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Typoaraphical aazetteer / a]'<g''<P,|^?l,,|>y 


3 1924 029 494 014 





























In acknowledgment of the favourable reception which 
this work has experienced from the public, I have felt it 
my duty to meet the call for a fresh supply of copies, by 
carefully inserting in the present edition whatever my 
opportunities have enabled me to obtain, either in the 
way of correction or of additional information. 

It will be perceived at once that the accessions are con- 
siderable ; not only two hundred and eighty-two new ar- 
ticles are specified, and for nearly one hundred and eighty 
places already given earlier dates have been found ; but 
the accounts of many others have been corrected and 
greatly amplified; for examples of which, the reader is 
referred to the articles Ahredonia, Berna, Macao, Ma- 
lacca, Moscua, Neocomum, Petropolis, Serdmpore, &c. 

Two new Appendices are also added, by the advice 
and kind assistance of some literary friends : viz. a list of 
Academies, &c. occurring on the titles of books ; and a 
Chronological Index, by which the progress of the art of 
printing may be in some degree traced out. 


[ vi ] 

But, although the volume is thus swelled in bulk, I 
trust that its correctness has been much more increased 
than its size : and that, although it is still deformed both 
by omissions and errors, these will be found neither so 
numerous nor important as they were in the former edi- 



Co. Tipperary, Ireland, 

15th Oct. 1830. 


Sufficiently disposed in general to condemn the practice 
of authors, who, conceiving that the public take in their works the 
same degree of interest which is felt by themselves, are eager to 
detail with tedious exactness every circumstance attending the 
production of some favourite volume; yet, bowing to the influ- 
ence of that fond feeling which induces us to believe ourselves 
fair exceptions to an admitted rule, I am about to pursue at pre- 
sent the very conduct which in others I complain of ; from a per- 
suasion that by no method can I so fully explain the nature and 
object of this publication, as by detailing some of the circum- 
stances under which it was composed. 

During eight years, through which the office of Sublibrarian of 
the Bodleian library obliged me to be conversant to a certain de- 
gree with books of almost every kind, for the purpose of arrang- 
ing them in catalogues, as well as of assisting the researches of 
students — ^it often happened that, in a volume which was brought 
under my observation, I was utterly at a loss to discover the city, 
town, or country, in which it had been printed. Either the place 
itself might be obscure and little known ; or its more usual deno- 
mination might have been exchanged for some ancient, obsolete, 
or arbitrary one : or perhaps I was not always ready in referring 
to the most authentic sources of information upon the subject. 
Although a person officially engaged in a public library might be 
supposed to be familiar enough with the ever-occurring names of 
Lutetia, Hispalis, or Lugckmum, yet there were many minor 
towns of every European kingdom with which I could claim no 
acquaintance : although I could not be ignorant of such places as 
Dantzic, or Helrastadt, it did not necessarily follow that these 
should at once be recognised under the appellations of Gedanum 
and Academia Julia : and matters grew still worse when I found 
myself among the towns of Hungary and Bohemia, of Poland, 
Denmark, and Norway ; among villages, of which no vestige now 
remains; among monasteries and convents, whose names bore 

a 4 


nothing about them which might direct a stranger to the ascer- 
taining of their localities. Neither from the dead nor the living 
could I gain the intelligence necessary in these cases: and not 
knowing to what country any book then in my hands belonged, 
I could make no use of it in forming a judgment as to the period 
at which typography had first been seen in that coimtry, or of the 
advances towards improvement in the art which in subsequent 
times its printers had been able to make. 

Like others too, I had for some time no conception of the vast 
extent over which the art of printing had been spread; how wan- 
dering as well as rapid had been the strides of its progress. 
Though not unacquainted with so much of its early history as 
concerned the rise and reception of the art in the neighbouring 
kingdoms of France, Spain, Germany, Italy, &c. ; and aware that 
it had long been known and practised in the northern parts of 
Europe, and also among the sequestered valleys of Switzerland; 
my knowledge of these particulars was still loose and imperfect. 
As for China, I had little dreamed that the European mode of 
printing was in use there more than two centuries ago — that it 
had been practised in more than one of the islands of Japan — in 
the Philippines — the Azores — in Ceylon — in the Balearic islands 
— in Armenia — in Macedonia — on Mount Libanus — in Iceland — 
and in Otaheite : that it was known both in the northern and 
southern parts of Africa, both at Cairo and at the Cape of Good 
Hope : that it had visited the new world at a very early period 
after its discovery — that it was used at Mexico before it was 
received into Ireland — ^in Peru — in the West India islands — in 
the British settlements of North America: and finally, that it 
has transplanted itself to the shores of the newly-discovered conti- 
nent, and bids fair to take root and' flourish both at Sydney and 
in Van Diemen's Land. 

The knowledge of these several particulars was obtained slowly 
and in various ways : carefully noting down every name and im- 
print (or place of printing) which was unknown to me, I gradu- 
ally extracted from the vast variety of books which passed before 
me some light upon one or other of the points on which I was in 
ignorance or uncertainty. Besides the usual aids of Gazetteers 
and Geographical Dictionaries, I had recourse to books of travels, 
to literary history of all kinds, to the annals and histories of the 
several religious Orders, to every thing which I could meet with 


hearing the shape of a bibliographical work, to notices scattered 
up and down through the huge mass of periodical publications. 
With respect to living' authorities, it was early visible that little 
was to be gained from this quarter ; since, unhappily, I was in 
quest of that which almost every other bibliographer had seemed 
to think himself at full liberty to despise and overlook. No 
sooner was I in possession of the stock of information supplied by 
Panzer and one or two more bibliographers of most note and au- 
thority, than I found myself generally at the utmost limits of the 
knowledge possessed by my friends, few having cared to push 
their researches further: it appeared useless to press inquiries 
upon a subject which nobody thought deserving of investigation ; 
patience and perseverance presented themselves as the only re- 

In this manner I went on for several years, gradually enlarging 
my accumulation of notes, and in a fair way of amassing a very 
considerable quantity of this species of information ; — when I was 
unexpectedly called away to scenes of a different description; 
from the literary haunts and pursuits of the university of Oxford, 
to clerical duties in a country-town of the south of Ireland. 

My occupation thus being gone, the thread of my researches 
snapt, and no reasonable hope of continuing and perfecting them 
now remaining, I naturally turned round, and began to examine 
into the real amount of that stock which had so long been accu- 
mulating; and to consider whether what I already possessed was 
susceptible of being put into such a shape as might justify its pre- 
sentation to the public, on the hope of its hereafter diminishing 
the labours of any person whom either taste might lead, or official 
duties might require, to become acquainted with those minutiae 
of typographical Ijistory, to which my own inquiries had been 

In this calculation the two points to be decided were obviously 
these : first, did I possess more information than could be readily 
obtained elsewhere ? and, secondly, was that information worthy 
of being publicly communicated ? — On the former of these points 
my opinion was deliberately made up ; and for the second, the 
politeness of friends, abetting the natural vanity of authorship, 
decided this question also in the affirmative. 

In truth, it had long surprised me, that amidst the indiscrimi- 
nate rage and reign of bibliography for some years past, the geo 


graphical department of the history of printing should alone have 
remained untouched ; and the omission appeared to have sprung 
from a contempt of the thing itself, no less than from an in- 
stinctive horror of that long, dull, and barren labour, through 
which alone the requisite inquiries could be prosecuted with any 
hopes of success^. Let any one look around, amongst all the 
bibliographical volumes, the number and costliness of which has 
of late years been increasing in a fearful ratio, and observe how 
very little has been done on the point now under review. Peignot, 
at the end of his Dictionnaire raisonne de bibliologie, (published 
at Paris in the year 1802,) has given a list of some towns most 
conspicuous for the early adoption of typography, and which had 
produced those interesting specimens, the books of the XVth 
centurv, to which so much of public attention has of late been 
directed. Some years afterwards. The Bibliographical Miscel- 
lany, a work which was published in England subsequently to 
the termination of the extended labours of Panzer, communicated 
in two distinct alphabets a catalogue of towns, more compre- 
hensive indeed than that of Peignot, but still comprising very few 
others than those which had been mentioned in Panzer's work. 
The information however here given is frequently very far from 
correctness, and bears throughout most evident marks of being 
any thing but original. With the exception of these two pub- 
lications, I scarcely know any thing which can be said to have 
thrown light on what I would call the geography of printing. 

After all, it is a question which may fairly be asked, whether 
the article be intrinsically worth the purchase-money : whether 
the value of the information obtained be commensurate with the 
time and trouble expended in its acquisition. Let the truth then 
be honestly told : for, although any one, who has had occasion 
to make the experiment, can well conceive, from the difficulty 
which perchance he may have found in satisfying himself upon 
even one single point of research, how great must have been the 
aggregate amount of labour undergone before the entire collection 
(even imperfect as it is) could have been formed ; yet the unini- 

a Peignot has asserted, that in France the same feeling prevails respecting biblio- 
graphy in general : " Ce genre de travail, moins agr^able qn'utile, en ce qu'il exige 
" beaucoup de recherches et d'^rudition, s'^Ioigne un peu, par son aridity du spfA 
" de uotre nation, qui a d^daign^ dans cette partie une superiority qu'elle s'est 
»' acquise dans beauconp d'autres." Repertoire des Bibliographies spiciales. 


tiated in these things, who perhaps quietly supposes that there 
exists some single volume which would at once supply him with 
every information of this kind which he might desire, must be 
given to understand that the real state of the case is widely dif- 
ferent from that representation of it which his mind has formed. 
Let me disclaim here all intention of displaying a long and inhar- 
monious catalogue of books consulted, or of making a parade or 
merit of much reading : but in good truth it perfectly shames me 
to reflect on the vast and varied mass of literature into which I 
have dipped for the extraction of the miscellaneous contents of the 
present volume. To the fair and candid judges of these things, 
who can allow for and pardon this mixed offspring of personal 
taste and official duty, I offer it, with all its errors and imperfec- 
tions, as a work which yet may communicate a portion of desirable 
intelligence. To those who neither understand nor care about 
such matters, I have only to address the expressive language of 
Linnaeus ; who, when his painful endurance of the toils and pri- 
vations attendant on a pilgrimage through the Arctic snows, in 
pursuit of his favourite study, (the beauteous wonders of the ve- 
getable creation,) was met by ignorance complaining that the pro- 
ductions of the crags of Lapland wanted the colours and luxuri- 
ance of those nourished under the warmth of a tropical sun, — 
contented himself with simply answering, *' quod si hae plantae 
" tibi videantur viliores, ex istis scopulis quibus erant infixse uti- 
*' nam petiisses ipse !■" 

Nay, let me not rest here ; nor concede so much to the opinion 
of such persons, as the admission of having merely brought toge- 
ther a dry and barren heap of insulated names, without interest or 
connection, and from which no kind of knowledge can be gained''. 
Typography, in its nature and origin, and still more in its stu- 
pendous results, is a legitimate subject of curiosity and attention : 
and although these pages do not profess to give an entire and con- 
nected history of the art, which may be gathered from many 
sources already existing and accessible ; yet any one, who will 
deign to throw an attentive glance over the present publication, 
will find the general outline of its progress pointed out with 

b Lambinet, himself one of our craft, is most uupolitely severe upon tiie biblio- 
graphic fraternity : " On ne peut se dissimuler qae la plupart des ouvrages bibliogra- 
'• phiqaes ne soient rf" «»c sdcheresse soporifique! Les details en sout miuutieux ct 
■■' insipides." The misfortune is, that Lambinet is nearly right. 


tolerable fidelity. He will perceive with what eager anxiety typo- 
graphy was pressed into the service of every nation, as soon as it 
became acquainted with the multifarious advantages which so 
powerful an engine offered : he will find, that the art, having been 
brought almost to perfection in its infancy, (so that, like Minerva, 
it may be said to have sprung to life mature, vigorous, and armed 
for war,) after being successfully exhibited in Germany in the 
year 1457, was carried to Bohemia in 14)61 : four more years saw 
it in Italy : France and Switzerland were enjoying it in 14<70 : in 
the next year it was practised in Holland : Sicily and Hungary 
possessed it in 1473 : the next year brought it to England : Spain 
enjoyed it in 1475: Denmark in 1476: Portugal in 1489: and 
before the close of the XVth century it had travelled to Constan- 
tinople. Scotland had it in 1507 : Sweden in 1510 : Macedonia 
in 1515 : the snows of Iceland in 1530 : by the year 1549 it was 
introduced to a new world at Mexico : in 1551 it was in Ireland : 
in 1563 in Poland : in the next year in Russia : in 1576 in Sar- 
dinia : by the year 1582 it had winged its way even to Japan : it 
was in the Azores in 1583 : in India and China in 1590 : in 1603 
in Peru : in 1610 on Mount Libanus : in 1621 in the Philippine 
islands : and in 1639 in the British settlements of North America. 
Surely these are points not wholly uninteresting or unin- 
structive : they are historical details which many persons may ra- 
tionally desire to know, and such as no man ever needs to feel 
himself ashamed of knowing. If I do not here give him the most 
full and satisfactory intelligence on each particular, let it be re- 
membered that at least I neither cut off nor obstruct his way to 
more copious sources : on the contrary, I studiously direct the in- 
quirer to further information, wheresoever the opportunity is af- 
forded me. 

The manner of proceeding adopted in the following work is 
this : taking the Latin names of all cities, towns, villages, or mo- 
nasteries, in which I had evidence that printing had at any period 
been exercised, from the earliest appearance of the art down to 
the present day, I throw them into one general alphabet for the 
greater convenience of reference ; merely distinguishing by capital 
letters, honoris causa, those places which nursed and cherished its 
early efforts during the XVth century. The ancient name (or 
names, for it often happens that a town is variously designated) 
is immediately followed by the modern one, with a brief descrip- 
tion of the place, and a concise notice of the introduction of typo- 


graphy into that particular spot : to which not unfrequently is 
added the title of the earliest known book executed there, as well 
as the name of its first or most celebrated printer. 

Although conciseness lias been generally my aim, forasmuch as 
the matters here treated of are not new to the world of letters; 
yet it will be perceived that here and there the remarks are ex- 
tended to greater length : this licence however, I trust, may be 
pardoned on the ground of its rare occurrence, as being taken 
only on those articles to which a higher degree of interest ap- 
peared to attach ; where the town under description chanced to 
be nearly connected with something remarkable as an epoch or 
feature of the art, with some important historical event, with some 
person of eminence, or celebrated publication which had issued 
from within its bosom. 

It will be anticipated that I profess not to enter into any of 
those controversies which have arisen from time to time upon the 
disputed points, of the origin and birthplace of printing, or of the 
exact period at which it was introduced into particular towns: 
these are questions foreign to my present purpose, and in fact 
they have been discussed already at quite sufficient length by 
several well-known bibliographers. Lest, however, by total silence 
I should subject myself either to misapprehension or censure, it 
may be well, for the sake oi younger students, to name one writer 
(out of many) on each side. Let any one who desires to estimate 
the claims of Haa/rlem to the honour of having given birth to the 
typographic art, read MeermarCs Origmes Typographicm, (2 vols. 
4to. 1765,) and offer incense at the shrine of Laurence Coster : 
if he wUl maintain Strasburg to be its native place, give him the 
zealous disciple of John Guttemberg, Schaspflm, with his Vin- 
dicice Typographicce (4to. 1760)'=: if he wishes to see the preten- 
sions of Mayence supported, and the fame of its triumvirate Gut- 
temberg, Fust, and Schoyffer, advanced, he may peruse Wurdt- 
weiris Bibliotheca Moguntina, (4to. 1787,) or almost any other 
sober bibliographer. For myself, I am content to take May- 
ence for the birthplace of printing properly so called, John 

c Since the former edition was published, a new champion for Strasburg has 
appeared in M. Lichtenberger, whose treatise, " Histoire de I'invention de rimpri- 
" merie, pour servir de defense k la viUe de Strasbourg contrc les pretensions de 
" Harlem," (8vo. Strasbourg, 1825,) is written with good temper, and contains 
much interesting matter. 


Spira for the first printer at Venice, and Caxton for the first in 

With respect to our own towns of England, I have thought 
it needless to insert more than some few of those which were the 
earliest to set up a printing-press, as London, Oxford, St. Alban s, 
&c. ; or whose names were sometimes seen on title-pages expressed 
in such a form as to create a little temporary misconception, as 
Augusta, BeUositum, Mythig, &c. &c. 

Wheresoever throughout the following pages a date is observed 
to stand alone, after the name and description of a town, the 
reader will understand it to represent the earliest year in which 
I had sufficient evidence of the art of printing being exercised 
within that town. The word Bodleian, or the letters TCD, im- 
mediately following a date so expressed, denote that a volume of 
that place and date exists in the Bodleian library, or in that of 
Trinity college, Dublin, as the most satisfactory confirmation of 
the statement previously made. 

Now, since in all these matters the degree of attention due to 
an author's assertions will necessarily be determined by the weight 
of authority on which they rest ; it appears indispensable that I 
should subjoin the principal sources from whence all which is here 
advanced has been derived. With the almost countless stores of 
the Bodleian at my command, it may well be credited that I have 
had ocular demonstration of the truth of a very large proportion 
of the statements made in this work : but since, as is the case with 
most other writers, I found it impossible to enjoy this advantage 
on all occasions, the deficiency was to be supplied, as well as might 
be, from ordinarily accessible and approved testimonies, such as 
those of the following authors. 

For every thing relating to books published between the period 
of the invention of printing and the year 15S6, I have unhesi- 
tatingly relied on the elaborate work of Panzer ; a bibliographer 
whose exertions have never been exceeded, and to whom we minor 
dabblers in the art unwittingly pay the highest compliment for 
extent of research, whenever, stumbling by chance upon some 
volume which has for centuries been slumbering in perhaps well- 
merited obscurity, we drag the wretched victim into day, and ex- 
claim in the pride of our hearts that we have found something 
which was " unknown to Panzer !'" 
For the typography of Poland, hitherto little described or known^ 


I have followed Hoffmann de typographiis in regno Polonice et 
IAihuam<R, &c. (4to. Dantisci, 1740,) aided by the Bihlioffieca 
Antitrinitariorum of Sandius, (12mo. Freistadii, 1684.) For 
Svredish, Alnandri historiola artis typograpMcoE in Suecia, (12mo. 
Rostochii, 1725.) For Danish, Thurds work. Idea historicB lit- 
teraricE Danorum, (8vo. 1723.) For Spanish generally, the Bib- 
liotheca Hispana of Antonio : for early Spanish, Diosdado Cabal- 
lero de prima typographia Hispanicce estate, (4to. Romae, 1794,) 
and Mendez. (4to. Madrid, 1796.) For every thing Hebrew, 
Wolfius, and De Rossi. For Arabic, the Biblioiheca Arabica of 
Schnmrrer, (Svo. 1811.) For Russian and Slavonic literature, 
Kohlii introductio in historiam et rem Uterariam Slavorum, (Svo. 
Altonas, 1729,) and Bachmeister, Essai sur la bibliotheque, Sj-c. de 
St. Petersburg, (Svo. 1777.) For American in general, Thomas'" 
History of Printing in America, (2 vols. Svo. Worcester in Mas- 
sachusetts, 1810,) a book which at present is so very scarce in 
this country, that I have never been able to see a single copy ex- 
cept my own. Thomas, who himself was a printer of some emi- 
nence, appears to have described with much minuteness the chief 
productions of the several American presses : but with respect to 
some of the most ancient and curious specimens of their typo- 
graphy, it has chanced to me to have opportunities of inspecting, 
here in England, volumes of which the very existence was utterly 
unknown to him. 

For early Mexican and Peruvian books, I have had for guides 
Antonio, and the Bibliotheca Memcana, (fol. Mexici, 1755.) For 
Chinese, Japanese, and other eastern labours of the Jesuit mis- 
sionaries, Sotuellus' edition of Ribadeneira's Bibliotheca scripto- 
rum societatis Jesu, (2 tom. fol. 1676.) For monasteries in gene- 
ral, Mabillonii Annates Ordinis S. Benedicti, (5 tom. fol. 1703, 
&c.) Gerberti iter Alemannicum ; and Du Monstier''s Neustria 
pia, de Abbatiis et prioratibus Normanniae, (fol. 1663.) For 
England, the standard typographical works of Herbert and Dib- 
din. For geography generally, Baudrandi Qeographia, (2 tom. 
fol. 1682.) the Dictionnaire gSographique de Vosgien, with some 
English Gazetteers: for that of America specifically, Alcedd's 
Geographical and Historical Dictionary of America and the 
West Indies, translated by Thompson, (5 vols. 4to. 1812, &c.) a 
work which embodies a vast supply of information, and the cor- 
rectness of which I myself have not had any occasicm to doubt. 


Yet, with all these auxiliaries, superadded to actual observa- 
tion, I anticipate the judgment of future readers in pronouncing 
this publication to be imperfect and incorrect. Doubtless I have 
sometimes mistaken one town for another; have given sevei-al 
books to one place, which in reality may belong to two ; and vice 
versa have formed two towns out of that which is no more than a 
single one, from an imperfect acquaintance with the several deno- 
minations under which it might chance to be mentioned. Not 
that I would go in quest of any very extraordinary reasons for all 
this, or exclaim in the pompous whining of Peignot, " il est cer- 
" tain qu'un seul homme, quelque longue que soit sa carriere, ne 
" pourrait jamais parvenir k devenir ^^n Bibliographe pa/rfait:'" 
ordinary and common causes are quite sufficient for such a result ; 
and to the obvious and fair inquiry, " upon what grounds I make 
" up my mind to introduce to public notice a work thus confess- 
" edly incomplete," I have only to reply in the words of my for- 
mer statement ; that, although a sudden removal from the sources 
of authentic information precluded all hope of further improve- 
ment, yet the collection already made was judged to possess value 
suflScient to render its publication acceptable, with a view to its 
forming a basis upon which hereafter a much more complete 
and useful structure may be raised. With these feelings I offer 
it, and under this character I have to entreat that it may be re- 

As for the subjoined Appendices ; the first contains some Jic- 
tituMS imprints, which are generally found in works whose nature 
is objectionable, either on the score of religion, morality, or poli- 
tical feeling. Books of the third description have been common to 
all countries at certain periods of their history ; of the two former 
kinds France has been preeminently fertile. I once had made 
some progress in collecting notices of the several pieces to which 
these disguised imprints were attached : but, on reflecting that 
possibly their publication might lead to undesirable results, if by 
chance some left-headed collector should take a fancy to amass a 
library of mischievous books ; I dropped the original design of 
communicating them, and merely give the imprints here, as a cau- 
tion to any person who might inadvertently be led to believe that 


there existed towns or places to which these assumed designations 
really belonged. 

The second Appendix comprises the skeleton of a larger work 
formerly projected, which, under the title of BibUotheca Membra- 
iiacea Oxoniensis, would have embraced a detailed notice of such 
books printed upon vellum as are to be found both in the Bod- 
leian and in the several college-libraries of Oxford. Such a work, 
if properly executed, would be by no means unworthy of atten- 
tion: let it be remembered that Oxford holds the only known 
perfect copy of the Aldme Aristotle upcm vellum, as also the only 
known vellum copy of an Ooeford book of the XVth century^; no 
mean rivals these of his majesty's unigue vellum Caxton, Miss 
Currer's vellum St. Alban's booh, or the unique velhim Ehevir in 
Trinity college, Dublin. If any person, more especially since the 
publication of Mons. Van Praet's elaborate description of the vel- 
lum treasures contained in the royal library of France, should 
feel surprise that in this department the Bodleian is comparatively 
deficient : — ^let him recollect, that this library is a public repository, 
not the private collection of an individual ; that its contents are 
purchased with public money, for public purposes and uses. Let 
him know, that the Bodleian has never bought a copy of a work 
becoMse it was printed upon vellum, but has frequently, to my 
actual knowledge, declined a purchase upon no other ground than 
this. And when to these facts we add, that it receives no vellum 
copies in the shape of presents from authors or printers, nor levies 
contributions of rare books upon subjugated states of Europe; 
the number and value of those, which under all circumstances are 
still found within it, is far from being small, uninteresting, or con- 

I cannot close this most egotistical preface, without returning 
warm and hearty thanks to all those friends who on various occa- 
sions either resolved my doubts or directed my researches. To 
the Bodleian hbrary, my ancient, firm, and indispensable ally, 
that mine of literary treasure not yet half- explored, I have only 

d Subsequent inquiries have proved to me the inaccuracy of this assertion : by 
the kindness of the dean of Westminster I have seen in the library belonging to that 
chapter a second Oxford vellum publication, being the work of Jo. Latteburius in 
threnos Jeremics, of the year 1482. Herbert had spoken of this as being " partly 
" on vellum and partly upon paper :" he was misinformed, the volume is entirely 
upon vellum. [May, 1827.] ' 



to say from my heart, Fhreat ! — May it continually increase in 
richness, splendour, and utility ; and long remain a storehouse of 
all which is excellent in literature, worthy of the university pf 
Oxford, of the British empire, and of the civilized world. 

Oxford, Sept. 13, 1824. H. C. 

Aa/rhusmm, see Arhusiwm. 

ABBATIS VILLA, Abbeville, a considerable town of France, 
in Picardy, formerly dependent on the abbey of S. Riquier, from 
which it gained its name. Typography obtained a footing at 
Abbeville before the close of the XVth century. The earliest 
book printed here, known to Panzer, was a French translation of 
St. Augustine's City of God, dated 1486, of which John Dupr6 
and Pierre Gerard were the printers ; there is a fine copy of it in 
the Bodleian library. Only three books executed at this town in 
the XVth century are given by Panzer ; all of them by the same 
printer, and all in the French language : nor after the year 1487 
do we hear any thing more of the typography of Abbeville. 

Aberdonia, see Abredonia. 

Aboa, Abo, a seaport town of Sweden, the capital of Swedish 
Finland, containing about ten thousand inhabitants. The school of 
Abo having been raised to the dignity of an university by queen 
Christina in the year 1640, its directors, unwilling that the aca- 
demical acts should continue to be printed at Stockholm or Dorpt, 
as had previously been customary, established at Abo in 1642 or 
1643, as their own printer, Peter Waldius, who had before exer- 
cised the art at Upsal and at Westeras. Printing continued to 
be exercised at Abo until the year 1713, at which time, on ac- 
count of the troubles of war, the press was removed for security 
to Stockholm, where it was still remaining in the year 1722, when 
Alnander wrote his history of Swedish typography. It is re- 
membered that the town of Abo was almost wholly destroyed by 
a conflagration on the 7th of September 1827 ; when it is said 
that only 800 volumes of the public library escaped destruction ; 
and, what is worse, that nearly 1 00 persons perished in the flames^ 
Fortia, in his Travels in Sweden, speaks of a Missale Aboense, 
printed at Lubec in 1588, a very rare book, only two copies being 
known to exist, one of which is in the university library of Abo, 
and the other in that of the university of Upsal ; this latter, how- 
ever, is imperfect. 

Abredonia, Abredea, or Aberdonia, Aberdeen, a town of Scot- 

• See Rae Wilson's Travels in Russia, vol. II. p. 189. 

2 AB. 

land, well known for its university, which was founded in the 
year 1494. 

The circumstances attending the introduction of the art of 
printing into this town are here given to the reader at consider- 
able length, from " the Annals of Aberdeen by W. Kennedy/' in 
two volumes quarto, 1818. " In the year 16ai a patent was ob- 
" tained from king James, by bishop Patrick Forbes and sir Paul 
" Menzies of Kinmundie, provost of Aberdeen, for establishing 
" printing at Aberdeen: and Mr. Raban was accordingly ap- 
" pointed soon after, by the magistrates and council, printer to 
" the town and university ; with the exclusive privilege of print- 
" ing. He was allowed a salary of 40/. annually : and for his 
" further encouragement to prosecute the art, a small emolument 
" of eight pence quarterly from each scholar at the grammar 
" school, which was collected with the school-fees. 

" He had acquired the reputation of being at the time a very 
" eminent master ; which indeed appears from the specimens of 
" his works. Among these may be mentioned a pocket Prayer- 
" book for the service of the Church, printed in the year 1625, 
" with the Calendar and the Psalms set to music, which we be- 
" lieve was among the first of his works^." 

" In the year 1633 Dr. Barron printed his book ' Oh the arri- 
" val of King Charles in Scotland, with Poems on the Corona- 
" tion ;' which was dedicated to the magistrates and council. In 
" 1636 a volume of ' The Funeralls of a right reverend Father 
" in God, Patrick Forbes of Corse, Bishop of Aberdeen,' was 

' This information of Mr. Kennedy appears to be materially defective. There is 
now lying before me, in archbishop Marsh's library, in Dublin, a volume preceding; 
by three years the one mentioned by Kennedy : it is a Latin tract, De discipliiiid, 
ecclesiasticd, addressed to the church of Scotland, by a writer who merely designates 
himself " a French divine." The book is a well-printed duodecimo of 143 pages, 
bearing for imfrint Abredonits excudebat Edvardus Rahanus, impensis Davidis 
Melvill, 1622. Cum privilegio. It is by no means unlikely that </m may have been 
one of Raban's earliest efforts. 

The same library contains another book entitled " Raine from the Clouds," by 
Andrew Logie, calling bimself " Arch Deane of Aberdene," of the date 1624 : but 
an ancient hand .has altered this date to 1634, on wh^t authority I cannot say. [The 
same thing has been done in the Bodleian copy.] Raban here describes, himself as 
" dwelling upon the market-place at the Townes armes ," and the wood-cut of the 
arms of Aberdeen is on the reverse of the title. In TJie Funeralls of Patrick Forbes 
of Corse, (4to. 1635,) Raban styles himself Edw, Raban, master printer, the first 
in jiberdeen. 

AB. 3 

" published in Aberdeen : and the Canons and Constitutions of 
'* the Church were printed there in the same year. 

" Mr. Raban carried on the printing business until the yeftr 
" 1649, when he died, and was succeeded in his office of printer 
" to the town and university by James Brown, son of William 
" Brown, minister of Invernochty." 

" On the death of Mr. Raban, the first printer, in the year 
" 1649, Mr. James Brown was appointed his successor by the 
" magistrates and town council, on the 9th of the subsequent 
" month of January, with the same emoluments which his prede- 
" cessor had been entitled to receive from the town. He printed 
" the works of several authors who flourished at the time^. 

" On his death, which happened in the year 1662, John Forbes, 
" stationer, purchased from Agnes Rutherford, his widow, the 
" whole types, printing-presses, and apparatus, which had be- 
" longed to her husband ; and on the 23d of April that year Mr 
" Forbes and his son jointly were appointed by the magistrates 
" and council printers to the town and university, with the exclu- 
" sive privilege of printing. As an encouragement to prosecute 
" the business, they were provided with a printing-office on the 
" north side of the Castle-street, and a dwelling-house, rent free : 
" and by an act of council all merchants and chapmen were pro- 
" hibited from importing into the town any pamphlets or small 
" books to their prejudice. Some years subsequent to this ap- 
" pointment, Andrew Anderson, formerly a printer in Glasgow, 
" having commenced business at Edinburgh, prevailed on the 
" printers in this city to apply for a patent, to be taken out in 
" his name, by which they were to be jointly vested with the 
" office of king's printer. Having succeeded in their application, 
" they in the year 1671 obtained a patent so extensive that no 
" one in the kingdom was at liberty to print any book, from a 
" Bible to a ballad, without a license from Anderson. 

" Mr. Forbes was among the first Scottish printers who were 
" possessed of music-types 5 and printed in the year 1666 a ' Col- 
" lection of cantos and songs set to music, with a brief introduc- 
" tion to the art as taught by Thomas Davison in the music- 
" school of Aberdeen ;' which work he reprinted in the year 
« 1682. 

<• In 1651 he printed " The form and order of the Coronation of Charles the Se- 
" cond, as it was acted and done at Scone, the first of January 1651." 


4 AB. 

" He was the earliest publisher in Scotland of an Almanac, 
" commencing in the year 1677, under the title of ' A new Prog- 
" nostication, calculated for North Britain ;' which was embel- 
" lished by the armorial bearings of Aberdeen on the title-page. 
" This work he continued to publish annually until the year 
« 1700. 

" After the commencement of the civil wars in the reign of 
" Charles the First, the art of printing made no progress in Scot- 
" land ; and it cannot be supposed that for many years it was a 
" lucrative business to those who were embarked in it. During 
"■ those civil commotions the party in power endeavoured to crush 
" by every means the freedom of the press. In the year 1648 
" the committee of estates passed an act prohibiting the printing, 
" under the pain of death, any book, declaration, or writing, until 
" these were first submitted to their revisal. Upon the Restora^- 
" tion, the prohibition was renewed against printing without li- 
" cense from the king, the parliament, or privy council ; and 
" those who presumed to publish seditious books, or had them in 
" their possession, were punished with the utmost rigour. Ga- 
" zettes or newspapers were in particular prohibited from being 
" pubHshed, till they had been revised by the bishop of Edin- 
" burgh." 

In his second volume Mr. Kennedy proceeds to relate the pro- 
gress of typography at Aberdeen from the commencement of the 
XVIIIth century down to the present day; observing, that 
" Mr. James Chalmers (at that time printer to the town and uni- 
" versity) was the first pubhsher, in the north of the Frith of 
" Forth, of a weekly newspaper, or indeed of any periodical 
" work : and the origin of it was the account which he printed of 
" the battle of Culloden, in the month of April 1746." From 
some cause, however, " the newspaper was not established till 
" January 1748, when it was published under the title of The 
" Aberdeen Journal, or North British Magazine."" He adds, 
that at present (viz. 1818) there are three printing-presses em- 
ployed in the town. 

With respect to the foundation of the university of Aberdeen, 
it appears from this author's account, that the pope's bull to bi- 
shop Elphinstone was dated in Feb. 1494; that it was confirmed 
by the king in May 1497; that bishop Elphinstone published his 
first foundation and endowment in 1505 ; that subsequently he 

AB.— AG. 5 

altered It ; and that his designs were carried into complete exe- 
cution, by his successor in the see of Aberdeen, in the year 1531. 

This foundation received some alterations, arising out of the 
introduction of the protestant form of religion, in 1584: and was 
once more remodelled by bishop Patrick Forbes, who obtained 
an act of parliament confirming its ancient foundation and privi- 
leges, in the year 1633. In 1641 king Charles united the King's 
college with Marischal college, (which had been erected by George 
earl marischal of Scotland, in 1593,) but this union was dissolved 
after the Restoration. 

Abrincce, Avranches, an ancient town of France, in Normandy, 
lately a bishop's see. Printing was exercised here in 1545. 

Academia Julia^ see Helmestadiuin. 

Adricmopolis, Adrianople or Andrinople, a large and fine city 
of European Turkey, pleasantly seated on the river Marizza, (the 
ancient Hebms,) and the frequent place of residence of the court 
of Constantinople. The Jews introduced the art of printing into 
this city about the middle of the XVIth century. In the Oppen- 
heimer library is a book executed at Adrianople in the year 1554. 

^sernia, Isernia, a town of Naples, seated at the foot of the 
Apennines, the see of a bishop. Printing was executed here, in 
a very creditable style, by Camillo Cavallo, in the year 1644. 


Aginnum, Agen, an ancient and populous town of France, 
formerly the capital of the province of Guienne, and a bishop's 
see. It appears that typography was exercised here so early as 
1545, in which year a poetical work of Bandelh, in praise of 
Signora Lucregia Gonzaga di Gazuolo, was printed at Agen by 
Antonio Reboglio. A copy of this very rare book was sold in 
the Pinelli library, (No. 2555,) where De Bure's Bibliography 
and the Gaignot Catalogue are adduced as vouchers for its ex- 
treme rarity. Subsequently, in Payne and Foss's Catalogue for 
the year 1824, it thus appeared announced for sale : 

" No. 1368. Bandello, Canti Undeci di, de le Lodi de la S. 
" Lucretia Gonzaga, e del vero Amore, col Tempio di Pudicitia, 
" e con altre cose per dentro poeticamente descritte, veri/ scarce, 
" complete, 4Z. 4*. 12mo. Guienna ne la Cittadi Agen. 1545. 

" 1369. Altro esemplare, some leaves reprmted, SI. Ss. 

12mo. 1545." 

Agria, Egra or Eger, a town of Bohemia. — 1687. 


6 AL. 

ALBA, called also AQYM STATIELL^, Acqui, an epi- 
scopal town of Italy, in Montferrat. Panzer mentions only one 
book printed here, viz. an edition of Alexwndri de villa Dei doc- 
tiinale, and assigns both its date (1493) and place from a letter 
in Giornale de lettere de Modena, torn. xxv. p. 126. Meerman 
considered this work to have been printed at Florence before 1472, 
and to be the earliest production of the Florentine press. 

Alba Carolma, a town of Hungary, (Stuhlweissenburg ?) 1785. 
Alba Grceca, Bellegrade, an episcopal city of European Tur- 
key, the capital of Servia. According to Henderson, (Biblical Re- 
searches in Russia) Belgrade possessed the art of printing about 
the middle of the XVIth century: he mentions an edition of 
the Slavonic Gospels, executed in this city in the year 1552, in 
folio. A Wallachiam New Testament, in folio, was printed here 
on Jan. 20, 1648 ; a copy of which very rare volume is preserved 
in the Bodleian library. 

Alba Julia, Weissenburg, an episcopal city of Transylvania, 
possessing an university ; or quaere whether it do not sometimes 
denote Coloswar, (Claudiopolis) ? In the year 1637, Georgius 
Rakoci, prince of Transylvania, had a press of his own in this 

Among Dr. Rawlinson's books in the Bodleian library is a 
small volume which I mention here on account of the anecdote 
subjoined : it is entitled, " Schema primum generate, sive forma 
" studiorum Albensium : pro hoc anno Domini 1 657. Albae-Ju- 
" liae, excudebat Martinus Major, Coronensis, celsissimi Transyl- 
" vanise principis ac scholae typographus." At p. 112 the book 
breaks off abruptly, and a contemporaneous hand has supplied 
the following observation : Reliqua, ad prelum parata, ut et alia 
meditata, obruit Tartarobum Diluvidm : mense Augusto, A. V. 
T. 1658. Quo fatali tempore illustris schola a Barbaris (eheu) 
solo sequata, volumina selectorum omnis generis codicum plus 
viginti millia unico rogo concremata, in terrorem et monimen alia- 
rum scholarum ignavi^, lethargo, vel ingratitudinis lepri labo- 
ranti um . — 1 568 . 

Alba Regalis, Stuhlweissenburg, a town of Hungary, now 
small and mean, but formerly a place of splendour, having been 
the residence of the ancient kings of Hungary. Great part of it 
was destroyed in the year 1702. Since 1777 it has been a bishop's 

AL. 7 

S. ALBANi VILLA, St. Alban's, an ancient town of Hert- 
fordshire in England, built on the site bf old Verulata, a British 

St. Albatt's may boast of being the third town in England to 
receive the art of printing, since we know that a press was erected 
in its magnificent abbey (founded by Oifa, king of the Mercians) 
so early as the year 1480. 

Six specimens of the St. Alban's press, published during the 
XVth century, are now remaining to us, namely, 

\..Rhetorica novajratris Lcmri. GuilK de Saona 1480. 4°. 

2. Alberti liber modorum significandi 1480. 8°. 

3. Exempla sacrce ScripturcB 1481. 8°- 

4. In Aristotelis Physica 1481. 8°. 

5. The St. Albcur^s Chronicle 1483. fol. 

6. The book of St. Atbam's, by Julicma Berner^ 1486. fol. 

Of these, the 1st, 5th, and 6th are to be seen in the Bodleian 
library : the 2d was in possession of the late Michael Wodhull, 
esq. : the 3d is said to be in the libraries of his majesty and of the 
Middle Temple : of the 4th I can say nothing, but that the man- 
ner in which Herbert names it is far from being satisfactory. Earl 
Spencer possesses the 1st, 5th, and 6th ; and a perfebt copy of this 
last is in the collection of the earl of Pembroke. Of N°. 5. his ma- 
jesty also has a copy, and Miss Currer, of Eshton hall, in York- 
shire, possesses am printed upon vellum. 

Subsequently to 1486, there is a complete cessation of printing 
here for nearly fifty years, the cause of which is totally unex- 
plained : and even when the art was revived by John Hertford, 
about the year 1634, half a dozen books, executed within the 
space of four years, are all which are known to ha:ve proceeded 
from its reestablishment. This second interruption is easily ac- 
counted for, in the total dispersion of the inmates of religious 
houses by command of king Henry VIII. 

Albany, the capital of a county in the province of New York, 
North America : it was founded by the Dutch in 1608, and now 
contains nearly 20,000 inhabitants. Two brothers, A. and J. Ro- 
bertson, printers at New York, removed from that city, and esta- 
blished a press here about the year 1770 ; where soon afterwards 
they published a newspaper, which continued not more than a 
year or two. At the beginning of the present century, " The 

8 AL. 

" Transactions of the Agricultural Society of New York" were 
printed at Albany, viz. in 1801, &c. 

ALBIA, Albia, a small town of Savoy. Two volumes exe- 
cuted here in the XVth century are known, viz. JEneas Syl- 
vius de remedio amoris, and Historia septem Sapientum ; both 
in 4to. Neither of them contains the date or printer's name. 

Albiburgum ; whether this be the same with Alburgum, I am 
unable to decide. Panzer mentions a single book printed here 
in 1501. 

Alburgum,, Alburg, a city of Denmark in North Jutland. 

Alcmaria, Alcmaer, an ancient and strong town of Holland, 
distant seven leagues from Amsterdam. The earhest Alcmaer 
book which I have seen is the Enchiridion controversiarum theo- 
logicarum of Johannes Venator, printed by Jac. Meester in 1605. 
(Bodl. TCD.) In the year 1637 a splendid work containing 
drawings of the finest sorts of tuHps was executed here, a copy of 
which may be seen in the Fagel library at Dublin. 

Alcobaziense Monasterium, a rich abbey of Benedictines, 
founded by Alphonso Enriquez, in the small town of Alcoba9a 
in Estremadura. Antonio mentions a work of Bernardus de 
Brito, printed in this monastery in 1597; a copy of which curious 
volume was in the collection of Don J. A. Conde, sold by auction 
in London in 1824. 

ALDENARDA, Oudenarde, d strong and manufacturing 
town of Flanders. One book only, from this town, appears to 
be known, viz. Hermanni de petra Santdorpii sermones quin- 
quaginta super Orationem Dominicam ; which is a folio, bearing 
for imprint Pressum Aldenardi per me Arnoldum CcEsaris meos- 
que sodales, 1480. Nothing further occurs in bibliographers re- 
specting the typography of Oudenard ; except in Santander, who 
gives an indistinct notice of two other pieces supposed to have 
been executed here. 

Alenconium, Alen^on, a large, ancient, and populous town of 
France, in Lower Normandy. Printing was carried on here in 
the year 1625 and in 1653, by Robert Muerel, who calls himself 
" king's printer and bookseller to the college" (of Jesuits). — 

Aleppo, see Halebum. 

Alexandria, a large and celebrated city, the ancient capital of 
Egypt; now a place of considerable trafiic, and resorted to by 

AL.— AM. 9 

merchants of all nations. During the time that Egypt was occu- 
pied by the French republican armies, they appear to have esta^ 
Wished printing-offices at Alexandria, as well as at Cairo and 
Gizeh. An Arabic, Turkish, and Persian Alphabet, and Some 
IntrodMctory Exercises in the Arabic Tongue, appear in the 
" Bibliotheca Marsdeniana," bearing for imprint Alexandrie, an. 
VI. (1798.) 

Almeria, Almeria, a seaport of Spain, in the province of Gre- 
nada : it is a bishop's see. 

ALOSTVM, Alost, a town of Flanders, seated on the river 
Dender. About the year 1472 or 1473 printing was carried on 
here by Theodoric Mertens, or Martin, who is supposed to have 
been the first to introduce the art into Belgium. A full descrip- 
tion of a book executed by him in 1473, may be seen in the Bib- 
liotheca Spenceriana, vol. iv. p. 554. Martin continued the print- 
ing business for nearly 60 years ; having in 1476 erected an esta- 
blishment at Antwerp, and subsequently another at Louvain. 
Santander is loud and long in his praise, conceiving that his fame 
was improperly contested by a feUow-bibliographer Lambinet. 

ALTA VILLA, Eltville or Elfeld, a small town adjoining to 
Mayence, (perhaps forming one of its suburbs,) and the residence 
of the archbishop elector. Henry and Nicolas Bechtermiinze, 
who are said to have purchased the types formerly belonging to 
Jo. Gutenberg, printed here a Teutonic and Latin Vocabulary, 
being an abridgment of the Catholicon of John de Janua, in 1467, 
folio. Their press continued at work for about ten years. 

Altddrjium, properly denotes a Benedictine abbey in Suabia. 
This imprint occurs continually in books, but in all probability 
the town of Altorf may be intended in efery case. See AUorfia. 

Altenburgum, Altenburg, a town of Upper Saxony. The Bod- 
leian collection of German tracts on the Reformation contains one 
printed here, of the date of 1523 : I have seen no other earlier 
than the following century. 

Altona, a seaport of Lower Saxony, on the Elbe. Printing was 
executed at Altona by Cornelius Van der Meiden, in 1673. 

Altorfia, or Altdorfium, Altorf, a town of Franconia, near Nu- 
remburg, which possessed an university founded in the year 1579. 

Amacusa, Amacusia, a town of Japan, situated in an island of 
the same name, oiF the coast of the island Zimo. 

10 AM. 

The Jesuits, who possessed a large college in Amacusia towards 
the close of the XVIth century, probably were the introducers 
of the art of printing into the town and island. Chevillier, in his 
Origine de Timprimerie, notices a book which Spaliger had be- 
queathed to the university library of Leyden, written by F. Luis 
de Gra/nada, and printed by the Jesuits in their college at Amd,- 
cusa, in the language of Japan, but in European characters, in 
the year 1582. The book is set down, according to Chevillier's 
description, in page 313 of the Leyden university library cata- 
logue, (folio, 1716 ;) yet still I cannot help suspecting some mis- 
take of a figure, an 8 perhaps for a 9, inasmuch as in the account 
of the twenty-six martyrs crucified in Japan, which is to be found 
in the Acta Sanctorum, (in the first volume for February, page 
735,) it is distinctly stated that this college of Amacusia was not 
founded until the year 1591- I much doubt whether there be a 
second copy of the work nearer to us than that at Leyden, by 
help of which this question might at once be set at rest. The 
library of the late distinguished oriental scholar, M. Langles, of 
Paris, contained a Dictiona/riwm Latino-Lusitanicum et Japoni- 
cum, in small quarto, which bore for imprint, AmacusS., in collegio 
Japonico Societatis Jesu, 1595. At M. Langles' sale (in 1825) 
this little volume produced the sum of 650 francs \%ll. l*.]- 
The same book appears in the " Bibl. Marsdeniana," 4to. 1827. 

AmbereSf the Spanish name of Antwerp, occurs in books printed 
there in that language. 

Arriberga, Amberg, a large town of Bavaria, capital of the Up- 
per Palatinate. — 1593. 

Ambiam, called also Samiarohrina, Amiens, an episcopal city 
of France. Printing was carried on here by Jacques Hubault, 
in the year 1611. — (Marsh.) 

Amboyna, a Dutch settlement, chief town of the island of 
Amboyna, metropolis of the Dutch Molucca isles, in the Indian 
ocean. It has been several times alternately in possession of the 
English and Dutch, and is at present retained by the former. In 
the yeae 1814 this island was fixed on by the London Missionary 
Society as a desirable station, and the Rev. J. Kam having been 
ordered thither, he soon availed himself of the aid of typography 
on the spot, and erected a printing-press at Amboyna. In 1820 
a second press was despatched to him from the society in London ; 
by means of which he was enabled to send into circulation a large 

AM 11 

and valuable supply of the holy Scriptures and other publications 
in the Malay language. 

Amiternum, an ancient city of the south of Italy, in Abruzzo, 
the birthplace of the historian Sallust. On its ruins was erected 
San Vittorino, which once had a bishop, but subsequently the see 
was transferred to Aquila. The Helvetia of F. Gmllimannus, 
in folio, was printed here in 1623 ; a copy of which rare volume 
is in the Fagel library at Dubhn. 

Amacao, see Macao. 

Amstelcedamum, Amstelodamum, or Amstelredamum, Amster- 
dam, a celebrated commercial city, the capital of Holland. Print- 
ing was Introduced into this city about 1523, and the many splen- 
did editions of classical works which we possess from its presses, 
are evidences of the perfection to which the art has there been 
carried. W. J. Bleau, one of its eminent printers at the early 
part of the XVIIth century, and who is well known by seve- 
ral beautifully executed volumes of diminutive size, enjoys the 
additional reputation of having introduced very considerable im- 
provements into the structure of the printing-presses in use in his 
day. The first edition of Luther's New Testament, translated 
into Dutch, is given by Panzer as the earliest specimen of print- 
ing from this place. In a political tract of the year 1628, in the 
Fagel library at Dublin, I have seen the name Amsterdam dis- 
guised under the anagram de mateu salem, (i. e. Aemstalre- 
dam). It is observed by Bachmeister that Russian types were 
used at Amsterdam in the year 1699. 

La Serna Santander, in the Supplement to his " Dictionnaire 
" Bibliographique," adduces something like proof that typogra- 
phy was exercised at Amsterdam during the XVth century, a 
circumstance not generally noticed. He had in his possession a 
small 8vo. volume, called Tractatus Jratris Dionysii de conver- 
sione peccatoris, which was printed in this town, and appeared to 
exhibit all the marks of the XVth century. He gives the colo- 
phon in fac^siraile at page 518 of his third vcJume. 

Amursjiyrtwm, Amersfoordt, a large town of the Netherlands, 
in the province of Utrecht, seated on the river Ems. 

Two tracts by Drniiel de Vidms,. who appears to have been 
chaplain to the English forces then quartered here, bear for im- 
print Amwrs^fiarii, apvd ArnoMum Oddphivm,, 1626. They are 
of a prophetical cast, written in a singular style, and savouring 

12 AN. 

much more of zeal than of discretion. These may be seen in the 
Bodleian library, and in that of Trinity college, Dublin. 

Ancona, Ancona, an ancient city of Italy, capital of a marqui- 
sate. Panzer gives the year 1514 as the time at which printing 
was introduced into this place : the first printer appears to have 
been Bernardinus Guerralda of Vercelli. 

ANDEGAVVM, called also IVLIOMAGVM, Angers, a 
large city of France, capital of Anjou : it is a bishop's see, and 
contains an university founded in 1398, by Loiiis II<1. duke of 
Anjou. Panzer mentions two books printed here in the XVth 
century, the earliest of which, Manipulus Curatorum, bears the 
date 1477, and was printed by Joannes de Turre and Jo. Mo- 
relli : but it has recently been ascertained that the first book 
printed at Angers is Ciceronis Rhetorica, 4to. 1476. 

Andover, a large and flourishing town of Essex county, in the 
province of Massachusetts, North America. Messrs, Flagg and 
Gould exercised typography in Andover, in the year 1818 : and 
a Hebrew Grammar, by professor M. Stuart, was printed here 
in 1821. 

And/reofoUs, St. Andrew's, a city of Scotland, containing the 
most ancient university in that part of the British dominions ; the 
founder of which was bishop Wardlaw, in the year 1412. The 
art of printing found its way hither about the middle of the 
XVIth century. Herbert cites the well known book, TAe Com^ 
plaint of Scotland, printed here in the year 1548 : for which his 
authority is Dr. Mackenzie. Or perhaps, since The Complaint is 
not known to have any title remaining, Archbishop HamiltotHs 
Catechism, of the year 1551, may pass for the earliest St. An- 
drew's book now known. Of this rare Catechism see a long 
and interesting account in M^Crie's Life of John Knox, vol. i. 
p. 405. 

Aneda, see Edimburgum. 

Angelopolis, Puebla de los Angeles, a large and beautiful city 
of Mexico or New Spain, founded by the Spaniards in the year 
15331 Like Mexico its streets are broad and cross each other 
at right angles, dividing the city into large regular squares. 
Puebla was formerly the capital of the province of Tlascala, but 
is now the chief city of the intendancy of Puebla, and the see of 
a bishop, the see having been transferred hither from Tlascala in 
1550. It is computed to contain at present about 90,000 inha- 

AN. 13 

bitants. There are in it sixty-nine churches, besides numerous 
establishments for religious of both sexes, the richness and splen- 
dour of which are declared to be so great as almost to exceed be- 
lief. Mr. Bullock mentions that on visiting the bishop's library 
in the summer of 1823 he was shewn a Spanish Bible with plates, 
as a great curiosity. A single Bible, in the vernacular tongue, 
and that in a bishop's library, to be a great curiosity deserving to 
be especially pointed out to a foreigner visiting the country ! does 
this require a single comment ? 

At what period the art of printing was introduced to Puebla, I 
have not learned : the earliest of its books which has fallen under 
my observation bears the date of 1639, Antonio mentions that in 
1643 a history of its splendid cathedral was executed in the city. 

Anglostadium, is perhaps merely another name of Ingolsta- 
dium. The 'EpcoToiraiyvtov of Cornelius Curtius appears to have 
been printed here in 1621 ; although the title-page bears the dis- 
guised imprint Erotopolis. 

ANGOLISMVM, or ENGOLISMVM, Angouleme, a large 
and ancient town of France, the see of a bishop. Panzer knew 
of two books executed here in the XV th century, the earliest of 
which, AiJtctores VIII. Catho Sj-c. bears date 1491. 

Angra, Angra, a seaport town, capital of Tercera, one of the 
Azores islands : it is a populous place, and the see of a bishop. 
Perhaps there are few of us who would have expected to find the 
art of printing established in the Azores, and that at so early a 
period as nearly two centuries and a half ago : but it is a fact of 
which existing evidence will not allow us to doubt for a moment. 
The Bodleian library contains a very rare and curious specimen 
of typography from these islands, being a volume in folio, en- 
titled, Relacion de la iornada, expugnacion, y conquista de la 
isla Tercera, y las demas circunvezinas, q hizo dan Alba/ro de 
Baqan, marquez de Santacruz : &c. It consists of twelve leaves 
only ; at the end occurs the following colophon, Fecha en la ciu- 
dad de Angra de la isla de Tercera, a onze de Agosto, mil y qui- 
nientos y ochenta y tres. I have never seen nor heard of either 
a second specimen or a second copy of the book here described. 

Anicimn, Puy en Velay, a city of France, seated on a small 
river near the Loire, formerly a bishop's see. — 1650. 

Armceburgum, Annaburg, a town of Upper Saxony. — 1597. 

Annapolis, a capital city of the county Ann Arundel, in the 

14 AN. 

province of Maryland, North America. The first press was set 
up in this city by Wm. Parks, in 1726 : and his earliest book ap- 
pears to be, " A Collection of the Laws of Mart/land,'" published 
in the next year. Parks was succeeded by some descendants of 
the family of Green, under whom the art flourished considerably 
at this place. 

Annecium, Annecy, a large and fine town, one of the most de- 
lightful in Savoy. Printing is noticed here in the year 1656. 

Ansloga, or Opsloe, a city of Norway, seated on the bay of 
Biorning: it was burnt down in the year 1624, and rebuilt under 
the name of Christiania, which see. 

Antigola, (qu ? Anglesola, a town of Spain, in Catalonia .'') An- 
tonio (tom. i. p. 193,) mentions a work by Christopher de Vega 
printed at this place in the year 1563. 

Antiochia, or Santa FS de Antioquia, a city of South America, 
lately capital of the Spanish province of Antioquia. 

In the year 1824 a newspaper was in regular publication in this 

Antiquaria, Antequera, a Moorish town of Spain, in the king- 
dom of Grenada. Antonio notices printing here so early as 1574. 
In 1576, ^hus Antonius Nebrissensis appears to have possessed 
a press in his own house at Antequera. In the Bodleian are some 
books executed here, of the dates 1600, 1601 ; and the collection 
sold in London under the name of Don J. A. Conde contained 
one of the year 1577. 

ANTVERPIA, in French Anvers, in Spanish Amberes, Ant- 
werp, a well-known city of the Netherlands, in Brabant ; formerly 
a bishop's see, and one of the richest towns in Europe. The 
earliest book known from this town, Het boeck vam Tondalus 
visioen, was printed in 1472, by Mathis Van der Goes. [Lam- 
binet, however, after La Serna Santander, suspects the date, and 
believes the year 1476 to be that of the introduction of typogra- 
phy into Antwerp.] In 1480 Gerard Leeu, who calls Antwerp 
mercuriale oppidum Jamatissimum, printed here The history of 
the knight Jason, which is one of the earliest English books 
printed abroad, after Caxton's Recueil of the histories of Troy. 
Also, in 1493, another English book. The Chronicles of the realm 
of England: with several others In the same language towards 
the close of the XVth century. Nor should it be forgotten, 
that the very first edition of the New Testament in English, 

AQ. 15 

translated hy William Tyndal, is generally supposed to have been 
executed at Antwerp in the year 1526. 

Among the printers who have done honour to the town of Ant- 
werp, must be reckoned the justly celebrated Christopher Plan- 
tin, the beauty and correctness of whose workmanship is attested 
by numerous publications in almost every branch of literature. 

Of this esteemed printer it may be mentioned, that he was 
born in the year 1514 near Tours; was apprenticed to the king's 
printer at Caen ; commenced printing at Antwerp in 1555 ; and 
died there in 1589. The earliest production of his press is a piece 
translated from the Italian, entitled La institutione di una fa/n- 
civlla nota nobilmente, bearing his imprint with the date 1555. 
It is a small duodecimo of sixty pages, and is expressly named 
by Plantin, in the dedication, as the first-fruits of his press : ces- 
tuy premier hourjon sortant dujardin de mon imprimerie. 

M. Van Praet, to whom I owe this interesting noticcj mentions 
that the piece is extremely rare ; and that a copy of it, upon blue 
paper, is preserved in the royal library of Paris. 

Aqu(B-Gramum, Aachen, Aix-la-Chapelle, a city of France. — 

Aqu(B Sextioe, Aix, an ancient city of Fi:ance, formerly the 
capital of Provence. An university was erected here by Louis 
II. in the year 1413, after a previous foundation of an academy 
in 1100. 

M. Henricy has recently (1826) favoured us with a tract on 
the origin of printing in Provence, from whom we learn that the 
art was first brought into use in Aix in the year 1574. Two 
years previously the subject had engaged the consideration of the 
magistrates, who entered into negotiations on the subject ; and in 
1574 succeeded in bringing Pierre Rest from Avignon and esta- 
blishing him in this town. At a subsequent period the press ap- 
pears to have sustained an interruption of seven years: and in 
the year 1597 the syndics of Aix invited from Lyons a printer 
named Pierre Tholozanj who in due time was succeeded by Ed- 
ward David, and he by John Roize. The earliest Aix book 
which has fallen under my own observation is of the year 1629, 
bearing for imprint Aquis ' Sextiis, typis Joarmis Roize regicB 
v/niversitatis ordinm-ii typographi. The volume does credit to 
the town and printer. 

AQVILA, Aquila, a large episcopal city of Naples. An Ita- 

16 AR. 

Uam translation of Plutarch's Lives, hy B, A. Jaconello de Riete, 
was printed here in 1482, by Adam Rotwil, who had previously 
exercised his art at Venice. Earl Spencer possesses a copy of this 
Plutarch, as also two other specimens of printing at Aquila dur- 
ing the XVth century, of which very few are known to re- 
main, not more than four books being mentioned by Panzer. — 
(1594- Pinelli.) 

Arau, a small town, chief of the canton of Argau, in Switzer- 
land, containing about 4000 inhabitants. Printing was exercised 
here in the year 1821. 

Arausio, Orange, a city of France. — 1646. 1652. 1654. (TCD.) 

Arctaunum Francorum, qu. Ortenburg, a small town of Ger- 
many, in Hesse Darmstadt, not far from Frankfort on the 

A translation into Latin verse of Alexander Montgomery's 
poem of The Plum and the Cherry, was printed here " typis 
" Fleischmannianis," in the year 1631. A copy of this rare tract 
is in lord Charlemont's library at Dublin. 

Arcueil, a village of France, distant about one league from 
Paris. Peignot remarks, that a secret printing-press was dis- 
covered at work here in 1756, the works executed at which being 
found to be of a very improper nature, both press and printers 
were seized, the latter imprisoned, and the former destroyed. 

Arcum, Arco, a town on the river Sarca, on the confines of the 
Tyrol, distant 12 or 14 miles from Trent. It appears that print- 
ing was exercised at Arco during the sixteenth century, from a 
volume adduced by M. Van Praet, entitled Privilegia et diplo- 
mata, cj-c. comitihus de Arco irrogata, opera Ambrosii Franci 
eruta et Arci excussa. fol. To this volume the date of 1584 is 
given. A copy of it is among the books printed on vellum in the 
royal library of Paris. I have found no other notice of an Arco 
book earlier than 1611 . 

Arelatce, or Arelatum, Aries, a city of France, seated on the 
Rhone. M. Henricy '^ informs us that typography was first prac- 
tised in Aries in the year 1647. 

Arenacum, see Arnhemium. 

Aretium, Arezzo, a populous town of Tuscany, seated on a hill 
above the river Arno. It is a bishop's see; and is further memo- 
rable as the birthplace of Petrarch. — 1752. 

« " Notice sur roriginede rimprimerie en Provence," 8vo. Aix, 1826. 

AR. 17 

Arevalum, Arevalo, a tpwn of Spain, in Old Castile, on the 
confines of Leon. According to Antonio, the art of printing was 
exercised here so early as 1551. 

Strasburg, an ancient, populous, and fine city of France, formerly 
imperial and archiepiscopal, seated on the Rhine. It is well 
known to the learned, that Strasburg is one of those towns which 
put in a claim to the honour of giving birth to the typographic 
art; and it has been contended by Schoepflin and others, that 
John Gutenberg printed here between the years 1440 and 1450. 
This assertion however, being unsupported by any positive evi- 
dence now remaining, I entirely pass over. The earliest dated 
Strasburg book now known is an edition of the Decretum Gra- 
iiani, printed by Henry Eggesteyn in 1471. Eggesteyn how- 
ever is known to have carried on the art for two or three years 
previous to the publication of this work. John Menteliii, or 
Mentelius, is thought to have printed in this city, in the year 
1465 or 1466 ; his first edition of the German Bible, being almost 
proved to be of the latter year, but no book of his bears a printed 
date earlier than 1473. Panzer also notices (vol. iv. p. 224) a 
Terence and Valerius Maximus, said to have been printed at 
Strasburg in or about 1470, by Adolphus Rusch de Inguilen, 
who appears to have been MentePs son-in-law. 

Among works executed in this city by unknown printers. Pan- 
zer reckons the Terence and Aretine of the Sortense mondste- 
rium. Towards the close of the XVth century, John Griinin- 
ger possessed a flourishing printing-establishment at Strasburg, 
from which he sent forth a Terence, Horace, Virgil, and some 
other books, filled with curious and interesting wood-engravings; 
amongst them is an edition of Brandt's Stultifera Navis, pub- 
lished in 1497. 

Arhusivm, Arhusen or Aarhus, a town of Denmark, in North 
Jutland. Panzer mentions a Breviary printed here by Melchior 
Blumme, in 1519, but no other book. 

Ariminum, Rimini, an ancient town of Italy, in Romagna. 
A Hebrew book, SepJier Ikkarim, by Rabbi Joseph Albo, was 
supposed to have been printed here in 1486. The work however 
has been decided to be from the Soncino press ; and there is no 

18 AE.— AS. 

evidence of the art of printing having been carried on at Rimini 
previously to the year 1521. 

Arnhemia, called also Arnoldi villa, and Arenacum, Arnheim, 
a populous and strong town, situated on the Rhine, the capital of 
the Dutch province of Guelderland, the governors of which for- 
merly resided within it. Printing was' exercised at Arnheim in 
the year 1612. 

Arnostadium, Arnstadia, or Arnstetum, Arnstadt, a well-built 
town of Saxony, in the county of Schwartzburg, seated on the 
river Gera, at the distance of 10 miles from Erfurt. Printing was 
carried on here, by Peter Schmidt, in the years 1 655, 1665, &c. 
— (Bodl.) 

Arosia, Westeras, an ancient episcopal town of Sweden, seated 
on the lake of Malar. Olaus Olai, of Elsinore, exercised the art 
of printing here in 1621, a press having been established by the 
bishop Johannes Rudbeckius, under the patronage of king Gus- 
tavus Adolphus. Panzer's notice of a Brevia/ry printed here in 
1504 probably rests on incorrect information, and in fact seems 
to be altogether disproved by Alnander. In all probability the 
book noticed by Panzer was nothing more than a copy of a Bre- 
viary printed at Basle in the year 1513, the last leaf of which 
may have been wanting; for it happens that the prefibce of that 
edition bears date " Arosiae, vi. Id. Octob. 1504," from which 
circumstance the mistake is most likely to have arisen. In 1625 
a Swedish Psalter was executed at Westeras, a copy of which, 
upon vellum, is in the university library of Upsal. 

Asccmia, Ascania, an ancient castle of Germany, seated on the 
river Wipper, formerly the residence of the counts of Anhalt. 
It has been almost totally destroyed, and the small town of As- 
cherleben has arisen upon its ruins. Peignot mentions a work of 
J. Fr. Reimmannus, printed here in the year 1702. 

Aschaffemhwrgv/m, Aschaffenburg, a town of Germany, for- 
merly imperial, in the circle of Franconia ; it now belongs to the 
archbishop of Mentz. Printing was carried on here in 1620, 1622, 
&c. by Balthasar Lippius. 

ASCVLVM, Ascoli, a town of Italy, in the marquisate of An- 
cona. Two books, La cronica de S. Isidoro, 1477, and Statuta 
civitatis AsculancE, 1496, are the only specimens of printing 
known to have proceeded from hence during the XVth century. 
(1580, Pinelli.) 

AS— AT. 19 

Assisium, Assisi, a small town of Italy in the pope's dominions, 
which until the year 1810 was the see of a bishop. — 1731- 

Asia, Asti, a large city of Piedmont, the see of a bishop, seated 
on the left bank of the river Tanaro, twenty-four miles east of 
Turin. Panzer notices two books printed here in the years 1518 
and 1519, the former of which is a work of Albertus Brwno, and 
the latter Sangeorgius' Series of the Marquesses of Montferrat. 
Panzer's citation of this book is from the catalogue of the Pinelli 
library, where it is styled liber rarissi/mus. 

Asia, or Xerezium, Xeres de la Frontera, a populous town of 
Spain, in the province of Seville, memorable for a battle fought 
in the year 712, in which Roderic, the last king of the Goths, lost 
his life. From its environs is produced the wine commonly known 
to us by the name of Sherry. Printing was carried on in this 
town in 1626. 

Astigium, or Astygium, Ecija, or Exija, a large town of Spain, 
in the province of Seville, seated on the river Xenil. Antonio 
mentions printing here in 1641. 

Astrachan, the capital of the province of Astrachan, (ori^nally 
called Haj^ Terkh^n, hence the Giterchan or Ginterchan of the 
middle ages,) one of the most populous and wealthy cities in the 
Russian empire, containing about 70,000 inhabitants : it is situ- 
ated in an island in the river Volga, about thirty miles from the 
Caspian sea. In the year 1815 a branch of the Scottish mission 
having been established at Astrachan, the printing-establishment 
was removed hither from the settlement at Karass, and a reprint 
of the Karass edition of the Tartar-Turkish New Testament was 
immediately commenced. For some interesting particulars of the 
Astrachan press, the reader is referred to Henderson's Biblical 
Researches in Russia, p. 422, &c. The library of the British 
and Foreign Bible Society contains the following works in the 
Tartar dialect, printed ^t this place : The Psalter, 1815. The 
Gospel of St. LMke, 1815. The New Testament, 1820. 

Asturica, Astorga, an ancient and strong city of Spain, in the 
province of Leon. Printing was carried on here by Hieronymus 
Murillo, in 1624.— (TCD.) 

AthencB. During the present struggle of the Greeks for the 
independence of their country, a printing-press has been erected 
at Athens among other places, from which is now issued a news- 
paper, entitled. The Athens free Press. 


20 AT.— AU. 

Athum, Ath or Aeth, a populous and manufacturing town of 
the Netherlands, in Hainault, seated on the river Dender. 

Printing appears to have been exercised here in 1622. 

Atrebatum, or Rigiacum Atrehdtium, Arras, an ancient, strong, 
and populous city of France, capital of a department, and the see 
of a bishop. Arras has long been famed for its tapestry, and con- 
tains also other manufactures. The art of printing was certainly 
carried on here in the year 1588. (TCD) But M. Van Praet 
seems to claim for the town a much earlier acquaintance with ty- 
pography, by citing a vellum copy of a Missale Afrebatense, in 
folio, which professes to have been printed at Arras by John and 
Anthony Pice, in the year 1517. The copy addtieed is in the Ma- 
aarine library. 

Attlehorough^ or Arilehurgh, a township of the county of Bris- 
tol, on the frontiers of Massachusetts in New England, North 
America. A printing-press was temporarily erected here by So- 
lomon South wick, on his being compelled to quit Newport in 
Rhode Island, in the year 1776. 

Ava, the ancient capital of the Birman empire in the east, for- 
merly a place of great extent, but much diminished of late years: 
In the year 1814 Mr. F. Carey, an English baptist missionary, 
obtained leave from the king to erect a printing-office here, for 
the purpose of publishing the holy Scriptures in the Burmese lan- 
guage : which permission was immediately acted upon. 

Avaricum, or Bitwriges, Bourges, an ancient and large city of 
France, capital of a department : it was formerly an archbishop's 
see, and possessed an university, which was founded, or rather 
restored, by Louis XI. The art of printing was carried on at 
Bourges so early as 1540 ; in which year a book entitled Cou- 
tumes de Berry, was executed here by Barth. Bartault. A copy 
of this, upon vellum, is in the royal library of Paris. 

Auburn, a modern handsome village, in the state of New- York, 
North America, containing the county court-house and gaol. 

" An Account of the State-prison of New-York situate at Au- 
" burn," was printed here in the year 1826. 

Auchmlech, a town of Scotland, in the county of Ayr, the resi- 
dence of the late lord Auchinlech, and of the late sir Alexander 
Boswell. Sir Alexander, a literary man, and (as he merrily ex- 
pressed it) somewhat infected with the type fever, erected a prints 
ing-press in a cottage near to his house at Auchinlech, at which 

AU. 21 

he printed some pieces of Churchyard, ^nd a feW other tracts. 
An account of his printing-establishment, as detailed in a letter 
from himself to Dr. Dibdin, may be consulted in the third volume 
of the entertaining Bibliographical Decameron. His death, alas ! 
we all remember and regret. 

Audomaropolis, .or Audomarum, St. Omer's, an ancient and 
large town of France, formerly the see of a bishop ; at which a 
college for English and Irish Roman catholics was founded in the 
year 1694i, by the well known father Parsons : it continued to be 
the principal establishment of English Jesuits until the period of 
the suppression of the order in France. At this time (1764) it 
passed into the hands of the secular clergy of Douay, and was 
finally destroyed by the French in the year 1793. The Jesuits 
of this college possessed a printing-press so early as 1600, in 
which year, amongst other things, they printed here some works 
of Robert Parsons, (which may be seen in the Bodleian library.) 

N. B. For a curious and instructive account of the method 
pursued at this seminary with the young English and Irish des- 
tined to be sent over for the conversion of their countrymen to 
the tenets and assumptions of the Romish church, the reader is 
referred to a little volume entitled Britarmo-Romanus, by John 
Everard, (an eye-witness) printed at London in 1611. 12mo. 

AVENIO, Avignon, a large and beautiful city of France, seated 
on the Rhone, formerly belonging to the popes, and for many 
years the place of their residence. It is a bishop's see, and has 
an university, founded by Boniface VIII, in 1303, and re-esta- 
blished, in a different form, in the year 1803, The art of print- 
ing found its way into Avignon towards the close of the XVth 
century, and the earliest book at present known is the Palinurus 
qfLucian, with other tracts, in Latin, printed in 1497. Domi- 
nic Anselmus, a printer of this place in 1500, styles Avignon al- 
tera Roma. 

Augusta, in the district of Maine, Massachusetts. Peter Edes 
was a printer here in the year 1810. 

Augusta Ehurotmm, qu. whether Liege, Tongres, or Maes- 
tricht.P This imprint occurs in a book of the year 1721. (TCD;) 

Augusta Munatiana, or Augusta Rauracorum, Augst, for- 
merly a large and flourishing town^ but now a small village, at 
the distance of two leagues from Basle, which in fact has absorbed 
both its prosperity and name. — 1606. 


22 AU. 

Atigusta Treboeorum, see Argentoratum, 

Augusta Trecarumy see Trecce. 

Augusta Trevirorum, see Treviri. 

Augusta Tricassiorum, St. Paul trois Chateaux, a town of 
France. Petrus Chevillot styled himself " Typographus regius" 
in a book printed by him here in the year 1615. 


Augusta Vangionum, see Vormacium. 

AVGVSTA VINDELICORVM, Augsburg, an ancient and 
fine city of Suabia, formerly imperial and episcopal ; memorable 
amongst other things for the Confession of Faith presented in the 
year 1530 by Luther and Melancthon to the emperor Charles V. 
and which has ever since been known by the name of Tlie Con- 
fission of Augsburg ; a city well deserving to be remembered by 
every Protestant who understands the principles, and can appre- 
ciate the value, of the Religion which he professes and enjoys. 

Augsburg was furnished with the art of printing at a very 
early period; Gunther Zainer of Reutlingen having printed here 
Meditationes vite Domini nostri Jesu Christi, by Bonaventure, 
in the year 1468. La Serna Santander well observes, that Zainer . 
has a double claim to our attention ; as having been the intro- 
ducer not only of typography into the city of Augsburg, but of 
the beautiful Roman letter into Germany, where no other than 
the black or Gothic had been seen until the publication of his 
EtymologicB S. Isidori, in 1472. John Schuszler, a native, exer- 
cised the art for a short period, viz. from 1470 to 1472. Christ- 
mann Heyny, in 1471. John Baemler, (or Bamler,) in 1472. 
In 1472 a press was erected in the monastery of SS. Ulric and 
Afra, but no book issued from it before 1474 now remains. An- 
thony Sorg, who is supposed to have printed for the monastery, 
says of one of his books, that it is not " cyrographatus, sed stan- 
" neis karacteribus artificialiter effigiatus.'" 

Among the Augsburg printers of the XV th century occurs 
Erhard Ratdolt, who had carried on the business at Venice in 
1476, and seems to have entertained no mean opinion of his own 
abilities, as may be seen by his colophons, in which he styles him- 
self, Vir solertissimus, imprimendi arte nominatissimus, artis im- 
pressorie magister apprime fiimosus, perpolitu^s ojAfeac, vir sub 
orbe notus, &c. &c. 

Augustodunum, Autun, an ancient and populous town of 

AU. 23 

France in Burgundy, the see of a bishop, and formerly capital of 
a district. 

The art of printing was known and practised hete in the year 

Atiffustoritum Pictonum, see Lemoiiices. 

AvUly, a small village of France, near Chantilly, distant about 
twenty-five miles from Paris. The well known Hebrew critic 
Houbigant had a country house here, in which he set up a print- 
ing-press for his amusement, and printed his Hebrew Psalter, in 
1748, Proverbs, in 1763, &c. as also some publications in French. 
The Psalter, of which one hundred copies were struck off, bears 
the imprint iMgdtmi Batavorum. 

AtdoB Regies Monasterium, Konigshoven, a Cistercian monas- 
tery of considerable beauty and renown, in Bohemia, seated on 
the banks of the river Moldau. It was in ancient times celebrated 
for having the entire text of the Old and New Testaments painted 
on the interior of its walls, the letters being successively larger as 
they were nearer to the upper parts of the building. This curious 
monument, however, perished amid the inroads of the Hussites. 
(iEneae Sylvii Hist. Bohem. cap. 36.) 

Konigshoven in fact has no claim to be mentioned in the pre- 
sent work ; but I have inserted this notice of it with a view of 
preventing error, an assertion having recently appeared that typo- 
graphy was exercised in this monastery during the XVth cen- 
tury, and that an edition of the Dialogue called Malogranatum 
was printed here in the year 1487. It is true that there is such 
an edition of the book in question ; but it is without any name of 
place or printer ; and by the wording of its subjoined colophon 
the reader will clearly perceive, that, although an abbot of Ko- 
nigshofen was its author, yet the edition was executed neither 
there nor in any other part of Bohemia. " Explicit dyalogus 
" dictus Malogranatum, compilatus a quodam venerabili abbate 
*' monasterii Aule regie in Bohemia ordinis Cysterciensis. Anno 
dni 1487." The volume is a small folio; it may be seen in the 
Bodleian library. 

AVRACVM, or Burgum Juracense, Aurach, or Urach, a 
small town in the dominions of Wirtemburg. Mr. Home men- 
tions, from La Serna Santander, a work, Leben der Heilegen, in 
folio, printed here in 1481, by Conrad Fyner, a printer of Ess- 
lingen. For myself, I have observed no book bearing this im- 

c 4 

24, AU.— BA. 

print of a date anterior to 1561. Le Long adduces an Hebrew 
Bible and Greek Testament, printed at Aurach in the year 1581 ; 
also the Latin Bible of Santes Pagninus, executed in the same 

ancient, fine, and celebrated city of France; it is the see of a 
bishop, and has an university, founded in 1302. Only two books 
were known to Panzer to have been executed here in the XVth 
century; one of which bears date 1490, and the other 1500. The 
former is a French version of the Manipulus Curatorum ; the 
printer, Matthew Vivian. In the middle of the following century 
Loys Rabier exercised the art at Orleans. 

Aurelia Allobrogum, see Geneva. 

Aureliopolis, qu ? whether Orleans or Geneva .-' probably the 
latter. The Adversaria of Adrian Turnebus were printed here 
by Petrus Quercetanus, in the year 1604. — (Marsha's Library.) 

Aurillac, a considerable manufacturing town of France, in 
Upper Auvergne. — 1704. 

Auristadium, (qu ? Auerstadt, in the province of Thuringia .?) 
Printing was very respectably executed in this town, by Petrus 
Aretinus, in the year 1648. 

Australasia, or AustraUa, in modern geography, the fifth great 
division of the globe; including New Holland, Van Dieman's 
land, and all those numerous islands situated to the south west of 
Asia. It is affirmed that the first book printed in New South 
Wales was James Busby on the cultivation of the Vine, 8vo. 
1825, pp. 270: but of this there may be some doubt ; as regular 
gazettes have been printed at Sydney for upwards of twenty years. 

AVSTRIiE CIVITAS, not Vienna, but Cividad di Friuli, an 
ancient town of Italy, in the Venetian territory. Only two books 
of the XVth centurv from this town are known, one of which is 
Platyna de honestd voluptate ; the other, Cronica de S. Isidero 
minor e; both of them bearing the date of 1480: the printer was 
Gerard de Flandri^. The first of these curious specimens is con- 
tained in the Bodleian library, and both are in the rich collection 
of earl Spencer. 

Autissiodorum, or Antissiodorum, Auxerre, an ancient city of 
France, the capital of a department, and formerly a bishop's see. 
Printing was exercised here in the year 1580. — (1609, Bodl.) 

BA; 25 


Bade en Argovie, Baden, a small town of Switzerland, capital 
of the district of Baden, in the canton of Argau. Within one 
mile of it are the celebrated hot-baths from which it takes its 
name. Some Poems by a blind girl, published for the benefit of 
the poor who frequent the baths, are announced to have been 
printed here in the year 1823. 

Bagnolet, an agreeable village of France, at the distance of one 
league from Paris. The cardinal du Perron erected here a pri- 
vate press in his own house in the year 1600, at which he was 
in the habit of printing limited editions of his works, for the in- 
spection and correction of his friends before they were given to 
the world at large. 

Baieux, or Bayeux, a populous trading town of France in 
Lower Normandy, the see of a bishop, and celebrated for its fine 
cathedral. Printing was carried on here in 1696. 

Baltimore, the chief town of Baltimore county, in Maryland, 
North America. Printing was introduced into this city by Ni- 
cholas Hasselbocht, a pupil of Sauer of Germantown, not many 
years before the American war with Great Britain. He was well 
supplied with types for printing, both in the German and Eng- 
lish languages ; and is said to have meditated the publication of 
a German version of the Bible; a design, which, however, was 
never carried into execution. 

Bamberg, a celebrated city of Franconia, capital of a principality, 
and the see of a bishop : it has an university, originally founded 
in 1147, and enlarged and improved in 1739. 

There is no doubt that Bamberg was one of the earliest cities 
which received the art of printing, and indeed its just place seems 
to be immediately second to Mayence : for (not to mention the 
Bible of Schelhorn, which bears no date, but is supposed to have 
been executed in 1459,) there is remaining to us distinct evidence 
of a press established here so early as T461 or 1462, by Albert 
Pfister, in a German Collection of Fables, dated 1461, a copy of 
which is said to be in the library of Wolfaabuttel ; and also in a 
German book containing the histories of Joseph, Daniel, Judith, 
and Esther, which bears the imprint Bamberg, the name of 
Pfister, and the date 1462. See a detajled account of this ex- 

26 BA. 

tremely rare work, and of two others bound up in the same vo- 
lume, (which is now in the royal library at Paris, having been 
purchased for one hundred louis d'ors, in 1799,) published by 
M. Camus, 4to. Paris, 1798. See also Bibliotheca Spencericma, 
vol. i. p. 94. It is to be remarked that no other dated specimen 
of Bamberg printing occurs until the year 1481. Of Schelhorn's 
Bible M. Van Praet acquaints us with the existence of four per- 
fect copies. 

John Sensenschmidt, who printed at Bamberg in 1481, dates 
one of his works, in Montis Monachorum loco penes nobilem ur- 
bem Babenbergensem : namely the Missale ordinis B. Benedicti, 
fol. 1481, which is supposed to be his earliest work. Sensens- 
chmidt had] previously followed the printing business at Nurem- 

Ba/r-le-Duc, a considerable town of France, formerly the capital 
of a duchy : during the heat of the French revolution its name 
was changed to Bar-sur-Omain. — 1739. 

Bwrcmovia, Baranow^ a castle of Lesser Poland, in the pala- 
tinate of Sendomir. The members of the reformed church had 
a printing-press here in 1628. 

Barbastro, often called Balbastro, an episcopal town of Spain, 
in the province of Arragon. 

The only instance of printing at this town which 1 have met 
with, is a Collection of Spanish Homilies on the days of Lent, 
published by directions of Philibert Grand prior of Castille and 
Leon, in folio, which bears for imprint, Impressas in la ciudad 
de Barbastro, par Sebastian Matevad. Ano. 1622. (TCD.) 

Barbium, Barby, a town of Upper Saxony, possessing a college 
founded, in 1754, by the Unitas Fratrum. — 1766. 

BARCHINO, BARCINO,or BARXINO, Barcelona, a large, 
commercial, and strong city of Spain, the capital of Catalonia, 
and a bishop's see ; it has an university, founded in 1440. 

Barcelona is the second in order of the Spanish towns which 
adopted the art of printing. 

A work entitled, Valesci Tarentini opus de Epidemid et Peste, 
translated into the Catalonian dialect, is given on the authority of 
Nicolas Antonio as the first book executed at this place. Its date 
is 1475, but the name of the printer is not mentioned : the first 
who occur being Petrus Brunus and Nicholaus Spindeler, both 
Germans, whose names appear on an edition of Thomas Aqvmas, 

BA. 27 

in the year 1478. A considerable number of publications, in the 
Spanish and Latin tongues, issued from Barcelona during the 
remainder of the XVth century : but Panzer seems to have 
met with very few printed during the earlier part of the succeed- 
ing one. 

BARCVM, Barco, a town of Italy in the province of Brescia, 
the seat of one of the early Jewish printing establishments. An 
Hebrew book, Selicoth, sen preces pro remisskme peccatorvm, is 
the only one known to have been printed here in the XVth 
century. Its date is 1497 ; the printer, Gersonjilius Rabbi Mods 
Mentzlcm. De Rossi possessed the unique but imperfect copy of 
this volume. It may be observed that Gerson, contrary to the 
usual conceit of those of his profession, calls himself minimus ty- 

Barda, or Bardum, Bardt, a considerable seaport-town of Po- 
merania, formerly the ducal residence. A Pomeranian version of 
the Bible was printed here in 1588, 4to : and the Juvenilia of 
M. A. Murettis, in 1590. This last is very neatly executed, bear- 
ing for imprint Bardi Pomeranice, ex officina Primcipis. It is in 
the Bodleian library. 

Barium, probably Bari, a seaport town of Naples, formerly 
an archbishop's see. Panzer notices printing here so early as 

Baruthum, or Byruthvmi, Bayruth, a fine and populous town, 
formerly the capital of Franconia. — 1669. 

Basatu/m, see Vasatum. 

HAURACM^, Basle, or Basil, a large and strong city of Swit- 
zerland, seated on the Rhine, capital of the province of Basle. 
It has a celebrated university, founded by Pius II. in 1459. Basle 
was the first city of Switzerland which could boast of the art of 
printing, which is thought to have been carried thither by Berthold 
Rodt of Hanau, (formerly employed in the office of Fust at May- 
ence,) between the years 1460 and 1465. However, none of the 
works executed by Rodt have any date, and few of them the 
printer's name : and the earliest Basle book bearing a certain date 
is either Joannis Calderini repertorimn juris, printed by Michael 
Wensler, or a German work, Der Sachsenspiegel, executed by 

' See Epitome Hist. Basil, a C. Urtisio, p. I. 

28 BA. 

Bernhart Richel, in 1474. Santander gives td this last the honour 
of being the first Basle printer. It is observable, that so late as 
1486, Wensler inserted in the colophon of his books, that they 
were not produced atramentali penna canndve, sed arte ingenioscL 
quadam imprimendi. 

Among the eminent printers of Basle must not be unnoticed 
the learned John Froben, the beauty and correctness of whose 
editions are highly commended by Erasmus. Froben printed 
here the first octavo edition of The Latin Bible, in 1491. Even 
so late as 1496, after that he had practised the art of printing 
during five or six years, Froben, with a modesty unusual among 
those of his trade, simply calls himself artis impressorice stu- 

It must never be forgotten, that to the press of Froben at Basle 
we are indebted for the first published edition of the original 
Greek of the New Testament, which appeared in the year 1516, 
edited by Erasmus. It is true that the Complutensian edition 
bears an earlier date, (1514,) but the caution of the pope would 
not suffer it to be made public until 1522. This first edition of 
Erasmus is not only a rare, but a beautiful and highly interesting 
volume. Erasmus himself has told us that he struck off three 
copies of it upon vellum ; one of which is now preserved in the 
cathedral library of York. 

Bassanum, Bassano, a small town of Italy. — 1623. 

Basseterre, the capital of the isle of St. Christopher's. Tho- 
mas Howe, a native of Ireland, in 1747, was a printer here: the 
art may have been introduced about two years earlier than this 

Basti, or Basta, Ba^a, or Baza, a trading town of the province 
of Granada in Spain. — 1614. 

Bastia, a populous and strong town, the capital of the island of 
Corsica. — 1785. 

Batavia, a city and seaport, the capital of the isle of Java, and 
of all the Dutch settlements in the East Indies. The Dutch 
East India company had a press here in the beginning of the 
XVIIIth century ; from which issued, in 1706 and 1707, some 
Malay vocabularies, in M-o. printed by A. L, Loderus, printer to 
the Dutch East India company, and to the city of Batavia : co- 
pies of these vocabularies are in the Bodleian library. Yet these 
could not have been the first-fruits of the Batavian press ; since 

BA.— BE. 29 

X.a Croze, in Tiis Histoire du Christicmisme des Indes, relates, 
that in the year 1706 the Danish missionaries instructed the na- 
tives at Tranquebar out of a Portuguese New Testament, printed 
at Batavia: and a Portuguese version of the Psalms, executed 
here in 1703, was in the library of M. Meerman. According to 
the catalogue of the library of the British and Foreign Bible So- 
ciety, the Old Testament was printed here in the Malayan lan- 
guage, in the year 1744, probably at the instance of the Dutch 
East India Company, who appear to have given orders for tne 
execution of such a work so early as 1729. 

An indirect insinuation that typography was practised at Ba- 
tavia during the XVIIth century appears to be furnished by a 
Dutch tract, preserved in the Fagel collection at Dublin; this 
piece contains an account of some shocking adventures encoun- 
tered at or near the island of Amboyna ; it is dated 1675, and 
professes to have been printed^owi a copy executed at Batavia. 

In the year 1823, Mr. Medhurst, an English missionary, erected 
in this city a printing-office for the peculiar purposes of his mis- 

Baudissa, see Budissina. 

Bayonne, or Bayonan, a commercial town and seaport of the 
south of France, seated on the Bay of Biscay. Typography was 
exercised at Bayonne in 1693. A book of Spiritual Exercises, 
in the Basque tongue, printed here in 1716, may be seen in the 
king's library: and a Basque and French Grammar and Dic- 
tionary, printed in 1741, in the Bodleian. 

Beacia, or Biatia, Baeza, or Baepa, a town of Spain in the 
province of Jaen, formerly a bishop's see. Antonio notices print- 
ing here so early as 1551. In 1594 a printer named J. Baptista 
de Montoya was working at Bae^a. 

Beirut, the ancient Berytus, now an inconsiderable place, seated 
at the foot of mount Lebanon. Schnurrer, in his Bibliotheca 
Arabica, mentions an Arabic Psalter, printed here in 1751, as 
also a Missal and a Breviary ; quoting the authority of Seezen 
for all three. 

Belfast, a large and populous manufacturing town in the north 
of Ireland, into which printing appears to have found its way 
about the beginning of the last century. In 1714 James Blow 
printed the works of sir David Lindsay, a Bible, Prayer Book, 
Psalms in metre, and 20 or 30 other books. 

80 BE. 

Bellary, a town of the northern part of the province of Mysore, 
in Hindostan. 

In the year 1810 the London Missionary Society estabUshed a 
settlement here, and under the superintendence of the Rev. J. 
Hands a printing-press was erected in Bellary ; but in what year 
I have not precisely ascertained : it appears to have been at work 
in 1819. 

Belhsitum Dobunarvm,, see Oxonia. 

Bellovacum, Beauvais, a populous and well-built town of 
France, capital of a department, and lately a bishop's see.— 

Belhvisum, the name of a spot or district of the city of Paris, 
in which Jehan Petit (a Parisian printer of some eminence at the 
commencement of the XVIth century) had a printing-establish- 
ment, is sometimes found in the colophons of his books, without 
the addition of the word " Parisiis," which would at once declare 
its locality : see an instance of this in Petit's edition of Lecmardus 
Aretinus de hello Gothorum, 4to. 1507, which bears for imprint. 
In Bellovisu impressi, anno &c. 

Belvidere, (called by Wolff in his Bibliotheca Hebraea, Ccdlo- 
scopium,) a town of European Turkey, standing on the site of 
the ancient city of Elis, in the Morea. The art of printing was 
exercised here by the Jews in the year 1523. — (Bodl.) 

Belunum, Belluno, a considerable town of Italy, capital of the 
Bellunese, and the see of a bishop. Printing was exercised here 
by Franciscus Viecerus, in the year 1629. — (TCD.) 

Benares, a large and celebrated city of great antiquity, seated 
on the left bank of the river Ganges, capital of the district of 
Benares, in Hindostan. Its population considerably exceeds half 
a million of souls. 

In the year 1818 or 1819 the English Church Missionary So- 
ciety sent out Mr. Thomas Brown, with all the materials of a 
printing-establishment, which since that time has been constantly 
and most ' usefuUy employed, in supplying the city and neigh- 
bovufhood with copies of the holy Scriptures and religious and 
moral tracts. 

Bencoolen, a seaport-town on the south-western coast of the isle 
of Sumatra, where the English have a settlement and factory. 
[For further particulars see the article Fort-Marlborough.'[ At 
what period typography was introduced I have not learnt : pro- 

BE. 31 

bably this was effected by the Baptist missionaries, who visited 
Bencoolen in the year 1818. The " Bibliotheca Marsdeniana" 
contains some " Mcdaycm Miscellanies, edited by Sir Stamford 
" Raffles,"" printed at Bencoolen in 1820 and following years. 

Beneventum, Benevento, a very ancient town of Italy in the 
kingdom of Naples, capital of a principality, and an archbishop's 
see. Printing was executed- at Benevento at least so early as 
1646.— (Pinelli.) 

Benfica, appears to be the name of a Dominican convent situ- 
ated somewhere in Portugal. Antonio, in his Bibliotheca His- 
pwna, torn. ii. pp. 19, 52, mentions a Portuguese work by F. Luis 
Cazegas, printed in this convent by Geraxdus de Vinhft, in the 
year 1623. 

Berdyczow, a town of European Russia, in the government of 
Volhynia, formerly in the Polish palatinate of Kiow. — 1818. 

Bergen, a large and handsome town of Norway, the capital of 
a province, and a bishop's see. It is computed to contain about 
15,000 inhabitants. 

A " Description of the town of Bergen" was printed at this 
place in the year 1824. 

Berg-op-Zoom, a strong fortress and town of the Netherlands, 
in Dutch Brabant ; called by the French, Bergues sur le Zoom. 
—1605. (Bodl.) 

Bergeracu/m, Bergerac, a rich and populous town of France, 
seated on the river Dordogne, Some sermons of Gilbert Prim- 
rose, a minister of Bourdeaux, were printed at Bergerac by 
Gilbert Vernoy, in the years 1610, 1611, and 1619: also a 
book written against the Jesuits by Cha. Andrieu, a protestant 
minister, in 1611 ; all which may be seen in the Bodleian 

Bergomv/m, Bergamo, a large and ancient city of Italy, capi- 
tal of the province of Bergamasco. Two books, dated 1477, and 
1498, were supposed by Maittaire and Mercier to have been exe- 
cuted here : but it has been shewn by Tiraboschi that the former 
was printed at Vicenza, and the latter at Venice. I have hitherto 
observed no book printed at Bergamo of a date anterior to 1556, 
one of which year was in the Pinelli library. The Bodleian con- 
tains one of the year 1580, and a second of 1590, both executed 
by the same printer, Comino Ventura. 

Berla/nga, Barlanga, or Verlangaj^^ a town of Spain, in Old 

82 BE. 

Castile, seated on the Duero. According to Antonio, printing 
was in use here in 1564. 

Bema, Berne, a town of Switzerland, capital of the canton of 
Berne, having a celebrated academy. Although it does not ap- 
pear that typography was exercised at Berne previously to the 
year 1536, since Panzer makes no mention of this town in his 
extensive researches, which, it is remembered, terminate with that 
year; yet its introduction must have taken place very soon after- 
wards, since we have, in the year 1540, a curious and well-exe- 
cuted volume, adorned with wood-cuts of no mean workmanship, 
namely the Catalogiis annorum et Principum ab homine condito 
of Valerius A. Ryd, which bears for imprint, on the title-page. 
Ex magniflca Helvetiorum urbe Bema, A. D. MDXL. (with the 
arms of Berne in a shield) ; and on the last leaf, Excusum Bernce 
Helvetica^ per Mathiam Apiarium, anno MDXL. This work, 
as well as a reprint of it at the same place in 1550, may be seen 
in the library of Trinity college, Dublin : where is also found a 
still earlier publication from Berne, the treatise of Boethius de 
Claris Mulieribus, which contains some good wood-engravings, and 
bears for imprint, Bema Helvetiorum, apud Mathiam Apiarium, 
1539. folio. 

Bemaburgum, Bernbourg, a town of Upper Saxony, in the 
principality of Anhalt. — 1754. 

Berolinum, Berlin, the capital of the king of Prussia's domi- 
nions.— 1578, (Bodl.) 1583, &c. 

BERONA, or BERONIS VILLA, not Beraun in Bohemia, 
(as stated in the Bibliographical Miscellany, and in Peignot,) but 
Beron Minster, a village of Lower Argau, in the canton of Lu- 
cerne, in Switzerland : it is sometimes called ERGOVIA, or 
MONASTERIVM ERGOVIA, now Munster in Ergau. Its 
name is derived from Bero, count of Lentzburg, who founded 
here a monastery, to which large possessions were given by the 
counts of Hapsburg, and its privileges were confirmed by the em- 
peror Frederic II. in the year 1223. 

Mammotrectus, seu expositio vocabulorum guce in bibliis ^c. 
occurrunt, printed here by Helyas Helye, or Louffen, who calls 
himself canonicus ecclesice "villa Veronensis in pago Ergovics, 
dated 1470, is the first book with a certain date printed through- 
out Switzerland. Lichtenberger doubts its being so ancient by 
at least three years : and La Serna Santander adduces weighty 

BE.— BI. 33 

reasons fop believing that the Munster press was not established 
by the worthy canon before the year 1472. Consult the Biblio- 
theca Spencerkma, vol. i. p. 154. 

Bethcmia, or Beuthena, Beuthen, a town of Silesia, seated on 
the Oder. 

The only specimen of printing at this town with which I am 
acquainted, is an inaugural lecture by professor George Vechner, 
which bears for imprint, Bethanice, typis Joannis Dorfferi. 1620. 
— TCD. 

Betheldorp, a village and settlement of Hottentots, seated at 
the mouth of the river Zwartzkopts, about six hundred miles east 
of the Cape of Good Hope. 

The London Missionary Society has for some years past had 
an establishment at this place ; and it is stated that a printing- 
office has recently been erected here, and is now in full work. 

Beverley, a town of England in Yorkshire. Printing is sup- 
posed to have been brought into this place so eaiiy as 1510, by 
Hugh Goes, a Dutchman. A broadside by him of that date is 
the only known specimen remaining of the first Beverley press. 

Biel, qu. Bielau, a large town of Silesia, or Biella, a town of 
Piedmont, lying between Turin and Vercelli.?. — 1684. 

Biernie, a town of Switzerland, in the canton of Berne, situate 
at the extremity of the lake of Bienne. The library of the 
British and Foreign Bible Society possesses a copy of a French 
Bible printed here in 1770. 

BUbilis, (Baubula, or probably) Calatayud, a considerable 
town of Spain, in the province of Arragon, founded in the Vlllth 
century by the Moors on the ruins of the ancient Bilbilis, at the 
distance of one mile from the former site. 

Mendez enumerates Bilbilis among the towns of Spain in 
which the art of printing was carried on, but has left us no par- 
ticulars respecting the period at which it was in use here. 

BiwMum, Binch, an old town of the Netherlands, in Hainault. 
The only specimen of Binch printing which I have seen no- 
ticed is a Life and Legend of St. Laithgarde, 4to, imprimS en 
Binch pour M. VabU DomUb, 1545. (Thorpe's Cat. 1826.) 

Binga ad Rhenum, Bingen, a town of France on the Rhine. 

Bionne, (qu.?) 

This appears in the title of a French book of the year 1673 ; 

34 BI.— BL. 

but it seems to be merely the place of publication, the work in all 
probability having been printed at Orleans. — TCD. 

Bipontium, Deuxponts, or Zweybrucken, a town in the pala- 
tinate of the Rhine, famous for many valuable editions of the 
Greek and Roman classics, published between 1779 and 1793; 
in which last year the society of editors was obliged by the war to 
remove to Strasburg, where they continued their literary labours. 
It does not appear at what period typography was introduced : 
1597 is the earliest date of a Blpont book which I have seen. — 

an ancient and strongly-fortified city of France, the see of an 
archbishop. Panzer mentions the Liber de pestilentia, printed 
here in 1487, but appears to distrust Laire, who announces the 
Schola Salernitana, executed in the same year. This latter book, 
however, made its appearance in London, a few years ago, at the 
sale of the White-Knights' library, in the catalogue of which it 
may be seen, numbered 4491 • 

Bistromtzium, qu. ? Bistritz, a town of Transylvania, or Bis- 
tercze, a town of Hungary. Wolfius mentions a Jewish printing- 
establishment here ; and one of its productions, dated 1593, exists 
in the Oppenheimer library. 

Biterra, or Bliterce, Bezlers, an ancient city of France. — 1626. 

Biturgia, Borgo di San Sepolcro, a town of Italy, in Tuscany. 

BititrigcB, Bourges in France ; see Avaricum. 

BLABYRIA, or ARiE FLAVIN, Blaubeuern, a small town 
of Suabia, in the duchy of Wirtemburg. A work of Albertus 
van Eyb is stated by Mr. Home, after La Serna Santander, to 
have been printed here by Conradus Mancz, in 1475, in folio ; 
-with which book our knowledge of the typography of this town 
appears to begin and end. 

Blaje, a town of Transylvania. According to the catalogue of 
the British and Foreign Bible Society, a Wallachian BiUe was 
printed at this place in the year 1795. 

Blancoburgum, Blankenburg, a town of Lower Saxony. — 1782. 

S. Blasii Monasterium, a celebrated abbey of Benedictines, 
situated in the Black Forest in Germany ; it was founded in the 
middle of the tenth century, and considerably enlarged in the 
year 1094. Some learned fathers of this convent introduced a 
printing-press for the sake of facilitating their literary labours, in 

BL.— BO. 35 

the early part of the last century, and we have several books 
which bear the imprint Typis San-Blasianis. 

Blesce, Blois, an ancient and celebrated city of France, for- 
merly the abode of the French kings, and a bishop's see. Le 
Long mentions a New Testament, Latin and French, printed 
here in 1559. I have seen no other notice of a Blois book earlier 
than 1593. 

Bochma, or Bochnia, a town of Poland, in the palatinate of 
Cracow, from which city it is distant about seven leagues. It has 
considerable salt mines. 

In the year 1827 two printing-presses were at work in this 

Bogota, or Santa Fe de Bogota, formerly a settlement and capi- 
tal of a district in the kingdom of New Grenada in South America, 
seated on the Rio de Bogota, now become the capital of the new 
republic of Colombia, and said to contain 35,000 inhabitants. It 
is an archbishop's see, and possesses an university. A large and 
extensive printing-office is said to have been established in this 
town, and vigorous means are taken to diffuse there the benefits of 
education as widely as possible. 

Baron Humboldt, in his " Personal narrative of travels to the 
" equinoctial regions of the New Continent," mentions a scientific 
Jourmd published at Santa F^ de Bogota. I believe that this 
publication commenced about the year 1811. 

In 1824 three newspapers were published at this town, and its 
public library contained about fourteen thousand volumes, chiefly 
in the French language. 

Bois-Valon occurs as the imprint of a book quoted by Barbier, 
{Diet, des Anonymes, torn. ii. p. 191.) of the date 1765. I am 
uncertain whether it be a fictitious name. There are two towns 
in France bearing the name of Vallon. 

Bolacco, Boulacq, or Bulak, a town in Upper Egypt, two miles 
to the west of Cairo, to which city it serves as a harbour. It is 
stated in the Revue Encyclopedique, that Ali Pacha, the spirited 
and enterprising viceroy of Egypt, among other projects for the 
instruction and general improvement of his subjects, has erected 
in this town a college or seminary, which is frequented by a con- 
siderable number of students, boarded and educated at his ex- 
pence ; and also a royal printing-establishment ; one work from 
which, an Italian and Arabic Dictionary in two parts, is men- 


36 BO. 

tioned, bearing for imprint, Bolacco, delta Stamperia reale, 
1822. 4to. 

Boleslavia, Alt Buntzlau, a town of Bohemia, in the circle of 
Boleslaf. Le Long notices a German version of The Apocalypse, 
printed here in 1612 : probably by the Bohemian brethren, who 
had a settlement at Buntzlau, and are reported by Crantz to have 
used their press solely for the execution of editions of the holy 
Scriptures in that language. 

Bolivar. Two numbers of a periodical work, entitled " Mis- 
" cellanea politica,'" were printed at this place in the year 1825. 

Bombay, a large and important city on an island of the western 
coast of Hindostan, the capital of all the British settlements on 
that side of the peninsula : it came first into the possession of the 
British in the year 1661 ; and was transferred to the East India 
company in 1668. At what period typography was introduced I 
have not ascertained. 

Printing was exercised here in 1792; and the typographical 
estabhshment received considerable accessions, by means of the 
missionaries, in the years 1813 and 1816. 

Bonna, Bonne, a neat town of the Prussian states, seated on 
the left bank of the Rhine. From the year 1268 it had been the 
court and residence of the archbishop elector of Cologne, until 
the dissolution of the old Germanic constitution in 1801. Bonne 
possesses an academy, instituted in 1777, to which the title and 
privileges of an university were granted in 1786. 

The earliest printing at Bonne which I have yet seen is of the 
year 1543 : and two years later its printer, Laurentius Mylius, 
executed a handsome volume On the necessity of an ecclesiastical 
reformation, by Hermann then archbishop of Cologne. — Bodl. 

BONONIA, (called also FELSINA, in an edition of PMlel- 
phus^ Epistles, printed in 1489,) Bologna, an ancient, fine, and 
populous city of Italy, capital of Bolognese, and an archbishop's 
see. It possesses a celebrated university, founded by the empe- 
ror Theodosius the younger, and a flourishing academy of arts 
and sciences. 

