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Galloway and the Covenanters: or. The st 


3 1924 029 476 003 

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Galloway and the Covenanters 












^nlilMhcr 1)G ^ppaintnunt ta tht lute (Qticen Victovia 



"Your honourable ancestors, with the hazard of their lives, brought Christ to 
our hands ; and it shall be cruelty to posterity if ye lose him to them." — Rutherfurd's 
letter to the Earl of CassiUis, Sept. g, 1637. 


It is not surprising that comparatively little is known 
of the Covenanters of Galloway. Their story is not 
to be found in any single volume, but must be gleaned 
here and there from many scarce and curious books 
and other out-of-the-way sources. Believing the 
story worthy of telling, and of preserving, I have 
endeavoured to gather the threads of it together, and 
the following pages are the result. It has been a 
labour of love, carried on amidst many difficulties, 
and it has assumed proportions I little dreamed of 
when I began. No one is more conscious of its defects 
and short-comings than I am myself, but when it 
became a question of this or nothing, I preferred this. 

I have freely availed myself of the works of others, 
and I have not hesitated to follow Wodrow closely, 
notwithstanding all that has been said against him. 

The articles in the latter part of the volume, so 
placed to be less cumbersome, are not in chronological 

" Many will be able to recognise the footprints of a remote ancestry, in situations, 
and under circumstances, of which they were previously ignorant. . . . ' Here, 
on this very spot where I now stand, centuries ago stood one whose blood I know, 
or believe, to be circling in my own veins. . . His eye has rested on the same 
object upon which mine own rests ; and has wandered over the surrounding expanse 
under all the varied moods of mind which that exciting period would necessarily call 
forth ; and which I can yet sympathise with and appreciate. In yonder village he 
must certainly have signed the Covenant's *' National and Solemn League " perhaps 
with that blood (many did so), a portion of which is the source of my own vitality. 
And it must have been under that time-scathed tree that his dwelling once stood — 
where he lived, worshipped, suffered (perhaps sinned), and died, for a cause which, 
if 1 think lightly of, I am not worthy of such a sire.' " — Preface to Minute Book of 
Stewartr^' War Committee. 




CHAPTER I., - - 25 

Early Scottish Covenants — Gordon of Aiids, the pioneer of the 
Eeformatiou in Galloway — Bishop Gordon of GaUoway turns 
Protestant — Parliament abolishes the jurisdiction of the 
Pope, and ratifies the Confession of Faith — First General 
Assembly of the Church of Scotland — Alexander Stewart of 
Garlies a member. 

CHAPTER II., ... - 32 

Queen Mary in Scotland — Knox and the Ayr Covenant — Quentin 
Kennedy, prior of Whithorn — Eupture between Knox and 
the Master of Maxwell — The Friars Charoh of Kirkcudbright 
granted by Mary to the Magistrates — Mary's marriage to 
Darnley — Rising of Protestant lords — Cassillis, Maxwell, 
Douglas, and Gordon of Lochinvar support the Queen — 
Darnley murdered — Mary marries Bothwell: is defeated, 
taken prisoner, and resigns the crown to her son James — 
Galloway nobles sign Articles to oblige future Kings to 
defend the true religion — Mary escapes — ^Many Galloway 
families support her, but the Stewarts, Dunbars, and M'Kies 
declare for the Begent — Langside — Mary flees to Galloway 
— The Regent burns Kenmure Castle and issues a Proclama- 
tion to the Wigtownshire lairds — Plotting among the nobles 
— Stewart of Garlies killed — Episcopacy established — The 
Begent Morton executed. 

CHAPTER III., - - . - 4.3 

The National Covenant — Pilgrimages prohibited, and Whithorn 
suffers — Galloway lairds on the assize for the Euthven con- 
spiracy — The Black Acts — Ministers refusing to comply to 
quit the country — Lord Maxwell goes to Spain to urge an 
attack on England — ^Returns and musters his followers to 
act in concert with the Spanish Armada — The King marches 
against him — Maxwell's narrow escape — He flees and takes 
a boat at Kirkcudbright, but is captured by Sir William 
Stewart, brother of Garlies — Act of Annexation — GaUoway 
Commissioners to enforce Acts against Jesuits, etc. — Galloway 
ministers to take subscriptions to National Covenant and 


Confession of Faith— The King's panegyric on the Church — 
The Charter of the Liberties of the Kirk— The Spanish 

CHAPTER IV., - . - 52 

Bothwell's attempt on the Crown — Strained relations between 
King and Kirk — ^A stormy meeting — The King's proclamation- 
against the ministers — ^He leaves Holyrood for Linlithgow — 
The ministers prepare for the worst, and invite Lord 
Hamilton to place himself at the head of those embracing 
the cause of the Kirk — The King marches on Edinburgh, and 
in the High Church justifies himself and blames the ministers. 

CHAPTER v., - - - - 55 

James introduces Episcopacy — Death of Elizabeth — James goes 
to England — Ministers assembled at Aberdeen apprehended — 
John Welsh — The Parson of Penninghame constituted Arch- 
deacon of Galloway — Gavin Hamilton made Bishop of 
Galloway — The High Commission Court and Galloway Com- 
missioners — The Glasgow Assembly of 1610 — ^Parliament 
rescinds the Act of 1592, the great Charter of Presbytery — 
The Five Articles of Perth opposed by Galloway ministers, 
being particularly obnoxious to Gallovidians — Death of James 
— Charles visits Scotland — Distributes honours — ^High Com- 
mission Court established with Commissioners from Galloway 
— Lord Galloway and Lord Kirkcudbright withdraw from the 
Court on its showing bias against Presbyterians — Robert 
Glendinning, minister of Kirkcudbright deprived of his living 
— The Kirkcudbright magistrates ordered to be imprisoned 
in Wigtown jail — William Dalgleish, minister of Kirkma- 
breck, deposed — Samuel Kutherfurd banished to Aberdeen. 


The Laud Liturgy — Jenny Geddes in St. Giles — King appealed 
to — People assemble in Edinburgh — Sydeserf Bishop of 
Galloway attacked, and Earls of Wigtown and Troqueer 
going to his assistance also put in danger — The National 
Covenant prepared — Signed in Grey Friars Church, Edin- 
burgh — Copies sent all over the country — Signed with 
enthusiasm in Galloway — Livingston, minister in Stranraer, 
takes copies to London — The King's threat against him — 
The King submits — The General Assembly of 1638 makes a 
clean sweep of the Bishops, and libels Sydeserf — Arranges 
Presbyteries and Synods — Preparations for war — Galloway 
commanders — Terms arranged — Presbyterians in Parliament 
—Civil war— Battle of Newburu — Gallantry of the Galloway 
troops — Son of Patrick M'Kie of Larg killed in the engage- 



Parliament confirms the overthrow of Episcopacy — Contest 
between Earl of Wigtown and Sir William Cowbuin for 
office of hereditary nsber — Galloway members of Parliament 
— Commissioners of Supply for Wigtownshire — The War 
Committee — The Galloway Commanders of horse and foot 
— The Solemn League and Covenant — Philiphaugh — Lord 
Kirkcudbright's regiment — James Agnew receives thanks of 
Parliament for his gallant conduct — Additional regiments 
raised in Galloway — New Parliament members for Galloway 
— List of War Committee for Wigtownshire, showing 
unanimity of baronage — Charles surrenders himself to the 
Scotch army — He is delivered to the English Commissioners, 
tried, and executed — The Scotch proclaim his son King — ' 
Commissioners sent to Hague to lay conditions before him — 
He ultimately accepts these and signs the National Covenant 
and the Solemn League, and is crowned — ^Act of Indemnity 
— Galloway Protesters and Resolutioners — Cromwell — The 
Galloway leaders divided — Cromwell's Ironsides disperse the 
Galloway levies — Kenmure Castle and the House of Freugh 
burned — Lord GaUoway fined £4,000. 

CHAPTER Vin., - 8,5 

Death of Cromwell — Restoration of Charles — Ministers arrested 
in Edinburgh — Cassillis refuses to sign Oath of Allegiance 
unless limited to civil affairs — Large sum voted to the 
King — List of Commissioners to collect in Wigtownshire and 
Stewartry — Parliament rescinds all Acts from 1640 — ^Restora- 
tion of Bishops — Sharp made Archbishop of St. Andrews — 
Act of Supremacy — Synod of Galloway preparing a Petition 
against Episcopacy is dissolved by the Earl of Galloway — 
Whithorn complains to Parliament — Presbytery of Kirkcud- 
bright appoint two of their members to present a Petition 
to the Privy Council — Reasonableness of the Petition — 
The Indemnity (so called) — Persons fined in Galloway. 


The Drunken Act — Nonconformist ministers in Galloway— Privy 
Council's Act against Galloway ministers — Certain Galloway 
ministers compear personally — Outed ministers — Origin of 
Conventicles — Induction of curates results in rioting at 
Kirkcudbright and Irongray— Commissioners proceed to 
Kirkcudbright— Lord Kirkcudbright and others sent prisoners 
to Edinbuigh^ — Earlston refuses to introduce curate to his 
parish — Commissioners proceed to Irongray — Arnot of Little- 
park sent prisoner to Edinburgh — Sympathetic visitors to 
the prison, and order by the Council — The Council's deliver- 
ance — Prisoners fined and banished. 



CHAPTER X., - - 106 

Act against Presbyterian ministers from Ireland coming to Scot- 
land — The Earl of Gallowa}' and others appointed to examine 
them — John Gordon of Stranraer prisoner for treasonable 
speeches — Episcopal ministers' trying time — Register of the 
Synod of Galloway — Complaints of parishioners absenting 
themselves from preaching ; of seditious ministers ; of their 
own hard necessitous condition; of conventicle keepers — 
Bond to be tendered to disorderly parishioners — The state 
of the Glenkens — Episcopalians get no support there — Kirk- 
cowan Curate cannot get a Session — Patrick Vans of Sorbie 
to be proceeded against for disorderly baptism. 

CHAPTER XL, - - 114 

Proceedings against Welsh, Semple, Blackadder, Arnot, Peden, 
and other ministers for keeping conventicles and baptising 
— The people persecuted for hearing outed ministers — Sir 
James Turner sent into Galloway to crush any opposition — 
The rising at Dairy — The sufferings endured in Galloway — 
Eines in Stewartry parishes — Quarterings and other aggrava- 


Bitter persecution after Pentland — Sir William Bannatyne sent 
into Galloway with large party of soldiers — Oppression of 
the people — Eoger Gordon of Holm, Earlston, David M'Gill 
of Dairy, Gilbert Monry in Marbreck, Alexander Gordon of 
Knockbrack — Bannatyne's horrible cruelty — ^List of persons 
pursued for forfeiture — Numbers ordered to be executed 
when taken — Change of King's advisers — King's Indemnity — 
Long list of exceptions — Bond to keep public peace — Parties 
appointed in Wigtownshire and the Stewartry to get it 
signed — Differences of opinion as to its true intent and 


Inquiry as to extortions by the military — Report showing what 
Galloway had to suffer from Sir James Turner — Turner 
dismissed — Bannatyne fined and removed from the Kingdom 
— Those who have failed to take advantage of the Indemnity 
to be seized — Lists of those in Carsphairu parish and Dairy 
parish — Attempt on Archbishop Sharp — Pentland prisoners 
dealt with — Another rising feared — Cockburn sent to the 
Glenkens — Cannon of Mardrochat taken prisoner, and turns 


infoimer — Indulgence — Withdrawal of troops from Galloway 
— ^Dissensions among the Covenanters in Galloway over the 
Indulgence— Mr. Park indulged to Stranraer, but Mr. 
Naismith appointed by the Bishop. 

CHAPTER XIV., - . 140 

The parishioners of Balmaclellan and Urr fined for outrages 
committed on their curates — Garthland ignores a letter from 
the Privy Council to grant Bow, curate of Balmaclellan, a 
presentation to Stonykirk— Gilbert M'Adam of Waterhead 
gets up two Bonds extorted from him — Parliament asserts 
the King's supremacy over all persons and in all causes 
ecclesiastical within the Kingdom — Galloway men present at 
armed conventicle in Fife — The Black Act — Field preaching 
a capital offence — CassUlis speaks fearlessly against it — 
Anna, Countess of Wigtown, fined for attending conventicles 
— Gordon of Dundengh gets up a Bond extorted from him — 
Another Indulgence to outed ministers — Parties sent out to 
apprehend conventicle preachers — Reward of £400 offered 
for arrest of Welsh or Semple — GaUoway lairds denounced 
for harbouring inter-communed persons — William M'Millan 
allowed to go to Balmaclellan — Welsh betakes himself to 
North of England. 


Proclamation that all heritors to bind themselves, and be 
responsible for their families and servants, not to attend 
conventicles, or baptize or marry with outed ministers — 
Galloway lairds protest — Murray of Bronghton appointed for 
Wigtown and Kirkcudbright to get the Bond signed — The 
Highland Host — Their instructions — Sheriffs of Wigtown, 
Kirkcudbright, and elsewhere get orders to convene heritors 
to sign bonds for themselves, families, servants, tenants and 
their families not to attend conventicles — Inhabitants to be 
disarmed — The King takes lawburrows against his subjects 
— The Highlanders ravage Ayrshire and Galloway — Lochnaw 
and the House of Freugh suffer from them — Highlanders 
return home laden with spoil as from a sacked city. 


Mnir, Commissary Clerk at Kirkcudbright, libelled for attending 
conventieles—M'Dowall of Garthland, Hay of Park, M'Dowall 
of Freugh, Blair of Dunskey, and others cited for resetting 
John Welsh — M'Dowall of Freugh tried for seditious speeches 
at instigation of Eow, the curate — Claverhouse quarters on 
M'Meekan of Miltonise — ^M'Meekan's wife's capture, escape, 
and re-capture — Bishop of Galloway gets dispensation to 


reside in Glasgow or Edinburgh — Thomas Warner cited for 
being at conventicles — Gordon of Earlston and many others 
denounced and put to the horn for being at conventicles — 
Proclamation for the arrest of Welsh, Semple, and Arnot. 


Troops quartered in Galloway — William Kyle, Galloway minister, 
captured — Sheriff's Depute appointed for Wigtownshire and 
the Stewartry to enforce laws against non-conformists — 
Galloway Presbyterians join others for self preservation — 
Drumclog — Many flock to the Covenanters — Divided counsels 
— Galloway horse exercise near Bothwell Bridge— Earl 
Nithsdale ordered to call out the whole gentlemen, heritors, 
and freeholders in Wigtownshire and the Stewartry, and 
march to Edinburgh — The Covenanters differ about the In- 
dulgence — Bitter feeling between them — They preach against 
each other — Supplication to Monmouth — The Covenanters 
cannot agree on anything, and are attacked by Livingstone 
— Gallant conduct of Galloway men who are ordered to retire 
from Bothwell Bridge — Defeat and rout of the Covenanters 
— Gordon of Earlston killed — Proclamation against rebels — 
Claverhonse follows the fugitives to Galloway, and harasses 
the country— Andrew Sword tried and executed. 

CHAPTER XVni., - - - 169 

The Scottish nobility petition the King against Lauderdale in 
" Some Particular Matters of Fact " — What Presbyterians 
admittedly had to suffer — Forfeitures against those at Both- 
well — Galloway gentlemen the first sacrifices — M'Dowall of 
Freugh forfeited, and his estate granted to Claverhouse — 
Other Galloway lairds forfeited — Bishop Aitken allowed to 
reside in Edinburgh — Commission to get lists of those at 
Bothwell — Instructions for regulating the Indulgence, with 
special reference to Galloway — Garrisons placed at Kenmure 
and Freugh. 


Graham has commission to uplift the moveables of fugitives in 
GaUoway — Court at New Galloway — The Societies — The 
Sanquhar Declaration supported by Galloway men — Pro- 
clamation against Cameron and others — ^AU persons over 
sixteen years of age to be cited in Minnigaff, Penninghame, 
Carsphairn, Balmaclellan, Dairy, Kells, Irongray, and other 
parishes to declare what they know of the traitors — The 
oath sworn by the King. 



Seven troops of horse and a regiment of foot sent into Galloway — 
The country harassed — Incredible losses inflicted in Galloway 
parishes — ^Ayrsmoss — John Malcolm, Dairy, captured and 
executed — The Sheriff of Galloway ordered to sentence 
tradesmen and others refusing to work for the orthodox 
clergy — Courts at New Galloway, Dairy, and Kirkcudbright 
— Proceedings ordered against those in Wigtown and Kirk- 
cudbright in the late rebellion — The Test Act — Garrisons at 
Dumfries and the House of Freugh — Persons forfeited for 
BothweU to be pursued to the death — List of those in 
Galloway — Sir James Dalrymple refuses the Test — The 
Steward of the Stewartry, Sir Andrew Agnew, Viscount 
Kenmure, and the Earl of Galloway refuse the Test, and 
are deprived of their heritable jurisdictions — Wigtown Burgh 
takes the Test. 

CHAPTER XXI., - - 193 

Glaverhouse sent into Galloway with troops — He is granted a 
Sheriff's commission for Kirkcudbright, Wigtownshire, and 
Dumfries — Letters from Glaverhouse referring to the Gordons 
and to Sir James Dalrymple of Stair — Glaverhouse captures 
M'Clurg, the Minnigaff smith — A trooper in trouble — Soldiers 
ordered to Kirkcudbright to secure Lord Livingstone in the 
Estates forfeited to him — Claverhoase writes Viscount Ken- 
mure to prepare his house for a garrison — -His persecutions 
— He seizes John Archibald, Anthony M'Bride, John 
Cleanochan, and John Wallace, imprisons them in Stranraer, 
and quarters horses at their houses — ^A troop of the horse in 

CHAPTER XXn., - - 203 

Major Learmond, Barscobe, and others captured, and ordered to 
be hanged — Execution not carried out — Letter showing how 
soldiers quartered in Galloway — ^Andrew Heron of Kirrough- 
tree dealt with for harbouring his son — Fined 5,000 merks, 
and imprisoned till it is paid — Glaverhouse forces Sir John 
Dalrymple to appear before the Council — Dalrymple fined 
£500, and committed to Edinburgh Castle till it is paid. 

CHAPTER XXni., - - - 208 

William Martin of DuUarg indicted for treason — He produces a 
renunciation, and the diet is deserted — William M'Clelland of 
Auchenguil, Hugh Maxwell of Cnill, and William M'Culloch 
of Cleichred libelled — Edward Atkin, Earlston's servant, 
sentenced to be hanged — Proclamation appointing persons 


to see the Test is taken in Galloway — John Cochrane of 
Waterside, tried at Ayr Circuit, and forfeited — William 
Thorburn of Stranraer forfeited — His sufferings — Comet 
Graham holds Courts at Balmaghie — Courts at the Clachan 
of Penninghame — William M'Bwmont refusing the Test, is 
banished, and dies at sea — Thomas Lidderdale's persecutions 
in Twynholm — Beport by Claverhouse on his work in 

CHAPTER XXIV., - - - - 215 

Coltrane, Provost of Wigtown, David Graham, and Sir Godfrey 
M'CuUoch of Mertoun tender the Test in Wigtownshire — 
List of Wigtownshire lairds refusing the Test — Wigtown 
Burgh grants Bond to the King — The Commissioners hold 
Courts at Wigtown — Examples of their dealings — ^Accused 
parties committed to irons, fined, banished to the plantations, 
and others sent for trial before the Lords of Justiciary. 


Commission to try " divers desperate rebels " in Kirkcudbright, 
Wigtown, and Dumfries — James M'Gachan in Dairy and 
others transported — Garrisons at Keumure, Machermore, 
Minnigaff, and Carsphairu — The Cochraues of Ochiltree and 
Waterside denounced rebels — The fugitive roll applicable 
to Galloway — " A list of very good people persecuted for 
conscience's sake" — Nearly 220 Galloway people to be 

CHAPTER XXVI., . - - - - 232 

New Justiciary Courts — Appointments for Wigtownshire, the 
Stewartry, and Dumfries — Instructions to seize all preachers, 
to turn out wives and children of forfeited persons, to im- 
pose fines and quarter on the stubborn, to suffer no man to 
travel with arms except gentlemen of known loyalty who 
have taken the Test; to allow no yeoman to travel three 
miles from his house without a pass — Hay of Park sent 
prisoner to Blackness — Liberated a year later on Bond for 
£1,000 — Courts at Dumfries, Kirkcudbright, and Wigtown — 
A " Cheerful " offer to his Majesty of twenty months' cess — 
WiUiam Martin and James Martin of DuUarg fined at Kirk- 
cudbright — Their sufferings — James Martin dies in prison — 
The Society's " Apologetical Declaration " — ^Proclamation 
against it — Cruel persecutions — James Graham, Crossmichael, 
executed, and William Auchenleck, Buittle, shot dead with- 
out any reason — The Laird of Lagg at Dairy — Courts at 
Twynholm and Kirkcudbright. 


CHAPTER XXVII., - - - - 240 

Women as well as men cited and examined on oath — Gavin 
M'Clymont, Carspbairn, has seven cows taken away — John 
Corson, Borgne, imprisoned and fined 6,000 merks — Intention 
to sentence his wife to be drowned at Kirkcudbright — Lagg 
holds Coarts at Carspbairn — Peter Pearson, curate of 
Carspbairn, sits in Court and informs against the inhabitants 
— The Glenkens has one visitation after another — Mrs. 
M'Dowall of Gillespie forced to retire to Ireland — Charles 
Stewart of Knock apprehended by Claverhonse, and im- 
prisoned in Stranraer — ^Anchencloy — The troops' oppressions 
in Galloway — John Hallam executed. 


Death of Charles — General Election, and members for Galloway 
— James grants an Indemnity — Sir James Dalryraple and 
others put to the horn — Edward Kyan, from Water of 
Minnock, shot dead — Dunbar of Baldoon, M'CuUoob of Myie- 
ton, and others, to assist Colonel Douglas to put down rebels 
— Five men shot at Ingleston cave — M'Kie of Larg with 
the rebels — Andrew M'Quhan shot dead — Second Sanquhar 
Declaration — David Halliday and George Short shot dead 
— Machermore garrison strengthened — Ochiltree, Earlston, 
Craighlaw, and other estates annexed to the Crown. 


Major Wynram stationed at Wigtown — Barnkirk house stripped 
— Tenant's wife imprisoned in Wigtown for eleven weeks 
with infant — John Wallace of Knockiebay has his house and 
stock despoiled — Remission to Sir James Dalrymple — ^His son 
made King's Advocate — James' Indulgences — The Cameron- 
ians hold out — Eenwiok seized and executed — Invitation to 
the Prince of Orange— His Declaration for Scotland — He 
lands at Torbay, accompanied by Sir James Dalrymple — ■ 
Report of 10,000 Irish Papists burning Kirkcudbright — The 
Privy Council's proclamation for the defence of religion — 
The Galloway Commanders — The Cameronians in arms — 
Griersou of Lagg — William orders a meeting of Scotch 
Estates at Edinburgh — The Galloway representatives — The 
Convention guarded by the Cameronians — Sir John Dal- 
rymple refutes the claim of Divine Eight put forward for 
James — The Crown settled on William and Mary — Parliament 
abolishes Prelacy — Synod of Galloway — General Assembly 




Sir James Turner sent into Galloway to collect fines — John 
M'Clelland of Barscobe, John Maxwell of Monreith, Colonel 
Wallace, and another rescue Grier from soldiers near Dairy, 
and induce others to join them — Encounter with soldiers at 
Balmaclellan — The Covenanters' Rising — ^March on Dumfries 
and seize it. Sir James Turner being taken prisoner — They 
return to Dairy, and proceed north — Welsh, Veitch, and 
M'Kail join them at Bridge of Doon — Invitation from Clydes- 
dale — March to Muirkirk — Renew the Covenants at Lanark, 
and issue Declaration — March to Bathgate — Their forlorn 
appearance — At Rullion Green — The Royal troops come up 
to them (28th November, 1666) and put them to flight — 
Proclamation by the Government — John Maxwell's narrow 
escape — Excerpt from Glasserton Session Records — Document 
showing William Maxwell had no accession to the Rebellion 
— Eleven prisoners sentenced to be executed, including, 
M'CuUoch of Barholm, Captain Arnot, and the Gordons of 
Kuockbrex—Neilson of Corsock executed, though Turner tries 
to save him — John Grierson and William Welsh hanged at 
Dumfries — Memorial stones and inscriptions — The Martyrs' 
monument and inscription — James Kirk's martyrdom — 
William Welsh, John M'Call, James Muirhead, and others 
sent to Ayr to be executed. 


A native of Roxburghshire — Professor of Humanity, 1623 — 
Resigns owing to unfounded rumours — Called to Anwoth, 
1627, through influence of Viscount Kenmure— His earnest life 
and great enthusiasm — Rutherfurd's witnesses on Mossrobin 
farm — Tragic death of dyker — Visit of Archbishop Ussher 
and traditions — The eleventh commandment — Rutherfurd 
summoned before High Commission Court, 1630 — ^Publishes 
his famous work against Jesuits and AJminians, 1636 — 
Summoned before the High Commission Court at Wigtown — 
Lord Lome, afterwards Marquis of Argyle, befriends him, 
but he is deposed and ordered to confine himself in Aberdeen 
— ^Letters to his parishioners — ^Returns to Anwoth, 1638 — 
Attends General Assembly of 1638 at Glasgow — Professor of 
Divinity at St. Andrews — Letters to people of Anwoth — 
Refuses professorship at Utrecht and Harderwick — Appointed 
one of the commission to Westminster Assembly — Publishes 
Lex Bex — Indicted for high treason — His answer to the 
summons — ^Died 19th March, 1661 — Inscription on tombstone 
— Monument near Gatehouse and inscription. 



Burial place of GaUoway families — Martyr's tombstone and in- 
scription — Bell of Whiteside, his thrilling adventures and 
hairsbreadth escapes — David Halliday of Mayfield, Robert 
Lennox of Irelandton, Andrew M'Bobert, Beoch, James 
Clement, and Bell surrender on promise of quarter, but are 
immediately shot — Viscount Kenmnre challenges Lagg for 
his barbarities — Tombstone in Balmaghie churchyard to 
Halliday and inscription — Tombstone in Twynholm church- 
yard to M'Robert and inscription — Tombstone in Girthon 
churchyard to Lennox and inscription — Tombstone to 
James Clement and inscription — Monument and inscription. 


Kirkwood of Sanquhar helps two Galloway Covenanters to escape 
— Piersou of Carsphairn a zealous persecutor — Some of the 
Covenanters go to reason with him — ^A scuffle — Pierson is 
shot by M'Michael — M'Michael responsible for a previous 
tragedy, having inflicted a mortal wound on Eoan near Dairy 
— Engaged in Enterkin Pass rescue — M'Michael killed on 
Auchencloy Hill — ^Robert Ferguson, Robert Stuart, and John 
Grier shot— Martyrs' tombstone in Dairy churchyard and in- 
scription — Tombstone to Ferguson and inscription — Martyrs' 
monument and inscription — Tombstone in Kirkcudbright 
churchyard to William Hunter and Robert Smith. 



Born in Ayrshire about 1626 — Minister of New Luce, 1659 — 
Ejected by the Drunken Act, 1662 — Farewell services — ^A 
wanderer among the wilds of the South-west of Scotland — 
Charged with conventicle keeping — Joined Dairy rising but 
left them at Lanark — Forfeited by Act, 1669 — Miraculous 
escapes — Arrested by Major Cowburn and sent to Bass 
Rock — Transferred to Edinburgh Tolbooth — Sentenced to be 
transported to Virginia — Sails from Leith with sixty others 
banished — Foretells their delivery — Liberated — Returns to 
Scotland — Foretells the Covenanters' defeat at Bothwell — 
Preaching in GaUoway — Predicts his own death, and that his 
body will be raised from the grave — His prophecy of the 
death of John Brown fulfilled — His last illness, death, and 
burial— His body raised from the grave, and re-interred 
by the soldiers at Cumnock — Tombstone and inscription — 
Monument and inscription. 



Martyrs' tombstone to John Wallace, WiUiam Heron, John 
Gordon, and William Stuart — Monument and inscription — 
Story of their martyrdom — Edward Gordon and Alexander 
M'Cnbbin hanged at Irongray — Tombstone and inscription — 
Bobert Grierson banished to West Indies, and returns after 
the Eevolution. 


Earlston Castle — Disciples of Wickliffe welcomed to Earlston — 
Beligious meetings in Wood of Airds — Alexander Gordon, 
refusing to receive curate at Dairy, is fined and banished to 
Montrose — Member of General Assembly of 1638 — The Bishop 
unsuccessfully objects to him — Some of Butherfurd's letters 
addressed to his son William — William refuses to assist 
Commission to settle curate at Irongray, and himself claims 
the right of patronage — Indicted for conventicle keeping 
and banished — Eeturns to Scotland — Prepares to join 
the Covenanters at Bothwell, but, being delayed, sends his 
sou and follows later — Not knowing of the Covenanters' 
defeat, he encounters a body of English dragoons at Crookit- 
stone, and refusing to submit is killed — Buried in Glassford 
churchyard — Monument to his memory and inscription — His 
son's narrow escapes — Alexander Gordon elected by the 
Societies to advocate their cause abroad— He is apprehended 
while setting sail at Newcastle, and casts his papers over- 
board — He is taken to London, sent to Scotland, and con- 
demned to be beheaded— Intention to torture him to get 
confessions and implicate others — Thrice reprieved, and then 
sent to Bass Eock — The Eevolution sets him free — Lady 
Earlston's Soliloquies — Earlston a member of the Convention 
which settled the Crown on William and Mary. 


iWilliam M'Millan of Caldow persecuted and becomes fugitive — 
Goes to Ireland — Licensed to preach — ^Arrested in Galloway — 
Extract from Kirkcudbright Burgh Eecords, showing an 
order for his removal to Edinburgh Tolbooth — Imprisoned 
at Dumfries for thirty-five months without any charge — 
Liberated — Failing to appear is denounced rebel — Arrested 
and taken to Wigtown — Sent to Kirkcudbright and then to 
Dumfries Castle — Imprisoned in Edinburgh and afterwards 
at Dunottar. 



Names of Committee and of those who received their instructions 
— Commissioners — Gold and silver plate surrendered for the 
cause — List of those delivering up silver work with details — 
Assessment imposed, and crops valued — Valuers — Definition 
of " cold covenanter " — Reports by members of Committee 
of cold covenanters in their respective parishes. 


Blames his father for harbouring Covenanters — ^Meets Eenwick — 
Throws in his lot with the Covenanters — Father's opposition 
— Leaves home — Adventures and escapes — ^Eeturns to Kirk- 
cowan after the Revolution. 

CHAPTER XL., - - 364 

Patrick Laing — John Ferguson of Weewoodhead — John Clark — 
Escape from Edinburgh prison — Samuel Clark — John Fraser 
— John Clement — John Dempster — Retribution — David 
M'Briar — Bailie Muirhead of Dumfries — M'Roy of Half Mark 
— The Gordons of Largmore — Eenwick in Galloway — His 
adventures and escapes — M'Lurg shoots a spy and wields 
the Galloway Flail — Kirkcudbright Burgh Records — ^Robert 
M'Whae — The Kirkandrews Martyr — ^Alexander Linn — Craig- 
moddie, Kirkcowan. 



Awe inspiring circumstances — Congregation of 3,000 to 6,000 — 
JTatnral surroundings — Sentinels posted — The memorials of 
the communion — Samuel Arnot preached in the morning — 
Welsh preached " the action sermon," and Blackadder and 
John Dickson of Rutherglen took part — ^Blackadder's simple 
and impressive eloquence — " The enemy are coming, make 
ready for the attack " — The Clydesdale men form in battle 
array — The men of Galloway and Nithsdale follow their 
example — Rumours that the enemy are about, but no trace 
of them can be got — The assembly disperses, guarded to 
different points by horse and foot — Torrential rainfall — Huge 
conventicle next day with horse and foot on guard — Monu- 
ment and inscription — Communion cups amissing — The Old 
Jail at Scaur and its tradition — Escape of Welsh of Scaur — 
Similar story about John Clark of Drumcloyer — The Rev. 
John Blackadder, minister of Troqueer. 



Tombstone at Caldons Wood and inscription — The fiist erected 
by Old Mortality — James and Bobert Dun, Thomas and John 
Stevenson, James M'Clive, and Andrew M'Call — Tradition 
of their martyrdom — Captain Urquhart's dream and death — 
Letter from privy council — A romantic story — Narrow escape 
—The Dons of Benwhat. 

CHAPTER XLin., 406 


Wodrow's narrative — The execution on 11th May, 1685 — Scenes at 
the Bladnoch — Buried in Wigtown churchyard — Tombstones 
and inscriptions — Napier's Case for the Crown in re. the 
Wigtown Martyrs froved to be Myths — Petition by Margaret 
M'Lauchlan for recall of sentence of death — A reprieve 
granted, but not given effect to — Procedure in another case 
showing pardon granted — Wigtown case had no such ending 
— Proof of martyrdom shown by (1) Tradition, (2) Early 
pamphlets, (3) Earlier Histories, (4) Minutes of local Church 
Courts, Kirkinner, Penninghame, and Wigtown, (5) Monu- 
mental evidence — Miscellaneous — Singular dream of Margaret 
M'Lauchlau's daughter re. Provost Coltrain of Drummorral 
— The Stirling monument — The Wigtown monument. 


William Johnstone — John Milroy — George Walker — Peden's pro- 
phecy — The Milroys of Kirkcalla, captured and tortured, 
mutilated and banished — Gilbert Milroy survives the 
Bevolution and returns to Kirkcowan. 


The sufferings in Penninghame — The sufferings in Kirkinner — 
William Graham, the Crossmichael Martyr — Grierson of 
Balmaclellan — The M'Cartneys of Blaikit — John Gordon, 
Viscount Kenmure, and Lady Kenmure — Gabriel Semple — 
John Livingstone, minister of Stranraer — Knox in Galloway 
— The Coves of Barholm— The Galloway Covenants of 1638 
— Borgue Covenant and signatures — Minnigaff Covenants and 

INDEX, - - 479 


Nothing stirs the enthusiasm of Scotsmen more than 
the story of the trials and triumphs of the Covenanters, 
and yet we are apt to forget that the civil and religious 
liberties which we now enjoy and take too much as a 
matter of course have been secured to us only by the 
noble stand and heroic sacrifices of our covenanting 

No part of Scotland figured more prominently in 
the struggle for religious liberty than the south-west 
corner called Galloway. From the dawn of the 
Scottish Reformation in the beginning of the sixteenth 
century to that wonderful Revolution in the end of 
the seventeenth, Galloway was the theatre of many 
of the vital events of that most critical time. The 
principal actors might play their parts elsewhere, but 
to Galloway they came too, and the stage is crowded 
with men and women of all creeds and of all (characters. 
Here we meet with the stern and unrelenting Knox; 
the beautiful but ill-fated Mary; Gordon of Airds, 
Cassillis, and Garlics, our early reformers; Anna, 
Countess of Wigtown, fined for conventicle keeping; 
the Earl of Wigtown, ever foremost in the Privy 
Council against Presbyterians ; Claverhouse, the heart- 
less persecutor; Lagg, the notorious; Sir James Turner 
and Sir William Bannatyne sent to crush the Coven- 
anters, the former captured by a handful of Galloway 


mea and the latter banished for his misdeeds; the 
Earls of Linlithgow, Galloway, Annandale, Queens- 
berry, Drumlanrig, and Kenmure; the Dalrymples of 
Stair; Dunbars of Mochrum; Agnews of Lochnaw; 
Macdoualls of Logan ; Murrays of Broughton ; Herons 
of Kirroughtree; Dunbars of Maehermore; M'CuUochs 
of Bar holm; Gordons of Earlston — and in fact all the 
Galloway nobility and baronage and families of note; 
Peden the Prophet; Eutherfurd of Anwoth; John 
Welsh; Samuel Arnot, Gabriel Sample, and many 
other outed ministers; Margaret M'Lachlan and 
Margaret Wilson, the martyrs drowned in Bladnoch; 
Neilson of Corsock; Cameron, Cargill, and B,enwick, 
the last of the martyrs; and a host of others whose 
names will be found in the pages that follow. 

Here the Covenanters first took to arms and marched 
against their oppressors, and ever afterwards, where- 
ever a Declaration or Claim of B,ight was to be made 
or a blow struck for freedom, the men of Galloway 
were foremost in the fray. Pentland, Drumclog, 
Bothwell, Ayrsmoss, and the Sanquhar Declarations 
all testify that the men of Galloway never shirked 
their duty, however dangerous it might be. The Privy 
Council might thunder against them the most terrible 
denunciations, might send upon them vast forces of 
horse and foot, let loose the Highland Host, and 
subject them to the bitterest persecution that the most 
cruel heart could imagine, yet in their principles they 
remained firm and immovable as the granite rocks of 
their beloved Galloway. 


Words cannot picture the sufferings that they en- 
dured. Age or sex was no protection. Women were 
imprisoned, fined, and tortured for speaking to their 
hushands, and not revealing their hiding places, so 
that they might be captured and shot. Parents were 
similarly treated for their children, and children for 
their parents. History affords scarce any parallel to 
the atrocities committed. The country was devoured 
with fire and sword. The people were hunted and 
shot down on the moors and mountains like vermin, 
their bodies refused burial, and even when interred 
by friends raised again and hung on a gibbet. For a 
time the land was literally soaked with the blood of 
the martyrs, and there is scarcely a churchyard in 
Galloway but has its monument to the memory of the 
men and women who endured to the death rather than 
betray those principles which they held so dear. 
Others were imprisoned, fined of all they possessed, 
soldiers quartered on them till everything was eaten 
up, their crops deliberately wasted, their horses, cattle, 
and sheep driven away, their houses burned down, and 
the very plenishing destroyed or carried off. Women 
were outraged, and, as well as men, were tortured, 
mutilated, and banished from the country, many of 
them being ship-wrecked and lost. Their cattle and 
sheep were seized, and brought into the churches, and 
cooked at fires made from the pews and seats. The 
very plantations were burned, and the whole country 
left desolate. Trade and agriculture were at a stand- 
still, and famine was in sight when the dawn broke. 


We can to-day scarcely realise that all this was done 
simply because the people claimed the liberty to read 
the Bible, and to worship God according to their con- 
science; yet even the most prejudiced will admit that 
these were the objects, pure and disinterested, of the 
early Scottish Reformers, whatever motives they may 
ascribe to some who joined the Presbyterians towards 
the end of the struggle. If some who did not truly 
share the views of the Covenanters joined with thein 
in the hope of gaining a material advantage, the 
Covenanters were not to blame, and if individuals of 
the Covenanters in their desperation were led to 
commit deeds of which we cannot approve, let us not 
forget that they were driven to it by the terrible 
persecutions and sufferings they endured; let us not 
judge the whole by these isolated actions, which were 
as soundly condemned by the Covenanters generally 
as they can possibly be by us. Let us not linger over 
the mistakes of the movement, but look to the glorious 
victory which the Covenanters achieved, the fruits of 
which the world is now enjoying. 


♦ »< ♦ 


Early Scottish Covenants — Gordon of Airds, the pioneer of the 
Eeformation in Galloway — Bishop Gordon of Galloway turns 
Protestant — Parliament abolishes the jurisdiction of the 
Pope, and ratifies the Confession of Faith — First General 
Assembly of the Church of Scotland — Alexander Stewart of 
Garlies a member. 

The story of the Scottish Covenants goes back to the 
time of Knox. In the beginning of the sixteenth 
century, Scotland, in common with the rest of Europe, 
was under the sway of the Pope. Already reformers 
had been active on the Continent, and some of them 
had paid the penalty with their lives, but a glimmer 
of light from the martyrs' fires had pierced even to 
Scotland, so true it is that no good work is done in 
vain. Knox tells us that in 1556 most of the gentle- 
men of Mearns vowed to refuse all society with 
idolatry, and bound themselves to the utmost of their 
power to maintain the true preaching of the Evangel 



of Jesus Christ. It is not certain whether this was a 
written Bond or a verbal undertaking. The following 
year, however, a written Bond was entered into at 
Edinburgh, by which the subscribers vowed that " we, 
by His Grace, shall, with all diligence, continually 
apply our whole power, substance, and our very lives 
to maintain, set forward, and establish the most blessed 
word of God." Many copies of this Bond were sent 
out for signature, and a copy in the National Museum 
of Antiquities in Edinburgh has the signatures of 
Argyl, Glencairn, Morton, Lome, and John Erskine. 

Galloway was not behind in the great work of 
Reformation. Early in the sixteenth century, Alex- 
ander Gordon of Airds, in the Stewartry, entertained 
some of the followers of Wycliffe, and had a New 
Testament in the Vulgar Tongue, which he read to 
his neighbours, in a wood near his house, at a time 
when severe pains and penalties were enacted against 
all who did so. Among those who held the same views 
and attended these secret devotional meetings was 
Alexander Stewart, the eldest son of Stewart of 
Garlics. He was sent to England as a hostage for 
his father, who had been taken prisoner at Solway 
Moss, and, on his return, he preached the reformed 
religion in Dumfries. He was zealous for the 
Reformation, and was a Commissioner from the Kirks 
of Nithsdale to the General Assembly in 1560. 

In the Scots Parliament of 1543, the first legislative 
step to the final overthrow of the Roman Catholic 
religion had been taken. The Solway Moss prisoners 
had been thrown into company in England which 


confirmed their Protestant leanings. Cassillis had 
lived chiefly with Cranmer and Latimer, and Garlies 
witli followers of Wycliffe. Thus it came about that 
a motion was made by Lord Maxwell, a Catholic, 
that the Bible should be allowed to be read in the 
vulgar tongue. This was bitterly opposed by Arch- 
bishop Dunbar, a native of Galloway, and many 
others, but, after much discussion, it was carried, and, 
for the first time in Parliamentary strife, the prelates 
found themselves in a minority in the Estates. 

The Archbishop had been Prior of Whithorn, and 
was a son of David Dunbar of Mochrum, and Janet, 
daughter of Sir Alexander Stewart of Garlies. lie 
conducted the education of the young King, and dis- 
charged this important trust with much satisfaction 
to the rulers of the kingdom, and James took many 
opportunities of showing his gratitude to his early 
benefactor. When Beaton was appointed to the 
primacy of Scotland, Dunbar became Archbishop of 

Dunbar and Bishop Wemyss of Galloway afterwards 
took part in the proceedings against George Wisi\art. 
When banished from St. Andrews, Wishart came to 
South Ayrshire and Galloway. He was supported by 
Lord Cassillis, Lord Glencairn, and his son. Lord 
Kilmaurs, and more especially by the young Laird 
of Garlies. William Harlow, in Dumfries, on 23rd 
October, 1558, denounced the Mass as rank idolatry, 
and proclaimed the pure Gospel of Salvation in Christ. 
He had begun his mission at Garlies, no doubt with 
the warm approval of Alexander Stewart. When the 


Dean sent a legal emissary to Harlow to ask by whose 
authority he preached, being a layman, Garlies, who 
had been threatened with proceedings for encouraging 
heretical preachers and doctrines, boldly answered, " I 
do avow them, and will maintain and defend such 
against any or all kirkmen that may be put at them." 

In Wigtownshire the good work had otherwise made 
a beginning. John M'Briar, Canon of Glenluce, re- 
nounced his vows in 1548, and preached the reformed 
religion. He was apprehended, and imprisoned in 
Hamilton Castle, whence he was rescued by John 
Lockhart of Barr, and escaped to England. 

In 1558, an enraged crowd in Edinburgh attacked 
the procession in honour of St. Giles, the patron saint 
of the city, smashed the image of the saint, and mal- 
treated those taking a principal part in the pro- 
ceedings. Andrew Durie, the Bishop of Galloway, 
received such a fright on this occasion that he died 
shortly afterwards. He was succeeded by Alexander 
Gordon, son of John Gordon, Master of Huntly, and 
Jane Stewart, natural daughter of James IV. Gordon, 
however, had not long succeeded till he embraced the 
Protestant faith, and has the distinction of being the 
first prelate in Scotland to do so. 

The leaders in the reform movement banded 
themselves together in an association called " The 
Congregation," which quickly grew in numbers and 
influence. " The Congregation," in 1559, summoned 
to Edinburgh a Parliamentary Convention, which 
suspended the Queen Regent, and elected a Council 
for the management of public affairs, four ministers 


being appointed to assist in the consideration of 
religious matters. These were Knox, Willock, Good- 
man, and Gordon. 

In 1559, the Reformers entered into three Covenants, 
the first at Perth on 31st May, " to put away all things 
that dishonour His name, that God may be truly and 
purely worshipped." The second in July, at Edin- 
burgh, was afterwards adopted at St. Andrews as 
" The Letteris of Junctioun to the Congregatioun," 
and, as such, was taken by more than three Imndred 
persons. The third Covenant was entered into at 
Stirling on 1st August — all having as their general 
object the advancement of the Reformation. Another 
Covenant was entered into at Edinburgh on 27th April, 
1560, and in this Bond reference is made to the oppres- 
sion by the French and the help expected from the 
English. These were changed days from the time 
when Scotland and France were great allies, but the 
religious struggle in which Scotland as well as England 
was engaged, was breaking up old compacts, forming 
new friendships, and making many great changes. 
This Covenant, Knox tells us, was signed by all the 
nobility, barons, and gentlemen professing Christ 
Jesus in Scotland. 

These Covenants led to the Confession of Faith, 
prepared by Knox, Winram, Spottiswoode, Willock, 
Douglas, and Row. 

Parliament met at Edinburgh in August, 1560, and, 
as the Reformers were in the majority, the state of 
religion was naturally the foremost subject of con- 
sideration. Among the members were Alexander 


Gordon, Bishop of Galloway; Gilbert Brown,* Abbot 
of New Abbey; Edward Maxwell, Abbot of Dun- 
drennan; Robert Richardson, Commendator of St. 
Mary's Isle; the Earls of Cassillis and Morton; the 
Master of Maxwell; the Barons of Lochinvar and 
Gar lies. This Parliament repealed the Acts favouring 
the Church of Rome, abolished the jurisdiction of the 
Pope in Scotland, prohibited the celebration of Mass 
under pain of death for the third conviction, and 
ratified the Confession of Faith, which continued from 
1560 to 1647 the recognised standard of the Church 
of Scotland. 

The first Book of Discipline was prepared for the 
future government of the Church. It gave rise to 
considerable discussion, was bitterly opposed, and 
many of the nobles absolutely refused to sign it. The 
clergy, however, approved of it. Two of its points may 
be noted. It provided for the institution of parish 
schools, and it committed the election of ministers to 
the people. The Book of Discipline and the Confession 
of Faith were both approved of by Alexander Gordon, 

* Brown was descended from the ancient family of Carsluith in 
Kirkmabreck parish. Over the armorial bearings above the door 
of Carsluith is the date 1364, and under that, 1581. About the 
year 1600 this Gilbert was engaged in a controversy with the cele- 
brated John Welsh who was sometime minister at Kirkcudbright 
and afterwards at Ayr. Welsh attacked the principles of the 
Roman Catholic faith, and Brown wrote an answer. Welsh, in 
replying, proposed a pubhc disputation, which Brown declined. 
Brown was apprehended about 1607, and sent to Blackness. 
A few days afterwards he was removed to Edinburgh Castle. 
Shortly after that, he was allowed to leave the kingdom, and died 
in France in I6I3. 


the Earl of Morton, the Master of Maxwell, and the 
Barons of Gar lies and Lochinvar. 

One Act ever to be regretted passed by this Parlia- 
ment was that which provided for demolishing Abbey 
Churches. Spottiswoode tells us that a pitiful de- 
vastation ensued. The churches were either defaced 
or pulled to the ground, the vessels employed for 
religious uses were destroyed or sold, and — greatest 
loss of all, the libraries and Church manuscripts were 
cast into the fire. The monasteries of Galloway 
suffered less than those of other places, thanks to the 
good offices of Lord Maxwell and other powerful pro- 
prietors. Thus the Abbey of Luce sustained no injury, 
and Dundrennan Abbey remained intact for the 
present, though it was afterwards burned down. 

It may be noted that the first General Assembly of 
the Church of Scotland was held in December, 1560, 
in the Church of St. Mary Magdelene in the Cowgate 
of Edinburgh. There were only forty-two members, 
and only six of these are named as ministers. As 
already mentioned. Garlics represented the Kirks of 



Queen Mary in Scotland — Knox and the Ayr Covenant — Quentin 
Kennedy, prior of Whithorn — Rupture between Knox and 
the Master of Maxwell — The Friars Church of Kirkcudbright 
granted by Mary to the Magistrates — Mary's marriage to 
Darnlej' — Eising of Protestant lords — Cassillis, Maxwell, 
Douglas, and Gordon of Lochinvar support the Queeu — 
Darnley murdered — Mary marries Bothwell: is defeated, 
taken prisoner, and resigns the crown to her son James — 
Galloway nobles sign Articles to oblige future Kings to 
defend the true religion — Mary escapes — Many Galloway 
families support her, but the Stewarts, Dunbars, and M'Kies 
declare for the Regent — Langside — Mary flees to Galloway 
— The Regent burns Kenmure Castle and issues a Proclama- 
tion to the Wigtownshire lairds — Plotting among the nobles 
— Stewart of Garlics killed — Episcopacy established — The 
Regent Morton executed. 

Mary Queen of Scots returned to Scotland from 
France in 1561, her husband, Francis II., having died 
at Orleans on 6th December, 1560. In 1562, she pro- 
ceeded North as far as Inverness, winning many to 
her side as she went. The following year, Mary came 
to Galloway. She visited the Stewarts at Clary and 
at Garlics, and she was entertained for two days, 
13th and 14th August, 1563, by Sir John Gordon of 
Kenmure. Considerable apprehension arose among 
some of the Reformers as the result of her progress, 
and Knox, alarmed by the rumours, prevailed on many 
of the gentlemen of Ayr to enter into another Covenant 


at Ayr on 4th September, 1562, in support of the true 

This Covenant was in the following terms: — 

" We, whose names are under-written, do promise, 
in the presence of God, and of his Son our Lord 
Jesus Christ, that we, and every one of us, shall 
and will maintain and assist the preaching of his 
Holy Evangel, now of his mere mercy offered unto 
this realm, and also will maintain the ministers of 
the same against all persons, power, and authority 
that will oppose the doctrine proposed, and by us 
received. And further, with the same solemnity, 
we protest and promise that every one of us shall 
assist others, yea, and the whole body of Pro- 
testants within this realm, in all lawful and just 
actions against all persons ; so that whosoever shall 
hurt, molest, or trouble any of our body shall be 
reputed enemy to the whole, except the offender 
will be content to submit himself to the judgment 
of the Kirk now established among us. And this 
we do, as we desire to be accepted and favoured 
of the Lord Jesus, and re-accounted worthy of 
credit and honesty in the presence of the Godly. 
At the borough of Ayr, the ferd * day of Septem- 
ber, the year of God, MDLXII." 

Knox was appointed by the General Assembly of 
1562 to visit the churches in Kyle, Galloway, and 

• Fourth. 


At Dumfries he carried through the election of 
iMr. Eobert Pont as Moderator for the congregations 
in Dumfries and Galloway. Pont was entrusted with 
the payment of parish ministers, the visitation of kirks, 
and generally the duties hitherto devolving upon the 
bishop. Knox had conferences with many individuals 
of note on his way, and Quentin Kennedy of the House 
of Cassillis, prior of Whithorn and Abbot of Crosa- 
raguel, challenged the Reformer to a public discussion, 
which afterwards took place at Maybole. In May, 
1563, this same Quentin was tried for having the 
previous month celebrated Mass in defiance of "an 
Act and Proclamation," and was adjudged to be put 
in ward within the Castle of Dumbarton. He seems, 
however, to have kept out of the way, and could not 
be apprehended. It is interesting to note that among 
those on the Assize were Lochinvar, Sir John Maxwell 
of Terregles, John Dunbar of Mochrum, and Gavin 
Dunbar of Baldoon. At this time, Malcolm Fleming, 
Commendator of Whithorn, was also proceeded against 
for celebrating Mass, and was ordered to be put in 
ward in Stirling Castle, there to remain during the 
pleasure of the Queen. 

Mary's first Parliament in 1563 passed an Act of 
Indemnity since March, 1558, and the Earl of Morton 
and the Commendator of St. Mary's Isle were among 
the Commissioners appointed to consider who were to 
get this privilege. 

When Mary was on a visit to Stirling, Mass was 
celebrated in the Royal Chapel at Holyrood, and two 
Presbyterian ministers forced their way into the chapel 


and denounced the proceedings. Mary ordered them 
to be put on trial for forethought felony, and Knox 
at once summoned the brethren to meet him in Edin- 
burgh to make common cause with the two ministers. 
This led to a rupture between Knox and the Master 
of Maxwell. Knox insisted that in spiritual matters 
he owed no allegiance to any earthly sovereign. Max- 
well listened respectfully, and then replied, " Well, 
you will find men will not bear with you in time 
to come as they have in the past." He then withdrew 
in company with Gordon of Lochinvar, and the old 
familiarity between them was never renewed. Knox 
was afterwards tried for treason, but unanimously 

In 1564, the General Assembly besought the Queen 
to grant the Friars' Church of Kirkcudbright to the 
Magistrates to be used as a parish church. She did 
so, and it became the place of worship for a Protestant 

Mary's marriage to Darnley in 1565 led to the rising 
of the Protestant lords, who were joined by Maxwell 
and Douglas of Drumianrig. The Earl of Cassillis and 
Lord Fleming approved of the marriage. Maxwell 
wrote to the Queen that he had advised his friends to 
disband, and that they were going to Dumfries to 
consider the position. They refused to take Maxwell's 
advice. Three thousand troops speedily assembled 
under Mary's banner, and marched to Dumfries. As 
they approached, the Protestant lords withdrew to 
Carlisle, but Maxwell, Douglas, and Gordon of 
Lochinvar waited the arrival of the royal army, their 


loyalty on this occasion proving stronger than their 
love for the reformed religion. These formed a 
powerful trio, and still more powerful and equally 
devoted to the cause of the Queen was the Earl of 
Cassillis, whose influence in the South-west was pro- 

" Frae Wigtoun to the toon o' Ayr, 
Portpatrick to the Cruives o' Cree, 
Nae man need think for to bide there 
Unless he ride wi' Kennedy." 

On 9th February, 1567, Darnley was murdered. 
Bothwell was the chief conspirator, and there can be 
no doubt but Mary was cognisant of the whole plot. 
On 15th May following, Mary married Bothwell. 
This proved her undoing. Few had heart to support 
her cause, and a month later she was taken prisoner 
by the Earl of Morton, and lodged in Lochleven Castle, 
and there Mary, on 24th July, 1567, was prevailed 
upon to resign the Crown to her infant son, James, 
and to constitute the Earl of Moray Regent of the 
realm. The following day the nobles, barons, and 
commissioners of towns signed certain Articles — in 
fact, another Covenant — in which they bound them- 
selves, among other things, to punish crimes, especially 
the murder of Darnley, to defend the young prince, 
and bring him up in the fear of God, and to oblige 
future Kings and rulers to promise before their 
Coronation to maintain, defend, and set forward the 
true religion. Among those who subscribed this were 
the following: — The Earl of Morton, Alexander Gor- 
don, Bishop of Galloway, Kennedy of Blairwham, 


Dunbar of Mochrum, Douglas of Drumlanrig, James 
Dalrymple of Stair, predecessor of the Earl of Stair, 
Stewart of Garlies, Thomas MacDowaU, Charles 
Murray of Cockpool, afterwards Viscount of Annan 
and Earl of Annandale, Gordon of Lochinvar, Mac- 
lellan of Bombie, James Rig, Provost of Dumfries, 
James Wallace in Dumfries, M'CuUoch of Cardoness, 
John Gordon, younger, of Craighlaw, John Cathcart 
of Carleton, the Laird of Myretoun, Murray of 
Broughton, Alexander Criohton of Newhall, Patrick 
M'Kie of Larg, Roger Grierson of Lag, Vaus or Vans 
of Barnbarroch, and William Kirkpatrick of Kirk- 

On 2nd May, 1568, Mary escaped from Loch Leven 
Castle, and many powerful nobles ranged themselves 
on her side. These included the Lords Herries and 
Maxwell, the Abbot of Dundrennan, Gordon of Loch- 
invar, Maclellan of Bombie, Douglas of Drumlanrig, 
Sheriff Agnew of Galloway, Bishop Gordon of Gallo- 
way, the Commendators of Dundrennan, Soul-seat, and 
Glenluce, the Kennedys headed by the M'CuUochs, 
Gordons of Craighlaw, the Baillies of Dunragit, all 
of whom put their forces in the field. The Stewarts 
of Garlies, the Dunbars, and the M'Kies declared for 
the Regent. The close connection of the Stewarts with 
Darnley accounts for them having remained un- 
softened to Mary during her subsequent troubles. Six 
thousand men gathered under Mary's banners, but 
Langside, 13th May, 1568, proved fatal to her cause. 
Among her supporters taken prisoners were the eldest 
sons of the Earls of Eglinton and Cassillis, and the 


Sheriff of Ayr. Mary herself watched the engagement 
from an eminence half a mile distant, and when she 
eaw that all was lost, she sought safety in flight. She 
was accompanied by the Master of Maxwell and his 
followers of Galloway men, who were accused of 
seizing the horses of their companions in arms to make 
greater speed. A tradition has come down that, when 
they were passing through the Glenkens, Earlston 
Castle, which had been built by and was occasionally 
the residence of Bothwell, was pointed out to Mary, 
and that she became much agitated and burst into 
tears. There is, however, good reason to doubt whether 
Mary came this way. The result of careful historical 
research is rather in favour of the Dumfriesshire route. 
Mary waited a night or two in Galloway, and then 
crossed to England, never to see Scotland again. She 
left Galloway at a place called Port Mary, and her 
landing place in England is now called Mary Port. 

One result of this effort on behalf of Mary was 
that the Regent brought an army into Gallowaj'^ to 
punish those who had befriended her. He reached 
St. John's town of Dairy on 15th June, where he ex- 
pected to receive the submission of Sir John Gordon 
of Lochinvar. As the latter did not appear, the Regent 
marched to Kenmuir Castle, burned it, and then des- 
troyed the houses of others in the neighbourhood who 
had supported Mary. He issued a proclamation to 
the lairds of Wigtounshire, calling on them to answer 
before him at Ayr on 20th March to such things as 
might be laid to their charge. It was in these terms: — 


" James, by the grace of God, with advice and 
consent of our dearest cousin, our Regent — We 
charge straitly Patrick Agnew, Sherifi of Gallo- 
way; Hugh Kennedy of Chappell, Master Patrick 
Vaux of Barnbarroch, Thomas Baillie of Little 
Dunraggit, Andrew Bailzie of Dunraggit, Alex- 
ander Gordon of Craighlaw, Thomas Hay, Abbot 
of Glenluoe; Archibald Kennedy of Sinnyness, 
William Kennedy, M'Culloch of Ardwell, M'Cul- 
loch of Kelleser, to compeer personally before our 
dearest goodsir and Regent, upon the 20th of 
March inst., at Ayr, to answer such things as 
shall be laid to their charge, under the pain of 
tresson ; with certification to any of them gif they 
failzie, ye said day being by -past, they shall be 
repute, halden, esteemit, demesnit, and pursuit 
with fire and sword, as traitors and enemies to 
God, us their sovereign, and their native coun- 

It was about this time that Cassillis was negotiating 
for a lease of the Abbey lands of Glenluce, when 
the Abbot died before the bargain was completed. 
Cassillis, however, was not the man to let a trifie like 
this stand in his way. He got a monk to forge the 
dead man's signature to a deed purporting to convey 
the lands to him. Then, fearing the monk might 
betray him, he employed a man, Carnochan, to murder 
the monk, and then, afraid that Carnochan might re- 
veal too much, he induced his kinsman, Hew Kennedy 


of Bargany, to accuse Carnochan of theft and hang him 
in Crossraguel. " And sa the landis of Glenluce was 
conqueist . ' ' 

During the minority of the King, there was plotting 
and counter-plotting among the nobles. The Eegent 
Moray was murdered in 1570. He had given the first 
sanction of the Crown to the Reformation, and had 
secured a short period of rest to the struggling Church, 
and thus earned the title of " The Good Regent." 
For some time after his death, the country was in a 
deplorable state. There were two contending factions 
— one in support of the young King, and the other in 
favour of Mary — but each more intent on gaining its 
own private ends than anything else. No man's 
property or life was safe, industry was at a standstill, 
and the nation was rapidly sinking into a state of 
barbarism and bankruptcy. At last, on 12th July, 
1570, the Earl of Lennox, Avho, as the father of 
Darnley, naturally belonged to the King's party, was 
appointed Regent with the approval of Elizabeth, but 
the Queen's supporters avowed their resolution never 
to acknowledge him, and both parties prepared for 
war. Lennox was fatally wounded in an attack on 
Stirling in September, 1571, and at the same time the 
gallant Alexander Stewart of Garlics fell while bravely 
supporting his kinsman. The Earl of Mar was then 
chosen Regent. He died on 28th October, 1572, and 
his death was not free from the suspicion of poison. 
The Earl of Morton was the most able and powerful 
of the nobility. Ho was supported by the great 
majority of the nobles, by the influential party of 


the Churoli, and by Elizabeth, and he was accordingly 
-chosen Regent on 24th November, 1572. 

The same day died Knox, in his sixty-seventh year. 

In this year also, the representatives of the Privy 
■Council and a committee of ministers came to an 
arrangement which amounted to nothing less than the 
■establishing of Episcopacy in the Church of Scotland. 
It was agreed " (1) That the names and titles of the 
archbishops and bishops be not altered, or the bounds 
■of the dioceses confounded, but that they continue in 
■time coming, as they did before the reformation of 
religion, at least till the king's majesty's majority 
-or consent of Parliament; (2) that the archbishoprics 
and bishoprics vacant should be conferred on men 
■endowed, as far as may be, with the qualities specified 
in the Epistles of Paul to Timothy and Titus; (3) that 
■to all archbishoprics and bishoprics that should become 
vacant, qualified persons should be presented within 
a year and a day after the vacancy took place, and' 
those nominated to be thirty years of age at the least; 
(4) that the spiritual jurisdiction should be exercised 
by the bishops in their dioceses; (5) that abbots, 
priors, and inferior prelates, presented to benefices, 
«hould be tried as to their qualification and their 
aptness to give voice in Parliament, by the bishop 
or superintendent of the bounds, and upon their 
■collation should be admitted to the benefice, but not 
otherwise; (6) that the elections of persons presented 
to bishoprics should be made by the chapters of the 
•cathedral churches; and because the chapters of divers 
•churches were possessed by men provided before his 



Majesty's coronation, who bore no office in the Church, 
that a particular nomination of ministers should be 
made in every diocese, to supply their rooms until the 
benefice should fall void; (7) that all benefices, with 
cure under prelacies, should be conferred on actual 
ministers, and on no others; (8) that ministers should 
receive ordination from the bishops of the diocese, and 
where no bishop was as yet placed, from the superin- 
tendent of the bounds; (9) that the bishops and super- 
intendents, at the ordination of ministers, should exact 
of them an oath for acknowledging his Majesty's 
authority, and for obedience to their ordinary in all 

In 1578, Parliament approved of the demission of 
the Regency by Morton, and of the King taking the 
government upon himself, but Morton still retained 
the real power. The day came, however, when he too 
found the intrigues against him too much. He was 
ultimately accused of Darnley's murder, condemned, 
and executed, though great efforts were made to save 
him by Elizabeth's representative. The barony of 
Prestoun, in the Stewartry which belonged to Morton, 
with the Castle of Wreaths which he frequently 
occupied, was, upon his forfeiture, granted to the 
family of Nithsdale. 



The National Covenant — Pilgrimages prohibited, and Whithorn 
suffers — Galloway lairds on the assize for the Euthren con- 
spiracy — The Black Acts — Ministers refusing to comply to 
quit the country — Lord Maxwell goes to Spain to urge an 
attack on England — Returns and musters his followers to 
act in concert with the Spanish Armada — The King marches 
against him — Maxwell's narrow escape — He flees and takes 
a boat at Kirkcudbright, but is captured by Sir William 
Stewart, brother of GarUes — Act of Annexation — Galloway 
Commissioners to enforce Acts against Jesuits, etc. — Galloway 
ministers to take subscriptions to National Covenant and 
Confession of Faith — The King's panegyric on the Church — 
The Charter of the Liberties of the Kirk — The Spanish 

In spite of the Covenants that had been signed, matters 
did not go altogether smooth for the Eeformers. The 
King, who had now arrived at years of discretion, was 
far from favourable to them, but was afraid to risk 
too much, yet, notwithstanding the vacillating policy 
of both King and Parliament, and their frequent 
efforts to impose the order of Bishops on the Church, 
the Eeformers persevered in their noble work, and all 
previous Covenants were eclipsed in interest and im- 
portance by the National Covenant, or the second 
Confession of Faith, prepared by John Craig, minister 
of Holyrood House. Its original title was " Ane Short 
and General Confession of the True Christiane Faith 
and Religione, according to God's verde, and Actis of 


our Parliamentis, subscryved by the Kingis Majestie 
and his household with sindrie otheris to the glorie of 
God and good example of all men at Edinburghe the 
28th day of Januare, 1580, and 14th yeare of his 
Majestie's reigne." In it the subscribers " protest, 
that, after long and due examination of our own 
consciences ... we are now thoroughly resolved 
in the truth by the spirit and Word of God, and 
therefore we believe . . . and constantly affirm 
before God and the whole world, that this only is the 
true Christian faith and religion, pleasing God and 
bringing salvation to man, which now is, by the mercy 
of God revealed to the world by the preaching of the 
blessed evangel." The Confession of Faith is upheld, 
and then it proceeds: "And therefore we abhor and 
detest all contrary religion and doctrine; but chiefly 
all kind of Papistry in general and particular heads, 
even as they are now damned and confuted by the 
Word of God and Kirk of Scotland." This Covenant 
is now preserved in the Advocate's Library, Edin- 
burgh. The immediate occasion of it was the discovery 
of a secret dispensation from Rome agreeing to the pro- 
fession of the reformed religion by Roman Catholics, 
but instructing them at the same time to promote to 
the best of their ability " the ancient faith." It was 
well enough known in many quarters that the King 
was in sympathy with the policy of Rome, but he durst 
not resist the indignation of the people against the 
Romish intrigues, and so he and his household signed 
the Covenant. It Was afterwards subscribed by all 
ranks throughout the kingdom, and the ministers of 


Galloway were particularly zealous in getting it signed 
throughout their respective parishes. 

The Act of 1581 (7 James VI., Cap. 104), prohibit- 
ing the observance of Saints' Days, and suppressing 
pilgrimages, must have told severely on Wigtownshire. 
Royal and other pilgrims to the Shrine of St. Ninian 
at Whithorn had spent lavishly as they passed to and 
fro, but now this was all at an end. 

In 1582, some of the Protestant lords, alarmed by 
learning that the King had consented to arraign them 
for conspiracy against his person, seized the King atj 
Ruthven Castle, and kept him prisoner for nearly a 
year. He then escaped, punished some of the con- 
spirators, and pardoned others. Among those on the 
Assize were the Master of Cassillis, Patrick Agnew, 
Sheriff of Gallovray; John Gordon of Lochinvar, and 
William M'Culloch of Myrtoun. Parliament met in 
May, 1584, and set about the overthrowing of the 
Presbyterian policy. Only these from whom no 
opposition was apprehended were summoned to the 
meeting, and they were sworn to secrecy at the opening 
of each sitting. When some of the ministers got a 
hint of what was going on, and sent representatives 
to protest, they found the doors so closely guarded that 
they could not obtain admission. The Rev. David 
Lindsay was selected to carry a protest to the King, 
but he was arrested and sent a prisoner to Blackness. 
These Acts thus passed became known as the Black 
Acts, and by them " (1) The ancient jurisdiction of 
the three estates was ratified (one of the three being 
the bishops), and to speak evil of any one of them is 


treason. (2) The King was supreme in all causes and 
over all persons, and to decline his judgment is treason. 
(3) All convocations not specially licensed by the King 
are unlawful (Church Courts are thus made to depend 
on the King's will). (4) The chief jurisdiction of the 
Church lies with the bishops (who thus take the place 
of Assemblies and Presbyteries). (5) None shall pre- 
sume, privately or publicly, in sermons, declamations, 
or familiar conferences, to utter any false, untrue, or 
slanderous speeches, to the reproach of his Majesty 
or council, or meddle with the affairs of his highness 
and estate, under the pains contained in the Acts of 
Parliament made against the makers and reporters of 

Three months afterwards, a further Act was passed 
— that all ministers must, within forty days, subscribe 
the Acts concerning the King's jurisdiction over all 
estates, temporal and spiritual, and promise to submit 
themselves to the bishops, their ordinaries, under pain 
of being deprived of their stipends. As was to be 
expected, many of the ministers refused, and were 
commanded to quit the country within twenty days. 
Some of them fled, but others remained and preached 
openly, and disturbances took place in several parts 
of the country. 

The General Assembly met with the Royal sanction 
in May, 1586, and James seemed desirous for a better 
understanding between the two parties. David Lindsay 
was elected Moderator, the King himself voting for 
him. It was decided that " bishops " should mean 
only such as are described by St. Paul; that they 


might visit certain bounds assigned to them, subject 
to the advice of the Synod; and that in receiving pre- 
sentations and giving collation to benefices, they must 
act according to the direction of the Presbytery, and 
they were to be answerable for their whole conduct to 
the General Assembly. It was also agreed to have 
annual meetings of the Assembly. 

In April, 1587, Lord Maxwell went abroad, giving 
surety that he would attempt nothing prejudicial to 
the reformed religion. He kept faith by going straight 
to Spain where the Invincible Armada was being fitted 
out, and he urged that England should be attacked 
through Scotland, and in pursuance of this scheme he 
landed at Kirkcudbright the following year, and 
mustered his kinsmen and adherents to act in concert 
with the Armada on its arrival. Maxwell was at once 
summoned before the King, but replied by arming the 
royal castles of Lochmaben, Dumfries, Threave, and 
Langholm, and his own castle of Caerlaverock. The 
King at once marched to Dumfries, and Maxwell 
narrowly escaped being captured. While the royal 
troops were at the gate, he jumped on a horse, and 
galloped to Kirkcudbright, where he embarked with 
some others on a small boat, and set out in the hope of 
falling in with the Armada. He was followed in 
another boat by Sir William Stewart, brother of the 
Laird of Garlics, and captured on the Carrick coast, 
and sent prisoner to Edinburgh. All those who were 
in the boat with him were condemned to the gallows. 
Maxwell himself, however, was liberated the following 
year, and he was afterwards appointed one of the 


Commissioners to assist Lord Hamilton as Lord 
Lieutenant while the King was in Norway. 

Parliament, in July, 1587, passed an Act of Annexa- 
tion, by which the temporal possessions of bishoprics, 
abbacies, and priories went to the Crown, and this 
meant practically the uprooting of Episcopacy, as the 
bishops, deprived of their baronial possessions, could 
not exert the same influence. The measure was after- 
wards regretted by the King when the nature of its 
operation became apparent, but the lands that thus 
fell to him had passed out of his hands to needy and 
greedy courtiers, and no remedy was left. 

In 1588, the King signed " The General Bond," to 
protect " the said true religion," and at Aberdeen, on 
30th April, 1589, he and many others subscribed still 
another Bond " for the defence and suretie of the said 
trew religioun," and for the pursuit of " Jesuitis 
Papistis of all sortis, their assisteris and pairttakaris." 

Certain Acts having been passed against " Jesuits, 
Seminarie Priests, and ex-communicated persons," 
Commissioners were appointed to see these enforced. 
In Wigtownshire this duty was entrusted to Alexander 
Stewart of Garlies; Uthred M'Dowell of Garthland, 
and Patrick Vaux of Barnbarroch, and in the Stewartry 
to John Gordon of Lochinvar, Thomas jM'Clelland of 
Bombie, and James Lidderdale of St. Mary's Isle. 

The Lords of Privy Council also authorised certain 
ministers to take the subscriptions of the inhabitants 
to the National Covenant and the Confession of Faith, 
Mr. James Hamilton and Mr. David Blythe being 
appointed for the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright, and 


Mr. Ninian M'Clenaehan and Mr. John Young for 

James personally attended the General Assembly 
of 1590, and delivered a panegyric upon the Church of 
Scotland which has often been quoted. He praised 
God that he had been born " in such a time as that of 
the light of the Gospel, and in such a place as to be 
King in such a Kirk, the purest Kirk in the world. 
The Kirk of Geneva keepeth Pasohc and Yule.* What 
have they for them? They have no institution, and 
as for our neighbour Kirk in England their service is 
an evil-said mass in English, wanting nothing but the 
liftings. t I charge you, my good people, ministers, 
doctors, elders, nobles, gentlemen, and barons, to stand 
to your purity, and exhort the people to do the same, 
and I, forsooth, so long as I brook my life and crown, 
shall maintain the same against all deadly." 

Finding himself faced by certain difficulties, and 
anxious to secure the aid of the Kirk, he began to 
flatter it by unwonted concessions. The General 
Assembly was not slow to notice this, and resolved to 
take full advantage of it, so when Parliament met in 
June, 1592, the Assembly presented the following 
requests: — (1) That the Acts of Parliament made in 
the year 1584 against the discipline and liberty of the 
Kirk should be repealed, and the present discipline 
ratified. (2) That the Act of Annexation should be 
abolished, and the patrimony of the Church restored; 
(3) That the abbots, priors, and other prelates pre- 

* Easter and Christmas. t Raising the host. 


tending to ecclesiastical authority and giving their vote 
in matters without any delegated power from the Kirk 
should not be hereafter permitted to vote in Parliament 
or other convention. 

The King felt it politic to consent, and an Act was 
passed which is still regarded as the Charter of the 
Liberties of the Kirk. It confirmed the system of 
Church government by General Assemblies, Synods, 
Presbyteries, and Sessions, declared that the Acts 
passed in 1584 were not to be prejudicial to the 
privileges of the office-bearers in regard to matters of 
heresy, questions of excommunication, appointment 
and deposition of ministers, and it rescinded the Act 
giving commissions to bishops to receive the royal 
presentation of bishoprics, etc. 

The discovery, in December, 1592, of the Spanish 
Blanks,* and the refusal of the Lords implicated to 
surrender, led to an expedition to the North early in 

* A Roman Catholic named George Kerr was arrested on board 
a vessel when setting out on a secret mission to Spain. Among 
his papers were found letters from Jesuits and seminary priests 
in Scotland with blank sheets having affixed the signatures and 
seals of the Earls of Huntley, Errol, and Angus, the Lairds of 
Auchindoun, Fintry, and other zealous Roman Catholics. Kerr, 
under torture, revealed the conspiracy. The King of Spain was 
to land an army of 30,000 on the west of Scotland, where the 
Roman Catholic Lords, with all the supporters they could muster, 
would join him. 15,000 were to march across the border while 
the remainder were to secure the overthrow of the Protestant 
Church. The sheets were to be filled up by William Crichton, a 
Jesuit, according to instructions which Kerr had received, and 
were then to be deUvered to the King of Spain. Hence the plot 
received the name of The Spanish Blanks. 


1593, and in Aberdeen the King and many nobles 
entered into still another Bond for the maintenance 
and defence of religion. 

But as the dangers and difficulties that beset his 
path disappeared or were overcome, he began to show 
his leaning towards the Roman Catholics. 



BotUwell's attempt on the Crown — Strained relations between 
King and Kirk — A stormy meeting — The King's proclamation 
against the ministers — He leaves Holyrood for Linlithgow — 
The ministers prepare for the worst, and invite Lord 
Hamilton to place himself at the head of those embracing 
the cause of the Kirk — The King marches on Edinburgh, and 
in the High Church justifies himself and blames the ministers, 

BoTHWELL, encouraged by the Queen of England, 
resolved to make an attempt on the King and Crown, 
but the King got secret information of the plot, and 
in the High Church of Edinburgh, after the sermon, 
he informed the people of what he knew, and declared 
his determination to lead his whole forces in person 
against Bothwell, and then raising his hand to heaven, 
he took a solemn vow to God that, if they would 
instantly arm and advance with him, he would never 
rest till, in return for such service, he had thoroughly 
suppressed and banished the Catholic Lords from his 

Bothwell soon realised the hopelessness of his 
adventure, dispersed his company, and became a 
refugee in England. 

But in spite of all these solemn Covenants, James 
still hankered after Prelacy, and the relations between 
him and the Kirk became strained to breaking point. 
The ministers were in genuine alarm for their religion, 
and certain of the Protestant Lords, with two ministers 


— Bruce and Watson — were sent to interview the King 
in the Upper Tolbooth, Edinburgh, on 17th December, 
1596. Bruce said they were come from the nobles, 
barons, and ministers, assembled to bemoan and avert 
the dangers threatened to religion. " What dangers?" 
asked James, " and who dares convene contrary to my 
proclamation?" "Dares!" retorted Lord Lindsay, 
" We dare more than that; and shall not suffer the 
truth to be overthrown, and stand tamely by." A 
large crowd had followed them to the building. A 
tumult arose between the factions, the King's person 
was in danger, and matters looked black enough for 
a time, but quietness was restored, and he returned to 
Holyrood. Next day, however, he and his Court left 
for Linlithgow, and the same morning a Proclamation 
was made at the Cross of Edinburgh, in which refer- 
ence was made to the treasonable uproar of the previous 
day raised by the factious ministers, who, it stated, 
after having uttered most seditious speeches in the 
pulpit, had assembled with the noblemen, barons, and 
others, had sent an irreverent message to the King, 
persuaded the citizens to take arms and put his 
Majesty's life in jeopardy. This treasonable conduct 
had convinced his Majesty that the capital was no 
longer a fit place for his residence or the ministration 
of justice. He had, therefore, left it, and he now 
commanded the Lords of Session, Sheriffs, and all other 
officers of justice to remove themselves furth of the 
city of Edinburgh, and repair to such other places as 
should be appointed. Ail noblemen and barons were 
ordered to depart to their own houses, and not to 


assemble again till they had received the Royal per- 

The ministers were not dismayed. They resolved 
to prepare for the worst, and secretly invited Lord 
Hamilton to place himself at the head of the nobles 
and barons who had embraced the cause of the Kirk. 
Hamilton, however, took the invitation to the King. 
James summoned his followers from north and south, 
and marched on Edinburgh. The Provost and Magis- 
trates delivered the keys of the city on their knees to 
the King, and professed their deep sorrow for the 
recent tumult, of which they declared they were guilt- 
less. James in the High Church, after sermon by 
Mr. David Lindsay, made an oration to the people, 
in which he justified himself, cleared his councillors, 
and greatly blamed the ministers. 



James introduces Episcopacy — Death of Elizabeth — James goes, 
to England — Ministers assembled at Aberdeen apprehended — 
John Welsh — The Parson of Penniughame constituted Arch- 
deacon of Galloway — Gavin Hamilton made Bishop of 
Galloway — The High Commission Court and Galloway Com- 
missioners — The Glasgow Assembly of 1610 — ^Parliament 
rescinds the Act of 1592, the great Charter of Presbytery — 
The Five Articles of Perth opposed by Galloway ministers, 
being particularly obnoxious to Gallovidians — Death of James 
— Charles visits Scotland — ^Distributes honours — High Com- 
mission Court established with Commissioners from Galloway 
— ^Lord Galloway and Lord Kirkcudbright withdraw from the 
Court on its showing bias against Presbyterians — Eobert 
Glendinning, minister of Kirkcudbright deprived of his living 
— The Kirkcudbright magistrates ordered to be imprisoned 
in Wigtown jail — William Dalgleish, minister of Kirkma- 
breck, deposed — Samuel Kutherfurd banished to Aberdeen. 

