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Cornell University 

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Enteked according to Act of Congress, in the year 1865, by 


la the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Southern District of New- York, 

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rpHB late Rev. Alexander McLeod, D.D., Pastor of 
-*- the First Reformed Presbyterian Church, New 
York, departed this life on the 17th of February, 
1833. On the 15th of April the same year, the 
Eastern Subordinate Synod of the Reformed Presby- 
terian Church being then in session in the City of 
New York, adopted the following record : — 

" The Rev. Gilbert McMaster, D.D., having left the 
chair, presented a resolution which he prefaced,with 
some remarks. He formally announced to Synod 
the decease of the Rev. Alexander McLeod, D.D., a 
member of the Court, and to whose death there had 
been various incidental allusions during its several 
sederunts. He adverted, in a very eloquent and 
impressive manner, to the high intellectual and 
moral character of the deceased, to the important 
and disinterested services which he has rendered to 
the Reformed Presbyterian cause, and to that of 


Christianity generally, and to the faithfulness and 
consistency of his course, to its closing scenes. Feel- 
ingly and affectionately he referred to the loss sus- 
tained by the Brethren of the Ministry, and by the 
whole church, in the death of Dr. McLeod ; and, 
after paying a high compliment to the abilities of Dr. 
Wylie, he concluded by presenting the following 
resolution : — 

' ' Resolved, That this Synod recommend the imme- 
diate preparation of a Memoir of the late Eev. Dr. 
Alexander McLeod, as a tribute of respect to his 
memory due to the high character which he sus- 
tained, and that Rev. Dr. Wylie, of Philadelphia, 
be, and he hereby is, appointed to perform this 

' ' This resolution was unanimously adopted, and 
Dr. Wylie testified his acceptance of the appoint- 

On the 14th of August, 1833, the General Synod 
of the Reformed Presbyterian Church being in ses- 
sion in the City of Philadelphia, the following reso- 
lution was proposed in that body by Dr. McMaster 
seconded by Dr. Black, and carried unanimously : 

" Resolved, That Synod decidedly approve of the 
measure understood to be recommended by a Subor- 
dinate Judicatory, in respect to a Memoir of the 


late Rev. Dr. McLeod, and of the selection of the 
distinguished individual to whom that task has been 

In pursuance of this appointment, the following 
Memoir was prepared by Rev. Dr. Wylie, who is 
now also deceased. It appears as he left it, with 
the exception of the omission of some matter refer- 
ring mainly to the history of the church, and which 
has been rendered unnecessary by recent publica- 
tions made by the authority of her Supreme Judi- 

The Editor, -John N. McLeod, D.D., of New York, 
the son and successor of the subject of the Memoir, 
adds a chapter at the close. It will be composed 
mainly of matter which has come to hand since the 
Memoir was completed, and which existing circum- 
stances would seem to call for. 

New Yoke, Marcli 6th, 1855. 





Introduction — Biography useful — Family — Rev. Niel McLeod — Isle of 
Mull — Birth — Natural scenery' — Mrs. Margaret McLeod — Colonel 
McLeod — Early Religious Character — Sensibility — Dr. Samuel John- 
son — Pious Parentage — Confidence in God — Desire to be a Minister 
of the Gospel — Orphanage, 9 


Classical education — Emigration to the United States — Eighteen years of 
age — Arrival in New Yorli — Ascends the Hudson — Princetown and 
Duanesburgh^-Galway — Presbyterian predilections — Christian inter- 
course — Rev. James MoKinney — Joins the Reformed Presbyterians — 
Union College — ^Prepares for the ministry — Literary honors — Consci- 
entiousness, 18 



Distinctive Principles — Reformed Presbytery — Associate Reformed 
Church— British Government — American Republic — President Smith 
— Judge Miller — Dr. J. B. Romeyn— Fellowship meetings — Docu- 
ments surpressed — Studies theology — Turretine — Irish insurrection — 



Messrs. Black and Wylie— Presbytery coastituted— First commanion 
—Mr. John Agaew— Trial disooursea— Journal— Studies— Christian 
experience— Manuscripts lost— Gains Mine Host^Eeality in Reli- 


Licensure— Mr. Wylie ordained— Mr. Black ordained— Call to Coldenham 
—Slavery abolished— Commission to the South— Kentucky— David 
Mitchell— Rocky Creek- Sacrifice for principle— Call to New York- 
Ordained and installed— The Carolinians, 49 


Visit to Canada — Parochial duties — Pulpit preparation — Reading Ser- 
mons — Clergy oT New York- A galaxy — Dr. Eodgers — Dr. Living- 
ston — ^Dr. Abeel — Dr. Miller — Dr. Mason — Mr. McLeod a favorite — 
Reformed Presbyterian Church extending— Mr. Wylie visits Europe 
— Death of Mr. McKinney — Sermon on Slavery — Sermon on Christ's 
Headship — Resigns Wallkill — Clerical association — Anecdote of Dr. 
Mason — Marriage — Public duties — Creed of the Church — Standing 
Testimony, 56 

Episcopal controversy — Ecclesiastical Catechism — Dr. Hobart — Drs. Mason 
and Miller— Dr. Thomson— Christian Magazine— Antidote against 

Prelacy — Standing committee — Theological Seminary The able 

minister — Sermon on the ministry— Mr. McMaster— Doctorate- 
Essays on the Atonement — Objections answered — Dignity of char- 
acter — Increasing reputation — Success, Yg 


Constitution of Synod— Biography of Dr. McLeod and the History of the 
Church inseparable— Self-control-Donald McLeod— Severe afflic- 



tion — Conversational powers — Devotional character — Love and har- 
mony — Mr. Black's visit to Carolina — Covenanting Explained — 
Obligation transmissible — Increasing influence — Call to the Reformed 
Dutch Church, Garden street — ^Love to Zion — Call declined — Ap- 
pointed to the Vice-Presidency of the College of New Jersey- 
Declined — Literary honors — University on Staten Island — Vice-Pre- 
sident Tompkins, 103 


Third meeting of Synod — Dr. McLeod preaches — A full meeting — Impor- 
tant transactions — War^of 1812 — Republican principles — Premature 
Legislation — Reforms in the United States Government — Oath of 
Allegiance — Omissions not immoralities — Constitution of the United 
States- supported — Disapprobation not rejection — The Union sup- 
ported — The Government not immoral — Reformed Presbyterians 
generally, approve of the "War — Dr. McLeod the author of the oath of 
allegiance — Principles never changed, 126 


High character as a'preaoher — Call to the First Presbyterian Church, New 
York — Dr. Miller — Dr. Ely — Rev. Mr. Potts — General assembly of the 
Presbyterian Church — Correspondence — Call declined — Night ser- 
mons — "Worldly emolument not sought — Dr. John B. Romeyn — Letter 
from Lisbon — Strange sights — Sanctified affection — Fidelity and 
Confidence^Supplies Dr. Romeyn's pulpit — Remarkable labors — 
Teeming pen, 145 


1814. _ 

Lectures on the Principal Prophecies of the Revelation — Review by Jolm 
Black, D.D. — Rules of interpretation — History— Prediction — The Sea 
of Glass — The Seals — The Roman Empire — Constantino — The Trum- 
pets — Mahomet — Seventh Trumpet — Practical remarks — The Four 



Beasts— The Antichristian System— The Little Book— The Two Wit- 
nesses — Michael — The great apostasy — War with the saints — The 
Image of the Beast— Kevivals of Religion— The vintage— The one 
fold— The 1260 days— 1866— Mount Zion— The Lamb— The Music of 
the Harp, 165 



Sermons on the late war— A hrief notice by Gilbert McMaster, D.D.— 
The war of 1812 — Reasons of it — Sermons not political effusions — 
Discussions of great moral principles — British orders in council — 
Decrees of Milan — Great Britain first in transgression — Reluctance 
of the United States to contend — American humanity — Declaration 
of war — British Whigs — Moral courage — The old covenanter — Battle 
of New Orleans— Third President of the United States — The clergy 
— Right to discuss the morals of politics affirmed — Robert Hall — 
The two belligerents — Slavery — Thomas Erastus — Defensive war law- 
ful — Capital punishment — Union for defence — Right of expatriation 
— Native country — Value of the Union — Prayer for success — The 
Martyrs — America vindicated, 210 



Congregation resigned— Dr. Romeyn returns— Sympathy— True friend- 
ship—Family affiiction- Reformed Presbyterian Church in Scotland 
-Continued trials— Consolation— Sermons on True Godliness— The 
marrow of the Gospel— Au exhibition of Dr. McLeod's own expe- 
rience—Colonel Henry Rutgers— Example of liberality— Evangelical 
religion— Old Rutgers street church— The Christian life— Human 
ability— Sanctificatiou progressive— The Spirit of adoption— Growth 

in grace — Assurance — Religion of infants — Children of believers 

Dr. MoLeod a Reviewer — An Essayist — Conscience, ... ofil 



From 1818 to 1823 — General Scholarship — A silent Sabbath — ^Witness- 
bearing — Judicious legislation — The banquet — Delicate health — Theo- 
logical Seminary — Professorship — Representative Synod — Draft of a 
Covenant — Memorial' from South Carolina — Religious treatment of 
negroes, 304 

Synod in Pittsburg— Rev. S. W. Crawford — Death of friends— Mrs. Dr. 
Black — Rev. Dr. Romeyn — Ties dissevered — Submission — Public 
movements — Ecclesiastical correspondence — General Assembly — 
Serious illness — Slow recovery — Health severely affected — Mental 
energy unimpaired — Plan of Correspondence with the General 
Assembly of the Presbyterian Church advocated by Dr. McLeod — 
Powerful address — Not a plan of union — Enlarged views — John 
Knox — A crisis — Christianity to prevail — Dr. Green — Painful 
bereavement — Abounding consolation, 322 

Sev&e labors — Calumny refuted — Bonaparte — Covenanting — African 
Colonization — Rev. Hugh McMillan — Resolutions adopted by Synod 
— Speech of Dr. McLeod — Plan of Colonization originated with him — 
Magnitudinous scheme — New ^organization — Sixth street church — 
Mr. J. N. MoLeod's settlement in Galway-^Aflliction in Dr. Wylie's 
family — Christian sympathy — Journeyto Canada — Lake George — 
Quebec — Saratoga — Ordination of Mr. J. N. McLeod — Another pain- 
ful bereavement — ^Voyage to Europe — Arrival in Glasgow, . . 353 

Visit to Scotland— Glasgow— Hospitable welcome— Reformed Presbyte- 
rian Synod— Vote of thanks— Professor Symington— Professor of 



Theology— To edit a magazine— Delightful remembrances— Geology 
—Native parish— Mr. Armstrong— Rev. W. Symington— Mr. Rogerson 
-Visit to Loghgoin— Old Jlortality— Covenanters' flag— Andrew 
McMillan— Concio ad Clerum— Mrs. Johnston— Aberdeen — Edin- 
burgh-Mr. Mason— Ireland— Rev. Mr. Stavely— Mr. Alexander- 
Londonderry — Rev. John Paul — Sermon for the Jews — Successors of 
the Martyrs— Letter to his son— Colonel McLeod — Sisters — Attends 
the General Assembly — Remarks — Labors — Ossian's Poems — Their 
Authenticity demonstrated — I Colum-Kill — Columba — Culdees — 
Edward Irving — Return home — Greeting of Friends — Beneficial 
results of his visit — Solemn covenant — Two congregations offer calls 
— Remains with the Mother Church — HI health, . . . .371 


Synod in Philadelphia, 1831— Feeble health— Rev. Mr. Henry— Eminent 
services — ^Vote of thanks — Domestic affliction — Again bereaved — 
Controversies in the Church — Dr. McLeod recommends forbearance — 
Eventful year— Eastern Sub-Synod— Pastoral Letter— Error cor- 
rected — Right to publish — Unity affirmed, 428 

Last visit to Philadelphia — Pro re nata meeting — Dr. McLeod remon- 
strates—Declines attending— Separation commences— The separatists 
responsible for the division— Installation of Rev. John N. McLeod as 
assistant and sucoessor^Last communion with Drs. Wylie and Black 
— Solemn occasion— Presence of the Spirit— Bodily weakness— Men- 
tal energy— Liberal views — Progress — Scriptural Government- 
Christianity the common law— Reserved rights— Another argument, 444 

United States Constitution the moral ordinance of God— Objections 
answered — Representation — History of the Slave Trade Federal 



Constitution never made a slave — Westminster AssemWy — 1638 — 
1649 — Liberia — A confederacy — Defects in legislation — Constitution 
not atheistical — Christianity presumed and recognized — The Church 
protected — The people of the United States their own conscience- 
keepers — All reform must begin with the people — Make them right, 
and they will rectify their Government — The Bible— The world to 
be reformed by the Gospel — Cheering prospects — Dr. McLeod coin- 
cides with ills bretliren — The Church vindicated, .... 471 


Last Illness — Composure — Strong faith — Conversation in heaven — Reign 
of Grace — Triumph — Mr. Andrew Gilford — Death— Tributes of 
respect — Dr. Westbrook — Drs. "Wylie and Ely — Dr. Wilson — Act, 
Declaration, and Testimony — ^Memoir completed in 1837 — Death of 
Mrs. McLeod, 487 


Additional by the Editor — Extended remarks unnecessary — Dr. McLeod 
on African Colonization — Rev. H. McMillan — Emancipation difficult 
— Door opened — Colonization Society organized — Henry Clay — 
Speech of Dr. McLeod— Dr. Alexander— Liberia — Causes of division 
— Co-operation practised — Government of the country — Civil rela- 
tions no term of communion — Last Sacrament — Place of burial — 
Tributes of affection — Revived memories — Dr. Spring— Dr. Steel — 
Dr. Knox — Dr. Black — Dr. Symington — ^Publications, . . . 503 

[A misspelling of the name of Dr. McLeod on p. 61 ; of that of Lateinos on p. 204, and one 
or two other unimportant errors will be evidentj 






Dr. UcLeod's Birth — Early Education — Until his arrival in the United States. 

How few, comparatively, of the thonghts, words, and 
a<;tion3 of human beings are worthy of being recorded ! 
The history of ninety-nine out of the hundred of our race 
may be announced in the single laconic sentence of the 
compound of the celebrated Indian philosopher: "They were 
born ; they were miserable ; and they died." With what a 
useless — nay, pernicious— chaotic mass would the magazine 
of memory, and the annals of history, be crowded and lum- 
bered, if everything was remembered and recorded ! It is 
true, we often regret the treachery of our memories, and 
complain of the scantiness and the imperfection of our his- 



torical annals; vet it might fairly be questioned whether 
these very deficiencies should not demand gi-atitude rather 
than regret. If the knowledge of many valuable facts is 
lost in remote antiquity, an incomparably greater portion of 
useless and uninteresting materials has been happily buried 
in the same grave of oblivion. How often do we find the 
history of those denominated the great and the illustrious of 
the earth consisting principally of a catalogue of crimes I 
Yet they have been landed to the skies. So true is it, that 
" One murder makes a villain : a million, a hero." Yet, 
blessed be God, there are many agreeable exceptions to this 
gloomy picture. There are some verdant spots in this vast 
moral waste — some pleasant oases in this parched desert — 
where the weary traveller may find shelter and repose, and 
on which the imagination lingers with peciiliar delight. 
While humanity recoils at the recital of the horrid deeds of 
blood which emblazon the escutcheon of an Alexander, a 
Caesar, or a Tamerlane, the heart heaves with delight, and 
the eye beams with joy in perusing the history of a Thomp- 
son or a Hall, a Livingston or a Mason, a Komeyn or a 

The delineation of the prominent features of the charac- 
ters of distinguished individuals possesses various advan- 
tages above the portraitures of general history. How the 
multitude of motley groups crowded into the picture, often 
distract the attention and mar the distinctness and perma- 
nency of the impression ! Biogi-aphy, from the individuality 
of its nature, concentrates the scattered rays, collects them 
into a focal point, furnishes models more available for for- 
mation of character, and presents a larger stock of useful 
material for mental improvement. It brings into notice 
and shows in bolder relief, the more interesting traits of 


domestic character which may engage the attention of 
youth, and call forth their sympathies, more powerfully, ot 
at least more profitably, than the more brilliant displays of 
splendid groups, which, in a general pageant, may pass in 
review, and dazzle for a moment, without improving either 
head or heart. Thus, virtue and moral worth become 
embodied in an amiable individual, diffuse a charming 
radiance around them, and insensibly attract attention, 
excite admiration, and inspire a holy ardor after similar 

The pride of ancestry, unaccompanied with personal 
worth, is a vain and pernicious passion : pufiing up the 
mind with a foolish conceit, it prevents improvement, and 
generates supercilious behavior. Nevertheless, it is both 
just and honorable to cherish the memory of vii-tuoug 
parentage. Every virtuous man, were it possible for him 
to have it at his own option, would prefer descent from the 
great, the wise, and the good, to a mean, vicious, and infa- 
mous extraction. There is reason for this choice. It seems 
to be a part of our constitution, though we cannot account 
for the fact, that children usually partake of the temper, and 
other more prominent features of the parental character. 
This fact is too obvious to be disputed. The sentiments and 
habits imbibed and formed in early life depend much upon 
the family in which we were brought up, and they contri- 
bute, in no small degree, to the formation of future charac- 
ter. What an assemblage of powerful motives, stimulating 
to virtuous conduct, will the acknowledged worth and unsul- 
lied reputation of a revered father present to a generous 
mind ! The offspring of pious parents have, moreover, the 
promise of divine protection; and God, in the ordinary 
course of his providence, accompanies with his blessing the 


children of tears and pi-ayers, recommended by the saints to 
his grace and mercy. The subject of this memoir, it is 
believed, cherished, and was justified in clierishing, that 
grateful disposition which he uniformly indulged at the 
recollection of his parentage. 

The McLeod Clan, or Family, are of Danish origin. 
Early in the twelfth century, one of the ancestors, of the 
name of Leodius, in the reign of King William, was 
appointed by the King of Denmark to the government of 
some islands on the coast of Scotland, then in the possession 
of that prince. His descendants were denominated, in 
the Celtic tongue, Mao Leods, i. e., sons or descendants of 
Leodius. And hence the family of that name so numerous 
in the "Western Isles of Scotland. 

Declining any minute investigation of the ramifications of 
the genealogical tree, we find the father of the subject of 
the present memoir was the Eev. Niel McLeod, of St. 
Kilda, nearly related to the Dunvegan family, the chief of 
the clan; and his mother, Margaret McLean, daughter of 
the Eev. Mr. Archibald McLean, of Bunessan. In the 
parish in which the latter gentleman had been pastor, Mr, 
ISTiel McLeod succeeded him, and married the daughter of 
his venerable predecessor. Mr. N. McLeod had been well 
known in the ISTorthern Highland Islands, as an amiable 
man, and an elegant scholar. He had endeavored success- 
fully to introduce into the island of Skye, a taste for classic 
literature ; and many of the neighboring gentlemen long 
cherished his memory with esteem and affection. Llis chil- 
dren often met in Europe and America many a friend on 
account of their father ; and oh his account they neither had 
ever cause to blush, nor received of any man a frown. 


In the island of Mull, in wliich hig parish lay, this 
respectable clergyman lived in the hearts of his own people, 
and of all his brethren. Here he enjoyed whatever was 
calculated to rejoice and delight a pure and unsophisticated 
mind. His situation at Ardchrisinish, a small farm on the 
southwest coast of the island, was healthy and romantic. 
This farm he rented from the Duke of Argyle, and it con- 
stituted the southern boundary of the district called 
Borlas. Here Alexander was born, on the 12th of June, 


The house was a neat cottage, with three comfortable 
rooms on the lower floor. Built upon a gentle declivity at 
the foot of a small hill, it was almost surrounded with 
extensive fields and meadows. This ground was the neck of 
that lofty promontory which stood opposite to Burgh, and 
formed the southern shore of the mouth of Loch Levin, a 
noble arm of the Atlantic, which rolled its majestic waves 
for several miles into the heart of the island. 

From the front of the house you could enjoy a full view 
of this inland sea, and of the fishermen's boats with which 
it abounded. Its scanty level banks were covered with ver- 
dure, and revealed occasionally from behind the tufts of 
trees, the neat habitations of the neighboring gentlemen. 
Upon the northern shore the high and dark heathery hills 
rose suddenly behind the cultivated fields, and in sullen 
grandeur seemed to frown contempt upon the puny monu- 
ments of human industry. Behind these hills Benmore 
raised its head far above them. This is the highest moun- 
tain in Mull. And even in the heat of summer the snow 
remains unmelted on its summit. " While a boy," says 
Doctor McLeod — these are his own words — " fatigued with 
play, and melting under the scorching sun, I have contem- 


plated the snow on the top of Benmore, and imagined 
myself cooled and refreshed." 

The prospect to the east, if less sublime, was not less 
charming. A regular range of sloping hills, covered with 
heath, extended as far as the eye could reach, and afforded 
nourishment for large flocks of sheep and of goats ; the lat- 
ter of which might be seen among the rocks which consti- 
tuted the boundary between the Highlands and the level 
fields below. Across these fields, three-quarters of a mile 
from the house, and over a steep, black, flinty rock, one 
thousand feet in perpendicular height, a rivulet of mountain 
water poured down rapidly into a basin, which itself had 
formed in the rock, at the base, and gently meandered among 
the surrounding pastures. 

Essan Dhu, as the stream was called, when pouring 
down this lofty precipice, had its waters tossed up in the air, 
like pillars of smoke, by the northwest wind which com- 
monly blows up the coast, and forms one of the most elegant 
cascades that ever delighted the eye of man. The promon- 
tory of Ardchrisinish terminated in steep rocks, which bade 
defiance to the roaring billows which continually rolled 
against them, and was capped by Tormore, a round hill, 
whose sides were decorated with the drapery of the birch, 
the hazel, and the oak. 

In this romantic spot, the Eev. Mr. ISTiel McLeod, often 
studied those pathetic discourses which instructed and melted 
his numerous audience. The simple manners and sincere 
friendship of the peasantry afforded him much amusement 
and pleasure ; and the elegant and polished conversation of 
several genteel families in the neighborhood, with whom he 
lived on terms of intimacy, afforded occasional entertain- 
ment and recreation after severe studies. He enjoyed the 


friendship and correspondence of the celebrated Dr. Blair, 
and others of the most learned and eminent of his fellow 
laborers in the ministry of the church of Scotland. For- 
eigner often visited his family and were always welcomed 
at his hospitable board. 

The islands of Staffa and Zona attracted every summer 
parties of pleasui-e and distinguished characters from every 
part of Europe, who increased and varied the social enjoy- 
ment of those families, which, always remarkable for hospi- 
tality lived in this part of the country. Dr. Samuel John- 
son, in his tour through the Hebrides, visited Mull also, and 
was introduced by Sir Allan McLean to Ardchrisiuish. ISTot- 
withstanding his stubborn prejudices of sectarian and na- 
tional bigotry, against Scottish men and Presbyterians, the 
tom-ist was constrained to bear testimony to the distinguished 
merits of Mr. ITiel McLeod. " "We were," says he, " enter- 
tained by Mr. McLeod, a minister that lives upon the 
coast, whose elegance of conversation and strength of 
judgment would make him conspicuous in places of 
gi-eater celebrity." In another connection. Dr. Johnson is 
represented as calling him the " clearest-headed man in the 

Mrs. McLeod was a woman of line mind, solid sense, and 
fervent piety. She brought her husband twelve childi-en, 
of whom four died in infancy. The' remaining eight, four 
sons and as many daughters, lived to be men and women. 
It was the care and gi-eat concern of their parents to educate 
them in habits of industry and virtue. Tutors were main- 
tained in the family, and their children were constantly imder 
their inspection. Alexander, the subject of these memoirs, 
was the youngest son, except one, and only five years of age, 
when his father was called away from a weeping flock and 


family, to the joys of a Wessed immortality. His mind was 
uncommonly acute, vigorous, and thoughtful ; his sensibility 
keen and lively ; and all his passions strong and active. He 
■was, from earliest infancy, ardent, ambitious, and enterpris- 
ing. His constitution -was naturally vigorous, but had often 
received severe strokes. From the time he began to walk 
until he arrived at maturity, he was scarcely three months' 
at a time without disease or accidental injuries^ to which his 
activity and enterjirise had exposed and subjected him ; and 
yet he had not completed his sixth year, before he could re- 
peat the Latin Grammar. The character of his mind, and 
the frequency of his indisposition, rendered him the darling 
of his father, and after his death, Mrs. McLeod appeared to 
have transfered to Alexander the affection for the father, in 
addition to that which she felt for the son. She watched 
over his boyish days with the tenderest solicitude. He was- 
remarkably a child of prayer, and had been devoted to the 
ministry of the gospel from his birth ; and of this object,, 
amidst all the vicissitudes of his early life, he never once 
lost sight. 

The power of his passions appeared at an early period ^ 
and he did not long enjoy the benefit of paternal wisdom and 
experience for their government and direction. The death 
of his father was indeed an irreparable loss to his femily, but 
pai-ticularly to Alexander. He felt it poig-nantly ; he was- 
solemn and thoughtful in the last moments of his father's ill- 
ness ; and when his decease was announced to his weepins 
family, tliis little boy was upon his knees in prayer. 

He followed the corpse to the gra\-e unnoticed amono- an 
immense crowd of sincere mourners, until the coffin was laid 
in the tomb, when he attracted the attention of all, by a "-ust 
of passionate grief, which caused the blood to burst from hh 


nostrils so profusely, that his strength was soon exhausted. 
He was then only five years of age. 

To the formation of his mind, meanwhile, his mother paid 
the most sedulous attention. She was aware of the delicacy 
and the difficulty of the task ; but duty and inclination 
loudly called for her efforts. From that time forward she 
kept him under the strictest discipline ; but blended with 
its rigor and vigilance the tenderest and most manifest 
affection. She never corrected without explaining the 
nature and tendency of the fault committed, and reasoning 
upon the painfulness and the necessity of the punishment. 
To this she joined formal prayer for a blessing upon the rod 
of chastisement. The following is an extract from a letter 
written by Col. McLeod, military commandant in the north 
of Ireland, in the town of Belfast, brother to the late Dr. 
McLeod : " From early infancy," says Col. McLeod, " my 
brother was fond of study ; and while I was engaged in 
boisterous and sometimes dangerous sports, he Avould be 
picking up scraps and leaves of books, and putting them 
together in the most bizarre forms, and thus amusing- his 
mother and sisters. He seldom joined for any length of 
time in outdoor amusements. He had a most retentive 
memory, and as far as ever I can recollect, he was eager to 
become a minister of the gospel ; and even when of tender 
age, when he once formed a resolution, it was not easy to 
get it set aside. He never would join in shooting, or fish- 
ing, or racing. One particular trait of his character — and 
that never varied— Avas his absolute and perfect confidence 
that God would never forsake him, and was all-suflioient to 
provide for him." 



Until he joined the Reformed Presbyterian Church. 

YoiTNG McLeod having received a very respectable 
classical education in his native isle, animated by that spirit 
of liberty and independence Avhicli always formed a promi- 
nent trait of his character, turned his attention to the 
United States of America. In the year 1792, when scarcely 
eighteen, he sailed from Liverpool for New York. Shortly 
after his arrival, he ascended the Hudson to Albany, and 
thence proceeded to Princetown and Duanesburgh. These 
townships lie a few miles west of Albany, and south of 
the Mohawk river. Here he fell in with a few families who 
had some considerable time before emigrated from the 
Highlands of Scotland. Several families of the emigrants 
also had located themselves in Galway and Milton a few 
miles north of the same stream. With these honest 
unsophisticated farmers, young McLeod soon became a very 
great favorite. His manners were agreeable • his mind 
noble, generous, and ardent. He was affable, condescend- 
ing, and national. He loved the country of his birth • he 
loved and cherished his countrymen wherever he met them 
It mattered not to him how humble their sphere of life or 
how scanty their worldly means. His esteem was reo-ulated 


by what he believed to be the quantity of moral -worth. 
Among these honest, simple, and virtuous countrymen of 
his, he found congenial spirits, and kindred feelings. They 
were friends of that Redeemer whom he loved. 

Eeligiously educated as Mr. McLeod had been in his 
native land, what matter of thankfulness was it, that the 
prayers of a godly father, the petitions and careful instruc- 
tions of an affectionate and pious mother, were not unpro- 
ductive ! They, through the grace of G-od, were followed by 
early and abundant fruits in the land of his adoption. 
He loved the courts of God's house, and delighted in the 
contemplation of the beauty of the Lord displayed in the 
sanctuary. Born and brought up as he had been in the 
bosom of the church of Scotland, his predilections were 
Presbyterian. Extensive investigation, reflection, and rea- 
soning thoroughly confirmed and established his Presbyterian 
principles. The abuses and corruptions with which the 
established church of Scotland abounded, were seen and 
lamented by him. Her beauty had been tarnished, and her 
energies cramped and trammelled by her adoption of the 
Revolution settlement. ISTone could view with stronger dis- 
approbation than he did, the Erastian establishment of her 
constitution, and the disfranchisement of sacred rights — the 
ecclesiastical slavery involved in the odious system of 
patronage, brooding as an incubios on that devoted church. 
Although in the United States neither Establishment nor 
Patronage existed, yet he declined connecting himself with 
any of the different denominations of the Presbyterian 
Church, until by close and minute inquiry he might ascer- 
tain, so as to satisfy himself which of them was in nearest 
accordance to the " Law and the testimony." The Scottish 
Highlanders above-mentioned, with whom he fell in shortly 


after liis arrival, wore at that time in a similar process of 
examination after religious truth. They were anxious to 
know the truth as it is in Jesus. They, with much diligence 
and prayer, engaged in the use of the means. In conjunc- 
tion with Mr. McLeod, they constituted societies for prayer 
and Christian conference. They procured the testimonies of 
such churches as they considered approximating nearest to 
the requisitions of the Word of God. They read, compared, 
and discussed the doctrines contained in them, praying for 
divine light and direction, and thus, in process of time, final- 
1}^ adopted the testimony of the Eeformed Presbyterian 
Church. It is believed, indeed, that seldom has any society 
more intelligently embraced the articles of their religious 
creed than did these societies on both sides the Mohawk 
nver, with which Mr. McLeod had connected himself 
They were composed of men of genuine piety, of primitive 
simplicity, of strong common-sense. And they were warm- 
hearted, ardent, and of rigid moral integrity. Yes, the 
names of an Alexander Glen, a John Burns, a Eobert Speir, 
a Hugh Eoss, an Andrew McMillan, a "Walter Maxwell, 
&c., although they may soon be forgotten in the vicinity of 
Schenectady, will be held in everlasting remembrance in 
the realms of eternal day. 

The convictions and ultimate decisions, resultina' from 
these intellectual inquiries after truth, were much aided and 
gi-eatly expedited by the conversation and public discussions 
of the Eev. James McKinney, a member of the Eeformed 
Presbyterian Church, who had emigrated from Ireland in 
1793. Mr. McKinney was a native of Ireland, of respect- 
able parentage and family connections, of vigorous intellect 
and strong passions. His education was solid and substan- 
tial, but without much polish or refinement. He did not 


mucli regard tlie cold formalities or ceremonious etiquette 
of fashionable patrician society. He was a warm-hearted, 
generous Irishman. lie was zealous, enterprising, vigilant, 
and indefatigable in his Master's service. And, although 
rather stern in his manner, and uncompromising in his sec- 
tarian principles, he both was and deserved to be eminently 
popular among his scattered adherents. He had been, from 
his early youth, an enthusiastic admirer of republican insti- 
tutions, as exclusively congenial to the universal rights of 

During the French Eevolution, this gentleman had acted 
a prominent part in the organization of a volunteer corps — • 
a little patriotic band, in the neighborhood of Dervock, 
County Antrim, Ireland. This was sufficient to excite the 
jealousy and resentment of the minions of despotism in 
that vicinity. For the display of this love of liberty, he 
was obliged, like many others, near the close of the last cen- 
tury, to exile himself from the land of his nativity. This 
reverend gentleman, in 1793, had preached in Princetown, a 
few miles from the city of Schenectady, for several Sab- 
baths, witii much acceptance and success. Mr. McLeod's 
connection with the Hefoi-med Presbyterian Church was 
among the first fruits of Mr. McKinney's ministry in this 
place. As already mentioned, he had received in his native 
land the rudiments of an education for the ministry in the 
established clmrch, in which he had been born and brought 
up. The second sermon which Mr. McKinney preached in 
Princetown was on the fourth verse of the twenty-seventh 
Psalm : " One thing have I desired of the Lord, that will I 
seek after, that I may dwell in the house of the Lord, all 
the days of my life, to behold the beauty of the Lord, and 
to inquire in his temple." The eifect of this sermon on Mr. 



McLeod's mind immediately determined Mm to embrace 
the principles, and qualify himself for the ministry in the 
Reformed Presbyterian Church. He graduated with dis- 
tinguished honor in Union College, Schenectady, in 1798. 



Until his Licensure. 

It may be proper here, before proceeding further in the 
memoir of Dr. McLeod, to give a brief abstract of the 
distinctive principles of the Eeformed Presbyterian Church, 
to which he attached himself. 

The Westminster Confession of Faith exhibits the grand 
articles of their creed. They embrace the system of divi- 
nity contained in the Catechisms, larger and shorter. These 
formulae were received and sanctioned both by Church and 
State. The nation solemnly covenanted to adhere to them. 
They were the terms of civil and ecclesiastical communion 
in the British empire. The covenants, national and solemn 
league, considering the time and circumstances, are most 
valuable and important documents. It must be admitted, 
that the principles neither of civil nor religious liberty were 
then so well understood as they are at the present day. 
Still, when we consider the times in which our reforming 
ancestors lived, the circumstances with which they were 
surrounded, and their hereditary prejudices concerning the 
divine right of kings, we should indeed be astonished that 
they achieved so much. Verily, the pre.sence of the Lord 


was M-itli them. Their memory and achievements should be 
dear to every friend of truth. 

The fair fabric of British reformation, however, was 
lamentably demolished by the pohtical evolutions of that 
notorious debauchee, Charles the Second, and his abandoned 
coadjutors. Still a small remnant of the Church of Scot- 
land, with uncompromising fidelity, declined all compliance 
with the entangling overtures on the part of the govern- 
ment; they spurned all their criminal indulgences, sub- 
mitted to every privation, and endured every fiery trial that 
diabolical malice continued to inflict, rather than defile their 
consciences. Thus they endured, although hunted like par- 
tridges on the mountains. 

After the expulsion of the Second James, and the estab- 
lishment of the prince of Orange, William the III., upon 
the throne, the remnant of the Reformed Presbyterian 
Church refused to own the revolution settlement, as being sub- 
versive of the grand national constitution which had been 
settled at the Keformation, and which the three kingdoms, by 
the solemn league and covenant, were bound to support and 
observe inviolate. Apostacy from former attainments, the 
demolition of the national constitution, sworn to by all ranks 
in the realm ; an opposite oath on the part of the sovereign 
to maintain Episcopacy in England, and Presbytery in Scot- 
land, together with his Erastian usurpation of Messiah's 
headship and prerogative, necessarily precluded them from 
any consistent recognition of the British constitution, as then 
modelled and essentially altered and infringed. In the main- 
tenance of the spirit and principles of the second Eeforma- 
tion, this remnant grew and increased in Scotland Ireland 
and in this country by emigration, until numbers iustified 
the erection of a separate Judicatory in America, then con- 


sisting of British colonies. Tlie Befomied Presbytery, for 
tlie first time, was constituted in America, in lYH, by Eev. 
Messrs. John Outhbertson, Matthew Lind, and Alexander 
Dobbin, with ruling eldera. This not long afterwards became 
extinct, in the coalescence forixied between these brethren, 
and the associate Presbyteries of New York and Pennsyl- 
vania, in 1T82, after having been five years in agitation. 
This was not approved by the sister judicatories, in the 
British isles. They considered it rather as generating 
and increasing schisms, than diminishing their numbers. 
And this was a fact. The fragments of both the coalescing 
parties rallied around their respective standards, and thus 
another denomination, designated the Associate Eeformed 
Church, swelled the list of ecclesiastical communities. 

Tlie scattered remnant of the Eeformed Presbyterians who 
kept aloof from the union, applied for ministerial aid to the 
mother country. This aid had been but very feebly and 
partially afforded, through lack of ministerial laborers. At 
the time, and in the circumstances already stated, the Pev. 
J. McKinney arrived in tliis country. Mr. McKinney was 
a strict and steady adherent to the whole doctrine and sys- 
tem of the covenanted reformation. But it ought not to be 
overlooked, that as he had been liabitually applying those 
doctrines to the existing immoralities of the British govern- 
ment, which he was daily exposing and impugning, he 
frequently neglected to make that allowance for the difter- 
ence between it and the government of the United States, 
which a just discrimination demanded. He sometimes 
attacked the constitutions and laws of the American Pepub- 
lic, with all the severity which might have been legitimately 
applied in Great Britain, where the covenanted constitution 
had been completely subverted, but which was to a great 



dej^-ree inapplicalilc to tJie republican institutions of the land 
of his ailojition. 

Tlie tlieorr was excellent, and failed only in judicious 
and <liscreet application. The colonies of America were 
not, as some dreaming enthusiasts have maintained, included 
in the Eritisli covenants. They were not represented in the 
making of them. Of course, they did not, they could not, 
break them. They, of course, had not violated the funda- 
mental charter. The civil institutions of the United States, 
no doubt, fell short, in regard to morality and religion, of 
what they ought to have had, and what, consequently, it 
nmst have been very desirable that they should have had. 
But inust everything of a moral character be rejected on the 
score of deficiency alone ? Tlien, we must reject all htunan 
institutions, for nothing human is free from imperfection! 
It is true ; to identify seventy-five with one hundred would 
be an act of fatuity ; but to refuse seventy per cent., because 
one cannot get the hundred, would evince something which, 
perhaps, is worse. 

On these points similar views were entertained by Mr. 
King, who had some time before, as a, member of Committee 
of the Scotch Presbytery, arrived in South Carolina. Mr- 
McKinney and lie had a meeting in South Carolina, in 
which they transacted some ecclesiastical business, as a 
Committee of the Scottish Presbytery, Mr. McKinney act- 
ing as a corresponding member, thereby expressing, as he 
stated, his dissatisfaction with an organization in a committee 
form, subordinate to a Scottish court, at more than three 
thousand iniles' distance. It was, however, understood that 
that form of organization was designed to be merely tem- 
porary, and sliould, with all convenient speed, be superseded 
by one of full Presbytcrinl powers. Another time and place 


of meeting were agreed upon, but ere tlie time arrived, that 
■worthy servant of Christ, the Rev. Mr. King, was removed 
by death, and had entered into his rest. 

Meanwhile, Mr. McLeod was prosecuting his academical 
studies T-igorously and successfully, in Union College, Sche- 
nectady. The president of that institution, at that time, was 
the Rev. Dr. John B. Smith, of the Presbytei-ian church. 
Dr. Smith was an excellent scholar, an eminent divine, and 
a devout Christian. He had been, previously to his appoint- 
ment to the presidency of Union College, pastor of the 2d 
Presbyterian church. Pine street, Philadelphia. He was 
much attached to Mr. McLeod, and in his correspondence 
with several of his old parishioners in Philadelphia, made 
mention, in terms highly complimentary, of the general 
talents, metaphysical acumen, piety and industry of his 
respected pupil. A sense of obligation to improve the 
opportunity, and a laudable competition, stimulated into 
vigorous exercise, talents of the first order. While at col- 
lege, he was a general favorite, and formed intimacies with 
many valuable associates, with numbers of whom, his friend- 
ship and correspondence terminated only with life. Among 
these we may mention Judges Thompson and Miller ; Chief 
Justice Savage, and Doctors Linn and Eomeyn. Often has 
he mentioned with delight, the sweet communion in science, 
literature and religion, enjoyed in college rooms and private 
wallcs, with those pious, noble and kindred spirits, Linn and 
Eomeyn. Their friendshij) was indissoluble. 

During Mr. McLeod's collegiate course, it was his custom 
to go out to Princetown to Walter Maxwell's, some seven or 
eight miles from Schenectady, on Saturday afternoon. There 
he spent the Sabbath, attending either on the ministry of the 
Eev. James McKinney, or on fellowship meetings with his 


brethren, in prayer and Christian conference. Often have 
we heard Dr. McLeod dwell with peculiar emphasis on the 
hospitality and kindness, the cordial welcome and smile of 
genniue friendship, with which he was received by these 
excellent, unsophisticated Christians. After the close of the 
religious services of the day, whether in public worship or 
fellowship meetings on the Sabbath, Mr. McLeod spent the 
evening with the fomily where he lodged in interesting con- 
versation, on such topics as were ever auxiliary to vital 
piety and experimental godliness. The hearts of these good 
people were indissoliibly knit to Mr. McLeod in bonds of the 
purest aifection. His was a soul capable of duly appreciat- 
ing, and vividly enjoying the interesting though homely 
society of those excellent Christians. Andrew McMillan or 
"Walter Maxwell would, on Monday morning, be irp before 
daybreak, have the horses prepared, and the rtide but 
safe and comfortable vehicle in readiness, to convey 
their guest to Schenectady, in due season for attending the 
duties of the college classes. 

In composing this memoir we regret much that, so far as 
we have been able to ascertain, there remain no specimens 
of Mr. McLeod's composition, either in juvenile essays, or 
public declamations ; whether preparatory to, or at the time 
of graduation. Destitute of any remains of his intellectual 
efforts during his adolescence and academical career, we have 
nothing to compare with the more matured effusions of his 
riper years. That there were manuscripts in existence which 
are now lost for ever, we have sufficient reason to believe. 
On inquiring of his son, and successor, the Eev. John N. 
McLeod, of New York, for documents of this description, it 
was found the Doctor, not long before his decease, had shut 
himself up in his study, and having culled out numerous 

DocmnjNTS 'strprEESSED. 29 

papers and manuscripts wliicli lie did not -wish to survive 
him, or meet tlie public eye, committed them to the flames ! 
Among these there were, no douht, many of his juvenile 
productions, which, however interesting they might have 
appeared to others, and useful to his biographer, in aiding to 
a more finished development of certain traits of character, 
had, nevertheless, been in his own opinion, not deserving of 
preservation. His deliberate object in all his performances 
was to serve God and do good to mankind. Whatever he 
had in manuscript, which, in his opinion, might not be 
evidently calculated to effect this all-important end, he would 
not obtrude upon the world. He was a most rigorous critic 
on his own performances ; and, doubtless suppressed much 
which many of his friends, impartial judges too, would have 
considered both pleasing and profitable. 

After Mr. McLeod had received his well-earned collegiate 
honors, he betook himself formally to the study of Theology, 
under the direction of his friend and pastor, the Rev. Mr. 
lIcKinney. While the Bible, the book of God, was his grand 
text-book, which with much prayerful attention and diligence 
he studied and endeavored to understand, and on which he 
brought to bear all the resources of his powerful intellect ; 
his principal systematic expounder, whom he read collater- 
ally with the sacred text, was Francis Tui'retine. During 
his study of this profound divine, whose system of Theology 
stands still unsui-passed by the more modern productions, Mr. 
McLeod compendized the greater part of the topics, and 
thus possessed, as it were, a miniature view of the argu- 
ments j?to and con, touching the grand doctrines of Biblical 

About this time, in the fall of 1Y97, when the insurrec- 
tionary movements in Ireland — the origin of Mr. McKinney's 


exile from his native land — liad reached an alarming height, 
many, especially the more conspicuous of the Keformed 
Presbyterians, were under the necessity of selecting some 
one of these three consequences, some one of which must 
unavoidably result from their existing position. First^ sin, 
by polluting their consciences in swearing an immoral oath 
of allegiance to a tyi'annical government. Second, suffer, by 
being perhaps shot — on the instant- — on the spot- — ^or hanged 
without trial, at the discretion of a ruffian soldiery ; or if 


trial was allowed, it was a mere mockery, under martial law, 
and in ninety-nine cases out of the hundred, resulted in con- 
demnation. Third, To flee and exile themselves from the 
sepulchres of their fathers. Unwilling either to pollute their 
consciences, or become the victims of ruthless cruelty, they 
chose the last; exile from their dearly beloved country. In 
this state of things the Kev. "Wm. Gibson, from Ballymena, 
county Antrim, L-eland, accompanied by Messrs. Black and 
Wylie, graduates of the University of Glasgow, were obliged 
to leave their native home ; and, of course, directed their 
views to the United States, the land of liberty and the asylum 
of the oppressed from every clime. Messrs. Black and 
Wylie having completed their college education, and having 
devoted themselves to the service of God in the gospel of 
his Son, were now entering on special preparation for the 
sacred work. In the course of the ensuing winter, they had 
both obtained tutorships in the University of Pennsylvania, 
in the city of Philadelphia, where they were now located 
for a season. Here they were enabled to obtain competent 
subsistence ; and could prosecute their theological studies, 
which they did under the occasional inspection of the Eev. 
Wm. Gibson. This gentleman officiated alternately, in equal 
periods of time, in New York and Philadelphia. The society 


in Philadelphia was small and feeble, but very animated and 
nobly generous in contributing to the support of the gospel. 

In the course of the spring, 1T98, Eev. Mr. MeKinney 
met Kev. Mr. Gibson in Philadelphia, and sensible that a 
mere committee of the Irish Presbytery was utterly inade- 
q^uate to the existing exigencies of the church, in her pre- 
sent circumstances; and, besides, having no delegated 
authority from Ireland for such an organization ; and, more- 
over, knowing that they had, from the church's Head, the 
key of government committed to them as well as that of 
doctrine ; to meet these exigencies of the case, and on the 
footing of these principles, after much deliberation and due 
consultation with the elders in Philadelphia, it was finally 
resolved to organize themselves into a Presbyterial capa- 
city ; which resolution was immediately carried into effect. 

At this meeting of Presbytery, Messrs. McLeod, Black 
and Wylie were formally recognized as students of theology, 
taken under the care of the court, and pieces of trial were 
assigned them, to be in readiness for the next meeting of 
Presbytery, in the month of August following, to be held in 
the city of New York. 

Shortly after his arrival in Carolina, Mr. King, from the 
Scotch Presbytery, received under his care as student of 
divinity, Mr. Thomas Donelly, a young man who had 
received part of a collegiate education in the University of 
Glasgow, and had finished it at Dickinson College, Carlisle, 
with a view to the gospel ministry. The Scottish commit- 
tee in South Carolina having become extinct, Mr. King 
standing now alone, had, as has been already mentioned, 
contemplated a meeting with Mr. McKinney. This meet- 
ing was to have been held in the District of Columbia. Mr. 
King laaving been arrested by death before the time 

82 in:j[oiE of alexaotdee mcleod, d.d. 

appointed for uicetiDg, Mr. Donellj -n-as ordered to continue 
the prosecution of his studies, and repair ISTorth^-ard at a 
convenient season, of "n'hich he should be duly notified, to 
exhibit specimens of trial for Hcensnre. Agreeably to ad- 
journment, Prcbbytery met in August, 1798, in the city of 
ISTe-.v York. Previously to this meeting, the sacrament of 
the Lord's supper vras dispensed by Eev. Messrs. McKinney 
and Giljson, to a small society of Eeformed Presbyterians in 
that city. The number -^vas indeed small. Including the 
memliei's of the same denomination present from Philadel- 
phia and Coldenham, perhaps the whole did not amount to 
twenty- — yet it was more than the number present at the 
instihition of this eucharistic feast. It was on that occasion 
that Mr. McLeod first met Messrs. Black and Wylie. How 
anxiously expected was that interyiew, both by him and 
them ! They had been, previously, mutually acquainted 
through the medium of Mr. McKinney. This, with many 
other considerations, gi-eatly increased the interest of their 
meeting. They met. They conversed. They communed 
in the sjanbols of the body and blood of the Pedeemer. 
They ate and drank into the same spirit. They became in- 
dissoluble friends through the unction of the Spirit of that 
Saviour, who is Himself a friend that sticketh closer than a 
brother. The intimacy then commenced alwaj'B grew and 
ripened, and yielded the delightful fruits of fraternal, official 
and Christian inter-communion. It never experienced the 
scorching influence of jealousy, or the chilling blasts of dis- 
trust. It was no easy task to know McLeod without esteem- 
ing and loving him. 

On the Tuesday after the sacrament, Messra. McLeod 
Black and Wylie were called upon by Presbytery to deliver 
mvd voce, the pieces of trial v<'hicli had been formerly pre- 


scribed to tliem. The meeting "\vas held on a place then 
called "The Oechaed." This was the coimtry residence of 
Mr. John Agnew, merchant in New York, a most staunch, 
intelligent, and worthy Kefoi'med Presbyterian. The candi- 
dates were heard ; their pieces of trial were severally sus- 
tained, and others assigned to them. Mr. McLeod's mascu- 
line grasp of his subject; his arrangement; his manner of 
delivery ; his self-possession, and tlie toiot ensenilAc, could 
leave no doubt on the mind of any intelligent auditor, that 
he possessed talents of the first order. 

After a few days spent in visiting the different families, 
then attached to the Chru-ch in that city, as well as in plea- 
surable and profitable excursions throiigh the environs of 
New York, Mr. McLeod separated from his new friends and 
associates, and returned to Galway with Mr. McKinney, 
who had a temporary appointment in New York, to which 
he repaired. Messrs. Black and Wylie returned to Philadel- 
phia, where the yellow fever was then raging with tre- 
mendous violence, reducing the city by flight of the inhabi- 
tants to the country, almost to a desolation. These two 
young men were obliged also to flee to the country, Avhich 
in the benignity of Divine Providence, proved a healthful 
asylum to them and the other refugees from pestilence. 

Let us now follow Mr. McLeod, after his return with Mr. 
McKinney to Galway. His devotedness to the service of 
God in the gospel of his Son, was remarkably evinced, during 
the whole course of his theological studies, preparatory for 
licensure. This was manifested by his life and conversation 
among those with whom he associated. But the strongest 
collateral proofs have just fallen imder our eye, by becoming 
possessed of a short journal he made after his return to New 
York, where he delivered his first trial discourses in public. 


This journal commences, August, 1798, and is complete until 
November 2Stli, 1799. That this is only an isolated fragment, 
detached from its antecedent and subsequent portions, there 
is the strongest reason to believe. Of this we are the more 
confident, because we had once a glance of a similar journal 
of the portion of time between the last above-mentioned 
date, and the time of his licensure. In this diary, the man- 
ner of commencing the day, its business, its progress, and 
its close, are regularly stated. The whole bears evidence, that 
it was never by him intended for the public eye. It would 
be an infraction on the right of the venerable dead, to tran- 
scribe the whole. Some few selections may be profitably 
made in perfect consistency with the author's religious deli- 
cacy. Mr. McLeod was never ostentatious of his religious 
experiences. He profited by them himself, and they quali- 
fied him in humility to benefit others, who were fearers of 
the Lord. But he was always averse to proclaiming them 
on the housetops. He was a modest Christian. He felt 
more of the power of godliness, than he felt himself will- 
ing to proclaim to the world, as his own experience. They 
lost nothing by this suppression. It was always faithfully 
developed to his audience in showing what the real saints of 
God did experience. Through this medium and in this man- 
ner, he told the true fearers of the Lord, what He had done 
for Ills soul. 

In this journal, we have an account of his devotional 
exercises, and studies. The books he perused, an analysis of 
their contents, judicious observations on the matter contained 
in them, and appropriate reflections both on the authors 
studied, and the public occurrences of that eventful period. 
But take the following specimens transcribed from the jour- 
nal itself. We select such portions as himself, in full con- 


sistency with religious modesty, miglit have allowed to meet 
the public eye. 


Monday, August 20th, 1T98. — " Kead third chapter of. 
Genesis ; and after the usual solemnities of the morning 
were over, committed a short comment upon it to paper. 
Head thirty pages in the first volume of Turretine's system 
of Divinity, and wrote an abstract of its contents. I then 
read through Lord Erskine's view of the causes and conse- 
quences of the present British and French wars, contained in 
seventy -seven octavo pages. This is indeed the workmanship 
of a master artist. Tliat disinterestedness and virtuous bold- 
ness for which the author is universally admired, shines 
through every page. He traces the conduct of the British 
ministry, through all its intricate windings, and develops to 
the eye of candor, its infamy and deceit. With magnani- 
mity he professes himself a whig, and with elegance and 
true eloquence, he justifies certain ministerial measures in 
Parliament. Without invective, without bitterness, he with 
manly modesty, calls upon his countrymen to assert their 
rights. "With the accuracy and the dignity of a historian, 
he has predicted consequences which have since been veri- 
fied. He makes a true discrimination between infidelity and 
whiggism, which the ignorant, the hypocritical, and the 
designing universally combine. This is a work which will 
be esteemed by an impartial posterity. 

" I after this wrote a letter to Mi. Myers, of the German 
Flats, containing indirect remarks upon his politics. In the 
evening I heard a fiying report of Bonaparte's safe arrival 
in Ireland. I rejoiced for a prospect of delivery to that 
injured people. Oppression seems to be di-awing near its 


grave. I, as usual, closed the day by secret and family 
IDrayer : for, tliougli a single lodger now in the family of Mr. 
Eoss, I take one-half of the day's family devotions, as the 
month of its members to God." 

Feidat, 2it/i Aiiffiisf, 1T98. — " I read thirty pages more 
of Turretine, and compendized them as i^sual ; also twenty 
in Burke's letters to a member of the British Parliament. 
This great and eccentric orator, who, in the morning of liis 
life, was the redoubted champion of piiblic liberty ; but, in 
the evening of his day became its venal and determined foe, 
burns with his own lustre to the very socket. His vehe- 
mence, his persf)ici;ity, his pathetic eloquence, glow in every 
page. The beauty of his style, and the ardor of his soul, 
make us overlook the venality of his design. Tlie magnitude 
of the subject, the truth of his premises, and the danger with 
which he threatens the country, almost force one to assent 
to the unjust conclusions which he draws. He advises 
to a powerful, and vigorous exertion against the regicide 
republic, as the only possible means of salvation to Britain. 
The day was concluded as usual, by family and secret 

Wedotjsdat, 24:th October, 1Y98.— "Eead twenty-six pages 
of Thorburn's Yindication of Magistracy. ]VIr. Thorburn's 
style is not agreeable,^ but his work is abstract, argumenta- 
tive, solid and accurate. As men make known their minds 
by looks and gestures, so does God His laws, by His works, 
His words, and the principles placed in the souls of men. 
ISTevertheless, the Divine law is one, moral and natural. 
Tlie moral goodness of any society on earth must be 
determined by the conformity of its nature and ends to the 


dictates of tlae Divine law. The moral relations between 
rulers and ruled, and the essential duties arising therefrom, 
must depend upon the Divine law, which is universal 
and obligatory. 

" His opponent, Mr. Thompson, asserts that the original 
radical power is in the body of the people, or body jpolitic. 
That all qualifications of magistrates, and all constitutional 
regulations, proceed from the people alone. Mr. Thorburn 
affirms and demonstrates, that all power is from God. All 
authority bestowed on magistrates is, by Him, limited to the 
Divine law. All conventions of men are, in their acts, con- 
fined to its eternal dictates. Whatever contradicts the laws 
of Heaven is, by such contradiction, void. The power of 
society is derived and subordinate ; not original and supreme. 
They have no right, by their laws, to infringe upon the laws 
of Heaven. Twenty pages farther contain many philosophi- 
cal remarks. The constitution of civil authority, as well as 
its institution, is divine, i. e. moral. N"ot, simply, as to 
rational agency or providential permission. In that sense, 
the association of robbers, and the government of thieves 
and devils in hell, are divine ! But the essential ingredients 
of the constitution should be in agreeableness to the pre- 
ceptive will of God. That the power of the magistrate 
should be warranted by the moral law, in respect to its 
nature, ends, subject, manner of acquisition, and the condi- 
tion upon which it is held. Power is natural and moral. 
Natural consists in external force and streirgth, and is com- 
mon to us with the brutes. Moral implies a legitimate title 
— right and warrant to act. Kight is founded upon duty 
and obligation ; and this, in an individual, extends to the 
thoughts, designs and actions, including the due disposal of 
his property. In a State or society, it extends to the estab- 


lishment of order, rule and government. It is their duty, 
and they have a right to establish such laws as shall conduce 
to their safety and happiness, and such as shall be calculated 
to do justice and righteousness to both God and man. Con- 
formably to this, it is their duty, and they have a right to 
choose one or more executors of their designs. The power 
with which persons thus elected are invested is, properly, 
authority. Power and authority, though confounded by his 
opponents, are really different. Power, is the state existing 
under the laws of rectitude ; authority, is the just delegation 
of that power to one or more, who shall exercise it according 
to existing stipulations. Cicero do ZegihuSjlih.S. "Potestas 
in populo ; auctoritas in Senatu." Power ia directly from 
God, deposited in the people : authority, mediately through 
the voice of the people. The former, natural,' the latter, 
adventitious. In order to constitute moral power, moral 
capacity is necessary. In order to constitute authority, 
moral ability and just means of acquisition must be super- 
added : both are under the restrictions and limitations of the 
supreme moral governor. Tliese funamentals he supports 
by the authority of Knox, Heuaeccius, Gordon, Harrington, 
Sydney, &c., &c. 

" Compendized twenty-four pages of Turretine, finishing 
his eighth topic. Passed the evening at Mr. McKinney's. 
Closed as usual with self-dedication to God." 

TnrasDAY, 27th Dcccmlcr, 1798.— « Eead 100 pages 
'Robertson's Proofs of Conspiracy.' The frivolities of 
Masonry are here laid open by a Freemason. Masonic 
associations were first confined to builders, who met for 
mutual help. In 1618, Mr. Ashmade was admitted into 
a lodge at Warrington, as the first instance of a Freemason. 


Immediately afterwards, the royalists and Jesuits constituted 
these private meetings, nurseries of support to the house of 
Stuart. The symbols of the Master's degree are manifest 
allusions to the suppression of democracy and the resurrec- 
tion of royalty at the Restoration. Charles the Second was a 
Freemason. Shortly thereafter Masonry was introduced 
into the Continent, in order to support the sinking interest 
of the Pretender. But the lodges were soon converted to 
seminaries of infidelity. I spent the evening in society at 
Mr. Shearer's." 

ToESDAT, 1st January, 1799. — "With fearful and solemn 
steps I this morning attempted to take a retrospective view 
of the elapsed year. Many acts of impiety and folly 
have tarnished the lustre of moral beauty with which I have 
been endeavoring to clothe my conduct. This calls for 
lamentation and repentance. The journey which I per- 
formed, however, was often rendered agreeable by signal 
manifestations of Divine protection, sometimes discovered 
through the medium of kind friends, and often by the 
immediate consolations of the church's Comforter. This 
admonishes to a strong hope and permanent confidence in 

Feidat, 4:th January, 1Y99. — " This day I commenced my 
regular course of study. I read a chapter in the Greek 
Testament, and compendized thirty-three pages of Turretine. 
De officiis Mediatoris. I also devoted some part of the 
time to committing my discourse on Eomans v. 1. to 
memory. This I find an extremely arduous task. I amused 
myself in the afternoon with ' Zimmerman's Solitude.' A 
desultory work, which, without system, without order, 


charms tlie heart, exalts the soul to God, and. enlarges the 
mind, with bold conceptions." 

Sabbath, Q>th January, 1799.—" Spent at Society at Mr. 
ilcKinney's. The question discussed was siiggested by 
Psalm ii. 11. ' Eejoice with trembling.' Mr. King showed 
the reasonableness of the injunction. I explained the nature 
of the exercise, and added three reasons to enforce its pro- 
priety. 1. The nature of God. 2. The nature of a Christian, 
and 3. The general appearance of Providence." 

Teuesdat, ZXst Janv.arjj, 1799. — " This morning I experi- 
enced more than iisual comfort and. enlargement in dis- 
charging the exercises of religious worship. My Presby- 
terial trials and the subsequent steps to be taken, bore upon 
my mind with unusual solemnity; but with serene joy. 
After this I perused fifty-six pages of Butler's Analogy; 
devoted some time to the Hebrew grammar ; committed to 
memory five pages more of my trial lecture ; reviewed 130 
pages of Nicholson's Philosophy, and perused the Albany 
Pegister and Gazette of the 28th inst. 


MoNDAT, Fch'uarij 11th, 1799.— Took a private sleigh to 
Albany, whence upon Tuesday afternoon I set out for IsTew 
York in the mail stage. After riding early and late in cold, 
disagreeable weather, and with bad roads, and often very 
bad carriages, I arrived at New York Friday afternoon, 
being the loth February, 1799. The time between this and 
the 21bt, the day appointed for the Presbyterial meeting, I 
designed to employ in reviewing my discourses. Monday, 
18th, when preparing to review my discourses, I found that 
they were lost. Every attempt to find the manuscript 

MiJsrtJSCErPTS lost. 41 

proved abortive. My agitation of mind was, upon this 
occasion, great — so great that I could not think even upon 
the subject of my exercises. I was also A^ery much 
chagrined at the loss of a compend I had formed of the two 
fii-st volumes of Turretine's Theology. Tuesday, letters bring 
information that the candidates there cannot come forward 
to the Presbytery, owing to their situation as tutors in 
the University. Upon this it was thought expedient to 
adjourn the meeting to Philadelphia, lest by impeding 
their progress the church should suffer." 

Wednesday, Feh-uary IMh, 1799, 10 o'doclc, A.^f.—'^lsh: 
McKinney opened the Presbytery with an animated and 
solid discourse upon Pevelation, v. 14, first clause. " And 
the four beasts said Amen." When expatiating on the 
severely agitated state of the world, he showed how the 
church was necessarily involved in civil commotions ; and 
the duty of her children. The concise mode of his expres- 
sions, the energetic solemnity of his thoughts, and the feel- 
ing but dignified appearance of his countenance, commanded 
the attention, and arrested the passions of every auditor. 
He concluded. I felt much agitated upon rising immedi- 
ately after him. Every eye of a full house was fixed upon 
me. They expected much ; I knew they would be disap- 
pointed. ]VIy thoughts were gone — my eyes were fixed — 
my motions suspended — a single gesture I could not com- 
mand. I became confused, but still went on. I frequently 
knew not what I said ; it might have been nonsense, but I 
was not conscious. Jly connections were neglected. I, 
however, delivered my lecture, in its mangled form, without 
stopping. I read a few lines of a psalm ; while they sung, 
I retii-ed— I walked in another room — I recovered myself, 



and became composed. Having retnrned, I offered a short 
sujDplication to the throne above, and proceeded with my 
trial sermon. I now conld look my audience in the face, 
I understood my subject. I felt its importance, and com- 
municated it to mv auditors with ardor and energy. Still, 
I felt disconcerted when, involuntarily as it were, I added 
to my words an expressive gesture. Both my exercises 
were, however, sustained by the Presbytery." 

Thursday, 21»t, 1 o'clock, P.M. — "I sailed in company 
with Mr. McKinney and twelve other passengers, from New 
York, in the packet for Amboy. The wind was strong and 
fair, but the day cold and wet. "We landed at Amboy at a 
quarter of an hour before four o'clock. At seven o'clock, 
P.M., on the following day, we arrived in Eordentown — 
intending to sail down the Delaware next morning. The 
weather was exceedingly cold ; and though we put our bag- 
gage on board the packet in the evening, the following 
morning the river -was frozen over, strong enough to bear a 
traveller on the ice. ISText morning we arrived in Philadel- 
phia. Tlie republican simphcity in which this city is con- 
structed, gives to posterity a lively rei>resentation of the 
sage, its founder. On Tuesday, 20th, Mr. Gibson having 
arrived, the Presbytery was constituted. The candidates, 
Messrs. Wylie and Black, gave in their trials, and the, plans 
of the ensuing season were settled." 

Galwat, SaUafh, April lith, lY99.~"Tliis morning my 
spirits were unusually solemn, but the solemnity was not 
painful. The day was spent in society-fellowship. "While 
at prayer, I was led particularly to a sight and sense of sin. 



Tlioi^glitfulness was tlie characteristic of my mind. I retired 
to the fields. God gave my soul a comfortable visit. For 
weeks past my frame was cold. I had neglected the spirit 
of secret prayer, though not its form. I covenanted with 
God. He wrote a sense of pardon on my heart. I sung 
with delectation the 103d psalm. Depending upon the 
strength of Christ's grace, I determined not to neglect my 
studies or my duties for any earthly pleasure, however inno- 
cent it might be in itself I laid me down in peace, and 
meditated upon Jesus in the night watches — when I mused, 
the fire burned. There is a reality in religion; my soul 
feels it. He that believeth hath the witness within himself. 
Every experienced saint has an immediate revelation from 

MoiTOAT, April 15th. — " I rose early. The atmosphere 
was serene. No cloud made its appearance. The silver sky 
had just received its golden tint from the rising sun. The 
snow was hard and smooth. The warbling of the feathery 
songsters was heard for the first. Their soothing notes came 
floating over with the silent breeze. I had not proceeded 
far in my morning ramble, when the sun was emancipated. 
The snow sparkled under my feet like diamonds. The 
music of the grove became more sweet and audible. The 
sheep bleating for their lambs, ran wherever they could 
perceive a spot of earth, free from snow, where the tender 
grass discovered its green blades, in beautiful contrast with 
the surrounding snow. I felt a self-reproaching pang. All 
nature praised its God ; but I was silent. This reproach 
was pleasurable. I embraced God in the arms of my faith. 
I joined the creatures in praising Him. I found com- 


Tuesday, IQth Ajn-il.—'' Mild weatlier— neither clear nor 
cloudy, but warm and growing. Like a desponding heart 
which has some glimmerings of hope — like a soothing, plea- 
surable melancholy — it disposes my heart to feel these very 
emotions. I am resigned in a joyful, sorrowful frame to God 
— a frame which • is indeed a composition of conti-adictions. 
But I seek not to exchange it." 

Wednesday, May 1st, 1799. — "The annual commence- 
ment of Union College returned, fourteen were admitted 
to the degree of Bachelor in Arts. Judge Benson had a 
Doctorate of Laws conferred upon him. At even I delivered 
my address to the Philomathean Society, in the presence of 
a numerous and respectable body of honorary, as well as 
attending members. The Adelphi Society Avere also present." 

Feiday, 10th May. — " This is the first day that can he 
called a fine summer day. The morning was beautiful. A 
light fog gently floating about the air, and the sunbeams 
painting a thousand colors upon the distant landscape by its 
delicate pencil. Soon the clouds began to drop refreshing 
showers, warm and fructifying. I wrote a part of my exer- 
cise in English— wrote to Mr. Wylie an answer to his long 
and interesting letter received the first of May." 

Wednesday, 22f?. — "I imderstood Mr. Gibson had 
requested a meeting of Presbytery at the Wallkill, with an 
intention to finish the trials of the candidates immediately. 
Being thus taken unexpectedly, I went off" to Schenectady, 
in order to provide mj-self with sources for the extraction 
of materials of a history of the Eeformation. Dr. Eomeyn 
gave me Spanheim and Ilornius, two Latin Ecclcbiastical 


Histories. I got Mosheim from the college library. I was 
favored with letters from my worthy and affectionate sisters." 

Saturday, 25i57i. — " Finished my discourse for trials, and 
in the evening rode iip to Mr. Montieth's, in Broadalban. 
The town beautiful and level. The inhabitants are princi- 
pally Highlanders, honest, religions, industrious ; all sound 
republicans. Mr. McKinney preached here on the Sabbath, 
a discourse peciiliarly adapted to make a favorable impres- 
sion on the minds of the people. His exercise on the Psalm, 
his lecture, and his afternoon sermon, were all plain, argu- 
mentative, and pathetic." 

Feidat, 21st June, at Mi\ JBeattie^s, Wallkill. — " Messrs. 
Donelly, Wylie, Black and myself read our Latin treatises 
before the Presbytery. This took up about three hours. 
At half-past eleven Mr. Wylie delivered his exercise and 
addition. Mr. Black also his. The Presbytery adjourned 
for dinner. After constituting I delivered my exercise. 
Though very ill committed, I went through with presence of 
mind. Mr. Donelly delivered a lecture. The same evening 
Messrs. Wylie and Black delivered their popular discourses. 
Next day Mr. Donelly delivered a discourse on the eccle- 
siastical history of the Foiirteenth Century, and I preached 
my popular sermon." 

We present one other extract only. It is the scene of the 
licensure ; and by one of the parties. 

MoxDAY, June 2ith, 1799. — "Although I had only the 
afternoon of Saturday, and an hour on Monday to commit to 
memory my ecclesiastical history, I nevertheless delivered 



it extempore without great emotions. Messrs. Wylie and 
Black did liliewise. Mr. Donelly preaclied a popular 
sermon. The Court sustained them all and adjourned for 
dinner. Afternoon, all the candidates were examined on 
Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Ehetoric, Logic, Metaphysics, Moral 
Philosophy and Divinity ; on practical religion, and our 
views of the Ministry. We were then requested to with- 
draw. After our return, Mr. McKinney, as appointed by 
the Court, addressed us in a warm, animated, and solemn 
manner. He o]3ened the nature, and important designs of 
the ministry, and pronounced us all licensed to preach the 
everlasting Gospel to the Presbytery's connections, and all 
others to whom we might be, in Providence, commissioned. 
Thus was the arduous task imposed on the Presbytery 
and candidates brought to a termination. Sixteen discourses 
were delivered, and an examination made on the whole 
circle of science, ITatural Philosophy only excepted. I now 
found myself in a solemn, impressive and awful situation. 
The guilt of my former sins staring me in the face. Still I 
was extremely comforted by the unexpected aid I received 
to finish my trials and examination. God be praised !" 

Frequent reference is made in this journal to the fellow- 
ship meetings, or praying societies, on which Mr. McLeod 
so carefully attended. At a subsequent period of his Hfe, 
when he had taken his place among the most distincniished 
in the land for theological acquirements, the question was 
asked him — "Dr. McLeod, where did you study theoloo-y?" 
" In the Societies," was the answer. 

Such are a few specimens of the materials of this interest- 
ing journal. It furnishes ample evidence of a mind hio-hlv 


discriminative and analytic ; as well as a degree of industry 
and application rarely accompanying snperior abilities. Ey 
a continuance, for a considerable period, until the time of 
licensure, this course of mental improvement, his stock of 
science and literature, particularly in Metaphysics, Ethics, 
ISTatural Jurisprudence, and Theology, became very consid- 

It has been already mentioned, that delivering pieces of 
trial before the Presbytery in ISTewTork, August, 1798, while 
Mr. McLeod returned to Galway with Eev. Mr. McKinney, 
Messrs. Black and Wylie returned to Philadelphia, ^'hence 
they fled to the country from the prevailing epidemic which 
then raged in that city. 

In the course of the winter of '98 and '99, the Presbytery 
met in Philadelphia. Mr. McLeod accompanied Mr. 
McKinney from the ISTorth, where he had delivered the piece 
of ti'ial assigned him at a former meeting. Messrs. Black 
and Wylie now delivered theirs ; and final pieces for licen- 
sure ^^'ere assigned to these three yoimg men, which they 
were to be ready to deliver in June following. These were 
delivered on June 24:th same year, 1709, in Coldenham, 
Orange county, State of ITew York, at the house of Mr. 
Eobert Seattle, a noble minded, generous, open-hearted 
Christian, whose house for many years was the rendezvous of 
the Keformed Presbyterians in that vicinity. The kindness, 
the care, the unwearied attention, and cordial hospitality of 
this excellent old gentleman and worthy family merit to be 
transmitted, with honorable mention, to posterity. 

" Gaius, mine host, and his family, salute." 
Mr. Thomas Donelly already mentioned, by direction of 



Oonrt, appeared at Coldenliam, in coDJimction witli Messrs. 
McLeod, Black and Wylie. All their trials for licensure 
■\Tere sustained. And the Presbytery, after solemn prayer 
to Almighty God for His blessing, did license John Black, 
Thomas Donelly, Alexander McLeod, and Samuel Brown 
"Wylie, to preach the everlasting gospel ; as is seen by Mr. 
McLeod's journal. 



Until hia Ordination. 

This was to these four young men, indeed, a new epoch in 
their lives, and most solemn in its character. It is hoped 
and believed, that they felt the awful responsibility connected 
with this still wider field than what they formerly occupied, 
of exhibiting specimens of trial on a more public theatre, 
which might soon decide on their qualifications for investi- 
ture with the sacred office of the holy ministry. They were 
sensible of their own utter incompetency, but that their 
sufiiciency was in Christ. They knew that they had received 
no part of the ministerial office, which is one and indivisible, 
but that they had only been allowed, under competent judges, 
under whose inspection they had voluntarily placed them- 
selves, to change the scene of operations, and still remain on 
trials before the people, whose calls upon them to labor 
among them would intimate their approbation. Every man 
has a natural right to exercise the gifts and talents which 
God has bestowed upon him. But he is not likely always 
to be the most impartial judge of the measure of his own 
CLualifications. The dictates of common sense will put this 
decision into the hands of another. And who can be sup- 
posed more competent, in this first instance, to decide on the 


subject, than an Ecclesiastical Court, and tlie community 
which may wish to appropriate his services. Thus, it will 
be seen, that licensure confers no official authority, imparts 
no part of the gospel ministry. The probationer can, 
legitimately, exercise no ministerial functions. 

At this period, the Reformed Presbyterian Church was in 
a very scattered condition. Tlie societies and individuals, 
forming the nuclei of future congregations, were located 
principally in the States of Vermont, New York, Pennsyl- 
vania and South Carolina. These were, of course, to be 
visited and watered, as ability 'and opportunity might serve. 
Mr. Donelly was remanded to the South, Mr. Black to the 
middle and "Western parts of Pennsylvania, to Conococheague 
Yalley, and Pittsburg with its vicinity. Mr. McLeod, to 
the Southern parts of JSTew York State, and the city of JSTew 
York. Mr. Wylie was ordered to the cities of Philadelphia 
and Baltimore. 

The public laborers in our vineyard, now consisted of 
Messrs. McEnney and Gibson, ministers ; and four 
licentiates, Messrs. McLeod, Black, Donelly and Wylie. 
Pastoral settlements and congregational organizations were 
now loudly called for. At a meeting of Presbytery, in the 
spring of 1800, it was decreed that a commission should be 
appointed to meet those exigencies. Eeverend James 
McKinney, and one of the licentiates to be ordained for 
that special purpose, were fixed upon as the commissioners. 

Pursuant to these resolutions, in the following spring, Mr. 
Wylie was ordered to repair to Eyegate, Caledonia county, 
Vermont, to be set apart to the office of the holy ministry. 
At this meeting Messrs. Black and McLeod also attended, 
and received new appointments. Mr. "Wylie was ordained 
to the ministerial office, on June 25th, 1800, in the meetino'- 


house of Eyegate, where ]VIr. Gibson officiated as the pastor. 
This was the first ordination of a Keformed Presbyterian 
minister which ever occurred in the United States of 

In the fall of 1800, a call was made on Mr. McLeod to 
the pastoral charge of the tinited congregations of the city 
of New York, and Coldenham, in Orange county, in the 
same State. Mr. McLeod demurred, on the plea that there 
were slaveholders among the subscribers to the call. Pie 
urged this fact as reason for rejecting the call. The 
Presbytery now having this subject regularly brought 
before them, determined at once to purge our section of 
the church of the great evil of slavery. They enacted that 
no slaveholder should be allowed the communion of the 
church. Thus, at Mr. McLeod's suggestion, the subject 
was acted upon, even before he became a member of 
Presbytery, and this inhuman and demoralizing practice 
was purged from our connection. It is true, it only required 
to be mentioned, and be regularly brought before the Court. 
There was no dissenting voice in condemning the nefarious 
traffic in human flesh. From that period forward, none 
either practising or abetting slavery in any shape, has been 
found on the records of our ecclesiastical connection. 

The mission then proceeded from Coldenham, in pur- 
suance of the objects of their appointment, on their way to 
Carolina, as the furthest point of their destination. They 
crossed the country to Harrisburg, and visited Conoco- 
cheague Yalley; thence to Pittsburg, were a joint call on 
Messrs. Black and Wylie was made out, to take the 
pastoral charge of a congregation extending over a range 
of country more than one hundred miles sq^uare. Mr. 
Wylie was fallowed by the committee, to decline giving 


a final answer to fliis call, iintil his return from Carolina. 
Mr. Black accepted, and -was ordained and installed as the 
pastor of the Eeformed PresLyteriau congregation of Pitts- 
burg, and all the other adherent societies, in the State of 
Pennsjlvajiia, beyond the Alleghany Mountains. The ordi- 
nation took place in Pittsburg, in the Court-house, in 
presence of a ci'owded audience. 

The committee then proceeded on their way to Kentucky, 
which they were instructed to "\-isit on their route. After a 
rery perilous descent of the Ohio, in company with the 
Eeverend David Hume, late from Scotland, of the Associate 
Church ; and the Eeverend Mr. Craig, of the Associate 
Eeformed Church, and two other gentlemen whose names 
are now forgotten ; lumbered up with six horses, in a flat- 
bottomed boat, the river too high to divide ahead the islands, 
after various detentions and imminent hazards, in the good 
Providence of God, they arrived in safety at Maysville, 
Kentucky. After spending a month in the neighborhood of 
Washington, near the Blue Licks, and also at Lexington, 
with a member of excellent and intelligent brethren, they 
prepared to cross over the middle of the State, to Tennessee. 
Before leaving Kentucky, it would be unpardonable to omit 
mentioning the kind and hospitable reception met with at 
the house of John Finney, near Washington, where the 
mission lodged, preached and baptized. With great plea- 
sm-e we mention David Mitchell, an Israehte indeed, whose 
pious wife and amiable daughter adorned the doctrine of 
God their Saviom-. K^either should Aaron Wilson be for- 
gotten, an excellent and inteUigent man, of Elkridge, not 
far from Lexington. Ilis house was the seat of hospitality. 
There are many more too numerous to mention. 

Thence the mission journeyed South, by the Peach Orch- 


ard, though at that period, a desolate wilderness, and having 
swam, at the hazard of their lives, some rivers, and forded 
others, as Powels, Clinch, and Holstein, they reached the 
Swauano settlement. In calling accidentally at a farm- 
house, they found themselves in the habitation of a Mr. 
Quin, a Covenanter, with whom they passed the Sabbath, 
preached, and baptized some children. Thence they pushed 
forward until they reached the settlement in Kocky Creek, 
Chester district, South Carolina, where they were kind ly 
received, and hospitably entertained. 

The congregation here had been, for some time, without a 
pastor ; and, as of course, references for sessional action 
might be expected, they were not wanting. After examin- 
ations, ministerial visitations, and numerous ineetings of 
Presbytery and session, a joint call was made on Messrs. 
Donelly and Wylie, to become co-pastors of the congrega- 
tion. Here, again, Mr. Wylie had leave from the com- 
mittee to postpone, for the ])resent, any determination 
respecting this call, until the services of the mission should 
be closed. Mr. Donelly accepted, and was ordained and 
installed accordingly. Previously, however, to the dispen- 
sation of the sacrament of the Lord's Supper, which was 
celebrated after Mr. Donelly's ordination, the committee 
stated the decision of Presbytery at the last meeting in Col- 
denham, respecting slaveholders, declaring that such must 
either immediately emancipate their slaves, or be refused 
admission to the Lord's table. The committee were no less 
surprised than delighted, to find with what alacrity those 
concerned came forward and complied with the decree of 
Presbytery. In one day, it is believed, that in the small 
community of the Eeformed Presbyterian Church in South 
Carolina, not less than three thousand guineas were sacii- 


ficed on the altar of principle. The people promptly 
cleansed their hands from the pollution of the accursed 
thing. So far as is recollected, only one man, who had 
been a member of the church, absolutely refused to eman- 
cipate his negroes. His name is forgotten ; but his location 
^vas beyond the line of the State, in North Carolina. A 
nobler, more generous and magnanimous people, than these 
South Carolinians, are seldom met with in any community. 
To name the McMillans, the Kells, the Coopers, the Orrs, 
the JSTeils, &c., would be invidious, unless all, all were 
named. "We must, therefore, refrain. 

The committee returned from Carolina towards the begin- 
ning of the following summer, and met the Presbytery at 
Coldenham, Orange county. State of New York, and 
reported to the Court the manner in which they had exe- 
cuted the trust committed to them. All was unanimously 

Mr. McLeod was now satisfied on the subject of his 
former difficulties, respecting his acceptance of the call 
made upon him by the Wallkillians. Slavery, in the 
Eeformed Presbyterian Church, had been annihilated. 
However, to remove every shadow of objection, a new, 
unanimous call was made on him, which he now accepted, 
and was ordained in Coldenham meeting-house, and installed 
to the charge of the united congregations of New York and 
"Wallkill. At this same meeting of Presbytery, Mr. Wylie 
declined the acceptance of both the calls made on him, from 
Pittsburg congregation and from Carolina. The rejection 
of the Carolina call, on the part of Mr. Wylie, left open a 
field of special usefulness for a strong man and active 
laborer in the vineyard of the Lord. There had arisen some 
difficulties between the Eev. James McEanney and his con- 

THE CAKOLnsriAlifS. 55 

gregations in Galway and Duanesburgli, atMcIl tended to 
diminish ilia usefulness in that region. Tlae Carolinians 
were eager to ohtain the settlement of Mr. McKinney 
among them. They were officially advised of Mr. Wylie 
having declined the acceptance of their call on him. With 
all convenient speed, therefore, they invited Mr. McKinney 
to labor among them as their pastor. A call was forwarded 
to Presbytery, and was accepted by that gentleman, who 
forthwith prepared to remove to that portion of the 



From Mr. MoLeod's Ordination until tlie Exliibition of the Testimony. 

Peeviotjslt to Mr. McLeod's ordination, lie liad asked 
and obtained leave of Presbytery that, after this event 
should take place, he might be allowed time to visit some 
near relatives in Canada. Tliis visit occnpied several 
months, at the expiration of which he returned, and ad- 
dressed himself with zeal and energy to the discharge of 
his official duties, public and parochial. lie was, indeed, 
" instant in season and out of season," in feeding the sheep 
of his master. In all his public exhibitions, the language 
was extemporaneous. It is believed that after his licensure, 
he never wrote out and committed to memory one discourse 
before preaching it ; and reading sermons in the pulpit was 
never tolerated in the church to which he belonged. He 
always selected his text with appropriate reference to the 
occasion. His vigorous and discriminating intellect seized 
the leading idea of the text or passage, and soon recognized 
the various bearings of its subordinate ramifications. His 
investigations were often profound ; yet, being so thoroughly 
understood l)y himself, he eovld express them in a style and 
phraseology perfectly intelligible to the most ordinary 
capacity. His manner of discussing even abstruse subjects, 


tlius rendered tliem'"milk to babes," as well as "strong 
meat to tbose of full age, who, by reason of- use, had their 
senses exercised to discern both good and evil." 

During the visit of the Presbytery's mission to South 
Carolina, Mr. McLeod had been employed in supplying the 
congregations and societies of our connection from Saratoga 
to Baltimore : and wherever he preached, his services were 
highly acceptable, as well to many of the pious and intel- 
ligent of other denominations, as to those of his own eccle- 
siastical communion. "When he was settled in his pastoral 
charge, and had an opportunity afforded of cultivating closer 
intimacy with the great and the good in other communities, 
then the resources of his powerful mind developed them- 
selves, and commanded the respect of all who knew him. 
The locality of New York furnished, at that time, an admir- 
able field for the development of intellectual worth. In 
this commodity, that city was inferior to none in the United 
States. It contained a galaxy of theological characters, 
surpassed in literary and scientific talent by no other locality 
in the New "World. Mr. McLeod was soon known and 
appreciated by a Eogers, a Livingston, a McKnight, a Miller, 
a Mason, an Abeel, gentlemen and divines, who, for talent, 
literature, and polished integrity, would stand a comparison 
with any others on the continent. With all these, Mr. 
McLeod soon became a favorite. Pie enjoyed their con- 

In less than two years after licensure, all the four young 
men already mentioned, were ordained to the oifice of the 
holy ministiy, and had fixed pastoral charges. Mr. Wylie 
had been appointed to the pastoral charge of the united 
societies of Philadelphia and Baltimore,' — ^places then so 
unpromising, that with no small difficulty, he was induced 




to consent to a settlement among them. To this, however, 
he at last acceded for two years, to commence after his 
return from Europe, whither he had been delegated as a 
commissioner to the sister judicatories in Scotland and 
Ireland, to negotiate for ministerial aid, after having obtained 
of them a formal recognition of onr ecclesiastical standing. 

The scattered condition of the members of the Eeformed 
Presbyterian Church, dispersed as they were, over the vast 
extent of the American Union, rendered even a very limited 
and partial administration of ordinances a very difficiilt mat- 
ter. To travel a thousand miles in one season, was counted 
but a trifle. N'ay, some of their journals can show four, or 
even five thousand miles, and more, in the course of one 
year. But they regarded it not. They had the happiness 
of seeing the pleasure of the Lord prospering in the hands 
of Messiah through their instrumentality. What could they 
desire more ? Only a greater increase of success. 

After their ordination and settlement, the care of numer- 
ous vacancies, which they were still bound to visit, and 
supply as well as they could with public ordinances, was 
added to the care of a specific charge, of which they had 
undertaken the oversight. Ministerial aid was indispensa- 
bly necessary. They could not wait for a home supply, if 
assistance could be obtained more speedily from abroad. 
To their brethren in the British Isles, the Presbytery turned 
their attention. Widely dispersed over these United States, 
the extremes of their societies were more than fifteen him- 
dred miles apart. For the more convenient and efiicient 
exercise of ecclesiastical authority in the churches under 
their care, they found it necessary to subdivide the Presby- 
tery into difi'erent committees, authorized respectively to 
exercise church power within certain specified limits. Tliese 


tliey designated the ITortlierii, Middle, and Southern Com- 
mittees. The jurisdiction of the ]!!^orthern Committee 
extended from the boundary line between the TJnited States 
and Great Britain, on the North, to the Southern boundary 
of the State of ISTew York, on the South. The authority of 
the Middle Committee reached from the ISTorthern boundary 
of Pennsylvama,, and New Jersey, on the North, to the 
Southern boundary of Vii-ginia, and Kentucky, on the 
South. The Southern Committee embraced, under its juris- 
diction, thence to the Southern limits of the United States. 
This arrangement not only rendered the exercise of disci- 
pline more easy and convenient, but also prepared the way 
for the erection of Presbyteries, of which these were the 
nuclei, under the inspection of one common judicatory, or 
synod, so soon as increase of numbers and other circum- 
stances should render such an organization eligible. The 
transactions of these committees were of course reviewed by 

• Presbytery, at its annual meetings. These committees con- 
sisted severally of Messrs. Gibson, and McLeod, in the 
North, Messrs. Black and Wylie, in the Middle region ; and 
Messrs. McKinney and Donelly, in the South, in conjunction 
with the ruling elders. 

Agreeably to Presbyterial appointment, Mr. Wylie sailed 
for Europe, in the fall of 1802. He was instructed to give 
an account, to the Beformed Presbyteries in Scotland and 
Ireland, of the constitution of the Beformed Presliytery in 
America — -to consult with them about a plan of ecclesiastical 
intercommunion' — ^and to solicit ministerial aid for the Ame- 
rican churches under their care. Mr. "Wylie, the commis- 
sioner from America, was received with great cordiality both 
by the Scottish and Irish judicatories ; was invited to preach 
in their pulpits ; was treated with the kindest hospitality on 


the im-t of tlie people ; and took leave of them with feelings 
deeply impressed with a sense of their personal kindness 
to himself, and of their hearty good will to the interest and 
success of Eeformation Principles in this Western world. 

After more than a year's absence, Mr. Wylie retiu-ned to 
the United States, in the end of October, 1803. All the 
objects of the mission, as far as practicable, were obtained. 
The constitution of the Keformed Presbyterian Church, in 
these United States, was fully recognized by the sister 
judicatories ; a friendly correspondence established and 
commenced between the three Presbyteries ; and encourage- 
ment also given of affording ministerial aid so soon as it 
should be in their power. This was become still more 
necessary, by the removal of the Pev. James McKinney, 
by death, from his charge in Chester District, South Carolina, 
to which he had but recently been ti'anslated from the con- 
gregation in New York. He departed this life in the 
autumn of 1802. The Southern Committee thus became 
dissolved. Mr. Donelly was the only minister belonging to 
the Peformed Presbyterian Church in those parts. "What- 
ever business occurred to which the session was inadequate, 
had to be referred immediately to Presbytery. 

The church began now to be cheered with the prospect 
of some domestic aid, having waited long for assistance from 
abroad. Mr. Matthew Williams, formerly of the Associate 
Eeformed Church, educated in Canonsburgh, after a series 
of trials, w^as in September, 1804, licensed to preach the 
everlasting gospel. Mr. James Wilson, a graduate of Jef- 
ferson College, was, after a com-se of tlieological studies, 
under the inspection of Mr. McLeod, put under trials for 
licensure. The want of laborers in the vineyard was very 
sensibly felt. Double the number of workmen would not 


haye been sufficient to supply the demands from various 

While the church was thus increasing in numhers, and 
externally prospering, beyond the most sanguine expecta- 
tions of her friends, her ordained functionaries were, since 
the death of the Eev. James McEjnney, only five in all. 
Their labor was severe and incessant, in meeting the exi- 
gencies of the chm'ch in the supplying of vacancies. 
Besides his proportionate share in these supplies, meanwhile, 
Mr. McLean was indefatigable in his studies, and in the 
discharge of the duties of public teaching and parochial 
visitation. He was particularly careful, in his public exhi- 
bitions, to address the affections and the hearts of his people, 
through the medium of the imderstanding. He made them 
acquainted with duty, and then, most pathetically interested 
their feelings, and excited them to action. 

The practice of slavery had been, as already mentioned, 
abolished in the Eeformed Presbyterian Church. That the 
hearts, the affections, and the active sympathies of his 
parishioners, might be effectually enlisted in the use of every 
legitimate means for the complete emancipation of the 
oppressed African, in the year 1802, Mr. McLeod prepared, 
preached, and published a sermon on this subject, the title 
of which is 

In the advertisement prefixed to the printed copy, he refers 
to and explains the circumstances of the call made upon 
him, in Coldenham, Orange County, State of New York, 
which was subscribed by some who held slaves. It is true, 
they held human beings in bondage no longer. They had 
nobly sacrificed worldly emolument on the altar of principle, 


and jDreferred the enjoyment of spiritual privileges, to tire 
retention of the accui-sed thing. But he would wish them 
to be not only sentimental, but judicious and intelligent 

His text is from Exodus xxi. 16 : "He that stealeth a man 
and selleth him, or if he be foimd in his hand, he shall surely 
be put to death." Tlais is the first printed offspring of his 
masterly pen. It is true, the style and phraseology, have a 
few vestiges of the author's juvenescence ; but many 
characteristics of powerful discrimination and cogent 
deduction exist. 

The doctrinal proposition deduced from the text is : 

" The practice of luying, Jiolding, or selling o^ir imoffend- 
ing fellovi-creaturcs, as slaves, is immoralP 

In the method of discourse which he adopts, he proposes 
to confirm the doctrine of the propositiork — to answer objec- 
tions to it — and then, mahe some im/provement of it. 

He proves his proposition by showing that the practice of 
slavery is inconsistent T»'ith the rights of man — ^That the 
opposite principle would be gross absurdity — That slavery 
is opposed to the general tenor of the Sacred Scriptures — 
That it is a manifest violation of four precepts of the Deca- 
logue — That it is inconsistent with the benevolent spirit 
which is produced and cherished by the gospel of free grace 
— and lastly from its pernicious consequences. 

These arguments coniirmatory of the proposition 'are 
advanced, and m-ged with great strength and cogency. 

He then proceeds to state objections, which had been, or 
might be, 'made to the doctrine of the text. 

Tlie first obj ection is supposed natural inferiority. Second, 
That the negroes are a different race. Third, That they are 
the descendants of Ham, and tmder the curse. Fowrthy 


That God permitted tlie ancient Israelites to hold their fellow- 
creatures in servitude. Fifth, That slavery was tolerated by 
the Eoman laws in the primitive ages of Christianity. Sixth, 
That it is not condemned by Christ and his apostles ; and 
Seventh, That the evil exists, and how can we get rid of it ? 
"We are under a political necessity of keeping slaves ! 

All these objections are most ably and satisfactorily 
answered. If there be anything defective, perhaps it may 
respect the toleration of slavery in the Eoman Empire, and 
among the primitive Christians, which may not have been 
followed up with sufficient minuteness. Some Christians, 
indeed, still think it very hard, that those in bonds, though 
unjustly deprived of their liberty and subjected to the will 
of another who has no moral right to detain them, should, 
notwithstanding, be commanded, not only to serve heathen 
masters, but also professed Christians. The sin of the latter 
must be aggravated by the very fact that they are Christians. 
In Colossians, iii. 22-23 ; the command runs : — " Servants, 
obey in all things your masters, according to the .flesh; 
not with eye-service, as men-pleasers, but in singleness of 
heart, fearing God ; and whatsoever ye do, do it heartily, as 
to the Lord, and not xmto men." This text, with some others 
of the same stamp, seems hard to many Christians. This 
subject will be more fully investigated in the course of this 
memoir ; in the meantime suiSce it to say, that the reason 
of this single-hearted obedience is not founded on the justice 
of the master's claim, for the "men-stealers" are, 1 Tim. 
i. 9-10, ranked among " murderers of fathers, miu-derers of 
mothers," &c. 

But two good reasons are forthcoming for this " single- 
heartedness." First, this is opposed to hypocrisy and deception 
of every kind. No necessity will justify deceit ; ergo, what- 
ever ye do, do it as in the sight of God. A second reason 



is assigned in 1 Tim. vi. 1 : — " That tlie name of God and 
liis doctrine be not blaspliemed." This is indeed an admi- 
rable reason, and we can scarcely conceive any wbicb could 
more strikingly exhibit the extremely sensitive delicacy of 
evangelical morality. No right exists on the part of the 
master who claims the service ; no obligation on the part of 
the slave arising from any legitimate contract ; but the friends 
of Christ, the votaries of evangelical purity, are required, 
by the gospel of the Son of God, to wave their claims, forego 
their rights, sacrifice, for the time, liberty — most dear to man 
of all human enjoyments — for the honor of the name of 
God and his gospel. " That the name of God and the gospel 
be not blamed." How soothing the consolation to the poor 
Christian slave. " Tie is Christ's freeman." 

In the year 1803, Mr. McLeod delivered, and at the urgent 
solicitation of his congregation, published another sermon, 


The occasion inducing him to publish this discourse, will be 
best stated in his own words, as contained in the advertise- 
ment prefixed. 

" A theoretical investigation of the system of revealed 
religion is of importance to settle the faith, and direct the 
practice of Christians. 

" Sensible of this, the author of this discourse, since his 
connection with his "present pastoral charge in ISTew York 
commenced, has been in the habit of devoting the evenings 
of the Lord's day, to discussions of the leading subjects of 
Divinity, in what appeared to him to be the most regular 

"In the prosecution of this system, he has delivered to the 


clam-cli in Cliambers Street, four discourses tipon tlie Medi- 
atory Engdom of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. Of 
these, the one now offered to the public was the third. 
Those under his pastoral care have requested him to pub- 
lish it, and with their request he thought it his duty to com- 
ply. If it shall prove the ineans of establishing their 
confidence in the Saviour, and increasing their diligence in 
advancing his kingdom, he shall have cause to rejoice ; yea, 
and he will rejoice." 

Tlie text selected by Mr. McLeod, as the foundation of 
this excellent discourse, is found in Kev. i, 5 : — " Jesus Christ, 
the Prince of the kings of the earth." 

From these words Mr. McLeod deduces the following 
trath, which he proposes for discussion. 

" Christ as Mediator, rules over all the nations of the 

This doctrine he confirms by the following arguments : — 
There is a moral fitness in the mediatorial person, to be the 
governor among the nations. It is necessary that Messiah 
should rule the nations, because, otherwise the mediatorial 
ofiice would be inadequate and imperfect. This is argued 
fi-om the promises of God to the Son. From direct evidence 
in the sacred volume, that a commission has been actually 
put into the hands of the Mediator, authorizing Him to rule 
the nations of the earth. That Christ himself affirms in 
positive terms, that he is in possession of authority to rule 
the nations' — several additional evidences are adduced to 
attest the truth of the doctrine, such as the Holy Spirit; 
faithful ministers, the whole body of the church, the angels 
of light, with all creatures ; all, all proclaim this truth — the 
Mediator rules the nations of the earth. 

Mr. McLeod next proceeds to set before his readers the 


principal acta of tlie Mediator's administration, viz. : The 
Mediator execntes tlie divine pui-poses respecting the 
nations. He opens the door among tlie nations for the 
introdnction of his gospel. He calls their snbjects into his 
kingdom of sjiecial grace. In his administration of the 
government of the nations, Messiah issues orders to earthly- 
rulers, descriptive of the manner in which they are to be- 
have towards liis chm-ch. This King of nations overrules 
the disobedience of governors and governments, and rendei'S 
them all subservient to his own glory, and his church's 
good. And, finally, in the administration of his govern- 
ment, Jesus Christ punishes the governors of the earth for 
the neglect of their duty. 

The author then proceeds to answer six different objec- 
tions, which had been, or might be, made to the doctrine of 
the text. These objections occupy too much space for this 
abstract. The reader is referred to the discourse itself, 
which will amply reward its perusal. 