In all probability the honour of the first book printed at Bo- 
logna is due to the extremely rare edition of all the works of Ovid, 
executed in 1471, by Balthasar Azzoguidi, who styles himself 
primus in sua civitate artis impressorice inventor. But a dis- 
pute has lately arisen on this point, by the production of two 

BO. 37 

volumes, each of which affects to precede the Ovid in point of 
time. The first of these is a Latin version of the CosmograpMa 
of Ptolemy, executed by Dominic de Lapis, and bearing the date 
1462. But of this it may be said, that in the first place it has 
signatures and catchwords, which are not found in any book of an 
undoubted date prior to 1472 : secondly, the corrector must have 
been a child of 9 years old in 1462 : thirdly, Dominic de Lapis 
printed nothing else until 1476 : and moreover, the Ptolemy is 
executed with worn types, the identical ones with which, when 
Jresh, he printed a work in that very year 1476. A copy of this 
volume, which contains some curious maps, may be seen in the 
Bodleian library. 

Nearly forty printers carried on the art at Bologna before the 
close of the XVth century ; amoTigst whom was the famous He- 
brew printer Abraham Ben Chaiim Pisaurensis, to whom we 
owe the Pentateuch in the original Hebrew, fol. 1482, a very 
handsome volume, a vellum copy of which may be seen in the 
Bodleian Library ; and many of whose publications we possess 
from the towns of Ferrara, Mantua, Bologna, and Soncino. 

The other work, more recently discovered, is the Repertorium 
utriusque Juris of Petrus Episc. Brixiensis, professing to be 
completed in November 1465. This I have never seen. Panzer, 
not without reason, suspects the date, supposing that 1475 is the 
true one. 

A Propertius, executed here in 1487, is said to be printed in 
commune a Benedicto Hectoris Librario, et Platone de Benedictis 
impressore. Is not this the earliesC instance on record of a printer 
and bookseller joining in the expense of publishing a book ? 

Bonus Pons, Bonnefont, an ancient and celebrated abbey of 
Cistercian monks, in Champagne, founded in the year 1154. At 
this place was printed Bibliotheca Patrum Cistertiensium, viii. 
tom. folio. Bcmofonte, typis ejusdem casnobii, 1660j-62,-64,-69. 
Although the two latter volumes do not bear this imprint, yet all 
of tjiem are printed in one and the same type. Possibly this may 
be the only publication which issued from the press of Bonne- 
font ; the editor, Tissier, expressly states in his preface, that the 
press was introduced for the sake of this particular work : " Sum- 
" ptus plurimi et maximi faciendi fuerunt in comparand^ typo- 
" graphic, et in ips&. editione librorum. Non enim potui ab hoc 
" nostro Coenobio abesse, nee item a typographic : itaque banc 


38 BO. 

" in hoc deferri necesse fuit." A copy of the work is to be found 
in the Bodleian library. 

Bosch, a small island off the coast of the Dutch province of 
Groningen . — 1800. 

Boston, a fine and opulent city, the capital of the state of 
Massachusetts, in New England. This town was the second 
place throughout the United States of America to receive the art 
of printing, which was first practised here under a special licence 
from government, by John Forster between 1674 and 1676. 
The family of the Greens from Cambridge also exercised the bu- 
siness in this city, from the year 1690 until the revolution. One 
of them, Bartholomew, in the month of April 1704, commenced 
the publication of a newspaper, entitled. The Boston News-Let- 
ter, which is the first newspaper printed within the British colo- 
nies of North America. The second was The Boston Gazette, 
which began in the year 1719. Boston was likewise the place at 
which the celebrated Dr. Franklin commenced his typographical 
career, with The New-England Courant, in the year 1723.^ 

Boulacq, see Bolacco. 

Bourbon, in the Mauritius or Isle of Bourbon. A catalogue of 
plants cultivated in the island was printed here in 1825 ; and a 
newspaper was in course of publication in or before the year 

Braccianum, or Brecennum, Bracciano, a town of Italy, in the 
papal territories. Andreas Phmus, styling himself Typographus 

* Of a humourous bookseller, editor of another newspaper, called The Boston 
Evening Post, Thomas relates the following anecdote : 

" In the Evening Post of November 7, 1748) Fleet inserted this advertisement, 
" viz. ' Choice Pennsylvania Tobacco paper, to be sold by the publishers of this pa- 
" per, at the Heart and Crown : where may also be had the BVLLS or Indulgences 
" of the present pope Urban VIII. either by the single Bull, quire, or ream, at a 
" much cheaper rate than they can be purchased of the French or Spanish priests, 
" and yet will be warranted to be of the same advantage to the possessors.' 

" These Bulls, or Indulgences of his holiness, were printed on the face of a small 
" sheet ; several bales of them were taken in a Spanish ship captured by an English 
" cruizer, and sent into Boston during the war between England and France and 
" Spain, in [748. I have one of them now in my possession. Fleet purchased a 
" very large quantity at a low price, and printed various editions of ballads on the 
" backs of them. One side of the sheet was blank, and the paper very good ; one 
" Bull answered for two half-sheet ballads, 'or songs, such as ' Black-eyed Susan,'' 
" ' Handsome Harry' — ' Teague's ramble to the camp,' &c. I have seen large 
" quantities of them which were thus worked up by Fleet." 

BR. 39 

DucaEs, exercised his vocation at Bracciano in the years 1621 to 
1648. TCD. 

BRACLARA, or Brachara, Braga, an ancient city, formerly 
belonging to Spain, but now in the kingdom of Portugal : it is the 
capital of a province, and an archbishop's see. Antonio notices 
printing here in 1563. But it has been recently discovered by 
Fr. Mendez, that Braga possesses much higher claims ; since there 
is evidence of a Breviary bearing for imprint, impressum in 
Augusta Bracharensi civitate, per magistrum Joannem Gher- 
linck Alemanum, a. S. C. 1494. [Consult the additions to the 
treatise of F. Mendez, p. 426.] 

Bransberga,Bru/nsberga,Braunsperga, or BrunopoUs, Brauns- 
berg, a seaport of Prussia, seated on the Passerage. A college of 
Jesuits, founded by cardinal Hosius after his return from the 
council of Trent, printed works here so early as 1601. 

Breda, a city of Dutch Brabant. — 1615. 

Bregogne, qu. Bourgoin, a small town of France in Dauphiny.? 
a small volume of Poems in the dialect of Burgundy bears this 
imprint, with the date 1738. 

Breidabolsfad, an inconsiderable place in the district of Snoe- 
fellsness, on the western coast of Iceland. It appears from "Hen- 
" derson's Joumar' that the printing-press first introduced into 
Iceland by bishop Areson, and set up by him at Holum about the 
year 1530, was subsequently for a short period erected here, pre- 
viously to its being fixed a second time, with considerable improve- 
ments, at Holum by bishop Gudbrand Thorlakson. Henderson 
relates that " In 1562, Olaf Hialteson, the first Lutheran bishop of 
" Holum, published a small quarto volume called ' the Gudspialla 
" book,' which contains the Epistles and Gospels arranged in the 
" order according to which they were to be read in all the 
" churches of his diocese : — it was printed at Breidabolstad by 
" Ion Matthieson, the first printer in Iceland." Vol. II. p. 269. 

Brema, Bremen, a well-known city of Lower Saxony. Print- 
ing was exercised in Bremen by Arnoldus Wessel in the year 
1585 : and, according to Le Long, a selection from the Book of 
Psalms, in Hebrew, Chaldee, Latin, and Greek, was printed 
here in 1614. The British museum contains a New Testament, 
in Bohemian, German, and Latin, executed at Bremen in 1616. 

Bresla, Breslavia, see Vratislavia. 

Brest, a seaport of the south of France, with an excellent har- 

D 4 

40 BR. 

hour. A Dictionary of the French and Breton tongues was 
printed here about the middle of the XVIIth century. 

Brestia, Brescz, or Brzescz, the chief town of Polesiai, in the 
duchy of Lithuania, famous for a school or academy of Jews. 
The Bohemian brethren possessed a church and school here, and 
their great patron Nicholas Radzivil, palatine of Wilna, esta- 
blished a printing-press for them in the year 1559. In 1563 was 
published at Brescz the well-known Polish Bible of the Pinczo- 
vians, the expenses of which were defrayed by count Radzivil ; 
who, after the books of the Old and New Testament bad been 
translated from the original tongues by some learned men at 
Pinczow, sent to Cracow for a printer, Bernard Woiewodka, and 
caused him to print and publish the work, under his own super- 
intendence. This was the first version of the Scriptures printed 
in the Polish language. Another version, by Simon Budnseus, 
was printed in 1572 ; and a third, of the New Testament ottly, 
by Martin Czechovicius, in 1577. Copies of the edition of 1563 
are extremely rare. Two however are to be seen in Oxford ; one 
in the Bodleian, the other in Christ Church library ; and a third 
most beautiful copy adorns the royal library of George the Third, 
the title-page of which differs in some respects from those of the 
other two. A fourth copy in this country is in the possession of 
earl Spencer. There is a copy in the library of the imperial 
academy of sciences at St. Petersburg. Budnseus' edition of the 
Bible in 1572, equal, if not superior, in rarity to the Brzescz edi- 
tion, may be found in the Zalewskian library at Warsaw. Masch, 
in his edition of the Bibliotheca of Le Long, assigns an earlier 
period to the introduction of typography into Brzescz ; he cites 
a Hebrew Pentateuch executed here in the year 1546. 

Bridgetown, the capital city of the island of Barbadoes. David 
Harry, a printer of Philadelphia, in 1730 introduced a press into 
this place ; being the first established in the island of Barbadoes. 
In the next year a newspaper, The Barbadoes Gazette, began to 
be published. 

Briele, a handsome and strong town of the Netherlands, on 
the north side of the island of East Voorn ; memorable as the place 
where the Dutch confederates laid the foundation of their re- 
public in the year 1572, also as being the birthplace of admiral 
Van Tromp. A work by Cornelius Cleyn upon the 66th Psalm 
bears this imprint, but it appears to be merely the place of publi- 

BR. 41 

cation, the book having been printed at Leyden : its date is 1772. 

Briga, Brieg, a city of Silesia, the capital of a principality, 
seated on the river Oder. 1689 is the date of the earliest Brieg 
book observed by me. A very fine copy of a Bohemian Bible 
printed here in 1745 may be seen in the Bodleian library. Ac- 
cording to the catalogue of the library of the British and Foreign 
Bible Society, a Polish New Testament was printed here in 1708. 

Bristol, in England. A sermon by Richard Towgood, 8°. 1643. 
TCD. News from the king's bath, by R. Pricket, 4". 1645. 
TCD. " Certain observations on the new League or Covenant, 
" &c. with a copy of said Covenant, 4°, Bristoll, printed for Ri- 
" chard Harsell, and are to be sold by him in Bristoll, 1643." 
On the reverse is the licence of the bishop, " Imprimatur, Tho. 
" Bristol," dated Feb. 20. 1643. A copy of this piece is in 
Cashel library. 

BRIXIA, Breschia, an ancient and populous city of Italy, the 
capital of Bresciano, and a bishop's see. 1473 appears to be the 
earliest known date occurring in any book here printed; and 
Morelli, in his catalogue of the Pinelli libraiy, considers a Latin 
version of Phalaris'' Epistles, executed by Thomas Ferrandus, 
as the earliest specimen of the Brescian press ; nor does Panzer 
dispute his opinion. Petrus de Villi, a priest, exercised the art 
in the same year, 1473: Henricus de Colonia, in 1474: EuSta- 
chius Gallicus, with twelve or fourteen others, amongst whom 
was Rabbi GerstHi, one of the Soncino printers, followed within 
the period of the XV th century. 

BrooTefield, a considerable town of Worcester county in Mas- 
sachusetts, North America. In 1794 Isaiah Thomas established 
a press here. 

BRVGiE, called in Spanish books Brujas, Bruges, a consi- 
derable city of the Netherlands, formerly the see of a bishop. 
The earhest dated book bearing the imprint of this city, is Les 
diets des ph^hsophes, printed by Colard Mansion in 1473- But 
it had been tar some time known to the learned that a volume 
was in the possession of the celebrated M. Meerman at the Hague, 
which, 1^ the rudeness of its execution, and other marks of high 
antiquity, seemed to claim for Bruges a much earlier acquaintance 
with the typographic art. At the sale of M. Meefman's most ex- 
tensive and valuable library, in June 1824, this extraordinary vo* 

42 BR. 

lume was produced, and is thus described in the catalogue, (N°. 
205 of the quartos in the first day's sale.) " C'est cy la coppie des 
" deux grans tableaus esquelx tout le contenu de ce livre est en 
" escript. qui sont atachiez au dehors du coeur de leglise notre 
" dame de terewane, au coste devers midi pour linstruction et 
" doctrine de tons chretiens et chretiennes de quelconque estat 
" quils soient laquelle doctrine et instruction fut composee en lu- 
" niversite de Paris, par tres Saige et tres discret Homme et 
" maistre en divinity, maistre Jehri Jarson Chanceher de notre 
" dame de Paris. Bruges par Jean Brito (qui dit avoir invente 
" Tart de Timprimerie.) Sans date, charact. Goth, lettr. color." 
The " sage and discreet Jehn Jarson," mentioned above, is better 
known to the literary world as Johannes Gerson, (or more cor- 
rectly, Jean Charlier, Gerson being a surname,) a celebrated pro- 
fessor of theology, and most voluminous writer ; who was born in 
the diocese of Rheims in the year 1363, and died in 1429. This 
curious typographical morceau, which is a small quarto of about 
SO or 60 pages, was sold for 505 guilders, (about ^50 sterling,) 
and has very properly found its way to the royal library at Paris, 
from whence we may fairly expect a detailed and accurate de- 
scription of it. In the mean time the reader may consult a long 
notice, unfavourable to its claims, in the Dictionnaire Bibliogra- 
phique of La Serna Santander, vol. I. p. 353, &c. 

BRVNNA, Brunn, or Brinn, an episcopal town of Moravia, 
capital of a Circle of the same name. A book entitled, Agenda 
secundum chorum Olomucensem, of the year 1486, is considered 
the earliest known specimen of the typography of this place. 

Brunonia, Brunsvicum, or Brunsviga, Brunswick, a city of 
Lower Saxony. — 1509. 

Brunsberga, see Bransberga. 

Brunsfelsium, qu.? — 1543. 

Bruntrutum, Bruntruit, or Porentrui, a small town of Swit- 
zerland, in the canton of Berne : it was formerly the capital of 
the dominions of the bishop of Basle, and his principal place of 
residence. Printing was carried on here by Wilhelmus Darbel- 
lay in the year 1628. — Bodleian. 

BRVXELLJS, Brussels, a large, fine, and populous city of 
the Netherlands^ lately the capital of Brabant. Printing appears 
to have found its way hither about 1474, in which year a Latin 
version of some homilies qfChrysostom was executed here. Lam- 

BU. 43 

binet, however, La Serna Santander, and Lichtenberger contend 
that this date is erroneous, and should be 14)79 : giving for the 
earliest Brussels book one entitled Gnotosolitos, sive speculum 
ccmscientiarum, which was printed ' per fratres vitae communis,'' 
a society of religious occupying a college or mansion called Naza- 
reth on the island of S. Gery, in the year 1476. 

Bucharestium, Bucharest, a large and rich town of Wallachia, 
containing about 80,000 inhabitants, the residence of the Hos- 
podar, and the see of a Greek archbishop. 

The art of printing was established in this city chiefly through 
the exertions of John Constantine Bassarabas the waywode, who 
supplied it most liberally with Greek, Wallachian, Russian, Bul- 
garian, Arabic, and Turkish types. An Arabic Bible, edited by 
the patriarch of the Melchites, was printed here in 1700: but 
Masch, in his edition of Le Long, observes, that the volume has 
not yet been sufficiently described, if seen at all in these western 
parts of Europe ; and Schnurrer, in his Bibliotheca Arabica, ex- 
presses strong doubts of its existence. The Bodleian library con- 
tains a copy of a very handsome volume, comprising upwards of 
1200 pages in folio, executed at Bucharest in 1715, namely Z)o«i- 
theus' History of the Patriarchs of Jerusalem, which was printed 
at the expense of the convent of the Holy Sepulchre, and was or- 
dered by the patriarch Chrysanthes to be gratuitously distributed 
to the godly. In archbishop Marsh's library at Dublin is pre- 
served a very handsome volume, comprising a work of the same 
Dositheus and another of Meletius Syriga, against Cyrillus Lu- 
caris and the tenets of Calvin, printed here in 1690 : it is a folio, 
consisting of upwards of 500 pages, both the paper and presswork 
of which are very creditable. 

Alter, in the preface to his edition of the New Testament, 
(9, tom. 8vo. Vienna, 1787;,) mentions a Wallachian Bible printed 
at Bucharest in the year 1688 ; a copy of which is said to be in 
the famous biblical collection of the duke of Wirtemburg at 
Stutgard. The same book is spoken of by Henderson, in his 
" Biblical researches in Russia ;" except that he gives the date 
1668, instead of 1688. — At the present day there is a printing- 
press in the Metropolitan Monastery at Bucharest, expressly de- 
voted to the printing of religious books in the Wallachian lan- 

According to Schnurrer, The Booh of Psalms in Arabic was 

44 BU. 

executed here in the yeat 1747, with a preface by Sylvester then 
patriarch of Antioch, who there states that, with a view of in- 
structing the Christian youths in the knowledge of the holy Scrip- 
tures, he had established a printing-office at Bucharest, at which 
he had begun by printing Missals and such sort of books^ from 
which he had proceeded to this edition of the Psalter, promising 
to go on with other publications as time and opportunity might 
serve. . 

BVDA, Buda, or OflFefl, a handsome city, the capital of Lower 
Hungary, seated on the Danube, over which is thrown a bridge 
of boats joining this city to Pesth : it was formerly possessed of 
an university, which was transferred to Pesth on the first of April, 
1784. Only two books are certainly known to have been printed 
at Buda in the XVth century; viz. Chronica Hungarmum, 
dated 1473, and Basilius de legendis poetis, without date, probably 
printed before the former ; both are exceedingly rare. It is be- 
lieved that the printer, Andrew Hess, was sent for out of Italy by 
king Matthias, for the express purpose of erecting this establish- 
ment ; from which however, as far as we know at the present day, 
no important result ensued. 

Budinga, Budingen, a town of Germany, in Wetteravia. — ■ 
1727. Bodl. 

Budissina, Baudissa, Budisia, Bautzen, the capital of Upper 
Lusatia. The art of printing was introduced into this town by 
Nicolaus Wolrab, so early as the year 1550. The first book of 
which I have observed a notice is of the year 1556 ; but I have 
met with none anterior to 1571. (Marsh's library.) 

Buenos Ayres, a large, fine, and commercial city of South 
America, situated on the river La Plata, formerly the capital of 
the province and viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres, now capital of " the 
" Republic of United Provinces of Rio de la Plata." It possesses 
an university, founded in the year 1821. It is thought to con- 
tain near 75,000 inhabitants. The art of printing was introduced 
into this city at least so early as 1789, a book of which date I 
have seen, professing to have been executed " en la real Im- 
" prenta de los Ninos expositos." The most distinguished work 
h«re published is that of dean Femes, 3 vols. 4to. 1816. " En- 
" sayo de la historia civil del Paraguay, Buenos Ayres, y Tarcu- 
" mon." It now possesses four printing-offices. 

Buetzovium, Batzow, a town of Lower Saxony.— 1762. (Bodl.) 

BU. 45 

BvUio, Bouillon, a town of the Netherlands, in Luxemburg. 
—1765, (Bodl.) 

Burders Point, a missionary station in the north eastern pau:t 
of the island of Otaheite. A printing-establishment appears to 
have been formed here about the year 1821. (See also the article 

Burdigaki, Bourdeaux, a large, ancient, and opulent city of 
France, seated on the river Garonne ; the chief town of a depart- 
ment, and see of an archbishop. It possesses an university, which 
was founded in 1441. 

According to Panzer, typography was exercised here so early 
as the year 1529 by Jean Guyart, but he appears to have seen no 
more than one book. 

In books printed in the Biscayan dialect, Bourdeaux (I believe) 
is called Bordelen. 

BVRGDORFIVM, Burgdorf, a town of Switzerland, in the 
canton of Berne, according to the opinion of Panzer, [otherwise 
Burgdorff a small town of Hanover, lying on the river Owe, be- 
tween Hanover and Zell.] Two books, each dated 1475, namely. 
Jacobus de Chisa de apparitionibus, and the Legenda S. Wolf- 
gangi, are the only known specimens of this place during the 
XVth century. The former of them may be seen in the collec- 
tion of earl Spencer. 

BVRGI, or BRAVVM BVBGI, Burgos, a large city of 
Spain, capital of Old Castile, and an archbishop's see. The ear- 
liest authenticated specimen of Burgos typography is Andrew 
Guterrii Cetasiani opus grammatieale, printed by Fridericus de 
Basilea, in 1485 : a copy of which rare book is in the Royal li- 
brary of Madrid. Mendez names a,nd notices about 20 Burgos 
books of the XVth century, amongst which is a History of 
MerVm and his prophecies (in Spanish) of the year 1498, upon 
the contents and rarity of which he louch enlarges. The Royal 
library of Madrid had recently obtained this morpeau. 

Burgus, or Burgus Sebusiamorum, Bourg en Bresse, a town erf 
France, chief of the modern department de TAin. Typography 
was practised at this town in 1628. A book entitled. La chaste- 
tS recompensee, ou Vhistoi/re de sept pucelles doctes et scavamtes, 
8vo. 1643, bears for imprint A Bmirg en Bresse : and there is an 
edition of Cicero de Natura Deorum executed here in the year 

46 BU.— CA. 

Burlingtcm, the capital city of New Jersey in North America. 
Isaac Collins a printer from Philadelphia, was the first who per- 
manently set up a press here, in the year 1770. Yet some print- 
ing had been occasionally done at Burlington for the government, 
even so early as 1727 : and in 1765, Parker who was established 
as a printer at Woodbridge, removed his apparatus thence to Bur- 
lington solely for the purpose of working off Smith's history of 
New Jersey, an octavo of 570 pages ; which having finished, he 
forthwith repaired to his old abode. 

LIS, Bois-le-Duc, called by the Dutch Hertogenbosch, a large 
and strong town of Dutch Brabant. Printing appears to have 
been carried on here in 14845 J^i which year a book, called Dot 
hoeck van Tondalus vysioen, was executed by an unknown printer. 
Panzer knew of only four books printed at this town during the 
XVth century. 

Buxovilla, qu ? — 1790. 

CABELIA, or CABELIVM, Chablitz, or Chablies, a small 
town of France, on the borders of Champagne ; more noted (as 
Santander drily remarks) for wine than for typography. A single 
specimen of printing done here in the XVth century was known 
to Panzer, namely, Le livre des bonnes mosurs, par Jacques Le 
Grant, printed in 1478, by Pierre Le Rouge, who ten years 
afterwards exercised the art at Paris. A second, by the same 
printer in the year 1483, namely, Breviarium Antisswdorenset 
2 tom. Svo. is cited by M. Van Praet, who states that a copy 
of this rare book on vellum is preserved in the Royal library of 

Cabillonv/m, Chalons sur Saone, an ancient city of France, in 
Burgundy, on the right bank of the river Saone. — 1654. 

Coheres, an ancient town of Spanish Estremadura. Mendez 
observes that the art of printing was exercised in this town, but 
leaves us without any farther information on the subject. 

CADOMVM, Caen, a considerable town of France, capital 
of Lower Normandy, with a celebrated university founded by 
Charles VII. in 1418. Printing appears to have been practised 
here in the XVth century, but the only remains of this early in- 
troduction of the art are found in an edition of Horace's Epistles, 

CA. 47 

printed by Jacobus Ferrandus, and Egidius Quijone, in the year 
1480, a copy of which edition, upon vellum, is in the library of 
earl Spencer. 

Cadurcum, or Divona Cadurci, Cahors, an episcopal city of 
France, with an university. — 1617. 

Caerfyrthin, the Welsh name of Caermarthen. — 1728. 

Caerfrangon, the Welsh name of Worcester. 

Caer-Gravnt, the Welsh name of Cambridge. 

Caer-lAidd, the Welsh name of London. 

CiESAR AVGVSTA, or ZARAGOSA, Saragossa, or Cara- 
go9a, an ancient and fine city of Spain, the capital of Arragon : 
it is the see of an archbishop, and has an university founded in 
1474. Saragossa was among the earliest towns of Spain which 
received the typographic art; since, according to the Spanish 
bibliographers Caballero and Mendez, an edition of the Manipti- 
lus Curatorum was executed here in 1475, in 4to. or small folio. 
Mendez observes that this is one of the rarest productions of 
Spain, but that a copy of it exists in the Royal library of Madrid. 
The same author describes a very rare work entitled Declaratio 
misscE, which appears to have been the second offspring of this 
press, and bears the date of 1478. The printer of the first was 
Mathceus Flandrus, who was succeeded by Paulus de Hurus in 
1485, &c. A considerable number of books were printed at Sara^ 
gossa before the close of the XVth century. 

CcEsena, Cesena, a town of Italy in Romagna. — 1525. 

Ceeiobris, see Sastobris. 

Caiamata, (the ancient Theramence,) a populous town of the 

A political journal called The Hellenic trumpet, was lately 
printed here, but is now (1822) issued at Corinth. 

Calaris, Cagliari, or Caller, the capital of the island of Sar- 
dinia : it is a very ancient town, the residence of the viceroy, and 
the see of an archbishop, and possesses an university, founded in 
1606, and restored in 1763. 

It is said that the first book printed in Sardinia is a Spanish 
work of Don Juan Coloma, which was published in this town by 
Vincentio Sembenino, in the year 1576. A copy of this curious 
volume was in the rich Spanish collection of D. J. A. Conde, sold 
in London in 1824. 

The earliest Cagliari book which I have met with is a work by 

48 CA. 

Jerome Fernandez, inquisitor general of Sardinia, printed here in 
1628. This book is in Trinity college, Dublin. 

Calceata, Calzada, or San Domingo de Calzada, a small town 
of Spain in Old Castile, which was formerly a bishop's see. Men- 
dez informs us that typography was practised at Calzada, but 
when, or by whom, he has left us wholly uninformed. 

Calcutta, a large and flourishing city of Bengal, the capital of 
all the British dominions in Hindostan. It is seated on the 
Hoogly river, (a branch of the Ganges,) and was originally found- 
ed as a factory by the English in the year 1690. 

I have not ascertained the exact period at which typography 
was introduced into this city. The earliest books of which I 
have found notices are the following : A Calendar for the year 
1778: the same for 1780: Balfour's forms of Herlcern, 4to. 
1781 : and WWkms' translation of a royal Hindu grant, 4to. 
1781. These appear to have been printed from types prepared 
by Mr. Charles Wilkins. In the year 1797 Calcutta possessed a 
type foundry : and before the close of that century the art of 
printing began to flourish in its vicinity, namely, at Fort William 
and at Serampore. 

Caldariana Societas, qu ? at Basle or Geneva .'' An edition of 
Calepine's Lexicon, fol. 1609, bears for imprint sumptibus Cal- 
doriancB Societatis. [See under Villa San Vincentiana.] 

Caletum, Calais, a well-known sea-port of the north of France. 
The earliest specimen of Calais printing yet observed by me is an 
English Manuall of Prayers, 12mo. printed in 1599- 

CaUssium, Kalisz, a very ancient city of Greater Poland, in 
which was a magnificent and well-fiUed college of Jesuits. In this 
college a printing-press was established about the end of the 
XVIth, or beginning of the XVIIth century ; and the earliest 
book which Hofiman had seen from hence was dated 1606. 

CALLIVM, Cagli, a small town of Italy, in the duchy of 

Until the time of Panzer it was scarcely known to biblio- 
graphers that any printing had been executed at Cagli in the 
XVth century. Literary research, however, has of late years 
discovered four books printed here, the earliest of which is Ma- 
phcEus Vegius de Morte Astyama>cti,s, 4to. printed by Robertas de 
Fano and Bernardinus de Bergomo, in 1475. Two, of the year 
1476, appeared in the Pinelli library. The Cagli books are very 

CA. 49 

rare, although the printers speak of having executed several 
others besides those now known : plwra opera cum hoc impressere 
Callii. None however have come to .light of a later date than 

Calmaria, Calmar, or Calmarsund, a seaport of Sweden, in the 
province of Smaland : it is a bishop's see. 

A press was established here by bishop Jonas Rothovius, about 
the year 1620, as is testified by some books of that year still ex- 
tant. The printer of them was Christopher Gyntherus, who in 
1635 removed himself and his press to Linkoping. 

Caltcmiosetta, or Calatanisseta, a small town of Sicily, in the 
Val di Noto, 27 miles distant from Girgenti. 

A Treatise on agricultural subjects, by M. Samfilippo, is said 
to have been printed here in 1822. 


Cambridge, a large town in Middlesex county^ in the colony 
of Massachusetts, North America. 

As this settlement was the cradle of the art of printing through- 
out the greater part of the vast continent of North America, and 
many volumes of considerable interest have issued from its presses, 
the reader will perhaps be gratified with the following detailed 
account, taken from Thomas's history of printing ; Thomas 
himself being a native of that colony, and having investigated the 
history of its early typography with considerable care. 

" The founders of the colony of Massachusetts consisted of 
" but a small number of persons, who arrived at the town of Salem 
" in 1628; a few more joined them in 1629: and governor Win- 
" throp, with the addition of 1500 settlers, arrived in 1630. 
" These last landed at the place since called Charlestown, oppo- 
" site to Boston, where they pitched their tents, and built a few 
" huts for shelter. In 1631, they began to settle Cambridge, 
" four miles from the place where they first landed. They also 
" began a settlement on the identical spot where Boston now 
'' stands. In 1638, they built an academy at Cambridge, which 
" in process of time was increased to a college : and in the autumn 
" of the same year, they opened a printing-house in that place. 
" In January 1639, printing was first performed in that part of 
" North America which extends from the gulf of Mexico to the 
" Frozen Ocean. 

" For this press our country is chiefly indebted to the rev. Mr. 


50 CA. 

" Glover, a nonconformist minister, who possessed a considerable 
" estate, and had left his native country with a determination to 
" settle among his friends, who had emigrated to Massachusetts ; 
" because in this wilderness he could freely enjoy with them those 
" opinions which were not countenanced by the government and 
" a majority of the people in England. 

" Another press, with types, and another printer, were in 1 660 
" sent over from England by the corporation for propagating the 
" gospel among the Indians in New England. This press, &c. 
" was designed solely for the purpose of printing the Bible, and 
" other books in the Indian language f. On their arrival they 
" were carried to Cambridge, and employed in the printing-house 
" already established in that place. 

" Notwithstanding printing continued to be performed in Cam- 
" bridge, from a variety of causes it happened that many original 
" works were sent from New England, Massachusetts in parti- 
" cular, to London to be printed. Among these causes the prin- 
" cipal were, first, the press at Cambridge had generally full em- 
" ployment ; secondly, the printing done there was executed in 
" an inferior style ; and thirdly, many works on controverted 
" points of religion were not allowed to be printed in this coun- 
" try. Hence it happened, that for more than eighty years after 
" printing was first practised in the colony, manuscripts were oc- 
" casionally sent to England for publication. 

" The fathers of Massachusetts kept a watchful eye on the 
" press ; and, in neither a religious nor civil point of view, were 
" they disposed to give it much liberty. Both the civil and ec- 
" clesiastical rulers were fearful that if it was not under whole- 
" some restraints, contentions and heresies would arise among the 
" people. In 1662 the government of Massachusetts appointed 
" licensers of the press ; and afterwards, in 1664, passed a kw 
" that ' no printing should be allowed in any town within the 
" jurisdiction, except in Cambridge' — nor should any thing be 
" printed there but what the government permitted through the 

f 77ip Bible accordingly was fioished at this press by Green and Johnson, in tbe 
year 166.5, in small quarto. To it were added the New Testament, dated 1661, and 
the Psalms in metre (in the same language) with musical notes. This book is not 
uncommon in England, being found in most of our public libraries, and also in 
several private collections. It met with considerable encouragement, and was dedi- 
cated to king Charles the Second. A second edition, revised by Mr. Eliot and Mr. 
Cotton, was published in 1685. 

CA. 51 

" agency of those persons who were empowered for the purpose. 
" Offenders against this regulation were to forfeit their presses 
" to the country, and to be disfranchised of the privilege of print- 
" ing thereafter. In a short time, this law was so far repealed, 
" as to permit the use of a press at Boston, and a person was 
" authorized to conduct it ; subject, however, to the licensers who 
" were appointed for the purpose of inspecting it. 

" For several years preceding the year 1730, the government 
" of Massachusetts had been less rigid than formerly ; and, after 
" that period, I do not find that any officer is mentioned as hav- 
" ing a particular control over the press. For a long time, how- 
" ever, the press appeared to be under greater restrictions here 
" than in England ; that is, till towards the close of the seven- 
" teenth century. 

" Except in Massachusetts, no presses were set up in the colo- 
" nies till near the close of the XVIIth century. 

" Till the year 1760, it appears that more books were printed 
" in Massachusetts annually, than in any of the ,other colonies ; 
" and before 1740, more printing was done there than in all the 
" other colonies. After 1760, the quantum of printing done in 
" Boston and Philadelphia was nearly equal, till the commence- 
" ment of the war. New York produced some octavo and duo- 
" decimo volumes. The presses of Connecticut were not idle : 
" they furnished pamphlets on various subjects, and some small 
" volumes. Some books were handsomely printed in Virginia 
" and Maryland ; and folio volumes of laws, and a few octavos 
" and duodecimos, on religion, history, and politics, issued from 
" the presses of Carolina, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, &c. 

" Before 1775, printing was confined to the capitals of the co- 
" lonies ; but the war occasioned the dispersion of presses, and 
" many were set up in towns that were remote. After the esta- 
" blishment of our independence by the peace of 1783, presses 
" multiplied very fast, not only in seaports, but in all the princi- 
" pal inland towns and villages ; and it may now be said, that in 
" the United States there are more presses employed than in any 
" other part of the globe containing the same number of inha^ 
" bitants. The major part of these presses is used in printing 
" newspapers : but ne^^papers form not the only branch of print- 
"^ing which has increased. Bibles of all the various sizes, dic- 
" tionaries in English and Latin, Greek lexicons, most of the 

E 2 

52 CA. 

" Greek and Latin classics which are used in the country, nu- 
" merous original works, as well as the republication of various 
" European books of history, divinity, law, physic, philosophy, 
" &c. in volumes of various magnitudes, now find their way 
" through the presses of the United States. 

" Paper-mills were erected in Pennsylvania many years before 
" the revolution. There were several in New England, and two 
" or three in New York. About the year 1730, an enterprising 
" bookseller in Boston, having petitioned for, and received some 
" aid from the legislature of Massachusetts, erected a paper-mill, 
" which was the first set up in that colony. Since 1775, paper- 
" mills have increased rapidly, and paper is now, I believe, ma- 
" nufactured in all parts of the Union.'" 

The first printer who exercised the art in this part of America 
was Stephen Daye, who was born in London, and was supposed 
to be a descendant of John Daye, an eminent English printer in 
the preceding century. He was the person whom Mr. Glover 
engaged to come to New England and conduct the press; which 
having prepared and erected, by the direction of the magistrates 
and elders, he began business in the month of January 1639- 

The earliest productions of his press were The FreemarCs Oath, 
and an Almanac, both in 1639; and the first book, properly so 
called, was. The Psalms in metre, translated for the use of the 
saints, especially in New England, dated 1640. This book is 
so very rare that Thomas could only find one copy of it in Ame- 
rica, and that wanted the title-page. It so happens, however, 
that a perfect copy of it may be seen in the Bodleian library : of 
which copy I have given a description in the " List of Editions 
« of the English Bible," &c. 

Daye appears to have given up the business of the printing- 
office to Samuel Green about the close of the year 1648 or begin- 
ning of 1649 ; but continued to reside at Cambridge, where he 
died on the 22d of December 1668. Thomas observes, that he 
had been able to find but few of the books printed by Daye, and 
in no one of these was his name to be found. He gives a list of 
thirteen pieces executed by this printer between the years 1639 
and 1649, among which are the Laws of the Colony, and two 
editions of the Psalms in metre. Altogether, his workmanship 
seems to have been but indifierent. 

His successor in business, Samuel Green, one of the first set- 

CA. 53 

tiers, prosecuted it extensively and with success. Under the aus- 
pices of the college and of the London corporation for propa- 
gating Christianity among the Indians, he undertook and com- 
pleted more than one edition of the Scriptures, the Psalter, a 
Catechism, with other books in the Indian language, in the years 
1653, &c. an ample and interesting account of which is given 
by Thomas, (in vol. i. p. 235 — 263.) together with a list of 95 
pieces, dated 1649 — 1692, proceeding from his press. We are 
told that no printing was done at Cambridge after Green's de- 
cease, on Jan. 1st, 1702; the press had been established there 
sixty years, during fifty of which Green, under government, was 
the manager and conductor of it. Thomas adds, " Soon after 
" his decease, the printing materials were removed from Cam- 
" bridge, and probably sold. It does not appear that the corpo- 
" ration of the college owned any types after this time, till about 
" the year 171 8, when Mr. Thomas Hollis, of London, a great 
" benefactor to the college, among other gifts presented to the 
" university a fount, or cast, of Hebrew, and another of Greek 
" types, both of which were of the size of Long Primer. The 
" Greek was not used until 1761, when the government of the 
'•' college had a work printed, entitled Pietas et grahdatio collegii 
" Cantabrigiensis apud Novanglos, dedicated to king George 
" the Third, on his accession to the throne ; two of these poetical 
" essays being written in Greek, called these types into use. They 
" were never used but at that time, and were, in January 1764, 
" destroyed by the fire that consumed Harvard hall, one of the 
" college buildings in which the types and college library were 
" deposited : the cast of Hebrew escaped, having been sent to 
" Boston some time before, to print professor Sewall's Hebrew 
" Grammar." 

Green left a large family behind him, and his descendants con- 
tinued to exercise the business of printers at Boston, until the 
commencement of the revolution in 1775. 

Cameracum, Cambral, a large, strong, and manufacturing town 
of French Flanders, seated on the Scheld. It is an archbishop's 
see, and was formerly the capital of a province. 

I am uncertain as to the introduction of printing into this town ; 
and there appears to be some confusion between the names Came- 
racum, Camberium, and Chamberium. However it was exercised 
at Cambrai unquestionably in the year 1601. 


54 CA. 

Cameri/num, Camerino, an archieplscopal city of Italy. — 1575. 

Camora, see Zamora. 

Cainpi, Campen, a town of the Dutch Netherlands. Printing 
was carried on in it by Wilhelmus Bernhardi in the year 1599. — 
(Marsh's library.) 

Campidunum, or Campidona, Kempten, a town of Suabia, on 
the Iller. A curious genealogical work by Albizius, printed here 
in 1610, is preserved in the Bodleian library. 

CanicopoUs, see Kilkennia. 

Cantabrigia, Cambridge, (in Welsh books Caer-Graunt,) an 
ancient and renowned university of England. It is not exactly 
ascertained at what period the art of printing was introduced into 
Cambridge, but I beheve that the earhest dated volume at pre- 
sent known is Linacer's Latin version of Galenus de Tempera- 
mentis, printed by John Siberch in 1521. Of this work the Bod- 
leian library contains an exquisite specimen printed upon vellum, 
in the original binding, having the royal arras impressed on the 
sides ; being the identical copy which Linacer presented to king 
Henry VIII. Henry gave it to bishop Tonstall; from whom, 
passing through various hands, it came at length into the posses- 
sion of Thomas Clayton, master of Pembroke college, and regius 
professor of physic in the university of Oxford, who gave it to the 
Bodleian library in the year 1634. Herbert, who describes this 
copy, justly observes that the place of printing, which is stated at 
the foot of the title-page in the copies printed on paper, is omitted 
in this. But it occurs at the end, at the bottom of fol. 74. In 
the last sheet of this copy there is an irregularity, arising from 
the misplacing of the pages during the passing of the volume 
through the press. 

Canterbury, an ancient metropolitical city of England, chief of 
the county of Kent. The art of printing appears to have been 
first exercised here about the close of the reign of Henry VIII. 
John Mychell is the only printer whose name is recorded, and his 
first dated book, as given by Herbert, is of the year 1549. Not 
more than eleven or twelve of these early Canterbury books are 
known, nor do I remember to have seen any others of a date ear- 
lier than 1687. 

Canthurium, qa? — 1677. 

Cape Franpis, a city and seaport of Hispaniola, which was 
the capital of the western or French part of that island, until the 

CA. 55 

revolutionary disturbances of the year 1791, Sec. Thomas affirms, 
that " there was a printing-house at Cape Francois, long before 
" that town was destroyed by the negroes when they revolted." 

Cape Town, chief town of the settlement of the Cape of Good 
Hope ; which has been permanently occupied by the British since 
the year 1806. Printing has for some years past been exercised 
in this colony, although the first printing-press and materials sent 
out by the British Missionary Society (in 1806) were unfortu- 
nately lost at sea. Among other publications, a Cwpe Town Ga- 
zette is now regularly issued in monthly numbers ; and a second 
Gazette in the Dutch language, called ' the South African com- 
' mercial Advertiser.' 

CapvM, Capua, a celebrated city of Naples, and an archbishop's 
see. A book, called Breviarium Capuanum, was supposed, by 
P. Marchand and others, to have been printed at this city in 1489 1: 
but Panzer, on the authority of Giustiniani, pronounces that no 
press was established at Capua during the XVth century, and 
conjectures that the Breviary was executed at Naples. 

Caraccas, or Santiago de Leon de Caraccas, a large city of 
Terra Firma in South America, founded by the Spaniards in the 
year 1567 : it is the capital of the province of Caraccas, (or Repub- 
lic of Venezuela) and the see of an archbishop. 

The following notice of the typography of this city we owe to 
the inquiries of the baron Humboldt : " When we remember, that 
" in the United States of North America newspapers are published 
" in small towns not exceeding three thousand inhabitants, we may 
" be surprised to learn, that Caraccas, with a population of forty 
" or fifty thousand souls, possessed no printing-ofiice before 1806; 
" for we cannot give this name to the presses, which served only 
" from year to year to print a few pages of an Almanack, or the 
" pastoral letter of a bishop. 

" A Frenchman, M. Delpeche, allied to one of the most re- 
" spectable families in the country, has the merit of having first 
" established a printing-ofiice at Caraccas. It appears sufficiently 
" extraordinary in modern times, to see an establishment of this 
" kind, afix)rding the greatest means of communication between 
" men, follow, and not precede, a political revolution." Personal 
Narrative of Travels, vol. iii. book 4, chap. 13. 

It is in the recollection of many of my readers, that on the 26th 
of March in the year 1812, the then flourishing city of Caraccas 

K 4) 

56 CA. 

experienced one of the most awful visitations recorded in history, 
by an earthquake, which in less than the space of a single minute 
levelled nearly the entire city with the ground, and buried from 
nine to ten thousand of the inhabitants beneath the fallen ruins ! 

Since that period an university has been founded at Caraccas ; 
and in 1826 four newspapers were regularly published in the 

Carantonus, or Carenfonium, Charenton, a town of France, 
near Paris. — 1627. A French New Testament was printed here 
in 1643. A satirical piece by Andrus Schioppius, bears for im- 
print, In Ponte Charentonio, apud Joannem MoUtorem. Whe- 
ther printed at Charenton I cannot say. (TCD.) 

Carcassona, Carcassonne, a city of France, seated on the Aube, 
formerly a bishop's see. Panzer notices a single volume printed 
here in 1517. 

CAUMAGNOLA, a fortified town of Piedmont, in the mar- 
quisate of Saluzzo, seated near the Po. A work entitled, Facini 
TibergcB in Alexandrum de Villa Dei enarratio, executed by an 
unnamed printer, in 1497, is the only specimen of the practice of 
the art in this city during the XVth century, which was knovra to 
Panzer ; nor was he acquainted with more than one work printed 
here during the early part of the XVIth century : this single pro- 
duction bears date 1522. I have seen no Carmagnola book ante- 
rior to 1589. 

Carnota ; Antonio, (torn. i. p. 201,) mentions a work printed 
typis AnP Alvarez in conventu de Carnota, 1627. I believe the 
place to be in Portugal. 

Carnutum, Chartres, an ancient and considerable town of 
France, seated on the river Eure. Printing was carried on here 
in the year 1622. Indeed, a satirical work published by N. Tur- 
lupinus, bears the imprint Carnuti, with the date 1592; but I 
am not sure that it is really a production of this town. 

Carolopolis, Charleville, a neat town of France, in Champagne, 
on the river Maese. Printing was exercised here in 1613. 

The town of Compiegne also bore the name of Carolopolis, 

Carolsrulia, Carlsruhe, a town of Suabia. Peignot mentions a 
rare and very valuable work on Finance, by Claude Dupin, 
printed here (but only 12 or 15 copies) in the year 1745. 

CARPENTORATVM, Carpentras, a town of France, seated 
on the Auson, formerly a bishop's see. It has been urged that a 

CA. 57 

work was printed here in the year 1494<; but Panzer silently 
adopts the correction of Mercier, who supposes 1494 to be the 
date, not of the printing, but of the composition of the book, 

Carpum, Carpi, a small town of Italy, in the duchy of Mo- 
dena, the see of a bishop. It appears from Panzer that -printing 
was carried on here so early as 1506. 

Carthagena, a large city of South America, formerly capital of 
the province of Carthagena, in the Spanish kingdom of New 

I have not ascertained the introduction of the art of print- 
ing. In 1824 two newspapers were regularly published in the 

CASALE MAIOR, Casal-Maggiore, a small town of Italy, 
in the duchy of Milan, about twenty miles S. E. of Cremona. 
The Hebrew printers of Soncino finished here in 1486 an edition 
of the Machazor, or Compendium of Prayers, which they had 
begun at Soncino. This is the only book from Casal-Maggiore 
which was known to Panzer, whose researches extend to the year 
1536 ; nor do I remember to have met with any other specimen 
of its typography until 1581. 

CASALE S. EVAXII, Casal di S. Vaso, a populous town of 
Italy, seated on the Po, formerly the capital of Montferrat, and a 
bishop''s see. It has been discovered within a few years that the 
art of printing was practised in this town so early as the XVth 
century ; and an edition of Ovid's Epistles is produced by Pan- 
zer from Saxius's Historia lAtteraria, which bears for imprint, 
In loco Casalis S. Evaxii, anno 1481. The printer's name is 
Guliehnus de Canepa-nova, de Campanilibus de Sancto Salvatore. 
This very rare book is the only specimen of the XVth century 
known. A book of the date 1542 bears the imprint at greater 
length, Casale di Monferrato. 

Casamum, see Kasanum. 

Caseres, a town of France, seated on the river Garonne, near 
Toulouse.— 1703. 

Casinas Monasterium Benedictinorum, or Mmis Cassinus, 
Monte Cassino, a celebrated Benedictine monastery, founded by 
St. Benedict himself, who is related to have passed the latter years 
of his life, and to have died and been entombed, within it. It is 
situated near a mountain and town which bear the same name, in 
the Neapolitan territory ; but the town has fallen to decay, and 

58 CA. 

S. Germano has arisen on its ruins. Printing was carried on here 
in 1740 and 1768. 

CASSELA, or CASEL^, Caselle, a considerable town of 
the Sardinian states, in Piedmont, distant six miles from Turin. 
Typography appears to have been exercised here during a short 
period of the XVth century ; and we still possess a work entitled 
Hieronymi vita Sanctorum pairMjra, executed in 1475, by Johannes 
Fabri, who both previously and afterwards worked as a printer in 
Turin. One more book only is given to Caselle by Panzer, but 
upon very slight authority. 

There being some doubt what town was intended by the imprint 
Casellarum oppidum, Prosper Marchand politely assigns the book 
to the city of Cashel in Ireland ! a city, in which, after a lapse of 
three hundred years, there is not at this day more than one single 
printing-press: and in which no booh has ever yet been printed i 
Santander at first decided that Casole in Tuscany was the place 
designated ; but afterwards yielded to the suggestion of De E,ossi 
that it signified Caselle in Piedmont. 

Cassellm, Cassel, a large and handsome town of Germany, ca- 
pital of the electorate of Hesse Cassel : it possesses a college 
founded by the elector Maurice in 15 . I have seen no book 
printed here previously to 1599, unless one mentioned by Panzer, 
(in vol. vi.) Amhrosii Catharini dialogus contra Lutherum, dated 
1524, was executed at this town. 

Cassovia, or Kassa, Caschau, an old and strong town, the me- 
tropolis of Upper Hungary. — 1620. 

Castelfranco, a small town of Italy in the States of the 
Church, on the road leading from Modena to Bologna. A 
work of Apostolo Zeno was executed here in the year 1761. — 

Castelhna, Castellane, a town of France, in Provence. — 1678. 
(Bodl. TCD.) 

Castelnaudary, a. populous town of France, in Upper Langue- 
doc— 1829. 

Castra, Castres, a large and populous town of France, in Lan- 
guedoc, containing about 16,000 inhabitants. Jean Viala exer- 
cised printing here in the year 1626. 

Castrum Cortesium, probably some castle in Italy, so named 
from Pauius Cortesius, whose work De Cardinalatu, executed in 
1510, bears this imprint: a splendid copy of this publication. 

CA.— CE. 59 

printed on large paper, was in the Pinelli library. No other book 
from this place is known. 

Casurgis, see Praga. 

Catalaunum, Chalons sur Marne, a considerable city of France, 
formerly the chief place of Champagne, and a bishop's see. — 1601. 

Catana, Catania, an episcopal city with an university, in Sicily. 
Printing was carried on here at least so early as 1636, in which 
year a work by Carrera was executed at Catania. (Pinelli library.) 

Catuapolis appears to be another name for Douay. In the 
library of Trinity College, Dubhn, there is a work entitled. The 
whetstone of reproof; [it is a reply to Sir Humphrey Linde's 
' Safe way,'] iy T. T. Sacristan and Catholike Roman, 12mo. 
1632, which bears for imprint Catuapoli apud viduam Marci 
Wyonis. Mark Wyon was a printer of Douay, and his widow 
continued to reside in that town at the sign of the ' Golden Phce- 
' nix,' until the year 1640 at least, in which year she was the pub- 
lisher of A Disputation of the Church, hy E. S, F. 2 vols. 12mo. 

CecerrcB, or Secerree, or Cervaria Lacetanorum, Cervera, a 
town of Spain, in Catalonia. — 1750.^(Bodl.) 

Cella, Zell, a large and strong town of Lower Saxony, in the 
principality of Luneburg. Another, of the same name, seated in 
the vale of Hammersbach. — 1759. 

Cellce, Selles, a town of France, on the river Cher. — 1618. 

Cenomani, or Cenomanum, called also Vindinum and Subdin- 
nu/m, Le Mans, a considerable city of France, formerly the ca- 
pital of Lower Maine, and a bishop's see. Typography was 
exercised at Le Mans so early as 1546 by Denis Gaigeot, who in 
that year printed a Missale Cenomanense, in folio, a copy of 
which is in the royal library of Paris. 

Centum, Cento, a city of Italy near Ferrara. A work entitled 
Vocabolario <^c. de la lingua Volgare, d' Alberto Acharisio, printed 
here in the house of the author, in 1543, is in the Bodleian library : 
and is the only specimen of Cento typography which I remember 
to have seen. 

Cephalcedis, or Cephalodium, Cefalu, a seaport on the north of 
Sicily, a town of considerable trade, and the see of an archbishop. 
A treatise by Vittorio Siri, printed here in 1641, is preserved in 
the Bodleian library. 

Cervaria, see Cecerrce. 

Cervicornus. Eucharius Cervicornus, a printer, &c. — 1536. 

60 CE— CH. 

Ceuta, in Africa. A newspaper in the Spanish language has 
been published at Ceuta for the last ten or twelve years. 

CHAMBERIVM, or CAMBERIACVM, Chambery, a large 
and populous town, the capital of Savoy. The earliest of the three 
books known -to have been printed here in the XVth century, 
Le livre de Baudoyn, comte de Flandres, ^c. bears the date 1484. 

Chantehup, a country seat in the neighbourhood of Paris, for- 
merly belonging to the due de Choiseul, minister of state to Louis 
XV. of France. The duke established here a printing press for 
his amusement, at which he caused a volume of Memoirs of him- 
self to be struck off under his own personal inspection, in the year 
1778. A single copy of this curious volume having by accident 
gotten abroad, it was reprinted by a bookseller at Paris in the 
year 1790. 

La Chariti, a town of France seated on the left bank of the 
Loire, near Nevers. It took its name from the charities exer- 
cised by some monks of Clugny, who possessed a large and 
wealthy establishment there, the prior of which was lord of the 
town. Printing was exercised here in 1711. 

Charleston, a town of Massachusetts, chief of Middlesex County, 
North America. Thomas mentions that printing was carried on 
here in 1785, in which year a newspaper began to be published in 

Charlestown, a beautiful city, the metropolis of the state of 
South Carolina, North America. A printing-house was opened 
here, in consequence of a liberal offer made by the government, 
by Eleazar PhiUips, of Boston, in the year 1730 ; and, except in 
this city, there was no printing throughout the whole province, 
previously to the revolution. 

Chartreuse, (La grande,) a celebrated convent, chief of the 
whole order of Carthusians, situate on the Guyer, within five 
leagues of Grenoble, in Dauphine. In the year 1697, a work 
was secretly printed within this convent, entitled. Explication de 
quelques endroits des anciens Statutes de Fordre des Chartreux, 
avec des eclaircissemens donnez sur le sujet d'un libelle qui a 
4te compose contre Tord/re, et qui s'est divulgue secrettement. It 
was written by the general of the order, in answer to some re- 
marks of the abbe la Trappe. The distribution of this volume 
was so guarded, that even of the Carthusians themselves few ever 
saw it : a copy being sent to the superior of each house, which he 

CH. 61 

was directed not to communicate. See a farther notice in the 
BibliotMque critique of Saintjore, torn. i. p. 478. 

Chateavrfirt, a small town of France, in the department of the 
Seine and Oise. — 1787. 

Chatillon sur Seine, a town of France in the mountainous part 
of Burgundy {now the department Cote d'or), divided by the 
river Seine. Printing is now carried on at Chatillon in a supe- 
rior style, by C. Cornillac, who in 1825 executed a very hand- 
some edition of BergmanrCs travels amongst the Calmucs, trans- 
lated into French. 

Chaumont en Bassigny, a considerable manufacturing city of 
France, situate on a mountain near the river Marne. Printing 
was carried on here, by Quentin Mareschal, in the year 1598. — 

Chemnitium, Chemnitz, a town of Upper Saxony.* — 1691. 

Cherium, Chieri, or Quiers, a town of Piedmont, distant six 
miles from Turin. — 1607. 

Chesroam,, Kesroan, or Chaswan mons, is the name of a moun- 
tainous district in the immediate neighbourhood of the great 
chain of Mount Libanus in Syria, in the pachalic of Tripoli or 
Acre. Among the convents with which this district abounds, is 
one distinguished from the rest, called Marhanna, or The Con- 
vent of St. John the Baptist de Shoair: it is seated on a steep 
rock upon the southern side of the Kesroan, nearly opposite to 
the village of Chouair. The building is described as being mag- 
nificent, containing forty monks, and was formerly the place of 
residence of the patriarch of the Maronites, dunng the winter 
months. It is also remarkable for containing the only Arabic 
printing-establishment which has tolerably succeeded throughout 
the Turkish empire. This establishment, which is spoken of in 
terms of high commendation, was erected by Abdallah benZa- 
cher, a Melchite priest, in the year 1732. Abdallah being a very 
ingenious artificer, entirely formed for himself the types and other 
materials, which he caused to be carried into this monastery, of 
which his own brother was the Superior. He opened his typo- 
graphical career with an Arabic version of The Psalms, in a neat 
and beautiful character, which purports to have been printed In 
monasterio S. Johannis BaptistcB in monte Kesroan, opera et in- 
dustria monachorum canonicorum S. Basilii, ordinis Romani. 
This edition is in octavo, and was several times reprinted. Vol- 

63 CH. 

ney, in his Voyage en Syrie, states that while he was there, four 
of the monks attended to the printing, and four others were em- 
ployed in book-binding. He gives a list of thirteen books printed 
there, on paper which was brought from Europe ; but relates, that 
although this press was the only one in Syria, though beneficial 
effects had resulted from it, and much more good might have 
been derived from a judicious selection of works worthy of publica- 
tion, it was then fast falling to decay. Our countryman Browne, 
•<srho visited the spot in 1797, states, that the press was then en- 
tirely out of work, from the dearness of paper and slackness of 
the demand for books. To Volney's list of books Schnurrer adds 
twenty-four others, giving the name and date of each, from the 
year 1734 to 1794. I am unable to say whether many of the 
Marhanna volumes have reached the shores of England : one of 
them, Didaeus Stella, 4°. In monasterio Mar-hannce, 1740, being 
the second in Vojney's list, may be seen in the Bodleian library ; 
and another, a book of Meditations, of the date 1772, in that of 
the British and foreign Bible Society. The Bodleian possesses 
also a volume of Canons 8j-c. of the church of Antioch, in the 
Arabic language, printed "in a monastery of Syria" (perhaps 
Mar-hanna) in 1810. folio. 

Chester, an ancient city of England, the chief town of Cheshire. 

Chilonium, Xilonvum, or Kilia Holsatorum^ Kiel, a town of 
Lower Saxony, with an university, founded in the year 1665. In 
all probability the art of printing was introduced together with 
the university : I have seen a Kiel book of the year 1667, in 
which the printer, Joachim Reumraannus, styles \i\vase\i academia 
typogrofhus. — (TCD.) 

Chillicothe, a small town, capital of the state of Ohio, in North 
America. Thomas mentions that the art of printing was prac- 
tised, and two or three newspapers published at this place, be- 
tween the years 1795 and 1810. 

Chios, Chio, or Scio, the capital of the isle of Chio. Within 
a few years a press has been established here, the types and other 
materials of which were brought from France. The first work 
printed was a discourse delivered before the college, by professor 
Bambas. Previously to the late Turkish massacre, Scio contained 
a hundred thousand inhabitants, and possessed a library of twelve 
thousand volumes. 

CH.— CI. 63 

Chinsurah, a town of Hindostan, in Bengal, seated on the river 
Hoogly, twenty miles north of Calcutta. A printing-office was 
established here, by Rev. Mr. Pearson, of the London Missionary 
Society, about the year 1820 or 1821. 

Christicmia, a city of ten thousand inhabitants, the capital of 
Norway, built by Christian IV. on the ruins of the old town of 
Opsloe : in 1636 a college was erected here, and at present it is a 
bishop's see. Printing was exercised here in the year 1656. 

Christiansand, a town and seaport of the south-west of Nor- 
way, the capital of the government or province of Christiansand, 
and a bishop's see. It was founded by Christian IV. in 1641, 
and contains at present about five thousand inhabitants. A press 
was at work here in the year 1823. 

Christianstedt, the principal town in the island of St. Croix. 
Printing was carried on here a short time previous to the year 

Christlinga, (qu.? Christbourg, a town of West Prussia, on 
the Sorge ?) Sandius mentions a book printed at this place in the 
year 1584 ; and a work of L. Socinus, published anonymously 
here in 1577, is quoted by Barbier, in his " Dictionnaire des ano- 
" nymes." 

Chrysopolis, Scutari in Natolia, the Asiatic suburb of Constan- 
tinople, containing about twenty thousand inhabitants. A print- 
ing-establishment was founded here by Sultan Selim III. ; books 
from which, of the date of 1802, &c. are noticed by Hammer, in 
his Codices BibliotheccB Ccesar. Vindobonensis, and by Schnurrer, 
in his Bibliotheca Arabica ; a further list is given in one of the 
numbers of the Revue encyclop6dique for the year 1821. The 
earliest date which I have seen noticed is 1793. This establish- 
ment was closed at the revolution of the year 1807, in which the 
unfortunate monarch lost his throne and life. Only a few years 
previously to this catastrophe he had erected a paper-manufac- 
tory also at Scutari, which in all probability has shared the 
same fate. 

Cibmium, or HermanopoUs, Hermannstadt, an episcopal city, 
the capital of Transylvania. — 1670. 

Cincinnati, a modern but flourishing town, capital of the 
Miami country, in the state of Ohio, North America, containing 
16000 inhabitants. S. Freeman and son introduced the art of 
printing here in the year 1795 : and by the year 1810 there were 

64 CI.— CO. 

eight or ten presses established in different parts of this state. At 
the present time (1826) Cincinnati itself contains no fewer than 
nine printing-establishments ; and also a type-foundry, where are 
manufactured in a superior manner all kinds of type, presses, 
chases, &c. &c. &c. entirely superseding the importation of types 
and other printing materials from the eastern states. It is calcu- 
lated that about seventy-two thousand newspapers are published 
weekly at Cincinnati. 

Civdad de los Reyes, see Lima. 

Ciza, or Zitia, or Citizum, Zeitz, a town of Upper Saxony. — 
1677, 78, &c. 

Claromontium, or Clarus Mons, Clermont, an ancient episco- 
pal city of France, in Auvergne. (Clermont is also the name of 
three other towns in the same kingdom.) — 1594. 

Clarus Mons, Chiaramonte, or Monte Chiaro, a town of Si- 
cily. — 1655. 

CLAVASIVM, Chivas, or Chivazzo, a fortified town of Pied- 
mont, seated on the Po. The Summa Angelica of Angelus de 
Clavasio was printed here in 1486, and is the only specimen of 
early printing known from this place. 

Claudiopolis, Clausenburg, or Coloswar, an ancient city of 
Transylvania, in which the Socinians had early an academy and 
a printing-house. — 1566. Caspar Heltius printed here in a very 
creditable style in the year 1585. 

Clausthal, a town of Lower Saxony, in Brunswick. — 1727. 

Clivia, Cleves, an ancient city, situated between the Rhine and 
the Meuse, capital of the duchy of Cleve. — 1625. (Bodl.) 

CLVNIACVM, Cluni, a town of France, in Burgundy, fa- 
mous for its abbey of Benedictines, which is chief of the order. 
A Missale Cluniacense in folio, printed here by Michael Wensler 
of Basle in 1493, is believed to be the only book executed at 
Clugni during the XVth century. 

COBVRGVM, or KOBVBGVM, Coburg, a town of Upper 
Saxony, capital of a principality. Prosper Marchand adduces a 
work professing to be printed here in 1432, but Panzer takes no 
sort of notice of printing here in the XVth or XVIth century. 
There is, however, among the Bodleian collection of German 
tracts on the Reformation, one by Luther, printed at Coburg in 
the year 1530. 


CO. 65 

Coevorde, or Koevorde, a small but strongly fortified town of 
the Netherlands, seated on the river Aa. — 1829- 

Colberga Pomeranorum, a strong seaport town of the Prussian 
states, in Farther Pomerania, on the Persante river. Printing 
was carried on here in the year 1656, by Henricus Hasius; and 
in 1 684, by Georgius Bothius, who calls himself " senatus typo- 
" graphus." 

Coligni, a small town of France, near St. Amour, in Franche 
Comt^. Printing was exercised here by G. A. Chouet, in 1679. 
— (T.C.D.) 

COLLA, or COLLIS, Colle, a small town of Tuscany, lately 
a bishop's see. A paper-manufactory was established in the 
suburbs of this town at a very early period, which circumstance 
probably led to the erection of a press. Only four books are 
known to have been printed here in the XVth century, two of 
which, Dioscorides and Oppian, bear the date of 1478. 

Colles vallis Trumpice appears to denote some spot in Trom- 
pia, a valley of Italy in the vicinity of Brescia, in which typo- 
graphy was exercised early in the XVIth century. Only three 
of its productions are known to have come down to us, of which 
the earliest is a Liber pontificalis, impressus in collibus Vallis 
TrompifB, per Mapheum de Fracazinis. A. D. 1503. This, which 
is a very handsome as well as rare book, may be seen in the Bod- 
leian library. The others are of the years 1510 and 1516, exe- 
cuted by the same family of printers. 

Colmaria, Colmar, a populous town of France, capital of the 
Upper Rhine. An edition of Herodian, and a New Testament, 
printed here in 1523, are noticed by Panzer. 

Coloca, Colocza, or Kolocz, an archiepiscopal city of Hungary, 
on the Danube. — 1749. 

LONIA VBIORVM, sometimes VBII only, or COLONIA 
simply ; Cologne, in Dutch books called Cuelen, Ceulen, or Keu- 
len, an ancient and large city, capital of the electorate of Cologne; 
lately an imperial city of Germany, and the see of an archbishop. 
It has an university, founded in 1388. 

Cologne was among the very first towns to receive and adopt 
the art of printing, after it had been promulgated from Mayence. 
Its earliest dated book is Joh. Chrysostomus sivper Psalmo quin- 
quagesimo, printed by Ulric Zell, in 1466, a thin quarto of ten 

66 CO. 

leaves : (a tract of excessive rarity, but to be seen in earl Spen- 
cer's library ;) or if, with Serna Santander, the date of this be 
not admitted as entirely satisfactory, the Augustinus de singula- 
ritate clericorum, of the year 1467 ; yet it is supposed that Zell 
had practised the art here for some time previous to the issuing 
of these books. His press continued at work until nearly the 
close of the XVth century. Zell was soon followed by other 
printers, as by Arnold Therhoernen (the first who used cyphers) 
in 1471 ; by Peter de Olpe, in the same year ; by Johannes 
KollhofF de Lubec (the first who made use of signatures) in 1472; 
by Henricus Quentel, and numerous others. 

Our English typographer, William Caxton, is generally under- 
stood to have executed his Recueil des histoires de Troye, in this 
city, between the years 1464 and 1470. 

Panzer notices, in the latter part of his great work (vol. iv. 
p. 492.), a very rare edition of Cicero's Offices in 4". without a 
date, recently discovered in a private library at Mechlin, which 
from internal evidence he considers anterior to the Mayence edi- 
tion of 1465 : if this opinion be founded in truth, Cologne has the 
glory of having given to the world the first printed edition of a 
classic author. A copy of this precious edition has found its 
way to earl Spencer's collection. See Biblioth. Spenc. vol. i. 
p. 307. It may be mentioned likewise, that the earliest book 
known to have the leaves numbered, being a Sermon on the 
presentation of the Virgin Mary, dated 1470, was printed in 
this city. 

A considerable number of printing-presses were established here 
during the XVth century, among which we find one erected in a 
convent of friars preachers. 

Colonia Allobrogum, see Geneva. 

Colonia Alpina : qu .'' 

The only book which I have seen bearing this imprint is Fa- 
ther Paul Sa/rpi's history of ecclesiastical benefices, in Italian, 
printed by Pietro Albertino, in 1675. 

Colonia Brandenburgica, Colonia ad Spream, Colonia Mar- 
chica, or Colonia ad Suevum, Coin, a suburb to the city of 
Berlin, on the opposite side of the river Spree. The earliest book 
from this town which I have yet seen, is a treatise by J. S. ElshoU 
tius on the transfttsion of blood. ^om one animal to another, (a 
subject much revived of late,) which professes to have been 

CO. 67 

printed here by Georgius Schultzius, printer to the elector, in 
the year 1667.— (TCD.) 

Colonia Julia Romana, see Hispalis. 

Colonia Munatiana, see Augusta Rauracorum, and Basilea. 

Colonia Ubiorum, see Colonia Agrippina. 

Cohnia Venetorum, Cologna, a considerable trading town of 
Italy, situate in the Vicentino, near the borders of the Veronese. 
Printing was carried on here in the year 1765. — (PineUi.) 

Colonia Viriata, see Madritum. 

Columbaria, Colmar, a considerable town of Alsace. — 1754. 

Columbia, a small town of the United States of North Americaj 
the seat of government for South Carolina, and the capital of 
Kersham county. " Cooper's lectures on political oeconomy" were 
printed here in 1826. 

Cohimbum, Colombo, the British capital of the island of Cey- 
lon. Gustavus Wilhelmus baron Imhof, who was governor of 
the island, anxious that the Gospel should be made known to the 
natives, erected a press at Colombo ; the first book from which 
was a Prayer-book, printed in 1737: this was succeeded by a 
short Confession of faith, executed in the next year, immediately 
after which the editors proceeded to an edition of The four Gos- 
pels, which they were enabled to publish in 1739. Some subse- 
quent books, down to the year 1771, may be seen in Masch's Le 
Long, part II. The whole of the New Testament, together with 
the books of Genesis and Exodus, in Cingalese, printed here be- 
tween 1771 and 1786, are preserved in the Bodleian library, 

Comaromium, Comorn, a considerable town of Hungary, situ- 
ated on the Danube. — 1795. 

Commelinus. Many books are found, which, entirely sup- 
pressing the name of the place at which they were printed, bear 
simply the words apud Commelinum : it may not be unnecessary 
therefore to remark that all such books were executed at Heidel- 
berg. Commelin was a native of Douay, and a learned man no 
less than an esteemed printer ; he died in 1598 ; but the imprint 
^ bibliothecd Commeliniand was continued for some years after- 

Comopolis, (qu ? a fictitious name ?) A work of M. Merula, 
printed in the year 1620, bears the imprint, ComopoU, typis Lu£(b 

Compiegne, an ancient and famous town of France, on the 


68 CO. 

river Oise, formerly the residence of the ancient kings of France, 
and sometimes called Carolopolis, from favours conferred on it by 
Charles the Bald.— 1783. 

Complutum, Alcala de Henares, a celebrated city of Spain, m 
New Castile, with an university, founded in 1517. There is no 
certain information regarding the first appearance of typography 
in this city : Maittaire has endeavoured to assign to it a work of the 
date 1494, but upon grounds which seem to require much confirma- 
tion. Mendez justly observes, that, though among the Spanish 
towns Alcala was late in the adoption of this excellent art, yet it 
will ever be famous in the annals of literature, from its having 
given to the world the first Polyglott Bible ; a splendid work, in 
six volumes folio, designed and executed under the fostering hand 
of cardinal Ximenes. Particular descriptions of this rare edition 
may be found in almost every bibliographer. The magnificent 
copy of it printed upon vellum, which formerly belonged to count 
M<=Carthy, and to Pinelli, is now deposited in England, in the 
library of Mr. George Hibbert. The earliest printed volume 
from this place, cited by Panzer, bears the date of 1509: but 
Mendez has given us evidence that the Alcala press was at work 
in the year 1502, under the direction of Lanzalao Polono (Stanis- 
laus Polonus) who had previously exercised the art at Seville 
from 1491 till 1500. The early Alcala books are of considerable 

Compostella, Compostella, or Santiago de Compostella, a large 
and handsome town of Spain, the capital of Gallicia : it possesses 
an university, founded in 1532, and is the see of an archbishop. 
In its cathedral were supposed to be deposited the relics of the 
apostle St. James, which produced great accessions of celebrity 
and of wealth to the place. 

I have not found any notice of printing executed at Com- 
postella earlier than that of Antonio Fraiz Pineiro, in 1673. — 

COMVM, Como, a town of Italy, in the Milanese, seated on 
the lake of Como. It is a bishop's see. Only three books exe- 
cuted here in the XVth century have come down to us, the 
earliest of which, by Joh. Antonius de S. Georgia, was printed in 
1474, the year in which the art was first introduced into Como. 

Concha, Cuenfa, an episcopal city of Spain, in New Castile. — 

CO. 69 

Condivincum Nannetum, see Nannetes. 

Condomium, Condom, a considerable town of France, in Gas- 
cony, capital of an Arrondissement, and formerly a bishop's see. 
(The celebrated Bossuet was bishop of Condom.) Printing was 
exercised here in 1689 ; in which year (and probably under Bos- 
suet's own direction) was published a liturgical work, entitled 
" Proprium sanctorum ecclesiae Condomiensis." 

Coneglianum, Conegliano, a small but populous town of Italy, 
in the marquisate of Treviso, from which town it is distant ten 
miles. From the Pinelli catalogue it appears that the art of 
printing was exercised here so long ago as the year 1611. 

Confluentes, Coblentz, a city situated at the conflux of the 
Rhine and Moselle.— 1779. 

Conimbrica, Coimbra, an episcopal city of Portugal, with an 
university founded by John III. — 1516. In the year 1536 we 
find a printing establishment within the convent of the Holy 
Cross in this city, at which was executed a work of P. Ayres du 
Almeyda, in opposition to the Moriae encomium of Erasmus. 
[Bibliotheca Lusitana, 1. p. 77.] The art appears to have flou- 
rished at Coimbra from that time forwards. 

Consentia, see Cusentia. 

Constantia, Constance, a fortified city of Bavaria, seated on a 
lake of the same name ; it was lately a bishop's see, and is memo- 
rable for the council holden here in 1414, which condemned John 
Huss and Jerome of Prague to the flames. Maittaire and Prosper 
Marchand entertained an opinion that an edition of the Aureus 
libellus of Boccacio, dated 1489, was printed here : however 
there seems to be no sufficient evidence that the art was practised 
in this city during the XV th century ; the earliest book known to 
Panzer is of the year 1505. 

CONSTANTINOPOLIS, the city of Constantinople, too well 
known to need description. 

The exact period of the introduction of typography into this 
city remains a disputed point. Unquestionably the earliest print- 
ing was that of the Jews, who are believed to have executed some 
Hebrew works here in the XVth, or certainly at the beginning 
of the XVIth century. The history of Josephus ben Gorion, 
bears the date 1490, with the imprint Constcmtmopoli ; and a 
work of the year 1492, viz. the Quatuor ordines, appears in the 
Oppenheimer collection, where also are books of the dates 1500, 


70 CO. 

1506, 9, 12, 15, 16, &c. &c. Yet it is mentioned by Andrew 
Thevet, in his life of John Guttenburg, that in 1483 Bajazet II. 
forbad the Turks to make use of printing, by an edict, which 
was confirmed by his son Sehm I. in the year 1515. How long 
this Hebrew press continued at work is not any where stated, but 
Le Long notices books from it so late as 1598. 

In the XVIIth century Nicodemus Metaxa, a learned Greek 
monk of Cephalonia, endeavoured to establish another printing- 
office, under the auspices of the patriarch Cyrillus Lucaris, but 
his attempt was defeated by the Jesuits. 

In 1698 an Armenian press &c. was brought from Venice, 
and estabhshed in this city; but after a very short time the 
janizaries received orders to destroy the whole press and its ma- 

Again, in the year 1726, a learned man, Ibrahim Effendi, fully 
perceiving the advantages to be derived from the use of a press, 
exerted his influence towards obtaining the erection of one in 
Constantinople, and shortly afterwards succeeded. Peignot, in his 
Repertoire des bibliographies speciales, p. 163. affirms a TurMsh 
Grammar, dated 1730, to be the first book really printed at Con- 
stantinople: in this assertion however he is decidedly mistaken, 
since the Bodleian library contains two works executed in this 
city, bearing the date of 1729, in one of which Ibrahim is called 
ArcMtypographer to the Sublime Porte ; so that printing was then 
exercised, not only openly, but under the express authority of the 
government. It rather appears that the first printed book was a 
Turkish- Arabic Lexicon, by Mahomet, the son of Mustapha, ex- 
ecuted between 1726 and 1728 in two handsome volumes small 
folio, of which likewise a copy has been recently placed in the 
same library. Yet even this printing-establishment of Ibrahim 
(who is said by lord Teignmouth, in his Life of Sir William 
Jones, to have learned Latin by his own industry, to have been 
no contemptible writer in his native language, and to have cast 
his own types) does not seem to have been carried on with 
vigour. Hammer, in his Catalogue of Arabic, Persic, and 
Turkish MSS. contained in the imperial library at Vienna, enu- 
merates sixty-three works printed at Constantinople and Scutari 
(see Chrysopolis) from the year 1728 to 1819. In this series 
however there is a complete blank from the year 1744, that of 
the death of Ibrahim, after which it does not appear that any 

CO. 71 

thing was done, except that the Lexicon of 1728 was reprinted in 
1758, under the care of another Ibrahim. 

In this state things continued, all attempts to prosecute the art 
being suppressed, as it is said, through the influence of the 
scribes, so that it can scarcely be said to have gained an efl^ectual 
footing in Constantinople until so late as the year 1782; at which 
period the press was re-established through the interest of the 
French ambassador at the Ottoman court. The Revue encyclo- 
p^diqile for 1821 gives a list of the works executed at this press 
(which appears to have been erected in the ambassador''s own 
house at Pera) from the year 1782. Of Ibrahim's first book, the 
Turkish Lexicon of 1 728, one thousand copies were printed, at the 
cost of thirty-five piasters for each copy. The Grammar mentioned 
by Peignot, as also many of the Constantinople earlier Hebrew 
books, may be seen in the Bodleian library : a copy of the very 
rare Polyglott Pentateuch, executed here in 1546, is in the impe- 
rial library at Vienna ; and a second in the Oppenheimer collec- 
tion : and it is said that most of the books from Ibrahim's press 
are to be found in the royal library at Paris. Many of them are 
in possession of Mr. W. Marsden, and are enumerated in the 
" Bibliotheca Marsdeniana," 4°. 1827. It deserves to be men- 
tioned, that the Oppenheimer library contains Constantinople 
books of the years 1641, 44, 48, 52, 54, 69, 71, 73, 77, 1707, 
10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 26, 27, 33. 
For some interesting details of the present state of the printing- 
establishment and two paper-manufactories of Constantinople in 
1828, see WalsKs narrative, 8vo. 1828. p. 15—17. 

Corbachium, a small town of Germany, on the river lUer, the 
capital of the principality of Waldeck. Printing was exercised 
here in 1678.— (TCD.) 

Corbeil, an ancient town of France, on the Seine, eighteen 
miles distant from Paris. — 1802. 

Corcagia, Cork, a large and flourishing seaport town of the 
south of Ireland, capital of the county of Cork in the province of 
Munster, and a bishop's see. Of the introduction of typography 
into this city I have not as yet obtained any accurate knowledge; 
the earliest specimen which has hitherto fallen within my observa- 
tion is a small work, entitled, Inquisitio in fldem Chriatianorum 
hujus seculi, authore Rogero Boyle, Decano Corcagiensi. 12°. 
Corcagice 1664. A copy of this curious but indifferently executed 

r 4 

72 CO. 

volume may be seen in the diocesan library of Cashel. ' Yet, that 
printing was carried on in Cork earlier by at least fifteen years, 
appears from the title of the following tract, evidence which can- 
not be doubted: "Certain acts and declarations made by the 
<' ecclesiastical congregation of archbishops, bishops, and other 
" prelates met at Clonmacnoise, on 4th Dec. 1649. Printed at 
« Cork 25th Feb. 1649, [1650,] and reprinted in Dublin by 
" W. B.'" 4°. 20 pages. I have never seen the original Cork 
edition. The DubUn reprint is in my possession. 

Cordova, a large and trading city of South America, in the 
territory of Buenos Ayres. It is a bishop's see, which distinction 
it obtained in the year 1570. It likewise contained an university, 
formerly ^superintended by the Jesuits, who also introduced a 
printing establishment into the town. 

Corduba, Cordova, an ancient episcopal city of Andalusia, in 
Spain. Printing was carried on here very respectably, by Gabriel 
Ramos, in 1585, 1589, 1595, &c. 

Corfu, (the Cbrcyra of the ancients,) a town containing about 
15000 inhabitants, capital of the island of Corfu, in the Ionian 
sea, on the coast of South Albania. According to the catalogue 
of the library of the British and Foreign Bible Society, Selections 
from the Scriptures in modern Greek were printed here in 1817 
(probably by the Rev. S. Wilson) : and in 1818 and the follow- 
ing years we have a series of Corfu Gazettes, published at the 
government press, both in Italian and in modern Greek. At a 
more recent period, Mr. Lowndes, an English Missionary, has 
been zealously engaged in printing here an Albanian version of 
the Scriptures, which is supposed to be the first book ever printed 
in that language. The British and Foreign Bible Society, and 
the American Missionary Board, have each its respective printing- 
establishment at the present time at Corfu. 

CORIA, a small town of Spain, in the kingdom of Leon, (or 
possibly Soria^ a town of Old Castile, near the source of the 
Douro.) An heraldic work in Spanish, by Petrus Gratiadei, 
printed in 1469, has been conjectured to have been executed here; 
but nothing certain is known on the subject. 

Corinth, a celebrated city of the Morea. The Hellenic trum- 
pet, a pohtical journal in modern Greek, is now (1822) in course 
of publication at this place. 

Corisopitium, Cornouaille, or Quimper-Corentim, sometimes 

CO. 73 

written Quemper Caurmtin, and Kemper^ a town of France in 
Basse Bretagne, seated on the Oder. It is now the capital of a 
department, and a bishop''s see. Printing was exercised at Quim- 
per in 1669 : and some pieces of S. Paul, bishop of Leon, and of 
Thomas a Kempis, in the Breton tongue, printed here in the 
years 1689 and 1690, are in the Bodleian library. 

Corona, Cronstadt, alias Brassau, a strong town of Transylva- 
nia. Printing is said to have been first brought hither, by John 
Honterus, in 1533. See Benko's Transylvania, 2 torn. 1778. 

Correggio, a small town of Italy in the duchy of Modena.- 
Peignot speaks of an Italian work of Rinaldo Corso, printed here 
in 1555, a book of extreme rarity, and of which a very limited 
reimpression was made for a certain great lord, whom he does not 
name. This publication is entitled Delle private Rappaciflca- 
zioni ; it forms a quarto volume ; a copy of it was formerly in the 
Pinelli library, being N°. 891. of the sale catalogue. 

Correria ; a book entitled Annales ordinis Carthusiensis, bears 
this imprint, with the date 1687; the explication of which is 
thus given by Peignot : about the year 1680 Dom Masson, gene- 
ral of the Carthusians, wishing to give a new edition of the sta- 
tutes and liturgical books for the use of his brethren, on account 
of some changes recently introduced, erected for that purpose a 
press which was known by the name of Imprimerie de la Grande^ 
Chartreuse a Pa/ris. Correria, according to Peignot, is a build- 
ing dependant upon the establishment of the Grande Chartreuse, 
from which Masson took occasion to give his books the imprint 
CorrericB, per Laurentivm Gilbert. Four other pieces, of the 
years 1693 and 1703, all relating to the discipline of the place, 
printed here, are cited by Helyot, in the catalogue of works pre- 
fixed to the first volume of his valuable Histmre des ordres mo- 
nastiqvss. Peignot observes, that this printing-establishment, 
having been founded for a specific purpose, fell to the ground of 
itself as soon as that object was obtained. 

Corte^ a fortified town in the island of Corsica, for sometime 
considered the capital of the island. The government had a press 
here in the year 1794. 

Cortona, an ancient episcopal city of Tuscany, with a cele- 
brated academy. 

Cortracum, Courtray, or Cortryck, a large and considerable 
town of Flanders, seated on the river Lys. — 1626. 

74 CO.— CR. 

Corunna, a seaport town of the north-west coast of Sp^n, in 
the province of Galicia. Mendez mentions Corunna among the 
Spanish towns which received the art of printing, but has left us 
uninformed as to the period of its being exercised. 

Cosfeldia, or Gosfeldia, Coesfeld, a town of Westphalia in the 
principality of Munster. Printing was exercised here in 1712. 

Cosminecum, Kozmin, a town of Greater Poland, in the pala- 
tinate of Kalisz. The Bohemian brethren had a press here, which 
was at work in 1561, but soon afterwards was, together with their 
school, transferred to another place. 

Coibus, or Kotbus, a town of the Prussian states, on the right 
bank of the Spree. According to the catalogue of the library of 
the British and Foreign Bible Society, a Wendish Old Testament 
was printed here in 1796. 

Cothenum Anludtinorum, Cothon, a considerable town of Up- 
per Saxony. The Syriac New Testament, with a Latin version, 
published by Martinus Trostius, was printed at Cothon in 4!to. in 
the year 1621. 

Cotoneum, Codogno, a town of Italy in the Milanese. — 1628. 

Cotta, a small town or village of Ceylon, about six miles south- 
east of Colombo. In the latter part of the year 1822 the English 
Church Missionary Society established a station here, and a 
printing-press was erected under the superintendence of the Rev. 
S. Lambrick. A second press has recently been added, and 
several pieces of Scripture, in English and in Cingalese, already 
have been printed and circulated. 

Cotym, a small town or village on the Malabar coast of Hin- 
dostan, at which an English Missionary, the Rev. Benjamin Bay- 
ley, was settled in the year 1817. Mr. Bayley soon began to 
employ himself in a vernacular translation of the Scriptures, and 
even proceeded so far as to cast types and construct a printing- 
press for the purpose of circulating his version. In the year 1820 
the Calcutta Bible Society sent a press, types, and paper to the 
society of Syrian Christians established at this place, for the pur- 
pose of executing a correct impression of the Malayalim Bible. 
This press continues in active operation under the superintend- 
ence of Mr. Bayley. 

CRACOVIA, Cracow, a large and celebrated town, formerly 
capital of the kingdom of Poland. It is a bishop's see, and has 
a famous university, founded by king Uladislaus lagellon in 1400. 

CR.— CU. 75 

There seems to be some uncertainty respecting the time of the 
introduction of printing into this city: Panzer gives an edition 
of Cicero's Rhetoric of the date 1500, as the earliest specimen ; 
but Hoffmann, the bibliographer of Poland, adduces a work which 
from internal evidence he concludes to have been printed before 
1496 ; and Bachmeister speaks of Cracow typography of the year 
1491. John Haller appears to have been the first of his trade 
throughout Poland; but consult Panzer's last volume, p. 319, 
where mention is made of an edition of Jo. Turrecremata on the 
Psalms, printed here without date, which Zapf attributes to the 
press of Gunther Zainer, and carries up so high as the year 1465 ! 
The first academy in the kingdom was founded at Cracow; it 
possessed a press of its own in the XVIth century, (the produc- 
tions of which were exceedingly well executed,) and the Jews had 
another. A Cracow book on vellum of the year 1506 is in the 
University library of Upsal, and the Pinelli library contained an- 
other of the year 1545, also printed upon vellum, a choice mor9eau. 
(See No. 8206.) In the middle of the XVIIth century Annibal 
Zangoyski was a printer and also bookseller of some eminence at 
Cracow. Hoffmann observes, that in the year 1740 three print- 
ing presses were remaining in the city. 

Crema, an episcopal town of Italy, in the Venetian states. — 1571. 

CREMONA, Cremona, an ancient city of Italy, capital of Cre- 
monese, and a bishop's see. It has also an university. The art 
of printing was exercised here so early as 1472 ; of which year we 
have remaining a treatise of Angelas de Perusio, executed by 
Dionysius de Paravesino and Stephanos de Merlinis. But it is 
remarkable that this is followed by a complete cessation of the 
art for the long period of twenty years, no other Cremona publi- 
cation being known until the year 1492. In the succeeding cen- 
tury a great deal of Hebrew printing was carried on at Cremona. 

Crisopolis, see ChrysopoUs. 

Jo. Crispmus, a printer of Geneva, was frequently in the habit 
of giving his own name in the imprint of books, omitting that of 
the town in which they were executed. 

Cuba, the largest of the Antilles islands, situated at the en- 
trance of the Bay of Mexico. It is said that a press was esta- 
blished in this island many years ago ; but it was intended merely 
for the use of the government. I do not remember to have ever 
met with a Cuba book. 

76 CU. 

S. CVCVFATIS MONASTERIVM, the monastery of St. 
Cucufas, or San Colgat del Valles, near to the city of Barcelona, 
in Spain. A single work, El Abad Isach de reUgione, traducido 
en romcvnce por Fray Bernal Boyl, 4to. dated 1489, is supposed 
by Mercier to have been executed in. this monastery. Panzer's 
judgment is, that though published, it was not printed, in this 
place. Mendez however, although he does not absolutely decide 
the question, is inclined to maintain the fact of its being printed 
here : and mentions that a copy of the edition exists in the Royal 
library of Madrid, and a second in the monastery of Montserrat. 

With the exception of the above work, we hear nothing of the 
typography of San Colgat. 

CVLEMBVRGVM, Culembourg, or Qullemburg, a small 
town of the Netherlands in Guelderland. Five specimens of 
early typography are remaining to us from this city, all of which 
are by the same printer, John Veldener, who had previously fol- 
lowed the business at Louvain and at Utrecht ; they are dated 1480,. 
1483, 1484; and all are embellished with wood-cuts nearly re- 
sembling, in point of execution, the old wooden blocks of the 
Biblia Pauperum, Speculum humance salvationis, &c. A very 
detailed and interesting account of one of these books may be 
seen in Bibliotheca Spenceriana, vol. iii. p. 348 — 377. 

Cumana, a large city of South America, lately capital of the 
Spanish province of Cumana, in the government of the Caraccas. 
It is situate about a mile from the sea, in a most burning atmos- 
phere, and subject to so frequent earthquakes, that its size and 
population are ever varying. In the year 1824 a newspaper was 
regularly published in this town. 

Cuneum, Cumo, or Coni, a fortified town of Piedmont, seated 
on the river Stura. Panzer notices three works printed here, 
dated 1507, 1508, and 1510. 

Curia Regnitiana in principatu Baruthino, qu ? Hoffe in 
former Franconia.? — 1736. 

Curia Rhcetorum, Coire, an' ancient town of Switzerland, capi- 
tal of the country of the Grisons. The art of printing was known 
and practised here early in the XVIIth century. The imprint 
Coira occurs in one or two works of the date 1607, but there is 
scarcely sufficient proof that they were executed in this^town. 
The first Coire book of which I have obtained satisfactory notice, 
is an edition of The Psalms of David in verse, in the Romanesche 

CU.— CZ. 7T 

dialect of the Grey League, executed in the year 1611 : which is 
not only interesting as being thejlrst portion of Scripture, but as 
being the veryjirst book printed in that dialect, for such, I under- 
stand, it is considered. Coxe, in his " Travels in Switzerland," 
relates that a typographical society had been established in Coire, 
for the publication of Latin, German, and Romanesche books. In 
the year 1718 a Romanesche or Grison version of the Bible was 
printed here, in two folio volumes, with a dedication to king 
George the First of England ; a fine copy of which curious work 
may be seen in the Bodleian library. On the interesting subject 
of the variety of the Romanesche dialects, the reader will be gra- 
tified by the perusal of an able paper from the pen of Mr. Planta, 
which is published in the sixty-sixth volume of tlie Philosophical 

Curia Variscorum, or Hoffa, Hoffe, a town formerly of Fran- 
conia in the principality of Bayreuth. SeckendorfF in his Hist. 
Luther a/nismi, vol. ii. p. 71, states that the " ecclesiastica ordi- 
natio" of George Marquess of Brandenburgh was reprinted here 
in the year 1591. 

CVSENTIA, or CONSENTIA, Cosenza, a considerable city 
of Naples, capital of Hither Calabria, and the see of an arch- 
bishop. We have evidence of the art of printing being carried on 
here during the X Vth century, in four books yet remaining ; the 
earliest of which, a dialogue of Franciscus Philelphus, was exe- 
cuted by Octavianus Salamonius de Manfredonia, in 1478. 

Custrinum, Custrin, a considerable town in Brandenburg. — 

Cygnea, Zwickau, a town of Upper Saxony, in Misnia. 1529 
is the date of the only book noticed by Panzer from this place : 
there are however in the Bodleian library several German tracts 
relative to the Reformation, printed at Zwickau, some of the 
earliest of which bear date 1523. 

CzenJc, a small town in the district of Sopron or Oedenburg, in 
Hungary.— 1799. 

Czenstochovia, Czenstochow, a small town of Little Poland, in 
the palatinate of Cracow, near to which is a monastery of the 
order of St. Paul the hermit : in this monastery a printing-press 
was at work in the year 1693- 

78 DA. 


Damascus, Damascus, an ancient city of Syria, now the capital 
of a Turkish pachaUc, and see of the patriarch of Antioch. The 
Jews possessed a printing estabUshraent at Damascus at the begin- 
ning of the XVIIth century : one of their publications, dated 
1605, exists in the Oppenheimer library. 

Dampierre, a village in France, near St. Jean d'Angely. 
Peignot mentions a work privately printed Au Chateau de Dam- 
pierre, in 1797, being the Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, in 
English and French, printed by a lady for her amusement. 

Damhusium, Dannhausen, a village in the kingdom of Wirtem- 
burg. Wolfius relates that the Jews possessed a printing esta- 
blishment here, which in the year 1592 they made so bad use of, 
by publishing infamous slanders on the Christian religion, that it 
was suppressed by order of the magistrates, and several copies of 
their publications were destroyed. At what period this press 
commenced its operations, he does not say. I have reason to 
think that two books in the Oppenheimer collection (Nos. 1528 
and 1594 of the Catalogue) both dated 1540, were executed at 

Dantiscum, or Gedanum, Dantzic, a celebrated city of Prussia. 
Typography appears to have been exercised at Dantzic in the 
year 1595, by Gerardus Pessus. (TCD.) The Bodleian hbrary, 
and that of the British and Foreign Bible Society possess copies 
of a Polish Bible printed here in 1632 : and the British Museum 
has a Polish Testam,ent of the year 1606. 

Danvers, a town of Essex county, in the state of Massachu- 
setts, North America. Ezekiel Russell, from Salem, opened a 
printing-house in this place, " in a house known by the name of 
" the Bell tavern," about the year 1776 ; but soon afterwards re- 
moved to Boston. 

Dar-el-kamar. The Revue Encyclopedique for the year 1821 
states that there is a printing establishment, specially destined to 
the publication of Christian works, at Dar-el-kamar on Mount 

Darlington, see Grange. 

Darmstadium, Darmstadt, a town of Germany, in the circle of 
the Upper Rhine. Printing was carried on here in the year 1611, 

DA.— DE. 79 

as appears by a work of Henricus Kornmomnus of that year, but 
no printer's name is mentioned in it. (TCD. Bodl.) 

Dauiravicium. (qu. Dobrzisch, a small town of Bohemia ?) It 
is related by Balbinus, in his " Bohemia docta,^^ that Henry of 
Waldstein, lord of Daubrawitz, erected printing-presses both here 
and at New Buntzlau, about the middle of the XVIth century. 
Some of his own compositions were executed at these presses. 
Henry is reported to have been the principal author of the Bo- 
hemian version of the Bible, (six handsome volumes in small 
folio,) printed in usum Jratrum Bohemicorum in arce Gralicz 
Marchionatus Moravia, in the years 1579, &c. 

DAVENTRIA, (not Daventry, a town of England, but) De- 
venter, a large, populous, and commercial town of Holland, the 
capital of Over Yssel : it was formerly a Hanseatic town, and a 
bishop's see. Printing was early known and practised here ; since 
■we have remaining, P. Berihorii moralizationes biblie, dated 
1475, [according to Santander, 1477,] together with many other 
books executed in the XVth century. Deventer, like Antwerp, 
is styled by one of its printers Mercuriale oppidum. 

Debrecinum, Debreczin, or Debretzen, a large and trading 
town of Upper Hungary, containing a reformed or Calvinistic 
college of about two thousand students, and of considerable re- 
pute.— 1756. 

Dedham, a post-town, the capital of Norfolk county, in the 
province of Massachusetts. The art of printing was carried on 
here in the year 1816. 

DELPHI, Delft, a large manufacturing town of South Hol- 
land. Here was printed in 1477, De Bybel dat uwe Testament, 
being the first edition of the Dutch Bible, in two vols, folio, by 
Jacob Soens. A volume, Dat passioncel, bearing an earlier date, 
(1472) should perhaps be rather assigned to 1482. A copy of 
the former of these two, a book of high rarity, is preserved in the 
university library of Leyden, Santander observes, that it does 
not contain the book of Psalms, nor the New Testament. 

DelsJcoi Monasterium, some religious house in Bussia. Bach- 
meister affirms that printing was carried on here in the year 1647. 

S. Deodati Fanum, St. Diey, a town of France, in Lorrain, 
near the chain of Vosges mountains. An astronomical work, of 
the year 1507, is all which is known to Panzer concerning the 
typography of this place. 

80 DE.— DI. 

Derpatum, Dmpattim, or Torpatum, Derpt, or Dorpt, a town 
in the government of Riga. Printing was in use here before 
1642: at present there are two printing-offices in the town. 

Dertona, or Tertona, Tortona, a city of Italy in the duchy of 
Milan ; capital of a district, and lately a bishop's see. — 1614. 

Dertosa, or Dertusa, Tortosa, an episcopal city of Spain, in 
Catalonia, with an university. Although Panzer could not dis- 
cover any books executed at Tortosa which might be brought 
within the period of his Hjesearches (1536), yet it is evident that 
typography established itself in that city so early as 1538, from 
a very curious book of that year now remaining in the library of 
Trinity college, Dublin, namely the Mariale of Bernardinus de 
Sorio, who was rector of the college of Tortosa. — The volume is 
a quarto, consisting of 277 leaves printed irregularly in black let- 
ter, with a few flowered initials of coarse workmanship. — The 
title-page is ornamented with woodcuts both on the recto and re- 
verse. — On the last leaf we read, Impressum est autem pre- 
sens opus Dertuse : per Arnaldum Guillermi de monte pesato. 
Septimo idus Januarii. Anno salutis millesimo quingentesimo 
trigesimo octavo. The paper is strong though yellow ; neither 
the type nor presswork are very good. The printer is protected 
for ten years, under a penalty of a thousand florins and forfeiture 
of the copies. 

Dessavia, Dessau, a chief town of Upper Saxony. The Jews 
had a press here so early as 1696. 

Detmoldia, Detmold, an ancient but small town of Westphalia, 
seated on the Wehre. — 1787. 

Detroit, a fortified town, situated on a river of the same name 
in the Michigan territory, North America. 

Thomas related, in 1810, that the art of printing had then re- 
cently been introduced into this town. 

Dia Augusta Vocontiorum, Die, a town of France in Lower 
Dauphiny, formerly a bishop's see. A work by Antonius Cre- 
gutus, professor of theology in this academy, most creditably 
printed, bears for imprint " Dies Augustas Vocontiorum, excude- 
" bat Ezechiel Benedictus typographus Academiae &c." 1660. 
(Marsh's library, Dublin.) 

Dillingia, or Dilinga, Dillingen, a town formerly of Suabia, 
with an university founded in 1549. Printing was exercised 
here, by Sebaldus Mayer, so early as the year 1555, when he 

DI.— DO. 81 

executed an Augsburg Missal in folio, a copy of which, upon 
vellum, is in the royal library of Munich. A Comfessio Jidei, of 
1557, is in the Bodleian library. 

Dionysium, St. Deais, a small town of the Isle of France near 
Paris, celebrated for its ancient and magnificent Benedictine a:b- 
bey.— 1535. 

Disentis, a small town or village of Switzerland, situate in 
the district of the Grey League, taking its name from a large 
abbey of Benedictine Monks, whose abbot in former times was a 
person of great power, and sovereign of this part of the country. 

About the middle of the Jas.t century books in the B.onianesche 
dialect were printed, for the use of Roman Catholics, at a pjress 
erected within this abbey: Coxe, in his " Travels in Switzer- 
" land," mentions that he procured several of these from the 
monks on the spot, in the year 1776. The " Bibhotheqa Mars- 
" deniana'" mentions one, an elementary work on the Bomanesche 
language, written by F. Da Sale, of the year 1729. 

DIVIO, Dijon, an ancient and considerable city of France, in 
Burgundy ; it is a bishop's see, and has an univei-sity founded in 
1721. Three books executed here in the XVth century have 
come down to us, all by the same printer, Petrus Metlinger ; the 
most interesting of which is a Latm collection of all the privi- 
leges which had been granted to the Cistertian order of monies, 
published by Johannes de Circyo, an abbot of that order, in 

Divodurum, see Metes. 

Divona Cadurci, see Cadurcvm. 

DobromUium, Dobromil, a town of Red Russia^ not far from 
Premislau. Felix Herburtus established John Taeliga as a printer 
here, in or before the year i611. 

DOLA, Dol, a town of France, in Bretagne, formerly a bi- 
efcop's see. Two books printed here in the XVth century are 
mentioned by Panzer ; the earliest of which, Ordonnances royanix 
de Louis 85c. &c. was executed by P. Metlinger, in 1490. 

St,, j^mmbgo, a large town, capital of the eastern or Spanish 
part of the island of St. Domingo, or Hispaniola, one of the 
largestiof the Antilles islands. It is the see of an archbishop : 
and is saiditobe the most ancient town in America, built by Eu- 
ropeans, ihaving been .founded by Bartholomew Golurabus in the 
year 1504. " A printing-press was early introduced into the 

82 DO— DU. 

" Spanish part of this island, probably about the beginning of 
" the XVIIth century;" but it was seldom used except for printing 
the lists, and returns, and other papers, for the different branches 
of the administration. (See St. Mery's Description of S. Do- 
mingo. Thomas, i. p. 198.) " There was a printing-house at 
" Cape Fran9ois, on the French part of the island, long before 
" that town was destroyed by the revolted negroes." Ibid. 

Dominica, one of the West India islands, discovered by Co- 
lumbus in the year 1493, upon a Sunday, from which circum- 
stance it derives its name. It belongs to Great Britain, contains 
a population of 27 or 28 thousand, but has no town of any note. 
A work by " L'Escalier, on the method of draining lands," 8^°. 
professes to have been printed here in 1802. [but see the article 

Dordracum, Dordrecht, or Dort, a town of South Holland, 
celebrated for a protestarit synod holden here in the year 1618. 
An edition of the Dutch Bible was printed at Dort in 1583, (Bodl.) 
and an earlier one, of the year 1571, is noticed by Le Long. A 
Dordrecht book of 1577 is in the library of Trinity college, 
Dublin, also two or three tracts of the year 1573. 

Dorpatum, see Derpatum. 

Dracenum, or Dragmnianum, Draguignan, a town of France, 
in Provence. — 1816. 

Dresda, Dresden, the capital of Saxony. The earliest known 
specimen of Dresden printing is A controversial tract against 
Martin Ziuther, dated 1524. Yet Leichius, in his work " de 
" origine typographise Lipsiensis," asserts that the art was intro- 
duced into this city in the year 1619. 

Duacum, Douay, a large city of French Flanders, possessing 
an university founded in 1552. Here, in 1568, cardinal Alan 
established an English Roman-catholic college of secular clergy, 
which on account of some troubles was removed in 1578 to 
Rheims ; but the members were invited by the magistrates of the 
city to return in 1581; and in fact they returned to their old 
quarters in 1593 : continuing to occupy this site for exactly two 
centuries, namely, until the French revolution dissolved this and 
all similar institutions, in the year 1793. In the year 1596, a 
college for Irish secular priests was founded here by Christopher 
Cusack, an Irish priest : and in 1617 a convent of English Fran- 
ciscan Recollects. 

DU. 83 

It is much to be wished that some bibliographer would oblige 
;Us with an accurate account of the books which have proceeded 
from the Douay and Rheims presses ; since, besides the Douay- 
Rhemish Bible, (the first English Roman-catholic version of the 
scriptures,) they have sent forth many volumes closely con- 
nected with English and Irish history, several of which are ex- 
tremely curious, and almost all of them are very rare. Both the 
.Bodleian library and that of Trinity college Dublin would fur- 
nish no mean supply of materials for such a purpose : but the 
undertaker, whoever he may be, must be alert and watchfully 
observant ; for many of these books are issued (as bibliographers 
say.) sine ulla nota. The earliest Douay book which I myself 
have seen bears the date of 1564 : being a work of JuUanus, 
an archbishop of Toledo ; it is in 12°, bearing the following im- 
print, Duaci, An. 1564. Typis Lodovici de Winde TypograpM 
jurati. The presswork is very tolerable : the editor's dedication is 
dated Duaai Catuacorum. A copy of this uncommon volume 
is in the library of Trinity college Dublin. Le Long cites a me- 
trical version of a Psalm which was printed here in 1565, and 
a Harmony of the Bible, in 1571. 

DubVmum or Eblana, Dublin, the metropolis of Ireland, called 
in Irish Atha Cliath, (i. e. " the ford of hurdles,") having an uni- 
versity founded by queen Elizabeth in 1591. It was late ere the 
art of printing was introduced into the kingdom of Ireland ; the 
earliest book at present known being an edition of the Common 
Prayer Book of king Edward VI. printed by Humphrey Powell, 
in Dublin, in 1551. Of this folio, which is a book of very great 
rarity, a fine and perfect copy may be seen in the library of Trin- 
ity college Dublin. It is a verbal reprint of Whitchurch's edition 
of 1549, and bears for colophon. Imprinted by Humfrey Powell, 
printer to the Kynges Maieste, in his Hyghnesse realme of Ire- 
land, dwellynge in the citee of Dublin in the great toure by the 
.Crane. Cum privilegio ad imprimendum solum, anno Domini 
M.D.L.I. Powell continued to exercise the printing business in 
Dublin for fifteen years or more, during which time he removed 
from the river-side to a more southern residence, in St. Nicholas 
street. His productions are certainly most creditable to the early 
Irish press. Printing vn Irish types was brought into the king- 
dom in 1571, by N. Walsh and John Kearney, the latter of whom 
wrote a Catechism, which was printed in the same year at Dublin, 


84 DU.— EB. 

and is the first knotvn book printed in the Irish character. A copy 
of this rare and curious little volume is contained in the Bodleian 

It is asserted in the " NouvCau Dictionnaire historique,'" prints 
ed at Lyons in 1804, that archbishop Ussher's publication of Got- 
teschalchi &c. liter cr, 4to. Dublin 1631, is the first Latin booh 
printed in Ireland. 