James now began to bring about the establishment of 
Episcopacy. Like all the Stuarts, he believed firmly 
in the Divine Right of Kings, especially of himself, 
and determined to assert his authority. 

In March, 1598, at Dundee, the General Assembly, 
in which the King had secured a majority, adopted a 
proposal for certain of their number as Bishops or 
Commissioners to sit in Parliament, but the proposal 
had given rise to bitter opposition and was keenly 
debated, James himself taking a leading part in the 
discussion in its favour. It was carried by a majority 
of ten. The election of Commissioners was to belong 


partly to the King and partly to the Kirk. " Thus," 
says Calderwood, "the Trojan horse of Episcopacy 
%vas brought in covered with caveats that the danger 
might not be seen; which, notwithstanding, was seen 
by many and opponed unto; considering it to be better 
to hold thieves at the door than to have an eye unto 
them in the house that they steal not; and indeed the 
event declared that their fear was not without just 
cause, for those Commissioners, voters in Parliament, 
afterwards Bishops, did violate their caveats as easily 
as Samson did the cords wherewith he was bound." 

The death of Elizabeth, on 24th March, 1602, led 
to James being declared heir and successor, and on 
5th April, 1603, he left Scotland, accompanied by 
many noblemen, prelates, and others, among whom 
were Gavin Hamilton and Andrew Lamb, both after- 
wards Bishop of Galloway. A month later he entered 
London, accompanied by a large body of both Scotch 
and English nobility, guarded and ushered by the Lord 
Mayor and five hundred citizens on horse-back, and 
welcomed by the deafening shouts of an immense 
multitude of his new subjects. 

In England, James was freer to promote Prelacy, 
and he steadily persevered in his purpose. He ignored 
repeated requests of the Scotch ministers that they 
should be allowed to meet in the General Assembly, 
and when some of them, in 1605, ventured to assemble 
at Aberdeen without the royal authority, they were 
apprehended. Their trial was a farce, as is shown by 
a letter written by Sir Thomas Hamilton to the King 
on the day sentence was passed. Lord Hailes, in 


publishing the letter, says: " We here see the Prime 
Minister, in order to obtain sentence agreeable to the 
King, address the Judges with promises and threats, 
pack the Jury, and then deal with them without 
scruple and ceremony." Six of the ministers were 
thus found guilty of treason and sentenced to death, 
but were afterwards ordered to be banished. Among 
them was John Welsh, minister of Kirkcudbright, son- 
in-law of John Knox. He went to France, where 
Louis XIII. allowed him to preach. In 1622, James 
gave him permission to return to England, but on no 
account to cross the Scottish border, for he felt it 
would be fatal to Episcopacy in Scotland if Welsh were 
allowed to resume his ministration there. Neither 
was he allowed to preach in London till he was near 
his end. Then he was given permission. He preached 
with great fervour, and died two hours afterwards. 

Parliament assembled at Perth in 1606, and or- 
dained that the bishops should be restored to their 
formal Episcopal estates, to their ancient honours, 
dignities, privileges, and rights, including their seats 
in Parliament. Chapters which had been abolished 
were again erected. The parson of Penninghame was 
constituted archdeacon of Galloway and first member 
of the Bishop's Chapter. In the Chapter were likewise 
the parsons of Crossmichael, Twynholm, Kirkcud- 
bright, Dairy, and Borgue. The church of the priory 
at Whithorn was the Cathedral and Chapter House. 

Gavin Hamilton was now promoted to the bishopric 
of Galloway, which had been vacant for thirty years. 
Its revenue was " so depleted that it scarcely was 



remembered to have been." James, anxious for the 
dignity of the bishops, conferred upon Hamilton the 
Abbey of Dundrennan, the Abbey of Tongland, the 
Priory of Whithorn, and the Monastery of Glenluce, 
which the King had acquired by the General Annexa- 
tion Act of 1587. This made it the richest bishopric 
in Scotland, being inferior in revenue only to the two 
primacies of St. Andrews and Glasgow. In Chalmers' 
Caledonia, the net rental of the bishopric at the 
Revolution, when Episcopacy in Scotland was sup- 
pressed, is given at £5,634 15s., Scots, besides the 
patronage of more than twenty churches, all then 
vested in the Crown. 

Shortly afterwards, the King instituted the two 
Courts of High Commission,* composed of bishops and 
their friends, with an archbishop as president. Among 
the Commissioners for the South Division of Scotland 
were the Earls of Cassillis and of Wigtown; the Bishop 
of Galloway, James HaUiday, Commissary of Dum- 
fries, and Thomas Ramsay, minister there. The two 
Courts were afterwards united, and Cowper, Bishop 
of Galloway was appointed a Commissioner. James 
was very astute in the steps he took to secure the 
establishment of Episcopacy in Scotland, and, while 
doing everything to bring it about, he at the same 
time openly encouraged the execution of enactments 
against Papacy in the hope of allaying the alarm of 

* The King's letter for the appointment of these Courts is dated 
May 1608. Their jurisdiction extended over persons of all ranks, 
whether churchmen or laymen, and there was no appeal from 
their decisions. 


the Presbyterians. Reference is made elsewhere to 
the great loss sustained through Abbeys being burned 
and libraries consigned to the flames. In 1609, 
Archbishop Spottiswoode of Glasgow proceeded to 
New Abbey, and took possession of the house of 
Gilbert Brown, the abbot, who was suspected of 
Popish practices. A great number of Popish books, 
pictures, images, vestments, and other articles were 
seized, taken to Dumfries, and burned in the High 
Street on market day. 

A packed General Assembly met at Glasgow in 
1610, conferred additional powers on bishops, and 
declared the King to be the supreme governor and head 
of the Church. The Earl of Wigtown, the Bishop of 
Galloway, the Barons of Drumlanrig and Bombie, 
with the following ministers from the Stewartry: — 
John Aitken, William Hamilton, Robert Glendinning, 
and James Donaldson; and from Wigtownshire: — 
James Adamson, John Watson, and George Kinnaird, 
sat in this Assembly. Its Acts were ratified by Parlia- 
ment, with some omissions suggested by the King. 
Thus the restoration of the Episcopal Government and 
the civil rights of the bishop had been secured, but 
" there was yet wanting that, without which, so far 
as the Church was concerned, all the rest was compara- 
tively unimportant." Accordingly, the Archbishop 
of Glasgow, Lamb, the Bishop of Brechin, and 
Hamilton, Bishop of Galloway, were summoned to the 
English Court, and consecrated according to the form 
in the English Ordinal, and this qualified them to give 
valid ordination to the other bishops. In 1612, 


Parliament formally rescinded the Act of 1592 — the 
Oreat Charter of Presbytery. 

Bishop Hamilton died in 1614, and was succeeded 
by William Cowper, minister of Perth, who had been 
for many years a zealous Presbyterian, but who, like 
many others, had yielded to temptation in the shape 
of promises and preferment. The Cowper Cairn, near 
Glen Trool, is said to be named after him from his 
habit of retiring to the hills for meditation. 

The Assembly of 1616 decided to prepare a Liturgy 
and a new Confession of Faith, and for this important 
work, several learned divines were selected, the chief 
of whom was the Bishop of Galloway. 

James visited Scotland in 1617, and Cowper 
preached before him at Dumfries. The King gave 
orders for the repair of the Royal Chapel at Holyrood, 
and for the erection of gilt statues of tlie Apostles. 
The people, viewing these acts as the first step towards 
Popery, became alarmed, and Cowper, as Dean of the 
Koyal Chapel, thought it well for the peace of the 
•community to dissuade the King from his purpose. 

The General Assembly of 1618, at Perth, carried by 
a majority what have since become known as The Five 
Articles of Perth. They were bitterly opposed by 
some, and James Simpson, minister of Tongland, 
David Pollock, minister of Glenluce, and Thomas 
Provan, minister of Leswalt, incurred the wrath of 
the Bishop of Galloway for voting against them 
according to the dictates of their conscience. The 
Articles were ratified by Parliament in August, 1621, 
by a majority of twenty-seven. The Earls of Wig- 


town and of Nithsdale, Lords Garlies and Sanquhar, 
John Carson, Commissioner for Dumfries, and John 
Turner, Commissioner for Wigtown, voted in support 
of the Articles. David Arnot of Bareaple, Com- 
missioner for Kirkcudbright, voted against them. 
The Articles were particularly obnoxious to the 
Gallovidians. By them — 

(1) Kneeling at the Lord's Supper was approved. 

(2) Ministers were to dispense that sacrament in 
private houses to those suffering from infirmity or from 
long or deadly sickness. 

(3) Ministers were to baptise children in private 
houses in case of great need. 

(4) Ministers were, under pain of the bishop's 
censure, to catechise all children of eight years of age, 
and the children were to be presented to the bishop 
for his blessing. 

(5) Ministers were ordered to commemorate Christ's 
birth, passion, resurrection, ascension, and sending 
down of the Holy Ghost. 

While all this was going on, the Reformers were 
neither idle nor silent. They did what they could, 
though it had little effect at the time, for those opposed 
to them would brook no opposition in the course they 
had determined to follow. 

James died on 29th March, 1625, and was succeeded 
by Charles, from whom much was looked for by the 
Presbyterians. Charles, however, had other views. 
It is doubtful whether his projects would ever have 
succeeded, though many believe that, with time and 
greater caution, he might have got his own way. 


Certain it is that, with Laud as his adviser, and a 
nature impatient of delay, and believing blindly in 
his Divine Right, he never would have succeeded. 

Charles visited Scotland in 1633, and distributed 
honours with lavish hand, in the hope of conciliating 
his northern subjects. He made Sir John Gordon 
Viscount Kenmure and Lord of Lochinvar, Sir Robert 
M'Clelland Lord Kirkcudbright, and advanced Vis- 
count Drumlanrig to the Earldom of Queensberry. 
Charles, however, had to return to England a dis- 
appointed man, for he had failed to bring the Scottish 
Church into conformity with the English Church, and 
his conduct in the Scots Parliament in conniving at the 
false declaration of a vote cost him the confidence and 
affection of his Scottish subjects. He, however, 
persevered with his purpose. Every new appointment 
to the Scottish Church was made with the view of 
exalting Episcopacy and degrading Presbytery. The 
High Commission Court was established by warrant, 
dated the 21st October, 1643. The Court had power 
to deal with "All that are either scandalous in life, 
doctrine, or religion, resetters of seminary priests, 
hearers of mass, adulterers, contemners of church 
discipline, blasphemers, cursors, or swearers." Those 
appointed Commissioners for Galloway were the Earl 
of Galloway, the Sheriff of Galloway, the Bishop of 
Galloway, Lord Kirkcudbright, Sir John M'Dowall 
of Garthland, the Provosts of Wigtown and Kirkcud- 
bright, Mr. Abraham Henderson, minister of Whit- 
horn, Mr. Alexander Hamilton, Mr. David Leach at 
Dundrennan. The Court soon showed bias against 


Presbyterians, and Lord Galloway and Lord Kirk- 
cudbright declined to have anything to do with it. 
This, however, only gave greater freedom to the 
clerical party who proceeded to prosecute avowed 
Presbyterians. Robert Glendinning, minister of 
Kirkcudbright, was deprived of his living by this 
Court because he would not conform to a recent 
innovation, and would not admit into his pulpit one 
of the bishop's minions. The magistrates of the 
burgh continued to attend his church, and listened to 
his sermons, so the bishop * issued a warrant for his 
arrest, but his own son, who was one of the baiHes of 
Kirkcudbright, refused to imprison his venerable 
father, who had reached the advanced age of seventy- 
nine years. Accordingly, he and the rest of the 
magistrates were ordered to be imprisoned in Wigtown 

William Dalgliesh, minister of Kirkmabreck, was 
next deposed for nonconformity. The same year, 
Samuel Rutherfurd was summoned before the High 
Court of Commission, and banished to Aberdeen, as 
we shall see later. 

* A bishop and four others fomied a quorum of the Court. It 
acted in the most arbitrary manner, especially against the non- 
conformists in Galloway, often without accusation, probation or 
defence, when and where the bishop liked. 



The Laud Liturgy — Jenny Geddes in St. Giles — King appealed 
to — People assemble in Edinburgh — Sydeserf Bishop of 
Galloway attacked, and Earls of Wigtown and Troqueer 
going to his assistance also put in danger — The National 
CoTenant prepared — Signed in Grey Friars Church, Edin- 
burgh — Copies sent all over the country — Signed with 
enthusiasm in Galloway — Liudsa}-, minister in Stranraer, 
takes copies to London — The King's threat against him — 
The ^ing submits — The General Assembly of 1638 makes a 
clean sweep of the Bishops, and libels Sydeserf — Arranges 
Presbyteries and Synods — Preparations for war — Galloway 
commanders — Terms arranged — Presbyterians in Parliament 
— Civil war — Battle of Newburn — Gallantry of the Galloway 
troops— Son of Patrick M'Kie of Larg killed in the engage- 

In spite of many warnings, the King persisted in his 
course of conforming the religion of Scotland to that 
of England. The new Service Book was to be the 
instrument of this. In an earlier draft it was mainly 
the work of Bishop Wedderburn, Bishop Maxwell of 
Ross, and Bishop Sydeserf of Galloway. The King 
asked Laud to consider the alterations proposed by 
the Scottish bishops on the English Prayer Book, 
which had been taken as a basis. He seems to have 
altered it considerably, and the book became known 
as " Laud's Liturgy." 

The King issued a Proclamation requiring every 
parish to have two copies of it before Easter. This 


aroused great opposition, for many looked on the new 
service as nothing but Popery in disguise. The 
bishops took steps to enforce the Proclamation, but 
the opposition grew greater every day. This attempt 
to impose the Liturgy on the people precipitated the 
crisis. Everybody knows the story of how, on 23rd 
July, 1637, when Dean Hanna started to read the 
Liturgy in St. Giles Cathedral, Jenny Geddes flung 
a stool at his head, and, as the tablet recently erected 
to her memory sets forth, " struck the first blow in 
the great struggle for freedom of conscience." 

The King was appealed to, but he had evidently 
made up his mind, and ordered that the Liturgy was 
not to be withdrawn. He also commanded that no 
persons were to be elected magistrates of burghs who 
would not strictly conform to the prescribed mode of 
worship. Notwithstanding this, another application 
was made to the King, whose answer was expected on 
18th October, and on this date deputations of gentle- 
men, ministers, and burghers assembled in Edinburgh 
in great numbers from all the southern counties. The 
Edinburgh magistrates were forced to join in a 
petition against the Service Book. Then the crowd, 
meeting with Sydeserf, Bishop of Galloway, and, re- 
membering his unrelenting severity, attacked him with 
shouts of "Papist loon! Jesuit loon! betrayer of 
religion!" and were tearing off his coat to discover a 
golden crucifix which he was said to wear under his 
vest, when he was rescued, and sought refuge in the 
Privy Council Chamber. The crowd surrounded it, 
and demanded that he should be delivered up. The 


Earls of Wigtown and of Troqueer, with their 
followers, went to his relief, but they, too, found 
themselves in a perilous position, for the crowd in- 
creased and became more clamorous. Troqueer was 
thrown down on the street, and his hat, cloak, and 
white staff of office as Lord Treasurer taken from him. 
It was only when some of the nobles opposed to the 
Service Book earnestly requested the people to desist 
that order was restored, and Sydeserf managed to 
escape to Dalkeith. 

No satisfaction was granted by the King, and the 
Presbyterians decided to resort to the Covenant once 
more. The National Covenant of 1580 was chosen, 
and additions made to it in two parts — the part known 
as " the legal warrant," summarising the Acts of 
Parliament condemning Papacy, and ratifying the 
Confessions of the Church was drafted by Archibald 
Johnston of Warriston, the other part with special 
religious articles for the time, and Bond suiting it 
to the occasion, was drawn by Alexander Henderson 
Luchars — and with these additions it became known 
more than ever as the National Covenant. It was 
written on a sheet of parchment, four feet long by 
three feet eight inches broad. The spot chosen for 
the solemnities of the first subscription was Grey 
Friars Church, Edinburgh. " The selection," writes 
the Historiographer Royal for Scotland, " showed a 
sound taste for the picturesque. The graveyard in 
which their ancestors have been laid from time im- 
memorial stirs the hearts of men. The old Gothic 
church of the Friary was then existing; and landscape 


art in Edinburgh has by repeated efforts established 
the opinion that from that spot we have the grandest 
view of the precipices of the Castle and the National 
fortress crowning them. Here the Reformers gathered 
' the legitimate charters ' of their nation into one 
document, and presented them before Heaven. Hen- 
derson began the solemnities of the day with a 
never-to-be-forgotten prayer. Louden followed with 
a fearless and inspiring address, and about four o'clock 
in the afternoon Johnston unrolled the parchment in 
which these Scottish chartei-s were inscribed, and read 
them in a clear, calm voice. When he had finished, 
all was still as the grave. But the silence was soon 
broken. An aged man of noble air was seen 
advancing. He came forward slowly, and deep 
emotion was visible in his venerable features. He 
took up the pen with a trembling hand, and signed 
the document. This was the Earl of Sutherland, and 
he was immediately followed by Sir Andrew Murray. 
A general movement now took place. All the Presby- 
terians in the church pressed forward to the Covenant, 
and subscribed their names. But this was not enough; 
a whole nation was waiting. The immense parchment 
was carried into the churchyard, and spread out on a 
huge tombstone to receive on this expressive tablet 
the signature of the Church. Scotland had never 
beheld a day like that. Both sides were crowded with 
names. No place was left even on the margin for 
another signature. So eager were the people to sign 
it that, when little room remained, they shortened their 
signatures, some writing only their initials so close 


that it is difficult to ascertain how many have signed 
it. Many signed it with their blood, whilst teare 
bedewed their cheeks. This was the 28th of February, 
1638, and when Charles learned what had taken place, 
he exclaimed, ' I have no more power in Scotland than 
a Doge of Venice.' " 

Hundreds of copies of the Covenant were made, and 
were carried through all the country for signature, and 
nowhere was the Covenant welcomed with greater 
enthusiasm than in the Wilds of Galloway. John 
Livingston, afterwards minister of Stranraer, a man 
of address and talent, was sent to London with several 
copies. He was not long in London till the Marquis 
of Hamilton sent him word that the King had said that 
Livingston was come, but he would " put a pair of 
fetters about his feet." Livingston took the hint, 
bought two horses, and, avoiding the main thorough- 
fares, hastened back to Galloway. The King tried an 
astute move by introducing a rival Covenant. He, 
too, took the Covenant of 1580, and added to it the 
General Bond of 1588, but this attempt to divide the 
Covenanters came too late, and entirely failed. He 
soon realised that he must submit to the Covenanters, 
so he abolished Courts, Canons, Liturgies, and Articles, 
and consented to the calling of a General Assembly. 
This was the first free General Assembly of the Church 
of Scotland for forty-two years — the famous Assembly 
of 1638, which met at Glasgow on 21st November. 
It was dissolved after a few days by the Royal Com- 
missioner when he saw the wort it intended to do, 
but Henderson, the Moderator, pointed to the Royal 


Commissioner's zeal for an earthly King as an in- 
centive to the members to show their zeal for their 
Heavenly King, and, in spite of the Commissioner s 
order to dissolve, the Assembly continued to sit. The 
losses of the Assembly by the withdrawal of the 
Commissioner and five members were compensated by 
fresh accessions, namely: — Argyle, Wigtown, King- 
horn, Galloway, Mar, Napier, Almond, and Blackball. 
It made a clean sweep of the bishops, their juris- 
diction, and their ceremonies. The Articles of Perth 
were also expunged. The Assembly then took up a 
complaint against Sydeserf, Bishop of Galloway. He 
was called by an officer, but failed to answer. His Pro- 
curator, John Hamilton, was also called, but likewise 
failed to appear, and the libel was then read: — " That 
he had taught Arminian tenets; that he kept a crucifix 
in his closet, and defended the use of it by his own 
example; that he, at his own hand, had indicted two 
anniversary fasts in his diocesan Synod; that he had, 
compelled the ministers to receive the sacrament of 
the Lord's Supper kneeling; that he had deposed and 
procured the banishment of some of the most eminent 
of the ministry for nonconformity; that he had fined 
and confined several gentlemen for no better reason; 
that he had embraced excommunicated Papists, and 
preferred more love to them than to Puritans; that he 
had condemned the exercise of family prayer; and that 
he was an open profaner of the Sabbath, by buying 
horses on that day, and doing other secular affairs. 
ALL which having been proved against him, he was, 
deposed, and excommunicated." 


Maxwell, Bishop of Ross, a Galloway man, was also 
deposed and excommunicated. 

Commissions for trying clerical delinquents were 
appointed to sit at specified dates at Kirkcudbright 
and half a dozen other places. 

This Assembly made a new arrangement of Presby- 
teries and Synods. The river Urr became the division 
between the Presbyteries of Kirkcudbright and Dum- 
fries, and the Synods of Galloway and Dumfries. The 
eight parishes in the east of Wigtownshire with the 
two parishes of Minnigaff and Kirkmabreck in the 
Stewartry of Kirkcudbright were formed into the 
Presbytery of Wigtown. The nine parishes in the 
west of Wigtownshire with the parishes of Colmonell 
and Ballantrae in Ayrshire were formed into the 
Presbytery of Stranraer. 

Having effaced almost every vestige of Episcopacy 
and brought about the second Reformation, this 
famous Assembly dissolved. Among those from 
Galloway who had attended it were Samuel Ruther- 
furd, minister of Anwoth; William Dalgliesh, 
minister of Kirkmabreck; John M'Clelland, minister 
of Kirkcudbright; Alexander Gordon of Earlston, 
elder; William Glendinning, Provost of Kirkcud- 
bright; Robert Gordon of Knockbrex, burgess, New 
Galloway; Andrew Anderson, minister of Kirkinner; 
Andrew Lauder, minister of Whithorn; Andrew 
Agnew of Lochnaw, elder; Alexander Macghie, 
burgess of Wigtown; John Livingston, minister of 
Stranraer; James Blair, minister of Port Montgomery 
(Portpatrick) ; Alexander TurnbuU, minister of Kirk- 


maiden; Sir Robert Adaii", elder; and James Glover, 
Clerk of Stranraer. The Earls of Galloway, Wigtown, 
Cassillis, EgUnton, and Dumfries also sat in the 

After these steps nothing but war remained, and 
both sides at once got ready. Lords Cassillis and 
Kirkcudbright raised regiments, in which the younger 
members of the baronage eagerly enrolled themselves 
as captains, thoroughly trained officers from foreign 
services accepted lieutenancies, and the people flocked 
in hundreds to their standards. James Agnew, 
Alexander Agnew, sons of the Sheriff, and James 
Dalrymple of Stair were among the first named as 
captains in these local corps. The great bulk of the 
proprietary of Galloway identified themselves with the 
movement, and the Galloway contingent was every- 
where noted for its good appearance and discipline. 

Twenty-five thousand men were enrolled under 
Leslie, and encamped on Dunse-law ready to intercept 
the King's forces when they advanced. Fortunately, 
both sides were wanting in confidence, and negotiations 
were entered into. Charles agreed that a General 
Assembly should be held in August, and that a 
Parliament would be called later to ratify its pro- 
ceedings. The Assembly met (the Earl of Traquair 
being the King's Commissioner), rejected the Service 
Book, the Book of Canons, the High Commission, 
Prelacy, and the ceremonies. Parliament met on 31st 
August, 1639, as arranged. Traquair presided as the 
representative of the King, and among those present 
were the Earls of Wigtown, GaUoway, Cassillis, 


Queensberry, and Annandale; the Lords Kirkcud- 
bright and Johnstone; the Lairds of Larg and Kilhilt, 
as representatives of Wigtownshire. William Glen- 
dinning, Commissioner of the Burgh of Kirk- 
cudbright; Robert Gordon, Commissioner of New 
Galloway; Patrick Hannay, Commissioner of Wig- 
town; and John Irving, Commissioner of Dumfries. 
The Presbyterians had a large majority, and it was 
easily seen that Parliament would go much further 
than the King desired. The Royal Commissioner, 
therefore, adjourned it from time to time, and then 
prorogued it till June, 1640. 

The King tried to prevent it meeting then, but it 
assembled on 2nd June, without the King's Com- 
missioner, and ratified the proceedings of the General 
Assembly of 1639. 

Once more civil war seemed inevitable, and the 
Presbyterians were soon in arms. Colonel Munro 
collected forces in Wigtownshire, Kirkcudbright, and 
Dumfries, and joined the army which had assembled 
at Dunse. They entered England, gained the battle of 
Newburn, and took Newcastle, 28th August, 1640, and 
then Charles agreed to the terms proposed by the 
Covenanters. In this battle, a handful of Galloway 
knights under Patrick M'Kie of Larg, whose son was 
killed in the action, gave a splendid example of 
gallantry, for with their long spears they threw the 
dense body of the enemy into such confusion as to 
secure an easy victory. They pursued the English, 
and captured every man who tried to stand his ground. 
Sir Patrick's son was standard-bearer to Colonel 


Leslie's troop. He was a brave young man, and 

having seized the English General's colours, was 

flourishing with them when he was mistaken for one 

of the foe and slain. He was the only person of note 

who fell on the side of the Covenanters, and was much 

lamented by the whole party. Zachary Boyd, in a 

long poem, entitled " Newburn Brook," thus laments 

his death: — 

" In this conflict, which was a great pitie, 
We lost the son of Sir Patrick McGhie." 

Mr. Livingston, minister of Stranraer, officiated as 
Chaplain, and was present at Newburn. 

Note. — Several copies of the 1638 Covenant, signed 
in different parts of the country, are still extant. One 
signed at Borgue, Kirkcudbright (22nd April, 1638), 
is preserved in the Eegister House, Edinburgh. 
Dr. King Hewison, in his admirable work on The 
Covenanters, states that the tradition of the Covenant 
being carried out of Grey Friars' church to the people 
in the churchyard, and there signed on a tombstone 
amid scenes of religious fervour, rests on an unsatis- 
factory basis. Probably some of the details have been 
overcoloured, but, even so, we have, as he says, " a 
picture unique in Scots history." 



Parliament confirms the overthrow of Episcopacy — Contest 
between Barl of Wigtown and Sir William Cowburn for 
office of hereditary usher — Galloway members of Parliament 
— Commissioners of Supply for Wigtownshire — The War 
Committee — The GaUoway Commanders of horse and foot 
— The Solemn League and Covenant — Philiphaugh — Lord 
Kirkcudbright's regiment — James Agnew receives thanks of 
Parliament for his gallant conduct — Additional regiments 
raised in Galloway — New Parliament members for Galloway 
— List of War Committee for Wigtownshire, showing 
unanimity of baronage — Charles surrenders himself to the 
Scotch army — He is delivered to the English Commissioners, 
tried, and executed — The Scotch proclaim his son King — i 
Commissioners sent to Hague to lay conditions before him — 
He ultimately accepts these and signs the National Covenant 
and the Solemn League, and is crowned — Act of Indemnity 
— Galloway Protesters and Eesolutioners — Cromwell — The 
Galloway leaders divided — Cromwell's Ironsides disperse the 
Galloway levies — Kenmure Castle and the House of Freugh 
burned — Lord Galloway fined £4,000. 

Parliament met at Edinburgh on 17th August, 1641, 
Charles himself being present, and confirmed the Acts 
of Parliament of June, 1640, overthrowing Episcopacy 
and establishing Presbytery. 

A curious incident occurred at the King's entrance 
to Parliament. A contest having arisen between the 
Earl of Wigtown and Sir William Cowburn of Lang- 
ton regarding the office of hereditary usher to the 
Parliament, Cowburn forcibly seized the mace, and 


carried it before the King at his entrance to the House. 
A complaint having been made, the King without 
investigation issued a warrant to apprehend Cowburn, 
and confined him in the Castle, but the King after- 
wards apologised and declared before Parliament that 
he was not aware when he issued the warrant that 
Cowburn was a member of the House. 

The Earls of Galloway, Wigtown, and Cassillis, 
Viscount Kenmuir, and Lord Kirkcudbright, with 
Gordon, Laird of Earlston, from the Stewartry of 
Kirkcudbright, the Lairds of Kilhilt and Merton from 
Wigtownshire, and Sir Robert Grier of Lagg and Sir 
John Charters of Amisfield from Dumfries, attended 
this Parliament, with Commissioners from Kirkcud- 
bright, Wigtown, Whithorn, and New Galloway. The 
King submitted to the Estates a list of those whom he 
had nominated to be Privy Councillors. Parliament 
approved of the names of the Earls of Cassillis and 
Wigtown, but expunged the names of the Earls of 
Galloway and Dumfries. The Presbyterians had now 
secured all that they wanted, but in the midst of the 
gratification that this gave them, there was not 
wanting the fear that, should favourable opportunity 
ever occur, the King would take back all that he had 
given them. 

The rebellion in Ireland had its influence in 
Galloway. Ten thousand men were ordered to b© 
embodied, and Commissioners of Supply were named 
for the respective counties: — The Sheriff of Galloway 
and the Laird of Garthland for Wigtownshire, and the 
War Committee was composed of Sir Andrew Agnew, 


apparent of Lochnaw; Sir Robert Adair of Kilhilt; 
James M'Dowall of Garthland; Alexander M'Dowall 
of Logan; Gordon of Craighlaw; John Murray of 
Broughton; John Vans of Barnbarroch; Uthred 
M'Dowall of Freugh; James Ross of Balneil; Thomas 
Hay of Park; Fergus Kennedy of Stranraer; Patrick 
Hannay for Wigtown. Lord Kirkcudbright was 
appointed to the horse of Kirkcudbright, the Laird 
of Garthland to the horse of Wigtown, and the Earl of 
Cassillis and Lord Garlies to command the foot. 

Charles, however, had more than enough to attend 
to in England. 

The English Commissioners from the Long Parlia- 
ment desired help from the Convention of Estates and 
the General Assembly, and proposed that the two 
nations should enter into a strict Union and League 
with the object of bringing them closer together in 
Church matters, and of extirpating Popery and 
Prelacy from the land. Henderson suggested that the 
League should be religious as well as civil, and this 
was agreed to, and he thereupon drafted the famous 
Solemn League and Covenant. It was accepted by 
the Convention of Estates and by the General 
Assembly, and by both Houses of the English Parlia- 
ment. It breathed the spirit of the National Covenant, 
condemned the Papal and Prelatic system, pled for a 
constitutional monarchy, and outlined a comprehensive 
programme for future efforts in extending the prin- 
ciples of the Reformation. On September 25th, 1643, 
it was subscribed in St. Margaret's Church, West- 
minster. The members of Parliament in England and 


the Westminster Assembly of Divines stood with up- 
lifted hands, and as article after article was read, they 
took the Oath to God. TThe Commissioners from 
Scotland (among whom were Rutherfurd and Lord 
Cassillis) to the Westminster Assembly united with 
the people of England in the solemnity of the day. 
The Covenant was signed throughout Scotland, 
England, and Ireland. 

Charles somewhat reluctantly empowered the Earl of 
Montrose to proceed against the Scottish Covenanters, 
and he secured victory after victory till at Philiphaugh, 
on 13th September, 1645, Leslie gained a decisive 
triumph over him. In this battle, John, third Lord 
Kirkcudbright, commanded a regiment which he had 
raised at his own expense, chiefly among his Galloway 
tenants. James Agnew was Lieutenant Colonel, and 
received the thanks of Parliament for his gallant 
conduct, and Sir Andrew Agnew afterwards was 
awarded 3,750 merks as his brother's share of 15,000 
merks awarded to Lord Kirkcudbright's regiment for 
their bravery. 

A new corps was raised in the valley of the Nith, 
styled the South Regiment, and another in the west, 
styled Lord Galloway's Regiment, of whom the first 
Colonel was Alexander Agnew, the Sheriff's fourth 

Then besides Lord Kirkcudbright's Regiment, com- 
manded by his third son, a second was raised in the 
Stewartry by Lord Kenmure, which he commanded in 
person. As to this corps, we find it mentioned in 
the Parliamentary Journals, 15th December (1646): 


" Orders to Viscount Kenmure's Regiment to march 
to Montrose." 

Towards the close of the year, there was a General 
Election, when Sir Andrew Agnew, Knight, and Sir 
Robert Adair, Knight, of Kilhilt, were chosen for 
Wigtownshire, and William Grierson of Bargatten 
for the Stewartry, and William Glendinning for the 
Borough of Kirkcudbright. 

This Parliament sat continuously until 1651. 

The new Parliament named War Committees on the 
18th April, 1648, that for Wigtownshire proving the 
unanimity of the Galloway baronage at this period 
of the struggle: — 

Earl of Cassilis, Viscount Ardes, Lord Garlies, 
Sir Patrick Agnew, Sheriff of Galloway; Sir Andrew 
Agnew, younger, of Lochnaw, Knight; Sir Robert 
Adair of Kinhilt; Lairds of Park (Hay), French 
(M'Dowall), Craigcaffie (Neilson), Balneill (Roes), 
Ardwell (M'CuUoch), Achrocher (Colonel Agnew), 
Synniness (Kennedy), Gillespie (Kenned}''), Knock- 
glass (M'Dowall), Killeser, elder and younger 
(M'CuUoch); Andrew M'Dowall of LefnoU, Patrick 
Agnew of Sheuchan, James Kerr, Factor to the Earl 
of Cassilis; Lairds of Dunragit (Baillie), Larg 
(Linne), Little Dunragit, Garnock (Cathcart), the 
Provost of Stranraer, the Lairds of Barnbarroch 
(Vaus), Craichlaw (Gordon), Mertoun (M'CuUoch), 
Mochrum (Dunbar), Brochtoun (Murray), Kilcreache 
(Cascreugh, Dalrymple), Baldoon (Dunbar), Grange 
(Gordon), Glasnock, Fontalloch (Stewart), Wig 
(Agnew), Dalregle (M'Dowall), DrummoreU (M'Cul- 


loch), Monreith (Maxwell), Drummastoun, elder and 
younger (Houstoun); Houstoun of Cutreoch, the 
Provost of Wigtoune, the Provost of Whithorne, 
Stewart of Tonderghie, Francis Hay of ArioUand, 
Dunbar, younger, of Mochrum, Gordon of Balmeg, 
Hew Kennedy of Arieheming, Patrick M'Kie of 
Cairn, Agnew of Galdenoch, William Gordon of 
Penningham, the Laird of Garthland, and Mr. James 
Blair (minister of Portpatrick). 

The position of Charles became hopeless, and he 
resolved to place himself in the liands of the Scottish 
army. He came, disguised as a postillion (May, 
1646), and was received with every respect, and many 
were of opinion that had he accepted the Solemn 
League and Covenant, all Scotland would even then 
have espoused his cause. This, however, he could not 
do. Among the Commissioners sent to treat with him 
were the Earl of Cassillis and the Laird of Garthland. 
The Scottish forces had a huge sum due by the 
English, and, as they received £400,000 shortly before 
Charles was delivered up to the Commissioners of the 
English Parliament, they have been unjustly accused 
of selling their King. The English army next 
resolved to gain possession of the King's person, and 
this being effected, Charles made great promises to 
the officers. To Cromwell he offered the Garter, a 
Peerage, and chief command of the army, and to others 
different commands. But concessions and promises 
came too late. He was accused of treason, found 
guilty, and executed in front of hie own palace on 
30th of January, 1649. 


The Scotch Commissioners in London used their 
iniluenoe to prevent the execution of Charles, but they 
failed, and on 5th February, 1649 — six days after the 
execution — the Parliament of Scotland had his son 
proclaimed at the Market Cross of Edinburgh as King 
of Great Britain, Ireland, and France. They were 
eagerly anxious that he should be their King, but they 
were equally determined he should not over-ride their 
General Assembly or their Parliament. The Estates 
resolved to put the country in a posture of defence, 
and nominated colonels and commanders of horse and 
foot for the various counties, those for Wigtownshire 
being the Earl of Cassillis, the Sheriff of Galloway, 
Sir Robert Adair, and William Stewart. Com- 
missioners, among whom were the Earl of Cassillis and 
Livingstone, were sent to the Hague to lay before the 
youthful Charles the conditions upon which he would 
be received as King. He would not accept their 
conditions, and negotiations failed. Ultimately, 
Charles came to see that his only chance of obtaining 
the Crown was to accept the terms proposed. In 
March, 1650, the Estates again sent the Earl of 
Cassillis, Livingstone, and others to Breda to treat 
with the King. An arrangement was come to, and 
he subscribed the National Covenant and the Solemn 
League and Covenant before landing in Scotland on 
16th June, 1650. On 16th August, he agreed to the 
Dunfermline Declaration that he would have no 
enemies but the enemies of the Covenant, and that he 
would have no friends but the friends of the Covenant, 


and expressing his detestation of all Popery, super- 
stition, and idolatry, together with Prelacy, and all 
errors, heresy, schism, and profaneness which he was 
resolved not to tolerate in any part of his kingdom. 
He was accordingly crowned at Scone on 1st January, 
1651, when he again swore to and subscribed the 
National Covenant and the Solemn League and 
Covenant. The King was anxious that his own friends 
should be allowed to serve in the army, and urged 
that the Act which disqualified " malignants " from 
defending their country should be repealed, and 
ultimately an Act of Indemnity was passed. The 
Commission of the General Assembly agreed that all 
who showed evidence of repentance might be employed. 
The Assembly confirmed the resolution, and a protest 
was then taken against the lawfulness of the Assembly, 
the five south-western counties, Renfrew, Ayr, Wig- 
town, Kirkcudbright, and Dumfries, taking the most 
prominent part in these proceedings. Those who 
took up this position were called Protesters, and the 
others who adhered to the resolution were called 
Resolutioners. Among the Protesters were Lord 
Kirkcudbright, Samuel Rutherf urd, John Livingstone, 
John M'Clellan, Adam Kae (Borgue), Thomas 
Wyllio (Kirkcudbright), John Semple, Quentin 
M'Adam, Alexander Gordon of Knockgray, Captain 
Andrew Arnot. The people of Galloway warmly con- 
curred in the protest, and Samuel Rutherfurd, .John 
Livingstone, Thomas WylHe, and Lord Kirkcudbright 
and Alexander Gordon of Knockbrex were among these 


appointed to present it. Meanwhile, Cromwell had 
obtained his first great victory, and proceeded to follow 
it up. 

The Galloway leaders unfortunately were divided. 
Lords Cassillis and Kirkcudbright and the Laird of 
Garthland declared for the King against Cromwell, 
but sided with the Protesters. Sir Andrew Agnew, 
Sir Robert Adair, and other lairds indignantly opposed 
the Protesters, and declared for the King and the 
Estates. Sir Patrick Agnew, Lords Galloway and 
Kenmure, disgusted by the weakness of Parliament, 
proposed to support the King independently of the 
Estates, and were termed " Cavaliers." 

Kenmure displayed great activity in enlisting 
recruits, and had a large cask of brandy carried at 
the head of his regiment which was known as 
" Kenmure's drum." 

Cromwell's Ironsides dispersed the Galloway levies * 
near Dumfries, and then took Kenmure Castle, follow- 
ing this up by a raid on Kirkcudbright, where the 
victors took " 60 muskets and firelocks, 8 great barrels 
of powder, each containing near three ordinary barrels, 
match and ball proportionable, and great store of meal 
and beef." 

* It is not clear whether the older Galloway regiments kept 
distinct from the new levies and followed Charles in a body when 
he crossed the Borders, returning afterwards. In the Journals of 
Parliament, 2nd December, 1650, it is "ordered by the House 
that the Western Forces with the three regiments of Kirkcud- 
bright, Galloway, and Dumfries, be joined with Robert Mont- 
gomery and be under his command. " 


The King's cause went from bad to worse. Dunbar 
and Worcester left him hopeless, and after many 
escapes, he deemed it prudent to leave the country, and 
betook himself to the Continent. 

Cromwell was now at the head of affairs, and en- 
couraged the ministers in the discharge of their sacred 
duties, but he refused to let them interfere with State 
business, and he prohibited General Assemblies. None 
was allowed to interfere with the people in the 
performance of their religious service. 

In Ireland, also, Cromwell gained the ascendency, 
and ordered the removal of " all popular Scots out of 
Ulster." Among those were Lord Ardes — Sir Robert 
Adair; Captain John Agnew; Patrick Agnew; 
William Agnew; Francis Agnew; James Shaw; John 
Blair; Andrew Adair; Alexander Adair; Alexander 
Stewart; James Stewart; John M'Dowall; John 
Dunbar; John Hannalf; all having a Galloway con- 
nection. Lands were to be found for them south of 
the Shannon in place of their lands in Ulster, which 
were to be confiscated. Mr. Livingstone, minister of 
Stranraer, obtained access to Cromwell, and succeeded 
in bringing about a better understanding. 

Galloway suffered severely from Cromwell. Ken- 
mure Castle and the House of Freugh were burned to 
the ground, and Lord Galloway was fined £4,000 
merely for being an adherent of Charles I. He after- 
wards petitioned to be compensated for this fine, but 
instead of being relieved from the fines imposed " for 
the relief of the King's good subjects who had suffered 


in the late troubles," the Estates passed an Act or- 
daining the Commissioners of Excise within the 
Stewartry to give intimation to the heritors to meet, 
that they might lay on the proportion of the levy thus 
imposed, that the petitioner might have repetition 
of what he had paid and given out more than his just 
proportion. It is very doubtful whether he got satis- 



Death of Cromwell — ^Restoiation of Charles — Ministers arrested 
in Edinburgh — CassiUis refuses to sign Oath of Allegiance 
unless limited to civil affairs — ^Large sum voted to the 
King — ^List of Commissioners to collect in Wigtownshire and 
Stewartry — Parliament rescinds all Acts from 1640 — Restora- 
tion of Bishops — Sharp made Archbishop of St. Andrews — 
Act of Supremacy — Synod of Galloway preparing a Petition 
against Episcopacy is dissolved by the Earl of Galloway — 
Whithorn complains to Parliament — Presbytery of Kirkcud- 
bright appoint two of their members to present a Petition 
to the Privy Council — Reasonableness of the Petition — 
The Indemnity (so called) — Persons fined in Galloway. 

Cromwell died in 1658, and steps were at once taken 
for the restoration of Charles. James Sharp, minister 
of Craill, was sent to London to look after the interests 
of the Church of Scotland, but when too late, it was 
discovered that he had betrayed his trust. The in- 
tention of the Government soon became apparent. 
Certain monumental inscriptions {e.g., those on the 
tombs of Alexander Henderson and George Gillespie) 
were ordered to be effaced, and Lex Rex, Rutherf urd's 
famous treatise, was burned by the hands of the 
common executioner. On 23rd August, 1660, some of 
the leading Presbyterians, among whom was John 
Semple, minister of Carsphairn, fearing the overthrow 
of Presbytery, met in a private house in Edinburgh 
to draw up a Supplication to the King. They were 


arrested by the Committee of Estates and imprisoned 
in the Castle. A few days afterwards, Sharp brought 
a letter from his Majesty, in which he said, " V/e do 
also resolve to protect and preserve the Government of 
the Church of Scotland as it is settled by law." A 
suggestion that this might be understood in two ways 
was condemned as an intolerable reflection on the 
King. Parliament met in January, 1661, M'Dowall 
of Freuch and Murray of Broughton representing 
Wigtownshire, and M'Briar of Newark the Stewartry. 
The oath of allegiance administered to the members 
declared the King's supremacy over " all persons and 
in all causes." The Earl of Cassillis and the I;aird of 
Kilbirnie alone refused to sign it until they were 
allowed to limit the King's supremacy to civil affairs, 
and this being refused, they withdrew from the House. 
Parliament voted £40,000 to the King. The pro- 
portion to be paid by the Sheriffdom of Wigtown was 
£204 128., and by the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright, 
£348. The Commissioners appointed to collect it were 
for Wigtownshire: — James, Earl of Galloway; Alex- 
ander, Lord Garlics; Andrew Agnew, appearand of 
Lochnaw; Thomas Dunbar of Mochrum; Patrick 
MacDowall of Logan; Wm. Stewart of Castlestewart; 
Uchtred Macdowall of Freuch; William Gordon of 
Craighlaw; Sir Jas. Dalrymple of Stair; David 
Dunbar of Baldoon; Alexander Maculloch of Ardwell; 
John Murray of Broughton; John Houston of Drum- 
maston; William Stewart of Myrton; WiUiam 
M'Guffock of Alticry; Thomas Stewart of Glenturk; 
Richard Murray of Broughton, Junior. 


For the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright: — Robert, Earl 
of Nithsdale; James, Earl of Galloway; Robert, 
Viscount Kenmure; Alexander, Lord Garlies; John, 
Lord Herries; Robert, Master of Herries; John, Lord 
Kirkcudbright; Sir James Murray of Barberton; 
David M'Briar of Newark; James Maxwell of 
Brackenside; Mr. Thomas Hay of Lands; Richard 
Murray of Broughton; John Herries of Maybie; 
William Maxwell of Kirkhouse; Alexander Spotswood 
of Sweetheart; Roger Gordon of Traquair; William 
Gordon of Shirmers; William Gordon, Earlston; 
Robert Maxwell of Orchard ton; William Maclelland 
of Colin; George Maxwell of Munches; Alexander 
Macghie of Balmaghie; William Grierson of Bar- 
gatton; John Carson of Sennick; Gilbert Brown of 
Kempleton; John Dunbar of Machirmore; John^Muir, 
tutor, of Cassincarie; Andrew Herron of Kirrouchtrie; 
John Ewart of MuUoch; and the Provost and Bailies 
of Kirkcudbright, and the Provost of New Galloway, 
for the time being. 

Parliament, in March, 1661, rescinded all the Acts 
passed from and including 1640, and thus at one stroke 
swept away all the civil sanction which had been given 
to the Second Reformation. The Solemn League and 
Covenant was burned with much parade at Linlithgow 
on 29th May, 1661, the King's birthday, while a 
fountain in the town ran plentifully with French and 
Spanish wines, to the great joy of the inhabitants. 

Sharp went back to London, and returned in the 
end of August with a letter indicating the King's 
determination to interpose his authority for restoring 


the Church of Scotland " to its right Government of 
Bishops as it was by law established before the late 
troubles," and justifying his action by his promise of 
the previous year. The Privy Council approved of 
the King's determination, and Proclamation was im- 
mediately issued announcing the restoration of bishops. 
Sydeserf was the only one of the old bishops who 
remained, and he was appointed to Orkney. Sharp 
went to England in October, and the following month 
he was appointed Archbishop of St. Andrews and 
Primate of Scotland, and in December he was con- 
secrated in Westminster Abbey after being privately 
ordained as a deacon and a priest. At the same 
time, Hamilton was consecrated Bishop of Galloway. 
Parliament became the puppet of the King, and passed 
the Act of Supremacy, giving all he claimed. The 
Acts Rescissory declared the Covenants unlawful and 
seditious deeds. No one was to be admitted to any 
public trust or office unless he acknowledged that they 
were unlawful. Ministers were to receive patrons' 
presentation and Archbishops' collation or quit their 
parishes. In April, 1661, the Synod of Galloway met 
to prepare a Petition to Parliament against Episcopacy 
and in favour of the liberty of the Church, but the 
Earl of Galloway appeared and, in the name of the 
King, dissolved the meeting. The Moderator, Mr. 
John Park, minister of Stranraer, protested against 
this encroachment as illegal, and would not disperse 
the meeting till he had prayed and regularly dissolved 


The people of Whithorn complained to this 
Parliament that their town had been " altogether 
depauperated by the quarterings of three troops of 
English horse," and an Act was passed authorising the 
magistrates to raise voluntary contributions within the 
Sheriffdoms of Galloway, Nithsdale, Teviotdale, and 
Lanark, " to relieve them from the burden which had 
been thus imposed." In May, Parliament proceeded to 
the trial of the Marquis of Argyle, who had been a 
great friend of the Covenanters. Among the witnesses 
were John, Lord Kirkcudbright; John Carson, Provost 
of Kirkcudbright, and William Grierson of Bargatton. 
He was sentenced to death, but escaped for the present. 

Mr. Guthrie, a minister, was accused of framing 
the " Western Remonstrance," and the " Cause of 
God's Wrath," and he, too, was ordered to be executed. 
These proceedings showed the people of Galloway what 
they had to expect from the new Government. 

The Court of High Commission was again estab- 
lished for the peace and order of the Church, and on 
behalf of the government thereof by archbishops and 
bishops. In consequence of the encroachments upon 
the rights of the Church and the prohibitions issued 
by the Privy Council against the assembling of Synods 
or petitioning for the redress of grievances, the Presby- 
tery of Kirkcudbright, in January, 1662, appointed 
Mr. John Duncan, minister of Rerrick, and James 
Buglass, minister of Crossmichael, to proceed to 
Edinburgh to present a Petition to the Privy Council, 
but their request was disregarded, and though they 
asked nothing but a fair hearing, this was denied. 



The nature and reasonableness of the Petition may 
be seen from the closing paragraphs: — 

"And particularly we humbly beg, that we may 
have liberty, with freedom and safety, to express 
our minds against the re-introduction of Prelacy 
upon this church and kingdom; in doing whereof 
we resolve in the Lord to walk (according to the 
measure we have received) close by the rules of 
scripture, of Christian prudence, sobriety, and 
moderation; in all oar actions testifying our real 
affection, faithfulness, and loyalty to the king's 
most excellent majesty; the preservation of whose 
royal person, and whose long flourishing reign in 
righteousness, is the thing in this world that is 
and ever shall be dearest unto us, next unto the 
flourishing of the Kingdom of Jesus Christ. 

" His Majesty's gracious condescending unto 
those our just and humble desires, will yet more 
engage our already most deeply engaged hearts 
and affections unto his majesty's person and 
government, under whom it is the firm resolution 
of our hearts, to live in all dutiful obedience, 
praying that the Lord may long preserve his royal 
person under the droppings of his grace, and 
abundant loadenings of his best blessings, and 
special mercies: and your honours' favourable 
acceptance of this our humble petition off our 
hands, and transmitting of the same to his sacred 
majesty, seconded with your lordship's inter- 
cessions for his majesty's grant of these our just 


desires, will make the present generation bless 
you, and the generation to come call you happy, 
and shall add to our former obligations to suppli- 
cate at the throne of grace for the Spirit of counsel 
and government, in the fear of the Lord, unto 
your lordships, and that your persons and govern- 
ment may be richly blessed of the Lord. Thus we 
rest, expecting your honours' favourable answer." 

The Presbytery had also under consideration the 
form of an address to Parliament written by the Kev. 
Mr. Wylie, minister of Kirkcudbright, but no oppor- 
tunity was given for presenting it. 

An Act of Indemnity was passed (1662), but several 
hundreds had to pay fines " for the relief of the King's 
good subjects who had suffered in the late troubles." 
The Act was headed " The King's Free Pardon," and 
narrated that the King, being desirous that all 
animosities and differences should be buried in 
oblivion, had resolved to grant a general Act of 
Indemnity and Pardon, but had thought to burden this 
pardon to some whose guiltiness had rendered them 
obnoxious to the laws and placed their lives and 
fortunes at his Majesty's disposal, with the payment 
of some small sums. What these " small sums " were 
may be understood when it is stated that they 
amounted to over £84,000. In Galloway alone, an 
immense sum was raised, and the following persons 
were fined: — Colonel William Stuart, £600; Sir 

Andrew Agnew, Sheriff of Galloway, £600; 

Gordon of Grange, £1,800; M'CuUoch, younger 


of Ardwall, £1,200; John Cathcart of Gennock, 
£2,000; Francis Hay of Hareholm, £1,000; Patrick 
Agnew of Sewchan, £1,200; Patrick Agnew of Whig, 
£2,000; Gilbert Neilson of Catcheathie, £1,300; 
Patrick M'Ghie of Largie, £260; William M'Kieffock, 
collector of Wigtownshire, £3,600; George Campbell, 
captain-lieutenant to Sir Robert Adair, £600; Alex- 
ander Kennedy of Gillespie, £480 ; James Johnston in 
Stranrewart, £600; John Bailie of Litledoneraclet, 

£360; Alexander Bailie of Meikleton, £360; 

M'Donald of Crachen, £360; John M'Dougal of 
Creesein, £600; Alexander Agnew of Craoh, £600; 
Martin M'Ghie of Penningham, £600. WilKam 

M'Kuffock, £3,600; Stuart, bailie of Wigtown, 

£360; Cantrair, late provost of Wigtown, £1,200; 

William M'Ghie of Magdallen, £360; Ramsay 

oi Boghouse, £400; John M'Culloch in Glen, £400; 
Patrick Agnew of Galdnoth, £1,000; Thomas Boyd of 
Kirkland, £360; Alexander Martin in Stranrewart, 
£600; Patrick Kennedy there, £360; John Machans, 
tanner, there, £600 ; Gilbert Adair there, £360 ; David 
Dunbar of Calden, £4,800; John Gordon, merchant 
in Stranrewart, £240; John M'Dougal there, £240; 
William M'CuUing there, £240; John Adair of Little- 
gennock, £600; Alexander Crawford, tutor of Hery- 
men, £360; William Gordon of Barnfallie, £360; 
John Hannah in Granane, £480; William M'Dougal 

in Kilroe, £1,000; Frissel, burgess of Wigton, 

£360; Adam M'Kie, late provost of Wigton, £1,000; 

Stuart of Fintilloch, £1,000; James Maekitrick 

in Kirkmaiden, £360; Michael Malrae in Stonykirk, 


£600; James Macnaught in Portpatrick, £360; Nevin 

Agnew in Clod-house, £240; Agnew in Kilcon- 

quhar, £240; John Macmaister in Kirkcum, £360; 
John Macguieston in the Inch, £360; Andrew Agnew 
of Park, £360; Patrick Hannah in Gas, £360; — 
Mackinlenie in Darmenew, £300; Gilbert M'Cricker 
in Knockedbay, £360; John Macilvain in Milboch, 

£360; Mackinnen of Glenhill, £360; — Mac- 

kinnen of Glenbitten, £360; Kennedy of Bar- 

thangan, £240; Edward Lawrie in Derward, £240; 
Mr. William Cleland in Sheland, £240; Thomas 
Macmoran there, £360; John Paterson there, £360; 
■ Mackinnen in Polpindoir, £240. 


Major M'Culloch of Barhome, £800; Robert Kirk of 
Kildane, £360; Robert Howison, sub-collector, £240; 
Alexander Gordon of Knockgray, elder and younger, 
£120; William Whitehead of Milhouse, £360; John 
Corcadi of Senwick, £1,200; David Arnot in Barn- 
kapel, £360; Mr. William Gordon of Earlston, 
£3,500; John Gordon of Rusco, £2,400; John Turner 

in Adwell, £360; Gordon of Traquair, £2,400; 

John FuUarton of Carleton, £1,000; John Macart in 

Blaikit, £600 ; John Gordon in Waterside, £600 ; 

Gordon of Ballechston, £300; James Logan of Hills, 

£1,000; Logan of Bogrie, £480; Patrick Ewing 

of Anchescioch, £1,000; John Maxwell of Milton, 

£800; of Dendeoch, £600; William Gordon of 

Midton, £240; Robert Stuart of Mungohill, £1,000; 


Archibald Stuart of Killyreuse, £1,000; John Thom- 
8on of Harriedholm, £240; John Brown of Muirhead- 

8ton, £360; Brown of Lochill, £360; Alexander 

Gordon of Culvennan, £600; John Lindsay of Far- 
girth, £600; John Aitken of Auchinlaw, £360; 
William Gordon of Chirmers, £600; James Chalmers 

of Waterside, £600; Heron of Kerrochiltree, 

£600; William Gordon of Kobertson, £360; William 
Corsan there, £240; John Logan in Edrick, £240; 
William Glendoning of Curroch, £360; William 
M'CuUoch of Ardwall, £600; Eobert M'Lellan of 
Bargatan, £360; Alexander Mackie, merchant in 
Kirkcudbright, £200; Alexander M'Lellan, merchant 
there, £200; Alexander M'Lelland, maltman there, 

£280; William Telfer in Dunroe, £300; Gibson 

of Brockloch, £360; John Stuart of Shambellie, £600; 
David Gordon of Glenladie, £600; Alexander Gordon 
of Auchincairn, £200; Laird Mertine, £240; William 
Gordon of Menibue, £280; John Wilson of Corsock, 
£600; Eobert M'Culloch of AuchiUarie, £240; Comet 
Alexander M'Ghie of Balgown, £480; Edward Cairns 

of Tore, £240; Corsan in Dundrennan, £200; 

James Logan of Boge, £600; John M'Michan of 
Airds, £360; John M'Millan of Brackloch, £360; 
John Cannor of Murdochwood, £360; Eobert Gordon 
of Grange, £2,400; John Grierson there, £600; Eobert 
Gibson in the parish of Kells, £360; Edward Gordon 
of Barmart, £480; Alexander Cairns of Dulliparish, 
£480; James Glendonning of Mochrum, £480; James 
Neilson of Ervie, £360; Grierson, son of Bar- 
gatan, £600; Martin in Dullard, £360; William 


Glendonning of Logan, £360; Robert Ga there, £360; 
James Wilson in Clierbrane, £240; Alexander Living- 
stone of Countinspie, £360; Robert Corsan in Nether- 
rerick, £360; James Black of Parborest, £240; Patrick 
Corsan of Cudoe, £600; John Harris of Logan, £360; 

Telfer of Hareeleugh, £1,800; James Thomson of 

Inglistoun, £1,000; Robert M'Lellan of Balnagoun, 

£240 ; Captain Robert Gordon of Barharro, £240 ; 

Gordon of Gedgill, £300; Bugbie in Comrie, 

£240 ; Edward Clauchane in Casselzowere, £240 ; John 
M'Gill in Gall, £240; John Cannan in Guffockland, 
£240; John Hamilton in the Muir of Kirkpatrick, 
£240; Thomas Neilson of Knockwhawock, £240; 
William Gordon of Mackartnie, £240; James Gordon 
of Kilhaelnarie, £240; John Welsh of Skair, £240; 
James Smith of Drumlaw, £240; Robert Greill in 
Kinharvie, £240; William Maxwell in Nether-rait, 



The Drunken Act — Nonconformist ministers in Galloway — Privy 
Council's Act against Galloway ministers — Certain Galloway 
ministers compear personally — Outed ministers — Origin of 
Conventicles — Induction of curates results in rioting at 
Kirkcudbright and Irongray — Commissioners proceed to 
Kirkcudbright — Lord Kirkcudbright and others sent prisoners 
to Edinburgh — Earlston refuses to introduce curate to his 
parish — Commissioners proceed to Irongray — ^Aruot of Little- 
park sent prisoner to Edinburgh — Sympathetic visitors to 
the prison, and order by the Council — The Council's deliver- 
ance — Prisoners fined and banished. 

Steps were now being taken to enforce the Act against 
ministers who would not obtain presentation from the 
patron and collation from the bishop, and almost every 
minister in Galloway refused to comply. The Act was 
passed at what is known as the Drunken Meeting at 
Glasgow, because only one member of the Privy 
Council, Sir James Lockhart of Lee, was sober during 
the proceedings. The following is a list of the non- 
conformist ministers of Galloway at this time: — 

Those marked with E, were alive at the revolution; 
those marked with G were outed by the Act of Council 
at Glasgow, 1662; those marked with C were confined 
to their parishes; those marked with P were outed by 
particular sentences of Parliament or Council; and 
those marked with S were outed by the Diocesan 


Synod of Dumfries. 

ministers in galloway. 

Messrs. John Welsh of Irongray, G; Kobert Paton 
of Terregles, G E; John Blackadder of Traquair, G; 
Anthony Murray of Kirkbean, G; William Mean of 
Lochrutton, GR; Alexander Smith of Col vend, G; 
Gabriel Semple of Kirkpatrick Durham, G R; George 
Gladstone of Urr, C ; James Maxwell of Kirkgunzeon, 
C (some lists make this Thomas Maxwell). 

Synod of Galloway. 

presbytery of kirkcudbright. 

Messrs. Thomas Wylie of Kirkcudbright, P; 
Thomas Warner of Balmaclellan, GR; Adam Kay 
of Borgue; John Semple of Carsphairn; John Mac- 
michan of Dairy; John Cant of Kells, R; John 
Duncan of Rerick and Dundrennan; John Wilkie of 
Twynam; Adam Alison of Balmaghie; John Mean 
of Anwoth; James Fergusson of Keltoun; James 
Bugloss of Corsmichael; William Erskine of Girton, 
R; Thomas Thomson of Partan; Samuel Arnot of 
Tongland; Robert Fergusson of Buittle. 


Messrs. Archibald Hamilton of Wigtown, R; 
George Waugh of Kirkinner, R; Alexander Ross of 
Kirkcowan; William Maitland of Whithorn; Alex- 
ander Fergusson of Mochrum; William Maxwell of 
Monygaff; Patrick Peacock of Kirkmabreck, R. 
(One list adds Robert Ritchie of Sorbie). 



Messrs. James Lawrie of Stony kirk, R; John Park 
of Stranraer; James Bell of Kirkholm, R; Thomas 
Kennedy of Kirkmaiden, R (another list makes this 
Lisward); John Macbroom of Portpatrick; James 
Wilson of Inch (another list makes it Kirkmaiden); 
Alexander Peden of New^ Glenluce. (One list adds 
John Dick of Old Luce). 

In February, 1663, the Privy Council passed the 
following Act against some of the GaUoway 
ministers: — 

" The lords of his majesty's privy council being 
informed that there are seyeral ministers in the 
diocese of Galloway, who, not only contrary to 
the order of council dated at Glasgow, October 1st 
last, do continue at their former residence and 
churches, but in manifest contempt thereof, and 
contrary to the indulgence granted them by the 
late Act, dated December 23rd last, do yet persist 
in their wicked practices, still labouring to keep 
the hearts of the people from the present govern- 
ment in church and state, by their pernicious 
doctrine; and more particularly that Messrs. 
Archibald Hamilton, minister at Wigton, WiUiam 
Maitland at Whithorn, Robert Richardson at 
Mochrum, George Wauch at Kirkindair, Alex- 
ander Ross at Kirkcowan, Alexander Hutcheson 
(it ought to be Fergusson) at Sorbie, ministers in 
the presbytery of Wigtown; Messrs. Alexander 


Pedin at the Muirchurch, Glenluce, John Park 
at the Shappel, Thomas Kennedy at Lisward, 
James Lawrie at Stainkirk, James Wilson at 
Kirkmaiden, John M 'Broom at Portpatrick, 
ministers within the presbytery of Stranraer. 
Messrs. Patrick Peacock at Kirkmabreck, William 
Erskine, minister at Garston, Adam Kay, mini- 
ster at Borg, Robert Ferguson at Boittil, vSamuel 
Arnot at Tongland, John Wilkie at Twinam, 
James Buglos, minister at Crossmichael, Thomas 
Warner at Balmaclelland, John Cant at Keils, 
Adam Alison at Balmagie, John M'Michan at 
Dairy, John Duncan at Dundrennan and Rerick, 
and Thomas Thomson, minister at Parton, 
ministers in the presbytery of Kirkcudbright, and 
Mr. Alexander Smith at Cowend and Siddock, 
are the chief instruments in carrying on that 
wicked course: have therefore ordained letters to 
be directed against the forenamed persons, 
charging and commanding them, and every one 
of them, to remove themselves, wives, bairns, 
servants, goods, and gear, forth and from their 
respective dwelling places and manses, and out 
of the bounds of the presbytery where now they 
live, betwixt and the 20th day of March next; and 
that they do not take upon them to exercise any 
part of the ministerial function; and also charging 
them to appear before the council, the 24th of 
March next to come, to answer for their former 
disobedience with certification as above specified." 


A month later, Messrs. Maitland, Kay, Wilkie, 
Waugh, Lawrie, Cant, Alison, M'Michan, and Smith, 
" being called, compeared personally, and being 
severely examined upon their obedience to the late 
acts of parliament and council, anent their obedience 
and submission to the government of the church, as 
the same is presently established by law, declared they 
were not yet clear to give obedience thereunto; but they 
were ready and willing like as they then judicially 
promised to obey the said acts, for removing from their 
manses and parishes, and desisting from preaching, 
conform to the same in every point. In consideration 
whereof, the lords declare that they do continue (i.e., 
delay) to insist against them for their former carriages, 
while they be of new cited." The others did not 
appear, and were obliged to leave their kirks and 

The outed ministers were not silent, nor did they 
desert their flocks. They became, if possible, more 
faithful and zealous in their work, and showed a firm- 
ness of principle and a contempt of suffering which 
greatly endeared them to their people. 

They preached in the fields, moors, and on the hill- 
sides, and this was the origin of conventicles. When 
Gabriel Semple, minister of Kirkpatrick-Durham, was 
outed from his parish, he took up his abode with 
Neilson of Corsock. He preached in Corsock Castle 
till the place would not hold his audience. Then he 
took to the garden. It, too, became too small, and he 
went to the open field, and so we have the beginning 
of the field preaching that became so characteristic of 


the times of persecution. There were between three 
and four hundred ministers outed, and they were 
replaced by " the poorest creatures ever known as 
ministers in Scotland, illiterate, juvenile, drunken, and 
openly vicious," — little wonder that the people refused 
to hear them. 

The induction of curates resulted in rioting in 
several places, and at Kirkcudbright and Irongray the 
women took a prominent part in the proceedings. The 
Chancellor wrote the magistrates of Kirkcudbright, 
commanding them to discover the individuals who had 
been engaged in the riot, and to order their appearance 
before the Privy Council, with the husbands, fathers, 
and masters of such women as had been concerned in 
the tumult. In consequence of this injunction, there 
appeared before the Council Adam Gumquhen, .John 

Halliday, John M'Staffeu, Alexander M'Lean, • • 

Renthoun, John Carson, and Alexander M'Kay, in- 
habitants of Kirkcudbright, who denied that they had 
taken any part in the tumult. M'Staffen and M'Lean 
were ordered to find caution for the production of 
their wives, and the rest were sent to prison until their 
wives appeared before the Council. James Hunter, 
cited and not compearing, was ordained to be 
denounced. But the Council, finding there were no 
acting magistrates in Kirkcudbright, appointed a 
Committee to proceed to the South to make the most 
searching enquiry into the particulars of this contempt 
of authority. These Commissioners were the Earls 
of Linlithgow, Galloway, and Annandale, Lord Drum- 
lenrig, and Sir John Wauchope of Nidrie, and they 


were accompanied by military force. They met at 
Kirkcudbright in May, 1663, and called before them 
all those who were supposed to have been engaged in 
the riot, including over thirty women. After taking 
evidence, they found that Lord Kirkcudbright, even 
from his own confession, had opposed the introduction 
of the curate, and had refused to give any assistance 
in quelling the disturbance. They ordered him to be 
sent a prisoner to Edinburgh. John Carson, late 
Provost of Kirkcudbright, was dealt with in the same 
way, and John Ewart, who had been chosen Provost at 
the last election but refused to accept office, was 
declared to be the chief cause of the disorganisation 
of the magistracy, and had declined to give his advice 
as to dealing with the tumult on the ground that he 
was no Councillor, so he too was taken prisoner to 
Edinburgh. A new election of magistrates was then 
ordered. William Ewart was chosen Provost; John 
Newall and Robert Glendinning, Bailies; and John 
Livingstone, Treasurer. They all accepted office, and 
signed a Bond for the faithful discharge of their 
duties. After taking further evidence, the Com- 
missioners found that Agnes Maxwell, Christina 
M 'Cavers, Jean Rome, Marion Brown, and Janet 
Biglam had been most active in the outrage, and they 
were ordered to be carried prisoners to Edinburgh to 
answer before the Privy Council. A dozen others were 
ordered to be imprisoned till they found caution under 
the penalty of £100 sterling to appear before the Privy 
Council. Ellen Cracken and others were ordered to 


be apprehended by the Sheriff of Wigtown, and im- 
prisoned by the magistrates of Kirkcudbright. 

From Kirkcudbright the Lords addressed a letter 
to Gordon of Earlston, requiring him to introduce the 
curate of his parish, but he refused, as will be seen 
in the article dealing with Earlston. 

The Commissioners then proceeded to Irongray, 
and called before them William Arnot of Littlepark, 
George Rennie of Beoch, and several others. They, 
found that Arnot had held several meetings before the 
tumult for the purpose of opposing the admission of 
Mr. Bernard Sanderson to the Church, and that, when 
requested by the Rev. John Wishart and those who 
went to serve the edict, to hold the women off them, 
he declared he neither could nor would do it, and that 
he afterwards drew his sword, and putting his back 
against the church door, said, " Let me see who wiU, 
place a minister here this day." Arnot was ordered 
to be taken prisoner to Edinburgh. Rennie was 
declared an accomplice because he had been present 
and not assisted to overcome the opposition. He was 
ordered to find security to a large amount to appear 
before the Council when called. The whole of the 
military were ordered to live on the inhabitants at 
free quarters till the following Monday. 

The Commissioners having given in their reports, 
dated 25th and 30th May, 1663, to the Privy Council, 
the men from Kirkcudbright who had appeared for 
their wives, after finding caution for their good 
behaviour, were set at liberty. Those still detained 


seem to have had many sympathetic visitors, for the 
following curious order was issued, 23rd June, 1663: — 
" The Lords of council being informed that minister's 
and other persons visit the prisoners for the riot at 
Kirkcudbright, now in the tolbooth of Edinburgh, and 
not only exhort, but pray for the said persons to 
persist in their wicked practices, affirming that they 
are suffering for righteousness' sake, and assure them 
God will give them an outgate, recommend it to the 
keeper to notice who visits them, and what their 
discourse and carriage is when with them." 

On the 13th August, the Privy Council gave the 
following deliverance on the report of the Com- 
missioners: — 

" The Lords having considered several petitions 
of the prisoners from Kirkcudbright and Irongray, 
and the report of the commissioners sent to that 
country, do find John Carson of Sennick, John 
Euart, late provost of Kirkcudbright, and William 
Arnot of Littlepark in Irongray, to have been 
most guilty of the abuses and disorders there, 
and fine John Carson in the sum of eight thousand 
merks, and the said William Arnot in the sum of 
five thousand merks: and order them to find 
caution before they depart from prison, to pay the 
said sums to his majesty's exchequer betwixt and 
Martinmas next, with certification if they fail, 
they shall be banished out of the kingdom: and 
ordain and command the said William Arnot, 
betwixt and the 25th of October next to come, 


to make public acknowledgment of his offences 
two several Sabbaths at the kirk of Irongray 
before that congregation. Like as the said lords 
do banish the said John Euart forth of this realm 
for his offence, and ordain and command him forth 
of the same betwixt and this day twenty days, 
not to be seen therein at any time hereafter, 
without license from his majesty or the council, 
at his highest peril. 

" And the said lords finding Agnes Maxwell, 
Marion Brown, Jean Rome, Christian M 'Cavers, 
and Janet Biglam, to have been most active in 
the said tumult, do ordain them, betwixt and the 
15th day of September next to come, to stand two 
several market days at the market-cross at Kirk- 
cudbright, ilk day for the space of two hours, with 
a paper on their face, bearing their fault to be 
for contempt of his majesty's authority, and 
raising a tumult in the said town; and ordain 
them before they depart out of prison, to enact 
themselves in the books of council, to give 
obedience to this; and the magistrates of Kirkcud- 
bright to execute this sentence; and if they fail 
or delay so to do, that they cause whip them 
through the said town, and banish them forth of 
the same, and the liberties thereof." 



Act against Presbyteriau ministers from Ireland coming to Scot- 
land — The Earl of Gallowaj' and others appointed to examine 
them — John Gordon of Stranraer prisoner for treasonable 
speeches — Episcopal ministers' trying time — Register of the 
Synod of Galloway — Complaints of parishioners absenting 
themselves from preaching; of seditious ministers; of their 
own hard necessitous condition; of conventicle keepers — 
Bond to be tendered to disorderly parishioners — The state 
of the Glenkens — Episcopalians get no support there — Kirk- 
eowan Curate cannot get a Session — Patrick Vans of Sorbie 
to be proceeded against for disorderly baptism. 

On 7tli October, 1663, the Privy Council passed an 
Act to prevent Presbyterian ministers from Ireland 
getting a shelter in Scotland, and also against those 
who would not attend the parish church to hear the 
curates. Among those appointed to call before them 
persons coming from Ireland for examination were the 
Earl of Galloway, the Provost of Ayr for the time, 
Maxwell of Munches, the Provost of Wigtown for the 
time, and Stewart of Tonderghie. 

In January, 1664, the Chancellor wrote Sir James 
Turner, as follows: — " Sir, — Upon information given 
to his majesty's privy council of some treasonable 
speeches uttered by one John Gordon burgess in 
Stranraer, for which he is now prisoner in that Burgh, 
they order you to send him in prisoner, with as many 
soldiers as may be sufficient for that purpose, that the 


council may take such course with him, as tliey shall 
think fit." 

No more appears about him. 

Although supported by the Government, the Episco- 
pal ministers who were sent to Galloway had a very 
trying time. 

In the Register of the Synod of Galloway we get 
frequent glimpses of the difficulties they had to 
contend with. On October 26th, 1664, it is complained 
that many of the parishioners wilfully absent them- 
selves from the preaching of the Word and other divine 
ordinances, and refuse to bring their children to the 
church to be baptised by them, but either keep them 
unbaptised or take them to outed ministers of their 
own principles to be baptised privately by them. 

On November Ist, 1665, it is represented to the 
Bishop of the Synod that their bounds were much 
pestered and troubled with seditious ministers who- 
kept conventicles and unlawful meetings to the great 
hindrance of the work of the ministry in those parts, 
and the Presbytery of Kirkcudbright was instructed 
to get detailed information and represent the same t» 
the Lords of His Majesty's High Commission. The 
Presbytery further declared that one of the chief 
causes, as they supposed, why their bounds were in 
such an unsettled condition was that they had not, 
like other shires, Justices of the Peace who might 
concur with them for the settlement of the same. 

At a meeting at Kirkcudbright, on 26th April, 1666, 
the ministers represented their hard, necessitous, and 
singular condition as that they (being all and everyone 


of them newly planted within this said diocese of 
Oalloway, as alec come from the several places of this 
kingdom) had vast expense and charge in accommo- 
dating themselves for transporting themselves to, and 
settling themselves in this then so unruly and unsettled 
country. As also that they being now come do find 
that their respective stipends, though mean, yet are 
altogether unsettled. As also that these unsettled 
stipends are very ill and unthankfuUy paid, partly by 
reason of the backwardness of diverse disaffected and 
mal-contented persons and partly by and through the 
present deadness of trade, the principal nerves and 
sinews of that country. They accordingly ask to be 
relieved of an annuity imposed on them by Acts of 

At the same meeting, representatives were appointed 
to give the names of ministers who kept conventicles 
Tvithin the presbytery, to Sir James Turner, who was 
then in the town, desiring him to take such course as 
may remedy the same. These ministers' names were as 
follows, viz.: — Mr. Adam Allison, Mr. John Wilkie, 
Mr. Samuel Arnot, Master James Buglass, Mr. Alex- 
ander Robertson, Mr. William Hay, Master John 
Cant, Mr. Thomas Vernor, and Master John Blaicater. 

The several ministers within the diocese were com- 
manded to give in an exact and impartial list of all 
wilful and ordinary withdrawers, conventicle keepers, 
and abettors of the same within their respective con- 

At this meeting a committee was appointed to advise 
Tvith Sir James Turner as to the terms of a Bond 


to be tendered by every minister to their disorderly 
parishioners. The draft Bond was submitted and 
approved by the Bishop and Synod as follows, and 
the ministers were ordained to have it observed:— 

" I Forasmickle as Sir James Turner 

commander of his Majesty's forces of foot in 
Galloway having full and ample Commission to 
take up ye fines imposed by act of Parliament 
upon such as willfully absent themselves from the 
church, the hearing of ye word and other divine 
ordinances, and to punish such as frequent Con- 
venticles forbidden by the law, and resetts such 
outed ministers as do preach at these Conventicles, 
And I being one of that number that have trans- 
gressed in all or some one or other of ye premises, 
And yet being most civilie discreetly and gentilly 
delt with in ye matter of my fines for ray bygane 
faults of that kind by ye said Sir James Turner, 
in hopes of and upon my promise to keep ye 
church duly and to frequent all divine ordinances 
for ye future and to dishaunt all Private Con- 
venticles and to disown and discountenance all 
Conventicle preachers. Therefore wit ye me to be 
bound and oblig'd like as by thir presents I bind 
and oblige me to keep and observe this my promise 
in all ye particulars above rehearsed, As likewise 
in case it shall happen me at any time hereafter 
to dishaunt ye church, hearing of ye word or other 
divine ordinances for two Lords days together, un- 
lesse I be hindered by sicknesse or by permission 


of the minister of the Parish, And in case I shall 
be found to be present at any private Conventicle 
or meeting forbidden by ye law, or shall coun- 
tenance or reset in my house, or contribute for 
the supply of any Conventicle preachers. In 
these cases and every one of them I bind and 
oblige me by my heirs and executors to content 

and pay to his heirs and executers the 

summe of Scots money, and that within six 

days next after my committing any of the said 
failings in any particular of the premises the 
samen being proven as accords in law, or, in case 
I shall refuse to clear myselfe by the oath, before 
ye minister of the Parish where I live or before 
the Presbytery of the place. And for the moi'e 
securitie etc." 

At the same meeting, ministers who had not already 
given in a list of wilful with-drawers and conventicle 
keepers did so, and reference is made to a conventicle 
at Glenvogie, within the parish of Penninghame, on 
the last day of December, 1665, " but Mr. James 
Garshore, minister of the parish, being not now in the 
country," they could not get full information about 
it. The Presbytery of Stranraer being interrogated 
anent their wilful with-drawers, declared that they had 
none except the Earl of Cassillis, the late ministers, 
some chaplains (which chaplains the Synod ordained 
them to proceed against conform to former Acts), and 
one James Johnstone, a fugitive. 


The state of the Glcnkens seems to have given the 
Synod considerable trouble, and they agreed to write 
certain gentlemen there: — in the parish of Carsphairn, 
Gilbert Macadam of Waterhead, William Gordon of 
'Dundeugh, and Alexander Gordon of Knockgray; in 
the parish of Dairy, Robert Stewart of Ardoch, James 
Logan of Bogue, and Robert Grier of Millmark; in 
the parish of BalmacleUan, William Gordon, Shinners, 
Gordon of Holm, and Robert Gordon, Trochqueen; in 
the parish of Kells, the Provost of New Galloway; 
James Chalmers of Waterside, and John Grier of 
Dalton, desiring them to meet with some of the 
ministers to confer anent settling of their respective 
parishes. Many of these gentlemen were devoted 
Covenanters. The Synod appointed their well beloved 
brethren, Mr. James Colquhoun, minister of Penning- 
hame, Mr. Andrew Simpson, minister of Kirkinner, 
Mr. Alexander Cowper, minister of Sorbie, and Mr. 
Alexander Irving, minister of Parton, to go to meet 
them. These ministers afterwards reported that they 
had proceeded to New Galloway as arranged, " but, 
although they stayed there a considerable time, yet 
none of the gentlemen that were written to and desired 
to be present came except one of them — Shirmers — so 
that nothing was done in the matter." Some of the 
ministers were appointed to go there and preach, but 
they one and all had some excuse, because we find 
the following: — Reported by Mr. James Hutcheson 
" That he could not keep the diet appointed the last 
Synod by reason of the greatness of the waters." 


Eeported by Mr. Thomas Ireland, " That he was lying 
very sick of a fever." Eeported by Mr. Alexander 
Cowper " That he went not, being unwell." Reported 
by Mr. James Colquhoun " That he went to Cars- 
phairn according to appointment, but he got not an 
auditory." Eeported by Mr. Alexander Ir^dng " That 

he was going, but (a very significant blank, excuses 

having apparently run short). Eeported by Mr. 
James Shaw " That he went not, conceiving that he 
would get not auditory." Nothing further is required 
to show how determined the Glenkens folk were to 
have no dealings with Episcopacy. 

