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Full text of "The medical language of St. Luke; a proof from internal evidence that "The Gospel according to St. Luke" and "The acts of the apostles" were written by the same person, and that the writer was a medical man"

CORNELL 

UNIVERSITY 

LIBRARY 




GIFT OF 
Alfred C, Btmes 



Date Due 



































































































































PRINTED IN 


U. 5. A. 


(**f ''"' 


NO. 2323 



Cornell University Library 
BS2595 .H68 



Medical language of, St. Luke: a proof fr 



olln 




3 1924 029 342 254 



THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 




The original of tiiis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924029342254 



DUBLIN UNIVERSITY PRESS SERIES. 



THE 

MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE 

THAT 

"THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO ST. LUKE" 

AND 

"THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES" 

WHSH WRITTEN BT TBE SAME PERSON, AND THAT TBE 
WRITER WAS A MEDICAL MAN. 

BY THE 

REV. WILLIAM KIRK HOBART, LL.D., 

EX-SCHOLAR, TTMNITY COLLEGE, DUBLIN. 




DUBLIN: HODGES, FIGGIS, & CO., GRAFTON-STREET. 
LONDON : LONGMANS, GREEN, & CO., PATERNOSTER-ROW. 

1882. 



J- 35 




XJlX-ll — 



OPS 



DUBLIN : 

PRINTED AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 

BY PONSONBY AND WELDRICK. 



TO THE 

RIGHT REV. WILLIAM ALEXANDER, D.D., D.C.L., 

LORD BISHOP OF DERRY AND RAPHOE, 
ij^is WCaxl 

IS, 

BY HIS LORDSHIP'S PERMISSION, 

RESPKCTFULLV INSCRIBED 

BY 

THE AUTHOR. 



PKEFACE. 



rpHE words and phrases cited in this work are 
- either peculiar to the third Gospel and the 
Acts of the Apostles, or else, though not peculiar 
to them, are for the most part more frequently 
employed in these writings than in those of the 
other N. T. authors. 

The extant Grreek medical writers from whom 
the examples of the medical use of such words are 
taken are Hippocrates, b. c. 460-357 ; Aretaeus, 
who lived in the first century after Christ, probably 
in the reign of Nero or Vespasian; Gralen, a.d. 
130-200; and Dioscorides, who lived in the first 
or second century of the Christian era. 

The edition of these writers quoted is that of 
Kiihn (Leipsic 1821—30). Hippocrates is quoted by 
the Sections of Foesius ; Aretaeus, by those of the 
Ed. Oxon., both of which are given in Kuhn ; 
Dioscorides, by the usual division of chapters. 



viii PREFACE. 

Gralen's works are so extensive, occupying twenty- 
one volumes in Kiihn's edition, that they have been 
quoted by the volume and page (appended in 
brackets), as well as by the titles and sections of 
the several treatises. 

In order to bring the work within reasonable 
bounds, it was found necessary that the number 
of examples of the medical use of a word should 
not, in any case, exceed ten ; in many instances 
they could be cited indefinitely. The few cases 
in which they are not of very frequent use in 
the medical authors have been noticed under the 
words, and the examples have, generally speak- 
ing, been taken, as far as possible, from all the 
medical authors, to show the continuous and 
varied use of the words in medical language. An 
asterisk has been prefixed to those words which 
are peculiar to the third Gospel and the Acts of 
the Apostles, and also to a few words, which, 
though not peculiar to these writings, are used 
in them alone of the New Testament in a medical 
sense. 

A Note has been appended, at the end of 
the book, which, though not strictly connected 
with the subject of the work, has reference to a 
question which is of some interest in connexion 
with St. Luke in his medical capacity. 



PREFACE. ix 

The author here desires to express the obliga- 
tion he is under to the Provost and Senior Fellows 
of Trinity College, Dublin, for their favour and 
liberality in having admitted this book into the 
Dublin University Press Series, and in having 
given a donation towards defraying the expenses 
of publication. He also desires to return his 
thanks to the Rev. Henry Wall Pereira, M. A., 
M. R. I. A., of Sutton Wick, Berkshire, and 
William Millar, Esq., Ahoghill, Co. Antrim, for 
their valuable assistance and suggestions in the 
correction of the work as it passed through the 
press. 



CONTENTS. 



An asterisk has been prefixed to those words which are peculiar to the third Gospel and 
the Acts of the Apostles. It has also been prefixed to some words which, though not 
peculiar to these writings, are used in them alone of the N. T. in a medical sense. 



PART I . 

SECTION PAGE 

I. Luke, iv. 23. — 'larpe, ^epaireuo-ov trtavTov 1 

II. Luke, iv. 35. — Healing of th.e demoniac in tte 

synagogue of Capernaum, . 2 

*plTrTtlV. 

III. Luke, iv, 38, 39, 40. — Healing of Simon's wife's 

mother, p,nd of divers diseases, ... 3 

*7rDp£Tos /i^yas. 

IV. Luke, V. 12, and xvii. 12. — The cleansing of the 

leper, and the cleansing of the ten lepers, . 5 

*'7rX-qprjs A.£7rpas. 
XeTrpos. 

V. Luke, V. 18. — The healing of the paralytic, 6 

*7rapa\t\viJ.cvoi. 

VI. Luke, vi. 6. — The healing of the withered hand, . 7 



xii CONTENTS. 

SECTION PAGE 

VII. Luke, vi. 18, and Acts, v. 16.—" They ttat were 

vexed with unclean spirits," . . 7 

*lvox^c'i(T0ai. 
*6^Xe2cr9ai. 

VIII. Luke, vi. 19. — "There went virtue out of him, 

and healed them all," . ... 8 

IX. Luke, vii. 10. — The healing of the centurion's 

servant, ....... 10 

vyiaCveiv. 

X. Luke. vii. 15. — The raising of the widow's son, . 11 

XL Luke, vii. 21. — "In that same hour he cured many 
of their infirmities and plagues, and of evil 
spirits," . . .... 12 

XII. Luke, viii. 27. — The demoniac of Gadara, . . 13 

XIII. Luke, viii. 43, 44. — The woman with an issue of 

blood, . .14 

*i<TTdvai. 
pvcrii at/iaros. 
*7rpo(ravoXt<rKeiv. 

Note on the raising of Jairus's daughter. 

XIV. Luke, ix. 11. — "And healed them that had need 

of healing," ... . 16 

OepaTreia, 

XV. Luke, xi. 38, 39. — The healing of a demoniac 

child, . . .... 17 

*d<JI)pos. 

d/7ro)(<j>peLV. 
*iTrL/3X.€7riiv. 



CONTENTS. xiii 

SECTION PAOE 

XVI. Luke, xiii. 11. — The -woman with a spirit of in- 
firmity, .... .20 
*a,vaKVTrTeiv. 
*a'7roXveiv. 
*avop6ovv. 

XVII. Luke, xiii. 32. — "Behold, I cast out devils, and I 

do cures," ... .23 

^tacrts. 
aTTOTcXetv. 

XVIII. Luke, xiv. 2. — The healing of the man with a 

dropsy, . . . . . 24 

XIX. Luke, xviii. 40. — The healing of the blind man 

near Jericho, . . .25 

*irpocray€iv. 

XX. Luke, xxii. 50. — The healing of Malchus's ear, . 26 

XXI. Luke, X. 30. — Parable of the good Samaritan, . 26 

*KaTaSiiiv. 
*Tpavft,a. 

*iX.aiov Kol oivos. 
*e7rt/ieA.ewr6ai. 
*iTravip'xc(T6ai. 
*a,VTLTrap ip^tcrOai. 
*KaTa. crvyKvpiav. 
TTtpiirtTTTetv. 

XXII. Luke, xvi. 19. — Parable of the rich man and 

Lazarus, ....... 31 

*ijA.K(o/iei'os. 
cXkos. 
*KaTa\j/v)(€LV. 
*68vvaicr6ai. 
*^a.(Tp,a. 



ITTr]pLt,ii 



lir CONTENTS. 

SECTION PAOE 

XXIII. Acts, iii. 7, 8. — The healing of the lame man at 

the beautiful gate of the temple, ... 34 

*j3da-is. 
*(r<j)vpd. 
*<rT€pfOvv. 

XXIV. ActSjV. 5, 6. — Ananias and Sapphira struck dead, 37 

(TDCTTcWflV. 

XXV. Acts, ix. 18.— St. Paul's sight restored, . . 38 
*a.7ro7rLTrTeiv. 
*X.eTriS€'S. 

XXVI. Acts, ix. 33. — Aeneas healed, . . . 40 

*irapoA.£A.u/*ei'os. 

XXVII. Acts, ix. 40.— Tabitha restored to life, . . 40 

XXVIII. Acts, X. 10.— St. Peter's trance, . . 41 

*€KO-Ta(res. 

XXIX. Acts, xii. 23.— Death of Herod Aggrippa I., . 42 

*(7K<uA,1JK6y3p(OTOS. 

XXX. Acts, xiii. 11. — Elymas struck blind, . .43 
*hn,TriiTTUV. 



XXXI. Acts, xiv. 8. — The healing of the lame man at 

Lystra, .45 

*d8waTos. 
*6p66i. 

XXXII. Acts, xix. 12. — Diseases cured at Ephesus, . 47 
*d7raX\a(rcrEiv. 



CONTENTS. XV 

SECTION PAGE 

XXXIII. Acts, XX. 8, 9. — Eutyohus restored to life, . 47 

*KaTa<l}4p€iv. 
*VTn'0'S ^aOvi. 

XXXIV. Acts, xxviii. 3-6.— The viper on St. Paul's 

hand innocuous, . . . . 50 

^m/jLirpaa-Oai. 
*Karwn-iirTf.LV, 
*6-qpwv = i)(i^va, 

XXXV. Acts, xxviii. 8. — The father of Publius 

healed, .... .52 

*trvperoi. 
*Sv(TevTepia. 



PART II. 

XXXVI. Luke, vi. 48, 49 — Compared with Matt. 

vii. 27, . . . . . 54 

*TrX7ift,ft,vpa. 
*'irpoa'pr[ywp-i. 
*(Tvp,trLTrTeiv. 

XXXVII. Luke, vui. 6, 7 — Compared with Matt. xiii. 

5, 6, 7, and Mark, iv. 5, 6, 7, . . 57 

*crvfji,<l>ve(7$ai, 

XXXVIII. Luke, xviii. 25 — Compared with Matt. xix. 

24, and Mark, x. 25, . . . . 60 
*Tprjfji,a. 

XXXIX. Luke, xi. 46— Compared with Matt, xxiii. 4, 61 
*Trpo(nl/aviiv ivl tiov haKTvXutv. 



•i CONTENTS. 

SECTION PAGE 

XL. Luke, iv. 37 — Compared with Mark, i. 28, . 63 

St. Luke's use of aKorj, Pacravi^tiv, 
and pdtTavo^. 

XLI. Luke, viii. 14 — Compared with Matt. xiii. 

22, and Mark, iv. 19, . . . 65 

*TeA,£cr<^op£rv. 

XLII. Luke, iii. 20 — Compared with Matt. xiv. 3, 

and Mark, yi. 17, . . . 66 

*KaTaKXtUi,v. 

XLIII. Luke, V. 31 — Compared with Matt. ix. 12, 

and Mark, ii. 17, . 67 

XLIV. Luke, ix. 38 — Compared with Matt, xvii, 15, 

and Mark, ix. 17, . . . 67 

*eirij8A.€7reiv. 

XLV. Luke, ix. 41 — Compared with Matt. xvii. 

17, and Mark, ix. 19, ... 68 

*7rpoo"ay£i.v. 

XL VI. Luke, ix. 14 — Compared with Matt. xiv. 19 ; 

Mark, vi. 39; John, vi. 10, . 68 

'/cara/cXtVeiv. 

XLVII. Luke, viii. 45 — Compared with Mark, v. 31, 70 

XLVIII. Luke, v. 26— Compared with Matt. ix. 8, 

and Mark, ii. 12, . . . 71 

*irapdZo^ov. 

XLIX. Luke, xi. 17 — Compared with Matt. xii. 25, 72 
*8iai/0J7/i,aTO. 

L. Luke, xix. 36 — Compared with Matt. xxi. 8, 

and Mark, xi. 8, 73 

^VTrO(TTpu>WVIJ.L. 



CONTENTS. 



SECTION 



PAGE 



LI. Luke, xiv. 35 — Compared -vritli Matt. v. 13, . 74 

LII. Luke, xxi. 30 — Compared with Matt. xxiv. 32, 

and Mark, xiii. 28, .... 75 
*7rpo)SaAA£iv. 

LIII. Luke, xxii. 56 — Compared with Mark, xiv. 66, 67, 76 
arevi^eiv. 

LIT. Luke, xxii. 59 — Compared with Matt. xxvi. 73, 

and Mark, xiv. 70, .... 77 

LV. Luke, vi. 44— Compared with Matt. vii. 16, . 78 

LVI. Luke, xxii. 41-46 — Compared with Matt. xxvi. 

37-46, and Mark, xiv. 33, . . . 79 
*ivi,cr)(yuv. 

*t8ptus. 

*6p6iJi,j3oL at/xaros, 
Kara^aiveiv. 

LVII. Luke, i., 86 

*hn)(€ip€iv. 
*8t)Jy)j(rts. 

^aVTOTTTrj'S. 

vTrjpeTrjs. 

TrapaKoXovOetv. 
*6vfJi,i5,v. 
*(Tv\\aii(3d.veLV. 
*(TvWafi^a,veLV iv yaxTTpt. 

iv yaoTTpl e)(«v. 
*lyKi)os. 
*(rT€tpa. 

*SiaTapdiT(Tei,v, 
b 



CONTENTS. 



SECTION 

LVII. Luke, i.— , 



LVIII. Luke, ii., 



LIX. Luke, iii., 



LX. Luke, iv., 



LXI. Luke, v., 



*. 



*-. 



eKTapacrcruv. 
Tajoa^os. 

*dva<pti}V£iv. 

^TTLVaKlSlOV. 

■!rapa)(p^lJi.a. 



^(Ttrapyavovv . 
*avevpi(rKeiv. 

eOeiv (eio)6a). 



*8tao-£t£tv. 
*KaTacr6tetv. 

avamUiv. 

TrpoirrSivai. 



"avaTTTva-dCiv. 

^TrTV(T(Te.lV. 

■n-i/nrXrjiJLi. 
Ip.irifi.'irXrifi.i. 
TrXrjOoi;. 
*6(j>pv'S. 



*a.TroTrXvveiv. 
*a7ro/tacro"£tv. 

eKfidcrcreiv. 

Kovuv. 

aTToXoriiLV. 

SiappT^yvv/u. 
*Trepipp'^yvviM. 
^irpocrp^yi/u/Ai. 



99 



101 



106 



110 



CONTENTS. xix 

SECTION PAGE 

LXI. Luke, V. — continued. 

*iK)(<i>peiv. 

a/Troxtapuv. 
*k\ivi8wv. 
*iiKuvdpiov. 

kXCvt]. 

Kpd^^aTos. 

LXII. Luke, vi., 117 

*SLaWKT£p€Vil,V. 

*airai.Teiv. 

LXIII. Luke, vii 120 

*BiaXeLTr£LV. 
*£K\et7r£tv. 

LXIV. Luke, viii., 121 

*<rv[jiTr\i^povv. 
*eKTr\i^povv. 

*£K7r\^p<l)0"tS. 

LXV. Luke, ix., . 124 

avaXaix^dveiv. 
*v'7ro\ai/,^dv£iv. 
*<7v\\ap,^dveiv. 
*(rvXXafJi,^dveiv iv yacrrpL 
*a-vjjiTr€piKanPdvuv. 
*SLax<^pi^£iv. 

a/TTOX'^P^Cil'V- 

LXVI. Luke, x., 128 

KoWaaOai. 
*irpocrKoXA.ao"^at . 

TrepLTTLTTTeiV. 

f/HTriirTEtv. 
b2 



CONTENTS. 



SECTION 

LXVI. Luke, x. — i 

EKTrtTTTCtV. 

*iTniriTrTeiv. 

*crvfji.irCirTei,v. 
*dn-on-tirT£ti/. 
*a,VTim'7rTei,v. 

LXVII. Luke, xi., 131 

IJi€(rOVVKTlOV. 

^tcrirepa. 

opOpos. 
*op9pios. 
*Ka6i7/Aeptvos. 

o-KopTTt'os. 

*Ta evovTa. 

LXVIII. Luke, xii., 137 

^Ip-PaXKeiv. 

*dvTLl3dXXeiv. 

*IJ,iTa^d.X\tiV. 
*irpo^iiXXuv. 
*<TV[ji,j3a.k\eLV. 
*vvol3aX\eiv. 

*£Kj8oA.i;. 

*ev<jiopiLV. 

*TiXt(T<j>Op€iV. 

*/i€Te(opt^ccr^at. 

LXIX. Luke, xiii., 145 

^aTroKXeUiv. 
^KaraKXtUiv. 



CONTENTS. 



SECTION 



PAGE 



LXX. Luke, xiv., 146 

dvuiTepov. 

*dvO)T£piKOS. 

*Trpoa-ava^aCveLV. 

KOLTa/iaCveiv. 
^Kard/SatrL'S. 
*a,va.Tr7jpoi. 



» 



'fevyos. 

LXXI. Luke, xv., ... ... 150 

*Spaxfj.v- 
*fM'a,. 

LXXII. Luke, xvi. and xvii., ..... 151 

*Xv(TtT€\eiV. 

*crvK(ifji,Lvos- 
^crvKOfjiOpfa. 
*Trapari^p7]<Ti?. 

irapanjpeiv. 
*StaT)^joetv. 

T'^pTjCTK. 

LXXIII. Luke, xviii. and xix., . , .156 

*8ia8i}(€(r6qL. 
*8taSo;(OS. 

^iv8ixea-6ai. 
^Trpay/iaTevecrOaL. 
^Siairpayp.aTevecrOai. 
*iKKpe/jLa<T0ai. 

LXXIV. Luke, xx. and xxi., . . . .161 

*cl)6^r]Tpa. 
^'irpocrhoKia. 

TrpoaSoKav. 

aTTopia. 

a/rropeiv. 



xxii CONTENTS. 

SECTION 

LXXIV. Luke, xx. and xxi. — i 
evTTopLa. 
*eiiropeicT6ai.. 
^Siairopciv. 

*a.vd.ij/v^K, 

^KpanrdXr/. 
*/3apvveiv. 



LXXV, Luke, xxii., 168 



StatTTrav. 
*irepunrav. 
*SucrTavot. 
*8i,d(rTrjijLa. 

LXXVI. Luke, xxiii., 172 

SLa<TTpi<j>eiv. 

*crv(7Tpe</i£tv. 
*cru(TTpo^r]. 

vvoaTpi^nv. 
*i'7n(T)(y£tv. 
*lvi(r)(y€iv. 

vypos. 
^a-uvoKoXovOeiv. 

irapaKoXovOuv. 
*6empCa. 

LXXVII. Luke, xxiv., 177 

*X^pos. 

*6[uX€lV. 



*Trapal3id^e(r6ai. 
Pid^eadai. 
*/8iatos. 



CONTENTS. xxiii 

SECTION PAOB 

LXXVII. Luke, xxiv. — continued. 

*a.6poi^eLV. 

*crvvaGpoL^€iv. 

*irvvaki^€iv. 

OTTTOS. 

*Kr]pCov. 

LXXYIII. Acts, i., 183 

*T€/C/A'^piOI'. 

^Treptfiiveiv. 
*Trprivri<s. 
vTrepwov. 

LXXIX. Acts, ii., 186 

*a~uy\4eLV. 



*2- 



*y\svKOi. 
*av(TTqp6s. 
*lx€crTova-Oai. 
*Trpot7Trriyvviu. 

LXXX. Acts, iii., 191 

*CTWTpi)((UV. 

*crvvSpofjirj. 
*VTroTp4)(eLV. 
*KaTaTpi-)(ti,v. 
*o\oK\ripia. 



LXXXI. Acts, iy., 195 

*Stairoi'eti/. 
KaTO/iroveiv. 

*SiaV£IJ.€lV. 

*Ka66\ov. 
^irpoaSelcrOai.. 



XXIV CONTENTS. 

SECTION PAGE 

LXXXII. Acts, v., 199 

atr^aXfis. 
*«irtcr^aX9;s. 

*TrpoxeipL^£<T6a,i. 

*i'7nx€ipetv. 

*Si,a,Trpieiv. 

*Sia\veiv. 

*aTro\veLV. 

LXXXIII. Acts, vi. and vii., 204 

*crvyKiveiv. 

KaKOVV. 

*(rvveX.avv€iv. 
*a.TrtXavveiv. 
*avaTpi(t}£LV. 
*Ppvxw. 

*a-K\ripoTpdxT^Xo's. 



LXXXIV. Acts, viii., 



209 



avaipe<Tis. 

dvaipeiv. 
*Siau'Treip{tv. 
*XviJ,aCv£a-6ai. 

KaTepxe<r9ai. 

Siipxea-Oai. 
*St€^epxe(Tdai. 
*iTravipxea-6ai. 
^avTvn-apipxia-BaL. 

Trpovirdpxeiv. 

VTrdpxuv. 

LXXXV. Acts, ix. and X., 215 

TTupacrOai. 
*oSonrop€iv. 
*Bio8eveLV, 



CONTENTS. 



XXV 

PAGE 



SECTION 

LXXXV. Acts, ix. and x.- 

*666vr]. 
*£l(rKa\eLV. 

LXXXVI. Acts, xi. and xii., 220 

hiarpi^iw. 

rOKTOS. 

LXXXVII. Acts, xiii., 223 

*(rvi'Tpo0os. 
*OT;yyei'£ia. 
'''vTnipeTv.v. 
VTn]p4T'r]^. 
^iraporpvvuv. 
*iTreyupeiv. 
*'irpoTpiirea-dai . 

LXXXVIII. Acts, liv. and xv., 227 

*£K7njSav. 

*iKSiriy€ia-9ai. 
*St^y5jcrts. 
*o;;^A.£tv. 
*ivo)(X.eiv. 

*Tap£VO)(X.£lV. 
*6)(\oV TTOtCtl/. 

arep 0)(Aov. 
*dva(TKevd^eiv. 
*a,'jroa-Kevd^eiv. 

wopofutr/ios. 

irapofwecr^ot. 

LXXXIX. Acts, xvi. and xtu., 234 

^iiraKpoacrdai. 
*iKTrep,Trciv. 



xxvi CONTENTS. 

SECTION PAGE 

LXXXIX. Acts, xvi. and xvii. — continued. 
dvaire/tireti/. 
*7n/057. 

^VTrepopav. 
opC^eiv. 

XC. Acts, xviii., 238 

£KTtyaO-(7£tV. 

*dwoTtvaa"treti'. 
*i'7rLvev£iv. 



XCI. Acts, xix., 242 

ipyacria. 
*<nJVapTrd^€LV. 

XCII. Acts, XX., 244 

*<rwiTre(r9ai. 
*Trapartivtw. 
avyi]. 

*KaTacrT£\\eiv. 
*trno-TEXX£tv. 

XCIII. Acts, xxi. and xxii., 248 

'^(TvvOp-mre.iv. 
*axriqp.o^. 
*aKpi^eia. 
*dKpi/3^S. 
aKpifiZi. 
*TiiiMpv,v. 

* o'vp/trapiLvai. 
crvv. 



CONTENTS. 



SECTION 



PAGE 



XCIY. Acts, xxiii., 255 

*BiayLvu>a'Keiv. 
*Stayvo)(ris. 

■7rpOyLV(!><TK€l,V. 
TTpOyVllKTK. 

*iv4Spa. 
*iveBpeveLV. 
*a.vaSi.B6vai. . 



XCV. Acts, xxiv., 261 

*KaT6p6o)fji,a. 
*avop6ovv. 
*6pe6^. 
^trvvTopLias. 



XCVI. Acts, XXV. and xxvi., 264 

*0avTa(rta. 

oXoyos. 
*/caTa \6yov. 
^hriKovpCa. 

*TrepLTpiTreiv. 
*TrpoTpiiriw. 

XCVII. Acts, xxvii., 269 

*TrapaiV£iv. 
*dvev6eT0's. 



*V7roi,wvvvfi,L. 
*)(eifJi,d^e<rOai.. 
*(7a\os. 



:xvm CONTENTS. 

SECTION PAGE 

XCVII. Acts, xxvii. — contimied, 



(TITLOV. 

diroTeXtiv. 

evOvfjLiiv. 
*epet8etv. 
^aTToppmreiv. 
*pirrT£tv. 
*Siafl>evy€iv. 
*KoXviJ,j3S,v. 

XCVIII. Acts, xxviii 284 

(TUiTqpia. 
*(j)pvyavov. 
"Bipix-q. 
*Ka6a.TrT€iv. 

oToiros. 
^iTriylvea-Oai. 

*aKw\vT<as. 

Note on tlie probability of St. Paul's employment of 

St. Luke's professional services, .... 292 

Index 299 



ERRATA. 

Page 14, line 23, for Actius read Aetius. 
„ 294, ,, li[ from {oot, /or iinep read virep. 



INTEODUCTION. 



THE purpose of this work is to show, from an examina- 
tion of the language employed in the third Gospel 
and the Acts of the Apostles, that both are the works of a 
person well acquainted with the language of the Greek 
Medical Schools — a fact which, if established, will strongly 
confirm the belief that the writer of both was the same 
person, and was the person to whom they have been tradi- 
tionally assigned by the Church {a), who is mentioned by 
St. Paul (Ooloss. iv. 14) as "Luke, the beloved Physician" — 
an identity which some have doubted or denied. 

The subject is one which has not hitherto, so far as the 
author is aware, been specially examined. The only notice of 
it with which he is acquainted is a paper in the Gentleman's 
Magazine for June, 1841, in which, among other interesting 



(«) It is apparently assumed throughout this work that St. Luke -was the 
writer of both the third Gospel and the Acts of the Apostles, but this has been 
done merely for convenience of reference, and to avoid the constant repetition 
of the expressions "the writer of the third Gospel" and "the writer of the 
Acts of the Apostles." The fact of the identity of authorship is intended to be 
left to be inferred from the evidence adduced in the work in connexion with the 
writer's phraseology and style. 



XXX INTRODUCTION. 

remarks on the medical style of St. Luke, attention is called 
to the following words, viz., vSpwmKoc, TrapaXikvixivoQ, 
aj(XvQ, irapo%v<Tfi6g, KpamaXri, nvpsToc fiiyag, and avvaxo- 
fisvog, as being technical medical terms employed by him. 
It will be seen, from the investigation which is the object 
of the present work, that these form but a smaU portion of 
such words, either peculiar to St. Luke, or which, though not 
peculiar, are yet for the most part more frequently employed by 
him than hy the other New Testament writers. 

The subject seemed to divide itself naturally into two 
heads, under which it has therefore been arranged: — 

(1). Words and phrases, employed in the account of the 
miracles of healing, or of those of an opposite character, which 
show that the writer was more circumstantial in relating 
these than the other Evangelists, that he was also well 
acq[uainted with the diseases which he describes, and that 
in describing them he employs language such as scarcely 
anyone but a medical man would have used, and which 
exhibits a knowledge of the technical medical language 
which we meet with in the extant Greek medical writers. 

(2). Words and phrases, employed in the general narra- 
tive not relating to medical subjects, which were common in 
the phraseology of the Greek Medical Schools, and which a 
physician from his medical training and habits would be 
likely to employ. 

It may be noticed in connexion with this latter head 
that Greek medical language was particularly conservative 
in its character, the same class of words being employed in 
it from the time of Hippocrates to that of Galen. 



INTRODUCTION. xxxi 

It is remarkable, besides, that, with the exception of 
Hippocrates, all the extant Greek medical writers were 
Asiatic Greeks. Galen was a native of Pergamus in Mysia ; 
Dioscorides, of Anazarba in Cilicia ; Aretaeus was surnamed 
the Oappadocian from his native land ; and Hippocrates, 
though not an Asiatic Greek, yet was born and lived in 
close proximity to the coast of Asia Minor, being a native 
of Cos, an island off the coast of Oaria. Hence it is 
natural that a similarity of diction should occur in writers 
who were trained in the Medical Schools of Asia Minor. 

St. Luke, too, was in all probability an Asiatic Greek. 
He was bom at Antioch in Syria (Eusebius, Hist. Heel. iii. 4), 
and " was probably of Gentile origin, if we may judge from 
Ooloss. iv. 11, 14, where St. Paul, having saluted several 
persons — ^Aristarchus, Marcus, Jesus Justus — adds that they 
were of the cireumcision, separating them in this manner from 
those mentioned immediately afterwards, among whom is 
Luke, and, as his name is a Greek one, he was in all pro- 
bability a Greek." (Davidson: Infroduetion to the New 
Testament.) 

It will be found in the second part of this work that, in- 
dependently of such obvious medical phrases as rprjjuo jScXovrje 
(Luke, xviii. 25), ^aia-uXo^ Trpoa^paveiv (Luke, xi. 46), Opo/jt^oi 
u'lfiaTOQ (Luke, xxii. 44), apxai o06vr\q (Acts, x. 11), &c., 
there is a class of words running through the third Gospel 
and the Acts of the Apostles, and for the most part peculiar 
to these of the N. T. writings, with which a medical man 
must have been very familiar, as they formed part of the 
ordinary phraseology of Greek medical language. In thus 



xxxii INTRODUCTION. 

using words to which he had become habituated through 
professional training, St. Luke would not be singular, for 
the Grreek medical writers, also, when dealing with unpro- 
fessional subjects, show a leaning to the use of words to 
which they were accustomed in their professional language. 
A few instances of this, paralleled from St. Luke, may be given 
for the sake of illustration :— *a(Tr}juoe, the technical term for a 
disease "without distinctive symptoms," is applied by Hippo- 
crates to a city — fiia TroXtwv ovk aarifioQ (Hipp. Bpis. 1273), 
just as it is by St. Luke (Acts, xxi. 39), ovk aafifiov ttoAewc 
TToXiVtie. * avaXriijiQ, the technical term for "recovery from 
iUness," or "the suspension of the arm, &c., in a sling," 
occurs in the expression rije /oajSSou v avaXr^ipig in Hippo- 
crates, Epis. 1274, St. Luke's use of it, in Luke, ix. 51, 
Tijc avaXri^etug avTov, being similar. * avaSidovai, a word 
applied to the distribution of nourishment throughout the 
body, or blood through the veins, is used by Hippocrates, 
instead of SiSovai or airoSiSovai, of a messenger delivering 
a letter, oi Trjv rrig ttoXjoc IttiotoAiiv avaBovreg irpiafiiic 
(Hipp. Epis. 1275), St. Luke employing it in the same way 
in Acts, xxiii. 33, avaSovng Triv iwiaToXriv t(S riyefiovi. 
* imxiipiiv, a word very much used in medical language, is 
employed by Hippocrates and Gralen in the same way as 
it is by St. Luke in commencing his gospel — St. Luke, i. 1, 
eiruSriTrsp ttoXXoi ETTEXfipijaav avaraKaaBai, Hippocrates 
beginniug his treatise " De Prisca Medicina " in these 
words : oKoaoi einx^ipttaav irspi ijjrjoiKJje Xiyiiv rj jpa(j>Eiv ; 
and Galen his " De Foetuum Formatione " thus: iripi rijg 
Twv KVovfiivwv SinXaasuQ iTrsxeiptitrav fiiv te Koi ^iKoao^oi 
jpdfiiv. Gralen often employs irapaKoXovdnv exactly in 



INTRODUCTION. xxxiii 

the sense St. Liike does (ch. i. 3j, wMe applying it else- 
where in a more strictly medical sense to the symptoms 
which accompany various diseases. In a similar way we 
find St. Luke using words in an ordinary sense in some 
places which he employs in a medical signification in others, 
e. g. aSvvaTog, Luke, xviii. 27, meaning " impossible," in 
Acts, xiv. 8, "impotent"; 0Eparr£ia, Luke, xii. 42, "a house- 
hold," Luke, ix. 11, "medical treatment"; laTuvai, used in 
its ordinary sense elsewhere, and in Luke, viii. 44, in a 
medical application, tori? 17 pixriq tov alfxaTog ', tKoroo-ie, 
Acts, iii. 10, " astonishment," and Acts, x, 10, " a trance." 
Instances such as the foregoing could easily be multiplied. 

This medical bias in the diction of the general narrative 
in the third Gospel and Acts of the Apostles may be con- 
veniently classified as follows : — 

(a). We find running throughout the history a number 
of words which were either distinctly technical medical terms 
or commonly employed in medical language, e. g. * 'iamg, 
Oipaireia, * avvSpOfifi, * avarpotjifi, * avakri^piQ, * airoKaraaTaaig, 

* Siayvwaig, * SiayiviIxiKHv, * KpanraXri, * TraparijpijcrtC} &C. 

(J). It will be found that St. Luke runs on the same 
compounds of the simple word which the medical writers 
employ, and that these are either for the most part peculiar 
to him, or that he makes more frequent use of them than the 
other N. T. writers, e, g. * Siaaihiv, * Karaadeiv, avaaduv — 
■jreQiwiTrruv, ifiiriTTTeiv, sKTriTTTeiv, * iTrtTr^TrrEiv, * KUTaTrlTrrHv, 

* avfiTr'ntTuv, * airoirlTrreiv — * ifi^aWsiv, * ava^aXXeiv, * avTi- 
(5aX\£iv, * SiafiaXXuv, * fXSTa^aXXsiv, * wpofiaXXEiv, * (tuju- 
/SdXXetv, *iijroj3aXA£iv, */3oA);, *avaj3oX»?, *£k/3oX^ — an-0(T7r^v, 

c 



xxxlv INTRODUCTION. 

* avaairav, Siaanqv, * nepunr^v — Siaarpi^siv, * iiriaTpo^ri, 

* avaTpi(j)etv, * ffuffrpo^rj, vTroaTpi(j>Biv — * ox^Eiv, * ivo^eiv, 

* TTapSVO^tiv, * iixXoV TTOltiv &C., &0. 

(c). There are certain classes of words employed by 
St. Luke which were used in medical language in some 
special relation. Thus he alone uses the special naedical 
terms for the distribution of nourishment, blood, nerves, 
&c., through the body, viz., * Siavi/mv, * Siaairdpeiv, * ava- 
SiSovai; also the medical terms for "to stimulate," viz., 

* iircjEipHv, * Trporpiirsiv, * napoTpiviiv ; and the terms to 
denote an intermittent or a failing pulse, viz., * SiaXtlTreiv 
and * ekXeiVeiv ; &c. 

{d). We meet with the same combinations of words as in 
the medical writers. In addition, for example, to stich tech- 
nical phrases as rpijjua jSeXovrje — SaKTv\(^ irpo<T\pa{ietv — 
dpofi^oi a'inaTog—apxaL odovng, we find such expressions as 
aaiTog SiareXuv — dg fiaviav TTspiTpiirEiv—aKptfiivg Siayivwa- 
Ksiv — avwrepov ■n-poaavafiaivEiv — tTrixuptlv aveXtlv, &c., 
which are met with also in medical language. 

(e). There are some words which are confined to St. Luke 
and the medical writers in the sense which they bear in his 
writings, e.g. *tvi<yxvEtv, "to impart physical strength" — 
*iv(j)0pe1v, "to be productive." 

(/). There are other words which are very rarely used by 
any except medical writers in the sense which they bear in 
St. Luke's writings, e.g.*a.vaKa6iZeiv, "to sit up" — ^*£K;/.i)x«tv, 
"to expire." 

(g). The medical style of St. Luke accounts for the very 
frequent use made by him of some words — a peculiarity 
which has been noticed by Dr. Davidson [Introduction to 



INTRODUCTION. xxxv 

the N. T.) and others — e. g. vpoaTiOivai, vti oaTpi(jtHv, avv, 
SiipxeaOai, &c., these words being habitually employed, and 
indeed almost indispensable, in the vocabulary of a phy- 
sician. 

(h). This medical tinge in St. Luke's diction will account 
for his making freer use than the other N. T. writers of 
compound verbs, and also of those compounded with two 
prepositions — e. g. * ettovepx*^^"'? * Sii%ipxeadai, &o., such 
compounds being much employed by the medical writers. 

There are in St. Luke's writings several other indications 
of the author being a medical man, which cannot strictly be 
classed under any of the above heads. Such are the marking 
of time by the words opdpog, * fiearni^pla, * tairipa, fnaovvn- 
Tiov ; the variety of words employed to describe the beds and 
stretchers for the sick — kAjvij, * KXivapiov, * kXivlSiov, Kjoa/3- 
jBaTOQ ; the use of *SpaxM') an<i *fJ-va, the common terms for 
medical weights, to denote money ; &c. 

The argument from the language of the third Gospel 
and the Acts of the Apostles may be briefly stated as 
follows : — 

We have in the account of the miracles of healing, or 
their opposites, in the third Gospel and the Acts of the 
Apostles, medical language employed. 

In the general narrative, outside of medical subjects, we 
find, wherever we have an opportunity of comparing it with 
the other N. T. writers, that St. Luke strongly inclines to the 
use of medical language. 

Even where in the general narrative a comparison cannot 
be instituted with other N. T. writers, we find words occur- 



xxxvi INTRODUCTION. 

ring uniformly throughout which were in use in medical 
phraseology, and which from habit and training a physician 
would be likely to employ. 

In estimating the weight of the argument it should be 
remembered that the evidence is cumulative, and that the 
words adduced as examples are very numerous, considering 
the extent of St. Luke's writings. 

It may be added that the prevailing tinge of medical 
diction in the third Grospel and in the Acts of the Apostles 
tends also to establish the integrity of these writings as we 
have them, inasmuch as the phraseology in question per- 
meates the entire works, and shows the hand of a medical 
author continuously from the first verse of the Grospel to the 
last of the Acts of the Apostles. 



THE 

MEDICAL LANGUAGE OE ST. LUKE. 



PART I. 

MEDICAL LANGUAGE EMPLOYED IN THE ACCOUNT OF THE 
MIRACLES OE HEALING. 



§1. 



Lttke, IV. 23 : And he said -unto them, Te will surely say 
imto me this proverb, Physician, heal thyself {^larpe, Otpairsvaov 

(TEaVTOv) . 

Here, at the commencement of the Gospel, there is a 
slight intimation of the professional character of the writer. 
St. Luke is the only one of the Evangelists who records this 
saying of our Lord. No doubt it came home with peculiar 
force to the medical Evangelist : besides, there would seem 
to have been somewhat similar sayings used in the profession 
to which he belonged. Galen speaks of a physician who 
should have cured himself before he attempted to attend 
patients, Comm. iv. 9, Epid. vi. (xvii. B. 151) : IVtpov 8' 
loTQOv hri rije rifxtTipag ^Aaiag olBa SvadoSue EXOt""" '■«e fiakag 
we Sia TovTo fxrj ^ipeiv avTOV Trjv tiaoSov avOpwirov voaovvra 
fit}Siva KuOapiov. hxP^^ "^^ "^'"O" iavTov srpwrov laaOai to 
aiifXiTTW/xa Ktti ovTug iwix'^ipeiv kripovs OepaTTEViiv. 

B 



2 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [pakt i. 

§ II. 

* pilTTHV. PXaWTHV. 

Sealing of the demoniac in the synagogue of Capernaum. — 
Luke, iv. 35: And Jesus rebuked him, saying, Hold tliy 
peace, and come out of him. And when the devil had thrown 
him in the midst {p'npav), he came out of him, and hurt him 
not (jiri^EV /3Xoi/<av avTOv). 

St. Luke here uses two medical words, piirTuv and /SAdn-- 
Tiiv. the former was used in medical language of convul- 
sive fits and similar affections ; the latter to denote the injury- 
done to the system by disease, &c. Besides using these appro- 
priate words, he alone records the fact that no permanent 
bodily injury was done to the man, and in doing this he 
writes quite in the manner and style of the medical authors. 

* piwTiiv is used in connexion with disease in the N. T. by 
St. Luke alone. Hippocrates, Epid. 1160 : Koi aXyridovi fnya- 
\y £iX£ro KOI Tag xupag irpoaitp^pev wq ayxofiivoQ koi kppiirTti 
iwvTov Kol cnraaBiig idavev. Hipp. Nat. Mul. 567 : vno Si Trig 
oSivrig ov Siivarai ri(TV\aZ£iv aXXa piitru ibivTrjv. Hipp. Morb. 
Mul. 589 : a\v%a t£ kqI pi^ic ioivrnv. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 590 : 
KOI TTvsvfia irpotTTTTaiov Koi aXvsi koi piTiTU kwvTrjv. Aretaeus, 
Our. Acut. Morb. 94 (Epilepsy) : rjv Se koi airaTai rj Sia- 
aTpi(j)r}Tai rrjv Karto yvaOov t] to) X£tp£ koi to aKiXea piTTTriTai. 
Gralen. De Comate, 3 (vii. 658) : rj avinrav to ffw/xa piTTTovaiv 
aXoywg, i^ai(j)vr}g te koi irapa^povriTiKwg k^aXXovrai airaafiov 
SiKijv. Hipp. Epid. 1133 : ippnrTaZiTO Kot n iairaro. Hipp. 
Morb. 487 : /3oa te koI avaiaau vtto Trig oSuvrjc Koi okotuv 
avacFTy avdig airevdei tin tjjv kXivtjv kototteiteTv koi pntToZu 
liovTov. Hipp. Morb. 467 : koi aXvEt koi pnrToZu avTog 
IwwTOv VTTO Trig oSvvrig. Hipp. Morb. Acut. 393 : Sv(T((>oplriv 

TE Koi plTTTaCFfXOV TWV fieXsWV TTOtEEJ. 

pXanTEiv, used only once elsewhere in N. T., St. Mark, 
xvi. 18, was in constant use in medical language as opposed 
to bxpsXtiv — e. g. Hipp. Epid. 948 : oo-keTv we/oi to voarifiaTn 
8uo axjtiXiiiv rj juj) /SAaTTTEtv. Hipp. De Arte, 4 : koi r<^ 



§ III.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 3 

bj(ps\ii(Tuai TToWrj avajKr) avTOvq iariv iyvwKsvai 6 ri ^v to 
b)<j)e\ri(Tav, Koi u ri t Ej3Xaj3r)(Tav, koI to (3Xaj3j?vat, Kot o ri 
^v TO fSXaipav. Tci yap Ttj^ b)(j>i\daOai koi to. Tiff j3ej3A.a^0oi 
(LpKTjUEVa OV TTUQ tKOVOC 'y'"^''''"- 

But, besides this, it was constantly used of particular 
cases, as in this passage of St. Luke, and in the same way, 
too, joined with such words as firtdev, fiiya, juaAXov, ^(raov. 

Hipp. Epid. 1146 : irapfiXOs koI le to. apicrrepa to o'lSrifia, 
ovSiv ovv TOVTO i^XaTTTev. Hipp. Epid. 1180 : a fir} fityaXa 
j3\a.irT£i. Hipp. Morb. Acut. 392 : to. Kara KvaTiv ^aaov 
j3i\a\pH. Hipp. Morb. Acut. 394 : ovtu) yap koi a ^iXkt 
fiXawTHv, ^Kiara av fiXaTTToi. Galen. Morb. Acut. Oomm. 
ii. 2 (xv. 520) : kSv yap (L^sXijiTy firidsv, aXX' ov fiXaipEi ye 
fieyaXwc. Gralen. Morb. Acut. Comm. ii. 20 (xv. 520) : 
ot vyiaivovTiQ ^rrov fiXaiTTOVTai, oi vo(TOvvTEg fSXaiTTOVTai 
fiaXXov. Gralen. De Ven. Sect. 7 (xi. 174) : (IxpsXriaB fiiv 
'iKavwQ 'ifiXaipE S' ovSiv. Galen. Oomp. Med. vi. 7 (sii. 983) : 
ouSi (iXa\pai niya ovS' w<j>eXfiaai. 

§ III. 
avvix'caBai. *7rvp£Tog fiiyag. 

The healing of Simon's wife's mother. — Luke, iv. 38, 39 : 
And Simon's wife's mother was taken {crvvExoixivri) with a 
great fever {nvpsTi^ fiayaX^)) ; and they besought him for her. 
And he stood over her, and rebuked the fever; and it left her: 
and immediately she arose and ministered unto them. 

avvix'^aOai is used nine times by St. Luke, and three 
times in the rest of the N. T. In Acts, xxviii. 8, it is joined 
with TTvpiToi, as here, and is once used in connexion with 
disease elsewhere — Matt. iv. 24. Both it and exEffOat are 
used by the medical writers as in this passage. Hipp. Morb. 
Mul. 593: koi loiKaai roiaiv vtto rije ripaKXHrig voaov crvvsxo- 
fxivoiaiv. Hipp. Intern. AfEect. 556: aXXo? eiXeoe iKTtpwStiQ 
kiriXa/ifidveL fiaXiOTa plv Oipeog lopriv, ttoXXoi Se »i8i/ ry 
TOLOvTt^ avveax^Qriaav. Galen. Mot. Muscul. i. 8 (iv. 404) : 



4 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [pakt i. 

ouSev av IkwXue iraQrifiaTL t<^ Kakovfiivdg Tsravd^ avvix^'^^'^'- ''^ 
aufia. Gralen. San. Tuend. i. 5 (vi. 19) : awavTaQ rifiag vir 
aTavoTwv voarniarwv avvexiaOai. Galen. Different. Febr. 
i. 3 (vii. 279) : iiTi(T<j>a\ig Be km rotg vno (pdotig avvE\Ofj.iVoig. 
Galen. Comp. Med. vii. 12 (xiii. 1025): vtto tov TrdOovg 
avvExofiivog. Galen. Nat. Faoul. ii. 9 (ii. 129) : avavcTTOf 
Siipci (TvvfxoficOa. Galen. Oomm. vi. 1, Bpid. vi. (xvii. A. 
314) : afinxavcf) te Si^pH avvexeaOai. Hipp. Aph. 1250 : i»7r6 
SvaevTspirig ExoiJ.ev(^. Hipp. Intern. Affect. 553: vtro Ttjg 
TrXevpinSog ixonivv^. 

* TTvpsTog fiiyag. Galen states that it was usual with the 
ancient physicians to distinguish fevers by the terms fiiyag 
and fUKpog. Galen. Different. Febr. i. 1 (vii. 275) : koI 
avvrfisg rjSij tojc larpoig bvofiaZ,uv Iv tovto^ T(jf jivEl rrig 
Siafopag tov fxiyav re koI fiiKpov irvperov. And accordingly 
we meet — Galen. Our. per Ven. Sect. 6 (xi. 270) : kSv fifj 
niyag avrdig iintrian^ irvpsTog ; and Aret. Our. Acut. Morb. 
104: aiiv wovd^ irXivpov Iwi afiiKpi^ irvpETi^ rj koI avsv TrvpSTWv. 

There is a detail mentioned by St. Luke, in connexion 
with this miracle, but omitted by St. Matthew and St. Mark 
— namely, the means adopted by our Lord to banish the 
fever — "and he rebuked the fever, and it left her," which 
would more naturally come from a medical writer than ano- 
ther. A physician would, as is usual with the medical 
writers, state the method of treatment which effected the 
cure ; and that method, in this case, so entirely differing from 
all he had seen or practised, would impress itself forcibly on 
his mind. 

The healing of divers diseases, mentioned immediately after 
this miracle. — Luke, iv. 40 : Now when the sun was setting, 
all they that had any sick with divers diseases brought them 
unto him ; and he laid his hands on every one of them, and 
healed them. 

A similar observation may be made in this instance as in 
the preceding one. St. Luke alone teUs the mode of cure, 



§ IV.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. 5 

■which is not told in the parallel places, Matt. viii. ; 16 Mark, 
i. 34 ; where the words are simply, " he healed all that were 
sick," and "he healed many that were sick of divers dis- 
eases." No doubt, what would be likely to strike a physician 
most would be the simplicity of our Lord's treatment of 
disease, and that one and the same mode of treatment was 
effectual in the most varied and distinct forms of disease — 
aaOsvovvrag voaoig TroiKikaig. 

§ IV. 

* vXripriQ XiTTpag. Xeirpoc- 

The cleansing of the leper. — ^Luke, v. 12 : And it came 
to pass, when he was in a certain city, behold a man full of 
leprosy {av^p TrXripriQ XiTrpag), who seeing Jesus fell on his 
face, and besought him, saying. Lord, if thou wilt, thou canst 
make me clean. 

The cleansing of the ten lepers. — Luke, xvii. 12 : And as 
he entered into a certain village, there met him ten men that 
were lepers (Se'ko AtTrpot avSptg), which stood afar off. 

It would seem that St. Luke, by employing two distinct 
terms irXriprig XiirpaQ and Xitrpog in his account of these two 
miracles intended to draw a distinction between the diseases 
in each case, either that the disease was of a more aggravated 
type in one case than in the other, or else of a different 
variety. Now we know that leprosy, even as early as the 
time of Hippocrates, had assumed three different forms 
(aXfpoQ, XiVKTi, and fiiXao), " and it is probable that in the 
time of our Lord the disease, as it existed in Palestine, did 
not differ materially from the Hippocratic record of it." 
(See Diet, of the Bible, Art., " Leper.") 

irXr]pr\g, in this connexion peculiar to St. Luke, is fre- 
quently thus used in the medical writers. Hipp. De Arte, 
5 : Kol 7rXj?|0££c T^e voaov. Hipp. Ooao. Progn. 187 : n-XijpEee 
ovTOL ual TTvov. Hipp. Morb. 496 : aXX tv 'iaOi TrXripri 
lovra Tov Stupijica irvov. Hipp. Vet. Med. 11 : x^'^f^^^ ''^ 



6 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LTJKE. [part i. 

KOI vwoToyjuow Koi Siiprig irXripcig. Hipp. Morb. 487 : oSiivrj 
'icFXti airacrav tjJv KttjtaXfjv juaXwra Se ottji cttoijj ij ^Xey- 
fiaaiti KOI TO owara ^xijc TrX^pea y'lvirai. Hipp. Intern. 
Affect. 541 : at Sf ^Xe/Bec aSrat, mfiarog clai irXripeEg. Are- 
taeus, Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 58 : Kvarug irXripiag vypov. 
Gralen. Loo. Affect, ii. 8 (viii. 91) : kirifipu roue ttovov? 
CTTEvo^wp^ae irXtipsig. Galen. De Progn. ex Puis. i. 3 (ix. 
229) : rj arjuwv fj vypwv wen TrXjjpEJc- Gralen. !Remed. 
Parab. ii. 3 (xiv. 407) : TrXijpr/ roii pvirov. 



* TrapaXeXujuEvoc- 

The healing of the paralytic. — Luke, v. 18 : And, behold, 
men brought in a bed a man which was taken with a palsy 
(oe ^v TrapaXEXvfiivog). 

Here, and whenever St. Lute mentions this disease, he 
employs the verb TrapaXisaOai, and never irapaXvTiKos. The 
other New Test, writers use the popular form TrapaXvTiKog, 
and never use the verb, the apparent exception to this, Heb. 
xii. 12, being a quotation from the LXX., Isaiah, xxxv. 3. 
St. Lute's use is in strict agreement with that of the medi- 
cal writers. 

Hipp. Ooac. -Progn. 149 : yXuxraav -irapaXeXviiivoi. Do. 
181 : TrapaXvovrai to Kara tovto to fiepoQ tov auyfiaToq. Hipp. 
Epid. 990 : Se^h^v \iipa napEXidri juetu aTra<Tixov. Do. 1211 : 
jj ^uivii ipeXXi} Sia to irapaXEXvfiivov alvai to aujua. Aiet. 
Our. Acut. Morb. 93 : TrapeXiOn kote koi KaraTroate. Dios- 
corides. Mat. Med. iii. 150 : invofiivri (ioriOti laxiaBiKo'ig te 
KOI TTapaXcXvfxivoig. Do. V. 130 : ETTi Tiov rijv yXuxraav trapa- 
XiXv/xivitiv. Gralen. Oomm. iii. 37, Epid. iii. (xvii. A. 692) : 
tKXveriv te koi irapsaiv aTravTWv twv fiopiwv tov (TWfiaTOQ orav 
o/jLoiiog rote TrapaXsXvfiivoig ippifxiva faivriTai. Gralen. De Atra 
Bile, vii. (v. 134) : 8m to ^prjtrijuov ilg rrjv twv irapaXEXvfxL- 
vwv t'oCTiv. Glalen. Loc. Affect, iv. 7 (vui. 259) : aiaOrimg 
oTToXXvrai TWV irapaXiXvfiEvwv fiopiuv. 



§ VII.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 7 

§ VI. 

The healing of the withered hand. — Luke, vi. 6 : And it 
came to pass also on another sabbath, that he entered into 
the synagogue and taught : and there was a man whose right 
hand {ri ^stp avrov r) Si^id) was withered. 

There is a mark of particularity here — " right hand " — 
such as a physician would observe. The other Evangelists 
omit this. The medical writers invariably state whether it 
is the right or left member that is affected. 

Hipp. Ooac. Progn. 190 : iroviovreg vTroxovSpiov St^iov. 
Hipp. Epid. 982: nXyu nXevpav hptarepav. Hipp. Epid. 
986 : la-)(iov oSvvri Ss^iov Iff^wpwc- Hipp. Epid. 1012 : rp 
vaTEpaty apiarephv Trap' ovg o'/StjjUa. r^ 8e ucrrEpp koi Trapa 
Si^iov. Hipp. Epid. 1012 : ij x'<P V SeSij), ctkeXoc Se apiare- 
pbv TrapeXvdri TrapairXtiyiKug. Hipp. Epid. 1020: ovBi Se^iov 
v7ro')(ovopiov. Olio knbjSvvov Kapra ouS' evTsra/iivov la)(ypwg. 
Hipp. Epid. 1023 : ^vjKavaig apiaTepov TrXevpov. Hipp. 
Epid. 1067: 6<p6aXfioi Se^ioS dSivr,. Hipp. Epid. 1120: 

TrXsvpov oSivri koI arriOiOC apiartpov. Hipp. Epid. 1133 : 
pa^bg EVETTUJjtTEv apiarepbg VTrepOsv. Hipp. Epid. 1217 : 
aXyripa irXavpov ^E^toi;. 

§ VII. 

* evoxXiiaOai. * 6)(Xe'ia0ai. 

Luke, vi. 18 : And they that were vexed with unclean spirits 
(koi 01 tvoxXovpevoi virb irvEVfiaTwv aKaOapTuiv). 

Acts, V. 16 : There came also a multitude out of the cities 
round about unto Jerusalem, bringiag sick folks and them 
that were vexed with unclean spirits {b-)(Xovpivovq virb ttveu- 
paTuiv aKaddprwv). 

* ox^iiv is peculiar to St. Luke, and *ivoxXtiv also in 
connexion with disease; evox^tiv is used once elsewhere in 
the N. T., Heb. xii. 15, but not in a medical sense ; both 



8 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [paet i- 

words were much employed in medical language, as were 
also oxAoe, and some others of its derivatives (§ 88). 

*£i/oxX£iv. Hipp. Aph. 1251 : vno airaafiov rj rsravov 
svox^ov/xivtff irvpiTog tTriyivofifvoe AuEt to voarifia. Hipp. 
Aph. 1253 : raiiaiv vwo rwv ^Oialuv IvoxXowjue'votmv. Hipp. 
Aph. 1254 : ywaiKi VTT^ vaTtpiKwv IvoxXoujulv^ nrapjuoc 
iTTiyivofisvoe dyadov. Hipp. Epid. 1103 : to. mpl ttjv 
KOiXiijv oi/K vvdox^^t- Hipp. Epid. 1104: at ts (dfix^g 
rivux^ouv. Hipp. Epid. 1239 : ^voxXfi Se koi kojXiij Bvaev- 
■ TepiKfj. Galen. Oomm. i. 26, Nat. Horn. (xv. 73): twv viro 
(jiXeyfiarog rj xoXiJe /itXaivri^ tvox^ovfiivwv. Galen. Oomm. 
i. 8, Acut. Morh. (xv. 429) : al aTropaSeg voaoi Sia^tpovTUC 
ivoxXovaai roiig voaovvTUQ. Galen. Oomm. iv. 40, Acut. 
Morh. (xv. 814) : avTolg vno ttoxewv te koI ^Xicrxpwv X^'M^" 
Evox^ovfXivoiQ. Galen. Comm. i. 1, Humor, (xvi. 13) : x°Xi?e 
OS ^avOrig tin fis\aivr)c EvoxXovert)?. 

*6xXe(i'. Hipp. Praecept. 28 : Ston ^vfiirddrictQ vno Xvirrig 
sovaa oxXlei, e? (ripov avfiTTaBtniiQ rivig oxXevvrai. Hipp. 
Coao. Progn. 205 : aXXwc te kIji; n Kara (papvyya ox^y. 
Hipp. Morb. Mul. 617: otuv al wSivcg (j(j>6Spa ox^twm. 
Hipp. Fract. 756 : rj aXXo n oxXtri rbv TiTpw/xivov. Hipp. 
Epid. 996 : koi EKtlva rrfviKavTa oxXiovai Trig rifi.ipr\g to. 
nXtiaTa. Dioscorides, Mat. Med. iii. 116: Tovg viro Srjpae 
(irixog Koi opOonvoiag oxXov/xevovg OspaTTtvu. Galen. Oomm. 
iii. 1, Epid. i. (xvii. A. 24) : iiro Trjg ^avOijg ox^utoi x°Xi}e. 
Galen, in Julian. : 'iviot Si jurjva 6\ov viro Sia(pOopag oxXou- 
fisvoi SisTtXsaav. Galen. TJsus Part. xii. 7 (iv. 25) : o te 
vwTidiog riTTov ejueXXev bx\r\Br)C!iaBai. Galen. Oomp. Med. 
vii. 4 (xiii. 104) : TrotEt Tolg Kara Trspiodov vno piyovg ox^ov- 
fxivoig. 

§ vni. 

laadai. aojl^Eiv. SiaatiZtiv. 

Lute, vi. 19 : And the whole multitude sought to touch 
him : for there went virtue out of him, and healed them all 
(koi lajo navTag). 



§ VIII.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. S 

If we compare this passage with the passages in St. 
Matthew and St. Mark, where a similar statement is made, 
we find a great difference in the language employed. 
Matt. xiv. 36 : And besought him that they might only 
touch the hem of his garment: and as many as touched 
were made perfectly whole, koL oaot rji/iavro, Biea-iliiOriaav. 
Mark, vi. 56 : And whithersoever he entered, into villages, 
or cities, or country, they laid the sick in the streets, and 
besought him that they might touch if it were but the 
border of his garment : and as many as touched him were 
made whole, koI oaot av rlirrovro avrov, eawZovTO. 

St. Luke uses a term strictly medical, the other writers 
one less precise; and with respect to this word laadai, 
which is used by the medical writers more frequently 
for "healing" than any other, it is remarkable that of the 
twenty-eight times that it is used in the New Testament, 
St. Luke alone uses it seventeen times, and all the other 
writers together only eleven times. 

The words aw^uv and Biaawtiuv — used by the first two 
Evangelists in this instance to express "healing" — are also 
used by St. Luke in relating some of the miracles, but not by 
themselves alone to express this meaning, as is done by the 
other Evangelists. Wherever he uses them in connexion with 
acts of healing, he also adds some other words, which show 
the nature of the " saving." Thus, in the account of the 
heahng of the centurion's servant, the words " that he would 
come and heal his servant," ottwc IXflwv Biaawaig tov SovAov 
avTov, Luke, vii. 3, are explained by verse 7, " my servant 
shall be healed," laflijffsrat 6 ttoTc juou, and by terse 10, "found 
the servant whole that had been sick," evpov tov aaQtvovvTa 
BovXov vjiaivovTu. In the account of the healing of the 
demoniac in the country of the Gradarenes, the words " by 
what means he that was possessed of the devils was healed," 
TTwe Iffwflj) 6 SaiixoviaOeig, Luke, viii. 36, are explained in verse 
35 by " the man out of whom the devils were departed," a^' o5 
rd Sajjuovta e^eXrikvdet, and " in his right mind," aw(ppovovvTa. 

c 



10 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [pakt i. 

In the account of the woman with an issue of Hood, 
the words "thy faith hath made thee whole," v iriang 
aov aiaioKi ae, eh. viii. 48, are explained by "immediately 
her issue of blood staunched," irapaxpvfio- «<"'') V pvaiQ tov 
alfiarog aurijc, Terse 44 ; and " how she was healed immedi- 
ately," KoX we IdOri trapaxQwa, Terse 47. In the account of 
the cleansing of the ten lepers, the words " thy faith hath 
made thee whole," t? wiang aov aiauni as, ch. xTii. 19, are 
explained by " as they went they were cleansed," Iv ri^ 
v'n-ayiiv avroiig iKaOapiadriaav, Terse 14 ; and in the account 
of the healing of the eyes of the blind men near Jericho, the 
words " thy faith hath saTed thee," 17 Trlarig gov aiauKe ae, 
ch. xTui. 42, are explained by " and immediately he receiTed 
his sight and followed him," Kal wapaxQrifxa avljiXstps, koI 
T;KoXou0Et aiiTt^, verse 43. 

The medical writers do not use awZsiv or SiaawZtiv, as 
equiTalent to laaOai, to heal, but rather as meaning to escape 
from a soTcre illness or epidemic — to get through the attack 
— OTon if it were with impaired health or mutilation of the 
body. St. Luke, in Acts, xxTii. 44, and xxviii. 1, uses the 
word much in this sense (see the example quoted there, § 98) . 

§ IX. 

vyiaivHV. 

The healing of the centurion's servant. — Luke, Tii. 10 : 
And they that were sent, returning to the house, found the 
serTant whole (vjiaivovTo) that had been sick. 

St. Luke is the only N. T. writer who uses vyiaivsiv in 
this, its primary sense, " to be ia sound health, " with the ex- 
ception of St. John, 3 Ep. 2. For this meaning it is the regu- 
lar word in the medical writers. Hipp. Vet. Med. 13 : kuI Sm 
TOVTtuJv irag 6 pioQ Koi vyiaivovTi koi £k vocrow avaTpEtpOfxtvi^ 
Koi KafivovTi. Do. 11 : (U^Aei t£ Kot 'irpefe tov nafxvovTa kol 
TOV vyiatvovTa. Do. 14 : koi tuvtu koi li> vyiaivovcji Toimv 
avdpwTTOKJiv anspyaZsTai icai iv Ka/xvovai. Do. 18 : koi 



§ X.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 11 

vooEovTi KOI vyiaivovTi. Aretaeus, Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 78 : 
TaSe KoX roim vyiaivovai Kapra oii/c ariOsa, Aret. Our. Acut. 
Morb. 87 : rj te yap i^iQ vyiavOqaETai, Diosc. Animal. Ven. 
Praef. : ^am yap yivEoQai Tgiig KaTacrToiatig Toig avOpwrrlvoig 
auifiaai. fi'iav fxtv, Ka9' r/v vyiaivovaC sripav Se, koA' fjv 
voaovai' Tpirriv Se fiEcrriv EKaripwv Ka0' ^v BoKOvai filv vyiaivEiv, 
EVEfiirTwruQ SI eIc to waOri icaj rove KivSivovg exovui Sia riva 
^OopoTToiov eyKEiiiivriv roig awfxatji Svvafiiv. Gralen. Comm. 
iii. 9, Aliment, (xv. 287) : Sia Tavrriv yap Svvafiiv EaOiofiEv 

TE VyialvOVTEQ KOI, TTlVOfiEV KOI TuXXa TTaVTU WpttTTOflEV. Galsn. 

Oomm. i. 44, Humor, (xv. 506) : vyiaivovTwv te koi voaovv- 
rtuv — dTrojSAeTrovne '"'jv Siva/iiv we etti t<1)v vyiaivovTwv 

ETpE(jlOfiEV Toiig VO(TOVVTag. 

The word vyiaivovra, as used here by St. Luke, implies 
that the messengers, on their return, found the servant not 
only cured of his disease, but also in good health. 



* ~ idit^e 



avaKanii,eiv. 



The raising of the widow's son. — Luke, vii. 14 : And he 
came and touched the bier : and they that bare him stood 
stiU. And he said, Toung man, I say unto thee. Arise. 
And he that was dead sat up {avEKaQiaEv 6 vEKpog) and began 
to speak. 

St. Luke uses this word again, Acts, ix. 40, of another 
person restored to Hfe, and sitting up in bed. And in this 
intransitive sense its use seems, with a few exceptions, to be 
almost altogether confined to the medical writers, who em- 
ploy it to describe patients sitting up in bed. Hipp. Praenot. 
37 : avaKaOiZEiv Se (5ov\EaBai tov vocriovra rrjg v6(tov UK/xa- 
Zovarig. Hipp. Morb. Acut. 406 : Kjjy fxlv Iv rt^ Qtl)pr\Ki vvlp 
rwv 0pevwv XuTTE^ TO TTciOoQ, avTov avaKaOiZstv wg TrXEiaraKig 
Kai we ^Ktffra TrpoaKXiviadwaav. Hipp. Epid. 1210 : avaKadtZ- 
ofiEvtff iyivETO vttoxo^ov yXictxpov. Hipp. Epid. 1216 : Trtpt 
St 'rov Trpwrov virvov Si\pa ttouAXtJ KUt fiavirj Kai avEKciOit^E. 



12 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LITKE. [part i. 

Hipp. Epid. 1220 : Sufr^opwe ^Ipwi' tov wvptrov tvOvg air 
ap^TJe KOt avaKaOlZwv rpiraiog 'iTTTvuev wxpov. Hipp. Goao. 
Progn. 197 : avaKadiZ^iv 8e fiovXeaOai kukov iv Totaiv o^eai. 
Aretaeus, Sign. Morb. Acut. 9 : kol fjv juev KaraKitovrai, ava- 
KudiZovaL avuKSKXlaOai oi/k ovexo/xevoj, ^v Se avoKdlaiom, utto 
airoplrts avOic avaKXivovrai. Galen. Oomm. i. 20, Progn. 
(xviii. B. 65) : Xiyovai ol TrepiTrvevfioviKOi aTivoxf^piaQ o't<^- 
davioOai Kara tov Ocoprjua Kal irvtvfiova TroAXiJe Iv raig VTrriaig 
KaraKXiaicnv, tinrvovciTspoi Se dvaKaOiZovrsg ytvsauai — 
■XakeirwraTOv lart dvaKaOiZuv lOiXsiv tov KafivovTa — avaKO- 
diZiiv iTTtx^ipiiv TOV KUfivovra Kara rijv aKjurjv rrjg v6(tov, &C. 
Gralen. Loo. Affect, v. 3 (viii. 334) : Sib koi ju£ra(Tx»)juari^- 
eaOai irpoOvfiovvrai Ka\ dvuKadit^siv. 

The description of the several gradual stages of recovery 
— he sat up — then began to speak — is quite in the manner 
of medical writing. St. Luke frequently does this ; e. g. in 
the case of the lame 'man at the gate of the temple, of Tabi- 
tha, of the blindness of Elymas, &o. 

§XL 

Luke, vii. 21 : And in the same hour he cured many of 
their infirmities and plagues, and of evil spirits (otto v6ao)v Kai 
fiaaTiyoiv Kai irvcvfiartov novriptSv). 

In this passage diseases are divided into two classes — 
voaBi and iiaariyEc — chronic and acute (vocroe = xpovia koko- 
irddsia, Theophyl.). Aretaeus, who wrote about St. Luke's 
time, makes a similar division, his medical works treating of 
the signs, causes, and cure of (1) acute and (2) chronic dis- 
ease. 

The word itovnpoQ is applied to evil spirits by St. Luke 
alone (except once, Matt. xii. 45 : Then goeth he, and taketh 
with himself seven other spirits more wicked (TrovjjporEph) 
than himself). He uses it again viii. 2, xi. 26 ; Acts, xix. 12, 
13, 15, 16. This word was frequently used in medical language 
in relajbion to disease, &c., and one of its uses is identical with 



§ XII.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 13 

that of St. Luke here, for Trovrtpog indicates the active prin- 
ciple of eTU (see Trench, Synonyms of the New Testament), 
and it is applied in the medical writers to what spreads de- 
struction or corruption, e. g. the poison of serpents. Galen 
speaking of the best season to take the viper (txtSva) for an 
ingredient of the antidote (fl^ptaKrj), says, Theriac. ad Pison. 
13 (xiv. 264) : aWa fiakiara irspl rijv dp)(r]v rov eapoQ orav Trig 
jUEV ^wXsiag wavovrai — koI oiikeS' ovrmg 'i-)(ovcn irovripov tov lov. 
evoov yap (piuXevovra, koi Kara /iJjSev Sta^opoii/xEva novripoTE- 
pav avvaysi koi rrjv iv avToig (jiOopoiroiov dvvafxiv. Gralen. The- 
riac. ad Pison. 8 (xiv. 234) : 6 Se Spviyog ocpiQ ovtmq wovripoQ 
£(TTi irpoQ TO Sia^Ottpai kukwq. Gralen. Theriac. ad Pison. 5 
(xiv. 230) : rwv -irovnpwv OripitDv TO. driyfiara. Gralen. The- 
riac. ad Pison. 18 (xiv. 289) : to Oripla rj?v juev vwipTiTa/iivriv 
KOI irovripav toIq (njifiaui Sivafitv Sia rijc Kavaeuig airOTidiTai. 
GFalen. Loc. Affect, iii. 11 (viii. 195) : QavfiaaTov Se ov^lv 
E^acTKEv, Svva/juv IcT^xypav i'lrxEiv rov ev Ttj^ iraaj^ovTi /xopi^) 
yivvriOevTa irapa ^vcnv ^vfibv, ottoIoi TOig Trovijpotc Oripiotg 
Eicrii' Of lot. 

Besides the division of disease into two classes, St. Luke 
here distinguishes disease itself clearly from demoniacal posses- 
sion, and this he does more frequently than the other Evan- 
gelists. See particularly vi. 17, viii. 2, xiii. 32, which have 
no parallel places in the other Grospels, and Acts, xix. 12. 

§ XII. 

The Demoniac of G-adara. — Luke, viii. 27 : And when he 
went forth to land, there met him out of the city a certain 
man, which had devils long time (ek xpovuv Ikuvuv), and 
ware no clothes {IfiaTiov owk ivEStSilo-KEro), neither abode in 
any house, but in the tomhs. 

St. Luke here mentions some circumstances which are 
omitted by St. Matthew and St. Mark : — first that the posses- 
sion had lasted a considerable time; this he repeats again, 
verse 29, voWoiQ yap j(p6voiq avvr\pivaKH avrov, " for during 



14 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [pabt i. 

a long time it had caught him." Now the mentioning the 
length of time a malady has lasted is quite in the manner of 
the medical writers. St. Luke does this often as in Oh. viii. 
43, xiii. 11 ; Acts, iii. 2, iv. 22, and ix. 13 ; and here it 
would he appropriate in a medical writer to do so, as one 
of the medical notes of mania was that it was intermit- 
tent. Aretaeus, Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 37 : vepi Mavirig — 
fiaviri Si KOI SiaXeiirii Kot iisXeSwvi ig riXog aTroiravirai. 
Again, St. Luke alone states that the man was naked, and 
this was another of the medical notes of mania. The Arch- 
hishop of Dublin [Notes on the Miracles, p. 168), on this 
passage, quotes from Pritchard on Insanity, " a striking and 
characteristic circumstance is the propensity to go quite 
naked ; the patient tears his clothes to tatters." This propen- 
sity was one of the notes of mania in St. Luke's day, too, 
for Aretaeus, in his chapter on mania, states the same thing. 
Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 37 : itipX Mavir^g — kaO' ore iaOriTdg re 
tppfl^avTo. 

St. Luke, too, states more clearly than the two other 
Evangelists that the man had taken up his abode in the 
tombs as his dweUing-place. A propensity to do this is also 
mentioned by ancient physicians in connexion with madness. 
See Actius de Melancholia ex Galeno, Eufo, &c., ch. i. 
(Galen, xix. 702) : oi TrXdovg fiivroi kv (TKOTHvoitg roTroig 
Xaipovcn Siarpificiv (cat ev fivrt/xdoig koX iv eprifioig. 

§ XIII. 

*i(TTavai. pvaig u'l/jiaTog. *'7rpoaava\i(TKEiv. 

The woman with an issue of Mood. — Luke, viii. 43, 44 : 
And a woman having an issue of blood (ovaa Iv pvaei ai/xarog) 
twelve years, which had spent {Trpo<ravaXwaa(Ta) all her living 
upon physicians, neither could be healed of any, came behind 
him and touched the border of his garment, and immediately 
her issue of blood (ri pvaig tov aiixarog avrrig) stanched 
(torr/) . 



§xiii.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 15 

This is the only passage in the N. T. in which laravai 
is used in this sense. It is the usual word in the medical 
writers to denote the stoppage of bodily discharges, and 
especially such as mentioned here. Hipp. Praedic. 80 : 
oicnv E^ ap\fiQ aifioppayiai Xafipai, piyoQ 'iarriai pvaiv. Hipp. 
Morb. Sacr. 306 : "<Tr»)<7t ro alfia. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 639 : 
tTTEiSav 8e to ptvfia (xrp. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 668 : koI 6 poog 
'iaraTai. Aretaeus, Cur. Acut. Morb. 109 : jrpoe 'iSpav ttjv 
ap\airiv to al/xa arriaavTa — uKivriaiy yap twvSs koI ttti^i 
t'oTorat 6 pooQ. Dioscorides, Mat. Med. i. 132 : 'iartjai koI 
povv yvvaiKsXov irpoaTiQifitvov. Do. 148 : koi Aeukov joovv 
toTt)o-t. Do. 148 : loTijffi Ss KOI aifMoppoiSag. Galen. Oomm. 
iv. 24, Morb. Acut. (xv. 781) : orav Si ary to aifia. Gralen. 
Cur. per Ven. Sect. 22 (xi. 313) : Svaj^spiiq laTwai ttjv 
alfioppay'iav. 

The phrase pvaiQ oLfiaTog is used by St. Mark also. It 
is quite medical. Hipp. Medicus, 21 : koI Trjv pvaiv rov 
a"fiaTog KwiXveaOai. Hipp. De Judieat. 53 : rj ai/jLaTog ek 
Twv piviitiv pxiaiv. Hipp. Ooac. Progn. 119 : oKoaoiai (jtpiKai 
TrvKvai vyiaivovai, ovtol e? alfiarog pvatog SKirvicyKOvTai. Hipp. 
Aphor. 1248 : row julv yap ?ipog tcL fiaviKa koi to. k-rtXriTrTiKa 
Koi a'lfiaTog pvaug. Dioscorides, Mat. Med. i. 6 : koI Tag in 
fjLr\Tpag pvaug TrpoaTiOiiitvai oTiXXovm. Do. 116 : Trpocrn- 
OEiaa pvGiv EK fxriTpag (ttsWei. Galen. Oomm, i. 26, Humor, 
(xvi. 26) : KOI TO. iTTiX-niTTiKa Kal a'ifxaTog pvaug. Galen. 
Oomm. iii. 13, Humor, (xvi. 339) : TrXtvplTig, (j>Oiaig, a'tfiarog 
pvaig KOI oaa firj a^aipiasi aXXa Ty wpoaBiaeL /xaWov Ospa- 
TTiiovTai. Galen. Hipp, et Plat. Decret. yiii. 6 (v. 695) : 
Koi EK pivb)v a't/iaTog pvaieg. Galen. Oomp. Med. vii. 3 
(xiii. 77) : aXArj appevfiaTiaTog vpog dlfiarog pvaiv. Galen. 
Oomm. i. 1, Humor, (xvi. 12) : koi 6 Tovog r^e pva^wg row 
a'ifiaTog 6 k\vZ(ov. 

St. Luke at times, after using medical terms in their 
proper medical signification, is in the habit of continuing the 
use of words with which he was familiar in medical lan- 
guage. Some striking instances of this peculiarity will be 



16 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. [part i. 

met further on. Here he uses TrpoaavaXhKeiv. Hipp. Eat. 
Vic. 356 : otto rrjQ Zv/jlvc; tov o^ioq to vypov TrpoaavaXwTai. 
Gralen. Oomm. i. 26, Progn. (xviii. B. 84) : d Si koi irpaog 6 
TTvptTog i'lri, SvvriaETai ttots 7ri\pai rovQ /xoxOvpovG xvfiovg 7\ 
Sivaftig Iv rtji XP°^V M'J (jiOaaaaa irpoaavaXwdrivai ry toiv 
TTvperwv 6^vTr}Ti. Gralen. Morb. Acut. Secund. Hipp. 4 
(xix. 192) : el tiq nspl rrjv okjujjv 6Xoo-X£p£<^'"sp«e airaiTU 
rpotpag Trpo(javoikit)Buar\g rjje Swdfiioig. 

e^avaXiaKstv and KarovaXi'dKttv are also thus used in the 
medical writers (a). 

§XIV. 

Oapairsia. 

Luke, ix. 11 : And the people, when they knew it, fol- 
lowed him : and he received them and spake imto them of 
the kingdom of Glod, and healed them that had need of heal- 
ing {tovq xP^i^^-v £XOi^''ae OepaTTiiac laro). OepaTrda, in this 
sense, is used by St. Luke only, and once in Eev. xxii. 2. It 
was the usual word in the medical writers for "medical 
treatment," &o. Hipp. Morb. Acut. 399 : roue Se d/caradra- 

TOVQ TWV TTVpiTWV, iq.V jUE^P'? «V KaTa<JTWCllV, OKOTUV §£ (TTUXJIV 

cnravTri(7ai Siatri} koi Oepawdig ry TTpoariKOvay. Hipp. Morb. 
Acut. 406 : do-^aXtorfpri yap jiveraL -q QipaTttir\. Hipp. Morb. 



(«) The raising of Jairus's daughter. — Luke, Tiii. 55 : And her spirit came 
again (iveffTpe^e rh irj/eC/ia). This passage has heen considered by some as 
one in which St. Luie employs medical language, and has been rendered "her 
breathing" or "respiration'^ returned. This rendering, though possible, 
seems improbable, for the phrase eVeVT/)6i|(6 rb ■irvev/ji.a= "respiration returned," 
is very unlike a medical one ; and had St. Luke intended merely this, he would 
most likely, as a physician, have employed, in accordance with medical usage, 
avavvoii, not vvevfia. avairvo'l) was the medical term for respiration. Galen 
has written two works on the subject, named, " On the Causes of Eespiration," 
irepl ray rrjs avanvoTJs aWiap, and " On the Use of Eespiration," wepl xpe^os 
avttirvovs. He defines it, Med. Defin. 108 (six. 375), and it is the term used 
throughout his works, passim, e. g. speaking of the cessation of breathing, 
Loc. Affect, i. 6 (viii. 34) : oltos n\v om &<puvov ji.ivav airoTcAe?, rb i&ov 



§ XV.] THE MEDICAL LAKGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 17 

Acut. 690 : rj Si {nroXiiTrriTai sXKsa, irXsiovoQ dsfiaei 6cpaTrdriQ. 
Aretaeus, Our. Morb. Acut. 82 : Oepanua ^pevitikwv. Do. 
88 : OepaTrda Xr)6apjiKu)v. Do. 91 : fxapaapov OBpanda — 
dcpatrda airoirXri^tris. Do. 94 : Ospairda napo^vafjiov tiriXrjTr- 
TiKuiv. Do. 95 : Oepairda tetuvov. Dioscor. Animal. Ven. 3 : 
TpoTTog Se Trig OspaTTEiaQ erspog ajiadw. Galen. Progn. ad 
Posth. 2 (xiv. 609) : ttc/oI rrig Oepairdag row voarnxarog. 

§XV: 
* a^pog. * aTTOXW/Offv. * eiri^Xiirsiv. k^ai^vrig. 

The healing of a demoniac child. — Luke, ix. 38, 39 : And, 
behold, a man of tbe company cried out, saying, Master, I 
beseech thee, look upon (iiri^Xe-^ov) my son, for he is mine 
only child. And, lo, a spirit taketh him, and he suddenly 
(e^a'Kjtvrig) crieth out ; and it teareth him that he foameth 
again (juera a<ppov), and bruising him hardly departeth [fioyig 
airo-)(wpd.) from him. 

* afpog is used by Hippocrates and Ajetaeus in describing 
the symptoms of epilepsy, which would seem, from St. Luke's 
and St. Mark's narrative, to have been the disease through 
which in this instance the devils exerted their power over 
this child. Hipp. Morb. Sac. 303 (Epilepsy) : rjv Se a^pov 
Ik Toii aTOfjLaTog cKpiy Kot roiai Troai XaicrtZy. Hipp. Morb. 



irvlyei, OTeplaKav -rfis avairvoTis. Aretaeus, alao, througlioiit his works con- 
stantly uses dvoTryo^. 'nvevjia is often used by the medical writers in conjunc- 
tion with avmrvitv and avatrvo'!], to signify the air or breath inhaled during the 
act of respiration, e. g. Hippocrates, Dieb. Judicat. 57 : avairvlmv irouA.ii aBp6oy 
Tvev/ia. Aretaeus, Sign. Acut. Morb. 19 : koI yiip koI 810; irvei/iovos eA/cet 
Tpel/j.a els avoKvo^v ^ KapSiri. Galen. Praedic. i. Comm. i. 4 (xvi. 619) : 
5(* Sv rh iryevfta kutA rets avajrvo^s Giffu re Kal e|« ^epujTat. 

Hippocrates sometimes loosely uses irvevij.a for avairvoit, and Galen found it 
necessary to explain this at times in his commentaries on the works of Hippo- 
orates: thus commenting on the Aphorism : iv TottrnrvpeToiai rh irveSfia irpo- 
aK6'itTov Kaithv, arwmrfi.hi' ycip ffri/iaiyei, he says, TryeSiUa vvv oKoiKtrsoy avrhi' 
\eyeiv, &airep Kav t$ irpoyvaiarriK^ rb Karii t^v avmrvoiiv, 

D 



18 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [paet i. 

Sao. 305 (Epilepsy) : koi a^pog Ik tov arofxarog tKpiei koi oi 
odovTig avvripKaai. Hipp. Epid. 1222 : naXiv rij vaTepaiy 
wpui eXij^Or) anaapwSrig a<pphq Se oi vavv. Hipp. Aph. 
1246 : ovK avaipipoxxjiv olai av cKJipog ^ irsp\ to aro/ia. Axe- 
taeus, Sign. Morb. Aout. 4 (Epilepsy) : afpov Si airovTvovai 
wairep Itti rotui fityaXoim Trvsifiaai ri OaXaaaa t^v axvijv. 
Do. 29 : iTTudrj ToiaL ^EiXacrt a(ppbg i(j)it^avu- 

* anoxop^iv is used once by St. Matthew, vii. 23, but not 
in connexion with disease. It is of frequent use in the me- 
dical writers. Hipp. Loc. in Horn. 409 : koI to fiiv alfia 
awoTpiTTOfievov fiovXofitvov aTTOXOiptEtv, TO 8' avcoOev hrip- 
piov /3ouXojUEvov KOTwxwphiv. Hipp. Loc. in Horn. 413 : 
Kai fxri Ig ttjv Kt<paXfiv ttoXiv aTTOj^wpt^ vo<jr]X6v iov. Hipp. 
Morb. Mul. 588 : wctte rjv firi OTrox^pt^ ti tow ol/iaTog. Hipp, 
de Ulcer. 873 : oKwg to ttvov airo^wpiy koi tu tjKXripvvo/isva 
Xana'xdg — ttvov utto twv otSrj/xaTwv auo-^wpiu koto, to eXkoc- 
Hipp. Judicat. 55 : koI Toig wva a-rvoxtopiovTa vyiaZtiv 
vovaoig. Hipp. Coac. Progn. 157 : TrTudXou ava')(pifi'^ug iv 
TTVjOETi^ — aTro)(wpiov<jai kutci \6jov. Hipp. Vict. Eat. 353 : 
St' OKdiwv yap ayydiDV ano^uipEl. Hipp. Judicat. 53 : crtaXov 
TToXXow ajroxajpritrtf. Gralen. Oomm. i. 1, Humor. (xtI. 10) : 
Ste irpof Trig \pv\p6TriTog Hitdovfjisvov clg to ivSov aVoKE^wpjjKE. 
Galen. Oomm. i. 15, Humor, (xvi. 161) : (papfxaKa to. cjwriBwg 
hvo/xat^Ofiiva X''^<'"'''''Ka koI tovtojv oaa Trpbg to ^ripoTcpov 
a7roKE;^u)p})KEv. 

* siri^Xiireiv. St. Luke alone uses the word E7r((3XE'Tr£tv, 
with the exception of St. James, ii. 3, who, however, employs 
it in a different sense — " And ye have respect to him that 
weareth the gay clothing." It was used by the medical 
writers of examining the appearance, condition of a patient, 
&c. Gralen. Oomm. i. 1, Humor, (xvi. 13) : E7rt|3X£V£tv Set 
wpav Kai j^wpav Kat itKiKiav koi v6(sovg koi tov XuTrowvTa 
Xv/iov. Galen. Oomm. i. 1, Humor, (xvi. 58) : kuI S. SeI tov 
luTpov iTri(5XiwBiv- Galen. Oomm. i. 18, Humor, (xvi. 176) : 
Svvarai yap toSto Troiuavai atrb Trig oovvrig Tivbg rj ttovwv v 
Tradovg ipvxmov rj Kat au)p.aTiKOV Ump SeT /udXttrra EJrt/SXETTEti', 



§ XV.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 19 

£t Oepmre'iag XPV'?"- Galen. Comm. iii. 8, Epid. ii. (xvii. 
A. 402) : iiri^XenEiv toc (pvcrug re koi Kpaffeig Kai rriv pwjutjv 
Twv \aiif3av6vTb)v to (papfiuKov. Gralen. Oomm. ii. 6, Epid. iii. 
(xvii. A. 627) : ovt(oq ovv t'lwOev 6 'lirwoKpaTriQ eiri(iXiTreiv to. 
ovpa. Gralen. Meth. Med. ad G-lauc. i. 16 (xi. 67) : sirijiXEireiv 
?|Sjj xpf) TO irpodWTTov Tov vouiovTOQ. Gralen. Oomm. i. 2, Aph. 
(xvii. B. 360) : aSoe rije voaov iiri^XeTrTiov. Galen. Meth. 
Med. ad Grlauc. ii. 2 (xi. 30) : koi airi^v Trjv tov vocrrifiaroQ 
virodiaiv eiri^XiTTuv l^aoKOfisv Sfti/. Galen. Ther. ad Pison. 
4 (xiv. 229) : icai rap KpaffEJC twv XajujSavovrwv ro fapfiaKOv 
tTTijiXsireiv. Galen. Oomm. iii. 8, Aliment, (xv. 286) : £7rt- 
PXiireiv Be ^privai koi sic to, votrfifiaTa Kai Trjv Svvaniv tov ko-jx- 

VOVTOQ. 

e^atfytts — He suddenly erietli out. This word is met with 
four times in the writings of St. Luke, and but once in the 
rest of the N. T. (Mark, xiii. 36). It is just the word a medi- 
cal writer would employ here, as in medical language it was 
applied to sudden crying out — sudden attacks of speechless- 
ness, spasms, paroxysms. Hipp. Epid. 1212 : TsaaapiaKaSe- 
KOLTy ipyov KaT£)(jEiv ^v, ava7r»)8w(7av koX /Sowtrov k^ai^vriQ koi 
avvTovwQ. Hipp. 305 (Epilepsy) : acjxiJvoQ piv Icttiv okotov 
t^ai^vrig to (pXiypa liriKaTeXOov kg Tag (pXe^ag aTTOKXeiai^ tov 
aipa. Hipp. Nat. Mul. 563 : a(l>wvog k^avivng jivBTai, kol 
Toiig oSovTag ^vvepildu, koX 17 xpoirj piXaiva yiverai i^airivt}g 81 
TavTu TratrxEi. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 648 : a<j>wvog 17 7^17 i^a- 
irivrig jiviTai. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 670 : k^airivrig a^uvog 
yivsTai VTro)(ovdpia oKXripa koX TTviytTai Kot roue ooovrag 
(yvvepdSii kol ouk vTraKOvsi KaXsopevri. Hipp. Epid. 1046 : 
oaoi h^aTTivrig a.(ptx)voi cnrvpETOi 'iwcnv, (pXi^oTopisiv. Hipp. 
Aph. 1260 : ^v 17 jXwaaa i^ai<^vrig aKpaTrig yivurai r} airo- 
■n-XriKTov Ti TOV (TwpaTog. Galen. Anat. Administr. viii. 4 
(ii. 669) : KiKpaye yap ovtui iraiopsvov, etT e^aifvrtg a(pb)vov 
yivopivov ETTt Ti^ (T(pLy)(6rjvai ra vsvpa. Galen. De Bono 
Hab. (iv. 755) : t(^ Se i^ai(pvrig afwvov yeviadai (j>Xel3wv 
awoXrufjieg to awpa Xviriovai. Galen. Medic, et Gymn. 37 
(v. 877) : odev atpwvoi riveg avTiJv e^ai(j>vrig. 



20 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. [pabt i. 

St. Luke here enters more into the medical details of the 
case than the other Evangelists, stating some particulars 
passed over by them ; we learn from him alone that the fits 
came on suddenly — l^aj^vrjc KpaZsi, he suddenly crieth out — 
also that they lasted a considerable time — fioytc aTroxwpEt — 
hardly departeth from him. 

It is worthy of note that Aretaeus, a physician of about 
St. Luke's time, in treating of Epilepsy, admits the possi- 
bility of this disease being produced by demoniacal agency. 
He writes, Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 37 (EpUepsy) : tovvek^v 
Upriv KtK\fi(TKOVcn Trjv jraOriv' arap Koi Si" aXXag irgo^aaiag, 
r\ fiiyidoQ Tov kukov' hpov yap to jueya" rj iri<Tiog ovk avOpw- 
TTi'jje aWa deirig. rj SaifiovoQ So^ije 6e rbv avdpuirov eIitoSov, 
jj ^v/nravTwv bfiov, rrivde ettikXijitkov Ispriv. 

Now, this was a complete revolution in medical science 
since the time of Hippocrates, who repudiates the idea that 
Epilepsy (called the sacred disease, r/ kprj voctoc), was more 
supernatural than any other. In the begiuning of his trea- 
tise on Epilepsy he writes : mpl filv Trig Uprjg voaov koAeo- 
jUEvrje S)S e'xe'- obSiv ti juoi Sokee( tHjv aXXwv OsiOTtpri slvai 
vovawv ouSe iepwripri, aXXa (j)V(nv fxlv E^Et J?v koi tu \onra 
vovafifxaTa 506 v jiveTai. This statement he repeats (303), 
and at the conclusion : aiirrj Se ri vovaog ri lepii KoXeo/iivr) Ik 
Twv avTwv Trpo<pa(Tlwv jlvETai a(f wv icat ai \onral airo tCjv 
npomovTiov koi airiovTiiJv, ailov ipv^iog, rjXiov, wvsvfxaTwv 
juErajSaXXojUEViuv te koi jujjSettote aTpt/iiZovTwy, TavTa S' Eort 
Oiia, IbaTS jUJjOEV StaKptvovTa to vovatifia deiOTspov tCjv XotTrtuv 
vov(jr\iiaTij)v vo/xiZ^iv, aWa Travra Biia Kot avdpunriva iravTa, 
referring aU such diseases to natural causes. 

§XVI. 

* avaKviTTeiv. * cnroXveiv. avopOovv. 

The woman with a spirit of infirmity. — Luke, xiii. 11, 12, 13 : 
And, behold, there was a woman which had a spirit of inflr- 



I XTi.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 21 

mity eighteen years, and slie was bowed togetlier, and could 
in no wise lift up (avaKvipai) herself. And when Jesus saw 
her, he called her to him, and said unto her, Woman, thou 
art loosed {aTroXiXvcrai) from thine infirmity. And he laid 
his hands on her: and immediately she was made straight 
{aviDpOuiOn), and glorified God. 

* ovaK:«;rrEiv is most suitably used here. Galen uses it of 
straightening the vertebrae of the spine. TJsus Part. xiii. 1 
(iv. 80) : EXP^" 7«P Sfiirov tovq [xlv {nroKeinivovg elg to, Karto 
fispri HfBiaraadaL KoproujUEvije ri}? pa^Ewe) avfi) S' tEvat rove 
vTripKeifiivovg, icai juei/ 7E koI avuKVTTTOVTwv re koI opdovfievwv, 
s/XTTaXiv ^XP^" KtvEitrflat tovq CFTTOvSvXovg Kara) fjnTiovrac tovq 
vTrEQKUfiivovg, avto Se tovq viroTiTajfiivovg. opog yap EKarspou 
row o-)(fifi(iTog, iTriKafiTTTOVToyv fitv aTro\wpuv dXA?)Xwv Tovg 
airovSvXovg, oaov olov te ttXeTotov, w? ei koI fidZovog Seofiivrig 
TrivtKavra yiv'eaOai rfig pa)(£wg, avaKvirrovrcov 8', 'i/nraXiv av- 
viivai Trdvrag dg ravrov aXXriXoig nig (liaijg a-KOv^\)X<jg irpon- 
XwpovvTag, wg av koi vvv jSpaxEtae avayKaZofjLSvrig yivsauai 
Trig 6Xr}g paxEwc. Hippocrates calls a curvature of the spine 
KiKpog and Kv<pwp.a, and uses Xvsiv of its removal. Artie. 
806, 807 : (tttovSvXol Se oi koto, joax'v, oaoiai fjilv VTrb voirr}- 
fioTiiiv eAkovtoi EC TO Kvtpov, TO. fuv TrXtiiTTa uSvvaTa XvEffflai, 
;rp6c Se koI oaa avoiTipw twv ^oevwv Trig irpoaipvaiog KV<povTai 
— fiaXXov Be Ti iyyivofxevoi Kupcroi kv Ttj kut lyvvriv ^XeJS/, 
olm S' av Ti KV^w/ia ^, Xvovaiv. 

* azoXvBLv. This is the only passage in the N. T. in which 
cLTToXvEiv is used of disease. It is applied by the medical 
writers to releasing from disease — ^relaxing tendons, mem- 
branes, &o., and taking off bandages. Hipp. Praedic. 108 : 
eTrrjv Se to Kvprwjua to Trjg yaarpog airoXvOy. Hipp. Aph. 
1228 : Sr£ Se iradsa av SiafjLUvy To'iai iraiSioiai /cai fi^\aTroXvO^ 
TTEpl TO ijj3a(7KEtv, xP*'*"'^^"' tluBtv. Hipp. Artlo. 840 : 
vsvpwv aiToXvOivTwv. Hipp. Nat. Puer. 246 : o/corav Se 
paywaiv 01 vfiiveg totz XveTai otto Sefffiov to ififipvov. 
Hipp. Fract. 760 : cnroXvffai Si rptraiov koi avdig fXETeiriS^crai. 
Hipp. Fraot. 767 : reXsvTtJvTig Si aTroXvovcjL tu iTriSecTfiara. 



22 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part i. 

Aretaeus, Sign. Acut. Morb. 7 : rd kokov airoXvOiv St kOpowg 
iTToXivSpofxrias. Aret. Our. Acut. Mort. 100 : nv Se ai eaxa- 
pai rjdri ts airoXvwvTai. Dioscorides, Medio. Paxab. i. 214 : 
Koi cnroTriiTTEi iv riixiwpldg airo%ripaivoiJievri n alfioppdiQ koi ek rrig 
fiaaiWQ airoXvonivr,- Galen. Oomm. ii. 9, Humor, (xvi. 243) : 
KOI oaa inroXvu tov appwarov avb tov voarifiarog. Gralen. 
Anat. Administr. i. 5 (ii. 251) : orav oTToXirjc tu)v tevovtuv. 

avopOovv is met in Hebrews once, xii. 12; is used by 
the medical writers for "to straighten, to put into natural 
position, abnormal or dislocated parts of the body." Hipp. 
Superfoet. 264 : avtvpvveiv ro arofxa r^e firirpaq r^ /iriXig ry 
Kaaampivr} koi avopQovv Hir-n av StJjrat. Hipp. Apnoron. 
677: avopOovv bfiov lav Sitirai. Hipp. Artie. 802: avop- 
Oovv plv xpi) TravTa ra TOiavra rove SuKTvXovg kg Tovg 
fiVKTripag ivTiOivra. Hipp. Artio. 803 : napafSaXkovTa yap 
roue BaKTvXovQ xprj ivOtv koi svOiv Kara rrjv ^vaiv rrjg pivog 
tLc KaTwraro) KarwOtv avvavayKa^eiv icat ovt(o paXierTa avop- 
Oovvrai. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 665: opOovaOai. aSward. — 
(cai oil Svvarai opOovaOai rj iOvvsaOai. Hipp. Morb. 852 : 
ovrot KaTOKvlovtnv opOovaOai koi ukiovrai etti to vyiig okeaoc. 
Hipp. Intern. AfEeot. 653 : koi ^v tiq avadrrjaai OiXrj oil 
Svvarai opOovaOai. Gralen. Comm. iii. 16, Progn. (xviii B. 
265) : opOovvTiQ TOV TpaxriKov. Galen. Medicus, 20 (xiv. 
792) : lay fiiv ovv pig Karsayp oiik opOovTai- Galen. Art. 
Med. Const. 12 (i. 264) : to kwXov aSvvarov ooOQaai koi 
SiairXacrat. 

In addition to the medical words used in describing this 
miracle, there are traces of medical writing. After men- 
tioning the length of time the woman laboured under this 
infirmity, St. Luke states the several stages in the process of 
recovery — first the relaxing of the contracted muscles of the 
chest [aTroXiXvcTai) ; and as this of itself would not have been 
sufficient to give her an erect posture, on account of the 
stiffening of the muscles through so many years, the second 
part of the operation is described by [avopOwOri) the removal 
of the curvature, and strength to stand erect. 



§ XVII.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. 23 



§ XYII. 

* >' ' "\ - 

(aiTic- aTTOTEAeiv. 

Luke, xiii. 32 : And he said unto them, Geo ye, and tell 
that fox, Behold, I oast out devils, and / do cures [laati^ 
oTTOTeXw) to day and to morrow, and the third day I shall 
be perfected. St. Luke alone employs the great medical 
■word 'iaaiQ, "healing," "cure." And aTroTEXErv, which is a 
word of most frequent use in medical language, and is met 
in only one other passage in the N. T. (James, i. 10.) 

* "lamg. Hipp. Morb. Sacr. 301 : Kara Se ttiv svvoplav 
Tov-rpoTTOv TrJQ h'jcnoQ IQvrai. Hipp. Praedic. 93 : litixupitiv 
hi ■\pfi TovTioivi Tov \r\TpoVi EtSora tov Tpowov TTiQ iyjaiot;. 
Hipp. Intern. Affect. 556 : 17 vovaog vTnrpoTriacTEv, aWa 

X/JJJ, ^V VTTOTpOTTlCKT'Q TTJV OlITrjV I'jJITtV IffaOai. Hipp. Do 

Arte, 4 : eVj toiwv il /lev vtto (papfxaKwv ri '/jjtrie Ty te IrirpiKy 
Koi rote l-OTpoiai fxovvov Ijivsro. Hipp. Morb. 857 : 'ir\aiQ Se, 
r]v piv airvpEToi eoxtiv, iXXtfiopiZuv. Hipp. 862 : 'Iricnc, 
Kaiiatg — ri Ss piXirri 'iriaiQ, tTriSeaig wg vofiog. Aretaeus, Sign. 
Morb. Diuturn. 58 : pr^'iripri ri tQvSs 'i^mg. Gralen. Oomm. 
i. 5, Nat. Horn. (xv. 37) : rriv irjcnv cnrXiijv laeaOai, ovk ovtwv 
•yap TToXXwv Trap" avri^ TroKXovg rpoirovg lacnwg aSiivarov 
yivsaOai. Gralen. Oomp. Med. viii. 5 (xiii. 187) : to irddri 
TO. Bsopeva Trig Sia (pappaicwv iri<jswg. Galen. Comp. Med. 
Till. 5 (xiii. 188) : rag piOoSovg Trig laaewg. 

airoTeXtiv. Hipp. Acut. Morb. 391 : we ^jojj SLayiviAiaKuv 
Tug aadeviiag ev Tyui vovaoiaiv, ai ts Sia KEViayyeiriv airoTt- 
XoiivTai a'i r£ Si aXXriv Tiva iptQiafiov. Hipp. Epid. 1200 : 
Ka\ 7] Tiig aAXjje voaov iiriSocrig, n x^-^'^'^iS) V aKfiri Koi to 
paXXov KOI TO fiaaov anoTsXiovaa, &c. Dioscorides, Mat. 
Med. ii. 129 : (SiXTiov Be to 'ISiov 'ipyov arroTEXsl npog tcL 
p.Evpara rrjg KOiXiag. Do. 179 : BvvaTat St KaOapov koi 
evxpovv airoTiXEiv to awfia. Gralen. Comp. Med. Yi. 9 (xii. 
1007) : KoXXioTov aTToreXsi ^ap/xaKov. Galen. Ther. ad 
Pison 3 (xiv. 220) : koi Bia tovto OavfiaoT^g ttjv uvtiBotov 



24 THE MEDICAL LAJSTGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part i. 

iirortXiiv TO ipja. Galen. Oomm. iii. 2, Epid i. (xvii. A 
264) : (jipiviTiKog av aTnTtXiaOri. Gralen. Oomm. iii. 26, 
Humor, (xvi. 459) : tov avOpwwov rj liSpwTra aTroreXEiaOai rj 
Kaxdiav ifiTToiuv. Galen. Oomm. iv. 35, Mort. Acut. (xv. 
805) : icai jutra to voanaai Kpiaeig cnroreXovvTai. Galen. 
Oomm. i. 12, Humor, (xvi. 132) : x"^*^^"^^ ^' ovroc ipval- 
TTsXaQ aTTOTekeiTai. 

There is another reading, liriTeXw, and it is found in con- 
junction with 'laaic in Galen, adv. Julianum, 6 (xviii. A. 277) : 
'AiTicAijTrtaSiic — cnraiTii rdig larpoig iiriTeXuaOai tijv 'laaiv. 



§ XVIII. 

* vBpwTTiKog. 

The healing of the man with a dropsy. — ^Luke, xiv. 2 : And, 
hehold, there was a certain man before Mm which had the 
dropsy {iSpwiriKog). The use of the adjective vSpwiriKog 
(sc. avOpwTrog), " a dropsical man," employed by St. Luke, is 
the usual way in medical language of denoting a person 
suffering from dropsy. Hipp. Epid. 1215 : KTriai^wv vSpto- 
TTiKog EK Kavaov iroXXov, koi Trporcpov vSpwTTiKog koi (77rA»)v<ti- 
Srje. Hipp. Epid. 1216 : koi Iv ^OXvvOcj) iSpMiriKog, i^al<pvrig 
a(j)WVOg. Hipp. Aph. 1256 : Toiaiv vdpuiriKoitn to, yivofiiva 
eXkeo Iv T(^ CFWfjiari oil pqdiojg vyiaZeTat. Hipp. Aph. 1257 : 
oKoaoi 'ifiirvoi fj wSjOOJTrtKOi. Do. 1257 : roimv vSpw!riKot<n 
j3ij? iTnysvo/iivri kukov- Dioscorides, Mat. Med. i. 4 : XiOioJcri 
Kol vSpuiriKotg jSoijfltj. Do. 9 : Svvapig Si aiirwv SiovpriTiKrj 
apfi6Z,ov(ja vdpiDTTiKolg. Do. 134 : j3or)0tt airXriviKoXg, vSpw- 
TTiKoig. Galen. Ther. ad Pamphil. (xiv. 303) : xpwtfiog SI 
Koi vSpuiriKoTg — etti juev rwv vBpwTnKwv oi p.iv avrb Karavlviiv 
Sidoaai TO (papfxaKOv wpo twv mTlwv. 



§ XIX.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 25 

§ XIX. 

* irpotraysiv. 

The healing of the blind man near Jericho. — Liike, xviii. 
40 : And Jesus stood, and commanded him to be brought unto 
him [axOrivai Trpof avTOv). 

* irpoadjBiv and aysiv irpog, tliougli used by other New 
Testament writers, are never applied by them to the bringing 
of the sick to our Lord : this is done by St. Luke alone. Here, 
and ix. 41 : " Bring thy son hither," irpoaayaye rov viov 
(jov wSe, and iv. 40 : " Now when the sun was setting, all 
they that had any sick with divers diseases brought them 
unto him," i'lyayov avToiig Trpog avTov. In the parallel 
passages to this last (Matt. viii. 16 ; Mark, i. 32), the other 
Evangelists use irpoa^ipnv and ^ipuv Trpog, which might 
seem more strictly correct, as, no doubt, some of the sick 
had to be carried. 

■Kpoaayuv, however, was a word of most frequent use in 
medical language in several technical significations, and 
among them in this very one of bringing sick to a physician. 
Galen. Oomp. Med. ui. 2 (xiii. 585) : 1^ ava.yKr\g ovv tikoXov- 
Oriae ti^ Tirpwpivtff depfiaaia rs ttoXXtj koI Sri^ig Koi oovvri Kara 
TO eXkoc, wote axOrivai Trpog kpi. rov avdpwTrov ojg etti Trapa- 
So^o) T<^ avpfiifimoTi. Galen. Oomp. Med. iii. 7 (xiii. 637) : 
i/jioi K^KEivo TO TTaiSapiov (KiXivcri irpoaaxOnvai OepaTrsvOriao- 
fiivov. Other meanings were, to bring the sick gradually 
round to food. Hipp. Vic. Eat. 374 : ek Se tov IptTov Ttpoa- 
ayiaOw tig vp-^pag Tiaaapag to git'lov — koi ejuetov Troir\aapivog 
TrpoaayiTiii. Hipp. De Insom. 376 : to Tpirov pipog aipeXe 
TOV aiTiov Koi TOVTO ri<'vX'Q Trpoaayov TraXiv kg Tag ttekte 
rifxipag — koi aiTloiai KOixjtoicn Trpoaayuv ig rifjiipag ttevte. 377: 
En-Etra k^sphavTu avOig Trpotrdytiv Trpog Tag ttevte. 378 : 17 Se 
SiaiTU paXaKT) koi K0v<j>ri TrpoaaxdnTon kg Vfiipag Teaadpag. 
And to apply remedies. Hipp. Epid. 1223 : kXXi^opoi 

E 



26 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part i. , 

TrpoarixGriaav ke^oA^c Kadapaug. Dioscorides, Medio. Parab. 
i. 14 : kpyaaTiKrjv £X" ^vvaixiv role picfl irpoaayofiiva — KVi'Sij 
TrpoaayofJiivri oKiXsai. 

§xx. 

The healing of Makhus's ear. — Luke, xxii. 50 : And one 
of them smote the servant of the high priest, and cut off his 
right ear. And Jesus answered and said. Suffer ye thus far. 
And he touched his ear, and healed him. 

This miracle is peculiar to St. Luke, for although all four 
Evangelists record the cutting off of the ear, St. Luke alone 
tells us of the healing. In its character it was of such a 
nature as would impress itself on the mind of a physician ; 
as it was unique among ovir Lord's acts of healing, and 
St. Luke in his medical practice had never seen the restora- 
tion of an amputated member of the body. 

§ XXI. 

* rifxtOavrig. * KaraSieiv. * Tpavjxa. * lin\kiv. *'i\aiov /cat 
oivoQ. * iirtfitXaiaOai. * iTravipx^^rQai. * avTiwapipxBaBai. 
* Kara avyKvpiav. TrtpnriTrTuv. 

Parable of the good Samaritan. — Luke, x. 30-35 : And Jesus 
answering said, A certain man went down from Jerusalem to 
Jericho, and fell among (ttejoiettectsv) thieves, which stripped 
him of his raiment, and wounded him, and departed, leaving 
him half dead {rifuQavn). And hy chance (Kara cFvyKvpiav) there 
came down a certain priest that way : and when he saw him, 
he passed by on the other side (avrnrapriXOev). And like- 
wise a Levite, when he was at the place, came and looked on 
him, and passed by on the other side {avTnrapnXOe) . But a 
certain Samaritan, as he journeyed, came where he was : and 
when he saw him, he had compassion on him, and went to 
him, and bound up (KarE^jjo-E) Ms wounds {to. rpavfiara aiiTov), 
2Muring in {iTnxt<^v) oil and wine (eXo^ov sai olvov), and set 
him on his own beast, and brought him to an inn, and took 



§ XXI.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 27 

care of him [iTrtixzknQr] avTov) . And on the morrow when he 
departed, he took out two pence, and gave them to the host, 
and said unto him. Take care of Mm {'EwifuXridrtTi avrov) ; 
and whatsoever thou spendest more, tvhen I come again {Iv ti^ 
iTravipx^iyOai fjn), I will repay thee. 

This parable is peculiar to St. Luke, and from the inci- 
dents described in it was one most likely to be recorded by 
him : he may himself have attended in his professional prac- 
tice on travellers in a similar case, for we find from a passage 
in Galen that, it was not unusual for persons when seized with 
iUness on a journey to take refuge in inns. Galen, too, uses the 
word "half dead" (* rifiiOavrig, peculiar to St. Luke) in describ- 
ing their case. Galen. De Morb. DifEerent. 5 (vi. 850) : o'la roTe 
oooiTTopriaacTiv iv Kpvn Kaprspt^ yivsrai, ttoWoI yap tovtuiv oi 
jUEV tv avToig rate odotg airWavov, oi St elg TravSo^^Eiov, Trplv 
^ o'lKaSe irapaytviaBai (pOaaavng r)fjii9vriTtQ ts koX KaTtipvyfjiivoi 
(paivovrai. Galen. De Eigore, &c., 5 (vii. 602) : wg baoi -ye 
\iip.ij)VOQ oSonropovvTeg, eItu iv KpvEi Kaprept^ Kara\ri<j>6ivTeQ, 
r]piBvriTig te koi TpofifLSeig olKaSs irapEyEvovTO. 

* KaTaSisiv, peculiar to St. Luke, is used in medical lan- 
guage of binding up wounds, ulcers, &c. Hipp. Morb. 
467 : £7ri rt^ eXkei upiov ttivoev kTrireOElg KoraSijcraj koi 
/jbij XOcrat axpig ittto. ■^/ispuv. Hipp. Morb. 469 : aj^iaai 
avTOv TO ^piyfxa koi Eiryv cnroppvig ro alfia avvOEig tcl x^'Aea 
Iriaai koi KaraSijffat. Hipp. Aphoron. 678 : eVstra oBoviov 
avoSfiov TTtpiOiiaa KaTaorjaai. Hipp. Fract. 750 : ttjv (iev ovv 
■)(upa, eSokee Tig KorSijcrat KaraTrprivEa Troirjaag. Hipp. Artic. 
829 : spia pvTTEpa ev o'lvoj) koi tXait^ KarappaivovTa ■)(\oEpo'icTt 
av(i)6iv ETTiTiyyELv, kutuSeIv Se, &c. Hipp. Ulcer. 881 : Tri^ag 
avTo (ivojOev Sia Trig (TKiXXrig Tr}v plZav Siaipuv Koi irpocrTidElg 
kutuSeXv. Hipp. TJleer. 881 : apov (pvXXa iv o'tViji koi Ekaii^ 
I4ii)<tag irpoaTiOElg KaraSav. Hipp. Intern. Affect. 545 : etra 
KaTaSrjtTa'i oKwg fir} sKTTEtrr) 6 fioTog. Galen. Meth. Med. V. 4 
(x. 320) : Tt^ eXkei ttuvtI ttXeTotov linTiBiaQw, KaTaSeicrdw S' 
t^toOiv IE dOovrtg ev vTroSEa/iiBi. Galen. Antid. ii. 14 (xiv. 
189) : Tavra, EiriTidEi ettI to SriyfjLa, TaiviSit^ KuraSriaag. 



28 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [pabt i. 

* rpavfia. This is the only place in the N. T. where the 
word Tpavjxa is used ; elsewhere TrXriyri is the word employed, 
e. g. Eev. xiii. 3. 12. 14. Hipp. De Dieb. Judic. 57 : koi 
vTTO Tpavfiarwv ovrog sXicETat tig TovwiaOsv. Hipp. Praedic. 
98 : TTwOaveaOai Se )(pri ittX waai roiaiv a^ioig \6yov rpavfia- 
aiv. Hipp. Praedic. 100 : to. Si Tpwfiara to. ev roiaiv ap6poi<n. 
Hipp. Coac. Progn. 199 : etti rpiifiam ctTraapog Eiriysvo/jisvog 
KUKOv. Hipp. Coac. Progn. 200 : ev roim rpufxacn kg rrjv 
o^pvv. Hipp. De Morb. 508 : (iiaiov rpavpa. Gralen. 
Eemed. Parab. iii. (xiv. 578) : koI to. Tpavfiara wapaKoXX^ 
Kol vyiaivEi. Gralen. Comp. Med. ii. 2 (xiii. 134) : Itti Se twv 
TpavnaTwv koI ^Xeyfjiovwv iwiTeOEifjiivov. Gralen. Comp. Med. 
i. 7 (xiii. 402) : ivaifiwv re Tpav/idruv koXXtitikov (nrapxei. 
Gl-alen. Oomp. Med. ii. 6 (xiii. 503) : ra pfj navv psyaXa 
rpav/jtara kqi eXktj <tvvov\ov(tiv. 

* hmxi^tv, peculiar to St. Luke, is of frequent occurrence 
in the medical writers, and often, too, used in conjunction 
with iXaiov or ohog, or both together. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 
628 : imx^ag te wphg tovto oivov koX xXirivag KXvaai — STri\sag 
TO fiiXi KOI iXaiov kAvctoj. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 651 : koi oivov 
iiriXEWv Koi eXojov rjv 8oke^ Se avrrj axpricTTOg slvai r) wvpir]. 
Hipp. Intern. Affect. 561 : ura imxiM tXaiov "laov ti^ o'lvcf) 
Koi Ocpprivag aXit-ipai TroXX(^ Q^pi'-iJi to (rwpa. Hipp. Morb. 
Mul. 643]: oivov Si ettixech yXukuv orrov kotvXtiv 'AttjkJjv koi 
eXaiov reraprov pipog KorvXrig. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 651 : tig 
rrjv VTrapxpvaav irvpimv koi oivov lirixiai r)v Soke*) SuaQai icat 
iXaiov KOI TovTif) iTvpiriadai. Hipp. Nat. Mul. 585 : ettixeoc 
iXaiov, ETTEjra awoxtag kXiJ^eiv. Dioscorides, Mat. Med. i. 54 • 
ETTtx^t ofi^aKivov iXaiov. Dios. Mat. Med. 58 : Kai ettixe* 
eXu^ov ToaovTov. Galen. Medio. Temper, iii. 9 (ix. 360) : 
Kara Tt Tr\g KE^aXije iiriXEOvra Kot roTe weriv Evora^avra icat 
Toig piaXv lyxiovra. 

*'iXaiov Kai olvoe- Wine and oil were usual remedies 
for sores, wounds, &c., and also used as internal medicine. 
Hipp. Morb. Mul. 656 : ^v Si al prirpai I'ilaxoiii, irepivi-^ag 
avrag vSari xXupiZ koi aXti^ag iXa'uf) koL oivtti. Hipp. 



§ XXI.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. 29 

AiEect. 526 : olai XoveaOai ixrj ^vfic^tpei, aXsitpeiv olvoj) Koi 
eXaibi). Hipp. Artie. 829 : tpia pvirapa iv iXaioj koX o'lvci) Karap- 
paivovra ■)(Xispo'i<n avuOsv hririyyuv KaraSttv Si. Hipp. Ulcer. 
881 : upia /xaXOaKci ETrtSijaai, privag oiv(<j) koi eXaiif). Hipp. 
Epid. 1157 : Xivov KarairXaaasiv TTif^pvyfiivov i.v oiv(^ XcvKto 
KOI iXai^) dsvovra. Aretaeus, Our. Aeut. Morb. 98 : SevOivra 
o'/vti) icai aXd(j)ari t(^ otto rije eXairig. Dios. Mat. Med. ii. 205 : 
Kol sXaii^ fiiT o'lvov TOLQ Tonoig iTTixpiiaOw. Dios. Medio. 
Parab. ii. 128 : SpaKovrtov piZav /ibt o'lvov icat sXaiov ttotiZs- 
Gralen. Oomp. Med. v. 1 (xii. 815) : avaTrXacraE mX(l>io^i Att'o. 
fitT kXaiov KoX o'/vov. Gralen. Antid. ii. 17 (xiv. 201) : SiSov 
eva Tp6j(i(TK0v jutr o'lvov icai IXaiov- 

* linniXuadai is met with once elsewhere in the N. T. 
(1 Tim. iii. 5), but not in a medical sense ; it was used in 
medical language of the care taken by physicians aud others 
of the sick, or of some injured part of the body, opposed to 
aixiXilv. Hipp. Eat. Vic. 368 : /ijjS' inrap^u avHoiai twv 
aXXo)v a/j,eXri<TavTaQ eavruv iyidrig inifitXetrjOai. Hipp. 
Fract. 756 : a ov Kapra EirifiiXiovTai ol h]Tpoi. Hipp. 
Morb. 456 : /cat IwifiEXfovrai jUaXXov Thiv iraOrifjidTijJv. Hipp. 
Morb. 486 : ravra TTOtEOJV aTraXXcKTETai Trig vovaov ^povoj), 
riv Se firj £7rtjUEXij(T)j, %vvairo6vri(TKEt. Hipp. Fract. 766: TTTipvr\g 
8e OK/orje Kapra ^^pi) kirtfieXetcFdai, we eiiOewQ £;;^ot koI iv rolai 
Kara Kvr)fir\v Kot kv roiai Kara firipov Karriyfiacji. Hipp. Moch. 
853 : jjv ■)(pri(TTwg STri/ieXriOwffiv, wcFre koi oXw (iaivovTsg t<^ 
TToSi, &o. Galen. Morb. Anim. Our. 8 (xix. 44) : £7r(jUEXa(70at 
rov (jwfiaTog vyiuviog. Gralen. Meth. Med. iv. 4 (x. 260) : 
iW varipov EVifieXtLTai rov vavrog awjiarog. Galen. Meth. 
Med. xiii. 6 (x. 891) : mSg ovv XPV "■£ ^ou iravrbg erdjfiarog 
liri/iisXtiaOai (lox^np'^G SiaKsifiivov. Galen. Oomp. Med. vui. 
4 (xiii. 169) : Evrovovvrag /xiv, wg Trpodprfrat Xovirag iTri/ieXov, 
£1 Se arovolEV. 

There is here another instance of St. Luke's habit of con- 
tinuing to use medical words outside the medical subject he 
is treating of. Thus we have * iwavipx^fQcLh which is of fre- 
quent use in connexion with disease in the medical writers. 



30 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. [paet i. 

and was technically applied to a class of diseases. Galen. 
Gomm. iii. 96, Praedic. i. (xvi. 711) : SriXovvreg Bi aiiTov 'to. 
iivavspxofitva voafifiaTU, koXoixti Se tiravspxofieva voai'ifiara to, 
fiETpidaavra fiiv Itt' oXlyov, uvOlq Se irapo^vvdtvTa. Hipp. 
Morb. 509 . koI o hr avrov cTraviXOoi Ic rrjv vovcrov. Gralen. 
Comm. ii. 30, Morb. Acut. (sv. 569) : rJv x'^^'^^ ovSerepag 
aTraveXOtiri tig a'lfiaTog ovaiav SwafiivriQ. Gralen. Oomm. ii. 28, 
Humor, (xvi. 310) : 6 o-^wyjuoc avriKa p.iv avw/iaXog n kol 
araKTog yivofievog, oXijov 8' varepov ilg to koto, ^vaiv liraviX- 
d<i)v. Galen. Comm. ii. 17, Aph. (xvii. B. 483) : ovrwg exei 
KOTTi Tov aiparog koI yap Koi tovto fisyaXrig fiiv Trig cia^oopag 
yivofiivt}g ovkIt Irravipxf'o.i irpog to koto. <pv(jiv. Galen. 
Comm. ii. 51, Praedic. i. (xvi. 622) : tiSv artpiujv ilg to Kara 
(^vaiv kiravepxo/Jisvwv. Galen. Oomm.iv.l2,Artic.(xviii.A.679): 
'iva firj iraXiv etti n'/v 'i/nrpoaOtv Sia(TTpO(^rjv eTraviXOy to fiopiov. 
Galen. Comp. Med. x. 2 (xiii. 333) : /uijKETt tXTria^g Ag ttjv 
apxaiav Kardaracnv aKpi^wg iTraveXOitv SvvaaOai to ap9pov. 
Galen. Comp. Med. vi. 2 (xiii. 866] : il fiiv ydp tig to koto. 
(piKTiv iTravsXuilp riSiivaro tov Efp/xaTog 17 SidOtaig. Galen. 
Comm. ii. 3, Progn. (xviii. B 119) : IhaTe el TriErrng to oi'Sjjjua 

KOiXaivEtrdai Etr' oXiyov litrrepov dg Trjv tfiirpoaOev enavip- 

X^oOai KaTaiSTaaiv. 

St. Luke alone uses HiravipxEaQai, as also the very rare word 
* avTiirapepxiirOm. This latter is used by Galen. De Hipp, et 
Plat. Deeret. iii. 7 (v. 340) : ovx (^e avTinapiXBoiiv Tivtg rifiag 
ETTi TOV lyKB^aXov Kot Twv (TTrXa'yT^vwv XiyovTeg koi tov ^iraTog. 

* avyKvpia. Hippocrates uses the rare form (rvyKvpta, 
Yet. Med. 11 : Etrrt ydp olcnv avTiwv ^Vfitpipti fiovoaiTtHv, Koi 
TOVTO Std TO ^vfjKpipov Toldiv avToloiv Era^avTO aXXoiai te 
dpiaTqv Sid Trjv avTr/v dvdyKriv, ovtw ydp avTotg %vfi(pip£i, Kal 
firi TOVTOiaiv 01 01 ficovrjv, rj Si aXAijv Tivd avyKVpLriv iimriSiv- 
aav bnoTtpov aiiTtwv. Hipp. Humor. 49 : olov Xun-at, Svarop- 
yr\aiai, imdvpiai, to dwo avyKvpitig, XvirrifiuTa yvwfirig. The 
word avvTvxia, identical in meaning and similarly formed 
{(TvyKvpeiv = (TvvTvyxdvHv), is often met in the medical writers. 
In the following passage it is used as avyKvpia is in St. Luke. 



§ XXII.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. 31 

Galen. Synops. de Puis. 21 (ix. 495) : OXdaag ng row fiiaov 
oaKTvXov Tov Kara to ttjOwtov apBpov tevovtu, Kara <TVVTV)(ittv 
ETtpwv alriwv iirvpE^ev, "took fever through a concurrence or 
coincidence of other causes." 
On TTtpmiitTHv see § 66. 

§ XXII. 

* jiXkw/uIvoc- eXkoc- * KaTOipi^itv. * oSvvaaOat. * i^atrjua. 

(TTtipiZuv- 

Parable of the rich man and Lazarus. — Luke, xvi. 19-26 : 
There was a certain rich man, which was clothed in purple 
and fine linen, and fared sumptuously every day : and there 
was a certain heggar named Laizarus, which was laid at his 
gate/w// of sores (riKKwuivog), and desiring to be fed with the 
crumbs which fell from the rich man's table : moreover the 
dogs came and licked his sores [to. eXkij avrov.) And it came 
to pass, that the beggar died, and was carried by the angels 
into Abraham's bosom : the rich man also died, and was 
buried ; and in hell he lift up his eyes, being in torments, 
and seeth Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom. 
And he cried and said. Father Abraham, have mercy on 
me, and send Lazarus, that he may dip the tip of his finger 
in water, and cool [Kara^v^y) my tongue ; for I am tormented 
{oSvvwfiai) in this flame. But Abraham said. Son, remember 
that thou in thy lifetime receivedst thy good things, and 
likewise Lazarus evil things : but now he is comforted, and 
thou art tormented {oSwaaai.) And beside all this, between 
us and you there is a great gulf (^^atr/xa) fixed {tcFTtipiKrat) : 
so that they which would pass from hence to you cannot ; 
neither can they pass to us, that would come from thence. 