Duderstadium, Duderstadt, a town of Lower Saxony. John 
Westenhoff exercised the art of printing here, in a very credit- 
able style, in the year 1675. 

Duillier? A French and Italian Dictionary, in two octavo 
volumes, bears for imprint Imprimi au chateau de Duillier en 
Suisse, 1677. 

Duisburgum CUvorum, or Teutoburgum, Duisburg, or Does- 
berg, a town of Holland in Guelderland. Le Long mentions 
printing here in 1592. 

DuhikerJca, Dunkirk, a seaport of French Flanders. Printing 
was carried on here, by Jan Wins, in the year 1677. 

Durlacum, see Turrelacum. 

Durocorturum, see Remi. 

Dusseldr opium, or Dusseldorfium, Dusseldorf, a city of West- 
phalia, capital of the duchy of Berg. An edition of the Adages 
of Erasmus was printed here in the year 1561 : (TCD) and M . 
Van Praet mentions another Dusseldorf book, of 157S, executed 
by Alhertus Busius. 

Dyrerifurtum, is a small town of Silesia, about four miles from 
Breslau. Wolfius relates that R. Sabbathaeus ben Joseph erected 
a printing-office here in the year 1679, and gives some anecdotes 
respecting it. Several of the Dyrenfurt publications are found in 
the Oppenheimer library, now at Oxford. 


Ebersburgum, Ebernburg, a town of Germany, in the palati- 
nate of the Rhine. — 1520. 

Ebnat, either a large village of Franconia, in the district of 
Waldeck ; or, a village of Wirtemburg, on the river Ries. 

How early typography was introduced, I have not learnt : in 
1824 Franz's history of the Protestant churches of the Tocleem- 
burg, and Weber's history of the "village or commune of Krina, 
were printed in Ebnat. 

EB.— EC. 85 

Ebora, Evora, an archiepiscopal city of Portugal, capital of 
Alentejo, with an university founded in 1551. 

Panzer mentions printing at Evora so early as 1521, by Jaco- 
bus Cromberger, who carried on the business also at Lisbon at 
that time. I cannot however believe that the art was perma- 
nently established at Evora until about the middle of the XVIth 
century : so late as 1548 a Breviarium Eboracense was printed, 
not here, but at Lisbon, which under the other supposition would 
probably not have happened. In the years 1553-1576 Andreas 
de Burgos was settled at Evora as a printer, and was followed by 
Martin de Burgos and Manuel de Lyra, before the close of the 
century. An exceedingly rare work on China, written by Gcis- 
par de Cruz, is noticed as having been executed here in 1570. 

Eboracum, York, an ancient and fine city of England, capital 
of a county, and the see of an archbishop and metropolitan. The 
art of printing was introduced into this city so early as 1509, by 
one Hugh Goes, supposed to be a Dutchman, the same who in 
the following year, 1510, executed a broadside at Beverley. No 
more than six or seven early productions of the York press are 
now known : one of which, the folio York Missal of 1516, which 
is considered to be of the utmost rarity, may be seen among Mr. 
Gough's books in the Bodleian library. 

I scarcely remember any subsequent York printing, until that 
of Stephen Bulkeley during the troubles of king Charles's reign, 
viz. in f642, 1648, &c. to 1677. In 1693 it is observable that 
J. White calls himself " their maiesties printer for the city of 
" York, and the five northern counties." 

Ebrodunum, Yverdun, or Iverdon, an ancient town of Swit- 
zerland, in the Pays de Vaud. 

Typography appears to have been exercised at Iverdon so early 
as 1586 : and in the year 1617, Pyramus de Candole, a well- 
informed printer of Geneva, taking disgust at his residence, 
quitted the city, and transported himself and his printing-appa- 
ratus to Yverdun, where he speedily commenced business. — 
1619. Bodl. 

Ebroicum, Evreux, a large and beautiful city of France, the 
see of a bishop. — 1601. 

Echmiazin, Ecsmiasim, or Ecmeazim,, a very ancient and cele- 
brated monastery, near Erivan, the capital of Persian Armenia. 
In this monastery the chief patriarch of Armenia resides. M. de 


86 EC— ED. 

la Croix thus speaks of it : " The name Ecsmiazim signifies lite- 
" rally, the descent of the only -begotten Son ; it is the most an^ 
" cient of all the Armenian monasteries, and was established at 
" the time of the introduction of Christianity into Armenia : it is 
" the sanctuary and centre of the Armenian religion, and the rule 
" to all other churches for doctrine and discipline : so that to in- 
" troduce the catholic dogmas into this monastery would be suf- 
" ficient in order to reunite the Armenian church to that of 
" Rome; and it is with this view that the Jesuits have very pru- 
" dently established a mission at Erivan.'" The Armenians are 
said to have established a press here : but at what precise period 
I have not been able to learn. 

Echota, or Echoe, a small town of North America, in the coun- 
try of the Cherokee Indians, situate at the junction of the states 
of Georgia and Tennessee. 

Even in this wild region typography has succeeded in establish- 
ing itself! In the year 1827 a press was at work, and a weekly 
newspaper published, at Echota, under the name of " the Chero- 
" kee Phaeniw :'''' part of it is in English, and part in the Cherokee 
language according to an alphabet lately invented by a native, 
whose name is said to be Guess. In a recent number of this pub- 
lication appears the following long and very significant word : 
Wi-ni-dau-di-ge-gi-na-li-skau-liing-da-nau-ne-li-di-se-sti : the sim- 
ple English of which is, " They will, at the time, have almost 
" ceased to shew favour from afar, (or, while absent,) to me and 
" to theeS." A literary work, coming from such a quarter, is 
indeed a striking curiosity. The Phoenix is about 19 inches long 
by 12 wide, printed in five columns, of which the Cherokee part 
occupies one and a half: its execution is thought very good. 

Edinburgum, Edinbruchium, or Aneda, Edinburgh, the me- 
tropolis of Scotland, called in Gaelic books Dun Eudain. Its 
celebrated university was founded in 1582 by king James VI. 
Concerning the introduction of typography into this city, Mr. 
Chalmers says, " A printing-press was first established at Edin- 
" burgh during the year 1507, under the protection of James IV.; 
" the first printers were Walter Chepman, a merchant, and Ati- 
" drow My liar, a mere workman." {Li^ ofRuddimam, p, 80.) 
Herbert (vol. iii. p. 1815) gives a detailed account of a curious 

E Literary Gazette, Sept. 1829. 

EG.— EI. 87 

volume of poetry executed by these two printers in 1508 : yet 
he also takes occasion to observe, from a work of George Hay, 
printed so late as 1563, that at that period no Greek types were 
yet known at Edinburgh, the Greek sentences in Hay's book 
being supplied by hand in every copy. Dr. M'Crie, in his Life 
of Knox, mentions that the same thing occurred in 1579, when 
" Smeton's Answer to A. Hamilton" was printed, blanks being 
left for all the quotations both in Hebrew and Greek. Yet Dr. 
Lee, in his " Memorial," asserts that the first Greek characters 
used in Scotland were the letters of the word KuTsm;, occurring 
in a note on Revelation ch. xii. 18, in the Bible printed by A. 
Arbuthnot and Bassendine, in 1576-9. 

Nor should I omit to mention, that at Edinburgh one of the 
earliest attempts at stereotype printing was made, by Wm. Ged, 
whose stereotyped Sallust of 1736, 12°. is well known to the cu- 
rious collector. 

Egina. The " Courier de TOrient" has been published here 
for some time past. 1829. 

Egmore, in the presidency of Madras. The only specimen of 
the typography of this place, which I have met with, is a thin folio 
volume of " Regulations connected with the duties of the quar- 
" ter-master general's department, under the presidency of Fort 
" St. George. Printed at the government press, Egmore, Ma- 
" dras," 1813. 

Eichstadium, Eichstadt, or Aichstadt, a town formerly of Fran- 
conia. — 1787. 

Eimeo, or Movea, one of the Society islands in the South Pa- 
cific Ocean, twelve miles west of Otaheite. Some members of the 
London Missionary Society established themselves here in the 
year 1811. 

According to the catalogue of the library of the British and 
Foreign Bible Society, Selections ^om Scripture, and a Cate- 
chism in the Otaheitan language, were printed at Eimeo in 1817, 
and the Gospel of St. Luke in the same language in 1818. 

Einsiedel, or Einsidlen, a town of Switzerland, in the canton 
of Schweitz, which contained a large abbey of Benedictines, cele- 
brated for a miraculous image of the Virgin Mary, and for enor- 
mous wealth, which the possession of this image chiefly helped to 
amass. The monks erected a printing-press, which they kept 
under their immediate controul, and are said to have furnished 

G 4 

88 EI— EM. 

with full employment. At what period their typographical career 
commenced I have not been able to ascertain. Le Long men- 
tions a Latin Psalter by cardinal Thomasius, printed here, in 
cwnobio Heremitarum in Helvetia, in the year 1727 : yet the art 
had been carried on at Einsiedel for some years previous to this 
date : the Cashel library coTitains a work written by Augustin 
Redin, one of the abbots, in defence of Baronius' Annals against 
the censure of J. H. Ottius, which was printed in this monastery 
in the year 1680, in folio ; and that of archbishop Marsh at Dub- 
lin exhibits another published in the following year, namely, a 
History of the life of St. Meinrardus, the first inhabitant of the 
monastery, which is adorned with a good portrait and numerous 
copper-plates of the arms of the several abbots of Einsidlen- 
The same collection contains other woi'ks executed at Eiilsidlen 
in the year 1684, to which is attached the name of Josephus Rey- 
mann as printer. For a minute account of this abbey, and its 
several patrons, abbots, kc. consult a book entitled Annales He- 
remi DeiparcE Matris monasterii in Helvetia, written by Chris- 
topher Hartmann, a monk and librarian of the society ; which is 
handsomely printed, and adorned with many good engravings, 
but being executed, not in the monastery, but in the archduke 
of Austria's printing-office at Friburg, seems to prove that the 
monks had not then, viz. in the year 1612, obtained possession of 
a press. 


Elieifild, a town in the province of Berg, district of Dussel- 
dorf, in the Wupper, and subject to Prussia. According to the 
catalogue of the library of the British and Foreign Bible Society, 
a German Psalter was printed here in 1515. 

Elbinga, Elbingen, a town of West Prussia, in the palatinate 
of Marienburg. — ^^1641. Bodl. 



Embrica, Emhricwm, or Emmericum, Emmeric, a town of 
Germany, in the duchy of Cleve : in which typography was exer- 
cised at least so early as 1662; (TCD) and, most respectably, 
by Joannes Amoldi, in the years 1670 — 1683. Le Long cites a 
Dutch Testament printed here in 1689. 

Embdanum, Emdon, probably Embden, (Embda) a large and 
commercial seaport of East Friesland. In the Bodleian library 

EM.— EN. 89 

is a copy of a curious work written by George Joye, entitled. 
The suhversio of Moris Jhlse Jbundacion, consisting of sixty-fdur 
leaves, (not forty-one, as stated by Herbert,) in 16°. at the end 
of which is this imprint: M. D. xwxiiij. at Emdon, hy Jacob 
Aurik. The following extract from this volume, relating to sir 
Thomas More, may perhaps be interesting to some readers: 
" Me thinkethe sithe ye be so farre oversene in holy Scripture, 
" nor cannot conferre the placis therof to gither, or els under- 
" stand them not, ye had done wysely to have acknowleged your 
" ignorace, and have left this labour in wryting to other men. 
" As ye tolde one man (whose name I could tell you) that ye left 
" the office of the chwuncelership for that it was so laborouse 
" and layserlesse : that ye might more quyetly wryte agenst he- 
" retyTses : so had ye done wysely to have resygned your wryt- 
" inge to the bishops, as better lerned in the Scriptures ; and 
" yourself to have taken and caste a syrples upon your backe ad 
" stept into the quere lyke a clerke, and songen us a verse of 
" course, or red us a lesson at the lecterne lyke a man : or els, 
" if ye can handel a payer of orgayns, to have gone and playd us 
" Hostis Herodes impie, &c. whyle M. Herrye your fole had 
" blown a solis ortus cardine. And thus myght ye wel have mayn- 
" tayned goddis holy service in Chelsai churche, and let never a 
" sowter medle above the bote, nor presume farther then the 
" shapinge of a shoo." At Embden was printed in 1562 a very 
rare edition of the Dutch Bible, in folio, known by the title of 
Vedition de deux aas, on account of the following marginal gloss 
upon Nehemiah, ch. iii. 5. "De armen motten het cruyce drag- 
" hen, de riicke en geven nichts. Deux aes en heeft met. Six 
" cinque en geeft met. Quater dry, die helpen vry." A fine 
copy of this curious volume is in the king's library. For a far- 
ther account of it consult Clement, Dictionnaire des livres rares. 

Emerita, Merida, an ancient and interesting town of Spain, in 
Estremadura, seated on the Guadiana. Antonio mentions print- 
ing here so early as 1545. 

Enchusa, Enchuysen, a town of North Holland, on the Zuider 
Zee. The Gospels of St. Matthew and St. Mark, in Malay and 
Dutch, were printed here in the year 1629. The earliest En- 
chuysen book which I have seen is of the year 1609- TCD. 

Engadi Vallis, Engadin, or Innthal, a district of Switzerland, 
in the country of the Grisons ; consisting of a valley extending 

90 en:— ER. 

from the source of the river Inn to the frontiers of the Tyrol.' 
Prosper Marchand cites a dateless Latin Bible, supposed of the 
XVth century, executed here, of which Panzer takes no notice. 
It has also been said that a Latin Bible, dated 1506-1508, bears 
for imprint. Ex valle Engadi vulgo Engetal: but on examina- 
tion it appears that the facts are these : an edition of the Latin 
Bible, with the commentaries of Nicolaus de Lyri, was printed by 
Frobenius at Basle in the year 1502, in six volumes folio; to 
which edition the undertakers of it subsequently added a large 
and full Index or Repertorium in one volume : at the close of this 
last appears an address by Conrad Leontorius to the reader, con- 
gratulating him on the possession of so valuable an Index, and 
passing due encomiums on those who had caused it to be com- 
piled. This address is dated Ex valle Engadi vulgo Engetal, 
via. Kalend. Novembris, anno Christiana M. D. viii., but says 
nothing about the books being printed there, but, on the contrary, 
affirms almost in direct terms that it proceeded from the same 
press from which the Bible itself issued. This set of books may 
be seen in the library of Trinity college, Dublin. Coxe, in his 
" Travels in Switzerland," mentions that books in the Roman- 
esche dialect were then (1776) printed in the Lower Engadine, 
but he does not name the precise spot. See also the article 

Engolismum, see Angolismwm. 

Ephrata, or Dunkard town, a settlement of a German sect 
called Tunckers, situated in a romantic and sequestered vale in 
Lancaster county, in the province of Pennsylvania. A press was 
established here about the year 1760, by Peter Miller, a venerable 
leader and teacher among the Tunckers. Thomas reports of him, 
that " he was a good classical scholar ; a man of most amiable 
" manners ; and highly respected." 

Epila, Epila, a town of Spain, in Aragon, seated on the river 
Xiloca. Antonio mentions works printed here in 1596. 

Epinal, a considerable town of France, seated on the river 
Moselle.— 1756. 

Eremus S. Marias de Ruah, appears to have been one of the 
religious abodes of the monks or hermits of the order of Camal- 
doli, founded by Romualdus in the tenth century. The only 
book which I ever saw, bearing this imprint, is a small tract, en- 
titled, Sermones B. Ephraem Edessence ecclesicB diaconi,fratre 

ER.— ES. 91 

Ambrosio Eremitd, Camdldulensi interprete. In sacra eremo S. 
Maries de Ruah in agro Patavino. 12°. 1585. A copy of this 
rare edition; formerly belonging to the monastery in which the 
press was erected, is now in the Bodleian library. There is a 
second copy in the Vatican. 

Helyot, in the catalogue of works prefixed to his valuable His- 
toire des ordres rnonastiques, notices a second book, executed pro- 
bably at the same place two years later : viz. RomualdAna, seu 
Eremitica monlis Corona Camaldulensis ordinis historia, au- 
ihore Luca Eremifa Hispano : it bears for Imprint, in Eremo 
Huensi in agro Patavino, 1587. 12°. There appears to be a 
difference of spelling in the name of the spot {Ruah, and Hu- 
ensi), which perhaps may be nothing more than a typographical 
error ; but which is right, I know not. 

populous city of Germany, capital of Upper Thuringia; having an 
university founded or restored in 1391. A book entitled, Lutrei 
qucestiones in libros Aristotelis de animd, printed by Paulus Wi- 
der de Hornbach in 1482, is the earliest known specimen from 
this city. 


Erlanga, Erlangen, a town formerly of Franconia, with an 
university . — 1 744. 

ESSIVM, iESSIVM, or ^XIVM, Jesi, an ancient town of 
Italy, in the marquisate of Ancona, in the states of the church. 
That printing was early practised here is known by some few 
books yet remaining ; among which is a very rare volume, being 
one of the first editions of the plays of Dante, printed by Frede- 
ricus Veronensis in 1472 ; in which year two other editions of 
this poet were printed; one at Foligno, the other at Mantua. 
The duration of this establishment appears to have been very 
limited ; we have no book before 1472, nor after 1475 : nor is 
any thing heard of a Jesi press in the following century. 

ESSLINGA, Esslingen, a large town formerly of Suabia, in 
the duchy of Wirtemburg. . Typography was carried on here so 
early as 1473, in which year a work by John Gerson, entitled, 
Collectorium super Magnificat, was executed by Conrad Fyner. 
This is remarkable for being the first book in which printed mu- 
sical notes are found. Here also was executed, in 1475, Petri 
Nigri tractatus contra perfidos Judceos, which for a long time was 

92 ES.— ET. 

supposed to be the first book containing Hebrew characters ; but 
the researches of De Rossi have brought to light two books of 
this same year printed entirely in Hebrew, and even one of an 
anterior date, a Psalter of 1472. In the year 1479 or 1480, 
Fyner quitted Esslingen for Aurach in the duchy of Wirtem- 
burg; after which period we hear no more of the press of the 
former town, no other printer appearing during the remainder of 
that century. 

Este, an ancient walled town of the Venetian territory, seated 
at the conflux of the Bacchiglione and Gua rivers. A History of 
the territory of Este by Angelieri, printed here in the year 1743, 
occurs in the Pinelli catalogue. 

Estella, see Stella. 

Etienne, {S.) a town of France, containing about 30,000 inha- 
bitants. Two newspapers were published here in the year 18S6. 

Etona, Eton, a town of Buckinghamshire, well-known for its 
splendid college and school erected by king Henry VI. In Bag- 
ford's manuscript papers, at present contained in the Harleian 
library, occurs the following account of the introduction of the 
art of printing into Eton : " Sir Henry Saville, meditating an 
" edition of St. Chrysostom, prepared a fount of curious Greek 
" letters, which in those days were vulgarly called The silver let- 
" ter, not being cast of silver, but for the beauty of the letter so 
" called. He then made provision of presses and other materials 
" for the undertaking, and resolved to print in Eton college, and 
" there set up his presses, and about the year 1607 he printed 
" some small pieces in Greek before he went in hand with the 
" great work of St. Chrysostom ; and John Norton was the 
" printer. These Greek letters came afterwards into the hands 
" of one Turner, a printer at Oxford." See Wharton's Life of 
Laud, vol. ii. p. 174. The earliest Eton specimens hitherto ob- 
served by me are some pieces of Gregory Nazianzen in Greek 
and Lectin, which were edited by R. Montague, and printed under 
sir Henry Saville's own care and inspection in 1610. 

Etruria, is the name of a small village of England in Stafford- 
shire, in which the late Mr. Wedgewood established his famed 
pottery for the manufacture of articles in imitation of the ancient 
Etruscan vases. 

It appears that a printing-press was for some time worked 
here, from the imprint of the following volume published by Mr. 

ET.— FA. 93 

Wedgewood : A Catalogue of Cameos, S^c. ^c. made amd sold by 
Josiah Wedgewood. 8vo. Etruria, 1 787. 

EtteUnga, Etlingen, or Oettlingen, a fortified town of Baden, 
seated on the river Albe. Three works printed here in the years 
1531 and 1532 are mentioned by Panzer. 

Evie, a village near the town of Vilna in Lithuania. Hen- 
derson, in his " Biblical researches," speaks of editions of the 
Slavonic New Testament executed here, in the years 1611, 1635, 
and 1641 ; observing that they all are of the utmost rarity. 

EVSTADIVM, or EISTETA, Eichstadt, or Aichstadt, a 
town formerly of Franconia, capital of the principality of Eichstadt. 

The earliest dated booik from hence is of the year 1478-9, being 
an edition of the Summa Hostiensis of Henricus de Segusio; 
but there is good reason for supposing that tbe art was practised 
some years previously. Among the printers occur Michael and 
"George Reyser, the latter of whom had printed at Wiirtzburg in 
1479, and probably with the same large missal types. Some 
ecclesiastical books executed by these printers in the years 1483, 
1484, 1488, are decorated with engravings of the arms of the 
bishop and chapter, as will be more particularly described under 
the article HerbipoUs. 

Exeter, a post-town and seaport of Rockingham county in the 
state of New Hampshire, North America. A press was established 
here by Robert FoWle, formerly a printer at Portsmouth, in the 
year 1774: but its operations came to a final close, within the 
short Space of three years from its erection. 

Eitonia, see Isca Danmoniorum. 


Fanum, or Phamwrn, sometimes called Fanum Ccesaris, and 
Fanum Forttma, Fano, an ancient town of Italy, in the duchy 
of Urbino. The art of printing found its way hither so early as 
1502, and the first book printed in the Arabic character was exe- 
cuted in this town, viz, Septem JiorcB canonicce, in the year 1514. 
The second volume in which Arabic types were used was a Ptily- 
glott Psalter, printed at Genoa two years later. An Arabic Vo- 
cabulary, printed at Granada in 1505, has the Gothic letters 
with Atabic points placed over them, an account of which see 
under the article Granata. Many of the early Fano books were 

94 FA.— FE. 

In the Plnelli library, but almost all of them have a considerable 
degree of rarity. 

Fanum Luciferi, S. Lucar de Barrameda, a seaport town of 
Spain, in Seville, situated at the mouth of the Guadalquivir. 
Antonio mentions printing here in 1569 : and in 1584 a work, 
by Hieronymo de Caranga, " on the philosophy of arms," was 
executed at Sanlucar. 

Farnese, a small town of Italy, in the pope's dominions, situ- 
ate within six miles of Castro. Printing appears to have been 
carried on here so far back as the year 1600. — (Pinelli.) 

Fastemburgum, qu ? Furstenberg, a small town of Lusatia ; 
or Furstenberg, a town of Mecklenburg Strelitz ; or Fursten- 
berg, a small town of Germany in the principality of Waldeck? 
Printing was exercised here by Petrus Barretius and Joh. Aste- 
mius, in the year 1634. — (Marsh's Library, Dublin.) 

Faventia, Faenza, an episcopal city of Italy, in Romagna. — 


Ferney, a village of France, within five miles of Geneva ; me- 
morable as the residence for some years of Voltaire, who greatly 
contributed to its improvement. 

I have seen a well-executed volume of French poetry, of the 
year 1772, bearing the imprint of Ferney ; but cannot ascertain 
whether it was really printed at this place or not. 

FERRARIA, Ferrara, a large city of Italy, capital of the 
duchy of Ferrara, and an archbishop's see : it has an university, 
founded by the emperor Frederic in 1316. The art of printing 
was exercised here so early as 1471 ; of which year an edition of 
Martial, with some other books executed by Andreas GaJlus, the 
first printer of Ferrara, are remaining. In 1475 the celebrated 
and rare edition of the Teseide ofBoccacio, being the first printed 
poem in the Italian language, was executed here ; of which I may 
observe, that the library of Trinity College Dublin possesses a 
very fine copy. It appears from the learned disquisition of De 
Rossi, that a Jewish printing-establishment was early erected in 
this city, two books from which, of the years 1476 and 1477, are 
particularly described by him. After the publication of these 
two, the Hebrew press at Ferrara seems to have been removed 
or dormant until the middle of the ensuing century. 

I should not omit to mention, that in this tract of De Rossi^ 

FE.— FL. 95 

entitled, De typographia Ebrceo-Ferrariensi, is to be found the 
most accurate and detailed account of the celebrated edition. of 
the Spanish Bible, printed at Ferrara in 1553. Two copies of 
this rare book, one designed for the use of the Jews, the other 
for that of the Christians, may be seen in the Bodleian library. 

Ferrol, a modern but important seaport town of Spain, seated 
at the head of the bay of Corunna in Gallicia. Printing was ex- 
ercised in Ferrol in the year 1804. 

Fiesolo, {FcEsida,) a very ancient town of Tuscany, once of 
great renown, but at present said to be little better than a heap 
of ruins, although it is a bishop's see. 

The Revue Encyclopidique, for 1821, announces a work printed 
a Tahbaye de Fiesolo, 1821 ; and in 1824 mention is made of a 
printing-establishment named Poligrafia Fiesolaha. 

Firmium, OTFirmumPiceni,FirTno,ov Fermo, an archiepiscopal 
town of Italy, in the marquisate of Ancona. Printing was exer- 
cised here in 1586 : and by Giovanni Francesco de Montibus in 
the year 1629- 

Fishkill, a post-town of Duchess county in the province of 
New-York, North America. Samuel Loudon, a printer of New- 
York, removed with his press to this place a short time before the 
British army took possession of the city in 1776 ; and here he 
continued to publish The New-York Packet until the establish- 
ment of peace. 

FIVIZANVM, Fivizzano, a small town of Italy, in Tuscany, 
near the frontier of the duchy of Genoa. It is in evidence that 
the art of printing was early introduced into this place : yet the 
only remains of it which we now possess are a Vi/rgil oi the year 
14-72, which is described by Fossi in the Bibliotheca MagVta- 
hechiana, and a Juvenal, about 1473. The Virgil may be found 
in the rich collection of earl Spencer. Nor does Fivizzano again 
occur as an abode of typography, either in this or the following 

Flaviobriga, Bilboa, a seaport town of Spain, in the province 
of Biscay. The Constitutions of Pius IV. and other popes were 
executed here, by Mathias Paludanus, in 1583 : (Bodl.) also a 
Spanish version of the Orlando furioso, in the same year. The 
latter is a very rare book. 

Flensburgum, or Fletiopolis, Flensbourg, a seaport of Den- 
mark in the duchy of Sleswick ; although small, it is neat and 

96 FL. 

thriving, and has a considerable commerce. Printing was carrijed 
on in this town in the year 1675. 

Flessmga, qu ? — An Exposition of the Revelation, in French, 
by J. Taffin, was printed here in 1609. 

Flexia, Fleche, a town of France, in Anjou. The college of 
Jesuits had a press here so early as 1612 : and in the year 1638 
one {Jeorge Griveau designates himself " printer to the king, and 
" to the Henrician college of Jesuits." 

FLORENTIA, Florence, (Firenze, in Italian,) a beautiful 
and celebrated city of Italy, the capital of Tuscany, and an 
archbishop''s see. Literature and the fine arts have ever been 
cherished in this city ; which, besides its well-known academies, 
possesses an university, founded about the year 1546. 

Printing found its way hither at a very early period, and per- 
haps no town has greater reason to boast of the beauty of its 
specimens of early typography, than Florence. The first dated 
book hitherto discovered is M. Servii commentarii in Virgilium, 
executed by Bernard and Dominic Cennini, in 1471 and 1472. 
■ In 1476 two Dominican monks established a press in the monas- 
tery of St. James of Ripoli, which continued until 1483. Here 
also appeared the first engraving from a copper-plate, by Botti- 
celli, occurring in a book entitled, Monte santo di Dio, printed in 
1477; also four years afterwards (in 1481) the well-known edi- 
tion oi Dante with the commentaries of Landino, which is adorned 
with copper-plates ; for a good account of which, see the Biblio- 
theca Speneeriana, vol. iv. p. 108; or Van Pcaet's Catalogue of 
the vellum books in the Paris royal library. One of the earliest 
books from the Florence press, though without a date, is sup- 
posed to be an edition of / trionfi di Petra/rca, in folio. 

Florence will ever be memorable in the annals of literature for 
having ^ven to the world the first printed edition of the works of 
Homer: a most elegantly executed book, in two volumes folio, 
printed under the care of Demetrius Chalcondylas in 1488. See 
a sumptuous copy of this Homer, printed upon vellum, described 
by M. Van Praet, with the most touching expressions of regret 
that the Paris library was compelled in 1815 to restore it to that 
of St. Mark at Venice, from which it had been taken, in vol. iv. 
of his Catalogue of the vellum books in the royal library of Paris. 
A similar copy is said to be in the library of the king of Naples ; 
and a third, not quite perfect, in that of Magliabecchi at Florence, 

FL.— FO. 97 

Towards the close of the XV th century, Laurentlus Francisci 
de Alopa printed here five volumes, well known to collectors, in 
capital letters: namely, Anthologia, dated 1494; CalUmachus ; 
JEuripidis tragaedies quatiwr ; Apollonius Rhodius, dated 1496 ; 
Poetce Gnomici; and Musceus. To this printer also we are in all 
probability indebted for the editio princeps of Lucian, dated 
1496, to which hitherto bibliographers have been unable to as- 
sign a place. 

Let it not be forgotten that at Florence the celebrated press of 
the Juntae was established, the first-fruits of which was an edition 
of Zenobii Proverbia, printed in 1497, which was followed, by a 
Justin and Orpheus, both dated 1500. 

N. B. The curious books mentioned in this article may be seen 
in the Bodleian library. 

Fluelen, a village of Switzerland, in the canton of Schwitz, 
seated on the lake of Lucern : it contains a chapel consecrated to 
the memory of William Tell. 

The Revue encyclopidique announces a work, entitled The de- 
Jence of William Tell, executed here in the year 1824 ; and ob- 
serves that its appearance must be regarded as a sort of phae- 
nomenon in a canton where the number of readers is of necessity 
extremely limited. 

Forest {la), Foret sur Sevre, a small town of the north-west of 
France, on the river Sevre. A volume of the Memoirs of Philip 
de Mornoy Sieur du Plessis, who was also baron of Foret, was 
printed here, with the vca^rmt ala Forest,'va the year 1625. — 

Fontanetum Comitis, Fontenai le Comte, a town of France, in 
La Vendde. Very tolerable printing was carried on here in the 
year 1645, by Pierre Petit-Jan, " Imprimeur du roy et du corps 
" de ville," (Marsh's library ;) who put forth an edition of the 
Quatrains of the Sieur de Pybrach, (subsequently translated into 
English verse by Sylvester.) 

The earliest Fontenay book which I have seen is one of P. La- 
vallade, a minister of the reformed church, executed by the same 
printer in 1610. — (Marsh.) 

Fart-Ma/rlboraugh, is a fortress immediately adjoining Ben- 
coolen, a seaport town in the south-western coast of the island of 
Sumatra. The English formed, a settlement here in the year 
1685 : but after some time were obliged to quit it from the un- 


98 FO. 

wholesomeness of the situation : returning however in 1720 they 
erected Fort-Marlborough in an adjacent and more healthy spot, 
which has been occupied from that time. 

How early typography made its appearance in this small colony 
I have not exactly learnt : the only specimen which I have yet 
met with being " An attempt to elucidate the principles of Malayan 
Orthography, by W. Robinson. Printed at the Mission press, 
Fort-Marlborough, 1823." 8vo. pp. 237. The volume is dedi- 
cated to Sir Stamford Raffles, and is very respectably executed. 
I understand that it is considered the first-fruits of the presses of 
the isle of Sumatra; but for this, see the article Bencoolen. 

Fort- William, adjoining the city of Calcutta in Bengal. At 
this place a college, for the education of young men, and the ge- 
neral advancement of literature, was erected, under an order from 
the governor-general of British India, in August 1800. The 
establishment comprised several printing-presses, from which have 
proceeded many works, principally translations from the eastern 
languages, executed by members of the college. 

Forum Cornelii, Imola, an episcopal town of Italy, in Romagna. 


FORVM LIVII, Forli, an ancient town of Italy, in Ro- 
magna. Printing appears to have made its way to this town a 
short time before the close of the XVth century. Three ancient 
specimens have come down to us from hence, the earliest of which 
is Nic. Ferrettus de elegantia Ungua Latines, executed in 1495. 

Forum Sempronii, Fossombrone, an episcopal city of Italy, 
in the papal dominions. A single work, printed here in the 
year 1513, is noticed by Panzer : the printer of which was Octa- 
vian Petrutius. This work, which, not less for its consummate 
beauty of execution, than for its contents and rare occurrence, 
richly deserves a detailed notice, is entitled De recta PaschcB cele- 
hratione, et de die passionis Domini nostri Jesu Christi ; written 
by Paulus de Middelhurgo, bishop of Fossombrone. It consists 
of two parts ; the first (upon the celebration of Easter) containing 
fourteen books ; and the second (on the day of our Saviour's pas- 
sion) nineteen : for which distribution the author gives the follow- 
ing reasons : " I had made a vow," says he, " that I would write 
" three and thirty books relating to the vineyard and field of the 
" Lord, according to the 33 years during which God is thought to 
" have lived among men : and because he passed 14 years under 

FO.— FIl. 99 

" the emperor Augustus^ I have allotted 14 books to the subject 
" of Easter : and the remaining 19 to the passion of our Saviour, 
" because he is thought to have lived so many years under the 
" reign of Tiberius." The bishop is very far from being dogma^ 
tical or conceited, but speaks in terms of great modesty both of 
himself and his performance. He dedicates it to Pope Leo X. 
who gives him the exclusive privilege of printing it during his 
lifetime. ' 

The volume is in folio, printed on a good and strong paper, 
virith roman types, which, as well as the wood-cuts and arabesque 
borders which decorate several pages, greatly resemble those used 
in the earlier editions of Erasmus' New Testament. Some red 
printing occurs two or three times in calendars, executed with care 
and good effect. It has merely what is called a, false title; on the 
reverse of which is the privilege of the pope, with a wood-cut of 
the papal arms : then follows the author's letter to the pope, with 
several others occupying altogether 23 pages. The first page of 
the body of the work, as well as that of the letters, is surrounded 
by an engraved border. The leaves are not numbered, but the 
first part ends on signature t. 10. (the signatures, with this excep- 
tion, running in eights.) The first page of the second part is also 
surrounded by a border, as well as that which contains the dedi- 
cation to the emperor Maximilian. This part ends on signature 
GG iiii. after which follows one leaf having on the recto three 
copies of verses addressed to the readers ; and on the reverse is 
the register, and the following colophon : " Impressum Foro Sem- 
" pronii per spectabilem virum Octavianum Petrutium civem 
" Forosemproniensem impressoriae artis peritissimum anno Do- 
" mini M. D. XIII. die octava Julii. Cum privilegio, &c. Sjc." 
Below is an elegant monogram of the printer. 

The library of Trinity college Dublin possesses a copy of this 
singularly beautiful volume in excellent condition, which has also 
the additional interest of having once belonged to the celebrated 
Dr. John Dee, whose autograph and numerous MS. annotations 
it bears throughout. 

Franciscopolis, Havre de Grace, a seaport of France, in Nor- 
mandy. — 1753. 

Francqfurtwm ad M(Emwm, Francqfortium, Framcphordia, 
called also Helenopolis, Frankfort on the Maine, an ancient and 
celebrated city of Germany, in Wetteravia. A very high period 


100 FR. 

of antiquity has been claimed for the introduction of typography 
into Frankfort : but, I believe, no sufficient evidence remains to 
prove its establishment here much before the year 1507. 

Francofurtum ad Oderam, or Francophordia cis Oderam, or 
Francofurtum Marchionum, called also Trqjectum ad Viad/rwm, 
Frankfort on the Oder, an imperial town of Brandenburg, con- 
taining a celebrated university founded in 1606. Printing was 
introduced into this place about the year 1504. 

Franequera, or Franecara, Franeker, a town of Holland, in 
which was an university, founded in 1586. According to Le 
Long, a Greek and Latin version of the book of Ruth was printed 
at Franeker in 1586. The book of Tobit edited by J. Drusius, 
printed here in 1591, was in the Pinelli library. In 1637 the 
university had a printer of its own. The earliest Franeker book, 
which I have yet seen, is an edition of the Theses theologicae of 
PhUippus Marnimus, printed by ^gidius Radaeus who denomi- 
nates himself ordinum Frisice typographus. 

Frankenthal, a manufacturing town, lately belonging to the 
Palatinate, seated on a navigable canal communicating with the 
Rhine. A book entitled, Le droit des rois contre le cardinal 
Bellarmm et autres Jesuites, now in the Bodleian, bears the im- 
print of this place, with the date 1611 : but it may be doubted 
whether the imprint be real or fictitious. 

Frankfort, the capital of the state of Kentucky, in North Ame- 
rica, seated on the junction of the river Kentucky with the Ohio. 
Thomas mentions that printing was introduced into this town at 
a period posterior to the year 1786, but gives no particulars of its 
operations. In 1818 three newspapers were in regular publication 
at Frankfort. 

Fraunitz, as written by Wolfius, (qu. Praussnitz, a town of 
Silesia.?) The Jews possessed a printing establishment here, a 
book from which is said to be in the Oppenheimer collection. 
Wolfius does not specify its date. See under the article Prostitia. 

Fraustadium, Fraustadt, or Wschowa, a city of Poland, in the 
palatinate of Posnan. Christopher Wilde erected a press here in 
the latter part of the XVIIth century. 

Fredericksburg, a post-town of Spotsylvania county, in the 
state of Virginia, North America. A press was set up here in 
the year 1787, by Th. Green, the son of a printer at New Lon- 
don in Connecticut. 

ER. 101 

Fredericstadt, a well-built town of Denmark, in the duchy of 
Sleswic, founded in 1621 by a body of Arminians who emigrated 
from Holland in consequence of the decisions of the synod of Dort. 
Hans Goethal exercised the art of printing at this town in the 
year 1624.— (TCD.) 

Freistadium, Freystadt, the name of several towns in Ger- 
many, Hungary, &c. I have not been able to distinguish the 
books of each, but the earliest date which I have seen with this 
imprint is 1622.— (Bodl.) 

Fresnes, the name of several small towns in France. At Cha- 
teau de Fresnes, probably a country seat near one of them, 
Peignot mentions that a Life of M. d'Jguesseau, written by his 
son the chancellor d'Aguesseau, was composed and printed by M. 
and M^^. Saron, by means of a private press which they had ob- 
tained from London in 1778. The volume bears the date 1720, 
but was really struck off in 1778. Sixty copies of it were printed ; 
and no other production of this press is known. 

FRIBVRGVM BRISGOVIJE, a town (formerly of Suabia, 
capital of the Brisgau) now belonging to the territory of Baden ; 
having an university, founded by archduke Albert in 1450. 
Printing was known and practised here before the close of the 
XV th century ; since we have remaining an edition of Bonaven- 
tura in IV. libros sententiarum, printed in 1493, besides several 
other books. 

Frideburgum, Friedberg, is the name of several towns com- 
prised within the limits of the ancient Germanic empire. I have 
noticed the imprint in a book of the year 1648. 

FRISIA. Panzer, (in p. 105, of his IVth volume,) takes notice 
of a curious book printed in 1488, under the title, Hidde de Cam- 
minga commentarius in Jus antiquum Frisonum ; which he, after 
Denis, concludes to have been printed in some monastery in Fries- 
land. Denis reports ft-om Visscher that only two copies of it are 
known. Now it happens that two copies of this very book are 
preserved in the Bodleian library : one amon^ the books formerly 
belon^ng to T. Mareschal, the other in the curious collection of 
Franciscus Junius, to whom both copies originally belonged. The 
work, which is in small quarto, has no regular title, but begins, 
Ther era godes, s^nre Haver moder Maria, &c. two leaves, con- 
taining a short introduction, with a table of contents : next follows 
the work itself, on signature a i. ; Had is riucht list ende konst 


,102 FR.— FV. 

Riuchtes ende goedes. It is comprised in seventeen chapters, and 
ends on the recto of p. 175, with no other colophon than these 
words, Hyr eyndich gied da wilkerrenjhn op stallis bame. The 
letter is Gothic; the signatures run in eights ; the pages are not 
numbered ; the initial letters are painted by hand. Each of the 
Bodleian copies is filled with MS. notes. According to the ac- 
count given by Denis, the publication of this curious work is due 
tp Ir. Hidde fen Camminga, who was parish priest of Dockum, a 
town of Friesland. 

FRISINGA, Freysingen,or Freisgenn, a large town of Bavaria, 
capital of a principality of the same name. One book executed here 
during the XVth century is now known ; namely, Compendiosa 
materia pro juvenum informatione, printed in 1495 by John Scha- 
effler, who both before and subsequently exercised his art at Ulm. 

Frogmore Lodge, an elegant retreat near Windsor Castle, for 
many years the favourite residence of the late queen Charlotte. 
In the year 1812 the queen caused a printing-press to be intro- 
duced for her amusement, but the otily productions of it were 
five sets of historical and chronological cards, and two volumes, 
one of which is entitled. Translations from the German in prose 
and verse, (by Miss E. C. Knight.) Printed by E. Harding, 
Frogmore Lodge, Windsor, 1812. 8". (pp. 111.) And the other. 
Miscellaneous Poems, with the same imprint and date, 4°. (pp. 90.) 
To each of these is prefixed a neat vignette of Frogmore Lodge. 
Thirty copies of each work were struck oiF: the composing and 
the entire press work were executed by the hands of Mr, Hard- 
ing, who shewed me the books in the royal library, and obli- 
gingly furnished me with the above particulars. 

FVLGINEVM, or Fidginia, Foligno, a town of Italy, in the 
duchy of Spoleto, formerly a bishop's see. So early as 1470 typo- 
graphy was practised at this place, of which year we have remain- 
ing an Aretinus de bello Italico, and Ciceronis epistolce ad f ami- 
Hares, executed by ./Emilianus de Orfinis in partnership with 
Joannes Numeister, a native of Germany. Here also was printed 
in 1472, a well known edition of Dante, by Numeister, which 
perhaps may claim precedence of the Mantua and Jesi editions of 
the poet, executed in this same year. The art however was but 
sparingly carried on at Fohgno : very few of its books remain to 
us : and after the year 1479 we hear no more of the presses or 
productions of this town. 

FU— GA. 103 

Furtum, or Pferda, Furth, a populous manufacturing town 
(formerly of Franconia) near Nuremberg, in the principality of 
Anspach, but now subject to Bavaria. The Jews, who form more 
than a fourth of the population of Fiirth, possessed a printing es- 
tablishment here in the latter part of the XVIIth century. Fiirth 
books of the years 1653, 1661, 1672, &c. are in the Oppenheimer 


Gades, Cadiz, an ancient episcopal city and well-known seaport 
of Spain, in Andalusia. Printing was exercised at Cadiz in the 
year 1610. 

GAIETTA, Gaeta, an ancient and strong town of Naples, 
situate in Terra di Lavoro. That printing was practised here 
during the XVth century is known by two books now remaining : 
the earliest of which, Formulario de Epistole vulgwre, by Chris- 
topher Landino, bears date 1487 ; the other book is dated 1488. 

Galitz, a town of Russia, in the government of Kostroma, seated 
on a lake of the same name. Bachmeister affirms printing to have 
been exercised here in 1606. 

S. Gallijbnwm, St. Gall, or St. Gallen, a town of Switzerland, 
capital of a canton : near to which was a rich and celebrated abbey 
of Benedictines, whose abbots were lords of the first rank, and 
possessed the most extensive property and influence. It was 
founded about the year 640, on a spot which had been the se- 
cluded residence of Gallus, a native of Ireland, who with Colum- 
ban and some others is said to have travelled into the wilds of 
Switzerland for the purpose of instructing the people both in re- 
ligion and the arts of life. In this abbey, during the darkness of 
the middle ages, the lamp of literature and science was industri- 
ously kept burning : it was a general school for all kinds of eru- 
dition, and to its valuable library we entirely owe the present ex- 
istence of some treatises of Cicero, of the works of Quintilicm, and 
of some other authors. 

There can be little doubt that the monks early availed them- 
selves of the invention of the art of printing, and provided their 
abbey with the materials necessary for carrying it on: yet I have 
not met with any work professing to be printed here earlier than 
the Idea S. ccmgregationis Helveto-BenedActincB, handsomely 
edited by these monks in the year 1702. M. Van Praet however 

H 4 

104 GA.— GE. 

(vol. ill. p. 16.) announces upon the authority of Haller {Con- 
seils pour Jbrmer une hibliothiqm Mstorigue de la Suisse, a pub- 
lication consisting of documents relating to the abbey, which is 
said to have been printed within its walls before the year 1512. 

Gallio, Gaillon, a small town of Normandy, seated on the river 
Seine ; noted for a magnificent castle, formerly belonging to the 
archbishops of Rouen. Printing was exercised here in the year 

Galveston, qu ? A Spanish translation of a letter by Pope Pius 
the sevetith, while bishop of Imola, was printed here in the 
year 1825. 

GANDAVVM, Gand, or Ghent, a considerable city of the 
Netherlands, lately the capital of Austrian Flanders, and a bi- 
shop's see. Ghent contained a professed house of English Jesuits, 
which was established in 1622, and suppressed in 1773. Typo- 
graphy appears to have been brought into this city by Arnoldus 
Caesaris, a printer from Oudenarde. In the year 1483 the Rhe- 
torica Guillermi Episcopi Parisiensis was executed here; which, 
with two other works of a later date, forms the only remains of 
early typography from this place. I have seen no other Ghent 
book of an earlier date than 1507 and 1511. (TCD.) 

Gandia, a town of Spain, in Valencia, with an university 
founded by Francis Borgia. 

Garda, a town situate on the Lago di Garda, in the Veronese. 
I have seen a book bearing for imprint, Sur Lago di Garda, 
Alexander Benacensis, which may have been executed here ; or 
perhaps at Riva di Trento, a small town seated on the northern 
extremity of the lake, where printing i^ known to have been car- 
ried on during the XVIth century. 

Gauda, see Gouda. 

Gedanum, see Dantiscum. 

Geismaria, Geismar, a town of Germany, in Hesse Cassel. — 
a Hebrew Grammar, by S. Curtius, was printed here in the year 
1629. (Le Long.) 

COLONIA ALLOBROGVM, Geneva, a celebrated city of 
Switzerland, capital of the republic of Geneva. It has an univer- 
sity founded in 1368, by the emperor Charles IV. ; and a college, 
of which the first two professors were Calvin and Theodore Beza. 
A work entitled, Le Livre des sains Anges, hy Francis Exime- 

GE. 105 

nes, a Minorite, printed in 1478 by Adam Steinschawer, and 
bearing for imprint " imprim^ a genefue" omitting the printer's 
name, is considered by Panzer to be the first book printed at Ge- 
neva. It is a small folio, and may be seen in the Bodleian li- 

GENVA, Genoa, an ancient and handsome city, capital of the 
republic of Genoa, or Liguria, and an archbishop's see. Although 
we have sufficient evidence that printing was carried on here 
during the XVth century, yet very few early specimens have 
come down to us: Nicolai de Ausmo Supplementum SummcE 
PisanellcB, printed by Mattheus Moravus and Michael de Mo- 
nacho, in 1474, with two other books, are all which remain to 
testify the character of the early Genoese press: and the only 
other printer named is Reverendus Magister Baptista Cavalus, a 
Carmelite friar, whose press appears to have been erected within 
his own monastery, in domo sanctcB Maria cruc^erorum, in the 
year 1480. 

St. George, the capital town of the island of St. George, the 
largest of the Bermudas or Sommers islands. Printing was in- 
troduced by J. Stockdale, about the year 1783 or 1784. 

St. George's Town, the capital of the island of Granada. W. 
Weyland, in 1 765, was a printer here : and in January of that 
year, commenced the publication of a newspaper entitled. The 
Royal Granada Gazette. It appears however that there had 
been a printing-office on the island before this of Weyland's was 

Gera, or Gera ad Elistrum, Gera, or Little Leipsic, a town of 
Upper Saxony, in Voigtland. Printing was exercised here in 
1607.— (TCD.) 

Germa/ntown, an ancient town pleasantly situated in the county 
of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, which in the early part of the 
eighteenth century became a settlement of the Mennonists, a 
sect from Germany. Christopher Sauer, a German, established a 
press here in the year 1735; and the establishment was carried 
to considerable extent and eminence by his son. Thomas reports 
of him, that " his was by far the most extensive book manufac- 
" tory then, and for many years afterwards, in the British Ame- 
" rican colonies. It occasioned the establishment of several 
" binderies, a paper-mill, and a foundry for English and German 
" types." At this foundry, which was one of the earliest erected 

106 GE. 

throughout the whole of British America, Sauer cast types, not 
only for himself, but for other German printers. He also manu- 
factured his own ink. Among other works, three editions of the 
German Bible issued from his press ; viz. in the years 1743, 1762, 
and 1776. The greater part of this last impression, consisting of 
3000 copies, was most singularly and unfortunately disposed of. 
" The property of Sower was much injured by the revolutionary 
" war, particularly, by the battle of Germantown in 1777. To 
" preserve the residue of it from being destroyed by the British, 
" he went to Philadelphia; his estate was confiscated before the 
" close of the war, and his books, bound and unbound, were 
" sold : among these was the principal part of the last edition of 
" the Bible in sheets ; some copies of them had been before, and 
" others of them were now, converted into cartridges, and thus 
" used, not for the salvation of men's souls, but for the destruc- 
" tion of their bodies." Thomas, History of Printing, vol. i. 83. 
Sauer was also the printer of the first German newspaper pub- 
lished in America, which began to appear in the summer of the 
year 1739. 

S. Germanus in Ledid, St. Germain en Laye, a town of France 
on the Seine, about 12 miles distant from Paris. James the Se- 
cond of England obtained the royal castle or palace of St. Ger- 
mains as an asylum for himself and his followers after his abdica- 
tion of the throne ; and several English books were printed here 
about that time. — 1649 is the earliest date of a St Germain book 
which I have hitherto observed. (TCD.) 

S. Gervasius, St. Gervais, a small town of France, in the dio- 
cese of Clermont : (more probably put for Geneva, of which city 
St. Gervais forms a part.)— 1601, 1602, 1604. 

GERUNDA, Gerona or Girona, an ancient and strong town of 
Spain in Catalonia : it confers the title of a duchy, and is a bi- 
shop's see. 

It was not known that Gerona had any claims to the possession of 
a printing-press at an early period of the art, until Fr. Mendez 
discovered a Spanish volume entitled Memorial delpecador remut, 
written by a priest named Philip de Malle, which bears distinct 
notice of its having been executed in this town at the expence of 
Matthew Vendrell (formerly a merchant of Barcelona) in the 
year 1483. [See a supplement to the work of Mendez, p. 425]. 
I have not seen another Gerona book earlier than 1665. 

GE— GI. 107 

Gestkovicmm, {pagus Moravice) qu. whether Gewicz,a small 
town of Moravia, distant 24 miles from Olmutz ? Typography 
appears to have been practised in this place before the close of 
the XVIth century: as Balbinus mentions that a learned man 
named Martinus Philadelphus printed here some Postills on the 
gospels, in the Bohemian language, in the year 1592. 

Giasium, see lassium. 

GIENNIVM, or Gienium, Jaen, an ancient and populous 
town of Spain, the capital of Andalusia, and a bishop's see. This 
place puts in its claim to the honour of possessing a press during 
the XVth century, by a single remaining specimen, Magistri 
Petri Dagui tractatus de Differentiis, executed by an unnamed 
printer in the year 1500. Panzer however cites this book from 
Caballero ; who, it must be owned, speaks of it in a very loose 
and unsatisfactory manner. I have not observed any other print- 
ing at Jaen earlier than that of Ferdinand Diaz de Montoya, in 
the years 1606, 1608. (TCD.) 

Giessa, Ghiessa Cattorum, or Gissa Hassorum, Giessen, a 
town of Germany, in Upper Hesse. — 1606. (TCD.) 

Gippesvicum, Ipswich, a town of Suffolk in England. Ipswich 
has somewhat singular in the history of its early typography, no 
fewer than three printers having been at work here during the 
reign of king Edward VI. We have books executed by each of 
them yet remaining ; but all of these, with the exception of per- 
haps one, are of the same year, 1548, and we possess nothing 
from Ipswich either of an earlier or later date during that cen- 
tury. The printers were Anthony Scoloker, John Overton, and 
John Oswen, -who appear to have settled here nearly at the same 
time, and to have quitted the place also together. One of them, 
John Oswen, went immediately to Worcester, where he carried on 
business for some time ; but of the other two Herbert observes 
that nothing more is known, either of their types or themselves. 
As all the Ipswich books are very scarce, with the exception of 
one, the Centuries of Bale, I may observe that one of them, the 
Sermons of Bernard. Ochinus, printed by Antony Scoloker^ may 
be seen in the library of Trinity college Dublin : a perfect and 
fine copy. In the following century I find that the art still lin- 
gered in existence at Ipswich ; of which we have evidence in a 
small tract, said by Heylyn (in his life of archbishop Laud) to 
have been written by the famous William Prynne. It is in 

108 GI.— GL. 

quarto, and bears for title, " Newes from Ipswich, discovering cer- 
" taine late detestable practises of some domineering lordly pre- 
" lates, &c. Printed at Ipswich." No date or printer. The title- 
page has at the lower part a rude wood-cut, of Death, and ano- 
ther figure. The tract consists of six leaves only; is signed 
" Matthew White." The typographical execution of it is indif- 
ferent. This piece is preserved in the library of Cashel. 

Gismum or Gisnium prope ConstantinopoUm, see Koregismum. 

Gizeh, or Gyzeh, a large fortified village of Egypt, seated 
on the left bank of the river Nile, nearly opposite to the city of 

While the French armies occupied Egypt, they appear to have 
erected a printing-press in this place. Some pieces appear in the 
" Bibliotheca Marsdeniana" executed here, bearing for imprint, 
Gyzeh, cm VIII. (1800) and an IX. (1801.) 

Glacium, Glatz, a strong town of Silesia. — 1698. 

Glascua, Glasgow, a flourishing city of Scotland, with an uni- 
versity founded by king James II. about 1450. In the last cen- 
tury few places produced specimens of typography superior to 
those of Glasgow. At what period the art was introduced, I do 
not accurately know : the earliest book which I have yet seen 
is a short tract entitled " The Protestation of the general assemblie 
" of the church of Scotland, and of the noblemen &c. subscribers 
" of the Covenant lately renewed, made in the High Kirk, and at 
" the Mercate Crosse of Glasgow the 28 and 29 of November 
" 1638." [A rude woodcut. J Printed at Glasgow, by George An- 
derson, in the yeare of grace 1638. 4° (pp. 13.) A copy of this 
scarce piece is in the library at Cashel. In 1673 Robert Sanders 
who had succeeded to Andrew Anderson about the year 1668, 
calls himself printer to the city and university ; his work appears 
to be very neatly executed. 

Glogavia, Glogau, a considerable town of Silesia. Joachin 
Funckius is mentioned as a printer here, in 1621. 

Glucstadium, Gluckstadt, the capital of the duchy of Holstein. 

Glynd, or Glynd-place, a seat belonging to lord Hampden, near 
Lewes in the county of Sussex. A private press appears to have 
been erected here in the year 1770: but I can learn no particulars 
respecting it, except that the Bodleianglibrary contains the first 
sheet (only) of a poem called " The Summer's day, a descriptive 

GO. 109 

" pastoral, 4i°. Gh/nd, ITTO." This fragment contains two small 
copper cuts, one of Glynd place, the other of Mount Carbon. 

Gmwida, Gmunden, a town of Upper Austria. Panzer mentions 
a book, Bibliotheca Hoerner, printed here, but assigns no date. 

Goa, a city of Hindostan, capital of the Portuguese settlements 
in India, and the see of an archbishop. The art of printing was 
introduced to Goa by the middle of the sixteenth century ; pro- 
bably through the activity of the Jesuits, who by degrees obtained 
considerable establishments in this city. The earliest Goa book 
which has fallen within my notice is one entitled, " Coloquios dos 
" simples, e drogas he consas mediijinais da India &c. copostos 
" pello Doutor garcia dorta. Impresso em Goa, por Joannes de 
" endem as x. dias de Abril de 1563. annos." The work consists 
of 217 leaves in quarto. A copy is at present (1826) in the 
hands of Messrs. Payne and Foss, booksellers, of London. 

Goatimala, Guatimala, a considerable city of Spanish North 
America, formerly the capital of a province and kingdom ; and 
now capital of " The central republic of America." It was 
founded in the year 1524, possesses an university, is the see of 
an archbishop ; and is supposed to contain at present near 40,000 
inhabitants. Having been materially injured by the violence of 
repeated earthquakes, the city was rebuilt on a site twenty-four 
miles distant from the old one. 

The Jesuits possessed a printing-establishment here during the 
XVIIth century. A copy of a work by Emanuel Ldbo, a Mexi- 
can, printed by them here in the year 1667, was in the Spanish 
collection of D. J. A. Conde, sold by auction in London in 1824. 

Gorichenum, or Gerinchemium, Gornichem or Gorcum, a town 
of South Holland. Printing was carried on in this town, by 
Paulus Vink, in the year 1670. An edition of the Dutch Bible, 
printed here in 1671, is in the king's library, and also in that be- 
longing to the British and Foreign Bible Society. 

Goritia, Gorizia or Gortz, a considerable town of the north of 
Italy, capital of the province of Gorizia. It has been subject to 
the Austrian empire for a long time ; was formerly part of the 
territory of Friuli, and in 1817 was made part of the new king- 
dom of Illyria. Gorizia was for about thirty years the see of an 
archbishop. Printing was exercised here in 1773. 

GorUcivm LAisatwrwm, Gorlitz, a large manufacturing town 
of Upper Lusatia, seated on the river Neisse. 

110 GO. 

Printing was exercised here in the year 1590, in which year 
Abraham Bucholcerus printed his Catalogue of Roman Consuls at 
Gorlitz. (TCD.) In the Scriptores rerum Lusaticarum it is 
mentioned that Abraham Fritchius practised the art at Gorlitz 
about the year 1565. 
Gosfeldia, see Cosfeldia. 

Goslaria, Goslar, a city of Lower Saxony, in the territory of 
Brunswick. — 1607. (TCD.) In 1614 a handsome edition of 
Luther's Bible in folio, with wood-cuts, was executed here. 

Gotha, capital of the duchy of Gotha, in Thuringia. Printing 
was carried on here so early as 1646, in which year, as also in 
16o4 and 1672, some grammatical pieces by Andreas Reyerus 
were executed at Gotha. — (Le Long.) 

Gothoburgum, Gotheburg, or Gothenburg, a commercial town 
of Sweden, in the province of West Gothland. Typography was 
introduced into it by Amundus Nicolai Grefwe, a printer from 
Nykoping, in July 1650. In the year 1669 Grefwe sustained 
very serious damage, as well by the shipwreck of a vessel which 
was conveying to him a large quantity of types and paper from 
Hamburgh, as by a fire, which on the 10th day of May consumed 
his whole establishment, together with great part of the town of 
Gotheburg. One of the earliest specimens of Grefwe's printing, 
a volume containing The Psalms in Swedish verse, Luther'' s 
Catechism, and other pieces, dated 1650, the year in which he 
commenced business, may be seen in the Bodleian library. I need 
not add that it is a volume of the highest rarity. 

Gotstadium, qu? Guttstadt, a town of East Prussia, on the 
river AUe .'' Printing was exercised here, by Johannes Lamber- 
tus, in the year 1616.— (TCD. Bodl.) 

Gottinga, Gottingen, a city of Lower Saxony, famous for its 
university, which was founded by George II. king of Great Bri- 
tain.— 1757. 

GOVDA, or GAUDA, Gouda, or Tergow, a large and strong 
town of South Holland, seated on the river Issel. A Dutch 
translation of The Epistles and Gospels for the yean-, printed in 
1477, by Gerard Leeu, who after the year 1484 settled himself 
at Antwerp, is regarded as the earliest book known to have been 
executed at Gouda. 

It appears, that a religious society of Franciscans, called " Bro- 
" thers of the Conference," who inhabited the monastery of Em- 

GR. Ill 

maus, at a short distance from Gouda, possessed a printing-esta- 
blishment within the town, which they employed principally in 
the publication of works of devotion. 

GRADISCA, a strong town of Friuli, on the confines of Ca- 
rinthia : it is a bishop's see. A book entitled, // testamento cH 
Georgia Sommariva, Cavalier Veronese, is adduced from the 
Giornale de lettere d'ltalia, as printed here in 1488 ; but Panzer 
very strongly suspects some error in this statement : and no other 
work from this town is known before the year 1536. 

Grazcium, or Graiacum, Gratz, an episcopal town of Germany, 
capital of Lower Stiria. In the year 1272 the emperor Rudolph 
established here a public school, which in 1586 was elevated to 
an university, and placed under the direction of the Jesuits. 
Printing was introduced by them at least so early as 1590. 

GRANATA, Granada, a large and fine city of Spain, capital 
of the province of Granada, and an archbishop's see. It has an 
university founded by king Ferdinand, in 1537. A work entitled, 
Franciscus Ximenius de vita Christi, in Spanish, printed in the 
year 1496, is the only remaining specimen of the typography of 
the XV th century from this place ; which book, together with a 
second of the date 1505, is all which was known to Panzer prior 
to the year 1536; of which last year he gives two books: the 
first of them executed by a printer named Meinardus Ungut, 
whom the archbishop of Granada brought from Sevillcj where he 
was at that time following his business, for the express purpose 
of publishing it. The second production of this press however 
deserves a more particular notice. Its title is. Arte para legeror 
mente saber la lingua araviga. Vocabulista aravigo en letra 
castellana : (par P. de Alcala.) Of this work, Schnurrer in his 
Bibl. Arab. (p. 16.) observes : " Sunt duo opera, separatim edita, 
" nee semper conjuncta. Vocabularii bina exempla, quibus Gram- 
" matica baud juncta est, habet biblioth. Imp. Parisina." Again ; 
" Opus slngulare, sui generis primum atque unicum." Of this 
literary curiosity, the Bodleian possesses a fine copy of both the 
Vocabulary/ amd the Grammar. Panzer is mistaken in calling it 
a 4°- for it is an 8°, as Schnurrer observes. In a London Cata- 
logue (Thorpe's, 1826, part 1.) occurs another Granada book of 
the year 1505, by the printer of the Vocabularies, Juan Varela 
de Salamanca, entitled Las CCC dd famosissimo poeta Juan de 
Mena, con la gloso, &c. folio. Printing was ^ain in use at 

112 GR. 

Granada in the middle of the XVIth century. A book of 1550 
was in the Pinelli library: and Hugo and Sebastian de Meiia 
exercised the art here from the years 1566 to 1601 &c. 

Grange, near Darlington in the county of Durham, the seat 
of the late George Allan, esq. who established in his own house a 
printing-press about the year 1768, at which he executed several 
pieces of topographical and antiquarian lore. A detailed cata- 
logue of the productions of this private press has lately been pub- 

GRATIANOPOLIS, Grenoble, an ancient and populous city 
of France, capital of Dauphine, and a bishop's see. It bad once 
an university, which was subsequently transferred to Valentia. 
Panzer was not aware of any book printed here before the year 
1 530 ; but Mr. Beloe (in vol. v. of his Anecdotes) adduces one, 
entitled. Papa Guidonis decisiones Parlamenti Delph. which bears 
for imprint, Gracionopoli Apr. 29. 1490. The copy described by 
Mr. Beloe was (in 1811) in the possession of Mr. Wodhull. 
Gravionarium, see Bamberga. 

Greenwich, a market-town of England, seated on the banks of 
the Thames, in the county of Kent. A small tract published 
during the reign of queen Mary, purports to be printed here : it 
is entitled, A faytkfall Admonycion of a certen trewe pastor and 
prophete sent unto the Germanes, &c. nom translated into In- 
glyssh, &c. 12°. At the end, on signature K. iii. we read, Ivt- 
prynted at Grenewych by Comrade Freeman, in the month of 
May 1554. But the types, spelUng, &c. all prove the volume 
to have been executed in Switzerland or the Low Countries. A 
copy of it may be seen in the Bodleian library. 

Grima, Grimm, a small town of Misnia near Leipsic, seated 
on the river Mulda. Le Long mentions a version of St. PauTs 
Epistle to the Romans printed here in 1523. 

Grodiscum, Grodzisko, a town of Great Poland, in the palati- 
nate of Posnan. Melchior Neringk printed here in 1579. 

Gronvnga, Groningen, a city of Holland, with an university. — 
1610. (Bodl.) 

Gryphiswaldia, Gripswaldia, a strong city of Pomerania, with 
an university founded in 1546. — 1612. (Bodl.) Yet typography 
must have been practised, and efficiently too, at Gripswald at an 
earlier period ; since it is remarked by Alnander, in his account 
of the royal typographers of Stockholm, that one of them, Igna^. 

GU. 113 

tius Meurer, applied himself earnestly to the study of this art at 
Gripswald ; and having obtained a thorough knowledge of it, {illA 
rite percepta,) he repaired to Stockholm in the year 1610, where in 
three years he succeeded to the honourable post of king's printer. 

Guadalaxara, or Guadalc0ara, a large manufacturing town of 
Spain, in New Castile, situate in a plain near the banks of the river 
Henares. It is the capital of a,province of the same name. 

The earliest known instance of the typography of Guadalaxara 
is a volume entitled Memorial de cosas notables, composed by 
Ynigo Lopez de Mendoja, duke del Infantado, which was prints 
ed here by Pedro de Robles and Francisco de Cormellas, in the 
year 1564. The printer obtained a privilege for twenty years, 
on condition that the volume, which is a folio, were sold for eight 
reals. A copy of this scarce work is preserved in the Bodleian 

Guayaquil, a city of South America, formerly capital of the 
province of Quito. It is seated on a river of the same name, and 
is said to contain about 20,000 inhabitants. 

In the year 1824 two newspapers were in course of publication 
in this town. 

Cuba, or Gubena, a populous and manufacturing town, the 
capital of a circle, in Lusatia. — 1676. 

Guelpherbytum, Wolfenbuttel, a large town of Saxony, in the 
duchy of Brunswick. — 1541. Bodl. 

Gueret, a town of France. — 1777. 

Guernsey, an island off the coast of France. A press was esta- 
blished on this island, probably at Port St. Pierre, a short period 
before the year 1791. 

Gustrovia, Gustromum, Gustrow, a small town of Germany, 
in the duchy of Mecklenberg. Le Long mentions an edition of 
The twelve minor prophets in Hebrew, printed here by J. Jaegers 
in 1634 ; remarking at the same time, that it is the only Hebrew 
book printed within the duchy. A Gustrow tract of the year 
1629 is in the Bodleian library. 

Guyama, or St. Thomas de Guyana, also called Angostura, the 
capital of the province of Spanish Guyana in South America, is 
a considerable town, seated on the river Oropnoko, not far from 
its mouth. It is of modern date, having been founded in the 
year 1764, on a site distant about sixty kagues westward from 
the old town of Guyana or the Castle. 

114 HA. 

In the year 1824 a newspaper was in regular course of publi- 
cation at this town. 


Hadamar, a town of Germany, in the duchy of Nassau, on the 
river Elz.— 1800. 

Haderslebia, Hadersleben, a town of Denmark, in Sleswick. — 

HAFNIA, or CODANIA, Copenhagen, Kaupmannahaufn, 
or Kiobenhafn, the metropolis of Denmark. Its university was 
founded by Christian I. in the year 1478. Three books are re- 
maining, executed here in the XVth century, the earliest of which 
is dated 1493 ; Gothefridus de Ghemen was the printer. In the 
next century, I find Andreas G utter witz, a respectable printer 
here in 1579. The British Museum contains a Danish Bible, 
executed at Copenhagen in 1607. The first periodical publica- 
tion in Denmark was issued in the year 1644 ; but not a single 
copy of this is now known to be remaining. About the close of 
the XVIIth century a royal press was established, the first Latin 
book from which was Othonis Sperlingii diatribe de crepidis ve- 
terum, 8° 1698. The privilege of printing, which had previ- 
ously been enjoyed by several towns in Denmark, was at the 
beginning of the XVIIIth century, for some political reasons, 
confined to the capital. " Hodie verb in Danii sola regia me- 
" tropolis Hafnia hSc prse reliquis urbibus gaudet praerogativi, ut 
" in ek ars typographica excolatur." Thura, Idea historice litt. 
Danorum, p. 240. 

Hqfod, a seat in Cardiganshire, South Wales, lately the resi- 
dence of the lamented Thomas Johnes, esq. well known to the 
literary world as the translator of the Chronicles of Froissart, 
Monstrelet, and Joinville, as well as author of some interesting 
works. For the more convenient printing of his works, Mr. 
Johnes erected a private printing-apparatus at Hafod, which, as 
we learn from Dr. Dibdin in his Bibliographical Decameron, was 
situated in a cottage among the hills, at the distance of one mile 
and a half from the mansion. The Hafod edition of the Chro- 
nicle of Joinville is dated 1807, and that of Monstrelet 1809. 

Haga Comiium, (called in French books La Haye, in Italian 
L'Jia, in Dutch S'Gravenhage,) the Hague, a beautiful and cele- 
brated city of Holland. Many classical volumes of great beauty, 
have issued from the presses of this place. The earliest book 

HA. 115 

which I have yet discovered is dated 1593. (TCD.) It was exe- 
cuted by Albert Heyndricsz, printer to the states of Holland. 
About the year 1720 many English books were printed at the 
Hague, several of which bear the false imprint of London, 

HAGENOA, Haguenau, a fortified town of France, seated on 
the river Motter. From the year 1489, the date of the earliest 
book now known, printing seems to have been carried on with 
success in this city ; and many specimens remain to us from the 
press of Henry Gran, which purport to be in imperiali Oppido 
Hagenaw diligentissime impressa. 

Hailbruna, or Alisium, Hailbrun, or Heilbron, a town former- 
ly of Suabia. Le Long notices printing here in 1633. 

Halle, a considerable town of Upper Saxony, in the duchy of 
Magdeburg, with a celebrated university founded in 1694. Pan- 
zer knew of no book printed here before the year 1520; yet in 
count Revickski's Catalogue, (p. 78.) maly be seen an account of 
an edition of Lucam's Pharsalia, bearing for imprint, Halee 1482. 
This book, having come into the possession of earl Spencer, has 
been discussed, and pronounced to be falsified, in the second vo- 
lume of the Bibliotheca Spenceriana, p. 143. Dr. Dibdin, the 
author of that work, is most probably correct in his judgment. 

Hala Suevorum, Halle, formerly an imperial town of Suabia, 
seated on the river Kocher. Printing was carried on here so 
early as 1 536 : and in the year 1539 an edition of Melancthon's 
Loci communes was executed at Halle, without any printer's 
name. [But see Leichii Typograph. Lipsiens. p. 18.] 

Halberstadia, Halberstadt, an ancient city of Westphalia, ca- 
pital of a principality of the same name. Three books printed 
here in the year 1522, are the only specimens from this city men- 
tioned by Panzer : but M. Van Praet has shewn us that typo- 
graphy was practised at Halberstadt at least two years earlier, by 
adducing a Missal in folio, with the imprint Halberstadice, 1520, a 
copy of which, upon vellum, is in the Royal library at Paris. 
The " Bibliotheca Marsdeniana" cites a Dutch Bible, executed 
in the same year 1520. 

Halebum, Aleppo, the capital of Syria. It is the opinion of 
Schnurrer, expressed in his Bibliotheca Arabica, that the Arabic 
printing-establishment of the monastery of Snagof in Wallachia, 


116 HA. 

was subsequendy removed to this city. The Aleppo press was 
opened by the publication of an Arabic Psalter, in the year 1706, 
under the direction of Athanasius the Antiochene Patriarch of 
the Greek Melchites. Other books followed in 1707, 1708; some 
Homilies of Athanasius in 1711, a copy of which was in the Pi- 
nelli library ; and (according to Le Long) a second edition of the 
Psalms in 1735. See the article Snagof. 

Halvfax, the capital of Nova Scotia. Bartholomew Green, in 
August 1751, commenced the business of printing in this place. 
His was the first press erected in the province of Nova Scotia, 
nor was there a second, until the year 1766. Green had previ- 
ously exercised his art at Boston, and died soon after his arrival at 
Halifax. His successor, Jo. Bushell, published, in the first week 
of January 1752, the first newspaper printed in Nova Scotia. 

HAMBVRGVM, or HAMMONA, Hamburg, a celebrated 
commercial city of Lower Saxony, in the duchy of Holstein. A 
single specimen of Hamburg printing of the XVth century re- 
mains, viz. Laudes beate Marie Virginis, in mercuriaU oppido 
Hamborgensi loco famatissimo ivipresse, per me Joannem et 
Thomam Borchard. Anno Dni. 1491. Panzer possessed a copy 
of this work, and a second is in the public hbrary at Gottingen. 

Hammipolis, qu. whether Hamburg ? or Hamm, a small trading 
town of Westphalia, on the river Lippe? Books of the years 
1646 and 1657 occur, bearing this imprint. 

Hannovera, Hanover, a city of Germany, formerly capital of 
the electorate, and chief of all the towns belonging to the elec- 
toral house of Brunswick Luneberg. Typography was in use 
at Hanover before the middle of the XVIth century. Several 
pieces of Joa/rmes Busmannus, executed, but rather indifferently, 
by Henningus Rudenus in the year 1547, are in the library of Tri- 
nity college, Dubhn. A printing-establishment belonging to the 
court was at work here in 1669- 

Hanover, a post-town of New Hampshire, in North America. 
A press was set up here about the year 1778, from which a news- 
paper was issued for a very short time. 

Hanovia, sometimes Hanovia ad Mcenum, Hanau, a large and 
trading town of Germany, seated at the junction of the Kinzig 
and Maine. The second edition of the Hungarian Bible was 
printed here in 1608. A book of the year 1593 is the earliest 
which I have seen. 

HA. 117 

Harderovicum Gelromm, Hardervicum, or Hardermcum Sy- 
camhrorum, Harderwyck, a town of Holland, in Guelderland ; it 
possesses an university. The earliest book of this place which I 
have seen is an edition of the Lambeth Articles printed here by 
Thomas Henricus, in 1613: (the date of 1513 in the title-page 
being of course a misprint.) 

Harjleur, a small town of Normandy, on the river Seine, dis- 
tant five miles from Havre. A volume entitled, AntiquitSs de la 
ville d''Harfleur, 8°. was printed here in 1720. 

Harg, a seaport of the east coast of Sweden, opening on the 
gulf of Bothnia. 

The title-page of an English and Swedish dictionoj-i/ iy Jacob 
Serenius, D. D. announces that it was printed at Harg and Sten- 
brd' near Nyhoping in Sweden, by Petrus Mamma, director of 
his majesty's printing-house, 1757. The Latin name of Stenbro' 
is Lithopontutn. 

HARLEMVM, Haarlem, a fortified city of South Holland. 

It is well known that this city is one of those which have put 
in claims to the honourable invention of the art of printing, and 
its cause has been most warmly argued by Meerman in his Ori- 
gines typographiccB: according to whom, Laurentius Coster, an 
inhabitant of Haarlem, is affirmed to have begun to print so early 
as 1440 or 1441. An Horarium, three editions of a Donatus, 
and three or four editions of a block-book entitled Speculum hu- 
mance salutis, are quoted as his earliest productions. The story, 
however, rests on too sandy a foundation ; and, setting aside date- 
less fragments of block-books, surmises, and unsupported asser- 
tions, there is no direct and positive evidence of Haarlem typo- 
graphy anterior to the Formulce Nopitiorum, which was printed 
by Joannes Andreae, so late as 1483 ! Nor is it a little remark- 
able, that (according to the statement of Meerman himself) no 
printing was done here, nor even did a printing-establishment 
exist in the city, from the year 1484 till 1561. 

Harlinga Frisiorum, Harlingen, a sea-port of Holland, in 
Friesland. — Printing was carried on here in 1663. (TCD.) 

Hartberga, Harburg, a seaport town of Germany, distant seven 
miles from Hamburg. A work of Gaspar Scioppius was exe- 
cuted here in the year 1611, but without any printer's name. — 

Hartford, the capital of the state of Connecticut, North Ame- 


118 HA.— HE. 

rica. Printing was introduced into Hartford, by T. Green from 
Newhaven, in the year 1764. Like most of his brethren printers 
in the United States, Green commenced his typographical career 
by the publication of a newspaper. 

HASSELTVM, Hasselt, a town of the Netherlands, in the 
territory of Liege. Panzer adduces five books executed here in 
the XV th century : the earliest of which is Epistelen en Evange- 
lien 7 heelejaar, printed in 1480, 

Havana, or Havannah, a large, handsome, and populous town, 
capital of the isle of Cuba, and the see of an archbishop. Typo- 
graphy was exercised here, in " la imprenta de la capitania ge- 
" neral," (the government printing-office,) in the year 1787. 

Haverhill, a handsome and pleasant post-town in Essex coun- 
ty, in the province of Massachusetts, North America. Benjamin 
Edes, the son of a printer of Boston, about the year 1782, set up 
a press and printed a Newspaper at Haverhill ; but this was soon 

Le Havre, a town of the United States of America, situate on 
the banks of the Susquehana river, near its mouth. 

Printing was exercised here in the year 1826. 

Hedernheim. Wolfius describes, this as a small village in the 
temtory of Hesse, in which the Jews possessed a printing-press 
early in the sixteenth century. He adds that its productions 
were very rare, and that before the middle of the succeeding cen- 
tury it had wholly ceased. 

HEIDELBERGA, Heidelberg, a populous city of Germany, 
in the circle of the Lower Rhine, with an university founded by 
the elector Robert, in the year 1346. The Sermones de Sanctis 
of Hugo de Prato Florida, printed in 1485, (probably by Henry 
Knoblochzer,) is the earliest known book from this place : it is a 
folio volume, of very respectable execution, a copy of which may 
be seen in the Bodleian library. 

It may not be amiss to remark, that H. Commelin, a printer 
who settled here about the close of the XVIth century, was in 
the habit of omitting the name of the town, giving for imprint 
only apud Commelinum : it is therefore to be remembered that 
such books were printed at Heidelberg. 

S. Helena, a small island, lying in the midst of the Atlantic 
Ocean, at the distance of twelve hundred miles from any known 
land. It has been in possession of the British since the year 

HE. 119 

1655 5 and of late has acquired the greatest celebrity, from hav- 
ing been chosen for the prison of Napoleon Bonaparte, and being 
now the depository of his mortal remains. The island possesses 
no town of any note. 

At what period the art of printing found its way to this se- 
questered spot I have not learnt : the only specimen of its typo- 
graphy which I have observed being a botanical work entitled 
Flora S. Helenica, professing to have been printed on the island 
in 1825. 

Helenopolis, see Francqfurtum ad Masnum. 

S. Helier, a flourishing town, capital of the isle of Jersey, con- 
taining about 10,000 inhabitants. Three weekly newspapers were 
published here during the year 1826. 

Helmestadium, Helmstadt, a town of Lower Saxony, in. the 
duchy of Brunswick, with an university founded in 1576, by Ju- 
lius duke of Brunswick, whence in some books it is called Acade- 
mia Julia. 

Printing certainly was executed at Helmstadt in 1580. In all 
probability the introduction of typography accompanied the foun- 
dation of the university. A folio volume is in the Fagel library 
at Dublin, bearing for imprint, HelmcBstadii excudebat Jacoiiis 
Lucius Tramsylvanus, anno 1583 ; and one of the year 1580 in 
the Bodleian. 

Helsmgjbrs, a town in the south of Finland, situate at the 
mouth of the river Wanna, and possessing a good harbour. It 
has lately arrived at considerable importance, and the university 
of Abo has recently been transferred to it. 

A journal in the Finnish language was printed at this town in 
the year 1825. 

Helsingcyra, Elsinore, a town of Denmark, in the isle of Zea- 
land. Printing was introduced here about 1603. 

HenricopoUs, (qu ? Henrichau in Silesia, Henrichs, Henrichs- 
dorf, or Henrichswald, in Prussia.?) An edition of The Proverbs 
in Latin, printed here in 1602, is cited in Masch's Le Long, 
part ii. likewise a metrical paraphrase of The Psalms, printed in 

HERBIPOLIS, or WIRCEBVRGVM, Wurtzburg, a city 
of Germany seated on the Maine ; it is the capital of a duchy, 
and was formerly the residence of the bishop. It had an univer- 
sity, which was founded in 1403, and restored in 1582. The art 


120 HE. 

of printing was carried on here with great success during the 
XVth century, probably under the especial patronage of the 
bishop. The earliest dated book given by Panzer is a Brevia- 
rium Herbvpolense, fol. of the year 1479; this I have not yet 
seen : but it is amply described by M. Van Praet, who notices 
three copies of it printed upon vellum. A copy of the work next 
mentioned by Panzer, Missale secundrnm usum ecclesicB Herbipo- 
lensis, is now lying before me. It is a large folio, splendidly 
printed on •vellum, containing upwards of three hundred and fifty 
leaves, and is altogether one of the grandest volumes which I 
ever beheld. The letters are of three or four sizes, from the 
large missal character downwards ; it has also musical notes. At 
the beginning of the book is the privilege of Rudolfus Dei et 
AposioliccB Sedis gratia Episcopus Herbipolensis et Francics 
orientalis Dux, granted to the printer Jeorlus Reyser, who is 
there said to have been hired by the bishop (probably from 
Eichstadt, Eustadium,) to continue at Wiirtzburg until he had 
completed this work. The bishop allows and command's him to 
print the choral books, &c. for his cathedral, and to decorate 
them with the arms of the bishopric and chapter. Accordingly 
we find, immediately following this privilege, a large copper- 
plate engraving, of most delicate workmanship ; representing two 
escutcheons ; one of which contains the archbishop's, family arms, 
quartering those of the see of Wiirtzburg, surmounted by his 
crest, and richly mantled : the other contains the arms of the see 
(or chapter) supported by two angels in beautifully flowing dra^ 
pery, surmounted by a figure of St. Kilian, patron of the see, 
arrayed in the episcopal robes, and holding a drawn sword in 
his right hand, while his left supports the crozier. The size of 
the plate is about eight inches by seven. A particular account 
of this very copy, and of the remarkable specimen of early engrav- 
ing which it contains, may be seen in N°. 288 of the Philosophical 
Transactions : and it is briefly noticed in p. 233 of Heineken's 
Idie genirale d''une Collection d''estampes. It was presented to the 
Bodleian library by archbishop Laud, and for rarity and beauty 
would do honour to any collection in the world. 

Herlorna Nassovice, Herborn, a town of Germany, in the circle 
of the Upper Rhine, with a college, founded in 1589. An edi- 
tion of Luther's Bible was printed here in 1604, (Bodl.) likewise 
several editions of Buchanam's Psalms, the earliest of which is 

HE.— HO. 121 

dated 1585. The earliest Herborn book which I have seen is of 
the year 1588. 

HermanopoUs, see Cibinium. 

Hernosandium, Hernosand, an episcopal town of Sweden, ca- 
pital of Angermania. — 1706. At this place the first edition of 
the Lctpponic Bible, executed by bishop Norden at the expense of 
the English Bible Society, was printed in the year 1811. 

Hertogenbosch, see Buscum Duds. 

Hildesia, or Hildesium, Hildesheim, a city of Lower Saxony, 
lately imperial and episcopal. Printing was carried on here by 
Andreas Hantzsch, in the year 1605. — (TCD.) 

Hilperhusia, or Hildburghusa, Hilburghausen, a town of Up- 
per Saxony, in the principality of Cobourg. — 1774. 

Hirsberga, Hirschberg, a considerable town in Silesia, situate 
at the confluence of the Bober and the Zacke. The Hbrary of 
the British and Foreign Bible Society contains a copy of a Ger- 
man Bible printed here in 1765. In 1826 three newspapers were 
in course of publication in this town. 

ancient and fine city of Spain, the capital of Andalusia, and an 
archbishop's see. It has a famous university, founded at a very 
remote period. According to Mendez, the art of printing was 
introduced into Seville, by three Spaniards, named Anton Mar- 
tinez, Bartholome Segura, and Alphonso del Puerto, in or before 
the year 1476; and a work entitled Sacramental, by Clement 
Sanchez de Vercial, in folio, is considered by him to be their first 
production ; he mentions that a copy of this rare and valuable 
book was in the library of the duke de Medina Celi at Madrid; 
In the succeeding year these printers executed the Manual of 
Alphonso Diaz de Montalvo, in the colophon of which they claim 
for themselves the honour of being the first printers of Seville. 
Numerous and valuable works were executed in this city during 
the remainder of the XVth century. In the year 1500, the In- 
quisition was possessed of a peculiar press for its own purposes, 
but from which, in all probability, little aid to literature or to the 
cause of true religion was derived. 

Hobarfs Town, a British settlement, established on the south- 
east coast of Van Dieman's land, in the year 1804; and now said 
to contain about 7000 inhabitants. In 1818, a printing-press 
was set up here, the first production of which was The History 

122 HO. 

of Michael Howe, the last of the wood-r angers, 8°. This curious 
book is to be seen in the Bodleian library. 

Hoffa, see Curia Variscorum. 

HOLMIA, or STOCKHOLMIA, Stockholm, the metropolis 
of Sweden, a city containing about 72,000 inhabitants. This is 
the first place throughout all Sweden into which the art of print- 
in f found its way ; Johannes Snell having here executed a work, 
entitled Dialogus creaturarum moralizatus, so early as 1483, 
which is considered to be the first book printed within that king- 
dom. A copy of it may be seen in the university library of Upsal. 
Of John Snell, who probably was a German, nothing farther ap- 
pears. He was succeeded at Upsal by Johannes Fabri, whose 
death occurs in the year 1496. Panzer enumerates five books print- 
ed in this city during the XVth century. In the year 1594, the 
office of typographer-royal was instituted, with certain privileges 
and a fixed salary from the government, the printing-materials 
also being furnished by the king. The first printer who held 
this post was Anundus Olai. In the year 1700, the Academy 
of Antiquities, which had been established at Stockholm by 
Charies XI, appointed a typographer of its own, who, as well as 
the king's, was honoured with particular privileges and immuni- 
ties. The liberal policy of queen Christina introduced to this 
city one of the family of Jansons of Amsterdam as a printer, to 
whom she allowed an annual pension, and granted several privi- 
leges, amongst which was the valuable one, of importing all his 
paper duty-free. At Stockholm the first Runic types were used, 
in a Runic and Swedish Alphdbeta/rium, 8°. 1611 ; they were 
cast at the expense of the king, and were afterwards purchased 
by the university : a new and more correct fount was cast at 
Lubec in 1702, by desire of the learned Peringskiold. Russian 
types were first used in Sweden, at Stockholm, by order of Gus- 
tavus Adolphus, in order to the conversion to Christianity and 
instruction of those of his subjects, who, living on the confines of 
Muscovy, were addicted to the superstitions of that nation. Peter 
von Seelen was appointed over this Russian press in the year 1625. 
It may not be superfluous to mention, that the earliest edition 
of the New Testament printed in Sweden, the date of which is 
1521, folio, was executed here; as also a splendid edition of the 
Swedish Bible in 1703, (at the press of H. Keyser,) in the praises 
of which Alnander is warm and eloquent. A copy of the former, 

HO. 123 

but imperfect, and damaged by fire, is preserved in the library of 
the Academy of Sciences at Stockholm ; where also is another 
edition of the New Testament, with wood-cuts, 4to. printed in 
the same city in 1549. (Fortia.) At Stockholm also was pub- 
lished in 1548 the first edition of the New Testament in the 
Finnish tongue, in 4to. a copy of which was in the library of 
M. Ludek^, pastor of the German chapel in that city, (id.) In 
1551 came out the Psalms, with other books of the Old Testa- 
ment ; but an entire Finnish Bible was not printed until 1642. 
Here also was printed a second edition of the Swedish New Tes- 
tament, in 1526, small folio ; also two lAtwrgies, one in Latin in 
1576, fol. the other in Swedish in 1589, 4to ; both were proscribed 
by Charles IX, and are extremely rare ; both however are in the 
collection of M. Gioeurwell, librarian to the king of Sweden, and a 
copy of the former is in the library of the university of Upsal. 
In the royal library of Stockholm is preserved, as an interesting 
relic of the days of the Reformation, a copy of the Vulgate Bible, 
which was used by Martin Luther ; it is a folio edition, printed 
at Lyons in 1521, and its margins and every void space are 
wholly covered with annotations in the hand-writing of that re- 

Holstein. An edition of the Holy Bible, comprising five seve- 
ral versions, in two volumes 4to. is said to have been executed in 
Holstein, (perhaps at Kiel, the capital of the province,) in the 
year 1712. 

Holum, or Hola, Hoolum, a town on the northern coast of 
Iceland, formerly a bishop's see. The first bishop was appointed 
in the year 1107. In 1797 the two bishoprics of Holum and 
Skalholt were united into one, the see of which was fixed at 
Reikiavik, the capital of the island. Dr. Van Troil, in his Letters 
on Iceland, mentions that a printing-press was established here 
'by John Areson, bishop of Hoolum, in the year 1530, from 
which issued the first work ever printed in Iceland, namely Bre- 
viarium Nidarosiense, of the date 1531. The only copy of this 
volume which was known to be remaining was in the library of 
Arnas Magnaei, and was consumed in the fire of Copenhagen in 
1728. Some time after the death of bishop Areson, this press 
appears to have been removed from Holum. In the year 1562 
we find it at work at Breidabolstad ; from whence having been 
purchased by bishop Gudbrand Thorlakson, together with all 

124 HO. 

the materials, it was at first erected by him at Nupufell, in the 
valley of Eynfiord ; but soon afterwards, for greater convenience 
towards his meditated work, the Icelandic Bible, the bishop re- 
stored it to Holum. After resting for more than a century, the 
press travelled to Skalholt : was brought back to Holum in 1704 : 
and in 1799, being put into the hands of the Icelandic literary so- 
ciety, was by them erected at Leira, where it now remains. In 
the year 1584 the first edition of the Icelandic Bible was printed 
here, (1000 copies;) a second, in 1644, (also 1000 copies;) and 
another, in two volumes folio, in 1728, bearing the imprint, 
Hoolum i Hiallta-dal, of Marteine Arnoddsyne. Copies of the 
first edition are preserved in the British Museum, in Eton college 
library, and in that belonging to the British and Foreign Bible 
Society : a remarkably fine one of the second is in the library of 
Trinity college, Dublin, and another in that of the Bible Society ; 
and the third may be seen in the Bodleian library, and in the 
royal collection of George the Third. All of them, but especially 
the first, are volumes of the greatest rarity. The fullest and 
most particular account of the first edition is contained in the 
Appendix to " Henderson's Journal in Iceland," p. 270 — 281 : 
of the second, ibid. p. 285—287: and of the third, ibid. p. 293— 
295. The translation is different in all three editions. A fourth 
edition, reprinted from that of 1644, appeared in 1745 from 
this press, (fol. 1000 copies.) Besides the editions of the entire 
Bible, the Proverbs of Solomon were printed here in 1580 ; the 
New Testament in 1609; and the Psalms in 1619- A copy of 
this last is in the Bodleian library. 

On the subject of the general state of typography in Iceland, 
the reader may not be displeased with the following notice, ex- 
tracted from Sir George Mackenzie's Travels in that island, dur- 
ing the year 1810. 

" Hoolum, on the northern coast of Iceland, until the close of 
" the last century, (when the sees of Hoolum and Skalholt were 
" united into that of Reikiavik,) was the seat of one of the 
" bishops of Iceland. A public school was also established there; 
" but now the place consists only of a few cottages ; and in its 
" present state contains nothing particularly worthy of notice, 

" The first printing-press was erected at Hoolum, about the 
*' year 1530, under the auspices of John Areson, who was at that 
" time the bishop of this see. Though an illiterate and unculti- 

HO. 125 

" vated man, he was extremely ambitious ; and wished to avail 
" himself of all the means which literature might afford for the 
" promotion of his influence in the country. With this view he 
" procured as his secretary, a Swede of the name of Mathiesson, 
" who, coming over to Iceland, brought with him a printing- 
" press, and made a small establishment for its use. The types 
" were originally of wood, and very rudely formed ; and the only 
" works issuing from the press during the first forty years after 
" its institution, were a few Breviaries, Church Rituals, and Ca- 
" lendars. In 1574, however, Gudbrand Thorlakson, bishop of 
" Hoolum, made very great improvements in the printing-esta- 
" blishment at that place, providing new presses and types, some 
" of which were constructed by his own hand, and bestowing the 
" utmost care upon the correction of every work which was print- 
" ed during his lifetime. Before the century had elapsed, a num- 
" ber of valuable publications made their appearance, greatly im- 
" proved in their style of composition, and displaying a neatness 
" and even elegance of execution, very remarkable at this early 
" period of the use of printing in the country." p. 57. 

" The printing-establishment at Hoolum, which had fallen 
" into decline, and another, which in 1773 was instituted at 
" Hrappsey, an island in the Breid^ Fiord, were purchased by 
" the Icelandic society [about 1794]; and a printing-office, un- 
" der their management, established at Leira, in the Borgar- 
" Fiord Syssel (on the south-western coast). From this press 
" have issued, for the use of the society, fifty or sixty different 
" works; some of them translated, but the greater number ori- 
" ginal, and comprising a very great variety of subjects ; history, 
" poetry, divinity, law, medicine, natural history, and rural eco- 
« nomy."" p. 309- 

" We visited in our way the only printing-office now in lee- 
" land, (1810,) which is close to Leira, in a small and miserable 
" wooden building, situate in the midst of a bog. This establish- 
" ment is at present kept up by the hterary society, of which Mr. 
" Stephenson is at the head. He has the sole management of the 
" press ; and few other people now give it employment h, none 
" Uking to submit their works to a censor who is reckoned too 
" severe, but perhaps without much reason. This state of the 

h A good and sufficient reason for which is given by Mr. Henderson, at p. 7, of 
the second volume of his "Journal." 

126 HO. 

" press is, however, extremely injurious to the literature of Ice- 
" land. Two men are engaged in the printing-office : they have 
" a press of the common construction, and make their own ink of 
" oil and lamp-black. There are eight foimts of types ; six Go- 
" thic, and two Roman ; with a few Greek characters. We found 
" a small collection of books, which had been printed here within 
" the last few years, and remained here for sale. We purchased 
" several of these, among which was Pope's Essay on Man, 
" translated into Icelandic verse. During the last winter the 
" printing-office, with all its contents, was very nearly swept away 
" by a flood ; and at the present time the building is in a state of 
" wretched repair." p. 151. 

Holyrood house, an ancient palace of the Scottish kings, ad- 
joining the city of Edinburg : a place connected with many recol- 
lections of high interest and importance. An edition of Dryden's 
poem. The hind and panther, a quarto volume of 90 pages, ap- 
pears with the imprint Holyrood-house, printed hy J. Watson, 
1687. Of this book I could give no information, until I met with 
a work entitled " A Description of the Antiquities, &c. of Holy- 
" rood-house," 8°. 1821, from which the following particulars are 

" During the reign of James VII. {our James TIA.) who mani- 
" fested an unconstitutional partiality to Roman Catholics, Holy- 
" rood-house appears to have been destined by that bigotted 
" prince as a nursery for superstition. Not satisfied with securing 
" to his Popish subjects within the precincts of his palace the free 
" exercise of their religion, at a time when the most limited degree 
" of that religious toleration now so liberally enjoyed by every 
" British subject was considered as a connivance at heresy, James 
" most imprudently instituted a ' popish College in the abbey of 
" Holyrood,' and published rules for it, on the 22nd of March 
" 1688, inviting children to be there educated gratis. 

" He also appointed one Watson', a Popish printer, who had 
" availed himself of the protection of the sanctuary, to be king's 
" printer in Holyrood-house. This Watson also obtained a right 
" from the Privy Council to print all the Prognostications at 
" Edinburgh ; which accounts for several books bearing in their 
" title-pages to have been printed at that period in Holyrood- 
" house." p. 89. 

i Father of J. Watson, queen's printer in ttie reign of queen Anne. 

HO.— HY. 127 

Dr. Lee, in his " Memorial," states that he was acquainted 
with several books printed here in 1687 and 1688, many of them 
being popish works, allowed to be printed and dispersed by king 
James the second. 

Again in the year 1775 there was a press in this palace, when a 
tract by James Fea, a surgeon, entitled " The present state of the 
" Orkney islands considered^ (8vo. pp. 66,) was published, bear- 
ing the imprint Holyrood-hotise. A copy of it is in the Bodleian 

Homburgum ad Clivutn, Homburg on the height, a small 
town of Germany on the river Lahn, capital of the principality of 

Wolfius informs us that the Jews established a printing-office 
here, about the year 171 5 : but the Oppenheimer collection con- 
tains a Romberg volume of an earlier date, viz. 1711. 

Hononooro, a large town or village of Oahu, one of the Sand- 
wich isles, in the north Pacific Ocean. 

Some American missionaries established themselves here in the 
year 1820, and within two years had erected a printing establish- 
ment for their own use. " On the first Monday in January 1822 
" the press was put in operation, and the first sheet of a Ha- 
" waiian spelling-book was struck off." Williams'' Missionary 

Hoogly^ a city of Hindostan, in Bengal. Mr. N. B. Halhed 
printed here a Bengalee Grammar in the year 1778. It was exe- 
cuted by Mr. Charles Wilkins, from letters cut, and types found- 
ed, by himself, and in all probability is the earliest Hoogly book. 

Hoornia, or Horna, Hoorne, a strong city of the United Pro- 
vinces, distant about five leagues from Amsterdam. Typography 
was exercised at Hoorne by ^gidius Nicolaus, in the year 1622 : 
and Le Long quotes a book of the year 1623.— (1626. TCD.) 

Hrapseya, Hrapsey, an island in the Breidafiord, on the western 
coast of Iceland. A printing-press was erected in this place about 
the year 1773, and was soon set to work ; some Annals, in two 
volumes quarto, appeared from it in 1775; a book by Biorno 
Halderson was executed in 1783 ; and, according to the Catalogue 
of the library of the British and Foreign Bible Society, a Com- 
ment on the epistles to the seven Churches was printed here in 1784. 

Hydra, a small island of the Archipelago, lying near the eastern 
coast of the Morea, containing about 25000 inhabitants. During 

128 HY.— JA. 

the struggle of the Greeks for the independence of their country, 
a printing-estabHshment was set up here, and a newspaper, called, 
6 (p'lKos ToO vo'/iou, The Friend of the Law, is now (1824) regularly 
published at Hydra, twice a week. 

HyetopoUs ad Istrum, occurs as the imprint of a book entitled, 
Discursus de suprematu adversus CcEsarinum Furstenerium,, 
printed in 1687; and is explained by Barbier, in the supplement 
to his Dictionnaire des Anonymes, &c. to mean Ratisboniie, 
which in German is called Regensburg, and in the Latin of the 
ancient public acts, Imbripolis, because Regen signifies not only 
the small river which falls into the Danube at Ratisbon, but also 

S. Jacobus de Tlatihdco, is the name of a convent of Francis- 
cans, standing in the north-eastern quarter of the modern city of 
Mexico. The art of printing was practised here by the monks in 
1599. The Bodleian library contains a Confessionario en lengua 
Mexicama y Castellana, compoesd by Fr. Joan Baptista, guar- 
dian of the convent, which bears for imprint. En Saiictiago Tla- 
tilulco, por Melchior Ocharte; am) de. 1599. 12°. Melchior 
probably was a descendant of Pedro de Ocharte who printed at 
Mexico in 1567. 

From the style of this imprint, and the manner in which Anto- 
nio notices it, the reader would suppose S. Jacobus de Tlatilulco 
to be a distinct town ; and I erroneously described it as such, in 
the former edition of this work. 

Si. Jago de la Vega, a town which was formerly the capital of 
the isle of Jamaica. A printing-press was at work here in the 
year 1756; at which time a weekly newspaper began to be pub- 
lished : and in 1792 The Laws of Jamaica were handsomely 
printed by Alexander Dickman, in two volumes quarto. 

Jaroslavia, Jaroslau, a town of Poland, in Red Russia, on the 
river Saine. John Szeliga, who had moved from Dobromil, 
printed here in 1622. 

Jassium, or Giasium, Jassy, a handsome archi episcopal city of 
European Turkey, the capital of Moldavia. The only informa- 
tion respecting the typography of this city which I am able to 
communicate is as follows : 

According to Alexander Helladius, a press was established for 

JA. 129 

a very short time at Jassy in the XVII th- century ; at page 9, he 
mentions the contents of what he believes to be the only volume 
ever printed in Moldavia, but neither the date nor place of impres- 
sion are affixed to the book. There is however in the Bodleian 
library a fine copy of the TOMOS ArAIIHS of Dositheus, printed 
here in 1698. Archbishop Marsh's library at Dublin eontdns a 
very beautiful specimen of the JasSy press of the year 1683 ; it is 
a folio volume consisting of upwards of 400 pages, containing the 
Ylepi ToO ^ei'ou vaou and other works of Syrneon, archbishop of Thes- 
salonica, and of Ma/rcus Eugenicus, metropolitan of Ephesus : 
the whole of which is in Greek character, on paper of excellettt 
quality and colour. The imprint states the work to have been 
executed at the costs of John Ducas the waywode of Moldavia, 
by Johannes Molibdus, a native of Heraclea, whose printing-press 
appears to have been set up within the monastery of SS. Peter and 
Paul. The date is October 1683. The learned president of 
Magdalene college, Oxford, Dr. Routh, possesses also a beautiful 
copy of the above work, with the French royal arms impressed on 
the covers. In 1816 a volume was printed here, entitled, KcoSiJ 
TToXiTixof TOO Tpiytcmarov t^; MoA8a)3(af, in three parts; (the first 
treating of the rights of persons, the second of the rights of things, 
the third comprising miscellaneous matter ;) the author of which 
is 'SixapKtt.Tog KaXAj;K.ap^v)f, son to the reigning Hospodar. This 
volume contains an emblematic frontispiece, some vignettes, a good 
portrait of the Hospodar, with a medallion containing the names 
and arms of sixteen cities of Moldavia ; also a dedication to the 
prince, an address, or proclamation, (\oyos ;^po(7o'j3oAXof) or golden 
bull, by him, in which the origin and progress of the Moldavian 
laws are discussed ; this declares, that the laws were first formed 
into a code by Alexander I. who came to the throne in 1401 ; 
that some part of them was printed in 164!6 ; that the Codex poli- 
ticus is first published at present, as being most wanted, and that 
the rest of the laws shall speedily follow. Part I. contains 89 
pages; part II. 308; part III. 58, and some tables ; the index, 
99 ; errata, 3. The dedication, proclamation, and adcfress at the 
end of part I. are written in ancient Greek. The type is large 
and clumsy ; the notes are printed in a smaller letter, but equally 
bad : the paper is good : the engravings, with the exception of 
the portrait, were executed at Jassy. The imprint is, 'Ev 'IcktIoi, 
Ai21r'. 'Ev T(5 veOtipytiSevTi 'EXKrjVuim rvrroypafeim, e'i/8ov roZ iipov (i.o- 


130 JA— IL. 

vaiTTxigtov TBJi/ Tfimv 'hpapx^v: from which we learn that printing 
was but recently exercised at Jassy. The volume is undoubtedly 
a curiosity. That copy of it which is described in p. 92. of " Mac- 
" michael's Tour from Moscow to Constantinople," is now in the 
Bodleian library, to which it was presented in 1819, by Theodorus 
a Negri, secretary to the Hospodar. 

Jaurinum, Javarin, or Raab, a strongly fortified and episcopal 
city of Lower Hungary, with an university. — 1805. 

Ichenhusium, Ichenhausen, a small town of Bavaria, on the 
river Gunz. Wolfius announces the existence of typography in 
this place, citing a Hebrew Pentateuch executed here by Jewish 
printers, which he calls a very rare book, and the only known 
specimen. A copy of it is in the Oppenheimer collection, it is 
dated 1544. 

Jelgawa, q\i? A New Testament in the Lettish dialect, 
executed for the British Bible Society in 1816, bears this im- 
print, which 1 have never seen on any other occasion. 

Jena, a town of Saxony, formerly in Thuringia, seated on the 
river Saale. It has an university which was founded in 1548. 
Probably the art of printing soon followed. The earliest Jena 
book which I have seen is a third volume of the worjcs of Martin 
Luther, in folio, which bears for imprint, Jhence excudebant hce- 
redes Christiani Rhodii, 1557. — vols. i. and ii. which accompany 
this (in Trinity college, Dublin) bear the dates of 1564 and 1566, 
with Dortatus Richtzenhainus and Thomas iZ^eSar^M* for printers: 
but vol. iv. is dated 1658, and executed by the printers of the 
first volume. Le Long however mentions an earlier specimen of 
Jena printing, in a work entitled Christophori Hammeri intro- 
ductio in lectionem Armenicam, which bears " Jenae, 1545," 4to. 

Jesnitzium, Jessnitz, a town of Germany, in the principality of 
Anhalt. The Jews possessed a press here early in the XVIIIth 
century : a treatise by Maimonides bears the date of 1702, with 
the imprint of this town. In the Oppenheimer collection are 
Jessnitz books of the years 1713, 1719, 1720, 1721, &c. 