At Kirkcudbright, on 29th April, 1669, the Bishop 
and Synod having heard that within the Presbytery of 
Stranraer there are several disordei-s, as some baptising 
their children by outed ministers, and hearing alsQ 
that it hath been the study of some gentlemen within 
the bounds to break the discipline of the Church, 
especially within the parish of Kirkmaiden, obstruct- 
ing so far as they could Church censure against known 
delinquents, illegally opposing the minister, and 
weakening his hands in order to the exercise of 
discipline in that part, ordained the Presbytery of 
Stranraer to begin their visitations at Kirkmaiden 
Church, and to cite before them such persons as are 
guilty of said dismeanours, and if they get no satis-i 
faction, to represent the matter to the Privy Council. 

The Bishop and the Synod appointed the several 
Presbyteries to write or speak to the late ministers 
who kept conventicles and baptised children of other 


men's congregations, that they would desist from so 
doing, or else application would be made to the Privy- 
Council thereanent. 

At a meeting at Wigtown, 28th April, 1670, the 
minister of Kirkcowan complains that he cannot get 
a Session to concur with him in the exercise of 
discipline, and the Presbytery of Wigtown is recom- 
mended to appoint some of their number to meet with 
him to supply the place with a Session. 

The proceedings contain reference to Patrick Vans 
in the parish of Sorbie, for disorderly baptising of 
his child, and the Presbytery of Wigtown is ordained 
to proceed against him. 



Proceediugs against Welsh, Semple, Blackadder, Arnot, Peden, 
and other ministers for keeping conventicles and baptising 
— The people persecuted for hearing onted ministers — Sir 
James Turner sent into Galloway to crush any opposition — 
The rising at Dairy — The sufferings endured in Galloway — 
Fines in Stewartry parishes — Qnarterings and other aggrava- 

Towards the end of January, 1666, at the instigation 
probably of the bishop of Galloway, the Council 
direct proceedings to be taken against " Mr. John 
Welsh, late minister of Irongray; Mr. Gilbert Semple, 
late minister of Kirkpatrick of the Muir; Mr. John 
Blackadder, late minister of Troqueer; Mr. Robert 
Archibald, late minister of Dunscore; Mr. Samuel 
Arnot, late minister at Kirkpatrick-durham ; Mr. 
John Douglas, late minister at ; Mr. Alex- 

ander Peden, late minister at ; Mr. William 

Reid, late minister at ; Mr. John Wilkie, late 

minister at ; Mr. John Crookshanks, and John 

Osborne in Keir, on the ground that they do still 
presume to keep conventicles and private meetings and 
presume to preach, and in their sermons and conference 
traduce, reflect upon, and declare against authority 
and the government civil and ecclesiastical, as it is 
established by law in Church and State, and do not 
only withdraw from the ordinary and public meetings 


for divine worship, but do most eeditiouely by their 
practice and example and by their speeches and dis- 
courses seduce and endeavour to withdraw others from 
the same, and particularly the said Mr. John Welsh 
does presume frequently at least once every week to 
preach in the parish of Irongray in the Presbytery 
of Dumfries, and himself and these who frequent his 
conventicles do convene together armed with sworda 
and pistols, at the which meetings he also baptises 
children that are brought to him by disaffected 
persons." Other charges of a similar nature are 
narrated against the others, and of Alexander Peden 
it is said that the conventicles were " kept under 
cloud of night with a great deal of confusion, as also 
the said Mr. Alexander rides up and down the country 
with sword and pistol in grey clothes." Osborne's 
crime is giving notice to the people of these unlawful 
meetings. Accordingly, they are to be charged at the 
Market Cross of Edinburgh, Dumfries, Kirkcud- 
bright, Pier and Shore of Leith, to appear personally 
before the Lords of Council at Edinburgh, to answer 
to the premises under pain of rebellion and putting 
to the horn. 

Not only were conventicles forbidden, but all who 
attended them were liable to severe pains and penalties. 
The people met in the moors and fields to hear their 
outed ministers, and were persecuted for so doing and 
for refusing to hear the Episcopal curates. They were 
hunted like criminals, and Sir James Turner was sent 
into Galloway with troops to enforce compliance and 


to crush any opposition. This led to the outbreak at 
Dairy, followed by the defeat of the Covenanters at 
RuUion Green. The facts and circumstances connected 
with the Rising will be dealt with separately. 

In a letter from a gentleman in Galloway, published 
in Wodrow, it is stated that the first of these 
sufferings was in 1663, about mid May, when -the 
forces came into Dumfries and Kirkcudbright. The 
second was in 1665, when the horse and foot came in 
under Sir James Turner. " The third was in this 
present year — 1666 — when about the month of March 
or beginning of April the Party came in under the 
command of Sir James Turner." After narrating the 
hardships endured, the letter continues — 

" These people are weakened in their estates 
indeed, but confirmed in their opinion. It is 
palpable that the extended conformity cannot be 
gained by such extreme dealing, but rather 
marred; and will not the report of this rigid 
dealing (which cannot be hid) have influence upon 
all those of their judgment to alienate them the 
more from the course? I confess this con- 
sideration is like to have little weight with some 
covetous soldiers (employed here) assuming to 
themselves an arbitrary power to pray upon a 
desolate people for their own private gain, but 
I expect that judicious and unbiassed men who 
tender the good of the country and his Majesty's 
interest therein, will lay this to heart and take 


their best way to represent it to our rulers for 
remedy in the matter and moving their com- 
passion towards a poor people that have few to 
speak for them. 

" Follows that brief relation of this country's 
sufferings, which I promised you in my letter, 
wherein this is enclosed, in which you have set 
down, 1. The enumerate sums of money; 2. Some 
general aggravations — 

1. The Parish of Carsphairn, forty-nine 
families in that called kirk fines, has 
suffered the loss of £4,864 17 4 

3. IntheParishof Dairy, forty-three families, 9,577 6 8 

3. In Balmadellan, forty-nine families, 6,430 10 4 

4. In the Parish of Balraaghie, nine families, 425 11 8 

5. In Tungland Parish, out of two or three 

poor families, - 166 12 8 

6. In Twynam Parish, from some poor per- 


7. In Borg Parish, out of twenty families, 

8. In Girton Parish, out of nine poor families, 

9. In Anworth Parish, from some poor 


10. In Kirkpatrick-durham Parish, out of 

thirty-four inconsiderable families, 

11. In Kirkmabreck Parish, some few families, 

12. In MonygafF, three families, 

13. In Kirkcudbright, eighteen families, 

14. In Lochrutton Parish, out of thirty-seven 

poor families, notwithstanding they want 
a minister, 

15. In Troqueer Parish, twelve poor families, 

16. In Kells Parish, 

17. In Corsmichael Parish, 

18. In Parton Parish, from twenty-four families, 

19. In Irongray Parish, forty-two families. 

81 4 

2,062 17 

525 10 


773 6 


2,235 16 
563 6 


756 10 
466 13 
1,666 13 
2,838 9 
3,362 18 




" In the Sheriffdom of Nithsdale 
or Dumfriesshire — 

1. In the town and parish of Dumfries, from 

fifty-one families, was exacted the sum of 4,61 7 15 4 

9. In the parish of Kirkmaho, from t\\enty 

poor families, - 1,341 6 8 

3. In Dunscore parish, from fourteen families, 1.411 13 4 

4. In Glencairn parish, from families, 2,146 14 8 

The total of these simis extend to - £51,575 13 4 

" Besides the sums above named, it is to be con- 
sidered that the great expense of quartering is 
not received in most parts of the parishes above- 
named, which would make a great addition to 
the former sums, but it cannot well be counted. 

" That all these forementioned sums are by and 
attour all the fines imposed by the State which, 
within the Stewartry of Galloway upon ninety- 
one persons, extend to the sum of £47,860, and 
in the Sheriffdom of Nithsdale upon forty-one 
persons, extend to £29,260: which being laid to- 
gether the Parliament fines within the Stewartry 
of Galloway, and Sheriffdom of Nithsdale, extend 
to £77,120: and that besides the expense of cess 
and quarter for the fines themselves for several 
persons, was put to pay near as much more cess 
as their fines came to besides quarter. 

" That by and attour all the foresaid losses, 
there are many families (whose sums are not here 


reckoned) in probability totally ruined, and many 
others scattered already: for instance in lioch- 
rutton, a little parish, I find to be reckoned to be 
above sixteen families utterly broken. In Iron- 
gray parish the most part of the families put 
from house keeping already, the soldiers having 
violently taken away both there and elsewhere 
from several families the thing they should have 
lived on, even to the leading away of their hay- 
stacks. I forbear to set down the rest of the 
broken and ruined families until I can give you 
a more distinct account: only I can tell you in 
the general that utter ruin to the most part of 
the families in this country is like to be the 
consequence of these grievous and intolerable 
impositions: and also to my certain knowledge, 
there are several gentlemen who formerly were 
well to live, that are now put from house keeping, 
and forced to wander: yea, ofttime to be beholden 
to others for a night's lodging, the soldiers having 
possessed themselves in their houses, cattle, 
plenishing, barns, etc. 

" Ordinarily, wherever they came to quarter, 
they do not rest content with sufficiency, but set 
themselves to waete needlessly ; at some times send 
for sheep off the hill, and cast whole bulks of them 
to their hounds and ratches: also by treading and 
scattering corn and straw, they and their pedies 
at their pleasure, and usually saying, We came 
to destroy, and we shall destroy you. 


"It is specially to be considered, that besides 
all which the country hath suffered hitherto, the 
soldiers are sent forth through the country again, 
and fine, cess, and quarter is imposed of new upon 
the same persons and families who were fined 
before, yea, upon some it is doubled and trebled. 
I have lately heard that some yeomen are fined in 
five hundred merks, besides, the gentlemen in six 
or seven hundred pounds. I cannot see what shall 
be the fruit of these things, except utter ruin to 
their worldly estates. 

" Notwithstanding all these impositions upon 
that people and aggravation of their sufferings 
above mentioned, yet the people are commanded 
to take a Bond, wherein (besides all the particular 
obligations required in that Bond) is contained 
an acknowledgment that the commander of the 
party has dealt civilly and discreetly with them." 



Bitter persecution after Pentland— Sir William Bannatync sent 
into Galloway with large party of soldiers — Oppression of 
the people-^oger Gordon of Holm, Earlston, David M'Gill 
of Dairy, Gilbert Monry in Marbreck, Alexander Gordon of 
Knockbrack — Bannatyne's horrible cruelty — ^List of persons 
pursued for forfeiture — ^Numbers ordered to be executed 
when taken— Change of King's advisers — King's Indemnity — 
Long list of exceptions — Bond to keep public peace — Parties 
appointed in Wigtownshire and the Stewartry to get it 
signed — Differences of opinion as to its true intent and 

After tiie overthrow of the Covenanters at Pentland, 
many of the outed ministers crossed to Holland, but 
others continued to preach to the people at con- 
venticles. Bitter persecution followed immediately 
on Pentland, and then there was a lull, during which 
the preachers became bolder, and multitudes flocked 
to hear them. Sir William Bannatyne was sent into 
Galloway with a large party of soldiers. He brought 
four hundred foot and a troop of horses to Roger 
Gordon's of Holm, in the parish of Dairy, and 
quartered them there. They ate up everything about 
the place, and when all was consumed they forced the 
neighbours to carry to them. They then proceeded to 
the house of Earlston, which they turned into a 
garrison, and sent out parties to harass the whole 
district. David M'Gill of Dairy was being searched 



for, but he disguised himself in a woman's clothes, and 
got away. The soldiers, asserting that his wife had 
been privy to his escape, seized her and bound her and 
tortured her by putting lighted matches between her 
fingers. She suffered terribly, lost one of her hands, 
and in a few days she died. Heavy fines were imposed 
without any reason, and where they could not all be 
paid at once, bonds were exacted for the balance. 

Gilbert Monry of Marbreck in Carsphairn was fined 
fifty merks without any alleged fault. When he asked 
Sir William Bannatyne why he was fined, the other 
answered, " Because you have gear, and I must have 
a part of it." And indeed a similar answer might 
have been given in regard to all his exactions. 

Alexander Gordon of Knockbrack, for his sons being 
at Pentland, was made to suffer a great deal, and 
John Gordon in Carneval had everything taken from 
him, his loss being 16,000 merks. 

In the parish of Balmaghie, Bannatyne went into a 
public house, and after getting some liquor, attempted 
to take advantage of the mistress of the house. Her 
husband went to protect her, and Bannatyne struck 
him dead on the spot. " Bannatyne and his party 
drank in the house most of the Lord's Day; and when 
they could drink no more, let what remained run upon 
the ground, and rifled the house of all in it. In short, 
it was known in this country that Bannatyne never 
refused to let his men rob and plunder wherever they 
pleased. His oppressions, murders, robberies, rapes, 
adulteries, etc., were so many and atrocious that the 
managers themselves were ashamed of them, and we 


shall afterwards hear that he was called to some account 
for them, and forced to flee the nation." 

Many were imprisoned upon mere suspicion. James 
Grierson of Dargoner was imprisoned in Ayr without 
any fault, although he earnestly craved trial. At 
length he was let out upon giving caution for his 
appearance when called. In August, 1667, a Justice- 
Court was held at Edinburgh, when the Lord Advocate 
produced a commission to pursue the following persons 
for forfeiture before the Court as having been in the 
late Rebellion in the west: — 

" Colonel James Wallace, Major Joseph Learmont, 
William Maxwell of Monreif younger, John M'Clellan 
of Barsoob, John Gordon of Knockbrex, Robert 
M'Clellan of Barmageichan, James Cannon of Barn- 
shalloch younger, Robert Cannon of Mardrochat 

younger, John Welsh of Scar, Welsh of Cornley, 

Gordon of Garry in Kells, Robert Chalmers 

brother to Gadgirth, Henry Grier in Balmaclellan, 
David Scott in Irongray, John Gordon in Middleton 
of Dairy, William Gordon there, John M'Naught 
there, Robert and Gilbert Cannons there, Andrew 
Dempster of Carradow, James Grierson of Dargoner 

(who was delayed), James Kirk of Sundaywell, 

Ramsay in Mains of Arnistoun, John Hutchison in 

Newbottle, Row, Chaplain to Scotstarbet, Patrick 

Listovm in Calder, Patrick Listoun his son, James 
Wilkie in Mains of Cliftounhall, William Muir of 
Caldwell, the goodman of Caldwell, Mr. John Cuning- 
ham of Bedland, William Porterfield of Quarreltoun,. 
Alexander Porterfield his brother, Robert Ker of Kers- 


land, William Lockhart of Wicketshaw, David Poo 
in Pokelly, Mr. Gabriel Semple, Mr. John Semple, 
Mr. John Guthrie, Mr. John Welsh, Mr. Samuel 
Arnot, Mr. James Smith, Mr. Alexander Pedin, Mr. 

Orr, Mr. William Veitch, Mr. Paton, Mv. 

John Cruickshanks, Mr. Gabriel Maxwell, Mr. John 
Oarstairs, Mr. James Mitchell, and Mr. William 

The Court, upon their non-appearance, decerned 
them to be denounced rebels and their lands to fall 
to his Majesty's use. A simple forfeiture was not 
reckoned a good enough claim for the estates to be 
•disposed of, and the advocate urged to have the sentence 
of death passed upon as many of them as he saw fit 
to insist against. This was utterly illegal, but the 
persecutors let nothing stand in the way to gain their 
«nd, and accordingly proceedings were taken against 
-Colonel James Wallace of Auchanes; Major Joseph 
Learmont; John M'Clellan, Barscob; Mr. John 
Welsh; Mr. James Smith; Patrick Listoun of Calder; 
William Listoun, his son; WiUiam Porterfield of 
Quarreltoun. They were, as a matter of course, 
ordered to be executed when taken, and their estates 
forfeited. A few days afterwards, 16th August, 1667, 
the same farce was gone through against William Muir 
of Caldwell; John Caldwell of Caldwell younger; 
Robert Ker of Kersland; Mr. John Cuningham of 
Bedland; Alexander Porterfield, brother to Quarrel- 
toun; Maxwell, son of Monreif; Robert M'Clellan 
of Barmageichan; Robert Cannon of Mardrochat, 
j^ounger; Robert Chalmers, brother to Gadgirth; 


Mr. Grabriel Semple; Mr. John Guthrie; Mr. Alex. 
Peden; Mr. William Veitch; Mr. John Crookshanks; 
and Patrick M'Naught in Cummock. They also were 
ordered to be executed when taken, and their estates 
forfeited. Kobert Chalmers was afterwards (1669) 

During this year, many changes took place among 
the King's Councillors, and there was a disposition to 
relax the proceedings against the Presbyterians, and 
to disband the army. Sir Eobert Murray was sent to 
Scotland to learn how matters stood, and on 23rd 
August, 1667, the King's command was made known — 
that the army was to be forthwith disbanded. On 
Ist October, 1667, the King's Indemnity was given 
to those in the Rebellion, excepting always from his 
pardon the persons and fortunes of Colonel James 

Wallace; Major Learmont; Maxwell of Monreif, 

younger; M'Clellan of Barscob; Gordon of 

Barbreck; M'Clellan of Barmageichan; 

Cannon of Barnshalloch, younger; Cannon of 

Barley younger; Cannon of Mardrochat, 

younger; Welsh of Scar; Welsh of Cornley; 

— — ■ Gordon of Garrery in Kells; Robert Chalmers, 
brother to Gadgirth; Henry Grier in Balmaclellan; 
David Scott in Irongray; John Gordon in Midtoun of 
Dairy; William Gordon there; John M'Naught there; 

Robert and Gilbert Cannons there; Gordon of 

Bar, elder, in Kirkpatrick-durham; Patrick M'Naught 
in Cumnock; John M'Naught, his son; Gordon of 

Holm, younger; Dempster of Carridow; of 

Dargoner; of Sunday well; Ramsay in the 


Mains of Arnistoun; John Hutchison in Newbottle; 
Patrick Listoun in Calder; William Listoun, his son; 
James Wilkie in the Mains of Cliftonhall; the laird of 
Caldwell, the goodman of Caldwell, younger; the laird 
of Kersland, younger; the laird of Bedland Cuning- 

ham; Porterfield of Quarrelton; Alexander 

Porterfield, his brother; Ijockhart of Wicket- 

fihaw; Mr. Trail, son to Mr. Robert Trail, some- 
time chaplain to Scotstarbet; David Poe in Pokelly; 
Mr. Gabriel Semple; John Sample; Mr. John 
Guthrie; Mr. John Welsh; Mr. Samuel Arnot; Mr. 

James Smith; Mr. Alexander Peden; Mr. Orr; 

Mr. William Veitch; Mr. Paton, preacher; Mr. 

Crookshanks; Mr. Gabriel Maxwell; Mr. John 

Carstairs; Mr. James Mitchell; Mr. William 
Forsyth; and of all others who were forfeited, or under 
process of forfeiture, as also excepting all such who, 
since the late rebellion, had been accessory to the 
robbing of ministers' houses and committing violence 
upon the persons of ministers, and processed for the 
same, and found guilty thereof. 

The pardon was only to extend to those who before 
Ist January gave Bond for keeping the public peace, 
and among those appointed to take this Bond were the 
Master of Herries, the Sheriff of Galloway, the Laird 
of Baldoon, Maxwell of Munches, and Max- 
well of Woodhead for the Sheriffdom of Wigtown and 
Stewartry of Kirkcudbright. 

A Bond was also prepared to be signed by noblemen, 
gentlemen, heritors, and feuars for themselves, tenants, 
and servants, that they would keep the public peace 


(i.e., abstain from conventicles) under the penalty of 
the heritor's yearly rent, the tenant's rent, and the 
servant's fee. The Earls of Linlithgow, Annandale, 
Galloway, and Lord Drumlanrig were appointed for 
the Shire of Wigtown, the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright 
and Shire of Dumfries, and Stewartry of Annandale, 
to convene these parties at the heads of the different 
districts on 7th November to sign this Bond. 

There was considerable difference of opinion as to 
the true intent and meaning of the words, " Keep the 
public peace." Some accepted the Bond without 
demur as containing nothing contrary to the principles 
of Presbyterianism, some absolutely refused it as 
homologating the Government both in Church and 
State, and others took a middle course and signed along 
with it a protestation against any supposed unlawful 
meaning of the Bond, declaring that if it was intended 
to oblige the subject to approve of and submit to 
Prelatic government, or to restrict anything for 
extirpation of the same, contrary to that great 
indissoluble standing Bond — The Solemn League and 
Covenant — it was most sinful and perfidious, and 
utterly to be refused. 



Inquiry as to extortions by the military — Report showing what 
Gallowiiy had to suffer from Sir James Turner — Turner 
dismissed — Bannatyne fined and removed from the Kingdom 
— Those who have failed to take advantage of the Indemnity 
to be seized — Lists of those in Carsphairn parish and Dairy 
parish — Attempt on Archbishop Sharp — Pentland prisoners 
dealt with — Another rising feared — Cockburn sent to the 
Glenkens — Cannon of Mardrochat taken prisoner, and turns 
informer — Indulgence — Withdrawal of troops from Galloway 
— Dissensions among the Covenanters in Galloway over the 
Indulgence — Mr. Park indulged to Stranraer, but Mr. 
Naismith appointed by the Bishop. 

About the end of 1667, Sheriff Agnew, Lords 
Galloway and Kenmuir made representation to the 
Government as to the extortions of the miKtary, and 
a commission was granted to Lords Nithsdale and 
Kenmuir and the Laird of Craigdarroch (Ferguson) 
to enquire into the conduct of Sir James Turner and 
Sir William Bannatyne. The report anent Sir James 
Turner shows how much the people of Galloway had 
to suffer at his hands: — 

" The Committee appointed for trial of Sir 
James Turner's carriage, having given in their 
report, bearing that, according to order, they 
having met upon the 28th of November last, drew 
up fit queries and instructions concerning it, and 
orders to some gentlemen in the west, to take 


information of all sums of money exacted by Sir 
James, or his order, for fines, cess, or otherwise, 
and of all his deportments: and to be sure of a 
speedy return, sent Thomas Buntine with letters 
and orders above-mentioned, appointing him to 
attend the prosecution of them, and bring back 
the reports, which he accordingly did, before the 
10th of January. 

" The Committee did thereafter deliver to Sir 
James a paper containing some grievances drawn 
out from the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright only, 
those in the other shires not being so clear andi 
full. They allowed Sir James to see all the 
reports in the Clerk's hands, and enjoined himi 
to give in his answers in writing, the 17th instant, 
which he did. And the Committee having read 
and considered all, and examined Sir James upon 
every point that occurred, after a full debate, 
agreed to offer to the council their humble opinion, 
that the council do, in obedience to his majesty's 
commands, transmit to the secretary the following 
report to be communicated to his majesty: — 

" The lords of his majesty's privy council did 
no sooner receive his command in his gracious 
letter, of the 21st of November last, for taking 
exact information of Sir James Turner's deport- 
ment in the west, but they ordered and empowered 
a committee of their number to enquire diligently 
thereinto: and by their report it appears that upon 
information from the Stewartry of Kirkcud- 
bright, given in upon oath of parties, or their 


masters or neighbours, many illegal exactions have 
been made, and disorders committed, such as — 

" Imo, Quartering of soldiers, for levying of 
fines and impositions. 2nd, exacting cess, or 
quartering money, for more soldiers than were 
actually present, sometimes for double the 
number, or more, and that besides free quarters 
for those present, sometimes eightpence, some- 
times twelvepence, sometimes sixteenpence, and 
sometimes more for each man. 3tio, Cess exacted 
for divers days, sometimes eight, ten, or more, 
before the party did actually appear. 4to, 
Imposing of fines, and quartering, before any 
previous citation or hearing of parties. 5to, 
Fining without due information from ministere. 
6to, Fining such as lived orderly, as appears by 
minister's certification. 7mo, Fining and cessing 
for causes for which there are no warrants from 
acts of Parliament or council; as, Imo, Baptising 
of children by outed ministers. 2do, Baptising 
by neighbouring ministers when the parish church 
was vacant. 3tio, Marrying by outed ministei-s. 
4to, For keeping of conventicles. 8vo, Fining 
for whole years preceding his coming to the 
country, and that after they had begun to live 
orderly. 9no, Fining fathers for their daughters 
baptising their children by outed ministers, 
though forisfamiliate six months before, and 
living in another parish. lOmo, Fining without 
proportioning the sum with the fault. 11 mo, 
Fining the whole parishes, promiscuously, as well 


those that lived orderly, as those that did not. 
Fining the whole parishes, where there was no 
incumhent minister. 13mo, Fining one that lay a 
year bed fast. 14mo, Forcing Bonds from the 
innocent. 15mo, Cessing people who were not 
fined. 16mo, Taking away cattle. All those 
actings were illegal. 

" Misdemeanours of other kinds were. 17mo, 
Agreeing for fine and cess both in one sum, 
whereby accounts are confounded. 18mo, Not 
admitting of complainers, who were cessed, to 
come to his presence, alleged to be his constant 
practice. 19mo, Permitting his servants to take 
money for admitting people to him, and yet access 
denied. 20mo, Increasing the number of quarter- 
ing soldiers after complaints. 21mo, Exacting 
money for removing soldiers after cess and fines 
were paid. Everyone of the foregoing articles 
was made out by information upon oath, which 
yet doth not amount to a legal proof, which in 
most of these cases will be difficult, if not im- 
possible to obtain, in regard that no witnesses 
can be had, that are not liable to exception, unless 
by examining officers, soldiers, and servants, 
which would take up much time and labour. 

" Sir James Turner's defences, as to such of 
the foregoing articles as he acknowledged, are 
commission and instructions from the then lord 
commissioner for quartering to raise fines, for 
fining those who forbore going to church, or 
married, or baptised by outed ministers, or kept 


conventicles, and that upon the delations of 
credible persons and to prefer them to those of 
ministers, but he does affirm, that all the com- 
missions and instructions were taken from him by 
the rebels, when he was made prisoner, and so had 
nothing to show for his vindication: And for all 
the other heads above written, he either denies 
matter of fact, ascribes the transactions to others, 
or pleads ignorance. 

" The sums of money received for fines and 
cess, and bonds taken, he acknowledged to have 
amounted to thirty thousand pounds Scots. The 
sums charged upon him by the country, besides 
quartering, came to about thirty-eight thousand 
pounds Scots: wherein is not reckoned what was 
exacted from any of those who rose in rebellion, 
and some parishes whence no information was 

Turner was dismissed the service. 
In regard to Bannatyne, the Council, on 4th August, 
1668, passed the following Act: — 

" The lords of Council, considering the com- 
plaints given in against Sir William Bannelden, 
and the answers given thereto, do fine the said 
Sir William in the sum of two hundred pounds 
sterling, allowing him a precept drawn by the 
lords of the treasury for one thousand three 
hundred merks which he answered ; and in respect 
the said Sir William hath exhibited aU the bonds 
and papers taken by him in Galloway, and given 


sufficient caution to remove off the kingdom 
betwixt and the first of September next, and not 
to return without special order, under the penalty 
of five hundred pounds sterKng, do assoilie the 
said Sir William from all other pains and punish- 
ments that might have followed upon the said 

He went over to the Low Countries, and was killed 
by a cannon ball at the siege of Grave. 

A Report being called for of how many had signed 
the Bond to keep the public peace, it is stated that 
" in the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright 14 have taken 
the Bond and 128 have not." On May 9th, 1668, a 
Proclamation is made ordering magistrates and officers 
to seize those who had failed to take advantage of the 
so-called Indemnity. A huge list is given, among 
the names being the following: — 

In Carsphairit Parish. 

Nathanael Cannon in Formator. 
James Macmitchel in Knockinreoch. 
John Macmillan in Strong-gashel. 
Robert Macmillan in Kiltarsen. 
WiUiam Macmillan in Bradinoch. 
James Mackilney in Polmidow. 
John Logan in Loch Head. 
John Crawford in Drumjohn. 
John Cunninghame in Longford. 

' Macadam in Waterhead. 

John Hannah there. 


John Macmillan, younger, in Brockloch. 
George Macadam in Bow. 
George Ferguson in Woodhead. 
David Cubbison in Moss. 
James Macadam in Knockgray. 
Alexander Macmillan in Bank. 
William Smith at Bridge of Geuch. 
John Wylie in Smiton. 
Roger Macolm in Netherholm. 
Robert Macolm in Netherglen. 

In Dairy Parish. 

David Cannon, brother to Morgrie. 

Edward Criohton in Knockstring. 

James Ferguson in Trostan. 

Robert Criohton in Fingland. 

Andrew Criohton there. 

John Machutcheon in Clachan of Dairy. 

James Welsh, his brother. 

John Welsh in Skeoch. 

Robert Wallat in Scar. 

Herbert Biggar, son to Herbert Biggar of BaAuie, 

Thomas Smith, son to James Smith of Drumlyre. 

Robert Sinclair, son to Robert Sinclair in Lag. 

William Welsh in Ingliston. 

James Biggar in Margloby. 

John Currier in Newark. 

Robert Currier in Dalquhairn. 

David Currier in Ruchtree. 

Robert Colvin in Ingliston. 


John Hunter in Barncleugh. 

John Wallat in Holhill. 

John Welsh in Knachston. 

John Wright in Larbreok. 

John Whitehead in Cludden. 

James Macbirnie in Crobmor. 

John Wilson in Traquair. 

Andrew Haining, servant to John Neilson of Cor- 

John Gaw, son to Robert Gaw in Airncrogue. 

The King's disposition at this time to allow Presby- 
terians more liberty was checked by the attempt of 
James Mitchell to shoot the archbishop of St. Andrews 
at the head of Black Friar's Wynd, Edinburgh, on 
11th July, 1668. 

Following on a letter of 23rd July, 1668, the King 
allowed the Council to do with those concerned in 
Pentland as they saw fit. Some were banished to 
Virginia, and others were admitted to take the Bond, 
while William Welsh and James Welsh in Irongray, 
whose names had been erroneously inserted in the 
Proclamation of 9th May last, appeared before the 
Council and satisfied them that they were not at 
Pentland, and, on signing a Bond, were allowed to 

On August 12th, the Council, understanding that 
some of the late rebels were gathering together, 
granted power to the Earl of Linlithgow to dissipate 
them, and ordered all where he came to assist him. 
There was nothing like any stir among the Presby- 


terians at this time, and it is difficult to say why this 
alarm arose unless as a pretext for something else. 
However, Lieutenant Mungo Murray was ordered, 
September 3rd, to search with sixty horse in the heads 
of Kylo and Nithsdale, and apprehend any rebels in 
arms, and another party, under William Cockburn, 
was sent to search in the Glenkens of Galloway. 

It was probably at this time that Kobert Cannon, 
jounger, of Mardrochat, contrived to be taken prisoner, 
for in November the Council ordered Sir James 
Turner, Chalmers of Waterside, and Mardrochat, 
«lder to come to Edinburgh to be witnesses against 
him. On 7th January, 1669, be was liberated, and 
eight months later was pardoned. He proved worthy 
of it, for he became a spy and informer, and sought 
■every opportunity of betraying the Covenanters, some 
■of whom had been his boon companions from his 
«arlie8t years. 

On March 4th, 1669, the Council prohibited the 
baptism of children by any but the parish minister 
established by the Government. For default, every 
heritor was to forfeit a fourth part of his yearly valued 
rent, each tenant £100 Scots, and suffer six weeks' 
imprisonment, each cottar £20 and six weeks' im- 

In April, 1669, the Council published another Act 
against conventicles, specially applicable to the shires 
of Lanark, Renfrew, Ayr, and the Stewartry of Kirk- 
cudbright, certifying that each heritor in whose lands 
a conventicle was held was to be fined £50 toties 


For some time the feeling in the country had been 
growing steadily in favour of greater liberty to 
dissenters, and Lord Tweeddale prevailed upon some of 
the Presbyterian ministers to send a letter to London 
containing full expression of their affection for the 
King, and disclamation of some positions alleged to 
be treasonable, charged upon some Presbyterians. 
Tweeddale undoubtedly used his influence in favour 
of greater liberty, and on 15th July, 1669, the Council 
received a letter from the King authorising them to 
appoint so many of the outed ministers " as have 
lived peaceably and orderly in the places where they 
have resided, to return and preach and exercise other 
functions of their ministry in the parish churches 
where they formerly resided and served (provided they 
be vacant) and to allow patrons to present to othec 
vacant churches such others of them as you shall 
approve of; and that such ministers as shall take 
collation from the Bishop of the diocese and keep 
presbyteries and synods may be warranted to lift their 
stipends as other minieters of the kingdom." Those 
who would not be collated were only to possess the 
manse and glebe, and get a yearly maintenance. Those 
of the outed ministers who had behaved peaceably and 
orderly and were not re-entered were to be allowed 
four hundred merks out of the vacant churches for 
their maintenance, and instructions were given that, 
as there were now no pretences for conventicles, if 
any should preach without authority or keep con- 
venticles, they were to be proceeded against with all 
severity, both preachers and hearers. 


The quarterings of the soldiers upon private persons 
was ordered to cease, and finally instructions were 
given for the withdrawal of the troops in Galloway. It 
is a well known story that, when the Council decided on 
this step, the archbishop of Glasgow exclaimed in 
dismay, "0, my Lords, if the army is disbanded, the 
Gospel will go clean out of the diocese." 

The Indulgence gave rise to serious dissensions in 
the ranks of the Covenanters. Many of them held that 
it was sinful to accept it, as involving recognition 
of the royal supremacy in ecclesiastical matters. 
These were in the majority in Galloway, and refused 
to hear the indulged ministers, while some of them 
even went so far that they would have nothing to do 
with those non-indulged who would not denounce the 
indulged. These were named " the irreconcilables," 
the " hill folk," and afterwards " the Cameronians." 
The banished ministers in Holland strongly condemned 
the Indulgence, and this greatly strengthened the 
Hill folk at home. The differences that now arose 
among the Covenanters were never afterwards healed. 
Under the Indulgence, the Rev. John Cant was re- 
appointed to Kells, John M'Michan at Dairy, and 
William Maitland, who had been minister at Whit- 
horn, was appointed to Beith. Mr. Park was re- 
appointed to Stranraer, but to defeat this the bishop 
admitted one Naismith to the church three days after 
Mr. Park was indulged. The town and parish would 
not give any countenance to Mr. Naismith, and, as 
one man, adhered to their former minister. The 
bishop caused the parties to be summoned to Edin- 


burgh that the Council might determine the com- 
petition. When Mr. Park appeared before the 
Council, instead of going into the question of pre- 
cedency between Mr. Naismith's admission and his 
act of indulgence, which was the point upon which he 
was cited, Mr. Naismith libelled Mr. Park for causing 
the church doors to bo locked against him after his 
admission by the bishop, the falsity of which was 
made apparent by many of the people of Stranraer 
cited for their adherence to Mr. Park. He also accused 
Mr. Park of seditious doctrine. Notwithstanding 
very mean and base methods used to secure a con- 
viction, the libel was brought in "Not Proven." 
When the Council came to the competition, it was 
alleged for Mr. Naismith that his presentation was 
prior to Mr. Park, and answered by Mr. Park that 
it was a non habente potestatem, the King being 
patron, and the bishop having most illegally taken 
upon him to present, and, although Mr. Park's act 
was prior to Mr. Naismith's admission, yet the Council 
without even hearing Mr. Park decided in favour of 
Mr. Naismith. 

Mr. Park was a man of great learning, author of 
a treatise on patronages. This book was considerably 
enlarged by his son, Robert Park, Clerk to the General 
Assembly after the Revolution, and Town Clerk of 



The parishioners of Balmaclellan and Urr fined for outrages 
committed on their curates — Gartbland ignores a letter from 
the Privy Council to grant Row, curate of Balmaclellan, a 
presentation to Stonykirk — Gilbert M'Adam of Waterhead 
gets up two Bonds extorted from him — Parliament asserts 
the King's supremacy over all persons and in all causes 
ecclesiastical within the Kingdom — Galloway men present at 
armed conventicle in Fife — The Black Act— Field preachingi 
a capital oflfenee — Cassillis speaks fearlessly against it — 
Anna, Countess of Wigtown, fined for attending conventicles 
— Gordon of Dundeugh gets up a Bond extorted from him — 
Another Indulgence to outed ministers — Parties sent out to 
apprehend conventicle preachers — Beward of £400 offered 
for arrest of Welsh or Semple — Galloway lairds denounced 
for harbouring inter-communed persons — William M'Millan 
allowed to go to Balmaclellan — Welsh betakes himself to 
North of England. 

The English curates were not looked on with any 
favour by the parishioners among whom they settled in 
-Galloway, and there are one or two instances recorded 
of violence against them. On 30th September, 1669, 
:a party of three individuals dressed as females broke 
into the house of Mr. Row, the curate at Balmaclellan, 
during the night, dragged him out of bed, assaulted 
him, and helped themselves to whatever they wanted. 
Mr. Thomas Warner, James Grier of Millmark, his 
father-in-law, Gordon of Holm, Gordon of Gordon- 
ston, John Carean, and James Chalmers, heritors there, 
T(vere charged as " actors, committers, at least con- 


trivei'8 and assisters, at least have since supplied or 
reset them." Failing to appear, the heritors and life- 
renters of Balmaclellan were decerned to pay Mr. Row 
£1,200 Scots. As soon as they could, they proceeded to 
Edinburgh, and offered to stand their trial. Nothing 
could be proved against them, but they were ordered 
to pay their shares of the fine imposed. Row was 
afterwards transferred to Stonykirk, Wigtownshire, 
and the Council wrote a letter to the Laird of 
Garthland, patron there, to grant him a presentation. 
Garthland, however, seems to have had other matters 
to attend to, for in March, 1673, a complaint was made 
to the Council that, when Row went to Stonykirk, the 
kirk locks were spoiled, and he could not get access, 
and was likewise hindered from possessing the manse 
and glebe. 

The Council ordered an inquiry, but nothing seems 
to have followed on it. Row, however, got possession, 
and he subsequently became a Roman Catholic. 

Three men in disguise broke into the house of 
Mr. Lyon, curate of Urr, in November, helped them- 
selves to what they wanted, and, not finding him, 
carried off his wife as hostage, but soon let her go. 
The Council decerned the parish to pay Mr. Lyon 
£600 Scots, and ordered out letters against one John 
vSmith, alleged to be concerned in the affair. After 
the Revolution, Mr. Lyon applied for admission as a 
Presbyterian minister, and his application was 
favourably received. 

On 8th July, 1669, Gilbert M'Adam, Waterhead, 
was allowed to get from the Clerk of the Privy Council 


his Bond for 600 merks and another for 700 merks, 
extorted from him hy violence by Sir William 

Parliament met in October, 1669, and almost the 
first thing they did was to pass that remarkable Act 
asserting his Majesty's supremacy over all persons and 
in all causes ecclesiastical within this his kingdom. 

During 1670, further proclamations were made 
against conventicles. 

The first armed conventicle since the Restoration was 
held at Beeth Hill in Fife by Mr. John Blackadder 
and Mr. John Dickson about the middle of June, 
1670. There were some Galloway men present, 
including Barscobe and nine or ten others. While the 
preaching was going on, a lieutenant of the Govern- 
ment forces came on the scene, and afterwards wanted 
to get away, apparently to bring the troops, so some 
of the watch desired that he would stay till the 
preaching was ended, telling him his abrupt departure 
would offend and alarm the people. He refused, and 
began to threaten, drawing his staff, but they held him 
by force as he was putting his foot on the stirrup. 
Upon this, Barscobe and another young man who were 
upon the opposite side, seeing him drawing his staff, 
which they thought was a sword, ran with pistols, and 
cried, " Bx)gue, are you drawing?" Though they 
raised a little commotion on that side, the bulk of the 
people were very composed. The minister, seeing 
Barscobe and the other hastening to be at him, 
fearing they might kill him, immediately broke off 
to intervene, desiring the people to sit still till he 


returned. Eventually the lieutenant was allowed to 
go, and the minister returned, preaching for about 
three-quarters of an hour. All the time there wei'e 
several horsemen riding at the foot of the hill in view 
of the people, but none offered to come near, for a; 
terror had seized them, as was heard afterwards, and 
confessed by some of themselves. This conventicle 
gave new life to the friends of religion, and was the 
means of multiplying and enlarging their meetings 
throughout the United Kingdom, and was publicly, 
given thanks for in the Scottish congregations abroad. 

On 11th August, 1670, Mr. John Blackadder, for 
holding ponventicles, was denounced and put to the 

The Black Act was passed on 13th August, 1670. 
It made field preaching a capital offence, attendance 
at conventicles treason, and those who would not 
volunteer information were to be held equally guilty. 
Lord Cassillis, to his immortal honour, spoke fear- 
lessly against it, but he was not supported, and stood 
alone. When Leighton heard of it, he remonstrated 
with the Earl of Tweeddale on the inhumanity of it, 
and Tweeddale excused it on the pretext that it was 
not intended to enforce it, and indeed religious matters 
in Galloway were for a time allowed by the Govern- 
ment to drift so that conventicles became an 
institution, the bulk of the people attending the 
preaching of their favourite ministers without fear of 

On 2nd March, 1671, Sir Charles Erskine, Lord 
fjyon, had commission to deal with the estates, goods. 


and gear of those forfeited for the rebellion of 1666 
M'ithin the shires of Dumfries, Wigtown, and Kirk- 
cudbright, for the year and crop 1670 and 1671, and 
to call intromitters before that time to account. The 
estates concerned were those of M'Clelland of Bars- 
scobe, M'Clelland of Barmageichan, Canon younger 
of Mardrochat, John Neilson of Corsock, John Gordon 
of Knockbrex, Robert Gordon his brother, Major John 
MacCuUoch of Barholm, Mr. Alexander Robertson, 
George M'Cartney of Blackit, Gordon in Porpreck, 
Cannon of Barshalloch, Welsh of Cornley, Gordon 

of Holm, of Scar. It appears that the name of 

M'Cartney of Blackit should not have been in the 
Commission at all. The sufferings of this family are 
dealt with separately. 

On 27th July, 1672, Anna, Countess of Wigtown, 
was fined four thousand merks for attending two 
conventicles, while in most of the proceedings against 
the Covenanters at this time it is noticed that the Earl 
of Wigtown subscribed as a member of the Privy 
Council. On 25th January, 1672, Gordon of 
Dundeugh got up a Bond of six hundred merks, ex- 
torted from him by Sir William Banna tyne. A new 
Act was passed for observing the 29th of May, 1762, 
as the anniversary of the Restoration of the King, 
and instructing bells to be rung all day, bonfires at 
night, and the ministers were to preach yearly on that 
day, and give thanks to God Almighty for his so 
signal goodness to these kingdoms. On 3rd September, 
1672, another Indulgence was granted to the ministers 
outed since 1667, and they were appointed to retire to 


the parishes named, and allowed to preach and exercise 
the other parts of their ministerial functions therein. 
In Carsphairn there were John Semple and Mr. 
William Erskine; in Kells, Mr. Cant and Mr. George 
Waugh; Dairy, Mr. John M'Michan and Mr. Thomas 
Thomson; in Balmaclelland, Mr. James Lawrie and 
Thomas Vernor in place of John Ross, who was going 
to Stonykirk. This Indulgence, like all the others, 
caused trouble amongst the ministers as to whether 
it was right to accept it. On 2nd April, 1673, there 
was another proclamation against conventicles. None 
of the indulged ministers observed the 29th May, and 
on June 12th letters were directed against those in- 
dulged in Kirkcudbrightshire for not keeping it. On 
July 12th, Messrs. John M'Michan in Dairy, John 
Semple at Carsphairn, and John Cant at Kells, were 
lined and lost the half of their stipend. 

In 1674, parties were sent out to apprehend con- 
venticle preachers, and any of the guard who should 
apprehend Mr. John Welsh or Mr. Gabriel Semple 
wore promised a reward of £400 sterling. On August 
3rd, 1676, Alexander Gordon of Knockbrack, Henry 

IM'Culloch of Barholm, Hay of Arrowland, old 

Lady Monteith, Robert M'Clelland of Barmageichan, 
Robert Vans of Drumblair, all in Galloway, were 
ordered to be denounced for harbouring, resetting, and 
speaking with inter-communed persons. 

On May 3rd, the Earl of Dumfries represented to 
the Council that Mr. William M'Millian had been for 
some time imprisoned in Dumfries for nonconformity, 
and that he should be let out and confined to Bal- 


maclellan parish. This was agreed to. On February 
13th, 1677, Lord Maxwell got authority to apprehend 
Presbyterian ministers and preachers and substantial 
heritors found at conventicles in the shires of Dum- 
fries, Wigtown, and Stewartry of Kirkcudbright, and 
was empowered to uplift five thousand merks, a fine 
imposed on the parish of Dunecore for riots. 

John Welsh went to the North of England, but in 
the spring of 1677 returned to Galloway, and con- 
venticles became numerous. On August 4th, 1677, a 
number of the indulged ministers appeared before the 
Council, among them Mr. John Park of Stranraer, 
and on 11th August, Mr. John Blackadder and 
Mr. John Semple, Carsphairn. There is nothing to 
show why they were brought, but doubtless it was in 
connection with conventicle keeping. Then the records 

bear that Mr. Gilchrist had been inducted by 

Mr. John Welsh into the kirk of Carsphairn upon the 
indulged minister's death, and that he now possesses 
the kirk, manse, and glebe, so they ordained Mr. 
Gilchrist to be dispossessed and brought prisoner tq 
Edinburgh. It is, therefore, likely that Mr. John 
Semple, Carsphairn, died about that time. 



Proclamation that all heritors to bind themselves, and be 
responsible for their families and servants, not to attend 
conventicles, or baptize or marry with onted ministers — 
Galloway lairds protest — Murray of Broughton appointed for 
Wigtown and Kirkcudbright to get the Bond signed — The 
Highland Host — Their instructions — Sheriffs of Wigtown, 
Kirkcudbright, and elsewhere get orders to convene heritors 
to sign bonds for themselves, families, servants, tenants and 
their families not to attend conventicles — Inhabitants to be 
disarmed — The King takes lawburrows against his subjects 
— The Highlanders ravage Ayrshire and Galloway — Lochnaw 
and the House of Freugh suffer from them — Highlanders 
return home laden with spoil as from a sacked city. 

On August 2nd, 1677, Proclamation was made that 
all heritors, wadsetters,* life-renters, had to engage 
themselves by a Bond, not only for themselves and 
families, but for all who lived under them, not to 
attend any conventicles or baptise or marry with outed 
ministers, under the highest penalties. Against this 
the Lairds of Cassillis and Galloway, the latter's 
brothers, the Lairds of Ravenstoun and Caetle Stewart, 
all the Gordons, the M'Dowells of Freugh, and Sheriff 
Agnew strongly protested. This had no effect, and 
Richard Murray of Broughton was appointed for 
Wigtown and Kirkcudbright to get the Bond signed. 

* Lenders in possession of the security subjects. 


The Presbyterians, of course, rejected the Bond, and 
then the G-overnment, on the pretext that the Western 
shires were in a state of rebellion, decided to overrun 
them with a host of Highlanders in order to force 
compliance with their wishes. The King in a letter to 
the Privy Council, dated 11th December, 1677, says: — 

" We have been very much concerned at the 
accounts we have had, not only out of Scotland, 
but from several other hands, of the great and 
insufferable insolencies lately committed by the 
fanatics, especially in the shires of Ayr, Renfrew, 
Stewartry of Kirkcudbright, and other adjacent 
places, and also in Teviotdale, and even in Fife, 
where numerous conventicles, which by Act of 
Parliament are declared ' rendezvouses of re- 
bellion,' have been kept, with solemn communions 
of many hundreds of people, and seditious and 
treasonable doctrine preached against our person, 
and all under us, inciting the subjects to open 
rebellion, and to rise in arms against us and our 
authority and laws, unlawful oaths imposed, the 
churches and pulpits of the regular clergy 
usurped, by force invaded, and their persons still 
threatened with assassination and murder, and 
what they have not formerly attempted, preaching 
houses have been lately built, and unlawful 
meetings of the pretended synods and presby- 
teries kept; thereby designing to prosecute their 
rebellious intentions, and to perpetuate the 


The Commission for raising the Highlanclei-s is 
dated 26th December, 1677. It proceeds on the 
narrative that, as the Government has been of lata 
much affronted, and " the peace of this our ancient 
kingdom much disquieted by irregular flocking to field 
conventicles, nurseries of rebellion, by withdrawing 
from public ordinances, invading the persons and 
pulpits of the orthodox clergy, building of meeting 
houses, the killing, wounding, and invading of some 
that were commanded in our name to repress the said 
insolencies, wc have thought fit in maintenance of our 
laws and out of the tender care which we have always 
had of this our ancient kingdom, to require and em- 
power the lords of our Privy Council to call together 
not only our standing forces and militia, but we did 
likewise warrant them to commissionate and empower 
such noblemen and others as did offer to bring any 
of their vassals, tenants, or adherents to the assistance 
of our forces." They are authorised to take free 
quarter, to seize all horses for carrying their sick men, 
ammunition, and other provisions, and are indemnified 
against all pursuits civil and criminal for anything 
they do, whether killing, wounding, apprehending, 
or imprisoning such as shall make opposition to 
authority; and all whom they please to put upon must 
rise and march with them, act, and say as they shall 
be commanded upon their highest peril. 

On 28th January, 1678, the Council's Committee 
at Glasgow had the Sheriffs of Wigtown, Dumfries, 
Kirkcudbright, and other counties before them to 
receive their orders. They were instructed to convene 


the heritors, liferenters, conjunct fiars, and others 
within the shire to subscribe a Bond binding not only 
themselves, but their wives, bairns, and servants, their 
whole tenants and cottars, that they would no wise be 
present at any conventicles or disorderly meetings in 
time coming. They were instructed to disarm the 
inhabitants, except Privy Councillors and soldiers in 
the King's pay, noblemen and gentlemen of quality 
having license to wear swords only, and to send in the 
arms and ammunition within the shire, and they were 
to report diligence before 7th February. 

Few were prepared to take such a Bond, and before 
7th February, six thousand Highlanders were scattered 
all over Ayrshire living at free quarters, plundering 
and destroying and behaving generally as if in an 
enemy's country. 

On 14th February, the Council passed an Act for 
securing the public peace by taking lawburrows. This 
narrated that the previous Bond not having been 
accepted, his Majesty had just reason to suspect the 
designs of those who refused or delayed to take the 
Bona as tending to overthrow his Majesty's authority, 
to subvert the established order of the Church, and 
the peace of his Majesty's good subjects. Accordingly 
all who refused the Bond were to enact themselves in 
the books of the secret Council that they, their wives, 
bairns, men, tenants, and servants, would keep his 
Majesty's peace, and particularly that they would not 
go to field conventicles, nor harbour, nor commune 
with rebels or persons intercommuned, etc. The 
Council had in fact decided that the Bond must be 


taken, or those who refused must be exterminated. 
The Highlanders continued to the utmost ravaging 
throughout Ayrshire and overspreading into Galloway, 
wasted the country wherever they went, and left 
behind them despair and devestation. They lived at 
free quarters, robbed and pillaged everywhere, killed 
cattle far beyond what they had any use for, drove 
away vast multitudes of valuable horses, tortured and 
outraged the inhabitants, and seemed intent on the 
destruction of everything they came across. 

Tradition has it that Lochnaw suffered severely from 
the Highland Host. When they came to Lochnaw, 
the Laird sent the ladies of the family away, and he 
and his eon sought refuge in a cave on the sea shore 
near the Sea King's Camp at Larbrax Bay. The 
Highlanders not only lived at free quarters, but seem 
to have delighted in destroying everything of value 
about the place, for all the pictures, furnishings, and 
heirlooms accumulated during generations of occupa- 
tion up to this time have entirely disappeared. 

The House of Freugh was also practically dis- 
mantled by the Highlanders, and M'Dowall fled from 
the scene vowing vengeance on those who had thus 
wrecked his home. 

The Highlanders were sent home in the spring of 
1678. Wodrow says: " When the Highlanders went 
back, one would have thought they had been at the 
sacking of some besieged town, by their baggage and 
luggage. They were loaded with spoil; they carried 
away a great many horses and no small quantity of 
goods out of merchants' shops, whole webs of linen 


and woollen cloth, some silver plate bearing the names 
and arms of gentlemen. You would have seen them 
with loads of bedclothes, carpets, men and women's 
wearing clothes, pots, pans, gridirons, shoes, and other 
furniture whereof they had pillaged the country." 

Note. — One of the most famous of the preaching 
houses, refei'red to in the King's letter on page 148, 
was on the west side of the Nith, opposite Dumfries. 
Claverhouse describes it as a good large hotise, about 
sixty feet in length. When he came to Dumfries, he 
found conventicles being held here "at his nose," 
but he soon put an end to it, not without some regret, 
perhaps, for his Report to the Privy Council on its 
demolition concludes thus: — " So perished the charity 
of many ladies." 



Muir, Commissary Clerk at Kirkcudbright, libelled for attending 
conventicles—M'Dowall of Garthland, Hay of Park, M'Dowall 
of Freugh, Blair of Dunskey, and others cited for resetting 
John Welsh— M'Dowall of Freugh tried for seditious speeches 
at Instigation of Eow, the curate — Claverhouse quarters on 
iI'Meekan of Miltonise — M'Meekan's wife's capture, escape, 
and re-capture — Bishop of Galloway gets dispensation to 
reside in Glasgow or Edinburgh — Thomas Warner cited for 
being at conventicles — Gordon of Barlston and many others 
denounced and put to the horn for being at conventicles — 
Proclamation for the arrest of Welsh, Semple, and Arnot. 

On 7th March, 1678, Henry Muir, Commissary Clerk 
at Kirkcudbright, was libelled for being present at 
house and field conventicles where Mr. John Welsh, 
Mr. Gabriel Semple, and Mr. Samuel Arnot were. He 
acknowledged he had once heard Mr. Samuel Arnot at 
a field conventicle, and through bishop Paterson of 
Galloway he was dismissed without further trouble. 

On August 1st, 1678, M'Dowall of Garthland, 
Thomas Hay of Park, M'Dowall of Freugh, John 
Blair of Dunskey, and Mr. James Lawrie at Freugh, 
had a process commenced against them for resetting 
John Welsh and others, declared rebels. On 11th 
September, 1678, the Council called before them 
Patrick M'Dowall of Freugh, Thomas Hay of Park, 
John Blair of Dunskey, Andrew Agnew of Sheuchan, 
and Mr. James Lawrie of Freugh, charged with house 


and field conventicles and resetting Mr. John Welsh 
and Mr. Arnot. Andrew Agnew and John Blair com- 
peared and denied the charge upon oath, and were 
assoilzied. The Council superseded the extracting of 
letters against the other three being absent. The same 
date the diet against M'Dowall of Garthland for 
certain seditious speeches was deserted upon absence 
of witnesses, who were outlawed. The process was 
resumed against Garthland, November 4th, charging 
him with having on July 14th said that the King and 
Lauderdale were establishing arbitrary government 
contrary to the fundamental laws of the land, and that 
every true-hearted Scotsman was concerned to oppose 
them, and with having on July 21st, when Mr. John 
Row preached in Stony kirk Church, where M'Dowall 
is heritor, against the National and Solemn League 
and Covenants, declared the said Mr. Eow unworthy 
to be heard by the people. 

The hand of Row is plainly seen in this prosecution. 
He, it will be remembered, had scant courtesy shown 
him by his parishioners in Balmaclellan. 

Garthland appeared to stand his trial. Nothing was 
proved against him, and the process dropped. 

James Graham of Claverhouse, with a numerous 
party of soldiers, quartered upon Gilbert M'Meekan of 
Miltonise and Gass in New Luce Parish. M'Meekan 
and his wife fled on their approach, and the troopers, 
after thoroughly searching the house, started to use 
whatever they wanted, killed the stock, and destroyed 
what they could not consume. After waiting for 
several days, they went off taking their valuable horses. 


Some of the party, suddenly returning, surprised 
M'Meekan's wife, and bound her hand and foot and 
mounted her behind a trooper. She contrived to 
escape, and made up Glenw hilly. The officer in charge 
of the party reported the matter to Sir Charles Hay, 
who had accepted from the Government the bailiery of 
the Kegality of Glenluce. He reluctantly gave his 
aid, and the lady was apprehended and lodged in jail. 
She was sent to Edinburgh, and is said to have been 
confined in Greyfriar's Churchyard, all the prisons 
being full. She was afterwards released on bail. The 
laird himself weathered the persecution, and died in 
1731, at the age of eighty-four. John Arrol, who 
commanded the dragoons at Miltonise, was killed the 
next year at Drumclog. About this time, the bishop 
of GaUoway got a dispensation to enable him to reside 
in Glasgow. This was a most unheard of proceeding, 
and the terms of the dispensation may be in- 
teresting: — 

" Whereas none of our Archbishops or Bishops 
may lawfully keep their ordinary residence with- 
out the bounds of their diocese respective unless 
they have our royal dispensation, warrant, and 
License for that effect: those are, that in regard to 
John, Bishop of GaUoway, is not provided in a 
competent manse or dwelling house in the diocese 
of Galloway, and for the better promoting of our 
service in the church, do allow and authorise the 
said bishop to live in or near the cities of Edin- 
burgh or Glasgow, or in any other convenient 


place where he may be able to attend the public 
affairs of the church. With whose residence in 
the diocese of Galloway, we, by virtue of our 
royal supremacy in causes ecclesiastical, do by 
these presents dispense, as well with the time past 
preceding the date hereof as for the time to come, 
during our royal pleasure, any canon of the church 
or acts of parliaments, enjoining residence, not- 
withstanding. And we strictly require all our 
subjects, church-officers, and others, never to 
quarrel or call in question the said John, Bishop 
of Galloway, during the continuance of this our 
royal dispensation and license, as they will answer 
to us at their peril. Given at our Court at White- 
hall, May 28th, 1678, and of our reign the SOth 

" By his majesty's command, 

" Lauderdale." 

On 16th January, 1679, Thomas Warner was cited 
before the Council on a libel that having been indulged 
to the parish of Balmaclellan, he had broken his con- 
finement, being present at house and field conventicles, 
and conversed with inter-communed persons. Not 
appearing, he was denounced and put to the horn, and 
a month later the parishioners were discharged from 
paying him any stipend. The same day Gordon of 
Earlston, Gordon of Holm, Gordon of Overbar, 
Neilson of Corsock, George M'Cartney of Blackit, 


Maxwell of Hills, Hay of Park, M'Dowall of Freugh, 
M'Dougall of Corrochtree, James Johnstone late 

provost of Stranraer, William Spittle of Port, 

Johnstone, Collector there, Mr. William Catheart and 
John Inglis, Commissary of Kirkcudbright, failing to 
appear on a charge of being at house and field con- 
venticles since 1674 were denounced and put to the 
horn. Inglis' ofiioe was declared vacant, and the bishop 
of Galloway was recommended to have it filled. On 
INIarch 11th, a Petition was presented on behalf of 
Inglis, that he was unable to travel, and engaging to 
live properly in future. The matter was remitted to 
the bishop, and seems to have been amicably arranged. 
On 2nd April, 1679, Gordon of Craighlaw yoimger, 
and his spouse, Gordon of Culvennan, MacGhie of 

Drumbuy, Eamsay of Boghouse, Dame Stuart, Lady 
Castle Stuart, MacGhie, Laird of Larg, Heron of 
Littlepark, Dunbar younger of Machiermore, Archi- 
bald Stuart of Causeweyend, Anthony Heron in Wigg, 
and his spouse, Stuart of Tonderghie, MacGhie in 

Penningham, MacMillan in Craigwel, Stuart of 

Ravenstoun, brother to the Earl of Galloway, and 

Dame Dunbar, his lady, and , Provost of 

Wigtown, were charged with withdrawing from 
ordinances and being present at conventicles. Failing 
to appear, they were denounced and put to the horn. 

On February 6th, the Council issued a Proclamation 
for the arrest of Messrs. John Welsh, Gabriel Semple, 
and Samuel Arnot. It is rather an interesting 
document, and is in the following terms : — 


" Charles, by the grace of God, King of Great 
Britain, France, and Ireland, Defender of the 
faith, to our lovits. 

macers of our council, messengers at arme, our 
sheriffs in that part, conjunctly and severally, 
specially constitute, greeting. Forasmuch as, by 
sentence of our justice court, Mr. John Welsh, 
Mr. Gabriel Semple, and Mr. Samuel Arnot are 
declared traitors for being in open rebellion 
against us, in the year 1666. And they having 
for divers years past, made it their work to 
prevent and abuse our people from their duty 
and allegiance at their field meetings, these 
rendevouzes of rebellion; and by their example 
and impunity, several others inter-communed and 
vagrant preachers having also followed that same 
method and way, whereby our people by not 
frequenting the public ordinances, and being ex- 
posed to hear Jesuits or any other irregular 
persons, who dare take upon them the sacred office 
of the ministry are debauched to atheism and 
popery. We, therefore, with advice of our privy 
council, have thought fit, for the encouragement 
of our good subjects, in apprehending and dis- 
covering these persons, hereby do declare and give 
assurance to any person or persons, who shall 
apprehend and secure Mr. John Welsh (or so 
discover him, as he may be apprehended) shall 
have instantly paid to him or them, upon delivery 
of his person, to any of our privy council or com- 


mitment of him to prison, nine thousand merks 
Scots money, out of the first and readiest of our 
cash, as a reward; and to any person who shall 
apprehend and secure the said Mr. Gabriel Semple 
and Mr. Samuel Arnot, also declared traitors, or 
so discover them, as they may be apprehended, 
three thousand merks for each of them, and to any 
person or persons who shall apprehend and secure 
any of these field preachers, who are declared 
fugitives, or are intercommuned, for each of them 
two thousand merks, and for each one of these 
vagrant preachers in the fields that shall be 
apprehended, the sum of nine hundred merks. 
And which rewards we declare shall be instantly 
paid to the person or persons who shall perform 
the said service without any manner of delay or 
defalcation. And further we declare that, if in 
pursuit of the said persons, they or any of their 
complices shall make resistance, and that there- 
upon they or any of them shall be hurt, mutilate, 
or slain, the said persons, apprehenders of them 
or any assisting them, shall never be called in 
question for the same, criminally nor civilly in 
all time coming, but shall be repute and esteemed 
persons, who have done us and their country good 
and acceptable service. Our will is herefore, and 
we charge you strictly and command that incon- 
tinent these our letters seen, ye pass to the market 
cross of Edinburgh and other places needful, and 
thereat, in our name and authority, by open 


proclamation, make publication of the premises, 
that all our good subjects may have notice thereof: 
and ordain these presents to be printed. Given 
under our signet at Edinburgh, the 6th day of 
February, 1679, and of our reign the one and 
thirtieth year. 

"Tho. Hay, CI. Seer. Concilii. 
"God Save the King." 



Troops quartered in Galloway — William Kyle, Galloway minister, 
captured — Sheriff's Depute appointed for Wigtownshire and 
the Stewartry to enforce laws against non-conformists — 
GaUoway Presbyterians join others for self preservation — 
Drumclog — Many flock to the Covenanters — ^Divided counsels 
— GaUoway horse exercise near Bothwell Bridge — Earl 
Nithsdale ordered to call out the whole gentlemen, heritors, 
and freeholders in Wigtownshire and the Stewartry, and 
march to Edinburgh — The Covenanters differ about the In- 
dulgence — Bitter feeling between them — They preach against 
each other — Supplication to Monmouth — The Covenanters 
cannot agree on anything, and are attacked by Livingstone 
— Gallant conduct of Galloway men who are ordered to retire 
from Bothwell Bridge — Defeat and rout of the Covenanters 
— Gordon of Earlston killed — Proclamation against rebels — 
Claverhouse follows the fugitives to Galloway, and harasses 
the country — Andrew Sword tried and executed. 

On 13th February, 1679, one company of foot was 
ordered to be quartered in Galloway, one troop of His 
Majesty's Guards, and one company of dragoons. 
They arrived in March, and immediately began their 
search for the Covenanters. Many had narrow escapes, 
and Mr. William Kyle, one of the Galloway ministers, 
was captured. 

Garrisons were placed at Ayr, Kirkcudbright, and 
Dumfries. Murray of Broughton had been appointed 
Commissioner to execute the laws against noncon- 
formists in August, 1677. The Laird of Lagg, 


Claverhouse, and Earlshall were now appointed 
Sheriffs Depute for Wigtownshire, of which Sir 
Andrew Agnew was Sheriff, and Captain John 
Paterson, Claverhouse, and Earlshall were appointed 
Sheriffs Depute of the Stewartry, of which the Earl 
of Nithsdale was Steward, and special instructions 
were issued to these Deputes to put the laws against 
nonconformists in force. 

Archhishop Sharp was murdered in May, 1679, but 
the Galloway fugitives were not implicated. 

Driven from their homes by the fierce persecution, 
the Galloway men joined with other Presbyterians, 
and, knowing that their lives were sought, they carried 
weapons for self defence. Claverhouse came upon an 
armed conventicle on Sunday Ist June, 1679, at 
Drumclog, but was defeated and driven from the field. 
The news of this victory was received with the greatest 
jubilation in Galloway, and resulted in many flocking 
to the Covenanters; but divided counsels prevailed and 
golden opportunities were lost. 

On 6th June, the Earl of Linlithgow acquainted the 
Chancellor that there was information from Glasgow 
that the rebels were about Bothwell Bridge and 
Hamilton, where they exercised the previous day; that 
two troops of horse from Galloway, Newmills, and 
Galston, and a company of foot with colours and drums 
had joined them, and that the country was gathering 
to them. The Earl of Nithsdale was written to the 
following day to call together the whole gentlemen, 
heritors, and freeholders in Wigtownshire and the 


Stewartry of Kirkcudbright, and to march straight to 
Edinbui'gh. The Covenanters rapidly increased in 
numbers at Bothwell, but serious differences aroso 
among them, chiefly as to the Indulgence and as to 
the exact cause of their taking arms. The one side, 
known as the Moderates, sought freedom of conscience, 
and, allowed that, were prepared to acknowledge the 
King's government in other matters. John Welsh was 
the leader of this section. The other side would have 
no dealings whatever with those who tolerated Prelacy 
in any form, or compromised the Presbyterian cause 
by supporting indulged ministers. Donald Cargill 
was the most prominent of the leaders on this side. 
Bitter feeling prevailed, and these reverend champions 
inveighed against each other in their respective con- 
gregations, and voted on different sides in their councils 
of war. At a meeting to choose officers, these differ- 
ences got to such a height that some of them withdrew, 
and those who remained actually -sent a supplication 
—Welsh being one of those who went with it — to the 
Duke of Monmouth, who was in command of the 
Government forces, in which they represented the in- 
tolerable grievances under which they had suffered, 
and offered, instead of deciding the dispute by arms, 
to leave the whole subject of controversy to be settled 
by a free Parliament and a free General Assembly. 
They received back certain proposals, but they could 
not agree among themselves upon anything, and no 
answer was returned, so Lord Livingstone, at the head 
of the royal foot guards, came up on 22nd June to 


force the bridge. He was opposed by the Galloway 
men, who defended the bridge with great bravery. 
They killed several soldiers, and stood their ground 
till ammunition failed. They sent to Hamilton, their 
commander in chief, for more ammunition or fresh 
soldiers, and word came back to retire from the bridge. 
With sore hearts they did so, and the royal army passed 
the bridge and attacked the Covenanters. When the 
King's forces got over the bridge, the Galloway troop, 
commanded by Captain M'Culloch, joined with 
Captain Thomas Weir of Greenridge, and was riding 
down to attack them when Hamilton came up to him 
and said, " What mean you. Captain? Will you 
murder these men?" Mr. Weir answered he hoped 
that there was no hazard, and that he might give a 
good account of all the horses yet come along the 
bridge, especially when but forming. When Hamilton 
found the Captain's troop resolute, he dealt with the 
Galloway troop, and magnified the difficulties so that 
they shrank, and the Captain was obliged to retire 
with them. Hamilton took to his heels with the horse, 
and then the foot followed. Twelve hundred sur- 
rendered without a stroke of a sword. Gordon of 
Earlston was killed on his way to Bothwell, not 
knowing that the day had been lost. 

The Privy Council issued the following Proclama- 
tion, discharging all persons from assisting, resetting, 
or corresponding with any of the rebels under pain of 


Proclamation against Rebels, June 26th, 1679. 

" Charles, by the Grace of God, King of Great 
Britain, France, and Ireland, defender of the 
faith: to all and sundry our lieges and subjects, 
whom these presents do or may concern, greeting. 

" Forasmuch as, upon the first notice given to 
our Privy Council of the rising and gathering of 
these disloyal and seditious persons in the west, 
who have of late appeared in arms in a desperate 
and avowed rebellion against us, our government 
and laws, we did declare them to be traitors, and 
discharged all our subjects to assist, reset, supply, 
or correspond with any of them under the pain of 
treason: and the said rebels and traitors, being 
now (by the blessing of God upon our forces) 
subdued, dissipated, and scattered; and such of 
them as were not either killed or taken in the 
field, being either retired secretly to their own 
homes and houses, expecting shelter and protection 
from the respective heritors in whose lands they 
dwell, or lurking in the country; and we being 
unwilling any of our good subjects should be 
ensnared or brought into trouble by them, have 
therefore, with advice of our privy council, 
thought fit, again to discharge and prohibit all 
our subjects, men or women, that none of them 
offer or presume to harbour, reset, supply, corres- 
pond with, hide, or conceal the persons of 
M'Clellan of Barscob, Gordons of Earlston, elder 
and younger, M'Douall of Freugh, the laird of 


Ravenstone, brother to the Earl of G-alloway, the 
laird of Castle-Stewart, brother to the said Earl, 
Cannon of Mardrogat, Mr. Samuel Arnot, Mr. 
Gabriel Semple, Mr. John Welsh, Gordon of 
Craichley, etc., or any others who concurred or 
joined in the late rebellion, or who, upon the 
account thereof, have appeared in arms in any 
part of this our kingdom. And to the end all 
our good subjects may have timeous notice hereof. 
We do ordain these presents to be forthwith 
printed and published at the market crosses of 
Edinburgh, Linlithgow, Stirling, Lanark, Ayr, 
Eutherglen, Glasgow, Irvine, Wigton, Kirkcud- 
bright, Dumfries, Cowpar in Fife, Jedburgh, 
Perth, etc. 

"Alex. Gibson, CI. Seer. Concilii. 

" God Save the King." 

The Earl of Galloway's two brothers subsequently 
made it appear to the satisfaction of the Council that 
they had not been engaged in the rebellion. 

Claverhouse came to Galloway with some English 
dragoons, several troops of horse, and some companies 
of foot. In Carsphairn, he took abundance of horses, 
and those of any use he drove away, one man in 
Craigencallie having three taken from him. In the 
same parish they took £50 from a poor widow because 
they alleged a servant had been at Both well. In 
Balmaclellan they pursued the same course, and 
committed outrages upon some of the women. 


On IStli August, 1679, the King wrote the Council 
to proceed against certain persons implicated at 
Bothwell, among them being Andrew Sword in the 
parish of Borgue, refusing to acknowledge the rebellion 
to be a rebellion, or the archbishop's murder a murder. 

On November 10th, Andrew Sword, now designed 
as " weaver in the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright," and 
a great many others were brought before the 
Justiciary. Sword confessed he had taken arms and 
refused the Bond. He was ordered with four others to 
be taken to the Muir of Magus and hanged on 18th 
November, his body to be hung in chains until it 
rotted, and his estates forfeited. 

On the scaffold he declared that he was entirely 
innocent of the death of Sharpe, having never to his 
knowledge even seen a bishop. After singing the 
34th Psalm, he blessed God for preserving him from 
signing the "ensnaring bond." The bodies of the 
whole five were at first suspended in chains in 
accordance with the sentence, but afterwards interred 
in a field near Magus Muir, and in October, 1728, a 
stone with the following inscription was erected over 
their remains: — 

" 'Cause we at Bothwell did appear, 
Peijurious oaths refused to swear ; 
'Cause we Christ's cause would not condemn. 
We were sentenced to death by men. 
Who raged against us in such fury. 
Our dead bodies they did not bury ; 
But upon poles did hing us high, 
Triumph of Bebal's victory. 
Our lives we fear'd not to the death. 
But constant proved to the last breath. 


When the gravestone was set up, in 1728, the chains 
were taken out of their graves, and some of their bones 
and clothes were found undecayed — forty-nine years 
after their death. The stone fared badly at the hands 
of relic hunters, and has disappeared. 



The Scottish nobility petition the King against Lauderdale in 
" Some Particular Matters of Pact " — What Presbyterians 
admittedly had to suffer — Forfeitures against those at Both- 
well — Galloway gentlemen the first sacrifices — M'Dowall of 
Freugh forfeited, and his estate granted to Claverhouse — 
Other Galloway lairds forfeited — Bishop Aitken allowed to 
reside in Edinburgh — Commission to get lists of those at 
Bothwell — Instructions for regulating the Indulgence, with 
special reference to Galloway — Garrisons placed at Kenmure 
and Freugh. 

jMany of the Scottish nobility had suffered through 
Lauderdale's actings though supporting the Govern- 
ment, and waited a favourable opportunity to table 
their grievances to the King. Accordingly, a Petition 
was framed, known as " Some particular matters of 
fact." It is interesting as showing what the Presby- 
terians admittedly did suffer during this period: — 

" Some particular matters of fact relating to 
the administration of affairs in Scotland, under 
the Duke of Lauderdale, humbly offered to your 
majesty's consideration, in obedience to your royal 

" The Duke of Lauderdale did grossly mis- 
represent to your majesty the condition of the 
western counties, as if they had been in a state 
of rebellion, though there had been never any 


opposition made to your majesty's authority, nor 
any resistance offered to your forces, nor to the 
execution of the law. But he, purposing to abuse 
your majesty, that so he might carry on his 
sinistrous designs by your authority, advised your 
majesty to raise an army against your peaceable 
subjects; at least did frame a letter which was 
sent to your majesty to be signed by your royal 
hand to that effect; which being sent down to the 
council, orders were thereupon given out for 
raising an army of eight or nine thousand men; 
the greatest part whereof were Highlanders. 
And notwithstanding, to avert this threatening, 
the nobility and gentry of that country did send 
to Edinburgh, and for the security of the peace, 
did offer to engage, that whosoever should be sent 
to put the laws in execution, should meet with 
no affront, and that they would become hostages 
for their safety. Yet this army was marched and 
led into a peaceful country, and did take free 
quarters, according to their commissions: and in 
most places levied great sums of money under 
the notion of dry quarters; and did plunder and 
rob your subjects, of which no redress could be 
obtained, though complaints wore frequently 
made. All which was expressly contrary to the 
laws of the Kingdom. In these quarterings it 
was apparent, that regard was only had to that 
Duke's private animosities: for the greatest part 
of these places that were most quartered in, and 
destroyed, had been guilty of none of the field 


conventicles complained of: and many of the 
places that were most guilty were . spared upon 
private considerations. The subjects were at that 
time required to subscribe an exhorbitant and 
illegal bond which was impossible to be performed 
by them, ' That their wives, children, and 
servants, their tenants, and their wives, children, 
and servants, should live orderly, according to 
the law, not to go to conventicles, nor entertain 
vagrant preachers,' with several other particulars: 
by which bond those who signed it were made 
liable for every man's fault that lived upon their 
ground. Your majesty's subjects were charged 
with lawburrows, denounced rebels; and captions 
were issued out for seizing their persons, upon 
their refusing to sign the foresaid bond; and the 
nobility and gentry there who had ever been 
faithful to your majesty, and had appeared in 
arms for suppressing the last rebellion, were 
disarmed upon oath, a proclamation was also 
issued forth, forbidding them, under great 
penalties, to keep any horse above four pounds 
ten groats price. The nobility and gentry 
in the shire of Ayr were also indicted at the 
instance of your majesty's advocate, of very high 
crimes and misdemeanors, whereof some did 
import treason. Their indictments were delivered 
them in the evening to be answered by them next 
morning upon oath. And when they did demand 
two or three days' time to consider their indict- 
ments, and craved the benefit of lawyers to advise 


with in matters of so high concernment, and also 
excepted against their being put to swear against 
themselves in matters that were capital, which 
was contrary to law and justice; all those their 
desires were rejected, though the like had never 
been done to the greatest malefactors in the 
kingdom. And it was told them that they must 
either swear instantly or they would repute them 
guilty, and proceed accordingly. The noblemen 
and gentlemen, knowing themselves innocent of all 
that had been surmised against them, did purge 
themselves by oath of all the particulars that were 
objected to them, and were thereupon acquitted. 
And though the Committee of Council used the 
severest way of inquiry to discover any sedition 
or treasonable designs which were pretended as 
the grounds of leading in that army to these 
countries, yet nothing could ever be proved. So 
false was that suggestion concerning the rebellion 
then designed, that was offered to your majesty, 
and prevailed with you for sending the fore- 
mentioned letter. The oppression and quartering 
still continuing, the noblemen and gentlemen of 
these countries went to Edinburgh, to represent 
to your council the heavy pressures that they and 
their people lay under, and were ready to offer to 
them all that law and reason could require of 
them for securing the peace. The council did 
immediately, upon their appearance there, set 
forth a proclamation, requiring them to depart 
the town in three days, upon the highest pains. 


And when the Duke of Hamilton did petition to 
stay two or three days longer upon urgent affairs, 
it was refused. When some persons of quality 
had declared to the Duke of Lauderdale that they 
would go and represent their condition to your 
majesty, if they could not have justice from your 
ministers, for preventing that, a proclamation was 
set out, forbidding all the subjects to depart the 
kingdom without license, so that your majesty 
might not be acquainted with the sad condition 
of your subjects; a thing without all precedent 
law, to cut off your subjects from making 
application to your majesty; not less contrary to 
your majesty's true interest (who must be always 
the refuge of your people) than to the natural 
right of the subjects." 

Particulars of the sufferings of individuals followed. 

The Complaint failed, but there was some hope that, 
as a result of it, matters would improve, and the Duke 
of Monmouth was expected to get some favours for the 

In 1680, forfeitures were passed in great numbers 
against those alleged to be at Bothwell. The Galloway 
gentlemen were the first sacrifices. On February 18th, 
Patrick M'Dowall of Freugh was called, having been 
cited before. His name is in the proclamation ex- 
cepting persons from the Indemnity. In absence, 
evidence was produced against him and others, 
generally speaking by soldiers and spies, who had 
been hired to traffic up and down the country. Some 


deponed they saw Freugh at Sanquhar a commander of 
a body of four or five hundred men in arms, as they- 
came to Bothwell. Two witnesses deponed they saw 
him at Hamilton Muir among the rebels. He was 
sentenced to be executed and demeaned as a traitor, 
and his heritage, goods, and gear to be forfeited to 
his majesty's use. His estate of Freugh was after- 
wards granted by the King to John Graham of 
Claverhouse. Mr. William Ferguson of Caitloch, 
Alexander Gordon, elder, and also the younger of 
Earlston, James Gordon, younger of Craichlaw, 
William Gordon of Culvennan, Patrick Dunbar of 

Machrimor, and ■ M'Ghie of Larg, were called. 

Earlston, elder, had been killed after Bothwell. The 
prepared witnesses deponed as to their accession to 
tho rebellion, and they were all forfeited, except 
'M'Ghie of Larg, whose case was continued until the 
second Monday of June. 