* tXKovadai, peculiar to St. Luke was the regular medical 
term for " to be ulcerated." Hipp. Ooao. Progn. 163 : 
(j)dpvj% iXKOVfXivr]. Hipp. Affect. 522 : rije KOiXirig Ttavrd- 
waaiv riXKOV/iivrig. Hipp. Morb. 513 : Trig Kixruog riXKOVfii- 
vrig. Hipp. Morb. 514 : 17 Se KOiXlr] vtto tov (pap/xaKov ov^ 



32 THE MEDICAL lAJTGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part i. 

eXkoStoj. Hipp. Praedic. 102 : KivBwog ry ts Kopy tAicwflij- 
vai Koi Toiai f^Xs^dpoKJi. Aretaeus, Sign. Acut. Morb. 15 : 
iXKovrai Se koX aprripia. Dioso. Mat. Med. ii. 126 : kvotiv 
dXKtofiivriv- Gralen. Oomp. Med. vii. 2 (xiii. 491) : )?Akw/i£- 
vrjv aprripiav. Q-alen. Comp. Med. i. 4 (xiii. 383) : eXkw- 
divTwv x"j«£0Xa(v. Galen. Comp. Med. iii. 2 (xiii. 577): 
riXKfOfxivov Tov SaicrvXov irpwrov apQpov. 

eXkoc, used by one other N. T. writer (Eev. xvi. 2), was 
the medical term for an ulcer. Hippocrates has written a 
treatise on the subject, UipX "EXkujv, 870. 

* Kara\pvxii-v, peculiar to St. Luke, ^jvx^iv and its com- 
pounds were very much used in medical language (see § 74). 
St. Luke employs four of them. Hipp. Coac. Progn. 132 : 
TottTi TTVEVfiaTioicnv iovtrt TTvperog iiaripov o^iiQ jusra viroxpv- 
Spiov ^vvTovov KaTa-ipv)(.^tiai. Hipp. Coac. Progn. 183 : -ypu- 
wovvTai SI ovu^ee Kai KaraipixovTai. Hipp. Ooac. Progn. 
126 : oXiOpioi Iv o^iai KaTWpvjfiivoiai. Hipp. Epid. 1210 : 
Koi TO fikv awpa ixsTpi<oQ KaTzipvj(Q-n. Hipp. Praedic. 70 : ra 
iv Toig (ppiviTiKOiat juEra Karaxpv^Bws nrviXiZovTa fisXava avs- 
fxilrai. Aretaeus, Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 68 : St' a Se t^sl koi- 
Aijjcri To ifxfvTov Ospfjiov KaTEipvxOri. Diosc. De Venen. 17 : 
irapaKoXovOii Karafopa fiera KUTipv^Ewg. Diosc. Animal. Ven. 
4 : Toirog ovte StuSriKwg ovrt TrepiOspfiog, aXXa /lETpiwc jU£V 
VTrepvOpoQ, £K St Twv kvavTiwv Kuraipvy/jiivog. Gralen. Comm. 
ii. 24, Morb. Acut. (xv. 561) : Kara^vxn ra uKpa tov awpu- 
TOQ. Gralen. Comm. i. 19, Humor, (xvi. 178) : ItteiSj? Se Iv 
Toig vaTipiKoiq Korii^VKjai to Trav awfia. 

* odvvaaOai) " to be in pain," is used four times in the 
writings of St. Luke, and nowhere else in the New Testa- 
ment. It was employed in medical language. Hipp. Morb. 
Mul. 663 : koI oSwarai TO re fJTpov. Hipp. Praedic. 110 : 
ilSivai XPV TOVTOvg Trjv KE(j>aXrjv oSvvwpivovg. Hipp. Coao. 
Praedic. 211 : Ik toiovtwv vTroxovSpiov oSvvtSvTai. Hipp. 
Fract. 758 : Sm tovto aXXorE koi aXXors oSwiovTai Ta npog 
Ty Kvvfxy. Hipp. Epid. 1122 : 'iXXaivev alvwc 6 oipOaXfjioc 
d^vvw/xtvoQ. Hipp. Epid. 1143 : EviroXtfioQ udvvaro ia)^iov 



§ XXII.] THE MEDICAL LAI^GUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 33 

TO Se^iov. Aretaeus, Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 63 : eure 70J0 
airovpiovai k^v inrtcFTi koi 6 \Woq oSwiovrai. Gralen. OomiU. 
32, Eat. Vic. (xv. 222) : odwuivrai X'^P'-^ ''•'^ irvpiaauv. 
Galen. Oomp. Med. ii. 7 (xiii. 315) : rrjc eAkwo-eojc 11 Siayvw- 
ffie EK Tov aa(j>iog oBvvaaOai. Galen. Comm. ii. 55, Axtic. 

(xviii. A. 490) : koi yap ra (Lra 7' oSwarai. 

St. Luke here also continues the use of medical words by 
employing two wbicb in their medical meaning must have 
been in common use with physicians, viz., x"'''M« ^.nd arripi- 
Seiv. x^'^H-"} X^'^J""^' ^^^ X"<^A"J '''^ere used to express " the 
cavities in a wound or ulcer," " the open mouth," " yawning." 
Hipp. Ulcer. 881 : koI Opofi^ov alfiarog iv roicn ^aCTjUojcrf jurj 
Eqv. Hipp. Artie. 797 : EKWiVTst julv yvadoQ oXiyaKig, (T\aTai 
(livToi TToXAoKtc iv x«<Tjiiao'tv. Hipp. Vet. Med. 12 : ^j^affjujjc 
re Kol vvaraypov koI Siiprjg 7rXi)pj)e. Hipp. Epid. 1020 : 
Xaa/xri, /3rjS> irrapfiog. Hipp. Epid. 1025 : IriTripiov ctuvexewv 
XacTjUEOiv, puKpoiTvovQ. Hipp. Epid. 1260 : aXvKriv, x^'^fi'tv 
(ppiKYtv oiivoc itroe '/(T({) irivofiEvoe XvEt. Galen. Oomm. i. 18, 
Humor, (svi. 172) : koi irTapfxal koi x^^f^"^'-- Galen. Oomm. 
iii. 6, Epid. ii. (xvii. A. 396) : KaQainp x'^'^f-^ ^at aKopSiviapbg 
yivovrai. Galen. Comm. iii. 13, Epid. ii. (xvii. A. 418) : oSrw 
KOI rag x«°'i"°e laaiTai. Galen. Oaus. Puis. ii. 6 (vii. 196) : 
01 Se (TKopSivLapol Ka\ al xacr;uat rije airjjc juev, aAXa pirpiai. 

St. Luke is the only New Testament writer who has used 
arnpiZiiv in the sense (here and ix. 51) "to fix firmly." It is 
used elsewhere, both by him and the other writers, as mean- 
ing " to strengthen," " to confirm." By the medical writers 
it is employed to signify a pain or disease firmly fixed 
or deep-seated in the body, or to describe a weapon firmly 
planted in a wound. Hipp. Morb. Acut. 402 : rj eg oKskea j} 
EC iffxi'a arripi^y 17 68vvi). Hipp. Intern. Affect. 559 : evioTe 
Si KOt kg T^v K£<jta\riv l^awivije oSvvri (mipit^st o^eijj. Hipp. 
Aph. 1250 : arap ijv TrpoTreirovriKog ri y, irpb tov votrieiv, 
ivTavBa <jTr\piZu 17 vovaog. Hipp. Vuln. Cap. 898 : d rvxg 
TO /BeXoc EC avTrjv ttjv pa<j>fjv aTtjpixOiv. Aretaeus, Sign. 
Morb. Acut. 2 : toTitSe fiiv ovv sv rig Ke^aXy to kqkov eotij- 

F 



34 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [past i. 

p'lxSv- Gralen. Comm. iv. 62, Morb. Acut. (xv. 847) : v " "C 
air6(TTnixa arripixOy- Galen. Oomm. i. 13, Humor, (xvi. 149) : 
iUTi Bi Bri Ti Iv T(^ fJiop'iijj) idTntpiyfiivov oirep evoxAei. Gralen. 
Oomm. iv. 63, Morb. Acut. (xv. 849) : eav sIq anoaTtina ttote 
avfifiy arripi^ai tov XvjywBti Trvptrov. Gralen. Comm. ill. 10? 
Humor, (xvi. 383) : rwv ek KS^aXije pevfiarwv iv ^apvyji arr)- 
pixOivTwv. Galen. Loo. Affect, i. 2 (viii. 23) : larripijfiivig 
CE Kaw £v Ti fiipog t(^ irovdj). 

There is one particular mentioned in this parable which 
comes aptly from a physician — that the dogs licked the sores 
of Lazarus. It is thus put by St. Cyril — " The only atten- 
tion, and, so to speak, medical dressing, which his sores re- 
ceived was from the dogs who came and licked them." 

§ XXIII. 

* liamg. * a<j)vpa. * areptovv. * t^aWtcrOai. 

The healing of the lame man at the Beautiful gate of the 
temple. — Acts, iii. 1-8 : Now Peter and John went up together 
into the temple at the hour of prayer, being the ninth hour, 
and a certain man lame from his mother's womb was carried, 
whom they laid daily at the gate of the temple which is 
called Beautiful, to ask alms of them that entered into the 
temple ; who seeing Peter and John about to go into the 
temple asked an alms. And Peter, fastening his eyes upon 
him with John, said, Look on us. And he gave heed imto 
them, expecting to receive something of them, Then Peter 
said. Silver and gold have I none ; but such as I have give I 
thee : In the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth rise up and 
walk. And he took him by the right hand, and lifted him 
up : and immediately Ma feet (ai (iaaeig) and ancle bones [to. 
a(ftvpa) received strength {iarepswOrfcTav). And he leaping up 
(eSaXXoyUEvoe) stood and walked, and entered with them into 
the temple, walking, and leaping, and praising God. 

*(3a(TiQ peculiar to St. Luke. The words employed to 
describe the seat of the lameness tend to show that the writer 



i XXIII,] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 35 

was acquainted with medical pliraseology, and had investi- 
gated the nature of the disease under which the man suffered. 
jiaaig is thus described by Galen. TJsus Part. iii. 6 (ui. 195) : 
TO 8' VTTOiidntvov Ty KVYifxy fiipoQ row TTO^oQ, i^ TO ctkeXoc o\ov 
iirlKUTai Kwr evOv, to koivov airavTiiiv Trodwv, 'iv fiiv livoua 
TOiovTOv, oiov KOI. TapcTog KoX weSiov, oiiK 'ix^i- ovjKtiTai S' Ik 
Tpiu)v ooTiJv bvofiwra kektjjjUevwv, aaTpayaXov filv Kot wTfpvr)q 
(TVVTjdtog TOig TroWolg, TpiTOv Se tov <TKa(j)OEtdoiig, vwo twv 
avaTOfiiKu/v larputv ovtw tiBevtoq. tovtoiq /j,sv /lovoig ovSiv 
avdkayov Iv X*'/*' fiopiov, aXX %(ttiv UKpifiug fSaiTEWQ fiovriQ 
opjava. Ta 8' aXXa TTavTU jiaaewg 0' a/xa Kot avTiXri\pe(t)g. 
Hipp. Artie. 824 : ri yap poirrj JToXXr) av ur\ T<j5v l(T)(lwv Irri 

TToXw Eig TovTricTit) vircpE-xpvTwv virip tov ttoSoc tj/c jiaaiog 

riv aWb)g IQiaQihdi Sta tovto oti jj jdaatg tov irodog Kara Trjv 
apxa'iriv I9vu>pir}v iariv. Galen. Usus Part. iii. 6 (iii. 194) : 
rj Kai Ti irpoataTi avTolg 'irepov irepiTTOTEpov we (ddaetog 
bpydvoig ; ov ofiiKpov ye tovto oiiSt to Tv\bv, aAX' OTrep 
fxakiaTa koivov Icrrtv airdvTwv iroSiov. The word was used 
also just as "base" is now in medical language. Aret. 
Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 100 : 17 Kiovie SiefipwOri iiixpig bariov 
TOV Tijg VTrepwrig (cat to, irapiaQfiia a\pi ^daiog /cai iTriyXiiiT- 
TiBog. Dioscor. Med. Parab. i. 214: al/ioppoig ek rije 
/SdcTEwe arroXvofjiivr]. Hipp. Fract. 778 : to fiivToi apOpov 
fxivEL £v Ty i(i)VTOv X'^PV' i-c^S yo-p v j3dcTig aitTtov TovTy itn- 
jOEXEt. Galen. Loc. Affect, iii. 12 (viii. 203) : etti tov syicE^aXov 
Kora Triv fidaiv avToii. 

* (T(pvpd, the technical term for the ankles, thus defined 
by Galen. Medicus 10 (xiv. 708) : to. Se wipaTa twv Trig kvjj- 

JUJJC OdT^V ilg TE TO EvSov pipQg Kat Ug TO tSfti) k^EXOVTa, 

crtpvpa TrpoaayopEVETai, to. Se diro tuv (T<j)Vpuiv Kvpiuig noSsg 
XiyovTui. 

* (TTeptovv, to make firm, solid, was, in medical language, 
applied to the bones in particular (so also crTEptog, e. g. oTEpea 
odTa as opposed to apaia oirra) ; though it was used also of other 
parts of the body and of the body itself, &c. Hipp. Epid. 1031 : 
idT av TO. oaTsa uTEpEwOy. Hipp.Yuln. Cap. 910 : twv St iraidibjv 



36 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LTTKE. [pabt i. 

TO oaria koi XEnrorEpa lori koi fiaXOaKwrepa Koi ovti irvKva ovte 
(TTEpsa. Hipp. Fraot. 774 : to. fuv yap apaiorspa tCiv bariixiv 
Oaaaov cK^iaraTai to. Bi arepiwrepa (ipaBiinpov. Gralen. Comm. 
iii. 34, Epid. ii. (xvii. A. 452) : Svvavrai Si koi vtto Trjg Trvivfiarw- 
aiWQ l^oyKOvaOai ot (laaroX Kadairep Ik rije aKpaaiag ri KS^aXfj av- 
a^vETai, tar' av to. oaria (TTspswdy, oinp iv toXq vaial ppaovTipov 
aKkripvvBTai. Galen. Medious 9 (xiv. 676) : laxovra juiv ovv 
tariv oaa arcpsa, oara koI vsvpa. Hipp. Vic. !Bat. 344 : 
(sfifdpvov) KOI TTjOOtrayarai rijv rpo^iji' cltto rwv sctiovtwv kg rjji; 
yvvaiKa (titIuv koi Trvtvfiarog, to. filv irpwra wavra ofioiojg, 'ioog 
apTi dpaiov sariv, vnb Se rrig Ktvriaiog koi tov nvpog ^ripaivrirai 
Koi arspeovTai, (jTspsovfjievov Se TrvKvoiirai tripi^. Galen. Epid. 
vi. Comm. ii. 49 (xvii. A. 1006) : 6rt p.lv Buttov eKivfiOt) te koI 
avviaTY], rovTsariv eirayri re Kai laTtpsuiOri. fiera ravra S' av^e- 
Tot PpaSvrepov tov OriXtog to appsv. Do. 51 (1008) : Sia 
TOVTO TO appev arepewTcpov te koi ■xpXwSEUTEpov koi ivaifioTE- 
pov yEviaBai. Galen. Medicus 11 (xiv. 712) : (jtepeoI vfiivEg 
Kai x"'<»''^fe TTaxEig sl<nv. Galen. Med. Def. 33 (xix. 356) : 
avviaTriKtv rifitjt/ Ta (TWfiaTa ek oTEpEwv, vypwv Koi irviVfiaxtov. 

OTEpEO. jUEV ovv EOTIV 6(TTa, ^J^OfSjOOl, VEvpa, fivEg. 

Here also as often, St. Lute continues the use of medical 
words. * E^aWeaBai, peculiar to St. Luke, was applied in 
medical language to the sudden starting of a bone from the 
socket, the sudden bound of the pulse from slow to quick, 
starting from sleep, &c. Hipp. Artie. 811 : on 6 te vtuTiaTog 
irovoiri av, ej e? oXiyov ^wpiov ttjv TTEpiKafnrrjv 'ixoi roiavrrjv 

E^aXcTlV E^aXXoflEVOV (TTTOvBvXoV EK 8e TOV OTTlddEV OV prfl- 

Biov TOiavTr\v i^aXaiv {airovBvkwv) yEviadai ig to Eitrw eI prj 
vvipjiapv Ti axBog IfiTtiaoi. Galen. Different. Puis. i. 14 
(viii. 529) : KaOairEp E^aXXo/UEVJie Trjg apTEpiag Ik Trjg (SpaSur^- 
Tog Eie TO Taxog. Galen. Tremor, vi. 6 (vii. 624) : to truyyE- 
vig rifiwv VEpfiov — XP^'^'^f'-"'-'- ^' ovofiaaw ova ifioig aXX' avBpwv 
naXaifov — KadaXXEaBai te i:ai (TvvwBEiaBai — e^w Se ^Epofisvov 
EKpvyvvcrBai koi l^oXXEcrflai. Galen, de Oomate, 3 (vii. 658) : 
to (Twjua piTTTOvaiv aXoybjg, E^ai^vtjg te koi Trapa^povriTinug 
l^aXXovToi airaaixov Sikjjv. Galen. Medic. Parab. ii. 5 (xiv. 419) : 



§ XXIV.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 37 

avriOov vttotIOsi vrrb t^v KE^aAijv /jirj yivwaKOvro^, iroiH Se 
TovTO TrpoQ Toiig EK <rKifnr6S(i)v i^aWofiivovg. 

St. Luke gives some medical notes of this case, viz., that 
the disease was congenital — had lasted over forty years, 
iv. 22 — and the progressive steps of the recovery, he leaped 
up, stood, walked, &c. 

§ XXIV. 

* iKTpVXei-V. (JVCFTiWElV. 

Ananias and Sapphira struck dead. — Acts, v. 5, 6 : And 
Ananias hearing these words fell down, and gave up the 
ghost {i^ixpv^e) : and great fear came on aU them that heard 
these things. And the young men arose, wound Mm up 
(avviaTEiXav), and carried him out, and buried him : v. 10 : 
Then fell she down straightway at his feet, and yielded up 
the ghost [i^iipv^iv). 

The very rare word Ik.-^v'^hv seems to be almost alto- 
gether confined to the medical writers, and very seldom used 
by them. It is also met in the LXX., Ezekiel, xxi. 7. St. Luke 
uses it three times — here, and ch. xii. 23, of the death of 
Herod. Hipp. Morb. 453 : koi ifikovaiv oXXote juev v^aifiov, 
aXXort Se TTEXiSfov, Ifikovm Se koI (jtXiyfia icat ;)^oX}ji' koX 
lKipv)(OV(Ti TTVKva, tK\pvxovaiv ce Sia rov aifiarog rjjv fieraaTa- 
(jiv k^airivriQ jivo/iivriv. Hipp. Morb. 447 : Kaipol St, to /jlev 
KaOaira^ eitteTv iroWoi rk uaiv InX ry Texyy Koi TravToToi, 
SxjTTip KOI TO. voafifiara koL ra iraBrjfiaTa Koi tovtwv Oepawiiai, 
iiaX Se 0%VTaTOi filv oaoiq r\ iKipv)(oviTi Sei T£ (L^EXijo-ai, &0. 
Galen, Humor. Oomm. ii. 22 (xvi. 283) : tots yap iravTu 
irpog Ke<j>a\r)v avat^iperai koi ra oKpea fxaXiaTa (liv ol ttoSec 
iKxfwxovrai. Aretaeus, Sign. Morb. Acut. 16 : koi IriTpirig 
aTVifiig Koi EKi/zu^Eie iKavr). (See § 74.) 

CTU(TT£XX££v, " wouud him up." This word is met with in 
one other passage in the N. T., 1 Cor. vii. 29 : 6 Kmphg 
avvEaTokfiivoc, "the time is short"; and is found only once 
in classical Greek in the sense it bears in this passage, " to 



38 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [paut i. 

eliroud." Eurip. Troad. 378 : iriTrXoig avviaTaXr\aav. In 
medical language the word is very frequent and its use 
varied : one use was almost identical with that here, viz., 
" to bandage a limb," " to compress by bandaging." It was 
used also of the contraction of tumours and various organs 
of the body, compactness of the body itself, &c. Diosoorides, 
Mat. Med. iii. 33 : to apOpov ^p'^ Se (jrtvio airapyavf^ av<T- 
TiXkuv. Hipp. Offic. 744 : vTroBtaig /xlv atrtJj wort rj atpea- 
TuiTa irpoaTukai rj SKirtirTa/xiva (TVUTeiXai fj avvcaraXfieva 
SiadTuXai. Gralen. Comm. ii. 14, Offic. (xviii. B. 761) : ry 
ol lyvvi^ (TvveaTokfjiivov rbv imSecfiov TTE/otjSaXEtv. Gralen. 
De Faseiis, 6 (xviii. A. 780) : Sivarai toIvw iTriSsaig ra fiiv 
a<pe(TTWTa TrpoortTXai, to. Se iKTCrpafji/iiva (TvaruXai. Hipp. 
Morb. Mul. 597 : we ^vvearaXinivov T£ afia to awfia tivai 
Koi tvoyKOv. Hipp. Epid. 1211 : Koi tpXi^sg wacrai at Iv rt^ 
irpo(Twir<jj} (pavepal ovrw ^vvs(TTaX/j,ivai. Dioscor. Med. Parab. 
U. 63 : siog av iKavwQ 6 ojKOg CFVCTToXy. Dioscor. Mat. 
Med. iv. 181 : koi TTTepvyia to. iv SuktiiXoiq avrrTeXXei. Galen. 
Med. Defin. 220 (xix. 409) : ra^ie twv xpovwv Iv oh SuaTav- 
Tai al apTTipiai irpoQ Toiig iv olg avcrrtXXovTai. Galen. Anat. 
Muscul. (xviii. B. 989) : al /xtv ovv cktoq Ivsg tv To'ig avwOtv 
fiipiai Twv irXevpwv SiaaTiXXovai tov OwpaKa, avariXXovai St 
at Sia fiaOovg. 

§ XXV. 

* airoTriTTTeiv. * XtTriSeg. * Evio-^vEtv. 

8t. Paul's sight restored. — Acts, ix. 17-19 : And Ananias 
went his way, and entered into the house ; and putting his 
hands on him said, Brother Saul, the Lord, even Jesus, that 
appeared unto thee in the way as thou earnest, hath sent me, 
that thou mightest receive thy sight, and be fiUed with the 
Holy Ghost. And immediately there fell (aTTEVEirov) from 
his eyes as it had been scales {waA XtmSeg) : and he received 
sight forthwith, and arose, and was baptized. And when he 
had received meat, he loas strengthened (evio-xiktev). 



} XXV.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 39 

We have two other aocotints of his conversion from St. 
Paul himself, in one of which (oh. xxvi.) he does not mention 
his blindness ; in the other (ch. xxii.) he mentions the blind- 
ness and his recovery of sight, but not the particular circum- 
stances attending it recorded here. He merely says : "And 
one Ananias came unto me, and stood, and said unto me, 
Brother Saul, receive thy sight. And the same hour I 
looked up upon him." St. Luke, however, records in ad- 
dition the circumstances which would obviously interest a 
physician ; and in doing so he uses strictly medical terms. 
* aTTOTriiTTsiv is used of the falling off of scales from the 
cuticle and particles from diseased parts of the body or 
bones, &c. ; and in one instance, by Hippocrates, of the scab, 
caused by burning in a medical operation, from the eyelid ; 
and *\eme is the medical term for the particles or scaly sub- 
stance thrown off from the body; it and airoiriirTuv are met 
with in conjunction. Hipp. De Videndi Acie, 689 : to fiXi^apov 
liriKavaai rj rt^ iivOu OTrrtjt Xittt^ TrpoariiKai, orav Si aTroirla-r} 
17 iaxapa, IriTptveiv to. Xonra. Hipp. Progn. 39 : ra Ss /isXav- 
OivTa Tov adyfiaroQ aTroTreativ. Hipp. Artie. 831 : olm fjir)pov 
fiipog Ti aTTOiriTTTei kuX twv aapKU)v koi tov ooteou. Hipp. 
Artie. 832 : ra oaria xpiKovfieva airoTr'nrTuv. Hipp. Moch. 
860 : al Se T(ttv ooTt&JV diroTrrbxrisg y av to. opia rrig ipiAwaiog 
y, TavTy airon'nrTovai (ipadvTspov Si. Dioscor. Mat. Med. 
ii. 5 : juEra Si TTjv cnrovXuxnv tov KaraKavfiaTog avTOfiaTOv 
cnroir'nrTti. Dioscor. Mat. Med. v. 182 : aTroTrivTU yap avTOfxaTov 
airovXwmg vyiaaOevTwv twv eXKwv. Dioscor. Med. Parab. i. 214 : 
airoiriiTTH iv rifiiwpit^ airoKripaLvofiivn v ai/jLoppoig. Gralen. 
Comm. iii. 21, Aliment, (xv. 348) : ra ofiola wiTvpoig dvo 
TOV Trjg Ke(paXfiQ SepfiaTog TroXXuKig cnromTTTSi. Galen. Meth. 
Med. ad Griauc. ii. 11 (xi. 138) : oircjg aTroiriarj Outtov ij 
iaxdpa airoTrTwaiig tuv Iffxapwi'. 

*Xiirig, peculiar to St. Luke; as is also *airo'jriirTtiv. Galen. 
Oomm. ii. 23, Offic. (xviii. B. 781) : iroXXuKig yap awoaxiSeg 
oaTwv Koi XiTTiSeg awoTriiTTovaiv- Galen. Med. Defin. 295 
(xix. 428) : iVfl' otb p.tv Kat XciriSag aTTOTriVrav. Galen. De 



40 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. [part i. 

Atra Bile, 4 (v. 115) : rb aw/ia irav irtpu^rivOriae /liXaaiv 
i^avOrifiamv bfioioig, Ivion 8e /cai olov Xting cnreirnrTe ^r^paivo- 
fxivwv tI icai Sia<j>opovnivwv avTwv. Galea. Med. Temper, et 
Facul. xi. 1 (xii. 319) : kqI tov Sip/xaro^ cKpiaTarai rt kuI 
aTTOTrlirTti Kadaiap ri Xiirog ri eirtSepfiig ovofiaZoiiivn- Hipp. 
Intern. Affect. 531 : Xiirldag cnro rije aprripltig airo^naawv 
airoair^. Dioscor. Mat. Med. i. 18 : fBaXcrapov avayii Ss 
KOI XsTTtSae. Dioscor. Mat. Med. iii. 4 : XtiriSag oarwv kutu- 
irXao-o-ojUEi'jj a<j>i(rrr)ari. Galen. Oomm. iii. 21, Aliment, [xv. 
3481 : a.(j)i(7TavTai Si Koi ai AettiSec rov Sipparoe nal viro rag 
XeiriSag rowog spEvOiarspog. Gralen. Oomm. 4, Apli. (xviii. A. 
12) : rj Koi TO Sippa XeiriSag iTrnroXrig a^iiv. 
On *£vtffxv£t«' see Luke, xxii. 45 (§ 56). 



§ XXVI. 

* TrapaXEXvpivog. 

u^neas healed. — Acts, ix. 33 : And there he found a cer- 
tain man named .^neas, which had kept his bed eight years, 
and was sick of the palsy {■irapaXiXvpivog) . 

On TrapaXiXvpivog see Luke, v. 18 (§ 5). There is here 
given a medical note of the length of time the disease had 
lasted. St. Luke gives this in other cases, e. g. the woman 
with a spirit of infirmity was eighteen years ill ; the woman 
with an issue of blood twelve years ; the lame man at the 
gate of the temple was forty years old, and his disease con- 
genital. 

§ XXVII. 

* dvuKaOi^uv. 

Tahitha restored to life. — Acts, ix. 40, 41 : But Peter put 
them all forth, and kneeled down and prayed ; and turning 
him to the body said, Tabitha, arise. And she opened her 



S XXVIII.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 41 

eyes : and when she saw Peter, she sat up {aveKaOiae). And 
he gave her his hand, and hfted her up. 

On * avaKadtZtiv, used of patients sitting up in hed, see 
Luke vii. 15 (§ 10). The use of this word in both places — 
of the widow's son at Nain in the Gospel, and of Tahitha 
here — points to the identity of authorship of the Gospel and 
Acts of the Apostles, as well to the hand of a physician as 
the author. Similar instances are TrapaXsXvfiivog in Luke, v. 
18, and in Acts, ix. 33, and o-uvExo/xEvr) irvpsTi^ (Luke, iv. 38), 
and ■KvpiToig (TuvExojufvov (Acts, xxvii. 8). 

The circumstantial details of the gradual recovery of 
Tahitha — opened her eyes — sat up — he gave her his hand and 
lifted her up — are quite in the style of medical description. 



§ XXVIII. 

* EKoracrtc. 

Acts, X. 10 : And he became very hungry, and would 
have eaten : but while they made ready, he fell into a trance 
(EKOTacrie). 

St. Luke alone employs EKcrrodfe in this sense, here and 
xi. 5, xxii. 17. St. Mark also uses the word, but in the sense 
of " wonder,^' " amazement." As a medical term its use is 
frequent. Hipp. Praedie. 94 : al jAv yap juEXay^oAiicai avrai 
iKoracTisQ oil XvaireXkg. Hipp. Coac. Progn. 126: al ev 
irvpETOim EKorafftEC (nyci)(Tai firj a<j)wv(j^ oXiupiai. Hipp. Ooac. 
Progn. 167 : ol Kara KOiXiyv ev ttujOEtoj waX/xoi iKcrraaiag 
iroiiovmv. Hipp. Coac. Progn. 195 : ai aiyCoaai iKaTaang 
ovx riavxaZovaai, o/ifiaai TripiPXiwovaai, wtiifxa ava^ipovaai, 
oXiOpiai. Hipp. Aph. 1258 : etti fxavii;/ SvaevTipirj rj vSpw^ 
rj EKorao-te ajaOov. Aretaeus, Sign. Morb. Diutur. 36 : 
fiavLTi. iKaTamg yap lari to avfiirav xpoviog avivOev Trvperov. 
Dioscor. Mat. Med. iv. 73 : wXtiovee Ss iroOivTeg EKorao-jv 
epyaZovrai. Gralen. Med. Defin. 485 (xix. 462) : tKaramg 
eariv oXiyoxpoviog jxavia. Gralen. Medicus, 13 (xiv. 732) : 

G 



42 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [pakt i. 

^peving fiiv ovv lirriv EKoracrte Siavoiag jUEra TrapaKonriQ a^oo- 
pag. Gralen. Comm. ii. 53, Praedio. ii. (xvi. 631) : kSv 
la'xypiijg SKaraTiKov tovtwv jiverai to TraOog, ov irapa^poavvriv 
awAuig, dAX' iKffraaiv iiKOTwg ovofiaZofxsv. 



§ XXIX. 

Death of Herod Agrippa I. — Acts, xii. 21-23: And upon a 
set day Herod, arrayed in royal apparel, sat upon his throne, 
and made an oration unto them. And the people gave a 
shout, saying, It is the voice of a god, and not of a man. 
And immediately the angel of the Lord smote him, hecause 
he gave not God the glory: and he was eaten of worms 
((TKwXijKojSjOwroe), and gave up the ghost (l^itpv^ev). 

Josephus does not mention this disease in his account of 
the death of Herod Agrippa I. St. Luke, however, had 
ample opportunity of learning on the spot the exact nature 
of the malady inflicted on him, as he spent two years at 
Oaesarea with St. Paul, where the occurrence took place. 
The term <TKwA)jKoj3(0&>roe, as applied to disease in the 
human body, does not occur in any of the medical writers 
extant. Theophrastus, however, applies it to a disease in 
plants. 0. P. V. 9. 1: vocrjjjuara twv aypiwv ov Mysrai. tHJv Si 
rinspwv ^iysTai vXtito, ra^a Se koi eoti Sta tjjv aaBivuav, S)v 
TO, fiiv avwvvfia, to. o£ wvofiarsfiiva KaOairsp t) xf/oiipa Koi aa<jta- 
KeXiiTfiog KOI a(rrp6(5XriTa kui (TK&jXijKo/Bpwra. C. P. v. 11 : 
iv ayivo^ hi fvTevofiiva iravO' ^ttov (7Kti)X»}icoj3jOwra Sta ts ttjv 
OepfiorriTa icat tjjv o(jfx{]v. H. P. iii. 12. 6, De Amygdala: 
vocrtjjua Se ovtwv tartv Sjcfts yripcKTKOvra o-KwXijKojSjoaira yiveaOai. 
The component parts of the word, however, are used by the 
medical writers. (5i[5pwGKsiv is applied to the eating away of 
the flesh by disease. Hipp. Pist. 885 : wpoaQiv rj ttjv avpiyya 
Sia^pwBrivat. Aret. Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 68: ariip koi ^X6j3ta 
iwl ryai vofxyai yiyvovTai 7repi(5pb)Ta. Aret. Sign. Morb. 



§ XXX.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. 43 

Diuturn. 41 : 6 Trvtifjuiiv avafSpwOtlQ virb rov SiavE)(9avrog 
TTvov. Aret. Sign. Mort. Diuturn. 70 : raSe to. Suva ^wa koI 
TycTi OTTO Twv KUTdj tvTEjOwv Siaf3p(i)(TB(n. Dioscorides, Mat. 
Med. i. 86 : KavOoiig ^E^piofiivovg. Galen. Comp. Med. i. 1 
(xiii. 366): 6 fiiv yap log ava^i^pilxTKU rijv iiXicoujuEvriv aapKa. 
Galen. Eemed. Parab. ii. 8 (xiv. 432) : Siafit^pojafiiva ofJXrj. 
<TKwA»)5 is used both of worms in sores and of intestinal 
worms. Dioscor. Medio. Parab. i. 197 : aKuiXrtKag Si sKfiaXXn 
KTeivH. Dioscor. Mat. Med. i. 105 : (tkwXjjkoc tovq iv wal 
Toiig em roig eXkeo-i yivofiivoig. Galen. Meth.. Med. v. 10 
(x. 352) : EffOTrr) ro ovg ravOpunrij) koi ffKtoXijKae 'i<r\tv, Galen. 
Temper. Medio. Tii. 10 (xii. 11) : roi/g ev wal ffKcuXjjKae 6 
XuXoe avaipsi. Dioscor. Mat. Med. i. 105 (intestinal) : okw' 
Xtikoc ts kol afficapiSag iyicXu^OjUEvi) ^Odpei. That «7kwXijko- 
Pp(OTog may have been a medical term may be inferred in- 
directly from the fact that non-medical writers express this 
disease difEerently. Thus Josephus says of the disease of 
which Herod the Great died (Antiq. xvii. 6. 5) : arjxpig 
o-KwXrjKae ifiiroiovtra. Of Antiochus Epiphanes it is said 
(2 Mace. ix. 9) : ware Kat ek tov auifiarog tov Svaejiovg trical- 
XrfKag avaZtiv. Lucian says of Alexander the Impostor 
(Pseudomant. 59) : Siaaaireig rbv iroBa p.ixP'- ''oi' /SoujSwvoe 
(cai oKwXriKUJv Ziaag. And Eusebius, of the death of Galerius 
Maximianus (H. E. viii. 16) : eW eXkoc kv fiadei avpiyyuSeg 
Koi aviarog vofjirj Kara twv IvSorarw (nrXayxviov, a^' Siv 
liXiKTOv Ti nXrjOog o-kwXj/kwv fipvuv. Theodoret, of the uncle 
of Julian the Apostate, states (H. E. v. 8) : avrov aiSoTov 

ffKwXjJICae ETEKEV. 

* sKipix^iv (see § 24(. 

§ XXX. 

* ewnriirTHv. * axXvg. * (TKorog. 

Elymas struck blind. — Acts xiii. 11 : And now, behold, the 
hand of the Lord is upon thee, and thou shalt be blind, not 
seeing the sun for a season. And immediately there /e^/ on 



44 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part i. 

him [liriviaiv Itt uvtov) a mist {ax^vc) and a darkness ((tkotoc) ; 
and he went about seeking some to lead him by the hand. 

* kirnriTTTHv is used of an attack of disease here only in 
N. T. The use of the word in this sense is quite medical. 
Galen. Oomm. iv. 46, Aph. (xvii. B. 724) : ov ravTov iaTiv riv 
STTiTritry tpavai Kal rjv e/xttiVt^, to ju£v yap £Trnri<jy fi'iav Kurajio- 
\rjv Tov piyovc StjXot to Se EjUTTIttt^ TrAeioi'ae. Hipp. De Aer. 
281 : Tolm Se TratStoto-fi' Iwiir'nTTUV otraafiovQ koi aa-Q/xaTa. 
Hipp. De Aer. 287 : oiote rove TrwjOEroiie sTrnriTrTHv o^vraTovg 
auracnv — tov Oiptovg iiriysvofisvov koi tov KUVfiaTog koi ttiq 
fXtTa^oXrJQ tTTiytvofJiivriQ tuvtu to vocrevfxaTa iirnriTrTsiv. Hipp. 
Affect. 530 : /xriiruig 6 irvpeTOQ eTrnriariTai. Hipp. Intern. 
AfEect. 543 : koI okotuv ipayy TO irvsiifia wvkvov eirnriTrTti 
avTi^. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 592 : Kai rjv vuTepov ti voarifia r] 
TTaOjifia tTTtTTEO-r) w(TTe TjOUT^ttiSfjvat to (Tw/ia. Hipp. Epid. 
1223 : )(tifiiJvoe Si ettItteo-e ttoAXi) oSvvri ttXeu/ooD koi Oipfiri Kat 
jSrj^. Hipp. Aph. 1251 : rjv plyog iTrnrvKTu TrvpsTt^ jujj Sia- 
XeiTTOVTi. Hipp. Fract. 888 : ri Se aTpayyovpix) hrnriiTTEi Ik 
TuvSs. 

* ax^-vg, peculiar to St. Luke. Gralen, on the Diseases in 
the Eyes, iripl tuiv ev 6<j>6aXixoig (rwiaTa/xivwv Tradwv (Medicus 
16, xiv. 767), gives ax^vg as one of them, and describes it 
(xiv. 774) : ax^vg Si iuti TTEpi oXov to fieXav airb IXicwffE&ic 
innroXaiov, ovXrj XETrrorarri aipi axXvwSsi TrapairXnicria. He 
accounts for the name, Comm. ii. 45, Praedic. (xvi. 609) : to 
afxavpovfiivov o/x/xa, KaOawep yt kcli to axXvbiSig avTi^ te t(^ 
KafivovTi Kai ToXg opuxri yiverai c^Xov. — etj koi oia Tivog 
axXiog oiofiivbj) (^Xiireiv — irpoaipx^'i'M Tolg filv Ka/ivovmv 
avTolg alaOrimg oTov axXvog Tivog iv Tolg axXvwdemv 6\pt(Ti. 
Gralen. Comm. iii. 13 Humor, (xvi. 412) : koi oxXvec irepl 
Tovg 6<j)daXiJ.ovg yivovTui. Galen. Eemed. Parab. ii. 4 (xiv. 
412) : axXuEc Twv 6(p9aXfiu)v. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 609 : ;r«jot- 
Tog icrxEf TO Gwfia j3Xrixpog koi axXvg. Dioscor. Mat. Med. ii. 
99 : Kai dxXvg aTToiTjuJjx"- Dioscor. Mat. Med. ii. 170 : Kadatpti 
axXvg Tag iv 6(j)9aXfjLotg. Diosoor. Mat. Med. iii. 102 : a'lpii Si 
axXvg Tag iv 6(l>9aXixoTg. Dioscor. Mat. Med. v. 131 : (Tfirixii ts 



§ XXXI.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 45 

oiiXag Koi ax^vg rag Iv o^OaX/^olg. Gralen. Med. Defin. 331 
(xix. 434) : vt(j>iXi6v ianv a.-)(XvQ ^ sXkwotc iTrnroXaioc etti tov 
/xiXavog. 

* (TKoroe and some of its derivatives are also medical 
terms, as applied to bUndness. Hipp. Vuln. Cap. 903 : koi 
?)V 6 rpiodiig KapwB^, kw. ffKOroc TTipixvB-^ Kai ^ivoq r\ kclL 
■n-lay. Hipp. Vuln. Cap. 908 : 'iweira tov avOpwirov on Sivoe 
TE eXa/Se koX (tkotoq koi eKapudri Koi Kariireae. Hipp. Epid. 
1149 : Kai TVTTTSL rrjv KifaXfjv TTpbg XtOov a(j>6Bpa koi avTOv 
GKOTOQ Kanx^Sr). Hipp. Epid. 1153 : 17 napOivog kirXriyn to 
Kara to jipiyfia Kot tots /liv kcTKOTwOr]. Hipp. Epid. 1217 : 
icTKOrtuflr) irXriyiiQ koi sTntre, Hipp. Epid. 948 : koi o-KOTwSta 
TTEjOi Tag oxpiag, rj koX VTTOxovdpiov ^vvTaaig fier oSvvrig jiyvi- 
Tai. Aretaeus, Sign. Morb. Acut. 61 : a/navpoX Tag oipiag, 
(tkotoISeec. Dioscor. Ven. 11 : k(1)vuov Se ttoBIv hrif^ipu 
(TKOTwpaTa Kai axXvv. Gralen. Eemed. Parab. iii. (xiv. 
544) : kdv ytvriTai to. ari/xtia TouTa, aKOTiafiog 0<}>9aXp.Cjv. 
Gralen. Med. Defin. 251 (xix. 417) : ri o-KoroSivoe toTi tTruddv 
rj Sid Trjg 6ipitt)g di(jQr\<jig k^ai<pvrig aTToXtiTai Sokovvtujv avTwv 
aKOTog irepiKSX^'^^'^'- 

The indication of the several stages of the coming on of 
the blindness, first a dimness, which is succeeded by total 
darkness, bears traces of medical writing. Compare the de- 
scription of the healing of the lame man at the temple, ch. 
iii. 8. 

§ XXXI. 

* aSivuTog. * opOog. 

The healing of the lame man at Lystra. — Acts, xiv. 8-10 : 
And there sat a certain man at Lystra, impotent {aZvvaTog) in 
his feet, being a cripple/rom his mother's icomh, who never had 
walked : the same heard Paul speak : who stedfastly behold- 
ing him, and perceiving that he had faith to be healed, said 
with a loud voice, Stand upright [avdarndi opdog) on thy 
feet. And he leaped and walked. 



46 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. [part i. 

*o8wvaToe is frequently used in the N. T. in the meaning 
" impossible," hut only here in the sense of " impotent," in con- 
nexion with disease. In one passage, Eom. xv. 1, it bears the 
signification "weak," but not in a medical meaning. It is used 
by the medical writers as it is by St. Luke. Hipp. Praedic. 
i. 70 : KOirwdsi, KtipaXaXyiKb^, SfipdoSu, ajpvirvog, aaafel, aSv- 
varijj, oicFiv rd roiavra eXttic luarrivai. Hipp. Ooac. Progn. 
125 : ot TrapaXoYwe, Kivia'^jur\Q fin tovarig, aSivaToi kukov. 
Hipp. Coac. Progn. 146 : ol KafaXaXyiKot, Sti/'tiSsfc, vTray- 
pvTTVoi, a(7a(j)kQ, aSvvaroi, tirl KOiXiy vypy KOTriwStEC. Hipp. 
Coac. Progn. 202 : TavTycn TrepX Kpiaiv Kara^opal koi adivaroi 
KtvtaXyiKWQ. Hipp. Morb. Aout. 404 : OKoaoi Si fiovoairiovai, 
KHvoi Koi aSvvaroi uai. Hipp. Intern. AfEect. 560 : ijv kuI 
aSivaroQ y dviaraadai. Hipp. Intern. Affect. 558 ; -KoviiTb) 
TTtpLoSoiaiv, rjv SwaroQ »}. ■^v Si aSuvaroe 13 vtto tHjv Trvpiriov. 
Gralen. Usus Part. i. 3 (iii. 7) : ^uov kuv in fiaXaKov kuI dSi- 
varov ^. Galen. Nat. Facul. ii. 9 (ii. 127) : eivep yap dSvva- 
roe 17 yaarrip 1<jtl. Gralen. Comm. ii. 39, Praedic. : (xvi. 597) : 

TOVe dSwOTOVQ KOI dpp(L(TTOVg. 

*6pd6g is used by St. Luke alone, the other passage 
where it occurs, Heb. xii. 13, being a quotation from the 
LXX. Hipp. Artie. 820 : opdoi Se ^aaov Voravrat ottriv av 
eg TO uaiii i^apOpj'iay. Hipp. Axtic. 824 : opOorepoi filv bSoi- 
TTopnaovai. Hipp. Artie. 838 : bpQa karswra. Hipp. Ulcer. 
883 : £(jTr)Kort opOi^ rjv Svvr}Tai lardvai. Gralen. TJsus Part. 
iii. 3 (iii. 181) : S^Xov on ovSlv er ekeivuiv rtjv a^rifidrwv dxpi- 
|3(Je Etrrtv opdov. IbaT thXoyuig tnrofiev avdpiinrov bpQov pavov 
"araaQai. Gralen. Usus Part. iii. 3 (iii. 182) : 810 tovto 6p- 
du)c iordvai rov avOpwirov. Gl^alen. Usus Part. iii. 16 (iii. 
264) : uTraffav yap rrjv iv rote ffKsXsiTi tSiv ootwv avvra^iv toi- 
aurijv iX<^v, o'iav 'iarairOai Kokwg bpBwQ — optioQ 'laraadaL Tri(j>v- 
Ktv. Glalen. Anatom. ix. 4 (ii. 728) : irpoairiirTuv iiwQtv, ovk 
6p9h)g idTavai. Gl-alen. Comm. iii. 2 Artie, (xviii. A. 494) : 
KaraKEJjUEveov virTiwv ovre opdug Eorr/Korwv ovre KaBrip.ivwv. 

See dvopOovv, Luke, xiii. 13 (§ 16.) 



§ XXXIII.] THE MEDICAL LAI^GUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 47 

§ XXXII. 



Diseases cured at Ephems. — Acts, xix. 11-12 : And Grod 
wrought special miracles by the hands of Paul : so that from 
his body were brought unto the sick handkerchiefs or aprons, 
and the diseases departed from them [aTraWaaaiaBai an avrCiv 
Tag voaovg), and the evil spirits went out of them. 

*a7raAXa(T(TE£v is used by St. Luke in another passage, 
Luke, sii. 58 ; it also occurs in Heb. ii. 15. The present, 
, however, is the only place where it is used in connexion with 
sickness. In this use it is one of the words most frequently 
occurring in the medical writers. Hipp. Vet. Med. 15 : orav 
ISpway Kttt diraXXa'y^ 6 irvptTog. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 608 : k^v 
a7raAXa<7(Trirai to vimpov vyiaivei Kai ri jvvrj, diraXXdcycrsTai Se 
eKTaiy rj tjiBofiaiy. Hipp. Morb. 458 : ol Si Bipfii^ iSpHiiTi 
lopovvTEQ Tayynpov diraWaacrovTai tiUv voGTHfidTbiv. Hipp. 
Morb. Mul. 616 : tjv SI irpog ttjv oiaiTav tjjvSe to pev/xara pfi 
diraXXd(T(Tr)Tai. Aretaeus, Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 50 : TraiSia piv 
ovv Kut vioi iraOuv re prjiTEpoi koi ditaXka'yrivai prjiTEpoL. Dios- 
cor. Mat. Med. iii. 161 : Trpormdlpevov TETapraiovg Si kol 
rpiTaiovQ dwaXXdaaii. Dioscor. Animal. Ven. Proem. : dXyriSo- 
v<i)v Ktti aAAojy kukuv aTraXXdcraEcrOai tovq dvdpwirovg avpf5a!vti. 
Gralen. Comm. i. 12, Humor, (xvi. 115) : ij 8s Kivwmg aVaA- 
XuTTti Twv voatipdrtov Kai rwv TraOHiv tov avOpunov. Galen. 
Oomm. ii. 56, Epid. i. (xvii. A. 155) : olaiv av ap^riTai 6 
TTOVog Ty TrpdjTy ripipq, TETapralot TTisZovvrai juSAAov ri Trtpn- 
Taioi, EC Ss Ttjv Ej38ojur)v diraXXdaaovTai. Gralen. Oomp. Med. 
ix. 5 (xui. 302) : rovTto 'iaptv iroXXoiig xpr\(iapivovg kcu tii\q 
voaov diraXXayivTag. 

§ XXXIII. 

* Kara^tptiv. * UTrvog jSaflwc- 

Eutychus restored to life. — Acts, xx. 8, 9": And there were 
many lights in the upper chamber, where they were gathered 



48 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [paet i. 

together. And there sat in a window a certain young man 
named Eutychus, heiag fallen into a deep sleep {KaTa(j>ip6fjisvog 
vTTvi^ (3a6d) : and as Paul was long preaching, he sunk down 
ivith sleep (icarsvExflfic airo rov inrvov), and fell down from 
the third loft, and was taken up dead. 

St. Luke here gives a reason, as a medical man, for the 
cause of the deep sleep of Eutychus, just as he does for the 
sleepiness of the Apostles on the night of the agony of our 
Lord — Luke, xxii. 45 (§ 56). In the case of Eutychus the 
sleepiness and exhaustion were the consequence of the heat 
and smell arising from many oil lamps (XajUTraSEc iKavai), as 
well as of the service lasting to a late hour — " Paul preached 
unto them, ready to depart on the morrow : and continued 
his speech until midnight." 

* Kara^iptaQai, peculiar to St. Luke, as applied to sleep, 
was so much a medical term that it was used more frequently 
ahsolutely than with the addition of virvoQ, by the medical 
writers. The substantive Kara^opa was a technical medical 
term also. In this passage it is used twice to express two 
different degrees of sleep : " it implies that relaxation of the 
system, and collapse of the muscular power, which is more or 
less indicated by our expression falling asleep — dropping asleep. 
This effect is being produced when the first participle is used, 
which is therefore imperfect (icaTa^tpo/iEvoc), but as Paul was 
going on long discoursing, took complete possession of him, 
and, having been overpiowered, entirely relaxed in consequence 
of the sleep (KarEVExflete otto tow vtzvov), he fell." — ^Alford, 
Gx. Test., in loc. 

The expressing the different degrees of sleep would be 
quite natural to a medical writer. Galen speaks of even two 
distinct species of Kora^opa. Galen, de Comate Secund. 
Hipp. 2 (vii. 652) : fir\ yiyvilxTKOvrEg on Suo dcnv EiSrj Kora- 
Aopag, wg o'l re SoKifxiLraTOi twv laTpwv ysypacpacn Koi avra ro 
yiyvofieva fiaprvpu, koivov fiiv yap afi^OTtpijiv ioriv, ort lirai- 
ptiv oil dvvavrai tovq 6(j)daXfiovg, oXX' ivditog (5apvvovTai koi 
VTTVOVV fioiXovTui, &c. 



^ xxxm.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. 49 

* Kara^speirdai. Hipp. Praedic. 79 : uq Trjv avpiov t^tS- 
pwaavra, KarEVix^^i^'''"- Hipp. Epid. 1155 : TrdX.iv eTreTcivsro 
Ti^ irvperiiff Kai KaTE(j)epeTO (cat avavdog j^v. Hipp. Epid. 1137 : 
ovTOi KOD/iarutSssg koI iv Toiaiv vttvoksiv KaTa(j)£p6fj.evoi. Hipp. 
Epid. 1085 : aXX' aXX^ nvi icara^op^ koki^ voj0p^ (5api(os 
awuiXXovTO. Hipp. Epid. 1109 : Kw/xa Se koX KaTa(j)oprj Kai 
TToXiv £ytp<7ic. Dioscor., Mat. Med. iii. 80 : virodvfxtw/iivog Se 
dvaKoXsiTai roiig Kora^Epofiivovg. Dioscor. Mat. Med. iii. 82 : 
Ktti rwv Karaipepoixivwv dvaKXrjTiKog. G-alen. Comm. iv. 67, 
Aph. (xvii. B. 748) : KaTEVtxdivrag tig inrvov irXr}poiivTai Trjv 
KEfpaXyiv- Galen. Comm. i. 1, Praedio. (xvi. 497) : kvavria 
avfiTTTwiJiaTa KoraXafifBdvEi tov dvOpwTrov wg aypvirvsiv te afxa 
Kai KaTa<pEpiaiiai Kar oXlyov. Gralen. Antid. ii. 10 (xiv. 163) : 
^S») KaTa^Epofxivoig koI aXXwc Sucr^^EpEi (TVfnrTWfjiari irEpiirETT- 

TWKOCTl. 

Different distinguishing epithets are joined to inrvog by 
the medical writers, one of which is fSadvg. Hipp. Ooac. 
Progn. 141 : inrvoi fiaOtEg icai ropa^wSeEC j3£j3aiav Kpicriv 
(TTffiaivovffi. Aretaeus, Sign. Acut. Morb. 30 : oiik avEu0£i^ 
KivSvvov 'irjCTig, virvog fiaOiig Kai fxrjKiarog. Galen. Progn. ex 
Puis. iv. 8 (ix. 407) : oIke'iov yap ^riporriTi to crvixTTTWfia tovto, 
KatidiTEp ye Kai vyporrjTi fSaOvg VTrvog tf Kw/j,a. Galen. Comm. 
ii. 63, Praedic. (xvi. 646) : KaOaTTEp jSapwjjTot to (r^jfjia ev 
TaTg fxidaig virvog Eori fiaBvg, ov £^e(tt£ rtjii jdovXofievtf) Kapov 
6vofid(^Eiv. Galen. Comm. ii. 63, Praedic. (xvi. 647) : eoi- 
ovv Tig TO fiEV ToiovTov wddrifia Kapov 6vop.dt!,Et- Trjv c£ cvaoiE- 
yspTOv KaTaaTaaiv KWfxd te koi Karadiopa'v" to Se Tp'iTOv ett' 
avToig, vTTEp ov TrptJTOv SiifiXOov inrvov fdadvv. Galen. Comm. 
i. 7, Epid. iii. (xvii. A. 540) : taTi S' ote Si a/xipit) raura 
(Tv/jLTriTTTEi, fiudvg Kai KiofiaTwSrig virvog. Galen. Comm. vi. 31, 
Aph. (xviii. A. 49) : Kai to'ivw inrvog te fSaOiig avTi^ yivETai Kai 
dv(!)Svvog 'iwdiv dvkaTr). Galen. Caus. Puis. i. 8 (vii. 140) : 
TOCTOurtf) yap fiiiov EirippEiv t'lKog eariv, 0(T<j)7r£p av 6 inrvog ■^ 
(iaOvrepog. Do. (141) : koi Sia tovto (iaOvTtpog inrvog avfi- 
TriTTTEi rotg TrXtiova yvfivaaafiivoig — Kai jSafluTEpov virvovaiv. 
Do. (144) : TOIOVTOV piv toi irdOog fi diroirXri^ia irepl Tag Kara 

H 



60 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part i. 

TTpoaipimv kvepyiiag, olov 6 fSaOvg virvog Iv tolq aifffljjriKatc 
ivepydaig. 



§ XXXIV. 

* TrifiirpaaOai. * KaTaTTiTrreiv. * Oripiov = 'ixiSva. 

The viper on St. Paul's hand innocuous. — Acts, xxviii. 3-6 : 
And when Paul had gathered a bundle of sticks, and laid 
them on the fire, there came a viper (ixi-^va) out of the heat, 
and fastened on his hand. And when the barbarians saw the 
venomous beast (to 9ripiov) hang on his hand, they said among 
themselves, No doubt this man is a murderer, whom, though 
he hath escaped the sea, yet vengeance suffereth not to live. 
And he shook off the beast {to Oripiov) into the fire, and felt 
no harm. Howbeit they looked when he should have swollen 
{irifiTTpaadai), OX fallen down {KaraTriimiv) dead suddenly. 

*7r[/x7rpo<T9a(, peculiar to St. Luke, was the usual medical 
word for inflammation. Hipp. Intern. Affect. 555 : koi l^oTrti'Tje 
17 •yaorijp aiipixai Kot TrifxirpaTai kol Sokeej Siappri(T£a6ai. Hipp. 
Intern. Affect. 490 : koi to Trpoo-ajTrov koI 77 (papvyS, Trifnr- 
paTat. Hipp. Nat. Mul. 570 : rjv Se Aexoi ai vaTtpai ^Aty- 
firivuiai, TrifiirpaTai koi ttviK ex^'- Hipp. Morb. Mul. 604: 
Koi oi firjpol TTifxirpavTat. Hipp. Epid. 1162: ' AptaTm-TTOQ 
le T-qv KOiAijjv iTO^siOri avw j3ii} xaXtwuig, aXyog KOiXijje 
Suvbv icai inip.irpaTo Taxi*>>Q- Aretaeus, Sign. Morb. 
Diuturn. 61 : ^vv yap TySt kol ovpjjrijpse wifiirpavTai. Aret. 
Cur. Acut. Morb. 118 : TrifxirpaTai to ^irap rije EKpoiJe OjUEpflsv. 
Aret. Our. Morb. Diuturn. 128 : TiifnrpaTai yap 17 ke^oXjj 
avTiKu. Galen. Oomm. iv. 28, Acut. Morb. (xv. 795) : tov 
8e wvivfiova TTtjUTTpacrflat — ukqt(i)q ovv afiiTpiag l)(6p.ivov Tclfi- 
trpriat TOV TTviv/nova. 

* KaTaTti-n-Tdv, peculiar to St. Luke, is used of persons falling 
down suddenly from wounds, or in epileptic fits, &c. Hipp. 
Cap. Vuln. 908 : ETrttra tov avdpunrov ots Sivog ti eXo/Be koi 
(JKOTOQ Kal tKapwOr) Kal naTiwtae. Hipp. Praedic. 98 : /jX/jjuara 



§ XXXIV.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 51 

Etr) rj KariTncFEv lovOpwirog -q tl £Kapa)0i^. Aretaeus, Our. Acut. 
Morb. 94 : ttiq eTrtXriipiag oAsflpirj /xtv 17 Trpairfurrj KaTcnrTuyaig. 
Aret. Sign. Acut. Morb. 9 : ml rdSs ivl ro kukiov tTrdyu, ivre 
aOpoov KaraiTEaovTaQ tig ttjv yvv. Galen. Eemed. Parab. 
ii. 2 (xiv. 402) : koI KaTaTrsaeiTai siirep kaXtj) rtj) iraBu 
[Epilepsy]. Galen. Medicus, 13 (xiv. 739) : Sto KaraTtitr- 
Tovmv oi T(^ irdOei ix°C-^^°'- [Epilepsy]. Galen. Comm. vi. 27, 
Apb. (xviii. A. 40) : £i; je t(^ iraQaxgrtfia Xsi'!ro\pv)(oivT(ov 
Kul KaTamTTTOvTwv. Galen. Def. Med. 256 (xix. 418) : ek- 
XvovToi KOI KaTairiuTOvcn Kai KaTWpv^ovrai to. axpa Kal 6 
(T(l>vyfibg iir avrwv afivSpog yivtrai. Galen. Ven. Sect. 9 
(xi. 242) : avayicaaOiig etti Trig ayopag 'iwg fiaarinJSpiag aaiTog 
SiaTpi\pai KaroTTEo-aiv tcnrdcrOrt. Hipp. Intern. Affect. 558 : ov 
^vvarai aeipEiv rd ctkeXeo aX\a KaTaTTiTTTH Kai ol rroSeg avrov 
aul }pvKpoL 

*Oripiov. St. Luke uses this word here exactly in the same 
way as the medical writers, who employed it to denote ve- 
nomous serpents, and of these they applied it in particular to 
the viper (E^tSva), so much so that an antidote, made chiefly 
from the flesh of vipers, was termed flrjpiaKij. 

In the four following examples the same medicine is 
signified. Aret. Our. Diuturn. Morb. 138 : to Sid tuv 
Oripiwv [Vipers] (pdpnaKOv. Do. 144 : ri Sid tuv Oripibiv 
[Vipers]. Do. 146 : 17 Sid twv exiSvwv. Aret. Our. Morb. 
Diuturn. 147 : ro Sid twv Bripiwv twv kxiSvUiv. 

Dioscorides uses OripioSriKTog to signify " bitten by a ser- 
pent." Mat. Med. iv. 24 : OripioSriKTOig (doriOiiv juoXiora Si 
sXioSfiKTOig. Galen. Natural. Faoul. i. 14 (ii. 53) : ocra Toiig 
ioiig TU)V 6r)piwv avsAKEt — twv Toiig loiig sXkovtwv to fiiv tov 
Tijg Exi'Svr}?. Galen. Animi. Mores. 3 (iv. 779) : kui oi rwv 
Oriplwv loi. Galen. Meth. Med. xiv. 12 (x. 986) : to ts Sid 
Tuiv l\iSvu}v OTtip bvofidtiovm dtipiaKrjv uvtISotov. Galen. 
Theriac. ad Pison. 8 (xiv. 233) : Sid tI 6 'AvSpopaxog ti)v 
iXiSvav fidWov v dXkov Tivd o^iv ry 6r}piaKy iTrifxi^E. Galen. 
Theriac. ad Pamphil. (xiv. 308) : Sid ro ex^iv avrriv rijc 
(TapKog TWV iXiSvwv ojvofiaerav avTrjv OtipiuKriv. 



62 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [pakt i. 

There are some other medical words used in connexion 
with, this miracle, viz., SjE^lpxEaOai, fltpjuij, KaOairTeiv, and 
aroTToe (see Acts, sxviii., § 98). 



§ XXXV. 
* TTwpETOi. * BvasvTtpia. (rwvExeaflat. 

The father of PiMius healed. — Acts, xxviii. 8 : And it 
came to pass, that the father of Publius lay sick {(ivvix°~ 
fievov) of a fever {Trvperoig) and of a bloody flux [SvacvTEpiq) : 
to whom Paul entered in, and prayed, and laid his hands 
on him, and healed him. 

The use of the plural *7riip£roi, peculiar to St. Luke for a 
fever, and in the case of one person, is quite medical. Hipp. 
Epid. 1106 : i(i\iov St St^iov oSuvrj l(T-)(yprj koi ol irvpcrol 
iTTtTHvov. Hipp. Epid. 1106 : to 8e aivoXov o'l re irvperol 
i^iXiirov KOI 71 KU)^(0(Tig ttravaaTO, iv tKaTOtrry riXeuig SKpldri. 
Hipp. Epid. 1120: ttXeupoO oSvvri koi aT-fiOsoQ kot i'^tv aptoTE- 
pou KOt TTupETOi, anidavsv airb tov TTupETOv. Hipp. Epid. 1115: 
AeoXkovc yvvdiKa irvpsTog e\al5t — owk CKOifiaro — TTUpErol ;rpoc 
}(Eipa Xetttoi. Hipp. Morb. 454: rijKErot 6 acxdsvwv virb oSvviiDV 
laxvpQv KOI aaiririQ koi jSiJXOC Kai irvpETwv. Hipp. Morb. 
493 : riv Se firj SvvriTai Kara \oyov tttveiv, twv avayovTwv 
0apjuaK(ov SiSovai, Tag Se KotXiag {nroxojpUiv 'iva o" re nvpiTol 
afifiXvTspoi Ew<Ti. Hipp. Intern. Affect. 538 : jjv Se aSvvarog 
y virb tHiv TrvpiTuv koi iaOieiv fif) ^vvryrai to. criTia. Hipp. 
Epid. 1083 : TroXXottrt Si tv TrvpETotm kuX irpb Trvperov icai inl 
irvpEToiiTL ^vviTrnTTev. Aretaeus, Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 63: 
rb hi eXkoc icj)i' firj apxjj0Ev KTiivy, irvptToig rj (pktjfiovg 
avriKEOTov yiyvsrai. Gralen. Remed. Parab. i. 3 (xiv. 335): 
oSvvti a(j>oSpa icaraXajUjSavEt rbv avBpwTrov, wg Si avTtjv koI 
TTvpsTOvg iiriyivEaOai. 

* Sv<T£VTspia, peculiar to St. Luke, besides being a medical 
term, is often joined with wvpiTog by Hippocrates. Hipp. 
Judicat. 55: oaoig av sv rolg irvpsroig ra wra KhxpiiiB'^ rovreoKn 



§ XXXV.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 53 

firi XvOiVTO^ rov irvperov juavijvai avajKri, Xia 8' ek rwv pivuv 
alfxa pvlv ri SvrjsvTipiri eTriyivofxivr). Hipp. Judicat. 56 : Xvh 
Si KoX TTvperof ri SvaevTsplr}. Hipp. Praedic. 104: ai Si Svo-ev- 
TSpiai ^iiv 7ri/p£r<j» juev ijv iiriw(Tiv. Hipp. Aer. 283 : tov yap 
dipiOQ SvaevTtpiai te TToXXai EjUTTiirrovcriv Koi Siappotai koi 
TTvptToL Hipp. Epid. 1056 : Xvit Si koi ■jrvpsrog koi Svasv- 
repui avEv oSvvijc. Hipp. Epid. 1207 : 6 'Ep«TToXaou 
SvtTivTtpiKog iyivtTO koi TrupEToc *'X^' Hipp. Epid. 1247 : 
avdyicy rou Oiptog TTvptTovg o^eTc koi otjtOaXiilaQ icai SvaevTspiaQ 
yiveaOai. Aretaeus, Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 35 : ec SvcrevTspiriv 
teXeut^. Dioscorides, Mat. Med. i. 89 : Trout arv^aw irphg 
SvaEVTipiaq. Q-alen. Oomm. 16, Nat. Horn. (xv. 158): 
okitTKidQai TE SvaivripiaLQ. 
(TvvE\scj6ai (see § 3). 



64 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 



PAET II. 

MEDICAL LANGUAGE USED OUTSIDE MEDICAL 
SUBJECTS. 

It is evident from the examples adduced out of the Greek 
medical writers, in the previous part, that precise medical 
terms are employed in the narrative of the miracles of heal- 
ing both in the third Gospel and in the Acts of the Apostles. 

But above and beyond this fact there would seem to be a 
vein of medical language running through the general his- 
tory, and appearing chiefly in the use of some words peculiar 
to the author, or in the use of others which, though not pe- 
culiar to him, are yet of more frequent occurrence in his writings 
than in the rest of the New Testament, and all of which were 
in common use with the Greek physicians. 

It is the object of this second part to establish this point, 
which may not meet with so ready an acceptance at first 
sight as that of the use of medical terms in the account of 
the miracles. It will, however, I think, appear clearly from 
a comparison of the language of the third Gospel with that 
of the other Evangelists in some parallel passages. This 
comparison wiU establish the fact that in these passages at 
least St. Luke strongly inclined to the use of medical words 
in his general history. 



§ XXXVI. 

* TrXrifxfiv^a. * TTQOdprjyvvfii. * avfnr'nmiv. * prijfxa. 

St. Matthew, in recording our Lord's discourse about the 
houses built on the rock and on the sand, says (ch. vii. 27) : 
"And the rain descended, and the floods came, and the winds 



§ XXXVI.] THE MEBICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 55 

blew, and heat upon that house; and it fell: and great was 
the fall of it," using the words — 

j3po\ri. — Trpoaiicoijjav. — eirtcrev. — Trrwffte. 

St. Lute, to express the same, uses the words (oh. vi. 48, 49) — 

* irXrififivpa. — *Trpoaspprt^ev. — * trvviirecre. — * priyfia. 

"And when the _^ooc? arose . . . the stream did heat vehemently, 
and immediately it/e^^; and the ruin of thatjaouse was great." 

Now all these words employed by St. Luke were in use 
in medical language. 

* irXrififxvpa, peculiar to St. Luke, was used to express excess 
of the fluids of the body — flooding. Hipp. Morb. Acut. 394 : 
fieariyv fiivroi otvfiiXiTOQ koX juEAiicpjjrou vSotp lirippo^iOf-Uvov 
oXiyov TTTveXov avaywyov icrri Sia rrjv ficra^oXriv rriQ Trotdrj)- 
rng riov wotCov. irXrififj,vpida yap riva i/nroiesi. Aretaeus, 
Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 59 : ^wSi^orai yap ic kvcttiv r\ 
irXnfxpvpa. Aret. Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 60: St^/zae Se to 
kpTcerov dripiov, ^v 8aK^ Tiva aa^zTOv Si^og t^cnrrH, Trivovm 
Ti aSriv ovK EC SixfjiOQ ctKOCi aXX' ec '")7v rije KOiXitjc TrXrififXvpav 
aKopiy TTOTOv. Aret. Cur. Acut. Morb. 121 : TrifnrXaTai yap r) 
Tbjv vs^pwv KOiXiri OTTO niXrififivpiriQ t<ov ovpcuv ov SiskBcovtuv. 
Aret. Cur. Morb. Diuturn. 132 : virvog iroXiig julv yap vapK^ 
rag alaOritriag Trig KE^aXij?, uTfiwy TrXtJiJLfivpq OKVOg awaarig 
wpri^iog. Axet. Sign. Acut. Morb. 26 : ovpov iTrhxiaig ovk 
kg TO wa/jLirav, aXXa (TTayStjv piv ovpiovai, ettiWu/xij) oe ffoXXoi' 
£K;^£ai, TrXrffiinvprig yap a'lrrOrimg. Gralen. Comm. iii. 36, 
Morb. Acut. (xv. 700) : wXripfXupiSa yap riva ttoihv avro 
(firiai TovTiOTi iiXr\9og vypov Tivog. Galen. Comm. iii. 38, 
Morb. Acut. (xv. 703) : TrXrip/xvpiSa Ttva spiroihi TovTtaTi 
TrXrjOog vypoTxirog. Gralen. Morb. Acut. 3 (xix. 189) : voaoi 
8e ai piv Kara afatpeaiv (jtOivovTog tov firivog avvETTiaripaivovai 
irpog to \eipov' al Sk kuto. Trtpiovaiav Se km, nXrippvpiSa 
av^avopivov TriiZovai to pdXiaTa. Aret. Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 
78: ivpilai Se ^Xijiig ov vXruipvpy tov a'lfioTog aXXa Tcjj tov 
Sip/iaTog iraxii- 



66 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

*(TVfnrlirTEiv, peculiar to St. Luke, was used of the falling 
in — collapsing — of the body or some of its members. Hipp. 
Progn. 36 : o^OaXfioi koXXoi, Kp6Ta(poi ^vfXTTEiTTWKOTtG. Hipp. 
Superfoet. 261 : oKwg avfiTrecrov to awfiariov. Hipp. Intern. 
Affect. 551 : ro Si yviov S,vfnriirTii raxiug- Hipp. Epid. 
1144 : Kol 17 yaerrfip ^vvtirtart Koi to. oiSrjjuara Travra. Hipp. 
Morb. Mul. 648 : icai ri koiXijj In-' IkeTvov tov xP"vov, kv ^ iSoKts 
TiKTHV, tirndav iXdy, airoSlSpt]Kt re koI ^vfxTr'nrTEi. Axetaeus, 
Sign. Morb. Diutftrn. 75 : rj Si 6 ttovoq iv roTcri vtipoiai tiaw 
nifivy ^v/nraTTTaJKy Se to apBpov adipfxov — Otpfiamri yap to. 
ZvfiirnrTWKOTa fiipta kg oyKOv ijyeips. Gralen. Comm. i. 24, 
Humor, (xvi. 201) : tha (^XtTriiv xpv 'TOTspov 6 rov awfiuTog 
oyKoe avfnriwTiuKc. Galen. Comm. ii. 7, Humor, (xvi. 238) : 
TO awfia avfnriiTTWKSv, looTTsp kottc^ tlvI vucoyfiivi^, koi oip tCov 
SvvdfiiiDv iKXvojxivwv. Gralen. Comm. ii. 25, Humor, (xvi. 
288) : iv pXv ovv To'iQ acpoSporaroig nvpETotg ia/xev avvrri- 
K£(j6aL TToWaKiQ TO (TWjua Kot csvfnt'nrTuv. Galen. Gomm. iii. 
33, Offic. (xviii. B. 894) : o n oyKog (jvixniTTTSi koI Traverai 
TO ipivBoi;. 

*pr}ypa, peculiar to St. Luke, was the medical term for a 
"laceration" — "rupture." Hipp. Morb. 456 : priyfxaTaTroXXa 
re Koi iravTola twv (j>\ifiit)v koI twv crapKwv. Hipp. Loc. in 
Hom. 420 : airo priyfiarog TTvptTOQ ov XaZsTai wXeiov rj Tpug 
fj Ttaaapai; ■i]fiipag. Hipp. Loo. in Hom. 415 : avTT) ij vouffoc 
y'lViTai Of Koi Iktoq tov irXcvfiovOQ paXiaTa fiiv airo pr\yp,aTOQ. 
Hipp. Morb. 493 : avafinauu vnoxoXa olov aTTO mSiov, »)v 
pn priypoTa 'ixy, ijv Si 'ixy kol alpa airb twv prtypardiv. 
Hipp. Epid. 1220 : priypaTog Trspl paZov St^iov 6Svv(i>psvog. 
Dioscorides, Mat. Met. i. 80 : 070661; Si koi irpog priypara. 
Dioscor. Mat. Med. i. 103 : odtv kuX (nraapam KaX priypam 
Kixi vaTipiKa'ig irviyopivaig appo^u. Dioscor. Mat. Med. i. 2 : 
TTpog irXtvpag ttovov koi BwpuKog Kal ijiraTog, orpo^ouc, 
priypara. Galen. Comm. iii. 17, Epid ii. (xvii. A. 348 : 
eXKog, Koraypa, pfiypa, (pvpa, &c. Galen. Comm. iii. 76, 
Epid. iii. (xvii. A. 763) : KuOatrep yi kol tu pi'iypaTa iroXXotg 
twwoi/vft yiviTai. 



§ XXXVII.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. 57 

*npoapriyvvfii, peculiar to St. Luke, is used for the rup- 
ture or bursting of veins. Aretaeus, Cur. Acut. Morb. Ill : 
KOI yap f5rf)((!)Sia ravra, virep^oXy re ?jjpor»)roc fUTe^iripoiai 
irpoaippm^s rag (pXe^ag. 



§ XXXVII. 

*(j>vaiv. *lKfjiag. *<TVfi(j)vsadai. 

In the parable of the sower, St. Matthew (chap. xiii. 
5, 6, 7) says : " Some fell upon stony .places, where they had 
not much earth : and forthwith ihey sprung up, because they 
had no deepness of earth : And when the sun was up, they 
were scorched ; and because they had no root, they withered 
away. And some fell among thorns ; and the thorns sprung 
up, and choked them," using the words — 

i^aviTuXe. — to firj e'xejv pi^av. — avijiriaav. 

St. Mark (chap. iv. 5, 6, 7) uses the same words as St. 
Matthew: — 

i^avirsiXs. — to /irj ix^i-V piZav. — aviPriaav. 

But St. Luke's language is quite different — , 

*tj)vlv. — TO /ujj e'xe'i' *iKjuaSa. — *av}i<^vu<sai.- 

Chap. viii. 6, 7 : " And some fell upon a rock ; and as soon 
as it was sprung up, it withered away, because it lacked 
moisture. And some fell among thorns; and the thorns 
sprang up with it, and choked it." 

Here we find St. Luke using three words peculiar to 
himself (the only passage in the rest of the N. T., Heb. xii. 
15, where ^vuv occurs, being a quotation from the LXX.), 
and aU of them of frequent use in medical language. 

*iKiiag, peculiar to St. Luke, was the medical expression for 
the juices of the body, of plants, and of the earth. Hipp. Morb. 
502 : ii yap TO (jUifia pji sAk^ awo rije (KyuaSoc ttiq Koik'nug. Hipp. 

I 



58 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

Morb. Mul. 688 : otto rjjc kojA/ijc eXKU Trjv (K/xaSa koi raxiov 
Kai /laAAov TO (Twfia rijc yvvaiKog rj tov avSpog. Hipp. Nat. 
xuer. 240 : koL afia 17 Bp\^ iKfiaSa fierpiriv ag rijv TjOO^jjv 

*X^' X&)jOEOVO-)JC £ie aVTTIV TTjQ iK/xaSoQ aiTO TJjc KE0aXjje. 

Hipp. Morb. 503 : ettJjv (payy KOI TTit} Kai a(piKr}Tai ri iK/xag ig 
TO awfia. Galen. Usus Part. i. 13 (iii. 37) : 17 aap^ 6epij.rjv 
evTog kavTijg i-)(ti ttjv ik tov a'i/j.aTog iK/xaBa. Q-alen. Diff. 
Febr. i. 10 (vii. 313) : wg EKSaTravijo-at ri|) ^povtj) ttjv iKfidSa 
TOV Trig KapSiag awixarog. Of Plants. — Gralen. Oomp. Med. 
i. 5 (xii. 459) : p6Sa ipv^ag kv aKiq ETTi fxiav ri/xipav ojote aura 
liova iKfidSa juij exe'"- Dioscor. Mat. Med. i. 7 : vdpEog. — 
Qv yap avvaTTOKttdaipeTai ti^ d^vpioSsi KOi aXXorpitj) to Eii^pria- 
Tov Sia rrjv ek Trig iK/xdSog titToviav. Diosoor. Mat. Med. 
V. 3 : aTa(^v\ri. — Sta to ttoXv Trig iK/xaSog dvs^ripdvOai. Of 
the Earth.— Gralen. Hipp, et Plat. Deeret. vi. 3 (v. 323) : 
TTcKTav avTov Trjv 'ificjivTOv iKfidSa irpbg aavT-qv rrig yfig sXkv- 
aaarig. 

*^v£iv, peculiar to St. Luke, is used in medical language of 
the growth of parts of the body, of diseases, of vegetation, &o. 
Hipp. De Carn. 252 : ko.) ol filv Trpwrot oSovTsg (pvovTai cnro Ttjg 
SiaiTtig iv Ty fxriTpri — Sia tovto vaTtpov ol oSovreg ^vovTai — ai 81 
Tpi-)(tg ipvovTai u)S£. Hipp. Eat. Yic. 541 : I? otvTrsp al vovaoi 
Tolaiv avQpiliTroiaiv ^vovtm. Hipp. Affect. 517: TToXvTToe 
^viTai Se otto ^XiyfiaTog — rairo fiiv oaa aito Trig Ks^aXrig 
(pvovTai vovarifxaTa. Dioscor. Mat. Med. i. 6 : vapSog (j>v£Tai. 
9 : aaapov (pvtTai. 14 : afiWfiov ipmadai. 116 : MvpiK)) 
^EvSpov fvo/xevov. 119 : pdfivog ^vofisvog. 

For the use of iKfidg and <}>vtad(u together, see Hipp. 
Morb. 498, in which he compares the juices of the body with 
those of the earth : iirrjv St fayy rj iriy 6 avQpwTog, eXkej to 
aCopa kg kwvTO ek Trig KOtkirig Trjg iK/idSog Trig EtpjjjUEVJje, Kai al 
TTJjyai eXkouo-i Sia tuiv ^XejSoJv otto Trig KOiXirig, 17 ojuoti) iKfiag 
T-^v o/xouiv, Koi SiadiSwcn rtj) aaifiaTi, Sxnrsp iiri tQ)v ^vtwv 
eXkei cnro ri)c yfig ri ofxoiri iK/xag tjjv ofioiriv. e^e' 7ap woe 17 
yrj EV kwvTy Svvdpiag iravTolag Koi dvapidfiovg, OKOua -yap tv 
avTy (pvETai, namv iKfidSa wapi-)^ii opoiriv EKatrrw. oiov koi 



§ XXXVII.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE, 59 

avTo TO <l>v6fiEvov avTt^ Ofiotriv koto ^vyyEvsg '^X^'-> ''"' sAksi 
iKaarov utto Trig yfig Tpo<j>riv oiovirsp Koi avTO inTi. to te yap 
podov eXKEi airo Trig yrjg iKfiaBa TOiavTtiv olov tte/o koi aiiTO 
Svva/xii koTi, KOI TO (TKopoBov eXkci OTTO Trig yrig iKfiaSa tomv- 

Trjl', olov TTEp KOi UVTO SwUfiSl EOTt, KOI ToXAa TTUVTU TO. <pv6- 

fliva HAkei Ik Trjg yrig Kaff" ewvto ekootov. el yap fxij tovto 
ovTwg ^^(ev, ouk av kyiviTO tu (pvofieva ofioia Tolai airip/natriv. 
OTOj) o^ Ttjv (^vofiivuiv Iv Ty yg iK/iag Kara avyyiviiav tov 
osovTog TToAAtf) TrXiwv sari, voaiu IkeTvo to <pvrov. otij) Si 
i\a<T(T(i)v TOV Kaipov, sKtlvo avaivETUi. rjv Si I? opx*)? I"'' ^*'9 
iKfiag Ttg <j)VT(^, ^v sXkei Kara to crvyyEvlgf ovd' av jSAoCTTijcrat 
SvvaiTO. TrapiyEi Se vorfirivai on, si jujj e'xei (KjuaSa koto <pi<nv 
TO (pvTov ov j3Aa(TTdv£j, &e., &c. See also Nat. Puer. 242, 
243, where k/xac and fviaBai are used in a similar way. 

* avfi^vEadai, peculiar to St. Luke, was the technical word in 
medical language for the closing of wounds, ulcers, the uniting 
of nerves, bones, &c., and is used in Dioscorides of plants grow- 
ing together in the same place. Hipp. Morb. 427 : vEvpov rjv 
SianoTry aTra(Tnov ttoui koI p.r\Tt (xv/ifvvai Smkottev. Hipp. 
Morb. 456 : rjv Se firj SvvriTai jutjte to eAkoc (TVfi(j)vrjvai to evSov. 
Hipp. Morb. 482 : oei ^v/x^veiv to eAkoc Trpog tov /jlotov. 
Hipp. Intern. Affect. 561 : oKiog av EVTog firj ^vfit^vy 6 xov- 
Spog, rjv Se ^.v/jitpvy KOt to. apdpa ^vfiirayy. Hipp. Coac. 
Praedic. 199 : rjv tvTEpov SiaKoiry twv Aetttwv, ov avfK^viTai. 
Gralen. Comm. iii'. 3, Fract. (xviii. B. 539) : otuv ^Sij to. 
eAkeg avfi^vEadai fiiXXy. Gralen. Meth. Med. iv. 7 (x. 304) : 
ttior' OVKE0' olovTE avfi^vvai t«^ priy/xuTt. Galen. Meth. Med. 
vi. 4 (x. 419) : kuv rolg aXXoig /lipEai avjx^VEiv to. Tpav/xaTa. 
Of vegetable productions. — Dioscor. Mat. Med. iv. 148 : pit^ai 

S' VTTEKn TToAAai, AETTral, OTTO KEijiaXlov piKpov KOi ETTlfiriKOVg 
Sxnrep Kpofi/xvov, avfiTCE^vKvlai. Dioscor. Mat. Med. v. 77 : 
(pVTEVOfiEvaig yap Ta'ig a/xirEXoig (jvix(j>i)ETai EXXsjiopog, &o. 



60 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

§ XXXVIII. 

* jSeXovij. * Tpf)/xa. 

In recording our Lord's saying : " It is easier for a camel 
to go through the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to en- 
ter into the kingdom of Q-od," St. Matthew (six. 24) uses the 
words — 

Sia TpvrrrijxaTog pa(piSog. 

St. Mark (x. 25) has much the same, viz. — 

Sia rije TpvfiaXiag r^c pacjtioog. 
St. Luke (xviii. 25) however employs a different expression — 

Sia * TprifiaTOQ *J3eXov»)c. 

The words used by St. Luke are those which a medical man 
would naturally employ, for (SeXovjj tvas the surgical needle, 
and rpripa the great medical word for a perforation of any hind. 
But still further, we meet with the same expression in Gralen. 
Comm. ii. 7, Offic. (xviii. B. 740) : ^tsavrwq St koi on pdfxpa 
roO SiaTprifMaTOQ ttiq fiiXovrig Sn^prip,ivov £v£Ka tov avvdysiv 
dWriXoiQ T/rot to fiopia tov diareTfiriixivov crw/jiarog. And to 
express the puncture made by the needle : Sia tov kuto. ttiv 
/SeXovijv TprifiaTOQ, Galen. Sang, in Arter. 2 (ii. 708) . 

*Tprip.a, peculiar to St. Luke, in medical language was 
applied to all perforations in the body, e.g., in the ears, 
nostrUs, vertebrae, the sockets of the teeth, &c. 

Hipp. De Carne, 252 : to. rprifiaTa tHjv ovcltiov tt/joo-ijkei 
Trpog oaTtov ctkXjjjoov. Hipp. De Corde, 269 : Tprifiara Se ovk 
iaTiv OVCLTIOV TTiQ KapSiuQ. Hipp. Log. in Horn. 408 : kuto. Se 
rag ptvag Tprifia piv oiik £ve(ttiv, cro/x^ov Se oTov (Tiroyjid. 
Galen. Oomm. iii. 104, Artie, (xviii. A. 648) : koto to piya 
rprjjua tov Trig nl^nc oaTov. Galen. Med. Defin. 252 (xix. 
418) : Siti rwv rpripaTwv Trig xnrept^ag. Galen. Theriac. ad 
Pison. 12 (xiv. 256) : rwv oSovtwv to. Tpripara. Galen. Anat. 
Administr. v. 8 (ii. 522) : Svo S' sari rd rpripara tQv tppevCJv. 



§ XXXIX.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 61 

Gralen. Anat. Adm. v. 8 (ii. 524) : 'ian S' ovk aKpijSwe kukXo- 
Ttpte svTavOoi TOVTO TOv Bia<ppayfiaTO^ rprj/ia. Gralen. Anat. 
Adm. vi. 13 (ii. 582) : to Tprifiara tov Tnpirova'iov. Galen. 
Oomm. iv. 6, Aliment, (xv. 390) : to twv ar airovSvXwv 
Tpr)fiaTa. 

* /SeXovjj, peculiar to St. Luke, is the term invariably em- 
ployed by tbe medical writers for the needle used in surgical 
operations. Hipp. Morb. Aout. 406 : inro9tlg to pa/^ifia T^jSe- 
Xovy, ry TO Kvap i-)(ovay Kara to o^ii rij? avixi TCKTiog tov jSXe- 
^apov ig TO KaTU) StaKEvrijcrac — ry [5eX6vi^ wg ira^vTaTov slpiov 
oio-UTTrjpou pafjifia Koi wg fiiyiaTOv OTToSijtrae. Galen. Comta.ii. 7, 
Offio. (xviii. B. 742) : wc iirl Trri\tOQ koI fipa^iovog koi p.r\pov koi 
Kvi]fir\g KOI iwi tovtwv avayKotov Iotiv tjtoi etti ruiv apiartpCov 
fiepQv Itti hi^ta Sidpiiv ttjv fit\6vr)V avdiraXiv — aWd SitKfiaXsiv 
TO pufi/ia jUETa Ttjg /BfAovrj?. Galen. Comm. ii. 8, Offic. (xviii. 
B. 745) : oil yap airXioQ SiSKfiaXXsTai rwv paTTTOfiivtov r\ 
^iX6vr\, aXXa jusra tov pdpparoQ aXXriXotg dfifiaai at^iyyofii- 
vtDv. Galen. Anat. Admin, iv. 2 (ii. 427) : koXXiov ovv 
virofiaXovTa jSeXovjjv XaTrTrjv Xivov E)(oi»(7av, £KaaT(j> vtip^) 
TTspiTiOivai /BjOOT^ov kyyvTUTW tov yivvog. Galen. Anat. Ad- 
min, viii. 4 (ii. 668) : jueto Se Trjv Taaiv VTro(5a.XXuv avT(^ 
/SeXovijii KafiirvXriv Xivov sxovaav, fjv SisK^aXihv vtto to vsvpov 
E^ug vTTOKdfiivov avTt^ TOV Xivov. Galen. Meth. Med. vi. 4 
(x. 416) : ETTEtSij (Tvp.<j)v<jai (jtprj T(^ TTEjoirovaiij) TO iinyaaTpiov, 
dpKTtov juiv diro tov Sipparog eEujOev Eitrw SiainipovTa Trjv 
/SeXovjjv — oiirttj Se koI to piv E-yyurarw tmv aKpwv ^hXwv oia- 
n-eipstv ttiv (isXovriv. Galen. Medicus (xiv. 786) : Xivov Snr- 
Xov Sid /BeXovijc StE/z/3aXXo//£vov koi Tr£pi(j(j)iyyopivov tov 
op^aXoi). 



§ XXXIX. 

* wpocrpavuv. 

St. Matthew (xxiii. 4) records a saying of our Lord thus : 
"For they bind heavy burdens and grievous to be borne, 



62 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part it. 

and lay them on men's shoulders ; but they themselves will 
not move them with one of their fingers," using the words — 

rt^ St SaKTuXtji avrHiv ov OiXovai Kivriaai avra. 

St. Luke (xi. 46) recording a similar saying, does so thus : — 

aiirol Ivi tuv SaKTvXwv vfiwv ov *Trpoa\paviTE toiq ^opTioig. 

" Te yourselves touch not the burdens with one of your fin- 
gers." Here we find another technical medical term ; for ipavuv 
was used either with or without the addition of SaicruAoe, to de- 
scribe the feeling, very gently, a sore or tender part of the body, 
or the pulse, as opposed to TriiZuv, to feel with a heavier pres- 
sure. Hipp. Aphoron. 682 : ^v to ar6fia tuiv firjTpcwv dicAijpov 
jEvriTai 7/ 6 av^rjv r<^ SaKTvXif) jvwaerai ipavovcra. Hipp. Morb. 
Mul. 660 : rjv TO (rrofia twv icxTepkov OKXripov yivriTai itiro 
^jjpatriijc, Tfj) SaKTvXcj) yvwau wapa^avaag. Hipp. Intern. 
Affect. 547 : -tpavo^ivoQ aX-yiu TO ^Trap. Hipp. Intern. Af- 
fect. 618 : Tffji Xi^aj/(j( CaKTvXij) iafiaTfVfiivov koli oppwSiovTa 
owojg fii) ipavayg ttiq vcrripriQ. Galen. Progn. ex Puis. ii. 10 
(ix. 316) : 77 /xiv yap irdZovcra Tijv apTBpiav £;ri/3oAjj rujv Suk- 
rvXti)v aa<pvc,iav tlvai Socst, 17 Se i7rnroXr\g tpavovaa fivovpov 
<j>avTa<Tiav eSei tov a(pvyixov koI r)Toi (iovolq hvo daKTvXoig rj 
Tpiaiv Tj KOI Toig Tiaaapaiv viroir'nTTOvTOQ. Gralen. Progn. ex 
Puis. ii. 10 (ix. 318) : d fiivToi ttXeovi \p6v(i^ TiJv SaKTvXwv 
iTriKup.ivwv aj3ia(TTiog, rt kuI wg ^avuv fiovov, iTavipxoiTO 
ndXiv 17 Kivj)(T(e, fiTTOv oXcdpiog r\ TOiavrri SidOeaig. Gralen. 
JJiii. Puis. 111. 5 (vill. 668) : lorw oiayiyvwtJKOfitvov avTov 
{(T^vypbv) spslSovtwv etti nXtiov Toi/g BctKTvXovg, ovk kirnroXrig 
\pav6vTwv. Gralen. De Dignosc. Puis. i. 7 (viii. 803) : kol el 
\pavovTig TOV a(j>vyixov Se fiovov, olov alwpovvTig Tovg Soktu- 
Xovg ovS' ovTOjg oiiSe/xidg aiaOavofisOa Sia(j)opdg — 6 Se Tphog 
TpoTTog Trig iwifioXrig, 6 fieTa^v tov OXifdeiv te koi ^pavsiv 
minoXrig. Galen. Temper, et Facul. Med. vi. 1 (xi. 818) : to 
fxopia TOV awfiaTog wv Trpoa^avaig. Galen. Anat. Administr. 
vi. 8 (ii. 570) : koI koO' 6 rate <j>ps<Ti Trpompavti KvprtDTai koi 
XeTov toTi. Ka0' o Se Ty KOiXii} Trpoaipavafu. 



§ XL.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. J,UKE. 63 



§XL. 

* ^xoe- («) 

St. Mark (i. 28) writes : And immediately Ms fame spread 
abroad throughout all the region round about Galilee — 

tSijXafv 17 (XKO}) aiirou. 
St. Luke's words for the same are (iv. 37) — 
I^EWopEvtro * ^^q iTi^X avTOV. 



[a) St. Luke uses aKo<), but in same way as the medical writers = "hearing" 
or "the ears" (vii. 1) : i\s tAs h.Koh,s toC Kaov. Acts, xvii. 20 ; ^evl^ovra ydp 
Tiva el(f<l>€peis €is toj aKoas rj/iSiv. Compare Hipp. Flat. 299 : tjv 5e es tos 
aKoiis, evravS' ri vovffos. Hipp. TJsus Liquid. 427 : epirriffiv i(r8iofj.ivoiffiv, ^ 
iv OKojJ % iv 'iSpri 1) varfpr/. Hipp. Morb. 447 : TrrjpovvTai koX aKo^v {mh 
ipxiflxaTos. Hipp. Offic. 740 ; koX rp &^fi Koi rfi a<l>f Kal rp a/co^. Aret. 
Cur. Morb. Diutum. 133 : riffvxi-n Ka! aKo9)s koX \a\iris. Galen. Comp. Med. 
iii. (xii. 653) : ffiroyyiov sis r^v aKo^v iTrtTtBifisvov. Do. 654 : fiJcTe xu^iy 
TrpoffwliTTeiv T^ TTJs aKoris irop^. 

The medical bias of St. Luke may be seen from the words he abstains from 
using, as weU as from those he does use, in respect of disease: thus he never uses 
lji.a\aKla for sickness, as St. Matthew does in iv. 23, ix. 35, x. 1 : irairav viitov koX 
Ttaaav /j-aKoKiav, since this word is never so used in medical language, but con- 
fined to the meaning of delicacy — effeminacy — e. g. Hipp. Aer. 292 : Sia r^v 
vyp6rTiTa Trjs ^vaios Kal t^jv liaKaxltiv . Aretaeus, Sign. Acut. Morb. 22 : 
eK\vcris, /iaXcuclri. Galen. Loo. Affect, ii. 7 (viii. 88): 81^ /icAaKltiv ^vxvs- 
Galen. Meth. Med. xii. 1 (x. 814) : iviore /iev iirep tov x'''P^<'<''i!dai rf ptoKaKli} 
rav Ka/ipivrav. So, too, he never uses ^aaavl^siv or Pdcravos, of sichnesa, as 
St. Matthew does in viii. 6 : irapaKvTMhs, Seivas Pairavi(6/icvos ; iv. 24 : 
■rroMiKais v6ffois Kal fiatrivois ffw^x"!''^'""'^' ^^ they are never so used in medical 
language, ^aaavi^siv in it meaning to examine some part of the body, or in- 
vestigate some medical question, and $d(ravos such examination or investigation 
— e. g. Galen. tJsus Part. i. 9 (iii. 27) : ians Z\, icplv avavra ravra ^affaviaai — 
irepl xP^^as ofcTOi /lopiav koASs iire(rKi<p8at, kokus iyvinKi. Do. 6 (iii. 9) : 
<j>ipe olv vpuTov avrov Paaaviaaiiev tJi ii.6piov. Do. 9 (iii. 27) : Kal Tav i,Wmi> 
fioplay airdyToiv t^v ^dffavov 'jroi7](r6fJ.eda, 



64 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

He alone of the N. T. writers uses the word ^x"? — Heb. 
xii. 19, being a quotation from the LXX. He uses it also 
in chap. xxi. 25 : rix°^^ OaXdaanQ, on " account of the noise 
of the sea," and Acts, ii. 2 : Ik tov ovpavov ^x"?' " ^ sound 
from heaven as of a rushing mighty wind." Now both 
aKori and ^x°? were used in medical language, but okotj 
was so strictly confined to the technical meaning " the sense 
of hearing," and to " the ears " themselves, that a phy- 
sician would scarcely have employed it in the meaning 
of a "report" — "fame" — when he had other words to 
express the same, -^xoe '^^ the technical word to signify 
sounds in the ears and head, and was also used sometimes 
for the voice. Hippocrates, Morb. Acut. 390, uses both words 
together: at oKoai rtx^v fisarat, "the ears are full of sounds." 
Hipp. Coac. Progn. 137 : koX Sia rwv ovarwv rjxovc Siaiacrsiv. 
Hipp. Morb. Acut. 406 : koX olaiv ^x<" '^'^^ ovarwv e/xttiV- 
TOV(Ti. Hipp. Morb. 462 : rriviKaiiTa yap ^X°^ 'iveariv sv rp 
KKJtaX'^ jSaprjKOEt St to fiiv ti vtto tov tawdsv i/io^ov Koi vxpv. 
Hipp. Morb. 487 : koX to. ra ovara r/xijC iT-XripEa yiveTai. 
Aretaeus, Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 34 : ^x"'' j3oju/3ot ava ttjv 
Ki(f>aXriv. Aret. Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 38 : ^x"' wrwv /cat 
j3ojuj3oi. Aret. Cur. Acut. Morb. 90 : jSapoc julvroi etti r^c 
KE^aX^e KOI ^ixoQ- Axet. Our. Acut. Morb. 132 : toSe fiivToi 
j3ap£oe Kot ■nx'^^ ^"■'■^ ai-Tia. Aretaeus, too, like St. Luke, 
uses ^xoc 0^ the noise of the sea. Cur. Acut. Morb. 85 : 
Kat atYtaXwii ^X"? '^"'- KVfxaTwv ktvttoq. 

It signifies the voice in Dioscor. Mat. Med. iii. 84 : 
iaauTai Se juEr' o^vfjiiXiTog apfioZiDv rotp VTEjot aprripiav, 
fiaXicTTa Si aTTOKOTTiXmv rJxo'C- Dioscor. Mat. Med. v. 25 : 
Kat TOV ?ixov avTOvov koX Xafnrpov cnroTsXti. 



i xLi.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 65 

§XLI. 

Matt. xiii. 22 : " He also that received seed among the 
thorns is he that heareth the word ; and the care of this 
world, and the deceitfulness of riches, choke the word, and 
he becometh unfruitful" — 

Koi aKapirog yivsrat. 
Mark, iv. 19 — 

Koi aKapTTog yivsrai. 
Luke, viii. 14 — 

KOI oi * Te\ea(j>opov(n. 

" And bring no fruit to perfection." 

Here St. Luke uses a word which is employed in medical 
language, and in it is not confined to vegetable productions 
only, but is also used of the human species, diseases, &o. 

Aretaeus — Tttpi Kaxe^ine — Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 54: 
wpr) Ss oil juijj (pipii ToSs, ovSl kg /ii»jv TiXsvrq, aXXa (j>0iv6- 
irwpov filv Kvei {Kax£%iriv), xfifXbjv riOrivei, sap Si eg Kopu0)]v 
reXsa^opu, Ospog 8e KTelvsi. Dioscor. Mat. Med. v. 2: a/nreXog 

17 Se Tig TiXiCTCJlOpd filKpOppU^ OVCTU KOI /IsXalVa Kai OTUTTTtK^. 

Dioscor. Med. Parab. ii. 93 : reXeor^optty Si koI fifj airofiaXXeiv 
TO e/ifBpvov Tag svoXiaOovg jvvaiKag Troiovai aTrip/iarog 
fiiXavocnTipiJiov kokkoi fia kv oOoviij) StOevreg. Galen. Oomm. 
V. 62, Aph. (xvii. B. 867) : ov yap oTovtI kaTi to i/'wi^porfpoi' 
awip)xa koto, ttjv '^v^poTtpav vaTspav TaXetT(j>opti(jdai. Galen. 
Usus Part. iii. 1 (iii. 170): tWoe fiiv yap ovov kuI ovog 
'iTTTTOv SvvaiT^ av Kai Sa^atrflai to airipfia Koi SiaauiaaaOai K<n 
TeXea^opnaai Trpoc ^wov /xiktov yivsatv. Galen. Usus Part, 
xiv. 7 (iv. 166) : ovTto TsXia(j)optiv to Kvtjjua. Galen. De 
Temperamentis, i. 6 (i. 547) : o-uk^c jusv yap aptTrj fiiXTiard 
Te Kai TrXtiaTa TtXt(y(j)opelv avKa. 

K 



66 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 



§ XLII. 



Matt. xiv. 3 : " For Herod had laid hold on John, and 
bound him, and put him in prison for Herodias' sake, his 
brother Philip's wife" — 

KOI Iv rp (pvKaiey aTrsOero. 
Mark, vi. 17 — 

KOI tSjjfftv avTov EV (jivXaicy. 

Luke, iii. 20 — 

KOI * KaTEKXeiae tov 'Iwavvrjv Iv rp ^vXaicg. 
" Shut up John in prison." 

St. Luke here uses a very different word {KaraKXsitiv) from 
the other Evangelists, and one which, as well as ottokAeieiv — 
also used by him — was much employed by the medical 
writers. It is used by him alone, and is met with again in 
Acts, xxvi. 10, in a similar connexion: icaJ rroXAoi/c riliv 
ayibjv eyw (pvXaKoig KaTSKkeiira, " and many of the Saints 
did I shut up in prison." 

Hipp. Loc. in Hom. 417 : koi to ^kijfia koL ri x°^v 
KaraKX-EiaOivTa aTp£fxiZo}(Ji. Hipp. Flat. 297 : IpEvyjuoi yap 
yivovrai fiera to, an'ia Koi to. woto. Totat irXeiaTOicriv, avarpij^Ei 
yap 6 KaTaKXiKjOng arip. Hipp. Praedic. 75 : ofifiarog kuto.- 
kXcktiq £v o^iat kukov. Gralen. Cans. Morb. 3 (vii. 179) : 
TTVpiTog i^a(j)uricTeTai, KaraKXeiaVHariQ svSov rrjg XiyvvwSovg 
avadv/iiauiwg. Gralen. Diff. Febr. i. 7 (vii. 297): toIvvv 
ajfirtaBai avfifiaivn Toiig /xiv iv rtj) /SoujSwi'i xv/xovq KaraKS- 
K\ti(Tfxivovg iv ev\ X'^p'^V- "Gralen. Plenitud. 3 (vii. 524) : 
KaTaKXsKjOdariQ iv avroXg Trvevixarwdovg ovaiag ttoXX^c- 
Gralen. Oomp. Med. i. 4 (xiii. 386) : /SXotttei Se ij Toaavrr) 



§ XLiv.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 67 

ffTvipig ipvffnrsXara, KaTaK:\siti yap avrwv tjjv OepfioTriTa 
irvKvoixra ra Ssp/xa. Galen. Usus Part. xiii. 12 (iv. 130) : 
El yap Kar£icXci(T0t) piv ^pa'xsiq. KOiXorrin to tov jipaxiovog 
apdpov. Gralen. Oomm. ii. Aph. (xvii. B. 670) : on KaOairtp 
iv aaKig Tivi Ti^ TTEpiTovaicji TO vygov KaraKtKXeKTTai. Gralen. 
Usus Part. xi. 12 (iii. 895) : rjje y\u>TTr]g Kadan-sp iv airriXaiift 
Tivl KUTaKXEiopivriQ T(^ (TTOjuari. Galen. Med. Defln. 415 
(xix. 445) : ^Ipog eotIv ri tCiv iropuv (fivaiKwv /cara/cXEiffte- 
Galen, too, speaking of a person in prison, uses this word. 
Comp. Med. v. 2 (xiii. 776) : ev dpKTy KaTaKeK\siafiivog. 



§ XLIII. 

vyiaiveiv. 

Our Lord's saying, " Thei/ that are whole need not a 
physician, but they that are sick," is thus expressed by the 
first three Evangelists : — 

Matt. ix. 12— 

ov xpeiav s)(OV(tiv ol ia)(iovTEg larpov. 
Mark, ii. 17 — 

ov xpdav ET^ovfftv ol IcfxyovTig laTpov. 
Luke, V. 31 — 

oil ■xpdav ixpvaiv ol vytaivovTsg iuTpov. 

St. Luke uses the medical term for " to be in good health." 
See vyiaivuv, Luke vii. 10 (§ 9). 

§ XLIV. 

*£7r«j3AE'7rEtV. 

In the account of the healing of the demoniac child, 
St. Matthew, xvii. 15, gives as the words of the child's 
father: "Lord have mercy on my son": 



Kvpii, eXeJJO-OV pOV TOV vlov. 



68 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

St. Mark, ix. 17— 

AtSatTKaXE, ^viyKU tov viov fiov irpog tre. 

"Master, I have brought unto thee my son." 

St. Luke, ix. 38— 

AtSatTKaXc, Skofiai aov, * eTn(iX.(\pai knl rov viov fiov. 
" Master, I beseech thee, look upon my son." 

St. Luke uses the medical word, sTrifiXiirstv, "to look into 
a sick person's state and condition." See ETrtjSXtn-ftv (§ 15). 

§ XLV. 

*7rjOO(Ta7£JV. 

In the same miracle our Lord orders the child to be 
brought to him. St. Matthew (xvii. 17) gives the words — 

^spETe fioi avTov SiSe. 

Mark, ix. 19— 

^ipiTE aVTOV TTpOC )lt£. 

Luke, ix. 41 — 

*'irpO(Tayay£ JJSa tov viov ctov. 

St. Luke employs a word {Trpocdytiv) which was used of 
bringing patients to a physician. See Luke, xviii. 40 (§ 19). 

§ XLVI. 



In the account of the miraculous feeding of the five 
thousand we have (Matt. xiv. 19) — 

KsXfvaag tovq 6)(Xovq avaKXiQrivai. 

" He commanded the multitude to sit down." 



§ XLTi.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 69 

Mark, vi. 39— 

iTrira^sv avrolg avaKXlvai Travrag. ^ 

" He oommanded them to make all sit down." 
John, vi. 10 — 

irotTjffOTE Toiig avupuiirovg avaTTEtTEiv. 

" Make the men sit down." 
Luke, ix. 14 — 

* KaroKXivarE avroiiQ — ical aviKXivav anavrag. 

" Make them sit down — and they made them all sit 
down." 

St. Luke here, though using avuKXivnv, as St. Matthew 
and St. Mark, yet uses * KaraKXtvuv also. He alone of the 
New Testament authors employs it ; and in the other places 
where he does so it is in, the passive (vii. 36, xiv. 8, xxiv. 30), 
which was a usual way for expressing "to lie down at table." 
In the active voice, as here, however, it was the medical term 
for laying patients, or causing them to He, in bed — placing 
them in certain positions during operations — ^making them 
recline in a bath, &c. Aristophanes thus uses it of laying a 
sick man on a couch in the temple of Aesculapius, to sleep 
there and be cured. Plut. 411 : KaraicXivEtv avrov eIq 
' AaK\r)Triov Kpariarov kcrri. Vesp. 123 : vvKTwp KOTEKXtvEv 
avTOv ilg ' AaKXriTTiov. 

Hipp. Morb. Acut. 399: KaTOKXivuv Se ec Ko(j>tpa olicnuaTa 
icat KaraKEKXladat wg etti juaXflaKwrarotcri aTpw/iaai TrXslffTOV 
■Xpovov. Hipp. Morb. 468 : Birsira aXsiipag aXEi^art TroXXtjt 
KaraKXlvai kg arpw/iara fiaXOaKojg. Hipp. Morb. 474 : koi 
KaraKXivag iirifiaXXsiv i/xaTia sojg idpwcri}. Hipp. Intern. 
Affect. 561 : t^rsiTa KaraKXivag IjujSar^. Hipp. Nat. Mul. 
564 : rp 81 avpiov KaraKXivag etti ro Itr^tov aiKvrjv Trpoa- 
^aXXuv — KaraKXivag ka. Hipp. Nat. Mul. 571 : ettjjv Se 
TTvpiriayg, Sovvai iriuv koi w? ra^iara Xovaavra KaraKXlvai. 
Hipp. Artie. 781 : ■)(pfj Se rov p.ev avdpwirov X"]""' KaraKXlvai 



70 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

iiTTTiov. Dioscor. Medic. Parab. ii. 56 : KuraKXivai Se ev 
Oepfi(^ o'/k(j) Koi irXsioaiv ifiaTioig XP'^' Galen. Meth Med. 
X. 3 (x. 673) : KarlicXivE tote icai ricrvxaZi Sjpag rrxi^ov ri r^e 
Vfiipae ivSiKUTrig. Gralen. Med. Parab. i. 4 (xiv. 337) : [3aT- 
paxdtg X^^V J"^''" H^XiTog kyxf/JLaril^e dg t^v ptva vtttiov 
KaTUKkivag. 



§ XLYII. 



*x 



aTroOXifSsiv. 



In Mark, v. 31, we read: "Thou seest the multitude 
thronging thee" — 

PXiTTSig Tov ox^ov ffwOXi^ovTu ae. 

Luke viii. 45 — 

ol oxXoi avvix'^^'^'- "■' ""' * «TO0Xi/3ou<rj. 

"The' multitude throng thee and. press thee." 

St. Luke alone uses * airoOXijieiv. Some of the compounds 
of QXifiiiv were much used in medical language, and those 
most frequently used were cnroOXi^tiv and EKflAtjSetv, but 
never avvQXi^uv. when the force of the nvv was required, 
the medical writers employed awiK^Xl^iiv and (jvvaTroOXi^tiv. 

Hipp. Nat. Puer. 242: to yXuKoivojuevov otto Trig OippVQ 
Trig ^irb t(>iv firiTpitov anoOXtfioiiEvov Ejo^etoi slg Toiig p.aZ,ovg. 
Galen. Oomm.i.lO,Progn. (xviii.B.47): UaTtpaig yap awodXi- 
jSsTat TO alfjia Trpbg Tag Iv rote 6(j>6aXfioig (j)Xi^ag. Galen. 
Comm. ii. 55, R-act. (xviii. B. 490) : irpocreTniTKOTrovfiavog to 
vEvpwSeg aiiTwv Kot iiiaicrOriTov, ^ttov yap cnroliXifitadai j3ov- 
Xerai. Galen. TJsus Part. v. 13 (iii. 390) : tl /cat iraw Tig 
l(TXvp(i)g e2(«j0£v aTToflXijSoi T17V KvuTiv- Galcu. Oomp. Mcd. vii. 
5 (xiii.94): Eira CKpe^pficrag airodXt^i /jlitu tu)v Xoittwv kuI ovtu) 
fiiyvvi. Galen. Comp. Med. vii. 10 (xiii. 1003) : 8t' bQoviov 
TOV x'^Xbv arrodXi^ag e^e. Galen. Antid. ii. 17 (xiv. 203) : 
KOI rote ^vXXoig Totg aTroTEOXi/xfiivoig to Tpav/ia KaTairXaaas. 



§ xLvm.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 71 

Dioscor. Mat. Med. i. 39 : tig to aTroTBOXififiivov KoriXriv 
vSarog fiiav kirix^ag- Dioscor. Mat. Med. iv. 161 : e? ov 
cnroOXi^aTaL to Xsyofievov kikivov iXaiov. Diosoor. Medic. 
Parab. ii. 71 : 6 airoOX/jdeig x^^oe- 



§ XLVIII. 

* irapaSo^ov. 

St. Matthew (ix. 8) states that the multitude who had 
witnessed the healing of a paralytic " glorified God, who had 
given such power unto men." 

St. Mark (ii. 12) says — "They were all amazed, and 
glorified Grod, saying, We never saw it on this fashion " — 

on ovotTTOTe ovtuq eioojuev. 

St. Luke (v. 26) says — " They glorified God, and were 
filled with fear, saying, We have seen strange things to- 
day"- 

on i'lSofitv * irapddo^a crri/iepov. 

* wapaSo^ov is used by St. Luke alone of the N. T. 
writers, and is the very word we would expect a physician to 
employ in reference to the healing of the paralytic ; for in 
medical language it was used of an unusual or unexpected 
recovery from Ulness, or an unexpected death, wonderful 
benefit derived from a medicine, &c., &c. Hipp. Epid. 1153: 
tIq TTapa Tov (iovfiwva TrXrijsig ToS,£VfiaTi, ov rifielg EtopaKa/isv 
TrapaSoSorara katiOr}. Galen. Oomm. iii. 4, Epid. i. (xvii. 
A. 273) : £1 Ik wapaBo^ov Tiva afjivBpav eXTriSa o-oirijpiac- 
Galen. Oomm. iii. 34, Epid. iii. (xvii. A. 688) : Sion (jiraviov 
T£ KoX TTapdSo^ov avTolc avvejir) Kada;rEp to tov KWfiuToc oSrw 
Kol TO tov TTvpeTov. Galcn. Oomm. iv. 34, Aph. (xvii. B. 703): 
we jurjS' iK irapaSo^ov irore aioOrivai, tT(j)oSpov KarEXOiroc tov 
KUfivovTa TTvpETov. Galcn. Oomp. Med. ii. 22 (xiii. 558) : 



72 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

iTCpOV Bi iTTL TO flETafpOVOV TTUpaSo^Wg ETTEX'' ''O CUfia. Galeil. 

Oomp. Med. iii. 2 (xiii. 586) : oktte axOrjvai irpbg i/ie tov 
avOpwirov u)g etti TrapaSo^tj) t(^ (TUjuj3£j3j)Kort. Galen. Thenac. 
ad Pamphil. (xiv. 305) : etti tuvtwv i? avriSoroQ invofiivr) 
Trapa^o^iiiQ KaropOol. Q-alen. Eemed. Parab. ii. 24 (xiv. 473) : 
SiSov ipayeiv avvwoirTijjg, Trapaco^wg iroisi. Galen. Cans. 
Symph. i. 2 (vii. 100) : TrapaSo^ov ptv Toi n km. ovk uQiafik- 
vu)Q yiyvopivov etti iraiSbg kOtaaapaOa vvyevrog ypa(j)doj) Kara 
TTjv Kopijv. Galen. DifE. Eespir. ii. 10 (vii. 870) : Savrtpaiov 
yap cnroOavovTOQ TrapaSo^oraTbig. 

Compare the use of aroiroe, Acts, xxviii. (§ 98.) 



§ XLIX. 

* SiavorifiaTa. 

Matt. xii. 24, &c. — "But when the Pharisees heard it, 
they said. This fellow doth not cast out devils, hut by Beel- 
zebub the prince of the devils. And Jesus knew their 
thoughts, and said unto them. Every kingdom divided against 
itself is brought to desolation ; and every city or house di- 
vided against itself shall not stand : and if Satan cast out 
Satan, he is divided against himself; how shall then his 
kingdom stand?" — 

EiSwe Se 6 'Itiaovg rag ivBv/xriaeig avruiv. 

Luke, xi. 17 — 

avTog Si tiSwg avrwv ra *Siavo»j/xara. 

The word used by St. Luke (* Stavo^juara) to express the 
groundless notion of the Pharisees was employed in medical 
language to denote the whims and fancies of the sick. 

Hipp. Epid. 959 : ra Se Trspi to. vovari/iara e2 wv Siayivu)- 
(TKOixev fiauovTsg ek rije KOiv^e (pvaiog airavTwv koi Trjg tSiije 
iKauTOV £K TOV vov(TiipaTog £K TOV voaiovTog — EK rfjc KUTaaTacyiog 
oXrig Koi Kara fiipea tCiv ovpaviwv Kai )^wprig EKaoTi)?, ek tov 
iOaog, EK r^c SiaiTi)g, ek twv En-trrjSsu/xarwv, ek ttiq riXiKtag 



§ L.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 7S 

iKacTTOv, XoyottTi, TpoTTOicrt, cFiyy, oiavofifxam, VTrvoiiri, ov)(^ 
virvoKTi, ivvirviotai rien. 

Galen gives us an illustration of what was meant in me- 
dical language by SiavorifxaTa, in the case of a patient who, 
when Gralen visited him early in the morning, told him that he 
had lain awake all night contemplating the consequences that 
would ensue if Atlas thought himself tired, and objected to 
support the heavens any longer. Gralen. Comm. iii. 1, Epid. i. 
(xvii. A. 213): elwibv SiavorifiaTa oiiK aiaOrjTOv oiioe (j>aiv6fiivov 
kSriXwatv, aW 8k TSKjUTijOtwv tvpKTKOfXEvov wpajixa. TCK/jiripiov Ss 
EOTiv 6 aTro(j)Oi'yyovTai ts koi irpaTTOVcjiv oi KaflvovTsg, Trapa- 
-/Bvofxsvo^ -yoSv Tig rifiwv eojOev, wg tOog, etti tjjv iTrioKiipiv 
avTov Si' oXrje e^»? t^C vvktoq riypvirvriKivai, (TKOTrovfievog, si 
So^Eie Tt^" ArXavTi Kafivovri /xijketi jSao-Ta^Etv tov ovpavbv, o ti 
TTOT av avfi^aivQ. tovto uttovtoq ovtov avvriKafiiv apxvv 
Tiva fieXayxoXiag elvai. 

§L. 

* VTTOaTpWVVVfll. 

Matt. xxi. 8 — " And a very great multitude spread their 
garments ia the way." — 

'iarpwcrav kavTwv ra ifiaria. 

Mark, xi. 8 — 

TO i/xaTia avrwv saTpuaav. 
Luke, xix. 36 — 

* virtaTpwvvvov ra inaria avTwv. 
* vTroaTpwvvv/jii. Peculiar to St. Luke. Here St. Luke 
employs that particular compound of arpwvvvfiL used by 
the medical writers. By them it is used of spreading 
linens, cushions, &c., under a person before an operation; 
also, in anatomical description, to describe the underlying 
position of membranes, tendons, &c. ; and by Diosoorides is 
often used of spreading on the ground herbs which had the 
property of keeping off venomous animals. 



74 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. [pabt ii. 

Hipp. De Foet. Exect. 914 : avatreiEtv Sb 8ei wSe aivSova 
VTToaTopicraaav avaKXtvai rr/v yvvaiKa. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 617: 
)(p'n vnb TO. l(rxia inroaTopicrai ti fiaXOuKov. Aretaeus, Sign. 
Aout. Morb. 10 : inro T^ai rrXtup^o-i kuX t^ pa-X^ ""I ''"'t' evSoi" 
OwprfKi vfirjv XtTTToe vTriarpwrai. Gralen. Medicus 11 (xiv. 
712) : Sta TO (TK/\»)jo6v Tov fiiTa^v xovSpov TTi/isXri VTriarpwrai 
aiiTi^, diov /xaXajfjia. Gralen. Usus Part. ii. 7 (iii. 119) : ov 

flOVOV VSVpOlQ r£ KOI TiVOVdlV U/XEVEC tCX^P"' TTiplpoXXoVTal 

avwOev Koi KarwOtv virodTpwvvvvTai. Gralen. TJsus Part. v. 2 
(iii. 344) : ij fvcrtg iTricFranevii aStvuiSsg ti (TUfxa Srifiiovpyri- 
aaaa, to KoXovfiavov wayKpiUQ, virEaTopBcii rs afia Kai wipUfia- 
Xev £v kukXcji iraai. Gralen. Oomm. iii. 12, Epid. vi. (xvii. 
B. 28) : Ty yap vaTtp^ to /isv evTipov vinaTopiaTai. Hipp. 
Morb. Mill. 617 : kX'ivhv VTroaTOpiiravTa avaKXivuv Trfv yv- 
vaiKd uTTTtJjv. Dioscorides, Mat. Med. i. 134 : tu ^vXXa 
vwoOvnibjfieva te koi {nrouTpwvvv/xtva Oripia Siukii. Dioscor. 
Mat. Med. iii. 37 : OvfiiaOivTa Si kpTnTci Siwkh koi viro- 

OTQIllVVVHiVa. 

§LI. 

tvQeroQ. 

Matt. V. 13 : "Ye are the salt of the earth : but if the 
salt have lost his savour, wherewith shall it be salted? it 
is thenceforth good for nothing, but to be cast out, and to be 
trodden under foot of men " — 

iiQ oi;8ev l(jxyu. 

St. Luke (xiv. 35), in recording a similar saying of our 
Lord, uses the words — 

oi/TE lig yriv, ovtc uq KOTrpiav ivOiTOv idTiv — 

" It is neither Jit for the land," &c. He uses this word 
again, ix. 62 — " No man, having put his hand to the plough, 
and looking back, is fit (ewAetoc) for the kingdom of God"; 
and with the exception of Heb. vi. 7, it is found in St. Luke 



§ Lii.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 75 

alone, as is also its opposite avEvBiTog, Acts, xxvii. 12. The 
word is of frequent occurrence in the medical writers in the 
sense in which St. Luke uses it — " well adapted to " or 
"well arranged." 

Diosoor. Mat. Med. v. 9 : Kvarti Be Kal vt(j>poig evderog — 6 
Se arpv(j>voe evOeTuiTarog wpoQ avaSoaiv aniwv — 6 Se tjjv 
yv\pov e'xwv, KUKwriKog tuv vevptov, Kvctrei aderog trpog Se ra 
Oavaaifia evdBTWTspog. Dioscor. Mat. Met. ii. 123 : to Bi 
TOiovTOv aOerov juev irpbg iijtjojkjjv ^p^o'ii', irpog oe Ta XoiTra 
ivOerov. Dioscor. Mat. Med. i. 12 : fxaXiara npog rrjv it/rpt- 
Kjjv XP'J'^"' i^OsTog. Dioscor. Mat. Med. i. 20 : koi dg 
Ov/iiafxaTojv (TKivaaiav karlv euOetov. Galen. Eenum AfEect. 
4 (xix. 669) : ov firjv ovSl Kvanv icat 'irpov Kara7rXa<7(7Etv 
ciidiTov. Galen. Eemed. Parab. : 'OXj3ivoc olvog ettI twv 
XoXEpiKoJv ivOsTog. Hipp. Fract. 772 : a" te pajSSot tvOtrdj- 
Tipai al jxtv tvBiv, ai Bt 'ivOev rHiv (rrjtvpwv — koi 7ajo rfig ijtXey- 
fiovfig TO eTTiKaipoTaTov irapeXriXvuEv Kat rd odTta xaXapa Kal 
ivOtTa jLara Tavrag Tag rifiipag av drj. Hipp. Moch. 858 : to 
(Txijjua oTTEjO 17 eTriSeaig, wg prj eg ttjv iTTepvriv dTrofftl^jjrai avw- 
Tiptx) yovvaTog ecttw evdtTog. 

§LII. 

* irpofiaXXeiv. 

Matt. xxiv. 32 — " Now learn a parable of the fig tree ; 
When his branch is yet tender, and. putteth forth leaves " — 

Koi TO, (pvXXa iK(j)vy. 
Mark, xiii. 28 — 

KQl eK^V^ TO (j>vX\a. 

Luke, xxi. 30 — 

orav *'7rpo(5a\a)(Tiv ^Srj, 

"When they now shoot forth." 

Here St. Luke uses * irpo^aWeiv, a word used by him 
alone, and very frequent in the medical writers, both in other 
significations and in this rare one of plants putting forth 
leaves, &c. See § 68. 



76 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 



LIII. 



arsviudv 



'lU 



In the acooimt of the scene in the high priest's palace, 

St. Mark says, xiv. 66, 67 — "And as Peter was beneath in 

the palace, there cometh one of the maids of the high priest : 

and when she saw Peter warming himself, she looked upon 

him"— 

kfifSXixpacfa avrt^. 