ILARDAj Lerida, an ancient and strong town of Spain, in 
Catalonia. It is a bishop's see, and has an university, founded in 
the year 1420. Typography was introduced into Lerida during . 
the XVth century, but does not appear to have been carried to 
much extent, and very few specimens of the Lerida press now 
remain : of these the earliest is a Breviarium Tllerdense, executed 

IN.— JO. 131 

by Henricus Botel de Saxoni& Alemanus, in the year 1479- Of 
this, which is a volume of the very highest rarity, Menclez observes 
that a copy printed upon vellum exists in the library of the Car- 
melites at Barcelona. He commends this breviary to our atten- 
tion for three reasons : 1. for its rarity ; 2. from its being corrected 
by a learned man of that chapter ; S. from the singular circum- 
stance of its having been printed at the sole expense of the sexton 
or bell-toller of the cathedral. *' Antonius Palares campanarum 
" ejusdem ecclesiae pulsator propriis expensis fieri fecit,"" says the 
colophon. This Breviary, with an edition of Augusiinus Daihus 
in 1485, and some pieces by Petrus de Castrovai, in 1488 and 
1489, are the only known specimens of Lerida typography in the 
XV th century ; nor does Panzer cite any other books printed here 
before the year 1536. No printer's name occurs besides that of 
H. Botel above mentioned. The art however was again carried on 
in the town about the middle of the XVIth century. 

INGOLSTADIVM, Ingolstadt, a strong town of BaVaria, 
with an university, founded by Louis, duke of Bavaria, in 1472. 
A book, entitled PuuU Lescherii rketorica, professing to be 
printed in almo gimnasio ingolstadt, in the year 1487, is given 
by Panzer, from Seemiller, as perhaps the earliest dated produc- 
tion of this town; but there is reason for supposing a Latin 
Psalter, without a date, printed in large missal characters, to be 
anterior to the volume before-named. Santander disallows the 
date of the Rhetofica, and believes 1490 to be the earliest known 
date of an Ingolstadt book. 

Insula ad lacum Acronium, an island in the lake of Constance ; 
(probably the city of Lindau is meant by this expression.) Print- 
ing was carried on very respectably here, by Joannes Ludovicus 
Bremensis, in the year 1604. 

Insvice, Lisle, a large and strong town of French Flanders. — 
1604.— (Bodl.) 

Interanmm, or Interamna, Terni, a town of Italy, in the duchy 
of Spoleto. — 1637. N.B. There is a Terni book bearing the date 
1557, but this is a misprint for 1657. 

A^^. John, the capital of the isle of Antigua, Benjamin Mecom 
of Boston opened a press here, and commenced the publication 
of a newspaper, about 1 748. 

St. John's, a city of the British province of New Brunswick, 
in North America, situate at the mouth of the river St. John. 

K 2 

18S JO— IS. 

Printing is executed here at present; having been introduced 
about the time of the peace between Great Britain and the United 

Jordanimola ad Nimitmm, is the name of a small farm, (the 
exact situation of which I have not learned,) at which place C.R. 
Peiper printed a Dissertation on the Arabic poetry of Lebidus, 
in 1823, 4°. (Bodl.) 

Iprcs, Ypres, or Ipres, a manufacturing town of West Flan- 
ders. A college of English Benedictines was founded here in the 
year 1665, which was subsequently given over to some Irish nuns. 
Printing was exercised at Ipres in the year 1660. 

Ipsara, or Psyra, an island of the Archipelago, twelve miles 
north-west of Scio, the chief town of which bears the same name. 
A printing-press was lately presented to the inhabitants by the 
Greek committee in England, from which a Newspaper is already 
regularly worked off. But since the island has recently fallen 
again under the dominion of the Turks, it is more than probable 
that the whole apparatus has been utterly destroyed. 

Iraciense Monasterium, appears to be a religious house in 
some part of Spain, qu. whether the same as Hiraxense Monaste- 
rium, a house of Benedictines, situated within a few miles of 
Estella in Navarre ? Antonio mentions a work, the first two vo- 
lumes of which were printed in this monastery in 1609. See also 
torn, i. p. 397, of his Bibliotheca Hispana. 

Irun, a small town of the north of Spain, in the province of 
Guipuscoa, containing about 1100 inhabitants. 

Printing was exercised at Irun in the year 1739: a Basque 
version of the treatise De doctrina Christiana, of this date and 
place, is in the library of W. Marsden. 

Isca Damnoniorum, or Exonia, Exeter the capital of Devon- 
shire. The earliest Exeter book which I have seen is of the year 

Isenacum, Eisenach, a town of Saxony, formerly in Thuringia. 
A German tract in the Bodleian collection relative to the Re- 
formation, printed at Eisenach, bears the date 1524. 

Isle of Man. A Prayer Booh in the Manks dialect, of the 
date of 1769, bears this imprint. 

IsleUa, Eisleben, a town of Upper Saxony, near Mansfield, 
memorable for the birth of Luther. Printing was exercised here 
at least so early as 1566, in which year were printed the CoUo- 


quies of Martin Luther, bearing for imprint GedruTct zu Eisleben, 
hey Urba/n GavMsch, 1566. The volume is a handsome folioj 
consisting of more than 1240 pages. — (TCD.) 

Isna, ^sny, or Ysni, a town of Germany, formerly imperial, 
seated in the Algau. A Hebrew book of the date 1532 is as- 
signed to this place by Panzer. According to Masch, Paulus 
Fagius established a Hebrew and rabbinical press in this town, at 
"which several of his own works, as well as others by Elias Levita, 
were printed under his inspection. Some of these, of the years 
1540, 1541, and 1542, may be seen in the Bodleian, and in the 
library of Trinity college Dublin. 

Juan de la Pena, a monastery of Spain in the province of Ar- 
ragon, seated at the foot of the Pyrenees, which is renowned for 
the sepulchres of many of the Spanish kings. Mendez affirms 
that printing was exercised here, but gives us no further clue. 

Iverskoi Monasterium, a religious house of Russia ; qucere, 
whether in the city of Moscow ? Bachmeister affirms that print- 
ing was executed here in the year 1658. 

luli or luli Pueblo, a small but populous town of Peru, in the 
province of Chucuito. 

The Jesuits appear to have introduced typography to luli in 
the early part of the seventeenth century. In the Bodleian li- 
brary may be seen a vocabulary of the Aymara language, by 
Ludovico Bertonio, a Jesuit, bearing for imprint Impresso en la 
casa de la Compania de lesus de luli Pueblo en la Provincia de 
Chucuito. Por Francisco dal Canto, 1612. It is a quarto volume 
of more than 870 pages, tolerably well executed, and of great 

Juliobriga, see L/ucronium. 

Juliomagum, see Andegavum. 

Junecopia, Jiinkoping, or Jonkioping, an ancient town of Swe- 
den, in the government of Smolandia, containing about 3000 in- 
habitants. A printing-press, brought from Wisingburg, was 
erected here in 1688, by count Eric Dahlberg, governor of Junko- 
ping, the first printer at which was Peter Hultman, who had 
learned his art at Linkoping. 

Juretum, (qu? an abbey situate on the Jurten, (or Lac de 
Joux,) on the chain of the Jura mountains ?) The imprint occurs 
in a book of the year 1587. 


K 3 

134 KA. 


Kdhira, Kaire, or Cairo, a celebrated city, the capital of 
Egypt. During the sojourn of the French troops under Buona- 
parte in Egypt, they established a printing-office in Cairo, at 
which the following books were executed : an Arabic Grammar, 
begun by J. J. Marcel, but of which no more than twenty sheets 
were worked off; it was dated An rii. (1798.) — The Fables of 
Lokman, in Arabic and French, printed Au Kaire, de Vimprime- 
rie nationeile. An rin. — A work on the Small Pox, by M. Des 
Genettes, in 1800 ; — some pieces relative to the assassination of 
general Kleber, in the same year ; and a periodical work, en- 
titled, Courier de TEgypte, depuis le 12 Fructidor an ri,jusq'au 
20 prairial an ix. in 4". Of this one hundred and sixteen num- 
bers were published. Brunet observes, that it is very rarely met 
with in France. Mr. Marsden possesses a complete copy of this 
publication; as also another, viz. Decade Egyptiewne, Journal 
litteraire et d'ceconomie politique, 3 Tom. Au Caire, An m — ix. 
he has altogether about 19 or 20 books executed at Cairo and 
Gizeh, which are described in the " Bibliotheca Marsdeniana." 4°. 

Kaiwai, or Orta Kaiwai, a place in the immediate vicinity of 
Constantinople, where the Jews practised typography early in the 
eighteenth century. A specimen, dated 1717, is in the Oppen- 
heimer collection. 

Karala/nska, a town of Russia, seated on the Tunguska river. 
A Lithuanian Bible was printed here in 1735, a copy of which 
is in the royal library of Copenhagen. 

Karass, a Scotch missionary settlement, established in 1802, 
in a village situated near the confluence of the rivers Cuma and 
Podcuma, in the Russian province of Caucasus between the 
Black sea and the Caspian. A printing-establishment was des- 
patched to it from England in the year 1807 ; in the course of 
which year 500 copies of a folio edition of St. Matthew'' s Gospel 
were worked oiF on blue paper : and the entire New Testament 
in Turkish was printed here, by the Edinburgh Missionary so- 
ciety, in 1813. 

Kassa, see Cassovia. 

Kazanum, or Casanum, Kazan, a considerable city of Russia, 
seated on the river Kasanska : it is a bishop's see, and possesses 

KE.— KH. 135 

an university, founded in 1803. Printing appears to have been 
introduced in the same year, during which two editions of the 
Koran, one in 4°. the other in 8°., were published at this place; 
some Arabian merchants being as zealous in diffusing the doc- 
trines of their prophet, as are the Christian Bible Societies in the 
dissemination of the Holy Scriptures. This printing-establish- 
ment seems to have belonged to the university. In 1808 there 
was at Kazan a Turkish press belonging to the professor of Ara- 

Kehl, a small town of Germany, seated on the right bank of 
the Rhine, opposite to the city of Strasburg. The elegant types 
of our countryman Baskerville, so well known' for his beautiful 
Classics and English Bible, meeting with no purchaser in Eng- 
land after his death, were bought by M. Beaumarchais, chiefly 
with a view of publishing a magnificent edition of the works of 
Voltaire. They were accordingly transferred to Kehl in 1779, 
and Beaumarchais immediately proceeded to prepare his projected 
edition, the first volume of which was printed off in 1785, and the 
seventieth and last in 1789- It is stated, in the Revue Encyelo- . 
pidique, that on this publication the editor expended no less 
than three millions of francs : twenty thousand copies were struck 
off in octavo and duodecimo, on five different sorts of paper. 
Peignot mentions that 25 copies were printed on blue paper, 
chiefly at the desire of Frederic king of Prussia, who laboured 
under weakness of the eyes. This printing-establishment was 
entirely destroyed at the commencement of the French revolu- 

Kesroan, see Chesroan. 

Keulen, Ceulen, or Cuelen, the Dutch appellation of Cologne, is 
found in books printed there in that language. 

Kharkqf, or Kharhow, a large town of Russia, capital of the 
government of Kharkow, containing about 17,000 inhabitants : it 
is of modern date, having been built in the year 1653. It pos- 
sesses a college, founded in 1731; and an university, which was 
established in 1803 or 1804, and now has a library of twenty 
thousand volumes. 

When it first adopted printing, I have not ascertained : but in 
1820 two presses were at work in the town. 

Khizurpoor, a town of India, in the province of Bengal, appa- 
rently in the neighbourhood of Calcutta. A printing-press was 

K 4 

136 KI. 

employed here by the English a few years ago : the Bodleian li- 
brary possesses two volumes, one comprising some Sanskrit Vo- 
cabularies) the other the Bhagavat Gita, which professes to have 
been executed at " Khizurpoor near Calcutta,'" in the years 1807 
and 1809. 

Kilia Holsatorum, or Kiloniun, see Chihnium. 

Kilkennia, or Canicopolis, Kilkenny, the chief town of the 
county Kilkenny, in Ireland. Here, and at Waterford, during 
the rebellion of 1641, &c. Rinuccini, the pope's legate, established 
printing-presses for the purpose of disseminating those doctrines 
which he conceived to be essential to the interests of his mas- 
ter, and which his own violent disposition was but too ready to 
adopt. Dr. O'Conor (Coltimbanus, letter II. p. xvi.) relates that 
" The nuncio's presses at Waterford and Kilkenny teemed with 
" those vile publications which maintained that a papal excom- 
" munication, whether Just or unjust, must be obeyed ; and 
" preachers were every where employed to assure the illiterate 
*' rabble, the bloody, and plundering, and desolating mob of the 
" country, in their own language, that all the calamities of plague, 
" famine, and war, which then raged in Ireland, were to be at- 
" tributed to the resistance which our nobility, gentry, and se- 
" cond order of clergy, made to the excommunications of the 
" synod of Waterford ! a synod, which, in consequence of foreign 
" influence was guilty of the most flagrant perjury, violation of 
" the public faith, and rebellion against their country, and against 
" their king !" The work which has became most known in these 
later times, from the press of Kilkenny, is the Hibernia Domini- 
cana of Thomas Bourke, published in 1762 and 1772, with the 
disguised imprint, Colonia Agrippina : a work which certainly is 
executed in a manner to do credit to the town. 

Kingston, the capital of the island of Jamaica. About the 
year 1720 a printing-press was established at this place. 

Kiovia, Kiof, or Kiew, a large and ancient city, capital of the 
government of Kiof, belonging to southern Russia : it is seated on 
the river Dnieper ; and is supposed to contain at present about 
20,000 inhabitants. A printing-press certainly was established here 
before the year 1635 ; and an edition of the Slavonic New Tes- 
tament, dated 1630, bears for imprint, Monasterium Petzsarslciense 
Kiovense. Bachmeister expressly assigns the year 1618 as the 
period at which typography was first introduced into Kiew. Hen- 

KL.^KU. 137 

derson mentions another Slavonic New Testament of the year 
1658, which he pronounces to be very rare. 

Klagewfhirth, or Clagenfurt, a small but well-built town of the 
Austrian empire, capital of the duchy of Carinthia. It has an 
university founded in 1801, and possesses a valuable collection of 
paintings, and a cabinet of natural history. 

Printing was executed at it in 1777. 

KnoxviUe, the metropolis of the state of Tennessee, in North 
America. Printing was introduced into this town, by R.Koulstone, 
from Massachusetts, in the year 1793, at which time he com- 
menced the publication of a Newspaper, entitled The Knoxville 


Koregismum, Corigsmia, or Core-gismum, is said to be one of 
the suburbs of Constantinople. Wolfius announces the existence 
of a Jewish printing- establishment here, and cites a work of Sa- 
muel Oseida, executed in the year 1597. A copy of this rare 
book is in the Oppenheimer collection. Le Long mentions two 
others, dated 1597 and 1598. 

Kralitz, or Gralicz, a castle in Moravia. Le Long mentions 
a Bohemian Bible, edited by the Calvinists, printed, in Castello 
Kralitz, in Moravia, in six vols. 4!°. 1579 — 1593 : a reprint of 
which, in 1596, 8vo, may be seen in the library of the British and 
Foreign Bible Society. [See more concerning this Bible under 
Daubravicium, above, p. 79.] It is observed by Crantz that the 
Bohemian brethren, to whom this, press belonged, applied it to 
no other purpose than that of printing the Holy Scriptures in 
their vernacular language. 

Kru^wick, is the name of a town in Poland, in the palatinate, 
of Brzeske. A work by C. Musitanus, now in the Bodleian, bears 
the imprint of Kruswick, but was probably executed at Geneva. 

KutevnsTci Monasteriwm, a Russian monastery, the exact site 
of which I have not learnt. 

Bachmeister observes that typography was exercised here in 
the year 1632: and Henderson mentions two editions of the 
Slavonic New Testament, printed in this monastery, one of them 
of the year 1632, and the other of 1652 : he declares both of 
them to be books of high rarity. 

KUTTENBERGA, sometimes called Cutna, Kuttenberg, a 
small town of Bohemia, in the circle of Czazlau. An edition of 

138 KU.— LA. 

the Bohemian Bible, printed by Martin von Tischniowa, in 1489, 
(or, as others assert, in 1498,) together with a dateless jEsop, 
which immediately preceded the execution of the Bible, are all 
that remains or is known respecting the early typography of this 
place. Both volumes are undoubtedly of the highest rarity. A 
copy of the Bible is preserved in the university library of Prague, 
but I have not heard of one being found in these parts of Europe. 
No other Kuttenberg book is known to have been executed during 
the period comprehended in the work of Panzer, namely previous 

to the year 1536. 


Labacum, or Lubiana, Lay bach, or Laubach, a handsome and 
strong town of Germany, capital of Carniola, and a bishop's see. 
Books were printed at Laubach in 1578. 

Labronis Partus, see LAgurnus. 

Ladeburgum, or Labodunum, Ladenburg, a town of Germany, 
on the river Neckar, near to Heidelburg. — 1603. 

Lancaster, a large and flourishing post-town, the capital of a 
county, in the province of Pennsylvania. Two persons, named 
Miller and Holland, supposed to be natives of Germany, estab- 
lished a press at this place in or before the year 1751, at which 
lime they executed some small works in the German language, 
and in that or the next year, 1752, published a Newspaper in 
German and English. 

Landessuta, or Landshutum, Landshut, a strong town of Ba- 
varia, seated on the river Iser. The art of printing was practised 
here so early as 1514: In the Bodleian is a copy of the first edi- 
tion of the Cosmographia of Peter Apianus, containing several 
curious wood-engravings, which was executed at Landshut in 

LANTENACVM, or LODEACVM, Loudeac, or Brehand 
Loudehac, a town of France, in the department of Cotes du 
Nord. Books executed here so early as 1484 are yet remaining, 
bearing for imprint, a Brebant Lodeac, par Robin Foucquet. 
However, not much printing appears to have taken place in this 
town during the XVth century. 

LANTRIGVIERVM, Treguier, or Antreguier, a seaport of 
France, in Bretagne. lately the see of a bishop. A single speci- 
men of its typography of the XVth century is remaining, being a 
Catholicon in French, Latin, and Breton, printed by John Cas- 

LA. 139 

nez in 1499. For a detailed account of this rare volume consult 
the Bibliotkeca Spencericma, vol. iii. p. 55. 

Lascanum, (qu? a town of France, in Aquitaine?) A book 
printed here in 1639 is mentioned by Ribadeneira in his Biblio- 
tkeca Scriptorum Soc. Jesu, p. 747. 

Lassay, a small town of France, in the department of the 
Mayenne, The marquess de Lassay erected a printing-press in 
his country seat here in the year 1727, one book from which is 
noticed by Peignot. Probably it produced little besides this. 

Laszczovia, Laszczow, a town of Poland, in the territory of 
Beltz, in Red Russia. A press was established here in the XVIth 
century ; but Hoffmann affirms that it produced very few books : 
he names only one, which is dated 1610. 

Lauhuna, or Lauha, Lauban, a considerable town of Germany, 
formerly in the province of Lusatia. It is asserted that typo- 
graphy was first exercised in Lauban in the year 1687. 

LoMdunvm, Laon, an ancient town of France, near Soissons, 
the capital of a department, and formerly a bishop's see. I have 
not found any book printed at Laon earlier than one of the year 
1685, which was the work of A. Rennesson, who calls himself 
" printer to the bishop." 

iM/venhurgwrn, Lauenburg, a town of Germany, in the duchy 
of Saxe-Lauenburg, seated on the Elbe. — 1703. 

LAVGINGA, or LAVING A, Lauingen, or Laugingen, a town 
of Bavaria, in the territory of Neuburg. Aiigustinus de consensu 
evangelistarum, printed here in 1473, is the only known specimen 
of early Lauingen typography; which Panzer thinks to have 
been executed by an itinerant printer, rather than by one perma- 
nently settled in this town. This curious book may be seen in 
England, in the extraordinary collection of earl Spencer. I have 
seen no Lauingen book of an earlier date than 1600 ; but one of 
the year 1565 occurs in the Pinelli Catalogue. 

Lauretum, Loretto, an episcopal town of Italy, in the mar- 
quisate of Ancona. — 1637. 

Lauri', Leerdam, a small town of South Holland. Printing 
was carried on here in 1664. — (TCD.) 

Laus Pompeia, Lodi, a city of Italy, in the duchy of Milan, 
the see of a bishop : the present city, built by the emperor Bar- 
barossa, is about three miles distant from the ancient site. Print- 
ing was exercised at Lodi at least so early as the year 1587. — 
(Pinelli library.) 

140 LE. 

Lausanna, in Italian books Losana, I^ausanne, an episcopal 
town of Switzerland, capital of the Pays de Vaud. Le Long 
mentions printing here in 1556. The earliest book which I have 
seen is of the year 1571, printed by Johannes Probus. — (Marsh's 

Lee Priory, in the parish of Ickham, near Canterbury, is a 
country seat which belonged to the late T. Barrett, esq. by whom 
it was devised to the son of the present sir Samuel Egerton 
Brydges ; sir Samuel has caused a printing-press to be worked at 
the priory, from which have issued very limited impressions of 
some twenty-five or thirty small pieces, partly original, partly re- 
printed. The execution of these publications is good, but ex- 
ceedingly fanciful : decorations of every kind are exhibited even 
to satiety ; and the peruser becomes tired with turning over so 
many beautiful pagesj containing — almost nothing ! A list of these 
Lee Priory tracts will be found in Dr. Dibdin's Bibliographical 
Decameron, and is often to be seen in the London booksellers' 

Legio, Leon, an ancient city of Spain, capital of the province 
and kingdom of Leon, and a bishop's see. This city, which was 
once the residence of the Spanish kings, is in these, times much 
fallen from its ancient greatness, and now presents a sad picture 
of mixed splendour and destitution. 

Of the introduction of typography into Leon, little appears to 
have been said or known. Panzer was not aware of any instance 
of it during the period embraced by him (1457 to 1536). There 
is, however, in the Bodleian library one volume which may at pre- 
sent be deemed the oldest specimen, being of the year 1512. It 
is a small folio, entitled Conpusition de la a/rte de la arismeticcC 
y juntamente de geometria : por fray Juan de Ortega, de Id 
orden de santo domingo, de las predicadores : and bears for im- 
print, " Imprimido a leon en casa de maistro Nicolau de Bene- 
" dictis, por Joannes trinxer librero de barcelona. Ano 1512." 
The book is in Gothic letter of two sizes: it contains an orna- 
mented title-page, flowered capitals, diagrams, and the royal arms 
of Spain: these last, within a handsome escutcheon, adorn the 
leaf following the colophon, namely fol. 204. The next Leon 
book which I have observed is of the year 1549. 

LEIDA, or LVGDVNVM BATAVORVM, Leyden, a large 
and beautiful city of Holland, having a celebrated university^ 
founded by William prince of Orange in 1575. Printing was 

LE. 141 

executed here so early as 1483, yet we have scarcely any except 
Dutch books from hence before the close of the XVth century. 
The university lost no time in providing itself with a press : in 
the year 1579 Andrew Schoutens professes to be printing in novd 
academia l/ugdun. in Batavis. It seems almost needless to recall 
the scholar's attention to the very elegant and excellent editions 
with which Leyden furnished literary Europe during the last and 
the preceding century. Who does not remember and admire 
the Variorum Classics, as well as the beautiful specimens which 
proceeded from the Elzevir press ? Leyden also lays claim to a 
very early, if not the first, use of stereotype printing, which there 
is reason to believe was practised by John Miiller, a clergyman, 
in the year 1701. 

Leira, or Leyr^rgordum, is the name of a farm seated on the 
river Leyra, on the south-western coast of the island of Iceland. 
A printing-establishment was formed here about the year 1794, by 
the Icelandic Literary Society, which had become possessed of the 
presses formerly existing at Holum and Hrappsey. The only 
book from Leira, of which I have seen any notice, is the New 
Psalm-book, compiled under the direction of bishop Vidalin, 
which was printed here in 1801. Owing to circumstances which 
are detailed by Henderson in his " Journal," the establishment 
soon grew out of favour, and continued long without employ- 
ment : in the year 1810 it was reported to be the only printing- 
office remaining on the island ; and that wretchedly situate in the 
midst of a bog, in a building which was fast verging to decay. 
See Holum. 

LEIRIA, Leira, or Leiria, a strong city of Portugal, in 
Estremadura; formerly the residence of the kings of Portugal, 
and a bishop's see. Of the early typography of Leiria only three 
specimens are known to remain, the most ancient of which is an 
edition of The Proverbs (^Solomon, in Hebrew, printed in the 
year 1492. Mendez appears to have been unacquainted with 
this book, which is given to Leira on the high authority of De 

Leiih, a town of Scotland, in the immediate vicinity of Edin^ 
burgh, of which it forms the seaport. Printing appears to have 
been carried on here, by Evan Tyler, a printer of Edinburgh, in 
the year 1652; a pamphlet by him of that date being in the 
Bodleian library. It is also said that another printer, named' 

142 LE. 

Christopher Higgins, was conveyed hither by Oliver Cromwell in 
the same year. 

Lemgovia, Lemgow, an ancient town of Westphalia, which 
was formerly of considerable importance. Printing was exercised 
in it so early as 1563 and 1564. — (Bodl.) 

ges, an ancient and trading city of France, seated on the river 
Vienne : it is a bishop's see. A Breviarium secundum usum Le- 
movicensis ecclesice, executed by John Berton in 1495, together 
with a second edition of the same, by the same printer, in 1500, 
furnish the only remaining evidence that typography was prac- 
tised here during the XVth century. Of the first edition a copy 
printed upon vellum is in the royal library of Copenhagen. 

Lentia, Lintzium, or Lincium Austrice, Lintz, a handsome 
town of Germany, formerly the capital of Upper Austria. In 
the year 1618, and for ten years afterwards, the learned mathema- 
tician Kepler published at Lintz the fruits of his astronomical re- 
searches. He relates that about 1627 or 1628 the printing-office 
which he used was destroyed during some political commotion, in 
consequence of which he judged it advisable to remove himself to 
Sagan in Silesia. This interruption, however, appears to have 
been merely temporary, as we again find a press at work at Lintz 
in 1636. 

LeodAum, or Leodicum Eburonum, Liege, a considerable city 
in the Netherlands, with an university. Printing was exercised 
here in the year 1566. One of the earliest Liege books which 
has fallen into my hands is an edition of the Roman Catechismus 
ad Parochos, which bears for imprint, Leodii, ex typographic 
Cfualieri Morberii : ju&su et authoritate principis Leodiensis, con- 
sentienti popido Romano. It is reasonably well executed, in the 
Italic letter. And another is Morgan PMllipps' Defence of Mary 
queen of Scots, her right and title to the crown of England, in 
three books, 8vo. 1571. A copy of this scarce volume is in 
Marsh's library at Dublin, on the title-page of which a contem- 
poraneous hand has written, " From wyne and women good lord 
" delyver us !" 

At Liege a college of English Jesuits was founded in 1616 by 
George Talbot, afterwards earl of Shrewsbury, which was de- 
stroyed in 1794. 

LE.— LI. 143 

Leopolis, Leopold, Lwow, or Lemburg, a large and handsome 
archiepiscopal city of Poland. Bachmeister informs us that typo- 
graphy was first used in this city in the year 1586. A Greek and 
Russian Grammar was printed here in 1391, a copy of which is 
in the public library of Moscow. The Jesuits established a press 
of their own at Lemburg in the be^nning of the XVIIth cen- 
tury. This city is said to have recently received a great acces- 
sion to its literary treasures from the munificence of count Osso- 

Leovardia, Leuwarden, a large town of the Netherlands, ca- 
pital of Friesland. Printing was carried on here in 1597. — 


Lerma, an ancient town of Spain, in the province of Burgos, 
seated on the river Arlanza. Mendez mentions this town among 
the places which have carried on the art of printing, but does not 
specify to us the period. 

Lesina, or Liesina, a town of Austrian Dalmatia, capital of an 
island of the same name. — 1640. 

Lesna, Leszno, or Lissa, a considerable town of Prussian Po- 
land, in the palatinate of Posnan. John Amos Comenius intro- 
duced printing into this place. The earliest book noted is of the 
year 1635. 

Leucadea, the isle of Santa Maura, in the Mediterranean, with 
a chief town of the same name. A Tragedy in modern Greek, 
by a writer named Zampelios, has lately been printed here. 

Leucopetra, Weissenfels, a town of Prussian Saxony, on the 
river Saale. — 1721. 

Leucorea, see Wittemberga. 

Leutschovia, Leutsch, a town of the Austrian empire, in Car- 
niola .'' or Leutschau, a town of Hungary, in the county of Zyps .'' 

Leooington, a post-town of Kentucky, in the United States of 
America. An university, under the name of the " University of 
" Transylvania," was founded here in the year 1818. A press 
was first set up at Lexington, by J. Bradford, in 1786. 

Lexington, a post-town of Virginia, capital of a county in that 
province. — 1816. 

Libanus Mons, Mount Lebanon, in Syria. 

That the art of printing forced its way even to the secluded 

144 LI. 

1*6068868 of this chaiH of mountains upwards of two centuries ago, 
we have undoubted evidence remaining in a book wliich has with 
difficulty found its way to Europe. Its title is thus given by De 
Murr, in his Memorabilia bibUotheccB Norirribergensis, torn. i. 
p. 379. Psalterium Arabico-Syru/m in Monte Libano ajratribus 
Maronitis impressum, 1610. fol. Masch, in his edition of Le 
Long, part II. vol. i. p. 67, and 121, furnishes a more ample 
account, from which it appears that the editors were Paschalis 
Eli and Joseph Ibn Amima, and that the work was printed In 
incUto et religioso monasterio Vallis Kuzaia in Monte Libani. 
What monastery this is, and in what particular part situated, has 
not been satisfactorily determined : possibly it may be Canobin^ 
a convent of the monks of St. Anthony, distant about twenty 
miles from Tripoli, in which the patriarch of the Maronites re- 
sides ; or rather, perhaps, Chsaya, one of the dependent convents 
situated in the vicinity of Canobin, which is mentioned in the 
following terms by the ill-fated Burckhardt, in his Travels in 
Syria: " Three hours distant from Kanobin at the convent 
" Kasheya, which is near the village Ehden, is a printing-office, 
" where prayer-books in the Syriac language are printed." De 
Murr, speaking of the Nuremburg copy of this Psalter, calls it 
a Phasnix in Germany : a second copy however is to be found 
in the public library at Helmstadt; and a third is noticed by 
Schnurrer, in the possession of J. P. Bruns. I should not omit 
to mention that Masch (p. 67.) gives the title of another edition 
professing to be printed by these monks in the year 1585, taken 
from Assemani's Catalogue of the Mediceo-Laurentian library; 
but perhaps this may be nothing more than the above edition 
incorrectly described. And this conjecture is amply confirmed 
by the fact, that Jerome Dandini, an Italian Jesuit, who was sent 
by the pope as his nuncio to the Maronites on Mount Libanus, 
where he assisted at two synods holden in the year 1596, deems 
it a fortunate circumstance, not only for themselves, but for the 
whole of Christendom, that the Maronites at that time possessed 
not the art of printing. But the good nuncio's alarm for the 
spreading of heterodox and pernicious books is well met and 
refuted by his translator father Simon, for which the reader may 
consult a work entitled, Voyage du Mont Liban, traduit de Flta- 
lien du R. P. J. Dandini, par R. S. P 12°. Paris, 1675, pp. 95 

LI. 145 

Libau, a seaport town of European Russia, in the province of 
Courland, upon the Baltic sea. 

A weekly newspaper was published at this place during the 
year 1825. 

ZAburnia, Lihurnv/m, Libourne, a populous and trading town 
of France," near Bourdeaux. Wolfius mentions that an excellent 
printing-office was established here by a Jew in the middle of the 
seventeenth century, but that it had fallen to entire decay. — 1650. 

lAcha, sometimes Licha ad Veterim, in comitatu Solmensi, 
Lich, a small town of Germany, in Wetteravia. — 1597. (Bodl.) 
1598. (TCD.) 

LIGNICIVM, Lignitz, or Liegnitz, a fortified town of Silesia, 
capital of the principality of Lignitz. A book, named Frairis 
Hermanni dialogus, is said by Maittaire and Marchand to have 
been printed here in 1481, but Panzer disclaims the work as fa- 
bulous. For myself, I have observed no book printed at Lignitz 
of a date anterior to 1606. (TCD.) 

Ligurnus, Liburnus, or Labronis Partus, Livorno, or Leg- 
horn, an episcopal and commercial city of Tuscany. The Jews 
had a press at work here in the years 1650, 53, 57, &c. 

Lima, Lima, called also Ciudad de los Reives, or simply los 
Reyes, a celebrated city of South America, the residence of the 
viceroys of Peru : it is seated on the river Rimac, in a delightful 
valley of the same name. This city, which was founded by Pizarrp 
in the year 1 5^5, is the see of an archbishop, and contains an univer- 
sity, founded in 1549, and other public establishments. Thomas, 
the historian of American typography, believes the art of printing 
to have been exercised here so early as 1590, probably introduced 
by the Jesuits, who possessed two establishments in Lima. If 
however the Catalogue of the library of M. Langles be correct, 
a still earlier date may be assigned to the introduction of printing 
into this place ; since it mentions a Vocabulario en la lengua ge- 
neral del Peru llamada Quichva y en la lengua espanola : en los 
Reyes, Ricardo. 1586, 8°: this piece produced. 30 francs at the 
sale by auction. I observe that Vater, in his Index linguarum, 
cites the same book, so that probably the description is correct. 
The earliest volume known to Antonio, who in his Bibliotheca 
Hispana notices upwards of thirty works from the Lima pressesj 


146 LI. 

is one entitled, Del commercio terrestre y naval, by Joannes Hevia 
Bolunos, which was printed in 1603. Ribadeneira, in his history 
of the Jesuit writers, mentions five or six Lima editions, the 
earhest of which bears the date of 1606. From 1603 down to 
1666, the last year noticed by Antonio, the presses of this city 
appear to have been almost constantly at work. Some few Lima 
books are to be found in the Bodleian library. 

Linda, or Linchia, see Lentia. 

LAncopia, Linkoping, an ancient episcopal town of Sweden, 
capita! of East Gothland. A press was erected here by Johannes 
Bothvidus, bishop of the place, at the close of the year 1635 ; 
books for the use of Linkoping having previously been executed 
at Siiderkoping and other places. He settled Christopher Giin- 
therus, from Calmar, as his first printer ; who appears to have 
continued here for some years, as a book executed by him in 
1642 is in the Fagel library, and a second copy in that of arch- 
bishop Marsh, at Dublin. 

lAndaugia, Lindau, a trading town of Bavaria, built upon 
three islands in the lake of Constance. According to Coxe, 
" Travels in Switzerland," Lindau has produced the first book 
printed in Romanesche (dialect of the Grey League) ; namely, a 
Catechism composed by Daniel Bonifacius, which was printed 
here in the year 1601. I believe that the only Lindau volume 
which I have chanced to see is a bibliographical work of Cardinal 
Quirini, of the year 1761. — [See the article Insula.] 

Linga, Lingen, a strong town of Westphalia, in the princi- 
pality of Munster.— 1732. 

Lingones, Langres, an ancient and considerable town of east- 
ern France, in Champagne. Printing is said to have been car- 
ried on here in the year 1595. 

LIPSIA, Leipsic, a large and trading city of Upper Saxony, 
in Misnia, with a celebrated university, founded in 1409 by Fre- 
deric, elector of Saxony, for the accommodation of those Germans 
who had seceded from the university of Pi'ague. From the year 
1480, the earliest known date of a book printed here, (namely, 
Widmanni libellus de numerorum doctrina, in German,) the ty- 
pographic art appears to have flourished greatly in Leipsic ; and 
we know that it continues to do so even to the present day. 
The earliest printers were Conrad Kachelofen, and Marcus 
Brand, or Brandiss. Until the year 1500 the Gothic letter was 

LI.— LO. 147 

exclusively used by the Leipsic printers ; Melchior Lotterus hav- 
ing the credit of being the first to adopt the Roman character. 
Hebrew printing was first attempted here by Valentine Schu- 
mann, in the year 1520, in a Hebrew Grammar ; but the types 
were wooden, and of rude workmanship. Syriac was first exe- 
cuted in the year 1632 ; Arabic and Turkish in the same cen- 
tury ; and Armenian (being the earliest specimen of that charac- 
ter seen in Germany) in 1680; Coptic in 1715. See in Panzer, 
under the year 1495, a curious instance of a book begun to be 
printed here, which on account of a plague was taken to Friburg 
to be finished. 

lAteromericium, Litomiersk, or Leutmeritz, a small neat town 
of Bohemia, capital of a circle, possessing a fine cathedral, a theo- 
logical seminary, and an academy. 

Johannes Sixtus, provost of this town, printed here, with types 
belonging to himself, in the year 1636. 

Litomislium, Leutomischl, or Litomysl, a manufacturing town 
of Bohemia, in the ciicle of Chrudim ; for some time a bishop''s 
see, The earliest notice of printing in this town is given by Bal- 
binus, who states that Bartholomew Flaxius, archdeacon of Pil- 
sen, executed here a work against the Confession of Augsburg, in 
the year 1585. 

Llanymddyfri, Llandovery, a town of Caermarthenshire in 
South Wales. Some Poems, written by Mr. Rees Pritchard, 
vicar of this place, were printed here, with the above inviting im- 
print, in the year 1770. 

Lobavia, or Loebavia, Lobau, or Liebe, a small but ancient 
town of Saxony, in Upper Lusatia. It is known that the art of 
printing was first carried on here, in the year 171 7. 


Lodova, or Luteva, Lodeve, a considerable town of the south 
of France, formerly a bishop's see. The Florilegium Biblicum 
of Plantavitius was printed here in 1641, and his Thesaurus 
Hebrteo-Chaldaico-Rabbinicus in 1644 ; likewise another treatise 
by him in the following year. 

Loevestein, or Lovesteyn, a fortress of the Netherlands in Guel- 
derland, eighteen miles eastward of Rotterdam. Typography was 
exercised in this town by Jan Peterszoon Jonghehnck, in 1622. — 



148 LO. 

TVM, London, the metropolis of England and of Great Britain; 
called in Welsh and Gaelic books Llundain, and in the Manks 
Gospels Jju/miyng. 

If we consider Westminster as a distinct city from London, the 
latter can only claim the third, or perhaps fourth place in order 
of time among the English towns into which the art of printing 
was introduced : a press being certainly at work in Oxford in the 
year 1478, and one at St. Alban's in 1480. No book executed at 
London is found bearing an earlier date than this last-mentioned 
year ; the first known specimen being, Antonii And/)-em questiones 
super xii. libros metaphy sices, printed by John Lettou, in 1480. 
Lettou was probably a foreigner, and he is only known to have 
printed two books (in 1480 and 1481) before he joined with Wm. 
Machlinia, who is also supposed to have been a foreigner from 
Germany or the Low Countries. Machlinia probably continued 
his occupation for some years, yet comparatively few of his books 
have come down to our times ; and of these not one single volume 
bears a date. 

To these printers, whose typography was of a very moderate 
stamp, succeeded Wynkyn de Worde, a servant of Caxton, who, 
after his master's death, continued to print in Caxton's house for 
some time. The earliest specimen of De Worde's typography is 
a Liber FestivcUis, dated 1493 : from which year, until 1535, his 
press seems to have been continually at work. Dr. Dibdin has 
given a minute and interesting account of the known productions 
of De Worde, in the second volume of his Typographical An- 
tiquities of Great Britain. These are numerous, and many of 
them of superior execution. To De Worde, I believe, we are 
indebted for the first use of Greek, Hebrew, and Arabic types in 

In the same year, 1493, another printer, Richard Pynson, 
began to exercise his art in London, at Temple-bar ; his earliest 
dated book being Dives and Pauper, finished in that year. The 
remaining specimens of Pynson's press are not so numerous as 
those of De Worde's, yet among them are found several of high 
interest and considerable merit. About the year 1508, Pynson 
assumed the title of regius typographus. His last dated book is 
of the year 1531 (or perhaps 1529). 

The Bodleian library possesses a specimen of each of these two 
printers, upon vellum, for an account of which see the Appendix. 

LO. 149 

One more printer remains to be noticed among those who exer- 
cised the art at London during the XVth century ; namely, Julian 
Notary. Of this man's books we have very few remaining : the 
earliest of them, a Salishnry Missal, bears date 1498. 

For a detailed account of these and subsequent London print- 
ers, the reader is well referred to the before-mentioned work, the 
Typographical Antiquities of Dr. Dibdin. 

London, {New) a city and port of entry of the United States, 
in New London county, Connecticut. — 1709. 

Longosalissa, (qu ? Langensalza, a large manufacturing town 
of Prussian Saxony, in Thuringia? — 1752. 

Lordelo, a monastery, (qu. near to Bayonne ?) in which Mendez 
asserts that typography was exercised, at some period which he 
does not name. 

Loscum, Losko, a town formerly of Lithuania ; the Unitarians 
had once a press in this town, which was at work in 1573. 

Lotzin, probably means Lutzen, a well known town of Saxony, 
now belonging to Prussia. — 1748. 

LOVANIVM, Louvain, an ancient and large city of the Ne- 
therlands, in Brabant, having an extensive university, which was 
founded by John the Fourth, duke of Brabant, in 1426. 

The first who practised the typographic art in this city was 
Johannes de Westphalia, whose earliest remaining specimen, as 
given by Panzer, is Gesta Romanorum, of the year 1473 ; or, 
according to the account of La Serna Santander, Petri de Cres- 
centii.1 opus commodorum ruralium, of 1474. This printer speaks 
of his books as being executed non Jlwviali calamo, sed arte qua- 
dam characterizandi rnodernissimd ,■ and calls his type litter a 
verk modernata abscissa etjbrmata. Many of Westphalia's early 
books are without a date. He continued to print until the year 
1496, and was followed by Conradus de Westphalii, by John 
Veldener, Conrad Braem, Theodore Martens, and some others, 
before the close of the XVth century. 

In the year 1616 a college for Irish Franciscans was erected at 
Louvain by Philip the Third of Spain ; also another for Irish 
Dominicans, which was obtained principally through the exertions 
of Thaddaeus O'Duain, provincial of that order : the Dominicans 
entered into this college in the year 1624, under the government of 
Roche Mac Geoghegain, (alias, a Sanct^ Cruce.) By these monks 
several English and Irish books have been published in Louvain. 


150 LU. 

St. Louis, a considerable town, on the river Mississippi, in 
Upper Louisiana, North America. A press was at work here, 
and a newspaper in regular course of publication, in the year 

LVBECA, Lubec, a large and fine city of Lower Saxony, in 
the duchy of Holstein : it was formerly imperial and Hanseatic, 
and the see of a bishop. 

The earliest known production of the Lubec press is an enor- 
mous folio volume, entitled, Epithoma historiarum, &c. or Rudi- 
mentum Novitiorum, executed in 1475, by Lucas Brandis de 
Schass, a printer from Mersburg in Saxony. In the Bodleian 
library is a very fine book, printed upon vellum, containing the 
Revelations of St. Birgitta, the celebrated Swedish saint; it is a 
large folio, executed at Lubec, by Bartholomeus Ghotan, under 
the care of the monks of Wadstein in East Gothland, (the town 
in which the relics of this saint were preserved,) in the year 1492, 
at which period the art of printing was scarcely practised or known 
in Sweden. The art was continued at Lubec by four or five other 
printers during the remainder of the XVth century. 

Lubeca, Lubiecz, a town of former Lithuania, seated on the 
river Niemen. A printing-press for the Socinians was established 
here before 1592, at which Petrus Blastus Kmita was the first 
printer: it was put down in 1655 or 1656. 

L/ubiana, see JLabacum. 

Lubinum, Luben, or Liibben, a town of Prussian Silesia ; an- 
other, of Lusatia. — 1601. 

Lublinum, Lublin, a commercial city of Poland, seated on the 
river Weiprz. It is a bishop's see, and a place of very great 
trade. Here was an establishment of Jews, Socinians, and Re- 
formati. The Jews had a famous press so early as 1547, which 
continued actively at work for many years; and the Jesuits esta- 
blished one in the XVIIth century. A Polish version of the 
New Testament was printed at Lublin in the year 1577. 

LVCA, Lucca, an ancient and strong town of Italy, capital of 
the republic of Lucca, and an archbishop's see. An edition of 
the Triumphs of Petrarch, printed by Bartholomeus de Civitali, 
in 1477j is the earliest of the few remaining books executed at 
this place. One book, dated 1491, bears for imprint, Apud 
Nozanum Lu£ensis agri castellum in suburbano, &c. — (1551. 

LU. 151 

Lucanum, or Luganum, Lugano, a trading town of Switzer- 
land, seated on the lake of the same name. — 1766. 

Lucerna Helveiiorum, Lucerne, a well-known town of Switzer- 
land, capital of the canton of Lucerne. Panzer presents us with a 
specimen of the typography of this place, in a work dated 1528. 
This is a Disputation, holden before the public assembly of the 
twelve cantons, in opposition to the doctrines of Luther, Zuin- 
glius, and CEcolampadius. Accordingly the printer takes care to 
inform us, that it was executed Lucernw Helvetiorum orthodoxa 
et catholicd civitate. 

Lucknow, a large and ancient city of Hindostan, capital of the 
province of Oude. A Dictionary and Grammar of the Persian 
language, entitled, The Seven Seas, composed by his Majesty 
the king of Oude, has recently been executed at the royal press in 
the city of Lucknow, in seven volumes folio ; a copy of which was 
lately presented to the Bodleian library by the East India Com- 
pany : it bears the date of 1822. 

Luclavicia, Luklawice, a village of Poland, in the palatinate- of 
Cracow. It appears from Sandius, that printing was carried on 
here by the Socinians during the time that Augustus was king of 
Poland; viz. from 1548 to 1572. 

Lucronium, called also Juliobriga, Logrono, an ancient town 
of Spain, in Old Castile, seated on the river Ebro. According to 
Antonio, {Biblioth. Hispana, i. p. 497.) printing was practised 
here so early as 1507. Panzer knew no book earlier than the 
year 1512. A fine copy of the Chronicle of King John II. of the 
year 1517, executed by Arnao Guillen de Brocar, the printer of 
the Complutensian Polyglott, is in the Bodleian library ; and M. 
Van Praet (vol. v. p. 148) mentions that one printed upon vellum 
is preserved in the royal library of Paris. Antonio adds to the 
Logrono books noticed by Panzer a Spanish version of Sallust, 
printed in 1529, folio. 

LVGDVNVM, Lyons, an ancient, populous, and celebrated 
city of France, capital of a department, and an archbishop's see. 
It has an university, founded in 830. The first book printed at 
Lyons is presumed to be Cardinalis Lotharii Tractatus quinque. 
Lugduni, Bartholomasus Buyerius, 1473, in 4°- .Earl Spencer 
and Mr. Grenville each possess a copy of this rare book, which 
was discovered by the indefatigable M. Van Praet, having been 
■wholly unknown to Panzer. From the year 1476, in which a 


152 LU. 

French translation of the Legenda Sanctorum of Jacobus de Vo- 
ragine was printed here by the same Bartholomew Buyer, the art 
seems to have been spread widely and successfully at Lyons. 
Panzer notices above two hundred and fifty works executed here 
during the XVth century, by nearly forty printers, among whom 
was Jodocus Badius Ascensius, the founder of the well-known 
Ascensian press. The name of Ascensius as a printer first occurs 
in a book of the year 1497. 

In 1521 an edition of the Latin Vulgate Bible was printed at 
Lyons, a curious copy of which is mentioned by Fortia, in his 
" Travels in Sweden," as being in the royal library of Stock- 
holm : it is the copy used by Luther, and the margin and every 
part which could be written on is covered with notes in that Re- 
former's handwriting. 

iMgdunum Batavorum, see Leida. 

Lugny, a town of France, near to Autun. At the Chateau de 
Lugny, the viscount de Lugny erected a private press, from which 
issued an edition of Memoir es de G. de S aides de Tavannes, 
in folio, about the year 1617. The viscount deemed that the 
freedom of speech which he had used in these Memoirs of his 
father and brother required the secrecy of a private press. 

Lunda, or Lundinum Scanorum, Lunden, or Lund, an epi- 
scopal town of Sweden, capital of Schonen, with an university 
founded by Charles XI. in 1666. The art of printing was intro- 
duced about the same time ; as the new academy immediately 
looked round for a printer, and in 1668 established in that capa- 
city Vitus Habereger from Malmoe. Troublesome times, how- 
ever, prevented this printer from continuing long at Lunden, from 
whence having retired to Malmoe after a sojourn of only eight 
years, in 1687 he removed his press to Carlscrona, ut Ammirali- 
tatis Jleret typographus ; but not succeeding according to his 
wish, he returned once more to Malmoe. At Lunden, Peter 
Winstrupius, bishop of Scania, erected a printing-house of his 
own for the express purpose of printing some Pandects on St. 
Matthew's Gospel, the first volume of which appeared in 1666. 
George Schroeder, who afterwards directed this press, was im- 
prisoned for publishing some seditious or treasonable pamphlets 
during the war with Denmark, and the press was moved to Mal- 
moe. Fortia, in his " Travels in Sweden," mentions a rare work 
printed at Lund in the year 1682, entitled Liseri polygamia iri- 

LU— MA. 153 

umphatrix, which was publicly burnt at Stockholm : a copy how- 
ever was preserved in the royal library of that city. 

LVNEBVRGVM, Luneburg, a fortified town of Lower Sax- 
ony, capital of a duchy. A single book remains to testify that 
typography was received into this town before the close of the 
XV th century : it is an edition of Thomas a Kempis de imita- 
tione Christi, to which is added, Joh. Gerson de meditatione 
Christi, printed by Johannes Luce, in 1493, in 8". 

Luneville, a considerable town of France, near Nancy. — 1749. 

Lupice, La Rocca, a small town of the Neapolitan territory. — 


Laitrivianum, qu ? Lodeve, an ancient town of France, in Lari- 
guedoc ? A book in the Bodleian library, written by Theodore 
Beza under the assumed name of B. Passavantius, bears the im- 
print Lutriviani, 1584 : but I am not perfectly certain as to its 
having been executed here. 

Luxemburgum, Luxemburg, a large, ancient, and strongly for- 
tified town of the Netherlands, capital of the grand duchy. The 
art of printing was in use here at least so early as 1578; in which 
year a tract on the side of the king of Spain, and against the 
Netherlanders, was executed at Luxemburg by Martin Marchant. 

Luyck, the Flemish name of Liege, occurs in Flemish books 
printed there : and is also found in a collection of Romish prayers 
in the Welch language, printed by a Jesuit at Liege in the year 
1670.— (Bodl.) 

Lycium, or Licium, Leece, a large and handsome episcopal city 
of Naples, in the province of Otranto. — 1634. 

Lynchburg, a post-town, situated in Bedford county, in the 
state of Virginia, North America. A printing-press was esta- 
blished here previously to the year 1810 ; in which year a monthly 
publication was regularly issued by the name of The Lynchburg 
Evwiigelical Magazine, 


Macabebe, a town situate in one of the Philippine islands. An- 
tonio, in his Bibliotheca Hispana, tom. i. p. 319, mentions a work 
by Franciscus Coronel, an Eremite friar, entitled, Catecismo y 
doctrina Christiana en lengua Pampamga, (one of the dialects 

154 MA. 

used in the Philippine isles,) printed in the town of Macabebe, in 
the year 1621, in 16°. 

Macao, or Amacao, a seaport town of China, situate on an island 
in the bay of Canton. This town has been for many years in the 
hands of the Portuguese ; and became, with Goa, one of the chief 
' seats of their ecclesiastical authority in India. 

It is certain that the Jesuits had early a printing establishment 
in IMacao. Peignot assigns the year 1593 as the period of the 
introduction of typography : but Scheuchzer, in his introduction 
to Kaempfer's history of Japan, (fol. London, 1737) mentions a 
rare and curious book, containing an account of an embassy from 
the court of Japan to that of Rome, which was printed in Japanese 
and Latin, In Macaensi portu Sinici regni, in domo Socletatis 
Jesu, cumjacultate ordinarii et superiorum, anno 1590, 4°. This 
is the earliest Macao book which I have seen noticed ; a copy of 
it is in the rich collection of Mr. W. Marsden. 

Respecting the printing carried on in this place in more modern 
times by the British, the following particulars may not be unac- 
ceptable. The English Missionary Society having deemed it of 
the highest importance to establish (if possible) a mission in the 
Chinese empire, sent out in January 1807 the Rev. Robert Mor- 
rison as their first missionary to those parts : he landed safely in 
September of that year ; and after a short residence at Canton, 
took up his quarters at Macao. It being a principal object with the 
Missionary Society that a Chinese version of the Holy Scriptures 
should be made and circulated among the natives, Mr. Morrison's 
attention was early devoted to this subject. In 1810, having by 
hard study made some progress in the Chinese language, he ven- 
tured to print (from wooden blocks in the manner of the country) 
some portions of the New Testament, and several religious tracts. 
Having in 1814 nearly completed a laborious and full Chinese 
Enghsh Dictionary, and being desirous of printing it, the East 
India Company determined to afford him some assistance, and ac- 
cordingly sent out Mr. P. P. Thoms with an European press, 
types, and other materials for printing, which were safely landed 
at Macao on the 2d of September, 1814. The press was soon set to 
work ; but, from many obstacles which attended the casting and 
cutting of moveable metallic types representing the Chinese cha- 
racters, it proceeded very slowly during the first year. The Dic- 
tionary however began to appear ; and in course of time has been 

MA. 155 

brought to its conclusion, under the following title : A Dictionary 
of the Chinese language, iy the Rev. Robert Morrison. Macao, 
printed at the Honourable East India Cmnpany's press, by P. P. 
Thorns, 1815, 1819, 1820, 1822, 4 vols. 4to. It is printed upon 
fine Chinese paper ; and both types and presswork are extremely 
neat. In the advertisement prefixed to his first number, the au- 
thor bears honourable testimony to the exertions of Mr. Thoms ; 
on whom he declares that the various duties of compositor, 
pressman, reader, and corrector, entirely devolved, aided only by 
natives who understood not the English language. In part II. 
Dr. Morrison thus apologizes for the inferiority of the Chinese 
characters : " The Chinese letters in this part of the Dictionary 
" are confessedly deficient in elegance of form. The large ones 
" in the first part of the dictionary are in general beautifully 
" written ; but those in this volume, though correct, are some- 
'' times clumsy. It appears that the difference was occasioned by 
" an act of the Chinese government : it said, ' You may learn our 
" language if you can ; but we will afford you no facilities : our 
" subjects shall not cut letters for you.' In consequence of this 
" decision, it became necessary for an English printer to write the 
" characters, and to employ Portuguese subjects to cut them. 
" And, for some time, neither the writer, printer, nor type-cut- 
" ters, had any native assistance. The experiment proved to all 
" parties that such assistance was not now indispensable." 

In the introduction to part I. Mr. Morrison favours us with the 
following information. " Paper was invented in China, by a per- 
" son named Tsae-lun, about the end of the first century. In 
" ancient times wooden thin boards, or bamboos pared thin, were 
" used to write on. The next step was to write on silk or cloth. 
" Their pencil at first was the point of a stick, which they dipped 
" in a liquid ink. Hair pencils were invented so early as 300 
" years B. C. Their squares of ink, as now used, were known 
" about A. D. 600. Printing, it is said, was first introduced to 
" the notice of government, by a minister of state called Fung- 
" taou, who was Woo-tae-jin, a person who lived during the five 
" latter dynasties : he Hved to the commencement of the dynasty 
" Sung, about the middle of the Xth century, when the art of 
" printing prevailed. The first essay is said to have been, to take 
" an impression on paper from a stone tablet on which letters had 
" been engraved : by this process the ground of the paper was 

156 MA. 

" black and the characters white. Impressions on single sheets 
" only were taken in this way ; but this led to the invention of 
" wooden blocks, or wooden stereotype printing, which has conti- 
" nued to the present time. Type-cutters now worship Fung- 
" taou as their patron-deity, in the same way as the learned wor- 
" ship Confucius.'" 

Dr. Morrison has also published A View of China, 4°. Macao, 
iy P. P. Thorns, 1817. The Roman Catholics at present pos- 
sess in Macao an establishment called the College of' St. Joseph, 
originally founded by the Jesuits, but at their suppression trans- 
ferred by the crown of Portugal to the priests of the missionary 
congregation ; in which they carry on printing for the various pur- 
poses of their mission. In September 1822 the first number of a 
Portuguese Journal called " The Chinese Bee" made its appear- 
ance at Macao. 

Macerata, an episcopal town of Italy, with an university. — 

Maclovium, or Macloviopolis, St. Maloes, a considerable sea- 
port of the north west of France, in Bretagne. A college of Eng- 
lish Benedictines was founded here in the year 1611, which in 
1642 was transferred to Paris. A curious book, containing A 
Sacred Drama in Breton poetry, printed here by Pierre Marci- 
gay in 1609, may be seen in the Bodleian library; and is the 
earhest St. Maloes publication which I have met with : its typo- 
graphical execution is but indifferent. 

Madras, or Fort St. George, the principal settlement of the 
English East-India company, on the coast of Coromandel. It is 
a large and populous place, divided into the Blach and the White 
Town ; and, from its extensive commerce, so various were its in- 
habitants, that 80 years ago Niecamp observed that no fewer than 
twenty-three languages were in common use within it. The Ar- 
menians, who inhabit the part called the Blach Town, have here 
a press, [and also another at Edchmiazin, a monastery of Armenia, 
in which the chief of their church resides.] I have not ascertained 
the period of the introduction of typography into Madras. A 
Tamulic version of the New Testament was printed here in 1777: 
and some Almanacs, or Calendars, so early as 1772, and follow- 
ing years. In 1819 an additional press was sent out by the Eng- 
lish Church Missionary Society, which has been employed on the 
revised Taraul version of the Holy Scriptures. 

MA. 157 

MADRITVM, or MATRITVM, caUed also Colohia Viriaia 
or Viriathica, Madrid, the metropolis of Spain. It is perhaps re- 
markable that we have no other proof of early printing carried on 
at Madrid than a single volume, and that executed at the very 
close of the XV th century ; when we remember that the art had 
long been received into Spain, and that printing had been exer- 
cised at Seville, Saragossa, and even at Granada, for some years 
previously. The book in question is named Leyhas hechas por el 
rey Fernando y la reyna dona Ysabel, &c. printed in 1499 : but 
Mendez is exceedingly disposed to doubt its having been executed 
at Madrid, and rather attributes it to the press of Fernando de 
Jahen at Valladolid. The next earliest Madrid printing, as de- 
scribed by Panzer, is of the year 1508. 

MAGDEBVRGVM, Magdeburg, an ancient and strong city 
of Lower Saxony, capital of a duchy, seated on the Elbe. The 
earliest Magdeburg book now known is Officmm Missa, printed 
by Albertus Ravenstein and Joachim Westval, in 1488. 

■William Le Maier, a printer of Lyons in the XVIIth century, 
often omitted the name of his place of residence. 

Mcyorica, see Pdhna Balearium. 

Malabar coast. " The first book printed on this coast was the 
" ' Doctrina Christiana' of Giov. Gonsalvez, a lay brother of the 
" order of Jesuits, who cast Tamulic characters in the year 1577- 
" After this, in 1598 there appeared a book entitled Flos Sanc- 
" iorum, which was followed by the Tamulic Dictionary of 
" Father Antonio de Proenza, printed in the year 1679 at Amba- 
" lacate, on this coast." Hamilton's Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 283. 

Malaca, Malaga, an episcopal city of Spain, in Granada. Print- 
ing was exercised here (but not in the best manner) in the years 
1599 and 1600, by Juan Rene.— (Bodl.) 

Malacca, the capital town of the kingdom of Malacca, in the 
province of Malaya in southern Asia ; reported to have been for- 
merly a strong, rich, and flourishing place, but much decayed of 
late years. It was once a bishop's see, and contained a noble col- 
lege of Jesuits. Malacca was taken from the natives, in the year 
1511, by the Portuguese ; from whom the Dutch, perceiving all 
the advantages of its situation for trade, wrested it in 1641. With 
them it remained until the year 1795, when victory consigned it 
to the British. In pursuance of a treaty, England restored it to 
the Dutch government in September 1818. 

158 MA. 

Although the Portuguese Roman Cathohcs have for a long 
time had a mission at Malacca ; yet, as far as I can learn, the in- 
troduction of the art of printing is not owing to them, but to the 
British missionaries, at a much later period, and under the follow- 
ing circumstances. 

The Rev. William Milne, second missionary to China and the 
adjacent countries, under the Rev. Dr. Morrison, and joint trans- 
lator with him of tiie Holy Scriptures into the Chinese language, 
first touched at Malacca on the 11th of August, 1814. In 1815 
Malacca, already a colony of Dutch Protestants, was fixed on by 
Dr. Morrison and Mr. Milne as a desirable place for the chief seat 
of a mission which should embrace China and the surrounding 

Mr. Milne, fixing himself there, began to execute some works 
by the Chinese method of printing by blocks, which he continued 
for several years afterwards : among other things he produced 
" The Chinese Magazine," a monthly publication, the first num- 
ber of which was published on August 5, 1815. 

In January 1816 permission was asked and obtained from the 
government for the erection of an European printing-press ; 
which, with founts of English and Malay types, the necessary ap- 
paratus, and some workmen, arrived from Bengal in November of 
that year. As no immediate employment was ready for these 
workmen on their arrival, the press was made to commence its 
labours with an edition of " Bogue's essay on the New Testa- 
" ment^'' in octavo, 250 copies; followed by " Doddridge's rise 
" and progress of religion in the soul,'''' also in octavo, a like 
number of copies. Block -printing, for works in the Chinese lan- 
guage was still continued. In the year 1817 a periodical work in 
the English language, intended to contain miscellaneous intelli- 
gence, was planned and undertaken ; the first number of which, 
under the title of " The Indo-Chinese gleaner" was published 
in May of that year. It continued to appear quarterly. 

In 1817 Mr. Thomsen, an English missionary, who principally 
devoted himself to the purposes of a mission among the Malays, 
printed here " The Ten Commandments, with the Lord's Prayer," 
also " Dr. Watts' First Catechism ;" and in the next year a " Malay 
" Spelling-book :" which works are beheved to be the first ever 
executed in that character. 

On the 11th of November 1818, the foundation of the " Anglo- 

MA. 159 

" Chinese college," an institution deeply indebted to the muni- 
ficence no less than the exertions of the Rev. Dr. Morrison, was 
laid with great rejoicing and ceremony, in presence of all the local 

The above information may be relied on as authentic, having 
been derived from the fountain-head ; viz. from a " Retrospect of 
" the first ten years of the Protestant Mission to China &c. by 
" William Milne. Malacca, printed at the Anglo-Chinese press, 
" 1820," a handsome octavo volume, of 376 pages on Indian 
paper, a copy of which chance threw into my possession. Section 
XVII. of Mr. Milne's work, p. 222 — 287, contains a very minute 
and valuable account of the various methods of Chinese printing, 
with a comparative view of the advantages and disadvantages of 
the Chinese and European modes : some interesting particulars 
respecting the printing of Dr. Morrison's Chinese Dictionary at 
Macao : and a descriptive catalogue of books and tracts written 
and printed by the members of the Ultra^Ganges missions up to 
the close of the year 1819. This entire chapter is exceedingly 
deserving of perusal, but is much too long for insertion here, 
while the nature of its contents does not admit of abridgement. 

Mr. Milne's death took place at Malacca on the 2d of January 
1822. On the 20th of May 1823 the printing of the whole Chi- 
nese version of the Scriptures was finished. The Anglo-Chinese 
college is still conducted with unwearied activity and zeal. 

Malda, a town of considerable size and trade, seated on the 
Ganges, chief of a district of the same name, in Bengal. The 
library of M. Langl^s contained a copy of an English and Per- 
sian Vocabulary, by Fr. Gladwin, which was printed here in 
1780, in 4to. 

Malliacum, Maillzais, a town of France, in La Vendee; or 
perhaps Mailly. — 1616. 

At Maill^ was printed in 1616 an edition of the Universal his- 
tory of the Sieur de Dauligni, in two volumes folio, with the im- 
print " a Maill6 par Jean Moussat imprimeur ordinaire du dit 
" Sieur." This edition is very rare, having been burnt by the 
hands of the common hangman at Paris, on account of some in- 
discreet disclosures, from which later editions are free. 

Malmogia, Malmoe, a seaport of Sweden, in Schonen. Print- 
ing was introduced to Malmoe about the year 1528 or 1529, by 
Olaus Ulricksen, who probably had come from Suderkoping, 

160 MA. 

where the press of bishop Braschius, the enemy of the Reforma- 
tion, had been suppressed by Gustavus Adolphus in the year 
1528. The earliest known Malmoe book bears the date 1529. 
Alnander remarks that no printing was carried on in that town 
subsequently to the year 1668. 

Malta, a well-known and important island of the Mediterra- 
nean. In the Report of the British and Foreign Bible Society 
for 1821, a book entitled, Compendio dalla dottrina Christiana, 
1816, is said to be " the only one printed on the island." This 
assertion, however, appears to have been founded in error: since, 
in the Bibliotheca Marchiana, we have notice of a work, Delia de- 
scrittione di Malta isola nel mare Siciliano, which was printed in 
Malta in the year 1647: and the same work is adduced by 
Haym, in his Biblioteca Italiana, where the author, G. Abela, 
as well as the printer, Bonacota, are expressly named. [Since the 
publication of the first edition, I have had the good fortune to 
meet with two copies of this book, one in the Fagel library, and 
the other in that of lord Charlemont, at Dublin : it is a handsome 
folio, bearing for title, Delia descrittione di Malta isola nel mare 
Siciliamo, con le sue antichita, ed altra notizie, libri quattro, del 
commendatore Fra Gio : Francesco Abela. In Malta, per Paolo 
Bonacota, 1647. This imprint is repeated at the end of the 
volume, which contains upwards of 580 pages. It has an en- 
graved title, a map, plan, and several other engravings of no 
mean execution.] The " Bibliotheca Marsdeniana", (p 44.) speaks 
of a book said to have been printed at Malta so early as 1565; 
but I cannot help suspecting some error in this statement. As to 
the " Report" above-mentioned, it must merely allude to the 
American-mission-press, which was erected on the island about 
the year 1815 or 1816. 

Mancunium, Manchester, a large, populous, and manufactur- 
ing town of Lancashire in England. — 1732. 

Manfredania, a seaport town of Naples, erected in 1256 by 
king Manfred, out of the remains of Sipontum : it is an arch- 
bishop's see. — 1680. 

Manhemium, Manheim, a populous city of Germany, on the 
Rhine. The earliest Manheim printing which I have seen is some 
of the year 1738, handsomely executed at " the Electoral press." 

Manilla, the capital town of the Philippine islands, the see of 
an archbishop. ' I have not been able to trace the origin of typo- 

MA. 161 

graphy in this town : it probably was introduced by the Span- 
iards, soon after their taking possession of the colony. Thomas 
affirms that printing was carried on in 1590. Ribadeneira 
quotes a book printed here in 1610. The library of the late M. 
Langlfes contained a Japanese vocabulary printed at Manilla in 
1630, which at his sale in 1825 produced 599 francs, and was 
purchased for the Bodleian library, where it is now deposited. It 
is a small quarto tolerably executed, on silk paper, having a wood- 
engraving on the title, beneath which is the imprint, Con licencia 
en Manila, par Tomas Pinpin, y lacinto Magawriva, ano de 
1630. Antonio mentions a press which was erected within the 
college of St. Thomas, in 1640, at which we find Raymundus 
Magisa a printer in 1641. In the early part of the XVIIIth 
century the Roman Catholics were in possession of a press in Ma- 
nilla, from which they issued books in opposition to the efforts of 
the protestant missionaries of Tranquebar, and went so far as even 
to disseminate them within the town of Tranquebar itself. A Ja^ 
panese vocabulary printed here in 1726 was in the Pinelli library. 
Manresa, or Manxes, a considerable manufacturing town of 
Spain, in Catalonia. 

Printing was exercised here in the year 1788. (Bodl.) 
MANTVA, an ancient and celebrated city of Italy, capital of 
the duchy of Mantua, and a bishop's see. Mantua was early in 
admitting the art of printing : an edition of the Decamerone di 
Boccacio, of the year 1472, is considered to be the first book exe- 
cuted here. It is the second edition of the work, and was printed 
by Petrus Adam de Michaelibus, who calls himself ejusdem urbis 
civis imprimendi auctor. In the same year, the second edition of 
Dante was finished in this city ; and Panzer, in noticing a work, 
De venenis, by Petrus de Abano, printed also in this same year, 
describes a copy of it (to be seen in the Biblioth. Heidegg.) which 
had the initial letter of the first page engraved on copper, of a 
size sufficient to occupy the breadth of a whole column. " Thus," 
he observes, " we have a proof that copper-plate engraving was 
" practised so early as 1472." Mantua is likewise famous for an 
early established Hebrew press. A Hebrew work, Rabbenu 
Ascher primus ordo orach c/taiim, was printed here by Abraham 
Conath, in 1476, which was for many years considered the first 
printed Hebrew book, until the extensive researches of De Rossi 
had brought to light specimens of a still earlier date. 


162 MA. 

Mantua Carpetanorum, Villa Manta, formerly a city, now a 
small village in the immediate vicinity of Madrid ; and probably 
put for Madrid itself, as in the title of a work by Francisciis de 
Lugo ; and in another by Antonio de Padilla ; which last bears 
for imprint, Mantuce Carpetanorum, excudebat Alphonsus Gome- 
cius, curice regies typographus. 1568. — (Bodleian.) 

Maquasse, a town in the Bootchuana country in Southern Africa, 
at which two English Wesleyan missionaries established them- 
selves in the year 1823. " Having, in furtherance of their objects, 
" taken with them a press and types from the Cape of Good 
" Hope, they have printed an elementary school-book (the first 
" book ever printed in that language or country) which bears the 
" impress, Maquasse, 1826. It is in the Sichuan language with 
" the Roman character." Williams' Missionary Gazetteer, p. 343. 

Maracaibo, a large city of South America, lately capital of the 
Spanish province of Maracaibo, in the Caraccas. It is seated on 
a lake of the same name, and contains about 25,000 inhabitants. 

In the year 1824 a newspaper was published in this town. 

Marchena, a small town of Spanish Andalusia, situated nine 
leagues eastward of Seville. Mendez relates that at some period, 
which he does not name, the art of printing was carried on here. 

Ma/rhamna, see Chesroan. 

S. Maria Mayor, is the name of one of the Reductions, or Je- 
suit settlements, established during the eighteenth century in the 
province of Guayra, in Paraguay, South America ; it appears to 
have been of the first rank among these, and to have been the 
residence of the superior of the order. It also bore the name of 

Southey, in his " history of Brazil," takes notice that the Gua- 
rani Jesuits printed books in the Reduction of S. Maria Mayor, 
" long before there was any printing-press in Cordova, or in 
" Buenos Ayres, or in the whole of Brazil." He cites a Guarami 
Grammar, and a Guarani Vocabulary, both printed here, in very 
rude types, and conjectures that perhaps they may be the only 
productions of this press. He mentions no date ; but of course 
they must be prior to the year 1767, in which the Jesuits were at 
once expelled from the Spanish possessions. Both of these rare 
books are said to be in possession of Mr. Greenough. 

Ma/rchioburgvm, qu. whether Marckpurg, formerly called Mar- 
ciana Castra, a town of Germany in Stiria, seated on the river 

MA. 163 

Draave? or whether it means Brandenburg, or perhaps Coin, 
which is sometimes styled Colonia Marchica ? — Printing was exer- 
cised in this town in 1615. (TCD.) 

Marienborn, a palace belonging to the counts of Ysenburg 
Meerholz, in Wetl;eravia, which about the year 1737 became the 
residence of the Ordinary of the Moravian brethren. 

It is stated in Crantz's History of the United Brethren, that 
about the year 1744 " a small family printing-office was set on 
" foot here, with intent to print, in small quantities, some pieces 
" which were either not at all designed for the public, or not 
" until they were properly examined and amended ; and to dis- 
" tribute them solely among the labourers, both for their own 
" private use and for their revisal. But yet it could not be en- 
" tirely prevented that more members of the congregation, also 
" friends, and even enemies, of theirs, got them into their hands, 
" and the last often sooner than the Brethren themselves." 

The same author, in his account of Greenland, especially with 
reference to the Moravian mission, observes that in the year 1746 
John Beck, one of those missionaries, was residing at Marienborn 
in order to superintend the printing of some religious pieces which 
had been translated into the language of Greenland, by Beck 
himself, and others of his brethren, for the use of the converted 
Greenlanders. Also, under the year 1759 occurs another notice, 
of Beck's returning to Greenland, with his wife &c., bringing 
with them from Marienborn " an acceptable present to the Green- 
" landers, the translation of the narrative of our Lord's passion 
" according to the harmony of the four Evangelists ; and a small 
" hymn-book consisting of ancient and modern hymns, which he 
" with the assistance of the brethren had translated from time to 
" time, and had now got printed anew." 

Marienburg, a town of Upper Saxony in Misnia, distant about 
ten leagues from Dresden. It is said that John Henry Miller, 
formerly a printer at Zurich, and afterwards sft Philadelphia, 
erected a press in this town in the year 1744, where he published 
a newspaper. His residence in Marienburg however was not of 
long continuance, and after various peregrinations he finally fixed 
himself in Pennsylvania, where he ended his days in the year 

Marienwerder, a considerable manufacturing town of West 
Prussia, capital of a government and circle. Dr. Matthew Wolff's 


164 MA. 

Genera et Species Plantarum was printed here in the year 1781. 

Marietta, a commercial town of the state of Ohio, situate on 
the river Muskingum, in North America. Thomas mentions 
that at a period subsequent to 1799 a newspaper, entitled the 
CJiio Gazette, began to be printed at this place. 

Marinum, San Marino, a town of Italy, in the duchy of Ur- 
bino.— 1777. 

Marpurgum, Marburgum, or Martishurgum, Marpurg, a 
strong town of Germany, the capital of Upper Hesse ; it has an 
university founded by Philip, landgrave of Hesse, in the year 
1526. The art of printing was introduced into Marpurg about 
1527; and it is, in all probability, this town which Wm. Tyn- 
dale designates, in his English translation of the Pentateuch of 
the year 1530, and in some other volumes printed about that 
time, as Malborow in the land of Hesse. 

MARSIPOLIS, Mersburg, a town of Saxony, formerly in 
Thuringia, once a bishop's see. Panzer notices only three speci- 
mens of printing here during the XV th century, the earliest of 
which is a Treatise qfSt.Augustin, executed by Lucas Brandis, in 
the year 1473. Of the other two, one is of the same year 1473, 
the other of 1479. Lucas Brandis appears, after quitting Mers- 
burg, to have established himself at Lubec. No books are given 
by Panzer as printed at Mersburg between the years 1479 and 
1536, the limit of his researches, 

Martinico, one of the windward Caribbee islands. Thomas 
mentioned (in 1810) that a Gazette had for several years past 
been printed and published at Martinico. 

Martinmunoz (qu ?) is named by Mendez as one of the places 
in Spain at which typography was exercised (at some period un- 
mentioned by him)'. 

Massa, a town of Italy in Tuscany, capital of the duchy of Massa- 
Carrara. A Life of Pope Nicholas V. in Italian, was printed here in 
1679, which may be seen in the royal library of George the Third. 
Massilia, Marseilles, an ancient and celebrated city of France, 
in Provence, seated on the Mediterranean. From the work of 
M. Henricy we learn that typography was introduced to Mar- 
seilles in the year 1594, by Peter Mascaron : and that in 1670 
an Armenian printing-office, transferred from Amsterdam, was 
established here, which continued only until 1684. 

MA.— ME. 165 

MATISCO, Ma9on, an ancient and considerable town of 
France, in Burgundy, formerly a bishop's see, and capital of a 
district. No early printing at Ma^on is mentioned by Panzer &c: 
but the diligence of M. Van Praet has brought to light a proof 
that typography was exercised in this town before the close of the 
XVth century, in a Diurnale Matisconense, in 18mo, printed here 
by Michael Wensler of Basle, in the year 1493. This precious 
little volume, on vellum, is preserved in the royal library of Paris. 

Mauriana, St. Jean de Maurienne, a town in Savoy. — 1704. 

Mazzarvno, an inland town of Sicily, in the Val di Noto. A 
book entitled, nAmbasciadore politico Christiana, by prince 
Charles Maria Carqfa, was printed here in 1690. 

Mechlinia, Mechlin, or Malines, an archiepiscopal city of the 
Netherlands. The art of printing was exercised in this city, by 
Jacob Heyndrix, in the year 1582. (TCD.) 

Medina, qu ? — 1575. 

Medioburgum Zelamdorum, sometimes Middelburgmm, Mid- 
dleburg, capital of the isle of Walcheren. Printing was executed 
here at least so early as 1582 ; of which year an English book, 
Robert BrowrCs lives of all true Christians, exists in Trinity 
college, Dublin. Several other English works were executed 
at Middleburg before the close of the XVIth century, among 
which are Dudley Fenner's Song of Songs, and some pieces of 
that extraordinary and eccentric character, Hugh Broughton. 
In 1584 R. Schilders, who styles himself printer to the states of 
Zealand, put forth at this place a Dutch translation of Lord 
Burleigh's celebrated tract " On the execution of justice in Eng- 
',' land &c." which had first appeared about the year 1578. This 
version may be seen in the hbrary of Trinity college, Dublin. 

I should observe that a History of France vmder Charles IXih, 
in three volumes 12mo, bears for imprint, Meidelboug pa/r Hen- 
rich Wolff. Whether printed in this town I cannot say. A copy 
of it is in Marsh's library, Dublin. 

MEDIOLANVM, Milan, an ancient and celebrated city of 
Italy, capital of the Milanese. It is the see of an archbishop, and 
contains an university, founded by the empress Maria Theresa in 
1766, several academies of arts and sciences, and the famous Am- 
brosian college and library. Milan justly glories in its early adop- 
tion of the art of printing : there is yet remaining, in the library 
of the Athenaeum at Turin, a book bearing date 1469, namely 


166 ME. 

Miracoli de la gloriosa Verzene Maria, printed in this city by 
Philippus de Lavagnia, who styles himself Jmjus artis stampandi, 
in Jiac urbe primus lator atque inventor. Lavagnia, who con- 
tinued to print until the year 1489, was followed or accompanied 
by Antonius Zarotus, whose earliest works are dated 1470, or 
1471 ; by Christopher Valdarfer, from Venice, in 1474 : by 
John Bonus, in 1475. We are indebted to the Milan printers 
for many editiones principes of highly interesting works ; among 
which it would be unpardonable not to mention The Greek 
Grammar of Constamtine Lascaris, executed here by Dionysius 
Paravisinus in 1476, a work of the utmost rarity, and of which 
Italy has reason to be proud, inasmuch as it is the first Greek 
book ever printed. In Germany, where the art took its rise, 
nothing had been attempted in Greek, except some few detached 
words, such as may be seen in the Mentz editions of Cicero's 
Offices, which indeed are sufficiently ill-executed ; [nor in truth 
was a single book, entirely Greek, printed in Germany during 
the whole of the XVth century ; the earliest known being an edi- 
tion of Prisciam, executed at Erfurdt in 1501. J Nor had any 
thing more appeared in the Greek character even in Italy, until 
the completion of this work, which is a beautiful as well as in- 
teresting specimen. At Milan likewise was produced the first 
printed portion of the holy Scriptures in Greek, namely. The 
Psalms, executed at the expense of Bonaccursius Pisanus, in 
1481. Copies of each of these rare books may be seen in the 
Bodleian library. 

Mediterranean. I have seen two publications which profess to 
have been printed on board a ship out at sea, one of which is en- 
titled. The bloody Jcnirnal kept by William, Davidson, on board 
a Russian pirate, in the year 1789- — Mediterranean, printed on 
board his majesty's ship Caledonia, 1812. 8°. four pages of pre- 
face, and thirty-four of text. A copy of this volume is preserved 
in the library of Corpus Christi college, Oxford. The second 
book consists of two speeches, one of which is called. The Tri- 
bunal of the Inquisition, and the other, Bread and Bulls. Medi- 
terranean, printed on board his majesty's ship Caledonia, off 
Toulon, 1813. small 4°. containing pp. 96. Copies of this last 
are in the Bodleian and in Corpus Christi college library. 

Mekelbourg occurs as the imprint of a book entitled, Pre- 
sages de la decadence des Empires, printed in 1688. Qusre, 

ME. 167 

whether Mecklenbourg be meant, or the name be entirely ficti- 
tious ? 

MeldcB, Meaux, a town of France, formerly the see of a bishop- 
Panzer notices an edition of the Jour Gospels, according to the 
Vulgate, published here by Jacobus Faber in the year 1522, at 
the expense of Simon Colinaeus, the celebrated printer of Paris : a 
fine copy of which handsome and well-printed volume may be seen 
in the library of Trinity college, Dublin, and a second in that 
founded by archbishop Marsh. No other book is given by him. 

Meldorpium, Meldorp, a town of Denmark, in the district of 
South Dithmarsch.— 1788. (Bodl.) 

MEMMINGA, Memmingen, a strong town of Germany, seated 
near the river Iller. The earliest specimen of the typography 
of this town is an edition of the well-known chronicle, entitled, 
Fasciculus temporum, the popularity of which is attested by the 
fact of more than thirty editions having been printed previous to 
the year 1500. This work was executed in 1482, by Albertus 
Kunne de Duderstadt, who had previously been a printer at 
Trent ; and who appears to have reigned without a rival at Meffl- 
mingen, as more than fifty of his books are mentioned by Panzer* 
in the XVth century, but not one single volume executed by any 
other printer. 

St.Menehauld, (S. Menehildis Fanum,) a small town of France, 
in the department of the Marne, distant forty-five miles, south-' 
east, from Rheims. Typography appears to have been exercised 
here in the year 1722. Barbier, in the new edition of his Dic- 
tiannaire des Anonymes, gives us an interesting account of a work 
Written by the AbM PMlvpaux, grand vicar of the celebrated Bos- 
suet, which, together with an edition of the Provincial Letters of 
Pascal, and the first volume of Anecdotes on the state of the reli- 
gion of the Chinese, (all three printed at St. Menehould,) was 
seized by the police in the house of the printer Gabriel Daliege, 
on the 24th of April 1733. The copies were confiscated and 
burnt ; and the printer and some of his workmen were consigned 
to the Bastile, and suffered an ignominious punishment. 

MESSANA, Messina, an ancient and fine city of Sicily, the 
see of an archbishop. The earliest Messina book known is am 
Italian Ufe of St. Jerome, printed by Henry Aiding in the year 
1473. It appears that Aiding came originally from Rome, which 
city he left in 1471, and, taking with him some workmen, steered 

M 4 

168 ME. 

his course for Catana in Sicily, but was induced to change bis 
place of residence to Messina, where he probably commenced 
business in that or the following year. Very little printing was 
done here during the remainder of the XV th, or the early part of 
the XVIth century. Petrus Brea printed at Messina in the years 
1614—24. (Bodl.) 

Metce, or Mediomatrices, or Divodurum, Metz, an episcopal 
city of France, capital of the department of the Moselle. Print- 
ing was introduced into it so early as 1501, and appears to have 
been continued, on a moderate scale, throughout the century. 

Meihymna, or Metina Campi, Medina del Campo, a town of 
Spain, in Leon. Panzer notices two books executed here, of the 
dates 1504 and 1514 : to which may be added another of the year 
1511, entitled, Perez de Gusman, Valerio de las istorias escolasti- 
cas y de Espana. (Thorpe's Cat. 1826.) Towards the middle 
of this century numerous works appear to have been printed at 

'Meihymna Duelli, appears to be the same town. This imprint 
occurs in a medical work of Gometius Pereira, executed by Fran- 
ciscus a Canto in the year 1558. I have never seen it on any other 

Mexico, a grand and beautiful city, lately the metropolis of the 
Mexican empire in New Spain, the residence of the Spanish vice- 
roy, and an archbishop's see : but, since the recent political revo- 
lution, it is become the chief city of the " united federal republic 
" of Mexico." This city was finally conquered from the natives, 
by the Spaniards under Hernan Cortes, on the ISth of August 
1521. It stands partly on the site of the more extensive city of 
ancient Mexico or Tenochtitlan, which was originally built in the 
year 1325, and at that time occupied some small islands in the 
lake of Tezcuco, the waters of which have at a more recent period 
retreated to a considerable distance. It contains a royal and pon- 
tifical university, founded by the emperor Charles V. in 1551 ; 
the royal college of San Ildefonso; a royal academy; with a vast 
collection of religious houses, schools, hospitals, and other public 
institutions, rendering it altogether a scene of the utmost magni- 

Mexico has ever been regarded as the first spot on which the 
art of printing was exercised throughout all the vast dominions 
of the newly-discovered world. The precise time, mode, and 

ME. 169 

circumstances of its introduction have not been investigated with 
successful accuracy. Thomas, the only professed historian of 
American typography, merely states that a printing-press was 
established in the city at some period previous to the year 1569 ; 
and the earliest specimen of Mexican printing known to him was 
a Spanish and Mexican Vocabulary in folio, printed in 1571. 
A copy of this curious volume is preserved in the Bodleian library, 
among the various and rich collection of the learned John Selden : 
where also are to be found two other volumes printed at Mexico, 
which precede by four years that which has hitherto been con- 
sidered the earliest specimen. The first of these as-yet-unde- 
scribed morceaux is entitled, Doctrina Chi'istiana en lengua Cas- 
tellana y ^apoteca ; compuesta por el muy Reverendo padre Fray 
Pedro de Feria, provincial de la Orden de Sancto Domingo, en 
la provincia de Sanctiago de la nueva Hespaila. En Mexico, 
en casa de Pedro Ocharte. M.D.LXVII. Anos. The volume 
contains one hundred and sixteen leaves of text, besides eight of 
prefatory matter, and is licensed for the press by the archbishop 
of Mexico. The other work bears for title, Incipiunt Horcs 
Beatce Maria, Virginia, secundum ordinem Fratru Predicato- 
rum. Mexici, in edibus Petri Ocharte. 1567. And its colophon 
reads, Explicit coe ojfficiv, s'm ordinem jratru pdicatoru necno et 
officium beatcE Marie et copletoriu ta maius qua minus, impssumq; 
Mexici apud Petrum Ocharte typography, mense Aprili die viges- 
simo. 1567 anno. This volume contains thirty-nine leaves, on 
the first and last of which, as well as on several others, there are 

A work still earlier than either of these three occurs for sale in 
Messrs. Longman's Catalogue of books for 1820 and for 1822, 
where it is entered as Fr. BartholomcEi a Ledesma cfe VII. novce 
legis sacramentis summarium. Mexici, Antonius de Espinosa, 
1566. 4°. Nor should I omit to mention, that in Marsden's Ca- 
talogue of Dictionaries and Grammars, (London, 1796, 4°.) three 
books printed at Mexico at a period still more remote are set down. 
Marsden owns, however, that he had not himself seen them, nor 
does he refer to any collection in which they may be found. He 
gives them thus : 

1. Vocabulario Mexicano Mexici 1555. 8°. 

9i. Vocabulario en lengua Castellcma y Mexicana, por Alonzo 
de Molina Mexici 1555. 4°. 

170 ME. 

3. Artes de las lenguas Chiapa, Zoque, Celdales, y Cina-ca7U 
teca, por Fr. de Cepeda Mexico 1560. 4°. 

The second of these three appears to be an earlier edition of 
the Vocabulary of 1571 before-mentioned, and the first is in all 
probability nothing more than an erroneous description of the 

Antonio, in whose elaborate work, Bihlioiheca Hispcma, a 
great deal of information is to be found respecting Mexican typo- 
graphy, notices in various parts of his book no fewer than forty- 
eight productions of this press ; to the earliest of which, namely, 
Doctrina Christiana in lingua Mexicana, ah Alphonso de Molina, 
he assigns the date 1546, (found to be a misprint for 1564,) which 
is followed by other publications of the years 1555, 1556, 1565, 
&c. In Sotuellus' enlarged edition of the Bihlioiheca ScriptO' 
rum Societatis Jesu, composed by Rihadeneira, will be found 
notices of many books printed in this city, (as also in Lima and 
other places,) several of which are entirely passed over in silence 
by Antonio. 

But after all, a publication which I understand has been but 
recently imported into England, and one copy of which has been 
deposited in the Bodleian library, bids fair to bring us nearer to 
a right apprehension of the hitherto-undiscovered epoch of the 
birth of typography on the continent of America, than any which 
was previously known : it is the Bihlioiheca Mexicana, written 
by J. J. de Eguiara et Eguren, comprising an account of the 
authors and learned men of Mexico, as also the proceedings of 
three or four of the earliest Mexican councils, holden during the 
XVIth century. Unhappily no more of this work has been pub- 
lished than the first volume, containing only the letters A. B. C, 
which was printed at Mexico in 1755 ^. 

From an attentive .perusal of this volume I gather, that for the 
commencement of its acquaintance with the advantages of typo- 
graphy, Mexico is indebted to the exertions of its first viceroy, 
Antonius de Mendoza, who arrived in the year 1535, to occupy 
his exalted station. He appears to have been a man whose mind 
was steadily directed to the advancement and improvement of the 

■' Such at least is the information given to me, nor can I succeed in finding the 
second volume : yet there is ground for believing that it has appeared, since in the 
list of books given in Dr. Robertson's History of America, occurs a notice of this 
work, in 2 vols.fol. Mexico, 1775. 

ME. 171 

people committed to his care; and his esteem for literature is 
seen in the petition forwarded by him to the emperor Charles V. 
for the foundation of an university in the new world, the prayer 
of which was duly carried into effect by an edict issued by the 
emperor in the year 1551. Previously to this, however, the histo- 
rian remarks, that Mendoza had taken care that the art of print- 
ing should be brought from the old world into the new, and had 
established the first pririter in his capital of Mexico. " Prius 
" vero disertissimus homo curaverat typographiam in novum hunc 
" orbem ex antique deferri, primumque typographum Mexici in- 
" stituit, cujus formis multi statim libri excudi coeperunt." p. 221. 
The name of this printer we discover from one of his colophons 
to have been Joannes Paulus Brissensis, or Lombardus, a native, 
it seems, of Brescia in Italy. In this account Gonzales, a Spanish 
writer, is corrected for having asserted that printing was in use at 
Mexico in 1532. Before the removal of the viceroy to the go- 
vernment of Peru, an event which took place in the year 1551, 
he caused to be printed Ordinationes legumque collectkmes pro 
conventujuridico Mexiccmo, a folio volume, executed by Joannes 
Paulus in 1549, which therefore at present claims the honour of 
being the first book ever printed on the shores of the new world ! 
" But where," a man may feelingly exclaim, " where is so inter- 
" esting and valuable a relic to be now found ? has it never stept 
" beyond the confines of its native country ? or, if a single copy 
" has chanced to have been conveyed to Europe, does it still 
" slumber amid the dust and gloom of the Escurial ? or, still un- 
" happier, has it gone the way of every copy of its elder brother 
" the Mentz Donatus, of which scarcely a fragment, a ci git, re- 
" mains to bless the eyes and empt the pockets of the curious and 
" keen collector ?" I deeply regret my utter inability to offer any 
satisfaction on this point. Literary research is at present at a 
very high point of activity, and if such a volume be by any acci- 
dent discovered, let us hope that this country may find for it a 
safe and permanent home. 

The viceroy's volume was speedily followed by others in toler- 
able succession ; but since these are almost wholly unknown, I 
may perhaps gratify the taste of the curious in such matters, by 
setting down the titles of such books as are stated upon good 
authority to have been executed at Mexico prior to the Vocabu- 
lary of the year 1571. 

172 ME. 

I. Ordinationes legumque coUectiones pro conventu Juridico 

Mexicano. Mexici, per Joannem Paulwm Brissensem 

1549. fol. 

9,. Doctrina Christiana en lengua Mixteca, per Benedictum 

Fernandez 1550. 4°. 

3. Alphmisi a Vera Cruce, Recognitio Summulariim 1554. 4°. 

4. . Dialectica resolutio, aim textu Aristotelis 1554. fol. 

5. Franc. Cervantes Salazarii, dialogi 1554. 

6. AndrecB de Olmoz, ars et vocabularium Mexicanum 1555. 4°. 

7. Alphonsi de Molina, Vocabulario en lengua Castellana y 

Mexicana (1st edition) 1555. 4°. 

8. Francesco Marroquin, Doctrina Christiana en lengua Utla- 

tecd 1556. 4°- 

9. Sumario de las quentas de plata y oro que en los reinos del 

Peru son necessarias a los mercaderes 1556. 4°. 

10. Constitutiones arcMepiscopatiis admodum imsignis etjide- 
lissimcB civifatis de Tenuztitlam Mexico Novce HispanicB. 
ExcuscE a Joanne Pablos Lombardo, typographo primo in 
hdc magna insigni et fidelissimd civitate Mexici, decimd 
die Februarii anno D. 1556. fol. 

[Of this volume Eguiara observes, that it consists of forty-nine 
leaves, comprising an account of the proceedings of a provincial 
council assembled in 1555 by Alphonsus de Montufar, archbishop 
of Mexico. That in all probability a large impression of it was 
taken, since, like our earlier English Bibles, it was ordered to be 
publicly set out in all churches, and to be had of all rectors, 
vicars, &c. yet it had become extremely rare even in those parts 
of America where it was printed, and in Europe it was scarcely 
known that such a book had ever been in existence.] 

II. Alphonsi d Verd Cruce Physica Speculatio 1557. 
12. Speculum Conjugiorum 1557. 

13. Artes de las lenguas Chiapa, Zoque, Celdales, y Cina- 

canteca, por Fr. de Cepeda 1560. 

14. Alphonsi de Molina Catechismus (1546) 1564. 

15. Benedicti Fernandez Doctrina Christiana en lengua Mi- 
xtecd 1564. 4". 

16. Alphonsi de Molina Confessiotiario maior y menor 1565. 4°. 

17. BartholomcEi de Ledesma Summarium &c. 1566. 4°. 

18. Pedro de Feria Doctrina Christiana en lengua Castellana 
y ^apotica 1567. 4°. 

ME. 173 

19. Hor(B Beatce Marice Virginis 1567. 4°. 

20. B. Fernandez Doctrma Christiana &c. 1568. 4°. 

21. Manuale 1568. 

22. Alphonsi de Molina Arte de la lengua Mexicana y Castel- 

lana 1571. 8°. 

23. ' Vocdbulario Castell. y Mexicano (2d ed.) 1571. fol. 
Of the above volumes, we have the authority of the Bibliotheca 

Mexicana for N"?. 1. 2, 3. 4. 5. 6. 10. 11. 12. 14. 15. 16. 17. 21. 
Of Antonio's Bibliotheca Hispama for N^s. 7. 8. 9. 14. 16. 20. 22. 
N°. 13 is given by Marsden, in his Catalogue of Dictionaries ; 
and N"^ 18. 19. and 23. may be seen in the Bodleian library: 
where also is preserved another specimen, of a later period indeed, 
but by the same printer P. Ocharte, entitled Forma y modo de 
fundar las cqfradias del cordon de nro P. S. Fracisco, &c. 8ec. 
En Mexico, con licencia, en casa de Pedro Ocharte. 1589. The 
volume is in 16mo. and contains 76 leaves : and is cited by me as 
I do not observe any notice of it in either of the authorities above- 
named. Altogether we are at present acquainted with twenty- 
seven works printed at Mexico during the course of the XVIth 
century, twenty-one of which are of dates anterior to that of the 
Vocabulary of 1571, which for so long time was considered to be 
the earliest known Mexican book. And thus, in addition to the 
concurring testimony of several writers, we have in the volumes 
themselves suflBcient evidence that the art of printing was esta- 
blished on a most respectable footing in the new world within one 
century from the time of its genuine commencement in the old. 

Some of the latest specimens of the Mexican press which I have 
seen are of the years 1769 and 1770, the typographical execution 
of which is extremely good. 

[The Acts of the Constituent Assembly of the free state of Mex- 
ico, in four vols, octavo, printed at Mexico in 1824-5, and also 
hound in the same city, have recently been placed in the Bodleian 

It appears from Dr. Robertson's history of America, that News. 
papers were published at Mexico in the early part of the last cen- 
tury : he speaks of possessing the " Mexico Gazette for the years 
" 1728, 1729, and 1730, printed in quarto." In the year 1823 
Mr. Bullock found at this city three or four mediocre daily news- 
papers, but nothing which supplied the place of our magazines or 
other periodical publications. 

174 Mi. 

Micro-Praga, Little Prague, or Kleipsite, a quarter (said to 
be the most ancient) of the city of Prague. 

Balbinus notices a Bohemicm Bible, printed here by Bartho- 
lomew Netolitzky, in the year 1549. 

Middlehill, in Wiltshire, the seat of sir Thomas Philhps, bart. 
a diligent collector of manuscripts and rare books. Sir Thomas 
has established a private press at his residence, at which he has 
struck off from time to time a few copies of catalogues of some of 
his collections, and other pieces ; twelve or fifteen of these have 
been presented by him to the Bodleian library, but none of them 
bears an imprint, except one, the Catalogue of Anthony a Wood's 
MSS. which has, Typls medio-montanis, in turre Lativiensi re- 
impressus. 1824. 

St. Mihiel, a town of France, in Lorrain, seated on the river 
Maese.— 1620. 

Militello, occurs as the imprint of an edition of P. CarrercCs 
Italian work upon chess, printed in 1617 ; quaere whether it de- 
signates Melito, a small town of Calabria, not far distant from 
B,eggio, which (according to Baudrand) had once been of some 
consequence, but was exceedingly injured by an earthquake in 
1638, and has declined continually from that time "^ A copy of 
this edition of Carrera was sold in the Meerman library. 

Mindelhemitmi, Mindelheim, a considerable town of Bavaria. 
The only specimen of the typography of this town given by Pan- 
zer is of the year 1518. 

Minda, Minden, an ancient and considerable town of Prussia, 
the capital of a government of the same name : it is pleasantly 
seated on the banks of the river Weser, and was formerly a 
bishop's see. An edition of Luther's Bible was printed here in 
171^, folio, which may be seen in the king's library. The Bod- 
leian possesses a copy of a German mandate of Elizabeth, mar- 
gravine of Brandenburg, which was printed at this place in 

Mindona, Mondonedo, an episcopal city of Spain, in the pro- 
vince of Gallicia. Antonio mentions printing here so early as 
1550: and a book executed in that year was in the collection of 
don J. A. Conde, in 1824. 

Mirandula, Mirandola, an episcopal city of Italy, in Modo- 
nese. Jo. Fr. Plcus, the learned earl of Mirandula, first esta- 
bhshed a press in this city, the only remaining works from which 

MI. 175 

appear to be, Liber de veris calamitatum causis nostrorum tem- 
porum, 4°. 1519; and Examen vanitatis doctrince gentium, et 
veritatis religionis Christiance, fol. 1520; both written by the 
earl : a copy of the first is in the Bodleian library. I have ob- 
served no other Mirandola book of an earlier date''than 1612. 

Misena, or Misna, Meissen, a town of Saxony, formerly capital of 
the margraviate of Meissen, well known for its porcelain manufac- 
ture. Panzer, enumerating the books printed at Leipsic in the year 
1520, mentions a breviary, which bears for imprint, excusus Mis- 
nicB in aula episcopali per Melchiorem Lotiherum. It appears 
from Leichius' history of the Leipsic typography, that Melchior 
Lottherus of that town erected a temporary press at Meissen, in 
the palace of John de Salhausen, bishop of the place, at which 
the above mentioned work was executed. Printing was exercised 
in this town by Christopher Guntherus, in the year 1673, and for 
sixteen years afterwards. 

Misraim. Quaere what is the exact designation of this imprint ? 
it occurs in a Hebrew work, in 2 vols, quarto, containing portions 
of the Scriptures, with Rabbinical commentaries &c, as used in 
the Jewish service, with the date expressed in the usual manner. 
I saw the work in the possession of Mr. Offer; some former 
owner had caused it to be lettered on the back, " printed in 
" Egypt, in 1539." 

Missolonghi, or Messalonge, a considerable town of Bomelia, 
situate on the northern shore of the bay of Lepanto ; the inha- 
bitants of which, about five thousand in number, are chiefly em- 
ployed in fishing. Since the commencement of the present strug- 
gle of the Greeks for independence, Missolonghi has attained con- 
siderable importance, and two printing-houses are said to have 
been lately estabhshed there, from which issue two daily news- 
papers, under the title of The Grecian Chronicle, and The Gre- 
cian Telegraph. [Alas ! that this is no longer true ! since the 
disastrous siege of 1826, Missolonghi is no more than a heap of 

In the year 1824 a newspaper, entitled Kpovixa. 'Ex^jjvixa, was 
printed here, in a single sheet, 4to. On the 19th of April this 
town witnessed the death of the ardent supporter of the liberties 
of Greece, Lord Byron ; a funeral oration pronounced over him 
was printed in the same year. The types for this latter piece had 
been obtained from M. Didot of Paris : those of the newspaper 

176 MI.— MO. 

had been presented either by Lord Byron, or by the Greek com- 
mittee in London. 

Mittavia, Mittau, a large manufacturing town of European 
Russia, the capital of the government of Courland. — 1774. At 
present three journals are regularly published at Mittau. 

MOGVNTIA, Mentz, or Mayence, a large and strong city of 
Germany, on the Rhine, formerly the capital of the electorate 
of Mentz, and an archbishop's see : it has an university, founded 
in 1482. 

After all which has been written with such angry feehngs upon 
the long-contested question of the origin of the art of printing, 
Mentz appears still to preserve the best-founded claim to the 
honour of being the birthplace of the typographic art. For be- 
sides that the specimens adduced in favour of Haarlem and Stras- 
burg, even if we should allow their genuineness, are confessedly 
of a rude and imperfect execution, no volume has hitherto been 
discovered, (nor, after such intense and long-continued, yet un- 
successful, researches of bibliographers, in all probability ever will 
be found,) bearing a genuine date anterior to that of the cele- 
brated Mentz Psalter of the year 1457, executed by John Fust 
and Peter Schoeifer (or Schoiffer,) of Gernsheim. Of this volume, 
which, together with its reprint of 1459, the Mazarine Bible, and 
the other early Mentz books, is not only beautiful, but truly won- 
derful in point of execution, so much has been said by almost 
every bibliographer, that I am unwilling to gratify my feelings by 
entering here into a detailed description of it and them. M. Van 
Praet informs us that seven copies of this precious volume are 
known to be remaining, of which this country can boast of three 
at the least ; one of them being in the royal library of George the 
Third; a second in the noble collection of Earl Spencer; and a 
third in that of the Right Hon. Thomas Grenville ; the others 
being preserved at Paris (two copies), at Vienna, and at Dresden. 
[It is doubtful whether there be not an eighth, in possession of the 
emperor of Russia.] All these copies are said to differ from 
each other in some minute particulars ; that in the Imperial li- 
brary at Vienna is deemed the most complete. 

The second dated book known is the Psalter, of August 1459 ; 
of which M. Van Praet names ten remaining copies : of these ten, 
five (perhaps six) are in this country. The third is the Duran- 
dus, of October in the same year ; the fourth, the Constitutiones 

MO. 177 

Clementis PapcB V. ; and the fifth, the CathoUcon of Johannes de 
Janua, both of the year 1460; all which are the productions of 
this same city. Fine copies of the second, third, and fifth may be 
seen in the Bodleian library, and in some other collections in Eng- 
land. The earlier productions of the presses of the illustrious 
firm of printers, Guttemberg, Fust, and Schoeffer, supposed to 
have been executed between the years 1450 and 1455, are. The 
Mazarine Latin Bible, in two large and magnificent volumes ; of 
which seven copies are known : a Donatus, (for which consult the 
catalogue of the duke de la Valliere, tom. ii. p. 8. and Denis' 
Supplement to the Annales Typograpkid of Maittaire, p. 555.) 
and a Confessio generalis, or Modus confitendi, a small rudely- 
executed tract consisting of eight leaves in quarto. Mentz has 
also the honour of having produced the first dated Bible, viz. in 
1462 ; as well as the first dated classic author, namely the Offices 
of Cicero, in 1465. Fust and Schoeffer continued to print toge- 
ther until the death of the former in 1466, after which Schoeffer 
printed alone until the year 1502 ; and his sons followed the 
business for thirty or forty years afterwards. Besides these cele- 
brated printers, several others early established themselves in 
Mentz, among whom the most known are Henry and Nicholas 
Bechtermiinze, successors of John Guttemberg, who, after the 
dissolution of his partnership with Fust and Schoeffer, carried on 
the business by himself, and gave us the Catkolicon, with several 
other works ; these last began business at least so early as 1467, 
and their printing-establishment seems to have been situate at 
Alta-villa, or Eltvil, probably the name of some district of the 
city. A book, entitled Psalterium Breviariumque Maguntimense, 
bearing the date 1474, with the imprint, In domo Jratrum cleri- 
corwm communis vittB Vallis Saaictaz Maries eiusdem dioceseos in 
Rhingkavia, is supposed by Panzer to have issued from the 
presses of P. Schoeffer. This curious volume may be seen in the 
library of earl Spencer. 