The lands of Caitloch, Earlston, and Craichlaw, 
were given to Colonel Maine, Major Ogilthorp, and 
Captain Henry Cornwall, but they did not hold them 

Another process of forfeiture was commenced on the 
2nd of June, and ended July 6th, against the following 
persons: — John Bell of Whiteside, John Gibson of 

Auchinchyne, Gibson, younger, of Ingliston, 

Gordon of Dundeugh, Grier of Dargoner, 

Smith of Kilroy, M'Clellan of Barmageichan, 

Thomas Bogle of Bogles-hole, ■ Baird, younger, 

of Dungeonhill, Gordon of Craig, Lennox 

of Irelandton, Gordon of Bar-harrow, John 


Fullarton of Auchinhae, David M'CuUoch, son to 
Ardwel, William Whitehead of Millhouse, John 

Welsh of Cornley, Neilson of Corsack, Robert 

M'Clellan of Barscob, Samuel M'Clellan, his brother, 

Fullarton of Nether-mill, George ^M'Cartney of 

Blaikit, Gordon of Garrerie, Gordon of 

Knockgrey, Heron of Little park, Gordon of 

Holm, Gordon of Overbar, John M 'Naught of 

Colquhad, Murdock, alias Laird Murdock, and John 
Binning of Dulvennan. The libel and indictment 
against these persons, is in the common form, murder- 
ing the archbishop, though probably none of them 
knew anything about it, burning the King's laws, 
accession to the rebellion. All of them were absent. 
Thomas Bogle and Baird of Dungeon-hill were libelled 
as the rest, and likewise for attacking major John- 
stone, of which they were entirely free. No probation 
was adduced on this. Cannon of Mardrochat was 
witness against the Galloway gentlemen. The judges 
were not very exacting as to probation. The assize 
was not particular in the verdict, but found the 
pannels, in the general, guilty of the crimes libelled, 
and they were all forfeited. 

Alexander Hunter of Colquhassen, Old Luce, who 
had been at Bothwell, was forfeited, and his estates 
giveiT to the Countess of Nithsdale, and she possessed 
them till 1689. Alexander Hay of ArieoUan, a 
neighbour, was treated in the same way. His mother, 
a pious old lady, about eighty years old, was im- 
prisoned for mere nonconformity, and kept in 
Dumfries Prison to the danger of her life. She was 


likewise forfeited for her annuity and life-rent out' 
of the estate, so that it might be given to a papist. 

In January, a commission was given to the Earl 
of Queensberry, Sir Robert Dalziel of Glenae, and 
Claverhouse, or any two, or such as they should 
appoint, to get exact lists of heritors who had been at 
Bothwell from the shires of Dumfries and Wigtown 
and the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright and Annandale. 

Bishop Aitken was translated from Moray to 
Galloway, 6th February, 1680, with dispensation to 
reside in Edinburgh, as he was advanced in years and 
the people of his diocese were rebellious and turbulent. 
He kept himself in touch with the ministers, presby- 
teries, and synod, and by letters to them and a journey 
thither secured as good order and discipline as if he 
had been residing among them. He opposed James in 
taking off the penal laws against Roman Catholics. 

On 6th May, 1680, a garrison was stationed at 

Instructions were then given for regulating the 
Indulgence (14th May). The last of these directions 
is worthy of notice, being specially applicable to 

" 9hly. And seeing that we are informed that 
the regular ministers in Galloway and some other 
western places are exposed to great danger, from 
the fury of some blind zealots among whom they 
serve, and that even the necessaries of life, and 
the help of servants and mechanics are denied 
unto them for their money, you are, in a most 
particular manner to consider their present case, 


and to consult their protection, and the security of 
their persons in the best manner, and to see that 
the sheriffs, justices, and other magistrates be 
careful to have them defended and secured in their 
persons and goods, and the necessaries for living 
furnished and supplied unto them at the usual 
and ordinary rates of the country, to the end they 
may be effectually relieved and that our ancient 
kingdom may be vindicated from any just im- 
putation of so great and barbarous inhumanity. 
Given at our Court at Windsor Castle, the 14th 
day of May, 1680, and of our reign the 32d year. 

" By his majesty's command, 

" Lauderdale." 

On 10th August, further efforts were made to 
discover who were at Bothwell, and letters were sent 
to the Sheriffs of Fife, Lanark, Ayr, Wigtown, and 
Stirling: — " The Council, understanding there are 
divers persons lurking in your shire who were in the 
Rebellion and are reset, do require you to inquire 
thereinto and appoint persons in the several parishes^ 
and do everything for that effect, and to send a list 
of them, their resetters, and witnesses to the Advocate 
betwixt and October." 

On December 10th a garrison of thirty horse was 
ordered to be placed at Kenmure and another at the 
House of Freugh in Wigtownshire. Garrisons were 
thus placed at particular houses for the double purpose 
of punishing proprietors suspect of disaffection and 
overawing the surrounding population. 



Graham has commission to uplift the moveables of fugitives in 
Galloway — Court at New Galloway — The Societies — The 
Sanquhar Declaration supported by Galloway men — Pro- 
clamation against Cameron and others — All persons over 
sixteen years of age to be cited in Minnigaif, Penninghame, 
Carsphairn, Balmaclellan, Dairy, Kells, Irongray, and other 
parishes to declare what they know of the traitors — The 
oath sworn by the King. 

Gkaham had a commission to uplift the moveables of 
those in Galloway who had been at Bothwell or were 
fugitives. His brother, Cornet Graham, and he or 
some depute by him went through the several parishes. 
At New Galloway, there was a Court, at which all 
between sixteen and sixty were charged to appear 
under severe penalties, and declare upon oath how 
many conventicles they had been at, who preached, 
who were present, what children were baptised, etc. 
Every Court day numbers were forfeited and fined, 
and the money gifted to the soldiers, informers, etc. 

After Bothwell, some of the sterner Presbyterians 
went off to Holland, but, in 1680, a number returned, 
following Mr. Donald Cargill, Richard Cameron, etc. 
Next year they began to meet in Societies, and termed 
themselves " The Societies United in Correspondence." 
They separated from all the rest of the Presbyterian 
ministers and others throughout the kingdom who 


would not reject tlie King's authority, and came to 
state their sufferings and testimony upon that head, 
and herein they stood by themselves, striving against 
Prelacy on the one hand, and as bitterly against their 
former friends on the other. 

On June 22nd, 1680, the first anniversary of Both- 
weU, there was the famous Sanquhar Declaration. 

Richard Cameron and his brother Michael and 
about a score of others, among them being some 
Galloway men, rode into Sanquhar, and drew up at 
the ancient Market Cross. The two Camerons dis- 
mounted, a psalm was sung, prayer was offered, and 
then Michael Cameron read the famous Declaration, 
and fixed a copy of it to the Cross while the inhabitants 
looked on in wonder and amazement. This document 
was headed " The Declaration and Testimony of the 
true Presbyterian, anti-prelatic, anti-erastian, perse- 
cuted party in Scotland. Published at Sanquhar, June 
22nd, 1680." It had the warm approval of the great 
majority of the Galloway Covenanters, and was not a 
frenzied outburst, but a deliberate statement made 
after fully counting the cost, xls has been well said, 
what was treason that day became only eight years 
afterwards the Revolution Settlement. Its import 
may be seen from the following excerpt: — " Therefore, 
although we be for Government and Governors such as 
the Word of our God and our Covenant allows, yet we 
for ourselves and all that will adhere to us as the 
representatives of the true Presbyterian Kirk and 
Covenanted nation of Scotland, . . . do by thir 
presents disown Charles Stuart that has been reigning 


(or rather tyrannizing as we may say) on the throne of 
Britain these years hygone, as having any right, title 
to, or interest in the said Crown of Scotland for 
Government, as forfeited several years since, hy his 
perjury and breach of covenant both to God and His 
Kirk and usurpation of His Crown and Royal prero- 
gative therein, and many other breaches in matters 
ecclesiastic, and by his tyranny and breach of the very 
leges regnandi in matters civil, For which reason we 
declare, that several years since he should have been 
denuded of being King, Ruler, or Magistrate, or of 
having any power to act, or to be obeyed as such. As 
also, we, being under the standard of the Lord Jesus 
Christ, Captain of Salvation, do declare a war with 
such a tyrant and usurper, and all the men of his 
practices as enemies to our Lord Jesus Christ and 
His cause and covenants, and against all such as have 
strengthened him, sided with, or any wise acknow- 
ledged him in his tyranny, civil or ecclesiastic." It 
disclaimed the Declaration at Hamilton, June 1679, 
" chiefly because it takes in the King's interest," and 
it disowned the Duke of York, " that professed papist," 
and protested against his succeeding to the Crown. 

This was followed by a Proclamation against 
Cameron and others, which set forth that Mr. Richard 
Cameron and his brother, and Mr. Thomas Douglas, 
accompanied by several rufiians and particularly John 
Vallange, brother-in-law to Robert Park, one of the 
Bailies of Sanquhar; Daniel M'Mitchell in Lorgfoot; 

Thomas Campbell, son of Campbell, late of Dal- 

blair in Auchenleck parish; John Moodie, brother to 


the miller at Cubsmill, in the same parish; John 
Fowler, sometime servant to the deceased Lindsay of 
Covington; Patrick Gamil, son-in-law to Charles 
Logan, messenger at Cumnock Mains; James Stewart, 
son to Archibald Stewart at Causewayend, near to the 
Earl of Galloway's house; Alexander Gordon, called 
of Kilstuare; Francis Johnstone, merchant in Clydes- 
dale; Crichton, son to Robert Crichton of 

Auchentitinch, now in Waterhead, and others to the 
number of twenty-one persons, did, upon 22nd June, 
enter within the Burgh of Sanquhar with drawn swords 
and pistols in their hands, and after a solemn procession 
through the town, did draw up at the Cross, and 
published and affixed upon the Cross and other public 
places thereof a most treasonable and unparalleled 
paper " disowning us to be their King and defaming 
us with the very same names and designations used by 
the usurpers in their greatest rage after they had 
murdered the King, our royal and blessed father of 
eternal memory." Accordingly, they were declared 
" open and notorious traitors and rebels," and all good 
subjects were required to do their utmost diligence to 
discover them. 

" And to the effect that harbourers and resetters, 
or those who neglect to discover them, may be known 
and punished, we do require the haill heritors, or their 
bailiffs, or chamberlains in case of the heritors' absence, 
to cause call, and cite before them in a court, all 
persons living upon their respective lands, men, or 
women, above the age of sixteen years, in all the 
parishes underwritten, viz.: — Carsphairn, Balmaclel- 


Ian, Dairy, Kells, Bar in Carrick, the Moor kirk of 
Kyle, Galston, Loudon, Tindergarth, Strathaven, 
Lesmahago, Sanquhar, Irongray, Glencairn, Cumnock, 
Monigaff, and Penninghame, upon the second and last 
Tuesdays of July and August next; and to take the 
oaths of all the said persons living upon their respective 
lands, whether any of these traitors foresaid vi'ere in 
that parish, and where and when; And lest they may 
pretend not to know the said traitors, that they discover 
upon oath any skulking or lurking persons, which they 
have known to have been in that parish, after the 
publication hereof in the respective shires and the 
heritors or their bailiffs, and chamberlains in their 
absence, to give an account of their diligence in 
writing, within eight days after each diet foresaid, 
to the sheriffs, Stewarts, bailies of regalities, magis- 
trates of burghs, and shall adjoin thereto the following 

declaration upon oath. I, , do solemnly swear 

by the eternal God, that I have truly and faithfully 
examined upon oath the whole persons, men and 
women, living upon my lands, who compeared, who 
are above the age of sixteen years, whereof I am 
heritor, bailiff, or chamberlain, within the parish of 

, and that I, , caused my officer give execution 

upon oath, that he did cite all the said persons to the 
aforesaid diets, and have given an account of the 
persons who compeared not, or, compearing, refused 
to give oath." 

Those who may be inclined to take the view of this 
Proclamation, and to think that Cameron and his party 
were grossly to blame, should remember at the same 


time that the King to whom they owed allegiance was 
the King who had sworn the following oath, and who, 
by his breach of it, had forced Cameron and the other 
Covenanters to take the stand they did: — 

" I, Charles, King of Great Britain, France, 
and Ireland, do assure and declare, by my solemn 
oath, in the presence of Almighty God, the 
searcher of hearts, my allowance and approbation 
of the National Covenant, and of the Solemn 
League and Covenant above written, and faith- 
fully oblige myself to prosecute the ends thereof in 
my station and calling; and that I, for myself and 
successors, shall consent and agree to all Acts of 
Parliament enjoining the National Covenant and 
Solemn League and Covenant, and fully establish- 
ing Presbyterial Government, the directory of 
Worship, the Confession of Faith and Catechisms 
in the Kingdom of Scotland, as they are approved 
by the General Assembly of this Kirk and Parlia- 
ment of this Kingdom. And that I shall give 
my royal assent to the Acts and Ordinances of 
Parliament passed or to be passed, enjoining the 
same in the rest of my dominions, and that I shall 
observe them in my own practice and family, and 
shall never make opposition to any of these, or 
endeavour any change thereof." 

That was the King's solemn oath sworn to more than 
once, and it was his deliberate and determined breach 
of it that brought desolation to Scotland and disaster 
to himself. 



Seven troops of horse and a regiment of foot sent into Galloway — 
The country harassed — Incredible losses inflicted in Galloway 
parishes — ^Ayrsmoss — John Malcolm, Dairy, captured and 
executed — The Sheriff of Galloway ordered to sentence 
tradesmen and others refusing to work for the orthodox 
clergy — Courts at New Galloway, Dairy, and Kirkcudbright 
— Proceedings ordered against those in Wigtown and Kirk- 
cudbright in the late rebellion — The Test Act — Garrisons at 
Dumfi-ies and the House of Freugh — Persons forfeited for 
Bothwell to be pursued to the death — List of those in 
Galloway — Sir James Dalrymple refuses the Test — The 
Steward of the Stewartry, Sir Andrew Agnew, Viscount 
Kenmure, and the Earl of Galloway refuse the Test, and 
are deprived of their heritable jurisdictions — Wigtown Burgh 
takes the Test. 

On 30th June, 1680, seven troops of horse and a 
regiment of foot were sent into Galloway. The 
command was given to Linlithgow, Major Cockburn, 
Strachan, Claverhouse, and others. Their avowed 
object was to secure Richard Cameron, but all non- 
conformists were harassed, and fearful severities 
committed. Dreadful ravages were made by the 
soldiers on the Sabbath Day, and incredible losses 
were inflicted on Presbyterians in the parishes of 
-Carsphairn, Dairy, Balmaclellan, Crossmichael, and 
many others. 

At Ayrsmoss, 22nd July, 1680, both of the 
•Camerons fell. Many prisoners were taken, among 


them John Malcolm from the parish of Dairy. They 
were sentenced to be hanged on 11th August, and were 
executed at the Grass-market at Edinburgh. 

In September, 1680, Captain Inglis was persecuting 
violently in Carsphairn and in Dairy. He was par- 
ticularly anxious to secure John Eraser and John 
Clark. Robert Cannon of Mardrochat, Commissioner 
to the persecutors, was made collector of cess and excise 
in Carsphairn and neighbourhood, and Inglis, Living- 
stone, and other commanders, who were hunting up and 
down the country, went by his instructions. The 
soldiers herded the whole countryside together, and 
Cannon was sent for to inform against them. During 
the harvest, courts were held at New Galloway, and 
grievous injuries inflicted. 

In October, 1680, the Council, alleging that some of 
the orthodox clergy in Galloway were being defrauded 
of their stipends, and indirect methods taken to force 
them to leave, by tradesmen and others refusing to 
work for them, ordained the Sheriff to give sentences 
against such, and to call for soldiers to execute his 
sentences. This kind of process obliging tradesmen 
to work was something novel even in those days. 

On 23rd December, 1680, the Council wrote to the 
;Earl of Murray, to procure a remission to William 
Gordon of Culvennan who had been in the Rebellion. 
He resigned part of his lands in favour of some of 
the managers, as others did, in order to escape the 
sentences passed on them. In the beginning of 1681, 
Cornet Graham held a court at Dairy, when all men 
and women above sixteen years were cited to appear 



and made declare upon oath whether they had ever 
been at field meetings, or were married, or had children 
baptised with those who preached at them. They were 
also questioned on oath about their neighbours. 
Grierson of Lagg, and Thomas Lidderdale of St. 
Mary's Isle held similar courts at Kirkcudbright. On 
21st June, 1681, it was represented to the Council that 
many persons in Kirkcudbright, Wigtown, and Dum- 
fries who were in the late Rebellion continued to reside 
in their houses and intromit with their estates. The 
Sheriffs and other magistrates were ordained to proceed 
against them, and secure their rents and lands for his 
Majesty's use. 

On 31st August, 1681, the famous Act known as the 
Test became law, under which all who held an office 
had to take an oath that they judged it unlawful for 
subjects, upon pretence of reformation or any other 
pretence, to enter into covenants or leagues, or to 
conrocate, convene, or assemble in any councils, con- 
ventions, or assemblies, to treat, consult, or determine 
in any matter of state, civil or ecclesiastic, without 
his Majesty's special command or express license had 
thereunto, or to take up arms against the King or those 
commissionate by him, and that " I shall never so rise 
in arms or enter into such covenants or assemblies, 
and that there lies no obligation upon me from the 
National Covenant or the Solemn League and 
Covenant (so commonly called) or any other manner 
of way whatsomever to endeavour any change or altera- 
tion in the government either in Church or State 
as it is now established by the laws of this kingdom, 


and I promise and swear that I shall with my utmost 
power, defend, assist, and maintain his Majesty's 
Jurisdiction foresaid against all deadly, and I shall 
never decline his Majesty's power and jurisdiction, 
as I shall answer to God." 

This Act, as we shall see, led to great tribulation 
in Galloway . 

It would seem that former orders as to placing 
garrisons in Galloway had not been fulfilled, and 
on 6th October, the Council appointed the houses 
previously named, with the Castle of Dumfries, and 
the house of Freugh, instantly to be made patent to 
receive garrisons. 

On 8th October, 1681, special proclamation was 
made that certain persons, having forfeited their lives, 
lands, and goods for treasonable rising in arms at 
Bothwell, did, notwithstanding, live at or near their 
dwelling places, and by themselves or others enjoyed 
their lands, rents, and goods, as if they were free and 
peaceable subjects. Authority was, therefore, given 
to the Sheriffs of Lanark, Ayr, Dumfries, the Steward 
of the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright, Sir Andrew 
Agnew of Lochnaw, Sheriff Principal of Wigtown, 
and their deputes, to apprehend the said rebels and 
traitors, and to pursue them to the death by force 
of arms or drive them forth of the bounds of their 
jurisdiction. Among those named in the Proclamation 
are Patrick M'Douall of Freugh; Mr. William and 
Alexander Gordons of Earlston; Mr. WiUiam Fer- 
guson of Caitloch; Dunbar, younger of Macher- 

more; John Bell of Whiteside; John Gibson of 


Auchinchero; Gibson, younger of Ingleston; 

Gordon of Dundeuch; Grier of Dargonar; 

Smith of Kilroch; M'Clelland of Barma- 

geichan; Gordon of Craigie; Lennox of 

Irelandton; Gordon of Barharrow; John Fowler- 
ton of Auchincrie; David M'CuUooh, son of Ardwall; 
William Whitehead of Milnhouse; John Welsh of 

Cornley; Neilson of Corsock; Robert M'Clelland 

of Barscobe; Samuel M'Clelland, his brother; 

FuUerton of Nethermill; George M'Cartney of 

Blackit; — — - Gordon of Garrarie; Gordon of 

Knookgray; Heron of Littlepark; Gordon 

of Holm; Gordon of Overbar; John M'Knaught 

of Culgnad; Murdock, alias Laird Murdock; 

Andrew Sword in Galloway; John Malcolm in Dairy 
in Galloway. Some of these had already suffered the 
full penalty, but the present proceedings were intended 
to secure their estates. Sir James Dalrymple, presi- 
dent of the Court of Session, sought to add to the 
Test a clause regarding the Covenant, that the recipient 
professed " the true protestant religion as set forth 
in the Confession of Faith of 1567," but this was 
refused, and he felt himself unable to subscribe the 
oath. On 2l8t October, 1681, the Council wrote his 
Majesty's Secretary to get Sir James Dalrymple of 
Stair, as heritable Bailie of the Regality of Glenluce, 
to take the Test before his Grace the Duke of Lauder- 
dale, and on 18th December, there is a letter from the 
Secretary to the Council in which it is stated that 
Sir James Dalrymple of Stair had informed him that, 


having quitted his public employment to his son, there 
was no obligation on him by law to take the Test. 
He removed to Galloway, and in October, 1682, went 
privately to Ley den. 

On November 10th, the Council wrote the Laird of 
Lochnaw for the shire of Wigtown, and the Earl of 
Nithsdale for the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright, to send 
an account against 1st December whether they had 
taken the Test, that they may know and upon refusal 
appoint persons for these jurisdictions. 

Owing to the holders not taking the Test, the 
following jurisdictions fell into His Majesty's hands. 
The Stewartship of Kirkcudbright, held by the Earl of 
Nithsdale, recommended to be given to Lord Livings 
stone and Sir Robert Maxwell. The Sheriffship of 
Wigtown, held by Sir Andrew Agnew, recommended 
to be given to the Laird of Claverhouse. The regality 
of Tongeland, held by Viscount Kenmure, recom- 
mended to be given to the Laird of Claverhouse. The 
regality of Whithorn, held by the Earl of Galloway, 
recommended to be given to the Earl of Queensberry. 
On January 26th 1682, the King approved of new 
commissions to these gentlemen. Others, however, 
were more compliant. Wigtown Town Council took 
the Test on the last day of December, 1681, as appears 
from their records: — 

" Wigtoune, the threttie first day of December, 
1681 zeirs. Wee, the magistrats, and Councell 
of the burgh of Wigtoune under-subscribed, 


eolemnlie sweare in presence of the Eternall God, 
whom we invocat as judge and witnes of our 
sincere intentione of this our oath. That wee 
owne and sincerelie profess the trew protestant 
religione contained in the Confessione of Faith 
recordit in the first parliat, of King James the 
Sixt, and that wee beleive the same to be foundit 
on and agreeable to the Word of God. And Wee 
promise and sueir that Wee shall adheare yrto 
dureing all the dayes of our Lyftymes, and shall 
endeavore to educat our childrine yrin, and shall 
never consent to any change or alteratione con- 
traire yrto; And that Wee Disoune and renunce 
all such principles, doctrines, or practises, whither 
popish or prauaticall, which are contraire unto, 
and inconsistent with the said protestant religione 
and Confessione of Faith. And for testification 
of our obedience to our most gracious Soveraigne 
Chairles the Second, Wee doe affirme and sueare 
by this our solemne oath that the King's Majestic 
is the only suppreame governour of this realme, 
over all persones and in all causes als weill 
ecclesiasticall as civile: and that noe forraigne 
prince, persona, pope, prelat, state, or potentat, 
hath or ought to have any jurisdictione, power, 
superiortie, preheminencie, or autoritie, Ecclisi- 
asticall or civile, within this realme. And their- 
foir Wee doe vterlie renunce and forsaik all 
forraigne jurisdictione, pouers, superiorities, and 
autorities: And doe promise that hencefuith Wee 


shall beare faith and trew aledgeanee to the 
King's Majestie, his aires and LauU Successors: 
And Wee farder afferme and suere by this our 
solemn oath that Wee judge it unlauU (unlawful) 
for subjects vpon pretence of reformatione or any 
vyr pretence qtsover, to enter into Covenants or 
Leagues, or to convocat, convein, or assemble in 
any councels, conventions, or assemblies, to treat, 
consult, or Determine in any maitter of state, 
civill or ecclesiastick, without his Majestie's 
special command or express Licence yrto; Or to 
talk up airmes agt the King or those commis- 
sionated by him: And that Wee shall never so 
rise in airmes, or enter into such covenants or 
assemblies. And that ther Lyes noe obligatione 
one Us from the Nationall Covenant, or the 
Solemne League and Covenant (so commonlie 
called) or any vyr mainer of Way qtsoever to 
endevore any chainge or altematione in the 
governement aither in church or state, as it is 
now established be the Laws of this Kingdom, 
And Wee promise and sueare that Wee shall with 
our utmost pouer defend, assist, and maintaine 
his Majesties jurisdictione forsd agt all Deidlie: 
And we shall never decline his Majesties pouer 
and jurisdictione, As Wee shall ansr. to God. 
And finalie, Wee afferme and sueare this our 
solumn oath is given in the plaine genuine sence 
and meaning of the words, without any equivoca- 
tione, mentall reservatione, or any mainer of 


evasione qtsoever: And that Wee shall not accept 
or use any Dispensatione from any creature 
qtsoever. So help us God. 

" (Signed) 1. Will. Coltrane, provost. 

2. G. Stewart, baiellie. 

4. Will. Clugstoune. 

13. Archibald Ramsay, Clerk as 

3. mandatory for Michael 

Shank, Treasurer. 

5. Johnne M'Keand. 

8. A. (Adam) M'Kie. 

6. Adam Kyneir. 

9. A. (Anthony) Dalzell. 

7. Will. Gordoun. 
12. Patt. Blaine. 

10. Patrick M'Kie. 


Andrew M'Guffock. 
John M'Cracken. 
Alexr. Stewart. 
James Brounb. 
George Kincaid. 
Patt. Garrock." 



Claveihouse sent into Galloway with troops — He is granted a 
Sheriff's commission for Kirkcudbright, Wigtownshire, and 
Dumfries — Letters from Claverhouse referring to the Gordons 
and to Sir James Dalrymple of Stair — GlaTerhouse captures 
M'Clnrg, the Minnigaff smith — A trooper in trouble — Soldiers 
ordered to Kirkcudbright to secure Lord Livingstone in the 
Estates forfeited to him — Claverhouse writes Viscount Ken- 
mure to prepare his house for a garrison — His persecutions 
— ^He seizes John Archibald, Anthony M'Bride, John 
Cleanochan, and John "Wallace, imprisons them in Stranraer, 
and quarters horses at their houses — A troop of the horse in 

On 27th January, 1682, Claverhouse was sent into 
Galloway with a troop of guards, and was allowed to 
make use of the house or chapel belonging to Sir John 
Dalrymple to keep guard in, and of the house at 
Kirkcudbright belonging to Sir Robert Maxwell. 

He was granted a Sheriff's commission to arrange 
all disorders, disturbances of the peace, and church 
irregularities in Kirkcudbright, Annandale, Wigtown, 
and Dumfries. The following are its terms: — 

" Charles, by the grace of God, etc., greeting. 
Forasmuch as we have already thought fit to give 
and grant to John Graham of Claverhouse, a com- 
mission to be sheriff of the shire of Wigton, fallen 
in our hands, with the haill powers, privileges, 
and casualties belonging to the said office, during 


our pleasure, and considering that several persons 
of disaffected and seditious principles, in the shires 
of Wigton and Dumfries, and the stewartries of 
Kirkcudbright and Annandale, have for disquiet 
and disturbance of the peace, for divers years past, 
not only deserted the public ordinances in their 
parish churches, haunted and frequented rebellious 
field conventicles, and committed divers other 
disorders of that nature, to the great scandal of 
religion, and contempt of our government, but 
lately did break forth into, and joined in an open 
and most treasonable rebellion, and notwith- 
standing of the many reiterated offers of our 
gracious indemnity to them they continue in their 
former wicked and rebellious practices, being 
encouraged therein by the not due execution of 
our laws, and hopes of impunity, by their 
skulking from one place to another, when they 
are cited before our judicatories, and pursued and 
sought for by our forces, and we being fully 
resolved that our laws shall be put to due and 
vigorous execution against these delinquents, and 
these rebels brought to public punishment and 
example, in the places where they have been guilty 
thereof, do, with advice of our privy council, 
require and command the said John Graham of 
Claverhouse to call before him his deputes and 
substitutes, the persons frequenting and residing 
in the said shire of Wigton, guilty of withdraw- 
ing from the public ordinances in their parish 
churches, since our late act of indemnity, as also 


the persons guilty of conventicles, disorderly 
baptisms and marriages, harbouring and resetting 
of rebels, during the said space, and to impose and 
exact the fines conform to the acts of parliament, 
and to do and perform everything requisite and 
necessary, for putting the same to due and 
vigorous execution; and considering that the 
persons guilty of these disorders, do remove from 
one jurisdiction to another, when they are called 
in question and pursued, and that we find it- 
necessary for our service, in this exigent, that the 
persons guilty of these disorders, in the places 
adjacent, within the said shire of Dumfries, and 
the Stewartries of Kirkcudbright and Annandale, 
be brought to justice in order to the reducing 
that country to the due obedience of our laws and 
the securing the peace of our government, we, 
with advice foresaid, do hereby nominate and 
appoint the said John Graham to be our depute 
within the said jurisdictions, for putting in 
execution our laws, against transgressors and 
delinquents in the cases foresaid, and to uplift 
and exact the penalties incurred by them thereby. 
It is hereby declared that this commission is no 
ways to be prejudicial to the right of jurisdiction, 
belonging to the sheriff of Dumfries, and Stewards 
of the Stewartries of Kirkcudbright and Annan- 
dale, and that the said John Graham is only to 
proceed and do justice in the eases foresaid, when 
he is the first attacker. And further we with the 
advice foresaid, have thought fit to give and grant. 


and do hereby give and grant to the said John 
Graham of Claverhouse our full pover, authoritj', 
and commission, as justice in that part, to call 
before him any person, not being heritor; who 
shall be apprehended for being in the late 
rebellion, and have not in due time taken the 
benefit of our gracious act of indemnity, and for 
that effect, to fence and hold courts, create clerks, 
sergeants, dempsters, and other members of court 
needful, and to call assizes and witnesses as often 
as need be, absents to amerciate, unlaws and 
amerciaments to uplift and exact, and, in the said 
courts, to put the said persons to knowledge and 
trial of an assize, and, according as they shall be 
found innocent or guilty, that he shall cause 
justice to be administrate on them according to 
the laws and acts of parliament of this realm: 
Pkomitten to hold firm and stable whatsoever 
things he shall lawfully do in the premises. 
Given under our signet at Edinburgh, the last 
day of January, 1682, and of our reign the 
thirty-fourth year." 

Claverhouse, in February, 1682, was passing up and 
down through Galloway. In a letter to Queensberry, 
dated from Newton of Galloway, 16th February, 1682, 
he says: — "As to the Treasury Commission, I fear 
I shall not be able to do what I would wish because 
of the season. For of their corn and straw there is not 
much left, and their beasts this time of the year ia 


not worth the driving." On lat March, 1662, from 
Newton of Galloway, he writes: — " I wish the Gordons 
here were translated to the North and exchanged with 
any other branch of that family who are bo very loyal 
there and disaffected here. I desire leave to draw 
out of the two regiments one hundred of the best 
musketeers who had served abroad, and I should take 
the horses here amongst the suffering sinners." 

On 5th March, he wrote from Wigtown: — " Here in 
this shire I find the lairds all following the example 
of a late great man and considerable heritor * among 
them, which is to live regularly themselves, but have 
their houses constant haunts of rebels and inter- 
communed persons, and have their children baptised 
by the same and then lay the blame on their wives. 
But I am resolved this jest shall pass no longer here, 
for it (is) laughing and fooling the Government." 
He held his first court at Wigtown in March, and then 
proceeded to Stranraer. In a letter from Stranraer, 
dated 13th March, 1682, he mentions the capture of 
M'Clurg, the smith at Minnigaff, and his resolve to 
hang him. 

" I am just beginning to send out many parties, 
finding the rebels become secure, and the country so 
quiet in all appearance. I sent out a party with my 
brother Dave three nights ago. The first night he 
took Drumbuit and one M'Lellan, and that great 
villain M'Clurg, the smith at Minnigaff that made 

* This was Sir James Dalrymple of Stair. 
t M'Kie of Drumbuie. 


all the clikys,* and after whom the forces have trotted 
80 often. It cost me hoth pains and money to know 
how to find him. I am resolved to hang him; for it 
is necessary I make some example of severity, lest 
rebellion be thought cheap here. There cannot be alive 
a more wicked fellow." f 

On one of his visits to Wigtown, one at least of 
his troopers got into trouble with the citizens and 
seems to have been severely handled by no less an 
individual than the burgh treasurer. The Burgh 
Records contain the following reference to the in- 
cident; — 

" Wigtoune, Junu sevinth, 1682 zeirs. 

" In presence of William Coltrane, provest, 
Compeared personalie Patrick M'Kie, burges of 
Wigt. who becam inacted bind and obliest as 
cationer and surtie for William Gordoune, Lait 
Thessrer, burges of the sd burgh, and Elizabeth 
Stewart, his spouse, that they shall oompeir befoir 
the toun Court of Wigtoune vpon advertisement 
to vnderly the Law for the alleged blood and 
battrie, and vyr abusess committed by the ed 
Elizabeth vpon William Meinzies, ane of the 
gentlemen of Claverhous troup, and that vnder 
the paine of Ane hundreth punds Scots money of 
penaltie in caice of failzie attour preformance: 
And the sds Wm. Gordoune and Elizabeth 

* Cleiks, hooked knives on staves for cutting the cavalry bridles. 
t M'Clurg seems to have escaped. At any rate, his name 
appears in the list of fugitives. 


Stewart obleiss them to relieve their sd. cationer 
of his cationrie for them in the premises, as also 
compeired personalie Alexr., Mure, Chirurgiane, 
burges of Wigt. Who becam inacted bund and 
obleist as cationer and surtie for James M'Crobine 
and Helen Stewart, his spouse that they shall 
compeir befoir the toun court of Wigt. vpon 
advertisement to vnderly the Law for the alleged 
blood and battrie committed be them vpon the 
sd. Wm. Meinzies, and for vyr abuses done to 
him; and that vnder the paine of Ane hundreth 
punds money foresaid, in caice of failzie attour 
performance and the sds James M'Crobine and 
Helen Stewart obleiss them to releive their sd. 
cationer of his cationrie in the premises. In 
Witness qrof their presents are subt. vpon day, 
zeir, and place, forsd. befoir thir witnesses, 
Thomas Stewart, lauU sone to George Stewart, 
bailzie of Wigt. and Ard. Kamsey, toun clerk." 

On September 2nd, 1682, the Council ordered a 
company of soldiers to go to Kirkcudbright to secure 
Lord Livingstone in the Estates forfeited to him. 
Claverhouse's troops came in and kept garrison at 
Kenmure this year. 

The following letter from Claverhouse to Viscount 
Kenmure is interesting as showing that the Viscount 
had a week to prepare for his unwelcome visitors. 

" My Lord: — It is a good tyme since the last 
Chancelor wrot to your Lordship, by order of 
Councell to make raid and void your house of 


Kenmur, for to receive a garrison: and when I 
cam into this contry som moneths agoe, it was 
then in debeat wither or not the garison should 
enter, but it was put af at my Lord's treasurer's 
deseir, and my undertaking to secur the contry 
from rebelles without it; but this sumer the 
councell thought fit to give me new orders about 
it. Wherefor, my Lord, I expect your Lordship 
will remove what you think not fit to leave there, 
for the garison must be in by the first of 
November. I expect your Lords's answer, and 

" My Lord, 

Your most humble 

J. Gkaham. 
" Newton, 
the 21 of October 

" For the Viscount Kenmure." 

Each horse had three pecks corn, and eight stone 
■of straw or hay weekly. The troops settled at Kirk- 
cudbright had for each horse two pecks corn and seven 
stone of hay or straw. David Graham held Courts 
■at Twynholm, getting his information from the curate. 
He imprisoned several women with children at their 
breasts because they would not give bond to keep the 
ohurch and hear their persecuting incumbent. 

In August, Claverhouse attacked multitudes of non- 
conformists who were not so much as alleged to have 


been in any rising. At New Luce he seized John 
Archibald, Anthony MacBryde, John Macleanochan 
and John Wallace for not hearing the incumbent. 
They were brought to Stranraer and put in prison for 
twelve weeks, and soldiers were sent to quarter at their 
houses. Twelve horses were quartered in one, seven 
in another, and so on in proportion as their stock 
would bear. The seven soldiers at MacBryde's had 
plenty of victuals, but they would have his wife go 
out one Sabbath Day and bring in two sheep and kill 
them. This she refused, and one of them attempted to 
throw her into a large fire, but was prevented by the 
rest of the family. After being in prison twelve 
weeks, Claverhouse ordered them to be tied two and 
two together and set upon bare-backed horses to be 
carried to Edinburgh to be tried. When they had 
gone a day's journey, they were liberated on signing 
■a, bond to pay one thousand merks each on demand, 
and, although they paid the money, this did not 
prevent their oppression afterwards. 

A troop of horse came to Anwoth. Seven quartered 
on one gentleman, where they wanted for nothing but 
ale, and had milk in abundance. One of the soldiers 
ordered the gentleman to provide ale. He answered 
there was none about them to be had till the waters, 
then very large, had fallen. The soldier answered 
he would have to get ale though he should have to go 
to hell to seek it. The gentleman replied, " If once 
you were there, you will not come back to tell tlia 
news." The soldier set on him with a thorn staff, 
but the gentleman closed in and held his own and the 



other soldiers separated them. The soldier then went 
to the commanding officer with false charges and got 
him arrested. The matter was not considered for some 
time, and meanwhile the gentleman's horses were taken 
away, and the whole stock, etc., destroyed. When 
the officer came to consider the complaint by the 
soldier, he found it groundless, and liberated the 
gentleman, but gave him no satisfaction, and did not 
punish the soldier. 



Major Learmoud, Barscobe, and others captured, and ordered to 
be hanged — Execution not carried out — ^Letter showing how 
soldiers quartered in Galloway — Andrew Heron of Kirrongh- 
tree dealt with for harbouring his son — Fined 5,000 merks, 
and imprisoned till it is paid — Claverhouse forces Sir John 
Dalrymple to appear before the Council — Dalrymple fined 
£500, and committed to Edinburgh Castle till it is paid. 

When any of the forfeited persons were captured, 
the old sentence in absence was put into force. Thus 
we find on 7th April, 1682, the Lords Commissioners, 
having considered the dooms of forfeiture already, 
passed on Kobert Fleming of Auchenfin, Hugh 
Macklewraith of Auchenfloor, Major Joseph Lear- 
mond and Robert M'Clelland of Barscobe for the 
crimes of treason and rebellion, ordain them to bo 
hanged on dates specified, the Magistrates of Edin- 
burgh to see the execution carried out. However, 
other infiuences came to bear, and the execution was 
not carried out. 

As showing the way in which the soldiers were 
ordered to quarter on the inhabitants, the following 
letter by Lidderdale of St. Mary's Isle is given: — 

" Sergeant Persie, in obedience to my Lord 
Livingstone's commands to me, you are hereby 


ordered to go with your fifteen dragoons, presently 
under your command, and quarter them pro- 
portionally, as you think convenient, upon the 
pretended heritors of Macartney and tenants 
thereof, the pretended heritors and possessors of 
the lands of Bar (and glaisters pertaining there- 
unto), ay and while they come into Kirkcudbright 
to me, and take tacks of the haill forementioned 
lands from me, in name of George Lord Living- 
stone, donatar of the same, and not only find 
caution for the yearly rent thereof in time coming, 
but also make payment of all bygones, preceding 
the term of Whitsunday last from Bothwell. 
You are to exact free quarter during your abode, 
and, if need be, to take what you stand in need of 
for your provision, from them, without prejudice 
to any other. You are also to dispossess and 
remove the lady Holm younger forth of the lands 
of Macartney, and to cause some of your party 
to possess the same till forther orders. And you 
are not to remove from any of your quarters till 
such time as you receive my order of new for that 
effect. Subscribed for warrant at Kirkcudbright, 
the 23rd day of October, 1682. 

" Tho. Lidderdale." 

In January, 1683, the Council had the case of 
Andrew Heron of Kirroughtree before them, and the 
following letter was written to the Secretary: — 


"My Lord, 

" There being one Andrew Herron of Kerroch- 
tree, pursued before his Majesty's privy council, 
for harbouring, resetting, entertaining, and in- 
tercomunning with Patrick Herron his second 
son, Anthony M'Ghie late of Glencard, and other 
rebels: and the said Andrew having come volun- 
tarily to the lord high treasurer before any 
citation given, how soon he understood the hazard 
he was liable to by law, and confessed that out 
of ignorance of the laws of the kingdom, and on 
account of his near relation to his said son, and 
his wife's nephew, he had sometimes seen and 
conversed with them, and palliate a small trade 
of cattle, which his son brought from England: 
having confessed his crime humbly, and begged 
his Majesty and the council's mercy: the council 
having considered the specialities in his case, do 
recommend to your lordship to interpose for a 
remission both as to his life and estate. But 
that others may be deterred from harbouring and 
resetting rebels though never so nearly related, 
the council desire that your lordship may procure a 
letter under his majesty's royal hand, empowering 
and authorizing them in this case (even though 
the crime be capital in itself) to impose such a 
fine as they think fit and just. This, in the 
council's name, is signified by 

Your lordship's etc., 

"Aberdeen, Cancel, I.P.D." 


When intercession had heen made for a remission 
as to his life and estate, the managers wanted a fine 
from him before he was dismissed. Accordingly, 
on March 8th, "Andrew Heron of Kerrochtree in 
Galloway, compears, and is libelled, for being at house 
and field conventicles, and intercommuning with, and 
resetting his son Patrick Heron a ring leader at 
Bothwell Bridge, and his son in law who had been 
likewise there. The lords of his majesty's privy 
council fine him in 5,000 merks and appointed him to 
lie in prison till he pay it." On March 17th, 1683, 
the cash-keeper reports he has paid his fine. 

Claverhouse had shown great bitterness against 
Sir John Dalrymple, whom he forced to appear before 
the Council in February, 1683, and charged him with 
" weakening the command of Government in the shire 
of Galloway, with opposing the Commission, and with 
himself adjudging on charges made against his own 
tenants, purposely to give them too low for their 
attendance at conventicles," also that he did insolently 
laugh at Claverhouse's proclamations. To this Sir 
John retorted that he was the person aggrieved, and 
that he had occasion to complain against both Claver- 
house and his subordinates; that he had presented 
himself at the Sheriff Court, and Claverhouse caused 
his oflSoers and soldiers to take the complainant by, 
the shoulders and attack him, and that as to the fines 
they had proved sufficient, and the people of Galloway 
were becoming more orderly. "Orderly!" ejaculated 
Claverhouse. " There are as many elephants and 
crocodiles in Galloway as orderly persons." Dalrymple 


was deprived of his bailliery of the regality of Glen- 
luce, and was fined £500 sterling, and committed to 
the Castle of Edinburgh till he paid. 

He then sought safety in Holland, where his father 
and other exiles were quietly working for the over- 
throw of the oppressor at home. 



William Martin of DuUarg indicted for treason — He produces a 
renunciation, and the diet is deserted — William M'Clelland of 
Anchenguil, Hugh Maxwell of Cuill, and William M'CuUoch 
of Cleichred libelled — Edward Atkin, Earlston's servant, 
sentenced to be hanged — Proclamation appointing persons 
to see the Test is taken in Galloway — John Cochrane of 
Waterside, tried at Ayr Circuit, and forfeited — William 
Thorburn of Stranraer forfeited — His sufferings — Cornet 
Graham holds Courts at Balmaghie — Courts at the Clachan 
of Penninghame — William M'Ewmont refusing the Test, is 
banished, and dies at sea — Thomas Lidderdale's persecutions 
in Twynholm — Report by Claverhouse on his work in 

In January, 1683, William Martin, younger, of 
DuUarg, was indicted for treason and rebellion. The 
matter had heen compromised, as in the case of some 
others, by a renunciation of part of his lands. When 
the libel was read, he declared himself ready to stand 
his trial as altogether innocent, and dissented from all 
further continuation of it, and produced a renunciation 
as follows: — " Be it kend to all men, me William 
Martin, eldest son of James Martin of DuUarg, for 
as much as I am pursued before the Lords of 
Justiciary, for alleged being in the Rebellion 1679, 
and seeing I am neither heritor nor guilty of the said 
crime, therefore in their presence I renounce and resign 
in favour of the King's Most Excellent Majesty, Lord 


High Treasurer, and Treasurer Depute, all lands and 
heritages befallen to me wherein I was infefted or 
had a right before the said Rebellion or His Majesty's 
Gracious Indemnity, and oblige me, my heirs, and 
Bucoessoi-s to denude myself hereof omni habili modo 
at sight of the Lord Treasurer or Treasurer Depute 
and consent these presents be registrated, etc." The 
Lords, in respect of this, and his offering to abide trial, 
deserted the diet simpliciter, and ordained him to enact 
himself to compear when cited, whereupon he took 

On January 15th, William M'Clelland of Auchen- 
guil, and Hugh Maxwell of Cuill, were dealt with in 
the same way, and William M'CuUoch of Cleichred 
renounced as above, took the Bond of Peace and the 
Test, and was set at liberty. 

On July 12th, 1683, the process of Edward Atkin 
was before the Justiciary. He lived in the Abbey- 
town of Crawfordjohn. He went out of Scotland 
with Earlston as a servant and his guide, and was 
taken prisoner with him at Newcastle. He was found 
guilty of converse with Alexander Gordon and doing 
favours to him, though he knew him to be a forfeited 
and condemned traitor, and was sentenced to be hanged 
at the Grassmarket on Friday, 20th July. 

On 13th April, 1683, Proclamation was made for 
Circuit Courts and for taking the Test, the Proclama- 
tion appointing persons for this purpose, and naming 
among others the following: — Sir Robert Grierson of 
Lagg, Robert Ferguson of Craigdarroch, Sir David 
Dunbar of Baldoon, Hugh M'Guffog of Ruscoe, Sir 


Godfrey M'CuUoch of Myreton; Robert Lawrie of 

On April 23rd, 1683, Grierson was continued the 
Stewart Depute of Kirkcudbright till the justice airs 
be over. 

At the Circuit of Ayr, John Cochrane of Waterside 
was charged with being with a party of country- 
men who came from Galloway to Bothwell. He was 
indeed at the town of Cumnock on business when they 
passed on their road to Hamilton, and his acquaint- 
ances in Galloway, hearing he was there, called for him 
and he came out of a house and spoke to them. He 
thought it safer to withdraw and leave the country. 
In absence, witnesses were examined against him. 
None of them would swear he had arms, but with some 
difficulty they prevailed upon two to depone, in 
terminis, that they saw him converse with rebels when 
coming from Galloway to Hamilton. Upon this he 
was forfeited. We shall meet with him later. 

It was at this same Circuit that William Torbran, 
ex-Provost of Stranraer, was cited, and afterwards 
forfeited. In March, 1679, for mere nonconformity, 
he was forced by a party of soldiers to leave his family 
and retire to Ireland. Meantime, his house was rifled, 
and the soldiers for some days helped themselves to 
what they wanted, and went not off without a con- 
siderable sum of money. In November the same year, 
he was again forced to retire for three months. He 
no sooner returned, than Claverhouse sent a party of 
seven dragoons to quarter on him, and he had to pay, 
a large sum before he was rid of them, besides the 


hurt they did to his business, and all this without 
any sentence against him or crime laid to his charge, 
save his non-compliance with Prelacy. A citation 
was left at his house, May, 1683, to appear before 
the circuit of Ayr, though one of the Bailies and 
another person of credit in the town deponed that they 
saw him some time before go off to Ireland. All his 
lawyers could get done was to have sixty days allowed 
to cite him as one furth of the Kingdom. When these 
were out, he was forfeited and sentence of death passed 
on him, and that upon no crime proven against him 
but his non-compearance. The Lords' sentence was 
intimated at his dwelling house at Stranraer. He was 
at great expense in transporting his goods and family 
to Ireland before the expiration of the sixty days. 
During the four years, as he himself expressed it, 
he was obliged to live in a strange land upon what 
the locusts had left, and when he returned in the year 
1687, he found his loss far greater than he imagined, 
for his debtors would pay him nothing of what was 
owing, whether having taken occasion to transact his 
bonds with those who had the gift of his forfeiture, or 
for what reason, is not said. One gentleman was 
owing him 3,000 merks, another £60 sterling, two 
others 1,000 merks each, of which he never got a 
farthing. And for some time after his return, his 
trade and business was quite stopped. It was but 
few would venture to deal with him till he got his 
forfeiture removed. 

Comet Graham held his Courts at Balmaghie, and 
the people of that parish and neighbouring parishes 


were cited to the Kirk, and were rudely enough dealt 
with. When they came before him, they were 
welcomed with, " You dog, hold up your hand and 
swear." Then it was asked, " How many conventicles 
have you been at since Bothwell, who preached at them, 
who had their children baptised?" and the like, and 
it was really thought, by their rudeness and in- 
discretion in many places, they designed to affright 
some whom they could not otherwise reach, to non- 
compearance. If anything was extorted by this 
examination they were fined, and if they saw fit to 
suspect, and had not full probation, the Test was 
offered, and if refused they were suspect persons. 

In the parish of Penninghame and neighbouring 
places, multitudes were brought to trouble by these 
Courts who never carried arms at Bothwell, Ayrsmoss, 
or anywhere else, and upon mere suspicion the Test 
was put to them, though none but heritors were named 
in the letters about it. In these remote comers, the 
persons entrusted by the Courts did what they pleased. 
William M'Ewmont, weaver in Myreton's land, who 
had never been in any rising was pressed to take the 
Test, and, refusing, was sent prisoner to Edinburgh, 
banished, and died at sea. The laird of Lagg is named 
in the Proclamation for these Circuits, and he exercised 
his power with the greatest virulence. He kept Court 
at the Old Clachan of Penninghame, and forced 
multitudes to take the Test, and in a very little time he 
returned and obliged many of the same persons to 
take it over again. 

Thomas Lidderdale of St. Mary's Isle was likewise 


named, and in the parish of Twynholm he carried on 
the persecution most violently. There was an old man 
confined to his house, and Lidderdale came to him, 
charged him with irregularities, and required to purge 
himself by taking the Test. He refused. The soldiers 
took away his cow, which was all he lived by, and 
threatened to carry him to prison, — thus he was 
prevailed on to take the Test. In a little, he was cited 
to another court for alleged reset and converse with 
his son, and there he was obliged never to reset or 
converse with him. The like courts were held at 
Kirkcudbright and Dumfries, and the same procedure 

In a report on his work in Galloway by Clavorhouse 
to the Privy Council in 1683, he seems to glory in 
the cruel methods he adopted. He says: — 

" The churches were quyte desert: no honest 
man, no minister in saifty. The first work he 
did was to provyd magasins of corn and strawe 
in evry pairt of the contry that he might with 
conveniency goe with the wholl pairty wherever 
the King's service requyred, and runing from on 
place to ane other, nobody could knou wher to 
surpryse him: and in the mean tyme quartered 
on the rebelles, and indevoured to distroy them 
by eating up their provisions: but that they 
quikly perceived the dessein, and soued their corns 
on un tilled ground. After which he fell in search 
of the rebelles, played them hotly with pairtys, 
80 that there were severall taken, many fleid the 


country, and all wer dung from their Hants; and 
then rifled so their houses, ruined their goods, and 
imprisoned their servants, that their wyfes and 
childring were broght to sterving; which forced 
them to have recours to the saif conduct, and maid 
them glaid to renounce their principles. . . . 
He ordered the oolecttors of evry parish to bring- 
in exact rolls, upon oath, and atested by the 
minister, and caused read them every Sonday after 
the first sermon, and marque the absents, who wer 
severly punished if obstinat. And wherever he 
heard of a parish that was considerably behynd, 
he went thither on Saturday, having acquainted 
them to meet, and asseured them he would be 
present at sermon, and whoever was absent on 
Sonday, was punished on Monday, and who would 
not apear either at church or court, he caused 
arest there goods, and then offer them saif conduct, 
which brought in many, and will bring in all, 
and actually broght in tuo outed disorderly 

Such then were the methods the Government 
emissaries admittedly adopted to compel compliance, 
but often greater cruelties and more heinous outrages 
were committed by these heartless persecutors without 
the slightest justification. 



Coltrane, Provost of Wigtown, David Graham, and Sir Godfrey 
M'Culloch of Mertoun tender the Test in Wigtownshire — 
List of Wigtownshire lairds refusing the Test — Wigtown 
Burgh grants Bond to the King — The Commissioners hold 
Courts at Wigtown — Examples of their dealings — Accused 
parties committed to irons, fined, banished to the plantations, 
and others sent for trial before the Lords of Justiciary. 

In 1683, William Coltrane, Provost of Wigtown, was 
appointed with David Graham, Claverhouse's brother, 
and Sir Godfrey M'Culloch of Mertoun to tender the 
Test to the inhabitants of Wigtownshire. 

By the autumn, they had reported " that the haill 
gentlemen and heritors " had taken the Test excepting 
" Sir Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw, James Agnew, his 
son, William M'Dowall of Garthland, William Gor- 
don of Craighlaw, and William and David, the said 
William's sons, Stewart of Tonderghie, Mr. Kennedy, 
minister in Ireland, Mr. James Laurie, who lives at 

By October, 1684, pressure had been brought to bear 
on all who had not taken the Test in Wigtownshire. 
The Royal Commissioners were then at Wigtown, and 
the knowledge that the houses of those who did not 
obey would be immediately burned was not without 
its effect, so that they are able to report that all had 
complied except six or seven who were prisoners. 


It is rather significant that just at this time the 
Wigtown Burgh Records contain the following: — 

" Bond to the King. 

" Wigtoune, Octor., 15th, 1684. 

" The qlk day the Provost, hailzies, and coun- 
cell, for themselves and their successors in office, 
for the tym being have subscribed ane voluntar 
bond and offer to His Majestic, as a dew mark 
of their loyaltie and aledgeance to his Majestie 
and the preservan of themselves and posteritie and 
for the advancement of His sacred Majestie's 
royal power, authoritie, and greatness, and toward 
the advancement of his Majestie's fources, and 
ane just abhorence of all rebellion, have sub- 
scribed ane voluntar bond and offer to His 
Majestie of Fyve monthes cess yeirlie, for the 
space of four zeirs, beginning the first termes 
pejonent at Mertinmas nixt, and see freily to be 
vplyfted duering the sd. space in the same manner 
as the present supplie is collected and vplyfted, 
and which offer is by and attour the present 
supplie as also the Magistrates have bund and 
obleist themselves and yr successors in office that 
the haill inhabitants and communitie of the 
Burgh shall leive regularlie and peaceably in all 
tym coming, vyrwayes to extirpat and remove 
them out of the Burgh. In witness qrof, ther 
presents are subscribed day and dait forsd. 

" William Coltrane, Provest. 
" Patrick Stuart, Bailzie." 


Coltrane was a noted persecutor, and Stuart, as we 
shall see, was the betrayer of the Wigtown Martyrs. 

Excerpts from the proceedings of the Commissioners 
at Wigtown show how relentlessly the Presbyterians 
were harassed at this time. At a court at Wigtown, 
on 16th October, 1684, John Stewart in Glenlukok, 
refusing to take the Test, was committed to irons; 
Andrew Sloan in Glenlukok confessed accidental con- 
verse with William Kennedy, rebel, took the Test; 
Walter Hunter in Linloskin confessed that Kennedy, 
rebel, was at his house and drank there within these 
last twelve months, took the Test; John M'Ghie in 
Barnkirk agreed to take the Test, committed to prison ; 
William M'Cammon in Culbratton refused the Test, 
confessed he took the Covenant at Risk about five years 
past when Mr. John Welsh preached, and had a child 
baptised by him then, committed to irons; Alexander 
Carson, servitor to Sir Godfrey M'CuUoch, deponed 
that he met with Gilbert M'Ghie, rebel, and had 
drunken with him, that the rebel called him Cousin 
Carson, and that he knew him to be at Bothwell, 
but considered him a free man in respect he was 
Broughton's gunner. All this was within five or six 
weeks by past, committed to prison. John Kincaid, 
Chilcarroch, confessed he had heard Mr. Samuel Arnot 
and Mr. George Barclay preach in the house of 
Airyolland and Little Airies, and had a child baptised 
by Mr. Thomas Kennedy, minister in Ireland, con- 
fessed he was at the communion in Penninghame about 
the time of the Rebellion, when Mr. John Welsh 
preached, further confessed that he was at the breaking 



of the house of Mr. James Cowper, minister at 
Methvin, Mochrum, immediately before the Kebellion 
'79, committed to prison. John Henderson, being 
interrogate against setting fire to the thief's hole door 
at Wigtown, deponed — that that night the prison was 
bm'ned, he met Margaret Doual at Bladnoch Water, 
who told him that the prisoner expected furth that 
night and that he spoke with the prisoner that night 
before the escape, committed to the irons. Margaret 
Milligan, spouse to James Martison, and Sarah 
Stewart, spouse to William Kennedy, and Margaret 
M'Lurg, spouse to Alexander M'Clingan, rebels; 
Milligan and M'Lurg confessed harbouring their 
husbands within a year and a half, but refused to 
depone if they were there since. Sarah Stewart con- 
fessed harbouring her husband within the past quarter 
of a year, and having a child a year old unbaptised, 
agreed that Mr. James Cahoun baptise the child, she 
holding the child up herself. Milligan and M'Lurg 
committed to prison. Sarah Stewart enacted. Next 
day the Court resumed, and the following judg- 
ments were pronounced:— John Stewart in Glenlukok, 
William M'Cammon in Culbratton, William Sproat 
in Clontarf , John M'Caffie in Grargrie, to be banished 
to the plantations and to remain in prison till a fit 
occasion for transporting them. John M'Kie in 
Barnkirk found egregiously guilty of converse, yet 
willing to take the Test — to remain prisoner in the 
meantime. John Kincaid in Chilcarroch and John 
Henderson, whose crimes are extraordinary, sent for 


trial before the Justice-General and Lords of Jus- 
ticiary at Edinburgh. Margaret Gordon, Margaret 
Milligan, and Margaret M'Lurg ordained to be 
banished to the plantations and to remain prisoners 
in the meantime. 

Andrew Adair of Genoch declined to attend the 
Episcopal service. The curate of Inch bided his time 
and informed against him for having a child baptised 
by a Presbyterian minister. " For this and for 
Genoch's other nonconformity he was fined by Sheriff 
Graham 15,000 merks." This was afterwards reduced 
to 5,000 merks, which he was obliged to pay. John 
M'Neill, a member of the Kirk Session of Glasserton 
parish, paid 50 dollars to Mr. David Graham for 
having had a child baptised with the Presbyterian 
minister, and Michael Hannay, another member, 
probably as in the former case a farmer, paid £40 to 
Claverhouse's brother, and got a receipt for it, because 
he had a child baptised by Mr. Alexander Ferguson, 
a Presbyterian minister. 

At the Sheriff Court, "Wigtown, August 19th, 
1684, Catherine Lauder, spouse to Patrick M'Kie of 
Auchlean, confessed that she had withdrawn from the 
Church these two years bygone; Therefore the Judge 
fines the said Auchlean in £250 Scots." In this case,, 
the husband deponed on oath that for three years she 
was so unwell she was not able to go out., Sheriff 
Graham, however, was not satisfied. On the 20th of 
August, John M'Gachie in Bordland deponed: — that 
he had been seldom in church these two years bygone,. 


through want of health. However, he acknowledged 
he made a journey to Edinburgh, and went up and 
down the country about his aSairs, and he was linedi 
in £100 Scots for withdrawing. 

On 19th September, 1684, Wigtown Town Council 
again took the Test, as the Minutes show : — " The 
qlk Day, the haill Magistrats councell and clerk have 
taiken the test vpon their kneyes, conform to acts of 
parliat. and councell maid yranent except only provest 
Clugstoun and Antony M'Clure, who are not present, 
and are to talk the same befoir they officiate." 



Commission to try " divers desperate rebels " in Kirkcudbright, 
Wigtown, and Dumfries — James M'Gachan in Dairy and 
others transported — Garrisons at Kenmure, Machermore, 
Minnigaff, and Carsphairn — The Cochranes of Ochiltree and 
Waterside denounced rebels — The fugitive roll applicable 
to Galloway — " A list of very good people persecuted for 
conscience's sake " — Kearly 220 Galloway people to be 

In the beginning of 1684, a Commission was granted 
to James Alexander, Sheriff Depute of Dumfries, the 
eldest bailie for the time there, James Johnston of 
Westeraw, Stewart-depute of Annandale, Thomas 
Lidderdale of Isle, Stewart-depute of Kirkcudbright, 

David Graham, brother to Claverhouse, Bruce 

of Abbotshall, Captain Strachan, William Graham, 
Cornet to Claverhouse, or any three of them to try 
and judge "divers desperate rebels" in Dumfries, 
Kirkcudbright, Wigtown, and Annandale, to hold 
Courts, create members, call before them the persons 
foresaid not being heritors, put them to the trial of 
an Assize, and pass sentence and see justice done 

On June 19th, at Edinburgh, the Lords sentenced 
James M'Gachan in Dairy, John Criechton in 
Kirkpatrick, John Mathieson in Closeburn, John 
OM'Chisholm in Spittal, libelled for reset and converse 


with rebels, and found guilty by their confession 
judicially adhered to, to be transported to the 

On April 22nd, Colonel Graham was ordered to post 
his own troop at Dumfries or where he thought most 
convenient in that country, and to post the two troops 
of dragoons in the garrisons of Caitloch, Ballagan, 
Kenmure, Machermore, or Minnigaff. 

May 5th, the Council " appoint a garrison at Ken- 
mure and because the Lady is to lie in, the soldiers 
are for the time dispersed to Barscobe, Waterhead, 
Knockgray, and Caitloch." The garrisons in the 
south were increased as if it had been a country 
conquered by an enemy. Two were set up in the 
parish of Carsphairn. Parties from these garrisons 
were the great instruments of many of the murdersi 
in cold blood which now were becoming frequent. 

An Act anent the army, August 1st, 1684, enacted 
that the General's troops of dragoons and Captain 
Strachan's lie at garrisons in Galloway and Nithsdale, 
and Colonel Graham of Claverhouse, Lieutenant 
Colonel Buchan or any of them or such as they shall 
think fit to appoint in their absence were authorised to 
call for and examine upon oath all who could give any 
information as to rebels in arms, and such as had been 
present at field conventicles or upon whose lands these 
conventicles had been kept. 

December 22nd, Mr. John M'Michan, Mr. Cant, 
and Mr. Archibald M'Gachan were indicted before the 
Justiciary for reset of rebels. They appeared and 
offered to abide trial. The diet was deserted 


simpliciter, and the last enacted himself under five 
thousand merks to appear when called, and on January 
17th Mr. jM'AIichan and Mr. Cant were brought 
before the Council, and their bond taken that they; 
would live peaceably and not preach. 

April 8th, John Cochrane of Waterside was charged 
with having in June, 1679, joined the Laird of Bar- 
scobe and a party of rebels of five or six hundred, 
mounted his horse and rode with them and supplied 
them with wine and other provisions. Sir John 
Cochrane and his son were ordered to be denounced 
fugitives, and yet on April 9th, the Lords continued 
the Process of forfeiture against Sir John Cochrana 
of Ochiltree till the second Monday of July. There 
appears nothing more about him that year. The 
Indictment against his son, John Cochrane of Water- 
side, was taken up and witnesses adduced. One 
deponed he saw Waterside with the rebels at Cumnock 
at the Barrhill when rendevousing, but was at some 
distance, and did not hear him speak with Earlston 
and Barscobe. Another deponed that he saw Water- 
side walking among the rebels as he thought with a 
small sword. Another deponed that Waterside spake 
for him to the rebels, and got him leave to go home that 
he might return to them again. He was found guilty 
of treason, and ordained to be executed, and demeaned 
as a traitor M'hen apprehended. 

On May 5th, 1684, the Council published the 
fugitive rolls with a proclamation requiring all sub- 
jects not only not to comfort or harbour the said 
persons, but likewise to do their utmost endeavours to 


apprehend them and to inform against them. There 
are many mistakes in the rolls, " but they contain a 
list of very good people persecuted for conscience sake " 

The following is the list applicable to Galloway: — 


Thomas Macneilly in Portpatrick parish. 
James Semple there. 

Andrew Martin of Little Aries, forfeited. 
William Kennedy in Barnkirk. 
James Stuart, son of Archibald Stuart, in Causey- 
Patrick Vause in Moohrum parish. 
John Hay, brother to Aryalland. 
James Maoyacky of Kenmuir. 
James Macjarrow, servant to Culvennan. 
George Stroyan in Kirkowan parish. 
Archibald Stuart in Causey-end. 
Alexander Clingen in Kilellan. 
Alexander Hunter of Culwhassen, forfeited. 
James Soffley, merchant, in Wigton. 
James Martison in Glenapil, in Peningham parish. 
John Hannay at the Mill, Peningham. 
John Martison in Glenmougil, in the said parish. 
Hugh Macdoual, weaver, in Wigton. 
James Cairns in Peningham parish. 
John Maclurg, smith, in Monnigaff. 
Patrick Murdoch of that ilk. 
Patrick Dunbar, younger, of Machrimore. 


William Stuart, son to Stuart, wadsetter, of 


Anthony Stuart, his son. 

Stuart, his son. 

Michael Mactaggart, liferenter in Glassock. 

Mr. William Hay, brother to the laird of Aryal- 

John Mackilhaffy in Craichley's Land. 

James Macyacky there. William Wilson in Stran- 

William Tarbran, late bailie there. 

Joseph Macdoual, servitor to Sir David Dunbar of 

Alexander Hay of Aryalland. 

Alexander M'CleUan in Carse of Baltersan. 

Stewartry of Kircudbright. 

Adam Smart in Kircudbright. 

Samuel Gelly, gardener, there. 

Samuel Campbell, weaver, there. 

John Heuchan. 

James Robertson, merchant, there. 

Alexander Maokean, tailor, there. 

Thomas Paulin there. 

Adam Macwhan there. 

Gabriel Hamilton there. 

John Clark there. 

Alexander Morton there. 

Robert Grier in Lochinkit. 

James Mackartney, flesher, in Kircudbright. 

William Kevan in Stockin. 


Neilson, younger, in Corsack. 

Samuel Parker, chapman, in Twinham parish. 
Alexander Birnie in Colkegrie. 
William Halliday in Glencape. 
James Macgowan in Auchingisk. 

Martin in Kirchrist. 

David Braidson in Quarters. 
Thomas Sprout in Over-bar-chapel. 

Hallo un in Lairmannoch. 

Robert Cadjow in Craig. 

Hugh Mitchelson. 

Alexander Campbell, weaver, sometime Uroch. 

John Charters in Tongland. 

Welsh in Scar. 

Alexander Campbell, miller, sometime in Uroch. 

James Durham in Edgarton. 

Anthony Macmillan in Stonebrae. 

John Rae in Slachgarrie. 

Eichard Machesny in Moit. 

John Carsey in Blackmire. 

Archibald Machesny in Balhassie. 

James Macdoual, servitor to Henry M'CuUoch of 

John Auchinleck, son to John Auchinleck elder, in 

Robert Miller in Laigh Risco. 
Alexander Dugalston in Lagan. 
David M'Culloch, son to the laird of Ardwel. 
Gilbert Gie in Marshalton. 
John Campbell in Mar brack. 
Alexander Porter in Lag. 


John Colton in Nether Third. 

George Camphell in Aresalloch. 

David Canon in Firmaston. 

John Gordon, elder, in Garyhorn. 

John M'Call, weaver, in Graigincar. 

John Macmillan, sometime servitor to James Fer- 
guson in Trostan. 

Fergus Grier in Brigmoor. 

James Macmillan in Glenlie. 

John Macmillan in Strangassie. 

James Gordon in Largmore. 

Henry Gordon in Lochsprey. 

Andrew Macmillan, servant to New Galloway. 

John Crawford, apothecary, there. 

William Dempster in Armancandie. 

Thomas Murdoch in Barnsalloch. 

John Tait, tailor, in Balmaclellan. 

Alexander Mein in Armancande. 

James Hook in Holm. 

James Halliday in Fell. 

William Macmillan in Areshalloch. 

David Mackile in Dalshangan. 

James Clark in Marbrack. 

Gilbert Macadam in Craigingilton. 

William Grier, servitor to Marion Welsh of Glen- 

James Anderson in Shalloch. 

John Wright there. 

James Currie in the Glen. 

John Maclachrie in Larg. 

John Macjore in Keirland. 


Edward Gordon in Blacke. 

John Hannay at the Bridge end of Dumfries. 

John M'Gee there. 

Roger Macnaught in Newton of Galloway. 

Mr. William Gilchrist, 

Mr. James Welsh, 


Mr. John Hepburn, 
Mr. James Guthrie, 
Mr. John Forrester, 

Mr. Lennox, 

Mr. Thomas Wilkie, 

Mr. Thomas Vernor, 

Andrew Macmillan who haunts at Monnigaf . 

William Schaw in the parish of Borgue. 

Mactagart sometime in the said parish. 

Robert Gordon in Kilmair. 
John Gourley in Mondrogat. 

^ , ° ^ ' !• who haunted in Tongland parish. 
Robert (Jochran, J 

William Macmillan in Bredenoch. 

Livingstone in Quintinsepy. 

Gilbert Caddel in Borgue parish. 

John Richardson there. 

John Bryce there. 

William M 'Gavin there. 

William Campbell there. 

Walter and Gilbert M'Gee there. 

James Robertson there. 

John Clinton there. 

Crichton, son to Robert Crichton in Auchin- 



Macmillan, son to John Macmillan in Glenlie. 

Macmillan in Greenan. 

Gibson, son to Robert Gibson in Overstranga- 

Gilbert M'Ewen, Carsferry. 

Fugitives for rtstt and harbour. 

James Maonaught in Newton of Galloway. 

Gordon of Garrary. 

William M'Call in Holm of Daltanachan. 

John Hook in Holm. 

Robert Hillow in Hillowton. 

Andrew Crock in Iron-crogo. 

John Macmin in Fuffock. 

William Raifie in Iron ambrie. 

Mac j ore in Kirkland. 

John Herron, sometime in Earlston, now in Hard- 
John Barber, elder, in Over- Barley. 
John Barber, younger, there. 
John Barber in Nether Barley. 
James Girran in Clachan. 
James Macadam there. 
Alexander Gourley in Greenan-Mill. 
James Marmichael in Clachan. 
George Douglas there. 
Edward Ferguson in Auchinshinoeh. 
John Corsan there. 
Robert Grier in Region. 
William Edgar in Gordonston. 


George Macmichael in Carskep. 

John Macmillan of Iron-daroch. 

Andrew Wilson in Black-craig. 

Robert Macmichael in Craiglour. 

Alexander Macmillan in Glenrie. 

John Brown in Nether Strangassel. 

John Macchesny in Hole. 

Robert Gordon in Clachan. 

Alexander Gordon there. 

John Macmillan in Glenlie. 

William Houston in Blarney. 

John Geddes in Bartagart. 

James MuUiken in Knocknoon. 

John MuUiken in Barscob. 

Samuel Cannon in Barsalloch. 

Mr. William M'MiUan of Caldow. 

Robert Caa in Knocklie. 

James Garmorie in Armanady. 

Robert Mackartnie in Quintinspy. 

James Edgar in Drumakelly. 

John Grier of Blackmark. 

William Stuart, 

Patrick Macjore, 

Gilbert Welsh in Bank. 

James Turner in Auchingibbet. 

John Collin in Auchingibbet. 

James Garmarie in the parish of Corsmichael. 

John Garmorie in Trouden. 

John Graham in Chapelearn . 

Thomas and Robert Grahams in ErnefiUan. 

John Gelly in Iron Grogo. 

' i both in Crofts. 
8. J 


John Clark in Drum. 

John Auchinleck in Dalgredan. 

Robert Crichton in Auchinshinoch. 

John Hislop in Midardes. 

John Macmillan in Dunveoch. 

Follow the Womtn who are fugitives for reset. 

Marion Welsh in Glenhill. 

Grizel Richardson in Arnworth. 

Margaret Gordon in May field. 

Elspeth Anderson in Shaw-head. 

Rebecca Macmichael at the Black-craig in the Dairy 

Margaret Tod in Clachan. 
Bessie Gordon there. 
Jean Thomson at Bridge of Orr. 
Grizel Fullarton, good wife of Balmagan. 
Grizel Gordon in Over Ardwell in Anworth. 

Gordon, widow, in Glenlie. 

Mary Chalmers, liferentrix, of Clairbrand. 

John Welsh in Drumjowan. 
Roger Macnaught in Newton of Kells. 
Gilbert M'Ewen in Carsfeiry. 
William M'Call in Clachan. 
James Chapman there. 
John Struthers in Monnigaff. 
Robert Gaa, smith, in Clachan. 
Henry Gordon in Dundeuch. 
Alexander Corsan in Newton of Kells. 



New Justiciary Courts — Appointments for Wigtownshire, the 
Stewartry, and Dumfries — Instructions to seize all preachers, 
to turn out wives and children of forfeited persons, to im- 
pose fines and quarter on the stubborn, to suffer no man to 
travel with arms except gentlemen of known loyalty who 
have taken the Test; to allow no yeoman to travel three 
miles from his house without a pass — Hay of Park sent 
prisoner to Blackness — Liberated a year later on Bond for 
£1,000 — Courts at Dumfries, Kirkcudbright, and Wigtown — 
A " Cheerful " offer to his Majesty of twenty months' cess — 
William Martin and James Martin of DuUarg fined at Kirk- 
cudbright — Their sufferings — James Martin dies in prison — 
The Society's " Apologetical Declaration " — Proclamation 
against it — Cruel persecutions — James Graham, Crossmichael, 
executed, and William Auchenleck, Buittle, shot dead with- 
out any reason — The Laird of Lagg at Dairy — Courts at 
Twynholm and Kirkcudbright. 

On September 6th, 1684, there was a Commission for 
new Justiciary Courts, the Treasurer Principal, Lord 
Drumlanrick, and Colonel Graham of Claverhouse 
being appointed to Dumfries and Wigtown and the 
Stewartries of Annandale and Kirkcudbright with 
detailed instructions. Number 3 of these was as 
follows: — " You shall seize all preachers, chaplains, or 
such as exercise as Chaplains, who are not authorised 
by the Bishops, and send them to our Privy Council 
to be disposed of as they think fit and see cause." 
dumber 12, " You shall turn out all the wives and 


children of the forfeited persons and fugitives from 
their habitations if it shall appear that they have 
conversed with their parents or husbands, or if they 
shall refuse to vindicate themselves by their oaths." 
Number 17, " If you find any part of the country, 
stubborn or contumacious, you shall impose such lines 
upon them as the law will allow, and in case of non- 
payment thereof and that you think it fit you are 
immediately to quarter our Forces on the stubborn 
and contumacious until the fines imposed shall be 
exhausted by them." Number 20, "You shall suffer 
no man to travel with arms excepting gentlemen of 
known loyalty who have taken the Test and no yeoman 
to travel three miles from his own house without a 
pass from his minister or a Commissioner of the 

On September 16th, 1684, the Council ordered Hay 
of Park and one or two others to be sent to Blackness 
and kept close prisoners. The reason for this does not 
appear. In August, 1685, Hay was liberated on Bond 
for £1,000 sterling to live regularly and orderly. 
Upon 2nd October, 1684, Queensberry, his son, and 
Claverhouse held Court at Dumfries, having for their 
district Dumfries, Galloway, Nithsdale, and Annan- 
dale. After some days at Dumfries, they went to 
Kirkcudbright, and then to Wigtown. Particular 
gentlemen and officers of the soldiers were sent to 
parishes at a distance which the judges could not 
readily reach, and the inhabitants were obliged to 
swear over again though they had satisfied the judges. 
The Test was offered to the men and other oaths to 



the women, and on refusing they were brought to 
Dumfries Prison to await the judges' return. Fines 
were also imposed. 

On October 13th, the Committee for public affairs 
transmitted an address from Kirkcudbright to the 
Secretary with the following letter: — " My Lord, We 
have this day received an account from my Lord 
Treasurer of the procedure of the Committee of 
Council sent to the district of Nithsdale and Galloway 
here inclosed, whereby you will perceive that by the 
diligence and influence of the Lord Treasurer that 
place is brought to make a cheerful offer to His 
Majesty of twenty months' cess to be paid in four 
years beginning at Martinmas next, and that by and 
attour the supply granted by the current Parliament. 
They have likewise offered themselves to be bound for 
their tenants and servants that they shall walk 
regularly in time coming. This is a very good 
example to the Western and Southern shires, so that 
if they can be brought up this length there may be a 
considerable addition to His Majesty's Forces." 

When the Lords were at Kirkcudbright, they fined 
among others William Martin, son of James Martin 
of DuUarg in the parish of Parton. Besides the 
severities exercised upon his father, Mr. Martin was 
put to considerable charges before the Justiciary at 
Dumfries, 1679, for alleged accession to Bothwell. In 
1682, he was charged by a herald to compear at 
Edinburgh, and there seven times pannelled, and no 
probation adduced as to ihis being at Bothwell, yet he 
was forced judicially to renounce all the lands he was 


infeft in before the year 1679. Queensberry forced 
him to dispone lands worth six hundred merks a year 
for the sum of five thousand merks, which he reckoned 
a loss to him of £6,333 63. 8d. In the beginning of 
1684, in his absence, his wife was summoned for his 
alleged baptising a child with a Presbyterian minister, 
and was forced to give Bond for £100 Scots, which 
was paid. At different times he had eight dragoons 
quartered upon him for some days. Colonel Douglas 
quartered upon him with forty-four horsemen for 
some time, and being cited to the Circuit at Kirk- 
cudbright, and, knowing the Test was to be offered, he 
decided to withdraw, and was fined in absence £700 
Scots, which he paid. James Martin, his father, was 
also brought to much trouble at this Court. He had 
been fined most groundlessly by Middleton's Parlia- 
ment in five hundred and ten merks. When he refused 
to pay, almost as much more was taken from him by 
force, as appears by a discharge under Sir William 
Bruce's hands. John Maxwell of Milltoun fined him 
a large sum for his wife's nonconformity, and, upon 
his refusing to pay, three yoke of oxen and some horses 
were taken away. At length, he raised an action of 
reduction against Milltoun, which cost him upwards 
of £100, and the Council were so sensible of this 
persecutor's exorbitancy, that for this and other things 
they for a time took away his commission. Being this 
year cited before this Court at Kirkcudbright, at the 
instigation of Mr. Colin Dalgliesh, curate, he was 
fined £1,000 for his wife's not keeping the Churchy 
and cast into prison till he paid it. He suffered 


severely, and, receiving no attention in his illness, he 
died there. 

In October, 1684, the Society People, among whom 
■were many Gallovidians, met to draw up their 
Apologetical Declaration, directed especially against 
informers. Renwick was employed to draft it, though 
he argued strongly against emitting such a declaration, 
hut as the others were clamourous and insisted, he 
yielded for the sake of peace. Its import may be 
gathered from the following excerpt: — " Call to your 
remenibrance all that is in peril is not lost, and aU 
that is delayed is not forgiven. Therefore, expect 
to be dealt with as ye deal with us, so far as our; 
power can reach, not because we are acted by a sinful 
spirit of revenge for private and personal injuries, 
hut mainly because by our fall reformation suffers 
•damage." The Declaration was published on the 
church doors and market crosses of Nithsdale, 
•Galloway and Ayr. It raised the fury of the 
■Government, but, at the same time, the most venomous 
malignants were affrighted, informers in the south and 
west were for some time deterred from their traffic, 
and the most violent and persecuting of the curates 
in Nithsdale and Galloway found it convenient to 
retire for some time to other places. The Privy 
Council, on 31st December, issued a Proclamation that 
whoever would own the Society's Declaration, or refuse 
to disown it, would be tried and executed. Lieutenant 
'General Drummond was instructed to go to the 
Southern and Western shires with practically full 
power to quarter the army wherever he thought fit. 


A Commission was granted to John, Viscount of 
Kenmure, the Laird of Lagg, David Dunbar of Bal- 
doon, Sir Godfrey M'CuUoch of Mertoun, and Mr. 
David Graham, Sheriff Depute of Galloway for the 
shire of Wigtown and Stewartry of Kirkcudbright, 
and to the Commanding Officers of the garrisons to 
proceed against those guilty of being present at con- 
venticles, withdrawing from public ordinances, etc. 

Cruel persecution followed. 