Having discussed these objections, as we think, in a very 
masterly manner, Mr. McLeod proceeds to suggest some 
considerations on the subject, in order to assert the proper 
improvement of the doctrine of tlie text, viz : — ■ 

1. That if Messiah be the Euler of the nations, civil 
society, in its constitution and administration of govern- 
ment, should bow to him, and honor him. 

2. That the ministers of the gospel are bound in duty, to 
demand of the constituted authorities, direct obedience to 
their King. 

3. That it argues pusillanimity in the disciples to see the 
crown of the nations taken from the Mediator's head, and 
not resent it. 

The whole of this excellent and interesting discourse 


bears the vivid impress of a master's hand. The reasoning 
is demonstrative ; the illustrations perspicuous ; and what- 
ever weight the objections may seem to have, soon must 
become evanescent ; and the conclusion be irresistible, that 
no creature, system, law, or government comprehended 
within the vast monarchy of God, could be exempted from 
the jurisdiction of the Mediator. 

The application is most impressive ; and closes most 
felicitously with a quotation from the seventy-second Psalm : 
— " In His days shall the righteous flourish, and abimdance 
of peace, so long as the moon endureth. He shall have 
dominion from sea to sea ; and from the river to the ends of 
the earth. They that dwell in the wilderness shall bow 
before him, and his enemies shall lick the dust. His name 
shall endure for e^'er, and all nations shall call him blessed : 
and blessed be his glorious name, for ever and ever ; and 
let the whole earth be filled with his glory. Amen, and 

The pastoral connection between Mr. McLeod and the 
Wallkillians did not long continue. In a short time after 
his settlement in the city of ISTew York, his congregation 
became sufficiently large, by increase of numbers, to feel 
themselves justified in petitioning Presbytery for the whole 
of Mr. McLeod's time and ministerial labors. However 
distressing the separation between him and the Wallkill 
part of his congregation might, in existing circumstances, 
be supposed to be, and really was, the interests of the 
church required it ; and the Presbytery, on mature deliber- 
ation, recognized its propriety, and sanctioned it. Mr. 
McLeod's ministerial labors, as to pastoral connection, were 
then confined to the congregation in the city of ISTew York. 
The supplying of vacancies, and the attendance on Ecclesi- 


astical jndicatories engaged, at least, one-fom-tli part of his 
time. Tlie balance was most industriously employed in 
preparation for tlie ordinary pulpit exercises, parochial 
duties, special subjects for publication in the periodicals of 
the day, miscellaneous reading, and attention to the requisite 
duties devolving upon him as a member of the New York 
Clerical Association. 

It has been already observed, that this city was at that 
time greatly favored with a number of highly talented 
gospel ministers, belonging to the diiferent sections of the 
Presbyterian Church. Among the more conspicuous of 
these " burning and shining lights," were Dr. Livingston, 
Linn and Abeel, of the Dutch Eeformed Church ; Drs. 
Eogers, Miller and Eomeyn, of the General Assembly of the 
Presbyterian Church ; and Dr. ]\Iason, himself a host, of the 
Associate Eeformed Church. Mr. McLeod, who, to use 
the words of Dr. Ely's obituary notice of him, was " inferior 
to none of them in the strength of his intellect, and superior 
to them all in the science of the human mind," was a con- 
spicuous star in this brilliant constellation. This Clerical 
Association was in the habit of meeting every Monday 
forenoon, when they commenced with devotional exercises ; 
read in rotation, a discourse on some especially interesting 
subject ; ciiticised with candid and manly rigor ; recipro- 
cally examined each other on select topics of ecclesiastical 
history ; exchanged sentiments on the passing occurrences 
of the day, and finally closed the exercises by -pvnjev. The 
writer of this memoir, having been himself once invited, 
when on a visit to New York, to attend one of these meet- 
ings, witnessed, with no ordinary degree of pleasure, the 
mutual exercise of fraternal love ; the rich contributions to 
the general fund of intellectual wealth, the gentlemanly 


deportment, the Christian nrbanity, and the holy obhvion 
of all the minor differences characteristic of their respective 
sects, which uniformly adorned this Clerical Association. He 
could not help hailing it as one of the incipient rays of the 
millennial dawn, streaking the ecclesiastical horizon, which 
we hare reason to hope will, ere long, brighten into the 
clear effulgence of the perfect day. But pardon the writer, 
if, while rioting on such a delightful feast, he stops to drop 
a tear over departed worth. Where now are these angelic 
stars which shone so bright in their transit through their 
ecclesiastical orbit? Most of them are now no longer 
visible to the mortal eye. They have gone to their reward. 
They did not live in vain ; nor die as fools. No ; the Eogers, 
the Livingstons, the McKnights, the Masons, the McLeods, 
though dead, yet speak. They shall be held in everlasting 
remembrance. They shall shine as the brightness of the 
firmament, and as the stars, for ever and ever. " Blessed 
are the dead that die in the Lord." 

"We add, as worthy of preservation, the Constitution of this 
body, which we find in the handwriting of Mr. McLeod. 




" Lnpressed with the importance of cultivating theological 
science and literatui-e, as the means of personal improvement 
and ministerial usefulness ; and influenced by a sincere desire 
to cherish brotherly love, and to secure a mutual understand- 
ing and co-oj)eration in promoting the interests of true 
religion, we, the subscribers, have agreed to re-organize " 






C O N S T I T U T I N . 

"1. ' The Doctrines of the Reformation,' as expressed in 
the several Confessions and Catechisms of the Reformed 
Churches, are acknowledged to be agreeable to the Holy 
Scriptures, and, as such, are received as the standard, by 
which the sentiments advanced by the members of this 
association shall in all cases be judged. 

" 2. The Clerical Association shall meet statedly, once a 
week, and for the present, every Monday, at ten o'clock 
A.M., and shall begin and close with prayer. 

" 3. The place of meeting shall be the house of some one 
of the members, of each in his turn, so far as convenient ; 
and the rotation shall be according to the alphabetical order 
of their names. The person, at whose house the meeting is 
held, shall be chairman, and shall constitute by prayer. The 
member next in order shall conclude. 

" 4. Immediately after the Constitution, some one of the 
members shall read a sermon or other religious essay of his 
own composition ; and it shall be the duty of each to read, 
in his turn, according to alphabetical order, unless previously 
excused by a vote of the association. 

" 5. After the discourse is read, the chairman shall call 

DE. MASON. 71 

Upon eacli member, in regular order, to offer his criticism ; 
lie shall afterwards make his own remarks, and then give 
permission to him who read to make his reply. For the 
present, the order in which the members shall offer their 
remarks, is that in which they sit, proceeding, with the 
course of the sun, from east to west. 

" 6. That the object of this institution may be secured, 
that a talent for liberal and correct criticism may be che- 
rished, and that each member may have his proportion of 
time to offer remarks ; no one shall be permitted to speak 
except in his turn, or for more than ten minutes until the 
question has been put round. 

" Afterwards, if any member has aught to remark which 
he formerly omitted, which has been suggested by the 
animadversions of others, or occurs de novo, he may by jDer- 
mission of the chairman, but not otherwise, offer it, provided 
he do not speak longer than six minutes. No personal dis- 
putes shall, in any case, be tolerated. 

" 7. It shall be the duty of the chairman to preserve order ; 
to put the question ; to annou.nce the place of the next meet- 
ing ; to designate the person who is, next in order, to read ; 
and then, call upon him whose turn it is to conclude with 

" 8. Honorary members may be elected by this associa- 
tion. Every member shall have the right of introducing 
clerical friends to its meetings ; and any member may at 
pleasure withdraw his name from the Constitution." 

It is said of Dr. John M. Mason, that after one of the 


meetings of the Clerical Association had terminated, he 
tapped Dr. McLeod familiarly on the head, and said : " How 
did you get so much into that little head. Dr. McLeod ? " 

About this time Mr. McLeod, by his marriage to Mary 
Anne Agnew, laid a solid foundation for domestic fecility. 
Tliis event took place on the 16th of September, 1805. Miss 
Agnew was an amiable, pious, and accomplished young lady, 
a member of his own congregation, and the daughter of Mr. 
John Agnew, one of his elders. Mr. Agnew was an emi- 
grant from teland, county Antrim, near the town of Conner. 
He had married a sister of the Keverend William Stavely, 
a pious and poprdar minister of the Eeformed Presbyterian 
Church in the IsTorth of teland. Mr. Agnew had been long 
a resident in the city of l^ew Tork, engaged in mercantile 
business, and by diligence, punctuality, and prudence, had 
become both highly respectable and opulent. He was a 
gentleman of sound judgment, of the most stern and uncom- 
promising integrity, of undoubted piety, and a rigid adherent 
to the principles of the Keformed Presbyterian Church. 
He was particularly attentive to the religious education of 
his children ; and Anne, a yoimg lady of handsome person, 
agreeable manners, elegant accomplishments, and strong and 
vigorous intellect, attracted the attention, and won the love 
of the subject of this memoir. They were married. They 
lived in great happiness and mutual love. Their matrimo- 
nial union was in due time blessed with a son, -whom they 
named after maternal, and paternal grandfathers, John JSTiel. 
This same son afterwards became his father's colleague, and 
is now his successor in the Chambers Street congreiration. 

Mr. McLeod's domestic cares did not relax, but rather 
invigorated, his literary and ministerial exertions. His house 


was the abode of clieerfuliiess, the home of religion, the 
school of intelligence, and the seat of hospitality. His 
beneyolence^was of the most di^usive character ; his benefi- 
cence, practical and destitute of ostentatious parade. In 
his charitable contributions, he was particularly careful, that 
his left hand should never kaow the operations of the right. 

Meanwhile, though the ministers were few in number, it 
was deemed expedient that as an Ecclesiastical Judicatory, 
exercising authority in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ, 
" they should bind up the testimony and seal the law among 
the disciples." After much deliberation, Presbytery resolved 
to exhibit to the world their views of the great scriptural 
doctrines of the Reformation in the most simple form. They 
were convinced that the unity of the church required unity 
in her doctrinal standards. 

The admission of anything local, or peculiar to any one 
part of the world, would necessarily interfere with the unity 
of the church ; absti-act principle is unafi'ected with 
geogi'aphical localities. The application, however, of the 
same abstract system of principles, must be modified by 
peculiarity of circumstances. This application should be 
plain, pointed, and argumentative, adapted to convince, to 
persuade, and to confirm. The Court anticipated a period, 
when, as the Lord is one, so His name, doctrine and wor- 
ship, should be one over the whole earth. 

With these views the Presbytery appointed Mr. McLeod, 
to prepare a draught of such a system. The task was one 
of no inconsiderable difficulty. It was executed with all 
convenient speed, and great accuracy. In it, doctrines are 
stated with the Scripture authorities from which they are 
deduced, and the opposing errors are expressed and con- 



The dratiglit thus prepared by Mr. McLcod was by 
Presbytery carefully considered, and some amendments 
proposed and adopted. After prayer by a memljcr, the 
moderator put tlie question : "Approve or disapprove of the 
draught, as now amended ?" The members answered unani- 
mously, "Approve." 

The Court did therefore approve and ratify this testimony, 
as the testimony of the Eeformed Presbyterian Church in 
the United States of JSTorth America. Done at E'ew York, 
15th May, 1806. 

Prefixed to the Act and Testimony is a compendious history 
of God's covenant society, or church, from the beginning 
of the world until the advent of Messiah. Thence tiU the 
exhibition of Peformation principles by the Eeformed Prehy- 
terian Church in these United States. The particular 
history of our own section of the Christian church, from the 
time of the second Keformation in Britain, between 1638 
and '49, till the exhibition of the Testimony in 1806, in 

The importance of the whole plan will be best mani- 
fested by furnishing an extract from the preface to the 
historical dociunent. " Tlie plan upon which the Eeformed 
Presbytery propose to exhibit their principles to the world, 
embraces three parts. 

" The first is historical ; the second, declaratory ; and the 
third, argumentative. The historical part exhibits the 
church as a visible society, in covenant with God, in the dif- 
ferent periods of time; and points out precisely the situation 
which they themselves occupy as a distinct part of the 
catholic body. The declaratory part exhibits the truths 
which they embrace, as a church, and the errors v.ducli they 
condemn. The argumentative part consists of a full investi- 


gation of the yarioiis ecclesiactical systems which are known 
in the United States. 

"The declaratory partis the church's standing Testimony. 
It contains principles capable of universal application. To 
these principles, founded upon the Scriptures, simply 
stated, and invariably the same in all parts of the world, 
every adult church member is to give an unequivocal 

" The historical part is a help to the understanding of the 
principles of the Testimony. It is partly founded on human 
records, and therefore not an article of faith ; but it should 
be carefully perused, as an illustration of divine truth, and 
instrixctive to the church ; it is a helper to the faith. 

" The argumentative part is the particular application of 
the principles of the Testimony. It sjDecifies the people 
who maintain errors, and exposes the errors which they 
maintain. The confidence which persons may place in this 
part of the system, will partly rest om- human testimony. 
It is not, therefore, recommended as an article of faith, but 
as a means of instruction in opposing error, and gaining 
over others to the knowledge of the truth." 

Here-it is expressly stated, that the declaratory part alon& 
constitutes the creed, unto which unequivocal assent is to be 
given. This is a very important consideration. It covers 
much more ground than many suppose. It is a most judi- 
cious declaration. 



The Episcopal Controversy. 

In tile meantime Mr. McLeod was indefatigable in his 
literary and ministerial labors. He preached three times 
every Sabbath. On the erenings hia discussions were 
eminently argumentatiye, the topics interesting, and the 
investigations profoimd. They commanded crowded audi- 
ences, and were attended by many of the clergy, and other 
literary characters of ISew York city, who were pleased and 
edified by the profound research and accurate discrimina- 
tion displayed by the preacher. In metaphysical acumen 
and just definition, he had no superior. When we add to the 
preparations necessary for such exhibitions of divine truth, 
the parochial duties of an extensive congregation, scattered 
over the whole city, his social intercourse with clerical 
brethren, the numerous visits given and received, we are 
forced to wonder how he found time for any literary pro- 
ductions. But he had previously studied carefully, and well 
digested, the standard authors. He had perused them with 
a precision that made them completely his own. Locke, 
Eeed, Stewart and Edwards, with others of the best intellec- 
tual and moral writers, were his most intimate acquaintances. 
Indeed, nothing short of an originally powerful mind, drilled 


by rigorous discipline, and enriclied by tbe various stores of 
general literature, could have produced tbe eiTusions of liis 
pen, at that time. Collaterally with the ministerial labors 
just mentioned, he composed his Eode^iastical Catechism. 
At that period, the Episcopal controversy ran high in JSTew 
York. Early in the summer of 180i, the Kev. John Henry 
Hobert — afterwards Dr. and Bishop — an assistant minister of 
Trinity Church in the city of New York, published a book 
entitled : 

" A Companion to the Altar : consisting of a short Explica- 
tion of the LorcPs Supper ; and Meditations and Prayers., 
propter to Ite used lefore, and during the receiving of the Holy 
Communion, according to the Form prescribed in Protestant 
Episcopal Church in the United States of America^ 

This volume, and another from the same gentleman, the 
same year, had excited some surprise, not only among 
Presbyterians, but also among discreet Episcopalians. 
Claims for Episcopacy were therein advanced, which it was 
believed would be extremely difficult, if not impossible, to 

Mr. McLeod, who was not an inattentive observer of the 
events transpiring around him, both in the civil and religious 
community, proceeded immediately to compile a catechism 
in reference to that controversy. It was composed for the 
immediate benefit of his own congregation, and afterwards 
published at the urgent solicitation of his fiiends. He was 
anxious to see some plan of instruction in the hands of the 
youthful part of his charge, which should embrace a view of 
the church as a visible society. He adopted the form of 
question and answer, recommended by experience as the 
best for instructing the young disciple. In the fifth page of 
the Preface he remarks : " Although there are many excel- 


lent summaries of CA'angelical doctrine, reduced to this fonn., 
and adapted to every capacity, there is none which ilhis- 
trates the order and government of the chnrch. 

" The author of the Catechism felt this deficiency, and has 
endeavored to snpply it. He has for two years been making 
the experiment of the efficacy of this summary npon the 
younger part of his own congregation, and the eifect has 
been extremely pleasing. He hopes that it will be lasting. 
That sincere piety and Presbyterianisni will grow with their 
growth, and strengthen with their strength." 

The whole of this perforraance, text and notes, is a 
masterly exhibition of ecclesiastical order and Presbyterian 
regimen. It evinces a thorough acquaintance witli the 
subject, and presents a fabric of truth, on which the 
artillery of Episcopacy, directed even by the skill of the 
learned Dr. Hobart, could make no impression. TTae shot 
rebounded from the bulwark of truth- upon the head of the 
assailant. " Great is the truth." This little manual exposed 
more effectually and more palpably^ than anything which 
had gone before it, the unfounded, the arrogant, and 
exclusive claims of American Episcopacy. In a funeral 
sermon entitled — " A Tribute of Eespect to the Memory of 
Alexander McLeod, D.D., by Stephen N. Eowan, D.D.," 
belonging to the General Assembly of the Presbyterian 
church, the learned and eloquent author, in page 20, speak- 
ing of this Catechism and the state of the Episcopal con- 
troversy at that time, 180C, in the State of JN'ew York, says : 
"Li that (the Catechism), he gave his people and the 
world correct views of church order and government. He 
taught that the laying on of the hands of the Presb^-tery is 
as valid ordination, as that of a Bench of Bishops. That 
the Pre^^byter is the true elder of the church of God exer- 


cising the office in the two departments of teaching, and 
ruling. That the episcopacy is, in fact, only one duty of 
the ministerial office, and common to all who sustain it. 
It is the oversight and pastoral care of the flock committed 
to their charge, in imitation of Him who, in the character 
of Mediator, is styled the Shepheed and Bishop of souls. 

"The controversy on this subject, in which Drs. McLeod, 
Mason, and Miller were champions on the one side, has done 
substantial good to the American churches, as it has brought 
the Episcopal brethren to respect, as their equals, the Bishops 
of the Presbytery ; and especially as it has done more than 
any other thing to prevent that desired union between 
Church and State, which is most nnjustly and iniquitously 
charged upon the Presbyterians. The harness, in this 
matter, is now placed on the right animal." 

The same writer continues to add : — " The Ecclesiastical 
Catechism, containing these scriptural sentiments, received 
flattering notices from the reviewers, Dr. Mason of the 
Christian Magazine, and Dr. Thompson of the Edinburgh 
Christian Instructor." 

On the first appearance of the Catechism, Dr. Mason, 
editor of the Christian Magazine, Art. II., vol. 1, says : — 
" Manuals of elementary instruction, in the form of question 
and answer, from their long and approved utility, have 
obtained a kind of prescriptive right to regard. But while 
the press has teemed with catechisms on religious doctrines, 
information concerning the constitution and order of Christ's 
Kingdom on earth has been left, for the most part, to those 
volumes of ponderous literature, which are accessible to 
few, and utterly useless to the generality of readers. The 
efi'ects of this negligence are but too apparent. "We are, 
therefore, glad to draw the public attention to this matter, 


and to bring a Tiew of the Christian church within the reach 
of juvenile understanding, and the poor man's purse. It is 
ohvious, from the number of subjects," continues the 
reviewer, " compared with the size of the book, that 
nothing more is intended by the Catechism than an outline 
of truth and argument. Diverse and valuable matter, how- 
ever, is to be found under every one of the heads enumer- 
ated, viz. : Tli6 Christian Church, — Church Fellowship — ■ 
Church Government — Church Offices — Church Courts — Reli- 
gious Worshijp — Chu/rch Discipline. To which are added, 
explanatory notes. 

" We know well the rank which the author holds, and ought 
to hold, in the scale of both sense and talent. We can 
cheerfully recommend this work to the serious reader ; and 
sincerely wish that its acceptance with the public may 
encourage and enable him to emit, in a short time, a new 
and improved edition." 

Dr. Thompson, editor of the Christian Instructor, for 
March, 1821, thus expresses his cordial approbation of this 
catechetical synopsis : — ■ 

" So useful has the catechetical mode of conveying 
instruction appeared, that it has been applied to almost 
every subject within the compass of human knowledge. 
And why should not a staunch Presbyterian of the old' 
school, come forward with his Ecclesiastioal Catechism 
also, and claim to be heard on the particular merits of Pres- 
byterianism, and its claims to be received as of divine 
authority ? 

"The contents of this small but valuable work are— 
Questions relati/ve to the Christian Church — Church Fellow- 
shAfp — Chu/rch Oovernment — Church Officers — Church Cowts 
— Religious Worship — and Chu/rch Discipline. The proofs are 


quoted at length, and appear in general to be well selected 
and applied. The notes appended to the work are extremely 
Taluable. They contain much full illustration of the different 
subjects treated of ia the body of the Catechism ; and throw 
no small light on the history of the church, and on the 
various passages of the word of God, which treat of spi- 
ritual government or of law. Did our limits admit, we 
could with pleasure quote the able and satisfactory remarks 
on the terms Church, Presbytery, Jewish Synagogues, lonpo- 
position of Sands, Deacons, Baptism, &c. &c. We beg 
leave to recommend this tract very strongly, to all those 
who wish to be established in the faith and profession of 
their fathers, and not to be moved about with every wind 
of doctrine." 

This invaluable little work has already gone through ten 
editions, in Europe and America, and may be fairly consi- 
dered as the best compendious view of the substance and 
marrow of Presbyterianism. The Albany Miscellanies, and 
Reviews in the Christian Magazine — these last chieily from 
the same pen with the Catechism^ — ^were little more than 
legitimate developments of the nuclei which it contained. 

This ecclesiastical compend has been introduced with 
evident profit into many of the sabbath schools of the 
Reformed Presbyterian Church. It is eminently serviceable 
for imbuing the young mind with a distinct and accurate 
knowledge of the nature of the Christian chm-ch, her officers 
and order. And the fact, that it has already gone through 
so many editions, testifies in what Hght it is regarded by the 
religious public. "Were it more extensively introduced 
among Presbyterians generally, it could scarcely fail to 
operate as a successful antidote against the unfounded claims 
of the Episcopal Hierarchy. 


The concurrence and approbation of tlieir sister clivirclies 
in the British Isles having been cordially obtained, and a 
plan of correspondence calculated to subserve and cherish 
that intimacy which ought both to exist and be cultivated 
among churches ackno^dedging the same standards of doc- 
trine, having been established, the r^eformed Presbyterian 
Church began to pnt on a more settled and organized appear- 
ance. The various committees which Presbytery had 
appointed, exercised jurisdiction over, and attended to such 
cases of discipline as occun-ed within their respective 
bounds. But they still felt greatly the want of ministerial 
assistance, arising from the paucity of official laborers in the 
vineyard, and the widely scattered state of their religious 
connections. Their European brethren were unable to 
afford them any relief. The Lord of the harvest, however, 
did not forget us. He put it into the hearts of several devout 
young men, to enter on such a course of studies as might be 
considered necessary to qualify them for entering a Theolo- 
gical Seminary. Among these were Mr. Williams, already 
naentioned ; and next after him, Mr. John Eielly, a young 
man of sterling moral worth, and unfeigned piety. He was 
a most industrious student, and by his great assiduity and 
unremitting application, nearly eight years after liis arrival 
in this country, in 1707, was prepared to be licensed to 
preach the everlasting gospel. He supplied the vacancies 
within the bounds of the Northern and Middle Committees, 
with acceptance among the people, and was afterwards sent 
to South Carolina, where he was finally settled on a unani- 
mous call presented by a vacant congi-egation there. E"est 
after Mr. Eielly, Mr. James Wilson, a native of the Forks- 
of-Tough, Alleghany County, and graduate of Canonsburg 
CoUege, was put on trials, and various preparatory pieces 


assigned liim. It may be proper here to remark, that Messrs. 
McLeod and Wylie had been some time before appointed 
a standing committee, to take cognizance of, and exercise 
jurisdiction in any de novo case, pro re nata business, or any 
other emergent occurrences, to whicli, from their proximity 
— being only about one himdred miles apart — they might 
■without great difficulty attend. Their' transactions, of course, 
were to be always rejiorted to the next regular meeting of 
Presbytery. Before this committee Mr. James Wilson was 
called to deliver his last pieces of trial for licensure. These 
were duly delivered and sustained ; and the candidate 
accordingly authorized to preach the everlasting gospel. 
Mr. Wilson had attended some time to the study of theology, 
under the inspection of the Eev. Mr. McLeod ; and living 
in the family, had an excellent opportimity of acquiring 
theological knowledge. This opportunity, Mr. Wilson, whose 
talents were of a high order, and whose industry was inde- 
fatigable, did not fail to improve. Mr. Wilson was sent, 
forthwith, to assist in supplying our numerous vacancies. 
Still, however, the demand for laborers in the vineyard was 
much more extensive than could be supplied by the com- 
mittees, who, though committees in name, were all exercis- 
ing full Presbyterial power, doing everything that Presby- 
teries are in the habit of doing. At the annual meetings 
of Presbytery, they reported to it, as the Presbyteries now 
do to Synod. 

The prospects of the church began now to brighten by 
fresh accessions of strength. Young men of talent, and 
piety, and liberally educated, presented themselves, and after 
due trials and examination, were licensed ; and having 
itinerated some time thi-ough the vacancies, were successively 
called, ordained, and settled in our congregations. Mr. 


Gilbert McMaster, who had. been educated at Canonsbiirg 
College, wiis LLcenaed by Presbytery, at a meeting in Couoco- 
cheague, Oct. 7, 1807, at which meeting Mr. Matthew Wil- 
liams, who had been ordained and installed at Pine Creek, 
Alleghany County, was introduced to the Court, and admit- 
ted to a seat accordingly. 

At this meeting, various matters of deep interest came 
under the deliberation of Court. The Presbytery had, here- 
tofore, since the publication of the testimony, no opportunity 
of considering the terms of ecclesiastical communion, usually 
read in congregations, before delivering tokens of admission 
to the Lord's table. They appointed a committee, consisting 
of Messrs. McLeod and Wylie, to revise said terms and 
report thereon. 

On deliberation, the committee reported, as follows : 
" That however desirable it is, to read out in congregations, 
immediately before the distributions of tokens of admission 
to the Lord's table, a summaiy of the articles of faith upon 
which they join in church fellowship, these cannot be 
reduced into a permanent definite form, until the whole 
system of ecclesiastical order shall have been completed. 
It is nevertheless requisite that church members should be 
referred to the faithful efforts of their predecessors in the 
Keformation, and kept in remembrance of their unity with 
the Presbyterian Church in Europe," they therefore recom- 
mended, in the meantime, an abstract. 

[See, for these documents, the published standards of 
the church.J 

The most important transaction during the session of this 
meeting, was the report of a committee appointed to inquire 
whether it be expedient, in existing circumstances, for this 
church to make exertion for the creation of a Theological 


Seminary, for the education of youtli for the holy ministry ; 
and if expedient, to report to the Court, an outline of a plan 
for a cause of theological instruction. The committee 

That in their opinion, an attempt should be made to 
establish such an institution. The following plan for its 
government and regulation, was afterwards drawn up and 
presented by Mv. McLeod, and adopted and sanctioned by 
the Court. 


"of tide theological SEMmAET OF THE EEFOEMED PEESBT- 

"The Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, are 
giyen to miserable man, as the lively oracles of God, which 
are able to make wise unto salvation, through faith, which 
is in Christ Jesus ; and it is the institution of Heaven, that 
the living preacher should accompany the word of inspira- 
tion, in order to explain and apply its doctrines to the salva- 
tion of souls. It is, accordingly, of the gi-eatest importance 
to the church of God, that fallen men be regularly and 
extensively supplied with a legitimate gospel ministry. 

"The Head, Christ, in providing for his body, the Church, 
< Pastors and Teachers,' employs the ordinary advantages of 
a good education, as well as good natural endowments, and 
the gifts of grace. He will not, it is true, be at any time 
destitute of suitable instruments for the execution of His 
purpose of love ; for when the ordinary course of Provi- 
dence appears to fail in furnishing qualified men for the 
■work of the ministry, he confers by miracle the necessary 


ability upon liis chosen servants. In the faith of his 
po-\vei-, it is the duty of every church to use exertions for 
procuring faithful men, Avho shall be able to teach others; 
and as it d(5es not fall within the province of human labor, 
to communicate supernatural gifts, it becomes necessary to 
provide a good system of Theological instruction, for those 
who have it in view to preach the gospel of God. To 
withhold such exertions would be grossly criminal ; and to 
expect withoiit them, a succession of well qualified public 
laborers, would certainly be presumptuous. Tor the neces- 
sary gifts which are beyond our power, let us pray and 
hope, but for attaining whatever lies within the reach of 
ordinary agency, let the church spare no exertions. This is 
the dictate both of reason and religion. 

" Piety is the first qualification for ministering in holy 
things. JSTo man can be lawfully admitted to membership 
in the Christian Chui-ch, much less to office in it, while 
evidently void of practical godliness. 

" Good sense is the second qualification for the ministry. 
A teacher without talents to give instruction, would be an 
injury to any society ; and an officer without discretion in 
the exercise of his authority, would be no better. To call to 
the ministry a man of no talents, is an incongruity not to 
be charged to the Head of the church. 

" A good Theological education is the third pre-requisite 
for a candidate for the office of the gospel ministry. Edu- 
cation can never be sustained as a substitute for seoise or 
fiety. Xay, learning and talents unsanctified, are a cui-se. 
Eut the very injury which the church has sustained, and 
still suffers, from abused literature, is a powerful argument 
for employing the be?t erudition in support of truth. The 
weapon which is so detrimental in the hand of an adversary 


must be rahiable wlien wielded by a friend of Zion. It is 
not mere learning that is recommended; it is Christian 
erudition. This is always desirable to the youth of piety 
and sense ; and it is absolutely indispensable to an able 
minister of the ISTew Testament. Miracles have ceased, 
and instruction must be sought for in the use of suitable 

"It behoves the sacred teacher to be acquainted with those 
languages in which Divine Kevelation is written. An 
ambassador ought to be able to read the text in which 
his instructions are delivered. An able minister must be, of 
course, a good linguist. 

" The nature and character of mankind ought also to be 
understood by him who is appointed to instruct and per- 
suade, to direct, and to reduce sinners to the discipline of 
righteousness. He should therefore, be acquainted with 
the philosophy of the human mind, and the kindred 
sciences. The pastor should be a metaphysician. 

"Error, in order to be refuted, and truth, in order to 
be taught and applied, must be understood. The correct 
exposition of a great part of the Bible, however, depends on 
a knowledge of ancient usages, and of events which have 
long since come to pass. The able expositor of Scripture 
must, therefore, be versed in history, both civil and ecclesi- 

"A preacher of the gospel must not be a novice, but shoxild 
study to show himself an approved workman, that needeth 
not to be ashamed. The Christian minister should be 
accordingly acquainted with the state of science, and the 
other literary attainments of the age in which he 

" The long experience of the churches proves, if proof were 


necessaiy, that siicli a ministrj cannot be attained without 
a reguhir system of instruction in Tlieology. 

" In order, therefore, to provide a succession of able men 
for the gospel ministry, through the medium of such a 
system of Theological instruction as may, with the blessing 
of Heaven, cultivate and improve the minds of pious and 
sensible youth, the Supreme Judicatory of the Reformed 
Presbyterian Church in America, has established a Theolog- 
ical Seminary, with a Constitution," which will be found 
elsewhere ; it is therefore unnecessary to insert it here. 

The duties specified and prescribed in the Constitution, 
contemplated a full and comjslete organization in an 
advanced state of the church. At least five professors 
would be required to do justice to all the topics of instruc- 
tion. One could do little more than give the students 
directions, and attend to an outline of their execution ; and 
without digging out and manufacturing the ore for their 
use, point them to the mines where it was contained of the 
best quality, and in the greatest abundance. This document 
dropped from the pen of Mr. McLeod ; and considering the 
time, the circumstances, and the want of models of other 
institutions of the kind, it is certainly very creditable to 
its author. 

The Court, at this meeting, appointed the Eev. Samuel 
B. Wylie Professor of Theology. Previously to this meet- 
ing, Presbytery had decreed the creation of a fund to meet 
contingent exigencies. Of this fund Mr. McLeod had 
been appointed the treasurer. The already existing fund, 
together with that to be raised for the support of the Semi- 
nary, was, by Presbytery, amalgamated, and Mr. McLeod 
was continued the treasurer. Messrs. Gibson, Black and 
McLeod were appointed Superintendents of the Seminary 

THE CHURCH recEEAsmo. 89 

and ordered to meet in Pliiladelpliia, on the third Tnesday 
in May, 1809, in order to organize the Institution, and put 
it into immediate operation. 

Meanwhile, the R. P. Church was " lengthening lier cords, 
and strengthening her stakes, and stretching forth the 
curtains of her habitation." Messrs. James Wilson and 
Gilbert McMaster, formerly mentioned, were, agreeably to 
appointment, itinerating through the vacancies with much 

Mr. McMaster n^canwhile, was preaching with great 
acceptance to our JSTorthern vacancies. Several of these 
were anxious for his settlement among them. Preparatory 
for such a residt, Mr. McLeod paid a visit to Wallkiil, in 
the latter end of May, 1809, concerning which he fvrites as 
follows : — 

New Youk, June ISffl, 1803. 

"Mt Deau Sie:— 

" Last night I returned from Wallkiil. There 
I spent two Sabbaths, and moderated a call. It is a unani- 
mous call for Mr. McMaster. 

" They support it with the offer of a stipend of $400 per 
annum, and a handsome parsonage of 20 acres in line 

"This is, in my estimation, a respectable offer. The 
prospect, in case of a settlement, is certainly good. They 
would unquestionably increase. Tidings from the JSTorth 
annoimce that % call, equally unanimous, will be heard from 
Cm-rysbush (Duanesburgh) also, for Mr. McMaster. I hope 
he will accept one of them. Farewell ! 

" Alex. MoLeod." 

Shortly after the date of this letter, the call on Mr. 



McMaster, as was expected by Mr. McLeod, was made out 
unanimously by the United congregations of Duanesburgh 
and Galway. This call was accepted by that gentleman; 
and on the 9th of August, 1808, he was solemnly ordained 
and installed as the Pastor of that people. Mr. McLeod 
preached the ordination sermon. His text was Jer. iii. 16. 

" Itoill give you pastors according to my heart, which shall 
feed you loith Jcnoivledge and understanding." 

The discourse was, at the request of the hearers, published. 
It is entitled : — 

" The Constitution, Character, and Duties of the Gospel 
Ministry: a Sermon, jyreached at the oi'dination of the 
Bevereend Gilbert McMaster, hy Alexander McLeod, A.M., 
Aug. 9, 1808." New Yorh: Printed ly J. Seymov/r. pp. 
72. 8w. 

This is, indeed, an excellent discourse. The topics 
embraced in the discussion are natural and appropriate. The 
author was well acojiainted with the foundation, superstruc- 
ture, constituents, and symmetry of the gospel ministry. In 
compiling his Ecclesiastical Catechism, he had in a masterly 
manner investigated and digested this important subject. 
He has poured into this interesting sermon, a large portion 
of that valuable matter, prepared In the very best manner. 

The reader, it is presumed, will not object at meeting the 
following analysis of the plan of discussion, particulars of 
elucidation and argument. 

After an appropriate introduction, the author thus presents 
the matter and topics of discussion embraced in the subiect. 

God has pledged his veracity to provide a public ministry 
for the service of his church. " I will give you pastors." 
He has placed distinguishing marks on the ministry of which 
He approves — "Pastors according to my heart." The sum 


of ministerial duty is the edification of the Church. " Pastors 
which shall feed you with knowledge and understanding." 
Such is the plan of the discourse. 

I. God is engaged by covenant to provide a perpetual 
puhhc ministry for his church. 
This proposition he establishes by showing — ■ 

1. That God has instituted such a public stated ministry 
in the Christian church. 

2. That God has ordained that such a public ministry 
shall be continued in his chui'ch unto the end of the 

3. That God has covenanted with his church to support 
her congregations with a public ministry. " And I will 
give you pastors." 

n. God has set distinguishing marks upon the ministry of 
which he approves — " Pastors according to my heart." 
The distinguishing marks which God sets upon the ministry, 
are, a lawful call to the oiEce, and a life corresponding with 
the sacred functions. 

1. The pastor according to God's heart, has received a 
regular call to the ministry. The marks of this are, (1) 
Ordination. This constitutes the call of God to the ministry 
of reconciliation in the public church. "Without this, there 
can be no olficial authority. (2) This ordination to the holy 
ministry is to be performed by imposition of hands. This point 
the author proves, 1st. by the practice of the Reformation 
Churches. 2d. By numerous scripture references, such as 
1 Tim. V. 22 ; 1 Tim. iv. 14 ; Heb. vi. 2 ; compared with Heb. 
V. 11-14; Acts xiii. 2-3. (3) Thab ministers are ordained 
to office by the imposition of the hands of the Presbytery. 


Here the author makes some very appropriate remarlcs 
respecting tlie vagum miiusfciiuni, or vagve ministry, -with- 
OTit aiiv settled cliargo — ^wliile, in certain cases, lie admits 
its expediency. Tliat Presl > ytei'ian ordination constitutes the 
ordinary ministerial call, he proves. (1) From the miiiistry 
of the synagogue being imiformly constituted in this manner. 
This with some few exceptions was the model of Christian 
clunxlu -. consisting of Jewish and Gentile converts. (2) In 
tlie twelfth year from the erection of the Christian church, 
when the Gentiles were to be converted and entirely to be 
preserved from the corruption of Jewish ceremonies, lest it 
should be thought that ordination by laying on of hands was 
one of their abolished ceremonies, there was a very solemn 
trai'-^action at Autioch, in which a divhiely appointed model 
of it was exhibited in the mission wliich God employed for 
erecting the Gentile church. (3) Three years after this 
mission was compileted, Timothy received Presbyterian 
ordination, in one of those newly constituted Gentile 
churches. He was ordained, as Paul informs us, hj the laying 
on- of the hands of the Presbytery. (4) This mode of ordina- 
tion is proved and illustrated by the apostolical commission, 
Math, xxviii. 19-20. " Go ye into all the world &c." 

In these words the Head of the church confers ministerial 
power upon the Apostles, and it is perfectly evident. (1) 
To the ministry alone, office power is committed. (2) That 
this i.ower is transferable to the end of the world. (3) That 
ci-pial power is committed to all the Apostles. And (4) That 
the power is in the fullest sense, transferable. 

2. That the pastor according to God's own heart, has a life 
and coiLVcrsation, corresponding to the functions of his holy 
office. This appears, (1) because a ministry evidently 
impious, will meet with few advocates. (2) He must be 


diligent in his sacred office. lie feels tlie value of immortal 
sonls. (3) Tlie pastor A^■llo is near tlie lieart of God, is faith- 
ful to God and to his chui'ch. 

in. The sum of pastoral duty is the edification of the 
church. " He 'will feed them with wisdom and knowledge." 
He will watch for their soids, as one who must give :in 
acconnt. The dnties of the Gospel ministry are therefore 

1. To preach the gC'Spel of Christ to sinners. 

2. The pastor of whom God approves, is in duty Lonnd, 
from time to time, to examine the religions state of his 

3. To administer the sacraments of the ISTew Testament 
to the members of his church. 

i. To exercise authority o^-ei' his flock. 

The charge to pastor and people was remarkably impres- 
sive, and it is hoped, nay, believed, that it has not been 
forgotten by either. 

Through the whole of tins fine sermon, compared ^ith the 
first one he published, the reader will perceive an imprij\x- 
ment in the style ; a superior elegance of expression ; a more 
polished rotundity of period— all the natural of " a 
more liberal use of his pen." 

On the fifteenth of September following, the intelligence 
of the above transactions was communicated by Mr. McLcod 
in the following words i — ■ 

"Mr. McMaster is ordained and settled pastor, in the 
united congregations of Galway and DuaucsLurg, -^vith a 
salary of £250 per annum, and a house, and parsonage." 
Tlie piety, talents, dignity of character, zeal and industry of 
this gentleman were evidently blessed by his Heavenly Father, 


with speedy and abundant fruits. He soon became two 
bands. Each congregation of itself was shortly able to take 
the whole time and labors of a minister. 

Dr. McLeod— for about this time the degi-ee of Dr. of 
Divinity was conferred upon him by the College of Middle- 
bury, Vermont — in the meantime was laboring with remark- 
able diligence and assiduity, in his ministerial vocation. 
He still continued to officiate three times each sabbath. 
His preparation for the pulpit was most substantial and 
solid : but, as was observed before, it possessed much more 
of the mental, than the manual ; for he never wrote out or 
committed his discourses for the pulpit. He studied them 
thoroughly, and digested the matter into analytical skeletons. 
Every topic of discussion, in all its bearings, and in all its 
authorities, was made quite familiar to him by study and 
reflection. He was a theological metaphysician, and his 
analysis of the human mind, making him better acquainted 
with the springs of action in the sinner's heart, rendered his 
sermonizing more searching and experimental. He ferreted 
corruptions through the sinuosities of inward depravity, and 
often dislodged them from their lurking-places. On sabbath 
evenings, particularly, he had always crowded audiences. 
The intellectual were pleased with his reasonings, and the 
godly, with his practical, and heart-searching applica- 
tion of evangelical truth. He was a champion of Ortho- 
doxy, one of those noble spirits, who, in the beginning of 
the eighteenth century, adorned the city of New York. 
They were an honor to their country. 

The Christian Magazine, a periodical edited by Dr. Mason, 
" a man of a bushel of brains," received very large contribu- 
tions from Dr. McLeod's literary labors. The essays on the 
atonement, which appeared in that publication, are all from 


his pen. They present that vitally important doctrine of 
our holy religion, in a rational and scriptural light. In those 
essays, he has shown, most satisfactorily, how God could be 
just, and yet justify the ungodly, through faith in Christ 
Jesus. They are six in number. In the rrusT, the Doctor 
ascertains and settles the proper meaning of the word. This 
he does by a critical examination of the generic, as well as 
the specific applications of the Hebrew word '133 to cover, 
and the Greek KaraXXayrj, chamge from enmity to friendship, 
reconciliation y and IXaarrjpiov, the propitiatory, or mercy seat, 
all pointing to the same thing — satisfaction, reconciliation, or 
redemption. In tlie second, the author proceeds to show, 
that the Lord Jesus Christ made such an atonement for our 
sins, one that satisfied Justice, and made reconciliation for 
iniquity, and obtained eternal redemption for us. He 
establishes this by proving, (1) That the Lord Jesus hare om- 
sin, 1 Teter, il. 24. (2) He suffered punishment in our 
stead, 1 Peter, iii. 18. (3) He offered a sacrifice in our 
behalf to procure reconciliation for us. (4) This satis- 
faction is acknowledged in Heaven to be complete, Eph. 
iv. 32. (5) Eeconciliation is established on the footing of 
this satisfaction, Kom. v. 10. 

In the THiED essay, he proceeds to show the necessity of 
it. (1) The scriptures represent the sufferings of the Lord 
Jesus Christ to have been necessary. Ought not Christ &c. ? 
(2) The salvation of a sinner without the full punishment of 
his sin is impossible. (3) The election of grace renders a 
vicarious satisfaction hypothetically necessary. 

In the FouETH, he inquires into the extent of it. About 
this there are four possible answers to as many possible 
questions, suggested by Dr. Owen, in his " Death of Death, 
in the death of Christ." 



1. Did the Ecdeemcr die for all the sins of cdl whom he 
proposed to save ? or, 

2. For some sins of all men? or, 

3. For oil the sins of all men ? or, 

4. For sins indefinitely, withont reference to the parti- 
cular sins of any individnal ? 

The first of these he proves from the imity of the Divine 
piirpo&es. (2) Its being co-extensive with election. (3) The 
covenant of grace confines it to the Elect. In the fifth 
essay he proceeds to a fourth proof — ^the uniform tenor of 
scriptnre assertion. He specifies a few texts. John x. 
15, 26, 28, 29. He then classifies • the texts under 
six difierent heads, and makes a very numerous and 
approju-iate collection. In the skdh, having estahlished the 
first point, that Christ atoned, for all the sins of all the elect, 
the second, viz. He atoned for some sins of all men, is 
easil}- set aside ; for then, all men have some sins to answer 
for, and so no man shall be saved. Ps. cxxx-3. " If the Lord 
shoidd mark iniquity, who shall stand ?" Ps. cxliii. 2. " JSTone 
shall be justified in his sight." Moreover, if the debt was 
infinite, partial liquidations could make no diminution. 
Such a debt cannot be extinguished by installments. It 
must be paid in lumjj ; because finite deductions from 
infinite quantities will leave an infinite remainder. In lite 
manner, the third position, that he died for all the sins of 
all men. Why then are not all saved ? will it be said, " it is 
because of their unbelief" But their unbelief is either a 
sin, or it is not. If not, why are they punished for it ? If 

it is a sin, then, if Christ atoncil for all their sins, as by the 

supposition he did, he atoned for this among the rest. If 
not, then he did not die for cdl their sins. These <i-entlemen 
may make their choice in this dilemma. 


He tlien proceeds to the fourth position, viz. That the 
Lord Jestis Christ suffered for sins indefinitely, irrespective of 
any sins of any individnaL Tliis point has been considerabl}' 
mystified "by the vagueness of the phraseology employed by 
the leaders of the various classes of errorists vho have 
adopted it. It is common to Arminians, Hopldusians and 
Universalists. I^ay, was embraced by a sect of Presbyte- 
rians, in Scotland, in the last century, denominated I[aUitcs, 
"who have long since become extinct. On these, and other 
accounts, it merits particular attention. Here folio-ws a 
brief compend of the argimient. 

Classis argumcntorum, or class of argxunents employed in 
support of an indefinite atonement. 

I. It reconciles the exercise of grace, with the exercise oi 
justice, in the salvation of sinners. If, for example, the sins 
of A 1)6 atoned for, there is no grace in his pardon. But 
by indefinite atonement, the difficulty vauishes. Justice is 
threefold, commutative, divtriluthe sxiA^ntlJic. Commuta- 
tive has no concern in the case. PullAc Justice is satisfied 
by God's display of his displeasure at sin in general^ in 
Christ's sufferings. The exercise of distributi-^-e justice is 
set aside entirely, in grace. The sinner is pardoned at the 
expense of distributive justice. 


1. The divine attributes are, in God, one and indivisible. 
This division is incorrect. In all these modes of exercising 
Justice, the irrincvpla is the same. It is, and may be, 
exercised variously on various objects. The scriptures 
know nothing about these three distinct attributes of divine 


2. The use made of this division is objectionable. There 
can be no good reason assigned for discarding commutative 
justice from having a share in the siimer's pardon, more 
than distributive justice, as distinct from puhlic. Pardon 
of sin, certainly, comes as near the forgiveness of delt — 
commntativc in its nature — as the remission of a jyersonal 
offence, ranked vith the distributive, which has no reference 
to the divine authority. God, moreover, deals with men on 
the footing of a previously existing compact, but never on 
the footing of mere private relation, irrespective of his 
authority. He has commanded us to pray : " Forgive us 
our debts, as we forgive our debtors." But never to say, 
" Pardon our private offences, which are no transgressions 
of thy law. God cannot exercise distributive justice 
separate from public authority. God not only may, but of 
necessity must be just. 

3. This argument multiplies instead of solving difficulties. 
(1) It makes God unjust in dispensing with distributive 
justice — Avhich is absurd and impious. (2) Suffering for 
sin in general, or sin in the abstract, is suffering for a mere 
abstraction— a nonentity. Sin, in this point of view, is like 
a mere algebraic character, a?, y, or z. This word sin, repre- 
sents the transgressions of angels, as well as of men. Then 
the devils have as much interest in the atonement, as elect 
sinners ! (3) Upon this hypothesis Christ died in vain, for 
God's displeasure at sin will be sufficiently exhibited in heU 
to all eternity. 

4. It begs the question, or rather takes for granted 
what does not exist. That the satisfaction of justice in the 
pardon of the sinner, excludes the exercise of grace. This 
is iwt so. God, in grace, devised the plan — in grace he 
accepted the surety. 


n. Argument in defence of indefinite atonement. Tliis 
doctrine alone lays the foundation on wMch. an indefinite 
gospel offer can be made. The definite atonement would 
imply insincerity. 

Well, supposing this to be the case, at whose door does it 
lie? ISTot at the preacher's. He knows not whether the sin- 
ner will believe or not. He obeys his orders, does his duty. 
The insincerity then, if any there be, must lie to a higher 
account. But is the difficulty lessened by the adoption of 
the system of indefinitism ? So far from this, it compromits 
Predestination, Divine Omniscience and Truth. But after 
all, there is no difficulty in this point. "We are required to 
believe nothing but what is an absolute truth — that Christ 
died for sinners ; and are commanded to do nothing but 
what is their bounden duty, viz.. Believe on the Lord 
Jesus Christ ; and in so doing, it is graciously declared, 
they shall be saved. 

HI. This indefinitism reconciles the scripture account 
of the universality of the atonement with the fact that 
many shall perish for ever. The infinite value of the 
Eedeemer's blood, moreover, appears from its being equally 
sufficient for the salvation of all men. 

How strange to talk so much about the value of that 
blood, which by the hypothesis, secures salvation for none ! 
ISTor does it mend the matter to say, that the infinite value 
is in the abstract. It has no value at all, abstract from 
covenant stipulation. It must be the blood of the covenant, 
in order to have any value for the pui-pose of salVation. 
Pain, death, and blood, of themselves, have no value. Let 
it cease to be covenant blood, and its use and value must 
also cease. 


Tlie terms of nniver^alily are easily ex|)lained. No 
Christian admits tlaat c>-cit iiulividual on eartli i^^ regene- 
rated and gaved. Yet Christ dial for all. In Christ all 
shall be made aliro. These tm'iccrmls are co-extensive. 
They embrace every individnal in the neT\- creation, formed 
by the co\'euant of which the death of Chri,-t is the _ con- 

Having examined Ihcso premises, ho deduces from them 
the following conclusions. 

1. This system, clothing with a drapery of language 
imintelligilile, doctrines definiiely expressed, and clearly 
under--;nod by the E-eformation churches, is of injurious 

2. This use of the atonement is inconsistent with the 
scriptrj-;il meaning of reconciliation, it being ne\'er indefi- 
nitely applied in a single instance. 

3. It does violence to the English language. Atonement 
implies sati?rfaction, which is utterly incompatible with the 
idea of punishing an oifence for which satisfaction has been 
previously given. This would be the most flagrant injus- 
tice. An atonement which . does not render siibsequent 
punishment unjustifiable, is no atonement at all. 

Mr. "Wylie, who, on his return from Europe, had been 
settled for two years in the imited societies of Philadelphia 
and Baltimore, on the express stipulation that at the expi- 
ration of these, he might choose either, or relinquish both, 
without further Presbyterial interference, had chosen the 

The ^:ociety was small in numbers, and feeble in pecuniary 
resources. But though very far from being in affluent 
circumstances, they were zealous, spirited, and ardeirt in m pnn.ADELPiiLV. 101 

their attacliment to Eeformaticm principles. They consisted 
cliiefl}' of emigrants from Ireland, wlio having beun ha- 
rassed greatly ^rith the insurrectionary troubles which 
agitated that imliappy land in 1797 and '8, had exiled theni- 
selves from their native country. The prominent man 
among them was a ]\Ir. Thomas Thompson, from Saintfield, 
county Down, who had arrived in Philadelphia soiiie years 
before. This man and his wife Prifccilla, though in humble 
circumstances, were an honor to human nature. Thej' were 
of the prfcious "hidden ones" of the earth, and their 
memories are embalmed in the recollections of every 
Christian who had the pleasure of their acquaintance, or an 
opportunity of knowing their worth. In a small room of 
theirs, in their residence at the corner of South and Penn 
sti'eets, all the members of the Peformed Presliylerian 
Church in Philadelphia met, for years, without being 
crowded. Tliis was literally, "the church iu his house." 
This Ismail tribute of respect is paid to their memory by one 
who knew them well. 

This same Thomas Thompson and his wife, were the 
nucleus of the Peformed Presbyterian Church in Philadel- 
phia. Ill the circmnstances of this little society, it ^va3 not 
to be expected, that they could afford to their pastor an 
adequate support. lie iras obliged, therefore, to have 
recourse to teaching in the meantime for a subsistence. The 
lab'ors of a seminary, of com-se, so confined him, that he 
was not able to fm'nish his contingent of supplies to the 
numerous vacancies crying aloiid for gospel ordinances, ilr. 
Gibson's location in Eyegate, "\'ermont, at the J^orthern 
extremity of our connections, rendered it impracticable for 
Mm to furnish an.y help, except incidentally, when attending 
the annual meetings of the judicatories. Dr. McLeod, 


therefore, during several j-ears, until the number of licen- 
tiates increased, had been obliged to undergo the toil and 
the expense of furnishing almost all the supplies from the 
Alleghany Mountains, to the green hills of Yermont. The 
ordination of Eev. Gilbert McMaster, brought some relief. 

Dr. McLeod was during this period very successfully 
engaged in cultivating his corner of the vineyard. The dili- 
gent and faithful discharge of pastoral duties, and his dignity 
of character and intellectual worth, were daily adding to his 
respectability. He had no subsidiary aid in bringing him 
forward to notice and influence, arising out of an old, long- 
established congregation of high standing and affluence. He 
was bolstered up by no adventitious respectability of this 
stamp. All was of his own earning. He was strictly the 
architect of his own fortunes. 

The ministerial aid so long and so much wanted, seemed 
now to offer from various quarters, both foreign and domestic. 
Mr. Kell, a native of South Carolina, who, in 1801, had 
crossed the Atlantic, to finish in the University of Glasgow 
an education commenced in his native State, had now 
retm-ned from Scotland, as a student of Theology. InteUi- 
gence of his arrival was transmitted by Mr. Donelly to the 
ISTorthern brethren, with an intimation that he designed to 
attend the first meeting of Presbytery, which was to be held 
in May following. 



The Constitution of Synod. 

On the 24:th of Maj, 1809, all tlie ministers of the 
Eeformed Presbyterian Church in America being convened 
in Philadelphia, with ruling elders from the respective 
sessions, did unanimously agree to constitute themselves into 
a Synod ; -whereupon, the Eeverend William Gibson, the 
senior member, being called to the moderator's chair, for 
that purpose, did accordingly constitute the Court, by 
prayer, in the name and by the authority of the Lord Jesus 
Christ, the alone King and Head of the church. 

The Court then resolved, that this Ecclesiastical Judica- 
tory shall be known, in future, by the name of the Synod of 
the Reformed Presbyterian Church in America. All the 
acts of the Eeformed Presbytery, the previously existing 
Court, were then by Synod ratified and adopted ; and the 
three committees of Presbytery, were erected into Presby- 
terial Judicatories, under the inspection of Synod ; to be 
known by the name of the Northern^ the Middle., and the 
Southern Presbyteries respectively. The Eeverend Gilbert 
McMaster, was then chosen moderator, and Eeverend John 
Black, Synod's stated clerk. 

It may not be improper here to observe that to some it 

I'-'i :mi:moii: of alexandek mcleod, d.d. 

ma}' seem strange, that a narrative purporting to Le a 
Mtrniiii' of the Late hameuted Doctor McLeod, should be so 
often retarded, interrupted, and even loaded -n-ith the 
Ecele-i;h-liia] concerns of the Ecfornied Presbyterian 
Church in ISTorth America. If tlie writer of this memoir 
or biographical irketch had believed that such a commin- 
glcment of d'escriptiom,Tould distort the features, or mar the 
moral proportions of the portrait of a most valued friend ; or 
had he thought it possible to furnish a just delineation of 
Dr. lIcLcf^d's character -^vithout this amalgamation of inci- 
dent?, most assuredly they never Tvould have been blended 
ti g'cthor. r.ut knowing, as the writer does, that for more 
than thirty years, the heart, the soul, the activities, the sighs, 
and the prayers of that champion for truth, were all put in 
rerj:uisition, and unppariiigly employed in promoting the honor 
of his [Master and the interests of Zion, he found the biography 
of tlie one, and the leading featiires of the hi tory of tlw 
other to be inseparable. [Neither is it believed that this 
intimacy <)f connection between Dr. McLcod's history and 
that of our section of Zion, detracts aiiytliing from, but 
rather adds to, the lustre of his moral worth. Indeed, in 
his ca-c, the remark put into the mouth of his hero, by the 
prince of Eoman poets, 

Et quorum magna pars fui — 

may be justly applied to our departed frieml. 

Dr. McLeod enjoyed the confidence of his brethren in the 
mini^try in a very high degree. His integrity, his piety, 
his honor and de^'otion to the i^jtcre^jts of the church were 
never dijuljfcd. All our religious connection, whether at 
home I r abroad, reposed equal confidence in him. His 
demeanor was dignified; yet alwaj^s blended with suavity 


of manner, and a most winning condescension to tliose in 
the Immblest condition in life. He conld be familiar witli 
those of low estate without compromising that elevation of 
character for which he was nniformly distinguished. His 
passions were naturally strong and impetuous, but they were 
so chastened and trained by a coxirse of moral discipline, 
that they promptly obeyed the requisitions of Christian 
moderation. The writer, in his own house in Philadelphia, 
had once a painful opportunity of witnessing the Doctor's 
self-gorernment and control over his strong and vehement 
feelings, on a very trying occasion. 

During the transaction of some important Ecclesiastical 
business, after the close of the Synod above mentioned, a 
letter forwarded from home was put into his hands. He 
knew, from the seal, that the intelligence was of an unpleas- 
ant character. He, nevertheless, put it into his pocket, till 
at a convenient moment he could step aside and examine 
its contents. Having done so, he returned to his place, and 
attended to the business before the Court as if nothing had 
happened. ISTo person who was not intimately accpiainted 
with his character, could have observed any difference in 
his looks. His intimate friends could notice a more than 
ordinary solemnity on his countenance. But his manner 
and pertinency of remark could not have suggested the 
least suspicion of any unpleasant occurrence. 

When the meeting was over, the Doctor was eyed rather 
inquiringly by his anxious friends. He knew the meaning 
of their looks. He communicated to them the intelligence 
he had received. 

A letter from Portugal had reached jSTew i'ork, which 
contained the distressing intelligence of the death of his 
brother Donald. Donald McLeod was a handsome youth, 


of lofty mien and noble bearing. He was of middle size, 
fine, intelligent countenance, higli sjjirits and generous heart. 
The writer knew him personally. He had emigrated from 
his native isle for the United States, and had resided some 
time in Is"ew York. He way the darling of his brother, the 
Doctor. They had been playmates. He was younger 
than the Doctor. This circumstance had endeared him as a 
protege. He fell in .the Peninsula, fighting the French, 
under General Moore ! He fell on the field of battle, with- 
out a friend to close his eyes. Yet, the Doctor is calm — 
resigned to the dispensation of Heaven. " It is the will of 
God," is his only reply to his sympathizing friends. 

After his return to ISfew York, he addressed the following 
lines to his friend in Philadelphia i — ■ 

'• My Yekt Deae Brothee : — 

I am at last compelled to resume my 
correspondence. Since I left Philadeljjhia I have dozed 
away my time in melancholy inactivity. Business sup- 
ported my spirits, and company produced a constrained 
cheerfulness, while I remained with you ; but, indeed, I was 
very unfit for business during the latter part of my stay with 
you. However just, my friend, we acknowledge God's 
jirovidence to be ; yea, however kind and merciful, yet we 
cannot help feeling pain, and regretting, if not repining at 
events. To me, the loss of Donald was not only the death 
of a brother, but the loss of the only one of a numerous 
family whom I really knew. The rest are to me as if I had 
not known them. "With him I was intimately acquainted, 
and he was himself ardently affectionate. He fell in the 
midst of strangers, in the prime of life, and in a bad cause. 


His cTeatli continues to affect me. When I ana alone I am 
in low spirits. I also indulge solitude." 

But, like the apostle, no occurrence, no domestic afflic- 
tion, could abstract his attention long from the concerns of 
the Church of God, and the promotion of her interests. 
This is evinced in a subsequent part of the same letter, in 
■which the Doctor goes on to say : " I begin to be uneasy 
for a letter from Mr. Black. Anxiety for the result of Mr. 
Kell's trials, it is natural I should feel : and as the minutes 
of the last meeting have not been sent on for publication, I 
am afraid the public will be again disappointed in printed 
Causes of Fasting. These are, I understand, to appear as an 
appendix to the minutes. Pray inform me, in the meantime, 
of the result of Mr. Kell's trials. I pledge myself to have 
the Scottish letter, and the supplementary address to the 
Constitution of the Theological Seminary, prepared for your 
inspection. ISTo time should now be lost. We should exert 
om-selves during the present prosperous state of the country. 
I haA^e procured for you the Indian Bible. Write me on 
receipt, &c. 

"Alex. McLeod." 

In conversation. Dr. McLeod was modest and unobtrusive. 
He always allowed to others their just share. He was not 
afraid lest nothing should be left to him, on which to display 
his talents. He generally allowed all who felt disposed to 
satisfy themselves. ISTever concerned, lest by delay he 
should lose the opportunity, with the most perfect ease, and 
smiling placidity of countenance, he would then, without 
repeating anything already said, proceed with interesting 
and original observations, as if none had spoken before him. 
Whenever he spoke, all listened. His exhaustless fund of 


good sense, his extensive acquaintance with ahiiost every 
topic occurring in conversation, and the modesty inseparable 
from superior minds, commanded unsolicited attention. In 
his social intercourse and convivial moments, he was equally 
removed from cynical severity and finical affectation on the 
one hand ; and frivolous levity and unpolished negligence 
on the other. His dignity was native and easy ; his con- 
descension, unostentatious and noble. His philanthropy 
embraced the family of man ; his house was the home of the 
stranger. He could neither rail nor recriminate. If injured 
by any one — and verily such things did occur — he was on 
the alert to find an opportunity of returning it by some act 
of kindness. He more than once warmed into life and 
strength the adder that eagerly watched the opportunity for 
stinging him. Yet, never once, in an acquaintance of thirty- 
five years, did I know him "render evil for evil;" when 
his enemy hungered he fed him ; and he prayed for those 
who despitefuUy used him, and persecuted him. In prayer, 
he was remarkably gifted. ISTever did I listen to addresses 
to the throne of grace, either around the domestic altar or 
in the public congregaton, more simple or more compre- 
hensive. In prayer, he was particular and specific; 
although none was more capable of generalizing. He 
felt what he expressed ; and desired what he asked of his 
Heavenly Father. He never prayed by rote, nor allowed 
himself imperceptibly to slide into set forms of phraseo- 
logy, which, after long and frequent repetitions, often cease 
to have any definite ideas connected with them, in the mind 
of the petitioner. He occasionally had seasons of exquisite 
communion with God in prayer, as is evidenced from his 
Diarv, already alluded to. 

In sacramental solemnities, the Doctor had especial plea- 


snre. He attended on all the occasions of the dispensation 
of the Lord's Supper, that were within his reach, that he 
might enjoy commnnion with the Eedeemer in the commem- 
oration of his death ; and with his brethren in this encharistic 
festivity. For a number of years after his settlement in the 
city of New York, he and Mr. Wylie of Philadelphia recip- 
rocated their ministerial services on these solemn communion 
seasons. How his soul beamed in his eye with holy radiance, 
while he repeated these words of the Saviour, " With desire 
have I desired to eat this passover with you." This he could 
say from heartfelt experience. He had been taken into the 
banqueting house, and covered with the banner of love. 'No 
wonder, then, thathe delighted in the place where God's honor 
dwelt. His communion was sometimes elevated and raptur- 
ous ; at others, calm, serene and rational. It is believed, as 
far as could be learned from conversation, when the heart 
was unbosomed in joyous Christian fellowship, that for many 
years he could say with the patriarchal model of patience, 
" I know that my Eedeemer liveth." He had made sure 
of this, at an early period of life. He had great and signal 
service to perform for his Master, and he reposed unshaken 
conlidence in Him, that he would never leave him, nor 
forsake him. 

"With what pleasure did he anticipate his annual visits to 
Philadelphia, in the beginning of May, to meet the Board of 
Superintendents of the Theological Seminary ! With what 
devotedness of spirit did he attend on the exhibitions, and 
examine into the progress of the attainments of the students ! 
In the intervals of supervisional duties, he unbent his mind 
in the company of his brethren, and indulged in rational. 
Christian cheerfulness, enjoying " The feast of reason, and 
the flow of soul." On such occasions, the sociabilities of his 


constitution were developed, with unsuspicious reserve ; 
never, however, forgetting to "join trembling with his 
mirth." His conversation always led to moral or intellectual 
improvement. ISTo matter what was the subject of conver- 
sation, he was at home on every topic. 

The prospects of our section of the church of Christ began 
to brighten, particularly in the States of New York and 
Pencsylvania. Earnest and urgent application for the dis- 
pensation of ordinances, were made by Baltimore ; Conoco- 
cheague, Northumberland county, in Pennsylvania; by 
Wallkill, Albany,^ Argyle, &c., in the State of JSTew York. 
To the west of Alleghany Mountains, in Westmoreland, 
Alleghany, and Washington counties ; Mercer also and 
Chenango. Kentucky, likewise, was yielding fruits. In the 
vicinity of Washington, as also of Lexington, societies had 
been established, when Messrs. McKinney and Wylie had 
visited them, on their mission to the Oarolinas. Emigration 
from South Carolina to the Northwestern Territory — now 
the States of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, had furnished many 
nuclei of future societies, which afterwards ripened into con- 
gregations. While the cords were thus lengthening, the friends 
of Keformation principles had the consolation to find that 
they were acquiring additional strength. Love and harmony 
universally prevailed among the ministerial laborers in our 
vineyard. The judicatories of the church were well and 
regularly attended. The only strife which then could be 
charged upon them, was, that they " strove together for the 
faith of the gospel." 

Much good resulted to our cause in the South, from a visit 
made by Mr. Black by synodical appointment, having for 
its object the adjustment of some difficulties which had 
uuhappily arisen in South Carolina. Mr. Black traversed 

ME black's visit TO CAEOLmA. Ill 

Kentucky, ouhis way to the Soutli ; and visited and refreslied 
many of tlie scattered families and societies wliicii studded 
the new plantations on the distant West. His visit was 
peculiarly grateful and cheering to the South Carolinians. 
There, in conjunction with the Eev. Mr. Donelly, he was 
instrumental in adjusting disorders, in reforming abuses, in 
comforting, encouraging, and edifying the members of the 
church, and in reorganizing the 'Southern Presbytery, by the 
ordination of Mr. Kell, who was very successful both in plant- 
ing and watering the church in Tennessee, Indiana, and 
Illinois. The pleasure of the Lord was manifestly prospering 
in the hand of Messiah in these Western wilds, through the 
insti'umentality of these ministerial husbandmen. 

But to return to oiu- ecclesiastical concerns on the east of 
the Apalachian Mountains : 

On the 4:th of November, a letter received from Doctor 
McLeod, contains the following statement : 

* * * * * * ~"I have no news to give you from the 
North, South, or West. Some communications from Europe, 
which require a reply from me, have come to hand. My 
reply must involve principles of general concern to the 
whole church, and I wish to have a conversation with you 
on the subject, before I deliver an opinion in writing. The 
subject of most importance is, the formation of a new 
covenant embracing what our predecessors in Reformation 
have done, and applicable to the churches both there and 
here ; together with the opening a correspondence with the 
remaining branches of the Eeformed Churches on the 
continent of Em-ope. Eemember I expect you at Christmas, 
and we shall have time to converse together freely." 

It may not be improper here to observe, that the Eeformed 


Presbyterian Cliurcli, is often desiynatcd tlie Covenanting 
Cluireli ; and lier members, Covenanters. This appellation 
slie lias never considered as a ilisgraceful misnomer: yet 
tkis really is not her name ; neither is it siifSciently distinc- 
tive. The Secession Chm-ch, both in Scotland and Ireland, 
claim to be Covenanters. The reason why this designation 
is applied to the Reformed Prcsljyterian Chm-ch, is, her 
adherence to the doctrme of covenanting as exemplified in 
the British Bonds in the former part of the sevententh 

The form of these Bonds presented as they are in the old 
British garb, mnst r.ppear to mere strangers of modern times, 
rather awkward and forbidding in aspect. But stripped of 
this foreign dra2'>ery, which has no essential connection with 
them, any more than the costume of any nation has with 
the person of the individual that wears it, nothing can be 
more plain, simple, and intelligible. The spirit and 
substance of these covenants, may be expressed briefly thus 
in a single sentence. 

" I, A B, do solemnly swear, in the grace and strength 
of Almighty God, that I shall endeavor, conscientiously, to 
discharge every duty incumbent on me to God and man, in 
every relation of life which I do or may sustain, and in all 
the diversified circumstances in which I may be placed." 
Or in still fewer words : "I, E" L, do swear conscientiously 
to do my duty." 

It is the moral duties, therefore, comprehended in these 
Covenants, and which ]io localities can alter or aftect, which 
constitute the real essential matter of the bond of the Cove- 
nant. This is what the Eeformed Presbyterian Church 


recognizes in tliese United States, and to wliicli slie feels 
herself Lound, most solemnly, to the performance of every 
ci^'il and religious duty. 

Tlie Eeformed Presbyterian Church has always acknow- 
ledged Covenanting, as an ordinance of God, and an eminent 
means of grace. She finds it both commanded and practised 
under the Old Testament dispensation. " Tow and pay to 
the LoED yom- God." And, "The Loed made not this 
Covenant with our fathers (only) but with us, even us, who 
are all of us here alive this day." They find it also exem- 
plified under the New Testament. " And this they did, not 
as hoped ; but first gave their own selves to the Lord, and 
unto us by the will of God." They think they find this 
ordinance powerfully recommended by the hold it takes 
upon, and its adaptation to, the moral nature and character 
of man. They think, moreover, that the universal practice 
of civil society in making an oath, the ultima lex rerum — ■ 
finally decisive in litigations, " An oath for confirmation 
is the end of all strife," strongly illustrates the propriety of 
this institution. They have been in the habit of reasoning 
in tliis manner upon this subject. 

The man who swears to tell the truth — in a court of 
justice — the whole truth and nothing but the truth, is more 
likely to do so, than if he had not sworn to do so, by 
Almighty God. The consciousness of the juror that he 
feels the obligation more solemnly, and the imiversal consent 
of mankind in the use of an oath in evidence, clearly 
demonstrate this position. Falsehood here would be per- 
jury ; where there is no oath, only a lie, which however 
criminal, does not involve the whole guilt of perjury. By 
parity of reasoning, they infer, that the religious Covenanter, 
who solemnly swears by Almighty God, that through his 


grace, lie will conscientiously perform liis duty, is more 
likely, as far as means are concerned, to' live upriglitly, than 
the man who refuses to swear allegiance to the Eedeemer. 
This oath, indeed, every Christian, in making a public pro- 
fession of religion, virtually swears. The Gospel is the 'New 
Covenant spoken of by Jeremiah the prophet, and quoted 
by Paul the apostle. Every Christian embracing it becomes 
formally a Covenanter. But the public and formal renova- 
tion of this, is what is distinctly meant by covenanting. 
And this application of the name to ]3ublic covenanting, is 
confirmed and established by the practice of the Israelites, 
who — though recognized in God's Covenant by circumcision 
— also the practice of the Macedonians, who had been 
received into it by Baptism and public profession- — yet 
engaged in public social renovation. 

Covenanters likewise maintain the doctrine of the trans- 
mission of Covenant. obligation indefinitely, from generation, 
to generation. The rationale of this, they allege, is found 
in the moral nature of man, and the corporate character of 
society. They say, if an individual binds himself to perform 
a duty, his obligation will continue, until the duty, of what- 
ever character it may be, has been completely performed. 
Some of these duties may be discharged by one act, as in 
the case of a promissory note, or the like ; others are in their 
very nature, inexhaustible, and permanent. Of this sort, 
must, of com-se, be, the obligation of God's law, which 
necessarily regulates all the relations of moral agents. The 
individual, therefore, who binds himself by covenant to 
God, to perform conscientiously every incumbent duty, can 
never be freed from the obligation, so long as he lives. Not 
that he will ever in eternity be absolved from the obliga- 
tion of God's law : that must for ever regulate the relatioa 


between God, the moral Governor, and liis moral subject. 
But covenanting being a Divine ordinance — a means of 
grace and holiness, being unnecessary in heaven, will cease 
with the consummation of all things. Now they further 
maintain, that as societies, of whatever kind, civil or eccle- 
siastical, being corporate in their nature, are moral persons, 
and are so recognized by Jehovah, that the legitimate obli- 
gations of such societies or corporations must continue until 
all the purposed ends shall have been answered. Conse- 
quently, the obligation of religious covenants is perpetual. 
It continues as long as the society or community shall con- 
tinue to exist. The reason of the permanency of obligation, 
they refer to the fact of continued identity. As an indivi- 
dual remains the same, and is so held, in all legal responsi- 
bilities, although he be changing every moment, and is not 
two moments, much less during the course of a long life, 
physically, the same person, so the coi-porate character of 
any society, though constantly losing members by death and 
secession, and receiving fresh accessions by birth and inci- 
dental adhesion, is still, through all these um-emitting vicis- 
situdes, legally and morally, the same corporation. This 
principle is recognized and acted on in all communities. A 
society contracts a debt. In the lapse of one hundred and 
fifty years, all the members in existence when the debt was 
contracted, descend into the tomb. A generation entirely 
new arises. They feel themselves identified with the age 
that is past and gone before them. They assmne, rather 
\hQjfeel, and recognize the debt. They consider it as their 
own. They never, even for a moment, consider themselves 
absolved from obligation to pay because their predecessors, 
who actually contracted the debt, are now no more. No ! 
They consider it as much their own, as if they had, in 


person, contracted it. The violation of this principle would 
imniolate national and social faith. Tlie basest nation would 
not dare to encoiniter the obloqny and reprobation to which 
such conduct would necessarily subject it. In like manner, 
Eeformed Presbj'terians, who consider the obligation of the 
moral law to be perpetual, and believe that no length of 
time can cancel our obligation of duty to God and man, 
consider the obligations contracted by their ancestors in 
covenanting with God, in Britain and Ireland, "to conscien- 
tiously discharge every incumbent duty," continue to bind 
them as a church, and will continue to bind them, as long 
as they exist, in an ecclesiastical capacity. How simple, 
then, is this duty ! Such is its rationale. 

The Keformed Presbyterian Church in the United States, 
thus understood and thus explained her principles, on the 
article of covenanting. A principle occupying such a dis- 
tinguished place among the articles of her credenda, and 
filling, in reference to them, such a large place in the public 
eye, that it grew into an apellative of the denomination, 
should certainly be simplified in such a manner as to 
be easily intelligible to any ordinary capacity. Doctor 
McLeod was capable of enucleating this principle out of the 
British shell, and stripping it of its national costume, and 
investing it with habiliments equally applicable to all lands. 
He prepared a draught of a covenant. He retained the 
principle, as founded in the human constitution, recognized 
and enjoined by the Divine law; and presented it' in its 
Evangelical simplicity. This draught he read at the next 
meeting of Synod, in Pittsljurg. The draught now under 
consideration, as an overture for the Three Synods, in Scot- 
land, Ireland, and America, is nothing more than a modifi- 
cation of that instrument. This was under consideration at 



our last meeting of Synod, in 1833, in Philaclelpliia, and 
was then and there, still further generalized, and dissevered 
from local peculiarities, so as to be fit to be a bond for 
Christians who adhere to sound doctrine, in whatever 
country or clime they may reside. 

But to return to the subject of this memoir. Dr. McLeod, 
without adventitious aid, by his own moral and intellectual 
resources, was still ascending in the scale of respectability. 
The surrounding congregations in the city of New York, 
many of whose members had an opportunity of hearing the 
Doctor's evening exhibitions, began to appreciate more 
justly and correctly his moral worth, and ministerial quali- 
fications. They had also an opportunity of kiiowing the 
estimation in which he was held among his clerical brethren 
of other denominations. Some of them became solicitous 
for the enjoyment of his pastoral services. Li the words of 
another, " The reputation he had so deservedly won by his 
piety, talents, learning, orthodoxy, and industry, in his imme- 
diate pastoral relation, attracted the notice of other denom- 
inatious of Christians. In 1812, the Eeformed Dutch con- 
gregation, worshiping in Garden Street, and now under the 
care of Dr. Mathews, Chancellor of the University of JSTew 
York, when they became disconnected from their collegiate 
connection with the North and Middle Churches, gave Dr. 
McLeod a unanimous call to become their pastor. They 
were so anxious to avail themselves of his stores of learnins:, 
eloquence, and sound doctrine, that they permitted him to 
retain their call for five weeks, during which period the 
strongest solicitations were made by the most respectable 
individuals in the community to induce him to become 
their pastor. 

" This call he ultimately declined, to the regret of the 



entire commiinity — his own congregation excepted : and 
thus sacrificed his temporal interests, and retired from an 
extensive field of usefulness and honor, to maintain con- 
sistency of principle." 

Amidst these transactions and solid honors clustering 
around this great and good man, a letter was received from 
him, dated — ■ 

New Yoke, June Isi, 1S12. 

"I have had a busy time since I saw you. * * * 
After our sacrament, we set off for Wallkill, took Mr. Milli- 
gan's trials, and ordained and installed him among the 
"Wallkillians, after an admirable sermon from Mr. McMaster. 
His text was from 2 Cor. v. 20. This man grows rapidly 
as a Divine of discrimination, and a judicious sermonizer. 
Every one in New York and Wallkill admires him. 

" Friday last I returned home. During my absence, the 
affair of the Dutch Church was brought to a point. They 
took the vote by ballot; nine were scattering. The rest 
were for me, and the minority unknown. The call is ulti- 
mately unanimous. This morning, at nine o'clock, the 
Elders and Deacons called on me, and delivered me the 
call, wliich contains the bond for maintenance. It is now 
in my possession. I could not prevail on myself to reject 
it without a conference with the leading men. And yet, I 
fear the consequences of hesitation to my own character. I 
wish you were within my reach," &c. 

" Yours, &c., 

"Alex. McLeod." 

The respectability of the Dutch Church in the State of 
New York ; the character, for piety and orthodoxy of her 


ministry ; the liigh rank and standing of the congregation 
in Garden Street ; the imanimity of tlie call ; the prospect 
of a mnch wider range of influence and field of useful- 
ness, to say nothing of the easy circumstances into "which 
the ample means of maintenance would immediately have 
transferred him, all formed a powerful inducement for 
accepting the call ; and clearly prove the uncompromising 
adherence to principle and consistency, which issued in its 
rejection. This consideration will be greatly enhanced, 
when it is ascertained that the Doctor was intimately 
acqiiainted with, and warmly attached to that congregation. 
Judge what must have been his feelings, when returning 
their affectionate and respectfal call. Hear his own words, 
as expressed to his friend. 

New York, lith July, 1812. 

* * * "Last week I had to undergo a 

trial of feeling. In giving the reply to Elders and Deacons 
of the church in Garden Street, their solemn and unfeigned 
grief affected me. The deed is done, and my answer in 
writing accompanied the call which I returned. I hope no 
one has taken offence. They will not publish my reply, 
until I shall have departed from the city." 

The following is a copy of the reply. 

DE. Mcleod to the eefoemed dutch chijech. 

" To the Reformed Dutch Chwrch in Garden Street, with 
the Elders and Deacons, Grace ie unto you and Peace 
from God oior Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ. 

" In returning to you the call which you have presented 
to me, I make a sacrifice of feeling more painful to me than 


the accompauying sacrifice of interest. Anxious to serve my 
Eedeemer, ^-itli a pure conscience, in the ministry of grace 
which he has committed to me, I have ever confided 
entirely to Ilim to make for me, in his providence, the 
worldly provision which to himself appears proper : and I 
trnst I have learned both how to abound and how to suffer 
want ; and in whatever state I am, therewith to be content. 
The great personal respect, however, which I cherish for 
you all, and my Christian affection for those of you who 
have favored me with the greater intimacy ; and especially 
the more extensive field of public usefulness, which your call 
appeared to open before me, are motives which I find it 
painful to resist." 

" Upon due deliberation, I feel myself, nevertheless, con- 
strained, in duty, to return your call. I accordingly take 
the earliest opportunity of intimating to you my resolution. 
Having after the necessary inquiries, made up my mind, I 
deem it unnecessary to await the meeting of our judicatories, 
in order to return to j^ou my answer. Such meetings 
could not alter the rdtimate event. Further delay might 
prove prejudicial to your interest." 

'' It now becomes me, with proper respect, to assign my 
reasons. And I discharge this duty with the frankness of a 
Christian. 1. Upon an impartial review of the state of the 
church of God, in America, I see no prospect of such a 
Eeformation as would speedily unite the Evangelical 
chm-ches upon one grand liberal system of uniformity in 
Doctrine, Worship, Discipline and Government ; rejecting, 
entirely, those parts from their standards on which it is not 
necessary to insist as terms of Ecclesiastical Union : and I 
would not relinquish my own present standing, without a 
well founded expectation of being able more effectually to 


promote this great object. "If I forget tliee, Jenisalem, 
let my riglit liand forget lier cunning." 2. The state of 
religion in the Dutch church, generally, is such, that 
— although I might'^calculate on much comfort among my 
immediate connections in this city — I fear I could not, con- 
sistently with my views of duty, avoid becoming involved 
in contendings for which I feel neither disposition nor 
capacity. I should feel it my duty to strive for the restora- 
tion of practical religion throughout the churches connected 
with the judicatories of which I became a member ; and 
this would expose me to peculiar troubles. 3. The 
subscription which classes demand on admission into the 
ministry of the Dutch church I cannot, consistently with 
correct moral principles, consent to make, without such 
explanations as would, in fact, destroy the design of sub- 
scription entirely, and which, therefore, I would think it 
indelicate to propose to classis. 

" I consider these subscriptions as inconsistent in one 
part with another, and in some things contradicting my 
Presbyterian principles. I readily admit that these differ- 
ences respect minor points, and admit an easy remedy ; but 
I know that it. is not uncommon to subscribe such instru- 
ments, with reservations and explanations, which affect the 
most important doctrines, while the difference is said to aifect 
things of minor importance, and I do not wish, by my 
example, to give any countenance to such a practice. In 
things pertaining to God, more even than in our common 
dealing, we ought to be explicit, and then every instrument 
of writing would be understood, and subscribed in its 
obvious meaning. All those things upon which it is not 
intended to insist for unanimity ought to be discarded from 
ecclesiastical constitutions. 


"I will not conclude tliis epistle without giviag you an 
assurance of my aifection and esteem, or without expressing 
the hope that the time, though it is not yet, will certainly 
come, when divisions shall cease and the Church of God 
shall be, in fact, one fold. Holding myself in readiness 
to co-operate with all who prefer Jerusalem above their 
chief joy, in those measm-es which tend to hasten that 
event, I will not cease to offer unto God, my prayers 
for its approach. I also, dear brethren, solicit an interest 
in your prayers, both for my person and my ministry. 
Although we cannot now unite as pastor and people, I 
hope we shall meet together in the presence of the Great 
Shepherd, and live for ever in the commimion of the 
church triumphant. 

" In the meantime, may He who has the hearts of all 
flesh at his .disposal, my God and your God, bestow 
upon you. a pastor according to his heart, who shall feed 
you with knowledge and understanding — a Christian minis- 
ter who feels and understands the gospel, and will prove 
faithful both to God and you. 

" Finally, Brethren, farewell. Ee perfect, be of good com- 
fort, be of one mind, live in peace, and the God of love and 
peace be with you. 

"Your fellow servant in Christ, 

"Alexandek McLeod." 

New Yobk, Sth July, 1812. 

This manly, dignified, and Christian document, requires 
no comment. It speaks for itself. 

This seems to have been a very eventful period of Dr. 
McLeod's life. On the eighth of July, he returned the call 
that had been presented to him, by the congregation of 


Garden Street, accompanied by the above letter; and 
on the thirteenth of the next month, he received a 
unanimous appointment to the vice-presidency of the Col- 
lege of New Jersey, in Princeton. Hear Dr. Eowan 
again : — " About the same time, also, he received an invi- 
tation from the trustees of Princeton College, l^ew Jersey, 
to succeed his own maternal relative, Professor McLean, 
in the Mathematical chair, and as Vice-president. This 
appointment was made with a distinct understanding that he 
shoiild occupy the office of President, since so ably filled 
by Drs. Green and Carnahan, and thus become the suc- 
cessor of Witherspoon, Burr, Edwards, and Smith." 

Here follows an extract from the minutes of the Board, 
relative to this appointment. 


" At a meeting of the Board of Trustees of the College 
of New Jersey, at Princeton, August 13th, 1812, a record 
was made of which the following is a true copy. 

" Sesolved, — That the salaiy of the Vice-president of the 
College be $1,500 per annum, together with the use of 
the house and lot lately occupied by the family of Profes- 
sor Thompson. 

" The Board proceeded to the election of a Vice-presi- 
dent of the College, when the Eev. Alexander McLeod, 
T>. D., was unanimously elected. 

" Sesolved, — ^That Dr. Miller, Dr. Eomeyn, and Col. Eut- 
gers, be appointed to inform Dr. McLeod of his appoint- 
ment to the office of Vice-president, and to take siicK further 
measui'es in the case, as circumstances may require. 
(" A true copy.) " Geoege S. Woodhouse, 

" Clerk, pro-tempore." 



Here is a gush of honors. Laurels ecclesiastical, and 
literary, enwreath the brow of this distinguished minister 
of Jesug. These honors were not the result of personal 
connections or electioneering intrigue. ISTo, they were the 
free, unsolicited, spontaneous tribtite to superior talents and 
moral worth, given by gentlemen who knew well how to 
discriminate character. They did not, however, render 
their subject vain or assuming. He puraued his even course 
of consistency and duty. 

The extract from the Minutes of the Board above men- 
tioned, was presented to the Doctor on the 10th of Sep- 
tember, 1812, and on the 24th of the same month he 
\aade the following reply. 


" The President of the Board of Trustees of the [College 
of New Jersey. 

" SiE,' — I take the earliest opportunity of announcing to 
you, and through you, to the Board of Trustees, that I 
decline accepting the Yice-presidency of the College of 
New Jersey, which you have had the goodness to ofPer to 
me, and which your very respectable comixdttee affection- 
ately and respectfully urged me to accept. 

" You will permit me, sir, to tender my thanks to the 
Board for the offer they made me, and the very satisfactory 
manner in which their choice was expressed ; as well as to 
express my hopes that the College of JSTew Jersey wih 
prove, under your direction, and the Presidency of the dis- 
tinguished character you have elected to the first office, 
equal to the expectations of its friends, and continue to be 


a blessing to our cotintiy, and to the Chiirch. of God— a 
celebrated seat of science and literature. 
" With great respect, 

" Your very bumble servant, 

" AiEx. McLeod." 

Li tbe same discourse already mentioned. Dr. Rowan goes 
on to say — " Other and similar offers were made to him from 
various quarters, which he declined. But there was one 
scheme unto which he did lend an ear, originating with 
and suggested by Tice-president Tompkins, viz., the estab- 
lishment of a University on Staten Island. The plans were 
matured, and arrangements made for application to the 
Legislature of the State to incorporate the Institution, by 
one who, at that time, had sufficient interest and influence 
to accomplish the object. At the head of this Institution 
was Dr. McLeod to have been placed. But the death of 
the Vice-president put into his lips the sentiment — "My 
piu-poses are broken off." 




From the Meeting^of Synod, in Pittsburg, until the Call to the First Presby- 
terian Church, New York. 

Let lis now accompany the Doctor to the third meeting- 
of Synod, at Pittsbtu-g, 12tli August, 1812. He opened 
tliis meeting by a sermon, preached from John vi. 44. " No 
man can come imto me, except the Father, which hath sent 
me, draw him." It is here particularly to be noticed, that 
this was a full meeting of Synod. All the ministers belong- 
ing to the Reformed Presbyterian Chnrch in America, were 
present. On the roll of Synod, August 12th, 1812, are foimd 
the names of E.ev. Messrs. Gibson, Wylie, Black, Donelly, 
McLeod, and McMaster, ministera : Zaccheus Wilson, 
Thomas McClurg, John Anderson, John Eeilly, John Gill, 
George Elrk, William Gormley, and David Love, ruling 
eldei-s. After the opening, the Eev. Messrs. John Kell 
and James Milligan, were introduced to Synod as ordained 
Ministers, who accordingly took their seats as members. 
The reason of such particularity in marking a full Synod, 
is, because at this meeting resolutions were unanimously 
passed, of a very important character, involving deeply the 
interests of the community. They will be presented to the 
reader in the course of this narrative. 

WAS. OF 1812. 127 

The thickening clouds which had been for years gathering 
and lowering in our political horizon, had become so highly- 
charged as to explode, and pour their dangerous contents 
OTer the coiintry. The government of Great Britain had 
asserted rights of search of American ships, and had com- 
mitted such aggressions on the commerce of the United 
States, not only on the high seas, but within the limits of 
our own territorial waters, adding to the plimder of our 
property the murder of our citizens, that Congress, after 
exhausting all means of accommodation by pacific remon- 
strance, was obliged to declare war. This occm-red in the 
month of June preceding this meeting of Synod. As might 
be expected, the public excitement was very great. Neu- 
trality, in such circumstances, would have been equally 
imcompatible with the republican principles, the sense of 
moral obligation, and the gratitude of the members of the 
Reformed Presbyterian community. Now, it is proper here 
to remark, that a large proportion, at that time, of that body 
of professors were aliens, though they did not regard them- 
selves as owing any allegiance to the British Government. 
The struggles of their ancestors, in Britain and Ireland, 
during the reign of the Stuarts, in their conflicts for civil 
and religious liberty, and their strict adherence to the prin- 
ciples of the Reformation, had wrought up their moral per- 
ceptions to a high degree of refined delicacy, with regard 
to the moral character of civil magistracy. Though they 
believed that the Revolution settlement secured to the 
British subject many invaluable rights, yet, notwithstand- 
ing, they viewed it as built upon the ruins of that cove- 
nanted Reformation, to the maintenance of which they felt 
themselves most solemnly bound. They avoided taking any 
share in governmental concerns, and refused to swear aUe- 



giance to the crown. These scruples were conscientious. 
This aciiteness of sensibility with regard to civil govern- 
ment, as established and administered in the British Isles, 
was, moreover, considerably whetted by their collisions, and 
for many years continual controversies with that respectable 
body of Christians, denominated the Secession. In the 
course of these contests, the pastors had become familiarly 
acquainted with every weapon of argumentative warfare, 
whether great or small, from the heavy artillery down to 
the pop-gun ; and could use them with great adroitness. 
For this dexterity they were not indebted to college lore. 
They could split hairs, and fearlessly traversed the most 
intricate regions of metaphysical subtilty. Practice made 
them perfect in this department of warfare. 

It is easy to perceive, that there was danger of becoming 
rather too pugnacious. And as the organs and faculties 
most employed and cultivated generally outgrow those 
which are not duly exercised, so it was to be feared that 
these argumentative achievements might have a tendency 
to impede the progress of experimental religion. Of this 
danger they were often warned ; and doubtless many guarded 
against it. Yet still, the Christian commimity have credited 
them with possessing a sufficiently ample proportion of con- 
troversial propensity. Eut, be this as it may, having been 
in the constant habit of opposing and testifying against the 
British government, previously to their emigration, they 
generally arrived in this country with a conviction that 
there is something wrong in the United States government, 
if not to such an extent as in the old country, yet quite 
sufficient to induce them to stand aloof from it. 

Tliat such views and feelings should have been entertained 
by some of them, when they came hither, and even for some 


years after their arrival, is nothing more than might have 
been expected. 

It is mvich to be regretted, that at the time of the publi- 
cation of the Testimony, designated Eefoemation Principles 
Exhibited, more enlarged and correct views had not been 
entertained respecting the relations of the church to the 
United States government. In the historical narrative pre- 
fixed to the Assertatory part, there are published statements 
on this subject which, to say the least of them, were indiscreet. 
The legislation was jjremature, and all subsequent attempts 
to amend, only mystified and embarrassed it, hecawsQ plasters 
were employed, instead of the linife. One judicious act 
was passed, viz. '■'• Hold no communion with Church, or 
State, or any society whatever, when said communion will 
involve in it immorality." Had this sensible decree repealed 
all other acts on this subject, that were before it, the legis- 
lation would have been complete. But a false shame 
of confessing blunders — and yet everybody makes some 
blunders — and of correcting them, and a strange disposi- 
tion rather to continue in error than to acknowledge falli- 
bility by reforming, together with a fear of incurring the 
imputation of being " given to change," did for some time, 
prevent their expunction. These obnoxious acts were finally 
ordered to be expunged from the narrative, in the second 
edition of the Testimony published in 1824. 

Some have considered the acts referred to, although not 
formally rescinded, as nevertheless annihilated, by the silent, 
though powerful action of increasing light and intelligence. 
It will readily be admitted, that rapid and violent changes 
in public bodies are to be deprecated. Even when imperi- 
ously demanded by the nature of the case, they should be 
managed with great prudence and circumspection. There 


is great danger of relaxing, if not destroying, confideiice in 
public functionaries, when changes become freqnent. Every 
change, of coui-se, implies previous imperfection; and 
although the public acts of an ecclesiastical body cannot be 
exempted from the common infirmities of humanity, yet they 
ought to be peculiarly guarded and vigilant. Blunders of 
communities are more dangerous and hurtful than those of 
individuals. Tlie appearance of vacillation and change, 
therefore, should be carefully avoided. Although various 
points of order, or even doctrines, may, in the course of half 
a century, more or less need, evidently, some ammendments 
or modifications, yet these are, prudently, allowed to pro- 
ceed silently, and almost imperceptibly, for a considerable 
time, until the community shall be prepared for a change : 
and then these improvements, which the general mind has 
been anticipating, can be introduced in a revision of the 
standards. This has been, and must be the case, both in 
Church and State. How many laws have become obsolete, 
and have sunk into oblivion, Avithout having ever been 
formally repealed ! All legislative enactments presuppose 
a certain degree of preparation and intelligence in the 
public mind. This preparation should be gradual, adapted 
to the moral and intellectual capacity of the community. 
" Milk to babes, and strong meat to the full grown." " I have 
many things," says our Lord, " to tell you, but you cannot 
bear them now." Legislation, whether civil or ecclesiastical, 
should always be adapted to the progressive state and 
exigencies of societies. 

It has been already stated, that many of the adherents 
of the Keformed Presbyterian Church were, from consci- 
entious scruples, aliens. These reasonably anticipated some 
political difiiculties, especially those who resided near the 


Atlantic coast, or in places contignous to the seat of war. 
The Synod, at meeting, saw the necessity of serious and 
judicious deliberation on this condition of many of their 
flock. This was the first time, since the emission of the 
Testimony, that the subject of om- civil relations was brought 
regularly before otir judicatory. Doctor McMaster, in his 
very judicious pamphlet on Civil Kelations, in the tenth page 
remarks, " In the interval, discussions of a public nature 
had shed light upon the general subject; changes had, in 
several instances, been effected in public policy, or doubtful 
points had been settled. The inhuman and disgraceful 
trafi&c, the African slave-trade, had been abolished by act 
of Congress, and all participation in it made penal. Impor- 
tant State decisions in favor of religion and morals had 
likewise taken place in the same period. At the date now 
mentioned, the subject of civil relations came more fully 
and distinctly before the Synod than at any previous time, 
and for a decision upon it, observation and reflection had 
rendered them better prepared than on any former occasion. 
A committee, consisting of the oldest ministers of the church, 
was appointed to consider the matter, and on the day above 
stated (August 14, 1812), brought in a report which, with 
an additional amendment, was unanimously adopted. " 

Of this report, the following is a copy, as also of the 
appointment of the committee. 

(( Pittsburg, August 12, 1812. 

"Messrs. Gibson, "Wylie, and McLeod, were appointed 
a committee to inquire, what security the members of this 
church can give to the constituted authorities of the United 
States, consistent with their avowed principles, that they are 
not to be considered, whether aliens or citizens, in the 
character of enemies ; and report thereon ?" 


■• August 14, 1812. 

" Tlie committee to ^vliom was referred the above ques- 
tion, report as follows ; — 

" 1. That this Synod, in the name of its constituent mem- 
bers, and of the whole Church, which they represent, 
declare that they approve of the Republican form . of the 
civil order of the United States, and of the several States; 
that they prefer this nation and its government to any other 
nation and government; that they will support to the 
utmost, the independence of the United States, and the 
several States, against all foreign aggressions, and domes- 
tic factions, and disclaim all allegiance to any foreign juris- 
diction whatever. 

"2. That believing it to be the duty of nations, 
formally to recognize the sovereignty of Messiah over all 
persons and things ; and to construct their system of 
government upon principles which publicly recognize the 
authority of that divine revelation which is contained in the 
Scriptures, as the supreme law, their disapprobation of the 
presently existing Constitution is with them a matter of con- 
science, and wholly founded on the omission of this duty. 

" 3. That emigrants from foreign nations, lest they should 
be considered as alien enemies, be instructed to give to the 
proper organ of this government, the following assurance 
of their allegiance to this empire, each for himself, when 

" I, A B, do solemnly declare, in the name of the Most 
High God, the searcher of hearts, that I aljjure all foreign 
allegiance whatsoever, and hold that these States and 
the United States are, and ought to be, sovereign, and 
independent of all other nations and governments ; and 
that I will promote the best interests of this empire, 


maintain its independence, preserve its peace, and support 
tlie integrity of the Union to the best of my power. 