Mohihw, a considerable town erf European Russia, seated on 
the river Dnieper : it is the capital of a province, and is remark- 
able for being the see of two archbishops, one of the Greek, the 
other of the Latin church. Bachmeister observes that printing 
was carried on here in 1617. 

Molina, Moulins, a considerable city of France, formerly ca- 
pital of the Bourborihois, seated on the river AUier. In the year 

178 MO. 

1644 Peter Vernoy was carrying on the business of a printer at 
Moulins, styling himself typographus regiiis: his workmanship 
is tolerably good.— (TCD.) 

Molshemium, Molsheim, a small town of Alsace, distant ten 
miles from Strasburg. A considerable college of Jesuits was 
founded here by John, bishop of Strasburg and landgrave of 
Alsace, in the year 1580. Printing was executed at Molsheim at 
least so early as 1618. 

MONACHIVM, Munich, or Munchen, a strong and fine 
town, capital of the kingdom of Bavaria: pleasantly seated on 
the river Iser, and flourishing with numerous scientific, literary, 
and charitable institutions. Although typography was early ad- 
mitted into this capital, yet Panzer mentions only two books exe- 
cuted here during the XVth century, by John Schopsser, one of 
which is dated 1500, and the other cannot be much anterior, since 
Schopsser carried on his trade at Augsburg until the year 1497. 
Nor was there much printing at Munich during the early part of 
the succeeding century. 

Monaco, a small town of the Sardinian .States, capital of the 
principality of Monaco. Printing was exercised here, by Gio- 
vanni Swartz, in the year 1586. — (Bodl.) 

MONASTERIVM, Munster, a large and populous city of the 
north-west of Germany, capital of the government of Westphalia. 
Panzer gives three works executed here in the XVth century, the 
earliest of which is some poetry of Rudolphus Langius, a canon 
of Munich, printed by Johannes Limburg, in 1486. Nor does it 
appear, from the researches of the same diligent bibliographer, 
that much printing was done at Munster before the year 1536 : 
it continued however to be partially practised, throughout that 

Monasterium Benedictinorum Casinas, see Casinas. 

Mons-Albanus, Montauban, a large and well-built town of the 
south of France, capital of a department. It is the see of a 
bishop, and contains a protestant university, which was founded 
in the XVIth century, and suppressed in 1629, but restored by 
Bonaparte in 1810. Printing was carried on at Montauban by 
Pierre Coderc, in the year 1637. — (Marsh's library.) 

Mcms-Argisus, Montargis, a considerable manufacturing town 
of France, in the department of the Loireti — 1785, 

MonS'Belligardus, or Mons-Belgardi, or Mampdgartum, 

MO. 179 

Montbelliard, a manufacturing town of the east of France, in the 
department of the Doubs. Printing was exercised here, by 
Jacobus Foyllet, in the year 1588.— (TCD.) 

Mons-F(discus, St. Oreste, a small town of Italy, seated on the 
Tiber, (or perhaps Monte-Fiascone, in the pope's dominions.) — 

Mons-Monachorum, a large abbey of Benedictines, seated with- 
out the walls of the city of Bamberg. Printing was carried on in 
this monastery in the XVth century. See Bamherga. 

Mons-Pessulanus, or MonspeUus, Montpelier, a large and an- 
cient city in the south of France, celebrated for the pleasantness 
of its public walks and scenery, and for the mild salubrity of its 
air. It is a bishop's see, and possesses a flourishing academy, and 
other public institutions. — 1650. 

Mons-Regalis, Monreale, an archiepiscopal town of Sicily. — 

MONS-HEGALIS ; Typography was exercised at a very 
early period at a place bearing this denomination ; which may de- 
note either Monreale, an archiepiscopal town of Sicily; Mont- 
real, a town of Spain; another of the same name in France; 
Mondovi, a large town of Piedmont ; Montrejan, a small town of 
France, on the Garonne; or Montereau, a town of France, seated 
at the conflux of the Yonne and Seine ; or possibly Konigsberg 
(Regiomontum,) in Prussia. Panzer, however, whose authority 
is not to be lightly disputed, interprets the name of Mondovi ; 
and it is observable that one of the early books remaining from 
this place bears for imprint. In Monte Regali, in piano vallis ; 
which perfectly agrees with Mondovi, of which one of the suburbs 
is called " Piano della Valle," the town itself being seated on a 
hill. La Serna Santander judges Monreale in Sicily to be the 
place designated. Four books of the XVth century are all which 
are now known to bear this imprint ; the earliest of which, a work 
of Antoninus, archbishop of Florence, was printed by Antonius 
Matthias, a native of Antwerp, and Balthassar Corderius, in 1472. 
Printing continued to be carried on at Mondovi during the suc- 
ceeding century. Of printing at Montreal im Spain I have not 
met with any certain notice before the year 1664. 

MONS REGIVS, Monte-rey, a town of Spain, in Galicia, dis- 
tant 23 miles from Orense. 

The only notice of a printing-establishment having existed at 

N 2 

180 MO. 

this town we owe to Mendez, who presents us with an account of 
a Missal (probably for the particular use of the diocese of Orense) 
which professes to have been executed at Monte-rey, by Gonzalo 
Roderique de la Pasera, and Juan de Porres, in the year 1494. A 
copy of this rare and interesting book was in the library of the 
abbot of Parada de Onteyro [probably a monastery near Orense.J 
Mendez conceives that the press was erected by the Conde Fr. de 
Zuniga, to whom the town and territory of Monte-rey belonged. — 
No second specimen is known. 

Mons-Regius, or Regiomonttim, Konigsberg, a large city, the 
capital of east Prussia, having an university, founded in 1544, by 
Albert first duke of Brandenburg. How soon typography was 
known at Konigsberg, I have not ascertained. The library of 
Trinity college, Dublin, contains a work of Osiander printed here 
in the year 1551. It bears for imprint Regiomonti PrussicB, 
1651, vrithout any printer's name. This is the earliest Konigs- 
berg book which has fallen within my observation. — (1560. 

Mcmt hrillant occurs as the imprint of a book mentioned in 
Barbier's Dictionnaire, (N". 6125.) with the date 1743, 

Montego bay, a town on the north coast of Jamaica. It was 
formerly flourishing and opulent ; but a fire in July 1795 almost 
entirely destroyed it. A press was worked here, and a newspaper 
published in the year 1775. 

Monies, Mons, a considerable city of the Netherlands, which 
appears to have received the art of printing in the middle of the 
XVIth century. The earliest book which I have observed cited 
is Les Coustumes S^c. de la ville de VallencMennes, bearing for 
imprint, a Mons, par J. Pissart, 1540. (Thorpe's Cat.) Cardi- 
nal Allen's Apology for the English Seminaries was printed at 
Mawnts in Hainault, in the year 1581. Le Long observes of 
the numerous editions of that well-known version of the New Tes- 
tament into French which bears the name and imprint of Mons, 
that not a single one of them was actually printed within this 

Montevideo, a large and populous city of the province of Bue- 
nos Ayres, in Peru, standing near the mouth of the river Plata, 
in South America. A printing-house was opened here in May 
1807 ; with the following ceremonies, as related by Is. Thomas 
(vol. ii. p. 396.) " In May, 1807, a printing-house was opened 

MO. 181 

" with much ceremony at Montevideo, on the river La Plata, in 
" South America, when it was in the possession of the British 
*' fleet and army. The first printing performed at the press in 
" this place was The prospectus of a Gazette. The commander 
" in chief, the admiral, and other principal officers of the province 
" were present. The first sheet from this press was presented to 
" the governor, the second to the admiral, and so on according to 
'' their rank. William Scollay, a young gentleman from Boston, 
" educated at the university of Cambridge, Massachusetts, was 
" appointed conductor of the press, and the editor of the Gazette, 
" for which he received a very liberal salary." 

Montilla, Montilla, a town of Spain, in the province of Cor- 
dova. Antonio mentions a work printed here in 1627. 

lofty mountain of Spain, in Catalonia, on which is a celebrated 
monastery of Benedictines dedicated to the Virgin Mary. In this 
monastery, which is one of the reformed, (or, " of strict obser- 
" vance,") the monks, in order that they might not want a sup- 
ply of such missals and other service-books as might be requisite, 
determined to introduce a printing-establishment, which they com- 
pletely effected, and set their press to work by the 4th of February 
in the year 1499. It happens that a minute history of this trans- 
action has been preserved to us from the archives of the monas- 
tery ; which is detailed by F. Mendez in his Typographia Espa- 
nola, p. 348, &c. and from which we learn that their printer was 
Johannes Luschner, a native of Germany, brought from Barce- 
lona ; that the first book finished was Meditations on the life of 
our Saviour (in Spanish) dated the 16th of April 1499: that 
their other works were Breviaries, Missals, Sec. of which in the 
whole they struck off no fewer than 7691 volumes, between the 
4th of Feb. 1499, and 15th of Nov. 1 500. Panzer describes, from 
Caballero, 15 of the pieces printed here; but takes no further 
notice of the establishment in the following century : we find how- 
ever from Mendez and the above author that the monks conti- 
nued to employ themselves in this most useful occupation until 
the year 1524, after which period we have no further account of 
their praiseworthy labours. 

Montreal, the capital of an island of the same name, in the 
river St. Laurence, in Canada : supposed to contain at present 
25,000 inhabitants. A press was established in this city by 


182 MO. 

Charles Berger and ^Fleury Mesplet, in the year 1775. A " Bib- 
" lioth^que Canadienne" is now in course of pubhcation here. 

Montreuil, a small town of France, six miles east of Paris. In 
the year 1663, Guy Patin observes in a letter, that the king of 
France made a seizure of some books which were clandestinely 
printing at Montreuil for the superintendent Fouquet, who was at 
that time a prisoner in the Bastile. 

Montroulles, must be some town within the diocese of St. Paul 
de Leon, in Bretagne. The Bodleian library contains a volume 
of Spiritual exercises, in verse and prose, composed in the Breton 
tongue by a priest of that diocese, which bears for imprint, E 
Montroulles, 1698. 

Morgii, Merges, a town of Switzerland, in the canton of Vaud, 
on the lake of Geneva. Le Long mentions a Latin version of the 
book of Genesis, printed here in 1568. In the year 1580 John 
le Preux exercised his art at Morges, styling himself " Printer to 
" the illustrious body of the Pastors and Professors of Berne." 

Morlaix, a considerable town of France, in Brittany. — 1626. 

Moscua, or Mosqua, Moscow, formerly the capital of the whole 
Russian empire, and the see of the patriarch of Russia, a dignity 
created in 1588, and abolished in 1721. This extensive and popu- 
lous city contains an university, founded in the middle of the 
XVIIIth century. 

It is asserted upon respectable authority, that printing was in- 
troduced into Moscow in the reign of duke John Basilowitz, 
about the year 1553 ; but the city being shortly afterwards burnt 
in an irruption by the Poles, the printing-office was consumed, 
together with all its materials, and a large stock of paper. The 
only specimen from this early press now known to be remaining is 
part of a Slavonic New Testament, executed by Ivan Fedor, and 
P. Timofeeu Matislauzow, dated March 1, 1564 ; the unique 
copy of which is preserved in the library of the imperial Academy 
of Sciences at St. Petersburg. In the succeeding century a press 
was reestablished at Moscow by the grand duke Michael Fredero- 
witz, the earliest book from which bears date 1644. Kohlius 
speaks in high terms of this second press, which gave to the world, 
he says, a large quantity of works, executed in so superior a style 
both as to type and paper, that they might fairly have been mis- 
taken for the productions of some of the famed printers of Hol- 
land. The books were chiefly, if not altogether, upon sacred and 

MO. 183 

ecclesiastical subjects. A revised version of the Slavonic Bible, 
taken partly from the old Ostrog edition, was printed in this city 
in 1663, folio, under the auspices of the grand duke Alexius 
Michaelowitz : copies of this are extremely rare, even in Russia 
itself ; yet an exquisite one may be seen in the royal library of 
George the Third. An ample and minute account of this edition, 
and of the corrections which it underwent, will be found in the 
first chapter of the work of J. P. Kohlius above referred to. Che- 
villier reports, on the authority of Andrew Thevet's Travels, that 
the types and materials of the first printing-establishment, in the 
XVIth century, were purposely consumed by the Russians them- 
selves. Thevet's account is as follows : (Vie des hommes illustres, 
tom. ii. c. 56, vie de Basile due de Moscovie.) " They had no 
" printing until the year 1560, when it was discovered to them 
" by a Russian merchant, who made use of types with which for 
" some time afterwards they executed very handsome books. All 
" at once, for they are scrupulous, and fond of making difficulties 
" where there is not the least appearance of them, some persons 
" by stratagem found means to burn their types, from a fear that 
" printing would introduce some changes or disturbances in their 
" religion." He adds, that neither the prince nor his subjects took 
any notice of this extraordinary proceeding. The above particu- 
lars Thevet affirms that he received in 1576 from an Englishman 
who had been ambassador to the Russian court seven years. 

After all, perhaps the best account of the first Moscow book 
and printing is that furnished to us by Bachmeister, chiefly from 
the volume itself, which he describes as being called Jpostol, i. e. 
the acts and epistles of the Apostles, a book of the very highest 
rarity, being the first printed in Moscow, in the year 1564, in the 
time of the Czar Ivan Wasilowitsch, a prince whose exertions 
were earnestly devoted to the civilization of his people, who intro- 
duced amongst them an acquaintance with the sciences and arts, 
amongst others, that of printing. 

The volume of the Apostol, having been accidentally picked up 
in the year 1730, was deposited by the finder in the library of the 
academy of St. Petersburg. The type and paper of it are repre- 
sented as good, the latter Bachmeister judges to have been 
brought by the merchants from England. At the end of the 
volume is a long " mandement" or ordinance, of which the follow- 
ing, as translated by him, is the part most to our purpose : " Des- 

184 MO. 

" lors par ordi^e du Tsar, et sous la benediction du M^tropblitain 
" en Tan du moiide 7Q61 (1553) et le SO^e de son regne on a fait 
'^ des recherches sut la maniere d'imprimer des livres : ensuite le 
" Tsar orthodoxe a fait batir a ses frais une maison qu'il a desti- 
" nee a rimprimerie, et a fourni sur le tr^sor public aux ouvriers 
" Ivan Feoder diacre de I'^glise du miraculeux Nicolas de Gos- 
" tein, et Pierre Timofdew Mstislavzof {sic) une somme sufSsante 
" tant pour les frais de rimprimerie que pour leur propre entre- 
" tien, jusqu'a ce que Touvrage ait ^t^ achev6. C'est le ig^^ 
" Avril, jour anniversaire du bien heureux Pere Ivan Palevret, et 
" Tan du monde 7071 (1563) que Ton a commence Timpression 
" du present livre qui contient les Actes des Apotres, les Epitres 
" catholiques, avec celles de S. Paul : on a fini de Timprimer le 
" 1 Mars de Tan du nionde 7072 (1564) qui a ete le premier du 
" ministere de Tarchevfique et metropolitain Athanase ; en I'hon- 
" neur de la toute puissante et vivifiante Trinit^ du Pere, du Fils, 
" et du Saint Esprit. Amen." If the accuracy of this translation 
is to be depended on, the question of the first appearance of typo- 
graphy at Moscow may be considered as finally decided. 

Bachmeister remarks, that after the Apostol no Moscow book 
appears for 32 years ; but is not inclined to give entire credence 
to the story of the press &c. having been utterly destroyed by the 
Poles, and all printing being lost until the erection of a new press 
by the Czar Michael Fedgrowitsch in 1644 ; since he had himself 
seen and handled Moscow books of the dates 1606, 1614, 1616, 
1618, 1619, &c. He informs us that in the year 1707 a fount of 
new and improved Russian types, cast at Amsterdam, was intro- 
duced into the Moscow printing-office. Also that in 1709 an in- 
dividual of the city established a press of his own. About thirty 
years afterwards a Geoi'gian printing-office was opened in Moscow 
by Andrew Johnson, in the suburb called Suesenzcha ; and Geor- 
gian types were cast by order of prince Vakuset, under whose 
auspices an edition of the Georgian Bible was printed here, in 
1743. Le Long cites an edition of St. Matthew's Gospel in eight 
languages, which was printed here in 1712. 

Moulsey, a village of England, near Kingston, in Surrey. I 
set down this place merely as being the most generally known of 
those which from time to time received that clandestine and va- 
grant printing-press, from which proceeded, in queen Elizabeth's 
time, the scurrilous publications well known by the name of Mar- 

MU-^MY. 185 

tin Mar-prelate, &c. conducted by Cartwright, Travers, Udall, 
John Penry, and others ; for whom the reader may consult Fuller, 
Strype, Camden, and other historians of thbse time$. Some ac- 
count of the movements of these gentry and their press may be 
found in Herbert's Ames, p. 1464; in D'Israeli's Quarrels of 
Authors, vol. iii. ; and in the Censura literaria. 

Mulhusium Duringorum, Thuringorum, or Tyrigetarum, 
Mulhausen, an ancient and considerable town of Prussian Saxony, 
in the government of Erfurt. Typography was practised here 
in the year 1561. 

MVRCIA, a populous city of Spain, capital of the province 
of Murcia, and a bishop's see. A single work printed here in 
the XVth century is given by Panzer ; the title of which is, El 
Valeria de las historias Escolasticas y de Espana: con copilacion 
de las BataUas Campales ; par Diego Rodrigues de Almela. 
The date of this is 1487, and the printer Juan de Boca. Mendez, 
the Spanish bibliographer, observes that the typography of Murcia 
is now known only by a few rare specimens : he is merely able to 
add to the work adduced by Panzer two others executed in the 
same year, both in the Spanish language : nor does it appear that 
Murcia possessed any other printer than Roca with his partner 
Gabriel Loysdringo, or that any printing was exercised in the 
town for upwards of a century from the year 1487. 

Mussipontum, Pons Moncionis, or Pons ad Monticulum, Pont- 
a-Mousson, a considerable town of France, on the river Moselle: 
it formerly contained an university, which was transferred to 
Nancy, {Namceium,) in 1768. Printing was exercised in this 
town at least so early as 1596, in which year an edition of Maldo- 
natus on the Gospels was executed here, in folio. — (TCD.) 

MVTINA, Modena, a strong and populous city of Italy, ca- 
pital of the Modenese, and a bishop's see. 

The earliest known book printed at Modena is an edition of 
Virgil, executed by Johannes Vurster de CampidonH, in 1475. 
Several other printers were settled in this city during the XVth 
century, among whom was Dionysius Bertochus, who professes 
his press to have been erected in cedibus subterraneis ! 

Mythig, or Mwythig, the Welsh name for the town of Shrews- 
bury, occurs in Welsh books printed there.— rl 718 8ec. 

186 NA. 


Nagercoil, a populous town of the southern district of Travan- 
core in Hindostan. It is a station of the London Missionary So- 
ciety, who have introduced a printing-press, at which several por- 
tions of the Holy Scriptures, and some tracts, in Tamul, have 
recently been "executed. 

Nagy Szombar, or Zombor, a populous town of Hungary, in 
the palatinate of Batsch. — 1672. 

Ndkhitchevan, a town situate on the river Don not far from its 
mouths ; it is inhabited by Armenians alone, of whom at present 
it contains about 12,000. Nakhitchevan is the see of an arch- 
bishop, who is at the same time patriarch of all the Armenians re- 
sident in Russia. 

Henderson mentions that this town contained a printing-office, 
in which were executed elementary books for the use of the Arme- 
nian youth. 

Namurcum, Namur, a large and strong city of the Netherlands, 
the see of a bishop. — 1639. 

Nanceium, Nancy, an episcopal city of France, capital of the 
department of the Meurthe : previously to the Revolution it pos- 
sessed an university. Printing was carried on here so early as 
1510 : but only two books are mentioned by Panzer, and to nei- 
ther of them is any printer's name affixed : of the first, a French 
Chronicle, by Simphorien Champier, printed in 1510, a copy 
upon vellum is in the royal library of Paris ; but its colophon is 
not entirely satisfactory. The other book is said to be of the year 
1511. No further notice appears of any printing carried on at 
Nancy for nearly a century afterwards. 

Nancianum, or Nanquinum, Nan-king, or Kiang-ning, a very 
large, populous, and formerly flourishing city of China, capital of 
the province of Kiang-nan. A Jesuit named Nicholas Trigault 
made Nan-king his residence for some time, about the year 1620, 
and printed a Chinese Vocabulary in three volumes, which Sotu- 
ellus describes to be excusum in Sinis, probably at this place. 

Nangasaqui, a seaport of Japan, on the west coast of the island 
of Ximo. The art of printing was introduced into Nangasaqui 
towards the close of th& XVIth century, by the Jesuits, who in a 
letter dated thence in October 1592, say that they possessed a 
printing-press, brought from Europe, by means of which they had 

NA. 187 

already executed many works, both in Latin and Japanese. Some 
curious specimens of Japanese printing may be seen in the Bod- 
leian library. Books of the dates 1605 and 1610, executed here, 
are mentioned by Ribadeneira : and a Japanese Vocabulary of the 
year 1604, by Antonio. A copy of this last was sold in the col- 
lection of M. Langles (of Paris) in 1825, for 640 francs; as also 
another edition, printed at the same place in the preceding year, 
for 639 francs. Both volumes were of a small quarto size, and 
were executed within the Jesuits' college : the former of them is 
now in the Bodleian library. 

an ancient and considerable city of the west of France, capital 
of a department: it is a bishop's see, and has an university, 
founded in 1460. This city is memorable for the celebrated edict 
of Nantes, passed in favour of the protestants by Henry the 
Fourth, in 1598, and revoked by Louis the Fourteenth, in 

With respect to the early typography of Nantes, Panzer names 
only a single work executed here, namely, Les Lunettes des 
Princes, pa/r Jean Meschinot, executed by Stephen Larcher in 
1493, a copy of which, printed uj)on vellum, is in the royal li- 
brary of Paris; nor does he notice any further Nantes printing 
during the succeeding century. The Bodleian library, however, 
contains a small volume, the title of which is partly torn away ; it 
seems to be an index to some law book : it is a square 16°. con- 
taining signatures a — ^f, the leaves not numbered. At the end we 
read, Imprime a nantes par estiene larchier: below which colo- 
phon is a blank shield, with the words Ny. dualb. [Its place in 
the library is 8". B. 18. Jur. Seld.J 

Narva, a strongly-fortified and trading town of the north-west 
of Russia, on a river of the same name. — 1701. 

Nassau, a city, the capital of the Isle of Providence, one of the 
Bahamas or Lucayas, off the coast of Florida, in North Ame- 
rica. John Wells, a printer of Charlestown, in South Carolina, 
left that place at the time of its surrender by the British, and 
transferred his press to Nassau, where he published the Bahama 

Natchez, a town in the Mississippi territory. North America, 
containing about five thousand inhabitants. Thomas observed 
in 1810, that a press had recently been established here ; but he 

188 NA.— NE. 

gives no further particulars. In the year 1826 three periddicals 
were in regular course of publication at Natchez. 

Nauplia, formerly the port of Argos, now called Napoli di 
Romania, in the Morea. A printing-apparatus was set up in this 
town in the year 1824, which had been presented to the Greeks 
by the celebrated printer F. Didot of Paris. 

Naujjotamos, (qu ? whether Laybach ?) A volume of Sweden- 
berg's Miscellanea litteraria was printed here in 1722. 

Naxara, Naiara, or Nagera, a small town of the north-east of 
Spain, in the province of Burgos. A Spanish version of Alciati 
Emhlemata, edited by Diego Lopez, was printed here in 1615. 

NEAPOLIS, or (as in two books, of the years 1520 and 1542) 
Parihenopa, Naples, an ancient and celebrated city of Italy, ca- 
pital of the kingdom of Naples : it is an archbishop's see, and has 
an university, founded by Frederic the Second, about the year 
1230 ; likewise a flourishing academy. 

The art of printing appears to have been introduced into Na- 
ples in 1471, by Sixtus Riessinger, who in that year printed a 
work of Bartolus de Saxo Jerrato : a famous Hebrew press was 
also early established in this city, from which proceeded the 
Psalter and other portions of holy Scripture, in 1487, with 
several other Hebrew works from that year until 1495, at 
which period there was a general expulsion of the Jews from 

Neapolis Nemetum, Neapolis Palatmorum, Neapolis Casi- 
miriana (from the academy founded by John Casimir, son of Fre- 
deric the elector Palatine about the year 157 — ), Neostadium in 
Palatinatu, or Neostadium ad Hartam, Neustadt-an-der-Hart, a 
town of France, formerly belonging to the palatinate of the 
Rhine, seated on the river Spirebach. Le Long mentions a 
curious and rare edition of Luther''s German Bible, being the 
earliest of those which were published by the Calvinists, printed 
in this town in the year 1579. Some works of Victor StrigeUus 
and of Johannes Sturzius were executed here in 1580 and 1581. 

Nedelicz, a village of Hungary, in the vicinity of Varasdin. 
Dr. Bright, in his travels through Hungary, observes, that it was 
" once a much more important place, and furnished vnth a print- 
" ing-press, from which issued one of the earliest Bibles printed 
" in the Croatian language." p. 474. 

NE. 189 

Nelhre, a village near Jafitiapatnam, in the island of Ceylon. 
In the year 1818 the Rev. J. Knight of the English church mis- 
sionary society established himself here, and within the last few 
years a printing-press has been erected, and is actively employed. 

Nemausum, Nismes, an ancient and flourishing town of France, 
formerly in Languedoc, celebrated for its splendid remains of 
Roman architecture. Typography was exercised at Nismes at 
the beginning of the XVIth century. A copy of a treatise by 
J. Cheironius, on the distemper which visited the city and neigh- 
bourhood, printed at Nismes on white silk, in 1606, is mentioned 
in the catalogue of the marquis de S.Philippe's library. Parti. N°. 
3289. In the year 1620 Joan Vaguenar, who calls himself 
printer to the town and university of Nismes, executed here a 
French account of the Judgment of the St/nod of Dort upon the 
Jive Articles. 

Neo-Boleslavia, Jung Buntzlau, a town of Bohemia, capital of 
the circle of Boleslau : it is distant 12 miles from Boleslau, the 
old town. Typography appears to have obtained a footing here 
early in the XVIth century : a Seneca, Lactantius, and a Bohe- 
mian New Testament, having been printed, by Nicolaus Claudia- 
nus (Niculess Kulha) in the year 1518. The New Testament, 
which bears at the end in monte Carmelo, was reprinted in 1525. 
It may be noted that New-Buntzlau was the first chief settlement 
of the Unitas Fratrum of Moravia. 

Neohrandenburgum, New Brandenburg, a town of Germany, 
capital of a district in the duchy of Mecklenburg. Masch men- 
tions The booh of Ecclesiastes, in Hebrew and Latin, printed here 
m 1741. 

Neoburgum, sometimes Neuburgum Danubii, Neuburg, a 
town of Bavaria, seated on the Danube, the capital of the duchy 
of Neuburg. A college of Jesuits was established here in 1617, 
who exercised the art of printing in 1629 ; which however had 
been previously practised about the year 1545, as appears from a 
German tract bearing that date in the Bodleian collection of tracts 
relative to the Reformation. In the following year, 1546, a work 
of Martin Bucer on the Sacrament was printed in this city by 
Johannes Kilianus. 

Neobwrgum, Nyeborg, a seaport of Denmark, on the east 
side of the isle of Funen. Printing was executed here before 

190 NE. 

Neocomum, Neuchatel, a handsome town of Switzerland, the 
capital of a principality or canton. 

Printing was in use here in 1533. In the following year, P. 
de Wingle executed here the French New Testament of' Faher 
Stapulensis, a very rare book, copies of which are preserved in the 
library of the Sorbonne at Paris, and in the public library, Cam- 
bridge. In the next year, 1535, a well-known edition of the 
French Bible, published under the superintendance of Calvin by 
P. Robert Olivetan, a native of the Vallies of Piedmont, was 
printed by Wingle at Neuchatel. It is generally understood that 
for this first French Protestant Bible we are indebted to the piety 
and zeal of the illustrious Vaudois. M. Jordan, in his Histoire 
(Tun vtyyage Utteraire, (12mo. 1738,) speaking of a copy of this 
■work which he saw at Paris in the library of M. de Boze, men- 
tions that at the end of the volume were ten French verses, the 
initial letters of the words of which, when brought together, 
formed the following couplet ; 

" Les Vaudois, peuple evang^lique 
" Ont mis ce Thresor en publique :" 
an account which seems to agree with the following extract 
from P. Gilles' " Histoire eccl^siastique des Eglises rdform^es 
" recueillies en quelques Values de Piedmont et circonvoisines &c. 
" 4to. a Geneve, 1644." p. 43. — " Outre ce considerans combien 
" est n^cessaire la lecture bien entendue de I'Escriture saincte, a 
" toutes sortes de personnes, et qu'ils ne I'avoyent encor en leur 
*' langue sinon escrite a la main par leurs Pasteurs, qui nonob- 
" stant leur diligence n'en pouvoyent pas fournir a tous suffisam- 
" ment, ils firent traduire, et imprimer en langue Fran^oise la 
" saincte Bible a leurs despens, se servans pour la traduction du 
" labeur du sieur Pierre Robert Olivetain, personnage plein de 
" zele, et de pietd, et fort docte, sp&ialement en la langue He- 
" braique, parent du sieur Jean Calvin, qui aussi lui tendit la 
" main a cet oeuvre, qui fut imprimde a Neufchastel en Suisse, en 
" grande et belle forme, de laquelle se trouvent encore quelques 
" exemplaires esquels se lit, par qui, et comment, cet oeuvre a 
" este mise en lumiere, qu'on tient avoir est^ publi^e en bonne 
" forme, et langue FranQoise entre les R^formes. 

He adds, doubtless with great truth, " Et furent cause ces 
" aides, avec autres diligences que les fideles et principalemenf les 
" pasteurs des Eglises des Valees benites par une grace spdciale 

NE. 191 

" de Dieu, que la pure religion se fortifia et augmenta merveil- 
" leusement dans les Valees, et par tout le Piedmont." 

Most of the subsequent writers appear to have founded their 
statements on this passage of Pierre Gilles, who was minister of 
the parish of La Tour. 

It may be added, that (according to the statement of Le Long) 
these verses are found printed at length in the Cambridge copy of 
Jo. Faber's New Testament of the year 1534, above-mentioned. 

That this edition is of considerable rarity is scarcely to be won- 
dered at, when we reflect on the vicissitudes of fortune to which 
those persons were exposed, for whose use it was chiefly intended, 
and amongst whom in all probability most of the copies were 
distributed. A few however are found in this kingdom, one of 
which may be seen in the Bodleian library. For more ample ac- 
counts, concerning it and the New Testament of the preceding 
year, the reader may consult Le Long, Clement, and other biblio- 

Neomagus. There is some difficulty in determining the town 
signified by this word, inasmuch as Spire, Lisieux, Nevers, Nyon, 
OdeHheim, and some others, are by different writers assigned to it. 
Printing was carried on at Neomagus in 1662. 

IfeostaMum or Novostadium, Neustadt ; there are at least 
twenty towns of this name within the circle of the old Germanic 
empire. The earliest dated book which I have found bearing 
this imprint is of the year 1571. See above, Neapolis Neme- 

Neoweda, Neuwied, a considerable town of Westphalia. — 

Neozdium, Newhausel, or else Neusol, each of which is a town 
in Upper Hungary. — 1790. 

Nerolinga, Nordlingen, a commercial town of Suabia, seated 
on the Eger. Panzer mentions a single book printed here in the 
year 1525, namely, Renovatio Ecclesice Nordlinglacensis ; and it 
appears from Zapf, quoted by Lichtenberger in Initia typogra- 
phica, that one of, those curious xylographic specimens, a German 
version of the Biblia Pauperum, was executed at Nordlingen in 
the year 1470. 

Nesvitz, or Nieswicz, a small town of Russian Lithuania, seated 
on the river Uzsa, in the government of Minske. It belongs to 
the noble family of Radzivil, who possess a mansion here. Bach- 

192 NE. 

meister, in his essay on the St. Petersburg library, affirms that 
printing was carried on at Nesvitz in the year 1562. 

Neuhusiumy Neuhaus, Nienhus, a castle about two miles from 
Paderborn ; it was built in 1590, as an episcopal residence, by 
Theodore Furstemburg, bishop of Paderborn. The earliest print- 
ing of this place which I have met with, is that of John Todt, 
calling himself typographus aulicus suce Celsitudinis Paderbor- 
nensis, in the year 1690. The first two parts of the Annates 
Paderbornensium by Schaten, 1693, bear the imprint of Neuhu- 
sium ; the third part, 1741, that of Paderborn, (according to the 
Bodleian copy.) 

Newark, a post town, capital of Essex county, in New Jersey. 
Printing was carried on here at least so early as 1795. In fact, 
Hugh Gaine, a printer of New York, quitted that city when the 
British were about to take possession of it in the year 1776, and 
set up his press at Newark ; but, as he soon afterwards returned 
to his old quarters, it is uncertain what productions issued from 
his press while remaining in this town. 

Newbern, a large town, capital of a district in North Carolina, 
North America. James Davies, in 1754, or 1755, set up here 
the first press used throughout the whole province of North Ca- 
rolina : but he does not appear to have executed much, except a 
folio volume of the Laws of North Carolina. 

Newbury-pori, a harbour and post-town in the province of 
Massachusetts, North America. In the year 1773, Isaiah Thomas, 
a printer of Boston, sent a press and types to this place, where a 
Newspaper was printed for a short time, under his directions. 

Newcastle on Tyne, a considerable town of the North of 
England, in the county of Durham. Printing appears to have 
been practised here during the reign of Charles the First. In 
1639 a Newspaper was published at Newcastle; and the same 
year produced a book entitled " Lawes and ordinances of Warre, 
" for the better government of his majestie's army royall, in the 
" present expedition for the Northern parts, fee." Imprinted at 
Newcastle, by Robert Barker, printer to his majesty, &c. 1639. 
a small quarto of 27 pages. 

Within the last ten or twelve years a typographical society has 
been established in this town, whose labours promise to be both 
interesting and useful, 

Newhaven, a large maritime city of the United States, chief of 

NE. 193 

the county of Newhaven, in the province of Connecticut, North 
America. It is a flourishing place, containing an academy, pub- 
lic librai-y, and a college which originally had been founded at 
Killingworth in 1700. The second printing-house established in 
Connecticut was set up in this town by J. Parker, who was then 
the principal printer at New York, in the year 1754, and the first 
book printed was The Laws of Yale College, in Latin. On the 
first of January in the next year, Parker published here a News- 
paper. At the present time four weekly Newspapers are issued. 

New Lexington, a small but flourishing town of the United 
States of America, in the state of Indiana. A Newspaper called 
" The Western Eagle" was in course of publication at this town 
in the year 1815, 

New London, a seaport and considerable city, chief of the 
county of New London, in the province of Connecticut, North 
America. A press was introduced into this town, (being the ear- 
liest establishment of printing throughout the province,) in the 
year 1709, by William Short from Boston. The first book said 
to have been printed in the colony is entitled. The Saybrodk Plat- 
form of Church Discipline, dated 1710. Short, dying soon after- 
wards, was succeeded by Timothy Green, and others of the old 
printing family of that name at Cambridge. 

New Orleans, a fine city of the United States, seated on the 
Mississippi river, the capital of the territory of New Orleans, 
in North America. Thomas relates that several printing-houses 
were opened here, as soon as this country came under the govern- 
ment of the United States: viz. in the year 1803: and it is as- 
serted by a French writer, that towards the end of the last century 
the erection of a press was permitted by the gpvernor, for the 
purpose of issuing a newspaper called " the Moniteur of Loui- 
" siana." 

Newport, a beautiful town, chief of the state of Rhode Island, 
in North America. The first printing-press in this town was 
erected in the year 1732, by James Franklin, brother of Dr. 
Benjamin Franklin, who had till that time been printer of the 
New England Couramt at Boston. He set up his press at New- 
port in a room under the town school -house ; and, after doing 
some little business in various ways, died in 1735, leaving the 
establishment to his widow and family, who continued it success- 
fully for several years. 

194 NE.— NI. 

New York, a fine city, the capital of the province so called, in 
the United States of America. The first press erected in the 
colony was introduced into this city in the year 1693, by Wm. 
Bradford, who had previously been the first to exercise the art of 
printing in Philadelphia. In that city he continued, we are told, 
" until some time in the year 1693, when he set up a press at 
" New York, and was appointed printer to the government. 
" The first book from his press was a small folio volume of the 
" laws of the colony, bearing the date of that year." In the im- 
print he styles himself " Printer to their majesties," and directs to 
■his printing-house " at the sign of the Bible." 

Bradford possessed a paper-mill (perhaps the first built in 
British America) so early as the year 1728. He was a man of 
good character and affable manners ; and, after holding his si- 
tuation as printer to the government upwards of fifty years, closed 
his useful life in the year 1752, at the advanced age of ninety- 

Niccea, Nice, (or Nizza,) a considerable and handsome town in 
the north-west of Italy, in the Sardinian States, but formerly ac- 
counted part of Provence. — 1666. 

D. Nicolai de Porfu Pagus, Nicolas du Port, a manufacturing 
town of France, formerly in Lorraine. A single work by Peter 
de Blarrorivo, entitled " de bello Nanceiano," was printed here, 
by Petrus Jacobi presbyter, in the year 1518; a vellum copy of 
which is noticed by M. Van Praet. 

S. Nicholas, qu : a town or village of Holland .'' a " History 
" of the town and disti-ict of St. Nicholas" was printed here in the 
year 1825. 

Nidrosia, Drontheim, an ancient and celebrated city of Nor- 
way, capital of the government of IJrontheim, and a bishop's see: 
A Breviarium Nidarosiense was printed here about the middle 
of the XVIth century, copies of which are now. extremely rare. 

Niesviecium, Nieswiez, a city of White Russia, in the palati- 
nate of Novogrod ; which Nicholas Radzivil, its owner, adorned 
with most splendid monasteries and a Jesuits' college. Both the 
Reformed and Lutherans had printing-presses here in the XVIth 
century : the earliest book known is dated 1562. 

Niortum, or Nyortum, Niort, a considerable and commercial 
town of France, formerly in Poitou, seated on the river Sevre. 
Le Long notices a French Bible printed here in 1594; The 

NI.— NO. 195 

earliest Niort book which I have met with, is a medical work of 
Franciscus Partus, printed by Johannes Moussat, in the year 

Nissa Silesiorum, Neisse, a strong city of Silesia, capital of 
the principality of Neisse. Printing was carried on here at least 
so early as 1612 and 1613, in which latter year a work by John 
Nucius, containing musical notes, was executed at Neisse by 
Crispinus ScharfFenbergius. (TCD.) Also in the former, a trea- 
tise of Smigledus, by the same printer. (Marsh.) 

Nivernum, Nevers, a large city of France, formerly capital of 
the Nivernois, and a bishop's see. Le Long mentions a Latin 
metrical version of the Psakns, printed here in 1592. 

NivigeUa, Nivelles, a manufacturing town of the Netherlands, 
in South Brabant.— 1780. (Bodl.) 

NONANTVLA, Nonantola, a small town of Italy, in the 
duchy of Modena, having an abbey, in which probably the first 
printing-press was erected. A single volume is all which now 
remains to attest to us that the art was early exercised at No- 
nantola, viz. a Roman Breviary, executed by the brothers George 
and Anselm de Mischinis in the year 1480, in 4to ; a copy of 
which curious book, printed on vellum, is in the rich collection 
of earl Spencer. No further printing in that or the succeeding 
century was known to Panzer. 

Nordh/usa, Nordhausen, a large manufacturing town of Prus- 
sian Saxony, in the government of Erfurt. 

Printing certainly was exercised here by C. C. Neuenhahn, in 
1703: but sir James Ware observes that Thomas Carve pub- 
lished one of his treatises, entitled Galateus, seu de morum ele- 
gantid, at Nordhausen, in the year 1669. 

Nordlinga, see Nerolmga.' 

Nordovicum, Norwich, a large and ancient city of England, 
in the county of Norfolk. 

It appears that the art of printing was introduced into Nor- 
wich about 1568, by Anthony de Solempne, one of the strangers 
from the Low Countries who were admitted and encouraged to 
settle there by queen Elizabeth. Strype indeed, in his Life of 
Archbishop Grindal, (p. 185, ed. Oxon.) under the year 1568, 
states, that " Corranus of late had caused a table, entitled, De 
" Operibtcs Dei, wrote by him in French, to be printed in Nor- 
" wich." But the productions of this early press, which perhaps 


196 NO. 

did not continue long at work, are of the utmost rarity : Herbert 
evidently had never seen a specimen. 

That however, on which the historians of the county are ut- 
terly silent, and which England, with all her boasted libraries, 
has never yet been able to furnish, namely, a genuine volume 
from the press of this father of Norwich typography, — Ireland, 
to whom, amid the din of politics, we have neglected, perhaps 
disdained, to turn our eyes in search of any thing so calm and 
tranquil as literary treasures — Ireland has at length the oppor- 
tunity of introducing to the public. In the library of Trinity 
college, Dublin, a collection which comprises (for so far even my 
present slight acquaintance with its contents enables me to per- 
ceive) not only an exceedingly rich and substantially valuable sup- 
ply of books for the general student, but is moreover spangled 
with gems of the very highest lustre, and such as I have never 
hitherto (though somewhat conversant with rare books) been able 
to meet with in England, — in this hbrary, among the books be- 
queathed to it by the learned archbishop Ussher, it has been my 
fortune to find no fewer than three early Norwich specimens; 
each of them perfect, and each in excellent preservation ; of which 
the reader is now, for the first time, presented with a brief de- 

The first, which is a well-printed volume in 12°- contains a 
Dutch metrical version of the Psalms, and is entitled, De CL 
Psalmen Davids. Wt den Franchoyschen Dichte in Neder- 
lantschen overghesett door Petrum Dathenum. Mitsgaders den 
ChristeUc7ce?i Catechismo, Ceremonien, en Gebeden. Tot Noor- 
•witz. Gheprint by Anthonium de Solemne anno M.D.LXVIII. 
The title is followed by the author's preface, dated Franckenthal^ 
25 March, 1566 ; a register both of psalms and tunes ; a short 
introduction relative to the musical tunes, dated Norwich, 9 Oc. 
tober 1568 ; the text, containing both a prose and metrical ver- 
sion, with the notes, and a collect attached to each psalm. Then 
succeeds the Catechism, with other matters mentioned in the title, 
on a fresh set of signatures, and forty-eight numbered leaves ; the 
whole ending with, Ghedruct int Jaer ons Ileeren 1568. 

The second is a curious Calendar, consisting of eight leaves 
only, printed in red and black, which bears for title, Eenen Ca- 
lendier Historiael, eewelick gheduerende. Waer in ghy vinden 
suit den Opganck ende ondergancJc der Sonnen, in alle Maenden, 

NO. 197 

met den Jaermercten van diversche Landen, steden ende vrilhe- 
den. [A wood-cut of the royal arms encircled by the garter.] 
Ghedruct tot Noorwitz, ten huyse van Anthonium de Solemne, 
anno M.D.LXX. Godt hewaer de coninginne Elizabeth. Among 
the historical notices scattered through the Calendar is one of the 
opeYiing of the Dutch church at Norwich, under the authority of 
the queen, on the 24th of December, 1565. 

The third of these volumes is a Dutch version of the New 
Testament, with the annotations of Marloratus ; the title of 
which is, Het Nieuwe Testament, &c. in Nederdwytsche na der 
Griescher waerheyt overgeset. Met de annotatien August. Mar- 
lorati, &c. (Beneath is a very neat oval wood-cut, representing a 
man in the act of felling a tree, while a second near him is kind- 
ling a fire for its consumption, round which is a Dutch legend, 
Every tree which hringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down and 
cast into the fire.) Ghedruct int Jaer 1568. The editor's pre- 
face, dated 29 Octobris 1567: the text, fol. 1 — 436; a register 
of fifteen leaves, and one blank. It is observable that in this last 
work, the printer's name or place does not appear : but when it 
is stated that it is printed with the same types as those of the 
Psalms, bears the same date, is of the same size, and bound up 
in the same volume, there cannot be the slightest doubt that this 
as well as the other two is the production of Anthony Solemne's 
press. I need not detain the reader with any further remark on 
the extreme rarity of these pieces, than merely to notice, that 
the circumstance of their being passed over in silence by Le 
Long among his editions of the Dutch Scriptures, seems to shew 
that their existence was as little known in France an hundred 
years ago, as it has been in England from that time to the 

Still furthei", there are traces of this Dutch press at Norwich, 
so late as to the year 1578, in a fourth book, which, like the for- 
mer ones, adorns the Dublin college library. This also is a 12". 
in black letter, bearing for title, " Het tweede boeck vande ser- 
" moenen des wel vermaerden Predicants B. Cornelis Adriaenssen 
" van Dordrecht, Minrebroeder tot Brugge. Waer van d'inhou- 
" den begrepen staet int navolgende bladt." Beneath is a wood- 
cut of the author in his pulpit, below which we read " Nueerst- 
" mael in Druck vuytgegeren buyten Noirdwitz. 1578." No 
printer's name appears throughout the volume, which consists of 


198 NO. 

752 pages, besides prefatory matter ; but from the similarity both 
of type and general appearance, I have no hesitation in adjudging 
it to the press of Antony Solempne. 

There is however preserved in the Bodleian library, (Rotul. 
VI. in Arch. Bodl. A.) a curiosity, the production of this press, 
which is probably unique ; it is a broadside, containing Certayne 
versis ■writtene by Thomas Brooke getleman, in the tyme of his 
imprysoment, the daye iefore his deathe, who sufferyd at Nor- 
wich, the 30 of August, 1570. At the end of the verses is, Seane 
and allowyd accordynge to the Qiienes Maiestyes Iniunction. God 
save the Queue. Imprynted at Norwich, in the paryshe qfSaynct 
Andrewe, by Anthony de Solempne, 1570. The verses were re- 
printed by T. Hearne, in his edition of Leland's Collectanea. 

It does not appear that typography met with much success in 
this city; since in Brown's History of Norwich the following 
notice occurs under the year 1 701 : " The art of printing, which 
" had been discontinued many years, was revived by Francis 
'* Burges, who opened a printing-office near the red well." A 
copy of the list of Norfolk preachers, appointed by the bishop of 
Norwich for the year 1701, printed by this Burges, occurs among 
Bagford's collections in the British Museum ; it was sent to Bag- 
ford by bishop Tanner, and at the bottom contains a note in the 
handwriting of the bishop. 

In a book entitled, Some Observations on the use and originall 
of the noble art of Printing, by Fr. Burges, 8°. Norwich, 1701, 
the author observes, that " the first day that ever printing was at 
" Norwich, was Saturday the 27th of September, 1701 : and this 
" was the first book that ever was printed and published there." 
However correct or erroneous the latter part of this statement 
may be, it decidedly proves that Burges knew nothing of Antony 
Solempne's previous printing at Norwich, and consequently at- 
tests the extreme rarity of those early specimens, even upwards of 
a century ago. Yet in Burn's Catalogue for 1827, (No. 2089) 
occurs a book thus announced : " Thomas Stackhouse (of Nor- 
" wich) mutual duties of elders and people. 4". Printed for Ed- 
" ward Giles, Norwich, 1698." I have not seen the book, which 
perhaps may have been printed ybr Giles, at some other town. I 
am confirmed in the above opinion by meeting with a sermon 
upon a man executed at Norwich, which was printed in London 
" for Edward Giles, bookseller in Norwich," in the year 1696. 

NO. 199 

NORIMBERGA, Nuremberg, a large and ancient city of 
Germany, formerly in Franconia, capital of a territory of the same 
name, but now subject to Bavaria. 

Nuremberg was amongst the first places to admit the newly 
discovered art of printing. Its earliest known specimen is the 
Comestorium vitiorum of Franciscus de Retza, executed by John 
Sensenschmidt, in 1470. Several other printers speedily esta- 
blished themselves in this city, among whom are Joannes Miiller 
Hegiomontanus, who printed here in 1471 the editio pririceps of 
Manilius, with other works, but none of his books are dated. 
Anthony Koburger, an artist of great repute, worked here from 
1472 till 1520: Frederic Creusner, from 1473 to 1497: Henry 
Kefer, &c. &c. 

Northampton, a town of the United States of America, capital 
of Hampshire county, in thef" state of Massachusetts. 

In the year 1803, a work by Dr. Joseph Priestley, entitled. 
Notes on all the books of Scripture, was printed here, in four vols. 
8vo. [Orme's Bibliotheca Biblica.] 

Norwich, a city and post-town of New-London county, in the 
province of Connecticut, North America. A press was esta- 
blished here in 1773, by T. Green, from New-London : which 
was afterwards removed to Westminster, in Vermont. A second 
also was erected in the very same year, 1773, by the firm of 
Robertsons and Trumball. 

Nottingham, a county-town of England. 

Sir Thomas ParTcyns' Inn-play, or Cornish-hug Wrestler, 4°. 
printed by William Ayscough, 1714, is the earliest Nottingham 
book which I have met with. — (Bodl.) 

Nova Insula, qu .-' Le Long mentions a Hungariam version 
of the Gospels, &c. printed at this place in 1541. 

NOVA PLZNA, or PELSNA, Pilsen, a fortified town of 
Bohemia, the capital of a circle of the same name. 

Some few specimens remain to us which attest the early exer- 
cise of typography in Bohemia ; but they are all of the utmost 
rarity in these parts of Europe. The earliest is an edition of 
the Bohemian New Testament, executed at PUsen in 1475. No 
printer's name is attached to any of these curious volumes, six of 
which are enumerated by Panzer. A copy of this New Testa- 
ment is preserved in the university library at Prague : also a copy 
of the Statuta Synodi Pragensis, of the date 1476. 

o 4 

200 NO. 

Novaria, Novara, a large and populous town of Italy, in the 
Sardinian Milanese, capital of a province. Printing was intro- 
duced into it about the year 1538. Some pieces of the well- 
known Pietro Aretino were executed here in the year 1538. 

NOVI, Novi, a manufacturing town of Italy, in the territory 
of Genoa. 

Only two early Novi books are known at present, one of which 
is the Summa Baptistiniana, executed in 1479, and the other, 
a reprint of the same work in 1484; both by Nicolaus Girarden- 
ghus, who had previously printed at Venice and at Pavia; but 
Panzer speaks very doubtingly of the earlier edition. It does not 
appear that much printing was carried on here during the XVIth 
century, as only one book is noticed by Panzer between the years 
1501 and 1536 : namely, Jo. F. Pici MiranchdcB domini, Liber 
de Providentia Dei contra philosophastros. Of this very rare 
volume, consisting of 36 leaves in small folio, there is a copy in 
the Bodleian library ; from which I extract the following curious 
but conceited colophon : " Anno a partu Virginis M.D.VIII. 
"No. novembr. In suburbio Novi sub Alberti Pii Carpi domini 
" ditione. Librum hunc de providentia dei contra philosophas- 
" tros, compositum edituq : ab Jo. Fracisco Pico Mirandulae 
" domino Benedictus Dulcibellus Magius Carpesis exscripsit 
" Stamneis usus calamis, usus et diligetia tanta, ne ab autho- 
" grapho decideret exeplari, ut si etiam minuta fortasse quaepia 
" omissa comissave sint, absit tame ab ea culpa qua notati atea 
" quidam artifices, qui in plerisque ipsius authoris operibus excu- 
" dendis, aut clausulam quadoque intercaeperint, aut verba omi- 
" serint, inverterintve, aut ortographise rationem posthabuerint." 

Noviodunum, Noyon, an ancient episcopal town of the north 
of France, in the department of the Oise, formerly of considerable 
importance, having been for a time the capital of the emperor 
Charlemagne. It was also the birthplace of Calvin. — 1746. 

NOVIOMAGIVM, Nimeguen, an ancient and strong town of 
the Netherlands, the capital of Dutch Guelderland. 

Three books alone remain of the typography of Nimeguen dur- 
ing the XVth century, the earliest of which is a work of Fr. E/n- 
gelbert, on the privileges of the mendicant Jriars, executed here 
by Johannes de Westphalia, in 1479. Nor does Panzer notice 
a single volume printed in this town during the succeeding cen- 

NO NY. 201 

Novum Castrum, may designate Newcastle In England, Neu- 
chatel or Chateau Neuf in France, Neocastro in Romania, or 
Castel Novo in Dalmatia. 

NOZANVM, seems to be a fortified village, or fort, in the 
vicinity of Lucca. One book only is known from hence,, bearing 
for imprint, apud Nozanuvt Lucensis agri castellum, the printers 
of which, Henricus de Colonic and Henricus Harlemensis, had 
in the same year (1491) printing-establishments in the town of 
Lucca itself. This very rare work, upon which alone rests our 
knowledge that the art was carried on here during the XV th cen- 
tury, is the Disputatio Juris of P- Turretinus, folio, 1491. 

Nuits, a small town of France, in the vicinity of Dijon. — 

Nupvfell, a small village of Iceland, distant twelve miles from 

The printing-press which had been first erected at Holum by 
bishop Areson, having after his death been removed to Breida- 
bolstad, was purchased thence by bishop Gudbrand Thorlak- 
son, and for some short time fixed by him at this farm, which the 
king of Denmark was pleased to assign as a perpetual residence 
for the printer and his successors. It appears that an edition of 
The Icelandic Code of Laws was executed here in the year 1578; 
but the bishop shortly afterwards removed the press to its old 
abode at Holum. 

Niiten, qu ? It is stated by madame Genlis, in her Memoirs, 
that the first edition of the abb^ Raynal's History of the Com- 
merce of Europeans in the East and West Indies was printed 
hiere' in six volumes 8vo. in the year 1772. Whatever hiay be" 
intended by the word JV^fen, which probably is misprinted, the 
assertion is not correct in other respects ; the first edition of the 
abbe Raynal's book having appeared in Jbur volumes, (not six^ 
in the year 1770i, with the imprint of Amsterdam. 

Nycopia, Nykoping, a small town of Sweden, in Sudermania, 
of which it is the capital. 

A printing-press was established here in 1645, by a learned 
man named Ericus Benedicti Schroderus, who transported it from 
Stockholm to the place of his nativity. Few books, however, 
although, according to Alnander, very useful ones, were executed 
at Nykoping; and in 1650 the press was again removed, and 
transferred to Gothoburg. 

202 NY.— OE. 

Nyon, an ancient and manufacturing town of Switzerland, in 
the canton of Vaud. 

Peignot mentions a work entitled BibUograpMe des Pays Bus, 
of which 50 copies only were printed here in the year 1783. 

Nyortwm, see Niortwm. 


Odessa, a modern but flourishing town and seaport, in the 
south of European Russia, situate in the government of Cherson, 
on a small bay of the Black sea. It contains at present near 
40,000 inhabitants. 

A French newspaper was printed and published here in the 
year 1825. 

Od/rig. A Hebrew volume in the Oppenheimer collection pur- 
ports to have been printed in the year 1688 at Od/rig or Adrig. 
Quaere whether these letters denote either Adria, an episcopal 
town of Italy on the Po, formerly of great consequence ; Atri, 
a considerable town of Naples; or Odrau, a town of Austrian 
Silesia, on the river Oder ? I am not aware of any Jewish press 
having been established at either of these places. 

Oelsna in Silesia, Oels, a town of Prussian Silesia, the capital 
of the principality of Oels. An edition of the Hebrew Penta- 
teuch in folio was executed here in the year 1530, which is deno- 
minated by Masch, in his Le Long, Codex rarissimus. A copy 
of it is in the Oppenheimer collection, of which Wolfius gives a 
full description, calling it a rare and highly prized work. No 
other ancient Oels publication appears to be known. 

(Enipons, or Pons CEni, Inspruck, a town of Germany, capital 
of the Tyrol ; it formerly possessed an university, founded by 
Leopold the First in 1672, but afterwards suppressed. 

Printing was exercised here with considerable skill during the 
XVIth century. In the year 1592 Joannes Agricola printed at 
Inspruck a splendid volume of Annals of the deeds of the Aus- 
trian Princes, a fine copy of which uncommon book is described 
in the Pinelli Catalogue, No. 8118. It is also found in the Bod- 
leian, and in Trinity college, Dublin. Catalogues sometimes an- 
nounce a much earlier Inspruck book, namely, of the year 1569, 
viz. " Tertii Bergomatis imagines Austriacce Gentis:'''' but this 
work, although a very handsome one, contains nothing besides 
engravings. M. Van Praet also cites an earlier edition of this 

OF— OL. 203 

last, viz. of 1558 ; but from his description I do not gather that it 
contains any letter-press printing. 

Offenbacum, Offenbach, a considerable town in the west of Ger- 
many, in the grand duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt. Printing was 
exercised here in the early part of the XVIIth century by Con- 
rad Nobenius, who in the year 1609 printed at Offenbach a folio 
edition of the history of Thuanus. 

OFFENBVRGVM, Offenburg, a town of the west of Ger- 
many, formerly in the circle of Suabia, now belon^ng to Baden. 
A single volume now testifies that printing was carried on here 
during the XVth century ; namely, the Quad/ragesimale of Ro- 
bertus de Lido, executed by an unnamed printer in the year 

Ognata, Onate, a town of Spain, situated near the confines of 
Biscay and Guipuscoa : it had formerly an academy, founded by 
Roderic one of the bishops of Avila, in the year 1543. 

Oldenburgum, Oldenburg, a fortified town of Germany, capital 
of the grand duchy of Oldenburg. Printing was exercised here 
in the year 1665, by Johannes Ericus Zimmer, who styles himself 
typographer to the count. — (TCD.) 

Oliva, some town of Spain : quaere whether Oliva, in the pro- 
vince of Valentia ; Olite, in Navarre ; or Oliven^ a, in Estrema- 
dura.'' Antonio mentions printing here, in 1647. In 1691 a 
printing-press was worked in the monastery of St. Mary in this 
town, whatever it be : a book entitled Mars Gothicus, by Matthias 
PrcBtorius, bears for imprint, Typis Monasterii Olivensis, S. O. C. 
imprimebat Johannes Jacobus Textor, Factor, 1691. This 
volume may be seen in the library of Trinity college, Dublin. 
Another production of the same author, printed here either In 
1689 or 1690, is in archbishop Marsh's library. The monks ap- 
pear to have commenced printing in or before the year 1676. 

Olmedo, a small decayed town of Spain, distant twenty miles S. 
from Valladolid. Mendez informs us that the art of printing has 
been exercised in this place, but he gives no date. 

OLOMVCVM, or OLOMVTIVM, Olmutz, a strong and fine 
city of the Austrian States, formerly the capital of Moravia. It 
is an archbishop's see, and had an university, which was removed 
to Br una in 1778. 

A little printing seems to have been done here at the close of 
the XVth century, consisting chiefly of works levelled by the 

204 OL.— OR. 

church of Rome against the Waldenses. Three books alone were 
known to Panzer, of the dates 1500, 1501, and 1502, all upon 
this subject; the printer of which was Conradus de Baumgarten. 

Olyssipo, see Ulyssipo. 

Onoldium, or OnoltzbacMum, Onoltzbach, or Anspach, a large 
town formerly of Franconia, capital of the principality of Anspach, 
now belonging to Bavaria, and chief of a circle and district. A 
Hebrew grammatical work by Joannes Meelfuherus was executed 
at Anspach in the year 1607.— (TCD.) 

OPPENHEMIVM, Oppenheim, a town of Germany, formerly 
in the palatinate of the Rhine, now belonging to Hesse-Darmstadt. 

Printing was exercised here towards the close of the XVth cen- 
tury; but only two specimens of it now remain, the earliest of 
which is a work of Wigandus Wirt, upon the conception of the 
Virgin Mary, printed in 1494 ; the printer is unknown, but the 
press was corrected by Peter Gunther, schoolmaster of Oppen- 

Orhitellum, Orbitello, a seaport of Italy, in Tuscany. — 1667. 

Orense, anciently called Amphilochia, Auria, or Aquas caUdcB, 
an ancient city of Spain in Galicia, seated on the river Minho. 
It is a bishop's see, and celebrated for some tepid baths. 

Printing appears to have been practised here in the early part 
of the XVIth century : but the only Orense book, which I have 
seen, is one entitled, Palinodia de los Turcos — ympresso en la 
ciudad de Orense que es en Galizia, 1547, folio. The volume is 
printed in Gothic type, on bad paper, and contains some wood- 
cuts, of indifferent execution. 

Oringa, or Oehringa, Oehringen, a town of Germany, in Wir- 
temburg. — 1693. 

Oriola, Orihuela, or Origuela, an ancient and well-built town 
of Spain, in the province of Murcia : it is a bishop's see, and has 
a small university, founded in 1555. 

Antonio, in his Bibliotheca Uispana, mentions a book printed 
here in 1603 : but it appears that in the preceding year the bishop 
of Origuela possessed a printing-press within the walls of his own 
palace ; as a little work which he caused to be printed for the use 
of his clergy, entitled Synodus Oriolana secunda, bears for im- 
print, OriolcB, in palatio episcopali per Didacum de l& Torre, 
anno Domini 1602. This book is in Trinity college, Dublin ;- as 
well as another of the next year, also by the bishop, who appears 

OR.— OS. 205 

to have been the corrector of his own press. In this latter work 
he apologizes to the reader, for his want of Greek types, and for 
some inaccuracies which had crept in through his own ill health 
and the necessary care of his diocese. 

Ortesium, Ortes, or Orthes, a small town in the south-west 
of France, in the department of the Upper Pyrenees. — 1 585. 

Orthona Maris, or Ortaima, Ortona a Mare, a town of Naples, 
in Abruzzo citra, seated on the gulf of Venice. It is a bishop's 
see, and contains about 6000 inhabitants. 

A ^ebrew Grammar, hy R. Moses Kimchi, has been adduced 
by Maittaire and other bibliographers as printed here in 1496: 
but it has been satisfactorily shewn by De Rossi that this book is 
really of the date of 1518 or 1519. In 1518 four works were 
executed at Ortona, one of them, the treatise of Petrus' Galatinus 
against the Jews, entitled, De artams Catholicce veritatis ; the 
printer of which was Hieronymus Suncinus. A copy of this 
volume is in the royal library of George the Third, and another 
in the Bodleian library ; it is a handsome folio of 312 leaves, on 
good paper, well-printed, and garnished with wooden borders and 
initials, much in the style of Froben's early editions of Erasmus' 
Greek Testament. The colophon is on the last leaf but two. 

Osca, Huesca, an ancient episcopal city of Spain, in Arragon ; 
with an university, founded at a most remote period. Antonio 
mentions printing here in the year 1576. I have seen none ante- 
rior to 1611. 

Osmiana, Oszmiana, a small town of Russian Lithuania, in 
the palatinate of Wilna. The members of the reformed church 
had a press at work here in the year 1615. 

Osndbrugum, or Osnahurgum, Osnaburg, an old fortified city 
of Hanover, capital of the principality of Osnaburg.- — 1631. 

Ostrogia, Ostrobia, or Ostrovia, Ostrog, a strongly fortified 
town of Russian Poland, in the government of Volhynia, the see 
of an archbishop of the Greek church. 

Constantine, duke of Ostrog, palatine of Kiof and Volhynia, 
first introduced a printing-press into this town, for the express 
purpose of publishing the Bible in the Slavonic language. After 
an impression of the New Testament only, in the year 1580, in 
octavo, he caused a translation of the Old Testament to be made 
from the Septuagint version, and succeeded in finishing the print- 
ing of it in August 1581. This is \he first edition of the Slavonic 

206 OT. 

Bible, and is a volume of the highest rarity : Kohlius, who pub- 
hshed a work principally on the subject of this version in 1729, 
had the utmost difficulty in obtaining the sight of a copy, and 
declares that it is scarcely to be found, even in Russia itself: yet' 
the impression was a large one ; but Kohlius darkly hints that its 
rarity might be probably traced to the circumstance of there being 
found in this edition multa qua Pwpismum saperent, which were 
either omitted or corrected in the subsequent Moscow edition exe- 
cuted in 1663. A perfect and fine copy of this work is however 
to be seen in the Bodleian library, clad in a solid binding which 
wears the appearance of having been put on at the time and place 
of the execution of the volume : and I cannot but remember the 
feelings of surprise and pleasure with which, when it was my office 
to exhibit this copy to the emperor Alexander of Russia, on his 
visit to the Bodleian library in company with the other sovereigns 
in the summer of 1814, his imperial majesty regarded for the first 
time this valuable and interesting book. The volume is a thick 
folio, handsomely printed in two columns, having the initial letters 
of books and chapters cut in wood. Part of the general title, as 
also those prefixed to the books of Genesis, the Psalms, and St- 
Matthew's Gospel, are printed in red ink. A calendar and table at 
the end consist of red and black intermixed. The third book of the 
Maccabees is found in this edition. A copy of this impression, 
but imperfect, is said to be preserved in the famous convent of 
Trotzkoi", or the Holy Trinity, distant about forty miles from Mos- 
cow : and another is now in the library of the Imperial Academy 
of Sciences at St. Petersburgh. Yet Bachmeister, in his " Essay 
" on the St. Petersburg hbrary," (8vo. 1776) assigns a different 
period to the first appearance of typography at Ostrog ; asserting 
that its press first opened in 1549, and ceased in or about the year 
1689. However he enters into no particular's confirming this 

For a minute and interesting account of this Ostrog edition, 
the reader is referred to the work of Mr. Henderson, entitled 
" Biblical Researches and Travels in Russia," 8°. 1826, p. 81 92. 

Otkonia, or Otthinium, Odensee, a very ancient episcopal town 
of Denmark, capital of the isle of Funen ; possessing a college, 
erected in 1621 ; also a public library, which although of very 
recent establishment, already contains more than 15,000 volumes. 
Thomas Kingo, bishop of Odensee, set up a press in his own 

OT.— ox. 207 

house, at which he printed Beringius' History of Denmark, folio, 
in the year 1698. 

Otmarsum, Ootmorssen, or Ootmarsum, a populous town of the 
Netherlands, in the province of Overyssel. Printing was carried 
on here, by Albert Caspersz, in the year 1647.— (TCD.) 

Ottinpurra, Uttinpurrha, or Ottembura, a monastery of Bene- 
dictines, founded in the Vlllth century, in Suabia, in the diocese 
of Augsburg. A press was established here in the early part of 
the XVIth century by Leonard Wideraann, a learned abbot of 
the monastery, who in his preface to an edition of Alcuinus de 
Trinitate, dated 1509, which was the firstfruits of his press, en- 
treats the monks to preserve and cherish the valuable art of print- 
ing which he had introduced among them. Schelhorn, who has 
given an account of this press in his Amaenitates historicB ecclesi- 
asticce et literaHce, vol. ii. p. 590 &c. declares that it was well 
supplied with Greek and Hebrew types : he affirms that all the 
books executed there were of high rarity, and mentions four which 
he had seen, of the dates 1509, 1511, 1518, and 1543 : how long 
the art continued to be exercised within the monastery, he has not 
informed us. 

Oude-water, a strong and manufacturing town of the Nether- 
lands, in the province of Utrecht, the birthplace of the celebrated 
John Arminius. Aert van Duin was a printer of Dutch books 
here in the year 1669.— (TCD.) 

Ovetum, Oviedo, an ancient city of Spain, capital of Asturias 
d'Oviedo. It is a bishop's see, and possesses an university. — 1795. 

Oxoma, Oxomense Burgum, or Burgum Uxomense, Osma, an 
ancient but almost ruined town of Spain, in Old Castile, seated on 
the river Duero : it is the see of a bishop. Antonio mentions that 
printing was carried on here in the year 1570. 

OXONIA, or OXONIVM, (more correctly ISIDIS VA- 
DVM,) Oxford, a well known city of England, whose celebrated 
university was founded by king Alfred in 872. In Welsh books 
this city is called Rhyd-y-chen, (i. e. ford of the Oxen,) from 
which has been coined the word Rhedycma. In one book alone 
have I seen it designated by its Roman appellation, BEL- 
LOSITVM DOBVNORVM; namely, in the Theses Theolo- 
gies et HistoriccB of G. J. Vossius, which bears for imprint, 
Bellositi Dobimorum, excudebat W. T. [urner] impensis W. 
W. [ebb.] 

208 OX. 

Without entering at all upon the contested question respecting 
the date of the well-known Exposicio S. Hieronymi, which pro- 
fesses to have been printed here in the year 14<68 ; (a point which, 
although my own opinion upon it has been long made up, I 
should have used every endeavour to set at rest, had !■ remained 
at the Bodleian libraiy long enough to have executed a once- 
meditated scheme of giving a detailed account of the progress of 
printing in Oxford,) I shall content myself with laying before the 
reader such proofs of its ancient typography, as will abundantly 
substantiate the claim of this university to the honour of being at 
least the second place in England which obtained the advantages 
of this art. 

The books executed at Oxford during the XV th century, at 
present known, are the following : 

1. ExposicioS. Hieronymi in SymbolumApostoloruni\'isGS. 4°. 

2. Aristotelis Ethica Latink per L. Aretinum 1479. 4". 

3. j^gidius Romanus de Peccato originali 1479. 4", 

4. Alexander de Ales in libros Aristotelis de Anima 1481. fol. 

5. Jo. Latteburius in Threnos Jeremice 1482. fol. 

6. Phalaridis Epistolaz Latinh per L. Aretinum (1485.) 4°, 

7. Jo. Lyndewode Constitutiones provinciales s. a. fol. 

8. Liber Festivalis 1486. fol 
Before entering into any description of these, it may be as 

well to clear our way by disposing of three other works which 
have been attributed to Oxford, and which may still be found 
ranged among the early specimens of this place mentioned by bib- 
liographers. 1. The first of these we owe to Herbert; who, in 
his Typographical Antiquities, (vol. iii.) sets it down from Ames 
in the following manner ; Guide de Columnia de historia Trojand, 
per T. R. {Theodore Rood,) 4°. 1480. He thus gives the notice 
as he received it, without being able to add a single word of illus- 
tration or reference. I do not find that such a book is mentioned 
by any other writer ; therefore, till something further is known 
respecting its existence, must refuse its admission into the cata- 
loguel. The two others are to be found in Panzer's Annals; one 

1 [Since the publication of the first edition, I have been fortunate enough to dis- 
cover the source of Herbert's observation, in a copy of this work now preserved ia 
the noble collection of the earl of Pembroke at Wilton : it is an edition without note 
of date, place, or printer; of which silence advantage has been taken by some dex- 
terous forger to add in printed letters a monogram containing the letters T. R. with 

ox. 209 

of which professes to be Hieronymi expositio in Symhdlo Aposto- 
lico. Oxonice, 1498. 8°. The other, Chialteri Burley tractatus 
de Materidy &c. Oxonii, 1500. 4°. The first of these two Pan- 
zer cites from Schoenemann ; upon looking into whose work, Bib- 
lioiheca Patru/m Laiinorum, I find the edition merely noticed in 
the above words, while on every other edition Schoenemann enters 
into a detailed description : here then, at once, seems to be evi- 
dence that the author himself knew nothing about such an edition, 
but having received a negligent notice of it from some friend, en- 
tered it among the rest, lest he might seem to be guilty of a deli- 
berate omission. Panzer rightly conjectures that it is a mistake 
for the edition of 1468. In the Gualterus Burley also there is a 
mis-statement of the date, which arose in the following manner : 
the book itself, from which Panzer's notice is taken, is preserved 
in the Bodleian library, and has the date thus expressed : Anno 
dm. M.c'cccc. deck) octavo, mensis vero Junii die septimo. 
Through inadvertency or haste in the compilation of the old Bod- 
leian Catalogue the figures alone were noticed, and in consequence 
the year 1500 was given to it instead of 1518. From this Cata- 
logue, Maittaire without examination transferred it into his An- 
nales Typographici ; Panzer copied the statement of Maittaire, 
and thus this edition has gone forth to the literary world as an 
addition to the Oxford typographical remains of the XV th century. 
Having thus cleared away these excrescences, we may proceed 
to a brief description of the specimens acknowledged to be ge- 
nuine. For this purpose I think they may advantageously be 
divided into three classes ; the first of which shall contain the 
first three articles; the second, the fourth and fifth; and the 
third, the remaining three. 

1. The Expositio, the Aristotelis Ethica, and the MgidAus, are 
all printed in the same size, with the same types, on the same 
paper, having the signatures marked in the same manner, and the 
presswork generally alike; they all have the date and place of 
printing distinctly marked, and all are equally without any prints 
er's name. Further, these types and this paper do not occur in 
any of the other books subsequently executed at Oxford. 

2. The Alexander in libros de Anima is a folio volume, printed 

the word OXON. and the date MCCCCLXXX. The deception however is palpable 
to an experienced eye. The same library possesses two other remarkable forgeries, 
doubtless by the game hand.] 


210 OX. 

in two columns, and containing a larger and smaller type, neither 
of which appear in the three books before mentioned : this volume 
bears a full imprint, Impressum per me Theodericum rood de 
Colonia in alma universitate Oocon. Anno incarnationis dominicce. 
M.cccc.Lxxxi. XI die mensis Octobris. The Latteburius in thre- 
nos HieremicB agrees with this in size, is also in two columns, 
contains types of two sorts, each of which is the same with those 
used in the Alexander ; it has no printer's name or place, but is 
dated in the next year, 1482. Altogether there is so close a re- 
semblance between these two volumes, that I think no person who 
compares them together can doubt that the place and printer of 
both are one and the same. It is further observable, that the types 
used in these two books, though they resemble each other, are not 
found either in those of a prior, or in those of a subsequent exe. 

3. The third and last division embraces the Phalaris, the 
Lyndewode, and the lAher Festivalis. The Phalaris, a small 
quarto, consists of a type which had not been used in any previous 
Oxford book ; it has the names of Rood and Hunte as printers, 
with the date of 1485 rather enigmatically expressed. The 
Ijyndewode is a very large volume, printed in double columns, 
consisting of three different sorts of type, the two smaller of which 
differ from any previously used in Oxford, but the largest agrees 
entirely with that of the Phalaris. The Liber Festivalis (the 
description of which I take wholly from the Bibliotheca Spence- 
riana, and the fac-simile there given) consists of types of two 
kinds, one of which (as engraved) certainly appears to resemble 
that of the Phalaris and the Lyndewode: like the latter, this 
book is printed in two columns ; like it, the signatures vary, some 
running in eights, while others are in sixes ; it has wood-cuts con- 
formable to the character of that which is prefixed to the Lynde- 
wode ; and it bears the date of 1486, which is but a single year 
posterior to that of the Phalaris. 

Here then, as it appears to me, are three families or classes of 
Oxford books; each preserving an uniformity among its own 
members, but possessing strong marks of separation from each 
of the other classes. The printer of the first set is unnamed, he 
may have been CorseUis, or any one else. The second is undoubt- 
edly the production of Theodoric Rood : and the third, of this 
latter printer after he had taken into partnership Thomas Hunte, 

ox. 211 

an Englishman, who perhaps may have brought these types, now 
first seen, as the price of his admission to a share of the business. 
Is not, then, the opinion of Dr. Dibdin rather hastily given, who 
asserts, (in vol. iii. p. 412, of the Bibliotheca Spencericma,) that 
" the Expositk) Hieronymi, the Alexander de Alexandria, the 
" Latteburius, and the Phalaris, are all executed in the same 
" character ?" I have endeavoured to shew that they belong to 
three classes totally distinct : and I speak with more confidence 
to this point, because I have, at the moment of writing this article, 
the books themselves of all three families, that is to say, seven out 
of the eight volumes known to be remaining, lying before me in 
the Bodleian library. 

Another opinion expressed by the same author is, that neither 
the three books of the first class, nor the two of the second, were 
printed in England. (See Bibl. Spencer, vol. iv. p. 352 and 355.) 
It may be so : yet I cannot myself discover any sufficient cause 
why in that case the name of Oxford was inserted into their colo- 
phons ; or why, having been so inserted in four instances, it was 
omitted in the fifth : and further, why the printer's name was in- 
troduced once, yet omitted in the remaining four cases. Dr. Dib- 
din most assuredly has adduced no proof to back these suppo- 
sitions : if it be said that the types " carry with them a foreign 
" appearance," and " are clearly of a Cologne origin," I may 
grant the fact, yet strenuously resist the inference : where, let me 
ask, was a type-foundry in England at this period ? did Caxton 
cast his own types at this time ? — and, if they were only to be pro- 
cured abroad, from what place was Theodore Rood, a native of 
Cologne, so likely to procure them, as from Cologne itself.? With 
ample reason therefore the types may have a Cologne origin, nay 
it would be strange if they had come from any other quarter. 
But until sufficient evidence is brought forward to shew that the 
volumes in question were executed at a foreign press, I shall, 
upon the great principle of British law, that every man is to be 
deemed innocent until he is fully proved to be guilty, content 
myself with believing that their colophons speak nothing but the 
truth, and that the books were really printed at that place at 
which they profess to have been printed. 

It only remains to state, for the reader's information, how many 
copies of these volumes are known to have reached our time, and 
in what collections each of them may be found. 


2ia ox. 

Of the first, Dr. Dibdin notices eight copies existing in this 
country ; namely, in the following libraries ; the Bodleian, the 
Archives of Oxford, that of All Souls' college, among bishop 
More's books in the public library of Cambridge, his late ma- 
jesty's library, earl Spencer's, the earl of Pembroke's, the mar- 
quess of Blandford's. (This last copy has been since sold at the 
White Knights' sale, part I. N°- 2145, and is now permanently 
fixed in the royal library of Paris.) It is with pleasure that I hear 
of a very fine ninth copy lately brought into notice, in the posses- 
sion of sir Henry Dryden. 

N°. 2. is in the Bodleian, and in the collections of Earl Spencer 
and the earl of Pembroke. 

N°. 3. is in the Bodleian library. 

N"- 4. is in the Bodleian, in the British Museum, among 
bishop More's books in the public library at Cambridge, in 
Oriel, Balliol, St. John's, and Trinity colleges, in Oxfords 
but the gem unequalled is a copy preserved in the library of 
Brazen-Nose college, which is beautifully printed upon vel- 

N°. 5. is in the Bodleian, and in the library of Corpus Christi 
college ; earl Spencer possesses a copy, and Herbert notices one 
belonging to the dean and chapter of Westminster, printed partly 
upon vellum and partly upon paper. [This last I have had the 
opportunity of Inspecting in the Chapter library, and find that in- 
stead of being partly on vellum, and partly upon paper, the volume 
is entirely upon vellum! Thus we now have knowledge of two 
Oxford books of the XVth century printed upon vellum. The 
Latteburius is perfect, but the vellum is neither white nor 

N". 6. is in the library of Corpus Christi college, Oxford, 
(being the very copy described by Herbert, and formerly belong- 
ing to the Rev. Herbert Randolph, rector of Deal,) and in that of 
earl Spencer. The Corpus copy is miserably cropped, earl Spen- 
cer's is large and fine and beautiful. 

N°. 7. is in the Bodleian library. 

No. 8, is in the collection of earl Spencer. 

From the year 1486 we know of no book printed at Oxford 
until 1517, (erroneously marked 1512 by Herbert, and copied 
after him by Briiggeman, and subsequently by Panzer;) and 
after 1519 there is again a complete blank until late in queen 

ox. 21S 

Elizabeth's reign "^j when a new press was erected at the expence 
of the earl of Leicester, chancellor of the university ; the first 
book printed at which was Johannis Cast speculum moraUum 
qucBstionum in universam Ethicam Aristotelis, 4°. executed by 
Joseph Barnes, printer to the university, in 1585. After the 
erection of the Sheldonian Theatre, which was publicly and 
solemnly opened in a convocation holden on the 9th of July, 1669, 
the university printing-presses were worked in a room underneath 
that building; from whence issued, during the space of fifty 
years, numerous excellent editions sufficiently known to the learn- 
ed. In all probability the first book printed here was the Car- 
men Pindaricum in Theatrum Sheldonianum of Corbett Owen of 
Christ Church, recited at the convocation above-mentioned. The 
imprint, E Theatro Sheldoniano, was not left oiF until after the 
year 1759, although the university books ceased to be printed 
there from the time of the completion of the Clarendon printing- 
house. This last press commenced its operations, in October, 
1713, and the first sheet worked off was letter z. in the third alpha- 
bet of Leland's Collectanea, then being published by Hearne. 

The establishment was again moved to a new and larger print- 
ing-office, erected in the north-west quarter of the city, in the 
month of September 1830; and the first sheet worked off at the 
new press was letter 2 p. in Bishop Lloyd's GreeJc Testament, 12P. 
The first publication finished, and bearing the imprint, at the 
University Press, was Barro'w's theological works, 8 vols. 8vo. 

While I am upon the subject of Oxford typography, the reader 
may perhaps forgive the following notice of a curious mistake 
made by Chevillier in his Origine de Timprimerie, in interpreting 
a passage of Wood's Athena Oxonienses relative to the matter 
before us : Chevillier says, (in p. 328,) " II y a eu un temps en 
" Angleterre ou I'universit^ d'Oxfort avoit senle le droit d'exercer, 
" ou de faire exercer, I'imprimerie, et ou aucune autre ville de ce 
" royaume-la ne le pouvoit faire sans sa permission. Cela fut 

m For The Account of the lAthuanian tramslation of the Bible, cited by Her- 
bert under the year 1569, is really of 1659. 

Bagford, in bis MS. collections for a history of printing, attributes the cessation 
observed in the Oxford, Cambridge, York, Tavistock, St. Albau's, Canterbury, and 
Worcester presses, to the interference of cardinal Wolsey, during his legantine visi- 
tations of several parts of England. Upotiwhat authority, I am unable to learn. 


214 PA. 

" ainsi observe jusq'au tems de la reine Elisabeth. Oh Tapprend 
" de celui qui a ecrit Thistoire de cette mSme university." (Anto- 
nius Wood, Hist. Univ. Oxon. p. 228.) " Notatu dignum est 
" quod ars ilia, ni fallor, ad serenissimae usque Elisabethae tem- 
" pora (quippe turn Joseph um quemdam Barnes libros ex licenti4 
" academici imprimentem reperies,) apud exteros penitiis hsesit ; 
" quibus permissa est ab universitate potestas, jus, et privilegium 
" artem typographicam exercendi, vel apud se retinendi, vel aliis 
'' coramunicandi.'" " On pent dire que ce fut la recompence des 
" soins que prit le chancelier de cette dcole, de faire ^tablir la pre- 
" miere imprimerie du royaume a Oxfort ; car ce fut lui qui sol- 
" licita le roi de la Grand Bretagne de faire venir des imprimeurs, 
" et qui joignit una somme de trois cent marcs d'argent k celle 
" que ce prince donna sur ce sujet.'" 

Antony k Wood had simply mentioned the fact, that the early 
printers at Oxford were rather foreigners than natives of the 
place, as Corsellis, Theodoric Rood of Cologne, John Scolar, 
(who is supposed to have been a German,) &c. &c. which notice 
Chevillier misunderstanding assumes at once that Oxford pos- 
sessed, down to the period of queen Elizabeth's reign, the import- 
ant privilege of a monopoly of printing throughout the British 


Paddeniurg. (qu. Padenbom, in Westphaha ?) A Talmudical 
treatise, dated 1726, bearing the imprint of this place, is noticed 
in the Catalogue of the library belonging to the " London Society 
*' for promoting Christianity among the Jews." 

Padeborna, Paderborn, an ancient and considerable town of 
Westphalia, with an university, founded in 1592. It was for- 
merly the see of a bishop possessing a most extensive jurisdiction. 
Printing was exercised here in 1600, (TCD.) and by Matthew 
Pontanus in 1602.— (Bodl.) 

Padova, see Patavium. 

PalcEopolis Aduaticorum, qu. Tongeren, or Tongres, an an- 
cient town of the Netherlands, in the territory of Liege ? — 1606. 

Palentia, Palencia, a considerable town of Spain, chief of a dis- 
trict in the province of Leon, and the see of a bishop. The first 
Christian university founded in Spain was established at this 
place, but afterwards was transferred to Salamanca. 

Antonio and Caballero, two Spanish bibliographers, mention a 

PA. 215 

work by Rodericus SancUus de Jrevallo, said to be printed in 
this town in 1470: but Panzer treats the statement as errone- 
ous, and believes the book in question to be a Roman edition of 
that year. No other specimen of printing at Palencia is adduced, 
either in this or the early part of the succeeding century ; but 
Antonio notices printing here in the year 1572 ; which statement 
is in all probability correct. 

Pahna, a strong town of Austrian Illyria, in Friuli. — 1814. 

Palma Balearium, now called Majorca, a seaport-town, capital 
of the island of Majorca. It is a bishop's see, and contains some 
literary establishments. Antonio notices printing here in the year 
1600 : he likewise mentions a book dated 1589, bearing the im- 
print Majorica, which in all probability was executed in this town. 
In the Catalogue of the Bibliotheca Mayanskma, (sold by auction 
in London in 1829,) N°. 85, occurs a work of Raimundo LuUio, 
bearing the imprint Palma, 1540, which the compiler pronounces 
to be the first book printed in the island; also (N° 111.) another 
Spanish work by Carbon, with the imprint Mallorca, 1541. 

Palmonium, quaere what town? Le Long cites an JElemen- 
tarium Hebraicum, by Ambrosius Frichius, executed in this 
town in the year 1567. (see vol. ii. p. 1173.) 

Palmyra was an ancient and celebrated city of Syria, whose 
stupendous ruins still bespeak its former magnificence : it is also 
the name of no fewer than nine townships and villages in the 
United States of America. 

Some Italian works of the middle of the last century bear the 
imprint of this place, with the dates 1755, 1767, and 1769; [but 
quaere where printed ? I have not seen any of them.J 

Paliheniorum qfflcina. Zacharias Palthenius, who was a learned 
printer of Francfort on the Maine, at the close of the XVIth cen- 
tury, used sometimes the custom, which then generally prevailed, 
of omitting the name of his town. His books occur with the fol- 
lowing imprints : 

Zacharias Palthenius LLD. in 1597, (he died 1615.) 

Collegium Paltheniorum in 1605 — 10. 

CoUe^um Musarum Palthen'". in 1612—14. 

Officina Haredum Paltheni". in 1616. 

Hartmannus Palthenius in 1616 — 22. 

Pdkm, Pau, a considerable town of France, formerly the ca- 
pital of Beam. Printing was practised at Pau about the middle 

p 4 

216 PA. 

of the XVIth century. The earliest book known appears to be 
a volume of the Customs l^c. of Beam, in the dialect of the coun- 
try, executed by Johan de Vingles and Henry Poyure, in 1552. 
A copy of this, on vellum, is in the royal library of France. 

PAMPELVNA, or POMPEIOPOLIS, Pampeluna, an an- 
cient city of Spain, the capital of Navarre : it is a bishop's see, 
and has an university founded in 1608. Of six or seven Pampe- 
luna books of the XVth century which now remain, the earliest is 
a Commentary an the Apostles'' Creed by Petrus de Castrdbel, 
executed in the year 1489 : the printer's name is not mentioned. 
Mendez, however, knew nothing of such a book, which appears to 
be cited from Prosper Marchand ; and judged that typography 
was introduced into Pampeluna by Arnard Guillen de Brocar (the 
same who afterwards printed the famous Polyglott Bible at Alcala) 
in or about the year 1495. Panzer knew of no publication be- 
tween 1501 and 1536. 

Panama, a trading city and seaport of South America, seated 
on a bay in the isthmus of Darien : it was formerly the capital of 
the Spanish province of Panama, and a great commercial depot, 
but has latterly declined. How early typography was introduced, 
I have not learnt: in 1824 two newspapers were regularly pub- 
lished in the town. 

Paniovicia, Senapaniowce, a town of Russian Poland, in Podo- 
lia. Printing was carried on here in 1608. 

PANORMVM, Palermo, a populous and fine city, capital of 
the island of Sicily, and seat of the viceroy. It is the see of an 
archbishop, and has an university. 

One book only is known to have been printed at Palermo during 
the XVth century, entitled, Joannis Nusonis consuetudines urbis 
Panormi ; the date of which is 1477, and the printer Andreas de 
Wormacid. From this year we know of no more Palermo print- 
ing until 1515. To descend to modern times, one of the latest 
publications of this city is an Italian metrical translation of sir 
Walter Scott's beautiful poem, " The Lady of the Lake." 

Papenhemium, Pappenheim, a small town of the interior of 
Germany, formerly chief place of a district, now belonging to 
Bavaria. — 1786. 

PAPIA, or TICINVM, Pavia, an ancient city of Austrian 
Italy, in the duchy of Milan: it is a bishop's see, and has a cele- 
brated university, founded by the emperor Charlemagne. 

PA. gl7 

Pavia was very early in its adoptiun of typography : its oldest 
remaining specimen is a medical work of Jdhcmnes Matthcd de 
Ferrariis, of the year 1471 ; the printer of which, Atithonius de 
Carchano, who seems to have been no small coxcomb, styles him- 
self in one of his books, Gymnam Papiensis generaMs jwrista- 
rum biddlus : (i. e. as we should say in Oxford, esquire bedel of 
law!) The art was carried on extensively at Pavia by about 
thirty printers during the XVth and beginning of the XVIth 
century. One of them, apparently a whimsical mortal, desig- 
nates himself by three several appellations, viz. Jacobus PuL 
chridrapensis. Jacobus Paraidrapius, and Jacolms Paucidrapius 
— de Burgq/ranco. 

Paramaribo, a large and flourishing town of Guiana, in South 
America, capital of the province of Surinam. 

A newspaper was announced for publication at this place, in the 
year 1826. 

tropolis of France ; the celebrated university of which was found- 
ed by Charlemagne in the year 791. 

There is no doubt that Paris witnessed the exercise of the art 
of printing so early as 1470, in which year, through the exertions 
of two of its learned professors, Guillaume Fichet, and Jean de 
la Pierre, a press was set up in the college of the Sorbonne by 
the three illustrious partners, Ulric Gering, Ma:gtin Crantz, and 
Michael Friburger, and a work, entitled Gasparmi Pergamensis 
Epistolce, finished and given to the public. Yet for the first two 
or three years their books are without any date, the only excep- 
tion being a small piece of Fichetus adjoined to his Treatise upon 
Rhetoric, to which the date of 1471 is affixed, and which is there- 
fore to be considered the first dated Paris book. The firm con- 
tinued its united labours until 1478, (having removed in 1473 
from the Sorbonne to the Golden Sun in the Rue S. Jacques,) 
and was succeeded by a host of printers during the XVth cen- 
tury, many of whom have obtained considerable reputation by 
their works. From this numerous list we may select as the more 
conspicuous, Antonius Verard, the printer of several valuable 
Chronicles, and sadly given to the practice of striking off copies 
upon vellmri ! Guido Mercator, Jo. Badius Ascensius, and Thiel- 
man Kerver. But above them all it should be remembered, that 
in this city the illustrious and learned family of the Stephani car- 

218 PA, 

ried on the business of printing for upwards of a century and a 
half. The earliest book known to be executed by any of this 
family is Jo. Fabri introductio in libros Ethicorum Aristotelis, 
which was printed by Henry Stephens the elder, in partnership 
with Wolfgang Hopylius, in the year 1496. Consult Maittaire's 
Lives of the Stephani, a work however which is abundantly sus- 
ceptible of correction and enlargement, and sadly requires the 
labours of an active and careful editor. 

Of the extent which the art had reached in Paris within the 
first thirty years from the period of its introduction, some idea 
may be formed, when it is known that Panzer has enumerated no 
fewer than eighty-five printers, and upwards of seven hundred 
and ninety works executed here during the XVth century. 

PARMA, an ancient and fortified city of the north of Italy, 
capital of the duchy of Parma : it is a bishop's see, and has an 
university, founded in 1599. 

The earliest known specimen of the Parma presses is an ex- 
ceedingly rare edition of Phitarchus de liberis educandis, exe- 
cuted by Andreas de Portilii in 1472. In the following year 
Stephanus Corallus began to print, to whom, as well as to Por- 
tilia, we are indebted for several valuable and beautiful editions 
of classic authors. In one of his books Corallus uses a singular 
illustration of the speed with which it was put forth, where he 
states, " Stephanus Corallus Lugdunensis invidorum quorundam 
" malivolentia lacessitus, qui idem imprimere tentarunt, citius 
" quami asparagi coquantur, id absolvit !" Thank heaven and 
the horticultural society, our modern breed of asparagus is some- 
what less hard-hearted. 

In modern times the city of Parma has obtained a high degree 
of celebrity from the splendour and luxury of the typographic 
productions of the renowned Bodoni, whose beautiful and correct 
editions deservedly find a place in the library of every accom- 
plished scholar. An account of Bodoni and his publications has 
been recently published in two volumes 4to. 

Passay, a village beautifully seated on the banks of the river 
Seine, at the distance of one league from Paris. 

During nine years and a half, from the 7th Jan. 1777, Passay 
was the residence of the celebrated Dr. Benjamin Franklin ; who, 
possessing a printing-press in his own house, used to divert him- 
self from time to time by composing and printing for the amuse- 

PA.— PE. 219 

ment of his intimate friends several light essays and jeua; d'esprits, 
such as the Supplement to the Boston Independent Chronicle, 
and the Letter Jrom the pirate Paul Jones, described in the 
" Memoirs of B. Franklin, &c." 4to. 1818. Franklin quitted 
Passay in July 1785 ; and died in 1790. 

PATAVIA, or PASSAVIVM, Passau, an ancient and strong 
city of Bavaria, seated on the Danube, formerly capital of the 
principality of Passau, and still a bishop's see. 

A few books remain to attest the exercise of printing in this 
city during the XVth century, the earliest of which is a Brevia- . 
rium Pataviense, of the year 1481, in small 8vo. No printer's 
name is attached to this curious little volume ; but in the next 
year Conrad Stahel, Benedictus Mayr, and Johannes Alacraw, 
carried on the business in Passau, which continued from that time 

PATAVIVM, Padua, an ancient and celebrated city of Aus- 
trian Italy, the capital of a province, and a bishop's see. Its uni- 
versity was founded by Charlemagne, and restored by the empe- 
ror Frederic the Second in 1222. The earliest known book from 
Padua is the edAtio princeps of the Fiammetta of Boccacio, print- 
ed by Bartholomasus de Valdezochio, and Martinus de septem 
Arboribus, in the year 1472. Ten or twelve printers established 
themselves at Padua before the close of the XVth century : but 
very little printing appears to have been done in this city from the 
year 1500 to 1536. 

Pateo, a town or village of Taha or Otaha, one of the Society 
Islands in the South Pacific Ocean. Some English missionaries 
established themselves on this island in the year 1822, and have 
recently introduced a printing-press, from which they have sent 
forth several portions of Holy Scripture in the Tahitian lan- 

Patras, (anciently Patras,) a populous and trading sea^port 
town of Greece, in the Morea, seated at the entrance of the gulf 
of Lepanto. 

Some few years ago typography was introduced at Patras ; and 
in 1828 a weekly French journal was published here, under the 
title of Courier de VOrient. 

Pedepontivm,, qu ? Machado, in his " Bibliotheca Lusitana," 
torn. i. p. 190, mentions a work printed at Pedepontum prope Ra- 
tisbonam, in the year 1 739. 

220 PE. 

Pehin, a large and well-known dty of China, capital of the 
whole empire. 

Of the mode of printing originally in use among the Chinese, 
(viz. from wooden blocks, after the manner of our card-printers,) 
the invention of which is by some writers carried back to a most 
remote period, and which there is good authority for believing to 
have been practised by the natives at least so far back as the year 
930 of the Christian era, I have nothing at all to say in the pre- 
sent work. 

There is little question that the European method was intro- 
duced among them by the Jesuit missionaries, for the purpose of 
disseminating, by means of catechisms and other religious tracts, 
the knowledge of the Christian religion. How early any books 
were executed by these fathers, I cannot pretend to say with cer- 
tainty : ChevillJer quotes, from Couplet's edition of Confucius, 
(fol. Paris, 1687,) a work by father Matthew Riccius, one of the 
first missionaries, entitled, Tien hio xey, ccelestis doctrincB vera 
ratio, printed in two vols, at Pekin, in 1603. There is in the 
Bodleian library a book printed by the Jesuits at Pekin, in the 
year 1701, entitled, Brevis Relatio eorum cjuce spectant ad Decla- 
rationem Sinarum Imperatoris Earn Hi circa ccdi, Curnfucii, et 
Avorum cultum, datam anno 1700. But this work, though in 
the Roman character, is evidently printed from wooden blocks. 
In addition to the Roman, it contains Chinese and Tartar charac- 
ters, and is dated 1701. 


Penang, or Pulo Pimmg, Prince of Wales' island, situate off 
the western coast of the Malay peninsula. It has been in posses- 
sion of the British since the year 1786, and has become the seat 
of a very considerable trade. It has a town called George Town, 
which at first was subject to many inconveniences, but latterly 
great improvements have taken place*. A weekly newspaper is 
now (1826) in course of publication at Penang. 

Penigk, a small town of Saxony, on the river Mulda. A Ger-. 
man work, by Fr. Murhard, bears the imprint Penig 1804 ; but 
from the colophon it appears that the book was really printed at 

Pera, see Constantinopolis. 

Pernavia, Pernau, a fortified town of European Russia, in Li- 
vonia, seated on the gulf of Riga. The university, which had been 

PE. 221 

founded at Dorpt by Gustavus Adolphus, was removed to Pemau 
in 1698 by Charles the Twelfth. Priming was known here in 
1698. At present two journals are regularly published in the town. 

PERPINIANVM, or ELNA, Perpignan, a strong and con- 
siderable town of the south of France, seated on the river Tet. 
It was formerly a bishop's see, and has an university, founded by 
Peter, king of Arragon, in 1349. 

The only work now remaining to attest the existence of typo- 
graphy in this town during the XVth century, is a Breviarium 
secundum consuetudimem ecclesica Elmensis, printed by J. Bosem- 
bach in the year 1500, in 8vo. : a copy of which, printed vjpan 
vellwn, is preserved in the library of St. Genevieve at Paris. Nor 
is any instance of a book printed here during the early part of the 
ensuing century mentioned by bibliographers. I have met with 
none earlier than 1628. 

PERVSIA, or AVGVSTA PERVSIA, Perouse, or Perugia, 
an ancient and populous city of Italy, the capital of Perugino, 
in the states of the church. It is a bishop's see, and has an uni- 
versity, founded in 1307. 

Typography was practised here during the XVth century, but 
not to any extent. The earliest dated Perugian book bears the 
year 1475 : but Dr. Dibdin judges a Bariholi commentaria with- 
out date to be an earlier production than any known. (See the 
Supplement to the BiAUotheca Spenceriama, p. 30, with the reari 
sons there adduced.) 

Pesctavium, Puschlaw, or Puschiavo, a town of the Helvetic 
republic, in the Grisons country. ^ 

Printing was exercised here by Bajocius l^lteceterus at least, 
so early as 1589, of which date a book, very wHMpecuted by him, 
is found in Trinity college, Dublin. Coxe,ln riis " Travels in 
" Switzerland," assigns to Puschiavo the honour of having pro- 
duced the first book printed in the Romanesche dialect of the 
Lower Engadine, namely, an Alphabet, Creeds and Collection of 
Prayers, &c. compiled by J. Tutschet (or Biveronius). This 
volume is in octavo, and bears the date of 1560. A New Testa- 
ment, of the same date, perhaps prqceeded from this same town. 
Le Long mentions a New Testament in the Bomanesche or Gri- 
sons language, printed at Puschlaw in 1607. 

Pesenacum, or Piscenffi, Pesenas, an ancient town of the south 
of France, in Languedoc. — 1661 . 

9,m PE. 

Pesthmum, or Pestum, Pesth, a capital city of Hungary, seat- 
ed on the Danube, immediately opposite to Buda : it is very large 
and handsome, and at present contains the only university of that 
kingdom, which was transferred to it from Buda, in the year 
1777. Books were printed here in 1763. 

Petracora, or Petrocorium, Perigueux, an ancient town of 
France, formerly a bishop's see. A single book, printed here, in 
1503, is adduced by Panzer: namely, Constitutiones synodales 
Caturcenses, executed by Joannes Carant, in folio. 

Petropolis, St. Petersburg, the modern metropolis of the Rus- 
sian empire, in which is a flourishing university, and an academy 
of sciences which long has been well-known to the literary world 
by its learned " Transactions." This academy was established 
by an ordinance of the empress Catherine, dated 21st December, 

Typography was introduced into St. Petersburg by its founder 
the Czar Peter the Great, who, in the year 1711, transferred a 
part of the printing establishment of Moscow to his new capital, 
for the purpose of printing the imperial ukases. 

Bachmeister observes, that the earliest productions of this new 
press which he had seen were a book of the year 1713, and the 
" Gazettes" of 1714. The art seems to have spread rapidly in 
this city ; in 1719 the senate of St. Petersburg appears to have 
had a printing-press of its own : in 1718 or 1720 one was erected 
in the monastery of Saint Alexander Newski: in 1724 the college 
of the admiralty possessed one : in 1727 the academy of sciences 
had a press peculiar to itself: fnd in 1735 the synod of the clergy 
enjoyed a similar advantage. 

Bachmeister,' to w|iom we owe the above information, has fur- 
nished us, in his " Essai," with many interesting particulars 
concerning the library of the academy ; a few of which, as his 
work is very rarely met with in England, are here given to the 

The imperial library of St. Petersburg began to be formed in 
the year 1714, from some books captured during" the war in 
Courland; from 2500 volumes brought from Mittau; with a 
few others from Moscow. On the first of August 1726 it was 
united to the academy of sciences. In 1728 the books were re- 
moved to a more commodious spot, and the library was formally 
opened to the public on the 25th of October in that same year. 


In 1742 a Catalogue both of the books and curiosities belonging 
to the academy was printed in three volumes 8vo. : but as this 
was only distributed in the way of presents, Bachmeister observes 
that it was very little known, and that it was exceedingly difficult 
to meet with a complete copy. An unfortunate fire which broke 
out in the library on the Sth of December, 1747, though it was 
attended with little absolute loss, yet caused a total disarrange- 
ment of the books, which in consequence continued almost wholly 
useless until the completion of new rooms for their reception in 
the year 1766. In 1772 conquest added to the library a great 
number of books from Nesvitz in Lithuania; and in 1774 it was 
enriched with eighteen volumes of MSS. of the astronomer Kepler. 
In 1776 it contained altogether 36,000 volumes. 

Amongst its rare and more valuable books are named, 

" An Armenian Bible, printed at Constantinople in 1705, very 

" rare, and unknown to Le Long." 
« The Schlavonic Bibles of 1581, 1663, and 1751." 
" The Pohsh Bibles of Brzescie, Cracow, and Dantzic." 
" The Gospels ' en Vandalique,' Tubingen, 1557, being the 

" first book printed in that language." 
" The history of Lithuania by Kojalowicz, of which the first 
" volume was printed at Dantzic in 1650, and the second at 
" Antwerp in 1669, so that the two are very rarely found 
" united." 
" A work by king Stanislaus, who printed but a very small 

" number of copies of it." 
" A form of public thanksgiving (in Russia) for the victory of 
" Pultawa, enriched by corrections and alterations in the 
" hand-writing of the Czar Peter." 
" A Russian Pentateuch printed at Prague in 1519." 
" The famous and unique Apostdl, printed at Moscow in 1564," 

[an account of which see under the article Moscua.] 
" Two excessively rare books, in the Glagolitical character, 
" printed at Tubingen about the middle of the XVIth cen- 
" tury." 
" A variety of books, in the Russian characters, printed at Cra- 
" cow, Vilna, Prague, Venice, Nesvitz, Moscow, Ostrog, Lwow, 
" Striatina,Galitz, Mohilow, Potschaev, Kiew, Rochmanov, Stock- 
" holm, the monasteries of Kuteinskoi, of Delskoi, of Iverskoi, and 
" of Vneuskoi : at Tzchernigow, at Oxford, and at Amsterdam," 


The oldest Sclavonic MS. which it possesses is of the year 
1298 : but it is noticed that prince Tscherbatow had one dated 
1046 ; and that one of 1157 was believed to be at Moscow. 

At the present day, it is almost unnecessary to remark, the art 
of printing is carried on with the greatest vigour at St. Peters- 
burg. In the year 1824 it was ascertained that the city possessed 
no fewer than twenty-six printing-establishments, of which seven- 
teen belonged to the government. 

Henderson, in his " Biblical Researches in Russia," p. 96, gives 
us a curious anecdote of an edition of the Dutch Bible printed at 
the Hague, in folio, in which one half of each page was left blank 
at the desire of the Czar Peter, in order to its being filled up 
with the Slavonic version at St. Petersburg. But some difficulties 
having arisen respecting the accordance of the two versions, the 
work was discontinued; the Old Testament was never finished, 
and the few copies of the New Testament which had found their 
way into circulation were sought for with the utmost diligence, 
and the entire impression was suppressed and destroyed. 


Philadelphia, a large and beautiful city, the capital of Penn- 
sylvania, North America. It is situated on the river Delaware, 
and was laid out by William Penn, the founder of the province, 
in the year 1683. It possesses an university incorporated by char- 
ter, and a great variety of literary and charitable establishments. 