James Graham, tailor, in the parish of Crossmichael, 
returning from his work to his mother's house, was 
overtaken by Claverhouse and a party of soldiers. 
Searching him, they found a Bible in his pocket, 
and at once carried him to Kirkcudbright, then to 
Wigtown, and then to Dumfries. Here he was kept 
in the irons because he would not answer their in- 
terrogatories. He was next taken to Edinburgh and 
questioned upon the Declaration of the Societies, and, 
refusing to answer, he was found guilty, condemned, 
and executed. William Graham, his brother, was 
cruelly murdered by Claverhouse himself, as we shall 
afterwards see. 

William Auchenleck in Buittle parish had been 
convoying a friend going to Ireland, and, returning 
on horseback, met a company of Douglas' foot coming 
from Kirkcudbright, and they called on him to stand. 
Auchenleck was a full conformist, but, suspecting the 
soldiers would seize his horse, he rode off till he came 
to a public house at Carlingwark, where he called for 
some ale, and was drinking it on horseback when some 
of the soldiers, taking a nearer way, came up and shot 


him dead. A boy happened to be at the house, and 
was mounting his horse when the shot frightened it 
and he was thrown off. The soldiers came up, knocked 
him on the head with their pieces, and seized his horse 
and what money he had without asking a single 

The soldiers exacted considerable sums in the 
parish of Dairy as the rest of the Bonds extorted by 
Bannatyne and others. The very interest of these 
notes and Bonds was reckoned up, cattle taken away, 
and houses rifled, merely upon alleged accession to 
Pentland. The Laird of Lagg held Courts frequently 
in Galloway, obliging those who did compear to declare 
on oath what they knew of those who did not compear, 
and if they knew where any of the wanderers resorted. 
At Dairy, he gathered all the men of the parish into 
the Kirk, and surrounded it with soldiers. Then be 
forced them to take the Test, and when by fair means 
or foul he had prevailed with them, he said, " Now 
you are a fold full of clean beasts. You may go 
home." Afterwards, getting information from his 
spies, he harassed several, and fined them though they 
were legally purged by taking the Test. He exacted 
upwards of seven hundred merks from three men who 
had qualified. 

David Graham about the same time held Courts 
at Twynholm. His great interrogatory was, if they 
kept the Church, and when many could not depone in 
terms of law, they were fined and the fines exacted 
with all rigour. 


Similar Courts were held at Kirkcudbright, where 
the curate caused the whole parish to be cited, sat 
in Court and excused and accused as he thought fit. 
A private mark was put at the names of those he 
alleged were backward in keeping the Church. 
Masters were sworn that if their servants did not keep 
the Church they should be dismissed, and parents the 
same way as to their children. 



Women as well as men cited and examined on oath — Gavin 
M'Clymont, Carsphairn, has seven cows taken away — John 
Corson, Borgue, imprisoned and fined 6,000 merks — Intention 
to sentence his wife to be drowned at Kirkcudbright — ^Lagg 
holds Courts at Carsphairn — ^Peter Pearson, curate of 
Carsphairn, sits in Court and informs against the inhabitants 
— The Glenkens has one visitation after another — Mrs. 
M'Dowall of Gillespie forced to retire to Ireland — Charles 
Stewart of Knock apprehended by Claverhouse, and im- 
prisoned in Stranraer — ^Auchencloy — The troops' oppressions 
in Galloway — John HaUam executed. 

In other Galloway parishes similar Courts were set 
up. Women as well as men were cited and examined 
on oath about themselves and their neighbours, par- 
ticularly if they knew where any of their goods and 
gear were or any person who had anything that 
belonged to them, so that the soldiers could go and 
seize it. 

Seven cows were taken from Gavin M'Clymont in 
Carsphairn upon his refusal after quartering to pay 
the cess, amounting to less than £5 Scots. 

John Corson of Balmangan, in the parish of Borgue, 
was imprisoned for nine months for refusing the bond 
of regularity. He was fined six thousand merks, and 
paid every farthing as a discharge bears. His lady 
had been imprisoned by Colonel Douglas, and for 
refusing the Abjuration received an Indictment, and 


it was no secret that they intended to sentence her to 
be drowned within the sea mark at the Ferry at 
Kirkcudbright, but King Charles' death put a stop 
to this and some other processes of the same kind. 

Claverhouse summoned the whole parish of Borgue 
to give up all the arms they had, and these were carried 
to Dumfries and given to the Earl of Nithsdale. 

During the harvest of 1684, Lagg held a Court at 
Carsphairn Church. On his way from Sanquhar, he 
seized a young man, George Lorrimer, at Holm of 
Dalwhirran, and would have him drink the King's 
health. He refused, and was sent to Dumfries prison, 
but broke out and escaped. 

Peter Pearson, curate of Carsphairn, sat in Court 
with Lagg and informed against those cited, and upon 
his information parties were sent out throughout the 
parish to harass them, and seize their goods. The 
Glenkens district now had one visitation after another, 
Livingstone came from Nithsdale to Carsphairn with 
a troop of dragoons. Claverhouse followed with five 
or six troops, and went through all the hiUs searching 
for persons in their hiding. The soldiers often passed 
the mouths of the caves where those they sought were 
lurking, and the dogs would smell about the stones 
under which they were hid, and yet they remained 
undiscovered. This was the case with Gavin 
M'Clymont at Cairnsmuir Hill, and others. 

The son of an old woman of seventy-three years 
in Carsphairn had been cited in 1680 for hearing 
Mr. Cameron, and, not appearing, was intercommuned, 
and the mother's house spoiled. Later, the soldiers, 


not finding him, carried his mother to Dumfries. 
They offered her the Test, and, when likely to comply, 
they would have her swear further that she would 
never speak to nor harhour her son. This she refused, 
and next market day she was scourged through Dum- 
fries, and fined 200 merks before being liberated. 

M'Dowall of Gillespie was dead sometime before 
this, and his Lady, Janet Ross, liferentrix, enjoyed 
the estate. Corporal Murray, with thirteen dragoons 
and their horses, was sent to quarter upon her at the 
instigation of the curate, and for mere nonconformity. 
They stayed several weeks and destroyed almost the 
whole crop. They shot the sheep in the fields, and 
at length forced her to retire to Ireland for about 
twenty months. Her tenants had to appear first at 
Ayr and then at Edinburgh as witnesses against her 
for nonconformity. 

Charles Stuart, Knock, was apprehended by Claver- 
house in the harvest, and cast into Stranraer prison, 
and had to pay three hundred merks for baptising his 
child with Mr. Samuel Arnot. He was summoned to 
Edinburgh as a witness against Sir James Dalrymple 
of Stair, and his lady for her nonconformity, and had 
to remain there seventy-two days at his own expense. 

In December, Claverhouse, when ranging up and 
down Galloway with a troop, came to the Water of Dee 
and at Auchencloy captured six men, as afterwards 

On December 3rd, the Council gave orders to the 
Lord Advocate to raise a process of forfeiture before 
the Parliament by a summons in Latin after the old 


way under the Quarter Seal upon a charge of sixty 
days against Thomas Hay of Park, James Dalrymple 
of Stair and others. In the beginning of 1685, 
Captain Strachan harassed the parish of Dairy. He 
had garrison at Earlston, and held Courts in the 
neighbourhood. At the same time Courts were held 
by Lagg, and such as he deputed, in other parts, and 
the Abjuration Oath pressed in several neighbouring 

Captain Douglas and his soldiers oppressed terribly 
in the parish of Twynholm. A poor tenant there took 
the oath, so the soldiers left for a little, but after eight 
or ten days returned and took him to a neighbouring 
parish to assist them in searching for other wanderers. 
On the road they met a man who would not answer 
their questions nor take the oath, and him the Captain 
ordered to be immediately shot. The other country- 
man entreated the Captain to examine him further 
and give him more time before they despatched him. 
For this they beat him and bruised him to such an 
extent that in a few weeks he died. The same Captain 
came through a good part of Galloway with soldiers, 
and they spoiled all places where they came. They 
deputed their power to gentlemen in each parish who 
harassed at their leisure. 

In Tongeland, Lieutenant Livingstone and a party 
of dragoons harassed severely. A youth of eighteen, 
John Hallam, stepping out of their way, was seized 
and carried to Kirkcudbright. Refusing the Abjura- 
tion there, he was executed. 



Death of Charles — General Election, and members for Galloway 
— James grants an Indemnity — Sir James Dalrymple and 
others put to the horn — Edward Kyan, from Water of 
Minnock, shot dead — Dunbar of Baldoon, M'CuUoch of Myre- 
ton, and others, to assist Colonel Douglas to put down rebels 
— Five men shot at Ingleston cave — M'Kie of Larg with 
the rebels — Andrew M'Quhan shot dead — Second Sanquhar 
Declaration — David Halliday and George Short shot dead 
— Machermore garrison strengthened — Ochiltree, Earlston, 
Craighlaw, and other estates annexed to the Crown. 

Charles died on 6fch February, 1685, having received 
absolution a few hours before his death, and James 
succeeded without taking the Coronation Oath. A 
General Election followed his accession. Claverhouse 
in Galloway used every exertion to secure the return 
of members acceptable to the Government, but, to his 
chagrin, Sir Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw and the 
Honourable William Stewart of Castle Stewart were 
unanimously elected. In the Stewartry, however, the 
King's party returned Hugh Wallace of Ingleston, 
heritor of the barony of Larg, M'Kie being forfeited 
for the time. There was a momentary cheek to the 
horrible persecutions. James signalised his accession 
by an Indemnity which, however, was so restricted 
as to be hardly worthy of the name. It excepted fines 
for which already sentence had been pronounced, and 
all those guilty of the assassination of archbishop 


Sharp, Pearson of Carsphairn, Thomas Kennedy, and 
Duncan Stewart. 

On 16th February, 1685, George Brown, tailor, 
John Pollock, and John Wallet in Galloway were 
before the Council. They refused the abjuration, and 
their cases were continued. On March 17th, 1685, 
Sir James Dalrymple of Stair and others, being oft 
times called, did not compear, though cited according 
to law, for being accessory " to the late horrid plot 
against the life of his Majesty, and his late brother 
Charles II., their Sovereign," being accessory to the 
Rebellion, 1679, reset and converse with rebels, and 
doing favour to them, were decerned outlaws and 
fugitives, and put to the horn, their moveable goods 
and gear to be escheat and brought in for his Majesty's 
use. The Advocate declared he was satisfied no Act 
be extracted against them till May 16th next, when 
at his instance they were cited to appear before Parlia- 

On 28th February, 1685, Lieutenant James Douglas 
with twenty-four soldiers surrounded the house at 
Dalwin, in the parish of Barr, having got information 
that there were fugitives there. Edward Kyan, a 
youth from Galloway, bargaining to buy corn, fled in 
betwixt the gable of one house and the side wall of 
another, but they dragged him out and took him 
through the yard. He was asked where he lived, and 
he told them upon the Water of Minnoch. When one 
of the soldiers had him by the arm dragging him away, 
Douglas, without any warning, shot him twice through 
the head. When lying on the ground, struggling with 


death, one of the soldiers shot him a third time. He 
was but a youth, and could not have been at Bothwell 
or any of the Risings, and they had indeed nothing to 
charge him with but his hiding himself. 

On 27th March, 1685, there was a special com- 
mission to Colonel Douglas to go with horse south and 
west, and to be assisted in putting down the rebels 
by many others throughout the country, including the 
Viscount of Kenmure, Robert Grierson of Lagg, Sir 
David Dunbar of Baldoon, Sir Godfrey M'CuUoch 
of Myreton, and Mr. David Graham, Sheriff of 
Galloway, in the shire of Wigtown and Stewartry of 

On 28th April, Colonel James Douglas and 
Lieutenant Livingstone came suddenly to a cave 
near Ingliston, in Glencairn, betrayed to them by 
Andrew Watson, and surprised in it John Gibson, 
brother to James Gibson of Ingliston, heritor of the 
ground, James Bennoch in Glencairn parish, Robert 
Edgar, Robert Mitchell from the parish of Cumnock 
in Ayrshire, and Robert Grierson, a Galloway man. 
When the soldiers came up, they shot into the mouth 
of the cave and wounded one of them, and then rushed 
in. The rest were immediately taken out and shot 

On 6th May, 1685, John M'Ghie of Larg was found 
guilty of being in arms in company with the rebels 
at the Standing Stones of Torhouse, and in the town 
of Wigtown, when about three score came in there to 

* For fuller details see article, " Grierson of Balmaclellan," infra. 


seai-oh for arms in June, 1679. M'Ghie (or M'Kie) 
was dead long before the trial, but this had no 
restraining effect on the persecutors. 

On 10th May, Lieutenant Colonel Douglas came 
into a house near Newton of Galloway, and found 
Adam M'Quhan lying very ill of a fever. Putting 
questions to him which he was unable or unwilling to 
answer, the soldiers took him out of bed, carried him 
to Newton, and next morning shot him without any 
process or assize. He was buried in Kells Churchyard, 
where a stone has been erected to his memory. 

The Society People published the second Sanquhar 
Declaration, 25th May, 1685. Renwiek, with nearly 
two hundred supporters, most of them from Galloway, 
and many of them armed, rode into Sanquhar, read 
the Declaration, and fixed it to the Market Cross. Its 
chief interest lay in its protest against the Duke of 
York as a Roman Catholic succeeding to the Throne. 
It concluded with a paragraph meant to show that 
they were not responsible for violence laid to their 
charge: — 

" Finally, we being misrepresented to many, 
as persons of murdering and assassinating prin- 
ciples, and which principles and practices we do 
hereby declare before God, angels, and men, that 
we abhor, renounce, and detest, as also all manner 
of robbing of any, whether open enemies or others, 
which we are most falsely aspersed with, either 
in their gold, their silver, or their gear, or any 
household stuff. Their money perish with them- 


selves, the Lord knows that our eyes are not after 
these things. 

"And in like manner we do hereby disclaim 
all unwarrantable practices committed by any few 
persons reputed to be of us, whereby the Lord 
hath been offended, his cause wronged, and we all 
made to endure the scourge of tongues, for which 
things we have desired to make conscience of 
mourning before the Lord, both in public and 

On June 10th, Lord Annandale and Grierson of 
Lagg, hearing of four wanderers in the parish of 
Twynholm, went forth with six score of horse in 
different directions. Lord Annandale and his party 
fell in with David Halliday in Glengap and George 
Short. Upon their surrender, he gave them quarter 
till they should be tried. When Lagg came up, he 
would have them shot. They begged till to-morrow 
to be allowed to prepare for eternity. Lord Annandale 
told Lagg he had promised this. Lagg swore no, and 
ordered his men to shoot them. For some time they 
refused, till he swore he would do so himself. They 
were shot as they lay tied together on the ground, and 
their bodies allowed to lie till next day. 

Argyle's unfortunate attempt on Scotland ended 
■disastrously, and several of the Galloway Presbyterians 
were implicated. Among the interrogatories put to 
Argyle at his trial was this: — " If WiUiam Clelland 
was sent by you from any part of Holland, and where 
he was sent? and if any person be sent to Galloway 


with arms, or what officers are sent to Galloway or 
elsewhere, and what correspondence they have?" 

Argyle, as we know, was tried, condemned, and 
executed June 13th, 1685. 

Colonel Richard Rumbold, Maltster at Rye, who had 
been with Argyle, was taken not long afterwards, 
tried, condemned, and ordered to he executed, the 
sentence containing revolting details as to the cruel 
way in which this was to be carried out. His body 
was ordered to be quartered, one part to be fixed to 
the Port or Tolbooth of Glasgow, another at Jedburgh, 
a third at Dumfries, and a fourth at Newtoun of 

This year, 1685, the garrisons were strengthened 
at Earlston, Waterhead, and Machermore. 

By Act of Parliament, the lands of Sir John 
Cochrane of Ochiltree, John Porterfield of Duchal, 
Mr. William and Alexander Gordon of Earlston, John 
Gordon, younger, of Craighlaw, were this year annexed 
to the Crown, not to be dissolved from it, but by 
Parliament, " and that not upon general narratives, 
but particular causes and services to be specified that 
it may appear the same is not granted upon impor- 
tunity or upon private suggestions, but for true, just, 
and reasonable causes of public concern." These had 
justice done to them after the Revolution. 

After Argyle's attempt on Scotland, parties of 
soldiers were continually marching through the west 
and south. A good number of them traversed the 
Glenkens district as if it had been an enemy's 
country. Claverhouse came through Nithsdale into 



the Stewartry, and forced the people to take what 
oaths he pleased. Lieutenant Livingstone and a 
company of soldiers continued a good space at New 
Galloway, and brought the country under the greatest 
hardships by searching and seizing whatever they 



Major Wynram stationed at Wigtown — Barnkirk house stripped 
— Tenant's wife imprisoned in Wigtown for eleven weeks 
with infant — John Wallace of Knockiebay has his house and 
stock despoiled — Eemiesion to Sir James Dalrymple — His son 
made King's Advocate — James' Indulgences — The Cameron- 
ians hold out — Renwick seized and executed — Invitation to 
the Prince of Orange — ^His Declaration for Scotland — ^He 
lands at Torbay, accompanied by Sir James Dalrymple — ' 
Report of 10,000 Irish Papists burning Kirkcudbright— The 
Privy Council's proclamation for the defence of religion — 
The Galloway Commanders — The Cameronians in arms — 
Grierson of Lagg — WiUiam orders a meeting of Scotch 
Estates at Edinburgh — ^The Galloway representatives — Thfr 
Convention guarded by the Cameronians — Sir John Dal- 
rymple refutes the claim of Divine Right put forward for 
James — The Crown settled on William and Mary — Parliament 
abolishes Prelacy — Synod of Galloway — General Assembly 

Major Wynram was stationed, in the autumn of 1685^ 
with a company of dragoons at Wigtown, harassing 
the neighbourhood, and causing much suffering and 
distress. The Burgh Records of Wigtown contain the 
following: — 

" WiGTODNE, August 

twentie thrie, 1686. 

" The qlk day the Magistrates and Councell, 
considering that Major Wynram his troop of 
Dragounes Did eat up the Wholl meadowes o£ 


the hills and Clay Crops with their horses at 
Lambas, 1685 yeirs, they therfoir appoynt the 
sd. Lambas teremes rent of the sd. hills to be 
allowed to the tenants yrof for the loss of the 
sds. meadowes and grass, and for their vyr trouble 
they had yranent." 

A party of these soldiers came to Barnkirk, near 
i^^ewton Stewart, a part of Castle Stewart's lands in 
Penninghame parish, and apprehended Sarah Stewart, 
spouse to William Kennedy, who for non-compear- 
ance had been denounced. They unroofed the house 
and seized the plenishing. Then they forced her to go 
with them on foot to Wigtown, carrying an infant not 
nine months old, and having to leave her other three 
children without even a servant to look after theta, 
though the eldest was only eight, the next five, and 
the other not three years of age. At Wigtown she 
was with her infant kept in prison eleven weeks, 
though she was not obnoxious to the then laws, being 
a conformist. They wanted her to swear she would 
never converse with her husband, now put to the horn, 
but would inform against him that he might be 
apprehended, and this she peremptorily refused. 

John Wallace of Knockiebay, in the parish of New 
Luce, was seized this year for refusing the abjuration. 
A party of Colonel Buchanan's men spoiled his house 
and took away everything they wanted, brought in a 
number of sheep to the church, and kindled a fire 
with the seats and forms of the church, and roasted 
ihem there. 


The case of Sir James Dalrymple of Stair was 
continued from time to time. In February, his son 
was made King's Advocate. The same day that he was 
admitted, the father's process was delayed till March 
28th, when a remission was granted to free James 
Dalrymple of Stair for his resetting, harbouring, and 
receiving maill duty from rebels and traitors upon his 
ground in the years 1679-80-81-82-83— John Dick in 
Banban, Quinton Dick in Dalmellington, and many 
others, and for resetting and harbouring Mr. Alex- 
ander Lennox, Mr. Alexander Ross, Mr. Alexander 
Peden, and Mr. Alexander Hamilton, vagrant 
preachers, and suffering them to preach and baptise 
children in his house, and for his drawing a petition for 
and advising some of the rebels. 

In July, 1686, William M'Millan in Barbreck, upon 
the promise judicially given never to rise in arms 
against the King on pretext of the Covenant or any, 
other pretext whatever, that he would orderly keep 
his parish church, and owning Bothwell to be rebellion, 
was liberated. 

James, in order to conceal his real design in favour 
of the Roman Catholics, granted at his own hand an 
Indulgence to the moderate Presbyterians, but it was 
not received with any favour. In 1687, he published 
his " Declaration for liberty of Conscience," giving 
further concessions, and in July he issued a Pro- 
clamation abolishing all laws imposing penalties for 
non-conformity, and removing all restrictions except 
the prohibition of conventicles. Bishop Atken of 
Galloway, an old man aged seventy-four, made a bold 


stand against the repealing of the penal laws. He 
died shortly afterwards — 28th Octoher, 1687 — other- 
wise he would probably have been turned out, for 
Bishop Bruce of Dunkeld was freed from his office on 
preaching a sermon against the proposals. 

Many of the Covenanters accepted the Indulgence, 
but the Cameronians still held aloof and boldly 
declared that the King's intention was merely to 
facilitate the extension of Popery, and they continued 
to meet for divine worship in conventicles as before. 

The leader of the Cameronians was now James 
Renwick, a gentle youth, but an intrepid preacher, 
who condemned severely all who accepted the royal 
Indulgence. Every effort was made to capture him, 
rewards offered for his seizure, and at last, after many 
miraculous escapes, he was taken in a house in Edin- 
burgh in the beginning of February, 1688. Before 
the Privy Council he resolutely disowned the royal 
authority, and upheld the lawfulness of attending field 
meetings armed for defence. He was condemned and 
executed at Edinburgh on the 17th day of February, 
aged twenty-six years, and was the last of the Scottish 

Events now shaped rapidly for the downfall of 
James and his ecclesiastical tyranny. For some time 
back, certain of the Scottish Presbyterian leaders had 
been putting their grievances before William, the 
Prince of Orange, who had married Mary, the eldest 
daughter of James, and some of the ministers who had 
fled to the Continent had had an opportunity of 
meeting him, notably Patrick Warner, one of the 


Galloway preachers. As the despotism of the King 
became more pronounced, pressing invitations were 
sent to the Prince, desiring his aid in maintaining the 
civil and religious liberties of the country. On 
10th October, 1688, the Prince issued his famous 
" Declaration for Scotland," in which he narrated the 
grievances and oppressions of the country, and declared 
that " the freeing of the kingdom from all hazard of 
Popery and arbitrary power for the future and the 
delivering it from what at the present doth expose it 
to both, the settling of it by Parliament upon such a 
solid basis as to its religious and civil concerns as 
may most effectually redress all the above-mentioned 
grievances, are the true reasons of our present under- 
takings as to that nation." This was published 
throughout Scotland in defiance of the Privy Council, 
and received with the utmost satisfaction. The Prince 
landed at Torbay on 5th November, 1688, with fourteen 
thousand men, among his personal attendants being 
Sir James Dalrymple of Stair, who had refused the 
Test and gone abroad. For about a week it seemed 
doubtful whether the country would rise to support 
him, but when the Rising did start, the tide flowed full 
in his favour. Every day crowds flocked to his 
standard, even the King's favourite daughter taking 
refuge with the insurgents. James soon realised his 
position, and flnally left the kingdom in December, 
and on 13th February, 1689, William and Mary were 
proclaimed King and Queen of England. 

As soon as it was known that William had landed, 
the Scotch Council began to change their position, and 


a Proclamation was issued on 24th December, 1688, 
requiring all Protestant subjects to put themselves in 
a state of defence for securing their religious liberties. 
This was probably occasioned by an unfounded report 
that ten thousand Irish Papists had landed in 
Galloway, and burned Kirkcudbright. The following 
is a copy of a letter written at this time to Crawford 
of Jordanhill, and addressed, " For the Laird of 
Jordanhill, in haist, haist." 

"Paisley, 21st December, 1688. 
" Sir, 

" This night, yr came to this place ane express, 
signifying that some Irishes have landed at Kirk- 
cudbright and burnt the toune; and, as is reported, 
are marching towards Ayre. Wherefore, for the 
safety of the Shyre, and all concerned yr in, ye 
are desyred by all in this place, to be here to- 
morrow to consider what is fitt to be done — where 
ye shall be attended by 

" Sir, 

" Your most humble servant, J. Irving, 

" Thir news are just now confirmed, wherefore 
fail not, for they are burning and destroying as 
they come along; and, in the mean tyme, acquaint 
your vassals and tenants to be in readiness, and 
bring them all along with you." 

The heritors of Wigtown were to be commanded 
by MacDowall of Logan, with the young Laird of 


Lochnaw as his Lieutenant, and they were to rendez- 
vous instantly at Glenluce. In the Stewartry of 
Kirkcudbright the command was given to Viscount 

This Act was the last of the Privy Council of 
Scotland. How different from the many Acts they 
had previously published. 

The alarm, as we have said, was unfounded, but the 
Cameronians in Galloway at once took to arms and 
were joined by many of the Presbyterians of the West, 
and prepared for the defence of the country. Some 
of the Papists' houses were rifled, and some burned 
to the ground, but there was no bloodshed. 

Most of the Scottish nobles at once resorted to 
London, doubtless in quest of preferment, and in the 
meantime the English curates were ejected from 
Galloway, but otherwise the Revolution was very 
quietly effected. 

Grierson of Lagg was naturally far from favourable 
to the new regime, and there is a Bond, dated the fyth 
day of May vie four scoor nyne years (5th May, 1689), 
by which James Stewart of Castle Stewart, under 
penalty of £500 sterling, binds himself that Sir Eobert 
Grierson of Lagg shall live peaceably with all sub- 
mission to the present Government under King 
William and Queen Mary, and " shall appear and sigt 
himself " before the Estates of Parliament when called 
upon. Lord Kenmure, on 2l8t May, 1689, arrested 
Lagg in his own house and imprisoned him in Kirk- 
cudbright. He was liberated on finding security in a 
large sum to appear when called upon. He was again 


arrested in July in Edinburgh, and liberated in the 
•end of August on finding security for £1,500 sterling 
to live peaceably under King William and Queen 
Mary. He died on 31st December, 1733, at a very old 
age. Naturally, his name was detested in Galloway, 
and the most grotesque traditions have been handed 
down regarding his death and his funeral. During 
his latter years he became an object of curiosity to 
many. Among those eager to obtain a glimpse of the 
notorious persecutor was the servant of Colonel Vans 
of Barnbarroch. He made known his request to the 
Colonel when the latter was on a visit to Lagg, and it 
was arranged that the servant would carry in an armful 
of faggots for the fire of the room where Lagg and the 
Colonel sat. Lagg had been informed of the servant's 
curiosity, and no sooner did the servant enter the room 
than Lagg turned round to him and, with a look that 
he never forgot, demanded in a voice of thunder, " Ony 
Whigs in Galloway noo, lad?" The terror-stricken 
youth dropped his bundle of sticks on the floor and 
bolted from the room. 

William called the Scottish nobles together in 
London early in 1689, and asked their advice, and they 
presented an address to him that he would take upon 
himself the civil and military administration and call 
a meeting of the Estates at Edinburgh for 14th March. 
He agreed to this. On 5th March, the Prince's letter, 
dated from St. James, was read at the Market Cross 
of Wigtown by the Town Clerk, and the barons then 
proceeded to the Court House, Sir Andrew Agnew 
being chosen preses. The election of two representa- 


tives to the Convention resulted as follows: — Sir 
Andrew Agnew, 27; Garthland, 21; Sir John Dal- 
rymple, 13; Castle Stewart, 1. The first two were 
accordingly declared elected. Sir John Dairy mple 
was elected for Stranraer, being the first instance in 
Scotland of a baron sitting as a burgess. William 
Coltraine was elected for the Burgh of "Wigtown, and 
Patrick Murdoch for the Burgh of Whithorn. When 
Sir John Dalxymple became Lord Advocate on the 
Government being formed, he had a seat in Parliament 
ex officio, and Sir Patrick Murray was elected in his 
place for Stranraer. In the Stewartry of Kirkcud- 
bright, M'Guffog of Eusco and Patrick Dunbar of 
Machermore were elected by the Barons, John Ewart 
for the Burgh of Kirkcudbright, and Hugh Dalrymple 
for New Galloway. The Convention met at Edin- 
burgh on 14th March, Lords Cassillis, Galloway, and 
Kenmure representing the Galloway nobility. The 
Convention was guarded by the Cameronians, who 
showed their loyalty by raising in a single day, 
without tuck of drum, 1,140 men as a regiment for 
King William's service. Their presence undoubtedly 
saved the situation, for Edinburgh Castle was still 
held by the Duke of Gordon, a staunch Papist, who 
refused to surrender, and Claverhouse was also in the 
city ready to muster his troopers the moment a 
favourable opportunity occurred. 

The Estates agreed to put the kingdom in a 
posture of defence, and Sir Andrew Agnew, Sir John 
Dalrymple, Sir William Maxwell, Sir James Dunbar, 
Sir Charles Hay, the Lairds of Garthland, Barnbar- 


roch, Castle Stewart, Sheuchan, Dunskey, and Dun- 
ragit, were appointed Commissioners for organising 
and officering the militia in Galloway. 

The Convention declared that James had f orefaulted 
the right to the Crown and that the Throne Avas 
vacant. A feeble opposition to the vote of forfeiture 
was made by bishop Paterson of Glasgow and Sir 
George M'Kenzie who maintained that James was an 
absolute and irresponsible monarch. All the argu- 
ments of these disheartened supporters of the Divine 
Right claimed by James were ably refuted by Sir 
John Dalrymple and Sir James Montgomery. The 
Convention prepared the famous " Claim of Eight '' 
and settled the Crown on William and Mary. The 
Claim of Right narrated the grievances which the 
country had sufltered under James, and declared that 
he had forfeited the right to the Crown, and that the 
Throne had become vacant. It further declared that 
Prelacy and the superiority of any office in the Church 
above Presbyters is and hath been a great and in- 
supportable grievance and trouble to this nation, and 
contrary to the inclinations of the generality of the 
236ople ever since the Reformation (they having re- 
formed from Popery by Presbyters), and, therefore, 
ought to be abolished. It concluded by settling the 
Crown on William and Mary and the heirs of the 
body of the Queen. 

Sir John Dalrymple, Earl of Argyle, and Sir James 
Montgomery were selected to proceed to London and 
offer the Crown, and a month later they were received 
by William and Mary in the Banqueting House, 


Whitehall, and the royal pair repeated the Coronation 
Oath of Scotland clause by clause after Argyle. 

Parliament abolished Prelacy, ratified the Con- 
fession of Faith, settled the Presbyterian Church 
Government, and rescinded the fines and forfeitures. 

The first meeting of the Presbyterian ministers 
within the bounds of the Synod of Galloway took place 
at Minnigaff on 14th May, 1689, and the first General 
Assembly was held the following year. Civil and 
religious liberty had again been secured for the 
Presbyterians, and a brighter day had at last dawned 
upon Scotland. 




Sir James Turner sent into Galloway to collect fines — John 
M'OleUand of Barscobe, John Maxwell of Monreith, Colonel 
Wallace, and another rescue Giier from soldiers near Dairy, 
and induce others to join them — Encounter with soldiers at 
Balmaclellan — The Covenanters' Rising — March on Dumfries 
and seize it. Sir James Turner being taken prisoner — They 
return to Dairy, and proceed north — Welsh, Veitch, and 
M'Kail join them at Bridge of Doon — Invitation from Clydes- 
dale — March to Muirkirk — Henew the Covenants at Lanark^ 
and issue Declaration — March to Bathgate — Their forlorn 
appearance — At Rullion Green — The Royal troops come up 
to them (28th November, 1666) and put them to flight — 
Proclamation by the Government — John Maxwell's narrow 
escape — Excerpt from Glasserton Session Records — ^Document 
showing William Maxwell had no accession to the Rebellion 
— Eleven prisoners sentenced to be executed, including 
M'CuUoch of Barholm, Captain Ainot, and the Gordons of 
Knockbrex—Neilson of Corsook executed, though Turner tries 
to save him — John Grierson and William Welsh hanged at 
Dumfries — Memorial stones and .inscriptions — The Martyrs' 
monument and inscription — James Kirk's martyrdom — 
William Welsh, John M'Call, James Muirhead, and others 
sent to Ayr to be executed — Rather than carry oat the 
sentence, the hangman flees from the town — Irvine hangman 
refuses to carry out sentence although threatened to be shoi 
— A condemned man carries out sentence on his own life 
being spared — Extract from Pennicuik Session Records — The 
monument near Rullion Green and inscription — Barscobe's 
violent death. 

As we have seen, Presbyterianism was abolished oa 
the restoration of Charles II. in 1660, and Episcopacy 
put in its place. Patronage was restored, and all 


ministers ordained since 1649 were required to receive 
presentation from the bishop or patron. On October 
Ist, 1662, it was enjoined that all ministers who had 
not complied were, before 1st November, to remove 
with their families twenty miles from their respective 
parishes, six miles from Edinburgh or any cathedral 
charge, and three miles from any royal burgh, no two 
of them were to reside in the same parish, and they 
were to be deprived of their stipend for that year. 
The ministers of Galloway, almost to a man, refused 
to submit, and left their all and went forth into the- 
world not knowing where they or their families were 
to lay their heads. Many of them, indeed, braved 
the fury of the Government, and continued to preach 
to the people. The Government issued a series of 
proclamations against them. The parishioners were 
to attend their own parish churches and not other 
religious meetings, under pain of fine and imprison- 
ment. Sir James Turner was sent into Dumfriesshire 
and Galloway to enforce these orders and to collect 
the fines. He had once been a Covenanter himself, 
and had displayed no little zeal in the cause, but at 
the Restoration he went over and, like most apostates, 
was more bitter than those he had joined. A sum of 
£41,282 Scots was levied in Galloway, and this 
immense sum was the least part of the sufferings 
endured. The troops acted as in an enemy's country. 
They lived at free quarters, consumed the produce of 
the fields and the cattle, and plundered and wasted, 
with little distinction between what belonged to those 
who had conformed and those who had not. 


On Tuesday, November 13th, 1666, John M'Clelland 
of Barscobe, whose estates were afterwards forfeited, 
ventured into Dah-y along with young John Maxwell 
of Monreith, Colonel Wallace, and another, to get 
refreshments. As they entered the village they met 
Corporal George Deanes and three soldiers of Sir 
Alexander Thomson's company of the Guards, then at 
Dairy, driving a company of people to thresh the corn 
of an old man named Grier, who had some land near 
the village, and who fled rather than pay the fines for 
non-attendance at the parish church. M'Clelland 
and the others would fain have interfered, but they 
pressed on to the inn, called Mid-town, in Dairy, and 
were at breakfast when they were informed that the 
soldiers had caught Grier, and had brought him to his 
house and were stripping him, and threatened to set 
him on a hot girdle to compel him to tell where some 
of the Covenanters were hidden. This roused their 
wrath, and they at once set off for the old man's 
house. They found him lying bound on the floor, and 
earnestly solicited the soldiers to let him go, and this 
being refused, they demanded to know why he was 
being so treated. The soldiers resented this inter- 
ference, and words soon gave place to blows. The 
soldiers drew their swords and severely wounded 
two of M'Clelland's party, and M'Clelland fired his 
pistol, loaded, it is said, only with part of a tobacco 
pipe, but one of the soldiers was struck, and fell. The 
soldiers were secured, and the old man was set free. 
M'Clelland's party soon recognised that they had taken 
a step from which there was no turning back. They 


enlisted the sympathy of a few others, and next day 
surprised the soldiers quartered at Balmaclellan, and 
took about a dozen prisoners, one who resisted being 
killed in the encounter. Barscobe then persuaded 
John Neilson of Corsock to join him. Neilson had 
ali-eady been fined for nonconformity; soldiers had 
been quartered on him; himself and his tenants 
plundered; and his wife and children turned to the 
door. Others who had been similarly treated joined 
M'Clelland, and the company soon numbered about 
fifty horse and two hundred foot. The command was 
given to a man named Andrew Gray of Edinburgh, 
who seems to have had no qualifications for the 
position. They proceeded rapidly to Irongray — 
about six miles from Dumfries. Here they held a 
council of war, and Neilson was given command of 
the advance party, and, early in the morning, they 
marched into Dumfries and captured Sir James Turner 
almost before he was aware. So little had he dreamed 
of any attack that he had left all the approaches of the 
town unguarded. Aroused from sleep by the tramp 
of armed men, he shouted in terror from his window 
in Bailie Finnie's house, " Quarter, gentlemen, for 
God's sake. Quarter, and there will be no resistance." 
Neilson replied that he would get quarter if no resist- 
ance was made, but when Gray came up he declared, 
with that arrogance so characteristic of the man, that 
he would get no quarter, and would at once have shot 
him had not Neilson prevented him, saying, " You 
shall as soon kill me, for I have given him quarter." 
Turner was taken prisoner, along with some of his 



men. The Covenanters also seized some money which 
had been sent from Edinburgh to pay the troops, as 
well as some fines recently levied. This money was 
entrusted to Captain Gray, but he took it with him 
when he deserted. The Covenanters proceeded to the 
Cross, where a huge crowd gathered, and the leaders 
explained to the people that they were only acting in 
self-defence, and they were not rebels, and as a proof 
of this they drank the King's health amidst the cheers 
of the crowd. They swore allegiance to the Covenant, 
and upbraided the bishops. The town's people were 
asked to bring their arms, and these were handed to 
the Covenanters at the Cross. 

Increasing numbers joined them, and they retraced 
their steps by Glencairn to Daby, taking their 
prisoners with them. Mr. Henderson, the minister 
of Dumfries, gave Turner such a good dinner at Dairy 
that he speaks thus of it in his Memoirs: — " Though 
he and I be of different persuasion, yet I will say he 
entertained me with real kindness." 

Apparently they had not yet decided how to act, and 
were waiting to see what support they would get. 
Gray now deserted the company. Colonel James 
Wallace of Auchans, a soldier of experience, being 
placed in command. Galloway did not rise as they 
expected, but the company proceeded north, and on 
21st November, at Bridge of Doon, near Ayr, they 
were joined by three divines, each of whom was yet to 
suffer in the coming persecution. These were John 
Welsh, William Veitch, and Hugh M'Kail. Here also 
they were joined by Major Learmont, Captain Arnot, 


and the veteran Captain John Paton of Meadowhead. 
The company were badly armed. " Scythes made 
straight and put upon long staffs were the most of 
their arms." They got Kttle assistance in Ayrshire, 
but there was an earnest invitation from Clydesdale. 
They marched to Muirkirk, arriving between seven 
and eight in a November night, drenched with rain. 
They found no other shelter than the kirk, in which 
they lay all night without food or fire. On Saturday 
morning, 24th, it was discussed what was to be done, 
but word of a reinforcement of three hundred men 
encouraged them to go on. On Sunday morning, they 
arrived at Lesmahagow, where the reinforcements 
reached them, but these were no more than fifty men. 
Two sons of Gordon of Knoxbrex, Borgue, overtook 
them with others from Galloway, and intimated that 
no more assistance need be looked for from there. It 
was debated whether Sir James Turner should be put 
to death or kept prisoner, and the latter course was 
adopted by one vote. On Monday, 26th, they renewed 
the Covenants at Lanark, and issued a Declaration 
stating the object of their rising: — 

Declaration of Those in Akms for the 
Covenant, 1666. 

" The nature of religion doth sufficiently teach, 
and all men almost acknowledge the lawfulness 
of sinless self-defence, yet we thought it our duty 
at this time to give an account unto the world of 
the occasion and design of our being in arms. 


since the rise and scope of actions, if faulty, may 
render a thing right upon that matter, sinful. 

"It is known to all that the King's Majesty 
at his coronation, did engage to rule the Nation 
according to the revealed will of God, in scrip- 
ture; to prosecute the ends of the National and 
Solemn League and Covenants, and fully to 
establish Presbyterian Government, with the 
Directory for Worship; and to approve of all 
Acts of Parliament establishing the same; and 
thereupon the nobility and others, his subjects, 
did swear allegiance; and so religion was com- 
mitted to him as a matter of trust, secured by 
most solemn indenture between him and his 

" Notwithstanding all this, it is soon ordered 
that the Covenant be burnt, the tie of it declared 
void and null, and men forced to subscribe 
a declaration contrary to it; Episcopal govern- 
ment in its height of tyranny is established, 
and men obliged by law, not to plead, witness, 
or petition against these things; grievous fines, 
sudden imprisonments, vast quarterings of sol- 
diers, and a cruel inquisition by the high 
commission court were the reward of all such as 
could not comply with the Government by lordly 
hierarchy, and adjure the Covenants, and prove 
more monstrous to the wasting their conscience 
than Nature would have suffered heathens to be. 
Those things, in part, have been all Scotland over, 
but chiefly in that poor country of Galloway at 


this day; and had not God prevented, it should 
have in the same measure undoubtedly befallen 
the rest of the Nation ere long. 

" The just sense whereof made us choose rather 
to betake ourselves to the fields for self-defence 
than to stay at home burdened daily with the 
calamities of others, and tortured with the fear 
of our own approaching misery. And considering 
our engagement to assist and defend all those who 
entered into this league and covenant with us; 
and to the end we may be more vigorous in the 
prosecution of this matter, and all men may know 
the true state of our cause, we have entered into 
the Solemn League and Covenant, and though 
it be hardly thought of, renewed the same, to the 
end we may be free of the apostacy of our times 
and saved from the cruel usages these resolved to 
adhere to this have met with; hoping that this 
will wipe off the reproach that is upon our Nation, 
because of the avowed perjury it lies under. And 
being fully persuaded that this league, however 
misrepresented, contains nothing in it sinful 
before God, derogatory to the King's just 
authority, the privileges of Parliament, or 
liberty of the people; but on the contrary, is 
the surest bond whereby all these are secured, 
since a threefold cord is not easily broken, as we 
shall make it appear in our next and longer 
declaration, which shall contain more fully the 
proofs of the lawfulness of entering into Covenant 
and the necessity of our taking arms at this time 


in defence of it, with a full and true account of 
our grief and sorrow for severing from it, and 
suffering ourselves to be divided, to the reproach 
of our common cause, and saddening the hearts 
of the godly, a thing we sorrowfully remember, 
and firmly resolve against in all time coming." 

They immediately left Lanark, with the Royal troops 
imder General John Dalziel almost at their heels, and 
hoping for assistance from West Lothian and Edin- 
burgh, they marched towards Bathgate. It was night 
when they reached it, and rain had fallen in torrents 
all the way. No suitable accommodation could be 
got, and they were wet and wearied. At eleven 
o'clock that night they were alarmed by a report of 
the approach of the enemy, and within an hour 
they were on the march again. Their numbers were 
gradually lessening. Alexander Peden and others had 
turned baok at Lanark, and every hour saw others 
depart. Before they had entered Lanark they num- 
bered nearly two thousand; now at Colinton, only nine 
hundred. They got no assistance from Edinburgh, 
and hope entirely deserted them. 

The following derisive description of their forlorn 
appearance is taken from " The Whigs' Supplication," 
a poem by Samuel Colvil (Edinburgh, 1711); — 

•' Right well do I the time remember, 
It was in Januar or December, 
When I did see the out-law Whigs, 
Lie scattered up and down the rigs. 
Some had hoggars, some straw boots, 
Some legs uncovered, some no coats. 


Some had halberts, some had durks. 

Some had crooked swords, like Turks, 

Some had slings, and some had flails, 

Knit with eel and oxen tails, 

Some had spears, and some had pikes. 

Some had spades which delved dykes. 

Some had fiery peats for matches, 

Some had guns with rusty ratches. 

Some had bows, but wanted arrows, 

Some had pistols without marrows. 

Some had the coulter of a plough. 

Some scythes both men and horse to hough. 

And some with a Lochaber ax. 

Resolved to give Dalzell his paiks. 

Some had cross-bows, some were slingers. 

Some had only knives and whingers. 

But most of all, believe who lists. 

Had naught to fight but with their fists, 

They had no colours to display. 

They wanted order and array. 

Their officers and motion-teachers. 

Were very few, beside their preachers. 

For martial music, every day. 

They used oft to sing and pray, 

Which hearts them more, when danger comes. 

Than others' trumpets and their drums. 

With such provisions as they had, 

They were so stout, or else so mad, 

As to petition once again. 

As if the issue proved in vain. 

They were resolved, with one accord. 

To fight the battles of the Lord." 

They sent a letter to Dalziel, but got no reply. 
They passed the east end of the Pentlaad HiUs and 
marched to Eullion Green. They had now decided to 
disband and go home, but the Royal troops came on 
them (28th November, 1666) and forced an engage- 
ment, and though at first the Covenanters held their 


own and fought bravely, they were ultimately over- 
powered and put to flight. Over fifty were killed and 
about a hundred and fifty taken prisoners. Colonel 
Wallace escaped to Holland and never returned. 
Many of the Covenanters believed that their perse- 
cutors were so leagued with Satan as to be invulnerable 
to any kind of shot except silver bullets. It was 
believed by them that the bullets were seen rebounding 
like hailstones off the buff coat and boots of General 
Dalziel. The Government issued the following 
proclamation on 4th December: — 

Proclamation Discharging the Keceipt of the 
Eebels, December 4th, 1666. 

" Charles, by the grace of God, King of Scot- 
land, England, France, and Ireland, defender of 
the faith, to all and sundry our lieges and loving 
subjects whom these presents do or may concern, 
greeting: forasmuch as, upon the first notice given 
to our privy council, of the rising and gathering 
of these disloyal and seditious persons in the west, 
who have of late appeared in arms, in a desperate 
and avowed rebellion against us, our government, 
and laws, we declared them to be traitors, and 
discharged all our subjects to assist, reset, supply, 
or correspond with any of them, under the pain 
of treason; and the said rebels and traitors being 
now, by the blessing of God upon our forces, 
subdued, dissipated, and scattered, and such of 
them as were not either killed or taken in the 


field, being lurking in the country; and we being 
unwilling that any of our good subjects should 
be ensnared or brought into trouble by them, 
have therefore, by the advice of our privy council, 
thought fit again hereby to discharge and inhibit 
all our subjects, that none of them offer or presume 
to harbour, reset, supply, or correspond, hide or 
conceal, the persons of Colonel James Wallace, 

Major Learmont, Maxwell of Monrief 

younger, Maclellan of Barscobe, Gor- 
don of Barbreck, Maclellan of Balmageichan, 

Cannon of Barnshalloch younger, 

Cannon of Barley younger, Cannon of 

Mordrochat younger, Welsh of Skar, 

Welsh of Cornley, Gordon of Garery in KeUs, 
— — Eobert Chalmers brother to Gadgirth, Henry 
Grier of BalmacleUan, David Scott in Irongray, 
John Gordon in Midton of Dairy, William 
Gordon there, John Macnaught there, Robert and 

Gilbert Cannons there, Gordon of Bar, elder 

in Kirkpatrick-Durham, Patrick Macnaught in 

Cumnock, John Macnaught his son, Gordon 

of Holm younger, Dempster of Carridow, 

Grier of Dalgoner, of Sundywell, Ramsay 

in the Mains of Arniston, John Hutchison in 

Newbottle, Row, Chaplain to Scotstarbet, 

Patrick Liston in Calder, William Listen, his 
son, James Wilkie in the Mains of Cliftonhall, 
the laird of Caldwell, the goodman of Caldwell, 
the laird of Kersland, the laird of Bedland- 
cunningham, — — Porterfield of Quarrelton, 


Alexander Porterfield his brother, Lockhart 

of Wicketshaw, — — - Trail, son to Mr. Eobert 
Trail, David Poe in Pokelly, Mr. Gabriel Semple, 
John Semple, Mr. John Guthrie, Mr. John 
Welsh, Mr. Samuel Arnot, Mr. James Smith, 
Mr. Alexander Peden, Mr. Orr, Mr. Wil- 
liam Veitch, Mr. Patton, Mr. Cruik- 

shanks, Mr. Gabriel Maxwell, Mr. John Car- 
stairs, Mr. James Mitchell, Mr. William For- 
syth, or any others who concurred or joined in 
the late rebellion, or who, upon the account 
thereof, have appeared in arms in any part of 
that our kingdom; but that they pursue them as 
the worst of traitors, and present and deliver such 
of them as they shall have within their power, 
to the lords of our privy council, the sheriff of 
the county, or the magistrates of the next adjacent 
burgh royal, to be by them made forthcoming to 
law; certifying all such as shall be found to fail 
in their duty herein, they shall be esteemed and 
punished as favourers of the said rebellion, and 
as persons accessory to, and guilty of the same. 
And to the end, all our good subjects may have 
timeous notice hereof, we do ordain these presents 
to be forthwith printed and published at the 
market crosses of Edinburgh, Ayr, Lanark, 
Glasgow, Irvine, Wigtown, Kirkcudbright, Dum- 
fries, and remnent market crosses of our said 
Kingdom: and we do recommend to the right 
reverend our archbishops and bishops, to give 
orders that this our proclamation be with all 


possible diligence read on the Lord's Day, in all 
the churches within their several dioceses. Given 
at Edinburgh, the fourth day of December, and 
of our reign the eighteenth year, one thousand 
six hundred and sixty six." 

John Maxwell of Monreith, when he saw that the 
day was irretrievably lost, fled from the field on a 
good grey horse, never halting till he reached his 
distant home in Galloway. He could not remain here, 
of course, and, bidding his family a sorrowful good- 
bye, he went forth a wanderer upon the world. The 
horse to whose fleetness he owed his life was turned 
into a field at Monreith still known as " Pentland," 
and as a reward for having saved its master's life it 
was never put to work again. The proverb, " As good 
as Pentland," is current in the district to this day. 

The Session Records of Glasserton contain the 
following entry: — "John Maxwell, brother to Sir 
William Maxwell of Monreith, was forfeit in his estate 
for going to Pentland and not joining with Prelacy. 
He was necessitated to hide himself many a night and 
day, and to turn his back upon all that he had, and to 
flee to Ireland for the preservation of his life from 
bloody persecutors, and died there." 

He had many a hairsbreadth escape before he got 
away. On one occasion he was in Edinburgh when 
the attempt was made by Mitchell on the life of 
Archbishop Sharpe, and in consequence of which a 
search was made for all concerned in the Rising at 
Dairy. He was closely pursued by some soldiers, so 


he darted down a close known as the Horse Wynd into 
a " change-house " kept by his landlord, Nichol 
Moffat, and the landlady put him in a large meal 
chest and locked it, keeping the key herself. A 
moment later the soldiers hurried in, asserting that the 
fugitive was bound to be in the house. " Seek the 
hoose as ye will," replied the landlady, " it's no sae 
muckle as will keep ye lang." This the soldiers did, 
but could find no trace of Maxwell, and then they 
called for drink and sat down to it, one of the soldiers 
actually seating himself on the lid of the meal chest. 
They began to express their wonder as to where the 
fugitive could have got to, when the man on the chest 

suddenly exclaimed, " I wouldna say but yon d 

Whig is in this vera kist. They hide onygate. Guid- 
wife, gae us the key till we see for oorsels." Maxwell 
could not help but hear this remark, and it must have 
caused him the greatest anxiety. However, the land- 
lady was equal to the occasion. Going to the foot of 
the stairs, she called up, " Jenny lass, rin and ask 
the guidman for the key o' the girnel till we see if a 
Whig can lie in meal and no' gi' a boast." The 
ruse succeeded. The soldiers laughed, finished their 
liquor, and then went out, apparently not thinking it 
worth while to wait for the key. Maxwell eventually 
escaped to Ireland, where he died in 1668, leaving two 
children named William and Agnes. The estate went 
to his younger brother, of whom the present proprietor 
is the direct descendant. In the Charter Chest at 
Monreith, the following document is found: — 


" Whereas William Maxwell of Mureith, the 
elder, hath by certificate from the noblemen and 
clergy in Galloway vindicat himself that he hath 
had no accessione to the late rebellione, nor no 
hand in his sones accesione thereunto, and having 
given sufficient security to me to answer whenso- 
ever he shall be called. These are, therefore, 
discharging all officers and soldiera under my 
command or any other person or persons what- 
somever to trouble or molest the person, goods, 
or gear of the said William Maxwell, elder of 
Mureith, as they shall be answerable. Given 
under my hand at Holyrood House this 14th 
February, 1667. 

" (Sgd.) Rothes." 

Orders were given for eleven of the prisoners to be 
brought immediately to trial, including Major John 
M'Culloch of Barholm, Captain Andrew Arnot, John 
Gordon and Eobert Gordon of Knockbrex. They were 
found guilty, and sentenced to be executed on 7th 
December at Edinburgh. The heads of Major 
M'Culloch, John Gordon, and Robert Gordon were 
commanded to be sent to Kirkcudbright for exposure 
on the principal gate of that burgh, and their bodies 
to be buried by the Magistrates of Edinburgh in such 
places as were usually assigned to traitors. The 
Council ordained that the right arms of Major 
M'Culloch, John Gordon of Knockbrex, and his 
brother Robert, and Captain Arnot be cut ofE by 


the Magistrates of Edinburgh to be sent to the 
Magistrates of Lanark, and affixed upon the public 
ports of that town, being the place where they took 
the Covenant. Before proceeding to the scaffold, the 
condemned men subscribed a joint testimony which 
will be found in Naphtali, 307. John Gordon and 
Robert Gordon, when thrown off the executioner's 
ladder, clasped their arms round each other, and thus 
met death. 

When Neilson of Corsook was brought to trial, he 
was questioned as to a settled plan of revolution, but 
denied all knowledge of the existence of any organised 
conspiracy. Not satisfied with this, the instrument 
of torture, called the boot, was used on him, and he 
suffered terribly. He was sentenced to be hanged at 
the Cross of Edinburgh. Sir James Turner en- 
deavoured to save him, moved by the fact no doubt 
that on another occasion Neilson had saved him. 
Turner's good intentions, however, were frustrated by 
Dalgleieh, minister of his parish, who represented 
Neilson as the very ringleader of the movement, and 
urged the necessity of his execution as an example to 
others. His son was outlawed, and went into exile, 
and Mrs. Neilson was deprived of all her moveables 
by way of fine for communicating with him. 

Among the other prisoners were John Grier or 
Grierson of Four Merkland, and William Welsh, 
Carsphairn. The Court at Ayr, on 24th December, 
ordered these men to be hanged at Dumfries on 2nd 
January, and charged the Magistrates to have their 


heads and right arms fixed upon the eminent parts 
of the burgh. They were accordingly fixed on the 
bridge-ports, but owing to information of an attempt 
to take them away by night, they were removed to 
the top of the Tolbooth. A memorial stone in 
St. Michael's Churchyard, Dumfries, has the following 
inscription: — 

" Here lyes William 
Welsh, Pentland 
Martyr, for his 
Adhering to the 
Word of God and 
Appearing for 
Christ's Kingly 
Goverment in His 
House and the Co- 
-venanded Work 
of Reformation 
Against Perjury 
and prelacie. Exe 
-cuted Janr. 2, 
1667, Rev. 12, 11. 

Stay, Passenger read 
Here interr'd doth ly 
A witness 'gainst poor 
Scotland's perjury 
Whose head once flx'd up 
On the Bridge Port stood 
Proclaiming vengeance 
For his guiltless blood." 


The inscription on Grierson's stone is as follows: 
were re-erected 











■g JAN. 3-1667.— REV. 12-11. 3" 

•2 < 

ri rn i-r^ L^ .^ hpt rr^ rf^ ^^ t^ t-4 ,-4 K 


3§|i § go « 
o 5 §^ a 

03 M x! fc) 

* This should be "John.' 


The Martyrs' Monument, close beside this stone, 
takes the form of a large granite pyramid. It has the 
following inscription: — 

Near this spot 
were deposited the remains 





who suffered unto death 

for their adherence to the 

principles of the Reformation 

Jany. 2, 1667. 

Also of 


Shot on the sands of Dumfries, 

March, 1685. Rev. 12. 3. 

On the other side is the following: — 

The Martyi-s' 


erected by the 

voluntary contributions 


persons who revere the memory 

and admire the principles 

of the sufferers for conscience 

sake, during the persecution 

in Scotland, aided by a collection made at a 

sermon preached on the spot by the Rev. 

William Symington of Stranraer. 


* The name William has been taken from the tombstone, but 
" John " seems correct. 



The story of Kirk's martyrdom is another example 
of the treachery of the " killing times." Kirk was 
a gentleman of considerable means belonging to the 
parish of Dunscore. After Pentland, he suffered con- 
siderable hardships. He was forced to flee the country, 
and when in Holywell parish, in Dumfries, a person 
showed him a hiding place and then lodged informa- 
tion with the soldiers at Dumfries. A company of 
dragoons at once went out and had no difficulty in 
seizing Kirk. He was offered the Abjuration Oath, 
but refused. Then he was offered his life if he would 
reveal the haunts of his fellow wanderers, but he again 
refused, and he was led to Dumfries sands and 
instantly shot. 

Among the other Pentland prisoners sent to be tried 
by this Court at Ayr and sentenced to death were the 
following:— John M'Call, son of John M'Call in 
Carsphairn; James Muirhead in the parish of Iron- 
gray; John Graham in Midtoun of Old Crachan 
(Dairy); James Smith in Old Crachan; Alexander 
M'Culloch in Carsphairn; James M'Millan in Mar- 
duchat; George M'Cartney in Blairkennie; John 
Short in Dairy; and Cornelius Anderson, tailor, in 
Ayr. So unjust was the sentence considered that, 
before the date of execution, the hangman fled from 
the town. The authorities had difiiculty in finding 
a substitute. The executioner at Irvine — William 
Sutherland — was forcibly brought over, but he refused 
to perform the odious duty, although placed in the 
stocks and threatened to be shot. At last the 
authorities prevailed upon Cornelius Anderson, one of 


the condemned men, to undertake the execution on 
condition that his own life would he saved. He, too, 
wished to get out of the job, and had to be kept more 
or less intoxicated to carry out the execution. After- 
wards he went to Ireland, and was burned to death in 
his house there. 

The Covenanters who fled from Eullion Green had 
little mercy shown them as they passed through the 
country. Some were said to have been shot, some 
died from their wounds, and several were buried in 
nameless graves in Pennicuik and Glencorse church- 
yards. The Session Minutes of Pennicuik contain the 
following entry: — "December 9, 1666, Disbursed to 
John Brown, Bellman, for making Westlandman's 
graves, 3s. 4d." 

A wounded Covenanter sought succour at Blackhill, 
Lanarkshire, but the inmates were afraid to receive 
him. He asked to be buried within sight of the Ayr- 
shire hills. Next morning he was found dead, and his 
request was carried out. Many years after, doubters 
had the grave opened, and the body was found wrapped 
in a red cloak, in which were some Dutch silver coins. 
A stone now marks the grave on the hillside near where 
the unknown died. 

A small monument has been erected to the memory 
of those Covenanters who fell. It stands on the hill- 
side about seven and a half miles from Edinburgh. 
It is some three feet high by about two feet broad, and 
is surrounded by a neat iron railing. The inscriptions 
are as follows: — 


And near to 
this place lyes the 
Reverend Mr. John Crookshank 
and mr Andrew mccormick 
ministers of the Gospel and 
About fifty other true coven- 
anted Presbyterians who were 
killed in this place in their own 
innocent self defence and de 
fence of the covenanted 
work of Reformation By 
Thomas Dalzeel of Bins 
upon the 28 of november 
1666. Rev. 12-11. Erected 
Sept. 28. 1738. 


A Cloud of Witnesses lyes here 
Who for Christ's interest did appear, 
For to Restore true Liberty 
Overturned then by tyranny. 
And by proud Prelats who did Rage 
Against the Lord's own heritage. 
They sacrificed were for the laws 
Of Christ their king, his noble cause. 
These heroes fought with great renown 
And falling got the martyrs crown. 


M'Clelland of Barscobe was captured by Claverhouse 
in one of his night raids. He was imprisoned for a 
long time, but was released on taking the Oath, which 
greatly offended some of the more zealous of the 
Covenanting party. The following notice of his death 
appears in Law's Memorials, November, 1683: — 
" Some of those men of wild principles go into the 
house of Barscobe, a gentleman in Galloway, who had 
been a long time prisoner for joining with the men 
at Pentland and got free upon his taking of the Bond 
of Peace (which thing incensed them) and strangles 
him in his own house." This, however, is erroneous. 
M'Clelland and William Grierson, Millmark, after 
attending a funeral, went to a tavern in Dairy, 
where a woman became very abusive about William 
Grierson's wife. Grierson, in the heat of the moment, 
struck her, and M'Clelland interfered to protect the 
woman, who was in a delicate state of health. 
Grierson, thoroughly roused, attacked M'Clelland, and 
in the scuffle the latter fell into the fire and received 
fatal injuries. A prosecution followed, but the jury 
found that M'Clelland was subject to epileptic fits, 
and acquitted the accused. 




A native of Eoxbaighshire — Professor of Hamanity, 1623 — 
Hesigns owing to unfounded rumours — Called to Anwoth, 
1627, through influence of Viscount Kenmure— His earnest life 
and great enthusiasm — Eutherfurd's witnesses on Mossrobin 
farm — Tragic death of dyker — Visit of Archbishop Ussher 
and traditions — The eleventh commandment — Rutherfurd 
summoned before High Commission Court, 1630 — Publishes 
his famous work against Jesuits and Arminians, 1636 — 
Summoned before the High Commission Court at Wigtown — 
Lord Lome, afterwards Marquis of Argyle, befriends him, 
but he is deposed and ordered to confine himself in Aberdeen 
— Letters to his parishioners — Returns to Anwoth, 1638— 
Attends General Assembly of 1638 at Glasgow — Professor of 
Divinity at St. Andrews — Letters to people of Anwoth — 
Refuses professorship at Utrecht and Harderwick — Appointed 
one of the commission to Westminster Assembly — Publishes 
Lex Bex — Indicted for high treason — ^His answer to the 
summons — ^Died 19th March, 1661 — Inscription on tombstone 
— Monument near Gatehouse and inscription. 

No name in the annals of Galloway is held in greater 
love and reverence than that of Samuel Rutherfurd, 
for though he was not born in our ancient province, 
he laboured here so long, so lovingly, and so faithfully 
that he may well be claimed as one of Galloway's own. 
He was born in 1600, in the parish of Nesbit (now 
annexed to Crailing) in Roxburghshire, and after 
attending Jedburgh Grammar School, he proceeded 
to Edinburgh University in 1617, took his M.A. in 


1621, and while yet a young man was elected Professor 
of Humanity in 1623. Two years afterwards, how- 
ever, some unfounded reports were made against him, 
and though these were immediately shown to be the 
work of evil disposed persons, he determined to resign. 
He seems to have been licensed to preach while in 
Edinburgh, and about 1627 he was called to be 
minister of Anwoth, which was then made a separate 

He was entered to this church through the influence 
of the then Viscount Kenmure and without any en- 
gagement to the bishop. He came to the work of 
the ministry with great enthusiasm. He rose every 
morning at three o'clock, and spent his whole time 
reading, praying, writing, catechising, visiting, and 
in the other duties of his high calling. He found 
many of the people had little interest in religion, were 
careless regarding the Sabbath, and preferred playing 
football to attending the house of God. One Sabbath 
he proceeded to where they were engaged in their game 
on a level piece of ground between the church and 
Skyreburn on Mossrobin farm, and, pointing out the 
sinfulness of their ways, called on the objects around, 
especially three large stones, to witness between him 
and them that he had done his duty, whether they had 
or not. Mrs. Stewart Monteith tells a weird -like story 
about these silent witnesses. A new dyke was being 
built on Mossrobin, and at a certain part stones were 
wanted. One of the workmen purposed making use 
of one of Rutherfurd's witnesses which was at hand, 
but his companions rejected the proposal with horror. 


He was not to be deterred, however, and with an oath 
that the first bite he took might choke him if he did 
not build the stone into the dyke before breakfast, he 
broke up the stone and used it in the dyke. Shortly, 
afterwards, he sat down to his meal, and putting the 
first morsel into his mouth, he suddenly turned black 
in the face, fell back, and expired. The other two 
stones remain untouched to this day. 

Eutherfurd's fame as a preacher soon spread, and, 
coming to the ears of Archbishop Ussher of Armagh, 
the latter resolved to go and hear for himself what 
manner of man this Rutherfurd was. There was no 
place near the church for the bishop to stay in. So 
he came to the Bush of Beild and asked if Mr. Ruther- 
furd was at home. Mrs. Rutherfurd said he was. 
He said he was a stranger, and wished to wait till 
Monday, but could find no place to stay and asked 
if he could be put up there. Mrs. Rutherfurd, seeing 
he was a gentleman, asked him to alight, and in reply 
to her he said his name was James Ussher. She went 
and told her husband, but it never occurred to either 
of them that it was the Archbishop. Rutherfurd 
welcomed him, and nothing transpired that night to 
reveal his identity. Early on the Sabbath morning 
the stranger went out, and, coming to a thicket, retired 
to pray. It was a spot to which Rutherfurd was in 
the habit of coming for prayer also, and when Ruther- 
furd drew near as usual, he was surprised to hear 
someone there before him. Eagerly listening, he 
perceived an extraordinary gift of prayer, and waited 
till the stranger appeared. 


Then when he saw him, the recollection of his name 
flashed across his mind, and he asked: "Are you the 
great and learned Doctor Ussher?" " I am he whom 
some are pleased to name so," was the reply. Ruther- 
furd emhraced him most affectionately, and said, " You 
must preach for me to-day." " Nay," said the other, 
" I came to hear you preach and to be acquainted with 
you, and I will hear you." They arranged that 
Rutherfurd would preach in the forenoon and the 
Archbishop in the afternoon. 

Tradition has preserved another version of the story. 
It is as follows: — ^A beggar arrived on a Saturday 
at Bush of Beild and craved a night's lodging. He 
was given a seat at the kitchen fire, and told he could 
lodge in the barn. Mrs. Rutherfurd soon afterwards 
came into the kitchen and began to catechise the 
servants, her husband meantime preparing for the 
Sabbath services. The beggar was asked how many 
commandments there were, and on his replying 
"eleven," Mrs. Rutherfurd lifted up her hands in 
amazement at the ignorance of the man, and said it 
was a shame for a man with grey hairs like him and 
living in a Christian country not to know how many 
commandments there were. To her surprise, however, 
he defended his answer by quoting the words of our 
Saviour, " A new commandment I give unto you, that 
ye love one another." After he had gone to the barn, 
he was engaged in prayer when Rutherfurd passed, and 
heard and listened. The language soon convinced him 
that it was no beggar, but some good and learned man 
in disguise. He immediately knocked and entered. 


Taking the stranger by the hand, he said, " I am 
persuaded that you are none other than Archbishop 
Ussher, and you must certainly preach for me to-day." 
Ussher explained that, being anxious to see a man of 
whom he had heard so much, but fearing he might be 
averse to receiving a visit from an Archbishop, he had 
been induced to come in disguise. He was cordially 
welcomed, and was pressed to go and rest at the Manse, 
but preferred to remain where he was till the afternoon, 
when he preached to the people, adopting the Presby- 
terian form of worship, and taking for his text, 
John xiii., 34 — " A new commandment I give unto 
you, that ye love one another," remarking that this 
might be called the eleventh commandment. 

Rutherfurd was summoned in June, 1630, before the 
High Commission Court at Edinburgh, but the Arch- 
bishop of St. Andrews was unable to attend owing to 
the inclemency of the weather, and Mr. Colvil, one of 
the judges, having befriended Rutherfurd, the diet 
was deserted. About this time, his wife, Euphemia 
Hamilton, died, and he himself was very iU for over 
three months. 

Sydeserf, the bishop of Galloway, was dissatisfied 
with his teaching, and more than once threatened a 
prosecution. In 1636, Rutherfurd published his 
famous work in Latin against the Jesuits and 
Arminians, Exercitationts Apologeticae pro Divina 
Gratia contra Jesuitas et Arminianos. In July, 1636, 
he was summoned to appear before the High Commis- 
sion Court at Wigtown because of nonconformity, of 
preaching against the Five Articles of Perth, and of 


being the author of Exercitationes de Gratia, which, 
it was alleged, reflected on the Church of Scotland, 
but the truth was that it reflected on the Episcopal 
clergy, and so Bishop Sydeserf could not endure it. 
He attended the Court, but declined to recognise 
it as a lawful judicatory, and refused to give the 
Chancellor and the bishops their titles, and denied 
their right or competency, to sit as judges of his 
professional conduct or of his principles. The trial 
lasted three daysj but the result might have been fore- 
seen from the beginning. Lord Lome, afterwards the 
famous Marquis of Argyle, used every exertion on his 
behalf, but the bishop of Galloway threatened to write 
to the King, so Eutherf urd was deposed and prohibited 
under pain of rebellion from exercising any part of his 
ministerial functions in Scotland, and ordered to 
confine himself within the city of Aberdeen during 
the King's pleasure. This sentence he had no alterna- 
tive but obey. From Aberdeen he wrote many of 
his famous letters. The following is an extract from 
one written on 7th September, 1637, to his old friend, 
Marion M'Knaught, wife of the Provost of Kirkcud- 
bright: — 

'■ I know the Lord will do for your town. I 
hear that the bishop (Sydserff) is afraid to come 
amongst you, for so it is spoken in this town, 
and many here rejoice now to pen a supplication 
to the council for bringing me home to my place 
(Anwoth). . . . See if you can procure three 
or four hundred in the country (Galloway), noble- 


men, gentlemen, countrymen, and citizens to 
subscribe it; the more the better. It may affright 
the Bishop, but by law no advantage can be taken 
against you for it; I have not time to write to 
Carletoun and Knockbrex, but I would you did 
speak to them in it. . . . There are some 
blossomings of Christ's Kingdom in this town 
(Aberdeen); the smoke is rising and the ministers 
are raging, but I like a rumbling and a roaring 
devil best. . . . We have been all over-feared, 
and that gave the lowns the ooniidence to shut me 
out of GaUoway." * 

Writing in 1637 to Kobert Gordon of Knockbrex, 
he says: — 

" I dare not say that I am a dry tree, or that 
I have no room in the vineyard, but yet I often 
think that the sparrows are blest, who may resort 
to the house of God in Anwoth, from which I am 

The only cause of regret he seems to 'have had in 
Aberdeen arose from his being deprived of his clerical 
office. His letters, first published in 1664 under the 
title of Joshua Bedivivus, have passed through many 
editions, and translations have been made into Dutch, 
German, and French. Dr. Grosart makes the inter- 
esting statement that — " Not long since, a travelling 
friend met with two editions among the forsaken towns 

* Rutherfurd's Letters, part iii., epistle xxxix. 


of the Zuider Zee. It went to my heart to meet with 
a copy under the shadow of Mount Hermon. In the 
back woods of the Far West, the book lies side by side 
with the Pilgrim's Progress." 

Fortunately, circumstances arose which left the way 
open for him to bring his banishment to an end. 
Having heard that the Privy Council had accepted 
a declinature against the Court of High Commission, 
he ventured in 1638 to return to Anwoth, where he was 
affectionately welcomed. This step might have been 
fraught with great danger but for the decisive and 
bold stand taken by the venerable Assembly which 
met at Glasgow the same year. The Assembly 
abolished Episcopacy and established the Presbyterian 
form of worship. Rutherfurd attended the Assembly 
as representative of the Presbytery of Kirkcudbright, 
and gave an account of his former sufferings, his con- 
finement, and its causes. He was appointed one of 
the Committee to take into consideration the grievances 
under which they laboured, and was chosen to draw 
up objections to the Service Book, the Book of Canons 
and Ordination, and the Court of High Commission, 
a work which he performed with the greatest ability. 
But a still greater honour was conferred on him when 
he was appointed Professor of Divinity in the New 
College of St. Andrews. He used every endeavour 
against the appointment, being reluctant in those days 
of trial and difficulty to abandon his flock, many of 
whom were endeared to him by personal ties and 
associations, but his objections were over-ruled. The 
people of Anwoth continued to have a warm place in 


his affections, and he kept up correspondence with his 
many friends in the district with whose names we are 
familiar, amongst whom are Lady Kenmure, Gordons 
of Knockbrex, Cardoness and Eusko, M'CuUoch of 
Ardwall, Lennox of Disdow, and Muir of Cassencary. 
But even at St. Andrews his oflSce was not without its 
difficulties and responsibilities. It was the seat of 
the archbishop, the stronghold of Episcopacy, and 
the University was the most celebrated and most 
numerously attended in Scotland. Here he fulfilled 
his duties with that fidelity, enthusiasm, and ability 
that had become characteristic of the man. 

One of his most noteworthy appearances about this 
time was at the Assembly of 1648, when Henry 
Guthrie, minister of Stirling, afterwards bishop of 
Dunkeld, brought forward a motion against private 
religious meetings. Considerable discussion ensued. 
Rutherfurd, though not much disposed to speak in 
these judicatory Assemblies, threw in this solecism, 
and challenged the whole Assembly to answer it, 
" What the Scriptures do warrant no Assembly can 
discharge, but private meetings for religious exercises 
the Scriptures do warrant." — Malachi, iii. 16. " Then 
they that feared the Lord spake often one to another, 
etc." — James v. 16. " Confess your faults one to an- 
other, and pray one for another," things which he said 
could not be done in the Church. Although the Earl 
of Seaforth and others of Guthrie's party strove hard 
against it, Rutherfurd's arguments had such an effect 
on the Assembly that his views prevailed, and all that 
Guthrie's party could secure was an Act anent the 


order of family worship. Eutherfurd afterwards 
wrote a treatise defending the lawfulness and useful- 
ness of private religious meetings. 

Rutherfurd's reputation had spread so far that the 
Magistrates of Utrecht offered him the Divinity Chair 
in that University when it fell vacant through the 
death of the learned Dematius. This, however, he 
declined, as also an invitation to the Chair of Hebrew 
and Divinity in the University of Harderwick. In 
1643, he was appointed one of the Commission from 
the Church of Scotland to the Assembly of Divines 
at Westminster, and continued a Commissioner till 
the principal business of the Assembly was concluded 
in 1647. Their work was to consider and perfect 
these four things mentioned in the Solemn League — 
A Directory for Worship, a uniform Confession of 
Faith, a Form of Church Government and Discipline, 
and the public Catechism. While in London, he not 
only faithfully discharged his duty at Westminster, 
but he found time to write a number of valuable works, 
perhaps the most notable of which was Lex Rex. It 
excited deep and universal interest on account of the 
democratic principles it advanced. The full title of 
the book is Lex Bex, the Law and the Prince; a 
discourse for the just prerogative of King and People, 
containing the reasons and causes of the most necessary 
defensive wars of the Kingdom of Scotland, and of 
their expedition for the ayd and help of their dear 
brethren of England; in which their innocency is 
asserted, and a full answer is given to a seditious 
pamphlet entitled " Saerasancta Begum Ma jest as," 


under the name of J. A. but penned by Jo. Maxwell,* 
the excommunicate P. Prelate ; with a scriptural con- 
jutation of the ruinous grounds of W. Barclay, 
H. Grotius, H. Arnisasus, Ant. Be Domi, P. Bishop 
of Spalato, and of other late Anti-magistratical 
Royalists; as the author of Ossorianum, D. Fern, 
E. Symmons, the Doctors of Aberdeen, etc., in XLIV. 
questions. It struck a deadly blow at the doctrine of 
absolute monarchy. 

It was condemned at the Restoration as treasonable, 
and whoever should retain a copy of it was to be 
accounted enemy of the King. King Charles said it 
would scarcely ever get an answer, and in this he wae 
right. It was ordered to be burned by the hands of 
the hangman at Edinburgh Cross and at the gates of 
the New College of St. Andrews, where Rutherfurd 
was Professor. But, as an old writer remarked, 
" Books have souls as well as men, which survive their 
martyrdom, and are not burned but crowned by the 

* This was John Maxwell, bishop of Ross. He was a son of 
the Laird of Cavens, in Kirkbean, in the Stewartry. He aimed 
unsuccessfully at the office of Treasurer, then held by the Earl of 
Troqueer. He was deposed and excommunicated by the Assem- 
bly of 1638 on the ground that he was " a wearer of the cap and 
rocket, a deposer of godly ministers, an admitter of fornicators to 
the communion, a companion of Papists, an usual player of cards 
on Sabbath, and once on communion day, that he had given 
absolution to persons in distress, consecrated deacons, robbed his 
vassals of forty thousand merks, kept fasts each Friday, journeyed 
-ordinarily on Sabbath, that he had been a chief decliner of the 
Assembly, and a prime instrument of all the troubles which befel 
both Church and State." 


flames that encircle them. ' Probably to please their 
worthless King, Parliament indicted him for high 
treason. Most of the members must have known that 
he was on his deathbed, but notwithstanding this, they 
cited him to Edinburgh. When the summons arrived, 
he answered, " Tell them I have got a summons already 
from a superior Judge, and I behove to answer my 
first summons, and ere your day come I will be where 
few Kings and great folk come." His physician and 
the ministers and magistrates of St. Andrews testified 
that he could not obey the summons, yet Parliament, 
not satisfied with this, sentenced him to confinement 
within his own house till the state of his health might 
be seen. It was put to the vote whether or not to let 
him die in the College. It was carried " Put him out," 
only a few dissenting. Lord Burley said, " Ye have 
voted that honest man out of his College, but ye cannot 
vote him out of Heaven." He died on 19th March, 
1661, aged 61 years. On the afternoon before his 
death he used the beautiful expression which has 
become the subject of one of the finest hymns in the 
English language, " Glory dwells in Immanuel's 
Land." The following is the epitaph on his tombstone 
in St. Andrews: — 

" What tongue, what pen, or skill of men, 
Can famous Rutherfurd commen' ? 
His learning justly raised his fame. 
True goodness did adorn his name. 
He did converse with things above. 
Acquainted with Emmanuel's love. 
Most orthodox he was, and sound. 
And many errors did confound. 


For Zion's King and Zion's cause. 

And Scotland's Covenanted laws 

Most constantly he did contend. 

Until his time was at an end. 

At last he won to full fruition 

Of that which he had seen in vision." 

On a hill on the farm of Boreland of Anwoth, near 
Gatehouse, and about half a mile from the church, 
a monument has been erected to his memory, and is 
a prominent object for many miles around. It is a 
grey granite obelisk nearly 60 feet high, and was 
erected in 1842, at a cost of £200, raised partly 
by public subscription, and partly by a collection taken 
at a sermon preached by the side of the monument by 
the Rev. Dr. Cook, Belfast, in 1838. On the side of 
the monument facing the south is the inscription: — 

To the memory of 


Minister of the parish of Anwoth, 

from 1627 to 1639, 

when he was appointed Professor of Divinity 

in the University of St. Andrews, 

where he died in 1661. 

This monument was erected a.d. 1842, 

in admiration of his eminent talents, 

extensive learning, ardent piety, 

ministerial faithfulness, 

and distinguished public labours 

in the cause of civil and religious liberty. 

The righteous shall be in everlasting remembrance. 

Psalm cxii. 6. 


On the reverse side is an inscription stating that tha 
monument was struck by lightning in 1847 and rebuilt 
in 1851. 

Rutherfurd was small of stature and very fair. He 
had a shriU voice which became like a " scraich " when 
preaching, and then his hands were never a moment 
still. Some of the foregoing incidents show how 
intense he was. He was usually mild and gentle, but 
when roused his zeal oft outran discretion, and on some 
occasions he displayed towards the " Resolutioners " 
a bitterness which can hardly be justified. 