St. Luke (xxii. 56) says — 

aTiviaatja aiirtj) — 

" earnest^/ looked upon him." 

anvV^uv is used twelve times by St. Luke, and, with the 
exception of 2 Oor. iii. 7, 13, is used by him alone. It is 
employed by the medical writers to denote a peculiar fixed 
look. Hipp. Epid. 1162 : o/xfiara, av\fir)pa, KaOapw^Ea evSe- 
Sivrifiiva, arevl^ovTa. Hipp. Epid. 1212 : areviaag roig ofi- 
fia<n. Epid. 1216 : bfioitiig oi o^flaX/uoi Karjj^EEf, Ic to koto; 
[5Xi(j)apov yuaXAov syKEifitvoi, aTeviCovTEg. Hipp. Praedic. 75 : 
olmv Ev (jTraaixdjStaiv o^^aXjuol EKXa/XTrovcnv artvEcoc- Epid. 
1017 : ofifiara arevtZovTa. Aretaeus, Sign. Acut. Morb. 2 : 
uTEVEEc EviBovTEg. Ajot. Slgu. Acut. Morb. 5 : 6<t>9aXp.ol /xik- 
pov SeTv oTEi/EEc fioXig TTEpidivovfiEvoi. Aret. Sign. Morb. 
Diuturn. 33 : 6(p0a\fio'l oteveeq Kipacri ikeXoj TTETrjjyacrt. Aret. 
Cur. Acut. Morb. 84 : arEvisg Se to ^v/nrav 'ioxri, 6(p6a\p.o\ Se 
oKoiov TE KEpag EarriKwcFi. Galen. Eemed. Parab. i. 4 
(xiv. 350) : Trphg vvKTaXdyirag. — fjirap alybg Evixpwv keXeue 
avTOvg irEpiKaXvipa/nivovg arEviZEiv eIq djii xurpav koi SixEadai 
Trjv arfilSa toIq o^OaXjuoTe. Galen. De Puis. 12 (viii. 484) : 
avBiQ o ettI TrXEitTTOv aTivlg opwvTEg SiETE\E(jav atTKapSajuuKTi 
vapaTrXr)ai<t)t; Tolg Karo^oig. 



^ Liv.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. 77 

§LIV. 

Further on in the same narrative St. Matthew writes 

(xxvi. 73) : "After a while came unto him they that stood 

by, and said to Peter, Surely thou also art one of them" — 

eiTTOv T(o nirjotj). 

St. Mark, xiv. 70 : " They that stood by said again to 

Peter," &o.— 

sXeyov T<^ liirpi^. 

St. Luke, xxii. 59 : " And about the space of one hour 
after another confidently affirmed, saying. Of a truth this 
fellow was with him" — 

* SttffYUjOi^Ero. 

* Su(TxvpiKi(TOai, peculiar to St. Luke. l(TxupiZi(yOai and 
Si'iaxvplZitrdai are used in medical language, i(JxvplZs(T9ai 
for " to gain strength," and both words in the same way as in 
this passage. Gralen. Usus Part. iii. 8 (iii. 201) : "v a/ia fitv 
sxoi, Si Siv l(TXvplZoiro TO fiiXog. o Sij KoXeirai rapaoq. Also, 
to insist on a medical opinion. — Gralen. De Morb. Temper, 
iv. (vii. 448): oh fxivroi \axvpiZ<^ E-ywys iripX avTov. Galen. 
Oomm. i. 3, Artie, (sviii. A. 309) : aXX' An irepl a.fi(j>0Tepwv 

TbIV TpOWlOV £IT£ TTEjOl OuTEpOV pOVOV (pTflCUV OVK EXEtV tCTl^VjOt- 

(ToaOai. Q-alen. Oomm. i. 3, Artie, (xviii. A. 312): Sia ravr 
ovv KOI 6 'iTTTTOKparrjc ^Tjtri pi) Sti(TXvpi(Ta(70ai jStaitue. Galen. 
Philosoph. Hist. 5 (xix. 241) : 'EviKovpog SI ducrxvpiZ^Tai 
XE-ywv. Hipp. Artie. 780 : wpov 81 apdpov 'iva rpoirov olSa 
oXtudaivov Tov eg rrjv juatrxaXjjv, avix) Se ovSinors clSov ohSl Ef 
TO i^u), ov pivToi Si'iaxvpidd) ye el oXtaOaivoi av rj ov — ov pev 
itrxvpieiti) je ovSe wepl tovtov, el prj eKiriat} av ovTiiyg 17 ov. 
Hipp. Decor. 23 : So^p T-g ek rovTewv SiiaxvpiZopevoi. Hipp. 
Praecept. 26 : a-tpaXepi) yap koI evTTTaKTTOg fi peT aSoXeirxiijc 
laxyptnaig — ^pijffijuac Se kclI TrotKiXog tujv irpoffipepopivwv rqJ 
voaeovTi koi 6 irpoopiapog, on povov tl irpoaevex^iv uxpeXriaet, 
ov yap [(xxvpriffiog SeJ. 



78 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [paet ii. 

LV. 

fiarog. 

A saying of our Lord is recorded by St. Matthew (vii. 16) 
thus : " Do men gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles ? " — 

firjTi (TvWeyovaiv airo aKavOiJjv (rracjtvXag, jj airo 

St. Luke, vi. 44 : " For of thorns men do not gather figs, 
nor of a bramble bush gather they grapes" — 

oil yap £? aKQvdiJv avXXiyovai (TVKa, ovSe ek j3arou 
Tpvywai aTa(j)v\riv. 

Here St. Luke uses jSaroe, " the bramble bush," instead 
of TpifioXog, " a thistle." He, no doubt, was well acquainted 
with it, as it was extensively used medicinally by the ancient 
physicians. Theophrastus, H. P. i. 5, mentions it — (darog 
aKavdwSrig and Dioscorides, Mat. Med. iv. 37 {rrtpl /3arou), 
describes its medicinal properties, and states that the fruit, 
juice, leaves, and tender shoots were used. Galen also has a 
chapter on its medicinal use. Galen. Aliment. Facul. ii. 13 
(vi. 589) : irepi rwv rov fdarov Kupirwv. There were several 
varieties of it, and Sprengel (Note on Dioseor. iv. 37) identi- 
fies it with the rubus fructicosus, "the blackberry bush," 
Avhenever it is mentioned by itself without any distinguishing 
epithet, as here by St. Luke. 

On account of the bramble being so well known to physi- 
cians, it is probable that St. Luke translated by fSarog the 
Syriac word used by our Lord, which St. Matthew translated 
by rpifioXog. 

The medical writers abound in prescriptions in which the 
[iarog formed an ingredient, and Wetstein on Matt. vii. 16, 
quotes from Galen an expression very similar to this saying 
of our Lord : 6 yewpyhg ouk av wore SvvriaaiTO noii^Gai rov 
6orov EK^ipiiv jioTpvv. 



§ LTi.J THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 79 

Hipp.Morb. Mtll. 666: jSarov s^yv avv liSart koX iXaii^ kuI 
Toue fiaZoiig KaTmrXaaaeiv. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 668 : /Sarou <j>{i\Xa 
Koi pa/xvov Koi IXaijjc, ofiov Xiia /u^ai koi Siiivai iv jutXiicp^rtf). 
Hipp. Morb. Mul. 669 : djXoiwQ Se icai priTivriv i/7roj3aXXEtv Kot 
Kivvafitiifiov Koi crixvpvav ^vv jSartiiv (pvXXoiQ. Galen. Eemed. 
Parab. i. 5 (xiv. 348) : koi avTolg Se Trpoaayuv rolg Kavdotg, 
tj j3u7ou t) poSwv xi'Xdv. Q-alen. Eemed. Parab. i. 8 (xiv. 
360) : fiopwv xuXoi) rj jSarou — jueXirt fii^ag icai kir oXlyov 
ixpriauQ, 8taxio(E. Gralen. Eemed. Parab. ii. 10 (xiv. 436) : 
jSarou OKpEjuovae rpixpaQ avv fieXiTi KaraTrXaaae. Gralen. 
Eemed. Parab. iii. (xiv. 514) : jSdrov (piXXa KaraTrXaffcrofiEva. 
Gralen. Eemed. Parab. iii. (xiv. 551) : tov jSarov 6 x"^°^ 
iKTrnZ6fi£vog koi Evora^OjUEVOC £(? to oiig rravu tov irovov- 
Gralen. Oomp. Med. vi. 8 (xii. 973) : /3orou tj (jjxvQvr\g rj 
poSbJv x^^V H'^Ta fitXiTog XP^' ^^' (974) : (Butov ri 
aypiaXaiov jOiSrjf rj KViripov a^£\prip.aTi fieTo. fiiXiTog. 



§ LVI. 

*tviaxvsiv. *ayiDvia. *iSp<i>g. *0pdftj3ot aifiarog. 
KarafiaivHV. Xiirri. 

The Agony in Oethsemane. — Matt. xxvi. 37-46 : " And 
he took with him Peter and the two sons of Zebedee, and 
began to he sorrowful and very heavy (XvwuaBai km aBrifiovuv). 
Then saith he unto them, My soul is exceeding sorrowful, 
even unto death [irepiXvn-og iaTiv v 4'^x'^ A*"" ^'^^ OavaTov) : 
tarry ye here, and watch with me. And he went a little 
farther, and fell on his face, and prayed, saying, my 
Father, if it be possible, let this cnp pass from me : never- 
theless not as I will, but as thou wilt. And he cometh 
unto the disciples, and findeth them asleep, and saith unto 
Peter, What, could ye not watch with me one hour? 
Watch and pray, that ye enter not into temptation : the 
spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak. He went 



80 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OE ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

away again the second time, and prayed, saying, my 
Father, if this cup may not pass away from me, except I 
drink it, thy will be done. And he came and found them 
asleep again : for their eyes were heavy {^aav yap avriov ol 
600aA/xot (Be^aprifxivoi). And he left them, and went away 
again, and prayed the third time, saying the same words. 
Then cometh he to his disciples, and saith unto them. Sleep 
on now, and take your rest : behold, the hour is at hand, 
and the Son of man is betrayed into the hands of sinners. 
Eise, let us be going : behold, he is at hand that doth 
betray me." 

St. Mark's (xiv. 33) description of the Agony is almost 
identical with that of St. Matthew, except that instead of 
XvTTurjdai of Matthew, he uses eKOa/xfisiadai, "He began to be 
sore amazed," and Kara^apwoptvoi instead of (3e[5aprifiivoi, 
"their eyes were heavy." 

When, however, we turn to St. Luke's description of the 
same scene, we find an account having all the characteristics 
of medical writing, and detailing in medical language the 
prostration of strength {ayyaXog Evto-xi'wi' avTov) and the 
outward and visible effects {iBpojg wad Opo/jifioi aifiaroc) on 
his human frame of the inner anguish of our Lord. 

Luke, xxii. 41-46 : " And he was withdrawn from them 
about a stone's cast, and kneeled down, and prayed, saying. 
Father, if thou be willing, remove this cup from me : never- 
theless not my will, but thine be done. And there appeared 
an angel unto him from heaven, strengthening him (ivio-xutuv 
aiiTov). And being in an agony (ev aywvtq), he prayed more 
earnestly : and his siveat (6 iSpwg aiiTov) was as it were great 
drops of blood (watt dpofifSoi a'/juaroe) falling down (icaTajSat- 
vovTic) to the ground. And when he rose up from prayer, 
and was come to his disciples, he found them sleeping for 
sorrow {ano r^e Xvwrtg), and said unto them, Why sleep ye? 
rise and pray, lest ye enter into temptation." 

* eviax^^i-v- With respect to this word, it is remarkable 
that, outside the LXX., its use in the transitive sense, " to 



§ Lvi.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. 81 

strengthen," is confined to Hippocrates and St. Luke. All 
other writers who employ it do so in the intransitive sense, 
" to prevail," " be strong." Hippocrates uses the simple 
form 'ktxvuv also in the same sense, "to impart physical 
strength." Hipp. Lex, 2 : 6 Si XP°^°^ rmra Iviaxvan 
irdvTa, we rpaiprivaL riXeivg. Hipp. AfEect. 526 : irOTOttri SI 
XP'IcQah vv fxsv virayeiv WiKyg Trjv KoiXiav Kai Trjv kvcftiv, 
■yADKiiv olvov rj fjuXiKparov' fiv St aTV(j>uv, aixTDj/iov, Aedkov, 
Amrov, iSapia' rjv St laxveiv avarripov fiiXava. 

* ajt»vla, peculiar to St. Luke, is used in medical lan- 
guage, as are also 07^1^ and ayioviav. Aretaeus uses aytuvia 
of a struggle in connexion with the passage of a calculus. 
Aret. Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 61 : aywviri Si Sivripri roii Xldov, ri 
Sia Tov KuvXov SdKoSoQ. Galen employs it more in the sense 
of St. Luke.— Galen. Hipp, et Plat. Decret. iii. 7 (v. 336) : 
ivaa ^rjo-i, Trjv XvTrr)v koX rrjv aywviav icai rrjv oSvvriv 
aXyriSovag vnapxiiv — ^riaofXiv aywviav koI Xvtttiv koi oSvvnv 
aXyriSovag clvai n^ yivei — aywviag fiivroi ko), Xvttijc oiov 
yivOQ iivai ri Trjv aXyijSova. Galen. Meth. Med. xii. 6 
(x. 841) : Kai Xvirai Se Kot ayiiiviai koI Ovfiol koi (ppovTiSeg, ev 
o'i(j) rpoTTij* Kot al TrXeiovg aypvirviai pXairrovai KaraXvovGai rrjv 
Svva/iiv, £v jU£V Srj tovtolq atraaLV avrrj Kofl' lourjjv ij 'ip^X^ 
KiviiTai. Galen. Progn. ex Puis. i. 1 (ix. 219) : kuI Trjv tCjv 
apTripiwv Kivrjffiv avu/jiaXov 'i(tx^v wel *""' ayiovtq. Galen. 
Synopsis de Puis. 7 (ix. 451) : iv <^ uriStfxiav e^toOev e'x" ro 
(T(3)p.a Kivri(nv Ik TnpnraTOV — rj ayinviag rj Qvfxov rivog rj <j)6j3ov. 
Galen. San. Tuend. ii. 9 (vi. 138) : rote Qvp.w9u(ji koI toIq 
aywviUxTt Koi rote aiSicrOeLaiv, av^ricng rrjg e/ji(j)VTOV yiyverai 
Oep/jiOTriTog — ov yap ii(Ti>x^o^Et to irvevfia Sxnrep Kai ro rwv 
ay(ovtwvT(iJv- Galen. Progn. ex Puis. iii. 7 (ix. 382) : 
KivT)(7ie VTicrovv Koi Tradog ^u^tKOV opyiffOivruv rj (pofirjOiVTwv 
fj ayu)viaavTti)v rj oirwaovv tTipwg Tapax^ivTuiv. 

Both Aristotle and Theophrastus mention the fact of a 
sweat accompanying an agony, and state the reasons for it. 

Alistotle, Probl. ii. 31 : Sia ri oi aytdviwvTsg iSpovai Toiig 
TToSag, TO Si irpoaojiTOv ov — rj ori ij aywvia, ^oj3oe Tig lari 

M 



82 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [pakt ii. 

Trpog apxnv tpyov 6 Se (jtojiog, Kara^pv^ig tCjv avw. Sib zeal 
wXpiCjiTi TO. wpoawTTa ol aywviCjVTtg, Kivovvrai oe koi aKaipovai 
roig TTOcri. Trotovcri yap rovTO oi ayiovioivrtg koI KaBaTrip 
yvfivaZovTai' Sio eikotwc idpovtn Tavra oig Trovov<7i. 

Theophrastus, De Sudoribus, 36 : on oi aywviwvTtg roiig 
TToSae tSjO(D(j( TO Si Trpoawirov ov. — to Se a'lTiov oti ij aywvia 
EOTii' oil fiiTaiTTaaiQ OepfiOTtiTog wairep Iv toIq (popoig, aXXa 
juaWov «liSij(T(e Kadarrep iv t(^ Oufi^j — Koi aybjvitjvrsg ci ov 
Sia 0oj3ov TovTo irdcTxovaiv, aXXa Sia to fxaWov sicdepfiaivi- 
adai — ^ripaivsi yap rt OspfiOTrig tTrnroXaZovcra (to iv wpoa wTTtf) 

Vypov) TO Se iv To'lQ TTOITl aVVT1}K£t. 

* iSpwg, peculiar to St. Luke, was much used in medical 
language; the nature and quantity of the sweat being closely 
observed by the ancient physicians in cases of sickness. 
Hipp. Judicat. 54 : tSpwe irovXiig aKpriTwg y£v6p.£V0Q iyiai- 
vovTi votTov (7t)ixaiv£t. Hipp. Coac. Progn. 209 : iSpioc Si 
^v\pog iv o^ei piv nvptTo^ davacripog. Hipp. Epid. 954 : 
Tolai Si TrXiidTOKTi TiTapTaioicnv ol irovoi piyiaTOi koi iSpibg 
iirl Tr\si(jTov vTr6ipv\pog. Hipp. Epid. 1100 : irvptTog 
(j)piKwSrig, voXiig ISpwg, ^vvixng. Hipp. Epid. 1207 : 
oySoaiif) iopwg iyivero KOt TrdXtv itriOipfmiVE, i TtaXiv ISpwg. 
Axetaeus, Sign. Morb. Acut. 22 : ^v Si koi OvriaKsiv piXXwai 
ISpwQ -^pvxpog. Aret. Cur. Acut. Morb. 115 : ISpwg Si iTEpl 
fiiTioira /cat KArj'toae Kai ttovd} tov awfxaTog (STaySriv piy. 
Dioscor. Mat. Med. ii. 193 : 6 Si airoKpivo/jiivog iSpibg 
XoXwSrig ivplaKSToi ry XP*"?- Gralen. De Crisibus, ii. 6 
(ix. 663) : wg ovts ptyog avT^ Trpojtyri<TSTai tov irapo^vcrfioii 
ov6^ ISpdig iiptTai. Gralen. Progn. ad Posthum. 10 (xiv. 651) : 
Trpoyvioaig virocTTpotjirig irvpETOv koi Xvcrig aiirjjc Si iSpCJTOg. 

* 6p6pjioi a'tfiuTog, peculiar to St. Luke, was an expression 
very common in medical language. 0p6p.(3og was a clot of co- 
agulated blood, and is thus described by Gralen, De Atra Bile. 
2 (v. 106) : KOI TTiv yt Trrf^iv avTOv (a'ifiaTog) TeXiVTUiaav elg 
Opofijiov bpCinev' oijTit) yap Wag ovopa^uv TOig "EXXtiai to 
TTttrriybg al/na. Aretaeus, Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 71 : naxi) 
Kal TTtTTttyog oXov dpopfSoi. Hipp. Morb. 393 : birorav ovv 



{ Lvi.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. 83 

Trpoay Xvy^ a/xa koi alfiarog dponfiovg airofiriaay. Hipp. 
Morb. 483 : koi ^fiaasi Ufia rt^ (TtaXtjj) Bp6p.^ovg alfiarog. 
Hipp. Intern. AfEect. 531 : etteito Opofifdovg ai/xaTog h^paa- 
(TtTat KUT oXiyov Kol da/xiva. Hipp. TJlcer. 881: Koi Opofifiov 
di/xaTog kv Toig xaafioiai fir) lav- Dioscorides, Mat. Med. 101: 
OpofifiovQ alfiaTOQ SmXvei cniv o^si TroOiiaa. Diosoor. Mat. 
Med. iii. 38 : oi/xaroe Opo/jifiovc SiaXisi. Gralen. Tempera- 
ment. Medic, vii. (xiii. 824) : koi Bpofifiovg alfiarog tyikhv 
TTiiriaTiVTai. Gralen. Medians 13 (xiv. 750) : Sm Opofifiov 
aiixarog airoKKi'iovTa rrjv dioSov. 

Aristotle mentions " a bloody sweat," arising from the 
blood being in a poor condition. De Part. Animal, iii. 5 : 
1/Srj Si TiiTiv iSpwtrai avvi^t} alfxaTwSn TrspLTTWfiari Sia Ka^a- 
t,lav, Tov fxsv Ttiifxarog pvaSog koi /xavov yivofiivov, rov Se 
alfiarog iS,vypavdivTOg Si cnrtiplav, aSwaroiarig Trjg ev roig 
<j>Xsfiioig OtpfioTriTog irsaasLv, Si oXiyort^ra. And Hist. Ani- 
mal, iii. 19 : (cufxarog) i^vypaivo/XEVov 81 Xiav voaovaiv, yive- 
Tai yap I'XwpoEiSig Kui Stoppovrai ovrug oxtte rjS»| rivsg 'iSiaav 
ai/xaTwSr} iSpC)Ta. And Theopbrastus, De Sudor. 11, mentions a 
physician who compared a species of sweat to blood : ettei. kqi 
AE7r7-ori7e Tig KOI Tra^vrije eotiv ev rote iSpwai, 6 juev yap iiri- 
TToXaiog KOI TTpwTog vSarwSrjg Tig koi Aetttoc, 6 S^ ek j3a.6ovg 
fxaXXov PapvTipog, wmnp avvrriKOfiivrig rrje aapKog, rjSi Si 
Tivtg (paai koI aifxari UKaaai, Kaucnrep Movag EAEyEV 6 iarpog. 

The particular word Karaj3aiv£iv, employed by St. Luke 
to describe the falling down of the sweat, was applied by the 
medical writers to the descent of humours, &c., from the 
upper to the lower parts of the body. Hipp. Nat. Puer. 241 : 
Ti^ vypt^ OTTO Trjg Ki(paXrig KaTafiaivovrai. Hipp. Morb. 
450 : TO Sf (j)Xiyfxa airo T^g Ki(j)aXrig KUTajdaivsi. Hipp. Aph. 
1257 : OKoaa prtynara ek vojtov ig Toiig ayKUivag KaTa^alvu 
^Xej3otojU£I7 Xvu. Hipp. Epid. 1110 : inpi Si Kphiv ywai- 
KiTa TToXXa KarE'jSij. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 600 : KaTafiaivii to 
<j)Xiyfxa Spifxv ig Trjv KoiXir\v. Hipp. Praedic. 109 : 17 bSivri 
KUTfljiaivy Trjv KsfaXriv cnroXnrovaa. Hipp. Acut. Morb. 386 : 
OKOTav Kot 17 tiipp-r} KarajS^ Ig Toiig iroSag. Hipp. De Flat. 



84 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

299 : olSrjfiaTa Se ig Tag Kvi'ifxag Karafiaivu. Gralen. Comm. 
ii. 30, Humor, (xvi. 470) : Sio ttSojuev iroWdKig elg roi/g 
aSevag koX Tag aapKag KaTafiaivscrOai ra pEVfiara. Gralen. 
Oomm. iii. 83, Epid. (svii. A. 780) : ywaiKeta KarljSjj. 

St. Luke assigns an adequate cause for the excessive 
sleepiness of the disciples on this occasion. The other Evan- 
gelists merely say, "for then' eyes were heavy " {;^a.p avriJv ol 
6<j>9a\iiol (iefiaptifxivoi), but St. Luke states that it arose from 
anxiety (airo r»)e Xinrrtg). It is evident that their condition 
was owing to their anxiety for their Lord, coupled with the 
want of their usual rest. It is remarkable how frequently 
this word Awtti/ is joined with privation of sleep (aypvirvia) 
and cares {^povrldeg) in the medical writers, and assigned as a 
cause of an abnormal condition of the system, or even of 
disease. Hipp. Morb. Acut. 403 : rjv Si SiaXvriTaf rb aQp.a 
— firiT£ VTTO XwTjc /irjTE vTTO ^povTiSwv iii'iTe ajpvirvtuyv. Hipp. 
Epid. 1108: ev Qa(r(j^ yvvi] Sv(7aviog ek Xvttjjc fiira Trpo^acrtog 
6p0oaTadr)v syivsTO aypvirvog te koi aunog Koi SupujStfg, ^v kol 
acTiiiSrig. In this instance we have Xvirri producing sleepless- 
ness, which we may assume to have been the case of the dis- 
ciples up to the point of their being worn out by this want of 
sleep and anxiety. Hipp. Epid. 1115: TrvpsTog fpiKU)Svg, o^iig, 
iK XvTTijc iXajBsv. Galen. Comm. i., Nat. Horn. ii. (xv. 114) : 
KOI iraai roig i^woev airioig, wanrep ys koI VTro aypvirviag koi 
Xvnrig — slg voaovg ayovrai. Galen. Comm. ii. 28, Humor. 
(xvi. 309) : ravTO tovto yivcaOai avfx^aivei ov fiovov Sia Xiphv 
KOI svdsiav Tpo<j>rig koi aypvirviav aXXa icat — Xvirriv atjioSpav. 
Galen. De Opt. Const. Corp. 3 (iv. 743) : ai jBXa^ai roig 
(Twfiaaiv rifiwv ai fiiv airb tHjv 'i^wOev aiTtwv — iv tovti^ Se rtJ 
yivei Koi KOirovg koX Xvnag koI aypvTTviag koi (ppovriSag oaa y^ 
aXXa Toiavra Oariov. Galen. De Crisibus ii. 13 (ix. 698) : jj 
KOiXoTYig ol KOivbv airdvTwv avfiTTTuifia, AuttijC) dypvirviag, 
^povTiSog — KoX rb filysOog rwv cr^vyfiCJv oi/c CKJiatptiTai KaBd- 
TTEp In- dypvirviag koi Xuttijc koi (ppovriSog. Galen. Loo. 
Affect, iii. 10 (viii. 193) : Totavrri peXayxoXia iTriylyvsTai Si 
Koi fpovTiai Kal Xinaig ust dypvKvwv. Galen. Meth. Med. 



§ LTi.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 85 

X. 5 (x. 687) : wo-ttep koi etti rijc avOpojirov rijc ap^a/iivrig 
TTvpfTTEiv Si' dypiiTTviav KOI XvTrrjv. Gralen. Oomin. iv. 97, 
Morb. Acut. (xv. 903) : aypvirvia, dvfio), Xvirai, <j>6(ioi. 

The medical language employed afEords internal evidence 
of the authenticity of verses 43, 44 of Luke xxii., which 
are omitted in some mss. 



The foregoing examples have been selected and placed 
together because in their case there is an opportunity of com- 
paring the language of St. Luke with that used in parallel 
passages by the other Evangelists. They do not embrace 
some of the most remarkable instances of St. Luke's use of 
medical language outside of medical subjects. They would 
be, however, sufficient of themselves to show that there is, 
independent of the professional language employed in relat- 
ing the miracles of healing, a class of words running through 
the Gospel of St. Luke which does not occur in the other New 
Testament writings, but which is in common use in Greek 
medical language. 

The remainder of this part wiU be occupied with the 
examination of other similar words in St. Luke's Gospel and 
the Acts of the Apostles, which occur in passages where we 
cannot make a comparison with parallel passages in the 
writings of other New Testament authors. Some of these 
words stand out prominently as those of a physician, e. g. 
apxai oB6vt\g (Acts, x. 11) ; avaXr^ipig (Luke, ix. 51) ; otto- 
KaraaramQ (Acts, iii. 21) ; Xijpoc (Luke, xxiv. 11) ; iiraK- 
poacrOai (Acts, xvi. 25) ; e?c fiaviav iripiTpiTTEiv (Acts, xxvi. 
24), &c.; while with regard to the others, they readily fall 
into the same category as wXrip/jLvpa, pfiyixa, (jvfjnr'nrTsiv, 
Tptjfia, (3eX6vn^, TrpoaipavHv, ^otoq, &c., in the case of which 
we had an opportunity of comparing the language of the 
other Evangelists, and it will be shown that almost all of them 
were words commonly employed in the phraseology of a Greek 
physician. 



86 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. [pabt ii. 

What is attempted to he shown amounts to this — ^that 
St. Luke did not forget or abandon the language of his 
earlier years and professional training on hecoming a Chris- 
tian teacher and historian ; but that, even in his general 
narrative, he frequently employs words and phrases, when 
they suited his purpose, to which, from long association, 
he had become habituated through his early studies and 
professional pursuits. 



§ LVII. 
Luke, I . 



*hnxiipuv. * Siriyricrig- *aiiro7rrr)e. UTrijpETr)*,-. irapaKoXov- 
Oslv. * Ovfiiav. * arvWa/ifSavEiv- * avWafifiaveiv ev 
yaarpi. tv yaarpl t'xs'v. *E'yKt»oe. *<TTsipa. *aTSKVog. 
*SiaTapaa(rBiv. *iKTapaaauv. rapaxoQ- *yfipaQ. *ava- 
(pwvEiv. *7r£vaKi8iov. Trapa^prifia. 

aK|0tj3we (verse 3, § 93). a<7fa.\eia (v. 4, § 82). Wog (v. 9, 
§ 58). TrifinMiJii (v. 15, § 60). iTn^Xiirsiv (v. 48, § 15). 
ipirlfiTrXrifiL (v. 53, § 60). (rvyyivtia (v. 61, § 87). 

^>£<7.e (v. 77, § 59). 

1. " Forasmuch as many have taken in hand (sTrsxEipriaav) 
to set forth in order a declaration (Siriyrimv) of those things 
which are most surely believed among us." 

* imxeipiiv, peculiar to St. Luke (used also Acts, ix. 29, 
xix. 13), was a word very frequently employed in medical 
language. Hippocrates uses it sometimes in the literal sense 
of " applying the hand to," but generally it is used as here, 
" to take in hand," " to undertake." 

Hipp. Bpid. 1147 : Tourtj) iTrex^ipio^Sri ryaiv alfioppo'icn. 
Hipp. Morb. Acut. 396: icai ^vaTpo^dX voaiiiixaTwv ov SvvavTai 
\vaadai rjv rig wpCjTOv Ittj^sijOE'jj ^apfiaKiVUV — OKOaoi Se to 
(pXeypaivovra ev a.px'g tCov voxktwv eiiOe&ic iTri^EipEOutn Xveiv 
^apfiaKibj. Hipp. Haemor. 891 : avx'^ St ^ av linx^ipi-QQ 



§ Lvii.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 87 

Kuvaai, avoKXivag tov avOp(oirov vtttiov. Hipp. Epid. 1149 : 
TTjolv Se iirixiipiiiv IriTpeveaOai. Hipp. Praedic. 93 : eTri)(^Eip- 
iuv 8e ;^(0?j TovHoKJi TOV IriTpov. Galen. Oomm. ii. 71, 
Praedic. (xvi. 656) : to to'ivw tovq ovrug t^ovrae iTrixupuv 
fappaKsvHv afiaOovg lart. Gralen. Oomm. ii. 52, Epid. i. 
(xvil. A. 150) : 6 /xlv yap larpog aveXuv iirixeipei to voaripa. 
Gralen. Comm. ii. 22, Aph. (xvii. B. 501) : aXX oaa koto tov 
avTov yiviTai ^povov iTn)(^£tpoviJ.£v iairOai. Gralen. Coram, vi. 
18, Aph. (xviii. A. 28) : sttixuph BtpairevHv- Galen. Oomp. 
Med. IV. 2 (xiii. 668) : rriviKavTa r^ dspanety tov KUKofidovg 

sXkOVQ iTTf)(tipHV. 

Hippocrates, in beginning his treatise " De Prisca Medi- 
cina," like St. Luke, uses this word — buoaoi iirexi'ipriaav 
TTtpi lr)TpiKTjg Xijuv rj ypa^uv ; and Gralen begins his " De 
Foet. Formatione" — Trepi rJje rwv Kvov/iivwv SiawXcKTiwg 
hrs.\tipr]aav fiiv te koi ^tXocro^oi ypd^eiv. 

* SiriyricTtg, peculiar toSt. Luke, was particularly applied 
to a treatise on some medical subject. Thus Hippocrates 
applies it to one of his own. Morb. Acut. 392 : 6 8^ XtvKog 
olvuiSriQ olvoe STrgvtiTai fiiv kol t^pSKTUi to. TrXtiaTa kol tu fiiyiara 
JjSrj iv ry tov yXvKiog o'lvov Striyriaei. Gralen uses it of his own 
treatises and those of other physicians. Antid. i. 5 (xiv. 51) : 
aXXoi 8e TToXXoi Twv y£ypa(p6Twv (rvvdira (ftappuKa TrapeXnrov 
siiTHV T7JV (TKEvatriav tov rjSv)(poov koto, ttjv TTEpi T»}8 uripiaKrjg 
SiTiyrimv. Oomp. Med. iv. 7 (xiii. 718) : ttjv SI Trepl tov 
^apfioLKOv Bn'iyriffiv sypaipEv 6 'HpaKXdSrig. He even uses it 
of Thucydides' account of the plague at Athens. Oomm. iv. 
12, Epid. vi. (xvii. B. 168) : 6 Se eovKvdiSr,g—slpr,Tai Si 
TavTa vtt' ovtov Kara Trjv Xoifiiiaiv Siiiyrjuiv, £v Ty Sevripq twv 
ioTcuptwv. And in his Commentary on the Epidemics of 
Hippocrates alone he uses it at least seventy-three times of 
some one or other of the treatises of Hippocrates. 

Galen. Oomm. ii. 5, Epid. i. (xvii. A. 92) : koI avTog Si 
(Ta(j)U)g 6 'iTTTTOKpaTrjc eviSs'i^aTO Kara Trjv irpoKUfiivriv Siriyri<jiv. 
Galen. Comm. iii. 1, Epid. i. (xvii. A. 258) : irepl Bvuirvoiag 
yeypatpbiig ovSiv B' iv oXy Ty Sitiynati. Galen. Oomm. i. 4, 



88 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

Epid. ii. (xvii. A. 523) : koi irpoQ tovtoic ^ti toXXo oaa koto 
Djv Siriyri(nv iypaxpe 6 'iTTTTOKparije jEvscTuai tw Ylvuiwvi. 
Gralen. Oomm. i. 5, Epid. iii. (xvii. A. 529) : Ik tov ^avai 
Tov 'iTTTTOKpaTriv KOTO Trjv apxv^ '■'ie Sii}yricrs(i)g hr avTOV to, 
TTvp iXa^ev, wairsp yap l(f kripag Siriyr]uewg 'iygwpiv, &C. 
Gralen. Oomm. ii. 4, Epid. iii. (xvii. A. 600) : 'l-iriroKparrig 
avTog iv Ty Siriyriati twv appitXJTWv iypaxpe. Gralen. Gomm. 
iii. 41, Epid. iii. (xvii. A. 695) : Iv toTc Trtpi twv ovpwv 
Siriyri<Ti(Tiv t'lwOe ypwpag to. (TVufSefdriKOTa 6 IiriroKpaTiig. 

2. " Even as they delivered them unto us, which from the 
beginning were eyewitnesses {avToiTTai}, and ministers (vTrrj^lrat) 
of the word." 

* avTowrrjg, peculiar to St. Luke, was used in medical 
language to denote the examination, by a person himself, of 
disease or the parts of the human body anatomically, instead 
of obtaining the information at second hand from the ac- 
count of others. 

uTrrjpETTje occurs twenty times in the New Testament, in 
four of which it is used of inrripirai in the Christian dispen- 
sation — ^here, and John, xviii. 36; Acts, xxvi. 16; 1 Cor.iv. 45. 
It is used in medical language to denote the attendants and 
assistants of the principal physician in performing an opera- 
tion, &c., where the services of more than one person were 
required. In Acts, xiii. 5, this word is used in a sense alto- 
gether analogous to its medical one, where it is said that 
Paul and Barnabas in their missionary journey had Mark as 
their minister — eix°^ ^^ ""' ^looavvnv iirripsTriv. Joined as it 
is here with the other medical term, avToirrric, it seems highly 
probable that the use of both words was owing to St. Luke's 
professional bias, particularly as the medical use of both 
was quite analogous to that in this passage. 

VTrriptTai. Hipp. OfEc. 740 : TO, 8' kg \upovpyi.r\v Kar 
ixirpuov' 6 aaOEviwv, 6 8/owv, ot VTrripiTai, to. opyava. Galen. 
Oomm. V. 1, Epid. vi. (xvii. B. 231) : roue vtrripiTaQ rwv 
laTph)v. Galen. Oomm. i. 1, Fract. (xviii. B. 331) : koL 
TToiovaiv rjSj) ovtwq Travrse ot larpoi ralg X^/"^' fiovaig tu)v 



§ Lvii.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 89 

vTrnpsTwv siriTpitrovTtQ. Galen. Comm. iii. 7, Offic. (xviii. B. 
675) : o T£ larpog eart Koi oi virripiTaL Galen. Anat. 
Administr. i. 3 (ii. 233) : kut apx^g juev iniv k^juoi tHjv 
virr)pi.T(i)v Tig e^i^tpe tovq iriOiiKOVQ. Galen. Comm. ii. 21, 
Humor, (xvi. 278) : aXX ov fiovov 6 iarpoc ^vvarai axTiav tov 
(T(j>aXp.aroQ Trapi\HV, ovk. opOwg Trpa^ag aWa koi 6 Kapvwv 
Koi OL vTrrtpirai. Galen. Comm. v. 1, Bpid. tI. (xvii. B. 226) : 
SoKEt 7ajO 7](uv fiiv XtyEtrBai koi 17 (pvmg icKrOai rag vocrovg, 
opOug Se Koi ri larpiKrj icai 6 iarpog, aXtjOug Se /cat 6 vTrr)pkTr\g 
avTov. Galen. Instrument. Odor. 6 (ii. 826) : twv vm\pf.Tov- 
jUEvtuv rote x^'po'^PTO'''^'*'- Hippocrates calls a physician the 
minister of the art of medicine : 17 ri^vn Sia rpiQiv, to votrij/io, 
6 voaidiv, Kot 6 \r\Tpog, 6 \r\Tpog vin\piTr]g Trig te^vijc. Galejl. 
De Dieb. Deoretor. i. 11 (ix. 823) : ofirtu Se Koi tov laTpov 
virripiTYiv <^vaf.wg ovofiaZei tov ovTwg loTpov, ov fapfjiaKOTrwXriv 
Tiva Ik TpioSov. 

* avTOTTTat, peculiar to St. Luke. Galen. Comm. iv. 40, 
Artie, (xviii. A. 731) : BiTTyg ovv ovartg Kpicnwg atravTwv 
tCiv TOiovT(ov TrpayfiaTwv Trig juev iTtpag orav auroTrrjjc Tig 
yivriTai tov ZriTov/xivov. Galen. Nat. Faoul. i. 6 (ii. 12) : 
aXX' avTOTTTriv yevopevov SKpausiv \pri Sia twv avarap^v. 
Galen. Anatom. Nerv. 2 (ii. 832) : ov ovts. pqSiov enreiv ovte 
CLKOvaag 'itrwg iriaTtvcrug wpXv avTOTvrrig yiviaOai OsapaTog. 
Galen. Usus Part. ii. 7 (iii. 117) : t^v KaTacrKivrjv airaaav 
aKpifiwg Seiv kTriaTaaOai rwv £v rate Siaipiaecri <j>aivopivu)v 
avTOTTTTiv yivopivov iiTipiXihg. Galen. TJsus Part. xiv. 6 
(iv. 158) : tQiv Xtyopivwv avTOirTrig yivoio irpoaBiiau yap 
olS' oTt TO XstTTOv Ti^ Xoyw Tuiv fispEiov 17 Qia. Galen. TJsus 
Part. xiv. 12 (iv. 196) : aXX liri Tag SiaipiaEig twv ^uxdv 
atjtiKopsvog avTOirTrig ylvEaOai twv tpytov Trig ^{xtsojq. Galen. 
Meth. Med. xiv. 16 (x. 1011): d kuI Si oXov tov jSiow pvpiwv 
ipywv larpiKhiv avTotrTai yiyvoivro. Galen. Temper. Medic, 
vi. Proem, (xi. 796) : lyi) pev yap kpsp^opriv Totg irpwroig 
ypaipacri Tag iSsag twv j3oTavwv apsivov riyovpavog avTOTrrriv 
yeveaOai Trap" avTi^ ti^ BiBoutkovti. Galen. Comp. Med. iii. 2 
(xiii. 570) : yvwvai rijv iiXriv twv (pappaKWV avTOiTTag avTrig 

N 



90 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

yivofiiVOVQ ovx utra% rj S\g aXXa TroWaiciQ. Gralen. Oomp. 
Med. iii. 2 (xiii. 609) : ov /irjv ovd' avTOTrrriv ■yiviaBai rpm- 
fiarwv TrafiTToWtov olov rl riva X'^P'-^ ''''^^ '^ iroXifioiQ. 
Galen. XJsus Part. vi. 20 (iii. 508) : XP^ tovtiov avTOTTTiKriv 
irelpav ytviaOm. 

3. " It seemed good to me also, having had perfect under- 
standing {TrapriKoXovdriKOTi aK/jij3we) of all things from the 
first," &c. 

TrapaKoXovOilv (which is also found in 1 Tim. iv. 6, 
2 Tim. iii. 10) was much used by the medical writers, both 
in connexion with sickness and in the sense it bears in this 
passage. Hipp. Praedic. 70 : kiIx^okjiq Iv o^im kcli rapax'^S^'fi 
irapaKo\ov6oii(Ta kukov. Hipp. Epid. 1207 : ra Se x°^'^^^" 
irapriKoXovOH. Hipp. Epid. 1210 : aXyrifjia TrapriKoXovOei. 
Hipp. Epid. 1211 : wapriKoXoidriaE Si to aaBfia. Dioscor. 
De Ven. 2 : ttovoc ttejoI to arofia TrapaKoXovOEi. Galen. 
Oomm. iii. 4, Morb. Acut (xv. 740) : ra irapaKoXovOovvra 
Toig Kuvcroig. Galen. Anat. Administr. iii. 4 (ii. 371) : ovg 
avarifivoov TraptiKoXovdri(7eig rote vEVpoig. 

Galen uses it also of paying close attention to a subject, 
and Joined at times icith uKpifiwg, as here. Galen. Progn. 
ii. 54 (xYiii. B. 190) : Iv oIq XPU TrpoytyvfivaaOai rov (3ovX6- 
/xavov aKpij3wg TrapaKoXov9ri(Tai rote w^' iTTTTOiCjOarovc 
ilpr\fiivoig. Galen. Theriac. ad Pison. 2 (xiv. 216) : icat 
aicpij3we kavTov Sio tijv avvtaiv ry (TvyKpdcru tov awfiuTog 
TTapaKoXovOri<TavTa. Galen. Comm. iii. 92, Artie, (xviii. A. 
613) : TrapaKoXoiOricFOv Si rote ife^rjg uprifiivoiq. Galen. 
Oomm. iii. 44, Epid. iii. (xvii. A. 698) : wc Sia to /irj iraoa- 
KoXovOatv olc 'iwaaxov. 

9. "According to the custom of the priest's office, his lot 
was to burn incense {Bvixicurai) when he went into the temple 
of the Lord." 

* Ovfitav, peculiar to St. Luke, was the medical term for 
fumigating with herbs, spices, &c. Hipp. Superfoet. 265 : 
flujut^v Se Xwtov (pXoiov, (nripfia Sa^vijc- Hipp. Morb. 470 : 
^v Si ju^, ry v(TT£paiy Xowag ^Epjui^ Ovfiiaaai. Hipp. Nat. 



f LYii.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 91 

Mul. 575 : Kinl^a Ovfiiyv koi irplafiara Xwtov — irpiafiaro^ 
KVirapi<T(TOV VTrofiaWwv Ovfiiyv — KViripov piZav, pvpov poBivov 
Btvaag Ovfiiyv. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 673 : raura rpixpae iravra 
(j>6oiSag irXacrapevov 6vpiyv — <l>doidag iroidv Kot £7ri nvpl 
Ovfiiriv rj aljoc Kipag KaraTrpiaaq l\al(<^ avaKVKqv ettI 7rvp\ 
Ovfxiyv. Hipp. Morb. 483 : Kai jjv syx^V^ ^ TTvpiag rj 6vp.iqg 
ou)(^ ofiapTui TTvov. Dioscor. Mat. Med. i. 86 : ep^pva ts koX 
SevTepa varspa OvfiiaOiig ekjSoXXej. Gralen. Eemed. Parab. 
iii. (xiv. 504) : TrpoiroXig Ovfiiw/iivri — icai Tspt^ivOivti dv/iiw/jiivri 
fj aptTiviKOv oxicTov fiETo. xaXjSavTjf dvfjuwfiEvrig. Q-alen. 
Reined. Parab. iii. (xiv. 537) : /xiXavBiov km x"^Kav0ov 
UvplatTOv. 

24. " And after those days his wife Elisabeth conceived" 
{avviXa^ev) . 

The number of words referring to pregnancy, barrenness, 8fc., 
used by St. Luke is almost as large as that used by Sippocrates. 
Besides * avWafi^avuv, he employs * avWafi^avuv iv yaarpi 
(i. 31 : " And, behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb," 
crvWriipy ev jaarpl); sv yauTpl a'xEtv (Luke, xxi. 23: "But woe 
unto them that are with child," rate £v yaarpX l-)(o{j<faig) ; 
* iyKvog (Luke, ii. 5 : " Mdry his espoused wife, being great 
with child," oiiff^ lyKvu^); * arupa (Luke, i. 7: "Because 
EHsabeth was barren," ^v aTiipa) ; * arsKvog (Luke, xx. 28 : 
" And he die without children," otekvoc) ; and all of them, 
with the exception of ev ya<jTp\ 'ix^iv, are peculiar to himself. 

* avXkafi(3avsiv is used in St. James, i. 15, also, but in a 
metaphorical sense. Hipp. Praedic. 107 : to re aCJfia wSe 
SiuKiiTai V yvvn, Kav jui? avWafifSavy. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 
597 : ^v Si iii) SuXXajSv- Hipp. Aphoron. 597 : ^v p.{, n 
ahiov aXXo y KvXXapldavovm. Hipp. Aphoron. 676 : av Bi 
apa Kol SvXXajSoxTtv. Dioscorides, Medic. Parab. 93: fvXaa- 
C7SLV TO <TvXkri(j)9ev. Dioscor. Medic. Parab. 95 : irphg to pij 
(TuXXajujSavEtv. Galen. Oomm. iii. 35, Epid. ii. (xvii. A. 453) : 
Sloti yvva'iKig ov avWafifiavovcriv. Galen. liter. Dissec. 10 
(ii. 902) : okotuv n ywrj (TvXXri\psa6ai piXXy. Do. (903) : ovk 
av avXXajSoL ri yvvf). 



92 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

* avWafifiaveiv iv yaarpl. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 621 : ware 
^vWafiuv kv yaarpi. Hipp. Aphoron. 675 : tov fifj avWa/i- 
(iavuv Ev yaoTpL Hipp. Aphoron. 1274 : oKoaoi napa (pvaiv 
■7ra)(Hai eovcrai prj ^vXXapjiavovcTi Iv yaarpi. Hipp. Octo- 
mestr. Par. 259 : Iv yaarpl XafSoiKrat. Gralen. San. Tuend. 
1. 9 (vi. 46) : koi nvtg avrwv ev yacrrpX \apj3avov(Ti. 

iv yaarpl ex^tv. This is the phrase used by the other 
N. T. writers as well as by St. Luke. Hipp. Nat. Mul. 563 : 
KUi SoKKt iv yaarpl axeiv. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 588 : are iv 
yaarpl ixovay. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 591 : wote SoKietv £? 
pvvac iX^iv iv yaarpl. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 601 : £1 Se yvvrj iv 
yaarpl sxovaa. Galen. Comm. V. 53, Aph. (xvii. B. 845) : iv 
yaarpl ixovay yvvaiKi rjv i^ai^vrig ol paaOol iaxvol yivwvrai. 

* tyKVOQ. Hipp. Nat. Mul. 584 : iyKvov Troiijo-ai yvvaiKa. 
Hipp. Aph. 1254 : yvvfj 'iyKVog el pev appcv KVtt, ivxpovg 
iarlv, fjv St OriXv Svaxpovg. Dioscorides, Medic. Parab. ii. 
78 : Kav virepfiy rjjv piZ,av rrtg KVKXapivov yvvij iyKVOg ekt£- 
TpooaKSi, bpoi(i)g /cal rffv KaXovpsvriv iroav ovoapa laropovaiv on 
yvvt) iav VTrepjiy 'iyKVog i? ysvarirai inTirpujaKU. Gralen. Uter. 
Disseo. 2 (ii. 889) : piyaOog irokv, yap eAottw plv i] rije Kurjcrd- 
(TJ)e ptiZoiv Se 17 r^c iyKvov. 

Hipp. Aph. 1254 : OKOaoi iv yaarpl exouotv — avWap^a- 
vovai iv yaarpi — yvvij eyKVog. 

Hipp. Praedic. 107 : SvvaaOai iv yaarpl Xapjiaveiv — ri Si 
■yvvjj iv yaarpl tx^i — Kai pv avXXapf3aveiv SvvaaOai. 

Hipp. Aphor. 675 : ov ^vXXap(idvovai — pfj avXXap(5dvtiv 
iv yaarpi — ovrto Xapfddvsi iv yaarpi. 

* are'ipa. Hipp. Quae Spect. ad Virgin. 563 : al arupai 
paXXov ravra irdaxovaiv. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 646 : yivtrai Si 
paXiara ryaiv a^opoiai Trapwav nai ardpr^ai. 

* arcKVOQ. Hipp. Superfoet. 262 : r/ng Kal arsKvog iovaa 
Kal 7j8i| Kvriaaaa iovaa Si riKvovaa. Hipp. Nat. Mul. 565 : 
pdXiara Si ek ravrr\g artKvoL yivovrai. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 
638: oialr'g OepaTreiitv rbv avrov rpoTrov Kal Trepl rag areKvovg. 
Hipp. Aphoron. 677 : ring kuI ariKVOg iovaa Kal t/Sij Kvovaa 
iovaa Si anKvovaa. 



j Lvii.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 93 

* Siarapaaasiv. 29. "And when she saw him, she was 
troubled {SitrapaxOri) at his saying." 

* BKrapaaauv. Aots, xvi. 20: " These men, being Jews, do 
exceedingly trouble {inrapaadovuiv) our city." 

rajoaxoe- Acts, xii. 18 : " There was no small stir [rapa- 
■Xpg) among the soldiers;" and Aots, xix. 23. 

The word Tapa-)(pQ and its derivatives, rapuKTiKog, rapax(i>- 
Srjc, SKTapa^iQ, iKTapaaaatv, hrnapaaaiiv, Siarapacrareiv, avvTa- 
paa<jiiv, virorapacFtTciv, were much used in medical language 
to express disturbance of body or mind. St. Luke uses 
three of them, two of which are peculiar to him, rapaxog 
being once used by St. Mark and once by St. John. 

rapaxog. — Hipp. Ooac. Praedic. 151 : kui KoiXtric rapaxv- 
Hipp. J)e Grland. 272 : aXX el piv Sukvoito rapaxov irovXiiv 
"lox'^i Kol 6 voog atjipovei kol 6 £yKi(j)aXoQ airarai. Hipp. 
Praedic. 79 : tperog rovroig av/Kpipsi /cai KOiXtije Tapaxv- 
Hipp. Aph. 1259 : roi/repto-i rapaxri itrxupi? sv r<^ (jwfiaTi 
laTiv. Hipp. Aph. 1242 : Iv rym rapaxycfi Tijg KOiXir}g. 
Aretaeus, Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 47 : KoiXlrig rapaxog. Aret. 
Cur. Acut. Morb. 124 : al/ia yap iroWov — rapdxov Si jvw- 
juijc KOI araSijjc £KKavp.a. Gralen. Oomm. ii. 5, Humor, (xvi. 
228): ov (jpiKpa rapaxv Kara to rov Kafxvovrog aujxa. Gralen. 
Oomm. ii. 5, Humor, (xvi. 231) : ol tKrtKol Trvpirol x'^P'-^ ''^ 
rapax^C /xeyaXrig kuI oiiSi o^vppoirovg TroiovvTat rag jUErajSo- 
Xdg. Gralen. Oomm. vi. 20, Humor, (xvi. 277) : ij Kpiaig 
yivirai rb ■ttoXv fxtr ayCivog re Kal raQaxjig. Gralen. Oomm. 
vi. 35, Humor, (xvi. 338) : oaa KE<j>aXrig hywya rapaxjiv 
rroiii. 

* iKrapdaativ, peculiar to St. Luke. Hipp. Praedic. 94: 
ilg Tijv yaaripa oSvvt} (poirq Kai ovk iKrapdaairai. Hipp. 
Morb. Acut. 399 : koi ai KoiXiai rottn roiovrioimv SKrapaa- 
(Tovrai. Hipp. Morb. Acut. 403 : rjv Se iiriSenrvriaojen KOiXirt 
iKrapdaatrai. Hipp. Morb. 493 : 17 yacrrrjp Efcrapairo-frat. 
Aretaeus, Sign. Morb. Acut. 11 : tvre koi KoiXirig eKrapaxOd- 
ffije. Aret. Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 43 : fjv KoiXiti iKrapaxOv- 
Dioscorides, Mat. Med. v. 3 : ora^vA)? ij plv irpoaipaTog vdaa 



94 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LTTKE. [part ii. 

£Krapa(T(TEt KotXi'jjv. Galen. Oomm. i. 4, Praedio. (xvi. 522) : 
(Lv SKTapaxOsi(Tav iOsaaaro ttjv yaarspa. Galen. Oomm. iv. 
60, Apll. (xvii. B. 240) : Xvtadai n t/jv roiavrnv KU)(pui(nv 
iKTapaxOdariC rijc jaarpoQ. Galen. Synop. De Puis. 22 
(ix. 505) : ri Si aifjioppoiSog rj 'ya<TTpog tKTapaxOdcrriG. 

*Siarapa(T(T£iv, peculiar to St. Luke. Hipp. Morb. 460 : 
oaov 8' av Iv r^ KOiX'iy KOt sv ry kixtth kyycvrirai xo^'/C, to fiiv 
ev T^ KOiXiy ivioTE juev SiarapaacrtTai Karoi. Hipp. Morb. 510 : 
TTtjOi Si aiiTOv Tov vSpwTTa fOTi Koi TO oXko vypov — ?/V fltV Etc 
rjjv KOtXtJjv Sierapa^i Tr/v KOirpov Kai arpo^ov Iv rig KOiXt^ 
STToirias. Hipp. Affect. 530 : cnro twv airiwv Kal twv ttotoiv 
K(u TWV b/ioiwv ivioTS piv SiarapaaaeTai 7] K0i\ir\. Galen. 
Oomm. i. 1, Epid. i. (xvii. A. 3) : r»jv (rwpaTwv avppirpiav 
Tf)v oScrav vyiEiav SiaTapaTTti. 

36. "Thy cousin Elisabeth, she hath also conceived a son 
in her old age" {iv yrip<} avTiiQ)- 

*yripag, peculiar to St. Luke, was used by the ancient 
physicians to mark one particular period of human life; 
it is defined by Galen, Def. Med. 107 (xix. 375) : yrjpdg 
i(TTiv riXiKia Kofl' yv virofxiLovTai kcli vTroXu-mi to ZiJ^ov, tXar- 
TOvwv kv avTt^ yivopivwv tov depfiov /cai tov vypov Koi ttXho- 
vti)v Se ev aVTtig yivopivuv tov \pvxpov Kal tov ^ripov. They 
divided life generally into three periods. Galen. Oomm. 
iii. 31, Epid. ii. (xvii. A. 445) : orav Se yivovrai duTTov Ta 
OriXta tHjv appivwv Koi vEorjjra koi aKpriv Xap^dvEi koI yripag. 
Galen. Oomm. i. 13,Aph. (xvii.B. 402) : KaSEorijKoroe Se Xe^ei 
Toiig Trfv jue(71)v E^oirae rjXiKiav, UKfirig rs Kai yripwg, we ttoueo- 
Oai piv rjSjj TO. ttiq aKprig jUijoettw Se pridspiav alaQr\aiv oa^ri 
yripdig 'ix^iv. Galen. Oomm. iii. 11, Aliment, (xv. 295) : 
£1(71 Si Sia^Oopai TOV awpaTog ripuyv SittoI Kara yivog — irpw- 
Tov piv yivog Sid Trjv ^ijporrira yiviTai koi yrjpag KaXtiTai. 
Hipp. Ooac. Progn. 201 : tuvtu pix9^ 7»jp'«'e dirixiTai voari- 
para. Hipp. Rat. Yiot. 349 : oi SI vyialvovTig SiaTsXiovui 
piXP'- 7^?"^? TOV i(7xdTov. Hipp. Intern. Affect. 535 : 'iwg 
yripovg Trpoaix^^- Hipp. Epid. 1184 : voixroi %vvTpo<poi iv 
yripdi. Hipp. Aph. 1246 : ig Si TO yvpag. Aretaeus, Sign. 



§ Lvii.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. 95 

Morb. Diuturn. 37 : XfiprttTig apxofiEvti airo yrtpaog. Ajcet. 
Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 70 : alfioppaytri ^.i/x^wvog yripq. 

42. "And she spake out (avE^wvrjtrE) with a loud voice, and 
said," &o. 

* ava<j)(i)VHv is peculiar to St. Luke, and a word very 
likely to be used by a physician, as it was a medical term for 
a certain exercise of the voice called technically ava(pwvri<jig. 
Ajetaeus, Our. Morb. Diuturn. 132 : ava^wvhiv XPV roXm 
jdapim (jtOoyyoim /xaXXov xpEOjusvoi-' o^icri. Aret. Cur. Morb. 
Diuturn. 147 : ol vttvoi vvKTwp filv, Si riixipng Se TrepiiraToi, 
avatjiwvricTiBQ. Aret. Our. Morb. Diuturn. 150 : iarw Ss koI 
ava<j)wvri<nQ rot) 7rvEV;uaroc yvfivaaiov to Kaipiov. Gralen. San. 
Tuend. v. 10 (vi. 358) : yvfivaaia St ra te St' oXwv twv \£ip<ov 
ETTJTjjOEUOjUEva KOI Tag KaXovfjiivag wo tCov (pwvaaKtLv ava(j>(i)- 
vnaug. Gralen. San. Tuend. v. 10 (vi. 359) : oti cJl koi rac 
avafwvricTeiQ iv psysOu te koi Ty kot o^wrrjra Taaei Trig ^wvijc 
TrotjjrEov i(TTiv. Galen. Meth. Med. iv. 4 (x. 251) : oXow row 
(TtifiaTog iTTipiXiiav TTOiutrdai, psTaavyKpivovTag avTO Sia yvp- 
vaaiuyv ttoikIXwv koX alwpag koI ava(j)(i)v{i<Tewg. Gralen. Meth. 
Med. iv. 4 (x. 261) : pera tovto XpritTTwg avaTpi^tiv, ava<j)iii- 
vriaetog ts pipvrjTat. Q-alen. Meth. Med. iv. 4 (x. 262) : tov- 
Tov o avvaavTog priotv, etti Tag ava^wvfiaEig koi rac alwpriaug 
Kol Ta iiXXa yvpvacria afi^ovTai. Galen. Meth. Med. iv. 4 
(x. 263) : KaTaTpijisi. yovv Iv avaip(i)vrj(T£(7iv, alwpatg Tt koi TOig 
ToiovToig. Galen. Loc. Affect, iv. 11 (viii. 288) : avaXayov 
Si Ti Toig Tpiipsaiv ai ava^wvriaBig ipyaZovTai. 

63. "And he asked for a writing table (irtvaKtSiov), and 
wrote, saying, His name is John." 

* TtivaKlSiov, peculiar to St. Luke, is of rare occurrence in 
Greek writers, the more usual terms being irlva^ and irivaKiov. 
Hippocrates uses it of his own tablets. He writes, Bpid. vi. 
1199: TO. EK apiKpov TTivaKiBiov cFKtirTsa, "the following obser- 
vations taken out of a small tablet are worthy of considera- 
tion" ; and he then proceeds to give medical observations from 
it. From its being thus connected with the distinguished name 
of Hippocrates, it would appear to have become a familiar 



96 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [pakt ii. 

word with physicians. Gralen, in examining the question as to 
the authorship of some of the books which pass under the name, 
and are included among the works, of Hippocrates, comes to 
the conclusion that they are not aU genuine, but that some 
of them were compiled after his death by his son Thessalus 
from the notes of Hippocrates ; and refers to this trivaKiSiov 
in illustration of this. Galen. Difficul. Respir. ii. (vii. 854) : 
riov iTriSrjfiiwv to Se Se{iTspov Koi to TsrapTOv koi to ektov k'ori 
jUEv oig Tov 'iTTTTOKjOaTOve vUog, i<jTi §£ oIq Kol ovTOv 'IwiroKpa.- 
TOVQ iSo^iv, oil fxrjv avyypafifxaTa 76 oiiS' wcrre SiaSodijvai ToXg 
EAA))(Tt /xiWovTa, aW virofivr)fiaTa fiaXXov iivai' tloi Ss 
o'iiTEp Koi aKpi(5i(7Tipa /loi Sokoixti KaTa/iaOtlv tHiv (iifdXiwv Trjv 
Svvafjuv, VTTO filv TOV QeaaraXov ysypd^Oai Sokei to. i, Svo 8' 
tivm TOV fieyaXov IviroKpaTOVQ koi aTriyeypa(j)dai yi ttov Sia 

TOVTO " TO. EK TOV fllKpOV TTtVaKtSlOV," StlXoVOTl TOV Q£(T(TaXoV 

iravTa otra wep 6 Trarjjp avToi) yiypa^ihg eVut^ev aOpolaai 

(TTTOvScKTaVTOQ EC TUVTOV, WQ fir/Slv alToXoiTO. 

Among the works attributed to Hippocrates there is a 
spurious one edited by Burckhard, described as follows in 
Kiihn's preface to Hippocrates, p. 175 : " Parva Hippoeratis 
tabula per Petrum Burckhard. Enchiridion fuisse dicitur 
Burokhardo quod Hippocrates, cum aegros visitaret, secum 
tulerit," thus showing that the word irivaKlSiov continued 
to be a familiar one in medical language for a physician's 
note-book or tablet. 

64. ",And his mouth was opened immediately (Trapaxp^jua), 
and his tongue loosed." 

wapaxpvua is used nineteen times in the N. T. — twice by 
St. Matthew (xxi. 19, 20), and the remaining seventeen times 
by St. Luke. Of these seventeen times no less than thirteen 
are in connexion with miracles of healing or the infliction 
of disease or death — Luke, i. 64, avswxOn to aTofia avTov 
napaxpfifxa ; iv. 39, of Simon's wife's mother, Trapaxprifia Si 
civaaTCKja Str^Kovu ; V. 25, of the man sick of a palsy, koi 
vapaxpriiia avaorac ; viii. 44, 47, of the woman with an 
issue of blood, irapaxpvfia ioTri 17 pvai^ — wc laQr\ irapaxpriiia ; 



§ Lvn.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. 97 

viii. 55, of Jairus's daughter, aviarri irapaxprifia ; xiii. 13, of 
the ■woman with a spirit of infirmity, wapaxpnfia avopOwdn ; 
xviii. 43, of the blind man at Jericho, irapa\pr\na avI/SXti/ze ; 
Acts, iii. 7, of a lame man, wapaxprifia 8a ioTEpswOricFav avrov 
ai ficKTug koX to a^vpa ; Acts, Y. 10, of Sapphira, 'inscre 2e 
napaxpij/Jia km i^{\liv^sv ; Acts, 'ix. 18, of St. Paul's recoYery 
of sight, avefiXtipi re Trapaxpnjua ; Acts, xii. 23, of Herod, 
napaxprj/JLa Si ETrara^tv avrov ayyeXog Kvpiov ; Acts, xiii. 11, 
of Elymas, rrapaxpfi/xa Sk tTriire(7£v ett' avrov a)(\iig koi o-kotoc. 
irapaxpvfia is similarly used by Hippocrates, coupled with 
words expressing recovery from sickness, or the contrary. 
The subjoined examples from Hipp. Intern. AfEect. wlH show 
this use. It is not, however, to be understood that the word is 
of such frequent use as these examples, ocourriag almost page 
after page, might lead one to infer, but only that other phy- 
sicians used the word very frequently, and in a way analogous 
to St. Luke. Hipp. Intern. Affect. 533 : rovrov rjv /xi) Trapa- 
Xp^jua rig IritTtrai, vworpoTnaaaaytg rr)Q vovaov ovk av fxtra ravra 
EXOte iifeXficFai, rjv /xi) raSe Troifiayg. 535 : rovrcrv OKorav SiSs 
e'xV) irapaxprif^o. Kaixrai ra arriOea kuX to jUEra^pavov koi ovrw 
rdxKyra vyiijg Eorat. 536 : vocriu Trapa\prifxa, an SaKVOfitvog 
VTTO (pXij/jLUTog. 540 : Krjv fxtv rvxjQg tojuoiv, irapaxpVfJ-a vyiia 
irocqaug. 541: koi ^v piv rv^yg ra/xiiiv Trapaxprifia vyda ttoij)- 
ang. 542 : koI okov av aXAr/ oSvvr) Karatrrijpi?^ Kavaai, koi 
ovTb) irapaxpfifia vyifjg Eorat. 542: aXAa xprj wapaxprifia Oepa- 
TTEWEtv wg rrjv irpocrOiv. 545: ktjv ;uev ovv fiiXXrf If rb vov(Tr)fj.a 
e[j,Tr£<T£i(Tdai, napaxprifjia ev rolai irovoiaiv iariv. 546 : napa- 
XP^A'd rov TTOvov rrapixH novXvv. 547 : rjv Se a/jicXeit} rig 
iyyivr\rai Ka\ firj TTapa\prffia peXermOy, ev rax^i cnroOvritTKii, 
547 : aXXa \pri irapaxpVfJio- p-eXsryv. 548 : rj aXXo ri noiriary 
prj iTTirriSuov, ro rjirap irapaxpvpa yivtrai aKXripov. 549 : 
17 Se vovaog Sitrai Oepairri'trig, xoXotti? yap Kat xpovtoe, vv p-fj 
irapaxpvp.a /xeAetjj^^. 550 : to Se vovcrriixa r\v /irj wapaxpripa 
dtpaiTivBy. 550 : oKorav ^Xsyp.a avaXafSy 6 o-ttXjjv eg ewvrov 
/cat /xlyag 7rapaxpfip.a yevt)rai. 551 : avrri fi vov(Tog ro'iai 
TToXXo'iaiv fjv irapaxp^jUM /xeXerriOi], iv raxei £?£'pxi''at' 

o 



98 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [pakt ii. 

The other medical writers use the word in a similar way. 
Galen. Oomm. ii. 12, Epid. (xvii. A. 106) : tTrips^av ovtoi 
Trapaxprifici. Do. 54 (p. 153) : 'ivwi filv ovv a/na t(^ (nraadrivai 
Ts KOI IwSri ifiiaai irapaxpvfia aTToOvriffKOvai. Comm. 11. 23, 
Aph. (xvii. B. 505) : Trapaxpvfia ja awOsvTwv ti anoGavovrtov. 
Oomm. vi. 45, Aph. (xviii. A. 73) : wapaxpnfia /uiv raxtwc vyia- 
ZicOai doKii. Do. (do. 104) : wapaxpriM-'^ TravsTai Trig Xu77oe. 
Adv. Jul. 7 (do. 285) : irapaxprifia twv (JVfiwTWfiarwv aTrr\Wayr\- 
aav. Do. (do. 287) : irapaxpwa Tovg avBpdJirovg vyiaaOivrag. 
Meth. Med. ix. 4 (x. 612) : irapaxpriixa tov nvpiTov aff/Baaav. 
Do. 16 (do. 656) : wapaxpriM-"- ^(x^avrag tov Trvperov. Do. 
X. 4 (do. 682) : irapaxpni^a tijv ^p'iktiv iiravaa. Do. xii. 8 
(do. 869) : irapaxpvp-o- p-^v avtoSvvoi ytvovTai. Do. (do. 870) : 
Trapaxpvp-O- '"'jv ''"' oSvvr)v apa Koi Trjv SiaOeaiv eKuepawivovTai. 
Temp. Med. ii 12 (xi. 488) : Trapaxpripa rag SriKiig taaaTO. 
Do. 13 (do. 491) : aTopaxov icrx^upaJc SaKvopevov 'iXatov 
yXuki) ttoSev IdrraTO TTapaxpr\pa. Do. vii. 16 (xii. 100) : irapa- 
XPVpa Tag oSvvag iiravaev. Oomp. Med. ii. 1 (xii. 557) : 
wapaxpfipa Av£t Toiig irovovg, Do. 2 (do. 583) : vlttovov ttoiu 
irapaxprtpa- Do. iii, 1 (do. 623) : napaxpJipo- piv vTrcpaXyovai. 
Do. (do. 652) : Trapaxpvpa KovfiZei. Do. iv. 8 (do. 771) : 
TrapaxpvpO' ^^Ei Toiig irovovg. Do. (do. 772) : Trapaxpvpa 
uiipeXsi. Do. vii. 2 (xiii. 48) : tovto wijisXh irapaxpiipct. Do. 
ix. 3 (do. 285) ■: Trapaxpvpo- puol Toiig irovovg. Do. ix. 5 
(do. 294) : irpog KoiXiaKoiig Sxtte Trapaxpripa Iotijiv. Do. 
(do. 303) : SvaEVTEpiKoiig io-djo-i vapaxpiipa. Do. X. 2 (do. 
346) : 7rap»)70pEi irapaxpripa. Do. x. 3 (do. 355) : Trapaxpnpu 
TOV vovov cnraWaTTii, &c., &c. 

Dioseor. Mat. Med. i. 4 : KUTaxpioOiv Se Trapaxpijiua ipiXot 
Tag Tpixag- Do. ii. 53 : 'IsTtim yap wapaxpfipa Trjv Kivwaiv. 
Do. iv. 81 : 7rapa;^pj}jua Se irapaXvii to, i^x'-'^- Animal. Ven. 
21 : irapaxpripa twv o^XijpdJv airaXXa(T(TCiv. Do. 23 : roic Se 
viro uKOpiriov irXriyiim irapaxprjpa plv uKpifBug jSoijSeT a-UKrJe 
OTTog. Medic. Parab. i. 56: aipEt yap irapaxpripa virwiria. 
Do. 235 : irapaxpripa 8e iroisi airovovg tovto, &G., &C. 

This medical use would account for the frequency of the 
word in St. Luke's writings. 



§ Lviii.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 99 

§ LYIII. 

Luke, II. 

* awapyavovv. * avevpcdKEiv. *ldiZeiv. Wog. eOuv [hwOo). 

*ijKvog (verse 5, § 57). TtifnrKrifii (v. 6, § 60). (7ii,uj3aXX£(v 
(v. 19, § 68). *h^vvaaQai (v. 48, § 22). *liaTr,Qiiv 

(v. 51, § 72). 

7. "And she brought forth her firstborn son, and wrapped 
him in swaddling clothes" {hatrapyavuasv avrov). 

* airapyavovv, peculiar to St. Luke, is used in the same 
way by the medical writers. Gralen. San. Tuend. i. 7 (vi. 
32): TO TOivvv vEoyev^e Traidiov, tovto Srj to afitfiTTTov airaarj 
Tij TrapatTKevg, TrpuTov plv atrapyavovadd), avfifiiTpoiq aXaiv 

TTSpiiraTTO/lSVOV, OTTUg aVTOV TTVKVOTepOV KOi (JTtppOTipOV iir\ TO 

Sipfia Tcjv ivSov /jiopiwv. Gralen. San. Tuend. i. 7 (vi. 33) : 
TavT ovv, (tie iipr\Tai, anapyavwBivTa yaXuKTi rs ^pi'iaOco 
Tpo(f,y. Gralen. Oaus. Morb. 7 (vii. 27) : SevTspa Ss, ij re Kara 
TTJv aTTOKvriaiv avTrjv /cav rtj) (TwapyavovcrOai wXrifiixiXsia. 
Gralen. Oaus. Morb. 7 (vii. 27) : ovk opBCiQ IvuXittoxxswv t£ 
rote oirapyavoiQ. Q-alen. Caus. Morb. 7 (vii. 27) : 'iv ts t(^ 
yaXa 7rap£}^Eiv Kai ev t(^ \ovsiv koi <nrapyavovv. Hipp. Fract. 
776 : Sxnrep tu iraiSia sv Tyai Ko'iTyai trirapyavovTai. Hipp. 
Aer. 292 : poiKO, Si yivtrai to. awfiaTa koi TrXarla irpwTov piv 
OTi ov oTrapyavovvTai Sxrvrsp sv ^AiyvirTo^. Dioscor. Met. Med. 
iii. 33 : j(prj ol (ttsvij) (nrapydvio crvcTTiXXsiv- 

16. "And they came with haste, and found {avBvpov) 
Mary, and Joseph, and the babe lyiag iu a manger." 

* avevpiaKEiv, peculiar to St. Luke, occurs again, Aot§, 
XX. 4, and is employed by the medical writers of finding out 
the seat of a disease. Hipp. Aphoron. 678 : ttjv vov<tov 
avivpwv i)v %-)(ov<iiv ai prJTpai. Hipp. Loo. in Hom. 422 : 
ijjrptKry Sri poi SoKtsi JjSij avsvpfiaOai oAjj. Hipp. Artie. 806 : 
ETTfi Tuv yayyXiuSiwv evia ocra av TrXaSapa ty koi p.v^tx)$ia 



100 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

aapKa e^^ ttoXXoi aTOjjLOvaiv olo/itvoi psv/xa avt.vpr](juv. Hipp. 
Vuln. Cap. 904 : n-jOoiTE^ovra tov voov avavpidKuv on wiirovde 

TO OCTTEOV. Hipp. Epid. 1184 : aViVpioKH ri ^V(TIQ UVTy 

twvT-g Tag i^oSovg. Gralen. Difficul. Eespir. iii. 3 (vii. 903) : 
tlprjTai piv Srj Kav Totg Trig OepaTrevTiKrig /xeOoSov jpappaaiv 
OTTWQ xprj Ta ToiavTa wavTa KCii Z,r]Tuv koL aveupidKUv. Gralen. 
Cans. Puis. i. 7 (ix. 24) : oh ■)(aXiuov Ik tu)v upripeviov 
avEvpiaKciv. Gralen. De Dieb. Decretor. ii. (ix. 885) : Trpoa- 
SiopiiiQ Si KOI TavTa Ta piv avTog airo tivuv (rrjfidoiv, olov 
Kpa<7swg, iOovg koi riXiKiag avevpiaKaiv, 'ivia Se Koi tov votroiv- 
Tog avmrvvOavopevog, Galen. Usus Part. ii. 7 (iii. 117) : 
oil \a\eiruv avsvpicFKEiv, eiXiqipoTag r/Sr) TOaavTag CKpoppag Trjg 
evptcrewg- Gralen. Antidot. ii. 1 (xiv. 2) : (j>app,aKa plv ovv 
avivpiv ettI ^aXayyiwv ISioog appaZovTU. 

27. " And when the parents brought in the child Jesus, 
to do for him after the custom (Kara to ElOiapivov) of the 
law." 

WiZeiv is peculiar to St. Luke. idtiv {e'iwda) he uses 
twice — Luke, iv. 16, and Acts, xvii. 2. It is used also twice 
elsewhere — Matt, xxvii. 15, and Mark, x. i. iOog is used 
ten times by St. Luke — ^i. 9 ; ii. 42 ; xxii. 39 : Acts, vi. 14 ; 
XV. 1; xvi. 21; xxi. 21; xxv. 16; xxvi. 3; xxviii. 17. 
Elsewhere twice — John, xix. 40, and Heb. x. 25. Thus one 
or other of these words is used thirteen times by St. Luke, 
and but four times in the rest of the N. T. They were all 
very frequently used in medical language. 

lOiZeiv. Hipp. Morb. Acut. 338: ij KotXijj ElOiapivri im^ri- 
palvtrjQai. Hipp. Epid. 1085: ovTETig ctAXij rwv sldKrpivuiv 
anoaTamg tyevsTO Kpitnpog. Hipp. Epid. 1230 : wXevpov Se- 
^loi) aXyr]pa Kai TrpoTcpov ilOiapivov- Hipp. Eat. Vic. 369 : 
Ty de Tptry Tovg ptv TTOvovg aTToSorw Toiig ilOidpivovg wdvTag 
— r^ nipTTTy KOjuiEtrat to (jitiov to eldtapevov. Hipp. Morb. 
Acut. 385 : roTcrt juev ^e elQitjpevoitri Slg (jiTiiadai Trjg ripiprig 
Sic SoTiOV, Tolai 0£ povoaiTEHv uQiapivoiniv aTra^ Soteov. 
Hipp. Vic. Rat. 367 : irpoadynv vavx^ trpog to udiapivov ai- 
Tiov. Glalen. Oomm. iv. 63, Morb. Acut. (xv. 848) : Toiig eIOkt- 



^ Lix.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. 101 

jUEvowe KiLvovc fiera (Tfivpvr)^ SiSovai- Galen. OoDam. ii. 
22, Morb. Acut. (xv. 553) : kvl Se ruv etflto-juti'wv apiuTqv. 

Weiv. ii(t)6a. Hipp. Morb. 462 : to alfia Kivr}9y ;iiaXXoi; 
Tov eIwOotoq. Hipp. Morb. 463 : <j>XsyfiaTU)dt}Q ylvriTai fiaWov 
Tov sltoBoTOC. Hipp. Morb. 477: 6 ttXev/uiuv slwObjg jSpl^^so-flat 
rw TTvtj) airo^ripavOy. Hipp. Morb. 488 : to Se -xfiHifia olov 
vep £i&)0£. Hipp. Affect, 523 : to. o-tria icai tu ttotu ttXeov tov 
ilwOoTOQ. Hipp. Morb. 450 : niKpoTEpov oXiyij) tov elwOoTOQ. 
Hipp. Morb. Saor. 305 : tov alfiaTog fifj SiaxsojuEvou Hxnnp 
eIioOei. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 592 : al finTpai Kara TO ilwBoQ 
Evpvarofiol Hai. Hipp. Aph. 1251 : irvpsTog vTroTpowLat,uv 
iiwBev. Gralen. Oomm. ii. 11, Morb. Acut. (sv. 538) : to 
japToi OaTTOv slwOog KaOaipsiv (papixuKOV. 

Wag. Hipp. Morb. Acut. 389 : StoiVtje /uErajSoXije Trapa 
TO Wog — TTapa to eOog fiovoaiTrtaaq — ttjv aanlriv Tr)v irapa to 
i6oc — Trapa to Wog ^puyQAaa — Trapa to Wog PpwuivTcg — 
fiaZa %r\pfi Trapa to Wog — Trapa to Wog i^avivric ttoOsiq — 
TTapo to Wog fiETajSaXXwv. Gralen. Oomm. ii. 23, Morb. 
Acut. (sv. 558) : Sm to irapa ro Woe apiarricrat. Do. 24 
(do. 559) : napa to Woq rrvnJBaiveiv. Do. 25 (do. 560) : 
TTtKpoxoXoj (piaei Trapa to tOog. . Do. 28 (do. 563) : rowc Kara 
TO iOog KUKwOivTag. Do. 29 (do. 566) : tjjv Trapa to Wog 
Evdtiav. Do. 32 (do. 571) : CKTiTiav Trjv Trapa to iOog. Do. 
iv. 77 (do. 867) : awfiaTog oyKov Trapa to Wog. 

§LIX. 
Luke, III. 
a<pi(yig. * Biaaeuiv. * KaracrEieti/. avaaduv. TrpocrnOivai. 
* KaTttK\iitiv (verse 20, § 42). 

3. "Preaebing the baptism of repentance for the remission 
{a^taiv) of sins." 

a(j)iaig is used more frequently by St. Luke than by all 
the other N. T. writers combined. He uses it ten times — 
Luke, i. 77 ; iii. 3 ; iv. 18{bis] ; xxiv. 47 : Acts, ii. 38 ; v. 31 ; 



102 THE MEDICAL LAJfGFAGE OP ST. LUKE. [paet ii. 

X. 43 ; xiii. 38 ; xxvi. 18 — the other N. T. authors, seven 
times. It was used in medical language, like aviaiQ, to 
signify the remission of sickness, &c. Hipp. De Judicat. 
53 : Kpi(jug Se Kai a(j>i(Tiec rwv kwlkjov arifiaivovTUv. Hipp. 
Goao. Progn. 202 : at roiavrat viroctTpo^dX ryo-t irKiiarrjai 
yivo/ievai fisTo. Trjv aftcriv raxlw? KTtlvovai. Hipp. Coac. 
Progn. 209 : ovpov Iv Trvpsri^ Aewktjv tX'^^ i'"' Xe'iriv vTroaramv 
iSpvfjiivriv ra^tiav a^ecriv arjfiaivu. Hipp. Progn. 40 : a<pa(Tiv 
Ttjg ^vcTTje TTOtijfJJjrai. Hipp. Morb. 489 : rijt; §£ a<j)i(TiOQ Tovra 
wavra 17 7Xi5(T(7a arifiaivu. Aretaeus, Sign. Morb. Diutur. 
69 : a^iaieg twv vypuiv a^ovXriToi. Aret. Our. Acut. Morb. 
83 : KS^aXrj Si ^wpoc fj.iv aKxOriaiOQ koX vivpwv cKpeaiog. 
Aret. Our, Morb. Diuturn. 133 : ig inrvov aipeaig. Aret. 
Cur. Morb. Diuturn. 138 : apaial Si koI naXOaKoX aapKsg 
pr)i(TTal Trpog a<pt(iiv rov vouri/iaTog. Aret. Sign. Morb. 
Diuturn. 75 : TrriyvvfXEVov rov vypov awnvieg ai acpiiriEg. 

14. "And he said unto them, do violence to no man" 
{f^t)Siva StaadariTi). 

* SiaauEiv is peculiar to St. Luke, and a medical term for 
shaking with some degeee of force. *KaraiT£i££v and avaaduv, 
used by St. Luke, were also medical terms. 

* Siaadiiv. Hipp. Morb. 488 : jujjS' ip,-!tvov kovra diaati- 
ovra yivilxjKUv. Hipp. Morb. 453 : ovts. yap SiaaduavTO. 
EOTtv siSivai, yivwaKirai Si fiaXiara r^ oSvv^ evOa ty. Hipp. 
Aphoron. 679 : eTrrjv Si KXiicryg, avaarrjaag, Tripiievai KtXtvuv 
oKwe TO KXitr/xa Sia(Ttir\Tai. Hipp. Aphoron. 686 : to. (tkAeu 
Tavvaag Ttjg yvvaiKog Koi Staadcrag to fiiv 'ivOsv to 8' 'ivOsv. 
Hipp. Exect.Foet. 915: tTTHTO Statxdsiv Xa^oiKxag EyKpaTwg ju?j 
tXacTCTOv fj SsKaKig. Hipp. Epid. 1201 : (jj 6 Xaj36e tov ^iraTog 
ETTETTTV^Or), SiicFEiaa, £^ai(pvt}g 6 irovog ETravcraTO. Gralen.Oomm. 
iii. 120, Praedic. (xvi. 771) : 6 uira(7fibg sig k^vijitiv aywv a^o- 
SpoTipav TOV Kara (^vaiv, tue SiaatUadai avra (3iaiwg. Gralen. 
Meth. Med. xiv. 19 (x. 1019) : stra Siaadwv ovrwg oxrfl' opav 
rifiag IvapyiLg kutu) xt^povv to irvov. Gralen. Loo. Affect, i. 1 
(viii. 11) : vTrriov ovv (Txri/J-aTicrag to waiSiov Staffduug ttoXvsi- 
Swg — £K SivTipov SiacrddEig aipoSpoTtpov, d Si SiaadaavTog, &C. 



§ Lix.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 103 

* Karaadiiv, Acts, sii. 17, "But he, beckoning unto 
them with the hand" [KaTatreiaag oi ovtoIq ry x^'pOj pecu- 
liar to St. Luke, occurs again, Acts, xiii. 16 ; xix. 33 ; xxi. 
40. Hipp. Artie. 808 : ovSiv yap fioi aiXTrrov, u tiq KoXwg 
(TKivaaag Karaadasie Kav t^idvvai evia — rove 7^ tolovtov^ 
eIkoc ETTi Toiig TToSag KaTadicaBtvrag fiaXXov i^i9vv6i^vaL — 
baoiat OE Karwripb) ro i)]3tujua Tovroiaiv hkoc fiaXXov IttI 
KS(pa\-^v KaratnUaOai — el ovv Tig IdiXii KaTaasUiv 6p6ijg av 
tOoE (TKEua^oi — TO 81 )(wpiov 'iva okov KaTaadug, avTiTVTrov 
EOTOJ — EK TOVTiwv uv KaTa<TKiVU)v fj,aXt(TTa av Tig KaTaauaQi'iTi) 
— TavTa fiivToi roiovTorporrwg Trotrjrla d iravTwg Seoi iv KXi/xoKi 
KaTaauaOrivai. Gralen. San. Tuend. iii. 13 (yi. 231) : we 
viroKaTapfivai Ta aiTia Ta\g opdiaig Kivr)(Ti(Ti KaTamiaOivra. 
Galen. AHmen. Facul. i. 1 (vi. 465) : oXiadaivei yap h t(^ 
KaTaadtadai fiaWov rj u Tig aTpefjLri<T£i KaTaKsifiivog. Galen. 
Oaus. Sympt. iii. 5 (vii. 236) : wote Karaauaai fiiv avra, nrj 
fiivTOi ys avaooffiv ipyaaaaQai irpo tov Kaipov, trvfifdaivii yap 
Ti TOiovTOv iv Taig KaTuadcremv. 

avaadtiv, Luke, xxiii. 5 : " And they were the more 
fierce, saying. He stirreth up {avaadit) the people." 

This word is also used by St. Mark, xv. 11 : it is not so 
frequent in the medical writers as the two preceding, and is 
used of similar operations. 

Galen. Muse. Anat. (xviii. B. 999) : BvvavTai Se airavTig 
oi irpoeiprip.ivoi fiisg Trapi^tiv koi Tag iv ti^ SiaatUiv re icat 
avaffsieiv Kivriasig. Galen. Oomm. i. 14, Artie, (xviii. A. 14) : 
avaffdsaOai Se tov tov KapvovTog wpov virb tov Karwu'itiovTog 
a^ioi. Hipp. Exect. Foet. 914 : avacrdnv Ss Sd wSs, atv^ova 
VTToaTOpiaacFav avuKXivai Trjv yvvalKU. Hipp. Artie. 782 : 
£v TovTijj) Se T<ji a^rifiaTi TrpoaavaautTU) oKOTav ju£rEti>pr)(T^ tov 
a.vBpii)Trov. 

We thus have St. Luke using the compounds of adiiv 
which were used by the medical writers, and two of these 
used by him alone. 

20. "Added [wpoaiOriKt) yet this above all, that he" shut 
up (KaTiKXeiat) John in prison." 



104 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

■n-poaridivai is used by St. Luke more than twice as often 
as it is in the entire of the rest of the N. T. — ^he using it 
thirteen times, viz. — iii. 20 ; xii. 25 ; xii. 31 ; xvii. 5 ; xix. 
11; XX. 11; XX. 12: Acts, ii. 41; ii. 47; v. 14; xi. 24; 
xii. 3 ; xiii. 36 : the other writers five times, viz. — Matt, 
vi. 27, 32; Mark, iv. 24; Gal. iii. 19; Heb. xii. 19. 
His use of it probably arose from his medical pursuits, 
as it was a very frequent and necessary word in medical 
language, chiefly with reference to the application of remedies 
to the body. The frequency and nature of its use may be 
seen from the subjoined passages from Hipp. DeMorb. 466 : 
(77r0770ve IV vdari depfii^ ^pixu)v, aaaov TfpoarSivai irphg ttjv 
Ki(j)a\riv — aiTioicti -xpricrBu) SLa)(0)priTiKOi(7iv ap^a/isvoQ i^ oXi- 
■yojv, TrpoariBuQ ad — (TiroyyovQ SKpacrtrwv %AtOjOoiie irpoaTivivai 
npoQ TO ovQ — aiTiOKTiv avuKOfiiZ^tv aiiTov oXiya atX TrpoaTiudg. 
467 : TrpoQ rag plvag (pappaKOv TrpoaTiOei. 468 : ipvypara 
irpoariOivai npog rriv ke^oXjjv — irpoaBtivai to avBog tov 
\a\KOv. 469 : ^taapara wpbg rrjv ke^oAijv irpoaTiaivai — 
airoyyove jiaTTTWv sq iiSup 6ip/xov irpoariQkaOu} irpog Tag 
yvadovg. 470 : j3aA.avov TrpocsTiOivai — TtrnXa ippaiTTWV ig 
vS(i)p \},v)(fibv 7rpo(TTi6ivaL — koI apTovg "irpogriBevai Osppovg. 
471 : airoyyovg kg vSwp Oippov kpjSaTTTbJv irpoaTiOevat. 472 : 
TOV pOTOv wpoaTiQivai ig Trjv plva — irpoaTiOevai iUT av vyirjg 
yivt)Tai. 473: TTpoaOeg fappaKOv TTpog rag pivag — virOKXvcFai 
rj ^aXavov tzpoaQuvai. 474; ■^latrpaTa irpouTiOivai. 475: 
paXidTa TrpoaTidtvai )(XiaapaTa. 477 : npoaridei IXXIjSopoi'. 
478: Trpog Tag pivag irpoaQuvai OTi-xpXrjv prj a^Ei — pij wpocm- 
Oivai irpbg ttiv KSijiaXriv. 480 : ■)(Xia(TpaTa TcpoaTiQkvai — koi 
OTav v oSvvri ixrf \Xia(jpaTa TrpooTiBivat. 481 : icat fiaXavovg 
trpoaTiBkvai. 482 : ■\XiaapaTa irpoaTiOlvai — Kai Trpo<TTi6ivai 
irpog TO TrXivpov vdwp xXiapov. 485 : jiaXavovg TrpoaTiOivai 
— 'XXiacrpaTa irpoaTiOivai, &c. &C. 

Gralen used it similarly. Temper. Med. vii. 10 (xii. 31) : 
Tag TU)V voTipHiv oSvvag vpoaTiBipivov w(J>eXu. Do. (48) : 
alpoppo'iSag avaoTopol irpodTidipivov. Do. (51) : TrpoaTiOi- 
Uivri iKTepiwvTag ovlvrirn — kuI aXXwg f^Bopiov la'xypov Iv 



§ Lix.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. 105 

Tncraio wpoariOifiivo^. Do. 11 (59) : ETrtTijSftoTaTOC lort irivo- 
fiivOQ oaov Svoiv Spa)(p,u)v irX^floe V TrpoaTiOi/xivog (tiiv [xiXiri. 
Do. 12 (80) : fiSTa alpivov aXtvpov TrpoaTiOtfiivriv. Do. 22 
(155) : fiiTo. fisXtTog irpoaridsfj.ivri- Do. x. 2 (307) : jSoXavtov 
TTpoaOiivai — a irpoaTiBsp.iva iTTtyupu to 'ivTipov. Do. Si. 1 
(310) : vapKTiv Z,C)<jav irpoaTidlvat. Comp. Med. iv. 8 (xii. 
753) : TTpotriOriKa Trofi<j>6Xvyog Spaxjuae S'. Do. V. 1 (809) : 
aTToyjOQ <Tvve)(^b)g TrpouriOifisvog. Do. (812) : oTToyyog Kai 
oOoviov 6^11 KOI fiiXiTi. 8ta/3jOO}(a irpoariBifizva. Do. (814) : 
icai 6 i^uXoe aiiaXTj^flEte (rriaTi koI avvexCJg TrpoariOsfiivog. 
Do. vi. 6 (930) : Trjg arvTrrripirig Si Trpoaridsitrrig — twv aXXtov 
oirwg av kOiXi^g TrpoaTiOsfiivwv. Do. (939) : e'Stt Si wpoaOsivai 
KEKavjUcv&iv — firj TrporrOstg firiSl avTog to KEKaWjUEi/ov. Do. vii. 
4 (xiii. 81) : fxiXiTog ovSiv oXwg avT<^ Trpoo-eflijKfv 6 avvQtig. 
Do. viii. 6 (194) : 7rpoerrt0£rat Ti^ p-op'ivg. Do. is. 2 (251) : 
TrpodTtOtiKafiiv ry tov fap/xaicov (XKivaariq. (Tfxvpvriv. 

Dioscor. Mat. Med. i. 68 : irgoaTiBifuvov r»7 p-vrpq. 77 : 
Trriyavov x^^V ''rpo(TTi9£i(Ta. 79 : sppriva re ayei mvopsvog koI 
irpoiTTiOipevog. 80 : avaaTopol ttjv prirpav irpoaTiOipsvov. 81 : 
ivioi Ss irporTTiOEacTi rtji XoiraSii^. 101 : Troiov(Ta irpog irvlyag 
v(TTepiKag TrpouTiOtpivr). 104: ep^pva te Karaairq irpocrTeOevTa. 
116 : 17 OTTO TWV ^vXwv Ti(ppa TrpoaTiBiiaa ptvaiv Ik prjTpag 
(TTtXXei. 131 : 'ivioi Si 7rpo(TTi6iacn koI Koarov Spa'xjxag Svo. 

134 : TO (TTTippa KOt TTpOCTTiOsV KaOapCTlV KlVil. 136 '. tTrl'X^ei OE 

KOI alfioppaytav irpoaTiOipivog 6 'xyXog. 142 : TrpoarlOsTai 
poiKotg yvvai^lv. 176 : irposTiOspeva K£<j>aXaXyiatg. 183 : 
irpoaTiOeig aiiv wov Xekv0({). 



106 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

§ LX. 

Luke, IY. 

* avaiTTvaaiiv. * VTvaauv. TrifiirXrifU. lnir'nr\r)fu. irXriQog. 

dwOSc (verse 16, § 58). ^em^ (v. 18, § 59). araviKuv 
(v. 20, § 53). Karlpxe^yOai (v. 31, § 84). * ^x^c (v- 37, 
§ 40. TTopaxp^/xa (v. 39, § 57). 

17. " And ■when he had opened [avaTTTv^ag] the book, he 
found the place where it was written. The Spirit of the 
Lord is upon me." 

20. " And he closed {wTv^ag) the hook." 

* avavTvffaHv and * irrvacsiiv are both peculiar to St. Luke, 
and were familiar words with him through his medical 
training ; avavTvaauv was used of the opening out of various 
parts of the body, and irTvaanv of the rolling up of ban- 
dages. Elsewhere in the N. T., avoi-yuv is the word for 
opening a book or scroll, and kXiaauv for rolling it up again 
(Eev. V. 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, and Eev. vi. 14). avanTvaauv is some- 
times used for opening a book, e. g. Herodotus, i. 48, and 
LXX. 4 K. xix. 14, but there seems to be no other instance of 
irrvaauv being used of rolling up a scroll except this passage 
in St. Luke, jpafifiaTHov lirTv^fiivov (Herodian. i. 17) being 
merely a tablet doubled up — closed. 

Hipp.DeDieb.Judic.57: OKOrav to rfjrap fxaWov avawrvx- 
9^ irpog Tag fpivag. Hipp. Intern. Affect. 558: to ^irap olSisi 
Kai avaTTTvafftTai wpog rag (ppivag vtto tov olSrifxaTog — okotuv 
TO fjTrap avaTTTvyy Trpbg Tag (ppivag Trapa<j>poviti. Hipp. 
Fistul. 885 : avaiTTvcTaopEvr) r\ cripiy^ oiirs irdXiv ^vp.'Triaoi. 
Dioscor. Animal. Ven. 26 : 17 pvyaXri ava-KTvaaofiivq koI 
iTriTiBijxivr) Tr\g iSia? irX^yrig avTi^appoKOv ecttj. Diosoor. 
Animal. Ven. 25 : avTol avairTv)(6lvTeg koI iniTiOivreg rolg 
Tpavfiaai Tag iSiag luivrai TrXtjyae. Galen. Anat. vi. 13 (ii. 
581) : EK rT/e tov vecjipov KoiXlag iirav avanTv^rig aiiTOv. 



§ Lx.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 107 

Galen. Anat. vii. 9 (ii. 616) : avaTrrv^avrog Se aov rauri ra 
5)Ta TOTE TO crUj/ia Trig KCLpSiag avTo (jtavtiTai. Galen. Anat. 
vii. 10 (ii. 622) : ava-irTv^ag Se Kara firiKog oAjjv tjjv £K(j>vaiv 
TTJQ aopTTiQ. Galen. Medicns 15 (xiv. 785) : to. Se avfim^v- 
KOTa (3\i(papa avairTv^avTeg afiiXy. 

* irTvaauv is used for rolling up bandages, and ■n-Tvyfia 
for a bandage. Hipp. Fract. 758 : fisatiyv tov ayKwvoe kol 
Tov TrAEwplwv (TTrAijva Tiva Tro\virTV)(ov irTv^avra inroTiOivai. 
Aretaeus, Our. Morb. Diuturn. 141 : uvtI Sk aipiwv Trrvy/iaTa 
EffTw OTTO \ivov. Galou. Comp. Med. vi. 2 (siii. 878) : 
TTTvyfiaTog TrpocrsTriTiOe/jiEvov rtji (tttXtivI^). 

28. " And all they in the synagogue, when they heard 
these things, were filled (iirXriaOriaav) with wrath." 

Luke, vi. 25 : " But woe unto you that are full" (ejuttett- 
XrjffjUEvof) . 

Luke, V. 6 : " They enclosed a great multitude (ttA^Soc) 
of fishes." 

irifiirXriiM and iiiwiirXmxi are used thirty times in the 
N. T. — twenty-five times hy St. Luke; five times elsewhere, 
viz., Luke, i. 15, 23, 41, 53, 57, 67; ii. 6, 21, 22; 
iv. 28 ; V. 7, 26 ; vi. 11, 25 ; xxi. 22 ; Acts, ii. 4 ; iii. 10 ; 
iv. 8, 31 ; V. 17 ; ix. 17 ; xiii. 9, 45 ; xiv. 17 ; xix. 29.— 
Matt. xxii. 10 ; xxvii. 48 ; John, vi. 12 ; xix. 29 ; Eom. 
XV. 24. They are words constantly recurring in the medical 
writers. So, too, with respect to irXnOog, which occurs thirty- 
two times in the N. T., twenty -five of which are in the third 
Gospel and Acts of the Apostles, and but seven in the rest of 
the N. T. Galen states of this word that physicians scarcely 
used any word more frequently than it. Galen. De Plen. i. (vii. 
513) : oiire woXkaKig ovOfiaZovTag STspov ovofxa tov TtXridovg 
fiaWov 'iaTiv evpiiv airavTag Tovg vvv cr^fSov laTpovg. And, 
although he is here speaking of the use of this word in a 
particular sense, yet the assertion is equally true of it in its 
various shades of meaning. 

TTt/uTrXrjjut. Hipp. Morb. Acut. 398 : ol toioi'Se tjjv 
apTtipiav kXKOvvTai Koi tov TTVEV/iova TrifjnrXavTai. Hipp. 



108 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [past ii. 

Morb. 482 : TrXEVfiwv n-Xijo-fltie, fjv TrkriaOy 6 TrXsi[iti)v. — 
irifjnrXaTai fwSiLv. Hipp. Morb. 488 : oKorav 6 kyKiipaXog 
irXriaOy UKaOapaiag. Hipp. Morb. 489 : TrXiv/xwv oiSriiry vtto 
depfxaatrig irXriadtig. Hipp. Affect. 522 : 57 filv yaarrjp vSarog 
irlfiTrXaTai. Hipp. Intern. Affect. 534 : oKorav to. koiXo. 
^Xifiia irXritrdy a'i/iaTog. Hipp. Intern. Affect. 536 : 6 ^dpvy^ 
wg ^voov TrifXTrXarai. Hipp. Morb. 515 : ra CFKeXta iri/XTrXaTai 
xiSuTog. Aret. Sign. Acut. Morb. 15 : iritnrXriai ttjv KSfjiaXriv. 
Aret. Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 54 : 6Xov to atj/xa jrXjjo-fl^. 
Aret. Cur. Acut. Morb. 120 : iriinrXaTai yap 17 rtjv vKppwv 
KoiXiri. Aret. Our. Acut. Morb. 88 : koI Sok% TrsTrA^o-flat 6 
vovaEWV, rjv fxkv aifiarog, &0. 

sfxir'nrXriiJ.i. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 610 : ^v al /xriTpai ^Xty- 
fiUTog efiTrXriaOucTi. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 642 : koi fiv tl ^ayy 
efin'nrXaTat kui (pXiy/jiaivei. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 649 : rjv t) 
wvpir\ (pvcrrig e/iirnrXq. rag vcTTtpag, iinrnrXa/i/jitvai Si. Hipp. 
.>Morb.Mul.662: snir'nrXaTai v koiXit) vSarog. Hipp. Morb. 462 : 
viro yap Trig {nnpBepfxaairig efnri7rXr)(n to Kara to ovg Kivov 
6 iyKiipaXog. Hipp. Morb. 467 : koi irvivfiaTog IfiimrXaTai. 
Hipp. Morb. 472 : tTepog TruXvTrog. sfnriTrXaTat r] pig Kpiacn. 
Gralen. Comm. ii. 3, Aliment, (xv. 234) : orav to riTrap sit} 
ifnTeTrXri(Tfiivov — ip.TTmXr\ap,ivov SI eijj to <y7rXay\yov. Gralen. 
Oomm. iii. 2, Morb. Acut. (xv. 636) : 01 yap l^xvpoX (jipoSpwg 
OspfiaivovTeg kfiirnrXacn Trjv ice^aXrjv Kat '^(yp.wv /cai arjuwv. 

irXiidog was the word used in medical language to express 
a quanta^/ of anything. Hipp. Nat. Horn.: on-o re tHjv 
vtTh)v Tov TrXrfiiog. Hipp. Superfoet. 264 : tovtsov TrivEroj 
vijoTte OKOCTov av SoKty (itTpLOv Hvai TrXriSog. Hipp. !Flat. 
299 : oKOTav Se TrXriOog alfioppayrjcrav. Hipp. Eat. Vio. 
341 : nXtiOog mTiwv. Hipp. Eat. Vic. 348 : t(1^ TrX-nOa tov 
vypov. Hipp. Offic. 748 : oOoviuyv irXriOEi. Hipp. Affect. 
521 : viro irXriOovg tov (pXsyfiaTog. Aretaeus, Sign. Morb. 
Diuturn. 58 : vypov TrXi^Oog. Aret. Cur. Acut. Morb. 94 : 
uXriOei Tov x"Xov. Aret. Our. Acut. Morb. 112 : rjv S' viro 
TtXr'iOtog yiyvrirai (TvyKoirri. Diosoorides, Mat. Med. i. 30 : 
Kvaduv tS irXiidog. Dioscor. Mat. Med. 59 : to iVov vXriOog 



§ LX.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 109 

Toii iXaiov. Dioscor. Mat. Med. i. 65: avOovg to 'laov 
EjujSaXwv nXriOoe. Diosoor. Mat. Med. i. 66 : KvaOov 7rX^0oe 
irodiv. Dioscor. Mat. Med. i. 88 : KvaOwv to TrXijOoe rpiCiv. 
Dioscor. Mat. Med. 106 : rpiui^oXov TrXtjOog ffiiv ohig. 
Dioscor. Mat. Med. i. 109: 6aov ovyyiag fiiag 7rX0oQ. Dioscor. 
Mat. Med. i. 134: oaov Spaxfiav a TrXfj^oe. Gralen. Ven. 
Sec. ad Bras. 9 (xi. 181) : aifiaToq irXriOog. Gralen. Oomp. 
Med. vi. 9 (xii. 992) : eotw Se tov fikv pov TrXrjfloe liaov toIq 
Tpi(A ^aKTvXoig. Galen, do. vii. 5 (xiii. 89) : ek tov ttXt/Oovc 
f^apfxaKCiv. Do. 6 (106) : 7rXi)0oe vypCjv Tra\iiav. Do. viii. 
1 (120) : vapSivjje icripwrjjc TrXijOoe. Do. (125) : ttX^Boq 
KvaOwv Svo, &c., &o. 

29. " And rose up, and thrust him out of the city, and 
led him unto ihe broic of the Mil {swe rjjc 6(j)pvog tov opovg) 
whereon their city was built, that they might cast him down 
headlong." 

* 6(ppvc is peculiar to St. Luke, and is used in medical 
language, not only for the eyebrow, but also for other pro- 
jections of the bones, e. g. Galen. Artie. Comm. iv. 55 (xviii. A. 
758] : ETTEtSij TOKUVOTipog vvv T) 6(ppvg Tr/Q KOTvXrjc jejovi Trjg 
KE^aXije TOV juijpov. — Kal vvv el X"^!"'? M^^" '"'JC KOTvXrig tjjv 
6(j)pvv VTrep^rivai to EKTTETrraiKoe apdpov ov^ ^lov te scttiv avTO 
iraXiv Ifiinauv, aTve.')(wpias. 81 avwTipw Ttig o^pvog. 

The application of the word to a hill was exceedingly 
natural to a physician, as in medical language the very same 
epithets were applied to the appearance of the eyebrows in 
certain diseases as were commonly applied to hills, e. g. 
Hippocrates, describing a deadly kind of fever, applies 
iiriKpsfiaaOai to the eyebrows — wvpsTog t'lrx^' "^'^'^ p^J^Q i^ci- «' 
6(j>pvEg tTnKptftcKrdoL Soke'ouo-i — a word applied by Homer to 
a rock — Hymn. Ap. 284: TTErpri irriKpifiaTai. Aretaeus 
(Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 78) uses o^pveg tt/oojSXjjtec of the 
appearance of the eyebrows in elephantiasis, and d(j>pveg 
oxOoJSug of the same disease. Compare Homer, II. ii. 396 : 
irpofiXriTi cTKOTTiXw ; and Dion. Hal. vi. 33 : x^P'" ox^wSjje 



no THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. [paet ii. 

§ LXI. 
Luke, V. 

*cnroTr\vvstv. * airofiaaauv . iKfiaaaiiv. \o\mv. anoXoveiv. 
XaXav. Siappriyvvfxi. * irspippriyvvfu. * npoaprtjvvfu. 

* VTro\u>piiv. * iK^wpuv. airoxojpHV. * kXivlSiov. 

* KXivaptov. kAivj/. KjOaj3/3aroc- 

Trapaxpvua (verse 25, § 57). * irapaSo^ov (v. 26, § 48). 
Trlp.wXnfit. (v. 26, § 60). * Boxv (v. 29, § 73). ijialvuv 
(v. 31, § 9). 

2. " And saw two ships standing by the lake : but the 
fishermen were gone out of them, and were washing {airi- 
rrXvvav) their nets." 

The variety of words used by St. Luke for washing and 
cleansing is remarkable. He employs five such, two of which 
are peculiar to himself — * awoirXvveiv here, and * cnrofiacrrruv 
(ch. X. 11), " even the very dust of your city we do wipe off." 
Words of this kind were in every-day use in medical lan- 
guage and practice, hence the variety he employs. With 
respect to the other three, sK/jiacraetv (ch. vii. 38, 44), " began 
to wash his feet with tears, and did wipe them with the hairs 
of her head," is met also again in John, xi. 2, &c. cnroXoinv 
(Acts, xxii. 16) occurs also in 1 Oor. vi. 11 ; and Xovnv is 
used in Acts, ix. 37 ; and in a quite medical way in Acts, 
xvi. 33, and three times elsewhere in the N. T. 

* airoirXvvHv. Peculiar to St. Luke. Hipp. Morb. 492: 
TO. po(^riiiaTa corw ■yXuKurfpa. ovTii) yap av judXierra to ^vvKa- 
Orifievov Koi to ^vvecTriKog cnroTrXivoig Koi Kivioig. Hipp. 
Ulcer. 890 : /lavSpayopov piZav, aTroirXvvavTa koi TUfiovTa 
sipriaat ev olVtjj. Hipp. Haemor. 893 : tux^ XP*? aTroirXvvai 
o'lvi)) avoT»}jO(^. Hipp. Aphoron. 687 : d 81 jut) aKpag Trepi- 
^icrai Tag firiTpag koi airoirXvvai ry triTvi} i<j>6y. Dioscor. 
Medic. Parab. i. 121 : Kapda/jiov KaTaTrXaaaofisvov Si oXrig 



§ Lxi.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. Ill 

vvKTog sirl rifiEpaQ i, ewOev Si airoirXivavTa Koi icXucravra. 
Gralen. Meth. Med. iv. 2 (x. 237) : aXX si koi airoir\vvai Bioi 
TO sXkoc G-alen. Meth. Med. vi. 6 (x. 452) : %' sx'-'fxev 
airofiaTTEiv koi ctTroirXivstv airo rijc fi'fiviyjog tovq [■^upag. 
Galen. Meth. Med. viii. 4 (x. 568): BiappvirTBiv ra koI 
awoirXiviiv s'SwAev to awna. Q-alen. Oomp. Med. i. 6 (xii. 
461) : airoTrXvvs Ospfitif. Galen. Comp. Med. iv. 1 (xii. 700) : 
TO aTTOTrkvvuv Tag vypoTniTaQ. 

* aironatsanv, ch. x. 11, is peculiar to St. Luke. Aretaeus, 
Cur. Acut. Morh. 90 : apioTov kuX o-kiXAjjc wfiriQ XeirTolai 
iKTpi^iiv XPV 2^ ciTTOfiaKavTa rc5v jueAeoiv to iXaidSeg. Galen. 
Comm. iii. 42, Morh. Acut. (xv. 715): waXiv cnrofiaTTei tovt 
avTo TO jUETa Tov vSaToc iXaiov. Galen. San. Tuend. iii. 6 
(vi. 198) : Koi Bi St' iSpwTa Tiva TV-^oizv airofia^aaOai to Xittoq. 
Galen. San. Tuend. v. 11 (vi. 371) : TpiipauOai /ler' iXaiov kqi 
TO jUETti XovTpov aTTOfia^aaOai. Galen. San. Tuend. vi. 8 (vi. 
418) : bIt aTTOnaTTwv fjikv tov iBpwTa aivSoaiv. Galen. 
Meth. Med. vi. 3 (x. 404) : ovTtog a-KOfiaTTuv to eXkoc. 
Galen. Meth. Med. x. 10 (x. 726) : Sta (ynoyywv iiiv 
airofiaTTkudiii to wpwra juaAaKoTe 8' v<TTipov oOovioiQ, yurjS' 
avThiv Twv airofxaTTOVTWv avTOv Piaitog xpavovTwv. Galen. 
Meth. Med. iv. 4 (xiii. 678) : el rpic r^e vp-^po-g iKpa^auv 
Tovg l)(^u)pag tov I'Akoucj aptivov Ti wpaTTUv twv Slg airopar- 
TovTuv. Galen. Meth. Med. viii. 14 (xiii. 1004) : 17 hi airaQri 

iKfiaaaeiv, Luke, vii. 38, 44. Hipp. Morb. Acut. 395: 
K£^aX)7V fiivroi avs^ripavdai XPV wc oIovts paXidTa vtto (Tiroyyov 
lKfxaaaop.ivr\v. Hipp. Morh. 466 : koi airoyyovg Iv liSart deppi^ 
/Sptx&iv, iKfiaaawv j^Xiapovg, npoffTiOivai wpog to ovg. Hipp. 
Affect. 526 : aXit(j)Eiv oivia koI eXaicf) Ocppt^ Koi iKpaGauv hia 
TpiTtig. Hipp. Intern. AfEeot. 554 : oivoj) Se koi tXal^) 
xXirivag aXti^tiv kg KOirijv Kai iKpaaaBiv. Hipp. Aphoron. 
682 : &(7r£ daKTvXtg iKpd^ai. Galen. Oomm. iii. 49, Morh- 
Acut. (xv. 716) : ttjv K£(j>aXrjv okjOi/Bwc iKpuTTHv — Si' oBovrig 
hpaTTEiv Trjg KE^aXije fb vSwp. Galen. Oomp. Med. i. 1 
(xii. 408) : Trpoaairoapri^ag vlrpi^ ottti^ koi iKpa^ag. Galen. 



112 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

Oomp. Med. vi. 9 (xii. 990) : aiiv iXaii^ iKfiaaai rtjj SaKTvXtjf} 
ToiiQ Toirovg. Galen. Oomp. Med. vi. 9 (xii. 991) : iKfiaacrwv 
ra TrapiaOfiia Koi ttjv vneptiav. Gralen. Eemed. Parab. i. 3 
(xiv. 331) : aXAa koi 8ia jur/XoirtSoe TnpiKBtfXEVov txoiarjg tpiov 
fiaXaKOV iKfidcrauv. 

awoXovuv, Acts, xxii. 16 : " Wash away thy sins" (otto- 
Xovaai rac afiapriac;). 

\oviiv, Acts, xvi. 33 : " And he took them the same hour 
of the night, and washed their stripes" (eXoiktev airo twv ttXi)- 
7wv: so. TO alfia, washed the blood from ofE their stripes; 
compare Galen. Comp. Med. iii. 2 (xiii. 580) : to alfia tov 
TiTpwfxivov fiipovQ aTTOTrXuvat). 

Hipp. Nat. Mul. 571 : alydpov KpriTiKOv KOKKOvg Ivvia 
Tpi\pag Iv o'lvbj) SiSovai wivtiv, roDTStj) Se koi airoXovaaaOai rjv 
SvcTTOKiy. Hipp. Aph. 1260 : oSvvag 6(j)9aXfjiwv aKprirov 
TTorlcFag Koi Xovaag TroXXfj) Qipfii^ ^XajSoro/xEi. Galen. Oomp. 
Med. ix. 1 (xiii. 236) : KVKXafxivov x^^V ^'" pivog KaBdpag 
XouE — XoSe Ti{) a(j>i-^r]ij.aTi. Galen. San. Tuend. i. 8 (vi. 45) : 
iKaXivcra Xovtrai ts koi diroppixpai. Galen. San. Tuend. iv. 6 
(vi. 198) : lOfTTi KoX d S\g avTOv rj Tp\g Xovaaig, ovriaug fiu- 
Zovwg. Galen. San. Tuend. iv. 4 (vi. 247) : Xov(7avTig tvKpaTi^) 
dtpix(^, Tpo(prjy Ev;;^ujuov SoJtro/xEv. Galen. Meth. Med. V. 13 
(x. 372) : £v Se r^ TpiTTi irdXiv kinSeig wpaig ttov rpimv 'iXovcra 
TOV avdpuiirov. Galen. Meth. Med. vii. 6 (x. 480) : uts yap 
vc(i)p iirix^oig Ospfjiov evKparov 6r(j)S/)7ror£ juopitj* tov awfiarog, 
eIVe Tpifioig HTi Xovoig. Galen. Meth. Med. viii. 2 (x. 538) : 
avOig bfxoiuig XoxxsavTtg te Ka\ diairridavTeg. Galen. Meth. 
Med. viii. 3 (x. 553) : Toiig g' Inl ^vpoTm Tp'i(3eiv /xiv dXX' 
eXottw TovToig, XovHV Se nXdw. Do. (554) : El Se (tvv KOpiZy 
KOI KOTOjopcj) TTvpiTTOi, TTplv TTE^fljjvai rauTa, Xovsiv ov XP'^- 
Galen. Meth. Med. viii. 4 (x. 570) : witte koi Xovrrsig t^ te- 
TapTTg Twv rifi£pu)v avTov koi Opiipug. 

4. "Now when he had left speaking, he said unto Simon, 
Launch out into the deep, and let down (xaXaaaTe) your nets 
for a draught." 

XaXov. St. Luke uses this word here, and in verse 5 of 



§ Lxi.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 113 

casting a net, instead of the usual word jSaXXftv, or some of 
its compounds. He uses it also in Acts, ix. 25 ; xxvii. 17 ; 
xxvii. 30. It is found in only two other places in the New 
Testament — Mark, ii. 4, and 2 Cor. xi. 33. The word was 
most extensively used in medical language, both transitively 
and intransitively, in a variety of meanings, such as "relaxing 
the body or members of the body," "abatement of sickness," 
"loosening of bandages," "letting down drugs into a vessel 
of liquid to be steeped," &c. 

Hipp. Nat. Oss. 288 : ravTrtg aTTOCT^iyyoitrriQ rag (jtXifiaQ 
KOI xaXoj(T»)e. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 601 : koi lire (pXiy/xa x«^« 
Koi avayu. Hipp. Epid. 1216 : ig vvKra ISpwg Koi ri dipfxr} 
iXaXacTEV — ExaXaffEv TSTapraiy ra aXyrnxara. Hipp. Epid. 
1225 : s'x^aXaatv 6 irvpiTog. Hipp. Epid. 1176 : irag XeTTTva- 
p.og xaXq. to Ssppa. Dioscorides Mat. Med. i. 71 : aKkripiag 
rag irepl icrrcpav X"^?- Dioscor. Mat. Med. V. 28 : dg p.erpr\- 
Ttiv yXivKOvg xaXatrov pvag t]3' irpbg riixspag X . Dioscor. Mat. 
Med. V. 64 : ravra bpov Xutixrag koi ev oBovii^ Sr/aag )(aXa(TOv 
ilg piTpqTrjv yXiVKovg. Gralen. Comm. iii. 32, Offic. (sviii. B. 
889) : x^XwvTa Tov eTriStiTfiov. Galen. Oomp. Med. i. 3 
(xiii. 161) : IttI rwv KEXMXaa/xEvwv apOpwv. 

6. "And when they had this done, they enclosed a great 
multitude of fishes : and their net brake" (SuppriyvvTo) . 

Siappnyvvpi is used three times by St. Luke — v. 6 ; viii. 
29 : Acts, xiv. 14 ; and only twice in the rest of the N.T. — 
Matt: xxvi. 65 ; Mark, xiv. 63. He also uses *7rspippriyvv/ii 
and *irpo(jpriyvv[ii, which are peculiar to him. They were all 
used in medical language. 

Hipp. Morb. 451 : rjv Si to (pXe^iov Travrairaen fxlv Brj 
Siappayy. Hipp. Morb. 489 : okotuv 6 ttXeviiwv olSricry — ra 
(TTriOea avrij^ adStiv Sokeej Kat ^apog Evdvai tl b yMpkuv ov 
SvvaTai Ta arrjQia aXXa SiappriyvVTai. Hipp. Intern. Affect. 
555 : 17 yaaTTJp aeipsrai koi irifiTrpaTai kol Sokeej SiappYiaerrdai. 
Dioscor. Mat. Med. ii. 180 : (pvpara tteVtei koi Siappriaaei. 
Dioscor. Mat. Med. ii. 200 : TrpoaTtdeig olSrifxara koi (pvpara 
GvvToptog (Kwviaicei koi Siappi'icraisi. Galen. Oomm. ii. 44, 

Q 



114 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

Epid. vi. (xvii. A. 989) : oTe jUEvrot jue'XAei SiappriywaOai to 
ifiTrvrma. Gralen. Comm. i. 3, Aph. (xvii. B. 363) : orav 
yap VTTtpTrXripuiOy to. ayyEta woruv rj Oit'iwv tov ciappayrivai 
Kiv^vvoQ avTo'iQ. Galen. Comm. Aph. vii. 66 (xviii. A. 152) : 
TrXriOovg S' ovtoq iv 6\(^ ti^ awfiari Siappayr\vai (jiOdvovaiv oi 
XtrwvEc b^Bakpwv. Galen. Comm. Artie, iv. 40 (xviii. A. 734) : 
iirav S)ai yspovreg n kqi Xetttoi Siappayivrog tov koto tov 
fjinpov avvSiafiov. Galen. Theriac. ad Pison. (xiv. 334) : koI 
yap ovToi Si\f/wvTEg travv Ka\ SiaKaiOfisvoi (Ttpocpiijg, iviOTe 
KOI Siappriyvvpsvoi, TEXsvTwtnv' 

* irepippriyvvpi. Acts, xvi. 22: "And the magistrates 
rent off {irepippr'i^avTec;) their clothes." Peculiar to St. Lute, 
and used by the medical writers of the breaking of enfolding 
membranes, &c. Hipp. Nat. Puer. 247 : KivisTai lax^P^Q 
Iv Ti^ u)(^ ^rjrsov Tpo(^fiv irXdova koL ol vpivcg irspippfiyvvvTai 
— TO 0£ vaiSiov orav Trcpippaywaiv ol ipiveg, prfiSiug tlktu ri 
yvvT}. Hipp. Septemmestr. Partus. 256 : otuv Se t(^ eJSSojuij* 
pr)v\ trepipayihXTiv ol vfiivig koi to 'ip^pvov piTaj(_wpr](Trj. 
Hipp. Morb. 512 : roOra Se laTopia IdTiv tin ov t'ikth 'iXpivg, 
aXXa wepippriyvvTai. Hipp. Fract. 768 : 0(TO T£ aapKia Iv t(^ 
TpwpaTi ipiXavdri koi idavuTwdt) Oaaaov TTsptpp'fiyvvTai Kal 
iKiriTTTit ml TUVTy T-Q laTpuy. Hipp. Moch. 868 : ovTd} yap 
avTO TO l(T)(y6TaTov Kal kpTricry Ta\i<JTa Kal ireptppri^eTai. 
Hipp. Epid. 1153 : spiXaiviTO ttoc 6 tottoq a\pi tov aaTpa- 
yakov — Kai to pikavQlv oxi Trepieppayri. Dioscor. Mat. Med. 
i. 94 : x°'P«^«e TnpippntraH. Dioscor. Mat. Med. i. 104 : 
avOpaKUQ TTipippriaatL. Dioscor. Mat. Med. ii. 129 : t(Txapag 
■jrepippriTTH. Dioscor. Mat. Med. ii. 131 : Ktjpia inpippnTTii. 

* -n-pocrpTiyvvixi. Peculiar to St. Luke : ch. vi. 48, 49. 
See § 36. 

16. " And he withdrew himself (^v iiTro^^Wjodiv) into the 
wilderness, and prayed." 

* vvoxiopuv. Besides this passage, St. Luke uses * vuo- 
XwpEtv in. ch. ix. 10 ; * ekxojjoeTv is found in ch. xxi. 21, and 
aTToxwpEtv in ch. ix. 39, and Acts, xiii. 13. The two first 
are peculiar to him, and the last almost so, as it is met with 



§ ixi.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 115 

only once in the N. T. outside Ms writings, m'vl. — Matt. vii. 
23. They were all much used in medical language. Hipp. 
Epid. 1144 : vTTsxbjpaev to \onrbv aur^ aljj.a epvdpov. Hipp. 
Epid. 1218 : Tpa-alt^ 8e yaarpog oSvvri (jfiiKprj ov\ {nTE\wp£i. 
Hipp. Epid. 1226 : to ijixiav Ttjg ke^oX^c iroveovriQ koi Kara 
plvag iypoTi v'7ro-)(wpiovTog, Hipp. Morb. 464 : koX rjv ri 
KotAirj firj vTTox'^piy- Gralen. Comm. iii. 6, Aliment, (sv. 
274) : oTttv jap oi X''/**'' ^'^ ''^ /Safloc viro^wpiiaovm. 
Gralen. Oomm. i. 1, Humor, (xvi. 13) : o^x vwoxwpovariQ 
TTJg x"^^?' Galen. Comm. i. 9, Humor, (xvi. 94) : etti- 
TToXa^Ei avw ri xoAjj kol viroxwpu kutw. Gralen. Oomm. iii. 3, 
Humor, (xvi. 361) : to vSwp raxEwc vTro\wpuv twv VTro-)(ov 
Sp'iwv. Gralen. Comm. iii. 19, Humor, (xvi. 430) : to tjutpvTov 
Ospfiov aTro(j)svyu Kai elg tu ivTog vttoxwjoei. Gralen. Comm. 
iv. 16, Epid. vi. (xvii. B. 173) : Kara tovq vttvovq uau) tov 
awfiUTOQ VTrox(^pii TO Ospfiov. 

* EKxwpEtv. Luke, xxi. 21 : " Then let them which are 
in Judaea flee to the mountains ; and let them which are 
in the midst of it depart out " (sKx^/OEirwcrav) . Peculiar to 
St. Luke. 

