern Asia 
and the adjacent islands, but the decision of the 
Government of the Dutch East Indies to exclude 
all but missionaries sent from Holland defeated 
the plan, and the mission was closed in 1844. 

9. Borneo: This mission, undertaken in 1836, 
was composed of members of the Reformed 
(Dutch) Church of America and derived its sup- 
port through the American Board from that 
denomination. Efforts were directed specially 
to the Chinese and Dyaks. Many difficulties 
were encountered, both from the nature ofthe 
field and from the objections of Dutch officials. 
The missionaries labored faithfully until 1848, 
when failure of health compelled those then in 
charge to withdraw, and the failure to find 
recruits caused the mission to be discontinued. 

10. Hawaiian {Sandwich) Islands: In 1779 
these islands were brought into notice through 
the murder of Capt. Cook, and again, in 1809, 
when Henry Obookiah came to New Haven with 
two other Hawaiian boys, who were converted in 
1813. In 1819 Hiram Bingham, Asa Thurston 
and others were sent to Hawaii as missionaries of 
the ABCFM, arriving March 31, 1820. Their 
arrival was opportune. The people had revolted 
against the tabu, destroyed the idols and their 
temples, and discarded for the moment their old 
religion. Four years later the principal chiefs 
agreed to recognize the Sabbath, and the ten 
commandments were adopted as the basis of 
government. In eight years there were 445 
native teachers connected with the mission and 
26,000 pupils in mission schools. The Bible was 
circulated, high chiefs became Christians, and in 
1828, simultaneously and without communica- 
tion, a revival unexpectedly commenced in 
Hawaii, Oahu and Maui, and in 1838 one of the 
most remarkable revivals in history began, last- 
ing six years, and resulting in about 27,000 con- 
versions. In 1850 the Hawaiian Evangelical 
Association was formed for work in their own and 
other islands, and in 1863 Christianity was domi- 
nant in the islands; there were churches, schools 
and colleges, printing presses and Christian litera- 
ture, while the native church was sending mis- 
sionaries to Micronesia and the Marquesas. 
Accordingly, the American Board practically 
withdrew from the field in that year. Many of the 
missionaries remained in the islands as pastors, 
teachers, etc., and the North Pacific Missionary 
Institute, for the training of native pastors, is 
still in charge of a missionary of the Board as 
well as the work among the Japanese immigrants. 

11. Micronesia: This name is applied to four 
groups of coral islands in the Pacific Ocean. 
In 1852 Messrs. Snow, Gulick and Sturges, with 
their wives and two Hawaiian helpers, were 
sent to these islands by the ABCFM in cooper- 
ation with the Hawaiian Evangelical Association. 
They occupied two stations, Kusaie and Ponapi 
in the Caroline Group. For four years they 
had no certain communication with the outside 
world, depending on the none too friendly 
trading vessels for mail and supplies. In 1856 a 
missionary ship, the Morning Star, was built 
by the Board for work in these islands, and 
Mr. and Mrs. Hiram Bingham were sent to the 
Gilbert Island Mission, while Messrs. Pierson 
and Doane, with their wives, were stationed 
in the Marshall group. Languages were mas- 
tered and reduced to writing, simple books were 
laboriously prepared, schools were started and 
preaching services held, though the latter were 
difiicult, and more was accomplished in the day 
schools and house to house visiting. For the 
work in these islands a "Missionary Navy" is 
essential. After the Spanish-American war in 
1901, work was begun in the Ladrone Islands, 
with a station in Guam. 

There are 4 stations and 63 outstations; 24 
American and 1 Hawaiian missionaries; 149' 
native pastors and teachers; 57 churches, with 
5,953 communicants; seven training schools, 
with 205 students; 85 native schools, with 3,297 

Owing to political and financial difficulties 
the transfer of this mission by the ABCFM to 
some English or German Society seems possible. 

12. Palestine and Syria: Pliny Fisk and 
Levi Parsons, appointed missionaries to Jeru- 
salem in 1819, landed at Smyrna, where Mr. Fisk 
stopped to study the language, while Mr. Parsons 
went on. A Greek revolt drove Mr. Fisk to 
Alexandria, and the coming of associates, 
followed by exploring journeys, resulted in 
the conviction that Syria offered the best loca- 
tion, and Beirut was selected, in 1824, as a 
missionary station. A printing establishment, 
part of whose equipment was afterward re- 
moved to Constantinople and part to Beirut, 
was set up at Malta out of reach of the Turkish 
Government. At Beirut and vicinity hostility 
developed into persecution, and war and pesti- 
lence again and again broke up the work. The 
first native church was organized in 1848. In 
1870 the Syrian Mission was transferred to the 
care of the Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A. 

13. Asiatic Turkey: Mr. Parsons on his first visit 
to Jerusalem met some Armenian pilgrims who 
said they would rejoice if a mission could be 
sent to their people. An Armenian ecclesiastic 
secured and translated a letter written by Jonas 
King on leaving Syria in 1827, and it produced 
a wonderful effect in Constantinople. Two 
years later, Messrs. Eli Smith and H. G. 0. 
Dwight made their long journey through Asiatic 
Turkey, the Caucasus and Northern Persia, 
which opened up the condition of the Oriental 
churches to the Christian world and brought it 
face to face with the needs in that whole section. 
The result was the establishment of the station 
at Constantinople in 1831 by Mr. Goodell (with 
Messrs. Dwight and Schaufiler) , who came north 
from Beirut, bringing with him some publications 
issued at Malta. In quick succession Smyrna, 
Brousa, Trebizond, and Erzerum were occupied 
as stations. For a decade the strength of mis- 



Amerlcnu Board 

sionary effort was given ±o consolidation, and 
then commenced a new era of extension until by 
1863 the entire region of Asia Minor, Northern 
Syria and Mesopotamia was dotted with mission- 
ary establishments. 

The great extent of territory covered, the poor 
means of intercommunication, and the variety 
of problems in different sections led to the 
division of the work into three missions, Western, 
Eastern and Central Turkey. Each is a separate 
unit for administrative purposes, yet there is 
a bond of union in the fact that Constantinople 
is the center for the publication work and 
the financial management, as well as the 
place to which go all the que.stions concerning 
the relations with the government. The 
work of the Western Turkey mission is chiefly 
among Armenians and Greeks; of the Eastern 
mission chiefly among Armenians, tho one 
station, Mardin, reaches the Jacobites, the legacy 
of the old Assyria Mission ; the Central is almost 
entirely among Armenians who have the pecu- 
liarity that their language is Turkish. The 
Western mission embraces also that portion 
of European Turkey where Armenians are 
principally found. There have been efforts 
to reach other classes. W. G. Schauffler was 
commissioned first to the Jews and afterward 
devoted himself specially to the Turks, but the 
great work of the ABCFM in Turkey has been 
among Armenians and Greeks. 

Education has always held a prominent place. 
The American College for Girls at Constanti- 
nople, Euphrates College at Harput, Anatolia 
College at Marsovan and Central Turkey Col- 
lege at Aintab, as well as the different theologi- 
cal schools and academies, are missionary insti- 
tutions. There has been excellent literary work 
done in Bible translation, in general book pub- 
hcations and in the weekly and monthly peri- 
odicals. The missions suffered heavily during 
the massacres of 1894-5, but have to a consid- 
erable degree recovered tjiemselves. 

The missions of the ABCFM in Asiatic 
Turkey have 12 stations and 270 outstations; 
145 missionaries; 811 native workers; 114 
organized churches with 13,125 communicants; 
132 high grade and 1,134 lower schools with 
a total of 60,964 under instruction. 

14. Persia: One of the results of the tour of 
exploration by Messrs. Smith and Dwight was 
to attract attention to the Nestorians in north- 
western Persia and in the mountains of the 
Turkish border. In 1833 Justin Perkins sailed 
for that work, and two years later he and 
Dr. Asahel Grant opened a station at Urmiya. 
They received a warm welcome from the Patri- 
arch, Mar Yohannan, and the work prospered, 
especially that for girls and women under the 
care of Fidelia Fiske. In 1870 this mission was 
transferred to the Presbyterian Church in the 
U. S. A. 

15. European Turkey: Work was commenced 
among the Bulgarians at Adrianople in 1858, 
in connection with the Western Turkey mission, 
but as new stations were formed, the European 
Turkey Mission was organized, the literary 
work of thv, new mission being carried on at 
Constantinople, however, until after the estab- 
lishment of the Principality of Bulgaria. Various 
political disturbances have hampered mission- 
ary operations, but have never stopped them. 

This mission has (1902) 4 stations . and 56 
outstations; 28 missionaries; 85 natJ^e workers; 

10 churches with 1,415 communicants; 3 higher 
grade and 19 other schools, with a total of 787 
under instruction. 

16. Greece: The great interest felt in America 
in the Greek struggle for independence turned 
the attention of Christian benevolence to that 
country, and Jonas King was called from Beirut 
to Athens to disburse the gifts for the suf- 
ferers. He remained there as a missionary of 
the American Board until his death in 1869. 
A few other missionaries were sent to Greece 
by the Board, but the work farther east 
seemed more important and promising, and 
with his death the mission was discontinued. 

17. China, Canton (1830); Elijah C. Bridg- 
man and David Abeel, the latter under the 
American Seaman's Friend Society, sailed from 
New York October 14, 1829, and arrived in 
Canton, February 25, 1830. After two years 
study of the language Mr. Bridgman issued 
the first number of the Chinese Repository. 
In 1833 S. Wells Williams and Ira Tracy joined 
the mission, followed the next year by Dr. 
Peter Parker. Owing to the opium war of 
1840, the work was suspended till 1845, when 
it was resumed under many restrictions. In 
1847 Mr. Bridgman was transferred to Shanghai. 
A civil war in 1854 and a war with England 
in 1856 again interrupted the work; the mission- 
aries were expelled and their houses, printing 
establishment and books destroyed by fire. 
The treaty of 1858 with the foreign Powers, 
guaranteed the toleration of Christianity in 
all parts of the Empire, and the work was again 
resumed and continued till 1866, when, other 
societies coming in, and the working force 
becoming greatly depleted by death, the mission 
was discontinued. 

18. Amoy (1842): Established by David 
Abeel, who was joined in 1844 by two mission- 
aries, members of the Reformed Church in 
America, which then cooperated with the 
American Board. In 1857 the work of Amoy 
was transferred by the ABCFM to the Board 
of Missions of that church. 

19. Fuchau (1847): EstabHshed by Stephen 
Johnson and Lyman B. Peet, who was transferred 
from the mission in Siam. Reenforcements 
were sent out in 1848, 1850 and in 1853, when 
a small boarding school for boys and girls was 
opened. In 18.57 the first church was formed 
of 4 members. The New Testament was trans- 
lated into the Fuchau dialect and the first edition 
published, in 1866, by the American Board 
and MethodLst Episcopal Missions conjointly. 
Work on the Old Testament was begun, but 
not completed fully till 1888. The American 
Female College was dedicated in 1881. The 
first Christian Endeavor Society of the Mission, as 
well as of the country, wa= formed in 1885. 
In 1893 the native Woman's Missionary Society 
was formed. Evangelistic, Educational, Medical 
and Literary work are carried on, and the aim 
of the mission is self-support in all departments. 

In the Fuchau Mission, there are 5 stations, 
96 outstations, 38 American Missionaries wit'i 
210 native workers; 62 churches with 2,48? 
communicants, 2 theological schools, 2 colleges, 
5 boarding schools, 90 common schools, 4 hos- 
pitals with 452 patients; 10 dispensaries with 
30,857 outpatients; native workers contributed 

20. North China Mission (1860): Elijah C. 
Bridgman was transferred from Canton to 

American Board 



Shanghai in 1847, to assist in translating tlie 
Scriptures. In 1854 he was joined by Messrs. 
Atchison and Blodgett, thus forming the Shang- 
hai Mission; in 1860 the Mission was transferred 
to Tientsin, the key to the surrounding country, 
and tlie name was changed to the North China 
Mission. A year later the first convert was 
baptized. In 1864 the famous Bridgman School 
was opened. In 1869 the only printing press 
under the control of Protestant Missions in 
North China was established. Besides the work 
of the Mission, it has done printing for the 
American Bible Society, the Church Missionary 
Society, the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission, 
and the North China Tract Society. The Boxer 
movement of 1900 temporarily interrupted the 
work of the Mission; Mission buildings were 
destroyed, and missionaries and native Christians 
were massacred or fled for their lives. Indemnities 
have since been promised, and in some instances 
paid, and the outlook is full of hope. 

There are in this mission (1902) 7 stations, 
50 outstations, 52 American missionaries and 
56 native workers; 8 churches with 1,455 com- 
municants; 1 theological seminary, 1 college, 
8 boarding and high schools, 9 common schools; 
3 hospitals, 3 dispensaries. 

21. Shansi Mission (1882): Established at 
Tai-yuen-fu by Martin L. Stimson. Eleven 
millions of people inhabit Shan-si Province, of 
high natural ability but addicted to opium. 
Refuges have been established, and evangel- 
istic and medical work is carried on. The 
first church was organized in 1888. The following 
year a boys' boarding school was opened. The 
work was interrupted by the Boxer movement 
of 1900, but has since been resumed, with added 
opportunities for usefulness. 

There are (1902) 2 stations, 4 American 
missionaries, 9 native workers, 2 churches with 
134 communicants, 1 orphanage, 1 common 
school, with 28 pupils. 

22. South China Mission (1883): Formerly 
known as the Hongkong Mission, established 
by C. R. Hager; the American Board occupies 
the field at the earnest solicitation of Christian 
Chinese of California, the greater number of 
whom came from the Province of Canton. 
The field of this mission is inhabited by 2,000,000 
people. For the first few years the work of 
the Mission was considered tentative. During 
8 years there was but one missionary in the 
field, but in spite of hindrance the work has 
been successful. A building answering for 
church, missionary residence, station head- 
quarters, etc., has been erected at a cost of 
§16,000, the larger part of this amount having 
been given by the natives. The people are 
as accessible as before the Boxer movement 
of 1900, while the obstacles are growing less. 
The Chinese Christians in California cooperate 
with the Mission in its outstation work. There 
are 2 stations and 20 outstations; 6 American 
missionaries, 37 native workers; 4 churches 
with 1,090 communicants; 1 boarding school and 
10 common schools; 1 dispensary. 

23. Western Africa: In November, 1833, 
Rev. J. L, Wilson and Mr. S. R. Wyncoop em- 
barked at Baltimore in a vessel sent out by 
the Maryland Colonization Society, and reached 
Cape Palmas early in the following year. Having 
decided upon Cape Palmas as a favorable loca- 
tion, they returned to America. The mission 
was established in December, 1834, by Mr, 

Wilson and his wife, greatly to the joy of the 
natives. The negroes of the Guinea coast were 
found to be fearfully degraded. Schools were 
established, missionary reenforcements sent 
out and new stations opened. In 1836 there 
were 100 pupils in the schools, many of them 
from the far interior; a printing press was set 
up; a church with 6 members organized. In 
1837 the Board was compelled to lessen its 
expenditures. It was a serious blow to this 
mission. Printing ceased, 2 schools were closed, 
the boarding school reduced, the natives dis- 
couraged and confidence was impaired. Then 
followed the inimical French occupation, and 
the abominations connected with the relations 
of foreign traders with Africa. In 1843 the 
mission was removed to the Gaboon, on account 
of the attitude of the American Colony from 

24. The Gaboon Mission: Was organized at 
Cape Palmas in 1835. The new location brought 
the mission into contact with nobler races, as 
the Mpongwes and Bakeles. Two dialects were 
reduced to writing, and many heard the Gospel 
gladly. Under great difficulties from the 
climate, the temper of the natives, and adverse 
foreign influences, it maintained itself and made 
a good record in school and church work during 
the thirty-five years of its connection with the 
Board. In 1870, this mission was transferred 
to the care of the Presbyterian Board. 

25. Zulu Mission (1835) : Established by 
Messrs. Lindsay, Venable, Wilson, Grout, Cham- 
pion, and Dr. Adams. It was the first organ- 
ized effort of any society in this region; the 
people were savage and their language unwritten 
and unknown. Dingaan, the chief of the Zulus, 
received the missionaries, and schools were 
opened and a printing press set up. Repeated 
conflicts between the Zulus and Dutch Boers 
hindered the work for the first years, and twice 
the missionaries were compelled to flee. The 
Board had decided to discontinue the attempt 
to labor amid such adverse conditions, when, m 
1843, Natal became a British colony. From 
that time the work has gone steadily forward. 
The native population increased rapidly; Sab- 
bath congregations and day schools became 
large and prosperous; churches were formed and 
schools established; government allotments of 
land for mission purposes and annual grants-in- 
aid for schools were secured. In 1846 the first 
convert, an old woman, was baptized. Her son 
afterward became pastor of the church of which 
she was the first member, and her grandson was 
the first Zulu to receive a full medical education. 
In 1870 began a decisive conflict between hea- 
thenism and Christianity, which resulted in a more 
intelligent and decided Christian living in the 
converts. In 1883 the translation and publica- 
tion of the entire Scriptures was completed, and 
a hymn book has since been issued. The 
Umzumbe Home and Inanda Seminary are for 
the higher education of the girls, while the High 
and Normal School at Amanzimtote gives the 
boys a similar opportunity. In 1892 a hospital 
and dispensary were opened by Dr. Bridgman. 
A feature of the mission is the Zulu Home and 
Foreign Mission Society, which supports 5 
evangelists. New opportunities have resulted 
since the close of the Boer War, and a larger 
field than ever before is open to the Zulu Mission. 
There are (1902) 11 stations and 13 outstations; 
31 American missionaries; 397 native workers; 



American Board 

23 churches; 3,555 communicants; 1 theologi- 
cal seminary; 3 schools for higher education 
with 389 students; 50 common schools with 
2,500 pupils; 1 hospital and a dispensary. 

26. East Central African Mission (1883) : 
This is at once the foreign mission enterprise of 
the Zulu Mission and an independent movement 
"to reach the tribes in the interior. In 1880 
Myron W. Pinkerton was sent by the Zulu Mis- 
sion to examine the ground for a new mission, 
but died before accomplishing his object. The 
following year E. H. Richards was sent by the 
Mission to continue the work of exploration and 
reached the capital of Umzila's kingdom in 
October, 1881, when permission was given to 
open the new mission. In 1882 William C. 
Wilcox explored the region around Inhambane 
Bay, and the following year he established the 
mission. In 1884 he was joined by Mr. and 
Mrs. Richards and Mr. and Mrs. Ousley, the latter 
being graduates of Fisk University, and of the 
■schools of the American Missionary Association. 
In 1887 Miss Nancy Jones joined the Mission, 
the first single woman of African descent to be 
commissioned by the American Board. Four 
Zulu Christian workers were added to the force, 
and the work went quietly on. The Gospels and 
Acts were translated and published, and schools 
were established. The coast region proving 
unhealthful in 1893, the Mission was moved to 
Mt. SUinda, in Gazaland. Schools have been 
opened, including an industrial school, and 
evangelistic and medical work is carried on. 
In January, 1897, the first Church of Christ in 
<jazaland was formed with 16 members, all on 
confession of faith. Title deeds to 27,000 acres 
of land have been secured, including the fine 
Silinda forest. 

There are (1902) 3 stations, 6 outstations; 11 
American missionaries, 1 1 native workers ; 1 
church with 41 communicants; 1 boarding 
school with 64 students; 2 common schools with 
41 pupils ; 2 dispensaries. 

27. West Central African Mission (1880) : 
Established by Messrs. Bagster, Sanders and 
Miller, at Bailundu and Bih6. The Portuguese 
authorities at first treated the missionaries with 
civility and rendered them important service, 
and the natives heartily welcomed them; the 
traders were prejudiced against them, and suc- 
ceeded, in 1884, by bribes and false reports, in 
causing their expulsion, but the governor was 
appealed to, and they were allowed to return. 
The first church was organized in 1887, with 
14 members all under 20 years of age; deacons 
were chosen from among them, and later one 
became their pastor. A printing press was 
established, schools opened and industrial and 
medical work was begun. In 1901 the Mission 
was seriously threatened by an uprising of the 
natives against the Portuguese authorities. 
Nevertheless steady growth and enlarged oppor- 
tunities are reported. 

There are 4 stations with 12 outstations; 24 
American missionaries; 37 native workers; 4 
churches with 163 communicants; 1 theological 
school with 13 students; 10 common schools 
with 1,146 pupils; 2 hospitals and 4 dispensaries. 

28. Japan: About 1827, a company of Chris- 
tian laymen of Boston and vicinity began to 
meet regularly to pray for the conversion of the 
world; their first contributions of $600 were 
devoted to Japan, which as yet had not been 
visited by Protestant missionaries. Forty 

years later. Dr. Neesima, a Japanese, then a 
student at Amherst, appealed to the American 
Board to send missionaries to Japan. At this 
time the original gift of $600 had increased to 
over $4,000, and it was decided to send Rev. 
D. C. Greene and his wife to open the new work. 
They landed in Yokohama November 30, 1869. 
Work was begun that same year in Tokio, but 
after a careful inspection of the field the mis- 
sion was removed to Kobe in March, 1870. In 
February, 1873, the famous edict was issued 
which led to the withdrawal of the proclama- 
tions against Christianity posted during more 
than 250 years in every town and hamlet through- 
out Japan. Public preaching was immediately 
begun, and a church of 11 members was organ- 
ized at Kobe, in April, 1874, and in May a 
church was organized at Osaka. Schools, hos- 
pitals and dispensaries were opened, and evan- 
gelistic tours begun. The same year Joseph 
Neesima and Paul Sawayama returned from 
America, the one to establish a Christian school, 
the other to become an eminently successful 
pastor. The Kioto Training School, now 
called Doshisha, was opened in 1876, and a 
school for girls, now Kobe College, was opened. 
In 1883the northern Japan Mission was opened 
at Niigata and Sendai, but in 1890 was mcor- 
porated as a station of the Japan Mission. In 
1891 an impetus was given to the work by the 
Union Evangelistic Movement, when work was 
carried on in 42 provinces, by 22 denomina- 
tions, employing 536 foreign and Japanese 
workers representing 376 churches. Seventy-seven 
evangelistic bands were formed; over 2,000,000 
handbills and posters were used; over 600,000 
tracts were distributed; and over 10,000 yen 
was raised for the work. About 20,000 enrolled 
themselves, giving name and address, as con- 
verts, or as earnest inquirers after the truth. 

There are (1902) 12 stations, 102 outstations; 
68 American missionaries, and 119 native 
workers; 81 churches with 10,856 communicants; 
1 theological seminary with 16 students; 2 
colleges with 506 students, 5 boarding schools for 
girls with 384 pupils; 1 kindergarten training 
school and 4 kindergartens. Native contribu- 
tions were $16,895. 

29. South America: Messrs. J. C. Brigham 
and Theophilus Parvin arrived in Buenos Aires, 
October, 1823. They perfected themselves in 
the Spanish language; opened a school with 
some 20 pupils and a Sabbath-school for Prot- 
estant children, with a similar number; revived 
a Bible Society which had been previously 
formed, and gave an impulse to Bible distribu- 
tion; established preaching services both on 
Sunday and week days at the house of an Eng- 
lishman; held Bethel meetings on board ships 
in the harbor, and in various ways promoted 
the work. Mr. Marvin visited America in Sep- 
tember, 1825, was ordained in Philadelphia, and 
returned to Buenos Aires the next year with a 
press, printer, and female teacher. He wished 
to labor on his individual responsibility; the 
income of the school was sufficient for his sup- 
port, and at his own request he was honorably 
discharged from the service of the Board. Mr. 
Brigham left Buenos Aires in October, 1824, and 
after a tour of exploration, pursuing the original 
design of the mission, returned to the United 
States in 1826, was there invited to the domestic 
secretaryship of the American Bible Society, and 
was released from the service of the Board. 

American Board 
American Frienils 



In 1833 an exploring expedition was sent out 
with a view to founding a mission on the west- 
ern coast of Patagonia. The project was found 
impracticable and the missionaries returned. , 

30. Mexico (1872) -.-The Mission to Mexico 
repr<,sents the only work the American Board is 
now conducting upon this contment. It is one 
of the Board's three missions in Papal Lands, 
the other two being in Spain and Austria. The 
obiect of these three missions m countries gen- 
^rilTy known as Romari CathoUc is not to a ack 
and disintegrate the dommant church, but to 
Ltroduce the leaven of the «^"^Pl^ ^3 ° 
Christ, and to plant there gospel i-^stitut'O^s 
which shall proSuce ea-rnest, sincere Christian 
men and women. Work was begun m 1872 at 
Guadalajara by J. L. Stephens and D. F. Wat- 
kins, and the following year a church was organ- 
ized with 17 members. In 1873 a work con- 
ducted by Miss Melinda Rankin at Monterey 
was transferred to the Board. In 1874 Mr. 
Stephens was killed while preaching at Ahualulco. 
The next years were full of trials and adversities 
In 1877 the work at Monterey was transferred 
to the Presbyterian Board which was already 
working in that vicinity. Opposition on the 
part of^the Roman Catholics, and a lack of har- 
mony among the missionaries led the Board to 
reconstruct the mission on a new basis. In 1881 
the missionary in charge was instructed to turn 
the work over to new missionaries on their 
arrival; instead, however, he transferred the 
missioii to the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South, and, when Messrs. Crawford, Howland, 
and Bissell arrived, in 1882, they began what was 
practically a new mission. Two churches were 
organized; one at Tlajamulco m 1883, and one 
at Guadalajara in 1884._ The same year was 
commenced the publication of a weekly dlus- 
trated paper. In the meantime a new station 
was opened in 1882 at Chihuahua by Mr. and 
Mrs J D Eaton. At this time Protestant 
Christianity was unknown in northwestern 
Mexico In November, 1883, the first converts 
we?e baptized, and in April, 1886, the first 
church at Chihuahua was organized; the same 
year Hermosillo was occupied as a mission 
station. In 1890 the Rio Grande Congrega- 
tional Training School was opened at Ciudad 
Juarez. In 1891 the various stations were 
united in one mission, having been given better 
facilities for communication by the building ot 
railroads. There are (1902) 5 stations and 
33 outstations; 16 American missionaries and 22 
native workers; 21 churches with 1121 com- 
municants ; 1 theological school with 8 students ; 
3 boarding and high schools with 177 pupils; 4 
other schools with 133 pupils. 

31 Mission to Italy: On the withdrawal of 
the American and Foreign Christian Union, and 
at the earnest invitation of the Free Church of 
Italy the Board commenced a mission in Italy 
in 1872. The purpose was to aid certain churches 
and evangelistic agencies founded by the Union. 
In 1874 it was decided to suspend operations m 
that field because of the limited means and the 
limited number of men that the Board found 
itself enabled to employ in nominally Christian 
lands and the difficulty of finding a clear field 
for the Board's methods of labor on account 
of the presence of so many other evangelical 
agencies at work in Italy. 

32 Mission to Spain: When in June, 1869, 
Spain adopted a constitution guaranteeing full 

religious liberty to natives and foreigners alike 
^arfous evange^lical bodies took advantage of 
the situation to commence Gospel work in that 
land In 1872 the American Board estaWished 
a mission, with Barcelona and. Santander as 
stations. Two sons of the Hawaiian missionary, 
Rev. Peter J. Gulick, with Rev. Gustavus Alexy 
and Miss Blake, were sent put to this mission. 
A school, previously opened by Mr. Lawrence, 
connected with the Broadway Tabernacle Church • 
New York City, at once came under the care of 
the mission. Aid was given to feeble evangelical 
churches, literature was distributed, and regular 
preaching services sustained. In 1873 Barce- 
lona was abandoned, and the first church was 
dedicated at Santander in the same year. Polit- 
ical disturbances and the reactionary tendencies 
of a new government interfered with the work 
during the next few years. In 1875 Zaragoza, 
was occupied and the following year a church 
was organized with 75 members from an old 
Protestant body and 12 new converts. A school 
for girls was established at Santander, which has; 
since developed into the International Institute- 
for Girls, located at San Sebastian. During 
the Spanish-American war it was removed 
temporarily to Biarritz, France, and it is now 
to be located in Madrid. 

In 1882 the mission assumed care ot the wort 
carried on in the province of TTara by the Evan- 
gelical Society of Geneva, so that since 188d the- 
field of the Board has extended from Santander 
along the line of railway to the Mediterranean. 
A monthly Christian Endeavor paper is pub- 
lished, and two National Christian Endeavor- 
Conventions have been held. 

There are (1902) 1 station with 17 outstations; 
5 American missionaries and 24 native workers;: 
8 churches with 354 communicants; 1 boarding 
school with 34 pupils and 15 common schools, 
with 772 pupils. The native contributions were 

33 Mission to Austria: Established in 1872 by 
Messrs. H. A. Schauffler, E. A. Adams and A. W. 
Clark and their wives, followed the next year by 
Rev E. C. Bissell and wife. Prague, in Bohemia; 
Brilnn, in Moravia, and Innsbruck, in Tyrol, were 
occupied; colporteurs and evangelists were- 
employed and encouragement given to active- 
Christian workers in the already existing Protes- 
tant churches. Violent opposition on the part 
of the Roman Catholic clergy and inimical inter- 
ference by the government rendered the work 
very difficult. The action of the Reformed Con- 
sistory at Vienna for a time seriously crippled 
the work. In no field has opposition been more- 
persistent, the difficulties greater, or the faithful 
labors of the missionaries more abundant. 

The work among Bohemian immigrants in. 
America has been greatly assisted by converts; 
made In this mission. An important feature of 
the work has been the establishment of Christian 
Associations, both for young men and for young 
women. The onljr Rescue Home in all Bohemia. 
and Austria is carried on by the mission. 

There are now 1 station and 63 outstations; 4 
American missionaries and 17 native workers;; 
13 churches with 1,297 communicants; 14 
YMCA; lYWCA; 1 Rescue Home. 

Besides the various missions above described 
the ABCFM carried on 15 missions among the 
North American Indians. Of this part of th& 
work of the society the following presents a 



American Board 
American Friends 

1. Cherokees (1816-60) : 112 missionaries, 
mostly lay and female; 12 churches, with 248 
members in I860; schools; printing, 14,084,100 
pages; mission given up because the Board's 
proper work was done. 

2. Choctaws (1818-59): 153 missionaries; 12 
churches, with 1,362 members in 1859, when 
nation was declared a Christian people; schools; 

Erinting, 11,558,000 pages; mission given up 
ecause of complications arising from existence 
of slavery; in 1872 1 missionary resumed labor, 
and withdrew in 1876, leaving 4 churches under 
the native pastor. 

3. Osages (1826-37): Commenced by United 
Foreign Missionary Society in 1820; transferred 
to the Board in 1826; 26 missionaries; 2 churches 
of 48 members; schools with 354 pupils; their 
country ceded to the Cherokees. 

4. Maumees, or Ottawas (1826-35) : Com- 
menced by Western Missionary Society in 1822; 
transferred that same year to the United Foreign 
Missionary Society, and to the Board in 1826; 6 
missionaries; church with 25 members; given up 
because of changes in the population. 

5. Mackinaws (1826-36) : Commenced by the 
United Foreign Missionary Society, 1823; trans- 
ferred to the Board, 1826; 17 missionaries; a 
church with 35 members; given up for the same 
reason as No. 4. 

6. Chickasaws (1827-35) : Commenced by 
Synod of South Carolina and Georgia, 1821, and 
transferred to the Board in 1827; 10 missionaries; 
a church of 100 members; schools with 300 pupils; 
given up for the above-mentioned reason. 

7. Stockbridge Indians (1828-48) : 8 mission- 
aries; a church of 51 members; given up as 

8. CreeA:s (1832-37) : 6 missionaries; 80 church 
members; given up because of peculiar embar- 

9. Pawnees (1834-44) : 10 missionaries; given 
up because of the roving character of the Paw- 
nees and the hostile incursions of other tribes. 

10. Oregon /ndians (1835-47) : 13 missionaries; 
broken up by the massacre of 1847. 

11. Senecas (New York State) (1826-70): 
Commenced by the New York Missionary Society, 
1801; transferred to the United Foreign Mission- 
ary Society, 1821, and to the Board in 1826; 47 
missionaries; from first to last, about 600 church 
members; transferred to Presbyterian Board, 

12. Tuscaroras (New York State) (1826-60) : 
Commenced as above; 10 missionaries; church 
members gathered, 200; given up because the 
Board's work was done. 

13. Ojihways (1831-70): 28 missionaries; con- 
verts not definitely known; transferred to Pres- 
byterian Board in 1870. 

14. ^benagitis (1835-56): 1 Indian missionary; 
75 members; given up because of increasing dis- 

15. Sioux, or Dakotas (1835-83): 40 mission- 
aries; in part transferred to the Presbyterian 
Board in 1870; transferred to the American Mis- 
sionary Association in 1883. 

From the above statement it will be seen that 
two missions and a part of a third were trans- 
ferred to the Presbyterian Board in 1870; one to 
the American Missionary Association in 1883; 
5 were given up because of peculiar difficulties; 
4, because of changes in the population; 1 
because of massacre, and the remaining two 
because the tribes had become practically Chris- 

tianized. The whole number of missionaries 
employed was 500; churches, 47; members, 
3,800; Indians reached by these missions, about 
100,000; 12 languages were reduced to writing, 
and besides the Scriptures much Christian litera- 
ture was published and many schools established 
and conducted during the continuance of the 

The periodical publications of the ABCFM are The Missiorv- 
ary Herald, Life and Light for Women (by the Woman's 
Board), The Mission Dayspring (for children) and 
Mission Studies. These are all monthly publications. 
An Almanac is also issued every year. Bibliography: 
History of ike Missions of the ABCFM, Anderson (R.), 5 
vols., Boston, 1870-74; The Hawaiian Islands, Anderson 
(R)., Boston, 1864; Memorial Volume of the First Fifty 
Years of the ABCFM, Anderson (R.), Boston, 1861. 


See Protestant Episcopal Domestic and 
FoKEiGN Missionary Society. 

Christian Church. 

AMERICAN FRIENDS' Board of Foreign 
Missions (1871): There are 14 yearly meeting 
Foreign Mission Boards and 10 women's organi- 
zations in the Society of Friends, each of which 
carries on a distinct foreign mission work. The 
other Yearly Meetings have not opened separate 
missions, thinking it wiser to strengthen the' 
existing missions than to begin weak ones of 
their own. In most cases they have some defi- 
nite work in the missions which they assist. In 
the Quinquennial Conference of 1892 provisions 
were made for the formation of a central bureau, 
as a medium of communication between the 
boards of other denominations and the Friends', 
and as a bureau of information. This was for- 
mally organized in 1894, under the name of "The 
American Friends' Board of Foreign Missions." 

In 1900 it was incorporated under the laws of 
the State of Indiana, and made preparations to 
take up work in the foreign field, following the 
plan laid down in the Uniform Discipline in its 
further organization for this class of work. Its 
income is derived from appropriations of the year- 
ly meetings and other Boards, and from dona- 
tions , legacies, etc. 

Upon the organization of the Five- Years' 
Meeting in 1901, this central body became one of 
its organizations. It is made up of representa- 
tives appointed from the various Yearly Meet- 

The American Friends' Foreign Missions include 
the work of the Central Board and the Yearly 
Meetings and are carried on in China, Japan, 
India, Syria, Africa, Mexico, Alaska, Cuba and 
the West Indies. The total receipts (1903) were 

Missions; 1. Mexico (1871): The first foreign 
missionary work of the Friends was begun by 
the Indiana Yearly Meeting, at Matamoros and 
Ciudad Victoria, in the State of Tamaulipas, 
Mexico, in 1871. Schools were begun, and in 
1872 a mission press was established at Ciudad 
Victoria, which issues a religious monthly paper 
as well as books, tracts, etc., which have a wide 
circulation throughout the Spanish speaking 

In 1873 a girls' school was established at Mata- 
moros, later known as the Hussey Institute. 
The Penn Institute at Ciudad Victoria, a board- 
ing and day school for girls, was established and 
supported by the New York Yearly Meeting, 
which also supports two foreign missionaries and 
three native teachers. In 1902 the Juarez Evan- 

American Friends 
American Missionary 


gelical Institute, a school of high grade, and a 
Bible Institute for young men was established at 
•Ciudad Victoria. In 1888 the Western Yearly 
Meeting opened a station at Matehuala in the 
State of San Luis Potosi; a second station was 
established by them in 1889 at Cedral and a 
third in 1901 at Catorce Real, where medical 
work was begun, and has proved of great value. 
In 1902 a fourth station was established at La 
Paz, besides educational and evangelistic work. 
A paper called "El Catolico Convertido is pub- 
lished by the mission and has a wide circulation. 
There are (1903) 6 stations and 9 outstations; 16 
American missionaries and 29 native workers; 11 
churches, with 766 members; 3 boarding and 
high schools, with 133 pupils; 7 other schools, 
with 382 pupils. 

2. West Indies (1883) : The Iowa Yearly Meet- 
ing began work at Glen Haven, Jamaica, in 1883, 
among two distinct classes of people — the colored 
population born on the island and the coolies 
■brought as laborers from the East Indies. These 
last are generally heathen. There is a well estab- 
lished training home for girls and another for 
boys, with a large attendance of day scholars. 

In 1886 another station was established at Sea 
Side and a third, in 1889, at Amity Hall. All 
these stations are in good condition and the pros- 
pects encouraging. 

There are (1903) 3 stations; 10 outstations; 9 
American missionaries and 15 native workers; 3 
churches, with 530 members; 2 boarding schools, 
with 34 students; 4 other schools, with 250 

3. Japan (1885): The Woman's Foreign Mis- 
sionary Association of Friends of Philadelphia 
began work in Tokio, Japan, in 1885. 

The work is mainly evangelistic and educa- 
tional. A girls' boarding school has been suc- 
cessful. In 1899 a sub-station was opened at 
Mito by the Canada Yearly Meeting, Woman's 
Foreign Missionary Society, and outstations have 
been established. 

At Tsuchiura a Meating and First Day School 
are kept up by resident native Christians, with 
■occasional visits from Japanese and foreign rnem- 
bers of the Evangelistic Committee. At Ishioka, 
a Japanese evangelist has charge of the work. 
.Since the disorganization of the Society of 
Friends in 1894, occasioned by Nationalist 
criticism of the Quakers during the whole Chinese 
war, the mission has not reorganized under the 
name of Friends, but the church work is carried 
■on under the care of a committee of Japanese and 
missionaries who are Friends. 

There are (1903) 2 stations and 2 outstations; 
7 American missionaries; 22 native workers; 276 
■church members; 1 boarding school, with 23 
pupils; 1 other school, with 140 pupils. 

4. Alaska (1887) : The Friends' Mission Board 
■of the Kansas Yearly Meeting founded a mission 
at Douglas Island, Alaska, in 1887. Church serv- 
ices and First Day schools are held for both 
whites and natives, and a day school is taught 
during about seven months of the year. At the 
outstation of Takou preaching services are held 
and a school is carried on. A small steamer is 
used to follow the Indians to their outposts, but 
their absence from their homes a large part of 
fthe year greatly retards the work. The Kansas 
Board is investigating the question of getting the 
Indians settled in industrial colonies. 

A second station was opened in 1894 on Kaak 
Island, by the Foreign Mission Board of the 

Oregon Yearly Meeting, on the same general 
lines as the Mission at Douglas Island. Here 
too they are confronted with the problem of the 
long absence of the Indians from their homes; 
and a home school for the native children is 
contemplated. In 1897 the Foreign Mission 
Board of the California Yearly Meeting opened a 
mission near Kotzebue Sound, looking out 
toward the Polar Sea, among the dwindling race 
of Eskimos. The Alaskan is accessible, teach- 
able and responsive, and the outlook is encour- 
aging. There are 4 outstations in the care of 
native helpers, who are said to have a good 
influence over the white miners and trappers as 
well as the natives. 

There are (1903) 3 stations and 4 outstations; 
9 American missionaries, and 15 trained Chris- 
tian native helpers; 3 churches with 358 mem- 
bers; 3 day schools with 144 pupils. 

5. Palestine (1888) : This Mission was com- 
menced in 1869 by Eli and Sybil Jones, and 
continued at their expense till 1874, when it 
became an independent mission under the name 
of the Friends' Syrian Mission (England). In 
1888 the Ramallah station was transferred to 
the New England Yearly Meeting, which here- 
tofore had contributed to the work through the 
English Friends. At the time of the transfer 
there was a school for boys, another for girls, 
and a cottage hospital and dispensary. A 
Training Home for Girls has been established, 
and in 1902 a much needed Training Home for 
Boys was opened. Both boys and girls receive 
industrial training in addition to the school and 
Bible work. There are (1903) 1 station; 4 Amer- 
ican missionaries and 31 native workers; 1 church 
with 36 members; 2 boarding schools, with 49 
students; and 7 other schools, with 225 pupils. 

6. China (1890): The Ohio Yearly Meeting 
Foreign Mission Board dates the founding of its 
China Mission 1890, tho its pioneer missionary, 
Esther Butler, had been in the country for three 
years, learning the language and preparing for 
ithe work in the mission of another denomination. 
A station was established at Nanking, where 
land was purchased and buildings erected. In 
1892 a church was organized; in 1896 a girls' 
boarding school and a hospital were opened. 
In 1898 a second station was opened at Liu-ho- 
hsien, a few miles north of Nanking, where evan- 
gelistic, educational and medical work is being 
pressed forward. There are (1903) 2 stations 
and 10 American missionaries; 2 churches; 1 
boarding school with 27 students ; 4 day schools. 

7. India (1896) : This Mission was established 
by the Ohio Yearly Meeting Foreign _ Mission 
Board at Nowgong, Central Provinces, in 1886. 
The work is conducted by four American women 
missionaries and is mainly evangelistic. 

8. Cuba (1900): The American Friends' 
Board of Foreign Missions began work in the 
northeastern part of Cuba in 1900, sending out 
four missionaries who began work at Jibara. 
A second station was established in 1902 at 
Holguin, and early in 1903 Banes, Tanamo, 
and Puerto Padre were occupied. Church 
schools and colportage work are in successful 
operation. There are (1903) 5 stations and 2 
outstations; 11 American missionaries; 1 native 
worker; and 1 school, with 20 pupils. 

9. Africa Industrial Mission: A board was 
organized in 1902, composed of two members 
from each of ten American Yearly Meetings, 
and incorporated under the laws of the State 



American Frlenils- 
American Missionary 

of Ohio, as the Friends' Africa Industrial Mis- 
sion. Three missionaries were sent out to begin 
the worlc and establish themselves among 
the Kavirondo people in British East Africa, 
near Kisumu. The location chosen was on the 
banks of a river, with waterfalls that can be 
utilized for power, and several springs of the best 
water for household purposes. The soil proved 
fertile and the prospects are most encouraging. 
There is one station and ten American mission- 

Woman's Foreign Missionary Union of Friends 
(1881) : The first foreign missionary organiza- 
tion of women among Friends was formed in 
1881 as a Yearly Meeting Society. In 1890 the 
ten independent societies organized in the yearly 
meetings were united in the Woman's Foreign 
Missionary Union of Friends. It has four 
departments of work: Interest and Organization; 
Literature; Juvenile and Junior; Proportionate 
and Systematic Giving, having a general secre- 
tary for each department. 

In 1903 there were ten yearly meeting organ- 
izations in the Union, the greater number work- 
ing through the AFFM. The missions in China, 
India and San Luis Potosi in Mexico are entirely 
supported by three of the women's societies. 
18 missionaries are supported by them. 
The Friends* Missionary Advocate, monthly. 


The American Missionary Association was 
formed in Albany, N. Y., September 3, 1846. 
It was preceded by four recently established 
missionary organizations, subsequently merged 
into it, the result of the growing dissatisfaction 
with the comparative silence of the older mis- 
sionary societies in regard to slavery, and as a 
grotest against it. The first of these, the Amistad 
ommittee, secured the liberation of forty-two 
negroes who had risen upon their captors in the 
Spanish slave schooner "Amistad" that was 
bearing them into slavery, and were finally sent 
by the Committee to their native land, accom- 
panied by three missionaries. The other organ- 
izations were the Union Missionary Society, 
formed in Hartford, Conn., the Committee for 
West India Missions among the recently eman- 
cipated slaves of Jamaica, and the Western 
Evangelical Missionary Society for work among 
the American Indians. 

In the Foreign field, in addition to the missions 
received from the societies named, it took under 
its care one missionary in the Hawaiian Islands, 
two in Siam, and a number of missionaries arid 
teachers laboring among the colored refugees in 
Canada — so that in its Foreign Department in 
1854 its laborers numbered seventy-nine, located 
in Africa, Jamaica, the Sandwich Islands, Siam, 
Egypt — among the Copts, Canada — among the 
colored refugees, and in North America among 
the Indians. 

The Home department embraced two distinct 
fields, the west and the south, and the largest 
number of home missionary workers employed 
by the Association was 112 in 1860, 15 of them 
being located in the slave States and in Kansas. 

In 1859, as the crisis in the slavery question 
approached, the Society closed its work among 
the Copts and Indians, and directed its attention 
distinctly to the colored people. As the war 
commenced, in 1861, the Association felt itself 
specially called and providentially prepared to 
work for negroes, and the first systematic effort 
for their relief was made by it. Large numbers 

of "contrabands," or escaping fugitive slaves,, 
were gathered at Fortress Monroe and Hampton,. 
Va., and were homeless and destitute. The 
Association sent Rev. L. C. Lockwood as a mis- 
sionary, to make investigations. He reached 
Hampton September 3, 1861, and the next day 
arrangements were made for meetings in several 
places, the house of ex-President Tyler being one 
of them — a new use for that mansion, and a new 
era for the colored people. , 

But the great event in Mr. Lockwood' s mis- 
sion was that on the 17th of September, 1861, 
he established the first day school among the 
freedmen. The teacher of that humble school 
was Mrs. Mary S. Peake, an intelligent Christian 
woman. Her mother was a free colored woman, 
her father an educated Englishman. That 
little school laid the foundation for the Hampton 
Institute, and was the forerunner of the hun- 
dreds that have followed. The school-house 
stood on the coast where, two hundred and 
forty-one years before, the first slave-ship 
entered the waters of the American Continent. 
That first slave-ship and this first negro school 
will hereafter be contrasted as the initiators of 
two widely different eras — of barbarism and 
civilization. During the war the Society ex- 
tended its work as rapidly as possible, and at its 
close was in the front rank of the various organ- 
izations at work among the freedmen, turning: 
its attention specially to education and the 
establishment of a high grade of schools. As a. 
result the Association founded Fisk University, 
Tennessee; Talladega College, Alabama; Touga- 
loo University, Mississippi; Straight University, 
Louisiana; and Tillotson College, Texas, together 
with forty-five normal and graded schools and 
twenty-seven common schools, scattered over 
the South. 

Theological departments also were established 
in Howard University, Fisk University, Talla- 
dega College and Straight University, with an 
aggregate of 69 students. Industrial instruction 
first began in Southern mission schools in Talla- 
dega, Ala., and was early introduced into many 
other schools, and has been constantly extended. 
Talladega College and Tougaloo University have 
large farms. In all the larger institutions and 
normal schools, mechanical arts are taught to 
the boys, and household work, cooking, sewing, 
washing, nursing, etc., to the girls. From these 
schools go forth annually hundreds of well- 
qualified teachers and ministers. 

When General Grant, in 1870, invited the 
religious and missionary bodies to assist in the 
work among the Indians, the Association took 
up again the department which it had dropped, 
and, in 1882, by an arrangement with the ABCFM 
it assumed the care of its missions among those' 
people, withdrawing itself from the foreign field. 
It was also a pioneer in work among the Chinese 
in California as early as 1852. In 1875 a special 
superintendent was appointed, and the work 
was soon greatly enlarged. Parallel with these 
lines was the Society's work among the moun- 
tain whites of West Virginia, parts of Virginia, 
Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee, Georgia 
and Alabama. With the opening of Alaska, in 
1890, it pressed to its westernmost limits at Cape 
Prince of Wales. After the war with Spain, by 
arrangement with the Congregational Home 
Missionary Society, it took Porto Rico as its 
field, leaving Cuba to the other Society. 

The Bureau of Woman's Work, organized in 

American Tract 



1883, conducts that part of the work of the 
Association, by direct appeals and through 
Women's State Missionary Unions. 

A summary of the Society's work sho%vs that 
in the southern States it has 79 schools with 480 
teachers and 14,048 pupils, 230 churches, 139 
ministers and missionaries, 12,155 members, and 
17 311 Sunday school scholars; among the 
Indians 20 churches, 1,453 members, 2,661 
Sunday school scholars, 6 schools, 342 pupils, 
47 white and 41 Indian teachers and mission- 
aries; among the Chinese 33 American and 11 
Chinese teachers; in Porto Rico, 2 schools, 10 
teachers, 343 pupils. . 

Official organ of the Society: The American Missionary. 
monthly, New York. 

is undenominational, representing all the Evan- 
geUcal communities of the U. S. It combines 
both home and foreign work, publishing 
Evangelical Christian literature in book and 
leaflet form in 155 languages or dialects. It 
has depositaries in principal cities, employs 
colporteurs, and inakes grants to religious and 
benevolent institutions. 

The possibilities of the printing press as an 
evangelistic agency were seen very soon after the 
invention ot printing. At Basel, in Switzerland, 
there was virtually a Bible Society, a Colportage 
Association, and a Tract Society for France as 
early as 1524. The New Testament and, after- 
ward the Old Testament, in several portions, 
were very widely circulated. In many places, 
unreached by the reformers m person the 
Reformation was inaugurated by the circulation 
of the writings of Luther and Melancthon. 
Indeed the press proved a most effective agency 
in scattering seeds of reform everywhere. _ 

The influence of this idea was manifested m 
England by the organization of the Society 
for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge in 
1698 followed after a century by the Religious 
Tract Society, in 1799, and the movement ex- 
tended across the Atlantic. In 1812 Ihe 
New York Religious Tract Society' was formed, 
and in 1814 "The New England Tract Society,' 
at Boston. In 1823 this latter society changed 
its name to the "American Tract Society, and 
in 1825 it became a branch of a national organ- 
ization, which was then instituted, bearing the 
same name, and designed to constitute a great 
central society for the whole Union, mvitmg the 
cooperation of Christians of all denominations, 
and of other tract associations as auxiliaries, in 
publishing and circulating whatever would 
best "diffuse a knowledge of our Lord Jesus 
Christ as the Redeemer of sinners, and promote 
the interest of vital godliness and sound mor- 
ality " provided only that such publications 
shouid be "calculated'to receive the approbation 
of all evangelical Cliristians." 

Organization: The Society, consisting of persons 
■who have become members and Directors by 
the payment of not less than $30 at one time, 
elects a Board, consisting of President, Vice- 
President and 36 Managers. This Board 
appoints an Executive Committee of 18 Members 
which in turn appoints the Executive Officers, 
consisting (1903) of a Secretary, a Publishing, 
Secretary, an assistant Treasurer and Auditors. 
The Board of Managers also has authority to 
appoint Members, Directors, Honorary Vice- 
Presidents and to fill vacancies. The Execu- 
tive Committee is divided into three Sub- 

committees on Publishing, Distribution and 
Finance. The Publishing Committee is not 
permitted to contain two members from the 
same ecclesiastical connection, and no tract 
can be published to which any member of the 
Committee objects. The headquarters of the 
Society are in the Tract Society Building m 
New York City. There are also depositaries 
in Boston, Cincinnati, and Chicago, and District 
Secretaries at Boston, Rochester, Cincinnati, 
and Chicago, with Superintendents of Colportage 
at Rochester and St. Louis. 

Two of the organizations that were, for prac- 
tical purposes, united with the American Tract 
Society of New York, still maintain a separate 
corporate existence; the American Tract Society 
instituted in Boston, and the AVestern Tract 
Society, with headquarters at Cincinnati. The 
former withdrew from the New York Society 
during the anti-slavery discussion of 1857-60, 
but again united with it in 1897, so far as active 
work is concerned, the District Secretary 
for New England of the New York Society 
acting as its Secretary, and the Manager of the 
Boston depository as its Treasurer. In Cincin- 
nati the Western Tract Society has a separate 
Secretary. , o • > 

Development: For two years after the Society 8 
organization, only tracts were issued. In the 
third year volumes appeared, the first being 
Doddridge's Rise and Progress, Saints' Rest, 
Baxter's Call, Pilgrim's Progress, etc. System- 
atic tract distribution in New York City and 
elsewhere began in the fourth year. In the 
sixth year prominence was given to the value 
of tracts in connection with faithful personal 
efforts to save souls, Harlan Page becoming 
eminent in this transcendent duty. 

The volume enterprise was inaugurated in 
the eighth year by attempt to reach every 
family in the South Altantic States with one or 
more volumes. The West was included the 
next year. "The work was so enlarged that in 
the seventeenth year nearly 100 works had been 
published, the Evangelical Family Library was 
issued, and some 2,000,000 volumes had been 
put into circulation, and 60,000,000 of tracts. 

In 1841 the Society inaugurated its system 
of colportage, with special reference to the 
destitute, isolated settlements, unreached by 
the churches, and to the great numbers who 
refuse to enter the churches. The number of 
colporteurs increased rapidly until by 1860, over 
600 were employed for the whole or a part of 
eacli year. 

Another important feature in tlie publications 
of the Society has been its periodicals. The 
first to be established was The American Mes- 
senger, tlie official organ of the Society, founded 
in 1843. It is an illustrated religious monthly. 
There followed in 1847 the Amerikanischer 
Botschafter, similar in scope and purpose to the 
Messenger, designed for circulation among the 
German-speaking population; in 1852 The 
Child's Paper, now known as Good Cheer, 
an illustrated monthly paper for young folks; 
in 1871 a new German weekly, called the Deut- 
scher Volksfreund, and the Illustrated Christian 
Weekly, which was afterwards sold (1888) to 
another house. Two new periodicals were added 
in 1879; Morning Light, for the younger scholars 
in the Sunday school, and Apples of Gold for 
the youngest readers. Besides all these, there 
is Light and Life, a monthly tract periodical 



American Tract 

consisting of a new eight-page tract each month. 
The new conditions occasioned by such exigen- 
cies as attended the Mexican War, the Civil 
War, and the Spanisli War, have been met by 
the Society witli special publications and arrange- 
ments for distribution. Especially has this 
been the case in regard to the opportunity 
furnished by the Spanisli War. The Sunday 
School paper. Apples of Gold, has been issued 
in Spanish, under the title of Manzanas de Oro; 
hymnals have been prepared and a general 
literature as complete as possible, to all of which 
has been accorded a most enthusiastic reception 
from the missionaries of various denominations 
as well as from the pastors, teachers, and others 
in Cuba, Porto Rico, Mexico, and South America. 

The flood of immigration to America has 
furnished another field for the Society's work. 
The great mass of these immigrants land at 
New York City, and the Tract Society employs 
a colporteur, sometimes with one or more assist- 
ants, to meet, encourage and advise them and 
to supply them with leaflets, papers, etc., in 
their own languages. The readiness of immi- 
grants to receive these and the attention paid 
are remarkable, and many times thanks are 
returned to the Society by the new comers after 
they have reached their homes in various parts 
of the country. Special colportage work is also 
carried on among the Mormons, the negroes of 
the South, in the mining and lumber regions, 
and libraries are supplied to the army and navy 
and to merchant ships. 

The foreign work of the Society is carried on 
through grants to the missions of the various 
denominations or to local Tract Societies. The 
general method is for a committee, representing 
the several mission Boards abroad, to request 
the issue of specific publications, original or 
translated. The American Tract Society then 
provides the needed funds or prints the tract 
or volume on its own presses. Frequently it 
appropriates a lump sum from year to year to 
be used by a committee or mission press, accord- 
ing to the principles and methods of the Society. 
Among the missions thus assisted during 1901-2 
were those of the ABCFM in Austria, Turkey, 
South Africa and India; of the ABMU in 
Burma; of the SBC in China; of the Free Baptists 
India; of the PN in Africa, India, Persia, Syria 
and Siam; of the RCA in Arabia and India, etc. 
Among the Tract Societies aided were the 
Religious Tract Society of France, the Evan- 
gelical Tract Society of Geneva, the Italian 
Evangelical Publishing Society, the North India 
Christian Book and Tract Society, the Central 
China, North China, and Chinese Tract Societies, 
the Korean Religious Tract Society, the Japanese 
Book and Tract Society, etc. 

The total number of volumes issued from 
the home office during the seventy-eight years 
(to 1903), is 32,743,752; of tracts, 449,554,252; 
and of periodicals, 264,278,668; making a grand 
total of 746,576,672 copies of publications 
printed. During 1902 new publications issued 
at foreign mission stations, by the aid of funds 
furnished by the Society, were 38, of which 24 
were volumes and 14 tracts. The whole number 
of publications issued up to 1903 at foreign 
mission stations, with the approval of the 
Society's Publishing Committee, either wholly 
or in part with funds of the Society appropriated 
. for this purpose, is 5,080, of which 1,018 are 
volumes and 4,062 tracts. 

The regular catalog of the society includes, 
aside from a large number of books, tracts, 
hand bills, maps, etc., in English, publications 
in over 20 foreign languages, including German, 
French, Spanish, Italian, Welsh, Dutch, Nor- 
wegian, Danish, Swedish, Hungarian, Finnish, 
Bohemian, Polish, German-Hebrew, Lithuanian, 
Croatian and Chinese. 

The foreign cash payments for publication 
(1902) were $4,928.08, making a total expendi- 
ture of .$747,140.51. The total receipts (1902) 
were $383,983.06. 

AMHARIC: This language belongs to the 
Semitic family of languages, is used in Abyssinia, 
and is related to the ancient Ethiopic or Giz. 
It is written with the Giz letters increased by 
some additional characters, and it has adopted 
words from the Galla and some other neigh- 
boring African tribes. The Amharic is modi- 
fied into many dialects by the isolation of differ- 
ent sections of the country. 

AMITY HALL: A town near the eastern 
extremity of Jamaica, W. I.; station of the 
American Friends' Foreign Missionary Society 
(1897) with 1 missionary and his wife, 1 unmar- 
ried woman missionary, and 4 native workers, 
men and women; 3 outstations, 4 Sunday schools, 
2 young people's societies, 1 high school and 
108 professing Christians. 

AMKHUT: A village in the Malwa region, 
Central India; station of the PCC (1897), with a 
missionary physician and his wife and 1 native 
worker, an orphanage and a dispensary. 

AMOY: A seaport on the southern coast of an 
island of the same name, belonging to the prov- 
ince of Fo-kien, China. It has an excellent 
harbor; the climate is cool in winter, wet in 
spring, and hot in summer; its inhabitants, in 
1901, were 96,000. 

Amoy was one of the earliest centers of Euro- 
pean trade in China. The stream of emigration 
thence to Singapore, noticed by missionaries 
and by the chaplains of foreign seamen, at that 
point, led to the establishment of the first Eng- 
lish and American missions at Amoy. 

The RCA (commenced by ABCFM in 1842 
and transferred in 1854) now has at Amoy 15 
missionaries and 16 native workers, men and 
women, with 6 outstations. The PCE (opened 
1850) has 11 missionaries, men and women, and 
the two societies together 11 preaching places, 
5 village schools, 3 high schools, 1 theological 
class, 1 training class for women workers, 1 
medical class, 1 dispensary, 1 printing house, 1 
foundling asylum, 1 orphanage, and 425 church 

The LMS has at Amoy (founded 1844) 14 
missionaries and 59 native workers, men and 
women, with 65 outstations, 40 village schools, 
1 high school, 1 theological class, 1 college, and 
2,000 church members. 

The missionary operations at Amoy show a 
good example of comity between the three 
societies engaged. 

AMPAMARINANA: A town of Central Mada- 
gascar, near Antananarivo. Mission station of 
the LMS, opened in 1864 and carried on by a 
missionary and his wife, with 229 native workers. 
There are 25 village schools, and 2,622 com- 

AMPARIBE: A town of Central Madagascar, 
a little northwest of Antananarivo. Mission 




station of the LMS opened in 1861, and now 
carried on by one missionary and his wife with 
425 native workers. There are 59 village schools 
and 3,645 communicants. 

AMRAOTI: Chief town of a district of the 
same name in E. Berar, Central Provinces, India. 
Its population is about 33,000. It is a station 
of the CA but no statistics are given. It is an 
outstation of the UFS (1871) with 22 native 
workers, men and women, 4 village schools, and 
48 church members. 

AMRITSAR: An important city and com- 
mercial center of the Punjab, India, and the 
chief seat of the Sikh worship. Population 
(1901), 162,429. It has a "pool of Immortal- 
ity," on an island in which stands the chief 
temple of the Sikh religion. This holy place 
makes Amritsar a religious metropolis, and 
attracts to it great numbers of Pilgrims. 

It is a station of the CMS, founded in 1851, 
and now carried on by 14 missionaries, and 24 
native workers, men and women, with 4 out- 
stations, 1 village school, 1 high school, 1 hos- 
pital, 5 dispensaries, and 1 printing house. 
There are 165 communicants. 

It is also a station of the CEZMS with 16 mis- 
sionaries and 45 native workers, all women, with 
13 village schools, 3 high schools, 1 industrial 
school, 1 training class for women workers, 1 
hospital, 2 dispensaries, and 400 pupils in 

The religious importance of the place gave a 
profound influence to the conversion here of one 
of the Sikh priests some years ago. A Mo- 
hammedan religious teacher converted here in 
1866 became the Rev. Imad-ud-din, a Christian 
pastor of influence and preacher of great power. 

AMROHA : A city of 35,000 inhabitants in the 
Rohilkhand division of the United Provinces, 
India. Occupied as an outstation by the ME 
with 13 native workers, men and women. It 
has 3 preaching places, 8 village schools, and 
the number of professing Christians is 570, 
chiefly Sikhs, but some of them converted Mo- 

AMSTERDAM FARM: A village in the Caro- 
lina district of the Transvaal Colony, S. Africa. 
Station of the SPG, with 2 missionaries. 

AMURANG: A station of the Netherlands 
Missionary Society in the Minahassa peninsula 
of the island of Celebes. 

ANAA. See Tuamottj Islands. 

ANAKAPALLE: Town of 17,000 inhabitants 
(and railroad station), west of Vizagapatam, 
Madras, India; station of the BOQ (1898), with 
a missionary and his wife, 4 native workers, 
men and women, and 3 Sunday schools. 

ANALAKELY: A town in the Imerina district 
of Madagascar; outstation of the LMS, founded 
in 1861; has 148 native workers, with 20 village 
schools, has 1,400 communicants. 

ANAMABOE: A village near Cape Coast 
Castle in the Gold Coast Colony, W. Africa; 
station of the WMS, with 1 missionary and 46 
native workers, men and women, 33 outstations, 
4 village schools and 450 church members. 

ANAMITIC: A mongrel dialect of Cochin 
China so far influenced by the Chinese as to have 
its nearest affinity with that language. 

ANAND: A town in the Gujarat district, 
Bombay, India. A station of the PCI, opened 

in 1877. It is now occupied by 4 missionaries 
and 42 native workers, men and women, with 5 
outstations, 15 village schools, a high school and 
an orphanage. There are 144 communicant 

ANANDPUR: A town in the Punjab, British 
India; a station of the Basel Missionary Society, 
opened in 1856. There are now 3 missionaries 
and 4 native workers, men and women, with 109 

ANANTAPUR: A town in a district of the 
same name, Madras, India; station of the LMS 
(1890), with 1 missionary and his wife, 1 mis- 
sionary woman, and 20 native workers, men 
and women, 12 outstations, 12 village schools,, 
and 45 church members. 

ANCESTOR-WORSHIP: The worship of de- 
ceased ancestors has been an important feature 
of the religious practises among widely sejjarated 
peoples from remote ages. In modern times it 
has chiefly attracted popular attention in China, 
but it exists in Africa (See Bantu Race) ; traces of 
it are found among the American Indians; it is 
discovered among the Hindus, who have in the 
book of Vishnu a ritual for its proper perform- 
ance; it can be noted in Western Asia in a rev- 
erence toward the graves of sages and heroes, 
which leads Mohammedans and others to pray 
with equal fervor at the tomb of Hannibal 
or at the mausoleums of forgotten Christian 
saints, and it appears in the early religious 
observances of Egyptians, Greeks and Romans. 
Its essential features are: (a) unshakable belief 
in the immortality of the soul (fc) trust in the- 
power of the dead to help or harm the living 
and (c) a sense of personal privilege through 
ties of kin to enjoy the protection of the deified or 
semi-deified ancestor. The mind of the man who 
worships his progenitors is in an attitude resem- 
bling that of those who appeal for help topatron 
saints in some branches of the Christian Church. 

In China Ancestor-worship is a part of the Con- 
fucian system, but is older by centuries than the 
time of Confucius, and its claims are more bind- 
ing on a Chinaman than those of any other form 
of worship. He may sneer at Buddhism, ridi- 
cule the outrageous claims of the Taouist exor- 
cists, and may even be brought to see that the 
teachings of Confucius himself are but moral 
aphorisms incapable of changing the life and bet- 
tering the future of his disciples, but he will not 
give up the worship of the ancestral tablet, and 
the paying of that honor and reverence to 
deceased parents which is the outcome of filial 
piety, the root of all Chinese institutions, the- 
bulwark of her government, the strong chain 
which has bound the people together as a nation. 
The worship of ancestors is the real religion of 
China, and as long as the incense is smoking on 
the ancestral altar, so long will Christianity find 
in this practise a formidable foe, founded as it is 
on the best and most natural instincts of the 
human heart. 

When a man dies one of his three souls is sup- 
posed to go into the grave with the body, one 
goes to Hades, and one goes into the tablet 
which is prepared for its occupancy by his oldest 
son. The use of the tablet originated m the Chau 
dynasty, 350 B. C. Rev. Dr. J. Campbell Gibson 
thus describes this resting place for the soul : 

The tablet itself is a small block of wood eight inches to a 
foot in height and a few inches in breadth, on the front of 
which is written the name of the person whom it represents. 
It is sawn through its thickness into two portions, and on the 




inner surface thus exposed the inscription of the name is 
repeated, and usually the date of birth and of death s added. 
This tablet is prepared soon after death takes place, and it 
is retained during one or two generations in the home of the 
family. Offerings are made to it from time to time. As the 
tablets of successive generations take their places in the 
home, those of earlier date are removed to join those of past 
generations in the ancestral temple. Every clan and every 
section of a clan has its oun ancestral temples, and few 
villages, however small, are without one at least. 

On the new and full of every moon special 
offerings and worship are paid, and in the spring 
pilgrimages are made to the tomb, which is swept 
and put in repair. There is no need of priestly 
interference in this worship; the head of the fam- 
ily is the high-priest, and as the older ones die the 
younger ones take their places in this as in all 
other family matters. Ancestor-worship binds 
family ties, it perpetuates mutual interest, and is 
the least objectionable and therefore the most 
dangerous form of pagan worship. While it is 
founded on high principles — the reverence and 
love of parents — it is, in fact, a duty rendered 
from motives of self-protection and self-interest, 
for if the tablet is not erected, if the worship be 
not paid, it is believed that the wandering spirit 
will wreak its wrath on the offending descendant. 
The fear of this wrath is more real, more vivid 
than the fear of any of the other gods. 

Each succeeding generation in bequeathing 
property assigns a portion to be used for the per- 
manent maintenance of offerings on behalf of the 
dead. The practise affects the laws of land 
tenure; it modifies the laws of inheritance, giving 
a larger share of the property to the eldest son, 
because responsibility for keeping up the worship 
rests upon him. It also makes the birth of 
numerous daughters a calamity, because sons 
only can assure maintenance of that worship 
which is supposed to benefit the departed soul. 

Ancestor-worship has been of benefit to China 
in this respect: it has preserved the reverence of 
parental authority, which reaching upward has 
caused national respect for the bead of the nation 
as the father of his people, and it has preserved 
the position of woman more on an equality with 
man, and has defined the position of the mother 
of the family as the wife. Only one "illustrious 
consort" can be named on the tablet to father and 
mother, so there is but one wife, tsih, in the fam- 
ily. Concubines there may be, but they are not 
admitted into the worship of the ancestral hall, 
and this one fact has done much to preserve the 
legal, social and domestic position of woman. 
Moreover, the system not only forms a link be- 
tween the living and the past generations of the 
clan, but it also unites all contemporary branches 
descended from a common stock. In fact it has 
been said that Ancestor-worship is the only point 
upon which all the Chinese unite. 

This peculiarity of the effects of the worship of 
ancestors is seen wherever it is practiced. In 
ancient Greece and Rome, as among the wild 
tribes of Africa to-day, the tie of blood relation- 
ship to a common object of worship always 
tended to knit the clans or tribes together into a 
close corporation, admission to which was almost 
impossible. It also tended to cultivate an exclu- 
siveness which regarded all who are not members 
of the tribe as barbarians without rights and to 
whom enmity is a duty. In Africa this natural 
enmity is sometimes set aside and a stranger is 
admitted to security by mingling his blood with 
that of a tribal chief. In this ceremony, intended 
to establish a sort of blood relationship between 
the foreigner and the savage tribe, there is ample 

reason for believing that its effect in requiring 
the foreigner to venerate the ancestors of the tribe 
is presupposed by those who accept him as a 

The barrier against Christianity formed by 
Ancestor-worship is solid and hard to pass. In 
China the people feel a shock of pain and revul- 
sion on learning that Christians do not worship 
their deceased parents. When a Chinese be- 
comes converted and abandons the practise he is 
regarded as having inflicted irreparable injury 
upon all of his ancestors. He has perhaps 
reduced them all to beggary. The stigma resting 
upon Christians is the more ineffaceable and 
painful to endure because at the spring "feast of 
All-souls", every person in the Chinese Empire 
except the Evangelical Christians takes part in 
the worship of the dead. 

Under these circumstances many wise men 
have advised against a too rigid rejection of 
Ancestor- worship, which may after all be nearly 
akin to filial respect. But the attitude of Chris- 
tianity to this form of worship can easily be 
determined when its true character is understood. 
Dr. E. Faber succinctly stated its position when 
the question was discussed in the Missionary 
Conference of 1890. In brief, "Ancestral worship 
presupposes disembodied souls to be subject to 
the same wants as living bodies; it demands real 
sacrifices to them; it makes the happiness of the 
living depend upon appeasing the desires of the 
dead; it is not merely commemorative, but it is 
a pretended intercourse with the world of spirits; 
it has developed an extreme view of paternal 
authority, placing it above the authority of God,, 
and crushes individual liberty and it chains mil- 
lions of people to the past and prevents sound 

Gibson (J. C), Mission Problems in S. China, New York,, 
Revell, 1900; Yates (M. T.), Ancestral Worship, Shanghai, 
1867; Maine (H.), Early Law and Custom; Seebohm (H. 
E.), Structure of Greek Tribal Society, London; Religious 
System of the Amazulu; Ancestor Worship, Callaway (H.), 
London, 1870. 

AN-CHIA-CHWANG : A town in the province of 
Shan-tung, China; station of the ME, with 6 
native workers, men and women, 2 village 
schools, 2 outstations and 200 church members. 

ANDAMAN ISLANDS : A long narrow group of' 
small islands in the eastern part of the Bay of" 
Bengal. Area, 2,000 square miles. They in- 
clude the North, Middle, South and Little Anda- 
man islands, with a number of islets, and all are 
densely wooded. They are used as a penal col- 
ony. The climate is very unhealthy. The popu- 
lation in 1901 was 17,500 of whom 11,465 were 
convicts and 1,882 native aborigines. 

The natives are a diminutive and barbarous 
people, who seem to be distinct from all other 
known races in physical features, language, and 

The people of these islands are averse to inter- 
course with strangers. Their religion is little 
known but seems to consist of worship of good 
and evil deities. 

Missionary effort has been mainly directed 
toward the convicts at Port Blair. 

ANDOHALO: District E. of Antananarivo, 
Madagascar; station of the Paris Evangelical 
Society, with 1 missionary, 45 native workers, 
men and women, 16 outstations, 16 Sunday 
schools and 640 communicants. 

ANDEVORANTO: A village of 2,000 inhab- 
itants on the eastern coast of Madagascar, and 




an SPG station, founded in 1874. It now has 
129 communicants under the care of one Euro- 
pean missionary. 

ANDREWS, Lorrin: Born April 29, 1795, at 
East Windsor (now Vernon), Conn.; graduated 
at Jefferson College, Pa.; Princeton Theological 
Seminary, 1825; sailed as a missionary of the 
ABCFM, November 3, 1827, for the Sandwich 
Islands, reaching Honolulu, March 31, 1828; 
was stationed at Lahaina with Mr. Richards. 
In 1831 he was appointed to establish the 
Lahainaluna Seminary, which was opened ^ m 
September of that year with 25 pupils. During 
the succeeding ten years he exerted hirnself to 
found the institution on a permanent basis. He 
resigned his connection with the Board in 1842, 
because of conscientious differences of opiriion. 
In 1845 he removed to Honolulu, and received 
the appointment of judge under the Hawaiian 
Government. For many years he sat upon the 
bench and officiated with ability and integrity. 
His services were highly appreciated by Judge 
Lee. For many years he acted as secretary of 
the Privy Council, keeping the records in Eng- 
lisli and Hawaiian. He resigned his office of 
judge in 1855, but an annuity of $1,000 was 
appropriated for his benefit and continued by 
successive legislatures to the very last. During 
the later years of his life his mind and pen were 
constantly occupied. His Hawaiian Dictionary, 
defining nearly 17,000 words, occupied him for 
many years. His research into the folk-lore of 
the Hawaiian people had been very extensive. 
He died at Honolulu, September 29, 1868. 

ANEIKADU: A village of the district of 
Tanjore, S. India, occupied as an outstation by 
the Leipzig Missionary Society. It has 10 
native workers, men and women, and 356 com- 

ANEITIUM. See New Hebrides. 
ANEITIUM LANGUAGE: It is of the Mela- 
nesian family and is used by the people of an 
island of the N. Hebrides. It is written with 
Roman letters. 

ANGOLA: A possession of Portugal, also 
called Portuguese West Africa, bordering the 
Atlantic, with a coast line of more than a thou- 
sand miles from the borders of the French 
Congo to German Southwest Africa and extend- 
ing back into the continent variable distances 
to the borders of the Congo Free State and 
British South Africa. It has an area of 484,000 
square miles, and an estimated population of 
4 1 19,000. That characteristic feature of the 
African coast, the line of cliffs approached by 
terraces, is continued northward through Angola. 
The country is well watered, especially in the 
north. In the south the rainfall is less, and 
many of the streams dry up. Great diversity 
of climate is experienced in such a length of coast 
line. There are also extreme local variations, 
due to accidental conditions. Vegetation be- 
comes more abundant as you pass from south to 
north. The elephant and lion become scarce. 
Panthers and hyenas are numerous. Zebras 
and antelopes occur in the south. Insects are 
rare, but the rivers are well stocked with fish. 
Caoutchouc, orchilla moss (used in dyeing), 
gum copal, palm, acacia, baobab, etc., are chief 
sources of wealth. Manioc, maize, millet, sorgo, 
and European fruits and vegetables are culti- 
vated. The country is also rich in minerals. 
The population of Angola is affected by the 

northward movement of Boers; also by immi- 
gration from Brazil, and by the intermingling of 
Portuguese with the natives. But north ot 
Mossamedes acclimatization for Europeans is a 
difficult and dangerous process. There are 
about 6,000 of European descent in Angola. 

Preto is the name given to the negroes who 
have been brought into direct contact with 
European civilization, and who are found 
chiefly in the coast towns and their vicinity, and 
on the lines of travel and trade. Among them 
are found many well-informed people, merchants, 
and colonial officials. 

The tribes south of Benguela are supposed to 
belong to the primitive race, Bushmen or Hot- 
tentots, and partake of their general character- 

The Ganguelas occupy the Upper KuJDango 
basin. A great variety of social condition is 
found in studying the different tribes. They are 
represented as savage, but intelligent and enter- 
prising. In some tribes trial by ordeal of the 
poisoned cup is practised. Their headdress is 
wonderful, surpassing that of most African 
peoples; their dress is scanty. 

On the Congo is found the Bafyote or Bacongo 
group. They were the founders of the ancient 
kingdom of Congo. That kingdom still exists, 
tho weak, as most the tribes have seceded. 
Roman Catholic influence was once apparently 
great, but evidently superficial. Fetishism is 
rampant, nearly every natural object being a 
fetish. The Bamba magicians have wonderful 
skill in feats of jugglery. 

The principal centers of trade and general 
influence are San Salvador, capital of the old 
Congo kingdom, and the center of a flourishing 
Baptist mission; Ambriz; S. Paolo de Loanda, 
the capital and largest city for 3,000 miles on the 
west African seaboard; Dondo, at the head of 
navigation of the Quanza; Pamba, in the 
Ambaca district, terminus of the railway from 
Loando; and Bih^, the terminus of the southern 
trade route, 300 miles long, starting from Ben- 

Bih6 is properly the name ot the extremely 
fertile plateaus about 5,000 feet above the sea 
level occupied by rude and wholly uncivilized 
but shrewd people of mixed origin. It is the 
headquarters of a mission of the ABCFM. On 
the coast are Benguela, charmingly situated 
and Mossamedes, a well-sheltered port. Travel 
has been facilitated in recent years by the open- 
ing of new railroads. About 225 miles of 
railroad have been built, and other railways are 
projected, connecting the principal towns of 
the territory. There are also about 800 miles 
of telegraph in operation. 

Apart from Roman Catholic missions under 
Portuguese protection, the missionary societies 
established in Angola are the BMS, ME, ABCFM, 
PB, and the FCMS. The BFBS also has an 
agency in Angola. The whole number of sta- 
tions occupied by these societies is 14. 
Monteiro, Angola and the river Congo, London, 1895, 2 vols. 

ANGORA: A city of • 36,000 inhabitants; 
capital of the province of the same name in 
Asiatic Turkey. It is a place of considerable 
commercial importance, as it was in ancient 
times under the name of Ancyra of Galatia. 
The majority of the population are Moham- 
medans. It is a strong center of the Armenian 
Catholics. There are also Armenians, a few 
Greeks, and some Protestants. At Istanos, a 




village a few miles from Angora, there is a Prot- 
estant church of influence and activity which 
affects all the region. 

ANGRA PEQUENA: A town on a bay of the 
same name on the coast of German Southwest 
Africa. It is the seaport of Great Namaqualand, 
where the Rhenish Missionary Society has sev- 
eral stations and a colony of Europeans is slowly 

ANG-TAU: A village in the Fo-kien province, 
China, S. W. of Fuchau; station of the ME with 
17 native workers, men and women, 4 outstations, 
7 Sunday schools, 5 young people's societies, 5 
common schools and 400 church members. 
Also written Tang-tau. 

ANGULANA: A town S. of Colombo on the 
W. Coast of Ceylon; station of the WMS, with 
■one missionary and 16 native workers, men and 
women, 3 outstations, 4 Sunday schools, 5 
village schools and 65 church members. 

ANHALT-SCHMIDT: A town in Cape Colony, 
South Africa. Mission station of the Berlin 
Evangelical Missionary Society (1860); with 
■2 missionaries, 12 native workers, men and 
women, 2 outstations, and 500 communicants. 

AWIWA: A small island in the southernmost 
group of the New Hebrides. Population, 192, 
all Christians. 

ANIWAN: This language belongs to the 
Melanesian family and is used by less than a 
thousand persons inhabiting Aniwa Island. 
It has been written for missionary purposes 
with Roman letters. 

ANKLESWAR: A town of 11,000 inhabitants 
near Broach on the Narbada River, Bombay, 
India; station of the German Baptist Brethren 
Mission, with a missionary and his wife, an 
orphanage, and 25 church members. 

AN-KO-CHUANG: A town in the Chi-li prov- 
ince of China; station of the ME, with 6 native 
workers, men and women, 1 high school, 1 
village school, and 185 church members. 

ANLO: A dialect of the Ew6 language, q. v. 

ANNAM: A kingdom under the protectorate 
of France, occupying the most eastern portion 
of the Indo-Chinese peninsula, east of Siam 
and southeast of Burma. Area, 30,000 square 
miles. Surface, irregular and mountainous. 
Rivers numerous, and, altho too shallow for 
navigation, most useful for irrigation. The 
country produces an abundance of rice, sugar, 
spices, and tropical fruits. The Annamese are 
somewhat akin to the Chinese in language and 
in many of their important customs, but they 
also partake largely of the Malay characteristics, 
and evidently form a link between the Mongo- 
lian and Malay races. They are generally quiet 
and inoffensive, indolent and fond of gayety. 
The women are much oppressed, but not obliged 
to live in seclusion. The religions are Buddhism, 
Confucianism, Spiritism, and Christianity. 
Annam is governed by an emperor, with a French 
resident to guide his policy. Mandarins ap- 
pointed by the emperor govern the provinces 
and control the standing army, which is compara- 
tively large. The capital of the country is Hu^, 
on a river of the same name. The early history 
of Annam is involved in obscurity; it is only 
known that wars with the neighboring powers 
determined its boundaries, and that the empire 
was formerly entirely subject to China. 

In the 17th century, when Annam was 
most prosperous, the Jesuits (among them 
the celebrated Jesuit missionary, Alexander 
von Rhodes, who came there in 1615) introduced 
Christianity, and in spite of much persecution 
propagated it with such energy that at the close 
of the 18th century French priests had 
converted the emperor and established a hier- 
archy of great influence. Later, however, these 
doctrines were rejected by the emperors, and 
the priests and converts persecuted. One em- 
peror, Tu-Due, was especially opposed to Chris- 
tianity, and the murder of several missionaries, 
between 1854 and 1858, served as pretext for 
the acquirement of a French colony in the 
East. In 1858 a French fleet was sent by 
Napoleon III., which succeeded in capturing 
several important towns, and, altho the 
Annamese made stout resistance, the French 
succeeded in dictating terms of peace by which 
they became possessors of three provinces. 
These remain m their possession under the 
name of Indo-China, the only important French 
colony in the East. By this treaty three ports 
in Tonquin were opened, and Christianity 
was permitted throughout Annam. An insur- 
rection occurred in 1862, which was quelled by 
the French. 

There are no Protestant missions in Annam, 
the only missionaries being of the Roman Cath- 
olic Church. In the entire kingdom of Annam, 
with a population numbering C1901) 6,124,000, 
there are 420,000 Catholics, under the care of 
125 European and 264 native priests, in 7 apos- 
tolic vicariates. 
Tonkin, or France in the Far East, Norman (C. B.), London, 

1884; Peoples and Politics of the Far East, ibid., London. 


ANNAMESE: The language spoken in Annam 
belongs to the Mon-Anam branch of the Indo- 
Chinese family of languages. It has its own 
written characters, but has been written in 
Roman letters in some Bible translations. It 
is spoken by about 10,000,000 people. 

ANNFIELD: A village in the Dehra Dun 
district. United Provinces, India; station of 
the CMS (1859), with 3 missionaries and 7 native 
workers, men and women, a village school and 
206 communicants. 

ANOSIBE: District S. E. of Antananarivo, 
Madagascar; station of the Paris Evangelical 
Society (1899), with 1 missionary, 2 unmarried 
missionary women, 62 native workers, men 
and women, 30 outstations, 30 village schools, 
1 high scliool, 1 industrial school, and 25 com- 

ANTANANARIVO: Capital of Madagascar. 
Climate, temperate. Elevation, 4,500 feet. 
Population (1901), about 50,000; of Hova, 
Malagasy, Polynesian and Micronesian stock, 
each class speaking a separate language. Re- 
ligion, fetishism; belief in charms and ordeals. 
Social condition, comparatively civilized. Occu- 
pations, metal and straw work, spinning, weaving, 
etc., in all of which skill is shown. 

Station of the LMS and of the Paris Evan- 
gelical Society, to which the LMS transferred the 
most of its work after the French occupation 
of the island in 1896. Together the Societies 
have 29 missionaries and 24 native workers, 
men and women, 9 high schools, 1 college, and 
a printing house. There are 30,000 church mem- 
bers in the district. 





Also station of the Friends Foreign Mission 
Society, with 6 missionaries and 31 native 
workers, men and women. It has 2 high schools, 
a printing house and a dispensary, and 300 
professing Christians. 

Also station of the SPG with 6 missionaries 
and 8 native workers, men and women, and 
733 communicants. 

The Norwegian Missionary Society^ also has 
a station here (since 1869), with a hospital. 

ANTIGUA: An island in the British Colony 
of the Leeward Islands, W. I. Its population 
is about 36,000, chiefly negroes who are Chris- 
tians. The Moravians have seven mission stations 
in the island. 

ANTIOCH: A city of 17,500 inhabitants, in 
the province of Aleppo, Asiatic Turkey. It is 
situated on the Orontes River, about 20 miles 
from the Mediterranean Sea. The largest part 
of the population is Mohammedan. Greeks, 
Armenians, Roman Catholics, and a few Protes- 
tants make up the Christian part of the popu- 
lation. Altho the place has lost the impor- 
tance of Apostolic days, it is still the seat of a 
Greek Patriarchate. 

It is a station of the Reformed Presbyterian 
Churches of Ireland and Scotland, with 3 mis- 
sionaries and 7 native workers, men and 
women, a dispensary, 2 village schools and 50 
church members. 

ANTIOKA: Station of the Swiss Romande 
Missionary Society, situated on the Komati 
River, N. of Lourengo Marques, Portuguese 
East Africa. It is occu{)ied by 2 missionaries 
and their wives, 1 unmarried missionary woman, 
and 2 native workers: 2 preaching places, 2 
village schools, a book depot, and 30 commu- 

ANTOFAGASTA : A seaport in Chile, S. 
America, the terminus of a railway across the 
Andes into Bolivia. Population about 8,000; 
station of the ME, with 1 missionary, 2 Sunday 
schools, and 80 church members. 

ANTSIRABE: A district near Betafo, Mada- 
gascar; station of the Norwegian Missionary 
Society, with 2 missionaries, and a hospital. 

ANUM: A town of the Volta, Gold Coast, 
West Africa. Population, 5,000. A station 
was founded here by the Basel Missionary So- 
ciety in 1864, but in 1869 the city was destroyed 
by the Ashantis. In 1881, however, the station 
was rebuilt There are now 5 missionaries and 
31 native workers, raen and women, with 21 out- 
stations and 23 village schools. There are 740 

ANUPSHAHR: A town on the Ganges in the 
Bulandshahr district. United Provinces, India; 
station of the ME with 6 native workers, men 
and' women, 8 Sunday schools, 5 village schools, 
a Young People's Society, and 600 church 

AONLA: Town in the Rohilkhand district, 
United Provinces, India, S. W. of Bareilly; 
station of the ME, with 19 native workers, men 
and women, 8 Sunday schools, 4 village schools, 
and 750 church -members. 

AOMORI: A town of 15,000 inhabitants on the 
extreme northern coast of the island of Hondo, 

It is a station of the RCA with 1 missionary 
woman, 2 native workers, man and woman, and 
30 professing Christians. Occupied in 1891. 

It is also a station, occupied in 1893, of the PE,, 
with 2 women missionaries and 2 native workers,, 
man and woman. 

It is also an outstation of the ME with 1 
native worker. 

APAIANG. See Gilbert Islands. 

APAM: A town on the coast E. of Cape Coast 
Castle, Gold Coast Colony, W. Africa; station of 
the WMS, with 1 missionary, 51 native workers, 
42 outstations, 6 Sunday schools, 5 common 
schools and 325 church members. 

APAMANA. See Gilbert Islands. 