" i. That a delegation he appointed to proceed, so soon 
as they shall deem it eligible, to the seat of government of 
these States, and confer with the government upon this sub- 
ject, with a view to obtain the protection of the laws, 
in maintaining their present testimony." 

On comparing the oath adopted by Synod with the oath 
of naturalization pi-escribed by the United States, one is 
rather astonished, that the former was ever framed by that 
judicatory. An applicant for citizenship is called to swear, 
" That he will support the Constitution of the United States ; 
and that he absolutely and entirely renoimces and abjures 
all allegiance and fidelity to any foreign Prince, Potentate, 
State, and Sovereignty whatsoever, and particularly to [here 
follows the name of the state or kingdom whence he came], 
of which he was before a subject." Did the Synod think 
the common oath of naturalization too weak, defective, and 
not sufficiently comprehensive? Did they think it not 
enough to swear to support, to the utmost of their power, 
the Constitution of the United States, but must they also 
swear to support those of the particular States ? Their 
oath is more full, explicit, and comprehensive, than that of 
naturalization. It would appear, therefore, that either they 
did not fully understand the oath of allegiance to the United 
States, or that they conceived that by omitting the word 
Constitution, they evaded all implication in its deficiencies. 
But they object not to it on account of any positive immo- 
rality. The second resolution declares that their " disap- 
probation is founded wholly upon omission." There is, 
certainly, a great difference between a positive immorality. 


and a mere omission, or deficiency. Everything human ia 
imperfect. The rejection, therefore, of the entire civil 
system of the United States, as a system with which no 
political fellowship should be held, could never have been 
intended by Synod. This would be pretty much like refus- 
ing to receive ninety cents out of the dollar, because the 
whole amount was not forthcoming ! Hear Dr. McMaster 
on Civil Eelations, page 11. The Doctor states as an alter- 
native, what they must have intended.' " Or rather," says 
he, " does it not appear to have been the intention of Synod, 
tinder a testimony against whatever might be found amiss in 
the government, to leave the people in all they found moral, 
to hold civil and political communion with the States ? 
Examine," says the Doctor, " the import of this document. 
' This Synod,' it says, ' in the name of its constituent mem- 
bers, and of the whole church, which they represent, declare 
that they will support, to the utmost, the independence of 
the United States, and the several States, against all foreign 
aggressions, and domestic factions,' &c. What is a State ? It 
is neither merely the soil, nor the individuals, as such, that 
occupy the soil. It is the lody politic ; the community 
under their Constitution and laws. It is the Constitution 
and constitutional laws, expressed or understood, that binds 
the individuals into a community, and thus forms a State. 
Abolish these bonds, and there is no body politic ; no State. 
The sovereignty or independence of the several States is 
recognized in this deed of the church, and a solemn pledge 
is given to swpport to the utmost, the several States in this 
independent sovereignty which they possess. This is much 
stronger and more explicit than the legal oath of allegiance 

" Again," says the Doctor, " the United States are recog- 


nized as distinct from- the States. The States in union 
present to the mind an object distinct from that of tlie 
several States, under their own respective systems of order ; 
and to the States thns united, as of right, independent of 
all foreign nations, the pledge of support to the utmost is 
tendered by this deed of our highest judicatory. "\¥hat is it 
that constitutes the several States, the United States ? Is 
it not the Federal Constitution? Tlie old thirteen States 
were first constituted United States by their representatives 
in the Congress of 1774, meeting in support of a common 
cause, against a common oppressor, and acting imder the 
well-known principles of that common cause, for the general 
welfare. Such were the first bonds of Union. These 
gave place to the more specific Ai-ticles of Confederation, 
which, in course of time, yielded to the present United 
States Constitution. This is the present bond of Union. It 
is the Federal Constitution that makes the several States the 
United States. Annul that instrument, and you will find the 
several States, each in full possession of its primitive sove- 
reignty, with all its prerogatives; but there will be no United 
States, no Federal government, no United Empire to which 
an oath of allegiance could be given. 

" To one part of the engagement your attention is particu- 
larly directed : the pledge to support the integrity of the 
Union'— BijQ, the integrity of the Union ; the entireness of 
the Union. Kemember, the bond which holds the States in 
union is the Federal Constitution. Can the entireness of 
the Union be preserved otherwise than by the preservation 
of this bond ? Cast away this bond, and the Union is at an 
end. This oath, then, obliges to support the Constitution in 
its true spirit and interest, as it is that which gives existence 
to the Union, in its present form, which holds the States in 


union, and witliont wMch the Union must cease. To this, 
under the sanction of the Supreme Judicatory of the church, 
all her members Avho hearken to the instructions of this act 
are bound ; and her members from abroad are authorized 
to give this assurance of allegiance to the government, when 

" Permit me brethren," continues the author, " now to 
ask you, had Synod^ at the period when this act passed, 
and that without a dissenting voice, considered the whole 
system of the government as immoral, or the Federal Con- 
stitution as containing a pledge to immorality, could they 
have ordained this oath of allegiance ? Could they have 
authorized their people to take it? Most assiu-edly they 
could not — they would not have done so. This act is still of 
authority with us. It is a part of our statute law. It was 
formed by men who well understood the import of the 
language which they employed, the same men who first 
gave form to the body of our Testimony, and who have 
to this day persevered in the maintenance of that Testi- 
mony which they framed and understood. It is distinctly 
remembered," continues the Doctor, " by the writer of 
these Images, with what cordiality this act passed at the 
time, and it is loiown, too, with what approbation it has 
been spoken of since; Is it possible, that some of the 
brethren who entered the ministry, at a later day, are 
unacquainted with this deed V 

On the subject of disaj)j>roljation of some omissions in the 
Federal Constitution, let us again hear Doctor McMaster : 
" It will be noticed," says he, " that it is disajyjn'olation, not 
rejection, that is expressed. It is disapprobation, not of a 
positive immorality, but simply of an omission of duty. 
This is something very remote from an entire rejection of 


the system as immoral. In om- friend, we often find many 
tilings to disapprove ; and in our excellent cliurelL some 
defects ; but on these accounts we will neither abandon the 
latter, nor, as reprobate silver, cast off the former. It is the 
violent actings of the anti-social principle alone, that would 
dictate such a course. You will attend to the fact, as 
worthy of notice, that no positive immorality is charged 
upon the Constitution of the Union ; it is a conscientious 
disapprobation, wholly founded upon an omission of duty. 
It is conscientious, not factious, it is a disapprobation of 
neglect of duty in the people, not a rebuke of an immorality 
engaged to in the Constitution. It is a disapprobation of a 
particular want, let it be recollected, not a dissent from the 
system. This is the true spirit of the ancient Covenanters. 
The opposite course implies a principle which would prove 
a solvent to every relation on earth. But it is not a prin- 
ciple of Covenanters, to reject a system, possessed of requisite 
fundamental attributes, because of defects. Their whole 
history of authoritative acts, furnishes not a solitary instance 
of such a measure. To plead for such, is the invention of 
modern, and though zealous, yet not well-informed men. 
It is an innovation upon established principles, and a 
novelty in practice, unauthorized. And in the case before 
us, let it be noted, that, notwithstanding the conscientious 
disapprobation of the defect, the Synod prescribed the oath of 
allegiance to this empire which we have just seen, and autho- 
rized her emigrant members to give it as a pledge of fealty, 
"to the proper organ of government, when required." The 
question, now brethren, before us, is not, whether Synod 
did right in passing this act ; but did they authorize their 
ministers thus to act ? and so authorizing, did that body at 




that time repudiate this empire as immoral ? No ! no ! 
The thing is impossible." 

The reasonings in this qiiotation are simple and conclu- 
sive. It furnishes undeniable datn for the two deductions. 
1st. That the Synod unanimously considered the United 
States Government as the moral ordinance of God ; and 
that allegiance to it was not incompatible with allegiance to 
the Mediator. 2cl. That they attribute more than really 
belongs to it, to the oath of naturalization. It certainly 
could not have been their object to substitute an oath of a 
stronger and more comprehensive character, and unneces- 
sarily embracing in it, specifications regarding the several 
States, as well as the Union. Any law or institution, con- 
trary to the United States Constitution is, ipso facto, null 
and void. Art. vi. 2. " This Constitution, and the laws of 
the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof, 
shall be the supreme law of the land ; and the Judges in 
every State shall be bound thereby, anything in the Consti- 
tution or laM^s in any other State to the contrary, notwith- 
standing." But there may creep into State Constitutions 
and laws, articles and provisions which are incompatible 
with the spirit of the Federal Constitution. The oath of 
allegiance does not, in any sense, recognize these. The 
Federal Constitution is an admirable instrument. It has its 
defects, like all other human ordinances; and it is truly 
wonderful to find any national document so free from faults, 
in a bond so original, so peculiar, and requiring a com- 
promise of so many confiicting interests and views. 

It may here be remarked, that this oath, if we understand 
it aright, not only recognizes the legitimacy of the United 
States Government, but effectually repeals any contrary 


legislative act, whicli, in our judicatory, may have pre- 
ceded it. This is the nature of every law, and if not 
expressed in any section of the enactment, is of necessity 
understood. Consequently, the whole ohnoxious batch of 
opinions and acts referred to in the historical narrative, is 
virtually repealed and set aside. It is contrary to the very 
nature of legislation, that anything contradictory to a sub- 
sequent unqualified enactment could remain obligatory. 
Anything, therefore, I repeat it, either in the historical nar- 
rative, prefixed to the Testimony, or in the declaration of 
principles and doctrines, whether asserted or testified against 
as errors, contrary to the spirit and tenor of these resolutions, 
carried unanimously in full Synod, is absolutely null and 
void, upon the principle of rational legislation. 

There is only one objection wearing any plausible aspect, 
viz. : " 1^0 laws are valid unless they are agreeable to the 
Constitution adopted by the community for which the 
enactment is made, and by which, of course, the legislators 
are bound." The objection is indeed plausible, and merits 
a candid answer. 

The principle is correct, in general, that laws repugnant 
to the Constitution are not obligatory. Let us examine the 
application of this principle. 

There must be a Constitution making specific provision 
for its alterations : and where legislators are changed, or 
liable to be changed, annually or biennially, some pro- 
vision of this sort may appear necessary to give more 
stability to the laws. But the propriety of such a 2:>ractice 
is questionable in such associations as, with but little varia- 
tion, consist of the same members in many successive meet- 
ings, holding, as it were, by a life tenure. "When mostly the 
same persons meet to deliberate, it is not easy to see what 


■good reason can be assigned wliy \hQ fundamental law — the 
Constitution — sliould require two-tliirds, or any other pro- 
portion tlmn a mere majority, to alter or amend any of its 
provisions. Societies are moral persons; and wliy tliey 
should make enactments limiting their capability of reform- 
ing, when they find themselves wrong, is not very apparent. 
The principle is not republican. The majority should gov- 
ern. But be this as it may, our Ecclesiastical Constitution 
contains no such restrictions. Every subsequent legislative 
act repeals, of course, whatever is contrary to it in any pre- 
ceding enactment. A bare majority determines the point 
under discussion. Two-thirds^ or tJiree-fourths are not 
required for the repeal of any preceding enactment. A 
majority is sufficient; othervs^ise an obnoxious law, or erro-. 
neous principle, might remain in force for an indefinite 
length of time, while a Tnajority were opposed to it ! In 
the instance imder consideration, the members in the Court 
establishing, and in the same Court rescinding — viHuaThj 
rescinding — these obnoxious provisions were ten and eighteen. 
That is, five Ministers and as many Elders established them ; 
while nine Ministers and as many Elders virtually rescinded 
them. ISTow, if ten had a right to establish them, because 
they then thought them to be proper and expedient, would 
it not outrage common sense to deny to the same ten, with 
eight others, ec[ually interested and ecpially conscientious, 
associated with them, the right to correct and amend what, 
in the lapse of six eventful years, greater light and expe- 
rience had manifested to be wrona; ? 

That the oath, then framed by the Supreme Judicatory, 
should have, definitively, settled the question of our civil 
relations, will be admitted generally by the judicious and 
the intelligent, on due attention to the subject. Hear 


Dr. McMaster again. Civil Relations, page 14 : " It is a 
decree of SjTiod, that it is imlawfal to prof ess or swear alle- 
giance to an immoral constitxdion of oi/uil government, but," 
after the lapse of six years—" they decree that a prescribed 
oath of allegiance may be made to this government, [that is 
the United States]. The conclusion is inevitable ; Synod 
considers this government, though omitting some important 
duty, to be, notwithstanding, a moral institution ; as they 
would say of a good man, though he is not perfect, yet he is 
a moral man. The argument is plain." The Doctor reduces 
it to the form of a syllogism. 

" To no immoral government may an oath of allegiance 
be given. — See Testimony, Chap. 30. 

" But an oath of allegiance may be given to this [U. S.] 

See report of Committee and its adoption by Synod, Pitts- 
burg, August 14, 1812. 

" Ergo, therefore, the government is not immoral. 

Why then, it may be asked, since judicial legislation on 
this sirbject seemed so decisive, was not the subject allowed 
to remain at rest? To this inquiry, it maybe answered, 
some excellent and godly members of our community, had 
conscientious scruples on this point. The Synod did not 
press it. The times, though lowering at the period when 
the act was passed, became more propitious than had been 
anticipated. Our peoj)le, to a man, approved of the war, as 
just and necessary, to repel British aggression. They, though 
many of them were aliens, were nowhere considered as 
alien enemies. "The usual delicacy of that period was 


exercised" liy the members of Synod towards eacli otHer, 
and touching the sentiments of such as entertained diiferent 
views on this matter. The war period and its difficulties 
passed away ; and from that time forward for many years, 
the Supreme Judicatory was not called to act on the subject 
of civil relations. In the meantime diversity of opinion and 
practice prevailed. 

In the years 1821, '23, '25, '28, and '31, the deliberations 
of Synod were again more or less occupied with this subject, 
which ought to have been considered as finally settled, but 
every eifort to enthrall the commrmity, and subject them to 
a vassalage, repugnant both to scripture precept and exam- 
ple, and unknown to our reforming ancestors, was unsiic- 
cessful, and was frowned down by the better sense of our 
judicatories. Taking all these progressive acts and pro- 
ceedings of our Supreme Judicatory, as our guide, Dr. 
McMaster very pertinently asks, " What does this accumula- 
tion of evidence prove ?" Does it prove, " That Synod has 
decided our civil institutions to be immoral deeds ? JSTo. 
That the members of our church can do nothing in reference 
to them, but testify against them, as immoral and impious 
systems of iniquity? ISTo. Tliat the Presbyteries and Synods 
of our commimion are bound to depose every minister and 
elder, and forthwith to excommunicate from the church of 
God, and deliver over to Satan, the members of the church, 
who, in the face of the progressive decisions of our Supreme 
Judicatory, are not prepared to gi^-e their subscription to 
views thus unauthorized ? Impossible ! "Whether Synod 
have done right or wrong, in the course they have pursued, 
is not the question at issue. The question is. Have the 
Court so decided? Do their decisions justify the opinion of 
the immorality which some ascribe to our civil institutions? 


Do they warrant the inflictions of the highest censures of 
the church upon those who differ from that opinion ?" Cer- 
tainly not. 

Amid all these surrounding circumstances, this mooted 
point ought to have been a matter of forbearance. Many 
of the brethren made it so. Had this course been adopted 
by all, prejudices would have been gradually extinguished, 
and the people prepared for embracing a more extended, 
liberal and uniform view of the application of the great 
principles of the Eeformation. Time and increasing light 
would have, on rational grounds, reconciled them to a system, 
which, from their former modes of thinldng, on their arrival 
in this country, they had viewed in an unfavorable manner. 
How important a due attention to the saying of our Lord, 
" I have many things to tell you, but ye cannot bear them 

Dr. McLeod was the author of the oath of allegiance. In 
the views expressed above, he fully coincided. He did 
not abruptly encounter the prejudices of immigrant appli- 
cants for our communion. He depended much on time, 
reflection, and the progressive influence of our republican 
institutions, for the removal of unreasonable prejudices. He 
thought there was something fascinating in the beauty and 
genius of our free republican government, calculated to 
undermine monarchical prepossessions, and generate an 
attachment to their superior excellence. When worried and 
annoyed by ignorance and petulance, he would sometimes 

say, " Well, the conduct of is really too bad : but 

let us deal gently. Time and the influence of society will 
correct such extravagance." 

His principles on civil government, he never changed. 
He saw it to be dutiful in some cases, to make a different 


application of them. He, no doubt, altered his views of 
some of the objects to which these principles are applied ; 
but the grand principles themselves, he always most firmly 



Call from the First Presbyterian Church in New York. 

DocTOE McLeod's pulpit exliibitions, by their orthodoxy 
and their good sense, and proiiindity of thought, Avere very 
popular among a certain class in New York. That class 
consisted of the judicious and intelligent, among whom 
were many clergymen, lawyers, physicians, and theological 
students. He dissected with great analytical skill the 
rampant errora of the day which were infesting some 
respectable sections of the church of Christ. In this 
course, he continued still more to attract the attention of 
surrounding congregations. 

Not deterred by the disappointment of the Eefomied 
Dutch congregation, of Garden street, from the Doctor's 
declining their call, the First Presbyterian Church, in the 
city of New York, on the 16th July, 1813, called on him to 
become their pastor. 

In reference to this call, the Doctor thus writes to his 
friend in Philadelphia, on the 19th of the same month. 

" Mt Vbet Deae Beothee : — • 

"Last Thursday, the First Presbyterian 
Church, in this city, gave their consent to the removal of 


Dr. Miller to Priuceton, and made a call upon me -to be 
tlieir paptor. 

"I had understood, some time before, tLat tliis was their 
intention, ever since they had notice from the papers of Dr. 
Miller's election to the professorship in the Theological 
Seminary of the Presbyterian Church, located at Princeton, 
and I had very pointedly discountenanced it. 

" Althougli the leading men of the congregation shunned 
a pei-sonal interview with me, while the thing was progress- 
ing, I knew that my declaration was faithfully announced 
to a previous meeting for arrangements of the elders, 
deacons, and trustees. They determined notwithstanding 
to make the attempt, and the call was made out without 
opposition. Only four members of the congregation 
demurred, and they readily yielded. 

" I beg you turn your thoughts to the reply proper to be 
made to so intelligent and influential a people, who have 
given me so strong an evidence of personal affection and 
esteem. Should I take upon myself to settle the affair, and 
formally communicate my determination ; or, ought I to 
permit the thing to take its coiu-se, and leave the event to 
the decision of our Presbytery ? This is the first point to 
be decided." -"" * * * 

The following extract of a letter from Dr. Ely of Phila- 
delphia, who had been recently settled as Pastor to the Third 
Presbyterian Church, in that city; and who, from a long resi- 
■ dence in ISTew York, and being a member of the Clerical 
Association tljcre, was intimately acquainted with Dr. 
McLeod, testifies how highl}- he appreciated the talents, the 
orthodoxy, and the ministerial cjualifications of the Doctor. 

DE. ELT. 14:7 

" PniLADELPniA, 28th July, 1813. 
" Mt Deae Beothee," says Dr. Ely, 

" It has afforded me great pleasure, to learn that a call 
has been prepared for you by the church in Wall street ; but 
it would yield me much greater satisfaction to know that 
you would accept of it. Our church needs you ; and I 
hesitate not to declare my opinion that no man in the United 
States would be more likely to subserve her interests, in the 
present state of affairs, than yom'self If we obtain not 
a little more efficient orthodoxy, we shall become, ' a cake 
not turned,' and what is worse, an unlearned, unprofitable 
mass. As a proof of this I would state, that during my 
short residence in this city, I have attended two installation 
services, and although some of the speakers pretended to 
give a summary of evangelical doctrine, yet not one of 
them, excepting IVIr. Potts, in prayer, in sermon, or charge, 
alluded to the doctrine of original depravity, imputation, 
election, or predestination. 

"Does not the general good of Christ's church in the 
world, indicate that your light ought not to be contained 
under a bushel ? 

" I think," continued Dr. Ely, " you are a little too anxious 
about the construction which the world might put upon yoxir 
motives, and a little squeamish about the salary. Excuse 
me, and attribute it to friendship, if I am too plain ; for I 
strongly desire your Scotch head and helping hand in our 
communion. Some young man may take your present 
situation, and if he should attempt to depart from the faith, 
your people know very well how to keep him straight." *** 

This call upon Dr. McLeod, being in the usual form, is not 
here inserted ; the closing sentence, signature, and certifi- 
cate of authenticity, being deemed sufficient. 




"And that you may be free from worldly cares and 
avocations, we hereby promise and oblige ourselves to pay 
to you the sum of twenty-five hundred dollars, in regular 
quarterly payments, during the time of your being and 
continuing the regular pastor of this chm-ch. In testimony 
whereof, we have hereunto respectively subscribed our 
names, this 15th day of July, 1813. 

David Gelston, | 

John K. B. KoDGEES, ^^,^^^^^_ 

John P. Mumfoed, 

KoBEET Lenox. 

James Andeeson, 
Daniel H. Wickham. 

William Steeling, 
Elijah Williams, 
Geoege Gebffin, 
Daniel Boaedman, 
Samuel CAmpbell, 
B. Livingston. 


- Trustees. 


" I certify that the within call was voted, without opposi- 
tion, by the congregation of the First Presbyterian Church, 
in the city of JSTew York, regularly convened by previous 
notice from the pulpit, for that purpose ; and the Elders, 
and Deacons, and Ti-ustees were ordered to sign it, in behalf 
of the congregation. 

'^ Signed, 

'July 15th, 1813. 

" John B. Eometn, Modr." 

On the next meeting of Presbytery, this call was regularly 


reported and sustained, as is evident from the following 
document : — 

" At a meeting of tlie Presbytery of New York, held in 
the city of ISTew York, September 3d, 1813, a minute was 
made, of which the following is an extract : 

" Dr. John K. B. Eodgers, and Mr. John P. Mumford, 
from the Church in Wall street, appeared before Presby- 
tery, duly authorized commissioners, and presented a call 
on the Kev. Dr. Alexander McLeod, which being found 
in order, they had liberty to prosecute the same. 

"A true copy. 


"Matthew La Etje Peekine, 

''Stated CUrliP 

On the seventh of the same month, a copy of the above 
record was very respectfully communicated to Dr. McLeod, 
by the commissioners, as follows : 

" New Yoke, Sept. 7, 1813. 

" Kevebend De. Alexaitoee McLeod : 

" Dear Sir : — ^The inclosed is a copy of the 
record of Presbytery, by which the commissioners from the 
Fii-st Presbyterian Church in Wall street, have liberty to 
prosecute the call according to their appointment. A copy 
of this record will be presented by us to the Presbytery, 
to meet at Galway, when we appear before them. 

" Believing this call to be from the I^ord, our Eedeemer, 
we leave the result to him, and trust that, in his gracious 
Providence, He will so influence your heart, as to accept 


this call, and thereby be an instrument in his hand of bless- 
ings on his people. 

"We are, Eev. and dear sir, 

" With sentiments of affection, 

" Tour friends and brethren in Christ, 

"John K. B. Eodgees, ] „ . . „ 
££ T -D -\r } Commissioners. 

" J OHN i . JMUMEOED, j 

To these highly interesting communications, and evidences 
of affectionate esteem and confidence, on the part of that 
very respectable congregation. Dr. McLeod, on the next 
day returned the following reply : — 

" New Yokk, Sept. 8, 1813. 
"De. John K. B. Bodgees, 

"Me. John P. Mumtoed, 

" Gentlemen : — Tour note of yesterday, 

inclosing a copy of a minute of the Presbytery of New 

Tork, requires an immediate answer. 

" It would be impossible in me to permit commissioners 
to proceed to the Presbytery at Galway, without informing 
them, that I am convinced, the journey would be in vain. 
I shall, indeed, submit myself to regular ecclesiastical 
authority; but there is no probability, that Presbytery 
will direct me to a step which must terminate my connection 
with them. 

" After the most respectful attention to your call, and the 
concerns which it involves, I do not feel it my duty to 
accept ; and it is not to be expected that Presbytery will 
urge or advise me to it. 

"It is, however, with very high respect for the Wall 
street congi-egation, and gi-eat personal esteem for my 


acquaintance among its members, and for you, gentlemen, 
particularly, that I decline tlie offer made to me, and so 
remain at liberty to prosecute, without embarrassment, 
my previous design of retiring altogether from New York. 

"I h^pe, dear brethren, that the God of Heaven will 
direct your congregation, to choose a pastor, whom he has 
fitted for such an important station, and who will feed them 
with knowledge and understanding. 

" Tour fellow servant in the gospel, 

" Alexabdee McLeod." 

On the day following, a letter was received from Dr. 
McLeod, of which the following is an extract. 

" An opportunity presented itself, early, for bringing the 
business of the Wall street church to a close. After various 
interesting conversations on ecclesiastical affairs, gradually 
preparing the principal members of that church for the 
disappointment, I was addressed on Tuesday last, in a 
letter from the commissioners, appointed to carry the call 
into effect, covering a minute of the transactions of the 
Presbytery of JSTew York upon that subject, and expressing 
a wish that I myself should favor their suit, when they 
would appear before the Presbytery in Gahvay. 

" This occurrence drew from me a written answer, and 
my final reply to the call. That question is now settled. 
The other question, that which relates to my own removal, 
must go to Presbytery. Upon it, at present, I do not abso- 
lutely know my own mind. Providence will direct." 

The last paragraph of this extract makes an allusion to a 
subject that may require some explanation In a former 


letter, Dr. McLeocl remarks : " There is another considera- 
tion also, which will hare some weight, both in hastening 
yom* coming, and prolonging your stay. 

" My present congregation is in] some] agitation. I hare 
announced my design of soliciting, from Presbytery, a 
dissolution of our connection. The only ground I propose 
publicly to propose is necessity, for want of support, and the 
certainty of never being able to raise a sufficient revenue 
for a man of a large family, in the ordinary method of pew 
rents, considering the size of om- place of worship. There 
are, however, other considerations which urge my removal, 
although they will not bear, without doing injury to the 
congregation"; itself, to be exposed. * ■"' * * My 
wish is to leave the people in all their present respectability, 
that they may, with their present strength unbroken, the 
better succeed in settling another. If I must leave this 
charge, better for them, to do so when they have the prospect 
of supply ; and better for one to move elsewhere, before age 
and infirmity render me incapable of forming another congre- 
gation. I must leave these considerations, however, until 
we meet ; and I beg of you, again, to hasten that time. As 
you will have the family along with you, you will lay your 
accounts with remaining patiently, until the holydays are 
about expiring ; and we can take o^xx recreation in such 
a manner as may best conduce to health, while we are not 
unmindful of church affairs. 

" With compliments to all friends, &c. &c. 

" I am yours, 

" Alex. McLeod." 

No doubt can remain, on the perusal of these documents, 
1st. That Dr. McLeod's pecuniary resources were inadequate 
to the support of his increasing family. 2d. That it is 


equally evident, that the congregation in Wall street, in the 
call they made on Dr. McLeod, offered a sum which would 
have afforded a worldly competence. They engaged to give 
$2,500, a sum more than double of what he was then receiv- 
ing. He is not able to remain in the congregation, to the 
pastoral charge of which he had been ordained, for lack of 
support. At this very crisis, an abundant supply is offered 
from one of the most respectable congregations of the Pres- 
byterian connection, presenting a wide field for the exercise 
of talent, and most encouraging prospects of extensive use- 
fulness. A sense of duty and adherence to principle, 
preponderated. Worldly emolument with him, did not 
counterbalance the dictates of principle and conscience. 

At this period Dr. McLeod was engaged in the most 
difficult and arduous studies. He persevered in what some 
of his warmest friends considered a most injudicious course, 
viz. of furnishing three services on each Sabbath. Many 
believe that the duties of the family, the examination of 
children, domestics, and inmates, prayer, and other edifying 
exercises, such as are competent to the head of the house to 
give, are really of more importance than these night sermons, 
unless on special occasions. There may, however, be 
circumstances which will alter the case: and there is no 
doubt Dr. McLeod pursued this course from the most con- 
scientious motives, to subserve the interests of the kingdom 
of his Divine Master. Yet, the Doctor did, before -his 
departure from among us, admit, that it had as well been 
dispensed with. He never recommended it to his son. 
When in conversation he was asked by his friend, "My 
dear Doctor, what ultimate advantage do you expect to flow 
from the prosecution of such a laborious course, as giving 
three services in your church every sabbath — is not this 



practice, in addition to all your other parochial duties, too 
much for your constitution'" — he would reply: "I like 
to preach Christ Jesus as a crucified Saviour, to poor perish- 
ing sinners." " But," his friend would say, " Are you not 
running down your life — living now upon the latter end of 
it ? Can you expect to be able to serve your congregation, 
by continuing in such oppressive labors, as long as you 
might reasonably expect to do, by the use of more moderate 
exertions?" He would reply : " I do not expect to live to 
an old age — my time will be but short, I must work while 
it is to-day. Perhaps, with my present experience, were I 
to begin the course again, I might act otherwise." 

In addition to all these labors in his own congregation, he 
was lecturing regularly over the Book of the Revelation. 
To the exposition of this sublime and mysterious Book, Dr. 
McLeod brought all the powerful and extensive resources of 
his own superior mind into vigorous operation. His lec- 
tures on this Book gave great satisfaction, and he was pre- 
vailed upon to publish them. It is almost incredible, that, 
amidst such multitudinous engagements — visits given and 
received by clerical brethren, and other literary friends; 
parochial duties; three public services on the Lord's day, 
two of them in his own church and one in Dr. Bomeyn's ; 
together with numerous other ecclesiastical cares — ^the Doctor 
could find time for the reading, research and profound 
reflection, which these lectures both required and received 
from him. With great diligence and care, he collated the best 
expositors of the Apocalypse, whether ancient or modern, 
gave due credit to their investigations, and with an admira- 
ble originality of conception, presents his own views with 
such luminous evidence as, in most cases, must carry con- 
viction with it. 

DE. EOMETN. 155 

At the request of Dr. Komeyn and his congregation, when, 
to establish his health, that gentleman made a voyage to 
Europe, Dr. McLeod, with the consent of his own charge, 
supplied Dr. Eomeyn's pulpit e-very Sabbath morning. This 
he did with great acceptance to the congregation. The 
intimacy between these two brethren — faithful ambassadors 
of the Kedeemer — ^had been of long standing, and uninter- 
rupted. This cannot be better delineated than as it is found in 
a letter of Dr. McLeod to Dr. Eomeyn, prefixed to his lec- 
tures on the Revelation, which is here transcribed. 


" Mr Deae See : — 

"I send jou this volume across the Atlantic, as a tri- 
bute of respect and friendship. Should it live beyond the age 
that gave it birth, this addi-ess will serve, at least, to show my 
sense of your private worth, as well as of your public useful- 
ness and respectability. There are very few men more com- 
petent than yourself, to judge of the merits of a work on the 
Apocalyptical predictions. Of all my literary friends, too, 
you have been the first and the most intimate. Our ac- 
quaintance commenced while engaged in preparatory studies 
for the ministry of reconciliation, and was speedily ripened 
into mutual friendship, which has since continued close 
and uninterrupted. 

"I shall always remember with pleasure the select society 
in which we both employed our pens in writing for the pub- 
lic. Our juvenile essays were produced for the MarJcsman, 
on the banks of the Mohawk, in connection with other valu- 
able friends. One of them, the Eev. Dr. Linn, of Philadel- 


phia, alas ! was recalled from the service of tlie dmrch 
militant, in the morning of his life, and his usefulness : but 
not until he had acquired merited celebrity, and chastised 
■with his pen, the man who ventui-ed to compare Socrates 
with Jesus Christ — that distinguished philosopher and arch- 
heretic, Dr. Priestly. Our other fellow member, Judge 
Miller, who now holds a seat in the Congress of the United 
States, still cherishes, amidst the cares of legislation, the 
friendship of early years. He will join me, in the hope that 
your voyage may prove the means of re-establishing your 
health ; that your visit to Great Britain, and to the Continent 
of Europe, may prove agreeable and instructive ; and that 
you may be restored in due time to your friends, to your 
flock, and to your country. 

" With great esteem, I am. Dear Sir, 

"your affectionate friend and fellow servant, 

"Alex. McLeod. 

" New York, Fei. 12, 1814." 

This letter very handsomely shows the nature and the 
closeness of the intimacy of these two excellent men. The 
deposit — his congregation — put by him into the hands of 
Dr. McLeod during his absence, affords the highest evi- 
dence of the light in which he viewed his friend. He 
selected him to feed his sheep — the flock which God had 
coMmitted to his charge. 

During Dr. Eomeyn's sojourn abroad, their intercourse 
by letter was as frequent as the belligerent state of Great 
Britain and the United States would allow. There is now 
before the writer of this memoir, a manuscript of Dr. 
Eomeyn's, in sixty-odd quarto pages, descriptive of his 
feelings, views, and reflections on men and things, during 



his detention after 'his arrival in Lisbon. The descriptions, 
natural, civil, and religioiis, are vivid and graphic in a 
high degree. It is believed that this piece has never been 
presented to the public, though it would be no unacceptable 
treat to readers of taste. Its length, however, forbids its 
insertion in this memoir, as it has already swelled beyond 
its contemplated dimensions. A small portion of it, at the 
commencement and close, will be submitted. 


" Lisbon, March Uth, 1814. 

" Mt Deae Beothee : — ■ 

" Little did I expect, when I wrote you imme- 
diately on my arrival here, that I should have been detained 
so long. The positive instructions of the British ministry 
forbade him [the agent or consul, it is believed] to give any 
American a passport to proceed in one of the packets to 
England. He, however,, after seeing some of my letters of 
introduction, promptly offered to apply, in my behalf, to 
the government. Considering myself bound to procure the 
most honorable and safest conveyance, in these perilous 
times, I accepted the offer; and on the 22d of February 
I received my passport. ISText Saturday, God willing, I 
shall embark on board the Duke of Kent, No. 1, Captain 
Colesworth, who is acquainted with our worthy friends, Mr. 
and Mrs. Bethune. I trust my delay will meet the appro- 
bation of all in whose approbation I feel interested. 

" Although my detention fretted me more than it ought, 
as it was not of my making, I am gratified upon the 
whole that it has so happened, because I have had an oppor- 
tunity of seeing a country in many respects interesting 



to a Protestant, and that Protestant aH American clergy- 

" I cannot describe the strange emotions I felt, when I 
first trode the shores of the Eastern continent. Everything 
I heard was novel, and arresting attention. The weather 
was uncommonly fine — 'the summer heaven's delicious 
blue,' shed down its influence — ^which, in that season of the 
year, in our country, is the bleakest, coldest, and the most 
forbidding. The earth appeared to rejoice under this influ- 
ence, exhibiting a diversified scenery of the richest and the 
most useful productions on the hills, and in the dales, inter- 
spersed with houses, and with wind-mills in motion. In 
every direction, gardens filled with orange and lemon 
trees, laden with fruit' — ^with olive trees just stript of theirs, 
but exhibiting the remains of verdure — fields covered with 
grain waving in the wind- — ^hedges, formed of the aloes, 
greeted the sight. The variety of objects, with all their 
variety of colors, under the clear, brilliant, and most exqui- 
sitely soft sky, combined together, formed a scene at which 
I looked with peculiar — with uncommon delight. The first 
impressions are not yet worn oif — they are strong and lively 
as ever. Frequently have I gone to the high grounds 
in Lisbon, and about it, to feast my eyes with the beautiful 
picture of nature ; and have as often found new sources of 
pleasure. In the feelings of my heart, I have exclaimedj 
Oh, if this place were inhabited by an intelligent, a moral, 
and religious people, what an earthly paradise would it be ! 
Here could I spend my days, nor ever wish to leave it 
for another abode. 

" The busy world, also, attracted my attention, and had 
its full share in producing strange emotions. In walking 
the streets I met Tui-ks, Moors from Barbary, Greeks, Las- 


cars, Jews ; besides Europeans of different nations, and 
Americans, all in addition to tlie natives. I saw tlie cos- 
tumes of various peoples. I heard tlieir languages as I 
passed along. 'Tlie expression of countenance, the action in 
conversation, were as various as the people. Instead of 
carriages, clumsy post-chaises rolled through the streets ; 
instead of carts, galligos carrying burdens on their backs ; 
instead of horses, mules and jackasses. The houses high 
and rmiform, with balconies in the second and third stories. 
The streets filthy to an extreme, and exhaling a noisome 
smell. I saw the peoj)le in passing the churches, taking off 
their hats — when the Host was passing by, kneeling down 
and smiting upon their breasts — in some places, poor deluded 
wretches kneeling in the street, before the shrine of a saint. 
I met with monks of various orders, and different dresses, 
black and white, and brown. I was assailed by beggars in 
scores, beseeching charity. I entered their churches and 
saw the multitude on their knees making the sign of the 
cross, and reading in their prayer-books, whilst the priest 
was performing mass. I was astonished. I could at times, 
hardly believe my eyes. The scene combined, in itself, 
objects singularly discordant, and produced corresponding 
sensations. At one time I laughed at the absurd outer appear- 
ance of some — at another time I was shocked at the painful, 
heart-rending appearance of others. My mind was bewil- 
dered ; alternately I was pleased and disgusted — pleased at 
the novelty, and disgusted at the absurdity of what I saw. 

"The interest which I felt in beholding the beauties of 
nature, and the beauties of the busy world, was increased 
by the recollections which history afforded me. I was in 
a part of the old Eoman Empire^ — a part rendered more 
conspicuous by the opposition of the nations themselves, to 



the hosts of that gigantic power. I was in a part of the 
Moorish Empire — an emjiire grand and commanding in its 
day — of whose former greatness there are many vestiges,. 
even in the rnins which have withstood the ravages of time 
for six centuries, scattered throughout the Peninsula," &c. 

Thus the Doctor proceeds at considerable length, with 
most graphic delineation of scenes, natural, civil, and ecclesi- 
astical, in a manner very interesting. He thus closes his 
long epistle : 

" And now, my dear friend, I can only add, that memory 
oftentimes recalls the past, and awakens the tenderest feelings. 
I will not say all I meant to say — for I must not give way 
to melancholy or dejection of spirits, sufficient to say, I bear 
my dear people upon my heart, as also my dear friends. I 
cherish you all in my recollections. I remember you in the 
exercises of devotion. To have such a people and such a 
friend, soothes the distress of separation. — ^to merit them, 
makes me tremble. God bless you, and be with you. Oh, 
may he make you a blessing to my flock, and reward jovt 
/or your labor of love, and your work of faith. 

" Eemember me to them and to the worthy and estiniable^ 
elders and deacons of my church, to Dr. Mason, Dr. 
Miller, if he be yet in New York, to Mr. Eowan, Mr. 
Woodhull, Mr. Matthews, &c. I remember them all with 
a deep and tender interest. Forget me not to any of my 
people. They are all dear to me. 

"This letter is intended for such of my friends as I 
promised to write to from time to time. I cannot write to 
more than you, and wish you to consider yourself as the 
medium of conveying this letter to them. I wish it were 
more worthy of the trouble you must take and the time yOTu 


will spend in reading it. As it is, accept it as a voluntary 
offering of friendship. Adieu. 

" ronrs in the best bonds, 

"John B. Eometn." 

This letter bears the impress of the Christian, the scholar, 
and the gentleman — possessing cultivated intellect, refined 
taste, and talents of nice and accurate observation. In Dr. 
McLeod's fidelity and discretion, he reposes the fullest confi- 
dence. He leaves under his charge, his very interesting 
flock, with a perfect assurance that their best interests, and 
those of their absent pastor, to the utmost of his power will 
be attended to, as if they were his own. There is a moral 
beauty, a celestial excellence, on both sides, investing this 
transaction, which challenges, and pleases contemplation. 

Collaterally with all these multifarious avocations, the 
Theological Seminary, located, as has been seen, in Phila- 
delphia, engaged much of Dr. McLeod's attention. He 
never lost sight of its interests. He cherished its students, 
treated them with marked kindness, and discovered an 
increasing solicitude about its welfare and success. This 
institution was succeeding as well as could reasonably be 
expected. The number had increased and the proper 
literature of the seminary had been successfully prosecuted. 

The superintendents of the seminary made application to 
Synod requesting their sanction for the recognition of an 
applicant for admission, Mr. Samuel Eobinson, who had 
never graduated in College. The Synod ordered the su.per- 
intendents to examine Mif Eobinson, and act as their own 
judgment should direct, in accordance with the constitution 
of the seminary. This gentleman, together with Messrs. 
John Gibson, Francis S. Beattie, and Samuel W. Crawford, 
who were found in the same predicament with him, with 


regard to graduation, on examination, were all admitted as 
students in the institution. 

Tlie superintendents now found tlie number of students 
sufficiently large to require classification according to tlie 

The students of the first class, viz. Messrs. Johnston, 
Beattie, Gibson, and Crawford, were severally called upon 
for the essays, which had been previously assigned to 
them by the professor. They were all, with the exception 
of Mr. Beattie, ^vho was absent, examined on the proper 
literature belonging to their class, and in all their examina- 
tions and exhibitions acquitted themselves to the entire 
satisfaction of the Board, and aiforded pleasing specimens of 
futm-e usefulness in the church of God. 

The students of the second class, viz. Messrs. Samuel "Wylie 
and John Canon, delivered discourses as specimens of pulpit 
eloquence. They were also examined on Metaphysics, Men- 
tal Philosophy, Logic, &c., and acquitted themselves in a 
respectable manner, brightening the anticipations of the 

The students of the tli'wd class, viz. : Messrs. Lush, Gill, 
Wallace and Kobinson, were severally called upon to deliver 
discourses on Systematic and Polemical Theology, pm-suing 
the plan laid down in the Testimony of the church. In all 
these specimens of trial, they gave such satisfaction to the 
Board, that they gave them an honorable certificate of dis- 
mission from the studies of the seminary, and returned them 
to the Synod to be at their disposal for licensure. 

Such was the result of this eslmination by the superin- 
tendents, preparatory to the report to Synod, to which were 
appended the names of the Chainnan and Clerk. 

Alex. McLeod, Chairman, 
John Black, ClerJc. 


The Synod receiyed and approved the report of the super- 
intendents and referred Messrs. L^^sk, Gill, Wallace and 
Eobinson, to tlie middle Presbytery for trials and licensure. 
They were all licensed and reported to the next meeting of 

Dr. McLeod's Lectures on the Apocalyptic Prophecies, 
mentioned above, issued from the press, in the montli of Feb- 
ruary, 1814. They gave great satisfaction to an' extensive 
class of intelligent readers. To the no small disappointment 
of the public, the author's multiplicity of ministerial duties, 
together "with elaborate discussions of other interesting sub- 
jects, suggested, and in some measure demanded by the 
complexion of the times, prevented him from completing 
his plan of exposition of the Pevelation. The interruption 
of the pacific relations with Great Britain, which had then 
taken place, and the attempts of an anti-belhgerent faction to 
paralyze the arm of the general government, induced the 
Doctor to deliver a series of discourses on "The Chaeactee, 
Causes amd Ends of the (then) Peesent Wae." They were, 
by request, committed to the press; and so extensive was 
the demand for them, that they soon ran through a second 
edition. Shortly after this he delivered and subsequently 
published a series of discourses on the JSTATtrEE of True God- 
liness. Besides these two octavo volumes, periodicals, both 
religious and political, teemed with the productions of his 
pen, adapted with great tact to the exigencies of the occasion. 
ISTumbers of these shall be hereafter noticed ; but are here 
merely referred to, as in some manner explanatory why the 
Lectures on the Apocalypse were never completed. 

This able work of Dr. McLeod, has been reviewed by 
several hands in Great Britain. In the " Christian Beposi- 
tmy," year 1816 — only part of which has met the eye of the 

164: MEMOnj OF Al.EXAin)EK MCLEOD, D.D. 

writer. In this part the animadversions are sometimes 
unjust, and even when passable on this score, savor of asper- 
ity and imkindness. In the " Christian Magazine" 1817, 
also there is a review of these Lectures. It is pretty exten- 
sive, consisting of forty-two octavo pages, closely printed. 
This review, however, is rather a hrief exposition itself on 
the Apocalj'ptic predictions. The author's remarks are sober, 
temperate and generally judicious. 

Of these Lectures, at the I'equest of the writer, a review 
has been obtained from the Kev. Dr. Black of Pittsburg ; 
which, together with one on the War Sermons, procured 
in the same manner, from the pen of the Kev. Dr. Mo- 
Master, will be introduced in this memoir, in the proper 




Eeview of the Lectures on the Eevelation. By John Black, D. D. 

Among the various theological writings of Dr. McLeod, 
his Lectures on the principal prophecies of the Eevelation 
occupy a prominent place. Availing himself of the labors 
of those who had gone before him, and aided by the light 
shed upon the prophecies contained in this important and 
mysterious book, by the fulfillment of many of them, his 
acute and penetrating mind has been enabled to correct 
many inaccurate views which had heretofore been taken of 
parts of them ; and to give a more lucid and correct inter- 
pretation than any which has hitherto 'appeared in the 
Christian church. In this memoir, however, nothing more 
can be done than to present a brief outline of this important 
work, with occasionally a passing remark. The author very 
justly views the Book of the Eevelation as the prospective 
history of the church of God, from the peiiod in which it 
was made to John in the isle of Patmos to the end of the 
world. Connecting the prophecies of Daniel with the Eook 
of the Eevelation, he has given an outline of the history of 
the moral world, in the order, and within the period, con- 
templated in these inspired writings. And, in thirteen 
lectures upon the principal prophecies of this book, he 


gives an exposition at once luminous, natu.ral, and inte- 

In liis introductory lecture, the author lays before us — 
The true nature and design of the prophecy — ^The character 
of its style, and — ^The proper mode of its interpretation; 
together -with the several uses to which it is snhservient. 

" The Prophecy" is the characteristic name which, by 
divine inspiration, is given to the book which closes the 
canon of Scripture. It contains, it is true, like other parts 
of the sacred volume, precepts, promises, doctrines, &c. ; 
yet, so great a proportion of it is devoted to a prediction 
of the future, as to justify the apphcation of this title to the 
whole work. The word pro2?hecy is used, says the author, 
both in Scripture and in common discourse, with some 
latitude of signification ; but it is not difficult to discover 
its proper meaning. In the ISTew Testament, it is applied 
to any declaration delivered by the inspiration of the Holy 
Ghost, but it principally signifies the prediction by inspira- 
tion of future events. The true idea of prophecy is the 
prediction, by divine inspiration, of future events, not fore- 
seen by human sagacity. The prophetic system is but the 
prospective history of the mediatorial kingdom of the Lord 
Jesus Christ (the author means his church' — ^the Yiwjdoirh 
not of this vxji'ld, in the midst of his imiversal empire) ; 
and it embraces nothing else but for the sake of its con- 
nection with this object. Indeed, independently of this, the 
history of nations, of wars, and of revolutions, never would 
have found a place in the sacred oracles. 

The character of the prophetic style, and the rule of 
interpretation. The prophetic style, the Doctor considers, 
contrary to the opinion of some expositors, not to be essen- 
tially different from that of the other parts of Divine Eeve- 


lation. He admits that it is highly figurative, but not more 
so than the descriptive parts of the sacred voluuie. The 
principal sources from which the Apocalypse draws its 
imagery are, the natural world, the history contained in the 
Scriptures of the Old Testament, and the ecclesiastical 
polity of the Jews, including both the temple service and 
the synagogue. An intimate acquaintance with all these 
is necessary for the proper understanding the language of 
the prophecy of this book. But much more is necessary to 
understand the projphecy itself, and be able to apply the 
prediction to its proper event. The event itself must be 
understood ; a knowledge of true religion, as differing from 
mere forms of godliness, from priestcraft and superstition, 
must be had, together with a due measure of acquaintance 
with history, civil and ecclesiastical. All this, the author 
assures us, is necessaiy to a right understanding of the Apoc- 
alyptical predictions. If this be true, and that it is we have 
not a doubt, there is no wonder that the Book of the Eeve- 
lation is not generally well understood. 

The rules of interpretation laid down by the author are 
few, simple, and natural. They are four in number. The 
first, is to ascertain, from the connection, the subject which 
the prophecy has under consideration ; and whatever may 
be the person or thing referred to, let it be contemplated, 
not in a detached character, but as connected with the 
entire systemof which it is a part. 

Second. Consider from what source the symbol or symbols 
used in the prophecy are derived. 

Third. Consider the place which the symbol employed 
in the prophecy literally occupies, and the uses which it 
answers in the system from which it has been selected. 

Fourth. Apply the figure, according to correct analogy, 


to the corresponding part of that subject of which the- 
prophecy treats. If these rules be carefully attended to, 
there is little doubt but a correct interpretation of the 
prophecy will be given. 

In the third part of his division, the author specifies and 
illustrates four important uses which the study of this pro- 
phecy answers. 1. It excites our faith and patience, our 
hope and zeal, in the service of God. 

2. It is a standing miracle in support of the divine inspir- 
ation of the Holy Scriptures. Indeed, all prophecy is so. 

3. The Apocalyptical prophecy supplies additional proof 
to the docti'ine of the Divine Providence and decrees. 

4. The Book of Eevelation is useful in furnishing a con- 
tinual warning to Christians to separate themselves from all 
anti-Christian connections. It exhibits the grand apostacy 
of the Koman Empire in all its horrors. 

In his second lecture, Kev. i 19, the author proceeds to 
give an outline of the contents of the Apocalypse. 

The general arrangement of its several parts is laid down 
in the command — " Write the things which thou hast seen, 
and the things which are, and the things which shall be 
hereafter." His remarks on the division laid down in the 
text are logically correct and appropriate. The rule that, 
in a division, one part may not involve another, is strictly 
attended to. The thmgs which thoii hast seen, and the things 
which are, and the things which shall he hereafter, are all 
distinguished from each other, and must not be confounded. 
Correct method is important. The things which the beloved 
disciple had seen, refer to the vision with which he had 
already been favored, recorded from the twelfth to the 
seventeenth verse. This very interesting vision, says 
our author, is happily introductory to each of the other 


general divisions of tlae Apocalypse. The seven golden 
candlesticks, emblematical of the seven churches, in the 
midst of which was seen one like unto the Son of Man, 
arrayed as the glorioiia High Priest of our profession, is a 
striking representation of the Eedeemer of the church, 
exalted above all creatm-es ; God-man, says our author, 
persevering and sanctifying his churches, and directing the 
angels or ministers, and promoting the glory of the Godhead 
by securing our salvation. 

The second part of the division, the tilings which, a/re, 
embraces the second and third chapters. The things which 
a/re, describe seven churches, then existing in pro-consular 
Asia, to -whom John is directed to address seven ejpistles, 
one to each, as dictated by the Holy Spirit. After some 
excellent remarks on the uses and preparatory nature of 
these epistles, and in what respects they, like other scrip- 
tures, may be viewed as having a prospective reference, the 
opinion of the author is, that they are not to be ranked with 
the ^ophecies. There have not been wanting, says he, 
commentators who class these seven epistles among the 
predictions of future events — representing them as a symbol, 
either of a particular era of the Christian world, or of some 
great section of the church of God. This he considers as 
entirely fanciful, and liable to many objections. He specifies 
five. 1. Upon this principle it would be impossible to deter- 
mine what in scripture is history, and what, parable or 
allegory. 2. There were, when the Apocalypse was written, 
situated in the Lesser Asia, seven churches, in cities of the 
names set down in this book ; and there is no intimation in 
the book itself, that these were not the communities intended 
to be addressed. 3. There is nothing in the whole contents 
of these epistles to forbid a literal interpretation of them, as 



applicable to the actual churches of Asia. 4. The text of 
this discourse certainly distinguishes tTi& things that are, 
from the things which shall ie hereafter — the description of 
present condition from the prediction of future events. But 
there is no history left, if we include the seven epistles 
among the prophecies. By comparing chapter i. 19, with 
chapter iv. 1, it will readily appear that the jyrophetical part 
of the Bevelation does not commence until the fourth chapter. 
Therefore, these seven epistles are narrative. 5. There is no 
key whatever for dividing time into seven distinct periods, 
bearing any resemblance to these epistles. They cannot be 
made to apply to the seven periods into which the prophetic 
part is divided. History indeed affords such a variety of 
views of different ages, that ingenuity can devise some 
periods resembling the Asian churches. But each prophecy 
has a key of its own, and we are not to indulge fancy in 
accommodating history to prediction. I^o such key is found 
in the second and third chapters. 

These objections, we think, sufficiently explode the fanciful 
exposition condemned by our author. Indeed four of them 
were unnecessary. The distinction in the text is abund- 
antly sufficient. The things that are, might also symbolize 
things that shall le hereafter / other parts of Divine Revela- 
tion do so. The deliverance from Babylon, by the pro- 
clamation of Cyrus, had reference to a still greater 
deliverance by the proclamation of the gospel. But how 
absurd would it be in a division of a subject to distinguish 
things that shall ie hereafter, from things that shall he 
hereafter. The second head of the division would include 
the third. We find no such anomaly in the Bible. 

The third, part of the division respects futurity, the things 
that shall he hereafter. This part of the Apocalypse, says 


the author, commences with the fourth chapter. So it 
appears, for it is to be observed, that then, for the first time, 
a doo7' was opened in heaven, that futm'e things might be 
presented to the eye of the apostle. The several prophecies 
were revealed to the Apostle John in foivrteen separate 
visions. These were successively vouchsafed to him with 
all the necessary means of understanding them, and of faith- 
fully narrating them for our instruction. Three of these 
visions relate to the condition of the church among the 
nations of the earth generally, and to the opposition made 
from various quarters against true religion. One of them 
respects the millennium, aiid one the state of future glory. 
Nine are employed in describing that most perplexing and 
distressing period, which has iisually been known in the 
church by the designation Antichristian. 

In considering these prophecies, the author informs xis 
that he is determined to follow the chain of connection laid 
down in the Eevelation itself; the history of the public 
interest of true religion in the Homan Envpire. It connects 
the predictions of the Old Testament prophets, particularly 
those of Daniel respecting the latter days, with the pros- 
pective history given in this book. The principle which is 
always obvious and which gives unity to the whole of the 
prophetic declarations, is, the connection between the Chris- 
tiam, religion, and social order in the humam, family. This 
grand principle, interesting in the highest degree, is selected 
by Daniel, and after his exhibition of it, is more largely 
illustrated, in its various bearings upon the actual state of 
the nations of the earth, in the predictions of the book of 

The whole contents of the prophetical part of the Eevela- 
tion, the writer informs us, are divided into seven distinct 


periods, viz.- — -1. The period of the seals, wliicli respects 
the history of the Pagan Koman Empire, as it is connected 
with the progress of the Christian religion. 2. The period 
of the trumpets, which respects the history of the empire, 
after Christianity became in name, but not in spirit and in 
truth, the established religion. 3. The period of the vials, 
which represents the decline and fall of the Antichristian 
empire. 4. The period of the millennium, when all social 
institutions shall be sanctilied. 5. The period of subsequent 
deterioration — of Gog and Magog. 6. The period of the 
final judgment. Y. The period of celestial glory. 

The third lecture is on the Sealed Book — ^Eev. v. 1-9. The 
author's plan is : 1. To explain the scenery employed in 
bringing the sealed book to view. 2. What is signified by 
opening this book — and then make some concluding reflec- 
tions. This plan is judicious, and happily executed. On 
his first head, the writer notices very correctly, the scenery 
of the throne set in heaven- — -the glorious occupant of the 
throne- — ^the Governor of the universe, exhibited in the glory 
of his holiness by the bright transparent jasper, and in the 
b\irning purity of his justice by the flame-colored ruby' — 
the sardine stone. The rainbow of God's covenant surrounds 
the throne, like the green emerald, ever fresh, and ever new. 
It gives relief to the eye beholding the splendor of divine 
justice, and mingles mercy with judgment. The one destroys 
not the other, for out of the throne surrounded with the 
rainbow, proceeded thunderings and lightnings — with God 
is terrible majesty. Seven lamps of fire were seen burning 
before the throne, and these are declared to be the seven 
spirits of God. They pointed out the light of divine truth, 
together with all the other gifts and graces of the Holy 
Ghost. He next notices in this glorious scenery, that there 


was a sea of glass like unto crystal, before the throne, repre- 
senting the purifying influences of the blood of Christ. The 
retinue of the King come next into view in this celestial 
vision. The attendants are of three classes — faithful gospel 
ministers, saints, and angels. In the exposition of these 
classes, the writer very properly follows their order of 
approximation to the throne of God. The four beasts, rather 
living creatures — ^the fo\ir-and-twenty elders, and the angels. 
The ministers are placed between other saints and the throne, 
being the official attendants upon their Lord and Saviour. 
Next in order, appear before the Lord the King, the collec- 
tive body of faithful people, symbolized by their represen- 
tatives — the twenty-four elders, the Old and ISTew Testament 
Church, united in one assembly. And in a circle, embracing 
the throne, and the living creatures, and the elders, appeared 
the third class of attendants — the holy angels — about the 
throne, indeed, but at a greater distance them redeemed men. 
The finishing part of this splendid imageiy represented in 
the vision, is the appearance of the Redeemer, on a most 
momentous occasion. In the right hand of him that sat on 
the throne, was a book written within and on the back-side, 
and sealed with seven seals. Proclamation had been made 
by a strong angel, for any, who was worthy, to open the 
book, and loose the seals thereof None among the creatures 
of God was found worthy. This filled the heart of the 
apostle with sorrow, and his eyes with tears, believing as he 
did, that the sealed book contained the prospective history 
of the Mediatory Kingdom, and afraid that it should not be 
opened. His tears, however, were soon wiped away, for the 
Lion of the tribe of Judah, who is also the Lamb of God, is 
found worthy, and approaches the glorious occupant of the 
throne, and amidst the songs and plaudits of all in heaven, 
on earth, in the sea, and under the earth, proceeds to take 


the boob, and open the seals thereof. The author views the 
sealed book as a long written roll, fastened with seven 
separate seals. Each of the first six being opened would 
disclose a portion of the contents, and comparatively but a 
small portion ; but on opening the seventh, the whole con- 
tents of the roll would be unfolded. Others have thought 
that the book consisted of seven distinct volumes, or parch- 
ments, rolled one upon another, and each sealed after it was 
rolled up. It has also been thought, that the punctuation 
might be varied a little with advantage to the meaning. By- 
placing the comma after the word within, the sentence 
would read, " a book written within, and on the back-side 
sealed Avith seven seals." We shall not determine which 
should have the preference. This lecture concludes with 
two excellent reflections. 

1. Tlie vision of the sealed book excites joyful anticipations 
of discoveries elucidating the predictions of the elder pro- 
phets, especially those of Daniel to the captives in Baby- 

2. The subject calls for expressions of satisfaction in the 
exaltation of Jesus Christ' — ^" worthy is the Lamb that was 
slain to receive power and riches, and honors, and glory, and 
blessing." This is the song of angels and redeemed men. 

Leotuee IY., Eev. vi. 1. — The Lamb opening the first seal. 
The seals, the trumpets, and the vials, present three great 
distinct periods from the apostolical age to the time of the 
millenniiim. As the opening of the seventh seal includes 
the whole period of the trumpets, and the seventh trumpet 
includes all future time, the period of the seals must be 
confined to the first six. Tliis period, according to our 
author, extend from the year 9Y to 323, a period of 226 
years. It exhibits the state of the church, and of the Eoman 


Empire, diiring the conflicts of Christianity with idolatry, 
and reaches to the tinae of Constantine the Great, when 
paganism was overthrown. 

The author gives a heautiful and a correct interpretation 
of the symbol exhibited to the apostle, on the opening of 
the first seal. To arrest the attention, and to mark his 
authority, the first of the living creatures cried, in a voice 
of thunder, come and see. In obedience to the command, 
John attentively looked, and JjeJiold a white horse, and he 
that sat on him liad a ima, and a oroion was given to him : 
and he went forth conquering and to conquer. The symbol, 
says our author, can apply only to the triumphs of the woed 
OF Gon. The horse is an emblem of the instruments God 
employs in the dispensations of his providence, to accomplish 
his purpose. White is the emblem of purity — it symbolizes 
a dispensation of purity and mercy. The bow, and its 
arrows, are the emblem of the gospel, and the power of the 
Spirit, which penetrate into the hearts of God's enemies, 
either to slay them before him, or, destroying their enmity, 
to make them a willing people in the day of his power. A 
crown of glory and of majesty was given him. He rules 
in his saints, and over his enemies, and a succession of con- 
quests shall prepare the way for his final triumphs. 

On the opening of the second seal, the apostle is called 
as before, to come and see. The opening of the first seal 
announced triumphs, but this announces sufferings. The 
author happily adverts to the difference, both of the sym- 
bols, and manner of annunciation. As the first living crea- 
ture, the lion invited him to behold the triumphs of the 
cross; the second, like the calf or ox, calls his attention 
to that part of the roll which is now u.nfolded. " Labor 
and patience, similar to those of an ox, are the becoming 


cliaracteristics of tlie Christian ministry, in a period of suf- 
ferings." The symbol of the dispensation of Proyidence 
now exhibited, differs from the former — a red Jwrse. This, 
says our author, is the color of blood, and indicates the 
character of the dispensation. It was a bloody, or rather 
a fiery one. The rider is the same as before, he who con- 
ducts the dispensation to its proper end. The prophecy 
was accomplished in the terrible wars which were waged 
within the bounds of the empire, during the reigns of Trajan 
and Adi'ian. The Christians suffered great j)ersecution. 
The place of these bloody commotions is called the earth. 
And power was given to take peace from the earth. " In 
this text," says the author, "and in all connection in 
this prophecy, earth signifies the Koman empire." This 
assumption is of vast importance. It certainly can be 
established. Many mistakes have arisen from not attend- 
ing to it. It is granted, that in Scripture it sometimes sig- 
nifies the whole terraqueous globe, as when the earth is dis- 
tinguished from the heavens. Sometimes it signifies the 
whole extent of dry land, as when the earth is distinguished 
from the sea. But in the book of Eevelation, it is con- 
fined to the Eoman Empire ; and this empire was, in 
general estimation, considered as a universal empire. In 
Scripture acceptation it is so represented also — Dan. vii. 
23, calls it "the fom-th kingdom upon the earth." Now, 
the opening of the sealed book in the Revelation, is the 
unfolding of the sealed prophecy of Daniel, concerning that 
very Roman empire. It is proper, therefore, that the same 
word, earth, should be used in the Eevelation as the symbol 
of that empire. Indeed all the four great empires have, in 
their turn, been so denominated in Scripture : the Chaldean 
— Dan. iv. 1 ; the Medo-Persian — ^Ezra, i. 2 ; the Grecian 


— Dan. viii. 5. And similar language is used in tlie ITew 
Tesfement, respecting the Boman— Lube, ii. 1, where it is 
called "all the world." Whenever, then, the word earthy 
as the symbol of government, in the book of the Revelation, 
is applied to America, or any part of the world except 
the Roman Empire, it is a violation of the symbolical 
language of the prophecy. During the period of this seal, 
the Christians suffered great persecution. It was indeed 
a bloody dispensation. 

The third seal is opened with a similar call upon the 
attention of the beloved disciple— Come and see. The liv- 
ing creature who makes this call is said, chap. iv. 7, to 
have the face of a Tnan. " Correct reasoning, and humane 
feeling," says our author, " are indicated by this symbol. 
They are at all times ornamental to the character of the 
Christian ministry, but especially in a time of sensible 
afflictions." And surely this was a time of sore suffering. 
The author very justly explains the Mack horse — the symbol 
exhibited on the opened roll, as the emblem of famine — 
Sam. V. 10. " Our skin was Maok like an oven, because of 
the terrible famine." This is also further confirmed by the 
other symbols. The rider on the black horse, had a pair 
of halcmces in his hand. This indicates that the necessaries 
of life were very scarce — Ezek. iv. 16. "I will break 
the staff of bread, and they shall eat bread by weight — 
and drink water by measure." "A measure of wheat for 
a penny," and other grain in proportion. The measure, 
the quantity is specified in the original, about a pint and a 
half The Eoman penny was about fourteen cents. The 
wages of a day laborer was a penny, or fourteen cents. 
This could purchase only a pint and a half of wheat. How 
then could the day laborer and his family be supported? 



How great then must the famine be, and how must the 
poor suffer ! The rich, however, will not feel it. The fuxu- 
ries of life are exempted from this judgment — and see thou 
hurt not the oil and the wine. This famine lasted from 
the year 138, until the time of Severus. 

The opening of the fourth seal discloses a period of .still 
greater, and more terrible dispensation. "The sword and 
famine," says the author, " are now followed by the pesti- 
lence. An eagle-eyed, spiritually-minded ministry, invites 
us to this scene of wo." The fourth living creature, who 
was liliA a flying eagle, calls our attention to the symbol — a 
pale horse, and his name that sat on him was Death, and 
hell followed with him. " This judgment, which destroyed 
about the fourth part of the population of the Eoman Em- 
pire, continued from 211 to 2Y0, a period of sixty years." 

The opening of the fifth seal presents a view different 
from the former. The scene is laid in heaven. "By the 
preceding persecutions," says our author, " a vast number 
of Christians suffered martyrdom." The principal perse- 
cutions of that period, are noticed by the author. " The 
peculiar design of the fifth seal," he observes, " is to illus- 
trate doctrines of vast importance to the church." There 
are chiefiy, the fact that the soul continues to exist, and 
enjoy a state of conscious activity after death, in opposition 
to the wild idea of the materialists, that death affects the 
soul as well as the body; that beings perfect in holiness 
and happiness, may earnestly desire to behold just judgments 
executed upon the ungodly persecutors — ^and consequently, 
that Christians may consistently pray for the punishment 
of the enemies of the church. And, lastly, it exhibits the 
principle of retaliation, as a part of the system of Cod's 
moral government. Of course, it may be expected, that 


not only individuals, but also communities, will be dealt 
with according to the law of righteous retribution- The 
time when this event shall come to pass, is shown to be 
when Antichristian Eome shall have completed her perse- 

The opening of the sixth seal exhibits a view awfully grand 
and terrible. All nature appears in a state of dissolution. 
The scenery is borrowed from the Scripture description of the 
day of judgment. But it is not the day of judgment itself 
that is described, but the "judgment," says our author, 
"which it pleased God to inflict upon the Roman Empire, in 
which paganism, and its persecuting supporters, were over- 
thrown. To this event alone the prophecy, in chronological 
order, can with propriety be applied. In all its parts, the 
prediction is accomplished in that great revolution which 
took place under Constantine, the first of the emperors who 
professed the Christian religion. 

The fifth seal did not take up any portion of time. Hence, 
says our author, the events predicted under this sixth seal, 
in course of time, must follow upon those predicted under 
the fourth seal. The earthquake, or rather the concussion, 
afi"ected the political heavens and earth. The sun, the 
emblem of supreme pagan imperial power — ^the moon and 
the stars, the other great departments of state, were eclipsed 
or hurried from their orbits. The heavens departed as a scroll 
v^hich is folded wp — the whole frame of government was itself 
altered, and rendered subordinate to the Christian faith. 
The author, very justly, considers the government under 
Constantine, as still ieastly, although nominally Christiam,. 
He assumed the supreme power over the Church, and 
modelled it according to the forms which he introduced into 
the State. State religions, generally, are made to serve a 


political turn. They for the most part, usurp a spiritual 
supremacy over the conscience. The power assumed by 
Constantino over the church, although it gave her rest from 
pagan persecution, was nevertheless tyi'annical. The revolu- 
tion eifected by him puts an end to the period of the seals. 

Lectuee v., Eev. viii. 1. — The Lamb openiiig the Seventh 
Seal. — In this lecture, the author proposes to explain the 
preface to the trumpets, give the rules of interpretation, 
and show the interpretation of the first four trumpets. This 
plan is judicious. (1) The introduction to the period of the 
trumpets. This part of the prophetical history is prefaced 
with great solemnity : on opening the seventh seal there was 
silence in heaven about the space of half an hour. After the 
establishment of the Christian religion, they enjoyed a 
respite from persecution, but it was of short diiration. " The 
seven angels," says our author, " stand before their God, and 
receive from him the trumpets, which shall speedily put an 
end to the silence which now reigns." Jesus, the angel of 
the everlasting covenant, appears with a golden censer, in 
which is the much incense — -the fullness of his merit in the 
discharge of his priestly office, with which he perfumes the 
prayers and services of all his saints, and renders them 
acceptable unto God. And the same censer he fills with 
fire and casts it into the earth, and then follow voices, and 
thunderings, and lightnings, and an earthquake — the awful 
emblems of direful judgments, speedily to be inflicted upon 
the Eoman Empire. " The censer," says the author, which 
convej^ed the incense to the sanctuary, is the instrument of 
torture to the guilty." 

(2) The rules of interpretation. In these rules the author 
is rather diffuse. Kules, like definitions, should be short, 


comprehensive and definite. The first respects the time or 
period of the trumpets. The seventh seal, which includes them 
all, the author has shown, succeeded the era of Constantine. 
The last of the seven trumpets is sounded before the com- 
mencement of the millennium, Eev. xi. 15. The period of 
the trumpets must, therefore, be found somewhere between 
the time of the overthrow of Pagan Eome, and the over- 
throw of Antichristian power, before the reign of the saints 
commences. Rule 2. We must distinctly understand the 
object in view — the definite system of events of which the 
predictions treat. This, according to the author, and we 
think he rightly judges, is the Roman Empire, in its present 
complex ecclesiastical political form. This is the proper 
object of the judgments announced by the trumpets. Rule 
3. It will aid much in giving a consistent, as well as the 
true interpretation, to affix correct ideas to the symbol which 
gives its designation to this pjsriod. To sound a trumpet was 
a familiar phrase for calling forth to battle. If the, trumpet 
give an imcertain sound, who shall prepare himself to the 

The first trumpet. Rev. viii. T. — " The first angel sounded, 
and there followed hail and fire mingled with blood, — and 
the third part of trees was burnt up," &c. This, says our 
author, points out savage warfare bursting from a distance 
upon the various parts of the empire in frequent and des- 
tructive showers. The western Roman Empire was consi- 
dered as the third part of the world. The trees and the 
grass are men of high and low degree. 

After the death of Theodosius, the northern hordes of mil- 
itary barbarians made an irruption into the civilized provinces 
of the empire, and laid all waste before them. The second 
trumpet, ver. 8 and 9, a great moimtain burning with fire 


was cast into the sea, <&c. Tlie object of this judgment, says 
our author, is tlie sea of tlie Eoman world. This symbol 
represents many people and nations connected in one body 
politic, in a dissolute and commoved condition. Thus it is 
distinguished from the solid earth, which represents the 
population of the empire in a compact and quiescent state. 
The judgment itself is a turning mmmtain. A mountain 
is the symbol of great and established power — Zech. iv. 7. 
This power was Genseric with his Yandals, who sailed from 
the burning shores of Africa, and invaded Home. The city 
fell an easy prey into their hands. The western empire did 
not long survive the effects of this burning mountain. 
Trumpet third — ver. 10, 11. And there fell a great star from 
heaven, &o. The object of this judgment is the symbolical 
waters — the people in the several provinces — not the sea, 
but the rivers and fountains. The heaven of the Eoman 
system, is the whole frame of its government. A great star 
is a distinguished officer of the government. This star was 
Momyllus, or Augustulus, the last emperor of the Romans, 
whose fall put an end to the very name of the western 
empire. Ti-umpet fourth — verse 12. The third part of the 
sun was smitten, die. The fourth angel, says the author, 
predicts a very general obscuration of the lights of the 
empire. It was in the year 476 that Augustulus fell from 
his throne. But the ancient frame of government still 
remained for a considerable time. It was not until the year 
566, that Italy was reduced to a provincial form by the 
emperor of the East, and the whole form of Eoman govern- 
ment was abolished. But amidst all the revolutions which 
desolate the nations, Christians have ample grounds of hope 
and confidence. The Saviour reigns. The generation of his 
cliildrp.n ah nil bp. saved. 


Lectueb VI., Eev. ix. 1. — And the fifth angel sounded, 
<md I saw a star fall from hecmen unto the ea/r'th, (&c.' — In 
this cliapter, says tlie author, we have the prophetic history 
of the last part of the second period including two of the woe 
trumpets, being the fifth and sixth. The line of chronologi- 
cal order, says our author, is, in the first instance, followed 
from the fourth trumpet, to the eastern Koman Empire. For 
it was more interesting to the church of God, to know the 
condition of the East, because the emperor of the East was 
still* the principal power, and for other reasons which he 
specifies. He notices, particularly, the fallen star opening 
the pit — the locusts issuing from the smohe of the pit — their 
Icing Apollyon — tJieir depredations, and the time of these 
depredations. With great propriety, we think, he considers 
the fallen star to be the monlc Sergius, called by the Arabian 
writers Bahira, a degraded minister of the Christian chm-ch. 
The locusts are the Koran. The king, the destroyer, is 

The depredations of the locusts are limited to that class of 
people who home not the seal of God on their foreheads. 
The time, five months. A month, in prophetic style, is 
thirty years ; of course, five months will be 150 years. 
This trumpet, according to the author, is very properly 
explained of the woe caused by the Mahometan Saracens, for 
the space of 150 years after the rise of their false prophet. 
One woe is past ; and liehold there came two tvoes more here- 
after. The second woe is announced in verses 13,-31, by the 
sounding of the sixth trumpet. The command to loose the 
four angels which are liound in the great river Euphrates is 
immediately obeyed. These four angels, thus set at liberty 
to bring the second woe, are the four Sultanies of the Turks. 
These were seated in their respective capitals, Bagdad, 
Damascus, Aleppo, and Iconium. The specified time of 


their conquests, according to prophetic style, is 391 years 
and fifteen days. Their armies were an immense multitude, 
200,000,000. The dress of their horsemen, and the use of 
gunpowder, introduced under the sixth trumpet, are repre- 
sented in symbolical language, Key. ix. 17. The conse- 
quences of the terrible ravages of these ferocious Mahom- 
etans were not salutary, and produced no refonnation 
among those that were left. The rest of the men which 
were not hilled hy these plagues, yet repented not. The 
author concludes this lecture by drawing a parallel between 
the creed of the Mussulman and that of the Socinians, 
clearly showing that there is a remarkable coincidence 
between them, reverting to the progress of the great power, 
which is at present the principal support of Mahometan 
delusion, deserving particular attention, as the 1260 years 
of its prevalence against true religion are drawing near an 
end, and calling upon Christians carefully to distinguish 
true religion from every other system. 

Lectuee VII. — ^The seventh trumpet — Rev. xi. 14-19. 
The third woe cometh quickly. The soimding of the 
seventh trumpet predicts happy times, the Jcingdoms of 
this world iecome tJie Mngdoms of our Lord and of his 
Christ. — The author proposes, in this lecture, to settle the 
time of the third woe, to unfold the contents of its pre- 
dictions, and make appropriate animadversions. Tlie time. 
— Tlie period of the seventh trumpet ushers in the millen- 
nium. But it is evident that great and terrible judg- 
ments precede that happy period. These are repre- 
sented by lightnings, and voices, and thunderings, <&c. 
The object of all the trumpets is the punishment and 
demolition of the great Eoman Empire. This object, says 
the author, had been in fact, effected under the first four 

seventh: TEtTMPET. 185 

trumpets, so far as it respected the Latin imperial power, 
and as it respected tlie eastern empire, the object had been 
fully accomplished in the judgments of the two succeeding 
trumpets. The Antichristian Eoman Empire is the object 
of the third woe. The narrative of the trumpets proceeds 
from chap. ix. to chap. xi. 14. The intervening portion, 
namely, chap. x. and xi. 1-13, may be viewed as paren- 
thetical, introducing to view that system which is the 
object of the woe announced by the sounding of the last 

The predictions of the seventh trumpet. — These predictions 
respect the grand design of the woe ; the j oy which the accom- 
plishment of that design produces ; and the means employed 
in bringing it to pass. . The great end accomplished is the 
general reformation of the nations of the earth. The hing- 
doms of this world are 'become, &c. The kingdoms of this 
world are the political constitutions which are on earth. 
Still, the author keeps in view that these predictions respect 
those kingdoms which are found within the precincts of the 
old Eoman Empire. They were, during the whole reign of 
Antichrist, of this world, as the world is opposed to God 
and Christ. But now they are of the Lord anid of his 
Christ. They are now, says the author, professedly and 
with understanding, subject to the law of God and the 
revelation of Jesus Christ. They had been called Christian 
nations : some supposed they were Christian States ; many 
pretended that they were so : but, in the estimation of Jesus 
Christ, they were only " kingdoms of this world." Now, 
however, they understand, they profess, and they support, 
not a state religion, nor a worldly sanctuary, but the pure 
religion of the Bible, in a consistent manner. 

The seventh trumpet predicts great joy for the general 



reformation consequent upon the third woe, verses 16, 17. 
And the four and twenty elders, &c. — They who return 
thanks in this solemn manner are the collective lody of 
faithful men in the church. The terrible scenes of the third 
woe, with all the barbarities which have been consequent 
upon the French Eevolution, are by no means, says our 
author, in themselves, cause of joy and thanksgiving. 
When, therefore, the saints are said to rejoice in them, 
it is because these judgments are in the providence of God, 
introductory to the millemiium. Tliis, we think, while it is 
one strong reason, is not the only one. Not only on account 
of the happy effects of divine judgments do the saints rejoice, 
but also because the atti-ibute of divine justice is glorified. 
The Divine Being hereby shows that he is the righteous 
Governor of the universe, and faithful and true to his 
promises, and threatenings also. 

The means enyployed in executing the woe. — ^These, in as 
far as plagues and terrible judgments are concerned, will be 
more detailed afterwards. Tlie author observes that, con- 
temporaneously with the terrible woe of the seventh trumpet, 
extraordinary efforts are successfully made to render the 
means of Christian knowledge more abundant throughout 
the world. The ternple of God was opened in Heaven, a/nd 
there was seen im, Ids temple the arh of his testament. — The 
opening of the temple and displaying the ark of Jehovah's 
testament, plainly point out a period of increasing Christian 
knowledge ; a time when God's gracious Covenant with 
man, in the Mediator Jesus Christ, represented by the ark, 
should be extensively made known, and discovered to the 
view of those from whom it had formerly been concealed — 
the mystery which had teen hid from ages and from genera- 
tions. Now is the time of these wonders. Bible societies, 


missionaries, and other modes of diffusing Christian know- 
ledge are now employed, far and wide, to disseminate the 
knowledge of salvation. The author justly remarks that 
the oracles of the living God, rendered into the several 
languages of the world, are carried over its territories, as 
the sun, going forth from his tabernacle, makes his circuit 
to the ends of heaven: the herald already stands on the 
border of every hostile empire, proclaiming in the name of 
the great God, peace upon earth, and good-will towards men. 
Practical remarks. — ^The Christian's God reigns over the 
nations of the earth. He directs and governs, and will 
ultimately be glorified in all their revolutions. He over- 
rules all their sinful policies to his own glory, and the 
accomplishment of his wise purposes. Let his people trust 
in him, for amidst all troubles and agitations they shall be 
safe. The disciples of the munificent Saviour are bound to 
ascertain the end which he has in view, and employ their 
agency in bringing it to pass. Ifothing can be more honor- 
able than to be serving and promoting the designs of Hea- 
ven. Co-workers with God will never labor in vain. The 
political conduct of Christians in the present age is to be 
lamented. How lamentable, to see the disciples of our Lord 
divided from one another by attachments to the contending 
powers, which this woe will finally destroy ! They are only 
kingdoms of this world, which must perish for their iniqui- 
ties. Eeligion is not, with any of them, identified. It 
pronounces their punishment, and hails the approaching 

Lectttee VHI., Eev. xv. T — And one ofthefov/r leasts game 
unto the seven angels seven golden vials, c&c. — This is the 
third great period of the Apocalypse. Li order to give a 


correct idea of the grand object of the vials, it is necessary, 
says the author, to begin earlier than the period itself, by a 
history of the rise of that Antichristian system, -which it is 
their part to furnish and demolish. The author proposes, in 
this lecture, an exposition of the text and context, and a 
development of the plan he means to pursue in explaining 
the events of the period of the vials. The phraseology of 
the text is figurative. The instruments of the judgment are 
called seven golden vials full of the wrath of God. These 
vials denote plagues, or terrible judgments. They are the 
seven last plagues ; for in them infilled vp the wrath of Ood. 
These vials, or cups, hold the wrath of God, which is to be 
poured out on the earth, as the effect of his justice in the 
punishment of transgressors. They are golden, for his judg- 
ments are just and precious, and necessary for the preserva- 
tion of the order of his empire. Seven, the number of 
completeness, is the number of the golden vials, for they 
embrace the whole wrath of God- toward the object of the 
vials. The agents, are said to be seven angels. Tliese are 
the messengers of divine justice ; the actual dispensations 
of Providence. They come out of the temple with the 
plagues. Penal dispensations are predicted in the church, 
are solicited from God in prayer against the enemies of the 
kingdom of Christ, and are appointed by the Head of the 
Church for the sake of his body. These angels appear 
habited in the holy garments of the high priest — in pu/re 
and white linen, and their hreasts girded xoith golden gi/rdles. 
The judgments are all righteous, and those who execute 
them according to the divine command are guiltless. With 
clean hands and a pure heart they shed the blood of the 
victim, and their own garments remain unpolluted. He 
who delivered unto the seven angels these last plagues is 


one, of the four ieasts or living creatures. One, that is, a 
certain class of Christians ministers, more public spirited, 
of more correct information, and of greater fidelity to tlie 
social concerns of the Christian world, than the rest, and by 
far the greater number of the ministers of Christ deliver up 
to the angels the plagues which come upon the nations. 
They do so, by explaining and applying the predictions — by 
testifying against lawless power — ^by plainly pronouncing 
sentence from the Word of God upon the opposers of righte- 
ousness — by actual encouragement to the instruments of 
vengeance, and by prayer for the overthrow of Satan's 
kingdom, including the several kingdoms of the Koman 
earth. A holy company also appears in the church, cele- 
brating the event in songs of exultation — verses 2—4. They 
stomd ^ijpon a sea of glass 7ningled with fire.- — ^This crystal 
sea represents the blood of the Covenant, by which we are 
justified and sanctified. In this vision, the sea appears 
mingled with fire ; its waves flash with the flames of divine 
indignation, shining high to the glory of his justice. The 
holy choristers are characterized as having gotten the victory, 
and as having the ha/rps of Ood. The scene is laid in 
heaven, although it respects what is doing on earth. They 
who stand on the sea of glass are conquerors, and more than 
conquerors, they are triumphers. The music of the harp 
was less of the plaintive than of the eucharistic kind, and is 
therefore suited to the song of the conquerors, when.,they 
beheld the angels of the vials going forth to pour out the 
wrath of God upon their enemies. The l)east, the image 
of the beast, his marTc, and the number of his name, are 
afterwards explained at large ; we therefore pass them over, 
and proceed to the author's outline of the plam, which he 
proposes in explaining the events of the third Apocalyptical 


period. It is absolutely necessaiy, says the author, that, in 
order to understand the operation and effects of the seven 
golden vials, -^ve previously know the character of that 
system -which they are intended to destroy. Oo your ways, 
and pour out the vials of the wrath of God upon the ea/rth, 
that is the symbohcal earth ; the western Eoman Empire. 
At the time of commissioning the angels of the vials, the 
church is represented as having the means of extensive 
knowledge, as consisting of comparatively few faithful 
members, and as finding it peculiarly difficult to increase the 
number — Eev. xv. 6-8. The opening of the temple indicates 
the increase of Christian knowledge. Only one of the four 
beasts delivering the vials into the hands of the angels, and 
the temple filled with smoke, so that no man was able to 
enter, denote both the fewness of church members, and the 
difficulty of increasing them. The author's plan is the 
following: 1. Show that the object of the wrath of God 
poured out from the golden vials, is the Antichrist. 
'2. Explain the contents of the Little Book of the 
Apocalypse. 3. An exposition from chapter xii. of the 
vision of the Woman and the Dragon. 4. A lecture on the 
13th chapter — character of the Roman Apostasy. 5. From 
the 14th chapter, a compendious history of ' the Christian 
religion, in its truth and power during the apostasy. 6. The 
history of each vial. 

Lectuee IX., Eev. xvi. 1 — And I heard a great voice out 
of the temple, sayiiig to the seven angels, go your ways, c&c. 
— The earth, which is the object of all the vials, compre- 
hends the earth, the sea, the fountains, the sun, the seat of 
the beast, the Euphrates, and the air, which are the distinct 
objects of the seven vials. The Eoman territory is, indeed, 


the residence of that upon which the plagues of the vials 
are inflicted ; but the formal object of divine vengeance, is 
\h&\. pernicious and criminal system of social wder, in both 
church and state, which is established among the guilty 
population of the Eoman territories. The AijTicHEisTiAsr 
SYSTEM includes the beasts of the pit, of the sea, and of the 
earth ; the head, the horns, the image of the beast, the 
mother of harlots, and all who are drunken with the cup of 
her intoxication. Antichrist signifies an opposite Christ — 
the opposer of Christ, under pretence of being himself 
appointed or anointed of the Lord. There are many Anti- 
christs ; all who oppose Christ are such. But it is not to be 
doubted, that prophecy directs to one great system of oppo- 
sition, which should arise under the Christian dispensation, 
as pointed out by this name — emphatically denominated the 
Antichrist. The Antichristian system is plainly described 
by Paul, 2 Thess. ii. 3-9 ; 1 Tim. iv. 1-3. It had been 
described long before, by the prophet Daniel, chapter xi. 
36-38. The author, after having stated and refuted several 
erroneous opiaions respecting the Antichristian system, 
especially those of Mr. Faber, concludes this lecture by 
adverting to the comparative claims of infidelify and super- 
stition to injure the Christian religion, and showing, that of 
the two, superstition is the more dangerous. Whilst he 
warns and cautions Christians to beware of the seducing 
arts of the adversary, who, in begetting infidelity, and 
rearing it up to an alarming height among the nations, 
thereby endeavors to attract the principal notice of the 
saiats, and divert their attention from the apostasy, the 
principal impediment to a general reformation. 

Lectuee X., Eev. x. 9. — And I went unto the angel, and 


said unto him, Give me the little hooTc, &c. — ^Tlie author's 
plan in this lecture is, to cxjMin the manner in which this 
hooJc is 'brought into vieiv, and to unfold its contents. The 
little loolc. — It has already been observed, that the whole of 
chap. X. and xi. 1-13 should be considered as parenthe- 
tical. Tliis part is the little looh introduced as a codicil, or 
'as a note to the larger, the sealed looh. The little book is 
introduced to view in a distinct vision — the fourth of the 
prophetic visions recorded in the Apocalypse. It exhibits, 
1. The Saviour as holding in his hand an open book. That 
it was the uncreated angel of the covenant, there is no dou|)t. 
Every part of the hieroglyphic points out God-man our 
glorious Eedeemer. As he dwelt in the cloudy pillar, 
which served as a guide to Israel of old, so he appears 
clothed with a cloud. The seal of God's covenant — the rain- 
how — is upon his head ; his face was as it were the sim — those 
who fear his name shall see the sun of righteousness arise 
with healing in his wings — ^L'ght shall arise to the upright in 
darkness. His feet, his dispensations, as pilars of fire — 
his steps are in holiness and majesty. In evidence both of 
his mediatory power, and the extent of his authority, he 
places his right foot upon the sea, and his left foot iqwn the 
earth. The right foot is that which naturally first advances. 
It is put, in this case, upon the symholioal sea, the turbulent 
and distracted multitudes of men who were left in confusion 
after the dismemberment of the western empire ; his left 
foot is placed upon the symbolical ecorth, the Antichristian 
system which appears more firm. Still it is under the feet 
of Messiah. Me cried as when a lion roareth, denoting his 
authority, and irresistible power. The little book in his 
hand is open. The former book was scaled, for at the date 
of the vision the events were still future. But of this book, 


the subject was actually matter of history at the time to 
which the vision now under consideration applies. This 
exhibition was accompanied with the voice of thunder — 
seven thunders uttered their voices, denoting those alarming 
contentions among the principal powers of the nations, which 
issue in the great calamities of war. The apostle is com- 
manded to take and eat the little iooh, which, in his mouth 
was sweet as honey, but made his l)eTly hitter. The know- 
ledge and reception of his commission was pleasant, but the 
circumstances of the case, and the condition of both the 
world and the church marked out in the commission, were 
painful to a benevolent heart. The little book, the contents 
of which are to be unfolded, is introduced between the sixth 
and seventh trumpets, although distant from- both. It, 
indeed, synchronizes with the three great woes, but while the 
object of these is to record the fall of the Roman Empire in 
the east and in the west, the object of the little book is to 
give a miniature history of the state of religion in the western 
empire only, during the remarkable period of 1260 years. 
This part of the Apocalypse, therefore, describes a heathenish 
church, in league with a tyrannical and idolatrous envpire, 
opposed to a small company of true Christians, denominated 
the witnesses, and it exhibits the contest ietiueen these parties, 
and the ultimate result. Chap. xi. 1, 2. — Rise and measure, 
&c. — ^This command is intended for all the ministers of the 
gospel. The measuring reed is the Word of God — the Holy 
Scriptures. The temple is the church of God in her ISTew 
Testament organization. The altar is the sjmibol of divine 
worship. The worshipers are themselves to be measured by 
the sacred rule. The Gouj^t without the temple is to be left 
out, and not measured. The churches of the nations — ^the 
Eoman Catholic Chiu'ch, is to be considered as outcast, apos- 


tate, and lieatlieiiisli — given unto the Gentiles, for the space 
of forty-two montlis, or 1260 years. The witnesses. — ^They 
are so called because they give testimony to the truth, in 
opposition to the Antichristian system during the time of the 
apostasy. They are distinguished as a part from the whole. 
They are Chi-istians belonging to the visible chui-ch. Indeed, 
they are, comparatively, but a small number. The author, 
very correctly, distinguishes the two witnesses, not from the 
world that lieth in wickedness, from which the church and 
all Christians are at all times distinguished, but from the 
gi-eat body of Christians, and even from the visible church, 
Ml general, during the reign of the Antichrist. 

There is a similarity, as to the manner of designation, 
between the witnesses and those against whom they testify. 
Every opposer of Christ is an Antichrist. But there is an 
apostasy, formally organised within the precincts of the 
western Eoman Empire, emphatically called the Antichrist, 
which, as a definitely organized system, does not exist else- 
where, and which will come to an end in 1260 years after 
its commencement, or complete organization : so there is a 
special and definite class of witness bearers, within the 
boundaries of the western Roman Empire, who are, by way 
of eminence, called God's two witnesses, who testify against 
the whole system of iniquity, as it corrupts and abuses the 
two cardinal divine ordinances magistracy and ministry. 
All other Christians, whether there, or elsewhere, are wit- 
nesses for God, and against error, so far as they do bear a 
testimony; but, as such, they do not belong to the two 
witnesses who oppose the whole complex system of the 
apostasy, and who shall ultimately be put to death for their 
fidelity. The testimony which they, as the two witnesses, 
bear, comes to an end at the downfall of Antichrist. It will 


be needed no longer. But all Christians will be witnesses 
for truth to the end of the world. The witnesses for God, 
generally considered, shall last as long as the sun. But the 
two witnesses sJiall have finished their testimony — them- 
selves shall be cut off, and their testimony shall come to an 
end. The death of the witnesses, the author justly thinks, 
is yet future. He offers some, we think, satisfactory reasons, 
for this opinion. 1. They are not now dead, for they still 
prophes]/. ISTor are they risen from the dead, for they still 
prophesy clothed in sacltcloth. 3. The time definitely 
marked out in prophesy, in which they are to be employed 
1260 years, is not yet expired. 3. The corrupt establish- 
ments still remain to be testified against. The work of the 
witnesses is incomplete. They have not finished their testi- 
mony. Christ, oui- pattern and example, the faithful and 
true witness, was not put to death, until he finished the work 
given him to do. The two witnesses, like him, shall not be 
slain until they finish, in their last sufferings, the whole work 
they have to perform. It does not appear that witnesses 
have been put to death for testifying against the irreligion 
of civil polity, anywhere as yet, in the Antichristian world. 
It is not probable that they will escape better in maintaining 
this doctrine than in other cases. Christ's headship over the 
nations, is the present testimony. There is every reason to 
believe that, in suffering for this truth, the witnesses will 
complete their testimony, -i. That the death of the wit- 
nesses has not, as yet, come to pass, appears from the fact, 
that it is caused by the last 'great struggle of the beast 
against the saints. At the resurrection of the witnesses, the 
power of the enemy comes to an end. No event corres- 
ponding to this has hitherto occiirred in Christendom. 
"When the numbers, the learning, and the talents, enhsted on 


the side of the Bible religion, and Bible politics, are become 
30 formidable as to alarm the beast, then will he make war 
upon them, and for three years and a half the war will be 
successful. Tlien will be the death of the witnesses. But 
by the grace of God they shall rise again. Tlieir death shall 
not be of long duration. They shall arise, in those who 
succeed to their principles. All irreligious polity will be 
discarded, and the saints alone exalted to the political 
heaven. Contemporaneously with the resurrection of the 
witnesses is the final earthquake, and the fall of the tenth 
jpart of the city — some kingdom, probably that very one in 
which the witnesses were slain. In the earthquake were 
slain of men 7,000 — literally names of men, that is,- the 
prostration of titles, and dignities. And here the little took 
closes. It is a summary history of the remarkable 1260 
years, with special reference to the witnesses. The author 
concludes this lecture with the consoling reflection, that 
America shall not suffer in this dire catastrophe — the death 
of the witnesses. That event takes place within the bounds 
of the western empire. 

Lectuee XI., Rev. xii. 1-3. — The Woman a/nd the Dra- 
gon. — This chapter, says the author, as it does not belong to 
the Uttle took, must belong to the sealed took, and of course, 
to that part of it which was under the seventh seal. This 
chapter evidently precedes the millennium — is contetnjporary 
with some of the events of the trumpets, and is an introduc- 
tion to the vials. It synchronizes with the little book, and 
with the 13th and 14th chapters. It describes a war in 
Heaven, and exhibits the principal characters engaged in 
that war. The characters are the woman and the dragon. 
The womam, is the actual chu/rch of God, scattered among 

inCHAEL. 197 

the cliurchea of the western empu-e. She is clothed with 
the sun — ^the light and the righteousness of Jesus Christ. 
She stands upon the moan — the actual ordinances of divine 
grace, appointed of the Lord, and giving light to the woiid, 
in proportion as the Lord shines upon them. The crown 
which she wears, is the doctrine of the twelve apostles of 
the Lamb, and of the ministers who succeed them. 

The dragon is the devil, ver. 9, that old serjxnt called the 
devil. Satan appears of a red color, the emblem of persecu- 
tion, of cruelty, and of blood, and his seat is in the nominal 
church in Heaven. He is embodied in the beast, the civil 
polity of that empire, which hath smen heads and ten horns. 
His tail drew the third fart^ of the stars of heaven, and did 
cast them to the earth, ISTominal Christian pastors, minis- 
ters of religion, who are under the pernicious influence of 
the T)east which Satan possessed. Michael, who is also 
represented as the man-child, which the woman brought 
forth, who rtdes the nations with a rod of iron, conducts the 
war on the side of the woman. The spiritual seed, along 
with Christ, are here described. The man-child is Christ, in 
his body mystical. He associates his seed with him, as the 
body of which he is the head, in the work of conquering his 
enemies. In verse 6th we read, that the woman fled into 
the wilderness — where she should he fed 1260 dcvys, that is 
years. This period appears to have commenced about the 
beginning of the seventh century. Tliere was, at this time, 
at the head of the empire, a man, a human monster, Pliocas, 
qualified to answer the dragon's diabolical purposes. This, 
says our authoi-, is that emperor who gave the saints of the 
most high into the power of the little horn, by constituting 
Pope Boniface HI. in the year 606, universal bishop, and 
requiring all the churches to acknowledge the papal supre- 


macy. Tlie wilderness into wliicli the woman fled, is to be 
understood metaphorically. It consists in their separating 
themselves from the criminal policy, honors, and emolu- 
ments of the governments of Europe over which the dragon 
exercises his powerful influence, and to dwell alone, as 
exiles, in seclusion, but still enjoying God as their refuge 
and protection. The war in heaven, thus represents the 
great struggle of the Reformation. The civil power waged 
this war against the woman, at the instigation of an apostate 
chui'ch, and under pretence of supporting her interests. In 
the 11th century papal power had arisen to its greatest 
elevation. The popes claimed to be Lords of the universe — 
supreme legislators in the church, and the arbiters of the fate 
of kingdoms and empires. By the force of truth, under the 
providence of God, their claims were rendered vain, and such 
pretensions made to cease for ever at the Reformation. 
Satan was then cast out of the heaven of the Eoman Church 
— from his ecclesiastical eminence, and was obliged to take 
his stand upon the earth. He could no longer act as before, 
byi-?<^-?a^ iulls and decretals. Men were become too enlight- 
ened by the Eeformation, to be longer imposed upon by such 
delusion, and imposture. He therefore changes his mode 
of attack. The woman is still in the wilderness, and far 
from realizing all the advantages which the reformation 
was expected to confer. Glorious as was the ecclesiastical 
reformation, the civil part was still tyrannical, and left her 
still an exile. And the serpent cast out of his mouth water, 
as a flood, after the woman, ver. 15. — This diabolical flood 
denotes the torrent of heresies and licentiousness, in both 
principle and practice, which succeeded, in Europe, the 
work of reform, and which received countenance and pro- 
tection from the higher powers. False doctrines were 


legalized Tyy acts of toleration. Infidelity, indifi'erence to 
all religion, and a disregard of the divine law in ascertain- 
ing the true rights of individuals and social bodies, form 
component parts of this flood. The earth helped the 
woman., not designedly ; but the prevalence of heresies, 
of infidelity, of indifference to truth and error, instead of 
their former bigotry and superstition, together with dis- 
union among themselves, diverted their minds from per- 
secuting the saints, and became a wall of defence to the 
faithful that remained; and thus, instead of the woman 
l)eing carried OMay by the flood, the earth opened her 
mouth and swallowed up the flood which the dragon cast 
out of his mouth. Enraged at the disappointment, the 
enemy again changes the manner of attack, ver. 17. And 
the dragon was wroth with the woman., and went to make 
war with the remnant of her seed. He becomes the dragon 
in all the terrors of persecution. By the instrumentality of 
his agents, the civil powers, the beast with seven heads and 
ten horns, the witnesses are slain. It is the last contest in 
which the civil sword is bathed in the blood of martyrdom. 
The author concludes the lecture by showing in what esti- 
mation the civil and ecclesiastical establishments of the Anti- 
christian empire ought to be held' — 'the dragon against the 
woman., and the inan-child. And, at the same time, earn- 
estly cautions against the flood of errors, heresies, indiffer- 
ence, and infidelity, which the dragon cast out of his mouth, 
and which was swallowed by the earth. 