Hipp. Progn. 43 : koi to tttveXov fiii tKxwpcy kuto. \6yov 

TOV TTTVcXoV CIVtI ^aVUOV TTVIJOOSOQ yeVOflEVOV Kat EKX^jOE- 

OVroe E^W TOV TTTVsXoV JU^ IKXWpioVTOQ £1 Se TO TTTVtXoil flfj 

iK\(iipiy KaXwe. Hipp. Morb. 509 : vplv 8e rapaxQiivai oi/K 
£X£« EKX^pEEtv TO ttXeiov TOV vypov. Hipp. Hacmor. 893 : 
tvpriaeig yap TTE^uaij/ilva tu juEtrjjyi) twv yXovTiHiv irapa rjjv 
fSpjjv TO Si alfia EKX^jOEEtv 'ivSoOev. Hipp. Epid. 1151 : econt} 
KaTawoTiov iXaTripiov Kai E^EX^piJcEV avTy. Gralen. Comm. 
ii. 67, Progn. (xviii. B. 216) : tov tttveXov EKX^plovroe £?w. 
Gralen. Oomm. ii. 67, Progn. : t(^ fiij iK^wpitv, iKavov iivai 
yvwpi<jfia avTO Trig KaKor^duag tov voarffiaTog. Gralen. Comm. 
ii. 68, Progn. (xviii. B. 220) : toi tttviXov fxfi sKx^piovTog 
TOV irvpsTov T£ 'ixovTog. 

a7rox<«>|OEiv. Luke, ix. 39; Acts, xiii. 13. See § 15. 

18. "And, behold, men brought in a bed (etti KXlvrig) a 
man which was taken with a palsy." 



116 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. [paet ii. 

19. "And when they could not find by what way they 
might bring him in because of the multitude, they went 
upon the housetop, and let him down through the tiling tvith 
his couch [avv Tt^ K\iviSit!j)) into the midst before Jesus." 

The variety of words employed by St. Luke for the 
beds of the sick is remarkable. He uses four, two of which 
are common to him with the other Evangelists, viz. kX'ivti, the 
general word for a bed or couch, and KpafSfBaTOQ, the pallet 
of the poorer classes.;, and two peculiar to himself, viz. *kXi- 
viSiov and * K\ivapiov. Here, after using the generic term 
Kkivr) in verse 18, he gives, in verse 19, the particular kind of 
kXivij that the man was carried on, viz. a kXivISiov. 

*k\ivISiov, a diminutive from icXtvrj, was a small couch, and 
was also used, like the Latin diminutives lectica and lecticula, 
to denote a Utter for carrying the sick, e.g. Dion. Hal. Antiq. 
EiOm. vii. : ^ke appwarog Itti kXiviSiov KOfiiZ,6fiivog — Koi ETTEtSij 
Travra Sie^riXBsv, avarrrae ek tov kXiviSiov aTryu roig kavTOv 
TToai Sta Trig ttoXewc oikoSe iyifig. Plutarch. Ooriolan. : koI 
Tov (TWfiaTog a(j)vto iraptdivTog aKpaTrjg ysviaOai. Tavra 8' ev 
icXtviSttj) ^opdSriv Ko/iiiruug sig rrjv (TvjKXriTov aTrriyjBtXzv. 
airayyeiXag S', wg (paalv, evOiig I'ladiTO ptovvvfievov aiiTov to 
aufia, Koi avaaTag anyei Si avTOv (BaSiZwv. Compare 
Plutarch. De animi tranq. : oi voaovvTeg tov larpov aiTiwvTat 
Kol SutrxEpau'ovcri to kXivISiov. Plutarch. Animi an Corporis 
Affect, sint priores: 6 T(j> awfiaTi vouuv evOvg KaOAg iavTov 
aig TO kXiviSiov — larpog dcrtXOiiJv Trpog avOpiowov Ippififiivov 

iv T(0 KXtVtSttj). 

That the kXiviSiov was a couch of so light a kind that a 
woman could lift and carry it may be seen from Aristophanes, 
Lysistr. 916 : ^ejoe vw eveykoi kXiviSiov vi^v. 

*KXivdpiov, Acts, V. 15: "Insomuch that they brought 
forth the sick into the streets, and laid them on beds and 
couches" {eirl KXivapiuiv koi icpa/BjSartov). 

Besides this passage in St. Luke, KXivdpiov appears to be 
found in only two other Greek authors, viz. Aristophanes, 
" Fragments," and Arrian's " Dissertations of Epictetus." The 



§Lxii.] THE MEDICAL LAN&UAGE OF ST. LUKE. 117 

former is a mere fragment of a line of a lost play, from wMcli 
nothing can be inferred as to tlie nature of the KXivdpiov ; but 
probably it was used by Aristophanes as the other diminutive 
kXiviSiov in the Lysistr. for a light, easily carried couch. In 
the other passage, however, it is used for the couch of a sick 
person, Arrian's "Dissertations of Epictetus," iii. 5 : aXX ri 
fi'flT7}p /JLOV TTjv Ke(j)a\rjv vocrovvTog ov Kpart'icni. aTriOi toivvv 
TTpog rjjv /jLYiTipa' a^iog yap £t rrjv K£^aX?}v KparoifxevoQ voaeiv 
aXX' iirl KXivapiov KOfiipov ev oIk(^ KarEKEi/xrjv. airidi ffov etti 
TO KXivapiov' 

§ LXII. 
Luke, VI. 

* StavvKTipEveiv. * aTTaiTtiv. * aTreXTritieiv. * TrtiZuv. 

irapaTr\puv (verse 7, § 72). ivoxXuv (v. 18, § 7). linriwXr\(ii 
(v. 25, § 60). * nXrififiipa (v. 48, § 36). * Trpocrp^iyvvfii 
(v. 48, § 36). *priyfia (v. 49, § 36). * avixTt'iTTTEiv 
(V. 49, § 36). 

12. " And it came to pass in those days, that he went 
out into a mountain to pray, and continued all night {Jfv 
SiavvKTepEvwv) in prayer to Grod." 

* BiavvKTsptveiv. Peculiar to St. Luke. SiavvKTepevuv, iv- 
vvKTspsveiv, and vvKTtpivtiv were all used in medical language. 

Gralen. Oomp. Med. ii. 3 (sii. 840) : juera Se rijv tov 
v/xivog a(j)aip£(nv hriUictu Ta'ivioiov kov^wc STridricrag ia. 
KoXov fiev SiavvKTspevHv' d Se /xi? ye, /j,s)(pig wpoJv rivwv. 
Dioscor. Medic. Parab. ii. 31 : rag Se a<j>o^pag lnwrxxyug Iv 
Toig (Srixmo'lg w^eXei olvog kv aKiXXij yXv^d(7iii SiavsvKripcicrag. 
Dioscor. Mat. Med. ii. 91 : ivvvKrepivcrai a(peig. Do. : eaaov 
ivvvKTepevcrai avTo. Dioscor. Mat. Med. ii. 92: iaaov vvkts- 
piixrai. Dioscor. Mat. Med. v. 132 : a(ptg ivvvKrepivaai. 
Gralen. Oomp. Med. vii. 15 (xiii. 1046) : irpocriinxse Se koi 
TOV olvov KoX TO sXaiov Koi 'iacrov IvvvKTBpevrrdai. Galen. 



118 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. [past ii. 

Eemed. Parab. ii. 6 (xiv. 421) : jraxoc tirixpn ro Trpocywrrov 
Koi EvvvKrepeve. 

30. " Give to every man that asketh of thee ; and of 
him that taketh away thy goods ask them not again" {fi^ 
awaiTu) . 

Ch. xii. 20 : " This night shall thy soul be required of 
thee" (xliv^riv aov airavrovaiv awo aov). 

*airaiTtiv is used in the N. T. in these two passages only; 
medically it was used of diseases demanding a particular 
kind of treatment. Aretaeus, Cur. Aeut. Morb. 103 : oi 
"yap evfjOeiQ ai vovaoi, OKoaai Trpo £]3Sojur)c aTzairiovai cnKvr)v. 
Gralen. Oomm. iii. 19, Humor, (xvi. 429) : 6ti v tov vouri/iarog 
KaTa(7Ta(Tig koi ri wpa awaiTil. Galen. Comm. iii. 33, Humor. 
(xvi. 482) : hrudfi wg liil ry vocrtf) rfjv ^Xe/BorOjUiav aTratrtt. 
Galen. Adv. Julian. 6 (xviii. A. 277) : awairu rolg larpolg 
iTriTeXiiaOai rjjv 'laaiv. Galen. Morb. Acut. 4 (xix. 192) : 
TTEpi Trjv aK/nriv 6Xo<T-)(sp£TT£pag airaiTH rpofpag. Galen. 
Eenum AfEect. 4 (xix. 662) : Kivwaiv Si iXarrova woWt^ 
rjTTEp ^v cnraitu ro irXriOog. Galen. Opt. Sect. 38 (i. 201) : 
Twv cnraiTovvTiov to. fior\B{ifiaTa. Galen. Opt. Sect. 38 (i. 202); 
EOToi "^ap aTratrsiv riiv ■Kipiaramv (pkE^OTOfilav. Galen. Opt. 
Sect. 45 (212) : Sia(popav twv (dotiOrifidTWv Tovg Kaipoiig 
cnraiTiiv onoXoyr'jtrovm. Galen. Remed. Parab. i. 3 (xiv. 334) : 
ai Ik vo(7(i)v avfi^aivovcrai TrapwriSeg Sia^ipovcFi rwv aWwgyivo- 
fiivwv (j>\iyfj.ovwv, cia(popov ce Kai rjjy OspairEiav aTraiTovcriv. 

35. " But love ye your enemies, and do good, and lend, 
hoping for nothing again" (jujjSev airEkTrit^ovTsg). "Never 
despairing " — Revised Version. 

aTn\-KiZ,iiv is peculiar to St. Luke, and used here only. 
avikinaTog and aTrik'niZ,uv are used in medical language to 
denote a disease one despairs of curing — a hopeless, desperate 
case. Galen. Comp. Med. vii. 13 (xiii. 1036) : o-KEuao-ae X9^ 
woLsi Trpbg aTrriXirKTfiivag vivpwv SiaOiaEig. Galen. Loc. Affect. 
V. 8 (viii. 365) : oiik aTrsXTrtZnv ovSi Tavrrig rjjc fxavTtiag. 
Galen. Meth. Med. ad Glauc. ii. 10 (xi. 131) : fi-q navv rije 
KoAAr/ffEtue aTriXTTiZt. Galen. Progn. de Decub. 5 (xix. 543) : 



§ Lxii.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. 119 

idTM fiiv £K iravTog rpoirov Trp6Xr]\piQ rov kuixvovtoq etti t(j^ 
airsXTriZiiv rov savrov. Gralen. Hipp, et Plat. Deoret. iv. 7 
(v. 422): ovK av airsXTrtcrai tiq ovtojq twv TrpayixaTOJv iy\po- 
viZofiivtov, KOI Trig iradrjriKrig (^Xsyp.ovriQ aviijxivr\Q, rov Xoyov 
Trapiiaovofievov Koi oiovd xwpav Xa/xjSavovra wapKXTavai rriv 
Tov iradovQ aXoyiav. Gralen. Oomp. Med. vi. 6 [xii. 938) : 
OTOpaTiKov TrpoQ rTVvay\ag ri Sta fSricracTa, irpog to. aiTt)Xiri(Tiu,iva 
TTOiovaa -g ■x^pw/xai. 

Besides this usual meaning of "to despair," aTreXTriZuv is 
used at times in medical language, when joined with a nega- 
tive, in the sense of " not to distrust," " to have confidence," 
e. g. Gralen. Temp. Medic, iii. 25 (xi. 612) : Kai tov kv'ikov 
ovK aTTEXTrKTTiov (is uot to be distrusted) dvai ^Xiy/xaTuSt} 
o)c Iv Ty xpoq. SeiKwiTi. Gralen. Oomp. Med. vi. 4 (xiii. 
883) : ri SEjoaTTitovof £/nrXa(7Tpog — ttoisi 8e trpog irav Tpavfia 
KOI Sei avT^ iirifxiveiv /xy aneXiriZovTag (relying on its efficacy 
with confidence, not distrusting the result). 

38. "Gfive, and it shall be given unto you; good measure, 
pressed dotvn," [Tmnsafxivov). 

*niiZeiv, peculiar to St. Luke, is a very frequently 
used medical term, to denote the pressing, with some degree 
of force, of some part of the body. It is often joined with 
SaKTuAtj), and opposed to xpavciv SaKTvXuj), to touch gently. 
See § 39. 

Hipp. Morb. Acut. 407 : iriecrai Tolm SaKTvXoicn, k rjv 
aiaO^Tai, to. vaTipiKa ioTiv. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 643 : koi 6 
XP*^^ ■'■<{' SaicrvXtj) TTiE^EUjUEi/OC fiaXdaaasTtti. Hipp. Morb. 
Mul. 641 : iv Tolui (TKiXeaiv olSrifiara koi rjv nUZyQ t(^ 
SaKTvXi^. Hipp. Progn. 38 : OKOcra oi8»j/iara /xaXOaKo. tb koi 
avwSvva koi rqj SoktvX^) nieZofuva vttukh. Hipp. Morb. 
504: KoX TTii^evnivuiv Twv <pXi^ii)v viro Tr\Q TrXrid<l)pr)g. Hipp. 
Morb. Mul. 600 : aTroyivtraj koi ovTOjg to TraiSiov Triit^ev/jisvov 
virb rjjc KoiXirig. Aretaeus, Sign. Acut. Morb. 25 : (T(pvyixol 
(T/i£Kpoi, vvKvoTaToi oKolov TE TTETrtEd/^Evot. Galcn. Oomm. ii. 
3, Progn. (xviii. B. 118) : to Sip/xa wav ol^aXiov ts yivsrai 
KoL at irtEffote avro u^ SoktvX^) ^aivETai koiXov. Galen. 



120 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

Meth. Med. v. 4 (x. 321) : arpifia irdKovTa ti^ SoktuAij) ttiv 
piZav rov aWe'iov. Galen. Oomm. ii. 30, Offic. (xviii. B. 
808) : ft TtiiaavTeg to Sipfxa tjjv iv fiiat^ twv x^^^f^^ X'^P"" 

jUOToTe 7rA»)jOoSjU£V. 

§ LXIII. 

Luke, VII. 

* SiaXe'iTTHv. * iKXeiireiv. 

SiaawZtiv (vevse 3, % 98) . * KaraKXivEfv (v. 36, § 46). iKfiaa- 
(juv (v. 38, § 61). VTrokafi^avuv (v. 43, § 65). 

45. " Thou gavest me no kiss : but this woman since 
the time I came in hath not ceased {^dXnrt) to kiss my 
feet." 

* StaXdiTHv is peculiar to St. Luke ; so also is *£KX£t7rEiv : 
ch. xvi. 9, "Make to yourselves friends of the mammon of 
unrighteousness; that, when ye fail {* iKX'nrrirs), they may 
receive you into everlasting habitations"; and ch. xxii. 32, 
" But I have prayed for thee, that thy faith fail not " (jifj 
ekXeitt^) . 

It is remarkable that St. Luke alone uses these two 
words, which, from the position they hold in medical, lan- 
guage, must have been in daily use with a physician. Sia- 
XuTTBiv, as applied to disease or the pulse, signified " to be 
intermittent." It means also " to discontinue the giving 
of remedies for a time." Hipp. Ooac. Progn. 184 : ol ds 
e/xvvriaiv Trwparot SiaXdirovTeg t(j)idpovvTee ol ttoXXoi. Hipp. 
Loo. in Hom. 414 : rjv p.rj eJSSojuoTov 6 irvpiTog aipy — rjv Si 
cvvaraiov Svo rip.ipag SiaXfTTOiv XaZ,r]Tai. Hipp. Morb. 467 : 
SfaXiTTwy oXiyov xpovov Karoo Kadripai — SiaXtTTWv rifiipac rpug 
^ap/xoKOv Tclaai Kara). Hipp. Epid. 990 : rpic Se SuXittev oTTupoe 
Hipp. Epid. 1093: ii yap 6 trvpsroQ SiaXdiroi koI SiUKOV^icraiev 
TToXiv {nriaTpe<j)£. Hipp. Aph. 1251 : ei; rottri /xrj SiaXeiirovcn 
irvpiTotai. Aretaeus, Sign. Acut. Morb. 28 : ac^vjfioX Sia- 
Xeittovtec, araKTOi, EKXEiTToiTte. Aret. Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 
32 ; Tial yap juev aiBiog 6 ttovoq koi /jUKpbg, dXX' ov SiaXdirwv. 



J LXiv.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 121 

Aret. Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 75 : ^wexn^ J"^" ouv trodaypr) ov 
pri'iditijQ yiyvsrai, SiaXdirii. Si lafl' ottj) xpovov jua/cpov. Galen. 
Oomm. iii. 165, Praedio. (xvi. 830) : we nviKa fxlv oi (nraaixoX 
SiaX'nroiEv rpOjUtiSt) yivaaOai tov avOpujrrov. Gralen. Oomm. 
iii. 2, Epid. i. (xvii. A. 224) : irvpiTol (tuvex^^c y]ixipr\v txovvi, 
vvKra SiaXtvTCOviTi. 

* iKXiliTHv was applied to sickness leaving a person, fail- 
ing of the pulse, &o. 

Hipp. Judio. 54 : nr) iKXilwovTog tov irvpiTov, Hipp. 
Praedic. 74 : oltri (jtwvaX afia TruperoTtrtv iKkdirovaai, Hipp. 
Epid. 1089 : rdiv Si aXXwv e^eXjttov filv at jSij^se owSsvf. 
Aretaeus, Sign. Acut. Morb. 10 : Kamov 81 aTravrwv vv to 
Siaifiov sKXtlirr). Aret. Sign. Acut. Morb. 14 : a^vyjxoX fUKpol 
TTVKvoraTOL iKXiiirovTeg. Aret. Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 39 : 
rjv Se a(j)ri eKXsiiry (lovvi) kote, avaiaumair] fiaXKov fl TrapEcrte 
KiK\i)<TKiTai. Gralen. Oomm. i. 37, Epid. i. (xvii. A. 81) : 
aWoLQ Se TreirXavTjfiivwg te koi aicpiTft>e eKAuiTHv to voattfia. 
Galen. Progn. Vera. 4 (xix. 518) : Trupsa-a-ovrt ISpwe ETrtyEvo- 
fiivoq jujjSe EKXEtTTtov, KttKov. Galeu. Oaus. Puis. ii. 3 (ix. 
66) : iKKiXonrvlav Tr\v Kivrjaiv a<T(pv^iav te tovto KoXovfiev 
TravTekfi koI ouk EKXEtVoi/ra (7(j)vyfj.6v — ttoXv ciaipipeiv aa<pv- 
i,iav iKkHTTOVTOQ d^vyfxov — TTifnTTr) 8' m TrpotTKEiuaw TavTaig, 
7) rdjv diaXitTTOVTuyv wporiyov/iivri driXovoTi Trig rwv EKXEtTTOV- 

TU)V. 

§ LXIV. 
Luke, VIII. 
* (TVfinXriQovv. * EKTrXripoOv. * iKirXripuxng. * TrXrjpjjt,'. 
*fvuv (verse 6, §37). *lKfiag (v. 6, §37). * <TVfjL(pvia6ai 
(v. 7, §37). *TEX£<T(t>opiLV (v. 14, § 41). *(ivvapTratiHv 
(v. 29, § 91). Siappriyvvp.1 (v. 29, § 61). *Trpo(javaXi(JKUV 
(v. 43, § 13) . Trapaxp^jua (v. 44, § 57) . '' awodXl^uv (v. 
45, § 47). 
23. " And there came down a storm of wind on the lake ; 
and they tvere filled with water {avvsTrXrtpovvTo), and were in 
jeopardy." 



122 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [pam ii. 

* avfi'rrXtipovv is peculiar to St. Luke (as also * ticTrXjipot/v, 
* iKirXripwai^, and *:r\riprig, in the meaning, full of disease). 
Besides this passage, it is met in ch. ix. 51 : " And it came to 
pass, when the time was fully come (tv n^ avfirrXripovaOai) 
that he should be received up"; and in Acts, ii. 1, "And when 
the day of Pentecost was fully come" {kv rtji avfiiTXr\QovaOai). 
They were all employed in medical language. 

*avfxir\T]povv. Hipp. Epid. 1215: Krij^t^wr vSpwiriKOC 
tK Kaiaov noWov icai irporepov (idpioTriKOQ koi (TTrAijvtaioije 
a(j)6Spa (7vvsir\r]pu)6ri Kai oiti^eov icai o-KlXea Koi Trepirovaia. 
Hipp. Fistul. 885 : ri crvpij^ ovte naXiv ^vfXTraaoi av ovre to 
jUiv avTrig vyiavOstri av, to Si TraAtv ^VfjurXripwOeiri, aW iv 
iwvTy ircKTa vyiriQ iarai. Gralen. Oomm. ii. 90, Praedio. i. 
(xvi. 625) : avfnrXTupwBiiarig 8e Trig Karo^ije ixxikitl (pviyjiaaai 
ToiiQ KajuvovTag. Gralen. Comm. vii. 50, Aph. (xviii. A. 156) : 
wairep ovv yajypaivav >}8>) filv avp.'tn.irkripwp.iv^v wg vevekjOwct- 
Qai TO fiopiov aSvvaTov laaOai. Gralen. Comm. iv. 27, Artie, 
(xviii. A. 706) : £i p.ri awaKoXovOotev ol avTiTiTafiivoi Tolg 
ivepytiv iinxfipovGi ixvalv aSvvaTOv ecrrtv avTolg avfiuXiupQiaai 
Tf)v Ivipytiav. Gralen. Oomm. 1, OflSc. Proem, (xviii. B. 630) : 
1% wv ■xiipovpyia avixwXripovTat. Galen. TJsus Part. iii. 1 
(ill. 168) : awfiaTog Ik twv Kara tov dwpaKO. ts Kai Trjv KOiXiav 
fiopiuv avfiTrXripovfiivov. Gralen. TJsus Part vii. 3 (iii. 519) : 
17 (l>vaig irav to fXiTa^i) Xapvyyog te koi nvsv/jLOVOg iv tovt(^ 
avfiirXripwaacra. Galen. Oomm. iii. 5, Progn. (xviii. B. 242) : 
UKOaiv ripipag av/xirXripoiKjOai — ovTOig ai rptig IjSSojuaSee 
HKomv rifjispCjv apiOfiov aujUTrXrjpouo-i. 

*tKirXripovv. Acts, xiii. 33 : " Gcod. hath fulfilled {iKTmrXri- 
pwK£) the same unto us their children." 

Hipp. Flat. 299 : KevwOelarig yap TravTtXijjg Tvjg KOtXirig 
ov TpiTg rifiipai ciiXOojai kuX ttoXiv nXriprig yiviTai, tI ovv apa 
tort TO TrXr)pwaav aW rj to TTviiifxa ; ti -yap av ovTwg aXXo 
Taxtittg i^iTrXnpuiGsv. Hipp. Yio. Eat. 341 : iirivavTiag p.iv 
yap aXXriXotaiv EX^t Tag Swafiug ciTia Kai TTovoi, ttovoi plv 
yap TrE^VKainv avaXwaai to. virdpxovra, cnTia koi Trora EK7rX»(- 
pwaai Ta KtvudiVTa. Dioscorides, Mat. Med. iv. 154 : XP'J'''' 



§ i-xiv.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 123 

jUEUtt OE KOI TTjobc iTTajWyia €7ri TWV JU?7 EK 7r£ptT0;U^e XEfTToSlp- 

fitov oidriixa lyEipwv OTTEp — to eXXeiirig Tr\g iroadrfg EKTrXjjpot. 
Gralen. Nat. Faoul. iii. 13 (ii. 199) : ^ainp ovv Ziioig avrolg 
opog iCFTi Trig kSioSrjg to iKTrXripuxTai Trjv jaaripa. Galen. 
Titer. Disseo. 4 (ii. 892) : tj S' a5 fiayiaTri rag ts Xayovag 
eKTTBirXripwKe icat ro viroyatTTpiov. Gralen. TJsus. Part. vi. 2 
(iii. 411) : 6 wvevfiwv ekttettXjjpwke tov BwpriKog rrjv ehpvTr\Ta. 
Gralen. Usns. Part. vi. 4 (iii. 423) : tov ddJpuKog iv t(^ Siatrrs'A- 
XE<70ai TO jUEv oXXo Trav KVTog 6 avuOev £K7rX>)poT XojSoc. 
Galen. TJsus. Part. vii. 9 (iii. 546) : on piv ovv 6 wvcvpwv 
aTratrav EKTTEirXjjpwKE Trjv tvpv)(b)p'iav tov OdjpaKog. Galen. 
Cans. Puis. i. 8 (ix. 28) : oiS' oilrwe BKirXripovui Trjv \pEiav. 
Galen. Progn. ex Puis. ii. 8 (ix. 306) : k^Veit' avdig iKvXrj- 
piouacrrjg Trjv SiacFToXrjv. 

* eKirXripwaig. Aots, xxi. 26 : " Then Paul took the men, 
and the next day purifying himself with them entered into 
the temple, to signifying the accomplishment {Trjv £Kir\fjpw(nv) 
of the days of purification." 

Galen. Progn. ex Puis. iv. 12 (ix. 427) : avaTiXXovTai Se 
ToaovTOV povov oaov Ikovov dg Trjv Trig iTtpag xpsiag SKirXripw- 
aiv. Dioscorides, Mat. Med. i. 69 : to Se piyakuov iraXai 
piv TTOTs icTKSvaZtTO ekXeXoitte Se vvv, npog iKTrXfipuxriv Se Trig 
laTopiag ouk 'icmv aroTrov Kot tovtov eiripvtjaOiivai. The more 
usual form is iKirXrjpojpa. Hipp. Artie. 785 : vTroTiOsvai St 
EC Trjv paarxo-Xrjv dptov paXOuKOv KaOapov ^uvEtXiffaira, ekttX^- 
p(i)pa TOV KoiXov TTodovTa. Hipp. Morh. 848 : to. ekttXjjpoJ- 
paTa rp pacrxaX^ Ty Si^iy. Galen. Comm. i. 22, Artie, (xviii. 
A. 350) : vttoJSeJSXijjUEvov Tivog elg to koTXov iKTrXrjpbjpaTOg. 
avptrXripwrng is similarily used. Dioscorides, Animal. Ven. 
Proem. : eic avpTrXrip(i)(nv tov OcpamvTiKov rpoTTOv. Galen. 
Oomm. Med. i. 18 (xiii. 454) : ri (rvpirXriptoaig tuiv rpiwv 
ovyyiwv. 

* irXripiig, see § 5. 



124 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ir. 

§ LXV. 

Lu KE, IX. 

* avaXr)}pi<;. avaXa/ij3ov£tv. *t;7roXaju/3avEJV. *(Tv\XafiPa- 

viiv. * <7vXXafif3dvHv EV yaoTjOi. *avfXTrtpi\aiif5avHV. 

* SiaTTopatv (verse 7, § 74). * vTrox^pEtv (v. 10, § 61). 

* KUTaKXivEiv (v. 14, § 46). *(Tvvetvai (v. 18, §93). 
KarEVxE-T^ai (v. 37, § 84). * a7rt/3XE'7r£(v (v. 38, §15). 

* Sta<irpE>Eiv (v. 41, §76). arnpiZeiv (v. 51, § 22). 

* au/itrXripoiiv (v. 51, §64). Ev0£roe (v. 62, §51). 

61. "And it came to pass, when the time was come that 
he should be received up (rfje avaXri\l/ewg), he steadfastly set 
his face to go to Jerusalem." 

* avaXrfipiQ, peculiar to St. Luke, was the term employed 
in medical language to denote not only "taking up," as of 
the arm, &o., in a sling, but also " recovery," " restoration 
to former health after an attack of sickness"; indeed, in the 
signification of " taking up," both meanings run into each 
other, as the object of suspending a limb in a sling was to 
effect the restoration of its former power : so that the use of 
such a medical term by a physician may possibly imply 
both the ascension of our Lord and His resumption of 
His glory after His earthly humiliation. 

Hipp. Moch. 847 : Iricig, /laXayfiacn koI (T)(rifjLa(n kui 
avaXrfipu jiveiov. Hipp. Moch. 850 : iTrlOeing eu tovto^ ti^ 
a\rifiaTi Koi avaXrf^iQ koI diaig. Gralen. Comm. i. 10, Artic. 
(xviii. A. 677) : avTKnrav knl rjjv svavriov ^oipav Troiov/xtvov 
Tjjv avaXriipiv. Galen. Oomm. i. 51, Fract. (xviii. B. 413) : 
ffUju|3aiv£t iisylarrtv ylveaOai rijv Siaarpo^fjv rov kwXov TTJg 
avaXr)\pewQ TrXr]iifx{XridiiiTnq — oiS' oXwe JivsaOai Siatrrpo^iji' 
ETTi rjjc iJ.0'x9t)(}ag avaXrixpewQ. 



§ Lxv.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 125 

Of recovery from sickness. Hipp. Aliment. 383 : oKoaoi 
ra^^Eirje irpotrOetnog Siovrai, vypbv 'ir\(xa tie ava\r\ipiv Swa/xiog 
KpaTiaTov. Aret. Our. Morb. Diuturn. 135 : ig Si rrjv ava- 
\r)^iv icTTO) oKoaa Kov^a y (jivatt. Dioscorides, Animal. Ven. 
Proem. : aTraX\ay/jiiV(i)v rijc vocrov, avaXri\pswQ Si koX puxrewg 
Siofiivwv. Galen. Oomm. ii. 44, Acut. Morb. (xv. 595) : 
KaraaraaiQ Trig avaXr'j^swg a.-)(pi rrig Ka0' 'i^iv vjdag. Oalen. 
Oomm. ii. 23, Humor, (xvi. 286) : (paivsrai Kuipovg rpilg 
rwi> airoaracretiiv iiriTiOtvai, eva fiiv iv rdlg vocroig, STspov Si 
iv Ta7g avaXijTpsari, rpirov Si vpo Trjg vocrov. Oalen. Medicus. 
10, (xiv. 701) : Elf ava\r|^plv Tvg li^pewg. 

avaXafxfBavsiv. Acts, i. 2 : " Until the day on wliioli he 
teas taken up" (aviXri^Ori) . 

avakafx^avuv, used eight times by St. Luke, and but 
five times in the rest of the N. T., was very much employed 
in medical language in various senses. Some of the other 
compounds of Xafifiavuv, common in medical language, are 
peculiar to St. Luke. 

Hipp. Fract. 762 : wrixiog /xiv yap Koi fipaxiovog iTrJjv 
iiriStduxTLV boTta KareayoTa ava\afji(3av£Tai ri X^'T*- Hipp.. 
Artie. 793 : a(j>evS6vriv XPV £" raiviijc nepl to o^i) row ayKw- 
vog iroiricravTa avaXafjijiavtiv irepl tov avxiva. Hipp. Moch. 
850: avaXa^wv Trjv yap ixaaxaXriv ratvirj avoKpifiaa-ai. Hipp. 
Intern. Affect. 539 : 6 v£(ppog eg iuvrbv avaXafSibv (pXiyfia 
fifj a(j)iy TTaXiv. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 620 : pririvriv ^vjifiiayovua 
vpoariBti r<^ upit^ avaXafi^avovaa. Hipp. Ooac. Progn. 
135 : oi Ik fiaKpwv avaXafi(5avovTeg. Dioscorides, Mat. Med. 
V. 13 : £7rt Twv £K voaov avaXafifiavovrtov xpoviwg. DioSCOr. 
Mat. Med. v. 25 : avaXa/xjiavu Si kol Toi)g Xlav acrOsveig. 
Diosoor. Med. Parab. i. 53 : koxX'iov to KoXXwSeg jiaXovy 
civaXaix(5av6fjLevov. Oalen. Oomm. ii. 7, Epid. ii. (xvii. A. 
400) : OTTO TOV fiUKpov vo(jr]fiaTog ttjv Svva/xiv avaXafx^avo- 
fxivovg. 

*viroXan^aveiv. Acts, i. 9 : "And when he had spoken 
these things, while they beheld, he was taken up ; and a 
cloud received {vwkXa^tv) him out of their sight." 



126 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OE ST. LUKE. [past ii. 

Used also in Acts, ii. 15 : Luke, vii. 43 ; x. 30 ; and 
peculiar to St. Luke, unless it be the true reading in 
III. John, 8. 

Hipp. Acr. 293 : orav Ss airoppvy TO OL/xa xnrvog vTro\a/ji- 
I3ivu vnb aaOsvsiae. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 607 : /3jj? uttoX/j- 
^pcrai. Hipp. Morb. 470: rjv 8l jSijS vnoXd[5y vwoxpilJ-i^afiivoc 
Koi cnroKaOapdeiQ, vyirjQ jlverai. Hipp. Epid. 1147 : ore Se 
Kal cKJtrtKE ptyoQ VTTa\a(36v. Hipp. Epid. 1147 : TTvperoc 
vTre\an(5avtv. Hipp. Epid. 1150 : SvarEvrspiri Si VTriXajie. 
Hipp. Epid. 1150 : Trvpsrol Se avrov wTrtXajSov. Hipp. Epid. 
1151: airaafihg Se x^'P" '"'?'' aptoTEprjv inreXafifiavEV. Hipp. 
Epid. 1227 : ptyog S" ecttiv ote koi Trvptrbg vinXafi^avB. 
Hipp. Epid. 1234 : virikafi^avov Si Ivion Oepnal XiTrrai. 

* avXXafxfdaveiv and * avXXafijiaveiv iv yaarpi. See 

§ 57. 

* (rvfiirepiXa/ifiavsiv. Acts, XX. 10 : " And Paul went 
down, and fell on him, and embracing him (avfnrepiXafiijjv) 
said. Trouble not yourselves : for his life is in him." Pecu- 
liar to St. Luke. 

Gralen. Oomp. Med. iv. 5 (xiii. 685) : jueto tovto ttoXiv 
itririOtTai ;rAaru(7/xa ETEpov avuTrspiXafifidvov koi to. x^^^I '"O" 
'iXKOvg. 

33. " And it came to pass, as they departed from him 
(tv Ti^ Siayuip\X,ia%ai avrovg air' avTOv), Peter said unto 
Jesus, Master, it is good for us to be here : and let us make 
three tabernacles ; one for thee, and one for Moses, and one 
for Elias : not knowing what he said." 

* Siaxwpi^Eiv is peculiar to St. Luke, and used, as well as 
SmxiDjOtiTjuocj in medical language. 

Hipp. De Acie Videndi. 689 : etteiSov ri te oSvvt) iravan- 
TaL Koi Sia\u}QiaQ^ Kara tjjv laaXuipiv tow (papfiaKOv. Galen. 
Anat. Muscul. (xviii. B. 949) : aXXa rovTovg juev ovk ^SuvrjOri 
Staxwptffat Tu)v paxirwv. Do. (978) : Siax(i>pi^ojUEVh)v 8e 
Tb)v (jvfKpvwv fxvCiv. Galen. Ars. Med. 7 (i. 249) : tovq yovv 
SaKTvXovQ u (tujujtXeS^c aXX^Xoie, eit' avdic awo\ii)plZoig, ovff 
17 (TUVoSoe 0110' 6 Stax^ptcTjUoe bSvvr\v ipyaaerai. Galen, 



§ Lxv.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 127 

.Ejlement, ii. 9 (i. 490) : Sia ravra kclv t(^ Trapa^^pjjjua juti' 
oiov Ti CM'Xwpiaai irdXiv air aWriXuv 'ivca twv avaiii^(6svrtuv. 
Galen. TJsus. Part. vii. 1 (iii. 612) : kirsiSri yap ix<^P'''Sno'av 
T£ KOI oisxwpi<T6r\(jav air' aXXiijXaji' 6 Owpa^ Koi to arofia. 

Galen. TJsus Part. x. 2 (iii. 764) — Iv oipdaXfxoig 8' afjKpoTtpag 

cis)(wpia£v ott' aXXjjAtoy ys KOt rrig avwOsv aTro(pv(jsiog. Galen. 
Aliment. Facul. i. 2 (vi. 483) : firj SiaxiopiKofxivov tov ttitv- 
pwSovQ OTTO TOV KuOapov. Galen. Progn. ex Puis. iv. 2 
(viil. 945) : Kofl' fjv tovq nXripsiQ koi Kevoiig o'ivove Sia)((lopi- 

ZofliV. 

an-o^wpi^Eiv. Acts, xv. 39 : " And the contention was so 
sharp between them, that they departed asunder [atroxwpLaBrivai) 
one from the other." 

This word is met in one only other passage in N. T. — 
Eevelation, vi. 14 — and was frequently used in medical 
language. 

Galen. Oomm. 21, Nat. Hom. 1 (xv. 62) : Srav rwv tect- 
aapwv Tig yvfiCiv avTog kut savTOv torrjrai ttov Kara ti jnopiov 
aTToxfopicrOHg tmv aWuiv. Galen. Anat. Muscul. (xviii. B. 
1015) : aXXoc 8l TtTapTOQ ju5e — koto Se t-^v yaaTpoKvui/jLiav 
aTToxf^pi^^Tai. Galen. De Crisibus, ii. 9 (ix. 679) : iTtpa Svo 
yivt) slat, TCtv o^iatv ovopaZofiivwv TrvpEToJv a7roKEX'<>P'0'/^£va. 
Galen. Hipp, et Plat. Decret. vi. 3 (v. 631) : ai 81 apTtipiai 
airox'^pi'yQiiaai a\iTr\g, r\ [ipoxolQ V TOfiatg afxa ti^ ttoSu kuX 
TTjv Kivrifriv aTToXXuoi/o-iv. Galen. Usus. Part. xv. 5 (iv. 233) : 
iSiq. S' anriKTai tovSe Kut aTTOKEXw/jterrai to ovpov. Galen. 
TJsus. Part. ix. 12 (iii. 732) : vtvpa irpoiXOovTu S' 'iwg rivbg 
afxa Tols Kara rijv EKrrjv avZvyiav, eIt avOig aiiTbjv OTroT^wpttr- 
Oivra. Galen. TJsus. Part. x. 12 (iii. 814) : vEvpa awTvxovTa 
yap aXXriXoig iVTog tov Kpaviov koi Toxig wopovg evwaavTa 
napaxpfip-a iraXiv a7ro;)^(i)ptS£Taj. Galen. Anat. Administr. 
V. 1 (ii. 476) : rd 8' VTrb twv apaxvoeiSwv Sia(j>v(Teixiv avvex^' 
fiiva K(u Totg daKTvXoig avrapKwg airox'^piZ^fai — koi toivvv 
oiirw xP'n "ai avTOv tovtov tov p.vv — anoxdJpiZ^i-v twv vwokh- 
fiivwv awfxaTwv. Galen. Anat. Administr. v. 1 (ii. 483) : 
d7roK£xtt'jOio'''at tCjv koto rd aTtjOij /ucpuv jj w/xowXaTri. 



128 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

§ LXVI. 
Luke, X. 

KoXXaaOai. * irpoaKoWacrdai. TrspnriiTTHv. ifnriirTiiv. iiarnr- 
Tuv. * iTrnriTTTEiv. * KaTaTriTTTiiv. * (Tu/iTTiffrEtv. * airoir'nr- 

TUV. * aVTlTriTTTUV. 



* kwoixaaauv (verse 11, § 61). * vwokafi^avuv (v. 30, § 65). 
*<!V'yKvpia (v. 31, §21). * £7ravipxe(^9ai (v. 35, §21). 

* avTiirapipx^aOai (v. 32, § 21). VTroSEXEcrflai (v. 38, § 73). 

* TTipiairacrdai (v. 40, § 75). 

11. "Even the very dust of your city, which cleaveth on 
us [KoXXriBivTo), we do wipe off against you." 

KoWacrOai is used seven times hy St. Luke — ch. x. 11 ; 
XV. 15 : Acts, V. 13; viii. 29 ; ix. 26 ; x. 28 ; xvii. 34— and 
four times in the rest of the New Test. Both it and its 
derivatives were made great use of in medical language. 

Dioscorides, Mat. Med. i. 77 : koXA^ 8s koi to. iv ry 
K£(j>a\y Tpavfxara. Dioscor. Mat. Med. i. 81 : koXX^v re 
'ivaifia Tpavfiara. Dioscor. Mat. Med. ii. 11 : TpavjxaTa koX- 
Xdio-t. Dioscor. Mat. Med. ii. 72 : vtvpwv awoKOTrag KoWq.. 
Dioscor. Mat. Med. ii. 129 : koXttouc koXXo. Dioscor. Mat. 
Med. iii. 98 : rpavfiara KoXXwora. Galen. Oomm. iii. 31, 
Humor, (xvi. 477) : Kara 8e tov OwpuKa ovk ayav SvgkoXov 
KoXXaaBai to. ayytia payivra, £^' olf etttiktev aljua. Galen. 
Comm. vi. 19, Aph. (xviii. A. 30) : crvfifmuOaL Be orav tov 
SiaKonivToe (jwfjiaTOQ to. XEiXrj koXXjjS^. Do. (31) : to 
Karayvvfieva tCiv octtwv KoXXwjUEva. Galen. Oomm. ii. 49, 
Artie, (xviii. A. 485) : av yap nrj ra^swe T/xrfBiv avvaxOy re 
Koi KoXXriO^. 

* irpoaKoXXaaOai. Acts, V. 36 : " For before these days 
rose up Theudas, boastiag himself to be somebody ; to whom 
a number of men, about four hundred, Joined themselves" 
(jrpoaeKoXXrjOri). 



§ Lxvi.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 129 

This word is peculiar to St. Luke, the other places where 
it occurs being quotations from LXX. Gen. ii. 24. 

Hipp. Artie. 799 : tv/xevsaTtpov yap koXX^ TrpoaKoWrjaaL 
rrjv oipiv uKpov irpbg to airo KeKavXia/iivov Trig yvaOov — 
(Tepov 8e IfjiavTa toiovtov npo(TKoX\ri(Tai i^pjj Trpog to avu) 
liipoQ rjje yvaOov. Hipp. Artic. 803 : TrpoffKoXXjjo-ai Ig to 
SKTOcrdev irpog top fxvKTripa tov lyKEfcXtjulvov — Koi 'iqttJTi filv 
KOTO. TO fXfTwirov 7rpo(TKoXXi)(Tai tJji< teXeutjjv tov ifxdvTog. 
Hipp. Artie. 804 : irpog aKpriv Triv plva wpo(JKoXkr\(Tai. 
Dioscorides, Mat. Med. ii. 11 : to'iq QapLviaKoiQ irpoaKSKoX- 
XrifiivoQ. Gralen. Comm. ii. 44, Artie, (xviii. A. 481): Sia twv 
TrpoaKoXXrifjLaTwv. Galen. Oomm. ii. 43, Progn. (xviii. B. 

171) : IviffXETai Wp0<TK0Wldf.l£V0V Tolc ff/jpoy^t TOV TTvev/xoi'oe- 

Galen. Meth. Med. iv. 7 (x. 297) : Sia tovto ttcivtmv tuiv 
£\Ea9ai TB KoX ntptiT'fiyvvanai koi irpoaKoXXaaOai Svvafxivwv 

80. " And Jesus answering said, A certain man went 
down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and fell among {■n-tpuneat) 
thieves." 

St. Luke uses eight of the compounds of ttiitteiv, four of 
which are peculiar to him. These compounds are very much 
employed in medical language, and four of those used hy 
St. Luke are used by him in their strict medical sense, viz. : — 

* airoiriTTTeiv, Acts, ix. 18. See § 25. 

* kvnr'nTTuv, Acts, xiii. 11. See § 30. 

* KaTair'nTTiiv, Acts, xxviii. 6. See § 34. 

* avfiniirTHv, Luke, vi. 49. See § 86. 

■jnpnri-ffTiiv is used again. Acts, xxvii. 41, and once else- 
where, James, i. 2. 

Hipp. Vel. Med. 9 : trovoiai ts Iff^xypolai koi vovookti 
TngnriTTTovTig. Hipp. Morb. 490 : . ItteiSov Se a^ijf n vovaog 
Koi aniwv yivr\Tai, iXarripii^) vEtj) KaBripai Iva, jui) iTipi^ KOKCJ) 
irepiwiay. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 664 : raura r\v lyKVfiovi inpL- 
■jriav 6vri(TKH. Dioscor. Mat. Med. iv. 80 : oi Se TrpoasvsjKa- 
(livoi %iappoiaig Trepnr'nrTovcrt. Dioscor. Ven. 1 : XsiiroOvfiiaig 
Ti KoX acraiQ koi aKOToSiviaig TnpnrtTTTOvaiv. Dioscor. Animal. 

s 



130 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

Ven. 1 : ri^ iraOei ■mpitriaiiv. Dioscor. Animal. Ven. 3 : 
Sia Trjv oXvywQiav Kivcvvi^ Tnpnrtauv. Gralen. Oomm. ii. 46, 
Acut. Morb. (xv. 605) : Bia ttXTjOos toIc toiovtoiq Tnpnr'nrTuv 
aviiTTTWfiaai tovq Kafivovraq. Galen. Oomm. ii. 7, Epid. i. 
(xvii, A. 96) : :roiKtXturara '^ap lv6ar]aav irepoyeviai Trepiina- 
ovTig vourifxaai. Galen. Comm. ii. 21, Humor, (xvi. 280) : 
fjiiyiuTtig aTroTV)(iaQ rriQ Sia KaOapaiw^ TngarnrTOvarig. 

IfmiwTBiv. 36. "Which now of these three, thinkest thou, 
was neighbour unto him that fell among (row ifnreaovTog) the 
thieves?" 

ifjLTr'nrTHv is used by St. Luke also in vi. 39, xiv. 5, and 
five times by other N. T. writers. 

Hipp. De Dieb. Judic. 57 : k«1 svOvq eg t^v ke^oX^v 
oSwvjj ifiTriTTTti. Hipp. Coac. Progn. 190 : Trpo<yi]fiaivovai 
arpo^oi TTspl TO Xtirrov sfxTriTTTOvrsg kukov. Hipp. Affect. 
516: Kui (jKOToSiviri k/nr'tTTTei elg Trjv KE^nXrjv. Hipp. Intern. 
Affect. 539 : oSuvrj o^siri kfjnriTrTU tig tov vtippov. Hipp. 
Intern. Affect. 540 : koI sg rh Aetttov rrig jacFTpbg tanv ore 
oSvvT} ifiTriirTsi. Hipp. Intern. Affect. 545 : KawtLra Sriyfiog 
EC ro awp.a iixv'nrTsi. Hipp. Intern. Affect. 547 : ig to rjwap 
oSvvri o^tirj ifnriwTti avTi^. Dioscor. Animal. Ven. 1 : twv 
CE i/iTTEaovTiov slg TO TTciOog fJiriSiva 'iafiiv iripKJwdivTa. 
Dioscor. Animal. Ven. 11 : roXai Se vtto Spvivov StixOe'ktiv 
laxvpal TTEpiwSvviai IjXTriwTovai. Galen. Comm. iii. 33, 
Humor, (xvi. 483) : wairap koI roiig Etc ETriXr^ipiav te kui 
aTTOwXri^tav pqdiug i/jnr'nrTOVTaQ, 

EKTTiTrrEtv. Acts, xii. 7: "And his chains/e/^ q^(E?E'7r£(Tov) 
from his hands." 

Used also xxvii. 17, 26, 29, 32, and eight times elsewhere 
in N. T. Hipp. Praedic. 100 : outeov fxiWovTog EKTrtatXaOai. 
Hipp. Artie. 780 : 17 ke^uAi^ tov (ipa^iovog KaiwEp ovK EKTTETrra)- 
Kvla. Hipp. Artie. 826 : to apOpov ekttkjov /irj ifnriay. Hipp. 
Moch. 857 : yow Se tvniOtarspov ayKwvoe Sia ttjv EvuToXiriv 
Kai tvipviriv, Sio koI ektvitttei Kot IfxiriiTTEi pqov, EKirlirTEL Se 
wXEidTaKig Edit) arap koI e^tu. Hipp. Moch. 866 : apitrrov n 
au EKTrlaij 1} ifXTricfy Taxiora. Hipp. Artie. 819 : rjv Si (lojpov 



^ LXTii.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 131 

apOpov 1% i(T)(iov EKTrlff^, tKiriirTEL SI Kara T£(T(Tapag rpoTTOue. 
Galen. Oomm.' i. 3, Artie, (xviii. A. 310) : to kut wjiov 
apOpov TTavTiiiv rwv aXXoiv erotjuoTEpov iKTr'nrru. Galen. 
Oomm. i. 6, Artie, (xviii. A. 317) : Sto Soo aiTiag iKw'nrTuv 
apOpov wuKvojg. Galen. Comm. i. 7, Artie, (xviii. A. 322) : 
dig filv ovv Ikttjtttei —VKvijg dvay/cij rriv ts Cidpdpdjaiv ilvai 
Xo^apav. Galen. Oomm. ii. 2, Artie, (xviii. A. 428) : 8(a ts 
ovv ravra SuctkoXwc iKWiwrH kclI oia tjjv avET^ovrwv fivCiv 
pw/iriv. 

* avTintiTTtiv. Aeta, vii. 51 : " Ye stiffnecked and uneir- 
eumcised in heart and ears, ye do always resist {avTimwTiTi) 
the Holy Ghost." 

Peeuliar to St. Luke. Hipp.Vet.Med. 18: orav S" ejKvpiry 
TrXaT'ei te koI avriKei/xevi^ Kai ti npbg avrb avriireay, Koi ^vati 
rovTO TV)(iy firfTE IcTXvpbv £0 V — airaXov rs kol ivaifiov koi 
irvKvbv, olov riirap, &c. Dioscor. Animal. Ven. 3 : KaraAojU- 
jiavofisva yap avTnr'nrTU ry 7rajO£j(7Sv(7£t rije (jjiBopoTroiov Sui/a- 

jUEW?. 

§ LXVII. 

Luke, XI. 

fiedovvKTiov. * p.i(sr\fx^pia. * katripa. opOpog. * opBpiog. 
* KaOrifxspivog. a-KopTriog. * (Lov. * kvovra. 

* ■7rpo(j\pavEiv (verse 46, § 39). *EV£8pEUEtv (v. 54, § 94). 

The usual division of the day and night in the writers 
of the N. T. is into hours and watches, e. g. Matt. xx. 3 : 
" And he went out about the third hour." 5, 6 : " Again 
he went out ahout the sixth and ninth hour, and did like- 
wise. And about the eleventh hour he went out." Mark, 
XV. 25 : "And it was about the third hour, and they 
crucified him." John, i. 39 : " For it was about the tenth 
hour." Acts, X. 3 : " He saw in a vision evidently about 
the ninth hour of the day." Matt. xiv. 25 : " In the 



132 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

fourth watoh of the night." Luke, xii. 38 : " And if he 
shall come in the second watoh, or come in the third watch." 
St. Luke, however, employs another division of time as well, 
viz., Midday, Evening, Midnight, Morning — * fitarifxfdpia, 
*l(Tn-Epa, ix£(TovvKTiov, opflpoc— the first two of which are 
peculiar to him, and the last two almost so, as fieaovvKTiov 
is used hut once outside his writings, Mark, xiii. 35 ; and 
6p9pog, too, hut once, John, viii. 2 ; and *6pdpioQ is used 
by him alone. 

Now, these latter were the usual times, and the usual 
terms to denote them, for the accession or abatement of dis- 
ease, visiting patients, applying remedies, &c. In the follow- 
ing passage we meet with three of them, used in describing 
the visiting of a patient. Gralen. Meth. Med. ix. 4 (x. 614) : 

OpdpOV Sj) /3a0£Oe ETTl TOV avOpWTTOV iXdoVTSQ tVpOfliV OWCp 

riXiriaafiiv. oxin yap 6 Sia rpirrig kyeyovu irapo^VGfiog 
£0aiv£7O TE Ppaxy ti fiiKpoTspog 6 irvperog ov KaraXdirofiiv 
iirl rjjc lanepag, wg Ss Koi rrjg fiiarifx^piag lS(i)v axiTOv ^v 
rjS)) fisfSaioTarog avvoxov ttvai TrapaKfiarrriKOV, &C. 

* fi£(Trifif5pia. Acts, xxii. 6 : " And it came to pass that, 
as I made my journey, and was come nigh unto Damascus 
about noon {irepl fxiarififipiav), suddenly there shone from 
heaven a great light round about me." 

Peculiar to St. Luke. It occurs also in Acts, viii. 26. 
Hipp. Morb. Mul. 599: koI j3a\avov k tovtov TTOiiiaag 
irpoaOeivai eg re ixirnqfi^pl^v. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 633 : 
TrpoaTidiaub) julxptc i<nriprig, Trjv Ss vvktu aipEiv ry S' vcrrEpai^ 
TToXiv TrpoariBidBai fiixpi fit(Tr\fi^pir\g. Hipp. Epid. 966 : 
fiiXpl fiiaov ri/xiprig eSoSe ytvirrOai anvpirog. Hipp. Epid. 
1153 : Koi anb fiiarig ri/iiprjg oSvvr) eitxev tcri^up}}. Hipp. 
Epid. 1215 : TTEpi fiiaov rifiipng sdtp/naiviTO. Hipp. Epid. 
1216 : Trpog fiicrov Se iifiiprig afodpa IXripei. Hipp. Epid. 
1240 : TTEpi juE(Tov TifjLsprig tTtXiVTria-tv. Aretaeus, Sign. 
Morb. Diuturn. 32 : novog oXXokti S" airb Svcriog eg fiEcr- 
rifijdpiriv Koi rySe riXeov aTTOTravtTai, t) otto /xEcrrjjUjSpitje £C 
ianipav. Galen. Meth. Med. viii. 4 (x. 568) : ij S' uTroirroe 



5 Lxvii.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 133 

(opa Koa' ^i; aifff/SaXsv o irvpsroQ iv ry irpiLry tHjv ri/j,Epwv, 
i^tDTepb) TriQ /x£(Tj}juj3pt))e "»?. Galen. Meth. Med. x. 3 (x. 
673) : ricTV-xal^e Kara Tijv iiTiovrTav a\^pi Hi<Tr]fi^pir\Q. Q-alen. 
Ven. Sect. 9 (xi. 242) : swe ^tarifi^ipia^ aairog SiaTplipai. 

* E(rn-ipa. Luke, xxiT. 29: "But they constrained him, 
saying. Abide with us: for it is toward evening {Trpog sinripav), 
and the day is far spent." 

Peculiar to St. Luke. It occurs also in Acts, iv. 3, xxviii. 
23. Hipp. Epid. 1146 : irpbg Trjv kcrnlpriv ovre e(j)deyytTO 
ovr£ yaOavero. Hipp. Epid. 1162 : Trpog djv effnspriv tKicXwcrl 
re KOI £^apjuaKEvc7£ Korw. Hipp. Epid. 1207 : irpbg rfjv 
iairipriv irapa\ripr](Tig. Hipp. Epid. 1210 : irpog IctttejOijv Se 
SityipOt]. Hipp. Epid. 1212 : to nvevfjia vpog rrjv kcrTrepriv 
vTripiroXv ^v. Hipp. Epid. 1215 : Trpbg ttjv t(nripr)v rov 
SeKiov Ofifxarog Kivrfcng. Hipp. Epid. 1225 : Oipfiai oi/k 
eXjttoi' ovSiva -^povov fiaXkov Trpog Eo-TTEprjv iTTtruvovTO. 
Aretaeus, Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 62: rjv Trpo(Tysvuvrai TTDptroi 
eg i(TTripr}v. Galen. De Orisibus, ii. 5 (ix. 661) : koI ij apxn 
tC)v Trapo%v(Tfiu)v sig ttnrepav. Galen. Meth. Med. T. 13 (x. 
372) : slg icTTripav gSoj/ca to Sia rwv aTrepfiaTdyv ^apfxaKOv. 

fiiaovvKTiov. 5. " And he said unto them, which of you 
shall have a friend, and shall go unto him at midnight {/ntcro- 
vvKTiov), and say unto him. Friend, lend me three loayes." 

fii<jovvKTiov occurs also in Acts, xvi. 25, xx. 7, and once 
elsewhere, Mark, xiii. 35. 

Hipp. Morb. 477: koX ^riaau TOvg opOpovg Koi /xeirovvKTiov 
fiaXiTTa. Galen. Eemed. Parab. iii. (xiv. 556) : aTra? ttjv 
e(3S6fjiaSa /utTci to Siajirjvai to fitdovvKxiov. Galen. Different. 
Febr. ii. 7 (vii. 360) : £tra 6 Trvpfjog axpi fii<^'ng vvKTog 
TrapaKfxdirag — Ejra to vttoXoittov i^iiktv tjjc vvKTog koi to p-ixfii 
fieari/xfiping — Karatrx^v. Galen. Cur. per Yen. Sect. 12 (xi. 
287) : OTav fiiv TTVpsTog ap^riTai Trepl to. TrpuiTa Trig vvKTog rj 
Ta fiiaa. 

opOpog. Luke, xxiv. 1 : " Now upon the first day of the 
week, very early in the morning {opOpov ^aOiog), they came 
unto the sepulchre." 



134 THE MEDICAL LANGTTAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

opOpog occurs again in Acts, t. 21, and once elsewhere, 
John, viii. 2. 

Hipp. Rat. Vic. 371 : koI roiai TrepnraToicn -xpiBaQai otto 
TE rwv yvfivacrtwv koX opOpov. Hipp. Morb. 466 : ig tcnriptfv 
(TiTiotcrLv oXlyoKTi \pr\(ju<j) koi aXourEEThj koi TrepnrariiTd) otto 
Twv mTiwv Koi opQpov. Hipp. Intern. Affect. 544 : koi 
opOpov KOt o^piOQ svSsru). Hipp. Aphoron. 679 : TrpocrOiivat 
kg vvKTa, opOpov Si aveXofiivt]. Hipp. Epid. 1231 : sfiETog 
opOpov opoLwg. Hipp. Eat. Vic. 351 : 6p9pov SI, Skojc at 
Sit'SoSoi KivwvTai Tov vypov. Dioscor. Mat. Med. v. 170 : 
ktJTTipag Se Idcrag uTrorrrijvai, Trtpi tov opOpov airriOricrov. 
Galen. Meth. Med. ix. 4 (x. 614) : Spdpov Sfj /3a0loc ettI tov 
avOpwTTov iXOovTeg. Gralen. Acut. Morb. 10 (xix. 218) : iwl 

Si TWV aVivSoTbJV TTVpiTWV CtKoXovOoV IdTl KaTO. TOV OpOpOV 

SiSovai rpo^jjr. Gralen. Eemed. Parab. iii. 14 (xiv. 446) : 
hpr)(jag iig paKog eiriTiOei otto opdpov swg kairipag. 

* opOpiog. Luke, xxiv. 22 : " Yea, and certain women 
also of our company made us astonished, which were early 
{opOpiai or opOpivai) at the sepulchre." 

Peculiar to St. LukB. Hipp. Eat. Vic. 351 : rotui tb 
wspliraToicn ^vfKpepu ■)(ffii(iQai Koi otto Seittvou km. opOpioiai. 
Hipp. Eat. Vic. 352 : koi toTo-i Trepnra.Toi<n rolai opOp'ioiGi 
TToXXoicrt — TO 8e aw/ia ksvwtui vtto tov opOpiov. Hipp. Eat. 
Vic. 362 : awb Si twv opdpiwv TrepiTraTWv virvog fiaXiuTU 
^rtpaivH. Hipp. Eat. Vic. 367: twi" irEptTrarwv ajtaipteiv 
TWV awo TOV Selttvov Toiig TrXdovg twv Si opBpiwv iXuTTOvg. 
Hipp. Intern. Affect. 554 : ev TrspioSoicn TaXanrwpsiTw Sl 
rif^eprig koi pera to Ssittvov koi opQpiog, &C. 

* Kadtipcpivog. Acts, vi. 1 : " There arose a murmuring 
of the Grecians against the Hebrews, because their widows 
were neglected in the daili/ (r^ KaOripspivy) ministration." 

Peculiar to St. Luke, and in medical language applied to 
a class of fevers, daily doses of medicine, &c. Galen. Oomm. 
iii. 2, Epid. i. (xyii. A. 221) : wv rovg fiiv ug airvpi%iav prj 
Xfijovrag ivioL twv vewTipwv laTpwv fisdri/jLtpivovg rj KaOripep- 
ivovg 6vop,aZov(n, Toiig Si XriyovTug aju^tjjuEjoivobC- Galen. 



§ Lxvn.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF^ST. LUKE. 135 

Comp. Med. vii. 12 (xiii. 1022) : l<TxiaSiKolg, apOpiTiKolg, 
irapiTiKoig, rpo/jiwSscn trotu Koi irpoQ T(p»)(7tv KaBr\fiepivy]v. 
Gralen. Oomm. i. 1, Epid. i. (xvii. A. 34) : al filv KaOrifitpival 
KaTaarcKTieg. Dioscor. Medic. Parab. i. 17: (ipvwviag plZae 
opaXjUi? a fliO^ liSaroc KaOriixspivij avv fxeXiKpaTCf). Diosoor. 
Med. Parab. ii. Ill : (t-)(oivov olvBoq Trivopivov Ka^ij/xlpav. 
Hipp. Morb. 473 : irvpBTog avrov Xapj5dvii Kadrifiipr]v (cat 
d^iEj. Gralen. Eemed. Parab. ii. 16 (xiv. 449) : aaagt^ XP'^ 
TTjOtDi' Kofl' ri/xepav rj arvKTripiav iypav KOTaXpis Ka0' rifxipav. 
Galen. Eemed. Parab. ii. 25 (xiv. 473) : KoruArjSovoe pi^a — 
invofxivr\ Ka0' yjfxipav o\kij fxia Kara KpafiaTog. Galen. Eemed. 
Parab. ii. 20 (xiv. 456) : jSorav^ pv(3iq xP'^l^^^o^ '^V i^aOn- 
fispivy Siairy. 

11 and 12 : " If a son shall ask bread of any of you that 
is a father, will he give him a stone ? or if he ask a fish, will 
he for a fish give him a serpent ? or if he shall ask an egg 
((00 v), will he offer him a scorpion" [anopiziov)? 

St. Luke alone records the latter parts of this saying of 
our Lord, St. Matt. vii. 9, 10, omitting " if he shall ask an egg, 
win he offer him a scorpion?" St. Luke, too, alone of the N. T. 
authors uses the word iiov ; and alone of the Evangelists the 
word (TKopiriog, here and ch. x. 19: "Behold, I give imto 
you power to tread on serpents and scorpions." It is used, 
however, in Eev. ix. 3, 5, 10. Now, the saying about the 
egg and the scorpion would be likely to impress itself on a 
physician's mind — from the medical opposition, as it were, 
between the things, and his familiarity with the words. The 
egg was a frequent prescription for the nourishment of inva- 
lids, and an ingredient in medical compounds ; and the venom 
of the scorpion's sting had frequently to be medically treated. 
The medical writers abound in prescriptions for the latter : 
Dioscorides gives over thirty, and Galen over thirteen. 

* u)6v. Peculiar to St. Luke. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 603 : 6 
Kai TTaiSia [5riaaovTa ^pcjfxiZovui ^vv W(^ otttc^ AekiOw. Hipp. 
Morb. Mul. 634 : wov binriaavTa ttiv XtKidov t^skovra Tptipai 
KOI (TTjaainov TTCippvy/xivov K-at uAec Iv /ueXirt, ivXttx^i-v. Hipp. 



136 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

Morb. Mul. 660 : koi fiaXOdaaBiv wov to irvpphv koI Ktipov 
XtvKov wg kwiwXatr/ia. Hipp. Morb. Acut. 405 : koX wa 
rifjinrayia laQfirw ottto. Aretaeus, Our. Acut. Morb. 113 : 
K7JV aiTia (jrepia ty, oXiaOripa. 'iacaOat jiyveadw. wa firj Kapra 
Hvvt<TTWTa. Aret. Cur. Morb. Diutum. 139 : wa Se Ik Trvpog 
fiiv vdpea dtppa. Gralen. Comp. Med. ix. 7 (xiii. 315) : wov 
OTTTOv XiKvOov XtiuxTaQ oii/fj) Xeuki^ KOI poSivy KTipwr-y avaXapwv 
Staxpie- Dioscor. Mat. Med. ii. 54 : [wEpl wov) wov to aTraXov 
Tpo^ifiwTtpov Toil po<f)rtTOv KOI Tov UTraXov TO aKXrjpov, ri Aeku- 
6oQ avTOv ^(priaipri Trpoc ixpQaXfiwv irepiwSvviag OTTTriOiiaa avv 
KpoK({) Kai poStiibj)' irpog te tuq irepl SaKTvXwv (pXiyinovag kqI 
KOvSvXwpaTa avv ptXiXwrif) fitra poog fj KYjKiSog TrjyaviaoettTa 
Kot I3pu0d(7a "iaTr\<ji KOiXiav, Kal peff' laurjjv os Trpoaivs.\Uiiaa. 
Dioscor. Mat. Med. ii. 55 : {inpl Xevkov tov wov) to Se 
XiVKOv avTOv wpov ov \pv\ti, epwXaTTii, Tzapriyopu iyyypaTia- 
Qtv eir 6(j>daXpwv (jiXsypatvovTwv' KaraKavpaTa te ovk ka 
(pXvKTaivoiiaOai irapai^pijjua ETTiXpiaOlv, wpbv Se po(j>riucv 
alpoppoiSog Sr]ypa(7i j3oj)0£t. aKpo')(Xiapbv Si npbg KV(7T£wg 
Criypoiig Kal 'iXKwtnv vt<^pwv koi Tpaj^apovg Tpa\Eiag apTripiag 
Kal a'iparog avaywyag koi KUTappovg Kal OwpaKog pevpaTiirpovg 
appoZii- 

aKoptriog. (Luke, x. 19, xi. 12. Eev. ix. 3, 5, 10, only.) 
Dioscor. Animal. Ven. 6 : (ttejoi aKoptriov) Totg 81 inro oKop- 
TTiov TrXriyHaiv 6 plv Toirog evOswg ap^xerai (pXiypaivitv, aicXripog 
Kal ivspevOiig Kal ireptT£vi)g (tvv odivy yivopsvog, koi IvaAXa?, 
ore jUEv yap nvpwaig, avOig Se tpv^ig ETriXap^dveTai, Kal novog 
t^anivrig Kal ttote plv pa'i^u, ttote 8e tniTdvETai' TrapmaTai S' 
avTotg icpwg Kat ^piKwcrig a'laOriaig (cat Tpopog koi iripi^v^ig 
aKpwTi]piwv, KOI (3ovl3wvwv 'iirapaig, ^vuripara Sid TTJg iSpag 
opdoTpiyJa Te koi Svcrxpoia iiraXyrjg Trspi Trjv tTri(j)dvetav Trig 
ala9ri<TEWQ Kaudinp aTTO /BeXovjjc KEvrijjUarwv oSvvwpivrig. 
Dioscor. Animal. Yen. 23 : rote Se vtto o-Kopn-iou TrXriyiXaL 
napaxpvpa plv aKptjSwg (5oridti cruK^c onog tig ra TpavpaTa 
ivaraxOtig. Gralen. Antid. ii. 12 : to twv tKTog re koi twv 
evTog irpbg aKopnioSfiKTOvg ipappaKU — wpbg Si Tag twv ciKop- 
niwv irXip/dg xp'it'''''fv Talg VTroyiypappivaig o-KEuafftaiCj &C. 



§ Lxviii.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 137 

41. "But rather give alms of such things as ye have (ra 
ivovra = the things within your vessels) ; and, teliold, all things 
are clean unto you." 

* Ivovra. Peculiar to St. Luke, and a frequent word in 
medical language. Hipp. Nat. Hom. 231 : rwv Iv aufian 
ive6vT<ov. Hipp. Vet. Med. 13 : icai rtf avSpwTrtjj Ivtovra koi 
Xvfiatvofiiva rbv avdpunov. Hipp. De Corde. 270: ra kvEovra 
iv Ty aprrtpiy. Hipp. Morh. 460 : kv ry KOiXlq ra EVEOvra. 
Hipp. Morb. 461 : Tri/XTrXuivTai di ai aprripiai viro rwv ivtov- 
TO)v. Hipp. Morb. 501 : otto tov vSarog toO eveovtoc ev rqj 
CTTrAtjvi. Hipp. Affect. 518 : tyjv 8e KoiXiriv OspaTrtieiv, k»V 
fiiv /jii) {)7ro)((t)piy TO. ivtovTa. Hipp. Affect. 522 : viraysiv 
alii TO. ivaovra. Galen. Comm. ii. 26, Humor, (xvi. 293) : 
Twv Iv T(^ (TwfiaTi iviovTujv. Gralcn. Comp. Med. vii. 6 (xui. 
1049) : Karo rdjv Ivovrwv ry Oveii} itara^EWv. 



§ LXVIII. 

Luke, XII. 

* l;uj3oXX£tv. * avaj3aXAE(v. * avTi^aXXeiv. * StajSaXXsiv. 
* fiiTafSaXXiiv. *Trpof5aX\siv. * (rvfifiaXXeiv. * virofiaXXtiv. 
*ava(5oXri. *Ik/3oAjj. *j3oAi7. *ev(j)opHV. *TiX£(T^opiiv. 
* fiST£wpif^e(j9ai. 

*airaiTeiv (verse 20, § 62). TrpoaTiOivai (v. 31, § 59). kpyaaia 
(v. 58, § 91). iTraXXdtraeiv (v. 58, § 32). 

fidXXiiv and its derivatives are most extensively used in 
medical language, and it is very remarkable that St. Luke 
employs, besides those he has in common with the other 
N. T. writers, no less than eleven, which are not used in the 
rest of the N. T. 

5. " Fear him, which after he hath killed hath power to 
cast into {kix(5aXiiv) hell." 

* efx^aXXeiv, peculiar to St. Luke, in medical language is 



138 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [fart ii. 

used of putting a dislocated joiat into its place, casting in 
ingredients into mixtures, &c. 

Hipp. Loc. in Horn. 411 : 6 8e finpog avwOtv /itv y ig 
Trjv kotuAjjv EjujSoAAei. Hipp. Fract. 761 : pri'iSiov tJSj] to 
apOpov i/x^a\Xtiv — iirrjv Si EjujSaA^c- Hipp. Fraet. 773 : 
fjv piv ovv t|U|3aAye TO, oaria eg ti)v iwvTuiv ^wpr/i'. Hipp. 
Artie. 780 : slSivai Travrag Tovg rpoTrovg dlaiv ol ijjrpot 
£juj3aAAou<7t — lyujSoAjj wpov. Dlosoor. Mat. Med. i. 65 : 
fipi^ag iv vSari £(Uj3oAajv. — e/jjSoAe to fvpapa tov KoXdfiov — 
TOv viapov avOovg to ttrov fp^aXwv TrXridog. Galen. Oomm. 
iii. 2, Aliment, (xv. 338) : KaOairep tl k aiiTog kpjBaXi^g ti^ 
XuAw rrjc TTTKTavrig oXijov ti aKappwviag. Galen. Comm. 
i. 7, Artie, (xviii. A. 322): Sia tovto paS'iMg avroi tavTolg 
spfdaXXovai TO apOpov. Galen. Oomm. i. 8, Artie, (xviii. A. 
324) : 01 laTpol EjujSaAAovrte TO t^apOpricrav. 

* avafiaXXiiv. Acts, xxiv. 22 : " And when Felix heard 
these things, having more perfect knowledge of that way, 
he deferred (avEjSaAEro) them." 

Peculiar to St. Luke, and was the medical term for " to 
put off some medical practice," or " defer some mode of 
treatment for a time." 

Hipp. Morb. 448 : rj 6 ti r/Sij SeT OepaTninaOai, tovto Bi 
avafiaXXrjTai rj 6 Tt avafBaXXitrOai Sei tovt tjSjj OspairavriTai, 
Hipp. Vuln. Cap. 913 : koi irnpaadai avaKlviwv to ootLov 
ava^aXXuv. Aretaeus, Cur. Aout. Morb. 92 : riv Se otto 
TrArcyTJc r) Kara^opije iv Trteatog Kvp^y, X9^ avajdaXXeadat. 
Dioscor. Ven. Proem. : ei Si Tivsg iKovcFia yvwpi} Trpocrevsj- 
KOiVTO rj KOI 15 ETTijSouA^e Tivti)v Xufioisv Se>j(7££ pr}Siv ava- 
(iaXXopivovg [dorjOtiv. Ho. : liOsv pr)Ssv avafdaXXopsvovg 
Trpo(T(^ipuv Sit iXaiov Osppov. Galen. Comm. i. 45, Morb. 
Acut. (xv. 511) : 7rpo(T£VE;)(^0£T<Ta Tpofrj fSXcnrreiv tte^uke 
peyaXa Sia tovt ava^aXXopeOa Trjv S6(nv avTrjg. Galen. 
Comm. i. 38, Fract. (xviii. B. 390) : ei Si piTpiov lir) yiyovog 
olSripaTiov 6 jitEv oiiv 'linroKpaTiig koi tovto Sia TpiTrjg Xvei, 
£-yw Si Etc Trjv TtTapTr\v rifxipav avafiaXXopsvog, &C. Galen. 
San. Tuend. iii. 4 (vi. 184) : avafiejiXripivtig iv ti^ irapovTi 



§ Lxviii.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LTJKE. 139 

r^e £1? TO. vo(TrifxaTa XP^'"C aiirwv. Q-alen. De Plenitud. 
11 (vii. 581): jSeXnov ava^aXXiaBai ttjv Sidyvuiaiv. Galen. 
Our. per Yen. Sect. 11 (xi. 283) : old' Itti tovtojv ava^dXXiaBai 
XPV I'VV Ktviijaiv, 

* dvTifidXXtiv. Luke, xxiv. 17 : " And he said unto 
them, What manner of communications are these that ye 
have one to another {dvnfiaXXsTE irpog aXXrjXoue)? as ye walk, 
and are sad?" 

Peculiar to St. Luke. Hipp. Oss. Nat. 279 : Kai vi/xiTai 
avu) irapd tov dvTiKvrifJiiov t^v outijSeJSXjjjUSVjjv KspKlSa. 
Gralen. Anat. viii. 7 (ii. 686) : tovtov aoi kuXuiq TrpaxBivTog, 
iKKOTTTttrOai TO rijc irXsvpaQ outovv, dvrtjiaXXofjiivwv Svolv 
dXXfiXoig EKKoniuiv wg Woq. Hipp. Fraot. 759 : aXXore wpog 
rd UKpa TOV iroSog avrjTTEptjSaXXovra. 

* StajSaXXstv. Luke, xvi. 1 : " There was a certain rich 
man, which had a steward ; and the same was accused 
(8t£j3Xij0i)) unto him that he had wasted his goods." 

Peculiar to St. Luke. Hipp. De Cor. 270 : eviropsei Sk 
Triv Tpofrjv Ik t^c 'iyyicFTa St^ansvr}Q tov a'ifiuTOQ SiajiaXXovira 
Tag UKTlvag koI veixofisvri Stcnrep Ik vtjSvog tu)v evTspwv rjjv 
Tpo(j>rjv ovK ov Kara ipvcriv. Hipp. Nat. Mul. 568 : £iri)v 
SiajBdXXri Tovg TOKOvg (jtvcrti droicog iovaa. Hipp. Morh. 
513 : ovTOi Sk oi TavTa XiyovTsg, 8iaj3aXXovra« tovt^) (^ ^sXXtu 
tpistv oTi 6 ttXsvixwv KotXog Itrri. Gralen. San. Tuend. iii. 4 
(vi. 186) : TToXXoi yap kokwc dp%d/X£VOi StsfiXriOriaav ovto) 
oXov TO iTTiTTiStvfia rije \pvxpoXovt7iag Hxjts ftrj^E roTc d<T(j)aXwg 
avTO fiiTaxiipH^Ofiivoig virofiiviiv iavTOvg ttote irapacrxciv. 
Gralen. Eemed. Parah. ii. 14 (xiv. 466) : ouov, fieXi, oivov, 
aiSia, i'ffa Staj3dXXu)v TtfjdviZs Kal TrETTtpEOJC fJUKpov iirnrdcrawv 
BiSov TTidv. Gralen. Medicus, 19 (xiv. 789) : ettI fxiv ovv twv 
(TWVTErpjjjUEVwv ilg TOV BaKTvXiov CiapdXXwv Triv firiXiDTiSa. 
Gralen. Comm. 5, Nat. Hom. i. (xv. 36) : So^av we ovk 
aXijflij Sta/SaXXEtv. Gralen. Oomm. ii. 18, Morb. Acut. (xv. 
547) : 1^ S)v fUKpoTapa SjeJSoXXe Kai Tr]v dv Ikeivwv ivSeiKvi- 
fiivog (5Xd(3tiv. Gralen. Oomm. ii. 9, Epid. vi. (xvii. A. 913) : 
StajidXXeiv lirixupovaiv — ii\<Jiv inrb tuiv IvavT'iiov, &C., &c. 



140 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [pakt ii. 

* iitra(5aX\etv- Acts, xxviii. 6 : " But after they had 
looked a great while, and saw no harm come to him, they 
changed their minds {fj.eTa^aX\6fisvoi), and said that he was 
a god." 

Peculiar to St. Luke, and very much used in medical 
language. Hipp. Nat. Horn. 229 : to. fitv ^lairr^fiara firj 
fierafiaXXeiv. Hipp. Morb. Acut. 390 : ev {xri ts vovaoiaiv 
oil T^pr) n£Taf5aWcLv Ik Kivayyur)^ If poiprifiara, tv raur^crt 
jUETaj3aXXow(Ti Kol . wg sttltottoXv afxapravovcriv, kvioTS ce Iv 
roTtrt KaipoTai iisrajdaWovcrtv sg ra po^r^fiara Ik TJje Ksvayjdrig. 
Hipp. Epid. 1010 : al fj.sra^o\a\ w<j)iXiovtnv jjv jU?) tg novripa 
fierajiaXXy. Aretaeus, Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 49 : riv SI /xeto- 
jSaAXp tig TO apxo^ov t/ ^icrig — Kai rov vSpurra IriuaTO. 
Dioscor. Mat. Med. i. 62 : fulikbiirag re raxiwe /utra/SaXXti. 
Gralen. Comm. 2, Nat. Horn. i. (xv. 30) : voijo-at /livroi Swarov 
iripav fiiv ilvaL tov fierajiaWovTog Trjv oixriav, Irsjoav Si Trjy 
fiirafioXrjv axirov, ov yap raiiro Icrrt to juErajSaXXov crwfia ry 
KUT avTO jUETajSoX^, TO julv yap fieTafiaXXov Iffri to viroKii- 
fievov, ri jUEra/SoX?) Si avTov Kara tjjv tuv TToiorriTuyv oyuoijSjji' 
ytvirai. Galen. Oomm. i. 19, Humor, (xvi. 181) : aiirjj Si -n 
^Xey/iovrj slg cnroaratTiv fj.ETa(5aXX.ETai. 

*TTpofia\\iiv. Luke, xxi. 29, 30 : " And he spake to them 
a parable : Behold the fig tree, and all the trees ; when they 
now shoot forth" {irpojiaXwcnv) . 

Acts, xix. 33 : " And they drew Alexander out of the 
multitude, the Jews putting him forward" (7rpo|3aXovra>v). 

Peculiar to St. Luke. Dioscorides uses the word in the 
same way of plants putting forth flowers or emitting smell. 
Dioscor. Mat. Med. ii. 205: Oipovg Si yaXaicrivov avQog irpo- 
(daXXsi. Dioscor. Mat. Med. iv. 50 : TrpojSaXXEj Si Kara to 
(jtdivoTTwpov Ta ^vXXa Tpayov ocTfiriv. Dioscor. Animal. Ven.l : 
^Xiyfia TToXv a^jOwSEc ek tov uropaTog koI Ttjjv ptvUjv npo^aXXei. 
Hipp. Morb. 481 : aiKvi]v trpo^aXXuv koi Tag (pXijiag 
aTroTvt\jai. Hipp. Vet. Med. 17 : al aiKvai irpo^aXXopivai. 
Hipp. Artie. 785 : Trax^ia pev ri irpofioXrj tov ^e^Xeoc. 
Aretaeus, Sign. Acut. Morb. 11 : rjv Si to ipTrvttpa eg to 



§ Lxviii.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 141 

fjnariyi) twv irXsvpiuv pixpy kol Siaarriay too-Se Kat Kopv<priv 
Iq to itw Trpoj3a\r)Tai ra TroXXa TTSpiyiyvsTai avdpwTroQ. 
Gralen. Comm. vii. 59, Aph. (xviii. A. 174) : 7rpoj3Xr)0£i(jr;e 
Se ry Koro) yivvi Trig yXwrrije- Galen. Diff. Febr. ii. 7 (vii. 
352) : UTa Ka\ raXXa Tra'vra fiiXP'- '"')? oK/if/e tov Tpnaiov 
TTVpiTov yvaipicTfiaTa TrpofSaXXovTa. Galen. Loc. Affect, iii. 
5 (viii. 156) : aXX' ovSe twv oXov tov uw/iaTog (nra(7fj.wv rj 
TTaXfiCiv rj TJje £^ rifjLicnog avTOv fiipovg TrapaXvaeug, ri olov 
ptZa TTpofidXXst Ti arifxtiov. 

* o-ujujSaXXsjv. Luke, ii. 19 : " But Mary kept all these 
things, and pondered them (o-v/ijSaXXowira) in her heart." 

Peculiar to St. Luke, and occurs again in ch. xiv. 31 ; 
Acts, iv. 15; xvii. 18; xviii. 27; xx. 14. Hipp. Morb. 
Sacr. 305 : koi 0(tov Trvsv/iaTog eg fAv Trjv KOtXlt}v Siaipv\£i 
Koi aXXo Ti ovSev Su/ijSa'XXETat. 6 §e ig Tag (jyXifiag afjp 
^vfilBdXXeTai. Hipp. Loc. in Horn. 409 : al /xsv yap ^Xe/Bec 
<j(l>icnv tuvTatg ^v/ipaXXovcnv. Hipp. Artie. 797 : Sd Ss 
ETTOjUEVov TOVTOKTi avfi^dXXeiv Tag yvdOovg Kat ^17 -x^aaKEtv. 
Hipp. Moch. 845 : a/jia Se r<£) Kv/xjiaXiiv rj OciOf) £i/v KripwTy 
avTiKa avoTrXa'trtTEtv. Hipp. Vuln. Cap. 897 : (TVfjijdoXi] TE 
yap Tijg kutio yvdOov irpog to Kpaviov. Aretaeus, Sign. 
Acut. Morb. 3 : oh ^vn^dXXovcrt ra j3Xi(papa. Galen. Comm. 
i. 51, Artie, (xviii. A. 386) : ko0' fjv ot Svo fxieg (jvij.[5dXXov(nv. 
Galen. Comm. ii. 2, Artie, (xviii. A. 426) : ica9' Si arvfifidXXEi 
TavTa aXXriXoig yiyvEtrOai (Tvvdpdpuxnv bfioiav pa<p^. Galen. 
■Medicus, 12 (xiv. 722) : at SI XoiTral ttevte Ty fj.£v pd^ti 
<TVfi(5dXXovmv. Galen. Comp. Med. v. 3 (xiii. 792) : E-y^^oipet 
SI Kat t/3' avfijidXXeiv el /jiv etti ttXeov iipr)Otir\ to (pdpfjiaKOv. 

* vTTojSa'XXEiv. Acts, vi. 11 : " Then they suborned 
(vTTEjSaXov) men, which said," &o. 

Peculiar to St. Luke. Hipp. Aphoron. 682 : pdxog 
{iTTofdaXXofievri vnb tu la^ia koi Trjv vvKxa TrpotTKEicrflw. 
Hipp. Fract. 773 : sTTEtra tovtIokti xpfi 'dfia Ty KUTaaTacTsi 
fiOxXeveiv uTrojSaXXovra, Trpog juev to kutiLtepov tov oariov 
tps'iSovTa- Hipp. Artie. 780 : iVrt Se EfilSoXrj w/xov koi slg 
tovtt'kiu) vTTO^aXXovTa tov irrixuv etti ttjv pdxiv. Hipp. 



142 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. [part it. 

Haemorr. 892 : iTreira virofSaXuv ti^ SaKTv\t<j) ti^ \f)(avf^ rrje 
apt(TTepriQ ■)(^tipoQ, /litjov rbv (riroyyov Siaai, &C. Hipp. Super- 
foet. 260 : V7roj3aXA(ji)i> tov SaKmXov VTto to yivsiov Siaf3v(Tag 
tQ TO aTOfia i^w eXuuv. Galen. Oomm. iii. 19, Artie, (xviii. 

A. 539) : tiruTa f5aivov(TL npOQ oXtyaQ rwv wXevpwv oi utto/Se- 
fSXrifiivoL T(^ <jrofiax(^ p-vtQ. Gralen. Oomm. i. 7, Progn. 
(xviii. B. 30): oti (japKoeiSrjQ ovaia AETrrr) koto tovto to fiipog 
vTTofisPXrtTai T(^ SipfxaTi. Gralen. Oomm. i. 51, Fract. (xviii. 

B. 411) : Tjjv viroficfiXrifisvriv r(j) ttjj^ei Taiviav. Gralen. 
Anat. Muscul. (xviii. B. 992) : oi Svo fivec, ovq un-ojSejSAjj- 
(j9ai T(^ (TTOfxax(\>- Gralen. Anatom. i. 5 (ii. 252) : avrtf fxiv 
lyT^EijOijcrte Ecrrw (joi TTEpt ToiiQ V7roj3£j3X»)|UEvoue t(^ avv^iafKo 

TtVOVTUQ, 

* avajSoXij. Acts, XXV. 17 : " Therefore, vrhen they were 
come hither, without any delay [avajBoXrjv jujjSejuiov Troiijo-a- 
/xEvoc) on the morrow I sat on the judgment-seat," &c. 

Peculiar to St. Luke. Used in medical language of 
delay in treating disease, &c. 

Hipp. Epid. 1278 : te^^vjjc jUev yap Trauije aXXorpjov ava- 
/3oX»j, IriTpiKTiQ Si Koi TTavv, iv y \lv)(ji]Q KivSvvoQ ri VTripOeaig. 
Aretaeus. Our. Acut. Morb. 95 : XP'J ^e juriSs kg ra aXXa to. 
fisyaXa ukeo juEXXetv, ou yap Kaipog afi(5oXrig. Aret. Our. 
Acut. Morb. 100: ovk afi(3oXfig KaipoQ Iv TrXevpiTiKolai. Aret. 
Our. Acut. Morb. 117 : ec (3aiov xpovov ejj tov ttovov a;uj3oXjj. 
Aret. Our. Acut. Morb. 122 : rjv S' e? axfioppay'n]Q 6 klvSwoq, 
'l(j)(tiv fj.lv OVK elg afifBoXrjv twvBs fiaXXov. Aret. Our. Morb. 
Diuturn. 127: iv Tym ^(^poviycn voikjokti fi afifdoXi) rrje IriTpdrig 
KUKov. Aret. Oaus. Acut. Morb. 13 : ovk Etc fxaKpav tov Oav- 
oTov r\ a/xfioXri. Dioscorides, Animal. Ven. Proem. : oXiya 
juEv yap Kol TtLv lojioXwv koi twv Oavaaifiwv (j^oXaiovg Kai 
E? avaj3oXriQ (pipsi tovq Kivdvvovg. Do. : 6 filv yap o^ibjg 
Kai Trapa^prjfMa koi Tag 6)(XritTEtg koi rove Kivovvovg sirKpipEi, 6 
Si £? avafSoXrig Kat t^jOOvou ttXeiovoc V iXaTTOvog. Gralen. 
Med. Parab. i. Proem, (xiv. 312) : ovte firjv Tag TrepiuTcKTsig 
TrapeTvai Tag viroTrpocrdiCTiwg Kat avajSoXije KUipovg SiSoicrag 
olov ivrl (Tvvay)(rig. 



§ Lxvii.] THE MEDICAL LAJSTGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 143 

* UfioXfi. Acts, xxvii. 18 : " And we being exceedingly 
tossed with a tempest, the next day they lightened {eKJ^oXfiv 
iwoiovvTo) the ship." 

Peculiar to St. Luke, and is the medical term applied to 
the ejection of the foetus by abortion or miscarriage (ek/BoAiov, 
the drug producing this effect) — to casting of the teeth, &c. 

Hipp. Morb. Mul. 627 : trepov ttotov s/cjSoX^e 6 to ttm- 
Siov ek/BoAXej TTiXiSvov. Hipp. Epid. 1200 : oSovtwv iKJSoXal. 
Hipp. Nat. Mul. 584 : k^oXtov ifijdpvov kw. lAtirpiwv. Hipp. 
Morb. Mul. 624: ekjSoAiov varipwv. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 
625 : JrEpov eK(56\iov. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 626 : aXXo vpoa- 
OiTov £Kj3oA(ov. Dioscorides, Mat. Med. i. 128: vwoOvfiiaTai 
§£ Kal Trpoc ScvTepwv EKjSoXde- Dioscor. Mat. Med. iii. 125 : 
Kot TO. <l>vXXa TToriZirai irpoQ Sivripuiv £k(3oA?)v. Dioscor. 
Mat. Med. iii. 126 : icai Trtverai avv oivtjj) to avOoe icat to. 
(pvXXa irpog ifj.(ipvu)v ekJ3oX)7v. Dioscor. Mat. Med. iii. 157 : 
TTOTiZiTai Si ev yXtVKii wpoQ aadfxa Koi ekjSoAjjv xppiov koI 
ififBpvov. 

* j3oXri. Luke, xxii. 41 : " And he was withdrawn from 
them about a stone's cast (oxtei Xidov j5oXriv), and kneeling 
down, and prayed." 

Peculiar to St. Luke, and used in medical language of 
the impulse in swallowing that carries the food to the sto- 
mach — of throwing a bandage round a limb, &c. 

Glalen. Nat. Facul. iii. 8 (ii. 176) : ov6' wg 17 (tkoXm Qkaig 
ffToixa)(ov Sia^aXXei cra^ug to Soyfxa twv vofiiZovTwv, VTrb Trig 
avii)9ev (3oXrig, TroSrj-you/XEva p-ixP'- '^^^ yaciTpog Uvai to. kutu- 
TTivofieva — OTi yap fxrj Sia fiovrig Trig avwOsv (3oXrig ek tovtov 
SrjXov. Gralen. Oomm. ii. 2, Offic. (xviii. B. 725) : TrpoaKu- 
Tai filv SevTipav ovv jSoXjjv tov iiriSicrfxov — Gralen. Usus. Part, 
i. 24 (ii. 85) : on Travraxodiv laoppoirwg ai Kopv^aX twv Suk- 
tvXwv avTiTiTayfiivai Trjv te Xaj3jjv avTwv aa^aXiGTipav Kot 
Triv fioXrjv laxvpoTepav airtpyaZovTai. — Gralen. Hipp, et Plat. 
Decret. vii. 7 (v. 642) : inb tov TrvevfxaTog slg avTOv ek rrig 
/3oX^c Evan-oTEXoDjuEviiv. — Galen. Loo. Affect, v. 3 (viii. 316) : 
/SouXtrat yap tig tjjv apTripir\v ravTriv sv6Xij36fiivov vtto Tijg 



144 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [pakt ii. 

KapSiaQ TO vvivfia diaawtiov Trig jSoXije rrjv pv/iriv, £('c ciXoi' 
(piptaOai TO (Tuifia. Galen. Meth. Med. xiii. 22 (x. 935) : d 
S' vypov t'iri to Trpoa^ipofievov £? viprjXoTcpov j3aXXovTa Koi 
olov KaTOKpovviZovTa SiiKVUTai yap ilcroj paXXov vtto ttjq 
fioXijc OjOovfisvov. SxTirep S' IvravOa to arpoSpOTipov TJjepoArjc 
avfjKpipov lUTiv — rjje §£ Sm rrjv ^oXrjv a<^LKVOVfiivr)Q tig avro 
SuvojUEwe anoXaiKTu. And of throwing a ball. Galen. Parv. 
Pil. Exerc. 4 (v. 908) : oXiyoKig re irpoxpfiaOai ry fioXy, ra 
KUTW fioXXov Siairovii. 

16. " And he spake a parahle unto them, saying, The 
ground of a certain rich man brought forth plentifully/" {ev^o- 

pjJCTEv). 

The verb * £v(popiiv seems to be used in this sense by 
St. Luke, Hippocrates, and Galen only. In other writers, as 
Lucian, it is applied to a ship — " to carry a good burden." 
ivipopiT}, tv(j>opog, a<popog, and ipopog are all medical terms. 
iv^opoQ is used of a woman, "fruitful," as opposedto a^OjOoc,and 
is even applied to a country or climate productive of disease. 

Hipp. Epis. 1274 : a^i^ov ovv ouSettote jovifiwTspov 
sv(j)opri(jov<jiv ovTE yrj ovTi opwv aKpwpitat. Galen. Tempera- 
ment, i. 6 (i. 547) : Kara TavTo. Se koi rije afjLiriXov to TrXii(TTag 
T£ Koi KaXXidTag tixpopiiv CTa^vXag. Hipp. Morb. Acut. 
400 : Iv-g Se tov TTViviiaToe tv(j)opiri. Hipp. Aphoron. 676 : 
£V Taxsi Sc psXedavOeicra iV(popog yiviTai r] yvvri — Koi rjv fxsv 
sv ap\y fieXidaivriTaL vyiaivci icai ^opog y'lvirai, rjv Si ^(povog 
lyyivriTat a^opog fiivii 17 yvvrj. Galen. Aliment. Eacul. ii. 
38 (vi. 620) : iv(j>opiaQ Se yevofjLivt}g twv te fiaXdvuv kol twv 
fisairiXwv. Galen. De Crisibus, ii. 3 (ix. 648) : ap" ovv wpa 
fxiv ri Osppri koi SijjOa Tpvraiwv nvperuv tiKpopog, 17 X'^P" ^' °^X 
ofioidjg ri depfii] koi ?J7pa Tijg vypag koi Tpv)(^pa.g sv<popWTepa. 
Hipp. Morb. Mul. 565 : ek TavTtfg Tijg voaov a^opoi yivovTai. 
Hipp. Morb. Mul. 590: r/v tovto yiviiTai, ov TrepiyivSTUi ri yvv^, 
rjv Si Koi TTiptyivr]Tai, ati a.(popog eoTai. G^len. De Crisibus, ii. 4 
(ix. 659) : il koI to )(wpiov aiiTo toiovtwv irvpsTciiv ev(j)opov 
y. Galen. De Crisibus, ii. 5 (ix. 661) : koi 6 x^'i"'^'' ^v(popog 
TOIOVTWV voar]fiaTwv. 



i ixix.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 145 

* TeXsa^optiv. Luke, viii. 14. 8ee § 41. 

29. "And seek not ye what ye shall eat, or what ye shall 
drink, neither be ye of doubtful mind" (nerewplZedde). 

* fiETEupit^Eadai is peculiar to St. Luke, and of frequent 
recurrence in the medical writers in various significations. 

Hipp. Ooac. Progn. 220 : oo-a KoiXttig KaOvypaivofilvriQ 
oiS^juara /lETSiopiZaTai jueto oXjrifiaTwv kukov. Hipp. Oss. 
Nat. 276 : 69ev ri riTraTiTtg ifiuTBiiipi<jBy]. Hipp. Morb. 462 : 
OTav £Q Tag ^XtjSac X*'^'' '' f^^JfJ-O- iaiXBy fiiTeujpitiovTai yap 
ai (pXi^cg Koi (T(l>vZovin. Hipp. Artie. 782 : on eKKpaXiaTipwg 
av TO (rHjfxa to fiiv t^, to Se Ty avTKrriKwOeiri /xiTewpiaOiv 
Hipp. Epid. 1136 : 6 otto tCjv (pixrewv p.£T£<opit^6fievog iirripTo 
KOI vTT'fiXyEi KsvsHivt. Hipp. Epid. 1153 : 6 Se firjpbg oXog sfiSTSw- 
piZiTO KOI SUrtivev 6 fieTtiiipiafiog tg te tov j3ou]3oJva koI tov 
KEveQva. Aretaeus, Sign. Acut. Morb. 23 : yvwfxn) ov KupTa 
irapafopog, vu)Opr), fitTiwpoc. Dioscorides, Mat. Med. ii. 
137 : paipavlg wposaBiOfiivri 8e fxtTtii3piZ,ti Trjv Tpo(priv. Galen. 
Oomm. ii. 4, Epid. iii. (xvii. A. 598) : eyxi^p^i Se koi Sia to 
fiETEwpitEiv tavToiig eOeXuv ovToog dpritrdai tuvtov ar\naivovTog 
TOV fXETEwpov TTVEVfiaTog Ty Kara to wpoyvwoTLKOV opBoTrvoiq. 
Gralen. Oomm. ii. 9, Epid. yi. (xvii. A. 917) : rove fiiv yap 
alpofiivovg avb) ^Vfioiig, tovteoti fXETcwpiZo/xevovg. 



§ LXIX. 
Luke, XIII. 



'!rapa-)(pr\fia (verse 13, § 57). ^'iaaig (v. 32, § 17). oTrorEXEtv 
(v. 32, § 17). * ivUxi<r9ai (v. 33, § 73). 

25. " When once the master of the house is risen up, and 
hath shut to {cnroKXEitrg) the door." 

* dn-oKXtJEtv and * KoraKXEtEtv are peculiar to St. Luke, 
and both were much used in medical language. 

u 



U6 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LTJKE. [part ii. 

Hipp. Morb. Sacr. 305 : a^wvoc fiiv ianv OKorav 
iK,ai(j)vrig to ipXiyfia iwiKaTe\9ov kg rag (pXi(5ag airoKXday 
Tov aipa — stteiSov aTroK\u(jOw(riv ai (pXifieg tov aipog — twv 
fXtfiiwv avoKXuo/xivoJv tov riipog — Aokti'Sei Se roTcrt ttoctiv 
OKOTav 6 arjp a.TroKXu(Td:g iv to'kjl fiiXicn. Hipp. Apll. 1260 : 
ok6(toi(ji fitTc^i) TWV (jtpivwv KOI Ttjg yaarpoQ ^Xijfia airoKXti- 
sTai KOI odvvriv trapix^i. Hipp. Epid. 1235 : (titmv aTTOKXumg. 
Aietaeus, Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 71: to yap rwv ivTipwv 
apaiov—aTTiKXsiatv v wTtiXri- &alen. Comm. ii. 34, Epid vi. 
(xvii. A. 962) : koI a-rroKXeUi to ifKpvTov Qipfxov. Gralen. 
Comm. iv. 34, Aph. (xvii. B. 706) : al t iv^ov avTov fivtg 
(pXeyfirivavTsg anoKXtiaai SvvavTai rijv oSov tov wvsvfiaTog. 
Gralen. Comm. ii. 2, Artie, (xviii. A. 427) : to Zvywfia Tag 
Ki^aXag cnroKXtisiv. Galen. Nat. Facul. iii. 13 (ii. 192): 
oxtt' iv Tolg ilXeotg OTav aTroKXiwdri TtXiwg r] Kara) SiE^oSoe. 

* naTaKXiitiv : see § 42. 



§ LXX. 

Luke, XIY. 

* TTpoaavafiaiveiv. KUTafBaiveiv. * KUTajBacng. avwTEpov. 
* avwTtptKOg. * avuTrripog. * Zivyog. 

y'lavxaZ^iv (verse 4, § 86). * avaairav (v. 5, § 75). *KaTaKXiviiv 
(v. 8, § 46). * 8oxi'/ (v. 13, § 73). *<TVMi3aXAE(.; (v. 31, 
§68). EJ50E7-oe (v. 35, § 51). 

10. " But wben thou art bidden, go and sit down in the 
lowest room ; that when he that bade thee cometh, he may 
say unto thee. Friend, go up higher" (TrpoffavajSr/St avwTspov). 

avwTepov is used in only one other passage in the N. T. 
(Heb. X. 8) ; it is very frequently used in medical language, 
particularly in describing the position of the parts of the 
human body. 



§ Lxx.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 117 

* TrpoaavafiaivHv, peculiar to St. Luke, is also used in 
anatomical description, and in the first of the following 
passages it is used Joined with avwrtpov, as in St. Luke. 

Glalen. Anat. Admin, vi. 5 (ii. 561J : Ka\ d TrpoaavajBaivoig 
avOiQ avdJTSpov Bia twv Tairsivwv Kara (BadovQ juEpwv, ottou to 
jtisaavTipiov o koi fxtaapaiov KaXurai, rotg kut 6(T(j>vv awaaiv, 
iv oiQ tlai Koi 01 vi^poi. Galen. Anat. Musoul. (xviii. B. 983) : 
OVTOQ 6 juDc aTTTerai fiev asl Koi tov j3pa)^iovoe avTOV koto, ttjv 
TTpwrriv ifi^vcFiv oXiyov ti TrpocravajSaivtuv o.7r6 tov kovSvXov. 
Galen. Comm. iii. 132, Praedic. i. (xvi. 794) : wXriOovg yap 
fiBpota/iivov KOTO Tag ^Xijiag XiTrrbg fiiv Tig oppbg avTii^ 
avppiwv £(c Trjv yaaripa Tag KapdiaXyiag kpjd^^iTai wpoaava- 
(5aivwv Itti to kut avTriv oTOfia. Galen. San. Tuend. vi. 
11 (vi. 434) : KOI irpoaavifiaivtv ati to. (jvp.'KTwp.aTa To7g 
{iTTipKetnevotg pipscri. 

KUTafiaivuv : see § 56. 
* Karajiaaig, Luke, xix. 37. "At the descent (r^ KarajSatret) 
of the Mount of Olives." 

Both this word and avafiamg were in use in medical 
language. Hipp. Humor. 47 : irtiraajxog, KaTa(3aaig rwv 
Kara), iwiiroXacrig rwv avw, koi to. eS vaTipiwv. Galen. Hipp, 
et Plat. Decret. iii. o (v. 322) : ovn Trig KaTaliaativg TtLv 
priOevTwv il prj wepl tov ddjpuKa — iav y irepl tov dwpuKo, 
oiKduig KUTajBaaig priBriaiTai. Galen. Comm. iv. 24, Alim. 
(xv. 411) : al oSot Kol olov 6x£'"0i Iv r(j» awpaTi il(Ti to. 
KaXovpeva utt' avTov ayysla — Ty te ava^aau kol t^ KarajSao-ft 
vTcripiTovm. Galen. Comm. i. 9, Aph. (xvii. B. 378) : 
VTroKUTafiaivsiv iKiXevas Tijg i(TxaTwg XiTrTrjg oiaiTrfg — vvv 
trpocTTtOricnv ETEpov ctkottov eic UKpijieiav tov to iroaov XafSiTv 
Trig xnTOKaTa^oKTEwg. It was also applied to "the going 
down," " descent," of a patient into a hath. Dioscor. Medic. 
Parah. i. 230 : ilg Trjv 'i/if5a<nv tov kXaiov Kora^atjig. And 
ava^atjig to One of the stages of a sickness. Galen. Comm. 
i. 3, Humor, (xvi. 71) : rJKEt Si 6 oivTioog Kaipog 6 rf/c 
avafiacFEwg bvofxaZ,Ofiivog. 

aviVTEpov. Hipp. Fract. 797 : oirsp aTroKXiin rag Ki(j)a\ar 



us THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

TrJQ KaT(o yvaOov Ttjg /xtv avwripti) tov, rjje Si KarwTepu) twv 
Ki^aXalwv. Hipp. Fract. 802 : •*} Karw tov xovBpov ij 
avuTEpio. Hipp. Fract. 807 : baoiai uv y avwripu twv 
ipptvCiv TO KV(j)og. Hipp. Fract. 808 : TrpoaSftcrai St KaTttiTspui 
imaTipov tuiv yovvarwv koi avinTipb). Hipp. Fract. 794 : 
l'»)(Tte Se (TxrifiaTOQ fjisv oXiyov avwTepw okjOjjv tijv X"/"" 
Toi) ayKu)vog ^'x^'"- Hipp. Fract. 776 : to Si o-keAoc avuTipo) 
e\Hv. Hipp. Artie. 822 : arap kuI avunipu) (palvtToi 6 
yAouToe. Galen. Oomm. i. 15, Off. (xviii. B. 692) : ovk 
avwTipo) T(t)v ayKwvwv ttjv Trsptf^oXriv yiyvtcrOai. Galen. 
Anat. Muscul. (xviii. B. 976): 6 ctvvSeit/xoc kfjKJivtTai ti^ 
/Spaxiovt rJjc jUEuijc . avrijc x<x)pag avwrspw. Galen. Medicus, 
19 (xiv. 784) : fUKpov avaiTipw twv KpoTa(j)wv. 

* avwrtptKoe- Acts, six. 1 : " Paul having passed through 
the upper coasts (ra avwripiKo) came to Ephesus." civojte- 
piKOQ is met here only in the N. T. It is a very rare word, 
and in medical language was applied to the upper part of the 
body — medicines which acted there — emetics. 

Hipp. Superfoet. 264 : rjv Ss firj SoKsy Stiadai avwrspiKOv, 
irpoTTvpiriaac kcitu) iriaai. Hipp. Aphoron. 677 : riv Se firi 
SoKiy StitrOai avwTspiKoii. Hipp. De Purgant. 1 : 6 avTOQ Si 
TpoTTog KOI TTjOoc Tu avwTipiKu. Galeu. Meth. Med. xiv. 7 
(x. 969) : KadapaiQ, r\ Te Sia twv VTrtiXaTwv tpapfiaKWV koi jj 
Sia TWV avwTepiKuv t} ifxiTiKwv ovofiaZ,Ofiivwv . Galen. 
Medicus, 13 (xiv. 754): avwTiQiKol.g Si (papfiuKOig xpijadai. 

13. " But when thou makest a feast, call the poor, the 
maimed (ava7rj?powc), the lame, the blind." 

* ava7r»)jOoe. Peculiar to St. Luke, wripog, and some of its 
derivatives, were medical terms. Galen. Usus Part. iii. 10 
(iii. 237) : avaVtjpov /liv avTrjv koI TVipXrjv ttjv dtiav awsp- 
yarrdfiivov Svva/jitv. Galen. Usus Part. xiv. 6 (iv. 162) : jui? 
yap Srj vofiiaTQQ, aip Ikoiv av ttote to ii/itav juspop oXov Toii 
yevovg rifiu)V 6 SrifiiovpyoQ oteXec airupyaaaTO Koi olov 
avaTTtipov, il firi tiq kclk tovtov tov TrrtpwfiaTOQ ejueXAev scnaOai 
XP^'^" /utyaAjj. Galen. Meth. Med. vi. 3 (x. 408) : SiaKOTrivrog 
Si bXov TOV vivpov KivSvvoQ fxiv ovKiTi ovStie civaTrripov S' 



§ Lxx.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 149 

i<TTai TO fiopiov. Galen. Anat. Administr. ii. 2 (ii. 284) : iv 
o'lQ 61 firing douri, irov fuv striKaipov TsraKrai VEvpov rj juvc — 
Qavarov fiaWov r} awTrfpiag a'lTiog iarai roig avOptiwoig, iariv 
OTS S' avTog avaTrfipovg aiiToiig kpyacrsrai. Galen. TJsus Part. 
XIU. 11 (iv. 126): koi wg rtrpoTrowv avdwripov rs afia kuX 
j3padv, Sm TO irXeiaTOv aTrrix^o-i tou dwpaKog. Hipp. Morb. 
Mul. 647 : KOI wnpai to. aKiXta TToWaKig yivovTai. Hipp. 
Axtic. 826 : TrripovTai tovtokti to (JKiXog fiaWov ti. Hipp. 
Semen. 235 : toutt^ nripovTai to iraiSiov — rj hripij^ rpoTrtjt 
TottjJSE Trrjjoourat iraiiia — hr^v iv Tyai fj.riTpy(n Kara to ^wp'-o^ 
KadoTi Kai iTrripwOri ortvov ty avajKri kv arsvti^ KiviVfiivov tov 
awfiaTog Trripovadat /car ekeivo to ■)(wpiov — SKTTtirripwfMivwv 
avOpixiTTiuv iyiia tiktovtui to. naiSia. 

19. " And another said, I have bought Jive poke {Zivyri 
ttevte) of oxen, and I go to prove them : I pray thee have 
me excused." 

*Ztvyog is peculiar to St. Luke, and is the word used 
in medical language for a pair of nerves — arteries— veins — 
muscles. 

Galen. Usus Part. iv. 7 (iii. 277) : koI tovtov x"i°"^ *'<." 
avTrjv Zsvyog ov (TfiiKpuv vevpwv avwOiv KOTaipipiTai. Galen. 
TJsus Part. xi. 10 (iii. 881) : Sitto Zivyn vevpiuv. Galen. 
Usus Part. xiv. 13 (iv. 204) : 8m tovt ovv waw AtTrrov to 
Z,tvyog tovtX tu)v vtvpwv. Galen. Usus Part. xvi. 12 (iv. 
332) : row XotTTov Zevyovg twv apTxtpiijiv lTrifivr\<jQii(TOfxai. 
Galen. Hipp, et Plat. Decret. vi. 3 (v. 627) : otto Trig KsfaXfig 
KaTatjiipiaOai TSTTapa Zsvyri ^XejSoJv — to. TSTTapa ekeTvo Ztvyt) 
(pXsfdwv. Galen. Comm. 6, Nat. Hom. ii. (xv. 138) : hipov 
8' aAXo Zivyog ^Ae/Bwv ap-y^iTai — wcnrep to irpoTipov ZAyog. 
Galen. Oomm. 7, Nat. Hom. ii. (xv. 146) : to TtTTopa t,t.vyr) 
TWV ^Ae/SoJv. Do. 8 (148) : rt^ Trpd)T(u Ztvyu twv ^AejSwv. 
Do. (149) : T<^ Si StvTtptf Z^vyn (j)Xe(3wv. Galen. Comm. ii. 
3, Artie, (xviii. A. 431) : to S' iTepov Z^vyog pvwv oirep rag 
nopwvag sfi(pipe<7dai i^riv. 



150 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [pakt ii. 

§ LXXI. 

Luke, XY. 

* Spa\fiii. * fiva. 

* ETTijUEXwe (verse 8, § 97). KoXXaaOai (v. 15, § 66). 

* Spaxfiri- 8. " Either what woman having ten pieces of 
silver [Spaxfiag Exoutra SIko), if she lose one piece (Spo^iujjv 
fiiav), doth not light a candle, and sweep the house, and seek 
diligently till she find it ?" 

* fiva. Luke, xis. 13 : " And he called his ten servants, 
and delivered them ten pounds (SIko yuvag), and said unto 
them, Occupy till I come." 

St. Luke alone mentions the Spaxfiri and fxva. He was 
accustomed to the use of them in his medical practice, as they 
were the common weights employed in dispensing medicines 
and in writing prescriptions. 

Hipp. Morb. Mul. 626 : ao-^aXrov Spax/xijv fiiav, SavKov 
KapTToii Spax/J-ag Svo — kjOokov rpi^pag Aetoi' oaov Cpaxfiriv 
oXkjjv. Hipp. 627 : (TrviTTripirig (t^^iot^c Spaxfiav fiiav. 
Hipp. Intern. Affect. 538 : iha avfip.iS,ag ajia avvtipilv to 
(TTiap T£TapTrifj.6ptov pvag. 560 : vlrpov Iptvdpov AiyvvTiov 
TiTapTripopiov fjLvag. Aretaeus, Cur. Acut. Morb. 89 : Kaaropiov 
TrnrtcfKSiv SpaxfiriQ oXicTJe ^piav. 97 : rrjc lEpfj? SpaxfJ-^Q ^^o. 
104 : apvpvriQ Spaxp-a? Svo. 109 : aKaKirig kpiraarrtiv ec 7 
KvaBovQ, Tov o^vKpyrov Spaxf^W piav. Dioscor. Mat. Med. 
i. 24 : (TTaipiSwv Xnrapijjv pvag (j3 , prfTivriQ airOKiKadappivrig 
pvag t, KoXafiOv apwpaTiKOv, acnraXaOov , axoivov, tKaarov 
pvav a, (jpvpvriQ SpaxpaQ (j3', o'lvov TraXaiov ^sorae 6', julXiroe 
pvac j3\ piKov iiripsXCjQ, &0., &C. 

Gralen. Comp. Med. vii. 3 (xiii. 78) : piXrov Spaxpag S', 
XtjSavou Spaxpag rf, kojveiou (rnippaTOQ SpaxfJiag o , Xidov 
alpaTiTOV SpaxpaQ S, iio<TKvapov awippaTOQ hpaxpag rj , jrig 
"Siapiag SpaxpaQ y'. Galen. Oomp. Med. viii. 6 (xiii. 187) : 
/3SeXX(ow pvav a', Krjpov pvav a', priTivrig pvag 0', repepivOivrig 
pvag S', KatTfftag pvag S', (rpvpvy^g ava pvag o', &C. 



§ Lxxii.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 151 

§ LXXII. 
Luke, XVI. 

* SiapiXXuv (verse 1, § 68). * iKXi'nreiv (v. 9, § 63). IXkow 

(v. 20, § 22). ^Xkoc (v. 21, § 22). * Kara^p^x^v (v. 24, 
§ 22) . * 6Svva<7eai (v. 24, § 22) . trrriplZHv (v. 26, § 22) . 
*Xa(rjua(v. 26, §22). 

Luke, XVII. 

* XvaiTtXEiv. * avKUfiivog. * avKOfiogia. * Traparripricng. 

Traparripaiv. * SiaTr]puv. rriprimg. " Zhioyoveiv. 

irpoaTiOivai (verse 5, § 59). 

2. "It were better for him {XvaiTiku avri^) that a millstone 
were hanged about his neck, and he east into the sea, than 
that he should offend one of these little ones." 

*\v(iiTt\t1.v. This is the only passage in the N. T. where 
this word occurs ; it is common in the medical writers, and 
by Hippocrates is used, as by St. Luke, with a comparative 
force. 

Hipp. Fract. 765 : aicrre XvaiTiXii Tov fiiWovTa kokioq 
iriTpivsaOai afi^OTSpa Karayrivai ra a-KsXEO /laWov jj to erepov. 
Hipp. Fract. 773 : XvairsXiei 8e otticfw £juj3aAX££v TO OdTtov 
u diovTi ut\ a.6)(Xii)g. Epid. 1170 : koi ott^ 'iptv^iQ XvaLTtXiii 
Kot aXXa TOiavTa. Hipp. Praedic. 98 : XvaiTiXii Se icai 
arpaKiXKTfiog vivpov. Hipp. Vict. Acut. Morb. 389 : okote 
■yow TavTa yivsTai Tolaiv vyiaivovtnv ei/ekev Statrrjc jUETojSoXfjc 
OVTE irpoaOsivai XvcFiTtXiiiv (jiaiveTai oute atpsXsBiv. Hipp. 
Vict. Morb. Acut. 390 : 6Xwg a(psX£iv woXXaxov XvcriTtXiei, 
oKov SiapKBuv jueXXei 6 Kafjivwv. Hipp. Vict. Morb. Acut. 
395 : KivSvvog p.rj Xva-irsXieiv to XovTpov aXXa juaXXov 
pXaiTTeiv. Gralen. Eenum Affect. 6 (xix. 687): pr\Tiov ts 
ISiKtjjTEpov TTOiog Twv o'lvwv Goi Trp6(T(j)opog, aXXog yap aXXoig 
XvaiTeXu. Gralen. Oomp. Med. i. 2 (xiii. 370) : ro XvaireXoiivTa 
roTc Otpairtiag Beofxivoig aw/iacnv. Gralen. Oomm. ii. 36, Epid. 
vi. (xvii. A. 967) : oiry 'ipsv^iQ XixtiteXeT. 



152 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part i. 

* o-UKOjUivoc. 6. " And the Lord said, If ye had faith as 
a grain of mustard seed, ye might say unto this sycamine tree 
(r^ (jvKaixivi^), Be thou plucked up by the root, and be thou 
planted in the sea ; and it should obey you." 

* avKOfioQia. Luke, xix. 4 : " And he ran before, and 
climbed up into a sycamore tree (IttI avKOfiopiav) to see him : 
for he was to pass that way." 

St. Luke distinguishes between the mulberry tree (avKa- 
fiivog) and the fig-mulberry (crvKOfiopia). This distinction 
was not always made : even the LXX. call the fig-mulberry 
avKafiivoQ. Dioscorides notices this confusion of names. 
Mat. Med. i. 181 : au/cojuopov 'ivioi Si kol tovto crvKafiivov 
\ijov(Tt. A physician would readily make the distinction, 
as both were used medicinally, and are frequently prescribed 
in the medical writers. Dioscor. Mat. Med. i. 180, 181, 
states their medical uses : wspi /xopiag — fiopia rj avKafiivka 
SivSpEov ioTi yvwpipov, )5c o KupiroQ \vtikoq KOiXiag, iV(p6ap- 
TOQ, KaKO(TT6fia-)(og, ■xyXoQ kiprjOsiQ Si kv xaXKiLpari rj riXiaaQsiQ 

(TTVTTTlKljiTipOQ JlVETal, fXl'yivTOQ Si aVTOV oXlyOV fliXlTOQ TTOltl 

TTpog pevfiaTa koI vo/xdg koX TrapiaQfiia (pXsjfiaivovTa. 6 8e tjjc 
pl^riQ (pXoiog (TVvsiprfduQ vSaTi koi iroOtig KOiXiav Xvti koi 
nXaTtiav eX/iivOa SKTivaaati koi toiq cikovitov 7r£7rajKO(7t /3o>)0£i, 
rd Se (piXXa Xela rrvv kXaii^ KaraTrXaaOivTa inpittavaTa larai, &0. 

TTEpi 'SiVKOflOpOV aVKOflOpOV SivSpOV Se t(TTl fi'fya, OflOlOV 

Ty avKy, TroXv)(yXov (T<j>6dpa, rotg <l>vXXoig ioiKog fiopeq, — 
EOTi Se, iVKoiXiog b Kapirog, aTpocj>og, KUKOcrrofjLa^og — Svvafuv 
oe i\ei 6 oirog fiaXaKTiKriv, KoXXririKrjv Tpavfxartov, Sia^opriTiKrjv 
Twv cvaTTETTTuiv wtvETai Ss Kai (jvy\pUrai Trpog epirsrwv Sriy/xara 
Koi kdKippwfjisvovg airXrivag, (tto/xci^ov te oXyrifiaTa koX (ppiKiag. 

Galen also gives the medicinal properties of both trees. 
De Facul. Aliment, ii. 11 : irEpi avKapiviov a koi juopa KaXoOaj. 
Do. ii. 35 : inpX avKOfiogwv. 

20. " And when he was demanded of the Pharisees, 
when the kingdom of God should come, he answered them 
and said, The kingdom of God cometh not with observation" 
{jLiera TTaparripfiaewg) . 



§ Lxxii.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 153 

* irapaTTipriinQ is peculiar to St. Luke, and was em- 
ployed (as also rfipricng) to denote medical observation of 
disease. Diosoor. Animal. Yen. Proem. : oTov etti tiov Oripio- 
oriKToJv Kcii Oavaai/xbiv rj etti twv Xoiiriitv, apK^crOrtirofxiOa ry 
wapaTr]pri(7ei — Trpo Trje wapaTrfpnattog ett' e/xetov. Galen. Def. 
Med. 176 (xix.396) : vTrofxvricjTtKov (rrifiuov eoti, (L? oi e/XTrsipiKol 
Xiyovai Trpay/ia ^aivopsvov Koi -yjvwaKO/.tEvov J/c TrpoTrapoTjjp?)- 
(TEwc. Gralen. De Opt. Sect. 2 (i. 109) : riuv Se ^at i/o/.iev(ijv 
filv, fifi E^ tavT(l)v OE, aXX' it, sripwv KaraXajUj3avo/iEV(uv, 
Kpirr/piov £<T7j crvfiTraparriprimQ. Gralen. Opt. Sect. 10 (i. 127) : 
OTav yap toiq jdXcnrTovai avixir'tTTTij to avfK^ipov tote oute 
wapaTitpriaEi ovTi \oyi(Tpii^. Glalen. Opt. Sect. 11 (i. 131) : 
avev cnroSd^EWQ koi TrapaTripficreujg. Galen. Opt. Sect. 10 
(i. 127) : Ty (jviJ.irapaTr]pri<T£i KaraXafijiavidOai. 

TTaparjjpEtv. Luke, \i. 7 : " And the scribes and Phari- 
sees watched him {j:aptTr\povv), whether he would heal on the 
sabbath day." 

This word, used four times by St. Luke — vi. 7, xiv. 1, 
XX. 20 ; Acts, ix. 24 — and twice elsewhere — Mark, iii. 2 ; 
Gal. iv. 10 — was employed in medical language to express 
close observation of the symptoms of an illness — ^the con- 
stitution of a patient, &c. 

Hipp. Acut. Morb. 405 : t^c SiairjjTjK^e iaTi piyiuTOv 
wapaTTfipuv Koi ^vXclttciv koi rae eircTdcnag twv TTvpsTuyv koi 
Tag aviaiag. Hipp. Epis. 1286 : -x^prj ovv tov larpov /cat 
Sia^oprjv Kol wpriv koX riXiKiriv TrapaTijpovvTa ir\Tpivtiv to 
Trddog. Hipp. Acut. Morb. 398 : dsp/xotai Si oval dep/iaafia 
jujjSev TrpotT^EjOE, . aXAo TrapoTjjpEt okojc fifi ^//u^fljjo-ovrat. 
Galen. Oomm. iii. 20, Epid. ii. (xvii. A. 270) : ou yap 
aKpi(3(i)g TavTa TrapaTripriasv 'iva koi iTri/ieXiiJe E^jjyEtcrffat 
SvvaiTo. Galen. Comm. i. 13, Epid. iii. (xvii. A. 561) : 
wawsp ovK ETTi irdvTwv fiiv twv vouovvtuiv KOivojg irapa- 
Tripov/xivov. Galen. Morb. Acut. 9 (six. 217) : piyiaTov yap ov 
TO iv Tolg ■)(jpovioiQ voarinaoL TrapaTriptiv Tovg Kaipovg. Galen. 
DeAffect.Eienum. (xix. 677): tovtov 'ivcKa TrapaTriptiv xpri,Kav 
firj viroKovoL Trig Bspairtiag. Galen. De Dieb. Decret. iii. 6 

X 



154 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [partii. 

(ix. 913) : el Ss jujjr' avTog Traparripeiv tOiXeig to. TOiavra firjTS 
Toic TYipr/aaai TTMTivtiQ. G-alen. Mort. Aeut. 8 (xix. 217) : 
fiiyiaTOv waparrioiiv we Iv roig 6^e(Tt koI iv Tottn fiaKpotcrtv 
appuiiTTrifiam koi rag iTTiTaaiag t(Lv irvperwv. Galen. San. 
Tuend. iii. 8 (vi. 212) : wo-tteo avrbg 6 Qiiav rovro ye iragiTX]- 
p))(T£i» opdutg, (pvXaKriov lori rrjv Iv t(^ xf/vxpi^ StarptjSrjv. 

* SiaT-nptiv. Luke, ii. 51: " But his -motheT kept [Sierripei) 
aU these sayings in her heart." 

Peculiar to St. Luke, and used again in Acts, xv. 29. 

Hipp. Decor. 25 : \pri tov tijrpov SteiAij^ora ra fiipea vepX 
wv elpriKOfiev StarripiovTa tpvXaaaeiv. Hipp. Epid. 1290 : 
aAX' eTraKokovQovvra toiq (tjjjUeioic roig yivo/ievoig ev r<j> 
ailipari Starripeiv tov Katpov tKaorou awfiarog. Dioscor. Mat. 
Med. i. 86 : ipXeyfiovag irapriyopei icai rpavpuTa a^Xeyfiara 
StaTripei. Dioscor. Mat. Med. ii. 93 : OeXy ng atrijirrov 
Siarripriaai oSrtu TTotrjrEov. Dioscor. Mat. Med. ii. 108 : 
SiaTtip-fjcrei yap avTriv. DioSCOr. Mat. Med. V. 175 : irpog re 
ra irvpiKavara woiovcriv eTn\pi6fievoi irapa^^prifia, HxjTe a^\vK- 
TaiviDTa StarijpEiv ra TreirovBoTa fxipr\. Galen. Def. Med. 95 
(xix. 371) : <j)v<7ig iari irvev/ia tvOepfiov i% kavrov Kivoifievov, 
SmTijpEiv TOV avOpwTTov. Gralen. Eemed. Parab. iii. (xiv. 
540) : afieduaog SiartipriOtjvai el deXeig koi avotrog ^vWa 
TTYiyavov eirOie — apeOvaog StarripeiTO 6 wpocpaythv a/ivySaXa 
TTiKpa — kfieBvaog SiaTripetTai 6 nvevfiova wpo^aTOv vr]aTi]g 
irrOitov iiftOov. Galen. Medians, 8 (xiv. 693) : Siatpipti Si ev 
T(jff vyieivo^ iraXiv, rb ev vyeiq. SiUTripricTai tov Trpo^vXa^at 
v6(Tovg eiTiovaag. 