API. See New Hebrides. 

API, or BAKI LANGUAGE: The Api or Baki, 
belongs to the Melanesian family of languages 
and is spoken in the island of Api, New Hebrides. 
It is written with Roman letters. 

APIA : The principal seaport of Upolu, Samoan 
Islands, with an excellent and much frequented 
harbor. Mission station of the LMS (1836), with 
(1903) 4 missionaries, men and women, 38 native 
worders, and 1,525 communicants. 

Mission station of the Interna,tional Medical 
Mission Association, with 1 missionary and his 
wife, 1 hospital, and 1 dispensary. 

Also mission station of the Seventh DayAdvent- 
ist Missionary Society, with a missionary and 
his wife and 3 unmarried missionary women. A 
book depot is kept up. 

APIZACO: Town in Tlaxcala, Mexico; station 
of the ME, with 8 native workers, 4 outstations^ 
5 common schools and 434 church members. 

APPELSBOOSCH : Village in Natal, South 
Africa; station of the Church of Sweden Mission, 
with 6 missionaries and 6 native workers, men 
and women. Connected with it are 6 outsta- 
tions, 4 preaching places and 4 village schools. 

APPENZELLER, Rev. Henry G. : Born at Sou- 
derton. Pa., February 6, 1858. Died June 
11, 1902. Graduated from Franklin and Mar- 
shall College, Lancaster, Pa., in 1882; attended 
Drew Theological Seminary two years; appointed 
by Bishop Fowler, in 1885, as one of the first 
Methodist missionaries to Korea, arriving at 
Chemulpo with his wife on April 5, 1885. 
During seventeen years he was one of the most 
faithful and efficient missionaries of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church and held, with honor, a 
number of responsible positions. He was presi- 
dent of the Pai Chai College at Seoul, principal of 
the Theological Department and pastor of three 
churches. As one of the translators of the Scrip- 
tures into the Korean language he made a per- 
manent contribution to the cause of missions, 
and his linguistic services were highly esteemed 
by his associates of other denominations. The 
name of Pai Chai Hak Tang was given to the col- 
lege by the King of Korea, who paid for the tui- 
tion of a number of pupils, and who showed the 
highest regard for the principal. On July 24, 1887, 
Mr. Appenzeller had the joy of hearing the testi- 
mony of the first convert in the mission; and 
Christmas day of that year he preached his first 
sermon in the Korean language, his text being: 
"Thou shalt call His name Jesus, for He shall save 
His people from their sins." In April and May, 
1887, Dr. Appenzeller journeyed nearly 200 miles 
to Pyeng-yang, it being the first missionary jour- 
ney taken in that direction, and during the fol- 
lowing year he went to Wi-ju, the gateway to 
China, receiving eleven men into the Church on 
profession of their faith in Christ. In his explor- 




ing itineraries, at a later date, he visited eight 
provinces of the Icingdom; and during tliese mis- 
sionary journeys he left a deep and lasting 
impression for good. In 1890 he toolv part in 
the organization of the first Quarterly Conference 
in Korea at Seoul, and before his labors ceased he 
had the pleasure of seeing the number of com- 
municants in Korea reach nearly 4,000. On the 
.afternoon of June 11, 1902, Dr. Appenzeller set 
sail for Mokpo to attend a session of the Board 
of Bible Translators, which had been called to 
meet there. During the night of that day the 
steamer was run into by another steamer near 
Guelin Island, and with fourteen Koreans, three 
Japanese and eight of the crew, this devoted mis- 
sionary lost his life. 

SIONS: For the first three centuries of its life, the 
Christian Church was distinctively a missionary 
church. Its chief purpose was the spread of 
Christianity. It fought heresy bitterly, but for 
the great mass of the people, creeds were a sec- 
ondary consideration. Preaching the Gospel took 
always the first place. 

From the paucity of record, apart from the 
Book of Acts, and some references in the epistles, 
some have supposed that aside from Paul, Peter 
and John, and their immediate associates, there 
was little interest either in the Apostolic com- 
pany or the great mass of believers, in the carry- 
ing of the Gospel message to remote sections. 
That this is incorrect, is manifest from the ad- 
vance actually made (see Geography of Missions). 
It is impossible that a new faith should so rapidly 
Iiave extended over so wide a territory and 
against such fearful odds, in comparatively so 
short a time without great effort. At the middle 
of the 2d century Justin Martyr wrote: "There 
is no people, Greek or barbarian or of any other 
race, by whatsoever appellation or manners they 
may be distinguished, however igno»ant of arts or 
agriculture, whether they dwell in tents or wan- 
der about in covered wagons, among whom 
prayers and thanksgiving are not offered, in the 
name of the crucified Jesus, to the Father and 
Creator of all things." 

Fifty years later Tertullian in his address to the 
heathen said: "We are but of yesterday, and yet 
we already fill your cities, its lands, camps, your 
palace, senate and forum; we have left you only 
your temples." 

Already Abgar, claimed by the Armenians as 
their first leader in the faith, had been baptized, 
and even if St. Thomas himself never visited India, 
a Christian teacher from Alexandria visited Mala- 
bar in 190 and not long after it was reported that 
there were 350 strong churches in that land. 
Early in the 3d century twenty bishops from 
the Nile valley attended a council in Alexandria, 
while Tertullian's church at Carthage was but the 
leader among several in North Africa. It is to be 
remembered also that when Constantine made 
Christianity the religion of the Roman Empire, he 
accepted a situation already of remarkable char- 
acter. It was no parallel to the conversion of 
some of the northern nations, where the ruler's will 
was all that was needed to insure a change of wor- 
ship, regardless of a change of thought or of heart. 
No emperor, however mighty, could have made 
Rome Christian, had Christianity not already 
been woven into the very fiber of its national life. 

In considering how this was brought about the 
agencies, methods and underlying purpose must 
be kept in mind. 

Agencies: The great agency of the Apostolic 
Church in the missionary enterprise was the rank 
and file of its membership. During the first 
three centuries there were very few who like Paul 
and Barnabas, Silas, Timotheus and a few others, 
gave themselves to the work of preaching in new 
countries. Even the great leaders who followed 
the apostles, Polycarp, Justin Martyr, Ignatius, 
Origen, Tertullian, Cyprian, Clement and others, 
were not missionaries in the sense in which the 
term is used now. They were all located in the 
centers, and did valiant work in them, but they 
were seldom explorers, leaders in the outreaching 
of the Church. That was chiefly, almost entirely, 
the work of obscure men, for the most part lay- 
men, and also for the most part not distmctively 
set apart for the work. The one supreme charac- 
teristic of the Apostolic Church in this respect is 
the missionary zeal and activity of the individual 
members. Women as well as men — merchants, 
miners, sailors, soldiers, craftsmen, voluntarily 
made it one of their chief objects, whether at 
home or abroad, in private or public life, to 
extend to others the Gospel message. Then, as in 
no period since, was it true that every individual 
Christian was a missionary, and it was to this 
individualistic evangelism that was due the mar- 
velous extension of those three centuries. 

Methods: In all this, then, there was little organi- 
zation. Bishops gradually acquired control in 
their own cities and districts, but all were equal, 
and there seems to have been no concerted action. 
Each man, whether in the centers or on the out- 
skirts of the Empire, was free to conduct his dio- 
ceses much as he pleased and this freedom 
extended to the specific action of his individual 
followers, who were free to teach as they judged 
best, so long as they kept clear of heresy and 
made manifest in their lives the principles they 
professed. It was in the combination and accord 
of precept and practise that lay the great power of 
that early Church. 

Yet there was after all a certain method appar- 
ent in this individualism. The special efforts 
were made in the great centers, the cities of the 
Roman Empire, and along the lines of commercial 
activity. As fast as the community in one place 
became large enough a leader was found, placed 
there and expected to see that his diocese grew in 
numbers and influence. Thus Gregory Thau- 
maturgus was made bishop of his native city, 
Neo-Cesarea, in Pontus, when there were about 
twenty-seven Christians there. At the close of 
his ministry there were said to be but twenty- 
seven pagans left. 

With the growth of the Church there developed 
also the aids to work. This is the period of the 
early versions — the Peshito and Curetonian 
Syriac for Syria and Mesopotamia; the Memphitie, 
Thebaic and Bashmuric for Egypt and the 
Upper Nile Valley; the North African and Italian 
Latin for Carthage and Rome. Alexandria, 
always a literary center, became, too, the seat of a 
catechumen's school, practically a missionary 
college from which trained workers were sent out 
to Africa, Europe and Asia. 

Motive: In the earlier years of this period, the 
controlling motive in this missionary work 
appears to have been personal loyalty to the 
Savior and a desire that, as He had been rejected 
and crucified, so now He might be accepted and 
enthroned. There was indeed recognition of the 
need of men, but the impelling impulse was less 
that than their love for Christ and a desire that 




He receive full honor. As the work continued the 
human element became more prominent. The 
risen Savior out of sight was to a degree replaced 
by the needy ones in sight. There was a better 
conception of the object of Christ's mission, in its 
relation both to the individual soul and to the mul- 
titudes who were without God and without hope. 
Human sympathy assumed a larger, place, and 
the salvation of men became more distinctively 
the object and motive of missionary labor. 

With the opening of the 4th century there 
came a change in almost every respect. The 
active missionary propaganda of the Apostolic 
Church gave place to an effort to assimilate the 
great mass of heathenism, which, when Constan- 
tine made Christianity the dominant faith, 
accepted its forms without entering into its 
spirit. At the same time the loose individualism 
of the preceding period was followed by a closer, 
more compact organization, due partly to the 
change in political conditions, partly to the 
necessity of better supervision to counteract the 
influences of heathenism, the growth of divergent 
and heretical creeds, and partly to incursions from 
the wild natives of the north. The Church had 
by a sudden bound become a nation, and the 
simpler forms possible in a community became 
inadequate to the new duties and responsibili- 

The result, so far as missionary work was con- 
cerned, was that the Church as a whole ceased to 
have any special interest in it, the immediate 
need filling the vision completely. It was the 
period of the great councils, and, to the leaders 
and the people generally, the conservation of 
the faith seemed more essential than its exten- 
sion. There were, however, individuals who still 
felt the burden of the nations, and the incoming of 
the hordes of East Goths, Vandals and Huns, 
presented opportunities as well as needs that 
taxed to the full the fervor of ecclesiastics at 
home, and such apostles as Ulfilas, Honoratius 
and Patrick in Europe, Gregory the Illuminator 
in Armenia, Frumentius in Africa and the Nes- 
torian missionaries who penetrated to Central 
and Eastern Asia, but left so little record that 
their achievements are clouded in obscurity. In 
agencies, methods and motive the movement 
changed entirely. The great mass of the Church 
gradually came to know nothing and care noth- 
ing about missions; the ecclesiastical leaders for 
the most part were content with their immediate 
duties, and individuals commissioned by the 
Church but scarcely supported by it were the sole 
agents. With this period began, too, a move- 
ment toward national rather than individual con- 
version. Whole communities and even races 
were brought into the church en masse. So too, 
in this period, the motive that became so promi- 
nent in the next, of loyalty to and ambition for 
the Church, began to gain its hold. It was no 
longer Christ, the Savior of the needy soul, that 
filled the vision, so much as the "body of Christ," 
the Church to be, enlarged, solidified, glorified. 

In a very real sense, then, the proclamation by 
Constantine making Christianity the religion of 
the Roman Empire was the greatest calamity 
that ever befell the Christian Church. It prac- 
tically suffocated the already waning energies, 
and laid the foundation for that period of inac- 
tivity during which the Eastern Church crystal- 
lized and the Western developed the ecclesias- 
tical machinery of Papacy. That missionary 
activity did not disappear entirely was due to 

individuals rather than the Church, as will be evi- 
dent in the record of the succeeding centuriea 
until the Reformation, described in the article 
on Medieval Missions. 

ARABIA: A peninsula at the southwestern 
extremity of Asia, lying within latitiude 30° and 
12° 45' N., and longitude 32° 30' and 60° E. Its- 
land boundaries are Egypt on the northwest and 
Palestine and Syria on the northeast. Com- 
mencing at the northeast, the waters which 
successively surround it are: the Persian Gulf, 
Gulf of Oman, Indian Ocean, Gulf of Aden, and 
the Red Sea. Its total area is estimated at over 
1,000,000 square miles. Arabia was formerly 
divided and described by foreigners as consisting 
of Arabia Petraea, the rocky mountainous region 
in the north; Arabia Deserta, the vast desert 
lands, and Arabia Felix, the "Happy" land, on 
the shores of the Red Sea and Indian Ocean. A 
study of the physical features of the country 
suggests a more rational division of the surface 
into equal thirds; one comprising the moun- 
tainous lands along the coasts; another the 
desert lands, which form almost a complete ring 
around the central plateau of tableland, which 
forms the third physical division. 

Beginning with the coast district at the north- 
west, the principal districts are: 1. The Sinaitic 
peninsula, a triangle with the Red Sea as its 
apex, Palestine for its base, and the gulfs of 
Suez and Akabah for its sides, corresponds very 
nearly to Arabia Petraea. 2. Hejaz extends 
from latitude 28° to 21° N. along the shore, and 
for a distance inland varying from 60 to 150 
miles. It is for the most part sandy and stony, 
with only a few fertile spots around Medina and 
Kholeys, a few days' journey north of Mecca. 
Around this holy city of the Mohammedan is 
the Haram, or Sacred Territory, at the southern 
extremity of the district. 3. Yemen occupies 
the remainder of the mountain coast as far south 
as Aden, and consists of two portions. That 
part lying along the shore is called Tehamah, 
and is flat and rocky, while the inland part, 
stretching sometimes 300 miles to the east, is 
mountainous, with precipitous hills and fertile 
valleys. The oasis of the southern Jowf is also 
included in this district. 4. Aden, a small pen- 
insula on the coast, about 100 miles east of Bab- 
el-Mandeb, with the island of Perim, at the 
entrance to the Red Sea, is subject to Great 
Britain. It includes in its district a smaller 
peninsula. Little Aden, and the settlement and 
town of Sheikh Othman, ten miles from Aden, 
in all 70 square miles. Its population (1901) is 
43,974. Aden is simply a coaling station, but 
its position makes it of great strategic impor- 
tance. 5. Hadramaut and Mahrah occupy the 
1,200 miles of coast between Aden ana Cape 
Ras-el-Hadd. They have the same general 
features of the other coast districts — a sandy or 
rocky shore, behind which mountain ranges 
stretch back into the great desert — and little is 
known in regard to the interior, its inhabitants 
or products. 6. Oman and Hasa complete the 
line of coast districts, extending from Cape Ras- 
el-Hadd to the head of the Persian Gulf. The 
mountains in Oman are the highest on the coast, 
and the strip of coast land in Hasa has extensive 
fertile tracts. Mascat, the capital of Oman, is 
the only good harbor. 

The central third of Arabia, especially Nejd, 
is the stronghold of the Arab nation. On the 
extreme north and northeast lies the desert, with 




the oasis of Jof and Teima, varying the monotony 
of tlie stony waste. South of the stony desert 
lie the Nefud, or sandy passes, between whicli 
and Nejd is tlie district of Sliomer, witla its 
two parallel mountain ranges running northeast 
to southwest. The principal provinces of the 
nine into which Nejd is divided are: Ared, the 
central province, containing the capital, Riadh; 
Sedeyr, or Sudeir, in the highlands of the Toweyk 
mountain range, which runs north and south 
through the heart of Nejd; Yemamah, south of 
Ared, a fertile district, celebrated in native 
history as the home of brave men and beautiful 
women; and Woshem, a small but important 
district west of Ared. Of the desert surrounding 
Nejd, that portion lying to the southward is 
called the Dahna, or "Crimson," from the color 
of the sand, and covers .50,000 square miles. Of 
it little is known; not even the Bedouins have 
traversed its full extent, and European travelers 
shrink from its heat and sterility. 

Climate: In the Sinaitic peninsula the air is 
dry, clear, and, in the main, healthy, with winter 
rains. The summer temperature in the valleys 
is excessively high, but the nights are cool. In 
general the sandy slopes of the coast districts 
are hot and unhealthy, with a cooler, more 
healthy air in the mountains. In the desert the 
heat is intolerable, and in the Nefud district 
the deadly "simoom" blows. This is a storm 
of a cyclonic nature, carrying in its center a 
noxious gas, which is death if inhaled in any 
quantity. It lasts from two to ten minutes at 
any one point, and the only way to escape it 
is to cover the mouth with a cloth and lie down 
on the ground, where the heavier pure air is 
found. Camels instinctively bury their noses in 
the sand, but horses are often killed by the gas. 
The dwellers in Arabia are divided into the 
nomadic Bedouins, and the dwellers in towns. 

1. The Bedouins are the shepherds and herds- 
men, who wander about the deserts from one 
fertile valley to another. They have been 
called brigands, because they consider themselves 
the lords of the land, and, in the absence of con- 
stituted authority, take summary methods to 
punish the traveler, whom they regard as a tres- 
passer. In lieu of official fees for passports, 
they take whatever property they can lay hold 
of. By paying a fee to the first sheikh whose 
territory is invaded, an escort is secured to the 
traveler, giving safety in that district; a sim- 
ilar payment to the successive sheikhs will insure 
like protection; but the neglect of such an 
acknowledgment of their rights will lead to loss 
of property and sometimes of life. The Bedouin 
is not murderous by nature, but of necessity, 
when his demands are resisted. There are 
northern and southern Bedouins. The southern 
or "pure" Bedouins are fewer in number and 
more savage in disposition. In all there are 
about 1,500,000 of the Bedouins. They recog- 
nize no authority save that of their chief, the 
sheikh, for they are thoroughly democratic, 
and consider every man equal. The chief may 
be such by the law of heredity, but is oftener 
chosen on account of his qualifications for the 
position. The Bedouin is nominally a Moham- 
medan, but he scorns the formalities of the 
Koran, and disregards its ceremonial require- 
ments. Tho he be not far from Mecca, he does 
not mingle with the devout who go there, nor 
will he always spare the caravan of pilgrims 
that passes through his territory. Among some 

of the tribes a lower religious belief exists; all 
gradations between sun-worship, tree-worship 
and no worship at all, have been found. 

Lying, perjury, sensuality, and theft are their 
vices, while fidelity and the observance of a 
promise to the extent which the romancers 
chronicle are not uncommon. With all their 
bad traits, they are to be admired for their 
shrewd common sense, allied with a sarcastic, 
humorous side of their character. Their dress 
is simple, and they carry staves provided with 
crooks, together with short knives and old 
matchlocks, with which they seldom fail to hit 
the mark. 

2. The sedentary Arabs number about six- 
sevenths of the entire population of the penin- 
sula of Arabia. The Koreysh are the noblest 
of the race, and claim direct connection with 
the Prophet. Their clan ties and national feel- 
ing are very strong, and they own allegiance to 
their tribal head, the Sheikh, Imam, or Sultan. 
Where the doctrines of the Wahabees prevail the 
Mohammedan religion is followed with all its 
strictness of ceremonial and observances. Fe- 
tishism is found in Mahrah and places on the 
borders of the great desert. With belief in one 
God and observance of the rules of the Koran 
as to dealings between man and man, one nat- 
urally supposes that the people of Arabia would 
make no difficulty about tolerating the advances 
of sincere Christians. The rules of the Koran, 
however, as to generous dealings with men are 
commonly understood as limited to Moham- 
medans, and the degraded type of Christianity 
known to the Arabs makes them the more 
inclined to give full scope to their religions 
principle of non-intercourse with people outside 
of Islam. Death would certainly smite any 
Christian discovered in the Sacred territory of 
Arabia, and the risk of death would attend 
travel in any part of the interior of the country. 
It is for this reason that Mohammedanism is the 
only religion professed in Arabia at any distance 
from the coast-line. 

In person the Arab is tall, well formed, lithe, 
with dark hair and eyes. Physically and 
morally, the race compares favorably with any 
of the races of mankind; mentally, it is superior 
to most races. Special traits are found in the 
different provinces. The people of Hejaz are 
fickle; those of Yemen are noted for gentleness 
and pliability, together with revengefulness; 
the tribes in Nejd possess a reputation for te- 
nacity of purpose and dignity of deportment. 
A love of sport and games is found among the 
races of Oman and Hasa which is absent else- 

Arabic is spoken in its purity in Nejd and 
Shomer, more inelegantly in the other provinces, 
until in the southern provinces it is merged into 
an African dialect. Education is deficient; the 
teaching of the young is carried on mainly in the 
household, where the father teaches his sons to 
read and write and to practise that politeness 
which is notable among the Arab children. 

The total number of inhabitants of Arabia 
proper is estimated at about 6,000,000. Of this 
number the people of Hejaz (300,000) and 
Yemen (900,000) are admittedly subjects of the 
Sultan of Turkey. The other districts of 
Arabia are governed by their own chiefs {Emir 
or Imam). Turkey claims the right to rule the 
whole peninsula but has not yet been able to 
make good the claim. 

Armenian ChurcU 



Missions liave not found entrance to Arabia 
as yet, owing to the determined attitude of 
Mohammedanism toward dissent from its 
teachings wherever it has power to enforce 
the death penalty. Two noble efforts have been 
made by loving service to break through the 
barriers of fanaticism. One of these is the 
Keith-Falconer Mission at Aden (now carried 
on by the UFS), with its chief station at Sheikh 
Othman on the high land back of the seaport. 

The other missionary effort for Arabia is that 
of the Arabian Mission of the RCA operating 
from Turkish and independent territory on the 
Persian Gulf, with three stations, of which the 
most effective and most hopeful form of work is 
that of the hospital and dispensary. 
Kamil, by Jessup (H. H.), New York, 1898; Arabia, the 
Cradle of Islam, Zwemer (S. M.),New York. 1901; Keith- 
Falconer, Memorials of. Sinker (R.), Arabia: Journey 
through Central and Eastern, Palgrave, (W. G.), London, 

ARABIAN MISSION. See Reformed Church 
IN America, Board of Foreign Missions. 

ARABIC: The Arabic language is closely 
allied to the Hebrew and Syriac, of the Sernitic 
family. This appears in Bible translation, 
where the Hebrew may be turned into good clas- 
sical Arabic with comparative ease. Difficult 
and ambiguous passages can be translated word 
for word, often by the same word that is used in 
the Hebrew, leaving the ambiguity the same 
in the translation as in the original. It is rich 
and refined; has an abundant and valuable 
literature, and is spoken by 50,000,000, and 
used in worship (generally without knowledge) 
by more than 200,000,000 of the inhabitants 
of the globe. 

ARABKIR: City of Eastern Turkey, on the 
caravan road from Aleppo to Trebizond, and 50 
miles northwest of Harput. Population, 30,000. 
Mohammedans, Armenians and Protestants. 
The prosperity of the town is due to the caravan 
trade and the cotton industry. The vicinity 
is rich in fruit trees. It was formerly a station 
of the ABCFM, but is now an outstation of 
Harput. Its evangelical church has lost many 
members through emigration, due to the inse- 
curity of the country. 

ARAGUARY: Town in Minas Geraes, Brazil; 
station of the PS (1895) with a missionary and 
his wife and an unmarried missionary woman; 
14 outstations, and 250 church members. 

ARAKAN: For sixty years a British province 
of Farther India, now a part of the province of 
Burma, since the war of annexation of 1885-86. 
It is separated from Burma proper by the 
western Yoma range of mountains, which have 
many volcanoes, mostly quiescent, and rise from 
4,000 to 10,000 feet above the level of the sea. 
The habitable portion is a narrow strip of allu- 
vium, extending from the mountains to the Bay 
of Bengal. It extends from the westernmost of 
the delta branches of the Irawadi on the south to 
Chittagong on the north, and is bounded on the 
W. by the Bay of Bengal. Above Ramree 
Lsland the territory widens, and from 19° to 21° 
30' several short ranges of mountains are inter- 
posed between the Yoma range and the Bay of 
Bengal, and are inhabited mostly by the hill 
tribes. Its area is 16,500 square miles, and its 
population is 672,000. 

The people are of the same Mongoloid stock 
.as the Burmese, excepting the inhabitants of 

the northern mountainous region who are of the 
same stock as the Karens. The religion of the 
people of the towns and the lowlands is Bud- 
dhism, while that of the hill tribes is spiritism or 
nat worship. 

Missionary operations were commenced by 
the BMS about 1826 and by the ABMU in 1835, 
both missions being abandoned after some years 
because of the deadly climate. The ABMU re- 
established its mission in 1888 at Sandoway and 
has met with good success among the hill tribes 
and the Tamils and Telugus who go to Arakan 
for work. Also written Aracan and Arracan. 
Comstock (G. C), Notes on Arakan, in Journal Am. Oriental 

Soc, Vol. 1, 1847. 

ARAWAK: This language belongs to the 
South American group, and is spoken in Dutch 
Guiana. It is written in Roman letters and is 
hardly one of the permanent languages since 
only a few thousand people are known to use it. 

Christians: The interest of the Church of Eng- 
land in the Nestorians was especially aroused 
by the report of the Royal Geographical So- 
ciety's expedition to the Euphrates Valley in 
1837. This resulted in the sending out of a 
joint expedition by the Royal Geographical 
Society and the SPG. Their report supple- 
mented by numerous appeals from the Nestor- 
ians occasioned another journey in 1876, and 
the sending out of a missionary in 1881, tho it 
was not until 1886 that the work was put on a 
permanent footing. 

The mission has no regular organization or 
constitution, but is carried on under the aus- 
pices of the Archbishop of Canterbury. The 
mission priests, who are all unmarried, receive 
no regular stipends beyond £25 annually for 
personal expenses, but live from a common 
fund. The work carried on is largely educa- 
tional. A college has been formed for priests 
and deacons, besides 5 high schools and 40 vil- 
lage schools, the total number of scholars being 
roughly estimated at 1,200. Besides the educa- 
tional work, the mission clergy exercise the 
function of ecclesiastical and temporal judges, 
deciding disputes between the native Christians 
and divorce and other spiritual cases, according 
to the Canon Law of the ancient Chaldean 

The object of the Mission is stated to be "in 
the first place to train up a body of literate 
clergy; secondly, to instruct the youth gener- 
ally in both religious and secular knowledge; 
and thirdly, to print the very early liturgies 
and service books, to which the Assyrians are 
much attached, which have never been printed 
in the original, and of which the very primitive 
character is shown by their freedom from 
doubtful doctrine. The Mission seeks in no 
way to anglicanize the Assyrians on the one hand; 
nor on the other to condone the heresy which 
separated them from the rest of Christendom . 
or to minimize its importance." A committee 
connected with the Protestant Episcopal Church 
of the U. S., aids the mission. 

ARECIBO : A seaport on the N. coast of Porto 
Rico. Population about 8,000; station of the 
ME (1901) with one missionary and his wife, 
and a Sunday school. 

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC: One of the most 
important of the South American republics. It 
occupies that portion of the continent south of 



Armenian Clinrcli 

latitude 22° S., with the exception of the west- 
ern slope of the Andes which forms Chile. It 
is bounded on the north by Bolivia and Para- 
guay and on the east by Brazil and Uruguay. 
Its southern boundary has long been a matter 
of dispute with Chile, but was settled by treaty 
in 1881, according to the terms of which Pata- 
.gonia was ceded to the Republic as far south as 
the Straits of Magellan, along with the eastern 
portion of Tierra del Fuego. At the same time 
a line running along the crest of the Andes was 
defined as the western boundary. At present 
the country is divided into 14 provinces and 
9 territories, with a combined area of 1,319,247 
.square miles and an estimated population, in 
1900, of 4,659,067. The provinces are: Buenos 
Aires, Santa F^, Entre Rios, Corrientes, Rioja, 
Catamarca, San Juan, Mendoza, Cordova, 
San Luiz, Santiago, Tucaman, Salta, Jujuy. 
With such an extent of latitude the climate is 
most varied, tho in general healthful. All 
gradations between a temperate cool climate 
and a moist, tropical one may be found in this 
Republic. In Northern Patagonia the climate 
resembles that of the British Isles, while Buenos 
Aires rivals in salubrity the south of France. 
A dry cool temperature prevails along the 
mountain slopes, but along the coast at the 
north a thoroughly tropical climate is found. 

The most remarkable feature of the country 
is its great plains or pampas, which occupy 
about three-fourths of the surface, stretching 
2,000 miles in length and 500 in width. On 
these plains great herds of cattle are raised, and 
within late years wheat has been grown. The 
population has a large percentage of foreigners 
^Italians, French, Spanish, Germans, English), 
and the remainder consists of descendants of 
the Spaniards and Guarani and Quichua Indians. 
Negro descendants are scarce, as few slaves 
were brought to this section. Spanish is the 
prevailing language, tho in Corrientes the 
Ouarani language is spoken, and Quichua in 
Santiago. The government encourages immi- 
gration from the south of Europe. 

Altho it has an area twenty times as large as 
that of the New England States, the Argentine 
Republic contains a population of less than 
three per square mile. The broadest religious 
liberty is recognized; and the agricultural set- 
tlement founded by the late Baron Hirsch for 
Jewish refugees is most flourishing. 

The Argentine Republic was occupied as a 
Mission field in 1836 by the ME, which now has 
5 stations there; and in stations and outstations 
about 2,000 communicants connected with its 
churches. The SAMS, the Seventh Day Advent- 
ist Missionary Society, the International Medical 
and Benevolent Society, the South American 
Evangelical Missionary Society, and the Mis- 
sionary Pence Association have establishments 
at Buenos Aires. The BFBS and the YMCA 
also have agents in that city. The Christian 
and Missionary Alliance and the Plymouth 
Brethren carry on missionary operations in two 
or three places, but no published statistics give 
information as to its extent. 

ARIVONIMAMO: Town situated west of 
Antananarivo, Madagascar; station of the 
Friends' Foreign Mission Association (1888) 
with 2 unmarried missionary women and 234 
native workers, men and women; 60 outstations 
and preaching places and 550 professing 

ARKONA: A small town in the Transvaal 
Colony, South Africa, situated on the Lepalule 
River, northeast of Pretoria. Mission station 
of the Berlin Evangelical Lutheran M. S. (1877), 
with 1 missionary and 18 native workers, men 
and women, and 2 outstations. 

ARKONAM: A town in Madras, India. 
Mission station of Established Church of Scot- 
land; 4 missionaries and 23 native workers, 
men and women; 7 outstations, 11 village schools, 
and 90 church members. 

ARMENIA: In strict use of the term, there is 
no Armenia at the present day. The name is 
not used either politically or geographically 
with reference to a definite territory. When 
used, the name refers in general to a vaguely 
defined region centering about Lake Van in 
Eastern Turkey, and extending thence north 
and southwest. Ancient Armenia was also a 
country whose bounds continually changed 
with the fortunes of war. Its northern limit 
was sometimes the Kur River, now in Russia; 
its eastern boundary was once, at least, the 
Caspian Sea, and the western boundary was 
usually the Euphrates River. The greater 
part of the region thus described now lies within 
the Turkish Empire and is also called Kurdistan. 

In order that misunderstandings may be 
avoided it should be remembered that this 
region contains only a fraction of the Armenian 
Race. It is inhabited by Turks, Armenians, 
Russians, Persians, Kurds, Circassians, Greeks, 
Nestorians, Yezidees, Syrians and Jews. These 
all have had long residence in the country, 
which is now divided between Turkey, Persia 
and Russia. The Armenians are scattered 
over the three empires. 

the Council of Florence, a.d. 1439, a consider- 
able body of Armenians have been connected 
with the Church of Rome. As is the case with 
members of other branches of the Eastern 
Church which have accepted the supremacy 
of the Roman pontiff, they are allowed to retain 
their own ancient liturgy and many of their 
peculiar usages. In Turkey, Armenian Cath- 
olics as a rule avoid using their own language 
in social life. On the whole they are more 
frequently given office under the Turkish Gov- 
ernment than members of the Gregorian Arme- 
nian Church. The congregation of the Mechi- 
tarists, which was formed by the Abbot Mechi- 
tar, belongs to them. They possess a famous 
monastery on the Island of San Lazzaro, near 
Venice, from which center they have success- 
fully labored since 1702 for Armenian literature 
and education in the interests of the Roman 
Catholic Church. The Orthodox Armenians 
are inflexibly opposed to these schismatics, as 
they call them. 

ARMENIAN CHURCH: Its own writers claim 
that its history goes back to the time of Christ. 
One Abgar or Abgarus, King of Edessa, is said 
by Moses of Khorene, the Armenian historian, 
to have been converted by hearing of the wonder- 
ful works of Jesus and to have been baptized 
by Thaddeus, one of the seventy disciples first 
sent out as missionaries. This Abgar is held 
by the Armenians to have been their king, 
although Tacitus calls him King of the Arabs. 

It was not, however, until the 4th century 
that the Armenian nation, as a whole, accepted 
Christianity. At the beginning of that century 

Armenian Clinrcli 



St Gregory the Illuminator preached at the 
Court of Armenia with such effect that from 
that day to this Christianity has been the 
national reUgion of the Armenians For this 
reason the Armenian Church is often called 
"the Gregorian Church." The Armenians them- 
selves, however, call it "the Church of the Illu- 
minator (Lusavorchagan)." m,,,,^!. 
Persecution only served to endear the Church 
to the people, and from that time it has been 
identified with their nationahty. Under Turkish 
rule each religious body is also a political organ- 
ism The Armenian Church is httle more than 
that at present. It is therefore inseparably 
identified with the race, and is pervaded by 
much of the corruption of Oriental Christianity. 
Church Doctrine: 1. By accident— some say 
nurposely— the Armenians were not represented 
m the Fourth Ecumenical Church Council 
which met at Chalcedon in 451 a.d., and which 
condemned Nestorianism and Eutychianism 
When the decisions of the Council were reported 
to them, owing possibly to the poverty of their 
language at that time, it not having proper 
words to distinguish the two ideas of the nature 
of Christ and the person of Christ, the decision 
was misunderstood. In a synod of Armenian 
bishops in 491 the decision of the Council ot 
Chalcedon was rejected, and at one of the synods 
of Tivan, now in Russia, their capital at that 
time they declared decidedly for the Mono- 
physite doctrine. This doctrine is not made 
prominent in their modern creeds. 

Other leading characteristics of the Arme- 
nians are: „ . . , j- ii. 
2. They beUeve the Spirit proceeds from the 

Father only. . 

3 They accept seven sacraments, altho m 
practice, baptism, confirmation, and unction 
are intermingled. . , ^ , i j 

4 They baptize infants eight days old ^ or 
less by threefold immersion, immediately offering 
them the communion. . 

5. They accept transubstantiation, and worship 
the consecrated elements as God. , ■ , ■ 

6. They use unleavened bread, which is 
dipped in the wine and given to the people, 
who receive it into the mouth from the hand ot 

the priest. , , , , , -r, 

7. They pray for the dead, but deny Purga- 

8. They practice auricular confession to the 
priest, who imposes penance and grants absolu- 
tion, but gives no indulgences. _ 

9. They pray to the Virgin and to saints, and 
have great faith in their mediation. With' the 
Greelvs, they reject images and accept pictures. 

10. They believe in the perpetual virginity 
of Mary "the Mother of God." 

11. i?hey regard baptism and regeneration 
as the same thing, and have no practical concep- 
tion of a new birth. All are saved who partake 
of all of the sacraments, do proper penance, ob- 
serve the fasts of the Church, and perform good 

works. . , , . i- 

12. Original sm is removed by baptism, 
actual sin by confession and penance. 

Services are held in the church each morning 
at sunrise and each evening at sunset through- 
out the year. The altar is invariably toward 
the east. The sacrament of the Lord s Supper 
is observed twice a week, but the people partake 
usually only twice a year. Mass is observed 
as one of the formal rites of the Church. Con- 

fession to the priest is a necessary preparation 
for participation. . . „ ,, m. t. 

Church Goi-ernmeni.— Originally the Church 
was under one spiritual head, the Catholicos 
who was the general bishop. He resided at 
first at Sivas but later contentions arose, and 
with them divisions, until now there are three 
who hold his office: one, recognized as the Su- 
preme Catholicos, resides at Echmiadzin, their 
holy city, now in Russia; one at Aghtamar, 
upon an island in Lake Van, in Eastern Turkey; 
and one at Sis, in the ancient province of Cilicia. 
It is said that at the consecration ot the Ech- 
miadzin Catholicos the dead hand of Gregory 
the Illuminator is even now employed as a 
medium of succession. The Catholicos alone 
can ordain bishops and consecrate the sacred 
oil which is used in the various ceremonies of 
the Church. -mi 

Besides the Catholicos, there are m Turkey 
two patriarchs, one of whom resides at Constan- 
tinople and one at Jerusalem. These offices 
were established by Mohammedan authority 
for political purposes alone. The patriarch must 
have a bishop s office ecclesiastically, but to 
this is added considerable influence with the 
government and over all Gregorian Armenians 
in civil matters. The patriarch of Constanti- 
nople is, by virtue of his office, the recognized 
civil head of the Armenian Church in Turkey. 

There are nine different grades of Armenian 
clergy, all of whom are consecrated by the 
laying on of hands. These, in the order of 
rank, are: Catholicos, bishop, priest, deacon, 
sub-deacon, candle-lighter, exorcist, reader, 
and porter. There is also a class called varta- 
beds, who are preaching monks. The priests, 
are married, and must have a wife at the time 
of ordination, but can never remarry. The 
priest cannot become a bishop unless his wife 
dies. .^ , . 

Obstacles Peculiar to Missionary Work Among 
Armenians: 1. The idea that the Church is ' 
coextensive with the Armenian race, so that 
one who withdraws from the Church rejects 
his nationality. 2. The Church is already 
Christian, and consequently Christian life has 
little relation to the Christian profession. 3. 
The difficulty, from the side of the Turkish 
Government, in erecting buildings and in 
maintaining Christian and educational insti- 
tutions. 4. The existing poverty and oppres- 
sion, accompanied by Oriental penuriousness. 
5 The turning of the attention of young men 
to the Western world, as a refuge from oppres- 
sion and massacre, and the consequent emi- 
gration of large numbers. . 

Peculiar Encouragements: 1. The religious 
nature of the race, and the fact that they accept 
the Bible as the Word of God. 2. The desire 
for education. 3. The peculiar relation of 
the Armenians to the 14,000,000 of other races 
among whom they dwell, and who must be reached 
largely through the evangelized Armenian 
Church. 4. Since mission work began among 
the Armenians, there has been a gradual rejec- 
tion of their superstitions and reliance _ upon 
rites, and a marked awakening in the line of 
education. 5. Of late years, owing to the 
urgent demands of the people for the Gospel 
preaching, the vartabeds, bishops, and some- 
times the priests and teachers, preach, and 
their sermons are often evangelical in tone and 
full of wholesome advice. 



Armenian Chnrch' 

In ecclesiastical matters the Armenian Church 
reckons a.d. 551 as the year 1. This is the 
point of departure for the dates found in nearly- 
all old manuscripts of the Church. 

Fortescue (E. F. K.), The Armenian Church, London, 1872, 
8vo. : Bianchini (P.). The Armenian Ritual (with European 
musical notation); Venice, 1876, 4to; Lynch (H. F. B.), 
Armenia, London, 1901; Anderson (R.), History of Mia- 
aiona to the Oriental Churches, Boston, 1870, 2 vols. 

ARMENIAN LANGUAGE: Belongs to the 
the Iranic branch of the Aryan family of lan- 
guages. It has two marked divisions, the an- 
cient, written language, which is rich in vocab- 
ulary and inflection, and the modern, spoken, 
which has dropped many of the older forms 
and constructions, and contains Persian and 
Turkish roots and idioms. The difference 
between these two branches of Armenian is very 
marked; it is something the same as that between 
the Latin and Italian. The ancient language 
was the product of an age of learning, and was 
then embodied in literary works. The modern 
tongue is the result of centuries of ignorance, 
without books, literature, or education. The 
difference between these two branches is now so 
great that an uneducated person can understand 
little or nothing of the classical language. 

There are two principal spoken Armenian 
dialects at the present time — the Ararat dialect, 
which is spoken by many of the Armenians in 
Russia and Persia, and the western dialect, 
which is used in Southern Russia, Western 
Armenia, and Eastern Asia Minor. The Bible 
has been translated into both these dialects. 
The difference between these two dialects con- 
sists mostly in forms and constructions. 

Altho there was a language, there was no 
Armenian alphabet until the beginning of the 
5th century. At that time Mesrop, one of the 
learned saints of the Church, invented 36 of the 
38 characters; the two others were added later. 
The relation of Armenian to other languages is 
yet a question of discussion and doubt. 

Perhaps one-third of the Armenians in Turkey, 
especially those in the southern and western 
parts, and in the Kurdish Mountains, have lost 
their vernacular, and speak only Turkish or 
Kurdish. An effort is being made in Russia to 
force Russian upon the Armenians in place of 
their own tongue. 

ARMENIANS: It is probable that no country 
of the size of that anciently called Armenia 
now has so many separate races preserving their 
identity among its inhabitants. The early 
history of these peoples is so mixed with myth 
and legend that the truth is difficult to find. 
During the Assyrian and Median periods there 
was evidently a great organized monarchy, with 
a strong military power, in the Lake Van basin. 
The Van inscriptions show a line of kings who 
were, both in civilization and in military powers, 
far in advance of any of their contemporaries 
in neighboring kingdoms. At times tliey were 
formidable enemies to the Medes. 

This country was well known to the Assyrians 
as early as the 9th century b. c. At tliat time 
three principal races occupied the territory. 
These were the Nairi, who were spread from the 
mountains west of Lake Van along both sides of 
the Tigris to the Euphrates, and even farther; 
thQ Urarda (people of Ararat), who dwelt to the 
north and east of the Nairi, on the Upper Eu- 
phrates, about Lake Van and possibly on the 
Araxes; and the Minni, whose country lay to 

the soutlieast of the Urarda, in the Urmia 
basin. The Nairi, Urarda, and the Minni were 
propably Turanian or, at least, non-Aryan, races. 
Their congeners in Western Asia were tlie early 
Babylonians, and not the Medes, the Persians,, 
or the Plirygians. 

Besides tliese tliree races, it is evident, accord- 
ing to Sayce, from inscriptions recently deci- 
phered, that, even at the time of the Egyptian King 
Tliotmes IV., there was a powerful race in tlie 
north called the Hittites, or Khiti. In the 
records of the conquests of Assur-nazir-pal men- 
tion is made of his conquests among the Hittites. 
As far as we can learn, nearly all of these con- 
quests were made within the limits of Armenia 
or upon its borders. What became of this 
people is not known at the present day. 

These races appear to have maintained their 
independence until the time of Assur-bani-pal, 
about 640 b. c, when tlie last king of this series 
succumbed to the Assyrian yoke. 

But, at the time of Herodotus, everything 
seems to indicate that a strange people had 
entered the land, bringing with them a new 
language, new names and customs, and a new 
religion. The source from which they came is 
doubtful. Herodotus and Stephen believe they 
came from Phrygia, while their language and 
religion would indicate Media. One thing is 
certain: the old Turanians had ceased to rule, 
and the Armenian race had been formed, which 
is undoubtedly a mixture of the ruling Aryan 
tribes with the primitive Turanian populations. 
The word "Armenia, "used in Isaiah xxxvii:38 and 
2 Kings xix:37, is an incorrect translation for 
"the land of Ararat." 

Armenian histories describe the events of 
some sixteen centuries respecting which contem- 
porary evidence has not yet been found. Accord- 
ing to them, the first ruler of Armenia was Haik,, 
the son of Togarmah, the son of Gomar, the son 
of Japheth, the son of Noah. This Haik is said 
to have left Babylon to escape the tyranny of 
Belus, the King of Assyria. Belus pursued 
him to the land of Ararat, and there, in a great 
battle, was slain by Haik. This occurred some 
twenty-three centuries b. c. At this time the 
Armenian kingdom was set up. Even to this; 
day the Armenians call themselves Haik, and 
their country Haiasdan. Several centuries later, 
they say, Aram, the seventh from Haik, having 
incurred the hatred of the Queen of Assyria, 
was slain in a battle with that nation, and his 
kingdom became an Assyrian province. 

It may be mentioned in passing that the name 
Aram appears among the kings who left inscrip- 
tions upon the roclcs at Van. But neither his 
race nor his language shows any affinity to the 

The Armenian histories narrate that at the 
time of the captivity of Israel a certain number 
of the Hebrews escaped to the mountains of 
Armenia and intermarriages took place. Later 
the Armenian King Dikran (Tigranes) was the 
friend and ally of Cyrus. His successor was 
Vahakn, celebrated in song and story for his 
great victories, and deified after deatli. 

The last of the Haik dynasty was Vahe, who- 
was an ally of Darius III. against the Macedo- 
nians, and was defeated and slain by them. 
From that time Armenia was trampled by con- 
quering armies until 190 B. c, when the country 
was freed by two Armenian nobles, -K'ho divided 
it, one of them ruling over Armenia Major, and 

Arya SomaJ 



the other over Armenia Minor, which was north 
and west of the Euphrates^ This division con- 
tinued until 89 E. c, when Dikran II. (Tigranes) 
of the line of Ardashes (Artaxus), conquered 
Armenia Minor and united the two kingdoms. 

In 67 B c. Armenia became an ally ot Kome, 
but rebelling, their king, Ardavaz was captured 
bv Pompey and beheaded in Alexandria by 
Cleopatri, 30 b. c, and the country became 
tributary to Rome. The country was m tur- 
moil for two and a half centuries thereafter. 

In 261 of the Christian era Armenia became 
again subject to Persia. All of the royal family 
were slain except Durtad, the young son of the 
kino- He escaped to Rome, and m 286, by the 
helS of Rome, was established upon the Arme- 
nian throne. It was through him that the Arme- 
nians as a nation accepted Christianity. 

It was the constant effort of Persia to subvert 
Armenian Christianity and establish Magianism 
in its stead. To this end, cruel persecutions 
were undertaken, and frequent incursions were 
made From 632 to 859 a. d. Armenia was the 
scene of almost incessant struggle between the 
Eastern Empire and the Mohammedans, and it 
becameby turns subject to each. 

In 859 the dynasty of the Pagratidae came 
into power, and was recognized by both the 
Caliph and the Emperor of Constantinople, 
but in 1079 the greater part of the country 
became dependent upon Constantinople. 

A small kingdom remained m the Taurus 
Mountains, north of Cilicia, which alhed itself 
with European monarchs during the crusades. 
It maintained its independence until 1375, when 
the last Armenian king, Leo VI., was captured 
bv the Egyptians and banished. 

From this time Armenia lost its separate 
national existence. The greater part of the 
country was annexed to Turkey, while the east- 
ern section remained subject to Persia and the 
• northeast to Russia.^ Russia took another large 
section of Armenia in 1878. 

Personal Characteristics: As far as moral 
traits are concerned, the Armenian compares 
favorably with the other races of the East. Ages 
of subjection have generally disposed them to 
quiet submission. They have now little hope 
of political restoration as a nation, altho a con- 
stant agitation is carried on with that end m 
view The Armenians are cultivators of the 
soil, artisans, merchants, and bankers They 
are persevering and shrewd in financial dealings. 
In Asiatic Turkey the Greeks alone can compare 
with them in trades, professions, business abihty, 
and general intelligence. The Greek is more 
speculative and the Armenian slower and more 
cautious. In the finances of the Turkish Gov- 
ernment some Armenians hold high positions, 
and in many ways they have rendered them- 
selves indispensable to the prosperity and lite 
of the country. In spite of the general increase 
of poverty throughout Turkey, the Armenians, 
up to the period of the massacres of 1895-96, 
held their own better than the other races. 

The number of Armenians who are now 
scattered throughout the world is estimated at 
from 2,000,000 to 3,000,000. Perhaps two- 
thirds of the race reside in Turkey. The rest 
are in Russia, Persia, India, China, Africa, 
Europe, North and South America, and in 
nearly every country of the world. Up to the 
present time the nation has preserved its indi- 
viduality to a remarkable degree, resembhng 

in this respect, as in others, the Jews. With 
their dispersal throughout the world, however 
the Armenians intermarry with other races and 
a distinct tendency to race disintegration has 

""^^ee ako Armenia, Armenian Language, aad 
Armenian Church. 

Lvnch (H F. B.), Arm-enia, London 1901, 2 vols, 8°.; Cur- 
zon (R ), Armenia: A Year at Erzroom, London, 1854, 
8° Harris (J. R. & H. B.), Letters from Armenia, New 
York 1897. 12°. 

ish language when written with Armenian letters. 
See Turkish Language. 

ARMSTRONG, Richard: Born at McEwens- 
ville Pa., April 13, 1805; graduated at Dickin- 
son College, Pennsylvania, 1828, and at Princeton 
Theological Seminary, 1830; ordained by the 
Presbytery of Baltimore, and saded as a mission- 
ary of the American Board for the Hawanan 
Islands, November 26, 1831, reaching Hono- 
lulu May 16, 1832, after a six months voyage. 
At a meeting of the mission in April, 1833, it was 
decided to commence a mission at the Marquesas 
Islands, and he was appointed, with Messrs. 
Alexander and Parker, to that field. After they 
had resided several months on Nukahiva Island 
they were informed that English missionaries 
were on the way from the LMS to occupy those 
islands. It was, therefore, decided to relinquish 
the field and return to the Hawaiian Islands. 
Their residence for eight months among savages 
and cannibals was one of great danger and dis- 
comfort Mr. Armstrong's first station after his 
return was at Haiku, then at Wailuku, on Maui, 
from 1835-40. Here he had a parish ot 25,U0U, 
schools with 1,700 children to examine and supply 
with teachers, churSies to build, and in various 
ways he identified himself with all pubhc inter- 
ests In 1840 he was removed to Honolulu to 
take charge of Mr. Bingham's church, where he 
remained eight years. The large stone church 
left unfinished he completed, planning and super- 
intending the work. While at Honolulu Mr. 
Armstrong was engaged for many months m 
translating the proceedings incident to the con- 
cession to the people of right to the fee ot their 
homes, and even in making actual surveys of the 
lands subject to the new law. During the four 
years' absence of Mr. Richards (1842-46) Mr 
Armstrong was really the head of the Department 
of Public Instruction, the whole work being 
devised and superintended by him. On the 
death of Mr. Richards, in 1847, the position was 
offered to Mr. Armstrong, which he finally 
accepted, remaining in this office until 1855. 
He then became President of the Board of Edu- 
cation. He died in consequence of injuries 
received in falling from his horse September 23, 

The king, Liholiho, published in the native 
paper a sketch of his character and work, which 
describes Dr. Armstrong as Minister of Public 
Instruction, President of the Board of Educa- 
tion, member of the House of Nobles and of the 
King's Privy Council, Secretary of the Board of 
Trustees of Oahu College, Trustee of the Queens 
Hospital, and executive officer of the Bible and 
Tract Society, and deeply interested in develop- 
ing the agricultural resources of the kingdom. 
The king adds that Dr. Armstrong's accurate 
knowledge of the Hawaiian language, and the 
facility with which he wielded the pen, naturally 
imposed upon him an immense amount of toil; 



Arya Somaj 

that his immediate and appropriate duties were 
connected with the cause of education, all the 
schools of the kingdom coming under his super- 
vision, and that no government officer or mission- 
ary was brought into such close intimacy with 
the nation. Tho his week-day duties were so 
abundant and onerous, Dr. Armstrong never 
spared himself as a minister of the Gospel. He 
was an eloquent preacher in the Hawaiian lan- 
guage, and always listened to with deep interest 
by the people. 

ARNI: Town in the North Arcot district, 
Madras, South India. Climate, tropical. Popu- 
lation, Hindu, Muslim, with a few Christians. 
Language, Tamil, Telugu, and Hindustani. 
Mission station of the Reformed (Dutch) Church 
in America, established in 1S54. It has 2 mis- 
sionaries and 64 native workers of both sexes, 
a publishing house, 17 outstations, an industrial 
school, and 18 village schools. The professing 
Christians number 300. 

ARNO. See Marshall Islands. 

Christian Missions. 

ARORAI. See Gilbert Islands. 

AROUCA: A town of Central Trinidad, east 
of Port of Spain and northeast of San Fernando. 
Mission station of the UFS, with 1 native worker 
and 185 church members. 

ARU ISLANDS: A group of islands in the 
Dutch East Indies lying W. of New Guinea. The 
population numbers about 25,000. The Nether- 
lands Missionary Society has a station on Wokan, 
the largest island of the group. 

ARUPPAKOTAI: A town in the Madura dis- 
trict, Madras, India; station of the ABCFM, 
with a missionary and his wife, 94 native work- 
ers, men and women, 85 outstations, a high 
school, 42 village schools, a YMCA, and 965 
church members. Also written Arrupukottai. 

ARYALUR: A town of the Trichinopoli dis- 
trict, S. India; station of the SPG, opened in 
1825; has 13 native workers, 6 preaching places, 
4 village schools, and 320 native communicants. 

ARYA SOMAJ : This body is one of several 
societies or organized bodies of Hindus which 
admit the spiritual and moral degradation of the 
people and seek to introduce reform. It origin- 
ated in Northern India, and while it has made 
some growth in Central India, its chief strength 
is in the Punjab. It is far more antagonistic to 
Christianity than the Brahmo Somaj. Such 
antagonism is demanded by the appeal which it 
makes to the patriotism of Hindus, as exemplified 
in its watchword of "India for the Indians. In 
its view that man is a traitor to India who 
accepts Christianity. This political quality in 
its aims doubtless explains in some degree the 
vigor seen in the Arya Somaj. 

Its religious ideas also contain elements of 
strength. It teaches that God is one God, the 
Creator of all things, and the kindly Well-wisher 
of all His creatures, who, however, has never 
revealed Himself by incarnation. This mono- 
theistic teaching it claims to find in the four 
Vedas, which alone, by the way, it accepts out 
of all the Hindu religious literature. 

Religion, according to the Arya Somaj, con- 
sists of obedience to God, study of the Vedas, con- 
tentment with one's lot, and the practise of truth 
and justice toward all men. The doctrine of the 
transmigration of souls is the true eschatology, 

for it rights all wrongs and at the same time 
assures, in time, the salvation of all from the 
condition commonly called Hell. 

Some remarks on details will better show the 
bearings of its curious creed: 

(a) Its testimony for the monotheism of the 
Vedas is clear and explicit. (6) It is inconsistent 
in adopting the schools of philosophy in general 
terms, at the same time that it differs from some 
of them so widely in its positive theism and in its 
theory of creation, (c) Its humane elements in 
respect to woman and child-marriage are evi- 
dently borrowed from Christianity and the higher 
sentiment which it has created, (d) Its doctrine 
in respect to caste is a virtual arraignment of the 
entire Indian cultus and civilization, (e) It 
strikes a blow at the all-prevailing pessimism of 
India in ascribing benevolence of design to the 
supreme and personal creator of all things. In 
this respect it approaches very nearly to the 
Christian view and to that of Plato and Aristotle. 
(/) It is less grossly anthropomorphic and more 
spiritual than the old Hindu faith in its concep- 
tion of heaven and hell, which it looks upon, not 
as places, but as characters and conditions; on. 
the same principle, caste is character and not an 
accident of birth, {g) It is elevated in its ethical 
standards, and it gives to ethics a godward side. 
Obedience to God is one of its foremost require- 
ments, (h) Its denial of all incarnations of deity 
is a two-edged sword, which strikes at both; 
Hinduism and Christiantiy. It is so far in accord 
with Islam, (i) Tho it approves of Yoga or 
asceticism in theory, yet its definition of true 
religion is as practical as that of the apostle 
James. It embraces the cardinal virtues of life, 
both active and passive — such as contentment, 
repression of the passions, the return of good iot 
evil, knowledge of the Vedas, obedience to God, 
and truthfulness and just dealings toward all 
men. (j) Its positively missionary character is 
in sympathy with Buddhism and Christianity, 
rather than with Hinduism, (k) Its advocacy of 
female education is a proof that it has caught the 
spirit of Christian lands. In no one feature does 
the Arya Somaj strike more deeply at the root of 
old Hinduism than in its policy with respect to 
women. (1) It apparently attempts a compro- 
mise between true theism and the prevailing pan- 
theism. It inspheres the human soul in the 
infinite soul, and apparently expects its absorp- 
tion into deity; yet it speaks of the soul as a real 
entity, and maintains its free will, and therefore 
its moral responsibility, (m) Its doctrine of 
transmigration is exceedingly plausible. No bet- 
ter reasons could be given for such a theory of 

The relation of the Arya Somaj to Christianity 
and to Western thought is unique and full of 
interest. It is exceedingly hostile to Christian 
propagandism, and yet it is a far more efficient 
handmaid of Christianity than was the Brahmo 
Somaj in its most palmy days. It is more effi- 
cient, because its attitude toward all Hindus is 
more conciliatory, and therefore more persuasive 
and influential. It is less radical as to changes 
in doctrine, and yet not one more step radical 
with respect to those great social movements 
which Christianity is striving to promote. 
Moreover, the Arya Somaj is a real ally of Chris- 
tianity against the various current phases of 
Western infidelity. It takes the side of truth 
against the agnosticism of Huxley and Herbert 
Spencer. It is strongly theistic. It believes in 

Arya Soniaj 



an intelligent and omnipotent First Cause, and a 
real creation of the world. It maintains benev- 
olence of design in the creation and government 
of the world, which Tyndall and Darwin reject. 
It is in advance of Max MuUer in the doctrine of 
a preternatural revelation of God to man. It 
brings all virtue and philanthropy within the 
■domain of religion, and is a rebuke to all those 
who would dispense with God in the government 
of human affairs. It challenges all forms of 
pessimism, ancient or modern. Eastern or West- 
•ern, and maintains that the one God of the uni- 
verse is wise and good, and therefore worthy of 
all reverence and love. 

Nevertheless, while modern Aryanism is in 
some sense an ally of Christian civilization, it 
must not be forgotten that it is more or less of the 
nature of an entrenchment of essential Hindu- 
ism. The more nearly it counterfeits the truth 
of God and shuns disgusting rites, the more plaus- 
ible does it become. It considers that it has 
adjusted itself to modern science and progress, 
:and needs no further change. Christian mis- 
.'sionaries must bear in mind the fact that the 
Arya Somaj is an aggressive and bitter enemy of 
'Christianity. It hopes to bar the extension of 
the teachings of Jesus Christ in India, just as it 
hopes to check Islam, or to overthrow the degrad- 
ing superstitions of popular Hinduism. In 
order better to attack Christianity it is borrowing 
from Western scoffers at the Bible a logic and a 
vocabulary and from the missionaries, a care- 
fully proven theory of the uses of school, pulpit 
and press for purposes of propaganda. Its 
enmity to Christian teachings is deliberate and 

This enmity might be a source of dread to the 
missionary, were not the Arya Somaj fatally 
weak in risking its whole system upon the unten- 
able claim that the four Vedas teach a pure mono- 
theism. Because of this weakness which must 
some time be revealed, this active organization 
will serve its day, holding what light it has before 
the people, and then it will fall because it has no 
stable foundation. 

ASANSOL: Town in Bengal, India; station of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, North, with 3 
missionaries and 4 native workers of both sexes, 
3 village schools, an orphanage, young people's 
societies and about 325 professing Christians. 

ASHANTI LANGUAGE : This language belongs 
to the Negro family of African languages, and is 
spoken in W. Africa by about 3,000,000 people 
along the Gold Coast. For missionary purposes 
it has been written with Roman characters. It 
is also sometimes called the Otshi language. It 
exists in two dialects, the Akwapim and the 

ASHTON, Rev. W.: Born July 13, 1817. 
Died March 29, 1897. He was a missionary 
of the LMS at Barkly West, South Africa, and 
■during a service of fifty-four years in the mission 
field he, as a self-sacrificing, consecrated mission- 
ary of the cross, did much for the enlightenment 
of the Dark Continent. 

ASIA MINOR: Originally confined to a small 
section on the border of the jUgean, the term has 
come to include that portion of Asiatic Turkey 
lying between the Black Sea on the north and 
the Mediterranean on the south, the Marmora 
and jEgean seas on the west, and the Euphrates 
Valley on the east. This last boundary is vague, 
AS the Euphrates is tortuous in its course. It is, 

however, sufficiently accurate for practical pur- 
poses. See Turkey. 

covery of gold in California, in 1849, opened the 
way for the immigration of the Chinese to this 
country in large numbers. In the one year of 
1852 there were 20,000 arrivals. Twenty-five 
years later, there were no less than 150,000 in the 
United States. Of these, 30,000 were in San Fran- 
cisco, somewhat more than this number in other 
parts of California, and the remainder scattered 
elsewhere. In San Francisco, Chinatown em- 
braces the greater part of fifteen blocks, in which 
Chinese life as seen in China is quite accurately 
reflected. The Chinese being so extremely con- 
servative, they cling very tenaciously to their 
own modes of life. While learning our language, 
and observing our ways, they largely live in a 
world of their own; and most of them eventually 
to go back home and die among their own people. 
They bring their idolatry with them, and in San 
Francisco alone have eighteen temples. 

The first Christian work was begun among the 
Chinese in 1852, by the Presbyterian Board of 
Foreign Missions, which sent the Rev. Wm. 
Speer, D.D., to San Francisco for this purpose. 
He labored with great zeal and earnestness until 
his health broke down, and for long years was 
remembered as "The Chinaman's Friend." He 
was succeeded in 1859 by the Rev. A. W. Loomis, 
D.D., who for thirty-two years was a devoted and 
successful laborer. In 1866 a Chinese church of 
twelve members was organized. In 1870 Dr. 
Loomis was joined by Rev. I. M. Condit, D.D., 
who still has charge of the Presbyterian work in 
California. The mission house built by Dr. 
Speer became too strait for the work, and in 1882 
the First Presbyterian Church, being situated in 
close proximity to the encroaching Chinese quar- 
ters, was purchased and occupied as mission head- 

In 1868 Rev. Otis Gibson, D.D., established a 
mission of the M. E. Church. A commodious 
building was erected for chapel, school and rescue 

Eurposes, in which vigorous work has ever since 
een carried on. A Congregational mission was 
opened in 1870 by Rev. W. C. Pond, D.D., who 
has ever since been its efficient superintendent, 
with Rev. Jee Gam as native pastor. In 1898 
this mission purchased a large building, which has 
been fitted up in a manner well adapted for work. 
The Rev. John Francis, of the Baptist Church, 
established a mission in 1870. Later a building ■ 
for church and school purposes was built in a 
location well suited for its efficient work. 

These missions, besides preaching services in 
the Chinese language, Sunday schools and other 
church work, have each evening schools, in which 
the rudiments of English are taught. They have 
also opened ' stations at many of the principal 
towns and cities of the State, where many 
Chinese have been instructed and brought to 

Many Christian people in our American 
Churches were awakened to a sense of their 
responsibility to these heathens; but, with the 
barrier of an unknown tongue lying between, 
how could they do anything for them? The Chi- 
nese were anxious to learn English, and so the 
plan of Chinese Sunday Schools was adopted. 
These were opened in nearly all the prominent 
churches of San Francisco, and at other impor- 
tant points. As the Chinese went East, mis- 
sions and schools were gradually opened, until 



Arya Soma] 

now, more than seventy of them are found in the 
cities and towns of our broad land. In New 
York, Boston, Philadelphia, Pittsburg, Chicago, 
and Portland, Oregon, where Chinese are found 
in the largest numbers, many flourishing Sunday 
schools exist, connected with the various church- 
es, and also several organized missions. All this 
has resulted in the conversion of hundreds of 
souls, among whom are found many devoted 

In the first years of Chinese mission work 
there were not many families or children. But 
as these began to increase in San Francisco, 
schools were opened. These schools are now 
found in the principal missions, with an enroll- 
ment of 250 scholars. A Chinese public school 
has been in existence for several years, which has 
grown until now five American teachers are 
employed. A goodly number, too, of the native- 
born Chinese attend our American public schools; 
2,600 in San Francisco are under eighteen years 
of age, and 2,000 of these are of school age. 
There are 1,700 native-born now here, besides 
many who have gone back to China. 3,000 
women are estimated to be in San Francisco, of 
whom the largest share are of bad character. 
Slave girls have bfeen imported in large numbers, 
who are bought and sold like chattels. There is 
no such thing as slavery known among men, but 
among females it is sadly prevalent. 

Homes for the rescue of these slave girls were 
established in 1873 in connection with the Pres- 
byterian and Methodist missions. During the 
thirty years of their existence probably 1,500 
girls have been rescued. Each mission has a fine 
building for a home. Many of these rescued ones 
have become Christians, married Christian men, 
and gone out to set up Christian homes for them- 

In 1870 Chinese branches of the YMCA were 
formed in different missions. Each has a central 
society in San Francisco, with branch societies 
at the various points where Christian work has 
been established. There are scores of these soci- 
eties, to which from the beginning several thou- 
sand members have belonged. Entering the 
association is the first step toward giving up idol- 
atry and learning the religion of Jesus. The Chi- 
nese are very social in their nature and this soci- 
ety is a power to draw them together and away 
from the dangers of bad resorts. 

Approximate results of Chinese work in our 
country may be briefly stated in the following 
summary : 

The number of Chinese in the United States, 
100,000. Of these, in San Francisco, 20,000; on 
the Coast outside of San Francisco, 52,000; in 
other States and Territories, 28,000. The whole 
number of Christians in the United States from 
the beginning, divided between Presbyterians, 
Methodists, Congregationalists, and Baptists, 
with a few from other denominations, 4,000. 
The present number of Christian Chinese in the 
United States, 1,600. Of these in San Francisco, 
600; in other parts of the coast, 500, and in other 
States, 500. The number of Sunday Schools, 75, 
with an attendance during the year of 2,500 
scholars; children in schools, 500. The number 
of lay preachers converted in U. S., who have 
labored both here and in China, 60. Chinese 
ordained ministers who were converted in U. S., 

The influence of those converted here upon 
their homes in China as they return is one of the 

most hopeful phases of the work. All the Chi- 
nese who have emigrated, not only to this coun- 
try, but to nearly all others, are from the one 
province of Canton, and from a few districts or 
counties of that province. While this is so, still 
they represent a population of probably ten or 
fifteen million souls. The reflex influence of the 
thousands of Christians converted here, and the 
thousands more who have been instructed in a 
knowledge of the truth, and seen with wondering 
eyes the prosperity of this Christian country, as 
they return home to dwell among these millions, 
is very great. It is mightily weakening the power 
of idolatry, as well as building up the constituency 
of a Christian community. A score or more of 
chapels have been built, some entirely and others 
partly, by these American Chinese Christians. 
One church in the heart of this region was built 
entirely by California Christians, costing six 
thousand Mexican dollars, and in which they sup- 
port a native pastor. This is only one notable 
instance among many. Quite a number of the 
native preachers of this region were converted 
in the United States. More and more the hearts 
of the Chinese Christians among us are turning 
toward transplanting in China the seed which has 
been sown among them here. The contact of the 
Chinese with our Christian civilization is no 
mean power in helping to bring about the 
New China. 

Mission work among the Japanese in the United 
States is a hopeful and growing one. On the 
Pacific Coast they are fast increasing in numbers, 
as they are free to come, while an exclusion law 
shuts out the Chinese. Dr. E. A. Sturge, who is 
the best of authority, says: "There are about 
.60,000 Japanese on this Coast, 40,000 in Califor- 
nia and 4,000 or 5,000 in San Francisco. More 
than forty steamers are plying between this Coast 
and Japan, and every steamer arriving adds to 
the number of Japanese in our country. There 
are not many of these people in the East, as there 
is no employment for them there. There are 
about a hundred in Chicago, and perhaps two 
hundred in New York City. Most of those who 
come directly from Japan belong to the student 
class, and are here for the purpose of study, 
while the majority of those who come from 
Hawaii belong to the laboring class. The Japan- 
ese in this land are nearly all young men, and 
very few of them expect to remain in America 
more than five years. As they all wear the 
American dress, and reside in no special quarter, 
their presence is scarcely realized." 

Mission work among this people was begun in a 
small way twenty-five years ago, but as they 
have rapidly increased in the last decade, the 
work has grown into two flourishing missions of 
the Methodist and Presbyterian Churches. 
Both of these missions have commodious build- 
ings and are carrying on a most interesting and 
encouraging work. The Methodist mission, 
which is the largest, is under the superintendency 
of the Rev. M. C. Harris, D.D., and the Presby- 
terian is under E. A. Sturge, M.D. They both 
have the aid of native pastors. The Japanese 
readily accept Christianity, and a thousand Chris- 
tians are now reckoned to be on the Coast. The 
work is spreading beyond San Francisco, as the 
people are scattering throughout the State in the 
fields and orchards. The Methodist mission has 
stations to the number of eight or ten, while the 
Presbyterians are also establishing stations at 
outlying points. 




ASISIPI. See Sandy Lake. 

ASMARA: A village west of Massaua, in the 
Italian Colony of Eritrea, N. E. Africa; station of 
the Swedish National Missionary Society (1891), 
with 7 missionaries and 6 native workers, men 
and women; 3 village schools, an orphanage, a 
printing house and 51 communicants. 

ASSAM : A province of British India ceded to 
the East India Company by the king of Burma 
in 1826. Until 1874 it was administered as a 
part of Bengal. It is now a separate province 
under a lieutenant-governor. It lies between the 
parallels of 24° 30' and 28° 15' N. latitude, and 
between the meridians of 89° and 96° 50' E. from 
Greenwich. It is the chief seat of tea-culture in 
India. Its area is 49,004 square miles and its 
population (in 1891) 5,476,833. 

The country consists of two extensive river 
valleys and three ranges of mountains. At the 
north, Bhutan occupies the southern slope of the 
Himalaya Mountains, and the somewhat lower 
range which overlooks the wide and fertile valley 
of the Brahmaputra. The valley of this great 
river extends from Sadiya in the east to the foot 
of the Garo Hills, where the river turns to the 
south. The right bank is level, and has broad 
fertile lands, densely inhabited; the left bank is 
crowded by a range of hills named from the tribes 
that occupy them, the Garo, the Khasi, and 
Jaintia, Naga, and Singpho Hills. The com- 
paratively level and broad valley extending from 
the right bank of the Brahmaputra is mostly 
occupied by Assamese, the rulmg race. They 
have also several cities and towns on the left 
bank. Southwest of the hills of the left bank 
lies the valley of the Surma, a large tributary 
stream flowing into one of the delta branches of 
the Jumna or Brahmaputra. This valley is 
broad, well watered, and fertile. The Khasi and 
Jaintia hills overlook it. It was formerly 
claimed as a part of the Eastern Bengal plains, 
but the Indian Government has now transferred 
this whole valley to the Assam Province, to 
which it properly belongs. 

The People: The ruling class, the Assamese, 
hold very similar relations to the hill tribes of 
Assam as the Burmans do to the hill tribes of 
that country. They are of different race, habits, 
and religion. The Assamese are believed to be 
allied to the Shans, tho, perhaps, remotely. 
They were formerly Buddhists, but about the 
middle of the 18th century, having sought 
the protection of Bengal, they adopted the entire 
Brahmanist system — divinities, caste, idol-wor- 
ship, and all. Their language, tho originally of 
the Pali stock, has, by the adoption of Hinduism, 
and their intimate association with Eastern 
Bengal, acquired a large infusion of Bengali. 
The hill tribes, which in the aggregate outnumber 
the Assamese, are, beginning with the Chinese 
frontier on the northeast; the Mishmies; the 
Khamtis, said to be of the Tai or Shan family 
who are most numerous on the Chinese side of 
the mountains; the Singphos, who are found in 
large numbers also on the Burmese side of the 
mountains; the Aror, the Nagas, the Kacharis, 
or Kosaris, north of the Brahmaputra; the 
Mikirs, in the hills near Nowgong; the Garos, 
of several clans; and on the slopes of the Khasia 
and Jaintia Hills, looking toward the Surma 
Valley, the Khasi and Jamtia tribes, and still 
another tribe of Nagas, are found. To these 
must be added the Kols, a tribe from Chota 

Nagpur, in Central India, who have been brought 
by the Government into Assam to work m the 
tea gardens. It is said that there are over 
250,000 of them now in Assam. 

It is believed that some of the largest of these- 
tribes are either closely afEHated to hill tribes in 
Burma, or, perhaps, identical with them; this is- 
very probable in regard to the Singphos of Assam, 
and Chittagong, and the Kachins of Upper 
Burma; also the Nagas of Assam and the Chins, 
of Burma. The relationship of these tribes is a. 
matter of some moment to those engaged in 
Bible translation for them. 

Climate: Assam is wholly within the north 
temperate zone, tho in the subtropical part of 
it. Its location and the high hills and mountains, 
which cover so large a portion of its surface 
should make it healthy, but do not. In the 
valleys there are marshy lands, and the fickle, 
moist, and variable temperature, with its terrible 
cold and its fervid heat, have rendered it par- 
ticularly fatal to the Europeans and Americans 
who have spent much time there. It is fre- 
quently visited by the cholera, and both acute 
and chronic diseases of the liver prevail. Of late 
years the construction of good roads, and the 
drainage of the marshes for the establishment of 
tea gardens has somewhat improved the salubrity 
of the country. 

Religions: The Assamese, as we have said,, 
adopted Hinduism about 1760. They are rigid 
adherents to caste. One or two of the hill tribes 
on the north of the Brahmaputra, notably the 
Kacharis and several of the Bhutan hill tribes 
bordering on Assam at the north, are Moham- 
medans. The greater part of the hill tribes, 
including all those south of the great river — the 
Garos, Nagas, Khasis, Mikirs, Singphos, etc. — 
are demon worshippers, making offerings to the 
Nats, or demons, to induce them not to injure 
them. They believe in a living Supreme Being, 
the Creator, but think He is too much occupied 
with the vast affairs of the universe to care for- 
human beings, and too merciful to punish them 
for anything they have done or may do; and so 
they do not offer Him any worship or reverence. 
They believe dimly in a future life, but not in 
a state of rewards or punishments. In general, 
their religious belief is the same as that of the 
hill tribes of Burma. The tribes nearest to the- 
Chinese have adopted some ideas of ancestral 

Missions in Assam: The first mission com- 
menced here was that of the American Baptist 
Missionary Union, established in 1836 at the-, 
solicitation of Captain Jenkyns, the British 
deputy commissioner, who offered of his own 
means a considerable sum toward the expense of 
such a mission to the heathen under his charge. 
The first missionaries were Rev. Nathan Brown, 
an eminent missionary and scholar, who had. 
begun his missionary life in Burma, and Mr. 0. T. 
Cutter, a printer. The first station was at Sadiya, 
near the northeast frontier of Assam, about 400 
miles from the Burman capital, and almost 200 
from Yunnan, in China. The tribe to whom they 
were designated were the Khamtis, a lifll tribe 
occupying both sides of the lofty range which 
separates Assam from China. The geography 
and ethnology of this region were not well under- 
stood, and the voyage up the tortuous Brahma- 
putra was exceedingly tedious, occupying over- 
four months in the native boats. The mission- 
aries, however, entered upon their work with a. 




stout heart, and, finding that there was little to 
be done among the Khamtis, they turned their 
attention to the Assamese and Shans in and 
around Sadiya. In 1839 an insurrection of the 
Khamtis commenced with an attack on Sadiya, 
which necessitated the removal of the mission- 
aries to Jaipur. Jaipur was abandoned from its 
unhealthiness and other causes, and Sibsagar, on 
a southern affluent of the Brahmaputra, was 
selected. This is now the chief town in Eastern 
Assam, and is still a station of the ABMU. The 
station at Nowgong was established in 1841. 
The first Assamese convert was baptized the 
same year. In 1842 a school was opened there, 
with 80 pupils, and in 1843 the Nowgong Orphan 
Institution was established, which for many years 
was the means of doing much good. It was given 
up in 1856. The station at Gauhati was com- 
menced in 1843. There were very few converts, 
and these Assamese only, till 1846. From this 
time till 1853 there were frequent accessions to 
the churches in Sibsagar, Nowgong, and Gauhati, 
mostly Assamese, with a very few Kacharis 
and Nagas. In 1863 the first of the Garos, the 
fiercest of the hill tribes, was baptized, and soon 
became a missionary to his tribe. The same year 
one of the Mikirs was baptized. From these 
beginnings the good work spread with great 
rapidity till in the churches of the Garo Associa- 
tion, in 1877, there were 617 members. 

The Kols from Chota Nagpur, who are 
employed in the tea gardens, began to attract 
attention in 1874. They are mostly in the dis- 
trict of Sibsagar. Some of them had heard of 
Christ from Lutheran missionaries in their home 
in Bengal, and in Assam they were ready to 
accept Him. There are now two or three large 
churches of these people. There have been some 
conversions among the Milcirs, who are best 
reached from Nowgong. Tho there was consid- 
erable promise among the Kacharis, north of the 
Brahmaputra, the accessions from that tribe have 
not been large. Work was commenced among 
the Nagas as early as 1840, but without much 
result tiU 1871, when Rev. E. W. Clark made a 
tour of the hills. There are at least three distinct 
tribes of Nagas in these hills. 

There are now 21 mission stations in Assam, 
of which 8 belong to the ABMU and 1 to the 
SPG, the remaining 12 belonging to the Welsh 
Calvinistic Methodist Society. The census re- 
turns 35,000 Christians in Assam of all denomin- 

ASSAMESE: A language spoken in Assam, 
belongs to the India branch of the Aryan family 
of languages. It is written with the Bengali 
character and is used by about 2,000,000 

SYNOD OF THE SOUTH : The foreign missionary 
work of this denomination began in 1875, when 
a missionary was sent to Egypt to work in con- 
nection with the United Presbyterian Mission 
Society. Upon her death this connection 
ceased, and work was begun in Mexico. The 
field of operations is the State of Tamaulipas, 
with the central station at Tampico. 

There are (1902) 17 outstations, 11 mission- 
aries, 7 native workers, 330 communicants, 182 
pupils in five schools. Income about $9,000. 

ASSTJAN: A town in Upper Egypt, situated 
on the Nile near the first cataract. It is cele- 
brated for its granite, and for the great irriga- 

tion dam finished in 1902. A station on the so- 
called Apostles' route, established by the Mo- 
ravian Brethren in Egypt in 1865, but afterward 
abandoned by them. Visited as an outstation 
by the United Presbyterian Mission of tlie United 
States of America. Station of the Sudan 
Pioneer Mission of Eisenach, opened in 1900. 
It is occupied by a missionary and his wife and 
3 native worlcers. There are 2 village schools. 

ASUNCION: The capital of Paraguay, S. 
America. Population 35,000; station of the 
ME, with one missionary and his wife, and one 
unmarried woman missionary, and 11 native 
workers, men and women; 3 village schools, 2 
high schools, 1 college and 70 members of the 
church. Station also of the SDA with one 
missionary and his wife. 

ASSYRIA: That portion of Asiatic Turkey 
extending from Diarbekir on the north to 
Mosul on the south, and comprising the northern 
part of the Mesopotamia plain. The word is. 
now seldom used as a geographical term. 

ASSYRIAN CHRISTIANS : A term sometimes 
used to designate members of the Nestorian 

ASYUT, or SIUT: A city on the Nile, 228 
miles by rail south of Cairo. Population,. 
30,000, mostly Mohammedans. It was formerly 
a principal seat of the slave-trade, and an impor- 
tant mditary station. It is now noted for a 
great irrigation dam on the Nile, finished under 
English auspices in 1903, subsidiary to the great 
dam of Assuan. Ruins and catacombs abound 
in the neighborhood. It is a mission station 
of the United Presbyterian Church of the U. S., 
established in 1865, with 14 missionaries of both 
sexes, a hospital and dispensary, a high school 
for girls and a college. 

ATAFU ISLAND : Also called Duke of York's 
Island, is one of the Tokelau group of islands, N. 
of Samoa. 

ATHABASCA LANDING: Settlement on the 
Athabasca River in the district of Alberta, 
Canada; station of the CMS, with a missionary 
and his wife. 

ATIU. See Hervey Islands. 

ATRAULI: A town of 15,000 inhabitants 
N. E. of Aligarh, United Provinces, India; 
station of the ME, with 10 native workers, men 
and women; 11 Sunday schools, 7 village schools, 
and 900 church members. 

ATTABARI: A town in the Darang district of 
Assam, India; station of the SPG, with one 
missionary and 10 native workers, 8 preaching 
places, 5 common schools and 800 communi- 

ATTANGAL: A town in Travancore, S. India; 
station of the LMS (1899), with 2 missionaries 
and their wives, and 34 native workers, men 
and women; 12 outstations, 14 Sunday schools, 
21 common schools and 110 church members. 
Also written Attingal. 

AUCKLAND: A city on the Hauraki Gulf, 
New Zealand. It has, including the suburbs, 
57,000 inhabitants, chiefly English, Irish, 
Scotch, and Germans, engaged in working the 
gold and coal-mines near the town and in the 
manufactories whose products form the chief 
exports. Station of the CMS, with one mis- 
sionary and 28 native workers, and 83 commu- 




AUER, John Gottlieb: Born at Neubulach, 
Wurtemberg, Germany, November 18, 1832. He 
was well trained by an earnest Christian mother. 
In 1854 he was admitted to the Missionary Tram- 
ing School at Basel, and in 1858 was sent as 
missionary to Akropong in W. Africa, and became 
a teacher in the seminary. In 1862 he dissolved 
his connection with the Basel Missionary Society, 
offered himself as a candidate for the ministry 
in the Episcopal Church, and was ordained by 
Bishop Payne at Cavalla. In 1863 his wife died, 
and shortly after he sailed for America. Return- 
ing to his field in 1867, he devoted himself to 
two definite objects— a higher education for the 
African Church and a systematic preparation 
for giving to the heathen the Gospel in their own 
tongue. Acceding to Bishop Payne's request, 
he became the head of the high school at Cavalla. 
He beUeved that the Bible should be given to 
the people in their vernacular. In addition to 
the work of teaching, he translated or composed 
books in the Kroo language and the Grebo. He 
prepared a Grebo primer and dictionary, and 
revised the translation of the Prayer-Book. 
He also devised a method of writing the Grebo 
with vocal marks, thus saving the use of mul- 
tiplied vowels. He had a school of twelve 
■students, whom he faithfully trained. 

He was ordained bishop of Cape Palmas, at 
-Georgetown, D. C, April 17, 1873. Returning 
to Germany, in July, he began at once to carry 
his work through the press, and by November 
he had prepared an elementary book and a Bible 
history in the Kroo language, a translation of 
the Psalms, and a book of hymns in metre in 
the Grebo, a revised edition of the Prayer-Book 
and a tune-book. To this he added a book of 
chants. The translation of parts of the Scrip- 
ture and Church Services into Grebo, begun by 
Bishop Payne, he completed. On November 
20, leaving his family, he started for Africa. 
Tho very feeble on arriving at Cape Palmas, 
December 29, he entered earnestly on his 
mission work. He died, February 16, 1874, 
at Cape Palmas. 

AUKA NEGROES: Descendants of former 
runaway slaves in Surinam, who during a cen- 
tury and a half have become a large tribe inhab- 
iting the forests at a distance from the white settle- 
ments. Moravian missionaries have labored 
among them since 1765 and have won about 
30,000 of them to a profession of Christianity. 
AULUA : A village on the island of Mallicollo, 
New Hebrides groujj, Polynesia; station of 
the New Hebrides Missionary Society, with a 
missionary and his wife and 17 native workers, 
men and women, 9 village schools, and 62 
■church members. 

AURANGABAD: In the Nizam's Dominions, 
India, 180 miles northeast of Bombay. Its 
population is about 34,000. It is a station 
of the CMS, opened in 1860, and now occupied 
by 5 missionaries and 54 native workers, men 
and women. There are 14 village schools, 
and 800 communicants. 

AUSTRAL ISLANDS : A group of small islands 
lying S. of Tahiti and belonging to France. 
The Paris Evangelical Mission Society has 
occupied five islands of this group, of which 
Rurutua is the largest, taking over the field 
from the LMS, after the islands passed under 
French control. There are 8 native workers 
and about 650 communicants in the group. 

AUSTRALIA : When Australia was discovered 
the aboriginal race inhabiting it were found to 
be a nomadic people, very low m the scale of 
human life. Anthropologists have ditfaculty 
in classifying them and in tracing their origin. 
Their languages have also puzzled philolo- 
gists, as "they have little or no connection with 
that stock to which the Malay, Polynesian, 
and Melanesian belong. Dr. Bleek, whose 
reputation gives weight to his opinion, believes 
them to be nearly allied to the languages of 
southeastern Africa." 

This article will be limited to some mention 
of various efforts to evangelize these abo- 
rigines, and, also those directed to the Asiatic 
immigrants in differents parts of Australia. 

The first missionary effort for the aborigines 
was made at Lake Macquarie in 1825 by the 
LMS. Many of their agents passed through 
Sydney, and some of them had found an asylum 
there during times of peril at Tahiti. After 
six years of failure from the roving habits of 
the blacks, the London Missionary Society 
gave up the work, but the Colonial Government 
continued it. The missionary, Mr. ^ L. E. 
Threlkeld, persevered amid many trials and 
discouragements, acquired the language, printed 
a spelling-book and translations of parts of 
Scriptures. But little impression was made 
upon the people and the tribes around Lake 
Macquarie having become almost extinct, the 
mission was closed in 1861. 

In 1832 another mission was established 
at Wellington. The same difficulties were en- 
countered there, but the missionaries did their 
best to acquire the language of the district, 
to teach the young, and to address the people. 
They composed a grammar and a vocabulary, 
and translated portions of Scriptures, chiefly 
St. Luke's Gospel, and a part of the Anghcan 
Liturgy. But they had to admit that the 
supply of food existing at the mission was what 
drew the people to them. As the country 
became settled the influence of vicious whites 
rendered nugatory all efforts, and in 1847 the 
mission was broken up. 

Through the influence of an eminent clergy- 
man of New South Wales, Pastor Gossner of 
Berlin sent out several missionaries in 1840 
to labor among the aborigines at Moreton Bay 
and Keppel Bay. But the enterprise came 
to nothing after eighteen years of continued 
effort. About 1850 Rev. William Ridley 
attempted missionary labor among the aborig- 
ines of New South Wales. He devoted hia 
means and himself to the work, learned the 
language of the {jeople among whom he lived 
on the Namoi River, prepared a grammar of 
the language and translated portions of _ the 
Gospel narrative. His labors were not entirely 
in vain, but the migratory habits of the people 
forced him to abandon his mission. 

More recent efforts in New South Wales have 
been on the plan of forming reservations for 
the residence and work of the aborigines and 
for educating the children. In this the Govern- 
ment has become the protector of the tribes, 
and the Moravian Missionary Society and the 
various Christian denominations in Australia have 
worked perseveringly for their enlightenment 
and elevation. Missionary effort for the abor- 
igines is carried on at 26 stations in the various 
parts of the Australian continent. But only a 
limited number of the tribes will submit to the 




restrictions of life on a reservation. A certain 
number of these degraded people have become 
Christianized, but the general result of all these 
years of effort is the discouragement resulting 
from dealing with a dull and unstable people. 

The total number of the Aborigines now 
existing in Australia is about 55,000. Of 
these about 5,000 are classed as civilized in the 
census reports. 

Attracted by the gold fields and by the encour- 
agements to industry, many thousand Chinese 
emigrated to Australia. Numbers of them are 
engaged in merchandise, otliers in gold mining, 
many in market gardening and other industrial 
work. Some of them can read and write, and 
all are accessible to Christian influence. The 
numbers in 1888 in Australia were about 40,000, 
and even the restrictive legislation directed 
against them has not reduced their number 
below 30,000 (1901). 