Lectuee XII., Eev. xiii. 1, 2, 11. — The two Beasts. — This 
chapter, says our author, is the most explicit and compre- 
hensive history which we have of the great apostas;^ o^ 1260 
years, both as it respects the secula/r heast, and the ecclesi- 


astical heast, as well as the living image of the imperial 
beast, which the ecclesiastical power has set up in the office 
of the Papacy. He propo3es to give in this lecture, the 
interpretation of the beast of the sea — the beast of the 
earth, together with the image of the beast, his mark, his 
name, and the number of his name. The first beast is the 
secular power of the Koman Empire in its divided state. In 
this chapter three distinct Antichristian powers are des- 
cribed — \> first beast with ten horns, or the secular Koman 
empire ; the second beast with two horns like a lamb, or the 
ecclesiastical empire; the image of the first beast, made by 
the second, or the papal power. The prophecies of Daniel, 
chapter vii. 2-24!, confirm the interpretation that the first 
beast is the seculai" Koman Empire. It is the fourth Mng- 
dom, upon earth., and coincides with a similar description in 
the drama of IsTebuchadnezzar' — -Daniel, ii. 40, 41 ; the ten toes 
of the image answer to the ten horns of the fourth beast in 
the vision of Daniel. It is further confirmed by the other 
parts of the Kevelation which speak of the beast. In chapter 
xvii. 3, the ecclesiastical state under the symbol of a great 
harlot, is distinguished from the scarlet colored ieast which 
supports her. In chapter xix. 20, the three parties are men- 
tioned as distinguished from one another. TlkQ false pyropliet, 
or ecclesiastical system is distinguished both from the ieast 
and his image. This beast rose up out of the sea. The sea 
denotes multitudes of men in a state of tumult or disorder. 
Thus all the four great monarchies arose — ^Daniel vii. 2. It 
had seven heads and ten horns. — These seven heads have a 
twofold signification — chap. xvii. 9, 10. The seven heads a/re 
seven mowntoAns upon which the woman sitteth. And there 
a/re seven Idngs. Eome was built upon seven distinct moun- 
tains. Her different forms of government are called Mngs.^ 


because each was in its tarn supreme. These are also desig- 
nated by the seven heads — seven kings. Five are fallen^ 
and one is, and the other is not yet come. The five fallen 
ones were, Icings, consuls, dictators, decenwhs, and military 
tribunes with consular authority. The one then existing was 
the sixth head, the envperors. Of the seventh head, the 
angel said to John, at the time referred to in this vision 
chap. xvii. 10, the other is not yet come. The patriciate, 
is the seventh head of the beast of the sea. This head 
however, was to continue but a short space. The patriciate 
soon merged in a renovation of the western empire. In 
the year 1800, Chatlemagne, who had possessed the dignity 
during 26 years, was crowned Emperor of the Komans, and. 
the patriciate was no more. Thus the eighth was of the 
seven and is justly denominated the septimo-octave head. It 
is said of this beast, that it was, and is not, and yet is. 
Before the division of the Latin empire, the beast was one 
great sovereignty, or consolidated empire, under one despot ; 
since that period, and during the whole of the Antichristian 
1260 years, he is not in this respect, but yet the whole 
western empire, with all its divisions, is leastly, and so 
united as, notwithstanding its distinct sovereignties, to be 
considered one family, recognizing some particular power as 
entitled to the precedency. This power is the emperor of 
the Germanic empire. The second beast, or two horned 
beast of the earth. And I heheld another heast coming up 
out of the earth ; and he had two horns like a lamb, and he 
spake as a dragon. This second beast, says our author, is the 
ecclesiccstioal hierarchy. In chap. xi. the little booh describes 
a heathenized church in league with the beast of the abyss, in 
persecuting the witnesses. That persecution is contemporane- 
ous with the wa/r upon the saints, described in this chapter ; 



for it is carried on iii the same 1260 years of the apostasy. 
The beast is the same in both cnses; the great accomplice is 
also the same. In the 17th chapter, the scarlet beast with 
the seven heads and ten horns is represented bearing up the 
mother of harlots, drunken -n-ith the blood of the martyrs. 
She is coadjutor of the secular beast, and corresponds with 
the second beast of the 13th chapter. In the 19th chapter, 
when the beast is taken captive, there appears in his com- 
pany, as an accomplice in crime, the false frophet that 
wrought miracles before him. His work is the same as that 
of the two horned beast, chap. xiii. 13, 14. The false 
prophet represents an apostate and treacherous clergy — the 
Antichristian priesthood, and so, of course, the second beast. 
In the Yth chapter of Daniel, ver. 8, the little hoi'n rising 
up among the other horns of the secular beast, represents 
the same ecclesiastical usurpation. Before it could obtain 
the ample revenue and political influence, to which it 
aspired, three hwns had to be plucked vp iy the roots — the 
three kingdoms of the Heruli, the Ostrogoths, and the Lom- 
bards, were overthrown. This little horn, occupies the same 
place in the prophecy of Daniel, which in the Apocalypse 
is assigned to the two-horned beast — the false prophet, and 
the heathen and harlot church. 

This ieast cominrj up out of the earth, has two horns like 
a lamh, ver. 11.- — ^Tlie power of the hierarchy is twofold, 
called the regular and secidar clergy — the regular compre- 
hending all the monastic orders, and the secular all the 
parochial clergy. He exercises all the power of the first 
beast — with his prelates, and his monks, he directs the 
administration of civil power. He causes all to worship 
the first least — to yield blind submission to the civil power, 
however impious and tyrannical. He pretends to work 


miracles — lying wonders with- all deceivaMeness of unrightr 
eousness. TJm image of the least. — This image is the 
papacj' — the most striking representation of the old Eoman 
emperors — is as great a tyrant in the Christian world, as 
they were in the heathen world. He presides in the same 
city, usurps the same powers ; aifects the same titles ; and 
requires the same universal homage and adoration. The 
Pope is the creature of the church, or second beast, as well 
as the resemblance of the Emperor or first beast. The 
second beast caused him to be made and worshiped. 
Whom they a^eate, they adore. 

The marli of the beast. — It is the mark of the first or 
ten horned beast— the civil Latin empire. It is imposed by 
the false ;propJiet, or second beast. He both gives life to 
the image, and imposes the mark. It is diiferently imposed 
on the foreheads of some, and in the right hand of others. 
The mark in the forehead, is avowed subjection to the 
complex and impious power of the nations, in all cases civil 
and ecclesiastical, to the full extent of their tyranical claim, 
that in the right hand denotes activity, in supporting the 
thrones of iniquity, whether with, or without the profession 
of the Eoman Catholic creed, or any other heresy whatever. 

The name and nmnher of the beast. — It is the proper 
name of the first beast, or secular empire — chap. xiv. 11. 
The marli and the name respect the same beast. It is the 
common name of all those who belong to the empire — chap, 
xiii. 17. It is the proper name of a certain man. It 
contains the number 666. All these four marks meet in 
one word, and in one word only ; that word must be the 
name of the beast, and that word is Latinus. This is the 
name of the western Eoman Empire. The same name 
applies to the whole population — the Latins. It is the 


name of an individual man— Latinus, the ancient king of 
Latium and the founder of the empire. And this name 
contains the number specified, for the ancient orthography, 
both Latin and Greek, is Latneios. 

The autlior concludes the lecture with a review of the 
Latin earth as the scene of prediction. Its several kingdoms 
constitute the seven-headed ten-horned beast. It is all- 
important to ascei'tain the name, and the number of the 
name of the first beast. It is of importance, in understand- 
ing the jjredictions, to define the countries which are to 
be affected by the judgnients. The Catholics are evidently 
gaining ground in the last and present century. Their 
emancipation in Britain, will, very probably, be the death- 
blow to the protestant interest there. The fall of Britain as 
a protestant state will, perhaps, afford the true explanation 
of the slaying of the witnesses. 

Lectuee XIII. — The Character cmd Sistary of true Chris- 
tians during the general Ajwstasy.- — Kev. xiv. 1-13 — And 
I loolced, and lo, a Lamh stood on the Mount Sion, and 
with him 1M,000. — The time to which this prophecy has 
reference. — From the nature of the contrast of the sealed 
servants of God in this chapter, with the marJced slaves of 
the beast in the preceding, we are led to conclude, that 
the two visions have respect to the same period of time — 
the whole period of the 1260 years of the apostasy. The 
144,000 which were sealed in this age of corruption, are 
introduced at the beginning of the 14th chapter, and hence 
we infer, that the prophecy ought to be applied to the 
early, as well as to the more recent ages of the Antichristian 
apostasy. The author divides this chapter into three parts, 
a description of true Christia/ns — a history of the principal 


revivals among tliem, and the total overthrow of their ene- 
mies. The description is given in verse 1-5. The Mowit 
Sion is the true Christian church. There stands the Lamb, 
at the head of his saints, protecting them from the wild heast 
having the horns of a lamb, and the voice of a dragon. 
And with him, in both a spiritual union and a happy fellow- 
ship, are 1M,000 Israelites without guile. ITis open 
witnesses are but few / these are comparatively numerous. 
They sing a new song peculiar to themselves. No man 
could learn that song but the ransomed of the Lord. ThesQ. 
are the members of the invisible church, although not 
found all united in any one visible communion. They are 
the truly godly in the several churches. Tliese compara- 
tively hidden, but genuine disciples, are in number to the 
open and bold witnesses, as 144,000 to two, or as the 7,000 
Israelites ivho did not iow the hiee to Baal, to the prophet 
Elijah and Elisha. They all, however, have the following 
four characteristics of true godliness : 1. Union hy faith 
to the Redeemer, together with a profession of allegiance 
to the Lord. Faith forms this union with the Saviour. 

2. Purity in doctrine and worship. " These are they 
which were not defiled with women ; for they are virgins." 

3. Suffering for Christ^ s sccke. " These are they which fol- 
low the Lamb whithersoever he goeth." They take up 
their ct'oss and follow him. 4. Uprightness. "And in 
their mouth was found no guile." The deceitful man 
cannot be a Christian. No Christian is a hypocrite. 

The History of the Mevvocds of Religion. — ^Three epochs, 
distinguished for a revival of the work of God after the 
great apostasy, have been predicted in this chapter. They 
are ushered into our notice, under the symbol of so many 
angels. The first angel of general revival, is described 


verses 6, 7, as fiyiiig in the midst of hemen, having the 
everlasting gos;pel to preach, &c. The peculiar character of 
the ministry of this first revival, is to direct men to the true 
object of worship, in opposition to the multiplied idolatries 
of the Koman superstition. This honor seems to belong 
to the Waldenses and Albigenses. The second general 
revival is mentioned verse 8, cos another amgel following, 
proclaiming the downfall of Babylon. This, including all 
the previous attainments, aims at the actual overthrow of 
the Church of Eome. The Protestant Eeformation, as one 
great event, is thus characterized. The third geneYsA. revival 
is described verses 9-13. — A third angel followed them, 
saying, &;c. This is, in fact, that great reform which will 
usher in the millennium. The peculiar character of the 
ministry of the Church of God, during this great work, is, 
to pronounce the judgments of Heaven upon the whole 
system of Latin superstition. The prophecy completes the 
history of true Christians, in the preceding passages, and 
now turns to the history of the judgments, which put an 
end to the Latin empire. It is the third woe. The judg- 
ment of the harvest, verses 14-16. — The earth is the Latin 
empire. Tlie harvest of this earth is said to be rijpe, when 
the system is fit for judgment. The harvest, in prophetic 
style, is the symbol of destroying judgments. It succeeds, 
in the order of arrangement, that which respects the third 
reformation ; because the proper histoiy of true Christians 
ought not to be unnecessarily interrupted : but inasmuch as 
that very history declared the ruin of the foe, the event 
described in the following verses may not only be consi- 
dered contemporaneous with the reformation itself, but may, 
in its origin, somewhat precede the work to which it is 
subservient. The accomplishment of the prediction will be 


found in the events which grow out of the French Eevo- 
lution. The work of overturning, however, is only in its 
commencement. It is in the history of the seven vials, we 
have a full 'development of the plagues which are inci- 
dentally noticed in this, and in other predictions. 

The Vintage, verses. 17-20.' — Out of the temple, verse 17, 
the apostle saw, in vision, another a/iigel coming fortli. with a 
sharp sicMe. The ministers of the church find, on this 
occasion, a work suited to their own character to perform. 
The Son of Man, at their solicitations, punishes the nations 
by breaking the potsherds of the earth against each other. 
The ministers of peace take no active part in these deeds of 
blood — but they are directed to gather the clusters of the 
vine, and to cast them into the wine press, that they may be 
trodden by Messiah. All the corrupt establishments, or 
ecclesiastical systems of the Latin world, are pointed out as 
the vine of the earth, to distinguish them from the true vine. 
Church and State are combined in the Antiehristian apostasy. 
The harvest, first in order, and now going on, falls more 
immediately on the secular power, but greatly affects the 
ecclesiastical interests of the empire. The vintage, which 
succeeds the harvest, and is a much more dreadful judgment, 
symbolizes more immediately the destruction of corrupt 
churches, but will necessarily involve all who make a common 
cause with the vine of the earth, in irretrievable ruin. For 
the l^east, and the false frojphet, and all who worship the 
vmage of the heast, shall be destroyed. Great is the destruc- 
tion. They are trodden in the wine-pi^ess of the fierceness 
and wrath of Almighty God. The blood comes to the 
horse-bridles by the space of 1,600 furlongs — about 200 
miles, the distance between the city of E,ome and the river 
Po, and are supposed to designate the pope's own territories, 


called Peter's patrimony, as the peculiar seat of the last war. 
This may be the case, but it is much more probable, says our 
author, that the twentieth verse is to be taken metaphori- 
cally, as denoting a very great and general slaughter. If 
the claims of tyranny and superstition be effectually 
defeated, and correct principles established on their ruin, it 
is of Little consequence to the moral world and to the church 
of God, where battles are fought, or where is the peculiar 
seat of the last war. Ajyiilication.' — The author concludes 
his lectures with a call upon all true Christians, to cherish 
the hope of a speedy release from Antichristian bondage. 
The time of the last judgment iipon Antichrist is distinctly 
marked — the close of the period of 1260 years. If these 
years are to be calculated according to Jewish usage, the 
final overthow of the beast and the papacy may be expected 
to take place in the year 1848. If the calculation be made 
by common solar time, the man of sin will retain his power 
until the year 1866. The author prefers the latter — men 
will differ. The writer of this review would prefer the 
former. Several reasons might be given in support of this 
opinion ; one alone shall be offered. It is taken from the 
numbers used by John in stating the period of Antichrist's 
reign. Twice it is said to be 1260 days. Once it is denom- 
inated a time, and times, and half a time. And twice it is 
represented as 42 months. All these point out the same 
period. Time is put for one year, times will then be two 
years, and half a time will be half a year. Three years and 
a half of twelve months each, make forty and two months, 
and forty-two months of thirty days each, amount to 1260 
days, that is years according to prophetic style. itTow as all 
these point out the same period, it would seem that the same 
principle should regulate the whole, that no interpretation 


should be given to tlie days tliat would make them differ 
from the months. If the forty-two months are taken to be 
thirty-day months, according to the Jewish calculation, they 
will produce 1260 days. But if they contain either more 
or less, they will not. But twelve months, of thirty days 
each, will not make one year of our calendar — they will 
produce 360 days only. The difference of five days and 
almost six hours each year must be deducted from the 
whole amount if calculated according to solar time. This 
will bring the 1866 to 1848. The author earnestly urges all 
Christians, from a review of the contents of this chapter, to 
co-operate with one another in every land — to lay aside their 
jealousies, and the prejudices of party spirit. He exhorts 
all to awake from their stixpor — -to arise from their languor — 
to return from their wandering, and ascending the several 
sides of Mount Zion, let them meet on its lofty summit, 
where, in company with the Lamb, they shall join in the 
music of the harp, and become one fold. 



A Brief Notice of the Sermons on the Late War. By Gilbert McMaster, D.D. 

The preaching and publication of these discourses may, 
perhaps, at this day, require a word of explanation not 
called for at the time of their first appearance. Should any 
consider them as a mere political effusion, thrown out to 
serve a mere party purpose, he would greatly misunderstand 
both their character and the spirit of the author. He con- 
templated the subject of these sermons as one of public 
morals. The rights of the United States, the invasion of 
those rights by the public enemy, and the duty of the 
citizen in their maintenance, and in repelling the invasion 
of them, involved, in his view, no small portion of moral 
consideration. In this light the whole subject was con- 
templated by Dr. McLeod; and in a spirit corresponding 
with this view he discussed it, earnestly desiring, while 
vindicating the cause of his country, to subserve, by his 
labors, the high purposes of moral order. 

Those who never thought of the movements of empires in 
any other light than as the effects of the momentary ambi- 
tion of aspiring men, or who apprehended not the rela- 
tions in which God had placed the United States of North 
America, and the influence which their system of govern- 

THE WAE OF 1812. 211 

ment and principles of public policy were calculated to 
extend over the nations of the earth, as well as the mere 
partisan, were, indeed, sometimes inclined to speak of " the 
Sermons on the "War" as mere political exhibitions; and 
consequently unfit discussions for the pnlpit by any, but 
especially by an evangelical minister of the Eedeemer so 
distinguished as the then pastor of the church in Chamber 
street. Some good men, unacquainted with the circum- 
stances of the times at this and at a future day may, 
perhaps, be disposed to entertain a similar opinion. Pre- 
viously, therefore, to a direct notice of the discourses them- 
selves, it may not be deemed out of place to refer to the 
course of policy adopted and perseveringly pursued by 
Great Britain towards the United States, and which issued 
in the war of 1812 ; as well as to the state of things at home, 
which called forth these sermons in 1814. 

After a seven years' bloody conflict — it must be kept in 
recollection that the British cabinet, under the influence 
of defeats, disappointments, and expiring hopes as to 
success in the scheme of subjugating the United States, 
reluctantly recognized their independence. -England's 
poHcy towards the States, subsequently to that event, was 
marked by unkindness and jealousy. The manifestations 
of unfriendly sentiments were repeated and numerous. 
Among these had a place, the long delay in executing the 
treaty of 1783 : " Ameiican posts upon the northern frontier 
had been forcibly retained by Great Britain ; her voice had 
been heard from Quebec and Montreal, instigating the 
savages to war; her invisible arm was felt in the defeats 
of 1790 and 1791 ; and even the victory of General Wayne, 
in 1794, was achieved in the presence of a fort which she 
had erected far within the territorial boundaries of the 



United States, to stimulate and countenance the barbarities 
of the Indian warrior."* Eut we forbear entering upon a 
detailed history of her invasion of neutral rights, by an 
attempt to revive the illegal rule of the war of 1756,f 
sought at that time to be enforced by Great Britain 
upon neutral powers ; by disregard of the known laws 
of nations ; by violation of treaty stipulations ; by the 
shedding of American blood in time of peace, within the 
waters of the United States, as in the case of Pearce ; and 
by violent attacks upon their vessels, as in the instance of 
the ZeajKcrcl and the ChesapeaJce, in sight of our own shores. 
These outrages put to trial the pride, the fortitude, and the 
patience of America. The cup of insolence was not yet 

The immediate causes of the war of 1812 are to be sought 
for in the British orders of council, against the neutral com- 
merce of the United States, and in the impressment of 
American seamen by the officers of the public vessels of 
Great Britain. 

In the fierceness of the conflict between Great Britain 
and France, the long settled rights of neutral powers were 
disregarded, the laws of nations were violated, and the 
principles of moral rectitude were trampled under foot by 
the belligerents. In this course of outrage Great Britain 
led the way. Her orders in council of May 16th, 1806, 
declaring in a state of blockade the whole coast from the 
mouth of the Elbe to Brest, inclusive of those two points, as 

* Adams' and Randolph's Corresp. State paper of 1815. 

t This rule was intended to exclude neutral powers from a partioipatioQ 
in the trade between the colonies and the mother country in time of war 
which had not been granted ia time of peace. A rule never admitted into 
the code of international law. 


well as of every river and port between them; and tliat 
without pretending to be 'able, legally, to sustain the block- 
ade, inflicted deep injury upon American commerce. The 
retaliatory decree of the French emperor of the 21st 
November following, though really a dead letter, and 
altogether inoperative against the British empire, gave 
occasion to the order in council of November 11, 1807. 
This order operated almost exclusively against the United 
States. What manifested its injustice was the fact that 
America had maintained a strict neutrality. Add to this 
the fact that the whole marine force of Britain was utterly 
inadequate to maintain, according to the law of nations, the 
blockade of the coast of the French Empire and that of its 
allies. In this order there was an extraordinary display of 
insolence as well as of injustice. Exemption from its opera- 
tion upon American commerce could not be obtained, 
except by landing even American productions at a British 
port, paying duties, reshipping, and going out under the 
sanction of a British clearance ! Tlie Emperor JSTapoleon 
replied to these acts of violence by the decrees of Milan of 
23d of November and 17th of December, 1807. 

The American government, unwilling to plunge the coun- 
try into a bloody war, and at the same time determined to 
give no countenance to the principles assumed in the orders 
of council, or in the decrees of the French emperor, exer- 
cised a dignified self-command in directing the citizens for 
a time to retire, in a great measure, from the ocean ; leaving 
the belligerents to execute upon each other the penalties of 
their respective codes of barbarous warfare. This dignified 
retirement was not without a solemn protest, still maintained 
with firmness against the invasion of neutral rights by the 
parties at war. The ships of Britain were forbidden to enter 



the waters of the United States, and against both England 
and France a non-intercourse act was passed ; the Federal 
G-overnment at the same time announcing to both the 
nations, that should they, or either of them, in reference 
to America, repeal their injurious orders or offensive 
decrees, the non-intercourse law should forthwith be sus- 
pended, so far as the power so acting was concerned. 

Both France and Great Britain felt the loss of American 
commerce ; and whilst, in violation of the principles of 
justice, they made war upon the legitimate commerce of 
neutral powers, in contradiction to all the dictates of honor- 
able consistency, each of the belligerents connived at an 
underhand intercourse between themselves, under the sanc- 
tion of special licenses. 

As Great Britain was first in transgression, so she was 
most perseveringly injurious. ISTo member of her cabinet 
was known, while those aggressive acts were in progress, to 
utter a single sentiment of honorable disapprobation of the 
course pursued, or to manifest a spirit of relenting or regret, 
at the injuries inflicted upon a neutral and unoffending 
people. Violent as undoubtedly were the measures of Napo- 
leon, this was not altogether the case with him. His plea 
of justification was that of necessary retaHation upon a bar- 
barous enemy, in self defence, and professing, at the same 
time, his readiness to repeal his decrees, as soon as England 
should abandon her orders. " It is," said ISTapoleon, on the 
passing of the Milan decrees, " It is with great pain that we 
have thus made the interests of individuals dependent upon 
the quarrels of kings, and have been obliged to return, after 
so many years of civilization, to the p)^incij)les which cha/rac- 
terize the iarlarism of the earliest ages. But we have been 
constrained, for the good of our people and of our allies to 


oppose to the common enemy the same arms which he 
wields against us. These resolutions (decrees) are the result 
of a just sentiment of reciprocity, and have been inspired 
neither by passion nor by hatred."* 

The impressment of American seamen from American 
ships, pursuing a legitimate commerce upon the highway 
of nations, was the other gi'ievance which led to the war. 
The Federal Government at all times professed a readiness 
to enter into arrangements with Great Britain upon this 
subject, which for the future should be satisfactory, and 
would prevent every ground of collision ; and never refused 
to give up the British deserter, found in the American ser- 
vice, upon probation of the fact of his desertion before a 
competent authority. But the United States did object to 
the subjecting of the persons, the liberty, and the riglits, of 
American citizens to either the caprice, the insolence, or the 
wants of a British naval officer — often incompetent to be 
intrusted with matters of infinitely less importance ; or to 
admit the right of invading their territory, by a foreign 
power, to put at hazard the life or liberty of any who had 
sought and found, constitutionally, an asylum within that 
territory. The deck of an American ship, covered by the 
American flag, except for articles contraband of war, is 
deemed as sacred as any spot within American jurisdiction. 
The man who occupies a place upon that deck, of whatever 
country, is entitled to the protection of the flag that waves 
over it, until, by the judgment of a competent tribunal, it 
be decided that to this protection he has no legitimate claim. 
Under the pretext of reclaiming deserters, thousands of our 
citizens had been dragged from their own ships, forced on 
board the floating prisons of Britain, compelled to fight her 
* Pub. Documents, No. 2, p. 406 ; 23a Cong. 


guilty battles, and even to aid in carrying into eifect her 
outrageous orders against the sovereign rights of their own 

In this contest were involved principles of deep interest. 
The right of expatriation was now contested; and against 
it was urged the claim of perpetual allegiance to the govern- 
ment of the place of a man's nativity. Great Britain had, 
indeed, set the example of the right of expatriation, in her 
own laws for naturalizing citizens of other States, or 
subjects of other kingdoms; but now, in reference to those 
born under her dominion, she denies the right. By the 
proclamations of her Prince Eegent, her subjects who had 
emigrated to other countries were repeatedly called upon to 
return home ; and by that issued from Carlton House, of the 
date of July 23d, 1814, in connection with the assertion of 
unalienable allegiance to his Britannic majesty, it was 
threatened, that should any of those born in the British 
dominions be found in the ships or armies of the States, 
bearing arms against him, they would be considered as 
guilty of high treason, and be treated according to the 
utmost rigor of the law. To show that this was not to be 
viewed as an empty threat, selections of naturalized citizens 
of the United States were made, from among the prisoners 
of war then in the hand of the rulers of Britain, and were 
threatened with the penalty of high treason. 

The Federal Government, that the enemy might be 
deterred from his bloody purpose, selected a double number 
of his subjects, now prisoners in the States, and declared the 
determined purpose of a terrible retaliation, should any 
violence be done to those adopted citizens of the United 
States then under arrest in England. This decisive measure 
like that of the First Consul of France, in the somewhat 


similar case of Gen. Tandy, had the desired and expected 
effect American humanity was well known ; and, at the 
court of St. James, it was as well known, that to the voice 
of a sickly sentimentalism, interfering with public justice 
and the principles of plighted faith, no ear would be lent by 
this country, or its government. The uplifted hand of 
England was stayed from the execution of the barbarous 
threat of her cabinet. The government of the United States, 
at this time, would make no difference between the native 
and naturalized citizen. America had given her pledge to 
her adopted sons, and that pledge she nobly redeemed. 

France, at length, met the overtures of the Federal Gov- 
ernment, by assuring the American minister, that the Berlin 
and Milan decrees should cease to operate against the United 
States from the 1st of ISTovember, 1810 ; and the proclama- 
tian of the President of Ifovember 2d, in the same year, 
announced the cessation of the non-intercourse act, as it 
respected France ; and allowed to Britain the advantage of 
this, till the 10th of the following February, with certifica- 
tion, however, that should her orders in council not be 
rescinded, that act should be then revived against her in all 
its force. 

Contrary to justice, and regardless of understood engage- 
ments, the British government persevered in its mischievous 
course. This perseverance in wrong, and in the accumula- 
tion of outrage, on the part of England, at length exhausted 
the almost exhaustless springs of American forbearance. 
The declaration of war was the result. In a review of the 
whole course of the United States, in their dignified forbear- 
ance under, and honorable resistance of British aggression, 
the compliment of a foreign historian* will be found as 

* Bignon. 



applicable to every part, as to that act to which he more 
directly refers. " This act of the American government 
pleases the imagination and the judgment, as it presents an 
instance of a nation, which, notwithstanding the extreme 
inferiority of its forces, preserves its dignity towards a pow- 
erful state." 

The following extract from a paper of great power, read 
in the cabinet at "Washington, and intended to be addressed 
as an appeal to the people, giving an exposition of the causes 
and character of the war, but which subsequent circum- 
stances did not require the public authorities to promulgate, 
will not be out of place in this connection. " Unhappily, 
every appeal to the justice and magnanimity of Great 
Britain was now, as heretofore, fi'uitless and forlorn. She 
had impressed from the cre'ws of American merchant vessels, 
peaceably navigating the high seas, not less than 6,000 
mariners, who claimed to be citizens of the United States, 
and who were denied all opportunity to verify their claims. 
She had seized and confiscated the commercial property of 
American citizens to an incalculable amount. She had 
united in the enormities of France, to declare a great pro- 
portion of the terraqueous globe in a state of blockade; 
chasing the American merchant flag efi'ectually from the 
ocean. She has contemptuously disregarded the neutrality 
of the American territory, and the jurisdiction of the Ame- 
rican laws within the waters and harbors of the United 
States. She has enjoyed the emoluments of a surreptitious 
trade, stained with every species of fraud and corruption, 
which gave to the belligerent powers the advantages of 
peace, while the neutral powers were involved in the evils 
of war. She had, in short, usurped and exercised on the 
water, a tyranny similar to that which her great antagonist 


had exercised upon tlie land. And, amidst all tliese proofs 
of ambition and avarice, she demanded that the victims 
of her usurpations and her violence, should revere her as the 
sole defender of the rights and liberties of mankind. 

" When, therefore, Great Britain, in manifest violation of 
her solemn promises, refused to follow the example of 
France by the repeal of her orders in council, the American 
government was compelled to contemplate a resort to arms, 
as the only remaining course to be pursued, for its honor, 
its independence, and its safety. Whatever depended upon 
the United States themselves, the United States had per- 
formed for the preservation of peace, in resistance of the 
French decrees, as well as of the British orders. What had 
been required from France, in her relation to the neutral 
character of the United States, France has performed by the 
revocation of the Berlin and Milan decrees. But what 
depended tipon great Britain, for the purpose of justice, 
in the repeal of her orders in council, was withheld ; and 
new evasions were sought when the old were exhausted. 
****** Tj^e Congress of the United States 
could pause no longer. Under a deep and afflicting sense of 
the national wrongs, and the national resentments, * * * 
they pronounced a deliberate and solemn declaration of 
war, between Great Britain and the United States, on the 
18th of January, 1812." 

Public sentiment in the United States, by a great majority, 
sustained the measures of the government ; but not without 
embarrassment from the influence of a powerful and active 
minority in opposition. Upon the measures of that ill- 
advised opposition we have no disposition to enter in detail. 
The agony of mind experienced at that day by the friends 
of the administration, in view of the accumulation of inju- 


ries which had been heaped upon their counti;y ; in view of 
the victors of Waterloo now ready to be poured forth in 
myriads upon our shores ; and in view of faction, in various 
forms, doing its evil work at home, is, perhaps, not yet 
sufficiently forgotten to allow the passing of a judgment 
entirely impartial, in the premises. 

It would be unjust to many then in opposition to accuse 
them of defect in patriotism. " I know," said an old and 
honorable Federalist, at this time — " I know that I love my 
country ; for my heart feels the wounds that are inflicted 
upon her." Every right-hearted man, of whatever party, 
could have said this. The party in opposition, according to 
their numbers, were not inferior in intellectual and moral 
worth, to those who held the reins of government. To their 
leading men it is but fair to admit, that they honestly 
differed with the Republican party in their views of policy. 
When the future historian shall record the judgment of an 
impartial public opinion on this subject, he will not leave 
unnoticed, in mitigation, the honorable grounds of opposi- 
tion from difference of principle ; and the great pressure of 
the times upon a section of country, whose capital had 
almost entirely been embarked in commerce, now well-nigh 
annihilated. The plea of " State rights," too, which in so 
many States has been urged at different times, by men of 
undoubted integrity and patriotism, will not be forgotten. 

This reference to past events is not for the purpose of 
i-eviving old resentments, either as regards the nation with 
which we were then at war, or the men who led in opposi- 
tion at home. Tlie motive is very different. The recurrence 
to the history of those painful scenes is in explanation of 
the decided course taken by our venerable friend in that 
conflict. In that contest he saw involved the rio-hts of his 


adopted cotintiy, the rights of independent nations, and 
some of the fundamental principles of public morality, and 
of the rights of individual man. A recuiTence of the evils 
of that day of trial, it is hoped our country will never again 
witness ; and the fact that they may never recur, the more 
justiiies this reference. 

The men who then directed the policy of the British 
empire, did not truly represent the sentiments of the people 
of that empire. In the breasts of British whigs, the com- 
plaints of American wrongs had a responding sympathy. 
Though not in the cabinet, yet upon the floor of Parliament 
and in their enlightened and liberal journals, the ^incvples 
of the American cause had zealous and powerful advocates. 
The days of a narrow-minded and jealous policy, it is 
trusted, have given place to those of views and measures 
more . worthy of enlightened statesmen. The people of the 
British empire are in progress toward a better state of 
things. The bands of an arrogant aristocracy will soon be 
broken, and the yoke of insolent establishments no longer 
bear heavily on the public mind. They and the citizens of 
the United States must henceforth see, that between them 
there can be no legitimate matter of contest, except an 
emulation to excel, in the prosecution of measures which 
most effectually tend to promote the intellectual, moral, and 
social elevation of man. 

In the indications of prophecy, of which the distinguished 
author of these discourses was an attentive student and able 
interpreter, and in the light of the promise of which he was 
a firm believer, he saw in prospect, this elevated state of 
man. He was well persuaded that the American cause, 
now in contest with Britain, was one of the important means 
leading to that desirable result ; and no doubt entered his 


mind, that the war now waged in behalf of that cause 
would subserve, under the direction of the good Providence 
of God, its ultimate attainment, among the nations of the 
earth. The frame of the British government, as well as the 
habitual character of its administration, he considered as, in 
its spirit, opposed to the rights both of God and man. The 
countenance given to the policy of that government, by 
many in the ranks of the opposition, he considered as 
immoral in its bearing ; and, of course, never heard with 
patience the influence of religion invoked, to sustain the 
cause of Britain against the United States. 

He had been an attentive observer of the progress of 
events in past years. !N"ow he had full before him the 
details of the policy of the enemy, " equally distinguished 
by the deformity of its features and depravity of its charac- 
ter. By it Great Britain had violated the principles of 
social law by insidious attempts to excite, in a state of peace, 
the citizens of the United States into acts of contumacy, 
treason, and revolt, against their government," as in the 
instance of Henry's mission. " She had violated the laws 
of humanity and honor, by seeking alliance with pirates, 
soAiages, and slmes. She had violated the laws of civihzed 
warfare by plundering private property; by outraging 
female honor ; by burning unprotected cities, towns, villages 
and houses ; and by laying waste whole districts of unre- 
sisting country." Washington city, with its public library 
and various monuments of the fine arts, in the spirit of 
vandal warfare, had been laid in ashes ; a fleet was makino- 
its way down Lake Champlain, wliile a powerful army, on 
the shore of that water, was on its march to Plattsburg • 
certain ports were actually in the possession of the enemy • 
the harbor of ISTew York was blockaded by his ships of war • 


the South was threatened with invasion, and was soon 
invaded by troops flushed with the results of the field of 
Waterloo. Meantime the Northern opposition were concen- 
trating their forces, for the projected measures of the Plart- 
ford Convention ; while some, unhappily, averred that 
rehgion and sound morals, as well as the cause of liberty, 
were ranged on the side of Britain, as their protector and 

It was in this state of affairs, and tmder these circum- 
stances, that our venerable friend, to unmask the deceptions 
which were in progress, taking his reputation in his hand 
and summoning his moral courage, while confiding in the 
Providence of a promising God, appeared in the ranks where 
he knew he must attack the opinions of men, with whom he 
was in habits of familiar friendship — men whom he respected 
and loved; but whom he considered as laboring under a 
temporary misapprehension of social obligation and patriotic 
duty. The sermons before us were the results of this 
appearance — Christians were summoned to rally around the 
standard of their country. While the opposition to the 
government attempted to paralyze the exertions of the 
public arm, his endeavor was to nerve that arm with 
strength, by inspiring the public mind with confidence in 
the rectitude of the country's cause. In that day of gloom 
he vindicated that cause ; he rebuked the misapplication of 
that religion which he understood and loved, which had 
attempted to turn its voice against the measures of the 
United States, in that contest ; and he succeeded in rousing 
the spirit of the friend of his country to more vigorous 
action, by assuring him that his cause was good' — that it was 
sustained by the principles of true religion, by the dictates 
of pure morality, and that the issue would be happy. Who 


will venture to affirm that, in acting thus, this patriotic man 
neglected his duty ? 

It is not to be concealed, that, in connection with the 
defence of the cause of his country, the author had in view 
the introduction of iDrinciples, before the public mind, which 
he judged to be of permanent importance to the interests of 
righteousness and peace among men. He was an ardent, as 
well as an enlightened admirer of the jyrinGijyles of the 
Protestant Eeformation of the sixteenth century, in Western 
Europe. Those principles, as they respected the social 
relations of men, he justly considered to have obtained an 
expression and development in the British Islands during 
the struggles against civil and religious tyranny, in the 
seventeenth century, which had not been exemplified in 
previous times. The British Reformers had before them the 
labors and experience of the able and faithful advocates of 
truth on the continent of Europe. In France, Holland, 
Switzerland, and the states of Germany, the cause of the 
Eeformation had been sustained by talent of the highest 
order. The spirit-stirring period of the seventeenth century 
called into action, in the British empire, minds capable of 
appreciating what had been done upon the continent, and 
of turning to good account the rich fruits of those labors, 
in enlightened and upright endeavors to carry on toward 
perfection what their own fathers had commenced at home. 
Tlie Protestant Eeformation was, indeed, a mighty work ; 
but it is to be contemplated as coming greatly short in its 
developments of what its enlightened agents designed, and 
consequently, very far from perfect. It may be considered 
as a bright gleam of light, spreading its rays through the 
surrounding darkness, and to the careful observer indicating 
the com-fe to be pursued, in order to the attainment of 


ultimate objects, rather than as having actually attained 
those objects. Some of the first principles of the Keforma- 
tion, in the maintenance of which the martyrs of the conti- 
nent and isles of Europe had so profusely poured out their 
precious blood, Dr. McLeod considered to be embraced in 
this American contest. So far he viewed the cause of the 
Eeforniation and that of the United States as identified. 

At the time of the publication of the Discourses on the 
War, in a letter to a friend, he remarked : " My object is 
to spread the knowledge of our principles, in matters civil 
and religious. The good of my country is the next object 
to the good of Zion. I expect hostility and I am prepared 
for it. That is, I will bear it without a frown." And in a 
subsequent letter, referring to his publication, he says : 
" You will not be so much disappointed about it as some 
others. It was intended as a display of Seformation prin- 
ciples ; and I dare say you will think it the best I ever 
made. The war is the carriage and the equipage in which 
the old Covenanter travels among the cities of this land. 
I venture to reveal to you the secret which could not long be 
concealed from your own sagacity." 

Such were the views of our distinguished and beloved 
friend. Love of Zion and love of country were, in his 
bosom, in close alliance ; and neither of them was a latent 
aifection. Though possessed of great self-command, when 
such objects were before him, he had no wish, and he made 
no attempt, to repress the out-goings of his heart toward 

The effects produced by these discourses are not forgotten. 
The author was assailed by mere party men. To their 
assaults he made no reply — he acted in the spirit and to the 
letter of his resolution : " I will bear it without a frown." 


To animadversions on his published opinions on various 
subjects, it appeared to be his purpose to make no reply. It 
^vas known that he had been thus attacked, thi-ough the 
medium of the press, upward of sixty times ; but he let 
them pass without notice. Some of his sincere friends, 
without opposition to his views, regretted that he had 
appeared in this controversy, fearing that it might interfere, 
in certain quarters, with his influence in favor of sound evan- 
gelical doctrine, and good ecclesiastical order. The late 

venerable Dr. B , with the kindest feelings, in one of 

our interviews expressed this regret. In a conversation 
with Dr. McLeod, at a subsequent period, this loss of 
influence was referred to. He was apprised of the fact ; but 
remarked : " If they need my help they will come back, 
and if they do not need it, no harm will be done." 

The favorable notices of the sermons in the journals of 
the time, and by our flrst men, would fill many pages. The 
testimony of Mr. Jefferson, expressed in his note to Mr. 
Wendover, then a member of Congress, is well known. The 
Christian patriot who had for a moment hesitated in doubt, 
was cheered, while in reading those eloquent and powerfully 
reasoned pages, he received the assurance, that when he 
aided the national arm, in the maintenance of national rights 
against the public enemy, instead of sinning against his God 
and Eedeemer, he was fulfilling a duty demanded by moral 
right, and was justified in doing so by principles of public 
law, as recognized by the civilized world ; and especially by 
the unerring decisions of the Scriptures of truth. These 
discourses had their share in the production of that unan- 
imity of sentiment, at the commencement of the foUowino- 
year, which brought men of all parties with their counsels 
and their means, to rally around the standard of their 


coimtiy, Terifying the assertion of the third President of 
the United States, upon his introduction of the Presidential 
chair : " We are all Federalists, we are all Eepublicans." 
Had the war been prolonged another year, the enemy 
would have been swept from our soil. According to human 
calculation, the battle of January 8th, at New Orleans 
was a prelude of what would have followed. 

It is now time to notice the Discourses themselves. In 
the preface to the first edition, the author gives a summary 
of the motives which influenced him to undertake this 
work ; asserting that what he advocated was not a matter 
of mere temporary interest, but " the permanent principles 
of social order and public equity." This preface thus con- 
cludes: "If the work contained a single sentiment of 
irreligious or immoral tendency, I would cheerfully consign 
it to the flames. I love mankind, I love the country of 
my choice, I love the saints ; and I desire to promote the 
best interests of true religion and of civil liberty, because I 
love my God." 

In the preface to the second edition, after congratulating 
his readers upon the return of peace, and remarking on the 
course of the policy pursued by the enemy, he adds : " Had 
he speedily met our commissioners with a spirit of equity 
and conciliation, he might have spared us some blood 
and treasure : and he would have saved for himself muc7i 
of both, as well as, that which is to him of great importance 
—Ms militcm/ renown. Heaven ordered it otherwise. The 
angel of the covenant, who, notwithstanding our iniquities, 
presides in mercy over the destinies of our free and happy 
land, had decreed, that the enemy should send his veter- 
ans across the Atlantic, with their hard-earned laurels, for 


the purpose of transferring tliem to the brow of American 
heroes, who fonght and conquered in vindication of the 
injured rights of their country. In the concluding blow 
of the war we have a guarantee that our national rights 
shall not again be rashly invaded. The battle of Orleans 
cannot be forgotten. While we live to enjoy the benefits of 
the pacification, and hold in honorable recollection the 
deeds of the soldier, let us be grateful to Him, who gaw 
courage to our warriors and success to our armaments, so 
far as seemed to himself both wise and good. Serve the 
Lord with fear, and rejoice with trenibling. He maketh 
wars to cease unto the ends of the earth.''^ 

Seemon I. — The first sermon is founded upon Amos vii. 
12-16. The lucid and able introduction prepares the mind 
for what follows. The proposition submitted for discussion 
is this : 

Ministers have the right of discussing from the pulpit 
those political questions which affect Christian inorals. 

The plan of discussion is — To prove this right — and 
remove objections. 

The topics of argument by which he vindicates this right, 
are— The object of the ministry, implied in the commission 
given by the Eedeemer, instruction in righteousness ;—^V&\.- 
ever regards sin and duty. Scripture history, which cannot 
be explained without reference to political principles and 
transactions. The system of prophecy, which contemplates 
the aflairs of nations. The precepts by which we are commis- 
sioned to expound passages which respect the mode of consti- 
tuting civil riders ; the character of such as administer the 
governments— the duty of the constituted authorities— the 
conduct proper upon the part of subjects.— Passages of 


Scripture wliicli reprove them who confer power impro- 
perly and threaten magistrates who are immindful of their 
high obligations. 

These several topics are handled with great power. 
Beyond reasonable contradiction, the author establishes the 
right for which he contends. The fastidiousness of timidity 
in so many of the clergy, upon this subject, has seconded 
the impertinence of infidelity in persuading men, too 
successfully, that the affairs of state have no relation to 
G-od, and that those who conduct these affairs are not under 
religious responsibilities to be faithful in their place. How 
will the minister of Christ account for his neglect, to 
instruct those to whom he ministers, in their obligations to 
act upon Christian principles and to honor their Eedeemer 
in civil, as well as in religious life ? Let the ministry cease 
to attach their names to the little partisanship of candidates 
for office, and occupy the high ground of able and fearless 
expounders of the oracles of God, and the effects upon 
political morality and public character will be happy. 

But one remark, in this place, is necessary to be kept 
in mind: The ability to expound the laws of public 
morality, must be possessed by him who engages in the 
duty. The admission and exercise of the right under con- 
sideration, connected with destitution of qualification for its 
profitable employment, has sometimes led to dreadful 
blundering. ISTone lamented this fact more than the venera- 
ble author of these discourses, when circumstances subjected 
him to the penalty of hearing ill-advised political ebullitions 
instead of enlightened discussions of the religious and moral 
principles of truth. In the discourse before us, he adminis- 
ters caution against this abuse. " I admit," says he, " the 
danger of abusing this and every other right which we 


possess ; and for sucli abuse we deserve correction. la 
proportion, too, to the danger of misrepresenting the word 
of truth, should be our caution in the selection and dis- 
cussion of subjects before the public. — This caution is pecu- 
liarly necessary for those ministers who venture upon 
political remarks." — pp. 19-20. 

The second part of the discussion is the removal of 
objections. Tlie objections are fairly stated, and ably, as 
well as candidly, refuted. The objections as usually stated 
are — Christ crucified, is the proper theme of ministerial dis- 
cussion. The kingdom of the Kedeemer, is not of this world. 
Ministers have the care of souls, and not of the bodily 
estate. Gospel hearers are divided in political opinions. 
Political remarks are unfavorable to devotion. Preachers 
are dictatorial, and usually opposed to civil liberty. 

!N"o man of mind can read this discourse, in a proper 
spirit, without profit. However strong the temptation to 
indulge in quotation, we must forbear. We cannot, how- 
ever, omit giving the concluding paragraph of the reply 
to the first objection: — "That very reason, which the 
objector urges against the introduction into the pulpit of 
political remarks, we esteem as an argument in its favor. 
The objection proceeds upon the principle, that the gospel 
doctrine, the Christian religion, is to be perpetually sepa- 
rated from the polity of nations ; we go upon the directly 
opposite principl-e, that civil rule should be rregulated by 
the maxims of Christian law. Seeing, therefore, that we 
determined to know nothing among you, save Jesus Christ, 
and Him crucified; we introduce into this place our 
political sentiments, and invite you to correct by the 
revelation of truth, all your political maxims and actions. 


Let US recommend in the same breath, religions and civil 
duty. '■Love the 'brotherhood — Fear God — Honor the 
King.'—l Pet. ii. 17." 

It pleases the mind to perceive men distinguished for 
talents and goodness, in different countries and of different 
religious communities, embracing and vindicating the same 
sentiments. The late Keverend Kobert Hall, of England, 

in animadverting upon the views of Mr. C , who 

maintained that Christians, and especially Christian Minis- 
ters, have nothing to do with the discussion of political 
subjects, observes — ■" I have no doubt that this event — 
(that all men will be Christians,) — will take place, and 
rejoice in the prospect of it ; but whenever it arrives, it will 

be fatal to Mr. C 's favorite principles, for the professors 

of Christianity must then become politicians, as the wicked 
on whom he at present very politely devolves the business 
of government, will be no more ; or perhaps, he indulges 
a hope that even then there will be a sufficient number 
of sinners left to conduct political affairs. * * * * It 
will still, however, be a great hardship, that a handful of 
the wicked should rule innumerable multitudes of the 
just, and cannot fail according to our present conceptions, 
to operate as a kind of check on piety and virtue." * 

In repelling the latter part of the sixth and last objection, 
the preacher eloquently appeals to the conduct of the minis- 
ters of the Eeformation, in the nations of continental Europe ; 
to the Whigs of Scotland, the Puritans of England, and in 
our own Eevolutionary struggle, to the part that was acted 
by the Christian ministry of that day. Dr. McLeod would 
never admit that the Christian ministers of the United 
* Christianity consistent witli a Love of Freedom. 


States, as a body, were hostile to civil liberty ; nor would 
he allow that any but a small minority of them, during 
the late war, were in opposition to the administration of the 
ffOTernment. In the discourse before us, he accounts for a 
secular priesthood, when the establishment of religion has 
made them part and parcel of the political system, appearing 
as the panders of despotism. This, however, is the cor- 
ruption of corrupt establishments, acting upon the corruption 
of human nature, in the production of their evil designs. 
This belongs not to the legitimate operations of the Christian 
ministry, upon its own appropriate field, and under the 
influence of its own appropriate principles. We conclude 
our notice of this very instructive discourse, with the follow- 
ing quotation: — 

" There are yet among our pastors men who, in despite of 
the baleful influence of party spirit, feel the force of piety 
and patriotism, and remember their duty to the cause of 
equity, their country, and their God. If the rights and 
liberties of this great and growing empire are doomed to 
perish, their last abode will be found along the side of the 
pulpits of the ministers of religion. There are men, in that 
sacred office, who would, in such a case, use upon better 
principles than did the Eoman orator, the words which he 
put on the lips of his distinguished client, Titus Annius 
Milo, ' I will withdraw, and retire into exile: if I cannot be 
a member of a virtuous commonwealth, it will be some 
satisfaction not to live in a bad one ; and, as soon as I set 
foot in a well-regulated and free state, there will I fix my 
abode — qxiam-jprimum tdigcro lene moratam ct llljcram, civi- 
tatem, in ea conquiescarn.^ But no ? Liberty shall not perish I 
The daughter of Zion rejoices in her fellowship. Peace and 


prosperity shall hereafter visit our land, and dwell in our 
habitations. The Lord hasten it in his own time, and unto 
him be glory in Christ Jesus, world without end. Amen."' — 
pp. 47, 48. 

Seemon II. — ^The second discourse is entitled — " The Moral 
Character of the two Belligerents." The text is, Dan. v. 
27. Tekel ; thou art weighed in the lalanoes, and a/rt found 

The author proceeds to examine both the American and 
British goTernments in the light of inspired truth. He 
begins with the national government of the United States. 
The immoralities charged against it are comprehended under 
two heads : Disrespect for God, and violation of huma/n 
liberty. The first of these charges the author sustains by 
the affirmation that, " God is not acknowledged ly the Con- 

For this omission no apology can be made, or ought to be 
attempted. That Being to whose superintending provi- 
dence an appeal had been made in their Declaration of 
Independence, and which appeal in the dispensation of his 
providence was sustained, the States, in their bond of Con- 
federation, should have with gratitude, explicitly, confessed. 
But while we enter our decided testimony against this 
neglect, that our testimony may be true and its application 
just, it is indispensable that we ascertain the extent of the 
evil. This our venerable friend has, in part, accomplished 
in the record before us, and to which we shall immediately 
refer. In addition, however, it is worthy of notice, that the 
oath of office, administered to the officers of the Federal 
government, so far as its moral influence is concerned and 
here lies its chief force, does recognize and confess the beinff 

16 ^ 


and government of God. This, it is true, is only indirect 
confession of these truths; but though indirect, it is real. 
The provision of the Constitution exempting the President 
of the United States frbm the discharge of certain official 
duties, on the first day of the week, though an indirect, is, 
nevertheless, a real acknowledgment of the sanctity of the 
Christian sabbath, and, so far, is a recognition of Christ- 
ianity itself. The general practice of the several depart- 
ments of government, in refraining from business on that 
day, is in accordance with this view of the subject. The 
constitutions of Bible, Tract, Temperance, and other asso- 
ciations, all of which are organized for moral purposes, 
confess the being and government of God, not directly, but 
by implication only ; yet we have not heard them charged 
with disrespect for God, nor do we know that intelligent 
Christians, for the reason that such confession is only indi- 
rect, refuse them their support. But let us hear our distin- 
guished author himself, in explanation of the matter. 

" In a federative government, erected over several distinct 
and independent States, retaining each the power of local 
legislation, it is not to be expected that specific provision 
should be made for the interests of religion in particular 
congregations. The general government is erected for the 
general good of the United States, and especially for the 
management of their foreign concerns : but no association 
of men for moral purposes can be justified in an entire 
neglect of the Sovereign of the world. Statesmen in this 
country had undoubtedly in their eye the abuse of religion 
for mere political purposes, which in the nations of the old 
world had corrupted the sanctuaiy, and laid the foundation 
for the persecution of godly men. 


" On the score of religion, it is better to neglect^ than to 
prostitute the church of God. Here, the framers of om* law 
have said to the daughter of Zion, ' Depart from our coun- 
cils. A few of us love thy cause ; but there are some who 
hate it ; and the greater part are indifferent about thee. 
Go, seek thy way uninterrupted through the land. Thou 
art free to pursue the most desirable course : but upon our 
aid thou must not calculate.' There, political men beheld 
the Christian cause with an eye that seeks to make gain of 
every object within its reach. The statesman said, ' Oome, 
daughter of Zion, thou must bear my yoke ; thou must be 
my servant ; thou must promote my interest ; and shouldst 
thou refuse my mandates, thou shalt suffer for thy fidelity 
to Jehovah. Whatever the Bible may teach, it is my 
business to establish such a system of religion as best suits 
my own political plans. This is my determination.' 

" ISTotwithstanding, therefore, the irreligion of the general 
constitution of om- government, the church of GoJ ig, in 
this country, upon a better footing, as it respects the 
national power, than in any other country upon earth. 
Nay, under existing cu'cumstances, it is our mercy, -, that 
God has so ordered it in his providence, that men, of the 
description of those who are elected to power among the 
nations, have not been permitted to interfere with ecclesi- 
astical polity, and to exercise sovereignty over the con- 
sciences of men, in their spiritual concerns." 

Some of the language of the preamble to the treaty with 
Tripoli, ia 1Y97, was, perhaps, neither happy, nor altogether 
true. That treaty has however been, it is believed, since 
modified. What was exceptionable was in the preamble 
only, and an inspection of the treaty itself will show that 


it embraced no improper or immoral stipulation. Tlie 
doubtful declaration, that the government of tlie United 
States has in itself no character of enmity against the laws 
or religion of Mussulmen, must be confined to the subject 
of the treaty — mere commercial relationships. And to say 
that the United States government is not founded on Ohrist- 
ianify, is so near the sentiment and language of the whole 
Eeformed Church, which declares " that civil government is 
not founded in grace," that we must ascribe some part of 
the remarks made upon it to a momentary inadvertence. 

The second charge adduced against the American govern- 
ment is, " The violation of human liberty." In sustaining 
this charge, reference is had to slavery. That this deplor- 
able evil was forced by Great Britain upon this country, in 
its colonial state, is matter of deep sorrow ; and that any of 
the States, at the time of forming the Constitution, were 
indisposed to authorize the government of the Confederacy 
to extinguish the evil, is greatly to be lamented ; and still 
further, that so many in the slaveholding States are disin- 
clined to adopt efiicient and wise measures, for the abolition 
of this calamity, is cause of sincere regret. 

Upon the relation of this grievous evil to the Constitution 
and government of the United States, the following remarks 
may be offered. 

1. Slavery was seen to exist in the country, and imder its 
institutions, man was held as the property of his fellow 
man. What department of those institutions,— whether 
that of the Federal or the State authorities only— was 
chargeable with authorizing this evil, was not always 
inquired into. And yet the ascertaining of what is matter 
of fact on this point, is necessary to a just and impartial 
judgment upon the subject. 


2. In the practice of slavery, crime was seen to exist; 
■mi in reference to the District of Columbia, and the regu- 
lation of commerce between the States, Congress, without 
any constitutional obligation to be so, is at least criminally 
negligent. To him who is a stranger to our institutions, 
there is nothing more easy, and it may be said, nothing 
more natural, than to refer civil evils, or political wrongs, 
to the general constitution of the Union ; and yet nothing 
may be, at the same time, more unjust. The circumstances, 
too, must be very peculiai', the call very pressing, and the 
facihties favorable, that will lead any man, stranger or 
citizen, to examine every, or any, constitutional question 
with that precision that will lead to an unerring judgment 
upon it, in its various bearings. 

3. If under the circumstances in which he was placed, a 
language was employed by our departed friend, as it was by 
many others, too strong, as regarded the relation of slavery 
to the Federal Constitution, it is not to be deemed strange. 
Had he then, in this case, as we know he did at a subse- 
quent period, carried out in detail, his own view of the 
federative and limited character of the Constitution of the 
Union, his expressions, without any change of principle, 
would have been modified. The abolition of the slave trade 
by the Congress of the United States, and of slavery itself 
by several of the particular States, together with the 
extended and enlightened discussions upon that complex 
and very delicate subject— the limits between Federal and 
State jurisdiction, all contributed, at a subsequent period, 
to guide the attentive observer to a more just decision than 
had previously obtained upon this subject. Our statesmen 
more generally think accurately upon it than was done 
twenty years ago. A mod/lfioation of view as to where. 


npon whom, or upon what, the crime of slavery is charge- 
able, is very different from a change of principle in 
reference to the evil itself, in its moral and political bear- 
ings. In the mind of the author, there never was any 
abatement of the abhorrence of the principle and practice 
of slavery. The persuasion in the mind of any man, that 
the Federal Constitution never made a slave — expresses no 
approbation of slavery, — is not inconsistent with a detesta- 
tion of slavery itself, and of the code that really authorizes 
this crying sin. 

The view taken of the British government is full of inter- 
est. Against it five charges are tabled and well sustained. 
The following is an outline of this portion of the discourse, 

1. The, British government, as it now exists, is a desjyotic 

2. A superstitious combination of civil cmd ecclesiastical 

3. A Iranch of the grand Antichristian apostasy. 

4. JErastian in its constitution and administration. 
6. Cnbel in its policy. 

These charges are amply sustained, by the facts adduced, 
in the course of the discussion. How ill founded the 
plaudits of the court of St. James as the defender of our 
religion, and the protector of the liberties of mankind, is 
made to appear. And withal, in the usual spirit of the 
author's discrimination of mind and kindness of heart, will 
be found the cordial recognition of excellence of character, 
and of many of the institutions found in the British empire. 
The moral worth of the subject is not confounded with the 
profligacy of the monarchy, nor are the virtuous institutions 
and acts of the people, identified with the immoralities of 
the constitution and its corrupt administrations. 


In this discourse, the reader finds the results of much 
research with various and interesting historical notices. The 
origin of the term, Emstiwn, and its import in ecclesiastical 
history, the following extract will explain. 

'■'■Thomas Erastus was both a divine and a physician. 
He was learned and active, and influential among the distin- 
guished men of that very remarkable age in which he lived 
— an age which roused, by an extraordinary impulse, the 
human mind from the lethai'gy under which it had long 
labored — the era of the Eeformation. Born in Baden of 
Switzerland, in the year 1624, and educated in Bazil and 
Bologna, he practised physic at the court of the elector 
palatine, and became professor in the University of Heidel- 
berg. In his book on Excommimication, he develops those 
principles which have since been called by his name. That 
Christ and his apostles prescribed no forms of discipline for 
the church — that the supreme ecclesiastical power belongs 
to the civil magistrate — that ministers are only teachers 
possessed of the right of public persuasion — that to the 
government of the State belongs the right of admitting 
members into the church, and excluding them from it — that 
the church of Christ is a department of the civil common- 
wealth, are the sentiments of Erastus. These have always 
been the prevailing sentiments of the court of Great 
Britain, since the time of Henry VIII. The clergy of the 
church of England, from Grcmmer to Wliitgift, were of 
Erastian principles. Bancroft was the firat to maintain the 
divine right of the episcopacy ; and even since his day, the 
great body of the English hierarchy view the church ' as a 
mere creature of the State: Indeed, the Puritans them- 
selves, both the ministers and the members of Parliament 


were willing at first to subscribe, with but little variation, 
to Erastian sentiments, although disposed to a greater degi-ee 
of liberty, in religion and civil concerns, than was consistent 
with the pleasure of the court and the bishops. It was not, 
until the Scottish commissioners explained, in the Assembly 
of Divines, the true polity of the church of God, as a 
spiritual cmjnre, having its o^mi officers and laws, under the 
HEAD Jesus Cheist, that the English ministers fully under- 
stood the distinction. To the faithful labors of the church 
of Scotland, the Christian world is indebted, under the 
blessing of God, for the prevalence of a principle, now 
universally imderstood, and, in this country, reduced to 
practice by all the ecclesiastical bodies — that the church is a 
distinct society, with an organization of its " own. This 
important doctrine is of divine authority. Its truth hath 
been attested by the blood of the martyrs : and the 
kingdoms, which oppose this part of the faith delivered to 
the saints, are guilty of rebellion against the King of Icings, 
and Lord of lordsP 

The conclusion of this sermon evinces where the confi- 
dence of the preacher found its place of rest, for himself, his 
country, and Christians at large. He thus speaks : 

" To the causes and proximate consequences of the present 
war, I intend, hereafter, to turn your attention. Indepen- 
dently of these, our acquaintance with the national character 
of the parties furnishes an argument in support of our 

" There is an eye above the earth, that knows the nations 
that marks their conduct, that observes the strife. There is 
a Man, elevated above the world, with whom is no respect 


of persons, who is touclied -with the feelings of our infirmi- 
ties, and will award to men and to empires their due. 
Christians, it is your Eedeemer. Behold him on high, at 
the right hand of God, exalted above all principalities and 
powers. He is Prince of the kings of the earth. He rules 
in the battle. He directs the storm. He is mindful of 
individuals. He will save them that trust in him. He will 
bless and protect his church, while the nations are at war. 
He invites you to come under the shadow of his wings. 
There you shall have rest. His voice of peace is heard, 
while his hand controls the battle. Yes, brethren, while his 
Almighty finger writes upon the palace-wall this sentence 
against the nations, Mene, Mene, Tekel, Uphaesin, to you 
he says, Come^ my people, enter thou into thy chambers, and 
shut thy doors about thee : hide thyself as it were for a little 
moment, until the indignation he overpast. Ajmen."— p. 100. 

Seemoit hi.— -The subject of the third discourse is "The 
Lawfulness of Defensive War." The text is, Prov. xx. 18. 
With good advice malce wa/r. The plan of discussion is : 

I. War is, in certain cases, lawful. 

II. Explanation of defensvve wa/r. 

in. When a nation is engaged in lawful war, it is the 
duty of all to afford it their support. 

This is really a very able discussion, and certainly not less 
interesting than the foregoing. The definitions given are 
worthy of special notice. The confirmation of his positions 
from reason, the most distinguished writers on public law, 
and especially from the Bible, has peculiar claims upon the 
reader's attention. The entire discussion at once evinces 
the soundness of his doctrine, the comprehensiveness of his 
views, and the commanding powers of his mind. 



In making extracts we know that we slionld not trespass. 
The following, however, appears to embrace so much that is 
calculated to correct the errors of weak or wicked minds, on 
the subject of capital punishment, for sufficient cause ; and 
on that of defensive war, as explained by our author, that 
we think a service will be rendered to the public by bring- 
ing it in this place, into view. 

" To live in a state of society is both the duty and the 
privilege of man. It is the Creator of the world, who said, 
Is it not good that mam, should ie alone. A great part of the 
active principles of human nature would remain unimproved 
and unemployed, and much of his happiness would neces- 
sarily be cut off, were man doomed to a perpetual seclusion 
from society, and constrained to spend his life in solitude. 
It is not, however, to be expected, that a state of society 
can exist on earth, during the continuance of our imperfec- 
tion, in which no error in morals will obtain. Humanv/m 
est crrare. Diversities of views, and of inclinations, and of 
interests, cannot fail to produce discord; and the corrupt 
propensities of individuals require, for the preservation of 
social order, that the power of suppressing evils should be 
placed in the hands of competent authority. An advisory 
authority, unless endowed with the right of em.-^\ojmg force, 
would be found a nullity. Thus, as society is necessary to 
man, and government is necessary to society, the application 
of force is essential to both : and the application of force to 
the correction of erroneous conduct, necessarily implies, that 
civil society has the power of property, liberty, life, and 
death, over every member. Such is the constitution of 
of society. Such is the will of God, expr-essed in the con- 
stitution of human nature. Let theory say what it will, it is 


a fact^ that civil society lias the right of taking away by 
force the life of any of its members. 

" In vain am I told, by visionary theorists, that man has 
not the right of taking away his own life. I know it. The 
Lord giveth life. He only has the right of. taking it away, 
or of ordering another to take it away. In vain am I told, 
that society has only the rights which individuals have 
surrendered to it : and that of course it has not the right of 
taking away my life, seeing I could not surrender what was 
not at my option. I did not make myself a social being. 
God made me so. Society is his creatwe. From him it 
derives the right of self-preservation. Civilians and divines 
behove to attend to this fact. It is atheism, however it 
may be disguised, that supports the contrary principle. He 
is a short-sighted statesman, who, enamored of the theories 
of Beccaria and Voltaire, argues against the right of capital 
jpwnisliments, in any case. It is not humanity hut folly that 
dictates this doctrine. He is a short-sighted divine, who is 
seduced by the reasonings of George Fox and William Penn. 
It is not religion ; but fanaticism, that is promoted by such 

" I know, that small societies, in the bosom of regularly 
organized nations — I know, that ecclesiastical bodies may 
exist, without the application, upon their own part, of 
violence to any member ; but the power of force must exist 
somewhere, otherwise, one unruly member might destroy 
any such society. 

" Laws are necessary to guard the rights of property ; but 
if society have no right to transfer so much of the debtor's 
property, against his will, into the hands of the creditor, as 
may satisfy equity, laws are a non-entity : again, if the 
debtor resists the officers of the law, and society has no right 


to apply force in any case, the debtor escapes with impunity, 
and laiTghs at the law. Legislation is still a nullity. If 
force may be applied in any measure, short of inflicting 
wounds and death ; if the debtor knows beforehand, that no 
power dare touch his life, he may arm himself; he may 
escape the law with all its other force ; and he may lay 
under contribution, to his cupidity, every member of the 
community. There must in such case be an end to society. 
This is obvious to every man. Each State is of com'se 
compelled to arm, with the sword, the civil magistrate. 
Each individual will say, though I have no right to destroy 
my life I have power to amputate a member for the preser- 
vation of the body ; and each State will say, I have power 
to cut oif any member for the safety of the whole; 

" This argument puts beyond a doubt the lawfulness of 
war. Civil pibnishment is the exercise of force upon an 
enemy, to the community of %ohich he is a m,ember. The 
lowest degree of punishment, involves the right of taking 
the life of the criminal, if resistance on his part render the 
application of such force necessary. Most assuredly, then, if 
the aggressor be of a diiferent community, and be authorized 
by such community to act as an enemy, the sovereign power 
of the injured commonwealth may lawfully resist, even unto 
blood ; and may apply the degree and kind of force neces- 
sary to correct the evil. If the right of waging war be 
withheld from the body politic, there is an end to the inde- 
pendence of nations, and all society is dissolved. 

"Eeasoning upon these principles, I am constrained to 
pronounce the contrary opinions, by whatever names, and 
from whatever motives, they are urged, both unreasonable 
and dangerous. It is the will of God, expressed in the con- 
stitution of society, that nations have a right to wage war : 


and if it should ever be made manifest tliat tlie Deity, by 
positive injunction, prohibited the exercise of this right, I 
would indeed submit to his decision, and submit implicitly ; 
but I would also infer, that, in making such prohibition, he, 
who knows the consequences of his own laws, had also 
ordered the dissolution of society itself. So far is the reve- 
lation of his grace from giving countenance to such absurdi- 
ties, that I am enabled thereby to support the principle 
urged in my text, With good advice make war." — p. 106-110. 

The discourse concludes with an important and manly 
exhortation. Referring to the men in power in the United 
States, the author says : 

" Examine, yes, examine, with rigorous impartiality, their 
character and their acts : speak out ; blame them when they 
do wrong : But forget not your country. Unite in her 
defence — ^in defence of her injured rights. Support those 
who wield the sword, and who direct its application — sup- 
port them with the means necessary to convince the enemy 
that, whatever may be the domestic strife for influence, for 
place, and for power, in regard • to those who have taken 
your friends, and your fellow-citizens into captivity, who 
have interrupted and despoiled your trade upon the 
ocean, who have violated your neutrality, and who lay claim 
to your soil, — in regard to them, convince the enemy, con- 
vince your own rulers, and the whole world, that you have 
but ONE ivnND. Defensive war is lawful' — a brave people 
have the prospect of success — -and a moral people will prose- 
cute the contest to a successful term.ination — ^Ajjden."' — -p. 147. 

Seemon IV. — ^This discourse is a continuation of the 


preceding, and ia really an application of the subject 
explained in that discussion. The text is the same, Prov. 
XX. 18. — With good advice make war. 

Passing over the first part of this sermon, which had an 
important object at the time of its delivery, we come to 
the two great points illustrated and defended in this. 
Those are : 

1. To show that The United States have lawful cause of 
war with Great Britain. 

2. To explain the principles upon which the war should 
he prosecuted. 

The doctrine of perpetual allegiance and the right of 
expatriation, under the first head of discussion, are brought 
under review. Having exposed the absm-dity of the British 
claim to the perpetual allegiance of those born under their 
dominion, the author takes up for consideration : 

The Might of Expatriation. — ^This subject is examined 
with a discriminating precision, and the right vindicated 
with a force and variety of reasoning, perhaps, nowhere else 
to be found. The following are the topics of argument : 

" All men are born equally free— There is no obligation 
by contract to prevent entirely a change of coimtry — Alle- 
giance and protection are reciprocal — All nations recognize 
the principle of expatriation — The contrary doctrine leads 
to absurdity — -And the word of the living God secures this 
right to man." — p. 167. 

The argument from Scripture is very happy in the selec- 
tion of examples, and in setting aside the moral claims of 
the Prince Regent, as set forth in his proclamations, to 
which reference has ah-eady been made. 

"The Scriptures inform us, that God gave the earth to 


the cMdren of men. It was his will and command. 

that it should be peopled from one pair. Ood said unto 
them, ie fruitful, and multiply, mid replenish the eaHh. 
But this order could not be executed, unless the children 
should emigrate from the place of their nativity, settle in 
other countries, and form new societies. There is, more- 
over, no provision made in the Scriptures, for keeping the 
colonies in perpetual subjection to the parent state. This 
would make the whole world subject to one unwieldy des- 
potism. Upon the contrary, we are assured, that when 
religion prevails over all the earth, there shall still be 
distinct nations, which Satan shall decei/oe no more ; there 
shall still be distinct kingdoms — even the kingdoms of this 
world, that shall iecome the kingdoms of our Lord and his 
Christ. In conformity to this principle, the Governor of 
the universe, at an early age, when men formed the plan of 
adhering together in one great and corrupt society, per- 
formed a miracle to prevent the evil; and, so the Lord 
scattered them abroad from thence, upon the face of all 
the earth. Instead of permitting the sovereign of every 
country to deceive the subject with claims of perpetual 
allegiance, God commanded Abram to expatriate himself. 
The father of the faithful obeyed, and left his native 
country. In vain would the kings of the Canaanites claim, 
as bound to serve them, the descendants of Abram, born 
in their territories. Jacoi removed with his family to 
Egypt, ; and even there, notwithstanding the power of the 
monarchy, they claimed the right of being considered as a 
distinct people, and of emigrating at their pleasure from 
the land of bondage. The proclamations of the Prince 
of Britain would have passed for morality at the court 
of Pharaoh; but Moses without fea/ring the wrath of 


the, Jciiig, said unto him. Let my people go. The tyrant 
ultimately suffered the punishment of his crimes, when he 
attempted to reclaim, as native subjects, the Israelitish emi- 
gi'ants. Pharaoh, and his host, his chosen captains also, 
were drowned in the Ked Sea. 

'• Moses did not offend the laws of morality, although 
in despite of native allegia7ice, he invited Hobdb to expa- 
triate himself from Midian, and accept of naturalization 
in the commonwealth of Israel. Come thou with us, a/nd 
we will do thee good — 'Leame us not I pray thee — 
ojnd it shall ie^' if thou go with us, that what goodness 
the Lord shall do wnto us, the same will we do unto 

Those tender and often unaccountable emotions that 
enter into the constitution of the love of the place of 
one's nativity, were not strangers in the breast of the 
affectionate author of these discourses. As he advanced 
in years, the force of those generous sentiments did not 
abate ; but they interfered not with his affection, a grow- 
ing one, for the country of his adoption, and its free and 
noble institutions. In the vehemence of party politics, we 
sometimes hear insinuations and surmises thrown out, not 
in perfect keeping with the generous spirit of our institu- 
tions, in reference to our adopted citizens. The United 
States have nothing to fear from \h.Q patrial attachments 
of their enlightened and virtuous sons of adoption. In what 
virtuous and cultivated heart did the tenderness of filial 
affection ever interfere with either the intensity or fidelity 
of connubial love? But, on the subject under consider- 
ation, expressions of ungenerous surmise are only the 
momentary ebullitions of party heat, and, of course, being 


transient in tlieir nature, are inoperative in tlieir effects. 
The following extract we think very fine. It illustrates 
the harmony of affection and of principle in the character 
of our friend. 

" There are, I feel and acknowledge, many tender ties to 
bind us to our native country. We cherish, in fond recol- 
lection, the scenes and the partners of our youthful days. 
We revere the land of our fathers, and the place of their 
sepulchres. We look back on the friends that we have left 
behind : we desire their welfare : we cultivate their corres- 
pondence ; and we are not ashamed to call them brethren. 
If we have left the national society, and have thrown off 
allegiance to their rulers, we count it no dishonor to have 
been born in a territory, where arts and science, and litera- 
ture, and heroism, and patriotism, abound. Even now, I 
can gladly transport myself on fancy's wings to my native 
hills. I would still listen to the music of the lark, to the 
bleating of the flocks, and to the reaper's song ; and I would 
close the day, in the bosom of a peaceful family, with a 
solemn hymn of thanksgiving to the Lord. I would still 
gaze on the lofty rock, where the eagle builds her nest ; 
admire at a distance the cloud-capt cliffs oi Bemnore, and 
count the foaming billows of the Atlantic, rolling among the 
basaltic pillars of Stcvffa, along the classic shores of lona^ 
to the bold promontories at the mouth ofLochlevan. I bless 
my native country, and take pride in all the excellency of 
her sons. Others, too, feel towards their native place as I 
do. But yet, my brethren, on a question of morality, truth 
must decide. Conscience, and not fancy, must make the 
application of God's law." — pp. 180, 181. 

How must he, in his visit to his native isle in 1830, have 



enjoyed the grandeur of the scenery whicli, in 1814, he 
with so much animation described. When in his native 
land, among those isles, and cliffs, and roUing waves, he 
looked back with no less — with stronger — affection to the 
United States, his adopted land; and his coiTespondents 
here well know with what emotion he referred to " his own, 
his beautiful ISTew Tork !" 

IT. The explanation of the second part. — The principles 
upon which the war should ie prosecuted. Under this he 
submits for discussion three positions, embracing principles 
not of partial, but of universal application. 

1. In a state of war we must consider each community as 
one body. 

2. The nation only is the proper object of war. 

3. The changes which humanity has already introduced 
into the modes of warfare, should not be diminished, but 

"We forbear to make any remarks of our own upon the 
very happy mode of illustration chosen by the author, for 
the establishment of these positions, upon grounds of indi- 
vidual, moral and social right. The following extracts are 

"I shield, from the charge of insincerity, those consci- 
entious men who may disapprove of the present Administra- 
tion and the conduct of the war, while I make no apology 
for him, who, devoid of patriotism and virtue, calls in ques- 
tion the legitimacy of the contest as it now exists, and 
recommends submission to the enemy — I make no apology 
for him, who strives to prevent the success of his country in 
the present strife. I leave him to the comforts of his own 


reflections, knowing, as I do, that whatever may be his 
motives, they cannot command the approbation of his 
country, of his contemporaries in other lands, of posterity, 
of his conscience, or of his Grod. With him, therefore, I 
do not stoop to argue the question. To others I say, let 
us examine, upon moral principles, the mode of prosecut- 
ing the present war. 

" I am not the eulogist of men in power ; neither do I 
give flattering titles to man: I love the country of my 
choice, and I pray to God for the prosperity and suc- 
cess of its arms. I lament whatever of indecision, and 
imbecility, and improvidence, and mismanagement, has 
appeared in the halls of legislation, in the executive coun- 
cils, in the leaders of our armies. I could fervently wish, 
and devoutly pray, for more firmness, and wisdom, and 
action, and for more extensive resources in men and in 
money for the safety of the nation. But "I would not 
dispute, and embarrass, and threaten, for the pm-pose of 
producing an effect, for which I should afterwards blame 
those who were irresolute enough to listen to my opposition. 
I would not strive to bring about an evil for the sake of 
condemning it, and injuring the country. I would not 
tenipt to sin, for the sake of trimmphing over the fallen.''^ 
—pp. 184^185. 

The following extract is recommended as peculiarly 
appropriate at this day, and as indicating the value he 
set upon the continued Union of the States : — 

"If negotiation should fail to secure a speedy peace, 
the dangers of the country call for unanimity in the strife 
of blood and battle. In that case, supporting the war 


will be the means of preserving the union of the States: and 
this is unquestionably desirable. Whatever mistaken indi- 
viduals may say of the collision of interests, and the rivalry 
existing between the North and South, the East and the 
West; every State, every part of this extensive empire, has a 
deep interest in perpetuating the federal connection. It is 
the means of preventing those collisions and jealousies from 
coming to an open rupture — it is the means of internal 
peace and friendship — it is the means of promoting their 
commerce, their manufactures, and their agriculture — it is 
the means of cultivating, by suitable encouragement, the 
sciences and the liberal arts — ^it is the means of preserving 
unimpaired the liberties of the people, and guaranteeing 
the forms of their democratic policy- — ^it is the means of 
defence against foreign enemies, waiting to divide, and 
anxious to destroy — it is the means of securing religious 
liberty, together with the purity, the peace, and the growth 
of our churches. The several religious denominations, 
already weakened by dissension, would become still more 
weak, if the parts of each ecclesiastical body situated in 
the different States, were cut assunder by political distinc- 
tions, which must turn brother against brother. Such a state 
of things would prevent all liberal intercourse among 
Christians scattered over this land from north to south; 
and if by renewing in America the local favoritism 
and political priestcraft of the old world, some par- 
ticular clergymen might rise to a higher eminence, true 
religion would suffer by the change ; and the more inge- 
nuous and humble men, would become more limited in 
their influence and usefulness. 

" I would urge the support of the war, because I ear- 
nestly long for a permanent peace. You know the enemy. 


His claims will rise, by his successes; and fall, in pro- 
portion to his defeats. The more he suffers, the more 
will he be disposed to relinquish the .contest. The greater 
his danger, the sooner will he come to an accommoda- 
tion. By consistency and unanimity, America might have 
finished this war as soon as it had commenced. It is only 
by affecting the fears of the foe, that he can be made to 
listen to the voice of equity. 

"I would recommend the support of this war, because it 
is just. The United States ask for nothing, but what 
they ought to have ; what it is lawful for the enemy to give ; 
what is in its very nature moral — the protection of property, 
and personal liberty. I pray for success to these righteous 
claims : I pray for courage to the wari'ior, and for success 
to the armaments by which the plea is urged, because 
the cause is just — ^because it is necessary to the repose of 
the world — ^because God has promised that this cause shall 
universally prevail." — pp. 194-196. 

Seemon Y. — ^The text is, Jer. li. 10 — Come and let us 
declare in Zion the work of the Lord our God. 

Our departed friend, the author of these sermons, was 
habitually inclined to look with a favorable eye upon his 
fellow man. For the aberrations which often appear in 
individual character, he would seek an apology in miti- 
gation, and in a case of doubtful acting, he would endeavor 
to find and fix upon the motive least exceptionable, that 
might be supposed to influence to that course of conduct. 
Of this feature of mind we have an indication in the 
following remark, found in the introduction to this sermon. 
Adverting to the diversity of sentiment which may be 



expected to exist where freedom of speech is aiithorized, 
he observes : — 

" The complexness of public affairs — the imperfection of 
kaowledge — the peevishness and the passions of the heart, 
give us reason to believe, had we not the lights of history 
to assure us of the fact, that without any uncommon 
degree of depravity, men will dispute about the several 
interesting concerns of social life." — page 198. What a 
lesson of forbearance is taught us in this remark ! 

The plan of discussion is to show, 

I. That all wars are in a certain sense the work of the 

n. As such, they ought to be understood and declared 
by a religious people. 

The discussion of the first head leads the reader to 
a devout consideration of the providence of God, while 
under the second division of the subject, we are conducted 
to a most interesting view of the several ends to be answered 
by this war, as a work of the providence of God. In 
illustration of this part of his subject he affirms, 

1. That the war is a judgment. 

2. That it is a trial of Christian liberality — of the degree 
oi patriotism to be found in the United States, of our 
republican institutions. 

3. The war is a benefit. Its sufferings will exercise the 
saints unto godliness, promote their holiness, their useful- 
ness, and their future happiness. It brings to notice among 
the thinking part of society, throughout the nations, great 
amd important principles of moral order. America, by it, 
will acquire a respectable character among the nations. 
The American name respected abroad, will communicate at 
home the impulse of patriotism. The doctrine of expatria- 


tion, and the true nature of allegiance and protection, being 
better understood, will encourage the best part of the 
Protestants of Europe to seek here an asylum, in the day 
of trial and darkness which awaits them in their own 
country. It is destined of the Lord to subserve the drying 
up of the waters of Euphrates ; the destruction of the 
slavish doctrines of the old world. 

The progress of events, during the last twenty years, has 
fully justified those anticipations of this distinguished man. 
Through the clouds that hung, in that lowering day, upon 
the horizon of our country, his keen eye descried what, 
under a benign Providence, the triumphant march of the 
democracy of the land has realized. Listen to his prophetic 
language : 

" The very opposition which is made to this war is the 
means of ultimately strengthening the American democracy. 
Whatever may be the designs of the leaders of that opposi- 
tion, the a/i'guntents employed by them are democratic, and 
these will not be forgotten. The appeals which are made to 
the people will make the people still more sensible of their 
own strength and importance. The societies which are 
formed, whether to support or to oppose the Administration, 
are so many small democracies, which still tend to promote 
the principles of civil liberty. They are jacolnnical insti- 
tutions, conducted with all the zeal for power, but with 
more intelligence and order, than the Parisian associations. 
Nay, the very Convention of the Eastern States, and all the 
opposition which the measures of this government have 
provoked in that part of our country, are predicated upon 
the principles of democracy. The war itself, and all the 
strife and the contention which it has produced, must there 


fore be considered, in the providence of God, as the means 
of destruction to tlie slavish doctrines of the old world, and 
as ultimately tending to the general emancipation of the hu- 
man race from the bondage of despotism and superstition." 

In behalf of the representative democracy of the United 
States, the powerful mind and ardent affections of Dr. Me 
Leod were deeply, perseveringly, and consistently interested. 
He believed the government of uni'ted America to be the 
strongest upon earth, because sustained by the whole people, 
and in its perpetuity he had great confidence. The form of 
social order, now organized and in operation in the United 
States, he was fully persuaded, is better calculated than any 
other to subserve the cause of evangelical religion, in its 
purifying influence upon the heart, and in its elevating, 
influence upon the character of man. He was disposed to 
give to Europe full credit for her attainments in literature 
and general science ; -but in the science of the rights of man, 
and the proper guardianship of those rights, he considered 
the people of Europe far behind the citizens of the United 
States. His visit to the British Isles, a few years before his 
decease, conflrmed him in the correctness of his previous 
views. Kingcraft he perceived to be so closely interwoven 
with the thoughts of civil government, generally entertained 
by even the enlightened and best men, habituated to 
monarchical domination, that he had little hope of a very 
speedy disenthralhnent of the public mind from the entangle- 
ments thrown around it. The lures, too, of priestcraft will 
continue to throw their toils and catch their prey, so long as 
corrupt and powerful ecclesiastical establishments are found 
to have place among the nations. Upon principle, the 
author, whose work we have briefly reviewed, was opposed 


to kingcraft, priestcraft, and the debasing tendencies of 
aristocratic arrogance. He understood, and as he progres- 
sively studied and contemplated the institutions of the 
United States, he more firmly believed that in the arrange- 
ments of God, the principles and form of these institutions, 
directed by a people under evangelical influence, were 
destined to be the means of the emancipation of man. It 
was this impression that inspired such sentiments as these : 

" I have spoken upon this subject, as a Whig — as the 
Mend of religion and liberty — as a consistent Presbyte- 
rian, averse from arbitrary power. Our fathers, my dear 
hearers, were of that stamp. Our brethren in the Reformed 
Church (for I have spoken their sentiments concerning all 
the great moral principles which I have discussed), are now, 
and have been from the dawn of the Reformation, Whigs 
from conscience. The Puritans, the Presbyterians, the 
Martyrs, supported the same principles, in their faithful 
opposition to the throne, and the prelacy of tyrannical 
England. The monuments of their faith and their suffer- 
ings are still to be seen by the traveller, in every part of 
that guilty land ; and their blood, like that of Abel, still 
calls for vengeance upon the successors of the prosecutors, 
the advocates of the crown and mitre — the Beitish Toeies. 

" The spirit of true religion is friendly to civil liberty. 
It has appeared to be so in every coimtry. Some of the 
most faithful ministers, among the Eeformers, with patriotic 
ardor contended, even with the sword, in defence of their 
civil and religious liberties. Uleic Zuingle, the morning 
star of the Reformation, fell in battle at Zurich, 1630, at the 
commencement of the strife against arbitrary power ; and 
towards the close of the struggle which terminated in the 


overthrow of the pm-est of the churches, Eichajjd Cameeon 
fell at Airsmoss, 1680, while defending, as a Christian hero, 
the religion and liberties of his country, against the tyranny 
of the bishops, and the royal house of Stuart. 

" So far as I, too, may still retain any portion of the spirit 
of my native land, where Wallace fought, where Buchanan 
wrote, where Knox preached the gospel of God, where the 
Martyrs, down from PatricTc Hamilton to James BenwicJc, 
left their flesh to rest in hope of deliverance — that spirit is 
opposed to the impious misrule of a corrupt hierarchy and 
immoral power. If I have caught the spirit of this, the 
country of my choice, it is in favor of liberty. If I claim a 
place among consistent Protestants, I must testify against 
all the acts of Antichristian, jpower. If I follow the steps 
which are dyed by the blood of the Martyi-s, I must raise 
my voice against the thrones which shed that blood. If 
the Bible is my system of religion, and of social order, I 
must disclaim attachment to those powers that are hostile to 
evangelical doctrine, and to the rights of the church of 
God. If, in so doing, I have offended any of my hearers, 
it is without intending it ; for I watch for your souls, and 
desire to promote your welfare and youi- happiness. 

" I have, however, in these discourses, which I now bring 
to a close, proved the right, which Christian ministers 
possess, of applying the Christian doctrine to man in his 
social as well as in his individual capacity ; and have given 
sufficient evidence, in the exercise of this right, that ti'ue 
religion is favorable to the improvement and freedom of 
mankind. The moral character of both tJie belligerents, this 
republic and the British monarchy, has been weighed in the 
sacred balance, and the preference given to om- own 
country. I have shown, both the lawfulness of waging war, 


and the causes which jvistify the application of force by one 
nation to another. I have vindicated the cause of America 
against a jealous and powerful rival. I have exhibited, 
from obvious considerations, and the predictions of the word 
of God, the designs of Providence in permitting this 
country to be involved in the bloody contest. In doing this, 
my Christian brethren, it has been far from my thoughts to 
give offence to any, even the least, of the saints. I appeal 
to the tenor of my ministry, to you who habitually wait 
upon it, and to the heart-searching God, whom I serve in 
the gospel of his Son, that I do not practise upon a spirit of 
contempt for the feelings of my fellow-men, although I am 
accustomed to speak without the fear of man, what I believe 
to be seasonable truth. 

" I have, indeed, spoken what I felt it my duty to speak, 
without respect of persons. Time will determine whether 
I have erred or not : and I leave the consequences, as it 
respects myself and all that is dear to me — as it respects the 
cause of ATuerica in the present contest, to God my Eedeemee, 
to who7)i le glory for ever and ever — Amen." — pp. 231-235. 

Able as these discourses confessedly are, and familiar as 
the various and important subjects treated of appear to 
have been to his mind, it would be injustice to the author 
not to say, that in the exposition of the peculiar doctrines 
of the gospel of God, and in urging their experimental and 
practical application upon the hearts, and in the lives of 
his hearers, he was mxich more at home. That, indeed, 
was the work he loved, in which he had much enjoyment, 
and in which he greatly excelled. His volume iipon " The 
Life and Power of True Godliness" will remain a lofty monu- 
ment to his reputation, afford a specimen of the material 


and spirit of his ministrations in the sanctuary, while they 
edify, guide and comfort, many of the redeemed of the 
Lord on their journey to the celestial Zion. 

ITo remark, in the course of this review, has been made 
upon either the style or arrangement of this work. Pic- 
nic criticism on this occasion would be out of place. The 
author thought clearly, and committed his thoughts to paper 
with great facility. His corrections of copy for the press 
were very few. Upon the pages now before us, we have in 
characters sufficiently legible, the signature of the logical 
mind, and the belles lettres scholar, as well as that of the 
jurist and divine. 




From the close of the War until the year 1818. 

It has been already stated, that for certain reasons before 
specified, that the Doctor had solicited and obtained a dis- 
junction from his congregation. This transaction took place 
at a meeting of Presbj^tery in Pyegate, Vermont. In 
reference to this, the Doctor, on October 4:th, 1814, thns 
writes his friend : 

" Mt Yeet Deae Beotheb : — - 

"Should anything of importance occur, 
when I receive the minutes of the proceedings of the Pres- 
bytery in Eyegate, I shall let you know. To me, no doubt, 
these minutes will prove interesting, as I understand by 
letter from Mr. McMaster, that my present pastoral relation 
ceases on the first of May, 1815. 

" Six months, however, may produce changes now unex- 
pected ; and with that length of time before me, I shall not 
yet begin to experience the anxiety incident to the dissolu- 
tion of strong ties, and the formation of new ones. 
Whether my life be long or short, and wherever it may be 
spent, my relation to the first companions of my public 
labors shall, I trust, remain unaltered in character of afi"ec- 


*tion; and my fidelity to my ecclesiastical trust, at least, 
undiminislied. This trust is founded on the Lord, and the 
rest is at his disposal. 

" In the present state of things, however, we have need 
of your advice, and your prayers. Unable to procure a 
compromise of the Teller suit,* or to redeem our ground at 
the price demanded, and very iinfit to enter single-handed 
upon the contest of another suit at law, all prospect of 
improvement of our place of worship is at an end, and it is 
uncertain whether we shall not lose, irrecoverably, what we 
already enjoy. The spirit of my people is not for enterprise ; 
and those who could give the spur do not do so. There 
seems to be but dissolution of the congregation, or a bold 
stroke that may, at once, double its power and respectability, 
awaiting the friends of Reformation in this city. 

" When we are prepared for the solemnity of a commu- 
nion season, we shall, perhaps, be disposed to join in it once 
more together. With your aid 1 first dispensed that 
sacrament of the supper to these my people ; and, with your 
aid, I expect to dispense it for the last time, before they 
cease to be my people. Unless your heart shall urge my 
request, my pen shall move in vain. 

" My connection with the Cedar street church will soon be 
at an end. Doctor Komeyn is expected in this month. 
After that I shall feel, for the little remaining time, more at 
home among my people. I must relinquish this subject 
* * * * -^j liealth is failing, my strength is breaking, 
my son, I fear is lost to me, by disease of the hip-joint, and 
my little daughter is threatened with hydrocephalus. In all, 

♦ Teller was a person who preferred a claim to the lot of ground on which 
the church was built ; and which was afterwards abandoned by him for the 
consideration of some five thousand dollars. 


I see the hand of Him, who is the only support and portion 
of his people. My love to all friends. 

"Tours &c., 

"A. McL." 

It is certainly deserving particular notice, that neither 
domestic afflictions nor congregational emharrassments 
could check the tide of sympathy and the flow of friendship 
which animated his breast. Of this the following letter fur- 
nishes abundant evidence. 

" Eev. and Deae Beother :• — ■ 

" By Mr. Gill's accoimt of the state of your 
health, my fears were greatly excited ; and although much 
diminished by Mrs. Gill's letter to her husband, they are 
far from being removed. 

" It was to me exceedingly painful to be disappointed in 
the anticipations I had of a visit from you ; but while the 
state of your health accounted for your absence, it was 
far from allaying my sorrow. 

" The continuance of this terrible disease, at your period 
of life,* and its malignant aspect, indicate in my opinion, 
the necessity of a total change of your mode of life. Tour 
intense application must be relinquished, and active life 
tak^ place of thought. God, of his rich mercy, grant 
that you may now be so far recovered as to afford 
room to hope that it is not yet too late to make the 

" If Philadelphia can support you as a pastor, I should 

* This disease was a violent headache, to which Dr. Wylie was periodically 
subject, every twelve or eighteen months, sometimes nearly suspending the 
pulsation of the arteries. 


be satisfied, but tbe scbool or the seminary, or both, must 
be given up. My wish, however, and it is one which 
always existed, but it is now stronger than ever ; my wish 
and my hope is to see you removed from Philadelphia 
altogether. "With what you can save from your hard 
earnings in that city, a decent residence can be procured 
in the coimtry. The air and the exercise will give a new 
tone to your frame ; and the seminary with less attention 
to its details, may yet flourish under your auspicies in 
Duanesburg, where I would appoint your future labors — ■ 
or, if you will, in some part of Pennsylvania. To live in 
bondage as you do, although it be splendid, is not to be 
compared with the atmosphere of the hills, and the occa- 
sional peltings of the bracing storm. Your life is more 
valuable to your wife and your tender babes, than all 
the property which, by a life, in your case more than 
commonly uncertain, you can make for them in your present 

" If I live to meet again the friends of my youth, and 
the dear partners of my early ministry, every power of my 
mind and body shall be exercised, for the total dissolution 
of our seminary, rather than see its existence as a chain 
arpuud your neck in Philadelphia, to pull you down to the 
grave. May the God of Israel direct to that which is 
best for our church. At present, I feel fully convinced, 
that your disenthrallment, accompanied with an opportunity 
of travelling, of counselling, and of preaching everywhere, 
would, under God, be more beneficial than all the students 
whom you will educate while you live in Philadelphia, 
who might not otherwise be brought forward to the public 
service of the sanctuary. And I cannot in this connection 
avoid making the remark, that it is painful to see the 


CliurcL. of God, borne down with an incompetent minis- 

" If you are able to write, do it, if it were but a line, 
and if not, direct another to send me word immediately. 

" Tours sincerely, 

"A. McL." 

This extract furnishes a specimen of the Doctor's benevo- 
lent feeling, and the intensity of his friendship. His was 
not the friendship of mercenary calculation ; but the spon- 
taneous effusion of an enlarged and honest heart. At the 
altar of friendship, with him no sacriiice, principle excepted, 
was ever considered too costly. 

It was remarked above, that the Doctor's sermons on 
the war with Great Britain, were so popular, that they 
soon ran through a second edition. They abounded with 
pati'iotic feeling, and exposed those j)arty measures, which, 
whether so intended or not, were calculated to embar- 
rass the Administration. The same views and feelings res- 
pecting that second struggle for independence, uniformly 
prevailed both with pastors and people, through the whole 
rehgious connection to which the Doctor belonged. To a 
man, they all rallied on the side of liberty, and against 
oppression. There is something in their principles essen- 
tially hostile to slavery in all its variety of shades and 
degrees. The blood of the British Covenanters still flowed 
in their veins. They cheerfully volunteered into the 
United States army, as in duty bound to defend with their 
lives, the sacred, the invaluable Palladium of American 
liberty. They fought and bled, and died in the mainten- 
ance of the freedom and independence of the country of 


266 MEMons OF Alexander mo leod, d.d. 

theii- birtli, or adoption. In this, the people were encour- 
aged by their pastors. Their prayers publicly and privately 
were presented to the throne of grace, for the success of 
the good cause. During the war, as ah-eady observed, 
while many were native or naturalized citizens, some of 
them labored under various inconveniencies, as aliens — 
not in heart and affection, but only in the legal and 
technical sense of that name. They loved the country, and 
appreciated its free institutions. They had come hither as to 
a home for themselves and their offspring. Some of them 
had neither been naturalized nor even signified their inten- 
tion of becoming citizens, as the law requires in such cases. 