Pennsylvania was the second English colony in America (Mas- 
sachusetts being the first) in which the art of printing was esta- 
blished. About the year 1686 or 1687, Wm. Bradford, a native 
of Leicester in England, set up a press near Philadelphia ; com- 
mencing his labours by printing a sheet almanac for the year 
1687: in 1689 he moved into the city, where one of his earliest 
essays was a quarto pamphlet by George Keith, respecting the 
New England churches. The celebrated Dr. Franklin com- 
menced here the business of a printer on his own account, and 
continued it until the close of the year 1765, when the rising dis- 
putes between England and the colonies began to call his atten- 
tion to more important concerns. 

At Philadelphia the first attempt at stereotype printing was 
made, by Benjamin Mecom, a nephew of Dr. Franklin, about the 
year 1775. He cast the plates for a number of pages of the New 
Testament, but never completed them. 

PH.— PI. 225 

So early as 1743 a German newspaper was published here ; 
and in or before the year 1755, a peculiar press for the German 
language was established, at the expence of a society in London 
formed for " promoting religious knowledge among the German 
" emigrants in Pennsylvania." This press was placed under the 
direction of the provost of the college of Philadelphia. 

PHORCA, Pfortzheim, a trading town of the west of Ger- 
many, in the margravate of Baden-Durlach. 

Only one volume of Pfortzheim printing in the XVth century 
now remains, namely, Joannis Altenstaig Vocdbularius, executed 
in the year 1500. The printer, Thomas Anselmus Badensis, 
continued his business here till 1511 ; at which period he removed 
to Tubingen : and thenceforward we hear no more of Pfortzheim 
printing. Several of the Pfortzheim books may be seen in the 
Bodleian library. 

Piazzola, a town of the island of Corsica. Haym (Biblioteca 
Hal.) mentions a book printed here in 1784. 

PICTAVIVM, Poitiers, an ancient and large town of the west 
of France, formerly capital of Poitou : it is a bishop's see : its 
university was founded in 1431. Only three books executed here 
in the XVth century are known ; the earliest of which is a Bre- 
viarium historiale of the year 1479, which professes to have been 
printed in adibus Canonici ecclesice B. Hilarii: and the next 
bears for imprint, in iurgo sanctissimi Hilarii maioris Pictavis: 
so that probably the press was erected within the monastery. A 
very fine copy of Les triumphes de la noble et amoureuse dame, 
et Vart de honnestement aymer, compose par le traverseur des 
voyes perUleuses, printed at Poitiers by Jacques Bouchet, in the 
year 1532, may be seen in Marsh's library, Dublin ; the volume 
is in foho, consisting of 166 leaves, printed in the Gothic letter. 

St. Pierre, a busy seaport-town in the island of Martinique. 
The Code de la Martinique was printed at this town in 1767. 

PINAROLIVM, Pignerol, or Pinarola, a small town of the 
north of Italy, in Piedmont, seated on the river Clusone. It is a 
bishop's see. 

Panzer knew of only three books printed here daring the XVth 
century; viz. a Boethius and a Juvenal of 1479, and an Otxid of 
1480; all by Jacobus de Rubeis, who had previously carried on 
the trade at Venice. Nor is any work adduced as executed at 
Pignerol from the year 1480 to 1536. 

226 PI.— PL. 


Pinczovia, Pinczow, a town of Poland, in the palatinate of 
Cracow : in this town, which was the chief resort of the Unita- 
rians, so that from hence they gained the name Pinczovians, a 
press was erected by them so early as the year 1559. 

PISA, Pisa, an ancient and large city of the north-west of 
Italy, in the grand duchy of Tuscany, seated on the river Arno. 
It is an archbishop's see, possesses an university, founded in the 
year 1339, and many public buildings of great beauty ; it is also 
memorable as the birthplace of Galileo. 

The most ancient remaining specimens of Pisan typography 
are, a work of Franciscus de Accoltis de Aretio, and one of Bar- 
tholomceus Socinus, both of the year 1483; to neither of them is 
a printer's name affixed. After the year 1499 the name of Pisa 
does not occur, within the period to which Panzer confined his 

Pisaurum, Pesaro, an ancient and fortified town of Italy, be- 
longing to the states of the church, in the duchy of Urbino. It 
is the see of a bishop. The several works which have been cited 
by bibliographers as executed at Pesaro during the XVth cen- 
tury, the scrutinising De Rossi sufficiently proves to be erro- 
neously described : and in all probability the year 1504 is the 
epoch of the introduction of typography into this town, which 
art was almost entirely carried on here by the Hebrew printers 
from Soncino. 

PISCIA, Pescia, a town of Tuscany, in Florentino, seated on 
a river of the same name. It is a bishop's see. 

The earliest book from this place is Lm confessione di S. Ber- 
nardino da Siena, printed by Francesco Cenni in the year 1485. 
No Pescian book is known between 1500 and 1536 ; but one of 
the date of 1555 was in the Pinelli library. 

Pistoria, Pistoya, a large and handsome city of Italy, in the 
grand duchy of Tuscany, the see of a bishop. — 1643. 

PLACENTIA, Placenza, or Piacenza, a fortified town of the 
north of Italy, tjie capital of a duchy, and a bishop's see. J 
Latin Bible, of the year 1475, executed by Johannes Petrus de 
Ferratis a native of Cremona, appears to be the earliest known 
specimen of Placentian typography: a copy of this volume is 
contained in the collection of earl Spencer. 

SanUnder observes, that it is not a little remarkable that in a 

PL. mi 

place of such consequence as Piacenza, so little should have been 
done in the printing business ; not more than three or four pro- 
ductions of the XVth century being known, [and none between 
ISOl and 1536.] 

Placentia, a port-town of the settlement of Placentia, or Plai- 
sance, on the southern coast of the island of Newfoundland. A 
Gazette has for many years past been printed here. 

Plantimiana Offlcina. Many books executed by the celebrated 
family of the Plantins omit the name of the place where printed : 
they proceeded either from Antwerp or Leyden, at both which 
towns these elegant printers possessed establishments. The earliest 
book bearing Plantin's name, which I remember to have seen, is 
of the year 1566. But see the article Antverpia. 

Plavia Variscorum, Plauen, a considerable town of the west of 
Saxony, in Voigtland. 

A work of G. S. Dorfellius, on Hebrew accents, was printed 
here in the year 1670. — (Le Long.) 

PLEBISACIVM, or PHEIBIA, Piobe de Sacco, a small 
town of Austrian Italy, in the Paduana. 

A single volume remains to testify the early period of the in- 
troduction of typography into this town, namely, a Hebrew work 
in four volumes folio, the Arba turim of Rabbi Jacob ben Ascher; 
its date, as ascertained by De Bossi, is 1475 : so that, as Panzer 
observes, it may contend with the celebrated Beggio edition of 
Salomon Jarchi of the same year, for the honour of being the first 
dated Hebrew book in existence. Of this book M. Van Praet no- 
tices three copies printed on vellam ; one of which is at Turin, 
a second at Parma, and the third in the Vatican. It appears 
however that De Bossi has since discovered an edition of the 
Psalter, with the Commentaries of David Kimchi, to which the 
date of 1472 is affixed, but the place of printing is not known. 
If this be correct, the palm of precedency must of course be 
transferred. No other publication of this town during the XVth 
century is known to be remaining. 

Phena, Ploen, a large town of Denmark, in the duchy of Hol- 
stein.— 1692. 

Plymouth, a seaport town of the United States, capital of Ply- 
mouth county, in the state of Massachusetts, North America. It 
is considered the oldest town in New England, having been 
founded in 1620. How soon it adopted typpgraphy, I have not 


228 PO. 

yet learned. A work entitled The American Orchardist, 12mo. 
was printed here in 1825. 

Poczatec, a small town of Bohemia, QQ miles S. E. of Prague. 
According to Balbinus, Thomas Baworowski, archdeacon of Pil- 
sen, printed here Sermones de Pwnitentia, in the year 1552. 

Podium, Puy, is the name of several towns in France. — 1628. 

POLLIANVM RVS, Polliano, a town of Italy, in the Vero- 
nese, at the distance of four miles from the city of Verona. 

The only known book executed at this town is II libro degli 
Huomini Jamosi, by Petrarch, which was printed by Felix Anti- 
quarius and Innocens Ziletus, partners, in the year 1476. This 
curious volume may be seen in the noble collection of earl 


Pondicherry, a city on the coast of the south of India, in the 
Carnatic; the capital of the French establishments in India. — 

Pons ad Monticulum, see Mussipontum. 

Pons CEni, see CEnipons. 

Pontidce Monasterium, qu ? The Pinelli Catalogue (N°.11037) 
contains a work entitled Numi^mata selectiorfi e mtisceo Pisano, 
in four volumes folio, bearing for imprint, In monasterio Ponti- 
d<B agri Bergomatis, 1740, 174] . I have not been able to find 
a monastery of this name in the Bergamasco territory. It is ob- 
servable, however, that Brunet, citing this same work, gives the 
imprint In monasterio Benedicto-Casinate : quaere the meaning 
of all this.? 

Popayan, a large city of South America, lately capital of the 
Spanish province of Popayan in the kingdom of New Granada. 
It was founded by the Spaniards in 1537, is a bishop's see, and 
contains the royal mint. 

In the year 1824 a newspaper was published here. 

Port au Prince, a seaport and town of considerable trade, con- 
taining nearly 30,000 inhabitants, in the western part of the island 
of St. Domingo. A press was erected here as early as 1750 ; and 
for several years past a literary journal, called The Haytiwn Bee, 
has been published in this town. In 1822 a second newspaper 
bega,n to be published here : and in 1825 a handsome quarto vo- 
lume of 416 pages, containing the Civil Code of Haiti, did great 
credit to the typograj)hers of Port au Prince. 


Porta, Pfoerten, a small town and free lordship of Prussia in 
lower Lusatia. — 1785. 

PORTESIVM, (qu? Portici, a village near Naples? or Porto, 
a fortified town in the Veronese"? probably the latter. 

A single volume executed here is cited by Panzer from Denis' 
Supplement to Maittaire's Annals, viz. Statuta Communitatis 
rippericB Salodii et Briwiensis, which was printed by Bartholo- 
masus Zannus in the year 1490. We have no further informa- 
tion respecting the typography of Porto. 

Portiani Castrum, St. Pour^ain, a town of France, on the 
river Sioulle. A book entitled, Uadvocat du diable, ou memoires 
du pope Gregoire VII. in three vols. 8". printed in 1743, bears 
the imprint of St. Pour9ain ; but whether it be fictitious or not, I 
am unable to say. 

Portrayal des Champs, a large abbey of Cistercian nuns, si- 
tuate within six leagues of Paris ; a place rendered famous by the 
residence of Arnold, Nicole, and other learned ecclesiastics in its 
immediate vicinity. Having incurred the implacable enmity of 
the Jesuits, it was demolished by order of Louis the Fourteenth at 
the beginning of the eighteenth century. 

A press was in use by the learned men who resided at Port- 
royal, but at what period it was erected I have not ascertained. 

Portsmouth, a handsome and considerable town, the metropolis 
of New Hampshire, in North America. Daniel Fowle, a printer 
formerly residing at Boston, in 1756 set up here the first press 
used in the colony of New Hampshire. Thomas observes, that 
" he did but little at book-printing, his principal business con- 
" sisted in pubhshing a newspaper." Towards the end of the 
year 1764 a second press was erected at Portsmouth, which how- 
ever continued but a very short time. 

Portua, qu. what place? Two treatises by C. Aquilonius, dated 
1640 and 1641, bear this imprint. 

Partus, Porto, a small episcopal town of Italy, in the papal do- 
minions. — 1691. 

Partus Ferrarms, Porto Ferraio, a seaport of the isle of Elba. 

Partus LusitanicB, or Partus Cale, or Civitas Portugalensis, 

««forto, or Oporto, a large, populous, and commercial town of 

Portugal, seated at the mouth of the Duero, containing about 

70,000 inhabitants. It is a bishop's see. Printing was exercised 

" According to Santander, in the Venetian territory. 


PO.— PR. 

here, by Fr. Laurentius de Basto, in the year 1612 ; (Bodleian) 
and by Joannes Rodriguez, in 1622, 1625. 

Posnania, Posnan, or Posen, an ancient and large episcopal 
city of Prussian Poland, capital of a palatinate, with an university, 
founded in 1510. The Lutherans, the Jews, and the Jesuits, 
had each printing-estabhshments in this place. Its earliest book 
known bears date 1579. One of 1586, printed by Joannes Wol- 
rhabus, is in the Bodleian. 

Posonium, Poson, or Presburg, a fortified city on the Danube, 
the capital of Lower Hungary, containing about 20,000 inhabi- 
tants. Printing was exercised here in 1612. Probably this was the 
first town of the kingdom into which the art was introduced : nor 
did it make an extensive progress for many years afterwards; 
since so late as the year 1 646, Christopher Ravius observed, " in 
" toti Hungarii vix tres sunt typographical'' It is said that 
there are at this time about forty paper-mills in Hungary, but 
yet all their finer sorts of paper are imported. 

Potsdam, a handsome town of the Prussian states, in Branden- 
burg, remarkable for a magnificent palace of the kings of Prussia. 

Pottendorf, a manufacturing town of Lower Austria. — 1668. 

Potschaev, appears to be some Russian town : quaere whether 
Potschinki, a town of the government of Nischnei-Novgorod ? 
Poschechon, a town of the government of Jaroslaf .'' or Poschega, 
chief town of the palatinate of Poscheva, on the river OrloVa.'' 
Bachmeister observes that printing was exercised here in the year 

PougKkeepsie, a township and village of the United States, 
capital of Duchess county, in the state of New York, seated on 
the Hudson river. It is a flourishing place, has an extensive 
trade, and contains near 5000 inhabitants. There are three print- 
ing offices in it, each of which furnish'es a weekly newspaper. A 
work entitled The Transactions of the Agricultural Society of 
Duchess County, North America,-was printed here in the year 1807. 

large and fine city, the capital of Bohemia, and lately an arch- 
bishop's see. It is divided into three parts ; two of which, the * 
Old and the New Town, are seated on the eastern bank of the 
river Mulda, while the small part (Micro-praga) is on the western 
bank. This last is the most ancient of the three. Prague has a 

PR. 231 

celebrated university, founded by Charles the Fourth, in 1347 ; 
which at one period is reported to have contained no fewer than 
forty thousand students. At the beginning of the XVth century 
some disputes arose amongst the students ; in consequence of 
which all those of the German nation retired, together with the 
rector, to Leipsic, where the elector Frederic founded for them in 
1409 that university which has since become so famous. 

The earliest known specimen of Prague typography is a book 
entitled, Statuum Utraquisticorum articidi in Comitiis Nimbur- 
gensibus conclusi, printed in Latin and Bohemian in the year 
1478. Balblnus, indeed, in his Bohemia docta, p. 231. speaks 
of an edition of Dares Phrygius of the date of 1468, which he 
conceives may have been executed in this city : the case, however, 
even upon his own shewing, is but imperfectly made out. In 
1487 a Bohemian version of the Psalter, and in the following 
year t/ie first edition of the Bohemian Bible, were executed in 
this city : a copy of the latter is preserved in the public library of 
the university of Prague. Bachmeister remarks that one of the 
first books printed in the Russian character is a Pentatettch 
executed at Prague in 1519. [but this had been preceded by 
some other parts of Scripture, in the year 1517 and 1518.] 

Pratum Albuini, Prato, a place in the immediate vicinity of 
Brescia. The first edition of NizoUus'' Observations wpon Cicero 
bears for imprint. Ex Prato Albuini, in cedibus Jo. Francisci 
Gambara, 1535. 

Le Preux, a printer of Paris about the close of the XVIth cen- 
tury, often suppressed the name of the town where he resided, 
giving merely his own. See also the article Morgii. 

Primislavia or Prenuslavia, Prenzlau, a town of Brandenburg, 
seated on the lake of Ucker. — 1747. 

Prince of Wales'' Island, or Pulo Penang, a small but very im- 
portant island of the eastern seas, lying off the western coast of 
the Malay peninsula. It came into possession of the British in 
the year 1786, and through care has become a flourishing colony, 
and a general rendezvous of all persons trading to those parts of 
the east. 

A printing-office appears to have been opened on the island at 
least twenty years ago ; as an Essay on the Malay language, by 
J. Shaw, bears for imprint. Prince of Wales'' island, 1807. A 
copy of this book, which probably was executed at George- 

a 4 

232 PR. 

town (the chief town) is in the curious collection of Mr. W. 

PROMENTOVR occurs as the imprint of a book cited by 
Panzer from P. Laire, in the following terms ; Le doctrinal de 
Sapience par Guy de Roy. Imprimi a Promentour par maistre 
Lays Guerbin, M.CCCC.LXXXII. No bibliographer seems to 
have given a satisfactory account of this place : and having myself 
searched long and fruitlessly for any town bearing such a name, 
I cannot help thinking that some transposition of letters must 
have obscured the original word. Quaere, can it be intended for 
Premontre, a village of France, in Picardy, noted for a famous 
abbey of regular canons of St. Augustin, who are hence called 
Prasmonstratenses .? In all probability it denotes some place in 
France; but Panzer makes no attempt to unravel the enigma, 
which, as Moore says of his annual hieroglyphics, must be left 
" to time and the curious to construe." 

Prostanna, qu ? Prostiagow (or Prosnitz,) a town of the circle 
of Olmutz, in Moravia ? Printing was exercised here about the 
middle of the sixteenth century : and some works of J. Dubra- 
vius, bishop of Olmutz, with otherSj are known to have been 
executed in this place in the years 1549 and 1550. 

ProsUtium, Prossnitz, a considerable town of Moravia, chief 
place of a district. The Jews had a printing-establishment here in 
the early part of the seventeenth century. Prossnitz books of -the 
dates 1603, 1618, 1649, are found in the Oppenheimer collection. 

Providence, the chief town of the county of Providence, in 
Rhode Island, North America. The Baptist missionaries possess a 
college here. Printing was introduced into this town by Wm. 
Goddard, a printer of New York, in the year 1762. 

PROVINVM, Provins, a well-built town of the interior of 
France, seated on the river Vouzie. 

Panzer adduces a single instance of printing in this town, 
namely a book entitled. La regie des Marcharnds, by Jean le 
Liseur, (Johannes Lector,) a monk, which was executed by Guil- 
laume Tavernier in the year 1496. No other work from Provins 
is noticed either in this or the following century by Panzer, nor 
do I remember to have seen any Provins printing, except it be a 
small volume preserved in the Bodleian library, entitled, La vie 
de S. Thibaut confessetir, patron de la ville de Provins, 12°. 
Provins, 1676. 

PU.— QU. 233 

Puebla de Guadaloupe, qu. a small town of Spain, in the pro- 
vince of Estremadura, near to Trughillo ? Mendez notices that 
the art of printing has been exercised within this town. 

Puteoli, Puzzuolo, the poor remains of a once magnificent and 
celebrated town of Italy, finely situated on the bay of Puzzuolo. 
It is still a bishop's see. Helyot, in the introduction to his" His- 
" toire des Ordres Monastiques," quotes a work by H. Manrcbccius, 
printed at Puzzuolo in the year 1663. The art was also exer- 
cised here in 1685, &c. 


Qudm-cheu, or Quang-tcheou, the city called by the Europeans 
Canton, a city of the first rank, capital of the province of Quang- 
tong, in China. 

At what precise period the European typography found its 
way to Canton, I have not ascertained : a work, entitled Inno- 
centia Victrix, composed by father Antonio de Gouvea, vicepro- 
vincial of the Jesuits, (for an account of whom see the Biblio- 
iheca Lusitcma, vol. i. p. 296,) was printed here in Chinese and 
Latin, in the year 1671. Lambecius, in the seventh book of his 
Commentaries on the imperial library of Vienna, gives a descrip- 
tion and the entire Latin version of this curious book, a copy of 
which is in the imperial library. The full title is thus ; In- 
nocentia victrix, sive sententia Comitiorwm imperii Sinici pro 
innocentia ChristiancB religionis, lata juridice per annum 1669, 
et Jussu R. P. Antonii de Gouvea Societatis Jesu ibidem vice- 
provinciaUs Sinico-Latink exposita. In Qudm-Chev, metropoli 
provincice Quam-tum in regno Sinarum, anno Salutis hwma/nas, 
1671. The volume contains the examination of some of the mis- 
sionaries, who were accused of three things ; ignorance of astro- 
nomy ! murderous intentions ! and the propagation of a false and 
wicked religion ! together with the proceedings of the emperor and 
his several courts of justice in the matter ; finally establishing, as 
may be inferred from the title, the innocence of the parties ac- 
cused. A second copy of this rare work was in the celebrated 
Meerman library. In the supplement to Bowyer and Nicholls' 
History of Printing, p. 286, mention is made of a book which Mr. 
Nicholls conceived to have been executed at Canton, at an earlier 
period than the work above described, viz. in the year 1667. On 
inspection however, it appears that his ground for the supposition 

S34. QU. 

was merely that the licence for printmg it was dated from Canton 
in that year, whereas the second part of the work distinctly bears 
the imprint of Goa, at which place in all probabiUty the whole 
volume was worked off at the press. See an account of this work 
in the " Bibliotheca Marsdeniana," p. 63. Of late years (1812 
&c.) some beautiful Chinese printing has been executed at Canton, 
under the directions of Mr. Morrison, a British missionary, con- 
sisting of several portions of the Holy Scriptures of both the Old 
and New Testament. 

Quebec, a large and handsome city, the capital of Lower Ca^ 
nada, in North America. Printing was introduced into this town 
by W. Brown and W. Gilmore, in the year 1764, which was the 
first appearance of the art within the whole province of Canada. 
And it is observed by Thomas, that no other press existed in the 
province until the year 1775, when one was erected at Montreal. 

Quedelinburgum, Quedlinburg, a considerable town of Prussian 
Saxony, in the principality of Anhalt. — 1632. 

St. Quentin, a considerable manufacturing town of the north- 
east of France, in the department of the Aisne. — 1627. 

Quesada, a town of Spain, in the province of Jaen. Mendez 
names this among the towns of that country in which he knew the 
art of printing to have been exercised. 

Quevillimn, Quevilly, a town of France, in Normandy, near 
Rouen. Le Long notices a French New Testament, printed here 
in 1645. 

Quinque EcclesicB, Fiinfkirchen, a large and populous town of 
Hungary, seated on the side of a ridge of hills, near the river 
Drave. It was erected into a bishopric by king Stephan in 1009, 
and Louis the First founded here an university in the year 1364, 
which however was dissolved in 1526 ; from which period Fiinf- 
kirchen was unknown as a place of education until 1694, when 
the Jesuits founded a college, which grew into much repute. 
See Brighfs Travels. 

Quitoa, Quito, the capital city of the kingdom of Quito, in 
Spanish South America. It is a bishop's see, and had two univer- 
sities ; one of which was founded by Philip the Second of Spain, 
in 1586, and belonged to the Jesuits ; the other was in the hands 
of the Dominicans. I have met with no satisfactory account of 
the introduction of printing into Quito. At present (1824) a 
newspaper is regularly published in the city. 

RA. 235 


Racehwrgum, Ratzebourg, an ancient town of Denmark, in the 
duchy of Lauenburg, formerly a bishop's see. Printing was re- 
spectably carried on here in 1670 — 1676, by Nicholas Nissen, 
who in the latter year executed a treatise " Upon the genuine 
" Unicorns," written by a physician named Paul Sachsius, who 
appears to be throughly zealous in the cause which he espouses. 

RachoUum, (qu .'' the name of a college of Jesuits in the island 
of Salsette, off the coast of Bombay .?) A work in the dialect of 
the Canary islands, by Didacus Ribeiro, was printed here by the 
Jesuits, in the year 1632 : another, of the date 1640, occurs in 
the Bibliotheca Scriptorum Soc". Jesu, [a copy of which is in Mr. 
Marsden's collection ;] as also a third, dated 1668. Some others, 
by Anionio de Soldtmha, a Jesuit, printed in this college in the 
year 1655, are mentioned in the " Bibliotheca Lusitana." 

Racovia, Racow, or Rakow, a town of Lesser Poland^ in the 
palatinate of Sendomir, erected in 1569 by John Sieninius, pala- 
tine of Podolia, for the reception of a sect of Unitarians or Soci- 
nians : he named it Rakow, the Polish word for a crab, from the 
armorial bearings of his wife. His son James subsequently en- 
larged the town very much, and added a school or college, and 
increased the printing-establishment. From the press of this 
town a vast multitude of books composed by Unitarians issued, 
until the year 1638, when, by a decree of the state, the society 
was entirely broken up, the professors and scholars were ejected, 
and the school and press destroyed. The first who carried on 
the business of a printer here was Alexius Rodecki, who had for- 
merly printed at Cracow; his earliest known book is a Polish 
New Testament, dated 1577: he was succeeded by Sebastian 
Stemacius, under whom the press flourished exceedingly. Almost 
all the Socinian books executed at this place, are, from the nature 
of the contents, and from the dispersion of the sect, of a very high 
degree of rarity. It may be observed, that some books are found 
bearing the imprint Racovia, with a date posterior to 1638 : but 
all these were printed elsewhere, for the Socinian press was never 
revived at Racow. 

Raglamd Castle, in Monmouthshire, was anciently a place of 
much strength and magnificence, but has been in ruins since the 
days of Oliver Cromwell. It appears that a press was once 
worked at this place: a book is extant, called, A Collection of 

236 RA. 

loycd Songs, Poems, Sec. said to be privately printed at Ragland 
Castle, in 1750. 

Ragusium, Ragusa, a large town of Austrian Dalmatia, strongly- 
seated on a peninsula on the Adriatic : it was formerly a place of 
great trade, and is now the chief town of a district and the see of 
an archbishop. 

The earliest notice of typography exercised at Ragusa appears 
to be that of a pamphlet by Michael Bocignolius upon the war 
with the Turks, which is announced in a London Catalogue as 
bearing the imprint Ragusi, with the date 1524. I have not seen 
it : Panzer knew of nothing printed in this town ; nor do I recol- 
lect any book of an earlier date than 1667. 

Rangoon, a large city and seaport of the Burman empire, dis- 
tant 670 miles S. E. from Calcutta. 

The English Baptist Missionaries are said to have possessed a 
printing-establishment here for some years past ; which had the 
good fortune to escape the fire which laid waste that town in the 
year 1814. In 1816 a press and types which had been presented 
by the Baptists of Serampore to the American Baptists were set up 
at Rangoon, and early in 1817 Mr. Hough the printer executed a 
" Summary of Christian doctrine'" in 7 pages, and a " Catechism'' 
of 6 pages ; 1000 copies of the former and 3000 of the latter work. 
Also in the same year 1817 the Gospel of St. Matthew, translated 
into the Burman language by Mr. F. Carey, was printed at Ran- 

Ratiastum Lemovicum, properly designates Raiz, a village near 
Limoges, though it is usually taken for the city itself. See 

RATISBONA, Ratisbon, or Regensburg, an ancient city of 
Bavaria, seated on the Danube ; it is the capital of the principality 
of Ratisbon, and an archbishop''s see. 

A Liber Missalis secundum Breviarium chori ecclesicB Ratis- 
bonensis was printed here in the year 1485, by John Sensensch- 
midt and John Beckenhaub, who had been summoned from Bam- 
berg by Henry, archbishop of Ratisbon, for the express purpose 
of printing this book for the use of his church. No other volume 
is Jcnown to have been executed here during the XVth century, 
but Panzer cites one which he judges to have been printed either 
at Bamberg or Ratisbon ; it is a Breviary for Ratisbon, dated in 
the subsequent year 1486. 

RA.— RE. 23T 


Ravenna, an ancient and well-known city of the east of Italy, 
in the States of the Church. 

Printing was exercised in this city at least so early as 1580 ; in 
which year was printed here a History of Ravenna by TomaA, a 
copy of which edition was in the Pinelli library. In the following 
year The statutes of the miUtary order of St. George were exe- 
cuted at Ravenna. 

Ravenspurgum, Ravensburg, formerly an imperial city of Ger- 
many, now belonging to the kingdom of Bavaria. — 1626". 

Reate, Rieti, an ancient episcopal town of Italy, situate in the 
pope's dominions. An Italian Paraphrase of the Odes of Horace 
was printed here in 1679. 

Recanetum, Recanati, a small town of Italy, in the marquisate 
of Ancona, near Loretto. — 1606. (Bodl.) 

REENEN is the imprint of a Dutch book printed in the 
XVth century, without date or printer's name : it has been de- 
cided to mean " Reinen, a town in the Venetian territory ;" but 
more probably designates Rhenen {Rhena), a town of Holland, 
seated on the Rhine, in the province of Utrecht. The title of the 
work in question is, Dat Leeven ende die passie ende verhessinge 
der H. Maget Svnte Kunera, die in die stadt van Reenen is 
Tcustinde, mit haer TeTcenen ende MiraJcelen. — Gheprent in die 
stadt Reenen. Visscher however, according to Panzer, reads te 
hoop, instead oi gheprent, in the colophon, so that it does not ap- 
pear quite certain whether the book really belongs to Rhenen or 
not. No date or printer's name is affixed to this curious article, 
the only one which acquaints us with the typography of this 
town, -l 

Regimohradecium, Konigingratz, a stroi|^ ctoVn of Bohemia, 
seated on the Elbe ; the capital of a circle, and a bishop's see. 

Printing appears to have been practised here in the XVIIth 
century : Victorinus Wrbensky executed at Konigingratz a work 
entitled Anatome Source Scripturce, typis Martini Kleinvechter, 
in the year 1618 ; and Jo. W. Caelestinus, archdeacon of the 
place, printed here a Bohemian translation of a work by Henry 
Lancelot, in 1625. 

Regiomons, see Mons regius. 

REGIVM, Reggio, a large and fine town of Italy in the king- 
dom of Naples, delightfully situated on the straits of Messina : it 
is the see of an archbishop. 

It was generally supposed that typography was introduced into 

238 RE. 

Reggio by two brothers, Bartholomseus and Laurentius de Brus- 
chis, whose first production was the Grammar of Nic'. Perottus, 
finished in the year 1480 : but the indefatigable researches of De 
Rossi have brought to fight a rude and utterly unheard-of Hebrew 
work of earlier date, namely, a Commentary mi the Pentateuch hy 
R. Salomon Jarchi, the colophon of which distinctly states it to 
have been printed at Reggio, by Abraham ben Garton ben Isaac, 
in 1475. It is a small folio of 115 or 116 leaves, in the Rabbinical 
character, rude, having neither signatures, numerals, nor catch- 
words, &c. De Rossi, the first to discover and describe this extra- 
ordinary volume, was also the possessor of the only known copy 
of it, which (as has been mentioned) for a long time disputed with 
the Aria turim from Piobe del Sacco, the honour of being the 
earliest known printed Hebrew book. Santander contends, that 
the Hebrew work above cited is the only one claimable by Reggio 
in the Neapolitan territory, the others having been printed at 
Reggio (Regium Lepidi) a town in the duchy of Modena. In 
Lancelot Pasius' work, De litteratura non vulgari, printed at 
Reggio in 1504, the town is designated Regium Gallice togatce: 
in another, Regium jEmilia ; in a third, Regium LongobardicB : 
all which belong to Reggio in Modena, although Panzer has 
mixed the productions of the two towns together. It does not ap- 
pear that much printing was carried on at Reggio during the 
XVIth century. 

REICHENSTEIN, a small town of Germany, in Silesia, dis- 
tant about six miles from Glatz. [or, possibly, Berg-Reichenstein, 
a town of Bohemia.] Neither Panzer nor other bibliographers 
mention the existenqp of a printing-establishment here ; yet Mr. 
Beloe adduces plausible reasons for believing that a work entitled, 
Dialogus inter Hugonem, Catonem, et Oleverium, super libertate 
ecclesiastica elaboratus, which is cited by Panzer as being with- 
out name, date, or place, was executed in this town : he cites a 
copy in the possession of Mr. WodhuU, at the end of which is 
found Rychensteyn, 1477. See Beloe's Anecdotes, vol. v. p. 371. 

Remi, Rhemi, or Durocorturum, Rheims, an ancient and cele- 
brated city of France, in Champagne. It is the see of an arch- 
bishop, who is primate of France ; and formerly possessed an uni- 

Some English Roman-catholics, who had left this country in 
the early part of queen Elizabeth's reign, and had settled them- 
selves at Douay in Flanders, being obhged to fly from that town 

RE.— RH. 

in the year 1578, repaired, under the guidance of Wm. Allen, 
(afterwards a cardinal.) to Rheims; where being hospitably re- 
ceived, in consequence of a letter of recommendation written in 
their favour by the pope, they obtained leave to erect an English 
seminary, and soon began to furnish employment for a printer. 
In 1582 they executed here the first edition of the Romish Eng- 
lish version of the New Testament, at the press of John Fogny, 
a/printer of considerable note in the town, who lived at the sign 
of the Lion, where two years previously he had published some 
pieces written by Lesly, titular bishop of Ossory, in favour of Mary 
queen of Scots. [John Fogny was succeeded by Simon Fogny, 
whom we find continuing tile business in ] 610.] 

Typography however had been earlier known and executed 
within this town ; some traqts executed here by Francois du Prd, 
in the years 1577 and 1578, may be seen in the library of Trinity 
college, Dublin ; and the earliest Rheims book which I have yet 
seen is La legende de Charles, Cardinal de Lorraine, printed by 
Jacques Martin in 1576. But M. Van Praet acquaints us that 
the art was in use at Rheims for several years before this period ; 
by adducing a book entitled Coustumes generales du Bailliage de 
Vermandms, printed by Jacq. Bacquenois, printer to the cardinal 
of Lorraine, in the year 1557. A copy of this rare work, on vel- 
lum, is in the royal library of Paris. Also in the same year ap-, 
peared both a French and Latin edition of " Officium S. Tresani, 
" S. Gumberti, et Berthce, curd et expensis Lud. de Linange, 
" Aveniaci Monasterii Abbatissce," 8°. by the same. 

Revalia, {Tallinnas,) Revel, an episcopal town of the north- 
west of European Russia, the capital of Esthonia. — 1682. At 
present there are two printing-offices in Revel. 

REVTLINGA, Reutlingen, an ancient town of Germany, in 
the dominions of Wirtemburg. Printing appears to have been in- 
troduced into this town by Johannes Othmar about 1482, in 
which year we have the Summa Pisanella, and Breviarium Con- 
stantiense, executed by him, with several other works, down to 
the close of the century; but nothing during the next thirty-six 

RHEDONES, Rennes, an ancient episcopal city of France, 
formerly capital of Bretagne. Printing appears to have been 
slightly cultivated in Rennes in early times. Panzer names only 
two books executed here during the XVth century, viz. in 1484 
and 1485, and a single one in the year 1524; in the last of which 

240 RH.— RI. 

the printer, Jo. Baudoyn, styles himself Primus et unicus Calco- 
graphus et impressor ejusdem civitatis. I remember no other 
Rennes book anterior to 1622. 

Rhetianis Typis. Books bearing this imprint, about the year 
1618 &c. were executed at Leyden. 

Rhydychen, Oxford is so called in Welsh books. See Oxonia. 

Chateau de Richelieu, a small town and castle of France, near 
Tours, erected by cardinal Richelieu, in 1637. The cardinal esta- 
blished a private press here in the year 164)0, from which several 
works, executed with great neatness, have proceeded, bearing 
date 1653, 1654, &c. for a particular account of which see Peig- 
nofs Dictionnaire de Bibliologie. 

Riga, a large and opulent commercial town of European 
Russia, the capital of Livonia; cont^aining about 40,000 inha- 

Printing was exercised at Riga in the year 1638. The Lord's 
Prayer, in forty languages, was printed here in 1662 (Le Long) : 
and the British Museum contains a LAvonic Testament executed 
at Riga in 1685, and a Livohic Bible, in 1689. 

Rigiacum Atrehatium, see Atrebatum. 

Rignavia. (qu. for Rhingavia, i. e. the Rhingau ?) A com- 
mentary on the proceedings of a council of the three estates 
holden at Blois on the 15th of Nov. 1576, was printed here in 
the following year by Jacobus Sterphen, which may be seen in the 
Bodleian library, and in that of Trinity college, Dublin. 

Rinthelia ad Visurgim, Rinteln, a town of Germany, in the 
county of Schaumberg, now belonging to Hesse Cassel. It for- 
merly possessed a small university, founded in 1621, by prince 
Ernest of Holstein. 

Typography appears to have followed closely the steps of this 
university; since in the very next year, 1622, we find the Lexicon 
criticum of J. R. Robbigius, bearing for imprint, Rvntelii, nov. 
Acad. Ernest. 1622. It is however a volume which needs not be 
much boasted of, seeing that it is both miserably printed, and 
abounding in errata. — (TCD.) In the next year Peter Lucius 
styled himself printer to the university of Rinteln : and at the 
same time appears a second printer named Ernestus Reinokingius : 
books by each of these, of the year 1623, may be seen in the Bod- 
leian library. 

Rio de Janeiro, a large city of South America, the capital of 
Brazil, containing about 140,000 inhabitants. It is seated on the 

RI.— RO. §41 

river of the same name, at the head of a bay, most advantageously 
disposed for commercial intercourse. 

The only instance of the typography of this city which I have 
yet met with, is a piece entitled, " Projecto de Constitui^ao paro o 
Imperio do Brasil &c. " impresso na typographia nacional do Rio 
" de Janeiro, 1824 ;■" but a Portuguese and English Grammar by 
Freitag, is announced in Catalogues as printed in the year 1820, 
and the art was exercised at Rio certainly so early as 181S. 

Rvpa, Ripen, or Ribe, an ancient city of Denmark, in Jutland : 
the see of a bishop. Printing was introduced into this town so 
early as 1508 ; in which year a work by Kanatus, bishop of Wi- 
borg, was executed here by Matheus Brand. No other Ripen 
specimen is known. 

Ripa, Riva de Trento, or RiefF, a small town in the south of 
the Tyrol, seated on the Lago di Garda, about seventeen miles 
from Trent : remarkable for an extensive manufactory of Jews- 
harps ! A Hebrew printing-office was at work here so early as 
1558, books from which, of the years 1558, 1559, 1560, 1561, and 
1562, may be seen in the Bodleian library. 

Rivus Siccus, Medina de Rioseco, an ancient but decayed town 
of Spain, in the province of Leon, distant fifteen miles from Pa- 
lencia. Antonio mentions printing here in 1618. 

Rochester, an ancient city of England, seated on the river Med- 
way, in the county of Kent. 

The earliest instance of printing here, which I have met with, is 
The Kentish fayre, or the Pa/rliament sold to their best worth, 4". 
Rochester. 1648. (Bodl.) 

Rochmanow, or Romanof, a town of European Russia, in the 
government of Yaroslaf, seated on the river Volga. 

Bachmeister affirms printing to have been carried on here in the 
year 1619. 

Rogensburg,.ax\. abbey of Premonstratensian monks, near Ulm. 

Rohan, a town of France, in Bretagne. — 1682. 

ROMA, Rome, the celebrated capital of Italy, once mistress of 
the world. 

This city, as might be expected, was early in admitting and 
cherishing in its bosom an art which promised such extraordinary 
advantages as typography, the knowledge and practice of whiqh 
was conveyed to it by two enterprising Germans in the year 1465. 

242 RO. 

These men, Conrad Sweynheym and Arnold- Pannartz, whose 
names are familiar to every one acquainted with the earlier edi- 
tions of the classics, were the first to exhibit throughout all Italy 
the newly-discovered art of printing, and under the auspices of 
pope Paul the Second set up their printing-establishment in the 
monastery of Subiaco, in the vicinity of Rome. [For their 
labours, while they continued here, see the article Suhlacense 
Monasterium.] After two years they removed into the city itself, 
and being received into the house of two noble brothers, Peter 
and Francis de Maximis, opened their Roman typographical ca- 
reer by giving to the world, in 1467, an edition of Cicero's Epi- 
stolcB ad Familiares, which is the first book printed at Rome. 
Until the year 1473, they continued to supply editions of standard 
works, with an execution truly admirable, and a correctness which 
has been duly appreciated and proclaimed by the learned of all 
subsequent ages, having been fortunate enough to obtain for al- 
most all their publications the revision of Jo. Andreas, bishop of 
Aleria, who not only corrected the press, but wrote the prefaces 
and dedications, &c. In the year 1474 the partnership between 
these two was dissolved, and from this time we hear nothing more 
of Sweynheym as a printer : he appears to have given himself en- 
tirely to the study of engraving, and to have died about 1478. 

Sweynheym and Pannartz were followed to Rome by Udalricus 
Gallus, or Ulric Han, who, on the last day of December in the 
same year, 1467, published the Meditations qfJoh. de Turrecre- 
mata, and continued his labours until the year 1478; in which, as 
Serna Santander observed, he closed his typographical career with 
a repeated edition of the same work with which he had commenced 
it. The number of printers rapidly increased at Rome. In 1470, 
we find John Philip de Lignamine at work, who styles himself 
Scutifer to the pope. (Quaere, if it be the same office as De Gon-, 
Jahmeriis, a title assumed by some other printers?) In the same 
year we have Georgius Laver, whose printing-establishment was 
in the monastery of St. Eusebius ; and in the next, Adam Rot, 
&c. &c. Among the numerous printers who exercised their art in 
this city during the XVth century, the names of Leonard Pflugel,. 
Windelin de Willa, John Schurener, Eucharius Silber, Stephen 
Planck, and Sixtus Riessinger, are those which are more generally 
known to the public. It is perhaps worth noticing, that the num- 
ber of works adduced by Panzer as printed at Rome from the 

liO. 243 

year 1501 to 1536, is little more than three hundred, while those 
which were executed in the same city during the thirty-five years 
preceding that period fall very little short of a thousand, em- 
bracing almost every department of literature. 

Ronchum, Ronco, a small town of the north-west of Italy, dis- 
tant five leagues north from Genoa. The first volume of the 
Memorie recondite of Vittorio Siri was printed here in 1677: 
likewise a Latin work in defence of the noted Jo. Annius of 
Viterbo, in the same year. 

Roncilio, Ronciglione, a small town of Italy, in the states of 
the Church. Jn Italian version of the Iliad, by B. Tebaldi, is 
cited as having been printed here in the year 1620. 

Ronneburgum, Ronneburg, a town and castle of Germany, in 
the principality of Altenberg, belonging to Saxe Gotha. — 1807. 

Rosa (Jonas) a printer of Frankfort, often omitted the name of 
his town : he printed at the beginning of the XVIIth century. 

Roschildia, Roschild, an ancient episcopal city of Denmark, in 
the isle of Zealand, formerly the residence" of the kings of Den- 
mark. Printing was introduced into this city about the year 1534; 
and continued only until 1540. Two works, an edition of St. 
PauVs Epistles, translated by Erasmus, and Jo. Campensis'' Por- 
raphrase on the Psalms and Ecclesiastes, dated 1534 and 1536, 
are given by Panzer. Le Long observes, that the former of these 
two books is of the highest degree of rarity. A copy of the first 
edition of the Icelandic New Testament, printed at Roschild by 
Hans Earth in the year 1540, in 12°. is said to be in the library 
of the British and Foreign Bible Society, but unfortunately the 
title-page is wanting. A curious description, both bibliographical 
and historical, of this important volume may be read in the Appen- 
dix to " Henderson's Journal of a residence in Iceland^ 8". 1818. 
Henderson appears to have seen a perfect copy, but does not men- 
tion where it is preserved. 

Roseau, now called Charlottetown, the capital of the island of 
Dominica, in the West Indies. 

Wm. Smith, in 1765, was a printer at this place; and pub- 
lished a newspaper, entitled The Freeport Gazette, or, The Domi- 
nica Advertiser. 

ROSTOCHIVM, or RHODOPOLIS, Rostock, a large and 
fortified town of the north of Germany, in the grand duchy of 
Mecklenburg, having a small university, established in 1419. 


244 RO. 

The only five specimens which remain of printing at Rsotock 
during the XVth century appear to have been executed in a 
monastery, Per Jratres presbiteros et clericos congregationis 
domUs viridis horti ad Sanctum Michaelem in Opido Rostock- 
censi. The earhest of these books is a Lactantius, of the year 
1476, which Panzer announces to be a volume of the highest 
rarity. A copy of it may be seen in the Bodleian library : and 
we learn from M. Van Praet that another, printed on vellum, is in 
the imperial library at Vienna. The same writer mentions that 
this monastery of St. Michael afterwards became an academic col- 
lege, but being almost consumed by fire, was in the year 161& 
converted into a magazine of arms. We find the monks, how- 
ever, continuing their typographical labours in it at least until the 
year 1528. 

Rotenhirgum, Rothenburg, a small town of the west of Ger- 
many in Wirtemburg. There are also several other towns in 
Germany bearing the same name : as Rotenburg on the Tauber, 
a town of Bavarian Franconia, seated on a mountain near the 
river Tauber. Printing was exercised here in 1677 by Noah de 
Millenau. The earliest date which I have observed attached to 
the simple imprint Rotenburgi, is 1627. 

Roterodamium, Rotterdam, a populous and commercial city of 
South "Holland, seated on the river Maese. 

Printing was carried on here by Dierck MuUem, in the year 
1589, (TCD.) and 1590, (Bodl.) also by Johannes Leonardi 
Berewout in 1616; who in that year executed the first volume of 
the Waldensia of Balthasar Lydvas. 

ROTHOMAGVM, Rouen, (in Portuguese books Ruan^ a 
large and fine city of France, seated on the Seine ; it was the ca- 
pital of Normandy, and is an archbishop's see. 

Panzer doubts whether a book called Le lAvre coustoumier du 
pays et duche de Normandie, of the date 1483, were really printed 
here in that year ; if not, Les cronicques de Normamdie, executed 
in 1487, by Guillaume le Tailleur, is the earliest known specimen 
of the typography of Rouen. 

Rotwila, Rotweil, a small town of Germany, in Wirtemburg, 
seated on a height near the river Neckar. 

Printing was carried on in this town early in the XVIIth cen- 
tury, by Joh. Maximilian Helmlin ; who in the year 1606 exe- 
cuted here the Fortalitium Fidei, of Jo, Lorichius ; the title-page 

RO.— RU. 

of which is neatly decorated, and its reverse exhibits an elegant 
woodcut of the arms of the bishop of Constance, to whom the 
work is dedicated. — .(Bodl.) 

Roveredo, a considerable town of the Austrian states in the 
Tyrol, seated near the left bank of the river Adige. 

An Italian work of Tartarotti, printed here in the year 1749, 
was in the Pinelli library. 

Rovetta, a small village situate on the summit of Mont Preso- 
lano, near the city of Bergamo in Italy. In the Revue encyclo- 
pediqtie for 1820 it is announced that M. Fantini had recently 
erected a printing-press at Rovetta, for the purpose of publishing 
under his own immediate inspection a curious edition of the Di- 
vina Commedia of Dante. 

Rovilio, (qu : Rovigno, a considerable town of Austrian Italy ? 
or Rovigo, a populous town of Austrian Illyria, on the coast of 
Istria ?) An edition of The works of Petrarch was printed here 
in 1574. 

RVBEVS MONS, Rougemont, an abbey of Benedictines, in 
a town of the same name, near Chatillon-sur-Seine, in Burgundy. 
According to Peignot, (Diet. torn. ii. p. 442,) printing was carried 
on here by Wurceburg de Vach, one of the monks, in 1481. 
Peignot however enters into no particulars^ and Panzer takes no 
notice of the matter. 

Rudolphostadium, or Rudohtadium, Rudolphstadt, a well-built 
town of the west of Germany, in the county of Schwartzburg, on 
the river Saale. 

Typography was exercised here by Christopher Eusebius Ta- 
litsch, in the years 1664 and 1666. I have also seen books bear- 
ing for imprint Rudolphvpolis, and RhudolpJiopolis, but whether 
these were executed at Rudolphstadt, or at Rudolphswerd, {Rvr- 
do^hiverda,) or at some third place, I am unable to decide. At 
" Rudolphipolis'" have recently been printed some very neat little 
volumes in 24°. having the pages of each encircled with a border 
printed in red ; the printer's name is Froebel. 

Ruien in lAvland, (i. e. in Livonia, a province of Russia.) A 
small volume, containing the Lord's Prayer in one hundred and 
jifty languages, edited by Gustavus Bergmann, bears the above 
imprint, with the date 1789. 

Rwpella, Rochelle, an ancient and populous seaport town of 


246 RU.— SA. 

France, of considerable trade and eminence, in the department of 
Charente inferieure ; it is also a bishop's see. 

The art of printing was exercised at Rochelle by Bartholomew 
Berton In 1564 and 1566, of which latter year a curious book 
may be seen in the library of Trinity college, Dublin, entitled Le 
grand Routier pilotage, et encrage de mer, written by Pierre 
Garcie : the woodcuts in this work are rude but interesting. The 
.first edition of the New Testament in the Basque tongue was 
printed here in the year 1571 ; a copy of which valuable and rare 
volume is found in the library belonging to the university of 
Leyden. There is a second copy in the Bodleian, but unfortu- 
nately the title-page is supplied by manuscript : it is a very small 
thick octavo of more than 600 pages, printed in a good, clear 
Roman letter : the title of it is, " Jesus Christ Gure Taunaren 
" Testamentu Berria,''"' Sj-c. Rochellan, Pierre Hautin Imprimi- 
qale, 1571. On the title are engraved the arms of the queen of 
Navarre, through whose zealous exertions in the cause of religion 
this translation into the Biscaian dialect was made, and who also 
caused the catechism and prayers used in the church of Geneva, to 
be translated and printed at Rochelle. See the History of Thu- 
anus, book 51. This excellent princess died in the next year, 1572. 

Rupifortium, Rochefort, a seaport town of the west of France, 
in the department of Charente inferieure. 

Printing was carried on at Rochefort at least so early as 1714, 
in which year a French work on the great men who have died 
" en plaisissant," was printed here. — (TCD.) 

Ruremonda, Ruremond, or Roermond, a considerable town of 
the Netherlands, seated at the conflux of the Roer and Meuse ; 
it is a bishop's see, and was the birthplace of the well-known geo- 
grapher Gerard Mercator. — 1620. 

Rutheni, or Segodunum, Rodez, an ancient and large town of 
the south of France, seated on the river Aveiron. It is a bishop's 

see.— 1627. 


Sabaria, a town of Hungary; either Sarvar, or Szombatel, three 
leagues distant from the former ; each of which is seated on the 
river Gunz. 

Sabioneta, or Savioneta, Sabionetta, a populous town of Aus- 
trian Italy, formerly the capital of a principality. 

SA. M7 

From De Rossi, who has written a specific treatise on the He- 
brew printing-establishment for which Sabionetta has long been 
famous, we learn that its origin is to be ascribed to the year 1551 ; 
that it was carried on chiefly in the house of Tobias Foa, a wealthy 
Jew, who was assisted by Jacobus Tedesco Patavinus and several 
other persons : that Tedesco was corrector and editor, and Jacob 
ben Naphthali Cohen the printer : that it continued to work, with 
some interruptions, until 1590: that at length it was put down 
by authority, on account of the intemperate and improper lan- 
guage used in some of its productions : that the types were car- 
ried to Venice, and there used for an edition of the Bible in 1615 
and 1616. De Rossi observes that this press reached its height 
of perfection in the year 1553, while under the direction of a cele- 
brated printer named Adel-kind, who had been sent for from 
Venice to undertake the management of the establishment at 
Sabionetta. He enumerates thirty-four editions which issued 
from it between the years 1551 and 1590, the earliest of which, 
and first specimen of the Sabionetta typography, is a Commentary 
on Deuteronomy by R. Isaac Abarbanel, consisting of one hun- 
dred and forty-six leaves in folio. De Rossi states this edition to 
be one of the rarest books any where to be met with. [A copy of 
it is in the Oppenheimer collection, now deposited in the Bodleian 
library.] He gives to the productions of this press generally the 
merit of being original and genuine editions, as well as that of 
great neatness of type and execution, declaring that almost all of 
them are scarce, and diligently sought for by collectors of books. 
Several of these Sabionetta volumes, some of them printed upon 
vellum, may be seen in the Bodleian library. 

Scetobris, Setubalia, also CcBtobris, or Cetobrica, Setuval, or 
St. Ubes, an ancient and strong seaport town of Portugal, in 
Estremadura, beautifully situate at the extremity of a bay, about 
S5 miles south of Lisbon. Its population is said to be 14,000 

Saganum Silesice, Sagan, a considerable town of Prussian Si- 
lesia, seated on the river Bober. It is the chief town of a duchy, 
and contains woollen and linen manufactures. 

In the years 1629, 1630, &c. the celebrated Kepler published 
here some Ephemerides, which perhaps may have been the earliest 
attempts at printing in the town of Sagan ; as the colophon to 
his book states, that the printing of it was commenced at Lintz, 

E. 4 

248 SA. 

and finished at Sagen. It was executed in the ducal printing- 
ofiBce, which (as we learn from one of Kepler's dedications) was 
erected at the beginning of the year 1630. — (TCD.) 

It appears that Kepler had been living at Lintz, where he had 
published several of his works ; but when, in the year 1627 or 
1628, some'civil commotions overthrew the printing-establishment, 
and compelled the printer to fly, he began to look out for some 
quiet place of residence, where he might proceed with his celes- 
tial observations. At this conjuncture he found a friend in Al- 
bert duke of Friesland and Sagen, who granted him a house and 
an annual pension, and likewise promised him a press : he took 
up his residence at Sagen in the month of July 1628. He had 
previously purchased a supply of types, figures, &c. with which 
his former Ephemeris had been printed, and these he brought with 
him : his press appears to have been furnished to him before the 
close of 1628. He continued here until his death, which took 
place a few years afterwards. 

Solium, Seez, or Sais, an ancient city of France, in Nor- 
mandy, the see of a bishop. — 1731. 

Sahagim, a small town of the north-west of Spain, in the pro- 
vince of Leon, possessing an ancient and magnificent abbey of 
Benedictines. Mendez remarks that typography has been exer- 
cised in this town, (most probably within the waJls of the abbey 
abovem en tioned. ) 

Savnt-Mande. A private printing-press was erected in 1660 
by the superintendant Fouquet, at his country seat of Saint 
Mande, which I suppose to be in France. 

Salcoma, see Solcovia. 

Salem, a city of Massachusetts, the capital of Essex county, in 
the United States : said to have been the spot first fixed upon by 
the small number of persons who became the founders of the co- 
lony of Massachusetts : its original name was Nehum-kek. This 
was the third place in the province of Massachusetts, into which 
typography found its way. The first printing-house in it was 
opened by Samuel Hall, a 'printer from Newport, in the month 
of April, 1768. One of his earliest productions was The Essex 
Gazette, which appeared in August of that year. A second press 
was erected in the town in 1774. 

Salernvm, Salerno, an ancient archiepiscopal city of the king- 
dom of Naples ; possessing an university which has long been fa- 

SA. 249 

mous for the study of medicine, and whose work, entitled Regi- 
men sanitatis Schola Salernitance, was extremely popular, and 
appeared in numberless editions, during the !KVth and XVIth 

Salicetum, La Saussaye, a town of France. Printing was ex- 
ercised here, in collegia Salicetano, in 1646. 

Salince, Salins, a considerable town of the east of France, for- 
merly in Franche Comte. According to a statement made by 
the French bibliographer Peignot, printing was carried on here 
at so early a period as the year 1485; but the point perhaps 
would admit a little further investigation. 

Salingiucum, is interpreted by Panzer to mean Solingen, a 
town of Prussian Westphalia, on the river Wipper. Panzer 
makes mention of a work by Johannes Eckius, which was printed 
here in the year 1538, at the press of Joannes Soter, who had 
at the same time a printing-establishment at Cologne, but who 
executed at Solingen several works of a description which ren- 
dered too hazardous their publication in the former city. A copy 
of Eckius, as also two controversial tracts of Alardus Amstelre- 
damus, printed at Solingen, in the year 15S9, may be seen in the 
Bodleian library. 

Scdisburgum, Saltzburg, an ancient and strong city of the 
Austrian empire, the capital of a province : it is an archbishop's 
see, and formerly possessed an university, which in the year 1810 
was converted into a lyceum. — 1620. (Bodl.) 

Sallodium, Salo, a town of Austrian Italy, in the district of 
Brescia, on the banks of the Lago di Garda. Two works are 
mentioned by Panzer, printed here in the year 1517 : namely, 
some commentaries on Duns Scotus by LychettviS, a Brescian 
monk : I have observed no other Salo book. 

SALMANTICA, Salamanca, an ancient, beautiful, and po- 
pulous city of Spain, in the province of Leon. It is a bishop's 
see, and has a very celebrated university, which was transferred 
hither from Palencia in the year 1404. 

Typography was introduced into Salamanca in the XVth cen- 
tury ; and there is reason to believe a book entitled Introductiones 
Latince by Antonius Neirissensis, printed in the year 1481, to be 
the first production of the press of this city. Mendez announces 
that a copy of this previously-undiscovered book exists in the royal 
library of Madrid. A second edition of the same work was 

250 SA. 

printed in the subsequent year (1482), which is found in the 
library of the archbishop of Toledo. The art seems to have been 
continued without' intermission from that time ; yet it is a little 
remarkable, that out of more than twenty books, executed here 
in the XVth century, which are given by Panzer, not a single 
one has the name of any printer aflfixed to it ; and the only per- 
sons who are named as exercising the art at Salamanca are Leo- 
nardo Aleman, Lupo Sanz de Navarra, and Antonius de Bar- 
reda: nor do the names of these occur in any publication prior 
to the year 1496. To those of the years 1501 — 1536, may be 
added the following, as neither the book nor name of the printer 
appear to have been known to Panzer: Aristotelis phihsophia 
naturalis {Lat.) cum commentis Petri a Spinosa. Excus. in alma 

acad. univ. Salmanticensis per Rodericum de Castaneda. 

Anno 1535. fol. This volume is in the Bodleian library. 

It would appear that during the XVIth century some of the 
well-known Junta family transported themselves from Italy, and 
carried on the printing-business in Spain. From books now in 
the Bodleian library we learn that Juan de Junta printed at Bur- 
gos in 1535, at Salamanca in 1547 and 1555; and Philip de Junta 
at Burgos in the years 1582 and 1593. 

Salmurium, Saumur, a beautiful and considerable town of 
France, in Anjou, on the southern bank of the river Loire. 
Printing was exercised here in 1582. — (TCD.) 

SALVTIiE, Saluces, or Saluzzo, a populous town of the Sar- 
dinian states, in the north-west of Italy, capital of a district, seated 
on an eminence near the Po. It is the see of a bishop. 

Panzer knew not that printing had been carried on here during 
the XVth century, but gives 1503 as the date of the earliest book. 
The Bodleian library however contains a volume executed here at 
a much earlier period ; of which, as it is an edition unnoticed by 
Fabricius, and not mentioned (so far as I can learn) by any bib- 
liographer, I shall submit a description rather more detailed than 
usual. The book in question is am, edition of Persius, in folio. 
On the recto of the first leaf we read, AVLI PERSII FLACCI 
SATYRARVM LIBER, and on the reverse of signature b. iv. 
Impressus Salutiis arte et impensis Martini de Lavalle. Cor-, 
rectusque ac emendatus diligenti opera egregii magistri Joha/nis 
Gauterii rectoris Scholarium Saluciensium. Anno Domini 
M.CCCC.LXXXI. die x. Februarii. Persius is followed by an 

SA. 251 

.Epistle of St. Bernard, which fills the two remaining leaves of 
this sheet, having for colophon, Finit Epistola Sandi Bernardi 
ad laudem Dei. Finis. The volume is printed in a Gothic type, 
which, both in capitals and small letters, resembles that of the 
Boethius printed at Pinerolium in 1479; it shews also the same 
inequality of setting up. The large initials are inserted by hand, 
not by the press : it contains signatures a, b, in sixes, and each 
page consists of thirty-five lines. The printer, Martinus de La- 
valle, appears to be the same who in the year 1488 executed two 
books at Pavia, for which see Panzer, torn. ii. p. 254. The Bod- 
leian volume has at least the merit of exceeding rarity. 

Samalcalda, or Smalcaldia, Smalcald, the chief town of a dis- 
trict of the same name in the west of Germany, belonging to 
Hesse-Cassel ; memorable for the Articles and the Protestant 
League concluded here in the year 1531. 

Le Long mentions that printing was exercised at Smalcald in 
1574, and notices a very rare edition of The Psalter translated 
into Latin verse, iy Maurice, Landgrave of Hesse, printed in 
1590 ; a copy of which curious volume was lately sold by auction 
in the library of professor Te Water of Leyden. 

Samarobrvna, see Ambicmi. 

Samielum in Lotharingia, qu. what town ? Le Long notices 
editions of the Latin Testament printed here in 1613 and 1614; 
in which latter year Franciscus du Bois, calling himself typo- 
grapher to the duke of Lorraine, executed at Samiel the Phrases 
poeticce of M. Fundanus, a copy of which is in archbishop Marsh's 
library at Dublin. I cannot say much in favour either of the 
press-work or paper of this small piece. Two years later how- 
ever, viz. in 1616, the same printer sent forth a volume of very 
different style; namely the Psalterium Monasticum, a folio in 
large black and red types, with musical notes ; the whole of hand- 
some appearance, and bearing for imprint, Sammieli, in Monas- 
terio Sancti Michaelis, S^c. 1616. 

Samplai en las Philippinas. This occurs as the imprint of a 
book dated 1745, which is cited by Dr. Robertson, in his History 
of America: in all probability it is the same place with Sampa- 
loc, or Pueblo de Sampaloc, situate on the south-western extre- 
mity of Lu^on, one of the largest of the PhiHppine islands. A 
Chronicle by J. Fr. de S. Antonio, bearing for imprint, impresso 
el Convento de N. S. de Loreto del Pueblo de Sampaloc, and 

252 SA. 

dated 1738, occurs in the curious catalogue of don J. A. Conde, 
(London 1824,) where is also mention of a second publication 
from Sampaloc, of the year 1760. A Grammar of the Pampamga 
Dialect, by D. Bergamo, is said to have been printed here in 
1736. In the Bodleian library is a Historia de las Islas Philvp- 
pinas, written by an Augustin friar named Jo. Martinez de Zu- 
niga, bearing for imprint, Impreso en Sampaloc, por Fr. Pedro 
Anguelles de la Co^iception religioso Francisco, ano de 1803. It 
is a handsome quarto volume of 687 pages, on silk paper, pro- 
bably manufactured on the spot. 

In Aduarte's Spanish " History of the Dominican province of 
" the Philippines, Japan, and China," folio, Saragossa, 1693, it is 
said that printing in the Philippine islands was invented and intro- 
duced by Juan de Vera, a converted Chinese : it is evident there- 
fore that the art was practised there during the XVIIth century, 
although I have not yet ascertained the exact time, nor met with 
any volume of so early a date. 

Sancianum, an island off some part of the coast of China ; or 
(quaere) Song-kiang, a large city which is seated on the intersec- 
tion of several canals, in the province of Kiang-nan. There is a 
volume in the Bodleian library, of Chinese typography, which, 
from its subject, no less than its appearance, may well be judged 
to have beeil printed in this island. The title is, Relatio sepul- 
turcB magno Orientis Apostolo S. Francisco Xavierio erectce in 
insula Sanciano : Anno sceculari 1700. 8°. pp. 59. It contains an 
engraved map, and a ground-plan. 

Sanctandreana Officina. It may be noted, that books which 
are found bearing the imprint apud Petrum Sanctandreanum, or 
ex officina Sanctamdreana, without further designation of place or 
printer, of the years 1575 &c. for upwards of twenty years, were 
executed at Heidelberg ; either by Peter Sanctandreanus, or by 
H. Commelin, who appears to have succeeded to his business in 
or about the year 1589, and who continued for some time to use 
indifferently the imprints apud Commelinum, and ex officina 
Sanctandreana, prefixing also the same vignette (of Truth) to 

Sangeorgiana Officina, quaere where ? Books (without place) 
of the year 1634 &c. occur with this imprint. 

Santa Martha, a city of South America, lately capital of the 
Spanish province of Santa Martha, in the kingdom of New Gra- 

SA. 253 

nada. It was founded by the Spaniards in 1554, is seated on the 
river Guaira, and has a good harbour. 

In the year 1823 a newspaper was in course of publication in 
this town, but was discontinued in the ensuing year. 

Santamgelium, St. Angelo in Vado, an episcopal town of the 
popedom, situated in the duchy of Urbino. The bishop possessed 
a printing-establishment here in 1664. 

Santiago, a large handsome city of South America, capital of 
the province of Chili. It is an archbishop's see : contains an uni- 
versity and a mint, and near 50,000 inhabitants. 

In the year 1825 there was a printing-press at Santiago, and in 
1826 official and periodical publications were issued^o?re two dif- 
ferent presses in this town. In 1827 no fewer than ten periodicals 
were published at Santiago. 

Saphita, Sapliet, or Safad, a small village of Palestine, situate 
in the pachalic of Acre, near the western bank of the lake of Ti- 
berias ; where some time since was an Arabian college and univer- 
sity, with synagogues, &c. for the education of Jewish rabbis. 
Masch, in his Appendix to the Bibliotheca sacra of Le Long, 
mentions an edition of the Booh of Daniel in Hebrew, which was 
printed here in the year 1563 ; likewise an Ecclesiastes, executed 
in 1578. Safad was almost destroyed by an earthquake in the 
year 1759, since which period its institutions have languished, and 
it has become a poor and miserable village. 

Sarepta, is the name of a picturesque town of Calmuc Tartary, 
seated on the river Wolga, not far from Czarizin. A settlement 
was formed here by the Moravians in the year 1765 ; to which all 
the materials requisite for a printing-establishment were despatched 
from England, by the British and Foreign Bible-Society, in the 
year 1808. This flourishing colony has recently been almost en- 
tirely destroyed by a fire. 

Saros-Patakon, or simply PataJcon, Saros-Patak, a considerable 
town of the north-east of Hungary, on the river Bodrog. Print- 
ing was exercised here in the years 1653, 1654. — (Bodl.) 

Sassaris, Sassari, a considerable city of the island of Sardinia, 
the see of an archbishop. Printing was carried on here in the 
year 1640. 

Savannah, a post-town of Georgia, in the United States of 
America. James Johnston, a Scotchman, introduced printing 
into this town, in the early part of the year 1762. 

254 SA.— SC. 

SAVILLIANVM, Savigliano, a strong well-built town of 
Piedmont, capital of a province of the same name. 

Two books are remaining, which Panzer judges to have been 
executed here during the XV th century, viz. a Manipulus CurOr- 
torum, and the Speculum of Rodericus Zamorensis, both by the 
same printer, Christopher de Beggiamo, a native of noble family, 
who had for his associate John Glim. Neither of these books 
bears a date, but the year 1470 or 1471 is attributed to them by 
Panzer. After these two, we hear nothing more of the typography 
of Savigliano. 

Savioneta, see Sdbioneta. 

SAVONA, Savona, a large maritime town in the north-west of 
Italy, in the territory of Genoa. 

A single volume attests the early use of printing in this town, 
namely, Boethius de consolatione PhilosophicE, which bears for im- 
print. Impress, in Savona in conventu S. Augustini, perjratrem 
Bonum Johannevi, emendante Venturino Priore. Anno 1474. 
This is as it should be ; the monk worked at the press, and the 
prior corrected the sheets. Panzer adduces the book on the au- 
thority of P. Laire, who affirms that he saw it at Rome in the 
Museum of pope Pius the Sixth. No other copy of it is known 
to exist. Nor have we any thing more from the press of Savona 
[unless an edition of S. Augustini Confessiones, printed by Jo- 
annes Bonus in 1475, which Panzer quotes among the Milan 
books, (vol. ii. p. 22.) be given to Savona] except one single 
volume on natural history, of the year 1524, a copy of which was 
in the library of the late sir Joseph Banks. 

The Savoy, in London, was formerly a magnificent palace, 
erected in the reign of Henry the Third: it was subsequently 
converted by Henry the Seventh into a hospital, which was sup- 
pressed by queen Elizabeth, and its remains converted into pri- 
vate lodgings, barracks, &c. &c. Some printing-presses were 
worked within its precincts during the time of the Common- 
wealth ; and so late as 1743 H. Lintot printed law-books here. 

Scala Dei, a Carthusian convent of this name, is set down by 
Mendez among the Spanish places which at some period or other 
possessed and exercised the art of printing. He gives us however 
no farther particulars. 

SCANDIANVM, Scandiano, a small town of Italy, in the 
duchy of Modena. Four books printed here during the XVth 

SC. 255 

century are named by Panzer ; the earliest of which, a Latin ver- 
sion of Appian's History, was executed by Peregrinus Pasquali, 
a well-known printer of Venice, in the year 1495. No further 
notice is taken of printing at Scandiano during that or the suc- 
ceeding century. 

Scaphusia, or Schaffhusium, Schaffhausen, a trading town of 
the north of Switzerland, on the Rhine, capital of a canton of 
the same name. The town took its rise from a neighbouring 
abbey which was erected about the middle of the Xlth century. 
Printing was carried on at Schaffhausen in 1592. (Bodl.) 

Scara, or Shara, Skara, an ancient town of the south of 
Sweden, in West Gothland, formerly the capital of the kingdom 
of Gothland. Although much decayed, it is still the see of a bi- 

A printing-press was erected here by bishop Jasper Suedber- 
gius, in the year 1707, and Andreas Kiellbergius, from Upsal, was 
the first printer. This press having been consumed in the terrible 
fire which laid the city in ruins, on the 23d of August 1719, its 
owner obtained a royal brief for collecting money towards its re- 

SCHEDAMVM, or Sciedamum, Schiedam, a considerable 
town and harbour of South Holland, near Rotterdam, noted for 
its numerous and extensive distilleries. 

Two books of the XVth century executed here, remain : one 
of which, Le Roman de Chevalier Delibere, in French verse, 
printed in 1483, was formerly in the Gaignat collection ; the 
other is a Life of St.LMwine, a religious virgin of Schiedam, 
written by John Brugman, rector of a convent at St. Omer ; the 
date of this last is 1498. No further printing is noticed here 
during the XVth or XVIth centuries. 1607. (TCD.) 

SchemnitiMm, Schemnitz, a populous and picturesque town, and 
a place of considerable importance, situate in the mining district of 
tlie north-west of Hungary, noted for the extent of its works, and 
the high character of its mining school. — 1796. 

Schleusi/nga, sometimes called Silusia, Schleusingen, a small 
town of Germany, in the county of Henneburg, on the river 

Printing was carried on here in 1609 ; and in 1687 the mem- 
bers of its academy had a printer of their own. 

Schlichtingsheim, a town of Prussian Poland, in the palatinate 

256 SC. 

of Posnan, not far from Freystadt ; it was the property of the 
barons Schlichting. Printing was first established here by Chris- 
topher Wilde, about 1680 or 1690. 

Schneeberga, Schneeberg, a town of Saxony, distant seven 
miles from Schwarzenburg, noted for an extensive manufacture 
of smalt. — 1725. 

SCHOENI-IOVEN, or Schoonhoven, a strong town of the 
Netherlands, in South Holland. 

A Breviarium secundum ordinem Trajectensis Ecclesice, to- 
gether with seven other religious books, ate adduced as having 
been printed here from 1495 to 1500. No printer's name is af- 
fixed to any of them ; they appear to have been executed within 
a convent situated extra muros oppidi Schoenhoviensis. No notice 
occurs in Panzer of printing carried on at Schoonhoven later 
than the XVth century. However, in archbishop Marsh's library 
at Dublin we meet with an elegant and rare volume, entitled 
Breviarium Canonicorum regularium secundum ordinarium Ca- 
pituli de Windesim, which bears for imprint, ad g^atiam et ho- 

norem exaratum secu/ndario "est hoc presens Breviarium 

— Anno Salutis M.CCCCC°. VII°.inprofesto nativitatis Johan- 
nisBaptistcB extra murosoppidi Schoenhoviensis partis Hollandice, 
apud Canonicos regulares Indenhem. The book is a thick quarto, 
on good paper, and well printed. The larger initials, and all the 
rubrications, are coloured by hand. On the title-page is a large 
woodcut of a bishop (perhaps St. Austin) standing within a 
shrine or temple, and holding in one hand a crozier, in the other 
a pierced heart. The pages are not numbered : the signatures 
are irregular: the volume contains 304 printed leaves. After 
this, I have seen no Schoenhoven book earlier than 1660. 

Schrattental, a town of Austria, distant thirty-three miles from 
Vienna. Panzer adduces a single book printed in this place, 
written by Michael Francis de Insulis, which bears the imprint, 
Schratental in Austria, with the date 1501. A copy of it is said 
to be in a library of Franciscans at Vienna. 

SchUol, a town of Switzerland in the Lower Engadine valley, 
in the country of the Grisons. It is memorable for having pro- 
duced the first edition of the Romanesche, or Grison Bible, which 
was printed in the year 1657, and is an exceedingly rare book. 
[Coxe, however, in his" Travels in Switzerland," assignsl679 as the 
o The first edition had been printed here in 1499. 

SE. 257 

date of its publication.] The second edition of this Bible, fur- 
nished with a new preface and observations by N. Da Porta, was 
also printed at Schuol in 1743, in folio. Of this last a good copy 
may be seen in the Bodleian library. 

Schwabach, a manufacturing town of Bavarian Franconia, 
in the principality of Anspach, where a colony of French Pro- 
testants settled, on the revocation of the edict of Nantes. — 

Sclavow 9 A Hebrew work printed here in the year 1784 is 
announced in the Catalogue of the library belonging to the Lon- 
don Society for promoting Christianity among the Jews. [Quaere 
whether there be some mistake in the announcement .''] 

S. Sebastiani Fanum, (or Oppidum,) St. Sebastian, a fortified 
and considerable city of the north-east of Spain, the capital of 
Guipuscoa. — 1 674. 

Sedanum, Sedan, a strong town of the north east of France, 
formerly in Champagne, now capital of a department ; it is po- 
pulous, and has manufactures of woollens, and also of fire-arms ; 
and once was the seat of a Protestant university. 

At this town were printed some very diminutive volumes, well 
known to collectors of books by the name of Sedan editions : the 
Virgil, dated 1625, the Horace of 1627, and the Greeh Testa- 
ment of 1628, are, I believe, all of this kind which are at present 
known. The earliest Sedan volume which I have seen is in the 
library of Trinity college, Dublin, dated 1589. 

Sedinum, see Stetinum. 

Segobia, see Segovia. 

SEGOBRICA, Segorbe, an ancient episcopal city of the east 
of Spain, in the province of Valencia. 

A single volume now testifies that typography was ever exer- 
cised in this city, entitled, Constitutiones synodales, composed by 
Bartholomeie Marti, cardinal and bishop of Segorbe. The date 
of it is 1479, but no printer's name is given. See a reprint of 
this edition, noticed under the head of XERICA. Mendez, 
however, takes no notice of any printing executed at Segorbe 
during the XVth century ; and La Serna Santander treats the 
above named edition as apocryphal. 

Segodunvm, see Rutheni. 

Segmvtia, or Seguntum, Siguenza, an ancient city of Spain in 
the province of Guadalaxara, in Old Castile. It is a bishop's see. 

258 SE. 

and possessed an university founded in 1441 by cardinal Xime- 
nes, but which was suppressed in 1807. 

The art of printing was very respectably exercised at Siguenza, 
by Johannes Gratianus in the year 1575, and by Joannes Iniguez 
a Lequerica, a printer from Alcala, in 1582. (Bodleian.) 

Segovia, or Segobia, Segovia, an ancient and strong town of 
the interior of Spain, in Old Castile ; it is also a bishop's see, and 
is adorned with a magnificent Roman aqueduct. Printing was 
carried on at Segovia, by Juan de la Cuesta, in 1588 and 1589. 

Selestadium, Schelestadt, or Schlettstadt, formerly an imperial 
city of Germany, in Alsace, now belonging to France, in the de- 
partment of the Lower Hhine. 

Printing was introduced into this city so early as 1518 : and 
twenty-four books are given by Panzer, all executed by the same 
printer, Lazarus Schurerius, between the years 1518 and 1526. 
The last of them, Lamentationes Germanicce nationis, published 
during the religious controversy which then prevailed, bears the 
disguised imprint, apud inclytam Asice civitatem Lactophagam, 
ubi plures vigent Luiherani. I have met with no later Schlett- 
stadt books. 

SEN^, or SiENA, Sienna, an aincient and fine city of Italy, 
in Tuscany ; the capital of a province : it is an archbishop's see, 
and has an university, which was founded or restored in 1887. 

The earliest known dated book from Sienna is a Lecture of 
Franciscus de ^ccoMs de Aretio, printed here in 1479. Hen- 
ricus de Colonic et Socii were printers in this city, whose names 
first appear on a work of the year 1484. 

Sena Gallica, or Senogallia, Sinigaglia, an ancient city of Italy, 
in the duchy of Urbino, the see of a bishop. — 1694. 

Sendomiria, Sendomir, or Sandomir, a town of the south of 
Poland, seated on the river Vistula ; it formerly was the capital 
of a Palatinate of the same name, and the residence of the court ; 
but of late has fallen much into decay. Printing was carried on 
here for some years previous to 1740. 

Senones, Sens, an ancient and considerable town in the interior 
of France, in Champagne, lately an archbishop's see. 

The earliest specimens of Sens typography are perhaps, a vo- 
lume entitled Coutumes de Sens, small 4to, executed by Gilles 
Richeboys, in 1553 : an Antiphonarius ad usum Senonensis Ec- 
desicB, in large folio, printed by Francis Girauh, in the year 

' SE. 259 

1554; copies of which, upon vellum, are described by M. Van 
Praet; who subjoins to them a third, Viz. Evcmgeliorvm liber kc. 
printed by JEgidius Richebois, in 1561, also on vellum. All 
these rare books are in the royal library of Paris. A second edi- 
tion of the Coutumes, in 1556, also on vellum, is in the Bodleian. 

Serampore, a town of Hindostan, in Bengal, pleasantly seated 
on the banks of the Hoogly river (one of the streams of the 
Ganges) about fifteen miles to the north of Calcutta. It was a 
settlement originally founded by the Danes, about the year 1676. 
The English Baptist missionaries, who entered India in the year 
1793, not being permitted to fix themselves within the territories 
belonging to the East India Company, obtained leave to reside in 
the Danish settlement of Serampore, where by the close of the 
century they had firmly and completely established themselves. 

In the year 1800 these zealous men, having procured a print- 
ing-press P and types from Calcutta, commenced their industrious 
and memorable typographical career with an edition of the New 
Testament in Bengalee, the first sheet of which was worked 
off on the 16th of May in that year. The first page of St. Mat- 
thew''s Gospel had been taken off for a specimen on the 18th of 
March. The edition consisted of 2000 copies, 1700 of which 
were printed on Patna paper, and 300 on paper brought from 
England. 500 extra copies of St. Matthew's Gospel were struck 
off, for immediate gratuitous distribution. 

Their labours proceeded with unabated and uninterrupted ar- 
dour ; as may be collected from the following notices taken from 
their annual Reports, and occasional Memoirs of Translations 
of the Scriptures. 

In 1801, Feb. 7th, " we this day finished the composing of the 
" Bengalee New Testament, which had occupied nine months, 
" keeping two compositors and four pressmen at work." 

In the same year the Old Testament was put to press. 

1802. Feb. 1. They begin a pamphlet by Cunninghame, " On 
" the Evidences of Christianity." 

1803. They printed several pieces for the college of Fort Wil- 
liam near Calcutta. 

p This press had been purchased in September 1798 by Dr. Carey, and was at 
first conveyed to his residence at Mudnabattz ; but I do not find that any use was 
made of it previously to the removal of the missionaries from that station to Seram- 

260 SE. 

1803. in August they begin a new edition of the New Testa- 
ment, consisting of 1500 copies. 

1803. December 14th, they write that " we have it in our power, 
" if our means would do for it, in the space of about fifteen 
" years, to have the word of God translated and printed in 
" all the languages of the east!" 

1804. in January they are about to erect a second press. 
in April they are in possession of a type-foundry. 

they agree to print ten thousand extra copies of St. Luke, 

the Acts, and Epistle to the Romans. 

they begin to print with Naguree types. 

1805. They possess three presses ; a new printing office, and a 

book -binding office. 

I'hey begin to print the New Testament in the Mahratta 

language, and finish St. Matthew's Gospel in December of 

this year. 
Ib07. They were engaged in translating the Holy Scriptures 

into eleven languages, six of which were actually at press : 

namely Bengalee, Sangskrit, Ooreea, Hindostanee, Mahratta, 

and Persian. 

1808. On the 28th of JanX. in this year, Serampore was taken 
from the Danes by the English. 

1 809. The " Second Memoir on Translations'" acquaints us, that 
they had finished the Bible in Bengalee, in five volumes, 
also a third edition of the New Testament in Orissa, 1000 
copies. Also the same in Sangskrit, 600 copies. By this time 
they had cast seven founts of type in different languages. 

1810. They finished an edition of 1000 copies of the New 
Testament in Hindee, in quarto. Also 1000 copies of the 
Mahratta New Testament in 8vo. The New Testament in 
Punjabee. St. Matthew and St. Mark, in Chinese. A pam- 
phlet in the Burman language. And in December of this 
year they commenced the important undertaking of a ^aper- 

1811. The " Third Memoir-on Translations" states, that they 
finished the Pentateuch in Sangskrit, 600 copies ; and two 
volumes of the Orissa Old Testament, 600 do. At this period 
they possessed types in the Mahratta, Burman, Telinga, and 
Seek characters : and had produced paper of a quality which 
the worms did not attack. 

SE. 261 

1812. On Wednesday the 11th of March their printing-house 
experienced the awful visitation of a fire ; which consumed 
seven hundred reams of English paper expressly sent out for 
the Tamul and Cingalese New Testaments. Everything in 
the office perished, except the six presses which were in a 
side-room. Altogether two thousand reams of English paper, 
worth five thousand pounds, were lost ; also founts of 
type in fourteen languages (besides English) together with 
the cases, imposing stones, bi'ass rules, chases, and all other 
furniture. Printed books perished to the amount of 5000 
rupees ; and manuscripts of the value of 7000 rupees : the 
total loss was not under seven thousand pounds sterling. 
Nine editions of the New Testament, and five of the Old 
Testament were stopped by this accident. But providen- 
tially no human life was lost in the calamity, and no man's 
health was injured. The important matrices were saved, and 
the paper manufactory was not damaged. The missionaries 
not dispirited speedily returned to their work ; they recast 
types from the metal which the fire had melted ; so that by 
the month of June six out of twelve versions of the Scrip- 
tures were again in progress. 

The " Fourth Memoir" states, that in June nine versions of 

the New Testament had been printed : and, in November, 
that translations were then going on in eighteen languages. 
In December they drew up a petition to be presented to the 
king of Burmah for permission to erect a press in his city of 

1813. They had recast eleven founts of type. By the 19th of 
February they had finished an edition of the Tamul New 
Testament, consisting of 5000 copies. In March they men- 
tion their want of more presses, and state themselves to be 
printing in thirteen languages. In August they are trans- 
lating in twenty languages, and printing in fifteen of them. 

The " Fifth Memoir" of this year states, that they were 

printing extensively for the Calcutta Bible Society. In De- 
cember they were translating in twenty-one languages. Hav- 
ing received permission from the viceroy of Burmah, they 
send a press and printing materials to Rangoon. 
1814 The press arrives and is erected at Rangoon. The 
" Sixth Memoir" announces, that they have finished a fourth 


262 SE. 

edition of the Bengalee New Testament, of 5000 copies : 
and a second edition of the Hindee New Testament, of 4000 
copies. They were at this time translating and printing in 
twenty-one languages. They erect a paper-mill on their own 
premises : which however, from the deficiency of water, they 
are compelled to work entirely by horses, and boast that they 
are now able to print the Scriptures cheaper than an equal 
quantity of letter-press could be executed in England, being 
enabled to aiFord an octavo copy oi the New Testament, of 
680 pages in a fair type and on durable paper, for a single 
rupee (value two shillings and sixpence.) 
181/5. They learn that by accident the types destined for 
Rangoon had perished, but the press was still preserved. 

1816. In November of this year the Rangoon printing-office 
was opened. 

1817. St. Matthew's Gospel was printed in the Burman lan- 

1819- The annual report states, that they have thirteen presses 
at work. , 

1820. The " Seventh Memoir on Translations'" thus speaks : 
" The labour of twenty years has formed a printing-esta- 
" blishment, comprising seventeen presses and workmen of 
" every description ; and the value of it in reducing the ex- 
" pence of a version is by no means inconsiderable. To 
" this is now added the advantage of a paper-manufactory on 
" the spot. The importance of this to the difi'usion of the 
" Scriptures throughout India has been long felt: it is in 
" vain to expect that the Scriptures can be printed in suf- 
" ficient quantity for extensive distribution on paper brought 
" fifteen thousand miles : the expence will fall too heavy on 
" the Christian public. The ^a:per Jbrmerly made in India 
" became quickly a prey to worms : but a perseverance for 
" twelve years in attempting to produce a superior kind has 
" been so successful, as to produce a paper equally imper- 
" vious to the worm with English paper, of a firmer tex- 
" ture, though inferior in colour." 

This paper is stated to be made from the sun (Crotoleria jun- 
cea). The Memoir adds, that they now had published the 
entire Scriptures in five languages, and the New Testament 
in fifteen. That they possessed twelve different founts of 

SE. 263 

type, besides several of the Deva-Naguree character, and one 
of Persian ; and that another, of Arabic, was in preparation. 
The missionaries declare themselves to have expended, in 
various experiments for the production of paper, including 
a steam-engine and a paper-mill, full fifty thousand rupees : 
and in the paper-manufactory, and in forming the various 
founts of types, scarcely less than eight thousand pounds 
• sterling. 

1821. They finish a sixth Bengalee New Testament, of 6000 
copies ; a second Sangskrit N. T. of 4000 ; a second of the 
Hindee, of 2000 copies ; one of the Orissa N. T. of 4000 ; 
and one of the Mahratta. 

1822. The " Eighth and Ninth Memoirs" mention, that at the 
close of this year they had printed the New Testament in 
twenty languages besides the Chinese: also that they had 
finished the entire Chinese Bible, with moveable metallic 
types, printed on paper forwarded from China to Calcutta. 

1823. Notice occurs of the press erected at Fort Marlborough 
near Bencoolen. 

1824. It is mentioned that a lithographic press had been for- 
warded to Bencoolen, for the purpose of printing the Scrip- 
tures in Javanese. 

1826. Notice occurs of a lithographic press having been sent 
some years ago to Batavia in the isle of Java. 

It is gratifying to learn that an establishment so diligently and 
perseveringly carried on continues to flourish at the present day : 
and that printing, both scriptural and miscellaneous, is now exe- 
cuted on an extended scale in this mission college of Serampore. 

Serezana, Sarzena, or Sarzina, a small but ancient town of the 
north-east of Italy, in the Genoese territory, formerly a bishop's 
see.— 1607. 

SerravalUs, Serravalle, a small town of the north-west of Italy, 
in the duchy of Milan. — 1604. A history of the Inquisition in 
Italy, by PaoU Sarpi, was printed here in the year 1638. 

Servesta, Zerbst, a town of the interior of Germany, formerly 
capital of the small principality of Anhalt. It was the birth- 
place of the empress Catharine II. of Russia. — 1583. (Bodl.) 

Sevenbergen, a small inland town of the Netherlands, in the 
province of North Brabant. 

Printing was carried on here in 1683. — TCD. 

s 4 

264. SH.— SK. 

Shawnee-town, in North America, is beautifully situate on the 
western bank of the river Ohio, near its junction with the Wa- 
bash. Formerly it was a village of Shawnee Indians, but having 
been deserted by them was occupied by the white settlers. 

Although so lately as 1808 there was not a single house on the 
ground, the town now contains about one hundred, several of 
which are substantial and handsome. Among other conveniences 
of civilized life, as markets, a post-ofBce, bank, &c. Shawnee- 
town now possesses two printing offices. 

Shelburne, a town of Nova Scotia, in North America. A. and 
J. Robertson first established a press here in 1783. 

Sigena Nassovice, Siegen, a town and castle of Prussian West- 
phalia, near to the town of Herborn. Printing was exercised at 
Siegen in the year 1596 — 1598 by Christopher Corvinus, who 
appears in 1599 to have transferred himself and his business to 
Herborn.— (TCD) 

Silusia, see Schleusinga. 

Singapore, a large and populous town situate in the Peninsula 
of Malacca ; originally founded by settlers from the isle of Su- 
matra, and containing at present about 15,000 inhabitants. 

In the year 1819 the London Missionary Society formed an 
establishment at Singapore, and in 1823 the Anglo-Chinese col- 
lege was removed from Malacca to this place. In the same year 
the missionaries brought a printing-establishment from Calcutta, 
and commenced their labours by working off a Siamese version of 
the Book of Genesis. 

Skalholt, is a small town of Iceland, which from the year 1057 
to that of 1797 was the see of a bishop. 

In the year 1685 the printing-establishment of Hoolum was 
transferred to this place, through the influence of the bishop 
Theodore Thorlakson, but was restored to its ancient seat in the 
beginning of the XVIIIth century. During the continuance of 
the press at Skalholt, forty-one publications issued from it ; but 
few of them, in all probability, have been seen within these king- 
doms. One however, and that not very unlikely to have been the 
earhest, is preserved in the noble library of king George the 
Third, namely, a Psalm-book, (or Graduate,) printed in the year 
1686; it is an oblong octavo: and the library of the British and 
Foreign Bible Society contains a Harmony of the Gospels, in the 
Icelandic tongue, of the year 1687- Mackenzie, who in his Travels 

SL.— SM. 265 

through Iceland makes mention of the printing-establishments of 
the island, has omitted all notice of this ancient one of Skalholt. 

SLESVICVM, Sleswick, an ancient and large city of Den- 
mark, capital of the duchy of Sleswick. 

A single early volume bears the imprint of this place, namely, 
Missdle secundum Ordinarium et ritum EcclesicE Slesvicensis, 
printed at Sleswick in the year 1486, by Stephen Arndes, who at 
the same time had a printing-office in Lubec, and in all probability 
was sent for by the monks for the purpose of printing the above 
Missal for their use. See the same occurrence under the articles 
HerbipoUs and Ratishona. I do not remember another Sleswick 
book of an earlier date than 1591. At present there is (or was 
in 1821) a printing-establishment carried on here by the pupils of 
a deaf and dumb school : it appears to be an excellent method of 
employing such afflicted individuals. 

Slovanka qa? Henderson in his " Biblical Researches in Rus- 
" sia," mentions an edition of the Slavonic Bible, printed here in 
the year 1766. 

Slovita, a small town or village of Russian Poland, distant 
about forty miles from Ostrog. 

Henderson, in his " Researches in Russia," describes an edition 
of the Hebrew Psalter, in 8vo. which had been printed at Slovita, 
but does not name its date. 

Shichum, Slouske, or Slucze, a large and populous town of 
Russian Lithuania, in the government of Minsk, where was for- 
merly a flourishing Calvinistic school. 

Typography found its way to Slucze in the XVIIth century : 
the earliest book now known is dated 1674. 

Smyrna, a large and commercial city of Asia Minor, seated at 
the head of a bay in the Grecian Archipelago. It has been cele- 
brated from the most ancient times, and claims to be the birth- 
place of Homer. 

Of the seven churches named in the Apocalypse, this alone has 
preserved its consequence to the present period. While the other 
six have become either miserable villages, or mere heaps of un- 
distinguishable ruins, Smyrna continues to be a large, populous, 
and wealthy place, the emporium of commerce, and resort of all 
nations of the earth. 

How early typography was known in this city, I have not dis- 
covered ; having heard of no specimen older than the year 1658, 

SN.— so. 

vrhen the Jews possessed a printing-establishment here : books of 
the years 1658, 1659, 1660, 1674, 1680, 1740, 1744, &c. are in 
the Oppenheimer collection at Oxford. 

Snagqf, or Synaguphu, a monastery, situated in the midst of 
a lake, near to Bucharest the capital of Wallachia. A printing- 
establishment was erected here by Anthimus, archbishop of Wal- 
lachia, and amply supplied by him with Arabic, Greek, and Illy- 
rian types. Schnurrer, in his Biblioiheca Ardbica, notices a 
Greek and Arabic Missal, executed here in the year 1701. The 
volume was printed at the expense of John Constantine Bessa- 
raba, the waywode of Wallachia, and by him gratuitously distri- 
buted to the Arabian priests. Schnurrer states it to be tolerably 
well printed ; notices its being a book of extreme rarity in Eu- 
rope, but he himself had chanced to pick up a copy for a small 
sum, at a public auction in Leipsic. 

Soest, see Susatum. 

Solcovia, or Salcovia, Zolkiew, a town of Austrian Poland, ten 
miles north of Lemburg. A printing-office was established here 
by the Jews in the XVIIth century, which was still at work in 
1740, and was at that time the only Jewish press throughout 
Poland. The earliest book noticed is of the year 1692, the printer 
of which was named Uri Ueibs. It is in the Oppenheimer col- 

Soleure, sometimes spelt Saleure, (anciently Salodurum,) a town 
of the north of Switzerland, capital of the canton of Soleure ; as- 
serted by local tradition to have been founded in the days of 
Abraham ! According to the Pinelli Catalogue, some pieces of 
J. B. Rousseau were printed here in the year 1712. 

Solishacwm, or Sultzbacum, qu. Sulzbach, a town in the king- 
dom of Bavaria ? or, another in Wirtemberg ? — 1657. 

Solna, (qu. Solma, Solms, a small town of Germany, in Wet- 
teravia ? or Solno, (or Zilina,) a small town of Hungary .'') — 1703. 

SONCINVM, Soncino, a small but strong town of Austrian 
Italy, in the duchy of Milan, in the Cremonese. 

This town is sufficiently known to the learned by the labours of 
its celebrated Hebrew printing-office, established in the XVth 
century, from which issued in 1488 the editio princeps of the en- 
tire Hebrew Bible, on which so much has been written by critics 
as well as bibliographers. The first production of the Soncino 
press, as determined by De Rossi, the best possible authority in 

so. 267 

these matters, is a Treatise of the Talmud, entitled, Berachoth, 
with commentaries, &c. printed in 1484. De Rossi himself pos- 
sessed a copy of this very rare book, printed upon vellum. 
[and a similar one is in the Oppenheimer collection.] The 
printer is Joshua Solomon ben Israel Nathan, who appears to 
have been the head and leader of that illustrious firm whose 
members subsequently established themselves at Naples, Brescia, 
Fane, Constantinople, and other places, under the name of San- 
cmates, or Jratres de Soncino. Of the famous Bible of 3488 
Panzer knew of no more than nine copies in existence, one of 
which may be seen in the Bodleian library, and a second in that 
of Exeter college, Oxford. These copies, as Dr. Dibdin observes, 
are the only ones known to be in England ; and, according to the 
same authority, France does not possess a single copy. Mr. Van 
Praet, however, mentions twelve copies upon paper, and one 
upon •vellwm, which morpeau he believes to be remaining with 
the representative of the Soncino family, now living at Milan. 

Sondershusa, Sondershausen, a town of Upper Saxony, chief 
place of the principality of Schwartzburg. Le Long cites a He- 
brew and Latin grammar by Christicmus Lebrecth Pels, (a con- 
verted Jew,) printed in this town in the year 1697 ; as also a 
German Bible printed in 1709. 

Sopronium, Soprony, or Oedenburg, an ancient, populous, and 
manufacturing town of Lower Hungary, on the frontiers of 
Austria. — 1627. 

Sora, Soroe, a small town of Denmark, in the isle of Zealand. 
Here was an ancient school, which Christian the Fourth erected 
into an university, in the year 1623. A second foundation by 
the Baron de Holberg in 1747 having failed in course of time, 
the university was placed on a new and enlarged footing by the 
king, in the year 1822. Printing was in use at Soroe in the year 
1627. George Hantschenius, printer to this university, was pro- 
moted to the post of typographer royal of Sweden, in the year 

SORA, or SORIA. There is considerable difficulty in assign- 
ing the place at which some few Hebrew books recently dis^ 
covered by De Rossi were printed. They bear for imprint, 
■^t^O^i^l' but bibliographers are not yet agreed in determining 
whether these letters denote Sora, a town in the kingdom of Na^ 
pies; Soria, a considerable city of Spain, in Old Castile; or 

268 SO. 

Ixar, a small town in the kingdom of Arragon, distant about 
twelve leagues from Saragossa. Four books are at present known 
bearing this imprint, the dates of which are from 1485 to 1490, 
the earliest of them being R. Jacobi ben Ascher SepJier Orach 
Chaiim. The printer names himself Eliezer ben Alanta. The 
types of all seem to be entirely similar, and from the general cha- 
racter and appearance of the volumes, De Rossi, whose experience 
must give the greatest weight to his opinion, judged them to be 
of Spanish or Portuguese, rather than of Italian, execution. 

BATIA SORETHANA, Schussenried, a famous monastery of 
Praemonstratenses, in the diocese of Constance, on the confines of 
Suabia and Switzerland, founded in the year 1188. 

A thin and exceedingly rare volume, containing a Latin Comedy, 
entitled Gracchus et Poliscena, by Leonardus Aretinus, has been 
found, bearing for imprint, In monasterio Sdrten. Anno Domini 
M. quadringentesimo septuagesimo octavo: which is the only 
notice we have of the art of printing having been carried on in 
this place. With the Comedy has been sometimes bound an 
edition of Terence, without date or imprint, but which agrees so 
entirely with the former as to leave no doubt of its having been 
executed at the same place. I do not know that any other 
volumes exist of a character perfectly similar, but Panzer assigns 
both of these (among several other works) to some unknown 
printer at Strasburg. Unfortunately I have not met with a sin- 
gle one of the other volumes named by Panzer, but I can clearly 
perceive the resemblance to the types used in the well-known Acta 
et decreta in Synodis Wurceburgensihus, ann. 1452 et 1453, as 
pointed out by him, although the setting-up and general appear- 
ance of the volumes are totally dissimilar. Copies of these rare 
books may be seen in the Bodleian library, and likewise in the 
collection of earl Spencer. 

Soteropolis, qu. St. Sauver, the name of three or four small 
towns of France ? A Discourse by Henricus Kitschius, who it ap- 
pears removed from Leipsic either to Ascania or to Dessau in 
Saxony, bears the imprint Soteropoli typis Dorfferianis, 1612. — 

Southward, a borough in Surrey, on the Thames, opposite to 
the metropolis, of which it may be considered as forming a part. 

Peter Treveris is the earliest printer whose press was established 

SP.— ST. 269 

in Southwark ; his first remaining book is of the year 1514, or 
perhaps 1516. Treveris' pubhcations are seldom met with. 
James Nicholson likewise began to print here about 1536, from 
whose press we have an English Bible, some New Testaments, 
with several other books executed during that and the two follow- 
ing years, a list of which may be seen in the typographical anti- 
quities of Herbert and Dibdin. 

Spa, a well-built town of the Netherlands, in the province of 
Liege, famous for its medicinal springs and baths. — 1789. 

SPIRA, Spire, an ancient city of the west of Germany, seated 
on the Rhine; formerly it was the capital of the bishopric of 
Spire ; but now belongs to Bavaria. At one of the sittings of the 
German Diet, holden at Spire in the year 1529, the reformers 
gained for themselves the name of Protestants, by a Protest which 
they entered against some proceedings of the emperor Charles Vth, 

The earliest known specimen of the typography of Spire is a 
Postilla Scholastica super Apocalypsin et Cantica Canticorum, 
executed here without any printer's name in 1471. The first 
printer mentioned is Peter Drach, but his name does not occur on 
any volume anterior to the year 1477. Drach continued his 
labours until the year 1502. 

Spoletum, Spoleto, an ancient city of Italy, in the pope's domi- 
nions, capital of the duchy of Spoleto : it is the see of a bishop. 
Printing was exercised at Spoleto at least so early as 1672: a 
History of the city, printed there in that year, having been in the 
Pinelli library. 

Stdbice, Castel a Mare di Stabia, a seaport town of Naples, 
near the ruins of Pompeii. — 1656. 

Stambul, (i. e. Constantinople,) see Constantinopolis. 

Stargardia, Stargard, an inland town of Pomerania, pleasantly 
seated on the river Ihna, about twenty-one miles to the S. E. of 
Stettin. The art of printing was exercised in this town at least so 
early as 1777. 

Statio, or Stada, Stade, an ancient and strong town of Han- 
over, capital of the duchy of Bremen. Caspar Holwein was a 
printer at Stade in the year 1661. — (TCD.) 

Steinavia, Steinau, a small town of Prussian Silesia, in the 
principality of Wolau. Wigandus Funccius, a printer at Lesna, 
removed his press to this town, where he executed the art for 
some short time preceding the year 1662. 

270 ST. 

Steinberg : there are three towns of this name : one of Lippe, 
in Westphalia; another of Colenburg, in Lower Saxony, near 
Minden ; and another of Erzgeburg, in Upper Saxony. Panzer 
does not mention the art of printing as having been exercised 
at any of them. That however one or other of these places 
practised the art at an early period is evident from two German 
tracts existing in the Bodleian collection of pieces relative to the 
Reformation ; one of which, entitled Eyn missive von M. Luther 
an Harttmut von Cronierg, professes to have been executed at 
Steinburck, in 1522 ; the other, Vom alten und neuwen GotgUm- 
benundleer,hB.sthe\m^tmt,Steinburg'kdurch Wolff Kcgfel. 1523. 
STEINENSE MONASTERIVM, appears to have been a 
religious establishment in the immediate vicinity of Gouda in 
Holland ; at which place, according to the statement of M. Box- 
hornius (p. 45), books were executed by the monks during the 
XVth century. 

Steinfurtum, or Stenefordium, Steinfurt, a small town of Prus- 
sian Westphaha, on the river Aa. — 1604. (TCD.) 

Stekelburg Arx, Steckelburg, a castle in Eranconia, the seat of 
an ancient family named Hutten, and birthplace of the well- 
known Ulric Hutten, the correspondent of Erasmus and warm 
advocate of Luther. 

On occasion of his cousin John having been murdered by Ulric 
duke of Wirtemburg, Hutten composed several pieces, in prose 
and verse, severely reproaching the tyrant with his cruelty. 
These, by reason of their contents, he caused to be printed under 
his own inspection, and within the walls of his own castle. Toge- 
ther they form a small volume, which, as it is of very rare occur- 
rence, I shall describe at length. 

The title-page expresses " Hoc in volumine haec continentur, 
" Ulrichi Hutteni Equ. super interfectione propinqui sui Joannis 
" Hutteni Equ. Deploratio. Ad Ludovichum Huttenum super 
" interemptione filii Consolatoria. In Ulrichum Wirtenpergen- 
" sem Orationes V. In eundem Dialogus, cui titulus Phalaris- 
" mus. Apologia pro Phalarismo, & aliquot ad amicos Epi- 
" stolae. Ad Franciscum GaJliarum regem epistola ne causam 
" Wirtenpergen. tueatur exhortatoria. 
" Ad lectorem. 
" Res est nova, res est atrox & horrenda, dispeream nisi legisse 
" voles. Vale." 

ST. 271 

The reverse of the leaf contains a metrical address to the 
reader. The " Deploratio," in verse, is prefaced by a letter to 
one of his relatives. The volume closes with another metrical ad- 
dress to the reader, and on a separate leaf is the following colo- 
phon : Hoc Ulrichi de Hutten Equit. Ger. Invectivarum cum 
aliis quibusdam in Tyrcmnum Wirtempergensem opus excusum 
in Arce Stekelbark, anno M.D.XIX. 

It is a small quarto, containing signatures A — Z. a — c. the 
paper and press-work good, with flowered initials and two large 
woodcuts. The types much resemble those used at Basle about 
this period. A copy is in the Bodleian library, and another in 
that of Trinity college, Dublin. 

Stella Navarrorum, Estella, a small town of Spain, in Navarre, 
on the river Ega, having an university. According to Antonio, 
printing was carried on here in 154)1. Le Long notices a work of 
the date 1557. 

■ Stendalia, Stendal, a considerable town of the Prussian states, 
formerly the capital of the Old Mark of Brandenburg. Printing 
was carried on here by Andreas Gussovius, in the year 1671. 

Stetinum, or Sedinum, Stettin, a large and fortified town of the 
Prussian states, seated on the river Oder, capital of part of Hither 

According to the Pinelli Catalogue, printing was exercised here 
so early as 1579 : and in Boeihmer's Historia litter aria Pome- 
ranorum, mention is made of Martin Miiller who was a printer 
at Stetin in the years 1599, 1600, &c. 

Stirling, or Striveling, a borough town of Scotland, capital of 
the county of Stirling, possessing a strong and ancient castle, 
and a royal palace. 

The art of printing was carried on in Stirling in the year 1571, 
by Robert Lekpreuik, who had hitherto printed at Edinburgh, 
and who appears in the following year to have removed his press 
to St. Andrew's: where however he remained but a very short 
time, since in the years 1573 and 1574, we again find him print- 
ing, as formerly, at Edinburgh. See Herbert's History of Printing 
in Scotland, p, 1495, &c. 

StocTcholmia, see Holmia. 

Stoer. Jacobus Stoer, a printer of Geneva during the latter 
part of the XVIth century and beginning of the XVIIth, fre- 
quently omitted the name of the town where he resided. 