Attempts have been made by the different 
churches to establish missions among them in 
the chief centres where they haye been located. 
The agents have been chiefly Chinese converts, 
but commonly superintended by European 
missionaries who know the Chinese language. 
A gratifying amount of success has attended 
this effort. 

Sugar planting in Queensland led to a great 
demand for cheap labor, and vessels were sent to 
recruit among the New Hebrides and Solomon 
Islands for laborers under an engagement for 
three years. Many evils sprang up in this 
deportation, and statutes were passed by the 
Imperial Parliament and by the Parliament 
of Queensland to regulate the labor traffic. As 
a result, a large number of Polynesians have 
been brought to Queensland during twenty 
years. Some of these were recruited near 
mission stations, and had been instructed in 
Christian truth. Most of them were from heathen 
and cannibal islands. All of them, however, 
had heard of the missionary, and had been led 
to respect his efforts for tlieir good. Unfortu- 
nately the languages of these islands are almost 
all different, and on one sugar plantation the 

laborers represented so many various tongues 
that missionary teaching in any one of them 
could only be very limited. But as there are 
more than 9,000 in Queensland the necessity 
for reaching them in some way has led to the 
use of the English language in missions among 
them. This they acquire very readily and 
encouraging results are reported. 

AUX CAYES: A seaport town on the south- 
west coast of the island of Haiti, West Indies. 
Population, 8,000, chiefly negroes and mulattoes. 
The climate is unwholesome. The manufacture 
of rum is one of the principal industries. It 
is a mission station of the PE, which has a native 
worker and about 50 communicants. The 
Western Annual Conference of the West Indies 
Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society, and 
the African Methodist Episcopal Church also 
have agencies here. 

AVEZA: Village on the island of Raiatea, 
Society Islands, Polynesia; station of the Paris 
Evangelical Society, with a native worker and 
170 church members. 

AWEMBA: A settlement to the S.W. of Lake 
Tanganyika in British Central Africa; station 
of the LMS (1900) with a missionary and his wife. 

AXIM: A seaport on the coast of the Gold 
Coast Colony, W. Africa; station of the WMS, 
with a missionary and 52 native workers, men 
and women, 65 outstations, 12 Sunday schools, 
10 village schools, and 360 church members. 

AZAMOR: A town near Mazagan, Morocco; 
station of the Southern Morocco Mission, with 
a missionary and his wife, and a dispensary. 


AZIMGARH: A city sixty miles north of 
Benares, British India; station of the CMS since 
1831. The Society has there 5 missionaries 
and 19 native workers, men and women, with 
a high school and 8 village schools. The reli- 
gions of the people among whom they work are 
in general Hinduism and Mohammedanism. 
There are about 100 Christians connected with 
the mission 


BA: A town on Viti Levu, Fiji Islands; sta- 
tion of the Australian Wesleyan Methodist Mis- 
sionary Society, with 1 missionary and 628 
native workers, 283 Sunday schools, 330 village 
schools, and 7,475 professing Christians. 

BAAKLEEN; A village of the Lebanon district 
in Syria; station of the Palestine and Lebanon 
Nurses' Mission, with 4 missionary women, 2 
native workers, 1 dispensary, and 1 hospital. 

BAALBEC: A town of Syria, northeast of 
Beirut. It is celebrated for its ruins of the 
Temple of the Sun. It is a station of the British 
Syrian Schools' Committee, with 2 missionary 
women and 3 native women workers, 1 village 
school, a high school, and a dispensary. 

BABIS (pron. Babees) : A sect among the 
Mohammedans of Persia. In 1845 a young 
moUah of Shiraz, named Mohammed Ali, com- 

menced to preach against the vices of his core- 
ligionists. His bold invective against the corrup- 
tion of the religious hierarchy won instant 
response from the common people and gave him 
great popularity as a preacher. It also aroused 
fierce anger among the men whose hypocrisy and 
luxurious living he attacked. He began to claim 
that he was divinely ordained to reform the 
religious faith and practise of the country, 
quoting from the Bible and the words of Christ 
as well as from the Koran in support of his 
teachings. As he diverged more and more from 
the doctrine that the teachings of the Koran 
have superseded all earlier revelations, he began 
to defy the mollahs of Shirez to harm him, 
declaring himself to be the Bab, that is to say, 
the "door" or forerunner of the Mahdi who is to 
come in the last days to reform religion. Threat- 
ened with punishment by the chief Mohammedan 

Ball, Dyer, 




theologians of Teheran he answered by a ringing 
defiance of all efforts to lay hands on the messen- 
ger of God. Multitudes of all classes of the 
people became his followers; the Bab was re- 
garded as supreme authority, the throne itselt 
teemed to be endangered, and finally the Persian 
Government arrested him and put him to death. 
His followers, who called themselves Babis 
(People of the Bab), included some eminent 
Mohammedan moUahs, and one remarkable and 
eloquent woman who continually stirred up the 
people to persevere in the new doctrine. When 
the authorities undertook to make lurther 
arrests, the Babis resisted, and serious battles 
occurred, particularly in the district of Shiraz in 
some of which the Persian troops were defeated. 
In 1848 an attempt was made upon the lite ot 
the Shah by some of the Babis. An edict of 
proscription was then issued against the sect and 
thousands of its members were massacred. I he 
leaders of the Babis escaped to Turkey and 
established themselves at Baghdad. The i er- 
sian Government, finding that Babism could not 
be eradicated while the successors of the Bab 
still lived, requested Turkey to surrender the 
refugees. This Turkey refused to do, but finally 
consented to place the leaders of the sect under 
surveillance at a point distant from the Persian 
frontier. All efforts were vain, however, and 
Babism still flourishes in Persia more or less 
openly. ^ , , , 

The Bab left a volume of his teachings— an 
ambitious but ilUterate production called 
"Bayan" (Exposition). The doctrines held by 
his followers seem to be of a progressive charac- 
ter, however, and are now a mixture of Moham- 
medanism, Indian Theosophy and Pantheism, in 
which they follow the lead of the Sufis. Certain 
texts and precepts taken from the New Testa- 
ment and the Psalms of David are added to this 
eclectic body of doctrine. A principle of the 
sect held in common with some of the Dervish 
orders is that all Mohammedanism as taught 
to-day, and in fact all religions, are hopelessly 
corrupt, that the Mahdi will, therefore, shortly 
appear to reform the world and that then true 
religion will be found to include parts of the 
Mohammedan, Buddhist, and Christian teachings. 
The system of morals preached by the Babis is in 
marked contrast to that of Islam in laying stress 
on the brotherhood of all mankind and in stigma- 
tizing polygamy. Like all Mohammedans, they 
hold the use of wine or spirits to be a sin. 

Two rival disciples of the Bab, each claiming 
to be his divinely appointed successor, are now 
in exile under surveillance of the Turkish Govern- 
ment, the one in the Island of Cyprus, and the 
other at Acre, in Syria. The latter is named 
Beha-ed-din and has entered into relations with 
English and Americans with a view to uniting 
all religions. He claims 10,000 followers m 
Chicago and Baltimore, in the United States, 
who believe that he is the promised Messiah. 

Babism is one of the results of the impact of 
Christianity upon Islam. It was thought a,t one 
time that the Babis were more open to Christian 
teaching than orthodox Mohammedans. So far, 
however, they are merely more tolerant and more 
ready to seek in the Bible support for their doc- 

Missionary Review of the World, Vol. VII, N. S., pp. 362, 451, 
629, 894; Vol. XV., N. S., pp. 771, 776-. Vol. XVII pp. 
91 207. A Year among the Persians, also, Babism, 
Browne (E. G.), (in "Religious Systems of the World"), 

BACHELER, Rev. Otis Robinson, M.D. : Born 

in Antrim, N. H., January 17, 1817 In the 
spring of 1839 he was accepted as a medical mis- 
sionary by the Free Baptist Mission Society; and 
after continuing his studies for another year, he 
sailed, with his wife, for India. He made Bala- 
sor the center of his work until 1851, when he 
returned to America. On his return to India m 
1863, he settled at Midnapur, where the rest of 
his missionary life was spent. His dispensary 
proved to be a great blessing to many, and 
through its influence hundreds were attracted to 
the Gospel message. AVhen he returned to India, 
from America he brought a printing press, which 
was of great use in his work; and in 1886 he 
became principal of the Midnapur Bible School, 
which position he held until he retired from the- 
field. After spending 53 years as a missionary 
he retired in 1893, and passed into his rest at 
New Hampton, N. H., on New Year's morning, 

BADAGA LANGUAGE : Belongs to the Canar- 
ese group of the Dra vidian family of languages. 
It is spoken by the Badaga tribe, living m the 
Nilgiri Hills south of Mysore, India. It is writ- 
ten with the Canarese letters. 

BADAGRI : A city near Lagos, W. Africa, for- 
merly important as a trading center. It is a 
mission station, opened by the WMS m 1842, 
and transferred to the CMS in 1845; it has 5 native 
workers, men and women, with 2 outstations, 3 
village schools, and 102 communicants. 

BADULLA: A town and military post in the 
south central part of Ceylon. The climate is 
healthy because of the elevation, which is about 
2,000 feet. It is a station of the WMS, with 3 
missionaries and 37 native workers, men and 
women. There are 6 outstations, 19 village 
schools, 1 high school, 1 industrial school, 1 hos- 
pital, 2 orphanages, and a printing house. 
There are 80 church members. 

BADDEGAMA: A village N. of Galle in the 
southern part of Ceylon; station of the CMS, 
founded in 1819. At present the station is occu- 
pied by 4 missionaries and 56 native workers, 
men and women. It has 3 outstations, 35 
village schools, and 1 high school. There are 220 

BAGHARA: Town in the north of the Santal 
Parganas, Bengal, India; station of the CMS 
(1875), with 2 missionaries and their wives, 18 
native workers, men and women, 9 village schools, 
and a high school, and 75 communicants. Also 
written Bhagaya. 

BAGHCHEJIK. See Bardbzag. 
BAGHDAD : A city of southern Mesopotamia, 
capital of the province of Baghdad, in Asiatic 
Turkey. It is situated on the Tigris, about 250 
miles north of its confluence with the Euphrates. 
The population, numbering about 180,000, is 
composed chiefly of Arabs, tho there are large 
numbers of Persians, Kurds, Syrian Christians, 
and about 15,000 Jews. It was the favorite seat 
of the Abassid Caliphs, and under Haroun- 
al-Raschid became very famous. Under Turk- 
ish rule very much of its prosperity has been lost, 
tho it is still the most important city of South- 
eastern Turkey, both commercially and politi- 
cally. Near it is the shrine of Kerbela, to which 
the Persians flock in pilgrimages in honor of the 
Shi'ite saints, Hassan and Hossein. There is thus 
constant communication with Persia and 



Ball, Dyer, M.D. 

Kurdistan. It was long the seat of a British 
resident, and it still ranks very higla as a diplo- 
matic post of Great Britain, Russia, and France. 
Baghdad has been the starting point for the 
various expeditions to explore the ruins of Baby- 
lon at Hilleh, on the Euphrates, 100 miles to the 
south, and of Seleucia and Ctesiphon. Since the 
University of Pennsylvania has been excavating 
at Niffer, Baghdad has been made the seat of an 
American consulate. Missionary work has been 
attempted at various times by the ABCFM and 
the CMS. The intense heat of the climate makes 
it very trying to Europeans. At present it is 
occupied as a station by the CMS, with 8 mission- 
aries and 7 native workers, men and women, who 
have charge of 2 village schools and 1 hospital. 
There are 35 communicants here. 

BAHAWA: A village in the Santal Parganas, 
Bengal, India; station of the CMS. It is occu- 
pied by a missionary and his wife and 41 native 
workers, men and women. There is 1 high school 
and 1 dispensary, and there are 545 church 
members. The name is also written Barhawa. 

BAHIA: A city of Brazil, South America, on 
All Saints Bay, 800 miles northeast of Rio 
de Janeiro. Population, about 200,000, chiefly 
Portuguese; religion, Roman Catholic, the city 
being the seat of an archbishop. It is a mission 
station of the CA, of which no statistics are 
available; of the PN, which commenced opera- 
tions here in 1871 ; and has 4 missionaries and 1 
native worker, men and women, and 1 common 
school. It is also a station of the SBC, opened 
in 1882. There are now 3 missionaries and 15 
native workers, men and women, with 27 out- 
stations and 516 church members. 

BAHIA BLANCA: Seaport in the Argentine 
Republic; station of the South American Evan- 
gelical Mission, with one missionary. 

BAHRAICH: A town in the United Prov- 
inces, India; station of the ME, founded in 1867. 
It has 21 native workers, 10 Sunday schools, 
3 common schools, and 182 church members. 

BAHREIN: The largest island of the Bahrein 
group in the Persian Gulf, off the coast of El 
Hasa, in .Arabia; station of the RCA Arabian 
Mission (1892), with one missionary and his 
wife and a dispensary. 

BAHRWAL ATARI: A town in the Amritsar 
district, Punjab, India; station of the CMS 
<1889), with (1902) 8 native workers, and 200 
baptized Christians, of whom 23 were baptized 
during 1901. Station also of the CEZMS (1890), 
with (1902) 9 native women workers, 2 common 
schools, 1 hospital, 1 dispensary, 700 Zenana 
visitations and 5 Zenana pupUs. 

BAIHIR. See Behir. 

BAILUNDA: A region in the district of 
Benguela, Portuguese West Africa. It lies on 
the uplands about 200 miles from Benguela, 
its seaport. The climate is healthy and the 
temperature, altho hot, is even. A mission 
station of the ABCFM was opened there in 1881; 
occupied by 2 missionaries and their wives, 2 
missionary women, and 5 native workers. 
There are 9 outstations, with 1 high school and 
2 village schools. There are 25 church members. 
The station has been much harassed by the bad 
feeling of European traders which has excited 
the suspicions of the native tribes. 

BALASOR : A seaport of Orissa, Bengal, India, 
150 miles southwest of Calcutta. Population 

about 20,000, Hindus ' and Mohammedans. 
Language, Uriya, Santali, Hindustani. First 
mission station occupied by the American Free 
Baptist Missionary Society in 1838. It has 
now 2 missionaries and their wives, and 3 mis- 
sionary women, with 74 native workers, men 
and women. There are 2 outstations, 8 village 
schools, 1 high school, 1 kindergarten, 2 orphan- 
ages, and 230 church members. Also written 

BALDWIN, Stephen Livingston: Born at 
Somerville, N. J., January 11, 1835. His 
ministerial life covered a period of forty-four 
years. One half of this time was spent as a 
missionary in Fuehau, China; eight years he 
was pastor of churches in the Newark and New 
England Conferences, and the last fourteen 
years of his life were devoted to the work per- 
taining to the ofRce of Recording Secretary of 
the Missionary Society of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church. On October 4, 1858, Mr. and 
Mrs. Baldwin sailed for China. In 1861 he 
returned to America, on account of the failing 
health of Mrs. Baldwin, who died at sea; but 
the next year he was in Fuehau again, remaining 
there until 1870, when he was granted a year's 
furlough at home. The Fuehau Conference 
appointed him a delegate to the General Con- 
ference of 1880; and he was a member of the 
Ecumenical Conference held in London in 1881. 
While he was pastor of St. John's Methodist 
Episcopal Church, Boston, he was elected in 
June, 1888, Recording Secretary of the Mission- 
ary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
in which he continued until he died in Broolvlyn, 
N. Y., July 28, 1902. Dr. Baldwin rendered 
important services as General Secretary of the 
Ecumenical Missionary Conference held in New 
York City in 1900. Under the strain Of the 
work of organizing this Conference, his health 
gave way, and that important service to the 
cause of missions doubtless hastened his death. 

BALI: An island situated E. of Java. The 
people are heathen, but a few Mohammedans 
and some Christians are found there. The 
language is allied to the Javanese. 

The Utrecht Missionary Society has a station 
upon this island and seems, after many vicis- 
situdes, to have gained a stable foothold. 

BALIGE: A village on Lake Toba in the 
North Central part of Sumatra, East Indies. 
Station of the Rhenish Missionary Society, 
founded in 1881. It is occupied by a mission- 
ary and his wife, -ndth 10 native workers, men 
and women. There are 5 outstations, 4 village 
schools, and 1,400 communicants. 

BALL, Dyer, M.D.: Born at West Boylston, 
Mass., June 3, 1796; graduated at Union Col- 
lege, 1826; studied theology at New Haven and 
Andover; ordained, 1831; was agent in 1833 for 
Home Missionary Society in Florida. While at 
the South he was much engaged in labor for the 
colored population. In 1835-37 he studied 
medicine with reference to foreign mission work, 
and received the degree of M.D. from the med- 
ical institution in Charleston. He sailed in 1838, 
under the ABCFM, for Singapore. He was 
stationed there two years, teaching, preaching, 
healing the sick, and superintending the printing 
of Chinese books. In June, 1841, he went to 
Macao, and then to Hongkong. To him it was 
given to be the pioneer in opening the city of 
Canton for residence of missionary families, and 

Bautu Race 



to open the way for excursions into the country 
around. His medical services were of great 
assistance in conciliating the good-will of the 
people. His Almanac was for many years a 
most acceptable publication. He was most 
laborious in out-of-door work, mingling with the 
people on the banks of the river or on the ferries, 
and then extending his visits to the villages and 
market. In this way he became widely known 
and more and more respected as his true char- 
acter and the nature of his labors were under- 
stood. In 1854 he visited the United States, 
returning, in 1857, to Macao. His constitution 
was much broken, and before his death he was 
confined to his house four months. During 
the last seven years of his life, the old man, 
bowed down by his infirmities, and leaning upon 
his cane would make his way downstairs and 
totter out to the little chapel opening on the 
street, and there, seated in an arm chair, he 
would distribute tracts or speak to passers who 
might drop in to look upon his gray hairs; for 
the Chinese venerate old age. He died March 
27, 1866, after twenty -eight years' mission 

BALLANTINE, Henry: Born at Schodack 
Landing, on the Hudson, near Albany, N. Y., 
March 5, 1813. He graduated at the Uni- 
versity of Ohio, Athens, 1829; entered Theolog- 
ical Seminary, Princeton, but left on account of 
ill health; resumed his studies at Union Theolog- 
ical Seminary, Virginia; finished at Andover, 
1834; ordained at Columbus, O., April, 1835; 
sailed same year as a missionary of the American 
Board for India. In 1837 he was stationed 
permanently at Ahmednagar. His health fail- 
ing, he left, in 1850, for home, but returned in 
1852. He labored with great zeal and without 
interruption as preacher and pastor, and as 
editor and translator until 1865. During the 
last five years of his life he gave much time to 
the theological education of young men. By 
medical advice he left India with his family, 
September 4, 1865. An accidental detention 
of the ship in the Red Sea aggravated his malady, 
and he died November 9, off the coast of Por- 
tugal, and his body was consigned to the ocean. 
His connection with the mission covered thirty 
years. An accurate knowledge of the Mardthi, 
added to an acquaintance with Sanskrit, pre- 
pared him to become a translator of the Bible, 
and he has left the impress of his idiomatic 
Mardthi on many parts of the sacred volume 
in that language. He translated or composed 
some of the best hymns in the Mar&thi hymn 

BALRAMPUR: Town in the Gonda district 
of the United Provinces, India; station of the 
ME, with 18 native workers, men and women, 
9 Sunday schools, 1 village school and 170 
church members. 

BALUCHI LANGUAGE: Belongs to the Iranic 
branch of the Aryan family of languages, and is 
spoken in Baluchistan, by a population of about 
1,500,000. It is written with Arabic letters 
with slight modifications. 

BALUCHISTAN: A country of Asia, bounded 
on the north by Afghanistan, on the east by 
British India, on the south by the Indian Ocean, 
and on the west by Persia. Its area is about 
130,000 square miles. The population is esti- 
mated at about 500,000, divided into two 
sections, the Baluchis and the Brahuis — which 

are sub-divided into tribes and again into 
families. The Baluchis have several points of 
resemblance to the Tartars and may perhaps 
have sprung from a commingling of Persian and 
Tartar stock. The Brahuis seem to have a 
linguistic affinity with some of the tribes of the 
Punjab. Mohammedanism is the religion of the 
general mass of the population. 

Baluchistan is ruled by the Khan of Khelat 
under the direction of an English resident. For 
strategic purposes the British authorities have 
built a railway from India into the country, and 
an English garrison is maintained at Quettah. 

Missionary operations are limited to one 
station of the CMS at Quettah. There have 
been a few conversions notwithstanding the 
fanaticism that would apply the sword to every 
man who abandons Islam. On the whole, the 
greatest encouragement is found in the steady 
circulation of the Scriptures from the Quettah 
Baluchistan, Hughes (A. W.), London, 1877. 

BANDA: The capital of a district of the same 
name. United Provinces, India. It is situated 
on the Ken River and has about 24,000 inhab- 
itants. It is a station of the SPG, opened in 
1873, and is now occupied by 1 missionary and 
2 missionary women with 8 native workers. 
It has a high school and 3 village schools. There 
are 32 communicants. 

It is a station also of the ME with 10 native 
workers, men and women, and 7 village schools. 
There are 40 church members. 

BAND AWE: A town on Lake Nyasa, Central 
Africa, in the W. Nyasaland Protectorate; 
station of the UFS, with 7 missionaries and 
38 native workers, men and women. It has 
22 outstations, 1 high school, 55 village schools, 
1 dispensary and 450 church members. 

BANDOENG: A town in the west central 
part of the island of Java, Dutch East Indies; 
station of the Netherlands Missionary Union, 
with 2 missionaries and 4 native workers, a 
hospital and a theological class. There are 
50 communicants. Also written Bandung. 

BANGALORE: A city of Mysore, India, 175 
miles west of Madras. It is on an elevated 
site, a great resort for invalids; it has consider- 
able trade, and is a military post. Population, 
180,000, chiefly Hindus. 

It is a station of the LMS (1820) with 7 mis- 
sionaries and 22 native workers, men and women, 
1 theological class, 2 high schools, and 12 village 
schools. There are 121 church members. 

Station of the WMS with 9 missionaries and 
174 native workers, men and women. It has 
a theological seminary, 3 high schools, and 37 
village schools. The communicants number 630. 

Station of the SPG (1837) with 7 native work- 
ers, men and women, 2 village schools and 405 

Station of the Church of England Zenana 
Missionary Society, with (1902) 5 women mis- 
sionaries, 2 of them physicians) and 14 native 
women workers, a dispensary, a hospital, an 
orphanage, 3 elementary schools, and 6 zenana 

Station of the Leipzig Missionary Society, 
with 7 native workers, 3 high schools and 400 

Station of the ME, with 3 missionaries and 
7 native workers, men and women; it has 2 
high schools, and 14 church members. 



Bantxt Race 

Station of the American Advent Missionary 
Societjr, with 1 missionary, 3 native worlcers and 
a printing house. 

BANGKOK: Capital of Siam, on the Menam 
River, about 20 miles from its mouth. It is 
the chief commercial center of the country. 
Climate, intensely hot in summer. Population, 
400,000 — Siamese, Chinese, Burmans, Malays, 
Arabs, Hindus; nearly one-half of the entire 
population is Chinese and practically the whole 
of the commerce of Bangkok is in their hands. 
The approach of the city is very beautiful, and 
some of the temples are very fine specimens 
of elaborate decoration. A large number of 
the houses are built on rafts, and the internal 
traffic of the city is largely carried on by canals, 
altho streets and bridges have been built and 
electric cars introduced in some quarters. 

Bangkok is occupied as a missionary station 
by the ABMU (1833), with 3 missionaries and 
7 native workers, men and women, 4 outstations 
and 190 church members. 

It is also a station of the PN (1840) with 16 
missionaries, men and women and 2 native 
workers, 2 high schools, a common school and 
a printing house. There are also 187 church 

The ABS has a Bible depot there in charge of 
an American agent. 

BANJERMASSIN: Chief town of the Dutch 
Residency of the same name in S. E. Borneo, 
situated near the seacoast. It has about 45,000 
inhabitants. It is a station of the Rhenish 
Missionary Society, with a missionary and his 
wife, 1 unmarried woman and 6 native workers, 
men and women. There are 2 outstations and 
4 village schools. The communicants number 

BANKHERI: Town in the Gonda region, 
Central Provinces, India; station of the Friends' 
Foreign Missionary Association (1896), with 
1 missionary and his wife, 2 native workers, 1 
village school, 1 dispensary and 10 professing 

BANKIPTJR: A town in Bengal, India, a 
suburb of Patna. Mission station of the BMS 
(1818); 2 missionaries and their wives, with 
12 native workers, men and women. It has 

3 outstations and 5 village schools. The com- 
municants number 26. Also written Bankipore. 

BANKURA: Capital of the Bankura district, 
Bengal, IndisT, 100 miles N. W. of Calcutta. 
Population, about 19,000. Mission station of 
the WMS; 4 missionaries and 36 native workers, 
men and women, 6 outstations, 2 high schools, 
18 village schools, 97 church members. 

BANWI : A town on the island of Fernando Po, 
in the Bight of Biafra, on the W. coast of Africa; 
station of the Primitive Methodist Missionary 
Society (1880), with a missionary and his wife, 
1 native worker, a chapel, a Sunday school and 
16 church members. 

BANNTJ: A town in the Northwest Frontier 
Province of India, S. of Peshawar; station of 
the CMS (1864), 1 missionary physician and 

4 native workers, 1 high school, 1 hospital, 1 
dispensary and 33 communicants. Also called 

BANSA MANTEKE : A town in the Congo 
Free State, West Africa, 160 miles from the 
mouth of the river; station of the ABMU (1879), 
with 7 missionaries and 48 native workers, men 

and women, 32 outstations, 34 village schools, 
a high school, a theological seminary, and 1,500 
church members. This station is an instance 
of the pervasive power of the Gospel of Christ. 
When it was first occupied, the people were 
entirely unknown to the outside world and 
were living in gross darkness of paganism. 
Their language had never been reduced to 
writing. It was seven years before a single 
convert came forward for baptism, and he was 
threatened with death for becoming a Christian. 
Since that first conversion 2,000 of that Bantu 
tribe have been baptized; they have the begin- 
nings of a printed literature; the people them- 
selves have taken up the duty of evangelization, 
and everywhere within a radius of thirty miles 
of the station the pagans have the Gospel 
preached to them by their own countrymen. 

BANSKO: A village in the Razlog district, 
European Turkey; outstation of the ABCFM; 
an independent self-supporting church has 
grown up in connection with the mission, com- 
posed of Bulgarians. 

BANTING: A town in the district of Sarawak, 
Borneo; station of the SPG, founded in 1851; 
it has 1 missionary and 7 native workers, 2 out- 
stations, 13 preaching places and a high school. 

BANTU RACE: The preponderating element 
of the population of Africa from about the fifth 
degree of north latitude to Cape Colony (except- 
ing the Hottentots, Bushmen and some smaller 
groups) is the Bantu race, numbering 60,000,000 
or more. The name in almost all the languages 
of this region (Zulu, Abantu; singular Umantu 
person) means "the people." 

Among the members of the Bantu race may 
be named the Zulus, the Amaxosa or Kafirs 
the Bechuana, Basuto, and kindred tribes on 
the south; the Ovaherero, Ovampo, Balunda, 
Bateke and Mpongwe, on the west; the Congo, 
Bayansi, Bangala, Babangi, Manyeraa; the 
people of Toro and Uganda, the Angoni, and 
others among the Great Lakes; the Rua, Bemba, 
Babisa, and other tribes near the Lesser Lakes 
and on the sources of the Congo; and the Wak- 
amba, Swahili, Wanika, Mahenge, Wakonde, 
Makua, and other tribes to the number of two 
hundred or more. 

The general kinship of these tribes is seen, 
to some extent, in their person, their hue, their 
features, their religious notions, their mental 
type, and their mode of life; but most of all in 
their language. Taking their language as our 
guide and proof, we are left with no doubt 
that these tribes belong to one and the same 
family, between which and all other known 
families or races there is a manifest and fixed 
difference. To be sure, the languages of the 
tribes differ from each other in many respects, 
especially in many of their words, or in the 
forms of their words, but the grammar is essen- 
tially the same in all. 

The more the comparative philologist comes 
to know of this Bantu family of languages, the 
more does he find of beauty, compass, flexibility, 
and plastic power. All the best known dialects 
whether on the east, south, or west, or in the 
interior, are found to be soft, pliant, easy flowing, 
regular and systematic in forms, philosophical 
in structure and principle, and wonderfully 
rich in ability to express all the shades of thought 
and feeling of which the people who speak them 
have knowledge. And it is specially interesting 

Bantu Race 
Bantu Languages 



to note that this great field of underlying, sub- 
stantial oneness of speech is the one in which 
great Christian missions are being extensively 
planted, and are finding unexpected facilities m 
the wideness of the region where the Bantu lan- 
guages prevail. 

In respect to the origin of the Bantu race, 
and how, whence, or when they came into the 
part of Africa they now occupy, the people 
themselves can tell us nothing. Nor does ancient 
history throw light on the subject. And yet 
we are not without some good reasons for opin- 
ions in relation to it. Some hold, with plaus- 
ible show of reasons, that the Hottentots of S. 
Africa are of the same race as the ancient 
Egyptians, or at least that the two families were 
one in origin, and if so, then the fact of their 
being so widely separated points to the probable 
incoming of another people, as from the east, 
by which they were divided, and a portion 
of them pushed on to the southern ex- 
tremity of the continent. 

Inquiring now to which particular branch 
of the great families of men such an incursive, 
immigrating race belonged, we can hardly 
doubt that it was Hamitic, having its origin 
probably in some branch of the Cushites. The 
descendants of this line were numerous, and 
some of them settled, for a time at least, in Asia. 
Others settled in Arabia, and doubtless many 
went at an early date to Africa. Herodotus 
speaks of two classes of Ethiopians, one in 
Asia, the other in Africa. Many of the former 
served as soldiers under Xerxes, tho their 
home is not easily determined. The historian,, 
however, tells us that the Asiatic Ethiopians 
were black, like those of Libya, but differed from 
them in language, and had straight hair; whereas 
those of Libya had very curly hair. Now, 
between the Bantu tribes and the proper negro 
race, there is, to a certain extent, just this kind 
of difference at the present time. To be sure, 
the Bantu race is not white, and yet their hue 
is not so dark as that of the Nigritian negro, 
nor is their hair so woolly; and as to their lan- 
guage — that most decisive mark of an aflinity 
or of a difference — there is a wide difference 
between the Bantu languages and those of the 
real negro of the Sudan. Taking, then, all 
these suggestive facts together, it does not seem 
improbable that the immigrants who pushed 
the Hottentots before them to the southward 
were from Asia. If this was the case, it is easy 
to see why the Bantu peoples should be found 
at this day more robust, taller, of a lighter 
color, with hair less woolly, with a nose more 
elevated, of a much greater facial angle, a 
higher forehead, and altogether of a more intel- 
ligent, Caucasian look than their Nigritian 
neighbors. At the same time we see in the 
whole Bantu race so much of the true negro 
type that we must come to the conclusion that, 
if the Bantu family originated in any wise 
other than the negroes of Nigritia, it mingled 
with these until it was largely fashioned after 
their type. 

The appearance, color, and customs of the 
Zulu are so like those of the other tribes of the 
Bantu family that a description of the former 
will give a good idea of all. The better classes 
of these tribes, especiallyof the Zulu and the Kafir, 
are somewhat slender, erect, of good stature, 
and well proportioned; it is easy for them on 
occasion to be graceful, dignified, commanding. 

They are made to be agile and swift rather 
than strong; and yet their women often carry 
heavy burdens on their heads for long distances. 
Their color varies from a reddish copper or light 
bronze to a pure black. The latter, with just 
a little tinge of the red, pleases them best._ A 
few have the regular features of the Caucasian; 
some, the pure negro; but most of them are of 
some grade between the two. Their black eyes 
often twinkle with merry humor, their beauti- 
fully white teeth are well set, their general ex- 
pression is pleasant and confiding. Physically 
considered, the Bantu tribes are a well-built, 
fine-looking race. 

In respect to natural affection, mental traits, 
and social life, the Bantu family afford an inter- 
esting study. Except when provoked to anger 
by insult or injustice, they are mild, gentle, 
kind, not wanting in either parental or filial 
affection; are helpful and sympathetic toward 
the suffering; and yet, under a sense of being 
wronged or in the excitements of war, they can 
be wild and fierce in the extreme. They are 
hospitable, fond of visiting, fond of society, 
cannot bear to work alone or be alone. They 
are proverbial for politeness, have numerous 
rules of etiquette, which are generally sensible. 
They are quick to see the difference between 
right and wrong, ever ready to decry injustice, 
and to submit gracefully to the suffering of de- 
served punishment. During the writer's resi- 
dence of many years among the Zulus, with 
almost no lock and key in use, his grain, tools, 
cattle — everything they most desired — being 
ever open to access, he was not aware that any- 
thing was ever stolen from him. He once 
thought they had taken a hatchet, but after 
months had elapsed and the annual burning of 
the grass had occurred he found it in a field 
just where he had used and left it. And yet 
the common, social life of the Zulu is far from 
p-irfect. As one has said, "He is far from being 
as honest in word as he is in acts. He is prone 
to have very large reservations in his own mind 
when he is avowedly giving a full account of 
some occurrence, and manages to disguise and 
distort facts with exceeding cleverness and skill. 
A Zulu will excuse a fault with such ready 
plausibility that he will make an intentional 
act of wrong doing seem but an undesigned 
accident." He expects his hospitality to be 
reciprocated, his kindness to be rewarded. Indeed 
he is said to have it for a proverb that "it is 
better to receive than to give." It is easy for 
him to get very angry and try to settle his dis- 
pute with a club. And yet he can hardly be 
said to be vindictive in his resentments. If 
the storm of passion is quick to rise, it is also 
quick to abate and be forgotten. 

It would take a volume to describe the super- 
stitions of these people. Of all their supersti- 
tions, none have upon them a stronger or more 
hurtful hold than their belief in what is called 
witchcraft. They believe certain evil-minded 
men, whom they call abatakati, have it in their 
power to hurt, kill, or destroy anybody or any- 
thing, by the use of poisonous powder, incanta- 
tion, or even by the force of mere will or purpose. 
Of these so-called witches the people have great 
fear. And so it is that any calamity, sickness, 
or death is often ascribed to some influence of 
this kind; whereupon some inyanga, witch doctor, 
is called to "smell out" the author of the evil. 
And inasmuch as all the possessions, wives, 



Bantti Race 
Bantn Ijansnases 

children and cattle of the man found guilty 
are to be confiscated and portioned out the 
chances are that the sentence will fall upon one 
of the more wealthy men, especially if he may 
happen to be unpopular. 

The Zulu word inyanga is a term of wide im- 
port and use. It may denote one who has a trade, 
as a blacksmith, a basket-maker, or one whose 
business is to help others across a river. Its 
more proper use is to designate those who are 
.skilled in higher pursuits, as a medical doctor, 
a witch doctor — i.e., one qualified to find out 
the cause and cure of evil by communicating 
with the shades of the departed. A Zulu's mode 
of preparing himself for one of these higher 
professions is to go through a long-continued 
course of rigorous training, by means of fasting 
self-inflicted sufferings, diving and staying under 
water, wanderings in wild and weird places, that 
he may come into contact and communion with 
the amahlozi, or fall into a swoon and have 
strange visions of the spirits, about which he 
has been talking and thinking so long. Then he 
makes his appearance in public, all besmeared, 
perhaps with white clay, his hands full of snakes, 
his head covered with feathers, singing, dancing, 
reciting his visions, and so is prepared to be recog- 
nized as having attained to the degree of a med- 
ical priest, or a diviner. 

The religious views and practises of the Zulus 
correspond, in a measure, to all the essential 
■elements of the true faith; only on a false basis. 
They have their divinities, their sense of obliga- 
tion and dependence, sense of guilt, belief in 
need of help, need of a Savior, need of sacri- 
fices, even unto blood, need of prayer, the 
•duty of worship and service, and a belief that 
the present life is to be followed by another. 
In their ignorance of the true God and in their 
search for some kind of divinity, they turn to 
the spirits of the departed, the shades of their 
ancestors, especially the ghosts of the great ones 
of their race. For here too Ancestor-Worship 
is practised. They call these shades by various 
names, as ihlozi, plural amahlozi; itunga, or isilumi. 
Ask them about the end of man, where he goes 
when he dies, and they say he becomes an ihluzi 
and goes off to live somewhere underground, 
there to build and abide with his ancestral 
friends. Sometimes they say the dying man 
becomes an isitunzi (spirit) and reappears from 
time to time in a smoke; and so it is that they 
stand in awe of a serpent, and say, when it 
appears about their houses, that the spirit of 
their friend has come back to visit them, and 
see how they fare. Lions and leopards are some- 
times looked upon as the embodiment of the 
spirit of a departed friend. To the shades of 
the dead, they look for help in time of trouble, 
confess their sins, pray, and offer sacrifices. 
Such for substances is the origin, kinship, appear- 
ance, and such are the religious ideas and super- 
stitutions of the many tribes which form the 
Bantu race of Africa. 

Zululand, Grant (L.), London, 1865; Journal of the Anthro- 
pological Inst, of Great Britain and Ireland, N. S., Vol. 1, 
pp. 37-47, London, 1898; Globus (German), Vol. 77, pp. 
193-195, Vol. 80, pp. 384-386, Braunschweig, 1900, 1901. 

BANTU LANGUAGES: Among all branches of 
the Bantu race in Africa, the existence of kinship 
seems to be shown by the peculiarities of their 
language. The resemblances between the speech 
of widely separated tribes have not as yet been 
studied and fully interpreted. But enough is 

known to lead to a supposition that the Zulu 
and the Kafir-Xosa languages may be the oldest 
and most fully developed of the whole family. 
The Zulu would seem, also, to have been least 
affected by abrasion or other modification 
through contact with other languages, having 
been developed, fixed, and kept by its own 
indigenous, automatic principles. Hence the 
belief that the distinguishing grammatical fea- 
tures of the entire Bantu family are more mani- 
fest and clearly defined in the Zulu than in any 
other of its branches. In Zulu, the incipient 
element of the noun, the nominal "prefix" or 
preformative, is more complete than m most of 
the Bantu dialects. Thus the prefix um, as in 
umfana, boy, is simply m, mfana, in some 
branches. Mpongwe, the name of a country and 
tribe in the northwest part of the Bantu field, 
would be Umpongwe in the southeast among the 
Zulus and Kafirs. The Zulu plural prefix, aba, 
as in abafana, boys, becomes ba, as hafana, in 
some dialects. For person, the Zulus have 
umuntu; another tribe has muntu; another, mutu; 
another, mtu; another, mundu. For the Zulu 
plural of this word, abantu, people, some other 
tribes say bantu; some, antu; some, atu; some, 
wantu; some, watu; some, wandu, and some, andu. 
Mtesa (late king of Uganda) would be Umteza 
in Zulu, and the Lake Nyanza would be in Zulu, 
Inyanza. On the Lualaba, a branch of the Congo, 
the natives say nyama, meat; instead of which 
the Zulus say inyama, meat. Among the Zulus 
bula amayte means thresh or break stones. The 
Congo people called Stanley "Bula Matadi," 
"the Rock Breaker." The Zulu and Kafir tribal 
names, Amazulu, and Amaxosa, would be, in some 
dialects, Mazulu, Maxosa, just as other tribal 
names in other parts of the Bantu field, such as 
Makua, Maravi, Manyema, would begin with a, 
as Amakua among the Zulus. 

Among the distinguishing grammatical fea- 
tures of the entire Bantu family of languages, 
one is what may be called a system of pronominal 
assimilations and repetitions. This mode is 
sometimes designated as the "alliterative," be- 
cause of the frequent recurrence of some particu- 
lar letter or syllable in a given sentence. Espe- 
cially in the Zulu, nouns may be grouped into 
eight distinct classes, according to their "prefix" 
or incipient element. Each class of nouns has its 
own pronominal forms, all of which bear a strik- 
ing resemblance to the initial element of the 
noun to which they refer, or for which they stand. 
Thus one class of nouns comprises all those whose 
incipient is Hi; and for this class the relative is 
eli, the demonstrative leli, this; lelo, that; the 
personal pronoun, nominative, and accusative, 
li; oblique form, la; definitive, lona, and frag- 
mentary form, simply I. Another class of nouns 
comprises all those whose incipient is isi, as 
isibaya; and for this the relative pronoun is esi; 
the demonstratives, lesi and leso; personal, si; 
oblique, so; definitive, sona, and fragmentary, 
simply s. Each class and number has its own 
preformative letter to be used in forming the 
possessive; as, u, which passes over into its semi- 
vowel w, for the first class, singular; 6 for the 
plural; I and a for the second class; y and z for 
the third. Thus, for the possessive my or mine, 
we have, wami, bami; lami, ami; yami, zami, 
according to the class and number of the noun; 
as, umfana wami, my boy; abafana bami, my 
boys. For the possessive his or her, if the noun 
be of the first class, we have wake, bake, lake, etc., 

Baiitn Languages 
Baptist Missionary 



according to the class of the noun possessed; as, 
tmf ana lake, his boy; iUzwi lake, his word; 
Momo zake, his cattle. For the possessive 
SrTef erring to persons or to nouns m a6a as 
abatona boys; ahantu, people; we have wabo, 
talTlabo, Ib'o, yabo, etc, -- ^f ^V^^^^^j'^f,!- 
word; izinkomo zabo, their cattle. And tor tne 
possessive their, referring to nouns m izxn as 

^:Somo, we have, in I'l-. -^^f ' /-f^Vo'e^ 
Inzo azo vazo, etc., as, xhz% lazo, their voice, 
Sayasazo, their 'fold; izimpondo zazo, their 

^°One of the most important points in which the 
Bantu languages differ from the English and 
many others islound m the fact that for the most 
nart the formative letters precede the root, that 
fs most of the inflections to which a word is 
sublet, are made by changes in the begmning of 
the word- thus, umfana, boy; ahafana, boys, 
inkomo covf; izinkomo, cows; izwi or ilizwi, word; 
amaTwi I'ords. So in the adjective: umfana 
ZkX large boy; aiafana abakulal.rge boys; 
inkomo enkulu, great cow; ^l^zw^ «^*'=«^«' ,fyf^* 
word So in the possessive pronouns: abafana 
bami, my hoys; izinkomo zami, my cows; thzwi 

^" This'YivTng'to the nominal incipient so much 
of molding influence over the pronouns and over 
tteTrefi^^es contributes largely to precision and 
the power of inversion. It is also thought by 
some^to add to the euphony of the language 
Indeed, some who at first failed to see that the 
princip e really constitutes a vital feature of the 
FanguTge, were wont to regard it as nothmg more 
than a kind of "euphonic alliteration. 

From all this it will be seen that the Bantu 
languages allow great scope and variety m the 
arrlngement of words m a sentence and at the 
same time preserve clearness and precision. 

One of the greatest defects of these languages, 
as might be supposed, is the paucity of words 
especially those needed for the expression of 
moral and religious thoughts.. Yet, even here, 
the case is not so difiicult as might be presumed^ 
One root will often give a large stem with a good 
number of branches, and no small amount ot 
fruit Thus, from the verb bona, see, we ha,ve 
bonisa, cause to see, show; bonisisa show clearly; 
bonela, see for; bonelela, look and learn, imitate; 
bonana, see each other; bonelana, see for each 
other; bonisana, cause each other to see, show 
each other; bonakala, appear, be visible; bona- 
kalisa, make visible; umloni, a seer; umboneh, a 
spectator; umbonelo, a spectacle; umftomsi, an 
overseer; umboniso, a show; istbono, a sight, 
curiosity; isiboniso, a vision; isvbonakalo an 
appearance; isibonakaliso , a revelation— and all 
this without going into the passive voice; as, 
honwa, be seen; boniswa, cause to be seen; boms- 
iswa, cause to be clearly seen etc. Perhaps no 
other language exceeds the Zulu m the scope and 
liberty which it gives for the formation of deriva- 
tive words. . ^ ■ ■ 4. 

The liberty which it gives for combining two 
or more words, so as to form a significant com- 
pound, is another point worth mentioning. In 
this way we get impnmalanga, east, from two 
Tf/ords — puma, come out, and ilanga, the sun; 
inchonalanga, west— from chona, sink, and tlanga, 
sun. So, inhlilifa, an heir, comes from combining 
two words which signify "to eat the estate of the 
deceased;" while inhlulanhlebe , a bat, signifies "a 
long-eared animal;" and ihlolenkosikazi, the jas- 
mine, "queen's eye." 

Many of the names which the natives give to 
persons, places, rivers, mountains, are also coin- 
pound teLs; and, whether simple or compound, 
the most of them are significant. 

Perhaps no language can lay a better claim 
than the Zulu to an exemption from two great 
faults-on the one hand, that superabundance of 
vowels and hquids which produces excessive soft- 
ness; and on the other, that superabundance of 
consonants which produces excessive harshness. 
The happy mean which it has observed m ite 
inter-mixture of mute consonants with vocalic 
and Uquid sounds makes it both pleasing to the 
ear and easy to speak. 

One of the striking peculiarities of several 
Bantu languages is that sharp, shrill sound called 
a "click " It constitutes an elementary partot 
the word in which it occurs, as much so as its 
vowels or consonants, and is never found m the 
formative part. Of these clicks there are three 
kinds, each of which takes its name from the 
manner in which it is made, as the dental the 
palatal, and the lateral. The origin of these 
peculiar sounds may, doubtless, be found m the- 
Snomatopoetic effort to suit the sound of the word 
to the thing signified. 

The indigenous literature of all the iiantu 
tribes is very scant, since no alphabet exists with 
which to write out thoughts, folk-lore, songs, 
royal eulogies, and common law. They have 
a variety ot unwritten, simple songs : evening 
songs, domestic songs, hunting songs, heroic 
songs, and religious songs, or songs m which 
they give expression to a wish or prayer.. V/Mx 
the singing ot these, accompanied with the 
numbu, a musical instrument of one string, they 
pass many an hour of leisure. Their language 
abounds in bold, figurative epithets and compli- 
mentary terms, of which they make great use m 
singing the praises of their kings. The royal 
court upon grand festal occasions, offers ample 
field for the royal rhapsodist or bard to pour 
forth his poetic imaginings in a most profuse and 
fervid style, speaking of the king, to his face, as 
black and beautiful, tall and straight, a majestic 
elephant, a ravenous hyena, the mercfless oppo- 
nent of every conspiracy, the devourer, waster, 
smasher of all his foes; lovely as a monster ot 
resistless might, "like heaven above, raimng and 

BAPATLA: A town ot the Kistna district, 
Madras, India, 40 miles east of Ongole. Healthful 
location. Population, chiefly Telugus; station ot 
the ABMU (1883), with 2 missionaries and their 
wives, 1 missionary woman and 47 native 
workers, men and women, 20 outstations, dl> 
Sunday schools and 2,515 church members. 

Foreign Missionary "Work of the: The first 
foreign missionary work of the Baptists ot 
Canada was done in connection with societies 
in the United States. As early as 1838 a 
Society for the Maintenance of Foreign Missions 
was established at Chester, Nova Scotia. Seven 
years later the first representative of the Cana- 
dian Baptists on the foreign field was sent to 
Burma and later two others, to labor under 
the ABMU. The interest in foreign missions 
was not aroused in Ontario and Quebec till 
1866, when a student in Woodstock College 
desired to go out as a missionary and there 
seemed no way to send him. Dr. Fyfe, the 
principal, then wrote to the Secretary of trie 



Bantn Liungnages 
BiiptiMt Missionary 

ABMU. The result was a meeting of six pastors, 
with Dr. Fyfe and Dr. Murdock of the ABMU, 
at the parsonage in Beamsville, Ontario, in 
October of that year. Here the Canadian Aux- 
iliary to the ABMU was formed, and in October, 
1867, just one year later, their first two mission- 
aries were sent to the Telugu Mission of the 
ABMU. Two years later the Rev. John Mc- 
Laurin, also a graduate of Woodstock College, 
and his wife were sent out. 

Up to 1873 both sections of the Baptists of 
Canada worked in connection with the ABMU, 
supporting missionaries in Burma and among 
the Telugus of India, as well as a number of 
native helpers. In that year, however, both 
the eastern and western provinces established 
independent and separate foreign mission boards, 
while remaining in cordial sympathy with the 

The Foreign Mission Board of the Baptist 
Convention of the Maritime Provinces in 1873 
sent out a party of seven missionaries to explore 
and, if deemed advisable, to establish a mission 
among the Karens of Siam; they failed to find 
Karens in Siam in sufficient numbers to warrant 
establishing a mission and the project was aban- 
doned. At this juncture an invitation for them 
to cooperate with the new organization in the 
western provinces was accepted, and the mis- 
sionaries were transferred to the Telugu country. 

The Foreign Mission Board of the Baptist 
Convention of Ontario and Quebec, in 1873, were 
offered a mission of the ABMU, at Cocanada 
(Madras, India). The offer was accepted, and 
the Rev. John McLaurin was released from his 
connection with the ABMU to take charge of the 
new mission. He landed at Cocanada with 
his family in 1874. The following year he was 
joined by the missionaries of the Maritime 
Provinces, who were in Siam, and thus in 1875 
was formed the Canadian Baptist Telugu Mission. 
There are two boards in the. homeland, but 
their work in the foreign field is very closely 
united in interest, in method as well as in terri- 
torial relations. The work is carried on along 
evangelistic, educational and medical lines; a 
strong native church is steadily pressing toward 
self-support; Bible women and colporteurs are 
an especially effective evangelizing agency. 

Missions of the Convention of the Maritime 
Provinces: District of Vizagapatam, Madras, 
India; 6 stations, 21 outstations, 21 Canadian 
missionaries, 49 native helpers, 8 churches, 
495 communicants, 17 day schools, 1 hospital 
and dispensary. 

Missions of the Convention of Ontario and 
Quebec: (1) Godavari and Kistna Districts, 
Madras, India; 8 stations, 111 outstations, 35 
Canadian missionaries, 196 native helpers, 38 
churches, 4,363 communicants, 18 day schools, 
1,366 pupils, 9 boarding schools with 304 
students, 4 physicians and 3 hospitals and dis- 
pensaries. (2) Bolivia, South America; 3 
stations, 7 Canadian missionaries, 2 schools. 
The organ of the Baptist Foreign Missionary Societies of 

Canada is The Canadian Missionary lAnk, monthly, 



Baptist Missionary Society, founded October 
2, 1792, was the first of the many missionary 
organizations which had their beginning in the 
closing years of the 18th and the opening 
of the 19th centuries. Since 1781 William 
Carey, the "Northamptonshire Cobbler," had 

been putting forth every effort to arouse his 
ministerial brethren to something of his own 
absorbing interest in the question of giving 
the Gospel to the heathen. His paper, "An 
Inquiry into the Obligations of Christians to 
use Means for the Conversion of the Heathen," 
published • in 1792, was a most impassioned 
appeal, and with his two sermons, preached 
before the Baptist Association at Nottingham, 
May 30, and at Kettering, October 2, 1792, 
resulted in the formation of the Baptist Mission- 
ary Society. The two points deduced from 
the text of the latter have since become famous 
— "Expect great things from God; attempt 
great things for God." At the conclusion of 
this sermon twelve of the ministers who had 
heard it withdrew to a little white house, still 
to be seen from the Midland Railway, and passed 
the following resolutions; 

"Desirous of making an effort for the propa- 
gation of the Gospel among the heathen, agree- 
ably to what is recommended in Brother Carey'si 
late publication, we whose names appear to the 
subsequent subscription, do solemnly agree tO' 
act in society for that purpose. 

"As in the present divided state of Christen- 
dom it seems that each denomination, by ex- 
erting itself separately, is most likely to accom- 
plish the great ends of a mission, it is agreed , 
that this society be called 'The Particular (Cal- 
vinistic) Baptist Society for Propagating the 
Gospel among the Heathen.' 

"As such an undertaking must needs be 
attended with expense, we agree immediately to 
open a subscription for the above purpose, and 
to recommend it to others. 

"Every person who shall subscribe £10 at 
once, or 10s 6d annually, shall be a member of 
the Society." 

The twelve ministers present subscribed £13 
2s M. These "great things" were ridiculed 
by their fellows, but the event has proved that 
"the greatest things of God have quiet and 
small beginnings." 

Carey became the first missionary of the So- 
ciety, Andrew Fuller its first secretary, and 
Sutcliffe, Dr. Ryland, Jr., and Reynold Hogg 
formed with these two the first committee. 
Samuel Pierce, one of the first subscribers at 
Kettering, desired to be sent to the heathen, 
but his early death prevented. 

Constitution and organization: The organization 
of the Baptist Missionary Society is very simple. 
Its membership comprises pastors of churches 
making an annual contribution; ministers who 
collect annually, and all Christian persons 
concurring in the objects of the Society who are 
donors of £10 or upward, or subscribers of ten 
shillings annually to its funds. 

The affairs of the Society are conducted by a 
committee of forty-eight members, two-thirds 
of whom are residents beyond twelve miles of 
St. Paul's. The committee meets monthly, or 
oftener, in London, on a fixed day, for the des- 
patch of business; seven members make a 
quorum. A public meeting of the Society is 
held annually, when the list of the committee 
is read, the accounts are presented, and the 
accounts of the previous year reported. The 
committee may summon public meetings in 
London or elsewhere whenever the interests of 
the Society require it. 

All honorary and corresponding members of 
the committee, and all ministers who are mem- 

Baptist Missionary 


bers of the Society, and the secretary and treas- 
urer of London auxiliaries are entitled to attend 
and vote at the meetings of the committee. 

Statemmt of Missions; India: A mission to 
Tahiti, in the South Seas, was at first thought ot 
by the Society, but this plan was changed by the 
accounts received from Mr John Thomas, a 
surgeon in the employ of the East India Company 
at Bengal, of the great needs of India. Andrew 
Fuller, in his account of the meeting held to 
consider the matter, says, "We saw plainly that 
there was a gold mine in India but it was as 
deep as the center of the earth. Who would 
venture to explore it? 'I will go down said 
Carey 'but remember that you must hold the 
ropes.' We solemnly engaged to him to do 
so nor while we live shall we desert him. In 
March 1793, Carey and John Thomas sailed 
for India in a Danish vesseh They landed m 
Calcutta, November 10. Carey had told his 
society that he should require from it money 
sufficient to pay for his passage only, believing 
that once in India he could support himself 1 he 
years that followed were very trying He found 
work in an indigo factory, perfected his knowl- 
edge of the Bengal language, wrote a grammar 
of it, translated the New Testament mto it, 
learned Sanskrit, mastered the botany of the 
region corresponded with the German mission- 
aries Schwartz and Guericke, m the far south, 
set up a printing-press, and planned new missions 
—all at his own cost. On his rude press, which 
from his great devotion to it, the natives thought 
was an idol, he printed the New Testament as 
fast as he translated it. In 1797 Mr. John 
Fountain was sent out to reenforce Carey, and 
in 1799 Messrs. Ward, Grant, Brunsdon, and 
Marshman reached Calcutta. In this year the 
indigo factory was given up, and on account ot 
the persistent opposition of the East India Com- 
pany the little band of missionaries removed 
to the Danish settlement of Serampur, on the 
west bank of the Hugli, fourteen miles above 
Calcutta. Here they purchased house and 
grounds for church, home, and printing office. 
An income for the mission was secured from the 
boarding schools opened for Eurasian boys and 
girls, and conducted by Mr. and Mrs. Marsh- 
man In December, 1800, Carey baptized the 
first Hindu convert, Krishnu Pal, a Brahman, 
who became a noted preacher, and from his own 
funds built the first house of Christian worship 

Carey was appointed by Lord Wellesley, then 
Governor-General, first Bengali, afterward San- 
skrit and Marathi, professor in the College of 
Fort William. The families of the little mis- 
sionary community lived together, eating at the 
same table at a cost not much more than £100 
a year. , . ,, „ ■ ^ 

The work of translating the Scriptures, 
teaching, preaching, printing, and establishing 
schools went actively on. Before Carey's death 
(1834) the whole Bible had been translated into 
forty different languages and dialects, and the 
sacred books of the Hindus translated into Eng- 
lish. In addition. Dr. Marshman translated the 
Bible into Chinese, prepared a Chinese grammar 
and dictionary, and translated Confucius into 

In 1812 the printing press at Serampur was 
destroyed by fire. The loss from this calamity 
■was great, but the gain was perhaps greater, for 
the interest and sympathy of Christians at home. 

of all denominations, was aroused to a degree 
never felt before. The whole amount of the 
loss! £10 OOO! was raised within fifty days and 
sent to Serampur, where work was speedi y 
resumed. This was the first instance of really 
large donations to the cause of missions. 

The work extended to other parts of India 
and many stations were estabhshed. In 181U 
these stations were organized into five missions: 
the Bengal Mission, including Serampur, Calcutta, 
Dinaipur, etc.; the Hindustani Mission (North- 
ern India), including Patna, Agra, etc., and the 
Burraan, Bhutan, and Orissa Missions In 
1813 there were in all 20 stations, with 63 Euro- 
pean and native laborers. 

In 1827 the missionaries at Serampur and the 
Society at home became two distinct and inde- 
pendent missionary bodies, because of the refusal 
of the former, using in mission service a large 
amount of property which they had accumulated 
without the aid of friends at home, to render to 
the parent Society a strict account of their pecu- 
niary transactions. In 1854 the Serampur 
Brotherhood had contributed to the mission 
£90 000. A friendly separation was therefore 
agreed upon, which continued for ten years. 
In 1837 the two bodies were reunited. ^, .^ , 
There are in Bengal, Orissa and the United 
Provinces of India (1892) 195 stations and out- 
stations of the BMS, 112 missionaries, 239 natiye 
workers, 7,335 communicants, 7,482 pupils in 
schools. The educational work includes the 
Serampur College, founded by Carey in 1829; 
Training Institutions at Cuttack and Delhi, 
besides elementary schools and orphanages. 
The Society also carries on special work among 
English speaking students and has a printing 
nress in Calcutta. 

Ceylon: The work of the BMS m this field was 
commenced in 1812 and has been largely educa- 
tional. There are (1902) 80 stations and out- 
stations, 5 missionaries, 26 native workers, l,Udd 
communicants and 3,196 pupils m schools. 

China: Several attempts were made by the 
BMS to commence mission work in this country, 
and since 1877 it has been carried on success- 
fully In 1902 there were 346 stations and 
outstations in the provinces of Shantung, Shensi 
and Shansi, with 43 missionaries, 122 native 
workers 4,652 communicants and 1,312 pupils 
in schools. This mission suffered severe v 
during the Boxer troubles but has rallied well. 
The fact that the Rev. Timothy Richard of 
Shanghai, Secretary of the Society for the UU- 
fusion of Christian Knowledge among the Chinese, 
is enrolled among the missionaries of this Society 
is indication of the interest it takes in the supply 
of Christian literature for that Empire. 

Palestine: This mission of the BMS has been 
carried on since 1880, with headquarters at 
Nablous. There were in 1902, 1 station and S 
outstations, 2 missionaries, 7 native workers, 
129 communicants and 90 pupils in the schools. 
Africa: From 1842-82 the Society had a most 
flourishing and hopeful mission on the West 
Coast of Africa. The West Indian churches, 
always desirous of sending the gospel to Atnca, 
began, after their emancipation, to carry out 
their wishes. Generous contributions were made 
and the Society in England agreed to second 
their efforts. Two missionaries from Jamaica 
chose for the new mission the island of Fernando 
Po, near the mouth of the Kameruns River, m 
the Gulf of Guinea. Several missionaries from 



Baptist Missionary 

England, with reenforcements from Jamaica, 
arrived there in 1842; the mission was firmly 
established, and soon extended to the coast of 
what is now the Kameruns; books were pre- 
pared and large portions of the Bible translated 
into the Dualla language by Mr. Saker, from 
Jamaica, who had reduced it to writing. The 
work at Fernando Po had, on account of Roman 
Catholic opposition, to be given up, and the 
settlement at Victoria, in the Kameruns, was 
transferred to the Basel Missionary Society 
when that region became a German colony. 

In 1877 Mr. Robert Arthington, of Leeds, 
England, offered the committee of the Society 
£1,000 if they would at once undertake a mission 
to the Congo country, in Africa. This proposal, 
and succeeding generous gifts, enabled the 
Society to begin operations, and missionaries 
were immediately sent out. Settlements were 
soon formed on the Upper and Lower Congo. 
Many deaths have thinned the missionary ranks, 
but the places of those who fell were quickly 
filled and the work goes hopefully forward. In 
August, 1886, the mission premises at Stanley 
Pool were destroyed by fire; the missionaries 
were in great distress; but, as was the case at 
Serampur in 1812, the loss was quickly made 
good by friends of the mission at home. Mr. 
W. Holman Bentley, one of the pioneers, has 
done efficient work in reducing the language to 
writing, and supplying literature. 

In the two missions at the Lower Congo, 
including Matadi, San Salvador, Wathen and 
Zombo, and the Upper Congo, including Arth- 
ington, Bolobo, Lukoleba, etc., there are (1902) 
61 stations and outstations, 58 missionaries, 62 
native workers, 607 communicants, 3,025 pupils 
in the schools. Most valuable auxiliaries to 
the work are the two river steamers, "Peace" 
and "Goodwill." 

West Indies: About the beginning of the 19th 
century a colored man from Georgia, U. S. A., 
P. George Liele, organized congregations of 
slaves in Jamaica. After his death application 
was made (1813) to the BMS for assistance and 
on advice of Mr. Wilberforce a missionary was 
sent out. Others followed, chapels and schools 
were built, and at the outbreak of the 
insurrection (1831) there were 14 English 
missionaries, 24 churches and 10,838 com- 
municants. The insurrection checked the work 
in the island, but the earnest appeals of the 
missionaries on their return to England helped 
much toward the abolition of slavery in 
the British Dominions. After order had been 
restored the work was again pressed with 
success until in 1842 the churches in Ja- 
maica announced themselves as independent of 
the Society's funds. In the West Indies, includ- 
ing Jamaica, there are (1902) 286 stations and 
outstations of the BMS, with 38,345 communi- 
cants (of whom 32,208 are in Jamaica). Of the 
10 missionaries and 619 native workers, all but 
two missionaries (in Jamaica) are independent 
of the Society. The Society also has 4 stations 
aiid 61 outstations in Italy and in France. A 
niission commenced in Japan in 1879 has been 
given up. 

The Baptist Zenana Mission: This woman's 
organization for mission work is in connection 
with the BMS, and was organized in 1867. It is 
independent in its officers, committees, and 
funds. In India it supported, in 1900, 64 
missionaries and 200 native workers in 20 

stations; had 94 schools with 3,620 pupils, and 
6 hospitals and dispensaries where 23,500 patients 
are treated. In China, it had (1900) 11 mission- 
aries and 20 native workers in 4 stations, and 18 
schools, with 180 pupils. 

The medical work of the BMS is conducted 
as a special auxiliary formed in 1901, conjointly 
witli that of the Baptist Zenana Mission. 

The Young People's Missionary Association 
in aid of the Baptist Missionary Society was 
organized in 1848. The Annual Report of the 
BMS gives a list of individuals, schools, etc., 
supported by these various organizations. 
Organ: Missionary Herald, monthly. 
Marshman (J, C.), Life and Times of Carey, Marshman tS: 

Ward, 2 vols., London, 1859; Myers (J. B.), Centenary 

Volume of the BUS, London, 1893. 


See Germany, Missionary Societies in. 


Southern Baptist Convention. 

BAPUJI APPAJI: A Brahman of Nasik, 
Western India. He made a public profession 
of faith in Christ after he was twenty-five 
years of age, and as native pastor at Bombay 
and missionary among his fellow countrymen 
he wrought faithfully and successfully. He 
was a member of the Translation Committee of 
the CMS, and translated several small books into 
Marathi. He died at Poona, January 16, 1894. 

BARAKA: A town on the Gaboon River, 
West Africa. Missionary work was commenced 
here by missionaries of the ABCFM in 1842. 
The station was transferred in 1870 to the PN. 
It now has 2 missionaries, 2 unmarried women 
missionaries, 8 native worlcers, men and women, 
1 village school, 2 high schools and 226 church 

BARAMA: A town in British Guiana, W. of 
the Essequibo River; station of the SPG, with 

I missionary, 2 native workers, and 2 village 

BARANAGAR: A town on the Hugli River near 
Calcutta, Bengal, India; station of the Church 
of England Zenana Missionary Society (1891), 
with (1902) 2 missionary women and 19 native 
women workers, 1 industrial home for converts, 

II common schools and 35 Zenana pupils. Also 
written Baranagore. 

BARARETTA. See Gallaland. 

BARBADOS: An island of the Caribbean 
group, W. I., belonging to Great Britain. The 
population is 182,306, mostly negroes, with a 
number of Hindus brought there to work in 
the fields, and a few Chinese. The language 
is a jargon based on English. Missionary opera- 
tions have been carried on in this island by the 
Moravians (since 1765) and by the Seventh Day 
Adventist Mission Board (U. S.), the Salvation 
Army, the Brethren (PB), and the African 
Methodist Episcopal Church (U. S.). 

BARBARY STATES: A general term desig- 
nating that portion of North Africa stretching 
from the western boundary of Egypt to the 
Atlantic, and from the Mediterranean to the 
Sahara, and including Tripoli, Tunis, Algeria, 
and Morocco. The name is derived from the 
Berbers, the ancient inhabitants of the region, 
who still constitute a considerable portion of 
the population. 

BARDEZAG: A large village on the hills 
bordering the Gulf of Nicomedia, S. of the city 


Basel Evangelical 



of Nicomedia, Asiatic Turkey. Its population, 
about 5,000, is entirely Armenian. The mission 
station of the ABCFM, formerly at Nicomedia 
was transferred to this place largely on account 
of its greater healthfulness. There is a large 
Protestant community and a flourishing boys 
school, where of late years the experiment ot 
manual training has been made with great suc- 
cess. There is also an orphanage for boys whose 
parents were killed in the massacres of 1895-96. 
The Turkish name of the place is Baghchejik. 

BARD WAN: Chief town of the district of the 
same name, Bengal, India. Population, 35,000. 
A station of the CMS with 3 missionaries, 1 with 
his wife, 5 native workers and 31 communicants 
and 1 village school supervised by the Church 
of England Zenana Missionary Society. Also 
written Burdwan. 

BARELI: A city of the United Provinces, 
India on a branch of the Ganges, 122 miles 
southeast of Delhi. Population (1901), 131,208, 
chiefly Hindus. Station of the ME (1856) with 
8 missionaries, men and women, 3 of them med- 
ical 53 native workers, men and women, 1 hos- 
pital 1 theological school, 1 orphanage, 1 high 
school, 27 village schools, 70 Sunday schools. 
Young People's Society, and 516 church members. 
Also written Bareilly. 

BARHAWA. See Bahawa. 
BARINGA: A settlement in the Congo Free 
State situated on the Maringa River, about 200 
miles from the Congo; station of the RBMU 
(1900), with 3 missionaries and 2 missionary 
women, 1 of whom is unmarried; 1 preaching 
place, a village school and a dispensary. 

BARISAL: Capital of the district of Bakarganj, 
Bengal, India. Climate danip, but very healthful, 
and the coolest in all Bengal. Population, 
16,000. Race, Bengali and Mugh. Language, 
Bengali, Arrakanese, and mixed Hindustani. 
Station of the BMS (1828), with 4 missionaries 
and 3 married missionary women, 15 native 
workers, 28 outstations, 52 Sunday schools, 60 
village schools, Young People's Societies, 1,000 
church members. 

Also of the Baptist Zenana Mission (1871), with 
3 unmarried missionary women, 12 native women 
workers, 3 Sunday schools, 8 village schools and 
1 high school. 

Also station of the Oxford Mission to Calcutta 
(1901), with 4 missionaries and a theological 

Also station of the SPG (1869), with 19 native 
workers, 10 village schools and 234 communi- 
cants. Written also Burrisal. 

BARKLY WEST: A town in Bechuanaland, 
South Africa, near the diamond fields. Mission 
station of the LMS (1842); 1 missionary and wife. 
BARODA: Capital of Baroda, a native State 
in India, 231 miles north of Bombay. Popu- 
lation, 103,790. Formerly the town, which is 
a fairly well built and pleasant place, was a very 
important seat of trade and of various indus- 
tries, and at present, tho its prosperity has 
declined, it carries on considerable commerce 
with the surrounding country. Station of the 
ME, with 3 missionaries and their wives, 2 
unmarried missionary women, 122 native workers, 
men and women, 5 outstations, 68 Sunday schools, 
50 common schools, 1 high school, a Young 
People's Society and 1,550 church members. 
BAROTSE TRIBES: The peoples occupying 

the valley of the Upper Zarnbesi a vast and 
populous plain, 189 miles long by 30 to 35 broad 
subject to periodical inundations and resultant 
fevers. The Barotse Empire was founded bya 
Basuto conqueror. The Barotse succeeded m 
throwing off the foreign yoke, but the kingdom 
was maintained. It has been described^ as 
including 18 large nations subdivided mto 
over 100 tribes. Each tribe speaks its own 
dialect, but Lesuto, the tongue of the exter- 
minated Basuto (Makololo) conquerors is the 
common medium of communication. The re- 
gion occupied by tribes subject to the Barotse 
kingdom covers an area of about 100,000 square 
miles, with a population of perhaps 1,000,000. 
Europeans were long excluded from the country. 
Grain, vegetables, and cattle abound. The 
villages are built on artificial mounds for protec- 
tion against the inundations of the Zambesi. 
The people worship the sun and the new moon, 
and observe feasts at the graves of their ances- 
tors. The missions of the French Protestants 
have been very successful among the Barotse, 
and the paramount chief is a professing Christian 
who has visited France and England. 
BAROTSELAND. See Rhodesia. 
BARRA: A town NW. of Rio de Janeiro in 
Brazil; station of the MES (1894), with a native 
worker, 1 outstation, 1 village school, 1 Sunday 
school and 171 church members. Also written 
Barra Mansa. 

BARRACKPUR: A town and mihtary station 
in Bengal, India, situated on the Hugh, 15 miles 
from Calcutta; station of the Church of England 
Zenana Missionary Society (1871), with (1902) 3 
women missionaries and 22 native women workers, 
11 common schools, 1 training home for converts 
and 43 Zenana pupils. 

Station also of the WMS, with 1 missionary, 
14 native workers, men and women, 5 outstations, 
1 Sunday school, 1 high school, 2 common schools 
and 63 church members. 

BARRANQUILLA : One of the iinportant 
commercial cities of Colombia, S. America, situ- 
ated on a cafion of the Magdalena River, about 
20 miles from the sea. Population, about 40,000. 
It is a station of the PN (1888) , with 2 missionaries 
and their wives, 3 unmarried women mission- 
aries, 2 high schools, 1 common school, and 46 
church members. 

BARRIPORE : A town S. W. of Calcutta, Ben- 
gal, India; station of the SPG (1829), with 11 
native workers, 15 chapel preaching places and 
760 communicants. 

BARROW POINT. See Point Barrow. 
tureship on the Relations of Christianity to Other 
Religions founded at the University of Chicago, in 
1894, by a donation of $20,000 from Mrs. Caroline 
E. Haskell, of Chicago. The lectures, six or more 
in number, are required by the terms of the foun- 
dation to be delivered in Calcutta, and, if deemed 
best, in Madras, Bombay, or other important 
cities of India. 

Large numbers of educated Hindus and Mus- 
lims are now familiar with the English language. 
To these scholarly and thoughtful men the lec- 
tures are to be directed, setting forth, in a friend- 
ly, conciliatory way, the great truths of Christian- 
ity, their harmony with truths found in other 
religions and their claims upon men. 

Mrs. Haskell expressed a wish that the Rev. 



Basel ISvangelical 

John Henry Barrows, D.D., the President of the 
Parliament of Religions, and afterwards President 
of Oberlin College, should be the first lecturer. 

Dr. Barrows inaugurated the lectureship dur- 
ing the winter of 1896-7, when he delivered more 
than one hundred lectures and addresses in Hin- 
dustan. These lectures were published in book 
form, both in India and America, under the title: 
"Christianity, the World Religion." Tlie second 
lecturer on this foundation was Principal Fair- 
bairn of Mansfield College, Oxford, who spent the 
winter of 1898-9 in India and there delivered a 
series of scholarly lectures afterward incorpo- 
rated in his "Philosophy of Religion." In the 
winter of 1902-3, the third series of lectures on 
this foundation were delivered in India by the 
Rev. C. C. Hall, D.D., President of Union 
Theological Seminary, New York. The third 
series commanded the same respectful, not to say 
cordial, attention from Hindus and Muslims as 
the previous lectures. It is the judgment of com- 
petent observers that influence of considerable 
importance and value has been exerted already 
through this lectureship. 

Mrs. Haskell named the lectureship from Dr. 
Barrows, who at the time of its establishment was 
her pastor (First Presbyterian Church, Chicago) . 
It is frequently called the "Haskell Lectureship," 
however, from the giver of the fund which sup- 
ports it. 

BARTHELEMY: One of the Leeward Islands, 
West Indies. Mission station of the Moravians. 
BASARUR: A town in S. Kanara, South India; 
station of the Bisel Missionary Society (1876), 
with 2 missionaries (one of them married), 15 
native workers, 3 outstations, 2 common schools 
and 45 communicants. 

ETY (Evangelische Missionsgesellschaft, Basel) : 
On August 30, 1730, the German Chris- 
tian Society (Der Deutschen Christenthums 
Gesellschaft) was founded at Basel through the 
influence of Dr. Urlsperger, who had recently 
visited England. This society undertook, as a 
kind of union, to collect and impart information 
far and near respecting the kingdom of God. It 
corresponded to the London Missionary Society. 
In 1801 Friedrich Steinkopf, who since 1798 had 
been secretary of the Basel Society, went to Lon- 
don as preacher to the German Savoy Church, 
and, in 1802, became a director of the London Mis- 
sionary Society. In 1804 he took part in found- 
ing the British and Foreign Bible Society. He 
was the connecting link between England and 
Basel, and largely through his influence the Basel 
Mission was founded. 

C. F. Spittler, who had gone to Basel as suc- 
cessor of Friedrich Steinkopf (lay secretary), 
became so interested in foreign missions that he 
proposed to go to Berlin and enter a training mis- 
sion school founded there, in 1800, by Johann 
Janicke. Thereupon the Basel Society attempted 
to induce Janicke to remove his school to their 
city. On his declining the offer, it became more 
and more evident that Basel must begin a work 
of her own. In May, 1815, just as the city was 
about to be bombarded from Hiiningen, the Rev. 
Nicolaus Von Brunn, at a regular missionary 
meeting in his church, at which a young man pre- 
sented himself for missionary service, suggested 
to Spittler that such young men should be edu- 
cated at Basel and then be recommended to the 
English societies who sent out men to the field. 

Steinl<;opf arrived at Basel in September, 1815, 
and induced Spittler to form a special committee 
for this purpose. On the 25th ot the same month 
this body (Rev. N. Von Brunn, President; Rev. 
Mr. Wenk, Secretary; and a merchant, Mr, 
Marian-Kuder, Treasurer) held its first meeting 
as a mission "collegium" in the parsonage of St. 
Martin's Church. Christian Gottlieb Blum- 
hardt, who from 1803 to 1807 had been theolog- 
ical secretary of the German Cliristian Society at 
Basel, was invited to take up the work of the new 
venture. After a little delay, in the spring of 
1816, Blumhardt went to Basel as "inspector" or 
manager of the Evangelical Missionary Society, 
and on August 26 of the same year opened a 
training school for missions. Under the manage- 
ment of Blumhardt, who was a very cautious man, 
the mission school slowly began to gather head- 
way. For the first few years its students, when 
ready for serivce, were handed over to foreign 
missionary societies, especially to the Rotterdam 
and the Church Missionary Societies. But as 
early as 1821 it began to send out missionaries 
under its own direction. In that year Zaremba 
and Dittrich were ordained as the first Basel mis- 
sionaries for Southern Russia. 

From 1816 Blumhardt edited the Evangelical 
Missionary Magazine, in 1828 founded the Heid- 
enhote, the special organ of the Society; wrote a 
history of missions in several volumes, and man- 
aged the Society so frugally that at his death the 
mission house (school) was supported by the 
income of the magazine and the Heidenbote, and 
an available fund was raised to the amount of 
100,000 florins, with a reserve fund of 20,000 
florins. The following missions were started 
during his era: (1) One in South Russia (1821), 
was suspended by an imperial ukase, and dis- 
solved in 1839. Before the work was stopped, 
however, the Bible had been translated into Tur- 
kish-Tatar and the modern Armenian languages; 
Armenia and the regions toward Baghdad and 
Tabriz had been visited, and an evangelical con- 
gregation had been established among the Arme- 
nians at Shamakhi. (2) Eight men were sent to 
Liberia in 1827 and 1828, but four soon died, and 
the remaining four settled in other regions. (3) 
In 1828 the mission on the Gold Coast was found- 
ed, but during the first twelve years as many mis- 
sionaries died without having seen the fruit of 
their labors. (4) In 1834 Hebich, Greiner and 
Lehner were sent to the west coast of India. 

The second "inspector," William Hoffmann 
(1839-50), set the plan of his work more clearly 
before the public, and pressed home the obliga- 
tion that rested on the whole Christian Church. 
He also provided a more efficient instruction in 
the seminary for missionary candidates. In ten 
years the income of the Society almost doubled; 
the number of stations had increased fivefold; 
new life was thrown into the mission on the Gold 
Coast, placing the work in Africa on an assured 
basis. In 1846 mission work was undertalven in 
China, at the suggestion of Giitzlaff. In 1846-50 
attempts were made to establish the work in 
East Bengal and Assam, but later on these fields 
were relinquished to other societies 

Under Joseph Josenlians (1850-79) the work of 
the Society was systematized and organized; the 
MissionshauswskS erected, schools were established 
and the industrial work that became so marked a 
feature of the Society's missions was put in opera- 
tion. During the term of Otto Schott (1879-84) 
female and medical missionaries first went out. 

Basel Evangelical 



Since then Inspector Oehlen, son oi the well- 
known professor, has been a most efficient man- 

^^Constitution and Organization: The Basel Evan- 
gelical Missionary Society is strictly undenoin- 
inational, being affiliated with no State Church, 
and having relations with nearly all the i'rotes- 
tant Churches of Central Europe. While essen- 
tiallv German, its location in Switzerland and its 
general character differentiate it from the German 
Societies. Its affairs are conducted by a com- 
mittee of thirteen gentlemen (six clergymen and 
seven laymen). This committee is self-perpet- 
uating but manifests its sense of obligation to the 
public by the completeness of its reports and the 
care with which it conducts its business. 

The Basel Mission House is far more than a 
mere headquarters for the Society. It contains 
a training school, a book department, library, 
refectory, dormitory, hospital and work-shops. 
The 80-100 students come chiefly from southern 
Germany and Switzerland and represent every 
class in life: agriculturists, artisans, clerks 
mechanics, teachers, surgeons, etc. The general 
theory is that every man of good character and 
sincere Christian purpose can be utilized some- 
where, and it is the business of the Society to 
find out where. The course of training covers 
six years, is thorough, and embraces all the 
different departments of value m mission work, 
including the classics, Bible study, history science 
and the trades, but especially the development 
of character. The graduates from the theological 
seminary are ordained, through the courtesy of 
some church. Reformed, Lutheran, or Free, as 
the case may be, tho the ordination is not 
for European service. In view of the undenom- 
inational character of the Society, there was some 
question as to what ecclesiastical order should 
be adopted for the churches on the mission field. 
Finally the Presbyterian form was adopted and 
a simple liturgy is used. , ^. t^ i 

Another distinctive feature of the Basel 
Society is The Industrial and Commercial Com- 
mission, first organized by Inspector Josenhans 
to meet the situation on the Gold Coast. The 
mission there was absolutely dependent upon 
direct commercial communication with Europe 
for all the necessaries of life. The native Chris- 
tians had no method of earning an independent 
livelihood. The establishment of a depot of 
supplies and the instruction of the natives in 
agriculture and in the various crafts was the 
' inevitable outcome of any attempt at missioriary 
work. Vessels were purchased by the Society 
to navigate the various rivers of the territory 
occupied, and commercial houses sprang up at 
convenient points. In India the commercial 
development has been still more extensive, inclu- 
ding weaving establishments at Mangalore and 
in the region about Cananore, large tile manu- 
factories at Mangalore and Calicut and the 
employment of mechanics and joiners under 
mission auspices. The net income of the com- 
mission in 1900, all of which was handed over to 
the Society, was 203,996 francs ($40,799). This 
department has been a paying investment from 
the beginning. The total income of the Society 
amounted in 1902 to 1,626,116 francs ($325,223). 
Nearly one-half of this came from Southern 
Germany; Switzerland stands next. Contribu- 
tions come from all parts of Europe, from Asia, 
Africa, America, and even Australia. 
Statement of Missions; Africa: The first effort 

in Liberia (1827) failed entirely owing to the 
climate; a second (1828), on the, Guinea coast 
was almost entirely a failure, but m 1831 a band 
succeeded in maintaining themselves m the 
higher ground and established the statmn at 
Akropong. There was considerable difficulty 
with the Danish Governor, but that was over- 
come and the work placed on a firm foundation 
Special attention has been paid to the school 
system, from the simplest elementary schools up 
to the theological seminary. The industrial 
department, too, has been most successful. With 
the German occupation of the Kameruns the 
Basel Society took over the mission work of 
English and American Societies in that colony. 
On the Gold Coast there are (1902) 12 stations, 
177 outstations, 77 missionaries, 270 native 
workers 8,265 communicants, and 5,594 pupils 
in schools; in Kameruns 9 stations, 143 out- 
stations, 55 missionaries, 142 native workers, 
2 874 communicants, and 4,073 pupils in schools. 
' India ■ The Basel fields in India lie in Kanara. 
(Coorg), Malabar, and the South Mar^thi region. 
The first station occupied was Mangalore (1834). 
The work was extended and special attention 
was paid to education and industrial work, espe- 
cially weaving, brick work and joiner work, giving 
employment to multitudes of Christians repud- 
iated by their caste or otherwise suffering from 
want. There are 24 stations, 110 outstations, 
148 missionaries, 653 native workers, 8,488 
communicants and 11,054 pupils m the schools. 
China: The Chinese mission of the Basel Society 
was commenced under advice from Gtitzlaff in 
1846 and with special instructions to make it 
an "inland mission." Attention was directed 
to the Hakka people, extending froin Canton 
to the borders of Kiang-si and Fo-kien. Ihe 
work is divided in two districts, highland and 
lowland and is carried on with the same care 
for education and general industrial training 
that is characteristic of Basel mission work else- 
where. There were (1902) 15 stations, 75 cut- 
stations, 44 missionaries, 151 native workers, 
3,622 communicants and 1,640 pupils in the 

Periodical: Der Evangdische Heidmhote, Basel; monthly, 

Evangelieche Missions Magaztne, illust., monthly, he 

Missionaire, in French, monthly. 

BASIM: A town in the province of Berar, 

India. Population, 13,000. Station of the 

ME with one missionary and his wife, 13 native 

workers men and women, 2 common schools, 

6 Sunday schools, a Young People's Society, 

and 64 church members. 

BASRA: Capital of a province of the same 
name, adjoining the Persian Gulf at the S._ h. 
extremity of Asiatic Turkey. The city is situ- 
ated on the Euphrates below its junction with 
the Tigris, and is quite unhealthful. It is a 
station of the RCA (Arabian Mission) , opened 
in 1891. It now has 4 missionaries, two of them 
married and one of them a physician, 2 out- 
stations and 1 dispensary. Otherwise written 
Busrah and Bussora. 

BASSA. See Geeat Bassa. 
BASSEIN : The southwestern district of Burma, 
extending from the western Yoma range of 
mountains on the west to the mam stream of 
the Irawadi and its principal outlet on the east, 
and from the Bay of Bengal on the south to the 
point on the north where the Yomas approach 
nearest to the great river. It includes four or 



Basel BvanfTPllcal 

five of the larger delta branches of the Irawadi. 
Area, 6,848 square miles. The soil is rich and 
fertile, the subject to floods. The population 
somewhat exceeds 475,000, of which about 
175,000 are Karens (Sgaus and Pwos in about 
equal numbers), over 225,000 Burmans, and 
the remainder Talaings, Telugus, Chinese and 
a few English. The district has been the seat 
of very thriving and successful missions since 
1837. The ABMU has three missions there: a 
Burman mission, including also the Telugus; 
a mission to the Sgau Karens, with about 10,000 
communicants and 50,000 adherent population 
and 85 Christian villages, the largest and most 
advanced of all the Karen missions in Burma; 
and a mission to the Pwo Karens, with about 
1,375 communicants, and 22 Christian villages, 
with an adherent population of perhaps 7,000. 
The Roman Catholics have a flourishing mission 
among the Pwo Karens in Bassein, but with few 
converts from the Sgaus. The SPG has also 
a mission in Bassein, which is included in its 
diocese of Rangoon. Some efforts have been 
made by other denominations to plant missions 
here, but with little success. Education has 
been carried to a greater extent among the 
Karens of Bassein than in other district in Burma. 

Story of the Karen Missicr. in Bassein, Brocket (L. P.) , Phila- 
delphia, 1891; Self-SuppoTt in Bassein, Carpenter (C. H.), 
Boston, 1884. 

BASSEIN : Chief town of the district of Bassein, 
Burma. It is situated on the Bassein River, 
one of the delta branches of the Irawadi, and 
has an important trade in rice. Population, 
30,000; about 20,000 of the people are Buddhists, 
and the remainder are Hindus, Mohammedans 
and Christians. 

It has been a station of the ABMU since 1840. 
It is now operated by 12 missionaries and 300 
native workers, men and women. It has 64 out- 
stations, 157 preaching places, 123 village schools 
and 2 high schools, and there are 12,605 commun- 

BASSETERRE: Capital of the island of St. 
Kitts, W. I. Population, 9,900. Station of 
the Moravians (1777) , with 1 missionary and his 
wife, 32 native workers, men and women, 2 
Sunday schools, 3 common schools, and 570 

BASTA: A village in the Bijnaur district, 
United Provinces, India. Station of the ME, 
with 13 native workers, men and women, 6 Sunday 
schools, 3 village schools, a Young People's 
Society and 475 church members. 

BASUTOLAND: A territory belonging to 
British South Africa, annexed to Cape Colony in 
1871, but placed directly under the authority of 
the crown in 1894; lying between Natal and the 
Orange River Colony, with Cape Colony on the 
south. Its area is estimated at 10,293 square 
miles, with a population estimated in 1901 at 
263,500, of whom 647 were Europeans. The 
country is an elevated plateau, well watered and 
with a fine climate. The Paris EvangeHcal 
Mission Society and the SPG carry on missions in 
this territory, occupying altogether 17 stations. 
The influence of these missions upon the whole 
Basuto people has been beneficent and profound. 
Norris-Newiuan, The Basutos and Their Country, London, 
1882; Widdicombe, Fourteen Years in Basuto Land, Lon- 
don, 1892; Barkley (Mrs.), Among Boers and Basutos, 
London, 1900; Casalis (E.), My Life in Baautoland, 1889. 

BATALA: A town in the Punjab, India, 24 
miles from Amritsar. Population, 26,000, Hin- 

dus, Muslims, Sikhs, etc. Mission station of the 
CMS (1878), with 3 missionaries (2 missionaries' 
wives), 22 native workers, 1 high school, 2 com- 
mon schools and 72 communicants. 