Yet in the good providence of Almighty God, scarcely 
any difficulty occurred, even to those who were in this con- 
dition. The sentiments of our religious connections were 
generally known, in reference to the war, by those whose 
business it was to attend to these matters. Our people were 
understood to be friendly to the American cause; they 
joined its standard, and cheerfully bore their share of public 
burdens. They were subjected, therefore, to very little 
annoyance, to the close of the war. And, blessed be God, 
this disastrous scourge, which had cost so much blood and 
treasure, was, in 1815, succeeded by a peace which has not 
been interrupted for more than twenty years. This was 
effected by prudent negotiation. The memorable battle of 
New Orleans had no influence on it, not being then known 
to the diplomatic agents who conducted that negotiation. 
This peace took place upon the publication of the second 
edition of the Doctor's war sermons ; and to it he makes a 
handsome allusion in the advertisement of that edition. 

On the close of the war, the foreign correspondence of 
the church, which had met with a temporary interruption. 


was again resumed. The most friendly relations, however, 
still subsisted with our brethren abroad. In a letter dated 
20th October, 1815, Dr. McLeod thus addresses his friend in 

"My Deae Beother: — 

" From our connections in Scotland and Ire- 
land I have had several communications, with the general 
news of the Church ; and Synodical official communications 
are arrived from Scotland. They contain remarks on our 
almost forgotten overture. It would surprise you, perhaps, 
to learn, that they are all upon the side of liberality, and 
tend to render our system less exclusive. 

"Tours, as ever, 

"A. McL." 

The Doctor was rather under a mistake in thinking that 
his friend in Philadelphia would be surprised at Scottish 
liberality. He knew their character too well. They are 
generally slow in their deliberations, but very judicious in 
their decisions. The country of Knox and Henderson "is too 
enlightened, to imagine that Keformation had reached its 
acme in 1649. The Scottish brethren will be found in the 
golden mean, avoiding either extreme. 

It is again our painful duty to record further and deeper 
afflictive dispensations in the family of this excellent man, 
and devoted servant of the Most High God. The record is 
due to the godly, into whose hands this memoir may come. 
Here they will find a practical exemplification of that pre- 
cious truth, " Whom the Lord loveth, he chasteneth." By 
reflecting on it, they may be helped to avoid either extreme 


of, " despising tlie ciiasteuing of the Lord, or fainting, when 
they are rebuked of Him." 

On the 21st of JSTovember, 1815, the following letter 
was received from Dr. McLeod : 

" My Deab Beothee : — 

"Next Sabbath is the preparation for the com- 
munion. I cannot perform the ordinary service. Last Sab- 
bath I did not leave home. The Sabbath preceding, I was 
at the Wallkill Sacrament. My people suffer. On you I 
call for their help. After recovering from influenza, I am 
reduced by vigilance and woe. An obstinate affection of 
the breast admonishes me of my unfitness for the task before 
me. My poor debilitated wife wants your company. My 
people want your services. I, most of all, want a friend. I 
had three lovely daughters. Two are gone. I have, to-day, 
but one remaining. To-morrow I lay my Mary Jane along 
side of her sister Susan. God strikes me often and sorely. 
My iniquities oppress my soul. Brother, pray for me. 
If you love me, come to me before the week terminates. 

"A. McL." 

This letter speaks for itself. Its pathos is deep. Through 
every sentence breathe the anguish, the affliction, the resig- 
nation, and the piety, of the tender-hearted and magnani- 
mous Christian. 

It would be superfluous to say, that such an appeal to the 
friend of his youth was irresistible. But to paint the meet- 
ing, or do justice to the interview, I shall not attempt. 
There is reason to believe, it was blessed for mutual 

The sacramental services and communion were conducted 


b J Dr. "Wylie. The experience of the congregation attested 
the approbatory presence of the King of Zion; and his 
people recognized, as on former occasions, his stately step- 
pings in the sanctuary. Their faith was helped, and their 
pastor with his amiable and godly spouse, like David in his 
distress, " strengthened themselves in God." 

The author of this memoir cannot help being afraid, that 
he will incur the charge of egotism, by introducing so many 
extracts of letters from -Dr. McLeod to himself, and scarcely 
any from him to others. It seems as if he wanted it to 
appear that he was the Doctor's principal, if not his only, 
correspondent. Far, very far from it. However honored 
he might feel by the distinction, he makes no pretensions to 
exclusive favoritism, in the affection and couiidence of the 
Rev. Doctor. He regrets exceedingly that, after repeated 
efforts, on his part, to obtain from various sources informa- 
tion of every kind, and through whatever channel ; whether 
from epistolary correspondence, or in the shape of anecdote 
calculated to present to the public a more perfect portraiture 
of the Doctor's character, he met with but little success. 
Some excused themselves from the idea of indelicacy in 
exposing private correspondence. From those, such extracts 
as might delineate character, while they could not possibly 
distm-b the sanctuary of private confidence, have been 
requested, but still without success. Others have had no 
correspondence with the Doctor, which, in their opinion, 
involved sufficient interest to be recorded in this memoir. 
Others have cordially comphed with the request, and their 
favors will be found in their proper place. These will 
multiply as we advance. Previously to this part of the 
Doctor's history, but few of his correspondents accessible to 
the writer, are now alive. But in the sequel of this sketch. 


numerous documents, both foreign and domestic, will show 
the extensive intercourse he maintained with his friends, 
both at home and abroad. Only a few extracts of the 
numerous letters addressed to the writer are inserted in this 
record. Many of them, while consolatory to his own heart, 
recalling delightful emotions, can never appear to the 
public eye. 

The condition of our churches, in the meantime, was 
improving in every part of the Union, where settlements 
had been made. The students furnished by the Theological 
Seminary, were supplying the numerous vacancies, which 
were ripening into congregations. Yarious ministerial 
settlements were made in the West and in the South, and 
also within the bounds of the JSTorthern Presbytery. 

On the 16th of May, 1816, the Synod met, pursuant to 
adjournment, in the city of Philadelphia. This was the 
fifth meeting of the Reformed Presbyterian Synod of North 
America. Addresses were received from the Peformed 
Presbyterian Judicatories, both in Scotland and Ireland, 
expressive of a spirit of brotherly love, cordial co-operation, 
and anxious wishes for the prosperity of the ^Reformed Pres- 
byterian Church in these United States. These feelings and 
wishes were ardently reciprocated by Synod; and a com- 
mittee appointed to transmit heartfelt expressions of frater- 
nal amity to the sister churches in the British Isles. 

Dr. McLeod had been appointed by a former meeting, to 
prepare and present at this, a draught of a form of a cove- 
nant, accompanied by a suitable address to our own church, 
and to other surrounding denominations. Being asked 
whether he was in readiness to present these draughts, he 
replied, that he was only partially prepared to present them ; 
and intimated that our brethren in Scotland were engaged 


in a similar work, and suggested tlie propriety of waiting 
nntil the next meeting, ere wliicli a copy of the Scottish 
overture might be in our hands. To this the Synod readily 

At this meeting the Synod, for the more convenient trans- 
action of ecclesiastical business, reorganized the Presby- 
teries, and increased their number. These Presbyteries were 
designated The Northern, Middle, SoutJiern, and Western. 

The report of the Board of Superintendents of the 
Seminary, runs as follows : 

'■ The Superintendents report to Synod, that they have 
attended to the examinations and exhibitions of the theolo- 
gical students, on the appropriate duties of the Institution, 
and that the students, without exception, have acquitted 
themselves to the satisfaction of the Board, and have been 
referred to their respective classes, viz. Messrs. "William 
Engles and P. Gibson, to the second class, for the next 
session; and Messrs. Johnson, J. Gibson, and Crawford, to 
the third class. 

There are now five alumni in the seminary. The 
superintendents recommend to Synod, to pass an act 
whereby Presbyteries shall be authorized to take under their 
immediate care, and to license for preaching in their respec- 
tive vacancies, the sttidents in the seminary, who have, with 
approbation, passed through the third session of the Theolo- 
gical School, and employ them during the vacation, 
remanding them to the proper studies of the Institution, at 
the commencement of the next session ; and that this plan 
shall be adopted in future, with all such students in the 
seminary. This recommendation was adopted by Synod, 
who having appointed their next meeting at Coldenham, 


New York, on the first Wednesday of September, 181Y, 
adjourned by prayer. 

The plan of sending out to preach, students who had, 
with ajjprobation, completed their third season at the 
seminary, was adopted on the motion and recommendation 
of Dr. McLeod. He pleaded in favor of its adoption, the 
practice of a respectable section of the Christian church ; 
and enforced it on the great plea of expediency. Now with 
all due deference to the judgment of Dr. McLeod, and 
becoming respect for the practice of respectable sister 
communities, the writer of this memoir could never 
discover its propriety. "Wherefore license, and send out to 
the world, to preach the everlasting gospel, raw, inex- 
perienced, half-educated youth, in an unfledged condition, 
proclaiming their incompetency by the very fact, that after 
their summer campaign, they are remanded on the score of 
deficiency in theological knowledge, to resume the prosecu- 
tion of their studies next winter, in the Divinity Hall? 
Such a plan will naturally tend to prevent or diminish that 
self-respect so useful in every sphere of life ; but indispen- 
sable in the preacher of the gospel. It would be unnecessary 
to say, that such a self-respect is perfectly compatible with 
Christian humihty, and entire dependence on the spirit of 
Christ. But sometimes opposite results arise from the same 
cause. Some feel disposed to consider their return to the 
seminary the following winter, as entirely unnecessary. 
Why should it be necessary ? Were they not judged to be 
fit to preach during the preceding summer? Has their 
practising the art rendered them worse? Does practice 
disqualify for performance of the thing practised? Thus 
the standard of preparation for ministerial service has been 
lowered; and to numbers, the designation of pensioners, 


would be more appropriate tharL that of preachera. Novices 
in literature and in science have tlitis been introduced into 
the ministry ; ignorant of theological science, their appli- 
cation of its principles must move along in the same beaten 
track, as mechanically as a locomotive on a railroad. 

In a practical and religious point of view, of all the 
Doctors' numerous productions, the sermons on true godli- 
ness, without hesitation are entitled to the precedence. This 
volume contains the very marrow of the gospel, and of 
Christian experience. The life and power of genuine 
godliness are here exhibited in their native grandeur and 
loveliness. It is rare to find such a combination of intel- 
lectual vigor and sublime devotion as is displayed in these 

They are introduced by a beautiful dedication to Colonel 
Henry Kutgers of the Revolutionary Ai-my ; and with that 
Christian patriot and eminent saint of God the book was a 
special favorite. Dr. McLeod and Col. Eutgers were on 
terms of great intimacy. They deeply sympathized with 
each other in their attachment to the republican institutions 
of the United States, and in their views of religious ti-uth 
and Christian experience, and they had much delightful 
fellowship as saints of God, though in his providence con- 
nected with different religious denominations. The sermons 
themselves were preached in the old Eutgers street church, 
whose pulpit was then vacant. It was proposed to call Dr. 
McLeod to this church. This, however, he declined, but 
furnished a supply for several Sabbaths, during which the 
discourses were delivered. Tliey made a powerful impres- 
sion at the time, and, being published, have kept their place 
in the sacred literature of the country to the present hour. 


The following anecdote, recorded by Dr. McLeod, is 
finely illusti-ative of the character of his friend : 


" This remarkable man had laid early in life the founda- 
tion of his characteristic liberality. Like the son of Isaac 
and heir of Abraham, he promised to the Lord a portion of 
the substance with which it should please his Creator and 
Redeemer, in subsequent life, to provide him. This was 
done upon one of the most interesting occasions conceivable, 
while under arms for the independence of his country. It 
was in the year 1777 that he was called to leave his native 
city, in discharge of his duty to that cause which he piously 
and patriotically espoused. His father and mother were far 
advanced in years, and Henry was the only surviving son. 
He bore a commission in the army, and was under orders 
to proceed to his regiment. Mounted upon his horse he 
reached the division lines which separated his father's 
estate from the Delancey possessions. The spot is worthy 
of recollection ; and this notice of it may perhajss remind 
the citizen and the stranger of the transaction of which it 
was then the theatre and the witness. It was at that time 
in the remote suburbs of the city of which it is now a part, 
being in the district bounded by Division, Kutgers, Jeffer- 
son streets and the East Eiver. 

"Halting his horse, he turned around on the extensive 
domain, and the happy abode which he had forsaken for 
the chances of war, without knowing whether he should 
ever again behold his home. He asked himself the ques- 
tion. What would I give for a peaceful return to enjoy my 
patrimony ; and how much of it in case of such an issue 
would I willingly bestow upon public and pious purposes, 


to glorify my God in promoting the welfare of my fellow- 
men ? Jacob's vow occurred to his recollection ; and he 
thought he should not be less liberal then the Patriarch was 
at Bethel. Hem-y Eutgers devoted \h& fourth of his future 
income. He returned in peace to enjoy the freedom which 
he had assisted in securing to his country, and he long lived 
to verify, by his munificence to every pious and benevolent 
enterprise, the resolution which he had then formed. On 
his own estate he saw, before his death, the Eutgers street 
and Market street churches, Free School No. 2, Fayette 
street schools, and other public institutions, the site of 
which is his donation, and which, besides other extensive 
endowments throughout the city and the land, ]^e con- 
trbuted liberally to erect and maintain." 

Of these Discourses we offer the following analysis : 
ThQ first sermon is introduotor'y, and is designated 


Liike ii. 10 — •" I bring you good tidings of great joy." 

The introduction is natural and beautiful. We can do it 
justice only by transcribing it. This shall be done in part 

" The pleasure which a great and good mind receives in 
the contemplation of what is extensively beneficial, will 
account for the interest which the holy angels feel in the 
work of redemption. Those mighty agents, guided by vast 
intelligence, in all their acts, are, indeed, commanded by the 
Lord to serve him in his government; but so far from 
feeling duty a burden are they, in ministering to elect men, 
that they take care to demonstrate their own joy in every 


step of the process of the sinner's salvation. The loss of 
members which the celestial society sustained by the fall of 
rebel angels, is made np by the introduction of redeemed 
men into their high fellowship ; and in this they rejoice. 
But the superior development which is made in the Covenant 
of Grace, of the persons and the perfections of the 
Godhead ; and the superior felicity which is consequently 
diffused through the intelligent creation, principally 
account for the angelic ecstasy which accompanied the 
delivery of the evangelical message announced in my 

The Doctor then proceeds to announce the plan of discus- 
sion. " I proceed," says he, " to lay before you with all the 
distinctness of which I am capable. 

He then defines the terms of the proposition, showing 
that in the original Greek, and English, or Saxon languages, 
it means the same thing, viz. " good tidings." 

As it was not the author's object to explain the good 
things which evangelical religion holds in common with any 
other system, he proceeds immediately to specify some of 
the peculiar excellences. 

" Christianity alone," says he, " establishes friendship 
between God and man in the Mediator— provides perfect 
satisfaction to Divine Justice for the sinner's transgression — 
secures a change of mind from sinfulness to holiness by 
supernatural power — and communicates a full title to a 
place in heaven by the merits of another. 

" These are the peculiarities — these are the excellences of 
evangelical religion." There is embraced both in the matter 


and the arrangement of this excellent discourse, a system of 
divinity. The gospel finds men dead in trespasses and in sins 
— restores friendship between the rebels and their Maker, 
through the One Mediator between God and man — the Man 
Christ Jesus. It does this upon the most equitable princi- 
ples, so that God can be just, and justify the ungodly, who 
believe. It does not merely procure pardon and exemption 
from suffering, but, by supernatural power, slaying the 
enmity of nature, translates from darkness to light — from 
sin to holiness, and qualifies for glory. But it leaves not 
the title to glory suspended on gratuitous pardon or arbi- 
trary will; but upon the arm of immutable justice — -the 
righteousness of the Eedeemer implementing the covenant 
of grace. 

The conclusion is short and appropriate. So honorable is 
the preaching of the gospel, that even angels delight in 
being thus employed. It consists in three things : (1) The 
annunciation of facts. (2) The declaration of doctrines; 
and (3) The offer of salvation. 

The second discourse is entitled : 


The text is John iii. 7 — "Marvel not that I said unto 
thee, Ye must be born again." 

" Christianity has commanded the admiration and 
extorted the praise, even of its enemies. Its influence over 
human affairs is astonishing ; its conquests have been 
already extensive ; they are still advancing, and they will 
eventually become universal. In its improvement of our 
race, and mehoration of our condition and our prospects, it 


may be considered in a threefold point of view, as systema- 
tic and scientific — didactic oi" discursive — and experimental 
or practical. 

" There are three ways, my dear brethren, of considering 
for our own improvement, that religion which we believe, 
enjoy, and inculcate. In all these, we have in the Holy 
Scriptures an infallible guide. "We may consider it as it 
was laid down before the world began, in the divine coun- 
sels — as it was taught, secured, and exemplified in the life 
and death of the Lord Jesus Christ — and as incorporated 
in the belief, and experience, and practice of renewed 

" The first of these modes is the most scientific and is 
usually pursued in teaching the students of theology a 
knowledge of the system. The second is most usua% 
followed in pulpit exhibitions — and the third is occasionally 
employed, both from the pulpit and the press, with a design 
so to apply, as well as expound the Christian doctrines, as 
to discover to the anxious inquirer his own actual condition, 
in reference to personal religion. 

" It is the last of these modes which I resolve to pursue 
in the series of discourses which I now propose to deliver. 
I begin with a description of the wonderful change which 
is efi^ected on sinful man, by divine jjower, when he first 
becomes a true Christian. To this object my text directs 
your attention." 

The plan of the discourse is simple and obvious. The 
nature of the new birth, and its necessity. 

Tlie author then proceeds to give ample evidence of the 
fact : That there is such a change ; that it is produced by the 
power of God's grace ; that it is a spiritual change com- 


mimicating a new life ; that this life is instantaneous in 
its communication, although progressive in its effects. 

The first of these points is irrefutably established upon 
Scripture declarations. If any man be in Christ Jesus, he 
is a new creature — new intellectually, renewed in know- 
ledge, after the image of Him that created him — new 
morally, a new heart also will I give you, &c. 

The second is demonstrated with equal force. I will 
create in them a new heart — create in me a clean heart, 
God ! and renew a right spirit within me. How absurd, 
that the dead could resuscitate themselves ! a creature 
create itself! 

Can the Ethiopian change his skin or the leopard his spots ? 
The win must act according to its nature ; but that nature 
is carnal and inimical to God. Here the Doctor has 
appended an excellent marginal note, which if properly 
understood, would settle the Hopkinsian question respecting 
the indistinguishable distinction between natural and moral 
ability. He says : 

" Erom the very nature of mind, it cannot be influenced 
by impulse as matter is impelled by force. Yolition does not 
admit of an efficient, but a moving cause. The mind is by 
nature active. Yolition is its own act. It is the mind 
itself that wills, and the reason why it wills one thing and 
not another, depends upon the motive. By the very prin- 
ciple which precludes the possibility of any other cause of 
human volition, than the natural activity of mind itself, the 
necessity of a moving cause for every volition is infalHbly 
established. It is, therefore, manifest, that whatever power 
ordinances exercise over the mind, it is only as motives they 
act. ISTow a motive acts only as it is perceived, and felt. 


It must both appear to the understanding, and appear 
affecting to the heart, in order to moye the will. It 
sanctifies neither the one nor the other. It affects the natural 
mind according to its nature ; but it does not alter that nature, 
or produce regeneration. EenoTation is of the Holy Ghost." 
Through the whole of these fifty-second and fifty-third 
pages, the reasoning is so logical, cogent and luminous, 
that conviction flashes in every line. It is matter of regi'et, 
that the limits of this analysis will allow so little of it to be 
presented to the reader. In reference to natural and moral 
ability, in page fifty-three, he says, " Yes ! you have 
natural faculties, and moral faculties also ; you have under- 
standing ; you have conscience ; you have affections ; you 
have a will : but not the power of either, or all of them 
together, whether natural or moral, call them what you 
choose, is adequate to your own regeneration. Boast not of 
ability which has no power in relation to the case in hand. 
With all your natural ability, even if you had the will, you 
could not make yourself a new man. The will is either 
corrupt, and it cannot produce holiness ; or it is holy, and 
regeneration has already taken place. Upon either supposi- 
tion, the truth remains uncontrovertible. It is not by 
works of righteousness that we have done, but according to 
his mercy, he hath saved us, by the washing of regenera- 
tion and the renewing of the Holy Ghost." 

In the third place he shows clearly that the change is 
spiritual, or a moral change. It is not physical, nor does it 
communicate any new faculty to its subject. 

That regeneration is instantaneous, is manifest from the 
consideration that between life and death there can be no 
intermediate state. 


Tlie second head of discussion, viz. the necessity of 
regeneration to faith and repentance, acceptable obedience 
and worship, and to onr happiness in time and eternity, is 
handled in a very acceptable manner. So also is the con- 
cluding address. 

The third discourse in the series is most important in its 
nature ; and the importance is well sustained in the execu- 
tion. It is designated, 


The text is, Eom. vi. 4.— "As Christ was raised up from 
the dead, by the glory of the Father, even so we also should 
walk in newness of life." 

That progress in sanctification and consequent preparation 
for a blessed immortality, is of more importance than 
success in business, will be denied by no real Christian. 
That perfection in holiness, and fitness for glory, depend 
upon the resurrection of the Redeemer, are equally clear 
from scripture authority. 

Our author, in the discussion of his text, 

I. Explains the words. 

II. Distinguishes, by names indicative of their character- 
istic features, the gradations in the Christian life. 

The first head explains the Resurrection — ^its efficient 
cause, the glory of the Father — our resulting resurrection, 
and consequent obligation to walk, &c. 

In the second head, the first of the distinct degrees is 
anxiety to escape firom evil ; the second is distinguished by 
admiration of Christ and his salvation ; the third, by thirst 
for improvement in the knowledge of his ways ; the fourth 
by public spirit in promoting good ; the fifth, by heavenly 



mindedness^ — and the sixth, by willingness to suffer iu the 
cause of God. 

We cannot but observe here, that, in our opinion, 
this arrangement is accurate, and justified by Christian 
experience. It manifestly fell from the pen of one who 
could say, " I believed, therefore I spake." The successive 
development of the Christian character, in the various 
gradations from birth to matiirity is happily delineated. 

It is obvious, even to cursory observation, that every part 
of God's arrangements, in nature and grace, is designed to 
display a system of moral order, and subserve the execution 
of a plan of wisdom. To this, everything should bend, 
because it is infinitely wise. To it everything must bend, 
because the author is omnipotent. God could, it is true, 
perfect the sanctification of the elect, in a moment. He 
need only say the word, and it shall be done. Why then 
the tedious process in the work of sanctification ? Why the 
painful and almost overwhelming conflicts with prevailing 
iniquities, with which the best of God's saints are often 
disturbed in this life ? It is true : we have an easy solution 
for this, as well as other mysterious points, in divine provi- 
dence. " Even so. Father, for so it seemed good in thy 
sight." But although the Deity is not bound to give an 
account of his conduct; yet when we can explain it on 
rational principles, we are bound to "justify the ways of 
God to men." It may be observed, then, (1) That the 
Christian warfare is admirably calculated to show the 
odiousness of sin, and the transcendent power of Divine 
Grace, in the final victory. (2) It is necessary to the exis- 
tence of a church on earth, that the sanctification of the 
elect should not be instantaneous, but gradual and progres- 
sive. The reason is plain. The moment sanctification is 



completed, that very moment the saints must be removed 
to perfect happiness in heaven. This world cannot be the 
residence of sinless, perfect men. But if they should be 
thus instantaneously removed to heaven, the moment thev 
are regenerated, there could not at any given moment be 
found a saint or church on earth ! for the church of God is 
supposed to consist of saints. This world would then 
become a complete pandemonium. But hear the author's 
remarks on the second particular. 

" God, who is rich in mercy, and abundant in power, 
might have created all the children of men at once, as he 
did the angels of heaven. He might have made all men 
alike, in the dimensions of their body, and the features of 
their countenance. He might have made his elect perfect 
in the moment of regeneration ; and have given to all 
the same measm-e of happiness and holiness, if such a plan 
had corresponded with infinite wisdom and goodness. He 
hath ordered it otherwise ; and in the vai-ieties of creation, 
we perceive his wisdom, and enjoy his munificence. These 
varieties displayed in his spiritual empire, are no less 
interesting and instructive. Though we cannot describe 
them all, or even one of them perfectly, it is not unpro- 
fitable to take a rapid view of the company of pilgrims, 
and fix their distinguishing features permanently before 
us. The progress made in the path of righteousness, is 
not always discoverable at short intervals of time ; and 
to the sovereignty of God, both in his general providence, 
and in the comnnmications of his special grace, we must 
refer the question, why some improve so rapidly, while 
others are either stationary or declining under the same 
means, and with similar natural dispositions." 


These remarks shall be brought to a close, observing, that 
this portraiture of the character of the Christian, from the 
commencement of spiritual life, until his introduction to 
glory, shows the pencil of a master. With the inception of 
vitality, he instinctively desires to avoid evil and enjoy good. 
He begins truly to admire the divine Jesus, both in the 
power of his resurrection, and in the fellowship of his 
sufferings. Having tasted that he is good and gracious, 
he thirsts after the knowledge of Him, more and more — 
yes, after God, the Living God — for communion and fellow- 
ship with the Father and the Son Jesus Christ. Having 
experienced the animating iniiuences of his grace, his 
soul expands in holy benevolence ; feels itself belonging to 
the same body, identifies its interest with his people, and 
embraces in the sanctified catholicity of its love the whole 
Israel of God.' — 'Having reached this commanding emi- 
nence, heavenly mindedness becomes the predominant pro- 
pensity of his character. His conversation is in heaven, 
whence he looks for the Saviour, and in fine, such is the 
progressive invigoration of his faith, that he is willing even 
to suffer for his sake. 

The Foueth Sermon in the series respects the Spirit 
of adoption. The text is from Eom. viii. 15. — " Ye have 
received the spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, 

But however excellent this discourse may be, and an 
excellent one it is, little more than an analysis can here 
be attended to. 

Having adverted to the former state of the children of 
God, the apostle contrasts it with the present. Instead 
of a state of bondage, they now enjoy Christian liberty. — 


They have as their guide the Comforter, and come by Him 
through Jesus Christ, unto the Father. 

The sermon then proceeds : — " Let us consider with 
attention, the gift which these children of God have 
received — the Spirit of adoption ; their Christian liberty. 
The spirit of bondage was not again sent upon them ; and 
the import of their address to God. They cry Abba, 

" The particulars under the first head, are — The Oift. — 
1st. The Holy Ghost seals their adoption. — 2d. "Witnesses 
their adoption. — 3d. Communicates the comfort of it. 

" Under the second head — Their Christian Liberty. — 1st. 
Deliverance from the dominion of sin. — 2d. From the 
power of Satan. — 3d. Deliverance from undue human 

"Under the third head, viz. — Thelrwport of their Address. 
1st. — ^The believer's approbation of his relation to God. 
— 2d. The believer is soothed with the contemplation of 
his Father in Heaven. — 3d. God's children consider him as 
their instructor.' — 4th. They submit to chastisement with 
patience. — 5th. They place themselves under God's pro- 
tection, as their Father, &c. — 6th. By this Spirit they come 
with boldness to the throne of grace." 

Although we long since consigned to the nursery closets 
the visionary paraphernalia of demonology, and now smile 
at the malicious tricks of the unearthly goblins which excit- 
ed our fears, yet we cannot but reprobate the Sadducean 
doctrine of the semi-infidel. "We believe on Scripture 
ground, in Satanic influence. In the economy of Provi- 
dence, the agency of the Devil occupies a certain place. 
He cannot counteract or thwart the Divine purpose. All 



his malicious projects will eventually recoil on his own 
guilty head. He knows this, yet his malice induces him 
still to be the "Tempter." A passage under the second 
particular of the second head, is here presented verbatim. 

" Mind converses with mind, through bodily organs ; and, 
most assuredly, the want of body cannot prove a hindrance 
to the intercourse of spirits. An unembodied spirit may 
have access to a mind connected with body, in a manner 
which we cannot explain ; for we cannot explain the man- 
ner even of our o^vn perceptions. We may trace the 
impressions made by external objects to the nerves, and 
thence to the brain ; but how matter can affect spirit, even 
then, is as great a mystery as ever. How matter can affect 
mind, is, certainly, a secret as inexplicable, as how spirit 
can converse with spirit without the intervention of matter. 
It is not necessary, as unbelievers affirm, to clothe Satan 
with the attributes of omnipresence or omniscience, in order 
to make him the enemy of virtue, and the leader of rebel- 
lion against the divine authority. A man of ambition and 
intrigue may rule an empire, and carry his own spirit into 
the counsels of the remotest provinces. The number, more- 
over, of fallen angels is great. Their powers are superior to 
those of the human mind, their experience is long, and 
their observation extensive. Intent upon wickedness, and 
unwearied in industry, they have for nearly six thousand 
years studied the course of Providence, and the laws of the 
physical and moral world. Engaged in a conspiracy 
against virtue, what injury must they not now be capable 
of doing to the spiritual interests of mortals? They are 
also able to make repeated visits of but short intermissions 
to the quarter in which their malicious views may be pro- 


moted. Matter, tliougli naturally inert, travels, wlien 
impelled by sufficient force, with astonishing velocity. A 
ray of light, or an electric spark, moves with a rapidity 
which woiild soon' make the circuit of the globe. The 
activity of spirit is confessed. When from an eminence we 
take a view of an extended plain, several miles before ns, 
we give millions of different inclinations to the optic axis 
in the course of a moment of time, and a distinct act of the 
will is necessary to each inclination. Neither consciousness 
nor recollection serve in contemplating these actions; 
because such a minute exercise of these powers would only 
embarrass, and in no case answer the purposes of present 
usefulness or comfort. These things are taught by philo- 
sophy, and serve to defend against sophistry, the Christian 
doctrine in admitting the possibility of the agency of evil 
spirits on the human mind." 

TliQ fifth of these discourses is designated 


The text is, 2 Peter, iii. 18 — " Grow in grace." 

The administration of the economy of the universe pro- 
ceeds upon a system of means. It would be difficult, inde- 
pendently of a system of means, to distinguish counsel, 
wisdom, or design, or any other attribute than power, in the 
divine arrangements, if arrangements they could be 
called, without an abuse of language. But it is useless to 
try to establish by argument a truth so axiomatic. 

Our author considers "the means of grace," as being 
threefold: Divine ordinances — rational reflections— and the 
Spirit's influence. Under the first of these, the Doctor 


enumerates divine revelation — the sacraments — Christian 
conversation — prayers, &c., &c. 

Under the second, rational reflections on our sinful nature 
and actions — upon the jprovidence of God in determining 
our lot — upon the love of God in Christ Jesus our Lord, and 
iipon death and a future state : rational reflection on all of 
these is very becoming the Christian character. 

Under the third, it is shown how the influences of the 
Holy Ghost are experienced in a threefold mode of opera- 
tion : He presents proper objects to the mind; he directs 
the affections of the heart to these objects; and he imparts 
strength for action in a believing view of them. 

The following passage, from the 172d page, is particularly 
deserving the perusal of the rational, judicious Christian. 

" The ordinances of religion do not operate with mechan- 
ical force in promoting our spiritual growth. Human 
nature is rational ; and its reformation includes the exercise 
of its several faculties. The entire intellect of man is influ- 
enced by piety. All the active powers of the mind are 
concerned. The whole soul is the subject of sanctiflcation. 
The whole moral constitution must, of course, be put in 
action ; and the vital principle communicated in regen- 
eration by the spirit of adoption, requires to be cherished 
by outward ordinances and rational reflections under the 
direction of the Holy Ghost, until we come to the measure 
of perfect men in Jesus Christ. The inconsiderate observ- 
ance of outward rites proflteth httle. We are required to 
attend to our ways as rational creatures ; and we have the 
promise of Divine aid in the work. Consider what I say, 
and the Lord give you understanding in all things. — 
2 Tkn. ii. 7." 


The sixth discourse respects the Asstjeaijce of a Saving 
Inteeest iiT Chkist. To the believer, this is a most inte- 
resting topic. 

The text is fi-om 1 John, iii. 19. — "And hereby we know 
that we are of the truth, and shall assui-e our hearts before 

The attainability of our assurance of a saving interest in 
the Redeemer, the Doctor establishes : 

1. From consciousness, as it is asserted in the text, " we 
know," &c. — ^The exercise of gracious affections speciiied in 
the context — love of holiness- — -love of the brethren' — love of 
God — sincerity, &c. 

3. From other passages of Scripture, particularly our 
Lord's Sermon on the Mount — The poor in spirit — The 
mourners- — The meek- — -They who hunger and thirst after 
righteousness — ^The merciful- — ^The pure in heart, &c. 
" These benedictions," remarks our author, " were pro- 
nounced by the Lord of Eighteousness upon his disci- 
ples : the beatitiides belong exclusively to actual saints. 
To them only could he say with truth, ' rejoice, and be 
exceeding glad ; for great is your reward in heaven. Te 
are the salt of the earth. Te are the light of the world.' 
To them, of course, he gives assurance of everlasting happi- 
ness. And is not that attainable which Christ himself 

3. From the absurdity of the contrary opinion.- — ^We like 
the use our author makes here of the word "absurdity," 
although it is rather uncommon. For, verily, whatever is 
repugnant to the Scriptures is as contradictory to truth as 
if it were opposed to the nature of things. But the Scrip- 
tures of truth which, with every believer are axiomatic. 


expressly assert that, " He that beliereth shall be saved." 
And again, "Believe in the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou 
shalt be saved," &c. 

4. From the experience of the saints. — Many of these 
could say with the Aj)ostle, "I know whom I have 
believed." " My beloved is mine, and I am his." 

In the second head, the Doctor lays down some princi- 
ples Avhich must be taken for granted, and are implied in 
all accurate examinations of our own religious state, viz. : 
Such is the nature of true godliness, that any one gracious 
exercise is conclusive of piety — there is a great variety in 
Christian attainments — God effectually calls his people in 
very diversified circumstances' — in self-examination, as in 
all other religion.s exercises, the aid of the Holy Ghost 
is indispensably necessary to a happy issue. 

On the third of the particulars just enumerated, viz. 
"God effectually calls his people in very diversified cir- 
cumstances," in its reference to infants, the Doctor reasons 
with all his usual acuteness and force. How comforting, to 
the believer in Christ Jesus, must be the hope of the eternal 
felicity of his dying infant ! While mourning for his dear 
little babes removed in infancy, he is not called to mourn 
as those that have no hope. On this subject, the following 
foot-note will be an acceptable treat to the reader. To this 
is prefixed a portion of the text, pages 229-231. 

" The words of our Redeemer seem to convey this idea ; 
and considered in connection with his action at the time, 
gives us reason to conclude that, as our infant children are 
placed by Divine goodness along with ourselves in the visi- 
ble church, so, too, unless it shall actually appear that they 
have, by their pei'sonal misconduct, cast themselves out, 
they shall enter into the celestial enjoyments of that 


kingdom of tile God of heaven, wliich is visibly dispensed 
by an outward economy to his people ■while yet on earth." 
These sentiments are worthy of all acceptance ; and are 
further illustrated in the foot-note. " By this hope alone," 
says our author, " we can satisfactorily account for, or 
explain the problem, 2 Sam. xii. 15, '23.^ — David seemed 
inconsolable while his beloved child lay under the agonies 
of a mortal disease ; but so soon as he was informed of the 
death of his infant, he arose from the earth, ' washed and 
anointed himself, came into the house of God, and wor- 
shiped ; then he came into his own house, and he did eat.' 
His conduct appeared inexplicable to his domestics ; but he 
himself explains the principles upon which he acted. He 
said, ' while the child was yet alive, I fasted and wept ; 
for, I said, who can tell, whether the Lord will be 
gracious to me, that the child may live? But now he 
is dead, wherefore should I fast? Can I bring him back 
again? I shall go to him, but he shall not return to 
me.' " 

The prophet David knew well that there is no knowledge 
in the grave. He was one of those who by faith obtained 
the promise of the resurrection, and desired to see the 
heavenly country. To him it could be no consolation to go 
clown with his child to perpetual oblivion. To the heavenly 
city he was himself going, and where, by faith, he expected 
to be, there he expected to meet his infant offspring. I 
SHALL GO TO HIM. The pious parent had assurance of his 
own salvation, and he is confident also of the safety of his 
departed child. How different from this was his conduct, 
how vastly diiferent his expressions, at the death of another 
son, the profane Absalom? 2 Sam. xviii. 23. "And the 
king was much moved, and wept. Thus he said, my son 


Absalom ! my son, my son Absalom ! would God I had 
died for thee. O Absalom, my son, my son !" 

The salvation of his child was not revealed to David by 
any private revelation. All ^ous parents have reason to 
helieve, that tliew children dying in infancy, shall he sa/ved 
in Jesus Christ. That you may have such confidence, 
discard, 1. Prejudices. — It is not any virtue in your own 
desires ; it is not any merit in your prayers ; it is not any 
efiicacy of baptism, that gives a right to this confidence. 

2. Keject false reasonings, that are employed to allay 
parental grief. It is not their personal innocency that can 
save their souls. If this cannot save the infant from per- 
verseness, from pain and from death, it cannot save from 
future misery. Besides, if they are not guilty before God, 
there is no reason for their having any part in the atone- 
ment made by Jesus Christ. " The whole have no need of 
the physician." 

3. Eeject inconclusive probabilities. — ^They do not war- 
rant oiir faith and otir hope. That all who die in 
infancy shall be happy in heaven, is nowhere declared in 
revelation. Granting that all are judged according to their 
works — ^that children have done no injury in this world — 
that the number of the saved will be greatly increased by 
including all infants ; still this is only peobability, and 
our knowledge is too superficial to warrant any positive 
conclusion. Eevelation is our only guide. 

Christian hope rests only on Christ Himself ; and in the 
revelation of the Covenant of Grace, we have the only 
ground of faith and confidence. This is, in the present case, 
the ground of the pious parent's confidence. To the 
impious there is no hope. 

The promise secures the salvation of the ofispring of 


believers dying in infancy. My argument is tliis : A 

general promise covers all cases which are not excepted by 

him who promised ; and where there is no exception, there 

is ground of faith. But the promise of God is eternal life 

in Jesus Christ; and there is no exception, not one, in 

relation to those children of believers, who die in infancy. 

Heb. ix. 15. Christ suffered, " that they who are called 

might receive the promise of eternal inheritance." This 

very promise, Acts, ii. 39, is unto you, and unto your 

CHiLDEEN. It is not to the Jews only, but also to as many 

as are called ; and these being called, it is, of course, unto 

their children. To the operation of the promise, there is 

no possible exception, but an unbelieving rejection of it. 

Those professors, who die in unbelief, are not interested in 

it. But the children of believers, who do not live to reject 

the promise by unbelief, are included in its blessings. I 

have, therefore, the same ground, the self-same foundation, 

to believe in the salvation of my children who have not 

rejected the Covenant of Grace, as to believe in my own 

salvation, who have embraced that Covenant. I have the 

same proinise in both cases. It is first to me, and then to 

my children ; and I know, if any of my children are not, 

in fact, in the Covenant of Grace, they will not leave this 

world until they have in their own souls, rejected the 

promise, and put themselves among those who are excepted, 

by the promisor, from the blessing. The wisdom of God — 

the constitution of the church — the hopes of the saicfts — the 

general scope of Scripture confirm this exposition of God's 


Of the four remaining discourses, however excellent — 
and excellent, verily, they are — only the titles can be here 
inserted. These are— VII. The Evidences of Teub Eeli- 


GioN IN Man. VIII. Tue Duty of those who have not 
AssuEANOE. IX. The Consolations op Teue Eeligion ; and 
X. The Stability and Peefection of Teue Eeligion in 

From the specimen given, the reader may judge of the 
rest, Ex ungue leonem. It is confidently believed that the 
author's true character, as a profound divine and an expe- 
rienced Christian, is more fully delineated in the volume on 
The Life and Powee of Godliness than in any, or even all, 
of his other numerous discussions. He felt and exemplified 
in his own life, the gracious and devout affections, which 
breathe, so fragrantly, through every page. This volume is 
a mirror of his life. 

It has been already observed, that it was astonishing, con- 
sidering the delicate state of Doctor McLeod's health, and 
the multifarious duties, ofiicial and domestic, which 
devolved upon him, how he could find time and oppor- 
tunity for such a liberal use of his pen. His travelling to 
attend on the judicatories of the church, to supply vacan- 
cies, and assist on occasions of sacramental communion, 
among our widely-scattered connections, on some seasons, 
occupied a very considerable portion of his time : yet there 
are found, on the next season, no less than six different 
reviews and essays in the Evangelical Guardian and 
Eeview, a very respectable journal published by an asso- 
ciation of clergymen in ISTew York : and in the volume 
of the succeeding year, 1818, seven pieces, requiring deep 
thought, extensive reading, and careful investigation. The 
writer of this memoir is authorized to make the above 
statement of the authorship of these literary productions, by 
the Eev. Dr. Eowan, already mentioned, who was one of 
the editors of said periodical, and acquainted with the fact. 


" New Yokk, September lOtb, 1833. 
" Rev. Doctoe Wxlie, 

'■'■ Dea/r Bir : — Observing from the Minutes 
of your Synod, tliat you liave the honor of an appointment 
from that body, to prepare a memoir of my lately deceased, 
but greatly esteemed friend, Dr. McLeod, I feel it, at once, 
a duty and a privilege to inform you, as, perhaps, the only 
depository of the fact — that Dr. McLeod was one of the 
projectors of, and one of the most liberal contributors to, 
the ' Evangelical Guardian and Review,' published in this 
city, 1817, 1818. He wrote the following able articles, viz. 

VOL. I. 

"I. Pp. 32-4-±. Heview.- — ' On the Doctrine of Election. 
A sermon preached by Gardiner Spring, D.D., Pastor of 
the brick Presbyterian Church, in the city of New Tork, 
November, 1816.' 

"II. 1st. Pp. 72-85. Review. — 'A brief view of facts 
which gave rise to the New York Evangelical Missionary 
Society of Young Men, with the constitutions. 2d. History 
of the Young Men's Missionary Society of New York, con- 
taining a correct account of the recent controversy, 
respecting Hopkinsian doctrines.' 

"III. Pp. 113-119, continued 169-177, continued 267- 
280. Review. — ' An Address delivered before the Auxiliary 
New York Bible and Common Prayer Book Society, in St. 
Paul's Chapel, in the city of New York, by Thomas Y. 
How, D.D., Assistant Eector of Trinity Church.' 

"lY. Pp. 155-162. Essay.— 'TuQ Divinity of the 
Saviour proved, from the nature of the Mediatorial office.' 

" V. Pp. 213-217. Review. — ' A series of discourses on 


"the Christian Eevelation, viewed in connection with the 
Modern Astronomy, by Tliomas Chabners, D.D., Minister 
of the Zion Church, Glasgow.' 

" VI. Pp. 350-364. Beview. — ' Letters concerning the 
plan of salvation, as delivered from the Scriptures : 
addressed to the members of the Presbyterian Church, 
Spring street, New York, by Matthew La Kue.Perrine, 
A.M., Pastor of the said Church, New York.' 

" VIII. Pp. 18-22. Bemew. — 1st. ' A sermon delivered in 
Zion Church, Glasgow, on Wednesday, November 19, 1817, 
the day of the funeral of her royal highness, the Princess 
Charlotte of Wales, by the Eev. Thomas Chalmers, D.D. 
2d. A sermon preached before the Society in Scotland, for 
propagating Christian knowledge, at their annual meeting, 
in the High Church of Edinburgh, on Thursday, June 2d, 
1814, by the Kev. Thomas Chalmers, D.D., then Minister of 
Kilmany, now Minister of the Zion Church, Glasgow.' 

" The above articles were written by Dr. McLeod. There 
were others, I think, but not being sure, would be silent. 
You are at liberty to make any use of these reminiscences 
you think proper. 

" Very affectionately, 

" Stephen" N. Eowait." 

With a pencil, by another hand, immediately below the 
signature of Dr. Eowan, is found the following note : 

" Add to the above all the articles in the second vohime 
signed )a." 


When this note is compared with an editorial request in 
page 574 of the first yolume, there can remain no doubt 
that all the articles with this signature, issued from the pen 
of Dr. McLeod : 

Editorial Bequest. — "It is requested that every writer 
would assume a signature for himself, by which his commu- 
nication may be distinguished." 

InTow Dr. Kowan certifies the last communication, Tiz. 
No. 7, vol. ii., to be one of Dr. McLeod's ; which same one 
is distinguished by the signature, )2. 

Vni. Pp. 156-158. ^smy.— " The Scriptures the Su- 
preme Judge of Religious Controversy," continued from 
158, and occupying from 200-204. 

IX. Pp. 253-261, continued 289-296. Essay.— ''BvM 
Statement of the Evidences and Uses of Divine Pevelation." 

X. Pp. 409-415. Essay. — " Man a Eeligious as well as 
a national Creature," continiied from 433-439. 

Several of these essays and reviews are upon the grand 
points of controversy which agitated the Christian public, 
since the commencement of the present century. The topics 
are of the utmost importance. In the shape of review, 
systematic discussion is not always to be expected. The 
reviewer's course is generally shaped out by that of the 
reviewed, however devious it may be. In original essays, 
we have the author's own plan. One of these shall be 
selected, on which to make some remarks. We recommend 
all the reviews and essays to the perusal of the reader, 
should they fall into his hands. They are replete with the 
Doctor's usual good sense and critical acumen. 

The last of these Essays is selected for a brief analysis in 



this memoir, as shedding a stream of light on a subject of 
importance both in metaphysics and theology; and espe- 
cially, as it embodies in its discussion the sentiments and 
views of one of the first metaphysicians of the age, on a 
topic abstruse and controvertible. 
The title of the essay, page 409, is, Man is a Eeligiotts 


We have long entertained the opinion, that had there 
been no such thing as natural religion, there could have 
been nothing in man on which to graft revelation. Although 
we never like the expression, a " a sense oe deity," yet, as 
those who employed it generally meant no more by it than 
the moral sense or conscience, we have viewed the phrase 
merely in the light of a verbal inaccuracy. 

It would be a strange singularity in the constitution of 
man, had his maker so framed him, that he could, by the 
exercise of the faculties bestowed upon him, ascertain almost 
everything else but that which is comparatively the only 
thing in the universe worthy of being known; and that 
which, of all things existent, is, to him, the most interesting 
to be known— the existence of God and his relation to him as 
Creator ! What ! capable, by the mere dint of mental exer- 
tion, of coming to such results as those of a Newton, in 
astronomy and optics — of La Place, in the constitution of 
the universe, of a Locke, a Eeid, a Stewart, or a Brown, 
in tracing the phenomena of mind through their latent 
sinuosities — of a Lavoisier, a BertoUet, or a Davies, torturing 
nature, and compelling her, on the rack, to reveal her aston- 
ishing secrets ! What ! did the author of our being consti- 
tute us capable of knowing, by the exercise of our mental 
powers, something about everything but Himself, in whom 
we live and move; and to whom we owe the most profound 


homage ? But this argument, it must be admitted, is only 
of the a priori description. Let the subject, then, be pre- 
sented in a different form. 

Let this question be proposed ; does man naturally owe 
homage to his creator? Li other words, is he naturally 
accountable? The negative, on this question, would be 
impious. The positive, therefore, shall be taken for granted. 
Let it again be proposed, to leave the inquiry unembar- 
rassed by an anticipated objection — would he have owed 
this homage without, or previously to, any supernatural reve- 
lation? If he did owe it, previously to, or without any super- 
natural revelation, then, it must have been suggested by his 
constitution. This is all that is asked. But if, on the 
other hand, he did not owe any homage to God, indepen- 
dently of a revelation, he could not have sinned. He was 
under no law, consequently could be guilty of no trans- 

Another question may be proposed — Has man naturally 
any sense of right and wrong? In other words, has he 
any moral sense, or conscience ? The Apostle Paul, in the 
second chapter of the Epistle to the Romans, answers for us 
this question. " The Gentiles, which have not the law, do by 
nature, the things contained in the law; these having not 
the law, are a law unto themselves, their consciences bear- 
ing witness." Now, there can be no conception of any 
fwnctiorb of conscience being discharged without reference 
to law: but the very idea of law supposes a legislator 
having authority to enact the rule of action, and annex the 
penalty. This legislator must be the author of our exist- 
ence. Should this be denied, the law then must arise out 
of the constitution of society. But then, another question 
occurs — where did society find the prototype of this law? 


Certainly in its own elements — in the constitutions of the 
individuals composing it. 

But, to proceed to the analysis of this essay. The 
Doctor, after some preparatory remarks, in which he testi- 
fies that he was aware that many professing Christians 
would not feel such an immediate interest in this as they 
would be disposed to do in some of his other discussions, 
thus proposes what he intended to prove : 

That a human 'being must have some notions of God 
and religion, if he have the use of his natural powers, 
although he should ie absolutely destit%i,te of sujpernatu/i'dl 
revelation on the subject. 

The Doctor states that the propagators of atheism have 
generally opposed this sentiment. They have taught that 
the idea of a Divinity originated among crafty politicians, 
or knavish priests. But it is with Bible believers that he 
reasons. Some of them deny that men could have any 
notion of a God, without a supernatural revelation. He 
therefore very justly feels himself authorized to use argu- 
ments derived from Scripture. He establishes his point 
thus :— 

1. An infinitely wise, good, and powerful God, would 
make man fit to answer the end lie had assigned him in 
the scale of existence. But the great end is to glorify 
God, and to enjoy Him. Whether fallen, therefore, or not 
fallen, man must be capable of recognizing the existence 
of God and his relation to Him, as creator and governor. 

2. He establishes it from a view of the natural powers 
of the human mind. The understanding, in tracing the 
connection of cause and eifect, must land ultimately in a 
first cause — God. Conscience also, or the moral sense, must 
lead to the same result. After some excellent reasoning, 


the Doctor speaks thus, concerning conscience. " If 
such a faculty exist, it must be natm-al or acquired; 
and even the possibility of making the acquisition, implies 
that the human mind is so constituted by its author, as 
necessarily to acquire the faculty of conscience, or to leave 
unexercised one of the most eminent and excellent powers 
of the soul."' — ■" Again, every sentiment of approbation or 
disapprobation, refers to the will of a superior, as the 
standard which I am bound to adopt. — ^Thus it can be said 
of truth, that God alone is Lord of the conscience." 

3. Argument is taken from the universality of the senti- 
ment. There is no absolutely conclusive evidence that 
there ever existed a real atheist- — ^an individual who was 
absolutely convinced that there was no God. 

4. It appears from Scripture revelation, that man may, 
by the exercise of his natural powers, know that there 
is a God. This he establishes from three quotations, — 
(1) Ps. xix. 1-4: An appeal to the visible heavens. (2) 
Eom. i. 19-20: When speaking of the heathen, "Because 
that which may be known of God, is manifest in them," 
&c. (3) Eom. ii. 11^15 : " For when the Gentiles who 
have not the law," &c. The Doctor explains and applies 
these Scripture declarations in such a manner as com- 
pletely to substantiate the truth in this question. He then 
proceeds to notice some of the objections advanced against 
this sentiment. 

1. There are atheists. — " The fool hath said in his heart, 
there is no God." That any really have believed so, never 
has been, and never cam, be proved. Some, it is true, have 
denied the existence of Deity. " They did not like to retain 
God in their knowledge," bnt we have no reason to believe 
that any man in his senses ever believed it. 


2. "We have no innate principles : all our ideas are from 
sensation and reflection. Arguments for the existence of 
natural religion, drawn from the natiu'e of the human mind, 
are, therefore, invalid. 

This position the Doctor denies. He admits that there 
are no innate logical propositions or judgments in the 
human mind, and contends that this is all that Locke's 
premises prove. "When," says the Doctor, "I contend 
for the existence of innate principles, I do not use principle 
as synonymous with a logical proposition. A child does 
not know [innately] that a whole is greater than any of its 
parts. He does not know the meaning of the terms. But 
his mind is so formed, that as soon as he is capable of com- 
prehending the meaning of the terms, he cannot possibly 
withhold his assent to the proposition," &c. 

3. It has been objected, "that all the religious ideas of 
the heathen may be ultimately referred to supernatural 
revelation." ISToah's instructions to his offspring were 
handed down and disseminated among all nations. To 
this the Doctor replies, that it is unreasonable to expect 
that mere memory, by tradition, could account for the 
universal prevalence of the belief But, if religion came 
by ti-adition, how could mankind forget the capital point, 
this article of revelation- — the necessity of a Mediator, 
and yet retain the belief so terrible to sinners, that there 
is a God? This could never have been the case, if the 
natural powers of man had been as capable of discovering 
the one as the other. How do men so universally admit 
the existence of God, and yet comparatively so few embrace 
the doctrine of a Mediator? This would be inexplicable, 
were not the former a part of natui-al religion, and the 
latter derived from another source. 


4. Objection. — "At a time when deism is prevalent, it 
is more safe to refer all religion ultimately to revelation. 
Men generally believe there is a God. This is granted 
by infidels. Show them that this has proceeded from 
revelation only, and you have gained your point. Tou 
have honored the Bible, and demonstrated its authenticity." 
The Doctor replies : 

" This sentiment may be the error of a pious mind, but 
evidently not of a shrewd intellect, unhampered by pre- 
judice, vigorously exerting itself in the investigation of 
truth." There really does not appear any argument at 
all for either the truth or the falsehood of the position. 
The objection, if objection it can be called does not even 
impugn the thesis. It is a mere Jesuitical subterfuge of 
expediency. Deny or suppress the truth, if so doing may 
subserve the purpose of converting the infidel. Christians 
have not so learned Christ. It is believed, without hesita- 
tion, that the Doctor has completely established this interest- 
ing point, and fully answered all the objections advanced. 

While Dr. McLeod was thus diligently engaged, both 
from the pulpit and from the press, in promoting the 
interests of Messiah's kingdom, the section of the church 
with which he was connected was rapidly lengthening her 
cords, at least, if not proportionally strengthening her 
stakes. New settlements were made in the ISTorth, South, 
East, and West. Dr. McLeod, who, as ah-eady mentioned, 
had been released from his pastoral charge in the city of 
N'ew York, when now Presbyterially free, and at perfect 
liberty from all pastoral obligation to that congregation 
to m.ake a new choice, evidenced that the objects of first 
attachment still continued to be the objects of his laet 
choice. He remained with the congregation. 



From the beginning of tlie year 1818, to tlie close of the year 1823. 

DtntmG the interval between the last naeeting of Synod in 
Pittsburg, and the meeting in Conococheague, little remark- 
able occurred, either in the personal history of Dr. McLeod, 
or in the general progress of our ecclesiastical concerns. 

Dr. McLeod still continued to prosecute with unwearied 
assiduity, both his pastoral duties, and literary and scientific 
inquiries. He was an excellent general scholar. On some 
particular branches, he had few equals. In mental philo- 
sophy, he ranked very high. In metaphysical analysis he 
stood among the foremost. Some of the branches of the 
physical sciences, which were not much attended to [unless 
by such as designed to practise the healing art], at the 
period of his academical career, such as anatomy and 
chemistry, he prosecuted with partictilar care, after his 
settlement in the city of New York. In company with some 
other literary gentlemen, private classes were formed, for 
such investigations, and their appropriate studies cultivated 
with great success. The Doctor was characteristically 
modest in the display of his literary acquirements; but 
when occasion required, he showed that he could have done 
honor to any department of literature to which his superior 


mental powers miglit have been directed. But tlie office 
and vocation of the gospel ministry constituted his great 
delight — -to preach " Christ Jesus and him crucified." 
When, tlirough bodily indisposition, he was unable to 
officiate in public, his inability to be at his post grieved him 
more than the pressure of disease. It has been already 
remarked, that did not like to blazon his religious experi- 
ences, or proclaim on the house-top his sweet communion 
with God; yet, on such an occasion, when confined by 
disease, he thus once wi'ote his friend. "The gospel trumpet 
lies by my side. To day is a silent Sabbath. But so it 
pleases the master. I submit. I love his work. I love 
himself He knows that I love Him." 

As a friend, his heart overfiowed with kindness. The 
intercourse of friendship was, to him, a feast. The society 
of his friends he anxiously desired and cultivated ; and his 
house was the seat of hospitality and kindness. He thus 
addresses his friend in Philadelphia : 

" New York, July eth, 1820. 
" Kev. akd Deae Beothee : — ■ 

" I write you this note, for twenty reasons ; some 
of these, I will specify. 1. I wish you to spend the month 
of August with me ; and, if you do not bring the whole 
family, bring, at any rate, Theophilus. Here at Greenwich, 
I live in a lodge, or rather a shealing. I have a horse, a 
chaise, an Irish jaunting-car, three fine boys, all fond of 
riding, and Theophilus will be a holyday unto them. When 
you and I are at rest, they can all be jaunting. 2. You 
have promised to visit me in August, and I really do n©t 
wish you to break the moral law. It is good for a man to 
keep his word. Mutual confidence depends upon it. I put 


you in remembrance. 3. There are himdi-eds here. * * * 

4. I would have my personal interest, my domestic enjoy- 
ments, my social comfort, &c. * * * greatly promoted, 
by a visit long, as it is seldom conferred upon me by you. 

5. * * * * *. 6. * * * * * I shall not even repeat all 
the other fourteen arguments, which I have stated to my 
own mind. Ton can yourself, supply the omission. 

" A. McL." 

This a long letter, much of it too kind, &c. to meet the 
public eye. The specimen given serves as a further deve- 
lopment of character, and furnishes a sample of that 
peculiar glow of friendship which had, unscathed, withstood 
the chilling blasts of a quarter century. In friendship, his 
professions always fell short of the reality. This was 
evidenced whenever opportunity offered. 

On the ITth of November following, the Doctor had an 
addition made to his family, by the birth of a son. On the 
20th he thus writes his friend. "Should you think of 
seeing New York, at old Christmas times, you will do me 
a favor in baptizing my little boy, if the Lord should spare 
him to me so long. He and his mother are in good case." 
The Lord had visited him with many bereavements in his 
family and connections. He had much experience in the 
school of affliction. 

La the month ^of August, 1821, the Doctor thus writes 
respecting the intended union between his sister-in-law, 
Miss Jane Agnew, and the Eev. Samuel "W". Crawford. 

" New York, Jlug. 17, 1821. 

* * * * " To accommodate Mr. Crawford and 
hia intended, I remain a week and a day longer in New 


York, than I intended, or than indeed is convenient. Ton 
are already advised that August 28th is the time appointed 
for the imion of our young friends, and it is presumable 
that you wiU. then show your coimtenance. It might more- 
over be expected, in other cases, that being in New York, 
you might be prevailed upon to pass one Sabbath among 
Christian brethren. 

" The Lord's day prior to the 28th, I would desire to 
enjoy your ministerial communion; and the subsequent Sab- 
bath, during my absence, you would be doubly acceptable 
to my people, were you to oihciate in my pulpit ; under 
these circumstances, I venture not to advise. I will be 
gratified either way ; but certainly I would prefer a visit 
from Dr. Wylie eaiiy the following week, because in that 
case I could enjoy its benefits somewhat longer. My 
Maker knows how sincerely and how constantly I have 
desired to enjoy such fraternal intercourse, and many 
know how much in vain have been my endeavors. 
" Yours with esteem and affection, 

"A. ^cL." 

It is well known that at an early period of our history, in 
these United States, the various articles of witness-bearing, 
supposed to be comprised in the argumentative part of the 
Testimony, had been assigned to the different ministers then 
belonging to our Synod. Among the things called up and 
inquired after at every subsequent meeting, this was one, 
viz. — "Whether the essays on these different subjects had 
been prepared, and were now ready to be presented to 
Court. The question had been almost uniformly answered 
in the negative. It had been no easy matter to undertake 
and execute an [argumentative discussion on these various 


topics of deep interest, and much greater difficulty than 
most of the undertakers had at all anticipated. But a little 
exjierience satisfied the most intractable, that it is much 
easier to undertake than to execute. And now, thanks to 
an overruling Providence, that these essays were not 
executed and published as a part of our church's Testi- 
mony ! The undertaking did honor to the zeal, and the 
intentional fidelity of our supreme judicatory. But it was 
premature. What a profundity of judgment, length of 
time, opportunity of information, and accumulation of expe- 
rience, must such a work have necessarily required ! 

At the next meeting of Synod, which was held in Phila- 
delphia, ITth October, 1821, as usual, the essays were called 
for, and answers similar to those on former occasions, were 
returned. The Synod agreed, " That all the documents and 
papers in the Synod's possession on this subject, be put into 
the hands of a committee of two members, who shall if 
possible be prepared to report at next meeting of Synod." 
The moderator then named Drs. McLeod and "Wylie, as 
that committee. On putting the question to these gentle- 
men, whether they would accept the appointment, they 
both hesitated for the present, and had time allowed them 
for consideration. Doctor Wylie declined altogether and 
Doctor McLeod's sense of the magnitude and difficulty of 
the task may be inferred from the following extract from 
the minutes : 

"Doctor McLeod returns thanks to the moderator for 
his indulgence in regard to his appointment to the com- 
mittee for completing the third part of the Testimony, 
and now respectfully consents to serve on that committee. 
He, however, requests of Synod, that all the pieces already 


prepared, be delivered to him, with a table of contents to 
each, piece, composed by its author, and referring to the 
pages of his own manuscript. And that the other members 
of the committee be directed to furnish Doctor McLeod 
a schedule of the subjects proper for such a work, speci- 
fying the order of discussion, and the classis argumentorum 
under each topic. In such case Doctor McLeod consents 
to write out the whole work for the inspection of Synod, at 
its next meeting. The Synod accepted these terms." 

The simple fact that, at the next meeting of Synod, Dr. 
McLeod gave in his resignation as chairman of the com- 
mittee on this subject, testifies the difficulty of execution. 
It, like the angle of distance, seemed to increase in magni- 
tude, in proportion as you approach the object. 

At this meeting of Synod, on a petition from James 
Wilson, of Illinois, respecting the necessity of Deacons 
to the complete organization of the Christian church; as 
also the legality of sitting on Juries, or meeting in con- 
vention to form or amend State Constitutions, thQ Court 
expressed their opinion, "That it accords with the princi- 
ples and the practice of this church to ordain congrega- 
tional deacons so soon as the fiscal concerns of any church 
render it necessary : and that no connection with the laws, 
the offices, or tlie order of the State, is prohibited hy the 
church, except what truly involves immorality P 

It should be remarked here, that the legislation of Synod, 
on these two points, was prudent and judicious. They 
were, among the people, points of especial interest, viz. : 
the necessity of the oflice of the deacon to the complete 
organization of the church, and our connection with the 
civil relations of the State. These were both very dis- 


erectly issued. Both the necessity and the manner of 
ordination of the deacon have been warmly contested 
in our church. So, also, the other point about civil 
relations. Time for reflection and deliberation on such 
matters as do not vitally affect the interests of the 
church, will, most likely, terminate in an amicable adjust- 
ment of differences, or lead to a course of mutual forbear- 
ance on points of minor importance, as it is impossible, in 
our present imperfect state, that all can see things in the 
same light. 

A sense of duty, arising from synodical appointment, 
called the Doctor's attention to the preparation of the third 
part of the Testimony ; yet it is believed that this attention 
led only to a fuller conviction of the impracticability of the 
task, amidst the multifarious diities devolving upon him. 
He was willing to serve the church to the utmost of his 
ability. " The spirit was willing, but the flesh was weak." 
On January 28th, 1823, he thus addresses his friend in 
Philadelphia : 

" Ebv. and Deau Sm : 

"I beg leave to trespass so far on your ground, 
as to put you in mind of some business of common concern 
to you and me — ^the argumentative part of the Testimony of 
our church. 

" As a member of committee, you are expected to furnish 
some aid ; and had you not been a member, I would have 
asked you upon other grounds, as much as I now solicit 
from you, that is, a mere table of contents. , What ought to 
be the size of the work ? what the number of its parts ? and 
what their relative proportion? together with the several 
subjects of discussion imder each part, are the inquiries to 


which. I wish you to attend, and furnish me, as soon as pos- 
sible, with the result. It will not cost you much labor, and 
to me it will be of great importance. I claim it as a right." 

The Doctor proceeds to say, " I ask that which follows 
as a particular favor — that you would visit New York in 
April. The seventh day of that month is Easter. On that 
day you can be in ISTew York, without a sacrifice of half the 
good that your being here would effect. Brother, am I not 
worth one visit in ten years ? On the seventh of April 
we will appoint the sacrament, if you say you will come 
to assist. Connected as we are, there should be not only a 
fraternity of feelings and of actions, but there should be a 
visible and frequent, a well-known friendship, and exchange 
of mutual good offices. 

"I have long felt a desire to unbosom myself; I have 
some secrets which I wish to reveal ; but when shall I have 
the opportunity?" &c. 

In the course of the ensuing summer. Dr. Wylie had the 
pleasure of visiting his friend, at his own house, in New 
York. It was in the month of August. This was the holi- 
day season, and during these vacations only could he be 
absent from Philadelphia. The interview was uninter- 
rupted by any other visits. It was, indeed, a delicious 
banquet. Long acquaintance, congeniality of feeling, 
reciprocity of friendship and mutual confidence, while 
discussing topics of interest, and unbosoming hearts, with- 
out reserve, gave a peculiar zest to the feast. " 6*, cmnce 
noctesque deorvmfhP' The very recollection of such oases- 
verdant spots in the desert wilderness arrays around it 
many delightful associations. On such occasions, who 
could help feeling the sentiments of the Eoman bard ? 
"Nil ego oontulerim Juoundo aanus amico." 


During this short visit, the yellow fever broke out in 
New York, and mortality prevailed to a considerable 
extent. This scourge of God had several times visited, 
with awful ravages, the Atlantic cities of the United States. 
The alarm spread rapidly from city to city, and precautions 
of quarantine had frequently been resorted to, to aiTest 
the progress of this dreadful visitation. The Philadelphians 
had resorted to this expedient on the very day Dr. Wylie 
left New York, on his return home. The steamboat 
approached the wharf, foot of Chesnut street, put on 
shore such passengers as had not come directly from 
New York that morning ; then wheeled about and landed 
the rest at Camden. This was on Fiiday afternoon. 
There he and his daughter, who accompanied him, had 
to remain, in sight of home, until twelve o'clock on Sab- 
bath, when they were released. To an account of this 
quarantine, written to Dr. McLeod, he thus replies, on the 
28th of October following : 

" Eev. and Deae Beothee : — 

" If you were treated for a few days as an 
alien, in sight of your own habitation, I have been as a 
pilgrim ever since we separated. Friday last I returned 
to Greenwich, after travelling in wet and cold, in moim- 
tains and glens, with a Wade-man for my companion. 
Twice we broke down our wagon among the hills; four 
times we were detained in repairing it. Our hardships 
were many on the roads; and of fastings we were not 
scanty. Mamakating and Mambaacus, Pachkatachtan and 
Eapaakunk, form a specimen of the vocabulary which we 
had to learn among the hills; while the two branches of 
the Delaware, the fords of the more formidable streams 


of the Maunyopttink and the Willyweemack, taught us 
how to wade, and wash our broken and patched Ychicle 
and axles. We had the pleasure, however, of seeing and 
being seen in the cities of Eden, IsTineveh, Cairo, Eome, 
and Monticello. 

"Having assisted at Coldenham sacrament, I travelled 
to Kortright. Tlie night was as busily occupied as the 
day. My companion did the most of the driving, and 
I the most of the preaching. On Thursday night, I took 
the steamboat for New York. "'•" * * On Sabbath, at 
noon, the session met, and postponed the sacrament which 
was to have been held on the second Sabbath of ISTovember, 
until the last Sabbath of December. To the postponement 
they were moved by the discouragement occasioned by 
yellow fever; and to the appointment of the Christmas 
holidays, chiefly, by the hope of your assistance. Having 
found the way to our city, we wish that you may never 
forget the road ; and in the season referred to, you cannot 
dread quarantine. I scarcely hope that you will acquiesce 
in the arrangement. I wish, during the remainder of my 
ministry, to establish an annual exchange of sacramental 
services between the two cities." 

Dr. McLeod's health, in the meantime, was rather deli- 
cate. The time of the synodical meeting was approaching. 
Instead of taking the stage, which, in those days, aflbrded 
nothing but discomfort, fatigue, and exhaustion, over the 
rugged and precipitous AUeghanies, a small party adopted 
another mode of conveyance, more to their own satisfaction. 
This party consisted of Messrs. McLeod, Crawford, and 
"Wylie, with some youngsters that accompanied them. 
This mode was thought likely to be serviceable to the Doc- 



tor's health, as more adapted to his taste, and affording an 
opportunity of free conversation. The Doctor, on the 
subject, thus writes, "I have bought a horse for the jour- 
ney. I wish to ride in company, and take my time. K 
you come here, I shall go with you. If you start from 
home, I will go with you or meet you in Conococheague. 
Do let me know your plans." We started from Philadel- 
phia, partly on horseback, and partly in Dearborns. In the 
Doctor's delicate health, the hot weather of the latter part 
of July was too severe. He had scarcely reached Lancas- 
ter, when he began sensibly to feel the effects of heat, 
fatigue, and sultry weather, in the uncovered vehicles. On 
the Yalley of Conococheague, the limestone water so 
affected the bodily system, that we could scarcely proceed. 
In these circumstances, the intellectual banquet fell far short 
of the anticipations that had been entertained by the party ; 
yet still, there were many very interesting and agreeable 

On the fifth of August,' 1823, the Synod met, and at the 
request of the Moderator, Eev. Mr. John Gibson, was 
opened with prayer, by Dr. McLeod. Several new mem- 
bers were then introduced to Synod, among whom were 
Eev. Messrs. S. "W. Crawford, and Gavin, and Hugh 

Several points of importance were presented at this 
meeting. A committee had been appointed at the last 
meeting of the Synod to prepare a chapter on Adoption, 
which had been omitted in the first edition of the Testimony. 
Pursuant to appointment, the committee had prepared a 
chapter, which, after various alterations and amendments, 
was adopted. This has been inserted in the second edition. 

The next article of moment was the resuscitation of the 


Theological Seminary. This institution had, for some years, 
been extinct. The voice of the people was crying alond for 
its reorganization. Our people, when an object of magni- 
tude is properly brought before them, are liberal, even 
beyond their means. The ministers — even those who were 
the most apathetic on this subject — could no longer resist 
the popular feeling. A layman, Mr. Eobert Brown, of 
Greensbiirg, a public-spirited elder, came forward and 
presented a plan of financial operations, so judicious and 
promising in its bearing and aspect, as to unite the whole 
Synod in its adoption. This gentleman had ever been dis- 
tinguished for liberality and ecclesiastical patriotism ; and 
his af&uent circumstances exemplified the truth of Solo- 
mon's declaration, " The liberal man deviseth liberal things, 
and by liberal things shall he stand." The report of the 
committee on the Theological Seminary, runs as follows : 
" The attempts to provide means for the reorganization of 
the seminary, have failed, because the efforts made by the 
clergy to raise the requisite funds, were not accompanied 
with that energy or that perseverance which were calcu- 
lated to ensure success ; and not from want either of ability 
or will on the part of the people, to make the necessary con- 
tributions." Then follows the plan of financial operations, 
as adopted by the Synod, and published in their minutes. 

The next step, on the part of the Synod, was the appoint- 
ment of a Professor. The chair of the Professor had been 
vacant for eight years immediately preceding. The want 
of the institution began now to be seriously felt by all who 
regarded the respectability of the ministerial character, and 
the success of our ecclesiastical operations. The duties 
were arduous, and the responsibilities great. A competent 
support to a professor, in case of exclusive attention to its 


interests and duties, in tlie present circumstances of our 
community, could not be expected. But few of our con- 
gregations, many of which had been but lately organized, 
were able to atford adequate support to their own ministers. 
The professional duties, therefore, could not be made the 
exclusive, but must be an extra service of the occupant of 
that chair. This must hare been very severe, indeed, on 
one who, besides ministerial labor, was obliged, in order to 
procure a subsistence, to employ a portion of his time in 
giving academical instructions. Besides, the condition of 
our theological students generally, in pecuniary matters, 
rendered certain localities preferable to others. Places 
where they might have a reasonable prospect of supporting 
themselves, during four years attendance on the duties of 
the seminary, would, of course, have that preference. The 
eligibility of a professor, therefore, did not depend solely 
upon his possession of adequate qualifications, but also on 
the facilities afforded to students of procuring support in 
the place where he might be settled. The choice of the 
theological professor, therefore, was influenced by these 

The second part of the report on the seminary adopted by 
Synod, is in these words : 

"In order to present a definite object of interest to the 
people, the Synod shall immediately proceed to the reorgani- 
zation of the seminary, by electing a professor, fixing its 
location, and appointing superintendents." 

The seminary and its interests Dr. McLeod had always 
much at heart. From his motion it originated. He was, 
by far, the best qualified for filling the professorial chair. 


His extensive and various literature, his profound know- 
ledge of theology, his respectability and public influence, 
and his powerful intellect, adequate to any emergency, 
would hare given a character to the institution, which 
could not have failed to command respect. "With such a 
professor, our school of the prophets would have been a 
centre of attraction. But the Doctor could never be pre- 
vailed upon to accept the office. He strenuously resisted 
every eifort made to persuade him to accept. His reply 
uniformly was — " I have no talents for the performance of 
the duties of such an office." He afterwards wrote to his 
friend Dr. Wylie, in Philadelphia, urging his consent to a 
reappointment, who, as often, categorically refused. He 
well knew, by experience, the difficulties connected with the 
theological professorship. He felt his incompetency to the 
proper discharge of its arduous duties ; and being now 
released from them, he had no desire again to come imder 
the yoke, and resume its responsibilities. "With such feel- 
ings and resolutions he went to Synod, determined to remain 
as he was. 

The Eev. Dr. Black, whose character, bearing, and 
superior talents highly qualified him for the duties of that 
office, utterly refused. The Eev. Gilbert McMaster was 
well fitted, in every respect, to have filled the chair with 
dignity and honor, but not being present to be consulted on 
the subject, though talked of, he was not nominated. This 
gentleman, in a sequestered part of the country, about a 
dozen miles from Schenectady, had been growing up 
silently, but steadily and surely, to notice, eminence and 
respectability. With mental powers of the first order, great 
nobleness and independence of soul, he commanded the 
regards of all that knew him. Doctor McMaster is well 


kno-OTi to the public, by his Letters on Psalmody, Essays, 
Catechism, &c. &c. 

After the adoption of the report, the Court then proceeded 
to the election of a professor, as per extract : 

" On motion that Dr. "Wylie be elected Professor of 
Theology, in the Theological Seminary, he was elected, 
without a dissenting vote. 

" Dr. Wylie expressed his acknowledgments for the honor 
thus conferred upon him by the unanimous voice of SynoJ, 
but begged leave to decline, for reasons he was about to 
offer ; but at the request of Synod, he postponed giving a 
definitive answer until to-morrow." 

In the meantime. Dr. McLeod and Dr. Black exerted all 
their influence to persuade Dr. "Wylie to accept. Dr. 
McLeod proposed, as an inducement to his acceptance, that 
he, in the meantime, would himself undertake to finish the 
argumentative part of the Testimony. This, at that time, 
was considered " a consummation devoutly to be wished." 
Dr. Wylie consented at last, on the express condition, that, 
at the next meeting of Synod, should he see cause, he would 
have leave to resign without question or discussion on the 

The General, or Pepeesentative Synod, of the Peformed 
Presbyterian Church in America, owes its origin to Dr. 
McLeod, at this meeting. The paucity of numbers formed 
a strong objection to the very idea of meeting by delega- 
tion. It was alleged that the number of our ministers, so 
far from being too large for deliberative purposes, would 
derive benefit from an increase, and that, consequently, 
any plan calculated to diminish that number, must operate 


Dr. McLeod reasoned differently. He contended that the 
complete display of the New Testament example, required 
such an organization ; that the Synod of Jerusalem was of 
a representative character ; that, although not indispensably 
necessary, yet, when circumstances allowed, it was expe- 
dient to make a complete exhibition of the ISTew Testament 
plan and practice. He availed himself also of an argument 
arising out of our scattered situation. Om* connections were 
spread over the most of the United States and Territories. 
Our ministers had far to travel. Money was very scarce 
in some of the extremities of our settlements. Minis- 
ters could with difficulty, if at all, raise as much as would 
defray the expenses of travelling 1,000, or 1,200 miles, 
which some of our ministers really had to do, to attend 
meetings of Synod. Economy, in those circumstances, was 
an important consideration. Let a Synodical fund be 
raised; let presbyterial contributions be made, in the 
various congregations ; the proceeds of these congregational 
contributions, united, may be sufficient to cover the expenses 
of two ministers coming to Synod, when no one of these 
could defray the expenses of one. Thus, there may be two 
members attending, where, otherwise, there might be none. 
" Would not this," said the Doctor, " be a great advantage, 
and every way desirable !" The Doctor carried his point. 
The report of the committee, which had been favorable to 
the project, was adopted by Synod, in the shape of the 
following resolutions. 

" 1. That a General Synod of the Eeformed Presbyterian 
Church, to meet biennially, be formed by delegation from 
the several Presbyteries. 

" 2. That each Presbytery shall have the right of sending 
two ministers, and as many ruling elders, and that the ratio 


of increase of the number of delegates be, until further order 
be taken on the subject, two ministers, and as many ruling 
elders, for every three ministers of which the Presbytery 

" 3. That the iirst meeting of General Synod be held in 
the city of New York, on the first Tuesday of August, 1825, 
at 7 o'clock, P.M." 

Various attempts have been made to abolish this system 
of representation, but without success. Some adhere to it 
from principle. Some have considered the plan as harm- 
less; others, as injurious in its operation. Respect for the 
memory of Dr. McLeod, its originator, has heretofore 
induced those who were indifferent on this point, to allow 
the matter to rest where it is. 

At this meeting, Dr. McLeod presented, according to 
appointment, a draft of a Covenant. This draft was formed 
on the liberal basis of the British system of the second 
Eeformation, between 1638 and 1649. It was not to be 
confined to our own little community, but to give free 
access to all the branches of 'the Eeformation vine. It was 
worthy of its author, and of the subject. The Synod felt 
and appreciated its importance, and adopted the following 
report of a committee concerning it. 

Resolved, 1. That the draft of a Covenant be referred to a 
committee, with power to print fifty copies, for inspection at 
next meeting. 

2. That said committee be directed to prepare for 
said meeting of Synod, a draft of a pastoral letter on the 
subject of covedants ; and also, an address to the Chris- 
tian world at large. Messrs. Gilbert McMaster, McLeod, 
and "Wylie, are that committee. This draft is substantially 
the same with that afterwards presented to the Scottish and 


Irish Synods, and forwarded to our Synod for their criti- 
cisms. It was published in our minutes. 

A memoi'ial from South Carolina, on the subject of 
Slavery, was presented to Synod. It was referred to a 
committee, of which Dr. McLeod was chairman. The 
following is the report of said committee : 

"Your committee, aware that, from positire statutes, 
abeady made, no slaveholder can be held in the communion 
of this chiirch, have only to add, that all practical difficul- 
ties which may arise in the application of the principle to 
the several facts which may occur, had better be left to the 
discretion of the local and inferior judicatories, to take care 
that in these cases, in which the power of the State is 
employed to prevent emancipation, that the Court shall act 
on the true moral intent of the avowed principles and laws 
of the Keformed Presbyterian Church. And it is the 
opinion of your committee, that the religious treatment of 
negroes, whether in infancy or in manhood, had better be 
referred to the judgment of Church Sessions." 




From the meeting of Synod in Pittsburg, 1823, until the meeting in 
Philadelphia, 1827. 

The congregation of Conococheague, having obtained 
tlie consent of the Eev. Samnel W. Crawford to become 
their pastor, the Doctor, desirous of being present at the 
installment, thus intimates his views : 

" I made no promise to see Mr. Crawford installed ; 
I simply consented to accompany Mrs. McLeod, if she 
should visit her sister in August. She will not do so, and 
the matter is done. 

" Should I, however, know the day of your communion in 
time to make arrangements, I would endeavor to enjoy 
the Eucharist in your fellowship. My years will be few : 
I would like to employ a week in each of them, to cherish 
such friendships and enjoy such fellowships as shall be per- 
petuated in heaven, after being useful to the church of 
God on earth. 

" Will you do me the favor to let me know whether your 
communion is to be on the 3d of August, and if you 
expect to see there, at the time, our beloved widowed 


Mrs. Black, the wife of the Eev. Doctor Black, had, a 
short time before, departed this life, and entered into her 
rest. She was an excellent, pious, and highly intellectual 
woman, beloved of all who had the pleasure of her acquaint- 
ance. To this event^ Doctor McLeod alludes, in terms of 
condolence, sincerely felt. His heart and his experience 
united in teaching him "to feel another's woe." He 
attended at the installment, and took part in the services at 
the dispensation of the Sacrament of the Supper. 

The ensuing spring of 1825 passed without anything par- 
ticularly remarkable. The usual routine of ministerial 
duties occupied attention, and some delightful seasons of 
ministerial intercommunion in the dispensation of the Lord's 
Supper cheered and invigorated the hearts of the ambassa- 
dors of the Eedeemer. 

In the spring of this year. Doctor McLeod experienced 
a heavy and severe bereavement, in the death of his dear 
friend and brother, the Eev. Doctor John B. Eomeyn. 
This stroke he felt most poignantly. Their fi-iendship had 
been long and intimate. It had been cemented by a 
thousand ties, springing out of congenial minds, youthful 
associations, mutual good offices, constant intercourse, and 
location in the same city. Their love to their master, to his 
work, and to his saints, poured an unction over theirfriend- 
ship, fui-nishing an earnest of its perpetuity in a better 
world. They are now both gone to their reward; and 
while, when reflecting on their sterling worth, the tear 
starts at the thought that they are gone ! gone ! to return 
no more, it is wiped away by the consolation of the 
sacred truth, "Blessed are the dead who die in the 

About this time, a communication was received from 


the Doctor, involving most profound reflections on parties, 
men, things, schemes, policy, &c., showing an acquaint- 
ance with the machinery of society, and the latent springs 
of action, evincive of the closest observation, and most 
acute sagacity. Eut these, however just and valuable 
for private perusal, must sleep till the next generation. 

The time of meeting of Synod was now at hand. It 
was to be held in New York, 2d August, 1825. Such 
meetings were always spirit-stirring seasons with the 
Doctor, wherever they might be held. But when about 
to be held in his own city, all the delightful feelings of 
Highland hospitality dispensed at his own table, were 
called into exercise, so as to aiford an additional zest to 
his pleasure. In anticipation of this, he observes : 

" The time is now at hand on which I expect the pleasure 
of your society and Dr. Black's. 1 pray God to preserve 
health, and prevent disappointment. 

" You know I live at some distance from the place of 
debarkation ; and I hope you will write of the day and the 
line in which you travel, that I may meet you and greet you 
on your arrival, and conduct you to Greenwich. We ai'e 
now more comfortably fixed than I had reason to hope, the 
beginning of June. Good air, and good water, and more 
house-room than we have been acci^stomed to enjoy. "Will 
you have the goodness to present Mrs. McLeod's compli- 
ments to Mrs. Wylie, with the request to favor us with a 
visit to our country-seat along with you ; and need I say to 
you, my brother, that this ought to be done. It would give 
me pure joy to see that lady once within my house. We 
calculate on Margaret and Theophilus, at all events. 

'' If Dr. Black should be on horseback, tell him I have a 


good stable and good fodder, and that lie may ride direct 
to the house where he first preached." * * * * 

" A. McL." 

The eleventh session of Synod opened in New York, 
according to adjournment, August 2, 1825. This was the 
first meeting by delegation. Kepresentatives appeared 
from all the five Presbyteries. 

At this meeting, we are informed by the minutes, " A 
communication was received from the Kev. Stephen IST. 
Eowan, D.D., addressed to the Moderator of this Synod, 
covei'ing an extract from the , minutes of the General 
Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, as follows : 

" At a meeting of the General Assembly of the Presby- 
terian Church, in the United States of America, on the 
thirty-first day of May last, the following resolution was 
presented, through the Committee of Overtures, and 
adopted, viz. : 

'■'■Resolved — That a Committee be appointed by this 
General Assembly, to confer with a similar committee to be 
appointed by the Synod of the Keformed Presbyterian 
Church, should they deem it expedient to appoint such a 
committee, and to prepare a plan of correspondence 
between the two bodies. 

" The Eev. Stephen JST. Eowan, D.D., the Eev. Elihu W. 
Baldwin, and the Eev. Eobert McCartee, were appointed a 
committee, agreeably to the above resolutions. 

" A true extract from the minutes. 

" EzEA Stiles Eli, 
" Stated Cleric of General Assemlly. 

"Philadelphia, July 25th, A.D., 1825." 


This proposal, on tlie part of tlie General Assemblj, was 
met witli becoming promptitude on the part of our Synod. 
It was attended to immediately. Thus the minute ran. 

" After considering this communication, the Synod agreed 
to the following resolutions : 

" Whereas, a communication was made to this Synod, 
from the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, 
informing them that a committee had been appointed, 
&c., &c. 

" Jiesolvedr— -That a committee be appointed to confer 
with the committee appointed by the General Assembly, 
and that the Eev. Alexander McLeod, D.D., and the Eev. 
John Gibson, be that committee, and that they shall report 
to Synod with all conrenient speed. 

" Resolmed — ^That the chairman of the above committee 
communicate to the chairman of the committee of the 
General Assembly, the resolution of this Synod." 

This synodical transaction might, indeed, be considered 
as a new era in our ecclesiastical concerns in this country. 
By the maxims of common sense, by our Covenant engage- 
ments, and by the obligations of the sacred oracles, we were 
bound to use all lawful endeavors to promote uniformity in 
the doctrine, worship, discipline, and government of the 
church of our Eedeemer. That church we found divided 
into various sections, cherishing prejudices, too often indulg- 
ing animosities subversive of the interests of true godliness ; 
and, although members of the same body — the body of 
Christ — laboring under alienation of aifection from each 
other, yet all holding the same head, and all acknowledging 
one Lord, one faith, and one baptism. How shall all 


these be brought to that uniformity requisite for organic 
communion, and demanded by the unity of the truth? 
Will it not be by the cultivation of social communion 
and friendly correspondence? Does not a repulsive dis- 
tance, on the part of brethren, promote alienation of 
affection, foment jealousies, rivet prejudices, and cherish 
unfriendly feelings ? Shall we stand aloof, and with sanc- 
timonious air, like the proud Pharisee, say, " Stand by, we 
are holier than you !" 'So ; God forbid ! such was not the 
conduct of our reforming ancestors. "With other sentiments, 
they formed and swore the Covenant in 1648, by the spirit 
of which we still hold ourselves bound. But this subject 
will again present itself, when the report of the committee 
shall come under discussion. 

It need scarcely be remarked here, that Dr. McLeod 
cordially concurred in the project of the contemplated 
correspondence between the General Assembly and our 
Synod. The current year had not come to a close before he 
had attended to and finished the business assigned to the 
committee of which he was appointed chairman. Doctor 
McLeod, in a letter, dated ISTew York, January 2, 1826, 
* ->:- * says, we met on Friday, and finished the business, 
unanimously, ere we separated. 

The articles are in substance as follows : 

1. Maintaining the proper unity of the visible church, 
and lamenting its divisions, we mutually covenant to 
employ our exertions patiently and prudently to bring our 
respective churches together, to a uniformity in doctrine, 
worship, and order, according to the Word of God. 

2. In the meantime, we covenant that ministers, elders, 
and people shall treat each other with Christian respect, 
that the validity of ecclesiastical acts shall be reciprocally 


admitted ; and each of the contracting parties may, without 
offence, examine persons, and review cases of discipline, on 
points distinctive to the respective denominations. 

3. That the superior judicatories shall appoint two mem- 
bera, as commissioners, to attend the meetings of the other, 
not as members of that other, but with liberty to deliver 
opinions on any subject of interest, whether in discussion, 
or otherwise, but in no case to vote on a question. 

4. That the General Assembly shall, on ratifying, appoint 
their delegates, to meet General Synod, so soon as they 
[General Synod] shall have ratified this covenant. 

"Thus," continues the Doctor, "so far as I perceive, we 
give nothing up ; we forego no privilege we now have, and 
we gain a public admission of truth in a respectable con- 
■ nection with a sister church, and a covenant with them for 
future reform, or, at least, for the use of lawful means to 
lead thereto. * * * * I hope little more will be said 
upon this subject, until it rises up to view in the Assembly. 

" Tours sincerely, 

" A. McL." 

The good Doctor's hopes in this case were disappointed. 
It was spoken against, written against, decried from pulpit, 
press, and by private denunciation, as a violation of our 
covenants, long before it rose to view in the General Assem- 
bly. Every prejudice that could be excited was enlisted 
against it, and the tocsin of incipient apostasy was rang 
over the length and breadth of the land. But this topic 
shall, for the present, yield to a summons of deep interest 
from another quarter. 

In the beginning of the next month, February, Doctor 


McLeod was seized witli tlie prevailing influenza, whose 
symptoms became rapidly more and more alarming. On 
Wednesday, the 8th of February, inflammation in the lungs 
was indicated, and a consultation of physicians held. On 
Saturday, the 11th, after eleven o'clock, a.m., Dr. Wylie 
received two letters simultaneously, one of which was from 
Mr. John McLeod, merchant, ISTew York, apprising him of 
the Doctor's imminent danger. "By joui-neying hither," 
says one of these letters, " with the utmost expedition, you 
may possibly see him alive." 

Distressing intelligence ! But two weeks before, he had 
been actively engaged in Presbyterial and pastoral duties. 
But who knows what a day may bring forth ! 

After eleven o'clock, a.m.. Dr. Wylie received this dis- 
tressing intelligence, on returning home from his academical 
labors, and instantly started to the stage office, and took his 
passage for New York. The attention of his family sent 
after him his valise, which was handed to him, jnst as he 
entered the stage. It was the mail stage, and was to arrive 
in ISTew York by six o'clock next morning. The roads, at 
that season, were excessively bad and deep, and it was five 
o'clock afternoon of Sabbath before he reached the house 
of Dr. McLeod. It was the first time he had ever been 
under the necessity of travelling on the Lord's Day, unless 
to or from divine worship. He cannot here omit remark- 
ing, that while even solitary travelling, on the Sabbath, 
unless in cases of necessity, is a criminal desecration of the 
Lord's Day, it is much more so in such promisctious groups 
as usually assemble in a stage coach. The Christian in the 
exercise of grace will not thus profane the Sabbath, an'd rob 
his Maker of that which he has sanctified for himself 
On reaching the house, he found the Doctor very low. 



The preacher who had occupied the pulpit in the morning, 
after the explanation of the Psalms, had dismissed the con- 
gregation in most profound grief, expecting every succeed- 
ing moment to hear the doleful tidings, that the Lord had 
removed their pastor from over their head. Their devout 
and fervent prayers prevailed. He was restored. He had 
been for a considerable time delirious, and generally insen- 
sible to what was passing around him. All company, save 
his nurses and the physicians, was interdicted. 

On Dr. Wylie's being permitted to enter the chamber 
where he was lying, he walked softly up to the bedside, in 
perfect silence. Although the light in the room Avas very 
faint, he instantly recognized the countenance of his friend ; 
and to the astonishment and alarm of Mrs. McLeod, who 
was discharging the duties of the tender nurse, to her 
prostrate husband, he sat up on the bed, grasped Dr. Wylie 
in his embrace, and using the familiar name by which they 
had been in the habit of addressing each other, he 
exclaimed — " My dear Billy, I am rejoiced to see you !" It 
was feared that the excitement might prove injurious, if not 
fatal, considering his extreme debility. Dr. Wylie imme- 
diately after withdrew, and Mrs. McLeod soon got him 
composed again, and from that moment he began to recover. 
Whether the unexpected recognition of an old friend, and 
the affectionate designation which former intimacy had 
adopted, recalling pleasant associations of former years, 
contributed to the giving a favorable turn to the complaint, 
the writer will not pretend to determine. The fact was, 
that he began to recover, and became convalescent, and in 
the course of a few months, he was again himself Many 
of his friends had been distressed under the apprehension, 
from the severity of the disease, and the slowness of his 


recovery, that his intellectual powers would be affected. Any 
fears of this nature were entirely dissipated by his pulpit 
exhibitions ; and particularly by his address to Synod at next 
meeting, on the plan of correspondence. This was after- 
wards published ; read it and judge. 

Dr. Wylie remained with him iintil the Thursday 
following, and to his great satisfaction, found, on the 
evening before his departure, the Doctor was able to con- 
verse with considerable ease ; and asked him to come and 
occupy his place, at the dispensation of the sacrament of 
the Supper, which, by appointment of Session, had been 
previously fixed. To this Dr. "Wylie promptly agreed. 

On the 27th of same month. Dr. McLeod was so far 
recovered, as to be able to pen the following brief epistle : 

" Deae Beothee : — 

"This is my first effort at writing. I 
continue to improve ; but my progress is slow. I feel for my 
people. It will be long before I can serve them. 

" The sacrament you will dispense for me on 26th of 
March. Mr. Crawford will be here to help. In order to 
this, it should be announced next Sabbath, but the church 
cannot be opened unless you send me aid. Ask Mr. 
Guthrie, if you please, to come on this week, and preach 
twice on Sabbath. 

" Tours, &c. 

"'A. McL." 

Mr. Guthrie had been lately licensed, and had, according 
to rule, returned for the last season to the seminary. This 
young gentleman possessed fine talents, was an industrious 
student, a gi-aduate of the "Western University of Pennsyl- 


vania, and much respected. He is now a highly esteemed 
minister of the gospel, in the neighborhood of Pittshnrg. 
He went on to JSTew York at Dr. McLeod's request, and 
preached with much acceptance, as the Doctor thus states, 
on March Tth, 1826. 

" Deae Beothee : — 

" I thank you for sending us Mr. Guthrie, 
as I thank him for coming on. He has been exceedingly 
acceptable to my congregation. All speak highly of him. 

" As I depend on Mr. Crawford for next Sabbath, and the 
intermediate time, I depend on you, to do the entire work 
of the pastor, on the communion day. My love to the 
family. Forget us not in your prayers, &c." 

Agreeably to previous arrangements, Dr. "Wylie attended 
on the communion Sabbath, and discharged the duties of the 
pastor. The Doctor was himself so far recovered, as to be 
present part of the day, partake in the communion, and 
serve a table. He continued to recover strength, but very 
slowly ; and it is questionable if he ever regained that 
degree of physical vigor which he possessed previously to 
that illness. Eut although he might never have entirely 
recovered from the severity of that shock, his mental energy 
soon shone forth unimpaired ; and, as was hinted already, at 
next meeting of Synod, in May, 1827, his address on the 
articles of correspondence, ranks among the greatest of the 
Doctor's intellectual efforts. His visits to sister congrega- 
tions, during the summer, after his illness, were less frequent 
than on former years ; and his services to the churches, 
more limited. He was able to visit Philadelphia, on the 


following August, and preaclied in Dr. Wy lie's churcli with 
his wonted acceptance. 

In the meantime the plan of correspondence was freely 
discussed by ministers and people in our communion. Some 
denounced it as apostasy, and the incipient move for merg- 
ing into the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church. 
The minds of the people were distracted ; jealousies were 
industriously propagated and fomented, and the whole 
subject prejudged long before the meeting of Synod. In 
this state of matters, 

The Reformed Presbyterian Synod opened its 12th session 
in Philadelphia, May 16th 1827. Delegates appeared from 
all the Presbyteries, except the Southern. Key. Gilbert 
McMaster, moderator, Eev. Dr Black, clerk. 

The first item of special interest presented to Synod, was 
the report of the Committee of Correspondence, with the 
General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church. The plan 
agreed upon by the joint committee, was reported by the 
chairman. Dr. McLeod; and an authenticated copy laid 
upon the table. 

Although the substance of this report has been given 
already, as related from memory, in a letter from Dr. 
McLeod, yet, it is thought proper here to insert, verbatim, 
the authenticated copy. 

, New Yoek, December 50th, 1825. 

"The General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, 
and the Synod of the Eeformed Presbyterian Church, 
having severally appointed a committee to prepare a 
plan of correspondence between the two bodies, the said 
committees met this day, at the house of Eev. Stephen N. 
Eowan, D.D. 