272 ST. 

Stolpa Misnica, Stolpen, a small town of Saxony, in the mar- 
gravate of Meissen, 13 miles east of Dresden.— 1675. (Bodl.) 

Stralesunda, or Strcdesundium, Stralsund, a large and trading 
town of Hither Pomerania, on the Baltic ; formerly belonging to 
Sweden, but now to Prussia. 

The art of printing was exercised here in 1645, by Michael 
Mederus. — (Bodl.) 

Straubinga, Straubing, a considerable town of Bavaria, seated 
on the right bank of the Danube. — 1631. 

Strawberry-Hill, a country seat on the banks of the Thames, 
near Twickenham, the residence of the late Horace Walpole, who 
erected a private printing-press for his amusement, in the year 
1758. The productions of this press are numerous and well- 
known. A hst of them was given in the first edition of the De- 
scription of Strawberry-Hill, printed there in 1774 ; a second in 
a Catalogue of books, &c. •printed at the press of Strawberry- 
Hill, of which the late Mr. George Baker struck off a few copies ; 
and a more copious and detailed one in the Bibliomania of Dr. 
Dibdin. Most of the Strawberry-Hill publications are neatly 
executed, and among them are found some valuable and interest- 
ing works. The impression was often large, amounting to 600, 
and in one instance to 1000 copies ; other pieces again are in 
small numbers, and consequently very rare. 

Strega Silesiorum, Striegau, a small town of Prussian Silesia, 
within a short distance of Breslau. A book entitled, Variorum 
intra Italiam monumentorum inscriptiones, published by Ama- 
daeus de Benignis in 1715, bears this imprint. 

Strengnesia, Strengnes, or Strengnas, an ancient episcopal 
town of Sweden, in Sudermania, seated on the lake Malar. 

A press was introduced into this town in the year 1622, through 
the liberality of the king Gustavus Adolphus, by Laurentius 
Pauhnus, bishop of Strengnes, in order that his own works. On 
the Christian Ethics, might be printed with less expense and delay 
than at Stockholm. The first production of this press was his 
Loimoscopia, executed by Olaus Olai Enaeus, a printer brought 
from Stockholm, in the year 1623. Another work of this bishop, 
viz. Historian arctboe libri tres, may be seen in the Bodleian and 
Fagel libraries, bearing for imprint, Strengnesii, typis et impensis 
auihoris, excudebat Johannes L. BarJcenius. anno 1636. It is a 
quarto volume, of which both paper and press- work are very in- 

ST. — SU. ^73 

different. Paulus subsequently becoming archbishop of Upsal, 
carried thither his printing-establishment; but after a conti- 
nuance there of two years, it was re-conveyed to its old 

Stutgardia, Stutgard, a strong and populous city in the south- 
west of Germany, capital of the kingdom of AVirtemburg : its 
royal library is famous for an unique collection of Bibles, in all 
known languages, both ancient and modern. 

Printing was introduced into Stutgard previously to the year 
1522 : but Panzer knew only three books executed there, which 
are of the years 1522, 1524, 1525. 
Subdinnum, see Vindinum. 

SVBLACENSE MONASTERIVM, a celebrated independ- 
ant monastery of considerable power and property, about two 
miles distant from Subiaco, a small town of Italy, in the Cam- 
pagna di Roma. This monastery, inhabited by about twenty 
monks, is seated on the summit of steep and almost inaccessible 

It is memorable in the annals of literature, as being the cradle 
of the art of printing on its arrival from Germany in Italy. Con- 
rad Sweynheym and Arnold Pannartz, of whom mention has been 
before made under the article Rome, established their printing- 
press here, and commenced their splendid typographical career 
by working off three hundred copies of a small school-book, which 
they named Donatus pro puerulis, of which it is supposed that 
not a single fragment has survived to our days. Their next 
work was of a more extensive nature, being an edition of Lac- 
tantius in folio, which bears for imprint, In venerabili monasterio 
Sublacensi, with the date 1465. A second book of still greater 
magnitude, executed with the same types, namely Augustinus de 
Civitate Dei, mac^e its appearance in the year 1467 : and a Cicero 
de Oratore, without date, but printed in the same type, in either 
1465, 1466, or 1467. These publications seem to have termi- 
nated the typographical labours of Sweynheym and Pannartz at 
Subiaco : since we know that in the year 1467 they accepted an 
invitation to repair to Rome, and having established themselves in 
the house of the family of De Maadmis, published the Epistolae 
ad Familiares of Cicero, as their first specimen, in that same year. 
Of the three Subiaco books now remaining, the Lactantius and 
Augustinus may be seen in the Bodleian and some other libraries : 


274 SU. 

the Cicero is contained in the British Museum, and in the collec- 
tion of earl Spencer. 

Sudercopia, Siiderkoping, a town of Sweden, in East Gothland. 
Printing was carried on here so early as 1511 ; in which year a 
work entitled, Literce confraternitatis Hospitalis Sancti Spirit^s, 
extra oppid/um Sudercopense, was executed : [and, according to 
Alnander's statement, reprinted here in 1516.] The only other 
early Siiderkoping book known to Panzer is Mannale ecclesice 
Lincopensis, of the year 1525 ; a copy of which, supposed to be 
unique, is preserved in the university library of Upsal. On ac- 
count of some oiFensive writings of Jo. Braschius, bishop of Lin- 
koping, the press was suppressed by Gustavus Adolphus, about 
the year 1528: when the bishop was compelled to fly the 
country, and the printing materials, as Alnander thinks, were 
transferred to Malmoe. 

Suermum, Schwerin, a considerable town of the north of Ger- 
many, capital of the grand duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. — '■ 

Suessa, Sessa, or Sezza, an ancient episcopal town in the north- 
west part of the kingdom of Naples. 

SuVy, a small town of central France, on the river Loire. 

At the Chateau de Sully a printing-press was erected about the 
year 1630, from which proceeded an edition of the (Economies 
roi/dles, in 2 vols, folio. 

Sulzbacum, see Solisbacum. 

Suobacum, (qu. Schwabach, a town of Bavarian Franconia, 
in the principality of Anspach ?) — 1689. 

Suolla, see Zwolla. 

SvprasUum, or Suprassuim, Supraslj a wealthy monastery 
Gr/Ecorum unitorum, in Russian Lithuania, situated between 
Grodno and Novogrodek. ' 

A press was established here in the beginning of the XVIIIth 
century, from which many books have been issued. 

Snfat, an ancient and populous city of Goojurat, (or Guzzerat) 
in Hindostan. 

The Baptist Missionaries visited this city in the year 1812 : 
and in 1815, the London Missionary Society formed a station 
here, the members of which erected a printing-press, and before 
the close of the year 1821 had printed the New Testament, and 
were advancing with the Old, the expences of which publications 

SU.— SY. 275 

were partly borne by the British and Bombay Bible Societies. 
In 1826 the printing-office was put upon an imprpved footing, and 
new types were cast, of a character larger, more distinct, and far 
more acceptable to the natives, for whose use the publications were 

Susatvm, Soest, a large town of Prussian Westphglia, in the 
government of Arensberg; formerly a Hanse town. — 1721. 

Suvidnia, Schweidnitz, a fortified town of Prussian Silesia, 
capital of a principality. 

Typography was in use here in 1683 ; in which yeiar a piece 
entitled " Prodigium perfidiae et ignavias civitatis Strasburgensis, 
" kCF.k K." was executed, in folio. 

SwinfurUim ad Mcenum, or Schuvi^furtvm, Schweinfurdt, a 
considerable fortified town of Bavarian Franconia, sesited on the 

Some works of Georgiiis Agricola and /. Sdhroderus, exequted 
here in the years 1605, 1606, and 1607, are in the Bodleian, and 
in the library of Trinity college, Dublin. 

Sydney, a flourishing settlement, originally founded by the 
British, under governor PhilHp, in the early part of the year 1788, 
at the southern side of the harbour of Port Jackson on the eastern 
coast of New South Wales ; it has since become the seat of govern- 
ment. In O'Hwrds History iof New South Wales (8°. 1817,) it 
is observed, " The month of November this year (1795) was 
*' marked by the introduction into New South-Wales of a print- 
" ing-press. It was at first employed merely for the convenience 
" of government, in the printing of public acts and documents; 
" but the time could not be far off when books, the pride of man- 
" kind in every age, would be its object." T^lcie author does not 
mention any books printed, nor name the particular spot on which 
the press was erected. At p. 243, he adds, " On the 5th of 
" March 1803, was instituted at Sydney, by authority, a news- 
" paper entitled. The Sydney Gazette, or New South-Wales Ad- 
" vertiser."" Two others also are at present in regular course of 
publication at the same place, together with five other periodical 
works. A second press has been estabhshed, at Port Jackson. 

SyJ/va duels, or Sylva d/ucalis, see Buscum ducis. 

Syracuse, a large ancient city of Sicily, formerly of great mag- 
nificence and fame. The modem town ocqupie^ a portion of the 


276 SZ.— TA. 

ancient site, and contains about fifteen thousand inhabitants. It 
is the see of an archbishop. 

A Dictionary of Sicilian Antiquities, by Capodicei, was printed 
at Syracuse in the year 1820. 

Szamotulium, called by the Germans Sambor, a town of Aus- 
trian Poland, distant eight miles from Posnan. Here was erected 
the first printing-establishment in Great Poland, under the super- 
intendance of the Unitas Fratrum, about the year 1558. Alex- 
ander Aviczdecki was a printer here in 1559. The establishment, 
however, did not continue long. 

Szigetvar, or Nagy Sigeth, a small town of the west of Hun- 
gary, formerly of some importance in the Turkish wars. Dr. 
Bright, in his Travels, makes honourable mention of this town 
" as having been instrumental in the diffusion of Christian know- 
" ledge throughout Hungary ; for it was here that, in 1541, a 
" translation of the New Testament was printed at the expense of 

Thomas Nadaschdy." p. 573. 

Szombar, see Nagy-Szomhar. 


Taherna, Saverne, or Zabern, a large trading town of the 
north-east of France, in Alsace. — 1792. 

Tacacum, or Tacaxuctium, Takagus, a town of Japan, situate 
in the island of Niphon, which was one of the settlements occu- 
pied by the Jesuit missionaries in the XVIth century. 

In the Bodleian librarv Cmarked 8°. Z. 21. Th. Seld.) is a small 
volume, in Roman type, but Japanese language, and on silk 
paper, which was printed here by the Jesuits of the college of 
Cazzusa, a settlement three miles distant from the town of Arima. 
This work is in two parts, and appears to contain lives of the 
apostles and of some saints, having at the end a short Japanese 
and Portuguese Vocabulary; the whole comprising about 700 
pages. On the title-page of each part is a tolerably-executed en- 
graving from a copper-plate, and both parts bear the date of 1591. 
Not professing myself to be intimately acquainted with the nice- 
ties of the Japanese tongue, I here submit to the reader fiie en- 
tire title-page and imprint of one part, literatim : " Sanctos nogo- 
" sagueono uchinnuqigaqi quan dai ichi. Fii en no cuni Taca- 
" cunogun lesus no companhia no Collegio Cazzuza ni voite 
" Superiores no von yuruxi no c6 muri core uo fanto nasu mono 

TA. 277 

" nari. Goxxuxxe irai. 1591." which amiable mor9eau is com- 
mended to his best attention. Need I add a syllable on the de- 
gree of rarity of this curious volume, of which this copy, for- 
merly belonging to the learned Selden, may perhaps be unique in 
Europe ? 

Toga, (perhaps Tacha, Tachau, a small town of Bohemia, in 
the circle of Pilsen ?)_1696. 

Tahiti, or Otaheite, one of the Society islands, situate in the 
South Pacific Ocean. 

Some missionaries, who were first despatched hither by the Lon- 
don Missionary Society in 1796', for several years encountered 
considerable difficulties, and at length in consequence of political 
disturbances were obliged to quit the island altogether. They re- 
turned however, at the earnest request of the king of Otaheite, in 
May or June 1811, since which period their aflairs have proceed- 
ed more prosperously. Having possessed themselves of a printing- 
establishment a few years ago, they have directed their exertions 
to the publication of several portions of the New Testament trans- 
lated into the Tahitan language, from 1818 to the present time. 
These books bear for imprint, Tahiti ; printed at the Windward 
Mission press. Some specimens of the Otaheitan language are 
^ven by Mr. Home, in the second volume of his valuable Intro- 
duction, to the Scriptures. 

Tallirmas, see Revalia. 

Tamanarivou, the chief town or village of the island of Mada- 
gascar, in the Indian ocean, and the residence of Radama its 

Some English missionaries having settled here a few years ago, 
have under the king's sanction proceeded to found schools, and 
have carried over a printing-press with its materials, for the pur- 
pose of publishing a Madagasse translation of the Scriptures. I 
believe that the press arrived during the year 1825. 

Tanjore, a strong fortress and town of the South of India, in 
the province of the Camatic, capital of the district of Tanjore. 
It is subject to the British government, but is still the residence 
of a Rajah. 

We perceive, in the articles Frogmore and Versailles, that Eu- 
ropean sovereigns have often condescended to amuse themselves 
by the erection of printing-presses within their palaces, and even 
at times to take a personal share in its operations. 

T 3 

278 TA. 

This town furnishes an instance, which might much lesS have 
been expected, that of an English press being placed and worked 
within the residence of a Mahratta chief. It is the enlightened 
Rajah of Tanjore, Maha Sarabojee, who has thus acknowledged 
the utility of this powerful engine : Robinson, in his Last days of 
bishop Heber, p. 166. describing a private visit paid to the Rajah 
by the bishop in March 1826, mentions with approbation his li- 
brary, philosophical instruments, collections of coins, paintings, 
and natural history, fine breed of horses, &c. and adds, " but that 
" of which he is most justly proud, as the rarest curiosity of an 
" Indian court, is an English printing-press, worked by native 
" Christians, in which they struck off a sentence in Mahratta in 
" the bishop's presence, in honour of his visit." 

''A printing-press, with materials, was sent to this place by the 
British and Foreign Bible-Society in 1810. 

TARACO, Tarragona, an archiepiscopal city of the north-east 
of Spain, in Catalonia, of great antiquity and considerable 
strength, with an university. 

We learn from Mendez that typography was exercised at Tar- 
ragona before the close of the XVth century : in proof of which 
assertion he cites a Missdle secund/um usum Tarraconensis ecck' 
sice Hispaniarum metropoleos, in folio, executed here by Johannes 
Rosembach in the year 1499. Rosembach was a printer of Barce- 
lona, whom the archbishop sent for to Tarragona, probably for 
the express purpose of printing the above Missal, a practice far 
from uncommon at this period. Mendez informs us that a copy 
of this rare volume, printed upon vellum, exists in the archives of 
the chapter of Tarragona. 

With the exertion of tbe above named work, I have met with 
nothirrg of Tarragona execution earlier than two publications of 
Antonitis AuguStinUs, archbishop of that city, which were exe- 
cuted by Philipptis Meye,'in the yearsl579, and 1587. (Bodleian.) 
* TARRAZONA, TIRAS90, or TVRIASQ, Tarazona, an 
ancieM episcopal city of the north-east of Spain, in the province 
of Aragon. 

A single work, entitled, Historia del Conde Pa/rteno^les, in the 
ancient dialect of Catalonia, said to have been printed at Tara- 
zona in 1488, is given by Panzer upon the authority of Aritonio's 
Bibliotheca Hispana Nova, (vol. ii. p. 338.) ; but no other book 
is known, nor is printing here at any subsequent period mentioned 

TA. 879 

by other bibliQgrq,phers. The rich stores of the Bodleian library, 
and of that of Trinity college, Dublin, however, set this question 
at rest, by presenting us with a folio volume containipg a coin- 
mentary on the fourth book of the Sentences of Jp. Duns §cotus, 
written by John Yribarne a Minorite friar, which was executed in 
this town, and bears for imprint Tirassone, apud Didacum de la 
tOrre, 1615. It has been observed above, (p. 204) that this printer 
was engaged at Origuela in the year 1601, &c. in the special em- 
ployment of the bishop, from whose service he may perliaps have 
transferred himself and his printing-press to Tarrazona, Mem. that 
it is the second volume only of Yribarne which was printed at 
Tarrazona ; the first having been issued at Saragossa in the pre- 
ceding year. 

Tarstu, see Tergeste. 

TARVISIVM, Treviso, a fortified city of Austrian Italy, ca- 
pital of a district or department, and a bishop's see. 

Printing was exercised first in this city by Girardus de Lisa, 
who in the year 1471 executed a treatise of St. Austin, entitled, 
lAber de Salute, also the first editions of Mercurius Trismegisfus, 
and of Aretine's Latin version of the Epistles qfPhalaris. Ten 
or eleven printers followed him before the close of the XV th cen- 
tury, and numerous editions of the best Latin and Italian classics 
proceeded from the presses of Treyisjo. 

Tavistock, a borough in Devonshire in Englajgd: in which 
stood formerly a celebrated monastery of Benedictines, whose 
abbot was a lord of parliament, and his house exempted from all 
jurisdiction except that of the pope. 

A school for the study and preservation of the Saxon language 
was established here, and in the early part of the XVIth century 
the monks possessed a printing-press. Only two specimens of 
their typography have survived to the present day ; of which one 
is an English metrical translation of Boethius de Consajatione 
pMhsopMce, made by Thomas Waltwnem, by desire of the lady 
Elizabeth Berkeley : it bears for colophon, Enprented in the ex- 
empt monastery ofTavestoTc in Denshyre. By me Dan Thomas 
Rychard, monJce of the sayd monastery. To the instant desyre 
of the ryght worshypful esquyer Mayster Robert Langdon. anno 
d. MDXXV. Two copies of this work, but neither of them per- 
fect, are in the Bodleian library : and a perfect one is in that of 
Exeter college. See Herbert's Afnes, p. 1439. 

T 4 

280 TA. 

Rare as is this work, its rarity is infinitely surpassed by that of 
the second book which remains from the Tavistock press, and 
of which the following more detailed description is ^ven from 
a personal inspection of the only copy believed to be now exist* 
ing, which is preserved with the utmost care in the library of 
Exeter college, Oxford. 

Beneath a wood-cut, of the king's arms supported by angels, is 
the following title : " Here foloyth the confirmation of the Charter 
" perteynynge to all the tynners wythyn the coutey of devon- 
" shyre. wyth there statutes also made at crockeryntorre by the 
" hole asset and cosent of al the sayd tynners. yn the yere of 
" the reygne of our soverayne Lord Kynge Henry y^ viii. the 
" secud yere." Beneath is a vignette cut in wood- On the re- 
verse begins the Confirmation. On signature a, iiii. " Pro qua^ 
" tuor marcis solut. in hanaperio. Devon Magna Curia domini 
" Regis Ducatus sui Cornubie tenta apud Crokerentorre in Comit. 
" Devon coram Thoma Deneys Armigero, Locum tenente Hen- 
" rici Merney Militis Custod. Stannarie domini Regis in Comi7 
" tat. Devonie Vicesimo Quarto die Mensis Septembris. Anno 
" regni Regis Henrici Octavi Secundo. — Nomina Juratorum. 
" xxiiii. Jur. Cure stannareDe Chaggeford. — De Aysberton — De 
" Plymton. — De Tavystoke, &c. Qui electi, jurati et triati ex 
" assensu et cosensu omniu stannator. Com. pdicti, enactant or- 
" dinant et statuunt q ; omnia statuta stannarie ante hec tepora 
" ibidem facta sint vacua cassa et nuUius afl^ctus preter ea que in 
" ista curia affirmatur et de novo fiet ut postea patet." On the 
reverse of signature b, v. the royal arms are repeated; under 
which, " Magna curia, &c. tenta apud Crokeretorre, &c. anno 
" regni Regis Henrici Octavi xxiiii." Below is the vignette as in 
the title-page. " Nomina juratorum," &c. as before. On the re- 
verse signature c, iv. the same royal arms and vignette, " Ma- 
" gna curia, &c. Sec. anno Regni Regis Herici viii. vicesimo quito. 
" Nomina juratorum, &c." On the reverse of signature d, iii. 
" Here endyth the statutes of the stannary, Imprented yn Ta- 
" vystoke y^ xx. day of August the yere of the reygne off our 
" soveryne Lord Kynge Henry y« viii. the xxvi. yere." The 
two vignettes as before, between which is, " God ssave the Kyng." 
Then follows a leaf, having on the recto a wood-cut of the cruci- 
fixion of St. Andrew, and on the reverse one representing the 
Almighty seated, within a diamond contained in a square, the 

TA. 281 

angles being filled by the symbols of the four evangelists. This 
second print is the same with that which appears on the title of 
the Boethius printed at Tavistock. The volume is a small quarto 
consisting of twenty-six leaves ; viz. signature a, six ; b, and c, 
eight ; and d, four. A full page contains generally thirty lines, 
sometimes thirty-one. The type appears to be that of the Boethius, 
but is not so sharp nor clear : the flowered initials of the Boethius 
are not used in this book. It only remains to say, that the Ex- 
eter copy is quite perfect, and that all the leaves still retain their 
rough and unequal edges. 

populous, beautiful, and ancient city in the north of Italy, in 
Piedmont, the capital and seat of the Sardinian monarchy, and 
an archbishop's see. It has a celebrated university, founded by 
pope Benedict the thirteenth, in 1406. 

Typography appears to have been first brought to Turin by a 
French printer named Johannes Fabri, who in company with 
Johanninus de Petro, opened his career with a Breviarium Ro- 
manum in the year 1474 ; which, with several other works, was 
printed under the auspices and direction of his patron Magister 
Panthaleon de Confluentia. M. Van Praet notices two copies of 
this rare book printed upon vellum ; one of which is in the royal 
library at Turin, and the other in that of S. G^nevi^ve at Paris. 
In 1475, Fabri was sent to Casselle, six miles distant from Tu- 
rin, in order to print St. Jerome's Lives of the Fathers there ; 
but after a few years he returned to Turin. Santander observes 
that the art made no very great progress in this city during the 
XVth century. 

Taurum, Toro, an ancient city of the north-west of Spain, in 
the province of Leon ; it was formerly a bishop's see. 

Antonio notices printing here in the year 1630: but I am 
strongly of opinion that I have seen a Spanish tract executed at 
Toro so early as 1505. 

Tayabas, appears to be the name of some town in the Philip- 
pine islands. 

In the year 1703 a Vocabulario de la lerigua Tagala, com- 
posed by a monk called Domingo de los Santos, was executed, 
bearing for imprint, " Tayabas (Filippinas) 1703." A copy of 
this work appears in the " Bibliotheca Marsdeniana." 

Teate, Chieti, a large towri of Naples, in Abruzzo citra, the see 

282 TE. 

of an archbishop, and memorable for an order of reli^ous 
(founded by Jo. Peter CarafiFa, archbishop of Chieti,) who from 
hence took the name of Theatines. 

The only specimen of the typography of this place, which I 
have either seen or heard of, is the treatise of Mutius Pansa, en- 
titled, De osculo efhnicoE et Ckristiance philosopMcE, in 4to, which 
bears for imprint Teate, apud Isidorum Facium, 1601. A copy 
of this tract is in Marsh's library, Dublin. 

Tehriz, or Tauris, a large city of Persia, by some supposed to 
stand on the site of the ancient Ecbatana. Formerly it was a place 
of great splendor, but in latter times has been much reduced 
both in beauty and population, by wars and repeated earth- 

The European art of printing has found its way to Tebriz, 

In the year 1822 a young Persian named Mirza DjafFar esta7 
blished a press here, at which he executed a neat edition of the 
Gulistan qfSaady. 

Tegernseense Monasterium, Tegernse, a famous abbey of Be- 
nedictines, founded in the Vlllth century, seated at the edge of a 
lake in the diocese of Freysingen, in Bavaria. The Chronicon 
Gotwicense, a large and handsome folio volume, was printed at 
this monastery in the year 1732. 

Teh Marti'us, Toulon, a fortified city and seaport in the 
south-east of France, in Provence, formerly a bishop's see. Hen- 
ricy informs us that printing was first exercised in Toulon in the 
year 1704. 

Tergeste, Trieste, an ancient and thriving seaport-town of the 
Austrian dominions, in the district of lUyria. It is a bishop's see, 
and contains several public institutions. 

Printing was in use at Trieste in the year 1629 ; and I may 
mention, that some years ago an Armenian press was erected here, 
at. which an Armenian 1 version of Dr. Robertson! s History of 

1 A brief account of the Armenian Press drawn up by an Armenian gentleman, 
for the Calcutta Journal (Asiatic Register, October, 1822.) 

In the year 1567 the use of the press began first among the Armenians. It has 
been established in many cities ; but in most cases, after continuing in operation a 
short time, it has, owing to some cause or other, been abolished. It is permanently 
established in Constantinople and Venice : and at present there are printing-offices 
in Paris, Vienna, and St., Petersburg, which are all in constant employment. In 
India the exercise of the Armenian press began first at Madras. A printing office 
was established at Calcutta, in 1819 one at Bombay. 

TE.— TH. 

America was printed, in two octavo volumes ; which translation 
may be seen in the Bodleian library. In an ITlyriam, grammwr, 
of the year 1812, Trieste is called Tarstu. 

Tergovista, or Tirgowischt, an ancient town of European 
Turkey, in Wallachia, formerly the residence of the Waiwodes. 
A book containing The Office of St. Catherine, together with 
other prayers in Greek, which was printed in this town in the 
year 1710, may be seen in the Bodleian library. 

Tertona, see Dertona. 

Testaria, or Wetzlaria, or Wetzflarium, Wetzlar, a town of 
Germany in Wetteravia. It is seated on the river Lahn, twenty- 
five miles to the north of Frankfort. 

Printing certainly was carried on at Wetzlar in 1711 : but in 
the Bodleian library is a book by G.Loridiius Hadama/rius, 
dated Wetzflarii, 1541 ; but this date is expressed in such a way 
that I cannot determine whether it denotes the place of printmg 
or o{ writinff the work. 

Teutoiurgum, see Dmshwrgum; — ^it is also the name of a 
town in Westphalia. 

THESSALONICA, Salonichi, (the ancient Thessalonica,) a 
large and handsome city of European Turkey, containing about 
70,000 inhabitants; the capital of Macedonia, and see of a 
Roman Cathohc and also of a Greek archbishop. 

It being known that a Hebrew press was early established in 
this city, some books were adduced by bibliographers, supposed 
to have been printed here in 1479, or even earlier ■; but De Sossi 
has -shewn that there is no sufficient evidence of any Sdanochi 
book remaining of the XVth century, and in fact the first work 
which is known to have a certain date is an edition of the Psalms, 
Proverbs &c. of the year 1515. The chief typographers appear 
to have been Jehuda ben Ghedaliae and his family. This press 
continued its labours during upwards of a century at least. 

Thiela, Tila, or Tillum, Thiel, a small town of the Nether- 
lands, the capital of a district, in 1;he province of Guelderland. 

The art df printing was exercised a;t Thiel in the year 1658; 
and Frederic Jansz was a printer of Dutch 'books here in 1688. 

At Venice, aD Armenian press is worked within an Armenian convent situated on 
one of the isles of the Lagunes, where a newspaper or gazette in that language is 
regularly published (1820.) 

284 TH.— TI. 

Thiengen, a small town of Germany in Baden, distant eighteen 
miles from Schaffhausen. Wolfius announces that the Jews car- 
ried on printing here, but gives no account of their publications. 
It appears however from the Oppenheimer library, that their 
press was at work about the middle of the XVIth century ; two 
books of the date 1560 and one of 1566 being now preserved in 
that rich collection. 

Thierrium, or Tigernum, Thiers, a populous commercial town 
of the centre of France, in Auvergne. 

THOLOSA, or TOLOSA PALLADIA, or Tolosa Tecto- 
sagum, Toulouse, an ancient, elegant, and extensive city of the 
South of France, seated on the Garonne : formerly the capital of 
Languedoc. It is an archbishop's see, and possesses an university, 
which was founded in the year 1229, from money accruing by a 
fine imposed by Louis the Ninth of France, upon his vanquished 
enemy Raymond count of Toulouse. It is likewise to be re- 
membered, that in this city the Dominican friars erected the first 
tribunal of the tremendous and execrable Inquisition, during the 
early part of the Xlllth century. 

With respect to the introduction of the art of printing into 
Toulouse there appears to be some little uncertainty, arising from 
the confusion caused by the similarity of name between this city 
and Tolosa in Spain. Under this latter town Panzer cites a law- 
tract written by Jason de Mayno, executed by Joannes Teuto- 
nicus, and bearing for imprint, Finit Tholose A. C. 1479. He 
adds a hint, that perhaps it is a Toulouse book ; and I am in- 
duced to adhere to this opinion of his, not only in the case of the 
book in question, but in that of some others also among those 
which are enumerated in his list. 

Thorunium, see Tonmium. 

Ticinum, see Papia. 

Tifernum, or T'vphernum, is either Citta di Castello, a city of 
Italy, in the duchy of Urbino : or, St. Angelo in Vado, distant 
twenty miles from the former. — 1539. 

Tifiis, or Teflis, a large and flourishing city, the capital of 
Asiatic Georgia, situate on the right bank of the river Kier, mid- 
way between the Euxine and Caspian seas. It is supposed to 
contain from 18,000 to 20,000 inhabitants, of various nations. 

A Psalter, with some other portions of Holy Scripture, in the 
Georgian language, was printed here, by Michael Istphanowitz, 

TI.— TO. 285 

in 1711. At present there are said to be two printing-offices in 
Tiflis, one of which is confined to books of devotion which are 
executed in a pecuhar character, the other strikes off works of a 
miscellaneous nature, in the Russian and Georgian languages. 

Tigurv/m, Tigurinus Pagits, Turigum,, or Turicvm, Zurich, 
a large, ancient, and strongly-fortified city of Switzerland, capital 
of the canton of Zurich. It is a place of trade and manufactures, 
and few towns have surpassed this in its cultivation of literature 
and science. 

At what time it first adopted typography, I have not learnt : 
the earliest book noticed by Panzer bears date 1523 : but in the 
Bodleian collection of German tracts on the Reformation, one of 
Luther's, printed at Zurich, is dated 1521. Panzer enumerates 
about eighty Zurich publications between 1523 and 1536, almost 
all of which are on reli^ous subjects, and written chiefly by the 
reformers Ubich Zuinglius, Peliican, and BuUinger. Christopher 
Froschover was the printer of most eminence and business. 

About the period of the Reformation in this country, some curi- 
ous English works were printed at Zurich, and it has even been 
conjectured that the first edition of the English Bible, in folio, 
1535, was executed here. 

Tiktin, quaere what town-P A Hebrew work, entitled Rosh 
Joseph, printed here in 1717, occurs in the library of the London 
Society for the propagation of Christianity among the Jews. 

Tirasso, see Ta/rrazona. 

Tlascala, a city of New Spain, capital of a province of the 
same name; it was the see of a bishop from the year 1527 to 
1550, when the see was transferred to Puebla de los Angeles. 

It appears from the Biblioilteca Mexicana that printing was 
carried on here in the middle of the XVIIth century : a work of 
Andreas Ferrer de Valdecebro, entitled, Americce discrimina et 
catholiccB Religionis cerumncE, was printed at Tlascala in 1650; 
and three or four others, from that year to 1657, are cited in the 
same work. 

Todi, a small city of Italy in the states of the Church, seated 
on the river Tiber ; it is a bishop's see. 

Printing was exercised here at the middle of the XVIIth cen- 
tury, as appears from a work entitled " La Settimana Istorica, 
" dal P. F. Pietro Castrucci. 4°- In Todi, per Agostino Faos- 
« tini. 1655." 

286 TO. 

TOLETVM, Toledo, an ancient and renowned city of Spain, 
in New Castile ; which has successively been the seat of govern- 
ment under the Goths, the Moors, and the kings of Castile ; it is 
the see of an archbishop, and possesses a famed university, which 
was founded in 1475. 

Printing appears to have commenced here with a work of 
Petrus Ximenes de Prexamo, upon the ChurcKs power of the 
Jceys, executed by Johannes Vasqui, or Vasquez, in the year 1486. 
A copy of this folio volume is said to be remaining in the convent 
of San Pablo in Valladolid. Vasquez was succeeded by Juan 
Tellez in 1495, and by Peter Hagembach, a German, in 1498. In 
1500 Peter Hagembach executed here, under the command of car- 
dinal Ximenes, at that time archbishop of Toledo, the celebrated 
volume pf the Mixt or Mozarabic Missal, a book, on the extreme 
rarity and beauty of which bibliographers have long loved to 
dwell, and the result of whose observations is well and fully com- 
municated by Dr. Dibdln in volume i. of the Bibliotheca Spence- 
riana ; where a long and animated description is given, both of 
this volume and of the Mozarabic Breviary, printed at the same 
place in 1502. Copies of each of these extremely curious books 
are in the richly- furnished library of earl Spencer; and the Mis- 
sal is also to be seen in that of Emanuel college, Cambridge. 

We learn from M. Van Praet, that of the Missal three copies 
printed on vellum are known ; one of which is in the college of 
San Ildefonso of Alcala, a second in the Vatican, and the third in 
the Corslni palace at Kome. Of the Breviary it is commonly re- 
ported that only thirty-five copies were printed, and no more than 
a single one on vellum has been discovered : this precious relic 
reposes in the college of San Ildefonso at Toledo. 

Among the few books printed in this city during the earlier 
part of the XVIth century occurs a Spanish version of the Deca- 
merone of Boccaccio. 

Tolosa Palladia, see Tholosa. 

TOLOSA, Tolosa, a town of Spain, in Biscay, the capital of 
Gulpuscoa. Printing appears to have been first exercised here 
about the year 1488 or 1489, by Henry Meyer, a German, and 
(perhaps) Juan Paris and Estevan Clablat. Panzer, in his ac- 
count of the typography of Tolosa, seems to have given to this 
city several works which in all probability are due to Toulouse in 
France: and Mendez confesses that there is great difficulty in 

TO. 287 

distinguishiiig these towns, from the circumstance of the colophons 
of many books presenting only the words Tolosve, en Tdosa^ or 
en la noble cibdad de Tholosa. There is however no doubt 
(according to Mendez) that Tolosa in Guipuscoa was possessed 
of a printing-establishment before the close of the XVth cen- 

The following article appears in the catalogue of Messrs i Payne 
and Foss for the year 1824. 

1626 ESOPO. — Aqui se acaba el libro del Esopete ystoriado : 
aplicadas las fabulas en fin junto con el principio a morali- 
dadad, &c. con las Fabulas de Remigio: de Aviatio: Al- 
fonso, &c. con otras extravagantes, sacado de Latin en Ro- 
mance, a booh of the very greatest rarity, not mentioned by 
any Bibliographer, fiae copy with woodcuts, fol. Tholosa, 
Tongerloa, Tongerloo, an abbey situated in a smdl town of the 
same name, in the Netherlands, not far from Antwerp. In this ab- 
bey the fifty-third volume of the Acta Sanctorwm, compiled by Bol- 
landus and his successors, was printed in the year 1794. During 
the period of confusion caused by the extravagancies of the French 
revolutionists, when the monks were compelled to quit their an- 
cient dwellings, and seek for refuge and protection wherever they 
Ertight be found ; Godefridus Hermannus, the abbot of Tongerloo, 
kindly received the editors of this laborious work, and not only 
lodged them in his abbey, but also supplied them with a printing- 
press, and with such books as were necessary for their ipurpose. 
Thus assisted, they proceeded to print this fifty-third volume, but 
"were unable to carry thrpiigh the press more than two hundred 
and ninety-six pages of it at Tongerloo, the rest is supposed to 
have been executed at Rome. Copies of it are very rare, as in all 
probability a great portion of the impression was destroyed in the 
troubles and confusion of the time. It may be seen however in 
the Bodleian library, in that of Trinity college, Dublin, and in 
the excellent private collection of the present bishop of Limerick. 
It consists of six hundred and thirty-^two 'pages, exclusive of index 
and prefatory matter, and comprises the history of the sdnts of 
the 12th, ISth, and 14th days of October, being the sixth volume 
of the Acta for that month. 

Toquinum, qu. Tokis, or TokoSsi, a town of the island NiphoH, 
in Japan.? A book etA\i\&di Cmtemptus Mtmdi, in the language 

288 TO— TR. 

of Japan, was printed here by the Jesuits in 1596. 8". a copy of 
it is in the Bodleian library. 

Tm-ga, or Torgavia, Torgau, a fortified town of Prussian 
Saxony, in the government of Merseburg, seated on the 

The earliest notice of printing exercised at Torgau appears in 
an edition of iMther's Sei-mons (in Latin) bearing for imprint 
TorgcB, 1597, a copy of which, on vellum, is affirmed by M. Van 
Praet to be in the library of Gotha. 

Tornacum Nerviorum, Tournay, a large manufacturing town 
of the Netherlands, seated on the Scheld, near to the frontiers of 
French Flanders. It is a place of great antiquity, and a bishop's 

Printing was carried on here in 1557. A curious English 
book was printed at Tournay in 1623, 12°. entitled. The image 
of hothe Churches, Hierusalem and Babel, unitie and confusion, 
obedienc and sedition, hy P. D. M. (i. e. Matthew Patison) ; for 
some account of which consult WooSs Athena Oxonienses, and 
the Censura literaria, vol. vi. p. 245. 

Tornesius, was a printer at Lyons in the latter part of the 
XVIth century, who was much accustomed to omit the name of 
the town in which he lived, giving for imprint merely the words 
apud Tornesium ; as may be frequently seen in books of the year 
1588, &c. &c. 

Torunium, Thorn, a considerable town of West Prussia, plea- 
santly situated on the river Vistula ; it has a protestant academy, 
and is memorable as the birthplace of Copernicus. 

A printing-press was set up at Thorn by the Protestants soon ' 
after the year 1568; which, atnidst the troubles and tumults of 
the memorable year 1724, the Jesuits contrived to get subjected 
to their own power and controul. The earliest Thorn publication 
which I have seen is of the year 1581 : in 1585 a Polish New 
Testament was printed here by Melchior Nering, a copy of which 
is in the Bodleian library. — 1581. (Bodl.) 

Tourgoing, a considerable town of French Flanders, distant six 
mUes from Lille. — 1753. 

Trajectum ad Mosam, or Trajectum superius, Maestricht, an 
ancient, large, and strongly fortified city of the Netherlands, 
seated on the river Maese. — 1685. 

Trajectum ad Viadrum, see Francqfurtum, 

TR. 289 

RIVS, or VLTRAJECTVM, Utrecht, a populous and cele- 
brated town of the Dutch Netherlands, the capital of a province 
of the same name. It possesses an university, founded in 1630 
or 1634. 

Santander observes, that Utrecht justly claims the honour of 
being the first town of Holland in which typography was prac- 
tised ; which appears to have commenced here with the Historia 
Scholastica of Petrtts Comesior, executed by Nicolaus Ketelaer 
and Gherardus de Leempt, in the year 1473. These printers 
were followed in 1478 by James Veldener, to whom it may be 
mentioned that Panzer assigns the curious volume described above, 
(under the article Bruges, p. 41,) executed by Johannes Brito, a 
native of Bruges. 

During the early part of the XVIth century very few publi- 
cations appear to have proceeded from Utrecht : but it is scarcely 
requisite to remind the reader with what activity and excellence 
its presses have been worked during more recent times. 

Trcmqueba/ria, Tranquebar, or Trangambar, a seaport town of 
Hindostan, on the Coromandel coast, where a Danish settlement 
was established in the year 1621. 

Soon after the commencement of the last century, Bartholomew 
Ziegenbalg, a missionary sent into those parts by the king of Den^ 
mark, began to translate the Holy Scriptures into the language of 
the natives of the coast. With the view of forwarding the dis- 
persion of copies of this translation, a printing-press and some 
Tamulic types were despatched to him from Germany in the year 
1712; and in the next year the press was set to work. Previously 
however to this, namely in the year 1711, the English Society for 
promoting Christian knowledge had sent out to the missionaries a 
printing-press furnished with Portuguese types, paper, &c. which 
although the ship conveying it fell into the hands of the French, 
who captured and plundered it, yet being concealed in the hold of 
the vessel escaped their rapacity, and was safely landed together 
with all its materials. In the month of October in the following 
year, this press was so far put into order, that, by way of first 
specimens, an Ordo Sahitis, and an elementary treatise, both in 
Portuguese, were then worked off from it. 

The Tamuli-c press commenced its labours with a book On the 


290 TR. 

damnable character of paganism^, which was put to press on the 
19th of September 1713 ; and before the close of that year some 
portion of the Tamuhc New Testament was printed off: thejbwr 
Gospels were finished in a handsome manner in quarto before 
twelve months had expired, and appeared with the imprint, Tran- 
quebaria in littore Coromandelmo, typis Malabaricis impressit 
G. Adler, 1714. The publication of the remainder of the New 
Testament was delayed from the scarcity of the paper, their types 
being very large ; till at length the expedient was adopted of cast- 
ing a new fount of letter Jrom the leaden covers of some Cheshire 
cheeses which had been sent out to the missionaries by the English 
Society for promoting Christian knowledge. The attempt suc- 
ceeded ; and with these new and smaller types the Epistles and 
booh of Revelation were printed, and the whole New Testament 
was published together in the year 1719. Subsequent publica- 
tions from the Tranquebar press, down to 1761, may be seen in 
Masch's edition of Le Long's Bibhotheca sacra : and a minute ac- 
count of them (which were issued in the Tamulic, English, Portu- 
guese, and German languages) to the year 1736, is furnished by 
the work of J. L. Niecampius, whose authority I have principally 

Tranum, Trani, an archiepiscopal city of Italy, in the king- 
dom of Naples, capital of the province of Bari. 

The only instance of printing in this town which I have met 
with occurs in a volume of Disputations on Thomas Aquinas, by 
Didacus Alvarez archbishop of Trani, which was printed in his 
own palace. The book is a folio of about 600 pages, bearing for 
imprint, Trani, in archiepiscopali palatio, per Constantinum 
Vitalem, 1 617. Its typographical execution is not very good. — 

Trapani, the ancient Drepanum, a considerable town in the 
west of Sicily, possessing a good harbour, and containing about 
20,000 inhabitants. 

Printing was executed at Trapani (according to D. Moreni,) 
who adduces a work by P. Fr. Arena) in 1707. 

TREBIA, or TREVIVM, Trevi, a small but ancient town of 
central Italy, in the states of the Church, formerly a bishop's 

r A copy of this work is in the possession of Mr. W . Marsdcu. 

TR. 291 

Only two books are known to have issued from this town in the 
XVth century ; namely, a History of Iiidulgences gained hy St. 
Francis for the Church of S, Maria de 4.ngelis, and a work of 
Bartolus de Saxo Ferrato ; the former dated 1470, the latter 
1471. Johannes Reynardi is the only printer known: nor does 
Trdvi any more appear in connection with the exercise of typo- 
graphy, during that or the succeeding century. 

Trehotes. Panzer, in vol. ix. p. 196, cites a book called " Re- 
" vocatio Jratris Wigandi Wirth, Sec." with the imprint apud 
Trebotes impressa, — quaere whether Trevi be not intended ? no 
date is given. 

TREC^, or TRICASSES, Troyes, an ancient and consi- 
derable town of the north-east of France, in Champagne : it is an 
archbishop's see, and formerly was a place of great trade, its mer- 
chandise being sold by Troyes or Troy weight, which name and 
distinction we still retain. 

Only three specimens of the typography of Troyes during the 
XVth century are given by Panzer, the earliest of which is a 
Breviarium Trecense, executed, without name of printer, in 
1483; the other books bear the dates of 1492 and 1500. Print- 
ing continued here during the succeeding century, but not to any 
great extent. 

Tremonia, Dortmund, a large and strong town of Westphalia) 
now belonging to Prussia, seated on the river Eras, with a pro- 
testant university, founded in 1543. 

The art of printing probably accompanied the establishment of 
the university : but the earliest Dortmund book which I have 
hitherto met with consists of some pieces of Latin poetry by Cy- 
prianus Vomelius, bearing for imprint, Ex imperiali atque adeo 
libera Tremoniensium repub. in gratiam gymnusii literarii Jam- 
pridem ibidem ejfflorescentis ; typis suis invidgavit Melchior Soter, 
anno 1545. The volume is in twelves, and consists of two sheets 
only. — (TCD.) The Psalter of David, translated into Latin 
verse by Eobanus Hessus, was also printed here by Philip Maurer 
in 1551, a copy of which is preserved in the Diocesan library of 
Cashel, in Ireland. 

TrevecJca, is the name of a large mansion in the parish of Tal- 
garth, in the county of Brecon, South Wales; well known by the 
seminary for lay-preachers of the Calvinistic methodist persuasion,, 
established here by the famous Selina countess of Huntingdon, 


292 TR. 

the zealous friend and patroness of George Whitfield, about the 
middle of the last century. The singularities of this building have 
called forth the following remarks from the tourist Mr. Malkin. 

" On descending from these haunts of mountain sheep, and 
" ancient seats of unsociable and distrustful barons, the traveller 
" arrives suddenly at a spot, the most incongruous and unex- 
" pected that can be conceived in these simple regions. He finds 
" himself translated at once to the Paragon, Prospect Place, 
" Paradise Row, Mount Pleasant, or some such supreme court of 
" finery, foppery, and folly, as occurs within a circle of five miles 
" round London : a space which comprehends most of the archi- 
" tectural absurdities, and most of the horticultural deformities, 
" to which a vitiated imagination has ever given birth. Yet does 
" Trevecca seem, by combination, to have outdone them all. 
" Here a Gothic arch ! there a Corinthian capital ! Towers, battle- 
" ments, and bastions ! peacocks cut in box, and lions hacked in 
" holly ! And who is it that has thus deluged his native country 
" with bad taste ? Is it a nabob, an innkeeper, or a dancingmas- 
" ter, who, having contrived to raise a fortune by one of those 
" trades which often prosper where better fail, prudently deter- 
" mines to record the event, and raise a triumphant monument on 
" the site of his honest father's humble cottage ? Nay, verily ; it 
" was a preacher of the gospel, professedly of the strictest per- 
" suasion and most mortified habits, namejy John Harris, bom 
" on the spot on the 23rd of January 1714." Mr. Harris is re- 
ported to have been the friend of G. Whitfield, and the first who 
introduced methodism into the principality of Wales. " He died 
" in 1773, leaving all his estates to a common stock, for maintain- 
" ing a neighbourhood which he had collected during his life. In 
" 1803 there were 60 members in this extraordinary family." 

A printing-press found its way into this religious establish- 
ment, at which was executed in an octavo volume, " The Life of 
" Howell Harris esq. printed at Trevecka, 1791." At present 
I am acquainted with no other of its productions. 

Treviri, or Aitgiista Trevirorum, Treves, or Triers, a very 
ancient and celebrated city of Germany, beautifully situate on the 
river Moselle, which formerly was the capital of an electorate and 
archbishopric, but now is chief of a Prussian government. It is 
a place extremely rich in remains of lioman arts and splendour. 
It possessed an university, the ori^nal foundation of which has 

TR. 293 

been carried so far baek as the age of Constantine the Great : but 
which certainly was restored in 1454, enlarged in 1722, and in 
1794 was converted by the French into a gymnasium or school. 
A book dated 1517, which Panzer (in vol. viii. of his Annals) at- 
tributed to the press of this city, he afterwards adjudges to Metz. 
The earliest date which I have seen is 1583, being that of a book 
containing some works of W. Allen, Campian, and others, printed 
by E. Hatotus, who in it speaks of his mfomt press ; it is in the 
Bodleian library. 

Trevoltium, Trevoux, an ancient town of the east of France, 
seated on the Saone ; well known by the publication of a literary 
Journal, compiled at the beginning of the last century by the 
Jesuits of Trevoux. — 1689. 

TRIDENTVM, Trent, an ancient fortified town of Austria in 
the Tyrol, adjoining the borders of Italy, capital of the princi- 
pality of Trent. It formerly was the see of a bishop or arch- 
bishop, and is principally memorable for the council holden there, 
which began in 1545, and ended in 1563. 

A work by Jo. Matthias Tiberinus, upon the life and miracles 
of St. Simon of Trent, executed (by Hermannus Schindeleyp) in 
1476, is the earliest known specimen of printing in this town. 
Panzer notices only four books from Trent, among which is the 
first printed Italian Comedy, entitled La Catinia, written by 
Siccus Potlentone, a Paduan, which was printed in 1482. No 
books appear to have been published at Trent during the period 
from 1482 to 1532. 

Tridinum, or Trinum, Trino, a small town of the north-west 
of Italy, in Piedmont, seated on the river Po. 

Printing was carried on in this place so early as the year 1508, 
by Joannes de Ferrariis, alias de Jolitis, whose family appears to 
have continued in the business for a long course of years, as the 
name occurs in a Trino book of 1594. — (Bodl.) 

There appears also to have been a Jewish press here in 1525, 
a single Hebrew book {of Prayers) from which is noticed, and 
declared by De Rossi to be a choice and rare specimen. 

Trigueros Oppidum, quaere, whether Trigueros, a town of 
Spain, in the province of Seville, or Trequier, a town of France, 
in the department of the Cotes du Nord ? — 1636. 

Trinum, see Tridinum. 

Trisinga, (qu. Driesen, a small town of Prussia ?) — 1775. 


294 TR.— TU. 

St. Trond, an ancient and considerable town of the Nether- 
lands. Barbier notices a work, Supplement au Catechisme de 
Malines, professing to be printed here, without date. 

TROYGA (qu. Troki, (Troca,) a town of Russian Lithuania, 
capital of a palatinate ?) is given by Denis, in his Supplement to 
the Annales TypograpMci of Maittaire, p. 709, as the imprint of 
a book entitled, Cronik und hystori uss den geschichten der Rb- 
mern. 4°. 1497. I have met with no other notice of this place or 
book ; which perhaps may have been executed at Troyes. 

Truxillo (Turris Julia) a small town of the west of Spain, in 
the province of Estremadura : (the birthplace of the well-known 
conqueror F. Pizarro.) 

Mendez observes that typography has been exercised within 
this town, but is silent as to the precise period. 

TVBINGA, Tubingen, a town in the south-west of Germany, 
in the kingdom of Wirtemburg. It has an university, founded in 

Printing commenced here late in the XVth century, the ear- 
liest known book being a Lecture on Peter Lombard, by Fr. 
Paul, a Tubingen Minorite, printed by Johannes Ottmar, in 
1498. We again hear of Tubingen typography in the middle of 
the following century. Bachmeister mentions an edition of The 
Gospels " en Vandalique," printed at Tubingen in the year 1557, 
being the first work executed in that language. Again, speaking 
of books printed in the Glagolitical character, he observes that 
they are exceedingly rare ; that the St. Petersburg library con- 
tained only two, and that perhaps those were the only ones 
throughout the whole of Russia. One of these is the Confession 
of Augsburg, the other the Epistles of the Apostles, with the 
Apocalypse, in the Croatian dialect. These he asserts to be the 
relics of a press erected at Tubingen by the baron Ungrad in the 
year 1562 : a press which continued but for a very short time, the 
few books which proceeded from it being seized and suppressed 
by the Austrians. Joseph Dobrowski, in his Slavin, and Glago- 
litica, 8°. 1807, 1808, mentions this Tubingen press : and cites a 
New Testament pubHshed by Truberus, in the years 156l, in 
the Croatian dialect, printed with Illyrian types. It appeared in 
two parts ; of the former 2000 copies were struck off, of the lat- 
ter only 1000. But he does not inform us where a single one is 
now to be found. 

TU. 295 

Tugivm, or Tugenus Pagus, Zug, an ancient town of Swit- 
zerland, capital of a canton of the same name. — 1730. 

TuUum Leucorum, Toul, a large and fortified town of the 
north-east of France, seated on the Moselle, lately a bishop's see. 

Panzer adduces a single book printed here, entitled De arti- 

Jkiali perspectivd, (the author supposed to be Joannes Pele- 

grinus,) of the date 1505, which he pronounces to be extremely 

rare. The volume was in his own possession. I have observed 

no other until the year 1592. 

Turiaso, see Tarazona. 

Tumonium, Tournon, a small town of the south-east of France, 
seated on the Rhone. Typography was exercised at Tournon so 
early as the year 1564. The Jesuits possessed a college here, 
and a printing-press, in 1588. 

an ancient city of the interior of France, capital of a department, 
and the see of an archbishop. 

We possess only one specimen of printing executed here during 
the XVth century, namely, a French version of the life and mira- 
cles of St. Martin, printed by Matthew Lateron for Jean du 
Liege, in the year 1496, Of this rare book, which is a small 
folio, the royal library of Paris possesses a copy printed upon 
vellum. Panzer mentions two Tours books of the XVIth cen- 
tury, both of which are Missals, one bearing the date of 1517, 
the other that of 1533. ' 

Turrelacum, Durlach, a neat town of Germany, in the grand 
duchy of Baden, noted for a manufacture of porcelain. Panzer 
notices only two works printed here, of the dates 1512 and 1530. 

Turusa, appears to be another name for Abo, the capital of 
Swedish Finland. A Finnish Bible was printed here in 4°. in 
1685 ; and an edition of The New Testament, 8vo. in 1775 : 
another, executed for the British and Foreign Bible Society in 
1815, bears the same imprint. 

TVSCVLANVM LACVS BENACI, Toscolano, a small 
town of Austrian Italy, seated near the Lago di Garda, between 
the territories of Brescia and Verona. 

Of four Toscolano books of the XVth century now remaining, 
the earliest is The Grammar of Guarinus Veronensis, or The 
Fables of ^sop in elegiac verse, both executed by Gabriel Petri 
in 1479. The other two books appeared in the following year ; 

u 4 

296 TU.— VA. 

after which we hear of no other until 1521. Several editions of 
classic authors were published at Toscolano during the early part 
of the ensuing century ; the latest date which I have observed is 

Tutela, Tutella, either Tulle, a considerable town in the south- 
west of France, seated at the conflux of the rivers Correze and 
Solane ; or Tudela, a large town in the north-east of Spain, upon 
the Ebro. In the latter place printing was carried on in the year 
1572 : and in the year 1670 a college of Jesuits, which was set- 
tled here, appears to have had a printer of its own. 

Tymavia, or Tirnavia, Tyrnau, a large and strong town of 
Hungary, seated on the river Tyrna, noted for the number of its 
ecclesiastical establishments; it formerly contained the national 
university, which, in the year 1777, was removed to Ofen by the 
empress Maria Theresa. An edition of the Hungarian Bible 
was printed at Tyrnau in 1626, a copy of which is preserved in 
the royal library at Copenhagen. 

Tzenna, see Zinna. 

TZERNOGAVIA, Tzchernigov, or Czernigov, a fortified 
town of European Russia, capital of a government of the same 
name ; and ascertained to be the most ancient town existing in the 
Russian empire. It is seated on the river Desna, and is the see 
of a Greek archbishop. 

A single book, entitled Joa/nnis Damasceni Octoichus, printed 
here in the year 1493 by Georgius Tzernoevic, in the Slavonic 
(qu : lUyrian ?) tongue, and Cyrillic character, is cited by Panzer 
from Denis. This must be of extreme rarity. At a later period 
Tzernigow became one of the places set apart in Russia for the 
printing of ecclesiastical books ; and Bachmeister mentions the use 
of Russian types here in 1670. At present the printing business 
is chiefly in the hands of a seminary of priests. 

VADSTENA, Wadstena, or Wadstein, a town of Sweden, in 
East Gothland, seated on the lake of Wetter, celebrated for pos- 
sessing the relics of St. Brigitta. 

This is the second town of Sweden into which the art of print- 
ing found its way, the first being Stockholm. The earliest known 
book, as given by Alnander, is Vadstenensium litercB confraterni- 
tatis, dated 1491, a copy of which is preserved in the royal 

VA. 297 

archives of Sweden, and which he considers to be the second 
book known to have been printed within that kingdom. Although 
Wadstena was the first town of Gothland which could boast of a 
press, it was also the first to lose that advantage ; its whole print- 
ing-establishment being unfortunately consumed by a fire which 
took place in the monastery where it was erected, on the night of 
the 14th of October, 1495: nor from that day was it ever restored. 
It is remarkable, that during the short period of the continuance 
of this press*, the monks of the monastery of SS. Mary and Bri- 
gitta being desirous of printing the life and miracles of their saint 
in a more honourable and splendid form than the scantiness of 
their own printing-establishment would permit, repaired with the 
MS. to the town of Lubec in the duchy of Holstein ; where find- 
ing apparatus and materials to their mind, they committed their 
work to the press, and in the year 1492 produced a most elegant 
volume in folio ; of which having struck off 800 copies on paper, 
and sixteen on vellum, they retired to their cloisters, in Sweden. 
One of these vellum copies may be seen in the Bodleian library. 

Valentia Segalaunorum, Valence, an episcopal city of the 
south-east of France, seated on the Rhone : it is of great anti- 
quity, and had formerly an university. — 1602. 

an ancient and fine city in the east of Spain, capital of the pro- 
vince of Valentia. It is an archbishop's see, and has an university, 
founded in 1470. Valentia enjoys the honour of having been the 
first city of Spain to adopt the typographic art; its earliest known 
book being a collection of poems on sacred subjects, by Bernardo 
Fenollar, and other authors, executed in the year 1474. The 
earliest printers were Alfonso Fernandez de Cordova, and Lam- 
bert Palomar, (or Palmart,) a German ; but their names do not 
appear on any publication antecedent to the year 1478. In 1477, 
or 1478, an edition of the Holy Bible in the Valentian dialect 
was printed here ; and a succession of works, chiefly on religious 
subjects, proceeded from the Valentia press throughout the re- 
mainder of the XV th century. Santander speaks of the excessive 
rarity of this Bible : no copy of it is known to exist ! the last four 
leaves alone were discovered in the archives of Valentia in the 
year 1645 : Santander attributes this entire destruction of the 
edition to the Spanish jealousy of vernacular translations of the 
Scripture. For more particulars on this interesting subject, the 

S98 VA. 

reader will do well to consult M'Crie's History of the Suppres- 
sion of the Reformation in Spain. 

The Valentian presses continued in active operation during the 
remainder of this century, and the early part of the succeeding one. 

Valentiniance, or ValencencE, Valenciennes, a large and very 
strong town of French Flanders, seated on the Scheldt. — Printing 
was carried on here, sumptibus Johannis Veruliet, in the year 

ValUs Pflsradm, Valparaiso, a Cistercian monastery,' of the order 
called regularis observantiee, situated somewhere in the kingdom 
of Castile, in Spain. Antonio (tom. i. p. 613.) mentions a work 
printed in this monastery, bearing date 1603. 

VALLIS S. MARIiE, Marienthal, or Marihaussen, an Au- 
gustinian monastery (now suppressed) situated on the right bank 
of the Rhine, opposite to Mentz, in the district of Rhingau, a 
territory belonging to that city. We have evidence that typo- 
graphy was early exercised by the religious of this establishment, 
in a volume entitled, Breviarium Psalteriiimque Maguntinense, 
which bears for imprint, in domo fratrum clericorum communis 
vitce Vallis Sancta Maria ejusdem dioceseos in Rhinghavia, 
anno Domini 1474. I do not know any other book executed 
by the monks of Marihaussen, who perhaps merely sent to 
Mentz for a printer to strike off copies of this Breviary under 
their own eye, (as we have had before occasion to notice,) and 
Panzer remarks that the types are in all probability those of 
Peter Schoyffer's printing-office. See above, p. 177. This asser- 
tion, however, is strongly opposed by M. Van Praet. Earl Spencer 
possesses a copy of this curious and uncommon volume, and an- 
other is in the royal library of Paris. 

Vallis Umbrosa, Vall'ombrosa, a beautiful and celebrated vale 
of Tuscany, distant about eighteen miles fromj Florence ; fami- 
liarized and endeared to the English reader by Milton's notice of 
it in the first book of his Paradise Lost. 

In a monastery which was founded in this valley, byfJoannes 
Gualbertus, in the year 1070, a printing-press was used in the 
beginning of the XVIth century. Panzer was acquainted with two 
works executed here, each of which bears the date 1511 : the au- 
thor of both is Jngelus Anachorita, (probably one of the monks 
of Vairombrosa). I have not seen either of these rare^books, nor 
heard of any other specimen of this press. 

VA. 299 

Vallis Vosdgica, a valley of the Pays de Vauge, seated among 
the Vosges mountains, in Lorraine. Panzer cites a book dated 
1507, Joamiis Basini fnodus conjkiendarum epistolarum, which 
bears for imprint, m Vosagica Valle : this may have been exe- 
cuted either at a small town called Voyge, or Voyse, near the 
source of the Meuse, where was a monastery ; or perhaps at Bi- 
pontium, which is situate in the Pagus Vosagensis. I never 
heard of a second specimen. 

VALLISOLETVM, or PINCIA, Valladolid, an ancient and 
considerable city of Spain, in the province or kingdom of Leon. 
It is a bishop's see, and has an university, founded by pope Cle- 
ment the Sixth, in the year 1346. It may also be mentioned, 
that an English college for the education of secular clergy was 
founded at Valladolid in the year 1580: it soon, however, fell 
into the hands of the Jesuits, under whose control it continued 
until the expulsion of that order from Spain. 

There is some doubt about the exact period at which typo- 
graphy began to be practised in this city. A Spanish translation 
of Lodovico Dolce's History of the Life and Deeds of Orlando, 
professing to be printed at Valladolid in 1495, is given by Panzer 
on the authority of P. Marchand and Maittaire; but this in all 
probability is misdated, and belongs to the following century. 
Mendez, however, adduces something like satisfactory proof that 
books were actually printed at Valladolid from the year 1493 . 
downwards ; and we have direct evidence that a press was existing 
in the monastery of our lady de Prado (in the city) in the year 
1500^ which continued its labours certainly for thirty years from 
that time. In 1514 Arnaldus Gulielmus de Brocar, the Complu- 
tensian printer, executed at Valladolid the Epistles and other 
works of Lucius Marineus, a copy of which is in the Bodleian li- 

Varadinum, Waradin, or Waradein, a fortified town of Hun- 
gary, capital of the county of Waradein, on the river Koresch. It 
is the see of a Greek bishop, also of a Roman Catholic archbishop. 

Printing was carried on here in the XVIth century ; an ac- 
count of which was published by J. F. de Miller in 1804. 

Varallum, Varallo, a small town of Italy, in the Piedmontese 
states. — 1604. 

Varsavia, or Varsovia, Warsaw, a large and populous city of 
Poland, of which it was formerly the metropolis. The late em- 

300 VA.— VE. 

peror Alexander of Russia erected within it an university in the 
year 1816. 

The art of printing was exercised here so early as 1578, but 
soon afterwards fell into disuse, and so continued until about the 
year 1625 ; since which time it has been carried on without inter- 
ruption. I observe that in 1646 one Petrus Elert of Warsaw 
styles himself " typographer to the king of Poland :" in good 
truth his majesty was but scurvily provided. At the beginning 
of the XVIIIth century the Jesuits established a press of their 
own within the city of Warsaw. At the present time Warsaw is 
reported to contain twenty printing-estabhshments, besides that of 
the government; and also a type-foundry, which was recently in- 
troduced by M. Glucksberg, printer and bookseller to the uni- 

Vasarhely, or Varhely, a town in the south-east of Hungary. — 


Vasatum, or Basatum, Bazas, a small town of France, in Gui- 
enne, situate on the river Beuve : it was formerly the see of a 
bishop. It appears that printing was practised here at an early 
period, from a work by Jocmnes Dibarrola, which bears for im- 
print, Impressum Vasati per ClaudAum Gamier, A. D. 1530. 
This is a small quarto volume ; and Van Praet informs us that a 
vellum copy of it is preserved in the library of S. Genevieve at 

Vaugirard, a small village within one league of Paris. A book, 
entitled Querelle de Gualtier Garguille et de Perrine sa Jemme, 
bears this imprint ; but quaere whether the name of the place be 
not falsely stated ? 

Ubvi, see Colonia Agrippma. 

Uclesium, or Urcesa, Ucles, a small town of the interior of 
Spain in New Castile. Antonio (torn. i. p. 544.) mentions that he 
had seen a book printed here in 1624. 

Veldkirchium, or Feldkirchia, Feldkirck, a town of the Tyrol, 
capital of a district of the same name, seated on the river 111. A 
Menologium Benedictinum, by G.Bucellnus, is noticed as having 
been printed here in the year 1655. 

VelitrcB, Velletri, a considerable and very ancient town of Italy, 
in the pope's dominions^ the see of a bishop. It was the birth- 
place of the Roman emperor Augustus. Printing was executed 
here in 1644. 

VE. 301 

Veneti, or Venetica Dariorigum, Vannes, an ancient, populous, 
and commercial seaport-town of France, in Bretagne : it is also a 
bishop's see, and chief town of a department. — 1678. 

VENETI-'E, Venice, a city of the north-east of Italy, too well 
known throughout the whole of Europe to need a description 

1 believe it is now generally conceded that the introduction of 
the typographic art into Venice was the work of Johannes Spira. 
His first essay was an edition of Cicero's Epistolce ad Familia- 
res, of which he executed two distinct impressions in the year 
1469: (both of them, almost equally rare, are in the Bodleian :) 
he also printed a fine edition of Plmys Historia Naturalis, folio, 
in the same year, (of which a magnificent copy upon vellum, is in 
the royal library of Paris ; and a similar one in that of the empe- 
ror of Austria, at Vienna.) As a reward for these productions 
Spira obtained from the Venetian senate the exclusive privilege of 
printing for five years, together with an admission that he was the 
earliest practiser of the art in Venice. 

A volume is well known to literary men, entitled Decor Puella- 
rum, which, bearing the date of 1461, for some time claimed for 
this city an earlier acquaintance with the art of printing, and for 
its printer, Nicolas Jenson, a laurel which is now denied him : 
but the correctness of this date has been shewn to be no longer 

Printing appears to have made a most rapid progress in Venice: 
John Spira, dying in 1470, was immediately succeeded by his 
brother Vindelin de Spira ; whose first production appears to have 
been the well-known edition of Livy, in two large folio volumes ; 
and whose Tacitus (of 1470) is the earliest volume in which 
catch-words are found :s by Nicolas Jenson, printer of the Decor 
Puellarum named above, and of many other beautifully executed 
volumes, in the same year 1470 : by Christopher Valdarfer in the 

• M. Van Praet relates n curious anecdote respecting a copy of this fine book, 
printed upon vellum, wlich is now in the royal library of Paris. The copy had been 
.given to the Jesuits of Lyons, by Pfere la Chaise confessor to Louis XIV, in the year 
1685. At the suppression of this community, it fell into the hands of the Due de la 
Valli^re, after whose death it was transferred to the public library of Lj'ons ; when, 
at the siege of that town in the year 1793, a cannon-ball penetrated the library, and 
tore in pieces the 6rst volume, leaving the second untouched and unhurt. In this 
mutilated state the copy was deposited, and now remains, in the royal library of 

302 VE 

same year, — a person who will be long remembered in England 
as the printer of the celebrated edition of Boccacw's Decamerone, 
(folio, 1471,) for the only knov/n perfect copy of which the mar- 
quess of Blandford (present duke of Marlborough) gave the enor- 
mous sum of £9,9.&!> sterling, at the public sale of the Roxeburghe 
library, the largest sum ever known to have been given for a 
printed book: — by Clemens Patavinus, said to be the earliest 
printer who was a native of Italy, in 1471 : by Johannes de Co- 
lonic., and others too numerous to mention. In fact, the reader 
may form some judgment of the extent to which typography was 
carried at Venice within the short period of thirty years from its 
introduction, when he is told that Panzer reckons, up to the year 
1500, no fewer than one hundred and ninety-eight printers, and 
two thousand nine hundred and eighty works executed by them 
within this city. Of these men more than sixty had begun to 
work before the close of the year 1480. One of them does the 
world the favour to inform it that he is " Magister Johannes dic- 
" tus magnus Herbort de Siligenstadt, Alemanus, qui (salva om- 
" nium pace ausim illud affirmare) csteros facile omnes h^c tem- 
" pestate supereminet" ! Oh the coxcomb ! 

Among the Venetian printers, the most deservedly famous are 
those of the Manutian or Aldine family, whose earlier editions 
display not more elegance of execution than editorial learning and 
correctness. The elder Aldus Manutius was not only himself a 
learned man, but was on terms of the highest intimacy with all 
the scholars of his day. To him we are indebted for the editio- 
nes priiicipes of many of the Greek classic authors, as also for the 
introduction of what is called the Italic letter, which is said to 
have been formed in imitation of the handwriting of Petrarch ; 
it was designed by Aldus for the pocket editions of the classics 
which he meditated, and was first used in his 8°. edition of Virgil 
of the year 1501. The Aldine office was opened about 1494, in 
which year the first book known to be of his printing, the Erote- 
mata of Constantine Lascaris, is dated. An interesting account 
of this family, of which the lineal descendants continued for up- 
wards of a century to carry on the business of printing, together 
with a most minute and accurate description of the books exe- 
cuted by them, may be found in Renouard's Annales de Fimpri- 
merie des Aides, 3 tom. 8». Paris 1803-1809, ibid. 1825. 

Printing continued to be carried on here with equal spirit dur- 

VE. 303 

ing the succeeding century, and to Venice we are undoubtedly in- 
debted for many of the most valuable editions of works in every 
department of literature : it must be admitted however that the 
beauty, so conspicuous in the early specimens of its typography, 
is no longer visible as we reach the last ten or fifteen years of the 
XVth century : the editions may have been more commodious, 
more correct, and less expensive, but they possess none of those 
graces and elegances of appearance which captivate us in the early 
productions of Spira, Valdarfer, and Jenson. It has been gene- 
rally remarked that the earlier books of all countries and printers 
were struck, off in the larger sizes : the first minute volume of 
which I have observed a notice, is a Dlurnale precum, printed at 
Venice in 1478, which is in twenty-fours. 

Venice also maintained a Hebrew press of great celebrity, dur- 
ing the early part of the XVIth century, under the direction of 
Daniel Bomberg, whose Hebrew and Rabbinical Bible, Psalter, 
Stc. of 1517 and following years are sufficiently known to the 

It is asserted, that about the year 1518 Paganinus Brixiensis 
published at Venice the Coran in Arabic, being the first printed 
edition of that work ; but that the impression was so rigorously 
and successfully suppressed by the pope, that not a single copy 
can now be discovered to exist. De Rossi has published a tract 
respecting this edition, but has not succeeded in persuading 
Schnurrer, who in his Bibliotheca Arabica declares that he has 
still strong doubts of its ever having had an existence. 

About the same period Arabic printing was exercised at the 
town of Fano and at Genoa; so that De Rossi remarks, that 
while no Arabic types were to be found in any other part of Eu- 
rope, three towns of Italy possessed and were making use of them 
at the same moment. According to the statement of Bachmeister, 
printing in Russian types was executed at Venice in the year 
1527: and a GlagoUtic or Slavonic Missal, printed here in 1528, 
is spoken of by Dobrowski in his Glagolitica, 8". 1807. Panzer 
mentions nothing of these facts : the book undoubtedly is among 
the very rarest of rarities. 

Vepery, Wepery, or Wipery, a village near to Madrass, form- 
ing one of the suburbs of that city. It is a station originally 
founded by Danish missionaries, and for many years past sup- 
ported by the English Society for promoting Christian knowledge. 

304 VE. 

A printing-press was employed here by the missionaries, at least 
so early as 1772, in which year a Tamulic version of the New 
Testament was executed at Vepery. This press having subse- 
quently fallen into disuse was reestablished with increased means 
about 1820, or 1821. 

Vera Cruz, a considerable seaport and trading town of Mexico, 
or New Spain, the centre of all European and West Indian com- 
merce, but seated in a region most destructive to human health 
from the insalubrity of the air. 

In the year 1826 a periodical literary work, entitled " Euterpe," 
was in regular course of publication in this town. 

VERCELLiE, Vercelli, an ancient and considerable town of 
Italy, in Piedmont, capital of a district, and a bishop's see. 

The only remaining proof of printing having been exercised 
here during the XVth century is Nicolai de Auxmo supplemen- 
tum summcE Pisanellce, which was printed in 1485 by Jacobinus 
de Suico de S. Germano, who in the following year removed him- 
self to Chivazzo. Nothing more appears respecting the Vercelli 
press during that or the ensuing century. I have met with no 
specimen earlier than 1603. (TCD.) 

Verets, a country seat of the due d'Aiguillon, in the province 
of Touraine in France : the duke erected here a printing-press in 
1735, at which was printed a collection of French pieces, bearing 
the imprint of Ancona, in that same year ; it is said that only 
seven or twelve copies of this work were struck off. 

Verodunum, or Virdunum, Verdun, a large and strong town 
in the north-east of France, in the department of the Meuse. 
The earliest Verdun book which I have seen is of the year 1583. 
Verdun is remembered by English readers, as the place of confine- 
ment of many of their countrymen, who were detained by order 
of Buonaparte after the breaking out of war between the two 
countries in 1803. For the use of these prisoners an English 
prayer-book was printed at Verdun in the year 1810, with some 
peculiarities which are best described in the following extract from 
a letter addressed by the Rev. Wm. Gordon, late chaplain to the 
British prisoners of war at Verdun, to the late bishop of Oxford, 
(Dr. Lloyd,) accompanying a copy of the edition in question, which 
is now preserved in the Bodleian library. " A number of British 
" subjects, who had gone to travel in France during the peace of 
" Amiens with passports from both governments, were neverthe- 

VE. 305 

" less detained by order of Buonaparte on the recommencement 
" of hostilities in May, 1803, and sent prisoners to Verdun. The 
" officers of the army and navy, captured during the progress of 
" the war, and other prisoners on parole, were sent to the same 
" dep6t. The seamen and soldiers were for the most part con- 
" fined in other towns. 

" Among those who were originally detained were a few clergy- 
" men, and other members of the two universities. These gen- 
" tlemen obtained permission from the French authorities for the 
" prisoners to assemble together in the different dep6ts for the 
" celebration of divine worship according to the liturgy of the 
" church of England. 

— ••' Representations having been made to the committee that 
" many of the prisoners in the different dep6ts were unprovided 
" with prayer books, a selection of the principal services was made 
" and printed for their use. Mr. Maude took the trouble of su- 
" perintending the press. It was thought advisable to omit the 
" prayer ' to be used in time of war and tumults,' and that part of 
" the ' prayer for the king's majesty,' which prays for ' strength 
" that he may vanquish and overcome all his enemies,' lest the 
*' publication of them might give umbrage to the French govem- 
" ment, and afford a pretext for withdrawing the permission for 
" the celebration of divine worship : but in reading the service 
" the whole of these prayers or the similar passage in the Litany 
" was generally used : and the spaces were left void in the book, 
" that each individual might have the power of filling them up at 
" his own discretion." 

The volume is in ]2mo, and bears for imprint, " Verdmn, 
" printed by Lewis Christophe, place d'armes. 1810. 

VERONA, Verona, an ancient and well-known city of Austrian 
Italy, the capital of the Veronese, and a bishop's see. 

Verona was early in admitting the art of printing, of which we 
have evidence in an Italian poetic version of the Batrachomy- 
omachia of Homer, by Georgia Sommariva, which professes to 
have been printed here in the year 1470. Dr. Dibdin however 
doubts the genuineness of this date, and assigns the first place to 
an edition of Valturius de re militari, printed in 1472. The 
strength of his arguments may be examined by consulting the 
Supplement to the Bibliotheca Spenceriana, page 31. 

The first printer appears to have been Joannes Veronensis, 

806 VE, 

who was followed by six or seven others during the XV th cen- 
tury ; amongst these we find one of those itinerants, Peter Mauf- 
fer, who began by exercising his trade at Padua, next came to 
Verona, afterwards worked at Venice, and finally, at Modena. 

The Verona presses continued in activity during the XVth 
and XVIth centuries. A fine copy of a book printed by the Sabii 
on velliim, in the year 1532, is preserved in the Bodleian library. 

VersalicB, Versailles, a large, handsome, and populous town of 
France, distant twelve miles from Paris; near to which Louis 
the Fourteenth constructed the splendid palace and gardens of 
Versailles, which continued to be the favourite residence of the 
royal family until the disastrous period of 1789. 

Within this palace several printing-presses were at various 
times erected for the amusement of members of the royal family, 
at which even the kings themselves have sometimes condescended 
to employ a leisure hour. The earliest of these noticed by Peignot 
is the press of Madame la Dauphine, established in 1758, at 
which she herself assisted in the printing of a French work, Ele- 
vations Du Cosur a N. S. Jesus Christ, &c. 1758, in 16°. In 
1760, the duke of Burgundy, the king's brother, had a press of 
his own here, from which issued Prieres <J Vv^age des enfans de 
France, 1760, in 12". The marchioness of Pompadour likewise 
had a press in her apartments in the same year, 1760, from which 
she sent forth Rodogune, a tragedy, by P. Corneille, with the im- 
print, au Nord, 1760, in 4". at the beginning of which book is a 
plate engraved by her own hand. Louis the Sixteenth, while 
dauphin, had also a press at Versailles in the year 1766, from 
which came Maximes morales et politiques tiroes de Telemaque, 
printed by his own hand in 1766, 8°. of which twenty-five copies 
were struck oflF. 

Besides these royal presses, one was established at Versailles in 
the War-office, expressly intended for the printing of official 
papers connected with that establishment. It continued only from 
the year 1766 to 1775. 

The town of Versailles had also its printers like other places. 
The earliest Versailles book which I have observed is of the date 

' While upon the subject of royal presses, I may observe that the other palaces of 
the French monarchs have at different times possessed similar establishments. Car- 
dinal Richelieu caused one to be erected in the Louvre ; and Louis the Fourteenth had 

VE.~VI. 307 

Vervieres, a considerable manufacturing town of the Nether- 
lands, situate in the province of Liege. 1828. 

Vesalia CUvorum, Wesel, an old town of the Prussian States, 
in the duchy of Cleves, seated on the Rhine. Printing was car- 
ried on here in the year 1543, when, amongst other books, an Eng- 
lish publication of George Joye, against Stephen Gardiner bi- 
shop of Winchester, was executed at Wesel. 

Vesontio, see Bisuntium. 

Vesullvm, Vesoul, a small town of France, in Burgundy. 
Peignot mentions three books printed here, two in 1809, the other 
in an viii. (1799) the latter of which^ written by J. A. Marc, 
bears the fictitious imprint, en Arcadie. Of the one, twenty copies 
only were struck off; of the other, eighteen ; and of the third, 

Viana, Viana de foz de Lima, a seaport town of Portugal, 
situate near the mouth of the river Lima. Antonio, (vol. il. p. 
19.) mentions printing' here in the year 1619. 

Vibii Forum, denotes either Pezzana, a small town of the north 
of Italy, in Piedmont ; or Castel Fiori, a small village distant five 
miles from the above. 

D. Moreni (Tom. I. p. 117) mentions a work bearing the im- 
print Fori Vibiorum, dated 1684: which he pronounces very 
rare. I know of no other specimen. 

Vibiscus, or Viviacum, Vevay, a large town of Switzerland, in 
the ]Pays de Vaud. Printing was exercised in Vevay in the year 
1605 : and the well-known book, General Ludlow's memoirs, was 
printed here in 1698. At Vevay that stern republican found an 
asylum, and there closed his eyes in peace in the year 1693. 

Viburgum, Wiburg, an old city of Denmark, capital of North 
Jutland. Printing was established here so early as 1528. But 
only two books from hence are cited by Panzer, both in the 
Danish language, by an author named Hans Tawsen. At a very 
recent period (1824) a curious work is announced to have pro- 
ceeded from the press of Wiburg, being a Dictionary of the cant 
andjlash languages used by rogues and vagabonds in the isle of 
Jutland, compiled by M. Dorph. 

one in his palace of the Tuilleries, from which issued in 1718 a work entitled Cowrs 
des principaux Jleuves rivieres de V Europe, a small quarto of 78 pages, said to have 
been composed and printed bjr tlie king's onrn hand. 


308 vr. 

VICENTIA, Vicenza, an ancient and fine city of Austrian 
Italy, the capital of a province, and a bishop's see. 

The earliest specimen of Vicenza typography is an edition of 
John Duns Scotus on the Sentences, executed by Joannes de 
Reno in 1473. Both this printer and Leonardus Achates de 
Basilea, who commenced business in the following year, some- 
times date their books in Sancto Ursio prope Vincentiam, or in 
Sancto Ursio VincenticB districtu. St. Orso appears to have been 
a quarter of the city so called : and I notice it in this place merely 
with a view of obviating any mistake which might arise: but 
Santander states it to be a distinct village, and affirms that the art 
was exercised here before it was introduced into the city. Panzer 
adduces one hundred books printed in Vicenza during the XVth 

gtus Yictor prope Moguntiam, a monastery of Mayence. An 
edition of Optatus against the Donatists, printed in 1549, bears 
for imprint, Apud S. Victorem prope Moguntiam,, ex qfflcind 
Francisci Behern typograpM. To this are added some works of 
John CochlcBus and others, bearing the same imprint and date, 
forming together a large and handsome folio volume. (Bodl. TCD.) 

Vicus jEquensis, Vico Equana, or Vico di Sorrento, an episco- 
pal town of Italy, seated near the edge of the bay of Naples. It 
was built by Charles the Second in the year 1300, near to the 
ruins of the ancient town of Equa. 

Printing was exercised here towards the close of the XVIth 
century : the earliest book which I have seen is a work of Jo. 
Baptista Porta on Human Physiognomy, which bears for im- 
print, Vici Mquensis, apud Josephum Cacchium, 1586. It is a 
well-executed volume in folio, with a good portrait of Porta in 
the title, and filled with engravings of human physiognomy in 
almost all conceivable varieties, such as we have latterly so much 
admired in the works of Lavater. This interesting publication 
may be seen in the Fagel library at Dublin. 

I observe that the Pinelli Catalogue (No. 2706) mentions a 
work of Tamsillo, earlier by one year than this. 

VIENNA AVSTRI^, or VINDOBONA, Vienna, the capi- 
tal of the Austrian empire. It is a city of great antiquity, the see 
of an archbishop ; and has an university, founded by duke Ru- 
dolph the Fourth, in 1365, which was raised to its present im- 
portance by the empress Maria Theresa. 

VI. 309 

Panzer cites Tractatus distinctumum Johannis Meyger, and 
three other works bearing the imprint of Vienna, and the date 
1482, which Denis believes to have been executed by some 
printer residing there only for a short time. The first Vienna 
printer, whose name appears, is John Winterburg, in the year 
1492. The art continued to be carried on there in a creditable 
manner during the succeeding century. 

At Vienna was printed the first edition of the Hungarian New 
Testament, viz. in the year 1536. (Panzer, vol. vi. p. 56.) 
• VIENNA IN DELPHINATU, Vienne, a considerable town 
of France, in Dauphind, seated on the banks of the Rhone. 

Of six Vienne books of the XVth century noticed by Panzer, 
the earliest is a work of Nicolaus de Clemangis, printed here in 
1481. The only printer whose name occurs, is Peter Schenk, in 
1484. But it appears that printing was practised at Vienne at a 
period antecedent to that which Panzer specifies : since the Rt. 
Hon. Thpmas Grenville possesses a work entitled Cardinalis 
Lotharingi(B Tractatus quinque, executed at Vienne in 1478. 

From 1484 to 1536, &c. we hear nothing of the typography of 
this town. 

Vignon. Eustathius Vignon, a printer at Geneva towards the 
close of the XVIth century, adopted the practice, at that period 
common amongst those of his craft, of leaving out the name of 
the town, and merely inserting his own in the imprint of his 

Vigornia, Worcester, an ancient inland city of England, capital 
of a county, and a bishop's see. 

The art of printing was practised in this city from 1548 to 1553 
by John Oswen, a printer from Ipswich, who executed here about 
twenty books, mostly of a religious nature, particular accounts of 
which may be seen in Herbert's Ames, vol. III. 

Villabraxima (qu ?) Mendez presents us with this name of one 
of the places in Spain at which the art of printing was carried on; 
but he gives us no further particulars. 

Villqfranca, (Villefranche,) is the name of several towns in 
France, Italy, and Spain ; but it is difficult to determine what 
books have really been printed at any of them, inasmuch as the 
name Villqfranca, like that of Eleutkeropolis, is attached to a 
great number of volumes, the contents of which were of such a 
nature as to make it necessary for the authors and publishers to 


310 VI. 

disguise themselves as much as possible. Yet without doubt 
printing was carried on in Villefranche on the Saone, as early as 
1671 at least. 

Villagarsia, qu. in Spain? A college of Jesuits possessed a 
printing-house here in the year 1761, in which they published 
Opuscula GrcBca ad usum Seminarii Villagarsiensis , 12rao, typis 
Seminarii. The book is licensed by the Provincial of the Jesuits 
at Valladolid. Mendez names Villagarcia among the Spanish 
towns at which the art of printing has been carried on. 

Villa nova Infantium, Villa nueva de los infantes, a town of 
Spain in the province of La Mancha. Antonio notices printing 
here in the year 1628. 

Villa-Viridis is the name of some place in Portugal, at which 
Antonio (tom. ii. p. 129-) declares typography to have been exer- 
cised by Antonius Riberius in the year 1581. 

Villa vitiosa, Villa Vi90za, is the name of two towns in Spain, 
of one in South America, and one in Portugal. At this last An- 
tonio notices printing in the year 1636. 

Vilna, Wilna, a large and populous city of European Russia, 
capital of Lithuania, and a bishop's see : having a castle, a royal 
palace, and an university, erected in 1 570. In the XVIth cen- 
tury Wilna was the residence of various sects; Jews, Maho- 
metans, members of the Greek church, Socinians, Calvinists, and 

It has been thought that the earliest printing-press was that of 
the Calvinists, which was brought into the city by Daniel Lanci- 
cius, about the year 1580. (Bodl.) (In fact I have seen theim 
print Vilna to a book of the year 1573, but there is no doubt 
that this was purposely feigned.) Yet Bachmeister, in his Essay 
on the St. Petersburg library, asserts that printing was exercised 
here so early as 1517, and cites an edition of the Acts of the 
Apostles of that year, a copy of which he declares to be in the 
patriarchal library at Moscow. Henderson also notices printing 
at Vilna in 1525. In 1583 the Socinians established a press here. 
The Jesuits erected one in the XVIth century, and the Jews pos- 
sessed one in the XVIIth century : the former, according to Hoff- 
man, was almost the only one which remained in the city at the 
year 1740. In the year 1818 a typographical society was estab- 
lished at Wilna ; and in 1820 there were five printing-offices in 
the town. 

VI. 311 

Vinaria, or Veimaria, Weimar, a considerable town of the in- 
terior of Germany, capital of the grand duchy of Saxe- Weimar. 
Printing was in use here in 1701. 

Vincennes, a small town of France, seated on the Seine, three 
miles east of Paris. — 1755. 

Vincentius. Books of the date 1561, &c. &c. which bear for 
imprint apitd Vincentium, without the name of any town, are 
the work of Anthonius Vincentius, a printer of Lyons. 

St. Vincent, a town of Spain, in Asturias, seated on the bay of 
Biscay. An edition of the Controversies between Pope Paul V. 
and the Venetians bears for imprint, In Villa Sanvincentiana 
apud Paulum Marcellum, sumptibus Caldoriance Sodetatis, anno 
1607, but is by no means of Spanish workmanship: I rather 
judge that the whole of the tracts connected with this business, 
which profess to have been printed at various places, as Augs- 
burg, Saumur, Rome, Venice, &c. have their origin in the Low 
Countries, and proceeded from the presses of Antwerp, Rotter- 
dam, or the Hague. Printing, however, was incontestably exer- 
cised at St. Vincent in the year 1645. 

Vindeshemium, or Vimisima, Vinsheim, or Windsheim, a small 
but ancient town of Germany, in Bavarian Franconia, formerly 
imperial ; or, perhaps, Windesheim, near to Zwoll in Holland, a 
celebrated religious establishment, of the order ca^leA Jratres com- 
munis vitcE. — 1680. 

Vindinum, see Cenomanum. 

Vindobona, see Vienna Austricn. 

Vindocimim, Vendome, an ancient and considerable town of the 
centre of France, capital of a department, pleasantly seated on the 
right bank of the Loire. — 1667. 

VIQVERIA, qu. Voghera, (Vicus IricB,) a considerable town 
of Italy in the Sardinian dominions ? Neither Laire nor Panzer 
can satisfy themselves as to the meaning of this name, which oc- 
curs in the imprint of one single book, a work of Alexander de 
Imola, which bears in the colophon. Jacobus de Sancto JVazario — 
edidit Viquerice calendis Juniis 1486. This printer, three years 
subsequently, was exercising his art at Milan. 

Virmaranutn, Guimaraens, an ancient and fine town of Portu- 
gal, in the province of Entre-Douro e Minho, formerly the resi- 
dence of the kings. 

Visasum, Viseu, or Viseo, an ancient inland town of Portugal, 

X 4 

SJ12 VI. 

in the province of Beira: it is a bishop's see. Printing was car- 
ried on here in 1571- 

Visiiigia, Wisingsoe, or Wisingsburg, an island in the lake of 
Wetter, in the province of Jiinkoping, in Sweden. 

Its proprietor, the count Peter Brahe, who is called Drotzetus 
regni, having established a school at Wisingsburg in the year 
1636, for the furtherance of literature erected there a press of his 
own in 1667, which continued until 1681, when the island was 
ceded to Sweden : in 1688 the press was removed to Jiinkoping. 
The first printer was Johannes Kankel, himself a learned man, 
who declares the first specimen of his press to be Itinerarium 
Nicolai Matthice Kibpingi, dated 1667. Gestrin and Axner? 
who published a special dissertation on the Wisingsburg printing- 
establishment, (4°. Upsal, 1733,) enumerate and describe twenty- 
eight books, executed here, chiefly in the Swedish language, de- 
claring at the same time that all of them are rare, and some ex- 
tremely so, from the small number of copies which were struck 

Vismaria, or Wismaria, Wismar, a strong seaport town of 
Germany, in the grand duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. — 1698. 

VisoUnum, Wysolyin, quaere what town ? In the second edition 
of the Hungarian Bible printed at Hanau in 1608, the editor, 
Alberus Molnar, mentions the first edition to have been printed 
about twenty years previously, (1588,) by Caspar Corolinus, at 
Visolinum ; stating that he himself was witness to the execution 
of this edition, having been often sent to the printing-office with 
the proof-sheets. 

Vitemberga, Vitteburga, or Wittemberga, called also Leucorea, 
and in one book, Albiori in Sassonid, Wittemburg, a strong and 
famous city of Prussian Saxony, formerly capital of an electoral 
circle : it possesses a celebrated university, memorable as the cra- 
dle of the Reformation, which was founded by Frederic the third, 
elector of Saxony, in 1502; but this for many years past has 
been annexed to that of Halle. A Protestant will never for- 
get, that in this city, on the 30th of September in the year 
1517, Martin Luther commenced the glorious Reformation of re- 

It has been supposed that the art of printing was introduced 
into Wittemburg in the XV th century ; and a book dated 1488 
was adduced by Maittaire, as printed at this place : Panzer how- 

VI. 313 

ever shews this to have been founded in error. It is probable 
that printing accompanied the establishment of the university, and 
we find the earliest book noticed to be of the year 1503. Several 
of Luther's works were executed here, and the original editions of 
Melancthori's Loci Communes, and of the celebrated Confession 
of Augsburg, proceeded from the presses of Wittemburg. 

VITERBIVM, Viterbo, an ancient town of Italy, capital of a 
delegation or district in the states of the Church, and a bishop's 

The grammatical work of Servius Honoratus, printed here in 
1488, by an unnamed printer, is the only known specimen of 
printing exercised in this city during the XVth century. I have 
seen no other Viterbo book bearing a date anterior to the year 

Vitis S. Marias Monasterium, La Vid, is the name of a famous 
Spanish monastery of the Praemonstratensian order, situated on 
the river Douro, at the distance of six miles from the city of Osma 
in Old Castile. This monastery was founded by king Alphonso 
Vlth, and was called Vitis S. Mariae from the circumstance of an 
image of the Virgin having been found by that king among the 
vines which then grew upon the spot. This image subsequently 
worked miracles within the monastery. 

Antonio, in his Biblioiheca Hispana, (tom. i. p. 176,) mentions 
a work of Bernardus de Lemi, printed in Monasterio Vitis dice- 
cesis Oxomensis, in 1626. 

Vitodurum Helvetiorum, Winterthour, an ancient town of 
Switzerland, in the canton of Zuric. The authorities of Zurich 
claimed the right of preventing the erection of a printing-press in 
Winterthour, lest it should interfere with the interests of their 
own city. Coxe, in his " Travels," mentions that a dispute on 
the subject was being carried on in the year 1778. However, 
the claim appears to have been abandoned. — 1789. 

Vitry-le-Franqais, a considerable town of France, in Cham- 
pagne. — 1759. 

Vittoria, a large town of Spain, chief of the province of Alava, 
seated on the river Zadora. 

Mendez notices this among the Spanish towns in which the art 
of printing was carried on, but gives us no information respecting 
the period of its introduction. 

Viviaciim, see Vibiscum, 

314 VI.— UM. 

Vizoffopatam, a town, capital of a district of the same name, in 
the Northern Circars, a province of Deccan, in India. According 
to the catalogue of the library of the British and Foreign Bible 
Society, the Gospel of St. Mark was printed here, in the Telinga 
dialect, in 1812. 

VLMA, Ulm, a large and strongly fortified city of the south- 
west of Germany, in Wirtemburg, seated on the Danube. 

From the year 1473, the art of printing was carried on with 
spirit here, till the close of the XV th century. The earliest book 
known is Albertus Magnus de Mysterio MisscB, executed in 1 473 
by John Zeiner de Reutlingen, perhaps a brother of GunterZainer, 
who first introduced typography into the city of Augsburg. 

Ulysscea, Ultzen, a town of Germany, in the principality of 
Zell. Le Long mentions printing here in the year 1575. 

Ulyssinga, Ulyssingen, or Flushing, a strong sea-port of the 
Netherlands, in the isle of Walcheren. Samuel Claeys Versterre 
was a printer here in 1630. — (TCD.) 

VLYSSIPO, or OLYSSIPO, (in one book Lysa,) Lisbon, a 
well-known city, the capital of Portugal. It is an archbishop's 
see, and once contained an university, founded in 1290, which 
was transferred to Coimbra in 1541. 

A Hebrew printing-office was established here during the XVth 
century, the earUest known book from which is of the close of the 
year 1489 : yet Panzer does not omit to notice that the Sepher 
Orach Chaiim of 1485, mentioned before under the article Sora, is 
executed in a character similar to that which shortly afterwards 
was in use at Lisbon, and therefore may possibly have been printed 
in this city. Besides Hebrew books, little printing appears to have 
been done at Lisbon before 1536, the year with which Panzer's en- 
quiries terminate. We may however add to the printers named 
by him, Germanus Gallard, " impressor regius," 1522 to 1551 : 
Ludovicus Rodriguez, 1539 &c. : Johannes Alvarez, " impressor 
" regius," 1563 : Franciscus Correa, 1568 &c. : Andreas LobatOj 
1587 : and Antonius Alvarez, " impressor re^us,"" from 1595 
to 1642. A Latin work by Damien Goes, called Obsidio urbis 
Lovaniensis, printed here in 1546, is in the library of Trinity 
College, Dublin ; and books of the years 1542 and 1567, are in 
the Bodleian. 

Uman, a small town in the west of European Russia, in the 
government of Kieu. 



Printing appears to have been exercised here in the year 1685, 
from a book of this date now in the " Bibliotheca Marsdeniana :" 
this is a metrical History of the Bible, in the Slavonic language, 
and bears the imprint, Umnetie, 1685. 

Vneuskoi Monasterium, or the monastery of St. Alexander 
Newsky, situate within the city of Moscow. 

Bachmeister mentions printing executed here in the year 1692. 

United States of America. In addition to the numerous cities 
and towns of America, the introduction of the art of printing into 
which is detailed with greater or less minuteness by Is. Thomas, 
this writer gives us at the end of his work the following names of 
places within the United States, in which newspapers (at least) 
were published in or before the year 1810. As he furnishes no 
particulars of any kind, I merely copy the names, as mentioned by 
him, some of which perhaps may amuse the reader. 

New Hampshire. 



















Peach am 









St. Albans. 



New York. 

























New Jersey. 

Rhode island. 






















VO— UP. 



























North Carolina. 

South Carolina. 








Many of these places are of little or no note ; and it is probable 
that in several of them the art of printing was carried on for a 
very short time, and merely for temporary purposes. 

Voegel. Books bearing the imperfect imprint, typis Voege- 
lianis, were executed by a printer of this name at Leipsic, at the 
close of the XVIth and beginning of the XVIIth century. 

Volaterra, Volterra, an ancient inland town of Tuscany, in the 
territory of Pisa. It is a bishop's see. — 1763. 

Upsalia, Upsal, an ancient and celebrated city of Sweden, in 
the province of Upland, formerly the metropolis of the whole 
kingdom. It is the see of an archbishop : and the birth-place of 
Linnaeus. Its university, the most ancient in Sweden, was founded 
by archbishop Ulpho, in 1477; and enlarged by Gustavus Adol- 

UP. 317 

phus in 1642: and its royal Academy is well known thtoughout 
Europe by the annual publication of the Upsdl Transactions. 

It is believed that printing was first exercised in this city about 
the year 1510, by Paul Griis, three of whose books are named, 
the earliest of them being a Latin Psalter, with the imprint, Im,- 
pressum UpsalicB in domo Venerabilis patris domini doctoris 
Ravaldi Archidiachoni ibidem per Paulum Griis anno Dni 
MUX: but Alnander observes that there is some little uncer- 
tainty about the exact period of the introduction of the art. It 
appears to have declined about 1541, after the publication of an 
edition of the Swedish Bible in that year, [a small foho with 
wood-cuts, a copy of which (on the authority of Fortia) is pre- 
served in the library of the Academy of Sciences at Stockholm ; 
a second, in the collection of M. Giseurwell, librarian to the king ; 
and a third, in the university library of Upsal,] and to have re- 
vived in 1604. 

Charles the Eleventh granted to the college of National Anti- 
quities a typographer of their own : the university likewise pos- 
sessed a printing-establishment peculiar to themselves. 

In the year 1686 the famous Olaus Rudbeck erected a press in 
his own house at Upsal, which, together with the fourth volume 
of his great work, the Ailamtica, was consumed in the dreadful 
fire which laid Waste that city in the year 1702. Of this fourth 
volume not more than three or four copies are supposed to have 
escaped, one of which is treasured up in the library of the univer- 
sity of Upsal, and another in the royal library at Stockholm. 
Only two hundred and ten pages of the volume were finished at 
the press when the fire occurred. 

The first volume of the ^tlantica was published in 1675, (and 
with a reprinted title in 1679, and again in 1684) ; the second in 
1689 ; the third, printed in the author's own house, in 1698 ; and 
the fourth has no title. The best and most minute account of 
this valuable work is to be found in the travels of M. Fortia, to 
whom it was communicated by one of the best bibliographers of 
Sweden, in the year 1791. 

Greek, Hebrew, Syriac, and Runic types were used at Upsal 
soon after the commencement of the XVIItb century. In 16S7 
Grotius notices, in one of his epistles, that the Greek types then 
used were deficient in elegance, and that the paper was of inferior 
quality. The first Arabic types ever used in Sweden were 

318 UR. 

brought to Upsal by Peter Kirstenius, of Breslau ; at whose deaths 
in 1640, his printing-apparatus was purchased by the universityi 
His types were thought to be cast in imitation of those of the 
Medicean press at Florence. 

Uraniburgum, Uranienburg, a strong castle once existing on the 
island of Huen, in Denmark. 

This island having been assigned for a residence to the cele- 
brated astronomer Tycho Brahe, he erected on it the castle of 
Uranienburg in the year 1576 ; and at seventy paces distance an- 
other building for an observatory, which he chose to call Stell«- 
burgum, or Stierneburg. Feeling himself in want of a printing- 
press for the publication of the fruits of his astronomical re- 
searches, he introduced one into his castle, and published from it 
several learned pieces between the years 1596 and 1610. These 
generally bear the imprint Uranibergi Danice, and were to be had 
at the booksellers in Frankfort. 

Upon Tycho Brahe's quitting the country, these establishments, 
which are said to have united elegance with strength, were not 
only suffered to fall into decay, but were made subject to frequent 
spoliation, so much so that in the year 1652 the materials of the 
castle were used for promiscuous building, until scarcely a vestige 
of the ancient fabric remained. But at the beginning of the pre- 
sent century a better spirit revived : in the year 1805 the inha- 
bitants of the island passed a resolution that the remains of Tycho 
Brahe's castle should be protected from farther devastations, and 
be preserved in their existing state, for a precious memorial of so 
illustrious a scholar. 

Vratislavia, or Bresla, or Breslavia, Breslau, a large and 
beautiful city, capital of Silesia, and a bishop's see. It contains an 
university, founded by the emperor Leopold for the Jesuits in 1702. 

Panzer doubts whether a work, entitled Tractatus de censibus, 
by Johannes Longer, were not printed here, about the year 1489. 
However, the first book with a certain date is of the year 1503. 
In the beginning of the succeeding century some Arabic printing 
was carried on in Breslau, under the superintendence of Peter 

VRBINVM, Urbino, a considerable city of Italy, capital of 
the duchy of Urbino, in the states of the Church. It is the see 
of an archbishop, and has an university founded in 1290 : it is 
also memorable as the birth-place of the painter Raphael. 

UR.— UT. 819 

Four books of Urbino printing during the XVth century are 
known, the earliest of which, Marii Philelphi Epistolarivm, 
bears the date 1481. The only printer mentioned is Henricus 
de Colonic, who exercised his art at Brescia and Bologna also. 
From the year 1493 I have seen no Urbino book until 1602. — 

Urbs vetus, Orvieto, a city of Italy, capital of a province in the 
states of the Church, and the see of a bishop. Printing was car- 
ried on at Orvieto at least so early as 1586. — (Pinelli,) 1605— 

UrsellcB, (qu. Ober-Ursel, a small town of Germany, in Wet- 
teravia ?) I have seen a work executed here, by Nicolaus Hen- 
rici, in the year 1558. 


Urso, or Ursao, Ossuna, an ancient and considerable town of 
Spain, in Andalusia, formerly possessing an university, founded 
in 1549, but which is now suppressed. 

Printing was carried on here in the same year by Juan de 
Leon, typographer to the university, who executed a work of 
Fr. Joannes Bermuda, on musical instruments, in 1549. This 
the printer declares to be the first edition of the author, and not 
improbably it may be the first book printed at Ossuna. (See 
Antonio, B. H. N. vol. i. p. 660.) 

Vryhurg, as also Vrystadt, frequently occurs in Dutch tracts : 
but, though bearing the appearance of real names, they are merely 
fictitious imprints, equivalent to Eleutheropolis or Villa franca. 

VTINVM, Udina, a considerable town of Austrian Italy, 
capital of a district, and the see of an archbishop. 

Of the two or three specimens of Udina printing during the 
XVth century which now remain, the earliest seems to be The 
C(mstitutions of Friuli, in Italian, executed by Gerard de Lis^ 
de Flandri^, in the year 1484. Very little printing appears to 
have been carried on at Udina during this century, and none in 
the earlier part of the succeeding one. 

Utraria, Utrera, a considerable town of the south-west of Spain, 
in the province of Seville. Antonio notices printing here in 

Vttormaciurn Vangionum, or Wurmacia, Worms, formerly an 
imperial city in the west of Germany, whose bishop was a prince 
of the empire. This town is memorable for a Diet hplden in 

320 UX— WA. 

1521, at which Luther was present. Printing was introduced in 
1514. Panzer knew of only four books anterior to 1537. 
Uxomense Burgum, see Oocoma. 


Waldenburg, is the name of a town in Wirtemburg; of an- 
other in Saxony ; of a third in Prussian Silesia ; and of a fourth 
in Switzerland. An academical dissertation by H. E. Kestnerus, 
in the Bodleian library, bears this imprint, with the date 1713. 

Wales. The only information which we possess respecting the 
early typography of this principality is gathered from one of the 
Martin Mar-prelate tracts of queen Elizabeth''s reign, (about 
1588,) wherein mention is made of knave Thaclewell the printer, 
which printed popyshe and trayterous Welshe bookes in Wales. 
But nothing more has ever been discovered of this printer or any 
of his books. In the year 1550, John Oswen of Worcester styled 
himself printer appointed by the king's majesty and his highness' 
honourable council, for the principality of Wales and the marches 
of the same. (See his New Testament, 4°. 1550.) In the Gen- 
tleman's Magazine for August 1821, it is observed by a corres- 
pondent, that " from the invention of printing downwards so ad- 
" verse were the circumstances attending the diffusion of Welsh 
" literature, that there was not a printing-press in the principality 
" until the year 1734, or thereabouts, when a temporary one was 
" set up by Mr. Lewis Morris of Bod-Edeyrn, in Anglesey. This 
" identical press is still in being at Trevirw, near Llanrwst." 

Walpole, a posWown of Cheshire county, in the State of New 
Hampshire, North America. Isaiah Thomas of Boston, and sub- 
sequently of Worcester, set up a press here, and published a 
newspaper, entitled The Farmer'' s Museum, in the year 1793. 