Also station of the CEZMS, with (1902) 4 mis- 
sionary women, one of them being a physician, 7 
native women workers, 1 hospital, 1 dispensary, 

3 common schools and 70 Zenana pupils. 
BATANGA. See Great Batanga. 
BATAVIA: Capital of Java, Dutch East Indies. 

Population (1900) 115,887, of whom about 9,000 
are Europeans. Founded in 1519 by the Dutch, 
it is one of the most magnificent possessions of 
the crown of the Netherlands. In 1722 there 
were about 100,000 Christians in and about the 
city, and in 1728 the Bible was translated into 
the vernacular tongue, the High-Malayan. But 
at present the whole native pouplation of the 
city, with very insignificant exceptions, is 
Mohammedan. In 1842 the English mission- 
aries were expelled, and only the Roman Catho- 
lics were tolerated. Of late, however, a change 
has taken place. The Java Comity, founded in 
Batavia in 1851, but since 1855 directed from 
Amsterdam, has a missionary and his wife there, 
with 3 native workers, 1 common school and 21 
communicants. The Salvation Army has also a 
post here. 

BATHURST: A town of 9,000 inhabitants on 
an island at the mouth of the Gambia River, W. 
Africa. It is the chief town of the Gambia 
(British) Colony. Station of the WMS, with 3 
missionaries, 34 native workers, men and women, 

4 outstations, 4 chapels, 4 common schools and 
730 church members. 

BATHURST : A village in Cape Colony, South 
Africa, 20 miles S. E. of Grahamstown; popula- 
tion 1,000; station of the South African Wes- 
leyan Methodist Missionary Society, with 22 
native workers, 14 outstations, 6 chapels, 3 com- 
mon schools, a Young People's Society and 230 
church members. 

BATHURST: A village south of Freetown, 
Sierra Leone, W. Africa; station of the CMS 
(1822), with 6 native workers, men and women, 
1 chapel, 1 Sunday school, 2 common schools and 
318 communicants. 

BATTA LANGUAGE: The Batta belongs to the 
Malayan family of languages and is spoken by 
more than three million of the inhabitants of 
Sumatra. It is written with its own alphabet. 
The Batta is found in at least three separate dia- 
lects. Of these, the Mandailing, or Southern 
Batta, is used by the more cultured people and is 
the language most used in literature. The Toba, 
or Northern Batta, has been printed in Roman 
letters for missionary purposes. 

BATTALAGUNDU: A town northwest of 
Madura, Madras, India. Language, Tamil, 
Telugu. Station of the ABCFM (1872), with 1 
missionary and his wife, 39 native workers, men 
and women, 16 outstations, 16 preaching places, 
22 Sunday-schools, 19 common schools, 1 high 
school, a YMCA and 362 church members. 

BATTICALOA: A seaport town in the Eastern 
Province of Ceylon; mission station of the SPG 
(1846) , with 17 native workers, men and women, 3 
chapels, 6 common schools and 140 communicants. 

BATTLEFORD : A town in the district of Sas- 
katchewan, Canada; station of the CMS (1876), 
with 2 missionaries, 2 native workers, 2 outsta- 
tions, 3 common schools and 40 communicants. 

Battle Harbour 



BATTLE HARBOUR: A settlement on the 
eastern extremity of the coast of Labrador; sta- 
tion of the Labrador Medical Missionary Society 
(1892), with 5 missionaries, men and women (,3 of 
them medical), an outstation and 2 hospitals. 

BATTLE RIVER: A settlement in the district 
of Alberta, Canada; station of the Methodist 
Church in Canada (1881), with 1 missionary and 
his wife, 2 outstations, 1 high school, 1 Young 
People's Society and 135 church members. 

BATTYCOTTA: A district in the west part of 
the peninsula of Jaffna, Ceylon, coincident with 
one of the parishes anciently formed by the 1 ortu- 
guese Government. There were also churches 
built in these parishes, which afterward fell into 
decay, and when (1817) the ABCFM occupied the 
place as a mission station the remaining buildings 
were put into their hands by the British Govern- 
ment for mission purposes. 

This station now has 1 missionary and hjs wite, 
with 98 native workers, men and women, 10 out- 
stations, 8 preaching places, 37 common schools, 
1 high school and 450 church members, besides 
Jaffna College, independently supported but 
with a missionary at its head. 

BATJ: A town on the island of Viti Levu, Fiji 
Islands; station of the Australasian Wesley an 
Methodist Missionary Society, with 1 missionary, 
476 native workers, 18 outstations, 165 chapels 
a'nd preaching places, 234 Sunday schools, 347 
village schools and 5,146 church members. 
BAURO. See Solomon Islands. 
BANZA MANTEKE. See Bansa Manteke. 
ETY; Neuen Dettelsau. See Germany; Mission- 
ary Societies in. 

BAYAMON: A village in the outskirts of San 
Juan, Porto Rico; station of the Christian 
Woman's Board of Missions (Disciples), with 1 
unmarried woman and an orphanage. 

BAZEIA: A town in the eastern part of Cape 
Colony, S. Africa, situated in a fertile, well- 
watered and thickly populated tract of land west 
of Umtata; station of the Moravians, occupied in 
1862 on the invitation of the British Government 
agent for the Tembu people and the native chief 
of this especial tribe. The station was destroyed 
once by whirlwind and again by the Kafir war of 
1881-82, yet the work here has been encouraging. 
The present establishment consists of 2 mis- 
sionaries and their wives, 13 native workers, men 
and women, 2 Sunday schools, 5 village schools 
and 98 church members. Also written Baziya. 

BEACONSFIELD : A town in the diamond 
fields. Cape Colony, South Africa. Population, 
10,500; mission station of the Berlin Missionary 
Society (1885), with 1 missionary, 1 unmarried 
woman missionary, 8 native workers, 1 outsta- 
tion and 123 communicants. Also a station of 
the South African Wesleyan Methodist Missionary 
Society, with 41 native workers, 23 outstations, 
3 chapels, 3 Sunday schools, 2 village schools, a 
Young People's Society and 502 church members. 
BEAR'S HILL: A settlement in the northern 
part of Assiniboia, Canada; station of the Cana- 
dian Methodist Church Mission (1887), with 1 
missionary and 107 communicants. 

BEAUFORT: A village E. of Savanna La Mar, 
Jamaica, W. I.; station of the Moravian Mission 
(1834), with 13 native workers, men and women, 
1 chapel, 1 village school and 370 communicants. 

BEAVER LANGUAGE: Belongs to the central 
group of the North American family of languages 
and IS spoken by Indians living m Athabasca, 
Canada. It is written with syllabic characters. 

BEAWAR: A town in Rajputana, India, 300 
miles south of Delhi. A pleasant town, well laid 
out, with broad streets planted with trees; the 
houses well built of masonry, with tiled roofs. 
Climate, unusually dry. Population, 21,000, 
Hindus, MusUms, Jains, Christians, Parsees, 

Station of the UFS (1860), with 3 missionaries 
and their wives and 5 unmarried missionary 
women, 2 of them medical, 55 native workers, 
men and women, 10 village schools, 2 high 
schools, 1 dispensary, 1 hospital and 176 church 

BECHUANALAND : A territory of Great Brit- 
ain in Africa, extending east and west through 9 
degrees of longitude, from the Transvaal colony 
and Matabeleland on the east, to German South- 
west Africa on the west, and bounded on the north 
by Rhodesia and on the south by Cape Colony. It 
naturally belongs to the general region called 
British South Africa. The area is about 213,000 
square miles, with an estimated population of 
200,000. Until November, 1895, Bechuanaland 
included the Crown Colony of British Bechuana- 
land, and the Bechuanaland Protectorate. At 
that time the Crown Colony was annexed to Cape 
Colony and the territory was about to be put 
under the administration of the British South 
Africa Company. In consequence of Jameson's 
raid, however, this was not done, and the Pro- 
tectorate is governed by a resident commissioner, 
with headquarters at Mafeking. By these 
changes the boundaries and local sovereignty of 
the native tribes were altered, and fixed as at 

These tribes are the Bamangwato, under chief 
Khama, the Bakhatla, under Lenchwe, the Bak- 
wena, under Sabele, the Bangwaketse, under 
Bathoen, the Bamaliti, under Ikaneng, and some 
smaller tribes. Each chief rules his own people 
under the protection of the King. Licenses for 
the sale of intoxicants are forbidden. There is a 
native infantry-police. The railway from Cape 
Town northward traverses the Protectorate as far 
as Bulawayo, and the telegraph line to Fort Sahs- 
bury, in Mashonaland. Missionary work is car- 
ried on by the LMS, the Hermannsburg Mission- 
ary Society and the Missions of French Switzer- 
land. The number of stations is seven. The 
character of the natives near these stations has 
been greatly modified and they have adopted to 
a considerable extent European costumes and 
European style of dwellings. 

Hepburn, Twenty Years in Khama's Country, London, 1895; 
Mackenzie, ii/e of John Mackenzie, South African States- 
man and Missionary, London, 1902 ■, Lloyd, Three African 
Chiefs, London, 1895; Bechuana of S. Africa, Crisp (W.), 
London, 1896. 

BEERSHEBA: A town east of Rustenburg, 
Transvaal Colony, S. Africa; station of the_ Her- 
mannsburg Missionary Society (1873), with 6 
missionaries, men and women, 4 native workers, 
4 outstations, 5 chapels, 2 village schools, 1 theo- 
logical school, and 1,170 communicants. Also 
written Berseba. 

BEGORO: A town of the Gold Coast, West 
Africa, northwest of Akropong. Population, 
4,000. Mission station of the Basel Missionary 
Society (1876); 3 missionaries, 1 missionary's 
wife, 47 native workers, men and women, 35 out- 



Battle Harbonr 

stations, 13 village schools (1902), 621 com- 

BEHAR: A province of Bengal, British India. 
It lies in the Ganges Valley, being divided into 
two nearly equal parts by that great river, which 
runs through it from west to east. For the most 
part the country is flat; its highest hill is only 
about 1,600 feet above sea-level. Besides the 
Ganges itself, several large tributaries of that 
river flow through the province. The area is 
44,130 square miles and the population is about 
24,000,000. There are small areas near Calcutta 
where the density of population is greater than 
in Behar; but, taken as a whole, this is the most 
densely peopled province in all India. Each 
square mile of its territory contains on an aver- 
age 524 inhabitants; the lowest average being 
found among the hills in the southeastern part, 
where the population, of 287 to a square mile, 
consists chiefly of the aboriginal Santals. The 
highest average, of 869 per square mile, is found 
in the district of Saran, in the western part of the 
province. In this latter district, which is wholly 
agricultural, the density of population in one 
locality reaches the enormous average of 1,240. 
The prevailing religion is Hinduism, with a con- 
siderable number of Mohammedans. Nearly, or 
quite, a fifth of the entire population belong to 
classes that derive their living from the soil, 
chiefly by way of agriculture or the care of herds. 

Few provinces of India possess more historical 
interest than Behar. Here, for nine hundred 
years, from the 4th century before Christ to our 
5th century, flourished an ancient Hindu king- 
dom, known as that of Magadha, the rulers of 
which encouraged the arts and learning, built 
roads and sent fleets and colonists to islands as 
far east as Java. To Palibothra, the ancient cap- 
ital of this kingdom (now identified with Fatna, 
its chief town of modern days), Seleucus Nicator, 
one of the immediate successors of the great 
Alexander, sent his envoy, Megasthenes. At a 

Eeriod still earlier — five or six hundred years 
efore Christ — Gautama Buddha lived as a de- 
vout ascetic in Behar, and it was at the spot now 
known as Buddh Gaya, in the southwestern part 
of the province, that he is said to have sat for five 
years under the sacred Pipul Tree wrapped in 
profound contemplation, until he had attained 
enlightenment, or Buddhahood. A spot so 
sacred in the estimation of millions could not fail 
of identification, andin recent years the intelligent 
care of the Indian Government has conducted 
researches there which have been rewarded by the 
discovery of most interesting relics of the early 
days of Buddhism. Ancient temples, dating back 
to 250 B. c, have been excavated; thrones, jew- 
els, sacred images of Buddha, and other remains 
have been disinterred. 

BEHIR: A town in the Gond region. Central 
Provinces, India; station of the Balaghat Mission 
(1898), with 1 missionary and his wife, 1 unmar- 
ried missionary woman, 2 native workers, 1 vil- 
lage school, 1 industrial school, 1 dispensary, a 
hospital, an orphanage and 10 communicants. 
Also written Baihir. 

BEHRENS, Henry William: Born February 
13, 1827, in Hermannsberg, Germany; died April 
22, 1900, at Bethany, Transvaal, Africa. In 
early youth, through the influence of the village 
pastor, Ludwig Harms, he determined to be a 
foreign missionary. Many obstacles preventing, 
he did not sail for his field of labor in Africa 

until November 10, 1857, when he was sent out 
under the Hermannsburg Society. 

At Ehlenzeni, Natal, Behrens labored six 
years among the Zulu Kafirs. He himself and 
six Kafirs built church, school, and home. No 
baptisms occurred, altho he preached regularly 
to three hundred natives. 

In 1863 he was sent to work among the Bech- 
uanas at Linokana (in wliat is now the Trans- 
vaal). After a year of faithful work, he saw no 
results. He sat weeping one day at his door 
when a negro inquired the cause of his trouble 
and begged him to visit his people in Magalies- 
berg. Mr. Behrens accepted this as a call, went 
to the region, and found a people ready to hear. 
Their hearts had been prepared by one of their 
number who while imprisoned with the Boers 
had heard the Gospel from an English missionary. 
Behrens began work there November 29, 1864. 
He soon founded the Christian village, Bethany, 
where he spent the rest of his life, preaching, 
composing hymns, and teaching. He was 
pastor of a congregation of nearly two hundred 
negroes. He organized a school for the training 
of native teachers and established nine schools 
for children. Besides carrying on the work at 
Bethany, Mr. Behrens supervised the entire 
work of the Society among the Bechuanas, and 
saw the work grow rapidly. Once every two 
years he visited every one of the twenty-nine 
stations and twenty-seven missionaries. This 
he did faithfully for thirty-six years. 

BEIRUT: A city situated on the eastern coast 
of the Mediterranean, capital of the Turkish 
province of Syria (Suriye). It is the commercial 
and literary center of Syria, and in its appearance 
and in the culture of its inhabitants more nearly 
resembles a European city than any other city in 
the land. 

It is situated on a plain at the foot of the Leb- 
anon, and in beauty of scenery rivals Naples, 
the shore here describing a graceful curve of 
several miles' radius, in the bosom of which the 
city lies, built on rising ground. It is adorned 
with many elegant buildings, public and private, 
rising one above another in a gentle slope, with 
a near background of mulberry, olive, and pine 
groves, and a more distant background of the 
terraced and vine-clad sides of Mount Lebanon, 
whose peaks, nearly 10,000 feet high, are snow 
crowned for several months of the year. 

The climate is tropical. The rainy season is 
confined principally to the three winter months, 
when the thermometer rarely sinks below 50° 
Fahrenheit. A long summer reigns, with unbroken 
heat day and night, while the thermometer 
ranges from 80° to 90°, and occasionally rises 
to 100°. 

The population numbers about 100,000, and 
is composed of Mohammedans, Druses, Chris- 
tians of various sects, and Jews. 

An English company has brought water to it 
from the mountain in an aqueduct six or eight 
miles long, and has also lighted its streets with 

There are carriage roads in the city and its 
suburbs, extending to the near points in the 
Lebanon, and one to Damascus (built by a 
French company). A railroad also connects 
Beirut and Damascus. 

Mission work, vigorously conducted since 
1823, first by the ABCFM, and since 1870 by the 
PN, has borne fruit not only in direct visible 
results of educational institutions established. 




youth educated and sent forth as teachers, phy- 
sicians and preachers, books printed, a Protes- 
tant community gathered, congregations assem- 
bled, and converts enrolled, but indirectly by 
the upUfting of the whole community to a higher 
plane of social, intellectual, and moral life. 

In self-defense and in rivalry the other relig- 
ious sects have opened schools and colleges, 
printing-presses and hospitals. The Moham- 
medans have even so far nm counter to their 
old tradition and practises as to open schools 
for girls, lest their Fatimas and Zobeides should 
learn in Christian schools too many verses of the 
Bible and too many Gospel hymns; and the 
Greek Church has been compelled to open Sunday 
schools, in imitation of the Protestants. 

The PN has at Beirut (opened by the ABCFM 
in 1823) a station of which the working force 
consists of 4 missionaries and their wives, with 7 
unmarried women and 13 native workers, men 
and women. There are 3 preaching places, 3 
outstations, 1 high grade boarding school for 
girls, 1 theological school, 5 Sunday schools, 1 
printing house which sends forth its issues wher- 
ever the Arabic language is spoken in three conti- 
nents. H publishes about 25,000,000 of pages 
annually, about half of these being pages of 
Scripture. In "the Press" are steam-presses, 
with all the apparatus for type-casting, electro- 
typing, lithographing, and binding. From its 
doors go forth yearly about 60,000 bound vol- 
umes of scientific and religious books. 

The Syrian Protestant College is auxiliary to 
the mission, and in closest sympathy with it. 
It occupies a splendid position on high ground 
overlooking the sea. It embraces preparatory, 
collegiate, medical and commercial departments, 
and is more fully described in a separate article. 

There is also a station of the Kaiserswerth 
Deaconesses at Beirut, established in 1860. It 
has 26 deaconesses, who conduct a fine hospital, 
served by the Medical Department of the Syrian 
Protestant College. It also carries on a high 
school and 2 village schools. 

Miss Taylor's orphanage, opened in 1868, is 
carried on by 2 unmarried women and 6 native 
workers, men and women. It has a dispensary. 

The Church of Scotland has a mission to the 
Jews, with a missionary and his wife and 2 com- 
mon schools. 

The Jerusalem and the East Mission Fund also 
has a station here, but no statistics are given. 

The British Syrian schools have a station at 
Beirut, with 5 women missionaries and 49 native 
workers, 19 outstations, 1 high school, 1 school 
for the blind, 1 dispensary and 18 common 

The BFBS has a Bible depot here, with 1 agent 
and 6 native workers. 

BEIT MERI : A village in the Lebanon district 
of Syria; station of the Friends' Foreign Mission 
Association (1898), with 1 woman missionary, 
2 native workers, 1 chapel, 1 Sunday school and 
2 village schools. 

BELGAUM : A city in the district of Belgaum, 
Bombay, India, 80 miles northeast of Goa. Pop- 
ulation (including suburbs), 32,000, Hindus, 
Muslims, Jains, Christians, Parsees, etc.; station 
of the LMS (1820), with 3 missionaries and their 
wives, 14 native workers, men and women; 6 out- 
stations, 6 Sunday schools 8 village schools and 
61 church members. 

BELIZE: A city of British Honduras, Central 

America, a place of considerable importance, 
containing several churches, a hospital, etc. 
Population, 9,113, including many negroes; 
station of the WMS (1825), with 3 missionaries, 
27 native workers, men and women; 6 chapels, 
7 Sunday schools, 7 village schools, 1 high school 
and 700 church members. Also station of the 
Jamaica Baptist Missionary Society (1887), 
with 1 missionary, 6 outstations, 6 chapels, 5 
Sunday schools and 310 church members. 

BELLA BELLA: A settlement on an island in 
Milbank Sound, British Columbia; station of the 
Canadian Methodist Missionary Society (1880), 
with 1 missionary physician and his wife, a chapel, 
a Sunday school, a dispensary, a hospital, and 
90 church members. 

BELLA COOLA : A settlement on Burke Chan- 
nel, on the coast of British Columbia; station of 
the Canadian Methodist Missionary Society, 
(1881), with 1 missionary physician and his wife, 
a Sunday school, a dispensary and 20 church 

BELLARY : Chief city of the district of the same 
name, Madras, India. Climate, hot; very dry. 
Population, 59,467, Hindus, Muslims, Christians. 
Language, Canarese, Telugu, Hindustani. Social 
condition, rather poor. Station of the LMS 
(1810), with 7 missionaries and 49 native work- 
ers, men and women, 10 outstations, 10 Sunday 
schools, 11 village schools, 2 high schools, 1 col- 
lege, 1 orphanage and 175 church members. 
Also station of the SPG (1880), with 1 native 
worker, 1 village school and 162 communicants. 

BELLESA: A village near Massaua, Eritrea, N. 
Africa; station of the Swedish National Evangeli- 
cal Missionary Society (1890), with 3 mission- 
aries and their wives, 3 missionary women (one a 
physician), 7 native workers, 6 village schools, a 
dispensary, an orphanage and 71 communicants. 

BELOMBO. See Benito. 

BELOOCHISTAN. See Baluchistan. 

BENARES: Capital of the Benares Division, 
United Provinces, India, situated on the north- 
ern bank of the Ganges River, at the junction of 
the Ganges and Jumna. Population, 209,331, 
of whom about 155,000 are Hindus and 50,000 
Mohammedans. In point of population Benares 
ranks sixth in India. It manufactures silks and 
shawls, cloth embroidered with gold and silver, 
jewelry, brass work, and lacquered toys — the last 
two being exported to England in considerable 

That which gives to Benares its interest and 
importance, however, is the fact that it is to-day, 
and has been for more than twenty-five centuries, 
the religious capital of India, and the most sacred 
of all the sacred places of Hinduism. Its origin 
dates back to the remotest period of Aryan occu- 
pation of India. Its early name was Varanasi, 
whence the modern Vanarasi, or Benares. 
Another name by which it is often called by the 
people is Kasi. It had been for many years — 
probably for some centuries — renowned by Hin- 
dus for its sanctity, when, in the 6th century, Gau- 
tama, then just starting out on his mission of con- 
verting India to his new cult of Buddhism, fixed 
his residence at Sarnath, the site of the ancient 
Benares, only four miles from the modern citv. 
It remained the headquarters of Buddhism until, 
after a period of 800 years, the forces of Brahman- 
ism rose against their younger rival, over- 
whelmed the strongholds of Buddhism, and after 




a long struggle expelled it root and branch from 
the land. Benares then resumed its preemi- 
nence of sanctity in the minds of devout Hindus, 
■which it has never since let slip. During the 
Mohammedan period, under the Mohammedan 
Empire (1200-1800) many of the old Hindu build- 
ings were appropriated to Mohammedan uses, 
while many were destroyed, and the development 
of Hinduism and its architectural expression 
■seem to have been kept in strict subjection; yet 
the city is said to contain to-day, besides innu- 
merable smaller shrines, 1,454 Hindu temples, 
most of which are insignificent architecturally, 
and 272 Mohammedan mosques. The largest 
of these is the Mosque of Aurangzib, built by the 
Mogul emperor of that name from the ruins of a 
Hindu temple. It stands on the high bank of 
the Ganges, with minarets towering up 147 feet. 
The cliff which forms the river front, and on 
which the city now stands, is some 100 feet above 
the water level. Flights of stairs at convenient 
points lead down to the water's edge. These are 
known as "ghats," or descending places, and up 
and down are continually passing Hindu devo- 
tees and pilgrims, with their attendant priests, 
going to or returning from the sacred waters of 
the Ganges, which are supposed to be capable of 
washing away sin. The view of the city from 
the water is exceedingly imposing, but the streets 
are narrow and mean, dirty and crowded. 
Benares is thronged by pilgrims from all parts of 
India. To bathe in the Ganges here is the hope of 
every devout Hindu; and to die in its sacred 
embrace, or, failing that, to have one's bones 
after death transported thither and flung into the 
stream, is supposed to ensure the soul a speedy 
entrance into Paradise. Bottles and jars are 
filled by the pilgrims and carried by them to 
their homes, in order that their friends who are 
unable to make the journey in person may be 
anointed with a few drops of the holy water. 
Many wealthy Hindus, princes and others, swell 
the ranks of the pilgrims, and some even keep up 
residences in the sacred city. It is from this pil- 
grim trade that the prosperity of the city chiefly 
arises, as well as from the fees exacted by the 
Brahmans for tlie varied religious ceremonies. 

At Benares is situated Queen's College, with a 
roll of many hundred students; also a normal 
school. These are government institutions. An 
observatory, where Hindu astronomers have pur- 
sued the study of astronomy, and which was 
erected in 1693, overlooks one of the ghats. 
There is a hospital, a town hall, a library and 
other literary institutions. 

The central position of Benares in the estima- 
tion of Hinduism, gives it peculiar importance to 
the Christian missionary. Blows struck here 
are aimed at the very heart and center of the 
Hindu faith. "Humanly speaking," says the 
Rev. M. A. Sherring — himself for many years a 
missionary at Benares — "were the city to aban- 
don its idolatrous usages and to embrace the 
Gospel of Christ, the effect of such a step upon 
the Hindu community would be as great as was 
produced on the Roman Empire when Rome 
adopted the Christian faith. The special sanc- 
tity and influence of Benares constitute a gigan- 
tic obstacle to all religious changes within it." 
The effect of education and of the dissemination 
of Christian ideas has been to modify profoundly 
the life of the better classes of native society in 
the city, altho ancient rites and usages are scru- 
pulously maintained. 

Missionary effort was commenced in Benares 
by the BMS in 1816. The city is now a station 
of the LMS (1820), with 8 missionaries and 28 
native workers, men and women, with a high 
school and 12 common schools and 34 church 

It is a station also of the CMS (1832), with 11 
missionaries and 22 native workers, men and 
women. It has 3 outstations, 2 high schools, an 
orphanage and 6 village schools and 175 com- 

The WMS has here 2 missionaries and 16 active 
workers, men and women, with 6 village schools 
and 30 church members. 

The Baptist Zenana Mission has 3 women mis- 
sionaries and 3 native women workers, with 119 
Zenana pupils. 

The Zenana Bible and Medical Mission has 15 
women missionaries and 34 native women work- 
ers, with 1 hospital, 1 dispensary, 1 high school, 6 
village schools and 225 Zenana pupils. 

BENGA LANGUAGE: Belongs to the Bantu 
family of African languages and is spoken in the 
region of the Gaboon River, Frencli Congo, W, 
Africa. It is written with Roman letters. 

BENGAL: One of the Lieutenant-Governor- 
ships of British India, lying north of Madras and 
the Bay of Bengal and east of the Central Prov- 
inces and the United Provinces. It comprises 
(1) the territory often spoken of as Bengal Proper, 
through which the Ganges and Brahmaputra 
rivers describe the lower portion of their courses, 
including the deltas of those great streams; (2) 
the province of Orissa, which stretches along the 
coast of the gulf south of the delta; (3) the prov- 
ince of Behar, to the northwest of Bengal Proper, 
and (4) the district of Chota-Nagpur, south of 
Behar and west of Orissa. Its total area is 
151, .543 square miles and its population numbers 
(1901) 74,744,866. In no other part of British 
India is the average density of population so 
great, the average for the whole of Bengal being 
470 per square mile, while in some parts of Behar 
the average is over 800 per square mile. 

The population of Bengal exhibits great diver- 
sity of race, religion, language and civilization. 
About one-third of the whole population are 
Mohammedans, nearly two-thirds Hindus and a 
residue of about 3,000,000 is composed of the 
adherents of other religions, chiefly those pro- 
fessed by the half-savage aboriginal hill tribes. 
The Christian population of Bengal is (1901) 
278,366, having increased 44 per cent, during the 
decade 1891-1901. The increase of population 
of Bengal during the same period was but little 
more than 4 per cent. 

The prevailing language is the Bengali. In 
Behar and Chota Nagpur the Hindi is chiefly 
used, and in Orissa the Uriye is the language of 
Hindus and Christians. The aboriginal tribes 
called Kols, Santals and Gonds found in Chota 
Nogpur and other districts in the northwest part 
of Bengal are described in separate articles, to 
which the reader is referred. 

The Mohammedans of Bengal are mostly 
descendants of converts made from the lower 
castes of Hindus centuries ago, but they still 
make many Converts every year from Hinduism. 
Behar was once a center of Buddhism. 

The missionary history of Bengal, as well as its 
political history, is one of the utmost interest. 
While this province was not the seat of the earli- 
est Protestant missionary activity in India — an 




honor which belongs to Madras — it is ever asso- 
ciated in the minds of Christian people with the 
names of Carey, Marshman and Ward, who made 
Serampur the starting-point of widely diffused 
evangelistic influences; with that of the eccentric 
Thomas, who was the pioneer of the work after- 
ward more effectively prosecuted by the Seram- 
pur band, and in more recent times with that of 
Duff, whose educational work at Calcutta and 
whose immense energy and missionary zeal were 
the means of lifting the work of Christian instruc- 
tion to the prominence which it deserves as a 
factor of missionary success. At the present 
time Bengal is well occupied by the agents of 
many Protestant missionary societies. The 
English Baptists, still preserving the traditions 
and continuing the work of Thomas, Carey and 
their early associates, the SPG, the CMS, the 
CSFM, the UFS, the LMS, the WHS, the ME, 
the ABMU and many other societies and inde- 
pendent agencies, are conducting missionary 
operations in Bengal. The missionary societies 
cooperate with the government and with the 
people in their efforts to extend education, hav- 
ing many schools and colleges in connection with 
their work at nearly all mission stations. In the 
year just mentioned there were within the prov- 
ince 51 vernacular newspapers, 13 being sheets of 
some importance. Several papers, edited wholly 
in English, are also issued by natives, besides 
those conducted by European writers. 

Bengal is sometimes called "Lower Bengal," 
since this term was applied to it when it formed 
a part of the Bengal Presidency. 

BENGALI LANGUAGE : The Bengali belongs to 
the Indio branch of the Aryan family of lan- 
guages. It is said to approach more nearly to the 
Sanskrit than any other of the modern languages 
of India. It is spoken by about 40,000,000 
inhabitants of Bengal and Central British India. 
Among its various dialects the Musulmani Ben- 
gali is used by some 20,000,000 Mohammedans in 
lower and eastern Bengal and has been much 
changed by the introduction of Arabic and Per- 
sian words. The Sanskrit letters, with slight 
modification, are used forwriting all or nearly all 
of the dialects of Bengali. 

BENGAL PRESIDENCY: One of the former 
administrative divisions of British India. It 
comprised the northwest Provinces, Oudh, Assam, 
etc., besides the present lieutenant-governorship 
of Bengal. The name is still used in common 
language and in army circles, but it is no longer 
the name of an administrative division. See 

BENGHAZI: A town of Tripoli, North Africa, 
on the eastern shore of the Gulf of Sidra. It 
stands on the verge of a large plain, sandy and 
barren for nearly a mile from the shore,but beyond 
that having a fertile but rocky soil to the foot 
of the Cyrenaic Mountains. Population, 9,000, 
many of whom are Jews and negro slaves. Chief 
occupations of the people are agriculture and 
cattle-raising. No mission work at present. 

BENGUELA: A district of Angola, W. Africa, 
and a town in that district from which a railroad 
is to be constructed to the E. frontier of the 
colony, it being the seaport for trade with Bih6 
and the region in which missionary stations are 

BENITO: A town on an island in the San 
Benito River, in the Spanish Colony of Cape San 
Juan, W. Africa; station of the PN (1864), with 

1 missionary, 3 missionary women, 11 native 
workers, men and women, 10 outstations, 9 
Sunday schools, 3 village schools, 2 high schools 
and 490 church members. Also mentioned as 

BENNETT, CEPHAS: Born at Homer, N. Y., 
March 20, 1804. Dr. BoUes, Secretary of the 
ABMU, advised him to offer himself to the Society 
to go out as its missionary printer. He was 
appointed in 1828 and sailed May 22, 1829, reach- 
ing Calcutta October 6, and Maulmain, January 
14, 1830, with his printing presses. He com- 
menced at once the printing of tracts, for which 
the demand in the early history of the mission 
was very great. In 1832 he began to print the 
Burmese Scriptures, and as superintendent of 
the mission press in Burma for more than half 
a century he was permitted to print the Bible 
in three languages — the Burmese, translated by 
Dr. Judson; the Sgau Karen, translated by Dr. 
Mason, and the Pwo Karen, by Rev. D. L. 
Brayton, and also the New Testament in the 
Shan language. From the press under his care 
were sent forth more than 200,000,000 of Scrip- 
tures, tracts, and religious and educational 
books in all the dialects of Burma. He was not 
only a printer, but a preacher of the Gospel, 
having been ordained to the ministry by his 
brethren of the mission, and in the intervals of 
his work as a printer he labored as an evangelist. 
The year 1834 he spent in Rangoon, then under 
Burman rule, preaching and distributing tracts. 
When in Tavoy, whither he went in 1837 to 
print the Karen Bible, and where he remained 
till his return in 1857, he spent much of the 
cold season in the jungles, among the heathen 
and the native Christians. In these tours he 
visited all the Tavoy and Mergui districts. His 
deep interest in the educational work of missions 
led him, in the early part of his residence in Maul- 
main, to take charge of the government school 
for two and a half years. To him chiefly is due 
the founding of the Burma Bible and Tract 
Society, and through his influence its operations 
were enlarged by the recent vernacular school- 
book departments. He was also much engaged 
in the English church in Rangoon. Mr. Bennett 
was taken seriously ill in July, 1885, but rallied. 
Early in November he had a relapse, and on the 
16th he passed away, in the eighty-second year 
of his age, after fifth-six years of mission service. 

BENSONVALE: A town in the Orange River 
Colony, N. E. of Aliwal North; station of the 
South African Wesleyan Missionary Society, 
with 1 missionary, 83 native workers, 33 out- 
stations, 10 village schools, 1 high school, a 
Young People's Society, and 1,110 church 

BERAR: A commissionership of Central India, 
consisting chiefly of a fertile valley lying east and 
west between the Satpura range on the north 
and the Ajanta range on the south. Its length 
from east to west is 150 miles, and its breadth, 
about 140. It touches the central provinces on 
the north and east, Bombay Presidency on the 
west, and the Nizam's dominions on the south. 
Area, 17,700 square miles. The population 
numbers 2,897,491 and is mostly composed of 
Hindus. Mohammedans, Parsees and Christians 
are also found in Berar in small numbers. Some 
aboriginal tribes, as the Bhils and Gonds, are also 
found in this region. 

The language of the Hindus of Berar is Marathi. 




Berar has been entered by the UFS, and the 
Kurku and Central India Hill Mission. The 
Christian and Missionary Alliance also has, there 
is some reason to suppose, undertaken evangel- 
istic work in this province. But Berar has not 
thus far been the scene'of missionary operations to 
the extent which the density of its population and 
the opportunities which it affords for persistent 
and successful work would seem to demand. 



BERBER RACE: The Berbers are sometimes 
spoken of as descended from tlie Libyans, or at 
least as closely related to them. Arab writers 
represent them as having come from Canaan 
previous to the days of Josliua. From their 
language, customs, and physical type they are 
adjudged by some as affiliated with the Semites; 
though others prefer to group them as being 
originally Hamitic. Where they have come in 
contact with other races or tongues, they have 
been more or less affected by them; where they 
have been left in comparative seclusion, as in 
the oases of the desert, they have remained, in 
both race and speech, comparatively pure. 

The present home of the Berber race has its 
center in the Barbary States, especially around 
the Atlas Mountains. Indeed, the Barbary 
States derive their name from the appellation 
used in Europe to designate this race. Accord- 
ing to Dr. Cust, "The Berber or Amazirg is still 
at the present day in various shades and degrees 
of intermixture, ethnological, linguistic, and 
religious, with Arab and negro, ' the staple and 
principal stock of the whole population of North 
Africa from the Mediterranean to the extreme 
southern limit of the Sahara." The race may 
be divided into eight or ten tribes or groups, 
chiefly according to the shades of difference in 
the language or dialects they use; tho the 
parent of all these dialects, the old Libyan, as 
known to the Romans among the Numidians and 
their cognates, no longer exists. The old Guanch 
Berber, or Libyan as spoken by the original inhab- 
itants of the Canary Islands, is also extinct. 
The Kabyles of Algeria are Berbers. They 
comprise a confederation of tribes and speak 
a variety of dialects, are given to agricultural 
pursuits, and dwell in villages. Those who 
dwell among the mountains have large flocks of 
sheep and goats, and because of their seclusion 
from Arab admixture have the purest dialect. 
They have, under the French, a sort of repub- 
lican government. They are a fine race, hospit- 
able and kind. The Mzab Kabyles occupy the 
extreme south of Algeria, but, having great com- 
mercial enterprise, are found everywhere. They 
are Mohammedan dissenters. The Shamba 
Kabyles, a predatory tribe, dwell on the confines 
of the Sahara. The Tuwarik, or Tuaregs, another 
group of Berbers, are nomadic in their habits, 
and extend from Algeria to Bornu and Timbuctu. 
Twenty years before the Christian era a governor 
of the Roman province of Africa led an army 
against this then, as now, unconquered tribe. 

The aborigines of Morocco have been divided 
into the Arab-Berbers and the Shilus, or Shel- 
loohs. The former inhabit the northern parts 
of the great Atlas range, live in a cheap kind of 
hut covered with mats, tho in the plains they 
build of wood and clay, and have villages. They 
live chiefly upon their cattle and sheep, and 
make use of mules and donkeys. Their com- 

Clexion is light, the hair of many is fair, the 
card scant. They are well-built, strong, active 
bold, and are often at war with their neighbors. 
These and the Shilus number about 4,000,000, 
forming half the population of the Moroccan Em- 
pire. Their dress is scant, consisting chiefly of a 
jacket and trousers, and sometimes a blanket. 
The other Morocco tribe, the Shilus, speaking the 
Shilha dialect, occupy the southern part of Mo- 
rocco, together with the regions west of the Atlas 
range. These are of a smaller make and darker 
complexion. They are more civilized and pow- 
erful than the northern Berbers. They work at 
trades and cultivate the land, are patriarchal, 
hospitable, live in houses made of stone and 
mortar, and have villages and towns surrounded 
by walls and towers. They claim to be the abo- 
rigines of the country, and call themselves Ama- 

There is a mixed tribe, Arab-Berber, called 
the Senegal, living on the north banks of the 
Senegal River. They are partly nomadic, partly 
settled, and make a living by collecting gum for 
the merchants at marts along the river. 

The inhabitants of Ghadamis of Tripoli, at 
home and by themselves, speak the Ghadamsi, 
a dialect of the Berber; but with the Arabs, the 
Arabic; with the Tuwarilv, the Tamaskeh, and 
with their negro slaves, the Hausa. 

Another Berber tribe dwells at Siwah, the 
oasis of Jupiter Ammon, on the confines of 
Egypt. That their own home dialect should be 
found to have a clear affinity with the Berber 
helps to show how broad is the territory the 
Berbers have occupied; also how remarkable has 
been the resistance offered by the Berber lan- 
guage to the pressure of other tongues for more 
than three thousand years. 

As to the origm and import of the name of 
this ancient North African race there is some 
diversity of opinion. It is said to have first been 
used by the Arab writers of the 2d century 
to designate the Libyans of Herodotus. Some 
suppose it to have been derived from Verves, as 
found in the ancient Roman geography of Mau- 
ritania. By others, with more reason, it is sup- 
posed to be but a modification of Barbari, a term 
denoting any one who was, to the Aryan or 
Greek, a foreigner, speaking a language to them 
unknown. This accords with the fact that the 
word Berber is not known to the Berbers as a 
national appellation. They call themselves Ama- 
zirg, the Free. 

As to the religion of the Berbers, their pagan 
faith is nearly extinct. Some of them seem to 
have accepted the Jewish or the Christian relig- 
ion in the centuries gone by, at least for a time. 
But at present they generally profess the Moham- 
medan faith, tho many of them know but 
little of it. And yet they are not lacking in bigotry 
and fanaticism, as the bitter opposition and per- 
secution to which converts to the Christian faith 
are subject afford sad proof. 

Missionary effort has not neglected these 
people. The North African Mission, the Swe- 
dish Missionary Society, the Gospel Missionary 
Union and others have used every means to come 
into contact with the Berber tribes. 

BEREA: A settlement in Basutoland, S. 
Africa, E. of Maseru; station of the Paris Evan- 
gelical Mission Society (1843), with 1 missionary 
and his wife, 17 native workers, 6 outstations, 7 
village schools, and 425 communicants. French 
form of name, B6r^e. 




BEREA: A settlement southwest of Gnaden- 
dal, Cape Colony, S, Africa. A station of the 
Moravians, occupied in 1865, when the over- 
crowding of Gnadendai made it necessary for 
some of the people to form a colony. Statistics 
given in combination with Gnadendai. 

BEREN'S RIVER : A settlement on the E. 
shore of Lake Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; 
station of the Canadian Methodist Church (1871), 
with 1 missionary and his wife, 2 outstations, a 
chapel, a Young People's Society and 100 church 

BERHAMPUR: A town in the Ganjam dis- 
trict, Madras, India; the principal town in the 
district of the same name. Climate, unhealthful. 
Population, 25,000, Hindus, Mohammedans, 
Christians. Station of the BMS (1825), with 3 
missionaries and their wives, 10 native workers 
of both sexes, 4 Sunday schools, 3 village schools, 
and 220 church members. Also station of the 
Baptist Zenana Mission Society, with 3 women 
missionaries, 5 native women workers, and a 
dispensary. Also written Berhampore. 

BERHAMPUR: A city and military station 
S. of Murshidabad, Bengal, India. Population 
(1891) 23,515; climate, unhealthful but improved 
by military sanitation. Station of the LMS 
(1824), with 2 missionaries and their wives, 4 
women missionaries, 25 native workers, men and 
women, 9 Sunday schools, 6 village schools, 2 
high schools, and 35 church members. Also 
written Burhampore. 

BERLIN: A town east of King Williams Town, 
Cape Colony, S. Africa; station of the South 
African Baptist Missionary Society (1889), with 
2 women missionaries, 3 native workers, 2 out- 
stations, chapel, Sunday school, and 24 church 
members. Native name Tshabo. 

many, Missions in. 

many, Missionary Societies in. 

for China. See Germany, Missionary So- 
cieties IN. 

BERSABA: A settlement in Surinam, South 
America, S. of Paramaribo. It is in the center 
of a district which has always been the darkest 
corner in Surinam, the stronghold of idolatry 
and sorcery. Idol temples and places of sacri- 
fice are very numerous. The former are not 
imposing edifices, such as are found in India, but 
small structures only a degree above common 
pigsties, and located in out-of-the way corners 
behind the houses of the village. They are not 
used for worship, but only as repositories for the 
idols and their belongings, which are needful for 
heathen dances and the performances of the 
sorcerers. Station of the Moravian Missions 
{1858), with a missionary and his wife, 35 native 
workers, 3 chapels, 2 Sunday schools, 1 village 
school, and 190 church members. 

BERSEBA. See Beersheba, Transvaal. 

BERSHEBA: A station of the Rhenish Mission 
in Great Namaqualand, German S. W. Africa. 
Here the missionary Kronlein translated the 
New Testament into Nama. It has 1 missionary, 
1 native worker, 1 village school, and 224 com- 

BERU: One of the Gilbert Is. which has long 
been occupied by Samoan pastors under the | 

LMS and was made a missionary station by that 
Society in 1901. There is now (1903) a training 
institution for evangelistics, and a woman's 
training institution for Christian workers. The 
church members number 450. 

BETAFO: A town in Imerina, Madagascar. 
Mission station of the Norwegian Missionary 

BETERVERWACHTUNG: A settlement near 
Graham's Hall, in British Guiana, South America. 
Station of the SPG, with a missionary, 2 native 
workers, and 24 communicants. Also station 
of the Canadian Presbyterian Mission (1885), 
with 2 missionaries and their wives, 7 native 
workers, men and women, 4 Sunday schools, 3 
village schools, and 110 church members. Also 
called Better Hope. 

BETGERI. See Betigeei. 

BETHABARA: One of the most important of 
the Moravian mission stations in Jamaica, West 
Indies (1840) and the center of an extensive field 
of effort. It is situated in the southern part of 
the island, on the uneven surface of the lofty 
range of table-land known as the Manchester 
Mountains. It has a missionary and his wife, 
15 native workers, men and women, 2 Sunday 
schools, 2 village schools, a Young People's 
Society, and 345 communicants. 

BETHANIE: 1. A town and railway station 
S. of Bloemfontein, Orange River Colony, S. 
Africa; station of the Berlin Missionary Society 
(1834), with 3 missionaries, 17 native workers, 

1 outstation, and 930 communicants. 

2. A settlement W. of Pretoria, Transvaal 
Colony, S. Africa; stat'.on of the Hermannsburg 
Missionary Society (1864), with 1 missionary and 
his wife, 10 native workers, men and women, 3 out 
stations, 7 village schools, and 2,225 commu- 

BETHANIEN: 1. A settlement in German S. 
W. Africa; station of the Rhenish Missionary 
Society, with 1 missionary and his wife, 1 village 
school and 500 communicants. 

2. A village in South Arcot, Madras, India; 
station of the Danish Missionary Society (1861), 
with a missionary and his wife, 3 native workers, 

2 outstations, 1 village school and 45 commu- 

BETHANY : 1. (India) A village in the Santal 
Parganas, Bengal; station of the Bethel Santhal 
Mission (1890), with 1 missionary and his wife, 

3 native workers, 1 chapel, 1 Sunday school, 1 
village school, 1 high school, a dispensary, a hos- 
pital, an orphanage and 600 communicants. 

2. (West Indies) A village in the Manchester 
Highlands of Jamaica; station of the Moravian 
Mission (1835), with 1 missionary and his wife, 
15 native workers, men and women, 2 chapels, 
2 Sunday schools, 2 village schools, and 370 com- 

BETHEL (Africa): 1. A settlement N. of 
Stutterheim, Cape Colony, S. Africa; station of 
the Berlin Missionary Society (1837), with 2 
missionaries, 7 native workers, and 140 commu- 

2. A settlement in the Usambara region, Ger- 
man East Africa; station of the German East 
Africa Mission (1893), with 2 missionaries, 1 
missionary's wife, 2 chapels, 1 village school and 
20 communicants. Called also New Bethel. 

3. A village S. of Bonaberi on the coast of 
Kamerun, W. Africa; station of the Basel Mis- 




sionary Society (1886), with 13 missionaries, 
men and women, 25 native workers, 22 outstations , 
25 village schools, and 500 communicants. 

4. A settlement in the Lichtenberg district of 
the Transvaal Colony, S. Africa, about 50 miles 
iS. E. of Maf eking; station of the Hermannsburg 
Missionary Society (1872), with a missionary and 
his wife, 2 native workers, 4 outstations, 1 chapel, 
1 village school and 1,250 communicants. 

5. A settlement in Zululand (Natal) S. Africa, 
about 40 miles S. E. of Vryheid; station of the 
Hermannsburg Mission (1886), with 1 missionary, 

4 native workers, 4 chapels, 4 village schools and 
■230 communicants. Also station of tlie Swe- 
dish Holiness Union (1894), with 1 missionary and 
his wife, 3 outstations, 1 village school, 1 training 
ischool for women workers, and 90 communicants. 

BETHEL (Alaska) : A station of the Moravian 
Mission in S. W. Alaska, situated on the River 
Kuskokwim (1885), with 2 missionaries and 
their wives (one a physician), 7 native workers, 
1 chapel, 1 Sunday school, and 115 communicants. 

BETHEL (India): A village in the Santal 
Parganas, Bengal, India; station of the Bethel 
Santhal Mission (1875), with 1 missionary phys- 
ician and his wife, 8 native workers, 5 village 
schools, 2 high schools, 2 orphanages, 1 dispen- 
.sary, 1 hospital, and 800 church members. 

BETHEL (West Indies) : A town in the N. W. 
of the island of St. Kitts, W. I.; station of the 
Moravian Missions (1832), with 15 native workers 
1 chapel, 1 Sunday school, 1 village school and 
130 communicants. 

BETHEL TOWN: A village 20 miles S. of 
Montego Bay, Jamaica, W. I.; station of the 
Christian (Disciples) Woman's Board of Missions, 
with 1 missionary, 2 chapels, 2 Sunday schools, 

1 village school, 2 Young People's Societies, and 
120 church members. 

gelistic work among the Santals near Jamtara, 
Bengal, India, was begun in 1875 by Pastor A. 
Haegert, at his own expense. A mission house 
was built for a central station and the village 
which grew up about it was called Bethel. Schools 
were opened in neighboring sections of the San- 
tal Parganas. Later Pastor Haegert added a 
hospital and training school to the equipment of 
the Mission. 

There were (1900) 4 stations and 2 outstations, 

5 missionaries and 20 native helpers, 1 ,500 com- 
municants, 1 high school, with 25 students, 7 
other schools with 150 pupils, 1 physician, 13 
hospitals and dispensaries. 

An auxiliary Society has been formed in Eng- 
land to collect funds for this Mission and is 
called The English Council of the Bethel Santhal 

BETHESDA (Africa): 1. A settlement in the 
S. W. part of Basutoland, S. Africa; station of the 
Paris Society for Evangelical Missions (1843), 
with 1 missionary and his wife, 22 native workers, 
12 outstations, 11 village schools, and 620 com- 

2. A village about 40 miles W. of Kokstad, 
Griqualand, Cape Colony, S. Africa; station of the 
Moravian Missions (1877), with 2 missionaries and 
their wives, 27 native workers, men and women, 

2 preaching places, 10 village schools and 390 

BETHESDA (India) : 1. A village S. of Madhu- 
pur, Bengal, India; station of the Bethel Santhal 

Mission (1891), with 1 missionary, 3 native work- 
ers, 1 chapel, 1 Sunday school, 1 village school, 1 
high school, 1 orphanage, a dispensary, a hospital 
and 30 communicants. 

2. A town in South Arcot, Madras, India. 
See Kallakuechi. 

BETHESDA (West Indies): A village on the 
E. coast of the island of St. Kitts, W. I.; station 
of the Moravian Missions (1820), with 16 native 
workers, men and women, 1 chapel, 1 Sunday 
school, 1 village school and 400 communicants. 

BETHLEHEM: 1. A town in Palestine, near 
Jerusalem. The birthplace of Jesus Christ. 
Station of the CMS (1899), with 4 missionary 
women, a village school and a high school. Also 
station of the Jerusalem Union of Berlin (1861), 
with 8 missionaries, men and women, 13 native 
workers, men and women, 3 outstations, 1 chapel, 
1 orphanage and 5 village schools. 

2. A village in the Santal Parganas, Bengal, 
India; station of the Bethel Santhal Mission (1884), 
with 1 missionary woman (physician), 3 native 
workers, 1 chapel, 1 Sunday school, 1 village 
school, 1 high school, 1 orphanage, a dispensary, 
a hospital and 50 communicants. 

BETIGERI: A village near Gadag, in the 
Dharwar district, Bombay, India. Population of 
Gadag-Betigeri (1891) 23,880. Station of the 
Basel Missionary Society (1841), with (1902) 2 
missionaries and their wives, 20 native workers, 
men and women, 5 village schools, 1 Sunday 
school and 279 communicants. Also station of 
the SPG (1888), with 6 native workers, men and 
women, 3 village schools and 36 communicants. 
Also written Bettigeri and Betgeri. 

BETO: A village in the southern part of Bor- 
neo, Malaysia; station of the Rhenish Missionary 
Society, with 1 missionary and his wife, 2 native 
workers, 1 Sunday school, 2 village schools, and 
70 communicants. 

BETTER HOPE. See Beterverwachttjng. 

BETUL: A town in the Central Provinces, 
India, 50 miles N. E. of Ellichpur. Population, 
5,000, chiefly Gonds. Station of the Swedish 
National Missionary Society (1880), with 5 mis- 
sionaries, men and woman, 2 native workers, 1 
Sunday school, 1 village school and 15 commu- 

BEUSTER, Rev. C: Missionary of the Berlin 
MS to Africa. He was the first preacher of 
the Gospel sent to the Bawendo tribe in North 
Transvaal, and for twenty-nine years, amidst 
the greatest difficulties, he labored among this 
benighted people. He rendered the tongue of 
this tribe into a written language, translated part 
of the Scriptures and other literature; taught 
untutored minds in the primary schools, and 
pursuing his long and tedious journeys on 
foot, he preached the Gospel to thousands who 
had never heard the Word of Life. For years 
he was the victim of the unhealthful climate of 
the North Transvaal; but without intermission 
he continued his labors of love until he passed 
from earth in the year 1901. 

BEYROUT. See Beihut. 

BEZWADA: A town of 20,000 (1891) inhab- 
itants on the Kistna River, S. W. of EUore, Mad- 
ras, India; station of the CMS (1858), with 5 
missionaries, men and women, 47 native workers, 
men and women, 28 village schools, I high school 
and 780 communicants. Also station of the 
CEZMS (1881), with (1902) 2 missionary and 


Bible Distribution 



14 native women workers, 4 elementary schools 
and 298 Zenana pupils. 

BHADRAKH: A town in the Balasor district, 
Orissa, Bengal, India; station of the Free Baptist 
General Conference (1890), with 1 woman mis- 
sionary, 8 native workers, men and women, 1 
chapel, 1 Sunday school, 1 village school and 25 
church members. 

BHAGALPUR: A city in the Bhagalpur dis- 
trict, Bengal, India, situated on the Ganges, with 
a population (1901) of 75,760, chiefly Hindus 
and Mohammedans. Station of the CMS (1850), 
with (1901) 2 missionaries, 1 with his wife, 8 
native workers, 11 outstations, 2 elementary 
schools, 1 high school, 1 dispensary, 1 hospital, 
1 orphanage and 288 baptized Christians. Also 
station of the CEZMS (1882), with (1902) 4 mis- 
sionary and 14 native women workers, 11 ele- 
mentary schools and 178 zenana pupils. Also 
station of the Mission to Lepers in India and the 
East (1887), with 1 chapel and 1 Leper asylum. 

BHAGAYA. See Baghara. 

BHAISDEHI : A town in the Central Provinces, 
India, N. E. of Ellichpur; station of the Kurku 
and Central India Mission (1889), with 2 mission- 
aries and their wives, 3 native workers, 1 chapel, 
1 Sunday school, 1 village school, 1 orphanage, a 
dispensary, a hospital and 6 church members. 

BHAMO : A town and trading center and head 
of steam navigation on the Irawadi River, 180 
miles north of Mandalay, Burma. Population 
about 7,000. It is but 40 miles from the Chinese 
frontier. It is a station of the ABMU, opened in 
1877, and occupied by 8 missionaries and 12 
native workers, men and women. It has 9 out- 
stations, 10 preaching places and 2 common 
schools. There are 120 church members. 

BHANDARA: A town of 13,000 inhabitants, 
east of Nagpur in the Central Provinces of India; 
station of the UFS, with 1 missionary physician, 

20 native workers, men and women, 4 village 
schools, 1 orphanage, a dispensary, a hospital and 
30 church members. 

BHARTPUR: Chief city of the native state of 
Bhartpur, Rajputana, India. Population (1891) 
68,033, chiefly Hindus. Station of the ME, with 

21 native workers, 1 chapel, 15 Sunday schools, a 
Young Peoples' Society, 8 village schools and 550 
church members. 

BHERA: A town of about 17,000 inhabitants 
situated on the Jhelam River in the Punjab, 
India; station of the UP (1884), with 1 mission- 
ary and his wife, 2 missionary women and 2 out- 

BHILS : An aboriginal Kolarian race of Central 
India. One of their typical men is about 5J feet 
in stature, with short arms, prominent cheek 
bones, thick lips, black hair and heavy beard. 
Together with other Kolarian aborigines they 
were pushed back by an early Aryan invasion 
from the plains into the hill country, and are now 
found scattered over Rajputana, the hills of the 
Vindhya and Sappura ranges, the outlying por- 
tions of Indore and Gwalior provinces, the hills 
as far south as Poona, and eastward along the 
Godavari and Wand rivers. Their favorite 
abode is along the rugged, wooded banks of the 
Tapti, Mahi and Nerbada Rivers which flow into 
the Arabian Sea. Their estimated number is 
3,000,000. Cruelly treated by the Marathi, 
they have lived apart, with their own chieftains 

and councils which settle disputes between indi- 
viduals and communities, the British authorities 
maintaining a difficult supervision over them. 
Marauding expeditions into the cultivated 
country, brigandage, the chase with bow and 
arrows as weapons, the raising of sheep and goats, 
some rude agriculture, and some simple manu- 
factures in bamboo have been their means of 
support. When at home, they dwell in little 
hamlets, called -pals, each homestead, tolerably 
well built of loose stones and interwoven bamboo, 
located on a separate hillock so that an enemy 
may not surprise a whole town at once. Their 
clothing is meager. They have now no separate 
language. They are addicted to drink, and 
when intoxicated are quarrelsome. Polygamy is 
practiced, but more than two wives is unusual. 
Women are chaste after marriage. 

Their religion is spirit worship, with additions 
from Hinduism. They are firm believers in 
ghosts and in witches. The latter they swing 
head downwards until they die or confess; but 
upon confession the witch is punished with 
death or banishment. Siva and other Hindu dei- 
ties are worshipped and local deities are numer- 
ous. Gatamji, their patron saint, occupies a 
niche in most Bhil houses. A Brahman is usually 
called in to officiate at the naming of the child 
and at marriage. The dead are burned and the 
ashes cast into sacred streams, for unless they 
have such a resting place, their spirits are sup- 
posed to trouble surviving relatives. 

Missionary work was begun among the Bhils 
by the Church Missionary Society in 1880. It 
was at first very difficult to get in touch with 
this scattered, secluded and suspicious highland 
folk, but persistent kindness at last won their 
confidence. The first converts were enrolled 
in 1889, but in 1900, after twenty years of labor, 
the mission numbered fourteen baptized and 
fifteen catechumens. The work of the mission- 
aries in famine relief in 1901-2 proved the turning 
point in the history of the mission, and since 
the Gospel has been welcomed, thousands of 
children have been enrolled in the schools, and 
in the spring of 1903 fifty-four converts were 
baptized and the Bhils undertook the building 
of their own church. The Bhil Mission of the 
Church Missionary Society occupies four stations 
in Rajputana; Kherwara, Lusaria, where there 
is a girls' orphanage; Baulia, and Bilaria, with a 
boys' orphanage. 

The history of other missions has been similar. 
The United Free Church of Scotland has an 
encouraging Bhil Mission in Rajputana with a 
"Bliil Home" at Udaipur. Amkhut is the field 
of the vigorous Bhil Mission of the Presbyterian 
Church of Canada, with educational, medical, 
orphanage, and industrial departments. The 
Christian Bliils have proved good mechanics. 
The baptisms in 1901-2 numbered 105. 

The Bhils are at a crisis in their history, and 
before long will become either Hindus or "Chris- 
tians. Because of the absence of caste, they do 
not meet the opposition which the Hindus do 
from their own people when they try to improve 
their condition. They are now coming to know 
their need, and at present they seem peculiarly 
open to the Gospel. 
Wild Races of S. E. India, Lewin (T. H.), London, 1870; 

Brief History of the Indian Peoples, Hunter (W. W.), 


BHIMPUR: A town lying N. W. of Midnapur, 
Bengal, India; station of the Free Baptist General 



Bible DlMtrlbntlon 

Conference (1874), with 2 missionaries and their 
wives (physicians), 139 native worlcers, men and 
women, 2 outstations, 45 Sunday schools, 45 vil- 
lage schools, 2 orphanages, 1 industrial school, 

I dispensary, 3 Young People's Societies and 
270 church members. Also written Bhimpore. 

BHINGA: A village N. E. of Bahraich, in the 
United Provinces, India; station of the ME, with 

II native workers, men and women, 8 Sunday 
schools, 1 village, school, 4 Young People's 
Societies and 220 church members. 

BHIWANl: A city of the Punjab, India, 60 
miles W. of Delhi. Population (1891) 35,487. 
Station of the Baptist Zenana Mission (1887), 
with 4 missionary women, one a physician, 3 native 
women workers, 3 Sunday schools, 3 village 
schools, a dispensary, a hospital and 50 Zenana 

BHOT: A village in the Almora district, United 
Provinces, India, situated near Chandag, north 
of Pithoragarh; station of the ME, with 1 mis- 
sionary woman (physician), 14 native workers, 
men and women, 3 chapels, 4 Sunday schools, 
23 village schools, 1 Young People's Society, and 
25 church members. 

BHUTAN: An independent native state on 
the southern slope of the eastern part of the 
Himalayan range, E. of Sikkim and separating 
British India from the frontier of Tibet. It 
has an area of about 13,000 sq. miles and a pop- 
ulation estimated at about 30,000. The religion 
of the people is Buddhism of a degraded type. 
Their language is allied to the Tibetan. The 
people are called Bhutias. 

MISSIONARY SOCIETY: This society was organ- 
ized in 1821 for the purpose of sending mission- 
aries into unchristianized portions of the United 
Kingdom and into heathen lands. In 1831 it 
sent two missionaries to North America, one of 
whom occupied a station in Canada, and the 
other in Prince Edward's Island. Their work 
was eminently successful, and in 1883, when the 
union of all the Methodist churches in Canada 
was effected, the membership of this mission 
was about 7,000. 

In 1850 Messrs. James Way and James Rowe 
were sent to South Australia, and later several 
other missionaries settled in Victoria, Queens- 
land, and New Zealand. The work here being 
carried on under favorable circumstances, soon 
grew independent and self-supporting, and now 
the principal work done in this mission is the 
planting of new churches in needy districts. 

In 1885 the Society sent two missionaries to 
Yunnan, China, under the auspices of the China 
Inland Mission, whose repeated appeals for help 
had aroused much interest. At present the 
Society has three stations, Yunnan-fu, Chao-tung- 
fu, and Tung-Chawan-fu, 12 missionaries, 6 native 
evangelists, 41 church members and 200 scholars. 
The recent changes have brought large numbers 
of inquiries. 

At home the Society has missionaries working 
among the lowest classes of people in London 
and other parts of England. 

The_ Woman's Missionary League of the Bible 
Christian Missionary Society, was organized as 
an auxiliary to the "Society in 1892 with special 
reference to the work in China. 

BIBLE DISTRIBUTION: Its object is to bring 
knowledge of the Bible within reach of every 

person. The great Bible societies have adopted 
the principle that the end which they are to keep 
in view is not the possession of the Bible, but its 
proper use, and that any distribution which 
ignores tliis distinction is liable to do more harm 
than good. At different times certain person.s. 
have given away large numbers of Scriptures to 
the crowds that gather at such places as Jeru- 
salem, or at fairs and expositions. The object 
was undoubtedly laudable, but the invariable 
result has been that the books tlirown broadcast in 
this way exercised little or no influence for good, 
and even inspired a feeling of contempt. 

In order to meet the requirement that the 
Bible shall be placed within the reach of every 
person, however poor, the societies have adopted 
the general principle of gauging prices by the 
ability of the people rather than by the cost of 
the book. In such lands as the United States, 
Great Britain and the larger part of the Continent 
the Bible societies as a rule ask cost price for 
their publications, reckoning in the cost the 
expense of printing and binding, but making no 
account of the outlay for editorial work. To 
this however, there are exceptions. In order to 
meet a special need, an edition, usually of the 
New Testament, is sometimes placed at a figure 
even less than the cost, as in the case of the 
editions designed for use in the schools or for 
distribution among the poorer laborers. 

In the mission fields the day's wage of a laborer 
is often taken as the gauge, and an edition of the 
whole Bible, in plain but substantial binding, 
is issued at such a figure as will be within the 
reach of the ordinary peasant or artisan. Editions 
of the New Testament, or of different portions 
of Scripture such as the Gospels, Psalms, Prov- 
erbs, the Pentateuch, etc., are made proportion- 
ate in price. Scriptures in finer binding are 
sold at actual cost, since they are of the nature 
of luxuries. 

If the distributor is satisfied that a person is 
not able to give the price of the book, and that a 
copy will be well used, ordinarily a free grant is 
made. The plan of trying to secure the attention 
and interest of a person not especially interested 
in the Bible by the donation of a copy has not, as 
a rule, been successful. But no iron rule as to 
free distribution can be laid down. Much must 
be left to the judgment of the person engaged in 
the work. 

For many years the Bible societies worked as 
auxiliary to the mission societies in distributing 
the Bible; making grants of books, giving money 
to pay colporteurs, etc. As the different denom- 
inations entered the field, and in not a few cases 
covered much the same ground, the work began 
to individualize, and at last the necessity for 
providing the Scriptures for many people whom 
the missionaries could not attempt to reach, led 
to the appointment of a class of agents quite dis- 
tinct from those of the missionaries. Thus grew 
up the system of agencies much like those of any 
mercantile house. The Bible Society Agent is 
located at some central point, such as Berlin, 
Vienna, Constantinople, etc. He keeps informed 
as to the needs of the territory assigned to him, 
and seeks to improve every opportunity to in- 
crease the circulation of the Scriptures and to 
add to the popular understanding of their value. 
In Japan the Bible Society Agent has made a 
point of selling the Scriptures on railroad trains, 
with good effect. 

As in the case of missionary societies, so with 

Bible DiNtrilmfion 
Bible Translation 



the Bible societies, disadvantages have arisen 
from tlie presence of two or more in the same 
territory. This has often entailed needless 
expense, and has produced more or less of fric- 
tion, if not between the Societies or their Agents, 
at least between their employees. (See Comity). 
The svlbordinate agencies of distribution are: 

1. Bible Depots. These do not serve merely 
or even principally as salesrooms or places of 
storage, but above all they are centers of influence 
The sales from a Depot seldom equal those by a 
colporteur and it has sometimes been a serious 
question whether the cost of maintaining them 
has been wisely incurred; yet where an effort to 
dispense with them has been made, they have 
been quickly reestablished as an essential feature 
of Bible work. 

2. Colporteurs. The work of these men is the 
main stay of Bible distribution in the mission 
fields. By far the larger part of the Scriptures 
sold on mission ground pass through their hands 
and colporteurs have done and are doing quietly 
and unobtrusively a work unsurpassed in impor- 
tance by that of any class of evangelistic laborers, 
because it is generally like the work of the pioneer. 
More than the missionary preacher or teacher, 
colporteurs come in contact with men. They 
seek people out in their homes, their shops, their 
fields, and find access to places which no one else 
could enter. Having as their aim the placing 
of the Bible in the hands of all who will read and 
study it, they have to be wiser than serpents. 
Their daily life abounds in incidents as thrilling 
as any in the history of the Church. They are 
commonly plain men, selected not because of edu- 
cation but for their initiative,their tactful methods 
of dealing with men, and their knowledge of the 
Bible as a practical guide to life rather than as a 
storehouse of doctrines. At present there are 
few lands where every city and town, or even 
every village and hamlet is not within the field 
assigned to some colporteur. This of course 
demands careful organization, and no one can 
read the annual reports of the Bible societies 
without realizing how gigantic is the work to 
which they are bending every effort. 

3. Bible Readers. The work of the Bible 
society at the point of distributing the Scriptures 
is so nearly the same as that of the missionary 
society, that it is not always possible to draw 
the line sharply between their respective spheres. 
For many years the Bible societies did not con- 
sider it within their sphere to do more than act- 
ually distribute the Bible. Holding aloof from 
all preaching, they considered that Bible readers 
who must inevitably be in a great degree teachers, 
were more properly mission employees. Yet in 
many cases, when people were unable or unwilling 
to read themselves, it was found that the Bible 
reader, by arousing an interest in the Bible, 
became a very important factor in its distribu- 
tion. Moreover the missionary societies have 
found it simply impossible to provide such 
laborers for all outlying regions. It has thus 
come about that the iBible societies have accept- 
ed the employment of Bible readers as a legiti- 
mate part of their work. 

Every missionary in the foreign field, whether 
man or woman, preacher, physician, or teacher, 
also becomes a distributor of the Bible in the 
ordinary line of daily duty. Travelers, merchants 
and officials of many nations and many religious 
denominations have often gladly used their oppor- 
tunities for giving to others the book which they 

most prized for themselves. Many a courier or 
dragoman in the East shows with pleasure the 
New Testament quietly put into his hands by 
the stranger whom he has served. The number 
of copies of Scriptures distributed in this unre- 
corded way is greater than is commonly imagined. 

As to the results of Bible distribution, one 
might almost say that the history of missions 
throughout the world is the history of the won- 
derful influence of the Bible upon men of every 
race. All missionary literature teems with 
incidents illustrating the far-reaching results of 
inducing men to read the Bible. Sometimes it 
is a robber in the Armenian highlands, who has 
stolen the book from a traveler, sometimes it is 
a peasant in Mexico who has received it from an 
American soldier during the war of 1848; some- 
times it is a Hindu peasant who has taken the 
book from the doctor who healed his disease, but 
the result in each case is the same — changed life 
and a desire to tell others of the wonderful book. 
Something of the magnitude of this influence of 
the Bible, may be judged from the fact that 
according to the conclusions of Rev. Dr. James 
S. Dennis, after a laborious study of the reports 
of the different Bible societies in order to avoid 
duplication of statistics, the number of Scrip- 
tures or portions of Scripture annually distrib- 
uted in foreign mission fields by the Bible soci- 
eties, is 3,286,834. 

the perplexing problems connected with mission 
enterprise is that of providing a place for the 
transaction of its secular affairs. Missions have 
many of the qualities of a great business. There 
is first the financial responsibilities for the differ- 
ent departments involving the expenditure of 
thousands of dollars annually. There is, too, 
a great amount of publication involving a stock 
of printed sheets, bound volumes, electrotype 
plates, etc. The treasurer must have a safe 
deposit for his money. The Bible society or Mis- 
sion Publication Department needs storage room 
for its books, the more nearly fire proof the better. 
This problem early became a most serious one 
in Constantinople. That city was the center of 
four missions of the American Board, and of the 
agencies of the American, and the British and 
Foreign Bible Societies, and many other missions 
looked to it for the transaction of important 
business. At first a room was hired by each agency 
in one of the numerous khans; but this was soon 
too small. Then a whole building was rented 
for all together in the business section of the city, 
but that was insufficient. The existence of the 
Bible House in New York suggested a similar 
building in Constantinople; but when applied 
to, the American Bible Society did not feel justified 
in doing more than permit its agent, the Rev. 
Isaac G. Bliss, D.D. to raise the money for a 
Bible House. This he did is 1866 and secured 
a number of prominent New York business men 
to act as trustees of the property. There were 
the usual delays attending such an enterprise, 
but in 1872 the building was complete and ready 
for occupancy. It is excellently adapted to its 
purpose, providing for the different mission- 
ary organizations, office room, safe vaults, stor- 
are room for publications, editorial rooms for 
publication v/ork, as well as for Bible revision 
committees. All these are supplied at a merely 
nominal rent. Other rooms are occupied by 
printing and binding establishments, and on the 
street are stores, the income from which has been 



Bible Distribution 
Dibie Translation 

applied to completing the property and to fur- 
nishing a Sunday service for the transient crowd 
always to be found in such a great city. Viewed 
simply as a business investment for the care of 
the secular part of missionary enterprise, the 
Bible House has been well worth all that it cost; 
but it has had another and even greater value, as 
a proof of the practical character of Protestant 
missions. It is known all through the city and 
indeed throughout the Empire as the "American 
Khan," and as the center of those influences 
which have done more than ■ all else to arouse 
ambition for a better life. Enemies have recog- 
nized its influence and shaken their fists at it in 
impotent rage, and many a poor despised Chris- 
tian has rejoiced in its simple beauty and strength 
as the token of the power that is yet to redeem 
the land. If ever there were sermons in stones 
they have spoken from the walls of the Bible 


In 1853-4 Rev. C. G. Young, a minister in the 
North of England, traveling in the East, came 
into contact with missionaries of the American 
Board engaged in work among the Armenians 
in Constantinople, and was greatly impressed 
with their devotion and zeal. Returning to 
England he urged that an endeavor should be 
made to associate Christians of all the churches 
in an effort to cooperate with those already in 
the field. Circumstances contributed to awaken 
interest in the subject. It was just before the 
Crimean War and the Eastern question was assum- 
ing an acute phase. The Sultan was looking to 
Britain for support against Russia. Sir Strat- 
ford Canning (Lord Redcliffe) the astute and 
able English ambassador at the Porte, had 
sought to influence the Sultan in the direction 
of a policy of toleration in religious matters. 
For several years Christians in Britain had 
watched with sympathy the converts among 
the Armenians, who had been grievously perse- 
cuted. After one or two public meetings which 
increased interest in the scheme of an auxiliary 
agency in England, on the 3d of July, 1854, the 
Turkish Missions' Aid Society was organized, the 
Earl of Shaftesbury being elected president. 
The Society is entirely undenominational, both in 
its supporters and in the distribution of its funds. 
The first rule of its constitution describes its aim: 
"The object of this Society is not to originate a 
new mission, but to aid in the extension of gospel 
work in Bible lands, especially that carried on by 
the Americans." 

The Society has been and is a most valuable 
helper to many branches of missionary work in 
Turkey, having furnished funds to the amount of 
$512,000 to various special objects of impor- 

The name of the Society was changed a few 
years ago by substituting "Bible Lands" for the 
"Turkish" of the original name. Altho not 
so largely supported as formerly, the Society con- 
tinues to work on the same lines, making its 
special province the assistance of Christian work 
in Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey, Persia, Syria, and 

The organ of the Society is "The Star in the 
East," published quarterly. 

BIBLE TRANSLATION: "The Day of Pente- 
cost was fully come" and the spirit of God worked 
great miracles, and the Galilean disciples were 
enabled to proclaim the gospel in the divergent 

tongues of the vast heterogeneous crowd of three 
continents. "We do hear them speak in our 
tongues the wonderful works of God." 

What the spirit of God did on the day of Pente- 
cost for fifteen or sixteen peoples, that are the 
translators of the Bible doing for all the peoples 
of the world. The end in view is that every man 
may hear in his own tongue the wonderful works 
of God. For such a work special gifts, graces, 
acquirements, and instruments are needed, and 
of tiiese we proceed to speak in the following 

Qualifications Necessary for a Translator: 
The translator should be deeply conscious of the 
gravity of his work as well as of its importance. 
The man who enters on such work in a frivolous 
spirit will fail, like the general who enters on a 
great war with a light heart. Perfection in 
translation is unattainable, but it should be aimed 
at. Translation at best bears pretty much the 
same relation to the original that the wrong side 
of velvet bears to the right side. In the wrong 
side of the texture you may have all the material 
of the original: the warp and woof may be skil- 
fully shot, all the weight and color may be in the 
piece, but the glossy pile is wanting. In trans- 
lation the artistic touch which each author gives 
to his work, independent of the substance matter, 
can never be caught or transferred by another 
hand. If this be so in ordinary translation, it is 
still more applicable to Bible translation. 

The original languages of the Bible constitute 
great difficulties. The Semitic Old Testament 
is full of perplexities. The language is archaic, 
the idioms are Oriental,the transitions are abrupt, 
the allusions are uncertain; the words thrown 
together in juxtaposition give little cue, by form 
or relation, to their exact meaning. Many pas- 
sages are vague, and capable of several interpre- 
tations, and all passages have alliteration and 
play upon words which cannot possibly be repro- 
duced in translation. 

The original of the New Testament is Aramaic 
Greek, and the old Hellenic forms are filled with 
new ideas, like the new wine in the old bottles. 
The old Hellenic words had to be emptied of 
their old meanings before being dedicated to the 
new service, and they are often inadequate ex- 
pressions of the fresh gospel thought. The 
translator will have to trace the Hebrew concep- 
tion in the Greek form. 

In both old and New Testaments there are 
many hands visible. The Holy Ghost, who in- 
spired the men that wrote as they were moved 
did not interfere with their individuality or style 
of expression. Paul does not write like Luke 
nor John like James. The prophets are distinct 
from each other in thought and style, and immeas- 
urably removed from the feeling and form of our 
exact metallic age. Taking into account the 
composite character of the book, ranging from 
simplest narrative to most flowing rhapsody, 
one cannot but recognize how ill-equipped a 
modern scholar is for translating right through 
the Bible. The man who would successfully 
reproduce this Holy Book must himself be under 
the influence of the Holy Spirit who inspired and 
guided the various authors. Purvey, in his 
prologue to Wickliffe's Bible, says: "He hath 
need to live a clean life, and be full of devout 
prayers, that the Holy Spirit, Author of wisdom, 
knowledge, and truth, dress him in his work, and 
suffer him not to err. . . . By this manner, 
with good living and great travail, men may come 

Bible Translation 



to true and clear translating, and true under- 
standing of Holy Writ." 

Faith in the Bible is absolutely essential to the 
translator. It is not desirable that he should 
have to take down all his beliefs from the shelf 
and reexamine them whenever a new hypothesis 
regarding the Bible makes its appearance. The 
translator should not only have a reasonable 
intellectual belief in the Word of God, but he 
should be a man who has tried and tested it, and 
found in it his own strength and joy. Having 
felt its power himself, he will know why he must 
be careful that none of its meaning is lost in 
passing through his hands. Having been blessed 
by it, he will do all that is in his power to make 
it the bearer of blessings to others. Every phrase, 
word, letter, mood, and tense will have due weight 
■with him, and nothing will be slurred over or 
■dealt with in a careless or slovenly manner. 

A sound judgment is indispensable to a trans- 
lator of the Bible. No matter how great his 
attachment and loyalty to the Bible, if he has 
an ill-balanced mind he is in danger of getting 
■entangled with Biblical fads; and the Biblical 
faddist is always discovering things in the text of 
the Bible that have no existence, giving prom- 
inence to parts that are of no more importance 
than other parts, and unconsciously using the 
book to support his own whimsical opinions. 
The translator should know the Bible in the 
unity of its truth, and be able to see individual 
passages in the light of surrounding truth. He 
should be able to divest himself of the prejudices 
of the religious or philosophical school in which 
he has been brought up, and to cast aside all 
prepossessions in favor of even the venerable 
readings of his own Authorized Version. 

Sound scholarship must be based on sound 
judgment. A liberal education, especially in 
languages, is a good groundwork for Biblical 
scholarship. The man who professes to know 
twenty or thirty or a hundred languages is to 
be avoided. None of the phenomenal linguists 
of the past ever did any work that has lived, 
and this rule is not likely to change in the future. 
The translator should concentrate his chief atten- 
tion on a few languages, and leave large profession 
to people who wish to be wondered at. A good 
knowledge of the original languages of the Bible 
is requisite to a good translator, and if he has an 
opportunity of learning Arabic, he will be well 
rewarded. The Syriac version was one of the 
translations first made from the original after the 
■writing of the New Testament — perhaps the very 
first, and a knowledge of the Peshito will be use- 
ful to the translator; but Syriac has little litera- 
ture worth reading, and the time spent on it 
might more profitably be devoted to Arabic. 
The Latin Vulgate should also be at the side of 
the translator for consultation, and also the 
Septuagint; and of living versions the English 
Revised and Segond's French will be found useful 
a,nd suggestive. The translator should be thor- 
oughly acquainted with the manners and customs 
of Bible lands, and with all modern discoveries 
bearing on the Bible. 

The translator should be thoroughly acquainted 
"with the literature of the language into which he 
is to render the Scriptures. He should read its 
classics, and especially the poetry, in order to 
enrich his vocabulary with choice words, and to 
learn to pack them close with concentrated 
thought. He should read the newspapers, and 
■converse with the people, until he is able to think 

in their language, without the intrusion of auxil- 
iary words from other languages. Most lan- 
guages have corresponding idioms, and by con- 
stant watchfulness and practice approximations 
may be found. If the language is foreign to the 
translator, he should employ a trustworthy native 
to accompany him as much as possible. He 
should be constantly composing in the language, 
and employing his native assistant to correct his 
compositions, and he should get by heart a choice 
specimen of the language daily. 

Patience, in abundant measure, is a necessary 
endowment of a translator. Haste is the fruit- 
ful author of ill-done work. The student in a 
hurry will never be a scholar. The impatient 
translator will turn out crude and unfinished 
copy. There will doubtless be many influences 
drawing and pushing him forward at headlong 
speed. It may be that he is called to work for 
a bookless people, who have never had the Scrip- 
tures. Or he finds an imperfect version in the 
hands of the people, and by the help of a pre- 
sumptuous native he hastens to improve the 
version, currente calamo. 

Patience is an attribute of strength, and the 
translator requires firm moral fiber to resist the 
influences that would hinder patience from 
having her work perfect. 

Bishop Steere of Zanzibar spent five years in 
completing his version of the Gospel of St. Mark 
into the Swahili tongue. 

By this patient procedure with one Gospel 
he acquired facility in translation, and he had 
the joy of giving the New Testament to that 
great people before being taken home to his 
reward. The memorable words of the revisers 
of the Authorized Version should never be for- 
gotten by translators: "We did not disdain to 
revise that which we had done, and to bring back 
to the anvil that which we had hammered; but 
having and using as great helps as were needful, 
and fearing no reproach for slowness, nor cov- 
eting praise for expedition, we have at length, 
through the good hand of the Lord upon us, 
brought the work to that pass that you see." 

So in the translation of Luther's Bible. The 
scholars who aided Luther revised with him 
every line with patient care, and sometimes they 
returned fourteen successive days to the revision 
of a single line. 

The English and German translators and 
revisers were rendering the Scriptures into their 
mother tongues, but the majority of translators 
and revisers are called upon to translate into 
tongues which are foreign to them, and which 
they are obliged to learn. The wise translator 
will always work with the assistance of native 
scholars, and this will necessitate patience in 
many respects. He will have to bear with the 
inaccurate and self-satisfied ways of the unme- 
thodical natives. He will not be able to take 
renderings on trust, but must lead his helper 
round the idea until the exact point is reached. 
Sometimes, when engaged on languages which 
have no literature, and which have never been 
written, he will have to catch the words alive, 
and fix them as best he can on paper. 

There is nothing, perhaps, which tries a trans- 
lator's patience so much as having his work 
revised by others. It is never pleasant to have 
one's composition found fault with, and every 
correction made by a reviser assumes imperfect 
work on the part of the author. If the translator 
has the grace of patience when he first sees the 



Dlble Tranalatlon 

work that has cost him so much pulled to pieces, 
he will soon come to appreciate the suggestions 
of men much inferior to himself. For all these 
things patience and Christian courtesy are abso- 
lutely necessary. 

The translator should cultivate a simple, 
easily understood style. Very often first trans- 
lations, made into a literary language, are cast in 
too lofty a style. The native helper is a scholar, 
generally proud of his native literature, in which 
he has been educated, and his aim will be to 
translate the Scriptures in accordance with high 
classical models. It is not the business of a 
translator to render a version in a language as the 
language ought to be, but as the language is. 
The common plain language of the people as used 
in commerce and in everyday life will be the 
victorious form of speech, and into this form, 
avoiding all vulgarisms and low expressions, 
the Scriptures should be translated. 

When the proper standard has been reached 
another question of great difficulty will arise. 
The translator should strive to convey the mean- 
ing while remaining as faithful as possible to the 
letter of the text. The sense must be given 
whether the passage be rendered literally or not, 
but pains .should be taken to transfer the sense 
by giving due weight to every word. 

Translators of the Scriptures should, whenever 
practicable, carry out their work by committees. 
The general rule of the British and Foreign Bible 
Society on this subject is as follows: " That when- 
ever it is practicable to obtain a board of com- 
petent persons to translate or revise a version of 
the Scriptures, it is undesirable to accept for 
publication the work of a single translator or 

The first great version of the Old Testament 
takes its name, Septuagint, from the supposition 
that the translation into Greek was the work of 
seventy scholars. It was certainly the work of 
a large revision committee — hence its great 
value and permanence. The revision of the Eng- 
lish Bible which resulted in the Authorized 
Version of 1611 was the work of many scholars. 
The Dutch version was the production of twelve 
translators and sixteen revisers. The Manx Old 
Testament was the work of twenty-four trans- 
lators and two revisers. 

The text to be followed is of primary impor- 
tance in Bible translation. Up to 1881 the work 
of translation for the British and Foreign Bible 
Society was carried on in accordance with the 
following instructions : 

"Whenever practicable, a version should be a 
direct translation from the Hebrew and Greek 
originals. For the Hebrew Bible, the edition of 
Van der Hooght is considered the standard; and 
in the use of this the translator is at liberty to 
follow either the ketih or the keri; but not to 
adopt any rendering which is not sanctioned by 
the Massoretic vowel-points, or the heri, or the 
English Authorized Version, or the marginal 
readings of this last. In the Greek Testament 
the Elzevir edition of the 'Textus Receptus' of 
1633, and reprinted by the British and Foreign 
Bible Society, is considered the standard; but in 
cases where the Authorized Version differs from 
this, either in the text or in the marginal reading, 
the translator is at liberty to adopt a rendering 
which may agree with any one of these three; 
and if a translator or editor think it better to 
omit the subscriptions of the epistles, the inser- 
tion of these is not required." 

As far as the Old Testament is concerned these 
instructions still hold good. Hebrew manu- 
scripts of the Old Testament are of no great 
antiquity, dating only from A. D. 916. No doubt 
there are ancient readings preserved in such ver- 
sions as the Septuagint, the Samaritan Penta- 
teuch, the Syriac, and the Latin Vulgate. And 
there are doubtless previous readings of the old 
Hebrew preserved in quotations in the New Tes- 
tament. Collations of such readings have been 
made with much labor and some skill; but noth- 
ing has been discovered or done to warrant the 
Bible Society in adopting a new text. 

The case of the New Testament widely differs 
from that of the Old. Numerous ancient and im- 
portant Greek manuscripts of the New Testament, 
in whole or in part, have been discovered in recent 
years. Enormous learning and pains have been 
bestowed on the collation and classification of 
these manuscripts, and on the inve.stigation of 
early versions and quotations. Sufficient mate- 
rial has been accumulated for the substantial 
restoration of the Greek Testament of the ^fourth 

Under these circumstances the Committee of 
the British and Foreign Bible Society in 1881 
resolved to authorize missionaries and others 
engaged on behalf of the Society in the work of 
translation or revision to adopt such deviations 
from the "Textus Receptus" as are sanctioned by 
the text of the Revised English Version of 1881. 
The careful attention of translators was at the 
same time invited to the observations of the 
Company of Revisers on the revision of the Greek 
text in their preface, and to the caution suggested 
by their emphatic words: "Many places still 
remain in which for the present it would not be 
safe to accept one reading to the absolute exclu- 
sion of others." "In these cases," the revisers add, 
"we have given alternative readings in the margin, 
whenever they seem to be of sufficient importance 
or interest to deserve notice." These alternative 
readings should, therefore, be carefully studied 
before any change is adopted from the "Textus 
Receptus"; and, whilst the committee did not 
desire to control the conscientious judgment of 
translators or revisers, they suggested that where 
the marginal note in the Englisii version indicates 
that ancient authorities support the Elzevir text, 
there would be safety in adhering for the present 
to the Elzevir text. 

The same regulations substantially have been 
adopted by the American Bible Society, and thus 
far the two great societies have proceeded on the 
same lines in the work of translation and revision. 

The Names for the Divine Being require special 
attention. The difficulty of finding any Supreme 
Being among the heathen is sometimes very 
great. Sometimes the gods are so numerous that 
the difficulty consists in making a proper selec- 
tion. Sometimes there are no gods at all; but 
the translator's chief difficulty will be to find any 
name among the heathen associated with the 
ideas of reverence or worship. In this matter as 
in many others the translator will have to do the 
best he can. In the Septuagint and Greek Testa- 
ment, Theos is substituted for Elohim, and Lord 
(Kurios) for Jehovah and Adonai promiscuously. 
The terms were not equivalents, but apostles and 
martyrs preached the gospel meanings into the 
names until they became expressive of the true 
gospel thoughts now associated with each. 
Every care should be taken to select the best 
word, but it must be remembered that in all 

Bible Translation 
Bible Women 



countries the truth about God is gathered not so 
much from the name as from what is taught con- 
cerning Him who bears it. The translator in a 
heathen tongue must select the best term or name 
he can find. Tho he may be obliged to take the 
name of a false god, he will find that by degrees, 
through reading the Bible, the false meaning will 
disappear, and the true meaning assert itself. It 
might be possible to transfer the original names 
of God by transliteration, but in that case the 
names would, in themselves, be absolutely with- 
out significance when first introduced. 