" Present, on tlie part of the General Assembly, Eev. 
Stephen IST. Eowan D.D. and the Rev. Mr. McCartee ; on 
the part of the Synod of the Eeformed Presbyterian Church, 

Eev. Alexander McLeod, D.D. and ■ . Absent, 

of the committee of the Eeformed Presbyterian Church, 
Eev. John Gibson ; of the committee of the General Assem- 
bly, Eev. Elihu Baldwin. 

"The committees having respectively presented their 
commissions, the Eev. Alexander McLeod, D.D., was ap- 
pointed chairman, and the Eev. Stephen N. Eowan, D.D., 
secretary. The Eev. Dr. McLeod opened the meeting with 
prayer ; and the Eev. Dr. Eowan read a part of the fourth 
chapter of the epistle to the Ephesians. 

"After mutual and friendly consultation, the following 
plan was unanimously adopted, viz. : 

" ' Article I. The General Assembly and the Synod of the 
Eeformed Presbyterian Church, lamenting the existing 
separations among the members of the body of Christ ; and 
believing that all the members of that body, being many, 
are one body, and trusting to the "Word of God, that these 
separations will not be perpetual, do agree, to use all scrip- 
tural means, in the exercise of patience, and prudence, to 
bring their several ecclesiastical connections to uniformity 
in doctrine, worship, and order, according to the word of 

" ' Article II. In order to bring about this desirable 
object, on the basis of the proper tmity of the visible church, 
it is MUTUALLY covEKANTED, that the ministers, members and 
judicatories, of these churches, treating each other with 
Christian respect, shall always recognize the validity of each 
other's acts and ordinances, consonant to the Scriptures ; and 
yet, that any judicatory belonging to either body, may 


examine persons, or review cases on points, at present pecu- 
liar or distinctive to themselves. 

'"Article III. The General Assembly of the Presbyte- 
rian Church, and the Synod of the Eeformed Presbyterian 
Church, shall severally appoint two commissioners, with an 
alternate to each, to attend these judicatories respectively, 
who shall hold their offices until they shall have been super- 
seded by another choice ; and these commissioners shall 
have the privilege of proposing measures, important to the 
church of Christ, and of delivering their opinions on any 
subject under discussion ; but they shall have no vote in its 

" ' Article IV. In order to carry this last article into 
effect, the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church 
will, at their sessions in May, 1826, appoint commissioners, 
who shall attend the succeeding meeting of Synod, of the 
Reformed Presbyterian Church, provided said Synod shall 
have concurred in the above plan of correspondence. 

" ' Resolved — ^That an authenticated copy of these pro- 
ceedings be furnished to the chairman of each of the 
conferring committees, to be laid before their respective 

'■'•'■ Resolved — ^That a copy of the above plan be recom- 
mended to the General Assembly, and to the Synod of the 
Eeformed Presbyterian Church, to be submitted to the 
members of the two committees which are absent, for their 
concurrence or dissent ; and that the result be transmitted 
to the secretary of these conferring committees, and the 
same be by him and the chairman communicated to their 
respective judicatories. 

"Adjourned, closing with prayer by the Eev. Mr. 
McCartee. Alexaotjee MoLeod, Cliairmcm. 

" Stephen N. Eowajst, Secretct/ry." 


The foregoing plan, haring, in conformity with the last 
resolution, been communicated to the Rev. Elihu Baldwin, 
the result was communicated to the secretary, viz. "I 
agree to the foregoing plpn." 

Signed, Elihtt Baldwin. 
Attested, Stephen IST. Eowan, 
Secretary of the Conferring Committees. 

This subject, of course, involved deep interest, and excited 
much attention. Doubtless, a large majority of Synod were 
in favor of the principles contained in the plan of corres- 
pondence ; yet finding the manner in which many of our 
people had been wrought upon, the prejudices that had 
been excited, and apprehensive of the dangerous conse- 
quences, which, in such circumstances, might likely result, 
should the plan, of correspondence be adopted, they 
hesitated. However much many friendly to the plan 
loved it, they loved the peace of their community more ; 
and looked forward to more auspicious times. After a long 
discussion, therefore, the motion for adoption was withdrawn, 
and the following substituted in its place. 

" While the Synod cordially recognize the principle 
embraced in the proposed plan of correspondence, between 
the General Assembly of the Presbyterian/ Church, and this 
Synod, yet, aware of the scattered state of the churches 
under their care — the duty of preserving their mutual 
confidence unimpaired, and their strength undiminished, 
and also of the importance of the subject itself, both to the 
present edification and the future operations of the people 
of God in their communion, 

Mesol/ve, to postpone indefinitely the further consideration 


of the proposed plan of correspondence, with the General 
Assembly of the Presbyterian Church." 

The Synod adopted this resolution, to the no small mortifi- 
cation of many of its members, who were well pleased with 
the plan of correspondence. Upon reflection, it is alleged, 
that the interests of our cause were iinduly sacrificed to 
the desire of maintaining peace and unity. The opponents 
of the correspondence were emboldened in their bigoted 
course, and anti-reformation system. This sacrifice was 
rendered, on the part of the friends of the treaty, the more 
painful, from their having listened with great attention to 
Dr. McLeod, while delivering one of the most powerful 
addresses that ever fell from his lips. To do it justice, 
would be to transcribe the whole. ISTor would even this do 
it justice. 1^0 ; the manner, the emphasis, the tones of voice, 
the " tout enseivhle^'' of this address cannot be represented 
to the eye. It was afterwards published. In reference to 
this publication, the Doctor remarks : " It was printed more 
to prevent mistakes concerning my own views, than to 
enlighten and convince others. It was not at all intended 
for market. Delicacy has, hitherto, prevented me from 
sending it anywhere but among my personal friends ; and 
as there is no wish either to make proselytes, or secure 
expenses, I will thank you to give them [a package of the 
addresses sent on with the letter] away, where you think the 
gift will do no harm ; and especially where it will be 

On rising to address the Synod, the Doctor recognized 
the competency of the Court, and the community they 
represented, in an especial degree, to form an accurate 
judgment of such federal transactions — Covenanters by 



name — on tlieir admission to tlie clim-cb, and previously 
to tlieir participation in sealing ordinances, professing 
their adherence to the Covenants of their ancestors, &c., 
&c. " That our own ecclesiastical connections, the Chris- 
tian public, an observing world, but particularly that 
respectable body which is a party to the contract, having 
already sanctioned its articles, wait the decision." 

He then proceeds to show, that though analogous to 
arrangements among the churches of the Reformation, 
during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, yet "it 
is radically different from the several conventions of the 
different denominations of Christians of the present age." 
Thus he shows that " this is not a plan of union," never 
designed as the basis of organic union. This, in the exist- 
ing state of things, is impracticable. The attempt multi- 
plies divisions. The expedient would be unprofitable to 
the communion of saints. "There is," says the Doctor, 
" really more sweet and refreshing religious fellowship 
between Christian men mutually acquainted, though mem- 
bers of separate ecclesiastical bodies, than can ever exist 
between persons of heterogeneous sentiments, though they 
happen to be in the visible communion of the same denom- 
ination. Archbishop Usher had more enjoyment in the 
fellowship of Samuel Kutherford, than he ever could have 
had in the company of Primate Laud. 

" The articles," continues he, " do not tend to perpetuate 
division." The very idea would have been wicked. Its 
existence is matter of lamentation. Presbyterians all 
recognize and assert the unity of the visible church. 
The parties, therefore, contract to employ patient and 
persevering efforts, according to the Wo7'd of God, to pro- 
mote that unity. 


"In the articles of correspondence, there is no pledge 
given by either party to reform the other. Neither 
party claim nor surrender the right of altering, in any 
way, the constitution or usages of the other. Intellectual 
discussion and moral suasion, on the floors of the higher 
judicatories, are the only means to be mutually employed 
for mutual benefit. The power of change is left, under 
God, to self-government, without interference." 

" Finally," says our author, on these negative purposes 
of this plan, " it is not intended to introduce the practice 
of commtmion in sealing ordinances among the ministers 
and members of the two churches : it is not a scheme of 
ecclesiastical communion." — " There is no stipulation in the 
articles for an exchange of pulpits of any fellowship in the 
ministry of public ordinances, either habitually or occa- 
sionally." — "The very delegates are not required to join 
in any act or ordinance of religious worship in the con- 
gregations of the judicatory to which they are commis- 
sioned," &c. "Further," adds the Doctor, though thus 
negative in its provisions, "it is not to be inferred that, 
therefore, no good can come of it, or valuable purpose be 
answered by its adoption. If the jyrwate correspondence 
between two religious and judicious men may be mutually 
advantageous, puilio conference between two interesting 
religious bodies cannot be injurious, and, at all events, 
is worth the experiment." — "Distinct families, without 
undue interference in each others concerns, may be mutu- 
ally profitable ; and why may not churches reciprocate 
benefits without compromitment of principles, or the 
smallest dereliction of their own previous attainments ?"&c. 

The author of the address goes on to state, that while 
the General Assembly have acted honorably and magnanir 


mously in the transaction, and have taken no advantage, 
as a large body, in treating with, a smaller denomination, 
they have not only recognized "the name, the standing, 
and the ministry, of the Eeformed Presbyterian Church, 
but they have also covenanted to unite their exertions 
with ours in long-enduring perseverance, in the use of 
scriptural means, to effect the very object of our own 
solemn league and covenant,^ — To 'bring the churches of 
God to the nearest conjunction and uniformity in reli- 
gion, doctrine, icorshi/p, and order, according to the Word 
of God." 

Our author further shows, that the whole transaction 
on the part of the General Assembly, is of perfectly hond- 
fide character. To suspect the contrary, would be a libel, 
no less on our own understandings, than on the integrity 
of upright and honorable men. " Besides," he adde, " it 
is the evident interest of that church, that this should 
exist with unimpaired power and increasing influence ; 
considering their own state internally, and their relation 
to other denominations around them, it is as much their 
interest as it is their duty, to encourage the industry of 
the Reformed Presbyterian Church and ministry, in the 
maintenance of evangelical doctrine and Presbyterian order, 
according to the purest model of the churches of the 
Keformation. It is equally our interest and duty to encour- 
age their ministers to go and do likewise," &c. 

"The existence moreover, of the Presbyterian Church 
in America, in all its extent and power, is an object to 
be viewed by this Synod, without envy or ill-v/ill. The 
great public prejudice in favor of its very simple and 
appropriate name, its numbers, its rank, and wealth, and 
literature, with so many schools of almost every grade at 


its command, secure to it great influence; and having so 
many of the saints in its communion, it must attract the 
notice and regard of every enhghtened well-wisher of the 
Redeemer's kingdom. Its existence is a fact, whereof we 
are all glad." Such are the enlarged and liberal vicAvs of 
the author of this address. 

He next proceeds to an analysis of the several articles of 
the proposed correspondence. These articles need not 
here be repeated. " The first," he says, " may be termed 
the enacting clause of the law. It is a Coveistajstt between 
two distinct parties, who agree to one object. The object 
is specified — imiformity according to the Word of God." — ■ 
*' The means, scriptural ; the manner, with patience and 

"The declaratory part of the article afiirms the reason 
of the bond. It consists of three assertions. — The imity 
of the church of Christ — the lamentable existence of schism 
— and the divine warrant to hope that they shall not be 
perpetual. They are all undeniable, and,"' — says the 
Doctor, " these three assertions are the essential princi- 
ples of the Reformed Presbyterian Covenanters." 

" The second article describes the courtesy to be observed 
by the one towards the other, of these contracting par- 
ties, while patiently pursuing their object ; and to these 
several specifications they are mutually bound in cove- 
nant. This is nothing more than what common jJolite- 
ness and civilization require." — "The hasis of action is 
the proper unity of the visible church ; and two specifi- 
cations of conduct are mutually stipulated. The first is, 
that they shall always recognize the validity of each other's 
acts and ordinances, consonant to the Scriptures." The 
last limiting clause, " according to the Scriptures," removes 


every possible objection which might exist in the mind 
of the most scrupulous. 

The second specification is, that notwithstanding this 
recognition of validity, &c., the judicatories may respec- 
tively, " examine persons or review cases of discipline, 
on points at present peculiar or distinctive to them- 
selves." Thus, provision is made for keeping inviolate and 
inviolable the distinctive peculiarities of the respective 
bodies, unless so far as they themselves may see cause to 
alter or improve them. 

" The third article defines the more active part of the 
plan — the appointment of commissioners, to attend the 
judicatories respectively ; the time of their continuance 
in office ; their functions, and their privileges. The 
Doctor Iproceeds : "Two commissioners have been already 
appointed by the General Assembly. Will this Synod reci- 
procate? I am at loss to proceed. The time of decision 
is come. If there be any conference, there must be com- 
missioners to confer. Is it right, is it safe to make the 
appointment ? Can the Synod trust so much to any two of 
its members as to constitute them representatives of the 
Keformed Presbyterian Church, to correspond with the 
General Assembly ? Can this Synod trust itself so far as 
to receive delegates to the full freedom of debate, from 
the greatest, and the best, and the worst, of all the Presby- 
terian Churches around us in the land? I wave the 
inquiry, or rather resolve it into another. Will Synod 
adopt the report of the committee, and so apj)oint these 
commissioners ?" 

He proceeds to illustrate the subject by the mission of the 
celebrated John Knox, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, to 
the bishops and pastors of the Church of England, to solicit 

JOHN KNOX. 34:3 

■some relaxation in favor of tlie distressed Puritans. He 
acc[iiitted liimself with integrity, notwithstanding the 
insinuations of his opposers. He argues the point power- 
fally also from its own merits, upon the principles of 
common-sense. He appeals to the practicability of the 
measure, and the "Providential call at this moment, to 
shape the policy of our foreign relations, without having 
any agency of our own in its origin. 

" The fourth article," he observes, " requires no other 
remark, than that it has been fully carried into operation, 
by the General Assembly, by the appointment of two 
commissioners to this Synod, in the event of its concur- 
rence in the plan of correspondence." 

The author then proceeds to obviate supposed objections 
to this plan. 

First. Prejudices may exist in the minds of the different 
congregations of our church against the plan. This is not 
surprising. Facts in our recollection, defections from other 
churches, and various cases of aberration from our own 
communion, all suggest the necessity of caution. " Though 
a man should not yield his own sentiments to the mere pre- 
judices of another, yet the mere prejudice is a sufficient 
reason, why a friend should not force any change, even for 
the better, upon his unconvinced and unyielding brother. 

" Second. Some, it is possible, will doubt the lawfulness 
of entering into an ecclesiastical arrangement with any other 
people whatever." This very illiberal notion he completely 
obviates, both by Scripture authority and ecclesiastical 
history. Let the object be moral ; the means, scriptui-al ; 
and the intentions, honest ; and difference of religion, of 
whatever grade, even Christians with Heathens, will form 
no legitimate objection. "No faith with heretics," is an 

344 MEMOtK OF ALEXjUSTDEE mc leod, d.d. 

Anticliristian maxim. " "We," says the Doctor, " still main- 
tain tlie binding obligation of tlie national covenant, and of 
the solemn league and covenant, though made with some 
political men, some Episcopalians, some Independents, and 
with Presbyterians, in a state of separation from the Church 
of Scotland." These sentiments he establishes by numerous 
Scripture examples, such as Solomon with the Prince of 
Tyre ; Jacob with Laban, Abraham and Isaac • with the 
Princes of the Canaanites, &c. This article he concludes in 
the following words : " Gladly did the Scottish reformers 
accede to the treaty of Edinburg, in 1560, between Queen 
Elizabeth, head 6f the Church of England, and Francis II., 
of Popish France, which put an end to the civil war, and 
laid the foundation on which the Peformed religion was by 
law established, in the ensuing General Assembly and Par- 
liament of Scotland." 

In the third place, danger may possibly be apprehended 
to our community, in impairing the esjyrit du corps, essen- 
tial to the welfare of every distinct society. "By close 
connection with a large body, the small is in danger of 
being first assimilated, then absorbed. There is fear the 
Testimony will be relaxed, then relinquished ; and ministers 
will be induced to leave our fellowship, and accept calls 
from tlieir more wealthy congregations." He admits that 
these are not idle surmises. All those dangers already 
exist, independently of the ])roposed alliance. Such dan- 
gers are inevitable. Let those who prefer another commu- 
nion, go and join it. In this case, let the laws of elective 
affinity have free operation. It is impossible to make or 
keep Covenanters by physical force. And if it coidd, should 
not be done. "It remains," says the Doctor, "for this 
Synod to consider, in its wisdom, whether the tendency to 

A cEisis. 345 

defection, to the relaxation of the Testimony, and to an 
ultimate abandonment, is not more likely to be restrained 
than encouraged, by placing all operative causes under the 
direction of public law, sanctioned by formal treaty, than 
by leaving them altogether under the influence of indivi- 
dual circumstances, which, privately, aff'ect the feelings and 
interest of individuals." Many of our steadiest members, 
the most averse to anything like dereliction of principle, are 
of opinion that this plan of correspondence would be more 
calculated to prevent defection from the banner of the 
Eeformation, than to promote it. 

The Doctor finally recommends the principles of the 
treaty, and its adoption by the Synod, by three most 
powerful arguments : A sense of our danger — the moral 
irnprovements of the age — and the lights of histm-y. 

1. " The Reformed Presbyterian Church is in great dan- 
ger, at this crisis of the moral world." This danger is not 
from the sword of persecution. The greatest danger is froin 
ourselves. "If this church," says the author, "perish in 
America before the millennium, its death is inflicted by 
its own Synod." Its excellent constitution, its well-defined 
principles and usages, its management, " and interests, are 
about to be confided to another generation than that which 
laid its foundation, and raised its well-proportioned super- 
structure." "Innovations, inaction, or misguided action, 
may inflict a mortal malady. The name may linger, but 
the society, in either case, is gone. Its economical usages 
may, by mismanagement, be converted into its distinguishing 
principles; and thus, its tithes be reduced to anise and 
cumin; and its best principles may be seized by their 
names, and so, regardless of the substance, be ridden to 



contempt by men -who never comprehended their noble 
import. Ambition and avarice, as well as ignorance, 
have heretofore made a hobby of the name of Christian- 
ity itself." Against these dangers this treaty -would be 
a preservative, at least, partially, for half a century to 
come, in these well-restricted articles, which would keep 
continually in view the peculiar principles, and morally 
compel the intelligent to act upon them. 

2. The great moral change in the civilized world, as 
it is distinctly made in the nineteenth century, encourages 
to such an enterprise. 

Amidst all the unfavorable symptoms of the suppression 
of the revolutionary spirit in despotic countries, the restor- 
ation of corrupt and wicked dynasties, the re-establishment 
of the Papacy, the unholy alliance of European monarchs, 
&c., there is an obvious tendency to melioration. The 
press, and the extraordinary spirit of enterprise, have won- 
derfully accelerated the march of mind, and are rapidly 
advancing the moral improvement of our race. "Many 
great moral principles are fixed so as to be questionable 
no more ; that civil freedom should prevail ; that servi- 
tude is evil ; that science should flourish ; that religion 
is essential to society; that the Bible is the proper stand- 
ard, and is to be placed in every house and liand, are 
almost universally admitted. The excitement and exer- 
tions of religious men, in every land, are great ; the rights 
of free trade are better understood, and the conspicuous 
standing of the American confederation of republics, fixes 
upon itself, as an example, the gaze of all mankind. It 
shows that man may, and must be free." — "Here the 
church is put on her good behavior, under the protec- 
tion of God, in the sight of the world, and in the midst 


of her ancient enemies — stripped, however, of their former 
armor and ornaments, and nothing left to either party, by 
the constitution of the government, but personal protection 
and liberty of enterprise on the field of freedom. Here 
we see, in the profession of Christianity, the representatives 
of the churches of all the nations. There are remnants and 
samples of all the heresies, and all the sectaries." 

What a field for action to those of whose creed it is an 
article, "That religion is essential to the welfare of this 
great community, and that true religion is the same over 
all the earth, and that God has destined Christianity to 
prevail!" By what process of operation shall all these 
heterogeneous elements be brought to a uniform con- 
sistence? By what plan of procedure shall the entire 
system of our free, republican institutions receive the 
impress of Christianity, and be moulded into the image 
of divine truth ? Jfot by a reduction to original elements, 
in order to a renovated amalgamation ; but by conference, 
and calm discussion, ere they can come together, as one. 
" They must travel in groups, and in tribes, in regular order, 
to meet cordially under the banner of the Prince of Judah, 
on Mount Zion, and salute as brethren." 

3. "To rise and act, is urged by the example of the 
Presbyterian Reformers." The church acknowledges her 
obligation to follow the footsteps of the flock. "The 
appointment of commissioners, to act as representatives, in 
attendance on princes, and courts, and legislatures, and on 
convocations, and synods, and assemblies, and the amicable 
reception to conference of such as were delegated to their 
assemblies, was the reasonable and the habitual practice of 
the Scottish Covenanters, from the time of their first embassy 
to the court of England, until the mission of their students 


to the classical assemblies of Holland, for ordination to the 
ministry. "Moreover, the terms of ecclesiastical commu- 
nion, in the Eeformed Presbyterian Clmrch, bind her 
members, severally and collectively, to the nse of such 
exertions, to the extent of their power; and these obligations 
are often brought to their remembrance." 

The Doctor illustrates this position by specifying the 
fourth of our terms of communion, in which are mentioned 
two remarkable transactions : first, the National Covenant, of 
Scotland ; second, the solemn League and Covenant. These 
instruments were offered to all classes of the community. 
The king's commissioner. Episcopalians, Presbyterians, and 
Independents subscribed these bonds for national defence, 
and " To Iring the churches of Ood, in the three Mngdoms, 
to the nearest conjunction and uniformity in religion, and 
for propagating the same to other nations." After such a 
mass of evidence as the Doctor has accumulated on this 
subject, it is difficult to conceive, how any reasonable man 
can withhold assent. 

However thoroughly convinced Doctor McLeod himself 
was of the truth, propriety, and special value of the plan 
of correspondence, he. was far from pressing it upon any. 
In reference to this, he says, "I urge not, however, the 
adoption of this course of policy. Had I even the power, I 
would not dare to control Synod for its own good. A favor 
is not to be conferred by compulsion. If the plan appears 
suitable to you, it will be adopted — ^if otherwise, it will be 
rejected. If the articles before you, displease the Synod, I 
have only to ask, as a favor, that they will lay the entire 
blame of subscribing them in joint committee, and of report- 
ing them to you, upon me, and upon my worthy colleague. 
"We only of this church are responsible for them to the 

DE. GEEEN. 349 

present and succeeding generations ; and for this apology I 
am individually responsible." 

The Doctor thus concludes this excellent addi'ess : 
" I think I see around me a noble band of witnesses. Go, 
then, over all the land, in the spirit of the commission to 
Jeremiah, ' To root out and to pull down — to build and to 
plant.' Give not yourselves up entirely to the use of the 
grubbing-hook, though that is, at times, a necessary occupa- 
tion. Be not always employed in dressing the shrubbery, 
however ornamental. Plant the vine ; cultivate the olive ; 
lay hold of the boughs of the palm, and some of you may 
see what I shall not witness on earth — Jerusalem a quiet 
lidbitation — her officers jpeace, and her exactors righteousness. 
Amen, and Amen !" 

Should this skeleton of the address to the Synod of the 
Keformed Presbyterian Church induce any reader to 
procure a copy and peruse the whole, the writer shall have 
gained his object. The strength, the perspicuity and 
cogency of the whole argument, amount to demonstration. 

The address has been thus noticed by the venerable 
editor of the Cheistian Advocate, the Eev. Dr. Green, in 
the January number, 1828. " Most of our readers," says 
the editor, " will not need to be informed, that this address, 
one of the most powerful we have ever read' — ^is in favor of 
tie adoption of the plan of correspondence proposed ; and 
yet, that its object has not been obtained. This we do 
indeed regret, but it has, nevertheless, neither destroyed nor 
abated our affection for our brethren of the " Synod of the 
Keformed Presbyterian Church." We are satisfied that 
they act on principle, and act as they do, because they are 
sincerely desirous to maintain the doctrines and order of the 
Presbyterian system, in their integrity and purity. For 


this we honor and love them ; and hesitate not to say, that 
we esteem the points in which we cannot bvit think them 
unduly scrupulous, as the very dust of the balance, in 
comparison of the momentous truths which they steadfastly 
uphold. These, we trust, they will continue to hold fast; 
and if ever they and we should be more closely united, we 
sincerely wish that we may get rid of at least as much 
dross as they may be called to purge away." Such, senti- 
ments do honor to both the head and the heart of the 
venerable author. Long may he continue an able, vigilant 
and faithful veteran officer under his master's banner ! 

Shortly after this plan of correspondence had been pro- 
posed, and previously to the composing of the above- 
mentioned address in its favor. Dr. McLeod was visited with 
a most distressing affliction in his family. "A son, his 
namesake, a lovely boy, a favorite, to whom he was greatly 
attached, a lad of great promise, by accident, or design, 
received a blow in the head, by a stick cast by a boy 
unknown, from the opposite side of the fence adjacent to his 
father's house. The wound in the forehead, was, at first, not 
supposed to be dangerous. The symptoms, however, soon 
became alarming. Inflammation of the brain succeeded; 
and on the last of February, 182T, he was numbered with 
the dead. None but a parent can enter into, or appreciate 
the feelings of a parent, on such an event. "With Dr, 
McLeod, it was a Jacob and Benjamin's case. His consti- 
tution, in the preceding spring, had received a shock, from 
which, it is believed, it never completely recovered. The 
death of his beloved son Alexander, together with bodily 
affliction, had brought him very low, and confined him at 
home. He thus replies to an invitation from Philadelphia, 


February, 1827. " John Niel will give you more particulars 
about our state and our trials, in conversation with you, than 
I can by a note. To him I refer you. Whatever be my 
wishes, I will not promise now to visit Philadelphia at 

" Though here bathed much of my time in tears, and 
enduring also some pain, I am absent from my people ; and 
it will be weeks before I can call at their houses, to see the 
sick or the well." 

John Niel, his eldest son and first-born, had, about a year 
previously, graduated in Columbia College, ISTew York. He 
was of fine promise, both in childhood and youth. He had 
from his birth,^ by his father, been dedicated to the work of 
the ministry of reconciliation, with fervent prayer, that God 
would thus dispose his heart, and by his grace duly qualify 
him for this service. In a letter, dated October 17th, 1826, 
after expressing the deep interest he felt in the success of 
the Theological Seminary, the Doctor thus states, " My son, 
John ISTiel, declared to me on "Wednesday last, his self-dedi- 
cation to the ministry. Twenty years before that, he had 
been dedicated by his father. I was prepared for the 
dedication on his part, though I was careful not to allow my 
opinions, even indirectly, to influence him. He will go to 
the seminary at its commencement ; and may the God of 
his fathers give him grace to improve his opportunities." 

To this intimation from Dr. McLeod, Dr. Wylie replied, 
" "With regard to John's declaration, you are aware, I was 
long since prepared for it. It is a note of thankfulness in 
my prayers. John Mel rates higher in my estimation, in 
talents, prudence, and nobility of mind, than anything I 
had anticipated; and verily my anticipations were not 
small. I rejoice that he is to be with us at the seminary 



this winter." He, accordingly, went to Philadelpliia, and 
attended to the duties of the seminary the following season. 
During his second year's attendance he had been called 
home by the melancholy event above related. 

This young man having completed the course of studies 
required in the institution, and having delivered the pieces 
of trial prescribed by Presbytery, with approbation, 
was licensed to preach the everlasting gospel, by the 
Northern Presbytery, on August 4, 1828. Though his 
talents were more solid than showy, he preached with much 
acceptance to our vacancies through which he itinerated. 
Though Dr. McLeod made no remarks respecting his son, 
he could not but be gratified with his reception by the 
public. The approbation of such judges as Dr. James E. 
"Willson could not fail to please. This gentleman thus 
writes from Coldenham, 22d October, 1828J: " I attended Dr. 
McMaster's sacrament, on last Sabbath two weeks. He 
had Cooper, Pisher, and John Mel. They all preached to 
acceptance. Everybody loves Cooper. Pisher exceeded 
our expectations; and the old Scotchmen say that John 
l^iel preaches better than his father did when he began. I 
doubt that. But he does promise great things." By 
another letter &om the same gentleman, dated December 
20th, he states, that " John JSTiel, at the sacrament (Dr. 
McLeod's), preached one sermon. It was, in all respects, 
truly excellent, and unusual for one of twenty-two years of 
age." This young man was some short time afterwards 
called to, and settled in, a congregation in Galway and 
Milton, Saratoga county, ISTew York. 



From the meeting of Synod in 1827, until his sailing for Scotland, in 1830. 

Although, clm-ing the interval between the last two meet- 
ings of Synod, the church had been extending her borders 
and increasing her numbers, the affairs of the Theologi- 
cal Seminary began to languish ; as our numbers increased, 
contributions to its support seemed to decrease. This 
inverse proportion can be explained. Many, nay, most 
of the congregations lately organized, were rather skele- 
tons of congi-egations, and, on their obtaining ministerial 
settlement, found all the exertions they could make were 
scarcely adequate to the support of their own pastor. 
The ministers aware of this, it may not be unreasonable 
to suppose, were less urgent in pressing them for pecu- 
niary aid to the Seminary. At the last meeting of 
Synod, it became extinct, and the students were recom- 
mended " to prosecute their studies, where they could best 
find the means of instruction." 

The labors of Dr. McLeod were, in the meantime, 
becoming more extensive and arduous. The multipli- 
cation of congregations was, to him, a multiplication 
of toil. After the meeting of Synod, he assisted Mr. 
Gibson in the dispensation of the sacrament of the 



Supper, in Paterson, New Jersey, where the old gentle- 
man had been for some time located. He visited Gal- 
way, and dispensed ordinances to the people there. He 
still contiuned instant, in season and out of season, to 
a degree too severe upon his enfeebled constitution. He 
and Doctor Wylie had been projecting a visit to the 
Canadas, but were obliged to postpone until a future oppor- 
tunity. In the month of June, in this year, he gave 
in marriage, his eldest daughter, Margaret Ann, to the 
Keverend Mr. James R. Johnston, pastor of the Reformed 
Presbyterian congregation in Newburg. This union was 
agreeable to all ]:)arties. Mr. Johnston was a gentleman 
of very respectable talents and cultivated mind, and an 
excellent preacher. 

In the beginning of the following winter, to obviate 
some statements from a certain pulpit in Philadelphia, as 
untrue as they were ungenerous, Doctor Wylie requested 
the Doctor to furnish him with documents for this purpose. 
The statement was this : " That Doctor McLeod, having 
in his exposition of the Apocalypse, applied some impor- 
tant predictions to Napoleon Bonaparte, and finding his 
application confuted by the downfall of that hero, stopped 
the press, cancelled the passage, and reconstructed it in 
accommodation to the facts that had transpired." The 
Doctor's reply in the following letter, may not be unac- 
ceptable to the friends of truth and fair dealing. 

"New Yokk, nth Dec, 1827. 

" Rev. and Dear Sie : — 

" Tom- favor of the 11th instant came 
to hand on the lith, and lies now before me. It inti- 
mates to me that the old libel on the ' Lectures on 


Prophecy,' in reference to Bonaparte, has been recently 
revived in Philadelphia, and you add, 'I wish you to 
write me a negative iinder your own hand.' I know, 
that in expressing such a wish, you were aware that if I 
took any notice at all of that silly slander, I must write 
a negative; at your request I will do so, however irk- 
some, otherwise, would have been the condescension. 

" The story is, that after the downfall of Bonaparte, I 
caused to be destroyed some printed sheets of my discourses 
on the Pevelation, which flattered the Emperor of France, 
which it would have been absurd to publish after his 

" For this story, or anything like it, there is not the least 
foundation in truth. When my lectures were delivered, 
Bonaparte was in the zenith of his power and military 
glory ; when they were printed and piiblished, his reverses 
were not known in America: and my volume was for 
several months before the world, previously to the news of 
his downfall having reached New York. It woiild have 
required a prophet to foresee the ruin of that great general 
at the very time the combined powers of Europe were 
offering him a treaty for the perpetual establishment of his 
dynasty on the throne of France. I am oTily an expositor of 
prophecy as fulfilled, and without pretensions to such extra- 
ordinary sagacity. How the report of my having changed 
my opinions of the famed conqueror had its origin, and 
with what design, I do not know; but it is certain, that he 
who believes the report, is unacquainted with the whole 
tenor of my exposition of the Apocalypse. The tendency of 
that work is, to correct the mistakes of those expositors who 
attached too much importance to that man's unparalleled 
career. Among the clergy, he had, in different nations, 


some, by far too partial to his plana ; and others, hurried 
by prejudice, in favor of his antagonists, to the opposite 
extreme. It is no wonder. This comparatively humble 
Corsican rose high in the whirlwind of the French revolu- 
tion, to an exaltation above the old thrones of kingdoms ; 
at the shaking of his spear, millions admired, and millions 
trembled ; and all the world was astonished at the success 
of his comprehensive plans of ambition. For more than 
twenty years, he fixed upon himself the gaze of the nations ; 
and almost every public interest was, somehow, drawn into 
the vortex of the revolution which he headed. During all 
that time I beheld him, without fear, and without the least 
degree of complacency, otherwise than as a notable instru- 
ment in the hand of my God to inflict his judgments. I 
never uttered from the pulpit or the press, a sentiment con- 
cerning him or his achievements, which I now see cause to 
abandon. On the contrary, Napoleon Bonaparte stands, to 
day, in my estimation, as high as he did when he marched 
in the midst of his victories, into the abandoned Moscow, 
and heard the triumphs of his companions in battle amidst 
the conflagrations of the Kremlin. 

" True, I endeavored to explain from the predictions of 
prophecy, and the events of Providence, the notice which 
the Christian Church should take of the wars of Europe, and 
the design of heaven in permitting them. I did anticipate, 
from the excitement which these wars and contendings gave 
to the human mind, and from the revolutionary spirit which 
they cherished, results ultimately favorable to liberty and 
religion, as well as destructive to superstition and despotism. 
I am not disappointed. The view which I have taken of 
the convulsions of other nations, and of our own second^ ax 
of Independence, is now illustrated satisfactorily, by the 


peace of several years ; and I still gladly contemplate the 
march of freedom and of truth ; of genius and of enterprise, 
over the nations of the earth. 

" I will add, that the entire manuscript of my discourses 
on prophecy, is preserved ; and not a sentiment altered in 
the progress of the work through the press. Not even a 
sentence remains unprinted, except in the last half-sheet. 
For the sake of economy, the printer himself suggested the 
propriety, if possible, of contracting within that half-sheet, 
matter that would, otherwise, have extended to a page and 
a half more. The contraction was readily effected by sub- 
stituting a reference to chapter and verse, for very long 
passages of Scripture ; and by compressing the argument, 
without affecting the meaning. 

"ISTot a single thought relative to the late Emperor of 
France has ever been altered or suppressed, in the printing 
or publishing of my Lectures on the Revelation. 

" Tours, with great respect, esteem and love, 

" A. McL." 

The next meeting of Synod, held in Philadelphia, August 
6, 1828, was opened with a sermon by the Eev. Dr. 
McMaster, on the subject of Covenanting. The text was 
from Isaiah, Ixii. 4 : " Thou shalt no longer be termed 
Forsaken, neither shall thy land any more be turned deso- 
late ; but thou shalt be called Hephzibah, and thy land 
Beulah, for the Lord delighteth in thee, and thy land shall 
be married." The discourse delivered on this text, was 
uncommonly interesting and appropriate. As a paper from 
New Athens had been, on a former occasion, presented to 
Synod, containing, among other things, a request, that the 
Synod should furnish the petitioners with reasons which 


may repel the reproaches cast upon the church on account 
of their " unfrequency of pubhc covenanting ;" and as Dr. 
McMaster, the author of this discoui'se, was the chairman of 
the Committee of Discipline, to which that paper was 
referred, the report of that committee is here presented. 

" Tour committee respectfully remark, that the noncon- 
currence of the civil state is not, and never was, an obstacle 
in our way, of covenanting ; that the allegation is equally 
unfounded, that the express terms and forms of our vene- 
rable Covenants are viewed as necessary to be retained in 
our Covenant bond when renewed. The doctrine and 
practice of this church, at all times, refutes such repre- 

" Your committee beg leave further to remark, that the 
ill-advised urging of frequent renewal of covenant deeds, 
seems to be predicated upon a latent, if not an avowed 
denial, of the perpetual obligation of such deeds; and 
manifests a disregard of the import of an habitual recog- 
nition of such obligation, in the usual course of ecclesi- 
astical administrations. 

" The principles of the man would be little valued, and 
his act would be scorned, who, every time he paid the 


interest on his legally executed bond, in proof of his inte- 
grity, and to bind himself more firmly, should insist upon 
giving an added engagement and renewed subscription. 
We are admonished by the partial and untimely covenant- 
ing of some who have attempted it, not to rush upon this 
very solemn subject." 

At this meeting of Synod, Dr. McLeod appeared only as 
an alternate. 


Some resolutions, introduced at tMs meeting by the Eev. 
Hugh McMillan, on the colonization question, require par- 
ticular notice. 

On the introduction of these resolutions, the Eev. Dr. 
McLeod made a speech, containing a history of facts, sug- 
gestions, and observations, connected with the origin and 
progress of the Colonization Society, of the most important 
character. He was listened to with uncommon interest and 
attention. The memorialist, to this day, regrets the fact of 
his having been necessarily absent on that occasion. But, 
by his brethren who were present, he was informed of its 
more than ordinary importance. By their testimony, the 
plan of Colonization is shown to have originated with Dr. 
McLeod, and was by him communicated in conversation to 
Dr. Finley, of New Jersey, by whom, with others, it was 
brought into public notice. 

The scheme is magnitudinous, and fraught with divers 
most important interests, civil and religious. Since the 
discovery of America, and the Eeformation by Luther, 
there has been no event, in the opinion of the writer, 
pregnant with more important consequences, involving 
the melioration — the present and eternal happiness of 
millions ready to perish, not only now, but in all their 
successive generations. It commands, or ought to com- 
mand, the regard and the aid of every philanthropist. 

The Synod unanimously adopted the following resolutions : 

" Resolved — ^That this Synod view with approb^ion the 
constitution, and plan of the American Colonization Society, 
for restoring free persons of color to the land of their fathers, 
and as justly deserving the support of the Christian and the 


'■'■ Resoloed — ^That Synod recommend the American Colon- 
ization Society to the members of this church for their con- 
scientions support ; and that the emancipation of slaves, as 
maintaiued hy the Testimony, and practised by this chui-ch, 
be accompanied in all cases, not contrary to the will of the 
emancipated, with a removal from the United States, to 
such place or places as the emancipated shall choose. 

'■^ ResolvcA — That a copy of the above resolutions be 
transmitted to the Secretary of the American Coloniza- 
tion Society, by the Clerk of Synod." 

The following year presented to Doctor McLeod, and 
some of his friends, certain providential occurrences, pain- 
ful indeed, yet not without vicissitudes of pleasure. The 
Doctor's active mind was very laudably employed in a 
scheme more effectually to extend the church, and accmmo- 
date the localities of a considerable portion of his con- 
gregation. Chambers street, the location of his church, 
and Greenwich village, as it was then called, were con- 
siderably distant from each other. With the concurrence of 
the Doctor, a few of the spirited men in the congrega- 
tion had purchased a church — a frame building, as also a 
lot of ground for' its site. They had beea at considerable 
expense in getting it iitted and rendered commodious 
for public worship. The congregation was strong both in 
numbers and in wealth ; and the friends of the movement 
looked forward either to a distinct organization, or to a col- 
legiate«change in connection with their venerable pastor. 

" The location of this church was in Sixth street, a httle 
West of the Sixth Avenue. On February 10th, 1829, the 
Doctor writes: Although I could not enjoy the pleasure 
of seeing you in Philadelphia, I entertain some hopes of 


seeing you in JSTew York, in the month, of April. I accord- 
ingly req^nest you to occupy the Sixth street church on 
the 29th of April, first Sabbath after Easter, in order to 
give you a little time in this place, and afford me more of 
your fellowship. * •-' * * * * * * Tour advice 
to our people about the form and organization for a second 
church, which ought not to be long postponed after the 
Sacrament, will be desirable to all concerned; and the 
intermediate week will furnish an opportunity for giving 
it before you preach in the new church. * * * * 
Will you have the goodness to write to me, in the mean- 
time, on the subject. Meanwhile, I shall earnestly pray the 
Lord whom we serve, to put it into your heart, and into 
your power, to visit us in New York, at a time which 
must be an interesting crisis in our ecclesiastical aifairs. 
" With compliments to all the family, 

" I am, very dear brother, 

" Yours in the Gospel, 

"A. McL." 

It need scarcely be observed, that delicacy would 
prevent the publicity of such kind partialities on the 
part of a friend, were not at least some of the feebler 
of such effusions of the heart necessary to be exhibited, 
as essential ingredients in the development of the character 
under consideration. Doctor McLeod was all head' — ^he 
was all heart. The tithe, even of the more diluted kind 
expressions of feeling cannot, ought not, to be profaned by 
public exposure. 

While the erection of the Sixth street church was of 
fair promise, and presented a wider field for cultivation, it 
also opened a door for flinging the apple of discord. It 



was no sooner organized than it became tlie rallying 
point of disorder. Aspiring men, and there are such in all 
communities, desired to become the pastor of the Sixth 
street church — to be located in JSTew York, the great com-- 
mercial emporium — to rival, nay, to eclipse the great 
Doctor McLeod. A little spice of adulation increased the 
excitement. Pity, that such talents should be buried in 
obscurity ! — that such eloquence should be lost in the 
woods ! — such choice flowers " waste their fragrance on 
the desert air." No, New York presents a proper field 
for the display of superior talent. Thus the prize was 
estimated, and the competitors entered the lists. The 
manoeuvering thus employed, resulted in animosities and 
jealousies between the two congregations, and attempts to 
alienate affection from Dr. McLeod. The people were 
honest generally, and much attached to their pastor, and the 
men who projected the second organization, and who con- 
tributed most to it, were still his unwavering friends. 
Still evil had been done, which was not easily repaired. 
A wound had been inflicted which could not soon be healed. 
Doctor McLeod's comfort was much affected, and this 
unhappy business issued in a temporary separation between 
him and his people, as will hereafter appear. 

It has been already stated, that on the erection of the 
new chui-ch, it had not been determined whether an entire 
separation or a collegiate change should be adopted. The 
jealousies excited by extraneous influence, and the mutual 
collisions between the two establishments, soon settled 
that point. The second church received a distinct organi- 

In the meantime, the congregation of Galway, in which 
his father had resided some time when a student of theo- 

GALWAY. 363 

logy, made out a call upon his son to become tlieir pastor. 
On Jime 20, 1829, Doctor McLeod says, by letter, "Mr. 
Stewart moderated a call from Galway, wbicb is sustained 
in Albany. It is for John Niel, who is now on his way to 
the "West, by Buffalo and ISTiagara. As yet, he docs not 
know the fact." The Doctor adds, "What about the 
northern tour ? When you fix the time let me know, that I 
may be ready." This trip through Canada liad been long 
in contemplation. Circumstances, which could not be 
controlled, had hitherto induced its postponement from year 
to year. In a former letter, the Doctor says, " I adopt jouv 
plan of the Canada expedition, and will strive to persuade 
Dr. Black : yet, if that contingency should fail, I should 
like to make the tour." 

In the month of July of this year, Dr. Wylie had been 
visited with a severe affliction in his family — the sudden 
death of a lovely daughter, just blooming into womanhood. 
The stroke was heavily felt by the whole family ; but it was 
the will of God. Duty said, " Hold your peace." Yet 
everything about home looked gloomy. Death had invaded 
the family circle — a lovely blossom was numbered among 
his trophies. Amidst these distresses, Dr. Black, from 
Pittsburg, and Mr. J. N. McLeod, from his western mis- 
sion, arrive at Dr. Wylie's lonely, soiTOwful mansion. 
How soothing the voice of friendship ! aye, of such friend- 
ship ! In company with these two dear and valued friends, 
the whole family leave home, set out for New York, and 
proceed immediately to the hospitable mansion of Dr. 
McLeod. What a meeting ! But description of it shall not 
be attempted. Suffice it to say, that the balm of genuine 
unaffected friendship was liberally administered. 

In the beginning of the succeeding week, the party, con- 


sisting of Dr. Black and Dr. McLeocl, with Dr. Wylie and 
his wliole family, started for Albany, where they remained 
until the following day. Drs. Black and "Wylie, and part of 
the family of the latter, in company with Dr. McMaster, 
who had joined the party in Albany, took the stage, and 
arrived that evening at DuanesLurg, Avhere they received 
a cheering welcome at the Doctor's hospitable mansion. 
Nothing could exceed the kindness, the sympathy, the 
polite and delicate attentions of that most amiable family. 
The remainder of the week was filled up with the utile and 
the dulce, in pretty judicious mixture. In a word, this 
short visit — for verily it seemed short — was both pleasant 
and profitable. The conversation with the Doctor and his 
very intelligent and amiable lady, was interesting and 
instructive. On the Sabbath, Drs. Black and Wylie occu- 
pied the pulpit of their kind host, and preached to a very 
respectable congregation. On Monday, they, in company 
with Dr. McMaster, rejoined Dr. McLeod at Saratoga, 
whither he had proceeded on the preceding week, for the 
benefit of its mineral waters. Here also were assembled 
several of the junior branches of their families. With 
these and with Dr. McMaster^ — ^the want of whose company 
on the expedition was much regretted by all — they parted 
on next morning in the stage for Caldwell, on the head of 
Lake George. There they spent that night ; and there, after 
long and earnest conversation, on the necessity of estab- 
lishing a public periodica], as a vehicle of intelligence, 
under the direction and control of Synod, for the dissemi- 
nation of sound principles, Dr. McLeod was, at length, 
prevailed upon to consent to become its conductor. 

To describe the beauties of Lake George, the translucence 
of its waters, the uniformity and variety of its winding 


shores, tlie boldness of its jntting promontories, tlie softness 
of its scenery, the variety of vegetation, mantling with its 
verdure even the loftiest siumnits of its rocky cliffs, the 
abundance and variety of excellent fish, which gambol in 
its liquid bosom, displaying their golden tints and silvery 
brightness to an astonishing depth, in the clear limpid 
wave, would require a more graphic pen than the writer of 
this memoir ever pretended to wield. lie will therefore 
content himself with merely transcribing from Dr. McLeod's 
hasty journal, made by the way. 

" On "Wednesday we went down Lake George, and having 
examined the ruins of Ticonderoga, passed over Lake 
Champlain to Vermont, and rode that evening to the 
beautiful village of Middlebury, the seat of a college, in a 
flourishing condition. On Thursday, we rode through the 
city of Vergennes to Burlington, and there, at night, took 
the steamboat Pranklin, going to St. John's in Canada, 
whither we safely arrived to breakfast, on Friday, lith 
August. After passing over to La Prairie, and into 
Montreal, that same night found us on board the Kichelieu, 
on our way to the far-famed city of Quebec. 

" Saturday, 15th August, we found ourselves in the 
bosom of the majestic St. Lawrence, each side studded with 
handsome, though old-fashioned and stationary Canadian 
villages, each with its church, and tinned roof and cupola, 
glittering in the sunbeams ; and we landed in Quebec as 
the light of day began to yield to the lamps which glittered 
among the winding, steep, and narrow streets of the great 
city of British America. 

The Sabbath was to us a day of rest, more than when at 
home, in our own cities. Monday was with us a busy day ; 


and after seeing everything of note, and visiting tlie Falls 
of Montmorency, we were prepared to set out on our return 

" Wednesday was spent in Montreal ; Thursday between 
that city and St. John's ; and at one o'clock, we were aboard 
the Franklin, on Lake Champlain, Friday the 21st of the 
month. We landed at "Whitehall on Saturday morning. 
Drs. Black and Wylie set out in the Argyle stage, to join in 
the communion of the Supper of our Lord, with the Kev. J. 
W. Stewart, the minister of that place. On Sabbath we 
worshiped with the Galway congregation. 

" On Wednesday, 26th, we joined our friends in Albany, 
came down on board the North America, and again entered 
my house before nine o'clock that same night. Drs. Wylie 
and Black conducted the public worship of the Sabbath, 
August 30th, and ou Tuesday, Sept. 1st, they set off' towards 
home in the Dispatch for Philadelphia. 

" I have rarely been two weeks in succession, for thirty 
years, since I began to j)reach, without blowing the gospel 
trumpet somewhere, and never before, except in case of 
sickness, four Sabbaths together a hearer only. My own 
heart has been comforted, however, and also my congrega- 
tion, by the -^-arieties to which they have had access, but I 
love to return to my work." 

It has been already mentioned, that the Doctor's son, 
John Niel, had received a call from the congregation in 
Galway. This call he accepted, and in the month of 
December following, was ordained to the office of the holy 
ministry. Many of the congregation in Greenwich were 
very desirous of possessing Mr. McLeod as their pastor ; but 
he soon perceived in their true light the state of things in 


that new erection, and prudently declined any connection, 
or interference. 

The Doctor presided at the ordination. The sermon, as 
represented by some of the judges present, was excellent. 
In delivering the charge to the people, on recollecting the 
portion of his youthful days spent among those plain, 
honest, godly people, the associations which arose in his 
mind, on now settling his son among them, quite over- 
powered him. After stating his knowledge of them, and 
his happiness among them, in days of other years, he said : 
" I give you my son." But let an eye-witness give the 
account. He says : " Tou will have heard of Mr. J. 'N. 
McLeod's ordination. The father preached a great 
sermon. The address to the minister and people was the 
shortest that I, or perhaps any one else, ever heard ; hut the 
effect was probably as great as was ever witnessed. The 
Presbytery, the preacher, the pastor, and almost the whole 
of a large congregation, were in tears. The words, " not 
only a son, but a brother," deeply affected all. And when, 
in a few sentences after, it was added, "Tou were dedicated 
to this work before you could know it, and as soon as I first 
heard your voice," sympathy with the strong feelings of 
the speaker melted the whole audience. There was, 
perhaps, a minute's silence. To the congregation he said, 
and could command composure to say little more than, " I 
have long known you, and wished you well. I now give 
you my son." The writer piously adds, " God grant that 
he may be a blessing to them, and that they may use him 

Dr. McLeod would, no doubt, have been pleased to have 
bis own son associated with him in the city of iSTew York. 
But it was otherwise determined ; and he bowed submission 


to the wise arrangements of Divine Providence. That, 
however, wliich was prevented then, was afterwards accom- 
phshed. God, in his own time, and by ways most unex- 
pected, gave the son to the father as an assistant and 
successor, and in the old mother church he remains to 
the present moment. Dr. McLeod, in the meantime, resolved 
to visit the land of his fathers, and prepared to sail for 
Europe. On the 1st February, 1830, Dr. McLeod wrote as 
follows : 

" Eev. akd Deae Beothee : — ■ 

" I shall have a troublesome week, according 
to the plan before me. I intend to commit myself to the 
George Canning, Captain Allyn, to sail for Liverpool, and 
revisit the land of my fathers. From Liverpool, my inten- 
tion is, to take the readiest conveyance to L-eland, and 
thence to the Hebrides, by the way of Greenock. I wish to 
see my sisters and their children ; to see the ministers of the 
judicatories of our churches, on both sides of St. George's 
Channel, and meet you in New York or Philadelphia, in the 
end of July. 

"I have offered the resignation of my charge, and it is 
accepted, by a congregational meeting. I found no means 
of reclaiming things to order. I leave them to pursue dis- 
order, ad I'Mtum. A letter from you will be refreshing 
ere I go ; any commimications or introductions to friends 
abroad, I shall highly appreciate. 

" Give my cordial respects, at your convenience, to the 
beloved Philadelphians, with whom I have so recently 
enjoyed the solemnities of the sanctuary, and domestic kind- 
ness ; but above all, to your dear family. Brother, pray for 
the old friend when he is on the blue wave of ocean, 


beholding God's wonders in the deep ; and for the two 
beautifnl flocks that I have reared with fatherly care in this 
city. I sail, this day week. 

" Your brother in Christ, 

" A. MoL." 

This communication from Dr. McLeod was received, as 
might be supposed, with much astonishment. Its abrupt- 
ness, its generahtj^, its entire character, evinced a mind ill 
at ease, yet calm, magnanimous, and resigned. The cause for 
such a course could not be conjectured. A letter was imme- 
diately sent to the Doctor requesting some explanations. 
Mr. Crawford, his brother-in-law, went on to see him. Tlie 
letter stated interrogatories, to which answers were desired. 
A communication had been received on the day preceding, 
from the Eev. J. N". McLeod, of Galway, asking Dr. "Wylie's 
consent to a matrimonial connection with his eldest daughter 
Margaret. This proposal was communicated to Dr. McLeod, 
with a request to state his views on the subject. On the 
6th of the same month, Dr. McLeod replies : 

" Eev. and Deae Bkothee : — ■ 

" I cannot comply with your request until I 
am on the ocean. Then, if I am able, I shall give to my 
friends more minute details. I cannot leave this land, how- 
ever, without expressing my complete satisfaction with John 
l^iel's proposal, and your assent. The God of their fathers 
will, I hope, make them comfortable and useful to one 
another, and through life. 

" Your letter found me in trouble ; and I answer it in^ 
son-ow and grief. You know what a father feels. I buried 
my dear little Libby — Jane Elizabeth, yesterday. She 


parted on Wednesday. Her clotlies took fire on Tuesday 
night, about seven o'clock, and she lived only twenty-five 
hours. Oh, my brother, what sorrows break away our 
hearts from the unstable enjoyments of earth ! 

" Pray for me and my poor wife, who has now lost her 
chief companion. 

" Adieu, 

"A. McL." 

The scene here presented, is truly affecting, and calcu- 
lated to awaken heartfelt sympathy. The Lord, in his holy 
providence, had brought his servant into deep waters. His 
arrows ^vere drinking up his spirit. Yet he made good his 
promise to his servant, "My grace shall be sufficient for 

It must not be understood that the pastoral relation 
between Dr. McLeod and his congregation was dissolved. 
To its dissolution Presbytery only was competent. They 
furnished the congregation with supplies, and waited the 
aspects which Divine Providence might present on the 
Doctor's return. 

In the further prosecution of this memoir, the scene now 
shifts from the country of Columbus, to the eastern shores 
of the Atlantic. In some part of the British Isles we shall 
trace and follow the progress of our voluntary exile. 



From his departure for Europe, until his return, in 1830. 

The first account of the Doctor which we offer, after his 
voyage to Liverpool, presents him in the city of Glasgow. 
Thence he writes the following letter to his Philadelphia 
friend : 

" Glasgow, June Hth, 1830. 
" Pev. and Deae Beothee ; — ■ 

" Since I addressed yon from Liverpool, 
• in March, I have led a busy and anxious life. Tlie bur- 
den on my heart was, and even yet is, heavy ; you can 
readily conceive of many of my anxieties. I have had 
indeed, many engagements, new scenes, new faces, old and 
new relations. The monuments of the martyrs, and the 
recollection of important historical events, lay exposed to 
view. The divines and civilians of every name, showed 
me their courtesies ; and I have visited the universities, 
the libraries, and the museums of Scotland. I have also 
attended the Presbyteries and Synods of several parties, 
and devoted some days to the General Assembly. With all 
this, I travelled through Fife to Aberdeen, and through 
Edinburgh, Perth and Stirling, to Berwick on Tweed, and 


back tlirongh Lanark and Hamilton, to Glasgow. I am 
literally borne down with toil of body andof mind. God 
is good, and He has given me strength and support: 
Blessed be His holy name. I have many warm friends in 
this land. It is kind and hospitable. Oh ! how I love 
the common Christianity of Scotland ! "With nincli chaff 
there is much precions corn on the top of the moim- 
taing. Om- own church is in very good case. 

"I happened to come to Glasgow at the sacrament. It is 
a solemn time. All the town observes the same days 
together, in all the churches. I took a part, the table 
service, the Sabbath evening discourse, and the Monday. 
I delivered on the 19th April, the Synodical discourse, and 
on the ;21st, by request, I gave an account of the Reformed 
Presbyterian Church in America. The Synod gave me a 
vote of thanks, and requested a copy for publication, 
of both the sermon and the address. Alas ! Both existed 
only in words. They voted, however, that there should be 
one Covenant for all the churches of the Reformation, 
one Testimony — one form of Terms of communion — one- 
form of government, and of worship, fitted for all lands ; 
and they appointed Professor Symington, their first dele- 
gate to America, and his brother William, to Ireland, 
to request the assent of the brethren there, to the same 
plan. I hope you will meet them on their own terms, 
and appoint your next Synod as early as practicable, in 
some place convenient to the European delegates. 

" I have made a similar communication with this, by 
different channels, to Drs. Black and McMaster. 

"I am happy to learn, dear brother, that our families 
are united now by another tie ; and I pray God, that 
our son and daughter may be one in the Lord God 


of their fathers, as of twain, they have become one flesh. 
May the Lord preserve them and "bless them, many years 

"Present my love to Mrs. "Wylie and Susan, to Theophilns, 
and my dear Theodoras, and to all my friends in Phila- 
delphia. I cannot be specific ; yet, I mnst mention the 
Orrs, the Bells, the McAdams, &c., &c. I dare not begin 
to write the names of your Scottish friends ; they are too 
numerous, especially in Glasgow and Paisley. It is my 
intention, two weeks hence, to visit Ireland, and there I 
expect some news from America. 

"The Irish Synod meet on the 13th of July, in Cole- 

" I have now a brother residing in Belfast ; and he writes 
to me that he had a visit from Mr. Ewing, who is improv- 
ing since he came to Europe. I long to see him and his 
Margaret on Irish ground. 

" Pemember, in your prayers, your friend and brother, 

" A. MoL." 

It has been already stated, that at Caldwell, head of Lake 
George, in the late trip to Quebec, Dr. McLeod had con- 
sented to become the editor of a religious periodical, to be 
under the control, and to be employed in the service of the 
General Synod of the Keformed Presbyterian Church. The 
next meeting of Synod, at which these matters were to be 
arranged and determined, took place at Pittsburg, August 
4th, 1S30, agreeably to adjournment. At this meeting. Dr. 
McLeod was unanimously chosen Professor of Theology- — ■ 
the former professor having resigned — and editor of the 
contemplated periodical. The Synod, on the subject of the 
publication, adopted the following resolutions : 


" Whereas — The dissemination of religious' knowledge is 
a duty incumbent on the Christian community in general, 
and is particularly called for from ecclesiastical bodies; 
and whereas, the local condition of the members of this 
church, scattered as they are over a vast extent of tei-ritory 
in these United States, precludes them from various facili- 
ties of acquaintance with the transactions of their own, and 
of other sister churches, which could be more conveniently 
enjoyed, if more contiguously situated ; and whereas, this 
judicatory is bound to use all lawful means in their power 
to promote the edification of the people under their charge, 

" Resolved — ^1, That this Synod, forthwith, to effect these 
purposes, decree to establish a periodical publication, or 
vehicle of religious knowledge. 

" Besolved — 2, That the Eev. Dr. McLeod be appointed 
to the editorial department of said publication. 

" Resolved — ^3, That the selection of the name or title of 
said periodical be left to the editor. 

" Resol/oed — 4, That the publication shall be in an octavo 
form, similar to the most respectable monthly periodicals ; 
and that each settled minister shall become resjDonsible for a 
certain number of copies for the first year." 

While the church judicative of which he was a distin- 
guished member in the land of his adoption, were affording 
such evidences of their confidence in his talents and inte- 
grity, the Doctor himself was far away in a distant land — 
the land of his nativity — visiting the scenes of his child- 
hood. How absorbing and delightful the feelings excited 
by reviewing the familiar haunts of youthful innocence, 
accompanied by the thousand reminiscences of the days 
of other years! what a resuscitation of dormant recollec- 


tions ! What pleasing sensibilities are awakened by tbe 
successive trains of association wbicb start up in the mind ! 

" On the first Sabbath of August," says his journal, " a 
stormy day confines me to the house, and prevents the 
gratification I anticipated in my father's and grandfather's 
Parish church, as I promised to Mr. Campbell, the present 
minister. The storm prevented the boat from crossing Loch 
Oaail and Loch Laigh. Many an intending hearer will be 

" Between 11 and 12 o'clock, the storm abated, and we 
set off in the boat. The congregation had lingered on till 
they saw it. The afternoon was fine, and I preached where 
my ancestors had been ministers in the last and present 
centuries, and returned safely to Ardfinaig. 

^^ Monday, 2cZ August. — This day is wet and stormy. 
Confined to the house, I indulge in reflections, seated at 
the head of Loch Caail, on a mossy spot amidst the granites. 
" This earth is composed of many layers over each other, 
like the coats of an onion, but often fractured, and neces- 
sarily intermingled, and apparently deranged. "Where the 
fracture occurs, granite, the primitive rock, is the floor on 
which the layers repose — the- crust of the nucleus of the 
globe. It sometimes rises up in mountains, in the midst of 
islands and continents, and often forms the barriers of the 
seas and oceans, as in this island. The recent formations 
overlay the transition rocks, and then deposits of coal, iron, 
salt, and gypsum, are found. The more horizontal are 
covered with vegetable inould ; the more inclined, discover- 
in »■ occasionally their deposits; the more elevated and ver- 
tical, exhibiting their slaty and crystalline substance to view 
and use. Whatever may have been the instrumental cause 
of their frfictures, God is the first cause, and the good of his 


creatures, the moving and ultimate object in subordination 
to liis own glory, who setteth fast the mountains on their 
base of granite. 

" Scotland affords abundant specimens, and furnished the 
vocabulary and grammar of mineralogy, so happily studied 
by Hutton and Playfair, by Jameson and others. Discovery 
has not yet extended, anywhere, more than three-quarters of 
a mile under the surface ; and what the nature of the kernel 
under the crust of granite may be, is unknown. Is there 
an empty space ? Is there an internal globe of fire ? Is 
there loadstone or some metallic substance — a mighty steam- 
engine, or what is there, within the granitical covering? 
Who can say ? The semi-diameter is 4,000 miles in round 
numbers, from the surface. This consists of something, 
The granite rock is composed of quartz, mica, and feldspar ; 
connected with it are primitive formations of the fine quartz 
for glass, sombre trap, the porphyry, greenstone, basalt, 
marble, and serpentine, together with that grand depository 
of metal, gneiss, or slaty granite. The transition rock is the 
link connecting the primary with the secondary class, and 
by some is distinguished from both. It is the bed of many 
metals — the greywacke, mountain limestone, and bird's-eye 

" The red sandstone, dyed with the oxide of iron, denotes 
the shalum of the collieries. The iron mines, the alabaster ; 
the beds of marl, clay, sulphur, salt, and freestone, lime- 
stone and chalk. To this class belong the whinstone, dykes, 
and columnar basalts of Dunbar, and of the Giant's- Cause- 
way, and of Staffa : To which also belongs, what abounds 
in the Highlands, the breccia, or pudding-rock. 

" The tertiary formation, above the chalk, is a distinct 
crust, where the operations of nature are still in progress. 


Tlie brown coals, the peat, and turf masses, and the many 
alluvial formations, which everywhere appear, are at the 
surface exposed to every eye. 

" It is in the fractures, crevices, and caverns of these 
tertiary and secondary formations, that the precious stones 
have their abode. The gems and spars are connected or 
mixed up with coarser materials — metallic, and earthy. 
They abound in Scotland. Cairngorum is remarkable for 
the greatest abundance of the pirrest specimens of rock 
crystal. The agate, beryl, bloodstone, and garnet, the 
jasper, the ruby and the topaz are to be found among the 
other pebbles on the shores of the Scottish bays, lochs, and 

"Here confined to the house by wet, I am visited by 
many of all ranks. The aged, who knew my father well, say 
they know the resemblance. Men and women tax my 
Gaelic by their questions. As this is intended to be the last 
day of my stay in my native Parish, I will bear with their 
kind importunity ; but I sigh for the land and the company 
I left, and for the holy beloved fellowship of my brethren, 
to meet in Synod this week at Pittsburg." 

It would be agreeable to go along with the Doctor, 
through the whole of his Journal ; but as a great part of it 
is only in a skeletonized form, to be afterwards by himself 
filled up, it is omitted here. Of the manner in which the 
Doctor himself could have completed it, we have an excel- 
lent specimen, in the part published in the first volume of 
the Cheistiam- Expositoe, entitled — "A voyage over the 
Atlantic." Parts of the Journal shall, however, be 
occasionally introduced, such as shall appear most inter- 
esting, and subservient to the object of this memoir. 



The Doctor, as lias been already remarked, had an admir- 
able tact for grafting upon some part of the services of the 
Lord's Aaj, any remarkable occurrences of Providence. 
There is an instance of this, in his pnblic exhibitions in 
Glasgow, on the eighth of the same month, after he reached 
that city, having taken a final farewell of his native isle. 
He preached for Eev. 'Mv. Armstrong, in the afternoon, 
from Dan. ii. 21. He adverted to three important events, 
" all of which," said he, " occurred since I left home, six 
weeks ago, on 23d June, viz. : 1st, the death of George lY. 
and accession of William IV. ; 2d, the overthrow of Algiers 
on or about the 4th of July ; and 3d, the French Eevolution 
of the last two weeks, 27-29 July. In the last of these, 
Louis Philippe, Duke of Oiieans, was inaugurated King of 
the French. He is 67 years of age, born in 1773, of good 
character. France is, now, a limited hereditary monarchy. 
Lafayette commander-in-chief" 

The Doctor did not content himself with merely stating 
facts, or barely giving a correct historical narrative. He 
always applied his subject. He showed its fulfillment of 
Scripture doctrines, promises or prophesies — its bearing 
upon the condition of the world — the state of the Church of 
God, and the present duty to which the diversified aspects 
seemed most directly to point. Indeed, his Sabbath services 
formed a pretty accurately graduated providential thermo- 
meter — if the expression be admissible — of the condition 
both of the church and con2:res:ation. 

His visit to the land of his nativity gave a fresh stimulus 
to his national and ecclesiastical feeling. Caledonia was to 
him invested with a species of classic excellence. It was 
the land of Ossian, the Celtic bard ; the country of Fingal, 
the hero of deathless fame. The songs of that inspired bard, 

ossiAN. 379 

in liis native Gaelic, Lad fired his youthful imagination. He 
was, moreover, well versed in its religious and civil history, 
of more modern times. It was to him doubly consecrated 
hy the hlood of heroic patriots, and of the gallant martyrs 
of Jesus. Pie revered their memories ; he visited their 
tombs. He cherished the spirit of an " Old Mortality." 
Yes, he could have delighted in garnishing — not like the 
Scribes and Pharisees — the tombs of the Redeemer's wit- 
nesses. " From Paisley," says he, " on Monday, we took a 
drive to the southwest, through Elderslie, the ancient seat 
of Sir William Wallace, taking a view of the famous oak, 
still bearing some leaves and boughs, though much de- 

" On Friday," he goes on to say, " June 25, I joined a 
party, with the Eev. Adam Brown, and Archibald Mason, 
and Kogerson, of the number, to Drumclog. We passed from 
Crookedholm, through Gallston, and New Mills, or Loudon, 
to Derval, and breakfasted at the house of Mr. Pogerson. 
After breakfast, we passed from Derval to the west of 
Loudon Llill. On the 1st June, the Covenanters were 
assembled for worshiping their God on the side of the 
Broom Hill. It was the Lord's day, and the Pev. Mr. 
Douglas was preaching to them. Mr. Donald Cargill was 
of the company. A sentinel placed on the opposite emi- 
nence, Loudon Hill, announced the approach of General 
Graham of Claverhouse, with his dragoons. The persecuted 
Presbyterians, after a short consultation, resolved to advance 
and meet the foe. They did so ; and halted at the Moss, in 
sight of Drumclog, where they again united in singing 
Psalms until the enemy fired upon them, and so brought on 
the battle of that name. 

" At that Moss, under a hedge, Mr. Pogerson spread his 


table-cloth, and we all sat down to dinner, on tlie spot of so 
many recollections. I returned tliat evening to Crooked- 
liolm, having previously arranged with Mr. Brown, a trip 
on Saturday, to Lochgoiu, the seat of Mr. Howie, whose 
father collected and published so many fragments of the 
the testimonies of that time of trial to the pious whigs of 
Scotland. Mr. Howie is denoted by Sir "Walter Scott, in his 
Tales of My Landlord, as Old Mortality. In his house, are 
still preserved the Covenanters' flag, Captain Paton's Bible, 
and many other relics of the struggle for truth and liberty." 
" On Tuesday I dined with Andrew McMillan, the son of 
old Eev. John, of Sand Hills, and the brother of Professor 
John, of Stirling. I had previously visited the hospitable 
mansion of the Galloways, and their mother, the widow of 
him who died in New Yort, 1795, of yellow fever. Mr. 
Andrew McMillan showed me two pair of Covenanters' 
colors which waved at Bothwell Bridge, and afterwards at 
the head of the Cameronian regiment, raised in 1689, in 
defence of the Pevolution. Application was made to Mr. 
McMillan, lately, by Sir "Walter Scott, for a sight of these 
colors, but the good man sent as reply, that he would not 
comply with the request of one who traduced the piety and 
patriotism of the men who fought under these banners." 

In these visits and excursions, the Doctor evinced an 
animation bordering on enthusiasm. Nothing concerning 
the martyrs was indifferent to him. lie admired their 
virtues. He visited the battle-grounds of the Covenanters, 
and viewed their tombs. lie inspected the manuscripts of 
public documents, and signatures to the original copies of 
the Solemn League and Covenant. Tea, he took pleasure in 
the very rubbish and stones of Zion, and favored the dust 


thereof for her sake. The different universities of Glasgow, 
Edinburgh, Aberdeen, and St. Andrews he visited ; was 
politely treated and much valued by the learned professors, 
and other literati of those celebrated seats of science ; he 
inspected their museums, libraries and cabinets of curiosities ; 
preached in many churches ; attended numerous dispensa- 
tions of the Lord's Supper, at which he always assisted. He 
was caressed by the doctors and clergy in general, and in 
all his intercourse with the elite of that land, a land second 
to none on the globe, in learning, religion, morality, hospi- 
tality, and friendship, the pleasure and satisfaction were 

He was twice in L-eland, and twice in Scotland. At the 
request of both Synods, he consented to deliver the concio 
ad clerum, on the opening of these Courts respectively. 
His were not discourses previously written out, or delivered 
on former occasions, cut and dry for use. ISTo ; in a dozen 
years, he wrote not one sermon out at full length. A short 
skeleton, or brief analysis, perhaps on many occasions not 
thought of an hour before delivery, was all the preparation 
necessary for his pulpit exhibitions. His capacious mind 
resembled a well-supplied cistern, always full. He needed 
only to open the sluices, and copious streams of purest 
doctrines, and accurate and judicious arrangement, would 
flow amain. 

Amid these multifarious arrangements, the Doctor was 
not forgetful of his dear relatives at home. He thus writes 
his daughter, Margaret Ann (Mrs. Johnson), from the city 
of Aberdeen : 

" Mt Deau Datightee : — 

" I cannot be long alone, without think- 
ing of those I left behind, and wishing to write to some 


of them. Besides the other letters that I write to America, 
I must, once a month, address some members of my own 
family. It is true I hare had no returns ; and indeed, I 
have not yet had time, for since I left Glasgow, I am ont of 
the reach of the Atlantic seaports, and can but live in hope, 
that on my return to the West, I shall not be disappointed 
in receiving some token of remembrance. It would be 
very easy for me to fill pages of remarks on British friends 
and Irish habits, but I confine my ideas within particular 
bounds, when I take the pen. 

" I am now in Aberdeen, in the of my sister Flory, 
who is remarkably well, considering her age and her 
trials, and I may add, remarkably cheerful, considering her 
causes of sorrow. In her daughter, however, she has a 
treasure of good sense and kind fellowship seldom equalled ; 
and much is the satisfaction which they together take, and 
impart to me, in speaking of New York, and my family. 
I shall give you rather a journal of the course I pur- 
sued since I wrote to Mr. Johnston from Ireland. 

" I parted with Mr. Stavely in Loiidonderry, and soon 
after embarked for Scotland. After a short stay in Gree- 
nock, I came to Glasgow, the capital of the "West of 
Scotland, where I arrived the 7th April. Thursday, the 
8th, was the fast before the sacrament. I rejoiced in 
the communion, and was gladly received by my brethren. 
I thought I should be greeted nowhere with such warm 
friendship as I found in Ireland, and indeed, it is impos- 
sible to exceed it ; yet, the Scottish friends to me, are 
not a whit behind. I have been overwhelmed with their 
attentions. Alas ! I am not able to gratify half the calls 
made upon me for public services. I preached, however 
on Sabbath and on Monday, and on next Sabbath, and 
on Monday the 19th, at the opening of Synod, in Glasgow. I 


passed at the end of the week to the Highlands, to see 
Ann and her family, and the following Saturday, 1st 
May, found me in Aberdeen." 

The Doctor having visited his sister, and after having 
received kind attentions from the professors of the uni- 
versity, says, " 12th May, I left Aberdeen, and am now 
in Edinburgh. To-day is Wednesday, and Sabbath was 
the Edinburgh sacrament. I preached on Saturday, served 
two tables, and preached on Sabbath, and also on Mon- 
day. My visits through this astonishing city, my attentions 
to its literary curiosities and historical antiquities, and my 
intercourse with its great men, have almost overpowered 
me. I am oif, if my health permit, to the suburbs, and 
Pentland Hills, to-morrow. Much, however, remains for 
me in Edinburgh. I design, after fulfilling my engage- 
ment at Loan Head, to visit St. Andrews, and preach 
on the 23d in Fife. Being engaged for the time to assist at 
the sacrament at Chirnside, I came back from the English 
border again to Edinburgh, and proceed again to Glasgow. 
I am engaged to assist Mr. Mason, at the communion on 
the 2d Sabbath of June; till then I visit the chief sites 
of the persecutions. Having already seen the monument 
erected for John Knox in Glasgow, one of the Coven- 
anters' flags in Aberdeen, the dwelling-house of Knox, and 
the monuments of the martyrs in Edinburgh ; my anxiety 
is increased to see all of the kind that are to be seen 
in the coimtry. My next shall be addressed to William 
Norman.' " 

The Doctor then proceeds : " Well may I say that my 
sorrows at the recollection of my home, as yet, far, very far 
exceed every pleasure, but those I take in serving the 
church, for which my Saviour bled and died. 


"I need not ask you to remember me to any one in 
New York — if any one forgets uie. Every one of my 
friends is ever present to my remembrance. However 
mucli I desire it, STich is my state of liealth, faint 
indeed are my liopes of ever seeing again my dear, 
dear family, my friends, or my flock. God's will be done ! 
Tet, bow bard to submit wben I tbink of one whose 
image makes me tremble with emotion — your mother ! The 
tears flow when I pronounce, adieu. 

"A. MoL." 

"P. S. — I visited EuUion Green, the ground of the 
battle of Pentland, between the Covenanters and perse- 
cutors. There is a monument to the martyrs on the 
spot. On the way I stopped at Mr. Thornburn's house, 
and the old church, and saw in the church-yard some 
of the graves of the eminent old Dissenters. These were 
more interesting to me than the scenes of modern grandeur, 
and magnificent antiquities of Koslin Castle, Melville 
Castle, and the Duke of Beucleugh's palace, all of 
which I visited yesterday. To-morrow, I preach for 
Mr. Anderson, who has a very fine congregation. Again, 
Farewell !" 

In the above letter to Mrs. Johnston, there was one pro- 
mised to "William ISTorman, the Doctor's second son. He 
writes from 

"WisHAWTOWN, June lltli, 1830. 

" Mt Dear Son : — 

" I often think of you, very far away, and 
ignorant even of the place of your abode. How you are 
employed I know not ; nor can I give you assistance or direc- 


tion. I will only put you in mind that you liave a father, 
and urge you to be obedient to the law of your mother ; 
and to remember your Pather in heaven, whose eyes are 
always upon you, and is never far off. He will support 
you, and bring you to honor, if you serve him with faith 
and love. O that his grace may abound towards us all ! 

" Since I Avrote to Margaret Ann, I have seen much, and 
travelled a great deal. After coming to Edinburgh from 
Aberdeen, I enjoyed many sights, calling up many interest- 
ing recollections. The house of John Enox still stands in 
the Cannongate. The Close from which Eenwick fled, and 
the spots where he was taken and executed, are still to be 
seen. The Crown of Scotland was shown to me in the 
room in which it was locked up since the union of the 
kingdom to England, until a few years ago ; and many 
objects of curiosity were shown to me also, in the Castle 
of Edinburgh. From that city I went to Kelso and Chirn- 
side. In the former place, a beautiful town, on the banks 
of the Tweed, I saw Mr. Bates, and Mr. Andrew Smyth, 
your old master's father-in-law ; and, in the latter place, I 
assisted Mr. Mclndoe at the sacrament. After that he 
accompanied me to Berwick-upon-Tweed, an old walled 
town, the scene of many a bloody battle between England 
and Scotland ; and it now belongs equally to both, but 
formally to neither. The church establishment is English ; 
the geographic position is Scottish ; and the lands are pecu- 
liar to itself. The wall is complete all around the town, 
which is at the mouth of the river, just as it enters into the 
German Ocean, and opposite to Denmark. It is the only 
walled town in Britain, and the only one I ever saw, except 
Quebec, in British America, and Deny, in Ireland. The 
walls of Derry are, however, much finer, and kept in com- 


plete repair. There is an elegant walk also around the city, 
on the top of the wall, which is ^\'ell guarded by side walls, 
and the width is about twenty feet, of a very fine prome- 
nade. At the outside, against the walls of Derry, there 
is a very fine pear-tree, which bore fruit at the time of the 
famous siege, when King "William was proclaimed, who 
conquered Ireland, at the battle of the Boyne. I saw the 
site of that battle the day I left Dublin; and I saw, before 
I left for Scotland, the old pear-tree in full bloom. It is 
about three hundred years old. 

" From Berwick, Mr. Mclndoe conducted me through a 
part of England near Floddenfield, to Coldstream, in Scot- 
land, where General Monk had his head-quarters before he 
marched to London to put down the Parliament, and restore 
King Charles the Second to the throne. We proceeded 
that same night bade to Mr. Bates' house, in Kelso, from 
which I came next daj"- to Glasgow. The road lay through 
Lanark, famous in the history of the Covenanters, and over 
Bothwell Bridge, where the battle was fought. 

" Mr. Symington, the Scottish j^i'ofessor, with whom I 
passed the l"st Sabbath in Paisley, is with me in this house. 
He is an excellent man, and a fine preacher. Mr. Mason, 
our host, is a lively, intelligent Christian, and an able writer 
and preacher. He is now about eighty years of age, and 
nearly fifty years a preacher. He is still active. 

"This veteran, the oldest minister in Synod, is about your 
size. He is short-necked and broad shouldered, with legs 
as slender as a spindle. His nose is long ; his eyes glitter- 
ing and grey, and overhung with two shaggy eyebrows of 
strong, whitish hair, with a narrow forehead and a small 
head, covered with a small, red wig. He stands in the 
pulpit like a statue, with his hands fixed immovably, as if 

ME. MASON. 387 

fastened to it, one on each side, his chin nearly touching the 
big Bible on the board, and his rough, hollow, gnttiiral 
voice, sonnding like a trumpef, with accurate words and 
sound sense expressed in well-constructed sentences. After 
the Synod in Glasgow, he had a new set of teeth constructed 
together in a machine, which he takes out at night, but by 
which his eating and speaking are much improved. The 
whole set, Jew's teeth, golden chain and all, cost about 
twenty guineas. He oifers me an original copy, on parch- 
ment, of the Covenant and Solemn League. There was, in 
1643, a copy sent for signature into every Parish in the 
land. Many of these have recently come into the hands of 
Covenanters. * * * * In politics there is nothing to 
be heard, except about the health of King George, who is 
evidently on his death-bed with dropsy. He will die 
lamented by all parties, for fear of a worse sovereign to 
succeed him. Alas ! poor man, he has not the consolations 
of religion to support him. "" * ^' * * 

" I am always wondering that I hear nothing from Water 
street. I wrote a line to Cornelius from Greenock in April, 
and I often wish to know how they are all doing, and espe- 
cially about the health of grandmother. I sent word in 
some letter, that I saw her relations in Ireland, all well. 
Mrs. Morton, and Mr. Samuel Thompson were asking for her, 
particularly. These friends, I expect to see soon again ; and 
will then write as long a letter as I can find time to pen, to 
your grandmother. In the meantime give her my love ; 
and tell her that I cannot but have her in my mind. Give 
my regards to my good friend Mr. Gifford, to Aunt Eliza ; 
to Uncle William and the boys, and Ann Stavely, as well 
as to Uncle Cornelius. Tell Een^vick, that I saw the place 
where his great namesake was made prisoner, and the place 


where he was executed. My love to all my family, com- 
mended to the care of the God of your fathers. 

"A. McL." 

This son, "William Norman, to whom the above letter is 
addressed, in the spring of 1830 went to Philadelphia, and 
entered the Freshman class, in the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, residing, during his course at college, in the family 
of Dr. Wylie. Pie graduated in 1834, and in paternal 
example and respectability, as well as in religious instruc- 
tions and moral discij)line, inherited an invaluable legacy. 

While Dr. McLeod was highly valued as a gentleman, as 
a scholar, as a profound divine, and public ambassador of the 
Redeemer, in the land of Caledonia, the country of his nati- 
vity, his worth was no less correctly appreciated on the other 
side the water, in the Emerald Isle. He was there received 
with characteristic kindness and cordiality, wherever he 
visited among that warm-hearted people. It has been a 
matter of wonder to many of his friends here in America, 
how his constitution, rather delicate and undermined by 
disease and sickness, endured the incessant toil and exertion 
to which his travelling, his preaching, his conversation in 
the social circle — in a word, to which the mass of public and 
private duties, subjected him. There is little doubt, how- 
ever, that though the constant excitement sustained, it at 
the same time secretly and deceitfully exhausted his already 
debilitated system. He certainly retm-ned to the land of 
his adoption with a constitution more impaired than im- 
proved. There was a manifest declension of physical vigor, 
from his return until the period of his dissolution. The 
Doctor had arrived in Liverpool, 9th March, 1830, passed 
over to Ireland, spent Sabbath, llth, in the city of Dublin, 

ieelj42«-d. 389 

was twice engaged in preaching in Belfast, on Sabbath the 
21st. The evening sermon he preached in Berry street 
Oliurch, where a collection was taken up for the Jews. On 
the 28th of the same month he preached in Kilranghts, for 
Mr. Stavely; on 31st for Mr. Carlisle, at Beldhershane, and 
1st April at Ballylaggan, for Mr. Cameron. On next day, 
he rode to Londonderry, and on the 4th of April, preached 
twice in that celebrated city. He then went to Glasgow, 
April 8th, and during his stay in North Britain, till his 
second visit to Ireland, July 6th, his synodical and ministe- 
rial labors, journeyings, excursions, &c., were numerous, 
fatiguing and oppressive. The Doctor's second visit to 
Ireland was but short— only from the 6th of July, until the 
20th of the same month' — ^but that short period was filled up 
with almost unremitting exertion. He assisted at Mr. Alex- 
ander's sacrament, Belfast, 11th of that month ; and on the 
13th, by request of Synod, preached the synodical sermon, 
as is usual on the opening of the judicatory. On the 20th 
he sailed for the Highlands of Scotland, visited his relatives 
there, and the romantic scenes of his youthful days. On the 
7th of August he reached Glasgow, and preached for Mr. 
- Armstrong on the afternoon of the ensuing Sabbath. On 
the 19th of the same month, he says, " I bade adieu for ever 
to the great, growing and hospitable city of Christian Glas- 
gow, and passed the night in the house of Hugh Stevenson, 
Esq., and his wife, my cousin Lucy, of Langamull. On 
Priday I came to Campbletown, and on Wednesday came 
by the Londonderry to Port Rush, and got, by the way of 
Coleraine and Ballymony, to Mr. Stavely's." 

His stay in Ireland, on this third and last visit, was only 
until the 2'rth of September. This was, indeed, a busy 
period. He visited Belfast, Ivnockbracken, and Carrick- 
fergus. There he remained over night with the Eeverend 


John Paul, a gentleman and divine so justly esteemed for his 
intellectual discrimination and logical precision, and as an 
intrejjid Christian polemic. He called at Larne, Ballymena, 
Cullybacky, Ballykenedy, &c. &c., and on "Wednesday the 
Sth, reached Ballymoney. He preached twice, September 
12th, at the opening of Mr. Stavely's new church in Bally- 
money. On the 15th he set out for Londonderry, and on the 
18th visited the venerable and patriarchal veteran of the 
^Reformed Presbyterian Church, the Peverend "William 
Gamble, Eamelton ; and on Sabbath, 19th, pi-eached for Mr. 
Fullerton, at ISTewton Limmavady. 

Here the Doctor preached a charity sermon, for the Jews. 
"The outcast Hebrews still beloved of God." The text, 
Pom. xi. 2S. As touching the election, they are still 
beloved for their father's sake. Many such sermons he 
preached while itinerating in Scotland and Ireland. From 
his short notes, we take one of the fullest skeletons as a speci- 
men. It was preached in Glasgow, June 20th, 1830, Pom. 
XV. 27. 

" Their debtors they are. For if the Gentiles have ieen 
made partakers of their sjjiritual things, their duty is also 
to minister to them in carnal things. 

" The apostle Paul was an extraordinary missionary of the 
Christian religion. His appointment was miraculous ; his 
qualifications were remarkable, and his success among the 
heathen was uncommon. Before him, there ^-as no man 
his superior, and since he left the world, there has not been 
his equal. Called in the prime of life, and in the full 
career of his persecutions, by our Divine Master, his con- 
version was certain and sudden, his instructions were from 
heaven, and his endowments of the Holy Ghost. Suspected 


by the cautious, shunned by the tirtLid, and hated by the 
foe, he seized upon the banner, red in the blood of Calvary, 
and -waving it over the nations, he moved onward and 
planted it within the gates of Eome, at the palace of the 
Cffisars. He travelled from Damascus of Syria, over the 
land of Palestine, and the cities of Lesser Asia, across the 
Mediterranean, and organized churches in the provinces of 
the European continent. 

" A missionary from the Jeics to the Gentiles, he set open 
the door of faith to the Greek and barbarian ; and he urged 
upon all Gentile Christians the duty of attention to all the 
wants of the descendants of Abraham. He rested his 
cause imder the blessing of God, upon this argument ; and 
made his appeal to the understanding and the heart of 
sanctified men. 

" As he taught, so he practised. When he returned from 
Europe across the sea, he carried with him the contributions 
made amongst the Gentile churches for the relief of the 
Hebrews in Jerusalem. 'For,' says he to the inhabitants 
of Eome, ' it has pleased them of Macedonia and Achaia, 
to make a certain contril^ution for the poor saints which are 
at Jerusalem. It hath pleased them verily, and their 
debtors they are. For if the Gentiles have been par- 
takers,' &c. 

" Tire Gentiles referred to were Christians, partakers of 
the benefits of spiritual things. They partook of the benefits 
of Christianity from the Jews, and so became their debtors. 
It was accordingly their duty to minister to the Jews in 
carnal things, i. e., in the common enjoyments and necessa- 
ries of temporal life. The argument is this ; all the Gentile 
Christians who partake of religious privileges, are under 
obligation to contribute to the relief of the house of Israel. 



" This is the argument I bring before you. Their debt- 
ors they were. 

"we aee debtors to the jews. 

" I. — Slioiu wherein — what do we owe the Jews ?" 

Before I enter upon the particulars of our debt, I offer 
three remarks : 

" 1. Whatever we have is from God. — James i. 5-1 T. 

" 2. This does not annul our debt to the human instru- 

" 3. Our religion is from the Jews. Our salvation — -Eom. 
ii. 11. This salvation is the sum of spiritual things, and 
includes our debts as follows : 

" First. Preservation of the knowledge of the one true 

" Seco7ul. A complete revelation ; history, morality, faith, 

" Third. Jesus Christ came of the Jews. — Eom. ix. 5. 

" Fourth. Proof of Scriptm'e prophecy, past, present, and 

" II. — The duty of Gentiles to the Hebreios. 

" 1. Kind attentions and prayers for them. 

" 2. Giving them more instruction in every accessible 

" 3. Temporal relief, even to unconverted, much more 
to Saints. 

" 4. Distinct Church, State, and all the ordinances. 

" HI. — We have encouragement. 

" 1. They are human and of one blood, with ' all 


"2. They have Moses, and the Prophets, and Syna- 

" 3. We have the first fruits of the harvest. 

" 4. All Israel shall be saved. — Eom. ii. 26. 

Conclusion. I agitate, perhaps unwisely, yet certainly 
intentionally, no controversy about where are the ten tribes, 
whether they shall always be a distinct people — the land of 
promise — the personal righteousness — the time and manner 
of their fullness. I shall only tell you of the immediate 
object of the collection. 

" The Americam, Society was organized 25th January, 
1820, and incorporated as a body politic by the Legislature 
of the State of New York, lith April of the same year. 

"During these ten years, they have exercised much 
benevolence and learned much by experience. 

"They have collected upwards of $30,000, not quite 
£8,000 sterling. They have from time to time, conferred 
benefits on more, in all, than thirty Jews, giving employ- 
ment to some and education preparatory to the ministiy, to 
others and several mechanical trades to various others. 

" They have purchased an estate of 500 acres, and now 
hold it with a colony of Hebrews, pursuing the various 
arts and trades, and tmder spiritual instruction, and fur- 
nished with the necessaries of life. They have a library, 
and a native Jew as a missionary for the Mediterranean 


"In America, we have land, and may extend as need 
requires. It is settled by your own friends and children. 
Ton know its relations with Europe. 

" I ask, in their behalf, for your prayers, and your aid, 
hoping that every one will contribute something to the 
tabernacle now erecting in the wilderness." 



The Doctor -was now turning his face towards America, 
longing to revisit those whom he had left behind. 

In a letter dated September 13th, 1830, he complains of his 
long want of intelligence from America, and adds, " Mrs. 
Ewing in teland is left without account of American trans- 
actions, as well as myself. A letter to either of us, once in 
this countiy, would find us out. The Post Office is a speedy 
channel ; and friends are attentive to forward letters from 
any quarter. Sometimes our communications wander, but 
they generally come to hand at last. It is now too late. 
I met many in Scotland who cherish a very friendly recol- 
lection of you ; and the old men of Paisley made particular 
inquiries respecting your health. In L'eland the number 
of inqiurers is stiU greater. Since my last return to Hiber- 
nia, I have been more among the people than I was on my 
former visits, and am much gratified with their intimacies. 
I have preached in all the regions from Donaghadee to Lon- 
donderry ; and even from house to house, conversing with, 
and enjoying the hospitality of our religious connections and 
their friends. I have surveyed the country with great dili- 
gence, and with some toil. It is remarkable how numerous 
are the American connections of the Scotch and Irish. 
Although it is but a few hours sail from Ireland to Scotland, 
I believe the connections of each of them, in America, are 
more in number than of either of them with the other. 
And, indeed, both admire the American church, full as 
much as she deserves. They are far enough, at home, from 
affecting the superiority which some of their emigrants have 
assumed, on landing on the shores of Columbia. They have 
full as much talent and literature, and much more liberality 
tban I had antitipated. Our ministers and people, on both 
sides the channel, can well bear a comparison with their 


neighbors, in any of the other churches in the land : and 
they stand well with the great and good around them. It 
appears to me, that the point is, at last, generally conceded, 
that our people are the successors of the Martyrs of the Ee- 
formation, and it is universally admitted, that these were the 
best friends of civil and religious freedom. It is astonishing 
too, what an excitement has been given to the public mind 
by the French Eevolution. Every town, small and great, 
holds, its public meetings, and all their orators are at work 
in praise of the Parisians. But you will have the current 
Eiiropean news in Philadelphia, as soon as we have it in 
L-eland. The flame of patriotism and the antidespotic spirit, 
are spreading in Europe with wonderful rapidity. Terrible, 
however, must be the conflict ere long. 

"There is much to be done ; and it must be done quickly: 
yet there are ten thousand barriers to be broken down in 
church and state ; in the condition and policy of the uj^per 
ranks, and in the commons too, ere an equitable system can 
be established in the rotten monarchies of the nations. As 
yet, however, the revolution goes smoothly on. The harvest 
is abundant. Trade and provisions are plenty. Armies are 
mustered with facility. Another year may change the 
entire aspect of things, and the wrath of God be speedily 
intermingled with the proceedings of the Antichristian 
world : for the day of vengeance approaches ; the year of 
his redeemed draws near. The calm is pleasant while it 
continues; and it is pleasant to see the sun through the 
passing clouds, that are fraught with the storm. Tet the 
storm is there ; alas ! who shall live to see it over ! I have, 
indeed, glowing apprehensions. I would wish to see my 
own beloved country again, and to be once more among my 
brethren, my friends and my family. Here, I am a 



stranger. I vrax old and infirm. I long for my rest ; but I 
am in tlie hands of Him who keepeth Israel, and I strive to 
be contented. Adieu ! A. McL." 

In the above letter, the Doctor discovers much anxiety 
about home, regrets the scantiness of intelligence from his 
friends, longs for a return to his country, watches and com- 
pares the aspects of Divine Providence, and deduces from 
them what he deemed to be the most legitimate conclusions. 
On the quarter of correspondence it may be proper to remark 
that, although, in his rapid itinerancy, letters might not 
regularly reach him, yet many were written to him by his 
friends in America. Neither friends nor foes forgot him. 
From his son John Niel, then stationed in Galway, where 
he had been ordained ere his father's departure for Europe, 
he received various letters; also from Dr. McMaster, and 
others, all members of the same Presbytery to which the 
Doctor belonged, he received information of the movements 
of the congregation, and the proceedings of Presbytery. 
Dr. McMaster thus addresses him in a letter dated from 
Schenectady. " I am thus far on my way from assisting at 
the dispensation of the sacrament in Galway ; and presum- 
ing that Mr. Ewing, now on his way to Ireland, may possibly 
meet with you, I am unwilling to let the opportunity pass, 
of putting you in remembrance of your friends. The solem- 
nity at Galway was without any drawback on all that was 
calculated to gratify and edify. Your son conducted the 
aifairs to great satisfaction, and preached in a superior style 
of thought and arrangement. It is long since that people 
were in a condition so promising." 

The last letter from the Doctor, before he bade adieu to 
the British Isles, was addressed to his son John ISTiel. 

EDmBUKGH. 397 

" Mt Deab Son : — 

"I receiyed together several letters of 
dates in three different months, and written by different 
persons. My tour through the Eastern counties of Scot- 
land, and the shortness of my stay in any one place, 
prevented my receiving them in order or in' due time. I 
am thankful, however, that the burden of anxiety is some- 
what diminished. I congratulate you on the change which 
has taken place, and I pray God to bless you and my dear 
daughter in your married state. I loved her always, 
certainly not the less for her near affinity. A father's 
blessing be with you at all times. 

" I expect to see, in a few weeks, in Ireland, Mr. Ewing 
and his wife. My brother, A. Norman, who now resides in 
Belfast, wrote me that he saw him a few days ago, and in 
tolerably improved health. All your Scottish aunts are in 
health ; and both they, and a hundred Scottish cousins are 
wishing you joy. My sisters left this last week for Tobor- 
mory, their future residence. I saw Ann in her own house, 
as also her oldest sister. Susan, Mrs. McLean Ardfinaig, I 
have not yet seen. I spent more time about Glasgow and 
Edinburgh than I intended, but it arose partly from attend- 
ing both sacraments and synodical meetings ; and partly 
from the vast number of objects to be seen, and the persons 
to whom I was introduced. Edinburgh may well be called, 
^ the intellectual city.' It is a mighty focus for concentra- 
tion of hterary, scientific, and theological talent. There I 
saw the Synod of the original Seceders, and became per- 
sonally acquainted with its principal members, especially 
McOrie, and Paxton. I attended the General Assembly for 
several days, and became acquainted with the most distin- 
guished men in the land. In Glasgow, I had the opportunity 


of seeing the order of the United Secession Synod, that of 
the Synod of Glasgow and Ayi-, as well as our own SjTiod. 

" They are all on the same principle of order, in con- 
ducting business ; but now and then, cases occur, in all of 
them, that excite much interest. They are all remarkably 
tenacious of good forms, and. extremely sensitive on the 
subject of heresy, especially in the established church. Dr. 
Irving did not this year venture to Edinburgh ; but his 
peculiarities were tried, and. condemned in the persons of 
Mr. McLean, and Mr. Campbell. The questions chiefly 
discussed, are, whether ' Christ will reign on earth, in the 
body, during the millennium.' Whether 'the gospel 
reveals an indefinite or universal pardon to eveiy man, and 
to every sin.' Whether, ' the Mediator had a human body 
and soul, capable of committing sin.' Each of these 
subjects offered scope for a great variety of publications, 
and for disputes in the Courts, subtle and splendid. 
Number and talents are entirely on the side of plain truth. 
Poor Irving must recant or be excluded. 