Note. — George Rutherfurd, a brother of above, waa 
appointed schoolmaster and reader of Kirkcudbright 
in 1629, mainly through the influence of Provost 
Fullerton. He was summoned before the High 
Commission Court for nonconformity, and ordered to 
resign his charge and remove from Kirkcudbright. 
He retired to Ayrshire, but afterwards had charge of 
Tongeland parish, where he remained tiU his death. 
This fact probably accounts for the tradition men- 
tioned by the Rev. James Reid of Newton Stewart in 
Memoirs of the Lives of the Westminster Divines 
(Vol. II., 345), that Samuel Rutherfurd was " born of 
respectable parents in the parish of Tongeland near 
Kirkcudbright." Other writers have adopted this, but 
there seems nothing to support it. 




Barial place of Galloway families — Martyr's tombstone and in- 
scription — Bell of Whiteside, his thrilling adventures and 
hairsbreadth escapes — David Halliday of Mayfleld, Robert 
Lennox of Irelandton, Andrew M'Robert, Beoch, James 
Clement, and Bell surrender on promise of quarter, but are 
immediately shot — Viscount Kenmure challenges Lagg for 
his barbarities — Tombstone in Balmaghie churchyard to 
Halliday and inscription — Tombstone in Twynholm church- 
yard to M'Robert and inscription — Tombstone in Girthon 
churchyard to Lennox and inscription — Tombstone to 
James Clement and inscription — Monument and inscription — 
Clement's grave opened and his skull taken away — Poem on 
the Martyr's grave. 

Anwoth churchyard, near Gatehouse, is the burial- 
place of some of the great Galloway families, the 
M'CuUochs, Gordons, Maxwells, and Hannays. Here 
may still be seen Rutherfurd's little church, now 
roofless. It was last used for public worship in 1826, 
just two centuries after Rutherfurd came to Anwoth. 
His manse. Bush of Beild, was unfortunately razed 
to the ground, 1826-27, and the stones were built into 
the present church. In the centre of the churchyard 
is a martyr's tombstone, with the following in- 
scription: — 



This Monument Shall Tell Posterity 

That Blessed Bell of Whitesyde Here Doth Ly ^ 

J Who At Command of Bloody Lag Was Shot 
K A Murder Strange Which Should Not Be Forgot 2 

Douglas of Morton Did Him Quarters Give ^ 

X Yet Cruel Lag Would Not Let Him Survive "^ 



This Martyr Sought Some Time To Recommend 

* His Soul To God Before His Days Did End hj 
^ The Tyrant Said, What, Devil, Ye've Pray'd Enough ^ 

This Long Seven Years On Mountain And In Cluch htj 

* So Instantly Caus'd Him With Other Four PS 
E Be Shot To Death Upon Kirkconnel Moor q 

So Thus Did End The Lives Of These Dear Saints * 
For Their Adhering To The Covenants. 


Bell was proprietor of Whiteside, and after the death 
of his father, his mother married Viscount Kenmure. 
Bell was one of the greatest sufferers in the terrible 
persecution that ensued after Bothwell. In June, 

1680, he was charged with many others with murder- 
ing Archbishop Sharp, burning the King's laws, and 
with accession to " the rebellion." He was not present 
at the trial, but of course he was found guilty. In 

1681, Claverhouse quartered his soldiers at Whiteside 
till they had eaten all the provisions. Then they 
compelled the people of the district to bring them 
provisions, and they waited till their horses had 
consumed all they could get. Everything of value 
which they could carry they took with them, and drove 


away the sheep and horses, tore the very timber from 
the buildings, and destroyed the plantations, and left 
the place utterly desolate. Bell, of course, had been 
a fugitive since his trial, and had many miraculous 
«8capes. Simpson narrates a number of these. 

One day when Bell was at home, a company of 
soldiers suddenly appeared near the house. It hap- 
pened that a female servant was sorting a quantity 
of crockery, and it occurred to her that he should dis- 
guise himself and take in his hand a basket filled with 
the earthenware and walk slowly away as if he were 
a dealer. The stratagem succeeded, and he passed the 
soldiers without discovery, and escaped. 

At another time Bell, when surprised by the arrival 
of dragoons, fled into a retired apartment and hid 
himself in a large oak chest. To prevent suffocation, 
one of his attendants in closing the lid inserted a piece 
of cloth to allow the air to circulate. The soldiers 
examined every chamber and groped into every corner. 
They entered the place where Bell was concealed, tossed 
about the furniture, and pried into every likely retreat 
but it never occurred to them to lift the lid of the chest. 

He formed a cave in a retired spot within his o^vn 
lands where he secreted himself, but a spy set himself 
to discover the retreat and betrayed it to the soldiers. 
Next day a company of troopers was conducted to 
the place in the expectation that Bell would be seized. 
At that moment, however, he happened to be in a field 
and observed the horsemen rapidly approaching. He 
at once left the spot and fled, but, being seen, he was 
pursued. He made in the direction of a moss where a 


number of people were casting peats, and when he 
approached, one of them told him to throw off his coat, 
take a spade, and dig in the hag with him. Bell at 
once did this, and when the dragoons approached, all 
the labourers, though well aware of what was coming, 
were engaged in their work, apparently unconscious 
of the presence of the soldiers. The commander of 
the party asked if they saw a man pass that way. 
One of the workers answered that a short time ago 
they saw a man making across the moor in the direction 
in which they were marching. On hearing this, the 
soldiers continued their pursuit, and Bell was left 

In February, 1685, he and David Halliday of 
Mayfield, Robert Lennox of Irelandton, Andrew 
M'Robert, Beech, and James Clement were being 
searched for by Lagg and his dragoons. They had 
taken refuge at Mayfield, but hearing the approach of 
the pursuers, they fled in the night, and hid in Kirk- 
connel Moor. Lagg got information of their hiding 
place and came upon them. Being promised quarter, 
they surrendered without resistance, but no sooner had 
Lagg got them into his power, than he gave orders 
that they were to be shot on the spot. Bell was well 
known, and Lagg had met him in society on equal 
terms, and been friendly with him. He besought a 
short time for prayer, but this was refused, and when 
Douglas of Morton, one of Lagg's officers, interceded 
for delay, Lagg exclaimed with an oath, " What the 
devil! have you not had time enough for preparation 
since Bothwell?" They were all immediately shot, 


and for a time Lagg would not permit their bodies 
to be buried. Sometime afterwards, Viscount Ken- 
mure, Claverhouse, and Lagg happened to meet at 
Kirkcudbright, when the Viscount challenged Lagg 
for his barbarities on one whom he knew to be a 
gentleman, and especially for refusing to allow his 
body to be buried. Lagg replied with an oath that 
he could take him and salt him in his beef -barrel. 
The Viscount then drew his sword and would have run 
him through had not Claverhouse intervened. Bell, 
as we have seen, was buried in Anwoth. Halliday was 
buried in Balmaghie. In the same grave was buried 
David Halliday in Glengap, who was shot by Lagg 
and the Earl of Annandale. The tombstone there has 
the following inscrption: — 

Here Lyes David Haluday, Portioner of Meifield Who 
Was Shot Upon The 20 Of Febr 1685, And 
David Halliday Once In Glengape Who Was Likewise 
Shot Upon The 11 Of July 1685 For Their Adherence To 
The Principles Of Scotlands Covenanted Reformatione. 

Beneath This Stone Two David Hallidays 

Doe Ly Whose Souls Nou Sing Their Masters Praise 

To Knou If Curious Passengers Desyre 

For What, By Whome And Hou They Did Expyre 

They Did Oppose This Nations Perjurey 

Nor Could They Join With Lordly Prelacy 

Indulging Favours From Christs Enemies 

Quenched Not Their Zeal, This Monument Then Cryes 

These Were The Causes Not To Be Forgot 

Why They By Lag So Wickedly Were Shot. 

One Name, One Cause, One Grave, One Heaven Do Ty 

Their Souls To That One God Eternally. 


M'Robert "was buried in Twynholm, and his tomb- 
stone has the following inscription: — 

MEMEN {Cross-bones) TO MORI. 


Other side: — 


LEAGUE. 1685. 

Lennox was buried in Girthon, and his tombstone 
bears the following inscription: — 



Clement, who is supposed to have been a fugitive 
from Carrick, was buried where he was shot. On the 
hillside at Kirkconnel Moor a small tombstone may 
be seen with the following inscription: — 


Other side: — 

(Skull and Cross-bonaa) 


A monument alongside has the following inscrip- 
tion: — 

















Another inscription tells that on 11th September, 
1831, about ten thousand people assembled here, and, 
after worship, contributed a fund for the erection of 
the monument. 

Clement's remains were not allowed to rest in the 
grave, though it was not his persecutors who were 
responsible for this. In 1828, four men went from 
Kirkcudbright in the dead of night for the purpose 
of getting his skull, which they believed would prove 
by its confirmation that Clement was a reUgioue 
fanatic. Just as they secured the skull, they were 
startled by a wild screech and fled in terror from the 
spot, leaving the grave open. On examining the skull, 
they found a hole in the side, showing where the fatal 
bullet had entered. Mr. John Morrison, portrait 
painter, learned from one of the four what had 
happened, and he went and filled up the grave. He 
also got possession of the martyr's skull, preserved 
it carefully to his death, and it was buried with him 
in his cofiin. Morrison wrote a poem on the incident, 
and it gave offence to those concerned. The poem is 
not without merit, and, as it has never been printed, 
we give it here, omitting some of the verses to which 
objection was taken. It is entitled: — 



" And I saw under the altar the souls of them that were slain 
for the Word of God, and for the testimony which they held ; and 
they cried with a loud voice, saying, How long, O Lord, holy and 
true, dost thou not judge and avenge our blood." — Revelation, vi. 
9 and 10. 


An hundred and fifty years 
Are nearly added to the scroll 

Of time, since Scotland was in tears, 
And thou wast numbered on the roll 

Of Martyrs, in the cause of God, 

That slumbered here beneath this sod. 

On this lone spot an altar stood, 
To every passing pilgrim dear ; 

This turf was watered by the blood 

Of Martyrs ; those gray rocks that rear 

Their peaks, have echoed to the shot 

That here consigned their bones to rot, 

And their bless'd spirits to the sky. 

Oh ! pause, thou passing pilgrim, pause '. 
Twas here five martyrs dared to die. 

Faithful to heaven and freedom's cause. 
This lonely grave, this mossy stone, 
Is Caledonia's Marathon. 

Alone I loved to wander here 

When sank the sun in splendour down, 

His parting halo did appear 

To me the blessed Martyr's crown 

Of Glory, and a still small sound 

Whispered — This grave is holy ground. 

And I have lingered later still. 

When rising from the eastern clime 

The yellow moon, o'er heath and hill. 
Spread her broad light ; sounds divine 

Are sighing, as the night-winds pass 

In whispers through the waving grass. 


What are the sculptured tombs of kings 
When bats their leathern pinions wave, 

The ghastly owl at midnight sings 

Their dirge, while from this lonely grave 

The lark soars up to heaven's gate 

In emblem of the Martyr's fate. 

The purest saint that climbs the sky 

Not higher sits at God's right hand 
Than those who for their country die, 

And with their blood reclaim the land. 
Revere this patriot's grave, for he 
Perish'd that Scotland might be free. 

There is also a poem on The Martyr's Grave by 
James Murray, author of The Maid of Oalloway. 
This poem is now to be found only in the hands of 
collectors, and, as will be seen from the following 
extracts, it suggests that the martyrs were captured 
at worship in the early morning. 

Hunted from home and hearth, abroad 
On this lone moor above this sod, 
Here met five worshippers of God 

To join in praise and prayer. 
As rose to Heaven their song of love, 
It woke a voice in glen and grove, 
And Angels listened from above, 

Their converse sweet to share. 


But scarce the psalm had died away, 
Scarce hush'd the lark's responsive lay, 
Till other sounds of feud and fray 

Rose in the morning gale. 
Fierce, furious men the place surround, - 
A flash is seen, — a hurling sound — 
Then fell upon the blood-dyed ground, 

These martyrs mute and pale. 

But scarcely had their heaven-ward song, 
The golden portals passed along, 
Till seated 'mong the martyred throng. 
Their praise anew they told. 




Kirkwood of Sanquhar helps two Galloway Covenanters to escape 
— Pierson of Carsphairn a zealous persecutor — Some of the 
Covenanters go to reason with him — A souffle — ^Pierson is 
shot by M'Miohael — M'Michael responsible for a previous 
tragedy, having inflicted a mortal wound on Roan near Dairy 
—Engaged in Enteikin Pass rescue — M'Michael killed on 
Auchencloy Hill — ^Robert Ferguson, Robert Stuart, and John 
Grier shot — Martyrs' tombstone in Dairy churchyard and in- 
scription — Tombstone to Ferguson and inscription — Martyrs' 
monument and inscription — Tombstone in Kirkcudbright 
churchyard to William Hunter and Robert Smith, who were 
not allowed to write to their relations, and whose words at 
the gibbet were drowned by beating of drums so that they 
could not be heard. 

Some of the Episcopal curates did not make themselves 
so obnoxious to the Covenanters as others, and Simpson 
tells the story of James Kirkwood, the curate of 
Sanquhar, whose shrewdness and sympathy probably 
saved the lives of two persecuted Covenanters from 
Galloway. The two were being hotly pursued through 
Carsphairn, and dashed into the Nith, emerging on 
the opposite side near the manse, where the curate 
and some others were playing quoits. "Where shall 
we hide?" asked the two in desperation. " Doff your 
coats and join in the game," answered the curate. 


This was done, and just then the dragoons dashed up 
and hurried on in the direction which they supposed 
the Covenanters had taken. 

Of quite another stamp was Peter Pierson, the curate 
of Carsphairn. He had made himself particularly 
active in supplying Lagg with all the information he 
could, even without being asked for it, and he had been 
very zealous in persecuting the Presbyterians. He 
lived at the manse alone, without even a servant, and 
kept a number of firearms loaded in his chambers. 
He was perhaps more a Roman Catholic than an 
Episcopalian, and frequently declared that Papists 
were much better subjects than Presbyterians. 
Matters at last came to such a head that a resolve 
was made by some of the Covenanters to reason with 
Pierson, and get him to promise that he would not 
instigate their enemies against them again. Accord- 
ingly, a party of kindred spirits met one night in the 
end of 1684 in the house of John Clark of Muirbroke, 
some three miles from Carsphairn, to arrange their 
plans. The party comprised James M'Michael, 
fowler of the Laird of Maxwelton, Roger Padgen of 
Sanquhar, Robert Mitchell of New Cumnock, William 
Heron, Glencairn, one Watson, and three or four others. 
Three of the number, M'Michael, Heron, and Mitchell, 
were selected to interview Pierson, and proceeded to 
the manse at night, when they knew he would be in. 
There are different versions of what happened. One 
account says that Heron and Mitchell were admitted, 
and delivered their message, which at once put Pierson 


in a rage, and he lifted a gun and threatened to shoot 
them, getting between them and the door. They called 
•out, and M'Michael then pressed into the room and, 
seeing Pierson with the gun raised, and fearful for 
the safety of his companions, he at once fired a pistol, 
and shot him dead. Another account says that, in 
the com'se of a scufile, M'Michael's pistol accidentally 
went off and Pierson was killed. Certain it is in any 
oase that when the Covenanters went to the manse, 
they had no intention of doing the curate any bodily 
harm. The Societies held that M'Michael's action was 
unjustifiable, and removed his name from the Roll. 
This, however, did not interfere with his course of 
conduct, but he had now to be more a fugitive than 
ever. Unfortunately, he had been responsible for a 
previous tragedy. He was a bold fiery man, but a 
sincere adherent of the Covenanters. He was asked 
with some of the Society People to interview Roan 
of Stroanpatrick, near Dairy, whose fidelity as a 
Covenanter was suspected. They were not satisfied, 
in spite of Roan's assurance, and M'Michael told him 
that he was not to attend their meetings till he had 
cleared himself of the accusation of being a spy, and 
that in the meantime he was to deliver up his arms. 
As the interview was proceeding, one of the party, 
noticed that M'Michael could hardly control himself, 
and, fearing some untoward incident, he secretly ex- 
tracted the shot from M'Michael's musket, which was 
lying against the wall. Roan invited them to his 
house to receive his arms, and they set out. Suddenly 


Roan, watching his opportunity, darted aside, crossed 
a stream, and made off. M'Michael with drawn sword 
pursued, but finding he was not gaining ground, he 
threw his sword after Eoan with all his might, and 
it struck him and inflicted a mortal wound. 

M'Michael is said to have been engaged in the 
daring Enterkin Pass rescue, when a number of 
countrymen took up a position commanding the 
Enterkin Pass in Dumfriesshire, and rescued eight 
Covenanters from an escort of twenty-eight soldiers, 
killing the commander. The soldiers in the confusion 
managed to carry off one of their prisoners, named 
John M'Kechnie, belonging to Galloway, " a singu- 
larly pious man." They got orders to shoot him soon 
after, but the bullet only passed through his arm, and 
he was carried to Edinburgh and thrown into prison. 
He was refused surgical aid, and tlie wound gangrened, 
and he died three months afterwards. 

Some of those who had met at Muirbroke the night 
of the Carsphairn tragedy were afterwards discovered 
to have been playing the part of spies. Watson was 
treacherous enough to go over to the persecuting party, 
and Padgen became one of Strachan's dragoons. He 
had apparently been in the pay of the Government 
while associating with the Covenanters. M'Michael, 
Heron, and Mitchell, were all slain within the year. 
Claverhouse got information that M'Michael and a 
few others were hiding somewhere about Auchencloy 
Hill, on the northern shore of Loch Skerrow, and his 
search there soon proved successful. M'Michael and 


his associates — eight in all— were taken by surprise 
on 18th December, 1684. Two managed to get away 
in the confusion, but the others had to defend them- 
selves. Claverhouse had a hand to hand contest with 
M'Michael, and was only saved from M'Michael's 
sword by his steel bonnet. As it was, he was getting 
the worst of it when he called for assistance. 
M'Michael taunted him with these words, " You dare 
not bide the issue of single combat. Had your helmet 
been like mine — a soft bonnet — your carcase had now 
found a bed upon the heath." Meantime a dragoon had 
stolen up behind him and cleft his skull with his sword. 
Robert Ferguson, Robert Stewart, and John Grrier 
were shot. The soldiers then pursued the other two, 
and learned that they had been seen to enter a certain 
bouse. Rushing into it, they searched it thoroughly, 
but the fugitives had never rested in it, yet the soldiers 
took all in it prisoners, and burned it to the ground. 
A little before this, some prisoners had been rescued 
at Kirkcudbright, and this was the pretext for so great 
cruelty. Stewart's excellent character must have been, 
known to Claverhouse, for he is said to have exclaimed 
in derision after he shot him, " Stewart's soul in 
Heaven doth sing! " Ferguson was buried in the moor 
where he fell. The other three were buried in the 
churchyard of Dairy, where there is a martyrs' tomb- 
stone to their memory. It is about six feet in length 
by three in breadth, lying upon supports that raise it 
about a foot from the ground, and has the following 
inscription: — 


Memento Mori. 

Here lieth Robert Stewart 

(Son to Major Robert Stewart of Ardoch) 

And John Grierson, who were murthered by 

Graham of Claverhouse, 

Anno 1684, for their adherence to Scotland's 

Reformation and Covenants, 

National and Solemn League. 

This narrative runs round the outer edge of the 
stone, forming a framework for the following linee: — 

Behold ! Behold 1 a stone's here forced to cry, 

Come, see two martyrs under me that ly. 

At Water of Dee they ta'en were by the hands 

Of cruel Claverhouse and's bloody bands. 

No sooner had he done this horrid thing 

But's forced to cry, " Stewart's soul in Heaven doth sing " ; 

Yet, strange, his rage pursued even such when dead. 

And in the tombs of their ancestors laid ; 

Causing their corpse be raised out of the same. 

Discharging in churchyard to bury them, — 

All this they did, 'cause they would not perjure 

Our Covenants and Reformation pure ; 

Because like faithful Martyrs for to die 

They rather chose than treacherously comply 

With cursed prelacy, this nation's bane 

And with indulgence, our Churches stain 

Perjured intelligencers were so rife 

Shew'd their cursed loyalty— to take their life. 

Robert Stewart was the son of Major Stewart of 
Ardoch, about two miles north of Dairy. The in- 
scription plainly implies that the bodies of Robert 
Stewart and John Grierson had been buried in the 
graves of their ancestors, but that Claverhouse had 


ordered them to be disinterred as traitors. They were 
re-interred in the most northern part of the church- 
yard, the part assigned to criminals. 

A small moss grown stone marks the spot where 
the dust of Ferguson lies in the loneliest of graves. It 
has the following inscription: — 

Memento Mori. 

Here lyes Robert Ferguson 

who was surprised and instantly shot 

to death on this place by Graham 

of Claverhouse for his adherence 

to Scotland's Reformation Covenants, 

National and Solemn League, 


A handsome monument has been erected near by, 
bearing the following inscription: — 


in memory of the martyrs 

R. Ferguson, J. McMichan, 

R. Stewart & J. Grierson, 

who fell on this spot 18 Dec. 1684, 

from a collection made here 

on the 18th August, 1835, 

and the profits of a sermon, afterwards 

published, preached on that day 

by the Rev. R. Jeffrey of Girthon, 

Daniel 3, 17-18. 


Two other prisoners were taken to Kirkcudbright, 
and there hanged and beheaded. They were buried in 
Kirkcudbright churchyard, and a stone was afterwards 
erected to their memory. It is a flat stone about six 
feet long by two feet six inches. The inscription on 
it shows that they were not allowed to speak when 
brought to the gibbet, and they were not allowed to 
write to their relations. The following is the inscrip- 
tion: — 

This monument shall shew posterity 
Two headles martyres under it doth lie 
By bloody Grahame were taken and surprised 
W •*■ Brought to this toun and afterwards were saiz'd 
§ 2 ^y unjust law were sentenced to die. 
H Them first they hanged then headed cruely 

§ K Captans Douglas Bruce Grahame of Claverhouse 
O « Were these that caused them to be handled thus 
"^ S And when they were unto the Gibbet come 
S r^ To stope there speech they did beat up the drum 
M ai And all becaus that they would not comply 
J § With indulgence and bloody prelacie 
S Q In face of cruel Bruce Douglas and Grahame 

They did maintaine that Christ was Lord supream 

And boldly ouned both the covenants 

At Kirkcudbright thus ended these two saints. 




Born in Ayiahire about 1626 — Minister of New Luce, 1659 — 
Ejected by the Drunken Act, 1662 — Farewell services — ^A 
wanderer among the wilds of the South-west of Scotland — 
Charged with conventicle keeping — Joined Dairy rising but 
left them at Lanark — Forfeited by Act, 1669 — ^Miraculous 
escapes — ^Arrested by Major Cowburn and sent to Bass 
Hock — Transferred to Edinburgh Tolbooth — Sentenced to be 
transported to Virginia — Sails from Leith with sixty others 
banished — Foretells their delivery — Liberated — Returns to 
Scotland — Foretells the Covenanters' defeat at Bothwell — 
Preaching in Galloway — Predicts his own death, and that his 
body will be raised from the grave — His prophecy of the 
death of John Brown fulfilled — His last illness, death, and 
burial — His body raised from the grave, and re-interred 
by the soldiers at Cunmock — Tombstone and inscription — 
■Monument and inscription. 

One of the most inspiring patriots of the Covenanting 
times was Peden the Prophet. He was born at the 
farmhouse of Auchenloich in Sorn, Ayrshire, about 
1626. Where he received his earlier education is not 
known, but he studied at Glasgow University, and was 
afterwards School-master and Precentor and Session 
Clerk to the Rev. Mr. Guthrie at Tarbolton. 

Having been licensed to preach, he was, in 1659, 
appointed minister of New Luce which, twelve years 
before, had been separated from Glen Luce. 


Here he continued for three years until ejected by. 
the Drunken Act of Glasgow in 1662. He was greatly 
beloved by his people, and when he preached his fare- 
well sermon, they were much affected and could 
scarcely drag themselves away, continuing with him 
at the church till darkness fell. His farewell sermon 
was from Acts xx. 31:— " Therefore, watch and 
remember that by the space of three years I ceased not 
to warn every one night and day with tears," asserting 
that he had declared unto them the whole counsel of 
God, and professing that he was free from the blood 
of all men. In the afternoon, he preached from the 
32nd verse: — "And now, brethren, I commend you to 
God and to the word of his grace." 

When he left, he closed the door behind him, raised 
the Bible and knocked with it three times on the door, 
saying in the hearing of them all, " I arrest thee in 
my Master's name that none enter thee but such as 
come in by the door as I have done." It is remarkable 
that no curate or minister who had accepted the hated 
Indulgence ever entered the pulpit. 

Peden took to wandering among the people of the 
South-west of Scotland, preaching, baptising, and 
generally carrying out the office of the ministry. He 
was cited in 1665 to appear before the Council in 
Edinburgh, but paid no attention, and was declared a 
rebel. In the preamble of a letter issued against him 
by the Council, conventicles are declared to be semin- 
aries of rebellion, and the not joining with the public 
ordinary meetings for divine worship to be seditious, 
and after reciting the names of Welsh, Blackader, 


Peden, and others, their seditious practice and example 
is specified. Of Peden it is affirmed — " The said Mr. 
Alexander Peden did keep a conventicle at Ralston 
in the parish of Kilmarnock, about the 10th of October 
last, where he baptised the children of Adam Dickie, 
Robert Lymburner, and many others; as also kept a 
conventicle in Cragie parish, at the Castle-hill, where 
he baptised the children of William Gilmor in Kil- 
marnock, and Gabriel Simpson, both in the said parish, 
and that besides twenty-three children more; both 
wliich conventicles were kept under cloud of night, 
with a great deal of confusion: as also the said Mr. 
Alexander rides up and down the country with sword 
and pistols, in grey cloths." 

Peden joined the rising at Dairy, but left them at 
Lanark. Afterwards, when one of his friends said 
to him, " Sir, you did well that left them, seeing you 
were persuaded that they would fall and flee before the 
evening," he was offended, and replied, " Glory, glory 
to God that he sent me not to hell immediately, for 
I should have stayed with them though I had been 
cut to pieces." 

Though not at Rullion Green, his name was included 
amongst those against whom the doom of forfeiture 
was pronounced by the Act of Parliament in 1669, as 
participators in the outbreak. 

About this time he had a wonderful deliverance. 
He was riding with Welsh, the Laird of Glenover, 
when they met a party of horsemen whom there was 
no avoiding. The Laird was terrified, but Peden said, 
" Keep up your courage, for God hath laid an arrest on 


these men that they shall do us no harm." When they 
met, they were courteous, and asked the way. Peden 
went oS his road to show them the ford on the water 
of Titt. When he returned, the Laird said, " Why 
did you go? You might have let the lad go." " They 
might have asked the lad questions and might have 
discovered us," replied Peden. " As for me I knew 
they would be like Egyptian dogs. They could not 
move a tongue against me, my time not being yet 

Tradition records many of Peden's weary wander- 
ings and marvellous and miraculous escapes during 
the next seven years. In 1673, however, he was 
arrested in the house of Hugh Ferguson of Knockdoon, 
Colmonell, Ayrshire. Ferguson was fined a thousand 
merks for sheltering him, and Peden was sent to the 
Bass Eock, then the State prison, where he remained 
till October, 1677, when he was transferred to 
Edinburgh Tolbooth. Major Cowburn got £50 for 
arresting him. In a petition to the Council on Novem- 
ber 14th, 1678, Peden tells that he had lain in 
Edinburgh Tolbooth for a long time, and asks per- 
mission to go to Ireland, where he had formerly lived 
for some years. 

He was sentenced to be transported to Virginia. 

Along with sixty others, he was sent from Leith in 
the 6'^. Michael of Scarborough on the voyage to 
London. It was a sad party that set sail from the 
Scotch port. Peden, however, assured his fellow 
passengers that they would be set at liberty, and, owing 


to some mismanagement in the arrangements, or, as 
others state, through the good offices of Lord Shafts- 
bm-y, they were all set free when they got to London. 
Returning to Scotland in June, 1679, Peden at once set 
himself to the work so dear to his heart. On the way 
to Scotland, he waited a Sabbath at a Border village, 
and kept himself retired till about the middle of the 
day, when some of his friends told him they wera 
waiting expecting him to preach. He said, " Let the 
people go to their prayers. As for me I neither can 
nor will preach this day, for our friends are fallen and 
fled before the enemy at Hamilton, and they are 
hashing and bagging them down, and their blood is 
running like water." This was the 22nd of .June, 
the day of the Covenanters' defeat at Bothwell. 

When he arrived in Galloway, much of his time was 
taken up praying earnestly for those taken prisoners 
at Bothwell, for with prophetic vision he declared that 
" the wild sea billows would be the winding sheet of 
many of them." The vessel on which they were sent 
to America was wrecked among the Orkney Islands, 
and nearly two hundred and fifty souls found a watery 

He also predicted his own death, and that his body 
would be taken out of the grave again. " I shall die 
in a few days," he said, " but having foretold many 
things which will require some time before they are 
verified, I will give you a sign which will confirm your 
expectation that they shall as truly come to pass as 
those you have already seen accomplished before your 


eyos. I shall be decently buried by you, but if my 
body is suffered to rest in the grave where you will lay 
it, then I shall have been a deceiver, and the Lord hath 
not spoken by me, whereas if the enemy come a little 
time afterwards to take it up and carry it away to bury 
it in an ignominious place, then I hope you will 
believe that the God Almighty hath spoken by me, 
and consequently shall not one word fall to the 

Nothing is better authenticated than that when 
John Brown of Priesthill and Marion Weir were 
married by Peden, he turned to the latter and said, 
" You have got a good man to be your husband, but 
you will not enjoy him long. Prize his company and 
keep linen by you to be his winding sheet, for you 
will need it when you are not looking for it, and it 
will be a bloody one." 

This was in June, 1682. In the end of April, 1685, 
he came to the house of this worthy couple and 
remained for the night. In the morning, when taking 
farewell, he muttered as if speaking to himself, " Poor 
woman, a fearful morning, a dark misty morning, 
poor woman!" Next morning, between six and seven 
o'clock, Brown was shot by Claverhouse at his door 
in presence of his young wife and children. Peden, 
who had been out in the fields all that night, was then 
eleven or twelve miles distant. Coming to a house in 
the morning, he called the family together that he 
might pray with them, and in the course of his prayer 
he used these words, " Lord, when wilt thou avenge 


Brown's blood, and let Brown's blood be precious in 
Thy sight." When he had finished, he was asked what 
he meant. " What do I mean?" he replied. " Claver- 
house has been at Priesthill this morning, and has 
cruelly murdered John Brown. His corpse is lying 
at the end of the house, and his poor wife is weeping 
by it, and not a soul to speak comfort to her." 

Many and varied were the prophecies of Peden that 
literally came to pass; many the judgments he pro- 
nounced that were fulfilled, and many the prayers he 
breathed that seemed to be instantly answered. It has 
been said by M 'Gavin in connection with his prophecies 
that " sagacious foresight was made to have the appear- 
ance of the prophetic spirit," and Dr. John Ker speaks 
of " the keen insight of his sayings, which amounted 
to foresight," but it requires something far above and 
beyond all this to explain many of his prophecies which 
undoubtedly happened as he foretold. There was the 
prophecy of the martyrdom of John Brown, the 
prophecy of his own burial, of his body being raised 
again and re-buried, and the sign he spoke of in 
connection with it. No sagacious foresight can 
possibly account for these, and " although these things 
are now made to yield to the force of ridicule, the 
sarcasm of the profane, and the fashions of an 
atheistical generation, yet one must conclude with the 
spirit of God that the secrets of the Lord both have 
been, are, and will be with them who fear His name." * 

* Scots Worthies, article Peden, p. 517 of fourth edition. 


After wandering about through Galloway and Ayr- 
shire, he arrived back at his native parish, and near 
the Lugar he had a cave dug with a willow bush 
covering the mouth of it. This was not far from his 
brother's house at Ten Shillingside, and for a while it 
proved a safe retreat. At length, however, feeling his 
end drawing near, he left the cave and went to his 
brother's house, which was only a little distance from 
Auchenleok House, the seat of the Boswells. His 
brother and family, knowing that he was being 
searched for, implored him to return to the cave. 
" That," he said, " is discovered, but no matter, for 
within forty-eight hours I shall be beyond the reach 
of them all." A few hours after this, his pursuers 
came, found the cave, but no one in it, and then 
advanced to the house, expecting to find him there. 
The family, however, had hid him, and the soldiers 
did not discover him. 

Peden died as he foretold on 26th January, 1680, 
and was buried in the churchyard of Auchenleck, but 
the soldiers came soon afterwards to the grave, broke 
open the coffin, drew off his shirt, and threw it on a 
neighbouring bush. They carried his body to Cum- 
nock with the intention of hanging it on the gallows 
tree, but the Earl of Dumfries told the officers in 
command that the gallows had been erected for thieves, 
robbers, murderers, and not for men like Peden. His 
remains were accordingly buried beside it. This 
ground afterwards became the burial-place for the 


parish, and a tombstone was erected over his remains, 
with the following inscription: — 

Here Lies 


A Faithful Minister of the 

Grospel sometime 

of Glenluce 

who departed this life 

26th. of January 1686, 

And was raised after six weeks 

out of the grauf, 

and buried here, 

out of 



In 1891, a handsome monument of Aberdeen granite 
was erected beside the grave, mainly through the 
exertions of Mr. A. B. Todd, that Grand Old Man 
of Covenanting lore. At the inauguration ceremony, 
Mr. Todd said that the corroding tooth of time might 
cause that granite pile to crumble into dust, " but even 
though such should be the case, or though the thunder- 
bolts of the sky should shiver it to pieces, still the 
memory of Peden and of the martyrs of the Covenant 
can never perish, for they are star-traced in the 
heaveuB." The late Professor Blackie took a 
prominent part in the proceedings. 


The monument has the following inscription : — 

In Memory 


(A Native of Som) 






Peden was never married. His brother's descendants 
towever are very numerous, and naturally take a great 
interest in all that pertains to the history of Peden the 




Martyrs' tombstone to John Wallace, WiUiam Heron, John 
Gordon, and William Stuart — Monument and inscription — 
Story of their martyrdom — Edward Gordon and Alexander 
M'Cubbin hanged at Irongray — Tombstone and inscription — 
Robert Grierson banished to West Indies, and returns after 
the Bevolution. 

LocHENKiT is a small sheet of water in the parish of 
Kirkpatrick-durham, in the Stewartry. About half 
a mile to the west is a martyrs' tombstone, with the 
following inscription: — 


Four martyrs, John Wallace, William 
Heron, John Gordon, and William 
Stewart, found out and shot dead 
upon this place by Captain Bruce 
and Captain Lag for their adhearing 
to the Word of God, Christ's Kingly 
Government in his house and the 
Covenanted work of reformation 
against Tyranny, Perjury, Prelacy, 

2 March MDCLXXXV. 

Rev. Chap. xii. ver. 11. 



Here in this wilderness we lie 
Four witnesses of hellish cruelty 
Our lives and blood could not their ii-e assuage 
But when we're dead they did against us rage 
That match the like we think ye scarcely can 
Except the Turk or Duke de Alva's men. 

Repaired by the friends of civil and 
religious Liberty. 

Close by, a handsome monument has been erected 
on an eminence that enables it to be seen from a great 
distance. It is a square obelisk of gray granite, 
surmounted by a hand pointing to Heaven. On the 
side facing the martyrs' tombstone is the following 
inscription: — 






In February, 1685, Captain Bruce and a party of 
dragoons, who had been hunting the hills and moors of 
Galloway for Covenanters, came upon some at Lochen- 
kit. Four of them, John Gordon, William Stewart, 
William Heron, and John Wallace, were shot on the 
spot. Two others, Edward Gordon and Alexander 
M'Cubhin of Glencairn, were taken prisoners, and 
carried to the Bridge of Urr, where Lagg was pressing 
the abjuration oath upon the country people. These 
two refused to take the oath, and Captain Bruce in- 
terceded for them and desired that an Assize should 
be called at once to try them. Lagg swore he would 
seek no Assize, and in a bravado said that all who had 
taken the oath had sworn these men's doom. The 
Captain, however, got the matter put off till the 
morning, and then they marched to Irongray, where 
the two were hanged upon a growing tree near 
Irongray Church, and left hanging for some time. 
They were afterwards buried at the foot of the tree. 
Just before his execution, M'Cubhin was asked by a 
friend if he had any word to send to his wife. " I will 
leave her and the two babes upon the Lord and to His 
promise. A father to the fatherless and a judge of 
the widows is God in His holy habitation." When 
the person employed to carry out the sentence asked 
his forgiveness, he replied, " Poor man, I forgive thee 
and all men. Thou hast a miserable calling upon 

A stone was afterwards erected to their memory, 
with the following inscription: — 


Here lyes Edward Go 

rdon and Alexander 

M'Cubine, Marty res 

hanged without 

Law by Lag and Cap. 

Bruce for adhereing 

To the word of God 

Christ's Kingly Gover 

ment in His House 

And the covenanted 

Work of Reformation 

Against tyranny 

Perjury and Prelacy 

Rev. xii. 12. March 3. 1685. 

As Lagg and bloodie 

Bruce command 
We were hung up by 

Hellish hand 
And thus the furio 

Us rage to stay 
We dyed near Kirk 

Of Irongray. 
Here now in peace 
Sweet rest we take 
Once murder'd for 

Religion's sake. 

Tradition tells us that the reason these men were 
executed near Irongray Church was that it might be 
within sight of Hallhill, then occupied by a family 
named Ferguson, well known for their attachment to 
the principles of the Covenanted Reformation. It was 


thought that the sight of the execution would over-awe 
the Fergusons. It had quite the opposite effect. A 
young daughter of the family came to the martyrs 
when they were brought to the place of execution, and 
tied a handkerchief over their eyes. For this she was 
banished, and went to Lisbon, where she married a 
carpenter, and lived to a ripe old age. It is said that 
seventy years after the execution, on 1st November, 
1755, the day of the great earthquake, when the city 
was all but entirely destroyed, and when from thirty to 
sixty thousand people lost their lives, she was sitting 
on a plank by the riverside when the sea came up, 
rising like a mountain. Multitudes of people were 
swept back to a watery grave when it retired, but it 
carried her on before it, and left her high and dry 
on the land. 

The two others who were taken prisoners were 
banished to the West Indies. One of the two was 
Robert Grierson, farmer, in Loehenkit. He had for 
long been mourned as dead, but one night after the 
Revolution, his wife thought she heard a footstep out- 
side the house, and going to the door, the dog left her 
and bounded forward. She heard a voice addressing 
it, and said to herself, " If my husband had been alive, 
I would have said that is he with the dog." In a few 
minutes she was in his arms. He lived and died at 
Loehenkit, and the late Rev. Alexander Grierson, 
M.A., minister of the Free Church, Irongray, was 
one of his descendantB. 

Mr. James M'Cubbin, Ivy Lodge, Crawford, is a 
descendant of Alexander M'Cubbin, and possesses his 


Bible. Needless to say, it is carefully preserved. It 
is a small folio, dated " Edinburgh. Printed by 
Andro Hart, and are to be solde at his Buith, on the 
North Side of the Gates, a little beneath the Crosse. 
Anno Dom., 1610." 




Earlston Castle— Bisciples of Wickliffe welcomed to Eailston — 
Religions meetinga in Wood of Airds— Alexander Gordon, 
refasing to receive curate at Dairy, is fined and banished to 
ilontrose — Member of General Assembly of 1638 — The Bishop 
unsuccessfully objects to him — Some of Rutherford's letters 
addressed to his son William — William refuses to assist 
Commission to settle curate at Irongray, and himself claims 
the right of patronage — Indicted for conTenticle keeping 
and banished — Returns to Scotland — Prepares to join 
the Covenanters at Bothwell, but, being delayed, sends his 
son and follows later — ]Srot knowing of the Covenanters' 
defeat, he encounters a body of English dragoons at Crookit- 
stone, and refusing to submit is killed — ^Buried in Glassford 
churchyard — Monument to his memory and inscription — ^His 
son's narrow escapes — Alexander Gordon elected by the 
Societies to advocate their cause abroad — He is apprehended 
while setting sail at Newcastle, and casts his papers over- 
board — He is taken to London, sent to Scotland, and con- 
demned to be beheaded — Intention to torture him to get 
confessions and implicate others— Thrice reprieved, and then 
sent to Bass Rock — The Revolution sets him free — Lady 
EarUton's Soliloquies — Earlston a member of the Convention 
which settled the Crown on William and Mary. 

Earlston Castle occupies an attractive position in the 
Glenkens of Galloway, and is the ancient home of 
the Gordons of Earlston, who played a prominent part 
in the troublous times in Galloway. They were indeed 
among the first in Scotland to imbibe the tenets of the 


Reformation. Some of the disciples of Wickliffe were 
welcomed to Galloway by Alexander Gordon of Airds 
about the beginning of the sixteenth century, and the 
Gordons had a copy of the New Testament, which was 
read at some of their meetings in the Wood of Airds. 
At that time to have a copy of the sacred law wafil 
illegal, and entailed severe punishment. Alexander 
Gordon was a man of great size and strength. Living 
in the same house with his son, grandchildren, and 
great-grandchildren till he was over a hundred years 
old, he became known as " The Patriarch." When the 
Roman Catholics got an Act passed for the better 
observance of Saint and other days, prohibiting all 
labour, and enacting that beasts of burden, if em- 
ployed, would be forfeited, he very shrewdly outwitted 
the legislators by yoking one Christmas day ten of 
his sons to the plough with the youngest as driver, 
he himself holding the stilts, and thus turned over the 
soil, breaking the law without forfeiting his team. 
He had a family of eleven sons and nine daughters. 
He died in 1580, and was succeeded by his son John. 

In 1635, Sydeserf, the bishop of Galloway, ap- 
pointed a curate to Dairy without consulting the 
people. Alexander Gordon of Earlston, great-grand- 
son of the Patriarch, refused to receive him, and was 
summoned before the Diocesan Commission Court. 
He failed to appear, was fined, and banished to Mon- 
trose. Although he had the superintendence of Lord 
Kenmure's Estate, and Lord Lome, one of Kenmure's 
tutors, requested the remission of the sentence, the 


Bishop remained inexorable, and insisted oa it being 
carried out. Ever afterwards, Gordon took an active 
part with the Covenanters. He was appointed one of 
the elders sent by the Presbytery of Kirkcudbright to 
the Assembly of 1638. Along with Dickson of Irvine, 
and Samuel Rutherfurd of Anwoth, he was objected 
to by the bishops as incompetent because lying under 
the censure of the Church. These three were heard in 
their defence, and Argyle supported Earlston's state- 
ment. The result was that the Assembly accepted the 
defence, and the three took a prominent part in the 
Assembly proceedings. Gordon was one of the Com- 
missioners for the Stewartry in the Parliament of 
1641. He and his son John were members of the 
Covenanters' War Committee for the Stewartry. He 
died in 1654, and John having predeceased him, he 
was succeeded by his second son William. 

It may be noted in passing that five of Rutherfurd's 
letters are addressed to William. Indeed, as early as 
1637, Rutherfurd thus admonished him: — " Sir, lay 
the foundation thus, and ye shall not shrink nor be 
shaken; make tight work at the bottom, and your ship 
shall ride against aU storms; if withal your anchor be 
fastened on good ground, I mean within the vail." 

WiUiam was educated for the Church of Scotland. 
When the Civil War broke out, he had command of 
a company under Leslie. He was fined £3,500 for 
his adherence to the Covenanters. 

In 1663, when a commission was appointed to 
enquire into the question of the settlement of curates 


at Irongray aud Kirkcudbright, on account of the 
opposition offered by the women of these places, 
William Gordon was ordered by the commission to 
assist the bishop in settling a curate at Dairy in room 
of John M'Michan who was evicted. The letter is in 
the following terms: — 

" Kirkcudbright, 2l8t May, 1663. 
" Sir; 

" We doubt not but you heard, that the lords 
of his Majesty's privy council have commissioned 
us to come to this country, as to take course with 
the seditious tumult raised in this place so as to 
do everything that may contribute to the settling 
of the peace here, and to be assisting to the Bishop 
for the planting of other vacant churches, by the 
withdrawing of the respective ministers: and 
finding the church of Dairy to be one of those, 
and that the bishop hath presented an actual 
minister, Mr. George Henry, fit and qualified for 
the charge, now being, according to the Act of 
parliament, fallen into his hand, jure devoluto, 
and that the gentleman is to come to your parish 
this Sabbath next to preach to that people, and 
that you are a person of special interest there; 
according to the power and trust committed to us, 
we do require you to cause his edict to be served, 
and the congregation convene, and to countenance 
him so as he be encouraged to prosecute his 


ministry in that Place. In doing whereof, as 
you will witness your respect to authority so 
oblige us to remain, 

" Sir, 

Your loving friends and servants, 

" Linlithgow, Annandale, 
"Galloway, Drumlanerk." 

He replied that, as patron, he had with the approval 
of the people already taken steps to secure " a truly 
worthy and qualified person. I have ever judged it 
safest to obey God, and stand at a distance from what- 
somever doth not tend to God's glory and the edification 
of the souls of his scattered people, of which this con- 
gregation is a part. And besides, My Lords, it is 
known to many that I pretend to lay claim to the right 
of patronage of this parish and have already deter- 
mined therein, with the consent of the people, upon a 
truly worthy and qualified person and an actual 
minister that he may be admitted to exercise his gifts 
amongst that people; and for me to condescend to 
countenance the bearer of your Lordship's letter were to 
procure me most impiously and dishonourably to wrong 
the majesty of God, and violently to take away the 
Christian liberty of his afflicted people, and enervate 
my own right." He was cited to appear before the 
Council in July to answer for his seditious and factious 
carriage, but nothing seems to have followed, and in 


November following he was cited on a charge of 
keeping conventicles and private meetings in his house, 
" to answer for his contempt under pain of rebellion," 
and the following March an indictment was drawn 
up against him, as follows: — 

" That he had been at three several conventicles, 
where Mr. Gabriel Semple, a deposed minister, 
did preach, viz., one in Corsock Wood, and the 
other two in the Wood of Airds, at all which there 
were great numbers of people; that he did hear 
Mr. Kobert Paton, a deposed minister, expound 
a text of Scripture, and perform other acts of 
Worship in his mother's house; and that Mr. 
Thomas Thomson, another deposed minister, did 
lecture in his own house to the family on a 
Sabbath day; and that being required to enact 
himself to abstain from all such meetings in time 
coming, and to live peaceably and orderly conform 
to law, he refused to do the same." 

The punishment was : — 

" To be banished, and to depart forth of the 
kingdom within a month after date hereof, and 
not to return under pain of death; and that he 
enact himself to live peaceably and orderly during 
the said month under the pain of ten thousand 
pounds, or otherwise to enter his person in 


He seems to have gone into banishment for some 
time, but after Pentland he was allowed to return to 

Hearing of the rising after Drumclog, he prepared 
to join the Covenanters, but was delayed by circum- 
stances at home, and sent his son Alexander. He 
collected some friends to go with him to join the 
Covenanters, and as he was passing the Castle of 
Threave with some of them, he said, " Gentlemen, I 
was the man that commanded the party which took 
this Castle from the late King, who had in it two 
hundred of the name Maxwell, of whom the greatest 
part being Papists, we put them all to the sword, and 
demolished the Castle as you see it, and now (though 
an old man) I take up arms against the son, whom 
I hope to see go the same way that his father went, 
for we can never put trust in a Covenant-breaker; so, 
gentlemen, your cause is good — you need not fear to 
fight against a foresworn king." 

He was met at Crookitstone by a party of English 
dragoons, and, unaware of the Covenanters' defeat at 
Bothwell, he refused to be sworn, and was shot down. 
Permission was denied to have him buried at Earlston, 
and he was buried in the churchyard of Glassford, the 
parish where he fell. A monument was erected shortly 
afterwards, but the times were too troublesome for an 
inscription to be put on it, and it remained without 
one till 1772, as the inscription shows: — 


To the memory of the very Worthy Pillar of the 
church, Mr. William Gordon of Earliston in Gallo- 
-way, shot by a partie of dragoons on his 
way to Bothwellbridge, 22nd June 1679, 
aged 65, inscribed by his great grand- 
son, Sir John Gordon, Bart, 11 June, 1772. 

Silent till now full ninety years hath stood, 

This humble Monument of Guiltless Blood, 

Tyranick Sway, forbad his fate to name 

Least his known worth should prove the Tyrant's shame 

On Bothwell road with love of Freedom fir'd 

The tyrant's minions boldly him requir'd 

To stop and yield, or it his life would cost. 

This he disdained not knowing all was lost, 

On which they fir'd. Heaven so decreed his doom. 

Far from his own laid in this silent Tomb. 

How leagu'd with Patriots to maintain the Cause 


How learn 'd, how soft his manner, free from Pride, 

How clear his Judgment, and how he liv'd and dy'd. 

They well could tell who weeping round him stood. 

On Strevan plains that drank his Patriot Blood. 


By Sir John Gordon, Bart., 

of Earlston. 

His Representative. 


Oa the other side of the monument, facing the road 
that runs past the manse, are the lines — 





His son, Alexander Gordon, had a narrow escape 
after the battle. Riding through Hamilton, he was 
recognised by one of his tenants and was persuaded 
to dismount and disguise himself in female attire, 
while the horse's harness was concealed in a dunghill. 
In this disguise he betook himself to the rocking of 
a cradle in which a child lay asleep, and so escaped 
detection; but for several years afterwards he had to 
remain in concealment. His house at Earlston was 
made a garrison for the soldiers so that he durst not; 
enter it, but he found a refuge in a small building in 
the thickest part of the woods, not far from his home. 

After Bothwell, he had many narrow escapes from 
capture. On one occasion when troopers came to the 
house, he hastily arrayed himself in the clothes of a 
workman, and was busily employed cleaving wood with 
the assistance of a female servant. The commander 
asked the wood cleavers if Earlston was within, and 
receiving an answer in the negative, ordered Gordon 
to throw down his axe and assist in the search. Hei 
complied with an air of indifference as if it were all 
the same to him whether he was splitting firewood or 
searching for fugitives. He conducted them through 
the house, but their search was in vain. 

On another occasion he escaped detection by 
climbing an enormous oak tree, to which he had a rope 
attached for the purpose, and hiding among its leafyi 

In 1680, the Government made the rising at Both- 
well a pretext for persecuting all who refused to 
conform to Episcopacy. Galloway was the first to 


suffer. On 18th February, Patrick M'DQuall of 
Freugh, William Ferguson of Kaitlock, William 
Gordon, elder, and Alexander Gordon, younger, of 
Earlston, James Gordon, younger, of Craichlaw, 
William Gordon of Culvennan, Patrick Dunbar of 

Machermore, and M'Ghie of Larg were called 

before the Justiciary Court, and hired witnesses having 
deponed to their accession to the rebellion, they wera 
found guilty, and ordered to be executed when taken, 
and their property confiscated to his Majesty's use. 
William Gordon of Earlston had been killed after the 
action, but the prosecution was conducted against him, 
that his estates might be forfeited. Alexander Gordon 
and his wife retired to Holland for some time,, 
returning in 1681 . 

At a general meeting of the Societies, originally 
formed to oppose the Test Act, on March 15th, 1682, 
Alexander Gordon was elected to go to foreign nations 
to represent their case to the Reformed Churches there. 
Supplied with money collected by the Societies to 
defray the expenses, he went by London to the Nether- 

Earlston was soon associated with Sir Robert Hamil- 
ton, who was brother to the Laird of Preston, to whose 
sister Earlston was married, and they seem to have 
been stationed at Leeward en in Fries-land. One result 
of their labours was that James Renwick went over to 
Holland, finished his studies for the ministry, and 
received ordination. 

In 1683, Earlston returned home, and at the eighth 
general meeting of the Societies, held in Edinburgh on 


May 8th, he gave an account of his lahours, greatly 
to the satisfaction of those present. 

He was again elected to be sent abroad, and set sail 
from Newcastle for Holland, but just as the ship was 
leaving, it went aground and some officers came on 
board, and challenged Earlston and his servant,* 
travelling under the names of Alexander Pringle and 
Edward Livingstone. For some reason, they threw 
their papers overboard, and the officers, expecting great 
discoveries from these, recovered them at great trouble 
and danger. Earlston and his servant were sent to 
London, but nothing of any importance was found in 
their papers. 

Soon afterwards, Earlston was sent back to Scotland, 
and was examined by the Council again and again to 
see if he had any connection with the Ryehouse Plot, 
but nothing was found against him. At last, on 21st 
August, they condemned him to be beheaded at the 
Cross on the 28th. After sentence, the idea of torture 
suggested itself to the Council, but they were in a 
difficulty as to whether there was law for torturing a 
criminal under sentence of death. As there were only 
three members in Edinburgh, they wrote to London 
for guidance. A month passed before the answer came 
that, although he could not be put to torture for 
matters relating to the cause for which he was con- 
demned, yet he might be tortured with respect to 
conspiracies and crimes that had happened since. 
Accordingly, the Council met to examine him, with 

* Edward Aitken. See page 209. 


the instrument of torture standing by, but it was 
not applied, as he satisfied them he would be more full 
in his answers without the torture than with it. The 
answers contained nothing that implicated either 
Earlston or the Society People in any attempt against 
the King. 

On November 23rd, another letter came from the 
King, ordering the Council to put him to the torture, 
but when ho was brought in and ordered to the boots, 
he became furious and tossed the soldiers about the 
room, to the terror of the Council, who bolted till he 
was secured. Physicians declared that he was too ill 
to undergo torture, and he was afterwards reprieved 
three times, and in May was sent to the Bass where 
he was kept till the Revolution set him free. 

His wife, Janet Hamilton, daughter of Sir Thomas 
Hamilton of Preston, was no ordinary woman. She 
was a correspondent of James Renwick, and many of 
his letters were addressed to her. Her religious 
meditations have been frequently published under the 
title of Lady Earlston' s Soliloquies. 

Earlston was a member of the Scottish Convention 
which declared the Throne vacant, and settled the 
Crown on William and Mary. He became the com- 
mander of the Stewartry Militia, commissioner of 
supply, and lived till after 1726. 




William M'Millan. of Caldow persecuted and becomes fugitive — 
Goes to Ireland — Licensed to preach — ^Arrested in Galloway — 
Extract from Kirkcudbright Burgh Becords, showing an 
order for his removal to Edinburgh Tolbooth — Imprisoned 
at Dumfries for thirty-five months without any charge — 
Liberated — ^Failing to appear is denounced rebel — ^Arrested 
and taken to Wigtown — Sent to Kirkcudbright and then to 
Dumfries Castle — Imprisoned in Edinburgh and afterwards 
at Dnnottar. 

William M'Millan of Caldow, in the parish of 
Balmaclellan, after the re-introduction of Prelacy, was 
persecuted by Mr. Robert Moir, curate of Bal- 
maclellan, assisted by Sir James Turner. He was 
obliged to leave his mother's house for mere non- 
conformity, and to live as a fugitive. He took no part 
in the Dairy rising, yet Sir William Bannantyne 
quartered his men upon his family, apprehended him- 
self, and kept him prisoner for some time in the house 
of Earlston then held as a garrison. His goods and 
furniture were seized, notwithstanding he had given 
bond for £1,000 to answer for anything that could be 
laid to his charge. He went frequently to Ireland to 
escape persecution, and was prevailed upon by the 
Presbyterian ministers of the County of Down to 
qualify as a minister, and was licensed to preach about 


the year 1673. When in the most peaceable manner he 
was preaching in Galloway, he was informed against 
by the prelates, and the Earl of Nithsdale sent two 
of his militia troop — Alexander Maxwell, afterwards 
of Cowheath, and William Glendoning of Parton — 
with some other violent Papists, who seized him and 
carried him to Kirkcudbright. The following extract 
regarding him is taken from the Burgh Eecords of 
Kirkcudbright : — 

" At Kirkcudbright, the 13th day of November, 
1676. The quhilk day, Thomas Lidderdaill of 
St. Marie's Isle, Stewart deput of the Stewartrie 
of Kirkcudbright, presented to Samuel Carmont, 
ane of the bailzies of the said Burgh ane order 
direct from the Lords of his Majestie's Privie 
Counsell, Quhairby the said Lords doe ordaine 
Maister William M'Millan, ane noted keiper of 
field conventicles, now prisoner in the tolbooth 
of the said Burgh of Kirkcudbright, to be trans- 
ported to the tolbooth of Edinburgh. And for 
that effect, grants order and warrand to the 
Stewart of the Stewartrie of Kirkcudbright and 
his deputes, within the boundes of whose juris- 
dictione he is incarcerat, to tak the said Mr. 
William M'Millan into his custodie, and to carrie 
him prisoner to the Sheriff of the next adjacent 
shyer, and so furth from shyer to shyer till he 
be brought prisoner to the said tolbooth of Edin- 
burgh. And ordaines the Magistrates of Edin- 
burgh to receive and detain him prisoner therein 


until further order: as the said order subscribed 
by Mr. Alexander Gibson, and datit at Edin- 
burgh the elevint day of October, now last bypast. 
Conforme and in obedience quhairunto the said 
Thomas Lidderdaill, Stewart-deput, hes received 
from the said Samuel Carmont, Bailzie, the said 
Master William M'Millan furth of the said 
tolbooth of Kirkcudbright, and the said Stewart 
deput hath delyvered him to William Herries of 
Cloik, conform to ane order direct from Robert, 
Lord Maxwell, principal Stewart. And the said 
William Herries with his partie, is to convey the 
said Mr. William M'Millan to the Sherff of 
Nithisdaill or his deput, who is the next adjacent 
Sherff; and to get ane ressait of him from them, 
for the said principal Stewart and his deput, their 
exoneratione. As witness their following sub- 

" Tho. Liddekdaill, 

William Herries." 

He was taken to Dumfries, where he was kept 
prisoner without a charge for nearly three years. 
After many applications to the Council, he was 
liberated. He was cited to the first Circuit at Dum- 
fries after Bothwell for reset and converse. He failed 
to appear, and at the Cross of Dumfries was denounced 
rebel and fugitive, and his goods confiscated to the 
King's use. He was obliged to lurk many months in 
the open fields, to the injury of his health, which at 
best was infirm. Those hardships brought on fever. 


and when still suffering from it, lie was, with his 
infirm wife, dragged by the soldiers to the Court at 
Dumfries. Refusing the Test, he was ordered to be 
carried to Wigtown to abide trial there. The soldiers 
forced him to walk till he fainted, and when he fell 
down they seized a young wild colt and set him upon 
it, without saddle or anything under him, to the great 
danger of his life. At Wigtown he had no lodging 
but the open guard house, without any bed for eight 
days, and no place to retire to. When the Lords came 
to Wigtown, he petitioned that he might not have the 
guards continually about him, or that he might be 
allowed to give bond to appear at Edinburgh, but both 
were refused. From Wigtown he was sent to Kirk- 
cudbright, where Lagg, by orders, as he said, from 
Queensberry, threatened him most severely if he would 
not take the Test. He refused, and was sent to 
Dumfries Castle, where he was detained with others 
from 22nd October till 22nd November. On 22nd 
November they were carried to Moffat Kirk, where 
they lay all night cold and wet, and then they werei 
taken to Leith. By order of the Council, M'Millan 
and thirty-four more were distributed to several 
prisons in Edinburgh. About 18th May the following 
year, they were sent to Dunottar. 

A petition was presented to the Privy Council by 
" Grizel Cairns and Alison Johnstone in behalf of 
Mr. William M'Millan and Robert Young, wright in 
Edinburgh, their husbands, and the rest of the 
prisoners," setting forth the lamentable condition in 
which the prisoners were kept. The Privy Council 


gave orders to the Deputy Governor " to permit meat 
and drink and other necessaries to be brought in to 
the petitioners at the ordinary easy rates, and to allow 
the said Mr. William M'Millan and Kobert Young a 
distinct room from the rest." 

It would seem that M'Millan took the Oath of 
Allegiance, and was liberated on an undertaking to 
appear when called on, under penalty of five thousand 

Professor Reid asks the question, " Is Caldow an 
error for Caldons?" There is a stone in Minnigaff 
churchyard which refers to " James M'Millan and 
Anthony, his son, in Caldons," Caldons, of course, 
being in Minnigaff parish. It would appear that the 
M'Millans were connected with both places, for we 
find that, on 10th June, 1674, William M'Millan of 
Caldonis had principal sasine of the land of Caldow 
in BalmacleUan, and in 1682, Thomas, probably the 
son of William, was owner. 

The famous John M'Millan was connected with the 
same family. On the fly-leaf of an old copy of the 
Confession of Faith, in the possession of Mr. John 
M'Millan, Glenhead, the following names have been 
written, evidently as a f amity register: — 

(1) (part destroyed), born 1664. 

(2) JohnM'MiUan, do., 1682. 

(3) James M'Millan, do., 1692. 

(4) Mary M'Millan, do., 1715. 

It has been suggested that this John may have been 
the future minister, but this is extremely doubtful. 


He is believed to have been born at Barncaughla in 
Minnigaff parish in 1669, and he became minister of 
Balmaghie in 1701. He had, while a student, joined 
" the Societies," and he presented a Statement of 
Grievances to the Presbytery in 1703, complaining 
that The Solemn League and Covenant was ignored, 
and that the Church's freedom was invaded by the 
State. He was deposed, but continued to occupy the 
church. He became the pastor of " The Societies," 
and for nearly half a century discharged the oneroua 
duties with matchless zeal and unsurpassed fidelity. 
Some of the chief incidents of his life may be gleaned 
from the following inscription on his monument at 
Dalserf churchyard: — 

East side: — 

A public tribute to the memory of the Rev. John Macmillan, 
minister of Balmaghie in Galloway, and afterwards first 
minister to the United Societies in Scotland, adhering at 
the Revolution to the whole Covenanted Reformation in 
Britain and Ireland, attained between 1638 and 1649. An 
exemplary Christian ; a devoted minister ; and a faithful 
witness to the Cause of Christ : died December First, 
1753, aged eighty-four. 

"Look unto Abraham your father; for I called him 
alone, and blessed him and increased him." — Isa. 

li. 2. 

North side: — 

Mr. Macmillan acceded to the Societies in 1707. The 
Reformed Presbytery was constituted in 1743; and the 
Synod of the Reformed Presbyterian Church in Scotland 
in 1811. 

"Hitherto hath the Lord helped us."— I. Sam. vii. 13. 


South side: — 

Erected at the grave of Mr. Macmillan by the inhabitants 
of the surrounding Country of all denominations, who 
testified their respect to his much venerated memory, by 
attending and liberally contributing at a Sermon Preached 
on the spot, September eighth, 1839, by the Rev. A. 
Symington, D.D., Paisley. 

" Why should not my countenance be sad, when the 
city, the place of my fathers' sepulchres, lieth 
waste."— Nehemiah ii. 3. 

West side: — 

Mr. Macmillan was succeeded in the ministry by his son, the 
Rev. John Macmillan of Sandhills, near Glasgow, who 
died February Sixth, 1808, aged seventy-nine ; and by his 
grand-son, the Rev. John Macmillan, of Stirling, who 
died October Twentieth, 1818, aged sixty-eight. These 
preached the same Gospel, and ably advocated the same 
public cause, adorning it with their lives, and bequeathing 
to it their Testimony and the Memory of the Just. 

"Instead of thy fathers should be thy children." — 
Psalm xli. 16. 

In Balmaghie ohurch a memorial brass has been 
erected, bearing the following inscription: — 

To the Glory of God 
and in memory of 
Born at Barncauchlaw, Minnigaff, 1669 : 
Ordained minister of the Parish of Balmaghie ITOl : 
Accepted the Pastorate of the United Societies 1706 : 
Which office he laboriously discharged for 47 years : 
Died at Broomhill, Bothwell, 1753. Buried in 
Dalserf Churchyard. 

"A Covenanter of the Covenanters: 

A Father of the Reformed Presbyterian Church : 

A Faithful Minister of Jesus Christ." 

This Tablet is placed here by his Great-great-grandson, 

John Grieve, M.D., Glasgow, 1895. 




I7ames of Committee and of those who received theii instructions 
— CommisBioners — Gold and silver plate surrendered for the 
cause — ^List of those delivering up silver work with details — 
Assessment imposed, and crops valued — Valuers — ^Definition 
of " cold covenanter " — ^Reports by members of Committee 
of cold covenanters in their respective parishes. 

When the Covenanters found it necessary to resort to 
arms, a War Committee was formed, and the chief 
covenanting nobleman in each county was placed at 
the head of his regiment with the title of " Crowner," 
and the principal gentry were appointed to act under 
him. The Minute Book of the War Committee of the 
Covenanters in the Stewartry in the year 1640-41 has 
been published, and affords much interesting in- 
formation. The records show that the following 
gentlemen acted on the Committee or received their 
instructions: — Sir Patrick M'Kie of Larg; John, 
third Viscount Kenmure; Alexander Gordon of Earls- 
ton; John Macghie of Balmaghie; William Grierson 
of Bargalton; Kobert M'Clelland, first Lord Kirk- 
cudbright; John Lennox elder of Cally, and Alexander 
Lennox, his son; John FuUerton of Carelton; John 
Gordon of Cardoness; Lord Galloway; John Mac- 
knaoht of Kilquhennatie; Robert Maxwell of Cavence; 


Richard Muir of Cassincarrie (some of these received 
instructions to arrange about providing horses for the 
troops, with arms, etc.); John Cutlar of Orroland, 
John Reddick of Dalbeattie; William Gordon of 
Sherness; William Gordon of Kirkconnel; Thomas 
M'Clellane of CoUyn; Lancelot Grier of Dalskearthe; 
George Glendonyng in Mochrum; David Arnot of 
Barcaple; William Glendonyng, late Provost of Kirk- 
cudbright; Alexander Gordon of Knockgray; Alex- 
ander Gordon of Garlarge; Robert Gordon of Knock- 
brex; John Ewart, bailie of Kirkcudbright; William 
Lyndsay in Fairgirthe; Hew Maxwell in Mersheid; 
and Robert Gordon, brother germane to John Gordon 
of CaronneU. Commissioners were appointed to the 
different parishes on behalf of the Committee to 
recover payment for the soldiers and otherwise to carry 
out the Committee's instructions, and the following 
are the names of some of the commissioners: — Thomas 
Roney of Irongray, Commissioner for that parish; 
William Lindsay for Colvend and the Suddick; Robert 
Maxwell of Cavence for Lochrutton; John Stewart of 
Shambellie for New Abbey; John Charters of Barne- 
cleuche for Terregles; John Brown for Troqueer; 
Hugh Maxwell in Torrorie for Kirkbean; David 
Cannon of Knocks for Buittle. 

The Committee were charged with the raising of 
funds, and those who supported them had to lend what 
money they had, and when this was not suiBcient they 
had to hand in whatever gold and silver plate and 
silver work they possessed, and among those who are 
entered as delivering up silver work, the weight and 


details of which are given, are the following: — John 
Lennox of Kellie; Robert Gordon of Knockbrex; 
George Glendonyng, Mochrum ; Grissell Gordon, spouse 
of Umqle, minister of Urr; Marione M'Clellane, wyff 
of late James Ramsay (ordained to present her Bairnes 
silver work, and that notwithstanding of any reasones 
proponit in the contrair); Erlistoun; Alex. Gordon, 
Carstraman; Kirkconnell; Dabtoun — Andro Chalmers 
of Watersyde — John Charters of Barnacleuche; Robert 
Gordon of Knockbrex, in name of Mrs. Gordon of 
Robertoun; George Livingston of Quintenespie; John 
FuUarton of Carletoun; William Grierson of Bargal- 
toun; Lady Cardyness for her husband. 

As a local writer remarks, great indeed must have 
been the enthusiasm, and equally great the necessity, 
that called for such sacrifice. 

A regular assessment was also imposed, and crops 
were formally valued to ascertain the proportion pay- 
able by the owner to the War Fund. 

Among those appointed as valuers of crops we find 
the following: — John Martin in Newtoun; Gilbert 
Rain in Bishopton; William Rain there; John Robe- 
son; Robert Conquhar in Balgreddan; Donald Wilson 
in Halkit, Leaths; John Maxwell in Guffogland; 
Roger Morrisone in Cassillgour; Adam Wright in 
Dundrennan; John Cultrain and James Malcolm 
there; William Martin of DuUarg; William Gordon 
in Crachie; Alexander M'Kill in Arnemabbock; and 
Fergus Neilson in Glenlair; William Clinton in Carle- 
ton; John Shaw; John M'Dowall in Barholm; and 
Thomas Robeson, Maltman, in Kirkcudbright. 


This Committee carried out its operations in a 
thorough, business-like manner, and was undoubtedly 
the best organised in Scotland. 

The following excerpt from one of the Minutes 
shows that they kept an eye on every person in the 
Stewartry: — 

" The quhilk day, the Committee foirsaid finds 
and declares ane cold covenanter to be suche ane 
persone quha does not his dewtie in everie 
thing committed to his charge, thankfullie and 
willinglie, without compulsion for the further- 
ance of the publict. 

" The quhilk day, Alexander Gordon of Knock- 
grey, Captain of the parochen of Carsfarne, 
declares no cold or uncovenanters within that 

"Alexander Gordon of Erlistone declares no 
cold or uncovenanters to be within the parochen 
of Dairy, whereof he is Captain, except Johne 

" Alexander Gordon of Gairlarg, Captain of the 
parochen of Kelles, declares no cold or uncoven- 
anters to be within the said parochen of Kelles. 

" William Gordon of Shirmers, Captain of the 
parochen of Balmaclellan, declares no cold or 
uncovenanters within his parochen. 

" George Glendonyng of Mochrum, Captain of 
the parochen of Partone, declares the lyke. 

" George Livingstone, Captain of the parochen 
of Balmaghie, declares the lyke. 


" William Gordon of Kirkconnell, Captain of 
the parochess of Buittle, Corcemichael, and others, 
declares no cold or uncovenanters within his 
bounds except John Maxwell of Mylnetone, 
William Maxwell of Midkeltone, Gilbert Max- 
well of Slognaw, Mr. Patrik Adamsone, sum- 
tyme Minister at Buittle, Mr. James Scott, 
symtyme Minister at Tungland, George Tait, 
Paul Keddik, Johne Browne of MoUance, Robert 
Browne, his brother, Johne Maxwell of Colignaw, 
James Maxwell of Brekansyde, Thomas M'Gill 
of Keltone. 

" William Lindsay, Captain of the paroches of 
Colvend and Suthik, declares that no cold or non- 
covenanters within these parochess, except James 
Lindsay of Auchenskeoch; Andro Lindsay, his 
sone, Robert Lindsay, his sons, Charles Lindsay, 
his oy *; Johne Lindsay of Wachope; Charles 
Lindsay, his uncle; Lancelot Lindsay, brother 
naturall to Wachope; Johne Lindsay, his brother 
naturall; Roger Lindsay of Maynes; Johne and 
James Lindsayes, his sones; Charles Murray of 
Barnhurrie; David Lindsay, sone to James Lind- 
say of Fairgirthe; Richard and William Herreiss, 
brethren to Robert Herreis of Barnebaroche; and 
the said Robert, late covenanter. 

" Robert Maxwell of Cavens, Captain of the 
parochen of Lochruttone, declares no cold or un- 
covenanters within his bounds except Edward 

* Grandson. 


Maxwell of Hills; WiUiam Maxwell, his eone; 
Alexander Maxwell, his naturall sone; Lady 
Auchenfranko; Richard Herreis, hir sone; 
Edward Maxwell, callit of Carswada; Gudewyfe 
of Hills; and John Welshe in Langwodheid. 

" Johne Cutlar of Orroland, Captain of the 
Parochen of Rerrik, declares no cold or un- 
covenanters within his bounds except Robert Max- 
well of Orchardtone; William Makclellane of 
Airds; William Makclellane of Overlaw; Robert 
Maxwell of Culnachtrie; Harie Lindsay of Ros- 
carrell; John Makclellane of Gregorie; William 
Makclellane of Meirfield. 

" Lancelot Grier, Captain of the Parochen of 
Troqueer, declares no cold or uncovenanters within 
his bounds, except Johne Maxwell of Kirk- 
connell; Elizabeth Maxwell, his mother; Helene 
Maxwell, Lady Mabie; John Herreis of Mabie, 
hir sone. 

" Captain of the Parochen of Newabbay de- 
clares no cold or uncovenanted within his bounds, 
except James Maxwell of Littlebar. 

" Captain of the Parochen of Kirkbeane de- 
clares the lyke, except Johne Sturgeon of 
Torrerrie; Johne Sturgeon in Cowcorse. 

" James Smithe, Captain of the Parochen of 
Irongrey, declares no non-covenanters within his 

" Johne Reddik of Dalbeattie, Captain of the 
Parochen of Urr, declares the lyke. 


" Koger Maknacht of Killquhenatie, Captain 
of the Parochen of Kirkpatrick, declares the lyke. 

" Johne FuUartone of Carletone declares the 

" David Arnot of Barcaple declares the lyke. 

" Kichard Muir of Cassincarrie declares the 




Blames his father for harbouring Covenanters — Meets Eenwick — 
Throws in his lot with the Covenanters — Father's opposition 
— Leaves home — Adventures and escapes — Returns to Kirk- 
cowan after the Revolution. 

Andrew Forsyth, the Galloway drover, belonged to 
the parish of Kirkcowan, where his father was a 
farmer. Andrew had once regarded the non-con- 
formists as fanatics and rebels, but he did not take 
any part in persecuting or informing against them, 
particularly as his father sympathised with the 
Oovenanters, and frequently afforded them shelter. 
One day a conventicle had been dispersed in the neigh- 
bourhood of Newton Stewart, and the preacher and two 
others sought safety in Andrew's father's house. 
Andrew was out at the time, but when he returned he 
was much displeased to find the fugitives there, and 
blamed his father for receiving them and exposing 
himself to persecution. His father replied that he 
could not find it in his heart to put them away, adding 
that he was sure they would make a favourable im- 
pression on him. Andrew scouted the idea of such a 
thing, but agreed to meet them, and the demeanour of 
the youngest arrested his attention. " His countenance 
was fair, and suffused with a sweet placidity. His 



voice was soft and plaintive. His conversation cheer- 
ful and full of heavenliness. No man could look on 
him without loving him." This was James Renwick, 
and after hearing him, Andrew became another man, 
and soon afterwards resolved to join the Covenanters. 
On returning home from a conventicle, he informed 
his father of his resolution but, to his surprise, he met 
with the strongest opposition. His father by this time 
had become a suspected person through harbouring 
the intercommuned, and his laird had let him know 
that, unless he desisted, he would have to go. He, 
therefore, raised every objection to his son's proposal, 
but in vain. The laird had threatened to eject the 
father, and now the father threatened to eject the son. 
Andrew resolved to move to a distance, so that no 
injury might come to his father through him, and he 
got employment as a shepherd at Glenlee. He soon 
became prominent on the side of the Covenanters, and 
Avas in consequence sought after by the persecutors. 
On one occasion he was at Fingland when a party of 
dragoons came to his house in search of him, and as he 
was returning, he met them in the moor. Escape was 
impossible, so he assumed an air (of indifference, and 
asked if they were in search of the drover. They 
replied that they were, and he then informed them that 
he had seen him a short time before at Fingland. 
They galloped off without further enquiry, and he at 
once sought a place of safety till they had left the 
neighbourhood. After this he formed a retreat in the 
heart of a great moss, to which he retired in time of 


He was ultimately taken by surprise in the farm 
house one night, and placed on horseback behind one 
of the troopers, his feet tied together below the horse's 
belly with a straw rope. The night was dark and the 
track extremely rough. With the violent motions of 
the horse in leaping the ditches, the rope broke and 
Andrew's feet were free. Immediately afterwards, the 
horse fell, and the two riders were thrown to the 
ground, but the darkness prevented the others, who 
were in advance, from seeing what had happened, and 
Andrew made good his escape. He then found a 
retreat near Fingland. 

He attended a conventicle held by Mr. Eenwick, 
and as it was dispersing, the troopers arrived on the 
scene. Andrew fled, but was fired at and wounded in 
the arm. He managed to escape, and found a hiding 
place in the moss. Shortly afterwards, a flock of sheep 
losing their way in the mist came near him, followed 
by two shepherds, to whom he made known his 
situation, and they gave him every assistance. He 
had several narrow escapes after this, and at the time 
of the Revolution he was hiding in the house of a 
shepherd named Ker, who was himself a Covenanter, 
When peace was restored, he returned to KirkeowaUr 
and lived there to an advanced age. 




Patrick Laing— John Ferguson of Weewoodhead— John Clark- 
Escape from Edinburgh prison — Samuel Clark — John Fraser 
— John Clement — John Dempster — Eetribution — David 
M'Briar— Bailie Mnirhead of Dumfries— M'Eoy of Half Mark 
— The Gordons of Largmore — ^Renwick in Galloway — ^His 
adventures and escapes — M'Lurg shoots a spy and wields 
the Galloway Flail — Kirkcudbright Burgh Records — Robert 
M'Whae — The Kirkandrew Martyr — Alexander Linn — Craig- 
moddie, Kirkcowan. 

Patrick Laing of Blagannoch, born 1641, enlisted in 
the Scots Grey, but, although serving the King, his 
sympathies were with the Covenanters. He was sent 
with his company to arrest certain Covenanters who 
had fled to the north of England. He was not success- 
ful, and it was whispered that the affair had been 
mismanaged, and that he was to blame. He was 
arrested, tried, and sentenced to banishment. Repre- 
sentations were made on his behalf, and ultimately he 
was liberated after much suffering. He retired to the 
Olenkens, where he soon came under the notice of Lagg 
through professing covenanting principles and not 
attending the services of the curates. Many efforts 
were made to apprehend him. Simpson narrates that 
on one occasion he was returning home leading hisi 
pony, with a load of meal across its back, when he 


noticed a party of dragoons approaching. He at once 
dropped the meal, mounted the pony, and fled along 
the moor. The dragoons followed. Laing made for 
the foot of a precipice called Lorg Craig. It seemed 
impossible that any man could climb it, but he made 
the attempt and succeeded. When he reached the top 
he gave three loud cheers in mockery of his pursuers, 
for he knew that they durst not attempt to scale th& 
dangerous height. He was declared an outlaw, and 
retired to the north of Scotland. He returned to the 
Glenkens, and died at Cleuchfoot at the age of eighty- 
five, and was buried in the old churchyard of Kirk- 


John Ferguson of Weewoodhead, in Carsphairn 
parish, was at Pentland, mounted on a Galloway pony. 
He fled, but the pony, wearied with the fatigue of the 
previous days, was not making such speed as a man 
fleeing for life would desire. A riderless horse be- 
longing to the pursuers galloped up, and Ferguson at 
once mounted it, and made rapid progress, avoiding 
the direct road home. While his horse was drinking 
in the water of Clyde, he was surprised to find that his 
own pony, now able to go quicker from being free of 
a rider, galloped up to him, and thence followed him 

On one occasion he was working at the hay in a 
meadow alongside the Lane of Carsphairn, when he 
noticed at some distance a company of troopers 
approaching. He at once plunged into a deep pool, 


and kept his head above the water among some bushes. 
The troopers searched, but were not successful in 
finding him. 


John Clark of Carsphairn is supposed to be the 
John Clark mentioned as a frequent companion of 
Peden. Once when the two were hiding in a cave in 
■Galloway, and had had no food for some time, Peden 
said, " John, better be thrust through with a sword 
than pine away with hunger. The earth and the ful- 
ness thereof belongs to my Master, and I have a right 
to as much of it as will keep me from fainting in His 
service. Go to such a house and tell them plainly that 
I have wanted food so long, and they will give it 
willingly." John did as requested, and the food was 
readily supplied. 