Triprimg. Acts, iv. 3 : " And they laid hands on thena, 
and put them in hold {elg rripriaiv) unto the next day." 

TTipriaig, met again in Acts, y. 18, and one other passage 
in the N. T. (1 Cor. vii. 19), is of frequent occurrence in me- 
dical language, signifying observation like waparripriiTig — 
preservation of health — and guarding against disease. 

Galen. Comm. iv. 55, Acut. Morb. (xv. 830) : tCJv k 
Ti\priaewg, ifiireipiKbjg yeypafiivoiv ToXg larpoXg. Galen. Comm. 
ii. 1, Humor, (xvi. 209) : ahruv yap Triprimg irpbg tt/v 



§ Lxxii.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 155 

BspairevTLKriv iariv avajKaia. Galen. Comm. iii. 31, Epid vi. 
(xvu. B. 100) : oil /iovov XoyiKi^i' Evpeaiv fiorjOri/iaTOjv ajvonv 
aXXa Kot Tiiprtaiv sfiTTtipiKriv. Galen. Oomm. iii. Praef. Aph. 
(xvii. B. 562) : aXX dg kfnrtipiav kol rjjpijdiv avant/jL^pavTag 
airavTa. Galen. Comm. i. 1, Offic. (xviii. B. 645) : KairiiSav 
SK Trig rriprj<TEwg Tavrrig TroXXwv avvSpOfjiiijv kfiirstpiav exV- 
Galen. Aliment. Facul. ii. 6 (vi. 569) : Iv rovrqi S' toriv 
fiakiara to \pi\(np.ov ilg vyidag t£ ^vXaKrjv Koi voawv rripriaiv. 
Galen. Medious, 3 (xIy. 683) : firiTS r^ liri rate trwdpofiaig 
rt}p})(T£t tHjv Sia Trdpag apfxal^ovrojv apKilaBai. Galen. Opt. 
Sect. 8 (i. 124) : Set rac TinQi\aug irouiaai. Do. : a^vvaTov 
av ur\ 17 TOMVTtj TtipriaiQ. Galen. Opt. Sect. 24 (i. 173) : ij 
Trig vytiag Tripriaig. 

33. " Whosoever shall seek to save his life shall lose it ; 
and whosoever shall lose his Ufe shall preserve it" {liiDoyovriuel). 

* Zi^oyoviiv, peculiar to St. Luke (it is however a various 
reading for ^woTrottiv, 1 Tim. vi. 13), and used also in Acts, 
vii. 19. Z,<^oyoviiv, l!,i3)oy6vog, and Zwoyovia were used in 
medical language to signify " producing alive," " enduing^ 
with Hfe." 

Galen. Animal in Utero, 2 (xix. 163) : u firj rffv awo 
T(t)v TsXsiwv ^woyoviav \a(3oi. Do. 5 (175) : fxrj Toivvv juijSt 
irsgil rjjii rd tfifipva liwoyoviav aTnarMfxtv tivai ^wwffiv. Do. 
(180) : KviptXog Zwoyovov/xevog. Galen. Ars Med. 12 (i. 
266) : irpayfiaTuai Si d(Tiv, rj ts Trip\ Z'^oyoviag ovojxaZofxivri. 
Aretaeus, Sign. Morb. Diutum. 64 : Zi^oyovov (nripfia. 
Theophrastus, H. P. vii. 14. 3 : iKilva ts yap iv kavTolg 
woTOKriaavTa Zwoyovd. Do. H. P. viii. 11. 2 : fiovog yap 
ovTog ov Zi^oyovel. Do. C P. iii. 23. 3 : iravTaxov yap 17 
^vaig Z<^oyovtl. Do. 0. P. iii. 24. 3 : ZuoyoveiTui. Do. 
C. P. iv. 15. 2 : TO wa KQi TeXeiot kui liXiog ^tjoyovei to 
irsQiixov. Do. 0. P. iv. 15. 4: Ka\ oXijjg oaa tuiv aipvxtov 
ZbioyoveiTai. Do. 0. P. Y. 9. 3 : iv Ty /x£ra/3oXp Sia tjjv 
<jri\piv 71 Zoioyovia — ij Spifivrrig kwXvh ^woyovtiv. 



156 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [pakt ii. 

§ LXXIII. 
Luke, XVIII. 

* jSeXovrj (verse 25, § 38). * rpjjjua (v. 25, § 38). -rrapaxprifia 

(v. 43, §57). 

Luke, XIX. 



* ;.. 



Xta-dai. * TrpajfiareviaOai. * SiaTrpayfiaTivitrdai. 
Kpipaadai. 

* avKopopia (verse 4, § 72). irapaxpriiJia (v. 11, § 57). 
TrpoaTidivai (v. 11, § 59). * fxva (v. 13, § 71). * knav- 
ipXi<r9ai^ (v. 15, § 21). * vnofTTpdvvvpi (v. 36, § 50). 
* KarAjiame (v. 37, § 70). 

v-iToSixiTOai. 6. " And lie raade haste, and came down, 
and received him {{nridi^aro) joyfully." 

Used again : ch. x. 38, Acts, xvii. 7 ; and in only one 
other place in the N. T. : James, ii. 25. 

The derivatives of Sex^adai were very much employed in 
medical language. 

Hipp. Loc. in Hom. 418 : 6 Ix'^P o atro rov iXKCog 
anoppiwv KtoXverai e^oj ^oijOttiv — 17 Se crap^ VTroSl^^trat. Hipp. 
Morb. 460 : okotov yap ri avix) KOiAirj VTripOeppavdig, eXkej e^' 
kwvTriv Kai i7roS£)^ETat 6 irXtvpwv. Hipp. Affect. 530 : 17 
KOiXtri OTav vypoTipr) eovaa Koi orav ^riporipri UTToSE^^^Erai to 
(jiTiuv. Hipp. Humor. 51 : ot inrowToi tottoi {nroSt^apevoi 
TTOvif) ^ jSapEi r) aX\(o rivX pvovrai. Gralen. Oomm.iv.5,Humor. 
(xvi. 385) : yacTTrjo plv otiv uTroSl^^trat Tfjv Tpo<^{\v. Galen. 
Comm. i. 1, Humor, (xvi. 17) : ev/ote Se eV ti popiov rj Triicpd- 
XvXov rj ^XeypariKov rj psXayxoXiKOv VTrods^aptvoi' x}^p6v. 
Q-alen. Comm. ii. 22, Humor, (xvi. 282) : rae aTroaTaau^ 
vTToiiXioQai. Gralen. Comm. vi. 2, Epid. vi. (xvii. B. 318) : 



§ Lxxiii.J THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 157 

ra o tK Trig KapSlag 6 irvevfjuov VTroSixirai. Gralen. Comm. 
1. 3, Aph. (xvii. B. 364) : al <j>\i(3sg m xwpav 'ix^ujtjiv viroSe- 
XEff^at TTjv avaSiSofiivriv Tpo<jtfiv. Galen. Comm. ii. 15, Aph. 
(xvii. B. 472) : r\ te (pdpvy^ viroSexofiivrj tovq Ik ttjq KicpaXriQ 
KarappiovTag xyfiovg. 

* SiaSixttrOai. Acts, vii. 45 : " Whioli also our fathers 
that came after [EiaBt^apivot) brought in with Jesus into the 
possession of the Gentiles." 

Peculiar to St. Luke, and used in medical language of a 
succession of diseases. 

Aretaeus, Cur. Acut. Morb. 88 : rjv filv l^ iripriQ vovaov 
OKoIov Ti <ppiviTi6og SmSt^rjrat 17 AjjOrj — rjv Si jujj £k SiaSi^iog 
vovaov aW iwvreov ap^jjTat o Xr/Oapyog. Aret. Cur. Morb. 
Acut. 148 : rjv Si ek ttoXXuv /xsv f)Si) T^oi'hjv ly arap Koi Ik 
SiaSi^Log TraTipwv (pavy (jvvairodvricrKei ri vovo-of. Galen. 
Comm. ii. 2, Aliment, (xv. 233) : aXXriXag yap ai Triipeig Sia- 
Sixovrat. Galen. Comm. iii. 27, Aliment, (xv. 374) : rCjv 
ivavTiwv Kivfjcreiuv T(l^v aXX/jXwv SiaSi\op.iviiiv. Galen. Comm. 
iv. 29, Aliment, (xv. 417) : SiaSix^'^^'- S' o-vtov ivravda /ue-ytorij 
^\iip. Galen. Comm. iii. 120, Praedic. (xvi. 772) : nai /xeto.- 
TTTwaiv i)(Ovra ttoikiXwc aXArjXa SiaSix^f^^^'^^ ^"^^ trvfiTrrioina.- 
Twv. Galen. Comm. iii. 153, Praedic. (xvi. 814) : 6rav fxrj 
iravcrrf rfiv voaov alfiOppayla, SiaSi^irai o' avTrjv ptyog. Galen. 
Comm. iii. 9, Epid. ii. (xvii. A. 333) : 17 Si napawXriyia 
TToWuKig rrjv Tr\g (f!roir\r\^iag\v<jLV SiaSsx^Tm. Galen. Comm. 
i. 4, Epid. iii. (xvii. A. 574) : twv ivavriojv Kivriaiwv aXXijXiov 
SiaSiXoiJiiv(DV a/xa \pv^£wg aXaQriaii. Galen. Loc. Affect, vi. 3, 
(viii. 399) : riaaapa yap ravra (jvpTTTWfiaTa SiaoE;^Erai Trjv Iv 

* SidSoxog- Acts, xxiv. 27 : " But after two years 
Porcius Festus came into Felix;' room (tXajSE SidSoxov 6 

^nXtK). 

Peculiar to St. Luke, and used in medical language like 
S(aS£X£<T0ai. 

Hipp. Epid. 959 : /cat iiaai i^ o'lwv sig ola SiaSoxai- voar)- 
fxarwv. Aretaeus, Cur. Morb. Diuturn. 141 : 'nvTnp ol oKippoi 



158 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

SiaSoxov £e Siairvoiiv aywvTai. Aret. Sign. Acut. Morb. 25 : 
fir' aiiToig i^aTTTtTai to Si\(/OQ, avOig aSrjv nlvovcn kol r^Se r) 
Siadoxrj Toi) KaKoit. Aret. Sign. Morb. Diutum. 75 : v£(j>pwv 
Kol KiKTTiog 17 SiaSo)(fi — KOI T(LvSi a(j)VKTOQ T) SiaS6\ri. Gralen. 
Comm. i. 1, Humor, (xvi. 56) : SiaSoxal yivovrai voayifiaTwv — 
iv r^ T(ov riXiKMv SiaSox^- Gralen. Oomm. ii. 11, Humor, 
(xvi. 247) : yivovrai SiaSoxa'i oXtOpiol twv voarjfiaTtuv — Sia- 
Soxij awTtiptaQ. Galen. Comm. iii. 31, Humor, (xvi. 471) : 
yivovrai SiaSoxal rdiv x»'i"<^v. Gralen. Comm. iii. 1, Epid. i. 
(xvii. A. 216) : SiaSo^ai voatj/xaTwv Kot awoirracrieg — Siaooxai- 
yoiiv oXiOpioi re kol Kpiaifioi yivovrai vocrtifiariov. 

* Soxv- Luke, V. 29 : " And Levi made him a great 
feast [Soxi'iv) in his own house." 

Peculiar to St. Luke, and used also in ch. xiv. 13. 

This very rare word, used by St. Luke for a reception, is 
used by Aretaeus for a receptacle. vwoSoxv, Soxttov, and 
viroSoxtiov are the more usual medical words. 

Aretaeus, Sign. Acut. Morb. 13 : ttveujuovoc tpvina koI 
Soxri- Aret. Cur. Morb. Diutum. 143 : aaKirg p.iv yap 
So^tjov ro TTipirovaiov. Gralen. Medicus, 11 (xiv. 719) : So^fta 
Si H(nv KOI lpyaarr]Qia rov yovov- Gralen. Med. Defin. 57 (xix. 
362) : KVirriQ iarl vevpwSrig viroSoxiiov (ifxa koi BpyaXuov 
iKKpiriKOV i;7pou rov mpirrwparog. Gralen. Med. Def. 54 
(xix. 361) : KOiXia lort vevpioSrig inroSo^^stov rpoijirJQ. Do. 55 : 
'ivrepd iart vsvpwSt) ra piv irpog rriv iri^iv avvspyovvra ra Si 
TrpoQ rfjv VTToSoxriv. 

* ivSexfi^Oa'- Luke, xiii. 33 : " Nevertheless I must 
■walk to-day, and to-morrow, and the day following : for 
it cannot be (oiik ivSixiTai) that a prophet perish out of 
Jerusalem." 

Peculiar to St. Luke, and much employed in medical 
language. 

Hipp. De Grland. 271 : ra Si 'ivnpa Ik tgJv rsvx^ii^v eg ra 
STrlTrXoa evSexetui koi KaOirtcn r'^v vypaaiav. Hipp. Do Liquid. 
TJsu. 426 : piXag olvog ipvxpoc ETt 70. eAkeo ivSexirat. Do. 
427 : virrtp-ijiTiv ov navv ivSixirai. Hipp. Aphoron. : rjv St 



§ Lxxiii.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 159 

svSixriTai ev rt^ arofiaTi Tiijg firfrpag. Hipp. Fract. 771 : 
fiaXiciTa 06 EV Kvrjjup iv%k\t.Tai fir)-)(avowoiiuv. Hipp. Artio. 
789 : aWiriv i(T)(aQ\\v ivStx^Tui kvOtivai. Hipp. Aph. 1243 : 
aXX ivSi-)(iTai aSportpwe SiaiT^v. Gralen. Coram, iii. 13, 
Aliment, (xv. 305) : svSix^Tai St irporiyuaOai rijc voarov Sia- 
9i(jiv iripav Tiva. Gralen. Oomm. i. 19, Humor, (xvi. 187) : 
ov yap ivoi\eTai rhv voaovvra t'x^'" '''"■" ipvatv tjjv KOiXiav. 
Gralen. Comm. iii. 26, Humor, (xvi. 460) : ivBixirai fiiv yap 
avToiig iiriTrjSttovQ tlvai wpoc ti fxsya TraOog. 

* irpaynaTiiiiaQai. 18 : " And he called his ten servants, 
and delivered them ten pounds, and said unto them, Occupy 
{wpayixaTevaaaOe) till I come." 

* StawpayfiaTtvsadai. 15 : "And it came to pass, that when 
he was returned, having received the kingdom, then he com- 
manded these servants to he called unto him, to whom he 
had given the money, that he might know how much every 
man had gained iy trading" {SiETrpayfiarsvcraro). 

Both words are peculiar to St. Luke, and in medical lan- 
guage were used of a physician, in the practice of his profes- 
sion, using his utmost skill and attention in a case of sickness. 

Hipp. Bpid. 1201 : koi ttuvtu TTpayfianvaaiiivwv rifiCiv 
oaa ^v TTpoc to to. yvvaiKua Karaavaaai ovk ^XOev aAX' ani- 
Bavcv ov TToXiiv (liTiwuTa \p6vov ^iwaraa-a. Gralen. Comm. ii. 
40, Praedic. (xvi. 600) : ov\ OTrXwe, aXXa jutra tov Trpay/xa- 
TEvtaBai Tt TOV laTpbv rj Sta KXvrrTripog, y Sia [3aXavov. Gralen. 
Comm. ii. 59, Praedic. i. (xvi. 639) : Trpayfiarsvaafiivo^v rwv 
laTpuv. Gralen. Comm. iii. 100, Praedic. (xvi. 720) : tovtcoti 
fifTo. TOV Trpayfian-sviracrOai ti tov larpov. Galen. Comm. iii. 
9, Epid. ii. (xvii. A. 406) : juera tov irpaynaTevtaQai ti tov 
laTpov ri S(a KXvaTtjpog v Sia (5a\avov. Glalen. Comp. Med. i. 3 : 
eTTifitXitTTtpov fioi SoKoOvTOC TTETrpayfiaTcvadai ttiv twv aT^wp&jv 
Oipaire'iav. Gralen. Comp. Med. viii. 7 (xiii. 198) : oi irpo i^/iwv 
apiuTa TrpaynaTcvofiivoi wspl ipapfiaKUV. Gralen. Loc. Affect, 
iii. 11 (viii. 197): Siecrwdri yap ovdiv aXXo TrpayfiuTevofiEvog trt. 
Galen. Loc. Affect, iv. 11 (viii. 291) : aXX' oirojc ovk oXiya 
irpayfiaTivaafiiviiiv a/xtp^ avrovg rifiwv oute tovtuv Tig oiiT 



160 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ti. 

aXXoc i(ToJ6t]. Gralen. Med. Def . 1 1 (xix. 352) : Bipa-rnvTiKov 
St TO TTtpl rjjii 'laaiv ^ avaKXricnv rije ^ia^Bapfiivr\Q vyisiag Koi 
aTTOKaTaaraaiv aiinje TrpayfiaTSVOfitvov. 

Gralen. Comm. i. 20, Aph. (xvii. B. 436) : ttote piv sirt- 

TpCTTTiOV £(771 Ttj (j)V(Jll TO TTCIV aVTTj TTbpl TOV VO(TOVVTa OiaWpaT- 

Tsadai, pr}Siv rjpCov aXXo SiaTrpaypaTEVopivwv, oti pfj to kuto. 
TTjv Statrav, ttote 8e ov /uovov ry fvaei to ttuv iTTiTpenTtov, 
aWa Ti Koi avTOVQ vpaypuTtviadai. 

48. " And he could not find what they might do : for all 
the people were very attentive {^^tKplpuTo) to hear him." 

£KKpl/xa(r0ai is found in this passage only, and was in 
medical use. 

Hipp. Superfoet, 261 : 'iva to 'ipf3pvov iKxptpapevov (tvvc- 
TTicTTrarai rt^ fSapsi e^w. Hipp. Artie. 795 : ajKiovi Se oicpw 
vTTOTidivTa ti wapa to iipOpov f^apog SKKpspaffai. Hipp. Artie. 
833 : irapacFTavTa opdbv Trapa to crwpa tov Kpapapivov i^a- 
TTivrjQ iKKpepaaOivTa psTtojpov aluipridiivai — avTO ts yap to 
aijjpa Kpspapevov ti^ e&jutoD jBapei KaTUTaatv TrotisTat, 6 ts 
iKKpSfiacrdiie apa piv Ty KUTaTaaai avayKuZei VTrspaioipeiaOai 
Triv Ki^aXfiv TOV pripov vnsp tyic; kotuXjjc. Hipp, Moch. 850 : 
inroBiig ti irapa to apOpbv j3apoQ iKKpspcKrai rj XV^' KUTavay- 
KCKxai. Hipp. Morh. 484 : aXAa Sokssi ti avri^ o1.ov iKKpipaa' 
Oai j3api) OTTO roii irXevpov. Galen. Comm. ii. 22, Acut. 
Morb. (xv. 554) : aXXa pfjv koX iKKpipaaOai SoKuv to. tjirXuy\- 
va ToTg IvStwe SiaiTtiOiiai. Galen. Comm. i. 9, Humor. 
(xvi. 94) : odiv aiadritxig yivtrai tktiv KptpaaOai avTo7g to 
(TTrXayxva. Galen. Comm. i. 43, Artie, (xviii. A. 753) : 
iKKpipacrOrivai tov alg to kutw psXXovTa rrjv KE^aXfjf sTrKnrdaaL 
Toti /ijjjoou. The adjective iKKpspriQ also was used. 



§ Lxxiv.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 161 

§ LXXIV. 

Luke, XX. 

irpoaTidivai (verse 11, § 59). ■iraQaTr)piiv (v. 20, § 72). 
*aTiKvog (v. 28. § 57). 

Luke, XXI. 

<p6pr)Tpa. * TrpoaooKia. rrpoo-Soic^v. * cnropia. airopiiv. 

* evTTopta. * evTropttaOat. * SiaTropuv. * aTro\pv)(tiv. 

* avaxpv^iQ. * EK^^i»i^E(v. * KaTaip{i)(^Etv. * KpaitraXr}. 

* j3ap{iv£iv. 

* iKxopsiv (verse 21, § 61). irifnr\rtp.i (v. 22, § 60). *aakoQ 
(v. 25, § 97). *Trpo^a\\uv (v. 30, § 68). 

11. "And great earthquakes shall be in divers places, and 
famines, and pestilences ; and fearful sights {^6j3riTpa) and 
great signs shall there be from heaven." 

* <l>6j3r]Tpa. This rare word is peculiar to St. Luke, and 
used by Hippocrates to express fearful objects that present 
themselves to the imagination of the sick. 

Hipp. Morb. Sacr. 303 : OKOcra Si Bdixara vvktoq irapiara- 
Tai Kol ^opot Kot trapavoiai koi ava-rrriSriaiec £k Tjjp kAivjjc koi 
0o/3t)rpa. 

26. "Men's hearts failing them (aTrotpvxovrwv avOpwirwr) 
for fear and /or looking after {irpoaSoKlac:) those things which 
are coming on the earth." 

* irpoaSoKca, peculiar to St. Luke, and used also in Acts, 
ch. xii. 11, was employed in medical language to denote 
" expectation " of the result, usually fatal, of an illness, 
approach of pain, or paroxysms. 

Gralen. Oomm. iii. 11, Epid. i. (xvii. A. 295) : Ka\ tu 
avfiTTTwuara iravra Siifxsivs rr/v TrpotrSoKiav jBefiaiovvTa tov 
OavuTov. Gralen. Oomm. 33, Aph. vi. (xviii. A. 51) : etti- 

Y 



162 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ti. 

yivirai toIq wXivpiTiKOi^ r} tc rrig (rwrriglac r) n tov davarov 
TrpotrSoKia. Galen. Oomm. i. 13, Offic. (xviii. B. 686) : 
Sia Trjv Trig oSvvjjc TrpoffSoKiav. Galen. De Melanchol. i. 
(xix. 703) : yiyveadai Koi SuaOufiiag koi 0at/aTOV TrpoaSoKiag 
ovSev davfiaarov. Galen. San. Tuend. iii. 2 (vi. 169) : 
aXA' ofJiwQ airoOspaTTiveiv avriov xprj aw/itaTa, Kav el firj cia 
Koirov wpouSoKlav. Galen. Cans. Sympt. ii. 7 (vii. 208) : , 
SvaOvpiag icai Oavdrov TrpoaBoKiag. Galen. De Crisibus, iii. 
10 (ix. 748) : ' (5tl3aioTipov Si aoi ttoitjusi ttjv vpoaSoKiav y 
Kivridig TOV voaripaTog. Galen. Progn. ad Posthum. 2 (xiv. 
611) : i^' (jj KOTO Triv lairipav iirvvvdviTO pov Tiva TrpoaooKiav 
'ixoipi Twv peWovTbJv. Galen. Comm. iii. 114, Praedic. i. 
(xvi. 756) : Ty TrpotrSoKi^ TOV mratrpov. Galen. Comm. iii. 
117, Praedic. (xvi. 760) : otto fipaxvTaTrig Trpoo-SoKtae iviOTs 
(7tra(Tpu)oiig iaicrdai. 

TTpoo-SoKoiv, Luke, xii. 46 : " The lord of that servant 
will come in a day when he looketh not for him " {ov npoa-- 

SoK^) . 

This word, which was much employed in medical lan- 
guage, is used eleven times by St. Luke — i. 21, iii. 15, 
vii. 19, 20, viii. 40, xii. 46 ; Acts, iii. 5, x. 24, xxvii. 33, 
xxviii. 6, his; and but five times in the rest of the N. T. — 
Matt. xi. 3, xxiv. 50 ; 2 Pet. iii. 12, 13, 14. 

Galen. Comm. ii. 81, Praedic. (xvi. 669) : rwv Kora- 
(j>opiK(x)v Ti vo(Tripa.T(i)v TrpocrSoKa. Galen. Comm. iii. 1, 
Epid. i. (xvii. A. 256) : ai' o^si voaripan rrjv Kpidiv exp^v 
(.(Tuptvriv TrpoaSoKq.v cia Tuxio^v. Do. (258) : TrpocrSoiojtrEV 
av Tig tvKoywg prj SuvrjOijffta'Oat tov kotu ttjv skttjv ripipav 
iaoptvov napo^vcrpbv VTropsivai tov KcipvovTa. Do. (257) : 
iTr£Kvpw(T£ tov irpocrSoKOjpivov oXiOpov (TVVTopov. Galen. 
Comm. iii. 11, Epid. i. (xvii. A. 295) : slKOTwg av Tig avTrjv 
7rpo(7ESoicr)(T£ T80vi)?£(T0at Sia raxEwv. Galen. Comm. i. 23, 
Epid. iii. (xvii. A. 570) : aXX vTroaTpi(j>siv sv toxei to 
voaripa TTpotrSoicdijuEv. Galen. Comm. iii. 19, Progn. (xvii. 
B. 270) : rijviKaiira BavaTOv ovkcti TrpocrSoK^v XP^ '''V 
KapvovTL ytviaQai. Galen Progn. ad Posthum. 2 (xiv. 610) : 



§ Lxxiv.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE, 163 

iv y irpoaooKciTai 'yevi\(j6jxtvoQ o Sia TSTaprri^ jrapo^vafiog. 
Gralen. Progn. ad Posthum. 13 (xiv. 668) : a^oSpav Eo-Eo-flat 
TTpoaooKo.v rrju aifjLOppayiav. Hipp. De Arte 5 : Kpicraov eoti 
Twv Iv ry larpiKy opyavtov, owSe irpoaBoKaadat Sti viro I'rjrpfKJjc 
KpuTrfBrivai av- 

25. " And there shall be signs in the sun and in the 
moon and in the stars ; and upon the earth distress of 
nsitions with perplexity " (ly cnropitf). 

* airopia, airopuv, * einropia, * svTroptiv, * SiaTTOpstv, are 
all peculiar to St. Luke, with the exception of airopHv : they 
were much used by the medical writers. 

* awopia is used in the same sense as in St. Luke, for a 
perplexed state, as also in the more usual one of " want," 
absence of a thing. 

Hipp. De Dieb. Judic. 58 : koI TTvevfia wvkvov koI Btpfiov 
avairvUi Koi awopiri kqI aSwaftir) 'i-)(^Ei Kai pnrTacrp.6g. Hipp. 
Morb. 489 : koi Sriy/xbg la^vpog i/xir-inTtL koi arropirt ware 
ovTt iardvai ovn KuOriauai ovrs KaraKuaOai, oilog ri tariv. 
Hipp. Epid. 1077 : iroXvg j3XricjTpt(TiJ.bQ, aTTopir), TrapeKpovcjsv. 
Hipp. Epid. 1153 : Trvivfxa St Trpd'CaTaro koX awoplt) ^iiv 
oovvy — KoX airb piariQ ripipag odvvri 'icrxev lir^^ypfi irdw koi 
EC TTiv {xTTspriv TTvtvfxa KOI aTTopir}. Aretaeus, Sign. Acut. 
Morb. 13 : y\(.d(T(jrig ^jjpoTije, liridvplq 'ipv^poii fiipoQ, yv(L>/j,r]r 
avopiT). Aret. Sign. Aeut. Morb. 25: ekXvo-ic fnXiwv cnroplri, 
awoaLTiri. Aret. Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 33 : KopjjjSaptri, otto- 
piri, Ztorj SvcT^opog. Gralen. Med. Comp. viii. 4 (xiii. 171) : 
E^' Sjv Sv(j6vp.ia Tic; fj airopia TrapiiriTai. Gralen. Loc. Affect. 
il. 5 : aari tb koi airopia ttoAXjj. 

diropiiv. Luke, xxiv. 4 : " And it came to pass as they 
were much perplexed [iv rij> dnopuaQai) thereabout." 

Used also Acts, xxv. 20, and three other places in the 
N. T. 

Hipp. Aer. 281 : uxtte (iri diropiEaOai iv ry OEpawdy rdJv 
vovawv /x/jSe Sia/xapTavav. Hipp. Eract. 763 : rrtpl yap tUv 
(TwXrjvwv tCiv viroTiQifiivwv viro to. CTKEAsa ra KarttiyoTa 
dnopioj on ^v/xjiovXtiKJU). Hipp. Decor. 24 : iirriv Si icriyg 



164 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

Trpoe Tdv voatovTa, tovthov aoi cnrripTKTfiiviDV iva fir) awopriQ, 
kv6eT(i)Q E^^ojv fKotrra Trpoe '''o irovriaofiivov. Aretaeus^ olgn. 
Morb. Diuturn. 72 : bXidpia Ss ra eAkso, r)v wpog Toim aXyog 
o^vvy fi avOpuTToc airopy. Galen. Coram, ii. 27, Humor. 
(xvi. 299) : oii yap Sti cnroptiv wtpi (nrXtivog. Gralen. Comm. 
ii. 41, Praedie. (xvi. 601) : ovk anoptjv wspX raurrj? Bia to 
TToXii TTapa/iiVitv Trie ocr^voc aXyrifia. Gralen. Comm. ui. 10, 
Progn. (xviii. B. 254) : anopovfitda, wpocrriyopiav iSlav oiiK 
e'xovtec diadm Tt^ voarrifiaTi. Gralen. Temperament, ii. 6 

(i. 631) : ouK yvovTSQ svioi Tbiiv larptijv aTTOpOVVTUl 6ElV(iJe ETt 
Tp Sia(j>wvii} Twv (7VfnrTwfj.aTwv. Gralen. TJsus. Part. iv. 13 
(iii. 308) : ovkow It airopriauQ Trip\ t»jc tqv vivpov fiiKpoTr]- 
TOQ. Gralen. Aliment. Facul. ii. 22 (vi. 601) : eirapOai Si 
Kai j3api5v£(T0a( ri^v yaoTipa Kai Sia tovto w)(jaiqv tb koi arro- 
piiadai. 

* eviropia, Acts, xix. 25 : "Whom he called together with 
the workmen of like occupation and said, Sirs, ye know that 
by this craft we have our wealth" (?j avnopla rifiwv). 

This word, peculiar to St. Luke, is found here only : it 
was very much used in medical language as opposed to 
nTTopia. 

Hipp. Decor. 24 : I(jk£i/)9w Se ravra Travra oiiiog rj aoi 
wpoKaTrfpTKr/iiva £ie rr/v einropirjv, &>c osot, el Si fifi, inX tov 
T^psouc airopiri ad. Hipp. Morb. Sacr. 301 : Kara Se Tr/v 
iVTTopiriv TOV TpOTTOV Trig h'laiog IwvTai. Hipp. Decor. 17 : 
trjrpoc KsXivrf Kui hspovg elcFaytiv ivtKa tov ek KoivoXoylag 
laToprjaai ra TTEpl tov voatovTa Kai avvipyovQ yivscrdai £C 
iVTTopiriv |3oT)0ij(Tioc — Trday yap tiinopiy airopiri eveitti. Glalen. 
Comm. iv. 60, Artie, (xviii. A. 776) : Triv svwopiuv uokhv 
TU)v ettitjjSeiouv TTjOoe TYjv OepaTTeiav. Gralen. Comm. i. 42, 
Fract. (xviii. B. 400) : 6 yap tv tXaTTovi xpovd^ Si' ivwopiag 
TriQ oXrje al Svvap.sig ipyaZovTai, tovt iv irXitovi Si airopiav. 
Glalen. Comm. ii. 41, Tract, (xviii. B. 479) : r?;v S' tvwopiav 
tCiv ilg Tag uepairiiag \pri(yip(t)v aaKsiv aei avpjiovXtvwv 6 
'iTTTrOKjoarijc- Do. 48 (xviii. B. 484) : ettei Se aaKtiv rifiag 
a^iol Tj/ii tvTTopiav twv lafxaTwv. Galen. Comp. Med. i. 4 



§ Lxxiv.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 165 

(xili. 390): evTTOpia 8c rotg IviSfiivoig vypoig (papfiaKOig tni 
wXiov Sii?,dvai. Gralen. Eemed. Parab. Praef. (xiv. 313) : 

UtTOV 0£ 6E,VQ 6 KUipOQ Kol OUK tVTrOpOQ T] TOiV ^01\Br\flaT<l)V 

tVTTOpia. 

Galen and Dioscorides have written works entitled iripl 

ivnopi<TTwv (papflUKiOV. 

* tinrupiiiTOat. Acts, xi. 29 : " Then the disciples every 
man according to Ms ability (koOwc sinropuTo) determined to 
send relief nnto the brethren which dwelt in Judaea." 

Peculiar to St. Luke, and of frequent use in medical 
language. Hipp, de Arte 6 : npog fiiv ovv ra (pavepa twv 

VOGTJInaTWV OVTW Stl iVTTOphlV T£)(VJ)V, Stt JE filv avTriv (UjjSe 

npog TO ^(Tcrov ^avEpa airopiuv. Hipp. De Corde 279 : 
eiiTToptei 0£ rfiv rpocfiriv ek Trig Eyyiara Se^afiivriQ tov aifiaTOQ. 
Hipp. Artie. 814 : twiipfiOriv Se S^ittote inrriov tov avdpiinrov 
KaTaTBivag — aXXd fxoi ovk EViropEiTO. Hipp. De Octimestr. 
Partu. 258: OKOaa Si TratSta av Einropricrri koI CKTCJtaXiujg kuI eq 
TovfKpavEg E^'ng, &c. Aretaeus Cur. Acut. Morb. 120 : iravTwv 

0£ KpaTldTOV (TLKVr) KOI KlVVa/XtOfiOV, i'lV TIQ EVWOpy TUCtSe flEVTOl 

tv Tpo^g Tag apiTag i'<''T(£t to yaXa, EVTropEiaubj C£ veotokov. 
Dioscorides Venen. 5: aiorc tovq Evnopi'iryavTag tovtov, aXXou 
PtiSevoq T^p^^£(v ^oriOfifiaTog. Galen. Pemed. Parab. i. 
Proem, (xiv. 312) : ovte yap (pap/xaKOJv ttoXvteXuiv ev ttuvtI 
TOTTtf) paSiov Evwopeiv — Itt' otTropoie Evnopovfitvwv /3oiitfi7juar(ov. 
Do. (p. 313) : /cat Sia TOVTO Eviropovptvwv ^apfiaicwv /ivrifio- 
vtvaofiEv. 

* Siairoptiv. Luke, ix. 7 : " Now Herod the tetrarch 
heard of all that was done by him, and he was perplexed " 
{SiriiropEi) . 

Peculiar to St. Luke, and met with again. Acts, ii. 12, 
V. 24, X. 17. 

Hipp. Morb. Acut. 391 : icai iSpCjreg wEpl tov Tpa.)(riXov 
Kai ^lanoprjfiaTa. Galen. Hipp, et Plat. Decret. ix. 1 
(v. 721) : TtEpX wv TtXavac /cat ^laTTopiag kqi rote ayaSolg 
laTpoig TrapE\jEi. Do. V. 6 (v. 473) : ra SianopovnEva irEpl 
Trig £K irdOovg bpfirig. Galen. De Crisibus, ii. 9 (ix. 684) : 



166 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

aXX' ivioTS ficxP^ irafiTroWov i^poyoD Siairopovixiv ts koI 
a/i^//3aXAojUEv. Gralen. Nat. Facul. ii. 4 (ii. 93) : rax' "" 
ovv jjSj} Tie davfidZoi icat Stavopoiri. Galen. Comp. Med. i. 1 
(xii. 426) : ouk av olfiai nva Siairoprjaai. Galen. Gomm. iii. 
123j Praedic. i. (xvi. 776) : Iviore SI ^mttoqwv, oxtttejo koi vvv 
iiri Tivog SiaKOirevTog 6(ttov tjjc Kt(j>a\i)g Kara Kpora^ov, &0. 
This compound is not so frequently used as the preceding 
ones by the medical writers. 

26. " Men's hearts failing them " {cnroxpvxovTiov avdpw- 

TTWv). 

* aTToipvxiiv is peculiar to St. Luke, and found here only, 
i/'vx.s"^ ^^^ its derivatives were greatly employed in medical 
language. St. Luke uses four of them, which are peculiar to 
him. 

* airoxpix^tv- Hipp. Morb. Sacr. 305 : aTroipCxiTai to 
aina. Hipp. Morb. Sacr. 306 : airoipvx^i yap kuI 'IcFTriai TO. 
alfxa — aTro\pvx^'''<^i Koi Trfiyvvrai to alfia kuI oiiTwg aTTOuvfiaKti. 
Hipp. Morb. Mul. 645 : to. aKiXta aTroipvxovTai. Hipp. 
Morb. Mul. 662 : koI awotpyxist koI wsp'f^v^ig Si" 6\ov tov 
awfiaTog koi oSvvri rijv v£iaipr)v yaaripa '1(^x^1- Kai Tag Iqvag 
KOI aTTo^pvxiii- Galou. Comm. ii. 3 Aliment, (xv. 235) : iv 
Toig aTpo(^iaig raxtara ano^vx^Tai Ta fiopia. Galen. Comm. 
iv. 48, Aph. (xvii. B. 729) : awo\pvxiTai SI to Sipfia, KaOainp 
iv Toig hn<THfia<jiaig. Galen. Caus. Sympt. iii. 7 (vii. 245) : 
ov yap aTTO^vx^jXivov to aifia yevvq. t»jv piXaivav xoXijv. 
Do. (246) : cnro\pvxBtvTog tov aijuaroc- Galen. Caus. Puis. 
IV. 13 (ix. 184) : Kai Svvaniwg IttI wXiov airsipvyfiivrig. 

* avdxpv^ig. Acts, iii. 19 : " Repent ye therefore, and be 
converted, that your sias may be blotted out, when the times 
of refreshing {avaxpv^twg) shall come from the presence of the 
Lord." 

Hipp. Medicus, 20 : ri Si fitTo. TavTa d(j>aipE(Jig tovtwv, 
dvd^iv^l^g Tc K-ai TTipiKaOapciig. Galen. Comm. iii. 14, Aliment. 
(xv. 310) : (pvmg oxsToiig kvTidilcra Toiig fitv wuB' eXkeiv Si 
avTMV T-qv rpotfirjv Tovg Si tig dvdxpvEiv kuI dvairvoriv. Galen. 
XJsus Part. vi. 2 (iii. 415) : x'^pav ETnDjSsiorarjjv ilg da^d- 



§ Lxxn-.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LTJKE. 167 

Xeiov 6' lifia Kai Trjv Ik ttovtoc tov TrviVfiovog laoppoirov 
ava-ipv^iv t^EvpotJCTo. Galen. Usus Part. vi. 15 (iii. 481) : to 
ftiv oiKHOTipov avry TTViVfxarog lig ai'aipv^iv. Galen. TJsus 
Part. vii. 5 (iii. 528) : irpoQ fiivroi rjjv avaxpv^iv roii Kara rrjv 
KapSlav BepfAov. Galen. IIsus Part. vii. 9 (iii. 544) : 8t' rjv 
Kot irapa')(firifia Sia(j)9eipe<idai to. ^wa (TTspoiifj.tva Trig ava- 
\{jv^f(i)g — Kara tovto jU£v ctic aVatpv^iv (tuvet^tj r^ KapStq. 
TTapaaKivacraaav avTriv iTrmviiaOai ojKaiov. Galen. San. 
Tuend. iii. 7 (vi. 200) : avatpvE,iv row (j>\oy(I)Sovg. Galen. 
Dill. Febr. i. 4 (vii. 287) : Iroijuorara yap <Tr)WiTai iravO' 
6(Ta dipfia Koi vypd il prj t{)-)(tj SiairvoiiQ ti ap.a Koi avatpv^iug. 
Galen. Instrum. Odor. 4 (ii. 870) : rije S' eiffTrvoijc ava^v^saig 
Xapiv. 

* kK\(jvxii-v, see § 24. 

* Karaipvxiiv, see % 22. 

34. " And take heed to yourselves, lest at any time your 
hearts be overcharged {(iapwdwrnv) with surfeiting" (KpanraXy). 

* KpaiwaXt} is peculiar to St. Luke, and is employed by 
the medical writers to denote " drunken nausea." 

Hipp. Aer. 281 : oKoaoi fisv yap KS^aXac aadtviag Ei^oua-tv, 
ovK av ayaOoi TTivtiv, ri yap KTranraXr) paXXov ttje^ei. Hipp. 
Acut. Morb. 404 : vijorEtij Se 7rovr/p6v rrpog Trjv KS(j>a\aXyiav 
Kal KpanraXtiv. Hipp. Epid. 1056 : J71' ek KpanraXrig K£(j)aXriv 
aXyiy. Hipp. Epid. 1252 : jj Ig Trjv Sipijv eXOwv Kaff rjv ul 
KpanrdXai XiovTai, ipdey^tTai. Aretaeus, Gur. Acut. Morb : 
rjv juEv ciTTo KpanrdXrig Etoo-t. Dioscor. Mat. Med. ii. 146 : ral 
Tag EK KpaiwaXrig koi oivo« KaKiag (rf^ivvvai kwiXap(5avop.ivri. 
Galen. Comm. v. 5, Aph. (xvii. B. 788) : KpanraXag S' on 
Travreg 01 "EXXriveg ovopdl^ovat Tag 15 o1.vov (5Xaj3ag Trig 
Kid)aXrig euSijXov — Trjv 8' ujpav Ka9' 17V at Kpa'nraXai XvovTai — 
Kara rjjv vaTspaiav rtfiipav iiravaavTO Trig KpanrdXrig. Galen. 
Progn. de Decub. 4 (xix. 536) : 'iarai ri vocrog koI ev T-g 
KaTapxf}, OTTO KpanrdXrig. 

* (5apvvitv. This word is very frequently employed in 
medical language, the various reading fiapeiv not so often. 

Hipp. Ooac. Progn. 175 : jSapvi/jjrat to orijOoe. Hipp. 



168 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE or ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

Flat. 299 : irpbirov jutv v Kt^aXfj (Safivverai tCjv (j)vaiwv 
ijKtifjiivuiv. Hipp. Eat. Vict. 370 : r^v ke^oX^v aXyisi kuX 
(iapiivtrai. Hipp. Eat. Vict. 374 : Tyv Ke(paXrjv (japiivsrai — 
17 Ki(l>a\rj ^apvvirai. Hipp. Morb. Acut. 389 : Senrvnaavric 
Se fiapvvovai rrjv KOiXiav. Diosoor. Mat. Med. i. 106 : 
TToOivra Si [5apvvti tov arofiaxov. Galen. Comm. i. 12, 
Humor, (xvi. 114) : rije KtfaXriQ (iapvvofiivrjg. Gralen. 
Comm. ii. 63, Praedic. (xvi. 646) : orav vwh nXfidov^ wypou 
XpijoTou j3apvv»)rat to awfia. Gralen. Comm. iii. 95, Praedic. 
(xvi. 707) : utto ttXtjQovq ^^jorjorou ^apvvo^ivov tov k-yKt(paXov. 
Gralen. Comm. iii. 105, Praedic. (xvi. 737) : KsipaXaXyiKa 
fMSTci Toi) ^agxjviadai rrjv Ki<j>aXriv. 



§ LXXV. 

Luke, XXII. 

aTroCTTTov. * avatrwav. SiaaTrav. * inpiaTrav. 

* Siaorrjjua. 

avaipiiv (verse 2, § 84). * aTtp oxXov (v. 6, § 88). *« 

(v. 32, §63). k'0oc(v. 39,§58). * tvic7xi^av (v. 43, §56). 
* aytovia (v. 44, § 56). * ISptLg (v. 44, § 56). cLTiviKnv 
(v. 66, § 53). * Bd(TXvpiZt<TOai (v. 59, § 54). irapaxprifia 
(v. 60, §57). */3oXij (v. 41, §68). 

airav and its derivatives are greatly employed in medical 
language. St. Luke uses four of them, two of which are 
peculiar to him ; and the remaining two are each used but 
once in the rest of the N. T. 

41. "And he was ivithdrawn from them {aTrt(nraadri air 
avTwv) about a stone's cast, and kneeled down, and prayed." 

airoairav is used also in Acts, xx. 30, xxi. 1, and once in 
the rest of the N. T. (Matt. xxvi. 21). 

Hipp. Intern. Affect. 531 : XswlSag airb Trie; aprripiag 
airo(TiT^. Hipp. Artie. 790 : otroiai S' av TO aKptLfiiov 



§ Lxxv.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. 169 

cnroiyiraaB'g. Hipp. Artic. 792 : apfioaddy irpog to oariov 
TO OTTO Tov (jTTiOsog Trs(j>VKog oOev aTTSiTwaffOri. Hipp. Artio. 
830 : iirj KareriyoTOQ tov ooteou aAXa kut avTrjv Trjv ^vfi(j)V(Tiv 
atroairaaOsvTog. Aretaeus, Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 73 : 6 evSov 
u7re2|wKwe X""*^" ^^''^ airouTraTai tov ^vva^iog. Aret. Our. 
Acut. Morb. 97 : wc anoanaaOai ti tuv yyn(l)V cnro twv 
irapiaOn'Mv re icai flwpijKOc- Dioscor. Medio. Parab. i. 87 : 
avvay)(iK0VG St wtpiXu, oaa Svvarai airoaTrqv vypaaiav. 
Galen. Comm. vii. 58, Apb. (xviii. A. 171) : ti S' airoairacf- 
Bijvai (pOcKTUsv ij Kara ti fxipog avTov KaTadiraaOrivai 6 
lyKE^aXop. Galen. Oomm. i. 61, Artie, (xvii. A. 400) : 
aTToawaaOivTi 81 aiirt^ Kat K^tig U(o6i avvimaSai. Do. (402) : 
OTroawaaBiVTo yap tov uKptofiiov. 

* ava(7Trq.v. Luke, xiv. 5 : " Which of you shall have an 
ass or an ox fallen into a pit, and ■will not straightway pull 
Mm out {avacnracFH) on the Sabbath day ? " 

Peculiar to St. Luke, and used again. Acts, xi. 10. 

Hipp. Aiiect. 517 : koI avatnrdcrai oiricrb} to ptufxa tov 
^Xiy/jLUTOf;. Hipp. Aiiect. 523 : Trapax/O^jua avatnrarat avw 
7} KaTii) a<j>oSoe. Hipp. Artie. 829 : koX yap 6 woiig £7ri TO 
avcD aviairaaTaL Kat 7a oaTsa. Galen. Comm. ii. 44, Praedio. 
(xvi. 607) : avaaTru/isvov vTrb tov Tag irXivpag WTreSwKoroe 
v/jLtvog — to aviatracTixivov vTroxovcpiov — ovk avaaTraaOai Ta 
viToxov^pia- Galen. Oomm. iii. 29, Epid. vi. (xvii. B. 93) : 
owrojc TO KaTsaTraaOai /JLa^ovg, la-xyovg Si aviaTrdadai Kal 
TrtpiTtrdtjOai — r<^ Se SevTipt^ to dvEinrcKjOai. avvsiTOfjisvov 
evpiaKtig — Tatg yripwtratg ■)(^aXwvTai piv Trpwrov, vartpov S" 
avaanijvTai. 

Siainr^v. Acts, xxiii. 10 : " And when there arose a great 
dissension, the chief captain, fearing lest Paul should have 
been pulled in pieces {Sia<nraa6i^) of them, commanded the 
soldiers to go down, and to take him by force from among 
them." 

This word is used once elsewhere (Mark, v. 4). 

Hipp. Morb. Acut. 612 : to Xoiirdv Si 6 (r7rXJ)v \apj3avH 
Siaawuiv airb Trig KQiXitjg Trpbg ewvrov. Hipp. Artio. 799 : 

z 



170 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [past ii. 

fjv §£ 6 KciTU) yvaOog Kara ttjv avfi^vaiv rfiv Kara to jtveiov 
SlaairaaOy. Hipp. Epid. 1200 : TO airiovra tlSivai oOiv 
rip^uTo fj oTrrj hravaaro r? oaov SuaTraro. Hipp. Intern. 
Affect. 531 : ^XljSfe Siaair^vrai T£ Koi KarappriyvvvTai Sia 
TaaSc Tag aiTiag. Hipp. Epid. 938 : SietnraiTfifVdjg Eirvevaev. 
Galen. Comm. vii. 58, Aph. (xviii. A. 171) : rwv S" cnrotjivaewv 
iviai fiiv iKavwQ Tiivovrai, rivig S' Ik fiipovg ye ciaairuivrai. 
Gralen. Comm. ii. 16, Artie, (xviii. A. 444) : ijv Se v koltoj 
yvaOoQ Kara ^vpipvaiv ttjv Kara to yivuov SiacriraaOy. Galen. 
Comm. iv. 40, Artie, (xviii. A. 735) : Sia to firj Siaairaadai 
TO avvi'xov vtvpov Trpoc tjjv kotvXhiv. Galen. Medicus, 11 
(xiv. 717) : i^Tig XiTTTOv svrepov ovaa, Sta tovto oirwg firi 
padiwg StaKOTrrjjrat ^ SiaanaTai. Galen. Loc. Affect, ii. 8 
(viii. 91) : ol koi SiaairuvTac ttovovq iiri^ipovcrt. 

* irspiaTraaOat. Luke, X. 40 : " But Martha was cumbered 
{inpuaTraTo) about mucli serving," &c. 

Peculiar to St. Luke, and used in the medical writers ; 
hut not with the frequency of the other compounds of onav. 

Galen. San. Tuend. vi. 12 (vi. 439) : o^OaXpuiv psv yap 
Koi S)T(a)v 17 XP^'" l"'7"^')> i^"' 2'" raura TrpourjKSt rwv ek t^c 
KE^aXije TnpiTTbjfiaTtov Elf avTa ^Epo/xivwv, Trfv vif Itttto- 
Kparoi/c ovopaZofxivriv trapo^iTivaiv, ipya^KrOai, juaXtora juev 
Eiri plva vep'KnrwvTa to (pipopsvov ett' aura. Galen. Comm. 
i. 7, Progn. (xviii. B. 30) : I'Siov S' EKatrrfj) rwv Iv ri^ aupari 
fiopiwv Itt' IkeTko to pipog StaaTps(pe<76ai ti koi irepKnTaaOai 
juoXXov iv9a Twv lfj.<j)Vopiv(i)v avTt^ vivpwv Itrriv J? apxh- 
Theophrastus, 0. P. i. 16. 2 : rfiv rpo^nv TnpKnrtJv sIq to 
irepiKapiriov. 

59. " And about the space of one hour after" [StaixTaarig 
wtTEi wpag piag). 

* SiiaTavai is peculiar to St. Luke, and is used again in 
xxiv. 51: SieWij ott' avrwv, "he was parted from them"; 
and Acts, xxvii. 28. 

Hipp. Flat. 298 : MaTriai to aTopa. Hipp. Flat. 299 : 
OKOrav VTTO j3irig StavTiwaiv ai aapKCC air aXXi'iXwv. Hipp. 
Fract. 759 : rourloiai MaravTui juev tu oaria. Hipp. Fract. 



§ Lxxv.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 171 

765 : oioE yap el SiEorcwra to. ocrria iwo rrjg ia)(vog rije 
KararamoQ. Hipp. Ajtic. 840 : oiote BiatrrrivaL to. oaria koX 
(pXefiag. Aretaeus, Sign. Acut. Morb. 5 : yivvg to. ttoWo. 
Su(TTaTai. Aret. Cur. Acut. Morb. 109 : etti Se rp^t Statrra- 
crem tojv Tpavfiarwv. Gralen. Oomm. i. 72, Artie, (xviii. A. 
421) : (TvvaTraynv wpbg aXXriXa to, SiccjTWTa rije ■)(eipog fiopia. 
Gralen. Oomm. i. 1, Fract. (xviii. B. 333) : we iKuvwg Sia<T- 
Tri<Tai TO. /xipri tov Karayivrog ooroO. Galen. Oomm. ii. 27, 
Offio. (xviii. B. 793) : lav ts barov Kanayorog rd fiopia 
Oi£aTi)KE trapa ^V(nv ott' aAXijXiiJV. 

* Sia(TTt]pa. Acts, V. 7 : " And it was about the space 
(Stacrrtjjua) of three hours after, when his wife, not knowing 
what was done, came in." 

Peculiar to St. Luke, and of frequent occurrence in me- 
dical writers in various senses as — the violent severance of a 
limb — ^interval of time between the giving of medicines, or 
between the paroxysms of a disease, &c., &c. 

Hipp. Offic. 748 : iKirTwfiara rj aTpififiara t] BiaarrtfiaTa ri 
cnrodiraafiaTa. Hipp. Intern. Affect. 555 : ev 70^ tHjv 
ToaovTwv fir\viiiv ti^ SiacrrripaTi Kplvsrai f/v re Oavaai/jiog. 
Hipp. Decor. 25 : oKwg te ev dmaTrtpaai jujjSei/ \avBavi} cte. 
Dloscor. Venen. 11 : SiSovtec jUEra^ii BiaaTrjpara, Iv dig wiuv 
StSojuEvov fioriOti yaXa oveiov. Dioscor. Animal. Yen. 30 : 
ravra avvsxwg ek iiaKpCiv Sia(TTrifj.aT(i)v irXsovaKig irapaXriir- 
Ttov. Q-alen. Oomm. iii. 1, Aliment, (xv. 254) : ovroi Si 
oxiToi 'ixovcn SiaarripaTa Tiva pera^v. Gralen. Oomm. ii. 26, 
Epid. vi. (xvii. A. 942) : ot Se Trapo^no-juoi paKportpoi wpoari- 
Kov(TL Se Tovir'ivav ug to, rpia StacFrripaTa. Galen. Oomm. ii. 26, 
Epid. vi. (xvii. A. 944) : 6aTig 8' av inrip rd rpia SiaaTripaTa 
TOV Trapo^vtrpov EKTtivy. Galen. Morb. Acut. 8 (xix. 216) : 
(irav EOTEvo^^WjOJjjUEvov »? TO Sidarripa Trjg avi(nb>g. Galen. 
Opt. Sect. 37 (i. 200) : rd SiatrrripaTa twv voaripdrwv. 



172 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 



§ LXXYI. 





Luke, XXIII. 




Siaarpeipeiv. 

(rTpC(j)HV. 

Xovdtiv. 


*ilTiaTpo(pri. * avarpi^iiv. 
*hn(j~)(vuv. *ivi(j')(yuv. 
TrapaKoXovOtlv. * Oeiopia. 


*avaTpo(j>ri. vwo 
*iyp6g. * avvaKO- 



avacFBiEiv (verse 5, § 59). avairf.p.Truv (v. 7, § 89). * irgovirapxiiv 
(v. 12, § 84). *siro'vwe (v. 10, § 90). * ariipa (v. 29, 
§ 57). avaipiiv (v. 32, § 84). 

2. " And they began to accuse him, saying, We found 
this fellow perverting (Sjaarpl^ovra) the nation." 

Sta(TTpi(j>Hv is used five times by St. Luke — here and in 
ix. 41 ; Acts, xiii. 8 ; xiii. 10 ; sx. 30 — and but twice in the 
rest of the N. T. In medical language the derivatives of 
(jTpi^eiv were much employed. 

Hipp. Fract. 752 : ourwe ovv VTrririv iXOVTi TYjv x^'P" 
TOVTO fiiv TO ouriov SiscTrpa/xfiivov (paivErai. Hipp. Fract. 
758 : OTi (3pa\iti)v KvpTog Tre<pVKtv ig to b^w fiipog koi Staorpl- 
(pstrOai ^iXeei. Hipp. Fract. 803 : rjv p'^ avriKa KaropOdJariTat, 
ovx olov T£ jujj Kai Sie<7Tpa(pdai Tijv piva. Hipp. Praedic. 94 : 
olcn Si Twv iratSiiiiv s^airivt}g ot 6<j>6a\po\ Si£aTpd(j>riaav. 
Hipp. Ooac. Progn. 127 : rj SiacFTpe(j)i(T6ai xttXoe. Hipp. 
Ooac. Praedic. 153 : (pXavpov Si koL to rijv avy^v (pEvysiv rj 
SaKpvEiv jj Sta(TTpe^e(TOai. Galen. Comm. i. 1, Humor, (xvi. 
7) : ovroi Ss KOI dia(TTpi<j>£adai orrcp jiyvtTai airwpivwv twv 
KivovvTbJv avTovg pvwv. Gralen. Comm. ii. 69, Praedic. (xvi. 
652) : 17 TWV 6<()9aXpwv Siaurpo^?}. Gralen. Oomm. i. 28, 
Epid. VI. (xvil. A. 871) : jjii ydp Siaarpi^ovrai 01 6<p9aXfiol. 
Gralen. Oomm. i. 31, Epid. vi. (xvii. A. 895) : orov Siairrpi- 
ipCTai Ta /SAt^apa. 

* sTTKTTpofri. Acts, XV. 3 : " And being brought on their 
way hjl the church, they passed through Phenice and 



§ Lxxvi.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 173 

Samaria, declaring the conversion (rj)v liriarpo^'i^v) of the 
Gentiles." 

Peculiar to St. Luke, and met here only. In medical 
language it is used generally in its literal sense : sometimes, 
but very rarely, like {nroaTpo(j>ri, for "the return of a disease" 
— " a relapse." 

Hipp. Ooac. Progn. 159 : 'icrtog Be koI ot e^ iTrtarpo^^e 
TraOovTEQ ToiovTOv aa<^akiaTaroi. Hipp. Offic. 741 : koto 
Xo-yov 8e Trig ETriarpoiprjg TrpojSaXXojUfvov to awfia. Aretaeus, 
Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 57 : arap Kai bv rycri Tov avdpwTTOV t^Se 
rj Tyde kTTKTTpo^ycn, le rag fxaraKXimag to vypov ojkov te koi 
icXwSfcJva TTOiisi — ouSe fiETa^djpiu to irvEVfia kv Tyari iTrtorpo^^tTt. 
Q-alen. Comm. i. 10, Offic. (xviii. B. 682) : kyo) (joi rrjv 686 v 
aipxiyriaanriv, y ;)(jO£OjUEvoc tvpr)tjtiQ to fitTpiov ti]q hnaTpo^r\g. 
Gralen. Oomm. i. 17, Offic. (xviii. B. 697) : we axpr\aTov 
TTOtHirOai Tag hriaTQ0<pa.Q wg juj? KaTaKiviisBai rag 'icpag. 
Galen. Anat. Administr. iv. 8 (ii. 462) : al S' tig to irXayiov 
iTTKTTpofal Trjg Kt<j)a\rig yiyvovTai (xlv virb tHiv Xo^wv juwwv. 
Galen. Usus Part. ii. 4 (iii. 100) : tyiv apxnv Trig Kivriaswg ri 
(j)vr7ig ETTOiricTaTO Toig kg to wXayiov tinaTpo(j>aig tu)v SaKTvXwv. 
Galen. Usus Part. ii. 4 (iii. 102) : ol S" aiiTol ovtoi fivsg Tag eg 
TO irXayiov lirusTpo^ag pvOfiiZovm. Galen. TJsus Part. xii. 12 
(iv. 54) : Tag yap elg tu irXayia tTricrTpofag tSjv (rnovSvXwv. 

* avoTpEt^iiv. Acts, xxviii. 3 : " And when Paul had 
gathered {<TvaTpi\pavTog) a bundle of sticks." 

Peculiar to St. Luke, and much used iu medical language 
in the same sense as here, " to collect." 

Hipp. Morb. Sacr. 304 : rjv Si KaOapaig firj iiriyevijTai, 
aWa. ^vffTpatjty t<^ lyicE^aXtjt. Hipp. Morb. 453 : okotuv 
fXiyfia rj x"^'? avaTpa<^-^. Hipp. Morb. 510 : to p.iv ti 
^vaTpE(j>iaOai Koi wayyvEaBai Trig Iv t<^ avOpuiTrt^ iK/xaSog. 
Hipp. Intern. Affect. 533 : okotuv 6 ttXeviiwv al/ia kXKvaag 
l<f iii)VTOV fi ^Xiyfia aX/xvpov firi an-^ iraXiv, aXX avTOV 
^v(TTpa(j)y. Hipp. Aph. 1254 : ywai^lv OKOffOiaiv eg Toiig 
TiTOoiig al/ia avaTpe^eTai fiaviriv urifialvei. Hipp. Morb. 508 : 
ro alfia oiiK e\ov e^oSov inrb irXrideog aireXOeiv avvtaTpa^r]. 



174 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [paut ii. 

Galen. Comm. iv. 40, Artie, (xviii. A. 736) : vtvpov airoxa- 
Xaadai (cat (Tvarpt^eaOai ndXiv. Galen. Loc. Affect, ii. 8 
(viii. 95) : ov yap airav iradog vsvpuv <jK\tipvv£i koI avarpi^u 
rrjv ovaiav avTwv. Galen. San. Tuend. ii. 2 (vi. 91) : aXX' 
vntp Tov TrporpEi/'ai re ele roe ivspydag koX avarpii^ai tov 
Tovov. Galen. Oomm. iv. 20, Morb. Acut. (xv. 774) : x^juowe 
<7v<TTpi(j>ta9at \iysTai Iv rt^Se ti^ fiopii^. 

* (Tvurpoipri. Acts, xix. 40 : " For we are in danger to be 
called in question for this day's uproar, there being no cause 
whereby we may give an account of this concourse " {rijg 
avaTpo^rjg raurrjc). 

Peculiar to St. Luke, and used in medical language to 
denote "a collection of tubercles — diseases," &c. 

Hipp. Morb. 510 : koI tov juev vSpwnoc to a7roKpt0£v awo 
TJjc avarpoipriQ 'epxtTai — EtVo KivewTpo v iyivsro tov awfiaTOQ 
Iv Ty ^vaTpo<p^. Hipp. Morb. Acut. 396 : koI %v(rrpofal 
vo(jr)fjiaTwv ov SvvavTai Xve(jdai. Dioscorides, Mat. Med. i. 
35 : rag mpl rovg kovSvXovq avdrpo^dg axptXsi. Dioscor. 
Mat. Med. i. 185 : Traaav o-uorpo^jjv Koi xoipaSag SKfiaXda- 
aovmv. Dioscor. Mat. Med. v. 134 : kol avoTpo^dq vivpwv 
ui(piXii. Galen. Oomm. iii. 22, Epid. ii. (xvii. A. 431) : 
(TvaTplfifiaTa icai (TUtrrpo^at Ta (jiVfiuTa koi aKXripiag arifiaivovai. 
Galen. Med. Defin. 354 (xix. 473) : x"^«^a s<^ti Ksyxp(iS>iQ 
Gvarpo^ri Kara to fSXsfapov. Galen. Med. Defin. 396 : 
dSriv EOTt av(yTpo(j)ri tiq ^rgpa Koi aapKwSrig fj (TVtTTpo^rj 
uapKiLSrig. 

vTTo<jTpi^uv. Luke, xxiii. 56 : " And they returned 
[vTroaTpExpacrai) and prepared spices and ointments." 

This word is employed by St. Luke thirty-three times, and 
onlp three times in the rest of the N. T. It was a word that 
would be constantly used by a physician, as it and uTrotrrpo^ij 
were the medical terms for a " relapse " — " a recurrence of 
sickness, or of symptoms," &c. 

Hipp. Praedic. 98 : at Se XevKai koi fiv^iLSeee twv arinE- 
Sovwv aTTOKTEivoucrt piv ri(T(TOv, VTro(TTpi(j>ov(ii Se juaXXov. 
Hipp. Morb. Mul. 642 : koi rjv ev ya<TTp\ XajSrjrai, VTroorps'^et 



§ ixxvi.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 175 

Koi viroarptipofiivri^ rrjg vouffou anoXkvTai. Hipp. Judioat. 
52 : 7-our£oi(Tiv avOrifjiepov viroaTpotjtrj row TrvpsTov jiverat. 
Hipp. Judioat. 55 : TrpoffSE^ou rovTOig vTroarpo^rjv trvptTov 
— Koi oXlyoi £K TavTr)Q criHiZovTai orav WTTOorps^^ 6 Kavcro^ — 
TO. TToWa Koi k^iSpol KoL rjv ri/j.spag Xaj3r) viroaTpiipag oaag to 
irpwTOv, &C. — Tovriwv cnraWaacrofiivwv uTroirrpo^ij jiveraL 
KOTO. Adyov Twv viro(TTpo<l>u)v. Galen. Progn. ad Posthum. 7 
(xiv. 635) : slra pwadsvroQ, VTroarpixpavTog re tov voar\fiaTog. 
Do. 10 (654) : Trtpi t^c viroaTpofriQ tov vouy}fiaTOQ. Gralen. 
Comm. iii. 13, Epid. i. (xvii. A. 300) : iv ^ voaog irakiv 
fisra piyovg viroaTpiipaaa Si IfXiTOV km idpwTog EKpiflj) teXewc- 
Gralen. de Crisitus, i. 18 (ix. 629) : kfidofxy koi sIkost^ b 

TTVpiTOg VTriaTp£\f/£V. 

* eiriaxviiv. Luke, xxiii. 5 : " And they were instant " 
{oi Ss kTri(T)(vov). 

Peculiar to St. Luke, and used medically, but not very 
frequently; the simple itrx^Etv, which St. Luke employs 
about as often as all the other N. T. writers together, being 
more in use. 

Hipp. Morb. 458 : kiriaxvovTOQ tov kukov tov ev rtj* 
awfXaTi vTToXtmofiivov. Dioscor. Venen. 5 : eTricrxvovTOQ Si 
TOV TraOovg, kutu KOiXlav (jtsperai alfiaTwSri, ^vafiaai /xefxijixiva. 

* iviaxviiv : see § 56. 

31. " For if they do these things in a green tree (ev ti^ 
vyptj! ?uXf[)), what shall be done in the dry? " {^t)pco). 

vypoQ. Peculiar to St. Luke, and of constant recurrence 
in the medical writers, as opposed to Snpoe- 

Hipp. Vet. Med. 8 : 6K6<T0i ETrEXEtp'iftv irtpi iijTpiK^c 
Xiyeiv rj ypa(j>siv VTroOscriv crflatv avrioKn vnodifievoi rtjj Adytji 
Oepfiov rj ^pvxpov rj vypov rj ^ripov. Hipp. Vet. Med. 12 : 
£t yap lorn Oepfiov rj t^vxpov, rj '^rjpov rj vypov to Xvfxaivofisvov 
TOV avOpwirov koI Su tov 6p0u)Q iijrpEvovra (ioriOtiv rcji fxsv 

QipiXI^ ETTl TO IpVXPOV, T(^ Se 4'^XP'^ ^""^ ''^ OipP-OV, Tt^ Si 

%r]p(^ ETTt TO vypov, Tt^ 8' vypi^ hri to ^ijpdv. Hipp. Nat; 
Hom. 225 : km waXiv avayKt} aTTOx^pEEtv alg Trjv twvrov 
^vaiv EKaarov, nXivr^vToq avOpwirov, to te vypov Trpoe to 



176 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LTTKE. [pabt ii. 

vypov KOI TO ^ijpov wpog to ^ripov koI to dspfiov irpog to 
Oep/iov Kai to ^v)^pov wpog to ipv\p6v. Gralen. Acut. Moid. 
Comm. iv. 1 (xv. 734) : 17 tov irepiixovTog aipoQ Kgaaig tavTy 
o-i)/xf<Eraj3aXXow(Ta Trjv tov awfiaroQ SiaOemv, ri filv %T]pa irpog 
TO E,rip6Tspov, 7) 8' uyjoa Trpof TO vypoTipov — TO awfxa Kara 
TOvTO KOI TTJg otK6iac iTTiKOvpiaQ SiiTai ^tipoivofjicvov fiav vypai- 
vc<Tdai, vypaivofiivov Sf ^ripa'tvserdat, &C. Gralen. Oomp. Med. 
vii. 3 (xiii. 64) : vpog jSfJxa ^ripdv. Do. 68 : Trpbg /3>jx« vjpav. 

Hippocrates, 236, uses the phrase to vypov to iv Tig ^vXi^ 
ivtov. Wetstein cites from Gralen : TrapairXriaiov tl avfi^aivu 
— T(jg TToXkaKig ETTt Tbiv vypwv T£ KOI \Xwp(iJv ^vXwv yiyvo^iivbg. 

49. "And all his acquaintance, and the women that 
followed him {(jwaKoXovBriaaaai) from Gl-alilee, stood afar oil, 
beholding these things." 

* (jvvaKoXovOHv is peculiar to St. Luke, unless it be the 
correct reading, Mark, t. 37. 

Hipp. Morb. 490 : (TwaKoXovdisi yap TavTiji £K TOV TrXtv- 
juovoe Ospfiov TTViVfia. Gralen. Oomm. v. 25, Epid. "vi. (xvii. 
B. 287): (7vp(3aivH Si ttotb KEVwOivTi Tig no\Br\pi^ to xpriuTOv 
avvaKo\ovOeiv. Gralen. Comm. iv. 27, Artie, (xviii. A. 706) : 
d firj <7VvaKo\ovdouv 01 avTiTerafiivoi Tolg ivspysiv tTTiXEipovai 
fivcr'iv. Gl-alen. Comm. ii. 14, Progn. (xviii. B. 135) : awa- 
KOAovuti 0£ Koi aXXa Ttva rotg TOiovTOig Siax<i)pr]ij.a(Ti. Gralen. 
San. in. Arter. 4 (iv. 714) : ovtio Sh koX to Sia tQv iraauv 
apTTipiuv fXiTa\r)<^Qiv aifia T(g wvevpiaTL (TVvaKoXovOovv. Galen. 
Comm. ii. 15, Artie, (xviii. A. ,443) : x"P^v tov ntj (jwaKoX- 
ovOhv avTriv Ty kutw jivvi. Gralen. Oomm. iii. 85, Epid. iii. 
(xvii. A. 786) : ^ te Trapa^poavvri fiaviwStig EyivCTO koi 01 
airaa/nol (7vvr)KoXov9riaav. Gralen. Oomm. ii. 3, Fract. (xviii. B. 
4«4) : Tri(^vKaai iv Toig KaTaTaaiai Trig x^i-pog ol Ka/xvovTag 
6oi)vu)fji.evoi Koi uvvoKoXovOovvTig Tolg KUTaTeivovaiv. Gralen. 
Anat. Administr. vi. 4 (ii. 554) : awaKoXoiOii Se ti^ wEpi- 
Tovaiiig. Gl-alen. Progn. Puis. iii. 7 (ix. 385) : yvwpiafxaTa 
Ta avvoKoXovBovvTa. 

* TTapaKoXovOslv : see § 57. 

48. " And all the people that came together to that sight 



§ Lxxvii.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 177 

{Otwpiav), beholding the things which were done, smote their 
breasts, and returned." 

* Ostopia is peculiar to St. Luke, and in medical language 
is used to denote not only a theory, but " a sight," ex. gr, an 
anatomical view of the body, &o. 

Q-alen. De Semin. ii. 6 (iv. 642) : aKvpwfiSa 8' e?jje n-tpi 
Tuiv adsvuBuv irapaaTUTwv ovg ol fxiv aTrsipoi ttjq avarofxiKrig 
Oswpiag oiiSe yivuaKOvaL rrjv ap\r]v. Galen. Anat. Administr. 
]1. 1 (ii. 282) : tjjv avaTOfilKTiV Oiwpiav. Do. (286) : aXAjj 
fiiv yap avcpl (pvaiKf^ XP'''* '"''? avarojUiKJjc ei^ti Biwpiag. 
Galen. Medious, 2 (xiv. 678) : roTe Se /xedodiKotg apxn v 
Kara ra ^atvojusva tov ofioiov deupia, ri jvuiaig (paivo/xivwv 
KOivorjjTwv. — Do. 3 (682) : ri TOV o/ioiov Biiopia Itti tuiv 
(paivofiiv(i)v. Galen. Comm. iii. 24, AKment. (xv. 360) : avsv 
yap Trjg TOiavTrig dewpiag irwc twv eyKe(j)a\ov fiopiwv fj Kap- 
Siag — troijUftJC l^ivprirjOfiev iKaaTov Trjv W(pi\£iav. Galen. 
Oomm. i. 3, Offic. (xviii. B. 652) : irpoo-ijKEi tov luTpov ttjq 
rwv TraOiov Siayvil!)(7S(og airb Trig o/xoiov Te Koi avo/xoiov 
Oewpiag — Galen. Nat. Facul. ii. 9 (ii. 132) : irapaXiiini 
KaWioTnv Tjjc te'xvijc tiiwptav. — Galen. Anat. Administr. ii. 
2 (ii. 287) : tvtai ilai xpijaifiuirspai Kara Sirrov Tpowov rj 
^iXrig Trig dewpiag 'ivcKiv rj tov Sida^ai Trjv ri^vt)v Trjg (pvaEwg. 
Galen. TJsus. Part. iv. 17 (iii. 308) : I'o-we av ttote koI to kut 
£KEtv»)v Trjv dsbjpiav IXXeTTroi; t^etpyaad/jieda. 

§ LXXVII. 

LXJKE, XXIV. 

*AjjjOoe. *6piXHv. *7rapaj3ta?6iv. ^laZuv. *j3iaiog. *j3ia. 
*a0p6iZHV.* (TVvaOpoiZsiv, *avvaXil^nv. *6irT6g. *Kripiov. 

^pdpog (verse 1, § 67). * SiairopHu (v. 4, § 74). * avTi^aX- 
Xhv (v. 17, § 68). * Icnripa (v. 29, § 67). * KaTaKXivsiv 
(v. 30, § 46). ^e<jig (v. 47, § 59). *SuGTdvai (v. 51, § 75). 

11. "And their words seemed to them as idle tales" 
[Xrjpog) : " idle talk," revised version. 

2 A 



178 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

*Aj}jOoe is peculiar to St. Luke, and is applied in me- 
dical language to the wild talk of the sick during delirium : 
the way St. Luke uses it here much resembles that of 
Hippocrates. 

Hipp. Epid. 966 : ^iX'ktkoq uku trapa to tuxoq, KartKXiOri 
ry TTQwrt} irvptTog o^vg — ni/xirrri, vvktu tTriirovwg, virvoi tj-juj- 
Kpoi, Xoyoi, Aijpoe. Hipp. Epid. 1059 : t^ irpwry irvptroe 
o^iig, Aijpoe. Hipp. Epid. 1072 : TrifnrTy iTrtirovwg, iravra 
wapw^vvOt], X^jooc, vvKTa Svaipopiog, ovk EKOifiriBri. Hipp. 
Epid. 1216 : e^ vvktu 6%VTipog 6 nvpirog /cat Xijpoe jSpaxi/g 
kyivsTO. Hipp. Epid. 974: iKry iXvpn, h vukto tSpwe, 
4ivKiC, X»)poe irapifxsvtv. Hipp. Epid. 1226 : aipoDvta kol 
GTTaviov Ti (jtOiyyeTai rj Xijpoe Tig, davaaifia kol aTraafiuiOea. 
Hipp. Epid. 1159 : ' AvSpo(j>avy cKpwviri, \{]pr\<jig. Hipp. 
Epid. 1227 : orav Xri^wai fiera Tovg Trapo^vrrnovg. Gralen. 
Comm. i. 4, Epid. iii. (xvii. A. 490) : lird Si koi rpopov 
XtipC)v Koi Xijpoii Kara tjjv TrpwTr)v evOioog rifispav efivrifxovtvcre. 
Galen. Comm. iii. 69, Epid. iii. : rj te ^joikjj kuI 6 X^poe 
avTolg iylyviTO TrpoaEkdovrog tov xpovov kuo bv tjcjj koi 
atridvinaKOv. 

15. "And it came to pass, that, while they communed 
together {iv rt^ opiXtiv avrovg) and reasoned, Jesus himself 
drew near, and went with them." 

* ofiiXeiv. Peculiar to St. Luke, and much used in medi- 
cal language to signify " to associate with," of things. 

Hipp. Medicus, 19 : ra Be irpoa^ipoiuva airavra fxsv xpr) 
avvopyv oTTuyg avvoiay fiaXiara Bl ^rXaarov si bpiXslv fiiWei 
ri^ voaovvTL (.dpii, raVTa Bk lariv hriBiafiaTa, &0. Hipp. 
Praedic. 83 : fj rty ij^vx^' v ^t^ OoXttei aXoytartog ofiiXoXev. 
Hipp. De Corde, 268 : ri fxiv yap Iv roim Be^ioicti ettI trro/ia 
KtiTai (jfxiXiovaa tij ETEpri ^XejSi. Hipp. Artic. 781 : 6jU(Xe£( 
Se 6 (dpaxii^v Tff* KOiXtj) Trig wpowXaTrig nXayiog. Gralen. 
Comm. i. 2, Epid. vi. (xvii. A. 806) : on /xev yap Ospfiovg 
Kol '(X(poBpovg ETTKJiEptt wvptTovg ot Toig 'ipyoig bfJuXriaavTEg 
'laaaiv. Galen. Comm. ii. 27, Epid. vi. (xvii. A. 949) : otuv 
y \pvxpoQ b s^wBev a-^p bpiXiJv TOig TrpOKaTETpvyfiivoig nopioig. 



§ Lxxvii.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 179 

Gr^len. Comm. ii. 2, Aliment, (xv. 232) : iravTivg fiiv ow koI 
ocra jueXXei rpo^al tivai, o/itXriaai ^pi? Toiig opyavoig roig 
ireTTTiKoig. Gralen. Oomm. iii. 1, Aliment, (xv. 254) : rov 
jap avvc)(ovg awfjiaroQ ra kirnroXfie fJ-ipv Trpuira rijg 6fuX£0V(Ti}g 
aTro\av£i Tpo^ije. Gralen. Anat. Administr. iii. 4 (ii. 365) : 
ro §£ TjOtTOv vevpov ofiikovv rt^ f.^<i} te koi avai KOvSiJXfj) rov 
Ppaxiovog. Galen. Anat. Administr. vi. 4 (ii. 551) : koi 
/laXiaTo. Tt rag (ppivag kol roiig bfiiXovvTag aiirtjJ Bio fxvg 
rwv Kar STTiyaarptov. 

29. "But thei/ constrained him (irapsjiiaaavTo), saying, 
Abide ■with, us : for it is toward evening, and the day is far 
spent. And lie went in to tarry with them." 

* irapaj3ia2^£(70ai is pecuKar to St. Luke, as are also the 
words * fiiaiog and * ]3ia. 

Luke, xvi. 16 : " Since that time the kingdom of Grod is 
preached, and every man presseth (jSta^srai) into it." 

fiidZs&dai occurs also in Matt. xi. 12 : it is a word very 
frequently used in medical language ; its compounds are not 
so frequent. 

Gralen. Hipp, et Plat. Decret. iii. 1 (v. 287) : EireKe^Oelv 
fi£ Tog Xoytj) TO y' iWuirovTa irapE^iaasv. Hipp. Praedic. 
112: Trjv iiXtKiijv Se ravTTiv fiaXurra ia^xiaSsg (iiatiovTai. 
Hipp. Fract. 778 : (BicKracrOai \prj SKravwavra rov ajKwa 
Koi avTOfiarov e/nriTrrei. Hipp. Artie. 811 : roig re avvSia- 
fjiovg jBiaaafisvov. Hipp. Morb. 850 : TTEptaystv kol vipinafi- 
ipai ml firi Ig iBv ^laZiaOai. Hipp. Haemor. 891 : vtto tov 
aifiwrog aOpoiZ,ofiivov ^laZofuvoi. Hipp. Epid. 1211 : t^ Se 
(piovy Kara tov )(p6vov tovtov el julv o-^oSpa aTTEjSiacTETo, 
tliTEv S EjSouXtro teXewc. Aretaeus, Sign. Acut. Morb. 28 : 
iKJBiaariTai to awXdyxva. Aret. Our. Acut. Morb. 96 : 
BJitricraTO kote dvajKH) irvpiriirat KE^aXjjv. Gralen. Oomm. ii. 
25, Acut. Morb. (xv. 560) : 6uoi B' av fitaaa/jievoi Xa^njai 
TO. atria jBapvvovrat. 

* fiiaiog. Acts, ii. 2: "And suddenly there came a sound 
from heaven as of a rushing mighty wind (ttvo^c (iialag), 
and it filled all the house where they were sitting." 



ISO THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [iart ii. 

Peculiar to St. Luke, and a very frequent epithet of 
disease, «S;c. 

Hipp. Praedio. 76 : fieTo. avaxpEju'/'«oc jBiairig. Do. 80 : 
EK pivtov \ajipa /Biaio noXXa pvivra. Ooao. Progn. 176 : 
Koi KaTcnroaiQ jSiata wovripov. De Gren. 234 : akXov rivog 
fiiaiov TraBt'ifiaTog irpocryivofiivov. Nat. Puer. 246 : rjv Si 
jSiaiov TraOrifia irdOy to Traidiov. Do. 247 : avTO^ (5iaiov 
ndOrifia Trpoo-Trltrr/. Aretaeus, Sign. Diuturn. Morb. 44 : e2 
airoaTaaiOQ fiiairig. Do. 46 : firj% avv^xvc (iiair). Gralen. 
Oomm. ii. 71, Praedic. i. (xvi. 666) : /cat j? KaTci\pv^ig Si 
£t MTtog Eirj (5iaioQ. Gralen. Comm. iii. 24, Epid. iv. 
(xvii. A. 434) : wg Bia (iiaiav <r(j>iy^iv. Gralen. Comm. vi. 
13, Aph. (xviii. A. 23) : jiiatag Setrai Kevuxrewg. 

* pia. Acts, V. 26: "Then went the captain with the 
officers, and brought them without violence (ov (isra /Sme) : 
for they feared the people, lest they should have been stoned." 

Peculiar to St. Luke, and used again. Acts, xxi. 35 : 
Sia TTjv jSi'rjv Tov 6-xXov ; xxiv. 7 : fjura TroXXrjg fiiag ; xxvii. 
41 : iiro Ttjg )3iae, and is frequent in the medical writers. 

Hipp. Nat. Horn. 227 : (jAiy/ia jXtaxporaTov iari kui 
Piy fxa.Xt(Tra aysrai /lera -xoXrjv fiiXaivav, ofcocro 8e j3iy sp^Erat 
OspiJiOTipa yivtrai avayKa^Oficva vtto Trig j5irig. Hipp. Nat. 
Puer. 247 : vSpwxp £p\ETai otto Ttjg Ke^aXijc awoKpidiig vno 
(iirig. Hipp. Superfoet, 261 : ijo-wx.^ Ss tovto Troihiv, juj) Trpog 
)3ir)v oKUjg jUJ7 airoairacrBiv Trapa (jiiiriv. Hipp. Aer. 282 : 
VTTO yap /Siije p'nyfiaTa icrj^ovcriv Kot atracfiaTa. Hipp. Aer. 
284 : raSra yap vavTa vno fdltfg yivovrai tov Ospfiov. Hipp. 
Morb. Acut. 397 : 17 8' virb (5tiig to Ik twv ^XejSojv SE^o/UEvrj 
vypov. Hipp. Loc. in. Hom. 419 : ij xoXij ydp avTO/xaTti 
lino [3ir}g yivofxivtig ti^ aw/xaTi (BiaTai. Glalen. Oomm. V. 53, 
Aph. (xvii. B. 847) : J^' S)v 17 <^vaig iKwpivu ti jusra filag. 
Galen. Oomm. 23, Offic. (xviii B. 782) : S^a yiip iwb fiiag 
adpowg vwotjiraTai. Gralen. Acut. Morb. 8 (xix. 200) : jrapjj- 
yopiag fiaXXov p.lv ovv SeiTai rj (3iag iv Tolg irapo^vafiolg. 
Glalen. Praesag. 4 (xix. 516) : Toiig wovovg tiri^ipovai iripl 
Trjv Kt(paXriv r^ j3t^. 



§ Lxxvii.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. 181 

33 : " And they rose up the same hour, and returned to 
Jerusalem, and found the eleven gathered together [riBpoiafxi- 
vovg), and them that were with them." 

* adpoiZuv and * awaOpoiZHv are both peculiar to St. 
Luke, and much used in medical language. 

Hipp. Flat. 298 : tovto Srj to vypov orav adpoiaOy pel 
Si aXXbJV TTopwv. Hipp. Morb. 457 : wote avajKri to nvog 
iv Tbj) OwQaKi T£ KOI ETTt Twv eAkewv aQpo'il^iauai re km, 
Tray^yviaBai, Hipp. Fist. 883: OTav aOpoiaBi) iv t(^ -yXourejj 
CLifxa. Hipp. Haemor. 891 : apa Se vtto tov alparoQ adpoiZo- 
pevov j3m^o/iEva<. Hipp. Aph. 1255 : 70 vypov oxtte aOpo- 
iZicr9ai irpoQ tov tottov tovtov. Hipp. Affect. 516: to. ^ 
aXjripaTa itnriirTEL vtto tov (pXiypaTog, otuv iv rjjf ke^oX^ kivjj- 
Olv adpoiaOy. Do. 525 : (pvpuTa orav Si viro Tp(i)fj.aTOQ ^ tttw- 
puTOQ a0poia6y. Galen. Oomm. ii. 4, Aliment (xvi. 239) : 
TrXfjOog bjpwv \vp(ijv Kara Tag ^XsjSae aBpoil^erai. Gralen. 
Oomm. iii. 11, Aliment (xvi. 297) : to alpa trXiov aOpoKrOlv 
virip TTjv Bvvapiv. Galen. Oomm. iii. 26, Aliment (xvi. 366) : 
XavOavsi yap iv \p6vif wXdovi pox^fipog iv Talg (pXexpl X'^M^C 
£^ aiiTuv aOpoiZopevog. 

* (TvvaOpoiZiiv. Acts, xii. 12 : " And when he had con- 
sidered the thing, he came to the house of Mary the mother 
of John, whose surname was Mark; where many were 
gathered together {avvnOpoiapivoi) praying." 

Peculiar to St. Luke. Used again Acts, xix. 25. 

Hipp. Morb. Acut. 398 : awadpoit^pivov tov Oeppov eig 
Thv edipma. Galen. Nat. Facul. i. 13 (ii. 33) : d gti T^XXa 
tov awpaTog iriOavov ^v Tovg aTpoiig ivTuvOa elg kvutiv 
avvadpoiZsc^Bai — 01 drjuoi Kara ttjv peTa^ii yjlipav avTuv te 
TOVTWv Kol TOV TTepiTovaiov avvadpoKrOricTOVTai — ij wavTug av 
VTTO T(^ SippaTi avvadpoiffddev. Galen, de Sem. i. 13 (iv. 
560) : aXAa KOI 'xpovi^ TrXaiovt (jvvadpoiZs(76ai piXXov <j>9avov- 
<Tag Trig capKwcTEwe iax^Tai. Galen. Oaus. Puis. 7 (vii. 201) : 
Sia ^XiypaT(i)Sovg 'Xypov ivXriQog iv TaXg KOiXiaig tov iyKsfa- 
Xov avvaOpoicrOivTog. Galen. Diffieul. Respir. i. 22 (vii. 812) : 
olg priSiv (rvvfidpoicrro KUirvuiSeg nep'tTTwpa. Galen. Medic. 



182 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LTTKE. [pakt ii. 

Temper, v. 23 (xi. 776) : ttpokXijtiko. Se to. to awriOpoiafiivov 
iv fiadei Trpog TovfKpavig ayovTa. Gralen. Oomp. Med. vii. 2 
(xiii. 23) : Trpog to. Iv dwpuKi awriBpoiafiiva. Gralen. Oomp- 
Med. viii. 4 (xiii. 168) : rd tig rov (jTo/xaxov avvaOpoKrOsvTa 
(pXiyiiara. 

* avvuXtZtaBai. Acts, i. 4 : " And being assembled together 
with them {cTwaXiZofisvog), commanded them that they should 
not depart from Jerusalem." 

Peculiar to St. Luke, and used, as is also aXiZeiv, in 
the same sense as (TwaOpoi^siv and aOpolZeiv. 

Hipp. Nat. Oss. 278 : to 81 irXiiaTov airo tov fiveXov 
TOVTO avvaXiZeTai. Hipp. Flat. 298 : okotov Si avvaXiaOy 
aOpoiffOiv to TrXsloTOv tov ai/iaTog. Hipp. Intern. Affect. 
557 : OKOTav (pXe-yfia koi xo^*) f"X^^ koto to crw/ia, pin ig 
Tr)v KOtXirjv, Koi OKorav aXicrd'^ kv t^ KOiXly asipsTai. Hipp. 
Coao. Progn. 171 : irvsvfia aXiZo/jLivov . Hipp. Intern. 
Affect. 542 : koi Jjv kov 7\ odivri, aXicrOy, Kavtrai. Aretaeus, 
Sign. Acut. Morb. 17 : iv yap Ty avTy X'^PV "y"^*^ "i"« 
aXit^eTM Kol 17 t/jo^j) icai to alfia. Aret. Sign. Acut. Morb, 
21 : ciiKniu Se VTnpQiv piv ig e/xetov to. iv rtj) aTOfiaxi^ 
aXiZopiva. Aret. Sign. Diuturn. Morb. 63 : aXX' ij KvaTig 
ig TToXXbv aXi^ii aipa T^povov. 

42. " And they gave him a piece of a broiled {otttov) fish, 
and of an honeycomb" {psXicraiov Kriphv). 

* oTTTog. Peculiar to St. Luke, and often used in medical 
language with respect to diet of the sick — often joined with 

Hipp. Affect. 526 : Sidovai aprov KOI oipa ojrra Kal ?i)pa — 
OiSovai TO. Kpia avrt tiov yaXaTrivuv laxypoTepa Koi tovtcjv 

ivia OTTTO. KOi TWV KpEWV KOI TU)V IxOvtOV. Hipp. Affcct. 

529 : ix9v£g koS^ov iSi(jfjia Kal i<ji6o\. Kat ottto'i. Hipp. 
Intern. Affect. 545 : Ix^vi Si yaXa'iw Kal vapKy xP^iaBb) 
oTTTolaiv. Hipp. Intern. Affect. 546 : XP^^"^*^ wvpivi^ ottti^ 
Hipp. Intern. Affect. 554 : lxdvt<n Si XP^^<'^<^ ''O''^' o-apKw- 
Se<TTaroimv oirToiaiv. Hipp. Nat. Mul. 572 : iaOuTW irovXv- 
TToSag i<pOovg koi oTTTovg. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 596 : xp£E<^^w 



§ Lxxviii.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. 183 

Kpiam Se owToiai juaXXov f^Oolai. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 641 : 
avrl Se ixOvwv Kpiaatv birroXai, &0. Aretaeus, Cur. Aeut. 
Morb. 110 : Ojoroe otttoq. 113 : ija OTtra. 114 : jvipov 

OTTTTIV. 122 : TSTTlySQ i(f tlipaC fJllv OTTTOl, £§£(7/10. 

* Kriplov. Honeycomb was often used in medical pre- 
parations either with the honey in it or without {^ripov) ; 
perhaps for this reason St. Luke adds fxtXtaaiov. 

Hipp. Morb. 496 : Kr^piuv ^tipojv octov Svo KorvXag 
/3(0EXwv wSart KoX avarpijBwv jiviadu). Hipp. Morb. 480 : 
Kot Ttivuv ii^ovui Kijpiov tv vBari a7roj3pi\iji)v wg ipv^porarov. 
Hipp. Morb. 482 : Trpoa(j)ipBiv avri^ xpvy/xa koJ irivetv StSovat 
KTipiov tv ilSoTi oTTOjSpExwv. Hipp. Morb. 484 : iTrixiac; vSarog 
oaov KOTuXrjv alytvaiav, aXjjrov STrnracrauiv (cat Ktipiov, rovTO 
po^aviTb) fiera to TTO/ua. Hipp. Nat. Mul. 584 : Koi KYipiov 
h> olve^ kv oOoviij) TrpocFTiOei. Hipp. Nat. Mul. 585 : Kr]piov 
KOI fSovTVpov Koi priTtvriv koi \r]vog tXatov £v vSari a(jte\p(i)v 
kXvZhv. Hipp. Morb. Mid. 637: Kriplov KarajipiKai Se ev 
voari Koi a/ia TpijBuv orav vttojXvkv y koi Sir)dri(jag IjUjSaXXftv 
aeXivov <j)vXXa. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 660 : orav ovv wSe txV 
aiKvov xprj TO 'ivSov Tp'iipai koi Ktipiov — Dioscor. V. 17 : 
icaXoutrt Se Tiveg koi airofjicXi to EKjrXuvojulvoJV twv Kripiwv 
vSaTi (TKivaZo/xsvov iSpo/jiEXi Kol aiTOTiQintvov. Gralen. xi. 
375 : £K KTipiwv o^v/isXi. 

§ LXXVIII. 

Acts of the Apostles, I. 

* TtKfXYipiov- * nepifjiiveiv. * irprivriQ. * vinpi^ov. 

avaXaix(5avHv (verse 2, § 65). viroXafij3avEiv (v. 9, § 65). 
* avvaX[Zc<Tdai (v. 4, § 77). ^T£vi'?£tv (v. 10, § 53). 

3. " To whom he also showed himself alive a,fter his 
passion by many infallible proofs {rsKfiripioig), being seen of 
them forty days, and speaking of the things pertaining to 
the kingdom of God." 



184 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [paet ii. 

* TtKfiripiov is peculiar to St. Luke, and was technically 
employed in medical language. Galen expressly speaks of the 
medical distinction between reKfiripiov — demonstrative evi- 
dence — and arifiiiov, stating that rhetoricians as well as phy- 
sicians had examined the question. Oomm. iii. 39, Progn. 
(xviii. B. 306-307) : oh irapu toIq larpoig (xovov, aWa koi 
wapa Totg priTopaiv l^r)rr]Tai t'lvi Siatpipei (jtifidov TiKfiripiov — 
TO nlv Ik Ti]pJ7(T£we (Trtfiiiov TO Si e| svSei^eojc TtKfiripiov. 

Hipp. Morb. Mul. 618 : Eurt 8e toSe TiKfirigiov fiiya, 
ev To'iai tit6o'i(71 yaXa ovk lyyiviTai. Hipp. Nat. Hom. 225 : 
Kol TiKfifipia TrapiS,(i> /cat avayKug airo(j)av(I) ci ag ekootov 
av^iTai T£ Kol ^0ivEi EV Ti^ cTWfjiaTi. Hipp. De Carn. 253 : 

TiKIXripiOV Bi i(TTL TOVTtW 01 KW^Ol ol £K ySViTig OVK iVlaTaVTOl 

SiaXEytaOai. Hipp. Aer. 286 : TiKfiitpiov 8e otl ovTuyg exei, to 
yap ovpov XafxirpoTaTov. Hipp. Morb. Sac. 303 : hspov 
Si fiiya TiKfJLTipiov, OTi ovSiv diioTcpov Ecrrt rwv Xoiiruv vovari- 
fiuTixiv. Hipp. Morb. Sac. 304 : TCKfinpiov Be okotuv yap 
Ka9r}fxiv(^ rj KaTaKUfjLiv(i> (jtXijBia iriecrOy. Hipp. Morb. Acut. 
392 : KoAa Se ravra TEKfivpia 1(tti tjjc irepl o'ivov w^eXijjc K«t 
j3Aaj3jje. Aretaeus, Sign. Morb. Diutuxn, 36 : TSKfiripiwv fiiv 
ovv oiiK acnifia rj yap r^av^OL fj (TTvyvoi, &C. Gralen. Comm. 
ii. 54, Progn. (xviii. B. 189) : e? aXXwv tekjUijpiwv v Bia- 
yvwaiQ. 

4. "And, being assembled together with them, com- 
manded them that they should not depart from Jerusalem, 
but wait for {irepifiivuv) the promise of the Father, which, 
saith he, ye have heard of me." 

* Trepifiivuv is peculiar to St. Luke, and was employed 
in medical language for " to await the result of some mode 
of medical treatment or the action of some medicine," &c. 

Aretaeus, Cur. Acut. Morb. 88 : tov ^apfiaKOv Trig ItpriQ 
KaXtvfiivrtQ vri(TTL BiBovai oXkijc Bpaxfiag j3' — Kat mpifiuvavTa 
KaOripacrOai. Galen. Oomm. iv. 96, Morb. Acut. (vi. 899) : 
aXXa TTtpifiivuv Trpoar\KU to. (5iXTi(TTa rrje aviaBwg. Galen. 
Oomm. ii. 22, Epid. i. (xvii. A. 116) : d ttoXXi^ XP°^V 
inpiifiivov o\ TTupEToi TO(ouro(. Galen. Comm. vi. 1, Aph. 



§ Lxxviii.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. 185 

(xviii. A. 2) : fifj irEpifisvovari^ aOpoiaOrivac to ovpov. Gralen. 
Comm. iii. 13, Fraot. (xviii. B. 554) : fxij Trepi[iivEiv tov 
dOia/xivov rpoTTov r^e inidiaewg. Gralen. Comm. iii. 54, 
Fraot. (xviii. B. 620) : ov Tjje aKpi^ovg "yvwo-twe tvtKtv 
XPV <'■£ irtpifiivsiv TTjv avarofxriv. Galen. Mort. Acut. 8 
(xix. 216) : Sidovai rag rpotjiag rijv TravTsXwQ irapaK/JLrjv fifj 
■KipinilvavTiQ. Galen. Cur. per Ven. Sect. 11. (xi. 284) : 
jU?7 trepifiiveiv elg i<T)(arov a^iKinOai KaTairrwcrewg njii Svvafuv. 
Galen. Progn. ad Posthum. 2 (xiv. 611) : ov irEpi/xeivag 
Si Trjv k^ng irepioSov. Galen. Progn. ad Posthuin. 10 (xiv. 
654) : TO Se Trig rifispag kv y reXiojg aTraXXayotTO tov voarifia- 
Tog ovK hrioTEVs, SvaKoXov uvai vofxiZiiiv avev tov Trepificivai 
Trjv IS^e rj/xipav. 

13. "And -when they were come in, they went up into 
an upper room (iirspd^ov), where abode both Peter and 
James." 

* vTTEpt^ov. Peculiar to St. Luke. The word used for the 
upper room wherein our Lord celebrated the last Passover is 
avwyaov, both in St. Mark and St. Luke ; perhaps it after- 
wards became known by this name, as on every other occasion 
where St. Luke mentions an upper room he employs vTrepi^ov, 
e.g. here and ix. 37, ix. 39, xx. 8. Now this word was very 
familiar to a physician, being the neuter of vTrspi^og, the femi- 
nine of which, vTTipt^ri, was the name of the palate. Hippo- 
crates moreover employs iinpijgog or iirept^ov and xnnp<^r\ 
indiscrimiaately for the palate. Hipp. Epid. 1162 : lir\ tov 
vTrept^QV piyxjuiSrig, yXdiatra Kvp^t irepnrXevfioviri, k/i^pwv 
Wavev. Hipp. Epid. 1215 : enpog Tig etti tov vircpo^ov pey- 
XttiSr)?. The medical writers too, whenever they have to 
mention the upper part of a house, show a partiality, as well 
as St. Luke, for this word. Galen Antid. i. 3 (xiv. 18) : 
'iariv virept^a otKjjjuara — Kai twv oikwv twv virepo^wv. Galen. 
Antid. i. 8 (xiv. 47) : toro) S^ koi 6 otKoe ev <^ ^ripaiviaOai 
fieXXovm navTwg fiiv vtnpi^og. Dioscor. Mat. Med. V. 85 : 
irpog TO virspt^ov ektojuij avfifisTpog. The fem. vircpt^t}, " the 
palate," is of course very frequent in the medical writers. 

2B 



186 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

18. " Now this man purchased a field with the reward 
of iniquity ; and falling headlong {irprivrie), he burst asunder 
in the midst, and all his bowels gushed out." 

* irprivriQ, peculiar to St. Luke, was used as a technical 
term in medical language. Thus Galen says, Fraot. Comm. 
i. 3 (xviii. B. 336) : Svoiv <j\THfiaTU)v ifivrifiovtvcrsv virriov r£ 
Koi 7rpi)vouf — 6\ov /jiv ovv to uwfia KSiadai TTjOjjvEe Xeyofxtv 
orav 17 jUEv "jaaTrip KarwOev avtudiv Se y to vCitov. Hipp. 
Artie. 836 : Trprivsa KaraicXtvavra tov avOpwirov ovru kutu- 
TEjvEtv. Hipp. Moch. 850 : avvb)(j>EKoiri 8' av /cat liriaTpepiQ 
ayKuvog Iv TOVTOiaiv ev rty jutv sc '"o vittiov, Iv ti^ St I? to 
Trprjvsg. Hipp. Artie. 813 : KqizuTa irprivea /carajcXivat. 
Hipp. Intern. Affect. 540 : etti Se to. irp-mvia r\v KaTUKiriTai 
ovK aXyhi. Aretaeus, Acut. Morb. 3 : KE^aAi? noiKiXwe 
Sia(TTpo(pog, aWoTE /xfv jap eg to TrpjjvEC to^ovtoi, ewte ig 
TO oTtpvov ri yivvQ ipiiSei. Aret. Sign. Acut. Morb. 5 : 
K£(j>a\rl TTjOjjvije kg QdipaKa avvviviVKvla. Galen. Oomm. iii. 
24, Bpid. ii. (xvii. A. 434) : ntTaa\Ti}fiaTiaTiov tov ajKuva 
iravToiuyg, Koi etti to TrprjvE? Koi vittiov. Galen. Comm. iii. 
21, Offic. (xviii. B. 859) : ucrirep tov te vutiov koI irprivovg 
avtoSwiiiTUTov IdTi. Galen. Anat. Muscul. (xviii. B. 988) : 
17 Se ivipyeta koi tovtov rjjv KspictSa Tnpiayeiv ilg to irprivig. 

§ LXXIX. 

Acts, II. 

* avyxiSLV. * avyxvaig. * i-Kixiiiv. * ettSjj/xeTi/. * yXtvKOg. 

* avcfTTipog. * fiKJTOvaBai. * wpocriri]yvvixi. 

*^X0C (verse 2, § 40). * ^iaiog (v. 2, § 77). * ,rvoi) (v. 2, 
§ 89). 7rt>7rXr)(ui (v. 4. § 60). * avfnrXripovv (v. 1, § 64). 

* ^MTTopuv (v. 12, § 74). vTToXafi^avuv (v. 15, § 65). 
avaipuv (v. 23, § 84)- irpoyvuxjig (v. 23, § 94). a(j(^a- 
XJic(v. 36, §82). cJ^Effif (v. 38, § 59). 

6. "Now when this was noised abroad, the multitude 
came together, and were confounded {awix^dn), because that 
every man heard them speak in his own language." 



§ Lxxix.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. 187 

* (7U7X""'» peculiar to St. Luke, was used both in its 
literal and figurative sense in the medical writers. 

Hipp. TJloer. 875 : tov Si olvov ^vyx^ai — ^vyxiai Ig tov 
Xv\ov rriQ 6fx(j)aK0g. Do. 876 : oirov kpiveov Zvy)(iai — STruTa 
o'ivov ^vyxeac ntpog Tptrov. Galen. Difficul. Easpir. ii. 7 
(vii. 849) : el /xlv ovv iirb Trapa^po<TVvrig fiovov 6 rije ava- 
TTvoric KOGfiog crvyx^oiTo. Galen. Oaus. Puis. ii. 13 (ix. 95) : 
^OiipsTUL Si KOI (TvyxHTai Sia ti Tovrwv Trapov. Galen. Oaus. 
Puis. ii. 14 (is. 102) : oi toiovtoi (T<j)vyf.iol StaWaTrovai Si t^ 
Toiig filv kv nepioSoig Tim SiatruZeiv rfjv iffdrjjra, roiig Si Travrij 
(Tvy)(£Eiv — (7vy)(^HTai 8' a/i(pb) juev ev rote araKTOtg. Galen. 
Oomm. iii. 1, Epid. vi. (xvii. B. 3) : ttoXXo crvyx" faO' oXov 
TO Z,(l)ov. Galen. Oomm. iii. 31, Humor, (xvi. 479) : Iv'iotz ovk 
EUTTETEc rove X'^i""'^? ^^ ''°'? TTTViXoig avyKi^vf-^vovg SiaKplvuv. 

* (TvjxvcFiQ- Acts, six. 29 : " And the whole city was 
fiUed with confusion" (avyxvcrewg). 

Peculiar to St. Luke. In medical language it was used 
for a " disturbance of the system," " an affection of the 
eyes," &o. 

Hipp. Epid. 1174 : 17 KOiXirig vapKwaig 17 tuiv aXXuiv 
^vyxviyic- Dioscor. M^at. Med. ii. 127: <pvpaOlv Si avv 
oiv(^ avyxy<Tug kcu. irkriyag ocjtBaXiXhyv KaOiurrim. Diosoor. 
Mat. Med. iv. 12 : to. ^vWa w^eXei (ruyxvctiv o^flaXjuwv. 
Dioscor. Medic. Parab. i. 37: irpog Si Tag ek nXriyrig avyx^- 
<7Eig KOI ^Xsyfiovag ISiwg iroui aTOi^rig Kapirog. Galen. 
Oomm. ii. 39, Epid. ii. (xvii. A. 381) : tov S' vypov aiyxymv 
viTOfxivovTog Koi TTipi TO oTOfia avvayopivov aiakoxooi ^aav. 
Galen. Medic. Def. 326 (six. 433) : eAkwcteiov twv TnpX Tovg 
ofOaXfioi/g Sia(jtopai siaiv TrponTdxrig, xiJiu^ffJe, avyxvaig. Do. 
339 (six. 435) : avyxyaig ecFTi ttotI filv ek TrXriyfig, ttotI Si 1% 
avTOfiuTov pvi^ig twv Iv /3a0£t x''"'^'""^' Galen. Medicus. 16 
(xiv. 768) : irepl Si ttjv tpiv, apyc/xov, vE^iXiov, axXvg, 
avyxyaig. Do. (776) : avyxyaig Si lariv orav to. Iv ti^ 
ocpOaXfitig vypa firj Kara X'^P"-^ H'^vy, Trjv ISiav Ta^iv awZovra, 
aXXa TiTapayfiiva y. Galen. Oomm. iii. 1, Epid. vi. (xvii. 
B. 3) : ovep avTog wvojuauE twv oXwv csvyxvaiv. 



188 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LVKE. [part ii. 

* emxesiv. Luke, x. 34: see § 21. 

10. " And. strangers of Home" {oi iiridrifiovvTEQ 'Pwfiaioi). 
" Sojourners from Eome," Eevised Version. 

* ettjSjjjueiv, peculiar to St. Luke, and used again Acts, 
xvii. 21, was much employed in medical language in the sense 
"to be among a people," "to be epidemic." Hipp. Epid. 
951 : e7r£Srj;UJ)(Tav 8s icai SvtrEVTspiai Kara BipOQ. Hipp. Epid. 
1020: Tov Oipovg Kavaoi hrr\BrifjLr\(iav ttoWoI. Hipp. Epid. 
1083 : TO. fiiv eiriSriiiiriaavTa voarifiaTa ravTa. Hipp. Epid. 
1089 : TToXXa Se Koi aWa irvperiLv tTreSrifiritTav dSsa. Hipp. 
Epid. 1134 : Siaxi^pv^^i-G '"oO fltptoc iTrtSrifiriffav. Hipp. 
Epid. 1194 : b<^Qa\fxiai kireSriixntTav. Hipp. Epid. 1195 : /Si?? 
Xii/Jiepivv ffftSjjjuijffaa-a. Galen. Oomm. i. 11, Humor, (xvi. 
404) : Koi oirx tv ilSog l7r£S»jjut)(T£ voatifiaTwv. Gralen. Comm. 
i. 32, Epid. (xvii. A. 32) : twv eiriSrifjiriaavTwv vocrriixaTuv 17 
7Ev£o-tc- Gralen. Oomm. ii. 5, Epid. i. (xvii. A. 71) : rae 
rwv iindriiJ.(ravrwv vocrrifiaTwv iSiag. Gralen. Comm. ii. 7, 
Epid. i. (xvii. A. 102) : avvoxpig twv kiriSrifxrifTavTwv tote 
iradrifiaTUv. 

13. " Others mocking said. These men are full of new 
wine" (oTi jXevkovq fiefisaToifiEvoi elai). 

* aiioTtjpoe. Luke, xix. 21. 22: "For I feared thee, 
because thou art an austere man {avOpuyrrog ai/orijpoe) : thou 
takest up that thou layedst not down, and reapest that thou 
didst not sow." 

* yXEVKog. * avtrrripog. Both words are peculiar to 
St. Luke, and frequently used in the medical writers to 
describe the nature of the wine to be given to the sick. 
avcFTTtpog is also applied to other things besides wine — as 
food, &c. 

Hipp. Acut. Morb. 392 : ev ry tov y^vKEog oivov Siij-yijo-Ei. 
Hipp. Acut. Morb. 407 : avfijui^ag to y\Evicog 'E\pri(Tov ev rt^ 
TjXi'tt). Hipp. Intern. Affect. : ttoXXoi Se r/Srj koi otto rpo^ije 
jSoTjOuajv TToXXwi' Koi TToXXow yXvKOvg Trjv voiktov eXojSev. 
Hipp. Morb. 472 : ETrfxjuv Si o'lvov yXvKEog rpla rifxiKoriXia. 
Hipp. Vic. Sal. 338 : tTTEtra St avfifii^ag o'lvovg Tpfig irivEiv 



§ ixxix.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 189 

BiSovai, auoTjjpov yXuktuv icai o^vv. Hipp. Aifect. 528 : twv 
oivtov KOI ot yXuKEEC Kot oi avcFTTtpoi. Hipp. Viot. Eat. 369 : 
KXvaai TO arojxa Koi Trjv (jidgvyya oiv(f> avaTt)p(jg. Hipp. Yio. 
Hat. 372 : toictl 8s airoKn ■yjikiadai roim Spifxecn ical ^ripolaL koL 
avaTTtpdlai. Hipp. Morb. AcTit. 404 : oKOo-a SI tCjv irofiaToyv 
aKjOjjTsoTEjoa laTiv jj avarripoTipa. Hipp. Decor. 24 : ^^pi? tov 
irfrpov i\uv riva ivTpaTrtkir\v irapaKei/jisvrtv, ra yap avcFTripov 
SvcFTrpoairov Koi Totcnv vyiaivoiaiv Kat Toiai voffiovari. Aretaeus, 
Our. AcTit. Morb. 96 : rjv Si koi imdiTOKTi Sejj -xpiiaQai, ^oivi- 
KEc Iv oivtf avuTripi^ SsvOivrse. Aret. Cur. Acut. Morb. 108 : 
Tiyyuv Se X^f^V> o'lvt^ aiioTrjpe^ nal poBivcj) rj /jivpcrtv^) X'nrdi — 
(poivtKec oi nioveg tv o'lvt^ fiiXavi avuTTnoiJg SevOivTsg le fiaZav 
TptjSovrat. Aret. Sign. Morb. Diutum. 79 : xo^^o" "^i 
TToXXov TOV yXvKeoQ TTiHv TOV avOpuTTov. Aret. Our. Acut. 
Morb. 122 : rpo^al an-wSseg, svimrroi, iv^vfioi — yaka, olvog 
yXvKVQ. Aret. Our. Morb. Diuturn. 130 : olvog XsvKog 
Xetttoc yXvKvg, oTVipiog £X&)v wg firj i'trxEJV rrjv yaaripa. 
Aret. Our. Morb. Diutum. 144 : Ig Sivafiiv Si kjjv oIvoc 
yXvKvg OKOLog aifxa k'p Ig tijv avTOV yivvav. Dioscor. Mat. 
Med. v. 9 : 6 fx\v yap yXvKvg oivog — KOiXitfg te Kal EVTEpwv 
rapaKTiKOc oiffTTsp Kal to yXivKog, o oe avarripog oipjiriKO)- 
Ttpog, &0. 

13. * piOTOvadai. Peculiar to St. Luke. * juEtn-oOo-flat and 
jUEffToe £tvai are used in Aiedical language. Hipp. Affect. 
522 : ij Si vovcTog OavardSrig, aXXiue te Kal tjv ij yacTTrjp 
liKjTwQuaa vSarog. Gralen. TJsus. Part. x. 5 (iii. 783) : i] i)g 
jueuTovptvog 'ivSoOev 6 payonSrjg eiri ttXhstov EKTeiviTai te koi 
SiaTeivsTai. Hipp. Morb. Sao. 307: at yap ^XeJSec fnaTai 
sl(Tiv a'lfiaTOQ. Hipp. Morb. Acut. 396 : r\ koiXit} vnayovaa 
Sl\prig EffTi fiearri. Hipp. Morb. Acut. 398 : ttjv KoiXirtv elvai 
TToXXrjg aarig fnaTrfv. Hipp. Intern. Affect. 537 : 6 vuiTiaiog 
a'ifiaTog ts fieoTog yiverai. Hipp. Aph.. 1255 : ai K0TvXr]S6v£g 
fiv^rig fitGTai uaiv. Hipp. Nat. Mul. 578 : TO dTOfia avriwv 
yivsTai oiov 6p6f3wv jueotov. Gralen. Usus. Part. iv. 5 
(iii. 272) : TroXXijc vypoTxiTog XiTrTJtg koi vSarwSovg jueotov 



190 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. [part ir. 

i(TTi TO aifia. Q-alen. Meth. Med. v. 10 (x. 348) : fj ix^pwv 
rj irvov fiEtTTov. Gralen. Comp. Med. ii. 1 (xiii. 468) : to 
eXkoc pvirapbv Si svpidrf Koi furjTov vyporriTog. Gralen. Oomp. 
Med. i. : to avfjorav (rwfia tl faivoiTO KUKOXV/J-iaQ fJit<rT6v. 

23. "Him, being delivered by the determinate counsel and 
foreknowledge of Grod, ye have taken, and by wicked hands 
have crucified {Trpomrri^avTsg) and slain." 

* wQoairriyvvfu. Peculiar to St. Luke. Hipp. Morb. 455 : 
rjv (fXiyfia ri X°'^') irpog ry ovXy irpoairay^. Hipp. Morb. 
458 : KOt 6(T0v te ev avTy ry tra/OKi tvi xoXijc Koi ^Xlyfiarog 
rj iv TolcFiv iv avry ^Xt^ioiai, tovto iroXkov rj rrav cnroKpiviTai 
Koi irpocrirriyvvTai irpbg rt^ TrXevpti^ — o/corav St to, irpog to 
TzXsvpov wpocnrayivTa aairy Kai TrrvaOy vydeg yivovTai — rjv 
§£ TO T£ apxaXov voXXov Trpo(nrayy TTpog to TrXevpov. Hipp. 
Morb. 457 : koi tu Trip), tov vu)tov X*^!"'** StaBsppaivETai vtto 
tov irpodTmrriyoTOQ vypov Trpog too TrXevpi^. Hipp. Morb. 
461 : oKorav ttoAXov /liv Trjv ap)(rjv r«^ TrXsvpi^ Trpotnrayy, 
(pXiyfia Ts Kol x°^v- Hipp. Morb. 451 : aXA' kXKw6y to 
nXtvpov VTTO TOV TrpoaimrriyoroQ ^XiyfioTog koi x^^^C — 
Koi rjv (pXiy/ia £k Trig KE^aXije pvsv irpbg to irXevpov Trpo<T- 
irayy Kal (rairy. Hipp. Morb, 513 : ote koi ettijv koteXO^ ^pafi- 
fiog irpbg Trjv kikttiv koi /xtj Trpocrnayy. Hipp. Praedio. 106: 
TTjOEtrpuraroKn ce oTc av TtpoaizriypaTa fiv^r\Q Ivr). Gralen. 
Meth. Med. v. 4. (x. 323) ry Se ete'p^ x"i°' ''o <j>apfJiaKov 
ETnaEVTa T13 Tpuiast irpoaTEXXEiv aTpifia, a\pi. nsp av rrpoa- 
Trayf. 



§ Lxxx.J THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 191 

§LXXX. 

Acts, III. 

ffuvrpE^^tv. * avvSpofiri. * vTOTpixuv. * Kararpexsiv. 
* oXoKXripla. * airoKaTcKTTacric- 

anviZuv (verse 4, §53). TrpoaSoKav (v. 5, §74). *j3affic 
(v. 7, § 23). * arfpEoSv (v. 7, § 23). * c<l>vpa (v. 7, § 23). 
irapaxpri/xa (v. 7, §57). *£?aXX£cr0at (v. 8, §23). iri/x- 
:rA,,/zt (t. 10, §60). * avai/-u?ic (v. 19, § 74) . * Trpo- 
XnplZi<y9ai (v. 20, § 82). 

11. "And as the lame man which was healed held Peter 
and John, aU the people ran together {awlSpa/jLe) unto them 
in the porch that is called Solomon's, greatly wondering. 

avvTpixsiv (used also Mark, vi. 33, and 1 Peter, iv. 4), 
as well as the three foUowiug compounds of rpt^Eiv, were 
employed in medical language. 

Hipp. Flat. 298 : to aifia awrpix^'- ^ai Zii^Hai koto 
■wavTOQ Tov aiiyfiaTo^ kg ra OspfioraTa. Hipp. Acut. Morb. 
398 : ffwvSeSpajurjKOToe Se aXsog tov Ospfiov aTravrog avtu 
eg rjjv Ki(jtaXriv. Hipp. Fract. 755 : koi ;uij ^vvSsdpa/jiriKOiev 
01 fiiig. Hipp. Epid. 1184 : ev rolai Tpwfiaai to aifia 
^vvrpix^i. Gralen. Oomm. iii. 47, Fraot. (xviii. B. 606) : 
<^i\ovai 01 fivtg ug kavTOvg avvipix^i-v irapaWaTTOvTwv rwv 
oarewv. Gralen. Eenum Affect. 3 (xix. 657) : ettJ waay 
yap KivriasL (jtvcriKy ervvrpixu to ai/xa. Galen. De. Dieb. 
Decret. i. 7 (ix. 807) : jujjte Totg iroWoig twv KptTtKwv 
<jr]fiu(0v CTuvrpExouCTwi'. Gralen. Meth. Med. ad Grlaucum. 
ii. 1 (xi. 75) : paSiwg tnroTpix^i to alfia kol avdig lirippii. 
Gralen. De Typis. 3 (vii. 485) : Tpug a/xa irapo^vcrfxoiig 
elg filav wpav avv^pafxtlv. Gralen. Oomm. i. 1, Fract. 
(xviii. B. 329) : tov pvog oig av ug avTov oXov avvTpi- 
XovTog. 

* ffuvSjOOjurj. Acts, xxi. 30 : " And all the city was 



192 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

moved, and the people ran together {l-yiviro avvSponrj tov 
\aov). 

Peculiar to St. Luke, and a technical term in medical 
language, denoting a " concourse " or " concurrence of 
symptoms." Galen defines it (Med. Defin. 169) : (tvv- 
Spofxri £(JTJ (TvvoSoQ Twv av/nTTWfiarwv r) twv av/iirTWfiaTwv 
a0poi(7fia rj to twv avfinTW/iaTuv aOpoKX/JLa (paivofiivuv Ivap- 
7aJe airarjiv. Aretaeus, Cur. Acut. Morb. 104 : aWa koI 
Toidi TraXaiOTtpoim Irirpoiai tSerj Tie ^vvdpo/irie irXsvpiTig 
ETTtKAjjCTKETo. Gralcn. Comm. iv. 55, Morb. Acut. (xv. 831) : 
SiaKpivtiv airo Tijg iraOoyvaipoviKriQ avv^po/irjc to, STTiyivo- 
psva — ri psv yap iradoyvwfioviKfj (rvvSpopi} to tov voafipaTog 
uSog IvSeiKvvTai. Gralen. Comm. i. 18, Praedic. (xvi. 554) : 
iiKOQ S' E(70' 6t£ yivsadoL rrjv twv Hpif)fj,tvwv trupTTTwpaTwv 
avvSpopriv. Gralen. Comm. i. 31., Praedic. (xvi. 575) : aXX 
OTi avvSpofiuQ iTepoysvwv (Ttf/idwv ov \p'^ TTOisiaOai. Do. 
(576) : SioTi pryn snOsaTO TToXXuKig eiropsvov to avpiTTwpa 
TovTo Ty TrpoKupivg (jvvdpopy. Gralen. Comm. ii. 41, 
Praedic. (xvi. 600) : iraXiv ri GwSpoprj twv dpripsvtov 
avpTTTwpaTuv avTOTTTiKTi saTi. Gralen. Comm. ii. 60, Praedic. 
(xvi. 642) : <paivtTai yap k^ avopoioyovwv ivioTe avvSpopai; 
TToiovpivoQ. Gralen. Comm. ii. 86, Praedic. (xvi. 674) : 
iv aOpoicrpaTi ttXhovwv aripeiwv Ss avvSpopag ovopal^ovai. 
Gralen. Comm. iii. 29, Praedic. (xvi. 789) : i^ avopoioytvwv 
avpTTTwpdTOJv aOpoi^ei avvZpopijv, 

* vTTOTpixHv. Acts, xxvii. 16 : " And running under 
{vTToSpapovTeg) a certain island which is called Clauda, 
we had much work to come by the boat." 

Peculiar to St. Luke. Hipp. Nat. Oss. 277: fjv ts 
{iTToopap-g TO alpa I? tovto pipog iTriTV/)(ov Eiijouxwpijjc- 
Hipp. Nat. Oss. 279 : avrfi Si vTroSiSpapriKe kutwOcv tov 

TTOSOC VTTO TOV TOpaOV. Hipp. Flat. 299 : £l Se TTJV Biaa- 

TacTiv iiTToSpa/x^ TTViiipa. Hipp. Loc. in Hom. 423 : koJ 
olov ajiaipai sv Ty yauTpl viroTpij^ovaiv oSvvai. Hipp. 
Morb. 508 : to alpa avTlKU OippavOsv VTTO rijc /Strjc Kai 
vwodpafiov EC Tag (pXi^ag. Hipp. Morb. 609 : en^v tic 



§ Lxxx.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 193 

irXjjyy Koprsjowe, VTrorpix^i viro ;rXr)7)7v aifxa. Hipp. Fract. 
768 : Koi to oiSuf/ia aKXripov 'yivsrai koL h tov SaKTvXov 
iTrayayoiQ l^adptrat, arap kol avOig viroTpe^ei ra^^to)?. Galen. 
Oomm. iii. 15, Fract. (xviii. B, 557) : ro 'ipevdog t%aiipiTai 
Koi avBig virOTpi)(£i raxEWf Kara ro fjisyaOog. Galen. Meth. 
Med. ad Glauo. ii. 1 (xi. 75) : iiroTpixu to alfia koi avOig 
iirippH. Galen. Medicus. 16 (xiv. 774) : iirb r?)v KrrjSova 
TOV xiTtlivog inroSpafiovaa vypaaia icat tjjv (pXvKTaivav ano- 
TsXiaaaa. Diosoor. Medio. Parab. 38 : vTroSpo/xac 8e aifxaTog 
OepaiTEvii. 

* KUTarpixiiv. Acts, xxi. 32 : " Who immediately took 
soldiers and centurions, and ran down {KariSpafxtv) unto 
them." 