" Our ministers are highly respectable, and respected 
among all classes. Mr. Symington is appointed delegate to 
our American Synod. He will bring the mutual Covenant 
and League of the three churches with him for our approba- 
tion. The plan will be discussed in the Irish Court, next 
month. If the Lord see meet to prosper my endeavors, and 
continue to forward my plan, to his own name be the praise ; 
all others are only instruments. I feel, however, that I have 
fallen into my old error ; I have laid out more work than 
my hands can accomplish ; I am sinking under the biu'den 
of my calls and engagements. The travelling, the preach- 
ing, the reasonings, the very season, are too severe upon my 
careworn and reduced system. I have gathered a stock of 

LABOES. 399 

materials, more tlian I can employ, or work up. Yet, I feel 
I am conscious that my aim was good ; and I have hope 
that God will find instruments to do his work. He will 
also be my salvation. 

" Earnestly do I desire to see my beloved, my too earn- 
estly beloved family and my friends once more. His will 
be done. May God preserve and prosper my adopted 
country, and the vine which his right hand has planted in 
the land, is the prayer, often repeated of your father. 

" A. McL." 

As if his constitution had been of iron, in despite of 
premonitory symptoms, sufiicient to have determined a more 
prudent and less zealous missionary to spare himself, we find 
the Doctor, on the 15th of September, twice engaged in 
public service, in the congregation of Mr. Fullerton, Newton 

"What follows until the Doctor's embarkation for America, 
is just a transcript of his Journal. 

'■'■ Satwday , ISiJA Septeinber. — ^I find myself in a place 
which I passed the 2d of April, nearly six months past, 
waiting to preach, on to-morrow, — ^my last engagement in 

" Texts suggested in conversation, as subjects of subse- 
quent discourses : 

" ' We must , all appear before the Judgment-seat of 

" ' Ye are complete in him.' 

" ' Good news from a far country.' 

" ' They saw^the Lord and were glad.' 

" Being employed as aforesaid, on the Sabbath, I rode out 


n the evening to Drummond, along with Mr. Fullerton. 
On Wednesday, having breakfasted with Mr. Scott, Eector, 
I addressed an assembly for organizing The Auxiliaky Jews 
Society of ISTewton, Limavady, and came that night to 
Mr. Brown's, Garvagh, where I met John Brown of Angha- 
dowey, and others. Next morning accompanied Mr. 
Stavely to his house to dinner, and he conducted me to 
Ballymena, same night, 21st September. 

" Wednesday, 22d September, came to Belfast, underwent 
in my brother's an operation in the mouth, by Surgeon 
McWhinney, assisted by the surgeon of my brother's regi- 
ment. Thwrsday, spent in preparation for crossing to Liver- 
pool on Friday ; but, on that day, being prevented by the 
state of the weather — ^Equinoctial gales from the southeast. 
I put off going until Monday 27th, when, God willing, I shall 
bid adieu to Ireland. 

" On Saturday, 2Zth, the gale still blows ; now fair, then 
rain, in quick succession. Took up the report of the Com- 
mittee, of the Highland Society, on the authenticity of the 
Poems of Ossian, by H. McKenzie, Esq., Convener, &c. 

" These poems existed time immemorial ; parts in manu- 
scripts, parts in the memory of the Bards — and most of them 
in general circulation, orally, through the Highlands. Alex- 
ander Pope of Caithness, a clergyman, with another literary 
friend, began a collection and arrangement of them, 1T58. 
In 1759, Mr. Home, the author of Douglas, met Mr. 
James McPherson, as tutor in Graham, of Balgowan's 
family. Mr. McPherson had a few pieces of the Gaelic 
poetry, and at Mr. Home's request, translated two pieces. 

"Mr. Home showed them to Dr. Blair. He induced 
Mr. McPherson to translate some more, and the Doctor 
pubhshed the fragments in 1760. It took well. Doctor 


Eobertson, Lord Elibank, Adam Ferguson, and otlier lite- 
rati, united with Blair, and they sent McPherson to the 
Highlands to collect manuscripts of Ossian, and write copies 
from the recitation of the Highlanders. He did so ; 
returned to Edinburgh with his treasures, and having 
finished his task of translation, he went to London, and 
published it. 

" McPherson travelled through the Western Isles, High- 
lands of Inverness, &c.- — ^made few manuscripts from oral 
tradition himself, but obtained many old manuscripts, and 
several recent collections made by others, with design to 
translate them. These they yielded to him, who undertook 
the work as a business. The Kev. Andrew Gallic of 
Badenoch, and McPherson of Straffmachie, assisted him in 
collecting his manuscripts, and in settling the text from 
the different [readings, and aided him in the translations. 
Some of the manuscripts were injured by time; smoked, 
worm eaten, and otherwise defaced, mostly written on parch- 
ments, and many with great care and elegance. Blank- 
anold found some of them among his father's collections. 
Those manuscripts were loaned to Mr. McPherson, but 
were not returned. My father gave him on the same 
terms, a collection he had himself made, and although 
after his decease, my mother wrote for it, it was never 
returned. Mrs. McPherson, promised to obtain it from 
her husl^fend, but even her efforts were in vain. The autho- 
rities, rather original manuscripts, were lost. The Enghsh 
critics denied their existence' — ^McPherson was vain, and 
willing to be thought the author; he dared not own his 
falsehood, but he would not deny and furnish proof as 
he might have done. Hence, the learned controversy 
still existing, while thousands in the Highlands recite 


from tradition, many of Ossian's poems. I met with some 
this summer, 1830, who knew these poems before McPher- 
son's journey in 1Y60, and know them now after the lapse 
of 70 years ; some of tliem are in good health, above 90 
years of age. 

Tlie Highland Society have collected manuscripts of from 
three to twelve centuries old, referring to Fingal and Ossian, 
and containing some of the works of the great Caledonian 
bard. They refer, also, to the grand seat of learning and 
religion of the Western Hebrides, I Colum-Kill ; and so 
corroborate the statements of Dr. John Smith's Life of 
Columba, 1798, Edinburgh. 

CoLUMBA was born A.D., 521. His father, Felim, was 
the son of Fergus, of the royal family of Ireland, and of 
Aithne, of Lorn, who reigned over the Scots or Dalreudini. 
He was early educated, and made great proficiency under 
Cruinciban, a Presbyter, and subsequently under the care 
of Terimar, Bishop of Clnaad, and of Fenbar and Gemman 
of Leinster, and the famous divine, Ciaran, of Kilchieran, 
Campbleton, Kintyre, who afterwards founded the monas- 
tery of Clon, on the Shannon. 

La the twenty-eighth year of his age, he founded a semi- 
nary or monastery, the luminary of that age, in Darmagh, 
where, according to Ware, some of his writings were extant 
in modern times. Cummer and Adomrann are the only 
historians of Columba who sm-vived the wreck of literature ; 
but they were his personal friends and successors in lona. 
Venerable Bede and Cambden, also give an account of him 
in their histories. He ti-avelled through France, Italy, and 
the Eastern churches, before he emigrated, in 663, to Scot- 
land, and founded the seminary at lona, Mull, in the forty- 
second year of his age. The cause of his retiring from 


Ireland to the neighboring islands of Scotia, is referred 
to religions schism, in his native country. He opposed the 
See of Eome in doctrine and worship, which the L'ish 
chiu-ches generally agreed to follow; and was supported 
in his opposition, not only by many kings in Europe, but 
by the enterprise, and piety, and learning, of the age, at 
home and abroad. The immense ruins of the beautiful 
island which he selected for the seat of learning, and 
which still remain as the admiration of the traveller, 
testify to the skill and wealth employed in its endowment. 
Estates in different parts of the kingdom were annexed to 
his monastery. Princes liberally assisted in his expensive 
undertakings. He superintended the aifairs of the Pictish 
churches, and many of the Scottish and Irish. I Colum- 
Kill soon became, and long continued to be, the chief semi- 
nary of Christian learning in Europe. Other monasteries, 
and upwards of three hundred churches were supplied, 
during his own time, from this school, with learned and 
able divines, teachers, and pastors. Notker says, the abbot 
was acknowledged primate of all the Irish churches at the 
Council of Primecat, and that he superintended all the 
ecclesiastics of the Highland Isles, the monasteries of 
Dunkeld, Abernethy, Kelrimont (St. Andrews), Abercorn, 
Monimuck, and Ejrcaldy. Bede and others remark, that 
it is a singular fact that, though only an abbot, iishops 
submitted to himself and his successors. 

"The followers of the system of Columba admitted the 
marriage of the clergy; they elected their own pastors; 
their bishops had no distinct ordination ; they defended the 
doctrine of the gospel, lived a holy life, rejected the claims 
of the papacy, and prevailed in Ireland and Scotland until 
Danish depredations commenced with ruin in their train, 


and left little power to resist tlie swarms of Eomish priests 
which now poured into the several kingdoms of Scotland, 
Ireland, and England. The Christian churches which held 
to the faith of their fathers, in lona, became known from 
the ninth century as Culdees, Cultores Dei, worshipers of 
God ; or Kildeigh, the people of the Kill, or place of devo- 
tion. Kill is the name given to the places of worship, and 
their name still remains, Kil-patrick, Kil-macolm, &c., com- 
mon over Scotland and Iceland to this day. 

"To avoid excommunication and persecution, Colum 
came to Yi, and founded the Kill for worship. The island 
has since been known chiefly as I Colum-Kill. 

" It was the seat of opposition to error and superstition, 
and successful, until the twelfth century." 

" Columbum fulgentissimum HiberniEe et Eritannise sidus, 
coelestis doctrinse luce, aureo charitatis nitore, crystallina 
puritate repleturum," &c.' — -Calgan. F. p. 464. 

^^ Sabbath, ^Qth September. — The surgeons called up me 
at half-past ten, and applied the Lunar caustic to the roots 
of the gangrene, in the roof of my mouth, now, for the 
third and last time. The caustic proves more painful than 
the excision by the knife. The pain is, indeed, acute and 
glancing in every direction, so as to affect not only the 
tongue, teeth, and throat, but also the ears. After this I 
went to church, and heard my kind ' friend Mr. Simon 
Cameron, preaching a good instructive sermon, in Mr. 
Alexander's church — he being on a mission to Liverpool. 
It is the practice of the judicatories, both in Scotland and 
this country, to supply the pulpit of him who is sent on 
public business from his own congregation. 

"Mr. Cameron explained and sung psalm. He preached 
morning and afternoon from Luke xiv. 22. 


" ' I. Explain the Parable.' 
" ' II. The minister's duty.' 
" ' III. For whom there is room,' and 
" ' lY. What room.' 

"To each two heads, he made an application, and so 
completed the two sermons, each one and a quarter hours 

"The weather damp — my head as well as my entire 
mouth painfully affected. I did not return to church, in the 
evening ; but sought God in my private apartment. O, 
how good ! 

" Monday, 2Y#A September. — -I took leave of teland. 
My passage was taken in the Chieftain steamboat, for 
Liverpool from Belfast., "We left the quay, at 6 P. M., good 
boat and fine weather. In the evening, after sun-down, we 
passed the fine lighthouse of Capeland Island, near the 
mouth of Belfast Lough ; and, about daybreak, left the Isle 
of Man to the left or north, and got sight of old point 
Linus, and the coast of Wales, Anglesea, about ten o'clock. 
The boat moves very slowly on ; but the sea is smooth and 
the wind fair. We arrived at dock, Liverpool, at half past 
five, P. M., making the passage in little more than twenty- 
four hours. I take my lodgings at the Saracen's Head, Dale- 
street. Wednesday, ^Qth. — Strolled up to Dr. Kalph's 
chapel,, eleven o'clock, to see and hear Mr. Edward Irving, 
on a charity for the Town Mission. I heard him again, at 
evening, at seven o'clock, in Mr. Williams' meeting-house. 
He is an original ; a large, dark muscular man, fine fore- 
head, black hair, but squint-eyed. His subject in the' 
morning, Ixxxii. Psalm paraphrased : then read Joel, third 
chapter, with comments. Text, Kev. i. 5. At evening, 
Psalm xcvii. and text, Eev. xvi. 14." 


The Doctor, notwithstanding his anxiety about home and 
his dear friends there, was detained in Liverpool till the 
10th of October. After such vicissitudes as are incidental 
to a sea-voj'age, he arrived in safety at New York on the 
Tth of November. Hear the close of his Journal. 

" Thus we have completed, from our anchorage near 
Liverpool to that near New York, twenty-eight days. This 
day four weeks, we set sail. It is the fifth Lord's day to me 
on the water ; and far from the house of God. 

" Ah ! how thoughtless are they that go to sea in ships, 
of God's wonders in the deep ! Blessed be thy name O God, 
O thou ]\Iost High, for thy preserving goodness to me. 
Grant, in thy mercy, that I may reach thy sanctuary, and 
enjoy, once more, the public social worship of the church. 
My soul longeth for thy courts. To thee I look for a com- 
fortable meeting with my family, and my friends, thou 
Preserver of men. Weighed anchor by order of pilot, at 
eight A.M. The wind was completely ahead, the day other- 
wise fine, the tide in our favor ; so we beat our way through 
the Narrows, amidst, I might say, a forest of masts and 
spars. The Eay was all day swarming with sails, ships, 
brigs and schooners, going out under full sail, and beating 
up against the wind, while the pilot-boats were skipping 
joyously along, in every direction. The pilot of the Illinois 
brought her in safety to the wharf at Coffeehouse Slip, and, 
at half past five p.m., I stood, once more, firm on the pave- 
ment of Wall street. I walked on directly homeward, and 
found my household in comfort, but somewhat changed. 
There was an addition made to the house by the birth of 
twins, a son who did not long survive, and a daughter, who 
lives and thrives on the mother's knee. 


"Monday, and eacli succeeding day for tlie week, 
witnessed the salutations of my friends, welcoming me 
home ; and during a very wet week, I found myself in the 
midst of my people. 

" Sabbath was a sad stoi-m of rain, yet I preached in both 
churches, as follows, on my return after nine months' 
absence, on a visit to my .native country : 

" In Chambers street.' — ^The text was from Eom. siv. 10. 
' We shall all stand before the judgment-seat of Christ.' 

" In Sixth street. — The text was Isaiah, Iv. 9. — •' For as 
the heavens are higher than the earth, so are my ways 
higher than your ways, and my thoughts than your 
thoughts.' " 

Having now seen the Doctor home in the bosom of his 
family, in the feast of domestic affection, and hearty con- 
gratulations of his numerous friends, let us leave him for a 
little, and inquire, "What good is likely to result from his 
visit to Scotland and Ireland, and to our sister churches in 
those lands ? 

That the church here, sensibly sustained a loss by his 
absence from his congregation, and by the want of his counsel 
in the judicatories of the house of God, will be admitted 
by all his brethren. Tet it is confidently believed that the 
public advantage will far more than counterbalance any 
temporary injury. Some of these may be enumerated as 
follows : 

1. A mutual increase of confidence between the 
Keformed Presbyterian Synods in the British empire, and 
in these United States. 

There is nothing more naturally to be expected, than that 
localities wiH, in process of time, be visited with divergen- 


cies of habits, customs, and opinions. The differences in 
political institutions, and character of government, will tend 
to the production of similar effects. The sentiments of 
individuals and communities will also be enlarged, modified 
and generalized by freedom of intercourse, migratory spirit, 
facility of procuring subsistence, easiness of circumstances, 
opportunities of readiug, and mental cultivation. Hence it 
would not be strange, if those professing the principles of 
the Eeformed Presbyterian Church, in their strictest form, 
having been separated from each other, in lapse of time, 
should gradually, but imperceptibly, change some of the 
external drapery of their system, while they retained all the 
essential stamina unaltered. Such gradual and ins.ensible 
change of mere dress and unimportant forms, may really 
turn to advantage, as the mass of the community are too 
apt to mistake immemorial rites, uniformly accompanying 
the exhibition of principles, as being themselves essentials. 
Any deviation by a person of more enlarged views, and 
capable of greater mental abstractions, in such cases, is 
calculated to create alarm, excite suspicion and jealousy, 
and so mar comfort and usefulness. Frequent and familiar 
intercourse, among religious brethren, will have a tendency, 
both to prevent' a rapid and extensive divergence, and 
reciprocally to familiarize to the use and practice of different 
and immaterial formalities. This will keep confidence 
imimpaired by unfounded jealousies, and its continuance, 
without any blighting interruption, will necessarily result 
in its increase. For this foundation was laid by the Doctor's 
visit, in the establishment of a plan of correspondence 
amongst the three Synods, of Britain, Ireland, and the 
United States of America, by delegates alternately visiting 
the respective countries. The pleasure and the profit of the 


mental intercourse has been already tasted, and is found 
sweetened by experience. 

2. Througb means of Dr. McLeod's visit, an overture of 
a Solemn Covenant and League bas been agreed to, and 
submitted to tbe revision and correction of the Sister 

It is true, we felt the obligation of the Solemn League and 
Covenant of 1643. As a nation, each of the three kingdoms 
is respectively bound by it ; and ecclesiastically considered, 
it embraces in its obligation, all those represented in the 
taking of it, in all their successions and affiliations. Yet, 
it admits of no dispute, that the form is, in existing circum- 
stances, applicable to our church, neither in any part of the 
British empire, nor in the United States. The circum- 
stances are entirely changed, and to these the form of the 
bond ought to be adapted. The principle, viz., a solemn 
engagement, conscientiously to discharge every duty incum- 
bent on us, in our respective places, stations, and relations 
to God, to our neighbor and to ourselves, is all that can be 
considered essential. Let the exterior form and dress of 
this principle be accommodated to the exigencies of the 
case. Thus did our Eeforming ancestors in 1643. This 
privilege, we, their sons and successors, claim as our 
indisputable right. 

Moreover, as one important part of the covenant bond is 
" to promote — ^not simply to maintain and preserve — unifor- 
mity of religion, and ecclesiastical order, it is obvious, it 
should be so far divested of local peculiarities, that it may 
embrace various denominations, as well in the same, as in 
different nations. Such was the character of the Solemn 
League and Covenant. The nature of the bond, its express 
phraseology, and its signature by various distinct denomina- 



tiona of Christians, leave this beyond dispute. Had the 
bond contemplated only 07ie denomination, they might have 
consistently engaged to maintain, bnt not to promote, uni- 
formity of religion. 

To the formation of such a bond, divested of British 
peculiarities, and adapted to all lands, whatever might be 
the nature or form of their civil institutions. Dr. McLeod 
largely contributed, in his visit to the Scottish and Irish 
Synods. This bond, in overture, is now subjected to the 
consideration and criticism of the several Synods ; and 
should it — as it is to be hoped it will — ^be finally adopted, 
will form an admirable ligament to bind together these 
sister churches, in the bonds of ecclesiastical union and 

The following is a copy of the Covenant as it came from 
the pen of Dr. McLeod : — 




'■'•And iy them, enjoined u])on their connections in efoery land, 
whether descended from the British Reformers, or ly volun- 
ta/ry consent acceding to their princiijles. 

" Glasgow, %lst April, 1830. 
"The Synod, convinced of the duty and propriety of 
immediately taking measures for uniting the different 
sections of the Church in a common Bond, resolved that 
a Draught of a Covenant be prepared, and appointed the 
Kev. Archibald Mason, Dr. McLeod, John Fairly, Pro- 

PKATEE. 411 

fessor Symington, and David Armstrong, a Committee to 
prepare said Draught, and to re'port — the Committee to 
meet this evening — the Professor convener. 

" A member of Synod is called to engage in prayer, for 
Divine direction in this important matter. 

" IZd April, 1830. 

"The report of the Committee appointed to prepare a 
Draught of a Covenant is read. A member of Synod 
engages in prayer. The Draught is read, paragraph by 
paragraph, and members make observations, approving of 
the Draught in general, and suggesting alterations, to which 
the Committee are requested to attend. 

" The Synod unanimously agrees to return the Draught 
to the Committee, with instructions to attend to the pas- 
sages referred to ; to make such alterations as they may 
judge to be expedient; and to print a few copies for the 
use of the Ministers, and for transmission to the Synods 
in Ireland and America, from which a Eeport is to be 

" Ibth June, 1830. 
" The Committee, having made the amendments recom- 
mended by Synod, authorize the printing of this Draught. 

"A. Symington, Convener. 
" D. Aemsteong, Olerh. 


" We, whose names are under-written, inheriting in the 
providence and by the favor of God, the common faith of 
the ancient Confessors, Prophets, Apostles, and Martyrs, 
and resting our own souls for everlasting salvation on 
the Covenant of Grace in Jesus Christ our Lord, have, 



upon mature deliberation, determined, after tlie example 
of the Churcli of God of old, and of sereral of the best 
Heformed Chui-clies, to give ourselves up to God and to 
one another, in a Solemn Covenant never to be forgotten. 

" Knowing that it is becoming both for individuals and 
communities to vow to the Lord and to pay their vows, 
persuaded that public Covenanting and a mutual League, 
for siipport and co-operation among the several parts of the 
Keformed Church, may be profitably observed : and believ- 
ing that the present aspect of the moral world, and the 
religious prospect before us, invite the people of God to 
essay this solemn duty without unnecessary delay : 

" We, therefore, each one for himself, with his hand lifted 
up to the Most High God, do swear : — 

" 1. That we shall really, sincerely, and constantly endea- 
vor, through the Grace of God, in our several places, ranks, 
and callings, to understand, embrace, preserve, and promote 
the, True Religion^ as it is taught in the Holy Scriptures of 
the Old and the New Testament ; and that we shall, with 
the blessing of God, well and truly transmit the same to 

" Assured, ourselves, that this religion is, in agreeable- 
ness to the Word of God, summarily set forth in the Con- 
fessions and Catechisms of the churches of the Eeformation, 
and more especially and comprehensively in the standards 
compiled by the Assembly of Divines at Westminster, Eng- 
land, with the aid of commissioners from the Church of 
Scotland, for the furtherance of uniformity in doctrine, 
worship, church government, and discipline among Christ- 
ians in the British empire, and in all the nations: we, 
accordingly, recognize the faithful contendings of our pre- 


decessors for civil and religious freedom, and the binding 
obligation of tbeir Covenants, both the ISTational and the 
Solemn League, as originally framed and sworn, and at 
several times renewed in their true spirit and designs ; 
and abjuring, with all our heart, whatsoever is known to 
us to be contrary to the sacred Scriptures, we shall strive to 
perpetuate the principles of the Covenanted Eeformation, 
as they respect the ecclesiastical and the civil state of our 
fellow-men, in whatever country under heaven. 

" 2. That we come, with this Oath, into the presence of 
the Lord God, with a deep conviction of his awful greatness 
and glory, of his omnipotence, his purity, his justice and his 
grace ; with a sense of our fall, and consequent ruin, in 
Adam our first natm-al head and public representative ; of 
our guilt, and total depravity by nature, and our utter inabi- 
lity to save ourselves from deserved condemnation to ever- 
lasting punishment; with confession that we are sinners, 
both by nature and practice, and that we fall short of the 
perfection which the law requires in every attempt to do 
good, we renounce all dependence, in whole or in part, on 
our own righteousness for either pardon or acceptance with 
God, and, repenting of all our sins, we receive the Lord 
Jesus Christ as he is offered to us in the Gospel, in the 
entire extent of his mediatorial perfection, to be our Saviour; 
we take the Holy Ghost as our all-sufficient Guide, and God 
the Father to be our Portion for ever and ever ; solemnly, 
and sincerely, approving and choosing the Covenant of 
Grace as all our salvation and all our desire. 

" 3. That, as the servants of the Lord, devoted to his fear, 
and bewailing the low state of religion in our hearts, and 
lives, and among our connections, we shall yield ourselves, 
soul and body and property, to be the Lord's, and his only. 



now and for ever ; and we shall endeavor to obey the moral 
law in all its precepts and prohibitions ; we shall strive 
through the Spirit to mortify sin, resist all temptations, 
submit to the allotments of Divine Providence, and cultivate 
brotherly love and universal benevolence. 

"Living to the glory of God, as our chief end, we will dili- 
gently attend to searching the Scriptures, religious conver- 
sation, and to the devotions of the closet, the family, and the 
church ; especially the public ordinances of the Lord's day, 
dispensed according to the good order of the Church of God, 
earnestly striving, by all means competent to us, for the 
restoration of the Hebrews to the city of the Lord, and for 
the conversion of the Heathen over all the earth : Yet dili- 
gently persisting in abstaining from all manner of inconsis- 
tency with the designs of this Covenant. 

" 4. That, persuaded of the sovereignty of the Lord our 
God over all the earth, and believing that the Father has 
appointed the Messiah to be King of kings and Lord of lords, 
and assured that all nations shall serve the Redeemer, we 
shall endeavor, with faith and with hope, to maintain the 
doctrine of Christ's headship over the civil Commonwealth, 
whatever the form of its polity and government; we shall 
strive, by our doctrines and example, to make eveiy tongue 
confess that Jesus is the Lord ; we shall, with our prayers 
and our lives, endeavor the extension and the maintenance 
of all political institutions, favorable to knowledge, liberty 
and righteousness, and consistent with the rights of God and 
man, thus promoting the very end of civil government, as 
the ordinance of God, and using means for its complete 
reformation, by rendering its constitution, its administration, 
knd its laws correspondent with the laws of the Lord : in 
whatever land we live as visitants, as native or naturalized 

Christ's headship. 4-15 

subjects or citizens ; and in wliatever rank or capacity, our 
allegiance to Christ, the Lord, shall regulate all our civil 
relations, our attachments, professions and deportment ; and 
by this our oath, before God, we are pledged to support 
whatsoever is for the good of the Commonwealth in which 
we dwell, and which gives us protection, and pursue this 
object in all things, not forbidden by the law of God, nor 
implying a confederacy with any immorality of the consti- 
tution or the existing power. We shall truly defend, in 
every lawful form, according to our station and ability, the 
rights of oui- country against all disorder, usurpation and 
foreign hostility or aggression; and we shall continue in 
prayer to God for the coming of his Kingdom, in the over- 
throw of all systems of iniquity, and, in turning wars into 
peace, by the universal pacification of all the nations of the 

" 5. Seeing that the church, pm-chased by the blood of 
the Son of God, sanctified by the Spirit, and elected of 
God the Father, is One, and that all the saints have 
communion with God and with one another in one and 
the same Covenant ; believing, moreover, that the churches 
of God in every land should be cite in doctrine and 
order, that all schism is sin, and all sectarian practice 
is scandal, and firmly trusting that divisions shall cease 
and the people of God become, according to the promise, 
One Catholic Church over all the earth, we shall not 
guarantee the continuance of ecclesiastical distinctions, 
but shall sincerely and constantly employ our best exer- 
tions to prevent additional schisms, to heal existing divi- 
sions and wounds, and to promote the peace and prosperity 
of Jerusalem; we shall endeavor to maintain Christian 
friendship with pious men of every name, co-operate with 


them consistently witli God's law, in the extension of 
religious knowledge, pray for eyery part of the house- 
hold of faith, inquire diligently what part conforms most 
to the Holy Scriptures, take our own stand in that Com- 
munion which is found most pure, and strive with patience 
and with perseverance to inti'oduce uniformity in doc- 
trine and in practice among all the ministers of Christ; 
and we shall accordingly in our several places and sta- 
tions, encourage all such consistent correspondence, with 
the several ecclesiastical denominations around us, as may 
seem calculated to bring up the several churches together 
into One Holy and Faithful fellowship, maintaining the 
unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace. 

" 6. Persuaded by the "Word of God, the everlasting rule 
of righteousness to man, that we are all accountable 
for the improvement we make of our light, and oppor- 
tunities ; and that it is sinful to recede from a more definite 
system of religious truth and ecclesiastical order to a 
system less definite and distinct, while in true faith and sin- 
cere affection we extend to all the hand of union and of 
cordial friendship, who are striving to advance in the path 
of truth and order, we shall ourselves ' whereunto we have 
ah'eady attained walk by the same rule and mind the same 
thing,' without sectarian prejudice, partiality or hypo- 

" Trusting our strength and life, our worldly substance, 
and personal safety, and influence, and honor, to Him 
whom we have believed, we shall, in faithfulness to our 
fathers and our children, in love to all mankind, espe- 
cially to them who are of the household of faith, and in 
obedience to the Geeat God, the only Lord of the con- 
science, bear true testimony to every known part of divine 


truth, and to every moral duty, especially to all the ordi- 
nances of the New Testament ; we shall tenderly, chari- 
bly, plainly, and decidedly, oppose all and every known 
heresy, vice, and neglect or perversion of divine institutions, 
as witnesses for God, andj in maintaining the faith once 
delivered to the saints ; following the cloud of Glory which 
advances to the land beyond the Jordan, and compassed by 
so great a cloud of witnesses who sealed, with their blood, 
the_testimony which they held. 

" Finally, we take this our Oath hefore the Omniscient 
God, and unto him as our own God in Covenant, commend- 
ing our cause to the Christian consideration of the intel- 
ligent, the candid, and the good of whatever rank or 
name ; confiding in our God, and in one another by the 
will of God, on the true and sure basis of the common 
Christianity, and uxiinlluenced by considerations of any 
private worldly interest whatsoever, we make these decla- 
rations, and this League and Covenant among dear breth- 
ren situated in different states and kingdoms, with a 
view to preserve love and union among ourselves, and to 
promote the glory of the Godhead in the creation and 
sustentation of this world, and in the redemption and 
eternal salvation of men, as the chief end of our being and 
our life." 

3. Dr. McLeod's visit to our brethren in Britain and 
Ireland, was refreshing and consolatory, both to them and 
to the church in these States. "We have long been the 
speckled bird in the forest. The birds round about, have 
been against us. The cry, " come to devour," has often 
been raised. And although, this feeling — blessed be God 


for it — on the part of our neiglibors is greatly diminislied ; 
yet, still, there are points in our Testimony, whicli we feel 
conscientiously bound to maintain, calculated to attract 
invidious notice. In such circumstances, how cheering is 
harmony at home ! In wholesome consultation there is an 
increase of strength. The cultivation of mutual sympathies, 
mutual confidence, and mutual hope, calls forth into active 
co-operation, the latent energies of the soul. Christian 
magnanimity arises in its might; and satisfied that the 
"threefold-cord is not quickly broken," the witnesses for 
the Kedeemer march under the banner of love, with 
increasing ardor, "to the help of the Lord against the 
mighty." Doubtless the hearts of our Scottish and Irish 
fathers and brethren thrilled with joy, while Dr. McLeod, in 
their presence, gave an interesting detail of the condition 
and prospects of their co-witnesses in these United States — 
How "the people who had been left of the sword, had 
found grace in the wilderness." How delightfully were 
these feelings reciprocated, while hanging upon the eloquent 
lips of Dr. Henry, the very respectable and valued delegate 
from Ireland. Dr. McLeod, therefore, in accomplishing the 
plan of regular ecclesiastical correspondence, between the 
supreme judicatories of the Eeformed Presbyterian 
churches, in the British Isles, and that in the United States 
of America, contributed nruch to the continuance and 
advancement of comfort, unanimitj'', and co-operation, 
amongst the brethren on both sides of the Atlantic. 

To the great satisfaction of his Philadelphia friends, he, 
on the next week after his arrival, stole two or three days in 
the middle of it to pay them a visit. He returned home in 
the close of the same week for the services of the Sabbath. 
On each returning Lord's day, he performed two public 


services, dividing his time between tlie two congregations. 
On the 20th JSTovember, he thus writes his friend in Phila- 
delphia : 

" Eev. and Deah See : — 

"I send you a pebble, picked up in the 
course of my travels. It is not of any intrinsic worth, 
but will show that when in a distant land my thoughts 
were on my friends in America. The stone belongs to 
the Carnelian denomination, and is from I Colum-Kill, 
the once far-famed island of Columba's Seminary. It is 
more generally known by the name lona. 

"I visited, in company with many others, this remarka- 
ble island, on Wednesday, 28th July, and again on the 4th 
August, devoting more time to the examination of the ruins 
of ancient grandeur. lona lies near the spot of my nativity, 
and is a part of what was once the parish of my father. It 
is now supplied with a neat, new church, and a manse, and 
under the pastoral care of an excellent young man, son of 
my father's immediate successor, Mr. Campbell. The small 
island is a beautiful spot, having fertile fields, bounded by 
barriers of granite, which occasionally rise, here and there, 
to the height of hills. It is in the fractures and crevices 
of the secondary or tertiary formations, which rest upon the 
floor of granite, that the gems and precious stones have 
been discovered and collected. I picked up many at Port 
na Curragh, where the waves of the Atlantic left them, 
after washing from the caverns opened among the primitive 
rocks, these diversified pebbles. The port is the landing- 
place of the expedition from Ireland, when this place was 
selected as the seat of religion and literature in the Heb- 
rides, under the direction of Columba. The ruins of magni- 



ficence still show that power, and wealth, and science, were 
employed in the construction of the several edifices. This 
is the place of sepulture of many chiefs, and for more than 
forty kings, l^^orwegian, Saxon, and French ; Scottish, Pic- 
tish, and Irish. The walls, and gates, and steeple of the 
cathedral, having stood the storms of many a revolution, as 
well as those of the natural elements, for more than a thous- 
and years, are now standing. There is much of the walls 
of a monastery and nunnery yet to be seen. The extensive 
refectory is still observable among other ruins ; and the hall 
of disputation for the students and fellows of the college, 
is still entire under its roof or arch of stone, showing the 
several niches in the opposing sides, in which the debaters 
took their position before the elevated seat, on which the 
judges in learned strife had their tribunal." 

On the 8th of December, one month after the Doctor's 
arrival, the Northern Presbytery held a meeting at ITew 
York, which he was notified to attend. 

Of the day and meeting, the following memorandum is 
found among his notes : 

"On the Saturday after my landing in America from 
Europe, 13th ISTovember, I received notice from the Mod- 
erator to attend a meeting of Presbytery on the 8th of 
December, this day. 

" The meeting is called, as stated in that notice, in the 
language of the resolution directing the call, ' for the pur- 
pose of submitting to Dr. McLeod the affairs of the congre- 
gation in New York, and the transaction of any other busi- 
ness which may come before them.' 

"To that business which respects myself personally, I 


have given a prayerful, and you may be sure, an anxious 
attention : my resolution is taken ; I did clierisli the hope to 
see, in New York, two fine congregations, each with a man 
of God as its pastor, and both of them in covenanted love 
and co-operation in our holy cause. I intimated this desire 
in public and in private, and recommended it to themselves, 
by the advice of Consistory, to arrange the division of the 
chm-ches, that either one or both might elect and settle a 
new pastor, or pastors, at their pleasure. I failed in my 
attempts to make an amicable division. I retired ; and in 
my absence you have succeeded. They are now two con- 
gregatiojis. If they shall each make choice of a new settle- 
ment, I submit. Nay, I will rejoice in beholding, in a 
flourishing state, these two churches, raised for God, abiding 
in the good old way. TTiey know, and you know, that I 
make no claims upon them for myself. If you and they 
choose to retain my services to one of the parts, make the 
selection, and I submit. I cannot decide. I make no 
choice. I love them both. I want to see what God will, 
by you, order me to do. You may retain me in any of the 
churches. — You may authorize me to pitch a tent in any 
corner of this city, for those who choose, with me, to form a 
third congregation, or you may order me away far from 
the beloved vineyard. Money I shall never take into the 
account current of my ministry. It cannot, now, enter into 
my calculations. I think not of any sum mentioned, or 
unmentioned. Ah ! if the love of money could have dis- 
solved the golden chain which binds my heart and my con- 
science to this church of my youth, it had long since given 
way before the offer of greater sums than can now be pro- 
posed. But if my Presbytery and my people choose to cast 
off the bond, I submit." 



Whether the above was delivered to Presbytery viva voce, 
or given in writing, is not ascertained : but it is clear, that 
it was, in some shape or other, presented to that judicatory. 

In another page, same day, December 8th, 1830, he says, 
" The Northern Presbytery met, and having submitted the 
petitions of each of my congregations to myself, they ad- 
journed, to meet in Albany, 28th inst. 

"These petitions, accompanied with proposals for future 
maintenance, were for my settlement as the pastor of each 
church, exclusively of the other. They were separated, and 
each sought me wholly, to itself The Presbytery gave me 
time to deliberate. I did not take long. Tlie next day, the 
9th, being General Thanksgiving. I announced my deci- 
sion, in the hearing of both the churches, and of the mem- 
bers of Presbytery. I resigned to the care of Presbytery 
the part of my people who chose to worship in Sixth street, 
and declared my intention to continue in Chamber street, 
and to appropriate my ministerial services, as from the first, 
to the Peformed Presbyterian Church, Ifew York." 

The General Thanksgiving alluded to above, had been 
announced by proclamation of the Governor, and is thus 
noticed by the Doctor. 

" This day is recommended by the acting Governor, for an 
expression of the gratitude of the Christian community to 
the God of Heaven for his mercy to the commonwealth 
during the current year. He asserts, in his proclamation, 
as becometh the chief magistrate of an enlightened State, 
that, 'it is becoming not only individuals, but nations, to 
prostrate themselves before Him in humble thanksgiving,' 
for the continuance of his favors, fruitful and healthful sea- 


sons — the diffusion of knowledge — Shaving cultivated in us 
a spirit of charity, and an enlighted sense of religious and 
moral duties- — having protected us from foreign wars and 
intestine combination's — and for the signal manifestation of 
his mercy towards the oppressed people of other nations. 
All this, in more words, is announced, 6th IsTovember, 1830. 
I make but one remark. I am sorry that Governor Throop, 
in calling for religious exercises, has conformed so far to the 
fashion, as to avoid mentioning the name or work of our 
Lord and Saviour. "Was he ashamed of that name ? Then, 
I pray that when Christ comes in glory. He may not, in 
the presence of God, be ashamed of our Governor." 

On the 20th of this same month, December, the Doctor 
writes thus to Philadelphia : 

" Mt Deae ajsd Rev. Beothee : — 

" To-morrow, Tuesday, at noon, I pro- 
pose to be on board the steamboat, on my way to your city. 
Tou are aware, that the business of the two congregations 
is decided. I have informed Dr. Elack, that I accept the 
appointment of Synod ; I have been too much engaged as 
yet, however, to make my arrangements for paper and 
printing ; and I am sorry that more latitude was not granted 
in relation to the form of the magazine. In my own 
opinion, a duodecimo would suit best the taste and the 
purse of our people. How is matter to be provided for a 
periodical ? Upon whose pen is an editor to depend ? 
variety must be given. The labor of collecting is nearly 
equal to that of composition. Printers, publishers, agents, 
are to be discovered ; the whole machinery requires busi- 
■ ness talents, and a heavy responsibility still remains for the 


editor. I am far fi-om a press, and tlie shops ; I am, besides, 
always disturbed by calls ; and yet I wish to be active, at 
least, I shall attempt it. My love to your household. 
" Yours, respectfully, 

" A. McL." 

Dr. McLeod with his usual ability and acceptance, 
assisted at the dispensation of the sacrament of the Supper, 
in Philadelphia, Dec. 25th. The Northern Presbytery, 
of which the Doctor was a member, had adjourned, to meet 
in Albany, on the 28th, to which he addressed the following 
communication, being unable to attend in person. 

" Eeveebstd Fathers aud Beetheek : — 

" However much I desire to be present 
in the courts of the house of the Lord, and to join with my 
brethren in the fellowship of Presbyterial business, I pray 
you to excuse my non-attendance at your present meeting. 
My long absence from home, the inclemency of the season 
of the year, the many fatiguing journeys through a foreign 
land, which I have been enduring and performing, admonish 
me to abstain from the gratification of seeing you now, and 
of co-operation with you. 

" Tou will have the goodness, my dear brethren, to accept 
my thanks for the parental care which you have exercised 
over my congregation, during my absence from the land. 
I lament, feelingly, the personal troubles and expenses to 
which you were put, in the course of your attention to the 
church in New York ; and I acknowledge my obligation to 
your courtesy to me personally, whether present, or absent, 
but more especially, while I was far away. Your recent 
compliance with my request, for time to consider the 


proposition, wMcL. you submitted to me, requires my 
particular actnowledgments. Thanks be to the God of Zion, 
for his superintending providence over your deliberations, 
and your written and recorded decisions ; and long may the 
records of the Reformed Presbyterian Church be preserved, 
unstained by inconsiderate opinions, and disorderly decisions. 
I now, brethren, in agreeableness to your directions, respect- 
fully submit to you my reply to the proposals made to me, 
by the several congregations of our church in this city. 
And I have lost no time in taking measures for the adjust- 
ment of all practical questions arising from the formation of 
my charge into two distinct and separate congregations. I 
have resolved to continue my pastoral charge of the church 
in Chamber street ; and I hereby relinquish the church in 
Sixth street entirely to your care in the Lord. It appeared 
obvious to me during the discussions, in the meeting of 
Presbytery, on the 8th inst., to have been the general 
expectation and desire of the people and of the Court, that 
I should surrender my relation to the second church, and 
confine it exclusively to what may be called the mother 
church. I take this, therefore, to be the will of the Lord. 
You will all join me in fervent supplication, that he may 
now send prosperity. 

"To you, dear brethren, it belongs, as the guardians of 
ministers and their people, to attend to their pecuniary 
settlements ; and I, as an absent member of your Court, 
advise the adoption of the proposal of the church worship- 
ing in Chamber street, just as it stands. 

" May the God of our covenanted fathers, the Lord God 
of Israel, give you his present and lasting blessing, is the 
prayer of your affectionate fellow servant in the Gospel, 

"A. McL." 


Meanwhile, Dr. McLeod, amidst bodily disease and 
family affliction, was busily engaged in preparation for 
commencing tbe publication of the periodical, to the editor- 
ship of which the Synod, in his absence, had appointed him. 
" Yesterday," he states, " I had a letter from Dr. Black, but 
it does not contain an extract of the minute of Synod, 
making an appointment to conduct a periodical. I should 
like to print such a document in my prospectus : and to 
have it such as he, the clerk, will read at next meeting of 
Synod. I have, indeed, moral evidence of the appointment ; 
yet the times require something more. This want has 
hitherto prevented a commencement." He issued the first 
Number for 1st May, under the designation of The 
American Cheistian Expositor. 

Whatever may have been the merit of this work — and 
certainly it has just claims to a large share of that commo- 
dity — it added greatly to the labors of that distinguished 
man who was appointed its editor. Shortly after its 
commencement, he was, in the good providence of God, 
visited with disease, incapacitating him, in a great measure, 
for a considerable time, from the performance of the public 
functions of the ministry. And although, during the two 
years of its continuance, partly after his death, it possessed 
a full share of literary respectability; yet, it would be 
injustice to the reputation of the venerable dead, to suppose 
that its pages sustained no loss by the want of his invaluable 
pen. But it pleased his Master, whom he served, to show 
in this affliction his sovereignty, and his goodness. He was 
soon to be called home to the Master's table ; he is admo- 
nished of the fact, and exhorted to be ready for the 

On Monday, the 11th July, 1831, at six o'clock, a.m., 


the Doctor suffered a paralytic stroke, affecting the entire 
left side. The Eev., now Dr., Henry, of ISTewton Ards, the 
delegate to our Synod, and Mr. John McMaster, a licentiate 
— now ordained to a pastoral charge in Schenectady — 
preached for him the ensuing Sabbath. 

On Tuesday, 22d, he set out for Saratoga Springs, leaving 
Mr. McMaster behind, who preached for him, on the 24:th 
of the same month. He returned home on Friday, 29th, 
somewhat relieved. On Sabbath, his pulpit was occupied in 
succession by Drs. McMaster and Henry; and Messrs. 
Gavin McMillan, and Alexander Clarke, the latter from the 
Province of New Brunswick. 




From the meeting of Synod in Philadelpliia, August 3d, 1831, until the year 


DocTOE MoLeod had so far recovered from the affection 
above mentioned, that, though feeble, he was able generally 
to attend the several sessions of Synod, during this meeting. 
On one of these he was desired by Synod to favor the Court 
with some account of his visit to the Scottish and Irish 
judicatories, on the year preceding. "This," says the 
minute on that subject, "the Doctor did, in a clear and 
satisfactory manner, stating his observations on the churches 
on both sides of the channel, with a detail of their proceed- 
ings, while he visited them. He then presented a paper 
containing the remarks of the Irish committee on the draft 
of the Covenant, to the Scottish committee^ together with 
their answer, referring to the information about to be given 
by the delegate from the Irish Synod. 

" Mr. Henry, said delegate, then proceeded to address the 
Oourt, in a very affectionate manner ; and in a strain of true 
eloquence, he, for himself, and for the Synod which he repre- 
sented, reciprocated the fraternal sympathies of this Synod ; 
while he earnestly desired that the bonds of affection, and 
mutual co-operation, might be drawn tighter and tighter; 


and every energy directed to the proper consideration of 
the great work of the Corenant. 

"The Court, then, as a token of high esteem, cordial, 
affection, and sincere welcome, gave individually to Mr. 
Henry, the right hand of fellowship. 

" The Eev. Alexander Clarke, missionary from the Irish 
Synod to the Provinces of Ifew Brunswick and Nova 
Scotia, in British America, who, being present, had been 
invited to a seat in the Synod, was requested to favor.the 
Court with an account of his missionary movements, so far 
as he might think proper to disclose them. This he did, in 
a prompt and satisfactory manner. 

" On motion, the Court, through their moderator, de- 
clared their high satisfaction at the displays of information 
and good feeling afforded them, and expressed their 
unfeigned thankfulness to the delegate from the Irish Synod, 
the Eev. Mr. Henry ; to the Irish missionary to the British 
Provinces, the Eev. Alexander Clarke ; and to the Eev. 
Dr. McLeod, for the eminent services rendered to the 
church by his visit to Europe. 

" On motion, it was Hesol/ved — ^That this Synod highly 
appreciate all the services of the Eev. Doctor McLeod, 
in his intercourse with the Scottish and Irish Synods, 
on his late visit to the British empire ; and it does hereby 
recognize them, as if they had been clothed with official 

" On motion, Resolved — ^That the Synod express their 
thanks to the sister judicatories in Britain and Ireland, 
for the affectionate and respectful manner in which they 
received our delegate, the Eev. Doctor McLeod. 

" BesdkieA—^^sX this Synod duly appreciates the promp- 
titude with which the sister judicatories in Scotland 


and Ireland appointed delegates to attend this meeting, 
and they much regi-et that the Scottish delegate has not yet 
been able to appear on their floor, in company with the 
highly respectable delegate from Ireland." 

At this meeting, it was on motion, Hesol/ved — •"That this 
Synod recommend that the point of difference on the appli- 
cation of our Testimony, and principles to the civil insti- 
tutions of these United States, be discussed through the 
medium of the Ameeican Cheistias Expositoe, under the 
head of free Discussions y and that every member of Synod 
have full liberty to avail himself of this vehicle." 

It is but justice to both parties in this unhappy dis- 
pute, to state that they expressed their sentiments freely, 
and without reserve, on both sides of the question, openly 
on the floor of Synod. A firm conviction that the 
United States government was the ordinance of God, was 
publicly avowed, and by others denied. All that was asked 
on the one side, was mutual forbearance in the mean 
time, and friendly and free discussion. Had this been 
allowed by the other, our community might still have con- 
tinued one united band, and the unhappy secession been 
prevented. Then the demon of discord should have flung 
in her apple in vain. All Doctor McLeod's influence 
was employed on the side of forbearance. His position 
was, that the disputed points on civil relations should not be 
made terms of communion. 

The Synod adjourned on the 12th, and the members 
returned to their respective homes. The tendency to 
divergence had been increasing, and was likely to con- 


tinue to increase. Indeed, there was scarcely a ray of hope 
that the next meeting to be held in Philadelphia, on the first 
"Wednesday of August, 1833, at T o'clock, p.m., would 
find less discrepancy in their sentiments, or less repulsion 
in their feelings towards each other, than they now enter- 
tained. — How lamentable ! Brethren who had so long 
co-operated with each other, so harmoniously, in the 
promotion of Zion's interests, now seemed to forget, 
"how good and how pleasant a thing it is for brethren 
to dwell together in unity !" But ere that meeting took 
place, the subject of this memoir was gathered to his 
fathers, and had laid down the sword which he had 
so long, so skillfully, and so faithfully wielded, and had put 
on the crown of glory and immortality. Under a compli- 
cation of diseases, remains of, or aggravated by the 
paralytic affection, and a slow progressive hydrothorax, 
he gradually sunk, until he resigned his spirit unto God 
who gave it. Bilt ere this dear saint and champion 
for his Lord slept in Jesus, he had still various bitter 
cups to drink, while his God was weakening his strength by 
the way. See this brief .note, extracted from his Jour- 
nal. — "JSText week after Synod, the chiu-ch in Chamber 
street was undergoing some repairs. I passed on to the 
Springs, where I remained until Monday, 29th, and on 
Wednesday, 31st, I came home. I found my youngest 
child, Mary Flora, ill of cholera infantum. She departed 
this life on Thursday, 8th of September, and left an infirm 
and aifiicted father to mourn the loss of an interesting 
child, who had not yet completed her first year.—' The ways 
of Providence are wise and good, but to us they are myste- 
rious, and often searching and painful.' " On the next day, 
he thus proceeds in his reflections; 


" This day two months, I received a stroke from the hand 
of God, which in a great degree disabled me from jjer- 
forming my usnal services. During that time the Lord has 
been pleased to furnish his people, in the church, with 
various instructions from different ministers. The embassy 
of reconciliation has continued towards them, and been 
delivered affectionately by his servants, chosen from distant 
and adjacent places, for that purpose. To his name, praise 
is due." 

On the preceding day, the Doctor had thus written to his 
friend in Philadelphia : 

"My journey to Saratoga did not occupy much time. 
It was not altogether without advantages, however, and 
some enjoyment. Ton will have been told that personal 
infirmities, and mental depression, induced me to separate 
from Dr. Black and Mr. Henry, and return home, M-hile 
they were on their way to Buffalo and Pittsburg. Tou 
will also have learned that since my return, I have endm-ed 
new troubles and loss, as the visitation which deprived me 
of my little Mary, my pretty and blooming blossom." 

During this fall and the following spring, the Doctor's 
complaint had several intervals of mitigation ; and he still 
continued, even beyond his ability, to endeavor the discharge 
of his pastoral duties. Though able to write little himself^ 
beyond what was necessary for the magazine he edited, he 
received many friendly communications from correspondents- 
abroad, from Scotland and Ireland, from brethren in the 
ministry, and learned professors of universities, which 
cannot be here inserted, but which indicate the great esteem 
in which he was held. 


The year 1832, was one of tlie most eventful in our 
ecclesiastical history. The General Synod, in accommoda- 
tion to the supposed necessities of our ecclesiastical connec- 
tions, had, at its last meeting in Philadelphia, ordered the 
organization of two Suh-Synods, to be denominated Eastern 
and Western, divided by the Backbone Eidge of the Apala- 
chian Mountains. In pursuance of that injunction, the 
constituent members of the Eastern Sub-Synod met on the 
24th April, in the Sixth street church, ISTew York, and 
constituted by prayer, by the senior member, the Eev. "Wm. 
Gibson, who was subsequently chosen as moderator. But 
for the use unhappily made of this body, all differences of 
sentiment respecting civil relations, according to the order 
of General Synod, might have been argued in the A. 0. 
Expositor, under the appropriate head of Free Discussions, 
and, if necessary, finally adjudicated by the Supreme 

To make this subject intelligible to the reader, it will be 
necessary to trace a little back, the origin of the vexing 
controversy which so painfully agitated that meeting of the 
Eastern Sub-Synod, and which afterwards led to a secession 
from the Reformed Presbyterian Church in the United 
States. That this controversy, in its origin, progress, and 
results, is intimately connected with the subject of this 
memoir, the sequel will abundantly testify. 

Dr. McLeod's health was at this period gradually becom- 
ing more infirm. He was now generally confined to his 
chamber, and was not able to attend the meeting of Sub- 
Synod on April 24th, 1832, although it held its sessions in 
Sixth street, a few squares from his own dwelling. He was, 
however, sufficiently well to be able to converse with his 
brethren, and to give his opinion and advice on every 


measure of importance, whicli occurred at that eventful 
crisis. Among the transactions of that meeting, one of very 
considerable public interest, to Dr. McLeod's congregation, 
as the event afterwards showed, was, the unanimous grant, 
on the part of the Sub-Synod, of a petition of the Session of 
the chiu-ch in Chamber street. This petition expressed also 
the desire of Dr. McLeod, that for two or three months, or 
during his present indisposition, his pulpit should be sup- 
plied, and that such supply should be by his son, the Kev. 
John N. McLeod. 

A committee was appointed at this period to draft a pas- 
toral letter to the churches, which was reported on next day, 
accepted, and the consideration of it made the order of the 
' day for the afternoon. 

The order of the day, in the afternoon being called up, 
the pastoral address was read, paragraph by paragraph, and 
after considerable debate, the first, second, third and sixth 
paragraphs were adopted. Upon motion to expunge the 
fowth audi fifth, the discussion was long and animated; and 
on taking the question, it was found that the Synod refused 
to adopt them, by a majority of one. Three of our ministers 
were absent. Dr. McLeod, and Messrs. John Gibson and 
John Eisher. The moderator, the Eev. Wm. Gibson, was 
then an advocate for the pastoral address, and every senti- 
ment contained in it. The notes afterwards appended to the 
address, he, of course, had not tJien seen ; but when printed, 
in proof-sheet, and read to him, paragraph by paragraph, he 
declared his cordial approbation of the whole, and to use his 
own words, said, " Enrol my name with the rest who ap- 
prove. I feel it my duty and honor, to add my signature." 
Thus, of the four ministers who did not vote, viz., Dr. 


Mc.Leod, Eev. Wm. Gibson, John Gibson and John Fisher, 
the last gentleman alone, as it subsequently appeared, was 
opposed to the unadopted part of the address. Of the actual 
number of ministers belong to the Sub-Synod, th^re were 
two of a majority, in favor of the pastoral letter. One of 
the others, Kev. Eobert Gibson, declared openly in Court, 
that it was not the sentiments contained in the address that 
he opposed, for they were his own ; but only the manner of 
its introduction. This address, therefore, expressed the 
sentiments, not of a minority of Sub-Synod, but had the full 
approbation of a majority, by two. 

It would not be doing justice to our lamented brother, 
Dr. McLeod, to omit mentioning that the sentiments con- 
tained in the pastoral address, had his cordial approbation. 
That document was read to him, in his chamber, previously 
to its presentation in Synod, and would have received his 
support had he been able to attend. 

It was declared by its advocates, that the unadopted part 
of the address would be published. To this it was replied, 
" To be sure, you may print, but it must be on your own 
responsibility," or words to that effect. The minority, after 
the close of the Synod, proceeded to a private house, and 
unanimously resolved that the document should be pub- 
lished entire, with appropriate notes annexed, explanatory 
of such parts as might require further elucidation. It was 
published accordingly, and has received its full share both 
of praise and blame, from persons into whose hands it has 
fallen, as well as from many who have never seen it. It is 
obvious, that had there been a disposition to adopt the parts 
that were rejected, they might have been purged of objec- 
tionable expressions, which the publishers did not consider 
themselves at liberty to alter. To this purgative process 
the writer would have most cheerfully acceded. 


As this document has been the subject of much miscon- 
struction, it may not be thought improper here to present 
the opinions and criticisms of several learned, eminent, and 
highly respectable editors, of valuable religious periodicals. 

The Rev. Mr. Burt, editor of the Peesbtteeiai^, published 
in Philadelphia, makes the following remarks on it, June 
2Tth, 1832 : 

" Reformed Presbyterian Church : — We have lying before 
us ' The original draught of a Pastoral Address, from the 
Eastern Sub-Synod of the Reformed Presbyterian Church.' 
It is a valuable document, as it shows that in this very 
respectable body. of Presbyterians there is an unaltered 
unanimity, in mind and heart, in all the principles of the 
Gospel, so gloriously testified to, and defended by their 
covenanting forefathers. A portion of this 'original 
draught' was not adopted by the Synod, there being, 
in the motion to expunge it, 13 yeas, and 13 nays. The 
part expunged has reference chiefly to the relation of the 
Reformed Presbyterian Church, considered as an ecclesi- 
astical community, to the civil institutions of the United 
States, involving certain scruples about the Constitution, and 
the unlawfulness of holding offices under it. The para- 
graphs which were so near being adopted, and sent down 
to the churches by the Synod, contain a vindication of the 
Constitution and government of the United States against 
certain objections; and also exhortations to fraternal for- 
bearance, when diff'erent views may exist on these eccle- 
siastico-political points. Although this part of the original 
address has been expunged, a testimony of respect to free 
institutions of our country is retained; and we trust that 
mutual forbearance, with regard to a point which does not 
affect any fundamental principle of the Gospel, will not 


be less exercised because the recommendation to, blended 
as it was. with the subject of difference, happened to bfe 

" The Pastoral Address, as adopted, breathes an excellent 
spirit, and is written, generally, in a style of uncommon 
vivacity and power. We subjoin the second paragraph, 
whereby our readers will perceive the interest with which 
the Synod regards the monuments of 


" Dear Brethren : — ^It requires no extraordinary degree 
of sagacity, or very extensive range of observation, to per- 
ceive that our lots have fallen in a very eventful period. 
The present is, indeed, a time when many run to and fro, 
and we may add, knowledge is increased. A spirit of activ- 
ity, inquiry, and discussion, has gone abroad into the world, 
which promises mighty and stupendous results. Within the 
last forty years, events of overwhelming magnitude have 
transpired. Benevolent institutions of every kind have 
multiplied with unparalleled rapidity. Missionary and 
Bible societies have been established ; Sabbath schools 
and education associations have been instituted and culti- 
vated with a zeal and perseverance worthy of the highest 
praise. All disposable funds of industry, in every shape, 
and wealth of every species, have been put in requisition, 
for the diffusion of Biblical knowledge. The current of 
public sentiment, with a velocity accelerated by fresh 
accessions of force, has swollen into a majestic flood, 
bearing down all opposition. This mighty stream, com- 
mingling with the waters which issue from the threshold 
of the sanctuary, and purified by their salutary influence, 
diffuses melioration, health, and fertility, through every 


part of its progress. E^en the haters of the Lord, in 
many instances, have feigned submission, and through 
them contributions to Christianity have been levied upon 
the empire of the God of this world. The wealth of Egypt 
adorns the tabernacle of the Lord. The great, the small, 
the potentate, the peasant, have thus mingled their gift in 
the sanctuary. Mankind are awaking from the slumber 
of ages.; they have begun to think, and are to avow their 
belief in the fact, of which for ages they scarcely once 
dreamed — that they are men. The clouds of ignorance 
and prejudice, which for many centuries bewildered the 
unthinking multitude, are fast dissolving before the genial 
beams of reason and evangelical truth. The thrones of 
despotism, and the phantoms of kingly legitimacy, are 
fast hastening to a common grave. The fabrics of tyranny, 
established in wickedness, supported by prejudice and injus- 
tice, and cemented by priestcraft, are convulsed to their 
very base, and crumbling into ruin. The Bible — the Bible, 
the great panacea of the nations, the light of divine truth 
is effecting this wonderful revolution. And the signs of 
the times, in conjunction with the intimations of prophecy, 
clearly announce the speedy approach of a new era, " when 
the kingdoms of this world shall become the kingdoms of 
our Lord and of his Christ, and Zion shall become a praise 
in the earth." 

The following observations are from the pen of Doctor 
Ely, the very respectable editor of the PniLADELPHLAif, men- 
tioned above. 

" DTVEEsrrx OF opnsrioN in the eefoemed peesbyteeian 


" If any section of the visible Church of Christ in our 


country might reasonably be desirous of a union of ohv/rch 
cmd state, it must be tbat denominated the Heformed Pres- 
lyterian, composed of people commonly called Covenamters. 
Indeed, in our ignorance, we once thought that the princi- 
ples of that denomination could lead to nothing short of an 
ecclesiastical establishment of their own denomination, as 
the only tolerated religious and civil community. But our 
error has been corrected by the perusal of, ' The OEierNAi 
Deait op a Pastoeai Addeess,' from the Eastern Sub-Synod 
of that body of Christians, to which we invite the attention 
of our readers. 

" To the Synod appertain nineteen ministerial members, of 
whom sixteen, with ten ruling elders, were present at its 
'constitution in New York, in April last. 

" The Eev. Samuel B. "Wylie, D.D., as chairman of a 
committee appointed for the purpose, prepared the following 
Pastoeai Addeess, from the Synod. They, by a majority 
of one, voted to expunge the portion which is included in 
the brackets. Had the moderator voted, there would have 

been a tie; or had the Kev. J W , whose late 

political sermon is severely censured in the address, declined 
voting, in a case of deep personal interest, there would have 
been a tie, and the moderator's vote would have retained the 
expunged paragraphs. How the absent members, Eev. 
Alex. McLeod, Eev. John Gibson of Baltimore, and Mr. 
John Fisher, would have voted, had they been present, we 
cannot say ; but from our knowledge of the good sense of 
the two former gentlemen, we conclude they would have 
been in favor of the liberal and only practical bearing of 
their principles on civil government, which Dr. Wylie has 
embodied in his draft. With the address, as a whole, we are 
much pleased ; and think it ought to meet the approbation 


of every lover of civil and religious liberty, who would wish 
all men, in all stations, to be governed by the maxims of 
Christianity, while they interfere with, the civil rights of 
none who oppose the Christian religion. "We are informed 
in a prefatory notice, that by a unanimous resolution of 
the minority of the Synod, ' The entire address, as originally 
reported, was ordered to be published, with such notes and 
illustrations, as might be required : and it now appears on 
their own responsibility, as expressive of their sentiments on 
the momentous subjects to which it alludes, "and as indi- 
cating the true course of policy to be pursued by the Ke- 
formed Presbyterian Church in the United States.' 

""We hail it as the liberal Testimony of enlightened 
Covenanters, in the present age of increasing light and refor- 

Dr. Ely then gives, in his periodical, the whole address, 
in its original form, with all the explanatory notes appended 
to it. 

It would appear that the question about the publication 
of the pastoral address, may be resolved into some one of 
three following : 

First. Had the members in the minority a right to pub- 
lish the expunged part ? 

Secondly. Suppose they had the right, was it prudent for 
them, in existing circumstances, to exercise it ? 

Thirdly. "Were the sentiments contained in it heretical ? 

Fi/rst. "With regard to the first of these questions, hear the 
opinion of General Synod, at its next meeting. " The pub- 
lication of the original draft of the Pastoral Address, could 
not, in itself, be criminal. It was a pai't of the minutes, and 
as such, was authorized by Synod to be published. View- 


ing the publication of the matter simply, it seems of little 
consequence in what form it appeared; whether in the 
body of the minutes or in a separate pamphlet." 

On this point of order, too, we have various precedents 
on record. The case of the rejected articles of correspon- 
dence with the General Assembly of the Presbyterian 
Church, by the late venerable chairman of the committee 
who reported them, is full in point. And who ever 
imagined that Thomas Jefferson, in publishing the original 
draft of the Declaration of Independence, acted in contempt 
of Congress, in 1776 ! All of these were published as 
historical documents ; and so was the original draft of the 
pastoral address. It either constituted a part of the Synod's 
minutes (not sitting with closed doors, or injunction of 
secresy), and consequently might be published, or was 
entirely rejected by that Court, and, of course, reverted to 
its authors to do with it whatever they might deem proper, 
upon their own responsibility. Moreover, its publication 
was considered as embraced under the head of Free Discus- 
sions, authorized and recommended by general Synod at its 
last meeting ; and to that Court only, the signers of the 
original draft, on the merits or demerits of their conduct, in 
that particular, considered themselves amenable. 

2. But, although the right of publishing the original draft 
should be conceded, yet, was it prudent, in existing circum- 
stances, to publish what had been expunged by vote of 

To this, it may be briefly replied, that the sentiments of 
the minority had been greatly misrepresented. It was neces- 
sary to declare them, and, but for the publication of the 
original draft, the principal object of the address would 
have been entirely frustrated. The signers of the address 




had, however, particularly in view the relief of the church 
to which they belonged, from the public odium which had 
arisen out of the attacks, made in certain notorious Albany 
pamphlets on General Washington, and other high func- 
tionaries of government, as well as from the misrepresen- 
tations contained in those caricatures of Reformation 
principles ; and, that the responsibility should devolve upon 
the author of those pamphlets, and his abettors. JSTow, it 
is by no means clearly evident how these objects could 
have been effected by the suppression of that document. 
But how seldom do opposing parties coincide in their views 
of the prudence or propriety of each other's premises ! Let 
the disinterested and the impartial decide this question. 

3. The next inquiry is, were the sentiments contained in 
the address, untrue in fact, or heretical in princijole ? 

With regard to the matters of fact, it may be observed, 
that, notwithstanding the merciless ordeal through which 
the address has been obliged to pass, it has come forth 
unscathed ; it has not been convicted even of a single false- 
hood. And, on the score of religious principles, involved 
in our terms of ecclesiastical communion, w*e appeal to the 
testimony of the Prorenatans themselves. Let it here be 
kept in remembrance, that the entire address was twice read 
in Synod ; and one of these two times, paragraph by para- 
graph, for adoption or rejection. All the members, there- 
fore, had an opportunity of being acquainted with its 
contents ; and in the seventh page we find these words, 
passed and sanctioned by these brethren : " What reason 
have we to rejoice, and humbly thank the Lord, that amidst 
all the collisions and dissensions in opinion, which have 
been for some time past rending surrounding sections of the 
•church of the Eedeemer, and extending far and wide their 


baneful influence ! We are assured that tlie ministers and 
people of our churches continue unanimous in their 
religious principles. On all the grand fundamental topics, 
they are of one heart and mind. There is no relinquish- 
ment of any doctrine for which the martyrs bled and died. 
All believe and teach the same principles, as contained in 
our subordinate standards, exhibiting a summary of Scripture 
truth. For this we would bless and magnify the Lord. 
Join with us, dear brethren, in praising His name, that there 
is observed, everywhere, among our connections, the strictest 
adherence to our system of orthodoxy, not only in the 
United States, but also, as far as we know, among our 
covenanted connections in Britain and Ireland." 

In the adopted part of the address, diversity of views, in 
the application of our principles, is expressly admitted ; yet 
the Prorenatan brethren, by their adoption and sanction of 
it, declare — " That such a diversity is perfectly consistent 
with all that adherence to truth, and all that practical effect 
which can be obtained from the maintenance of the most 
faithful testimony. On this principle the church has 
uniformly acted. This principle pervades every social 
institution and arrangement among men." Such was the 
testimony of all the brethren of the subordinate Synod, to 
the orthodoxy of each other, though differing in some 
points on civil relations. 

Erom the above brief inquiry, it will be seen, that the 
minority in Synod did not overleap their rights in pub- 
lisliing the original draft of tlie Pastoral Address ; and that 
such was the conviction of the nominal majority themselves, 
at the close of Synod, when the intention on the part of the 
minority was publicly announced, and evidently acquiesced 
in, on the part of the majority, as already stated. 




Dr. McLeod's last visit to Pliiladelphia, and Views of Ecclesiastical Movements. 

In the month of ^November, 1832, a pro re natd meeting 
of the Eastern Sub-Synod was attempted to be called, 
and held by the party in that body, who were opposed 
to the adoption of the expunged parts of the Pastoral 
Address. The ministerial members were ten in number, and 
of these five, or one-half, were without charge, and one of 
them ordained a few days before the meeting, although 
he had received no call to any congregation. No other 
cause for his ordination was apparent, than to qualify him 
for a vote in convention. The ostensible object of the meet- 
ing was the infliction of censure on those brethren who 
had published the original draft of the Pastoral Address. 

In a legal point of view, the Prorenatan summons car- 
ried its condemnation stamped on its forehead. It is 
essential to a legitimate pro re natd, that the matter be 
of such magnitude as to be obviously of dangerous ten- 
dency to the interests of religion, if postponed to a 
regular stated meeting. Now, it is verily believed, that 
scarcely any person could be found capable of apprehend- 
ing any danger from postponing judicial cognizance of the 
matters contained in the Pastoral Address, for about the 


space of five montlis, when the regular stated meeting of 
Synod would take place. 

Again, it is essential to a legitimate fro re natd meeting, 
that the business be distinctly stated, and that no other 
than what is specified shall be transacted. In this pro 
re natd summons, the business was indefinite. Everything 
was covered by the vcigue expression, " and such other busi- 
ness as may come before the Court." Yes, "such other 
business as may come before the Court." This, of itself, 
nullified the call and character of the contemplated meet- 
ing. The Synod did not meet. A minority only came 

Against this disorderly proceeding, one-half of the mem- 
bers, with one consent, simultaneously sent forward to the 
moderator of the last meeting of Synod, their respectful 
protests, and declined attendance. Among these was Dr. 
McLeod. In the midst of great bodily debility, he repaired 
to the place where the assembly was to be convened. 
Before the moderator proceeded to what he styled a con- 
stitution, the Doctor rose — ^he uttered a voice of warning 
to those who seemed determined to persevere in this disor- 
ganizing business — he pronounced the project to be based 
on an unpresbyterial innovation, and tending directly to 
division; he publicly read his remonstrance and declinature, 
and then immediately retired from the house. 

Upon the men of pro re natd, however, these remon- 
strances of fathers and brothers, present and absent, had 
no salutary effect. They proceeded to accomplish their 
previously concerted schemes. The result, as Dr. McLeod 
predicted, was a separation from the Keformed Presbyterian 
Church. On them rests the responsibility of the division 
which yet exists. 


Shortly after this, a call was addressed bj the Chamber 
street Church, to the Kev. John E". McLeod, to become 
the assistant and successor of his father. It was accepted, 
and the Doctor had the high satisfaction of seeing his 
son co-pastor with himself, and in the enjoyment of the 
affections of the church. 

The following notice of this installation is found in the 
Cheistlaj^ Intelligencee of New York, of January, 19th, 

" For the Christian Intelligencer^ 

" On Tuesday morning, the 14th January, 1 833, the 
Presbytery of Philadelphia met in the Reformed Presby- 
terian church, in Chamber street, in this city, under 
the pastoral charge of the Eev. Alexander McLeod, D.D., 
for the purpose of moderating a call for an associate and 
successor to their present venerable pastor. The moderator, 
Eev. Samuel W. Crawford, preached an able sermon, from 
Eph. xxi. 11-12. — ■' He gave some apostles, and some 
prophets, and some evangelists, and some pastors and 
teachers, for the perfecting of the saints, for the work of 
the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ.' 

"After sermon, the moderator proceeded to take the votes 
of the congregation for an associate pastor, and successor 
to the Eev. Dr. McLeod, which resulted in a nearly unani- 
mous choice of the Rev. John IST. McLeod, as the associate 
and successor of his venerated father. The call was then 
read, declared to be in order, and presented to the pastor 
elect, who declared his acceptance of the same. 

" After a short recess, the Eev. John Gibson^ from Balti- 


more, preached an excellent discourse from 1 Thes. v. 20. — 
' Despise not prophesyings.' The moderator then proceeded 
to the installation of the Eev. Mr. McLeod, in the usual 
forms of the Reformed Presbyterian Church, and he was 
duly declared to be the associate pastor, and successor, of 
his father, the Eev. Alexander McLeod, D.D. "We con- 
gratulate this congregation upon their selection of such a 
pious and talented young man as their spiritual guide. 
They have long enjoyed the ablest ministrations in the 
person of Dr. McLeod, whose merited fame for the highest 
grade of intellectual, theological, and literary attainments, 
has, for many years, been spread through America and 
Eiirope. They needed talents and attainments of the first 
class to fill his place. He is, to the deep lamentation of 
his devoted people, and the other churches of the city, at 
present laid aside from his ministerial labors by age and 
feebleness ; and we rejoice with him and his friends, that in 
the decline of his days, he has such a promising and able 
coadjutor to strengthen his hands, and encourage his heart. 
His son and congregation still need his counsels ; and, 
therefore, we pray that the day of his departure may be 
remote. But when he ascends, may the mantle of the 
father-prophet descend in ample folds, and with many and 
varied ornaments, on his beloved son." 

The author of these eloquent remarks is well known to 
the writer. He was a learned and highly talented divine 
of the Presbyterian church. There was none belonging to 
it a better judge of doctrine and ecclesiastical order. He 
has gone to his reward. 

Early in ISTovember, 1833, Dr. McLeod came with Dr. 
Black, who was just returning from his visit to our sister 


Synods in Scotland and Ireland, to Philadelphia. It was 
the season of the dispensation of our sacramental festivity. 
How cheering Avas the arrival of these two highly esteemed 
and distinguished ambassadors of Jesus Christ, both to the 
ministers and the people there ! They sat down on the 
delectable mountains, in company with more than four 
hundred brethren, to commemorate the dying love of 
their common Lord. "With these veteran champions in 
the camp of the Kedeemer, many of those present had 
often held sweet communion in the house of Grod. Dr. 
McLeod, though feeble in body, was so far strengthened 
as to be able to administer the ordinance of baptism to 
his little grandson, Alexander McLeod, who had been bom 
in Philadelphia, in the close of the preceding summer. 
How solemn the occasion ! Such a bright and shining 
light growing dim, and about soon to be for ever extin- 
guished on earth! Grief filled to overflowing every heart, 
and many could scarcely support the anticipation, alas ! too 
soon to be realized, " That they should see his face no 

During this visit, though feeble in body, his mind was in 
full and discriminating energy. In conversation, he often 
lamented the anticipated convulsions in our church. He 
traced, with great distinctness, both their proximate and 
remote causes. He considered the divisive movement as 
originating in personal ambition, without any conscientious 
regard to principle ; and that no sacrifices on our part, 
while the present troublers of Israel continued to be actu- 
ated by the same spirit which now governed them, could 
secure the peace of the church, and the co-operation of those 
erring brethren. He exhorted to hold fast by the princi- 
ples of the Testimony ; and with regard to our civil relations. 


to attend to the maxim wliich the plainest and most unlet- 
tered Christian could easily understand and applj, " Hold 
no communion in immorality, with nations, with churches, 
or with individuals." And he further ohserved, with regard 
to " what may be immorality in the application of the laws, 
institutions, and enactments of government, in most cases, 
should be left to the decision of the ecclesiastical judica- 
tories of the particular district." He was not opposed to 
naturalization. He was, himself, long before his death, a 
citizen of the United States ; and, on his visit to his native 
land, he had the protection which the American govern- 
ment affords and extends to its citizens. He had just shown 
that he made this matter no term of communion, by sitting 
down at the Lord's table with his Philadelphia brother, who 
had recently exercised the right of suffrage as a citizen of 
the United States. 

Shortly after his return to ITew York, he appeared in the 
Prorenatan assembly, as already stated, and read his remon- 
strance, giving his solemn warning to the brethren there, as 
to the consequences of their ill-advised procedure, and 
declaring that no act of theirs would be considered bind- 
ing by him, on himself personally, or on the congregation of 
which he was the pastor. 

Here it may be proper to remark, that although Dr. 
Wylie's practice in voting was a novel thing, with him, in 
his opinion, it involved no change of principle. He had 
changed his view of the American government and Federal 
Constitution; but his principles on civil government, the 
headship of the Mediator, and the subjection of all power 
and dominion to his rightful control, remained unaltered. 
Yes, and he trusts in God, they shall remain unaltered. He 
firmly believes that the principles of the American Synod, 


of which he has the honor to be a member, are on these 
points the same as those of Knox, Rutherford, and Eenwick, 
and tliat if there may appear, on superficial observation, to 
be any difference, it is not in themselves tliat difference 
exists, but in their greater brightness, being still further 
purified from the stains of the dark ages ; but the principle 
is no more changed, than an individual is changed by 
putting on a different and more suitable costume. 

The attention has already been called to the progressive 
legislation of our church on our civil relations, and the con- 
sistency of such legislation with our ecclesiastical constitu- 
tion. This legislation should always cherish, promote and 
confirm intellectual, moral, and religious improvement. This 
improvement, even although it may be steadily progressive, 
yet is generally but slow, and often imperceptible. The accu- 
mulation of the successive increments of improvement will 
suggest the times of review of principles and re-exhibition of 
Testimony. This principle operates in all societies, great or 
small, in the progressive advance from barbarism to refine- 
ment, from despotism to freedom, from the gloom of igno- 
rance to the light of knowledge. The constitutional charter 
is not remodelled to meet every new improvement as it arises. 
Yet hereby the system is gradually influenced, impregnated 
with this salutary leaven, and the amelioration felt, some- 
times, long before even a letter of the original charter is 
altered or amended. As time advances, the period arrives 
when these progressive unembodied items of improvement, 
which had been gradually accumulating and shedding their 
benign light and influence on society, will be incorporated 
into constitutional form, and make a kind of era in the 
history of the society. The Magna Charta in the history 
of Britain, and the Westminster Confession of Faith in the 


annals of ecclesiastical legislation, are examples of the opera- 
tion of this principle, both in civil and religions reformation. 

This principle has been strikingly exemplified in our own 
society. "While the chnrch here, in America, took special 
care to abandon no principle of the Reformation, she 
moved with rather too much precipitancy, in the early steps 
of her legislation. Her ideas of the application of these noble 
principles were crude, and warped with British modes of 
thought, when she was placed in novel circumstances. The 
emigrants from Britain and Ireland seemed to forget that 
much time had flown past, and that they were now in a 
different land, different age, different state of society, and 
under a different civil constitution, and in very different 
circumstances, from those of their ancestors, more than a 
century and a half ago. They predicated their views- of 
civil and religious matters on the ecclesiastical and parlia- 
mentary enactments made in Britain, between 1638, and 
164:9, without taking suflaciently into view the entire change 
of circumstances. 

Now, it is well known, that after a stand has been taken, 
and an individual or community has been committed, 
the pride of human nature, even after full conviction of 
error, feels very reluctant to retract. The American Synod 
wanted, by a cautious and prudent legislation, without 
noise or bustle, to redress whatever grievances might have 
arisen from the incautious action of the Presbytery of 
1806. Both ministers and people were becoming more 
enlightened on this subject, and every day saw more clearly 
.that there was a very material difference between the 
present apostate character of the British government, and 
that of the United States of America. 

Predicated upon this expansion of liberality, the oath of 


allegiance, of August 12, 1812, was passed in Synod, 
unanimously. Now, ever since that time, 1812, those 
brethren who appreciated that act of Synod, and felt its 
obligation, considered everything, in whatever document or 
instrument it might exist, which either was, or appeared 
to be, in any sense, contrary to the spirit and intention 
of that decree, as thereby suspended or repealed ; and 
consequently, to them, null and void. This principle oper- 
ates in all legislative enactments. Everything contrary 
to the present act, in any previous statute, is repealed. This 
is, indeed, essential to the continued consistency of the civil 

It is admitted, without hesitation, that there may be, 
and there are, situations in which legislators are tied 
down by constitutional provisions, over which they have 
no control ; but which they are bound implicitly to obey, 
so long as these provisions shall continue in existence. 
ISTone have any right to alter or modify a constitution, 
but its makers, either in their own pei'sons, or continued 
in their legitimate successors. The people of a state 
or nation, in convention, meet to frame a constitution as a 
guide to regulate their future legislation, just so long as the 
people shall see cause to continue this standard. But the 
same people have a right to alter, modify, or abolish 
this constitution, at pleasure. It is obvious, however 
that such alterations should be made with great caution 
and deliberation. Precipitant innovation, and bigoted 
adherence to existing customs, are equally injudicious. The 
former endangers the safety of society, by unwisely cutting 
loose its moorings ; the latter chains it down like the shell- 
fish to the rock, and excludes it from every species of 
improvement. That makes it the sport of wind and wave ; 


this deprives. it of all tlie advantages of intellectual locomo- 
tion. Wisdom is here peciiliarly necessary to direct. 

It is admitted that the Testimony published in 1806 was 
our constitutional code ; yet this must be taken in a modified 
sense. Every subsequent judicial act, bearing upon the 
application of the principles therein contained, while said 
act remained unrepealed, was a legitimate part of our con- 
stitutional law, a part of our Testimony. "What magic was 
there, could there be, in an act unanimously passed in 1806, 
by five ministers, and as many ruling elders, more than in 
an act passed with the same unamimity, by twice that num- 
ber, just six years afterwards, in 1812 ! Did the experience 
accumulated on the subject of legislation, or the twofold 
increase of the members voting, disqualify them from 
judging, or vitiate their judicial decision ? There was no 
absurd clause in their Testimony, that the provisions therein 
contained could not be altered, unless by two-thirds, or three- 
fourths of the members ? No : these brethren never 
dreamed that at any subsequent period, one-twelfth, one- 
fourth, or one-third in a deliberative body, all legally quali- 
fied, aud possessed of equal rights, would become more 
judicious, more faithful, or be better qualified for judging, 
than three, four, or a dozen times their number. They 
believed with Solomon, that, " two are better than one." 
This amendment, therefore, of our ecclesiastical constitu- 
tion of 1812, which by the way of consistent legislation 
repealed every former provision in any manner repugnant 
to it, and which said amendment remains itself yet unre- 
pealed, is as much a part of our Testimony as any part 
embraced in the publication of 1806 was at that period, as 
it necessarily repealed all that was contrary to itself. While 
our separating brethren therefore adhere to the letter of the 


Testimony published in 1806, they actually hold only &part 
of the Testimonj' of the church called the Keformed 
Presbyterian, in the United States. 

In the reasoning in the latter part of the preceding 
chapter, it was not intended to inquire whether the act of 
1812 was right or wrong. This will be the subject of future 
inquiry. Here the only object is to show that the recogni- 
tion of the United States government is not inconsistent 
with our religious standards ; or relevant to censure. In 
our section of the church of Christ. 

The grand ostensible charge made against us by our 
seceding brethren, was " Political Heresy.''^ On this sub- 
ject we therefore, state our views. 

First, On the nature of government in general. And 
it may be remarked, that it is believed that the view 
about to be presented is in strict accordance with the 
principles held and avowed by our church, ever since 
she had a distinctive existence among Christian commu- 

1. All civil dominion originates in God, the Creator. 
There is no power but of God. It is not founded in 

2. As an ordinance of God, it is interwoven with the 
very constitution of man. It grows out of his social exist- 
ence, which concentrates the scattered elements existing in 

3. It is found wherever society exists, and is inde- 
structible, unless by the annihilation of society. 

4. It may, by the depravity of man, be so constituted, that 
neither its constitutional provisions nor executive admi- 
nistration, can be conscientiously recognized by virtuous 
and intelligent men ; yet, still the ordinance is there. 


Man cannot destroy it. No tyrant can annihilate the actual 
existence of God's ordinance. It is true, he may superinduce 
upon it such an incrustation of immoral integuments, as 
may be sufficient to prevent the enlightened and the con- 
scientious from acknowledging it as thus trammelled with 
iniquitous conditions ; yet, still the general benefit of God's 
ordinance will burst forth, and its influence be felt in the 
transactions of social intercourse. The smallest society that 
could exist, had this ordinance stamped upon the very 
constitution of its members, as the stronger and weaker 
vessel. " Thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall 
rule over thee." Hence, female sovereignty is incongruous 
with nature, and in fact, a political anomaly. 

6. Civil government can neither be organized nor admin- 
istered legitimately, as the ordinance of God, except upon 
the principle of the elective franchise. It must be the 
ordinance of man, or a human creation, in order to its 
legitimate claim to recognition as the ordinance of God. 
Society can never be lawfully governed, without its own 
consent. In order to the healthful state of the body politic, 
this consent should be regularly and publicly expressed, 
and not rest upon mere implication. 

6. The attributes of any government possessing a moral 
claim to conscientious recognition, must be scriptural. By 
this term " scriptural," is meant, such as the Bible authorizes 
its believers to recognize. We do indeed most cordially 
admit the doctrine that scrijptural qualifications are essen- 
tially necessary to a legitimate magistracy. But we do also 
contend that the Scriptures authorize obedience for conscience 
sake, to governments predicated on the mere light of nature, 
unless the national community has, by its own act and 
deed, superadded thereunto, or incorporated therewith, 


evangelical provisions, founded on revelation. On this 
subject, with great pleasure, the reader is recommended to 
Dr. McMaster's excellent letters. — Let. 1, sec. 5, 6, T. 

These scriptural qualifications embrace a wide range 
between tlie Tnaximum and the minimum y or between 
what may be considered indispensably necessary to con- 
scientious recognition, and what would be entirely satisfac- 
tory. That the Bible requires and enjoins subjection for 
conscience sake to a government organized by the mere 
light of nature, is, of course, the doctrine of our standards. 

" Infidelity or difference of religion, does not make void 
the magistrate's just and lawful authority." This light, 
though but dim and feeble, is not opposed to the light of 
revelation. It springs from the same source, and cannot be 
contradictory. It differs in quantity, as the morning dawn 
from the meridian splendor of the lamp of day. The 
system of nature and the system of grace, must necessarily 
harmonize, as they both originate from the same fountain. 
But while the Bible recognises the legitimacy of govern- 
ments constituted in the mere light of nature, it requires 
every community to adopt the instructions of revelation, so 
soon as enjoyed, and incorporate the maxims of supernatural 
wisdom with civil legislation. And it will follow, as a 
matter of course, that just in proportion as the individual 
members of the body politic are imbued with the princi- 
ples of Christianity, the executive, the courts of judicature, 
the halls of legislation, all institutions, and the whole 
machinery of government will be tinctured and imbued 
with its benign influence. It cannot be otherwise. The 
Christian must act as a Christian, in every relation. He 
carries his Christianity with him, and acts under its influ- 
ence, whithersoever he goes. Thus a way is prepared for a 


formal public Bubmission of nations, as well as individuals, 
to the sceptre of Immanuel. First, make the tree good, and 
then the fruit shall be good also. The reformation of the 
State must be the result of individual submission to the 
empire of grace. Then Christian legislation will be respected, 
having the sanction of public opinion, without which public 
enactments can be of little use. " Zeges sine moribus vance." 
If these remarks be true, it will follow, that in every free 
State, that is, where universal suffrage prevails, and where 
all officers are under the control of the people, and appointed 
by their choice, the governmental administration, and all its 
complex machinery, will be impregnated by the influence of 
Christianity, just in proportion to the extent of its influence 
upon the community. It is admitted that into despotic 
governments, hereditary monarchies, and lordly aristocra- 
cies, independent of the people, the introduction and 
progress of Christianity are generally slow, unless through 
an unholy alliance, as an engine of state. The power of 
religion, which is generally felt first among the lower orders, 
cannot, without considerable difiiculty, find access to the 
gorgeous palace, and the seat of royalty. These elevated 
spots, like the mountain ridge, remain barren and unpro- 
ductive, while verdure and fertility cover the valleys below. 
Their distance from the people, their perpetuity in office, 
their dignity of rank, their hereditary affluence, means of 
dissipation, and haughty contempt of plebeian blood, render 
them almost impregnable to national reformation. Their 
conspiracy against the rights of the people, whom they have 
contrived so long to enslave ; their schemes to retain the 
plunder of centuries by the vilest and most profiigate means, 
are calculated to retard, rather than promote, national 
subjection to the Prince of the kings of the earth. 



It is not here contended that a nation should remain 
satisfied with the fact, that the influence of the religion 
of the Kedeemer is silently imbuing the hearts of its 
members, and pervading its administration and institu- 
tions, so that they become virtually subjected to the 
King of kings. Though this is, indeed, the grand funda- 
mental point, yet still the nation, as a nation, in its national 
capacity and character, is bound to acknowledge the Lord 
Jesus Christ as the Governor of Nations, as well as the King 
of Saints. Yet, although they may not have done so, this 
sinful omission does not nullify the moral character of the 

Second. Some of the claims of the United States govern- 
ment to recognition, as the moral ordinance of God, shall 
now be presented. 

1. Because it has been found, above all other govern- 
ments existing on earth, the best calculated to answer the 
end of this ordinance — the immediate good, and temporal 
interest and safety of the commonwealth. This, alone, 
would entitle it to recognition as God's moral ordinance, 
" the minister of God for good to men." This is the imme- 
diate end of civil government. More is not absolutely neces- 
sary, however desirable the possession, and however sinful 
the want of it may be. But this government has, besides, 
some of the most important features of Christianity im- 
pressed upon it; so that, accessory to the immediate 
good and temporal interest of the community, the inte- 
rests of the Church of God are greatly promoted ; — yes, 
this is an accessory good, resulting from the ingraftment 
upon it of the religion of the Redeemer. It, moreover, 
is, and may be made just as good, just as Christian, just 
as Scriptural, as the sovereign people choose to make it. 


If, therefore, it be not so good as it ought to be, or as 
we could wish it to be, let us try to make it better. 

2. It has a claim to recognition by us, as members of the 
Eeformed Presbyterian Church, This special claim rests 
upon our own act and deed. In 1812, our supreme judi- 
catory, representing the whole of our community, unani- 
mously declared that they found no positive immorality 
in the United States Constitution. That they blamed it 
for omissions alone, and on this ground framed an oath 
of allegiance even stronger than that prescribed by law. 
Here it might be asked, why frame a stronger one, and 
not adopt the form already made and prescribed by 
law? To this question, the plain matter of fact is the 
best answer. 1st, Few of our members had ever seen 
the oath of naturalization prescribed by law, and conse- 
quently knew not whether it embraced anything immoral 
or not. 2d, They were sensible that some of the people 
under their charge retained strong prejudices against the 
moral character of the United States Constitution, which 
they did not think prudent to alarm, but rather leave to 
time and increasing light to remove. They were persuaded 
that none would hesitate to take the oath in the terms which 
they then prescribed, viz. : " I, A. B., solemnly swear, in the 
name of the Most High God, the searcher of hearts, that I 
abjure all foreign allegiance whatsoever, and hold that these 
States, and the United States, are, and ought to be, sover- 
eign and independent of all other nations and governments, 
and that I will promote the best interests of the empire, 
maintain its independence, preserve its peace, and support 
the integrity of the Union, to the best of my power." 

Sach is the formula prescribed by the Supreme Judica- 
tory of our church, in 18-12, and to which the brethren 


afterwards seceding from us, then gave their unquali- 
fied and unanimous assent, and concerning which they 

"That emigrants from foreign nations, lest they should be 
esteemed alien enemies, be instructed to give to the proper 
organs of the government the" cibove-mentioned " assurance 
of their allegiance to this empire, each for himself, when 

Now, it is believed, that it requires more sagacity than 
most people are possessed of, to understand how such an 
oath' — to swpjpai't the integrity of the Union — can be justified, 
if swearing allegiance to the same government be such an 
im'morality — such a political heresy, as to merit the punish- 
ment attempted to be inflicted by the Prorenatans — viz., 
suspension from office and ecclesiastical privileges! This 
act of our Supreme Judicatory stands on our records yet 
unrepealed ; yes, without any suggestion or motion ever hav- 
ing been made that it should be repealed — and let it not be 
forgotten that this act received the unqualified and unanim- 
ous consent and approbation of the Prorenatans themselves ! 
It is here, however, to be understood that our church never 
required any of her members to take this oath, or any other 
to the United States ; but merely prescribed a form of oath, 
the takvng or the not taldng of which, should ever remain 
optional, to be determined by the conscience of the indivi- 
dual., Among all our members, this was, for ever, to be a 
matter of mutual forbearance. The recognition or the rejec- 
tion of the Federal Constitution was no term of communion, 
in our section of the church. It is true, the fifth article of 
our terms of communion testifies against " all immorality in 


the constitutions of States ;" but our clinrch has long since 
declared that " there is no positive immorality in the Con- 
stitution of the United States." This is now affirmed by 
some ; it is denied by others ; ministers and people are 
divided on the subject. The most intelligent and the most 
conscientious diifer in their views. "Why then impose such 
a subject as a term of communion? It is notorious, that 
nine out of ten of those who are the most clamorous against 
the Federal Constitution, have never read it. Tkeiv faith, or 
rather, their want of faith — for how can they believe or dis- 
believe what they know nothing about! — is entirely implicit. 
They embrace arti-cles of faith, which they do not under- 
stand ; and condemn what they know nothing about. They 
decide with ease and confidence, where the most learned 
J ui'ists in our country hesitate and pause. Happy igno- 
rance ! Thou canst solve every difficulty — or rather, thou 
discoverest none. If thou canst not loose the Gordian Knot, 
thou canst, at least, cut it "What admirable scantlings for 
Eome ! 

3. The United States government has never violated a 
grand national charter, as did that of Great Britain. It 
has not degenerated from covenanted attainments, as that 
government did. It has been advancing onward in its 
course of moral and political improvement, ever since its 
first organization. It is acknowleged it has defects; and 
what work of man is without them ? But none can justly 
charge it either with positive immorality, or practical 

4. It possesses more, ay, much more than the minimum 
entitling it to scriptural recognition. It is not an infidel 
government, "though infidelity or difference of religion 
does not make void the magistrates' just and lawful autho- 


rity " — but so far from being infidel, it has many features 
of Christianity incorporated Avith it, and enstamped upon it. 

(1.) It disclaims all control or lordship over the consci- 
ence — all interference between man and his Maker, in the 
worship of the deity. Persecution for religious opinions 
can never disgrace these lands, while the present Consti- 
tution shall continue in existence, and in force. Here is 
one of the lovely features of Christianity, whose genius is 
utterly abhorrent to persecution. It repudiates all carnal 
weapons in the Christian warfare, and expressly declares, 
"To his own master he standeth, and to his own master 
he falleth." 

(2.) In all the charters of the colonies — afterwards formed 
into States — the founders had the Christian religion before 
their eyes. The propagation and extension of this, was 
one of the principal objects of their undertaking. In the 
charter of Virginia, 1606, for example, the enterprise of 
planting the country is recommended as "a noble work, 
which may, by the providence of almighty God, hereafter 
tend to the glory of his Divine Majesty, in propagating the 
Christian religion to such people as yet live in darkness, 
and miserable ignorance of the knowledge and worship of 
God." This may stand as a specimen of the fundamental 
principles, on which, in connection with subsequent enact- 
ments predicated upon them, the most profound jurists, 
on oath, on the judicial bench, decided that Christianity 
was the common Iom of the land, and shaped their adjudi- 
cations accordingly. 

(3.) That the colonists felt deeply the obligations of reli- 
gion, is evinced by their efforts to obtain a gosjDel ministry, 
learned and pious. For this purpose, so soon as settle- 
ments were made, churches were founded, and new churches 


always kept pace with tlie extension of the settlement. 
" Yiewing," says Mr. J. Adams, in his convention sermon, 
from which these statements have been mostly selected, 
" education as indispensable to freedom, as well as the hand- 
maid of religion, every neighborhood had its school. After 
a brief interval, colleges were instituted, and these colleges 
were originally designed for the education of Christian min- 
ister^." And in a footnote, "The heraldic inscription, 
' Christo et Ecclesise,' on the seal of the University, is at 
once emphatic evidence, and a perpetual memorial of the 
great purpose for which it was established." Mr. Adams 
continues, "The colonies thus, from which these United 
States have sprung, were originally planted and nourished 
by our pious forefathers, in the exercise of a strong and vigor- 
ous Christian faith. They were designed to be Christian 
communities. Christianity was wrought into the minutest 
ramifications of their social, civil, and religious institutions." 
(4.) All these auspicious symptoms in the colonial regimen 
might be allowed to pass for nothing, had they been ejected 
from these same communities, when transformed into " free 
and independent States," but, continues our author, " in 
perusing the twenty-four constitutions of the United States, 
with this object in view, we find all of them recognizing 
Christianity as the well-known and well-established religion 
of the communities, whose legal, civil, and religious founda- 
tions these constitutions are. The terms of this recog- 
nition are more or less distinct in the constitutions of the 
different States ; but they exist in all of them. The reason 
why any degree of indistinctness exists in any of them 
unquestionably is, that at their formation, it never came 
into the minds of the framers to suppose that the existence 
of Christianity, as the religion of these communities, could 


ever admit of a question. Nearly all these constitutions," 
says Ml'. Adams, " enjoin the observance of the Sabbath ; 
and a suitable observance of this day, includes or guaran- 
tees a performance of all tbe peculiar duties of the 
Christian faith." 

(5.) In the chronological epocb, there is a recognition of 
Christianity, in the homage of its author. In article seventh 
of the Constitution of the United States, that instrument is 
said to have been penned "by the unanimous consent of 
the States present, the seventeenth day of September, in the 
year of our Lord, 1787, and in the Independence of the 
United States of America the twelfth." In the clause 
marked in Italic letters, the word Lord means the Loed 
Jesus Christ, and the word ow, preceding it, refers back 
to the commencing words of tbe Constitution, viz. : " We 
the people of the United States." The phrase, then, Otje 
Loed, making a part of the dating of the Constitution, when 
compared with the commencing clatise, contains a distinct 
recognition of tbe autbority of Christ, and, of course, of his 
religion, by the people of the United States. This conclu- 
sion is sound, whatever theory we may embrace, with 
regard to the Constitution, wbether we consider it as having 
been ratified by the people in the United States, in the 
aggregate, or by States ; and whether we look upon tbe 
union in the nature of a government, a compact, or a league. 
The date of the Constitution is twofold — it is first dated by 
tbe birth of our Lord 'Jesus Christ; and then by the 
Independence of the United States of America. Any 
argument which could be supposed to prove that the 
autbority of Christianity is not recognized by the people of 
the United States, in tbe first mode, would equally prove 
that the Independence of the United States is not recog- 


nized in the second mode. The fact is, that the advent of 
Christ, and the Independence of the country, are the two 
events, in which, above all others, we are most interested ; 
the former is common with all mankind, and the latter, the 
birth of our nation. This twofold mode, therefore, of dating 
so solemn an instrument, was singularly appropriate, and 

(6.) Another Christian feature, sufficiently obvious for 
universal recognition, is found in section Tth, Art. 2d, of 
the Constitution. In this provision is made, that — "If any 
bill shall not be returned by the President within ten days 
(Sundays excepted), after it shall have been presented to 
him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had 
signed it, unless the Congress, by their adjournment, prevent 
its return ; in which case, it shall not be a law." 