Translators will find it difficult to render the 
word Baptizo in a manner satisfactory to all. If 
translating for a non-denominational society 
which is supported by all denominations, they 
can not be expected to translate the word by a 
term which supports the views of one denomina- 
tion. In versions made for the British and For- 
eign Bible Society the word Baptizo and its cog- 
nates are transliterated or transferred, as is done 
in the English Bible, unless it can be translated 
by some native word signifying sacred washing, 
without limiting the form to either dipping or 
sprinkling. An attempt has been made to get 
over the difficulty by placing the neutral term in 
the text, and the denominational term in . the 
margin, with the words "some translate im- 
merse" — which is simply the statement of a fact. 
Where the version is Baptist, it would be better 
that the difficulty should be got over by an 
alternative reading than that a rival version 
should be issued. These matters require to be 
dealt with on both sides in a spirit of mutual 

Translators should be careful to choose the 
central language in commencing versions, and to 
resist all pressure to undertake translations in 
insignificant and dying dialects. Many versions 
produced in local patois have led to considerable 
wa.ste of Christian money. At first it may not be 
possible, with limited experience, to say which 
branch of a group of languages is the best vehicle 
for reaching the most people; but first editions 
should be tentative and small, and the second 
editions should be revised into the dominant 
form. Prince L. L. Bonaparte made versions of 
the Scriptures into more than a hundred lan- 
guages, dialects, and patois, for linguistic purposes. 
These his Highness has handed over to the Bible 
Society, with permission to revise them for 
evangelistic purposes; but there are only a few 
of them on which the Society would be at all 
justified in spending funds. 

The translator should be careful to mark in 
some distinctive way words inserted to make 
the sense complete, but which have no equiva- 
lents in the originals. Such words are marked 
in our English Bibles by being printed in italics. 
This is somewhat unfortunate, as in all other 
forms of English literature italics are used to give 
emphasis and prominence to words. The italics 
should be as few as possible. A great many in 
the Authorized Version are superfluous. In for- 
eign languages the supplied words, when neces- 
sary, should be printed in type similar to the 
body of the text, but somewhat smaller. In pre- 
paring chapter and page headings only simple 
summaries should be given. In our English 
Bibles the chapter headings are printed in such 
small italics that they are seldom consulted, and 
they form an undesirable wedge between chapter 
and chapter. The British and Foreign Bible 
Society has long had a paragraph English Bible 

prepared by Canon Girdlestone, and it has Degun 
to print foreign versions in paragraphs, with sec- 
tional headings which simply announce the sub- 
jects of the sections. The headings are simple- 
summaries, such as "The Creation," "The 
Flood," "The Temptation," "The Fall," etc. 
Versions so arranged, well printed and accom- 
panied by maps, have been published in Italian,. 
Sesuto, Malagasi, French, and Dutch, and they 
have been well received. In China, too, the. 
committee have agreed to publish summaries, 
sectional headings, and simple explanations of 
words and terms not likely to be understood by 
the Chinese. 

The Scriptures can be read much more intelli- 
gently in the paragraph form. Much can be done 
by artistic printing, by proper spacing, and the 
arrangement of parallelisms to encourage the 
reading of the Scriptures. Lasserre's Gospels in 
paragraph form are so arranged that every page 
says "read me"; and Frenchmen, for the first 
time, read the gospel with pleasure. There are 
many additional considerations, and necessary 
conditions, and infinite details, which might be 
advanced with regard to Bible translation, but 
these will be best learned in the practical work 
of translation. As in preparing sermons, writing 
books, and public speaking, each worker reaches 
his own style by his own methods, so translators 
must be left to find out the lines within certain 
limitations on which they can best accomplish 
the sacred work entrusted to them; and in the 
matter of details, common sense and scrupulous- 
conscientiousness will be the best guides. 

The list of versions in the Appendix enables one 
to judge of the immense work already accom- 
plished in Bible translation. 

The Bible is the greatest of all the classics, and 
its importance may be judged in contrast with, 
them. There are, at the present time, over a. 
thousand philologists busied with Bible transla- 
tion and revision, and wherever the living mis- 
sionary goes he takes with him the living word. 
Versions of the classic masterpieces of Greece, 
Rome, and the Far East are few, and are found 
on the shelves of libraries and in the homes of 
learning. The versions of the Bible are for the- 
people, and no sooner have they fallen from the 
press than they are taken up in such quantities 
by the missionaries, by the colporteurs, by the 
zenana women, and by all who wish the divine 
message made known, that the average circula- 
tion of the British and Foreign Bible Society 
alone is over four million copies a year. See- 
Bible Distribution. 

BIBLE VERSIONS : By far the larger proportion 
of existing versions of the Bible are used in ifor- 
eign missionary operations. For the most part, 
also, they are the fruit of the patient toil of mis- 
sionaries in the field. The missionary translator, 
unseen and almost forgotten in the isolation of his- 
life work as he studies the sounds, the structure 
and the vocabulary of a strange language, and 
then uses his knowledge in translation of the 
Scriptures, renders a double service to mankind. 
He not only sets before savage and illiterate- 
tribes the Book which is to lift them in the scale 
of humanity, but at the same time he gives to the 
people the idea of committing speech to paper, 
and provides them with the means of doing so. 
More than this, he has placed in a form accessible 
to students in the home land the essential data 
for .studying and classifying the language in 
which he is working. He thus materially aids. 



Bible TrnuNlatlnn 
Bible Women. 

the extension of knowledge. As Dr. Cust has 
remarked, "It is a marvelous surprise to a scholar 
who has never left Europe to have a translation 
of a Gospel handed to him, of the genuineness 
and approximate accuracy of which there can 
be no doubt, in a language that is unprovided 
with scientific works or literary helps." 

The list of known languages and dialects con- 
tinually grows longer as the surface of the earth 
is more fully explored. It has been estimated 
that the total number of languages now rendering 
active service exceeds 2,000. Yet it is by no 
means this number of versions of the Bible 
which we must aim to provide. The list of lan- 
guages which are dead, and that of other lan- 
guages which are extinct, show that no version 
of the complete Bible should be undertaken with- 
out careful study of the place and the rank, as 
Permanent or temporary, which that language 
olds in which the version is to be made. Such 
a fate as befell John Eliot's Indian Bible, serving 
only as a library curiosity because of the extinc- 
tion of the language in which it is printed, is a 
warning on this point. 

As at present conducted, the process of pub- 
lishing a version is generally as follows: The 
opportunity or need of one being apparent, an 
arrangement is made between some one of the 
Bible societies and the missionary society occu- 
pying a certain field, by which one or more mis- 
sionaries especially fitted for the work are in- 
structed to devote either the whole or a part of 
their time to the preparation of the translation, 
their support and the incidental expense being, in 
many cases, assumed by the Bible society. When 
the translation is completed, preparations are 
made for publishing, either on the field, if good 
printing presses and binderies are available, or in 
America, England, or Continental Europe, accord- 
ing to circumstances. It was formerly the 
custom to do much of the publishing in London 
or New York, but since the establishment of the 
numerous foreign agencies it is very largely done 
at the great centers of those agencies, as Vienna, 
Constantinople, Shanghai, Tokio, etc. 

The translation thus made is the property of 
the Bible society that incurred the expense, and, 
altho there is no regular copyright taken out, 
the rights of each society are carefully regarded. 
In some cases, as those of the Japanese, Chinese, 
and Turkish versions, two or more societies have 
combined to share the expense, and have equal 
rights of publication. Whenever one society 
has need of the publications of another the 
required copies are purchased, cost price rather 
than selling price being paid, on the principle 
that one society should not reap financial benefit 
from the benevolence of another. In certain 
cases permission is asked, and usually granted, 
for the use of plates for the reduplication of a 
version. In general the rule has been for each 
society to assist every other to the best of its 
ability, so far as convenience or cautious regard 
for mutual interest was involved, the aim being 
not to secure honor or glory to themselves, but 
to further by every possible means the great aim 
of the societies. 

The number of living and effective versions 
of the Bible somewhat exceeds 400. All the 
languages of the "conquering" clags now possess 
versions of the Bible. Substantially the same 
is true of the "permanent class of languages." 
As to the weak languages which cannot hold 
their ground, and the dialects which cannot all 

survive the diffusion of education, in general, 
portions only of Scriptures have been translated 
into them. 

A list of existing Bible Versions, and a list of 
missionaries who have translated or revised the 
Bible for the Bible societies, will be found in the 

BIBLE WOMEN: Mission reports originally 
employed this term as the simplest expression 
for Christian service on the part of a native 
woman. A "Bible Woman" read the Bible tO' 
other women, went from neighbor to neighbor, 
repeating texts and explanations as she had 
heard them, or, if she could not read, she recited 
memorized passages of Scripture or sang a hymn. 
The phrase will always signify those who make 
the Bible known to others. The Bible woman 
ingeniously invents opportunity to introduce 
the Word of God to the heathen. She teaches 
women to read in order that they may study the 
Bible; she gathers children about her to teach 
them Bible verses and stories; she enforces her 
Bible teaching by the example of her own self- 
sacrificing, happy Christian life. In the progress 
of missions, however, the content of the term 
has expanded until it covers wide and varied 
activities. What does not the Bible woman do? 
She is equally ready to join in a husking-bee or 
a grape-gathering, to help a tired mother with 
her sewing or in the care of sick children. Groups 
of women before their doors knitting or spinning, 
tho they sometimes curse the woman and 
the Book, more frequently respond to her pleas- 
ant greeting with an invitation to stop. In 
1901, when people were dying of plague in 
Bombay at the rate of four hundred daily, the 
Bible women kept at their posts, visiting segre- 
gation camps. They move with gentle ministra- 
tion from one bedside to another in all the women's 
wards of mission hospitals in Asia, and conduct 
services in their waiting rooms for patients. 
The writer has seen them addressing rooms full 
of listeners in the Margaret Williamson Hospital, 
Shanghai, at Dr. Benn's dispensary in Tientsin, 
teaching convalescents at Canton Hospital. At 
Tooker Memorial Hospital, Su-chau-fu, patients, 
especially from the country, often begin to arrive 
early in the morning, and one of the Bible women 
has many precious opportunities to preach to 
these early comers as she sits in the gate-house 
with her sewing. These women also do a road- 
side work, conveying the first elementary notions 
of Christianity to their fellow passengers on the 
boat, or to the traveler resting, like themselves, 
in the tea-house or under a wayside tree. Taking 
advantage of the relations of kinship or clan- 
ship, they penetrate to remote country districts 
where the foreigner has never gone, and publish 
the name of Jesus where ear has never heard it. 
In wet and cold, more often in blazing heat, they 
thread narrow city lanes and teach the alphabet, 
perhaps, to the secluded women of India. 
They are leading spirits in the women's meetings, 
they explain the bhajans, they are a right hand 
to the pastor. It is they who arrange for the 
sick to be cared for, who advise mothers about 
their children, urge their education, discourage 
early marriage, warn against opium. "These 
Bible women in many ways prove a blessing. 
The other day, three of them heard a fierce 
quarrel going on at a village over distribution 
of the harvest. The women, who were farmers 
and Mahars in caste, had come to blows; with 
God's blessing the Bible women became peace- 

Bible "Women 



makers and all the belligerents were soon sitting 
together, listening to the word of Christ's love." 
"A class has been formed," (says the report of 
the American Marathi Mission) of old women, 
some of them blind and crippled; a Bible reader 
teaches them four times a week. The Bible 
women have been very faithful to the Dorcas 
■Society; many garments have been made for the 
poor and money gathered for materials." "A 
staff of nineteen women are occupied in our 
Bible work (LMS in Calcutta). Men, also, 
welcome these modest Christian workers who 
often have an opportunity of delivering the 
Gospel message to men of rank and position." 
The Bible woman is the link between mission- 
ary and native church. She clears up misunder- 
standings and interprets each to the other. She 
supplements the missionary's halting tongue 
with her fluent prayers. She is her escort to the 
high class house where rigorous etiquette must 
be observed, and she delicately chooses the 
proper moment in which to introduce her Gospel 
message. "Our efforts," wrote a missionary in 
Travancore, "would amount to comparatively 
little in such a climate had we not a band of native 
women to go forth under our direction to labor 
from day to day." "We must repeat ourselves 
in our Christian women," said another. 

The superior natural equipment of the Bible 
woman was well expressed by Miss Ricketts at 
the Shanghai Conference in 1890: 

"She has been in the exact condition of her 
hearers. She knows the depth of their ignorance, 
their habits, temptations, modes of thinking and 
feeling, and therefore she can appeal to them and 
carry home her appeal by illustrations drawn 
from their common life. She has at her command 
a store of proverbs which give point to what she 
says. She knows how much may be expected 
of them in coming regularly to worship, and can 
meet objections to keeping the Sabbath. One 
of our Swatow Bible women can almost always 
gain and keep the ear of her countrywomen. 
She carries with her a wholesome, sunny atmos- 
phere which the people enjoy. When they ply 
her with irrelevant questions she replies, "I have 
only one little mouth and cannot answer so 
many things. What I am saying is of life and 
death concern to you." 

The ideal Bible woman reflects the missionary's 
methods, and energy and, to a degree, absorbs 
her cultivation. Her eyes see what sort of 
instruction the country class needs and discern 
the secret of sudden coldness in the church. 
She is the missionary's indispensable helper, and, 
tho many times proving a disappointment, 
and often taxing that forbearance which is the 
price paid by superior endowment and training 
to less disciplined assistance, missionary and 
Bible woman mutually depend upon one another, 
and shut up together as they often are for weeks 
of itineration, sharing hardship and persecution, 
their relation in numberless cases is that of 
established trust and friendship. Every reader 
of missionary magazines will here and there come 
upon such testimony as the following, in a mission- 
ary's letter from Marsovan, Asia Minor: "Yeran- 
ouhi, the choicest of the Bible women, closed her 
lovely and most useful earthly life in November, 
1901. Her loss seems irreparable, and was felt 
as keenly by the missionaries as by the poor 
people to whom she had so long, so wisely, and 
so tenderly ministered." 

While the old type of uneducated Bible woman 

still obtains in places, there is a growing senti' 
ment in favor of training. At least eleven of th* 
leading British and American Societies report 
distinctive "Bible Training Schools" with an 
enrollment of 468 pupils. Thorough courses of 
Bible instruction characterize these schools, and, 
in most of them, at least music and physiology 
are taught, and out-door practice is required. 
The school of the Women's Union Society at 
Yokohama has a four years' course. Bible women 
generally work under missionary inspection and 
render reports. Conferences are occasionally 
held for their benefit. The women are often 
of good social position and genteel appearance, 
but blindness has not prevented some from 
great usefulness in this calling. 

Location; Numbers: We rarely hear of Bible 
women in missions to Roman Catholic countries, 
to the South Seas or on the continent of Africa. 
They are employed in the Turkish Empire, in 
Persia, Egypt, Korea, Japan, China and especially 
all over India. "At least two thousand (in 
India), trained by -Vmerican and English mission 
schools, have access to hundreds of thousands 
of Hindu homes." 

When Miss Ellen Stone of Salonika was cap- 
tured by brigands she had a band of nine Bulgar- 
ian Bible women associated with her. Of these 
it is said: "The women, distaffs in hand, spin- 
ning as they walk, not to lose a precious minute, 
Testament and hymn-book tucked in the girdle, 
often with babies on their backs, gather for the 
prayer hour. It is a sight to make believers in 
the work of the Bible woman, to see these hard- 
handed, labor-bowed mothers of many children 
able to read and sing, thanks to her patience and 

Certain cities are centers of extensive labors 
in this line. Jaffna, Ceylon, is worked by over 
fifty Bible women. In Madura, Madras Presi- 
dency, thirty-one have access to a thousand non- 
Christian homes of the city where Bible instruc- 
tion is gladly received, and seventeen other 
women visit in seventy-two villages and instruct 
over a thousand pupils. At Ahmednagar, Bom- 
bay Presidency, ten classes, including 250 illit- 
erate women, are taught by seventeen Bible 
women who also have pupils in private houses. 
Thirty-six women of the Union Society are 
laboring in and about Yokohama. Foochow, 
China, is another center, where three missions 
engage in training women for Bible work. 

As to the number of Bible women employed 
in Protestant missions, only a very partial 
estimate is possible. In 1899 the British and 
Foreign Bible Society received returns from 552 
women under its direction. The London Mis- 
sionary Society, in 1902, reported a staff of 271 
Bible women, the Church of England Zenana 
Society 242, the American Baptist Union 250, 
the Presbyterian Board (North) 225, the Con- 
gregational Woman's Board (Boston) over 200. 
"The Zenana, Bible and Medical Society (London) 
reports 92, and the United Free Church of Scot- 
land 36. 'The American Marathi Mission employs 
109 Bible women as against a total of 84 pastors, 
preachers and men Bible readers. 

Those workers who appear on the pages of 
reports are usually paid, and by this method, a 
mission ensures to itself the advantages of con- 
secutiveness and definite hours of labor. The 
wages of Bible women range from 25 to 50 dollars 
a year. In addition to this recognized force, 
there are many voluntary workers, the amount 



Bible Women 

and value of whose services can never be tabu- 
lated. In some of the newer missions, it is 
aimed to develop this voluntary corps and to 
reduce the number of paid workers to a minimum. 
The Mission of the Presbyterian Church (North) 
in Korea is a marked example of this aim. Hun- 
dreds of Korean women are voluntarily doing 
the work of a Bible woman, as against a handful 
who are paid. The writer has seen one effec- 
tively preaching of her own free will to a miscel- 
laneous crowd on a river bank. These Korean 
volunteer Bible women were met, night after 
night, in country meetings, where they found the 
Scripture passages for the slow, and set the 
example of quiet and order to the uninitiated. 
They were heard of, selling Testaments as they 
traveled about in the conduct of their own busi- 
ness, or led meetings with beginners in the 
Christian life. Their cleanliness, their pure 
language and their Gospel message, all were re- 
enforced by the fact that no pecuniary reward 
had touched their hands. 

BICKNELL, Henry: Missionary of the LMS 
to Tahiti, 1796-1820. In 1819 he baptized King 
Pomare, and also assisted him in the framing of 
a code of laws by means of which good govern- 
ment on the island was formally established. 
Died at Tahiti, August 7, 1820. 

BICKERSTETH, Edward: Died August 5, 

M. A. Fellow Pembroke College, Cambridge. 
Ordained deacon in 1873; ordained priest in 
1874. Chief station, Delhi, India, from 1877-81. 
Transferred to Japan in 1886. Consecrated 
in St. Paul's Cathedral in 1886, second English 
Bishop in Japan. Son of E. H. Bickersteth, 
Bishop of Exeter, and grandson of a former Sec- 
retary of the CMS. He was moved by the mis- 
sionary Bishop French of Lahore to devote his 
life to a missionary career; and, influenced by 
French, he planned a brotherhood of Cambridge 
men, which should form a strong and concen- 
trated mission at some central station, in affilia- 
tion with one of the established societies. Bick- 
ersteth's hereditary associations naturally led 
him to approach the CMS, but, difficulties arising, 
he concluded matters with the SPG, and Delhi 
was chosen for the new "Cambridge Mission." 

Bishop Bickersteth arrived in Japan April 
16, 1886, and at his request he was allowed to 
make his residence at Tokio. His great achieve- 
ment is spoken of as the formation of the Nippon 
Sei-kokwai or "Japan Catholic Church". He felt 
that the peculiarly independent spirit of the Jap- 
anese and the tendency toward a latitudinarian 
development of Christianity among them, ren- 
dered it important that the ecclesiastical organi- 
zation, with its doctrines and forms, should be 
positively recognized. He soon felt the value 
and importance of woman's work in Japan; and 
wrote to the Society these urgent words: "I feel 
strongly that the policy of working through 
clergy only, without the assistance of lady mis- 
sionaries, has in the past crippled our Missions." 
And since then, Japan has always claimed and 
received a good share of SPG women. 

In 1887 Bishop Bickersteth, accompanied by 
Bishop Scott, of North China, visited Korea, and 
their appeal to the Archbishop of Canterbury 
resulted in the establishment of the SPG Mission 
in this important field. In 1892 the Bishop set 
himself to visit every station and outstation of 
the Anglican Missions in Japan, and his study 

of this large diocese, with its extremities 2,000 
miles apart, led him to the conviction that Japan 
now needed more bishops. His suggestions 
were accepted and acted upon. Bishop Bicker- 
steth did much toward consolidating the Japan- 
ese Church under American, English and Cana- 
dian Episcopal Missions into the Nippon Sei- 
kokwai with its complete synodical organiza- 
tion, and his name will also be remembered as 
the founder of tlie two community missions of 
St. Andrew and St. Hilda, the former of which 
(for men) renewed its connection with the SPG 
in 1900. The Bickersteth Hall, in Delhi, India 
(built in 1891) affords a splendid opportunity 
for preaching the Gospel in the very heart of the 
Mohammedan quarter, and the Bickersteth Me- 
morial Studentships for the maintenance of stu- 
dents studying for the ministry at St. Andrew's 
Divinity School, Tokio, supply a felt need. 

BIHE. See Angola. 

BIJAPUR: Chief town of the district of the 
same name in the Bombay Presidency, India. 
Formerly an imposing city, it now has (1891) 
about 16,000 inhabitants. Station of the Basel 
Missionary Society (1885), with (1902) 1 mission- 
ary and his wife, 9 native workers, 4 village 
schools and 53 communicants. Name written 
by the Germans Bidschapur. 

BIJNAUR: a town in the Rohilkhand division. 
United Provinces, India. Population (1891), 

Station of tlie ME, with 1 missionary and his 
wife, 41 native workers, men and women, 4 chap- 
els, 20 Sunday schools, 17 village schools, 1 high 
school, 1 Young People's Society and 1,216 pro- 
fessing Christians. Also written Bijnour. 

BILASPUR: a town and railway station in 
the Central Provinces, India. Population (1891), 
11,236. Station of the Christian (Disciples) 
Woman's Board of Missions (1893), with 7 mis- 
sionary women, of whom one is a physician, 1 
chapel, 1 Sunday school, 2 village schools, a dis- 
pensary, a hospital, an orphanage and 70 pro- 
fessing Christians. 

BILIN: Name of a tribe inhabiting a part of 
the northern regions of Abyssinia. About 
half of the tribe are Roman Catholics, a part are 
Mohammedans, and the rest belong to the 
Abyssinian Church. The tribe is also called 


BILSI: A town in the Rohilkhand division. 
Central Provinces, India; station of the ME, 
with 23 native workers, men and women, 11 
Sunday schools, 7 village schools, a Young 
People's Society and 960 professing Christians. 

BIMLIPATAM: A town on the coast of the 
Vizagapatam district, Madras, India; station of 
the BMP (1876), with 2 missionaries and their 
wives, 1 missionary woman, 6 native workers, 
men and women, 2 outstations, 1 chapel, 1 Sun- 
day school, 1 theological seminary and 22 church 

BINA: A town and railway station in Central 
India, S. W. of Lalitpur; station of the FCMS 
(1894), with 1 missionary and his wife, 1 mission- 
ary woman, 3 native workers, 1 chapel, 1 Sun- 
day school, 1 village school, 1 orphanage and 60 
church members. 

BINGHAM, Hiram: born at Bennington, Vt., 
October 30, 1789; graduated at Middlebury 


Blliid; Alisislons to 



College, 1816, at Andover Theological Seminary, 
1819. A visit to the foreign mission school at 
Cornwall, Ct., while Henry Obookiah was there 
awakened in him a desire to carry the Gospel to the 
Sandwich Islands. He was ordained September 
29, 1819; sailed October 23 of the same year 
as a missionary of the ABCFM and was stationed 
at Honolulu. His undaunted courage, inflexible 
will, combined with his good nature and cheerful- 
ness, fitted him to meet the opposition in that 
stronghold of wickedness. He returned to the 
United States in 1841 on account of the ill health 
of Mrs. Bingham. Six years after his return he 
published History of the Mission down to 1845, 
in an octavo volume of 600 pages, a work of great 
historic value. He died in 1869 after a brief ill- 




BIRD, Rev. William: Died August 30, 1901. 
On the 17th of August, 1901, Rev. William Bird 
celebrated the 79th anniversary of his birthday. 
He had entered on his fiftieth year of service in 
the Syria Mission. 

He first came to Syria in 1823 as an infant. 
When his parents and their associates were 
obliged to flee from Syria, this child became 
treasurer of the Syria Mission, his bed and pillow 
being the safe deposit vaults for the cash, thus 
eluding the rapacity of the Turkish officials and 
the violence of a lawless populace. 

Not long after, when he returned a second 
time, with his parents, to Beirut, the entire 
Protestant community came in a little boat to 
meet them. It consisted of two men. 

In 1853 Mr. and Mrs. William Bird began their 
missionary career (under the ABCFM), the last 
twenty years of which was spent in the service 
of the Presbyterian Board (North). Having 
spent his childhood in Syria, the difficult Arabic 
language was practically his vernacular. His 
life was full of zeal and earnestness and self- 
denial. He preached with power and marked 
effect. He was loved and honored by the people. 
Wherever he went he was welcomed. He ate 
with the people and slept as they slept when on 
his missionary tours, winning their confidence and 
friendship by identifying himself with them, as 
few missionaries are able to do. He was particu- 
larly attractive in his school work and enthusias- 
tically welcomed by all children. He was loved 
and honored by all who knew him, and is deeply 
mourned by all his associates and acquaint- 

BIRI SIRl: A village on the borders of Assam 
in Eastern Bengal, India, N. E. of Nasirabad; 
station of the Victorian Baptist Foreign Mission 
Society (1893), with 31 native workers, 20 out- 
stations, 20 chapels, 18 Sunday schools, 20 vil- 
lage schools, 1 training school for women work- 
ers and 512 professing Christians. 

BIRTLE : A town in the western part of Mani- 
toba, Canada; station of the PCC (1883), with 1 
missionary and his wife, 2 missionary women, and 
1 high school. 

BISAULI : A village in the Rohilkhand District, 
United Provinces, India, N. W. of Budaun; 
station of the ME, with 20 native workers, men 
and women, 2 chapels, 16 Sunday schools, 6 vil- 
lage schools, 1 Young People's Society, and 1,290 
professing Christians. 

BISHNUPUR: A town in Bengal, India, S. E. 
of Bankura; station of the WMS. Statistics 

included in those of Bankura. Name also written 

BISHOP, Artemus: Born at Pompey, N. Y., 
December 30, 1795; graduated at Union Col- 
lege, 1819, and Princeton Theological Seminary, 
1822; sailed as a missionary of the ABCFM in the 
first reenforcements for the Sandwich Islands, 
1822. He was stationed at Kailua, and was 
associated with Mr. Thurston in the translation 
of the Bible. After residing twelve years at 
Kailua, he removed to Ewa, on Oahu, where he 
labored twenty years with great success. Here 
he translated Pilgrim's Progress and many other 
books. He never left the islands except once,, 
and that as a delegate to the Marquesas Mission, 
in 1858. He died at Honolulu, December 18, 

BISRAMPUR: A town in Chota Nagpur, Bengal, 
India; station of the German Evangelical Synod 
Missionary Society, U. S. A. (1869), with 2 mis- 
sionaries, 1 missionary's wife, 1 missionary 
woman (physician), 22 native workers, men and. 
women, 9 outstations, 10 chapels, 1 Sunday 
school, 6 village schools, 1 high school, 1 indus- 
trial school, 1 theological seminary, 1 orphanage,, 
a hospital, a dispensary, and 670 communicants. 
BISTOPUR: A town E. of Calcutta, Bengal, 
India; station of the BMS (1844), with 4 native 
workers, 12 outstations, 14 village schools, 1 
high school, 13 Sunday schools, 7 young people's 
societies, and 475 church members. 

BITHYNIA : In ancient times a section of Asia 
Minor, bordering on the Sea of Marmora and the 
Gulf of Nicomedia. There is no present province 
of that name, but the term is still applied in 
general to the same region. It includes espe- 
cially the cities of Brousa and Nicomedia, with no 
very well defined limits either to the north or east. 
BITLIS: A city of Eastern Turkey, 150 miles 
southwest of Erzerum. Climate, healthy, dry. 
Population, 25,000, Mohammedan Kurds and 
Turks and Christian Armenians. Its situation 
among the mountains of Kurdistan is peculiarly 
beautiful, and surrounded as it is by high peaks, 
it served for a long time as the virtual capital of 
the Kurds. The rough, turbulent character of the 
people has often occasioned trouble and even 
danger; a massacre of Armenians occurred in the 
city in 1895. 

Station of the ABCFM (1859), with 1 mission- 
ary and his wife, 3 missionary women, 29 native 
workers, men and \women, 12 outstations, 9 
chapels, 3 Sunday schools, 19 village schools, 2 
high schools, 1 industrial school, and 250 church 

BIZERTA: A seaport town and seat of a 
Roman Catholic bishop, in Tunis, Africa; station 
of the NAM (1898), with 2 missionary women 
and 1 Sunday school. Also station of the (Swe- 
dish) Women's Foreign Mission Work (1898), 
with 2 missionary women. 

BLACKFOOT CROSSING: A station of the 
CMS (1883) on the S. Saskatchewan River, 
Alberta, Canada, with 3 missionaries (1 a phy- 
sician), 1 missionary's wife, 2 native workers, 1 
chapel, 1 high school, 1 dispensary and 94 bap- 
tized Christians. 

central group of the North American family of 
languages. It is spoken by some 7,000 Indians 
in the Province of Alberta, Canada. It is written 
with Roman letters. 



Blind; nil»siou8 to 

BLACKLEAD ISLAND : A station of the CMS 
among the Eskimos, on the W. coast of Cumber- 
land Sound, north of Labrador (1894), with 2 
missionaries (1 with his wife), 1 village school, 
and 5 baptized Christians. 

BLANTYRE: Chief town of the Nyasaland 
(Britisli) Protectorate, Central Africa, situated 
in the ShirS Highlands, S. of Lake Nyasa, at an 
elevation of 3,000 feet. Population, about 6,500. 

Station of the CSFM (1874) , which has had many 
difficulties to overcome, some due to early inex- 
perience, some to the intrigues of jealous mer- 
chants and some to inevitable collisions with Arab 
slave dealers. The place is now, however, pros- 
pering, has an appreciable commerce and offers 
safety for life and property. The Church of Scot- 
land has, at Blantyre, 16 missionaries, men and 
women, of whom 3 are physicians, 22 native 
-workers, 1 chapel, 13 village schools, 1 high school, 
1 industrial school, special work among lepers, 4 
dispensaries, 1 hospital, 1 printing house and 
370 church members. 

It is a station, also, of the NBC (1889), with 2 
missionaries, 3 native workers, 1 chapel, 1 Sunday 
school, 1 industrial school, and 100 professing 

BLAUBERG: A town in the northern part of 
the Transvaal Colony, South Africa. Station 
of the Berlin Evangelical Missionary Society 
(1868), with 1 missionary, 11 native workers, 3 
outstations and 101 communicants. 

BLEBY, Rev. Henry: Born in Winchcombe, 
England, March 16, 1809. Died May 22, 1882. 
Missionary under the WMS. He was received into 
the ministry in 1830 and sent out to the Jamaica 
district in the West Indies, where he rendered 
valuable services to the Church of God. He was 
prominent among a noble band of men who, 
in the midst of deadly persecution, counted not 
their lives dear to themselves if they could but 
mitigate the sufferings of their oppressed fellow 
creatures. On one occasion the enemies of mis- 
sions to the slaves seized him, daubed his body 
with pitch, and took a lighted candle to set the 
pitch on fire. He was only saved by the brave 
interference of his wife. The experiment of 
Wesleyan missions in the West Indies owed 
much of its success to the courage and faithful- 
ness of Mr. Bleby in the discharge of the difficult 
duties that devolved upon him. 

He was the author of the following works: 
Death Struggles of Slavery (being a narrative of 
facts in Jamaica during the two years imme- 
diately preceding negro emancipation). Scenes 
inthe Caribbean Sea. Reign of Terror (W. Indies). 
Romance without Fiction; or, Sketches from the 
Portfolio of an old Missionary. 

German Mission to. See Germany; Missionary 
Societies in. 

BLIND; Missions to the: This is one of the 
works of general philanthropy for which non- 
Christian peoples are indebted to Christian mis- 
sions. Pagan, and more especially Mohamme- 
dan, peoples give help to the blind as they do to 
other impotent folk. The emotion of pity is a 
characteristic of the human race, of which, hap- 
pily, traces may be found even where self-seeking 
sometimes seems to have extinguished all other 
motives of action. But in the non-Christian 
countries that habit of thought for the welfare 
of others is lacking which Jesus Christ teaches 

His followers. As a rule, in such countries the 
helplessness of the blind is regarded as a natural 
calamity for which alleviation cannot be imag- 
ined, and which therefore separates them from 
any possible connection with the interests of 
social life. Pity for their condition is superficial 
and finds sufficient expression in occasional doles 
of food or pence, and only occasionally in the 
construction of shelters for them. The lot of a 
sightless one, at the best, if he is one of the 
common people, is that of a plaintive suppliant 
who suffers in ragged and lonely uncertainty 
until death releases him. Schemers for easy gain 
take advantage of the calamity in some of the 
Asiatic countries. A blind child is taken in hand 
and cared for, as a business investment by men 
who clutch as their due the proceeds of the beg- 
gar's appeal to the pitiful. In Turkey, men make 
it their profession to scour the country in search 
of such impotent folk in order to hire or buy 
them from their relatives, and then to exploit 
their miserable condition on the streets of the 
cities. In China, it was in past years generally, 
and in some places still is, the custom of similar 
harpies to gather up blind girls and house and 
feed and clothe them in order to make money 
by thrusting them into a life of debauchery. In 
such lands the best that can happen to a blind 
person who is of the poorer classes is to be left 
alone that people may toss him a beggar's dole 
and pass by on the other side. But let the Gospel 
enter such a land and the missionary who is, 
charged to make it known cannot rest until he 
has devised means of giving the blind the power 
to read, to earn a living, and to feel, by means 
of this kindijess which appreciates his deeper 
needs, the love of Jesus Christ for outcasts. 

The work of missionaries for the blind cannot 
here be catalogd in detail. But it is a work 
which should not be passed by without reference. 
In China an unusually large per cent, of the popu- 
lation become blind through smallpox, leprosy, 
and ophthalmia. For neitlier disease is any sane 
medical treatment provided by the natives. 
Filthy and immoral habits, and the brutality of 
parents who wilfully blind their children through 
greed of gain, are also causes of blindness in 
China. As far back as 1857 the mission of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church (U. S.) at Shanghai 
established a school for the blind. In the north- 
ern part of the empire efforts to help the blind 
took a new development when William Murray, 
then a colporteur of the National Bible Society of 
Scotland, succeeded in applying the Braille sys- 
tem of raised dots to the Chinese characters. 
His Christian sympathy for the wretched Chinese 
blind drew the whole power of his mind to their 
relief, with the result that he solved the problem 
of enabling them to read books. 

The system which Mr. Murray arranged is so 
simple that even Chinese who can see have found 
the Braille alphabet of dots more easy to master 
and use than the quaint but perplexing characters 
written by their own ancient scribes. Mr. Mur- 
ray readily obtained money to open a school for 
the blind at Peking in 1881, which has not only 
taught blind beggars to read and write and to 
work for their own support, but has transformed 
some of these hopelessly dependent creatures 
into active missionary agents, as Scripture read- 
ers, singers of sacred songs, and organists in 
Christian chapels. The amazement of the na- 
tives on seeing a blind child read with his fingers 
arouses the deepest interest, and becomes a 

Blind; Missions to 



means of turning men's minds to study of the 
reasons for the intelligent humanity of the fol- 
lowers of Clirist. 

The Braille system has been adopted by some 
of the missionary societies, and as tlie children 
in the blind schools learn to write it, they also 
begin preparation of a stock of Bible verses and 
other useful matter which, once comrnitted to 
paper, they can read again and again. The 
Bible societies have made this and the Moon 
system the means of publishing, in the Mandarin 
and three local dialects of Chinese, Gospels or 
other parts of Scripture for the blind. 

What Mr. Murray did for the Chinese of the 
Peking region was done for the people of a good 
part of Turkey by the late Rev. Elias Riggs, 
D.D., aided by Mr. G. W. Moon. Some of the 
Gospels have been prepared for the blind in 
Armenian and in Turkish. One or the other of 
these two systems has been adopted for the uses 
of the blind in Arabic, in seven of the languages 
of India, in Burmese, in Sinhalese, in the Toba 
language of Sumatra, and in the language of 
Uganda, in Africa. Thus in many lands num- 
bers whose case had been given up by their 
nearest friends as beyond human aid, have been 
taken in hand for Christ's sake by strangers from 
beyond the seas and have been caused to see the 

There are now 12 institutions for the blind in 
China, maintained by the PN, the CMS, the PE, 
the CIM, the WMS, the PCE, the Berlin Ladies' 
Missionary Association, and the German Mission 
to the Chinese Blind, besides the Murray Mission 
and another independent mission expressly to 
the blind. In India 6 such institutions are car- 
ried on by the CMS, the CSM, the CEZ, the CP, 
and the ABCFM. In Japan there are 4 mission- 
ary institutions for the blind established by the 
CMS, the MCC , and an independent mission. 
Another independent organization carries on a 
school for the blind in Korea. The PCE has an 
outdoor mission to the blind in Formosa, and 
cooperates with the Japanese Government in 
giving permanent asylum to those who need it. 
The British Syrian Schools Committee has opened 
three schools for the blind in Syria, one of them 
on the ruins of Tyre — that ancient queen of the 
Mediterranean. In nearly all of these institu- 
tions there is provision to endow the pupils with 
simple industries which will give them occupa- 
tion and support. But the number of asylums 
and schools for the blind does not represent the 
worlv of missions for these wrecked lives. In 
every mission field where no such schools exist, 
individual missionaries teach, and elevate, and 
comfort, and make happy individuals who but 
for them would never know the meaning of sym- 
pathy. Moreover, this liumanitarian work has 
stirred non-Christians to imitate or support so 
far-reaching a charity. Even in Turkey, Moham- 
medans have been led in recent years to copy 
' this part of tiie teaching of the Christians. 

There is no point of comparison between the 
non-Christian religions and Christianity which 
reveals a sharper contrast than their idea of what 
constitutes kindly care for the feeble and help- 
less. The man who does not know Christ may 
probably feel pity, but his religion does not 
direct his pity to reach its proper goal. So he 
gives the sufferer a penny and leaves him as he 
was. But the man who has learned from Jesus 
Christ cannot leave the blind man when he has 
given him bread. He sees the profounder needs 

belonging to manhood — the needs of heart and 
soul and mind. He has to supply these needs by 
a continual and unflinching sacrifice of himself. 
But in doing it, he becomes the means of revo- 
lutionizing a hopeless and useless life by bringing- 
it within touch of the springs of power in the 
eternal world. This work for the blind of non- 
Christian lands would not be done if it were not 
done by Christian missions. 

BLISS, Edwin Elisha: Born at Putney, Vt., 
April 12, 1817; died at Constantinople, Turkey, 
December 20, 1892. Graduated at Amherst 
College in 1837, having for his college mates- 
Henry Ward Beecher, Roswell D. Hitchcock, and 
Richard S. Storrs. Graduated at Andover Theo- 
logical Seminary in 1842; sailed for Turkey 
March 1, 1843, as a missionary of the ABCFM 
assigned to the Nestorians living in the mountain 
region along the frontier of Persia. The Turkish 
Government having refused, on account of the 
disturbed state of the country, to let an American 
go to the Nestorian district, Mr. Bliss was tem- 
porarily assigned to Trebizond. The demands of 
other fields proving pressing, he never reached the 
field to which he was first assigned. Mr. Bliss 
studied the Turkish and Armenian languages. 
In 1851 he was sent to open a new station at 
Marsovan, in the eastern extremity of the prov- 
ince of Sivas, and through ignorance of the coun- 
try and devotion to his duty he exposed himself 
to malaria, becoming subject to attacks of inter- 
mittent fever, from which he could not count 
himself free to the very end of his life. After 
having worked with great success in the Marso- 
van field, Mr. Bliss, in 1856, was transferred to 
Constantinople for literary work in the Armenian 
language. During thirty-six years he was occu- 
pied in the department of publication, part of 
the time in editing the Avedaper newspaper, and 
later in the preparation of books and tracts, many 
of which have been daily food to the Evangelical 
Churches of Turkey. During his whole mission- 
ary life he esteemed it a privilege and duty to 
preach when opportunity offered, altho a 
victim of ague, and working during the week like 
a slave of the printing-press. Dr. Bliss' influence 
in mission councils and in native churches alike 
was extraordinary. The simplicity and piety of 
his private life, the certainty with which his 
action was controlled by "common sense unbiased 
by passion or prejudice," to use the words of one 
of his associates, "and the mingled devotion, 
pathos, and humor which characterized his dis- 
cussions of important matters," caused it to be 
remarked that while other missionaries of 
renowned power were at Constantinople at the 
same time with him they all recognized in Dr. 
Bliss a peer. Probably all admitted that for 
uniform soundness of judgment at times of crisis 
he stood first in the mission. Dr. Bliss preferred 
to spend time in doing his work rather than in 
calling attention to it. Hence he was not widely 
known outside of mission circles, altho his serv- 
ices in Turkey continued nearly fiftv years. 

BLISS, Isaac Grout: Born at Springfield, Mass., 
July 5, 1822; graduated at Amherst College, 
1844, and studied at Andover and New Haven 
Theological Seminaries. He married Eunice B. 
Day, of West Springfield, and in 1847 was 
ordained a missionary of the ABCFM. Stationed 
at Erzerum, Eastern Turkey, he was a pioneer 
in opening up the valley of the Euphrates to 
missionary influence. Uninterrupted labor and 



Blind; Missions to 

continued traveling, at tliat time far more 
dangerous and fatiguing than now, broke down 
a naturally fine constitution, and in 1S52 he was 
obliged to visit America, and later to resign his 
connection with the Board. Scarcely a year 
after his resignation an invitation came to him 
from the American Bible Society to go to Con- 
stantinople as agent for the Levant. The work 
being less confining, in the winter of 1857-58 he 
entered upon it with enthusiasm. 

He found the agency without any organiza- 
tion at all. There were almost no rules as to 
the distribution of Bibles, and the greater part 
of the funds received from their sale was applied 
to general missionary work. With great tact 
and patience, and indomitable will, he set to 
work to bring order out of confusion. His field 
was very large, covering the whole Turkish 
Empire (including Egypt, Syria, and Mesopo- 
tamia), Persia and Greece. Located at Constanti- 
nople, the port by which most missionaries to 
those lands entered into their fields, and where 
for many years the annual meetings of the whole 
missionary force were lield, his liouse was always 
open, and there were few of those who passed 
through that did not enjoy its hospitality. He 
traveled some, tho not as mvich as he felt essen- 
tial, directing almost tlie entire work from the 
little office that he shared with the treasurer of 
the mission of the ABCFM at Constantinople. 
Their cramped and unhealthy quarters were a 
constant trial, and at last the resolution was 
formed to build a Bible House for Constantinople 
corresponding to that in New York. Called 
home in 1866 to attend the Jubilee of the Bible 
Society, he pressed the need of such a building. 
The Society was unwilling to take it up, but 
allowed him his time to raise the needed money, 
and in 1867 he returned with tlie requisite funds. 
The securing of a site and the erection of the 
building met witli the most determined opposi- 
tion, but in 1872 the edifice was complete and 
universally recognized as the handsomest busi- 
ness building in the city. It has since been 
enlarged as the work has grown. See Bible 
House, Constantinople. 

While in the midst of superintending the erec- 
tion of the Bible House, Dr. Bliss took the time, 
in 1870, to make a hurried visit to America, and 
secured the transference to Beirut of the great 
work of electrotyping and printing the Arabic 
Bible. This had hitherto been done at the Bible 
House in New York, and the change seemed to 
many hazardous, yet by dint of most earnest 
appeals he secured tlie endorsement by the 
Society of a step since recognized to be one of 
the most important in its history. 

Then came the question of the Turkish ver- 
sions. There were at that time three, in the 
Arabic, the Armenian, and the Greelv characters, 
all made by different men, and with differences of 
meaning as well as of idiom. This liad long been 
felt to be most unfortunate, yet there seemed to 
be no help for it. Dr. Bliss believed that the 
difficulty could be overcome, and even at the 
risk of offending some, he pressed for a union of 
the forces that were revising eacli version. At 
last he carried the day, and the Turkish version 
of to-day is scarcely less a monument to the men 
who made it than to him whose clear vision and 
earnest purpose made it possible for them to 
make it. 

Meanwhile, he pressed colportage unceasingly. 
From 2,500 copies during the first year, the cir- | 

culation ran up to 56,628 in the twenty-fifth 
year of the agency. 

The winter of 1888-89 was a trying one, and 
he souglit relief in tlie warmer climate of Egypt, 
but on February 16, 1889, he passed away in 
Assiout, Upper Egypt. He was buried by the 
side of a lifelong friend and fellow-laborer. Rev. 
John Hogg, D.D., at the very outpost of his- 
agency, whence it had been his desire to push 
on the Bible work into the heart of Darlcest 

BLODGET, Rev. Henry: Born in Bucksport, 
Me., July 25, 1825. Died in Bridgeport, Conn., 
May 23, 1903. For forty years a missionary of 
the ABCFM in China, and for eiglit years a Cor- 
porate Member of the Board. He graduated 
from Yale College in the class of 1848, and was. 
tutor there from 1850 to 1853. He studied in 
New Haven and Andover Theological Seminaries, 
and was ordained as missionary in January, 1854, 
sailing that same year for China. He arrived at 
Shanghai in September, 1854, and began to 
preach in the Chinese language a year later. Dr. 
Blodget was engaged at Shanghai and at Tientsin 
ten years, but in 1864 he located at Peking, 
wliere he remained until 1894, when, owing to the 
increasing infirmities of old age, he returned to 
America. He had a wide influence in Peking, 
being universally respected by representatives of 
the Government, missionaries of all societies and 
the Chinese Christians. For the last thirty years 
of his life in Peking Dr. Blodget gave his time 
largely to literary work. He gave his best 
strength for nearly ten years, with a company of 
five, to tlie translation of tlie New Testament 
into the Mandarin Colloquial of Peking. He 
translated 194 hymns and six doxologies, and, 
besides the New Testament and these hymns. Dr. 
Blodget translated several lesser works, as 
Thomas a Kempis, The Reformed Church Cate- 
chism, by Philip Schaff ; President Edwards' Con- 
secration, and Henry and His Bearer. He also 
carried from Shanghai a Catechism and Tri- 
metrical Classic, which he rendered into Peking- 
ese Colloquial, and which has been widely dis- 
tributed in North China. But Dr. Blodget, 
while giving his time largely to literary work, 
possessed strongly the evangelistic spirit. 
Every morning he had a Bible class for helpers 
and inquirers, and he gave time to preaching in 
the street chapel in the afternoons. Once or 
twice in the year he made a tour into the country, 
and for sixty miles south of Peking tliese visits 
exerted great influence for good. His life and 
labors were a permanent contribution to the 
cause of missions. 

BLOEMFONTEIN: Capital of the Orange River 
Colony, S. Africa. Population (1890), 3,459. 
Mission station of tlie Berlin Evangelical Mission- 
ary Society (1875), with 2 missionaries, 10 native 
workers, men and women, and 370 communi- 
cants. Also station of the SPG (1850), witli 1 
missionary woman. Also station of tlie Sotith 
African Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society, 
with 71 native workers, 1 Sunday school, 1 vil- 
lage school, 1 Young People's Society and 1,550' 
professing Christians. 

BLORA: A town E. of Samarang, Java, Dutch 
E. Indies; .station of the Neukirchen Mi.ssionary 
Society (1891), witli 1 missionary and wife, 7 
native workers, 1 chapel and 2 village school. 

BLUEFIELDS: A town of 2,000 inhabitants on 
the Mosquito coast, Nicaragua, Central America. 




Station of the Moravian Missions (1848), with 3 
missionaries and their wives, 14 native workers, 
2 chapels, 2 Sunday schools and 300 communi- 

BLYTHWOOD: A town in the Translcei dis- 
trict of Cape Colony, S. Africa; station of the 
UFS, with 5 missionaries, 2 of them with their 
wives, 4 missionary women, 5 native workers, 
men and women, 4 village schools and 1 theo- 
logical seminary. Also written BIythswood. 

BOARDMAN, George Dana: Born at Liver- 
more, Me., February 8, 1801. In April, 1823, 
he offered his services to the Baptist Board of 
Missions, and was accepted. In June of tliat 
year he entered Andover Theological Seminary, 
where he remained two years, sailing for Cal- 
cutta July 16, 1825. Because of the Burmese 
war he remained in the vicinity of Calcutta, occu- 
pied with study of Burmese until 1827, when he 
removed to Maulmain, which became the seat 
also of the mission in Burma. Sir Archibald 
Campbell offered Mr. Boardman a fine, large spot 
of ground for a mission establisliment. On this 
he built a bamboo house costing about $100. 
The mission and the Board in America, thinking 
that the field of operations should be widened by 
the establishment of new stations, Tavoy, about 
150 miles from Maulmain, was selected as the 
site for the new station, and Mr. Boardman, by 
the unanimous choice of his associates, was 
appointed to commence it. He took with him 
Ko-Thah-Byu, the first Karen convert, a young 
Siamese lately baptized, and four of the boys 
from his boarding-school, and reached the city 
of Tavoy, April 9, 1828. He soon commenced 
public worship in Burman, and inquirers began 
to present themselves. On May 16 he bap- 
tized Ko-Thah-Byu, the Karen Christian who 
had accompanied him. As the result of the 
indefatigable labors of this remarlcable man 
many of the Karens of the villages scattered over 
the mountains of Tavoy flocked in from the dis- 
tant jungles to listen to the truths he taught. 
Mr. Boardman resolved to visit the Karens in 
the jungle, and on February 28, 1828, he set 
out on his first tour, accompanied by Ko-Thah- 
Byu and another Karen, a professed believer in 
Christ. So much encouraged was he by the 
readiness of the people to receive him and give 
attention to his instructions, that he determined 
to pursue a course of itinerary preaching among 
their villages. In these tours he was generally 
accompanied by Ko-Thah-Byu or some other 
convert, and some boys from the schools. He 
usually visited three or four villages a week, 
preaching in zayats or from house to house, and 
talking with those he met by the way. Some of 
his journeys were long and dangerous, and often 
on foot. He also made tours in the mission boat 
on the river. These labors were continued for 
three years in great physical debility, to which he 
was reduced by pulmonary disease. Tho 
unwilling to slacken his labors on account of his 
own health, he was obliged by Mrs. Boardman's 
very critical illness to leave his station and to 
remove to Maulmain. Soon after his return to 
Tavoy, Mr. F. Mason joined him as an associate, 
and on the 31st of January, 1831, they set out 
together on a visit to the Karens. They reached 
their destination on the third day, where they 
found a bamboo chapel erected on a beautiful 
stream and a hundred persons assembled, more 
than half of them applicants for baptism. Hav- 

ing lost strength, Mrs. Boardman advised her 
husband to return to Tavoy, but he replied, 
"The cause of God is of more importance than 
my health, and if I return now our whole object 
will be defeated. I want to see the work of the 
Lord go on." When, however, it was evident 
he could not live long, and it was thought best to 
return without delay, he consented, on condition 
that the candidates were baptized that evening, 
to return the day following. So just before sun- 
set he was carried out in his bed to the water-side, 
and in his presence Mr. Mason baptized thirty- 
four persons. While being conveyed to the boat 
from the comfortless roof of the heathen Tavoyer 
which had sheltered them for the night, he died, 
February 11, 1831. He was buried on the 
mission premises, the funeral being attended by 
all the European gentlemen and officers of the 
station, with many natives. Tho but thirty 
years of age and but three years in the service, 
he had accomplished a great work. Within the 
last two months of his life 57 had been baptized, 
all Karens, and at the time of his death the mis- 
sion church at Tavoy had 70 members. 
King (A.), George Dana Board-man, Boston, 1875. 

BOBBILI: A town of 15,000 inhabitants N. of 
Vizianagram, Madras, India; station of the 
BMP (1879), with 1 missionary and his wife, 8 
native workers, men and women, 1 chapel, 3 
Sunday schools and 85 church members. 

BOCAS DEL TORO : A town on the N. coast of 
the isthmus of Panama, belonging to Panama, 
and situated at one of the entrances to the 
lagoon of Chiriqui. Population, 3,000. 

Mission station of the UMFC (1865), with 1 
missionary, 6 native workers, 3 chapels, 3 Sun- 
day schools, 3 village schools, and 300 professing 
Christians. Also station of the Jamaica Baptist 
Missionary Society (1894), with 1 missionary and 
his wife, 1 village school and 161 church members. 

BOCHABELO: A village in the Middelburg 
district of the Transvaal Colony, S. Africa, lying 
east of Pretoria; station of the Berlin Missionary 
Society (1865), with 5 missionaries, 26 native 
workers, and 1,800 baptized Christians. Also 
written Botschabelo. 

BODINAYAKANUR: A village in the western 
part of the Madura district, Madras, India; 
station of the Leipzig Missionary Society (1892), 
with 13 native workers, 4 village schools, 1 high 
school, and 300 communicants. 

BOELOEH HA WAR: A village S. of Medan, 
Sumatra, Dutch East Indies; station of the 
Netherlands Missionary Society (1890), with 3 
missionaries and their wives, 6 native workers, 
4 village schools and 15 communicants. 

BOENISCH, Frederick: A missionary of the 
Moravians to Greenland (1734). A man of 
great courage and zeal, his arrival at a time of 
great discouragement was most opportune. After 
five years of privation and labor one Greenlander 
named Kaiarnak received the Gospel, and took 
up his residence among the missionaries, but was 
driven away for a time by a band of ruffians, 
afterward proving his steadfastness by returning. 
In 1740 Mr. Boenisch married Anna Stack. 
Their children and children's children have served 
as missionaries during 160 years, a sixth genera- 
tion of the family having now entered upon mis- 
sionary service. It was during Mr. Boenisch's 
term of service that the brethren ceased to preach 
the attributes of God, the fall of man, and the 




demands of the Law, and instead began to preach 
Jesus Christ. This change was what awakened 
the consciences of the benighted people, leading 
them to become true followers of Jesus. 

BOGADJIM: A settlement in German New 
Guinea; station of the Rhenish Missionary Society, 
Tvith a missionary physician and his wife. 

BOGOS LANGUAGE: Belongs to the Hamitic 
family of languages and is spoken by the Bilin 
tribe in the North of Abyssinia. It is written 
with the Amharic letters. 

BOGOTA: Capital of the republic of Colombia, 
on a picturesque and fertile plateau 9,000 feet 
above the sea. Climate, temperate. Population 
(1891), 100,000. Mission station of the PN (1856), 
with 3 missionaries and their wives, 1 missionary 
woman, 1 native woman worker, 1 village school, 
1 high school, and 90 church members. 

BOGUTU LANGUAGE: Belongs to the Mela- 
nesian family of languages and is spoken in some 
of the Solomon Islands. It is written with 
Roman letters, and is also called the Isabel Island 

BOKHARA: A Russian vassal state in Central 
Asia, lying between north latitude 41° and 37° 
and between east longitude 62° and 72°, bounded 
on the north by the Russian province of Turkes- 
tan, on the east by the Pamir, on the south by 
Afghanistan, and on the west by the Kara Kum 

The modern state was founded by the Usbegs 
in the 15th century, after the power of the 
Golden Horde had been destroyed by Tamer- 
lane. The dynasty of the Manguts, to which 
the present ruler belongs, dates back to the 
beginning of the last century. The Emir of 
Bokhara, in 1866, proclaimed a holy war against 
the Russians, who thereupon invaded his domin- 
ions and forced him to sign a treaty ceding the 
territory now forming the Russian district of Syr 
Daria and to permit Russian trade. In 1873 a 
further treaty was signed, in virtue of which no 
foreigner was to be admitted without a Russian 
passport, and the state became practically a 
Russian dependency. 

The Russian Trans-Caspian Railway runs 
through Bokhara from Chargui on the Oxus to a 
station within a few miles of the capital, and 
thence to Samarkhand. 

The area of the country is about 92,000 square 
miles and the population is about 1,250,000, 
belonging mainly to various Turkish tribes. 
The religion is Mohammedanism, and missions 
are strictly forbidden, excepting those of the 
Russian (Greek Orthodox) Church. 

Russia in Central Asia, Curzon (G.), London, 1889; History 
of Bokhara, Vambery, London, 1873. 

BOHEMIA: A country of Central Europe, 
formerly an independent kingdom, now a part of 
the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It has a popu- 
lation of nearly 6,000,000, of whom about two- 
thirds are Bohemians (Czechs), the remainder 
being chiefly Germans. The capital and chief 
city is Prague. The language of the majority 
is Czech, one of the principal dialects of the 
western branch of the Slavic languages. Its 
alphabet is the Latin, and it bears a closer resem- 
blance to the Polish than to any other Slavic 
language. Agitation for the official recognition 
of this language, with autonomy for the country, 
has been long-continued and disturbing. The 

religion is Roman Catholic, but the number of 
Protestants is increasing. 

Mission work is carried on by the ABCFM 
among the Roman Catholics, and by the UFCS 
among the Jews. 

BOHEMIANS: The Bohemians, or, as they 
call themselves, Czechs (Tchekhs), form one of the 
principal tribes of the Slavic race. They occupy 
the country of Bohemia in Austria, and number 
about four millions. They are all Catholics, with 
the exception of 150,000, who belong to the 
Protestant Reformed and Lutheran Confession. 
The first germs of Christianity were planted 
among them by Cyril and Methodius, missionaries 
to tlae Slavs m the 9th century, and the Bohe- 
mian Prince Borivoi was baptized by Methodius in 
873-74. But Orthodox or Greek Christianity 
was unable to maintain itself long in Bohemia, 
and was soon supplanted by Catholicism. With 
the introduction of Catholic Christianity, Bohemia 
came under the influence of German civilization 
and feudalism, and gradually the German ele- 
ment grew stronger and stronger. Beginning 
with the year 1253 this German influence spread 
rapidly, so that the Bohemians were in danger 
of being entirely Germanized. The reign of 
Charles I., known also as Charles IV., Emperor 
of the Holy Roman Empire, is considered one 
of the brightest periods of Bohemian history. 
He founded the University of Prague in 1348, 
and thus helped to make the capital of Bohemia 
the center of a great intellectual and educational 
movement. The most important period, how- 
ever, is undoubtedly the time of John Huss 
and the reformatory movement which he began. 
Born in 1368 in an obscure village of Bohemia, 
and educated at the University of Prague, Huss 
raised his voice against the corruption and deprav- 
ity of the Roman Church, and demanded a purer 
form of religion. Almost the whole of Bohemia 
joined his movement, and the enthusiasm which 
his sermons and writings evolced was very great. 
Beguiled into the Council of Constance, where 
he was called to be heard, Huss was burned at 
the stake in 1415; but his death was the signal 
for the beginning of the terrible Hussite wars, 
which lasted for eighteen years, and the effects 
of which were felt through the succeeding gener- 
ations, until 1620, when Bohemia lost her polit- 
ical independence and fell under the dominion 
of the Hapsburg dynasty of Austria. The Hussite 
movement in Bohemia cannot be satisfactorily 
explained by merely regarding it as a religious 
movement. To understand its full bearing, one 
ought to bear in mind that it was also a national 
movement directed against the encroachments 
of Germanism that threatened Bohemia. The 
religious element of Hussism did not give all 
the fruit that might have been expected from it. 
After the death of Huss his supporters split into 
two parties, the Taborites and the Utraquists, or 
Calixtins. The former, which may be consid- 
ered as the extreme party, carried the principle 
of the free interpretation of the Scriptures to 
extremes. The Utraquists, forming the so- 
called moderate party, were not disinclined to 
come to terms with the Catholic Church. To 
the Hussite movement was due the formation of 
the Society of the Bohemian Brothers, known 
subsequently by the name of Moravian Brothers, 
distinguished for its piety, its good works, and 
the writers it contributed to Bohemian literature. 

BOHTAN: A district of Eastern Turkey, S. W. 


Bombay Presidency 



of Lake Van. It is inhabited chiefly by Kurds, 
Armenians, and Nestorians, and is a wild region, 
both in its physical aspects and the character 
of the people. Mission work is carried on chiefly 
by the ABCFM, tlio sometimes preachers 
from the Nestorian mission of the Presbyterian 
Church (North) come among the Syriac-speaking 

BOLENGE: A settlement in the Congo Free 
State, Africa; station of the FCMS (1896), with 
2 missionaries and their wives, one of them a 
physician, 1 Sunday school, 1 village school, 1 

BOLIVAR, Ciudad: Capital of the State of 
Bolivar, in Venezuela, situated on the Orinoco. 
Population (1891), 11,686. Station of the South 
America Evangelical Mission, with 1 mission- 
ary. Also station of the Venezuela Mission, 
with 1 missionary and his wife. 

BOLIVIA, Republic of : One of the South Amer- 
ican republics, lying just north of Chile and the 
Argentine Republic. Its constitution was adopt- 
ed August 2.5, 1836. By the treaty of peace 
with Chile, in 1880, all the coast territory was 
lost, and there are now eight provinces, with a 
total area of 567,431 square miles. Including 
1,000,000 Indians, the population numbers 
2,300,000, of whom 500,000 are Mestizoes, or 
half-breeds, and 500,000 whites. La Paz, the 
capital, has about 65,000 inhabitants. Educa- 
tion is at a low ebb. The nominal religion is 
Roman Catholic, but the mass of the Indians 
are pagans. It is the least developed of the 
South American republics. 

The Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec 
has established mission stations at Oruro and 
La Paz (1899), and the Plymouth Brethren have 
a station at Sucre. 

BOLLOBHPUR : A village in the Nadiya dis- 
trict, Bengal, India; station of the CMS (1849), 
with 2 missionaries, one with his wife, 24 native 
workers, men and women, 1 chapel, 3 village 
schools and 130 communicants. 

BOLOBO: A city in the Congo Free State, 
situated on the Congo River about 125 miles 
above Stanley Pool. Climate, tropical; popula- 
tion, 20,000; race, Bantu; language, Kibangi. 
Moral condition, low, owing to belief in witch- 
craft and to the practise of human sacrifice. 
Station of the BMS (1888), with 6 missionaries, 
5 of them with their wives, 1 missionary woman, 
10 native workers, 1 Sunday school, 1 village 
school, 1 dispensary, 1 printing house, 31 church 

BOLONDRON: A town of 2,500 inhabitants 
in the province of Matanzas, Cuba; station of the 
American Church Missionary Society (1899), 
with 1 missionary and his wife, 3 native workers, 
1 chapel, 1 Sunday school, 1 village school. 

BOLPUR: A town S. E. of Suri, Bengal, India; 
station of the ME, with 1 missionary and his 
wife, 6 native workers, men and women, 6 Sunday 
schools^ 9 village schools, 1 orphanage, and 30 
professing Christians. 

BOMA: Capital of the Congo Free State, 
Africa, situated on the right bank of the Congo 
River, about 70 miles from its mouth. Formerly 
it was the advance post of the Dutch and Por- 
tuguese traders in the Congo region; station of 
the CA, of which no statistics are obtainable. 

BOMBAY: The capital of the presidency of the 
same name, and the chief seaport in India. It 

is situated on the Indian Ocean, at the southern 
end of the island of Salsette, which stretches 
along the shore of the continent from north to 
south for a distance of over twenty miles. At 
its southern extremity there was formerly a 
group of quite small islands, separated from each 
other and from the larger island by narrow chan- 
nels. Upon these Bombay has been gradually 
built up; and now, by filling in the channels 
between the separate islands, these have all been 
consolidated with one another and with the larger 
island of Salsette itself. The harbor, which is 
the safest and most spacious in all India, and one 
of the finest in the world, lies between the city 
and the mainland. In 1661, the Portuguese, 
whose sway was then undisputed all along the 
western coast of India, ceded the island of Bom- 
bay to England as a part of the dowry of the 
Portuguese princess, Catherine, when she became 
queen. The population was then supposed to be 
10,000. Soon after, Charles II. gave it over to 
the East India Company for an annual rental of 
£10. In 1673 its population was reported as. 
60,000 — "a mixture of most of the neighboring 
countries, mostly rogues and vagabonds." The 
mixture of races then presented by its popula- 
tion has continued to be a feature of its life ever 
since. In 1773 Bombay became subject to the 
Governor-General of India, whose capital was at 
Calcutta, where it has continued to be ever since, 
tho the local presidency government was still, 
retained. The growth of the city has been rapid 
and continuous. Its magnificent harbor has. 
attracted the commerce of the world, and mer- 
chants and traders from all parts of the East have 
flocked to its bazaars. A series of wise and far- 
seeing statesmen have guided its destinies, under 
whose direction the city has been adorned with 
fine buildings, connected first by wagon roads, 
and since 1850 by rail, with all parts of the Indian 
Empire, furnished with docks, and raised to a 
position of undisputed preeminence as the chief 
port of entry and commercial center for all India. 
Steamers sailing daily bring the city into close- 
connection with Liverpool, London, and the 
Mediterranean ports. The mails between India, 
and Europe arrive at and depart from Bombay. 
Steamers sail hence to all parts of the East, and 
sailing ships seek its harbor from all over the- 
world. It presents more of the appearance of a 
European city to the traveler than almost any 
other city of the East. Here the proverbial con- 
servatism and leisurely slowness of Orientals 
seem to have given place to the quicker and more- 
energetic motions of Western nations. 

In population Bombay ranks first of all Indian 
cities, and among those belonging to the British 
Empire is exceeded only by London itself. The 
census of 1901 gave a population of 776,006' 
souls — Buddhists and Jains, 17,387; Hindus (of 
all castes and races), 502,851; Mohammedans,, 
158,713; Parsees, 48,597; Jews, 3,321; Christians, 
42,327. The European population by itself,, 
which is mostly British, numbered nearly 10,500. 
This classification by religion is comparatively 
simple, but that by race and language is vastly 
more complex. It is said that Bombay probably 
contains among its population representatives 
from a larger number of nationalities than any 
other city. It is easy to believe that this is so. 
Nearly every Asiatic race has contributed its 
quota to the census; the diversity of race and 
language among the inhabitants of India alone 
is very great, and among the dwellers in Bombay 



Bombay Presidency 

are individuals from all parts of India, speaking 
all of the principal tongues which are used any- 
where within the limits of India. Africans of 
many tribes, representatives from nearly every 
European country, from America, from China, 
and from widely separated islands of the sea, go 
to swell the diversity of the Bombay population. 
The number of languages actually used in Bom- 
bay is very great — doubtless a hundred, more or 
less. For the most part, however, the Mohamme- 
dans speak the Hindustani; Hindus are divided 
chiefly between the Marathi and the Gujara- 
thi; the Parsees use a dialect of the latter tongue; 
while Hindustani, overstepping the limits of 
Mohammedan communication, has become in 
Bombay, as largely throughout India, a lingua 
franca, in low and colloquial forms of which 
Hindus of different races become intelligible to 
each other, and to the Europeans, whom some of 
them serve in divers capacities, and who often 
learn no other native language. For purposes 
of education and business, English itself is mak- 
ing rapid progress among all classes. It is now 
not only possible but easy for a European to live 
in Bombay, to employ servants, deal with trades- 
men, purchase articles in the bazaars, engage in 
business, and converse on all subjects with intelli- 
gent natives, Hindu, Mohammedan, or Parsee, 
without knowing a single word of any other lan- 
guage than English. 

The government supports in Bombay a college 
(known as the Elphinstone College), a medical 
college, a school of art, a high school, and many 
schools of lower grade. The Bombay University, 
existing not for the purpose of instruction, but 
merely for that of examination and the conferring 
of degrees, is accommodated in two elegant 
buildings on the esplanade, close to the imposing 
array of structures which give a home to other 
departments of governmental activity. Colleges 
and high schools all over the presidency are affili- 
ated with the university, and send up hosts of 
students every year to pass the examinations 
prescribed by it and to receive the academic dis- 
tinction of its degrees. 

Hospitals for Europeans, for native patients, 
and for incurables have been built either by 
private munificence or public funds. A sailors' 
home near the principal landing dock affords 
accommodation to mariners. The Young Men's 
Christian Association pursues the activities usual 
to organizations of that name, including hostels 
for students connected with the different colleges. 
There is also a central office of the YWCA, with 
4 young women in charge. The city has a num- 
ber of European churches connected with the 
Church of England, the chief of which is St. 
Thomas' Cathedral, and several owned by the 
Established Church of Scotland, the Free Church, 
the American Methodists, and the Baptists. The 
Jews have several synagogs. The Roman 
Catholics, besides their churches, have two large 
schools for native youth in charge of Jesuit mis- 

The character of Bombay is determined by its 
geographical and commercial relations. It is 
first and chiefly a business center. It is not the 
capital of a native dynasty and the center of the 
life and energies of a race, as the adjacent city of 
Poona was long the capital of the Maratha 
dynasty and people. It is not a great political 
center, tho it is the capital of the Bombay Presi- 
dency and the seat of the government, and for 
much of the year the residence of the governor. 

It is certainly not a center of intellectual life, tho 
it contains several institutions of learning, and 
many newspapers, English and vernacular, are 
printed there. In the matter of intellectual 
activity it is easily outranked by Calcutta; nor 
is it, like Benares, the chief point of a vast relig- 
ious development. Its life is commercial, and 
the intensity of its business energy somewhat 
detracts from the vigor which otherwise its people 
might throw into religious or intellectual matters. 

Bombay has been the scene of Christian mis- 
sions ever since 1813, in which year Messrs. Gor- 
don Hall and Samuel Nott (joined soon afterward 
by Samuel Newell) began the first permanent mis- 
sion in that city, and also the first mission of the 
ABCFM. The Church Missionary Society began 
work in 1820, the Scottish Missionary Society in 
1823; but in 1835 the work of this organization 
was transferred to the Established Church of 
Scotland. In 1843, after the disruption, the 
missionaries of the Scotch establishment threw 
in their lot with the Free Church, leaving thet 
mission property in the hands of the old Church. 
From that time there have been two Scottish mis- 
sions in the city. The Society for the Propaga- 
tion of the Gospel began in 1859, and the Ameri- 
can Methodists in 1871, tho their work has been- 
chiefly among Europeans and Eurasians (persons; 
of mixed European and Indian parentage) , of 
whom there are many in Bombay. The Bom- 
bay auxiliary to the British and Foreign Bible 
Society was founded in 1813, and the Bombay 
Tract and Book Society in 1827. Both of these 
societies have rendered inestimable aid to the 
cause of evangelism. The two Scottish missions 
from the first devoted their strength to educa- 
tional efforts. Each of these missions has long 
sustained a collegiate institution: hundreds of 
Hindu, Parsee, and Mohammedan young men 
have received within the walls of these colleges 
a good secular education combined with biblical 
and religious training. The whole force of these 
various societies now at work in the city, includ- 
ing the Zenana Bible Mission and the BFBS, is 
93 missionaries and 201 native workers, men and 
women, and the aggregate of native communi- 
cants reported by the different missions is 1,579. 

BOMBAY PRESIDENCY: One of the chief 
administrative divisions of British India, of 
which the capital is the city of Bombay. Its ter- 
ritory lies in the western part of India, and its 
boundaries are on the northwest, Baluchistan and 
Khelat; on the north, the Punjab; on the 
northeast, the native states of Rajputana; on 
the east, the native states of Central India, the 
Central Provinces, West Berar, and the domin- 
ions of the Nizam of Haidarabad; on the south, 
the Presidency of Madras and the native state of 
Mysore, and on the west the Indian Ocean. It 
includes 24 districts in India, besides the little 
district of Aden, in Arabia, having altogether an 
area of 124,123 square miles, with a population 
(1901) of 18,559,561; within the territorial hmits 
of the presidency are a number of native states 
under the general supervision of the Bombay 
Government. These include an additional area 
of 65,761 square miles, with a population of (1901) 
6,908,648. The surface of the presidencj' pre- 
sents three well marked types of physical appear- 
ance. In the northern part the regions of Gujerat 
and Sindh, with the peninsulas of Kathiawar 
and Cutch, are for the most part flat, and in their 
northern and western portions merge into sandy 
and arid deserts. South of the Narbada River, 

Braliino SoiuaJ 



and for the most part about thirty miles from 
the sea, stretches the range of mountains known 
as the Western Ghats. Between them and the 
sea the narrow strip of land is Ivnown as the Kon- 
kan, and consists largely of detached ranges of 
hills, with fertile valleys between, through which 
flow numerous tidal creeks. East of the moun- 
tains is the great upland of the Deccan, nearly 
2,000 feet above the level of the sea at its western 
edge, where it is buttressed by the Ghats. The 
prevailing religions are Hinduism and Mohammed- 
anism. Christians and Parsees and a few Jews 
make up together hardly more than two per cent, 
of the population. It is worthy of note, how- 
ever, that while during the decade 1891-1901 the 
whole population of the presidency decreased by 
318,753 souls through famine and plague, the 
Christian population increased by 50,000 — from 
170,000 to 220,000. 

The languages in use in the province of Bom- 
bay are Marathi, which is used by nearly one-half 
of the population; Hindustani or Urdu, used by 
the Mohammedans; Gujarathi, Kanarese, and 
Sindhi, which taken together are the speech of 
more than one-third of the population. 

The missionary societies carrying on opera- 
tions within the borders of this presidency are 
the following, named as far as possible in the 
order of their entrance into the province: 
ABCFM (1813); LMS (1820); CMS (1820); 
CSFM (1825); UFS (1843); Basel Missionary 
Society (1837); SPG (1825); PCI (1842); PN 
(1870); ME (1872); Poona and Village mission; 
the Christian and Missionary Alliance; the Ram- 
abai Association; the Mission to Lepers; the 
Kurku and Central India Hill Mission ; the Indus- 
trial Missions Aid Society; the Zenana Bible and 
Medical Mission, the Salvation Army, and some 
others which do not publish statistics. 

BOMBE : A settlement about 20 miles N. of the 
seat of government of the Kamerun Colony, W. 
Africa; station of the Basel Missionary Society 
(1897), with 3 missionaries, one with his wife, 
24 native workers, 15 outstations, 16 village 
schools, and (1902) 161 communicants. 

BONABERI: A settlement near the mouth of 
the Kamerun River in the German Colony of 
Kamerun, W. Africa; station of the Basel Mis- 
sionary Society (1889), with 5 missionaries, two 
of them having wives, 24 native workers, 23 
village schools, and (1902) 540 communicants. 

BONACA ISLAND : The easternmost of the Bay 
Islands, lying off the coast of Honduras, Central 
America; station of the SDA (1886), with 3 mis- 
sionaries and their wives, 3 missionary women, 
2 native workers, 10 outstations, 4 chapels, 10 
Sunday schools, 3 village schools, and 126 church 

BONAKU: A settlement on the Kamerun 
River in the German colony of Kamerun; station 
of the German Baptist Missionary Society (1891), 
with 2 missionaries, one with his wife, 1 mission- 
ary woman, 5 chapels, 1 village school, 1 indus- 
trial school, 1 dispensary and a YMCA. Station 
also of the Basel Missionary Society, with (1902) 
21 outstations, 23 common schools, and 783 com- 

BOND, Rev. Elias: Born, Hollowell, Maine; 
graduated at Bowdoin College, 1837; Bangor 
Seminary, 1840; arrived at Honolulu, May 21, 
1841, and labored unremittingly at Mohala, 
Hawaii, until his death July 24, 1896. He 
labored under the Hawaiian Evangelical Associa- 

tion. Mr. Bond was distinguished for his suc- 
cessful establishment in Kohala of training 
schools for Hawaiian boys and girls, and for the 
personal interest he manifested in the educational, 
social, commercial, as well as moral and spiritual, 
life of this people. By a fortunate real estate 
investment, he was enabled to make munificent 
donations to missionary boards, and pursue 
somewhat independently his missionary and edu- 
cational work. 

BONDE LANGUAGE: Belongs to the Bantu 
family of African languages, and is spoken by an 
unknown number of people in the Usambara 
region in the northern part of German East 
Africa. It is written with Roman letters. 

BONDOWOSO : A village in the eastern part of 
Java, Dutch East Indies, lying S. E. of Surabaya; 
station of the Java Committee, with 1 missionary 
and his wife and 1 common school. 

BONGAUNDANGA : A settlement in the Congo 
Free State, W. Africa, situated on the Lopori 
River S. W. of Upoto; station of the RBMU 
(1889), with 5 missionaries, 1 with his wife, 1 
missionary woman, 2 native workers, 1 chapel, 
1 Sunday school, 1 village school, and 1 dispen- 

BONGINDA : A settlement in the Congo Free 
State, W. Africa, situated on the Lopori River; 
station of the RBMU (1889), with 3 missionaries, 
1 with his wife, 1 native worker, 1 chapel, 1 Sun- 
day school and 1 dispensary. 

BONGU: A settlement on the E. coast of Ger- 
man New Guinea; station of the Rhenish Mis- 
sionary Society, with 1 missionary and his wife, 
and 1 village school. 

BONNY: A town and seaport at one of the 
mouths of the Niger, in British Nigeria, Africa; 
station of the CMS (1865), with 3 native workers. 
Climate, very unhealthy, due to the surrounding 
country being so flat and swampy. Population, 
12,000. Race and language, Ibo, Idzo and 

BONTHE: A town on Sherbro Island, off the 
coast of Sierra Leone, W. Africa; station of the 
CMS (1863), with 10 native workers, men and 
women, 3 outstations, 1 chapel, 1 Sunday school, 
4 village schools, and 270 communicants. Also 
station of the UB (1855), with 3 native workers, 
1 chapel, 1 Sunday school, 1 village school and 
a Young People's Society. 

See Christian Literature Society for 

BOONE, William Jones: Born in South Caro- 
lina, July 1, 1805; graduated at the University 
of South Carolina; studied law under Chancellor 
de Saussure; pursued a theological course at the 
Seminary of the Protestant Episcopal Church at 
Alexandria, Va., and having studied medicine 
with reference to the missionary field, offered 
himself to the Board of Missions; was appointed 
and sailed July 8, 1837, reaching Batavia 
October 22. Here he studied the Chinese lan- 
guage, held an English service, distributed tracts, 
established schools and found his medical know- 
ledge of great use. Consecrated missionary 
bishop to China, 1844. In 1846 Bishop Boone 
began the translation of the Prayer-Book, and 
engaged in the revision of the New Testament. 
In 1847 he was chosen one of the committee of 
delegates from the several missions to revise the 
translation of the Bible. His ability as a scholar 



Brahiuo SomaJ 

was highly appreciated. He died at Shanghai, 
July 17, 1864. 

Stevens (Bp.), Memorial Sermon on W. J. Boone', Philadel- 
phia, 1865. 

BORABORA: One of the Society Islands N. W. 
of Raiatea; station of the Paris Evangelical 
Missions Society, with 1 native worker, 1 chapel, 1 
Sunday school and 315 professing Christians. 

BORDA: A village S. of Hoshangabad, Central 
Provinces, India; station of the Swedish National 
Missionary Society (1894), with 1 missionary and 
his wife, 1 native worker, 1 Sunday school and 
17 Christians. Also written Bordhai. 

BORNEO : The largest island of the East Indian 
Archipelago, situated directly on the Equator. 
Area, 272,820 square miles, divided as follows: 1. 
Under British rule. North Borneo, 31,106; Bru- 
nei, 3,000; Sarawak, 35,000; total 69,106 square 
mileg. 2. Under Dutch rule. West Coast, 58,926; 
South and East districts, 144,788; total, 203,714 
square miles. Population: 1. British, 475,000; 
2. Dutch, 1,073,289; total, 1,548,289. Of this 
about one-half — that covering the South and 
East districts — is mere conjecture. The climate 
is remarkably healthy for an equatorial island. 
The surface of a large part of the island is moun- 
tainous and well irrigated by rivers. The inhab- 
itants of North Borneo are chiefly Mohammedan 
settlers; of Sarawak and the Dutch possessions, 
Malay, Javanese and Chinese settlers and abo- 
riginal tribes, mostly Dyaks, of the Malay race. 
The Portuguese gained a temporary foothold in 
the 16th century, but were superseded by the 
Dutch, who have held permanent control. 

British North Borneo is under the jurisdiction 
of the British North Borneo Company, being held 
under a grant from the Sultans of Brunei and 

Dutch Borneo was administered by the Dutch 
East India Company until its dissolution in 1798, 
since which time it is governed by a representa- 
tive of the home government. Mission work is 
carried on in British Borneo by the SPG in 9 sta- 
tions, connected with which are 49 workers, both 
native and foreign, and 13 schools and a Christian 
constituency of about 5,000, of whom 1,250 are 
communicants. In Dutch Borneo the Rhenish 
Missionary Society has 8 stations, with 45 work- 
ers of both sexes, 23 schools and about 1,000 

BORSAD: A town in Gujarat, Bombay, India, 
N. W. of Baroda; station of the PCI (1860), with 
2 missionaries, 3 missionary women, 1 of them 
a physician, 80 native workers, men and women, 
5 outstations, 4 chapels, 44 Sunday schools, 37 
village schools, 1 high school, 3 orphanages, 1 
dispensary and 191 church members. 

BOTTLENOSE: A settlement on the W. coast 
of the island of Fernando Po, in the Bight of 
Biaffra, West Africa; station of the Primitive 
Methodist Missionary Society, with 1 missionary, 
1 chapel, 1 Sunday school, 1 village school and 
10 communicants. 

BOWEN, George: Born at Middlebury, Vt., 
April 30, 1816. 

His conversion occurred in the spring of 1844. 
The May anniversaries of the great missionary 
societies just at the time, introduced him, as it 
were, into a new world of Christian enterprise. 
He at once devoted his life to this missionary 
work. He studied in the Union Theological 
Seminary of New York, was ordained by the | 

Presbytery, July 4, 1847, and sailed soon after 
for India, under appointment of the ABCFM. 
In January, 1848, he arrived in Bombay, which 
was the scene of his labors, interrupted only by 
occasional tours of missionary service in other 
parts of India. 

The social gap separating natives from mis- 
sionaries led him to decline receiving a salary, 
and he supported himself, living in a simple way 
among the natives. Living a life of habitual self- 
abnegation, he was singularly free from asceti- 
cism, and altho uncompromising in his views 
of Christian principle, he was welcomed in the 
houses of high and low. It was by his personal 
ministry that he became known, at first despised 
and ridiculed, and then esteemed among the 
people of India. He became secretary of the 
Bombay Tract Society and editor of the Bombay 
Guardian, acquiring wide influence by the emi- 
nent ability and spirituality of his writings, selec- 
tions from which have been published in America 
and Great Britain in three volumes severally 
entitled. Daily Meditations, Love Revealed, and 
the Amens of Christ. 

After a brief illness, early on Sabbath morning, 
February 5, 1888, apparently while peacefully 
sleeping, he was not, for God took him. His 
death produced a deep sensation in Bombay and 
Western India. Those most competent to form 
a judgment concur in the estimate that he exhib- 
ited a degree of self-sacrificing devotion to which 
there is perhaps no existing parallel in the whole 
field of missionary labor. 

BRADLEY, Dan Beach: Born at Marcellus, 
N. Y., July 18, 1804; graduated from a medical 
college in the city of New York, 1833; sailed 
July 2, 1834, as medical missionary of the 
ABCFM; arrived at Bangkok, Siam, July 18, 
1835; was ordained by the members of the mis- 
sion in Siam, November 5, 1838. In conse- 
quence of more hopeful calls elsewhere it was 
decided by the Board, in 1846, to withdraw its 
mission in Siam. Dr. Bradley and Rev. Jesse 
Caswell, unwilling to give up the work in which 
they had engaged, sought maintenance elsewhere. 
Dr. Bradley returned to the United States in 
1847, and was released from the service of the 
Board, and went out in 1849 in connection with 
the AMA. He was the first educated physician 
and surgeon who had visited Siam, and his skill 
in the healing art seemed to the natives little less 
than miraculous. His mastery of Siamese was 
surprisingly accurate, and his translations of the 
Scriptures were of high value. His published 
writings, both in English and Siamese, were vol- 
uminous. Those relating to Siam and the Siam- 
ese, published in the Bangkok Calendar for suc- 
cessive years, form the mine whence much of the 
material of more recent books and articles upon 
Siam has been extracted. He died at Bangkok, 
June 23, 1893. 

BRAHMAKBARIA : A town on the borders of 
Assam, in Bengal, India. Population (1891) 
18,006; station of the New Zealand Baptist Mis- 
sionary Society (1891), with 1 missionary and 
his wife, 1 missionary woman, 2 native workers, 
man and woman, 1 chapel, 1 Sunday school, 1 
village school and 7 communicants. 

BRAHMO SOMAJ: A modern, reforming, 
Theistic sect in India, originated by Rammohun 
Roy, a high caste Brahman of character and 
scholarship, who from his youth declared that 
idolatry was contrary to the practice of the 

BraHmo SomaJ 



ancestors and who purposed to bring his people 
back to the monotheism of the ancient Vedas. 
He became so far interested in Christianity that 
he assisted in the educational work of Dr. Duff 
and in Bible translation. So far as he was a 
Christian, he was a Unitarian, and was eclectic 
toward all the great religions. His leading 
resulted in the first Hindu Theistic Church, 
opened in Calcutta in 1830 as the Brahmo Somaj 
(The Congregation of God). After his death 
(18.33) the Somaj languished for some years 
until Debendranath Tagore, who had received a 
good English education, joined it in 1841, and 
proved an efficient leader and organizer. In 
1844 he and twenty others signed the initiatory 
covenant he had prepared, pledging themselves 
to abstain from idolatry; to worship no created 
thing, but only the one God; to lead holy lives 
and to seek forgiveness through abandonment 
of sin. This organization, which came to be 
called the Adi (First) Brahmo Somaj, had by 
1847 enrolled 767 covenanted members, and by 
1850 the establishment of branches in other 
provinces had been begun. 

With the increase in numbers, marked differ- 
ences of opinion were developed, especially in 
regard to the authority of the Vedas. This 
agitation resulted in the issuing of a new state- 
ment by Debendranath called Brahma Dharma 
(The Theistic Religion). It stated the Four 
Fundamental Principles of Indian Theism as: 

1. In the beginning before this universe was, 
the one Supreme Being (Brahma) was; nothing 
else whatever was ; He has created all this universe . 

2. He is eternal, intelligent, infinite, blissful, 
self-dependent, formless, one without a second, 
all pervading, all governing, omniscient, omnip- 
otent, immovable, perfect, without parallel. 

3. By worship of Him alone can happiness be 
secured in this world and the next. 

4. Love toward Him, and performing the 
works he loves constitute his worship. 

Subscription to these principles admitted to 
membership. It was further declared that 
intuition and the book of nature are the original 
basis of the Brahman's creed, but divine truth 
is to be gratefully received from any portion of 
the Hindu Scriptures or other good book con- 
taining it; God is the Heavenly Father, exercising 
providence and hearing prayer; repentance is 
the only way of salvation; good works, charity, 
knowledge, contemplation and devotion are the 
only religious rites; penance and pilgrimages 
a,re useless; the only sacrifice is that of self; there 
is no distinction of castes, no transmigration; 
the mission of the Brahma Somaj is to purify 
the old religion, not to destroy it. 