Cannon of Mardrochat frequently lodged informa- 
tion against Clark. On one occasion, Clark and John 
Fraser of Upper Holm of Dalquhirn, were concealed 
in Straquhanah Cave, in the upper valley of the Ken, 
when word was taken to Lagg at Carsphairn, and 
he at once sent troopers to apprehend them. The 
approach of the dragoons was obseTved, and the two 
fled. They noticed a man mowing, and as the pursuers 
were at that moment out of sight, they hid themselves 
beneath the long rows of the new out grass. The 
soldiers hurried through the fields, and pressed on in 

Clark, Fraser, and others were subsequently captiu'ed 
and sent to Edinburgh. There the jails were full, 


and Clark and others were accordingly imprisoned in 
the upper storey of a neighbouring house. The wife 
of one of them contrived to effect their escape. Having 
seen the place where they were kept, she bought a) 
rope strong enough to sustain the weight of one man, 
and this she coiled as closely together as possible and) 
placed it in the heart of a quantity of curds which 
she formed into an ordinary sized cheese. This she 
carried to Edinburgh, and had it conveyed to her 
husband. It was received with much thankfulness, 
and of course the rope was found and its purpose 
instantly understood. The prisoners watched their 
opportunity, and, fixing the rope, speedily descended 
to the street. The heaviest of the party came last, as 
it was feared the rope might break under his weight. 
This indeed happened, but those beneath broke his 
fall as weU as they could by stretching out their arms 
to catch him, but he was so seriously injured that he 
was unable to walk. They carried him to a cottage 
and left him there, while they themselves fled to the 
south. He was unfortunately discovered, and it is 
said was executed the same day. 

Samuel Clark of New Luce was one of Peden's flock, 
and often accompanied him in his wanderings among 
the wilds of Galloway. On one occasion, on the 
dispersion of a conventicle, when numbers of the 
worshippers were seized, Clark escaped and fled to a 
friend's house, where he resided for some time, but 
the soldiers found this out, and he was obliged to flee 


again. He ran in the direction of Cairnsmore, from 
the summit of which the greater part of Galloway can 
be seen. He was pursued by the troopers, and being 
out of their sight for a moment, he crept in among the 
heather to hide himself. The horsemen advanced, 
spreading themselves out that they might not miss 
him. The main body passed the spot without noticing 
him, but a single man, slower in his movements than 
the rest, happened to ride up to the spot where Clark 
lay. His eyes caught sight of his legs, but he merely 
touched him gently on the feet, saying, " Creep further 
in for your limbs are seen." 

On another occasion, Clark had been at a meeting 
at Irlington when the troopers appeared and he was 
pursued. At length, wearied out with fatigue and 
want of food, he sat down beside a bush, and, taking 
off his bonnet, addressed the great Preserver of life 
in the following strain, " Oh Thou, who didst shield 
Thy servant Peden in the day of his distress when he 
called upon Thee, and didst throw over him and me,, 
Thy unworthy follower, the misty covering which hid 
us from the face of our pursuers, hide me now in thei 
hollow of Thine hand from my enemies who are 
hunting for my life." The soldiers came up, but they 
passed by the other side of the bush, and thus his 
prayer was answered. 

Hearing that Mr. Peden was at Sorn, he longed to 
see him, and set out from his residence in the wilds of 
Galloway. As he approached his destination, he 
encountered a company of Claverhouse's troopers who 
seized him on suspicion as a rebel. They lodged 


during the night in the Kirk of Sorn, indicating that' 
he would be executed next day. In the early hour& 
of the morning he heard a great tumult outside the 
church, and the soldiers made off. He began to look 
round him, and, seeing no soldiers guarding the church, 
he stole out and fled with all speed. It appears that 
the soldiers had heard of a conventicle being held in 
the neighbourhood, and in their eagerness to get to it 
they had either forgotten their prisoner or thought 
he would be safe till they returned. Clark was often 
pursued among the hills, but he evaded his foes, hiding 
in the glens and caves of Upper Galloway. He sur- 
vived the persecution, and died in peace in 1730. 


John Fraser of Upper Holm of Dalquhirn in Cars- 
phairn, and Cannon of Mardrochat, were in their early 
life friends and companions, and both were present 
at Pentland. Cannon, however, was bought over by 
the enemy, and embraced every opportunity to betray 
the hiding places of the Covenanters and to give in- 
formation when any of them were at home. He was 
particularly zealous in seeking the ruin of his former 
friends, especially John Fraser and John Clark,, 
because of their harbouring Kichard Cameron. On one 
occasion when Fraser was surprised in his house by a 
company of dragoons, escape seemed impossible, but 
he ran into a small closet and got into bed. One of 
the inmates quickly heaped a quantity of wet peats 
on the fire, which in those days was in the middle of 
the kitchen, and immediately the place was filled with 


a dense blue smoke, so that it was impossible to see 
•clearly anything in the apartment. The smoke pene- 
trated to the closet and filled it. The dragoons 
searched as well as they could, and one of them found 
Fraser in the bed, but was not able to see him 
distinctly, and did not disclose his presence to the 

Fraser experienced several other narrow escapes. 
On one occasion, when surprised in his own house, he 
took refuge in " the poor man's bed," reserved in those 
■days in almost every house for the wandering poor. 
His wife covered him with tattered clothing and an 
old rug, and here he lay while the dragoons searched 
the house. Once he was seized at dinner and was 
bound firmly with ropes and east into one of the stalls 
of the stable, while the dragoons returned to the house 
and helped themselves to whatever they could get, 
having locked the stable door and taken the key with 
them. They came upon a quantity of brown ale, which 
the houses of the farmers were plentifully supplied 
with from their own malt in those days. This the 
soldiers drank with right good will, and remained in 
the house eating and drinking and enjoying them^ 
selves all the afternoon. Fraser in the meantime had 
managed to creep into a dark corner of the stable. 

At length the soldiers prepared to take their depar- 
ture, and, staggering and reeling under the influence 
of the great quantity of drink they had consumed, 
they came into the stable for their horses. They led 
them outside, mounted, and rode off in a noisy and 
disorderly manner, quite oblivious to the fact that their 


prisoner was left behind. When they had gone some 
distance, Fraser's wife came and cut the cords that 
bound his hands, and he at once made off. The soldiers 
had not gone far on their way when they discovered 
their mistake, and returned with aU speed, but by this 
time Fraser was nowhere to be seen, and after 
searching the house and stable, they had to leave 
without him. 


John Clement, although a native of Barr, lived most 
of his years in the neighbourhood of New Galloway. 
A conventicle at Fingland, Carsphairn, which he was 
attending was dispersed by the troopers who pursued 
him. He fled along the Water of Ken till he came to a 
small sheep fold with a plaid across it to keep in a 
lamb, and being for the moment out of sight of his 
pursuers, he threw the plaid across his shouldex-s, and, 
catching a ewe by the horns, was in the act of putting 
the lamb to suck as the horsemen galloped up. Theyi 
asked him if he had seen a man fleeing past. He 
answered that he had not, but advised them to ride to 
Holm Glen as a likely place for a fugitive, and they 
at once made off in that direction. 

On another occasion, when returning from a con- 
venticle in Carsphairn, he was hotly pursued. When 
out of sight of the pursuers for a moment, he saw m 
dead sheep, and instantly doffing his coat, he seized 
it by the legs, threw it across his shoulders, and then 
leisurely advanced towards the dragoons as if unaware 
of their presence. They had not the slightest suspicion 


that he was the person they were seeking, and asked 
him if he had seen a man crossing the moor. " I did," 
he replied, " but he made a short turn in the hollow 
there, and has taken a different road." He advised 
them to ride in the direction of Minnigaff, and this 
they at once did. He survived the persecution, and 
lived to an old and honoured age in the neighbourhood 
of New Galloway. 


John Dempster, the tailor of Garrieyard, in Dairy, 
fought at Bothwell Bridge, and was ever afterwards 
a marked man. Early one morning, he saw a band of 
dragoons approach his house, and he at once made off, 
the dragoons firing at him and then following as fast 
as they could. He fled in the direction of Earndarroch 
Wood, about half a mile from his house. A moss lay 
between his house and it, and while Dempster was 
able to make his way across, the dragoons soon found 
their horses sinking into the soft ground, and unable 
to proceed. One horseman, however, rode round, and 
reached Dempster as he was scrambling over a dyke 
into a wood. Dempster was without any weapon, but 
he had his scissors in his pocket, and quickly drawing 
these out, he drove the sharp points into the horse's 
forehead, and it suddenly reared back, throwing its 
rider, and thus Dempster was able to escape into the 
Avood, and he speedily crossed a ravine and found ai 
hiding place on the other side before his pursuers were 
in sight. Some time after this, Dempster learned that 
his place of retreat had been revealed to the enemy,. 


and he accordingly found refuge in a cave above New 
Galloway. While there, he learned that the dragoons 
had been informed that he was somewhere in the 
neighbourhood, and that an organised search was to be 
made. He at once left the cave along with a friend 
who was in hiding with him, and just as they did so 
they observed the dragoons approaching, guided by 
the informer. The two at once made oS in the 
direction of Loch Ken, and after running for some 
distance, they wheeled towards Balmaclellan. As they 
were about to ascend an eminence that leads to the 
village, they noticed that they were out of the enemies' 
view, and seizing the opportunity, they turned to a, 
linn in Garpel Glen, and found safety in a cave there. 
The troopers, on reaching Balmaclellan, searched every 
house, but, of course, in vain. On another occasion 
Dempster was met in the evening by Lagg's men on; 
Knockgray Hill, and at once took to flight followed 
by the dragoons. The falling darkness, however, was 
much to his advantage, and he had no difficulty in 
making good his escape for the time. Unfortunately 
he remained all night on Craighit, which was in full 
view of Garriehorn, where Lagg lay with his troopers. 
In the morning Lagg was searching the hill with his 
telescope, and saw Dempster hiding behind a rock. 
He at once divided his men so as to surround the hill, 
and Dempster, noticing his intention, instantly set off. 
He crossed the Garrie burn, hurried on towards Bow- 
hill, with the intention of getting to Loch Doon, but 
when he reached Bowhill, he realised that escape 
seemed impossible. He reached Muill Hill, but here 


the dragoons closed in on him, and shot him on the 


About the year 1668, David M'Briar, heritor in 
Irongrey, who had accused his minister, John Welsh, 
of preaching treason, became a violent persecutor. 
Soon afterwards, he found himself in financial diiS- 
culties, so he lived in concealment amongst his tenants 
lest he should be imprisoned for debt. He was met 
by John Gordon, a north country merchant, agent of 
a curate who had come from the north to Galloway. 
Gordon, observing M'Briar's suspicious movements, 
concluded that he was one of the outlawed Covenanters, 
and requested him to go as a suspected person with him 
to Dumfries. This the other, dreading imprisonment 
for his debts, refused to do, and Gordon drew his 
sword to compel him. In the struggle M'Briar was 
killed. Gordon boasted that he had killed a whig, 
but, when the people saw the body, they told him he 
had killed a man as loyal as himself. He was seized, 
carried to Dumfries, and immediately executed. 


Some of the Covenanters found a retreat in the 
neighbourhood of Carbelly HiU, on the west side of 
the Nith opposite Dumfries. James Muirhead, bailie 
of Dumfries, after many narrow escapes in other 
places, sought shelter here in 1684, but was discovered 
and was taken with about eighy others * to Moffat 

* William M'Millan of Caldow was one of this company. 


Kirk, -where they lay all night wet and cold.. The 
next day — Sunday — they were removed to Peebles, and 
had to wade the water in spate. The following day, 
they were carried to Leith Tolbooth, where they were 
thronged so closely that they could scarcely stand. 
Here Muirhead took ill, no doctor was allowed to see 
him, and he died, as much a martyr as those wh» 
received their death violently by the hands of the 


M'Roy of Half Mark, in the parish of Carsphairn,^ 
was one Sabbath morning sitting in one of his fields 
studying the Word of God when Lagg and his troopers 
came upon him before he was aware. Lagg demanded 
what he was reading. M'Roy replied, " The Bible." 
Lagg exclaimed that his cattle must find another herd,, 
and immediately shot him dead . 


John Gordon of Largmore, in the parish of Kells, 
received several wounds at Pentland. He managed to 
reach home, but so exhausted that his life was 
despaired of. Sir William Bannatyne received in- 
formation that he was at home, and at once ordered 
him to be brought to him dead or alive. The soldiers 
took a cart with them, knowing he would not be able 
to ride or walk. He was told he must go with them. 
Raising himself a little in his bed, he answered that 
he now defied Sir William and all his persecutors, 
but he forgave them, and then he added that he would 


soon be in better company. He lay down again, and 
in a few minutes died. His son, Roger Gordon, 
and some friends were at Bothwell, and fled south, 
travelling by night and hiding by day. Suddenly 
they met a company of troopers sent out to disperse 
a conventicle at Craggy Mains. Taking to flight, a 
heavy mist hampered the troopers following them, and 
they reached Knockalloch on Craigdarroch Water, 
where they were heartily welcomed. As they were 
about to retire for the night, the sound of horsemen 
"vvas heard, and the house was immediately surrounded. 
The dairy at Knockalloch was a small apartment 
toward the back of the house, and beneath this was] 
a cellar, the entrance to which was through a small 
trap door in the floor. When the dragoons rode up, 
the mistress of the house hastened to show the fugitives 
this place of concealment, while her husband met the 
soldiers at the door. The latter made a thorough 
search, entering even the dairy, but never thought that 
there was another apartment under their feet. 

On another occasion, when Eoger Gordon with his 
wife and some others were proceeding to a conventicle 
in the wilds of Minnigafi, they met a company of 
soldiers on foot, and a struggle at once began. The 
<?ovenanters had neither swords nor fire-arms, but they 
made good use of the sticks and clubs they had. Roger 
<Tordon, who was a big strong man, assailed the leader, 
and a fierce fight ensued, so that the others on both 
sides stood to watch it. At length Gordon, having 
broken the sword of his opponent with his club, struck 
liim a severe blow on the arm, which fell powerless 


by his side. Gordon then seized him and flung him 
with such force to the ground that he was quite 
stunned. The troopers went to repder what assistance 
they could to their chief, and allowed the Covenanters 
to go. After this, Gordon was more severely perse- 
cuted. On one occasion, a party of dragoons drove 
up to the door. He speedily doffed part of his apparel 
and arrayed himself in the coarser and more tattered 
clothes of a servant, and went to meet the soldiers. 
He held their horses while they dismounted, and then 
led them to the stable, the soldiers in the dark 
supposing that he was a servant. He took the first 
opportunity to slip away to a solitary retreat in the 
Galloway mountains. 

On another occasion, Gordon when pursued sought 
refuge in a cave in a deep ravine. The edges of the 
ravine seemed even at a short distance to come together 
and make a uniform surface, and it was not till the 
traveller was almost on the very brink of the descent 
that he would suspect that there was any opening. 
One of the dragoons, more eager than the others, came 
spurring on in his headlong career, eager to catch sight 
of Gordon, and not till it was too late did he notice 
the yawning gully in front. In vain he tried to pull 
up his charger. Horse and rider went crashing over, 
right past where Gordon was concealed, and were 
dashed to pieces in the rocky stream below. 

Gordon survived the persecution, and enjoyed many 
happy days of peace and prosperity. He presented 
Kells Church with a bell in 1714, and also a pair of 
communion cups. 



In Kells churchyard may be seen a stone with the 
following inscription: — 

Here lyes the corps of Ro 
ger Gordon of Largmore 
who dyed March 2nd 1662 
aged 72 years and of John 
Gordon of Largmore his 
grandchild who dyed Jan 
uary 6, 1667 of his wounds 
got at Pentland in Defence 
of the covenanted Refor 

The rest of the inscription refers to other members of 
the family. The stone also shows the Gordon motto, 
" Dread God," and three boars' heads. 

William Gordon of Roberton, in Borgue, who was 
connected with the above by marriage, was also a 
zealous Covenanter, and in 1640 presented the War 
Committee of the Stewartry with " sex silver spoones 
and uther work, weght, IX unce, ane drope." He was 
killed at Pentland, and his family suffered severely. 


Eenwick held many conventicles in Galloway. 
Simpson tells the following story regarding him. He 
was at a conventicle in the mountainous district, some 
distance from Newton Stewart. Information was sent 
to the nearest party of dragoons, and they at once set 
off in the hope of surprising the meeting and seizing 


Ren wick. The latter, hoAvever, was warned and fled. 
Arriving in the evening at Newton Stewart, he found 
lodging in the Inn. The leader of the dragoons, after 
a tedious and fruitless search, also reached Newton 
Stewart, and went to the Inn for the night. It was 
winter, and the commander, feeling lonely, asked the 
landlord if he could introduce him to anyone with 
whom he could spend the evening. The landlord told 
Mr. Renwick, and he agreed to spend a few hours in 
the company of the trooper. The evening passed 
agreeably, and they parted with many expressions of 
goodwill on the part of the officer, who retired to rest 
with the intention of resuming his search in the 
morning. Some hours later, when all was quiet in the 
Inn, Renwick took leave of the landlord and went off 
to seek some secluded retreat. When morning came, 
the commander asked for the intelligent stranger who 
had afforded him so much gratification. The landlord 
informed him that he had left hours before to seek a 
hiding place among the hills. "A hiding place!" 
exclaimed the soldier. " Yes, a hiding place," replied 
the Innkeeper. " This gentle and inoffensive youth 
is no other than the James Renwick you have been 
pursuing." "James Renwick! impossible! If he is 
James Renwick, I for one will pursue him no longer." 
On another occasion, Renwick agreed to hold a 
conventicle among the hills near Balmaclellan. In- 
formation was given with all possible secrecy, and on 
the day appointed a huge assembly gathered from all 
parts. The morning was lowering, and heavy showers 
were falling on the distant heights. Notwithstanding 


the care with which information had been communi- 
cated, the enemy learned of the meeting and came upon 
the conventicle just as worship was beginning. The 
people at once fled in all directions. Renwiek, 
accompanied by John M'Millan and David Ferguson, 
fled towards the Ken, hoping to escape to the house 
of a friend in the parish of Penninghame. They 
intended to ford the stream above Dairy village, but 
before doing so engaged in prayer among the thick 
bushes that grew on its margin. When they rose from 
their knees they observed, to their amazement, a party 
of dragoons landing on the opposite bank. They had 
reached the place in pursuit while the three were 
engaged in prayer, and, without noticing them or 
hearing their voices, they had rushed into the water, 
which was fast rising, and crossed to the other side. 
John M'Millan, who used to tell the story, said that 
he was never so much impressed as by the remarks 
made by Renwiek on that occasion. His two friends 
resolved to see him safely to the other side. The 
current was becoming more powerful every moment. 
They provided themselves with long branches of the 
mountain ash, which were grasped by the three at 
equal distances, so that if one should be carried off 
his feet by the water, the others standing firm might 
accomplish his rescue. In this way Renwiek reached 
the other side in safety, but no sooner had he crossed 
than the flood descended with great violence, covering 
the banks on both sides and sweeping every obstacle 
before it. Renwiek afterwards got shelter in the 
cottage of James M'Culloch, whose wife was a firm 


supporter of the Covenanters. While he slept, she 
took his clothes away to dry them, but in the morning 
they were not sufficiently dried, and she brought some 
of her husband's, which Kenwick put on. In the 
morning he threw a shepherd's plaid over his shoulders 
and ascended a gentle eminence near the house. From 
this he noticed a company of dragoons approaching. 
He expected to be instantly seized. The troopers rode 
up to him, and, not recognising him in the strange 
clothes, asked if he was the master of the cottage. 
He replied that he was not, but informed them where 
he was to be found. After some further conversation 
about rebels and fugitives, they concluded there would 
be none on their side of the river as the stream had 
been so greatly swollen since the dispersion of the 
conventicle, and accordingly they departed without 
further enquiry. John M'Millan and David Ferguson, 
after they parted from Renwick, were met by a com- 
pany of horsemen. David Ferguson concealed himself 
near the water's edge, and John M'Millan retreated 
to a thicket. The soldiers, observing the latter, pur- 
sued him, but he escaped. Ferguson, however, was 
never heard of again, but it was supposed that he must 
have been drowned by the rising stream. 

When Renwick was addressing a conventicle at 
Irlington during the night, a dog bounded several 
times round the assembly, and then darted in among 
the crowd. The preacher expressed his fear of 
approaching danger, as the dog seemed to have come 
from a distance, and not to be known to anyone there. 
Suddenly the watchman gave warning of the approach- 


ing enemy. In an instant the company dispersed. 
John Paterson of Penyvenie, David Halliday, John 
Bell, Robert Lennox, Andrew M'Roberts, and James 
M'Clymont took refuge in the barn of Irlington, and 
hid themselves in a quantity of wool piled up in a 
corner of the building, and thus escaped detection. 


The Sanquhar Declaration of 1685 was supported 
by the Covenanters of Galloway. As a company of 
the Galloway men proceeded along the Ken to meet 
Mr. Ren wick at Sanquhar, they were informed that a 
spy named Grier was dogging their footsteps. This 
man had formerly been one of the Covenanters, and 
was therefore well acquainted with them and their 
hiding places. One of the Covenanters, named 
M'Lurg, was going along the west side of the Ken, 
not having yet joined the others, and observing a spy 
lurking about and following, he hid himself behind a 
rock. As the spy passed the hiding place full in view, 
M'Lurg discovered that he was an old acquaintance 
who had deserted and turned their greatest enemy. 
He had been the cause of much anxiety and distress 
to the non-conformists, and was at that very moment 
tracing their steps to do them mischief. M'Lurg 
thought this a fitting opportunity to avenge the wrongs 
this man had done, and he immediately lifted his gun 
and fired, and Grier fell dead. M'Lurg then stripped 
him of his armour, which was of great account in those 
days. He had a Galloway flail, which was a formid- 


able weapon when wielded by a strong arm. The 
handle was of tough ash, about five feet in length, 
the soople or part which strikes the barn floor was of 
iron, about three feet long, and had three joints. 
Thus, when it was vigorously applied, it doubled over 
the body of a man like a thong, and crushed the ribs 
after the manner of a boa-constrictor. M'Lurg crossed 
the stream and joined the others, and shortly after- 
wards a company of Lagg's men emerged suddenly 
from a glen, and a struggle between the two parties at 
once began. M'Lurg with the flail fiercely attacked 
the leader of the dragoons, who received a fracture of 
the skull and a broken arm. Then M'Lurg turned on 
the rest of the soldiers in the same furious manner, 
and they soon took to flight, leaving the Covenanters 
to pursue their way to Sanquhar. 

Similar traditions are related of James M'Michael 
of Carsephairn fame, and J. S. M'Culloch, in his poem 
on " The Galloway Flail," has the following verse: — 

" Our Covenant Fathers got hand o' the Flail, 
At the ire o' M'Michael his enemies quail. 
When through turncoats an' troopers, heid, helmet an' mail, 
Crashed the terrible Galloway Flail." 


The Burgh Records of Kirkcudbright bear frequent 
reference to the troublous times then prevailing. 
Under date 7th September, 1643, the Bailies and 
Council elected William Glendonyng their Provost to 
be Captain; John Carson, Bailie, to be Lieutenant; 
Patrick Carson, ensign; George Callander, Robert 


Hughan, John Clark, and George Meik to be 
sergeants. Then under date 4th April, 1644, we 
have this entry, " The quhilk day, John Ewart and 
John Carson, Bailies, and George Meik, merchant, 
has undertaken to furnish the town sufficiently in arms, 
to wit: — in musket, pike, sword, match, powder, and 
ball, and shall bring the same to the said town betwixt 

and the day of May next to come." Under date 

26th September, 1644, it is statuted and ordained that 
John Clark, merchant, "shall go to Edinburgh and 
buy for the town's use the ammunition following, 
namely: — 3 cwt. of powder, 300 lbs of ball, and 6 
owt. of match, and that he goes away upon Monday 
next." Under date 29th May, 1645, we have the 
following: — " The quhilk day, the Provost, Bailies, 
and Council, taking to their consideration the great 
danger may befall the town in their dangerous and 
troublous times through not keej^ing of a strict watch, 
have for preventing thereof statuted and ordained it 
that there be ten persons upon the watch ilk four and 
twenty hours," and details are then given as to how 
the watch is to be kept. On 9th October, 1650, the 
Provost, Bailies, and Council " took a list of arms and 
nominated the haill fencible persons to be in readiness 
on advertisement," and this was done in respect of 
the approaching of the Englishmen to this kingdom. 


The martyrdom of Eobert M'Whae of Kirkandrews 
is one of the few to which no reference whatever will 
be found in Wodrow. In the old parish churchyard 


a stone has been erected to his memory, bearing the 
following inscription: — 

LEAGUE 1685. 

On other side: — 


This stone is a facsimile of an older one which had 
fallen down and been broken. It is about three feet 
high by two feet six inches in breadth. The inscrip- 
tion is given in the appendix of the first edition of 
The Cloud of Witnesses. Tradition tells that M'Whae 
failed to attend to take the abjuration oath, and had 
to flee to the hills and moors for safety. He managed 
to escape detection for some months, but, venturing 
home, he was surprised in his own house at Kirk- 
andrews by Colonel James Douglas and a troop of 
dragoons. He fled through a window into the garden, 
but was seen by the dragoons, and shot dead. He was 
buried in the Kirkandrews churchyard. A window is 
pointed out in one of the old cottages from which, it 
is said, M'Whae was trying to escape when shot. 


In The Laird of Lagg there is a story of a martyr- 
dom which probably refers to Mowat, a tailor, of 
whom little is known, except that he was shot by 
Captain Douglas between Fleet and Dee. 

It is narrated that " a party o' Grier o' Lag's 
dragoons " met a tailor in the parish of Borgue, which 
now includes the old parish of Kirkandrews. He had 
no weapon but his needles and ellwand; but he was 
closely searched. In those days the tailor made the 
clothes of both male and female, and acted as mantua- 
maker to the ladies, whose dresses, to be in the fashion, 
had pieces of lead at certain parts to make them hang 
right. The tailor was found to have his pockets stored 
with such pieces of lead, and was instantly charged 
with the intention of casting bullets. It was in vain 
that he tried to explain the demands of fashion. They 
would not hear him, and the proceedings were very 


Craigmoddie is in the upland district of Kirkcowan, 
in Wigtownshire, some ten miles from Kirkcowan 
village, and is about as lonely and secluded a spot as 
could well be imagined. Here may be seen a stone 
erected to the memory of a Covenanter who was dis- 
covered hiding in the moor and shot down on the spot. 
Tradition tells that Alexander Linn was a shepherd 
and belonged to Lairis, New Luce. Doubtless he was 
one of Peden's parishioners. General Drummond'a 
soldiers were crossing from Colmonell to Glenluce, and 
had reached Craigmoddie when some of the soldiers 


noticed the peesweeps gyrating and always sweeping 
down at one particular spot. This let the soldiers 
know that there was something there. Hurrying for- 
ward, they found Linn trying to conceal himself, and 
without ceremony shot him down. In 1827, a stone 
was erected over the lonely grave, to take the place of 
an older one which had become damaged and broken. 
It is a small erect stone, about three feet high and 
about two feet across. The original inscription has 
been preserved. It is: — 


A curious tradition has been handed down in con- 
nection with the tombstone. A man engaged by the 
farmer to mow was passing the grave, and it occurred 
to him that as he had no stone with which to sharpen 
his scythe, a part of the gravestone was just the thing 
he wanted. He accordingly broke off a piece, but the 
farmer asked where he got it. He replied, " Oh, I 
just took it off Sandy Linn's headstone." " If that is 


the way," replied the farmer, " you have got your 
scythe stone, you will mow no hay for me. You can 
go home as you came." The man saw that the farmer 
meant what he said, and that he was greatly displeased 
at what he had done. He had, therefore, no alternative 
hut to tramp away home. On the way, he was 
climhing a dyke and fell, and seriously injured one 
of his legs, 80 that he mowed no hay that year. 




Awe inspiring circumstances — Difficulties — John Welsh asked to 
carry it through — John Blackadder to take part — ^Preliminary 
services at Micklewood — Congregation of 3,000 to 6,000 — 
Natural surroundings — Sentinels posted — The memorials of 
the communion — Samuel Arnot preached in the morning — 
Welsh preached " the action sermon," and Blackadder and 
John Dickson of Euthergleu took part — Blackadder's simple 
and impressive eloquence — " The enemy are coming, make 
ready for the attack " — The Clydesdale men form in battle 
array — The men of Galloway and Nithsdale follow their 
example — Rumours that the enemy are about, but no trace 
of them can be got — The assembly disperses, guarded to 
different points by horse and foot — Torrential rainfall — ^Huge 
conventicle next day with horse and foot on guard — Monu- 
ment and inscription — Communion cups amissing — The Old 
Jail at Scaur and its tradition — Escape of Welsh of Scaur — 
Similar story about John Clark of Drumcloyer — The Bev. 
John Blackadder, minister of Troqueer, 1652 — Expelled by 
Drunken Act, 1662 — Preaches in the fields — Goes to Holland, 
1680 — Returns 1681 — ^Arrested and sent to Bass Rock — Dies 
there, 1685 — Boiied in North Berwick churchyard — Tomb- 
stone and inscription — Tablet in Troqueer Church with 

Surely never was Communion observed under more 
awe inspiring circumstances than that at Irongray in 
1678. It was the outcome of an intense desire on the 
part of the Covenanters to meet once more with their 
outed ministers to celebrate the Lord's Supper. There 
were difficulties in the way, almost insuperable, for 
the troops of the enemy were scouring the district, 


eager for blood, and any gathering on a large scale 
was sure to attract attention, yet it was resolved to 
proceed with the arrangements, and John Welsh, the 
outed minister of Irongray, was asked to carry it 
through. John Blackadder, the outed minister of 
Troqueer, was invited to take part, and he rode all 
the way from Culross in Fif eshire where he was when 
he received the invitation. The preliminary services 
were held on a Saturday at Meiklewood, about seven 
miles from Dumfries. Blackadder preached from 
First Corinthians, xi., 24: — " This do in remembrance 
of me," showing that the ceremony was not left 
arbitrarily to the Church, but was a divine command 
still in force, notwithstanding the laws of man against 
it. Welsh preached in the afternoon, and intimated 
the Communion to take place next day. 

Early on Sabbath morning, the people gathered at 
Bishop's Forest of Irongray, their numbers estimated 
at from 3,000 to 6,000 people. The difference in the 
estimates may arise from some taking the number who 
actually took part in the Communion, and others the 
number who were present, whether taking part or not. 
The place was peculiarly adapted by nature for such a 
gathering, for, except to the south, it was surrounded 
by high hills, from the summits of which the 
surrounding country could be seen for a good distance. 
Sentinels, indeed, were posted on Cornlea, on Forest, 
and other points to give warning should the enemy be 

The memorials of the Communion, in the sacra- 
mental tables, remain to this day, and are the only 


specimens of the kind to be found in Scotland. It is 
said that long ago some of the stones were removed, 
but for very many years they have not been interfered 
with, and are regarded with the greatest reverence all 
through the district. They consist of four parallel 
rows of large, flat, oblong whinstones, each row some 
twenty yards in length, and containing some thirty 
seats. Between each two rows there is a large stone 
here and there, believed to have been a support for a 
plank on which the emblematic bread and wine may, 
have been passed along, and at the south end there is 
a circular heap of stones a few feet high where the 
bread and wine were laid, and beside which the 
officiating ministers stood. 

Samuel Arnot, the persecuted minister of Tongland, 
preached in the morning, and John Welsh then 
preached " the action sermon," dwelling on the 
sufferings of Christ and the glory that should follow. 
Blackadder took part in the services, and also the 
Rev. John Dickson of Rutherglen. 

The day had been dull and overcast, threatening 
rain from morning, but not a drop fell during the 
protracted services. They were near a close, and 
Blackadder, in a last earnest appeal, was holding his 
audience spellbound by his simple but impressive 
eloquence. The thoughts of his hearers were lifted 
from this world to the glories of the life everlasting. 
All was hushed but the voice of the preacher. He had 
paused after a powerful exhortation, and ere he could 
resume, there burst across the gathering, like a clarion 
call, the warning from the sentinels, " The enemy are 


coming, make ready for the attack." There was no 
panic, no confusion, no fear even, except for the women 
and children. These men were made of sterner stuff, 
and were prepared for victory or death. The Clydes- 
dale men at once took to horse and formed in battle 
array. The men of Galloway and Nithsdale did not 
at first take up any position, intending to wait till 
they saw imminent danger, and believing that the 
enemy were some distance away, but they followed the 
example of the Clydesdale men. Alexander Gordon 
of Earlston, who had served as a captain in the Civil 
"War, drew up a large body of Galloway horse, and 
Nithsdale's leader also drew up his men. There they 
waited, expectant, grim, and determined, ready for 
any emergency. Had an attack been made that day, 
a greater Drumclog would have been added to the 
history of Scotland. The cause of the alarm proved 
to be that the Earl of Nithsdale — a keen Koman 
Catholic — and Sir Robert Dalziel of Glenae, a great 
enemy of these gatherings, had sent some servants to 
see what was being done, and these from their numbers 
had been taken for the advance of the enemy. Black- 
adder resumed and finished his discourse, while careful 
guard was kept against surprise. The soldiers sent out 
on horseback to enquire returned with the information 
that there was a rumour that the enemy were about, 
but they could not discover where. The assembly 
remained in defensive posture for some time, and then 
dispersed, guarded to different points by horse and 
foot. As they parted, the rain began to fall in torrents 
and continued for hours, to the great discomfort of 


the people, for soon the streams were overflowing their 
banks, making travelling dif&eult and dangerous, for 
there were no bridges in the neighbourhood. 

Nothwithstanding this, the next day there was 
another conventicle at the head of the parish, some 
four miles from the Sabbath meeting, and the numbers 
attending were little less than those of the previous 
day. The horse and foot as usual drew round about 
the congregation, the horse being on the outside. 
Blackadder closed the day by a discourse from Hebrews 
xiii. 1 : — " Let brotherly love continue." 

Near the Communion stones a beautiful granite 
monument has been erected, surmounted by a 
Communion Cup. The inscription on the monument 
is as follows: — 

By Voluntary Subscription in 1870, 
To Mark the Spot 
Where a large number of Covenanters met in the 
summer of 1678 to Worship Godj and where about 
3000 Communicants on that occasion celebrated the 
Sacrament of THE LORD'S SUPPER. The fol- 
lowing ejected Ministers officiated : — John Welsh 
of Irongray, John Blackadder of Troqueer, John 
Dickson of Rutherglen, and Samuel Arnot of 
Tongland — the adjacent Stones being used as the 
Communion Table. These Stones are significant 
memorials of those troublous times, in which our 
FatherSj at the peril of their lives, contended for 
the great principles of civil and religious freedom, 


The last sentence of the inscription greatly dis- 
satisfied many of the subscribers, who complained that 
it did not set forth explicitly the principles for which 
the Covenanters contended even to death. 

There is a tradition that the Communion Cups which 
originally belonged to the Church were used at this 
Communion, and that in the dispersion they were hid 
somewhere in the neighbourhood and were lost. In 
the Kirk Session Record, dated July 4th, 1697, there 
is this reference to them: — " The cups, table cloths, 
and other utensils belonging to the Church, being 
amissing, and there being need of them because of the 
sacrament of the Lord's Supper which shortly is to be 
administered, it is laid upon every Elder to lay out 
themselves as much as they can in making inquiry! 
after them to see if they can be found." The Elders 
gave in their report at the next meeting, July Uth, 
1697, when it is recorded, " Several members of this' 
judicatory having made search after the utensils of 
the Church, can hear nothing anent them, only that 
they were carried away with Mr. John Welsh his 

At the farmhouse of Scaur near by may be seen 
a small building called the Old Jail. Its walls are 
at least three feet thick, the roof is of stone and arched, 
and there is but one window, very small and high up 
from the floor. Tradition relates that here a pious 
Covenanter was imprisoned and starved to death. 
Another tradition tells that the farmer— Mr. Welsh— 
who was greatly persecuted for non-conformity, had 
a wonderful escape from capture. He was in the field 


with one of his servants named M'Lauchrie, who was 
ploughing, when soldiers were seen rapidly advancing. 
There was little doubt they were searching for Welsh. 
What was to be done? Escape indeed seemed im- 
possible, but M'Lauchrie unyoked his horses, bade his 
master ride fearlessly home with them, as if he were 
the servant, while M'Lauchrie took to the hills in full 
view of the soldiers. The latter at once gave chase, 
but M'Lauchrie knew the country too well to be 
captured even by horsemen. A mist enveloped him 
and he not only saved his master's life but escaped 
himself. Mr. Welsh repaid him with a favourable 
lease of the farm of GlenkiU, which belonged to him. 
A somewhat similar anecdote is related by Simpson 
regarding John Clark of Drumcloyer, in Irongray 
parish. He was frequently sought for by the soldiers. 
One day, when at home, he saw dragoons approaching, 
and at once fled, but was noticed and pursued. He 
entered a field where a servant was ploughing and, 
being for the moment out of sight of the dragoons, 
he was induced to hold the plough while the ploughman 
continued the flight. When the dragoons came in 
sight, they never thought but the man they saw fleeing 
was Clark, and followed as fast as they could. There 
was a cave in the rocks underneath the bridge that 
crosses the Scaur. When the stream was in flood, 
there was no access to the cave except by seizing the 
branch of a tree and swinging oneself down into it. 
Even then the effort was full of danger. The plough- 
man, however, knew the cave, and was soon safely 
within it. The troopers speedily approached, and he 


could hear the feet of the horses as they passed along 
the hridge in the belief that he was in front. After 
going a short distance, the dragoons were satisfied that 
he could not be in front, and returned to the thicket 
about the bridge and began to search it, now and again 
firing a shot at random into the trees. He, however, 
felt quite safe. They could not discover the cave unless 
they knew it before, and even if they did only one 
could attempt to enter it at a time, and he could push 
them one by one into the roaring flood beneath, for 
in his position one man could master any number. 
The soldiers wearied themselves out with their fruit- 
less efforts, and the man left the cave at his own 

The Rev. John Blackadder belonged to the more 
moderate section of the Covenanters, yet he was one 
of the most zealous preachers of these trying times. 
It is said that he belonged to the family of Blackader 
of Tullialan, and that he was entitled to the rank of 
Baronet. He received his education in Glasgow Uni- 
versity, of which the Principal, the Rev. Dr. Strang, 
was his uncle. He was ordained minister of Troqueer 
in the Stewartry in 1652, and continued there till 
expelled by the Drunken Act of 1662. Thereafter 
for nearly twenty years he preached in houses and 
fields, as opportunity offered, and took a chief part in 
many of the great Communions of these times. He 
was not present at any of the encounters with the 
Royal forces, and did not accept the position taken 
up by Cameron in the Sanquhar Declaration. He 
went to Holland in 1680, but returned in 1681, and was 


arrested in his house in Edinburgh. He was sentenced 
to imprisonment on the Bass Rock, but, his health 
failing, efforts were made for his release, and authority 
had actually been granted for his return, but before 
it could be given effect to, he died on the Bass in 1685. 
He was buried in North Berwick churchyard, where 
a large flat stone resting on short pillars has been 
placed over his grave. It bears the following in- 
scription: — 

Here lies the body of Mr. John Blackader, minister 
of the Gospel at Troqueer, in Galloway, who 
died on the Bass^ after five years' imprisonment, 
anno Dom., 1685, and of his age sixty-three years. 

" Blest John, for Jesus' sake, in Patmos bound. 
His prison Bethel, Patmos Pisgah found; 
So the blest John on yonder rock confin'd. 
His body suffered, but no chain could bind 
His heav'n-aspiring soul : while day by day, 
As from mount Pisgah top he did survey 
The promised Land, and view'd the crown by faith 
Laid up for those who faithful are till death : 
Grace form'd him in the Christian hero's mould. 
Meek in his own concerns, in's Master's bold. 
Passions to reason chain'd, prudence did lead, 
Zeal warm'd his breast, and reason cool'd his head. 
Five years on the bare rock, yet sweet abode. 
He Enoch like enjoy'd, and walk'd with God, 
Till, by long living on this heavenly food. 
His soul by love grew up, too great, too good. 
To be confin'd in jail, or flesh, and blood ; 
Death broke his fetters, off then svrift he fled 
From sin and sorrow, and by angels led. 
Entered the mansions of eternal joy. 
Blest soul ! thy warfare's o'er ; praise, love, enjoy. 
His dust here rests till Jesus come again, 
Ev'n so, bless'd Jesus! come, come. Lord! Amen." 


Some years ago a mural brass tablet was placed ia 
Troqueer Church, bearing the following inscription:— 

To the Glory of God and in memory of 


Bom 1615. 

Ordained minister of the Parish of Troqueer 1653. 

Extruded 1662. Outlawed for preaching in the fields 1674. 

Imprisoned on the Bass Rock 1681. 

Died after cruel confinement 1685. 

" Faithful unto Death." 

Erected A.D. 1902. 




Tombstone at Caldons Wood and inscription — The fiist erected 
by Old Mortality — James and Eobert Dnn, Thomas and John 
Stevenson, James M'Clive, and Andrew M'Call — Tiadition 
of their martyrdom — Captain Urquhart's dream and death — 
Letter from privy council — A romantic story — Narrow escape 
— The Dmis of Benwhat. 

GrLENTROOL is in the heart of Raiderland, and within 
recent years has from the beauty of its surroundings 
become well known to all visitors to Galloway. One 
of the weekly excursion drives from Newton Stewart 
has Glentrool as its destination, and apart from that 
it is a place of frequent pilgrimage. At the Caldons 
Wood a monument has been erected to the memory of 
six Covenanters slain here in 1685. 

As Sir Walter Scott tells us in the introduction to 
Old Mortality, there is a small monumental stone on 
the farm of Caldons, near the House of the Hill in 
Wigtownshire,* which is highly venerated as the first 
erected by Old Mortality, to the memory of several 
persons who fell at that place in defence of their 
religious tenets in the Civil War in the reign of 
Charles II. The stone stands in a walled enclosure, 

' It is, however, on the Stewartry side of the Cree. 


and is about two and a half feet high by two feet in 
breadth. The inscription is as follows: — 


Other side: — 


There are also two oblong stones on the wall with 
the following inscriptions: — 











JAN-23. 1685. 







Little is known about the martyrs. Tradition tells 
that a number of Covenanters had gathered one 
Sabbath morning in the Caldons Wood, and were 
engaged at worship, when they were suddenly surprised 
by a company of dragoons under Colonel James 
Douglas. A few of the Covenanters had arms and 
defended themselves, but were speedily overcome. 
Most of them escaped, but the six already mentioned 
could not get away, and sought refuge in the Caldons 
farmhouse. They were shot dead, and buried where 
they fell. One dragoon was killed in the encounter, 


besides Captain Urquhart, of whom we read: — 
" Tradition asserts that he had dreamed he would be 
killed at a place called the Caldons, and whilq 
approaching the cottage of a shepherd in search of 
the fugitives, he enquired the name of the place. On 
being informed, he gave utterance to a fearful oath, 
and with the superstitious feeling of the age, drew up 
his horse, but ere he could determine whether to 
advance or retire, a shot fired from a window brought 
him to the ground." At the same time one of the 
Covenanters levelled his musket at Colonel Douglas, 
but it would not go off, and so that officer had a 
providential escape. There were some women among 
the Covenanters, and it was probably on their account 
that such fierce resistance was offered. From Kir- 
kinner Session Records we learn that May Dunbar, 
second daughter of Sir David Dunbar of Baldoon, of 
known piety all her life, " very providentially and 
narrowly escaped the enemy's fury at the Caldons." 

In The Cloud of Witnesses and in Wodrow, two of 
the names are given as Andrew M'Aulay and John 
M'Clude. On the stone they are Andrew M'Call and 
James M 'Olive. But for the difference of John and 
James it might have been said that these were only 
different forms of the same name, but probably, as 
another writer suggests, there may be an error in the 
first transcription, and the likelihood is that the names 
on the tombstone are correct. 

On January 28th, 1685, the Council sent the 
following letter to those they had commissioned for 
Wigtown and Kirkcudbright: — 


" Right Honourable, — His Majesty's Privy 
Council, being certainly informed that Captain 
Urquhart hath been killed, and some others of 
His Majesty's Forces killed and wounded by some 
desperate rebels in your bounds, who had the bold- 
ness to attack them, whereof three were taken 
alive and made prisoners. The Council thinking 
it fit that justice may be done upon these 
notorious, desperate rebels, upon the place, for 
greater terror and example to others, do therefore 
require you immediately upon receipt of this to 
proceed and do justice upon them according to 
your commission, you being first convened to this 
purpose by Colonel James Douglas, Colonel of 
the Footguards, whom we have added to your 
commission, and punish them according to law and 
your instructions. And where they shall be found 
guilty, you shall forthwith cause burn their houses 
and the materials thereof, and secure their goods 
for His Majesty's use. And particularly if you 
find any of those rebels have been maliciously and 
wilfully reset at the Houses of Star or Lochhead 
lying towards Kilrine and Craigmalloch, inquire 
into it. Your punctual and exact obedience is 

" (Signed) Perth." 

A romantic story has been handed down regarding 
Roger Dun, a brother of the two Duns killed. In 
fleeing from the soldiers he made for Loch Trool. For 
a few moments the formation of the ground hid him 


from view, and he took advantage of this to jump into 
the loch and get in among some reeds and bushes, 
where he stood with only his head out of the water*. 

His pursuers could not see him, and after an un- 
successful search, they fired some shots at random and 
went away. Dun had to remain in the water for a 
considerable time. When he ventured out, he sought 
refuge in a house close to the loch, where the inmates 
put him to bed while his clothes were being dried at 
the iire. Soon, however, he was in a raging fever, 
owing to the long wait in the cold water, for it was the 
month of January, and for a time his life seemed to be 
hanging in the balance. He was carefully nursed by 
a young woman in the house, and ultimately recovered, 
and the story ends with the marriage of Dun to hie 
faithful attendant. The spot where he was concealed 
is still pointed out, and retains the name of " Roger's 
Bush." M'Kerlie and other writers give a somewhat 
different version of the story, and say that Roger was 
shot the following day. This, however, is erroneous, 
as we shall see. 

The three Duns, there is every reason to believe, 
were the sons of James Dun, the farmer of Benwhat, 
in Dalmellington parish. Roger was born in 1659, 
and early identified himself with the cause of the 
Covenanters. He was frequently pursued, and had 
many narrow escapes. On one occasion, when return- 
ing home with his brothers Andrew and Allan from a 
conventicle at Craigview, in Carsephairn, a company 
of troopers suddenly pounced on them. Andrew and 
Allan were captured, but Roger, by a sudden and un- 


expected spring, eluded the grasp of the soldier who 
attempted to take him, and got away. He lived till, 
after the Revolution, but was killed at Brockloch, a 
short distance from Careephairn, having been mistaken 
for another man. It appears that the farmers of 
Camlar, Carse, and Borland were at enmity with the 
Laird of Lochhead, and on the night of Carsephairn, 
fair, having imbibed too freely, they formed the design 
of murdering Lochhead on his way home. In the 
failing light, and mad with drink, they came upon 
Roger Dun, and, believing him to be Lochhead, they 
stabbed him to death before they realised their 
mistake. " Roger Dun's Cairn " still marks the scene 
of the tragedy. In Carsephairn churchyard a stone 
has the following inscription: — 


In Memory of Roger Dun, who was born at Benwhat, 
parish of Dalmellington 1659. He suffered much 
persecution for the cause of Christ, and was 
Killed on the night of Carsephairn Fair, June 
1689, on the Farm of Brockloch. 

'• Pluck'd from Minerva's breast here am I laid. 
Which debt to cruel Atropos I've paid; 
Resting my clayey fabric in the dust, 
Among the holy ashes of the Just, 
My Soul set sail for the celestial shore. 
Till the last trump the same with joy restore." 




Wodrow's narrative — The Wilsons of Glenvernock — Their children 
would not conform and fled — Margaret and Agnes Wilson, 
venturing to Wigtown, are betrayed and arrested — Margaret 
M'Lauchlan seized at worship and imprisoned — Tried before 
the Laird of Lagg and others for rebellion — Found guilty 
and sentenced to be drowned — Agnes Wilson liberated on a 
Bond for £100— The execution on 11th May, 1685— Scenes at 
the Bladnoch — Buried in Wigtown churchyard — Tombstones 
and inscriptions — Napier's Case for the Crown in re. the 
Wigtown Martyrs proved to be Myths — Petition by Margaret 
M'Lauchlan for recall of sentence of death — ^A reprieve 
granted, but not given effect to — Procedure in another case 
showing pardon granted — Wigtown case had no such ending 
— Proof of martyrdom shown by (1) Tradition, (2) Early 
pamphlets, (3) Earlier Histories, (4) Minutes of local Church 
Courts, Kirkinner, Penninghame, and Wigtown, (5) Monu- 
mental evidence — Miscellaneous — Singular dream of Margaret 
M'Laachlan's daughter re. Provost Coltrain of Drummorral 
— The Stirling monument — The Wigtown monument. 

No fact connected with " the killing times " in Scot- 
land is better known than the story of the Wigtown 
martyrs. Various circumstances have contributed to 
this result, not the least important of which has been 
the fierce but futile attack made on the truthfulness 
of the story by Mark Napier, Sheriff of Dumfries, in 
The Case for the Crown in re. the Wigtown Martyrs 


proved to he Myths." This bitter and bombastic 
pamphlet was answered by the Rev. Dr. Stewart of 
Glasserton, Mr. David Guthrie, Stranraer, the Rev. 
Dr. Thomas Gordon, Newbattle, and Sir Andrew 
Agnew, Bart., of Loehnaw, and many others, with 
such an accumulation of proofs, hitherto known only 
to the few, that the reality of the martyrdom was for 
ever placed beyond the region of doubt. We shall 
return to The Case for the Crovm later. Meantime 
we give the story of the Wigtown martyrs as narrated 
by Wodrow: — " Upon the 11th of May, we meet with 
the barbarous and wicked execution of two excellent 
women near Wigtown, Margaret M'Lauchlan and 
Margaret Wilson. History scarce affords a parallel 
to this in all its circumstances; and therefore I shall 
give it at the greater length, and the rather, because 
the advocates for the cruelty of this period, and our 
Jacobites, have the impudence, some of them to deny, 
and others to extenuate this matter of fact, which can 
be fully evinced by many living witnesses. And I 
shall mostly give my narrative of it, from an account 
I have from the forementioned Mr. Rowan, now with 
the Lord, late minister of Penningham, where 
Margaret Wilson lived, who was at pains to have its 
circumstances fully vouched by witnesses, whose 
attestations are in my hand; and I shall add, to make 
the account more full, the sufferings of the said 
Margaret's relations, though not unto death, aa coming 
in natively enough here, and what will hand me in 
to what I. have most in view. 



" Gilbert Wilson, father to the said Margaret, lived 
in Glenvernock, belonging to the laird of Castlestewart, 
in the parish of Penningham, and shire of Wigtown, 
and was every way conform to episcopacy; and his 
wife, without anything to be objected against her as 
to her regularity. They were in good circumstances as 
to the world, and had a great stock upon a good ground, 
and therefore were the fitter prey for the persecutors, 
if they could reach them. Their children to be sure, 
not from their education but a better principle, would 
by no means conform or hear the episcopal incumbent. 
This was a good handle to the persecutors; so they 
were searched for, but fled to the hills, bogs, and caves, 
though they were yet scarce of the age that made them 
obnoxious to the law. Meanwhile their parents are 
charged at the highest peril not to harbour them, 
supply them, or speak to them, or see them without 
informing against them, that they might be taken; 
and their father was fined for his children's alleged 
irregularities and opinions, which he had no share in, 
and harassed by frequent quarterings of the soldiers, 
sometimes an hundred of them upon him at once, who 
lived at discretion, upon anything in the house or field 
belonging to him. Those troubles continuing upon 
him for some years together, with his attendance upon 
courts at Wigton almost once a week, thirteen miles 
distant from his house, his going to Edinburgh, and 
other harassings, brought him under exceeding great 
losses. At a modest calculation, they were about five 


thousand merks, and all for no action or principle of 
his own, for he was entirely conformist. He died some 
six or eight years ago in great poverty, though one of 
the most substantial countrymen in that country. And 
his wife (1711) lives a very aged widow, upon the 
charity of friends. His son Thomas Wilson, a youth 
of sixteen years of age, this February 1685, was forced 
to the mountains and continued wandering till the 
revolution, at which time he went to the army, and 
hore arms under King William in Flanders, and after 
that in the castle of Edinburgh. He never had a 
farthing from his parents to enter that ground which 
they possessed, but having got together somewhat by 
his own industry, lives now in his father's room, and 
is ready to attest all I am writing. 


"It is Gilbert's two daughters, who fell into the 
hands of the persecutors, Margaret Wilson of eighteen 
years of age, and Agnes Wilson a child not thirteen 
years, that have led me to this account. Agnes, the 
youngest, was condemned with her sister by those 
merciless judges, but her father obtained a liberation 
from prison, under a bond of 100 pounds sterling to 
present her when called. However Gilbert had to go to 
Edinburgh before she was let out; but to all on-lookers 
and posterity, it will remain an unaccountable thing 
to sentence a child of thirteen years to death, for not 
hearing and not swearing. In the beginning of this 
year, those two sisters for some time were obliged to, 



abscond and wander through Carrick, Galloway, and 
Nithsdale, with their brothers, and some others. After 
the universal severities slackened a little at King 
Charles' death, the two sisters ventured to go to 
Wigton, to see some of their suffering acquaintances 
there, particularly 

Margaret M'Lauchlan, 

of whom just now. When they came to Wigton, there 
was an acquaintance of theirs, Patrick Stuart, whom 
they took to be a friend and well-wisher, but he was 
really not so, and betrayed them; being in their 
company, and seeking an occasion against them, he 
proposed drinking the king's health; this they 
modestly declined; upon which he went out, informed 
against them, and brought in a party of soldiers, and 
seized them. As if they had been great malefactors, 
they were put in the thieves' hole, and after they had 
been there some time, they were removed to the prison 
where Margaret M'Lauchlan was, whom I come next 
to give some account of. 

" This woman was about sixty-three years of age, 
relict of John MuUigen, carpenter, a tenant in the 
parish of Kirkinner, in the shire of Galloway, in the 
farm of Drumjargan, belonging to Colonel Vans of 
Barnbarroch; she was a countrywoman of more than 
ordinary knowledge, discretion, and prudence, and for 
many years of singular piety and devotion; she would 
take none of the oaths now pressed upon women as 
well as men; neither would she desist from the duties 


she took to be incumbent upon her, hearing presby- 
terian ministers when providence gave opportunity, 
and joining with her Christian friends and acquaint- 
ances in prayer, and supplying her relations and 
acquaintances when in straits, though persecuted. It 
is a jest to suppose her guilty of rising in arms and 
rebellion, though indeed it was a part of her indict- 
ment, which she got in common form now used. For 
those great crimes and no other, she was seized some 
while ago upon the Lord's day, when at family worship 
in her own house; which was now an ordinary season 
for apprehending honest people. She was imprisoned, 
after she had suffered much in her goods and crop 
before she was apprehended. In prison she was very 
roughly dealt with, and had neither fire, nor bed to 
lie upon, and had very little allowed her to live on. 


" Jointly with Margaret M'Lauchlan, or M'Lauch- 
lison, these two young sisters, after many methods 
were taken to corrupt them, and make them swear the 
oath now imposed, which they steadily refused, were 
brought to their trial before the laird of Lagg, colonel 
David Graham, sheriff, major Windram, captain 
Strachan, and provost Cultrain, who gave all the three 
an indictment for rebellion, Bothwell-bridge, Ayr's 
Moss, and being present at twenty field conventicles. 
No matter now how false and calumnious poor people's 
indictments were. None of the pannels had ever been 


within many miles of Bothwell or Ayr's Moss: Agnes 
Wilson could be but eight years of age at Ayr's Moss, 
and her sister but about twelve or thirteen; and it was 
impossible they could have any access to those risings: 
Margaret M'Lauchlan was as free as they were. All 
the three refused the abjuration oath, and it was un- 
accountable it should be put to one of them. The 
assize bring them in guilty, and the judges pronounce 
their sentence; that upon the 11th instant, all the 
three should be tied to stakes fixed within the flood- 
mark, in the water of Blednoch near Wigton, where the 
sea, flows at high water, there to be drowned. We 
have seen, that Agnes Wilson was got out by her 
father upon a bond of an hundred pounds sterling, 
which, I hear, upon her non-production, was likewise 
exacted. Margaret Wilson's friends used all means 
to prevail with her to take the abjuration oath, and 
to engage to hear the curate, but she stood fast in her 
integrity, and would not be shaken. They received 
their sentence with a great deal of composure, and 
cheerful countenances, reckoning it their honour to 
suffer for Christ and His truth. During her imprison- 
ment Margaret Wilson wrote a large letter to her 
relations full of deep and affecting sense of God's love 
to her soul, and an entire resignation to the Lord's 
disposal. She likewise added a vindication of her 
refusing to save her life by taking the abjuration, 
and engaging to conformity; against both she gives 
arguments with a solidity and judgment far above 
one of her years and education. 



" This barbarous sentence was executed the foresaid 
day, May 11th, and the two women were brought from 
Wigtown, with a numerous crowd of spectators to so ex- 
traordinary an execution. Major Windram with some 
soldiers guarded them to the place of execution. The 
old woman's stake was a good way in beyond the other, 
and she was first despatched, in order to terrify tlie 
other to a compliance with such oaths and conditions, 
as they required. But in vain; for she adhered to her 
principles with an unshaken steadfastness. When the 
■«'ater was overflowing her fellow-martyr, some about 
Margaret Wilson asked her, what she thought of the 
other now struggling with the pangs of death. She 
answered, ' What do I see but Christ (in one of his 
members) wrestling there. Think you that we are the 
sufferers? No, it is Christ in us, for he sends none 
a warfare upon their own charges.' When Margaret 
Wilson was at the stake, she sang the 25th Psalm from 
verse 7th, downward a good way, and read the 8th 
Chapter to the Romans with a great deal of cheerful- 
ness, and then prayed. While at prayer, the water 
covered her: but before she was quite dead they pulled 
her up, and held her out of the water till she waa 
recovered, and able to speak; and then by major 
Windram's orders, she was asked, if she would pray 
for the King. She answered, ' She wished the sal- 
vation of all men, and the damnation of none.' One 
deeply affected with the death of the other and her 
case, said, ' Dear Margaret, say God save the King, 


Say God save the King.' She answered in the greatest 
steadiness and composure, ' God save him, if he will, 
for it is his salvation I desire.' Whereupon some of 
her relations near by, desirous to have her life spared 
if possible, called out to major Windram, ' Sir, she 
hath said it, she hath said it.' Whereupon the major 
came near, and offered her the abjuration, charging 
her instantly to swear it, otherwise return to the water. 
Most deliberately she refused, and said, ' I will not, 
I am one of Christ's children, let me go.' Upon which 
she was thrust down again into the water, where she, 
finished her course with joy. She died a virgin-martyr 
about eighteen years of age, and both of them suffered 
precisely upon refusing conformity, and the abjuration 
oath, and were evidently innocent of anything worthy 
of death." 

The martyrs were buried in Wigtown old church- 
yard at the foot of Bank Street. The ruins of the 
old church are to the north-west of the present building 
which was erected in 1853, and the martyrs' grave- 
stones are to the north of the old church — the place 
assigned to criminals. They are enclosed by a neat 
iron railing, and are carefully looked after, in agree- 
able contrast to some of the martyrs' tombstones we 
have seen elsewhere in Galloway. The largest of the 
stones is to the memory of Margaret Wilson. It is 
a thin flat stone resting upon four pillars about a foot 
high, and has the following inscription: — 


ANNO 1685 AGED 18. 

;3 ^ a a § H K g z 5 g § § g 
§ ^ ^ ^ G « P *" § 3 S 2 I § 

o ^ ^ 2 2 g H ^ 5 ^ > o ^ c. 

a f« g o a ^ ^ 5 ^ 2 § S 3 " 
ie ^ ^ '^ o t> wcas 

Near to Margaret Wilson's stone is that erected to 
the memory of her aged fellow-sufferer — Margaret 
Lauchlane. It is of small size, upright, and rests 
upon a socket of stone. The top edge is waved, and 
at one corner is a terminating scroll, the scroll at the 
other corner having apparently been broken off. On 


this waved top the words Me Mento Moki are 
engraved. On the other side of the stone Ave read: — 


On the other side, below a sketch of two bones and 
a skull, the inscription is continued thus: — 

AGED 63, 1685. 

The lettering on the stones is in the antiquated style 
of the period of the Revolution, all the letters being 
capitals, and many of them being joined together. 


The arguments advanced by Sheriff Napier may be 
brieiiy noticed. His whole case is built up on the 
fact that a reprieve was granted. While Margaret 
M'Lauchlan was in prison, a petition was presented 
to the privy council on her behalf, for recall of the 
sentence of death passed upon her. A copy is given 


below, and it will be noticed from the Notary's docquet 
that the petition does not bear to have been read to 
her or subscribed in her presence. Neither in form 
nor in substance can it be said to be the petition of 
Margaret Lauchlan. She may have consented to a 
petition being made on her behalf, but never to the 
views set forth in this one:— 

" Unto his Grace my Lord High Commissioner, 
and remanent Lords of his Majesties Most Hon- 
ourable Privie Counsell; 

" The humble supplication of Margaret Lach- 
lisone, and now prisoner in the Tolbuith of 
Wigton — 

" Sheweth; 

" That whereas I being justly condemned to 
die, by the Lords Commissioners of his Majesties 
Most Honourable Privie Counsell and Justiciore, 
in ane Court holden at Wigtoune, the threttein 
day of Apryle instant, for my not disowning that 
traitorous apollogetical declaration laitlie affixed 
at several paroch churches within this kingdom, 
and my refusing the oath of abjuration of the 
saymein, which was occasioned by my not 
perusing the saymein: And now, I having con- 
sidered the said declaratione, doe acknowledge the 
saymein to be traiterous, and tends to nothing! 
but rebeUione and seditione, and to be quyt con- 
trair unto the wry tin word of God; and am 
content to abjure the same with my whole heart 
and soull: 


" May it therefoir please your Grace, and 
remanent Lords as said is, to take my cais to your 
serious consideratione, being about the age of thre 
scor ten years, and to take pitie and compassione 
on me, and recall the foresaid sentence so justlie 
pronouncet against me; and to grant warrant to 
any your Grace thinks fit to administrat the oath 
of abjuration to me, and upon my taking of it to 
order my liberatione; and your supplicant shall 
leive, heirafter ane good and faithful subject in 
tyme cuming; and shall frequent the ordinances 
and live regularly, and give what other obedience 
your Grace and remanent Lords sail prescryve 
thereanent; and your petitioner shaU ever pray. 

" De mandato dictae Margaretae Lauchlisone 
scribere necien, ut asseruit, ego Gulielmus Moir, 
notarius-publicus, subscribo testante hoc meo 

"William Moir." 

"J. Diinboir, witness. 

" Will. Gordoun, witness." 

Doubtless Margaret Wilson's father, Gilbert Wilson 
of Glenvernoch, exerted himself on behalf of his 
daughter. Certain it is that a reprieve was granted in 
the following terms: — 

" Edinburgh, April 30th, 1685. The Lords of 
his Majesty's Privy Council do hereby reprieve 
the execution of the sentence of death, pronounced 
by the Justices against Margaret Wilson and 


Margaret Lauchlison, until the day of 

and discharge the magistrates of Edinburgh from 
putting of the said sentence to execution against 
them until the foresaid day, and recommend the 
said Margaret Wilson and Margaret Lauchlison 
to the Lords Secretaries of State, to interpose 
with his most sacred Majesty for the royal 
remission to them." 

It will be noticed that the above reprieve leaves the 
date blank — significant enough when it is contended 
that nothing was done to give effect to it. From the 
fact that the magistrates of Edinburgh were discharged 
from executing the sentence Sheriff Napier concludes 
that the two women must have been removed to Edin- 
burgh, and that the drowning at Wigtown in May 
could not have occurred. Dr. Stewart points out the 
procedure in the case of three men sentenced to be 
hanged on 20th April at Cumnock. Their case was 
brought before the Council on 9th April, when this 
deliverance was granted: — " The Lord Commissioner 
his Grace hath reprieved and hereby reprieveth the 
execution of the foresaid sentence of death until the 
20th day of May next at which time the same to be 
put in execution in case there be no further order to 
the contrary." Following on this the men took the 
abjuration oath, and on 8th May the Council ordained 
a letter to be written in their favour to the Lord 
Secretaries of State, recommending them to apply to 
the King for their pardon. No such letter was written, 
and the men again presented an address, and on 15th 


June the Council " ordains a letter to be written to 
the Secretaries of State recommending them to 
mercy." This time the letter is written, and accord- 
ingly the minute contains a copy of it. Following on 
this, the Council Minute of 30th June shows that his 
Majesty's pardon was produced by the Lord Chan- 
cellor. As Dr. Stewart says: — " Here, then, is a case 
in which a petition for mercy, and an offer to take the 
Government oaths, ended in a pardon; and the minutes 
of the Privy Council show the steps by which it went 
on to this termination. But these minutes show that 
the Wigtown case, though it had a beginning, had no 
continuation, and had no such ending. It stopped 
short, from some cause, at the very first stage — at the 
mere permission to administer the oath, and forward 
the prisoners. No proof do these minutes furnish that 
the oath was administered, as in the case of the 
Cumnock men; no proof, deserving the name, that 
the women were actually sent to Edinburgh; no proof 
that a recommendation to mercy was actually for- 
Avarded to London; and, above all, no proof that a 
pardon came." In the London State papers there is 
no record of the Wigtown case, but there we find the 
Cumnock case undergoing its usual course and ending 
in a formal pardon. Further, when the Edinburgh 
rulers got into a state of panic at Argyle's invasion 
and cleared the Edinburgh and Leith jails of "all 
the prisoners for religion, especially those from the 
South and West," and sent them to Dunottar, we find 
the names of the three Cumnock men among the 
prisoners, but the names of the Wigtown martyrs do 


not appear. There is not a scrap of evidence to show 
that the two women were ever in Edinburgh, and there 
is no record to show that the reprieve ever went beyond 
the first step. 

On the affirmative side of the question the proof 
has been arranged by Dr. Stewart, under the following 
headings: — (1) Tradition; (2) Early Pamphlets; 
(3) Earlier Histories; (4) Minutes of Local Church 
Courts; (5) Monumental Evidence. 

Tradition has been handed down from sire to son 
of the drowning of these two women, pointing to the 
very spot where the tragedy took place. The course 
of the Bladnoch was different then from what it is 
to-day. Then the mouth of the river was near the 
Church, and it was in this part that the women were 
drowned. In the family of the Wilsons, the fact of 
Margaret Wilson's martyrdom has been preserved as 
part of the family history. The descendants of 
Grilbert Wilson were farmers in Penninghame parish 
till within quite recent times. 

The Informatory Vindication, published by the 
Societies in 1687 undoubtedly refers to the Wigtown 
martyrs in these words: — " Drowning women, some 
of them very young, and some of exceeding old age." 
The Hind Let Loose, first published in 1687, also 
refers to the Wigtown martyrs: — " Neither were 
women spared, but some were hanged, some drowned, 
tied to stakes within the sea-mark, to be devoured 
gradually with the growing waves, and some of them 
of a very young, some of an old, age." 

The following passage from the Prince of Orange's 


Declaration for Scotland, dated at The Hague, 10th 
October, 1688, shows that he believed that drowning 
was one of the barbarities of the Government: — 
" Empowering officers and soldiers to act upon the 
subject living in quiet and full peace, the greatest 
barbarities in destroying them by hanging, shooting, 
and drowning them without any form of law or respect 
to age or sex." In A Short Memorial of the Sufferings 
and Grievances (1690), there is this passage: — " Item, 
The said Colonel or Lieutenant-General James 
Douglas, together with the Laird of Lagg and Captain 
Winram, most illegally condemned and most uncere- 
moniously drowned at stakes within the sea-mark, two 
women of Wigtown, viz.: — Margaret Lauchlan, up- 
wards of sixty years, and Margaret Wilson, about 
twenty years of age, the foresaid fatal year 1685." 

In A Second Vindication of the Church of Scotland 
(1691), by Dr. Gilbert Rule, Principal of the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh, and minister of Old Greyfriars, 
there is this passage:—" Some gentlemen, whose 
names, out of respect for them, I forbear to mention, 
took two women — Margaret Lauchland and Margaret 
Wilson— the one sixty, the other twenty years, and 
caused them to be tied to a stake within the sea-mark 
at Wigtown and left there tiU the tide overflowed 
them and drowned them, and this was done without 
any legal trial, 1685." 

A Short Character of the Presbyterian Spirit, 
published in 1703, in reply to a pamphlet entitled 
Toleration's Fence Removed, by the Eev. James 
Eamsay of Eyemouth, afterwards Moderator of the 


General Assembly, has this reference to the Wigtown 
case. " He (the author of Toleration's Fence 
Bemoved) says: — ' Others were tyed to stakes within 
the flood-mark till the sea came up and drowned them, 
and this without any form or process of law.' Hef 
durst not instance any so treated. I know they gener- 
ally talk of two women in Galloway — drowned they 
were indeed, but not tyed to stakes within the flood- 
mark till the sea came up, as this Malacious Vindicator 
misrepresents." Mr. Ramsay replied, " He takes upon 
him to deny that the poor women spoken of, T. F. Ft. 
p. 8, were tyed to stakes within the flood-mark till the 
sea came up and drowned them; and yet I have a paper 
from eye and ear witnesses of that abominable fact." 
The value of the extract from A Short Character of 
the Presbyterian Spirit lies in the fact that it was 
written by Mr. Matthias Symson, a son of the Eev. 
Andrew Symson, author of A Large Description of 
Galloway, etc., and afterwards printer in Edinburgh. 
Andrew Symson was the Episcopal minister of Kirk- 
inner when the martyrdom took place, and in October, 
1684, he had marked the name of Margaret Lauehlison 
as disorderly in regard to Church laws in the list of 
parishioners over twelve years of age which he had to 
send to the authorities. Then this pamphlet written 
by Symson, junior, was issued from the press of his 
father, who at the time of the execution was living 
within three miles of Wigtown. What further proof 
than this admission of the martyrdom would any 
reasonable man require? — " Drowned they were in- 


In regard to " Earlier Histories," it need only be 
mentioned that the case of the Wigtown martyrs is 
fully given in A Cloud of Witnesses, 1714, and in 
Defoe's History of the Church of Scotland, 1717. 

The Minutes of the Local Church Courts prove the 
martyrdom conclusively. In the Minutes of the Kirk 
Session of Kirkinner, of 15th April, 1711, there is 
this reference to it: — The minister gave in the account 
of the " sufferings of honest godly people in the late 
times which was read, and is as follows: — Margaret 
Laughlison, of known integrity and piety from her 
jouth, aged about 80, widow of John Milliken, wright 
in Drumjargan, was, in or about the year of God, 
1685, in her own house, taken off her knees in prayer, 
and carried immediately to prison, and from one prison 
to another without the benefit of light to read the 
Scriptures; was barbarously treated by dragoons, who 
were sent to carry her from Mahirmore to Wigtown; 
and being sentenced by Sir Eobert Grier, of Lagg, to 
be drowned at a stake within the flood-mark just below 
the town of Wigtown, for conventicle keeping and 
alleged rebellion was, according to the said sentence, 
fixed to the stake till the tide made, and held down 
within the water by one of the town-ofiicers by his 
halbert at her throat till she died." 

The following were the members of the Session 
present: — the Eev. William Campbell, minister of 
Kirkinner, a Wigtownshire man, and son of the 
minister of Stoneykirk; William M'Hafiie, in Kil- 
darroch, who was an elder in Kii'kinner when the 
Rev. Mr. Campbell came to the parish. From Mr. 


Andrew Symson's list above referred to we learn that 
he was living at Kildarroch in 1684, the year before 
the martyrdom. Gilbert Milroy, who was a member 
of Session before 1702; George Dunn, who was an 
elder before 1698; John Martin of Little Aires, who 
was ordained in 1703. The Kirkinner Minute of 
euSerings states that Andrew Martin of Little Aires — 
probably John's father — was declared rebel for going 
to Bothwell. Alexander Martin, younger of Cutloy. 
He was probably tenant of Meikle Aires, as he repre- 
sents the proprietor — Henry Hawthorn — at parish 
meetings. He was twelve years of age at the time of 
the martyrdom. John Martin elder in Airles. There 
is the name of John Martin in Symson's list, but the 
residence is different, and he may not be the samel. 
John M'Dowall in Ballaird. There are two John 
M'Dowall's in Symson's list, but neither of them 
resides at Ballaird. John Kirkpatrick, chamberlain to 
Hamilton of Baldoon. He was ordained in 1707, and 
though he may have had no personal knowledge of the 
martyrdom, he was doubtless satisfied of its truth on 
the testimony of others; Eobert Heron, Barglass, was 
previously an elder in Mochrum, and it is probably his 
name which appears on the roll of the synod, 20th 
April, 1697; Andrew Gray, ordained Deacon in 1705. 
The following is the reference to the case in the 
Penninghame records of 19th February, 1711: — 

" Gilbert Wilson of Glenvernock, in Castle- 
stewart's land, being a man to ane excesse con- 
form to the guise of the tymes, and his wife 


without challenge for her religion, in a good 
condition as to worldly things, with a great stock 
on a large ground (fitt to be a prey), was harassed 
for his childrene who would not conform. They 
being required to take the test, and hear the 
curats, refused both; were searched for, fled, and 
lived in the wild mountains, bogs, and caves. 
Their parents were charged, on their highest peril, 
that they should neither harbour them, speak to 
them, supplie them, nor see them, and the country 
people were obliged by the terror of the law, to 
pursue them, as well as the soldiers, with hue and 

" In February, 1685, Thomas Wilson of sixteen 
years of age, Margaret Wilson, of eighteen years, 
Agnes Wilson of thirteen years, children of the 
said Gilbert — the said Thomas keeping the moun- 
tains, his two sisters Margaret and Agnes went 
secretly to Wigtown to see some friends, were 
there discovered, taken prisoners, and instantly 
thrust into the thieves hole as the greatest male- 
factors; whence they were some tymes brought 
up to the tolbooth, after a considerable tyme's 
imprisonment, where several others were prisoners 
for the like cause, particularly ane Margaret 
M'Lauchland of Kirkinner paroch, a woman of 
sixty-three years of age. 

" After their imprisonment for some consider- 
able tyme, Mr. David Graham, sheriff, the laird 
of Lagg, Major Winram, Captain Strachan, called 
ane assize, indicted these three women, viz.: — 


Margaret M'Lauchlan, Margaret Wilson, Agnes 
Wilson, to be guilty of the rebellion at Bothwell- 
bridge, Airds Moss, twenty field conventicles, and 
twenty house conventicles. Yet it was weel known 
that none of these women ever were within twenty 
miles of Bothwell or Airds Mosse; and Agnes 
Wilson being eight years of age at the time of 
Airds Mosse, could not be deep in the rebellion 
then, nor her sister of thirteen years of age, and 
twelve years at Bothwell-bridge its tyme. The 
assize did sitt, and brought them in guilty, and 
these judges sentenced them to be tied to 
palissados fixed in the sand, within the flood-mark 
of the sea, and there to stand till the flood over- 
flowed them, and drowned them. 

" They received their sentence without the least 
discouragement, with a composed smiling coun- 
tenance, judging it their honour to suffer for 
Christ's truth, that He is alone King and Head 
of his Church. Gilbert Wilson, forsaid, got his 
youngest daughter, Agnes Wilson, out of prison, 
upon his bond of ane hundreth pounds sterling, 
to produce her when called for, after the sentence 
of death past against her, but was obliged to go 
to Edinburgh for this be-fore it could be obtained. 
The tyme they were in prison no means was 
unessayed with Margaret Wilson to persuade her 
to take the oath of abjuration, and hear the curats, 
with threatenings and flattery, but without any 


" Upon the eleventh day of May 1685, these 
two women, Margaret M'Lauchland and Margaret 
Wilson, were brought forth to execution. They 
did put the old woman first in to the water, and 
when the water was over-flowing her, they asked 
Margaret Wilson what she thought of her in that 
case? She answered, What do I see but Christ 
wrestling there? Think ye that we are the 
sufferers? No, it is Christ in us, for He sends 
none a warfare on their own charges. Margaret 
Wilson sang Psalm xxv., from the 7th verse, read 
the eighth chapter of the Epistle to the Eomans, 
and did pray, and then the water covered her. 
But before her breath was quite gone, they pulled 
her up, and held her till she could speak, and then 
asked her if she would pray for the King. She 
answered that she wished the salvation of all men, 
but the damnation of none. Some of her relations 
being on the place, cried out, She is willing to 
conform, being desirous to save her life at any, 
rate. Upon which Major Winram offered the oath 
of abjuration to her, either to swear it, or return 
to the waters. She refused it, saying, ' I will not. 
I am one of Christ's children, let me go.' And 
then they returned her into the water, where she 
finished her warfare, being a virgin martyr of 
eighteen years of age, suffering death for her 
refusing to swear the oath of abjuration and hear 
the curate." 


The members of the Session present were: — 

1. Robert Rowan, Minister. 

2. John M'Caul, Corsbie. He was at Bothwell, and 

was taken and imprisoned. His landlord — 
Castle Stewart — gave Olaverhouse a Bond for 
1,000 merks for his compearance, and he was 
liberated. The list by Mr. Colquhoun, Epis- 
copal minister of Penninghame, shows that he 
was residing at Corsbie at that time (1684). 

3. John Martin, Glenvogie. His wife and son are 

in the list, but he had sought safety in flight. 

4. John Heron, Grange of Cree. His name appears 

in Mr. Colquhoun's list. 

5. Alexr. M'GiU, Barvennau. He also is in the list. 

6. Thomas M'Caw, Challoch. 

7. John M'Keand, Balsalloch. In Mr. Colquhoun's 

list there are two of this name resident at 

8. William Douglas, Balsalloch. He was 17 years 

of age at the date of the martyrdom. 

9. James M'Geoch, Barwhirran. His name appears 

in Mr. Colquhoun's list. He was 18 in 1685. 

10. John M'Clelland, bailie in Newton Stewart. He 

was previously an elder in Monigaff . 

11. Alexander M'Clinger, Barachan. His wife was 

at Wigtown sentenced to banishment in 1684 
for " converse " with him. In 1684 his resi- 
dence was Thrive. 

12. Patrick Milroy, Glenhapple. 

13. James M'Millan, Fintilloch. 


In the Wigtown Session Records, under date 8th 
July, 1704, it is minuted: — 

" Post preses sederunt, the minister and all the 
elders and deacons." Inter alia. " This day 
Bailie M'Keand, elder, in Wigtown, addressed 
the session for the privilege of the sacrament, 
declaring the grief of his heart that he should 
have sitten on the seize of these women who were 
sentenced to die in this place in the year 1685, 
and that it had been frequently his petition to 
God for true repentance and forgiveness for that 
sin. He being removed, and the session enquiring 
into this affair and the carriage of the said bailie 
since that time, and being satisfied with his 
conversation since, and the present evidence of 
repentance now, they granted him the privilege. 
He was called in, admonished, and exhorted to 
deliberation, and due tenderness in such a solemn 
address unto God." 

It may be imagined that Bailie M'Keand's " grief 
of heart " would not have been so great as it appears 
to have been, and that he would not have been denied 
the " privilege of the sacrament " for nineteen years, 
had the women, at whose condemnation to death he 
assisted, not been actually executed. 

The inscriptions on the tombstones must have 
appeared at the very latest before 1730, as they are 
given in the third edition of the Cloud of Witnesses, 
published that year, and there is every reason to believe 


that the tombstones with the inscriptions were put up 
much earlier. As Dr. Stewart pertinently asks, " Is 
it possible to believe anyone capable of ' committing 
such an outrage on truth and propriety as to inscribe 
on a tombstone in a churchyard visited every Sunday 
by the whole population of the County town, what 
they all would have known to be a mere fable?' " 

There are many other circumstances and incidents 
that go to support the truth of the martyrdom. Some 
of these we give, not that we think them at all 
necessary, but that everything connected with the story 
is of interest. 