Peculiar to St. Luke. Hipp. Praedio. 80 : olaiv ek 
piyeog irvpeTol KOTriwdag, yvvuKeia KararpE^Ei. Hipp. Ooac. 
Progn. 206 : to. e^oi^vijc Xevku Kara7jol;^oi/ra etti TpwtTfid^. 
Hipp. Acut. Morh. 401 : koi ovpa iraxia koI Spi/iia kotu- 
Spa/xy. Hipp. Acut. Morb. 404 : ro 8e a:r6 TtOfiaTwv OKOaa 
filv vSapia fipaSvTropuTspa ectti koi kyKVKXiiTai koi ETrnroXat^u 
Trepi vTTOXovSpia koI tg ovpriaiv ov Kararpti^Etv. Hipp. Morb. 
Acut. 404 : Kot otto Shttvov TrcpiiraTtjaai oXlyov 'iuig ovpa 
KUTaBpany. Galen. Oomm. iii. 7, Epid. ii. (xvii. A. 399) : 
yvvaiKiia KUTaTpixn- Galen. De Fasciis (xviii. A. 829) : oirwg 
ivda psv EiKOe avaSpafjislv ioTLV bXr)v ttjv hiriSeaiv, avTiXriipig 
avTiig yiyvoLTo etti rwv TaTruvoTipwv,\ tvOa Si KaraSpafjiuv, 

ETTl TWV Ul/lJjAoT£jOWV. 

16. "And his name through faith in his name hath 
made this man strong, whom ye see and know : yea the 
faith which is by him hath given him this perfect soundness 
(oXoKXripiav) in the presence of you all. 

* 6XoK:A»)|Oia. Peculiar to St. Luke. The noun oXoKXripia 
does not seem to be used in the medical writers ; the adjec- 
tive 6XokX»)|0oc, however, is frequently, both in its more 
general meaning of " complete," " entire," and also in the 
same sense as by St, Luke, of "complete soundness of 
body." 

2 C 



194 THE MEBICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

Gralen. San. Tuend. v. 1 (vi. 311) : vyiaivovTa Sia iravTOJv 
^vXa^at avoaov, avwSvvov, oXokXtjpoi/, t'l js firj iravTawaaiv 
6? apX**^ voffwSjje Et'i) Ter«;)^t)K(i»C! cw/^a- Galen. Metn. Med. 
iii. 3 (x. 186) : /xjjSe sn-i 7oJv opyavLKwv oXokAjjpov eSeupeiv 
SuvajOat T)jv Qipawiiav. Galen. Ars Med. ii. (i. 263) : 
Sia^ipei Be tocfovtov, oti (lopia piv oXoKXij/oa Kara tovto to 
jivog {voaov). Galen. Comp. Med. ix. 5 (xiii. 289) : poial 
oXoKXjjpot k'. Galen. Comp. Med. ix. 6 (xiii. 309) : wa 
wpa oXoKXripa Svo. Galen. Eemed. Parab. i. 2 (xiv. 329) : 
apvySaXa oXoKXjjpa. Galen. Eemed. Parab. i. 13 (xiv. 
380) : KoxXtaJv oXokXyipojv. Galen. Antid. i. 13 (xiv. 65) : 
Svo prtvwv oXoKkvpwv. Dioscor. Meth. Med. i. 11 : paXa- 
fiaBpov aOpavarov 8l kui oXoicXijpov. Do. i. 25: kjOokoc 
api(7T0g 6 TrpoCT^aroc t£ koi oXokXjjjOOC- 

21. " Whom the heaven must receive until the times 
of restitution (aTroKaTatrratTEwe) of all things, which God 
hath spoken by the mouth of all his holy prophets since 
the world began." 

* aTTOKaTa(jTa(Tig, peculiar to St. Luke, was a technical 
medical term to denote " complete restoration of health" — 
" the restoring a dislocated joint to its proper place," &o. 

Galen. Medic. Defin. 11 (xix. 352) : OepairevriKov Be to 
wspl rj)v iaaiv fj avd/cXijirii' rijc Si£ip6appivr]g vyisiag koi 
airoKaTaaracnv avrrie Trpayparevopivov. Aretaeus, Sign. Acut. 
Morb. 11 : k^v ettj twv Biaipwv, naXivBpopiy ri X°^'J> ^'''' 
avry Se (fkiypa, aa^aXfiQ 17 aTroKaTaaraaiq. Aret. Cur. 
Morb. Diuturn. 135 : fi y\<jV)(JLr\ Ig aroKaTaaTaaiv tov Iv ry 
aiupy Tapaxov. Aret. Cur. Morb. Diuturn. 139 : aXX' Baa 
aapKWv Ta avairXaaiv irotisTai koi Bvvapiog la^pv koi ttjq 
(piKTLOg le TO apyatov anoKaTaaramv. Dioscorides, Mat. 
Med. IV. 183 : ttoieT Se koi irpog cnroKaTaaTaaiv CFirXriviwcriv. 
Galen. Synop. de Puis. 11 (ix. 463) : kqI t^v tov irepiixovTog 
aipog aTTOKaracTTaaiv iv Sjpaig koi xwpaig. Galen. Ven. Sect. 
8 (xi. 239) : KSVwdevTog Bl tov (ruparoQ koI Ttjg nXriOwpag 
airoKaTaaTaaiv XajSovarig avvropwg etti to dOiapiva swav 
ayayttv. Galen. Comp. Med. iv. 8 (xii. 754) : Bel Bi k 



§ Lxxxi.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 195 

ciaarri/xaTwv rpiCJv rj Tiaaapmv wpStv l-^xvjxaT'Kjavrtg lav 
M^XP' aTTOKaraoTaa-EOJe kui tots XovsaOai irapaivuv. Gralen. 
Medicus. 3 (xiv. 681) : rwv Se Iv t(^ (rdfiari to fxlv r^, 
TOTTtj) aWoTpiov (lie vnoxvfia Kai l%ap9prifj.a Koi Koray^ua 
awsp ivOEiKvvTaL rrjv fXiraSemv ri cnroKaTauTamv hq tov 'ISiov 
Toirov. Gralen. Medicus. 20 (xiv. 796) : Kara Se to yovu 
avvtxnQ (iiv 17 Etc TO i^w i^ap9pr\aiQ koi pq^ia ri awOKaTa- 
aTa(7ig Sia avjKanipeojg. 

§LXXXI. 

Acts, IV. 

* SiaTrovelcrdai. KUTaTrovuv. * Siavsfntv. * KaOoXov. 
* evSeric. * TrpouSuaOm. 

* ianipa (verse 3, § 67). Trl/nrXttfii (v. 8, §60). awrripia 
(v. 12, §98). * avfijiaXXsiv (v. 19, §68). *'lamg 
(v. 22, § 17). 

2. "Being grieved {Siairttvov/xevoi) that they taught the 
people, and preached through Jesus the resurrection from 
the dead." 

* SiairoviiaBai is peculiar to St. Luke, and occurs again, 
Acts, xvi. 18. TTovog, TTovuv, and some of their compounds, 
are much employed in medical language. 

Hipp. Eat. Vic. 364 : oiiSev yap tov awfxaTog Siairc- 
TTOvriTUi wpbg olSiva irovov. Hipp. Eat. "Via. 369 : ^joij 
Se TOV TOiovTOv tKOipaTTEvOrivai ofOE, SiairovriiTavTa Iv roXai 
yvfivaaioicri. Dioscorides, Animal. Ven. Proem. : fj to Sia 
TOV (paXayyiov SriyfiaTog Ivti/jisvov Kai oXov to iT(5jua Siairt- 
TTovovfievov. Gralen. Comm. i. 3, Aph. (xvii. B. 363) : koto 
TOV (3iov Siairovovfitvoi. Q-alen. Usus. Part. ii. 7 (iii. 114) : 
TrXeiaTag KOt avayKaforaToe Kat <T(podpOTaTag ivepysiag r] ^up 
Iv rovrtj) T<^ axrifxaTi Sianovovfxivri. Gralen. Parv. Pil. Exer. 
3 (v. 903) : fTepa vsvpa koi fiveg BiaTroveiTai wXiov. Galen. 
San. Tuend. ii. 9 (vi. 139) : tvTovov /xiv yvfivaaiov, to 



196 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ri. 

|3tatwe avev tuxovq Siairovovv. Galen. San. Tuend. ii. 11 
(vi. 147) : TO, Se 7rXo7m /XBpri tJiq pa-)(^£wc 17 Kivritng ^Se 
SiaTTovti. Galen. San. Tuend. ii. 11 (vi. 146) : wpbg rovrote 
'in TO TO. /j,Ev 6(j(j)vv fiaXXov ^ i^Eipae rj (TKeXr) Sicnrovsiv. 
Galen San. Tuend. ii. 9 (vi. 152) : rivig filv evipjELai, 
tTKiXi) fiaXXov rj xiipag rj BojgaKa, TivtQ Se ba^vv rj K£(paXfjv 
rj pa^iv rj yaaripa tIvcq S' oriovv aWo pipog VTrcp raXXa 
StawovoiKTiv. 

KaTairoveiv. Acts, vii. 24 : " And seeing one of them 
suffer wrong, he defended him, and avenged Mm that was 
oppressed [rt^ KaraTrovovfiivijji), and smote the Egyptian." 

Karairovsiv is used once elsewhere in N. T. (2 Pet. ii. 7.) 

Galen. San. Tuend. ii. 7 (vi. 130) : ot Trpoor^drtj) Kpvu 
KaTairovriBivrsg aOv/noi rt el(n Koi OKvripol KivitaBai. Galen. 
Progn. ad Posth. 3 (xiv. 613) : kw\ Se ra Kara "EuS^juov 
Ijravtifii. KaTairovovfiivoQ yap vtro tCjv tqiwv TtTapTaiwv 
airrikiTKTTO irpog tHjv larpwv. Galen. Morb. Aout. 4 [sis.. 
192) : OTav S' iTrnrscrovTa ra voafi/iara (rrdcnv riva Kai avap- 
^laii ipyacTTiTai, e^ oitov av itr^virr} to, iraOri, etti to(tovtov ri 
ipvaig KaTaTTovitrai. Galen. Comm. i. 12, Morb. Aout. (xv. 
436) : Toiig ivavTiuTaroig ayojjaig etti tHiv irvpsTTOVTwv 'xpio- 
fiivovg larpoiig, rovg te paKpaig amriatg KarawovovvTag roiig 
KufivovTag. Galen. Oomm. iii. 1, Epid. ii. (xvii. A. 385) : 
rate 2s yvvai^l Tovri to 'irog fiaXicsTa KivSvvojSeg ^v, oti ij 
XoXrj t(^ Trjg KarauratrEwc av)(jj.(^ TtOripiwvivri rfjv iypav (jivaiv 
olKTpwg sTpve koi iroXvsiSilig KaraTmrovr^fiivriv a(piei. Galen. 
Oomp. Med. vii. 7 (xiii. 986) : dg to avTO avafii^ag Trdaag 
Tag Svva/XHg /xaXaacTE koi (TvyKOwre 'iwg av aXKifxov Koi koto- 
TrtTrovtifiivov yivr)Tai. 

17. " But that it spread (SiavsfiriOy) no further among 
the people, let us straitly threaten them, that they speak 
henceforth to no man in this name. 

* BiavifiHv. Peculiar to St. Luke. * Siavifiuv, * Siaawei- 
peiv, and * avaSiSovai, were the three great medical words to 
denote "the spreading," "distribution" of nourishment— 
the nerves— the blood, &c., through the body. It is remark- 



§ Lxxxi.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. 197 

able that all three are used by St. Luke, and by him alone 
of the N.T. writers. 

Gralen. Oomm. ii. 6, Nat. Horn. (xv. 143) : ai (p\ef3eg 
ciavifxovmv avro roTc tov ^wov fiopioic airaaiv. Gralen. Oomm. 
ii. 10, Aliment, (xv. 292) : wcrirsp ek Trjjy^c nvog iSt'ae 
TTovri T(^ awfiaTi Siavi/jLtrai. Gralen. Oomm. iv. 6, Aliment. 
(xv. 390) : Koi TO ravTriQ apTripiag VTroXonrov £7ri rrjv apia- 
Tspav oXriv X^'P" ""^ '"''^ wfioTrXarriv ciavi/xsTai — liOsv koi 
17 roif ivripoiQ SiavafiOfisvri napayiverai. Do. (391) : ocrat 
ol UQ aWag tov awfiuTog ■^(wpaQ KaUiKaaTOV Siavs/iovTai. 
Galen. Oomm. ii. . 10, Acut. Morb. (xv. 531) : SieKir'nrTei 
Trpog TO Sia^payfia Toig irpwTOig fisT avTo Siavs/iofiEvov 
(Tw/iacFtv. Galen. Oomm. i. 1, Humor, (xvi. 12) : SiavcfiovTeg 
avTo T(^ (7wp.aTi ttuvtI (jtXt^ag. Do. (13) : Siavt/iovai Ei 
KOI irapayovcTiv tig 6\ov to ?wov al apTrtpiai. Galen. 
Oomm. iii. 127, Praedie. (xvi. 788) : k airXrivog kripav 
^XejSo ap\Ofiivriv Siavi/jiEaOai Tolg apiarepoig jutpEcrtv. Galen. 
Nat. Faeul. ii. 6 (ii. 105) : oipk av SvvaiTo Ss)(6ixtvov t-^v 
Tpo^Tjv ovTutg ilg oXov kavTO StavEjUEtv. Galen. Anat. Ad- 
minstr. iii. 10 (ii. 400) : al twv fnyakwv vivpuiv Stave- 
firi<7£ig. 

18. "And they called them, and commanded them not 
to speak at all (KadoXov) nor teach in the name of Jesus." 

* KadoXov, peculiar to St. Luke, is very common in the 
medical writers. 

Dioscorides, Mat. Med. i. 13 : koAoXou karX iroXvxpw- 
Tov. 27 : KaOoXov OspfjiaviKfi {nrapxovcra. 62 : KaOoXov 
iravTiov EOTi ■xjprjaip.ijJTaTOv — KaBoXov laTiv apaiuiTiKOv. 71 : 
nadoXov fioXaKTiKTiv 'ixH rriv Svvafiiv. 146 : koi kuOoXov 
TrapaXafi^dveaOai Sel rjjv xpriaiv avTwv. Galen. Oomp. 
Med. viii. 4 (xiii. 167) : aviTTiXXovTeg to. ania koI KadoXov 
£? ov vTrovo{](T(i)fiiv jivsdOai. Do. (175) : /cat kuOoXov iravTa 
oaoig ETTi Twv KapStaKWv xpwfiiOa. Do. (175) : Koil KadoXov 
irav TO Tpo^uidsg. Do. iii. 2 (564) : ek tov tov ys KaOoXov 
TpoTTOv Trig dcpaTTBiag iTTivoriaai. Do. V. 4 (802) : koi kuOoXov 
lariv 17 Evva/xig Oavf.ia(TTri. 



198 THE MEDICAL LAJSTGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

34. "Neither was there any among them that lacked 
(evSejjc vwnpx^v) : for as many as were possessors of lands 
or houses sold them, and brought the prices of the things 
that were sold." 

* svSej??, peculiar to St. Luke, was a word of very fre- 
quent occurrence in medical language. 

Hipp. AfEect. 528 : vwavaXiaKH ravra to auifia Kol o'vTi 
, eiiSeec l<TTiv ovT£ irkripBg. Hipp. Artie. 807 : cFKeXea juev koi 
XEtpEC TeXeLOvvTai, ravra SI evSeeotepo yivovrai. Hipp. Artie. 
821 : TO Si rJjc Kvri/irjQ oaria av^irai fiiv, ov iroAv hi tvSe- 
saripwQ — Tov Se Trij^^uv koI oKpjjv rrjv xupo. oXiyt^ IvoBearipriv 
Tov vyiiog. Hipp. Fract. 766 : evSeeote/OOv xpij Siairav a)(pi 
r]fiipi(tiv SIko. Hipp. Morh. Sacr. : ivSeicrrspov tovto tov 
adyfxaroq to /3Xa/3EV avajK-n that. Galen. Morb. Acut. ii. 
44 (xv. 601) : evSejj rjjv T^pEtav rije avaTTvorig Epyo^Erat koi 
Sia TavTr\v rrjv evSuav. Gralen. Gomm. iii. 4, Epid ii. (xvii. 
A. 322) : orav 7] ■xyXoOiitra Tpo(prj evSeeotepov avadtSorai. 
Galen. Gomm. i. 17, Aph. (xvii. B. 432) : rfjv Bvvafuv 
epjaZerai koi fjrot wXriOwpiKOv rj evSeec V KaKO^vfiov to awfia. 
Galen. Comm. iii. 7, Aph. (xvii. B. 574) : ij Se ^riporriQ 
ivSieaTtpovQ fxsv ri^ TrXi'idsi rovg xv/ioiig ipyaZtrai. 

* irpoaStiaOai. Acts. xvii. 25: "Neither is worshipped 
with men's hands, as though he needed anything [TrpoaBeo- 
fiivoQ rivog), seeing he giveth to all life, and breath, and 
all things." 

Peculiar to St. Luke, and, Kke evSejjcj much used by the 
medical writers. 

Hipp. Vet. Med. 15 : koI viipiog ovSefiirig TrpocrSurai. 
Hipp. Praedic. 87 : Stairri/iarwv rt iSioiv Trpoadeo/xsvaL eKaarai 
KOI fap/iaKivaibJv. Hipp. Praedic. 105 : dspandrie Se Trpotr- 
SsiraL 7} voO(Toe aSrjj. Hipp. Morb. Acut. 385: Tovrioiai Kol 
Sie Sorlov Tjv Ti SoKir) TrpoaSetv- Do. 393 : <Lv ovSirspov tig 
rifiupiriv wpoadkrai /xeX'iKpriTov. Hipp. Artic. 805 : rovruv 
Se ovg TJKttrra Kartayiv TrpocrdhTat. (809) : tg TroXXa yap 
vo(TrifxaTa irpoaSioi av avTrig. Hipp. Ulcer. 874 : koi ovrug 
lr)rpiir}v irpoafcpiiv OKOirjc S' av SoKty trpouSuadai. Galen. 



§ Lxxxii.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. 199 

San. Tuend. i. 12 (vi. 68) : iTravopOoiKrOat fiiOodov tivoq 
ETEpoc TrpoaSurai. Galen. Pacul. Med. v. 22 (xi. 774) : koI 
Sta TOVTO fipa-xyripag iniKOVpiac tK (j>apfiaKiov TrpocFSsiTat. 



Acts, V. 

atT<j)a\sia. aa^aXrig. acr^aKuig. *hna(paXr]q. * Sia)(ii- 
ptZtaOai. * irpox^ipi^ioOai. * lTti\upiiv. * iiaTrp'uiv. 
* SiaXuEtv. * aTToXvuv. 

' avtjTiWtiv (verse 6, § 24). * g£a<7rr,/xa (v. 7, § 75). * Ik^jI- 
■\iiv (v. 10, §24). 7rapa■)(ffr^|xa (v. 10, §57). TrpoaTiQtvai 
(v. 14, §59). KoWaadai (v. 13, §66). * hxXuadai (v. 
16, § 7). 7ri'iU7rXr,;ui (v. 17, § 60). atpQpog (t. 21, § 67). 
*^ia7eoptiv (v. 24, §74). * ^la (v. 26, §77). '^^aig 
(v. 31, §59). avaipilv (v. 33, §84). * irpoaKoWaaOai 
(v. 36, §66.) 



23 : " Saying, The prison truly found we shut 
all safety [tv ncKyy cKKjiaXdq), and the keepers standing with- 
out before the doors." 

Luke, i. 4 : " That thou mightest know the certainty 
{rriv aa<pa\eiav) of those things, wherein thou hast heen 
iustructed." 

St. Luke uses all the four words, aa^aXua, aa(j>a\h}Q, 
aaipaXi'ic, * iTriaipaXriQ. The last is peculiar to him. These 
words were very much used by the medical writers. St. 
Mark once uses aar^aXwe (xiv. 44) ; St. Paul, aaipaXtia once 
(I. Thess. V. 3), and a<T(j>aXrig twice (Phil. iii. 1, Heb. vi. 19). 

aacjiaXua. Hipp. Praecept. 27 : '^vioi yap voaiovng 
r\aQr\p,ivoi to vepl swvtovq iraOog firj lov iv aa<paXeiy. Hipp. 
Progn. 40 : ar](iaivu yap aa^aXeiav re Kal vovcrrffia oXiyo- 
Xpoviov iaeaOai. Hipp. Morb. Acut. 384 : rolai voaiovm 



200 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

Tracnv ec vydriv fiiya SvvaTai Koi Totaiv vyialvovaiv tQ aa^a- 
\iiav. Hipp. Morb. Acut. 396 : 'iwg av iv acrfpaXdy yivoiro 
6 voaiwv — Satrat 8e aarpaXdrig kol ixeTpioTijrog jXiTo. ^XejSo- 
TOfilriv. Hipp. Mori). Acut. 397 : x^^^^ ^^ Trpoa^ipsiv 
OKOTav Ik KpiGioq iv aaipaXeiy t|S»} ttj. Hipp. Apn. 1253 : 
TO QtQiihv iKTrvriTiKOv, oi/K iwl TTavri eXkei fikyiOTOV artixuov 
EC aa^aXiiav. Galen. Oomm. i. 3, Humor, (xvi. 92) : koi 
aa^akuav vyiuriv aiqfiaivovai — to Ta^og icpiffEWC Koi aatpa- 
Xuav KOI vytBiav SriXwrrovm. Gralen. Oomm. iv. 22, Aph. 
(xvii. B. 685) : ntTracFixol Ta'^^vTtiTa Kpiaewg, aa^aXuav vyuivrjv 
aripaivovm. Galen. Comm. iii. 2, Progn. (xviii. B. 238) : 
OTav Ta Tijg aar(j)aXeiaQ <ir\fxua iraQt}. 

aaipakng. Acts, xxi. 34: "And some cried one thing, 
some another, among the multitude : and when he could not 
know the certainty {to a(T(j)aXiQ) for the tumult, he commanded 
him to be carried into the castle." 

Used also xxii. 30, and xx¥. 26. 

Hipp. Judic. 52 : (ruifialvei yap aa^aXia Trjv vovaov 
ecFStrOai. Hipp. Progn. 211 : vSuTuStg Si KOI Aeukov ev xpo- 
vioiai oi/K a(7<j)a\£g. Hipp. Vic. Eat. 372 : ij Ospairdri aa(j>a- 
XidTipri vTTo Trig StaiTije S>Sc. Hipp. Morb. Acut. 406 : 
a<T(pa\s(7Tipr] yap yivnai ri OepaTrdri. Aretaeus, Sign. Morb. 
Acut. 11 : a(T<paX'^g 7\ airOKaTacFTaaig. Aret. Sign. Morb. 
Diuturn. 49 : aatpaXiaTipri Si kol a<nvi<jTiQr\ 17 t^Se tov ttvov 
oBoQ. Aret. Cur. Acut. Morb. 96 : ovk afr^aXlc iJ.iv aiaOri- 
ffECTi, vivpoiai Si ayaOov. Aret. Cur. Morb. Acut. 112 : oh 
KapTa a(7(j>aXig etti (fXiyjiov^ai. Galen. Comm. iv. 74, Acut. 
Morb. (xv. 862) : ovk aacpaXfig 17 Sia tCjv oupwv arifidwaig. 
Galen. Comm. i. 10,'Epid. vi. (xvii. A. 852): Trpwrij koi 
acr0aAE(7Tarr) Siayvutxig dg tov Tporrov twv TTvpiTwv. 

acT^aXwg. Acts, xvi. 23: "And when they had laid 
many stripes upon them, they cast them into prison, charg- 
ing the jailor to keep them safehj" {a(T(j)aXwg). 

Used again. Acts, ii. 36. 

Hipp. Praedic, 108 : tots npoXtyHv ijiSopaiag TravaaaBm 
V EYyi/e TOVTtwv Koi aXXwg aa^aXQg vofil^uv iX^iv. Hipp. 



§ Lxxxii.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 201 

Praedic. 105 : iXaxurra n twv crrifjLttwv E^Et rwv Trovr}pwv a 
sypaipa tlvai, a(T(j)a\iiJTaTa SiaKtirai owroe. Hipp. Praedio. 109 : 
ai OE aXXai vovcroi al afi<j)i Ki<j>aXaQ avSpacri ts koi yvvai^lv 
a(T(t>a\uig la^vporaroi koI irokvxpovititrtpoi. Hipp, Artie. 
782 : on aa(j>a\i(TTipwQ aiiTO awfia (xvrtwpKsBiv. Hipp. Artie. 
798 : a(T(paXiaTipov Se xeipiZitv iariv vtttiov KaraKXtvavTa 
Tov avOpwirov. Hipp. Decor. 25 : wpocrSovvai n twv tg 
TO XPEoe rj aafaXewg irpoarsvsyKuv. Hipp. Progn. 43 : ovtwq 
av acT^aXicTTaTa o te avOpioTTOQ Tripiyivotro koi ij anoaTaaiQ 
avii)Svvo(; ra^iaTa wavaerai. Hipp. Progn. 100 : olcrt S' av 
Kai vivpov SoKty iKTriastaOai, cKKJjaXearipwg ra irtpX i^(«jX(i)(Ttoc 
^i 7rjOoXE7£iv. Hipp. Artie. 782 : on a<T(j)aXe(jTipwg av to 
awfia TO fxiv r^. Hipp. Praedic. 98 : ei Se ti tovtwv hn<^ai- 
voiTO Iv ap\yui ts yivsadai cKTtjtaXiaraTov Kal oXiyov 'Xfiovov 
irapafiivuv. 

* iiriafaXriQ. Acts, xxvii. 9 : " Now when mucli time was 
spent, and when sailing was now dangerous" {iTriacjtaXovQ). 

Peculiar to St. Luke, and frequently applied to disease 
by the medical writers. Hipp. Vet. Med. 11 : okotuv Se 
ti)t(^(iJ(ti /iEyaXtji ts /cat l(T)(vpc^ koi sTTKr^aXu voar)fiaTi. Hipp. 
Aph. 1245 : ETrto-^aXEc Se to toiovtov koi Trpoe rag Kara) 
KaOapaiag. Hipp. Aph. 1258 : at '!rapa(ppo(Tvvai al /ilv jueto 
yiXiOTog yivofievoi a(T(paXiGTepai al Si (ietvl (tttovStjc eiria^aX- 
iuTspai. Gralen. Oomm. ii. 10, Humor, (xvi. 244) : X£7rror»)c 
Tixiv fxtptiiv irpoQ Tag Koroj KaBapasig sirtcr^aXjje Eortv. Gralen. 
Comm. ii. 47, Bpid. vi. (xvii. A. 996) : to yap irXi'icTTa tCjv 
ETTtcr^aXwi' voay\fiaTU)v. Galen. Oomm. ii. 35, Aph. (xvii. B. 
534) : Kot yap al avu) KaOapcrlcg eTTKT^aXslg tiirt rote ovTbj 
SiaKtifjLtvoig. Gralen. Comm. iii. 1, Progn. (xviii. B. 235) : 
yUETo avfXTrTWfiaTwv ivioTE TTOiiiaBai ttiv Kpimv tTna^aXwv 
Gralen. Progn. De Deeub. 3 (xix. 535) : ETrttr^aX^ ttoOj). 
Do. 5 (541) : saTai ri voaog iwi(X(^aXrig KOt iTTiKiv^vvog. Do. 
11 (561) : Earat ri voaog eTri(7<paXiig airo TrXrjdovg Kat jcpat- 
TToXrig. 

30. " The Grod of our fathers raised up Jesus, whom ye 
slew {Siix^iphaadi} and hanged on a tree." 

2D 



202 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

* Stax£/|Oi^£(T0aj. Peculiar to St. Luke, and is used again 
Acts, xxvi. 21. In medical language it was employed, as 
was also xftpf^EtrOat, of surgical operations in particular. 

Hipp. Progn. 45 : o S») ara^vXriv Kokiovai Kot -fivifrai to 
fitv ixKpov yapyaptwvog fiuZov n koI Trepi^cpig, to Se avioTipio 
XaiTTOTSpov, iv Tourltj) ti^ Kaipi^ aa^sXig Siax^ipiK^iv. Hipp. 
Morb. Acut. 384 : OKoaa avwSwvwe SiaT^Etpf^Etrflat, wg avw- 
SvvbjTaTa TToiiHv. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 638 : Sei Se tov 6p6wg 
TOVTU SiaxHpioi/xsvov SiayiviiXTKtiv EKCtcrrorE roe (jtixnag twv 
jvvatKuiv. Hipp. Offic. 741 : ovtuktI Se to piv xstpiZofusvov 
evavTiov Ty ai/yy, tov Se x^'-P'^Zovto ivavTiov t<^ xstpitiofjiivty, 
ttXjji' utoTE pi) ETTtffKord^Etv, ovTb) yap av 6 plv Spuv bpwri, to 
Se xiipiXtOpivov oix opwTO — 6 Si xsipit^opsvog t<^ ^EtptSovn 
T(j) aXA(i» TOV awpaTog pipn inrripiTUTU) rj eotewc V KaOripfvog. 
Hipp. Fract. 757 : 6 SI itjrpoe opOwg piv iwv xnpiZiToi), tov 
eVejOOK TToSa ETTi vipriXoTipov Tivbg EXOJV, KaTopQwaag Se toIcsl 
Bivapai to odTiOV iTiuTa IttiSutii) Tag te ap^ae jSaXAojuEvoe 
ETTi TO KOLTTnypa KOI Ta'AXa iravTa wainp irpoTipov Traprivsdrj 
X^ipiZiTw. Q-alen. De Fasciis. 1 (xvii. A. 768) : avwSvvivg 
SeI SiaxeiptZi<^Sai. Galen. Comm. iii. 21, Progn. (xviii. B. 
271) : aacpiXig SiaxitpiKuv. Galen. Oomm. i. 10, Offic. (xviii. 
B. 681) : TTTEpvyiov rj tyKavOiBa XE(p£^0;UEroe. Do. (682) : 
Tiij) T£ jurj a^oSpQg aviaaOai tov x^'^P'^^^M-^^^^' 

* 7r/)ox£ip«?£<T0at. Acts, xxii. 14 : " And be said, Tbe 
God of our fatbers batb chosen thee {npoex^ipiaaTo as), tbat 
tbou sbouldest know bis will, and see tbat Just One, and 
sbouldest bear tbe voice of bis moutb." 

Peculiar to St. Luke, wbo uses it again iii. 20, xxvi. 16, 
and employed by tbe medical writers, as also irpoxupog, and 
many derivatives of x^'^P> ^- 9- Siaxiipicrpog, a medical prepa- 
ration. Hipp. 1022 : x£'p«^Moe. Hipp. 741 : an operation, 
Xiipicrpa. Hipp. 808 : surgical treatment, x£'/0'?'e- Hipp. 
756 : a surgical operation. 

Galen. Comm. iii. 36, Acut. Morb. (xv. 696) : KaOairtp 
KOI El ;ueXi poxOripov rj TTTKravriv rj o^og rj olvov rj ti toiovtov 
wpoxEtpiVato. Galen. Anat. Administr. iii. 2 (ii. 348) : h 



§ ixxxii.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 203 

Ti fiipog Tov KwXov irpo-xtipicafitvog. Q-alen. Nat. Faoul. iii. 
2 (ii. 146) : Trpoj^etptoroo-^ai fiogia arra tov aiLfxarog. Galen. 
Difficul. Eespir. ii. 10 (vii. 879) : vTroXo'nrovg hi rpeic 
af>p<x)(TTovg 7rpox£«jOi(TOjU£0a. Galen. Oaus. Puis. i. 12 (ix. 51) : 
XoiTTov av ill] Trpo-)(itpi(TaiJ.ivov Evo riva tr^uyjuov Itt' avTov 
■ SiSa^ai TO xp^jc'i^o". Galen. Diagn. Puis. ii. 2 (viii. 845) : 
Trpo^iipKTafiEVOg yivog sv n^vyfiCiv u>g iv irapaouyfjLaTi. Galen. 
Oomm. iii. 101, Praedic. (svi. 723) : 'IwvoKpaTovc wpoxup- 
iZ,Ojxivov TTort Kara fiipog evia irapadeiy/xaTog sveKU irpog 
(ja^r]vuav tojv fiavQavovTttiv. Galen. Comm. i. 12, Aph. 
(xvii. B. 399) : irgo-^upicrafjuvog wg iv irapadtiyfiaTi iraOog 
£v aiirb Sf) tovto rrpog 'iTnroKpaTOvg bjvofiaufiivov. Galen. 
Progn. Puis. iii. 4 (ix. 356) : 17 diayvwmg fx6vr\ irpoxup- 
itiiaOo). Galen. Meth. Med. viii. 3 (x. 559) : rourl juev to 
a'lTiov oXiyaKtg kOeaaafjirjv ava\pav irvpcTov, oOev auTo juaXiora 
Trpov)(iipiaaij,r)v. 

* iTTix^iptiv : see § 57. 

33. " Wlien they heard that, thei/ were cut to the heart 
(SisTrpiovTo) , and took counsel to slay them." 

* SiaTrpiitv is peculiar to St. Luke, and occurs again \u. 
54. 

TTp'uiv and some of its compounds were employed in 
medical language, in their literal sense. Hipp. Loo. in 
Hom. 419 : tovtov xpfj Trphiv wg 'i^oSog y ti^ ^X'^'P'-' A*'' 
inovvov i^oSog svpiog SioTrpKrOivTog, koI (j>apfia.KOicn XP^"'" 
Oat. Hipp. Vuln. Cap. 912 : ijv i^ apxiig Aaj3wv to 'Irina 
Trpiyg ov XP'H EKTrpiciv to oureov npog Ttiv fxr/viyya avriKa — 
'icjTi Si KivBvvog rjv aiirtKa afaipyg irpbg tjjv fir)vtyya iKirpicrag 
TO odTtov, Tpuxiai iv T(j^ '^py<^ Ttt" irpiovi ttjv fxriviyya, aWa 
Xprj TTpiovTa, iTrsiSav oXiyov wavv Sir/ SianewptaOai wavaaaBai 
TrpiovTa — kv yap Siairpi(i)T(^ ocrrit^ — Hipp. Vuln. Cap. 913 : 
/cat yap ivoXv Oacraov SiarrpUTai to oaTiov riv inroTTVOv ts tov 
riSri KOI Sidirvov npirfg. 

36. "For before these days rose up Theudas, boasting 
himself to be somebody ; to whom a number of men, about 
four hundred, joined themselves: who was slain; and all, as 



204 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

many as obeyed him, were scattered {SteXvOricrav), and brought 
to nought." 

* Sia'MeLv. Peculiar to St. Luke, and of very frequent 
occurrence in medical language. Hipp. Morb. Acut. 387 : 
■rreipriBrivai SiaXvaai rjjv oSuvijv. Hipp. Morb. Acut. 392 : 
KOL I'l ETTt TO ErEjoa uv usTajdoXi) SiaXvn rrHiixa. Hipp. Morb. 
Mul. 649 : k^v fxlv oia\vr\rai kol acrOevfig yivsrai ri yuvij 
SiaXafji^avEiv kg ocrov Ssi xpovov, rjv Si fiij SiaXvrirai. Hipp. 
Flat. 298: koI ra ts apdpa SiaXvovrai irpb TUvirvpsTwv. Hipp. 
Flat. 300 : avrai Ss QiQfiavOiicrai SiaXvovrai kol SiaXvovm rfjv 
^varacnv tov aifxarog. Dioscor. Mat. Med. i. 101 : dpofifiovQ 
difxaTog SiaXvei. Dioscor. Mat. Med. ii. 98 : xo'P"S«c SiaXvei. 
Galen. Comm. i. 35, Acut. Morb. (xv. 804) : sirixEtpit juev 
yap ri s/i^vtoq Bipfiaaia iiaXvuv te koi ;^eTv tovq kutu to aufia 
Xvp-ovQ. Gralen. Oomm. i. 12, Humor, (xvi. 112) : wq to 
irdxoQ SiaXvdy twv xu/xwv. 

* airoX{)siv: see § 16. 

§ LXXXIII. 

Acts, VI. 

* (TvyKiveiv. 

* KuBrifjispivoQ (v. 1, § 67). vTrofiaXXuv (verse 11, § 68). 

* avvapTr6.Keiv (v. 12, § 91). Wog (v. 14, § 58). aTaviZuv 
(v. 15, § 53). 

Acts, VII. 

KUKOvv. * (TVvsXavveiv. * cnrEXavvtiv. * avarpicjuiv. * j3jOi/)^E£v. 

s^ojOhv. * (JKXrtpOTpaxriXoe. 
*mTiov (verse 12, § 97). * iui.iraKaXai.y9ai (v. 14, § 85). 

* (Tvyyiviia (v. 14, § 87). avaipsiv (v. 21, § 84). 
KaraTTOvslv (v. 24, § 81). auiTxtpia (v. 25, § 98). ava- 
Xap.j3dvHv (v. 43, § 65). * SiaSixstTdai (v. 45, § 73). 

* ai;rt7riVrEiv (v. 51, § 66). * SianpisLV (v. 54, § 82). 
aTsvi^Hv (v. 55, § 53). 

vi. 12: "And. they stirred up (o-uvEKivjjo-av) the people, 



§ Lxxxiii.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 205 

and the elders, and the scribes, and came upon him, and 
caught him, and brought him to the council." 

*avyKiv!:'iv is peculiar to St. Luke, and it and many of the 
derivatives of kivuv were used in medical language. Galen. 
Comm. i. 4, Praedic. (xvi. 520) : koi to. avyKivoifitva tu^ OwpuKi 
/xopia (Tvvsiri(TKi\pm. Galen. Oomm. ii. 4, Bpid. iii. (xvii. A. 
597) : ttAeiovoc S' slanvoriQ Seojuevov koi to. (TUVE^rj roig kuto) 
avyKivovfitv. Galen. Anat. Muscul. (xviii. B. 992) : ovSiva 
KEKrrjrai fxvv 'ISiov, aXXa roTg SKaripuOav fxspeai (TvyKiveiTai. 
Galen. Med. Defin. 110 (xix. 376) : aipvyfioq Ian Kiyijtrte 
(j)VcnKri — (TvyKivovua Ofioiwg, ryv te Kagdiav koi rag aprripiaQ. 
Galen. De Plenitud. 5 (vii. 536) : avyKivetrai Ss rawrate ev 
avT(^ TO Ts vfivwSsg yivoQ. Galen. Diffieul. Eespir. i. 4 
(vii. 761) : r) filv Svvaixtc ri tpvxiKrj kivh tov 6(LpaKa Tij^ Se 
o irvEv/iiDv (TvyKivsirai. Galen. Diffieul. Eespix. i. 22 (vii. 
815) : Ttjv rate avairvoaiQ avyKtvovfxivwv opydvuv oKyrjfxa. 
Galen. Loc. Affect, iv. 7 (viii. 253) : wv oi fiiyuTTOL pitq rag 
w/iOTrXarag eavrdiQ (TvyKtvovcriv tvapyHtg. Galen. San. Tuend. 
ii. 11 (vi. 151) : (rvyKivovcn fitv irtug to. Korw tCjv (j)(i£vii)v 
uTrXayxva' Galen. Oomp. Med. vii. 14 (xiii. 1041) : Kop- 
Safiw/iov fivag r), a./j.wp.ov to '[(tov — avyKivriaag iirX ri/Jiepag i]. 

vii. 19 : " The same dealt subtilly with our kindred, 
and evil entreated (ekokwcte) our fathers, so that they 
cast put their young children, to the end they might not 
Uve." 

KOKOwv is used also verse 6, xii. 1 ; xiv. 2 ; xviii. 10, and 
only once again in the N. T. (1 Pet. iii. 13) : it was very 
much employed in medical language. 

Hipp. Vet. Med. 10 : e? -yap ttAeiw fayoi, ttoXu av tTi 
KaKwOeit}. Hipp. Humor. 48 : to, kyyvg koi tu KOiva ToXai 
iraOrifiaaL TTjowra icat fiaXiara KUKOVTai. Hipp. Ooac. Progn. 
195 : oIiTt TO. KQTd) KOKovTai. Hipp. Morb. Sacr. 306 : Sto 
ToSi vTrb Trig avoyioje ravTrig ai (pXijieg al Xoiiral KUKOvvTai. 
Hipp. Artie. 825 : KO/coilrai Si ttuv TO aKiXog avav^iaTspov 
yivsTai — KOKOurat yap tovtoicti koi to Kara Triv lyvvriv apdpov. 
Aretaeus, Sign. Morb. Diutum. : ^vjrep tig Trixpiv 17 yaarrjp 



206 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [pakt ii. 

Koi T(^ KwXtji KUKuOy. Dloscor. Mat. Med, iv. 162 : 'iva fifj 
■Kapappviiq KaKwai) ttjv ipapvy^a. Dioscor. Mat. Med. V. 49 : 
XpricrifiOQ KOKovjUEvoie (TTOfiaxov. Galen. Oomm. ii. 25, Acut. 
Morb. (xv. 560) : aTrourpl^ovTat ro mria KaKwOt'iarig avroig 
r^c yatrrpoc- Do. 28 (xv. 563) : oiJrwe koi rove irapa to 
Woe KOKwOtvTag EK fiovoaiTiaQ. 

vii. 26 : " And the next day he showed himself unto 
them as they stroye, and would have set them at one again 
{(TvvriXaatv aiiTovg), saying, Sirs, ye are brethren; why do 
ye wrong one to another ? " 

* (TvveXavvsiv is peculiar to St. Luke, as well as the 
following word, * airiXavvtiv. Both words, as also SieXavvciv 
and iEeXavveiv, are employed by the medical writers, and 
none of them are used in the N. T. except by St. Luke. 

Galen. Gomm. 13, Vic. Eat. (xv. 196) : awsXaivu Si slg 
TO (3d0og Kol TO. (TTrXayxva Trjv Oip/jLaatav. Galen. Ars 
Medio. 36 (i. 288) : jujj ttote apa Trjv ek tuv npoKHfiivwv, 
vypoTriTa avvcXauojptv tig to irtwovBog. Do. : avvtXavvovai 
TO koto, tov OwpaKa alpa Trpop to avXayxfov. Galen. 
Instrumen. Odor. 5 (ii. 876) : fxrfdev 6ap.rig pipog alg tov 
iyKi(j>aXov (rvveXavvETai. Galen. Meth. Med. 6 (x. 331) : 
(TUvsXavvsiv ei(T(i) to at/xa kol TrXrjpovv Tag iv ti^ fiaOsi (pXifiag. 
Galen. Remed. Parab. i. 16 (xiv. 384) : (rvveXavvsTui to ek 
twv Tripii\op.ivwv ayyil<i)v te koi juikDv aifxa irpog iKtivrtv koi 
ayav Xvwti. Galen. Loo. Affect, ii. 3 (viii. 315) : avacxTeXX- 
idBai TE Koi avviXavvtavai irpog to, iripuTa toiv apTripiuv. 
Galen, do. (316) : iraXivSpo/ificTEi yap airtKa to alpa avvE- 
Xavvo/xEvov vTrb tov TrvtvfiaTOg. Do. (316) : ol c eig fxiav 
apTripiav avTO avvEXavvovcri rjjv ejc tov irvtvpova 0EjoOjUEV))v. 
Galen. Comm. 9, Aph. (xvii. B. 576) : ol x"/^o' '■'J" ^""o to 
Sippa KivT|criv ekivovvto koI Siettveovto, koto Se to (jidivoirupov 
Etc TO j3a6og, viro Trjg tov irEpiixovTog ipv^Ewg wdovvrai te 
Kal avveXavvovTat. 

* uTTEXavvEiv. Acts, xviii. 16 : " And he drove them 
(anriXacrEv avTovg) from the judgment seat." 

Aretaeus, Our. Acut. Morb. 117 : roO KudapTripiov r»je 



§ Lxxxni.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. 207 

itprjg VTT avayKTig Si^ovai rj yap aTrrjXaflt) ^uv (j>\iyfiaTi Koi 
XoA^ TO <j)dpnaKov rj SiJjXOav. Axet. Our. Acut. Morb. 88 : 
rsy^iEC Trig Kt(j)a\rjg, aurep koi (j)piviTiKOi(Ti, aiKpoiv yap ai 
aladriaeig irXiai yiyvovrai ar/iiov, ag aTreXaivsiv xprj \pv^ti 
Kai aTv\pi poSivov koL maaov x^^'i'- Aret. Our. Diuturn. 
Morb. 138 : (ivvaTrr\Ka.dr\ Ttavra rije vovaov 'i\via. Hipp. 
Mul. Morb. 636 : tl jSouXa ek tov awfiarog rpi^ag aTreXaaai. 
Dioscor. Mat. Med. iii. 95 : voaovg aireXavveL. Diosoor. Mat. 
Med. iii. 126 : 9vp,Lwp.ivog KutvwTrag airiXavvu. Gralen. 
Medic. Temperament, v. 17 (xi. 759) : kXKTiKoi fi\v ovv ilaiv 
oaai TO. Kara j3a6og kirKJiriLvTai a^o^poTipov, aTroKpovariKoi 
Sk 0(701 TTpog TO fiaOog aTTsXavvovrri Toiig irXriaiaZovrag iv 
avToig \vfiovg. 

vii. 20 : " In which time Moses was born, and was ex- 
ceeding fair, and nourished up {avtTpd(j>r}) in his father's house 
threQ months." 

* avarpifBiv. Peculiar to St. Luke, who uses it again 
verse 21, and xxii. 3, was the term in medical language for 
" to carefully nourish after illness so as to give strength." 

Hipp. Artie. 817: ETrttra avadpixpai to (Tu/xa koi aTraXvvai. 
Hipp. Epid. 1229 : yaXa iroXXi^ ri^ liSart fiiyvvg kStSov koI 
avirpE^a. Hipp. Praedic. 88 : aXAd ttXsIovl ttotio xpriaBai 
rj ov SvvaaOai avarpa^jjvai ear' av to. ToiavTa TTOTiy to ovpov. 
Aretaeus, Cur. Acut. Morb. 115 : oKiog ek tov vsKputSiog 
iVTaOitr) Kol avaTpa<j)Hri to Z<^Trvpov — oi'oE avarpo^rig oKwg 
aoTiTOKoi irdiSig SiovTai. Gralen. Oomm. iii. 29, Epid. vi. 
(xvii. B. 83) : airag Xetttv^hoc xaXq. to Sepfia, iripiTeivsrai 
S' 'ifiTraXiv avaTp£(pofj,iv<jov, avadpsxpig Se Tavavria tte^uke 
TToiEiv. Gralen. Oomm. i. 3, Aph. (xvii. B. 364) : iVa ovv 
Exr\ xi^pav avdcg avarpii^EaOai to auifia, XvEiv xpfj p.rj fipaSioig 
Trjv EVE^iav. Gralen. Oomm. ii. 6, Aph. (xvii. B. 461) : Sia 
TavT ovv EV XP^vif) irXsiovi \pri to, TOtavra (TWfxuTa avarpi- 
(pEiv — £7rt TOVTU}v Sio. Ta\Eit)v avaTpt<j)Eiv iyyj^pii koi aKpwg 
EvOappovvTug Tr? tQv aTEptiov EvpuxTTiq. Galen. Oomm. ii. 22, 
Aph. (xvii. B. 502) : uxrirep koX eI vtto KivaxjEwg voaog avvi- 
(TTUTai avarpE^Eiv on TdxiO'''0' TrpoarjKEi. 



208 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [past ii. 

vii. 54. " When they heard these things, they were cut 
to the heart, and they gnashed on him with their teeth" 
{t^pv^ov ToiiQ oSovrac). 

* j5(ivxsiv is peculiar to St. Luke, and is used in medical 
language to describe a symptom or a consequence of some 



Hipp. Morb. Mul. 589 : koi 17 yaarfjp aiirije uKXnpv 
irjTaL Kol fii'tZoov rj TOirpoaOev Kai fipv^ci roiig oSovrag Koi 
aaiTTitJU Kol aypvTrvricyti- Hipp. Morb. Mul. 593 : koi to. 
\iVKa Tutv o^QaXfxHiv avajSaXXst koi i/'i'XP'J yivsrai, iicri 8e 
ai Kai ^teAiSvcii Yivoirat, 17 Se Kai roue oSovrae [5pvx^i ^al 
(jtaXa tTTi (TTOfia pisi, Kai EOiKao't TOicnv viro Trig rjjoaKAEtije 
v6(Tov oruvExojUEvotfftv. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 604 : ot /xijpoi 
irifiirpavTai koi ek tov trTOfiarog Kai ek tojv piviwv phi (jiXiyfia 
l(T)(ypiiig vSaplg, Kai aXyiei KE^aXjyv Kai nvp et^eIj Kai ^ptK?i 
Koi olSuL Kai 01 oSovTEc fipvxovai. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 644 : 
Kai 17 yacTTrjp aviuTUTai 17 vnaipri Kai (TKXripij yivirai Kai tjv 
\pav<Tt)c, aXyiii, Kai (5pvx'^h "ai Trvp £;(;£t Kat 6Suv»). Hipp. 
Morb. Mul. 658 : koi fjv ipavayg Trig variptig, ovk iv Koo-jut^i 
£<Tr(, Kai ri KapSiri iraXXarai koX /Bpv^Et, Kai Idpojg novXiig, 
Kai TciWa oaa vtto 'uprig voaov iwiXriTrTOL Traaxovai. 

vii. 45. " Which also our fathers that came after brought 
in with Jesus into the possession of the Grentiles, whom Grod 
drave out (e^wo-ev) before the face of our fathers, unto the 
days of David." 

*£?u)0eTi^. Peculiar to St. Luke, and used again Acts, 
xxvii. 39 : l^Haat to irXolov. 

Hipp. Artie. 811 : oute yap ig TO e^ii) i^uiaOiivai, crrrov- 
ovXovg pri'iSi6v tariv. Hipp. Bpid. 1168 : x^fioiig, Tovg /Av 
i^uxrat, Toiig 8e ^ripavai. Hipp. Morb. 503 : TrapayLverai 
dg Ttiv KOiXirjv i^wOevfiivri vtto Trjg virig. Hipp. Morb. 
405 : OTTO roij vypov tov Troviovrog i^uydisTat ti Ik tov awfia- 
Tog VTTO TOV vzoTOiTrig 'iKfiaSoQ viKWfjLEvov. Hipp. Morb. 506 : 

Kai tXV E^OOOV TO TTVOg i^wOsVIXiVOV VTTO TOV vypov TOV 

iXdovTog Iv Ty rapaxy- Aretaeus, Sign. Acut. Morb. 5 : 
Twv IcTxifov k^utOivixtvoJV wg Sokeejv ig iyvvriv Kara yJvu 



§ Lxxxiv.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 209 

TO apOpov l?w(70ai. Galen. Acut. Morb. iv. 17 (xv. 766) : 
Tj oarovv t^ojaOy Kara apOpov. Galen. Eenum AfEect. 
(xix. 671) Kal irapaxprifxa pwaOlvTWv rHiv vicppMV i^wOriaav 
Tov ia<j)rivo)fiivov Xt0ov. Galen. Usus Part. v. 14 (iii. 396) : 
wg iirl rag voOovg irXevpag koI tuq Xayovac E^wOdaOai 
TTavra. 

vii. 51. "Ye stiffmched {(jK\r\poTpaxrt\oi) and. ■uncircum- 
cised in heart and ears, ye do always resist the Holy Ghost : 
as your fathers did, so do ye." 

*(TKXr)|0OTpax»)Xoe. This word, used by the LXX., is 
found in St. Luke alone of the N. T. writers. He, how- 
ever, was accustomed to the use of it in his medical practice. 
Hipp. Coac. Progn. 161 : Tpa\r\\og o-icXjjpoc koI iTriLSwoQ 
Koi jivvwv (TvvSetTtg koI ^XejSwv a^ayiridiijv TraXfxbg i(T)(y(>og 
Koi TBvovTwv ^vvTuaig, oXiOptov. 



§ LXXXIV. 

Acts, VIII. 

* avaiQiaiQ. avaipuv. * SiaaireipHV. * XvfxaiveaBai. Karsp- 
Xe<rQai- SdpxiaBai. * Su^ipxta-Oai. * STravipx^crOat. 

* avTnrapipx^<^Bai. * Ttpovnupx^'-^- vTrapx^'"- 

* TrapaXviaOai (verse 7, § 5). * fjisatiinfipia (v. 26, § 67). 

*KoAXa(T0ai (v. 29, §66). 

1. " And Saul was consenting unto his death {ry avmpiau 
avTov). And at' that time there was a great persecution 
against the church which was at Jerusalem ; and they were 
all scattered abroad [iiiairapi]aav) throughout the regions of 
Judsea and Samaria, except the apostles." 

* avaiptaig. Peculiar to St. Luke. This word and avat/ottv 
and avuiptTiKog, were much used in medical language. 

2 E 



210 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [pakt ii. 

Galen. Morb. Acut. i. 2 (xv. 421) : rfiv Qepansiav ttjv 
Tuv vO(TrifiaTbiv avaipsaiv r}8») yeysvriiJ,iv(ov ov yivofxivwv \ti. 
Gralen. Oomm. ii, 22, Aph. (xvii. A. 603) : ri \syovTeg ovk 
eivai depamiav t-^v avalpea-iv twv ttolovvtwv rag voaovg 
ahiwv. Gralen. Opt. Sect. 47 (i. 217) : rfiv fiuiocnv koi ttjv 
avaipiOLv twv voujjjUarnjv. Do. 218 : koX t) Sia9e(Ttg rriv avai- 
peaiv fiovov evSdicvvTai tuiv voa-rj/xarwi". Galen. Inaequal. 
Intemper. 6 (vii. 746) : ri fdv Trjg vytiag (pvXaKri Sia tCiv 
bixoitiiv fi §£ rdiv voarifiarwv avaipccrig Sia tCiv ivavTiwv. 
Galen. Meth. Med. iii. 9 (x. 218) : 17 8a Tr\g laaiwg Ta%ig 
cnro Trig avaipiaEwg tov pvirov rrjv ap)(riv tx^'- -Do. viil. 1 
(x. 535) : cnravTog Trvperov rrjv avaigiaiv ivSetKVVfiivri. Do. 
2 (534) : Kol T17V 'iaaiv avaipiaiv etvai Trjg SvoKpaaiag. Galen. 
Meth. Med. ix. 10 (x. 636) : 17 tov vocrrifiarog avalptaig. 
Galen. De Atra Bile, 9 (v. 144) : dg avaipimv tov fitXay- 
XoXiKov 'xyiJiov. 

avaipuv. Acts, ii. 23 : " Him, being delivered by the 
determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God, ye have 
taken, and by wicked hands have crucified and slain " {avd- 
Xare). 

This word, which was much used in medical language, 
is found ttventy-one times in St. Luke's writings, and only 
three times in the rest of the N. T., viz.. Matt. ii. 16; 
2 Thess. ii. 8; Heb. x. 9. In the first of the following 
examples it is used in conjunction with another medical 
word {iTrLXiipEiv), as St. Luke does in Acts, ix 29: ot Se 
l7ri\iipovv avTov avsXsXv. 

Galen. Oomm. ii. 51, Epid. i. : 6 piv yap larpog avcXslv 
ETTEXEtptt TO voaripa. Hipp. Progn. 44 : at Sk Kwayxat 
ouvoTUTai piv dai Kai TaxioTa avaipovm. Hipp. Coac. Progn. 
137 : Toiig KavcFwdtag StaKpivovmv ai TsaaapicTKaiSeKa r)pipai 
Kov(piZov<jai T} avaipovaai. Hipp. Ooac. Progn. 148 : aiTog 
novog avvTovog jutra TrvptTov o^eog — rove Se TTjOEdjSuTEpoue 
(BpaSvTcpov Koi ^(j(7ov avaipii. Hipp. Coac. Progn. 192 : 
Ktti yap ai ott avTiwv wovoi iKavol avtXitv. Dioscor. 
Mat. Med. iii. 45: avatpuv <jia<j\ fSpwOiv. 83: ^aal Se koi 



§ Lxxxiv.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 211 

avaipsiv avTo ttXhov iroOiv. iv. 65 : ir'Xdwv 8e ttoOu^ 
PXaTTTU, TTOiojv XriOapjiKoiiQ KOI avaipEi. 74 : S' Ss Spaxfioi 
TToOuGai Koi avaipoixTiv. Gralen. Oomm. v. 30, Aph. (xvii B. 
820) : Tov TTvptTov haipovvTOQ TO £fi(3pvov. Gralen. Antid. 
1. 1 (xiv. 2) : eTTL Twv avaipoivrwv ^ap/xciKuyv. 

1. "tvere all scattered abroad" (dismrapritjav). 

* Siaairdpav, peculiar to St. Luke, and used also in verse 
4, and xi. 19, was employed in medical language, like Siavi- 
fiuv, to describe the distribution of the blood, humours, 
nerves, &c., through the body. 

Aretaeus, Sign. Diuturn. Morb. 51: to yap Iv t^ ava- 
oocTu alfia TTjv aspjtriv Trjv tov kwAou iirixov diaatrdpn wuvtI 
Xeofiivov. Gralen. Oomm. iii. 3 : Aliment, (xv. 267) : 6 yap 
XVfioQ 6 fieXXwv oTiovv Twv TOV t,wov fjLopiwv Qphl^uv irpwTOv 
fjiiv tig awav avTo StacnrdpaTat. Gralen. Comm. iii. 10, 
Aliment, (xv. 292) : oxirovg Se sS avTrjc slg oXov to awp.a 
SiaaTTeipo/jiivovg. Gralen. Oomm. i. 12, Humor, (xvi. 124) : 
Si" oXov yap awfiarog Biscnrapfjiivov tov TrXEOvaZovTog. Gralen. 
Oomm. ii. 41, Praedic. (xvi. 602) : to. re tov Gw/xaTog fiopia 
iig a Siacnrdperai vevpa. Galen. Natural. Facul. iii. 14 
(ii. 211) : oxifol ttoXXoI Kara wavTa ra fiipri SiscTTrapfiivoi 
Trapayovatv aiiTotg aifia. Gralen. Anat. Administr. iii. 2 
(ii. 353) : Tag apx^g tuiv eIq to Sip/xa SiacnreipofiivtiJV vtvpwv. 
Gralen. Anat. Administr. iii. 3 (ii. 356) : tov Si alg tov 
BeXTouSrj fivv SiaaTreipoixhov. Gralen. Anat. Ven. 2 (ii. 786) : 
dg oXov TO (TTrXayxvov Siaaireipofievog. Gralen. Anat. Ven. 6 
(801) : apaxvouSdg airocjtvovTai TOig sirnroXrig X'^'P'O'C ^'■<^' 

CfTTUpOfiSVai. 

3. " As for Saul, he made havock [lXvp.aiviTo) of the church, 
entering into every house, and haling men and women com- 
mitted them to prison." 

* XvixaivtcF0ai, peculiar to St. Luke, was an usual word in 
medical language to describe the ravages of disease — the 
injury done by unskilful medical treatment. 

Hipp. Vet. Med. 13: ravTa /xlv swpwv kuI r(j> avflpwTrij) 
ivtovTa Koi Xvfiaivofitva tov avBpwnov. Hipp. Yet. Med. 17 : 



212 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

El SI iraay ry av0pw7rtv^ (j>v(ju fiv kukov iravraQ av kXvfjialveTO. 
Hipp. Morb. Sacr. 307 : koI h rovrt^ SijXov on yvtixry on 
ovx o Oeoq to aii)fia Xv/naiviTai aXX' 17 vocrog. Hipp. 
Artie. 790 : ttoXXovq ovv oWa liqrpovQ raXXo ov <pXaii- 
p(t)Q iovTOQ 01 TToWa T/S(j iXvfiTivavTo. Hipp. Apuoron. 825 : 
Sat Se ra avJjKEtjra ^vvtevai (Lg fxrj fiaXiara Xvfiaivrfrai. 
Dioscor. Animal. Ven. Proem. : tov arKopniov koI twv aXXuv 
Tuv ToiovTwv ry crapKi Xvfjtaivofxivwv. Dioscor. Medic. Parab. 
ii. 63 : koI ovtb aroiiaxov XvfiaivtTai. Galen. Oomm. 4, Nat. 
Hom. (xv. 121) : etti filv ovv rCiv avaOvfiidaewv XvfiaivofiiVMv 
ro'iQ (Tbjfiaai. Gralen. Oomm. i. 1, Humor, (xvi. 48) : lirtiSri 
ovv r] Tpoi^fi KoXfi rj kok?) TroXXa ralg Trjg ipv)(rig ivepysiaiQ 
XvfiaiviTai. Galen. Oomm. ii. 3, Epid iii. (xvii. A. 591) : 
pevfiara ^apvyyi koi yapyapstjvt Xvfiaivofitva. 

5. " Then Philip loent doton [KanXOwv) to the city of 
Samaria, and preached Christ unto them." 

KaripxiaQai is Msedi fifteen times hy St. Luke and only once 
in the rest of the N. T. (James, iii. 15). It and some others 
of the compounds of ipxit^Qai were much employed in a me- 
dical sense. 

Hipp. Intern. Affect. 541 : r} rs oSwvj? o^vrspij kotepx^''"' 
KanoTipw. Hipp. Intern. Affect. 553: koi le tovq tto'Soc 
oiSr]fia KaTfpxerai. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 604 : vtto tov difxaTog 
E^aTTivrjc KaTsXOovrog. Ho. 667 : rjv SI vovXiig KaT£p\r]Tai 6 
poog. Hipp. Nat. Puer. 239 : aifia KaTipx^Tai etti rijv av^ijv 
Ti^ TratSitjj. Galen. Oomm. 6. Nat. Hom. (xv. 138) : Erspov 
S' aXXo ^ivyog KOTE/o^Erat Sia tov TpaxvXov. Galen. Oomm. 
iv. 3, Epid. vi. (xvii. B. 126) : kuI Sia tovto KaTsXOovTog tov 
TV(j>Xov IvTtpov pqaTuivriaai. Galen. Temperament, ii. 6 
(i. 630) : £K Trig KSfpaXrjg KoripxiTai fXiypa. Galen. Oss. 1 
(ll. 743) : o<TOv S' EKarlpwtrE Karsp^eroi Trpoc Trjv VTrepwav- 
Galen. Usus Part. ix. 11 (iii. 726) : KaTspx^Tai. yap Tavra 
P-iXP*- ''''' ^""^ TrXoTEoe btjTov. 

40. " But Philip was found at Azotus ; and passing 
through (SiEpxojuEvoe) he preached in all the cities, till he 
came to Oaesarea." 



* Lxxxiv.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 213 

SiipXiaOai is used thirttj-hco times by St. Luke and but 
twelve times in the rest of the N. T. ; it was much employed in 
a medical sense. 

Hipp. Ooao. Progn. 127 : irvpiaaovn iv apxv jmiXaiva 
XoXi) avii) rj kutw SieXOovaa Oavaa-ifiov. Hipp. Ooac. Progn. 
147 : KWjuaTwSsae, KOTriwSsac KeKuxpu/xivovc, KOiXirig Karep- 
pojyvirjQ tpv9pa SieXOovtu mpl Kpifftv ui^sXiet. Hipp. Ooac. 
Progn. 167 : ol irepl ojKJyaXov irovoi TraXfiiLSssg i)(ov(Ti fiiv tl 
Koi yvwfxriQ Trapaijiopov, Trspl Kp'imv S' ovv rovTOiirt (pXij/xa 
aXiQ avxyov avv irovij) St£px;Era(. Hipp. Morb. Mul. : koi 

V<TTEpOQ i^lllTlV 6 O/jKpaXoQ EK Tfajv fXl)Tpi(t)V, jjv Jap VpOTipOQ 

lt,ioi, 01 avTOv OVK. av SiiXOoi rtj» TraiS/tj) ij Tpo(^{). Hipp. 
Morb. Mul. 612 : to filv h rfiv kxxttiv SaXOov. Galen. 
Gomm. iv. 6, Aliment, (xv. 390) : aiiri? ri fXEyiarr) tCjv 
apTripiwv TO. Kara tov ddopaKOQ Siepxofiivri. Galen. Comm. i. 
21, Praedic. i. (xvi. 557) : irpoaBwhivTat Sk Ttjv ocr^vv Sia to 
Spi/iuav ilvai Kol SaKvttiSj) ttjv ev roig iVTspoig SiEpxo/ZEVjjv 
XoXfjv. Galen. Oomm. iii. 48, Epid. iii. (xvii. A. 701) : tu 
TE KOTO Tiijv yaaripa Sispxofisva. Galen. Nat. Facul. i. 14 
(ii. 47) : ra 8' Etc avTov ilaSvo/xeva Sia twv kevwv vopwv 
Stipxe(Tdai TaxK^Ta. Galen. Nat. Facul. iii. 13 (ii. 200) : ev 

Si TOVTlj) r(j) XpOVtjl SltpXOfiiVTf TO EVTEjOOV aTTttV IJ TpOCpfj. 

* Bii^tpxi'^Oai- Acts, xxviii. 3: "And when Paul had 
gathered a bundle of sticks, and laid them on the fire, there 
came a viper out (Bu%eX9ov(ja) of the heat, and fastened on 
his hand." 

Peculiar to St. Lute, and, like the two preceding words, 
very much used in medical language. 

Hipp. Praedic. 112 : koi icoTrpaJSrje nv^a iroXXa SiE^epxE- 
Tai. Hipp. Flat. 300 : KwXvsTai to ai/xa Sa^uvai, ry /liv ovv 
"larrim, t-q Se vii)Bpu>Q BieKipx^Tai. Hipp. Morb. 510 : scttI 
KOI TO aXXo vypov, rjv juev ig KoiXirfv 'iXOij tov orpo^ov iv Ty 
KOiXiy E7ro(r)(j-£ Kol BttErjXOev f.%(i}, ovSlv jxiya atvoQ irapaax'^v. 
Hipp. Progn. 40 : eoti Se ra TOiavTa ^vafiardoSea icai xoXwSsa, 

TTOTE jUEV OfXOl) ^E^EpX^j"'^" aXAjjXoKTl VOTE Si KUTO. fMSpOQ. 

Galen. Oomm. iii. 2, Aliment, (xv. 266) : ov SvvaTat 6 ek 



214 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

rwv aiTiwv X'^i"°f P<}^it^Q Sis^ipx^'^Ocit rag £V rjTrari (pXijiag. 
Gralen. Oomm. iii. 6, Aliment, (xv. 277) : aXAa rije avaSo- 
o-Ewe pv^iy tpepofievog Sit^ripx^'r av tToifiwq Si' oXou rov 
(ynXayxvov. Gralen. Oomm. iv. 4, Aliment, (xv. 383) : 6 Bk 
Tov irv£v/jiovog \itwv, Tra^iie /cat TrvKVoe /cat oia roOro oi/otv 
7rX77v TO XsirTOTUTov kq. Su^ipx^'^^"^' Gralen. Oomm. iv. 5, 
Aliment, (xv. 390) : Sn^spxofuvov Si ra ruv ar (nrovBvXwv 
Tprifiara. Galen. Morb. Aeut. i. 17 (xv. 458) : Sie^lpx^™' 
yap TOV OdpaKa. Gralen. Oomm. iv. 24, Morb. Acut. (xv. 

782) : OUIC ETTtrpETTEJ TO Sll^ipXil^Oal TO TTVtVfia. 

* £7rav£|OXE(70at. Luke,- X. 35, and xix. 15, a much used 
and technical medical term: see § 21. 

* avTiwapipxio^Oai. Luke, X. 31 : see § 21. 

9. " But there was a certain man, called Simon, which 
heforetime in the same city used sorcery [-rrpovirripxiv), and 
bewitched the people of Samaria, giving out that himself was 
some great one." 

* TTpoi/TrajOXEti'j peculiar to St. Luke, and used also Luke, 
xxiii. 12, was employed Jin the medical writers to describe a 
pre-existing disease, &c. 

Hipp. Epid. 1120 : TrpovTrripxf- Se oBvvr\ tiq avwTtpw. 
Hipp. Aph. 1247 : /cot Trepl tov OwpaKa aXyttfia vv tl irpovn- 
apx^h fiaXXov TToviovai. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 589 : ijv ol 
KUTcXOovTa i^ayayri Ta TTpovTrapxovTa, iv 81 Total TpiTaioiuiv 
apuTTa /liv TTsiatTai. Hipp. Aliment. 380 : Tpo^rj ufxatoT ol 
EC Svvafjiiv, OKOTav /cparsEi jUEf ?j iiriovcTa, ETrt/cpartEt Se 17 
irpovTrapxovaa. Gralen. Oomm. i. 2, Aliment, (xv. 233) : icai 
BvvafjUQ ri TrpovTrapxovcra STriKparhi /cat to TeXog rpi^u. 
Gralen. Humor, iii. 13 (xvi. 412) : /cat napo^ivH rag TrpovTr- 
apxovtrac oSvvag /caro tov Owpaaa. Gralen. Comm. ii. 5, Epid. 
111. (xvii. A. 623) : X'^'P'C '"'ic ^^ ''V '^'^P-o^'- TrpovTrapxoiarig 
voawSovg KaracTKevrig. Gralen. Oomm. ii. 10, Aph. (xvii. 
B. 466) : (jvvoia(f>BdptTai yap r\ iiviKyiovaa Tpo^rj Ty TrpouTT- 
apxovo-^ /cara to awfia /ca/cox^jutg. Gralen. Oomm. iii. 17, 
Aph. (xvil. B. 610) : /cot wapo^wBrivai Tag npovirapxovaag 
oSvvag /cara tov OwpaKo. Gralen. Meth. Med. xiii. 14 



§ Lxxxv.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. 215 

(x. 909) : T(j) TTjOOVTTapxovrt Kara to aTrXajxyov a'lfiaTi /xiy- 
vvTai. 

vTrap-)(£iv. This word is used sixty-two times in the iV. T., 
St. Luke using it forty-two times; all the other writers hut 
twenty. It was very frequently employed in medical lan- 
guage, particularly by Galen, who has it in almost every 
page ia some of his treatises : see vols. x. xi. 



§ LXXXV. 

Acts, IX. 
TThLpaaOai. 

* IfXTrvkiv (verse 1, § 89). TrifnrXnui (v. 17, § 60). * aTrowinrtiv 
V. 18, § 25). * X^TT'ig (v. 18, § 25). Trapaxpij/xa (v. 18, 
§ 57). *^v7XEav (v. 22, § 79). TtapaTr)Quv (v. 24, § 72). 
avaiQuv (v. 23, § 84). -xakav (v. 25, § 61). KoXkaaQaL 
(v. 26, § 66). * iirixiipuv (v. 29, § 57). hi^x^adai 
V. 32, § 84). Karipx^adai (v. 32, § 84). * 7rapaA»5£<T0ai 
(v. 33, § 5). * iTftQii^ov (v. 37, § 78). * avaKaeit,uv 



(V. 40, § 10). 



Acts, X. 



* 68ij7rojO£ti'. * ^loBivuy. * apXH- * odovn). 
* /XETaKaXeiv. 

aTEviHuv (verse 4, § 53). * iKaramg (v. 10, § 28). avaXafi- 

t5aviiv (v. 16, § 65). * Sianopelv (v. 17, § 74). TrpoffSo- 

K^v (v. 24, § 74). KoWcKrOai (v. 28, § 66.) avaipeXv 
(v. 39, § 84). &<j>aaLg (v. 43, § 59). 

ix. 26 : " And when Saul was come to Jerusalem, he 
assayed (iirsipaTo) to join himself to the disciples." 

TTiipaaOat, used also xxvi. 21, and once elsewhere (Heb. 
iv. 15), was a word very frequently employed in the medical 
writers for " to attempt some method of cure or surgical opera- 
tion." There was also a class of medicines called mipriTripiov. 



216 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

Hipp. Morb. Mul. 625 : ir£tpr)T{]piov fiwXvZav oKopoSov 
uTToZiaag UQoaOiivai Sipav' iTcpov iruprtTripiov. veroonov 
6\ijov, &C. 

Hipp. Artie. 829 : ol<n 8' av fifi i/jil5Xr,6y tcl oaria (UJjge 
TTEiprtOy EjujSaXXfcrOai, ovtol ij-oXvirXtioveg iripijivovTai. Hipp. 
Vul. Cap. 902 : wpwrov SiayivuxTKUv Treipfjtjdai u ti iriirovOs 
TovTo TO oariov. Hipp. Vul. Cap. 920 : ouSt Kivivviviiv TO, 
baria TTupwfiivov a^aiphiv Trp\v rj avTOfxara siravty. Hipp. 
Vul. Oap. 913 : koI TrtipaaOai avaKLviwv to bariov ava(iaX- 
Xtiv. Hipp. Epid. 1194 : tovtovq ovSi avacTTaasi ttu^ojue- 
vovQ ovSiv a^iov \6yov w(j)£\ti, ovra ya(TTpoQ Tapa')(rj, ovtb 
(p\ej3oT0fiiri oaa iirtipaOriv. Gralen. Oomm. i. 7, Humor, 
(xvi. 80) : OTi T} TTiipa hri(T(paX{fQ Iotiv oiiScif ayvoil tovto Se 
7ra(7i^£( Ota to inroKil/iEvov -rrepX o 17 Tixyr) IdTiv, ov yap 
oippara kol ^v\a Koi TrXivOot, Sjansp tuv aXXuv t£-)(^vwv 
vXr) rfjc laTpiKYiQ iuTiv iv oiq E^EOTt TTiipaaQai olvev Ktvdvvov, 
aW Iv avupwirdb) awfiaTi, l(j)' ov TrupaaQai Ttov airupucjTUiv 
ovK a<j(pa\ig. Galen. Comm. i. 7, Humor, (xvi. 85) : Su 
7oi)v Ttiiv TravTwv S)v tv Ty laTpiKy XP''" fxsyaXri irupaaQai wq 
iXit upog Tr)v tov KUfivovTog (pvmv. Gralen. Oomm. i. 14, 
Humor, (xvi. 153) : rijc a<l>oSpae alfioppayiaQ (doridrifia ttjv 
(jiAefSoTOfiiav tlvai, rifXEiQ yap ttoXXclkic; tovtov tTTiipadrifxtv. 
Gralen. Aph. Comm. ii. 29 (xvii. B. 523) : ev olg iXwiZti 
awdi](T£(Tdai TOV KUfivovTa TTtipauOai xp»? to, ptiZto f3ori9riixaTa. 

X. 9 : "On the morrow, as they ivent on their journey " 
{oSonropovvTtxiv) . 

* oSoiwopsiv, peculiar to St. Luke, was muoli used in 
medical language to express, besides its ordinary meaning, 
the taking of exercise by patients — the passage of humours 
through the body — the course of the nerves — the passage of 
a calculus, &c. 

Hipp. Loc. m Hom. : aiiTt) Se 17 iypoTri^ anb Trig KOiXtJje 
aiTO(^paaao^ivr\ Iq ttiv Ke^aXiiv w^oivopriasv adpor}. Hipp. 
J-iOC. in Hom. 417: ottotuv yap p6og aiT0(ppa)(6y koi firj E^r) 
OTTJ} bcoivopfiri bSoiiropiovaa ec to, apOpa pit ig to vneiKOv koi 
l(TxiaSa iToiki. Hipp. Epid. 1138 : ek Tiivtapov blomopn<ni 



§ Lxxxv.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 217 

oSvvr) TToSwv. Hipp. Intern. AfEect. 539 : juefl' rifiipav ti^ 

aiir(j) oiv(j^ ^p£E(70W ETTl (7£Tlt{) KOt oSoiTTOjOEETW T))? 7]jxipr)^ 

iKUTOv TTSVTriKOVTa trraSiouc. Hipp. Moch. 854 : ^v /xlv 
ovv r}v^r]fxsvoicn to dariov firj Ifxirkar} inX jBov^ucri Ka/xTriXoi 
oSoiwopsovm. Aretaeus, Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 40 : alrtri Sk 
TU)v api^EtiJV Twv viVQtuv r/ £7raXXa'yj7 oi» -yap Kar 'i^iv ra St^ia 
iir\ Ss^ia oSoiTTopsei. Aret. Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 61 : alaOriaiQ 
Tov \i6ov oSoiiropiovToc. Galen. Usus Part. xiii. 3 (iv. 85) ; 
ra TprifiuTa icat ra Si' avTwv eK(j)v6/ieva vevpa — wq av oia 
fiOKpov T£ fjiiWovcnv 6Soj7rop>)(7Eiv Etc TO. irpoertt) tov I^wov. 
Gralen. Usus Part. xiv. 4 (iv. 229) : koi Ka0' oAjjc aur^e 
6oonropri(Tai fi^XP'- ^^^ usyaXriQ apTTjpiag. Gralen. Comp. 
Med. iii. 2 (xiii. 608) : oh fiovov Si fxEjaXa vevpa Sia tov 
[BaOovg oSotTTopovvTa. 

* SioStvHv. Acts, xvii. 1 : " Now when they had passed 
through {SioSiirravTE^) Amphipolis and ApoUonia, they came 
to Thessalonica, where was a synagogue of the Jews." 

Peculiar to St. Luke, and used again, Luke, viii. 1. This 
word, like oSrjKopslv, was employed in medical language. The 
substantive SioSog is very frequently, and SioSivmQ sometimes, 
used in a medical sense. 

Gralen. Sem. i. 7 (iv. 538) : ovofiaZiTai Se xopiov vfifiv 
oiiTog 6 £?w0£v Of SioSevovfftv at aprtipiai te Koi a'l (j)\ej3sg, 
v\aQ EK TrJQ jxryrpaQ ilg ro Kvov/ievov ayovaai. Gralen. Loc. 
Affect, i. 2 (viii. 20) : eartv 8' 6te /cai to Spwv ahrb SioSivov 
ova eiTTripijfiivov tv r(j) ixopiog to naOog epyaZeTat. Gralen. 
Loc. Affect, i. 6 : aWiog Se to. tuv {nro^BOfiivaiv Trac!-)(pv<n 
^avTCKJfjiaTa, pifTi dippaivopeviov twv 6<^Ba\fi(i)v prjTt Smtuvo- 
fisvitiv aXAa ixovov aTfiov SioSsvovtoq avTOvg. Hipp. Flat. 
298 : TravTwv yap twv tolovtwv axTiri tov wvtvpaTog ij Sio- 
SsvcTic- Hipp. Progn. 78 : /itO^ alp.oppaylav jUEXavtuv Siodog 
KOKov. Hipp. De Grenitur. 232 : uvtyi Se tj SioSog VTrb ttiq 
voprJQ oiiAjje ysvopivijQ OTEpEjj yiyoviv. Hipp. Nat. Oss. 
280 : iv yap aTivoxwp'ng tJiq StoSou tvlSpvTai. Hipp. Eat. 
Vic. 355 : Tpofprjv Se ti^ aoJuaTi ttAeiotijm SiSaimv ote Srj 
ri(jv)(y] SixovTai Tpo<j>riv ai Siodoi. Hipp. Loc. in Hom- ^12 : 

2 F 



218 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [pakt ii. 

ayet or) to ^ripov tov adfiaroQ to sk tiiq KS<j)aXriQ vypov koi 
afxa Kol SioSoi dcnv Ti^ ayovTi fjiaXXov rj t^ ayofiivd^. 
Aretaeus, Cur. Acut. Morb. 106 : at tUv (p\ef3wv KEvwo-tse 

£VpVTipr]V TTJV TOV TTViVflOVOQ TTodoVdl \(l)ptiV If SloSov TrJQ 

avairvorig. 

X. 11 : " And saw heaven opened, and a certain vessel 
descending unto him, as it had been a great sheet [oOovriv 
fiiy a\r)v) knit at the four corners {TicfuaQaiv apxo^^)} and let 
down to the earth. 

* apxai. * oOovrj. apxai, in the sense it bears here, is 
peculiar to St. Luke, as also is oOovn ; and the phrase apx«' 
oOuvrig bears clearly on the face of it the mark of a medical 
hand, for this strange use of apx'^'h "the beginnings," for "the 
ends," was the technical expression in medical language for 
the ends of bandages, instead of iripaTu employed in ordinary 
language. Galen remarks on this use, Comm. Offic. ii. 8 (xviii. 
B. 748) : Kot Tiaiv eSo^sv ap\ac aTrtSlc/itov ukovsiv avrt Toii 
TrepuTa, kqitoi ytviKWTipov ovofia to Ttipag turi ttiq apxVQ- 

The bandage itself was termed iiriSBv/ioc, bB6vr\ and 
oBoviov, oQoviov being the term in Hippocrates; in the 
other medical writers it is as often bQovrt as oOdviov. We 
have thus in this passage a technical medical phrase apxai- 
uOovriQ — the ends of a bandage — used for the ends of a 
sheet, an expression which hardly anyone except a medical 
man would think of employing. Still further, it would not 
be out of the way for a physician to speak of a sheet or 
bandage having more than two ends, apxal, as it had fre- 
quently eight, six, or four ends, according to the purpose 
for which it was required, the bandage being sometimes 
at its extremities split into a certain number of strips, the 
middle being left entire: e.g. Gralen. De Fasciis, 8 (xviii. A. 
783) : Staipovfjiiv TO puKog tie UKsXri Tiaaapa to iiiuov <jvviy\Q 
Iwintg. Do. 9 (783) : SieXovtec to puKog sic <tkeX)} oktu) tov 
piaov a(rx'L'^'''OV KaToXdnoixivov. Do. 7 (782) : avp/xsTpov 
pctKog \af56vTsg iiriirxiKoixev slg (tkeAi) ?£. 

For this use of apxn in connection with oOovri, oBoviov, 



§ Lxxxv.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 219 

&0., compare Hipp. Fraot. 753 : iwuTa tniStiv nJ oOovIijj) tiiv 
ap'xrjv (iaWofiivoQ Kara to Korriyfia — twv c£ OEvrtpajv oSoviwv 
rfiv filv apxfiv (BaXXtaOai im to KciTriyfia. Hipp. Fract. 763 : 
TO. irpoJTa oBovia — ^aWiaOu) Se Trjv apxnv Kara to KaTii\jfxa. 
Hipp. Fract. 767 : fiiyiarov yap Igtiv to yivwaKUv kuO 
birolov Tpowov xprj ttjv apxrjv ^aXXscrOai tov oOoviov — rjv 
opOCjg TIC j3aXXijrat rrjv apxV" "oi TrlsZy. Hipp. Fract. 773 : 
Trjv iiriSeaiv TroihaOai Ik fiiaov tov oOoviov ap^Piiivov ijQ 
Itu to TToXi) (I)c etI ^vo ap)(iti)v VTTodetrfUQ virodiiTat. Hipp. 
Fract. 779 : IttiSeiv Se xP'^i ''"^^ '''^ f'-PX^'^ '""'' TrpwTov oOoviov 
/SaXXojUEvov Kara to (iXa^Oiv. Hipp. Artie. 802 : tTTEfra we 
cnro Svo ap\sb)v ETridiiTai ovTwg oOovit^ kg awa^ irspipaXietv. 
Hipp. Artie. 828 : orav SI ?}Sij iiriScdi/JLevog 'iri, tvog nvog tHiv 
oOovibJV XP*?) oiffLv kTTidhTai Trjv apxriv Trpoaaipai Trpbg to. 
Karw TOV TToSoe iTTidiufiaTa. Gralen. Oomm. ii. 34, Artie, 
(xviii. A. 463) : ttjv juIv ap^V^ jSaXXscrOat rijc oOovriQ oiTKjOtv 
TOV x^^Xoue. Gralen. de Fasc. 7 (xviii. A. 783) : oSra> re 
Tag Xmrofiivag Ttaaapag apyag ayovreg E^oTrrOjitEv. Gralen. 
Comm. i. 23, Fract. (xviii. B. 370) : ovTwg fioi v6u Kara to 
Korayfia fiaWiaQal tb koI fxrj (SaWeaBai Trjv apxrjv tCov 
oQov'iwv — apxnv j3aXX£(T0at firj £7rt,ro eXkoc aXXo tTrl to 
hfifia. 

oOovr) was used as weU as oBoviov. Aretaeus, Our. Acut. 
Morb. 114 : ig 6d6vt)v apaiijv svSrjcravTa KaTaird(T(TCiv. Aret. 
Our. Acut. Morb. 116 : lyxpiaavTa Se ig oQ6vr\v Iwi rrjv 
KoiXiriv TiOevai. Dioseor. Mat. Med. ii. 68 : IfnrXaaQuaa ug 
oQovriv. Dioseor. Mat. Med. iii. 84 : Eyx|O(a-0£te tig odovriv. 
Gralen. Oomp. Med. iv. 2 (xiii. 598) : 'i^toOev avTov ttoXiv 
ETTtjSaXXti) TToXvTTTVXOvg oOovug iXaii^ Siajipoxovg alg avOig 
'i^(t)9ev ettjSectjuov e? odovrig ETrijSaXXtti. 

* Eto-KaXsty. X. 23 : " Then called he them in {ilaKaXiaa- 
fxivog), and lodged them." 

*ju£TaKaXEtv. X. 32 : " Send therefore to Joppa, and call 
hither {fitTaKaXtaaL} Simon, whose surname is Peter." 

These two compounds of KoXEtv, peculiar to St. Luke, 
were used in medical language for " to call in " or " send 



220 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

for " a physician. Hipp. Progn. 36 : ol Si koI edKaXeaa/ievoi 
Tov IriTpov irapaxpriij.a kreXsiiTrjiTav, ol julv rjixepriv nii\v Z,{]aav- 
TiQ, ol Si oXiyif) irXiiova xpovov, npiv v '''ov ijjrpov ry Ti)(yy 
Trpoe iKacrrov voarifia avTayuivicFacrOai. Aretaeus, Sign. Acut. 
Morb. 7 : tov Irirpov ol Si icfKoXiaafuvot, oiiSiv (ovavTO. 
Galen. Progn. ad. Posthumum, 2, (xiv. 607) : iha irepl 
rriv idTripav imraKaXica/ievog /xi icai ttoXiv tov acpvyfiov avTov 
KiXivaaQ aipaaOai, tt/v avTrjv a'!r6<j>a<nv i^KOvaiv r]v ttqo tov 
AourpoS, Kai fiaWov in dappaXiwTepov fj ron. Gralen. Meth. 
Med. i. 1 (x. 4) : /xiTUKaXovvTai twv laT^uiv ov tovq ap[(7T0vg, 
iiXXa roue crvvriOiCTTaTOvg . 

§ LXXXVI. 
Acts, XI. 
ri<TV\aZiiv. 

* apxh (verse 5, § 85). * 606vri (y. 5, § 85). * EKtrroOTc (v. 5, 
§ 28). ^revttav (v. 6, § 53). * iva<Twav (v. 10, § 75). 
* Siaa^Ti'ipnv (v. 19, § 84). npooTiQivm (v. 24, § 59). 
Karipxid^ai (v. 27, § 84). * iVTrogiiaBai (v. 29, § 74). 

Acts, XII. 

SiaTQi^iiv. * TaKTog. 

KOKOvi; (verse 1, § 83). avaiQitv (v. 2, § 84). wpocTTiBivai 
(v. 3, § 59). tKir'nTTiiv (v. 7, § 66). *TrpoaSoKia (v. 11, 
§74). * avvaQpolliiv l^r. 12, % 77). * 8«crxvp('?E<T0at 
(v. 15, § 54). * KaTaaiiiiv (v. 17, § 59). * Tapaxog (v. 
18, § 57). KaTipxiaBai (v. 19, § 84). 7rapa;;^pjjjua (v. 
23, § 57). * ki/zi^x"" (v- 23, § 24). 

xi. 18 : " When they heard these things, they held their 
peace (riiyvxaaav), and glorified God, saying, Then hath God 
also to the Gentiles granted repentance unto life." 

ri<Tvxatiiiv is used also oh. xxi. 14; Luke, xiv. 4; xxiii. 56; 



§ Lxxxri.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 221 

and only once elsewhere in N. T., 1, Thess. iv. 11 : it was the 
medical word for patients keeping calm and quiet. 

Hipp. Morb. 488 : (^vXamaOai Spifxitov oSfiag Koi ra 
ToiavTa Koi iio-u^d^Etv Siair^ /laXdaKy -xp^fiivov. Hipp. Morb. 
495 : jxiTo. OE Tag Kpitnag avaKOfiiZuv (TiTioicn KOV(j)Oi(n, koI 
ri<TvxaZiiv. Hipp. Intern. Affect. 737 : rjv Si fir) ^u/x^lpwdtv, 
•i7(7uxa?£rw J)C fiaXicTTa rdg awfiari. Hipp. Nat. Mul. 667 : 
iiiro Ss T^e odvvrie ov Svvarai iitrux^a^Etv, aWa piTTTti twvrriv. 
Hipp. Nat. Mul. 579 : TavTtfv -xpij we on fxaXiaTa r}av)(aZtiv 
KOI firi KivHddai. Dioscor. Venen. 15 : ricrvxaZsiv Ss avrovg 
avajKaZEiv SeT, ottwc top oivov irEirwKOTeg iKTri\p(j)aiv. Dioscor. 
Medic. Parab. ii. 21 : o-UjUTTEpijSaAXtov a^se riavxcKyai Koi iva 
firj piydjcTij irpoaavaXiKpiaBd) Xittei, icat iSpwuH ttoXv. Gralen. 
Comm. ii. 51, Acut. Morb. (xv. 615) : eAkoc exwi- ev nvrifiri, 
Seov fiavxaZtiv re koi KoraKEtcrflat. Do. (616) : wg ev rdlg 
Trpwrate 7)jiipaiQ iiavxacrag nepl ektijv f/p^aro TrEpnrarsLv. 
Gralen. Meth. Med. x. 3 (x. 673) : KarsKXivE tote koi rimixaZE 
wpaQ (txeSov Ti Trig rifiipag evSekotijc. 

xii. 19 : " And when Herod had sought for him, and 
found him not, he examined the keepers, and commanded 
that they should be put to death. And he went down from 
Judsea to Osesarea, and there abode " (SieVjoi/^ev). 

diarpifiEiv, used again xiv. 3, 18, 28 ; xv. 35 ; xvi. 12 ; 
XX. 6 ; XXV. 6 ; xxv. 14 ; and but twice elsewhere, John, iii. 
22 ; xi. 54 ; was much employed in medical language in a 
variety of meanings : — to rub — to delay an operation — to 
spend time at meals, in the bath, &c. Hipp. Rat. Vic. 
374 : Koi EfiETOv TTOiYiaaaOu) cnrb anittiv ^ripiov koi arpv^- 
vu)v Kol fir) SiarpifiETU) ev rtjJ airiy aWa rfiv Ta\i(yTriv lixEiTb). 
Hipp. Eat. Vic. 875 : irEpiwaTOKn Se /xij xpriadai cnro Se'ittvov 
SiaTpi^ELv hi xP^vov. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 635 : x,«AKiTie 
SiaTETpifxntvi). Hipp. Aphoron. 683 : tj Be OEpairEia tovtewv 
ECFTiv EV fiipEi EKaurcfj, Kot on av fir) Trotije rovTwv aiEi siri rrie 
TTvpirig SiaTpi(5ET(i), avrri yap Ecmv ri fiaXdaaaovcra Kat ayovaa 
Tovg Ixfiiipag- Hipp. Vul. Cap. 911 : aXXa XPV £' Evvotrig tov 

TVVptTOV ETTlXafxfiaVOVTa KOi TWV aXXwV TE (TtlfXElOV TOVTdf) TTjOOO- 



222 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

yivo/xevov /xrj SiaTpi^tiv aXXa TrpiaavTU to oariov Trpoe Trjv 
firiviyya. Dioscor. Mat. Med. ii. 98 : SiaTpi^tiaa re viro^vg 
Kol Zvni^ovGa Trjv bafiriv. Gralen. Melanchol. 1 (xix. 701) : 
(pvaai yap aiiToig eniyiyvovTai iroXXai Kal irspl to, vtroxovdpia 
iTTtiroXv Siarpijiovaai. Gralen. Meth. Med. vii. 6 (x. 473) : 
TO 8e (Tvvri/xvti Ttjv tv T(ig (3aXav£i(^ Siarpijiriv — etti ttAeTotov 
yap xprj tov avdpunrov ivdiarpifieiv Tt^ vSan. Gralen. Yen. 
Sec. 9 (xi. 242) : sw^ fitartfi^piaQ amTog SiuTpXxpai. Galen, 
liemed. Parab. ii. 6: to wpoawiroi) EXatiti StarptjSE. 

xii. 21 : " And upon a set day (tokt^ Se rifiipq) Herod, 
arrayed in royal apparel, sat upon his throne, and made an 
oration unto them." 

* TaKTOQ. Peculiar to St. Luke, tuktoq, svTaKrog, and 
Terayfiivog, are used in medical language, as opposed to 
uTUKTog, which is a word of very frequent occurrence. 

Gralen. Aph. Comm. v. 10 (xvii. B. 795) : yvtipiZeTai Se 
EC Toy TTvtvfiova TpintaBai TfjV Kvvayxriv ek tov tT(j)vyfj.ov. 
(TKXrtpoQ yap koi aTUKTog Kal avdfJLaXoQ rije vXrig p.iTaaTaaiv 
(TTHfiaivH. /laXOaKOQ Se Kai opaXbg kuX TOKToe — airoXvaiv 
(Trifiaivii. Gralen. Med. Defin. 204 (xix. 402) : irXovrJTai 
TTVpsTol KaXovvrai ol jLirj wpiafiivwQ firiSt svTUKTwg aXX" oko- 
TaiTTaTWQ yivofievoi. Aretaeus, Sign. Acut. Morb. 26 : 
(T^vy fiol araKToi. Hipp. Bpid. 982 : oi TrupsTOi irapo^vv- 
ofisvoi aXXoTE aXXoiug araKrwf. Gralen. De Puis. 8 (viii. 
461) : (T<pvyixbQ aTUKTog. Do. (462) : fiiaog ovSdg iaiiv 
TETay/xivov koi aroKTOu er^wyjuoO. Do. 10 (469) : aratc- 
Touc ToDe a^vyfiovg spyaZiTai. Do. 12 (476) : a^vy/xbg aTUK- 
Tog yivofjLivog. Do. (487) : ff^uyjuof VTroStaXsiTruv aTciKTwg, 
Gralen. Cans. Puis. ii. 14 (ix. 101) : ttejoI Se twv araicTwv te 
Kal TiTayfiivMV a^vyixwv J)8r) prftiov. 



S^ Lxxxvii.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. 223 

§ LXXXVII. 

Acts, XIII. 

avvTpo((iOQ. * avyyiviia. * vTrrjpiTiiv. * virtipirmq. * trap- 
OTQVVHV. * lij-Eydpeiv. * TrporptTrtn-flaj. 

KUTspxiaQai (verse 4, § 84). * ektte'/xte'v (v. 4, § 89). tti/x- 
irXrifii (t. 9, § 60). artviZuv (v. 9, § 53). SiaarpirpHV 
(v. 10, § 76). * iTrnrLTTTEiv (v. 11, § 30). trapa^prifia 
(v. 11, § 57). aTTO^WjOttv (v. 13, § 15). * KaTaauuv 
(v. 16, § 59). * iKirXnpovv (v. 32, § 64). TrpocrTtflavat 
(v. 36, § 59). ^iGLQ (v. 38, § 59). 

1. "Now there were in the churcli that was at Antioch 
certain prophets and teachers ; as Barnabas, and Simeon that 
was called Niger, and Lucius of Cyrene, and Manaen, which 
had been brought up with (o-uvrpo^oe) Herod the tetraroh, and 
Saul." 

* (TvvTpo^oe. PecuKar to St. Luke. Both uvvrpofoQ and 
(TvvTpi(j)iiv are used in medical language of a disease which 
has as it were been reared with a person. 

Hipp. Aer. 283 : tovto plv to voartixa avrioiaiv %vvtqo- 
ij)6v saTiv Koi fltptoe KOI i^£(yU(Dvoe. Hipp. Morb. Sacr. 307 : 
ovK 'in r\ vovaoQ avTr\ STriXafifiavEi, rjv pi) ek traidiov truvrpo- 
^og 'i'g. Hipp. !Epid. 1184 : vovaoL ^vvTpo(j>oi iv jr)pa'i koi 
Sia Tfiiraapov Xtiwovcn koi 8ta \vaiv koi St' apaiuxjiv. Hipp. 
Morb. Sacr. 307 : (^ Se vovaog cnro naiSiov avvriv^riTat kuX 
(jvvtTpo^Ev. Hipp. He Arte. 8 : /3ia?£rat Ss tovto pev irvp to 
cr6vTpo<pov ^Xiypa ota^^Eiv, mTiwv Spipvrr^Ti koi iropdruiv. 
Gralen. Oomm. iii. 1, Humor, (xvi. 352) : 6(7a St avrote xpo""" 
vo(TripaTa ykvifrai, to. ttoWo. avvaTroBvr]aKU, oirep tuvtov 1(7Tiv, 
EiTTEp (Tuvrpo^a tKoXii. Galen. Comm. v. 6, Epid. vi. (xvii. 
B. 253) : oil wipl iraauiv 6 \6joq vvv tu)v (TvvTp6(pwv voawv. 
Galen. Comm. ii. 54, Artie, (xviii. A. 489) : to. yap xovSpwSr) 
Kol ravTa ra yoy^Ato Koi avvrpo^a riva dai TTEpi vtvpa rriv 



224 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [i-aut ii. 

yivtaiv i^ vypov iaxv^ora. Galen. Comm. i. 11, Humor. 
(xvi. 100) : yap 17 yivi<nQ tovtwv vocjr]fiaTwv TOig ETrt^wpiote 
avvrpo^oQ. Gralen. Oomm. iii. 1, Humor, (xvi. 353) : oi 
Toivov ravTov iariv to avyjeviKOv Koi to avvTpotpov vo(rrtiJ.a. 

* avyylvua. Luke, i. 61 : " And they said unto her, 
There is none of thy kindred (ek rije avyy tvtiag) that is called 
by this name. 

Peculiar to St. Luke, and used again. Acts, vii. 14. 
avyylviia, avyyivyjQ, avyysviKog, were all used in medical 
language. As applied to disease, there was a distinction 
between them and <7vvTpo(j)og [see last example under 
avvTQo^oo) '• both words must have been often used in the 
language of a physician. Hipp. Humor. 51 : koto row 
XV/xov Trjv avyyevdriv. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 645 : Sia avyys- 
viir\v riaiv WuSeq anb veotjjtoc ai vovaoi. Hipp. Epid. 
1176: Sia Trjv poirrjv ovk iTi al/io ip\iTai aXXo koto tov 
XVjjLov T?7v (Tvyyh'Hav TOiavz avoTTTVovaiv. Hipp. Vet. Med. 
18 : TTipX Se Svva/xewv xvpwv, avTtwv te ekoo-toc oti SvvaTai 
TTOihiv, TOV avOpwTTOv £aKi(j>9ai, Koi TUQ ^vyyiviiag wq E^j^oi^irt 
Trpoc aWriXovc. Galen. Comm. iii. 31, Humor, (xvi. 479) : 

Et 8e ^oAwCtJC, OJXPOV KoX ETTt T(Lv XoiTTWV KUTO, TrjV TOV XVpOV 

(Tvyyivetav. Galen. Comm. iii. 4, Epid. vi. (xvii. B. 113) : 
(j)a(TKOVTig £7r aXXo KOivwviaQ eISoc avTOv /iSTsXriXvOivaL to 
Kara r/jv rwv ^i^juwv avyyivnav — Sta tov x^f^-^^ '"'V ovyyi- 
vuav TtTva TTTvovmv. Galen. Comm. iii. 100, Artie, (xviii. 
A. 635) : tipr)Tai fioi Koi irpoaQiv wg Tag KOivioviag koX oiov 
avyyiviiag tCjv fiopiwv aSi\(j)i^tag i'icoOiv ovOfiaZuv. Galen. 
Comm. iii. 35, Fract. (xviii. B. 587) : omp iuodafitv \kyuv 
wfJioiwTai, KOI KOivttivEi, Koi avyyivHav E;^£t, tovto koXeTv 
iiwvtv 6 iTnroKparije riSsX(piaTai rrjv TToXXrjv rwv TrpaypaTwv 
otKEiOTrjra koi (Tvyyivtiav IvStiKvvpsvoQ ti^ ovo/xari. 

36. "For David, after he had served {inrripiTrirTag) his own 
generation by the will of God, fell on sleep, and was laid unto 
his fathers, and saw corruption." 

* vvTjptTHv, peculiar to St. Luke, and used again, Acts, 
XX. 34 ; xxiv. 23 ; was much employed in medical language. 



§ Lxxxvii.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 225 

Hipp. Coac. Progn. : koi icotXirje rfjc avoj koXwc vvnpE- 
TOvariQ. Hipp. Flat. 300 : eXKcrai kuI TiTapaKrai ra (Xipr\ tov 
(TivfiarOQ, vnripiTovvTOQ t<^ dopvjSoj) Kal rapaxii) tov ainarog. 
Hipp. Offio. 742 : to fxlv ovv aiirij 17 kniSsaig tijrat, to Si toIq 
IwfiivQLaiv vTrjjptmt. Hipp. Insomn. 375 : 77 yap 4'^xn 
ijpyjyopev. otuv fxlv ovv awfiari vwripsTOvaa y. Galen. Comm. 
IV. 5, Aliment, (xv. 386) : rovg Ss raig rCiv irepiTTw/xaTwv 
EKKpt(7£(Ttv virripeTovvTaQ /xvQ. Galen. Comm. v. 2, Epid. vi. 
(xvii. B. 236) : 17 yAwtTira Trpoc rrjv SiapOpwaiv avTrig kToifiwg 
vTrripeTti. Galen. Oomm. i. 7, Artie, (sviii. A. 318) : of nspi- 
KEifiEvoi Trj SiapOpwuu /xisg virripiTOvai re koi GVfnrpaTTOvaiv 
avTy. Galen. Comm. iii. 110, Artie, (xviii. A. 655) : TSTTapa 
S' Ecrriv apOpa to. Trpbg j3aSt%etv virripeTovvTa. Galen. Comm. 
i. 30, Fract. (xviii. B. 377) : SevTipov twv kiriSicrfjKiJv tie S'^o 
Xjotiae virnpiTovvTog. Galen. Usus Part. xv. 6 (iv. 244) : 
TOV ayydov tovtov ttiq ^XtjSoe vTrripsToiiVTog t(^ cFTrXayxvif). 

virripeTriQ : see § 57. 

50. "But the Jews stirred up ijrapwTpvvav) the devout 
and honourable women, and the chief men of the city, and 
raised {iirriyEipav) a persecution against Paul and Barnabas, 
and expelled them out of their coasts." 

It is remarkable that St. Luke — and he alone of the 
N. T. writers — uses the three words * irapoTpvvuv, * Itti- 
yiipuv, and * vpoTpi-irEiv, which were the chief medical terms 
for " to stimulate." 

* TrapoTpvvEiv. Peculiar to St. Luke. Both this word and 
oTpvvtiv are used by the medical writers, but not very fre- 
quently, their principal words being the other two, iTnyt'ipiLv 
and ■trpoTphrtLv. 

Hipp. Morb. Mul. 654 : avaaa Sa Trpo^aaiQ iKavri Tag 
vdTspag wapoTpvvai i)v ^x'^'^'- " ^Xaupov. Aretaeus, Our. 
Acut. Morb. 115 : kv xoXtp^ r) twv (jiepofiivojv kTrl(7XE(ng 
KUKOv' airiTTTa yap' XP^ '^^ VJ^eig prt'iSiojg avTOfiara Sixi(y6ai, 
rjv Si fir), OTpvveiv SiSovTag vSarog EVKpr/Tov pv/x^aivHv. 

* iirsydpsiv, peculiar to St. Luke, and used again, xiv. 2. 
This word was very much employed in medical language. 

2G 



226 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

Galen. Comm. ii. 21, Humor, (xv. 279) : 6 wapo^vajiibg 
liriyupii Koi Kivii. Gralen. Oomm. iii. 96, Praedic. (xvi. 712) : 
Sta Tijv <pv<iLv ekXeXv/xei/jjv iTrsyupetv. Do. 144 (xvi. 804) : 
iinydpti rriv ^iaiv uq airoKQiaiv rov TrapiTTOv. Do. 152 : 
sTTtydpii TTjv ^vaiv anoKptvai to Xvttovv. Gralen. Mot. Mus- 
cul. ii. 5 (iv. 442) : apTr\piag p.lv ovv Kivriaiv Km Kapdiag 
ovre TravEiv ovt IwEyupuv. Gralen. San. Tuend. ii. 6 (vi. 
123): Tag Ivipydag linyupuv. Gralen. San. Tuend. iv. 6 
(vi. 277) : ^ aXXw? hnydpEi ttjv iaii) Kivriaiv avTu>v. Gralen. 
San. Tuend. v. 3 (vi. 321) : 17 Tpitpig i-Kiyupovna tov Z,^tikov 
Tovov aiiTuv. Hipp. Humor. 47 : rj olov al awb KavfiaTwv 
iTTiyupoiiivai ^XvKTiiQ. Hipp. Epid. 1168 : Xunvai, Tpa-xy- 
vai, (TK\.r\pvvai, ixaXda^ai, ra juev, tu Se fir/, siTEyHpai vapKUxyai 
KOI TaXXa oaa TOiavra. 

* TrpoTpi-Ksadat. Acts, xviii. 27 : " And when he was 
disposed to pass into Achaia, the brethren wrote, exhorting 
{TrpoTpitpafxevoi) the disciples to receive him." 

Peculiar to St. Luke, and much used in medical lan- 
guage. 

Hipp. Morb. Acut. 392 : ofioog ri Kara KvaTiv Kadapmg 
vir' avTov yivojxivr\ pverai, riv irporpiTrriTai OKotov Sst. Hipp. 
Morb. Acut. 394 : ig ovprimv TrpoTpiirTiKov. Gralen. Medicus, 
14 (xiv. 760) : TrpoTpETrrtKa 8e ocra KivEt koi Tzporpinu to. 
(j)apf.iaKa, wg juev ayapiKov, 'ipig, &c. Galen. Ven. Sec. 
(xix. 525) : Kai vSiop )(Xiapov SiSovTsg, i/xstv TrpoTpiwOfitv. 
Galen. Usus Part. v. 14 (iii. 391) : ra pXv yap aKatpwg 

iKpilV KwXwEt, TO, 8' iV KaiptO WpOTpilTU £V KaJjOfjJ Se TTpOTpt- 

novaiv ot Kara to liriyaaTpiov airavTsg fiveg, Galen. TJsus 
Part. v. 15 (iii. 398 : o npoTpixpEi filv iirl ttjv Karw (popav. 
Galen. San. Tuend. ii. 2 (vi. 91) : aXX' iwip tov irpoTpi^ai 
T£ sig Tag ivspysiag Kat avaTpbpai tov tovov. Galen. San. 
luend. iv. 4 (vi. 247) ; Kat ISpwTag Kai ovpa TrporpsTrEt. 
Galen. Facul. Aliment, i. 1 (vi. 466) : ov TrporpiTreL tyjv 
yaoTipa. Galen. Comp. Med. ix. 4 (xiii. 275) : dg avaSoaiv 
T£ KOI ovpr)<7iv npoTpsxpai to (rvfinav ^apfiuKov. 



§ Lxxxviii.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 227 

I 

§ LXXXVIII. 

Acts, XIV. 

* iTj-tytipsiv (verse 2, § 87). kokovv (v. 2, § 83). SiarpiPuv 

(v. 3, § 86). *^S6vaTog (v. 8, § 31). arevlKuv (v. 9, § 53). 

* 6p96g (v. 10, § 31). Siapp{,yvvfii (v. 14, § 61). i^Trt/x- 
TrX&vai (v. 17, § 60). 

Acts, XV. 

* Zv'''flfJ-0: * iKSirijiiaOai. * Siriyrimg. * 6-)(Xhv. * ivox^uv. 

* TfapsvoxXiiv. * oxXov iroiiiv. * arep oxXov. * ava- 
<7K£ua^££V. * aiTOUKivaZuv. 7rapo?U(Tjuoe. Trapo^vveaOai. 

KUTipxiaGai- (verse 1, § 84). Woq (v. 1, § 58). * e7ri(jTpo(j)ri 
(v. 3, § 76). * Siarnpetv (v. 29, § 72). Starpt^tiv (v. 35, 
§86). 

xiv. 14 : " Which when the apostles, Barnahas and Paul, 
heard of, they rent their clothes, and ran in among (eSett/jS?)- 
crav, sprang forth among, R. V.) the people." 

* £K7rr)Sav, peculiar to St. Luke, is, like s^dWecrOai, applied 
by the medical writers to the sudden starting of a hone from 
the socket, the hounding of the pulse, &c. 

Hipp. Artie. 811 : 6 rs EKTDjSjjo-ac <nr6vSvXog ttuZol av 
Tov vwTiaiov. Galen. Hipp, et Plat. Decret. ix. 4 (v. 748) : 
EK7rj)Sjj(7ae (TirovSvXog. Galen. Usus Part. xii. 12 (iv. 51) : 
El fiev TToXXol aTTOvSuXoi SiaKivriUHiv Etijc aXXriXwv VTtapxit 
Seivov, £1 Si Tig u.g eKirrtc^asie rrig rwv aXXwv app.ovLag bXi- 
Optov. Do. : 6 r' EKTTjjSjjcrac "KiiZoi av avTOV u firj kol airop- 
pri^usv. Galen. Oaus. Puis. iv. 17 (ix. 191) : oiirw St koI fi 
Kivamg av<ji)p.aXog, avw Koi Karb) fiidi(STap,ivr)g Trig aprripiag 
Hjairep x^P^vg, oiiSe yap SiacrroXrig rj avaroXrig 'ip^airig lariv, 
aXXa icXoytf) fiaXXov e'oikev olov eKirriSuxTrig avw Ka\ ahOig e'/aw 



228 THE MEDICAL LANGTJAGE OF ST. LUKE. [paet ii. 

airwfiivtjg — i^aTrarq. yap r] TrXjjy?}, Sia filv Ttjv Tomv EvpuiaTOC 
(^aivofiivr\ 8(a Se tov kXovov iKTTJjSrjrjKJj. Galen. Puls. ad 
Tiron. 12 (viii. 486) : aKwridtixTriQ avw naXiv SI auoj (nrwfiivtig — 
£K7r»/Si)7iK7j. Gralen. Anat. Administr. vii. 14 (ii. 636) : rote 
SaKTvXoiQ SiaXafifiavovreg rj Kal TTvpdypq r»jv Kupoiav, cid to 
pciSiwg avTTjv tKirriSdv tuv SoktvXwv. Galen. San. Tuend. iii. 
7 (vi. 202) : EKTrijSarttxrav S' EvOitog Etg riijv rpvxpo^v virlp rov 
fiivuv avTotq tov iv ti^ BipfiaTi tovov afia OspfiOTriTi. 

*kZd\\s<Tdai: see §23. 

XV. 2 : " When therefore Paul and Barnabas had no small 
dissension and disputation with them, they determined that 
Paul and Barabas, and certain other of them, should go up 
to Jerusalem unto the apostles and elders about this question " 
[tov ZriTj]fxaTog). 

* ZnTTifia, peculiar to St. Luke, used also xviii. 15 ; xxiii. 
29 ; XXV. 19 ; xxvi. 3, is frequent in the medical writers for 
" the thing sought" — " a disputed point in medical theory or 
practice." 

Hipp. Morb. Aeut. 384 : fiaXa fiev ovv ovSi irpojiaWscrOai 
TO, Toiavra Z^irrifiaTa iidiafiivoi umv ol irjrpot. Galen. De Ori- 
sibus, i. 4 (ix. 561) : iv tovti^ yap iajXEv T(^ <^rjTrif.iaTi. Galen. 
Affect. Loc. i. 1 (viii. 17) : irapaTrXrimov Si tovtov Zrirrifia 
Etrri KOI to TTEpt Tra(T)(6vTwv fitv 671 fiopiwv. Galen. Loc. 
Affect, vi. 3 (viii. 390) : Zv^vfia ovkLt oiiliv vTroXuinTai, 
TToXXo\ CE Twv Tra(T)(6vTU)v, oSuvijc pBTpiag alaOdvovTai. — 
Galen. Loc. Affect, vi. 5 (viii. 416) : e^e^jjc yovv 17/uae 
SiadiE,£Tai ^rjrijjua, vwb rivog aiTiag tpv-xsTai to mofia. Galen. 
Anat. Administr. v. 8 (ii. 520) : si' Tig kdeXriuuev tTriSuxOrivai 
Twv ^pivb)v fiovwv Trjv (j)v<nv, rj d Kai Zr}Tr\fia. ti tte/oi rjje 
Karaa-KEiiijc avTwv yivoiTo. Galen. Comm. 7, Vic. Rat. (xv. 
187) : Irrt ce rije tu>v yspovTwv riXiKiag ov ajiiKpov laTt 
Z,{]T-i]iia (txeSov cnraaiv rip.iXTi)fiivov — Galen. Oomm. ii. 52, 
Praedic. (xvi. 626) : npoKUfiivov hi tov mpiyoXa piyiGTov 
yivcTai ^Tjrri^a, irojg yap av xoX(!)Sia te Kal afia EicAfiiKa 
Staxw/OEiCT&at — Galen. Oomm. ii. 53, Praedic. (xvi. 630) : 
(cai ^I'lTri/ia ovSiv iari irCog e^itrravrai piTO. tnyijc 01 ju»)8' 



iS Lxxxviii.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 229 

6\(i)Q ^Mvuv Svvafievoi — Galen. Oomm. iii. 34, Epid. iii. 
(xvii. A. 689) : ava^vtrai Si fiiKpbv ZvTrifia irspX iravrtov 
TU)v TraOoyvwfjLOviKtJv (ttjjueiwv. 

sv. 3 : " And being brought on their way by the church, 
they passed through Phenice and Samaria, declaring (t/cSti)- 
yovfisvoi) the conversion of the Q-entiles : and they caused 
great joy unto all the brethren." 

* iKSiriyH(T9ai, peculiar to St. Luke, was employed in 
medical language for " to tell the details of a sickness." 

Hipp. Progn. 36 : tov iriTphv SokIei /xoi apiarov elvai 
irpovoiav swirriSBVEiv irpoyivdiaKwv yap koi irpoXiyuyv irapa 
ToiQ voaiovai ra te Tra/OEOvra koi to, Trpoyeyovora koX to. 
/xsXXovra £o-£<T0at, okocfu re TrapaXtiTTOveriv oi aaOiveovTSQ 
tKSinyevfisvoQ. Aretaeus, Sign. Acut. Morb. 3 : koi JSavao-- 
TavTEQ eKStriyevvrai o)? vuo t£v e^ svifSovXriQ TraTa)(6ivTig. 
Gralen. San. Tuend. i. 12 (vi. 59) : iraXiv ovv 6 Xoyog sir), rbv 
aptara KartuKivaafiivov TTOLoa iiravtXdwv rrjv utto Trig wpwrrig 
cjdSoixaSog rfXiKiav avrov fitxpi rrjg Sivripag EKSiriyeiirdaL Kara 
TE Triv Kpaaiv bvola Tig Eortv koX wv tivuv ;^p*)Sei Stairijjuarojv. 
Gralen. Diff. Febr. i. 14 (vii. 332) : wv Tag Smyvaxrug iv t(^ 
SsvTipoj irepl Kpiaetov slpriKOTEg oiiSlv eVj SsofisOa vvv eKSiriyHcr- 
6ai. Galen. DifScul. Eespir. ii. 6 (vii. 847) : rrjv yap 
Xoi/xiLSt} KaTCKJTacnv iKSiriyov/ievog 6 'iTnrOKpaTrig. Galen. 
Caus. Puis. ii. 13 (ix. 97) : x^prj SI airav a.Kpi(5u>g to ^oj^ev 
EKSiTjyEia-flat kSv oTTop^ rijc aMag. Galen. Oaus. Puis. iv. 8 
(ix. 170) : aiirj) fikv ek Trig ([(raywyrig r] pijmg, avTU ra 
fpaivofiiva avfjLTTiirTeiv Toig TrXsvpiTiKoilg iKStSatTKOvaa, ov p.riv 
Tag aiTiag eVj EKStijyov/xEvjj. Galen. Meth. Med. iv. 4 (x. 257) : 
afiHvov filv ^v Sjjttou fxrj ^povia koXeiv aXAa KaKOtjdi) raOra 
Koi Trjv (pvmv axiTwv EKStij^yrjoroo-flat kuI Tag alriag Trig yevicrewg 
EtTTEtv Kal Trjv depuTrdav EKaaroK. Galen. Ven. Sect. 4 (xi. 
213) : ovSeig youv eittoiv luTpbg, avOpwirog ovTog Tpaiprfrtj, 
XapiZiTai firjTS tov Kaipbv iTi Trpocrudg, kv t^ KeXevei Tpa(j>rivai 
Tbv KUfivoTav, firiTS to (jit'iov bp'iaag avTO nrjTE rjjv woaoTriTa 
jiiriTs Trjv cTKevaaiav, fj Triv Trig XprjtrEwe Ta^iv, aXX' ekucftov 
TOVTWv ttKpijSwc E/cSitj-yEirai Totg Trapovaiv oivwg Sh TrpaxOijvai. 



230 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

* Siriyrfaig : see § 57. 

Siriyuadai and s^riyuaOat, which are used by St. Liike more 
than twice as often as in the remainder of the N. T., are 
also largely used by the medical writers. 

* 6)(Xhv : see § 7. 

* ivox^itv : see ^ 7. 

XV. 19 : " Wherefore my sentence is, that we trouble not 
{fifj ■TTupevox^iiv) them, which from among the Grentiles are 
turned to Grod." 

* napevo-xXtiv, peculiar to St. Luke, was used in medical 
language, but not with the great frequency of oxXuv and 
ivoxKitv. 

Hipp. Epid. 1276 : ware ovM jroXXal irapEvoxXn<JOV(ji 
vovdoi. Hipp. Epid. 1089 : TroWoicri Si kuI Itti Toiaiv 
aWoMi vovai]fia<n olSrjfiara Trapw)(X£t. Gralen. Comp. Med. 
i. 8 (xii. 485) : etti twv ax<i>p<^v iraOti, TreptriivofxlvriQ Si 
Trig iirKpaviiag Koi Sta tovto Trapevox^ovtrrig, xp-qtrTiov ra7g 
vTTojtypafjifiivaig oKivaaiaig. Galen. Comp. Med. iii. 1 (xii. 
643] : ii fiiv ovv hii Trvpiroig ^X"' jivovrai, fjirj irapevox^eiv, 
TravovTOL yap irapavTiKa wg ml to ttoXv. Galen. Comp. Med. 
vii. 10 (xiii. 998) : rote noSaypiKotg apfioZov to ipapjiaKOv, koi 
TO fifj TTwpoig, TTVKvalg TE iTTifdoXdig Trap£vo)(\H(TOai pqSiwg. 

* oxXoTToielv. Acts, xvii. 5 : " But the Jews which 
believed not, moved with envy, took unto them cerfain 
lewd fellows of the baser sort, and gathered a company 
{oxkoTToinaavTig, or malting a riot), and set all the city on 
an uproar." 

This word, peculiar to St. Luke, is also used medically. 
Hipp. Morb. Mul. 597 : otrpo-t St ifi/ilvei koX ivarirrsTai 
KOt o)(Aov TTOthi, avSpa(j)a^iog aypirig Kapvov rj ^vXov E,vv 
fiiXiTi rj E,vv KVfiivi^ iXXiKTov SiSovai. See under oxXog the 
similar phrase oxXov Traptx"", &c. 

* uTep oxXov. Luke, xxii. 6 : " And he promised, and 
sought opportunity to betray him unto them in the absence of 
the multitude" {arsp oxXov, or, as in the marginal translation, 
ivithout tumult). 



§ Lxxxviii.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 231 

Though these two words are not found in combination in 
the medical writers extant, yet the phrase appears to have 
been a medical one, from the peculiar use of both arep and 
o^Xoc in medical language, and from the equivalent word 
aoxXwcj as well as the opposite aiiv oxA<f, beiug met 
with. 

* arep, peculiar to St. Luke, and used again, xxii. 35 : 
"When I sent you without purse" {anp fSaXavTiov). This 
old poetic word was retained in medical language. 

Hipp. Progn. 42 : ttvov artp ttovov avaKaOfipriTai. Hipp. 
Progn. 43 : arep ^avepije Trpo(j>d(nog aXX*}?. Hipp. Progn. 
44 : (iTtp Twv ToiovTwv arifjLHwv 1) oSivri WTTtp/SaAXot tiKoaiv 
rifiipag. Hipp. Praedic. 87 : anp irvperiov yivofievai. Hipp. 
Praedic. 94: ri Kvij/xr) e^aiXwOri artp Trpo(j>daiog aXXtjc- Hipp. 
Nat. Hom. 230 : arsp TruperoO Iovtsq — anp oSvvrig Iovcs\k- 
Hipp. Aer. 291 : ke>wc anp. Hipp. Vic. Eat. 368 : artp 
TtiQ vjiirtq. Hipp. Insomn. 378 : arep ^oj3ou. Hipp. Morb. 
Mul. 690 : arsp (jivparog. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 607 : novov 
anp. Do. 612 : Kai arep irvptrov. Hipp. Aph. 1254 : arsp 
Trpoijiaaiog ^avspriQ. Hipp. 1257 : arsp ^Xty/iovrig. Aretaeus, 
Sign. Diuturn. Morb. 63 : k^v av SvuovplriQ anp. Do. 69 : 
(7Kv|3aXou anp. Dioscor. Animal. Ven. 17 : koX ovk anp 
vSoviig. Gralen. Oomp. Med. vi. 14 (xiii. 932) : aXXij 
i^nrwTiKri vypwv koi uTrocnripaTwv, fiaXiaTa kv yovaai Kot 
apdpoiQ, anp TOfirig cXKOvcra. 

oxXoc was used in medical language for some disturbance 
of the system. Hipp, de Corde 268: oxXov Kal /3»ixo wapix^i. 
Hipp. Gland. 272 : avroXg iixXoc ttoXuc- Hipp. Morb. Acut. 
389 : oKwg av paZ,a te o^Xov koI oyKOv Koi <j>v<rav Kai (rrpo^ov 
TJj KOiXiy irapix^i. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 595 : koi Trpoe irav on 
av (j)dywaiv rj ttmctiv oxXog. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 645 : jjv yap 
aOpotoc; iaruvrai al varepai tg to. kutu) koi oxXog yivirai — 
afijdXvwaaovai yap rj d/KJu rriv (pdpvyya oxXot koi raXXa. 
Hipp. Epid. 1121 : yXCjaaai ^vvKSKavpivai rplry koi oxXoi 
Trepi tKTriv Kal Ej3Soyu>)v. Hipp. Epid. 1190 : oi o^Xoi, ai 
SioSoi, on Totai irapuKpovovai Xf/yovaiv oSivai TrXevpiwv — 



232 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

iuTl S' oI(7( TTVptTOl, iOTl Si OldlV OV, oAAct ailV ISpOiatV, iaTL 

o dial avv o\\tj^. 

ao\\oQ, oyXrifi^, b\kwiSr\g, o~)(\r\p6Q, avoyXrtaia, and 
SioxXeiv, were also medical words. 

XV. 24 : " Forasmuch as we have heard, that certain 
which went out from us have troubled you with words 
subverting (avaaKivaZovrtg) your souls, saying. Ye must be 
circumcised, and keep the law." 

* avatTKsvaZeiv, peculiar to St. Luke, was much employed 
in medical language to denote the removal of a disease. 