The concessions made did not satisfy the more 
progressive element, who found a new leader in 
Keshab Chandar Sen (1838-1884). His faith in 
the Hindu superstition taught him in child- 
hood had been shattered by a thorough English 
education in the Presidency College, and in 1858 
he joined the Brahmo Somaj, but ere long out- 
stripped Debendranath in advocacy of radical 
reform. He urged the abolition of all caste dis- 
tinctions, including the sacred thread, the dis- 
tinguishing badge of Brahmans. This Deben- 
dranath consented to for himself, but declined 
to impose upon others. Under his leadership 
rites for deceased ancestors and cremation were 
remodeled, and steps were taken toward the edu- 
cation and elevation of women, who were admitted 
to membership in the Society. Marriage reform. 

including the abandonment of polygamy, of 
child marriage, and of the permanence of widow- 
hood. Was advocated, and in a measure practised. 
But, having broken with Hinduism, he was not 
content with a society which purposed only to 
purify the old faith. With a large number of the 
younger members he seceded and in 1866 organ- 
ized a new Theistic Society called The Brahmo 
Somaj of India, the purpose being to affiliate 
with it all the other somajes, — a plan which was 
never fulfilled. The creed of this Somaj included 
belief in God, the first cause; the immortality of 
the soul; the two-fold Scripture, nature and 
intuition; rejection of the incarnation of God, 
but belief in divinity dwelling in every man, and 
displayed more vividly in some, as in Moses, 
Jesus, Mohammed, and other great teachers; ad- 
mission that the worship of Brahma is the essence 
of all religions. It declares the brotherhood 
of man, prescribes duties toward God, self, others, 
and the lower animals, proclaims the retribution 
of evil deeds in this world and the next, and 
urges the pursuit of holiness by worship, subju- 
gation of the passions, repentance, study, good 
companionship and contemplation, describing 
salvation as the deliverance from the root of 
corruption, and unending growth in purity and 
happiness in Him who is the fountain of infinite 
holiness and joy. A simple form of service was 
prepared, consisting of prayer, hymns, reading 
from Hindu or other Scripture, and a sermon. 

For some time the Adi Brahmo Somaj, led by 
Debendranath and Raj Narain Bose, secretary, 
and the Brahmo Somaj of India, under Keshab 
Chandar Sen and his cousin, Pratrap Chandar 
Mozoomdar, as Secretary, with "The Indian 
Mirror" as its organ, continued in not unfriendly 
rivalry. But the latter society was much per- 
turbed by Keshab Chandar Sen's increasing 
mysticism, his assertion of his own special inspir- 
ation and authority, and finally by the marriage 
of his daughter of fourteen to a youthful Maha- 
raja, contrary to the principles of the marriage 
reform and the Native Marriage Act of 1872, 
which he had championed. A considerable por- 
tion of the membership seceded and in 1878 organ- 
ized at Calcutta the Sadharana (General) Brahmo 
Somaj, with Ananda Bose as president. After 
an effort to lead the Somaj movement Mozoom- 
dar gave over the attempt and went into retire- 

As an organized movement the Brahmo Somaj 
was at its height about 1880, when 149 Somajes 
were reported throughout India. Latterly it 
has been much less in evidence. Its result is 
thus summed up by Gustav Warneck: "The 
movement originated from an apprehension of 
religious truth, but it degenerated more and 
more, either to an ordinary rationalistic liber- 
alism, or to a mysticism rich in phrases and cere- 
monies, and spending its whole energy in words. 
Tho in language much inclined to Christianity 
it has not in the whole proved a bridge to Chris- 
tianity, nor has it exerted any noteworthy 
reformatory influence in heathenism. Never- 
theless it is a characteristic symptom of the re- 
ligious ferment which the Christian leaven, along 
with Western education, has begun to stir among 
the Hindus." 
Williams (M.) , Brahmanism and Hinduism: Hopkins (E. W.), 

The Religions of India; Bose (Ram Chandra), Brahmo- 

ism. New York, 1884 (Funk & Wagnalls). 

BRAINERD, David: Born at Haddam, Conn., 
April 20, 1718. His parents were cultivated 



Brahmo SomaJ 

as well as religious people. He himself was 
inclined from early childhood to take an interest 
in religious matters, but he considered that he 
did not really commit the guidance of his life to 
Jesus Christ until he was 20 years old. This once 
decided he was wholly and permanently com- 
mitted to live for his Master. 

He felt the duty of teaching Christianity to the 
Indians, and went to Long Island for that pur- 

Eose. But later (1742) he was appointed, on 
ehalf of the Scottish Society for the Promotion 
of Christian Knowledge, to work among the 
Indians living between Stockbridge, Mass., and 
Albany, N. Y. Later he was sent to the tribes 
on the Delaware River in Pennsylvania, and 
in New Jersey between the Delaware and the 
sea coast. During the time of this service he 
sent his journal regularly to Scotland, and the 
Society there published it in 1746, the first part 
under the title Mirahilia Dei inter Indicos, and 
the second part as Divine Orace Displayed. 

It is hard to realize now the brave self-denial 
involved at that time in this young man's going 
alone into a dense and trackless forest to live 
among savages, many days' journey from any 
white settlement. As Brainerd wrote, he "had 
none to converse with but rude and ignorant 
Indians," except when he found himself obliged 
to plead the cause of the Indians against the 
avarice of conscienceless whites who wished to 
brutalize and rob them. But he found a reward 
in seeing some remarkable instances of changed 
lives produced by the power of the Holy Spirit 
among his Indian friends. He was more than 
content with his life, and worked on in increasing 
feebleness — often prostrated by sickness, but giv- 
ing up only when his life was worn out. Then he 
painfully made his way back to New England 
to die. The end came October 9, 1747, at 
Northampton, Mass., when Brainerd was 29 
years old. 

This young missionary was not remarkable 
for learning; he accomplished no great and wide- 
spread results in the field which he had chosen. 
But his journals are full of life and power to this 
day. They are a true record of a simple life — 
a "human document" which shows mistakes, 
shortcomings and bitter regrets as faithfully as 
longings for a higher life, craving after God, and 
a consuming desire to glorify God by winning 
the souls of the savages to a godly life. So the 
man's character impresses the reader; his lofty 
principles and aims, his saintliness, his loyalty to 
Jesus Christ; and does not fail to arouse desires 
to follow his example. It is through this 
quality of his journals that Brainerd's greatest 
achievement is the lasting impression made by 
his character upon the Church in America and 
Europe. It was Brainerd's character which 
made Jonathan Edwards a missionary to the 
Indians of Stockbridge; it was to Brainerd's mem- 
oirs to which Henry Martyn traced his decision 
to become a missionary; to those simple records 
of a godly life, too, William Carey was indebted 
for much of that inspiration which shaped his 
decision to be a missionary tho he had to go 
alone. Brainerd was a true, noble man and a 
Christian hero of that small class of heroes whose 
lives seem to shape history. 
David Brainerd, Wesley (J.), Bristol, 1768; Edwards (J.), 

revised by Dwight (S.), New Haven, 1822, and New York, 

1884; Sherwood (J. M.), New York, 1887. 

BRASS: A district in the Niger delta on the 
coast of W. Africa. The region is flat and touring 

can be done in the dry season only, the mission- 
aries wearing long water boots and tramping 
through the thick black mud of the mangrove 
swamps. The people are fetish worshipers, 
paying chief worship to the great serpents 
which abound. The CMS has carried on two 
stations since 1868, called Brass Tuwon and 
Brass Nimbi. The missionaries are 7 men and 
women and the native workers 3. There are 
schools with an industrial department, a dispen- 
sary, and about 600 avowed Christians in the 
district, of whom 51 are communicants. 

BRASS NIMBI. See Nimbi. 

BRAYTON, Rev. Durlin L., D.D.: In the year 
1837 Mr. Brayton went to Burma under the 
ABMU, and he labored in the Pwo Karen Mis- 
sion until the year 1900, visiting America but 
twice during this long period of service. As the 
oldest missionary in Burma, as the leading mis- 
sionary among the Pwo Karens for many years, 
and as the translator of tlie Bible into the Pwo 
Karen dialect, he was widely known and greatly 
honored on the mission field. During his service 
as a missionary he saw Burma develop from a 
province of little importance to the most pros- 
perous province in India; and he lived to see the 
dominion of Great Britain increase from detached 
possessions to the control of the entire territory 
of the Hindus, and he heard the Queen of Great 
Britain and Ireland proclaimed the "Empress of 
India." Twice the degree of Doctor of Divinity 
was conferred upon him. Shortly before his 
death the Pwo Karen Association was held in 
Rangoon, in the compound of which he lived; 
and to his fellow workers this Father in Israel 
spoke this touching valedictory: "It has been 
my highest pleasure to seek first His Kingdom 
and do His Will. By His grace I have been 
enabled to fight the good fight and keep the 
faith. But when it shall please the loving Father 
He will call me to Himself to be with Christ 
forever. I know there is a crown of glory laid 
up for me that fadeth not away." He died at 
Rangoon April 23, 1900. 

BRAZIL: The United States of Brazil lie 
between the 4th degree of north and the 33d erf 
south latitude, and the 35th and 72d west longi- 
tude, including within their bounds about two- 
fifths of the whole South American Continent. 
This youngest born of the American republics 
measures from north to south 2,000 miles, and 
from east to west 2,500 miles, thus covering an 
area of about 3,200,000 square miles, but little 
less than the whole continent of Europe. It 
borders upon all the South American countries 
except Chile and from the vast extent of its 
territory and the immense value of its unde- 
veloped natural resources is bound to play an 
important part in the history of the New World. 
The surface of the republic may be roughly 
divided into three great basins — one at the north, 
formed by the Amazon and its tributaries; 
another at the south, formed by the streams 
which united produce the Parana, one of the 
principal branches of the Rio de la Plata, and, 
lying between the two, the section drained by 
the Sao Francisco, the third river in size in South 

Climate: In so vast a territory, with such great 
differences of altitude, there are, of course, many 
varieties of climate. On the whole, however, 
with the exception of some of the towns along 
the seacoast and the valley of the Amazon, the 




country in general is salubrious; even in the sea- 
board towns the mortality is not above, rather 
below, that of the large cities of Europe. In the 
greater part of the country the hot season is also 
the rainy season, which lasts for three or four 
months, when, altho the days of continuous rain 
are few, the afternoon showers fall with great 
regularity, lasting from ten minutes to an hour 
or two, and thus, lowering the temperature and 
refreshing the air, insure cool nights. 

The most prevalent diseases are pulmonary 
consumption, intermittent fevers, and rheuma- 
tism. Leprosy and goiter are common. Epi- 
demics of yellow fever occur only at intervals in 
some of the seacoast towns. The population, 
according to the last official census (1890), was 
14,333,915, of whom 6,302,198 were whites, 
4,638,495 of mixed blood, 2,097,426 negroes, and 
1,295,796 Indians. The Indian element pre- 
dominates in the northern states. A census was 
taken in 1900, but was rejected as tainted with 

History: Brazil was discovered about the year 
1500, and was soon after taken possession of by 
the Portuguese and continued to be a colony of 
Portugal till 1822, when its independence was 
proclaimed by the son of the King of Portugal, 
who was acting as prince-regent. He assumed 
the title of Pedro I., Emperor of Brazil, and in 
1824 gave the country a constitution which in its 
main features was considered liberal. In 1831 
he abdicated in favor of his son, the late Dom 
Pedro II., who was at that time only five years 
old. The government was by regents from that 
date till 1840, when the emperor's majority was 
proclaimed, altho he was but fourteen years of 
age. Dom Pedro II., after having occupied the 
throne for a half century, less one year, was 
deported in November of 1889, when the republic 
was proclaimed. As a natural result of its his- 
tory the language of the country is Portuguese. 
It is a beautiful language, compact, expressive, 
flexible, and well adapted for oratory and litera- 
ture. The literature is principally rich in fiction 
and poetry, the few scientific works being mostly 
translations from the French. As French is con- 
sidered a necessary part of a liberal education, 
all the professional men read it, and generally 
more than half the books on their shelves are in 
that language, while French novels of all sorts 
form the staple literary diet of the ladies of the 
wealthier classes. 

The established religion of the empire was 
Roman Catholic. Under the republic, equality 
between all forms of religion has been declared, 
but the government continues to provide for the 
maintenance of existing functionaries of the 
Roman Catholic Church. 

Qualities of the People: The Brazilian people 
are, in general, hospitable, generous, charitable, 
gay, courteous, communicative, quick at learn- 
ing, rather fond of show, somewhat ceremonious 
and proud, rather inclined to look down upon 
labor and laborers, but with a remarkable suav- 
ity and a native politeness which is as general 
in the lowest as the highest classes. Tho not 
as excitable as the Spanish, there is still a strong 
element of jealousy in their disposition, and a 
tendency to vindictiveness which gives rise to 
many homicides in the course of a year, tho 
crimes against property are much fewer than in 
most European countries. 

The race as it exists to-day is the result of a 
combination of widely diverse ethnical ele- 

ments, molded in a great degree by ecclesiastical 
influences. The typical Brazilian is small of 
stature, with elegantly diminutive feet and hands, 
slightly built frame, nervous and bilious tem- 
perament, bloodless and sallow complexion, and a 
generally anemic and wornout look — evidently 
wanting in the strength and energy to cope with 
the difficulties to be encountered in developing 
a new country. 

The bloodless revolution in Brazil, by which 
a country nearly as large as the whole of Europe 
passed from a monarchical to a republican form 
of government, with no interruption of the func- 
tion of government, no injury to its commerce, 
no interference with the regular march of busi- 
ness, no mobs or fighting, emphasized certain 
peculiarities of Brazilian character which merit 
attention on the part of those who expect to- 
engage in missionary labor among them. 

One element of Brazilian character which 
unquestionably had a great deal to do with the 
quiet advent of the republic, was the prevalent 
intellectual sluggishness, which indisposes the 
people in general to take the trouble to think out 
and decide any matter for themselves. In the 
great majority of cases the readiness with which 
they transferred their allegiance from one gov- 
ernment to another was due not so much to 
want of fidelity to political convictions, as to 
the total absence of convictions on the subject. 

The, lower classes have been accustomed for so- 
many centuries to leaving their consciences in 
the hands of the priests, and yielding them an 
unreasoning obedience, that the habit of blindly 
following their leaders has become a second 
nature to them; so when the republic came- 
they did what was most natural, accepted it, be- 
cause those whom they had been accustomed 
to follow accepted it. 

Even among the educated classes there is an 
intellectual apathy which shows itself in all 
departments of intellectual activity — science, 
philosophy, politics' and religion — and this is 
nothing more than the natural result of the 
policy persistently pursued by the Church of 
Rome to repress speculation and original 
thought, and to allow its votaries free exercise 
of their intellectual powers only along two lines 
of activity — money-making and amusement. 

In view of these intellectual conditions of the 
rising generation in Brazil, the great importance 
of educational work there becomes evident. 
While confessedly an indirect evangelizing 
agency, it is, perhaps, one of the most important 
in the present crisis. There is almost no positive 
opposition to the Gospel ; it is simply ignored by 
many who admit that it is a very good thing, 
but who are unwilling to make the intellectual 
effort necessary to investigate its claims, and 
to think the matter out for themselves. 

The change of government, by throwing upon 
the people the management of their own affairs,, 
will gradually force the people to think for them- 
selves. It is of the first importance, therefore,, 
that measures be taken at once to turn the 
newly awakened intellectual activity in the right 
direction, as well as to make accessible to the peo- 
ple the materials for a right judgment in science 
and religion. 

The prominent moral characteristic of the 
Brazilian people is a very great lack of conscien- 
tiousness, an almost complete absence of the 
feeling that everything must give way to right 
and duty. The result of this has been referred 




to in speaking of their physical cliaracteristicg. 
It has also been prominent in their political his- 
tory. One of the first measures of republican 
government was a general decree that all office- 
holders who gave in their adhesion to the new 
government within a certain time would be con- 
tinued in office, while those who refused to do 
so would be immediately replaced by others. 
The result of this measure was a wholesale coat- 
turning, which would have been amusing had it 
not been so sad an indication of the utter lack 
of principle on the part of so large a portion of 
the best citizens. Altho many had just before 
been ardent monarchists, and nearly all had 
voted for the monarchical candidate in the recent 
elections, not one in a hundred declined to accept 
the offered conditions, and the State and munici- 
pal machinery moved on without the slightest 

The police of Brazil are a military organization, 
wear soldier's uniform, carry guns, and in their 
ordinary patrol work use sword bayonets. As 
soon as these soldier-police, scattered all over 
the country, received orders from their superior 
officers to accept the republic, they tore the 
crowns from their caps and proclaimed a change 
of government. Outside of the large cities the 
number of these police agents was utterly insig- 
nificant, and they could have been easily over- 
powered, but even the most ardent monarchists 
when they found themselves face to face with 
the military, and called upon to risk some per- 
sonal injury for the sake of their political opin- 
ions, yielded at once. It was not cowardice, for 
the Brazilians are not a cowardly people, but 
simply the feeling that it was not worth while 
to risk anything for a mere opinion. The priest- 
hood, the whole effect of whose teachings for 
centuries has been to obliterate the inherent dis- 
tinction between right and wrong, and to confuse 
the minds of the people on the fundamental 
principles of ethics, is without doubt chiefly 
responsible for this demoralization. 

Conditions of Life: The superior wisdom of 
"The Fathers," and the necessity of accepting 
as final their ideas and judgments in all matters 
of faith and doctrine have been drilled into 
the people from their earliest infancy for many 
successive generations, until the habit of looking 
backward seems to have become ingrained into 
the Brazilian nature, leading tliem to hold on with 
an almost religious pertinacity to old-fashioned 
business methods, antiquated modes of transpor- 
tation and farming (solid-wheeled oxcarts and 
packmules compete with railroads in some parts 
of the country, and not one farmer in a thousand 
has ever seen a plow), and the most unhy- 
gienic ways of living and eating. The unparal- 
leled progress of the United States is, doubtless, 
largely owing to the fact that every man seeks to 
improve upon the methods of his father, and eager- 
ly experiments with any proposed change which 
promises to be an improvement. The average 
Brazilian, however, regards any innovation with 
suspicion, simply because it is an innovation, 
and is very apt to receive suggested improve- 
ments with a smile of half-scornful superiority, 
and to say: "Your implements and methods are 
very good for you and your country, but the 
ways of our fathers, who have been working here 
for centuries, are doubtless best for us in this 
country." This difference of mental attitude is 
of itself enough largely to account for the differ- 
ence between the two countries, and for it the 

Church of Rome is largely, if not wholly, respons- 

It is suggestive that even the roads through the 
country are only cared for as they have to do 
with tlie parish churches. Once a year, upon an 
appointed day, all landholders are required to- 
present themselves at their respective parisli 
churches carrying hoes, brush hooks, or axe s.. 
Then all start together for their homes, cleaning 
and repairing the roads as they go; dividing as. 
they successively reach the turning leading to 
their houses, thus leaving a wide cleared road 
from each house to the parish church. These 
roads were formerly called sacramental roads, as,, 
in order to incite to the prompt and faithful 
performance of this task, the priests used to 
refuse to carry the sacrament to the dying except 
over a well-prepared road of the regulation 
width. There are no road inspectors and no 
provision made for the care of crossroads, even 
tho leading to a railroad station. So all over 
the country there has been a constant effort to- 
make everything center in the Church. 

The doing things for show and effect is a 
prominent Brazilian characteristic. "Para Inglez 
ver," for the English to see, is an expression 
applied originally to parliamentary measures- 
which it was known at the time would have a 
good effect upon outsiders, especially upon 
investors in that land whose ready money has 
done so much to develop the resources of this 
country; but it has passed into proverbial phrase 
to indicate whatever is done for show or effect. 
The tendency which this phrase characterizes, 
and of which the late emperor was thought to 
have been an illustrious example, is evident in 
all departments of the social, political, and busi- 
ness life of the Brazilian people. Their style of 
dressing and building, their business and pro- 
fessional methods, their school system and news- 
paper articles, public speeches and private enter- 
tainments, all reflect the soulless externality 
which is characteristic of their religious life. 

Education: So-called religious instruction occu- 
pies tlie principal place in the public schools, 
hours being spent in learning by heart the prayers 
and liturgies of the Church in an unknown 
tongue, and another considerable part of the time 
in memorizing the Catechism, which, being 
learned parrot-like without explanation, is almost 
equally unintelligible to the pupils. As a result 
it is not at all unusual to find Brazilian children 
who have been at the public schools for two or 
three years, but can barely spell through a sen- 
tence, and are ignorant of the simplest rules of 
arithmetic. In the rural districts one often 
comes across children who, having learned out 
of books copied b}' the teachers, are quite familiar 
with handwriting, but cannot read print at all. 

Following the system of rote teaching, which 
is tlie only one admissible in their religious 
instruction, the sole aim of the teacher, even in 
the higher schools, seems to be to store the 
memory; no attempt is made to develop the 
reasoning powers or to encourage original thought 
or investigation. The child's head is stuffed 
with li.sts of names, numbers and rules, without 
any attempt to explain principles or verify or 
apply them in practice. Mathematics are taught 
most superficially, while the generally received 
test of an educated person is the ability to speak 
a number of languages, like the last emperor. 
As a consequence, tho linguists are common, 
scientists are very few, indeed. About the only 


British and Foreign 



thing that is tolerably well taught is Latin, and 
that only because it is an essential part of the 
priestly education. 

Under such circumstances it is not surprising 
that fully 84 per cent, of the population is 
returned as illiterate. Yet the land has been 
under the care of the Church for 250 years, and 
when William Penn made his treaty with the 
Indians the Archbishop of Brazil already had a 
splendid cathedral and all its appurtenances at 
Rio de Janeiro. 

Early Attempts at Evangelization: It is a very 
deeply interesting fact that the very first effort 
of the Christian Church after the Reformation to 
engage in foreign missions was that of the church 
at Geneva to send the Gospel to the inhabitants 
of Brazil. Coligny, the great French Huguenot, 
and other friends of the truth conceived the idea 
of establishing a Protestant colony in South 
America as a place of refuge for their persecuted 

In 15S5 an expedition, consisting of three small 
vessels, under the command of one Villegagnon, 
a distinguished French naval officer, sailed from 
Havre de Grace to what is now the harbor of 
Rio de Janeiro, where they established them- 
selves on an island, called to this day Villegagnon, 
in honor of the leader, and, as he afterward proved 
to be, treacherous destroyer of this expedition. 
Their joyous reception by the natives, who were 
at war with the Portuguese, and other circum- 
stances seemed to warrant high hopes of success. 

On the return of the vessels to Europe great 
interest was awakened for the establishment of 
the reformed religion in those remote parts; and 
the church at Geneva, under Calvin and his col- 
leagues, sent two ministers and fourteen students 
to accompany the second expedition. How- 
ever, soon after these new colonists reached their 
destination, the real and villainous character of 
Villegagnon revealed itself in a series of annoy- 
ances and persecutions against the faithful 
Huguenots, who, having gone thither with the 
hope of enjoying full liberty of conscience, found 
their condition worse than before. The ruin of 
the colony was soon consummated. Many of 
the colonists returned to Europe. Of those who 
remained, three were put to death by their 
infamous persecutor, and others fled to the 
Indians and Portuguese. Among the latter was 
one named John Boles, who is noted, even in the 
annals of the Jesuits, as a man of considerable 
learning, being well versed in both Greek and 
Hebrew. Escaping from Villegagnon, John 
Boles went to St. Vincente, near the present site 
of Santos, the earliest Portuguese settlement in 
that part of the country, where the Jesuits had 
a colony of Indians catechized according to their 
mode. According to the Jesuit chroniclers them- 
selves, the Huguenot minister preached with such 
boldness, eloquence and erudition that he was 
likely to pervert great numbers of their adepts. 
Unable to withstand him by arguments, they 
caused him to be arrested, with several of his 
companions. John Boles was taken to Bahia, 
about a thousand miles distant, where he lay in 
prison eight years. When, in 1.567, the Portu- 
guese finally succeeded in expelling the French 
from that part of their dominions, the governor 
sent for the Huguenot prisoner and had him put 
to death on the present site of the city of Rio de 
Janeiro, in order, it was said, to terrify his 
countrymen, if any of them should be lurking in 
those parts. 

The Dutch attempted to establish themselves 
at different points in the northern part of the 
country, from Bahia to Maranhao, during more 
or less of the second quarter of the 17th 
century. Godly pastors accompanied their expe- 
ditions and preached a pure Gospel in their 
settlements. But this can hardly be classed as 
missionary effort for the permanent dwellers of 
the land; and all trace of their labors seems to 
have passed away with the language and author- 
ity of the bold invaders, except the mention by 
Southey, in his History of Brazil, that they had 
prepared a catechism in the language of the 
Indians and other books of an evangelical char- 
acter in Portuguese. 

The ABS and the BFBS were the first societies 
to attempt in recent times the evangelization of 
the Brazilians. Several individuals went to 
Brazil as missionaries about the same time, but 
their aim was to benefit seamen and others of 
their own countrymen. Of such were Messrs. 
Spalding and Kidder, of the ME Church, who 
labored in Rio de Janeiro between 1836 and 
1842. A missionary of the American and For- 
eign Christian Union followed these pioneers with 
the same purpose in view. The first evangelistic 
mission in Brazil conducted in the Portuguese 
language seems to have been that carried on 
from 1855 to 1876 at his own expense by Dr. 
Kalley, formerly of Madeira. 

In 1859 the PN commenced its mission in Rio 
de Janeiro. There are now in Brazil 28 mission 
stations maintained by 13 different societies in 
America and Great Britain, and manned by about 
60 missionaries of both sexes. The extent of 
this missionary effort is less striking when it is 
realized to be the only evangelistic effort made 
for fourteen million of people. For the spiritual 
wants of 140,000 Protestant foreign residents, 
twice this number of chaplains and pastors have 
been provided. 
South America^ Protestant Missions in, Eeach (H. P.), and 

others, New York, 1900; Brazil and the Brazilians, Kidder 

(.J. C. and D. P.), New York, 1896. 

BREATH, Edward: Born in New York, Janu- 
ary 22, 1808. Highly recommended as a Chris- 
tian and "an accurate, neat, ingenious, and every 
way competent printer," he was appointed by 
the ABCFM, and sailed July 21, 1839, for 
Urmia, Persia. In 1847 he visited the United 
States, was married, and reembarked, 1849. He 
cut the matrices and cast for the mission beautiful 
fonts of Syriac type with a hand before unprac- 
tised in that art, but which made a rare and 
complete success. He thus saved thousands of 
dollars to the American Board. Through the 
press under his charge he issued more than 80,000 
volumes, including several editions of the Scrip- 
tures in modern Syriac, thus giving to the people 
about 16,000,000 pages in a language never 
before printed. He died of cholera in 1861 at 
Seir, near Urmia, Persia. 

Germany; Missionary Societies in. 

BRETHREN, Missions of the. See Christian 

BRETHREN'S SOCIETY for the Furtherance 
of the Gospel among the Heathen. See Mora- 
vian Missions. 

BRIDGETOWN: Capital of the island of Bar- 
bados, West Indies, on a large open roadstead, 
Carlisle Bay. Population (1891), 20,000, among 
whom are many white people. Station of the 



Britisli and Foreign 

Moravian Missions (1829), with 1 missionary and 
his wife, 29 native worlcers, men and women, 2 
chapels, 3 Sunday schools, 5 village schools, and 
605 professing Christians. Also station of the 
SDA (1890), with 4 missionaries and their wives, 
9 native workers, 2 chapels, 10 Sunday schools, 
1 village school, 1 book depot, and 605 professing 
Christians. Also station of the Salvation Army. 

BRIDGMAN, Elijah Colman: Born at Belcher- 
town, Mass., April 22, 1801, of Puritan ancestry. 
Was converted in a revival before he was twelve 
years of age. He graduated at Amherst College, 
1826, and. at Andover Theological Seminary, 
1829. The ABCFM proposed to him while m 
the seminary to go to China as its missionary. 
He acceded, was ordained October 6, 1829, 
sailed on the 14th, and reached Canton, February 
25, 1830. 

In May, 1832, Mr. Bridgman was chosen editor 
of the Chinese Repository and continued to edit 
it for nearly twenty years. In 1839 the measures 
taken by the Chinese to suppress the opium 
traffic resulted in war with England, which inter- 
rupted the operations of the mission at Canton. 
In 1842 the war terminated, and by the treaty 
of Nanking five ports were opened, and Hong- 
kong ceded to the English. Thither Mr. Bridg- 
man was removed. About this time he prepared 
the Chinese Chrestomathy, a volume of 730 pages. 
In 1844 he was secretary of legation to Mr. Gush- 
ing, sent by the United States Government on a 
special mission to China, and of his services Mr. 
Gushing spoke in high terms. After the conclu- 
sion of this enterprise Dr. Bridgman's time was 
divided between the Repository, the revision of 
the Scriptures, preaching at the hospital, and 
the instruction of a Bible class. In 1847 he 
removed to Shanghai to aid in the revision of the 
Scriptures. Early in 1852, after an absence of 
twenty-three years, he visited the United States 
for his health. In 1854 through him a new mis- 
sion was commenced in Shanghai, of which he 
was the senior member till his death in 1861. 

Tho his great work was that of translation, he 
distributed tracts and religious books, and 
preached to individuals or companies in streets 
and villages wherever he could gather them. 
He was interested also in whatever could in any 
way promote the welfare of China, and was 
always ready to perform his part for that object. 
When the plenipotentiaries of the four great 
treaty powers — England, France, Russia and 
the IJnited States — were conducting their nego- 
tiations which resulted in the Tientsin Treaty of 
1858, he was consulted by them, and frequently 
translated official documents for them. In his 
thirty-two years in China he was more intimately 
connected with and known by the foreign com- 
munity at Shanghai and Canton than any other 
missionary, and by all was highly esteemed. 

BRINDABAN: A town situated on the Jumna 
River near Muttra, in the United Provinces, 
India; station of the ME, with 2 missionary 
women, one of them a physician, 29 native work- 
ers, 20 Sunday schools, 6 village schools, 1 high 
school, a Young People's Society and 590 pro- 
fessing Christians. 

About the middle of the 18th century, during the 
revival that spread over England, interest was 
aroused in the various means for the promotion 
of religious knowledge, both at home and abroad, 
and several societies were formed which made 

Bible distribution one part of their aim, or their 
sole object within restricted bounds. Of such 
were the Society for the Propagation of the Gos- 
pel in Wales, established about 1662; the Society 
tor Promoting Christian knowledge, 1698; the 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in 
Foreign Parts, 1701; the Boole Society for Pro- 
moting Christian Knowledge among the Poor 
(London), 1750; the Religious Tract Society 
(London), 1779; the Bible Society, 1780, 
restricted to labors among soldiers and seamen, 
and afterward called the Naval and Military 
Society; the Dublin Association, 1792, and the 
French Bible Society (London), 1792, for circulat- 
ing the Bible among the Catholics of France. The 
French Revolution cutting off communication 
between the two countries, the funds were turned 
to the distribution of the Scriptures among "poor 
Catholics and others in the United Kingdom of 
Great Britain and Ireland." None of these soci- 
eties contemplated universal distribution of the 
Scriptures, nor indeed contemplated or admitted 
the cooperation of the different parties and sec- 
tions of evangelical Christendom. 

The Rev. Thomas Charles, of Bala, Wales, 
aroused by the dearth of Bibles in that section, 
and the difficulty of securing the needed supply 
from existing organizations, visited London in 
1802 and conferred with Rev. Jos. Hughes, Will- 
iam Wilberforce, Charles Grant and others. 
The result was a conference, on a general 
plan drawn up by Samuel J. Mills, on March 7, 
1804, at the London Tavern. About three hun- 
dred persons, representing different denomina- 
tions, were present. Granville Sharp was elected 
chairman, and the Rev. Mr. Owen (afterward 
clerical secretary), deeply stirred by the alto- 
gether novel spectacle of different denomina- 
tions met in union to promote one glorious cause, 
moved the resolutions embodying the name and 
general form and constitution of the British and 
F'oreign Bible Society. These were "adopted 
with unanimous demonstrations of cordiality 
and joy," and more than £700 was immediately 
subscribed. The committee appointed at this 
meeting afterward proceeded to adjust the 
machinery of the Society. Rev. Josiah Pratt, 
secretary of the CMS, to represent the Church of 
England, Rev. J. Hughes, the Dissenters, and 
Rev. Mr. Steinkopff (afterward replaced by Rev. 
J. Owen), foreign Christian Churches, were 
chosen secretaries. A prospectus was then pre- 
pared and widely distributed. Lord Teign- 
mouth became the first president. Among the 
first vice-presidents were the bishops of London, 
Durham, and Exeter, and William Wilberforce. 

The new society was heartily received. The 
Presbytery of Glasgow, the Synod of Glasgow 
and Ayr, and other ecclesiastical bodies directed 
contributions to be received for it from all the 
churches and chapels within the bounds. Wales, 
stimulated by Mr. Charles, of Bala, sent a contri- 
bution the first year of about $9,500, mostly from 
the poorer classes. Germany, Switzerland and 
other European countries hailed the society with 
delight. Nuremberg was the seat of its first 
foreign branch. It began its career with such 
general support as was a prophecy of its world- 
wide usefulness. 

Organization. The conduct of the business of 
the Society is entrusted to a committee of 36 lay- 
men, of whom six are foreigners, resident in Lon- 
don or vicinity, 15 are members of the Church of 
England, and 15 belong to other denominations 

Britisli and Foreign 



of Christians. Thirty of these who shall have 
most frequently attended the meetings, are eli- 
gible for reelection. This committee appoints 
all officers except the treasurer. The president, 
vice-presidents and treasurer are members of 
the committee ex officio, as also the secretaries 
for the time being, no other person deriving any 
emolument from the Society having that privi- 
lege. Subscribers of various amounts are annual 
or life members or governors, and every clergy- 
man of the Church of England and every Dis- 
senting minister, who is a member, is entitled to 
attend and to vote at all meetings of the Commit- 

The executive staff of the Society includes two 
secretaries, four superintendents of the editorial, 
literary, home and publishing departments, two 
assistant secretaries, fourteen district secretaries 
in England and Wales, six secretaries in India 
and South Africa, and twenty-four foreign agents 
in different parts of the world. 

The first auxiliary was formed in 1809, and in 
ten years 629 auxiliaries had been formed in 
Great Britain. The Society now has over 7,900 
auxiliaries, branches and associations, of which 
over 5,860 are in England and Wales. These 
m.eet their own expenditures, including in some 
cases colportage, etc., and remit the balance of 
their collections to the Society. The Society has 
also about 250 trade depots in the London metro- 
politan district, aside from those in other parts 
of the United Kingdom. 

Development of Work: Immediately upon the 
organization of the Society steps were taken to 
obtain large supplies of the Welsh Scriptures, 
and subsequently the Irish, Gaelic, Manx, and, 
for the Channel islands, the French. Stereotype 
printing had just come into use, and the com- 
mittee decided to countenance it, and ordered 
stereotype plates in several languages. The first 
New Testament printed expressly for the Society, 
brought out in September, 1805, was in English, 
and was printed from stereotype plates, the first 
instance of the use of that process in the printing 
of the Scriptures. Editions in Spanish and 
French were printed for the 30,000 prisoners of 
war at that time in the country, and other editions 
for resident foreigners, notably Germans. 

In 1812 the demand for English Scriptures 
became so great that the two universities (Oxford 
and Cambridge) added to the number of their 
presses, and his Majesty's printers were induced 
to engage in the work as their patent permitted. 
It is from these three (the only authorized) 
sources that the supply of English Scriptures is 
obtained by the Society. 

In connection with the abolition of slavery 
throughout the British colonies (August 1, 1833) 
a special fund of £16,249 5s. 9d. was raised amid 
great enthusiasm to put a copy of the New 
Testament into the hands of every freedman 
who could read or was the head of a family. 
This measure was ultimately accomplished, 
August 1, 1836, when 100,000 copies were thus 
disposed of. Other similar special exigencies 
have been met in the same liberal manner. From 
its earliest history the Society has had to meet 
considerable and at times bitter opposition. 
An element in the Established Church looked on 
its recognition of dissenters with disfavor, and 
tried to have it print the Prayer Book as well as 
the Bible; its willingness to assist continental 
societies that used the Apocrypha also raised 
much opposition, and occasioned the withdrawal 

of the Scotch Association and the subsequent 
organization of the National Bible Society of 
Scotland, altho in 1827 such assistance was. 
forbidden. Later an attempt to impose a 
trinitarian test of membership failing, the Trini- 
tarian Bible Society was formed, and the contro- 
versy over the word "baptize" resulted in the 
Bible Translation Society of the Baptists. 

Of specific interest are the publishing of the 
first penny Testament in 1834 and of Scriptures 
in raised letters for the blind in 1837; the lower- 
ing of the price of Bibles in 1839 through the- 
cessation of the monopoly of the King's printer 
in Scotland, the introduction of colportage into 
Great Britain in 1844, and the acceptance for 
circulation of the Revised Version of the Bible in 

Immediately on the formation of the Society 
correspondence was commenced through a sub- 
committee with foreign lands, with a view to 
learn both the needs and the best methods of 
work in those lands. The first grant made was 
one of £100 to encourage the formation of a 
society in Nuremberg, in May, 1804. One of the 
earliest foreign correspondents was a Roman 
Catholic clergyman in Swabia, to whom 1,000 
German New Testaments were granted for 
distribution. The first foreign edition of the 
Scriptures printed by the Society was John's 
Gospel (2,000 copies) in Mohawk and English. 

Various grants were made to encourage the 
printing of new editions of the Scriptures and 
for the establishment of auxiliary societies on 
the Continent. In 1812 a Bible committee was 
formed in Paris. Auxiliaries were formed in 
Zurich (1812), St. Gall (1813), Wurtemberg (1813), 
Frankfort and other places (1812), Presburg in 
Hungary (1812). Leander Van Ess, a Catholic 
priest and professor in the University of Marburg, 
made a translation of the New Testament; £200 
was granted him to enable him distribute 3,000 
copies. The Berlin Auxiliary was formed in 1805 
and soon printed 20,000 copies of the Scriptures 
in the Bohemian and Polish tongues. In 1807 
means were taken to supply the need in Iceland, 
and in 1823 it was reported that there was not 
a family without the Scriptures. An auxiliary 
was founded in Copenhagen in 1814. In Russia 
an auxiliary for Finland was organized in 1812, 
with the approval of the Czar, Alexander I., 
and in 1813 one for Russia at St. Petersburg. 
Prince Galitzin became its first president, and 
members of the Russian Greek and the Armenian 
churches were present at the inauguration of the 
work. The Czar donated 25,000 roubles, and 
became an annual subscriber to the amount of 
10,000. Auxiliaries were formed, various trans- 
lations made, and a great impulse given to 
Bible distribution and study. Nearly one hun- 
dred editions in thirty languages were published, 
and hundreds of thousands of Scriptures distrib' 
uted. Alexander's successor, Nicholas, sup- 
pressed the Society in 1826, but permitted tne 
formation of a Protestant Society for supplying 
Protestants with the Bible. In 1809 an associa- 
tion was formed in Stockholm through which 
Lapland also was reached. In 1814 the Nether- 
lands Bible Society was instituted at Amsterdam. 
It was found that, while the majority of the adher- 
ents of the Reformed Church had Bibles, the 
Lutherans generally were unprovided, and the 
Catholics had very few copies among them. 
Societies were rapidly multiplied to supply 
the need, and generous grants were made to 



Brltlsb and Forelgrn 

■them. Efforts made by the pope to check the 
-work in Poland and Russia failed. Austria 
refused to permit the work in her territories, and 
the Hungarian Bible Society was suppressed; 
and yet many eminent Roman Catholics heartily 
assisted the Society in its work. 

Up to 1826 it had been the aim of the Society 
to encourage foreign countries to institute 
societies of their own, on its principle of circu- 
lating the Scriptures without note or comment. 
This aim was remarkably successful. Holland, 
Oermany, Poland, Russia, Switzerland, France, 
Hungary, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Iceland 
were aroused in a remarkable degree to provide 
the people with the Bible. In the Lutheran and 
Reformed Churches the various Protestant 
translations were distributed, while among the 
Roman Catholics, versions of their own, but 
-without note or comment, were adopted for 
distribution by the Society. On account of the 
position taken in regard to the Apocrypha, 
most of the continental societies withdrew, and 
latterly the British and Foreign Bible Society 
has carried forward its work in Europe by means 
of agencies under its own immediate control. 

The Society completed one hundred years of 
arduous service March 6, 1904. That day, fall- 
ing on Sunday, was observed in all Protestant 
countries as a day for setting forth in the pulpit 
the debt which the world owes to the Bible, and 
for commemorating the services of the Bible 
societies to mankind. 

The growth of the Society's work is indicated 
by the following figures as to its issues and receipts : 
Up to March 31, 1808, its issues were 81,157 
volumes, of which 63,113 were New Testaments. 
The next year showed 77,272 with 40,862 New 
Testaments and 35,910 Bibles. From that time 
the growth has been constant, until in 1902 the 
total issues were 5,067,421, including 939,706 
Bibles, 1,364,116 New Testaments, 2,763,599 
portions. The total issues up to March 31, 
1902, were 175,038,965. 

The income of the Society has grown from 
£691 10s. 2d. in its first year to £241,143 2s. 
lid. in 1902. 

Bible Women: The Society has of late years 
made a special feature of the employment of 
Bible Women, especially in the East, to reach the 
homes with reading and instruction. During 
1901, 621 were thus employed in Asia, either by 
the Society direct or through its auxiliaries or 
the different missionary societies, and they 
reached over 35,000 women and taught 2,384 in 
India, Ceylon and Egypt to read. 

Editorial Work: An idea of this branch of the 
Society's work is furnished by the statement that, 
during the year ending March 31, 1902, the 
Editorial Committee considered matters bearing 
on versions of Scripture in 151 languages and 
dialects, of which 33 belong to Europe, 55 to 
Asia, 43 to Africa, 6 to America and 1 4 to Oceania. 
Negotiations have been conducted with the 
owners of the Revised Version in English, with a 
view to issuing it in forms suited to schools 
and the cottages of the poor. Amoiig iterns 
of special interest are a German Bible in Latin 
characters, a pocket Bible in Persian, a Re- 
vised Testament in Tibetan, a new whole Bible 
in the Ningpo dialect of China, plans for a Union 
version in Nyasa, etc. 

Agencies: Of the 24 foreign agents of the Society 
seven are located in Europe, at Paris, Berlin, 
Florence, Madrid, St. Petersburg, Ekaterinburg 

and Constantinople; four are in Africa, at Alex- 
andria, Algiers, Tangier and Sierra Leone; six 
are in Asia, at Bushire, Rangoon, Singapore, 
Shanghai, Seoul and Yokohama; one is at Manila, 
one in New Zealand; three are in South America, 
at Buenos Aires, Rio de Janeiro and Callao; one 
is at Belize, British Honduras, and one at Kings- 
ton, Jamaica. There are also five secretaries in 
India, at Madras, Bombay, Calcutta, Allahabad, 
and Lahore; and one at Cape Town in South 

Agencies in Europe: The work of the Society in 
Europe is carried on by colportage, through Bible 
depots, and by grants to existing local organiza- 
tions. In France there were in 1902, 43 colpor- 
teurs; in Belgium 8, Germany 26, Austria-Hun- 
gary 45, Italy 36, Spain 22, Portugal 10, Russia 
72, Turkey and Greece 28. The last two include 
some work in Asia. New methods are adopted 
as needed, instanced by the use of a colportage 
motor-car and the appointment of women as 
colporteurs in France; work in the railway shops 
of Belgium, among the soldiers of Germany, the 
emigrants from Italy, and the convicts of Sicily. 
Everywhere the strongest opposition comes from 
the Roman Catholic priesthood, but the evan- 
gelical movement among the priests in France, 
the "away from Rome" impulse in Austria, the 
independent ambitions of Hungary, and the 
influx of new ideas into Italy and Spain, all affect 
the work of the Bible Society and are manifest 
in increased sales. How much is accomplished 
is indicated by the following figures of sales by 
colporteurs, not including those in depots or to 
other Bible societies; France 55,324, Belgium 
7,391, Germany 97,892, Austria-Hungary 72,940, 
Italy 60,413, Spain 29,934, Portugal 6,062, 
Russia 217,212, Turkey and Greece 25,095. In 
some countries, notably Germany and Russia, 
there are also large sales in the depots; Germany 
205,495, and Russia 244,952 copies. 

The agent at Constantinople has care of the 
work of the Society in that city, in Western Asia 
Minor, chiefly near the coast; in the islands of the 
Egean, in Bulgaria north of the Balkans, in 
Albania and in Greece. By arrangement with 
the American and Scottish Bible societies dupli- 
cation of labor is avoided. In recent years the 
chief difficulty has arisen from the opposition of 
the Greek Church to the circulation of the New 
Testament in modern Greek. 

Egyptian Agency: This includes, besides Egypt 
and the Sudan, Syria, Palestine, Cyprus, Malta, 
Arabia and Abyssinia, with the East Central 
Africa sub-agency at Zanzibar. In Syria, Egypt, 
and a portion of the Sudan, the American 
Bible Society also works; elsewhere the British 
Society occupies the field alone; thus it covers 
the most important part of the Arabic speaking 
world. The headquarters are at Alexandria, 
and during 1901 fourteen colporteurs were em- 
ployed, who sold 13,640 copies of the Scriptures. 
Almost an equal number were sold to various 
missionary organizations, and still more granted 
to missionaries, etc., so that the entire circula- 
tion was over 52,000 copies. Among the special 
features of the work are efforts to reach the 
sailors who pass through the Suez Canal and the 
pilgrims at Jerusalem; a cordial letter from King 
Menelek of Abyssinia; colportage on the Nile 
steamers and among the non-African population, 
Indian, Arab and European, of East Africa. 

North Africa: The two agencies, one for Algeria, 
with Tunis and Tripoli, and one for Morocco, are 

Britisli and Foreign 



among the most difficult fields of the Society; 
illustrating its principle of going into regions that 
are needy, irrespective of returns in the form of 
sales. With four colporteurs in Algeria selling 
7,218 copies (1902) and three in Morocco selling 
5,959 copies, it is easy to understand that the 
work has many perplexities. The French are 
scornful, the Mohammedans hostile, and, espe- 
cially in Morocco, the national spirit is very bitter. 
The Society works in close relation with the 
North African Mission, the London Jews' Society 
and the Geneva Evangelical Society. 

West Africa: This agency covers the territory 
from the Gambia to the Congo. The agent, who 
resides at Freetown, Sierra Leone, works chiefly 
through local auxiliaries and the missions of the 
CMS, the WMS and the Basel Missionary Society. 

South Africa, including Cape Colony, Natal, 
Orange River Colony and the Transvaal, is under 
the general supervision of the South African 
Auxiliary (founded in 1840), whose secretary 
resides at Cape Town. The recent war closed a 
number of the depots, yet the work has gone on 
with considerable success, both among the English 
and the Dutch, as well as the natives, the sales 
and grants amounting, in 1902, to about 50,000. 
Madagascar and Mauritius are both provided 
with auxiliary societies, the sales being about 
20,000 in Malagasi and 2,000 in Mauritius. 

Persia and Turkish Arabia: The agent at 
Bushire, on the Persian Gulf, has charge of this 
section, including all but the part of Persia north 
of Teheran, which is occupied by the American 
Bible Society. The sales by 10 colporteurs were 
(1901) about 6,000 copies, while the total circu- 
lation was 15,548. The agency is in three divi- 
sions: 1. the provinces of the Persian Gulf, with 
Bushire as center; 2. South Central and Eastern 
Persia, with center at Julfa, near Ispahan, and 
sub-depots at Sultanabad, Yezd and Shiraz; 3. 
Turkish Arabia, with center at Baghdad, and 
including Kermanshah in Western Persia. A 
considerable portion of the work is among Arme- 
nians and Jews. 

India: The Society's work here has from the 
first been organized under separate auxiliaries, 
six in number : Calcutta, Bombay, Madras, Banga- 
lore, North India and Punjab. On the respective 
committees, the various missionary societies are 
largely represented and their committees fix 
prices and decide discounts to missions and other 
purchasers. The Society's colporteurs and depots 
always work in close harmony with these missions. 
The 138 colporteurs employed in 1901-2 sold 
181,743 copies of the Scriptures, while the total 
circulation was 577,035, the highest figures 
reached in any year. One feature of the work 
is the employment of 406 native Bible women. 

The three auxiliaries in charge of Bible work 
in Ceylon, at Colombo, Jaffna and Kandy, report 
10 colporteurs, 9,847 copies sold and a total circu- 
lation of 43,216. 

Burma is under a special agent located at 
Rangoon, who reports eight colporteurs and total 
sales of 15,179 copies. 

Malaysia is divided into North and South, 
with headquarters at Manila and Singapore. In 
the Philippines the work is shared with the 
American Bible Society, the British Societv 
reporting (1901) 35,638 copies sold, of which over 
26,000 were in the Philippine dialects and the 
great majority were portions, those in Spanish 
and Chinese each amounting to about 3,600 
copies. From Singapore the agent superintends 

work in the Straits Settlements and native states, 
Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Celebes, Moluccas, and 
lesser Dutch Islands, 28 colporteurs selling 43,395 
copies, very nearly the entire circulation. Here 
Chinese takes the lead among the languages, next 
coming Malay, Javanese and Tamil. 

China: This large agency, covering China proper, 
Manchuria, Mongolia, Sungaria and Tibet, is 
superintended by an agent resident at Shanghai, 
with 11 sub-agents in the different provinces. 
There are 15 principal depots and 8 others under 
the superintendence of missionaries. There were 
153 native colporteurs at work during the year, 
and the sales were 382,036 copies, the total circu- 
lation being 431,446 against 604,462 in 1900 and 
856,156 in 1899. A significant feature is the 
large number of complete Bibles called for, the 
largest in any one year of the agency. The 
decrease, due to the Boxer troubles, has been 
chiefly in the colportage, the sales from the depots 
not having materially leasened. The China 
agency also includes the work in Formosa, which 
has shown steady development, the circulation 
(1901) being 25,763 copies. 

Korea has an agent resident at Seoul, who 
reports a circulation of 16,814 copies, against 
38,006 in 1900, 46,121 in 1899 and 34,813 in 1898. 
This decrease is explained by the severe drought, 
which has raised prices, and the fact that in 1900 
the native church members supplied themselves 
with the newly issued Testament. 

Japan is worked by a joint committee repre- 
senting the British, American and Scotch societies. 

Bible work in Australia is conducted by 43 
auxiliaries with 476 branches, and in New Zealand 
by 61 auxiliaries and branches, which not only 
care for their own fields, among the Maoris, sailors, 
etc., but contribute liberally to the parent society. 

In Oceania the Society assists the various mis- 
sionary societies with grants, but has no special 
organized work. 

South America: In this continent are three 
agencies: the Argentine, including Argentina, 
Uruguay, Paraguay and Bolivia; Brazil, and a 
new one called the Republics of the Andes, includ- 
ing Colombia, Ecuador and Peru, the work of the 
Society in Chile being limited to assisting the Val- 
paraiso Bible Society. In all, 16 colporteurs have 
sold 24,758 copies. This is somewhat of a falling 
off compared with the sales of previous years. 

The five Republics of Costa Rica, Nicaragua, 
Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras are worked 
by an agent resident at Belize, British Honduras. 
Seven colporteurs in that region sold 9,135 copies, 
almost the entire circulation. 

The West Indian Agency, including Dutch, 
French and British Guiana, the West Indian 
Islands and Bermudas, with its center at Kings- 
ton, Jamaica, has the credit of a larger proportion 
of Bibles sold (27,911 out of a total circulation of 
53,090) than any other foreign agency of the 
Society. Some of the 83 auxiliaries and branches 
are supplied direct from London, so that the 
above does not represent the entire work done. 

British North America is thoroughly organ- 
ized with 12 auxiliaries and over 1,100 branch 
societies, the auxiliary for Upper Canada, with 
its headcjuarters at Toronto, being the largest 
and most mfluential of all those in British Colonies. 
It covers the entire territory from the Great 
Lakes to the Pacific Coast. 

PERiopiCAi.s: The Bible Society Reporter, London! Bible 

Society Gleaninqs. 
History of the Bible Society (from 1804 to 1864), liondon 

2 vols. 



British and Furcisrn 

BRITISH EAST AFRICA: A large territory 
bordering on the east coast of Africa and extend- 
ing into the heart of the continent, comprising 
the East African Protectorate proper, the Uganda 
Protectorate, and tlie Zanzibar Protectorate. 
The territory is bounded on the west by the Congo 
Free State and hes between the Sudan, Abys- 
sinia and Italian Somaliland on the north and 
German East Africa on the south. The entire 
area of this part of the British territory in Africa 
is estimated to exceed 1,000,000 square miles. 

The East African Protectorate proper includes 
the whole of the coast from the Umba to the Juba 
River, extending inland as far as Uganda and 
merging to northward into the Egyptian Sudan, 
with an area of about 350,000 square miles and 
a population of about 4,000,000. Arabs and 
Swahilis inhabit the coast territories, while 
farther inland are found tribes of Bantus, and 
in the northern part the Masai, Somalis and 
Gallas. The territory is governed by the For- 
eign Office through a Commissioner and a Consul 
General with their subordinates. The capital is 
Mombasa, a town of 27,000 inhabitants, situated 
on an island of the same name. A railway runs 
from Mombasa to Uganda at the Victoria Nyanza. 

The missionary societies established in this 
region are the CMS, the United Methodist Free 
Churches, the Africa Inland Mission, the Scan- 
dinavian Alliance, the Leipzig Missionary Society 
and the Neukirchen Missionary Society. These 
societies occupy 17 stations altogether, the most 
of which are under the CMS. 

Travel in the Coast Lands of British E. Africa, FitzRerald 
(W. W. A.), London, 1898: The Last of the Masai, Hinde 
(S. L. and H.), London, 1901. 

Bible Work (1860) : In the year 1860 the Druses 
rose against the Maronites and Greeks in Damas- 
cus and the region of the Lebanon and Anti- 
Lebanon, and fearful massacres resulted. The 
condition of the 20,000 widows and orphans who 
were left aroused the sympathy of Mrs. Bowen 
Thompson of England, who had spent many 
years in Syria as the wife of a physician, and was 
thoroughly acquainted with the country and its 

She went to Beirut and opened an industrial 
refuge, where 200 women and children gathered 
the first week. Schools were established and a 
training institution opened in Beirut. Within a 
few years the work spread to other towns and 
villages in Syria, and schools were attended not 
only by the children of the Christian denomina- 
tions, but by Jewesses, Muslims and Druses. 
Mrs. Bowen Thompson was soon joined by her 
sisters, Miss Lloyd, Mrs. Smith and Mr. and Mrs. 
Mott. With their aid and that of a small staff 
of native Bible women the work was well organ- 
ized before Mrs. Thompson's death in 1869. 

The schools of the mission extend from Damas- 
cus to Tyre. There is a night school of special 
benefit to Lebanon soldiers, day schools for boys, 
for girls, for the blind of both sexes, for Muslim 
girls and for Jewesses. In all, instruction is given 
in the Bible. Special classes are held for women, 
both on week days and on Sundays, and are 
largely attended. 

In 1889 the corner-stone of a memorial school 
building was laid in Baalbec, and a medical work 
has been established in the same city. A quar- 
terly paper, Daughters of Syria, is published in 
England in the interest of the schools. 

There are 4 stations and 19 outstations, 21 

English missionaries and 128 native workers, 51 
day schools, 3,743 pupils and 3 dispensaries. 

The organ of this Society is a quarterly paper, Daughters of 

BROACH: Capital of the district of Broach, 
Bombay, India, situated on the Nerbada, 30 
miles from its mouth. Population (1891), 
40,168 — Hindus, Muslims, Parsees. Language, 
Gujarathi. Station of the PCI (1887), with 2 
missionaries and their wives, 2 missionary women, 
9 native workers, men and women, 5 Sunday 
schools, 5 village schools, 1 orphanage and 21 
church members. 

BRODHEAD, Augustus: Born at Milford, Pa., 
May 13, 1831; graduated at Union College, 
1855, and Princeton Theological Seminary, 1858; 
ordained May 4 same year; sailed for India, 
November 7, as a missionary of the PN, reach- 
ing Calcutta April 4, 1859. At Mainpurie and 
Fatehgarh he spent nearly twelye years. In 
1872 he was transferred to Allahabad. Dr. 
Brodhead took a prominent part in the theologi- 
cal training school of the Synod of India, wrote 
and published valuable treatises in sacred and 
church history, edited the mission magazine pub- 
lished for the use of the native Christians, and 
assisted in preparing a hymn book for the church 
and Sunday school, for which he wrote and trans- 
lated several hymns ; took an active part in the 
North Indian Bible and Tract Societies, and the 
Christian Vernacular Education Society. A suc- 
cession of severe attacks of Ulness compelled him 
to return home. Died at Bridgeton, N. J., 
August, 1887. 

BROOKE, Graham Wilmot : Born at Aldershot, 
England, in 1866. He was preparing to enter 
the military academy at Woolwich when he 
became interested in the Mohammedans of North 
Africa and the seeming impossibility of informing 
them of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. He grad- 
ually reached a deliberate conclusion that it was 
his duty to try to reach the Mohammedans of the 
Sudan, who were then showing the fiercest fan- 
aticism in connection with the outbreak of Mah- 
dism in the region about Khartum, and to teach 
them how to walk in the light. He studied 
medicine at St. Thomas' Hospital and went as an 
independent missionary to Africa, but failed in 
every attempt to reach the Sudan. He then 
returned to England and was appointed the same 
year, December, 1889, as an honorary lay mission- 
ary of the CMS, in order to be, with the Rev. J. 
A. Robinson, joint leader of the new Sudan and 
Upper Niger mission. In May, 1890, the expe- 
dition went to Africa and by way of the Niger 
into the Western Sudan. He was principally at 
Lokoja. There he acquired the Hausa language 
and labored with energy in preaching, until he 
was smitten with fever and died at Lokoja, 
March 5, 1892, in the 26th year of his age. 

Mr. Brooke was a hero in his calm, steadfast 
devotion to his mission. He felt called to preach 
in the Sudan, then one of the darkest regions of 
the earth. "But," as has been said of his deter- 
mined attempt to obey the call of his Master, 
"the land was not easy of access. He tried to 
reach it by way of North Africa and failed. He 
tried to enter it by way of the Congo. Follow- 
ing the course of that great river, far into the 
interior, beyond where foot of missionary had 
yet trod, past large and populous towns unheard 
of by the civilized world, among nations whose 
atrocities equaled those of the South Sea canni- 




bals, through untold risks and dangers, he 
pushed his way onward. But in vain. The 
Sudan was still barred to him. Finally he dis- 
covered that a door of entrance might be found 
by way of the Niger, and that he could best avail 
himself of it by joining the Church Missionary 

"How, arrayed in the native dress, which proved 
so commodious, he and the friends who with him 
started the Upper Niger Mission went about 
among the people of Lokoja and the country 
round, how quickly he obtained a mastery of the 
language, how he won favor among the Moham- 
meiians as well as heathen, and found ready lis- 
teners for the Gospel story — all this has been 
told in detail in his journals and leaflets, and 
forms a most deeply interesting and instructive 
narrative. In spite of the many trials which 
came upon the mission, he was able to record at 
the end of 1891 that the Word of God had been 
fully preached over an area equal to that of Hert- 
fordshire, Middlesex, Kent, Surrey, and Hants, 
and not merely preached, but understood." 

Mr. Brooke, besides preaching, found time to 
translate several tracts into Hausa. But his 
life was much like that of David Brainerd, in 
that the remembrance of its high qualities is the 
chief legacy which he left to the Church. His 
was a case where "the highest mental and moral 
gifts, the prime of life with its vigor and its oppor- 
tunities, were laid simply and wholly upon the 
altar of Christ, and this, not as a sacrifice, but as 
a matter of course." 

BROUSA: Capital of the province of the same 
name, Asiatic Turkey, about 60 miles from Con- 
stantinople. Population, about 75,000, Moham- 
medans, Armenians, Greeks, etc. It is finely 
located at the base of the Bithynian Olympus. 
Has some mineral springs and is a health resort 
from Constantinople. It was the capital of the 
first Sultans of the Ottoman Empire, and the 
tombs built in their honor are well worthy of a 

Station of the ABCFM (1848), with 1 mission- 
ary and his wife, 1 missionary woman, 15 native 
■workers, 12 chapels, 12 Sunday schools, 13 com- 
mon schools, 2 high schools, 1 orphanage and 
'255 church members. 

BROWN, Nathan: Born at New Ipswich, N. H., 
June 22, 1807; graduated at Williams College, 
1827. While in college he composed the beauti- 
ful poem, The Missionary's Call, commencing, 
"My soul is not at rest." After studying theol- 
ogy in Newton Seminary he was ordained at Rut- 
land, and embarked for Burma, December 22, 
1832, under appointment by the Baptist Triennial 
Convention. Having spent two years in Burma, 
he was appointed by his brethren to commence 
with Mr. Cutter a new mission in Assam. After 
a four months' perilous journey through the 
Hugli, Ganges and Brahmaputra they reached 
Sadiya, about 45 miles N. E. of the present 
mission station of Dibrugarh. Here among savage 
tribes he began to learn the language without 
grammar or dictionary. He soon commenced 
the work of tran.slation, tracts and books were 
distributed, schools were established and zayats 
built, where the Gospel was preached by the way- 
side. In 1839 Sadiya was attacked by the hill 
tribes, and many of the people and soldiery 
were massacred. Dr. Brown and his wife fled in 
a canoe in the darkness of the night with their 
two infant children, and at daybreak found pro- 

tection in the stockade, still in possession of the 
British troops. Many natives of Sadiya having 
been killed or dispersed, the mission was removed 
to Jeypfjr, and in 1841 to the densely populated 
district of Sibsagar. Here the missionaries had 
great success. Reenforcements arriving, new 
stations were established and churches organized. 
But Dr. Brown's great work was the translation 
of the Scriptures. In 1848 he completed the 
Assamese version of the New Testament. In 
1855, with health greatly impaired by twenty- 
two years of toil and sufferings, he returned to his 
native land. 

In view of the wonderful openings in Japan 
and the urgent calls for missionaries, Dr. Brown 
felt strongly drawn to that empire as a field for 
his personal labors, and in 1872, under appoint- 
ment from the American Baptist Missionary 
Union, he set sail for Japan with his second wife, 
reaching Yokohama, February, 1873. The 
sixty-five years of age, he entered upon the study 
of the language with ardor, and in 1879 his trans- 
lation of the New Testament in vernacular Japan- 
ese was printed. He strongly recommended the 
adoption of the Roman alphabet in place of the 
Chinese characters in writing the Japanese lan- 
guage, a reform which has since been zealously 
urged, not only by the missionaries, but by many 
Japanese. During his six years' residence in 
Japan Dr. Brown received 179 to his church at 
Yokohama, was permitted to welcome other 
laborers, and to see seven churches established 
containing between 300 and 400 members. 

Dr. Brown was not only a translator of the 
Scriptures and a preacher, he was also the author 
and translator of hymns in the languages of 
Burma, Assam and Japan. His last work was 
the Japanese hymn-book. When no longer able 
to use the pen he dictated as he lay on his bed to 
his native preacher. He closed his useful and 
industrious life January 1, 1886, in the seventy- 
ninth year of his age. 

Dr. Brown's published works are: Translation 
of the New Testament in Assamese; Portions of 
the Old Testament in Assamese and Shan; Gram- 
mar of the Assamese Language; Catechism in the 
Assamese and Shan Languages; Arithmetic in 
Burman and Assamese; Hymns in Burman and 
Assamese; comparative vocabulary of some fifty 
Indian languages and dialects, and the Orunbdoi, 
an illustrated monthly magazine. 

BROWN, Samuel R. : Born at East Windsor, 
Conn., June 16, 1810; removed to Munson in 
early childhood; graduated at Yale College, 1832; 
sailed as a missionary of the ABCFM for China 
in 1838. His great work was education and 
translation. He it was who first induced Chinese 
youth to come to the United States for an edu- 
cation, and hundreds of young men from China — 
some from the highest families of the empire — 
found through him homes in towns and cities of 
the United States. On going to Japan in 1859 
(under the RCA), he induced the government to 
send some of its princes to America for education, 
and he was active in securing Christian homes for 
them. His last services were in connection with 
the translation of the New Testament into Japan- 
ese, a labor of many years, in which he was asso- 
ciated with a committee from several denomina- 
tions. This great work was just completed at 
the time of his death. He returned home in 
1879 and died, June 20, 1880, in Munson, Mass. 

BRUMANA: A village on Mount Lebanon, 




Syria, a few miles east of Beirut. Station of 
the Friends' Foreign Mission Association (1873), 
■with 4 missionaries and their wives, 4 missionary 
women (2 of them medical), 14 native workers 
men and women, 1 chapel, 3 Sunday schools, 2 
village schools, 2 high schools, 1 dispensary, 1 
hospital and 15 professing Christians. Brumana 
has been twice chosen as the place of meeting 
(the_ second in 1901) of an important interde- 
nominational conference of missionaries and 
other Christian workers from all parts of the 

BUA: A town on the island of Vanua Levu, 
Fiji Islands; station of the Australian Wesley an 
Methodist Missionary Society, with 1 missionary, 
207 native workers, 71 chapels, 92 Sunday 
schools, 102 village schools, and 2,135 professing 

BUCARAMANGA: A city of 20,000 inhabitants 
in the district of Santander, Colombia, South 
America; station of the American Bible Society, 
with an agent and his wife and a book depot. 

BUCHAIIAN: A village in Griqualand East, 
Cape Colony, S. Africa, situated about ten miles 
:S. W. of Mount Fr^re; station of the UFS (1886), 
with 1 missionary and his wife, 31 native workers, 
■9 Sunday schools, 1 village school, and 702 
church members. 

BUCHANAN (Liberia). See Great Bass a. 

BUCHAREST: Capital of the kingdom of Ru- 
mania; altho Oriental in external appearance, in 
other respects is assuming more and more the 
.aspect of a European city. Population (1890), 
190,633. Mission station of the London Society 
for Propagating the Gospel among the Jews 
(1848), with 10 missionaries, 9 native workers, 
men and women, 1 chapel, 1 Sunday school, and 
■2 village schools. Also station of the PB (1899), 
with 2 missionaries, one with his wife, and 1 
missionary woman. 

BUD AON: A city S. W. of Bareilly, in the 
Rohilkhand district. United Provinces, India. 
Population, about 35,000. Station of the MB, 
with 4 missionaries and 38 native workers, men 
.and women. It has 24 village schools, a high 
school, and 680 church members. 

BUDDHISM : In discussing Buddhism it must 
be borne in mind that many systems known by 
that name have appeared in different ages and 
in different lands. No other faith or philosophy 
has undergone so many and so great changes in 
the course of its development. The widely 
•different opinions, therefore, which have been 
expressed as to its teachings, may each have 
found a degree of support in some particular 
phase or stage of the manifold system. 

Another point to be settled is its relation to 
Hinduism. Was it a new and distinct system 
.setting out in the first instance as a protest 
against the teachings of the Brahmans, or was 
it a later develofiment in the mind of Gautama 
occurring after six years of ascetic life — a dis- 
covery or conclusion finally reached as he sat 
under the Bo tree? Professor Beall is undoubt- 
edly correct in the opinion that Buddhism was an 
afterthought and not an original aim when 
Gautama left his palace. He broke with Brah- 
manism on its religious side; most of its philoso- 
phy he retained. He protested against the out- 
rageous assumptions of the Brahmans, their 
intense sacerdotalism and imposture, their exag- 
gerated doctrine of sacrifice, and their rigorous 

system of caste. He repudiated the absolute 
authority of the Vedas and the superstition,' or 
ultra-religiousness, of the whole Brahmanical 
cult. He even flew to the opposite extreme of 
atheism, or, at least, a pronounced agnosticism. 
Yet, at the same time, he cherished a sort of 
reverence for the high Brahmans or rishis. He 
tacitly maintained many of the speculations of 
the Upanishads. He cherished, with unabated 
ardor, the old Brahmanical theory that the con- 
nection of soul with matter is the source of all 
evil, and that self-mortification, through a series 
of transmigrations, can alone secure deliverance. 
Of the nature of the soul he held peculiar views, 
as will appear further on. These views have 
been more or less modified in succeeding ages. 

A clear distinction must be made at the outset 
between the credible history of Gautama and the 
extravagant legends which sprang up in various 
lands long after his death. It has virtually been 
settled by the consensus of the best scholars that 
those accounts which are the oldest, which were 
authorized by the earliest councils, which have 
the concurrent testimony of both the Northern 
and the Southern literatures, and which are 
credible in themselves shall be accepted as the 
probable history of Gautama. 

Briefly, the facts thus recognized are these: 
Gautama, otherwise known in his youth as Sid- 
dartha, was the son of Suddhodana, a rajah of 
the Aryan tribe of Sakyas, occupying a tract of 
country north by northwest of Benares. 

He was born at Kapilavastu probably about 
600 B. c, and was left motherless by the death of 
the Rani Maya Devi shortly after she had given 
him birth. The earliest accounts represent him 
as having been born by natural generation, and 
without the miraculous incidents of the later 

There are apparent evidences of a melancholy 
and more or less morbid turn of mind even in his 
youth, and of painstaking efforts on the part of 
his father to cheer his despondency by the allure- 
ments of a voluptuous Oriental court. 

In spite of all this, satiety was an early result, 
and at the age of twenty-nine, and just after 
the birth of an only son and heir, he left his 
palace and his inheritance, and, lilve many other 
princes in various lands, he sought rest of soul 
in asceticism. The idea which has been so skil- 
fully reproduced by Sir Edwin Arnold, that 
Gautama then and there set out to become a 
savior of men, has no foundation in fact. It is 
rendered impossible by the early traditions; he 
was simply fleeing from sorrow and distress, and 
seeking some way of peace. 

Leaving his palace by night, attended by a 
faithful servant, he hastened to the open country, 
whence he sent back his horse, and exchanging 
garments with a peasant, he proceeded on foot 
to a forest retreat, where he entered upon a life 
of self-mortification. 

Dissatisfied with his teachers, he himself 
became the head of a fraternity, and with five 
or six followers he sought even greater isolation 
and greater austerities for about six years. 

He had at length fathomed the emptiness of 
the Brahmanical religion. He had giveii it a 
patient and even heroic trial, and had found it 
vanity. Self-mortification could go no further 
without absolute suicide. He was so weak from 
fasting that he fainted and fell to the ground. 
The crisis of his life had come. He abandoned 
his vain struggles and partook of needful food. 




This step cost him the loss of all his influence; 
his disciples forsook him as an apostate and a 
failure; he was in extreme perplexity and dis- 
tress. Should he return to his family and his 
inheritance, and appease his wounded pride by 
proclaiming that all religion was a sham? The 
temptation was strong, yet neither had his former 
possessions given him peace. 

Very real and very great were his temptations. 
Fierce were his struggles with the world, on the 
one hand, and with conviction and pride on the 
other, as he sat alone under the shade of the 
Bo tree. 

All candid men must acknowledge that the 
decision which Gautama reached, and the victory 
over self which he won, were sublime. Greater 
self-control has seldom if ever been attafned by 
men, altho the power of the human will has 
sometimes found remarkable exemplifications. 

John Foster, in his essay on Decision of Char- 
acter, cites the case of a spendthrift who, after 
having exhausted a splendid fortune, had gone 
to the seashore with the purpose of destroying 
his life. But after a long period of reflection he 
sprang to his feet with an all absorbing resolve 
to retrieve his fortune, walked rapidly back to 
the city, engaged at once in the humblest occu- 
pations, and as a persistent miser actually 
accomplished his end. 

With equal force of will, and in a far nobler 
cause, Gautama rose up from his reveries to 
become one of the most powerful leaders of man- 
kind. He is supposed to have been at this time 
about thirty-five years of age. The passions of 
youth were not dead with him, worldly ambition 
may be supposed to have been still in force, but 
he chose the part of a missionary to his fellow- 
men, and there is no evidence that he ever 
swerved from his purpose. He had won a great 
victory over himself, and that fact constituted 
a secret of power. 

He began at once the career which he had 
marked out. He sought, first of all, the dis- 
affected disciples who had abandoned him, and 
who, doubtless, had proclaimed his fall. It is a 
strong evidence of the power of his own convic- 
tions that he speedily succeeded in winning them 
to his new standard. 

It was just here that Buddhism began its 
career. It had still an ascetic element; it aimed 
to keep the body under for the sake of purity 
and power, but not as a matter of merit. In the 
place of idleness and repression for its own sake 
it substituted a life of beneficence. 

Buddhism was a missionary religion from the 
outset; more aggressively so in that early age 
than in the later centuries, when it had lapsed 
into the monastic spirit of the original Brahman- 

Gautama soon gathered a band of about sixty 
followers, whom, after five months of instruction, 
he sent out to proclaim the "Law." He himself 
preached continuously for forty-five years, and 
long before his death he was surrounded by a 
numerous order of mendicants, who received his 
word as law, and to whom he stood in the place 
of God. The gentleness of his bearing and the 
consistency of his life, as well as precepts, won 
men of high and of low degree with remarkable 

During the more favorable seasons it was his 
custom to preach as an itinerant, wherever he 
found the most favorable openings, but in the 
hot and rainy months he gathered his mendicants 

about him in some shady grove or on a breezy 
mountain summit like the "Vulture's Peak." 
He died at the advanced age of fourscore years 
from an acute attack of indigestion. 

The account given of his last hours in the 
Great Decease is full of pathos. He passed away 
like Socrates, in the full use of his faculties, and 
discoursing tenderly with his disciples to the end. 

If now we turn from credible history to the 
later legends of the Buddha, we enter upon a 
story of the wildest extravagance. 

The legends divide his life into three periods: 
(1) that of his preexistent states through several 
hundred transmigrations; (2) that of his earthly 
life before attaining Buddhaship; and (3) that 
of his ministry after he had become " enlight- 
ened." The preexistent states are set forth in 
the Jatakas or "birth stories" of Ceylon, which 
represent him as having been born 530 times 
after he became a Bodisat (a predestined 

As a specimen of his varied experience while 
becoming fitted for Buddhaship, we read that he 
was born 83 times as an ascetic, 58 as a monarch, 
43 as a deva, 24 as a Brahman, 18 as an ape; 
as a deer 10, an elephant 6, a lion 10, and at 
least once each as a thief, a gambler, a frog, a 
hare, a snipe. He was also embodied in a tree. 
But as a Bodisat he could not be born in hell, 
nor as vermin, nor as a woman. He could 
descend no lower than a snipe. 

The legends represent the Buddha as having 
"incarnated" for the purpose of bringing relief 
to a distressed world. He was miraculously 
conceived, entering his mother's side in the form 
of a white elephant. All nature manifested its 
joy on the occasion. The ocean bloomed with 
flowers, all beings from many worlds showed their 
wonder and sympathy. Many miracles were 
wrought even during his childhood, and every 
part of his career was filled with marvels. 

At his temptation under the Bo tree Mara 
(Satan) came to him mounted on an elephant 
sixteen miles high and surrounded by an encir- 
cling army of demons eleven miles deep. Find- 
ing Buddha proof against blandishments, Mara 
hurled mountains of rocks against him and 
assailed him with fire and smoke and ashes and 
filth, all of which became as zephyrs upon his 
cheek or as presents of fragrant flowers. Last 
of all, Mara sent his three daughters to seduce 

In the Northern Buddhist literature, especially 
in the Lalita Vistara of Nepaul, many incidents 
of Buddha's childhood are given which show a 
remarkable coincidence with the life of Christ. 
It is claimed that his birth was heralded by 
angelic hosts, that an aged sage received him 
into his arms and blessed him, that he was taken 
to the temple for consecration, that a jealous 
ruler sought to destroy him, that he disputed with 
learned doctors; that he was baptized, tempted, 
transfigured, and translated. These seeming 
parallels will be noticed further on. 

The Literatures of Buddhism: The teachings of 
Gautama were gathered up by his disciples in 
the form of belief aphorisms or sutras, and were 
orally transmitted for several generations before 
being committed to writing. They had various 
classifications, like the following: (1) The Four 
Truths, discovered while sitting under the Bo 
tree — viz. : the fact of sorrow, the cause of sorrow, 
the removal of sorrow, and the means by which 
this is to be done. The fourth was ramified into 




the eightfold path. (2) The Middle Path, as 
between the dominion of passion, on the one hand, 
and the bootless extremes of asceticism on the 
other. (3) The Ten Fetters — viz. : (a) Delusion 
of Self; (6) Doubt; (c) Dependence on Rites; 
(d) Sensuality; (e) Hatred; (/) Love of Life on 
Earth; {g) Desire for Life in Heaven; {h) Pride; 
(i) Self-Righteousness; (j) Ignorance. (4) The 
Ten Prohibitions, sometimes called the Ten Com- 
mandments. One should not kill, should not 
steal, should not lie, nor get drunk, nor commit 
adultery. These five were for all men. Five 
others were for the religious orders. These should 
not violate certain strict rules relating to food, 
nor wear ornaments, nor use perfumes, nor sleep 
on a soft bed, nor indulge in amusements, nor 
possess silver and gold. 

These prohibitions have often been compared 
with the Mosaic Decalog, but it will be observed 
that all the Godward precepts of the latter are 
wanting in the Buddhist code; even the parental 
relation is unnoticed, and the reference to the 
deeper principle of covetousness in the Hebrew 
Decalog is also wanting. Only the outward 
violation of the most obvious rules of common 
life is forbidden in the laity, and five frivolous 
injunctions are added for the religious order. 

It is fair to say, however, that reverence for 
parents was inculcated in other sutras ascribed 
to the Buddha; that the restriction and abuse 
heaped upon woman by the laws of Manu were 
mitigated, and that, in general, benevolence 
toward all men and all living things was enjoined. 

In the teachings of Gautama and his immediate 
disciples are found many precepts which compare 
favorably with those of the New Testament. 
They are, however, purely ethical, and can 
scarcely be said to have a religious import. 

Of the collections of Buddhist literature there 
are two great divisions, known as the Little 
Vehicle (Hinayana) of Ceylon and other southern 
lands, and the Great Vehicle (Mahayana) of 
Nepal, Kashmir, and Tibet. China and Japan 
received translations from both, tho principally 
from the Great Vehicle of the North. The Pali 
text of the Little Vehicle was adopted by the 
council called by King Ashoka about 250 b. c, 
and was known as the Tripitaka (Three Baskets). 
This, as being the oldest and most authentic 
body of history and doctrine, is justly considered 
the Buddhist canon. 

It is a strong point in favor of the authenticity 
of the Tripitaka, that it was borne into Ceylon 
by Mahinda, a son of Ashoka, soon after the 
council of Patna. He was received by Tissa, 
King of Ceylon, with great favor, and the faith, 
as it was preserved in his memory and that of 
his monks, was implicitly received in Ceylon. 
Mahinda soon after translated the Tripitaka from 
the Pali into the Sinhalese language, and from 
that time to the present day the two versions have 
corroborated each other. 

Later teachings hold the same relation to the 
Tripitaka that the traditions and decrees of the 
Roman Catholic Church hold to the Canon of tne 
New Testament. 

The Mahayana, or Great Vehicle, consists of 
nine books, of which the two most important are 
the Lalita Vistara and the Lotus of the True 
Law. The former of these is a life of Gautama 
down to the time of his enlightenment. It was 
written partly in poetry and partly in prose, and 
evidently at different times. As above stated, 
it is in this poetic and exaggerated biography 

that those legends are chiefly found which resem- 
ble the life of Christ. 

In the course of centuries important Buddhist 
works of greater or less merit appeared in the 
southern literature, mostly commentaries on the' 
alleged teachings of the "Exalted One." Of 
these the most important are the DhammapadOy 
the Sutta Nipata, the Great Decease, etc. The 
Dhammapada, or "Path of Holiness," was written 
by Buddhagosha, an Indian monk, who went ta 
Ceylon about 430. 

The book is a sort of encyclopedia and commen- 
tary combined. It is a compend in Pali of all 
the commentaries which till his time had been 
preserved in Sinhalese only. The Dhammapada- 
contains the best things of Buddhism, as the 
Bhagavad Gita sums up the choicest teachings 
of Hinduism. How far it represents the veritable- 
words of Gautama and how far it embodies the 
sentiments of his followers can never be known, 
as it was written seven centuries after the adop- 
tion of the canon. 

The Doctrines of Buddhism: These are (1) 
its peculiar conception of the soul; (2) its doc- 
trine of Trishna and Upadana; (3) its theory of 
Karma; (4) the doctrine of Nirvana. 

The soul is said to consist of five skandas. 
These in their interaction constitute what all 
others than Buddhists regard as the soul. They 
are (a) material properties, (6) the senses, (c) 
abstract ideas, (d) tendencies, (e) mental powers. 
The soul is the result of the combined action of 
these, as the flame of a candle proceeds from the 
combustion of its constituent elements. The 
flame is never the same for two consecutive 
moments. It seems to have a perpetuated iden- 
tity, but that is only an illusion, and the same 
unreality pertains to the soul; it is only a suc- 
cession of thoughts, emotions, and conscious 
experiences. We are not the same that we were 
an hour ago. In fact, there is no such thing as 
being, there is only a constant becoming. We 
are ever passing from one point to another 
throughout our life, and this is true of all beings 
and all things in the universe. How it is that 
the succession of experience is treasured up in 
memory is not made clear. 

This is a most subtle doctrine, and it has many 
points of contact with various speculations of 
modern times. It has also a plausible side when 
viewed in the light of experience, but its gaps 
and inconsistencies are fatal, as must be seen 
when it is thoroughly examined. 

Trishna is the second of these cardinal doc- 
trines. Trishna is that inborn element of desire 
whose tendency is to lead men into evil. So far 
it is a misfortune, or a form of original sin. 
Whatever it may have of the nature of guilt 
hangs upon the issues of a previous life. Upa- 
dana is only a further stage in the same develop- 
ment. It is Trishna ripened into intense craving 
by our own choice and our own action. It then 
becomes incontroUable, and is clearly a matter 
of guilt. Now the momentum of this Upadana 
is such that it cannot be arrested by death. 
Like the demons of Gadara, it must again become 
incarnate, even tho it should enter the body of 
a brute. 

Karma: This transitional something, this rest- 
less moral or immoral force which must work out 
its natural results somehow and somewhere, and 
that in embodied form, projects into future being, 
a residuum which is known as Karma. Literally 
it means the "doing." It is a man's record. 




involving the consequences and liabilities of his 
acts. It is a score whicli must be settled. 

A question naturally arises, How the record of 
a soul can survive when the soul itself has been 
"blown out?" The illustration of the candle 
does not quite meet the case. If the flame were 
something which, when blown out, immediately 
seized upon some other substance in which the 
work of combustion proceeded, it would come 
nearer to a parallel. One candle may light 
another before itself is extinguished, but it does 
not do it by an inherent necessity. But this 
flame of the soul, this Karma, must enter some 
other body of god, or man, or beast, or inanimate 

Again the question comes, How can responsi- 
bility be transferred from one to another? How 
can the heavy load of a man's sin be laid upon 
some newborn infant, while the departing sinner 
himself has no further concern in his evil Karma, 
but sinks into non-existence the moment his 
"conformations" are touched with dissolution? 
Buddhism acknowledges a mystery here; no real 
explanation can be given, and none seems to 
have been attempted by Buddhist writers. To 
be consistent, Gautama, in denying the existence 
of God and of the soul as an entity, should have 
taught the materialistic doctrine of annihilation. 
This, however, he could not do in the face of that 
deep-rooted idea of transmigration which had 
taken entire possession of the Hindu mind. He 
was compelled, therefore, to bridge a most 
illogical chasm as best he could. Karma without 
a soul to cling to is a something in the air. It 
alights like some winged seed upon a newborn 
set of skandas with its luckless boon of ill desert, 
and it involves the fatal inconsistency of invest- 
ing with permanent character that which is itself 

But the question may be asked, Do we not 
admit a similar principle when we speak of a 
man's influence as something that survives him? 
We answer, "No." Influence is a simple radia- 
tion of impressions. A man may leave an influ- 
ence which men are free to accept or not, but it 
is quite a different thing if he leaves upon a suc- 
cessor the moral liabilities of a bankrupt char- 
acter. Gautama's own Karma, for example, 
ceased to exist upon his entering Nirvana; there 
was no rebirth, but his influence lives forever, 
and has extended to millions of his fellowmen. 

The injustice involved in the doctrine of Karma 
is startling. The newborn soul that inherits its 
unsettled score has no memory or consciousness 
that connects it with himself; it is not heredity, 
it is not his father's character that invests him. 
This Karma may have crossed the ocean from 
the deathbed of some unknown man of another 
race. The doctrine is the more astonishing when 
we consider that no Supreme Being is recognized 
as claiming this retribution. There is no God; 
it is a vague law of eternal justice, a law without 
a lawgiver or a judge. There can therefore be 
no pardon, no commutation of sentence, no such 
thing as divine pity or help. The only way in 
which one can disentangle himself is by breaking 
the connection between spirit and matter which 
binds him with the shackles of conscious being. 

The Doctrine of Nirvana: No doctrine of 
Buddhism has been so much in dispute as this. 
(1) It has been widely maintained that Nirvana 
means extinction. (2) Prof. T. W. Rhys Davids 
and others have held that it is the destruction of 
passion, malice, and delusion, and that it may 

be attained in this life — that Gautama reached 
Nirvana forty-five years before his death. They 
claim, however, that inasmuch as it cuts off 
Karma and rebirth, it involves extinction upon 
the dissolution of the body. (3) It is held by 
others that Nirvana is a return to the original 
and all-pervading Boddhi essence. This theory, 
which is really a concession to the Brahmanical 
doctrine of absorption into the infinite Brahm, 
has a wide following among modern Buddhists 
in China and Japan. It is a form of Buddhist 

As to the teachings of Gautama on this sub- 
ject. Professor Max Milller, while admitting that 
the metaphysicians who followed the great 
teacher plainly taught that the entire personal 
entity of an arahat (an enlightened one) would 
become extinct upon the death of the body, yet 
reasons in his lecture on "Buddhistic Nihilism" 
that the Buddha himself could not have taught 
a doctrine so disheartening. At the same time 
he quotes the learned and judicial Bishop 
Bigandet as declaring, after years of study and 
observation in Burma, that such is the doctrine 
ascribed to the great teacher by his own disciples. 
Gautama himself is quoted as closing one of his 
sermons in these words: "Mendicants, that 
which binds the teacher to existence is cut off, 
but his body still remains. While his body shall 
remain he shall be seen by gods and men; but 
after the termination of life, upon the dissolution 
of the body, neither gods nor men shall see him." 

Prof. Khys Davids expresses the doctrine 
tersely when he says: "Utter death with no new 
life to follow is then a result of, but it is not, 

Professor Oldenberg suggests with much plaus- 
ibility that the Buddha was more reticent in 
regard to the doctrine of final extinction in the 
later periods of his life; that the depressing doc- 
trine had been found a stumbling-block, and he 
came to assume an agnostic position on the ques- 
tion whether the ego should permanently survive. 