The following declaration was published in 1861: — 

" I, Margaret Wilson, residing in Wigtown, 
do hereby solemnly and sincerely declare, that the 
late Mr. William M'Adam, of Woodside, called 
upon me soon after I came to Wigtown, and read 
over the annexed paper, and said that his grand- 
father gave it to him, saying it was a copy of 
the petition written by himself, signed by him 
and others, and forwarded to Parliament, against 
Sir Robert Grierson of Lagg, as stated therein, 
and that his grandfather was married to one of 
the Wilsons of Glenvernock. 

" (Signed) Margaret Wilson." 

" Declared before me at Wigtown this 14th day 
of March, 1861.. 

" (Signed) Thomas Murray, 
Sheriff-Substitute of Wigtownshire." 


The following is the paper referred to in the above 
declaration: — 

" Memorandum anent ane Petition to be pre- 
sented to the Parliament against Sir Robert 
Grierson of Lagge. 

" Sir Robert having in the late evill times the 
command of several troops of dragoons, and being 
Steuart of the Steuartry of Kirkcudbright does, 
without any process or sentance of law, cause 
comite severall barbrous and inhuman murders, 
and that upon no other account but upon Church 
irregularities, and does execute his fury against 
this poor people in such a manner as cannot well 
be expressed. A particular account of all his 
barbarities is not designed in this place, but only 
such of them as are most notour and deserve best 
the consideration of the honourable states of 
Parliament, which are as follows: — 

" 1st. Sir Robert, after he had apprehended 
two women to wit, Margaret Lauchlison and 
Margaret Wilson — upon no other account but for 
alleged nonconformity, did, without any con- 
viction or sentence, cause bind them to a stake 
within the sea-mark at Wigtoune till the flood 
returning drowned them both, and that without 
any consideration of the age of the one or the 
youth of the other, and the said Margaret Lauch- 
lison being above 63 years of age, and the other 
18 years old. This was done in the month of 
May, 1685." 


Sir Andrew Agnew in The Hereditary Sheriffs of 
Galloway says: — " Local traditions traceable to almost 
contemporaneous times, even if they seem childish, 
stand in corroboration of the deed, in so far as they 
show that the reality of the tragedy was never for a 
moment doubted in the district." He gives the 
following incidents: — 

The man by whose information the women were 
arrested was well known, and his memory is execrated 
still. One of his descendants, getting into an alter- 
cation with a person in the town, was thus taunted, 
" I wadna like to have had a forbear who betrayed 
the martyrs; I wadna be com'd o' sic folk." 

The late Miss Susan Heron, Wigtown, often told 
how her grandfather, who had seen the execution, spoke 
of it in these words: — " The sands were covered wi' 
cluds o' folk, a' gathered into clusters, many offering 
up prayers for the women while they were being put 
down." Miss Heron died 19th February, 1834, aged 
eighty-seven, and her grandfather, James Heron, died 
31st October, 1758, aged ninety-four, so that he was 
twenty years of age when the women were drowned. 
The Herons were buried at the old churchyard of 
Penninghame, and these dates are taken from their 

A town sergeant, who had been officiously active — 
when the women finally refused Lagg to take the test 
— pressed down their heads with his halbert, and cried 
with savage glee, " Tak' another drink o't, my, 
hearties." Hardly had he returned home when he 
was troubled by an extraordinary thirst. No amount 


of drink could satisfy it. His unnatural craving forced 
him, when obliged to go about, to carry a pitcher on 
his back. If crossing a stream, he was irresistibly 
impelled to kneel down and lap water like a dog. 
Medical skiU was of no avail: as the wretch wandered 
about the country, now turning to curse a group of 
urchins who followed to mock his sufferings, now 
sprawUng to moisten his tongue in the gutter, even 
his ribald companions shrank from him with horror, 
and the people, whose sympathies were with his 
victims, pointed to him as a man whose eternal 
sufferings had begun. 

Still more grotesque is the tradition of the " Cleppie 
Bells": — A constable, who was held to have carried 
out his orders unfeelingly, as he fastened the women 
to the stakes, was asked how the poor creatures behaved 
when the cold wave roared and foamed about their 
heads. " Oh," he replied jocularly, " they just clepped 
roun' the stobs like partons, and prayed." Soon after. 
Bell's wife was brought to child-bed, when the mid- 
wife exclaimed in horror, "The bairn is clepped!" 
(i.e., the fingers grew firmly together). Another child 
was born, and yet another, and as each in turn was 
seen to be " clepped," the most incredulous were con- 
vinced it was a judgment of Providence. 


The Eev. William Campbell, minister of Kirkinner, 
in response to a request by Wodrow, inquired into the 


story of a dream of the martyr's daughter, and replied 
under date 11th April, 1718, as follows: — 

" Rev. Dear Brother, — In compliance with your 
desire anent Elizabeth Millikin's dream, know 
that I went and discoursed her this day, in order 
to give you the genuine account of it. The said 
Elizabeth dreamed, some weeks or months before 
the quarter sessions that met in November, 1708, 
that her mother Margaret M'Lauchlison, came to 
her, at the cross of Wigtown, with garb, gesture, 
and countenance that she had five minutes before 
she was drowned in Blednoch, and said to her, 
' Elizabeth, go and warn Provost Cultrain that he 
must shortly appear before the tribunal of the 
great God to answer for his ways;' and immedi- 
ately her sleep was broken, and it made such an 
impression upon her, that she resolved, for her 
own exoneration, and the Provost's edification, 
prudently and meekly to communicate the said 
dream to the said William Cultrain of Drum- 
morral, with the first convenience; but not 
finding or expecting that, she told the dream to 
Bailie Lafries, Drummorral's friend, being 
married to Lady Drummorral's sister, a man of 
age, gravity, and experience, and an elder in 
Wigtown; and solemnly desired and engaged him 
to signify the said dream to the said Drummorral; 
and she doubted not but the said Bailie Lafriee, 
did tell the said Drummorral. And, accordingly, 


in the beginning of November, 1708, he rode from 
Wigton to the quarter session of the justices of 
the shire, that met that time at Stranraer, and 
there, on the Wednesday, at the court table, was 
suddenly struck with a lethargy, was carried to 
his quarters, and continued speechless till 
Saturday, the 8th of November, and then died." 

Coltrain's participation in the persecution was too 
deep to escape being handed down to posterity. His 
name was so detested that many stories coupled with 
superstitious exaggerations were current. One was 
that when he died the windows of his house looked as 
if they were a blaze of fire, which was understood as 
conveying the fact that the Devil had then got 
possession of his own. It was also related that for 
long after his death to pass after nightfall the door 
of the house he had occupied was an undertaking 
requiring more than ordinary nerve. 

Such are some of the stories that have come down to 
us about the Wigtown martyrs — stories strange and 
weird, but all going to show that among those on the 
spot and in the best position to know, the martyrdom 
never was doubted. 


In the New Cemetery at Stirling a magnificent 
monument has been erected to the memory of the 
martyrs. On a large pedestal, there is the figure of 
an angel standing beside two figures seated, repre- 


senting the two Wigtown martyrs with the open Bible 
before them, and a lamb lying at their feet. This 
beautiful piece of sculpture is greatly admired. It 
is the work of Handyside Ritchie, Edinburgh. The 
figure representing an angel was cut in Rome. In 
the front of the pedestal on marble is the following 
inscription, with several emblematic designs: — 


Virgin-:nartyr of the ocean wave with 
her like-minded sister 


Love many waters cannot quench — God saves 

His chaste impearled one in covenant true. 

O, Scotia's daughters ! earnest scan the page. 

And prize this flower of grace, blood bought for you. 

Psalm ix.-xix. 


On 24th September, 1848, a sermon was preached 
in Wigtown Parish Church by the Rev. Dr. William 
Symington of Glasgow, in aid of a fund for a 
monument to the memory of the martyrs, but it was 
not until ten years later that the present monument 
was erected on Windy Hill at a cost of £200. The 
foundation stone was laid in presence of a large 
attendance, by the late James Dodds, Solicitor, 
London, author of The Fifty Years' Struggle of the 


Covenanters. The following are the inscriptions on 
the monument. On the north side: — 

This Monument 

has been erected 

in memory of the noble army of Martyrs in 

Galloway and other parts of Scotland, by 

whom, during the age of persecution, our 

Religion and Liberties, as now established, 

were secured, 


as a lesson to posterity never to 

lose or abuse those glorious privileges 

planted by their labours, rooted in their 

Sufferings, and watered with their blood. 

On the west tablet we read: — 

A general desire having been manifested to 

commemorate by some suitable Monument the 

Piety, Constancy and Courage 

of the Scottish Martyrs, 

especially those whose ashes repose 

in the churchyard of Wigtown, 

a Committee of Gentlemen of the district 

was appointed to carry out this object; 

and a considerable fund being raised 

by public subscription and otherwise, 

the present Monument was erected in the year 


The south side repeats the inscription on the tomb- 
stone of Margaret Wilson in the churchyard. 


The inscription on the east side is: — ■ 

Margaret Wilson, aged 18, daughter 

of a farmer in Glenvernock, 


Margaret M'Lauchlan, aged 63, tenant in 

the farm of Drumjargon, both in this County, 

were drowned by sentence of the public authorities 

in the waters of Bladnoch, near this place, 

on the 11th of May, 1685, 

because they refused to forsake the principles 

of the Scottish Reformation, and to take the 

Government oath abjuring the right of the 

people to resist the tyranny of their rulers ; 


William Johnstone, gardener ; and John Milroy, 

chapman in Fintilloch ; and Gilbert Walker,* 

servant in Kirkala ; all in this County, were 

summaiilj' executed in the town of Wigtown in 

the same year and for the same cause. 

In 1885, the bi-centenary of the martyrdom was 
commemorated at Wigtown by an immense concourse 
of people. 


The Court which condemned the two women to death 
on 13th April, 1685, had also before it Margaret 
Maxwell, servant at Barwhannie, in Kirkinner parish, 
charged with non -conformity. She was sentenced to 
be flogged through Wigtown streets and to be put in 

* As will be seen from the inscription on the tombstone, the 
name should be " George " Walker. 


the jougs for three days. This sentence was carried 
out by the Wigtown hangman, but he evidently had no 
liking for the work, as may be seen from the following 
Minute: — 

"WiGTOUNE, Apryle 15th, 1685. 

" Councell Extraordinar . 

" The qlk Day, the bailzie and Councelors 
having convened John Malroy, hangman, befoir 
them, and examined him, what was his reason to 
absent himself at this tym, when ther was em- 
ployment for him, he acknowledged he was in 
the Avrong, and was seduced yrto; but now 
acknowledged himself the tounes ssrt (servant), 
and promised to byd be his service; but aleged 
that he had noe benefit or cellarie for his service, 
and craved to have some allowance for tyme 
coming; Which he refered to the toun councell 
at ane frequent meiting efter the provest's 
retourne from Edr.; and in the meintym the 
bailzie, with advyce and consent of the councell, 
appoynts the thessrer to furnish four shilling Scots 
ilk day to the sd. John Malroy dureing his abod 
in prissone, which shall be alowed to the thessrer 
in his compts; as also appoynts the thessrer to 
furnish him one beddine of Close, for ye which 
he shall be satisfied dureing his imprisonment." 

Margaret Maxwell was one of those who afterwards 
gave Patrick Walker an account of the martyrdom, as 
referred to in his Six Saints. 




William Johnstoae — John Milioy — George Walker — Peden's pro- 
phecy — The Milroys of Kirkoalla, captured and tortured, 
mutilated and banished — Gilbert Milioy survives the 
Bevolution and returns to Kirkcowan. 

There is another martyrs' tombstone in Wigtown 
churchyard. It is a little larger than Margaret 
M'Lauchlan's, and, like hers, has a waving top with 
the words Me Mento Mori. The inscription is as 
follows: — 


Johnstone was gardener to the Laird of Fintilloeh. 
George Walker was servant at Kirkcalla, and John 
Milroy Avas a chapman living in Fintilloeh. John- 
stone had so far conformed as to take the test, but 
changed his views and refused to hear the curate, with 



the result that the latter informed against him and 
he was forced to take to the moors and mountains, and 
in this way threw in his lot with the other two. 
Tradition narrates that they had many narrow escapes, 
and at last they were captured by a party sent out 
by Major Winram, and were brought to Wigtown. 
Winram questioned them, and, not being satisfied, had 
them hanged the next day without even the form oif 
a trial. 

Among the remarkable sayings ascribed to Peden 
the prophet, is one referring to the execution of these 
men. When he was praying at Craigmyre, many 
miles distant, he suddenly cried out, " There is a 
bloody sacrifice put up this day at Wigtown. These 
are the lads of Kirkcalla." Those who lived near knew 
nothing about it till afterwards, and then they realised 
what Peden was referring to. 


In 1684, William Milroy of Kirkcalla took the test, 
but his brother Gilbert got off by paying £12. Next 
year these two, with a younger brother— Patrick — 
rather than take the oath, left their home and hid 
among the moors and mountains. In June or July, 
the Earl of Hume sent his militia to quarter on them. 
The soldiers pillaged their house, drove away all the 
cattle they could find, and practically demolished 
everything. They took away eighty black cattle, 
many young beasts, about five hundred sheep, and 
eight horses, some of them of great value. When the 
women wanted to retain their clothes, saying men had 


no use for them, some of them were seized and lighted 
matches were placed between their fingers. William 
and Gilbert were captured and taken before the Earl 
of Hume at Minnigaff, and, refusing to disclose who 
had sheltered them in their wanderings, lighted 
matches were placed between their fingers also, but 
without drawing any information. They were tor- 
tured, and threatened with immediate death if they 
did not tell, but still they refused. Gilbert Milroy's 
wife came to Minnigafi to wait upon her husband. 
She had gone out to the fields to pray, and one of the 
soldiers over-hearing her, came up to her and, drawing 
a sword, threatened to kill her, but he was restrained, 
and carried her prisoner to the Captain of the Guard, 
who saw good to dismiss her. Her husband and his 
brother, with several others, were carried under the 
guard to the church of Barr, tied together two and 
two like beasts of slaughter. They were ultimately 
carried to Edinburgh and imprisoned at Holyrood 
House, all the jails being filled. Mr. James Col- 
quhoun. Episcopal minister at Penninghame, had no 
small share in their being thus treated. Gilbert 
Milroy found means to treat with him when he was 
apprehended, and sent him a good wedder upon his 
promise to speak for him. Gilbert's wife afterwards 
went to Mr. Colquhoun and asked a line in her 
husband's favour. He wrote a letter and sealed it, 
giving it to herself to carry to Edinburgh. In this, 
instead of writing in the prisoner's favour, he informed 
the judges that he was a disloyal person of rebellious 


principles. This, together with their refusing to 
comply and take the oaths required, brought on their 
sentence, which was to have their ears cut off, and to 
be banished for ten years. Their ears were accordingly 
cut off, with the exception of Gilbert Milroy's, who 
was so weak that he was thought to be dying. About 
five or six days afterwards, Gilbert Milroy and the 
rest of the sentenced prisoners were taken out, and 
six and six of them tied together, and such of them as 
were not able to walk, as was the case with several, 
were carried in carts to Newhaven, put into a ship 
lying there, and thrust under deck to the number of 
one hundred and ninety. They endured terrible 
privations, and when they landed at Port Eoyal in 
Jamaica, they were put in an open prison. They had, 
however, much friendship shown them from several 
people in the island. After ten days in prison, 
they were sold as slaves. Gilbert Milroy refused 
to work to his master on the Sabbath, and one 
day, after the master had ordered him several times, 
he drew his sword and had well nigh killed him, but 
afterwards, finding him faithful, conscientious, and 
diligent, he altered his way, and made him overseer 
of all his negroes. The blacks hated him for his 
fidelity to his master, and made various attempts to 
murder him. One of them struck him on the head 
with a long pole, whereby he was stunned for some 
time, and lost a great deal of blood, and was ever 
afterwards a little paralytic. At another time he was 
poisoned by some of the negroes, but was saved by 


the timeous application of antidotes. Many of the 
prisoners died in their bondage, but Gilbert lived till 
the Revolution, and came safe home to his wife and 
relatives, and was a useful member of the Session of 




The sufferings in Penninghame — The sufferings in Kirkinner — 
William Graham, the Crossmichael Martyr — Grierson of 
Balmaclellan— The M'Cartneys of Blaikit— John Gordon, 
Viscount Kenmure, and Lady Kenmure — Gabriel Semple — 
John Livingstone, minister of Stranraer — Knox in Galloway 
—The Coves of Barholm— The Galloway Covenants of 1638 
— Borgae Covenant and signatures — Minnigaff Covenants and 

!Prom Penninghame Session Records we learn that the 
Parish suiTered severely after Bothwell. The dragoons 
and foot soldiers spoiled the houses and took away the 
cattle of those who had been implicated. John Martin, 
Glenvogie, James Martin, Glenhapple, and Alexander 
M'Clingan, Baltersan, had their goods and cattle 
seized, and their wives were apprehended and cast into 
prison. The cattle of John Hannay in Penninghame 
were driven away, and his house was demolished. 
James Gordon of Craighlaw, who was living in 
Glasnick had his house spoiled, and his estate was 
gifted to Major Main. He bought back his estate at 
great expense, pledging it in security, and while others 
at the Revolution recovered their estates, there wae 
none from whom he could claim, and ultimately the 
creditor got possession. John MacTaggart, Hazel- 
green, and Alexander Murray, taken at Bothwell, were 


shipped to the West Indies. The ship was lost, and 
with it MacTaggart, but Murray was saved, and 
returned home. John M'Caul in Corsbie, taken at 
Bothwell, was afterwards liberated, but was again 
seized and imprisoned in Dumfries, while the soldiers 
helped themselves to his goods. He was liberated on 
Bond for a thousand merks. Alexander M'CIelland, 
Baltersan, taken at Bothwell, and afterwards liberated, 
had his whole stock and crop seized and sold by Sheriff 
Graham. Gilbert Douglas, Glenrassie, for being at 
Bothwell, suffered great loss, estimated at about a 
thousand merks. William Kennedy, Barnkirk, and 
John Ferguson, Garwachie, were also at Bothwell, 
and became marked men afterwards, and suffered 
accordingly. John M'Caw, cottar, Kirkcalla, had all 
he possessed taken from him, and was forced to flee 
for his life. John Stewart, Glenloehoch, suffered to 
the extent of over a thousand merks, and fled to 
Ireland. Patrick M'CIelland, Baltersan, was im- 
prisoned for six months in Wigtown, and was fined 
five hundred merks, and his stock and crop were seized 
by Sheriff Graham. Thomas M'Keand in Balsalloch, 
and Gilbert Heron in Carsenestock, were imprisoned 
and only liberated on payment of considerable sums. 


The husband of Margaret Lauchlisone, John Milli- 
ken, suffered much at the hands of the persecutors. 
The soldiers were frequently quartered on him, and he 
was obliged to pay six of them eight shillings Scots 
each per day for a considerable time. He was taken 


prisoner to Dumfries, and fined. Andrew M'Cubbin 
and his wife, Elizabeth Milliken, daughter of the above 
John Milliken, were stripped of all their goods, their 
furniture burned to ashes, and themselves and their 
children turned out of their house. Alexander Vaux 
of Barwhanny, brother of John Vaux of Barnbarroch, 
and Margaret Maxwell, his wife, were harassed, 
processed, and fined merely for nonconformity and 
receiving outed ministers. William Sproat, Clutag, 
to avoid persecution, went to Portpatriok, intending 
to cross to Ireland, but was apprehended and brought 
back on foot between two dragoons past his own door 
to Wigtown prison. He was put in irons, his ears 
cut off, and his fingers burned with matches. He was 
sentenced to be banished to America, and died on the 
way. William Kerr, Boreland, was imprisoned at the 
same time as Margaret Lauchlisone, but managed to 
escape. John Stewart, Kirkbien, was stripped of all 
his goods. John Dunn, Stewarton, was imprisoned 
and banished, and died on the voyage. Janet Dunn, 
his daughter, had her fingers burned with matches, 
and was carried prisoner to Glasgow. Margaret 
Middinel, Meikle Airies, was imprisoned. John 
M'Eeikie, Newton, and Agnes M'CuUoch, Stewarton, 
wife of Anthony Hawthorn, were fined. Andrew 
Martin, Little Airies, being at Bothwell, was declared 
rebel, and his house was frequently plundered, and 
the crop seized by the dragoons. His wife, Margaret 
Kennedy, suffered severely, and was forced to flee with 
her children. She was taken prisoner, but managed 
to escape. " The search after these was so accurate 


that many hundreds of Oaths were taken anent the 
said Andrew and his epouse, so that they were obliged 
to more close hiding until King James' toleration." 


In Crossmichael churchyard there is a martyr's 
stone, about three feet high by two feet broad, with 
the following inscription: — 


On other side a skull and crossbones, and 


LEAGUE 1682. 

Defoe includes William Graham among those whom 
Claverhouse murdered at his own hands. " Claver- 
house rode after him and over-took him, and although 
the young man offered to surrender, and begged him 
to save his life, he shot him dead with his pistol." 
He was brother to James Graham referred to at p. 237. 



Many of the Covenanters found for years a safe 
retreat in a cave near Ingleston, but in April, 1685, 
it was betrayed by "knavish Watson," who had 
deserted the Covenanters and become a bitter perse- 
cutor. This was the Andrew Watson who is mentioned 
with the Covenanters implicated in the tragedy at 
Carsphairn Manse. Early in the morning of 28th 
April, 1685, acting on Watson's information. Colonel 
James Douglas and Lieutenant Livingstone stealthily 
came to the cave and captured five fugitives. These 
were John Gibson, brother to the Laird of Ingleston; 
James Bennoch from Glencairn; Kobert Edgar from 
Balmaclellan; Robert Mitchell from Cumnock; and 
Robert Grierson, also from Balmaclellan. When the 
dragoons came up, they fired into the cave, wounding 
one of the fugitives, and then rushed in and seized the 
five. They were dragged out and ordered to be shot. 
Gibson's mother and sister, hearing of the capture, 
came upon the scene and interceded for him, but in 
vain. The soldiers, however, allowed him an inter- 
view, and Gibson asked them not to grieve for him. 
He was allowed to pray, which he did in a way that 
impressed even the soldiers. He read part of Psalm 17, 
and John 16, and, after praying again, was shot dead. 
The other four were not allowed to pray, and were 
immediately shot. One of them not dead was thrust 
through with a sword, and, as he died, he cried, 
" Though every hair of my head were a man, I am 
willing to die all these deaths for Christ and His 
cause." Gibson, Edgar, Bennoch, and Mitchell were 


buried in Glencairn, where stones were erected to their 
memory. G-rierson's body was carried to Balmaclellan 
and buried there, and a stone over his grave hae the 
following inscription: — 


This Monument To Passengers Shall Cry 

That Goodly Grierson Under It Doth Ly 
<; Betray'd By Knavish Watson To His Foes 
Ji Which Made This Martyrs Days By Murther Close ft] 

g If Ye Would Know The Nature Of His Chime ttj 

Q Then Read The Story Of That Killing Time t^ 

S§ When Babel's Brats With Hellish Plots Conckald ^ 

^ Desion'd To Make Our South Their Hunting Field ^ 

^ Here's One Of Five At Once Were Laid In Dust jj 

f^ To Gratify Rome's Execrable Lust § 

5 If Carabines With Molten Bullets Could S 

^ Have Reached Their Souls These Mighty Nimrods Would *^ 

'-' Them Have Cut Off ; For There Could No Request 
Three Minutes Get To Pray For Future Rest. 

JO aNvwwoo Aa Hxvaa ox xohs svav ohav noshsiho 

Balmaclellan churchyard also has a stone in memory 
of Robert Paterson, stone engraver, well known as 
Old Mortality, who died at Bankhead of Caerlaverock, 
14th February, 1801, aged 88. 


The M'Cartneys of Blaikit, in the Parish of Urr, 
were zealous supporters of the Covenanters, and 
suffered accordingly. John M'Cartney, who was an 


elder in the Parish Church in 1647, was in 1662 fined 
£600 merely for adherence to the Presbyterian 
Church. Other fines were subsequently imposed and 
he was thrown into Kirkcudbright jDrison, where he 

He was succeeded by his son, George M'Cartney. 
He was suspected of favouring the Dairy Rising, and, 
merely because of this. Maxwell of Milton seized his 
horses to the value of £160, spoiled his house, 
and carried away his crop. Banna tyne next forced a 
Bond from him for five hundred merks. In 1668, a 
party of dragoons again plundered the house and took 
away horse, and then shortly afterwards Major Cock- 
burn arrived from Dumfries garrison with eighty 
horse, waited two or three days, eating and destroying 
everything about the place. In 1671, Sir Charles 
Erskine, Lord Lyon, got a commission from the Lords 
of the Treasury to uplift the Estates, goods, and gear 
of those in Wigtownshire, Kirkcudbright, and Dum- 
friesshire, forfeited for the Rebellion of 1666 for the 
crop of 1670. By some means M'Cartney's name was 
got into this Commission though he appears to have 
been neither forfeited nor an excepted person. The 
Lord Lyon wished him to buy back his own estate, 
and when he refused, he was carried prisoner to Dum- 
fries, and then to Edinburgh. After several petitions, 
he at last got his case considered, and it was clearly 
shown that his name should not have been in the 
Commission at all, and his liberation was ordered on 
Bond of one thousand merke to appear when called 
upon. Meantime he was taken back to prison. After 


an interval, he made inquiries, and discovered to his 
dismay that the clerk had omitted to minute his 
liberation. Altogether he remained in prison over 'six 
years, and during this time his estate was laid waste 
and everything carried away by the Lord Lyon. After 
he was liberated and settled down again, David 
Graham came with a party of soldiers and kept 
garrison in his house for some weeks, seized his horse, 
and helped himself to corn and everything else he 
wanted. Wodrow says that the total of his losses, 
besides being impaired in health, was £9,827 16s. 

He afterwards supported the famous John Hepburn, 
and was one of those who appeared before the Presby- 
tery and asked help to get the Privy Council to give 
the stipend of Urr to Mr. Hepburn, " whose preaching 
they allow." In 1699, he appears in opposition to 
the former Episcopalian curate of the Parish, John 
Lyon, who had applied to the General Assembly to be 
admitted a Presbyterian minister. M'Cartney died 
in 1704, and was buried in Urr churchyard. 


Sir John Gordon of Lochinvar was born about the 
year 1599, and in his student years had the privilege 
of living with John Welsh when the latter was an 
exile in France. Kenmure's early life was not re- 
markable for either good or evil, his chief desire being 
for worldly honours. Years afterwards he said to one 
of his kinsmen, " I would not have you drown your- 
self so much in the concerns of the world as I did." 


About the year 1626, he married Lady Jane Campbell, 
third daughter of Archibald, seventh Earl of Argyle, 
by his first wife, Ann, who was a daughter of William, 
sixth Earl of Morton. Sir John was hopeful that the 
honours of the house of Gowrie, attainted for high 
treason in 1600, would be revived in his person as his 
mother was Lady Isabel Euthven, daughter of 
William, first Earl of Gowrie. It is said that he sold 
the lands of Stitchill, the ancient inheritance of the 
family, and gave the price to the Duke of Bucking- 
ham the evening before his assassination by Felton 
as a bribe to support his claims. His hopes in this 
were doomed to disappointment. In 1633, Charles 
created him Viscount Kenmure and Lord Gordon of 
Lochinvar. He attended the Parliament of 1633, but 
when Charles wished to pass laws ratifying the Acts 
of Perth Assembly and for advancing the state of 
bishops, which he could not support, he feigned illness, 
and returned home. In 1634, he was back in Edin- 
burgh still endeavouring to be elevated to the earldom 
of Gowrie. He took ill, returned home, and died on 
12th September, at the early age of thirty-five. On 
his death-bed he exhorted Lamb, the bishop of 
Galloway, not to molest or remove the Lord's servants, 
or enthrall their consciences to receive the Five Articles 
of Perth, or do anything against their consciences as 
he would wish to have mercy from God. He added, 
" Since I did lie down on this bed, the sin that lay 
heaviest on my soul and hath burdened my conscience 
most was my withdrawing of myseK from Parliament 
and not giving my voice for the truth, for in so doing 


I have denied the Lord my God." To Rutherfurd 
he said, " I did it with fearful wrestling of conscience, 
my light paying me home within, when I seemed to 
be glad and joyful before men." Eutherfurd con- 
tinued with him in his iUness. A few minutes before 
the end, Rutherfurd engaged in prayer, and his 
Lordship was observed smiling, his visage became 
beautified, and we are told that the expiry of his breath 
and the ceasing of his pulse (which the physician was 
still holding) corresponded exactly with the close of 
the prayer. Rutherfurd has immortalised his fame 
in The Last and Heavenly Speeches of Lord Kenmure. 
Lady Gordon in her early years was of a delicate 
constitution, and Rutherfurd seems to refer to her 
sufferings in his letter to her of November 15th, 1633. 
" I knew and saw Him (Christ) with you in the 
furnace of affliction, for there He wooed you to Him- 
self, and chose you to be His." All her children died 
young. Her only son, born after Lord Kenmure's 
death, died when little more than four years old. 
Nearly fifty of Rutherfurd's letters are addressed to 
Lady Kenmure, and to her he dedicated The Trial 
and Triumph of Faith. When Rutherfurd died, she 
extended her beneficence to his widow and daughter, 
and the suffering Presbyterian ministers received sub- 
stantial tokens of her good-will, for she was warmly 
attached to the cause for which they suffered. About a 
year after her son's death. Lady Kenmure married 
the Honourable Sir Henry Montgomery of Gifien, 
second son of Alexander, sixth Earl of Eglinton, but 
she was soon left a widow again. The exact date of 


her own death is not known, but she was alive in 1672, 
for John Livingstone then spoke of her as " the oldest 
Christian acquaintance I have now alive." She was, 
however, in a very weak state of health, and her end 
was believed to be near. 


Gabriel Semple was second son of Sir Bryce Semple 
of Cathcart, Sheriff of Renfrew, and was a great- 
great-grandson of John, first Lord Semple. At the 
age of twenty-five, he was unanimously called to 
Kirkpatrick-durham, as the Records of Dumfries 
Presbytery show: — 

"At Dumfries, 23 December, 1656, James 
Gordon of Bar, William Gordon of MacCartney 
with some others of the elders of the Parish of 
Kirkpatrick of the Moore, compeiring did present 
ane unanimous supplication subscryved by the 
heritours, elders, and tennents of that parish 
earnestly desyring the Presbytry to present Air. 
Gabriell Semple to his tryalls in order to his 
settling amongst them conforme to ane cleir and 
unanimous call subscryved by them and delivered 
to the said Mr. Gabriell Semple." 

He was ordained on the 26th May following, when, 
" after sermon had by Mr. Walter Gledstaines, 
Moderator, the said Mr. Gabriell Semple was solemnly 
admitted into the ministry thereof by Invocation of 
God's name and Imposition of hands according to the 
custom of this Church, and was heartily received by 


the gentlemen, elders and people of the parish, who 
gave unto him the right hand of fellowship in 
corrohoration of their former call and invitation which 
they had formerly and unanimously given." 

He was thus the choice of the people, but he was 
driven out by the Act of 1662, and with Welsh of 
Irongray, took up his abode at Corsook. He joined 
the Dairy Rising, and preached to the Covenanters 
at Ochiltree and Lanark. Afterwards he left the 
country, but, venturing back to Scotland, proclama- 
tions were issued against him. He was captured in 
1681, and, after three months' imprisonment in Canon- 
gate Jail, he was liberated on Bond for ten thousand 
merks. He withdrew to England and was afterwards 
appointed to Jedburgh, where he remained till his 
death in 1706, at the age of seventy-four. He was 
married to a daughter of Sir Walter Riddel of Riddel, 
and left several children. 


John Livingstone was born at Kilsyth in January, 
1603. His father and grandfather had been ministers 
of the parish, and he himself preached his first sermon 
there. In 1626, he visited Galloway on the invitation 
of Lord Kenmure, who had in view to present him to 
the parish of Anwoth, but unforeseen delay occurred 
in getting it disjoined, and Livingstone accepted 
another call. " At that time in Galloway," he says, 
" I got acquaintance with my Lord Kenmure and his 
religious Lady and several worthy and experienced 
Christians, as Alexander Gordon, Earlston; Alexander 



Gordon, Knockgray; Robert Gordon, Knockbrex; 
John, his brother, and Alexander of Gairleuch, 
FuUerton, laird of Oarleton, John M'Adam and 
Christina M'Adam of Waterhead, Marion M'Naught, 
Kirkcudbright, and several others, for I preached at 
a communion at Borgue where many good people came 
out of Kirkcudbright, and I was present at private 
meetings with the some of the fore-mentioned at Gair- 
leuch, and in the Airds, where Earlston then dwelt." 
He was invited to Cumbernauld, the seat of the Earl 
of Wigtown, where he preached at intervals till 1630, 
when he accepted a charge in the North of Ireland. 
There were other Presbyterian congregations in the 
neighbourhood, and among his near ministerial 
brethren were Josiah Welsh, son of Welsh, the former 
minister of Kirkcudbright, Robert Blair and John 
M'Clelland, afterwards minister of Kirkcudbright. 
These were deposed by the bishop of Down, and had 
to flee for their lives. When on a visit to the Earl of 
Cassillis, Livingstone accepted a call to Stranraer, and 
was inducted in July, 1638. The more serious of 
his flock assembled daily, and, after singing a feiw 
verses of a Psalm, and reading a portion of Scripture, 
he spoke to them for half an hour. He tells that the 
neighbouring ministers with whom he kept most 
society, by whose counsel and company he profited 
most, were John M'Clelland, Kirkcudbright (married 
to Mrs. Livingstone's sister); Robert Hamilton, Bal- 
lantrae; and George Hutchison, Colmonell; and in the 
Presbytery of Stranraer, Alexander TurnbuU, Kirk- 
maiden; George Dick, Inch; and John Dick, Glen- 


luce; and in the Presbytery of Wigtown, Andrew 
Lauther, Whithorn; and John Park, Mochrum, who 
was afterwards appointed to Stranraer. He had been 
present at communions with most of these ministers, 
and they had been at his communions at Stranraer. 
He attended the Glasgow Assembly of 1638, and in 
1640 was appointed chaplain to the Earl of Cassillis's 
regiment, and was present at Newburn. In 1648, he 
was translated to Ancrum. Eef using to take the Oath 
of Allegiance in the way desired, he was banished, 
and went to Rotterdam, where he died in August, 
1672, in the seventieth year of his age. 


When Knox found the times too dangerous for him 
in Edinburgh after the murder of Rizzio, he fled to 
Ayrshire, but it is not generally known that, instead 
of remaining there, he came to Galloway about 1566, 
and sought safety in Barholm Castle, between Gate- 
house and Creetown. His signature was for many 
years to be seen on the wall of one of the rooms. 
The M'Cullochs of Barholm were zealous supporters 
of the principles of the Reformation, and this accounts 
for Knox coming here. After Queen Mary's escape 
from Lochleven Castle, Knox fled to the Continent, 
but, before leaving Scotland, he had his wife and 
family removed to Rusco Castle, near Gatehouse, where 
he left them in charge of Robert Campbell of Kin- 
gancleuch, Ayrshire. Rusco at this time belonged to 


Gordon of Lochinvar, and Campbell was probably only 
a guest at the castle as Knox was at Barholm. 

The caves or coves of Barholm often afforded a safe 
retreat to the persecuted Covenanters. Barbour speaks 
of three of these caves in his Unique Traditions— the 
Cove of Barholm, the Caa's Cave, and the Whig's 
Hole. They are in the rocks on the shore opposite 
Garlieston, in a line with Barholm Castle. The 
"Whig's Hole extended inwards for some thirty yards 
and at a little distance from the mouth it became 
contracted and at this point could easily be closed by 
a stone. This, indeed, was frequently done when the 
persecutors sent out by Lagg were searching in the 
vicinity. Traditions are current in the neighbourhood 
of a woman who lived in a cottage at the Warld's End 
watching for favourable opportunities to lower pro- 
visions to the Covenanters hiding in the caves. In 
Welsh's Life of Dr. Broum, it is said that his grand- 
father, the minister of Kirkmabreck, was wont to send 
food to some of the persecuted, and that " the cave 
is still shown where such people were thus supplied." 


The 1638 Covenant was received with enthusiasm 
in Galloway, and widely signed. Every parish in the 
province had its copy, but very few of them have 
been traced. The Borgue Covenant is preserved in 
the Register House, Edinburgh. It is dated 22nd 
April, 1638, and measures twenty-five by twenty-seven 


inches. It is in the usual terms and has the Glasgow 
Determination on the back. The following are the 
signatures: — 

" Thomas FuUartone, James Drew, Jon. Drew, 
Thomas Tagart, Robert Gordone, Robert Bryce, 
James Tagart, Thomas M'Crobert, James Thom- 
sone, David Thomsone, James Pauling, James 
Tagart, James M'Crobat, Jon. Mertein, Wm. 
Thomsone, James M'Kittrick, John Kirkpatrick, 
Jon. Tagart, James Carsane, Andro Carsane, 
Thomas M'Kinnay, Jon. Hendrie, Ninane 
M'llnae, John Hendrie, Wm. Bryce, James 
Tagart, Jon. Tagart, Thomas Sproyt, Alexr. 
Campbell, Andro Sproyt, Jon. Newall, Jon. 
HeucheU, Wm. Clyltane, Alexr. M'Qn. Thomas 
Kingane, Thomas Kennie, Thomas Keine, elder 
James Kenne, Patrick Tagart, Thomas John- 
stone, Jon. Herreis, George Bryce, Andro Kenne, 
Jon. Herreis, Wm. M'Crobat, Adame Haffie, 
Jon. M'Quhatrok, Wm. M'Cyffie, Jon. Corbie, 
Jon. Sproyt, James M'Mine, Jon. Sproyt, Robt. 
Thomsone, James Bryce, Symone Clark, Jon. 
Gordone, Alexr. Muirhead, Jon. M'Quhitrok, 
Jon. Gordone, Mertehe Callane, Jon. M'Kittrik, 
George M'Naught, Thomas Clark, Andro Sproyt, 
James Gordone, Jon. Cairnes, Jon. M'Kie, Jon. 
Comblenie, Robert M'Robat, Jon. Clyltane, 
Edward Pauling, Alexr. Clark, James M'Cuffie, 
Wm. Cuffie, Jon. Diksone, George Goune, Wm. 
M'Mine, Andro Cuffie, Thomas Broun, Jon. 


Tagart, John Symsone, Jon. Sproyt, Jon. 
M'Goune, George Warnok, Thomas Carsane, 
James Bell, James Cliltane, Andro Bell, Wm. 
M'Ghie, Thomas Robsone, Alexr. Bryce, Gilbert 
Clark, James M'Mine, Thomas Combline, Jon. 
Bryce, Jon. Broune, Jon. WmSone, Wm. 
M'Callell, Jon. Robisone, John M'Kittrick, Jon. 
Tagart, Jon. M'Goune, Jon. Law, Robt. Sproyt, 
Jon. M'Alleill, Alexr. M'Murrie, Jon. Bryce, 
James Thomsone, Thomas Raen, Wm. Shaw, 
Gilbert M'Ghie, Thomas M'Gympsie, Jon. 
M'Ghie, Jon. M'CuUreoch, Alexr. WmSone, Jon. 
M'MoUane, David M'Quhae, Jon. Porter, Jon. 
Kingane, Jon. Sproyt, Jon. Herreis, Andro 
Ketrik, Merteine Halline, Symon Killigane, Jon. 
Jonstone, James Jonstone, James Cultane, Wm. 
Broune, Jon. Gordone, Jon. Hunter, Thomas 
Gordone, James Jellie, Thomas Tagart, Patrick 
Bryce, Jon. M'Couchtrie, Thomas Robsone, Jon. 
Edgar, Jon. Douglas, Andro. M'Kie, Edward 
Robinsone, Andro Suord, Andro Goune, James 
Goune, Thomas Gone, George Muirheid, Wm. 
M'Murrie, Jon. M'Cornok, James Corrie, James 
Car, Jon. M'Knische, James DungaUheid, James 

"With our hand at the pen by the Notar 
following at our commands because we cannot 
wrycht ourselves. 

" Ita est Robert M'Henchane Noric pube de 
mandato darum personarum scribere nescien ut 



assruerunt manu mea propria Johne Makcac- 
hernie, James Reid, Robert Dalzell, Williame and 
James Henries, John Dalzell, Thomas Layng, 
William Newall, Gilbert Grier, Robert Makgoun, 
Johne Makmartine, Andro Corsane, Andro Kair- 
noquhen, James Carsane, John Makinsche, John 
Jolie, Andro Schaw, William Welsch, Andro 
MakcufRe, Johne Carsane, John Cambell, Niniane 
Cawdzell, John Cuffeis, Thomas Kinzean, Andro 
Carsane, Johne Dowglas, Johne Stewart, John 
Thomsone, Thomae Gibson, Robert Hunter? John 
Makcurrie, James M'Tagert, Robert Makquhen, 
Johne ]\fakhallorn, James Makillnae, John 
Carsane, John Sproyt. 

1 M. Gaw. Maxwell, 

? Minister at Borge. 

John Fullartoun of 

James M'Lellane in 

Robert M'Lellane. 
James Kirk. 
William Arnot. 
Roberto Gordovm of 

Thomas Sproit. 
John Pailling. 
Robert M'Garmarie. 
Thomas Robesone. 
James Robisonne. 
Johne Sprot. 
Robert Makcuffe." 

lliomas Lennox of 

John Lennox. 
Andro Lennox. 
A. Cairnis. 
Johne Robisoune. 
Johne M'Quhene. 
Robert Heuchane Notar. 
John M'Tagart. 
Samuell Arnot. 
Thomas Arnot. 
Johne Hutcheon. 
Georg Gordon. 
Andro Sprot. 



The following signatures appear to the Ratification 
of the Articles of the Glasgow Assembly of December, 
1638, endorsed thereon: — 

Thomas Lennox. 

of Plunton 
— ? M'Clellane 

of Barmagachein 
Walter Hamiltoune 
Andro Sproit 
Johns Sprot 
James Robisone 
William Tat 

M. Gaw Maxwell. John Gordon. 
Minister at Borge Johne M'Quheine. 

John FoUarton 
of Carletoun 
Robert Gordoun 
of Robertoun 
Robert M'Lellane 
Johne Robisone 
(James Robi)sone 
Thomas Sproit 
(Thomas) Arnot 

John Pauling. 
A. Caimes. 

Robert (M') Garmarie 
John Gordoun 
James Kirk 
John Lennox 
Robert Lennox 
John M'Lellane 
Robert Cuife 
Georg Gordon. 


Until recently it was not thought that the Covenant 
had been printed contemporaneously, except in 
pamphlet form, but Mr. G. W. Shirley, Dumfries, has 
brought to light a printed copy which we have had 
the privilege of examining through the favour of 
Sir William and Lady Maxwell of Cardoness. It has 


been in the Cardoness Charter Chest for generations, 
and was exhibited recently at a meeting of the 
Antiquarian Society at Dumfries. We cannot do 
better than adopt Mr. Shirley's description of it : — 

" The Covenant is of vellum, in three portions, 
which have become separated. The three parts 
are in an excellent state of preservation, a small 
portion of the margin only having been torn away. 
The upper portion measures 19f inches by 14| 
inches ; the middle part is the longest, 21|- inches, 
and of the same width as the upper part. The 
third part is the smallest, 5f inches deep, slightly 
narrower, and it is of a different and thicker skin. 

" The first two parts bear the text. This is 
beautifully printed in double columns, the 
heading being tastefully set out, and the whole 
surrounded by a floreated border, which is of 
double breadth at the top and bottom. The text 
is continuous on both sheets, running down the 
left column to the foot of the second sheet before 
passing to the right column, but, though specially 
examined, there is nothing to show whether the 
sheets were joined before printing or were printed 
separately. From border to border the printing 
is 11|^ inches broad throughout and 17^ inches 
long on the upper sheet and 16| inches long on 
the second." 

It was probably printed and signed prior to the 
Glasgow Assembly of November, 1638, as it does not 
bear the Glasgow Determination. There is neither 


the name of the printer nor the place of printing on it. 
It may have been printed abroad, as many of thei 
Covenanters' works were. It is scarcely conceivable 
that only one copy of the print was pulled. What has 
become of the others? 

The holograph signatures leave no doubt that the 
printing is contemporaneous. On the left hand margin 
of the printing on the first sheet are the signatures: — 
Rothess; Montrose; Eglintoun; Cassellis; Lennox; 
Wemyss; Lothian; Lindesay; Dalhousie; Tester; 
Elcho; Johnstoun; Kirkcudbright. 

There are no signatures on the right hand margin, 
and there are no signatures on the margins of the 
second page, but, joining the two sheets, is the signa- 
ture "J. Coupar," and at the foot of the second sheet 
are the signatures: — Garthland; Dundas off thatt 
ilk; Cunnynghamheid; Erskine off Duns; W. Hig 
of Setherney (?); Williame Grahame of Hiltoun; 
W. Riddell; J (?) Murray; W. Moore, appearand of 
Eowallane; J. Cokburne, Clerkintyne, yr; William 
Welche, M.A. (?); Sr. J. (?) Murray; Robert 
Hamylton of Binning; Sr. W. (?) Foulis feer of 
Colintoun; Sr. W. (?) Rowallane; Alexr. M'dowall 
off Logane; W. Cochrane of Cowtoun (?); J. R. off 
Merland; Sr. J. (?) Fowstoun (?); Patrick Lissweis 
(?); James Hamelton belstene Alexander Mackie; 

M'Kie off Larg; Alexander Gordoune of erlis- 

towne; M. Gibsone durie; R. Naper of Culcreuche; 
J. Griftr (?) off Monzie; Hew M'dowall of Knokglas; 
Patrik M'dowell of Creichane; Sr. B. (?) Saming- 
toune (?) Mirhurig; Johnne Ker; Johne ; 


Lethun of etheringholm; T. Shaw of Cavers; W. 
dowglas of Redheide, Craigdarroughe; G. Douglas of 
penzery, Lyon; Sr. E. B. Sempill beltreis J. Dow- 
glais Scheref of roxburghe. 

The third sheet is all signatures. The parchment 
appears to have been cut off some other document,, 
parts of the long letters of some signatures being 
visible at the top of this sheet. It has the following 

signatures: Ogilvy (?) ^^ Inchmartrie; James 

Ross of balneill; Johne Ramsay of Edingtoune; 

Hamilton; J. Broune off Carseleuthe; Fergus 

Kennedy; Gilbert Kennedie; Johnne Gordoun of 
Cardynes; David Kennedy; Jon Gordone; J. Turn- 
bull of Mynto; William Menteath of Randifurd; 

Rutheris (?); Sr. D. CampbeU; Sr. J. (?) Grier; 
Jo. Pringill of Stittchell; W. Menzies; Arthur A. 

Ersken; Sr. J. Drummond of Machaine; Braco; 

Burnett of Leyes; Sr. G. Ramsay ballmeine; 

Robert Ker; Ja. Creichtoune; W. Gordoun of 
Shirmers; harie Elphinstoune off Caderhall; Kill- 

maher, Wmphra Colquhoune of Ballbey; W. 

Sandelandes; Patrik hepburne of Wauchtune; Johne 

M'Kie of glassoche; Jas. Stewart of corsuall; 

of Craig caffie (?); Bancharay; Johne Vansz; 

Robert hamiltone; J. Gordoun of Auchlane; M. 
H. (?); Charteris; Alexr. Scott; Daniell hay, finla- 
mont; J. Knox, wrytter; Alexander M'Kie; R. Scott 
of Woll^ Duncan craford off Drumphi (?). 

There are other two Covenants preserved in the 
Cardoness Charter Chest, one of which is of the 
usual vellum type, written locally and signed by the 


parishioners of Minnigaff. It measures about 27 by 
26 inches, and has altogether 355 signatures. The 
first is that of Mr. William Maxwell, minister of 
Minnigaff, who, with the other Gallpway ministers, 
was turned out in 1662. His son was the gallant 
Colonel William Maxwell, a Covenanter of the 
Covenanters, who boldly stood by Argyle on the 
scaffold, and followed his body to Magdelene Chapel. 
He went abroad and returned with William of Orange, 
who held him in great esteem and presented him with 
a ring containing his hair and with portraits by 
Kneller of himself and his Queen, which are still to 
be seen at Cardoness. He was Governor of Glasgow 
during the Eebellion of 1715, having "left his own 
family and countrey, above seventy miles distant from 
this place, at the desire of the Magistrates and Chiefs 
of the inhabitants." The Town Council presented him 
with a service of plate " as a mark of the town's favour 
and respect towards him." He married Nicholas 
Stewart, grand-daughter of the Earl of Galloway, and 
heiress of Cardoness.* 

After the minister's signature are the signatures 
of the local lairds. These have evidently not been 
adhibited at one time. 

Then follow the parishioners' names written by 
Notaries. There is a considerable space between the 
lairds' signatures and those of the parishioners, 
showing that it was intended to get other signatures. 

* For Memoir of Colonel William Maxwell, see One of King 
William's Men, by Professor Reid. 


The parishioners' signatures overilow to the back, and 
the Glasgow Determination is also given on the back, 
being signed by twelve individuals. 

The other Covenant at Cardoness is a long roll of 
paper formed of four sheets, each measuring about 
14 inches by 12 inches. There has been at least one 
other sheet which is, unfortunately, amissing. The 
parishioners' signatures on the paper copy almost 
duplicate those on the vellum copy, and they are more 
distinct. The following are the signatures on the 
vellum copy: — 

Mr. WiUiam Maxwell, minister at Minigoff; 
Arthore Dunbar off machermior; J. Dunbar; 
Alexr. Stewart; Patrik M'Kie, baillzie of Mony- 
gof ; James Stewart, belze of Mongyf ; Alexander 
Roxburghe; Johne Mcquharg; W. Hunter, 
notar; Johne Murdoch; Johne Sloane; Johne 

Stewart; Thomas Mcquharg; Thomas ; 

Johne Mcquecheine; Johne M'Naght; Johne 

Mc CO ; M. H. Charteris; Andro Heroune in 

Kirouchtrie; Johne Maxwell; James M'Millane; 
James Stewart; Patrick Douglas; John 
Mc iUoch; Johne Mcquhonnell; robert M'Kie; 

John M'Millane; William Mcgowne, ; 

Johne Hamiltone; Thomas Mcquhonel; 

Stewart of ffisgill; Alexr. Stewart; Johne 
Stewart; Johne Mcquharg; Patrik Herroon; 
George Bell; Johne M'MiUane; John Cunyng- 
hame; John Mcclymount; Thomas M'Kean; 
Archibald Makclanie; Patrig Thomsonne; Patrik 


M'Cauell; James Muir; Johne Mccoid; Alex- 
ander Gray; James Gray. 

Signatures on paper copy. — " Wryttene be Patrick 

Garroch, wryter in Wigtoune." 
Mr. William Maxwell, minister at Minigoff; 
Sr. P. M'Kie off Larg; Alexr. Stewart; Andro 
Gray; J. Dunbar; Alexr. Steuart; Arthore 
Dunbar off Machermuir; Patrik Heron of Kir- 
rouchrie; Johne Stewart; Pe Mcquharg; Johne 
Cunyghame; Patrik M'Kie, baelzie of Monygoff ; 
William Dunbar; Andro heroune in Kirouchtrie; 
Williame Mcgowne; Johne Finlaystune; James 
M'Millne; Alexander Roxburgh; John M'Mil- 
lane; Thomas M'Kean; David Mcculloch; Johne 
Mcgauchein; Patrik M'Kie; James Steuart; 
John Murdoch; Johne Maxwell; Johne M'Mil- 
lane; Robert M'Kie; Johne M'Knocht; Patrik 
Douglas; Archibald M'Ciauie; Johne M'Mil- 
lane; John Sloane; John M'Coid; John M'Coid; 
James Muire; Patrick M'Cawell; Robert 
M'Cawell; Johne hamiltoun; W. Hunter; Johne 
M'Quharg; Johne Mcquharg; Johne M'Millane; 
John Mcquhonnell; John Steuart; Johne Rox- 
burght; Johne M'Cornock; George Bell; Thomas 
Reid; Patrik Thomsoune; Gilbert Mo cUiver; 
Alexr. gray; James Gray. 

Paper and vellum.— 

We, Jon. Mcclymount and Jon. Gordoune in 
Kirrireoche, Johne Mcgowne in Kirrimore; 


George Gordoune in Kirrikenene; Johne Mccly- 
mont ther; Thomas MccuUy and Jon. Mctaggirt 
in Polgoune; Jon. Mcquhardg in Kirricastell; 
Mairteine Mcilroy and Patrick Thomson in Kill- 
kerow; Doncane, Andro and John Mcquhardges 
in Strone; Andro M'Millane in arshkonchene ; 
Thomas, Jon Wm. and Adam gordounes in Inch- 
buchaine; Andro and Quinteine findlaysounes in 
Kiriachtrie; Gilbert, Alex, and Anchonie 
M'Caads in Trostane; Alexr. and findlay 
Mcquhardges in Auruch; Jon. aird ther; George 
M'MiUane; Jon. M'Kie; John Mcquhennell in 
Clechmallock; Thomas Mcilroy and Alexr. 
MoquhenneU in Glencaird; Patrik M'Kie; Andro 
McquhenneU; Patrik Mctaggirt in Largforag; 
Jon Mcgill and Andro Mcgowne in merkcove; 
Gilbert and Thos. Cairdes and James Herroune in 
Drumjohane; Jon. M'MiUane, and Jon M'Teir 
in Lansboy; Jon and george Mcclurges in Carn- 
dirrie; Alexr. Douglas in Dalnaw; Jon Mcdowell 
in glenrubock; Archibald Heirreane and Jon 
Mccanise ther; Jon and patrick M'Kies in bar- 
grenane; patrick and James Mc coires ther; 
James Campbell in Drummell-wantie; Jon 
M'Taggirt in Drumrichloche; Andro douglas 
ther, and Jon M'Kie ther; David Shaw and 
Andro M'Kie in Monewik; Alexr. Thomsonne 
in Brigtoune; Anthone M'Millane in Firrochbae; 
Patrik M'Kie in Meikle Caldounes; Quinteinne 
findlaysoune in littell caldounes; Johne and Gil- 
bert M'Kies; Gilbert Mcgowne, Jon Hendrysonne 


and Patrick Mctaggirt in holme; Rot. Tait and 
Patrick tait in Borgane; Alexr. Jon. Thomas 
Patrik Stewarts and Patrik Mcquhroyters, elder 
and younger, in Larg; James Mequhardge and 
Alexr. Thomsoune in cammer, Archibald 
Douglas, Walter Mctaggirt in Lagbaes; James 
Willsone, Rot. Stewart, and Jon Mcquozd in Car- 
dorkane; Jon. M'Millan in clonts, peiter Douglas 
ther; John Mcquhroyter; thomas Mccoyd, Don- 
cane Mcquhroyter; Jon. M'Millane in Toch- 
regane; Jon Stewart elder and Jon Stewart 
younger; Andro meines; Thomas Mcclellane in 
Drongandow; Jon Mccrakane in Barclay; Jon 
Watloun and george tait in Barclay; Alexr. 
Mcclellane in Dirrigal; Jon. Mcgill in Dirrigal; 
Rot. Mccord; Andro Mcgowne; Jon Mcchlauch- 
line; Jon Murdoche; Alexr. Stewart; Rot. 
Mcgowne; John Davidsonne, elder, in Borland; 
Jon Davidsonne ,younger, in Borland; Mungo 
herroune in Kirkland; Jon Simpsone; Jon 
cunigame; Jon Stewart and Alexr. Stewart in 
clauchrie; Jon Mcquhenill, elder, in Glenmalloch; 
Jon Sk — — heme and thomas Mccaa in Glen- 
malloch; Donnie M'Kie and Jon Mcclurg in 
Knockbrex; William Stewart; Jon Campbell in 
Glenshalloch; Barnard, thomas, Jon. Alexr. 
M'Kies; Jon and Alexr. morrazes and patrick 
Stewart in Garlarge; Jon mechrachire, elder and 
younger, in Lomoquhen; Andro finlaysonne and 
Alexr. Simpsoun in Laggane; Jon and ninean 
Mcmillanes; Jon Gordoune and Jon Mccornock 


in Craigginkalzie; Jon Patrick and quinteine 
Mcmillanes in Craignell; Thomas mcquhroyter in 
fiiToch; Jon and James Mcmillanes in Polbrek- 
burg; Mathew and Jon reids in craigde; Wm. 
M'Millane in Tonergie; Alexr. and James 
M'Millanes in Tonotrie; Jon M'Millane in 
Dickitrik; Jon and William M'Millanes; Thomas 
and michaell Mcclellanes in corwar; Walter 
M'Millane and Andro Mcgauchane in overdai- 
ashe; Jon Reid and Jon Steinsonne in Dalashc- 
cairnes; Jon M'Kinnell and patrik maxwell in 
Barhose; Rot. and Jon cunighame and patrik 
heuchane in Bargallie; Jon and Wm. culbert- 
sonnes in ardwell; Michaell, Rot., and Jon 
M'Clellanes and Jon Campbell in Gredock; Rot. 
and Alexr. Mccoskries; Jon and thomas 
heuchanes; Jon Mcgill; patrik mccleave; Jon 
Ramsay; Jon marteine; Rot. M'Millane; Jon 
Mccheitchie; Jon Doncane in Bardrochwood; Jon 
Walter and Jon M'Chessnyes in Little-park; Jon 
Mcgimpsies, elder and younger, and Jon mur- 
doche in Little-park; Quinteine mccleane in 
Stron; Donald, Jon and James M'Kies in Black- 
craig; Jon mcdowall in — — -outane; Alexr. 
conchie; Thomas Steinsonne; Johne heuchane; 
thomas heuchane; Andro maillige; patrick edge- 
are in cawgell ; James mcquhardy in Glennamore ; 
Patrick Stewart in Craignine; Jon murrayes, 
elder and younger, in Barncauchall; Jon herroune 
in Drumneucht; Jon mcdowall in Corquhinock; 
Jon and gilbert modowells and alexr craik in 


Lesons; andro mcgauchie in Drakmorne; Jon 
murray ther; Patrick murrayes, elder and 
younger, and peiter murray in Stronbay; Alexr 
M'Caa; Jon herroune; Patrick M'Millane; Jon 
Mcchessny in auchenlack; adam gordoune; 
Thomas Douglas in Risk; Jon ghrame; James 
and andro Mccornockes; george findlaysone in 
Drumnaquhinzie; Alexr. M'Brydes, younger and 
older, in Glenhoise; Jon and Wm. M'Brydes; 
Patrick and Wm. M'Cawelles; Walter M'Millane 
and Rot. murdoche in Glenhoise; Andro M'Cor- 
nook in Kirtrochwod; Donald Thomsone in 
Kirochtrie; Jon M'Kie; George herroune; Jon 
Roxburghe in Kirochtrie; Johne 

Paper copy ends here. Vellum copy proceeds: — 
(fourth line from foot, right side) 
mcquoyd in Machrimore; Jon Sloane; 

Alexr. mcdowalle in machirmore; Alexr. 
mcchuchie in Carsnaw; Alexr. Mcclurg in Cars- 
naw; Jon Dowane in Carsnaw; William Mccleave 
in carsmaneiche; Alexr. Mcclowane in Meikle- 
carse; Gilbert and Thomas herrounes in meikle- 
carse; George M'Millane; Robert Roxburght; 
Andro M'Millane; Alexr. M'Kie; ninean 
Bodden; hew menzies; david chalmers; James 
M'Millane and Jon Mccoskrie; Rot. good; Jo. 
M'Millane; patrick M'Kie; Jon M'Coskie; Jon 
Bodden; Alexr. M'Clachie; patrick Wilsone; 
William M'Kie; Jon M'Cord; Wm. Mcchachie; 


Wm, Roxburgh; James Murdoche; Andro Ban- 
noeh; Jon Mure; Wm. Sloans; Culbert Simp- 
sone; Jon Bodden; Patrick Stewart; thomas 
Mcilroy; Alexr. Herroune in the toune of mone- 
goffe, with our hands at the pen led be the notars 
underwritten at or commands becaus we canot 
wryt or selffe. Ita est Andreas gray notarius 
publicus de mandatur dictarum personarum Sub- 
scriptorum scriben nescen asseruit ut premissis 

Ita est guillielmus Hunter not. p. 

Baclt. — 

Alexander Mccleave in bardroohwood; Robert 
M'Coskrie ther, and Alexander Heuchane ther; 
Alexander heuchane in reddock; Alexr. 
Mcchessny in Bargallie; Andro muligane in 
Dalaschcairnes; Thomas mcquhreyter in firroch; 
William thomsonne in Larg; Robert Stewart and 
Johne Mccoyde in Cardorkane; James M'MiUane 
in flrrochbae; Gilbert M'Kie, younger, in heliae; 
Williame Mezwale in Risk; Docane M'Kie 
in Markcove; Patrick M'Millane and John 
M'llwayane in Barlarge; William Mcdowall in 
Carsdoncane; Robert Mcchouchtie in Culgow; 
James Mocaddam in Laggane; Patrick 
Mcquhardge in nather Stronbae; John Mcclardge 
in glenhoyse; Jon Mcindric (?); Rot. M'Bryde 
in glenhoise; Jon. Mcquhardge in crouchlie; Jon. 
M'Millane in dricknaw; Andro. coutart in holme; 


Jon and Patrick Stewarts in Caruuer; John tait 
in Drongaher; Thomas Simpson in Tochreline; 
Alexr. Stewart in Garlies; Andro findlay, 
younger, in laggane; James Allane Taylor in 
Carsnaw; JohnMcclurdge in maggramore; Johne 
M'Dowall in Corsuall; Alexander M'Crakane in 
Caillgow; John M'Caa in drongandow; Alexr. 
Mcmulzerdoch and patrick taite in barony; Jon 
Dunell ther; Jon M'Jorrie, elder and younger, 
ther; Jon Merewa ther. Ita est Laurence gray 
notarius publious. 

Glasgow Determination on back signed by — 

John Mcquharg; Mr. William Maxwell; Hew 

Stewart; J. Dunbar; Stewart; Patrick 

M'Kie; Alexr. Stewart; James Steuart; Alexr. 
Mcquharg; Andro HeiTon; Alexr. Roxburgh; 
Johne Keillie.* 

The question in the early part of this article 
as to what has become of other printed copies of the 
Covenant similar to the one at Cardoness suggests a 
like question about the Covenants signed in the 
Parishes of Galloway, for there were undoubtedly other 

* In endeavouring to decipher the signatures to the Covenants 
at Cardoness, the writer had before him the result of the labours 
to the same end of Mr. G. W. Shirley, Dumfries, than whom none 
is better fitted for such a task. As will be readily understood this 
proved of inestimable value, and the opportunitj' is gladly em- 
braced to cordially thank Mr. Shirley for his hearty co-operation 
in the matter. 


Covenants signed in Galloway besides those at Borgue 
and Minnigaff. What has become of them? Probably 
some of them were deliberately destroyed by both sides 
during the persecution; others may have been carried 
abroad by the Covenanters and lost; and there is just 
the possibility that one or two may yet be found in 
the Charter Chests of the local lairds. 


Adair, Andrew, of Genoch, 219 
Robert, of Kilhilt, 71, 76, 78, 

80, 82, 83 
Agnew, Alexander, 71, 92 
Andrew, 70, 77, 78, 82, 86, 91, 

128, U7, 162, 189, 215, 344., 258, 


James, 71, 77, 215 

Patrick, i3, 78, 82, 83 

Aitken, Bishop, 176, 254 

Alison, Adam, of Balmaghie, 97, 

99, 100 
Anna, Countess of Wigton, 144 
Anwoth, 300 

Apologetical Declaration, 236 
Archibald, John, Stranraer, 201 
Arnot, Captain, 81, 266, 277 

David, of Barcaple, 61, 93, 355 

Samuel, 97, 99, 108, 114, 124. 

126, 153, 157, 158, 166, 274, 391 
William, of Little-park, 103, 

Arrol, John, 154 
Auchencloy, 242, 314 
Auchenleck, William, shot, 337 
Ayr Covenant, 33 
Ayrsmoss, 184 

Bannatyne, Sir William, 121, 132, 

128, 132 
Barholm Coves, 459 
Barscobe (M-Qelland), 142, 203, 

Beeth Hill, 143 
Bell of Whiteside, 174, 187, 301, 

303, 382 
Bennock, John, shot, 346 
Blackaddar, John, 97, 108, 111, 142, 

143, 146, 390, 396 
Blair, John, of Dunskey, 153 
Borgue Covenant, 460 
Bothwell Bridge, 162 
Brown, Abbot, 30 

Brown of Priesthill, 324 
Buglass, John, Crossmichael, 89, 
97, 99, 108 

Caldwell of Caldwell, 124, 126, 273 

Caldons, 351, 400 

Cameron, Michael, 179 

— - Richard, 179, 184 

Cannon, of Mardrochwood, 123, 

124, 125, 136, 144, 166, 175, 185 
Cant, John, 97, 99, 100, 108, 139, 

145, 222 
Cardoness, Covenants at, 464, 467 
Cardyness, Lady, 356 
Cargill, Donald, 162 
Carson, John, of Borgue, 87, 101, 

104, 140, 240 
Carstairs, John, 124, 126, 274 
CassiUis, Earl of, 27, 35, 45, 58, 71, 

75, 78, 79, 80, 82, 86, 110, 259 
Clachan of Penninghame, Court at, 

Clanochan, John, Stranraer, 201 
Clark, John, of Carsphairn, 366 

Samuel, of New Luce, 367 

Claverhouse, 162, 166, 184, 189, 

196, 213, 304 
Clement, James, shot, 303, 306 
Clement, John, 371 
Cochranes, of Waterside and Ochil- 
tree, 210, 222, 223, 228, 249 
Coltraine, Provost of Wigtown, 215, 

Conventicle at Glenvogie, 110 
Corsan, John, 240 
Cowper, Bishop of Galloway, 60 
Craighlaw, 249 
Craigmoddie, 386 

Dairy Rising, 116, 263 
Dalrymple, Sir James, 71, 86, 188, 

307, 243, 345 
Sir John, 193, 306, 359, 360 



Dempster, John, tailor, 3T2 
Douglas, Colonel, at Caldons, 403 
Drumclog, 169 
Dun, James, 400 

Robert, 400 

Roger, 403, 405 

Dunbar, Archbishop, 27 

David, Baldoon, 78, 86, 209, 

237, 346 

Mot, Baldoon, 402 

of Machermore, 157, 174, 187, 

324, 344, 359 

of Mochrum, 78, 79, 86 

Durie, Bishop of Galloway, 28 

Earlston Castle, 38, 121, 129, 335 

estate, 249 

(see Gordon), 356 

Edgar, Robert. 346 

Ewart, John, Provost of Kirkcud- 
bright, 109, 104, 259 

William, Provost of Kirkcud- 
bright, 102 

Ferguson, David, drowned, 380, 

John, of Weewoodhead, 365 

Robert, shot, 315 

of Hallhill, 322 

Fines in Galloway, 91 
Five Articles of Perth, 60 
Fleming, Robert, 903 
Forsyth, Andrew, 361 

William, 124, 126, 374 

Fraser, John, 185, 366, 369 
Freugh, garrison, 177, 187 

House, 83, 151 

Fugitive Roll for Galloway, 993 
Fullerton of Carlton, 93, 354, 356, 


GaUoway, Earl of, 62, 71, 75, 77, 
82, 83, 86, 87, 88, 106, 197, 128, 
147, 189, 259, 354 

- flail, 382 

horse at Bothwell, 162 

Garlics, Lord {see Stewart), 61, 76, 

78, 86, 87 
Garthland, Laird of, 75, 76, 79, 82, 

141, 259 
Gibson, John, shot, 246 

Glendinning, George, Mochrum, 

Robert, Kirkcudbright, 63 

William, Kirkcudbright, 70, 


Gordon, Alexander, of Airds, 26, 

75, 87, 93, 155 
Gordons of Airds and Earlston, 

70, 164. 165, 174, 187, 249, 334, 

336, 344, 354 
Gordon of Cardoness, 354 
Gordons of Craighlaw, 76, 78, 86, 

157, 174, 215, 249, 344 

of Culvennan, 157, 174, 344 

of Dundeugh, 111, 144, 174, 

188, 231 

Gordons of Garrary, 193, 195, 175, 
188, 229, 273 

of Holm, 111, 131, 125, 140, 

144, 154, 175, 188, 973 

Gordon of Kenraure {see Kenmure), 

Gordons of Knockbrex, 70, 72, 81, 

133, 144, 145, 175, 267, 277, 355 
■ of Knockgray, 81, 93, 111, 

355, 357 

of Largmore, 375 

Gordon of Shirmers, 87, 94, 111, 

Edward, hanged, 331 

John, Stranraer, 92, 106 

■ shot, 399 

Graham {see Claverhouse) 

David, brother to Claver- 
house, 185, 900, 215, 221, 237, 

James, Crossmichael, martyr, 


William, Crossmichael, mar- 
tyr, 237, 449 

— — John, Dairy, executed, 989 
Grier of Balmaclellan, 193, 135, 273 

John, shot, 315 

(son) of Lagg, 75, 186, 909, 

246, 257 

the spy, 282 

(son) John, executed, 278 

Grierson, Robert, Lochenkit, 333 

of Balmaclellan, 946, 450 

Bargattan, 78, 87, 89, 94, 35 1, 




Hallam, John, executed, 243 
Halliday. David, Gleneap, mavtvr, 

David, Mayfield, martyr, 303 

Hannay, Michael, 219 

Harlow, William, 27 
Hays of Ariolland, T9, 1+5, 175, 
224, 225 

of Park, 76, 78, 153, 155, 157, 

232, 234, 259 

Heron, Barglass, 425 

Grange of Cree, 429, 433 

of Kirroughtree, 87, 94, 204-7 

of Littlepark, 157, 175, 188 

William, martyr, 329 

Highland Host, 147, 148 
Houston, Cutreoch, 79 
Hunter, Colquhassan, 175, 224 

William, martyr, 318 

Indemnity, 81, 91 
Indulgence, 139 

Inglis, John, Kirkcudbright, 157 
Ingleston martyrs, 246, 450 
Irongray Communion, 389 

rioting, 101 

Johnstone, Stranraer, 92, 157 
Johnstone, William, Wigtovi^n 
martyr, 441 

Kay, Adam, minister, Borgue, 81, 

97, 99, 100 
Kenmure Castle burned, 38, 83 

garrison, 177, 222 

Lady, 453 

Viscount, 62, 75, 77, 82, 87, 

128, 189, 237, 246, 257, 259, 287, 
354, 453 

Kennedy, Quintin, 34 

Barnkirk, 224 

Kirk's martyrdom, 282 
Kirkandrews martyr, 384 
Kirkconnel moor, 303 
Kirkcudbright Burgh Records, 383 

Lord, 62, 71, 72, 75, 76, 77, 

81, 82, 87, 89, 102 

Presbytery, 89 

rioting, 101 

Kirkinner sufferings, 447 
Kirkwood, curate of Sanquhar, 311 


Knox, 25, 33, 459 

Kyan, Edward, martyr, 245 

Kyle, William, captured, 161 

Lagg, Laird of, 61, 237, 257, 304 
Laing, Patrick, of Blagannoch, 364 
Learraont, Major, 123, 124, 125, 

203, 266, 273 
Lennox of Cally, 354, 356 
Robert, of Irelandton, martyr, 

174, 188, 303 
Lex Rex, 85, 295 
Lidderdale, St. Mary's Isle, 48, 

186, 203, 212, 221 
Linn, Alexander, martyr, 3^6 
Listoun in Calder, 123, 124, 126, 

Livingston of Quintenspie, 95, 338, 

356, 357 

minister, Stranraer, 68, 70, 

81, 83, 457 

Lochenkit, 325 
Lochinvar, Lord of, 62 
Lochnaw, Laird of, 189, 257 

and Highland Host, 151 

Lome, Lord, favours Rutherfurd, 

Luce Abbey, 31 
Lyon, curate of Urr, 141 

Maohermore garrison, 222, 249 
Malcolm, John, executed, 185, 188 
Martin, Andrew, Little Airies, 124, 

of DuUarg, 94, 208, 234, 235, 


Mary, Queen, in Galloway, 32, 38 
Maxwell, Gabriel, 124, 126, 274 
Lord, 47, 77, 146 

Margaret, Barwhannie, 439 

of Cavens, 354, 355, 358 

Milton, 93, 235 

Monreith, 97, 123, 124, 264, 

273 375 277 

of Munches, 87, 106, 126 

William, Monygaff, 97 

Milroys of Kirkcalla, 441, 442, 445 
Minnigaff Covenant, 464 

garrison, 222 

Mitchell, Robert, martyr, 246, 312 
Mowatt, martyr, 386 



Muiir of Cassincarrie, 35.5, 360 

Henry, Kirkcudbright, 1.53 

Muirhead, Bailie, 374 

James, executed, 283 

Murray of Brmighton, 76, 78, 86, 

87, 14.5, 161 

Macadam, Gilbert, Waterhead, 

111, 133, 141, 143 
Macartney of Blackit, 93, 144, 155, 

175, 188, 451 
M'Briar, John, Cannon, 28 

David, IrongTay, 374 

M'Bryde, Anthony, Stranraer, 201 
M'Call, John, executed, 383 

Andrew, martyr, 400 

M'Clelland, Balmagaichan, 123, 

134, 125, 144, 145, 174, 188, 273 

Barscobe, 133, 124, 125, 144, 

165, 175, 188, 203, 264 

M'Clive, James, Glentrool martyr, 

M'CuIloch of Ardwell, 78, 86, 91 , 

94, 175, 188, 226 

of Barhoira, 93, 144, 145, 164, 


of Myreton, 45, 78, 210, 215, 

237, 246 

M'Clurg, the Minnigaff smith, 197, 

shoots a spy, 382 

M'Dowalls of Freugh, 76, 78, 86, 

147, 153, 154, 157, 165, 173, 174, 

187, 344 
M'Dowall of Garthland, 48, 62, 76, 

153, 215 
M'Dowal of Logan, 76, 86, 256 
M'Ewmont, William, banished, 212 
M'Ghie, Anthony, Glencaird, 205 

of Larg {see M'Kie) 

M'Gill, David, Dairy, 131 

M'Kie of Larg, 72, 92, 174, 198, 

246, 334, 354 
M'Kechnie, John, shot, 314 
M'Lauchlane, Margaret, Wigtown 

martyr, 410 
Macleanochan, John, imprisoned, 

M'Meekan, Miltonise, 153, 154 
M'Michael, James, 383 

James, 319, 313, 314 

M'Michan, John, Dairy, 97, 99, 

100, 138, 145, 222, 338 
M'Millan, William, Caldow, 230, 

347, 351, .374 
M'Millans, 347-.353 
M'Naught, Cumnock, 125, 273 

Dairy, 133, 125, 273 

M'Quhan, Adam, shot, 247 

M' Robert, Andrew, martyr, 303, 

305, 3S2 
M'Roy, Half Mark, shot, 375 
M'Whae, Robert, martyr, 384 

Naismith, minister, Stranraer, 138 
Napier, Sheriff, on Wigtown mar- 
tyrs, 416 
Nelson of Corsock, 144, 154, 175, 

188, 225, 265, 278 
Newburn, 72 

New Galloway, Court at, 178 
Nithsdale, Lord, 61,87,128,162,189 
Nonconformist ministers in Gallo- 
way, 96 

Ochiltree estate annexed to the 

Crown, 249 
Osborne, John, Keir, 114, 115 
Outed ministers, 100, 121 

Park, John, Stranraer, 88, 98, 1,38, 
1.39, 146 

Patriarch, The, 336 

Peden, 98, 99, 114, 115, 124, 125, 
126, 253, 270, 274, 319, 442 

Penninghame, 57, 212 

suiferings, 446 

Pentland (see Dairy rising) 

Perth, Articles of, 60 

Philiphaugh, 77 

Pierson, curate of Carsphairn, 241, 
312, 313 

Poe, David, Pokelly, 124, 126, 274 

Porterfield, John, Duchal, 249 

Quarrelton, 123, 124, 126, 

223, 274 

Presbyteries and Synods fixed, 70 

Printed Covenant, 466 

Privy Council and Galloway minis- 
ters, 98 

Proclamation against rebels, 164 

Prote.stors, 81 



Queensberry, Earl of, 62, 72, 176, 

Ramsay of Boghouse, 92, 157 
Ravenston, Laird of, 147, 166 
Reddick, John, Dalbeattie, 355, 

Register of Synod of Galloway, 107 
Renwick, 254., 344, 362, 378 
Resolutioners, 81 
Roan, Stroanpatrick, 313 
Ross, minister, Kirkcowan, 97, 98, 

Row, curate, Balmaclellan, 140, 154 
RuUion Green, chapter xxx., 271 
Rutherfurd, George, 299 

Samuel, 63, 70, 81, 286, 287, 


Sanquhar Declarations, 179, 247 

Scaur, 144, 394 

Scott, David, Irongray, 1-23, 125, 

Semple, Gabriel, 97, 100, 114, 124, 

145, 153, 157, 158, 166, 274, 340, 


John, Carsphairn, 81, 85, 97, 

124, 126, 145, 146, 274 

Short, George, martyr, 248 

John, Dairy, executed, 282 

Smith, James, executed, 282 

Robert, martyr, 318 

SocieHes, The, 178 
Spanish Blanks, 50 
Stevenson, Glentrool, martyr, 400 
Stewart of Castle-Stewart, 86, 244 

of Garlies (see Garlies), 26, 27, 

40, 48, 83 

of Tonderghie, 79, 106 

Robert, Ardoch, HI, 315,316 

William, martyr, 329 

Stewartry War Committee, 354 
Sword, Andrew, 167, 188 
Sydeserf, Bishop, 64, 65, 69 
Synod of Galloway, 88, 261 ; Regis- 
ter of, 107 

Thomson, Thomas, minister, 97, 
99, 145, 340 

Thorburn (Torbran), Stranraer, 

210, 225 
Threave Castle, 341 
Turner, Sir James, 115, 128, 132, 

136, 263 
Twynholra, 213, 238 

Urr parishioners fined, 1 10 
Urquhart's dream and death, 402 
Ussher, Archbishop, 288 

Vans, Vaus, Barnbarroch, 48, 76, 

Vans, Patrick, Sorbie, 113 

Robert, Drumblair, 145 

Vaus, Patrick, Mochrum, 224 

Walker, George, 441 

Wallace, Colonel James, 123, 124, 

125, 264, 266, 273 
John, New-Luce, 201, 252 

John, martyr, 329 

Warner, Patrick, 254 

(Vernor), Thomas, 97, 98, 108, 

145, 156, 228 
Welsh of Cornice, 123, 125, 144, 

175, 188, 273 

of Scar, 123, 125, 226, 273, 


John, Irongray, 97, 114, 115, 

124, 126, 145, 146, 153, 157, 163, 

John, Kirkcudbright, 57 

William, martyr, 278, 979, 

Whitehead, Millhouse, 93, 175, 188 
Wigtown, Countess of, 144 

Earl of, 58, 59, 60, 61, 66, 71, 

74, 75, 79, I'M., 157 

martyrs, 406, 445 

Wigtownshire Lairds refuse the 

Test, 215 

War Committee, 78 

Wilkie, John, 97, 99, 100, 108, 114 
Wilson, Agnes, 409 

Margaret, 407 

Wilsons of Glenvernoch, 408 
Wylie, Thomas, Kirkcudbright, 81, 

91, 97 
Wynram, Major, at Wigtown, 251