It would appear, beyond all doubt, that the adoption of 
this provision was predicated upon the presumption that the 
President of the United States would not desecrate the 
Sabbath, by performing, on that day, any public business. 
He is allowed ten business days, to prepare and digest his 
objections, if objections he have. Would any people on 
earth not accustomed to revere and sanctify the Sabbath, 
have introduced and sanctioned such a provision ! The 
very assumption that the President would respect the 
Sabbath — that he would not violate the common law of the 
land — that this was so obvious a duty that one in his 
station needed no constitutional regui/rement, to observe that 
day : yes, the very assuming, without requiring it, proves 
more strongly the Christianity of the country, than the most 
formally imperative provision could have done. By the 
most legitimate inference, the obligation extends to, and is 
equally imperative on all subordinate agents employed 
by the President, in the service of the United States, 


to the minutest ramifications of the executive depart- 

The practical application of constitutional provisions, from 
their first formation, is the most decisive test of their mean- 
ing and institution. The public ofiices are closed — the 
legislature adjourns its sittings — Christian ministers are 
employed to ofiiciate in the halls of legislation — and 
chaplains of the army and navy are appointed and paid 
from the treasury — appropriations of money for years have 
been made and put into the hands of missionary societies 
for the civilizing and Christianization of the aboriginal 
inhabitants ; and, in fine, thousands are annually expended 
by the Federal Government in promoting the interests 
of Christianity, and in paying respect to its institutions. 
This has never been denied to be constitutional. Nay the 
very fact that all candidates for oifice are inducted by an 
oath on the Gospels ; however censurable this idolatrous mode 
of swearing is — implies unquestionably, a recognition of 
the inspiration of the Scriptures. 

Should any person still deny that all these above-men- 
tioned specific features of Christianity amount to a recog- 
nition of the Christian system, let the matter be tried 
on Mohammedanism. Take the feast of Eamadan, for 
example. Suppose our government should, in a similar 
manner, exempt it from desecration by secular services, 
and all ofiicial business in the courts of justice, halls of 
legislature, &c., &c., would not the Constitution be pro- 
nounced Mohammedan? How much more, should the 
United States employ Dervises, as they now do Christian 
chaplains, to ofiiciate in the army and navy? and allow 
their treasure to be spent, if not for the express purpose, 
yet in such a manner as to have an obvious tendency to 
increase the number of Moslem converts ! 


In this inquiry, it ought not to be overlooked that the 
United States government is a thing completely sid generis 
— something tmique. The State governments, taken toge- 
ther, from the very nature of their relative connection, must 
be each, severally, imperfect. It was never designed by the 
framers of them, that they should be separately perfect. The 
approximation to this attribute was all that was aimed at 
in the construction of both, in all their reciprocal actions, 
grants, reservations, mutual restrictions, and limitations of 
sovereignty. The defects of the one are supplied by the pro- 
visions of the other. Mr. Taylor, of Carolina, thus observes : 
"Neither the Federal nor the State are perfect govern- 
ments, both being only invested, as distinct and checking 
departments, with limited portions or dividends of political 
power." Although, therefore, the United States govern- 
ment, as such, has but few, and these few too olscure, 
religious features, yet, when we reflect, that it participates 
as much of the federal as it does of the national charac- 
ter, and that the particular concern about religion remains 
among the reserved rights of the States respectively, and 
that many of them have paid very particular attention to 
it, it will be found that even this defect, though not 
excused, is considerably palliated. But the statute and 
the common law, in many of the States, as well as adju- 
dications founded on these, are highly creditable to the 
legislator and to the jndge. In Pennsylvania, the laws 
against blasphemy, profane swearing, and Sabbath desecra- 
tion, are as good as, in existing circumstances, we have any 
right to expect. Many instances of judicial decisions of an 
upright and Christian character could be mentioned. One 
case only shall be presented, which occurred in Philadel- 
phia, in the District Court, before Judge Stroud. With 


particular pleasure the writer adduces this instance, in 
which this worthy judge presided. Having the happi- 
ness of being personally acquainted with the judge, he 
knows him to be an excellent neighbor, of stern and 
inflexible integrity, an upright and honorable man. 

The case occurred on April 1st, 1840. 

This was an action to recover damages from the defend- 
ants, for overdriving a valuable pair of horses, belonging to 
Mr. Eerril, causing the death of one, and the permanent 
injury of the other. 

Mr. Vandyke, for the plaintiff, stated that the injury 
complained of, arose from the conduct of the defendants on 
the Sabbath, 18th of May, 1838' — ^and proceeded to call wit- 
nesses to sustain the plaintiff's case. 

After some testimony had been adduced, the judge sug- 
gested that the plaintiff could not recover, if the contract 
for the hire of the horses was made on the Sabbath. Mr. 
Campbell, for the plaintiff, then offered to show a contract 
made on the preceding Saturday, to use the horses on 

But the judge decided that such proof would not affect the 
principles upon which he relied, to wit, that any contract 
made by any man upon Sabbath, if within his ordinary busi- 
ness, or if made on any other day, to be commenced or 
carried into effect on Sabbath, was void, and the plaintiff 
could not recover for any violation of it. The plaintiff was, 
therefore, nonsuited. 

We present another argument, not absolutely conclu- 
sive in its nature, which, nevertheless, is felt to be of consi- 
derable force, and is not to be entirely overlooked. It is an 
argument taken from the example of the wise and good. 
Though we may not follow the multitude to do evil, yet 


the modest and humble Christiari, in a matter that is not 
flagrantly, and at first sight obviously wrong, will pause, 
and deliberate, even in declining, and much more in oppos- 
ing and denouncing what he sees the intelligent, the wise, 
the good, the religioits practising as a duty and a privilege, 
from year to year successively. Let us suppose one of those 
who were honored with Prorenatan suspension, were thus to 
iadulge in reflection : " Is it possible that my recognition 
of the Federal Constitution, and voting at elections, are sins 
involving in them," treason against the Redeemer, and 
rebellion against God, as the separating brethren declare ; 
and for which they have attempted to inflict the highest 
censures of the house of God ? What ! is this such a heinous 
offence against God, and yet I find my friends A. B. C. and 
D., whom I have always believed to be friends of the 
Hedeemer — not traitors nor rebels — ^swear allegiance, vote 
at elections, and yet seem to me to be holy, devout and 
conscientious men. Hundreds might be named, were it not 
invidious to make distinctions. Yes, I have found these 
same persons observing the Sabbath, attentive to family 
worship, zealous in promoting the gospel, contributing libe- 
rally to Bible societies and missionary institutions — indefa- 
tigable in their exertions in Sabbath schools— and in a word, 
so far as I could judge, adorning the doctrine of God their 
Saviour by a life and conversation becoming the gospel. 
Yet strange ! these men held it to be their duty and their 
privilege to vote at elections, and occasionally when called 
to it, to hold offices under the United States government. 
Can these men, said I to myself, be formally traitors and 
- rebels against the Redeemer ! Can they, indeed, and yet 
have such an unction of his Spirit, and feel such attachment 
to his cause! It is impossible. See them, how tenderly 


they deal with their erring brethren. There is truly some- 
thing shocking in the idea that such a number of fellow 
Christians, apparently so devoted to the cause of Christianity, 
should be, notwithstanding, traitors and rebels in his camp, 
because they hold civil and political communion with the 
government of the United States. 




United States Constitution— The Moral Ordinance of God— Objections 

Thied. Some of tlie otjections to the recognition of the 
TJnited States Constitution naay now be stated. 

All the objections may be reduced to three, — Representor 
tion in Congress, Slwvery and SeUgion. 

I. Kepresentation. — It is asserted that the following pro- 
vision in the Constitution, Art. 1, sect. 2, par. 3, viz., " Re- 
presentation and direct taxes shall be apportioned among 
the several States which may be included within this Union, 
according to their respective numbers, which shall be deter- 
mined by adding to the whole number of free persons, 
including those bound to service for a term of years, and 
excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons," 
is a violation of the representative principle, and a recogni- 
tion of slaveiy. 

• 1. "With regard to the^^s^ of these allegations, it may be 
remarked, that absolute equality of representation, either on 
national o^ federal ground, is impossible. Whatever num- 
ber of individuals, thirty, forty, or fifty thousand, may be 
fixed upon, to furnish one representative, it is not likely 
that, in a thousand years, one instance would occur, in 
which, there should be no fractional remainder in any of 


the States in the Umon. Supposing, then, that sixtj thou- 
sand might, constitutionally, send two representatives, and 
the State or Territory contains only fifty-five-thousand popu- 
lation, then either twenty-five thousand must remain um-e- 
presented, or that State or Territory, by sending two, have 
an imjust excess of representation. An approximation is 
all, therefore, that can be expected. 

Again, this inequality is still more glaring in the Senate 
of the Union. There, little Delaware and Khode Island 
stand on a par with the great States of JSTew York or Penn- 
sylvania. This inequality proceeds on the footing of federal 
compromise, among consociate sovereignties, in which this 
conceded equality may be as interesting to the greater as 
to the less ; just as it may be for the interest of a capitalist 
of one hundred thousand dollars, to enter into partnership on 
terms of equal dividends of profit, with one who cannot put 
more than seventy-five thousand into the common stock. 

2. With regard to the second allegation, viz., that this 
inequality in negro representation implies a recognition of 
slavery. To this, it is replied — 

It will be at once admitted, that it does recognize 
its existence as a matter of fact, and also, makes legis- 
lative provision for it. But so far from either sanctioning 
or approving of slavery, it provides, 1st, for taxing, on 
certain emergencies, the slaveholders, viewing the slaves as 
persons, and not as mere chattels; and 2d, inasmuch as 
five slaves are rated, in representation, as equal to three free- 
men, the slaveholder is punished by a proportionate 
diminution of representation, and consequently of legisla- 
tive influence on the floor of Congress. The Southern States 
had as fair a claim to the representation of all their popu- 
lation, including their "disfranchised UaoJc men," as the 


Northern States had to all their population, including 
their " disfranchised lohite men," to wit, minors, " paupers, 
apprentices, aliens, and non-voting citizens." Yet all 
these latter are represented in Congress, while only three 
out of five of the former contribute to the representation 
of the South. 

II. Slavery. — ^The existence of this terrible evil cannot 
be denied. It is a foul, moral stain, on the national charac- 
ter, at the sight of which virtue recoils, and over which 
humanity, unless its sensibilities are woefully stupefied, 
miist shed a tear. Yet, this monstrous evil, it is asserted, 
the Federal Government countenances and protects. The 
charge is founded, Fiest, on the following provision of the 
United States Constitution : 

Art. 1 Sec. 9. — " The emigration or imjoortation of such 
persons as any of the States now existing shall think pro- 
per to admit, shall not be prohibited by Congress, prior 
to the year 1808, but a tax or duty may be imposed on 
such importation, not exceeding ten dollars on each per- 

On this very imsightly subject, it is proposed to make a 

few observations : 

1. None can reprobate the nefarious traffic in human 
flesh more than we do. We cordially approve of the 
statute of Congress, by which this acciirsed trade subjects 
the person engaged in it, if caught, to the punishment of 
death as an outlaw or pirate, out of the pale of the law 

of nations. 

2. Let us examine how far the charge is true, or if 
there be any truth at all in it, as it respects the Federal 

Constitution, and, 



(1.) Did the Federal Constitution originate slavery ? The 
answer is at hand, which any child in the history of his 
country can give. No ; it existed long before the Federal 
Constitution had been dreamed of. The Federal Govern- 
ment, then, did not create it. The United States Constitu- 
tion is not its author. 

(2.) To whom, or what, then, is its oi-igin to be referred ? 

Let history answer this question. It is one of some 
importance. It originated with the mother country. This 
nefarious traffic was countenanced by the people of London, 
in 1562. John Hawkins commanded the vessel in which 
the poor African crossed the Atlantic. In his third voy- 
age, on board his ship " Jesus " — (Monstrous impiety ! 
shocking profanation !) he had between four and five 
hundred negroes. — See Halduyf s Coll. Voy. This same 
Hawkins was knighted by the Virgin Queen — the defender 
of the faith. 

In 1618, James the First granted a charter to Sir Eobert 
Kick and others, to cany on the slave trade from the coast 
of Africa. The first introduction of negroes into the British 
colonies was in 1620 ; when a Dutch ship sailed up James 
Eiver, and sold twenty negroes to the Yirginia planters. 
This fact is mentioned by all the colonial historians. — See 
Beverley'' s History of Yirginia. 

In 1631, Charles the First created, by charter, a second 
company to trade to the coast of Africa, granting exclusive 
rights for the purposes to Sir Eichard Young, Kinclen 
Digby, &c. The fleet was fitted out in 1632, with the royal 
protection. In 1651, the Long Parliament granted a charter 
for five years to a company for carrying on the African 
slave trade. 

We see, from all these historical references, that slavery 

1638 ASD 1649. 475 

existed witli unblusliing effrontery and unmodified severity 
under tlie sanction of tlie British government, even during 
the Augustin age of reform, between 1638 and 1649, with- 
out, as far as we are informed by the annals of those days, 
having so much as attracted the attention of the Westmin- 
ster Assembly of Divines, or the Reformed churches which 
they represented. This monstrous evil was becoming more 
extensive every year, and yet, strange to tell, the Coven- 
anters of that day did not reject the British government 
on that account ! Yet, their successors constantly refer to 
this period, between 1638 and 1649, both inclusive, as the 
purest period of Reform, ation ! 

(3.) Did the Federal Constitution authorize slavery ? ISTo. 
Let us see the facts of the case. Let them speak for them- 

Here let it be remembered that the United States Con- 
stitution was a compromise of many conflicting interests, 
necessarily requiring mutual concessions — that slavery pre- 
viously existed — that in the Southern States it was inter- 
woven with all the social relations of life — that the States 
were all free and independent sovereignties, and, in the 
formation of the federal compact, had a right to transfer 
or reserve, in their own hands, whatever portion of their 
sovereignty they thought proper — that the slave States 
would not suffer the question of slavery to be touched 
at all, beyond the temporary tax on importation for 
twenty years, the permanent prohibition, and the sacri- 
fice of two-fifths of their slave representation on the floor 
of Congress. Beyond these, they would resign nothing, 
nor entrust their new creation — the Federal Government — 
with any legislative power on this subject. 

(4.) Could the Federal Government, in these circumstances, 


abolish slavery ? They had then, they have now, no more 
right to do so than the Klian of Tartary ; no more right 
than they would have to proclaim emancipation to the 
slaves in the island of Cuba, or any other of the "West 
India Islands, where slavery exists. 

(5.) "What could they do? and what did they do? They 
could impose a tax on the importatioji of negro slaves 
for twenty years after the adoption of the Eederal Con- 
stitution. They did so. They could prohibit the traffic 
entirely, at the expiration of twenty years, in 1808. They 
did so. They had the law enacted, cufand dry, so as to 
go immediately into operation after 12 o'clock, p.m., 31st 
December, 1807. It would be gratifying to the friend of 
humanity to trace the progress of legislation from the 
Ordinance, 1787, which made the admission of the new 
States which should be formed out of the then North 
Western Territory into the Union, to depend upon their 
Constitutional prohibition of slavery, down through the 
years 1794, 1800, 1807, 1811, 1819, 1830, when a partici- 
pation in that dark commerce was made by law a capital 
crime — piracy on the high seas. Could the Federal 
Government have done any more ? Yes. It could have 
abolished slavery in the District of Columbia, but did 
not ! It could have prevented the most inhuman traffic 
between the States, which often rends asunder the 
strongest and the tenderest ties of our nature, in separ- 
ating husband and wife, parent and child ; but this it 
has not done. This is deeply to be regretted. It, how- 
ever, affects not the principle of the Constitution. It is 
chargeable to maladministration. 

Here it will be requisite to observe, that we have been in 
the practice of using the word " Constitution of the United 


States," and the " government of the United States " indif- 
ferently in this inquiry. It is necessary to distinguish 
between them, in answering the question proposed at the 
head of this article, viz.: "Has the United States govern- 
ment aided and countenanced slavery?" In reference to 
that admirable document denominated the Fedeeal Con- 
stitution, so far as its true spirit has been carried out in 
the executive administration, the answer is, no : but the 
very contrary. The genius of the Constitution, in its legiti- 
mate tendency, when faithfully administered by a correct 
and honest executive, so far from abetting slavery, has 
already prevented the bondage of millions of the African 
race, and is now extending, with fostering care, the wings 
of the national eagle over the infant colonies of Liberia. 

We would conclude then this observation with remarking, 
that the Constitution of the United States laid the founda- 
tion of a sei-ies of provisions which, by their upright and 
faithful development and application, would stop the 
progress, and ultimately annihilate this great moral pesti- 
lence ; but neither the national legislature, nor the executive 
administration, have yet practically appreciated such a 
desirable consummation. 

The charge of countenancing slavery is founded, in the 
Second place, on the following provision of the United 
States Constitution — Art. 4, sec. 2: "ISTo person held to 
service or labor in one State, under the laws thereof, escap- 
ing into another, shall in consequence of any law or 
regulation therein, be discharged from such service or 
labor ; but shaU be delivered up on claim of the party to 
which such labor shall be due." 

To this it may be replied, that there is not one word in this 
provision which would not be necessary, if there were not 


a single slave in the United States. It covers the case of 
the hired servant and the absconding apprentice, as well as 
that of the slave. If the provision be abused by the 
legislature or the executive, this too is criminal maladmin- 

This charge is founded, Thied, on a provision in the 
Constitution, — Art. 1, sec. 9th. " The migration or importa- 
tion of such persons, as any of the States now existing shall 
think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the 
Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and 
eight ; but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importa- 
tion, not exceeding ten dollars for each person." This is 
denominated by the objectors, " a license to carry on 
piratical practice for twenty years." 

1. Here let it be recollected that slavery existed in the 
colonies, was legalized by the British Government, and 
passed into these States along with their independence. 

2. Let it also be kept in mind, that the States were 
independent sovereignties. That, however criminal in the 
eye of the Divine law, and however grating to the feelings 
of philanthropy the traffic in slavery really was, yet other 
nations hati no i-ight of interference, but by conventional 
stipulations. The denial of this position would lead to a 
national knight-errantry — a Quixotic effort to correct the 
abuses and redress the grievances which may exist in other 

3. Let it be inquired whether the advocates of liberty, 
the free States, did not gain an important point, when, by 
negotiation, they had persuaded those whom they could not 
compel, first, solemnly to bind themselves, after the lapse of 
twenty years, to relinquish the practice entirely ; and, 
secondly, in the meantime, during these twenty years, to 


submit to a tax of ten dollars per head, on every slave tliej 
should import ? Or, would it have been better, neither to 
have limited the duration of this nefarious practice, nor 
have imposed any restriction upon it ! Since it is impos- 
sible to obtain all that was desirable, proper, and due, 
would it have been better to have taken nothing at all ? In 
a case of insolvency, would you refuse seventy-five cents 
out of the dollar, in the dividend, because you could not 
obtain the whole ! surely not. 

But it argued in the Foueth place, that since slavery 
exists in some of the States, and as all the population are 
united by the Federal Constitution, in a national capacity, 
slavery thus becomes a national sin, and is chargeable on 
all, the free as well as the slaveholding States. 

1. However plausible this allegation may be, nay, however 
correct and just, in a consolidated government, purely 
national, it has not the same force in a confederation of 
sovereignties. As sovereign States, they hold themselves 
responsible only to the Governor of Nations. E"o State has 
any right of interference with the peculiar policy or muni- 
cipal regulations of another. "They never had when 
separate ; and now, that they are united, they have no right 
to act politically upon each other, except through the 
Federal medium." And certainly, this can extend no 
further than to whatever they voluntarily resigned on enter- 
ing into the Federal compact. But over this they delegated 
no control to the Federal Government ; and consequently it 
has no right to interfere— and as the individual States have 
no right of interference, but through the Federal medium, 
they may not touch the subject, any more than they may 
interfere to correct any other domestic immorahty in the 


2. The union among these different States was a ques- 
tion of expediency, and rests upon the principle common to 
all international conventions — the common benefit of all 
concerned. The independence of these States is, as the 
friends of freedom will admit, one of the most important 
events recorded in history. It was achieved at great 
expense of blood and treasure — it was worth much more 
than it cost. But its benefits could not have been obtained, 
nor could they be secured, but by union. Yet had its 
acquisition, or its maintenance, compromitted any moral 
principle, rather let it be shivered to atoms ; we may not, in 
any instance act upon the Jesuitical principle, " to do 
evil, that good may come of it." But the Federal Consti- 
tution, on the article of slavery, required no such sacrifice. 
It did not create this moral pestilence — it had no power to 
annihilate it — :it deprives no human being of liberty — it has 
no provision in it for jperpetuating ; but, on the contrary, 
much for mitigating, and ultimately extinguishing this 
hideous evil. 

Another allegation, in the Fifth place, has been rested 
upon the following provision in the Federal Constitution :■ — ■ 
Art. 4, sec. 4z. " The United States shall protect each of 
the States against domestic violence." It would appear 
from the discussions in convention of the framers of this 
instrument, that the interference of the Federal power was 
never contemplated. In those States, the slave being con- 
templated as private property, the laws of the State which 
created such a species of property must defend it. The 
Statesmen of the South say, " We do not ask the aid of any 
government whatever. It is created property, by our law, 
and our own State governments are able to carry that law 
into execution. This (Federal) government has no more to 


do with it, than the lOian of Tartary. Our laws will, may, 
and must execute themselves." 

But, in the Sixth place, slavery still prevails in the 
District of Columbia, over which the Federal Government 
has complete control. 

The fact is undeniable — here there is no apology. — See Art. 
1, sec. 8, United States Constitution : " Congress shall have 
power to exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatever, 
over such a District, not exceeding ten miles square — as 
may, by session of particular States and the acceptance of 
Congress, become the seat of government of the United 
States." Theyhave the power, they want the will — but of 
this before. This allegation, however, bears not upon the 
United States Constitution, but is a defect in national 
legislation. The majorities of Congress are to blame. They 
stand arraigned in the sight of God, for their neglect of, nay 
more, their antipathy against, this sacred duty of letting the 
innocent, unoffending prisoner go free. All the waters oi 
the Potomac — all the waters of the ocean, would not wash 
off this foul stain from the national escutcheon. 

III. Tlie third grand objection is on the score of Keligion. 
The Constitution of the United States has been denounced 
as atheistical. But 

1. 1\iB first allegation made in support of this charge is, 
" That the name of God is not mentioned in the Federal 
Constitution." For this neglect, no apology can be offered : 
we admit that it was a criminal omission. It is deeply to 
be regretted. Nevertheless, it is not admitted that this 
omission destroys the validity of that instrument, or at all 
nullifies its moral obligation. Both the Being and the Pro- 
vidence of God are recognized in the Declaration of Inde- 


pendence — our Bill of Eights. But we are not authorized 
to reject the validity of tlie Constitution for this omission. 
Take this instrument in connection with the State Constitu- 
tions, separate from which it was never designed to present 
a political system, even as perfect as frail, erring man could 
make, and receive it, in connection with these, as integral 
parts of one great whole, and this objection will be com- 
pletely removed. 

But again, that such an omission in a public document 
ought not to nullify its authority, will be manifest from the 
fact that the validity of the books of Esther, and the Song 
of Solomon, has never been questioned on the score of the 
name of God not being found in either of them. The 
Scripture must be viewed as a whole. As well might we 
reject every chapter and every verse where the name of God 
is not mentioned, as reject these books for this omission. 

2. An objection is advanced on the score of the non-recog- 
nition of Cliristianity. This has also been settled before. 
It has been stated that the oath of office — the Anno Do- 
mini — the exemption of the Sabbath from official duties — 
the kissing of the Gospels — (however wrong in itself)- — the 
employment of chaplains, &c. &c. all imply a recognition 
of Christianity. 

3. It is objected that there is no religious test necessary as 
a qualification for filling any particular office. The article 
of the Constitution here impugned is the third of the amend- 
ments — " Congress shall make no law respecting an estab- 
lishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof" 
— whereby the existence of a religious establishment by 
civil authority is absolutely prohibited, and where there is 
no civil establishment of religion, there is no room for a 
religious test. In the United States, of course, there is none. 


How far the interests of Christianity have been promoted 
by governmental patronage and superintending care, the 
history and experience of the chnrch can testify. That the 
law of God should be taken as the rule of national, as 
well as personal action, is manifest. The Church of God is 
the authorized expositrix of that law ; and when the civil 
authorities, in their own department, act in conformity 
thereunto, and yield protection to the Church of God in 
interpreting and applying her own laws, it is, perhaps, all 
that can or ought to be expected of them. " Individuals 
may transgress, and yet be true Christians — the church may 
fall short of the proper rule, and yet be still a part of 
Christ's body; the State may also be deficient in conformity 
to the true model, in many particulars, and be deserving of 
recognition, as moral and Christian. A man may be still a 
man, though he may be deficient of an ear or an arm, or 
have some unsightly excrescence growing upon his person." 
The government of the United States is one of powers 
specifically enumerated. The constituents have not dele- 
gated to any officer, whether legislative or executive, the 
power to interfere with their religion. They considered 
this too sacred, too much a matter between their God 
and themselves — God and their consciences — to deposit 
in the hands, or leave it in the care of any third person. 
The Congress, of course, have no right at all delegated 
to them, to appoint or establish any religion for the 
people. This is expressly denied. Consequently, congres- 
sional legislation, on this subject, is utterly inadmissible. 
The great mass of the people in these United States would 
just as soon give the Pope their consciences to keep for 
them, to save them the trouble of keeping them themselves, 
as trust their religion to their representatives in Congress. 


A civil establisliinent of religion, as professed by one sect, 
and a toleration of others, in the technical sense of these 
terms, can never take place in this country until Popery 
gain tlie ascendency — a consummation most devoutly to be 
deprecated ! Since the commencement of Christianity, all 
civil establishments of religion have been like dead flies to 
the apothecary's ointment. Their commencement, in the 
fourth century, by Constantino, was destructive of the 
purity of Christianity, and prepared the way for the reve- 
lation of the man of sin. It has subserved his interests 
ever since he reached maturity, and is in perfect harmony 
with his infallibility. 

It may be asked, according to these views, how shall the 
kingdoms of this world become the kingdoms of our Lord 
and of his Christ, accoi'ding to the promise ? In answer to 
this very important inquiry, it may be replied, the means 
to bring about, this most desirable consummation are 
already in operation. In this country we begin with 
the root — the people. In monarchical countries, the mon- 
arch is root, and the poor plebeians are little more in esti- 
mation than the withered leaves and twigs on the great 
social tree. We try to imbue the sovereign people with 
the influence and spirit of the Gospel. Admirable auxili- 
aries to this are Bible societies, missionary institutions. Sab- 
bath schools, tract societies, temperance societies, &c., which 
are all now in full tide of successful operation through these 
United States; and through most of Christendom. The 
influence of these grand auxiliaries to the dissemination of 
truth, and the formation of virtue, is beginning to be felt, 
and will continue to roll along, until it shall embrace the 
habitable globe. Where is the Bible first to be estab- 
lished? Surely, in the hearts of the people — the consti- 


tuency of our government. These laws, suggested by tlie 
Bible, will be enacted and obeyed. Public sentiment will 
feel and recognize tbeir obligation. First, tben, make tbe 
tree good, and the fruit will be of the same quality. Let 
the people be instructed in the Scriptures, impressed with 
a sense of duty, and feel their obligation to God, to society, 
and to themselves, and is it to be supposed for a moment, 
that they would elect deists, heretics, or non-professors of 
religion, to represent them in the halls of legislation, or to 
occupy executive offices ? Impossible ! "Would they com- 
mit such important interests to the enemies of the Kedeemer, 
rather than put them into the hands of his friends ? Surely 
not! The nation will soon become Hephzibah, and the 
land Beulah — -the Lord delighting in, and the land being 
married, and so, no longer forsaken or desolate. Then, 
" one shall say, I am the Lord's ; another shall call himself 
by the name of Jacob ; and another shall subscribe with his 
hand unto the Lord, and surname himself by the name of 
Israel." To the Bible, and the blessing of God accompany- 
ing its distribution and exposition, the rapidly progressive 
amehoration of the social interests of our race is to be 
ascribed. And the time is approaching, when the king- 
doms of this world shall become " the kingdoms of our Lord 
and of his Christ." 

Here the writer is admonished that some may consider 
those discussions as a digression from the subject, and say, 
what have they to do with a memoir of the life of the late 
Dr. McLeod? It will be readily admitted that such an 
objection is not implausible. But, let the objector consider 
that Dr. McLeod coincided in sentiment on all these pub- 
lic points with us, his brethren, whose views have been 


above expressed. In vindicatiiig ourselves we vindicate 
him, or rather we vindicate the church to which we all 
belong, and from which the brethren who adopt the 
restricted views which we have controverted, found them- 
selves constrained to maiie a disorderly secession. 



Last Illness — Death — Character — Tributes of Respect. 

The closing scene of the life of this great and good 
man was highly interesting. A mutual friend has written 
of him as follows : 

" On Dr. McLeod's return from Europe, his health was 
so far apparently restored as to justify the fond hopes of 
his family and flock that he might be spared for years to 
be their instructor and counseller. But the all-wise Creator 
of the universe had other designs. A physical enlarge- 
ment of the heart, which was always morally large enough 
to embrace the whole family of man, retarded the due circu- 
lation of the blood, so that symptoms of dropsy in the chest 
presented themselves, and these agents of God combined, 
gradually undermined an otherwise vigorous constitution. 
On the 17th of February, 1833, on the morning of which 
he remarked to his wife, ' This is the Sabbath, it is a day of 
rest ; and there remaineth a rest for the people of God ; 
for this I long,' and at about half-past eleven, in the 69th 
year of his age, and 34th of his ministry, this servant of God 
expired. He left the world with all the calmness, the intel- 
ligence, the dignity and solemnity of one who believed he 


was about to be introduced to tbe presence chamber of 
his God ! He had, to use his own favorite phrase, occupied 
' the niche' allotted to him in the Church below, and 
his covenant God took him to fill a niche in the temple 
not made with hands, eternal in the heavens. 

" He had something appropriate and characteristically 
original to say to aU who visited him ; and they will doubt- 
less treasure up these sayings as valuable memorials. My 
own recollections furnish items of a few conversations 
which I think deserve record in this place. On the 21st 
January, I called to see him, and he came from his bed- 
room, for the last time, to his parlor, ' to receive me. We 
were alone.' He stated that ' he had been always in con- 
troversy, but his were the controversies of gentlemen. "With 
Bishop Hobart, on the subject of church government, but 
they were ever mutual friends ; and on some topics with 
Doctor Mason; yet, he had never seen anything in him 
which led him for a moment to doubt that he was a great 
man, a good and an honorable man.' 

" On the 1st of February, I found him under the influ- 
ence of his disease, quite lethargic ; but being roused by 
the word preaching, which had been dropped, in conver- 
sation, he awoke, saying, ' I will always preach Christ,' and 
with tears he added, ' It was a work I always loved ; I 
always loved to preach Christ. Yes, from six years of age. 
I hope and believe that I loved even then to think of 
preaching Christ. 

" I remarked, ' with that work, I believe you are done, 
and now follows the reward.' ' Yes,' he replied, ' I believe I 
am done with that work; but no, no reward for me. I 
deserve nothing ; it is all of grace, and eternity alone will 
be long enough for me to acknowledge my indebtedness.' 


But, said I, ' The fact is bo, in the order of events ; the 
saints rest from their labors, and their works do follow them 
— ^nay, sometimes go before them, as witnesses for them, 
and evidences in their favor.' ' Yes,' he replied, ' there is 
comfort in that; God is my witness, whom I serve with 
my spirit in the Gospel of his Son.' 

"'And,' said he, 'there is another witness : The testi- 
mony of our own conscience. I hme that, and it comforts 
me, that while man may misrepresent and misstate, God is a 
God of truth, and will witness to no falsehood. He will 
witness to the truth in the case both of friends and foes.' 

" After a pause, and in another connection, he remarked : 
' I love the world, because God made it ; I have loved all 
mankind ; I have always had a favorable opinion of my 
fellow men ; I never knew the being I hated ; and I wish 
my last hour and my dying pillow may be occupied in 
loving them that hate me, and blessing them that curse me!' 

" Speaking of the apparent change in his hands in a 
pendant or horizontal position, he observed — ' My frame 
undergoes many changes, and all for the better ; and the 
last change it will undergo, will be the best of all !' 

"And after uniting in prayer, he distinctly uttered the 
triumphant exclamation of Paul — " O death, where is thy 
sting ! O grave, where is thy victory ? Thanks be to God, 
which giveth us the victory, through our Lord Jesus 

With his old and tried friend, Mr. Andrew Gifford, a 
member of his Session, and himself an eminent Christian, 
he conversed daily on the subject of his death, and always 
spoke most confidently, yet with great humility, of the 
happy change for which he felt himself preparing. The 



conversation of these two friends, as they spent a portion 
of each day together for months before Dr. McLeod's 
decease, was eminently " in heaven." They seemed to talk 
of it as a familiar place ; and its society, its employments, 
its joys, its secm'ities, and above all, the Redeemer, who is 
its light and glory, were the themes upon which they 
enlarged, to the exclusion of all others. They spoke of 
their approaching separation as but temporary, and rejoiced 
in the conviction that a re-union not again to be interrupted 
would soon take place. To his son, who records the above- 
mentioned facts, he said one morning, " You need not be 
surprised at any time when you leave me, to find me gone 
when you return." But, he added, with a look of heavenly 
serenity and joy never to be forgotten, "Be not unduly 
moved ; by the grace of God I am ready for the change." 

Another interesting occm-rence took place at the last 
family altar around which he worshiped. He had called 
his family into his room for that purpose, and after the 
services performed by his son, he looked around upon his 
wife and upon each of their children, so as to recognize 
them. He then, like the dying patriarch, conceutrated all 
the energies of his mind, and all the afi'ections of his heart, 
and with uplifted hands and an audible voice pronounced 
the Apostolic benediction, " The grace of the Lord Jesus 
Christ, and the love of God, and the communion of the 
Holy Ghost, be with you all. Amen." 

Thus fell asleep in Jesus, the Eev. Dr. Alexander McLeod, 
a man on whom the Father of Spirits had bestowed 
" superior mental endowments — force of understanding — 
solidity of judgment — richness of imagination — command 
of language, and the graces of utterance. He had, more 
than any of hig clerical compeers, studied the science of the 

DEATH. 491 

human mind, and his metaphysical researches enabled him 
promptly to detect, expose, and refute the fallacy and folly 
of an argument, while it enabled him to appreciate the 
force and justness of legitimate conclusions." 

Yes I he is gone. But, " though dead, he yet speaketh," 
in the valuable works he has left behind him ; and his 
memory is embalmed in the most affectionate recollections 
of his numerous surviving admirers. Public sentiment 
responds in unison with the obituary notices of his death, 
in the most respectable journals. Of these the following 
are specimens : 

From the Christian Intelligencer. 


" The Rev. Alexander MeLeod, D.D. — -This eminent and 
devoted servant of the Lord Jesus Christ had been with- 
drawn from his active and useful labors for some time, by a 
severe and obstinate aifection of the heart. But it was 
hoped that his strong and vigorous constitution might 
sustain him under its powerful influence, and that he might, 
in due time, resume the important place which he had for a 
long time and with such reputation, filled in the church, 
and in the American community. 

" The footsteps of the Almighty are in the deep waters, and 
his ways are unsearchable. The infirmities consequent upon 
his disease, combined with the pressure of ecclesiastical 
cares, have finally broken down this mighty man— mighty 
in intellectual and acquired strength, and mighty in his 
moral influence over his fellow men. 

" This beloved and respected disciple ended his wearisome 


pilgrimage on the day of sacred rest (ITth ultimo.) 
in tlie fifty-ninth year of his age, and thirty-fourth of his 

" He is the last of those men of ministerial talent that once 
threw their light and influence over this city and the 
Christian community. He was the compeer of Livingston, 
Komeyu, Mason, Abeel, and Hobart. All these men 
acknowledged him as their equal, and this city felt a 
community in them all, such as is seldom acknowledged. 

" Dr. McLeod's powers of mind were not confined to the 
comparatively small Christian commimity to which he 
belonged. In the political struggles of his country, he was 
the Christian patriot. He was the patron of literature and 
science, and throughout the whole course of his life he was 
true to the sacred claims of friendship ; undeviating and 
consistent in all his public conduct, and to the closing scene 
he persevered in displaying all the promptness and decision 
of the greatest men, without those eccentricities and weak- 
nesses that have detracted from the characters of not a few. 
He died with all the simplicity of a child of Christ Jesus, 
and all the firmness of a soldier of the Cross. 

"His funeral was numerously attended, and the whole 
community felt that a great man had fallen in Israel. 
He sleeps with the mighty dead, whose memory shall ever 
be cherished. 

" His mourning family and bereaved flock will especially 
remember him who had the rule over them. Their father, 
the guide of their youth, is now no more. His footsteps and 
his voice have died away in the grave, where he now rests 
in hope of glory, honor and immortality." 


From the Philadelphian. 

" OUttMry iVbzf^cc— Entered into his rest, on tlie Sabbath, 
17th inst., at half-past eleven o'clock, a.m. in the fifty-ninth 
year of his age, and the thirty-fourth of his ministry, the 
Eev. Alexander McLeod, D. D., senior Pastor of the First 
Keformed Presbyterian Congregation in the city of IJfew 

" Dr. McLeod was a native of the Isle of Mull, North Bri- 
tain. His father and grandfather were respectable godly 
ministers of the Presbyterian Church, in their native land. 
The Doctor emigrated to this country in early youth ; and 
was ever an enthusiastic admirer of its free republican insti- 
tutions. He was, for a considerable time before his decease, 
afflicted with a severe and lingering disease, which he 
endured with true fortitude and Christian resignation. He 
possessed a most vigorous and masculine mind, and an 
intellect of the first order, highly cultivated by the best 
education, and polished by choice society. He was an 
energetic, eloquent, and powerful preacher; indefatigable 
in the services of the sanctuary, and labors of love ; a 
most learned and profound theologian. None understood 
more acurately than he the doctrines of the Eeformation, 
for which the martyrs bled and died ; none exemplified 
these doctrines more fully and conscientiously, by a life and 
conversation becoming the profession he made. To these 
principles he adhered with undeviating stedfastness, to 
the end of his life. As he lived the life, so he died the 
death of the Eighteoua. His faith continued triumphant to 
the last— without a struggle, with a groan he fell asleep in 
Jesus- ' Blessed are the dead who die in the Lord.' 


" By the death of Doctor McLeod, the cause of tmth 
has lost a most powerful champion, and the Eeformed 
Presbyterian Church one of her brightest ornaments and 
most faithful sons. The loss will be long felt and lamented. 
But there is consolation in the stroke ; their loss is his 
unspeakable gain. His name will be long remembered, 
and will be united with most pleasing and interesting asso- 
ciations, not only in the churches in the United States, but 
also in those in Britain and Ireland, where he was known 
and admired, as well from personal acquaintance as from 
the numerous and valuable productions of his powerful pen. 

"As an author, he was profound, yet perspicuous ; his 
arrangement was lucid ; his style nervous ; his reasoning 
cogent ; his demonstrations conclusive, and his elucidations 
of truth plain, clear, and obvious. But he has gone home. 
He is beyond the empire of sin and trouble. He has left a 
congregation in deep sorrow for the loss of such a pastor. 
He has left a disconsolate widow and four children to 
lament him. The eldest of these, the Kev. John 'N. 
McLeod, a highly talented and godly youth, was lately 
invited by the congregation and installed as his colleague 
and successor in his ministerial charge. 

" The above is a small tribute of respect to a most excel- 
lent man, and highly gifted ambassador of Christ, from one 
whose felicity it was to possess and enjoy the friendship of 
his youth — a friendship unabated through life — one who 
was, and still continues to be, an admirer of his public 
and private virtues. These could not be known and remain 
unappreciated. He was an ardent friend, a faithful con- 
fidant, and an unostentatious Christian ; liberah and enlight- 
ened in his views of Christianity — equally removed from 
the insipidity of latitudinarian indifference, and the bigotry 


of gloomy fanaticism. Eut he is gone! Yes, this great 
and good man is gone to his eternal reward— the crown of 
glory. He rests from his labors, and his works shall follow 
him. ' He died to live, and liyes to die no more.' " 

To the above, the Eev. Dr. Ely, editor of the Philakel- 
PHIAH-, bears testimony, with additions. 


The above, says the Doctor, is neither adulation nor the 
expression of the partiality of friendship. Our acquaint- 
ance with Dr. McLeod commenced in 1810. He was then 
in the vigor of his days, the companion of Mason, Abeel, 
and Eomeyn, inferior to none of them in the strength of his 
intellect, and superior to them all in the science of the 
human mind. Eomeyn had more of history and polite 
hterature than any one of them. Abeel excelled in all 
the persuasiveness of a tender pastor and practical preacher. 
Mason was the most commanding orator, classical scholar, 
and profound expository lecturer on the Word of God. 

The elocution of Dr. McLeod was impetuous, and noisy as 
a mountain torrent, full of foam, and sending off pui-e water 
into a thousand pools and subterranean caverns. Abeel 
and Eomeyn, in their public discourses, were like the Con- 
necticut and Hudson rivers; Mason was the overflowing 
Mississippi. Four such men have not lived in ISTew York 
since Abeel led the way to heaven. ISTeither of them has 
left his equal behind him, in all that great emporium of our 
New "World. 

Dr. McLeod was acute and witty, as well as ardent in his 
friendship, and devotedly pious. His style of writing was 
terse and concise; but his pages were always indicative 


of good sense and profound research. The principal works 
which he has left behind him are, his "Ecclesiastical 
Catechism ;" " Keformation Principles exhibited by the 
Eeformed Presbyterian Church ;" " The Life and Power 
of Godliness described in a Series of Discourses ;" and 
"Scriptural View of the Character, Causes, and Ends, of 
the Present "War," presented in a series of sermons printed 
in 1815. 

He contributed largely to the two last volumes of the 
Cheistiaii Magazine, edited by Drs. Mason and Eomeyn, 
and at the time of his death, was editing the second volume 
of " The Ameeican Cheistiact ExposrroE," a monthly maga- 
zine, "designed to promote the influence of sound princi- 
ples and social order." 

By these publications, and the memory of his evangelical 
preaching, and the influence of his godly life — he being 
dead, yet speaketh — the righteous shall be had in ever- 
lasting remembrance. 

From the Cincinnati Standard. 

" Obituary. — ^The late ISTew York papers apprise us of the 
death, in that city, on Sabbath last, the lYth, of Alexander 
McLeod, D.D., pastor of the Eeformed Presbyterian Church 

" Dr. McLeod had been extensively and advantageously 
known to the American church for many years, as a burn- 
ing and a shining light. He has been the able and fearless 
defender of civil and religious liberty for years ; a diligent, 
eminent, and successful preacher of the Gospel of Jesus 
Christ, and the author of a commentary on the Eevelations, 
and other publications of minor and temporary interest. 

DE. wiisoiir. 497 

By common consent and deference, he was the head of a 
denomination which numhers among its ministers such men 
as Drs. Black, Wylie, and McMaster. 

" He was called away at an age when ministerial usefulness 
is at its prime ; when the gathered influence of years, and 
stores of experience render the warnings and teachings of 
a pastor peculiarly impressive. He was called away at a 
period of difficulty in the church generally, and his own 
section of the church, when his knowledge, and piety, and 
fidelity, were most needed. 

" But he who seeth not as man seeth, hath sent the mes- 
sage, ' Friend go up higher,' and it ought . not to be for 
us to repine or mourn. ' The Lord reigneth, and will bring 
order out of confusion, and light from darkness, by the 
power of his own right hand.' 

" The righteous shall be in everlasting remembrance." 

Such are a few of the obituary notices of the late 
lamented Dr. McLeod. They are not representations sur- 
charged with the feelings and partialities of personal attach- 
ment. They are merely the reflections of public sentiment 
called forth spontaneously, on hearing the mournful tidings, 
that in Israel, " there was a prince, and a great man fallen." 

After the Doctor's death, there was found among his 
papers, a document expressive of his last will — a document 
which breathes the loftiest strains of Christian piety ; and 
in magnificence and moral grandeur takes precedence of 
all his other valuable and numerous wi-itings. 


Found among the papers of Dr. McLeod after his 


I, Alexander McLeod, of the city of ]S"ew York, minister 
of the Gospel, and Doctor of Divinity, do make and ordain 
this Declaration and Testimony, as the last expression of 
my will, in relation to religion, this nineteenth day of the 
month of March, in the year of our Lord, one thousand 
eight hundred and thirty two ; and in the^ra^ place, 

Being, by the mercy of God, preserved in the exercise of 
a sound recollection and judgment, though with indication 
of speedy dissolution of my mortal constitution, I perform 
this Act, viz. : I commend my soul to God who gave it, 
now, or when called for by him, to leave this body, that I 
may be accepted in Jesus Christ, on the footing of the 
CoA'enant of Grace, which is all my salvation and all my 
desire; and so read and appropriate, Ps. cxix. ST-GO. 
After this voluntary surrender of my spirit,' and in connec- 
tion with my personal Covenant with God, in relation to it, 
I also commit to him my body, as redeemed dust, in hope 
of a resurrection from the dead to die no more. Accord- 
ingly, I bid farewell to this world and all the good things it 
contains — to my beloved spouse, the wife of my youth — to 
each of my remaining offspring ; and I resign them all to 
God their Father and my friend. I bid farewell to the church 
militant and its delightful ordinances, and all its sanctified, 
though yet imperfect members and even to my long and 
best companion, the Bible, leaving all without a grudge, in 
order to be in heaven with the Lord, which is far better. 

In the second place, I declare, in the sight of the heart- 
searching God ; my unwavering conviction of the truth of 
the doctrine, which I preached and published from the press 
during my ministry. I strove earnestly and prayerfully to 
utter nothing that I did not know to be from God, and to 
publish nothing but what appeared to my understanding 


and my conscience to be useful both for the illustration and 
defence of the truth ; and also for the good of the brethren 
in the church, and in the world. 

I never quoted or selected from any human composition, 
or for any purpose, without previovis examination of its 
truth ; and never, from the works of any man, either living 
or dead, except for the sake of promoting sound doctrine ; 
and by reference, to bestow due honor upon respectable 
names to whom honor is due ; or with design to refute 
detrimental sentiments. Seeing everything I wrote in the 
course of my ministry is entirely my own, and not composed 
hastily, I give it now, again, as a part of my declared 
religious belief, and affirm that all my avowed principles 
remain firm and unaltered, according to the form of the 
Covenant which I recently drew up ; and which, is now in 
overture before the three Synods, viz., of Scotland, Ireland 
and the United States. 

In the third place I give my Testimony, to the truth 
and propriety of " Eeformation Principles Exhibited," in 
defence of Christianity, and in opposition to error — 
to the terms of "Ecclesiastical Communion," in the 
Keformed Presbyterian Church, and to the " Ecclesiastical 
Catechism," under my own pen. I continue in my una- 
bated attachment to the cause of the Covenanted followers 
of the British Eeformers, without ill-will to any organized 
church, or any individual on earth. Lamenting the evil 
causes which continue the heresies, the schisms, the preju- 
dices, the selfish policy, and the party passions and zeal 
which distract, I have never advised, occasioned, or given 
countenance to the divisions of the commonwealth of Christ ; 
while endeavoring for myself, in this divided state, in which 
I found the church of God, to select, and faithfully to 



adhere — without consulting any temporal interests — to the 
communion which appeared most pure, and correspondent 
with the Scriptures. 

Finally, I call to witness for the sincerity of these my pro- 
fessions, the rocks, the caverns, and hovels of Caledonia ; the 
woodlands, and barns and hills of Curriesbush, and Duanes- 
burg — the class-rooms and lodging-houses of Schenectady, 
the scene of my collegiate studies, and all the delightful 
closets of my youthful prayers, meditations and fastings. I 
call upon the sun, and the moon, and the stars that adorn the 
heavens, to bear witness to my repeated vows to God ; and 
now. Oh, Father ! I appeal to thee, to accept of me in thy 
Son Jesus Christ, while I disclaim all confidence in any good 
works, or affections, or experience of my own, and rely 
exclusively upon the Lord, my righteousness and strength, 
who is able to save to the uttermost, all who come unto thee 
by Him. I, a poor miserable sinner, by nature a child of 
wrath, shapen in iniquity, conceived in sin, and deserving 
Hell, do now trust in Him for salvation, because of thy 
gift, offer, invitation, commandment, and assured promise, 
and with this confident persuasion, 

I set down my name, 

Alexandee McLeod. 

Thus, agreeably to Synodical appointment, I have 
brought to a period the required memoir of this most 
excellent Christian minister, and bright and shining light in 
the church of God, He now wears the crown of immor- 
tality, and joins in the Halleluiahs of the General Assembly, 


in the beatific vision. For him, "to live was Christ 
and to die was gain." Let us prepare to follow him. 

S. B. W. 

Bellbvue, July, 2ith, 1837. 

N- B. — The above memoir was substantially finished 
better than four years ago. This is the 26th of October, 
1841. The obituary notices are now added. It was read 
by Doctor Black, while I was confined to bed with broken 
bones, occasioned by a carriage accident. 

This notice is rendered necessary, as references both to 
persons and things are predicated upon the condition in 
which they then existed, although somewhat modified now 
by the lapse of several years. Some of the actors in the 
drama of that period have now gone to their account, and 
the face of things has been considerably changed. Such 
characters are, when they occur in the memoir, spoken of 
as those living and acting. This remark is not intended to 
insinuate that the fact of their being alive or dead should 
have, in the smallest degree, affected the representations of 
their conduct in the parts they acted in the transactions 
described; no, truth is and has been our polar star. The 
maxim, nil nisi honum de mortuis, we do not adopt : but 
nil nisi verwm, de mortuis aut visis ; and to this, it is firmly 
believed we have most rigidly adhered. All that Ave add 
is a brief testimony to the worth of that mother in Israel, 
the widow of Doctor McLeod, now also gone to her rest. 

On the 16th of April, 1841, Mrs. McLeod was removed 
from the reach of all the ills to which sinful humanity is 
subject— from the house of her pilgrimage to the bosom of 
her Father and her God. 

On the Sabbath preceding her death, she attended the 


dispensation of the public ordinances in her usual health- 
On that day, the sacrament of the Lord's Supper was cele- 
brated in the congregation of her son, Eev. J. N. McLeod, 
where she commemorated, with him and the other com- 
municants, the death of her Eedeemer. The writer of this 
notice was present at the time, and had the gratification of 
partaking of the supper with her and the other guests in the 
banqueting house, while she was leaning on her Saviour's 
breast. It was her last participation of the symbols of the 
body and blood of the Saviour. Without the shadows, she 
now enjoys the reality, along with Abraham, Isaac, and 
Jacob, with the blessed throng of the redeemed, in the 
realms of eternal day. Having reached home, after the 
communion, she sank into exhaustion, with total prostration 
of her whole system, and on the Friday following, resigned 
her spirit into the hands of G-od, who gave it. 

She had anticipated, from the commencement of the 
complaint, the solemn and mournful result, and was per- 
fectly resigned to the pleasure of her heavenly Father. 
With calm and placid composure she fell asleep. Tes: 
she sleeps in Jesus. Her dust, united to the Eedeemer, 
will slumber in the grave until the resurrection morn, 
when "this corruption shall put on incorruption, and this 
mortal put on immortality, and death shall be swallowed 
up in victory." 

The niche occupied by this excellent Christian in the 
circle of her friends and acquaintances, will long remain 
empty, or at least will not soon be filled with an equal 
assemblage of domestic virtues and Christian worth. She 
died universally beloved and universally lamented, in the 
fifty-second year of her age. 




As the labor of love undertaken by the editor m prepar- 
ing for the press the material placed in his hands has pro- 
gressed, he has become more and more satisfied, that any 
extended additions to the memoir proper would be entirely 
unnecessary. The distinguished and venerable author of 
the foregoing pages has done his work so thoroughly, 
and he has permitted his friend to speak so often, and 
so variously for himself, that additional touches, were they 
attempted, might mar rather than improve the portrait. 
And the danger of this is, perhaps, increased, when the 
pencil is in the hand of filial partiality. There are, how- 
ever, two subjects of interest to which there are various 
allusions in the memoir, on which a few additional observa- 
tions may be proper. These are, the relation of Dr. McLeod 
to the plan of African Colonization, and his connection with 
those controversies in the Eeformed Presbyterian Church, 
which eventuated in the secession of 1832 and '33. On 
the former of these, we introduce the following commu- 
nication from the Eev. Hugh McMillan, pastor of the 
Eeformed Presbyterian Church, Cedarville, Ohio, and one 
of the Professors in the Theological Seminary of the 
Eeformed Presbyterian Church. 



"CEDAEViiiE, March 19th, 1855. 
"Deak Sik: — 

" I readily comply with your request, to fur- 
nish you with such knowledge and recollections as I possess, 
touching your venerable father, and the subject of Colo- 

"In December, 1816, 1 was in the city of Philadelphia, 
when your father passed on to the city of Washington. 
What was the particular object of his visit, I did not learn, 
save that it was to see President Monroe, and other 
members of ^the Cabinet, on matters of importance. 
Shortly after, the news of the day furnished the public 
with a notice of the organization of the American Coloniza- 
tion Society. Bemoving afterwards to Columbia, South 
Carolina, I saw occasionally notices of the doings of the 
Parent Society, and the formation of auxiliary societies 
in different States. Among these was the auxiliary society 
of New York, in which Doctor A. McLeod, Doctor 
Eomeyn, and others held conspicuous places. 

"My attention to the subject of Colonization was at this 
time particularly awake. My native State, South Carolina, 
was bitterly opposed to the measure. The hand of slavery 
in that, and in other States, was constantly making the 
door of emancipation more narrow and more difficult to 
open. I, belonging to a church which excluded the slave- 
holder from its fellowship, felt a deep interest in these 
events; at that time, I also was looking forward to 
the work of the ministry, and soon after was licensed, and 
accepted a call to labor in my native State. The subject of 
slavery, which always pressed heavily on the church, 



appeared to be becoming more weigbty, inasmuch 
emancipation was becoming encumbered witb increasing 
difficulties. The question often occurred, 'What shall I 
say to the slaveholder?' If I say, 'emancipate,' he 
replies, ' it is impossible ; I cannot free the slave here ; 
and I cannot remove him out of the State. And could 
I do it, I have my doubts as to the propriety of doing so— 
the propriety of casting an uneducated family or indivi- 
dual, upon society at large without any one to feel for their 
situation !' 

" While I was somewhat perplexed with these thoughts, 
from day to day, I was cheered to see, that while the 
hand of slavery was closing the door of emancipation, 
the hand of Providence was opening it. The door 
of Colonization was opened; I felt no longer at a loss 
in replying to the slaveholder who said ' I am wiUing to 
give you my slave, if you can free him, and make him bet- 
ter than he is with me !' To the plan of Colonization, and 
to the noble examples occurring in those days, I referred 
and said, ' go and do likewise !' 

" Things progressed in this way till the year 1828. Then 
the determination was formed to bring the subject of 
Colonization before the General Synod of the Reformed 
Presbyterian Church. It was done in the presentation 
of the following resolutions — resolutions drawn up without 
the consultation of any brother, or the knowledge that 
they would be sustained by any member of Synod." — 
See Memoir, page 359. 

" As stated, it was not known that a member of Synod 
would support these resolutions. Some care was taken 
before presenting them, to feel the pulse of brethren. 

" Some were ignorant of the society — some were opposed 



to it — some approved of it, as far as tliey knew or understood 
it. From what was seen in the papers of the day, it was 
known that Dr. A. McLeod had a knowledge of the subject, 
and the resolutions were read to him. He immediately 
approved of them, and promised his support. Soon it 
was found that not only did he approve of the Society, 
biit that he had a knowledge of its history; and that all 
the difficulties which I had felt in maintaining the doc- 
trine and discipline of our church, were familiar to his 
mind ; and that he regarded the subject of Colonization 
as intimately connected with a consistent and enlightened 
application of om- principles in slaveliolding States. 

" Before presenting the above resolutions to Synod, care 
was taken not only to ascertain the mind of brethren on 
the subject, but in a meeting of the brethren, where Coloni- 
zation was the topic of a free conversation, the following 
question was proposed, viz. ; Can you inform me who 
wrote " the constitution " of the American Colonization 
Society ? Dr. McLeod, to whom the question was put, 
after a short pause, said: "The question is too delicate for 
me to answer; but this I can say, it was penned in my 
study." It was replied, We are satisfied; we wish for 
no more. It is now sufficient to say, that the above 
resolutions were presented at the afternoon meeting of 
Synod, and that the Doctor gave them his promised 
support. Prior to his speaking on them, sundry mem- 
bers made diverse kinds of remarks, all indicating a very 
partial knowledge of the subject. The Doctor commenced 
by stating that he was well aware that his brethren were 
not acquainted with the subject, and that -was the reason 
why it had not been before them years ago. But as the 
resolutions were now before the Synod, he felt himself 


called on to sustain them, and to give the information 
which he possessed of the society, in which he might 
say, he had a deep interest. 

" Here I may say, that though I had often heard your 
father speak on the floor of Synod with great power, I 
never heard him before or afterwards, speak with such 
eloquence and power as he did on that occasion. While 
speaking of the history of the society, he said it might 
be referred to his sermon on Negro Slavery, in the year 
1802. That sermon, though an effort of youth, soon went 
abroad. A copy found its way into the Ancient Dominion. 
Thomas Jefferson voluntarily opened up a correspondence 
with him, a stranger, on the subject of slavery, and the 
emancipation of slaves, which- correspondence never closed 
till the formation of the American Colonization Society, 
in 1816. 

" A few further facts or recollections, you will indulge 
me in giving. As time drew on, he said, a determina- 
tion was entered into of forming a colonization society. 
Washington was determined on as the proper place. The 
constitution of the society was drawn up ; Dr. Einley was 
selected as the man to carry it to Washington, and to make 
the necessary arrangements. Letters of introduction were 
given to him to President Monroe, and others. At the 
appointed time, the friends of the cause met to form 
the society. The friendship of President Monroe, of the 
ex-presidents Jefferson and Madison, and of other persons, 
was enlisted in the matter. But, the difficulty was to get 
a meeting, and to get some one of influence to address 
it. Henry Clay was then Speaker of the House. He was 
selected as the man. But would he do it? He was 
addressed. He declined. A second attempt was made. 


He finally consented. The meeting was called; Henry 
Clay addressed it ; and the American Colonization Society 
was formed in Washington, with a design to show that 
it was an organization neither of the North, nor of the 
Soiith, but of the whole American Union. Many other 
things, did time or room admit, I could state, which your 
father said on that and other occasions, but it is not neces- 
sary. Further, in corroboration of the fact, that your 
father is entitled to the jpaternity of the Society, I would 
refer you to what Dr. Eowan has said in his funeral 

" In that sermon. Dr. E. states : ' The plan of the society, 
we believe, originated with himself. It was handed to the 
late venerable Dr. Finley by Dr. McLeod, in his study ; 
approved by Dr. F., and taken on to Washington, where 
Dr. McLeod followed it, and made an eloquent address in 
support of its principles.' 

" Somewhat in corroboration of the above, I state you a 
fact, which I heard fi-om the late venerable Dr. Alexander, 
of Princeton, and historian of African Colonization. Once 
in Philadelphia, in Dr. Bethune's Church, the year I do not 
remember, I heard the Dr. deliver an address on Coloniza- 
tion. It was one of his happiest addresses as to time, place, 
and subject. He said, that he had made the first address, he 
believed, that ever was made on Colonization. He did it at 
the solicitation of Dr. Finley, though he then feared the 
whole measure would prove to be visionary. Yet, as he 
made it a rule never to discourage a man in a good cause, 
he had the meeting called in [Princeton, and himself 
addressed it. Thus I have given you the outlines of what I 
know touching your father and Colonization. In my own 
mind, since I proposed to him the above question, as to who 

SPEECH nsr SYNOD. 509 

wrote the Constitution of the Society, and heard his answer, 
and also his historical statement as to the getting up of the 
Society at Washington, I have never entertained any doubt 
that the paternity of the Colonization plan is due to him. 
These facts I have often stated in conversation with sundry 
gentlemen, such as Eev. E. E. Gurley, E. Cresson, Eev. J. 
B. Pinney, and others, all of whom requested me to commu- 
nicate them to writing. It is now done for the first time, 
and you are at liberty to make such use of the communica- 
tion as you think proper. 

" Yours truly, 

"H. McMillan." 

In this communication the facts of the case are exhibited 
with such pertinency as to carry with them their own 
evidence. We have received similar statements from others 
who were present at the same time, and whose recollections 
correspond with the above. We were also present in Synod, 
and listened with deep interest to the narrative and speech, 
and have frequently referred to it in conversation with Dr. 
McLeod. He then explicitly stated that the plan of the 
present Society originated in the Eeformed Presbyterian 
Church, and with himself. And it has been repeatedly 
claimed for him by various persons of high respectability 
and adequate information, in public addresses, and in several 
printed documents, both in this country and in Europe. 
Having once expressed to him the desire that he would 
make some publication on the subject, his answer was: 
" The facts are known, others may publish them, if they 
please, I am not ambitious of the honor ; the work is going 
on, God is blessing it, and I rejoice. It is little matter 
about the instruments whom he employed to set the wheel 
in. motion." 



In the statements made by Dr. Wylie on the 359th page of 
the Life, we cordially concur. Colonization is no longer an 
experiment. Liberia has taken her place among the nations 
of the earth. Recovered from the degradation of his 
bondage, the colored man is showing himself equal to all 
the exigencies of self-government, and is anticipating in the 
land of his fathers, the coming of the day when every yoke 
of oppression shall be broken, and men of every nation shall 
be brought to the enjoyment of the freedom which the 
Gospel promises, and will produce. The idea of coloniza- 
tion in Africa, would seem to have found its way simulta- 
neously into the minds of several distinguished patriots 
and Christian men. Jefferson, Mills, Finley, and the subject 
of this Memoir, were exercised upon it about the same 
period. They all had their agency in its development. 
It is itself from God, and to him be the glory. 

In regard to the unhappy division which took place in the 
Eeformed Presbyterian Church more than twenty years 
ago, perhaps enough has been said in the Memoir to indicate 
Dr. McLeod's connection with it. He saw its approach. 
He sought to prevent it. He understood the real causes of 
it, and he had no sympathy with the principles, the mea- 
sures, or the men producing it. Its causes were of a three- 
fold character. And these were, first, a difference of 
opinion respecting the relations of Eeformed Presbyterians 
to other Christian denominations, and the character and 
amount of the co-operation they might have together. 
Some believed that the church should stand aloof from all 
others, and decline co-operation with them — as inconsistent 
with their own peculiar Testimony. This sentiment was 
regarded by Dr. McLeod as mistaken in itself, and injurious 
in the practice to which it led. He viewed it as anti-sociaJ, 


however conscientiously it might be held. And his own 
practice was always against it. This the whole tenor of his 
life demonstrates. He had intercourse with Christians of 
of every name. He rejoiced in their fellowship, so far as he 
foimd them holding the truth. He co-operated with them 
in doing good on the basis of the common Christianity. He 
aided in founding, and managing the various associations 
established in the city and country in which he resided, for 
the good of man. And he did all this not merely from 
personal preference, and the instincts of his Christianity, but 
on piiblic grounds as a Eeformed Presbyterian Covenanter. 
His motto here was, co-operation with all for good objects, 
where the terms of such co-operation involve the recognition 
of no immorality. These principles of action were fully 
developed in the Plan of Correspondence with the General 
Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, of which he was 
mainly the author. And they are defined in the address 
which he delivered to Synod in its favor. On this ground, 
all the original founders of the church stood with Dr. 
McLeod. The church herself generally acted upon it. The 
opposition which was made to it, and the mistaken spirit by 
which that was produced, was one of the chief causes of the 
secession which ultimately took place. 

A second separating cause was a difference of sentiment 
in regard to the relation the church should sustain to the 
government of the country. That Dr. McLeod ever enter- 
tained the extreme opinions held by some of his brethren 
respecting the government of the United States, and which 
led them to assume the attitude of dissent from it as a 
whole, we have no evidence. The severest things which 
he has said against it, are in his Sermons on the War; and 
when we contrast these with the measured and dehberate 


statements of the oath of allegiance which he penned, the 
testimony is against defects and omissions in a system in 
itself good, rather than in condemnation of the whole as 
essentially vicious. "We hare heard from himself, that about 
the close of the war he presented the oath of allegiance to 
the then Attorney-General of the United States for his 
opinion. That officer assured him that it was stronger than 
the oath of naturalization itself; and added emphatically, 
" Certainly if you can give the former, you can give the 
latter. Your oath offers the government more than it asks." 
Light was cast upon the whole subject by the discussions 
which occurred during and after the War of 1812 ; and we 
know that Dr. McLeod thought more favorably of the 
government of the country after that time, than he had 
done at an earlier period. 

Often have we heard him expose and reprove the evils 
abounding in the country ; but never denouncing the Con- 
stitution or Government of the country as a whole, and 
without discrimination. 

For the last ten years of his life, and long before any 
division was threatened, Dr. McLeod's principle and prac- 
tice was to make no tet-m of communion of the qiiestions of 
recognition or non-recognition of the Constitution of the 
United States. If any preferred to stand aloof from it, they 
were not interfered with by the church. If others con- 
sidered they could share in its offices and privileges, they 
were not to be forbidden until some evident immorality was 
practiced or required. That such was the case, the three 
following facts make apparent. The first is, that from about 
the year 1824 to 182T or '28, a gentleman who, still a resi- 
dent of New York, held and discharged the duties of a 
magistrate under the usual oath of office, while a member 


of Br. McLeod's congregation. There were some to demur 
to this ; but the Session of the church refused to take any 
action in the matter. And when Dr. McLeod was spoken 
to respecting it, the amount of his reply was, " Let him not 
be disturbed. I hope the time will soon come when all 
Eeformed Presbyterians will think alike on this subject." 

Thesecond fact which we mention is as follows. At the 
meeting of General Synod in Philadelphia, August, 1831, a 
memorial on the subject of civil relations came up from indi- 
viduals in Coldenham, ISTew York. It was referred to a 
committee composed of Drs. McLeod, "Wylie, McMaster, 
and Black, to report upon it. On the morning of August 
12th, Dr. McLeod, who was then in the house of Rev. Dr. 
Crawford, prepared a report which he proposed to submit to 
Synod. It was short, and concluded by a single resolution, 
to the effect that the agitating questions on civil relations, 
including the recognition or non-recognition of the Consti- 
tution of the United States, should not be made terms of 
communion in the Keformed Presbyterian Church. The 
report re-afBrmed the former enactment, " that no commu- 
nion should be held with immorality," and left it to the 
local judicatories to determine, when and Avhere the immo- 
rality existed. To this all the other members of the com- 
mittee agreed, but Dr. Wylie urged a postponement of the 
declaration until next meeting of Synod, when, as he 
declared, all would be better prepared for it, and he pro- 
posed the resolution authorizing the free discussions on the 
subject, which was ultimately adopted. Dr. McLeod was 
averse to the postponement. "Pass it now," was his lan- 
guage in regard to the resolution of the report. " You are 
better prepared for it now than you will be a year, or two 
years hence. You may never all meet together in Synod 


again. I, however, will not be there." Dr. "Wylie, with his 
characteristic ardor, pressed his proposition. He brought it 
into Synod. It was not opposed by the other brethren of the 
committee, and the resolution for free discussions was adopted. 
The report, which was subsequently destroyed by Dr. McLeod 
himself, we saw and heard. It was the subject of con- 
versation with the other brethren of the committee, by all of 
whom it was approved. It put the whole matter on the 
ground on which we understand the Reformed Presbyterian 
Church as now standing. Dr. McLeod understood himself 
perfectly in this whole matter. He had been averse to agi- 
tation on this subject, and prevented it for years as far as his 
influence extended, but he saw the time was come to take 
the only course that could prevent a rupture. He was pre- 
pared to act with decision. He, however, yielded to the 
postponement, and before another Synodical meeting, he had 
gone to the Assembly above, where no social agitations can 
disturb. "We record a tJiird fact in the premises. About 
the close of October, or beginning of November, 1832, and 
immediately after the retui-n of the Eev. Dr. Black from 
Europe, Dr. McLeod and he proceeded together to Philadel- 
phia, and joined in the communion of the Lord's Supper with 
Dr. "Wylie and his people. Immediately prior to this, the 
movement for calling the extra meeting of the Eastern Synod 
was preparing. It was known that Dr. Wylie had some 
time before, become a citizen of the United States, and had 
recently exercised the right of suffrage, and this, together 
with the publication of the original draft of the Pastoral 
Address, was attempted to be used in producing increased 
agitation. Dr. McLeod was heard by us to say to Dr. Black, 
" "We must go on to Philadelphia, and sustain Dr. Wylie 
for the sake of the church." They did proceed to Philadel- 


phia together. On the Lord's Day, these three men of 
might, who had labored together for more than thirty years 
in the promotion of the Eeformed Presbyterian cause, and 
who loved it as intensely now, as they did when they first 
communed together in the body and blood of Christ, at the 
first Sacrament in New York, sat down at the communion 
table together, and commemorated the Saviour's death. 
They thought not whether the one or the other had Been 
now or again, in communion with the Government of the 
counti-y in civil affairs. They thought of higher things. He 
who now records the fact officiated at the table service, and 
put into their hands the eucharistic bread and cup. And 
while he trembled with emotion, he saw it was evident that 
they would never be again together at a communion table 
on eartli. Thus a practical exhibition was made of the fact 
by Dr. McLeod, that he made no term of commvmion of the 
governmental question. In a little more than three months 
after this, he had departed to his rest. He had, however, 
before this, given his open testimony of disapproval to the 
divisive movements of the illegal assembly of November, 
1832, and left the responsibilities of the separation on the 
men who formed it. There it must rest, for there it belongs. 
We have spoken of three causes of the division of the 
church ; we now mention the tJiird. It is unsanctified 
human passion. And how much has this had to do with all 
the ecclesiastical strife and division that has disturbed the 
church of God ! We believe that this did more, vastly more, 
to produce the secession from the Eeformed Presbyterian 
Church, than all the questions of religious principle which 
were involved in the controversy. It was full of perso- 
nalities. By these Dr. McLeod was deeply affected. By 
them he suffered. But in them he never engaged. He was 


absent in Europe endeavoring to promote the cause of God 
by bringing before the church measures of high public 
interest, which he hoped would be successful in preventing 
division, when the controversy was coming to its crisis. He 
could not come down to personalities. He never did. Eut 
the secret history of the division is not yet exhibited. "Let 
it sleep for another generation, sajs the venerable author of 
the Memoir." "We shall not disturb its present rest. "Where 
the Keformed Presbyterian Church now stands by her own 
judicative acts, there stood the subject of this Memoir. He 
occupied the same platform with "Wylie, Elack, and 
McMaster, and upon it they all continued to stand until 
they were called away to their reward. 

The remains of Dr. McLeod were interred, at first, in the 
burial ground in ISTew York, belonging to the First 
Eeformed Presbyterian Church, and over them a suitable 
monument was erected by the congregation. In the 
progress of city extension and improvement, this place of 
sepulture became unfit for the purpose, and the authorities 
of the congregation purchased a large plot of ground in 
Greenwood Cemetery, on Long Island. To this the remains 
of Dr. McLeod and his family were removed in 1853. Here 
they now repose in the centre of a beautiful spot called 
" Hill Girt Lawn," and over them the hands of Christian 
kindness and respect have erected a new and most appro- 
priate monument. That this was done more than twenty 
years after his death, and when memory might have been 
excused had it experienced some failure, is most creditable 
to the heads and hearts of those by whom it was effected. 


They had. heen, -with few exceptions, the attached friends of 
his person, -while in life, and they all loved and hoi ed his 


Upon the wall of the place of worship in Twelfth street, 
on the right of the pulpit, is a beautiful Tablet of white 
marble on a black ground, which bears the following 
inscription : — 



First Pastor of the Reformed Presbyterian 

Church, JVew York. 

Born, June 12th, 1774. 

Sicli, Jtiruarj XJtl, 1833. 

Distinguished for talents of the highest order, 

Thorough mental cultivation, a profound 

Acquaintance with the Christian system. 

And an earnest commanding eloquence, ' 

He devoted all to the glory of God, the 

Extension of the church, and the welfare 

Of manliind. 

The humble, consistent Christian, the dignified 

Minister of Christ, the fearless advocate of 

Human rights, and the lucid expositor of Divine 

Truth, he lived a life of eminent usefulness, 

And finished his course with joy, in the 34th year 

Of his ministry. He has left his impress on the age 

In which he lived. 

A oxateful people inscribe this tablet to^the 

Memory of his private virtues, 

His pastoral labors, and 

His high public 


518 MEMOnt OF AT.TT.TA-N mir.Tf. MCLEOD, D.D. 


The structure over the tomb in Greenwood Cemetery is a 
monumental obelisk of white Italian marble, and stands 
fifteen feet six inches high above the grade of the surface. 
Its parts are a granite base, four feet six inches square, by 
one foot four inches in thickness. On this rests a moulded 
marble base, three feet eight inches square, by one foot 
thick. This is surmounted by the die, three feet four inches 
high, by two feet eight inches square, and from this rises 
the obelisk, which is nine feet four inches high, by two feet 
one inch square at the bottom, and one foot two on the top. 
The entire inscription is on the die, whose four fronts it 
covers. It is as follows : — 

[Ora the front.'] 




And, for thirty years, 

Pastor op the Reformed 


Born in the Isle of Mull, Scotland, June 12, 1774. 

Mtis in Wito ilcirft, jFiiruatj IZtf), 

18 3 3. 

This is not his only Monument. 


[On the Revcrse-I 


In the Scriptures, his motto was : 

"God foebid that I should glort, save 

In THE _CRass of our Lord Jesus Christ." 

Erected hy a grateful people 

To the memory of a beloved and venerated pastor. 



[Ore Side Second.} 
Here, also, 




A mother in Israel, full of faitli 

And good works. For eight years, 

She continued a widow indeed ; 

And then followed her husband 

To the place of rest. 

fflitti ajtit \m, 184-1, 


" Precious in the sight of the Lord 
l3 the death of His saints." 

On the fourth side are tlie names of the seven children 
of Doctor McLeod, all of whom died in early life, and 
preceded their parents to the place of rest. 

These tributes of affection and respect towards Doctor 
McLeod, were, procured by the unanimous vote of the con- 
gregation whose first pastor he was, and carried into effect 
by the authorities of the church, whose names are here 
added, as a grateful testimonial to their personal worth, and 
public usefulness. 

The Session, in 1853.— William Agnew, Thomas Gum- 
ming, James N. Gifford, John Parr, Moses Speers. 

John IsT. McLeod, Moderator. 
James 'E. Giffoed, Cleric. 

Teustees, same Yeae.— James Pollock, Cornelius Agnew, 
James Stewart, John T. Agnew, John Pollock, David 


Morrison, John H. Brown, James P. Gumming, David C. 

James Pollock, President. 

John T. Agnew. Secretary. 



"Beiok Chukch Chapel, March 30, 1855. 

" To THE Eet. John N. Mc Leod. 

" My Dear Brother : — I should deem the ser- 
vice which you have requested of me a pleasant one — a 
tribute due to your venerable father's memory- — ^if I were 
better able to perform it. Dr. "Wylie, I have no doubt, 
has done justice to your father's intellectual and Christian 
character. My chief acquaintance with him was formed 
in a weekly association of ministers, for the purpose of 
mutual improvement. The leading minds in that circle 
were those of your fathers, the late Dr. Mason, and Dr. 
Miller. The discussions and the dissertations, as well as 
the discourses there exhibited, were to me most proiitable 
exercises. Your father possessed the most philosophical 
and discriminating mind in the association. He was a 
good critic, a shrewd and earnest debater, a scholar of 
high attainments, a man of gentlemanly bearing, and a 
theologian of whom, even his mother church and country 
need not be ashamed. I never heard him preach but 
once; the characteristics of that entire service were rich 
thought and great earnestness. 

"Tou desire me to speak of his Catholic character and 

DE. SPRING. 521 

vie-ws. If you will forgive me for saying it, I should cou- 
clude tliat Hs early prejudices in favor of his own denomi- 
nation were strong ; yet, to my own mind, it was obvious 
that they were gradually wearing away. I regarded him as 
a lover of God's truth, God's ministers, and God's people, of 
every name. The Bible Society, the Society for the Con- 
version of the Jews, and the various benevolent institutions 
of a character not so professedly religious, had in him a 
warm friend and advocate. Though a Scotsman by birth, 
he was most thoroughly American and Republican in his 
feelings ; and, though himself of " the straitest sect " of 
Presbyterians, he was the intelligent advocate of religious 
liberty and the rights of conscience, upon the broadest 

" I sympathize with you, my dear brother, in those filial 
emotions which have led you to honor your father's name 
and virtues, and remain affectionately 

" Your friend and brother, 

" Gaediner Spring." 


" Abington, 16fh Sept, 1854. 

"Rev. Airo Dear Sir: — 

" You ask me to state anything of inte- 
rest which I may remember respecting your father, the late 
Alexander McLeod, D.D. 

" It was my happiness to have formed the acquaintance 
of your venerable father, in the fall of 1814, when I went 

^ Si 


to Ne-w York, to enter the Theological Seminaiy, then 
under the care of Doctor Mason. I attached myself to 
the church in Cedar street, under the pastoral care of Dr. 
J. B. Eomej'u. The Doctor was then absent in Europe, on 
account of ill health, and I found that Doctor McLeod 
filled his pulpit, part of every Lord's day, at the request of 
the people. This fact showed the high esteem in which 
the pulpit exercises of your father were held by persons 
of another denomination. "When Dr. K. returned home, 
I soon found that a strong friendship existed between 
these brethren, which lasted during life, and which was 
cherished by weekly, if not by daily intercourse. I was 
permitted frequently to join their circle, and look back 
with pleasure to the happy hours I spent in their society. 
Dr. Mason, Dr. McLeod, Dr. Eomeyn, Dr. MilledoUer, 
and some others, formed a band of brethren who were 
of one heart, and who often took sweet counsel together; 
and now, though thirty years have elapsed, I can see 
the cheerful face, and hear the solemn voice of your 
father, whose conversation was such as to instruct and 
please. His personal appearance was pecuHar — short, but 
very stout; his power of endurance was very great; he 
usually preached three times ou the Sabbath, and always 
with great energy. At first, his elocution was slow and 
distinct, but as he advanced it became more rapid, until, 
like a mighty torrent, it swept away all opposition. Then 
you could see that the ambassador was in earnest. His 
whole frame became agitated, and body, soul, and spirit, 
were all on fire. 

" Doctor McLeod was a close student, and the pulpit 
exercises were to him for relaxation. I need not speak of 
his sermons ; those who have read the discourses on ' True 

DE. STEEL. 523 

Godliness,' have a specimen that will give a correct idea 
of his power in the pulpit. He was a man of catholic 
spirit, but not in such a sense as to compromise the truth. 
I remember distinctly attending a meeting of one of the 
benevolent societies in which he was engaged to make an 
address. A lawyer made a speech in which he advanced 
sentiments in opposition to some fundamental doctrines of 
the Christian system. Doctor McLeod refused to speak; 
he said he could not do an act that would look like fellow- 
ship with error ; and his course was a severe reproof to all 
concerned in procuring such a speaker ! 

" During the War with Great Britain in 1812-16, it was 
common with some ministers to laud the enemy, and speak 
slightingly of their own country ! — I remember, on one occa- 
sion, seeing a British officer present in one of the churches of 
New Tork, on a day appointed for fasting, humiliation, and 
prayer, on account of the war. The pastor delivered a glow- 
ing eulogy on Great Britain. The officer was asked what 
he thought of the preacher ; he replied, ' I am willing to 
fight for my country, but I could not say for her what the 
preacher said !' Doctor McLeod had no sympathy with 
such sentiments ; he was a true republican, and on every 
fitting occasion, in public and in private, proclaimed his 
sentiments, and drew forth the praises of every true 
patriot. The old church in Chamber street was generally 
crowded on the evening of every Sabbath, to hear his 
expositions of Divine Truth — many of other denominations 
attended, and, as far as I remember, all with whom I had 
intercourse, expressed their high gratification with his 
evening lectures. 

" But I must close what at first was intended only as 
a short note. I could fill many pages with reminiscences 


of Mm whom I was permitted to call my friend. He t9ok 
me by the hand, when a stranger in a strange city — gave 
me counsel, directed me in the purchase of books, and by 
his condescension and kindness, made an impression on my 
heart, never to be forgotten. 

" Tours, dear brother, in the best of bonds, 

"EoBEET Steel. 
"De. J. 1^. MoLeod." 

reom the eev. john knox, d.d., senioe pastoe of the 
collegiate eefoemed peotestant dutch chtiech, n. t. 

" Eev. John N. MoLeod. 

" Jiev. and Dea/r Sir : — I am gratified in the 
prospect of a Memoir of your distinguished father, the late 
Key. Alexander McLeod, D.D., being given to the public, 
from the apt and able pen of his honored coadjutor and 
friend, the Kev. Dr. Wylie. No one knew him better, or is 
more capable of presenting a just estimate of his talents, 
character, and labors. 

" Dr. McLeod, during the whole of his active and toil- 
some ministerial life, in a day signalized by deep devotion 
and high endowment in its ministry, stood eminent among 
his peers. He entered the same field in which Eodgers and 
McI^Jiight, Livingston and Linn, Mason and Miller, Hobart 
and Abeel, Eomeynand Milledoller, and others of like men- 
tal and moral stature labored, and with them, in fraternal 
concert, took full share in carrying forward all the great 
interests of a common Christianity. 

" Endowed with superior intellectual faculties, and a mind 

DE. KNOX. 525 


nchly stored with various learning, and disciplined by 
duons culture, he was always a man of power. 

in his preaching, he was argumentative, lucid, instruct- 
ing, and impressive. Eamiliar with the revealings of the 
Word of God, the state and structure of the human mind, 
and the windings of the heart, with a faithful memory, fer- 
tile imagination, fluency and vigor of diction and style, and 
teeming thought, his discourses were ahle, edifying, and elo- 
quent ; as he advanced and warmed in their delivery, his 
manner became impassioned, at times impetuous. He was 
attractive and popular, in the best sense of the terms. 

" By his writings, ' he being dead, yet speaketh.' The 
public possess and appreciate them. They extend over a 
wide field of doctrinal, practical and polemic discussion, 
and furnish an important accession to our religious litera- 
ture. He was the uncompromising advocate and able 
champion of the great doctrines of the Gospel, in all their 
relations and results. As a controversialist, he was acute 
and searching, clear and convincing. Zealous for the truth, 
and earnest in the condemnation of error, his Christian prin- 
ciple, and benign and happy temperament, were, neverthe- 
less, a guarantee to his opponent of all personal courtesy of 

" Conscientiously attached to the peculiarities of the eccle- 
siastical body of his preference, he laid no claim to exclu- 
siveness. In a spirit truly Catholic, he embraced in his fra- 
ternal regards and intimate friendship those who diff'ered 
from him in this respect, freely conceding to others the pri- 
vilege to which he felt himself entitled. His intercourse with 
brethren of other ecclesiastical denominations was frank, con- 
fiding and cordial. To his younger brethren in the ministry, 
he was indulgent, kind, encouraging, instructive and helpful. 


His influence and co-operation in promoting the great inte- 
rests of Christian education, philanthropy, and patriotism, 
were prompt and effective. In sustaining the periodical 
literature of his time, his aid was constantly and earnestly 
invoked, and to it, in various departments, he largely contri- 

" His eminent qualities were appreciated, and his influence 
acknowledged, far beyond his own immediate sphere. An 
evidence of the public estimate of his learning, abilities, and 
character, and of his hold on popular favor, is furnished by 
the fact that he received repeated and urgent calls to 
become their pas.tor, from the most prominent churches of 
various surrounding denominations ; and from some of our 
most important literary institutions to a professor's chair ; 
and it affords ample proof that he was swayed by other 
motives than those of personal ambition, love of station, or 
regard to emolument, that he successively declined them all. ■ 

" ' He was a burning and a shining light ' — great in the 
midst of surrounding greatness. 

" With sentiments of most respectful and cordial regards, 

" Your friend and brother in the Gospel, 

"John Knox. 
'■'New Tore, March 8, 1855." 


Alleghant, Pa., January \st, 1855. 

" Mt Deae Beothee, 

" My personal knowledge of your father, the 
late Dr. 'McLeod, was confined to a comparatively few 


incidents. His name, however, was a household word in 
my father's family. He was, as you well know, like the 
writer of the Memoir you are editing, the early and fast 
friend of my father. I have heard him often say, that in no 
man's judgment did he place the same implicit confidence 
that he did in Dr. McLeod's. His love for him was great, 
and this love was made veneration by the conviction that 
his matured judgment in all the great questions of eccle- 
siastical and civil policy which engrossed the minds of men 
in his day, was always ricjU. All his life long he regarded 
Dr. McLeod as one of the greatest and best men of his age. 
One, too, whom the applause of men, and the consciousness 
of his own great power, never, in a single instance, led 
astray. He lived in his heart beside that other great man, 
the companion of his boyhood, whose name is honored in 
writing this Memoir, till the pulsation of that heart ceased. 

" One of the most powerful discourses I ever heard from 
any man, was delivered by Dr. McLeod at the ordination of 
his son, yourself, more than a quarter of a century ago. 

" I was present and witnessed the solemn and impressive 
services on that occasion. The ordination sermon was 
preached by Dr. McLeod, from 1 Cor. xiv. 12 : ' Seek that 
you may excel to the edifying of the church.' His theme 
was the noMi/re and objects of ministerial amhition. All 
that I had been told at home of the extraordinary power he 
possessed as a preacher of righteousness, was more than 
realized. He was in feeble health at the time; yet it 
.seemed to me that so great was the power of the spiritual 
over the lodily, that even his weakness became strength. 
His charge to the people after the ordination, was the most 
inexpressibly touching service I ever witnessed I have 
never lost the impression of that day. 


" As an ecclesiastic controlling and directing church 
courts always for their good, I never knew the equal of Dr. 
McLeod. He seemed to me as mighty in conducting 
properly the ecclesiastical movements of the body to which 
he belonged, as he was in the Scriptures. His Saviour has 
talfen him to the church in heaven, to be one in the General 
Assembly of the first born which are written there. We on 
the earth, who would walk in the footsteps of the saints, 
rejoice that his life and character are about to be given to 
us for an example. 

" With great respect, I remain, my 

" Dear brother, yours, 

"A. W. Black. 
"Eev. JoHK ISr. MoLeod, D. D." 


" JVevember ith, 1854. 


"When I received the request with which 
you have honored me, I was busily engaged ivith the 
hall; and ever since the Theological Session closed, I 
have been in such bad health that I could not write 
more than a mere note. Even still, I am obliged to 
keep away from the scene of public duties ; but I cannot 
longer delay compliance. 

" It was in the spring of 1830, 1 think, that your vene- 
rated father visited Scotland. His time was mostly spent 


in the west country, and mj residence was then at Stran- 
i-aer, in the soiith. But I saw a good deal of him, notwith- 
standing. I happened to he a week or two in the west 
while he was there. I had also the pleasure of a visit of 
a few days from him at Stranraer ; and after that, we went 
together to Ireland, where we assisted in the dispensation 
of the Lord's Supper at Belfast, and attended, as delegates 
from our respective Synods, a meeting of the Keformed 
Presbyterian Synod at Coleraine. I regret to find that I 
had not taken notes of what occui-red on these occasions, 
but my recollection is, perhaps, vivid enough for the pur- 
pose required. There are " stars of retrospect," which con- 
tinue to shine brightly through the shade of years. 

" I had a very dear brother, who, after having been 
licensed to preach for about a year, died at Paisley, in 
April, 1830. Dr. McLeod attended his funeral. It was 
on this occasion that I first saw and heard him, he having 
offered up one of the prayers, in which were some touching 
passages, spoken in a calm, subdued, sympathizing tone of 
voice, the echoes of which still linger in my ear. 

" Soon after this our Synod met. Dr. McLeod was 
requested to preach the opening sermon. I remember 
well the eager curiosity with which I waited for his coming 
into the pulpit, watched his every movement, and listened 
to everything he uttered. The text was Psalm xlviii. 13, 
14, which he discussed in a very masterly way, sjaeaking 
often with great eloquence and power. He spoke occa- 
sionally in the Court, chiefly in the way of conveying 
information respecting the church in the United States, 
and of expounding a Bond of Covenanting designed for 
Scotland, Ireland, and America. His statements were 
always clear; his views liberal and comprehensive; and 


his tones of voice such as indicated decision and inde- 
pendence of mind. 

" The visit with which he honored me at Stranraer was 
paid in the beginning of July. He preached twice on the 
Sabbath ; in the afternoon from Eph. v. 32, and in the eve- 
ning from Gen. xlix. 10. There were noble bursts of sancti- 
fied eloquence in both discourses, particularly in the former. 
The crowd which gathered from all quarters^ embracing 
persons of eveiy denomination, and of all ranks, rendered 
it necessary that the service should be conducted in the 
open air. A collection was made on behalf of a society, 
for sending the Gospel to the Jews. It happened to be 
the anniversary of the Declaration of Independence in the 
United States. He made allusion to this in his public 
prayers, accompanied, however, with petitions on behalf 
of the authorities in Great Britain, breathing greater libe- 
rality towards the institutions of this country than those who 
had read his '"War Serm.ons' were prepared to expect. 

" During his stay with us, we had frequent forenoon 
drives in the neighborhood ; and on these occasions he 
conversed with greater freedom and animation than at 
other times. The reserve which he usually maintained 
at table and in mixed society, was to a great extent laid 
aside ; so much so, indeed, that I flattered myself that I 
had discovered the secret of drawing him out. There were 
a number of topics of public interest on which I was desir- 
ous of hearing him speak ; and on these occasional excur- 
sions, they were all, I think, gone over satisfactorily. His 
manner in the family was kind, courteous, and gentlemanly. 
Hy children were then young, and one of them in some- 
what delicate health. He manifested an interest in them 
all ; heard them repeat their little tasks, and remembered 


them discriminatively in his prayers. His domestic suppK- 
cations were remarkable for their richness and fervor ; and 
m this respect he resembled another distinguished country- 
man of our own, the late Dr. Thomas Chalmers. The visit 
of Dr. McLeod proved a high gratification to Mrs. Syming- 
ton and myself; and in token of the respect cherished for 
om- excellent guest, we agreed to call a son, afterwards 
added to our circle, by his name. That son is now a stu- 
dent of divinity, in the last year of his course; and his 
parents can have few better wishes on his behalf, than that 
he may be long spared to reflect the gifts, emulate the 
virtues, and rival the usefulness of his illustrious name- 

" From Stranraer we proceeded together to L-eland. 
While in Belfast, Dr. McLeod was the guest of his brother, 
Colonel McLeod, at that time resident there, so that I saw 
less of him in private. But we met daily in connection with 
the services of the communion. He preached on Saturday, 
and ■ on Sabbath fenced the tables, and gave one table 
address. I have no distinct recollection of the sermon, but 
remember that, according to the custom of the place, he pre- 
faced on the Psalm at the commencement. The Psalm 
selected was the 23d, his remarks on which were so fresh, 
beautiful and striking, as to produ.ce an impression which 
has not yet died away. The table service was, I think, the 
most interesting thing I was privileged to hear from him. 
The subject was, defore giving the elements, the love of 
Christ, and after, - love to Christ. Solidity of thought, 
solemnity of manner, and a fine tone of devotional feeling 
characterized the whole exercise. But towards the close, he 
made some touching allusions to the circumstances in which 
he then found himself, recalling by-gone days and departed 


friends, and rising to the highest pitch of impassioned elo- 
quence. The whole audience was melted into tears. When 
the paroxysm of sympathy was at its acme, the orator 
ahruptly resumed his seat, and a deep unbroken silence of 
some minutes ensued. It was one of those scenes which it 
is a privilege to witness, and with the retention of which 
the memory is strictly charged. 

" After the communion at Belfast, we set out for Cole- 
raine, where the Keformed Presbyterian Synod met on the 
day following. Dr. McLeod was again invited to deliver 
the opening sermon. His text on this occasion was Jer. 1., 
5, and the sermon possessed all the qiialities of his pulpit 
style. Daring the sitting of the Court, as far as I can now 
recollect, nothing very memorable occurred. We travelled 
in company part of the way back towards Belfast ; at a par- 
ticular point on the road, where he diverged along with Dr. 
Stavely, to whom he was to pay a visit, we exchanged vale- 
dictory good wishes, and parted, never again to meet on the 
footstool, but destined, I hope, to renew our friendship in a 
happier clime. 

" These are the only reminiscences I am able, at this mo- 
ment, to command of your excellent father's visit to the land 
of his birth. Long before that visit, he had become well 
known, through the medium of his writings, to many in this 
country. They were delighted to enjoy personal intercourse 
with one who, by these means, had already secured for him- 
self a place in their aifectionate respect and esteem. Every 
opportunity was embraced of showing,, him attention and 
paying him honor. I can safely speak for others -as well as 
for mj^self in this matter. Dr. McLeod was nearly allied to 
those energetic spirits who compel the world to do them 
homage. From a boy I had been acquainted with his writ- 


ings, and, as I grew up, they were perused with increasing 
delight, the qualities they possess being such as are cal- 
culated alike to captivate the youthful, and yield satisfaction 
to the matured mind. Everywhere throughout Dr. McLeod's 
pages, the philosopher, the historian, the politician, and the 
economist appear, as well as the Christian and the divine. 
They are rendered attractive not less by their literary than 
by their theological properties. Nor had personal inter- 
course with the author any tendency, as it sometimes has, to 
alter the opinion or diminish the estimate that had been 
formed of him from his writings. To those who met with 
him in private, he proved himself a man of gi-eat talent, 
universal information, penetrating sagacity, enlarged philan- 
thropy, and deep religious feeling. With everything con- 
nected with the Scottish Reformation, and with the land of 
his adoption, he manifested a profound acquaintance ; and 
whatever was the subject of conversation, he was able to 
speak on it, not in the way of common-place remark, but 
with an ease, accuracy, and depth, which bespoke keen obser- 
vation and sound judgment. 

" Like other great men. Dr. lilcLeod left the impress of his 
character and genius on others. The influence he exerted 
in America is not confined to those of his own church, but 
embraces, it is believed, a wide circle of Christian and lite- 
rary association. Even in this country, his writings have 
tended to mould the minds and direct the activities of not a 
few. And this is only in accordance with that comprehen- 
siveness of view, and large-heartedness of purpose and feel- 
ing by which he himself was distinguished — so different 
from that sectarian contractedness into which inferior minds 
are apt to be shrivelled up. Without doubt. Dr. McLeod 
was one of the very highest ornaments of the church to 


which he belonged, and shed a hallowed influence far 
beyond its extent. Looking at the rapid extinction, as far as 
earth is concerned, of such luminaries, one can find no bet- 
ter relief from the sense of oppression produced than in 
giving vent to the devout exclamation : — ' Help, Lord, for 
' the godly man ceaseth ; for the faithful fail from among the 
children of men.' 

" Believe me, my dear sir, with cordial esteem and good 
wishes. Tour friend and brother, 

" William STMrNGTCif. 
" Eev. John N. McLeod, D.D., 
" New York." 


The following is a list of all the remembered works of 
Doctor McLeod : — 

Negro Slmery Unjustifiable. A Discourse. ITew York, 

Messiah, Governor of the Nations of the Ea/rth. — A 

Discourse, New York, 1803. 
The Constitution, Oharacter a/nd Duties of the Oospel 

Ministry.— K Sermon, New York, 1808, 
Ecclesiastical Catechism. — pp. 144, twelve editions known. 

New York, 180T. 
Lectures wpon the Principal Prophecies of the Revela- 
tion. — ^Four editions known. — ^pp, 480, octavo. New 

York, 1814. 
Yiew of the Late Wa/r. — ^Two editions, pp. 206, octavo 

New York, 1816. 


-Llie Life and Power of True Godliness. — ^A series of Dis- 
courses. — Six editions known.— pp. 425, octavo, itfew 
York, 1816. 

Correspondence of Churches.— KMvqss to the Synod of 
the Eeformed Presbyterian Church. New York, 182T. 

American Christian Expositm\—A. monthly pe?.iodical. 
Two vols, octavo. New York, 1832-3. 

Doctor McLeod wrote, also, — 

Beformation Principles Exhibited — The Testimony of 
the Pefm^med Presbyterian Church — Historical View — 
Declaratory Part — Booh of Piscipline, &c., c&c. 

He also contribnted largely to the Christian Magazine; 
Evangelical Guardian and. Beview ; Magazine of the 
Beformed Protestant Butch Church ; Evangelical Witness , 
and other religions periodicals. He edited too, tlie Larger 
Catechism, with proofs ; the first book ever stereotyped in 
America. Also, several of the most important notes to 
the American edition of the works of Thomas Eeid, 
D. D., F. E. S., Edinburgh.— Yols. 4 : Charlestown, 1813.