The question. What is Nirvana? has been the 
object of a larger inquiry than its importance 
demands. Practically the millions of Buddhists 
are not concerned in the question. They find 
no attraction in either view. They desire neither 
extinction nor unconscious absorption into the 
Boddhi essence (or Brahm). What they antici- 

Cate is an improved transmigration, a better 
irth. The more devout may indulge the hope 
tliat their next life will be spent in one of the 
Buddhist heavens. Others may aspire to be men 
of high position and influence. A man of low 
tastes may forecast his next life in accordance 
with those tastes. The Buddhist holds even 
more strictly than the Christian that every man 
shall reap as he has sown, for in his view no inter- 
posing grace can change the result. It is wholly 
erroneous, then, to represent the system as pre- 
senting nothing more attractive to men than the 
prospect of extinction. However metaphysi- 
cians and Orientalists may settle the question of 
the last estate of those who become "enlight- 
ened," the multitudes care little for a goal which, 
according to Buddhist tradition, less than a dozen 
followers of Gautama have ever reached. "The 
laymen could attain Nirvana," says Professor 
Rhys Davids, "we are told of only one or two 
instances of their having done so"; and, tho it 
was more possible for members of the Buddhist 
order of mendicants, we only hear after the time 
of Gautama of one or two who did so. No one 




now hears of such an occurrence." It is safe, 
therefore, to conclude that the hope of Nirvana 
has practically no influence on Buddhist minds. 
It lies at an infinite distance and is shadowy at 
best, while real existence lies between. That is 
the goal of hope and aspiration. 

The Migrations of Buddhism: It is common to 
speak of Buddhism as a "missionary religion," 
and such it was in its earlier career. Gautama 
from the first and both by precept and example 
taught the duty of proclaiming the "Law." The 
fact that a son and a daughter of King Ashoka 
became missionaries in Ceylon must be accepted 
as evidence of the earnestness of the missionary 
spirit of their time. Other influences helped the 
movement, however. Ashoka made Buddhism 
the religion of the state, and, as we have seen, 
the political treaties formed between the Lamas 
of Tibet and the Chinese emperors extended the 
system even to Mongolia. In many instances 
Chinese travelers in India carried home with 
them the Buddhist system and became its advo- 
cates. But for several centuries real missionaries 
or volunteer teachers visited other lands for the 
promulgation of the Law. Buddhism was trans- 
mitted to Ceylon about 230 B. c, to Kashmir 
at the beginning of the Christian era, to China 
about 67, to Burma in the 5th century, to 
Japan in 552, and to Siam and Cambodia in the 
7th century. 

The Development of Northern Buddhism: In 
Ceylon, Burma and Siam there has been little 
change from the time-honored doctrine of the 
Pitakas, but in Nepal, Tibet, and among all 
branches of the Mongolian race there have been 
wide variations. 

Closely connected with the legendary teachings 
which at length came to be associated with the 
history of Gautama was the theory tliat succes- 
sive Buddhas have visited the world, and at 
intervals of five thousand years will continue to 
appear. When Gautama died, those who had 
learned to look upon him with a sort of worship 
felt the loss of a divine sympathy and help. The 
Buddha was dead, and according to his own 
teachings there was "nothing left of which it 
could be said I am." But the next Buddha was 
in course of preparation in some of the heavens, 
and perhaps could even now hear the voice of 
human prayer. Thus the Bodhisat "Maitreyeh" 
(future Buddha of kindness) came to be recog- 
nized even in Ceylon as a hopeful resource and 
a hearer of prayer. 

But it was in the Northern Buddhism particu- 
larly that the evolution of a sort of semi-theism 
advanced from generation to generation. 

Professor Rhys Davids maintains that the 
"keynote" of the Mahay ana (Great Vehicle) was 
its change from the idea and aim of Arahatship, 
as taught in the south, to that of Bodisatship. 
In other words, a living Buddha to come was 
thought to be of more practical value to mankind 
than a dead Buddha of the past, however wise 
and saintly. 

There was that felt demand of humanity, wit- 
nessed in all ages and races, for a divine helper. 

By the 4th century there were worshiped 
in Nepal two Bodisats named Manjusri and 
Avolokitesvara. The first was the personifica- 
tion of wisdom; the second represented power, 
and was the merciful protector of the world. 
These mythical personages were presented in the 
Lotus of the True Law, one of the nine books of 
the Great Vehicle. At a somewhat later period 

these two had become three, with a somewhat 
modified distribution of functions. 

Vajrapani represented power; Manjusri, the 
personification of wisdom; while Avolokitesvara 
was the spirit of the Buddhas everywhere present 
in the church. This is wonderfully suggestive of 
a possible borrowing from the Christian Trinity, 
and the date of its development would render 
such a result possible. 

Some time subsequent to the 7th century 
tliere were recognized five trinities — one for each 
of five world systems. In each trinity the first 
person was known as a dhyana or celestial 
Buddha; the second was the spirit of Buddhas 
in tlie church; and the third was the incarnate 
Buddha on earth. The trinity for our world 
consisted of the dhyana Amitaba, whom'we shall 
notice farther on; Avolokitesvara, who also 
becomes important, and Gautama, who was our 
incarnate Buddha. 

In the 10th century the Tibetans advanced a 
step further, and proclaimed the Supreme or 
Adi- Buddha. From him, the One and Absolute,, 
all the Dhyana Buddhas emanated, while from 
them sprang the Bodisatwas, and from each 
Bodisatwa was evolved a kosmos or material 
world. Thus Buddhism had become essentially 
polytheistic. ' 

Meanwhile the system had become exceedingly 
corrupt through a union with the Hindu doctrine 
of Saktism, or the worship of the female principle 
of Siva, and even in Tibet the hideous idols 
representing the gods and goddesses of Hinduism 
were everywliere present. By a subsequent 
reformation the Buddhism of Tibet was restored 
measurably to its original purity. 

Lamaism or Lamism: The available functions 
of Avolokitesvara had rendered him exceedingly 
popular. To him all real supplications were 
offered. The chief abbot of Tibet, who was also 
temporal ruler, solidified and established his 
power by claiming to be an incarnation of this 
all-pervading Bodisat. At his death the indwell- 
ing one immediately became incarnate in some 
newly born infant who should succeed to the 
theocratic throne. To the great advantage of 
this supposed divinity was added an alliance with 
Kublai Khan and other Chinese emperors, by 
which, in exchange for political fealty to the 
Chinese Emperor, the Grand Lama of Tibet was 
constituted the high priest of Buddhism over 
China and Mongolia. Subsequently a disputed 
title to the Lamaship was settled by the inaugu- 
ration of two Lamas, and for this purpose another 
indwelling Bodisat was found, viz. : Amitaba. 

The Worship of Quan Yin: In China a different 
use was made of the ever available and popular 
Bodisat Avolokitesvara. He became imperson- 
ated in Qu<in Yin, the well-known goddess of 
mercy. That Quan Yin was regarded as a female 
finds its explanation in the influence of the Indian 
Saktism, which had not become quite extinct 
even in Tibet. Some of the abbesses in the 
Tibetan monasteries were regarded as incarna- 
tions of the wives of Siva. Quan Yin on the 
same principle was an impersonation of Avolo- 
kitesvara on the female side of his nature. More- 
over, in this, as in some forms of historic Chris- 
tianity, the notion that women's sympathy and 
compassion are most tender had, perhaps, some 
weight. In both China and Japan Quan Yin is 
one of the most popular, because the most merci- 
ful, of deities. She is represented as having 
attained Nirvana, but as having voluntarily sub- 




mitted to rebirth in heaven that she might com- 
passionate mankind. 

The Buddhist Doctrine of Salvation by Faith: 
We have seen that the celestial or Dhyana 
Buddha of our world system was Amitaba. This 
mystical being has become in the Yodo and the 
Shin sects of Japan a complete savior. By the 
great merit which he has stored up through mil- 
lions of ages he is able to save, vicariously and 
to the uttermost, all who in true faith call upon 
his name. By the Shin sect the doctrine is most 
fully developed. They claim that a single act 
of faith and trust in Amitaba will save the soul 
forever. There is a complete substitution or 
transfer of righteousness from the savior to the 
sinner. There is an abandonment of the notion 
of self-merit and self-help. Endless transmigra- 
tion gives place to an immediate and lasting 
enjoyment of heaven beyond tlie setting sun. 
Asceticism is rejected as useless, and one's own 
merit is "as superfluous as furs in summer." 
Yet this faith is said to work by love, and good 
■deeds are performed out of gratitude to Amitaba. 

It is very remarkable that Buddhism, begin- 
ning in sheer atheism, should finally have reached 
the very threshold of Christianity — without the 
Christ. There has never appeared a more clever 
and complete counterfeit. No other false system 
has ever paid so marked a tribute, tho involun- 
tary, to the fundamental doctrines of Christian- 

The Present Buddhisms: We have seen how the 
system has been developed in different lands. In 
Ceylon and Burma it is still a mere ethical cult, 
while the religious aspirations of men are largely 
met by the worship of spirits. In Siam it is 
buttressed by an intimate relation to the govern- 
ment of the State. In India it has been vir- 
tually extinct since the 9th century. In Tibet, 
as has already been shown, it is a virtual theo- 
crasy under the name of Lamism. In China 
there are thirteen Buddhist sects, but the system 
as a whole has become a constituent of the 
triangular system known as theSankaio, or "The 
Three Religions," Confucianism, Taouism, and 
Buddhism. They are so united that each supple- 
ments the other. The Chinese Buddhism has 
borrowed from Confucianism its reverence for 
ancestors and for the State, and from Taouism 
its demigods and its geomantic superstitions. 
The Chinese are in turn Confucianists, Buddhists, 
or Taouists, as exigencies may arise. 

The Buddlaism of Mongolia has borrowed 
largely the Tibetan type, tho it has multiplied 
its Lamas almost indefinitely. Any distin- 
guished Buddhist monk may come to be regarded 
as an incarnation of some holy Buddha, and 
through this open pathway of ambitious saint- 
ship, fraud and corruption have entered. The 
Mongolian Buddhism is of even a darker and 
more gloomy type than that of other lands. 

The Buddhism of Japan has been greatly 
influenced by a union with Shintoism. It has 
embraced many of its popular superstitions, and 
as from Taouism in China, so from Shintoism in 
Japan it has adopted the national heroes and 
<iemigods and enshrined them in its temples. 
I'or a thousand years there was a mutual agree- 
ment that Shinto priests should solemnize all 
marriages and Buddhist priests officiate at all 
funerals. This relation was finally abolished by 
imperial edict. 

The Alleged Coinridences between the Life of 
■Gautama and that of Christ: We have already 

alluded to the incidents of Buddha's birth and 
early life, as set forth in the legends, particu- 
larly in the Lalita Vistara of Nepal. Great use 
has been made of these by the apologists of 
Buddhism. The inference which is generally 
drawn from them is that the Gospel narrative 
is largely borrowed from the earlier life of Gau- 
tama. Abundant refutations of this assumption 
have been presented by Eitel, Kuenen, Kellogg, 
Rhys Davids, and others. 

1. "There is," says Rhys Davids, "no evidence 
whatever of any actual and direct communica- 
tion of these ideas common to Buddhism and 
Christianity from the East to the West." 

2. Many of the coincidences are merely acci- 
dental. The events in both cases are those which 
might naturally occur independently of any con- 
nection; such as the fact that both infants were 
welcomed with joy by friends as well as kindred, 
or that they were both consecrated in temples, 
or that both were tempted to turn aside from 
their great missions, or that both were credited 
with precocious wisdom. 

3. The fact has already been shown that the 
Lalita Vistara, which gives most of these legends 
of Gautama's childhood, cannot be proved to 
have existed earlier than the 6th century. 
While there is no evidence of communication of 
the ideas common to Buddhism and Christianity 
from the East to the West, evidence is abundant 
that Christianity had been preached and had 
gained a foothold in India and Central Asia long 
before that date. 

4. It is intrinsically improbable, not to say 
impossible, that a circle of disciples which 
embraced the mother and brethren of Jesus 
should have undertaken to palm off a false or 
borrowed history. 

5. It is still more improbable that the disci- 
ples, whose whole aim was to show that Christ's 
advent was a fulfilment of Jewish prophecy and 
vitally connected with the Old Testament 
Church, should have clumsily copied a mass of 
heathen legends. Considering the Jewish horror 
of heathenism, no policy could have been more 

6. The disciples of Christ taught a pure theism, 
in which supernatural elements appeared in an 
intense and special power. Would they base the 
story of one claiming to be the Son of God on 
the biography of a Gentile atheist? 

7. Many of the coincidences are rather con- 
trasts. Christ's preexistence was that of a Divine 
Being, Buddha's was merely a series of trans- 
migrations. Christ had shared the equal glory 
of the Father; Buddha had been a soldier, a thief, 
an elephant, a tiger, a snipe, a frog; Christ's 
baptism was a religious rite, that of Gautama a 
bath in a river. Christ's miracles were sensible 
and useful, those of Buddha objectless, childish, 

The Alleged Humanity of Buddhism as Com- 
pared with Christianity: There has been great 
effort on the part of opposers of the Christian 
faith to exalt Buddhism as a superior system. 
It has been especially urged that the "Light of 
Asia" was the teacher of a gospel of peace, 
strangely contrasting with the belligerent doc- 
trines and history of the Christian Church. In 
reply to this claim it should be said, in the 
outset, that in all comparisons between Asiatic 
faiths and those of Europe, differences of climate 
and race characteristics should be borne in mind. 
Between the soft and puny tribes of Southern 




India or Ceylon and the Norsemen of the Baltic 
there are physical contrasts which no faith could 
wholly efface. But considering that Scandina- 
vians, once the terrors of Europe, are now the 
most peaceful of men, we may point to the influ- 
ences which Christianity has exerted upon them 
as among the highest triumphs of any religious 
faith. Moreover, northern races of Buddhists 
are by no means distinguished for a gentle and 
pacific spirit. 

There is scarcely any country in which the life 
of a stranger is more imperiled than in Mongolia. 
The famous conqueror, Kublai Khan, was con- 
verted to Buddhism, but, as Ebrard has well 
shown, no change was wrought in his nature or 
his ambitious plans. The Japanese, tho Bud- 
dhists for thirteen centuries, have been a warlilie 
race, and their temples are often crowded with 
the images of bloodthirsty heroes. 

It is admitted that Gautama discountenanced 
the destruction of life, whether of man or of 
beast. Even insects were spared with punctili- 
ous care. But this was no new precept. Brah- 
mans had long before taught the same, and the 
sect known as the Jains are most absurdly scrupu- 
lous of all. This sacredness of life is based on 
the doctrine of transmigration, which is common 
to all nations of Southern Asia. The meanest 
beast or reptile may be an incarnation of a human 
spirit. But the real humanities of Buddhism are 
infinitely inferior to those of Christianity. 
Ostentatious care of brutes is often seen side by 
side with utter disregard of human suffering. In 
Canton one may see a sacred asylum for swine, 
but he would look in vain for a home for the 
orphan or the blind. A missionary board in our 
day has been asked to provide some place in 
Bangkok for the insane, because such an asylum 
had never been imagined, so that all that could 
be done for a demented foreigner in that city 
was to lodge him like a criminal in jail. 

The alleged instances of benevolence in the 
history of Gautama are chiefly found, not like 
those of Christ, in his earthly life, but in the birth 
stories of his former existences. Once as a hare 
he gave himself for a dinner to a hungry tigress. 
In another of his lives he gave his two children 
to a demon who desired to eat them, and as their 
blood streamed from the monster's mouth he 
simply said, "By the merit of this deed may rays 
of light emanate from me." 

The attitude of Buddhism toward woman has 
been greatly emphasized in recent years by its 
special advocates in Christian lands. That it 
mitigated many of the wrongs which had been 
visited upon the female sex by the Brahmans will 
be conceded. 

It was a great and important step when the 
Buddha, not on his own impulse, but by the per- 
suasions of his kinsman and disciple, Ananda, 
admitted women to the privileges of the Samgha 
or holy order. The principle involved carried 
with it many social ameliorations. Yet the posi- 
tion of Gautama and the whole leaven of his 
influence in this respect was far below the 
standards of the New Testament. In the outset 
his example in forsaking his wife and child to 
become a recluse cannot be commended. Paul 
taught that a man might remain single for the 
sake of the kingdom, but to break away from the 
most sacred of obligations, and that stealthily 
and without consent, must be adjudged a crime. 
The baneful influence of this example, like that 
of Mohammed's immorality, has brought forth 

its evil fruit abundantly. In Burma any man 
desiring to be rid of his wife has only to enter a 
monastery and remain a year or even a month, 
after which he is free to leave his sanctities behind 
him and marry another wife. 

Logically, Buddhism is opposed to all mar- 
riages, to all love for wife or children. The prin- 
ciple that human relationships are fraught with 
pain, and that to get rid of pain one must attain 
an equipoise which is tantamount to absolute 
indifference, would break up all society. This 
tendency was pointed out to Gavitama, and he 
accordingly divided his followers into two classes, 
the monks and the laity. It was an illogical but 
necessary concession. 

Buddhist monasticism rests upon a much more 
radical principle than that of the Roman and 
Greek churches. These, while maintaining that 
celibacy is conducive to the highest sanctity, 
nevertheless honor marriage, and make it a 
sacrament for the masses of men. Not so with 
Buddhism. It puts no honor upon the relation; 
it regards it as an evil. Many utterances are 
quoted from Buddha which cast reproach upon 
woman as woman. 

Thus in the Dhammikha Sutta, "A wise man 
should avoid married life as if it were a burning 
pit of live coals." Again, "That which is named 
woman is sin," On another occasion Buddha 
said : "Any woman whatever, if she have a proper 
opportunity and can do it in secret, and if she 
be enticed thereto, will do that which is wrong, 
however ugly the paramour may be." No foul 
slander in the Laws of Manu can exceed this. 

Two general precepts of Buddhism will suffice 
to show the discount which it puts upon woman. 
First, Gautama taught that, altho she could 
enter upon a holy life as a nun, she could not 
attain Nirvana without first being born as a 
man; and, second, it was held that, altho a 
Bodisat in his preexistent lives might be a wolf, 
a snipe, or a frog, he could never become a woman. 
Quite in accord with these ideas, the female sex 
has remained in general degradation in all 
Buddhist lands. 

The fact that a low grade of morality exists 
in countries wholly under the influence of this 
system, that profligacy is unbridled in Mongolia, 
that thousands of children were sold for prosti- 
tution in Japan, that the vile custom of polyandry 
prevails unchecked in Tibet, will doubtless be 
set down to other causes by Buddhist apologists. 
But when we turn to the canonical books of the 
system and find passages so vile that the trans- 
lators have not dared to translate them, no such 
excuses can be accepted. The Bishop of Colom- 
bo, in the Nineteenth Century of July, 1888, called 
attention to the fact that the translators and 
publishers of the Pitakas of Ceylon had omitted 
some portions which were absolutely vile. He 
did not complain that the omission had been 
made, but that no mention was made of the fact 
— that the English readers of the Sacred Books of 
the East were left to suppose that the culled and 
expurgated version of the Vinayana there given 
was a fair and honest representation of Buddhism 
as it really was and is. Professor Max Miiller, in 
his introduction to the first volume of the Sacred 
Books, a volume relating to the Upanishads. 
admits that some things in Hindu literature were 
considered unfit for the English translation, but 
such notice is wanting in Professar Oldenberg's 
translation of the Pitakas, where especially such 
omissions should be explained, since Buddhism 




'par excellence is paraded as a model of purity. 
Lest we may seem to do injustice to tiie Buddhist 
sacred canon of Ceylon, it should be said that the 
omitted passages are not positive recommenda- 
tions of vice — quite the reverse; but the very 
prohibitions defile the mind. 

The aim seems to have been to draw out the 
opinion of "The Blessed One" in regard to every 
vice and crime that the basest imagination could 
conceive of. Cases were stated, therefore, in 
which monks had fallen into every species of sin. 
The minutite, the sickening details, the prurient 
particularity of the recitals were such that the 
Bishop of Colombo concludes that the authors 
must have transcended the possibilities of actual 
sin, and in some instances drawn upon a depraved 
imagination in order to illustrate the wisdom of 
the Buddha. 

Contrasts with Christianity: There is not space 
for even a brief allusion to the admixtures of 
Buddhism with lower forms of superstition which 
it has encountered and absorbed in many lands, 
such as the wide-spread spirit-worship, serpent- 
worship, and even fetishism. But a few of the 
many points of contrast between Buddhism and 
Christianity may be presented. We have 
admitted the probable sincerity of Gautama as a 
reformer and the great victory which he gained 
over his own evil propensities, also the general 
tone of benevolence which appeared in his teach- 
ings; but the system must be judged as a whole 
and in the broad perspective of its influence. It 
is thus that Christianity is judged. 

1. Buddhism contrasts with Christianity in 
respect to God. The one, at least in its original 
form, is agnostic if not atheistic, and therefore 
derives no motives of action from any higher 
source than man himself or some blind law of 
moral cause and effect. The other makes God 
real, personal, and supreme — the source of all 
highest inspiration and help, the Author of every 
blessing present or future, the Arbiter of the 
human conscience, and the Rewarder of all who 
seek Him. 

2. There is a marked contrast with respect to 
the soul. Buddhism recognizes no permanent 
entity or ego. There is only a transient inter- 
action of physical properties and mental powers. 
At death only the Karma, or the good or evil 
desert remains. Christianity recognizes the soul 
as created in the image of God, as conscious and 
spiritual, a distinct and permanent being, des- 
tined to live hereafter, and capable of loving God 
and enjoying Him forever. 

3. While Christianity represents sin as an 
offense against God and centers in Him the bond 
of all moral obligation, Buddhism sees only a 
personal inconvenience, an accumulation of con- 
sequences. The motive even in benevolent 
action is utterly selfish, as it aims at merit. 
Thus when the preexistent Buddha gave his 
children to be devoured by a demon, as stated 
above, he thought not of their suffering, or of 
his wrong toward them, but only of his own 
great merit. All laws of moral right and wrong 
seem distorted by such a conception. 

4. Buddhism has no Savior. When Sir Edwin 
Arnold represents him as coming to save the 
world, he simply reads into Buddhism his own 
conceptions borrowed from the New Testament 
and his Christian training. Buddha relied 
wholly on himself and he taught all men to do 
the same. In later ages Buddhists in various 
lands have expressed a felt want of humanity 

by adopting various types of quasi theism, and 
have conceived of supernatural beings as divine 
helpers, but they have so far departed from real 
Buddhism. The term salvation is wholly out 
of place in such a system, while, on the other 
hand, Christianity is in its whole aim and its 
whole nature a system of divine redemption 
from sin and death. 

5. Buddhism lays stress on self and self- 
interest. Its self-denials are for purely selfish ends 
and it cares nothing for the needs of mankind. 
In Christianity the ideal man denies himself for 
the good of the whole body of which he is a 
member, and subordinates self-will and self- 
interest to the welfare of mankind. 

6. Buddhism has shown itself incapable of 
regenerating society. It was founded by one 
who had turned his back on all social life. It 
was very natural that the system should discount 
woman and the home, for its author was an 
ascetic, and the monastic spirit pervades all his- 
teachings. Homelessness, mendicancy, suppres- 
sion of all social and domestic instincts, destruc- 
tion of love and desire, even the desire of future 
life, silence as of "a broken gong," and "solitude: 
as of a rhinoceros" — these were the goal of the 
true Buddhist. 

7. Buddhism is a system of pessimism, Chris- 
tianity, a revelation of cheerful and immortal 
hope. Gautama aimed at "the death of deaths." 
Christ brought life and immortality to life. 

The whole assumption upon which the "Great- 
Renunciation" was made to rest is that the 
universe is out of order, that all life is a burden, 
that there is no benevolent creatorship, no kind 
providence, and no salvation. Whoever may 
have been responsible for such a world, it is one 
of universal misery and distress. Man and beast 
make common cause against it, and Buddha is 
the one great sympathizer. When he preached 
at Kapilavastu before his father's court the whole 
animal creation was there, 

"Catching the opening of his lips to learn 
That wisdom which hath made our Asia mild." 

It appears to have been a grand indignation 
meeting of man and beast, the first and broadest 
of Communist gatherings, at which Buddha 
voiced the common protest against the order of 
nature, and pointed out the way of escape from 
the sad nexus of existence. All 

"took the promise of his piteous speech. 
So that their lives, prisoned in the shape of ape, 
Tiger or deer, shagged bear, jackal or wolf, 
Foul feeding kite, pearled dove or peacock: 

Squat toad or speckled serpent, lizard, bat. 
Yea, or fish fanning the river waves. 
Launched meekly at the skirts of brotherhood, 
With man who hath less innocence than these: 
And in mute gladness knew their bondage broke 
Whilst Buddha spoke these things before the 

There was no mention of sin, but only of univer- ■ 
sal misfortune! As Sir Monier Williams remarks, 
the problem to which Christianity leads a man is : 
What shall I do to be saved? But that pressed 
upon men by Buddhism is: What shall I do to be- 

In contrast with the deep shadows of a brood- 
ing and all-embracing pessimism like this, we- 
need only to hint at that glow of hope and joy 
with which the Sun of Righteousness has flooded 




the world, the fatherly love and compassion with 
which the Old Testament and the New are 
replete, the divine plan of redemption, the great 
sacrifice, the superabounding grace, the brother- 
hood of man, and the eternal fellowship with 

Special difficulties await the Christian mission- 
ary who attempts to convince educated Bud- 
dhists of the unique quality of the truths taught 
by Jesus Christ. He meets with men whose 
intellect is perverted by persistent violations of 
logic. It is easy for the mind trained by Bud- 
dhism to believe mutually exclusive propositions. 
Such a mind "feels no obstacle in believing that 
there is white blaclcness, slow swiftness, square 
roundness, or crooked uprightness." The real 
vitality occasionally seen in Buddhism is another 
difficulty which the missionary has to face. In 
Japan, the claim of championship of the highest 
morality and of love to the race is made by 
Buddhists with sharp arraignment of Christianity 
in these directions. In Ceylon the Buddhist 
clergy have adopted Christian methods of 
instruction of children in Sunday schools, of 
tracts and religious periodicals to control the 
minds of the masses, and of revivalist tours to 
stir their emotions. 

What the missionary encounters in Buddhism 
is a religion founded upon a life, fortified by a 
literature, and witnessed to by the experience of 
multitudes. He must therefore study it pro- 
foundly, for this ancient system is not to be light- 
ly regarded or quiclcly overthrown. 

Davids (T. W. Rhys-), Buddhism, New York, 1896; Williams 
M.( Monier), Buddhism in Its Connection with Brahmanism. 
and Its Contrast with Christianity, New York, 1889; Wad- 
dell, (L. A.) Buddhism of Tibet, London, 1894; Fielding 
(H.), The Soul of a People, London, 1898, (Buddhism in 
Burma;) Missionary Review of the World, vol. IX. ,pp. 
253, 326, 416, 513, 582. 

BUEA: A town in the mountain region of the 
German Colony of the Kamerun, of which it is 
the seat of the colonial government. Station of 
the Basel Missionary Society (1896), with 3 mis- 
sionaries and their wives, 6 native workers, 4 out- 
stations, 7 village schools and (1902) 91 com- 

BUENOS AIRES: Capital of the Argentine 
Republic, on the estuary of the Rio de la Plata. 
The most important city in South America, it 
differs little in its character from American and 
European seaboard cities. Population (1895) 

Station of the ME (1836), with 2 missionaries 
and their wives, 1 missionary woman, 16 native 
workers, men and women, 5 chapels, 3 village 
schools, 1 high school, a printing house and 
851 professing Christians. Station also of the 
SDA (1891), with 5 missionaries, 4 of them 
with their wives, 1 missionary woman, 8 na- 
tive workers, 14 outstations and 386 professing 
Christians. Station also of the South America 
Missionary Society (1898), with 1 mission- 
ary and his wife, 11 native workers, men and 
women, 1 chapel, 2 village schools. Station also 
of the PB, with 1 missionary and his wife, 3 mis- 
sionary women and 1 printing house. Station 
also of the Missionary Pence Association (1901), 
with 4 missionaries; also of the International 
Medical and Benevolent Association, with 1 mis- 
sionary and his wife; also of the YMCA (1901), 
with 1 missionary and his wife; also of the 
BPBS, with 5 native workers and 1 book depot. 

BUFF BAY: A town on the northern coast of 

Jamaica, West Indies; station of the CWBM, 
with 1 missionary and his wife, 2 chapels, 2 Sun- 
day schools, 2 village schools, 4 young people's 
societies and 135 professing Christians. Also 
station of the Western Annual Conference of the 
Wesleyan Church in the West Indies, with 1 mis- 

BUGHI LANGUAGE: This belongs to the 
Malayan family and is spoken by above one mil- 
lion of the inhabitants of the island of Celebes. 
It is written with its own alphabet. 

BUITENZORG: A station of the Dutch Mis- 
sionary Society in Western Java, founded in 
1869. It has 1 missionary, 5 native workers, 
and 165 communicants. 

BUKALEBA: A settlement in the Usoga dis- 
trict of Uganda, Central Africa, situated near the 
N. extremity of the Victoria Nyanza; station of 
the CMS (1891), with 1 missionary and his wife, 
57 native workers, men and women and 92 com- 

BUKASA: A settlement on one of the Sese 
Islands in the Victoria Nvanza, Uganda, Central 
Africa; station of the CMS (1895), with 1 mis- 
sionary and his wife, 143 native workers, men 
and women, 1 Sunday school, 3 village schools 
and 480 communicants. 

BULANDSHAHR: A city in the United Prov- 
inces, India, situated S. E. of Delhi; a station of 
the ME, with 13 native workers, men and women, 
7 chapels, 16 Sunday schools, 12 village schools, 
2 young people's societies and 681 professing 
Christians. Also station of the ZBM, with 3 mis- 
sionary women, 7 native women workers, 3 vil- 
lage schools and 155 Zenana pupils. 

BULAWAYO: A town and railroad station in 
southern Rhodesia, Africa; station of the WMS, 
with 3 native workers, 2 chapels, 1 Sunday school, 

1 village school and 145 professing Christians. 
Station also of the SPG (1893), with 3 mission- 
aries, I native worker and 66 communicants. 
Station also of the SDA (1895), with 6 mission- 
aries, 4 of them with their wives (1 a physician), 

2 Sunday schools, 2 village schools, 1 orphanage, 
1 dispensary. Also written Buluwayo. 

BULGARIA: A country of the Balkan Penin- 
sula, forming an autonomous principality under 
the suzerainty of the Sultan of Turkey. It is 
bounded on the north by Rumania, on the east 
by the Black Sea, on the south by European Tur- 
key, and on the west by Servia. It is divided by 
the Balkan Mountains into two parts: Bulgaria 
proper on the north and South Bulgaria or East- 
ern Rumelia on the south of that range. Area 
of the whole, 38,080 square miles. 

Except along the Balkan Mountains, which 
traverse the whole principality from east to west, 
the country is a vast plain. The climate is tem- 
perate. The plains are hot in summer, and 
along the Danube there is much malaria, but the 
highlands are healthy. The higher mountains 
have snow on their peaks the greater part of the 

The census of 1900 gives a total population of 

The Bulgarians are descendants of the Slavs 
who inhabited the Balkan Peninsula in the 7th 
century. In the second half of the 9th century 
(860-64) Christianity was introduced in Bulgaria, 
and with it an alphabet was formed and the 
Scriptures were translated. 

This was due to SS. Cyril and Methodius, who 




^re honored even to this day as patron saints by 
the Bulgarian Church. 

The Bulgarians belong to the Greek (Orthodox) 
branch of the Christian Church. Their spiritual 
head is the Exarch, who resides in Constantinople 
and has the jurisdiction over the twelve bishop- 
rics into which Bulgaria is divided. In 1893 the 
members of the (Orthodox) Greek Church num- 
bered 2,606,786, the Mohammedans in the Prin- 
cipality numbered 643,258, the Jews, 28,307; the 
Roman Catholics, 22,617; the Armenians, 6,643; 
and the Protestants, 2,384. Of the Moham- 
medans about 200,000 are Bulgarians in race, lan- 
guage and customs and are known by the distinct- 
ive name of Pomaks. 

The modern Bulgarian language has receded 
more than any other Slavic dialect from the 
ancient Slovenic or the ancient Bulgarian. 
While the latter belongs to the synthetic class of 
languages and is rich in cases and other gram- 
matical forms, the modern Bulgarian has lost 
most of these forms and has become an analytic 
language, expressing the relations of cases by 
prepositions, as in English. The use of the 
article, which is placed after and not before the 
word, chiefly distinguishes it from the ancient 
language and from its cognate Slavic dialects. 

Special missionary work for the Bulgarians 
was first organized by the ME in 1857, which has 
since conducted missionary operations in that 
part of Bulgaria lying N, of the Balkans (which 
was at that time a province of European Turkey). 
The field was organized into a Mission Conference 
in 1892. It now has as a working force 1 mis- 
sionary and his wife, 2 unmarried women, and 
11 ordained native preachers. Work is carried 
on in 12 places and the number of church mem- 
bers reported is 234. It also has a high school 
with 57 scholars. 

The ABCFM about the same time commenced 
work for the Bulgarians on the S. of the Balkans. 
It now has in Bulgaria a working force of 18 mis- 
sionaries, men and women, and 16 ordained 
native preachers. Its operations extend to 30 
places, and the number of church members is 
reported at 900. A collegiate institute, a theo- 
logical school, a boarding and high school for 
girls and a publishing house are maintained at 

The BFBS and ABS have provided Bibles for 
this region and employ colporteurs for their dis- 

belongs to the Slavic branch of the Ar3-an famUy. 
It is spoken by more than four million people, 
chiefly found in Bulgaria and the adjoining dis- 
tricts of European Turkey. The alphabet used 
is substantially the same as the one mvented by 
the bishop CyrU, in the 9th century, and now 
commonly called the Russian alphabet. 

Old Bulgarian literature is written in the Slavic 
language and is not understood by the common 
people. A considerable modern literature in 
Bulgarian has sprung up since the Crimean War 
of 1853-56. To this growth of modern Bulga- 
rian literature American missionaries have given 
a notable stimulus. The modern Bulgarian 
language, in fact, has been strongly and per- 
manently affected by the translation of the Bible 
made by Dr. Riggs and Dr. Long and published 
by the Bible societies. 

BULILIMA: A settlement in Bechuanaland, 
Africa, S. W. of Bulawayo; station of the LMS 

(1895), with 1 missionary, 1 native worker, 5 
Sunday schools and 5 village schools. 

BULL BAY: A town on the S. coast of Jamaica, 
W. I., about 12 miles E. of Kingston; station of 
the CWBM (1876), with 1 missionary and his 
wife, 4 chapels, 3 Sunday schools, 2 village schools, 

2 young people's societies and 224 professing 

BULLOM: A district of Sierra Leone, W. 
Africa, lying north of the Sierra Leone River; 
occupied by the CMS (1861) and now in charge 
of the Sierra Leone Church Missionary Society, 
with 10 native workers, men and women, 1 chapel 
1 Sunday school, 6 village schools and 296 bap- 
tized Christians. 

BULLOM LANGUAGE : The BuUom belongs to 
the negro group of African languages, and is spoken 
in the region of Sierra Leone, W. Africa, by a 
limited number of people. It has adopted some 
English words and is written with Roman letters. 

BULONGOA : A settlement near the northern 
end of Lake Nyasa, in German East Africa; 
station of the Berlin Missionary Society (1895), 
with 1 missionary and 9 communicants. 

BULRAMPUR. See Baleampue. 

BULUWAYO. See Bttlawayo. 

BUMBULI: a settlement in German East 
Africa, situated in the Usambara country in the 
northeastern part of the Colony; station of the 
German Evangelical Society for Missions in East 
Africa (1899), with 3 missionaries (one having 
his wife), 1 chapel, and 1 village school. 

BUNGABONDAR: A settlement in the Toba 
district of Sumatra, Dutch East Indies, situated 
near Sipirok; station of the Rhenish Missionary 
Society, with 1 missionary and his wife, 17 native 
workers, men and women, 1 Sunday school, 13 
village schools and 921 communicants, the most 
of them converted Mohammedans. 

BUNGU: a settlement in German East Africa, 
situated in the Usambara region about 50 miles 
N. W. of Vuga; station of the German East 
Africa Missionary Society (1901), with 1 mis- 
sionary and his wife. 

BURRISAL. See Baeisal. 

BUONA VISTA. See Galle. 

BURDWAN. See Bardwan. 

BURHANPUR: A town in the Nimar district, 
Central Provinces, India; station of the ME, with 
4 native workers, 3 Sunday schools, 1 village 
school, and 220 professing Christians. 

BURGHERSDORP: A town in the northern 
part of Cape Colony, S. Africa; station of the 
South African Wesleyan Missionary Society, with 
24 native workers, 2 chapels, 2 Sunday schools, 

3 village schools and 164 professing Christians. 
BURJA: a district in the Lohardaga section 

of Chota Nagpur, India; field of the Gossner 
Missionary Society, with 3 missionaries, 71 native 
workers, 38 chapels, 38 Sunday schools, 2 village 
schools, 1 high school, a book depot and 8,886 
professing Christians. Also written Burju. 

BURMA: Within the past seventy-five years 
the political map of Southeastern Asia, and 
especially that part of it lying between Tibet 
and Yunnan on the north and the Bay of Bengal 
on the south, eastern Bengal on the west and the 
Mekong River on the east, has been materially 
changed three times. 

At present, and for missionary purposes, 




Burma may be considered as composed of Upper 
and Lower Burma, Upper Burma comprising 
the late kingdom or empire of Burma, and Lower 
Burma all that portion of the country below the 
20th degree of north latitude, as well as the 
Tenasserim provinces and the present mission 
stations in Arakan and Shan-land in the East, 
the whole now composing the most eastern 
portion of the British Indian Empire. 

Burma is drained by three great rivers and 
their numerous affluents: the Irawadi, with a 
great and increasing commerce, about 1,400 
miles in length from its sources in one or more of 
the great lakes in the lofty Himalayas, and nav- 
igable for 1,000 miles or more by large steamers; 
the Sitang, of inferior length, and having, at 
certain seasons of tide and southwest winds, a 
bore at its mouth, which renders the entrance 
very difficult; it bears on its bosom a constantly 
increasing commerce, steamers plying between 
Rangoon, Maulmain, Thayet-myo, and Taung- 
ngu; the Salwen, a long and navigable river, 
rising in the mountains of Yunnan, China, and 
pursuing a course almost parallel to that of the 
Irawadi. These rivers are separated in their 
upper courses bv ranges of mountains varying 
from 4,000 to 6,'000 feet in height, but as they 
approach the Bay of Bengal or the Gulf of Mar- 
taban these mountains subside into broad and 
fertile plains, and the rivers enter the bay or the 
gulf by many mouths, forming rich and extensive 
deltas, with a very rich soil, but often covered 
with a dense jungle which makes the climate 
sickly. The valleys of these rivers are of con- 
siderable breadth, and being well watered by 
their smaller affluents, are productive. 

The beasts of prey are of great size and ferocity. 
The elephants of Burma attain a greater size than 
those of any other country in the world. The 
lion, tiger, leopard, of several species, and rhi- 
noceros are all very destructive. The buffalo and 
the Brahmanee bull are trained, as are many of 
the elephants, as beasts of burden. Horses are 
few and are rarely used for draught purposes, 
the ox or buffalo taking their place. The 
rodent tribes exist in large numbers and are 
great pests, often destroying the rice crop in 
large districts. Pythons, boas, and other ser- 
pents, and especially venomous snakes, like the 
cohra de capello, are abundant. Lizards of all 
kinds are found everywhere. The birds are 
numerous and many of them beautiful. The 
insect tribes are annoying and many of them 

Burma has an area of 236,738 square miles 
(including Lower Burma, conquered in 1852, 
and Upper Burma, annexed on the overthrow 
of the tyrant Thebaw in 1885). Its population 
(1901) is 10,490,624. 

There are said to be forty-two different races 
in Burma, but they are mainly divisible into four 
distinct peoples, of whom the first two are almost 
entirely Buddhist in religion. These are: 1. The 
Burmans, under which general name are included 
the Burmans proper, the ruling race, and the 
Arakanese. 2. The Talaings, or Peguans, once 
the lords of the country, but now greatly dimin- 
ished in numbers. 3. The Shans, a generally 
nomadic race, but of different affinities, as 
Chinese, Siamese, and Burman Shans. Their 
national name is Tai. They occupy the eastern 
region of Burma, and extend into Northern 
Siam and Southwestern China. 4. The fourth 
race are the Karens, of whom there are more than 

thirty tribes, differing, in many respects, from 
each other in language, form, and habits, but all 
worshipers of Nats or demons. The Karens of 
Lower Burma readily received the Gospel, and 
those of them who were under Burmese rule bore 
courageously bitter and cruel persecution from 
the Burmans for its sake. The Sgau and Pwo 
tribes, which occupied Pegu and the Tenasserim 
provinces, have been largely converted to Chris- 
tianity. The highland tribes of Central Burma, 
the Bghais, Pakus, Gecko, Toungthiis, and Red 
Karens, became converts at a later date. 

Other tribes having few affinities with the 
Karens, yet, like them, worshiping demons from 
motives of fear, are found in Northern Burma 
and along the Arakan border, and are moving 
down the Irawadi into the vicinity of Mandalay 
and below, and toward Sandoway in Arakan. 
The largest and best known of these tribes are 
the Ch'ins and the Kach'ins. The latter are 
said to be the fiercest and most warlike tribe in 
Burma. No Burman soldier dares to set foot in 
one of their villages, which are always situated 
at the summit of high hills. They are supposed 
to be identical with the Singphos of Assam. 
Yet these rough and fierce men are yielding in 
considerable numbers to the power of the Gospel. 
It is worth noting here that m all Burman cities 
there is a considerable Chinese population engaged 
in trade, which they control. 

Protestant Missions: The first attempt to 
plant a Protestant mission in Burma was made 
at Rangoon, in 1807, by Messrs. Chater and 
Mardon, English Baptists. Felix Carey, the 
eldest son of Dr. William Care}', of Serampur, 
joined them soon after, but Mr. Mardon left in 
a few months and Mr. Chater at the end of four 
years. The London Missionary Society sent 
two missionaries to Rangoon in 1808, but one 
died and the other removed in a year. Mr. 
Chater during his four years' stay translated 
Matthew's Gospel into Burmese, which was 
printed at Serampur. Mr. Carey remained till 
1814, and then, having received an appointment 
and title from the Burmese emperor, he went to 
Ava to reside. There had been no attempt at 
missionary work except this translation of Mat- 
thew, and no Burman had heard that there was 
an eternal God. Mr. Carey's mission house was 
about two mUes out of the city. Rangoon was 
at that time a miserable, dirty town of 8,000 or 
10,000 inhabitants, with houses built of bamboo 
and teak planks and having thatched roofs. 
Its only importance lay in the fact that it was the 
capital of a rich and extensive province, governed 
by a viceroy, an official of the highest rank, who 
was a favorite of Bhodau Phra, the most blood- 
thirsty and brutal tyrant and the most bigoted 
Buddhist who had yet sat on the Burman throne. 
The viceroy at Rangoon was almost as brutal, 
but his chief wife was an amiable woman, well 
disposed toward foreigners, and possessing great 
influence over her husband. 

On July 13, 1813, Rev. Adoniram Judson and 
wife arrived at Rangoon to open a Protestant 
mission there. He was a man who endured all 
things that he might find access to a people sunk 
in morasses of evil. It was not until 1819 that 
he was able to preach and teach religion in his 
zayat and receive inquirers there. June 27, 
1819, he baptized the first Burman convert to 
Christianity, Moung Nau. In this year Bhodau 
Phra, the Burmese emperor, died, and was suc- 
ceeded by his grandson, Phagyi-dau, a ruler 

Burmese Langnagre 



equally arrogant, brutal and bloodthirsty with 
his grandfather, but with much less ability. His 
arrogance and tyranny brought on tlae first 
Burruan War of 1825-26, and led to the cession 
to the East India Company of the Tenasserim 
provinces, Arakan, and Chittagong. In 1852, the 
second war with the English took place, and Ran- 
goon, Pegu, and all Southern Burma became Brit- 
ish territory. In 1853 Ra,ngoon became again a 
stationof the American Baptist Missionary Union, 
and from that time onward the Society has 
had great success in all parts of the land. 
Rangoon was also the first station (established 
1859) of the Burma mission conducted by the 
SPG. The educational work of this Society has 
been of a high order and wide influence. The 
SPG is also laboring successfully among the 

The ME Society has also carried on a mission 
in Burma since 1878, laboring especially for 
European colonists and Eurasians. 

The WMS established a station at Mandalay 
in 1889, and is doing a remarkable educational 
work for women. It has also given attention 
to the lepers, maintaining an asylum which is 
not only a refuge but a portal to a new life to 
these wretched sufferers. 

The YMCA and the YWCA have stations in 
Burma; so the Mission to Lepers, the Missionary 
Pence Association, the Leipzig Missionary Society; 
and the China Inland Mission has a single station 
at Bhamo, on the northern border. 

It should be borne in mind that while many 
Burmese Buddhists have been converted, the 
simple, more approachable Hill tribes have fur- 
nished the larger part of the Christians now 
found in Burma. 

Shans, Amongst the, Colquhoun (A. R.), and Hallet (H. S.), 
London, 1885; Bassein, Self-Support in, Carpenter (C. H.), 
188.3; Golden Chersonese., Bishop (Mrs. I, B.), London, 
1883; With the Jungle Folk, Cumming (E. D.), London, 

BURMESE LANGUAGE: The Burmese, which 
is spoken throughout the Burmese Empire and 
Arakan, belongs to the Tibeto-Burman group of 
the non-Aryan languages of Asia. It is used 
by about six million people, and, being one of the 
aggressive languages, it is constantly increasing 
the area of its use. It is written with its own 
peculiar Burmese character. 

BURNS, William C. : Born in the Parish of Dun, 
Scotland, April 1, 1815. Graduated at Aber- 
deen in 1834; studied theology at Glasgow, and 
after a period of successful labor in Ireland and 
among the French in Canada, was sent out by 
the E. P. Synod, in 1847, as its first missionary 
to China. On the voyage he began the study 
of Chinese with the only book found in London, 
Williams' English and Chinese vocabulary, and 
a volume of Matthew's Gospel. 

After spending a year or two at Hongkong 
and Canton, in 1851 he removed to Amoy, where 
and at Swatow he did a great work. Later he 
spent three years in Peking, and in 1867 he went 
to Newchwang to prepare the way for a mission 
in Manchuria. In a small room at an inn at 
that city, destitute of every comfort, he died on 
the 4th of April, 1868. 

While Mr. Burns never interrupted his work 
of preaching, he accomplished important literary 
work. Of this we may mention a translation of 
the Pilgrim's Progress, and a collection of hymns 
in the Amoy dialect. With the aid of native 
preachers he put some of the hymns used at 

Amoy and Swatow into the spoken dialect of 
Pu-chau-fu. These he first printed in sheet 
form, and used them in street and chapel preach- 
ing, and then published them in book form. 

Later he prepared a volume of fifty hymns in 
the Mandarin dialect, chiefly translations of 
home hymns, or hymns used in the south of 
China. Next he put in the dialect of Peking 
the Pilgrim's Progress complete in two volumes. 
Some copies were illustrated with wood-cuts. 
A translation of the Psalms from Hebrew was 
published in 1867. 

BURNSHILL: A town northwest of King- 
William's Town, Cape Colony, S. Africa. Station 
of the UFS, with 1 missionary and his wife, 2 
missionary women, 29 native workers, 16 out- 
stations, 1 chapel, 16 village schools and 1,420' 
church members. 

BUST: A station of the CMS in Uganda,, 
Central Africa, situated on the Victoria Nyanza, 
with 63 native workers, men and women, and 184 

BUSRAH. See Basra. 
. BUTARITARI. See Gilbert Islands. 

BUTLER, William: Born in Dublin, Ireland, 
January 30, 1818. Died August 18, 1899. 
Soon after his conversion he entered the Hard- 
wick Street Mission Seminary and Training 
School, .in Dublin, and afterward Didsburg 
College, near Manchester, where he studied theol- 
ogy under the venerable Dr. Hannah. After 
preaching several years in the Irish Conference, 
he came to the United States, and labored for 
some time in the New England Conference. In 
the spring of 1855 he was deeply impressed by 
an article published by Dr. Durbin entitled "The 
Crisis," urging the needs of the India Mission on 
the heart of the Church, and in the following 
autumn he offered himself as missionary to this 
fleld. He was appointed superintendent of the 
mission, and he sailed with his wife and two chil- 
dren in April, 1856. The provinces of Bellary, the 
Dpccan, Rajputana and others were brought to 
the attention of Mr. Butler as especially needy 
on his arrival in India; but after spending several 
weeks in Calcutta he went to the northwest to 
consider the opening in Oudh and Rohilkhand. 
These provinces, covering an area nearly as long 
as England and contaming a population of 
20,000,000 of unevangelized people, presented 
an attractive field to the heroic missionary; and 
in Oudh, in the very stronghold of the enemy, the 
Mission of the Methodist Church was established. 
The capital of Oudh, Lucknow, had three times 
the population of Boston; and this city was soon 
to be the storm center of the dreadful mutiny. 
Mr. Butler, with his family, settled at Bareilly, a 
city of 200,000 inhabitants; but soon his work was 
interrupted by the rumblings of the approaching 
outbreak. Within ten weeks of the establishment 
of his work, Mr. Butler was obliged to flee for his 
life; and ten months passed before it was possible 
for him to return to his station. Khan Bahadur, 
who, during the mutiny, assumed the title of the 
Nawab of Rohilkhand, put a price on the head 
of each of the refugees, and, as a writer puts it, 
"Mr. Butler's being listed at five hundred 
rupees." The first meeting of Mr. Butler's 
mission was held at Bareilly, August 20, 1858. 
Three missionaries, one European helper and two 
natives answered the roll. Yet to this mission- 
ary was given the joy of living until he could see 



Burmese Laneruase 

•one hundred thousand of the people of India 
accepting Christ as Lord, brought into this new 
life tnrough the agency of the Methodist Missions. 
Returning to the United States, Mr, Butler took 
■charge of several churches in New England, and 
.afterward he was called to the secretaryship of 
the American and Foreign Christian Union, an 
■organization devoted to work in Papal lands. 
About this time Mr. Butler wrote The Land of 
■the Veda, which had a large circulation. 

Seventeen years after Mr. Butler was commis- 
sioned by his church to go to India to found a 
mission, he was called to perform a like service 
in Mexico. In 1873 he entered the Aztec land, 
and soon his influence was felt in the City of 
Mexico and throughout the surrounding country. 
President Diaz received him personally on several 
■occasions, and the govei'nment of Mexico gave 
him full protection in laying the foundation of a 
mission that has prospered through the years. 
It was the pleasure of this venerable missionary, 
in 1883, to return to India, and after twenty-six 
years he gave thanks to God at Bareilly for the 
;growth and power of the mission that was founded 
in the dark days of the mutiny. He spent his 
last days at Newton Centre, Mass. 
Butler (Miss C), William Butler, the Founder of Two Mis- 
sions, Eaton & Mains, New York. 

BUTTERWORTH: A town in the Transkei 
District of Cape Colony, S. Africa; station of the 
SPG (1883), with 1 missionary, 21 native workers, 
21 outstations, and 760 professing Christians. 
Also station of the South African Wesleyan 
Missionary Society, with 1 missionary, 113 native 
■workers (in the field of the station), 24 chapels, 
14 Sunday schools, 24 village schools, 1 high 
school, 1 dispensary and 1,115 professing Chris- 

BUXTON: A settlement in the Klondike region 
of the Yukon Territory, Canada; station of^the 
CMS (1887), with 3 missionaries and their wives, 
1 village school and 20 communicants. 

BUYERS, William: Born in 1804, at Dundee, 
Scotland; studied at the Missionary College, 
Hoxton; sailed June 13, 1831, as a missionary 
of the LMS for India; was stationed at Benares 
from 1832 till 1840, when failure of health required 
his return to England. He died at Unchadek, near 
Allahabad, October 4, 1865. Mr. Buyers was an 
able missionary, and highly esteemed as a scholar 
and worker. His published Letters on India and 
Recollections of Northern India are very valuable. 

BUZACOTT, Aaron: Born March 4, 1800, 
at South Molton, Devon, England; studied at 

Hoxton Academy; sailed as a missionary of the 
LMS, March 13, 1827, for the South Seas; 
stationed first at Tahiti, afterward at Raratonga. 
On May 30, 1836, he and Mrs. Buzacott accom- 
panied a band of missionaries to Samoa, to aid 
them in their settlement, returning to Raratonga 
May, 1837. Mr. Buzacott was an accomplished 
linguist, and much of his time was spent, m con- 
junction with Messrs. Williams and Pitman, in 
translating the Scriptures into the language of 
Raratonga. He contributed also largely to the 
preparation of a native literature. In 1846 he 
sailed for England, and while there he, at the 
request of the Bible Society, revised and superin- 
tended the printing of the entire Raratongan 
Scriptures. In 1851 he returned with Mrs. 
Buzacott to Raratonga. In 1857 failure of health 
compelled him to retire from active service. 
Leaving Raratonga in November of that year, 
he went to Sydney, stopping on the way at Samoa. 
In July, 1860, he was appointed the agent of the 
Society in the Australian Colonies. He died at 
Sydney, September 20, 1864. 

BWEMBA: A settlement on the Congo River, 
S. of Bolobo; station of the ABMU (1889), with 
1 missionary and his wife, 18 native workers, 10 
places of worship and 16 communicants. 

BYINGTON, Theodore L. : Born at Johnsons- 
burg, N. J., March 15, 1831; graduated at 
Princeton College, 1849; spent four years in the 
study and practise of law; graduated at Union 
Theological Seminary, 1857; ordained at Bloom- 
field, N. J., June 4, 1858, and sailed as a mis- 
sionary of the ABCFM for Turkey; commenced 
a station at Eski-zaghra, European Turkey, in 
1859; returned to the United States in 1867 on 
account of ill health, and was released from his 
connection with the Board. He was reappointed 
as missionary of the Board in 1874 and stationed 
in Constantinople as editor of the Bulgarian 
family weekly, Zornitsa, and as member of the 
Mission Committee of Publication. Failing in 
health, he returned to the U. S. in 1885, and died 
in Philadelphia, June 18, 1888. He was a 
preacher of impressive earnestness and excelled 
as an extemporaneous speaker. His largest 
volume in Bulgarian was on the Evidences of 
Christianity, which has had a wide circulation. 
It is probable that the Zornitsa while edited by 
Dr. Byington contributed as much as any other 
instrumentality toward the development of those 
characteristics that have been so prominent 
among the Bulgarians in their long struggle for 
national independence. 

CABACABURI : A settlement in British Guiana 
north of Queenstown; station of the SPG (1835), 
with 1 missionary, 2 outstations and 500 pro- 
fessing Christians. 

CABRUANG. See Talaut Islands. 

CACADU : A settlement about 20 miles N. E. of 
Queenstown, Cape Colony, S. Africa; station of 
the South Africa Baptist Missionary Society, with 
2 women missionaries. 

CACALOTENANGO : A town in Mexico, situ- 
ated about 50 miles S. E. of Mexico City; station 

of the Mexican Mission Board, with 2 native 
workers, man and woman, 22 outstations, 1 chapel, 
5 Sunday schools, 1 village school, a young 
people's society, and 175 evangelical Christians. 

CACAUDROVE : A village in the northern part 
of the island of Vanua Levu, Fiji Islands; station 
of the Australian Wesleyan Methodist Mission- 
ary Society, with 1 missionary and his wife, 22 
outstations, 90 chapels, 158 Sunday schools, 169 
village schools, and 2,329 professing Christians. 

CACHOEIRA : A town in the Province of Bahia, 




Brazil, situated on the Paraguassir River, 45 
miles W. of Bahia de Todos os Santos. Station 
of the PN (1873) formerly known as St. Felix from 
the fact that the missionaries lived in a place of 
that name on the opposite bank of the river. In 
1903 the station had 1 missionary, 2 missionary 
women, 2 native workers, 5 outstations, 4 organ- 
ized churches, 2 boarding schools, 2 day schools 
and 153 church members. 



See Kakonda. 
See Kafir. 

CAFRARIA : A part of the eastern section of 
Cape Colony, S. Africa. Also called Kafirland. 

CAIRO: A city of Egypt, situated about mne 
miles south of the apex of the delta, where the 
Nile divides into the eastern, or Damietta, branch 
and the western, or Rosetta, branch. The city 
extends from the edge of the desert at the base of 
the Mokattam Hills on the east to the river on the 
west, and southward until it joins Old Cairo 
(Misr Atika) on the site of the ancient city Festat. 
This was the site of New Babylon, said to have 
been founded by the Babylonians after the con- 
quest of Egypt by Cambyses, about 525 B. c. 
The new city, Cairo, was founded by Johar, the 
general of the Fatimite Caliph Mu'izz. It was 
called Misr el Kahira because it is said that at 
the precise time when the foundation of the walls 
was being laid, the planet Mars, which by the 
Arabs is called Kahir, crossed the meridian of the 
new city, and Mu'izz accordingly named it from 
this event. The city grew rapidly because of its 
position and the facility with which building 
material was found. It has become the largest 
city on the continent of Africa, and the second 
in the Turkish Empire, having a population of 
from 400,000 to 500,000. 

Cairo was made the capital of Egypt in 973, 
and has continued to enjoy this preeminence 
during the many vicissitudes of 917 years. 

From January 26, 1517, when the Ottoman 
Sultan Selim I. entered the city in triumph, until 
July 22, 1798, when, after the battle of the 
Pyramids, Napoleon I. entered the city, nothing 
of sufficient importance seems to have occurred 
to merit a place in history. And it was not until 
after Mehemet Ali was established as Viceroy of 
Egypt that the city began anew to enjoy prosper- 
ity. Ismail Pasha while Khedive made great and 
Important improvements in and around the cap- 
ital, such as extending the city so as to form the 
new part called for him Ismailiyeh, improving 
the Esbekiyeh public gardens, planting trees in 
and about the city, and uniting Cairo with the 
western bank of the river by a magnificent iron 
bridge. Since the British occupation of Egypt, 
in 1882, the city has been very much improved 
and many handsome buildings have been erected. 

Among the objects of interest to the mission- 
ary, besidesthe Boulak Museum, is Jama-el-Azhar, 
which was changed from its original use as a 
mosque to a "university" by Caliph Aiz Billah on 
the suggestion of his vizier, Abu'l Farag Ya'kub, 
in the year 378 of the Hegira, and has become 
the most important Mohammedan institution of 
learning in the world. 

There is nothing imposing in the appearance 
of the buildings, which have an old and dilapi- 
dated aspect. They occupy a large piece of 
ground, and consist of an open court with colon- 
nades on the north and south sides, which are set 
apart for students from West Africa, East Africa, 
Syria, Lower Egypt, Upper Egypt, the Sudan, and 

other parts of the Mohammedan world. On the 
east of the court is the Liwanel Jama, or sanctu- 
ary, which covers an area of about 3,600 square 
yards, and has a low ceiling supported by 380' 
columns of granite and marble, but not uniformly 
arranged, as if they were not in their original 
places. Here the prayers are repeated and instruc- 
tion given to groups of students who sit on mats 
before their teachers. This "university" has an 
enrolment of from 10,000 to 12, OOOstudents, four- 
fifths of whom are from 12 to 18 years of age and 
who are taught by 321 Sheikhs or professors. The 
president is called Sheikh el Azhar, and receives 
a salary of about $500. The students spend 
from two to six years in the university, while 
some continue longer. No fees are paid by them, 
as all expenses are met from the endowments of 
the mosque, which are of great value. 

The whole system of education consists of 
committing facts to memory, without exercises 
which train the mind to discern the truth and 
detect error, or lead to the forming of independ- 
ent opinion. Mathematics and astronomy, 
which were studied by the ancient Egyptians, 
are not in the curriculum of this modern univer- 
sity of Islamism. And yet the professors and 
students are proud of their attainments, and 
look down with feelings akin to disdain upon the- 
scientific and religious attainments of Western 
Christians. As a close observer has remarked, 
this education develops "a personality which is 
useless for any other occupation than that of 
teaching Arabic phonetics, grammar, and the 

Missionary effort in Cairo is carried on by six 
Protestant societies. Of these the United Pres- 
byterian Church of North America made it a 
center and station for their operations in 1854. 
This Society now (1902) has at that point and 
its dependencies 14 missionaries, men and women, 
23 native workers, men and women, 4 Sunday 
schools, 5 high schools, 1 theological seminary, 
1 book depot, and 690 Harim (Zenana) pupils. 
Cairo is a station also of the CMS (1882), with 12 
missionaries, men and women, 13 native workers, 
men and women, 1 village school, 1 high school 
and 1 book depot. Also station of the Kaisers- 
werth Deaconesses (1884), with 8 deaconesses 
and a hospital. Also a station of the Inter- 
national Medical and Benevolent Association 
(1900), with 1 missionary and his wife. There 
are also two English societies working for the, 
Jews in this city. It has not been possible to 
secure details of their work. 

Whately (Miss M. L.), Ragged Life in Egypt (two series in 
one vol.), London, 1870; Poole (S. L.), Cairo, 3d. ed., 
London, 1897; Hartman (M.), The Arabic Press of Egypt, 
London, 1899; Charmes (G.),Five Months in Cairo and 
Lower Egypt, London, 1883; Duff-Gordon (Lady), Letters 
from Egypt, revised ed., London, 1902. 

CAKAUDROVE. See Cacaudrovb. 

CALA: A town in Cape Colony, S. Africa, situ- 
ated about 40 miles N. W. of Clarkeburg. Station 
of the South African Wesleyan Methodist 
Missionary Society, with 72 native workers, 12 
outstations, 15 chapels, 8 Sunday schools, 13 
village schools, a Young People's Society and 
740 professing Christians. Also station of the 
Episcopal Church in Scotland (1889), with 1 
missionary, 3 missionary women, 10 native 
workers, 6 outstations, 6 chapels, 5 village schools, 
1 high school, 380 professing Christians. 

CALCUTTA: Capital of British India. It 
stands on the east bank of the Hugli River, one 




of the channels through which the Ganges 
reaches the Bay of Bengal, about 80 miles from 
the mouth of the river. The earliest mention of 
the name occurs in a revenue document of one of 
the Mogul emperors, in 1596, where Kalikata 
(Kali-Ghat, shrine of the goddess Kali) indicated 
a small Bengali village on the site of the modern 
metropolis. In 1686 the English merchants con- 
nected with the East India Company, owing to 
difficulties with the Mohammedan authorities, 
found it necessary to leave their settlement at 
Hugh and seek another site. Under Job Char- 
nock, then the president of the little settlement 
or factory, they hit upon this site, Anglicizing the 
name into Calcutta. The growth of the place has 
continued almost unchecked to the present day; 
the hamlet on the eastern bank of the Hugli 
has thus, under the fostering care of English 
power, developed into one of the great political 
and commercial centers of the world. That 
portion of the city occupied by the English lies 
along the river front, and is adorned with palatial 
residences, imposing public buildings, churches 
of different denominations, and wealthy and well- 
stocked business houses. Back from the river, 
north and east of the English quarters, stretches 
the native part of the city, a mass of low, mean, 
and squalid huts, intersected by narrow and 
filthy streets, so that the saying has become 
current that Calcutta is a city of palaces in front 
and a city of pigstyes in the rear. 

The population of Calcutta, with its suburbs, 
is (1901) 1,125,400. Nearly two-thirds of the 
population are Hindus and nearly one-third 
Mohammedans, and there is a sprinkling of Bud- 
dhists, Jains, Parsees, Jews, etc. 

Calcutta has been in the control of the English 
from the moment that Job Charnock and his 
associates settled there in 1686 until the present 
time, with the exception of a few months in the 
year 1756. In June of that year the city was 
attacked by the Mussulman ruler, or Nawab, of 
Bengal — Suraj-ud Daula — one of the worst 
specimens ever known of that class of brutal 
despots which is popularly supposed to thrive 
in the Orient. It was at that time that the 
tragedy of the famous "Black Hole" of Calcutta 
was enacted. The wretched prisoners were 
thrust — 146 in number — into a cell hardly 20 feet 
square, ventilated only by two small windows. 
In the morning only 23 persons were found alive. 
Calcutta was recaptured in January, 1757, by 
Admiral Watson and Lord (then Colonel) Clive. 
In the same year, at the battle of Plassey, the 
Nawab's army was defeated by a little force 
under Clive, and the question of English suprem- 
acy in Bengal and throughout India was virtually 

The history of missionary operations in Cal- 
cutta goes back to the year 1758, just after the 
rebuilding of Calcutta and the establishment in 
Bengal of English power. In that year Rev. 
Mr. Kiernander, a Danish missionary, whose 
successful labors south of Madras, at Cuddalore 
and vicinity, had been interrupted by hostilities 
between the English and French, arrived in 
Calcutta, seeking a field for his missionary activ- 
ity. The Calcutta Government encouraged him. 
He started a school and gathered 200 pupils with- 
in a year. He preached to the natives, to the 
Portuguese, to the Enghsh soldiers. His baptisms 
at the end of the first year of work numbered 15; 
at the end of ten years there were 189 converts. 
Afterward he built a mission church chiefly at his 

own expense. Rev. M. A. Sherring's history of 
Protestant missions in India sums up his work by 
saying that "the seeds of Protestant missions in 
Northern India were first sown by him, and by 
him were the first fruits gathered in. He bap- 
tized hundreds of converts; he established impor- 
tant mission schools; he proclaimed the Gospel 
to the people, both European and native; he 
built a spacious church, and by these and other 
labors proved his earnestness and efficiency." 

About the beginning of the last century the 
leading men in the employ of the East India 
Company, both at home and in India, became 
possessed with the idea that the promulgation 
of the Gospel in India might excite prejudice 
against the English rule and render the work of 
government more costly and more difficult. Under 
the influence of these fears the Government of 
India opposed to the utmost the landing of any 
missionaries within its borders. This oppo- 
sition continued until Parliament renewed the 
charter of the East India Company in the year 
1813, when a clause was inserted in the bill 
declaring that "it was the duty of this country 
to promote the introduction of useful knowledge 
and of religious and moral improvement in India." 
The same bill provided for an Indian bishopric, 
with an archdeacon for each of the three presi- 
dencies. It came into effect April 10, 1814. 

It was during these years of opposition that 
William Carey undertook the establishment of 
a mission in India. It was with great difficulty 
that he was able to secure passage to Calcutta. 
Finally he reached there in 1793 on a Danish 
vessel. After encountering much hardship he 
was placed in charge of a factory at Malda, where 
he remained five years and where he was able to 
learn the Bengali language, translate the New 
Testament, and preach and teach among the 
natives, besides attending to his duties in con- 
nection with the factory of which he was in charge. 
Between 1797 and 1800 various desultory efforts 
were made by the Christian Knowledge Society 
to carry on the mission begun by Kiernander. 
Much help was given by Rev. D. Brown, Dr. 
Buchanan, and others, who were serving English 
residents as chaplains. In 1799 four more 
English missionaries arrived — this time in an 
American vesssel. They effected a landing in 
face of governmental opposition, but were obliged 
to retreat to Serampur, 15 miles up the river, 
which was then held by the Danish Government. 
The Danish governor was in sympathy with 
their work, and declined to give the missionaries 
up to the officials of the East India Company. 
Here Carey joined them, and thus was laid the 
foundation of the Serampur Baptist Mission. 
It was after this time that the earliest American 
missionaries reached Calcutta and encountered 
the same difficulties as their English brethren. 
At this time also came Henry Martyn as a chap- 
lain in the East India Company's service. 

With the granting of the new charter in 1813, 
the tone of the government changed. The mis- 
sionary societies of England were waiting for the 
opening of the door to enter in. The Church 
Missionary Society came in 1815. The London 
Missionary Society had sent a missionary out in 
1798, but he sought the interior. Their Calcutta 
Mission was begun in 1816. In 1837 their college 
was begun, now a large and successful institution. 
The earliest direct efforts in behalf of female 
education were attempted in 1821. A society 
for promoting female education was formed in 




1824 and did efficient service. The Society for 
the Propagation of the Gospel began operations 
in 1820, taking charge in that year of Bishop's 
College, an institution for higher Christian educa- 
tion projected by Dr. Middleton, first bishop of 
Calcutta. The Established Church of Scotland 
in 1830 sent Dr. Duff to Calcutta. His energy 
and devotion gave an impetus to the missionary 
spirit in the home churches, was felt on all mission 
fields in India, and especially gave point and 
direction to educational efforts as a legitimate 
form of missionary work. He started a school 
which soon grew into a large college. In 1844, 
following the disruption in the Scotch Church, 
Dr. Duff and his associates threw in their lot with 
the Free Church and carried their work over into 
the hands of the new body. The old kirk, how- 
ever, started a new mission in Calcutta, with a 
college of its own. In 1865 the CMS founded a 
college known as the Cathedral College. 

Thus nearly every one of the great societies 
laboring in Calcutta came in time to have its 
institution or college for the higher education 
of native youth in the English language and 
under the influence of Christianity. The London 
Missionary Society early established a press, 
which since has passed into the hands of the 
Baptist Mission, and has done excellent service. 
The latter mission has also been fortunate in 
securing and wise in retaining the services of 
several learned and scholarly men who have 
devoted almost all their time to the translation 
of the Scriptures, and the revision and printing 
of successive editions. The duty of vernacular 
preaching both in the city itself and through the 
surrounding districts has been faithfully attended 
to, and among those who have been especially 
successful in this branch of work may be men- 
tioned Lacroix, one of the ablest and most devoted 
of the London Society's laborers. The American 
Methodist Church began work in Calcutta in 1872 
under the leadership of Rev. William Taylor, 
afterward missionary bishop of his church in 
Africa. The work of this mission has been largely 
among Europeans unreached by the labors of 
other churches, tho, as time has gone on, 
increasingly among natives also. 

The publication of tracts and books in the 
varnacular languages is cared for by a tract 
society auxiliary to the Religious Tract Society of 
London, while an auxiliary of the British and 
Foreign Bible Society provides an ample supply 
of Bibles in the various languages used in the 
city and surrounding regions. 

Calcutta is thus seen to be a center of no small 
amount of religious and intellectual activity. 
Under the influence of the several agencies above 
enumerated, it is natural that a strong and intel- 
ligent body of Bengali Christians should have 
grown up in Calcutta. The influence of the 
native Christian community of the metropolis has 
been, as was fitting, metropolitan in its character. 
Members of this community have been found in 
all ranks of life — among the lawyers, merchants, 
writers, editors, scholars, and preachers of the 
country. They have established and conducted 
with ability a newspaper printed in English, 
devoted especially to the needs of the native 
church of Bengal and of India, and in many ways 
have exerted an influence on the development of 
Christianity which has been widely felt. 

Besides the missionary societies already named 
11 others are carrying on enterprises in Calcutta 
or its suburbs: the WMS, the SDA, the Medical 

and Benevolent Association affiliated with the 
SDA, the local Bengali Mission, the Oxford Mis- 
sion to Calcutta,the British and ForeignUnitarian 
Association, the YMCA, and, of the women's 
missionary societies, the Church of Scotland 
Woman's Missionary Association, the CEZMS, 
the Baptist Zenana Mission, the CWBM, and 
the YWCA. 

The aggregate number of missionaries of all 
these societies in the city and suburbs is 184 men 
and women, with 586 native workers, men and 
women. The enterprises of these missions include, 
besides the colleges already mentioned, 86 Sunday 
schools, 130 common schools, 14 high schools, 5 
orphanages, 3 theological schools, 2 training 
schools for women mission workers, 2 indus- 
trial schools and 1 hostel for native students. 
The BFBS maintains an agent in Calcutta and a 
book depot. There are 8 young people's 
societies, besides the YMCA and the YWCA. 
The professing Christians reported by these 
missions as connected with their churches form 
an aggregate of 2,783. 

CALDWELL, Robert: Born May 7, 1814. 
Died August 28, 1891. The University of 
Glasgow conferred upon him the degree of LL.D. 
and the University of Durham the degree of D.D. 
He was missionary of the LMS from 1838-41, 
arriving in Madras, January 8, 1838. Joined 
the SPG and ordained deacon in Church of 
England, 1841, and priest in 1842, at Madras; 
consecrated Assistant Bishop of Madras March 
11, 1877. Over forty years of Mr. Caldwell's 
missionary life was spent in Idaiyangudi, situated 
in the extreme south of Tinnevelli. In the early 
years of the 19th century the inhabitants of 
many villages in this district placed themselves 
under Christian instruction, and large numbers 
were received into the church by Gericke and 
Sattianadan; but Caldwell found only the wreck 
of these congregations, which soon felt his master- 
ful influence. In less than three years he had 
formed 21 congregations and 9 schools; he 
received converts in 31 villages, and altogether 
2,000 persons were brought under regular Chris- 
tian instruction. A church building society 
was formed at Idaiyangudi in 1844, and so well 
was the duty of self-support impressed upon the 
congregations that in 1846 it was reported that 
the Idaiyangudi Christians "could be hardly 
surpassed in Christian liberality by the inhab- 
itants of any country in similar worldly circum- 
stances." During the years 1845-7 eleven 
churches and fourteen schools were built in the 
district ; and at this time Mr. Caldwell reported the 
proportion of inhabitants of Tinnevelli which 
had embraced Christianity was larger than that 
of any other province in India. In many places 
entire villages renounced their idols and the 
movement in favor of Christianity extended 
from caste to caste and village to village. This 
description included the operations of the CMS 
and in 1850 the natives in Tinnevelli who, largely 
under the influence of the SPG and the CMS, led 
by Caldwell and his associates, had embraced the 
Christian religion, in number about forty thou- 
sand persons, forwarded an address to Queen 
Victoria expressing thanks to God for the bless- 
ings of his grace. As missionary Mr. Caldwell 
had to fulfil the various offices of pastor, doctor, 
magistrate, and general counselor. In 1875, 
when the Prince of Wales visited India, he was 
met by nearly 10,000 native Christians and an 
address was presented to him by Mr. Caldwell. 




In 1880 Bishop Caldwell consecrated a church on 
which he had labored with his own hands from 
time to time for thirty-three years; in 1883 he 
removed his headquarters to Tuticorin, the 
chief seaport in Tinnevelli, and here during tliis 
year he confirmed 538 natives in one day; and 
m 1887 he celebrated the jubilee of his mission- 
ary career. In 1890 Bishop Caldwell, on the 
death of Bishop Sargent, assumed the entire 
episcopal oversight of Tinnevelli. He was the 
author of "Companion to the Holy Communion" 
and of several pamphlets. 

CALHOUN, Simeon Howard: Born August 15, 
1804, at Boston, Mass.; graduated at Williams 
College, 1829; studied theology with Dr. GrifEn 
and Dr. Mark Hopkins; ordained in 1836; left the 
United States the following November for the 
Levant as an agent of the American Bible Society ; 
received appointment as a missionary of the 
ABCFM in 1843; joined the Syrian mission in 
1844 for the purpose of taking charge of the mis- 
sion seminary at Abeih, on Mount Lebanon. 
To this he devoted his entire life. By him were 
trained most of the preachers and teachers now 
employed in the Syrian mission of the PN, besides 
.several engaged by other societies in Syria, Pal- 
estine, and Egypt. He was also pastor of the 
church on Mount Lebanon. He was thoroughly 
versed in the Arabic and Turkish languages, and 
.assisted Dr. Goodell in his first translations of 
the Bible into Turkish. He prepared and pub- 
lished text-books in philosophy, astronomy, and 
theology. He visited the United States in 1847, 
returning to Syria in 1849; again in 1866, return- 
ing the same year. He made his final visit to 
the United States in impaired health in 1875, but 
addressed the General Assembly on the subject 
of missions with great power. Tho he ex- 
pressed the hope that he should rest on Mount 
Lebanon, he died in Buffalo, December 14, 
1875. His wife and three children were with him. 

Dr. Calhoun's influence in Syria was great 
among all classes. Natives, whether Moham- 
medan or Christian, often went to him for coun- 
sel. While in college Dr. Calhoun was a sceptic 
and an opposer of religious enterprises. After 
his conversion, in 1831, and up to the end of his 
life, he was noted for the ardor and the simplicity 
of his piety. His delight in the Scriptures was 
exceptional. Hence he was powerful in explain- 
ing them to others. 

CALICUT: A city on the coast of Malabar, S. 
India. Climate, temperate. Population (1901), 
76,981. Hindus, Mohammedans, Parsees, Portu- 

fuese, French. Language, Malayalam, Tamil, 
[industani, etc. Religion, Hinduism, Islamism, 

Station of the Basel Missionary Society (1842), 
with 8 missionaries, 5 of whom are accompanied 
by their wives, 71 native workers, men and 
women, 6 outstations, 1 Sunday school, 8 village 
schools, 1 industrial school and 1,073 professing 
Christians. Also station of the Mission to Lepers 
in India and the East, with 1 home for the 
untainted children of lepers. 

CALIOUB: A suburb of Cairo, Egypt; station 
of the Netherlands Society for the Extension of 
the Gospel in Egypt (1874), with 2 missionaries 
and their wives, 1 chapel, 1 Sunday school and 2 
village schools. 

CALLAO: A city of Peru, South America, 
which is an important seaport, although its popu- 
lation has latterly become reduced to 16,000. 

Station of the ME, with 1 missionary and his 
wife, 11 native workers, men and women, 2 Sun- 
day schools, 3 village schools, 1 high school and 
180 professing evangelical Christians. 

CALMUCKS. See Mongols. 

CALVERT, James: Born January 3, 1813. 
Died March 8, 1892. The birthplace of Mr. 
Calvert was Pickering, York, England; and after 
his early education at Malton, he was appren- 
ticed for seven years to a printer, bookbinder and 
stationer. After his appointment by the Wesley an 
Missionary Society he was married in March, 
1838, and Mr. and Mrs. Calvert embarked for 
Fiji, October of the same year, with John Hunt 
and T. J. Jagger as associates in their courageous 
work. During the following December they 
reached Lakemba, and six months later Mr. 
Calvert was in charge of a wide circuit, including 
thirteen towns, connected by no roads, besides 
twenty-four surrounding islands, some of which 
were over one hundred miles distant, with hardly 
a seaworthy canoe available by which to reach 
the savage inhabitants. He and Mrs. Calvert soon 
mastered the language, and they showed remark- 
able tact, perseverance and courage in their 
work among the Fijians. A printing press was 
sent out with this missionary party, and Mr. 
Calvert's thorough knowledge of printing and 
book-binding was now of great use to him. Soon 
a vocabulary and a grammar in the Lakemban 
dialect were ready for use. This press was moved 
from one island to another, and from it were 
issued thousands of helpful papers, while in 
1847 a complete and well bound New Testament 
was ready for the natives. On the island of 
Oneata the work accomplished great good; a 
church and school were established, and, encour- 
aged by the king of Nayau, many of the inhab- 
itants renounced their heathen worship and 
embraced Christianity. Some of these endured 
persecution, exile, torture, and even death rather 
than compromise their principles. The conver- 
sion of the daughter of the king had great influ- 
ence among the natives. Mr. Calvert did much 
toward the abolition of killing and eating human 
beings, and on April 30, 1854, the chief ordered 
that the death-drums be hereafter used to call 
the people together to worship the true God. 
In 1857, Thakombau, the king, after dismissing 
his many wives with all their wealth and influence , 
openly accepted Christ as his Savior. One of 
his last acts as king was to cede Fiji to the Queen 
of Great Britain, October, 1874. After seven- 
teen years of labor in Fiji, Mr. Calvert returned 
to England, where, in 1856, he settled at Wood- 
bridge, revising the Old Testament translation 
for the British and Foreign Bible Society; but the 
death of the ablest worker at Fiji caused him to 
return to his former post, where his power for 
good was greater than ever. In 1865 Mr. Calvert 
was again in England; October, 1872, he went 
to the South African diamond fields, where he 
did effective missionary work. Mr. Calvert 
attended the Jubilee of Christianity in Fiji in 
1885. At this time there was not an avowed 
heathen in all Fiji. He found over 1,300 churches, 
10 white missionaries, 65 native missionaries, over 
1,000 head teachers, nearly 30,000 church 
members, over 42,000 pupils in nearly 2,000 
schools, and 104,585 church attendants, out of a 
population of 116,000. Largely through his 

Eersonal service he saw this people abolish 
eathen customs and accept the true (iod. 


Caiie Coast Castle 



CAMBODIA: A kingdom of farther India, 
under the protectorate of France, and forming 
a part of French Indo-China. It lies southeast 
of Siam, and includes principally the valley and 
delta of the Cambodia River, one of the most 
fertile regions of southeastern Asia. Area, 
37,400 square miles. Population, 1,103,000, 
chiefly composed of several indigenous races, 
with about 40,000 Malays and 250,000 Chinese 
and Annamities. The chief towns are Pnom- 
penh, the capital, and Kampot, the only seaport. 

The early history is obscure. Toward the 
close of the 17th century the Annamese set 
apart the southern portion for Chinese who 
had fled from their own homes for political rea- 
sons, and were a source of disturbance to the gov- 
ernment. This became Cochin-China. In 1787 
the king of Cochin-China was converted to Chris- 
tianity through French missionaries. With the 
aid of France he then conquered Cambodia and 
Annam, combining all in the empire of Annam. 
He favored Christianity, and allowed the French 
missionaries many privileges. Under his suc- 
cessor, however, quarrels arose with France, 
which occupied Cochin-China and in 1863 estab- 
lished a protectorate over Cambodia. Roman 
Catholic Missions, only, operate in that region. 

CAMPINAS: A city of Brazil, situated at an 
altitude of 2,300 feet, in the sugar growing dis- 
trict, 60 miles north of Sao Paulo. Population, 
20,000. The climate is mild and semi-tropical. 

Station of the PS (1 869) , with (1 902) 1 mission- 
ary and his wife, 2 native workers, 3 outstations, 
1 school and 57 church members. Station also 
of the SBC, with (1902) 1 missionary and his wife, 
1 native worker, 1 theological class, and 27 
church members. 

CAMPOS: A town in the district of Rio de 
Janeiro, Brazil, about 150 miles northeast of the 
city. Station of the SBC (1890), with (1902) 1 
missionary and his wife, 5 native workers, 10 
outstations, 10 preaching places, and 702 pro- 
fessing evangelical Christians. 

CANA: A settlement in Basutoland, about 10 
miles from the boundary of the Orange River 
Colony; station of the Paris Association for Evan- 
gelical Missions (1873), with (1901) 1 missionary 
and his wife, 16 native workers, 9 outstations, 8 
schools, and 723 communicants, with 366 candi- 
dates for admission. 

CANADA; Baptist Missionary Societies of. 

See Baptist Conventions op Canada. 

MISSIONARY SOCIETY: While the earlier efforts 
of the Congregational Churches of Canada were 
directed chiefly to home evangelization, a number 
of the stronger ones contributed to foreign mis- 
sions through the LMS and the ABCFM, whose 
secretaries or agents appeared at the meetings of 
the Congregational Union, or preached by invi- 
tation in Montreal. Interest was also much 
excited in the foreign work by a visit, in 1870, of 
Rev. Dr. Mullens, Foreign Secretary of the LMS, 
and again, in 1874, when the first foreign mission- 
aries, Rev. Charles Brooks and wife, went out 
under the auspices of the ABCFM, to Constanti- 
nople. But it was not until 1881 that the claims 
of the heathen world upon the Canadian churches 
were sufficiently felt to lead to the organization 
of a separate Foreign Missionary Society. This 
society, while largely indebted to the ABCFM for 
advice m regard to the choice of its field, and 

working mainly through its channels, is yet 
entirely independent of the older society, holding 
its annual meeting at the same time and place 
as the Congregational Union of Ontario and 
Quebec, and being wholly subject to the control 
of its own board of directors. For the first three 
years it contributed through the ABCFM toward 
the support of the Canadian Foreign missionaries 
already in the field, viz., Rev. C. H. Brooks and 
wife, in Constantinople, the Rev. George Allchin, 
in Japan, and Miss Macallum, in Smyrna. But 
in 1884 Mr. W. T. Currie, a graduate of the Con- 
gregational College of Canada, having applied to 
the Society for appointment to foreign service, was 
accepted, and assigned, under advice of the 
ABCFM, to a new mission station in Bailunda, in 
West Central Africa, which was henceforth to be 
recognized as the Canadian Mission. Mr. Currie 
having been duly ordained and set apart to his 
work, sailed with his bride for Africa in June, 
1886, but the}' had scarcely reached the station to 
which he had been appointed before she sickened 
and died. A memorial of her has since been 
erected in the form of a mission schoolhouse, 
known as the "Clara Wilkes Currie School," for 
which the necessary funds were collected by the 
Canadian Woman's Board. Mr. Currie after- 
ward commenced a new station at Chisamba, 
and Mr. Wilberforce Lee, another alumnus of the 
same college as Mr. Currie, was ordained and sent 
out to assist him (1889). Others have since 
joined them and the station is recognized by the 
ABCFM as the special field of the Canadian 

There were (1902) 3 missionaries with their 
wives and 3 female missionaries, 9 in all. There 
are important schools, with an attendance of 274, 
more than a third of them girls; a hospital, with 
4 buildings. The general evangelistic work is 
very prosperous. 

In addition to this work in Africa a number 
of missionaries have gone from Canada to other 
fields: Turkey, China, India and Japan. 

The Canada Congregational Woman's Board 
of Missions was organized June 10, 1886, in the 
house of the pastor of the church in Ottawa, Ont. 
Its beginnings were small, but in response to cir- 
culars sent out by the president, Mrs. Macallum, 
requesting the churches to form auxiliaries, 
several existing societies sent in their adhesion, 
and a number of auxiliaries and mission bands 
were organized. The lamented death of Mrs. ■ 
Currie greatly quickened the general interest 
in the mission to which she had given her life, 
and nearly one thousand dollars were promptly 
contributed for the erection of the school to her 
memory before referred to. Almost every 
church has now its auxiliary or mission band, 
many of them having both. 

CANADA; Methodist Church in. See Method- 
ist Church in Canada. 

CANADA; Presbyterian Church in. See Pres- 
byterian Church in Canada. 

CANARESE LANGUAGE: Belongs to the 
Dravidian family of languages and is spoken by 
about 9,500,000 people in S.W. India. Its alpha- 
bet somewhat resembles the Tamil. It is also- 
called Karnata. 

CANDAWU. See Tonga Islands. 
CANDIA. See Crete. 

CANNANORE: A city on the coast of Malabar, 
S. W. India, situated about 50 miles northwest 



Cape Coast Castle 

of Calicut. It is a military post and it is remarka- 
ble for tlie number of its mosques, two of which are 
of special fame. Station of the Basel Missionary 
Society (1841), with (1900) 10 missionaries, men 
and women, and 36 native workers. The work 
of the station covers evangelistic and educa- 
tional work, and connected with it are 650 bap- 
tized Christians. 