Dioscor. Mat. Med. ii. 144 : Siva/Mv Si s'xt' ra <pvXXa 
alyiXwtria avaaKivaZeiv. Dioscor. Mat. Med. iii. 9 : TO. (paji- 
SaiviKci eXkj) avacFKivaZovcra Bepainvei. Do. 132 : avacFKEva^ei 
Si Koi ervppiyyag. Dioscor. V. 25 : TTipl TO GTOjua (xriTrriSovag 
avac7K£va!^ov. Gralen. Comm. i. 16, Aph. (xvii. B. 426) : 
^vXaTTEcrOai yap avrwv Stl Sia rihv vypwv rifv (j)V(nv, ovk 
avacTKEiia^EdOat KaOairep ra voa^fiaTa. Galen. Oomm. vi. 38, 
Aph. (xviii. A. 61) : 'ivioi S\ ovSi tovtoiq KagKivoiQ avacncEi/o- 
Z,iadai tuxTiv. Galen. Comm. i. 7, Artie, (xviii. A. 320) : ov- 
Siv fiiv tCjv koto, ^vaiv £iravop9w(TiWQ Sural, (pvXdmiv fjiiv yiip 
ripiv, oiiK avaaKtvaZiiv aiiTo. npoKeiTai. Galen. Comp. Med. 
vii. 5 (xiii. 104) : avacrKivdZu xpovioue Trvparovg. Galen. 
Comp. Med. ix. 4 (xiii. 280) : koXikt) y awex'^Q IxP'^'^'"'*'' 
TiXiWQ diraXXciTTovtra kqi dva<jKevdZov(Ta. Galen. Medicus, 
19 (xiv. 787) : tdv fxijag Xiav 6 tvXoq y, Tr£piaipovvr£<; 
avaaKivdZofiiv. 

* airodKivdZeiv. Acts, xxi. 15 : " And after those days 
we took «7J our carriages {diroaKivatrdficvoi), and went up 
to Jerusalem." 

Peculiar to St. Luke, and used medically. Dioscor. 
Animal. Yen. Proem. : Kai Trpo fiiv rije KaTa(TKri\piwe tuv 
Tratfwv TroiKiXwg StayvuxjTiov, M^XP' ''"'^ TravTeX&Jc avTrjv — rjjv 
Svvafiiv ^dopoiroiov diroaKtvaaOfivai twv (Toi/iar&jv. 

aKivaaia was the term for a medical preparation, and 
oKivdZuv that for to compound it. 

XV. 39 : " And the contention was so sharp (Trapo^va/xog) 



i Lxxxviii.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 233 

between them, that they departed asunder one from the 
other : and so Barnabas took Mark, and sailed unto Cyprus." 

n-apo^iKTjuoc is used once elsewhere (Heb. x. 24), and was 
common in medical language. 

Hipp. Morb. Acut. 398 : Sia(j)vXXdTrwv roiig TrapoS,v(jfiovc 
Twv Trvp£TU)v. Hipp. Epid. 954 : o( TrapoSutr/iot £v apTiym, 
Hipp. Epid. 963 : ilal Se rporrot koj KaTaarcKneQ koX Trapo^va- 
fuol TovriiMiv SKacrrov twv TtvptTiov. Hipp. Aph. 1250 : oko- 
aoKJi irapo^vapoi yivovTai. Aretaeus, Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 
34 : )} EjrtXrupir), dripiwBeQ piv irapo^vapoicn kol kuto^v koI 
oXiOpiov, iKT£ivs yap kots napo^v<TpoQ eiQ. Dioseor. Medic. 
Parab. ii. 39 : \apai(7VKri Trivopivri Train roiig TTapo^lxjpovQ. 
Do. 46 : KOfXfKoTc sv uvtoiq roig Trapoi,v(7poTg Si'Sou Siaipavig — 
Galen. Comm. i. 24, Morb. Acut. (xv. 476) : raTc irEptuo-ote 
ripipaiQ TTspioSovQ twv Trapo^va-pwv (jivXa^wptOa. Gralen. Oomm. 
i. 12, Humor, (xvi. 134) : d Ss o-uve^eTc div ol TrvpiTol, SjjXov 
Si Tiva Tfapo^vapbv (pipovai. Gralen. Comm. ii. 1, Praedic. i. 
(xvi. 491) : TTEjOt Trig ap'xfiQ irvpsKTiKOJv irapo^vcrpwv. 

irapo^iviffOai. Acts, xvii. 16 : " Now while Paul waited 
for them at Athens, his spirit was stirred {Trapoj^vveTo) in 
him, when he saw the city wholly given to idolatry." 

This word is used once elsewhere (1 Cor. xiii. 5), and, like 
the last, was common in medical language. 

Hipp. Morb. Acut. 404 : icai ti n aXXo aXyripa eI'ij pspa- 
OriKOQ Trpoadiv Trapo^vveitv av. Hipp. Praedic. 74 : TrvpsTog 
irapo^iviTai o^vg. Hipp. Fist. 889 : koi tov ^appaxov irrap- 

plKOV TTpOQ TTJV pilVa TTpOITTlBival Kttl TTapO^VVSlV TOV avdpWTTOV. 

Hipp. Epid. 963 : iiravaSiSoi St Kot irapo^vvsTai koS' r)pipav 
EKatTT-jjv. Hipp. Epid. 966 : irvpeTog o^iig, 'iSpwaev iv vvkti 
iirnrovwg SevTtpy, irdvTa irapw^vvOri. Hipp. Epid. 979 : e? 
KUi StKarrj jrapoj^vvOri vvKra Koil Sv(T(p6pwg, ov)(^ iinvuxre. 
Hipp. Epid. 982 : ol irvptTol wapo^vvopsvoi aXXors dXXoiwg 
dTaKTwg. Galen. Comm. 20, Vic. Eat. (xv. 204) : to. Ss slg 
'ipsTov irapo%vv^. Galen. Oomm. i. 43, Morb. Acut. (xv. 
500) : I'vEKa TOV pr) Trapo^vvai Tijv Sixpav tov Kapvovrog. Galen. 
Ars Medica. 34 (i. 397) : oEvvrj te ttckju irapo^vvet tu ptvpara. 

2H 



234 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [pakt ii. 

§ LXXXIX. 

Acts, XYI. 

* iiraKpoaadaL. 

* GTepeovv (verse 5, § 23). Siarpljdciv (v. 12, § 86). avatpc7v 

(v. 27, § 84). * SiaTTOVHaOat (v. 18, § 81). * iKrap^dCTtiv 

(v. 20, § 57). Woe (v. 21, § 58). aa<j,a\wQ (v. 23, § 82). 

* TTspippriyvvfii (v. 22, § 61). fiiaovvKTiov (v. 25, §67). 
Trapa\prifia (v. 26, § 57). Ipyaaia (v. 16, § 91). (rwrripia 
(v. 17, § 98). 7rapaj3f^^£(T0ai (v. 15, § 77). 

Acts, XYII. 

* tKTTifiTreiv. avaTrifiTTiiv. * ttvo}/. * ifnrvitiv. virepopqv. 

opiZtiv. 

fiiiiOa (verse 2, § 68). * ox^oiroieTv (v. 5, § 88). vnoSiXi<j6at 
(v. 7, § 73). TrapoKivt^Oai (v. 16, § 88). * <TU;ij3aXAHV 
(v. 18, § 68). *kTnSvfiHv (v. 21, § 79). * Trpo^SH,7eai. 
(v. 25, § 81). KoXX5(T0ai (v. 34, § 66). 

xvi. 25 : " And at midnight Paul and Silas prayed, and 
sang praises unto God : and the prisoners heard them " 
{kirrtKpowvTo). 

* iTTUKpoaadai, peculiar to St. Luke, and applied in this 
passage to the attentive listening of the prisoners, was the 
term employed in medical language for the application of 
the ear to the human body, in order to detect the nature of 
internal disease by the sound — auscultation. 

Hipp. Morb. 476 : 'irepoQ /xiv tuq y^^aipag ei^lroj, (jii Se tow 
wjxov crdwv a.Kpoa!^sadai £C OKoripov av tHjv TrXivpiwv to 
wadoQ i/zo^er). Hipp. Intern. Affect. 544 : \ovaaQ iroWt^, 
Koi Bepfii^, rwv iljfiwv Xafiofxevoc (Ttlaov iW aKpoacrOai, iv 
OKOTtp^) av tCov ttAeujOECdv fiaWov KXu^rjrat. 

xvii. 10 : " And the brethren immediately sent away 
{i^einfi\pav) Paul and Silas by night unto Berea." 



j Lxxxix.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 235 

* eKTTiinrtiv is peculiar to St. Luke. Both it and avanifi- 
wtiv were much used in medical language. 

Hipp. Coac. Progn. 213 : to Se iKTrifiirofitvov Xiirog 'iaxov 
ovpov VTroaracriv (jri/iaivsi irvptrov. Gralen. Comm. ii. 15, 
Humor, (xvi. 262) : etteiS?) 6 nafivwv etti r^ tov alfiarog 
TTTvasi TO xo^'^'Sec TTTViXov EKTrE^uTTEi. Graleu. Comm. 1. 18, 
Praedio. (xvi. 554) : 17 ^avBi) xo^»? "t' tv t^ KtijtaXy eiV em 
oX(jf) Tij^ awfiari KctKiiOsv Trpbc; £yKi<j)aXov EKTrf/xTTErat. Galen. 
Nat. Facul. iii. 13 (ii. 197) : eJ St' ov fxiKpi^ irpoaStv tiaio 
TrapiKOfiiZeTO to Trvtvpa Sia tovtov vvv SKTrljUTTErai. Gralen. 
Sang, in Arter. 2 (iv. 707) : ov yap Si) ((TXE<70ai 7E to toiovto 
fiaXXov (V Totg crwpaai aXX' SKTripTrecrdai Tcptirti. Galen. XJsus 
Puis. 3 (v. 163) : koS' ov eAkouui Kaipov oh Ka0' ov ekttejU- 
TTovai TO TTvsvfia. Galen. Caus. Sympt. ii. 4 (vii. 175) : Sia 
Si Twv TidpostSiLv octtCJv avTOQ SKiripmi to arpwSsQ Trvevpa. 
Galen. Caus. Puis. ii. 2 (ix. 64) : ovQ' eAkeii- ovt iKTrifxirtiv 
TO TTVEVjua. Galen. Progn. ex Puis. : tu orojuara twv ttAjj- 
(riwv TriQ Kapolag apTjipiCjv, ci u)v eAkei te koi avOtQ iKTripTTiL 
Tag iiXac. Galen. Meth. Med. xiii. 22 (x. 939) : sv SI ti tC^v 
VTrepKSifieviov fj Svo ti^ KUfivovri popii^ Trjv tavTOv Treptovalav 

EKTTE/iTrEI. 

ava-rriixTTuv. Acts, xxv. 21 : " But when Paul had ap- 
pealed to be reserved unto the hearing of Augustus, I com- 
manded him to be kept till I might send {avaTtipipw) him to 
Ceesar." 

avaircpneiv is used again, Luke, 'xxiii. 7; xxiii. 11 ; xxiii. 
15, and once elsewhere, Philemon, 11. 

Hipp. Gland. 271 : koi apa avairipTvu TO auipa arpovQ 
EC rrjv KtipaXrjv iravTOioug avd). Hipp. Morb. Acut. 398 : 
£K TOV Bwpr\K.OQ kg Trjv KKJiaXfiv avaTripTTwv tjjv <j)Xoya. Galen. 
Comm. iii. 30, Morb. Acut. (xv. 687) : Trpbg n)v avto \u)pav 
avairipirei ra Si!:E,spxopiva. Galen. Comm. iv. 23, Epid. vi. 
(xvii. B. 199) : ?; yasT^p KevooOticra pr}KST avanipirij Toiig 
cLTpovg. Galen. Adver. Jul. 4 (xviii. A. 262) : ^oA?) Xap- 
[3dvov(Ta fiiv ovv Trjv avairvoriv e^m TravTOia avairipTrei (pvcrfi- 
fiuTa Z,iov<Ta. Galen. Comm. iii. 102, Artie, (xviii. A. 640) : 



236 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

TctvofiivoQ S" ovTog tIvmv avairtfiiru ttjv raaiv IttX tov fiiiv 
avTov, oOiv awiipv. Galen. Progn. iii. 30 (xviii. B. 285): 
fiikaivav avadvfiiamv irpog ttjv Kt(paXrjv avawifiiTEi. Gralen. 
Usus Part. iv. 17 (iii. 326) : tov ev ry jaarpl irtirEfji/iivov 
XWjUov avairiixwovm. Galen. San. Tuend. vi. 10 (vi. 428) : 
avairiinniv rs irpb^ rriv Ke(paXfjv ar/jioiiQ iariv on fio\vrtpovQ. 
Galen. De Succis. Aliment. 11 (vi. 807) : Sm rriv KoiXiav 
avaTTifiTTOVctiv arfiovQ xvfiwv fi0\dripidv. 

xvii. 26 : " Neither is worshipped with men's hands, as 
though he needed anything, seeing he giveth to all life, and 
breath {irvoriv), and all things." 

*Trvori, peculiar to St. Luke, and used also Acts, ii. 2, 
was employed in medical language to denote in particular 
the first breath of the child in the womb, e.g., Hipp. Nat. 
Puer. 237 : rairy Kot ri nvorj, icat to irpCiiTOv (TfiiKprj r] 
TTpoij yivirai koi to aifia oX'tyov \ti)piei airo ttjc prirpbg, 
OKOrav Se ri TTvorj iirl ttAjTov ytvr]Tai, fiaXXov cXkci to 
aifia. Hipp. Nat. Puer. 236 : Koicfivtj) Tr)V ttvojjv koi iiaiu 
Kot E^d) TTOihcrdai TO TTjodirov — oTi ri yovfi Iv vfiivi £(Tri koi 
irvoriv 'ixei. Hipp. Nat. Puer. 238 : koi Srj koi Tolaiv avio 
TYJv irvoriv irodtTai T(jf} te (jTOfxaTi koi t^ piv\, koi t) te KoiXia 
(pvaaTai Kai Ta 'ivTepa KOTacpvawfiiva Kara to avwOev tiriXafi- 
j3avii TTiv 8(a tov o/KpaXoxi irvoriv koi ajuaXSiivsi — tovtmv Se 
SiapOpourai vtto Trig TTvoyc; tKaaTa. Hipp. Nat. Puer. 245 : 
6 OfKpaXoQ Earn, KaicEivj) irpwTOv rj)v 7rvO)7V eAkei eg kwvTriv 
Koi fiidiricriv t^w. Hipp. Morb. 470 : fiv ura^iiXie ^v T^ 
(papvyyi yevrjTai — eTTiXafijiavii ttjv irvoriv. Hipp. Morb. 482: 

Koi Triv TTVOlflV ETTE^Et. Hipp. Morb. 506 : KOi OV SwafXlVOV 

TO <TU)fxa xiiro aciOsviirig Tr)v irvoriv sXkhv. Hipp. Epid. 1153 : 
EXaXa T?7v irvoriv. 

* ifiTTviiiv. Acts, ix. i : " And Saul, yet breathing out 
(ifiTTvitDv) threatenings and slaughter against the disciples 
of the Lord, went unto the high priest." 

Peculiar to St. Luke, and, like ovaTrvE'stv, iKjirviuv, iKirvkiv, 
used in medical language, but not so frequently. 

Hipp. xlat. 296: tovto dl fiovvov ati SiareXiovaiv airavTa 



§ Lxxxix.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. 237 

TO dvriTa ^oJa irpr^aaovra, tote fxlv ifnrviovTa, totI 8e 
iKirviovTa. Aretaeus, Gur. Acut. Morb. 87 : arap riBi 
ibjvTtoim EjUTTVfoutTt Ir iiSovijv. Graleii. Comm. i. 18, Humor, 
(xvi. 175) : El" T^ Toii aifiaTog tttvcfh XvrriTtXic jUJ7te jSoav 

fXriTE (T(pohpU)Q El(T7rVE(V flflTS IjUTTVEll'. 

xvii. 30 : " And the times of this ignorance God winked 
at (uTrEjOtStov) ; but now commandeth all men every where to 
repent." 

"* vwepop^v, peculiar to St. Luke, was the term in medical 
language for overlooking, not paying attention to, disease, 
or to some symptoms in comparison with others. 

Hipp. Pract. 758 : ^vfKJtspei KaTaKslaOai tovtov tov 
Xpovov, aXXa yap ov ToXfiiiovcnv viripoptJVTig to v6(Tr]fia. 
Hipp. Epid. 1169: jurjSsv ejkij, /zjjSev vTrspopai;. Aretaeus, 
Cur. Acut. Morb. 103 : \pfi Se jujjSe r-qv kqtu) IriTpdrjv 
v-irepopijv. Aret. Cur. Acut. Morb. 106 : arap /UjjSe tu)v Sia 
(TTOfiaroQ (jj(j>eXo{ivriov <j>aQfiaKWv virspopyv firjSiv. Aret. Cur. 
Morb. Diuturn. 127 : pi) wv priSs -a (jpiKpa vwipopijv aXyia. 
Aret. Cur. Morb. Diuturn. 135 : vvv Se \pri oitSev virtpopyv 
priSi 7rp^(T<TEiv TL HKTi. Galen. Comm. ii. 28, Epid. vi. (xvii. 
A. 953) : ovTii) K(fTrl tQiv QiQawtvriKdv ov\ VTripopq.v Tivog 
Xpri Toiv doKovvTwv tlvai piKpiJjv. Galen. Comm. n. 29, 
Epid vi. (xvii. A. 954) : OipawcvTiK-nv crvp(3ovXrjv KaXuv 
'i^BaTi aoi, TOTE /utjSsv VTrEpopqv Kot TO prjSiv eIk^ — twv yoiiv 
Idhiv, (i»e piKQOv TrapaSEiypoTOQ xnrEpopuxnv tvioi twv laTpCov — 
TivEc S' oii-^ {nrtpopCxn Galen. Comm. i. 5, Humor, (xvi. 
77) : av yovii pf) vTTEpopa tivoq, ovSe EiKJf koi aj3a(Tavt(TTtt)C 
iridTtvE Toic EtpriptvoiQ Tfiv depaTTEVTcKiov SvvapecTiv. 

xvii. 26 : " And hath made of one blood all nations of 
men for to dwell on all the face of the earth, and hath deter- 
mined {opiaag) the times before appointed, and the bounds of 
their habitation." 

opiZsiv, used six times by St Luke (Luke, xxii. 22 ; Acts, 
ii. 23 : x. 42; xi. 29; xvii. 26, 31), and but twice in the rest 
of the N. T. (Rom. i. 4; Heb. iv. 7),was employed in medical 
language in describing the different membranes, &o., which 



238 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

separate different parts of the body — also of fixed times 
and periods, as here, &o. 

Galen. De Dieb. Deeretor. ii. 2 (ix. 844) : 17 TsXEiwmQ Se 
Kol ri wapaKfiii fv ')(^pov[oiQ wpiafiivoig yivtrai. Do. (845) : 
(i)C TETajfjiivov ri ■)(pr]fia. iariv ri (pvaig — avaXoyiaiQ ricnv 
wpiafiivaiQ km. TrapioSoie TiTajfiivaiQ al Kivqauq avrrig yivov- 
rat. Hipp. Nat. Puer. 246 : rjv Si (Biaiov irddri/jia iraQy to 
TraiSiov koi Trpocrdev rov optafxtvov ■)(^p6vov payivrcDV twv 
vfxivwv i^ipxircu. Gralen. Anat. Administr. v. 7 (ii. 514) : 
VTTO T£ TWV kXiiSCJv EKartp&jv optt^ofitvo^. Do. vu. 7 (11. 607) : 
wg opiZovcFtv tKaripwdiv ai ytvofxivai. Gralen. De Oss. 1 
(ii. 743) : 17 |oa^Tj 17 Trpoe tyiv avw yivvv aiiTrjv opiZovcra. Do. 
(744) : opiZtrai piv vtto ttjq \ap(5So£iSovQ pa<jirjg. Do. 3 
(749) : opiZovai Si avra pa(j>aX Ti(TCTapig. Gralen. Anat. Ad- 
ministr. iv. 2 (ii. 428) : locrTt aKpijdwg wpiaOai rag Svo ttXeu- 
pag Tov pvog. Galen. Meth. Med. vii. 11 (x. 512) : kv 
iopiapivaig TnpLoooig onroaropovpivov ajyuov. 



§xc. 

Acts, XYIII. 

irpoacpuTwg. * oportxvog. iKTivaacriiv. * awoTivaaaaiv. 
* tirivtviiv. * iVTOvwg. 

KarspxicOai (verse 5, § 84). kokovv (t. 10, § 83). * Zmnpa 
(v. 15, § 88). * airtXalvuv (v. 16, § 83). i^pf/Swe (v. 25, 
§ 93). * TrpoTpinitTdai [v. 27, § 87). avplSdXXiiv (v. 27, 
§ 68). 

2. " And found a certain Jew named Aquila, born in 
Pontus, lately (Tr/ood^arcoe) come from Italy." 

Trp6(T(j)aTog, met with also Heb. x. 20, was the medical word 
for anything new — fresh. 

Hipp. Coao. Progn. 164 : to. Si Trp6(7(paTa twv tv ToTaiv 
vTro\ovSpioi(nv inappaTwv. Do. 186 : kcu alpa Trpoarparov 
alti TTTVHv. Hipp. Eat. Vic. 356 : to. Trpou^ara aX^aa. 



§ xc] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 239 

-Uo. 361 : TO. Trp6(T(j)aTa iravra icTXW irXdova Trapt^^erat rwv 
a\\u)v. Dioscor. Mat. Med. i. 14 : eKXiyov Se to Trpoa-^arov. 
Do. 15 : apKTTO^ ok t<TTi 6 irgoaijiaTOQ. 16 : ekAs^ou St rrjv 

TTQOa^aTOV. 18 : tan Se OTTOC KoXoQ 6 ■!Tp6(T(j>aT0Q — SoKlflOV 

t(TTi TO Trp6<T<j>aTov. 186 : Trpo(x<pdTu)Q StvXirrfxivri. Gralen. 
Meth. Med. ii. 10 (xi. 127): t^v Si sIq jSa^oc gfj^K^ Tb 
rpavfia to irpoafpaTov. Galen. Oomp. Med. vii. 2 (xiii. 55) : 
apinoZii (itiTTOvcTi xpoviuig Kai TrpoacpaTwg. Galen. Oomp. 
Med. vii. 3 (xiii. 71) : Trpoo-^artj) rt^ (jtapfiaKdj). Do. x. 2 
(xiii. 346) : doiiv irpo(j(j>dTiiiv to Xsvkov. 

3. " And because he was of the same craft [^la to bfxo- 
Tixvov iivai), he abode with them, and wrought : for by 
their occupation they were tentmakers." 

* bfioTixvoq is peculiar to St. Luke, to whom it must 
have been a familiar word, as the medical profession was 
called T) laTpiKTj Ti\yr\, and physicians bfioTixvoi. 

Hipp. Praecept. 27 : e^' oIq av IriTpoQ dyadoQ aK/xaZoi 

bfXOTiXVOg KaXlO/lSVOg. Hipp. Epis. 1285 : 01 T£ TToXXoi TO 

Trjg ar£T^i/i»)e icp" kwvrioiQ ixovreg d'lSpug iovTtg, Kadaipovm 
TO Kpiaaov iv dvaiaOriToig yap slatv ai ipri(j)oi, oiirE B' oi 
Trdaxpvreg avvofiiXoi elvai OeXovaiv ovte ot ofiOTExvivvTtg 
fiapTvpsiv. 

Dioscorides, dedicating his work to Areus, speaks of his 
friendly disposition to fellow physicians, Dioscor. Mat. Med. 
Proem. : (pvau jnev irpog TrdvTag Tovg dno iraiSdag avayofxi- 
vovg oiKeiovpivog, fidXtaTa Si Trpog TOvg 6poTi)(yovQ, iSiaiTspov 
Si vpbg vpdg. 

Galen. Meth. Med. i. 2 : ^jj Toiig onoTi\vovg ti^ Trarpl 
aov KpiTag Kadicryg laTptjv, roXjUJjpororE QscrcraXi. 

Physicians disagreeing in opinion were dvTiTsxvoi. Galen. 
Progn. ad. Posthum. 7 (xiv. 637) : biroXov oi dvTiTExvoi aov 
^daKOvaiv dSvvaTOv tivai. 

6. "And when they opposed themselves, and blasphemed, 
he shook {iKriva^dfj.ivog] his raiment, and said unto them, Tour 
blood be upon your own heads; I am clean: from henceforth 
I will go unto the Gentiles." 



240 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

tKTivaiT(THv, used also siii. 51, and once each by St. Mat- 
thew and St. Mark (Matt. x. 14 ; Mark, vi. 11), was much 
employed in medical language. 

Hipp. Epid. 1170 : 17 KoiXir) ahn^ i^trivaKiV Dioscor. 
Mat. Med. i. 137: Xtirpovg owxac tKTivacraei. Do. 161: 
9ripia iKTivcKTrrei. Do. 178: TrXarEiav eXfiivOa iKTivaacrsi. Do. 
180 (ii. 98) : E//j3pDa ektivoo-o-ejv TrapaSiSorai. 132 : sXfjiivOaQ 
iKTivaaaci. Do. 184 (iii. 34) : nOvriKOTa ififipva iKTivdaait. 
83 : rjXouc 7rEpt)^apa;^6£vrac iKTivaaan. 183 : iXfiivoa irXa- 
Ttiav tKTivcKjaii. Galen. Eemed. Parab. iii. (xiv. 571) : ektj- 
vcKTcjEt yap Koi to. ev rtj) nvtvpovi laQionivoQ. 

* airoTivaaaiiv. Acts, xxviii. 5 : " And he shook off 
[a-KOTiva^ao) the beast into the fire, and felt no harm." 

Peculiar to St. Luke, and employed, but not very fre- 
quently, in the medical writers. Galen uses it in connexion 
with a process in the preparation of barley for making a 
ptisan for the sick. 

Galen. De Ptisana, 4 (vi. 821) : tVEira tqi^uv toXq 
Xipalv iiri to(70vtov, o-Xpi-Q "v o Xetttoc vp.r\v cnroTivaxOfi. 
Kot Sta ToiiT avOiQ Tpi^iTai icri^vpoJe jUEra rCiv xeipiov Eoip 
av anav to aj^Dpiuote aTroriva^rjrat. 

20. " When they desired him to tarry longer time with 
them, he consented not" (ovk ettevevo-ei'). 

* iTTiveveiv, peculiar to St. Luke, was in medical language 
technically applied to the muscles exerted in bending the 
head forward, as avavivtiv was of those in bending it back. 
The medical writers use many compounds of vtvetv; so too 
does St. Luke, iwtisiv, Siavtvsiv and KaravEvnv, as well as 
tvivivHv, being peculiar to him. 

Galen. TJsiis Part. xii. 1 (iv. 1) : tort Se Koiva fiopia 
TpaxilMv KOI KE^aXijc, Si' 3)v l-Kivtvofxiv re koi avavevofisv 
KOL iriQiayoptv avTrjv e? to. TrXayia. Galen. Usus Part. xii. 

8 (iV. 31): aVTlKa ji TOl TWV tTTtVSVOVTWV T£ KOI avavivovTwv 

Trjv KC(j>aXriv fivuiv. Do. 9 (37) : ovTwg 1) Trptiri) fioTpa twv 
ixvu)v TOVTwv tiriviiuv avTriv tte^evicev. Do. 10 (43) : iTrivevHv 
Se koi avavtveiv Kara tov vCjtov. Do. 12 (53) : apa S' iin- 



§ xc] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 241 

vcvtiv T£ Koi avavivsiv aXXoT aXXo juspoc rrtg pa\twQ Swarov 
^v. Do. xiii. 3 (iv. 86) : kv St roTc Kara rbv Tpa)(jiiXov o'i t 
iiriviiovrtQ eltri fxvsQ tjjv K£<f>aXriv. Do. (92) : tTrivEvtiv koL 
avavivetv koi TrepKpepHv tov Tpa)(ri\ov. Do. i. 4 (iv. 13) : 
£;^pjjv Svo yiViaOai ttiq KE^aXije Tag KivrjaEiQ STipav /xiv iiri- 
VEVovTwv KOI avavev6vTii)v — al fisv fivtg avav£vov(Tiv, ai Se 
eTTivsvovaiv. Do. 7 (26) : rig tpyov ^v avavivtiv ts koi etti- 
vevEiv. 

28. " For he mightily (ewtovidc) convinced the Jews, 
and that publickly, showing by the scriptures that Jesus 
was Christ." 

* svTovwg, peculiar to St. Luke, used also in Luke, 
xxiii. 10, is one of the words most frequently employed 
in the medical writers, opposed to arovog. 

Hipp. Medicus. 21 : ivrovwripri ydp iCFTiv ri aap^ tov 
Trovfi(TavTog. Hipp. Morb. 457 : ocroi piv vedirepot slmv 
lire TOV awparog evtovov. Aret. Cur. Acut. Morb. 124 : 
yvvaiKOQ evTovov. Aret. Morb. Diuturn. Cur. 129 : ^ tioI 
SaKTvXoim Kivistv iVTOvwg. Dioscor. Mat. Med. i. 13 : oi/k 
tvrovov Ty oapy. Dioscor. Mat. Med. i. 136 : t'crrt Se 
iVTovwTegoQ b Sta tov o'lvov ek9Ajj3ojuevoc. Dioscor. Mat. 
Med. ii. 76 : 6e tr^iZopsvog irpbg KaQapaiv evTovwTepog 
yivsTui. Galen. Aph. Comm. iii. 5 (xvii. B. 570) : awpma 
iVTOva. Gralen. Comp. Med. iv. 10 (xii. 732) : eirovwe 
avuKaOaipsi. Galen. Theriac. ad Peson. 15 (xiv. 276) : ttji- 
Se (pvaiv ivepysiv eurovwg. 



2 I 



242 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

§XOI. 

Acts, XIX. 

* Xpdtie- ipyaaia. * (rvvapiral^iiv. 

* aviorepiKog (verse 1, §70). KaTspxtfOat (v. 1, § 84). *aTraX- 
Utthv (v. 12, § 32). *iTnxHpe7v (v. 13, § 57). * rapa- 
XOf (v. 23, § 57). * <yvvaepoii:Hv (v. 25, § 77). *ihiropia 
(v. 25, § 74). TTifnrXvt^i (v. 29, § 60). * aiyxvaig (v. 29. 
§79). *<7U7x"'v (v. 32, §79). *Kara<Tfj'£(v (v. 33, § 59). 

*KaTa,TTiX\eiv (v. 35, § 92). * Trpo[56.\\Hv (v. 33, § 68). 

* (TV(TTpo(pfi (v. 40, § 76). 

12. " So that from his hody {awo rov xpwoc) were brought 
unto the sick handkerchiefs or aprons, and the diseases de- 
parted from them, and the evil spirits went out of them." 

* xpwc- Peculiar to St. Luke. The use of xc^^' to mean 
the body, not the skin, continued in medical language from 
Hippocrates to Galen, who states that it was derived from 
the lonians. Gralen. Tract. Comm. ii. 9 (xviii. B. 435) : 
XpfiiTa KaXovcTiv ol "iwvtg o ^v rov adifiaroQ S^fiCjv (japKwStg 
kv ([» juaXtora yivti to Sipfia koi ol fiveg dcriv kcps^rig Si ol 
ifiivsg Koi awXayxva- St. Luke, therefore, in using XP'^Q here 
is speaking quite professionally. 

Hipp. Intern. Affect. 544 : kqi 6 xp<^e twoiSaXiog koi ol 
TToStg olSsovtTi. Hipp. Nat. Mul. 567 : Km 6 xp^e ^XvKraivwv 
KaTaTTi/xirXaTai. Hipp. Fract. 767 : koi jap d vyifig XP(t>C 
evOev Koi ivOtv kTTiStOeiri. Hipp. Artie. 812 : koi a/ia to 
oaria ro KanriyoTa ivdpdiTtTH ovtw /xaXXov tov xP'^'''"- Hipp. 
Morb. Sac. 304 : OKoaoicri p.lv iraiSioitri eovcfiv i^avdiei eAkeo 
EC TTJv KeijiaXfiv KOI EC TO, ovara koi kg tov aXXov xP^ra. 
Hipp. Humor. 47: oSfiai xP'»""oe- Aretaeus, Cur. Acut. 
Morb. 110: riv oe iiritrvpsTaivwai, to. ttoXXo koI rpat (j>Xiy- 
fxaaiym twv xpw'i'i' yiyvovTai TTvpsToi. Dioscor. Mat. Med. 
ii. 135 : fiiyvvTai Se (jfii'jyfxaai irpoawnov koi tov aXXov 



§ xci.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. 243 

Xpt^TOQ. Gralen. Def. Med. 436 (xix. 449) : -yay-ypotva ian 
fiBTofioXrj Tov ■)(pu)TQe Tov KOTa (pvoiv EKaoTou £7rl TO aXXorpiov 
Koi vEKpwffte M^^' iXKwatwQ Koi St^a kXKUicrebig. 

25. " Whiom he called together with the workmen of like 
occupation, and said, Sirs, ye know that by ihis craft (rije 
epyaaia^) we have our wealth." 

Ipyaaia is used also in Luke, xii. 58 ; Acts, xvi. 16 ; 
xvi. 19 ; xix. 24, and but once elsewhere, Eph. iv. 19. In 
medical language it was used for the making of some mix- 
ture — the mixture itself — the work of digestion and that of 
the lungs, &c. 

Hipp. Vic. Eat. 356 : to. Trp6a(j>aTa aX(piTa Koi aXrjTa 
tripOTspa TU)V iraXaiiiJv on tyyvov tov irvpoQ koi Trig spyamag 
ticri. Hipp. Vic. Hat. 357 : Qe.Qp.OL (pvmi plv i<7)(ypov koi 
Oippov S(a §£ rjjv Ipyaairtv Koviporspov Koi xpVKTiKiiiTepov eotj 
Kai Staxf^peii — TOVTtwv Si cnravTuiv oi XvpoX Tr\Q aapmOQ 
Siaxfopr/TLKol, Sti ovv spyaaiin ^vXacraeiv OKOcra ptv /SoijXfi 
^tjpaivuv, Toiig x^i""^? cKpaipovvTa r^ (rapKi xp^a-Qai. Hipp. 
877 : (cai aXA?j ipyaaix] Kara ra avTa. Aretaeus, Sign. Morb. 
Diuturn. 51 : sal t^' TiTran piv oSe rjv ^Xeypavy riplv rj 
(TKippov 'i<T\y TO Tjirap, aTpiiTTov Se TO eg ipyaaiav — riv 
ovv ijpOTtpov TO Jiirap tjjv aXX-qv Tpot^ffV Xafiri, Trjv piv 
tSirjv ipya(jit)v wuviu — cnreipiri Sh ri iv KaiXtj) ;(oAf(e lori 
apyaaiT). Aret. Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 54 : ipyaairt yap 
Tpo(prig ri ig Trbfjiv airopog. Galen. Usus Part. vii. 8 (iii. 
541) : TO S' £K tHiv Tpa\uil)v apTTipibJv TTVivpaTo i^wdsv eXx^ev 
Ev piv Ty aapKi tov Trvivpovog Trjv Trpwrjjv Ipyaaiav Xapjidvei. 
Galen. Nat. Facul. i. 10 (ii. 21) : ocrrovv S' 'Iva yivrjrai, 
TToXXov plv SuTut xpovov, TToXXijc S' cpya(jir)g Kai psTujioXrig 



Tijg a'lpari. 



29. " And the whole city was filled with confusion : and 
/laving caught {crvvapwdaavTeg) Gaius and Aristarchus, men of 
Macedonia, Paul's companions in travel, they rushed with one 
accord into the theatre. 

* auvapiraZtiv is peculiar to St. Luke, and used also in 
Luke, viii. 29; Acts, vi. 12; xxvii. 15. This word and 



244 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [pakt ii. 

avapiraZfiv and i^apnaZtiv are used indifferently in medical 
language, to denote the sudden exertion of some of the natu- 
ral powers. Hipp. Aer. 292: ov yap dvvavrai in ^wap-iraZfiv 
ai fxriTpai rrjv yovriv. Galen. San. Tuend. iv. 11 (vi. 301) : 
cioEiKTai yap iraai toiq vtto <j)vatwc cioiKOVfiivoic v7rap\ov(ja 
SvvafiiQ 'i/i<j>vTOQ ri eXktjkjj toov bjxoiwv xu/nwv i(j) (ov Tpi<psadaL 
fxiXXei, SidsiKTm Ss KOt mq STrsiSav cnropy fitv o'lKslag ri afia 
Kcu ^jjoTjje Tpo(px)Q, ETreiyeTai twv ov •)(pr](STis)v tl crvvapTracrai. 
Galen. Hipp, et Plat. Decret. iv. 5 (v. 399) : awapiraZovTai 
Ta\i(i)g vno rwv iradHiv — vtto tov aavvfidovg Ta\v avvapira- 
Zerai. Galen. TJsus Part. iii. 10 (iii. 233) : ri fiiv yap n-po- 
XcipoQ (pavraaia to.^ av riva avvapTfacnuv. Galen. Nat. 
Facul. iii. 8 (ii. 202) : ei; tovtij^ twv Kara to rircap i^apira^u 
<p\£(3wv. Galen. Nat. Facul. iii. 8 (ii. 202) : iv Se tovt(^ t(^ 
T^povtj) Sitpxofiivri TO ivTcpov airav 17 Tpo(j>rj, Sia twv Etc avTo. 
KaOriKOvTwv ayyelwv avapiraZsTai. Galen. San. Tuend. iv. 
10 (vi. 299) : E/UTrtTrXarai tovtoiq r) s^tc airiTrTwv \vp.wv, 
ovg avapTToZu. Do. 11. (301) : avapird^saOai ttXucttov Wfxov 
XV;UOv tie tov ciyKOv tov ^wou Slu noWag aiTiag. Do. 11. 
(303) : (jvvapiraZovcnv ai Ka6t}K0V(Tai <j>\tj3eg Trjv rpo^jjv. 



§ XCII. 





Acts 


, XX. 






* (TUVETTECr^at. * 


TrapaTeiviiv. 


* axiyi]. vTrooTiWiiv. 


* KaTa- 




o-teAXeii;. 


* avaTi\\i.lv. 






Siarpi^uv (verse 


6, § 86). fisdovvKTiov (v. 7, 


§67). * 


VTTipi^OV 



(v. 8, § 78). * KUTOiptpiaOai (v. 9, § 33). * trujuTTEjOiXa/x- 
(36vuv (v. 10, §65). *6fii\HV (v. 11, §77). avaXaju- 
liavuv (v. 13, § 65). . * <Ti;^j3aXXEtv (v. 14, § 68). 

* pETaKaXdcfdai (v. 17, § 85). atroan^v (v. 30, § 75). 
Sia(JTpi(t>Hv (v. 30, § 76). * i)7rr)p£r£rv (v. 34, § 87). 

*6SvvaGeai (v. 38, § 22). VTTVOQ ^aOvQ (v. 9, § 33). 

4. " And there accompanied him " {awdiriTo St avrt^). 



J xcii.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 245 

* avviiTiaOai, peculiar to St. Luke, was a oommon medical 
expression to denote disease accompanying a person. 

Hipp. Epid. 1334 : Stivrj KapBiaXyit) ZvfXTrapiiTrtTO oXrjv 
TJjv rifxipriv. Aretaeus, Sign. Mort. Diuturn. 48 : to Si 
Sia(j)pa-yfj.a tov vno ryai TrXivpycri Vfiiva j3pWu' ^vvintTai 
yap avTiuf. Gralen. Acut. Morb. ii. 44 (xv. 600): t^ 8' 
aTre\l/lq (jweTTiTai koL to. KaraksXtyfieva irTvafiara. Gralen. 
Aph. Comm. 27 (xviii. B. 40) : Ktvu)OevTi 8' adpowg t<J^ ttvi^ 
(TVviwtTai KOI avvsKKpivirat irvtiifia. Galen. Comm. i. 26, 
Progn. (xviii. B. 82) : tovtov awnrofiivov rolt; aya9o7Q 
lSpw(Ti. Galen. TJsus Part. xiv. 14 (iv. 207) : xprj roiig 
SsirpovQ (TWiTTCcrdai ttovti TrXavufxivOfi tiJ^ airkayxyij^. Galen. 
De Crisib. iii. 3 (ix. 706) : ku yap oKorav y 6 TrvptTog ht 
ETTi popitjj) (pXeyfjiaivovTt crvviTropivog. Galen. Facul. Purg. 
Med. 3 (xi. 334) : (jwiirtrai St aurtj) TO iwvwoXaZov vSardioEC, 
Galen. Loo. Affect, ii. 10 (viii. 122) : rp Se TripnTvevfioviq. to 
(pXtypuTLKWTspov TTTvapa (TwiTTiTat. Galen. Progn. 38 (xviii. 
B. 338) : KOI TO. T^ irapoxxj-Q re icai irpoyiyovviq KaTaaraati 

(TWlTTOptVa. 

7. " And upon the first day of the week, when the disci- 
ples came together to break bread, Paul preached unto them, 
ready to depart on the morrow ; and continued {TrapeTiivi) his 
speech until midnight." 

*TrapaTHVHv, peculiar to St. Luke, was a word of frequent 
use in the medical writers. 

Hipp. Nat. Oss. 277 : aXXog tovoc exaTiftwOsv £K TU)v 
KaTo. KXri'iSa (T(J>ovSvX(jov irspl paxiv TrapsTSivev. Hipp. Nat. 
Oss. 279 : a'l (j>\e(5sg svTivOtv irapaTtivovaai koto to inroKaTw 
vtiipa Toil pnpov- Hipp. Loc. in Hom. 410 : to. Sk vevpa 
TTiiZovaiv TO. apBpa, TrapaTerapiva ri aari Trap' oXov to awpa. 
Hipp. Artie. 817 : ol yap oxtroi oi Kord to Xawapov rijc 
nXsvprit; tKOCTrric TrapaTiTapivoi. Hipp. Epid. 1085 : aXXog 
TOVOQ irapa po-Xi-v Trapireiviv (k irXayiov airovSvXwv. Ajetaeus, 
Sign. Morb. Acut. 15 : r^c ry paxi TrapaTeTopivrtQ iraxm^ 
apTrtpitiQ. Axet. Sign. Morb. Acut. 17 : yap n apTr\pir) Ti^ 
(TTopaxi^ irapaTiTapivn] koi ^vvr\nfxivr\. Galen. Comm. iii. 31, 



246 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

Artie, (xviii. A. 528) : tovq iragaTiTaiiivovQ rovovg roiv 
<T<j>ovB{iXu}v — TrapaTtTavTai Si viiipa aa^ioc fJ.ev kKaartg afov- 
SuXtj) KaO' oXov Tov OwpaKu. Gralen. De Orisibus, ii. 9 (ix. 
676) : Opavofiivog 8' ovtoq wpaq irov vvKTog rptrije, tSpwrt re 
XoXrJQ ifiiru waptTUViv tie T171' rjje apriov Sevripav oipav. 

11. "When he therefore was come up again, and had 
broken bread, and eaten, and talked a long while, even till 
hreak of day [axpie avyrjc), so he departed." 

* avyri, peculiar to St. Luke, was the word used for light 
in medical language. 

Hipp. Medicus, 19 : Travrwe fxlv ovv TOiavrriv riijv av-yrjv 
fiaXiara ^euktIov — tovto Se ott&jc p.r\^aixij}q EvavTiatg tc,u rtjT 
■Kpoawirtjj Tae avyag. Hipp. Progn. 37 : i7v yap tjjv avyfjv 
^ivywaiv. Hipp. Coac. Progn. 153 : (pXavpov Si koi to ttjv 
avyrjv (jtivyEiv. Hipp. Morb. 464 : KOI Ik twv orjiOaXfiwv 
i<Top(i)VTi KXiiTTSTal o( 17 avyfj. Hipp. Fraot. 752: KadtKvvirdm 
o£ \pfi TOV airupiuirov ovTtiig OKwg y to i^i)(ov tov ootIov Trpbg 
Tiiv Aaju7rporar»)v riLv irapiOvaiiDV avyiivv. Aretaeus, Sign. 
Morb. Diuturn. 33 : kol yap ttwq (ptvyovai ttiv avyriv. Aret. 
Cur. Acut. Morb. 82 : rjv yap Trpog tj)v avyfiv aypiaivuxxi. 
Aret. Cur. Acut. Morb. 88 : XridapyiKotin Kara/cXicric s" (jxjotI 
Kal Trpog avyriv. Gralen. Offic. Comm. i. 9 (xviii. B. 679) : 
EKOTEjoou Twv rjjf avyrig hSUjv tov re koivov koi tov TS')(ytKOv 
ovo ^i)(T(v eivai ^piiauQ rj irpoQ avyrjv rj urr' avyriv — Trpoe 
avyriv orav Trpog TavTriv karpappivov y to ■)^iipiZ6pevov rj 
KOTavoovptvov — VTT avyriv SI to [3pa)(y irapaKeKKipivov lijtnnp 
tin Twv vTToxvpaTwv KOI 6X(x)C TU)v KaT 6<t>0aXpovg Siadicnwv. 
Galen. Cans. Sympt. i. 2 (vii. 91) : Iva aXv-irwg vwopivy t^v 
ic,(iioEv avyriv- 

20. " And how I kept back {vwiGTiiXapriv) nothing that 
was profitable unto you, but have shewed you, and have 
taught you publiekly, and from house to house." 

* viroarTikXttv is used also in verse 27, and once elsewhere 
(Gal. ii. 12), but in a different sense — " he withdrew him- 
self." 

St. Luke's use of this word here much resembles its me- 



§ xcii.J THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 247 

dical one. In medical language it was the technical word, 
with or without ania, for " to withhold food from patients." 

Hipp. Aph. 1243 : Iv Sa rotai irago^vtjfimai viroaTiXXiadai 
XP^> TO vpouriOivai yap j3Xaj5ri — koi OKOcra Kara TrspioSovg 
Trapo^iviTai, tv roiai irapo^vafioim VTroaTiWeaOai xpy\. Ajet. 
Our. Acut. Morb. 84 : vtroaTiWiaBai SI iv ryai Kpiaem Kal 
ijLiKpov Ti irgo TU)V Kpialdiv, r)v Se If juiJKOe 17 vovaog 'ly firj 
tKJiaipUiv TU)V TrpoadsaitDV aXXa criralSsa SiSovai — oirdjpag 
olv(i)Siog vTTOffTeXXeaOai. Aret. Cur. Acut. Morb. 94 : rpo^f (ti 
T£ 5jv TsXidiQ XsTTToiai iviriiTTOKii xpitcrOai /cat rove irapo^va- 
fiovQ VTrocrriXXiaOat Ig naaav lr}Tpiriv xprj. Galen. Ven. Sect. 
adv. Erasistr.S (xi.201) : aXXa koi Trpog.rrjv dipairuav ■n-spioSov 
Thiv KaOapaswv TrpotrAajUjSavopree, vjrooTtAXojUEv to. airia. 
Do. (202) : TO yap VTro<7TsXXsiv ra airia Svo7v tovtoiv to 
tTtpov, ijTOi a^aipiiv TeXi(i)Q rj /itiovv. Do. : viroaTeXXofiev 
ra aiTia. Galen. Morb. Acut. 6 (xix. 204) : ev Si to'iq 
Trapo^vtTfioig vTrocTTiXXtrrOai XP^I- 

It was also used in the sense of "to shun — avoid." 
Hipp. Aph. 1249 : tovq Icrxyovg, tovq svtjfiiag avti> (pap/xa- 
Keisiv, VTrocTTeXXoixtvovg ;^Et/xwva — Tovg §£ Svtrti/iiae koI /lecrioc 
tvarapKOVQ kotw, vnoaTiXXofiivovg OipoQ — roue Si (jidtviLSeag 
VTroaTEXXo/iivovg Tag avw. 

The metaphor, taken from keeping back food from 
patients, " I have kept back no spiritual food from you, for 
I have not shunned to declare to you all the counsel of 
Grod " (verse 27), is of the same nature as that which 
St. Paul employs in 1 Cor. iii. 2 : " I have fed you with 
milk, and not with meat." 

* KaTaariXXeiv. Acts, xix. 35 : " And when the town- 
clerk had appeased {KaTaardXag) the people, he said." 

Peculiar to St. Luke, and used also in verse 36. In me- 
dical language it is used for " to check the spreading of dis- 
ease — eruptive affections — ulcers"; also "to calm," as opposed 
to irapo^vveiv. 

Dioscor. Mat. Med. ii. 1 : icaraariXXsi to. vnepaapKovvTa. 
Dioscor. Mat. Med. ii. 96 : kui Tag eir\ tmv kXstpavTKvvTtav 



248 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

VTTCpoxae KaTaxpiOfiivri KaraaTiXXii. Dioscor. Mat. Med. 
iii. 32 : koI iirovXoX eAkjj mi KaraaTiXXu. Dioscor. Mat. Med. 
iv. 70 : KaraariXXei rriv Oipfiriv. Dioscor. Mat. Med. V. 87 : 
Sivarat Se (xrvfuv, S,ripaiviiv, Xfjrriivuv, KaracTTiXXsiv. Dioscor. 
Mat. Med. v. 88 : koI KaTuaTeXXu rag v-mpo\ag. Dioscor. 
Mat. Med. 107: KaracTiXXu 'iXKri. Gralen. Comp. Med. 
iv. 13 (xiii. 738) : KaraaTsXXu koI to tv 6cj)9aXfiolg OTafvXw- 
fiara. Gralen. Temper. Medic, vi. 1 (xi. 808) : ot£i Se ov 
povov oh irapo^vvii aXXd Koi KaTatrTaXXeiv we^VKtv. Galeil. 
Eemed. Parab. i. 3 (xiv. 334) : KaraoTE'AXEt rag apj^^ojuEvae 
^XejfiovaQ. 

* avareXXeiv : see § 24. 

§ XCIII. 

Acts, XXI. 

* avvOpviTTetv. * aarifiog. 

aTTomrqv (verse 1, §75). fiavxaZeiv (v. 14, §86). * awo- 
cTKivaZuv (v. 15, § 88). * Wog (v. 21, § 58). * kK7rX{,pwaig 
(v. 26, § 64). *,TU7XEHv (v. 27, § 79). * avvSpop.-f, 
(v. 30, §80). a<T^aXijc (v. 34, § 82). */3/a (v.35, § 77). 

* KaroTjOEXEiv (v. 32, § 80). *Kara(T£t£(v (v. 40, § 59). 

Acts, XXII. 

* a.Kpij3iia. * a/cpt/3/;c- aKpijSojg. * Tifiwpuv. * uvvtivai. 
* avfiiraptivai. tjvv. * juacrTit^Hv. 

*avaTpi^siv (verse 3, § 83). * /iEo-ijjujSpio (v. 6j § 67). 
* 7rpoxHpiKi<T0ai (v. 14, § 82). * 'Utrraaig (v. 17, § 28). 
avaipuv (v. 20, § 84). * avaiptmg (v. 20, § 84). aa<paXig 
(V. 30, § 82). 

xxi. 13 : " Then Paul answered, What mean ye to weep 
and to break {awOpvirTovTeg) mine heart? for I am ready 
not to be bound only, but also to die at Jerusalem for the 
name of the Lord Jesus." 



§ xcni.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 249 

* (TvvOpinTtiv is peculiar to St. Luke ; and this seems to 
be the only passage in the Greek authors in which this 
particular compound occurs; OpvTTTttv is the technical word in 
medical language for the crushing of a calculus, and awdpii!- 
Ttiv may have been used as a stronger form. 

Aretaeus, Sign. Aout. Morb. 62 : Xidog jxi-yaq filv avaXd^g 
Se, ovte yap Opvirrerai r) iroai rj (j>apfj.aKt^ rj afJitptOpinrrtTai. 
Aret. Our. Acut. Morb. 121 : aXXa afxtpl filv rrjc jeviaiog 
Twv XiOwv OKdJC Jj firj ^vvriawvTai rj 6p{nrrti)VTat yijvo/xEvoi. 
Aret. Cur. Acut. Morb. 122 : Opvirruv 8e tovq Xidovg roim 
TTivofiivoKJi (j)apfiaKoi<Ti. Dioscor. Mat. Med. i. 5 : XiOovg 

OpVTTTil. 80 : QpVTTTEl St Kol XlOoVQ TTlVOflEVOV. 106 '. 6 Se 

(jiXoibg Tijc jOi^JiC XidovQ OpvKTSt. v. 108 : dpinvru Trwpovg. 
Gralen. Eenum Affect. 4 (xix. 672) : iaxovai dpv\pai tov 
Xidov. Gralen. Eenum Affect. 5 (678) : ?} twv OpvirTovrwv 
roiig X'lOovQ tiXr). Gralen. Theriao. ad Pison. 9 (xiv. 241) : 
Toiig sv KvaTH OpvirTei Xidovg. 

xxi. 39 : " But Paul said, I am a man which am a Jew of 
Tarsus, a city in Oilioia, a citizen of no mean (oi/k acrrj/zou) city." 

* aarifiog, peculiar to St. Luke, was the term employed in 
medical language to describe a disease without well-marked 
symptoms — as opposed to eudjjjuoc. 

Hipp. Ooac. Progn. 196 : ra koto. TrXevpov aXynfiara ev 
TTvpfToiaiv la^yiLg ItrrijKora, aarifia, (pXefSoTOfxiri fSXanTet. 
Hipp. Epid. 1195 : to. TrvtVfiaTa Toiai (jtOivioSeai ra aari/xa 
KOKov. Epid. 1196: al fuv j5fix^Q aari/Mog i^iXnrov- Aretaeus, 
Sign. Morb. Acut. 28: 17 avawvofi aarifiog. Aret. Sign. Morb. 
Diuturn. 36 : reKfirtpiivv fxlv ovv ovK a<Tr)fia. Aret. Our. Acut. 
Morb. 83 : aarifiovQ Kov(j)i<Tixovg. Aret. Sign. Diuturn. Morb. 
72 : 'i(TTi Se ireirvEVfxtvoKTi oi»K aarifiov ry a.(py. Q"alen. Oomm. 
i. 10, Epid. iii. (xvii. A. 551) : r^e aaf/fjitDC yivofiivrig paa- 
r(l)vr\g. Gralen. Oomm. ii. 23, Aph. (xvii. B. 509) : oaa tkjXv 
rifiepaie (T^oSptodevra fieTU ravTa acrrifiwg ippaaTiltvriuav. 
Gralen. De Dieb. Decretor. i. 2 (ix. 776) : Iv ry SwSeKdry twv 
rifispwv ETTKJiaveicra irore Kpiaig rj KivSvvuiSiig rj a(Ta<j>rjg rj 
a(rr)fxog, 

2k; 



250 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

It is remarkable that in the Epistles of Hippocrates, this 
word is also applied to a city. Epistles, 1273 : fiia TroAtojv 
oiiK aarifMog, /laWov Si ri 'EAXae oXr) Stirai aov. 

xxii. 3. " I am verily a man which am a Jew, horn in 
Tarsus, a city in Cilicia, yet brought up in this city at the 
feet of Gamaliel, and taught according to the perfect manner 
(icora uKpi^eiav) of the law of the fathers, and was zealous 
toward Grod, as ye all are this day." 

* uKpljieia. Peculiar to St. Luke. aKpijSeia, uKpilifig, 
and a.Kpij3wc, were very much used in medical language. 

Hipp. Rat. Yict. 341 : aSvvarov inroOiaOai eg a/cptjSti'tjv 
mra kol ttovovc;. Hipp. Aph. 1243 : te Se ra 'icFxara vovari- 
para at iaxa^ai depawHai kg aKpijiiriv KparicFTat. Dioscor. Mat. 
Med. Proem. : rijv aKpij3eiav irpoaTrapaXapfidveiv — ptra wXti- 
orrjc aKptjBdag Ta piv \onra Si avToxpiav yvovTig. Gralen. 
Puis, ad Tiron. 1 (viii. 454) : ov piKpov St tovto tig uKpijieiav 
Stayvwaewg. Galen. Comm. 19, Nat. Horn. (xv. 61) : tJji; 
oKpifdeiav rrig Si 6\wv avTb)v icpacrswg ivSuKwrai. Galen. 
Comm. V. 13, Epid. v. (xvii. B. 268) : wpog to irtiOeadai ry 
Kara rjjv Siairav aKpifiiit}. Galen. Comm. i. 9, Aph. (xvii. 
B. 378) : Eic aKpifBsiav rov to Troabv Xa(5tiv Trig vwOKura- 
fia(Tiu>g. Galen. Ars Medica. 24 (i. 370) : iv Si Totg iSsa- 
patTi TTSipewg aKpi^ua. Hipp. Yet. Med. 12 : TOtavTrig 
aKpifdirig eovarig irspl rjjv Texvrjv — TroXXa Se t'lSea Kor' Irirpiicnv 
ig TorravTriv aKpif5ir)v ^kci. 

* aKpi[5rig. Acts, xxvi. 5 : " Which knew me from the 
beginning, if they would testify, that after the most straitest 
sect {Kara rijv dicpijSeaTarijv a'lpEcnv) of our religion I lived a 
Pharisee." 

Peculiar to St. Luke. Hipp. Aiiect. 519 : Stt fvXaKfig 
TE irAEierrjjc Kot Oapairdrig aKjoijSEtrrdrijc. Hipp. Fract. 768 : 
Tjjv pivTOi SiaiTuv aKpifitaTiprtv Koi TrXelu) xpovov \prj irotisa- 
oai — ETTi Toicriv IcTXVpOTaTOiaiv Tpdpatnv aKpij5i(jTipr}v koi 
novXvxpoviioTipriv elvai XPV Trjv Siairav. Hipp. Moch. 860 
17 iriaig npaeia, deppy Siatry uKpifiii. Hipp. Aph. 1243 
aKpifiisg Siairai. Galen. Comm. i. 12, Humor. (xvi« 105) 



§ xciii.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 261 

Kevwaig avavTwv twv xvfjibjv UKpijitaTaTTi. Glaleil. Comm. iii. 
18, Humor, (xvi. 524) : eveko -yap aK|0ij3£0TaTijc BiayvwatoDQ. 
Gralen. Oomm. iii. 120, Humor, (xvi. 772) : ovk oiiariQ aKpi- 
^ovQ TrapanXriyiaQ. Galen. Eemed. Parab. i. 5 (xiv. 339) : 
airavra juev to /xopia rov (TwfjLaTOQ aKpi^iararwy \pyiZ,u Siopia- 
fiwv kv Toig QcpatriiaiQ — 6(j>0aXfiol 8' uKpifieaTaTrig liriaKiypuoQ 
Seovrai. 

aKpij3u)Q, Acts, xxiii. 20 : " And he said, The Jews have 
agreed to desire thee that thou wouldest bring down Paul to- 
morrow into the council, as though they would enquire some- 
what of him more perfectly" (oKpi/Ssarepov). 

St. Luke employs this word six times (Luke, i. 3 ; Acts, 
xviii. 25, 26 ; xxiii. 15, 20 ; xxiv. 22) : it occurs but three 
times in the rest of the N. T. (Matt. ii. 8 ; Eph. v. 15 ; 
1 Thess. V. 2). 

Hipp. Morb. Acut. 387 : Kara ra TSK/iripia ra TrpoyBypap.iva 
aKpifiwg Oewpwv. Dioscor. Animal. Yen. 23 : uKpifiwQ j3o- 
r)6si ffUKJje oiroQ eig ra rpavfiara ivaTa-)(ddQ. Dioscor. Medic. 
Parab. 159 : ri eyx^fiarLZonivri rroui aKptjSwc. Gralen. Comm. 
4, Aliment, (xv. 239) : ttjoiv av aKpifBHig ev ry -yaorpi Trt(p9rivai 
T?/v Tpofriv. Gralen. Meth. Med. viii. 6 (x. 578) : sav 
uKptfiwg aiTvpeTog y. Gralen. Aliment, iii. 21 (xv. 344) : 
Sit rov Irirpov aKptjBwg Koi siri/xtXwg vovv Trpo<Ti\tiv. Do. 
(345) : KpaTriaaarig fiiv ovv aKpt^wg rrig ^vaiwg to koA- 
Xiarov yiviTui ttvov. Galen. Comm. iii. 24, Aliment, (xv. 
360) : irepi XP^'-^Q fiopiwv aKpifdwQ eirsaKi<pdai. Galen. Comm. 
i. 7, Humor, (xvi. 84) : ovruyg aKpi^Hig ri Svvafiig avrov 
EvpicTKirai kol t) aiKxraaig. 

There is a great similarity between a part of the preface 
of St. Luke's Gospel and the dedication of one of his works 
to a friend by Galen, who states that he had written the 
work after having " accurately investigated aU things " con- 
nected with the subject, employing the word aKpijSwc- Galen. 
Theriac. ad Pison. 1 (xiv. 210) : kol tovtov aoi tov inpl Tijg 
OtipiaKrig \6yov, aKpi(5iijg i^eracrag (iwavTa, apiart Il'iawv 
(XTrovSaiwg eTroi'jjcra. 



252 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [pabt ii. 

xxii. 5 : "As also the high priest doth bear me witness, 
and all the estate of the elders : from whom also I received 
letters unto the brethren, and went to Damascus, to bring 
them which were there bound unto Jerusalem, for to he 
punished" (tva Tiij.wpr]9b)iTiv). 

* Tifiwpiiv, peculiar to St. Luke, and used again. Acts, 
xxvi. 11, in medical language denoted, to treat medically — 
to relieve — to succour. 

Hipp. Morb. 496 : rjv fxiv ovv avTOfiarov apS,t)Tai TTTVccrdai 
iv rour(j» rtf) ■)(p6vt^, rjv jujj ^apfiaKOicn Tifiojphiv. Hipp. Morb. 
Mul. 604 : Tifiwpisiv Be wg fj.fj ek tovtov Sidppoia Iwiyivofxivn 
(T(i)fxaTi (pXavpwg if(ovTi novfiay fitv. Hipp. Artie. 789 : ekto- 
adev Se Trie jua(7)(aX)je Siaaa fiova Ecrri ■)(ojpia 'iva av tiq {(T^apaQ 
dsiri TifiwpsovcmQ r(^ TraQri/xari. Hipp. Grland. 272 : Tifimpewv 
u ijKi^aXoQ airocTTsphL rriv vypaa'ir]v kol etti rag i(T\aTiag e^u* 
aTToaTiXXii TO ttXeov otto tCov poiov. Hipp. Acut. Morb. 386 : 

TO TTTVeXov EVlO'T^OjUEVOl' KwXvCl fliV TO TTViVfia U(7(i> (f)ipiauai, 

avajKaZei Ss TaxiwQ (pipeadai koi oCtojc £C to kokov aXXriXoLai 
Ttfiwptovoi. Hipp. Morb. Acut. 386 : eVrt Se Sttj) koi Sia(j>e- 
povTwg Tifiwprfriov. Aretaeus, Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 49 : r\v 
Se ovpa Xettto KOI avvwoaTaTa koI oXiya ti^ SSpwTr* Tifiwpiu. 
Aret. Sign. Acut. Morb. 23 : oh yap a-vvTifiwphi rt^ irvtvfiovi. 
Aret. Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 56 : iVTi oXXokxi afKjxo ic to 
KOKOV avvTifiwpki. Aret. Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 60 : (twti- 
IxwpesL yap aXXriXoiaiv Slipoc icai ttotov. 

xxii. 11 : " And when I could not see for the glory of 
that light, being led by the hand of them that were with me 
{tCjv (tvvovtwv fioi), I came into Damascus." 

* avvtlvai, peculiar to St. Luke, and used also Luke, ix. 
18, was much employed in medical language to express the 
presence of symptoms attending disease. 

Aret. Sign. Acut. Morb. 5 : ^vvirrTi juev avrioiai irovog 
Kot EvroCTic TsvovTwv KOI pa\eog Koi fivCiv. Do. 10 : ^VVtdTl 
Se wovoq o^iig kX?)'(8ewv. Do. 13 : ?vvE(iT£v avTioiai ^apog 

TOV Qlxipy]KOQ ^VViaTl Kol TTOVOg. Do. 22: ^VVeOTI 8e ailTEOifTtV 

novoQ tXiaaofUvog, aTOfxaxov vXaSug. Do. 25 : ^vvktti Se 5 



§ iciii,] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 253 

re (cajjo-oe icai to Si'^op. Do. 28 : rovveKtv airvoiri ^vviivai 
coKiti Kai arovir] — Bia toSe Kapri(3aptai ts icai avaiaOriaia 
c,vv£ari. Do. 38 : tj irdvTwg ye fiapog Trjg ice^aAije ^ivsari. 
Do. 41 : anaTT) Si roi ^vviari toicti KvviKOiai (nraafj.o'Lai. Do. 
42 : ^{ivsffri Si Tov OwpriKog (5apog. Do. 49 : Kol atropir\ 
Kvviari iravTs^fig, &c., &c. Galen. Meth. Med. xii. 3 (x. 
826) : ivOvQ Ss rovTOig ovvktti koI 17 tov wavTog adfiaTog 
axpoia aa(f)U)g. Do. Meth. Med. xiii. 1. (x. 875) : bSvvr\ S' 
avT<^ avvtariv. Do. Meth. Med. xiv. 9 (x. 975) : bSvvr\ re 
iravTwg avrotg avveari, &0. 

* avfiirapiXvai, Acts, XXV. 24 : " And Festus said, King 
Agrippa, and all men lohich are here present with us " [avfiwa- 
govTig rifiiv). 

Peculiar to St. Luke, and used in medical language in 
the same way as awttvai, but not so frequently. 

Hipp. Vet. Med. 15 : ra juiv ovv Xvfiaivofxiva ravTo. tan, 
(Tv/jLirapiaTi Sh Koi to depfiov. Galen. Meth. Med. iv. 6 (x. 
294) : sKtivov (xifivTr]nivog Iv airaai TOVTOig, ihg ovk ecttiv 
fXKOi^e y eAkoc ovSepia rwv toiovt(i>v laaswv, aXX' rjrot 
KaKO\vpiag aufmapovarig rj wXijOovg 1) ^Xeyfiovrig rj ipiriHTOg rj 
Tivog trepov toiovtov. Galen. Animal, in Utero. 4 (xix. 
170) : SiiXov tie tov (rvjUTrapeivai koi rejl <nreppaTL koi ttjv 
ipvxfjv afia tJi (pvaii. 

(Tvv. The frequent use of this word by St. Luke is 
adduced by Dr. Davidson (Introduction to the N. T.) and 
others as one of the peculiarities of St. Luke's style — it 
being used in the Gospel and Acts seventy-seven times, and 
but fifty-three times in the rest of the N. T., twelve only of 
which are in the other Evangelists. Now, in his professional 
practice, St. Luke would have been in the constant habit of 
employing this word, as it was almost always used in the 
formula of a prescription, &c., and thus became an almost 
indispensable word to a physician. 

Hipp. Morb. Mul. 667 : tyxpdTia rfjv o-jUJjicrptSa yriv ^iiv 
o'/vfj) — rptjSftv Ti Koi wprikvau avv KsSplcrt — ^vv olvi^) Se jj 
TToaig yiviaQix) — rpi'jSctv Iv oivtj) jueXavi ^vv iraXi} a\<piT0v 



254 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE, [pae,t ii. 

TTiiiv — jooii/e yXvKtirig )(v\ov ^vv oivi^ ir'iveiv r) XairaOov 
KopTTOv ^iiv TqJ KiKlSog i^ti) Trepii^v(Tfj.£vifj — ajvov (jivWa c,vv 
oivff) fiiXavi — rifiiovov oviSa KuraKaleiv Koi Kvv o'lvt^ oioovai — 
KOI avv otvtji Sidovai evtljdii. Do. 668 : ij rag piZac a^E^ttv, 
Koi Tt^ vBari ^iiv Trirvpoicrt irvpivoiai — rj i\a(j)OV Kspag <tvv 
iXaiyaiv — Kot aX^iro tte^oxtjuevo ^i/v iXait^ — rj KVTrdpiaaov 
avv o'lvif) — KOI (Tjuupvav £i/v j^ariov ipvXXoig. Do. 689 : poA- 
/3tov ^iiv fiiXiTi Tpi(p6iv — olvov UKpriTov S,vv priTLvy — kvikov 
avv otv«j» rpijStuv, &C. 

Axetaeus, Cur. Acut. Morb. 94 : irpoaeviivai ^iiv iXai(^ 
Kaaropiov — Btaxpieiv piXiri ^vv Trrfyavlvif) iXai(^ rj ^iiv viTpi^ — 
raSe ^iiv peXiKpr)rw iriTriaKtiv — 'ipiSoQ riye piZvQ fiipog a %,vv 
virpov SiwXaaiij). Do. 97 : sy^pieiv — ^iiv KpOKivd^ Xiirdi — 
^vv (iiXiKpr)T(^ TrnriaKiiv — ky\piiiv Kvv eXai^) tov Kaaropiov — 
XP^^i-^ ^vv XiTrdi — hpriQ tov KaOapTxtpiov ^vv ptXiKpriTi^. Do. 
98 : £jOia TE irivapa ^vv vaawirif) — ai riy^tsg ^i/v nriyavi^ — 
ipirXaapaTa ^iiv rovrioiai — ayauov Si KripwTwv avv virpi^, &C. 
Dioscor. Medic. Parab. i. 1 : to ^i^XXiov avv 6£ej (ipaxiv. 
Do. (2) : ayvov ankppa avv o^u — Kapva irovrtKU avv poSivtj) — 
opiyavov avv o^ei — aiKvov aypiov pit^av aiiv o'lvij) — Trsiripewg 
KOKKOvg avv o^ci. Do. (3) : aiiv peXiTi aTpovOiov — peXav- 
diov avv Ipivtf) — EAarJ7ptov avv vSari. Do. 5 : OaXaaaa Oipprj 
aiiv o^Ei kxjjofiivr), &C. 

Gralen. Remed. Parab. iii. 1 (xiv. 499) : oKOKiav aiiv 
oivi^ XP'^ — SavKOQ KpriTiKOQ aiiv o'lvc^ irivopevoe — eXeviou 
PoravTje 6 xyXoQ aiiv vSan — ptZo. (rrpojSiXioii aiiv vSari — 
Kivapwpov aiiv piXm xXiaptj^ — papaOpwv airippa avv olvi^ — 
vapvr)c, xXwpoQ aiiv oivtf E./)r)0E('e — opiyavov aiiv piXiTi kxpr)- 
We'v — pvpiKtiQ avdoQ Ka\ (pvXXa aiiv o'lvif) — irevKiov 6 ij)XoiOQ 
aiiv vCaTi — (pXopov piZ,a aiiv ol'vfj) mvofiavr) — arpovOiov jSoxd- 
v»)C V piZa aiiv piXiTi — Xayutov KOirpog aiiv o'ivt^ 0ejOjU(^ 
TTOViiaa — KopSajuoiTTropov Xejov avv iJSari — pa<j)avov airippa 
avv voaTi TTivopEvov — avKupivov /oi^rje 6 ^Aotoc avv vSan — 
poiXiov aiiv o'iv(j^ — KapnoQ fiaXaapov aiiv vSari wivoptvOQ fj 
aiiv piXiTi SKXiixopsvog, &o. 

xxii. 25 : " And as they bound him with thongs, Paul 



j xoiv.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 255 

said unto the centurion that stood by, Is it lawful for you 
to scourge (juairrt^Etv.) a man that is a Roman, and uncon- 
demned ? " 

* IJLa<jTiZ,uv, peculiar to St. Luke, was used, as was also 
juaaTtStC) in medical language ; scourging with nettles being 
employed as a remedy in cases of lethargy. 

Aretaeus, Cur. Acut. Morb. 90 : Qipa-mia XriBapytKwv. ra 
irpwTa julv S)v koi KvlSy juaori^Eiv ra (tkeXeo. irpoaiZovaa yap 
r) axvtf OVK iQ iraWov ju£v SiapKsei, uXvirov Se oda^iafibv Koi 
TTOvov EvSiSoT, /lerpiwc Se kpEdiZst re icat TTapotSlffKCL koi Oipfia- 
air]v TrpoKaXierai. Gralen. De Eicnum Affect. 5 (xix. 674) : 
Sti^sKdbv vefpoiiQ, XiOovQ vcpicrTaTai Sta Trjv tov vt(ppov xpo- 
viav juaoTt^tv. 

It was used also metaphorically. Hipp. Epis. 1271 : 
(Uatrri^ov to iraOo^. 



§ XOIV. 
Acts, XXIII. 

* SiaiJ.axi<^Scii- * SiayiviiXTKtiv. * Siayviixri^. irpoyivuxTKSiv. 
Trpoyvtocng. * kviSpa. * ivtSpsviiv. * avadiSovai. 

uTsviZsiv (verse 1, § 53). Stao-Tr^v (v. 10, § 75). uKpijioig 
(v. 15, § 93). ^vatpdv (v. 15, § 84). * Hfirnfia (v. 29, 
§ 88). avaXa/ifiavsiv (v. 31, § 65). viro<TTp£(j>nv (v. 32, 
§76). 

9. " And there arose a great cry : and the scribes that 
were of the Pharisees' part arose, and strove {Sienaxovro), 
saying. We find no evil in this man." 

* Sia/naxtffOai. Peculiar to St. Luke. This particular 
compound of fidxeadai was used in medical language, as 
were also the nouns Siafidxri and Stojuo^^jjcrte- 

Gralen. Comm. iii. 2, Epid. i. (xvii. A. 262) : iwl t^c 



256 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ri. 

oySorig rifiipag, i^avOfifiaTa fxtO' tSpwroe icrxsv epvOpa, arpoy- 
yvXa, (TfiiKpa, rije (^vaidiQ avTOv Sta/na^OfxivriQ tirX riji vour)fiaTi. 
Galen. Oomm. ii. 51, Epid. i. (xvii. A. 150) : liafxaxofiivwv 
Tov TE larpov Koi tov vocrrinaTOQ. Gralen. Morb. Tempor. 5 
(vii. 421) : Siafiaxofiivov fiiv tov Otpfiov ry 4'^X^'- a't'OTiivofie- 
vov Si Trpoc ra Iktoc tov alfxarog. Gralen. Caus. Puis. iv. 6 
(ix. 162) : Siarrep £;ri twv aWwv cnravTwv twv Xvitovvtwv, 
ovru) KOI rtoi/ dXyrifiaTwv ri SvvafiiQ STreyilptiv we^ukev tavrrjv 
Koi Siap.a\i<jQai Koi BtbiOeladai ttclv to BioxXovv. Gralen. Cans. 
Puis. iv. 9 (ix. 174) : fiiKpov virTspov Si iiTOi Kopvovmug Iv T^ 
Siafiaxy Trig SvvapEwg. Galen. De Crisibus, iii. 9 (ix. 748) : 
oil yap tTrsyiiptTat irpbg Siafidxfl<yiv tov voafifiaTog ri ToiavTri 
Svva/iig. Galen. De Dieb. Decretor. iii. 8 (ix. 921) : 6 napo^- 
vcrpog oiiK iTriTQtirwv i7<7iixo?£'v oiiSs fiivuv, aXA' iinyupuiv ts 
Koi Kivuiv Koi wg dg Siafxax^iv TrpoKoXovfievog. Galen. Comm. 
iii. 7, Aliment, (xv. 280) : orav yap tig tovtov aWriXoig 
rjKovTa Svo awfiara Siafiaxv^ai. Galen. Progn. ex Puis. ii. 8 
(ix. 308) r aXX' i)g oXiyov efnrpoaOsv ei'pjjraf, Siapaxo/Jiivuiv 
■ aXX{]Xaig y'lyviTai tu)V ovo ovvdfiiwv rfje te SiarrTsXXofiEvtig 
KOI Trig (rv(TTEXXov(Tt)g r»)v KapSiav. Galen. Progn. ex Puis, 
ii. 8 (ix. 309) : ttiv dvwpaXov Trig KapSiag SvcTKpacriav, orav tir\ 
ToaovTOv aXXriXoig Siafiax^Tai to. Osp/xa fiopia Tolg xlivxpoig. 

15. " Now therefore ye with the council signify to the 
chief captain that he bring him down unto you to-morrow, 
as though he would enquire something more perfectly (Smytvtu- 
GKiiv aKpi(5i(TTtpov) concerning him." 

* SiayivwaKeiv, is peculiar to St. Luke, and used also 
Acts, xxiv. 22. 

* Sidyvwaig. Acts, XXV. 21 : " But when Paul had ap- 
pealed to be reserved unto the hearing {tig r»jv Stdyvwtnv) of 
Augustus, I commanded him to be kept till I might send 
him to Csesar." 

St. Luke alone uses the words *Sidyvu)(iLg and *Siayivw- 
(jKsiv, both of which were technical medical terms, implying 
the former, the art of distinguishing disease ; the latter, to 
make this diagnosis. It will be seen that aicpt/37)e is very much 



§ xciv.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LDKE. 257 

used in conjunction with these words, as also with irpoyvtDaiQ, 
in medical language, as it is in v. 13. 

* Siayv(t)(nQ. Galen. Oomm. i. 4, Praedic. (xvi. 524) : 
'iviKa yap aKOijSatrrarijc Siayvanreoic. Gralen. Oomm. i. 1, 
Offic. (xviii. B. 636) : aKpi^taripaQ Siayvucreii)^ ■)(apiv. Gralen. 
Humor, (xix. 495): Eort Se koI avrri ovBsv riTTOv Twv /xeyiaTbJv 
Siayvaicrsbjv aKpi^iaraTr). Gralen. Usus Part. viii. 6 (iii. 
640) : Etc aKptjSEOTEpav SI Tiva ^layvwmv. Gralen. Praesag. 
ex Puis. i. 1 (ix. 212) : aKptjSEaroTj) Sia-yvuio-ic airaffCjv riov 
Kara to (Twjua yivofiivuv aX\oi<L(TS(Dv. Gralen. Meth. Med. 
xiv. 18 (x. 1016) : Trphg dl rjjv aicpi/3E(jr£pav r>)e Kaxo^vfilaQ 
Siayvii}(Ttv. Gralen. Loc. Affect, i. 1 (viii. 5) : uKpifdrig Sid- 
yvuKTiQ EK TovTwv y'lVBTai. Gl-alen. Comm. iii. 27, Aliment, 
(xv. 374) : r<{) j3ouAojufV(j> Se aKoi^HQ VTrlp aTTavTwv ruiv Eipij- 
fiivfov r^e TE Siayvii>(T£(M)g Kai Trig yevicrcwQ /lavOdvEiv. Hipp. 
Nat. Horn! 228: Trjv Se Siayvwcriv XPV tKaripwv wSe iroiieadai. 
Hipp. Eat. Vic. 369 : sort irpoSidyvixiaiQ fiiv TTpo Tov Kafivsiv, 
SidyvMCFig Be twv (TUfiartov tI irewovOe. 

* SiayivaxTKSiv. Hipp. Acut. Morb. 391 : owSe yap twv 
ToiovTWv opiii) ifXTTeipovg Tovg IriTpovg mq \pfi ciayiv(i)(XKeiv Tag 
daOevuag iv Ttjai vovaoiai. Hipp. Vuln. Cap. 902 : Siayivai- 
OKSiv irupriaOai £t ti TriirovOe tovto to otJTiov. Hipp. Vuln. 
Cap. 907 : BiayivwoKr^g site rt e^ei to octTiov kukov hv kcovrt^ rj 
Koi ovK 'e'x^'- Hipp. Vuln. Cap. 908 : ^i; firj SiayivdxTKrig el 
eppoyys rj ■iri(j>Xa(TTai rj koi d/jKporipa tuvtu. Hipp. Epid. 956 : 
TO. Se TTipl Tag Kpiaiag e^ oiv /cat Siayiv(x)(TKOfiev r) bfioia r) avo- 
fioia. Hipp. Artie. 825 : Siayiv(l!iaKeiv oiry ekootov Kat o'lwg 
Kot oTTOTs TeXevrnaei. Aretaeus, Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 62 : 
TolaSe xpj) Kai aTroaTaaiag Siaytyv(i)(TKeiv r]v irpoayivotiVTai 
irvptTog eg eaTrepav kuI p'lyea. Galen. Oomm. i. 2, Morb. 
Acut. (xv. 421) : TTpwTOv yap SiayvwvaL xprj ti ttote Eort to 
ndOog. Galen, ii. 21, Humor. Comm. (xvi. 281) : oirwg Se 
SiayiviixTKeiv Kai oirwg Bel Idadai afi(f)ii) to. irddri iipriTai. Galen. 
Comm. iii. 11, Humor, (xvi. 390): wg kui Ta^ewg to, voanfxaTa 
SiayivwaKHv Kai koXwc depaireveiv Suvrjcrr;. 

npoyvwmg. Acts, ii. 23 : " Him being delivered by the 

2 L 



258 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part it. 

determinate counsel and foreknowledge [irpoyvwati) of Grod, 
ye have taken, and by wicked hands have crucified and 
slain." 

■n-poyivuicjKHv. Acts, xxvi. 5 : " Which knew me from 
the beginning" (TrpojivwaKovrtQ fit avtuQtv). 

TrpoyvwaiQ is used also in 1 Peter, i. 2, and TrpoyivwdKsiv 
twice each by St. Paul and St. Peter : Eom. viii. 29, xi. 2 ; 
1 Pet. i. 20 ; 2 Pet. iii. 17. 

Both words were much employed in medical language. 
By medical prognosis was understood the power of foresee- 
ing and foretelling what will take place in the course of a 
disease. The greatest attention was paid to this part of 
medicine by the ancient physicians. Hippocrates has writ- 
ten two works on the subject — KwaKoi Trpoyvwaag and wpo- 
■yvwoTiKov. Gralen has a Commentary on the latter, and has 
also written works, ■mp\ TrpoyvwcrewQ — TrpoyvwrrTiKo. Tt'spl Kara- 
kXictewc — irpoyvwaie imtupafiivTH Koi iravaXrtO'fig — TTspi rov 
TrpoyivwaKEiv and Trtpl TrpoyvdiXTswQ a^vyfiwv, as well as inpX 
iiayviLatiDQ <y<j)vypil)v — and, from the importance attached to 
this branch of medical science, the words themselves must 
have been in constant use with medical men. 

TTjoo-yvtotTie- Gralen. Oomm. iii. 6, Aph. (xvii. B. 570) : 
'iva Kui Tag irpoyvwauQ aKpifiiartpov noiriTai. Gralen. Medicus, 
7 (xiv. 690) : Biaipiirai St Kol TO arifisiwTiKOv (ig rpia, iiQ Te 
iiriyvuxTiv tCjv TrapiXviXvQoTuiv koi tig ttiv iTriuKe^Ji-v twv avveS- 
piVOVTwv Koi tig TTpoyvwatv twv fiiWovTwv. Galen. Oomm. iii. 1, 
Epid. (xvii. A. 205) : Sh Troiuadai Tag Stayv(i)(Teig koi irpoyvw- 
aug — T?jv ap^jjv rijc Ti Siayvwcnwg ajro twv TraOuiv koi Trjg 
i(70fiivr)g wpoyvuxriwg ano tiov koiv(ov iroiovpiOa. Hipp. Vic. 
Eat. 366 : aAAd yap al Trpoyv(i)(Tttg s^svprifiivai t/jioiys twv 
STTiKpaTSOvTwv £v T<^ (ToJ/uart. Hipp. Artie. 807 : aAXa Trspi 
p.iv TOVTwv iv To'iai wpoviOKTi KttTa TTvsvfiova vocrrifiacFiv Eipfi- 
atTai, £KEi yap t'laiv avrCiv xapiltrrarat Trpoyvwaieg TTEpi rCov 
fiiXXovTwv £(T£(T0a(. Aretaeus, Sign. Acut. Morb. 3 : 6ig Si 
^vvridtg TO TTadog, r)v iir'ng 17 vovaog — ItnXrfijir] — irpoyvwai tov 
piXXovTog vTT sfiTTHpirig. Gralen. Oomm. iii. 15, Aliment, (xv. 



§ xciv.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 259 

313) : r^5 TTpoyvoidiwQ ov a/iiKpag juoipae oiitrije Trig larpiKrig 
Koi tDtjuXifiMTarriQ. Gralen. Comm. iv. 61, Morb. Acut. (xv, 
826) : ai Si Tr/joyvwaug uaiv ov tCjv cnravltoQ jijvofiivwv, 
aXXa T^v Sia Travrog rj we to wo\i. Galen. Comm. iv. 
55, Morb. Acut. (xv. 834) : die ett' tvioig to7q kuto. tut^jjv 
ysvofisvoig, r) tuiv a7roj3i7cro/i£v(i)v aa<^a\rig Tig jiyvirai Ttpo- 
jvwaig. Gralen. Comm. iii. 5, Epid.'i. (xvii. A. 230) : 
ctayvu)(7Eig ts twv vaOuv Kai irpoyvdxTsig twv kao/iivoov kol 
OepaTrdag. 

wpoyivojfTKHv. Galen. Comm. ii. 20, Humor, (xvi. 276) : 
r(j) fxav ovv OsXovti TrpoyivwcTKSiv oicpijSwe. Galen. Comm. 11. 
30, Humor, (xvi. 320) : koi ttote fisv ayaOa, ttots Se ^av\a 
arifiiia 'iuTai, UTnp aSvvaTOv aKjOtjSwe Trpoyvutvai. Hipp. 
Progn. 46 : i^pj) Se tov fieXXovTa opOug wpoyivwaKStv Toiig 
TTipisaofxivovg koi Toiig cnroOavovplvovg. Hipp. Aer. 281 : 
ovToog av Tig iptvvu)pivog koi Trpoyivii)aKU)v Tovg Kaipovg — Kor 
opOov (pspoiTo oiiK eXa)(i.(TTa iv Ty Ti^vy- Hipp. Morb. Sacr. 
307 : OKOaoi Se tJSj) sdaSsg hal rp vovtrt^, irpoyivojaKOvrriv 6k6- 
Tav pikXwai \y]^iaQai. Aretaeus, Cur. Morb. Acut. 117 : 
dipig OE KOTi TOV iriTpov wpoyiyvwaKOVTa aa<pa to. TrapeovTa wg 
ov ^ii^ipa Kapt)(iapiy vwOpy tvvaaOai. Aret. Sign. Acut. 
Morb. 20 : TrpoyivoiaKOvai piv ovv wpdJTKjra piv swvriotai tov 
(3iov T)7v psTaWayriv. Galen. Comm. iv. 55, Morb. Acut. 
(XV. 832) : Tag Svvaptig aKtoi twv trrjjUEtaiv liiKoyittOptvov 
wpoyivwGKiiv eS avToiv-iTO anojirirTOpivov. Galen. Comm. ii. 
1, Humor, (xvi. 210): avayKoiov Sg icat irpoyvihvai uts. oXiQpiov 
the wipiiaTYiKog I'ir) to voartpa. Galen. Comm. ii. 12, Humor, 
(xvi. 251) : OTTwg 8' av Tig paXicTTu SvvaiTO npoyivwaKHv ttjv 
piXXovaav aKprjv ev »5 Kpiaig yivtTai. 

16. "And when Paul's sister's son heard of their lying 
in wait (t-jjv eviSpav), he went and entered into the castle and 
told Paul." 

* iviSpa, peculiar to St. Luke, is used again in oh. 
XXV. 3. It was the technical term for the rest or fulcrum 
of the lever in surgical operations, and the position and 
pressure of splints. 



260 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LTTKE. [part ii. 

Hipp. Fract. 773 : rjv S' apa roO oaTiOV to avw TrapijXAa-y- 
fxivov ju»j £7rirj}S£ioi> ixn iviSpriv ti^ fioyXi^, aWa Trapo^v 6 
7rapa<j)BpEi, TrapayXvxpavra xprj tov oariov ivsopriv ri^ p.o\Xi^ 
a(j<l>a\ia iroirtaai. Hipp. Fraot.768 : 17V Si Iv ry iJjTptiy %Xkoq 
yivriTai rj roiaiv oBovioiaiv fiaXXov TrtEX^Evroc V vTrb vapdr)KO? 
iveSpri^. 

21. " But do not thou yield unto them : for there lie in 
wait for him {tvsBptvovai yap avTov) of them more than forty 
men, which have bound themselves with an oath." 

* IvtSptvBiv, peculiar to St. Luke, is used again, Luke, 
xi. 54. iveSptvuv, kfiSptvuv, (rvviSptvuv, and TrpoaeSptvuv 
were all used in medical language. 

Galen. Comm. i. 8, Epid. iii. (svii. A. 547) : s^ai^vije 
tTTiOriTat XaOpa vocrrifxa pi) TrpotrSoKdicri toIq ivaSpivoptvoiQ vtt" 
avToii. 

It was applied to a class of sick persons called kviSpiuriKoi. 
Galen. Progn. ex Puis. i. 1 (ix. 217) : nvlg piv yap tviSpsv- 

TIKOL T tiaX ETTl Sc Tojv ivi^piVOVTllJV VTTOTTTEVtlV 7rpOGr]KU 

•rcavTa koi irepiaKiTrTECidai koi SLopO^KrOai — KaOairtp kyil) ttot 
rivayKaadriv tiri tivoq avSpoc irXovaiov Troiijo-ai (j>iXo(pappaKov. 
Hipp. Flat. 297 : tovto yap to v6ar)pa na<n i^sSptvH Tolaiv 
aXXoKTiv vovarripaai- Galen. Comm. iii. 4, Morb. Aout. (xv. 
740) : irapaKoXovdovvTa toiq Kautrotc a Sij koi avviSpevovra 
KoXovpev. Galen. Comm. iv. 64, Morb. Acut. (xv. 851) : 
(TvvsSptvovTa Toig iradiaiv to. roiavTa avpwTwpaTa. Galen. 
Comm. ii. 34, Epid. vi. (xvii. A. 963) : i^sdptvH yap rate 
TOMVTaig (pXtypovalc i) KaXovpivri yayypaiva. Galen. Dieb. 
Deeretor. i. 7 (ix. 802) : aXXo tCjv raig Kpiffeai npoasSpsvovTuv 
avpTTTwpa. 

33. " Who, when they came to Csesarea, and delivered the 
epistle (avaSovTEc r/jv otiotoA^v) to the governor, presented 
Paul also before him." 

* ava^i^ovat, peculiar to St. Luke, was very much used in 
medical language, as was also ava^omg, in various significa- 
tions, as of the discharge of pus from an abscess — of the dis- 
tribution of the blood and of nourishment throughout the body. 



§ xcv.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 261 

It is remarkable that Hippocrates uses this compound as 
St. Luke does of the delivery of a letter, instead of StSovm or 
airoSiSovai. In Epis. 1275 he says, ot rrjv Trjg iroXioc STrturo- 
Xrjv aiiadovTCQ fxoi 7rpl<T/3£tc- ' 

Hipp. Praedic. 98 : vofjLoi Trovripal Si koi tiriKivSwoi oaai 
fiiXava ixwpa avaSiSovai. Hipp. Morb. 453 : orav 7ajo jrpoaTr- 
fSifpa/XEvoc 6 ttXsv/iwv elpvy sg kojvTov — ovk 'irt Si\iTai ovSiv 
ovra aviv avaSiSol oi/Siv. Hipp. Morb. 454 : aXX' avrb a<p' 
EtuvToi TO (jtvfia avaii^oi to ttvov. Hipp. Morb. 456 : juijrE 
ri^<j)Xi\p (TTs-yvwOy ri Terpajfiivri aAX' ciXXorE koi oXXote avaCiSol 
difia. Hipp. Morb. 459 : ovts to maXov avaSiSol. Aretaeus, 
Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 66 : aXX' ovSe ttji' apxnv e? tov oyKov 
avaSiSoT. Galen. Comm. ii. 4, Aliment, (xv. 239) : avadiSoTai 
jap Ik rije KOiXiag r) Tpo(j)rj nplv Tri(j>dfivai. Gralen. Comm. 
iii. 2, Acut. Morb. (xv. 834) : ri ;UEraXrn//(e oTravrwv rwv 
avaStSofiivwv dg oXov to (TWfxa yiyviTai — Sta voXXoiv twv 
^Xsfiwv avaSoOdg. Galen. Natural. Facul. ii. 6 (ii. Ill): 
avaSiSoadai to Sia tCjv (fXi^Cjv aifia vofut,ovaiv. 



§ XCY. 

Acts, XXIV. 

KaTogtJwfia. * avopdovv. * 6p66g. * ctuvto/uwc. * acrnitv. 

avtaig. 

* I3!a (verse 7, § 77). aKpi(3i<TTepov (v. 22, § 93). * ava(iiX- 
XtaOai (v. 22, § 68). * ?iiayivwaKiiv (v. 22, § 94). 

* Si^Soxog (v. 27, § 73). * virrip.rdv (v. 23, § 87). 

* {>ixiXuv (v. 26, § 77). * fiiTaKaXHotiai v. 25, § 85). 

2. "And when he was called forth, TertuUus began to 
accuse him, saying, Seeing that by thee we enjoy great quiet- 
ness, and that very worthy deeds {KaTopBwjxuTwv) are done 
unto this nation by thy providence." 



262 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [pakt ii. 

* KaTopOM/xa is peculiar to St, Luke. KaropOwfia, icarop- 
Owatc, and karopBovv are all employed by the medical 
writers. 

Hipp. Epis. 1289 : InrpiKiiQ texvjic KaTopdM/nara fiiv 01 
TToXXot Twv avBpwTTwv ov TTavTawacnv iTraivoiKriv, OiOiQ St 
woXXaKig TTfjoirapTwaiv. Hipp. Eract. 755 : ra oaria to. 
KarriyoTa knl fxaXXov Kivevfitva koI sinrapaywya £C KuropOwcnv. 
Koi rjv y Tavra TOiaiira KaropOiocFafiEvov xprj iTrioifaai <l>g it; 
vapOriKUQ. Gralen. Usus Part. xi. 10 (iii. 885) : koi fiaXiuTa 
davfiaZsiv TTjv <j)V(Tiv sarlv kv toIq ovtw irapa. fiiKpov, li filv 
KaropOoi, mraviov Si to a^aXfxa, kmtoi yt oaov hri rs toIq 
(TTVsipovaiv r)p.aQ /cai raig Kvoiirjaig, ov to a<pdXfia mrdviov 
svptiv aWa to KaTopOu/xa yiyviaQai. Galen. XJsus Part. xi. 

13 (iii. 899) : SiSiiKTai Se koi oti to aXriOivbv koXXoq etc to 
Trig Xpeiag avafipsrai naTopOwfia. Galen. Meth. Med. xiv. 

14 (x. 992) : koI yap sktoq SaKTvXog ivOiiQ £? ap)(rig (Tvve- 
yivt]ur) Ti(ji KOL Xi'nrwv TTCfiirTog iyivero koi Tiva TOiavra fTcpa, 
Ta fiiev apiu/K^, ra 0£ fnyidti tov irpocrriKOVTOc; iiKpaXp-iva, koi 
HTTsp (rvvi\wg plv ravra, airavia Si iyiviTO to. KaTopBdipara. 
Galen. Comp. Med. iii. 1 (xii. 625) : iipnTai Si poi irpoaOsv 
wc ai TOiaiiTai SwafxiiQ ovts KaTopQwfiaTa fityaXa ttoloxxsiv 
ovTi cr(j)aXp.aTa. Galen. Hipp, et Plat. Decret. iii. 4 (v. 390) : 
Kadairep iv te roTc UfiapTi'ipacn Koi KaropduipatJi. Hipp. Fract. 
757: KaTopuwaag Si Tolaiv uevapai to ooteoi*, prjiSiwg SI Karop- 
QwcrtTai. Hipp. Artie. 792 : (rvfinopavvoi av tyiv KaTopdwatv 

ii 6 plv avOpOOTTOQ VnTlOQ KiOlTO. 

* avopBovv. Luke, xiii. 13 : see § 16. 

* opOoQ. Acts, xiv. 10 : see § 31. 

4. " Notwithstanding, that I be not further tedious unto 
thee, I pray thee that thou wouldst hear us of thy clemency 
a few words " {avvTOfnog — or "for a short time"). 

* (TvvTOfjiwg, peculiar to St. Luke, was the term almost 
always employed in medical language to express the nearness 
of death or cure. 

Hipp. Aph. 1247 : rotai Si 7rp£(Tj3wTEpota-t KOTappoi cruvro- 
pa)g aiToXXvvTsg. Hipp. Coac. Progn. 152 : TrtXiaivofxevov 



§ xcv.J THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 263 

be ETTi Tovrioimv (5Xi<j)apov rj ^^atXoe »/ p\^, avvTOfxwQ Bavd- 
aifxov. Hipp. Ooac. Progn. 128 : SucTTrvoot ytvo/xtvot Qvr]a- 
KOvai avvTOfiwg. Hipp. Ooac. Progn. 186 : olm yap yivsrai 
iravra ravra avvTOfitoQ 9vri(jK0V<Ti. Hipp. Coac. Progn. 213 : 
Qavdainov Se koI Iv Toiai TrXivpiriKoicn avvTOfiw^. Hipp. 
Ooao. Progn. 216 : Iv xoXwdeaw ovpov arroXij^/'tc Knivu 
avvTopoj^. Dioscor. Mat. Med. i. 178 : larat awro/xwc. 
Dioscor. Animal. Ven. 33 : iwo KJipaorou StixBhiti <jvvt6/i<i)q 
iirapvvu. Galen. Antid. ii. 15 (xiv. 195) : diroBvriaKovai 
avvTOfiioTaTa. Gralen. Comm. i. 3, Aph. (xvii. B. 365) : 
TOVTO fisyitTTOv iCFTiv avroiQ KOKOv Sto Koi Xv£(T0at Seirai 
avvTOfiwg, &C. 

16. " And herein do I eccercise mi/self (avrhg cktkw), to 
have always a conscience void of ofEence toward Grod, and 
toward men." 

* d(7K£iv, peculiar to St. Luke, was in medical language, 
besides other uses, the term employed for " to practice the 
medical art " — and aaKr)<jig, for " medical practice." 

Hipp. Morb. Acut. 384 : koi Toimv daKtovaiv le lvt%iriv. 
Hipp. Epid. 948 : aanuv Trtpl to. vovarinara Svo, uxjiskitiv ij 
firj jdXdiTTtiv. Galen. Comm. i. 7, Humor, (xiv. 85) : aXX' 
ovBiv a(TKJj(Toii<Ti Trjv Sidyv(Daiv. Galen. Comm. ii. 2, Humor. 
(xvi. 223) : tirl Trjv Trig iarpiKiig a(TKr)(Tiv. Galen. Comm. iii. 
32, Epid. iii. (xvii. A. 684) : Kara tovt^ ao-Kijrlov ctol Tag 
yivofiivag iv tw (TWfiaTi SiaOiang. Galen. Comm. ii. 39, 
Epid. (xvii. A. 977) : aXX' £;ri ra Trig Texvrig spya Kara, te 
irpoyvwutv kol OepaTrtlav, a Ka/xol Sia vavTog riaKr'idri. Galen. 
Comm. ii. 48, Fract. (xvii. B. 484) : daKuv vfidg Trjv iiino- 
piav Twv lapcLTwv. Galen. Comm. i. 4, Offic. (xviii. B. 
662) : a Kara to Irirptiov rj pavOdvtiv rj wpaTTetv 15 dpx^G 
oi KOTO, Trjv Ttxvriv duKOVfievoi Sivavrai. Galen. Progn. 
Decubitu. i. (xix. 530) : ottoctoi Trjv larpiKrjv aaKiovTeg. 
Galen. Med. Phil. (i. 60) : og av 'lirTroKpaTovg ct^iwg aaKricn} 
Trjv Tix^VV- 

23. " And he commanded a centurion to keep Paul, and 
let him have liberty (ex^'v ''^ avtaLv). 



264 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [paet ii. 

avemQ is used four times by St. Paul also ; in medical 
language it signified remission of disease or pain. 

Hipp. De Dieb. Judic. 56 : sg rjjv ETrioixjav 17/xfpr/v avemg 
TrJQ vovaov — tg Trjv rpirrfv aviaig TrJQ vovaov. Hipp. Ooac. 
Progn. 152 : 7rv£V;ua fiavwTfpov aviCTiv kg Trii> iTTioiiaav ari/iai- 
vsi. Hipp. Coac. Progn. 156 : crri/xeiov avicnwg vvpiTOV. 
Aretaeus, Sign. Acut. Morb. 4 : avsmg Srj Trpocr^Ev Trvi^iog. 
Aret. Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 47 : vttvol ahrdpKetg, vtto\ov- 
Spicov avKTtg. ^ke ttote irovog eg fiiTa<ppovov ett aviau. 
Do. 38 : rjv Bi iir^ avimv tJkoiev tov KaKOu. Gralen. Def. 
Med. 127 (xix. 381) : vwvog eo-tiv dviaig '/'I'X'ic- Gralen. 
Morb. Temp. 5 (vii. 425) : r6 rrjg oXjjc irapaKixrjg fiipog E^Eort 
koXeTv avstriv. Do. (426) : cnrb rije trpwrrig ua^oXrig a\pi 
Trig E(TT^ar)je aviatbig. Do. (427) : to fiera tov irapo^va/xov 
anav avtaig. 

§ XCVI. 

Acts, XXV. 

* ^avTaaia. aXoyog. * Kara Xoyov. 

avaipiiv (verse 3, §84). * iviSpa (v. 3, § 94). SiaTpificiv 
(v. 6, §86). *Kara^£pEiv(v.7, §33). ^00? (v. 16, § 58). 
*ava(5oX-f, (v. 17, §68). *?»)r„/xa (v. 19, §88). gm- 
yvw(Tig (v. 21, § 94). cnroptTv (v. 20, § 74). avaniinruv 
(v. 21, § 89). atr^aXije (v. 26, § 82). 

Acts, XXVI. 
* twiKOvpia. * fiavia. * irEpirpiTTsiv. * 'TrpoTptTreiv. 

Wog (verse 3, § 58). * Zr'irr,pa (v. 3, § 88). * ^KptjSjjc 
(v. 5, § 93). TrpoYiyaicTKEtii (v. 5, § 94). avaipiiv 
(v. 10, § 84). * KoraicXEiEiv (v. 10, § 42). * KaTa(pipHV 
(v. 10, § 33). * TifiwpHV (v. 11, § 93). * KaraTTiirrEiv 
(v. 14, § 34). * Trpoxup'iZiaeai (v. 16, § 82). * Sta- 
XiipiZi<j6ai (v. 21, I 82). a^iaig (v. 18, § 59). irtipaa- 
Bai (v. 21, § 85). 

Acts, XXV. 23 : " And on the morrow, when Agrippa 



§ xovij THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF^ST. LUKE. 265 

was come, and Bernice, with great pomp {jneTa TroXXije 
0ai/rac7tac), and was entered into the place of hear- 
ing," &o. 

* (pavTuaia, peculiar to St. Luke, is employed in medi- 
cal language to denote the appearance presented by or ma- 
nifestation of disease, &c. 

Hipp. Aliment. 381 : pnrTaafibg, oipieg, ^avracrtai, 'iKTtpog, 
Xvjfio^, &c. Aretaeus, Sign. Acut. Morb. 15 : tig vinpdjnv 
Se rpETTOjUEVT) avaywyiig (pavraaiav 7rapi\ii. Aretaeus, Sign. 
Acut. Morb. 22 : tVTB (pavraair} lyyiyviTai TrXsujOtrtSoc. 
Aret. Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 53 : ipavTaaln yXwica^ovroe yiyvE- 
rai. Aret. Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 65 : tpavraairi rije paxiog 
iQ TU) (tkIXee KivaviiivriQ. Aret. Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 67 : 
17 (jtavTacritt Trjg iKKptcnog. DioSCOr. Ven. 20 : napaKoXovdti 
Si Toig irtTrwKOfTi pavia iroiKikaig l;rij3aXXov(Ta (pavraaiaig. 
Galen. Med. Def. 147 (xix. 390) : piya Kord pavraaiav 
voaripa. Galen. Natural. Facul. i. 7 (ii. 18) : <j>avTaaiav 
xpsvSrj paiXXov ovk av^riaiv dXjjOi} to. roiavTa awpara KTriaerai 
Galen. Oomm. iii. 25, Epid. iii. (xvii. A. 672) : (po^tpwripav 
iixi ^avTatriav Iv Tolg Trepl KS<paXriv popiotg — ij piv tpavraaia 
row iraOovQ yivtrai peyaXri. 

XXV. 27 : " For it seemeth to me unreasonable {aXoyov) 
to send a prisoner, and not withal to signify the crimes laid 
against him." 

aXoyog is used in two other passages in the N. T. in 
the sense of " unreasoning," " irrational " — aXoya ^wa — 
2 Peter, ii. 12, and Jude, 10. Both it and the opposite 
phrase, koto Xoyov, are applied to disease by the medical 
writers. 

Hipp. Ooac. Progn. 118 : Ik Karmpv^iog ^ofiog koi advpirt 
aXoyog Iq aTraapov cnroTaXtvrq. Hipp. Ooac. Praedic. 129 : 
IV TOicn paKpoitTi KOiXttje aXoyoi eirapaue aTraapwSseg. Hipp. 
Ooac. Progn. 185 : aXyripa aXoytog a^aviaOtv i^iaraTai. 
Aretaeus, Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 33 : iSpwg aaxtTog Ttvovrwv 
B^airivng TTovog aXoyog. Aret. Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 36 : 
^ yap Jiavxpi V aTvyvoii, Kurri^itg, vwOpol taai aXoyug. 

2M 



266 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

Aret. Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 38 : ovk in airly tivI BiaOvnoi 
fiev aXoywg. Galen. Oomm. 9, Epid. ii. (xvii. A. 409) : 
KaKoriOiaTBpa Xiyti atjtaviZi<^Oat ura Se koX ic,al^VTi\g Koi 
irapaXoywQ koi aXoytag koi aviv Trpo(j>a.(rso3g koi ju?j Kara 
\6yov. Gralen. Comm. ii. 23, Epid. ii. (xYii. A. 433) : oiik 
oKoywg tovtX to vTro}(pi>Spiov i^wyKtorai. Gralen. Theriac. 
ad Pis. 17 (xiv. 287) : Sia Trjv aXoyov tov ^apfiaKOV XP^' 
aiv vvKTiop ottwXeto to ■TraiSiov. Galen. Loc. Affect, i. 5 
(viii. 47) : aXoyov St ptyog ap.a irvpiTi^ arifiuov Ian ^\ey- 
fiovrig. 

* Kara Xoyov. Acts, sviii. 14 : " And when Paul was 
now about to open his mouth, Gallio said unto the Jews, 
If it were a naatter of wrong or wicked lewdness, ye 
Jews, reason would (Kara \6yov) that I should bear with 
you." 

Peculiar to St. Luke, and a very frequent phrase in the 
medical writers. 

Hipp. Judicat. 55 : twv aXXwv ari/jidwv jujj Kara Xoyov 
iovTuv. Hipp. Praedic. 96 : iy)(eipitiv XP*? '"'i' Tpuifian wq 
airo^r\aoixkvi'^ Kara Xoyov rije IriTpstrig. Hipp. Morb. Acut. 
387 : £7r£t Kot Kara Xoyov lori ju£(7jjyv Trig KuOaptriog firj 
StSovat po^riv. Hipp. Epid. i. 979 : aVaKE dvyaripa koI raXXa 
iravTa Kara Xoyov ^XOe. Hipp. Aphor. 1245 : rolai ju^ Kara 
Xoyov KOv<piZov(nv ou Set TritJTsieiv oiSs (po^stadai Xiijv ra 
fioxOrtpa yivo/jLtva TrapaXoywg. Do. 1245 : trutfia avvrriKeaOai 
fiaXXov Tov Kara Xoyov /loxOripov. Galen. Oomm. ii. 27, 
Epid. vi. (xvii. A. 946) : to toiwv ov rrdw te 8i\pa)S££g 1.<jov 
SvvaTai T(^ ov Kara Xoyov Sf^pdjSseg. Galen. Comm. ii. 28, 
Aph. (xvii. B. 520) : aei St Ktvovvrle tl fiopiov jj koi ipOeyyd- 
fiivol Tl, Kara Xoyov tv oXiyajp rifiipatg la^vo). yivovTai. 
Galen. Oomm. iii. 16, Offic. (xviii. B. 840) : Kara Xoyov 
XaXav fiiv KOI la-xyaivEiv to ttXeTotov. Galen. Muscul. ii. 8, 
(iv. 462) : Kara Xoyov oi fivsg ettV toIq oaTolg TTE^UKOrEC 
aTravTEc £v rt^ avaTiXXiaBai. 

xxvi. 22 : " Having therefore obtained help {ItriKovplag) 
of God, I continue unto this day, witnessing both to small 



§ xcvi.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 267 

and great, saying none other things than those which the 
prophets and Moses did say should come." 

* eiriKovpia, peetdiar to St. Luke, was frequently used in 
medical language. 

Hipp. De Art. 5 : Xiyovrec iig ravTa fjiiv /cai avra v<jt^ 
avTwv av i^vyiat^oiro iirixfipiovalv IcKrOai, a 8' iTriKOvpiaQ 
SEirai ov)(^ aiTTovTai. Hipp, de Arte, 8 : on fiiv ovv Kal 
Xoyove £v ktiJVTy sviropovQ slg rag airiKOvplag 'ixei ij larpiKri. 
Diosoor. Animal. Ven. Proem. : avovnTog r) daavQtg iiriKOvpia, 
Trig (pOopoTTOiov Svva/xewg KaTaSpa^o/iivrig tCiv aw/xaTtov. Do. 
30 : ovooTiovv wapa rrig rwv larpCjv hrtKOvpiag 6<j>£\og jiverai, 
Galen. Usus Part. xvi. 10 (iv. 316) : eI ,uev Srj pti^iv aXko 
lir\T ayjiiov sv QwpaKi, o rjje avrrig hriKOvpiag tSctTO. Galen. 
San. Tuend. iv. 7 (tI. 284) : aixuvov ovv l<m roig siriKOvpiag 
TLVog 'i^uiOiv elg iriiptv Ssofxivoig iv Tourtji Ttjl KOipt^ diSocFOai 
ipapfiuKov. -Galen. San. Tuend. vi: 1 (vi. 381): 1^ ijjuwv l7r£- 
KOvpiag Sdadai Trpo tov fityaXriv ytviaOai jU£raj3oX]ijv i)g vomlv 
^Si) (Ta(j>fijg' hriKOvpia 8' larXv i% i^idfiaruyv koI irofiarmv. Galen. 
Meth. Med. iv. 4 (x. 272) : tov iravTog aojfxaTog iTiKovpiag Seo- 
pivov. Galen. Eemed. Parab. 1. Proem, (xiv. 312) : oipk ht 
8s Koi e)(ei ttjv eic Toiv lajuarwv iwiKOvpiav iviropov. Galen. 
Loc. AfEect. i. 7 (viii. 67) : ^riZovai ye koX Trjg twv apTxipiCiv 
KOI 0Xe|3oJv iTTiKOvpiag (^vXaTTUv ttiv ovaiav avTuv. 

xxvi. 24: "And as he thus spake for himself, Festus said 
with a loud voice, Paul, thou art beside thyself; much learn- 
ing doth make thee mad " {dg pavtav irepiTpiiru) . 

* pavia, peculiar to St. Luke, was a technical medical term. 
Hippocrates has written a treatise on mania : 6 inpl pavir\g 
\6yog, Epis. 1286 ; and Aretaeus, Sign. Acut. Morb. 36 : 
Tnp\ pavirig. 

Hipp. Yic. Eat. 352 : okotov 8e toiovtov iraBy ri toiuvth) 
4'vxn! h paviriv KaOiaTUTai. Aretaeus, Cur. Acut. Morb. 36 : 
pavirig Tpoiroi eiSeari piv pvpioi, yivsi Sk povvog slg SKtJTamg 
yap EffTj TO avpwav xpoviog avevOev irvpsTov. Dioscor. Ven. 
9 : TO 8£ Kopiov pavlav tincpipii. Galen. Medians, 13- (xiv. 
740) : aWia Si Trjg piv pav'iag ^avdfi \o\ri. 



268 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

* iriQiTpiiniv. Peculiar to St. Luke. This compound of 
rpiiniv, though often used in medical language, is not em- 
ployed exactly in the same sense as in this passage ; the sub- 
stantive inpiTpoirrt, however, is so used, and the simple rpi-iruv 
very frequently and in connexion also with /tavt'jj. 

AretaeuB, Our. Acut. Morb. 115 : /leTi^iTipoicn Si irvpsTol 
a/xavpol tyKaTaXe'nrovrai koi irri Koi fXeyixaaiai afUKpai Koi 
y\b)<7(Ta Zriprj dial iq /lapaa/wv -q TTEpirpOTry}. Aret. Sign. 
Morb. Diutum. 38 : dim Ig aKvBpwirov i? fiavit) Tpiwerai. 
Aret. Sign. Morb. Diutum. 34 : irp^^i SI kots koi yvwiirjv bq 
juavt'jjv. Aret. Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 35 : rolm yap fiaivo- 
fiivoiai aXKoTt fuv kg opyqv aWoTS S' If 0UjUr)Sir|v 17 yvwfim 
TpiTTiTai. Aret. Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 38 : dtaiv Ic ni\ay- 
XoXiijv ij rpoirn. Aret. Cur. Acut. Morb. 87 : rjv Si kqi ig 
avyKOir^v rpairuvTai — orap riSi t) ■rrapatpoprj ig fidjpwaiv rpi- 
TTiyrai. Hipp. Aph. 1252 : oKoaoi Kvvayxriv Sia^^vyovmv eg 
Tov TrXsifMOva avrioiai TpiirtTai. Hipp. Progn. 44 : koi oh 
Xriatrat ott^ rpixpirai to vovamfia. Galen. Oomm. ii. 15, 
Humor, (xvi. 262) : 6 yap ai/iarwSije x^(^°^ *'s X"^''" 
TpiTTiTai. Galen. Oomm. ui. 27, Progn. (xviii. B. 278) : 
OTav 6 TTVpiTog y avvs^V? s'C '"«? airocFTdang rpETrerai ypovi- 
Ziov, &C. 

* irpoTpiiTiiv : see § 87. 



§ xcvii.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 269 

§ XOVII. 
Acts, XXVII. 

* tTTifiiXtia. *E7rijU£Xwc. * iirifieXilaOat. * l/xjSijSa^Etv. *Trapai- 
veiv. * avsvOeroQ. * ivOtTog. |3oj)0£ta. * viroZwvvvfii. 

* Xftf^aZeaBai. * (raXog. * aairia. * aalTOg. * aiTiov. 

* SiareXEiv. anoTEXilv. * iKTsXelv. * cr/ca^i). * evOvfiog. 

* svBvfiwg. tvQvfiuv. *igu^Hv. * aiToppiirriiv. pliTTeiv. 
*Sia<j>siytlv. * KoXvfji^q.v. * KOV^iZeiv. 

fcartpx^ff^at (verse 5, § 84). * iwiafaXrig (v. 9, § 82). * avvap- 
iraZuv (v. 15, § 91). * viroTpixiiv (v. 16, § 80). X"^?"^ 
(v. 17, § 61). iKTrlifTuv (v. 17, § 66). *lK^oXh (v. 18, 

§ 68). * MariLvai (v. 28, § 75). TrpoaSoK^v (v. 33, § 74). 
*llweuv (v. 39, § 83). *f^ia (v. 41, § 77). iregiw'mTuv 
(v. 41, § 66). 

3. " And the next day we touched at Sidon. And Julius 
courteously entreated Paul, and gave him liberty to go unto 
his friends to refresh himself" {iirifieXsiag tv^uv, " receive 
attention " : R. Y., marginal rendering). 

*lTnp.iXiM, peculiar to St. Luke, like * kirifisXeiadai, was 
very much employed in medical language to express the care 
and attention bestowed on the sick and invalids, and perhaps 
such is its meaning here. 

Hipp. Morb. Mul. 597 : Qepairtiag juev atroxpri vaTEpituv, 
Tov S' aXXou ailtfiarog iviiiiXir\v e'xe'i'j ^^ koi ivt^lri roiavTt) ol 
y. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 612 : rji/ Se fi^ koI 6 poog im^alvsrai 
Koi psvasrai kot oXiyov olov ix^^P sTrifMsXeirig nXdovog Siirdi. 
Hipp. Morb. Acut. 399 : oKoaoim Si jrvjOSTOt aawSsig slcri koI 
VTTOxovSpia avvrdvovai /cat to. uKpsa ipixovrai iravra TrXtiarrig 
iTTifiiXdag Koi fvXaKrig diovrai. Hipp. Medicus, 21 : avrai 
uiv ovv S,Vfi(j>opai TOiavrai aapKog dtriv Koi to. ptv tovtwv ev 
irepoig arijxAa StBriXbiTai kuX y XP'J'^'''*"' etiv ETn/xtXEt^ — ette^ 
ttXeTov TTporiKTai Trig kut tijrpiKJjv ettijueXeioc. Hipp. Artic. 
833 : TrXEiffrric St ETn/iEXstjjf SiovTai oTcriv av vriniwTaTOKTiv 



270 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

loS(T«v avTTi 7] ^vfi^oprj jivvrai. Dioscor. Animal, Ven. 3 : 
rrjv fuv ovv twv \vaaoSriKT(i)v'iTniJ.ikeiav TrpwTijv i^sOifieOa 
Q-alen. Comm. iii. 14, Fraot. (xTiii. B. 555) : smfiiXsidv n 
TToiriffafiEvog rwv koto to cAkoc. Galen. Progn. De Decubitu. 
4 (xix. 538) : Sib Stl <te rije K£0aXijc iiriiJisXeiav iroiiiv. Do. 
(540) : -xpr) ovv T^e KOiXiag TroiiiaOai tTri/ieXuav wpog to 
(TTiyvuxTM. Gralen. Eenum Affect. 4 (xix. 669) : Tiveg yap 
Koi Trpo rijc (pXi^OTOfiiag icai Trjg Aojtttjc iiri/xeXdag irapaXap.- 
jiavovai TO, [iaXavua Sia rjjv Trig oSvvrig a(j)oSp6TriTa, ete/ooj Si 
iav ovSiv tort to KaTaTTilyov fiSTU rijv ^XejdoTO/xiav koi ttiv 
Xonrrjv tTrifiiXnav. 

* iiriixiXiiaOai, see § 21. 

*iinixe\wg. Luke, xv. 8: "Either what woman having 
ten pieces of silver, if she lose one piece, doth not light a 
candle, and sweep the house, and seek diligently {lirifiaXwg) 
till she find it ? " 

Peculiar to St. Luke, and very much used in medical 
language. Dioscor. Mat. Med. i. 24 : fii^ov ewifitXijg rf/v 
pr]Tivr)v — ETTtjUEXwe aTTOTiOsao dg ayyilov. Do. 38 : Kotpag 
itrtfxsXiiig — aXrjOovaiv eTTtfjisXwg. Do. 53 : Se7 Se EirijuEXwe to 
'iXaiov Tov \vXov ^WjOi^eiv. Do. 62 : Trjv aKaOapcriav etti- 
fiiXojg a^aipuv. Do. 84 : EffjujjXMEvov eTTipsXwg. Galen. 
Aliment. Comm. iii. 21 (xv. 344) : koI Sil tov Itirpov aKptjSwe 
Kol iTrifieXbjg vovv TTpo(ji\iiv. Galen. De Dieb. Decretor. ii. 
11 (ix. 883) : ei r(e lirixtipriauev laTptvuv iTrifiiXCjg. Galen 
Offic. Oomm. i. 1 (xviii. B. 642) : wg av riv^rifiivrig Ttjt, 
^Xsyfiovrig kaKOirovv ETri/iEXug tov Sokovvtu Kara (jtvcFiv ex«i 
wfiov. Galen. Gomp. Med. vii. 2 (xiii. 52) : avuKo^ag eiri- 
jueXwc- Do. (54) : /xiS^avTsg intiiiXug. Do. (57) : XEovae 
iTTifXBXwg. Do. (98) : arjcrag l-KifxiXiLg. 

6. " And there the centurion found a ship of Alexandria 
sailing into Italy ; and he put us therein " (evejSi'jSoctev -hfiag 
ilg aiiTo). 

* E;uj3(j3a^6tv, peculiar to St. Luke, was in medical lan- 
guage employed for " to set a dislocated limb," " to place 
patients in a bath," 



§ xovii.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 271 

-tlipp. Artie. 783 : ra /xlv ovv vsapa ifiiriiTTU Oaaaov rj wg 
av Tig oioiTO Trptv 17 KaTUTsraaOai SokUiv, arap koX ra naXaia 
ixovvri avrri rwv i/x^oXiwv ottj te £jUj3tj3a(Tat. Hipp. Artie. 
827 : (cai oTfft av filv TToXv ttXeTov oXiaOy to apOpov rj E/CTTEiry, 
XaXiTTbJTepa afi^aXXsiv to ETrivrav Eort kuI ^v firj Ejuj3t/3a(70^. 
Gralen. Oomm. iii. 19, Artie, (xviii. A. 514) : orav iig Tig 
(JTTOvovXuyv KaO' ovTivaovv rpoTTOV EKTTtTTT^, Etc Ttiv Trig Siap- 
Opw<T£WQ xaXiTTwuTov IdTiv ifi^i^aaai. Q-alen. Comm.. iii. 
24, Artie, (svii. A. 250) : iig Trjv kutu fvmv X'^pav E|ij3ij3a(Tr) 
Tov TraprjpOpriKOTa a(jt6vSvXov. Galen. Medio. Faeul. ii. 7 (xi. 
481) : Elf Ss^a/xEvrjv ififdi^aZovTeg iXaiov Ospfioii. Do. xi. 1 
(xii. 368) : elTU irvlXovg avrt^ TrXrtpovvTtg EV£j3(j3a^ov oXovg 
Toiig apOpiTiKovg. Galen. Oomp. Med. ii. 2 (xii. 588) : ifijii- 
j3a?Etv Etc EjujSao-tv Qepfiov. Galen. Comp. Med. ix. 2 (xiii. 
227) : KOI orav ava^aXaaQ'^ sfi^ifiaZo/jiev, Iv Se r^ kfi^acrei 
irXeiova xP°vov KarEX«ff0w. Diosoor. Mat. Med. ii. 205 : 
ETTEtra tv j3aXavEi<j» EjUjSijSa^Eo-flo). Dioscor. Ven. 17 : ical 

£(Uj3tj3a^££V Etc BipflOV. 

9. " Now when much, time was spent, and when sailing 
was now dangerous, because the fast was now already past, 
Paul admonished [irapyvu] them." 

* irapaivuv, peculiar to St. Luke, and used again v. 22, 
was the word employed for a physician giving his advice. 

Hipp. Acut. Morb. 383 : tjv juev ovv TovTa ayada rjv kol 
ap(i6Z,ovTa rotcrt vovarifxaaiv i(f olaiv Trap^VEOv di^ovai. Hipp. 
Fract. 757 : ETTEtra ettiSeetw roe te apy^ag ^aXXofXSvog ewl to 
KOTrijfia KOI raXXa Travra Sxnrep irporcpov irapi^viOri xeipiZtTw. 
Hipp. Fract. 765 : p.r\-xp-voTroiK<TOai xPV o'" ""^P ^^ '''V 
fipaxiovi r«j) SLaaTpefofiivoj Trap'^vriTai. Hipp. Nat. Horn. 
229 : TOVTOv XP^ ''°'' XP'^*""' ''"^ irapaiviaiag iroihaQai Toiaiv 
avOpwTroiai TOiaaSe. to. piv SiaiTrip,aTa pi) |it£raj3aXX£(v, oti je 
nvK a'lTid IcTi rvg voaov. Galen. Comm. ii. 85, Praedic. 
(xvi. 674) : tovto S' ettI riXei tov TrpoyvwanKOv vapaiviaag 6 
'iTTTTOKpaTrig. Galen. De Temper, ii. 6 (i. 640) : 'lTnroKpaTt)g 
opOoTOTa irap'yvrifiivov, tov Saiv iiriaKiTTTsaOai Tag p^rajdoXag. 
Galen. San. Tuend. iv. 5 (vi. 264) : tovto piv .ovv vf 'lirwo- 



272 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

Kpdrovg Sia ^pa\VTaTOv TrapyvnTUi pruiaroQ, httovtoq, iriirova 
^apfiaKevciv, /jir} wfia. Galen. De Dieb. Decretor. i. 11 (ix. 
825) : TUVT ovv avra Koi 'liriroKpaTtig evuvq kut ap')(ag twv 
a<j)opi(Tfiwv irapaivuTai. Galen. Meth. Med. iv. 4 (x. 273) : 
aWa Kqiri twv oXXmv anavrtov vo<TrifiaT<ov tovto noir)Tiov 
earlv, wg oi TraXatoi irapaivoxiaiv. Galen. Oomp. Med. IT. 8 
(xii. 752) : fura rag iyxpiaeig XovscrOai napaivovvTEg. 