CAUTON: Capital of Kwang-tung Province, 
China, on the north bank of the Pearl, or Canton, 
River, 90 miles from the sea. The Chinese name 
for the city is Kwang-chau-fvi; the foreign name 
is supposed to be a corruption of Kwang-tung as 

?ronounced by the early Portuguese visitors, 
t is also called Yeung-sheng, the "City of Rams," 
by the Chinese, in reference to a legend connected 
with its founding. The city proper is quadri- 
lateral in shape, the side next to the river being a 
little less than two miles in length. It is sur- 
rounded by a wall of an average height of twenty- 
five feet, and from fifteen to twenty feet thick, in 
a good state of preservation, built of bride, with 
stone foundation. It is a universal custom in 
Chinese cities that the cardinal points of the 
compass determine the location of the four princi- 
pal gates. In Canton these are found to be 
utterly insufficient for the needs of traffic, and 
there are eight other gates, some of them as 
large and important in fact, tho not in name. 
The city is divided into two parts, the old and 
the new. In the old city are the Tatar garrison, 
their parade-grounds, the residences and grounds 
of the Governor-General and Governor, the 
examination hall, with its rows of low cells for 
the competing students, and many fine temples 
and pagodas. Around the city proper are the 
suburbs, where the business of the city is carried 
on, especially on the west side, which is noted 
for its manufactures, its business, and its won- 
derful stores. Along the river front, junks and 
boats of every description and size find wharfage 
and landing places, and the vast carrying trade 
of the West and North rivers is conducted. The 
streets are narrow and closed by gates, which are 
shut at an early hour in the evening. 

The stores are usually low buildings of a story 
in front and two behind, the whole front 
of the store being thrown open to the street. 
The only high buildings, with the exception of 
public buildings, are the fine eating houses and 
the pawn shops, which serve also as safe- 
deposit vaults. The streets are well paved 
with slabs of granite, beneath which is a 
sewer. As all the night soil is removed 
from the city to be used on the fields, 
this deficient drainage does not cause epidemics. 
In comparison with other cities of the East, 
Canton is clean. The houses are built of brick 
of a slate color, and the ground floor is of tiles. 
The water supply of the city is derived either 
from the river or the canals which pass through 
the city, or from wells, whose flow is affected by the 
tide, which filters through the sandy soil. Pure 
spring water can be obtained from the hills to 
the north of the city. The natives never drink 
water unboiled, and this custom has doubtless 
preserved the health of the people. 

Not far from the walls of the city is the tomb 
of a so-called uncle of Mohammed, with a Moham- 
medan burying ground and place of worship. 
Opposite the city is the island of Honam, for a 
long time the residence of foreigners, when per- 
mission to live on the north shore was denied 

The population is (1901) 850,000, its distinct- 
ive feature being that 300,000 people live in boats, 
rarely spending a night on shore. The river bank 
and the various canals are lined with boats of 
every variety and size, from the little skiff to the 
large ornamental hotel boat. These boats fur-' 
nish to a great extent the means of communi-' 
cation. There are no horses used for that pur- 
pose, nor are the streets of the native city wide 
enough to permit the use of the cart of North 
China. The sedan chair is the only means of 
conveyance on land, and the facilities offered 
by the boats are largely utilized by the mission- 
aries, whose residences, with few exceptions, are 
on the river front. Opposite the western 
suburbs, and separated from them by a canal, is a 
foreign settlement on ground made over a small 
island by surrounding it with a retaining wall, and 
filling in the space enclosed. Shamien, as it is 
called, is laid out in fine streets with overhanging 
trees, bordered by beautiful lawns, and covered 
with the fine residences of the European mer- 
chants. Shamien is one of the most beautiful 
European settlements in the East. 

The people of Canton are the mof3t highly 
civilized of China, and the luxury of the city is 
proverbial. The shrewdness and ability of tlie 
Cantonese as merchants has procured for them, 
the nickname of the Yankees of China, and 
Canton men, or men from the Canton province, 
compose nearly the entire number of the immi- 
grants to the various parts of the world where 
the Chinese are found. 

The climate is more temperate than that of any 
other city in a like latitude. The heat in summer 
averages about 95°, and the minimum in winter 
is usually 42°. Ice rarely forms, and snow is 
almost never seen. April, May, and June are 
the rainy season; July, August, and September 
are the months for the southwest monsoons, 
which, with frequent thunder-showers, mitigate 
the heat. During the fall and winter the north- 
ern monsoon blows, and clear weather is con- 

Canton, according to native annals, has existed 
four thousand years, and traces of its existence 
have been found 1200 B.C. Its first intercourse 
with foreigners was in the 16th century 
with the Portuguese, and since then the history 
of Canton has been the history of China, as many 
important events in modern Chinese history 
occurred at, or were connected with, this city. 

The Protestant missionary enterprises at Can- 
ton are many and important. The LMS made the 
city one of its earliest stations by sending the 
Rev. Robert Morrison there in 1807. It was 
followed by the PN in 1844, the SBC in 1845, 
and the Berlin Missionary Society in 1867. The 
other societies now operating in the city are the 
WMS, the ABCFM, the UB Women's Mission- 
ary Association, and the Scandinavian American 
Free Mission. These societies have in Canton 
and suburbs an aggregate of 58 missionaries, men 
and women, 196 native workers, men and women, 
84 preaching places, 24 Sunday schools, 52 vil- 
lage schools, 4 high schools, 5 theological or other 
special training schools, 1 hospital, 4 dispensa- 
ries, and 1 printing house. The total number 
of professing Christians at Canton connected with 
these missions is 4,727. 

CAPE COAST CASTLE : A town and fort of the 
Gold Coast Colony, West Africa. Until 1664 it 
was a Portuguese military station. Population, 
10,000. The town is regularly built in a well- 

Cape Colony 



wooded but poorly watered district, and has a 
damp, unhealthy climate. Station of the WMS, 
with 3 missionaries, 34 native workers, 4 common 
schools, and 1,240 professing Christians. 

CAPE COLONY: A British possession compris- 
ing the extreme southern portion of Africa, 
extending northward to the boundaries of German 
Southwest Africa, the Bechuanaland Protector- 
ate, the Orange River Colony, Basutoland, and 
Natal. It has an ocean coast line of about 1,400 
miles, and an area with dependencies of 
221,311 square miles. The population is (1891) 
1,527,224. No census was taken in 1901, but the 
population is estimated at 2,433,000, the Euro- 
pean population numbering 376,987 for the whole 
"territory. The dependent provinces are East 
Griqualand, having 15,197 square miles; Tembu- 
land, 7,594; Transkei, 2,552, and Walfisch Bay, 

A mountain range, in general parallel with the 
coast, dividing the drainage of the streams flow- 
ing into the Orange River from that of the 
-coastal streams, is reached from the ocean, about 
100 miles distant, by a series of terraces. North 
of the range the country slopes gradually toward 
the Orange River. About two-thirds of the 
colony consists of arid plains (called Karroos) 
presenting many depressions, containing rich 
■soO, which only requires irrigation to make it 

Included in the south temperate zone, the 
climate presents many varieties, but in its gen- 
eral character is mild and very salubrious; epi- 
demics seldom prevail. The rainfall is unequally 
distributed. The basin of the Lower Orange and 
Great Karroo plain and the Kalahari Desert 
receives occasional torrential downpours, but 
springs are rare. Wells are sunk and a system 
of irrigation resorted to. The flora is the richest 
in the world. Vineyards produce abundantly; 
cereals give a fair return. The forests are con- 
fined to the margins of the colony; one-third of 
the population is said to engage in stock breeding. 
There are about 10,000,000 sheep in the country. 
The wild animals have been largely driven north 
beyond the boundaries of the colony. 

People : Malays were introduced by the Dutch 
as slaves, and are found chiefly in the seaports. 
The Griquas are half-castes, active, vigorous, 
enterprising and courageous, and superior to the 
aborigines in strength and stature, and number 
among them some of the best and some of the 
most desperate characters. Bushmen inhabit 
the western section of Cape Colony. They are 
remnants of the San races, are diminutive in 
stature, and have light, yellowish brown com- 
plexions, and are, perhaps, related to the Hotten- 
tots. They have made but little progress in 
civilization, and have no tribal organization. 
-Scattered in various districts, they number, per- 
haps, 50,000 in South Africa. Hottentots, 
numerous in the western part of Cape Colony, 
amount to about 100,000. They resemble the 
Bushmen, except in stature and degree of cul- 
ture. They occupy kraals, wear leather aprons 
and a sheepskin cloak. Tribal organization is 
preserved only among those beyond the bound- 
aries of the European possessions. 

By the census of 1891 there were in the Colony 
732,047 Protestants, of whom 306,320 belonged 
to the Dutch Reformed communion, 139,058 to 
the Church of England, 37,102 were Presbyteri- 
an, 69,992 Independents, 106,132 Wesleyan, with 
Methodists, Lutherans, Moravians, Baptists and 

others. The Roman Catholics number 17,275, 
the Jews 3,000, Mohammedans 15,099. Pagan 
religions have still over 750,000 adherents. Gov- 
ernment grants for the support of religious wor- 
ship are being gradually withdrawn. 

(5ape Colony having so many European resi- 
dents, the missionary enterprise there is carried on 
by the local churches, as well as by the missionary 
societies from abroad. Of these missionary socie- 
ties the following carry on work in the colony: 
The Moravians, LMS, SPG, PB, Berlin Mis- 
sionary Society, Rhenish Missionary Society, 
Hannover Missionary Society, International 
Medical Association, Mildmay Mission to the 
Jews, National Baptist Convention (U. S. A.), 
African Methodist Episcopal Church (U. S. A.), 
Episcopal Church of Scotland, Primitive Method- 
ist Missionary Society and the Society of St. 
John. The whole number of places occupied as 
stations by these societies is 75. 

Brown, Guide to S. Africa, London, 1899; Bryce, Impressions 
of S. Africa, London, 1899; Holub, Seven Years in S. 
Africa, London, 1881 ; Nicholson, Fifty Years in S. Africa, 
London, 1898; Wilmot, Story of the Expansion of S. 
Africa, London, 1897, and History of Our Own Times in 
S. Africa, London, 1893; EUis (A. B.), South African 
Sketches, London, 1887; Edwards (J.), Reminiscences of 
Early Life and Labors in South Africa, London, 1886; 
South African Year Book for 1902-03, Loi;don, 1902. 

CAPE MOUNT: A station of the American 
Protestant Episcopal Church in Liberia, West 
Africa (1877), with 5 missionaries, men and 
women, 1 native worker, 2 Sunday schools, and 8 

CAPE PALMAS : A district and town on the 
coast of Liberia, Africa. Seat of a missionary 
bishop of the PE, with schools and churches at 
Harper and Hoffman, on the Cape. Missionary 
circuit of the MB, with 7 missionaries, men and 
women, 12 native workers, 11 Sunday schools, 1 
high school and 645 professing Christians. 

CAPE PRINCE OF WALES: A settlement in 
the W. of Alaska, situated on Bering Strait; sta- 
tion of the American Missionary Association 
(1890), with 1 missionary and his wife, 2 native 
workers, man and woman, and 1 Sunday school. 

CAPE TOWN: The capital of Cape Colony, S. 
Africa, situated at the foot of Table Mountain, on 
Table Bay. It was founded by the Dutch in 
1651. It has a very fine harbor. The climate is 
moderate in temperature. Population (1891), 51,- 
250. Station of the Moravians (1887), the South 
African Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society, 
the National Baptist Convention, the Inter- 
national Medical Missions and Benevolent Asso- 
ciation, the Salvation Army, and the PB, with an 
aggregate of 10 missionaries, men and women, 
57 native workers, men and women, 25 places of 
worship, 22 Sunday schools, 18 common schools, 
1 orphanage, 1 hospital, 1 dispensary, 1 medical 
training class, 3 young people's societies, and 
2,971 professing Christians. The BFBS also has 
an agency and a Bible depot here. 

CAPE HAITIEN : A seaport in the northern part 
of the island of Haiti. It is the second town for 
size in the Republic, with a population of about 
29,000. It has a good harbor hemmed in by 
hills. Station of the Jamaica Baptist Missionary 
Society (1875), with 1 missionary and his wife 
and 48 professing Christians. The Wesleyan 
Western Annual Conference of the West Indies 
also has a missionary here. Also called Cape 
Haytien, or Cape Hayti. 

CARACAS : The capital of Venezuela, S. Amer- 



Cape Colony 

ica, founded in 1567; situated at an altitude of 
3,000 feet, 8 miles (or by railway 23 miles) from 
La Guayra, its seaport. Population, about 
70,000. Climate agreeable and very healthful. 
Station of the PN (1897), with 1 missionary and 
his wife. Also station of the CA and of the PB. 

CARAITES. See Karaites. 

CARAMANLIJA: The Turkish language as 
spoken by the Greeks of the interior of Asia 
Minor, who have lost the use of their own lan- 
guage. Retaining, however, the Greek in their 
church services, they have taught the Greek 
alphabet to their school children, have used it 
for writing Turkish, and have brought into that 
language Greek theological and ecclesiastical 
terms. The effect has been to produce a dialect 
which is named from the district of Caraman, 
where it has been most largely used. See Turk- 
ish Language. 

CARDENAS: A seaport on the northern coast 
of Cuba, W. I., 25 miles E. of Matanzas, with an 
important trade in sugar. Population (1899), 
21,940. Station of the PS (1899), with 7 mis- 
sionaries, men and women, 1 school, and 45 pro- 
fessing Christians. 

CAREY, William: Born Paulerspury, North- 
amptonshire, England, August 17, 1761. In 
his youth he worked with his father, who was a 
weaver, but at the age of sixteen he was appren- 
ticed to a shoemaker at Hackleton, working at the 
trade for twelve years. At the age of eighteen he 
was led through the influence of a pious fellow- 
apprentice to the faith in Christ, became an ear- 
nest Christian, and a preacher of the Gospel. In 
1786 he became pastor of the Baptist Church at 
Moulton, having previously preached at Paulers- 
pury, his early home, and at Barton. His income 
being too small for the support of his family, he 
kept school by day, made or cobbled shoes by 
night, and preached on Sunday. At Moulton he 
was deeply impressed with the idea of a mission 
to the heathen, and frequently conversed with 
ministers on its practicability and importance, 
and of his willingness to engage in it. Andrew 
Fuller relates that once on entering Carey's 
shop he found hanging up against the wall a 
large map composed of several pieces of paper 
pasted together, on which Carey had drawn with 
a pen every known countrj', with memoranda of 
what he had read as to their population, religion, 
etc. At a very early age he had an intense desire 
for knowledge, eagerly "devouring books, espe- 
cially of science, history, voyages," etc., and, not- 
withstanding his poverty, he learned Latin, Greek, 
Hebrew, Dutch, French, and acquired a good 
amount of general useful knowledge. But his 
heart was chiefly set on a mission to the heathen. 
From his ministerial brethren he received no S5'm- 
pathy. While at Moulton he wrote and pub- 
lished "An Inquiry into the Obligation of Chris- 
tians to Use Means for the Conversion of the 
Heathen." In 1789 he became pastor of the 
church at Leicester. At a meeting of the Minis- 
ters' Association at Nottingham, May 31, 1792, 
he preached from "Enlarge the place of thy 
tent (Isa. liv: 2, 3), laying down these two prop- 
ositions: "Expect great things from God " and 
"Attempt great things for God." The discourse 
produced a great impression, and the result was, 
through the special cooperation of Fuller, Pearce, 
and the vounger Ryland, the formation, at Ket- 
tering, October 2, 1792, of the Baptist Mission- 
ary Society. Carey's first wish was to work in 

Tahiti or Western Africa, but he offered to go 
wherever the Society might appoint him. India 
was selected for its first mission, and he was 
appointed with Mr. John Thomas, a surgeon, who 
had resided in Bengal, and been engaged in mis- 
sion work. They embarked on an English vessel, 
but, on account of the objections made against 
missionaries by the East India Company, the 
commander of the ship was forbidden to take 
them, and they returned to land. After waiting 
a few weeks they sailed in a Danish vessel bound 
from Copenhagen to Serampur, and reached Cal- 
cutta November 11, 1793. Having sailed in a 
foreign vessel cleared at a foreign port, he landed 
unobserved. Believing it to be the duty of a 
missionary, after receiving some help at first, to 
support himself, Mr. Carey, soon after reaching 
India, relinquished his salary, and he and his 
family were reduced to serious straits. Leaving 
Calcutta, he walked fifteen miles in the sun, pass- 
ing through salt rivers and a large lake, to the 
Sunderbunds, a "tract scantily populated, and 
notorious for pestilence and wild beasts," intend- 
ing to farm the land and instruct the people. 
Here he was found by Mr. Udney, of the Com- 
pany's service, a pious man and a friend of mis- 
sions, who offered him the supcrintendency of his 
indigo factory. As he would have not only a 
competent support for his family and time for 
study, but also a regular congregation of natives 
connected with the factory, he accepted the offer. 
The factory was at Mudnabatty, in tlie district of 
Malda, and this became the mission station. 
During the five years he spent there he translated 
the New Testament into Bengali, held daily relig- 
ious services with the thousand workmen in the 
factory, itinerated regularly through the district, 
twenty miles square and containing 200 villages. 
His first convert was Ignatius Fernandez, of Por- 
tuguese descent, who built a church in l797, and 
preached and labored as a missionary until his 
death, in 1829, when he left all his property to the 
mission. In 1799 the factory was closed in con- 
sequence of an inundation. While perplexed as 
to what he should do, Mr. Carey heard that four 
missionaries had arrived at Serampur, and that 
the Danish governor had proposed that they 
establish a mission there, promising him protec- 
tion. They urged him to leave Malda. He 
assented, and removed to Serampur. In 1801 
the Bengali translation of the New Testament 
was printed by Mr. Ward, and a copy presented 
to the Marquis of Wellesley, the governor-gen- 
eral, who expressed his great gratification at this 
result of missionary work. About this time Fort 
William College was established at Calcutta, and 
Mr. Carey was appointed by the Marquis pro- 
fessor of Sanskrit, Bengali, and Marathi. This 
position he held for thirty years, and taught these 
languages. He wrote articles on the natural his- 
tory and botany of India for the Asiatic Society, 
to which he was elected in 1805. The publica- 
tion of the entire Bible in Bengali in five volumes 
was completed in 1809. That which gave Carey 
his fame was the translation of the Bible in whole 
or in part into twenty-four Indian languages or 
dialects. The Serampur press, under his direc- 
tion, rendered the Bible accessible to more than 
three hundred millions of human beings. He 
prepared also numerous philological works, con- 
sisting of grammars and dictionaries in the San- 
skrit, Marathi, Bengali, Punjabi and Telugu dia- 
lects. His Sanskrit dictionary was destroyed by 
fire in the printing establishment. He contrib- 




uted also several papers on grammar and East 
Indian matters to the Journal of the Geographical 
Society, in London. Carey had for years sought 
through Lord Wellesley the abolition of the sut- 
tee. In 1829 it was abolished, and the proclama- 
tion declaring it punishable as homicide was sent 
to Dr. Carey to be translated into Bengali. The 
order reached him as he was preparing for public 
worship on Sunday. Throwing off his black coat, 
he exclaimed: "If I delay an hour to translate 
and publish this, many a widow's life may be 
sacrificed." Resigning his pulpit to another, he 
completed with his pundit the translation by 

Dr. Carey's work was now finished. After 
forty years of toil he passed away at the age of 
seventy-three, June 9, 1834. He was buried 
the next morning in the mission burying ground. 
He, who was ridiculed and satirized by the witty 
Sydney Smith in the Edinburgh Review of 1808 as 
the "consecrated cobbler" and "maniac," accom- 
plished a work for which he is held, and will be 
forever held, in high honor as the true friend and 
benefactor of India. 

Smith (G.), Life of William Carey, Shoemaker and Mission- 
ary, London, 1887; Culross (J.), William Carey, New York, 

CARISBROOK: A station of the Moravians in 
Jamaica, West Indies (1885), situated in the par- 
ish of St. Elizabeth in a somewhat _ hilly and 
pleasant part of the island. The station has 13 
native workers, men and women, 3 places of 
worship, 3 Sunday schools, and 151 communi- 

CARMEL : A station of the Moravian Missions 
(1887) in Western Alaska, near Fort Alexander. 
It now has 6 missionaries, men and women, 3 
chapels, 1 common school, and 107 communi- 

CARNARVON: A town of 1,700 inhabitants in 
Cape Colony, S. Africa, situated in a mountain- 
ous district about 325 miles N. E. of Cape Town. 
It is occupied as a station by the Rhenish Mis- 
sionary Society. The working force consists of 
1 missionary and his wife and 3 native workers. 
These serve as instructors to a body of 666 bap- 
tized Christians in the town and neighboring 
regions. They also maintain a school. 

CAROLINE ISLANDS: A group of islands in 
the Pacific, northeast of New Guinea and west 
of the Marshall and Gilbert groups. A few of 
them differ from the great majority of the islands 
of Micronesia in that they are of basaltic forma- 
tion, while the rest are coral reefs. Kusaie and 
Ponapi have mountains two to three thousand 
feet high. Ruk is an immense lagoon 100 miles 
long, containing 10 large islands and many 
islets. Yap is also one of the high islands. The 
climate is perpetual summer, the thermometer 
ranging from 72° to 90°. On the coral islands 
the chief products are the coconut palm, often 
growing to a height of 80 feet, the breadfruit 
tree, the pandanus tree or screw pine, bearing a 
large bunch of juicy fruit, and an edible root 
called taro. On the high islands, especially 
Kusaie and Ponapi, there is a much larger range 
of products, including more than a dozen kinds of 
bananas. Various tropical fruits are intro- 
duced, and also some domestic animals, as pigs, 
chickens, and goats. 

The inhabitants are of the brown Polynesian 
race, having straight hair. As no census has 
ever been taken, estimates of population 

vary greatly. Ponapi has a population of 5,000, 
the Mortlocks and Ruk about 14,000, Mokil and 
Pingelap about 1,250, Yap about 8,000 to 10,000. 

The languages of different parts of the group 
are quite distinct but with affinities pointing to a 
common origin. They are not easily reduced to 
writing because of the shading of vowel sounds. 
This has been done, however, so that introduc- 
tion of (!!hristian ideas has meant resurrection to 
the language no less than new life to the people. 

Spirits of ancestors and other spirits were wor- 
shiped, but no idols. The people were very 
superstitious, but had no conception of a Supreme 
God, and had no idea of sacrifice. Certain places 
regarded as the abode of spirits were not crossed. 
Some islands had priests, who in times of sickness 
and on special occasions practised their incanta- 
tions, pretending to converse with the dead. 

Missionary effort was begun on Ponapi and 
Kusaie in 1852 by the ABCFM. Twenty years 
later there were 250 church members on Ponapi 
and 226 on Kusaie. From the first a missionary 
spirit was cultivated in the converts, and when 
the evangelistic effort was to be pushed westward 
to other islands, native missionaries from Ponapi 
were the agents used, furnishing one of the most 
interesting chapters in missionary annals. 

Political changes have hindered the progress 
of evangelization in these islands. Many of the 
islands have chiefs, whose authority is hereditary. 
On Ponapi there are several tribes, each having 
an independent king or chieftain. But in 1885 
Spain laid claim to the whole group, as Germany 
had done to the Marshall Islands, and in the 
summer of 1886 took possession of Ponapi 
and later expelled the missionaries. In 1899 
Germany purchased the Caroline Islands from 
Spain. In 1900 the missionaries returned to 
Ponapi. But these political changes have intro- 
duced to the people new types of white men, and 
the islanders have not been benefited by the 

At present the force of workers consists of 24 
missionaries, men and women (nine of them 
unmarried women), and 135 native workers of 
both sexes. The missionaries live upon Kusaie, 
Ruk and Ponapi, but their work takes in many 
other islands of this group. There are 57 out- 
stations, with 99 schools, 2 printing houses, 2 dis- 
pensaries and 5,500 communicants in the various 

CARSHUNI. See Syriac. 

CARTAGO: A town of 8-10,000 inhabitants, 13 
miles E. of San Jos(i, Costa Rica, Central America. 
It was founded in 1553 and is situated in a fine 
valley at the base of Mt. Irazu, an active volcano. 
Station of the Jamaica Baptist Missionary 
Society (1901), with 1 missionary. 

CARTHEN, Rev. Thomas H. : Was a Cornish- 
man, born in 1856, and died in November, 1896. 
His boyhood was spent in the country of Durham, 
and when a very young man he entered the 
Christian ministry, pursuing a college course 
near his native place. In 1883 he united with 
the Free Methodist Church, and, after a brief 
stay at Oxford, he was appointed as missionary 
to Sierra Leone. After four consecutive years in 
a most unhealthy climate, he returned home in 
1887; but soon after his return he learned of the 
great need of Christian work in East Africa, and 
without waiting for a formal appointment to 
this field, he entered it with characteristic zeal 
and enthusiasm. Here he labored for ten years. 




^e was a man of strong individuality, and while 
oftentimes acting independently of the Mission 
Board at home, he always commended himself 
by his faithful and untiring efforts. Seemingly 
in the midst of a useful career he closed his earthly 
labors in 1896. 

CASABLANCA: A small seaport on the N. W. 
coast of Morocco, 56 miles S. W. of Rabat. Sta- 
tion of the NAM (1890), with a hospital in 
charge of 7 missionaries, men and women. The 
local name of the place is Dar al Beida. 

CASHMIR. See Kashmir. 


CASSA: An island off the coast of French 
Guinea, W. Africa; station of the Pongas Mis- 
sion (1882), with 1 missionary and his wife, 2 
native workers, man and woman, 2 chapels and 
2 high schools. 

CASSERGODE: A town on the coast of South 
Kanara, India, 28 miles south of Mangalore. 
Population, 6,400. Station of the Basel Mission- 
ary Society (1886), with (1902) 2 missionaries 
and their wives, 42 native workers, men and 
women, 103 communicants and 11 common 
schools with 727 pupils. 

CASTLETON : A town in the island of Jamaica, 
W. I.; station of the CWBM, with 1 missionary 
and his wife, 1 common school, 1 Young People's 
Society and 430 baptized Christians. 

CATHARINA SOPHIA: A village in Surinam, 
South America. Its climate is damp and rather 
unwholesome, the rainfall during the year aver- 
aging 79 inches. About the year 1849 the mis- 
sionaries of the Moravian Church obtained per- 
mission to visit the plantations on the lower 
Saramacca. A work of itineracy was at once 
commenced, ajid the labors of the brethren were 
greatly blessed. The managers of the Catharina 
Sophia Plantation, which at that time belonged 
to the government, were kindly disposed toward 
the missionary and assisted him in every way. 
In 1855 the government offered to hand over to 
the Moravian Church authorities a chapel and a 
dwelling house for a missionary, which had been 
built of pitch-pine in Holland, and brought out 
to Surinam for the use of emigrants, most of 
whom had left the place. The offer was thank- 
fully accepted, and the chapel was consecrated 
July 22, 1855. The congregation here consists 
of negroes, Chinese and East India coolies; there 
are now 1 missionary and his wife, 27 native work- 
ers, and 383 communicants. 

CATORCE: A mining town in Mexico, situated 
at an altitude of 8,800 feet, 120 miles north of 
San Luis Potosi. Station of the AFFM (1898), 
with 1 missionary physician and his wife, 2 native 
women workers, 1 common school and 1 Young 
People's Society. 

CATC RIDGE: A settlement in the northern 
part of Cape Colony, S. Africa; station of the 
South African Wesleyan Methodist Missionary 
Society, with 25 native workers, 6 places of wor- 
ship, 2 common schools, 1 Young People's 
Society, and 385 baptized Christians. Also sta- 
tion of the Netherlands Missionary Society, with 
2 missionary women and 1 common school. 

CAUCASIA: A province of southeastern Rus- 
sia, bounded on the north by the provinces of 
southern Russia and Astrakhan, on the east by 
the Caspian, on the south by Persia and Turkey, 

on the west by the Black Sea and the Sea of Azof. 
It is divided into two sections by the Caucasus 
range of mountains, that on the north being 
called Northern Caucasia, and that on the south 
Trans-Caucasia. Area, North Caucasia, 86,658; 
Trans-Caucasia, 95,799; total, 182,457 square 
miles. The population in 1897 was 9,723,523. 
It is composed of very heterogeneous elements. 
The languages found in the Caucasus are also 
numerous. The Russian government is making 
efforts to increase the use of the Russian language. 
Ararat Armenian and Azerbaijan Turkish are 
extensively used in the southern part of the 
region. As to religion many dissenters of the 
Russian (Greek) Church •are found in Trans- 
Caucasia, which has been used as a place of exile 
for such. The Armenian Church has a large 
body of adherents there, and there is also a large 
Mohammedan population. There are small 
Protestant congregations at several points in the 
southern province. 

Mission work has been attempted at various 
times in Trans-Caucasia by the Basel Missionary 
Society, the German -Baptists and the mission- 
aries of the ABCFM and PN, whose headquarters 
were in Persia and Turkey. Since the opening 
of railroads from Batum and Poti to Tiflis and 
the Caspian at Baku, missionaries have found 
that route most convenient for access to Persia. 
They have thus come in contact with a Nestorian 
colony at Tiflis, and the Armenians at Tiflis, 
Erivan, Schemachi, Shusha and Baku. The 
British and Foreign, and American Bible Societies 
have done a good deal of Bible work from Tiflis 
as a center. Protestant influence has been most 
powerful among the Armenians. 
Bryce (J.), Transcaucasia and Ararat, London, and New 

York, 1878; Cunynghame (A. A. T.), Eastern Caucasus, 

London, 1872; Wolley (C. P.), Savage Svanetia, 2 vols., 

London, 1883. 

CAVALLA: A settlement in the county of Cape 
Palmas, Liberia, W. Africa; station of the PE 
(1839). It was formerly the headquarters of the 
PE mission in the county. During the irruption 
of the heathen tribes (1887-1896) the station 
was broken up, the settlement devastated and the 
mission buildings destroyed. It is now (1901) 
occupied by 1 missionary and 3 native workers. 
There is 1 day school, 1 place of worship and 
116 communicants. 

CAWNPUR: A city in the United Provinces, 
India; entirely a British creation. It lies on the 
right bank of the Ganges, 130 miles above the 
junction of that stream with the Jumna. A 
body of English troops was stationed near this 
point something more than a hundred years ago, 
it being then on the frontier of the English 
territory. Around the camp, as its nucleus, 
a city sprang into being. It is now of 
great importance both as a railroad center 
and a manufacturing place; leather and 
cotton goods — especially the former — are 
produced here in large quantities. The chief 
historic interest centers about the memorial 
gardens, which occupy the site of the entrench- 
ments within which a body of about 1,000 Eng- 
lish (only 400 of whom were capable of bearing 
arms) took refuge from the native troops under 
Nana Sahib during the mutiny of 1857. The 
exact spot of the entrenchments is occupied by 
the memorial church; and the place of the well 
into which some 200 bodies were thrown, mostly 
women and children — the victims of Nana 
Sahib's massacre — is marked by a marble angel 




and a suitable inscription. Population (1901), 
197,170, of whom about 125,000 are Hindus. 

It is a station of the SPG (1839), with 22 mis- 
sionaries, men and women, 46 native workers, 
men and women, 10 common schools, 2 high 
schools, 1 orphanage, 1 hospital and 2 hotels for 
students. Also station of the Woman's Union 
Missionary Society of America (1879), with 

3 missionary women, 29 native women workers, 
11 common schools, 1 orphanage, and 1 training 
school for women. Also station of the ME, with 

4 missionaries, men and women, 29 native workers, 
men and women, 18 common schools, 2 high 
schools, and 430 professing Christians. 

CAXIAS: A town in the province of Maranhao, 
Brazil; station of the PS (1896), with 1 mission- 
ary and his wife, 2 native workers, a dispensary 
and 37 church members. 

CAYMAN BRAC : One of the Cayman Islands, 
off the N.W. coast of Jamaica, W. I. It has a large 
export trade in coconuts. Station of the Ja- 
maica Baptist Missionary Society (1887), with 1 
missionary and his wife, 5 places of regular 
worship, a Young People's Society, and 170 bap- 
tized Christians. 

CEBU : A town on the island of the same name 
in the Philippine Islands, situated on the east 
coast, and having considerable commercial impor- 
tance, being rated as the third port of the Philip- 
pines and a center of the hemp trade. It is 
well situated and destined to grow in the future. 
Population, 11,000. The people are of the 
Visayan stock and use a dialect peculiar to Cebu 
and Bohol. Station of the PN (1902), with 2 
missionaries and their wives and 1 preaching 

CEDARHALL: A station of the Moravian 
Missions, in the western part of the island of Anti- 
gua, W. I., established in 1822. At present 
(1900) under care of 1 missionary and his wife, 
with 14 native workers, men and women, 2 ele- 
mentary schools, and 358 communicants. 

CEDAR LAKE: A settlement in the territory 
of Saskachewan, Dominion of Canada ; station 
of the CMS, with 1 missionary, an elementary 
school and 34 communicants. 

CEDRAL: A village near Catorce in the state 
of San Luis Potosi, Mexico; station of the Amer- 
ican Friends Foreign Mission Association (1895). 
The working force is 1 missionary and his wife, 
1 missionary woman and 3 native workers, with 
1 chapel, 2 Sunday schools, a Young People's 
Society and 33 professing Christians. 

CELEBES : An island of the Malay Archipelago, 
under the control of the Dutch, situated east of 
Borneo, and, like it, crossed by the equator. 
Area, 71,150 square miles. The interior is ele- 
vated and generally mountainous; the coast is 
low and exceedingly rugged in its outline. The 
island is well watered by small streams, and 
contains several lakes. The population is esti- 
mated at 1 ,500,000 They are true Malays for the 
most part, Mohammedans in religion, and speak 
the Bughi and Macassar languages, for which 
they have two different written characters. The 
Bughis are wild and savage in appearance, but 
of a quiet and peaceable disposition. The abo- 
rigines of North Celebes are classed with the sav- 
age Malays, altho the civilizing influence of 
the Dutch has greatly promoted their advance- 
ment. They make obedient servants, are gentle 
and industrious, and readily assume the manners 

and habits of civilized life. The island was prob- 
ably discovered in 1525 by the Portuguese. The 
first intercourse with the Dutch was in 1607; 
they expelled the Portuguese in 1660, and since 
1677 both the tribes have been subject to them, 
tho the Bughis, by far the most cultivated 
islanders of the archipelago, have frequently 
endeavored to throw off the yoke of their masters. 
Mission work in this island has been carried on 
by the Netherlands Missionary Society for some 
70 years. The district of Minahasa, where the 
Dutch Government Mission of the 17th century 
had made some converts, has been entirely 
Christianized. There are about 150,000 Chris- 
tians in the island, 35,000 of them being commun- 
icants. This whole district has now been given 
up by the missionary Society, its Christian 
institutions being supported by the Colonial 
State Church as a government charge. 

Meyer (A. B.), Die Minahasse auf Celebes, Berlin, 1876; 
Wallace (A. R.), The Malay Archipelago, London, 1872, 
new ed., 1880. 

CENTENARY: A station of the LMS (1897) in 
Rhodesia, Africa, about 90 miles west of Bula- 
wayo, with (1901) 1 missionary, 2 native workers, 
and 2 elementary schools. 



CENTRAL PROVINCES of India: This chief 
commissionership lies, as its name implies, at the 
very heart of India. Its limits of north latitude 
are 17° 50' and 24° 27' ; of east longitude, 76° 
and 85° 15'. Its greatest length is 600 miles, 
from east to west, while its longest north and 
south line measures 500 miles. 

The population is chiefly (94 per cent.) rural. 
Only six towns have a population exceeding 
20,000. The most interesting fact regarding the 
Central Provinces is that its hill and j ungle regions , 
especially along the northern frontier, provided 
the refuge to which many of the aboriginal tribes 
resorted when too severely pressed upon by the 
later Aryan immigrants. These aboriginal tribes 
were largely of the Gond stock, and before 
the present political divisions came into existence 
a large part of what is now known as the Central 
Provmces was called, after the name of this 
great family of tribes, Gondwana. Yet of the 
entire population of the Central Provinces, these 
aborigines form but a comparatively small 
element, including both those who have embraced 
Hinduism as well as those stUl persisting in the 
old worship of their people; the last (1901) census 
enumerated only 1,744,556. Hindus number 
9,745,579, Mohammedans 307,202 and Jains 
48,183. It is worthy of note that while in this 
province Hindus, Mohammedans, Spirit Wor- 
shipers, Jains, and Buddhists all fell off in 
number in the decade 1891-1901, the Christians 
increased in the same time from 13,308 to 25,591, 
or 99 per cent. 

The first mission was planted at Nagpur by the 
Free Church of Scotland in 1844. The country 
was then governed by a dynasty, and the native 
rajah claimed to have absolute authority over 
his subjects, which in his opinion involved the 
right to prevent the baptism of Christian converts. 
The supreme government of India was appealed 
to by the missionaries, and declined to interfere; 
but public opinion became so aroused that the 
Nagpur prince finally receded from his position. 
The Church Missionary Society began work at 
Jabalpur in 1854, and it has since occupied 




other stations. The German Evangelical Synod 
(US), the Swedish National Missionary Society, 
the FFMA, and the ME also have important work 
in this province. Altogether 12 Protestant 
missionary societies occupy 29 stations in the 
Central Provinces, with 142 missionaries, men 
and women. In 1856 a colporteur, in a journey 
of 200 miles, entered many large villages and saw 
but two schools, with hardly 40 pupils. In 1901 
the schools conducted in connection with these 
mission stations alone number 116 of all grades. 

CERRITOS: A village near Guadalcazar, in 
the State of San Luis Potosi, Mexico; station of 
the Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church of 
the South (1901), with 2 missionaries (one a phy- 
sician), 1 missionary's wife, and a dispensary. 

CESAREA. See Kaisariyeh. 

CEYLON: The island of Ceylon lies between 
5° 53' and 9° 51' north latitude, and 79° 41' and 
81° 55' east longitude. It is somewhat smaller 
than Ireland, being 270 miles long and 140 wide, 
and containing 25,333 square miles. 

The greater portion of the island consists of 
great plains, for the most part heavily wooded. 
They occupy the northern half of the island and 
reach south on each side of the mountains, com- 
pletely encircling them with a plain of from 30 
to 70 miles in width. At the extreme north lies 
a group of small coral built islands commonly 
called the peninsula of Jaffna, which have an 
importance as one of the centers of population 
and of mission work. The southern central part 
is occupied by a group of mountains rising to the 
height of over 8,000 feet. Adam's Peak, the 
most prominent of these, 7,352 feet high, has on 
its top a mark said by Hindus to be a footprint 
of Siva; by Buddhists, of Buddha; by Moham- 
medans, of Adam. 

The Climate is very hot on the coast, but cooler 
in the mountain region. Owing to the surround- 
ing sea, the temperature is extremely uniform, 
and the climate is not considered unhealthful for 
Europeans. The seasons are two — a wet and a 
dry, whose time is governed by the two mon- 
soons. The northwest monsoon blows from 
October to May, the southwest from May to 
October. The rainfall in the north and south is 
small, but in the mountain region, especially on 
the southwest slopes, it is large. 

Ceylon is an English crown colony, ruled by a 
governor, aided by executive and legislative 
councils. Most of the higher officials are English, 
but the natives who are fitted for it are admitted 
to office. 

The Singhalese are said to have emigrated from 
Oude in 543 B. c. A kingdom was founded, 
records of which, as minute and as dry as the 
Saxon chronicles, were carefully kept. In 838 the 
Tamils, who had frequently invaded Ceylon, 
established a kingdom in Jaffna. In 1505 the 
Portuguese first visited Ceylon, and in 1518 
acquired possessions in it. In 1658 their terri- 
tory passed into the hands of the Dutch. The 
English gained possession of the island in 1796, 
and in 1815 the Kandian kingdom, the last ves- 
tige of native rule in Ceylon, fell into their hands. 

The population of Ceylon (1901) is 3,576,990, 
divided as follows: Singhalese, 2,334,817; Tamils, 
952,237; Moormen (Mohammedans, mostly 
descendants of old Arab traders), 224,719; Ved- 
dahs, 3,215; European descendants, 23,312; 
Europeans, 9,583. "The great centers of popula- 
tion are the western coast, from Negombo 

southward to Point de Galle; certain portions of 
the mountain region, and the northern extremity, 

The two principal races of the island, Singhalese 
and Tamil, differ widely from each other, not only 
in language and religion, but in vigor, intelli- 
gence, and personal characteristics. The Tamil 
is very industrious, and enterprising, so far as that 
word can be applied to any tropical race. Be- 
sides inhabiting exclusively the northern part of 
the island, the Tamils form the bulk of the labor- 
ing population in the cities, while the same race 
from South India supply the tea estates of Cen- 
tral Ceylon with almost their entire force of labor. 
The Tamils of the overcrowded peninsula of 
Jaffna push into other parts of the island in search 
of employment. Often they have a fair knowl- 
edge of English, and sometimes rise to honorable 

The Hinduism of the Tamils in Ceylon differs 
but little from Hinduism in South India. Like 
all the Dravidian races who have adopted the 
creed of Brahmanism, the Tamils retained much 
of their old worship of demons and nature. Devil 
trees and devil temples are common, and popular 
folklore consists largely of stories of the freaks of 
these demons. There is less of caste in North 
Ceylon than on the continent of India, tho even 
here it is the most difficult thing for Christianity 
to overcome. The Brahmans have here less, 
influence than in India. 

The Singhalese, occupying the southern and 
western parts of the island, are far less vigorous 
and energetic than the Tamils. Probably few 
races on the globe possessed of any degree of civili- 
zation have greater listlessness and indifference, 
greater torpidity of intellect and conscience, than 
the Singhalese. The religion of the Singhalese is. 
Buddhism of the "Lesser Vehicle," and more akin 
to that of Siam and Burma than to that of Tibet 
and Eastern Asia. It has borrowed from its 
neighbor, Hinduism, so that temples to Hindu 
gods exist in some places by the side of temples to 
Buddha. The Singhalese have also, like their 
Tamil neighbors, retained the lower forms of 
superstition which Buddhism nominally dis- 
placed, so that demon-worship is still practised 
among them. In recent years the Buddhist 
clergy of Ceylon have shown considerable energy 
in moving the people to resist the progress of 
evangelization. They have made special meet- 
ings and polemic address a feature of their enter- 
prise, aided in this by western enemies of the 
Gospel doctrine. They have also issued tracts 
and undertaken to teach the children religious 

Ceylon has been mission ground for nearly 400 
years, and has been the victim of some of the most 
remarlvable experiments in Christianization that 
the world can anywhere sliow. Its missionary 
history may be divided into three epochs, corre- 
sponding to the governments which held it : the 
Portuguese, the Dutch, and the English. 

Soon after the arrival of the Portuguese, Fran- 
ciscan monks followed, and Colombo was made 
the seat of a bishopric. In 1544 St. Francis 
Xavier preached among the Tamil fishermen of 
Mannar, in the liingdom of Jaffna, and baptized 
between 500 and 600 of them. 

Perhaps the chief means used by the 
Portuguese in Christianizing the Ceylonese 
is hinted at by the old historian, who 
says that many became Christians "for the 
sake of Portuguese gold." It is certain that bap- 


George W. 



tism was made the gate to preferment, and was 
regarded by the people as a political rather than 
a religious ceremony. To this day Catholic pro- 
cessions, which have a suspicious resemblance to 
those of Hinduism, are perpetuated in Jaffna. 

With the conquest of the Dutch the palmy days 
of Roman Catholicism ended. The priests were 
banished, Roman Catholic rites forbidden on pain 
of death, and the people were commanded to 
become Protestants. No unbaptized person was 
allowed to hold office or to own land, while Roman 
Catholics were placed under greater disabilities 
than Buddhists or Hindus. Soon converts to the 
Protestant Church were numbered by the hun- 
dred thousand. Again the Hindus of the north 
accepted the government religion with more 
readiness than the Buddhists of the south. But 
before long it was found that the converts were 
only Christians in name, and still held the beliefs 
and practised the rites of their old religions. 
Indeed, little was or could be done for their 
instruction. This state of things called forth the 
condemnation of the Classis of Amsterdam. 
Before the close of the Dutch period, the number 
of Christians had much diminished, and the min- 
isters themselves plainly saw the uselessness of 
the course of compulsion taken by their govern- 
ment. No sooner had Dutch governors been 
driven from Ceylon than everywhere, except in a 
few large towns, the whole system collapsed, 
temples were rebuilt, and the people gladly laid 
aside the last remnants of "government Chris- 

After the occupation of Ceylon by the English 
the BMS was the first Protestant missionary 
society to enter that field (in 1812). Its work is 
mainly among the Singhalese. The WMS sent 
its first missionary to Ceylon in 1814, and it soon 
took up work in the north and the extreme south 
of the island in order to reach both Tamils and 
Singhalese. The ABCFM entered Ceylon, con- 
centrating effort at Jaffna, when its missionary, 
Newell, was excluded from Bombay in 1813. 
The CMS mission for both Tamils and Singhalese 
was commenced in 1818 in Jaffna, in Kandy, and 
in Galle. The SPG took up work in Ceylon in 
1838, laboring in connection with the Bishop of 
Colombo. In 1886 the Salvation Army estab- 
lished a mission in Ceylon, with " barracks " in 
most of the large towns. The YMCA and YWCA 
each have representatives in the island. The 
total number of Christians connected with the 
various missions is not far from 30,000. The 
total of Christians of all denominations shown by 
the cen-sus (1891) is 302,127. 

Mission work has had peculiar difficulties to 
encounter in Ceylon. In addition to the abom- 
inations of Hinduism in the north, the fatalism 
of Buddhism in the south, and the torpidity of the 
tropics in both parts, there were the false impres- 
sions of nearly three centuries of "Government 
Christianity" to be rooted out before the seeds of a 
spiritual conception of Christianity could take 
root. This, however, has been done. While 
there is still much to be desired in the churches, 
there are many illustrations of pure, firm Chris- 
tian life. Tho seldom obliged to leave their 
homes and villages, as often in India, the con- 
verts have endured tests not less strong, in the 
daily influence of those about them. That so 
many of the Christians have, under these adverse 
circumstances, held their profession unspotted, is 
a matter almost of wonder. 

A good proportion of the churches support their 

own pastors and teachers. In Christian families 
there is a beautiful custom of taking a handful of 
rice from that to be prepared for each meal and 
setting it aside to be given to the Lord; and it is 
no uncommon thing for- a man to pledge a 
month's salary for some special object in the 

In comparison with either Hinduism or Bud- 
dhism, Christianity still appears very weak. But 
its growth cannot be counted by numbers, alone. 
It is confessed, even by those opposed to Chris- 
tianity, that the strength of the native religions 
is being sapped, and that the ultimate triumph of 
Christianity is only a matter of time. 
Capper (J.), Old Ceylon, illus., London, 1878; Ceylon Mission 
of the LMS, London, 1879; Harvard (W. M.), Narrative 
of the Establishment of the Wesleyan Mission in Ceylon, 
London, 1823; Howland (W. W.), Historical Sketch oj the 
Ceylon Mission, Boston, 1865; Leitch (M. & M,), Seven 
Years in Ceylon, New York, 1890; Rouse, Missionary 
Pictures, Indian and Singhalese, BMS, London. 

CHAIBASA: Chief town of Singhbhum district, 
Bengal, India. Population (1891), 6,900, of 
whom 4,000 are Hindus and the most of the 
remainder are Mohammedans. A large fair 
attended by 20,000 visitors is held here annually 
at Christmas time. Station of the Gossner Mis- 
sionary Society of Germany, with 1 missionary, 
38 native workers, men and women, 2 common 
schools, 1 high school, and 3,412 baptized Chris- 

CHAINPUR : A town in the Shahabad district 
of Bengal, India; situated about 120 miles S. W. 
of Patna, near the western border of the province. 
Station of the Gossner Missionary Society (Ger- 
many), with (1900) 2 missionaries, 34 native 
workers, 16 chapels, 2 elementary and 1 high 
school, 1 book depot, and3,360baptized Christians. 

CHAKA: A settlement on the W. side of 
Pemba I., off the eastern coast of German East 
Africa; station of the Anti-Slavery Committee of 
the Society of Friends (England), with 2 mission- 
aries, 2 missionary women, 1 elementary school, 
1 orphanage and a dispensary. 

CHAKRADHARPUR : A town situated 20 
miles N. W. of Chaibasa, in the Singhbhum dis- 
trict of Chota Nagpur, India. Station of the 
Gossner Missionary Society, with (1900) 1 mis- 
sionary, 18 native workers, men and women, 9 
chapels, 2 elementary schools and 1,100 bap- 
tized Christians. 

CHALDAIC LANGUAGE: A dialect of the 
Modern Syriac. 

CHALDEAN CHURCH: Name taken by those 
Nestorians of Mesopotamia who seceded from 
their own church in 1780 and accepted the 
supremacy of the Pope of Rome. This secession 
was led by the Nestorian Patriarch of Mosul, 
whose hereditary and official name was Mar Elias. 
The conditions on which these Nestorians sub- 
mitted to Rome included the recognition of the 
orders of their clergy, and the privilege of using 
their ancient liturgy. The office of patriarch 
was continued under the title of Patriarch of 
Babylon, but it soon ceased to be hereditary in 
the family of Mar Elias. The liturgy has been 
gradually modified in some respects, and at 
present the Chaldean Church is quite fanatically 
opposed to many of those very peculiarities of the 
Nestorians for whose preservation their fathers 
stipulated. The number of Chaldeans hardly 
exceeds 75,000. 

Laurie (T.), Dr, Grant and the Mountain Nestorians, New 



CUambcrlaln, George W. 

CHA-LING-CHAU : Town in the eastern part 
of the Province of Hu-nan, China; station of the 
CIM (1898), with (1900) 1 missionary physician 
and a chapel. 

CHALMERS, James: Born August 4, 1841. 
Died April 8, 1901. At the age of fourteen 
he entered a law ofRce at Inverary, and it was 
about this time that his great interest in foreign 
missions was aroused by a letter from a mission- 
ary in the Fiji Islands. So powerful was the 
impression made upon him by this letter that, it 
is said, on his way home from the religious service 
he stopped in a lonely spot and, dropping on his 
knees, prayed that God might make him a mis- 
sionary to the heUthen. After his conversion 
he spent three years in study, during which time 
he was engaged in mission work, and then he was 
accepted as a candidate by the London Mission- 
ary Society, entering Cheshunt College when 
about twenty-one to prepare for the foreign field. 
Leaving Cheshunt at the end of his second year, 
he completed his training in the institution at 
Highgate conducted by the London Missionary 
Society. In January, 1866, he and his bride set 
sail for Raratonga, an island in the Cook group 
in the Southern Pacific. After a series of mishaps 
their ship became a total wreck on the reef at 
Savage Island (Niue), and they finally arrived 
at Raratonga in the ship of the piratical Captain 
Hayes, one year and four months after leaving 
England. When Chalmers arrived at Raratonga 
he found that the natives had been raised from a 
condition of fierce savagery to a state of semi- 
civilization through the efforts of John Williams 
(1823) and Pitman and Buzacott; but immorality, 
especially drunkenness, still was rife. His time 
was largely occupied by his classes for the train- 
ing of native teachers and by visiting the differ- 
ent stations on the island on preaching tours; but 
he considered his work at Raratonga as a course 
of preparation for missionary labors in New 
Guinea, where heathenism and savagery were 
rampant. In May, 1877, under the London 
Missionary Society, he and his wife sailed for 
their new field. Their first settlement was made 
at a point on the bay lying between South Cape 
and Suau. By his remarkable tact and personal 
magnetism, he soon disarmed the suspicions 
of the people; a house of worship was erected in 
a short time, and at the end of two years the work 
at Suau was sufficiently advanced to be left in 
the care of a teacher. His time was spent in 
constant journeys to new fields, and one of the 
most important of these trips was his visit to the 
natives of Motumotu, a district on the coast some 
distance west of Port Moresby, where the people 
were especially fierce and bloodthirsty. His 
numberless perils by land and sea he referred to 
simply as "the pepper and salt" which gave zest 
to his further and greater efforts. He and his 
associate, W. G. Lawes, worked well together, the 
one discovering and opening new fields, the other 
mastering and reducing to working form the 
language, and training teachers for the work on 
those fields. In 1882, after making a visit to his 
old station at Suau, Chalmers was able to write : 
"For over two years there have been no cannibal 
ovens, no feasts, no human flesh, no desire for 
skulls. Tribes that could not formerly meet, 
except to fight, now meet as friends and sit down 
side by side in the same house, worshiping the 
true God." In October, 1888, Southeastern 
New Guinea was formally annexed to the British 
Empire, and Chalmers and Lawes rendered valu- 

able aid, through their knowledge of the country 
and people. After an absence of twenty years 
Chalmers returned to England, where his speeches 
aroused marked enthusiasm. In 1887 he visited 
Australia, and in 1890 he made a tour of the colo- 
nies. It was on a voyage to Samoa that Chalmers 
met Robert Louis Stevenson, the novelist, and a 
loving friendship was formed. In 1892 Chalmers 
was established at Saguane, at the mouth of Fly 
River; his field embraced the south coast of the 
island and the islands of Torres Straits as far as 
Murray Island. Sir William MacGregor, who 
for years held the position of Lieutenant-Gover- 
nor of New Guinea, wrote these words: "Many 
teachers died of illness; several were killed by the 
people for whom they had come to work. In 
the history of the mission there loom out con- 
spicuously the names of two great missionaries, 
the Rev. Dr. W. G. Lawes and the Rev. James 
Chalmers; the former typically a man of thought, 
the latter typically a man of action. Each of 
them has worked for and among the Papuans 
for over a score of years, and they still carry on 
work of the greatest importance." Since these 
words were penned Chalmers, the wonderful 
peacemaker of savage New Guinea, after living 
unscathed, tho many times condemned to 
death, has suffered martyrdom for Christ's sake. 
He and his young colleague, Oliver Fellowes 
Tomkins, were brutall}' murdered by a tribe of 
skull-hunters at Goaribari on the Fly River. 
Lovett (R.), James Chalmers, London and New York, 1902; 
Chalmers (J.), Life and Work in New Guinea, 

CHAMA: A town in the Gold Coast Colony, 
W. Africa, about 50 miles west of Cape Coast 
Castle; station of the WMS, with (1901) one 
ordained native minister, 47 other native work- 
ers, men and women, 3 elementary schools, 23 
preaching places, 3 Sunday schools, and 336 
professing Christians. 

CHAMARLAKOTA: A town in the Godavari 
district, Madras, India, situated 87 miles south- 
west of Vizagapatam. Population 13,400, of 
whom about 12,000 are Hindus. Station of the 
BOQ (1882), with 1 missionary and his wife, 3 
native workers, men and women, 1 high school, 
a Y. M. C. A., and 44 church members. Also 
station of the ELGC, with 1 missionary and his 

CHAMBA: A town in the Punjab, India, at the 
foot of the Himalayas, 75 miles E. of Jammu. 
Population, 6,000, of whom 4,700 are Hindus and 
1,200 Mohammedans. 

Station of the Church of Scotland Foreign 
Mission Committee (1863), with 5 missionaries, 
men and women (of whom 3 are physicians), 11 
native workers, 6 common schools, 1 dispensary, 
and 33 communicants. Also station of the CMS 
(1877) , with 2 missionary women, 6 native workers, 
men and women, and 4 village schools. 

CHAMBA LANGUAGE: Belongs to the Indie 
branch of the Aryan family of languages, and is 
a dialect of the Punjabi or Silch. It is spoken 
in Chamba, a native state south of Kashmir, and 
is written with a modified form of the old San- 
skrit alphabet. 

CHAMBERLAIN, George W.: Born at Water- 
ford, Penn., August 13, 1839; died July 31, 
1902. Appointed in 1866 to the Brazil Mission 
of the Presbyterian Board (North). One of the 
most conspicuous figures of the Evangelistic 
work in South America, a great, good and heroic 
man whose work has been visibly blessed of God 

Chamberlain, Jolin 



beyond what usually falls to the lot of those who 
serve Him in mission fields, a man to whom was 
revealed the secret of touching men's hearts. 

Young Chamberlain first went to Brazil for his 
health. He had no idea of remaining, but was 
soon infected by Mr. Simonton's enthusiasm, and 
returned home to prepare for his life work there. 
He entered Union Seminary, but the course was 
interrupted by the death of Simonton, and he 
hastened to Brazil. Tho the junior member 
of the mission, Simonton's mantle fell naturally 
upon his shoulders. He gave himself to the 
work of winning Brazil for Christ with all the 
enthusiasm of an impetuous, ardent nature. 
Wife, children, friends, means, all the energy of 
his nature, were swept into the campaign. 

The story of his life, when written, will make 
an inspiring book and will cover the essentials 
of the history of the Presbyterian Mission in 
Brazil. In Rio, Sao Paulo, Parana, Bahia, Sergipe 
and parts of Minas he is the best known of Amer- 
ican missionaries, and the indelible evidences of 
his work are found all over this vast area. He 
may be justly called the builder of churches and 
the founder of schools. 

Of great courage, matchless enthusiasm and 
tireless energy, he traversed the dangerous 
regions of the interior, on mule back, before the 
days of railways, and, tho repeatedly stoned, 
driven from the towns and threatened with 
death, he invariably returned and delivered the 
message, won hearts, and churches grew up in 
his wake. He was a peerless evangelist, pioneer 
and pathfinder. 

CHAMBERLAIN, John: Sailed for India as a 

missionary of the English Baptist Missionary 
Society in May, 1802, reaching Serampur January 
27, 1803. He had great aptitude for acquiring 
languages, and his progress in Bengali was so 
rapid that in a year he could speak it with an 
accuracy equal to that of any of the older mis- 
sionaries. In January, 1804, he visited Saugur 
Island, where thousands were gathered at the 
annual religious festival. To these people he 
and his associates preached the Gospel and gave 
books and tracts. In the spring of this year he 
was stationed at Cutwa, 75 miles north of Cal- 
cutta. In reviewing his labors he says: "It is 
now five years since Providence fixed my lot here. 
Millions of the heathen have heard the glorious 
report, either from preaching or from the dis- 
tribution of upward of a hundred thousand tracts 
and many hundreds of the Scriptures." In 
addition to this work he had a school of 40 pupils, 
for whose benefit he translated Dr. Watts cate- 
chism and a few hymns. Pie also made several 
visits to Berhampur, a military station 45 miles 
from Calcutta, preaching the Gospel to the 
soldiers, among whom he gathered a church of 
24 members. On account of his facility in ac- 
quiring languages, his knowledge of the original 
Scriptures, especially of Hebrew, and his zeal 
and experience in missionary work, he was sent 
in 1809 to Agra to establish a new mission. His 
health having failed, he sailed for England in 1827, 
but died on the passage. 
Lewis? (C. B.), John Chamberlain, Calcutta, 1876. 

CHANDA: Chief town of the Chanda district, 
Nagpur division. Central Provinces, India. It is 
surrounded by charming scenery, but is subject 
to malarial fever in the autumn. A celebrated 
fair is held here in April. Population, 16,200, of 
which number 14,600 are Hindus. Station of the 

Episcopal Church in Scotland (1898), with 2 mis- 
sionaries, 5 native workers, an orphanage, and a. 

CHANDAG: A village in the Kumaon district, 
United Provinces, India, situated among the 
lower spurs of the Himalayas not far from the 
boundaries of Kashmir. It has been the scene of 
the brave and effective work among lepers of 
Mary Reed, of the Methodist Episcopal (U. S.) 
Mission. A station of the Mission to Lepers in 
India and the East was opened here in 1883, and 
now has a chapel and a leper asylum. 

CHANDAUSI : A city in the United Provinces, 
India, situated in the district of Moradabad, 40 
miles W. of Bareilly. Population, 28,000, includ- 
ing 20,000 Hindus and 7,700 Mohammedans. 
Station of the ME (1881), with 16 native workers, 
4 chapels, 16 Sunday schools, 16 elementary 
schools, a Young People's Society and 446 pro- 
fessing Christians. 

CHANDBALI : A town in Orissa, Bengal, India 
9 miles from the sea and 60 miles N. E. of 
Cuttack. The climate tho hot is healthful, being 
tempered by sea breezes. The population is. 
about 5,000, chiefly Hindus, with some Moham- 
medans. The Telugu language and the Bengali 
and Hindustani here come into rivalry with the 
Uriye. The General Convention of Free Baptists 
established a station here in 1888, and the 
present force of workers consists of 1 missionary 
and his wife, with 26 natives, men and 
women; 11 elementary schools are conducted in 
the town and its dependencies and a church of 
25 members has been organized. 

CHANDKURI: Station of the German Evan- 
gelical (Synod) Missionary Society (U. S.) in the 
Central Provinces, India, 25 miles S. W. of Bilas- 
pur. The station has a force of 2 missionaries 
and their wives, with 24 native workers, men and 
women. There are 7 elementary schools, an 
orphanage, a dispensary, a book depot, 8 places 
of worship in the town and its vicintiy, and the 
number of baptized Christians is 520. The Mis- 
sion to Lepers in India and the East also has a 
station here, opened in 1896, and maintains a 
chapel, leper asylum and a home for the 
untainted childern of lepers. 

CHANDPUR: A town in the United Provinces, 
India, 37 miles east of Meerut. Population, 
12,300, sixty per cent, being Mohammedans. 
Station of the New Zealand Baptist Missionary 
Society (1898), with 1 missionary physician and 
his wife, a missionary woman, 4 native workers, 
men and women, 1 elementary school and a hos- 

CHANG-CHATI-FU: A city in the province of 
Fo-kien, China, situated about 25 miles W. of 
Amoy, and possessing an important trade in silk 
and some iron works. Population, about 
500,000. The LMS opened a station here in 1862, 
which is now occupied by 7 missionaries, men and 
women (one of them a physician), and 20 native 
workers, men and women. Connected with the 
station are a college, a hospital, 8 elementary 
schools, and a body of 351 professing Christians. 
The RCA also has a station here (1895), with 2 
missionary women, 17 native workers, men and 
women, 3 elementary schools, a high school, and 
14 places of worship in the city and surrounding 
regions. The number of professing Christians 
connected with the station is 312. 

CHANGOMBE: One of the villages on the main 



Chamberlain, Jobn 

land near Mombasa, British East Africa. The 
CMS opened a station here in 1898, which has at 
present 4 missionaries, men and women, 7 native 
workers, men and women, 5 schools, a dispen- 
sary, and 16 communicants. 

CHANG-KIA-KAU: A city lying 110 miles N. 
W. of Peking, China, and commonly called Kal- 
gan. It lies at an altitude of 2,555 feet, and is an 
important depot of Russian trade. Population, 
75,000. Station of the ABCFM (1865), with 5 
missionaries, men and women, 13 native workers, 
9 places of worship, 9 Sunday schools, 1 elemen- 
tary school, 2 high schools, 1 hospital, 1 dispen- 
sary, a book depot and 236 church members. 

CHANG-Ptr-HSIEN: A town in the province of 
Fo-kien, China, about 100 miles S. W. of Amoy; 
occupied as a station by the Presbyterian Church 
of England in 1874, and now having a force of 9 
missionaries, men and women (of whom two are 
physicians), who carry on a hospital, a dispensary 
and a medical school. 

CHANG-SHAN-HSIEN: A town in the province 
of Che-kiang, China, about 30 miles W. S. W. of 
Ku-chau-fu. Station of the CIM (1878), with a 
missionary and his wife, 1 missionary woman 
and 6 native workers, men and women. In the 
town and its neighborhood are 5 preaching places, 
and there are 41 professing Christians. 

CHANG-SHU: 1. A village in the province of 
Kiang-si, China, situated near the Kan River, 
and occupied in 1895 as a station by the CIM. 
The present force is 1 missionary and his wife and 
2 native workers. The number of baptized 
Christians is 10. 

2. A town in the southern part of the province 
of Kiang-su, China. The MES occupied it as a 
station in 1890 and now have there 1 missionary 
and 2 native workers, with 3 preaching places and 
a book depot. The number of professing 
Christians is 112. 

CHANG-TE-FU: A city in the northern part of 
the province of China, Honan; occupied in 1896 
as a missionary station by the Presbyterian 
Church in Canada. The force now working there 
consists of 9 missionaries, men and women (of 
whom two are physicians), and 5 native workers. 
Besides a chapel, they maintain a hospital and 
■dispensary. It is also a station of the Cumber- 
land Presbyterian Missionary Board, with 5 mis- 
sionaries, men and women, 1 native worker and a 

CHAO-CHAU-FU: A city of about 200,000 
inhabitants in the province of Kwang-tung, 
Cliina, situated about 20 miles north of Swatow. 
It is the prefectural city of an agricultural dis- 
trict, containing over ten million inhabitants; 
occupied as a mission central station by the Pres- 
byterian Church of England in 1890. This mis- 
sion now has there (1901) 2 missionaries (one a 
physician), 1 missionary's wife, 1 missionary 
woman, not married, 5 outstations, 1 hospital, 1 
dispensary, 1 medical class. There is also a fine 
church building. The number of communicants 
reported from Chao-chau-fu jointly with Swatow 
is 2,140. Also a station of the ABMU (1894), 
with a missionary and his wife and 4 native work- 
ers, who have 3 places of worship in the district 
and 80 church members. 

CHAO-CHENG: A town in the province of 
Shan-si, China, situated 30 miles N. N. E. of 
Ping-yang-fu. Station of the CIM (1901), with 
2 missionaries. 

CHAO-TUNG-FU: A city in the N. E. part of 
the province of Yunnan, China, which has impor- 
tant lead and silver mines. Population, about 
50,000. Station of the Bible Christian Mission- 
ary Society (1888), with 4 missionaries, men and 
women, a native worker, an elementary school 
and a dispensary. 

CHAO-YANG-HSIEN: A town in the northern 
part of China, beyond the great wall and near 
the western border of Manchuria, lying about 
120 miles N. W. of New-chwang. It was occu- 
pied as a station by the LMS in 1887, and in 1902 
was transferred to the PCI, the LMS having de- 
cided to withdraw from Mongolia. A school has 
been opened and the number of church mem- 
bers is 217. 

CHARLOTTENBURG: A station of the Mora- 
vian Missions (1835) in Surinam, South America, 
and was the first plantation opened to the Mora- 
vians for the preaching of the Gospel, fifty years 
after the missionaries began their labors in Suri- 
nam. It lies on a curve of the river Commewyne, 
about 50 miles E. of Paramaribo. The banks of 
the stream are lined with fresh, green woods, 
among which here and there pretty hamlets may 
be seen. At present the missionary force con- 
sists of 1 missionary and his wife, with 12 native 
workers, men and women. There is a chapel 
and a school and the number of communicants is 

CHAtT-KIA-KAU : A town in the province of 
Ho-nan, China, about 30 miles west of Chen- 
chau-fu. Station of the CIM (1884), with a force 
of 12 missionaries, men and women (one of whom 
is a physician), and 14 native workers, men and 
women. In the town and its neighborhood there 
are 9 preaching centers and 290 communicants. 

CHAVAKACHERI : A town in the southern 
part of the Jaffna Peninsula, Ceylon, situated 11 
miles E. of the town of Jaffna. Station of the 
ABCFM (1834), temporarily vacant and under 
care of missionaries at Udupitti. It has (1900) 
69 native workers, men and women, 26 elemen- 
tary schools and a dispensary. The number of 
church members is 285. 

CHEFOO. See Chi-fu. 

CHEMULPO: The most important of the 
treaty ports of Korea. The climate is temperate. 
It has about 2,000 foreign residents, most of 
whom are Japanese. Station of the ME, with 1 
missionary and his wife, 5 native workers, 15 
chapels, 2 elementary schools, 1 theological class, 
10 Sunday schools and 1,081 professing Chris- 
tians. Station also of the SPG (1890), with 2 
missionaries, 1 native worker, 1 elementary 
school and 10 communicants. 

CHENCHAUFU: A city and district head- 
quarters in the eastern part of the province of 
Ho-nan, China. Station of the CIM (1895), 
with (1900) 1 missionary and his wife, 3 mission- 
ary women (of whom one is a physician), 2 native 
workers, 1 chapel and 23 professing Christians. 

CHENGALPAT: Railway junction and chief 
town of the district of the same name; situated 
35 miles S. W. of Madras, India. Population, 
6,200, mostly Hindus. Station of the UFS, with 
1 missionary and his wife, 1 missionary woman, 
62 native workers, men and women, 20 elemen- 
tary schools, 3 high schools, a YMCA and 125 
church members. Also station of the Leipzig 
Missionary Society (1893), with 2 missionaries, 
1 missionary's wife, 6 native workers, 4 chapels, 

Cliildren's Special 



4 elementary schools and 357 professing Chris- 

CHENG-KU-HSIEN : A town in the province of 
Shen-si, China; situated about 15 miles west by 
north of Han-chung. Station of the CIM, with 
(1899) 2 missionaries, one of them married, 7 
native workers, 3 preaching places, 1 school, a 
dispensary and 87 professing Christians. 

CHENG-TXJ-FU : Capital of the province of 
Sze-chwan, China. It is one of the finest cities 
in China, situated in the middle of a fertile and 
well-watered plain, surrounded by graceful hills. 
The people are reputed to be among the most 
polished in the empire. Population (1887) esti- 
mated at 800,000. Station of the CIM (1881), 
with 3 missionaries (two of them married), 9 
native workers, men and women, 6 chapels, 3 ele- 
mentary schools and 251 communicants. Also 
station of the Methodist Church of Canada (1891), 
with 5 missionaries (one a physician), 2 chapels, 
1 elementary school, 1 high school, a hospital, a 
dispensary, a printing house, 2 book depots and 
17 communicants. Also station of the Woman's 
Missionary Society of the Methodist Church in 
Canada (1893), with 8 missionary women (two of 
them physicians), 1 high school, 1 orphanage, a 
dispensary and a hospital. Also station of the 
ME, with 3 missionaries and their wives, 5 native 
workers, men and women, 2 chapels, 4 elemen- 
tary schools, 1 high school and 64 professing 

CHENG- YANG- KWAW : A town in the province 
of Ngan-hwei, China; station of the CIM (1887), 
with (1900) 3 missionaries, 2 native workers, and 

1 chapel. 

CHEN-KIANG-FU : A city in the province of 
Kiang-su, China; situated about 40 miles west of 
Nan-king on the right bank of the Yangtse River. 
Population (1901) 140,000. The place is a com- 
mercial center of importance. Its climate is 
damp, subject to sudden changes of temperature, 
but not unhealthful. Station of the ME, with 
(1901) 1 missionary and his wife, 4 missionary 
women (two of them medical), 2 native workers, 

2 preaching places, 1 elementary and 1 high 
school and 79 professing Christians. Also station 
of the PS (1883), with (1901) 3 missionaries and 
their wives, 4 preaching places, 2 outstations. 
Also station of the CIM (1888), with 5 mission- 
aries, men and women (two of them physicians), 
1 native worker, 1 chapel, a hospital, and 11 com- 
municants. Station also of the SBC, with (1902) 

3 missionaries (one of them a physician), 2 wives 
of missionaries, 2 women missionaries, 3 native 
workers, 3 chapels, 3 schools and 35 church mem- 
bers. The National Bible Society of Scotland 
also has a station here under care of agent who 
supervises a depot and 25 native workers. In 
the missionary and commercial reports the name 
is written Chinkiang. 

CHEN-YUEN-HSIEN : Town in the province of 
Kan-su, China, about 35 miles N. E. of Ping- 
liang-fu. Station of the CIM (1897), with (1900) 
3 women missionaries, 3 native workers, 1 chapel, 
1 high school and 1 refuge for opium eaters. 

CHERIBON: A seaport on the north coast of 
Java, 125 miles east southeast of Data via. It is 
the residence of a Dutch governor and a place of 
considerable trade. Population, 52,000, inclu- 
ding about 600 Europeans. Station of the Nether- 
lands Missionary Society (1865), with 1 mission- 
ary and 59 communicants. 

CHERRA PUNJI : A village in the Khasia Hills, 
Assam, India, lying 25 miles S. W. of Shillong, at 
an altitude of 4,455 feet. The rainfall here is the 
heaviest known, the mean annual amount being 
474 inches. The population is somewhat over 
5,000. Station of the Welsh Calvinistic Method- 
ist Missionary Society, with 1 missionary and 
his wife, 25 native workers, men and women, 16 
elementary schools, 1 theological seminary, 22 
preaching stations, 14 Sunday schools and 482 
church members. 

CHESTER, Rev. Edward, M.D. : Born in New 
York City, July 12, 1828; graduated from 
Union Theological Seminary in 1857 and entered 
upon his work in the Madura Mission, India, 
under the ABCFM in the spring of 1859. He 
spent nearly forty-two years on the foreign field, 
and in pursuing the duties of a faithful missionary 
of the Cross, his influence as an educator and a 
physician was deeply felt throughout the region 
of his labors. Altho before leaving America he 
prepared himself for medical practise in India, he 
spent a year at Madras, studying the forms of 
disease peculiar to the tropics, at the hospital, 
infirmaries and dispensaries of the presidency 
capital. When he was put in charge of the 
Madura hospital and dispensarj', he completely 
transformed the methods of these institutions and 
the mission, and the patients increased from 
3,100 to 51,000 annually. To these thousands 
the Gospel was daily preached, and a leaflet, 
which served also as a dispensary ticket, was 
given, containing the ten commandments, the 
Lord's Prayer and a brief statement of saving 
truth. Dr. Chester established the local mission- 
ary dispensary and medical service, and through 
his consecrated energy the district of Madura was 
better provided with a medical service for com- 
bating epidemics and common tropical diseases 
than any other district of South India. In 
addition to his extensive medical work. Dr. Ches- 
ter, during all of these years, had charge of a mis- 
sion district, with a large number of pastors, 
preachers, teachers and Bible women under his 
supervision, and also a number of schools and 
separate classes received his personal attention. 
He laid down his burden and entered into rest at 
Dindigul, March 26, 1892. 

CHEUNG MAI : A city in the Laos country of 
Siam, 300 miles N. by W. of Bangkok. Charm- 
ingly situated among hills on the Mah Ping River. 
Population, 100,000. Station of the PN (1867), 
with (1901) 16 missionaries, men and women (one 
of them a physician), 4 native workers, 7 elemen- 
tary schools, 2 high schools, 1 theological school, 
a hospital, 2 dispensaries, a printing house and 
1,906 church members. 

CHEUNG RAI: A city in the Laos country, 
Siam, about 100 miles N. E. of Cheung Mai. 
Station of the PN (1897), for some years known 
in the reports as Cheung Hal. The force occu- 
pying it (1901) consists of 2 missionaries (one of 
them a physician) and their wives, with 1 native 
worker. There are in this field 1 elementary 
school, 1 hospital, a dispensary, a Young People's 
Society and 312 church members. The field is 
nearly 200 miles long from north to south and 
nearly as wide from east to west. Within its 
limits are three organized churches. 

CHHINDWARA: Chief town of a district in 
the Narbada division. Central Provinces, India. 
It is situated on a well-watered table land, 64 
miles N. E. of Nagpur. The population is about 



Children's Spcclul 

9,000, two-thirds of the people being Hindus. It 
was occupied as a station by the Swedish National 
Missionary Society in 1885. The present force 
there consists of 8 missionaries, men and women 
(one being a physician), and 16 native workers, 
men and women. The various enterprises of the 
station are 3 elementary schools, an orphanage, 
a dispensary and theological school, besides the 
usual preaching services. There are 83 profess- 
ing Christians connected with the station. It is 
also a circuit of the ME, with 3 native workers 
and 97 professing Christians. 

CHHUNG-JU: A town in Korea, 55 miles S. E. 
of Seoul; station of the PS (1896), with 7 mission- 
aries, men and women (one a physician), 3 preach- 
ing places and 10 communicants. 

CHIANG-CHIU. See Chano-chau-fit. 

CHIANG HOA : Town on the west coast of the 
island of Formosa, about 5 miles S. W. of Taichu. 

Station of the PCE (1889), with (1901) 2 mis- 
sionaries (one a physician), 1 dispensary, 1 hos- 
pital and 23 preaching places (in district). The 
communicants connected with the central sta- 
tions of Tainan and Chiang Hoa conjointly are 
2,190. (The Chiang Hoa field is spoken of by 
the missionaries as the Taichu field very fre- 
quently) . 

CHICACOLE: A town in the district of Gan- 
gam, Madras, India; situated on the Nagavulli 
River, 10 miles from the sea. Population (1891) 
18,200, almost all Hindus. The BMP opened a 
station here in 1878, which now has 1 missionary 
and his wife, 2 women missionaries, 8 native 
workers, men and women, 1 high school, a hos- 
pital, a book depot and 45 church members. The 
name is also written Cicacole. 

CHI-CHAU-FU: A city in the province of 
Ngan-hwei, China, situated on the right bank of 
the Yangtse River. Station of the CIM, with a 
missionary and his wife, 2 missionary women, 4 
native workers, an elementary school and 21 pro- 
fessing Christians. 

CHICHOLI: Town in the Narbada division. 
Central Provinces, India; station of the Episco- 
pal Church in Scotland (1894), with (1900) 2 mis- 
sionaries and their wives, 1 missionary woman, 4 
native workers, an elementary school and 21 

CHI-CHOW. See Ki-chau. 

CHIENG-TOONG. See Keng-tdng. 

CHI-FU: A city and seaport in the province 
of Shan-tung, China. It is a commercial center 
for goods of foreign manufacture. The popula- 
tion is about 120,000. The climate is more agree- 
able to Europeans than th-at of any other open 
port in China, and the place is visited as a sani- 
tarium by foreign residents in the south of the 
empire. It was occupied as a station by the PN 
in 1862, which now has a force there of 9 mission- 
aries, men and women, 94 native workers, men 
and women (in the city and in 50 outstations). 
There are 39 preaching places, 40 elementary and 
4 high schools, a dispensary, and 1,445 commu- 
nicants. It is a station also of the SPG (1874), 
with 2 missionaries and 1 missionary's wife; 
also station of the CIM (1879), with 39 mission- 
aries, men and women (one a physician), 4 native 
workers, 1 chapel, 5 schools, a hospital, a dis- 
pensary and 50 professing Christians. 

CHIHUAHUA : Capital of the State of Chihua- 
hua, Mexico; situated at the base of the Sierra 

Madre Mountains, 225 miles south of El Paso, 
Tex.; founded in 1706. The climate is dry, mild 
and healthful. It is a center for trade to neigh- 
boring gold and silver mines, and quite a number 
of citizens of the United States reside there. It 
was occupied as a station by the ABCFM in 1882, 
and the force now there is 1 missionary and hia 
wife, 2 missionary women and 8 native workers, 
men and women. There are 2 elementary schools, 
a high school, a book depot, 17 out.stations, 2 
young people's societies, and 291 communicants. 
Station also of the Woman's Board of the ME8 
(1890), with 3 missionary women. 

CHIKALDA : A village in the district of Ellich- 
pur, Berar, India; situated 43 miles N. W. of 
Amraoti, in the of beautiful scenery, at an 
altitude of 3,656 feet. Population about 5,000. 
Station of the Kurku India Hill Mission (1894), 
with (1901) 3 missionary women, 1 native 
worker, 1 orphanage, and 1 school, with industrial 

CHIKBALLAPUR: Town in the Kolar dis- 
trict of Mysore, India, situated 36 miles N. E. of 
Bangalore. Population about 11,500. Station 
of the LMS (1892), with (1901) 2 missionaries, 
15 native workers, men and women, 7 schools, 
and 30 church members. 

CHIKORE: A settlement in the Melsetter 
district of Rhodesia, near the frontier of Portu- 
guese, East Africa, and 170 miles W. by 8. from 
Beira. Station of the ABCFM (1897) , with (1901 ) 
1 missionary physician and his wife, 2 native 
workers, 1 elementary school, 4 preaching places 
and 1 dispensary. 

CHILAMBARAM: Town in South Arcot, 
Madras, India, situated 21 miles S. by W. of 
Cuddalore. Its temples to Siva are held in great 
reverence in S. India and Ceylon. Population, 
18,600, of whom 17,000 are Hindus. Station of 
the Leipzig Missionary Society (1866), with (1900) 
1 missionary and his wife, 15 native workers, 10 
preaching places, 9 elementary and 1 high school, 
and 847 baptized Christians. 

(1868) : The aim of this organization is to supple- 
ment the work of the Church, Sunday school, and 
home among children by its various publications, 
evangelistic services, and the Scripture Union, 
which was organized in 1879. Open air services 
are held, and by means of caravan and tent 
workers go from village to village, holding services 
and distributing Christian literature among the 
children. A Foreign Fund is used for the issue 
of such literature in 51 different languages, which 
is freely given to missionaries of all denominations, 
and grants are made to anyone visiting foreign 
countries who will make use of them. The 
Scripture Union Fund pays for itself through the 
contribution of one penny per annum from the 
members of the Union, and from the sale of its 
literature. Besides the publication of books, 
leaflets, etc., an illustrated penny monthly, Our 
Own Magazine, is issued, with a circulation of 
120,000. Our Boys' Magazine is published, with 
special reference to school boys. The Scripture 
Union Fund supplies a Scripture Union Almanac 
and the monthly Letters, which are also trans- 
lated into French, Dutch, Danish and Swedish, 
and issued in the Tamil monthly magazine. The 
greater part of the expenses for administration 
of the work of the mission is covered by the 
profits transferred to the General Fund, so that 




contributions are used directly for tlie work. 
Income (1902), General Fund, £5,205 16s; For- 
eign Fund, £799 2s ; Scripture Union Fund, 
£3,033 18s. 

Headquarters, 13a Warwick Lane, Paternoster 
Row, London. 

CHILE, Republic of: Lies on the western coast 
of the southern portion of South America, between 
the crest of the Andes and the ocean, from the 
Camarones River to Cape Horn. Its population 
is about 2,700,000, chiefly of Spanish descent, but 
including 50,000 Indians. The language is Span- 
ish, and the religion of the state is Roman Catho- 
lic. Other religions are tolerated by law. The 
climate is that of the temperate zone, the temper- 
ature being modified, however, by the high moun- 
tains and by proximity to the sea. 

While the Andes wall in Chile on the east, they 
are being pierced by a railroad which will soon 
open communication with theArgentine Republic. 

Mission work is carried on by the Presbyterian 
Church (North), the ME, and tlie SAMS. The 
last-named Society is gaining a hold upon the 
Araucanian Indians. 

CHILLAN: Capital of the province of Nuble, 
Chile; situated about 70 miles N. W. of Concep- 
cion. Population (1901, estimated), 33,506. Sta- 
tion of the PN (1894), with (1901) 1 missionary 
and his wife, 1 native worker, 1 elementary 
school and 130 church members. 

CHILPANCINGO: A town in the State of 
Guerrero, Mexico; situated about 65 miles N. E. 
of Acapulco, at an altitude of 4,800 feet. Station 
of the PN (1894), with (1901) 2 missionaries and 
their wives, 11 native workers, 3 schools, 8 out- 

CHINA: By the name China is designated the 
possessions of the Chinese Empire in its widest 
sense, tho it is used more correctly and nar- 
rowly to name the eighteen provinces which 
constitute China proper. This immense country 
comprises one-third of Asia, one-tenth of the 
inhabitable globe, and is divided politically into 
China proper, Manchuria, Mongolia, Chinese 
Turkestan and Tibet. 

The eighteen provinces, and usually one of the 
provinces of Manchuria (Sheng Ching) in addi- 
tion, form that part of the empire which is dis- 
tinctively known as China, and are inhabited by 
Chinese. The area of China is variously esti- 
mated from 1,348,870 to 2,000,000 square miles, 
since its western boundary is unsettled. Its 
greatest length in 1,474 miles and its breadth 
1,355 miles. "It contains almost as much terri- 
tory as is comprised in the states lying east of 
the Mississippi River, with the addition of Texas, 
Arkansas, Missouri, and Iowa." 

Physical Features : In the northeast is a great 
plain, and the remainder of China is divided into 
three basins, separated by mountain ranges 
which run from east to west, and drained by 
three great rivers and their tributaries. In 
general, all that part of the country lying west of 
the meridian of 113° is mountainous; from that 
line down to the coast, south of the Yangtse- 
kiang (kiang meaning river) , is found hilly coun- 
try alternating with the river valleys. 

The Great Plain extends from the Great Wall 
north of Peking to the junction of the Yangtse 
River with the Poyang Lake, and is 700 miles in 
length. It has an average breadth of 200 miles 
north of latitude 35° north, and covers an area of 
70,000 square miles; while in the parallel of the 

Yellow River it increases in breadth to 300 miles, 
until it reaches the Yangtse River, where it 
stretches 400 miles inland, covering 140,000 
square miles in this southern portion, making 
a total of 210,000 square miles. This basin 
supports a population of 177,000,000, and is more 
densely populated than any other part of the 
world of equal size. 

Rivers : Of the many rivers which flow from 
west to east across China the principal ones are 
the Hwang Ho (Yellow River), the Yangtse- 
kiang (Yangtsze River), and the Chu-kiang 
(Pearl River). The Yellow River is of very 
little use for navigation, owing to the great differ- 
ence in its depth during summer and winter. 
On account of its habit of overflowing it has been 
justly called "China's sorrow." In a direct line 
its distance from source to mouth is 1,290 miles, 
but its numerous windings make its length double 
that distance. 

The Yangtse River is deep and affords pas- 
sage for ocean steamers for 200 miles from its 
mouth, and with the aid of modern engineering 
it would be possible for steam vessels to ascend 
2,000 miles. Its basin is estimated at 548,000 
square miles, and in the amount of water it dis- 
charges, the system of tributaries belonging to 
it, and the means of communication which it 
aifords, it ranks with the great rivers of the 

The Chu-kiang is formed at Canton by the union 
of the North, East, and West rivers, of which 
the latter is by far the largest. They drain the 
southwestern part of China, an area of 130,000 
square miles, and, being intersected by numerous 
tributaries, form a perfect network of streams 
which afford the means of communication 
between tlie three southwestern provinces. 

Lakes : There are few large lakes in China. 
Tung Ting Lake, in Hunan is the largest one. 
In Kiangsi is found the picturesque Poyang Lake, 
having important fisheries. There are smaller 
lakes in Chili, Shantung and Yunnan, which 
support aquatic populations. 

Provinces : In the division of the provinces 
made a hundred years ago, eighteen provinces 
were defined. The cities in the different prov- 
inces have a suffix added to the name, which 
denotes the rank of the city and the grade of the 
district of which it is the chief town. These 
suffixes are fu, chau, and hsien, and in general 
may be rendered "department," or prefecture, 
"primary district," and "secondary district," 

Climate : The eighteen provinces occupy the 
same relative position on the continent of Asia 
as the United States occupy on the continent of 
North America, and the variations of temperature 
are similar. The average temperature of China 
is lower than that of any other country in the 
same latitude. The humidity, especially in the 
south, is relatively greater than countries in like 
latitudes, and, consequently, the heat is harder 
to bear. The excessive heat causes the preva- 
lence of typhoons during July, August and 

History: Chinese history may be divided 
into five periods: the Mythological, the Legend- 
ary, the Ancient, the Medieval, and the Modern. 
1. The Mythological period comprises all the 
time antecedent to the accession of Fu Hsi, B.C. 
2852, and native writers assign to it myriads of 
years. Pan Ku is described as having formed 
the world during this time. With chisel and 




mallet he cut out the earth; the sun, moon, and 
stars are his works; his head became mountains; 
his breath, wind and clouds; his voice, thunder; 
from various parts of his body came fields, rivers, 
and trees, and finally from the insects on his 
body came man. After this Chinese creator 
■came a trinity of powers who ruled for thousands 
•of years, and to them are ascribed many of the 
inventions of the ancient time. 2. The Legend- 
ary period ends with the accession of Yu in 2205. 
Eight monarchs in all reigned during this time, 
and the tales that are related of their prowess