12 : " And because the haven was not commodious {avev- 
Birov) to winter in." 

* avsvOiTog. This passage appears to be the only one in any- 
Greek writer in which this word occurs. ivOsrog and aOtrog 
are of frequent occurrence in medical language, and avsvBiTog 
was probably the form employed by St. Luke to express 
the opposite of tvOirog instead of the usual word aOerog {see 
svOsTog, § 51, and compare awOpvirrsiv, § 93). Dioscor. 
Mat. Med. i. 151 : p6a — ettI juIv twv irvpeaaovrojv sariv 
aOtTog. Do. 159 : firiXiag to. ^vWa — aBera Tfji vivpwSii 
iravTi. Do. 183 : (tiiku — aOsTa Se pevfiaTicFfioig arofiayov koi 
KOtXtije" fipoyxv ^^ ''"' apTTipiq Koi Kvarei koi v£<ppdig svOera. 
Do. ii. 123: aOtrov /liv irpoglaTpiKrjv xpriaiv, Trpog St to. Xonra 
evOsTOv. Do. 129 : ^okoc — adirog irpog ra vivpixiSri koL 
TTvevftova Koi K£0aXijv. Do. V. 9 : kvoth adtrog' npog Se 
TO. Bavaaifia twv aWwv cvdsTWTipog — aOtroi Ss Tolg 
aifiOTTToiKolg. 

ivBiTog : see § 61. 

17. "Which when they had taken up, they used helps 
{^oriOdaig), undergirding {virol^wvvvvTig) the ship." 

* vTToZwvvvfii is peculiar to St. Luke. Both this word and 
fioriOiia would seem to have been employed by St. Luke here 
owing to their use in medical language. He is the only 
writer who employs this particular compound of Zwvwpi for 
undergirding a ship, as the passage in Polybius, where the 
word occurs in connection with ships, does not refer to this 
process, but generally to getting ships ready for sea. 
Polyb. xxvii. 3. 3. : koi // vavg (7uju|3ovA«ii(7af rote 'PoStoig 
vTroZ<^vvvuv. Appian uses Sia^wvvvpi for frapping a ship, as 



§ xcvii.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 273 

St. Luke does vnoZdovwiM, Appian, B.C. v. 91: k- tHjv 
SvvutQv diaZitivvvfitvove ra ffKa^rj" and other Waiters Zmv 
vvfii, ApoUoniua Ehodius, i. 368 : vr\a — e^waav iranirpwrov 
ivarpi^Ei £vSo0£v oirXt^. viroZdrfiaTa was the term for the ropes 
used in undergirding, but vn-o^wjua too had a naedical origin, 
as its primary meaning was the diaphragm. Aristotle, Hist. 
Animal, iii. 1-3, 12, 13, 14, and Gralen. Loc. Affect, v. 4 
(viii. 328) : Siaippayfjia KoXovaiv. 'ApwrorlXrje Se ivvofiaZsv 
{nroZwfia ro fiopiov rovro tow Ztiiov. Compare Plato, Legg. 
xii. 3 : KaBoKip vtwe h ?ii>ou nvog ovq tovov^ te koI viro^d)- 
fiara kol vivpwv STrirovovQ — Trpoaayopevofisv. 

The word viroZiiivvvfii was a very common one with medi- 
cal men, as it was applied to a membrajie which lined, under- 
girded, or strengthened some part of the body. The 
membrane investing the thorax, viz. the pleura, was in par- 
ticular named 6 virtZ<^K6g, "the undergirder," or 6 rag 
irXsvpac vTrtZ(i)Kwg. Aret. Sign. Acut. Morb. 10 : virb ryai 
irXivpyai kol ry po-XH Koi t<^ 'ivSov OwpriKi a.\pi icXctSfaJv vfifiv 
XtJrroe Kparawg virioTpuTai, roicn oarioiai irjOOffTTs^UKwe, 
vTTsZwKwg Tovvofia. Galen. tJsus Part. vii. 21 (iii. 597) : avio- 
6tv Bs 7) fiaaie row rag irXevpag WTraJ^WKoroc, WTTortraKTat yap 
owroe anavTi ti^ kvtu tov OwpaKog svSov, Iv die Attv ■)(0)ploig 
vTraXei^ii ra tu)v TrAEwpwv oara. It was therefore only natural 
for St. Luke to apply to the imdergirding of the ship a word 
which was used in medical language in an analogous way to 
express the undergirding of parts of the human body, 
especially as a ship's sides were called irXevpai. — Theognis,513. 

Nijos TOi TrXevprjo'iv virb ^vya O^qcro/Jtev ■^p.fi'S. 

Aretaeus, Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 43 : Iv TrXii/iovt t] insZoi- 
KOTi £v 7rXEwp(j> — Owvfia Se OKug e? v/ievog Xstttov ts koI 
lavvov, TOV w7r£?aiKoroc, TOffovSs piei irwov. Do. 73 : SoKiu 
Bi KOTE TTJg BinXorig Trig variprig, 6 tvBov WTTt^WKWff X"'''"'* 
£wr£ airooTtaTai tov ^vva^iog. Galen. Usus Part. ix. 14 
(iii. 743) : Apryrai TTtpX yXwTTtig Koi tov to arofia irav wtte^w- 
KOToe vfiivog. Galen. Usus Part. xi. 17 (iii. 920) : wamp 6 
\iTu>v TOV Xapvyya Tt kw. ttjv Tpaxiiav apTr\piav SXijv wtts^w* 

2N 



274 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [pakt ii. 

Kwe £v§o0£v. G-alen. Loc. Affect, ii. 5 (viii. 122) : kyyiic fiiv 
Trjg KopBiag 6 re viret^wKWQ koI 6 irvsvfttov. Galen. Progn. ex 
Puis. iv. 5 (ix. 401) : 6 vireZwKwg rag irXEvpag x'^wv. 
Gralen. Medious, 11 (xiv. 711): rov ts imtitoKOTog rag wAeu- 
pag vfiivog. 

(Sorideia is used but once again in the N. T. (Heb.iv. 16). 
Botli it and fioriOrifia were great medical words, applied not 
only to tlie aid given by the physician and by medicine, but 
also to the mechanical contrivances in the human body for 
the support and bracing of its parts, likewise to artificial 
supports, such as bandages. Aristotle uses the word of these 
supports of the animal frame, e.g. De Part. Animal, ii. 8 : 
TO fxiv ovv ixu T(ov ^eituv ivrog ttjv TOiavrrjv- fioriOeiav, evia 
Sk Twv avaiii(i)v iierog ; and it is remarkable that he too, as 
well as St. Luke, applies it to some description of gear used 
on board ship during storms at sea. Aristotle, Ehetorica. 
ii. 5 : Si\<I>g yap airaOug yiyvovTai oi avdpuJTroi ri t(^ ff^ 
irtTTtipaadai, rj T<jg (iot^dtiag e'x"''" SjawtQ Iv roTg Kara OaXaT- 
rav KivSvvoig, otrt airupoi XEi/iuivog aappovai to. fiiWovra- 
Koi ol fioriOdag exovtec Sia rriv tfnrsipiav. 

The medical writers apply it to ligaments, muscles, the 
peritoneum, pancreas, &c. 

Galen. TJsus Part. xii. 7 (iv. .24) : Sitttjv, iig jujjSev 
TradXEtv, 17 ipiKTig tTEXvrjffaTO /3or;0Etav, eyy\v\pa(7a filv tov 
Trpwrou a-trovSvXov to ravTig fispog — koi avvdsaiiov' l(T)(ypov 
syKapmov 'i^wdev avri^ TnpiBtiaa. Galen. Anat. Administr. 
iv. 3 (ii. 430) : twv 7r\ayiii)v Ivwv ap.a ralg kyKapaiaig, Sia 
TO firJKog TOV TpaxfiXov, to nav tpyov iKavwg Ipyal^ofiivwv 
av£V Trig Trapa rwv opOiwv /3oj}0£(ae. Galen. Gomm. iv. 40, 
Artie, (xviii. A. 733) : ovSevog 'i^wOsv aXXov toiovtov a^iy- 
yovrog rjjv SiapOpwrnv, owre tUv fivijv' oiiSi yap oiSe irapa 
TOVTwv oXiyr) Tig iaTi j5ori9eia wpog to ;uij /o^SioJC tKniiTTSiv 
ri ^pOpa. Galen. TJsus Part. i. .17 (iii. 49): hwd 8' ^v 
avayKoiov aysaOai Sia juaicjoov rove rivovTag koi KivSvvog ^v 
iv yvfiviff aapKtJv \b)pi(<f) jvp.vovg ovTag avrovg OXijSstrOai te 
Kul Tifj.vea9ai Kal depfialveaOai Ti Kat \pv)(ia9ai pi^dltog /3o?j- 



§ xcvii.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 275 

ueiav avToiQ ^^^^(avriaaro rijv tuiv vfiivwv ovaiav — r/ ^vaig. 
Gralen. Usus Part. iv. 9 (iii. 291) : TiTaprrt Ss XP^'« '^°^ 
TrepiTOvaiov tovtov (TKEWaffnarog, a/cpijSwe iripiTerafiivov Koi 
a<piyyovToc orravra — oii afjiiKpa S' ovSi 17 rov TTEpiTOvatov 
(3or)0eia^ Q-alen. Usus Part. v. 2 (iii. 344) : peyaXrig ovv 
(doriBdag eSeito to xwpiov tovto elg a(T(paXeiav — ^v 17 ^vaig 
iTTitTTafiivri aStvwSte n awpa Stipiovpyriaaaa to KoXoipsvov 
TrdyKpsag VTTidTopiai te koI irspiijSaXsv sv ki/kXc^ ttckjc. 
Galen. Usus Part. v. 16 (iii. 404) : ij 8e kuotic sic juev 
TOVTO fiorideiag ov ;ravw ti peyaXttg Shtui KkdeaOal ye Svva- 
pivr\ Kol xwpig pvog. Galen. Usus Part. ix. Z (iii. 712) : 
vjcTTTip al TJje KapSiag Sia T171' (TKXijporijra tov awpuTog aiirjjc 
aOXiTTTOi fiivovaiv ovSepiag iig tovto (ioriOeiag i^wOav Ssofuvai. 
Galen. Oomna. iii. 1, Artio. (xviii. B. 817), of artificial appli- 
ances : axTTE Kat vvv TO. fiiv aireXriXvOoTa irpoauKTiOv Eort koi 
Sl aXXwv fiiv (5or]9tipdTU)v koi Si ewiSicr/jLUiv. 

St. Luke had thus the two words viroZuiwvfii and (ioriOeia 
in his professional language used in a way similar to that in 
this passage. 

18. " And we being exceedingly tossed with a tempest 
(xeifiaZofiivtov) , the next day they lightened the ship." 

* X£t;ua^E<T0at, peculiar to St. Luke, was used in medical 
language for to he tossed by fever — to be chilled in it — to be 
exposed to cold. 

Hipp. Progn. 46 : oi juevtoi TrXeioveg avTuv apxovTat piv 
TTOvhadai TpiToloi }^£tjud^ovrat Se paXiara irspuTaioi. dnaX- 
XdaaovTai Se tvaToXoi fj evSsKaTaioi. Galen. De Orisibus, iii. 
11 (ix. 755) : ^^stjua^ovrat Se irepifTdioi paXurra. Galen. 
Tremor. 7 (vii. 636) : o Koi ToXg TSTapTdiKotg ireptoSoig eotiw 
(i)(j)iXtpu)raTOV, Koi paXiaG' orav vtto piyovg (T(j)oSpov xsipd- 
ZoivToi. Hipp. Eat. Vic. 367 : dyaOov ydp Ti^ (TwpaTi XE'/*«" 
ZccrOai £v Ty lopy ovSe yap to. BivSpa pfj x;f'/-t«<''^£i'''« ^v Ty wpy 
SivavTui Kapwov ^Epeiv. 

* (ToXog, Luke, xxi. 25 : " The sea and the waves {adXov) 
roaring." 

This word, also peculiar to St. Luke, was applied to the 



276 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

tdssing and uneasiness of the sick. Galen. De Dieb. 
Deoretor. i. 9 (ix. 812) : jurjra tjjv irpwrriv rifiipav fxrire 
Tijv SevTipav vttoXjjttteov ilvai Kpurifiovg, 6 yap olov aaXqg 
6 irpoijyoVjUEVoe rije Xvatwg ovSafiiog iiri(j)avrjg kv ravTaig 
yiverai. Galen. De Dieb. Deoretor. iii. 8 (ix. 917) : apxvv 

Si TU)V fitrd aaXov rivog aXkoiovcrwv o^itoc rag voaovg 
■fifitpHv rfjv TpiTHfv aiTO Trjg apxvc Octsov. Do. ii. 5 (ix. 
863) : ov "yop '■'I" Xvmv airXug iivai Kpiaiv aXX i'lTOi Trjv 
aOpoav V Tov npb rnvrije aaXov. Do. ii. 5 (ix. 866] : on 
filv yap iKXitrai Kara fipa^v to. Si aywvog t€ koI aaXow 
TravtaOai ra voari/iaTa ■xpoviZovra Kokwg ti'prjrai" Galen. De 
CrisibuS, i. 20 (ix. 637) : koXXiov yap ov fiovov on Kara 
tovSb tov Katpbv 17 voaog aopoav tcsi rfjv Xvaiv aAXa kui 
iroTtpov fierd fieyaXov nvog aywvog fj xt&pie (raXov re (cat 
KivSvvov iravTog tTrioraffOai. 

21. " But after long abstinence [aainag] Paul stood forth 
in the midst of them, and said." 

* amrta, peculiar to St. Luke, was much in use in medi- 
cal language. Hipp. Morb. 454: rrjKETai 6 aaOevHJv viro oSv- 
vloiv laxvpuv Kai aainrig Kal firfxpg. Aretaeus, Sign. Aout. 
Morb. 2 : vavrla ra ttoXXo juev ettI acrioig ov^ ■^Ktara Se Kal tir 
aairlriffi. Aret. Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 67: fidpog juev ett' dmny, 
tvOaSs TO TraOog. Aret. Our. Acut. Morb. 95 : juijS' ett' dmrlrig 
ty. Aret. Cur. Acut. Motb. 101: ktr amnrig filnvnuipav ^vXa^- 
avra. Galen. Oomm. i. 12, Morb. Acut. (xv. 436) : rovg te fiuK- 
patg dffinaig KaraTrovoivrag. Galen. Comm. i. 43, Morb. Acut. 
(xv. 508) : Totg ovv oXiyov SiaTrveofxivoig Ey^wpEt aicpav aai- 
nav avfi^ovXtmiv. Galen. Morb. Acut. ii. 18 (xv. 548) : ev 
raig trpuraig rifispaig ev aainq. TTavTtXii ^vXa^avng rovg icdju- 
vovrae. Galen. Comm. ii. 43, Morb. Aout. (xv. 593) : roue 
larpovg /uErajSaXXstv rjjv Stairav ek rrjg dmriag tig rd po(j)rj- 
fiara. Galen. Comm. ii. 44, Morb. Acut. 4 (xv. 595) : 
TTpoSijXov ion KUTa^ripdvOai Sid rjje dainag dfiirpwg roiig Kap.- 
vovTag. 

* amrog, xxvii. 33 : " And while the day was coming on, 
Paul besought them all to take meat, saying. This day is the 



J xcvii.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 277 

fourteenth day that ye have tarried and continued fasting 
(ao-tTot), having taken nothing." 

* acriTOQ, peculiar to St. Luke, was much used in medical 
language. It is met in connexion with ^larikuv, as in this 
passage : see infra, under ^mriXiiv. Hipp. Intern. Affect. 
532 : Koi y trvpiriO^ v/XEpy aairog 'iarw irXriv aXsvpov i(pdov. 
Hipp. Superfoet. 262 : aairoQ Si ravra Troie'iTio. Hipp. Epid. 
1096 : Kal KWfjia irapdirsTO, acriroQ, adv/iog, aypvirvog. Hipp. 
Epid. 1142 : aviip vovati^ eixeto, OKOre iiairoc ur\ e/ivcTEV aiirov 
£v ry yaarpi iff^wpwe icat wSwaro. Hipp. Vet. Med. 12 : 
iprjfu Bt Koi Toiig aWovg avOpwirovg airavTag otrtvte "v aairoi 
Sio rj TpuQ I'l/jiipag yivuvrai ravra TrdtreaOai. Aret. Our. Acut. 
Morb. 104 : aaiT^) Ss to. <j>apiJiaKwS£a. Dioscor. Yen. Animal. 
19 : Ssi Se /jirj acTirov ilvai rov iK/ivt^wvra. Galen. Different. 
Febr. i. 11 (vii. 320) : si Si kuv ry rpiry tHJv riixepiov aanog 
vTTEpfiaXXaiv kdeXriaetE. Galen. Meth. Med. s. 3 (x. 677) : rov 
7rapo%vij/ibv hnTgiiijafitv vTrtp^aWuv actiTtj^. Galen, Ven. 
Sect. 9 (xi. 242) : Iwe p.B<ir]fi^Qiag aairog Siarpi\pai. 

* (TiTiov, Acts, vii. 12 : " But when Jacob heard that there 
was corn (o-trio) in Egypt, he sent out our fathers first." 

Peculiar to St. Luke, airog is the word in the LXX., 
Gen. xlii. 1. aiTlov is the word used invariably by the me- 
dical writers for " food." 

Hipp. Acut. Morb. 392 : aypvirvit) Ityxypri TTOixara koi 
auria w/xa koI airsTTTorBpa ttoish. Hipp. Affect. 526 : iraarx^i- 
Si ravra rb ^\iy/ia koi ij X"^*? •"*' ^""^ cTiwy koi otto TTorwv. 
Hipp. Affect. 527 : OKOrav rj auritov y ttotwv irpouriOiv'ai ap^y 
7j aAaipUiv. Hipp. Affect. 528 : tan Si rwv airiwv Kal rwv 
TTorwv a rrjv Svva/iiv i\si ravrriv raSt. Hipp. Intern. Affect. 
533 : KaX aiTiOiai koi irordtai roig aiiToig ^(ptiaQii}. Aretaeus, 
Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 65 : axOy\Sii)v eg iravra icai (jtvyrj, koi 
uiaog (Tiriwv. Do. 71 : to cnrta ek ruivSs ig rd Kara) SiiKOhi 
vypd. Galen. Comm. 2, Nat. Hom. (xv. 117) : Siamifiara 
KaXoxiffiv tviort fiiv avrd fxova rd airia koi rd irord. Galen. 
Oomm. 6, Nat. Hom. (xv. 132) : Trtpt juev ovv rrig ruv 
airiwv niipeiog rrig iv yaarpi. Galen. Conun. iii. 19, Humor. 



278 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [past ii. 

(xvi. 429) : Tfjv SiaiTav koI to, airia koi rd iroTa Stt irpoa- 
ipipuv. 

33. " Ye have continued fasting " (aairoi SiaTtkeiTE). 

* ciaTsXuv is peculiar to St. Luke, and, like airoTs\eiv, 
very much used in medical language, in which it is met with 
in connexion with aairoQ, as in this passage of St. Luke. 

Gralen. Yen. Sect. 9 (xi. 242) : u ttots aairog SieTiXsatv. 
Galen. Med. Facul. i. 31 (xi. 435) : koX aSc^oi EiareXoiKriv. 
Galen. Ven. Sect. 5 (xi. 166) : Trovree cnradeig voirjjjuarwv 
SiareXovai. Galen. Oomm. vii. 40, Aph. (xviii. A. 143) : rjv 
fofiog rj SvaOvfiia troXiiv XP^^°^ 'ixovaa SiarsXey. Galen. 
Comm. iv. 19, Aph. (xvii. B. 679) : iirl Si roig ivavrloiQ 
aSitpoi (lixpi ttXeiotou SioTEXovm. Galen. Comp. Med. vii. 2 
(xiii. 19) : (papfiaicoie xpdjfitvoL SiareXijaiv. Hipp. Judicat. 
62: aTTOvwrepoi yap SiaTeXiovaiv koi qkIvSwoi. Hipp. Intern. 
Affect. 533 : koX yap ol iroXXoi irXevpoppwytsg iovrsg Sia- 
TsXiovaiv 'iwg av aTTodavdJai — ovtoq pixP'- f^^^ recraapeaKalSsKa 
r\pipi(x)v TOiavTa Trao-^wv SiaTiXiu. Hipp. Epid. 940 : ovo 
EC bXiyov weiraa^oQ ^v aXXa BieriXsov w/ia TrrvovTig. Hipp. 
Aph. 1257 : rjv tpofiog v SvtrOvfiiri irovXiiv x9°vov SiarEXiy, 

piXayXoXlKOV TO toiovtov. 

awoTtXtiv. Luke, xUi. 32 : see § 17. 

* IkteXuv. Luke, xiv. 29 : " Lest haply, after he hath laid 
the foundation, and is not able to finish it [sicTEXiaai), all that 
behold it begin to mock him." 

* iKTeXeiv is peculiar to St. Luke, and used by medical 
writers, but not with the frequency of a-irortXiiv and SiaTsXetv. 

Galen. Mot. Muscul. v. 4 (iv. 439) : aXXa koi Toirovg 
pvag ETTt rwv KOipwp,ivit)v opwfXiv to a^irtpov epyov apip.irTwg 
sKTiXovvTag. Galen. Usus Part. xi. 19 (iii. 935) : Kat Bia 
TOVTO ara^rjg avTuv ri avvBsaig iyivero, irpog Tvg koi ?roXXa;^'jj 
Tag aXXag xpdag ekteAeTv — r} Siepxofiivwv Tivuiv opyavwv Si 
avTwv, rj avvSov/jievwv rj Bmttvcovtwv twv TrepiTTiiypaTUv rj 
SvairaOeiag eVeko. Galen. Theriac. ad Pison. 16 (xiv. 282) : 
avaX'i<7K0vaa ra TTEpiTTw/iaTa tuv iypwv koi avaOsppaivovija 
Ta KOTEi^vyjUEva twv fispwv koi tjjv sfi^vTOV Bvva/xiv Tovovcra 



§ xovii.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 279 

Trpoc TO raQ ^vmKag ivepydag iKTsXclaBai kuXuiq. Gralen. Med. 
Defin. 77 (xix. 367) : vtupa ra ott' iyK£(j>aXov Koi f/rjvtYYwv 
SKTTE^VKora, KOiva, ^TjpOTBpa Kol ^TTov Oepfxorepa ^XejSwv koi 
aprripiCjv aiaOririKMrepa rag irpoaipiTiKag Kivriacie ekteXouvto. 
Galen. Med. Dif. 252 (xix. 418) : ^x"*' ''*>'« ekteXeiv. 

32. " Then the soldiers cut off the ropes of the boat. {trig 
(TKo^ije), and let her fall off." 

*(TKa^i), peculiar to St. Luke, was the medical name of the 
moveable bath; o-Ka^tc, that of a measure for medicine ; and 
uKafoeiSig, that of a bone. Hipp. Morb. Acut. 403 : Ospfti^ 
Trpoa^piXwv Iv aKatfty. Hipp. Morb. Acut. 405 : Iv aKa(j>ri 
KUTaKXivEiv. Hipp. Morb. 491 : ra Si Karb) Oep/iaivHV iv 

(TKctrpu vSarog Bepfxov. Gralen. Comm. iv. 91, Morb. Acut. 
(xv. 887) : KOL TO Si vSutoq Kttt Si iXaiov Otpfiaiveiv te koi 
Trapriyoptlv tv tq (nca^rj TrvpiwvTa — aSijXov TTOTspov iv rij 
aKa^t} TTvpiwfiEvov avTov fj koi xwpte £K£(vj}e KOifxaaBai keXe^ei. 
Gralen. San. Tuend. i. 10 (vi. 51) : Xoiovai fiiv iv (TKa<paic 
ai Tpo(j>ol KavTovOa Toiig TraiSag, 'iuig av elg to Ssirepov rj koI 
alg TO rpiTov trog aTro yEVBTrjg 'iKwvTai. Hipp. Morb. 484 : 
6(Tov aKa<j)iSa afjUKprjv ?vjU7ravra>v irivEiv. Hipp. Morb. 
Mul. 632 : /SoXjStrov irXatrai octov oKafiSa. Qalen. Medious, 
12 (xiv. 725) : rote Se rrjg Kvrifxrig oarotg koi TtjJ (TKa^OEtSst — 
TO 81 (TKa^oEiSEg KaOa piv av/x^aXXEi ti^ aaTpayaXijg KEKoiXoorai, 
wg- aKa<j>OEiSEg Sokeiv Eivai — avvripOpwrai Se wpog to aica^oEi- 
Sig Koi T'^v TTTspvav. 

* Evdviiiog, 36 : " Then were they all of good cheer {EvOvfioi), 
and they also took some meat." 

EvOvfiElv, 22: "And now I exhort you to be of good cheer " 
(irapaivw v/jLug Euflujuelv). 25. "Wherefore, sirs, be of good 
cheer" {evOvfielTE). 

* EvBvfibjg, xxiv. 10 : " Forasmuch as I know that thou 
hast been of many years a judge unto this nation, I do the 
more cheerfully (evOv/iotepov) answer for myself." 

These three words are peculiar to St. Luke, with the excep- 
tion that ivOvfjLEiv is once used elsewhere in the N. T. (James, 
v. 13). They are used in medical language in reference to the 



280 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

sick keeping up spirit, as opposed to advfiia and SvaOviila. 
ivdvfiiiv TrapaivCi, V. 25, has all the look of a doctor's expres- 
sion, wapaLveiv heing the term for a physician giving his 
advice : see irapaivetv, supra, page 271. 

Hipp. Praedic. 86 : kcu oyKriporepov avrov to aufia 
^aviiTai KOI \nrapwTepov koi ivxpoiarspov iarai, 'iarai ol 
Ka\ kiiOvixoTspoe ev Ty ToXanrwpiy. Hipp. Epid. 1160 : 
EVETTtTTTOv aQvfuai KOI uTTaXXay^c P>iov tTriOvpiri or£ Se TroXtv 
iiiOviniri. Hipp. Epid. 1184 : ij S' tvOvpin a^iti KapB'iriv. 
Hipp. Epid. 1233 : iviirnrTOv aOvfiiai, ore 8e ttoXiv tv6vfj.it). 
Aretaeus, Cur. Aout. Morb. 83 : iravra yap ivdvfiuadai xpv, 
liaXiara Totai ec opyrtv ri Trapa(j)Opri. Aret. Cur. Morb. 
Diuturn. 129 : ktjv etti iraai fiiv r\ K£(^akair\ twifjlifxvi} 6 Si 
voaiwv tv6vp.og rj 6 Tovop tov Gw/iaroQ ayavog. Aret. Cur. 
Morb. Diuturn. 108 : ^vxve arapa^iri, Ev&vfiirt. Aret. Our. 
Morb. Diuturn. 134 : siiOvfiit) Si koi tvEXTnaTiri ridriai rovg 
voCTEovrac rXripovag. Aret. Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 38 : BvaOv 
fxoi filv aXoywg olai kg aKvOpuiirov ri /xavir] rpiirsTai, otm ok tg 
0U;UJ)8ir)v ivdvfjLoi — KJjv aiTOfiivwai evBvfjLOt, okijSeec. Aret. 
Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 64 : aro/iaxog nSovJje kol ai}8i»/e 
riys/xwv, KapBiag Kaipiov yuTovBVfia Ig tovov koI dv/ibv rj 
aOvfxitiv. Gralen. Comm. ii. 47, Epid. vi. (xvii. A. 997) : 
oaoi yap Iv o-^aXEpoTe votrfifiam, ttXeov rj ttjOoo-^kev roue 
Ka/ivovrag ivOifiovg woiovm, ■froWaTrXaaiav avToTg aOpoi^ovai 
Svadvpiav ev raig i%rjg rifiipaig. Galen. San. Tuend. iii. 4 
(vi. 186) : earii) Se koi rrjv ipv^fiv evdv/xog re kui ^aiSpog 6 

jueXXoiv xP'J"'"'''^*" '■'i' 'i'^XPV- 

41. " And falling into a place where two seas met, they 
ran the ship aground; and the forepart stuck fasi (kpsiffaaa), 
and remained unmoveable." 

* spe^SEtv, peculiar to St. Luke, was of frequent use in 
medical language to express disease settling in some part of 
the body — the fixing firmly of some surgical appliance — the 
resting heavily on some part of the body. 

Hipp. Intern. Affect. 533: koi oiSrifia KaTipxtTai kg to 
TrpoiTouTrov koi ec ra (TTridia Ka\ kg roiig TroSag, iroWaKig Se koi 



§ xcvii.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 281 

h rfiv KE0aXj}v Jpei'Sti. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 671 : tav lyicEWv- 
Tai iQ Tot)g /3oi)/3aivae koi EpfiSwfftv. Hipp. Fraot. 755 : tot' 
STTEtTo j^ffrj ToiiQ vapOt]KaQ speitraaOai juaAiora jU£v Kara to 
KaTijy/ia — }^pj) 8e 8ta TjOittjc EjOEiSatv roTui vap0t)^(v ttovi; 
ri<TVx^. Hipp. Artie. 811 ; fj I'i ng af" vxpttXov tov ■xwplov 
neaiov tpdasu rdiaiv \<jj(ioiaiv jj roiaiv wfioiaiv. Aretaeus, 
Sign. Aciit. Morb. 22: (itT^^tripoiai Se ee to Uqov oariov 
ipsiSei Kot EC firtpovg. Aret. Our. Morb. Diuturn, 128 : ttjv 
Se ETEjorjv (TtKuijv TYjv jUEdrj-yi/ TU)v wfiotrXaTtiiiv ipiiSeiV' Galen. 
Oomm. i. 12, Humor, (svi. 115) : vpbg tovtoiq Kal ohvvai 
Kofl' oTiovv ipeiBovaai /lopiov. Galen. Oomm. i. 2, Epid. vi. 
(xvii. A. 801) : ipuBoicrag ex^'** ''"^^ odvvag tig to (5piyp.a. 
Galen. Oomm. i. 10, Fraot. (xviii. B. 351) : avfifiaivH tov 
Se jipaxiovog to yiyyXvfiotiSig Iv ry tov irfixtug tpriptiaOai 

38. "And when they had eaten enough, they lightened 
{iicovfpiZov) the ship, and cast out the wheat into the sea." 

* Kov(j>iZeiv, peculiar to St. Luke, was much used in medi- 
cal language for " to lighten " or " assuage disease," " to be 
relieved from illness." Hipp. Ooac. Pfedic. 209: iSptjg apia- 
Tog /UEV 6 Xvwv TOV TTvpaTov iv v/iipi} Kpiaipt^, XiO'IC'IuocSe Kol 
6 Kov(piZ(i>v. Hipp. Epid. 979 : TrpoaOifiivri Si ToDra fiiv skov- 
^iadr}. Hipp. Epid. 987: wEpl julv VTro)(6vSpia fUKpa EKOu^iffflrj. 
Hipp. Epid. 1102) : koI ra TTEpi ttjv aar]v tKOV<j>iaev. Hipp. 
Epid. 1239 : koI 6 TrvpeTog iirpavviTO icat to. oXa EKOV^iffdt). 
Dioscor. Mat. Med. i. 107 : KovtjtiZn Si koi to. olS^juara koi 
^Xtjfiovag. Dioscor. Mat. Med. ii. 69 : koI emTsOdaa ffKOp- 
nioirXriKTovg KovtpiZti- Galen. Oomm. i. 14, Humor, (xvi. 
104) : fiaXXov Se koi /SXoTrTEfv, ivtoTS t<^ KaToXvaai rriv Svva. 
Ij.iv avtv TOV TO irdOog Kovfttrai. Galen. Oomm. iii. 3, Epid. ii. : 
iKKpiasig ai Tag voaovg axeSov KOV(j)tZeiv fiiXXovaiv. Galen. 
Oomp. Med. iii. 1 (xii. 652) : touto ayei pvirov Uavov koI 
Trapaxprj/xa K0v<piZei' 

42. " And the soldiers' counsel was to kiU the prisoners, 
lest any of them should swim out, and escape " (Bia^vyy). 

* Sia(l>evyHv, peculiar to St. Luke, was in medical language 

20 



282 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

used for " to escape from," or " survive an attack of illness," 
" to have a narrow escape." Hipp. Praedic. 98 : wg av 
roue TS TTvpiTovg Sia(j>i{iyu)(nv ol avuptairoi koX rag aifiop- 
payiag. Hipp. Coao. Progn. 147: ravrag Si diafivyovrtg 
awZovrai. Hipp. Coac. Progn. 175: oi Si Smi^evyovrte 
ifiirvoi yivovrai. Hipp. Morb. Acut. 391 : koI wg kiri- 
ToiroXii aTrodvri(TKOV(Tiv, oi Si Sia(j)tvyovT£g rj fiETo. cnroaTri- 
parog rj alpaTog pvaiog £k Trig pivbg v irvov Trax" Trrvcrav- 
reg Siatjtiiyovmv. Hipp. Morb. 480 : rjv Si koX ravrag 
Siatjivyy iyiaZtrai. Hipp. Morb. 490 : ravrag Si Sta^vyuiv 
vyifjg yiviTai. Hipp. Morb. 493 : SiKU Si vpspag Siaijtvywv. 
T^v piv irXsvpiTiv vyirjg ylvirai — ovTog ttjv I^So/xjjv Siafvywv 
vyiaivtl. Hipp. Epid. 1194 : koi ol piv Sii<pvyov ol Si 
cnrwXXvvTo. Aretaeus, Sign. Acut. Morb. 11 : Sloe tote 
juaXXov pr) TTVEvpwv aBpoov to wvog tXKvaag cnroTrvi^y. tov 
avOpwirov, tu TrpouTa koi to pdZii) SiaipvyovTa icaica. Galen. 
Epid. i. Comm. iii. 4 (xvii. A. 272) : irorepov Si Siaftv^tTai 
Trjv v6<Tov 7) TiOvri^tTai. Galen. Oomm. vii. 50, Aph. (xviii. 
A. 155) : jji; St TavTag Sia<j>£vyb)aiv vyistg ylvovTai. 

43 : " But the centurion, willing to save Paul, kept them 
from their purpose ; and commanded that they which could 
swim (koXujujS^v) should cast themselves {airoppi^pavTag) first 
into the sea, and get to land." 

* aTroppiTTTtiv, peculiar to St. Luke, was much used 
by the medical writers in various significations. Hipp. 
Epid. 1212 : koi to Ipariov EOTtv OTt aTToppiTTTU. Hipp. 
Epid. 1233 : airo tov arrideog to IpaTiov airipparT.e. Galen. 
Oomm. i. 12, Humor, (xvi. 146) : Stov to twv svripuv 
eAkj) Kara Tag SvatvTcpiag (T£(T))7rora Tvy)(avy wg airoppiipaa- 
Oai TTov oTi av astTrjTrog y. Galen. Comm. i. 1, Praedic. 
(xvi. 500) : ^aiverai lyKS^^ttpijKlvat piv -f) ipvaig, airopplxpaa- 
Oai TO Kara Trjv KE^aXrjv ridpoiapivov TrXiiOog. Galen. 
Progn. De Decub. : oktte koI to, wspifioXaia airopplirTtiv. 
Galen.. Aliment. Faoul. ii. 20 (vi. 593) : avaTpiirHv rijv 
yaaripa optyopivriv oti Ta)(iaTa to Xvttovv airoppiipai. 
Galen. De Plenitud. 2 (vii. 519) : ov yap avapivu tov rjje 



§ xcvir.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 283 

:rAr)pwcrE(i)c \p6vov, aX\a tvOvg aTroppitpai ttoOu to Xvttovv. 
Galen. Comp. Med. viii. 3 (xiii. 146) : aXXa koi rjjv yaaripa 
01 aroviav ov ouvajuEvrjv ^iptiv ro fiapog tCov airiijjv, airop- 
pliTTHv avTo. TTOTs juEv Elf TO KUTiu jUEpoc- Galen. Comp. Med. 
viu. 8 (xiii. 162) : :roiEi arofjiaxi-Ko'ic koX aTropp'nrrovai Trjv 
Tpo^riv. Galen. Comp. Med. iii. 2 (xiii. 586) : airsppitpa tu 
fiiv ETTiKEtjUEva, KUTavTXriaag S' avrov iXaibi}. 

piirTuv : see % 2. Galen uses piitTtiv in the same way as 
St. Luke does a-n-opp'nrTeiv — of persons plunging into a bath 
of cold water : see last quotation under KoXvfxfd^v. 

* KoXv/jifiqv, peculiar to .St. Luke, in classical Greek sig- 
nified "to diye," not "to swim." It would seem, however, 
to have been used in the latter sense in medical language. 
Galen at least so uses it when he has occasion to speak of 
invalids taking exercise in a swimming bath, e.g. Galen. 
Meth. Med. xiv. 15 (x. 996) : tovtI yap to iiBwp Kai 
roTc woEjOtwtn koi rote aXXoig olSaXioig ETTtrijoEiov lortv, 
tff^UjOwc ^ijjoaTvov' iiaavTwc Bl Srj koi rote TroXvadpKOtg Koi 
fiaXiara OTav avToiig avayKaZy Tig tv avTij^ KoXvfif5q,v o^VTarai 
Koi Xovaafihovg. — Galen. Diagn. ex Insomn. (vi. 834) : nvlg 
Si iSpovv KpiTiKiog fieXXovTsg Xoveadai koi koXvjujS^v eSo^av ev 
Oepfibjv vSaTOJv Si^a/Jievalg. 

The swimming bath was called KoXvfi^riBpa : Galen. 
Meth. Med. xi. 20 (x. 806), &c. In the following quota- 
tion piwTiiv is employed similarly to aTroppiirTuv in St. Luke. 
Galen. Meth. Med. xi. 9 (x. 759) : u 81 koI tvaapKog e'/ij Kai 
?} KoraaTaaig Oepfxrj Kai Kvp^-t kSv dg KoXvfxjiriOpav avTov 
£jUj3aX^e '/'"XP"*'' °^ |3Xaj3»)(r£Tat. Kara tov toiovtov yovv 
Kaipov ol piipavTcg a(pag avToiig tie iiSwp xpv)(^pov 'icpuadv ts 
navTwg awriKO Kai, &C. 



284 THE MEDICAL LAJ!TGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [pabt ii. 

§ XCVIII. 
Acts, XXVIII. 

SiaawZtiv. abJZiiv. trwrij/oia. * fpvyavov. * Oipuri. KadaTrniv. 
aroiTOQ. * kiTiyiveaOai. * atcwXvTwg. 

* avcTTpi^iiv (verse 3, § 76) . Sia^lpx^aOai (v. 3, § 84) . * Onplov 
(v. 4, § 34). * KoraTrfTTTfiv (v. 6, § 34). * fieraj3aX\ta9ai 
(v. 6, § 68). * irlfJiwpaaOai (v. 6, § 84). TrpoaSoK^v (v. 6. 
§ 74). *Sv<TevTepia (v. 8, § 35). * Trvpiroi (v. 8, § 35). 
avvix^aOai (v. 8, § 3). Wog (v. 17, § 58). * JaTrlpa (v. 23. 
§67). 

1. " And when they were escaped (SiaawOivrBg), then they 
knew that the island was called Melita." 

SiaawZiiv. It has been previously stated (§ 8). that 
St. Luke does not employ, as the other Evangelists do, 
SiaawZitv and auZtiv by themselves as equivalent to "to 
heal," and that the use of these words in medical language 
was " to escape the dangers of disease," " to get through the 
attacli " even at times with impaired health or injury to some 
member of the body. We have here and in verse 4 and xxvii. 
44, this use as nearly as possible, taking into account the difEer- 
euoe of the subjects — shipwreck and disease. 

SiacTwZitv is employed six times by St. Luke (Luke, vii. 3; 
Acts, xxiii. 24 ; xxvii. 43, 44 ; xxviii. 1,4): twice elsewhere 
(Matt. xiv. 36 ; 1 Pet. iii. 20). Hipp. Ooac. Progn. 182 : 
OvriaKCi Si SsvTepatog rj rpiToiog, rjv SI koi X'^P'C ''^C KupSlag 
avpfiij Koi tS^itov irXtiova xpovov Ziiixftv, tvioi Bi km Siaado- 
ZovTai. Hipp. Epid. 951 : oo-ot fjiiv ovv ^pog koi Oipeog 
apZa/Mivov avriKa voaisiv rip^avro, ot TrXeiaToi SisatiZovro, 
oXlyoi Si Tiveg i9vt](TK0v, rjSt/ Se row (pdivoirwpov koi twv 
vafiaTUJV yivOfJLivwv BavarwSisg ^<jav /cai nXi'iovg airuiX- 
XvvTO. Hipp. Epid. 955 : yvvaiKtg Ss nXiiarai Ik tovteov 



i xcviii.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 285 

rov aloeoe a7(iQvr\aiiOv, Iv di ry KaraaTaaei ravng Itti crrjjusiwv 
fiaXtara reatraptov Suad^ovro. G-alen. Progn. de Deoub. (9 
XIX. 577) : Sia<TU)0ri(TOVTai julvovrse etti rwv avrwv naOHiv. 
Galen. Comp. Med. iii. 2 (xiii. 564) : OepaTnvofiivovg vtt 
avTU)v Ewpwv bjaavrwQ, 'iamc 8e a/xsivov ■y iliriiv ov Ospa- 
irsvofiivovg, aXX' airoWvfiivovg, oXiyoarol yap e? ahriov koi 
ovToi xwXoi/xtvot Sie<TwZovro. Galen. Comm. ii. 96, Praedic. 
(xvi. 696) : QovKiSiSr)>; 'iypaxjjtv Itti rwv Ik tov Xpi/ioii Staau- 
OivTuv wSi — KOI ayv6r\aav a^ac te uvtovq koi tovq iTnrrideiovQ. 
Galen. Comm. iii. 98, Praedic. (xvi. 716) : koi ttov bnovv 
TraOog lu'xvpdv oXiOpiov iariv ottov yap ovSi ol rrjv Svvafitv 
laxvpot SiaiTwZovTai irdvTeg 1% avrwv. Galen. Comm. iii. 13j 
Epid. i. (xvii. A. 299) : avEica tov yivwaKsiv hv t«^ mravitg 
SiatTijjZonivag nvag iyKVfiovac Ik toiovtwv vofftjjuorwv av£t 
SiatpOopag twv ifi^pvwv. Galen. Comm. ii. 73, Progn. (xviii. 
B. 227) : oTTOTt Koi Sbivuic oXidpiov tan to voarifia Kat aitaviwq 
IS avTov SiaadKovTai. Galen. Progn. De Decubitu. 8 (xix. 
554) : oiiSiv riiTffov TtoXvxpoviog ij voarog Kat ffTrXijviKa TraOtj 
KOI vc(j)piTiKa, Kol ovTuyg Sa \povi(ravT£Q koi jioydrjaavrig Iv Tvg 
ttuOh Siaadj^ovTai. 

awZuv. Hipp. Ooac. Progn. 157 : ijv Se awZovTai, 'iXKsa 
cKirvrjcTtt koi ouTta afiaTaTai. Hipp. Ooac. Progn. 178 : 
KivSvvEvovai 8e (laXiaTa k^iojxaioi koi SwSeKaratot Tag Se Stp 
ETrra <j>vy6vT£g auZovTui. Hipp. Ooac. Progn. 183 : tovtwv 
oi fiev aTro9vri(TKOV(Ti ol Bl ttoWi^ \p6v(^ GwZ,ovTai. Hipp. 
Cap. Vul. 911 : bang Se jueXAei Ik Tpavfiarwv Iv KCipaXy airo- 
OvfiaKiiv Kol fiij SvvaTOv avTOv iyia yivsadai jujjSe awOrivat. 
Aretaeus, Cur. Acut. Morb. 96 : rjv Si Itti TpwfiaTi airaafibg 
yivi\Tai, oXiOpiov filv Kal SvaiXTriarov. apriysiv Si XP^» juete^e- 
Tepoi T£ yap Kai Ik TOiQvBe kawOriaav. Galen. Comp. Med. vU. 
12 (xiii. 1026) : tovtu 'lafiiv avOpunrovg BieaTpafifiEvovg oXov 
TO aw/xa viro TroBaypag Koi ^tipaypag ^^lOTjuajuEvouc Itti to<tov- 
Tov awOivTag oiute aXwfiriTovg irepinaTijaai. Galen. Progn. 
De Decub. 4 (xix. 587) : KivSwevaag p.t'Xpi rijc oyBorig fifxipag 
auOfiacTai. Do. 7 (549) : noXXa KaicoTraOriaag awOriaeTai. Do. 
15 (572) : rj fxaicpovoariaag adtdriatTai. Galen. Loc. Affect. 



286 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. [pakt ii. 

V. 5 (viii. 337) : oSroe fiiv ovv iv 7roXA<(( xpov<f» fioyiQ 
kcTwOti. Do. vi. 2 (388) : IS ov iraOovg (TiravtwraTo. rtg eawOri. 

awrripia. Acts, xvi. 17 : " These men are the servants of 
the most high God, which shew unto us the way of salva- 
tion ' (oSov (TWTijpi'ae). 

Dr. Davison (Introduction to N. T.) gives as one of the 
characteristics of St. Luke — " o-wr^p, auirripta, awrfipiov, 
Luke, i. 47,. 69, 71, 77; ii. 11, ,30 ; iii. 6 ; xix. 9 : Acts, iv. 
12; V. 31; 'vii. 25; xiii. 23, 26, 47; xvi. 17; xxvii. 34; 
xxviii. 28.' erwri'/p and aurripta each occur once in John's 
Gospel ; hut, with this exception, the terms are not elsewhere 
found in the Gospels." 

trtoTjjpia is a common word in medical language, and the 
phrase 686? truTripiaQ is met with in Galen. Meth. Med. x. 10 
(x. 719) : oTc fiiv yap STtpa fitv ovx {nrap\Ei rije auiTnip'iag 
odoQ. Compare Galen. Meth. Med. vii. 6 (x. 478): tic; 
avdpuirov (rwrripiav. Galen. Meth. Med. x. 5 (x. 691) : juia 
(Turripia irXevpiTiKotg. Galen. Meth. Med. xi. 9 (x. 760) ; 
f3pa)(iiaQ Itt' uvtov awTrtpiag iXwlSaQ EX*'" — £^' ov avtXrricrTog 
17 auiTTipia. Galen. Meth. Med. xi. 12 (x. 772) : aSrij 70? 
Elf aiiiTtipiav av9p(xnruiv Siafipsi koI to aipaXfia airijc iig 
oXsOpov teXsvt^. Galen. De Orisihus, i. 14 (ix. 611) : to. 8' 
oXidpov Kttt awrripiag ivSeiKTiKa ari/iiia. Galen. De Dieb. 
Decret. i. 7 (ix. 806) : awTtipiav rj Bavarov ivSti^aaOai. Galen. 
Comm. iii. 5, Epid. i. (xvii. A. 278) : if" 1^ ng rj auyrriptav jj 
Oavarov tXTriati — iTTi^avri ri awrripiag atifxetov. 

3. "And when Paul had gathered a bundle of sticks 
{<j)pvyavinv), and laid them on the fire, there came (SiB^eX- 
dovaa) a viper out of the heat (ek Trig dipurig), and fastened 
on (KaO^xfjt) his hand." 

*^pvyavov. Peculiar to St. Luke. A bundle of sticks 
{(ppvyavov) was used in some medical operations. Hipp. 
Morb. Mul. 617 : otov Se tvTpeTrlayg ^pvyavinv <j>aKsXov 
fjiaXOaKtov, rj ti ri^Se ioiKog siiTpsirH^HV oaov r?}v kXIvt^v 
ov TTipiotjjiTai ETTi TTjv -y^v piTTTOVfitvutv woTE ipavcrai TOlm 
Trpog K£0aXijv iroal rfig yrig — orav 81 Tavra ivipyiiJTai Koi 



§ xcviii.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 287 

fiiTapaiog y ri kXivj), ek twv oTTiaOEV inroOiivai to. <l>pvyava, 
KaropOovaOai Si wg /laXiaTa, okwq Se o'l ttoSsq jujj ipavwai rrtq 
7^e, ptTTTOwjuEvrjc T^c kXivt/c, Koi Twv 0pw7avwv itJwQtV 

idOVTal. 

fpvyava were also used in the manufacture of a mineral 
medicine called Si^pvjig. Dioscor. Mat. Med. v. 119 : avtvex- 
6iv ^r^paivtraL iv JiXi<j» koi fUTo. Tavra (ppvyavoig kvkX(ij> Trepi- 
TsOsifilvoig Kaiirai, 66ev Kat Si(^pvysg ekX?j0») cia to vno ijXiou 
Koi ^pvyavwv KuiiaOai koi ^ripoTTOiEiaOai koL ocovei ^pvytadai. 

It also denoted a botanical class. Theophrastus, Hist. 
Plant, i. 3, 1 : ■ko.vt r\ to. irXuaTa Trepiexsrai rdSe, SivSpov, 
Qafivog, (ppvyavov, iroa. (ppvyavwSrig is used by Dioscorides 
frec[uently, e.g. Mat. Med. iv. 48 : kokkoc jSai^tK?} Qafxvog larl 
fiiKpog fpvyavdJSriQ — and by Theophrastus, e. g. Hist. Plant, ii. 
13 : ToiovTov 'iTipov ij SfivSpov 7] (jipvyavwSeg — as is also ^pvya- 
viKog, e.g. Hist. Plant, i. 53 : irepl Se to. (j>pvyaviKa koi 
dafxvdJSri, &c. 

It has been remarked previously that St. Luke at times, 
having used medical words in his description of some of the 
miracles, continues the use of such words in describing some 
of the attendant circumstances. There is a remarkable in-, 
stance of this habit in the present passage, in which, besides 
using * -niinrfiaaOai and * KaTairiirrtiv, he employs * Sie^sp- 
XifOai, * Oipfjirj, * KaOanTtiv, * dtfpiov = ixj-^va, irpo(TSoKq.v and 
aroTTOv. 

3. " There came {Su^iXBovaa) a viper out of the heat " (ek 
TriQ Oipung). 

* Si£%ipxt<TOai : see § 84. 

* Oipfiri, peculiar to St. Luke, was the usual medical word, 
instead of depfiorrig, for " heat " : e. g. "the heat of a fever " — 
"of the body," &o. Hipp. Usus Liquid. 426: /BeXtjov Se dipuri 
trpog TO. TrXtiara. Hipp. Vet. Med. 15: aXK ol TrvpiTalvovTtg 
rolai KaiaoKji ts Kai oXKokti laxvpotcri vovarifiaaiv oi) rax^ojg ek 
Trig Ospfirig uTraWaaaovTai. Hipp. Nat. Puer. 237 : al firjTpai 
BipfiTnv T(j^ aXXtji (TbjfiaTi rrapixovcriv. Hipp. Nat. Puer. 238 : 
Kai ra oaria aitXripvvtTai inb Trig 6ipfj.r}g ini\yvvp.iva. Hipp. 



288 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. [part ii. 

De Carn. 254 : icat Oipfin koI Ppvyfibg koi aTraafihg c'x"- 
Hipp. Morb. 503 : ij fiiv iKfiag Srj fiivei kv tu> aaifiaTi an 
Trax^ia iovaa, ri 8e erlpr) TrecjiOtiaa vtto r^e OipfjirjQ SiaKix^rai. 
Aret. Sign. Morb. Diuturn. 75 : Oipfiijv ^apfiaKtov Je ava- 
KXriaiv dip/iriQ xpiog — Oepfiairiti yap to. ra ^vfjiTreiTTbiKOTa fiipia 
ilg bjKOv r;yEJjO£ koi rjji; I'ffw Oipfiriv elg avaicXijcrtv r/yays — we 

Se ETTOe HTTBIV BipflTiQ lw\ Ty apXV ^V^iOQ 8e ETTl T(^ Te'XeI XpiOg. 

Do. 74 : aXX' ettei koi to. TTVKva i^y ifKpvrt^ Oipfiig kcX diaQovro 
TySe T^ Oipfi^. Gralen. Oomm. i. 19, Humor, (xvi. 184) : 
a^pwSeQ Se ttote fiiv SriXiloau to ttvevjUo ^vaQSeg, itote Si 
Oippriv noXXriv. Gralen. Urin. 8 (xix. 625) : to 8e /xsXav ttote 
fiiv ivdsiKVVTai ipv^iv ttotI Si OejOjutjv. 

3. " Fastened on (Kadrixps) his hand." 

* KadaiTTeiv, peculiar to St. Luke, was employed by all the 
medical writers. Dioscorides uses it of poisonous matter in- 
troduced into the body. Animal. Ven. Proem. : Si' vXris 
^wopoTTOiov KaBaTTTOfievrig tuv aiofiaTwv fxovwv airb fxipeog 
avintiiTTiiv. Galen, of fever fixing on parts of the body. De 
Typis, 4 (vii. 467) : k'drt Si KivSwwSrtg 6 fifUTpiToiog ov fiovov 
Tov dTOfiaxov Koi tov vsvpwSovQ KaOaiTTOfxsvog Kat KauoXov 
Twv fiiawv — of medicines, deadly if they touch some parts of 
the body. Medicus, 13 (xiv. 754) : si Si koi avwrspo) fi 
TotaiiTr} eXk&xtIc twv kvTipdJv Etij, oiiSe oiiTtog xpriaTtov Tolg 
TpoxlcyKoig oil yap (jtOavovaiv etti to TreirovOoTa iKi-KViiaOai, 
TWV "yap iyiEivwv KaOaitTOfifvot oXsdpov ipyaZovTai, avwTipi- 
Koig Si (papfiaKoig xpriaOai — of the attachment of tendons. 
TJsus Part. ii. 3 (iii. 94) : aXX' iaxvporipovg tsvovtuq 
airb TWV Kara tov irrixw fivwv ayayovaa KuOrjipev iig avTOv 
ri (piaic- Usus Part. i. 20 (iii. 73) : tov KadairTOvrog dg 
rr)v TrpwTtiv avrov (jtaXayya TsvovTog. XJsus Part. ii. 12 
(iii. 135) : slg Trjv KetpaXriv avrrjg KaOcnrTwv 6 /liyag tevwv. 
Do. (iii. 137) : X"?'" '""'' KuvTavOa Kada\pai OaTspt^ M^P^' 
TOV rivovTog. Do. (iii. 138) : ol Si XohtoI Svo twv rbv Kup- 

TTOV KIVOVVTWV TSVOVTWV irXaTVVOfXiVOl KaOaTTTOValV, &0. 

Mot. Muscul. i. 9 (iv. 411) : KaOdipeig aiirfig to Xoiirbv irepag 
dg Ttjv K£(j>aXrjv OaTtpif) twv ootwv, &q. Hemed. Parab. 



§ xoviii.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 289 

ii. 11 (xiv. 438) : SIX^ukoq ai/xart ■xpiaag rac X^'P^C KaOaipov 
TOW Tpa-)(i}\ov. Hipp. Morb. Mul. 568 : ^y Se koi KaOa^rirai 
T<j» SaKTuXcf) Tprixv TO arofia twpoic t^c fii]rpag, 

6. " But ra/jfe?" ^Aej/ Aat? looked {irpoaSoKwvTiDvj a great 
■while, and saw no harm (aroTrov) come to him, they changed 
their minds, and said that he was a god." 

aroiroQ is used three times by St. Luke (here; Luke, xxiii. 
41: Acts, XXV. 5), and hut once in the rest of the N. T. 
(2 Thess. iii. 2). 

St. Luke here makes use of two most appropriate words, 
and the very ones a medical man would employ — n-podSoKav 
and aTotrog. On the medical use of wpoaSoKqv, see § 74. aroirog 
was employed in medical language to denote anything un- 
usual in the symptoms of a disease, but besides this it was 
also employed to denote something out of the way — deadly — 
fatal — as in this passage. An exact parallel is met with in 
Gralen, except that he is speaking of the bite of a rabid dog, 
and of poison: Gralen. Antid. ii. 15 (xiv. 195), from Damo- 
crites : — 

IIpos Tovs <^o/3oi;s ovv tSv toiovt(ov 8ijy/xaT(0i' 
'Itpav (.)(€ iravTOJS avTiBoTov ■7rapaKei[t,4vr]V 
01 yap iriovres, ws ipS), ravT-qv iyut 
Ets ovStv aroTTOv Ip/KSdovvrai paSiius. 

Galen. Antid. ii. 5 (xiv. 134), from Damocrites : — 

Ot S' ciXa/Scos f-xovTis ois £iA.?7<^0Tes, 
*A.v i'Tn.Xd/Stixriv, i^€p.ovcn, Tr]v rpoi^rp/, 
5w Tu per auT^s KWrwKoOivTi, <f)appdK(a, 
'O Se ptjSkv aTOTTOv, pTjBk BrjX.TjTi^pLOV 
^vyKaTaTreTrwKuis rots SoOelcri ctrtots, 
Ov vavTidcrei,, koi KaOi^ei rrjv rpofjiijv. 

Hipp. Aph. 1251 : okocfoi iv toIulv Ttvpiroimv ^ iv rymv 
aWyaiv appdxrr'vQdi Kara irpoaipecnv SuKpvovaiv ovBev aroirov, 
OKoaoi St prj Kara irpoaipimv aroirwTipov. Galen. Oomm. ii. 
50, Progn. (xviii. B. 186) : iv Se rc^ fiaKpi^ XP^^V iroWa juev 

2P 



290 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OP ST. LUKE. [paet ii. 

Kol tCov aXXwv aroTTwv tlwQi avfiwiiTTHV, 6aa te Sia tov Kafi- 
vovra KOI tovq vTriipeToiivTag aiir(j). Gralen. Comm. ii. 62, 
Progn. (xviii. B. 188) : oaa twv a\yr\fiaT(i)v Ik twv Kara 
OdjpaKa Kui TTViVfiova ■)(wplti)v oil iravovrai irpoe to. jBoridriinaTa 

Koi TOVT £T^££ flOVOV CtTOTTOV, OIiSeVOC oXedpiOV (TVVOVTOg ETEpOU 

jvupiofiaTog. Gralen. Comm. ii. 27, Offio. (xviii. B. 794) : 
oiiSev yap EK T71Q TOiavTTig OXl'^piwc uTOirov Eorat' KuOaTrsp 
ovdi iirl kAeiSoc KarEaYviae. Galen. Progn. ex Puis. ii. 5 
(ix. 292) : etteiSov juep tijua votreiSEt juaXaKOrtjri avviaTr\Tai, 
KlvSvvwdsQ ETTEiSav Se jUETu Tivoc vyiHvrig TOV \itC)vqq avara- 
(TEWf, oiiliv aroTTov e'xej. Galen. Comp. Med. vi. 8 (xii. 982) : 
KOI aXXo)? Se aTOTTwruTOv iariv (pXey/iovriv iv aro/jiaTi dspa- 
ircvovra ^liovai ^apfiaKOv ttotov. Galen. Meth. Med. ad Glauc. 
3 (xi. 84) : tovtwv airayeiv tov a't/xarog ovSiv utottov. 

13. "And from thence we fetched a compass, and came to 
Ehegium : and after one day the south wind bleiv (iirijsvo- 
fievov), and we came the next day to Puteoli." 

* iiriyivecrOat, peculiar to St. Luke, and used also Acts, 
xxvii. 27, was a favourite medical word constantly employed 
to denote the coming on of an attack of illness. 

Hipp. Coac. Progn. 189 : TOiaiv fiirap k^aTrivrig Tripiw- 
^vvovaiv TTvpiTog iiriyEvopsvoQ Xvsi. Hipp. Ooao. Progn. 190 : 
Toiaiv vdpwinuMi^iaiv iTn\r]TrTiKa iiriyBVOfxtva oXiOpiov. Hipp. 
Ooac. Progn. 193 : etti crTpayyovp'n^ eIXeoc hnytvopEvog — 
TrvQETOv hnyEvoixivov — aTroTrXijKrdcoiCTtv aiiioppoioeg ETriysvo- 
fitvai. Dioscor. Animal. Ven. 16 : d^OaXfiiJv te a/xavpwaig 
i-KiyivErai. Dioscor. Med. Parab. i. 200 : Tag 8e itnyivofiivag 
vofiag OepaTTtvti. Galen. Comm. i. 1, Humor, (xvi. 22) : koi 
TO. Kara rag Kpiaifxovg ri/iEpag hriyivojiEva. Galen. Oomm. 
iii. 20, Humor, (xvi. 437) : Tratdioiatv k^Xoi twiylyvovTai — 
SvaevTripiag koi 6(j>0aX/jiiag ^tipag iir'ty'iyvea6ai. Galen. Comm. 
iii. 26, Humor, (xvi. 454) : koi toTc vefpttiKotg liriytvofiEvai 
aifJLOppo'i^Eg — paXiara Se tov v^Epov Tj rijv (jtBiaiv ETTiyEVEffOai. 

31. " Preaching the kingdom of God, and teaching those 
things which concern the Lord Jesus Christ, with all confi- 
dence, no man forbidding him" {aKwXirwg). 



§ xcviii.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 291 

* aKtuXvTwg, peculiar to St. Luke, was in medical language 
employed to denote freedom — ^unhindered action — in a vari- 
ety of things, such as respiration, perspiration, the pulse, the 
muscles, the members of the body. 

Q-alen. Meth. Med. viii. 7 (x. 684) : SxrO" ftrrov ovtoi 
/3Xa|3rj(TOvrat — iav fxovav aKwXvTug SiUTTviuivTai. Glalen. 
Meth. Med. xiv. 15 (x. 993) : orav eIq TroXvaapKiav luTgatr^ 
TO (TuiJia TO(yavTi\v Sian jujjSe fSaSiZeiv aXinruig SvvaaOai — 
firjF avairvilv aKw\vT(DQ. Gralen. Progn. ex. Puis. iv. 12 
(ix. 492) : a^vyfiog — ocr(j»7r£p av vxpriXoTepoQ re Hfia Koi (T<po- 
SporepoQ anoTeXEcrOy, rrjv ts pwfni\v kvSeiKvvTai rije SvvafXEug 
uKwXvTov Ts Trjv KivrjaLv. Gralen. de Orisibus, ii. 3 (ix. 654) : 
6 TOiovTog irvpiroQ — bfiaXov /xsv jap Kal aKuXvTov s^Et to 
raxoc, eytipETai Se, — Galen. Oaus. Puis. ii. 8 (ix. 82) : we 
fi Koi piovTog Tivog aKuXvTwg Si avTuv rjTOi -KvcvfiaTOg rj 
vypov Tovg a<^vyp.ovQ iTrLTtXiiadai avvi^aivi. Gralen. Different. 
Febr. i. 4 (vii. 286) : aKuiXxiTuig Se SiaTrvstjTai koi avmpv'^^rjTai 
Kara to Sip^a avfiTrav to Z^ov. Galen, de Tremor. 6 (vii. 
624) : av juev -yap rt^ Kara ifivaiv s\£iv to avyycvig rifxwv 
Oep/Jiov ofiaXscTi te koi aKwXvTqtg Tolg Sie^oSoig £Ki\priTo. 
Galen. Usus Eespir. 5 (v. 503) : to Z^ov €iairviov te koi 

EKTrVEOV KOI KlVOVfXEVOV CLKlJiXvTOjg iSovTEf. GalcU. TJSUS Part. 

ii. 15 (iii. 143) : Ag oaov /xiv ovv aKwXvTUjg irtpl ra Kvpra row 
(ipa')(tovog ai Kopwvai tov ttjjxeoc inptipipovTai. Galen. Usus 
Part. ii. 15 (iii. 149) : ouS' avTo tovto rjje ^ixjtwg Jie eVu;^£i> 
ipyaZo/jiivrig aXX' elg oaov 'Xfffi (^povpiicsQaL tc jBtjiaiwg x) 
Siap6p(tj(ng Kivticrdai te aKwXvTwg. 



NOTE. 

PROBABILITY OF ST. PAUL'S EMPLOYMENT OF ST. LUKE'S 
PEOFESSIONAL SERVICES. 

There are three occasions, recorded in the Acts of the Apostles, on which 
St. Paul and St. Luke met and travelled in each other's company, viz., 
(1) at Troas, and thence to PhiHppi, Acts, xvi. 10, &c. ; (2) at Philippi, and 
thence to Jerusalem, Acts, xx. 1-6 ; (3) at Caesarea, and thence to Rome, 
Acts, xxvii. and xxviii. 

It has been conjectured and maintained, on not improbable grounds, that 
on the first of these occasions St. Paul derived benefit from St. Luke's medical 
skill and attendance. The same wiU, it is believed, on examination, hold good, 
with equal probability, with regard to the second occasion ; and, with not less 
probability, with respect to the third. 

First recorded meeting of St. Luke and St. Paul. 

St. Paul, accompanied by Silas, set out from Autiooh on his second mis- 
sionary journey, and proceeded through .Syria and Cilicia, confirming the 
Churches (Acts, iv. 41). From thence he went to Derbe and Lystra : at this 
latter place he met with Timothy, whom he took along with him, and went 
through Phrygia and Galatia. Leaving Galatia, and being forbidden by the 
Spirit to preach at this time in the western coasts and Bithynia, he came to 
Troas. At this place St. Luke appears for the first time in the history 
(Acts, xvi. 8). This is evident from the change in the narrative from the 
third to the first person plural (xvi. 8 : KaTe^naav eis TpadSa, "they came to 
Troas"; and verse 10: i^nriiaaiav 4^e\Setv c'ls Tijv MaxeSoviav, "we 
endeavoured to go into Macedonia"). From Troas St. Luke crossed over to 
Macedonia with St. Paul, and remained with him at Philippi during his stay 
there. This is shown by the use of the first person plural in ch. xvi. 

What the cause was of St. Luke's visiting Troas at this particular time has 
been the subject of conjecture. It is not likely that this was the time or 
place of his conversion, for we find him joining St. Paul and his fellow- 
travellers here without the slightest hint being given that this was the occasion 



NOTE.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 293 

of his embracing Chrisfdanity. It has been suggested that his medical calling 
caused him to visit these parts, as we know that ancient physicians travelled 
much in practising their profession ; or that he had been sent to Troas as a 
Christian minister by St. Paul himself; or that he had been summoned thither 
in his medical capacity by St. Paul to meet him on account of his delicate state 
of health. 

This last suggestion has been made by Wieseler, and seems highly probable 
when the facts connected with St. Paul immediately prior to this meeting are 
considered. For, immediately before this meeting at Troas, St. Paul had been 
in Galatia — Acts, xvi. 6—8 : " Now when they had gone throughout Phrygia 

and the region of Galatia, they came to Troas." This was St. Paul's 

first visit to Galatia, and he must have remained there some time, for during 
it he founded the Galatian Churches. Now, from the Epistle to the Galatians 
we find that during this visit, shortly before meeting St. Luke, St. Paul had a 
severe attack of iUness of some kind, for he reminds the members of the Galatian 
Church that it was owing to bodily weakness he preached the Gospel to them on 
his first visit ; that he was detained in their country by sickness, and that it was 
on account of this alone that he preached to them on that occasion, which other- 
wise he would not then have done. Such is the only meaning the strict gram- 
matical construction of the words in Gal. iv. 13, will admit of : olSare Se Srt 
5t' affOevetay ttjs ffapKhs ev7jyyeKiffd/i7]jf vfiTv rb Tr/xJrepo^, **Te know that it 
was on account of bodily weakness that I preached the Gospel to you on my 
first visit." Some would prefer to translate 5i' aaBiveiav, with less grammati- 
cal accuracy, "during a period of sickness," or " amid iafirmity." In either 
way, however, the passage shows that St. Paifl is referring to some iUness 
which at that particular time detained him in Galatia. Whatever may have 
been the nature of his illness, it was, not improbably, severe, judging from the 
feeUngs of gratitude he expresses for the sympathy be met with at the hands 
of the Galatian brethren — verses 14, 15: koX rbv ireipaafibv i/iav rhv iv ry ffapKl 
(lov ovK i^ovBeviiaaTe ou5e eJeirriiiraTe, a\\' as Syye^ov ©coC eSe^acrBe /le, as 
Xptarhv 'ir/ffovv. ris oZv?iv S fiaKapiCfihs vfiuv ; fiaprvpa yap i/uv 3ti, ei 
Swarhv, robs 6(t>da\fi,oiis iixwv i^opi^avres Uv 4SiiKaT€ fiot. 

When, therefore, St. Paul was suffering from this illness, or its effects, in 
Galatia, he may have communicated with St. Luke, and expressed a wish to 
meet him personally at Troas on account of the state of his health. 

On this occasion St. Luke's medical services, if needed, were required no 
further than Pbilippi, for on St. Paul's departure from that city St. Luke was 
left behind, possibly in charge of the newly-founded PhiUppian Church. That 
he was not in St. Paul's company during the remainder of this second mis- 
sionary journey is evident from the change again from the first to the third 
person plural at ch. xvii. 1 : ^KBov els QisaaKoviKiiv, " they came to Thessalo- 
nica"; and we find him at Philippi seven years afterwards. 



294 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [noie. 



Second- recorded meeting of St. Iiuke and St. Paul. 

St. Paul, accompanied by Timothy and Erastus, set out from Antiooh on his 
third missionary journey (Acts, xviii. 23) : passing through Phrygia and Galatia, 
he came to Epheeus, where he remained three years : leaving Ephesus on 
account of the tumult rzused by Demetrius, "he departed to go into Macedonia, 
and when he had gone over these parts, and had given them much exhortation, 
he came into Greece" (Acts, xx. 1, 2). The verses quoted are aU St. Luke says 
of the period from St. Paul's leaving Ephesus till his arrival in Greece. We 
learn, however, from 2 Cor. ii. 12, that on his road he stopped at Troas, and from 
thence proceeded to Philippi. St. Luke was at this time living at Philippi, 
having been left there by St. Paul six years previously during the second mis- 
sionary journey. After remaining some time in Macedonia, St. Paul went on 
to Corinth, where he spent three months. "When about to take ship here for 
Syria he 'changed his mind, and returned through Macedonia. Having sent 
forward the other companions of his journey, either from Philippi or Corinth, 
he and St. Luke remained some time longer at Philippi, and rejoined them 
at Troas ; and from thence to Jerusalem St. Luke accompanied him. 

Now we learn from the Second Epistle to the Corinthians, which was written 
from Macedonia on his way to Greece during this journey, that just before 
coming there the Apostle had been sufBering from an illness. He commences the 
Epistle (ch. i., verses 3-5) by thanking God for his deliverance from some great 
sufferiug and affliction — "Blessed be God, even the Father of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, the Father of mercies, and the God of all comfort ; who comforteth us 
in all our tribulation, that we may be able to comfort them which are in any 
trouble, by the comfort wherewith we ourselves are comforted of God. For as 
the sufferings of Christ abound in us, so our consolation also aboundeth by 
Christ." And in verses 8-10 he expressly tells the Corinthians that this afflic- 
tion had befallen him in Asia — " for we would not, brethren, have you igno- 
rant of our trouble {vvep ttjs BKiyf/eas fifuwv) which came to us in Asia, that we 
were pressed out of measure, above strength, insomuch that we despaired even 
of life (SffTE i^avopriSTJvai ^jitSs koI toS ffi'), but we had the sentence of death 
in ourselves (aW' avrol iv Ioi/tois rh air6Kpifi,a roS Savarov iax^itO'l''^v), that we 
should not trust in ourselves, but in God, which raiseth the dead : who de- 
livered us from so great a death, and doth deliver : in whom we trust that he 
will yet deliver us." It has been supposed by some that the tribulation here 
alluded to was the danger St. Paul incurred in the disturbances at Ephesus. 
This is most unUkely, for, as Dean AJford remarks [Gr. Test., Prol., 2 Cor.), 
' ' Anyone who has studied the character and history of the Apostle could 
scarcely refer this passage to the Ephesian tumult. The supposition lays to his 
charge a meanness of spirit and cowardice, which certainly never characterized 
him, and to avow which would have been in the highest degree out of place in 
an Epistle, one object of which was to vindicate his apostolic efficiency." "The 



NOTE.] THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. 295 

words, also, Sittc elaTropijSTJyoi rifias koI tov (-^v, ' so that we utterly despaired 
eTen of Ufe,' are such, as would not be used of a tumult wliere life would have 
heen the first thing in danger, if St. Paul had been at all mixed up in it, but 
are applicable to some wearing and tedious suffering, inducing despondency in 
minor matters which even reached the hope of life itself." And, further, the 
words of verse 9 (aA.V avroi 4v eauroTs rh air^Kpifia tov Qavdrov eC^^^Ko/iev, 
" moreover we had in ourselves the answer of death" — to the question of life 
or death, our answer, within ourselves, was death — we had no other expecta- 
tion, so far as our judgment reached, than that we were to die) point to a 
dangerous illness, in which he despaired of recovery. 

There is, besides, in the Epistle internal evidence that the Apostle, when he 
wrote it, was suffering from ill-health, coupled with deep and wearing anxiety. 
Mr. Conybeare {Life of St. Paul, ch. xvii.), while thinking that the "real 
weight which pressed upon him was the care of all the Churches," says, "it 
has been sometimes supposed that this dejection was occasioned by an increase 
of the chronic malady {aK6Ko^ iv a'apKl) under which St. Paul suffered, and it 
seems not unlikely that this cause may have contributed to the result. He 
speaks much in the Epistle, written at this time from Macedonia, of the frailty 
of his bodily health (2 Cor. iv. 7 to 2 Cor. v. 10, and also 2 Cor. xii. 7-9), and 
in a very affecting passage he describes the earnestness with which he had be- 
sought his Lord to take from him this thorn in the flesh, this disease which 
continually impeded his efforts, and shackled his energy." 

"We thus find St. Paul, after a dangerous illness in Asia, and while still 
labouring under bodily weakness and dejection of spirit, setting oiit to Mace- 
donia, taking Troas on his way, as he expected to meet Titus there with intel- 
ligence respecting the effect produced at Corinth by the First Epistle to the 
Corinthians, and, when he does not find him there, proceeding to Philippi, 
where he had left St. Luke six years before, and there, with St. Luke, waiting 
the return of Titus. 

Takiag all the circumstances into account, it cannot well be regarded as an 
improbable or arbitrary assumption that one at least of the Apostle's objects in 
this visit to Philippi was to have the benefit of ' ' the beloved physician' s " ad vice 
on the state of his health. This at all events is remarkable, that now, on a 
second occasion, we find St. Paul, after an illness, in company with St. Luke, 
and that these two occasions are the only ones, up to this period of the history, 
on which we have any record of their meeting one another. It may also have 
been with the object of continuing his professional services that St. Luke now, 
after presiding for seven years over the Philippian Church, left it, and accom- 
panied St. Paul on his retui'n to Jerusalem. 



296 THE MEDICAL LANGUAGE OF ST. LUKE. [note. 



Third recorded meeting. — St. Luke accompanies St. Paul to Rome, 
and remains with him ther^e during his first imprisonment. 

Almost immediately after his arrival at Jerusalem from Philippi, St. Paul 
was seized by the Jews during the feast of Pentecost (Acts, xxi. 27, &c.). 
Rescued from their violence by the Roman Commander, he was sent to 
Caesarea, where he was kept in military custody for two years, and afterwards 
sent forward to Rome, where he was detained in the same kind of custody two 
years longer. St. Luke accompanied him from Caesarea to Rome, and remained 
with him during his imprisonment. 

These are good grounds for concluding that during the voyage to Rome, at 
any rate at the beginning of it, St. Paul was in a delicate state of health. We 
have seen that at the close of his third missionary journey he was labouring 
under an illness of some kind ; that he probably availed himself at that time of 
St. Luke's medical skill ; and that possibly it was with the object of still further 
continuing his attention to him that St. Luke accompanied him to Jerusalem. 
We may also safely conclude that the chronic illness under which he suffered 
would not have been lessened by his imprisonment at Caesarea ; for, although 
treated with indulgence, yet the nature of his confinement — chained as he was 
to the soldier who for the time being was his guard (Acts, xxiv. 27 : /coTeAwre rbv 
riouAbi' SeSe/ievov, " Felix left Paul bound" ; xxvi. 29 : irapeKrhs T&y Seff/iQv 
rovrav, "except these bonds") — must have told severely on his impaired 
health and naturally delicate constitution. We are not, however, confined to 
considerations such as these alone to determine St. Paul's condition on this 
occasion, for we are told by St. Luke, if not expressly in so many words, yet 
in language not to be misunderstood, if interpreted by the medical character of 
the writer, that St. Paul's state of health was such as 'to require care and 
attention. He tells us (xxvii. 3) that at Sidon, "Julius courteously {<pi\ay- 
Bp^as) entreated Paul, and gave him liberty to go unto his friends to refresh 
himself" {i-irifie\eias rvx^'iv). The words iiri/ifK^las rvxew, "to obtain their 
care and attention," coming as they do from a -physician, maybe fairly taken 
to imply the care and attention bestowed on a sick or delicate person. This is 
the meaning of the word 4vi/j.eKeia in all medical language (see § 97), and 
St. Luke has already used the verb iTi/ie\e!aBat in this sense to describe the care 
bestowed by the Samaritan on the wounded traveller (Luke, x. 34 : iirffieXiiBii 
avTov, see em/ieAeio-floi, § 21). Besides, another word used in this passage 
(<piKavepdiira5, courteously) tends somewhat to confirm this view. It is the 
very word a physician would be likely to apply to the kindly and sympathetic 
treatment of an invalid. Ancient physic inculcated on its professors the duties 
of courteousness, kindness, and humanity [(piXavepanriav) towards patients, and 
pronounced those who practised physic with a view merely to advancement and 
gain unworthy of the art of Hippocrates. Hippocrates tells physicians that 



^ 



note] the medical language op ST. LUKE. 297 

they stould possess urbanity and gentleness, for roughness and rudeness were 
ofEensive to sick and sound alike (De Decor. 24), and that philanthropy in a, 
physician ever accompanied a real love of his profession (Praecept. 27 : ijv yetp 
irapjj <j>i\av6pairlii, itdpeari KoX ^iAoTexv(ij'). Galen calls the medical profession 
itself the philanthropic profession, Optim. Medic, (i. 56) : rexv-nv oBtjo (pt\6,v- 
Bpavov), and speaks of some who practised their profession from philanthropy, 
and others who did so with a view to gain merely (Hipp, et Plat. Decret. 
ix. 5 (v. 751) : -itpiSiiKov olv, Sti koX iarphs, ^ fiiv iarpis iffji, ravry vpovoeirai 
T^s rod tr(lofj.aTos vyeias, ^ Sh Si' &\\o ri tovto irpiiTTei, /car* iKeTtfO Kal t^v 
irpoffriyopiav efei, Tives fiev y&p 'dpiica XC?/""'"''/*'''' '''h" iiTpinV T^X^'O^ 
dpyd^oVTat — eyiot 5^ Stcc (pi\ay6p(oiriay — d fxev Tis <pi\{iydpanros d Sh (piKSriixos)* 
He also draws an unfavourable comparison between the latter and Hippocrates 
and other distinguished physicians, who, he says, "healed men through 
philanthropy" — AioK\e7 8" ov tovto KaBdirep obSh 'ImroKparei KoX 'Eii.ireSoK\ii 
ou5^ &Wois tSov •KoXawv ovk oKiyois, '6ffoi dih, ipiKavSpoiTriav ideptiireuop Tobs 
avBpiiTrovs. Even a more generous diet given to the sick was called a more phi- 
lanthropic one, <piKav9pcinroTepa Tpo<p-fi, Galen. Opt. Sect. 44 (i. 211). 

We may, therefore, not unreasonably conclude that one reason for St. Luke's 
accompanying St. Paul to Eome may have been that St. Paul might have the 
benefit of his advice and care on the voyage. He remained there with the 
Apostle during his first imprisonment, and is mentioned by St. Paul in an 
Epistle, written from Eome at that time, in the words: "Luke, the beloved 
physician, greets you" (Coloss. iv. 1-4). The title given to St. Luke in this 
passage may indicate that, at the time of penning this Epistle, St. Paul was 
availing himself of St. Luke's medical as well as other services. 

Finally, it should not be left out of account that, in any illness from which 
he might be suffering, there was no one to whom St. Paul would be likely to 
apply with such confidence as to St. Luke, for it is probable that ia the whole 
extent of the Eoman Empire the only Christian physician at this time was 
St. Luke. 



2 Q 



INDEX. 



An Asterisk has been prefixed to those words which are peculiar to the third Gospel and 
the Acts of the Apostles. It has also been prefixed to some words, which, though not 
peculiar to these writings, are used in them alone of the New Testament in a medical 
sense. 

The slanting figures indicate the page of this Work. 



*i,yavla, Luke, xxii. 44, 81. 
*dSiJvoTos, Acts, xiv. 8, 46. 
HepolC^iv, Luke, xxiv. 33, 181. 
aKoi), Luke, vii. 1 : Acts, xvii. 20, 
6S. 
*aKpl$eta, Acts, xxii. 3, 250. 
*oKpi;8^y, Acts, xxvi. 5, $50. • 
uKpifias, Luke, i. 3 : Acts, xviii. 25. 

26 ; xxiii. 15. 20 ; xxiv. 22, $51. 
*aKa\iTtes, Acts, xxviii. 31, $90. 
&\oyos, Acts, XXV. 27, $65. 
*ava0d\\e(reat, Acts, xxiv. 22, 138. 
*avafioxi], Acts, xxv. 17, H$. 
*avaSiS6vai, Acts, xxiii. 33, $60. 
avttipeiv, Luke, xxii. 2 ; xxiii. 32 : 

Acts, ii. 23 ; v. 33. 36 ; vii. 21. 

28. 28 ; ix. 23. 24. 29 ; x. 39 ; 

xii. 2 ; xiii. 28 ; xvi. 27 ; xxii. 

20; xxiii. 15. 21. 27; xxv. 3; 

xxvi. 10, $10. 
*avaipe(Tis, Acts, viii. 1 ; xxii. 20, 

$09. 
*avaKa6i^eiv, Luke, vii. 15 : Acts, ix. 

40, 11. 
*avaK<nrTeiv, Luke, xiii. 11 ; xxi. 28, 

$1. 
kvoKaii^dv^iv, Acts, i. 2. 11. 22; vii. 

43 ; X. 16 ; xx. 13. 14 ; xxiii. 

31, 1$5. 
*a,i/d\niits, Luke, ix. 51, l$i. 
avaTe/iiteiv, Luke, xxiii. 7. 11. 15: 

Acts, xxv. 21, $35. 



*avdTripos, Luke, xiv. 13. 21, 148. 
*h.vaTiTi)aaiiv, Luke, iv. 17, 106. 

avaffeUii/, Luke, xxiii. 5, lOS. 

avattKevi^eiv, Acts, xv. 24, $3$. 
*avtt<r-ir§y, Luke, xiv. 5 : Acts, xi. 10, 

169. 
*avaTp4ipiiv, Acts, vii. 20. 21 ; xxii. 

3, $07. 
*ava(pavf1v, Luke, i. 42, 95. 
*oi/<£i|(u|ii, Acts, iii. 20, 166. 

&VVTIS, Acts, xxiv. 23, $63. 
*avei0eTos, Acts, xxvii. 12, $7$. 
*avevpt<rKeiy, Luke, ii. 16 : Acts, xxi. 

4, 99. 

apopBovv, Luke, xiii. 13 : Acts, xv. 
16, $$. 
*avTi$d\\eiv, Luke, xxiv. 17, 139. 

avTiirapepxecSai, Luke, X. 31. 32, 30. 
*avTnrlirTeiv, Acts, vii. 51, 131. 
*avuTipM6s, Acts, xix. 1. 148. 

aviSiTipov, Luke, xiv. 10, 147. 
*airaniiv, Luke, vi. 30 ; xii. 20, 118. 
*aTra\\d(r<rfiv, Acts, xix. 12, 47. 
*aTre\aivitv, Acts, xviii. 16, $06. 
*aire\iriCeiv, Luke, vi. 36, 118. 
HwoSKiPeiy, Luke, viii. 45, 70. 
*a.TroKaTda'Tatris, Acts, iii. 21, 194. 
*airoK\fietv, Luke, xiii. 25, 145. 

avoKoieiv, Acts, xxii. 16. 110, 11$. 
*oiro\i}ei>', Luke, xiii. 12, $1. 
*aTO/id<Tireiv, Luke, x. 11, 110, 111. 
*aTTO'!rl'irTeiy, Acts, ix. 18, 39. 



300 



INDEX. 



*air(yirKiveiv, Luke, V. 2, 110. 
airopeTv, Luke, xxiT. 4 : Acts, xxv. 
20, 163. 
*airop(a, Luke, xxi. 25, 183. 
*aTropplirreiv, Acts, xxvii. 43, S8S. 
*airo<rK6u<{feiy, Acts, xxi. 15, 232. 
i/iroair^v, Luke, xxii. 41 : Acts, xx. 

30; xxi. 1, 168. 
ototeAco/, Luke, xiii. 32, 23. 
*airoTiviaffiiv, Luke, ix. 5 : Acts, 

xxviii. 5, 2JtO. 
*an-ox<i>peiP, Luke, ix. 39, 18. 

airoxapi{eiv, Acts, xv. 39, 127. 
*airo'liixe"', Luke, xxi. 26, 166. 
*apxii, Acts, X. 11 ; xi. 5, 218. 
Hffrifios, Acts, xxi. 39, 2i9. 
*a<Tnla, Acts, xxTii. 21, 276. 
*S<riTos, Acts, xxvii. 33, 276. 
*a<rK€ii/, Acts, xxiv. 16 ; 263. 
aa-ipiiKeia, Luke, i. 4 : Acts, v. 23, 

199. 
o.ffipaK'fis, Acts, xxi. 34 ; xxii. 30 ; 

xxv. 26, 200. 
a.ff<j>a\as, Acts, ii. 36 ; xvi. 23, 200. 
*&TeKvos, Luke, XX. 28. 29. 30, 91, 
92. 
areviC^iVi Luke, iv. 20 ; xxii. 56 : 
Acts, i. 10; iii. 4. 12; vi. 15; 
vii. 55 ; x. 4 ; xi. 6 ; xiii. 9 ; 
xiv. 9 ; xxiii. 1 , 76. 
*liTep, Luke, xxii. 6. 35, 230. 
*&roTros, Acts, xxviii. 6, 289. 
*aiyfi, Acts, xx. 11, 2i6. 
*avaT7tp6s, Luke, xix. 21. 22, 188. 
*aiT6TrTris, Luke, i. 2, 89. 
&<peffis, Luke, i. 77 ; iii. 3 ; iv. 18 ; 
xxiv. 47 : Acts, ii. 38 ; v. 31 ; x. 
43 ; xiii. 38 ; xxvi. 18, 101. 
*a<pp6s, Luke, ix. 39, 17. 
*oxAiJs, Acts, xiii. 11, 4i. 

*$apipsiv, Luke, xxi. 34, 167. 
Paaavi^eiv, Matthew, viii. 6 : Luke, 

viii. 28, 63. 
Pdffttvos, Matthew, iv. 24 : Luke, 
xvi. 23, 63. 
*0d(rts, Acts, iii. 7, Si. 

fidros, Luke, vi. 44, 78. 
*Pi\6vn, Luke, xviii. 25, 61. 



*$la, Acts, V. 26 ; xxi. 35 ; xxiv. 7 ; 

xxvii. 41, 180. 
*0iatos, Acts', ii. 2, 179. 

fiid^fffBai, Luke, xvi. 16, 179. 

fiXdiTTiiv, Luke, iv. 35, 2. 

Po-fiBeia, Acts, xxvii. 17, 27^. 
*0o\'fi, Luke, xxii. 41, l^S. 
*Ppixeiv, Acts, vii. 54, 208. 

yadT/ip — ev yaSTpX fX^^") Luke, xxi. 
23, 91, 92. 
'yrjpas, Luke, i. 36, 9i. 
*y\evKos, Acts, ii. 13, 188. 

5e|i(Js— ^ Xelp V Se^id, Luke, vi. 

6, 7. 
*SiaPd\\eip, Luke, xvi. 1, 139. 
*SiayiviiirKeiv, Acts, xxiii. 15 ; xxiv. 

22, 256. 
*Sidyi'a<ris, Acts, xxv. 21, 256. 
*SiaSex^aBai, Acts, vii. 45, 157. 
*SidSoxos, Acts, xxiv. 27, 157. 
*Sttt\etireti/, Luke, vii. 45, 120. 
*Sia\{ieiv, Acts, V. 36, 204. 
*Siafidxf(rScxi, Acts, xiiii. 9, 255. 
*Siajie/i6iV, Acts, iv. 17, 196. 
*Stau6riiJ.a, Luke, xi. 17, 72. 
*SiavvKrepcieiv, Luke, vi. 12, 117. 
*SiaTrove!irdai, Acts, iv. 2 ; xvi. 18, 

195. 
*SicnropeTv, Luke, ix. 7 ; xxiv. 4 : 

Acts, ii. 13; v. 24; x. 17, 165. 
*SittTrpayiiaTfvea'6tti, Luke, xix. 15, 

159. 
*SiairpUiv, Acts, v. 33'; vii. 54, 203. 
Sia^^yi/vf/,1, Luke, V. 6 ; viii. 29 : 

Acts, xiv. 14, 113. 
*Sia<rc(eiv, Luke, iii. 14, 102. 
Siaa-TrSv, Acts, xxiii. 10, 169. 
*8iaff7re(/5eiy. Acts, viii. 1. 4; xi. 19, 

211. 
*Stda-Tr]na, Acts, v. 7, 171. 
Sia<rTp4<j)etti, Luke, ix. 41 ; xxiii. 2 : 

Acts, xiii. 8. 10 ; xx. 30, 172. 
Siaa-ii(eiv, Luke, vii. 3 : Acts, xxiii. 

24; xxvii. 43. 44; xxviii. 1. 4, 

8, 284. 
*SiaTapd(r<Teiy, Luke, i. 29, 9^. 
HiareKeTi/, Acts, xxvii. 33, 278. 



INDEX. 



301 



*SiaTripe'!v, Luke, ii. 51 : Acts, xv. 

29, 15j^. 
SiarpiPeiv, Acts, xii. 19 ; xiv. 3. 18. 

28; XV. 35; xvi. 12; xx. 6; 

XXV. 6. 14, SSI. 
*Sta<l>eiiyfiv, Acts, xxvii. 42, S81. 
*Si.axe'piC^<''9at, Acts, v. 30 ; xxvi. 

21, SOS. 
HtaxapiCetv, Luke, ix. 33, 1S6. 
*Sieifpxeff9ai, Acts, xxviii. 3, SIS. 
SiepxeirSai, Luke, ii. 15. 35 ; iv. 30 ; 

V. 15 ; viii. 22 ; ix. 6 ; xi. 24 ; 

xvii. 11; xviii. 25; xix. 1. 4 : 

Acts, viii. 4. 40 ; ix. 32. 38 ; x. 

38 ; xi. 19. 22 ; xii. 10 ; xiii. 6. 

14 ; xiv. 24 ; xv. 3. 41 ; xvi. 6 ; 

xvii. 23; xviii. 23, 27; xix. 1. 

21 ; XX. 2. 25, SIS. 
*St^yri<ris, Luke, i. 1, 87. 
*SutrToi.vai, Luke, xxii. 59 ; xxiv. 51 : 

Acts, xxvii. 28, 170. 
*8i(o;xi'P^fec9ai, Luke, xxii. 59 : Acts, 

xii. 15, 77. 
*SioSet5eiv, Luke, viii. 1 : Acts, xvii. 

1, S17. 
nox'li, Luke, V. 29 ; xiv. 13, 158. 
*Spaxii'll, Luke, XV. 8. 9, 150. 
*Sv(r£VTepia, Acts, xxviii. 8, SS. 

HyKvos, Luke ii. 5, 91, 9S. 
ideiv — eKada, Luke, iv. 16 : Acts, 

xvii. 2, 101. 
*mCeiv, Luke, ii. 27, 100. 
fdos, Luke, i. 9 ; ii. 42 ; xxii. 39 : 

Acts, vi. 14 ; xv. 1 ; xvi. 21 ; 

xxi. 21 ; XXV. 16; xxvi. 3; xxviii. 

17, 101. 
*eiVKoA.e?>', Acts, X. 23, 219. 
NKfioK'fi, Acts, xxvii. 18, 1^. 
*iicSiriyet(reai, Acts, xv. 3, SS9. 
*iKKpfiiaix8at, Luke, xix. 48, 160. 
*iK\e(irfiv, Luke, xvi. 9 ; xxii. 32, 

ISO, ISl. 
iKiidinreiv, Luke, vii. 38. 44, 110, 

111. 
*iKV€/fireiv, Acts, xiiL 4; xvii. 10, 

SSi. 
*^Kir7)5?i/, Acts, xiv. 14, SS7. 



iKrlirretv, Acts, xii. 7; xxvii. 17. 26. 

29. 32, 130. 
*lKTr\t]povv, Acts, xiii. 33, ISS. 
^sKTAfipaffis, Acts, xxi. 26, ISS. 
*iKara<ns, Acts, x. 10 ; xi. 5 ; xxii. 

17, U. 
*iKTapi,(r(rfiv, Acts, xvi. 20, 93. 
*iKTe\e7v, Luke, xiv. 29. 30. S78. 
iKTivda-ffeiv, Acts, xiii. 51 ; xviii. 6, 

SS9. 
*iKxo>peiv, Luke, xxi. 21, 115. 
*iK^X^"'> -^cts, V. 5. 10 ; xii. 23, 37. 
*e\aiov leaX oliios, Luke, x. 34, S8. 

%\Kos, Luke, xvi. 21, 3S. 
*4XKoSy, Luke, xvi. 20, 31. 
*i/i,pdA\eiv, Luke, xii. 5, 137. 
*i/i$iPiiCeiv, Acts, xxvii. 6, S70. 
e/ijr(/i7r\oyai, Luke, i. 53 ; vi. 25 : 

Acts, xiv. 17, 107, 108. 
*il^irhT€iv, Luke, vi. 39 ; x. 36 ; xiv. 

5, 130. 
^i/iTvieiv, Acts, ix. 1, S36. 
*ip5e-l,s. Acts, iv. 34, 198. 
*hS4x^<r9ai, Luke, xiii. 33, 158. 
*4v4Spa, Acts, xxui. 16 ; xxv. 3, S59. 
*4veSp^ieiv, Luke, xi. 54 ; Acts, xxiii. 

21, S60. 
*ivi!va,i. — rb. iv6vTa, Luke, xi. 41, 137. 
*4vi(rxveiv, Luke, xxii. 43 : Acts, ix. 

19, 80. 
*ei'oxAe'i', Luke, vi. 18, 7. 
4^ai(pvris, Luke, ii. 13 ; ix. 39 : Acts, 

ix. 3 ; xxii. 6, 19. 
*4^dK\e(reai, Acts, iii. 8, 36. 
*£|u9e?y, Acts, vii. 45 ; xxvii. 39, S08. 
*4-irttKpoacreai, Acts, xvi. 25, S34. 
*iTrav€pxe(r9ai, Luke, x. 35 ; xix. 15, 

S9. 
*4veyelpeiy. Acts, xiii. 50 ; xiv. 2, 

SS5. 
*£7ri;3\€ir6iv, Luke, ix. 38, 18. 
*4iriyive(r8at. Acts, xxvii. 27 ; xxviii. 

13, S90. 
*4mSrine7v, Acts, ii. 10 ; xvii. 21, 

188. 
*4iriKovpia, Acts, xxvi. 22, S88. 
*4Trifi^\€ia, Acts, xxvii. 3, S69. 
*4niie\e7(Teai, Luke, x. 34. 35, S9. 
*4miJ.e\&!, Luke, xv. 8, S70. 



302 



INDEX. 



*hriveieiv. Acts, xviii. 20, 21f0^ 
*e5rHr^5rTeiv, Acts, xiii. 11, ^If. 
*sinffTpo(jyti, Acts, XT. 3, 17^. 
*€iri(r^o\^s, Acts, xxvii. 9, ^01. 
*iiriirxie'v, Luke, xxiii. 5, 175. 
*iinx€tpe1», Luke, i. 1 : Acts, ix. 29 ; 

xix. 13, 86. 
*4irix^etv, Luke, x. 34, S8. 

ipyaa-la, Luke, xii. 58 : Acts, xvi. 
16. 19 ; xix. 24. 25, S4S. 
*4peiSeiv, Acts, xxvii. 41, S80. 
*lir7re/)o, Luke, xxiv. 29 ; Acts, iv. 3 ; 
xxviii: 23, 13S, 133. 

eHBeros, Luke, ix. 62 ; xiv. 35, 7i. 

evBviietv, Acts, xxvii. 22. 25, 279. 
*c»9u/ios, Acts, xxvii. 36, S79. 
*eiei/iMs, Acts, xxiv. 10, S79. 
*evKopetffBai, Acts, xi. 29, 165. 
*einropia, Acts, xix. 25, 16^. 
*eiT6va>s, Luke, xxiii. 10 : Acts, xviii. 

28, Ul. 
*ev(j>ope7v, Luke, xii. 16, 144. 

*i^vyos, Luke, xiv. 19, 149. 
"(ilTiiiM, Acts, XV. 2 ; xvui. 15 ; xxiii. 

29 ; XXV. 19 ; xxvi. 3, 328. 
*(woyov€ii>, Luke, xvii. 33 : Acts, vii. 

19, 155. 

*riijit0av^s, Luke, x. 30, S7. 
^ffuxafe"') Luke, xiv. 4 ; xxiii. 66 : 

Acts, xi. 18 ; xxi. 14, 220. 
*^X'>^t Luke, iv. 37 ; xxi. 25 : Acts, 

ii. 2, 63. 

e^pmrela, Luke, ix. 11 ; xii. 42, 16. 
*eepii.n, Acts, xxviii. 3, 287. 
*e^a,pla, Luke, xxiii. 48, 177. 
*d7ipiov = ^x^Sva, Acts, xxviii. 4. 5, 

51. 
*8p6iJi.Poi al/iMTos, Luke, xxii. 44, 82. 
*9u/ii?j/, Luke,i. 9, 90. 

lao-flai, Luke, iv. 18 ; v. 17 ; vi. 17.19; 
vii. 7; viii. 47; ix. 2. 11.42 ; xiv. 
4; xvii. 15; xxii. 51 : Acts, iii. 
11 ; ix. 34; X. 38; xxviii. 8. 27, S. 
*ia<ris, Luke, xiii. 32 : Acts, iv. 22. 
30, 23. 



*tSpiis, Luke, xxii. 44, 82. 
*iKiids, Luke, viii. 6, 57. 
*laTavai, Luke, viii. 44, 15. 
iirxie"', Luke, vi. 48 ; viii. 43 ; xiii. 

24 ; xiv. 6. 29. 30 ; xvi. 3 ; xx. 

26 : Acts, vi. 10 ; xv. 10 ; xix. 

16. 20 ; xxT. 7 ; xxvii. 16, 175. 

*Ka9dirTetv, Acts, xxviii. 3, 288. 
*KaSi\i>.epiv6s, Acts, vi. 1, 134. 
*Kaei\ov, Acts, iv. 18, 197. 
KOKovv, Acts, vii. 6. 19 ; xii. 1 ; xiv. 

2 ; xviii. 10, 205. 
Karafiaiveiv, Luke, xxii. 44, 83. 
*KaTd$a,<ris, Luke, xix. 37, 147. 
*KoTo5e'eij', Luke, x. 34, S7. 
*KaTaic\eUii', Luke, iii. 20 : Acts, 

xxvi. 10, 66. 
*KaTWc\li>€ii>, Luke, vii. 36 ; ix. 14 ; 

xiv. 8 ; xxiv. 30, 69. 
*KaTaTriTTTiiv, Acts, xxvi. 14 ; xxviii. 
6, 50. 
Karairovilv, Acts, vii. 24, 196. 
*Kara(rel€ii>, Acts, xii. 17; xiii. 16; 

xix. 33 ; xxi. 40, 103. 
*KaTaffT4Weti', Acts, xix, 35. 36, 

247. 
'/coTOTpexf'"; Acts, xxi. 32, 193. 
*KaTa<j>4psiv, Acts, XX. 9 ; xxv. 7 ; 

xxvi. 10, 48. ■ 
*KaTa<liix^ty, Luke, xvi. 24, 32. 
Karspx^aBai, Luke, iv. 31 ; ix. 37 : 
Acts, viii. 5 ; ix. 32 ; xi. 27 ; xii. 
19; xiii. 4; xv. 1.30; xviii. S. 22; 
xix. 1 ; xxi. 3. 10 ; xxvii. 5, 
212. 
*KOT(ip9(i)/io, Acts, xxiv. 2, 261. 
*KTipioi/, Luke, xxiv. 42, 183. 
*KKLvdpiov, Acts, V. 15, 116. 
KKivt), Luke, V. 18 ; viii. 16 ; xvii. 
34, 116. 
'KKLviSwv, Luke, v. 19. 24, 116. 
KoJiAacrddi, Luke, x. 11; xv. 15; 
Acts, V. 13; viii. 29; ix. 26: 
X. 28 ; xvii. 34, 128. 
*Ko\vfi.pSv, Acts, xxvii. 43, 283. 
*Kov(j>iCeiv, Acts, xxvii. 38, 281. 
KpdfiParas, Acts, v. 15 ; ix. 33, 116. 
*Kpan!-i\Ti, Luke, xxi. 34, 167. 



INDEX. 



303 



*KeTrls, Acts, ix. 18, 39. 

\4irpa, Luke, V. 12, 5. 

\fjrp6s, Luke, xvii. 12, 5. 
*\rjpos, Luke, xxiv. 11, 177. 
*\6yos — Kara \6yov, Acts, xviu. 14, 
^66. 

Koiiiv, Acts, ix. 37 ; xyi. 33, 110, 112. 
*\viiLatveff8ai, Acts, viii. 3, Sll. 

\i57rjj, Luke, xxii. 45, 8^. 
*KvatTe\e7v, Luke, xvii. 2, 157. 

HoKokIu, Matthew, iv. 23 ; ix. 35 ; 
X. 1, 63. 
*lj.ai'la, Acts, xxvi. 24, S67. 
*li.a<rTl(eiv, Acts, xxii. 25, 255. 
*li,effritiPpla, Acts, xxii. 6, 132. 
HeaovixTiov, Luke, xi.'5 : Acts, xvi. 

25 ; XX. 7, 132, 133. 
*fi.efrTod(rdai, Acts, ii. 13, 189. 
*/ieTo;8<£AA6<rflai, Acts, xxviii. 6, 140. 
*IJ.ercMa\eT(r6ai, Acts, vii. 14 ; x. 32; 

XX. 17; xxiy. 25, 219. 
*lieTeapl(ea-8ai, Luke, xii. 29, 145. 
*fiva, Luke, xix. 13. 16. 18. 20. 24. 
26, 150. 

*SSonropeiv, Acts, x. 9, 216. 
*oSvi'air$ai, Luke, ii. 48 ; xvi. 24. 25. . 

Acts, XX. 38, 32. 
*o06vri. Acts, X. 11 ; xi. 5, 218. 
*o1vos Kol i\aiov, Luke, x. 34, 28. 
*&\oKKr)pia, Acts, ui. 16, 193. 
*S/u\e7i/, Luke, xxiv. 14. 15 : Acts, 

XX. 11 ; xxiv. 26, 178. 
Hldrexvos, Acts, xviii. 3, 239. 
•oTTTcfy, Luke, xxiv. 42, 182. 
*hp96s. Acts, xiy. 10, 46. 
HpBpios, Luke, xxiv. 22, 132, 134. 
SpOpos, Luke, xxiv. 1 : Acts, v. 21, 

132, 133. 
ipiifiv, Luke, xxii. 22 : Acts, ii. 23 ; 

X. 42 ; xi. 29 ; xvu. 26. 31, 237. 
Hippis, Luke, iv. 29, 109. 
*ox^eta9ai. Acts, V. 16, 7. 
Hx^oToiely, Acts, xvii. 5, 230. 
ifxAosj Liike, xxii. 6, 230. 

*vapaPi(iCeiTeat, Luke, xxiv. 29 ; Acts, 
xvi. 15, 179. 



*TrapdSo^oi', Luke, v. 26, 71. 
*iTapaivitv, Acts, xxvii. 9. 22, 271. 

TrapaKo\ov9eTv, Luke, i. 3, 90. 
*irapa\ie<TBai,Luke, V. 18. 24: Acts, 

viii. 7 ; ix. 33, 6. 
*Tmpardveiv, Acts, xx. 7, 245. 
vapwr-Qpstv, Luke, vi. 7 ; xiv. 1 ; 
XX. 20 ; Acts, ix. 24, 153. 
*'irapaTi\pr]ais, Luke, xvii. 20, 153. 
■irapaxpriiJ.a, Luke, i. 64 ; iv. 39 ; v. 
25 ; viii. 44. 47. 55 ; xiii. 13 ; 
xviii. 43; xix. 11; xxii. 60: 
Acts, iu. 7 ; v. 10 ; ix. 18 ; xii. 
23; xiii. 11; xvi. 26. 33, 96. 
'"irapevoxXety, Acts, xv. 19, 230. 
vapoiivetrdai. Acts, xvii. 16, 233. 
irapo^vff 11.6s, Acts, xv. 39, 233. 
*TrapoTpiveui, Acts, xiii. 50, 225. 
ireipaffSai, Acts, ix. 26 ; xxvi. 21, 
215. 
*Trepiii.4veiv, Acts, i. 4, 184. 
TrepiTrlirTeiv, Luke, x. 30 : Acts, 
xxvii. 41, 129. 
*Tr€pi/i^iiyi>vfii.i, Acts, xvi. 22, 114. 
*irepiaTraaBiu, Luke, x. 40, 170. 
*irepiTp4ireiv, Acts, xxvi. 24, 268. 
*7rief«"', Luke, vi. 38, 119. 
irf/iTTA.?;/!!, Luke, i. 15. 23. 41. 57. 67; 
ii. 6. 21. 22 ; iv. 28 ; v. 7. 26 ; 
vi. 11 ; xxi. 22 : .Acts, ii. 4 ; iii. 
10; iv. 8. 31; v. 17; ix. 17; 
xiii. 9. 45 ; xix. 29, 107. 
*'irl/ivpa(TBai, Acts, xxviii. 6, 50. 
*mvaKiSior, Luke, i. 63, 95. 
irKiidos, Luke, i. 10; ii. 13; v. 6; 
vi. 17 ; viii. 37 ; xix. 37 ; xxiii. 
1. 27 : Acts, ii. 6 ; iv. 32 ; v. 14. 
16 ; vi. 2. 5 ; xiv. i. 4 ; xv. 12. 
30 ; xvii. 4 ; xix. 9 ; xxi. 22. 36; 
xxiii. 7 ; xxv. 24 ; xxviii. 3, 107, 
108. 
*Tr\7iiifi.ipa, Luke, vi. 48, 55. 
*ir\iip7is, Luke, v. 12, 5. 
TVfS/ia, Luke, viii. 55, 16. 
*itvoii. Acts, ii. 2 ; xvii. 25, 236. 
■irovnp6s, Luke, vii. 21 ; viii. 2 ; xi. 
26: Acts, xix. 12. 13. 15. 16, 12. 
*irpayfiaTei€<T9ai, Luke, xix. 13, 159. 
*wpiivris. Acts, i. 18, -186. 



304 



INDEX. 



*irpofiiiK\nv, Liike, xxi. 30: Acts, 

xix. 33, 75, UO. 
Trpoyiv^ffKetv, Acts, xxvi. 5, S58. 
irpiyvwffis, Acts, ii. 23, S58. 
irpoaayetv, Luke, ix. 41 : Acts, xTi. 

20 ; xxvii. 27, ^5. 
*'irpoaava^aivetv, Luie, xiv. 10, 1,^7. 
*Trpo(rava\l<rKeiv, Luke, viii. 43, i6. 
*jrpi)(rSeiir9Bi, Acts, xvii. 25, IPS. 
irpoaSoK^y, Luke, i. 21 ; iii. 15 ; vii. 

19. 20 ; viii. 40 ; xii. 46 : Acts, 

iii. 6 ; x. 24; xxvii. 33 ; xxviii. 

6, 16S. 
*5rpoffSoKio, Luke, xxi. 26 : Acts, xii. 

11, 161. 
*irpo(TKoX\a(r6ai, Acts, v. 36, 1S8. 
*'irpo(miiyvv/i.i, Acts, ii. 23, 190. 
*irpoffp'liyvviu, Luke, vi. 48, 49, 57. 
TpoffTtSevai, Luke, iii. 20 : xii. 25. 

31; xvii. 6; xix. 11 ; xx. 11. 12: 

Acts, ii. 41. 47 ; v. 14 ; xi. 24 ; 

xii. 3 ; xiii. 36, 10^. 
*iTpoa<p6.T(i>s, Acts, xviii. 2, ZS8. 
*Tpoa^aifiV, Luke, xi. 46, 60. 
*iiporpiTreadai, Acts, xviii. 27, 225, 

226. 
*iTp0mdpxeiv, Luke, xxiii. 12 : Acts, 

viii. 9, 224- 
*irpoxetpiC^<rBai, Acts, iii. 20 ; xxii. 

14 ; xxvi. 16, 202. 
*irTi<Tffew, Luke, iv. 20, 107. 
*irup6Tbs yueVtts, Luke, iv. 38, If. 
*Trvp(ToX, Acts, xxviii. 8, 52. 

*jiriyi>.a, Luke, vi. 49, 56. 
*^liTreiv, Luke, iv. 35, 2. 
fiiais oVjuoTos, Luke, viii. 43. 44, 15. 

*ffi\os, Luke, xxi. 25, 275. 
*aLTlov, Acts, vii. 12, 277. 
*ffK(i<pii, Acts, xxvii. 16. 30. 32, 279. 
*(rK^lJpoTp(£x1)^os, Acts, vii. 61, 209. 
aKopirlos, Luke, xi. 12 ; x. 19, 1S5, 
136. 
*aK6ros, Acts, xiii. 11, JiS. 
*aKa\7)Ki$pa)Tos, Acts, xii. 23, i2. 
*criTapyavovy, Luke, ii. 7. 12, 99. 
*<rreipa, Luke, i.7. 36 ; xxiii. 29, 91, 92. 
*<rTfpfovv, Acts, iii. 7. 16 ; xvi. 5, 35. 



ffTripi^eiv, Luke, xvi. 26 ; ix. 61, 33. 
*avyyeveM, Luke, 1, 61 : Acts, vii. 

14, 22J^. 
*(rvyKiviiv, Acts, vi. 12, 20^. 
*avyKvpia, Luke, x. 31, 30. 
*a\iyxUi.v, Acts, ii. 6 ; ix. 22 ; xix. 

32 ; xxL 27. 31, 186. 
*aiyxv<ns, Acts, xix. 29, 187. 
*(TvKdfiivos, Luke, xvii. 6, 152. 
*avKoit.opia, Luke, xix. 4, 152. 
*(Tv?Oi.ajj.$dvetv, Luke, i. 24. 36, 91. 
*<ruAAa/ij3aveii' iv yaffrpi, Luke, i. 31 ; 

ii. 21, 91, 92. 
*aviJ.^a,KKnv, Luke, ii. 19; xiv. 31 : 

Acts, iv. 15 ; xvii. 18 ; xviii. 27 ; 

XX. 14, Ul. 
*aviJ.iTapi1vcu, Acts, XXV. 24, 253. 
*ffuiiirepi\aiJ.pd)>€iv, Acts, xx. 10, 126. 
*(rvij.TriirTeii>, Luke, vi. 49, 56. 
^aviur\7ipovv, Luke, viii. 23 ; ix. 51 : 

Acts, ii. •!, 122. 
*ffvfji.<j>ie(TBai, Luke, viii. 7, 59. 
aiv, Luke, i. 56; ii. 5. 13, &c., 253. 
*awaBpol(eiv, Luke, xxiv. 33 : Acts, 

xii. 12 ; xix. 25, 181. 
(TvvaxoKovBitv, Luke, xxiii. 49, 176. 
*(ruva\i(effBai, Acts, i. 4, 182. 
*(rwapiri(eiv, Luke, viii.- 29: Acts, 

vi. 12 ; xix. 29 ; xxvii. 15, 2^3. 
*(TmiSponi], Acts, xxi. 30, 191. 
*avveivai, Luke, ix. 18 : Acts, xxii. 

11, 252. 
*iriJVf\aiyeiv, Acts, vii. 26, 206. 
*crw4ve(rBai, Acts, xx. 4, 244- 
avvexeirBat, Luke, iv. 38 : Acts, 

xxviii. 8, 3. 
*(rvvBpivTeiv, Acts, xxi. 13, 248. 
*(ivvr6iias, Acts, xxiv. 4, 262. 
awrpexfiv. Acts, iii. 11, 191. 
*crivTpo^os, Acts, xiii. 1, 223. 
<rvcrr4\Keu/, Acts, v. 6, 37. 
*a'vffTp4tj}eiv, Acts, xviii. 3, 173. 
*ffv<TTpo<p'li, Acts, xix. 40 ; xxiii. 12, 

174. 
*tr<l>vpd, Acts, iii. 7, 35. 
aAQiiv, Luke, viii. 36, 8, 285. 
awTripia, Luke, i. 69. 71. 77; xix. 

9 : Acts, iv. 12 ; vii. 26 ; xiii. 
26. 47 ; xvi. 17 ; xxvii. 34, 286. 



INDEX. 



305 



*ToKT(!s, Acts, xii. 21, ggg. 
*Tdpaxos, Acta, xii. 18 ; xix. 23, 93. 
*TiKii.ijpiov, Acts, i. 3, 183. 
*Te\e(ripop€iv, Luke, viii. 14, 65. 
Ti]pt]ais, Acts, iv. 3 ; v. 18, 15U. 
*Ti/iwpeiy, Acts, xxii. 3 ; xxvi. 11, 

S5S. 
*TpaC/io, Liike, x. 34, S8. 
*TprjiJ.a, Luke, xviii. 25, 60. 

iyiaiveiv, Luke, v. 31 ; vii. 10 ; xv. 

27, 10. 
*iyp6s, Luke, xxiii. 31, 175. 
*vSponriK6s, Luke, xiv. 2, S/j-. 
vTrdpx^tv, Luke, vii. 25 ; viii. 41 ; 

ix. 48; xi. 13; xvi. 14. 23; 

xxiii. 50 : Acts, ii. 30 ; iii. 2. 6 ; 

iv. 34. 34. 37 ; v. 4 ; vii. 55 ; 

viii. 16 ; x. 12 ; xiv. 8 ; xvi. 3. 

20. 37 ; xvii. 24. 27. 29 ; xix. 

36. 40 ; xxi. 20 ; xxii. 3 ; xxvii. 

12. 21. 34 ; xxviii. 7. 18, 31S. 
*ujrepopi}C, Acts, xvii. 30, ^37. 
*imep$ov, Acts, i. 13 ; ix. 37. 39 ; xx. 

8, 185. 
*vTrripeTeTv, Acts, xiii. 36 ; xx. 34 ; 

xxiv. 23, SU. 
iirr/perrjs, Luke, i. 2 ; iv. 20 : Acts, 

V. 22. 26 ; xiii. 5 ; xxvi. 16, 88. 
*tTn/os 0a6is, Acts, xx. 9, 49. 
*i5iroj8i(AAeic, Acts, vi. 11, 141. 



inroiexeffBai, Luke, x. 38 ; xix. 6 : 

Acts, xvii. 7, 156. 
*vTro(iivvvii.i, Acts, xxvii. 17, S7^. 
6To\afji,0<iveiv, Luke, vii. 43 ; x. 30 : 

Acts, i. 9 ; ii. 15, W5. 
iiroariWeiv, Acts, xx. 20. 27, S46. 
viroarpiipeiv, Luke, i. 56 ; ii. 20. 39. 
43. 45 ; iv. 1. 14 ; vii. 10 ; viii. 
37. 39. 40; ix. 10; x. 17; xi. 
24 ; xvii. 15. 18 ; xix. 12 ; xxiii. 
48. 56 ; xxiv. 9. 33. 52 : Acts, 
i. 12 ; viii. 25. 28 ; xii. 25 ; xiii. 
13. 34; xiv. 21; xx. 3; xxi. 6; 
xxii. 17 ; xxiii. 32, 174. 
*inroaTpiivvviJt.i, Luke, xix. 36, 73. 
*vT0Tp4xeiv, Acts, xxvii. 16, 19S. 
*imox<'>l>^'^v, Luke, v. 16 ; ix. 10, 114- 

*(pavTa(ria, Acts, xxv. 23, 265. 
*^{XavSp(lnrais, Acts, xxvii. 3, S96. 
*<p6^ijrpov, Luke, xxi. 11, 161. 
*<t>pvyavov, Acts, xxviii. 3, S86. 
*(pisi.y, Luke, viii. 6. 8, 58. 

XoA.?v, Luke, V. 4. 5 : Acts, ix. 25 ; 

xxvii. 17. 30, 112. 
*XeSo'/ia, Luke, xvi. 26, S3. 
*X^'IJ-iiC^ir9ai, Acts, xxvii. 18, 275. 
*XP<is, Acts, xix. 12, 242. 

*a6v, Luke, xi. 12, 135. 



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ment. By C. L. Bloxam and A. K. Hunting- 
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130 Wood Engravings. 5f.; 

Practical Physics. By R. T. Glaze- 
brook, M.A. F.R.S. and W. N. Shaw, M.A. 
With 62 Woodcuts. 6s. 

Physical Optics. By R. T. Glazebrook, 

M.A. F.R.S. Fellow and Lecturer of Trin. Coll. 
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tus, &c. 6s. 

The Art of Electro-Metallurgy, in- 
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By GfCoRE, LL.D. F.R.S. With 56 Wood- 
cuts. 6s. 

Algebra and Trigonometry. By the Rev. 

William Nathaniel Griffin, B.D. 2s. 6d. 

Notes on the Elements of Algebra 

and Trigonometry. With Solutions of the more 
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Electricity AND Magnetism. By Fleem- 

ING JENKIN, F.R.SS. L. & E. Professor of 
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Theory of He a t. By J. Clerk Maxwell, 

M.A. LL.D. Edin. F.R.SS. L. & E. With 41 
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Technical Arithmetic and Mensura- 

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Introduction to the Study of Inor- 

fanic Chemistry. By William Allen Miller, 
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Telegraphy. By W. H. Preece, C.E. 

and J. SiVEWRiGHT, M.A. With 160 Wood- 
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Structural and Physiological Botany. 

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Plane and Solid Geometry. By the Rev. 

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24 GENERAL & SCIENTIFIC BOOKS ruBmsHTnr-ErmKsaRiJ. l.Ui^UMAi'JS 6c CO. 

EPOCHS OF HISTORY. 



EPOCHS OF ANCIENT HISTORY. 

Edited by the Rev. Sir G. W. Cox, Kart. M.A. and by C. Sankey, M.A. io Volumes, 
fcp. 8vo. with Maps, price 2s. 6d. each vol. 



The Gracchi, Marius, and Sulla. By 

A. H. Beesi.v, M.A. Assistant-Master Marl- 
borough College, With 2 Maps. 

The Early Roman Empire. From the 

Assassination of Julius Csesar to the Assassination 
of Domitian. By the Rev. W. Wolfe Capes, M.A. 
With 2 Coloured Maps. 

TiiR Roman Empire of the Second Cen- 

tury, or the Age of ike Antonines. By the Rev. 
W. Wolfe Capjis, M.A. With 2 Coloured Maps. 

The Athenian Empire from the Flight 

of Xerxes to the Fall of Athens. By the Rev. 
Sir G. W. Cox, Bart. M.A. Joint-Editor of the 
Series. With s Maps. 

The Greeks and the Persians. By the 

Rev. Sir G. W. Cox, Bart. M.A. Joint-Editor of 
the Series. With 4 Coloured Maps. 



The Rise of the Macedonian Empire. 

By Arthur M. Curteis, M.A. formerly Fellow 
of Trinity College, Oxford. With 8 Maps. 

Rome to its Capture by the Gauls. 

By WiLHELM Ihne, Author of ' History of Rome.' 
With a Coloured Map. 

The Roman Triumvirates. By the Very 
Rev. Charles Merivale, D.D. Dean of Ely. 
With a Coloured Map. 

The Spartan and Theban Supremacies. 
By Charles Sankev, M.A. Joint-Editor of the 
Series, Assistant-Master in Marlborough College. 
With 5 Maps. 

Rome and Carthage, the Punic Wars. 

By R. BoswoRTH Smith, M.A. Assistant-Master, 
Harrow School. With 9 Maps and Plans. 



EPOCHS OF MODERN HISTORY. 

Edited by C. Colbeck, M.A. 17 vols. fcp. Svo. with Maps, price 2s. 6d. each vol. 



The Normans in Europe. By Rev. A. 

H. Johnson, M.A. late Fellow of All Souls Col- 
lege, Oxford ; Historical Lecturer to Trinity, St. 
John's, Pembroke, and Wadham. Colleges. With 
3 Maps. 

The Crusades. By the Rev. Sir G. W. 

Cox, Bart. M.A. late Scholar of Trinity College, 
Oxford; Author of ihe 'Aryan Mythology,' &c. 
With a Colourd Map. 

The Beginning of the Middle Ages. 

By the Very Rev. Richard William Church, 
M.A. &c. Dean of St. Paul's and Honorary Fellow 
of Oriel College, Oxford. With 3 Coloured Maps. 

The Early Plant agenets. By the Right 

Rev. W. Stubbs, D.D. Bishop of Chester, With 
2 Coloured Maps. 

Edward the Third. By the Rev. W. 
Warburton, M.A. late Fellow of AH Souls Col- 
lege, Oxford ; Her Majesty's Senior Inspector of 
Schools. With 3 Coloured Maps and 3 Genea- 
logical Tables. 

The Houses of Lancaster and York; 

ivith the Conquest and Loss of France. By 
James Gairdner, of the Public Record Oflfice, 
Editor of 'The Paston Letters,' &c. With 5 
Coloured Maps. 

The Era of the Protestant Revolu- 

tion. By F. Seebohm, Author of 'The Oxford 
Reformers— Colet, Erasmus, More.' With 4 
Coloured Maps and 12 Diagrams on Wood. 

The Age of Elizabeth, By the Rev. M. 

Creighton, M.A. LL.D. Dixie Professor of Eccle- 
siastical History in the University of Camoridge. 
With 5 Maps ai.id 4 Genealogical Tables, 



The First Two Stuarts and the Puri- 

tan Revolution, 1603-1660. By Samuel Rawson- 
Gardiner, Author of ' The Thirty Years' War, 
1618-1648.' With 4 Coloured Maps.. 

The Fall of the Stuarts j and Western 

Europe from 1678 io 1697. By the Rev. Edward 
Hale, M,A. Assistant-Master at Eton. With n 
Maps arid Plans. 

The Age of Anne, By E. E. Morris, 

M.A. of Lincoln College, Oxford; Professor of 
English, &c. at the University of Melbourne. 
With 7 Maps and Plans. 

The Thirty Years' War, 1618-1648. By 
Samuel Rawson Gardiner, Fellow of All Souls 
College. With a Coloured Map. 

The Early Hanoverians, By E, E. 

Morris, M.A. Professor of English, &c. at the 
University of Melbourne. 

Frederick the Great and the Seven 

Years' War. By F. W. Longman, of Balliol 
College, Oxford. With 2 Maps. 

The War of American Independence, 

1775-1783. By J. M. Ludlow, Barrister-at-Law. 
With 4 Coloured Maps. 

The French Revolution^ 1789-1795. By 

Mrs. S. R. Gardiner, Author of * The Struggle 
Against Absolute Monarchy.' With 77 Maps. 

The Epoch of Reform^ 1830-1850, By 

Justin M'Carthy, M.P. Author of 'A History 
of Our Own Times. 



Spottls'wsode Sp' Co. Printers, New-street SqvarCi London,