Wandesburgum, Wandeshecum, or Wansbecum, Wandsbeck, a 
town of Germany, situate at the distance of two miles from the 
city of Hamburgh. The Jews possessed, a press here, which was 
actively at work in 1688 and for many years afterwards. (Bodl.) 
An edition of The New Testament in five languages was printed 
here in 1710; the Old Testament corresponding to which was 
soon afterwards printed in Holstein. 

Waterford, an ancient city and seaport of the south of Ireland, 
capital of tiie county of Waterford, and the see of a bishop. 
Waterford finds a place among the earlier receptacles of typo- 

WA. 321 

graphy, on account of two books of the year 1555, which have 
been assigned to it by Ames, and repeated by Herbert, upon the 
authority of MaunselFs ancient Catalogue. The first of these two 
rare articles, (both of which are to be found in the Bodleian 
library,) is entitled. The acguital or purgation of the moost catho- 
lyke Christen prince, Edwarde the VI. hyng of Englcmde, 
Frcmnce, and Irelcmde, &c. and of the Churche of Englande re- 
fourmed amd governed under hym, agaynst al suche as blasphem- 
ously amd traitorously infame hym or the sayd Church, qfheresie 
or sedidon : written by John Olde, an exile for the protestant re- 
ligion under queen Mary. It contains signature G in eights, and 
has on the recto of the last leaf, Emprinted at Vuaterford the .7. 
daye ofNovembre. 1555. 

The other is, An Epistle written by John Scory the late bishope 
of Chichester tmto all the Jhythfull that be in pryson in Eng- 
lande, or in any other trouble for the defence of Goddes truthe. 
This is a still smaller treatise, containing only two sheets in 
eights, and has no other colophon than this, Amno. 1555. But 
the letter, paper, and press-work exactly correspond to those of 
John Olde's work above mentioned, and the two were unques- 
tionably executed at the sp,me time and place. That place, how- 
ever, was not Waterford : nor, I fear, can we claim for this city 
so early an acquaintance with the mysteries of the art of printing. 
At what period the art was introduced, I am not yet sufficiently 
prepared to say. For the part which the Waterford presses 
played during the disastrous days of 1641, &c. the reader may 
turn back to the article Kilkenny. In 1643 one Thomas Bourke 
styled himseli printer to the confederate catholics of Ireland. 

I should not omit to mention, that in the Catalogue of Trinity 
College library in Dublin occurs a third Waterford book of this 
period: it is entered as " Archbishop Cranmer's Confutation of 
" unwritten verities," 8°. Waterford, 1555. This little tract how- 
ever is not now to be found there ; having disappeared, probably, 
in company with several other choice mor^eaux, which were pur- 
loined from the library by a confidential servant, a few years ago. 

In the year 1646 Waterford appears to have given birth to the 
following article ; " A new Almanac for the yeere of our Lord 
" God 1646, being the second after leap yeere, and since the cre- 
" ation of the world 5595. Calculated for the longitude and lati- 
" tude of the city of Waterford, and may serve generally for all 

322 WA. 

" Ireland : By an Manapian. Waterford, printed for the yeare 
" MDCXLVI." Reprinted, or rather animadverted on, under 
the title of " A bloody Irish Almanack, or Rebellious and Bloody 
" Ireland, Discovered in some notes extracted out of an Almanack, 
'' printed at Waterford in Ireland, for this yeare 1646. By John 
" Booker, 8°. London 1646. pp. 57." 

In this Almanac the author observes^ p. 11. " Only it is ob- 
" servable that pyrates were the founders of Waterford. I am 
" sure of it. Printing was not then used, but it seems now they 
" have got a printing-presse there ; whether it and the materials 
" came from Rome, Doway, Rhemes, or any such other Popish 
" place I know not : but they there, and at Oxford of late and 
" now, print base and railing pamphlets, and lying almanacs, 
" and in them most grossly abuse the parliament and kingdom of 
" England, who no doubt ere long will suppresse their presses." 

The Waterford original is extremely rare ; and I have never 
been able to find it : the London reprint of the same year is also 
very rare, but of this I possess a copy. 

Watertown, a pleasant town of Middlesex county, in the pro- 
vince of Massachusetts, North America. 

Benjamin Edes, a printer of Boston, made his escape by night 
from that place with a press and a few types, in the early part of 
the revolutionary war, and opened a printing-house in Water- 
town ; where he continued The Boston Gazette, and printed for 
the provincial congress of Massachusetts. 

Thomas acquaints us, that " the printing he executed at 
" Watertown did not indeed do much credit to the art ; but the 
" work at this time, done at other presses, was not greatly supe- 
" rior. The war broke out suddenly, and few of any profession 
" were prepared for the event. All kinds of printing materials 
" had usually been imported from England ; even ink for printers 
" had not, in any great quantity, been made in America. This 
" resource was, by the war,cut off; and a great scarcity of these 
" articles soon ensued. 

" At that time there were but three small paper-mills at Mas- 
" sachusetts : in Newhampshire there were none : and Rhode- 
" island contained only one, which was out of repair. The paper, 
" which these miUs could make, fell far short of the necessary 
" supply. Paper, of course, was extremely scarce, and what 
" could be procured was badly manufactured, not having more 

WE. 323 

" than half the requisite labour bestowed upon it. It was often 
" taken from the mill wet, and unsized. People had not been in 
" the habit of saving rags, and stock for the manufacture of paper 
" was obtained with great difficulty. Every thing like rags was 
" ground up together to make a substitute for paper. This, 
" with wretched ink and worn-out types, produced miserable 
" printing." vol. i. p. 343. . 

In 1776 Edes returned to Boston, and probably the Water- 
town typography then came to a final close. 

Weissenburgum Noriconim, Weissenburg, a walled town of 
Germany, in Bavarian Franconia. Printing was exercised here 
in 1729.— (Bodl.) 

Wengrovia, Wegrow, a town of Poland, in the palatinate of 
Podlachia, distant 47 miles from Warsaw. 

The Socinians possessed a press here in the XVIth century, at 
which some works of P. Gomesius were printed in 1570. 

Wessqfxmtanum Coenobium, Wessenbrunn, a Benedictine mo- 
nastery, situated in the diocese of Freysingen, in Bavaria, founded 
in the year 753. Denis {Suppl. p. 488.) mentions a German 
Chronicle without date, but supposed to be of the XV th century, 
bearing for imprint, impressa in Coenobio Wessqfontwno. 

Westminster, a considerable township in the state of Vermont, 
North America. A press was first established here in 1778, by 
J. P. Spooner and T. Green, from Norwich, in Connecticut* 
The firm and business, however, continued only a short time. 

WESTMONASTERIVM, Westminster, a city of England, 
in Middlesex, now forming part of the metropolis. 

It was in one of the numerous chapels within the vast and ve- 
nerable pile of Westminster Abbey, that Wm. Caxton, generally 
considered to be the father of English printing, erected his press 
about the year 1474. It appears that Caxton commenced his 
typographical career abroad : having travelled into the Low 
Countries, to Cologne, &c. and becoming attached to the house- 
hold of Margaret, countess of Richmond, mother of Henry the 
seventh, he was desired by her to finish the translation of a French 
work which he had already begun, namely the Recueil des his- 
toires de Trmjes of RamiL le Fevre. The period of Caxton's 
sojourn on the continent was that when the newly practised art of 
printing was in all probability an object of the greatest attraction j 
and our countryman, not slow to perceive its advantage and im- 

324 WE. 

portance, devoted his time to the acquisition of a competent 
knowledge of the ai-t, and forthwith proceeded to try his typo- 
graphical skill. The earliest works which have been attributed 
to Caxton's press are the following : 

1. Recueil des histoires de Troyes, fol. supposed to be printed 
at Cologne between the years 1464 and 1467. 

2. Propositio Magistri Johannis Russell, a small tract of five 
pages and a half, to which, from internal evidence, the date of 
1469 is assigned. 

3. A French edition of the Romance of Jason, discovered in 
the year 1812, by M. Van Praet, in the royal library of Paris. 

4. The Reciteill of the historyes of Troye, in English, said by 
him to have been finished at Cologne in 1471. And, 

5. The first edition of the Game and playe of the Chesse, 
printed by Wm. Caxton, 1474. 

It has been usual among bibliographers, amidst the uncertainty 
which attends these earlier specimens of Caxton, to regard the 
Chesse Playe as the first book printed by him in this country. 
Without presuming to correct, much less to dictate, I cannot help 
expressing my belief that they are all equally strangers to an 
English printing-press, and that our earliest English-printed 
book is either the second edition of the booh of Chess, or else the 
History of Jason, both of which may have been printed about 
the year 1475. For, as Dr. Dibdin has well remarked, the type 
with which the above five books are printed, is one and the same, 
but it difl^rs totally from any which was afterwards employed by 
Caxton; and three, or perhaps four, of these volumes are con- 
fessedly executed in foreign parts, so that there is fair and ample 
ground for supposing that the fifth or remaining volume owes its 
birth to the same city, be it Cologne or any other. Had Caxton 
brought over with him these types to England, what adequate 
reason can be assigned for his never making the slightest use of 
them in any other publication.? or had he parted with them in 
favour of any other rising artist, we should again obtain a sight 
of them in some of Lettou's or Machlinia's productions : but this 
is known not to be the case. Another question which has been, 
not unreasonably, started, " whether the earlier three of these five 
" books were in fact printed by Caxton himself, or by the master 
" of whom he learned the art," is foreign to my present purpose : 
they are allowed to have been executed in a foreign country. It 

WE. sm 

is supposed that Caxton continued to print within the walls of 
Westminster Abbey until the year 1485, when, according to Bag- 
ford, he removed to a house in King-street, Westminster, and 
continued printing till the time of his death, in 1491 or 1492, 
when his servant, Wynkyn de Worde, succeeded at once to his 
house and business. 

The productions of Caxton's press have, especially of late years, 
engrossed too much of the public attention to require any detailed 
description here. The rarity of some pieces, more particularly 
the foreign and early ones, has been attested by the most frightful 
prices" which have been given for them at public sales in London. 
According to Dr. Dibdin, (whose account of this printer and his 
works, given in the Typographical Antiquities, and in the Biblio- 
theca Spenceriana, is decidedly the best which we possess, and 
full of very curious and interesting matter,) about sixty-three or 
sixty-four Caxtonian specimens remain, all of which are found in 
this country, with the exception of the French Jason mentioned 
above. Of these, the royal library of George the Third contains 
many fine and perfect copies. Eari Spencer's rich collection can 
boast of forty-six pieces : twenty-three are in the Bodleian, in- 
cluding a different edition of the Chronicle of 1480, which differ- 
ence Dr. Dibdin has no- where remarked. The duke of Devon- 
shire, and several other distinguished individuals, are also pos- 
sessed of numerous volumes executed by Caxton. Copies in a 
sound and perfect state are very seldom to be obtained. A single 
specimen printed on vellum is known, which is (as it most cer- 
tainly ought to be) in the royal collection : it is the Doctrinal of 
Sapience, of the year 1489 ; and this copy is further remarkable 
for containing a whole chapter on the negligences happening in 
the Mass, with their remedies, which is wanting in the common 
copies, being omitted purposely by the printer, because it was not 
convenient that the lay people should read it ! A single volume of 
Caxton's press has brought at a public auction the enormous sum 
of £1060 ! as the duke of Devonshire well knows. 

The large device or monogram, which is well-known as occur- 

u On the subject of enormous prices given for rare books for some years past. 
Peigiiot has an observation too piquant to be withholden : " Depuis 1804 la somp. 
" tuosit^ bibliomanique, pour ne pas dire la folie, a fait de trfes grands progi'^s, 
" surtoiit en Angleterre, oil la livre sterling semble quelquefois voltiger dans les 
<' veutes publiques avec autant de l^gferet^ et de profusion que si elle avoit la simple 
" valeurde notre modeste franc!" (Vari^t& &c. &c. 8vo. 1822, p. 32.) 


326 WI. 

ring at the end of Caxton's pieces, is conjectured by Panzer to be 
formed from the figures 7 and 4 interlaced, and to signify the 
year (1474) of his commencing his typographic labours. 

One or two of the founts of type used by our printer, especially 
in his earher productions, appear to differ from any which are 
found in other books : his paper is strong and good ; and alto- 
gether a fine specimen of his press, though it may not possess 
the grace and elegance conspicuous in the early efforts of the 
printers of Rome and Venice, is yet to an Englishman a genuine 
and legitimate object of interest and attraction. 

Wilhermsdorff, a market-town of Germany in Bavarian Fran- 
conia, seated on the river Zenn. — 1744. (TCD) 

Williamsburg, a post-town of Virginia, in North America, con- 
taining a college, founded by king William and queen Mary. 

Virginia was very backward in admitting the art of printing ; 
which from motives of policy was discountenanced and even pro- 
hibited by the government for more than a hundred years after the 
establishment of the colony. The first printing done in the pro- 
vince was executed in this town by John Buckner, about the year 
1682 : but the press was put down by the governor of the pro- 
vince, and no more is heard of it until the year 1729 ; when Wil- 
liam Parkes, a printer of Annapolis, executed at Williamsburg 
Stall's Historic of Virginia, and the Laws of Virginia. Thomas 
relates, that until so late a period as the year 1766, there was but 
one printing-house in the colony. 

Wilmersdorfium, a small town of Germany, in the district of 
Hohenlohe, now forming part of the kingdom of Wirtemburg. 

Wolfius and Le Long mention that the Jews possessed a print- 
ing-establishment here. Several specimens of it exist in the Op- 
penheimer collection, the earliest of which bears the date 1589. 

Wilmington, a considerable post-town and port, in the state of 
Delaware, North America. The first printing-house introduced 
into the colony of Delaware was established in this town by 
James Adams, a native of the north of Ireland, in the year 

Wilmington, a port and post-town, capital of a district in North 
Carolina, North America. The second press established in the 
province of North Carolina was set up here by A. Steuart, a 
roguish printer of Philadelphia, who scrupled not to assume the 
title of " king''s printer," in the year 1763 or 1764. 

WI. 327 

Windsor, a post-town, capital of Winder county in the state 
of Vermont, North America. A press was first established here 
in 1783, by George Hough, who had purchased the press and 
other apparatus of the firm of Spooner and Green, who for a few 
years had carried on the business at Westminster in the same 

WINTERBERGA, Winterberg, a manufacturing town of 
Bohemia, in the circle of Prachen. 

Two books alone of the XVth century are mentioned by Pan- 
zer, upon the authority of Denis, as having been printed here, 
viz. Alberti Magni Summa de EuchwristicL, and B. Augustini 
liber soliloquiorum : both these are dated 1484, and were exe- 
cuted by Johannes Alacj-aw, a printer who two years previously 
had exercised his art at Passau. No further Winterberg typo- 
graphy appears. 

Winter Harbour, off Melville Island, situate in the North 
polar sea, in latitude 74 N. longitude 112 W. During the voyage 
undertaken for the discovery of a north-west passage by captain 
Parry, in the ships Hecla and Griper, in the years 1819 and 
1820, a printing-press, which had been taken on board the Hecla, 
was set to work, upon the ships becoming ice-locked for the win- 
ter, and a newspaper was composed and printed on board ; it was 
called The North Georgia Gazette and Winter Chronicle; the 
first number was published on the 1st of Novembei-, 1819, atid 
the last (N". 21.) on the 20th of March, 1820. This newspaper 
has since been reprinted in London. 

Wintonia, Winchester, an ancient episcopal city of the south of 
England, in the county of Hants. 

I do not know that Winchester has any other claim to a place 
in this volume, than that which arises from the colophon of one 
of those violent publications which abounded in England about 
the time of the Reformation. The book to which I allude is 
called. The rescuing of the Romishe Jbx, a/nd the seconde course 
of the himter at the Romishe Jhx and his advocate, published by 
William Turner, under the assumed name of Wraughton : it is 
a violent attack on Stephen Gardiner, then bishop of Winchester. 
At the end of the volume we read. Imprinted have at Winchester, 
anno Domini 1545. 4 nonas Martii. By me Hanse hit prik. 
My own opinion decidedly is, that the book in question was not 
printed at Winchester, nor indeed in any partof ^England. The 

Y 4 

388 WI.— WO. 

types are of Swiss make, similar to those of the first edition of 
Coverdale's Bible; the spelling is not English; the sentences 
printed in Roman letter found on the title-page are made up with 
Gothic w. and y. Turner, the author, was at this time an exile 
on the continent on account of his religion, and had dated his 
first Hunting of the Romishe Foxe from Basil only two years 
before. The phraseology of the colophon also deserves examina- 
tion. It is evident that the expression Imprinted have, is of Ger- 
man or Dutch idiom, not of English : at Winchester may mean 
" against the bishop of Winchester," (Gardiner) : the printer's 
Christian name is not John but Hans (the German for John), and 
hit-prik is a name which perhaps the author assumed for the sake 
of shewing that he had not failed in his object, but had succeeded 
in hitting the pricke, or mark. Hit-pricke, i. e. 6 tou o-xovov to- 
Xi^v- This rare and curious volume may be seen in the Bodleian 

Wirceburgum, see Herlipolis. 

Wishaden, a small town of Germany, eight miles distant from 
Mentz, containing about four thousand inhabitants. It is a place 
of fashioftable resort, being much frequented on account of the 
hot medicinal springs from which it takes its name. — 1821. 

Woodbridge, a post-town of New Jersey, in the United States 
of America. 

The first press established in New Jersey was at Woodbridge ; 
and for many years this was the only one in the colony. James 
Parker, a native of Woodbridge, who had for several years con- 
ducted a press and a newspaper at New York, enti;usted his con- 
cerns in that city to a partner, and began business here as a 
printer about the year 1751. His earliest book appears to have 
been a folio edition of the Laws of the Province, published in 

Worcester, a large post-town, capital of Worcester county, in 
the province of Massachusetts, North America. Isaiah Thomas, 
the historian of American typography, opened a printing-house 
in this town, in compliance with the solicitations of several gentle- 
men of the county, who were at that period " zealously engaged 
" in the cause of the country," and executed the first printing 
done in it, viz. a number of the Massachusetts Spy, (a work 
which was continued until the year 1818,) on the 3d of May 
1775. His business speedily prospered, and was greatly ex- 

XE.— ZA. 329 

tended : he united the two branches of printing and bookselling; 
erected a paper-mill, and set up a book-binding establishment : 
he was the first man who printed in America a Bible of the folio 
and royal quarto form : he is said to have now ten presses at 
work, and to possess the most complete printing-apparatus in 
America. His own work. The history of prmting in America, 
in two volumes octavo, was printed here in the year 1810. 


Xerezium, see Asia. 

XERICA, Xerica, a town of the east of Spain, in the province 
of Valencia, seated on the river Morviedro. 

A single specimen announces to us that the art of printing was 
early exercised in this town, namely, Constitutiones synodales, 
aitctore BartholomcEo Marti, which bears the imprint Xerica, 
and the date 1485. This book is adduced by Panzer, on the 
authority of Caballero. See notice of a previous edition of it 
under Segdbrica. I have met with no subsequent instances of 
the typography of Xerica. 


Yedo, or more properly Jeddo, the capital of the empire of 
Japan, a large and splendid city, situate in Niphon, the largest of 
the Japanese islands. 

According to a recent statistical account, Jeddo is the most 
populous city in the known world : it is said to contain not fewer 
than 1,680,000 inhabitants, thus exceeding Pekin by 180,000, 
and London by 406,000.-1785. 

YorJce, a large city of Upper Canada, in North America, seated 
on the lake Ontario. Printing was in use, and a newspaper pub- 
lished, in this city, sometime previously to the year 1810. 

Zagravia, Zagrab, or Agram, a strong and populous town of 
the Austrian states, capital of Croatia, seated on the river Save ; 
it is also a bishop's see. 0. 

Barletius' history of the life and actions of Scanderbeg (Alex- 
ander) was printed in this town in the year 1743. 

Zamerdam, Zaandam, Saardam, or Sancrdam, a large manu- 
facturing town of the Netherlands, in North Holland, seated on 

330 ZA.— ZE. 

the river Zaan. It was here that the czar Peter of Russia amused 
himself by studying practically the art of ship-building. 

Printing was exercised here, by Henry Jacobsz, in 1648. — 

ZAMORA, a strong town of the north west of Spain, in LeoHj 
the capital of a province, and a bishop's see. 

Printing was introduced into Zamora about the year 1482; 
and two books, one entitled Vita Christi, by F. Inigo de Men- 
doza, the other Regimiento de Principes, by Gomes Manrique, 
are remaining, which were executed in that year by Antonio de 
Centenara, the only known printer of Zamora. Eight publica- 
tions from this town during the XVth century are known and 
named by Mendez, and the art seems to have gone into disuse 
before the conclusion of the century. Panzer in fact notices no 
printing at Zamora subsequent to the year 1490 : but the Bod- 
leian library contains a handsome edition of the Spanish Chro- 
nicles of Florian do Campo, executed here by Juan Picardo, in 
the year 1543. 

Zamoscium, or Samoscium, Zamoski, a strongly-fortified town 
in the south-east of Poland, formerly containing an university, 
founded by John and George Zamoski, which possessed a print- 
ing-press almost from the time of its foundation. The earliest 
book mentioned bears the date of 1557. 

Zapetha, perhaps Zapetra, a town of Armenia ; [or, a town of 
Galilee.] See the article Saphita, p. 253. 

The Jews appear to have possessed a printing-establishment at 
ZsiTpethsL, about the middle of the XVIth century : the book of 
Ecclesiastes, printed here in 1570, is in the Oppenheimer collec- 
tion, as also the Canticum Canticorum of 1579, and other works 
of the years 1582, 1587, &c. Maseh, in his Le Long, cites Za- 
petha books of the years 1568, 1579, and 1582. How long this 
press continued at work, I have not ascertained. 

Zaragossa, see Ccesar Augusta. 

Zaslavium, Zaslaw, a town of Russian Lithuania, distant a few 
miles from Minsk. Matthias Kawieczynski, an Unitarian, esta- 
blished a press here during the XVIth century, at which was 
printed the Polish Bible of Simon BudncBus, in 1572, 4to. which 
is a book of the utmost rarity. This press was afterwards removed 
to Losko. 

Zeyma, Zeymy, a place of little note, in Samogitia, a district 

ZI. 331 

of Russian Lithuania, on the confines of the palatinate of Wilna. 
A printing-press, probably belonging to the Reformed Church, 
was erected here in 1603 or 1604 ; from which issued in 1605 a 
Polish Catechism by P. Gilovius. The press was soon removed. 
Zierizea, Ziric Zee, a strong town of the Netherlands, capital 
of the isle of Schowen, in the province of Zealand. 

The art of printing was practised at Ziric Zee at least so early 
as 1615 ; in which year a Theological conference between certain 
divines, translated from Dutch into Latin by H. BrandAus, was 
executed here by Johannes Hellenius, who lived at the sign of 
The Golden Bible near to the new Exchange. (TCD.) 

Zilly, qu. Zilah, or Zillenmarkt, a town of Transylvania, in 
the palatinate of Solrioch ? 

A Grammar of the Wendish dialect, by G. Sellenko, bears the 
imprint of Zilh/, 1791 • 

Zimmermannus. Michael Zimmermannus printed (qu. at Nu- 
remburg?) in the year 1556, omitting the name of his town. 

ZINNA, or TZENNA, Zinna, or Zenna, a monastery of Cis- 
tercians, in the government of Magdeburg, in Prussian Saxony, 
distant seven leagues from Wittemburg. 

We have evidence that the monks of this establishment once 
exercised the art of printing within their wails, in a Psalter of the 
Virgin Mary, bearing date 1492. There is so much pompous- 
ness of description about the book, arising from the vanity of its 
editor, that Panzer cannot restrain himself from giving rather a 
long account. The title of it is, Novum beatm Maries Virginis 
Psalterium de dulcissimis nove legis mirdhilibus divini amoris 
refertis noviter ad Teucri conteritionem confectum. And the 
author takes care to inform the world, that he is no less impor- 
tant a personage than Hermannus Nitszchewitz ex Branden- 
burgensi Margia Trebbinensi, Regiarum majestatiim cafellanus, 
utriusque Juris consultus magnus, circa Oderam Fra/ncafurdensiiS 
civitatis prothonotarius ! that he presented this work into the 
emperor^s own hands, who ordered it to be examined by the 
officers of his court of Chancery, and to be printed at his expense 
in the monastery of Zenna, which was accordingly done at con- 
siderable costs. Panzer observes, that the marvellous absurdity 
of the plates which it contains, considering that it was published 
under the sanction of the emperor, causes it to be a book of most 
extreme rarity. {Liber ob incredibilem Jigurarum insulsitatem 

332 ZI.— ZW. 

auctoritate Ccssared editarum rarissimus. Panzer, vol. ix. p. 

Zittavia, Zittau, a large and fortified town of Upper Lusatia? 
pleasantly seated on a branch of the river Neisse. 

A public gymnasium having been established at Zittaw in the 
year 1586, it was immediately followed by the introduction of a 
printing-press, which was erected in the religious house of The 
Paraclete, and placed under the direction of Nicholas Schneider. 
In the year 1608, this press was consumed, together with great 
part of the town, but was reestablished in 1611. 

Znoima, Znoym, or Znaym, a town of the Austrian empire in 
Moravia, chief of a circle of the same name, near the river Teya. 
Printing was carried on here in 1635, and continues to this day. 

ZuUichavia, or Zullichovium, ZyUichau, a manufacturing town 
of the Prussian states, in the New Mark of Brandenburg. An 
edition of the Hebrew and German Bible (with the GreeJc Testa- 
ment) was printed here in 1741. 

Zutphania, Zutphen, a strong town of the Netherlands, in 

Printing was exercised here, by Andreas Johannis, in the year 
1611.— (TCD.) 

Zwifalda, Zwiefalten, was formerly a rich abbey of the Sua- 
bian Alps, in the south-west of Germany, possessing a territory 
of the same name. Panzer cites one book, Opuscula Bebeliana, 
dated 1504, printed at this place, by Leonardus Clemens. I have 
observed no other. 

ZWOLLiE, or SVOLL^, Zwoll, a fortified town of the 
Netherlands, chief of the province of Overyssel. 

Of more than forty works known to have been executed here 
during the XVth century, the earliest dated is Bonaventurce ser- 
mones de tempore et de Sanctis, bearing date 1479- Johannes de 
Vollhoe, and Petrus Os de Breda are the first printers named. 
The art continued to be carried on at Zwoll during the succeed- 
ing century. 


An Index ofpseudonymes, disguised, Jhlsified, or fictitious places, 

with the earliest dates of the hooks from each which have 

come under the auihor''s observation. 

Tlie articles marked with a star relate 
during the reign of 

AdVERTE, 1671. 
iEgyptus, 1520. 
Agathopolls, 1769. 
Agra, 1748. 
Albigion, 1712. 
Albionopolis, 1613. 
Albipolis, 1669- 
Alentopolis, 1662. 
Alethopolis, 1647. 
Allemaignej 1546. 
Andrinople, 1734. 
Anneville, 1703. 
*Antipedes, (the) (1588.) 
Antopolis, 1594. 
Antre de Trophonius, 1779. 
Aquileia (Lucca) 1751. 
Arabia, 1523. 
Arcadie, 1799. 
Arips (i. e. Spira.) 
Arrivour, (1') 1547. 
Augusta (Florence) 1804. 
Babilonians, (the) 1641. 
Baldacco, 1539. 
Barataria, (Dublin,) 1792. 

Bengodi, (citta di) 1584. 
Bonne huile. 
Bourg-Fontaine, 1688. 

to the Martin Marprelate controversy, 
queen Elizabeth. 

Burlassia. — 
Cacopolis, 1758. 
Cairo. — 

Calceopolis, 1755. 
Campi Elysii, 1555. 
Cantorbery, 1686. 
Cartellana 1678. 
Chancellerie (la) 
Charitopolis, 1663. 
Chinon. — 
Chrysinople, 1764. 
Ciel (au) 1738. 
Clarefortium, 1617. 
Clareportum, 1626. 
Constantinople, 1641. 
Cornicopolis, 1773. 
Corythum, 1738. 
Cosmopolis, 1611. 
Crisopolis, 1786. 
Criticomanie, 1760. 
Criticopolis, 1755. 

Culicutidonia, 1750. 
Cythfere, 1795. 
Delhi, 1801. 
Dezert (au) 1640. 
Dicaearchia, 1647. 



Doregrial, 1668. 
Ecclesiopolis, 1648. 
Eden, 1748. 
Edimbourg, 1572. 
Een-stadt, 1620. 
Eleutheropolis, 1544, 
Elysium, 1624. 
Erotopolis, 1746. 
* Europe, 1558. 
Felisonte, 1795. 
Fidelity, (a la) 1775. 
Forum Palladium, 1696. 
Francopolis, 1685. 
Frankenburg, 1621. 
Frederik-stadt, 1674. 
Galeopolls, (Paris) 1798. 
Gallipolis, 1764. 
Gelopolis, 1660. 
Germanopolis, 1674. 
Ginevra (Florence) 1781. 
Glaucopolis, 1664. 
Gratianopolis, 1698. 
Gremerstadium, 1627. 
Grenouillerie (la) 1756. 
Gy naecocratopolis . 
Hadopolis, 1611. 
Hagiopolis, 1614. 
Hanripolis Cornutorum, 1627. 
Hasles, (snr les) 1607. 
Heilste, 1646. 
Helicon, 1622. 
Heliopolis, 1812. 
Hell, 1661. 
Hermitage, (1') 1779. 
Hierapolis, 1553. 
Hispaniae nova civitas. 
Hoopstadt, 1688. 

Jericho, 1542. 
Jerusalem, 1765. 
Irenopolis, 1645. 
Irocopolis, 1752. 
Isle d'Adonis, 1681. 
Italia 1791. 
Justinga, 1585. 
Justinopolis, 1625. 
Kalykow, 1554. 
Kosmoburg, 1665. 
Kykuyt, 1688. 
Lactophaga, 1526. 
Lampropolis, 1633. 
Lampsacus. — 
Leger, (St.) 1665. 
Libre ville, 1698. 
Livry (chateau de) 
Luce nouvelle, 1567. 
Luceburgum, 1626. 
Luxuropolis, 1748. 
Marocco, 1576. 
Merinde, 1706. 
Midi (au). 
Minutie, 1744. 
Mompeiller, 1597. 
Monachopohs, 1784. 
Monde, (le) 1774. 
Monomotapa. — 
Moropolis, 1732. 
Mount Sion, 1705. 
Neisse (sur) 1621. 
Nemo, 1663. 
Nineveh, 1661. 
Niverstadium, 1720. 
Nord, (au), 1760. 
Nod-nol, (i. e. London) 1650. 
Nomopolis, 1790. 
Nova Belgia, 1640. 
Nulle part, 1734. 
Nullus. — 



GEnozythopolis, 1617. 
Oranges, 1646. 
Orient (1').— 
Ortingano, 1761. 
*Oversea, (1588.) 
Paphos, 1788. 
Paradise, 1624. 
Paraguay, 1761. 
Palatium, 1619. 
Parnassus, 1659- i 
Parnasse, (Mont) 1782. 
Pathopolis, 1645. 
Pays libra, 1749. 
Pekin, 1734. 
Philadelphia, 1618. 
Philipsburg, 1688. 
Phosphoropolis, 1789- 
* Place, (a) (1588.) 
Pons Charentonius, 1615. 
Poistorf, 1615. 
Purmerend, 1689. 
Ratopolis, 1738. 
Regunea, 1679- 
Romanopolis. — 
Rome, 1551. 
San Vicente, 1645. 
Sardanapolis, 1776. 
Sarmatia, 1795. 
Scoropolis, 1806. 
Selenoburgum, 1681. 
Seriopolis, 1682. 

Sirap, (i. e. Paris,) 1784. 
*Sky, (the) 1589. 
Sparta, 1786. 
Stamboul, 1743. 
Stampatum Stampatorum,1670 
Stauropolis, 1681. 
Struthiorum Oppidura. — 
Surat, 1787. 
TetonviUe, 1729. 
Teuto-Dicaeopolis, 1711. 
Thlibochorus, 1624. 
Theopolis, 1574. 
Tivoh, 1710. 
Veritopolis, 1716. 
Vermeropolis, 1788. 
Veropolis, 1784. 
Verte-feuille, 1759. 
Viconi, 1722. 
Villa franca, 1602. 

Virginopolis, 1631. 
Vryburg, 1628. 
Vrystadt, 1643. 
Uranopolis, 1608. 
Utopia, 1519. 
Warnstadt, 1620. 
Waterford, 1555. 
Whitehall, 1745. 
Wiliorbanura, 1593. 
Winchester, 1545. 

Total number of pseudcmymes observed, 201. 


The names of certain ACADEMIES 8^c. which sometimes are 
found on the titles of books (particularly on Academical Dis- 
sertations) without further specification of the pkice to which 
they belong. 

Name given. Place designated. 

Academia Agrippina. Cologne. 

Albertina Konigsberg. 

ad Albim Wittenberg. 

Albimontana Mon tauban . 

Albipolitana Wittenberg. 

Archipalatina Heidelberg. 

Bambergensis Bamberg. 

Caesarea Vienna? 

Casimiriana 1 pi 

Sax. Coburgica ) 

Cattorum Marburg. 

Christiano- Albertina Kiel. 

Caroliniana Stettin ? 

Eberhardina-Carolina Tubingen. 

Electoralis-Brandenburgica Duisburg. 

Electoralis-Palatina Heidelberg. 

ad Elmum Julia Helmstadt. 

Ernestina Rinteln. 

Emmericiana Erfurdt. 

Francovadana Frankfort on the Oder. 

Fridericiana Kiel. 

Fridericiana^Alexandrina Erlangen. 

Frisiorum Franeker. 

Fridericiana-Mecklenburgensis Buetzow. 

Georgia Augusta Gottingen. 

ad Geram Erfurt. 

Herbornensis Herborn. 

Herbipolensis Wurtzburg. 


Name given. Place designated. 

Academia Hasso-Schaumburgica Rinteln. 

Hassiaca Marburg. 

Hierana Erfurt. 

Holsatorum Ratzeburg. 

Julia Helmstadt. 

Julia Ducalis Wurtzburg. 

Julio-Fridericiana 1 ,,r . n 

L Wurtzburg. 

Ostro-ducalis ) 

Ludoviciana , Giessen. 

Marchiarura ) \ Frankfort on the 

Marchica J ( Oder, or Berlin. 

Mecklenburgensium Rostoch. 

Megapolensium Rostoch. 

Nassaviensis Herborn. 

ad Nicrum Heidelburg. 

Noricorum Altorf. 

Noribergensis Nuremberg. 

T, , ^. 1 ^ T f Heidelburg, and 

Palatino-electorahs J . "' 

(^ Manheim. 

Phil urea Leipsic. 

Pomeranorum Gripswald. 

ad Pregolam Regia ..Konigsberg. 

Rauracorum Basle. 

Regiomontana Konigsberg. 

ad Rhenum Teutopolit: Duisburg. 

Rhodopolitana Rostoch. 

Ruperto-Carolina Heidelberg. 

Salana Jena. 

Saxonum-Ducalis Jena. 

Soraborum Halle. 

Teutoburgensium Duisburg. 

Thuringorum Erfurt. 

Varnc^Balthica) Rostoch. 

or, ad Varnam ) 

Venedorum ....Halle. 

Viadrina Frankfort on the Oder. 

ad Visurgim Rinteln. 

Wilhelmiana Marburg. 



Name given. Place designated. 

Athense Balthicse Rostoch. 

Carolinse Stettin." 

Gelrorum Harderwick. 

Bauracse Basle. 

Gymnasium Hagense Rinteln ? 

Lyceum Ernestinum Rinteln ? 

Typis Clarendonianis Oxford. 

Orphanotrophei Halle. 

Hendelianis Jena. 


An enumeration of the books printed on veUum, which are con- 
tained in the Bodleian library, arranged in the order of their 

N.B. The articles marked with an asterisk formed part of the Oppeaheimer 
collection, which wsis purchased by the university of Oxford in the year 1828. 

PSALTERIUM, sive Liber choralis, toX.per Johan^^'^ 
Fitst civem Maguntinwm et Petrum Schoifher de Gernss- 
heyra clericum. 1459. 

Gulielmi Duranti Rationale divinorumOfficiorum, fol.^er 
Johannem Jhst civem Magunti/imm. Et petrum Gemss- 
lieym. Clericum. 1459.* 

Biblia Latina, juxta Vulgatam editionem, torn. i. fol. 
In civitate Moguntim. per Joha/nnem fust civem et Petrum 
schoiffher de gernssheym clericum. 1462.^ 

" All the copies of this edition which have hitherto been discovered 
are printed on vellum, with the exception of one, which is on both vel- 
lum and paper. M. Van Praet mentions more than forty copies, three 
of which are in the royal library at Paris. 

>> M. Van Praet notices 45 copies of this Bible. There is a curious 
circumstance connected with the present condition of this volume. 
Having been obtained from a French collection, it was purchased for 
the Bodleian in the year 1752, in an imperfect state; the last seven 
leaves then in the volume being supplied in manuscript, and the remain- 
der, consisting of eighteen leaves, being altogether wanting. The book 
was suffered to remain in its original binding, and nothing was heard 
or thought of the deficient portion, until the recent purchase of the Ca- 
nonici Manuscripts from Venice, in 1818 ; when, among the loose 
fragments accompanying that Collection, fourteen of these identical MS. 
leaves were discovered : which, on being applied to the book in ques- 
tion, shewed instantly whence they had been taken, not only by supply- 
ing the deficiency, with the exception of four leaves, but also by exactly 
corresponding both in size and character with those remaining in the 




M. T. Ciceronis Officia et Paradoxa, 4°. Johannes fust 
Moguntinus civis. Petri mcmujinitum. 1465.'= 

M. T. Ciceronis Officia et Paradoxa, 4°. Johannes fust 
Moguntinus civis. manu Petri de gernsshemfnitum. 1466.'* 

dementis V. Constitutiones. fol . in urbe Maguntina Petrus 
Schoiffer de Gernsshem. 1467- 

C. Crispus Sallustius de conjuratione Catiline et de bello 
Jugurthino, 4" sine loco et anno ; (sed Parisiis, per Ulr. 
Gering, Mart. Crantz, et Mich. Friburger.) circa 1470.f 

Gratiani Decretum, cum suis rubricis, 2 torn. fol. Mogun- 
cice, Petrus Schoiffer de Gernssheym. 1472.5 

Sextus Decretalium Bonifacii VIII. cum apparatu Joh. 
Andreas, fol. In urbe Maguncia, per Petrum Scoyffer de 
Gernsshem. 1473.'' 

Gregorii nova Compilatio decretorum. fol. Mogwntice, 
Petrus Schoiffer de Gernssheym, 1473.' 

Breviarium Diaeceseos Herbipolensis, fol. Herbipoli, Ste- 
phamus Dold, Jeorius Ryser, et Johannes Bekenhub. 1479."' 

•= A' very fine copy of this edition is preserved in Magdalene college 
library, and another in that of St. John's college. M. Van Praet men- 
tions 23 copies of this edition, (omitting that in Magdalene college,) of 
which 12 are in England. There are copies on paper, both of this, and 
of the following, but much fewer of these have survived than of those 
which were printed upon vellum. 

^ A fine copy of this edition is found also in the library of Corpus 
Christi college. M. Van Praet names 23 copies; 13 of which are in 

' A remarkably fine copy, purchased from Payne and Foss, in 1825. 

' A second copy on vellum is in the royal library of Paris : M. Van 
Praet agrees in assigning 1470 as its date. 

B A most splendid book, purchased from Messrs. Payne and Foss, 1825. 

^ This volume consists of alternate sheets of vellum and paper : the 
alternation however is not quite regular ; the first, third, &c. also the 
last leaf containing the subscription and shields, are on vellum. 

' An exceedingly fine and magnificent copy, purchased from Payne 
and Foss, in 1825. 

'^ Van Praet describes this rare and grand book, from a copy once at 
Paris, but which has since been restored to the imperial library at Vienna. 

Unfortunately the Bodleian copy is imperfect, wanting eight leaves at 
the beginning and two at the end : it contains only 337 leaves instead 
of 347. It formerly belonged to archbishop Laud. 


Missale secundum usum Ecclesias Herbipolensis, fol. In 
civitate Herbipolensi per Jeorium Ryser. 1481.' 

Pentateuchus Hebraicus cum Targum Onkelosi et Com- 
ment. R. Salom. Jarchi, fol ed. pr. Bononice per Abra- 
ham Ben Ckaiim Pisaurensem. 1482." 

* Tractatus Talmudicus Berachoth, cum Commentario R. 
Salomonis larchi &c. Hebraic^, fol. Soncini, Josua Salomon 
ben Israel Nathan. 1484." 

Pentateuchus Hebraicus, sine anno et loco. " 

Alexandri de Villa Dei Doctrinale. 4". ParmcB, impensis 
Angeli Ugoleti. 1486.P 

S. Birgitte de Swecia Revelationes celestes, fol. Im- 
pressit BarthohmcEus Ghotam, Lubcensis civis. 1492.^ 

' For a more detailed account of this extraordinary volume, see above, 
p. 120. 

" M. Van Praet names five known copies. The present was pur- 
chased at the McCarthy sale. 

" This rare volume is not only the first printed portion of that vast 
collection the Talmud, but is moreover the very first specimen of the 
celebrated Soncino press. De Rossi possessed a similar vellum copy. 

° This unknown edition of the XVth century belonged to De Rossi, 
who has described it at p. 142. of his Annales Heb. Typogr. saec. XV. 
and calls it extremely rare. Unfortunately the copy is imperfect, ending 
with ch. 1. of the Song of Solomon. It was purchased in 1828, 

P M. Van Praet states this edition to be of such rarity, that its exist- 
ence is known only by the vellum copy of the Harleian collection ; con- 
jecturing that the copy in the catalogue of Maittaire is the same iden- 
tical book. This conjecture will assume the appearance of certainty 
from the following statement. Maittaire's copy was purchased by Dr. 
Rawlinson, and by his bequest became, with many other valuable articles, 
the property of the Bodleian. And no one, at all conversant with the 
different styles of binding, upon seeing the volume, can for a moment 
doubt of its once having been in the possession of lord Oxford. The 
volume is a small quarto, in Roman letter, consisting of 58 leaves. It has 
no title, nor false title, but begins on signature a. " Scribere Clericulis," &,c. 
On the reverse of the last leaf is the following colophon : " Emendatissi- 
" mum hoc opusculum quod doctrina refertissimum merito Doctrinale 
" nuncupatur opera et impensis Angeli Ugoleti Parmensis nnpressum 
" est Parmae. M.CCCC. Ixxxvi. die xxx. Novembris." 

1 Of this volume we learn, from Alnander's History of Swedish Ty- 



Pentateuchus cum V. Megilloth et Haphtharoth. 8vo, 
Brixie, per Gerschom Jilium R. Mosis, Israelitam Sonci- 
natem. 1492/ 

Aristotelis Opera Graece, volumen secundum, fol. Venetiis 
apud Aldum Manutium. 1498.* 

Petri Schotti Argentinensis Lucubratiunculse ornatissimas 
4to. Impressa a Martino Schotto cive Argent. 1 498.t 

Regula beatissimi patris benedicti e latino in gallicum 
sermone per reverendu dominu Guidonem Juvenalem tra- 
ducta. 4to. Imprimee a Paris par Geoffroy de marnef. 1500. 

Missale ad usum Ecclesiae Helfordensis. fol. Rothomagi, 
P. Olivgrius et Johannes Mauditier. 1502." 

pography, that sixteen copies were printed on vellum, and eight hundred 
on paper. Only two of the vellum copies are known at the present day, 
the one above mentioned, and another in the library of Brahe ; unless 
the one in the library of Slusius, announced without date, be of the same 
edition, which is probable. It contains numerous very curious wood- 
cuts, which in this copy are coloured and illuminated. 

"■ Purchased at the Crevenna sale. 

' In the library of New college is a complete copy of this edition 
printed on vellum, consisting of six volumes. For many years biblio- 
graphers, even M. Van Praet, denied the existence of the first volume 
upon vellum, as may be seen by referring to M. Van Praet's Catalogue 
of the vellum books in the king of France's library, vol. III. p. 7. but 
see the additions and corrections, vol. V. p. 370, where M. V. P. an- 
nounces that the existence of the New college volume had been made 
known to him. The library of Corpus Christi college contains remark- 
ably fine copies of vols. II. III. and IV. on vellum. 

' This copy was formerly in the Harleian collection : it was be- 
queathed to the Bodleian by Dr. Rawlinson. 

" This copy formerly belonged to Thomas Hearne, who has written 
on it, liber rarissimus. In his preface to Canideni Annates Elizabetha Reg. 
Hearne gives a minute account of this copy, which had been presented 
to him by a friend. He mentions that Missals and other Service-books 
for the use of Hereford, although distinctly spoken of in the preface to Ed- 
ward Vlth's prayer-book, were so very difficult to be met with, that 
even so diligent an inquirer as Browne Willis did not believe they had 
ever been printed. Hearne transcribes from it certain prayers for king 
Henry VIII. and Anne Boleyn ; glances at those who refused to ac- 
knowledge her as rightful queen ; and inveighs against the indiscrimi- 
nate destruction of Bibles and other religious books, at the dissolution 


La pragmatique sanction en Francoys, avec Guillermi 
paraldi de la plurality des benefices. 8vo. Imprimeh a Paris 
par Gaspard Philippe. 1508. 

Missale ad usum ecclesiae Sarum. fol. Rothomagi, Ma/r- 
tinus Morin. (imperfect.) 1510. 

Psalterium Hebraeum, Graecum, Arabicurn et Chaldae- 
um, cum tribus latinis interpretationibus et glossis. fol. 
Genue, Petrus Paulus Porrus, Mediolamensis. 1516.^ 

* Tephilloth, sen Preces Judaicas, Hebr. 4to, Pragce. 15I6.y 

Ovidii Metamorphoseon libri xv. 8vo. Venetiis, in cedAbus 
Aldi et Andrea Soceri. 1516. 

of monastic institutions ; in which he affirms that the Turks are better 
men than we, for they never suffer a single fragment of their Coran to 
be profaned or put to an improper use. 

The copy in question is beautifully printed, and in the finest possible 
condition. Undoubtedly it is of the very highest rarity, no other being 
known to exist. M. Van Praet, misled by the Repertorium bibliographi- 
cum, describes it as an 8vo. It is a folio, in two columns. 

" Of this edition it is said that 2000 copies were printed on paper, 
and fifty on vellum. M. Van Praet does not appear to have known of 
the Bodleian copy. As reference is frequently made to a note occurring 
in this edition of ihe Psalter relative to Columbus, the following parti- 
culars are given ; as though often quoted, perhaps it is not much known. 
On verse 4 of the 18th (our 19th) Psalm, is this comment: '^ Et in 
"fines mundi verba eorum. Saltern temporibus nostris, quibus mirabili 
" ausu Christophori Columbi Genuensis, alter pene orbis repertus est, 
" Christianorumque coetui aggregatiis. At vero quoniam Columbus 
" frequenter predicabat se a Deo electum ut per ipsum adimpleretur 
" haec prophetia, non alienum existimavi vitam ipsius hoc loco inserere. 
" Igitur Christophorus cognomento Columbus patrid Genuensis, vilibus 
" ortus parentibus, nostra setate fuit qui sui Industrie plus terrarum 
" et pelagi exploraverit paucis mensibus, quam pene reliqui omnes mor- 
" tales universis retro actis saeculis, &c. &c. &c.'' The life is too long 
for insertion here, as it would occupy two or three pages. It ends with 
" Hie fuit viri celeberrimi exitus, qui si Graecorum heroum temporibus 
" natus esset, proculdubio in deorum numerum relatus esset." 

I am not aware that this note is repeated in any subsequent edition of 
the Psalter; certainly it is not in that of 1518. 

y This volume contains illuminations and other ornaments of a rude 
and remarkable character. 

z 4 


Ordonnances, des tallies et aydes, et des gabelles, faites 
par leroy Francoys I. 4to. (a Paris, chez J. Trepperel? 1517.)^ 

Concordata inter papam Leonem X. et regem Fran- 
ciscum primum. Cum Heliae Turonensis quondam archi- 
episcopi libello pragmaticae sanctionis confutativo cis Alpes 
antehac nusquam edito. 4to. Tholosce, per Joannem magni 
Joanms. (1518.)^ 

Cutheberti Tonstalli in laudem matrimonii oratio habita 
in sponsalibus Mariae, Henrici VIII. filias, et Francisci, 
Francorum regis primogeniti. 4to. Londmi per Richardtmi 
Pynson. 1518.* 

Missale ad usum insignis ac preclare ecclesie Sarum. fol. 
LondAni per Richa/rdwm Pynson. 1520.^ 

Das biiechlin ist genant der Gilgengart ainer hetlichen 
Cristeliche sel. &c. 16°. Augspurg, Hans Schonsperger. 1520. 

Galeni Pergamensis de temperamentis, et de inaequali in- 
temperie libri tres Thoma Linacro Anglo interprete. Apud 
Cantabrigiam per Joannem Siberdh. 1521."^ 

Jo. Lodovici Vivis Valentini De institutione foeminae 
Christianae, ad Sereniss. D. Catherinam Hispanam, Angliae 
Reginam, libri tres. 4to. Antverpice, M. Hillenms. 1524.'! 

Dat Gants Nyewe Testament, recht grondelick verduyt- 
schet met geleerden voerreden. 2 tom. 12mo. 1525.^ 

Dialogus Syjla. Authore Tranquillo Andronico DalmatA. 
8vo. sme loco. 1527. 

^ From the Harleian collection, and subsequently belonging to Dr. 

" See Dibdin's Typographical Antiquities, vol. II. p. 478. But this copy, 
instead of the royal arms crowned and supported, bears Wolsei/s arms 
emblazoned ; and probably was a presentation-copy to that cardinal. 

•> The beauty of typographical execution displayed in this volume, and 
the brilliancy of the ink, are such as cannot possibly be surpassed. 

"^ For a more detailed account of this highly curious volume, see. p. 

<' This was Dr. Rawlinson's copy ; and in a blank leaf the following 
note appears, in his handwriting. " This copy is probably the present 
" book made to queen Catharine by the author. R. R." 

= Containing upwards of 500 leaves, quaere if printed at Delf, or Ant- 
werp ? 


*Pentateuchus, Hebr. cum Megilloth et Haphtarath. 2 
torn. fol. Praga. 1531 ,f 

*Machazor, seu Preces Judaicae, Hebr. iol.Aug. Vindel. 1531. 

Claudii Galeni de plenitudine liber: Joanne Guinterio 
Andernaco interprete. 8vo. Parisiis, Chr. Wechelus. 1531. 

ESHrH2El2, seu Expositiones antiquae &c. ex diversis 
Sanctorum patrum commentariis ab CEcumenio et Aretha 
coUectaB. folio. Veronaz, apud Stephanum etjratres tHabios. 1532.g 

P. Ovidii Nasonis Fastorum libri VI. De Tristibus libri 
V. De Ponto libri III. 8vo. Venetiis, m cedibus hazredvm 
Aldi et AndrecE Soceri. 1533. 

* Tephilloth, seu preces Judaicae, Hebraic^, 4to. PragcB. 1536. 

Biblia, Latinfe, fol. Parisiis, ex offici/na Roberti Stephami.\5¥iii 

Deux restes du sixiesme livre de Polybe, avecq'un extraict 
touchantl'assiete du camp des Remains. Et oultre un traictd 
du seizeiesme: traduictz en Francoys par Loys Meigret, 
Lyonnois. 8vo. A Paris, Vincent Sertenas. 1545.1^ 

Ordo precum totius anni juxta ritum synagogarum Ro- 
manarum, HebraicJi. 12°. Venetiis, ex Typogr. Justhiiana. 1546.' 

Compendium doctrinse catholicae, ex libris institutionis 
Christianae Petri de Soto coUectum. 12". Ingolstadii, Alex- 
ander Weissenhom. 1549. 

Idem, Germanic^. 12°. Ingolstadt, A. Weissenhorn. 1549. 

Costumes du Bailliage de Sens, et anciens ressorts d'ice- 
luy. 4°. A Sens, de Vimprimerie de Giles Richeboys. 1556. ^ 

f This is a beautiful copy, bound in purple velvet : the initial letter 
of each book is coloured and illuminated, and there are numerous other 
coloured ornaments throughout the volume. The title is a wood-en- 
graving, containing a coat of arms surmounted by a mitre, which cut is 
repeated on the last leaf. There is another wood-cut on the reverse of 
fol. 1. 

s This very handsome book consists of 1014 pages, and the present 
copy has been divided into three volumes, of which unhappily the two 
latter only are preserved ; the former, containing p. 1 — 232, never having 
come to the Bodleian library. 

g M. Van Praet notices two other vellum copies; one of which is in 
the royal library at Paris, and the other in the Casanato library at 

^ At the end of the volume is a folding plan of a Roman camp. 

' Purchased at the Crevenna sale. 

■•" This volume is beautifully executed : the printer, in an address to 


Pentateuchus hebraicus et chaldaicus, cum V. Megilloth 
et Haphtaroth. 12°. Sahioneta:. 1557.' 

* R. Isaac Abarbanel, Tractatus Corona Senum dictus, 
Hebraic^. 4°. Sabionetm. 1557- 

Judaicarum precum Compendium, Hebraic^. 12°. Man- 
tua. 1558.'" 

* Pentateuchus et Haphtaroth, Hebraice. 12°. Sabionetcs. 1558. 

* Machazor, seu Preces Judaicas, Hebraice. 12°. Mantua. 1559- 
The Letany, wyth certayne other devoute and godlye 

meditations, very necessary to be dayly sayd of the faithfull 
Christians. 20°. London. 1562. 

Articuli, de quibus in synodo Londinensi, anno Domini, 
MDLXII. ad toUendam opinionum dissensionem, et firman- 
dum in vera religione consensum, inter archiepiscopos epi- 
scoposque utriusque provincias, nee non etiara universum 
clerum convenit. (reprint".) 8°. Londini, apud Reginald. 
Wolflum. 1563. 

M. TuUii Ciceronis epistolae familiares dicta?. Scholia 
Pauli Manutii nuper aucta. 8°. Venetiis, in cedibus Ma- 
nutianis. 1574. 

New Testament, (the bishops' translation,) 4°. London, 
by Richard Jugge. 1576°. 

Exercitium spirituals canonicorum regularium ordinis S. 
Augustini. 12°. Florentice, Georgius Marescotus. 1576. 

La seconde semaine, ou enfance du monde, Sa- 
luste seigneur du Bartas. 4°. A Paris, P. THuillier. 1584. 

* Machazor, seu Preces Judaicae, Hebr. 2 tom. fol. Pragce. 1586. 

A Concent of Scripture, by Hugh Broughton. 4°. (Lond. 1588.P) 

Album of benefactors to the Bodleian library. 2 vols. fol. 1604. 

the reader, declares it to be the first-fruits of his press, to which un- 
doubtedly it does great credit. The Bodleian copy is illuminated, and 
bound in a most sumptuous manner; in all probability it belonged for- 
merly to Thuanus, to whom the work is dedicated. 

' The Crevenna copy. M. Van Praet does not notice it. 

"> A very large, beautiful copy, purchased at the Crevenna sale. A 
second is in the royal library of Paris. 

" Reprinted by Dr. Richard Rawlinson. 

° This copy has on the sides the arms of Robert earl of Leicester, to 
whom it was, in all probability, presented by the printer. 

p The Bodleian library contains two copies of this work, both which 


Jacobi Magnae Britanniae et Hibernise regis inauguratio : 
auctore Blackvodeo. 8°. Paris. 1606. 

* Biblia, Hebraic^. 8°. Hanovice. 1610. 

* Selichoth, seu Precationes Judaicae, Hebr. fol. Pragee.lGlB. 
Joannis Pici Mirandulae principis Elegia deprecatoria ad 

Deum. Et M. Ant. Mureti IC. Elegiacum votum ad SS. 
Crucem. Cum Fed. Morelli Graeca paraphrasi metrica. 4°. 
Parisiis, apud Claudium Morellum. 1620. 

Bref recoeuil et sommaire de la genealogie du comte 
d'Etaires, marquis de Morbecque &c. justifiee par tous les 
tiltres et proeuves de Thistoire de la dicte maison de Mont- 
morency: par Andr^ du Chesne Tourangeau, geographe 
du roy. 4°, Imprimie a Pa/ris. 1624, 

Arrest du grand conseil, en faveur du Prieur^ du col- 
lege de Cluny. 4°. 1629. 

Corpus Statutorum Universitatis Oxon. fol. Oxon. 1634. <J 

A speech delivered in the Starr-chamber, the 14th of 
June, MDCXXXVII. at the censure of John Bastwick, 
Henry Burton, and William Prinn ; concerning pretended 
innovations in the church. By William (Laud) abp. of 
Canterbury, (reprint) 4°. London, hy Rich. Badger. 1637. T 

Reglement general du prince de Conty, pour Tinstruction 
des jeunes religieux de Tabbaye de Cluny, 4". A Paris. 1 646. 
. Ordo Benedictionum juxta ritum synagogarum Roma^ 
narum. Hebraice. 12°. Mantua. 1653. 

Stil, usance, et forme de procedder du bailliage de Tou- 
raine, et Siege presidial de Tours. 4°. A Tours, C.Richard. (1662.) 

, Extraicts des registres de la chambre pour la reformation 
des Eaux, Bois et Forests de Bretagne. fol. Rennes ? (1664. 1665.) 

formerly belonged to Dr. Rawlinson. One has the plates struck oiFon 
vellum, the other has them, with considerable variations, on paper. In 
one copy the initial letter of the dedication to queen Elizabeth is illumi- 
nated, in the other it is filled with a coat of arms. Count McCarthy 
possessed a vellum copy of this publication. 

1 A second vellum copy is in the British Museum, and a third in the 
library of St. John's college, Oxford : this last had belonged to arch- 
bishop Laud, chancellor of the university. 

■■ With notes on the speech by bishop Williams, taken from a copy in 
his own handwriting. The reprint was executed under the directions 
of Dr. Rawlinson. 


Biblia Armena. S°. Amsterdam. "iGSB^. 

* Pentateuchus Hebraic^, cum Targum, Megilloth et 
Haphtaroth &c. IV. torn. 8°. Berolini. 1705. 

* R. Moses J3en Jonathan Galanti Novae observationes, 

&c. Hebr. fol. Wihnersdorjii. 1706. 

* Machazor, seu Preces Judaicae, Hebr. 2 torn. fol. Suls- 
had.- 1709. 

* Tephilloth, seu Preces Judaicae, Hebraic^. 8°. SulsbacL 1709. 

* Tephilloth, seu Preces Judaicae, Hebjraice. 8°. SulsbacL 1711. 

* Tephilloth, seu Preces Judaicae, Hebraic^. 2 torn. 8vo. 
Berolini. 1711. 

* Tractatus Haggadah, cum commentario R. Abarbanelis. 
cum figuris. (exemplaria duo) fol. SulsbacL 1711. 

* aliud exemplar, cum figuris color^tis. 1711.* 

Idem, 4 fol. Wihnersdorfii. 1711. 

* Tephilloth, seu Preces Judaeorum Germanorum, He- 
braicfe. 4:10. SulsbacL 1712. 

* Tephilloth, seu Precationes Judaicae, Hebr. 4to. Praff(B. 

(2 copies.) 1713. 

* Ordo diei expiationis &c. (preces Judaicae) Hebraic^. 
8vo. Praga. 1713. 

* Tephilloth, seu Preces Judaicae, Hebraice. 24°. Pragce. 1713. 

* Tephilloth, seu Preces Judaicae, Hebraice. 8vo. PragcB. 1713. 

* Constitutiones Sabbathi, Hebraice. 8vo. Pragce. 1713. 

* Benedictiones, Hymni Sabbatici, &c. Hebraice. 4to. 
Pragce. 1713." 

* Tractatus Haggadah, cum Comment. Abarbanelis alio- 
que. Hebraic^, cum figuris. fol. Pragce. 1713.^ 

' A beautiful volume, of 780 pages, adorned with wood-cuts. 

' These are handsomely printed volumes, containing fourteen engrav- 
ings on copper, the width of the page, and two engraved title-pages. In 
the second copy the plates are full coloured, and surrounded with a bor- 
der of gold. . As an instance of the mania of Oppenheimer in this re- 
spect, I may mention that in addition to these three copies on vellum, 
he had also a small and a large paper copy of the same edition. It is 
also no uncommon thing to find in this extraordinary collection copies of 
works, on red, yellow, and blue paper. 

" This book is decorated with some curious and very rude wood-cuts. 

^ This edition contains many curious wood-engravings. There is 
also a copy of the same work printed upon red paper. 


* Talmud Babyloniciim (Hebr.) 24 torn, folio. Berolim et 
Trcyecti ad Viadrum. 1713 ggr. 

* Tractatus Haggadah, cum commentario R. Abarbanelis, 
alioque. Hebraice, cum figuris. fdl. Wilmersdcyrfii. 1715. 

* Rabbi B. B. ben Jehuda Lob. Cohen, Saccus Benja- 
minis, &c. Hebraic^. 4to. Wilmersdorfii. 1716. 

The holy Bible, 2 vols. fol. Oxford, printed by John 
Basket. 1717.^ 

* R. Joseph ben Ephraim Kaco, in Orach Chaiim, (liber 
ritualis) Hebr. fol. WilmersdorJiL 1717. 

* Selicoth, seu Precationes Judaicae, Hebr. folio. Wil- 
hermsdorfli. 1717. 

* R. Joshua Falk ben Al. Cohen, Tractatus ritualis, 
Hebr. fol. BeroUni. 1717, 

* Machazor, sive Preces Judaicae, Hebr. 2 tom. fol. Suls- 
baci. 1717. 

* Tephilloth, seu Preces Judaeorum Germanorum et Polo- 
norum, Hebraice. 4to. Wilmersdorfii. 1718. 

* Tephilloth, seu Preces Judaicas, Hebraice. 4to. Wil- 
mersdorfii. 1720. 

* Faciens Judtcium, (Tractatus Hebraicus sic dictus) 
8vo. Pragm. 1722. 

Les poesies de Martial de Paris, dit d'Auvergne. 3 tom. 
8vo. Paris, A. U. Coustelier. 1724. 

* R. Isaak ben Ruben, Portae habitationis, (tractatus ritu>-) 
alis) Hebr. fol. Jesnitzii. 1724. 

* Rabbi J. M. ben Abraham Epstein, Compendium Sche- 
loh, (Bissertatio moralis) Hebraic^. 4to. BeroUni. 1724*. 

* Midrash Rabboth (a Hebrew Commentary on the Scrip- 
tures) with other tracts, fol. Amsterdam. 1725. 

* Pentateuchus Hebraic^, cum Targum Onkelosi &c. &c. 

3 tom. 4to. Francqforti ad Oderam. 1725. 

y Perhaps this work, in twenty-four folio volumes, is the grandest and 
most HEjensive ve.llum publication extant. 

^ Three copies only were printed on vellum : the above-mentioned,' 
another in the king's library, and another, for which the duke of Chando^ 
gave Mr. Baskett five hundred guineas, and which afterwards passed 
into the possession of lord Foley. 

» This is a beautiful book. The same collection contains a copy of 
this same edition printed upon blue paper. 


* Harosch et Harabed, Commentarii in Mlschnam, Hebr. 

fol. Prague. ^'^^^ 

Giovanni della Casa, Prose et Kime : edizione corretta 

per Tabbate Annibale Antonini. 2 torn. 12mo. Parigit C. 

Davitte. _ 1'^^'^- 

Theophili Downes, A. M. coll. Baliol. Oxon. olim socii, 

De clypeo Woodwardiano stricturae breves. 8vo. {Lon- 

dini.) . IW^ 

Speculi Britannias pars. A topographical and historical 

description of Cornwall, by John Norden. 4to. London. 1728. <= 

* Psalterium Davidis Hebraic^, cum versione Judaeorum 
Germanorum. 8vo. Pragce. 1735. 

A copy of the Charter and Statutes of the Antiquarian 
Society. 8vo. London. 1752." 

An account of the visit of his royal highness the Prince 
Kegent, and their imperial and royal majesties, the em- 
peror of Russia and king of Prussia, to the University of 
Oxford, in June 1814. fol. Oxford, at the Clarendon 
Press. 1815. = 

Without date. 

L'histoire d'Enguerran de Monstrelet, tom. S^e. fol. {Paris, 
A. Verard?) 

Octateuchus, Hebraice. 12mo. 

Juvenalis et Persius. 8vo. {Lugduni, Barth. Troth, circa 
1502 f.) 

•> Of these strictures, which consist of only three pages, 312, copies 
were printed ; 254 small, 52 large, 2 on blue paper, and 4 on vellum. 

<= This was Dr. Rawlinson's copy : according to whom, four copies 
were printed on vellum : viz. one for himself; one for Harley earl of 
Oxford ; one for Mr. Richardson, an apothecary in Aldersgate-street, 
London ; and one for the Rev. Mr. John Blackbourn. [Hearne's MSS.] 

^ Formerly Dr. Rawlinson's copy, containing the following note in bis 
handwriting ; " This is the only copy printed on veloin, by Mr. Wm. 
" Bowyer, and delivered to me on July 16, 1752, and is to be preserved 
" amongst my manuscripts. R + R." 

« Of this volume (which was not printed for sale) twelve copies were 
struck off on vellum. 

f Lord Spencer possesses a similar vellum copy of this counterfeit 


Philostratus de vita ApoUonii Tyanei scriptor luculentus a 
Philippo Beroaldo castigatus. (ibid) [a counterfeit Aldine edition.] 

Le cose volgari di Messere Augostlno Landulfo Vescovo di 
Monte Piloso. 12mo. {senza Itioco s.) 

* Psalterium, Hebraice. 24mo. Venef. apud Dcmielem Bomber- 
gium. [qu. 1523 ?] 

* Id. Hebraice. 18mo. Wilmersdorfii^. 

* Tephilloth, seu Preces Judaicse, Hebraic^. 24mo. Pragk. 

* Jozeroth, seu Preces Judaicae, ex ritu Judaeorum Polonorum. 
18mo. PragcB. 

Incipit Officium Sanctae crucis, cum multis aliis orationibus. 
4to. Stampalo in Piacenza per Bernardino di Lochera da 
Pavia ". 

Le livre des statuts et ordonnances de Tordre Sainct Michel, 
&c. Institution de Toffice de prevost et maistre des ceremonies, 
&c. du diet ordre. 4to. 

Partly on vellum. 
Apologia P. Pomponatii JMantuani. fol. Bonon. 1518. 
Bibliotheca, seu Dictionarium Lat. et Angl. auctum per T. 
Cooper. 4to. Lond. by T. Berthelet. 1542. 

Horse Mariae Virginis, in usum 

ecclesise Romance. 
8vo. Achevees par Philippe 
pygouchet. Libraire de 
Timiversite de paris. 1488. 

8vo. A Paris, pour E, J. de 
Marnef. 1489. 
4to. 1491. 

4to. Paris, Jehan Poitevin. 

s This volume is dedicated to Alexander de Medicis duke of Florence. 
It consists of 84 leaves : and is printed in Italic letter. The title is wholly 
printed in gold, and the page is covered with illumination, and bears an 
emblazoned coat of arms. Every initial letter of a chapter is painted in 
gold and colours ; and every capital letter throughout the book is printed 
in gold. 

'' An exquisite copy, richly bound, and enclosed in a case. 

' The Harleian copy. Probably this is of the date of 1479 or 1480. 
B.. di Lochera was in business at Padua in 1478. Panzer knew nothing 
of the volume, nor even of this printer's ever having worked at Pia- 



4to. Paris, Philippe Pigou- 
chet. 1498. 
8vo. Paris, Jehan Poitevin: 

8vo. Paris. (1500.) 
8vo. Paris, P. Pigoiwhet. 

8vo. 1502. 

8vo. 1503. 

8vo. Paris, Thielmcm Ker- 

ver. 1509. 
4to. Paris. (1510.) 
8vo. Paris, T. Kerver. 1513. 
8vo. Paris, G. Godard. 

4to. Paris. (1515.) 
8vo. Paris. (1515.) 
12mo. Paris. (1516.) 
8vo. Paris. (1517.) 
4to. 1520. 

4to. Paris. (1522.) 
Svo. 1523. 

8vo. Paris. (1525.) 
Svo, Pwris. (1526.) 
Svo. 1526. 

Svo. Pa/ris. (1527.) 
16mo. Paris. 1527. 
ISmo. Pa/ris. s. a. 
Svo. Paris, s. a. 
Svo. e/b. & Prato 

Svo. Pa/ris. 
Svo. Paris. 
Svo. Paris. s. a. 
Svo. Jehannot. s. a. 
In usum Sarum. 
Horae Marias Vir^nis. 
Svo. Impresse fuerut Parisius 
per Philippu pigotbchet. 1498. 
4to. Parisius, per Philippum 

s. a. 
s. a. 
s. a. 

s. a. 

Pigouchei. 1501. 
4to. Londinii, per Winamdurri 

de Worde. 1502. 
Svo. Pro-is. 1502. 
Svo. Pa/rrMsiis,i per Wolgan- 

gum Hopyliilm, Impensis> 

Wilhelmi bretio civis Led. 

4to. Paris. (1520.) 
4to. Paris, per Franciscum 

Regnault. 1535. 
4to. s. a. 

Svo. s. a. 

Svo. s. a. 

Horae in usum Tours, 4to. 

Paris, Philippe pigouchet, 

pour Symcm Vostre. 1491. 
Baieux. Svo. pour Pierre 

regnault libraire de Vuniver- 
site de Caen. 1497. 
-»— de Tou, Svo. Paris. Phi- 
lippe Pigouchet, 1 499. 
— Liege, Svo. Paris, Phi- 
e Pigouchet. 1500. 
Chartres. Svo. Paris, Phi- 
e Pigouchet. (1502.) 
Le Mans, 12mo. Paris, 

par Pierre le Dru. 1506. 
(uncertain) Svo. Paris. 

Rouen, 12mo. (1518.) 

(imperfect.) 12mo. 

Breviarium, 2 tom, 12mo. Ro- 

thomagi per M. mori/ii. 

Enchiridion ecclesie Sarum. 

20mo. Parisiis, Thielmann 

Kerver. 1528. 
Prymer of Salysbury use, &c. 



8vo. Paris, by Francois 

RegnauU. 1531. 
Prymer of Salysbury use, &c. 

8vo. Rothomagi. 1537. 
Breviarium, (imperfect) ISmo. 
Diurnale ordinis Cluniacensis, 

SOmo. Paris, Thielman 

Keruer. 1507. 
Orationes in missis dicende pro 
bono felici ac prospero statu 
cristianissimi atque excellen- 
tissimi regis nostri Henrici 

A a 


A chronological arrangement of the places at which the art of 
printing is known to have been exercised. 

Century XV. 1473. Buda. 

1457. Moguntia. Esslinga. 

1462. Bamberga. Lauginga, Lavinga. 

1465. Sublacense Monasterium. Lovanium. 

1466. Colonia Agrippina. Lugdunum. 

1467. Alta Villa. Marsipolis. 
Rotna. Messana. 

1468. Augusta Vindelicorum. Trajectum ad Rhenum. 

1468. (or 1478.) Oxonia. Ulma. 

1469. Coria. Vicentia. 
Mediolanum. 1474. Basilea. 
Venetiae. Bruxelte. 

1470. Berona. Comum. 
Fulgineum. Genua. 
Norimberga. Savona. 
Parisii. Taurinura. 
Savillianura. Valentia (Spain.) 
Trebia. Vallis S. Mariae. 
Verona. Westmonasterium. 

1471. Argentina, Argentoratum, 1475. Barchino. 
Bononia. Blabyria. 
Ferraria, Burgdorfium. 
Florentia. Caesar Augusta. 
Neapolis. Callium. 
Papia. Cassela. 
Spira. Daventria. 
Tarvisium. Lubeca. 

1472. Antverpia. Mutina. 
Cremona. Nova Pelzna. 
Essium. Perusia. 
Fivizanum. Placentia. 
Mantua. Regium. 
Mons Regalis. 1476. Andegavum. 
Parma. Hispalis. 
Patavium. Pollianum Rus. 
or 1475. Plebisacium. Rostochium. 

1473. Alostum. Tridentum. 
Brixia. 1477. Asculum. 
Brugse. Delphi. 



1477. Gouda. 

1478. Cabelia. 
Colla, CoUis. 

Sortense Monasterium. 

{Vienna in 

1479. Herbipolis. 


(or 1515.) Thessalonica. 

1480. S. Albani Villa. 
Austriae Civitas. 

1481. Auracum. 
Casale S. Evaxii. 
Rubeus Mons. 

1482. Aquila. 
Vienna Austriae. 

1483. Gandavum. 

1483. Gerunda. 


(or 1487.) Rothomagum. 



1484. Buscum Ducis. 

1485. Burgi. 
Sora, Soria. 

1486. Abbatis Villa. 
Casale Maior. 

1487. Bisuntia. 

1488. Frisia. 

1489. S. Cucufatis Monasterium. 


1490. Aurelia. 



1490. Portesium. 

1491. Angolismum. 


1492. Leiria. 

1493. Alba. 

1494. Brachara. 

Mods Regius, (Monte-rey.) 

1495. Forum Livii. 

Lemovicense Castnim. 

1496. Offenburgum. 

1497. Avenio. 

1498. Tubinga. 

1499. Lantriguerutn. 
Mad ri turn. 

Montis Serrati Monasteriutn. 

1500. Giennium. 
Olomucutn, Olomutium. 

(before) Steinense Monast. 

Century XVI. 

1501. Albiburgum. 

1502. Complutum. 

1503. CoUes Vallis Trumpise. 
Petracora, Petrocoriuni. 

f Francofurtum Marchio- 
J num. 

— I ad Oderam. 



Francofordia cis Oderam. 
Methymna Camp). 

1505. Constantia. 

Eremus S. Marise de Ruah. 

1506. Carpum. 
Engadi Vallis. 

1507. Bellovisum. 

S. Deodati fanum. 

C Francofortium, Franco- 
l furtum ad M%num. 


Vallis Vosagica. 

1508. Ripa. 

1509. Brunonia. 

1510. Beverly. 
Castrum Cortesium. 

1511. Sudercopia. 
Vallis Umbrosa. 

1512. Legio. 

1513. Forum Sempronii. 

1514. Ancona. 

Landessuta, Landshutum. 
Vuormacium Vangionum. 

1515. Elberfeld. 

1516. Barium. 

1517. Atrebatum. 

1518. Asta, (Asti.) 




1518. Neoboleslavia. 


S. Nicolai de Portu Pagus. 

Palma Baleariuni. 

Orthona Maris. 

1541. Guelpherbytum. 


Nova Insu a. 

1519. Arhusium. 

Stella Navarrorum. 




1542. Minda. 

1520. Ebersburgura. 

1543. Vesalia Clivorum. 

r Hala Magdeburgica. 
L Saxonum. 






1544. Ichenhusium. 

1521. Ariminum. 

1545. Abrincae. 







1522. Meldae. 



Neoburgum (Neuburg.) 

1523. Altenburgum. 





1546. Brestia. 




1547- Hannovera. 

1524. Dresda. 




1525. Csesena. 

1548. Andreapolis. 





1527. Marpurgum. 


1528. Lucerna Helvetiorum. 

1549. Canterbury. 




Micro Praga. 

1529. Burdigala. 


1530. Holum, Hola. 

S. Victor. 




1550. Budissina. 



1532. Isna. 

1551. Arevalum. 

1533. Corona. 





Mons Regius (Konigsberg.) 

1534. Embdanum. 



1552. Alba Grseca. 

1535. Dionysium. 


Pratum Albuini. 


1536. Hala Suevorum. 

1553. Moscua. 

1538. Dertosa. 



1554. Adrianopolis. 

1539. Berna. 




1540. Avaricum. 

1555. Dilingia. 




1556. Bergomum. 

1557. Remi. 

1558. Methymna Duelli. 
Ripa (Riva.) 

1559. Bless. 

1560. Pesclaviura. 
• Thiengen. 

1561. Cosminecum. 

1562. Breidabolstad. 

1563. Antigola. 


1564. Berlanga. 

1565. Duacum. 

1566. Claudiopolis. 

1567. Palmonium. 

1568. Alba Julia. 

Mantua Carpetanorum. 
1568-70. Torunium. 

Zapetha, Zapetra. 

1569. Fanum Luciferi. 

1570. Oxoma, Oxomense Burgum. 

1571. Crema. 

Visaeum, Viseo, or Viseu. 

1572. Palentia. 

1573. Henricopolis. 

1574. Antiquaria. 
Aquae Sextiae. 

1575. Macerata. 

1576. Calaris. 

1577. Christlinga. 

1578. Berolinum. 
Varsavia, Varsovia. 

1579. Grodiscum. 
Kralitz, . 

Neapolis Nemetum. 

1580. Antissiodorum. 
Ostrobia, Ostrogia. 

1581. Villa Viridis. 

1582. Amacusa. 

1583. Angra. 
Flaviobriga. . 

1584. Arcum. 

1585. Brema. 

1586. Ebrodunum. 

A a 4 



1586. Lima. 

1597. Leovardia. 



Vicus ^quensis. 


Urbs vetus. 

1598. Chaumont. 

1586-7- Zittavia. 

1599. Caletura. 

1587. Juretum. 


Laus Fompeia. 


1588. Barda. 

S. Jacobus de Tlatilulco. 

Mons Belligardas. 

Malaca, (Malaga.) 


1600. Audomaropolis. 



Wandesburgum . 


1589. Concha. 




Century XVlI. 

Wilmersdorfiura . 

1601. Bransberga. 

1590. Graecium, Graiacum. 






1591.Tacacuni, Tacaxuctium. 


1592. Carnutum. 



1602. S. Gervasius. 




Valentia, Valence, (France.) 

(Lubiecz in Lithuania.) 

1603. Helsingora. 








Vallis Paradi^i. 

1593. Amberga. 

1604. Aureliopolis. 

Belvidere. " 

Insula ad Lacum Acronium. 

Bistro vitzium. 


Haga Comitum. 




iKO/i J" Claromontium, or Clarus 
^^^'*-l Mons. 




1605. Alcmaria. 


Berg op Zoom. 

1595. Dantiscum. 




Spina Nemetum. 


1596. Altorfia. 





1606. Augusta Munatiana. 







1597- Alcobaziense Monasterium. 



Paleeopolis Aduaticorum. 







1607. Cherium. 

St. Vincent, (Spain.) 

1608. Paniovicia. 

1609. Enchusa. 

Iraciense Monasterium. 

1610. Bergeracum. 
Campidunum, orCampidona. 






Libanus Mons. 

1611. Ambiani. 
Curia Rhaetorum. 


1612. Arnhemia. 


Nissa Silesiorum. 
Portus Lusitanise. 

1613. Carolopolis. 
Basta, (Basti.) 

Harderovioum, Hardervicum. 

1615. Augusta Tricassiorum. 


1615. Osrniana. 




1617. Cadurcum. 

1618. Ceila. 
Rivus Siccus. 
Reginoh radecium . 

1619. Rochmanov. 

1620. Aschaffenburgum. 

St. Mihiel. 

1621. Anglostadium. 

Cothenum Anhaltinoruni. 


1622. Abredonia. 

1623. Amiternum. 

1624. Asturica. 
Uclesium, Ucles. 

1625. Alenconium. 


1625. Clivia. 1636. Lentia. 
La Forest. Trigueros. 

1626. Amursfortum. Villa Vitiosa. 
Asta (Spain). 1637. Interamum. 
Biterra. Lauretum. 
Castra. Mons Albanus. 
Cortracura. 1638. Angelopolis. 
Literomicium. Glasgua. 
Morlaix. Riga. 
Ravenspurgum. 1639. Cambridge (America). 
Tyrnavia. Lascanum. 

Vitis Monasteriuni. Namurcum. 

1627. Carantonus. Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Carnota. 1640. Alraeria. 
Montilla. Lesina. 

St. Quentin. Portua. 

Rotenburgum. Richelieu, chateau de. 

Rutheni. Sassaris. 

Sopronium. 1641. Astigium. 

Sora. Cephalaedis, Cephalodium. 

1628. Baranovia. Elbinga. 
Bruntrutum. Kilkennia. 
Bucharestium. Lodova. 
Burgus (Bourg.) 1642. Aboa. 
Cotoneum. Derpatum. 
Podium. Gotha. 

Villa Nova Infantium. 1643. Pistoria, Pistoya. 

1629. Belunum. 1644. Galiio. 
Geismaria. Molinse. 
Gustrovia. Velitrse, Velletri. 
Saganum. 1645. Glucstadium. 
Tergeste. Nycopia. 

1630. Sully. Quevillium. 
Taurum. Stralesundia. 
Ulyssinga. 1646. Arausio. 

1631. Arctaunum Francorum. Beneventum. 
Osnabrugura, Osnaburgura. Hammipolis. 
Straubinga. Malta. 

1632. Catuapolis. Salicetum. 
Kuteinski Monast. 1647. Arelatae. 
Quedelinburgum. Delskoi Monast. 
Racholium. Iverskoi Monast. 

1633. Hailbrunna. Oliva. 

1634. Aquae Granura. Otmarsum. 
Fastenburgum. • 1648. Auristadium. 
Lycium. Frideburgum. 

1635. Kiovia. Lingones. 
Lesna. Rochester. 
Lincopia. Zamerdam. 
Znoima, Znaym, Znoym. 1649. Corcagia. 

1636. Catana. 1650. Anicium. 



1650. Gothoburgum. 

1669. Lupiae. 




1670. Cibinium. 

Mods Pessulanus. 




1651. Mons Regalis (Monreale) 



1671. Gorichenum. 



1653. Furtum. 




1654. Cabillonum. 

1672. Nagy Szombar. 

Utraria, Utrera. 


1655. Arnostadium. 

1673. Altona. 

Clams Mons. 





1674. S. Sebastiani Fanum. 

1656. Anneciurn. 

Slouske, Sluckum, Slucze, 


1675. Colonia Alpina. 







1657. Schuol. 

1676. Boston. 



1658. Smyrna. 

Lundinuni Scanorum. 


1677- Canthuriutn. 

1659. Corisopitiura. 


1660. Bonus fons. 






St. Mand6. 

1678. Castellona. 

1661. Pesenacum. 



Veneti (Vannes.) 

1662. Steinavia. 

1679. Coligni. 

1663. Harlinga. 






1664. Lauri. 

1680. Einsiedel, Einsidlen. 



1665. Oldenburgum. 

Schlichtingsheim . 

1666. Nicsea. 


Rudolphostadium . 

1682. Revalia. 

1667. Chilonium. 


Colonia Brandenburgica. 









1684. Biel. 



1668. Isca Damnoniorum. 

Vibii Forum. 


1685. Laudunum. 

1669. Baruthum. 

Trajectum ad Mosam. 


1685. Turusa. 

1686. Philadelphia. 

Holyrood House. 
Hyetopolis ad Istrum. 

1688. Junecopia. 

1689. Briga. 
Trevoltium, Trevoux. 

1690. Mazzarino. 

1691. Chemnitium. 


1693. Bayonne. 
New York. 

1 694. Sena Gallica. 

1695. S. Germanus in Ledia. 

1696. Baieux. 

1697. Chartreuse. 

1698. GJacium. 

1700. Sancianum. 

Century XVIII. 

1701. Narva. 

1702. Ascania. 

S. Galli Fanum. 

1703, Batavia. 







1704. Aurilbac. 

1706. Halebum. 

1707. Neoburgum, (Nyborg.) 

1708. Solna. 

1709. Custrinum. 

1710. Nevir London. 


1712. Cosfeldia. 

1713. Waldenburg. 

1714. Belfast. 

17 16. Strega Silesiorum. 

1717. Kaivi^aia. 


1720. Kingston, (Jamaica.) 

1721. Augusta Eburonum. 

1722. S. Menehould. 

1725. Schneeberga. 

1726. Annapolis. 
Paddenburg, Padenborn. 

1727. Budinga. 

1728. Mons Faliscus. 

1729. Disentis. 



1730. Bridgetown, (Barbad'oes.) 


Charles town. 

1752. Aretium. 

Tugenus Pagus, Tugiura. 


1731. Assisium. 



1753. Franciscopolis. 

1732. Linga. 


Tegemseense Monast. 

1754. Bernaburgum. 



1734. Wales. 


1735. Chesroan. 



1755. Palmyra. 




1756. Arcueil. 



1736. Curia Regnitiana. 



S. lago de la Vega. 

Samplai, or Sampaloc. 

Portsmouth, (America.) 

1737. Columbum. 

1757. Gottinga. 

1738. Bregogne. 



1758. Strawberry Hill. 

1739. Bar-le-Duc. 



1759. Cella. 



1740. Casinas Monasteriura. 

1760. Ephrata. 

Fontidae Monast. 


1741. Neobrandenburgum. 

1761. Castelfranco. 

Zullichavia, Zullichovium. 


1743. Este. 

Wilmington, (Delaware.) 


1762. Buetzovium. 

Portiani Castnim. 




1744. Curia Variseorum. 

1763. Pesthinum, Pestum. 


Volaterrae, Volterrae. 


Wilmington (NorthCarolina. 


1764. Hartford. 

1745. Carolsruha. 


1746. Noviodunum. 


1747. Basseterre. 

1765. Bois-Valon. 



1748. Avilly. 

Colonia Venetorum. 

St. John. 



Roseau, (America.) 

1749. Coloca. 

1766. Barbium. 





1750. Cecerr£p. 

1767. S. Maria. 

Port au Prince. 

St. Pierre, (Martinique.) 

Ragland Castle. 

1768. Grange. 

1 75 L. Beirut. 


Halifax, (America.) 

1769. Isle of Man. 

Lancaster, (America.) 

1770. Albany. ' 












1773. Goritia. 
Norwich, (America.) 

1774. Exeter, (North America.) 

1775. Montego bay. 
Montreal, (America.) 
Worcester, (America.) 

1776. Attleborough. 
Dan vers. 

1777. Gueret. 

1778. Calcutta. 

Hanover, (North America.) 


Westminster, (America.) 

1779. Confluentes. 
VesuUum, Vesoul. 

1780. Hrapseya. 

1781. Marienwerder. 

1782. Blancoburgum. 

1783. Compiegne. 
Windsor, (America.) 

1784. St. George, (Bermuda.) 

1785. Bastia. 

Alba Carolina. 

1785. Charlestown. 


Mons Argisus. 



Lexington, (Kentucky.) 


1787. Chateau-fort. 
Havana, Havannah. 

1788. Manresa. 

1789. Buenos Ayres. 



Vitodurum Helvetiorura. 

1790. Buxovilla. 
London (New.) 

1791. Guernsey. 

1792. Bombay. 

1793. Chrysopolis. 

1794. Brookfield. 

1795. Blaje. 
Newark, (America.) 


1796. Cotbus. 

1797. Dampierre. 

1798. Alexandria. 


1799. Czenk. 1817. Ceuta. 
Marietta. Corfu. 

1800. Bosch. Eimeo. 

Gizeh. 1818. Berdyczow. 

Hadamar. Hobart's Town. 

Serampore. Tahiti. 

„ , YTv 1819. Bellarv. 

Century XIX. Benares. 

1802. Corbeil. Winterharbour. 
Dominica. 1820. Bencoolen. 

1803. Kazanum. Chinsurah. 
New Orleans. Cotyra, 
Northampton. Rovetta. 

1804. Ferrol. Syracuse. 
Penig. 1821. Arau. 

1805. Jaurinum. Bourbon. 

1806. Caraccas. Burder's Point. 

1807. Hafod. Dar-el-kamar. 
Karass. Fiesolo. 
Khizurpoor Lucknow. 
Montevideo, Nakkitchevan. 
Poughkeepsie. Wisbaden. 
Prince of Wales' Island. 1822. Bolacco. 
Ronneburgum. Caltaniosetta. 

1808. Sarepta. Corinth. 

1810. Augusta, (in America.) Cotta. 
Detroit. Hononooro. 
Kharkof. Tebriz. 

St. Louis. 1823. Bade en Argovie. 

Lynchburg. Christiansand. 

Natchez. Fort Marlborough. 

Tanjore. Jordanimola. 

1811. Bogota. Singapore . 

1812. Frogmore. 1824. Antiochia. 
Mediterranean. Bergen. 
Visagapatam. Carthagena. 

1813. Egmore. Cumana. 
Rio de Janeiro. Ebnat. 

1814. Ava. Fluelen. 
Palma. Guaiaquil. 
Rangoon. Guyana. 

1815. Astrachan. Maracaibo. 
New Lexington. Middlehill. 

1816. Amboyna. Missolonghi. 
Dedham. Nauplia. 
Dracenum. Panama. 
Jassium. Popayan, 
Jelgawa. Santa Martha. 
Lexington, (Virginia) 1825. Australia. 
Malacca. Bolivar. 



1825. Chatillon. 
S. Helena. 

S. Nicholas. 







1826. Auburn. 
S. Etienne. 

1826. Le Havre. 

S. Helier. 
Vera Cruz. 

1827. Bethelsdorp. 

1828. Patras. 

1829. Castelnaudary. 


'. 10. insert y^mio/acflJto, 1679. 

15. line 12. for nota, read nata. 

16. last line, for 1752 read 1632. 

26. insert Barbeyrac del Mbro, 1776. 

47. line 27. for Theramena, read Calamce. 

91. msert Essek, 1789. 

95. line 9. for Fiesolo, read Fiesole. 
103. insert Funahal, in Madeira, 1821. 
113. insert GuastaUa, 1671. 

120. line 5.. Add, — Since printing off this page, a copy of this Brevixtry, but im- 
perfect, has been found in the Bodleian library. See p. 340. 
1 62. insert Mctrcobraita, qu : what place ? Panzer mentions an edition of Jpi- 

cius printed here in 1787. 
174. insert Miniatum, 1747. 
179. line 6. for 1727 read 1707. 
226. (art. Pistoria) for 1643, read 1614. 
241. line 8. (art. Rio) for 1813, read 1808. 
243. line 11. insert after " Church."— 1617. 
245. line 5. add 1736. 
268. insert Soravia, 1830. 

276. (art. Syracuse,) add, — Printing was executed here in 1781. 
312. (art. Fismaria,) for 1698, read 1657. 


Aachen, see Aqute Granum. 
Aarhusium, see Arhusium. 

Abbeville, see Abhatis Villa. 
Aberdeen, see Ahredonia. 
Aboa, 1642. 1 

Abredonia, 1622. 1 

Abrincae, 1545. 5 

Academia Julia, see Helmestadium. 
Acqui, see Alha. 

Adrianopolis, 1554. 5 

iEsernia, 1644. 5 

.aESSIVM, JIXIVM, see Essium. 
Aeth, see Athum. 
Agen, see Aginnum. 
Aginnum, 1545. 5 

Agram, see Zagrabia. 
Agria, 1687. 5 

Aia, (1') see Haga. 
Aichstadt, .see Eichstadium, . and 

Aix, see Aqua Sextiee. 
Aix-la-Chapelle, see Aquee Gra- 
ALBA, 1493. 6 

Carolina, 1785. 6 

Graeca, 1552. 6 

Julia, 1568. 6 

Regalis. 6 

S. ALBANI VILLA, 1480. 7 
Albany, 1770. 7 


Albiburgum, 1501. 8 

Albiore in Sassonia, see Vitemberga. 
Alburgum. 8 

Alcala de Henares, see Complutum. 
Alcmaria, 1605. 8 

AlcobazienseMonasterium, 1597- 8 
ALDENARDA, 1480. 8 

Alenconium, 1625. 8 

Aleppo, see Halebum. 
Alexandria, 1798. 8 

Alisium, see Hailbruna. 
Alraeria, 1640. 9 

ALOSTVM, 1473. 9 

ALTA VILLA, 1467. 9 

Altdorfium, see AUorfia. 
Altenburgum, 1523. 9 

Altona, 1673. 9 

Altorfia, 1596. 9 

Amacao, see Macao. 
Amacusa, 1582. 9 

Amberes, see Antverpia. 
Amberga, 1593. 10 

Ambiani, 1611. 10 

Amboyna, 1816. 10 

Amiens, see Ambiani. 
Amiternum, 1623. 11 

Amstelsdamum, 1523. 11 

Amsterdam, see Amsteladamum. 
Amursfortum, 1626. 11 

Ancona, 1514. 12 

ANDEGAVVM, 1476. 12 

Andover, (America) 1818. 12 

AndreapoHs, 1548. 12 

St. Andrew's, see Andreapolis. 
Aneda, see Edinburgum. 
St. Angelo, see Saniangelium. 
Angelopolis, 1639. 12 

Angers, see Andegavum. 
Anglesola, see Antigola. 
Anglostadium, 1621. 13 

ANGOLISMVM, 1491. 13 

Angouleme, see Angolismum. 
Angra, 1583. 13 

Anicium, 1650. 13 

Annseburgum, 1597. 13 

Annapolis, 1726. 13 

Annecium, 1656. 14 

Ausloga. 14 

Anspachium, see Onoldinum. 
Antequera, see Antiquaria. 
Antigola, 1563. 14 

Antiochia, 1824. 14 




Antiquaria, 1574. 14 
Antissiodorum, see Autissiodorum. 
Antreguier, see Lantriguierum. 

ANTVERPIA, 1472. 14 

AquiE Granum, 1634, 15 

Aqu» Sextiae, 1574. 15 
AQV^ STATIELLiE, see Alha. 

AQVILA, 1482. 15 
Arae Flaviae, see Blabyria. 

Aran, 1821. 16 

Arausio, 1646. 16 

Arctaunum Francorum, 1631. 16 

Arcueil, 1756. 16 

Arcum, 1584. 16 

Arelatae, 1647. 16 
Arenacum, see Amhemia. 

Aretium, 1752. 16 

Arevalum, 1551. 17 
Arezzo, see Aretium. 

TVM, 1471. 17 

Arhvisium, 1519. 17 

Ariminum, 1521. 17 
Aries, see Arelata. 

Arnheraia, 1612. 18 
Arnoldi villa, see Amhemia. 

Arnostadiura, 1655. 18 
Arnstadt, see Arnostadium. 

Arosia, 1621. 18 

Arras, see Atrebatum. 18 

Ascania, 1702. 18 

Aschaffenburgum, 1620. 18 
Ascoli, see Asculum. 

ASCVLVM, 1477. 18 

Assisium, 1731. 19 

Asta, (Asti) 1518. 19 

Asta, (in Spain) 1626. 19 

Astigium, 1641. 19 
Astorga, see Asturica. 

Astrachan, 1815. 19 

Asturica, 1624. 19 
Ata cliath, see Dublinium. 

Athense. 19 

Rauracae, see Basilea. 

Athum, 1622. 20 

Atrebatum, 1517. 20 

Attleborough, 1776. 20 

Ava, 1814. 20 

Avaricum, 1540. 20 

Auburn, 1826. 20 

Auchinlech. 20 

Audomaropolis, 1600. 21 

AVENIO, 1497. 21 

Augsburg, see Augusta Vindelico- 

Augst, see Augusta Munatiana. 
Augusta, (in America) 1810. 21 

Eburonum, 1721. 21 

Munatiana, 1606. 21 

Perusia, see Perusia. 

Rauracorum, see Augusta 


Taurinorum, see Tauri- 

Trebocorum, see Argen- 


Trecarum, see Trecce. 

Treviroruni, see Treviri. 

Tricassiorum, 1615. 22 

Trinobantuni, see Londi- 


Vangionum, see Vorma- 



Augustodunum, 1596. 22 

Augustoritum Pictonum, see Le- 

movicense Castrum. 
Avignon, see Avenio. 
AviUy, 1748. 23 

Aula regia. 22 

AVRACVM, 1481. 23 

Avranches, see Abrincce. 
AVRELIA, 1490. 24 

Aurelia Allobrogum, see Geneva. 
Aureliopolis, 1604. 24 

AuriUac, 1704. 24 

Auristadium, 1648. 24 

Australia, 1825. 24 

AVSTRI^ CIVITAS. 1480. 24 
Autissiodorum, 1580. 24 

Autun, see Augustodunum. 
Auxerre, see Autissiodorum. 
Azores Islands, see Angra. 

Babenberga, see Bamberga. 
Baga, see Basta. 

Bade en Argovie, 1823. 25 

Baega, see Beacia. 
Bagnolet, 1600. 35 

Baieux, 1696. 25 

Baltimore, 25 



BAMBERGA, 1462. 


Bernaburgum, 1754. 


Bar-le-duc, 1739. 


Bernbourg, see Bernaburgum. 

Baranovia, 1628. 


Berolinum, 1578. 


Barbastro, 1622. 


Beron Minster, see Berona. 

Barbium, 1766. 


BERONA, 1470, or 1472. 


Barcelona, see Barchino. 

Besangon, see Bisuntia. 

BARCHINO, 1475. 


Bethania, 1620. 


BARCVM, 1497. 


Betheldorp, 1827. 


Barda, 1588. 


Beverley, 1510. 


Barium, 1516. 


Beziers, see Biterra. 

Barlanga, see Berlanga. 

Biatia, see Beacia. 

Baruthum, 1669. 


Biel, 1684. 


Barxino, see Barchino. 

Bienne, 1770. 


Basatum, see Vasatum. 

Bilbao, see Flaviobriga. 

BASILEA, 1474. 




Bassanum, 1623. 


Binchium, 1545. • 


Basseterre, 1747. 


Binga, 1786. 


Basta, (Basti) 1614. 


Bionne, 1673. 


Bastia, 1785. 


Bipontium, 1597. 


Batavia, 1703. 


Bipontium, see Vallis Vosagica 

Baudissa, see Budissina. 

Bistrovitziuni, 1593. 

" 34 

Bautzen, see Budissina. 

BISVNTIA, 1487. 


Bayeux, see Baieux. 

Biterra, 1626. 


Bayonne. 1693. 




Bayruth, see Baruthum. 

Biturigae, see Avaricum. 

Baza, see Basta. 

BLABYRIA, 1475. 


Bazas, see Vasatum. 

Blaje, 1795. 


Beacia, 1551. 


Blancoburgum, 1782. 


Beauvais, see Bellovacum. 

Blakenburg, see Blancoburgum. 

Beirut, 1751. 


S. Blasii Monasterium, before 1750. 

Belfast, 1714. 



Bellary, 1819. 


Blaubeuern, see Blabyria. 

Bellegrade, see Alba Greeca 

Blesae, 1559. 


Bellositum Dobunorum, see 


Bliterae, see Biterra. 

Bellovacum, 1631. 


Blois, see Blesa. 

Bellovisum, 1507. 


Bochina, 1827- 


Belvidere, 1593. 


Bogota, 1811. 


Belunum, (Belluno) 1629. 


Bois-le-Duc, see Buscum Duc'u 


Benares, 1819. 


Bois-Vallon, 1765. 


Bencoolen, 1820. 


Bolaceo, 1822. 


Beneventum, 1646. 


Boleslavia, 1612. 


Benfica, 1623. 


Bolivar, 1825. 


Berdyczow, 1818. 


Bologna, see Bononia. 

Berg-op-Zoom, 1605. 


Bombay, 1792. 


Bergamo, see Bergomum. 

Bonna, 1543. 


Bergen, 1824. 


Bonnefont, see Bonus Fons. 

Bergeracum, 1610. 


BONONIA, 1471. 


Bergomum, 1556. 


Bonus Fons, 1660. 


Berlanga, 1564. 


Borgo di S. Sepolcro, see Biturgia. 

Berlin, see Berolinum. 

Bordelen, see Burdigala. 

Berna, 1539. 


Bosch, 1800. 





Boston, 1676. 38 

Bouillon, see Bullio. 

Bourbon, 1821. 38 

Bourdeaux, see Burdigala. 

Bourg en Bresse, see Burgus. 

Bourges, see Avaricum. 

Braccianum, 1621. 38 

Brachara, or•^ 

Braclara, or VI 494. 39 

Braga, J 

Brandenburg, New, see Neobran- 

Bransberga, 1601. 39 

Braunsperga, see Bransberga. 
Bravum Burgi, see Burgi. 
Brecennum, see Braccianum. 
Breda, 1615. 39 

Bregogne, 1738. 39 

Breidabolstad, 1562. 39 

Brema, 1585. 39 

Breschia, see Brixia. 
Brescz, see Brestia. 
Breslauj see Vratislavia. 
Brest, about 1650. 39 

Brestia, 1546. 40 

Bridgetown, Barbadoes, 1730. 40 
Brieg, see Briga. 

Briele, 1772. 40 

Briga, 1689. 41 

Brinn, see Brunna. 
BRIXIA, 1473. 41 

Brookfield, 1794. 41 

BRVGJi, 1473. 41 

BRVNNA, 1486. 42 

Brunonia, 1509. 42 

Brunopolis, see Bransberga. 
Brunsberga, see Bransberga. 
Brunsfelsium, 1543. 42 

Brunsvicum, Brunsviga, see Bru- 
Bruntrutum, 1628. 42 

Brussels, see Bruxellos. 
BRVXELLJE, 1474. 42 

Brzescz, see Brestia. 
Bucharestium, 1688. 43 

BVDA, 1473. 44 

Budinga, 1727. ~ 44 

Budissina, 1550. 44 

Buenos- Ayres, 1789. 44 

Buetzovium, 1762. 44 

Bueza, see Beada. 

Bulak, see Bolacco. 
Bullio, 1765. 45 

Buntzlau, see Boleslavia. 
Burder's Point, 1821. 45 

Burdigala, 1529. 45 

BVRGDORFIVM, 1475. 45 

BVRGI, 1485. 45 

Burgum Auracense, see Auracum. 
Burgura Uxomense, see Oxoma. 
Burgus, 1628. 45 

Burlington, 1770. 46 

BVSCVM DVCIS, 1484. 46 

Butzow, see Buetzovium. 
BuxoviUa, 1790. 46 

Byruthum, see Baruthum. 

CABELIA, 1478. 46 

Cabillonum, 1654. 46 

Caceres. 46 

Cadiz, see Gades. 

CADOMVM, 1480. 46 

Cadurcum, 1617. 47 

Caen, see Cadomum. 
CaerfiJTthin. 47 

Caerfrangon. 47 

Caer-Graunt. 47 

Caer-Ludd. 47 

C^SAR AVGVSTA, 1475. 47 
Caesarodunum, see Turones. 
Csesena, 1525. 47 

Caetobris, see Satobris. 
Cagli, see Callium. 
Cagliari, see Calaris. 
Cahors, see Cadurcum. 
Cairo, see Kahira. 
Calais, see Caletum. 
Calamata. 47 

Calaris, 1576. 47 

Calceata. 48 

Calcutta, 1778. 48 

Caldoriana Societas, 1609. 48 

Caletum, 1599. 48 

Calissium, 1606. 48 

Caller, see Calaris. 
CALLIVM, 1475. 48 

Calmaria, 1620. 49 

Calmarsund, see Calmaria, 
Caltaniosetta, 1822. 49 

Calzada, see Calceata. 
Caraberiacura, see Chamberium. 
Cambray, see Cameracum. 

Cambridge, (America) 1639. 49 

Cambridge, see Cantabrigia. 

Cameracum, 1601. 

Camerinum, 1575. 

Campi, 1599. 

Campidunum, or Campidona, 1610. 

Canicopolis, see Kilkennia. 
Cantabrigia, 1521. 
Canterbury, 1549. 

Canthurium, 1677. 54 
Canton, see Quam-cheu. 

Cape Franyois. 54 

Cape Town. 55 

Capua. 55 

Caracas, 1806. 55 

Carantonus, 1627. 56 

Carcassona, 1517. 56 
Carentonium, see Carantonus. 

Cariscrona, 1687- 56 
Carlsruhe, see CaroUruha. 

CARMAGNOLA, 1497. 56 

Carnota, 1627. 56 

Camutum, 1592. 56 

Carolopolis, 1613. 56 

Carolsruha, 1745. 56 

Carpentras, see Carpentoratum. 

Carpum, 1506. 57 

Carthagena, 1824. 57 
Casal di S. Vaso, see Casale 

S. Evaxii. 
Casal Maggiore, see Casale Major. 

CASALE MAIOR. 1486. 57 

S. EVAXn, 1481. 57 

Casanum, see Kasanum. 
Caschau, see Cassovia. 

Caseres, 1703. 57 
Casinas Monasterium, 1740. 57 
Cassel, see Cassellce. 

CASSELA, 1475. 58 

Cassellae, 1599. 58 
Casselle, see Cassela. 
Cassovia, 1620. . 58 
Castel a mare, see Stabia. 

Castelfranco, 1761. 58 
Castello, see Tifemwm. 

Castellona, 1678. 58 

Castelnaudary, 1829. 58 

Castra, 1626. 58 

Castrum Cortesium, 1510. 58 

I N D 

E X. 


. 49 

Casurgis, see Praga. 

Catalaunum, 1601. 



Catana, 1636. 



Catuapolis, 1632. 



Cecerrae, 1750. 



Cefalu, see Cephaleedis. 


Cella, 1759. 


Cellffi, 1618. 



Cenomani, 1546. 



Centum, 1543. 


Cephalffidis, \iq^y 59 

Cephalodium, J 
Cervaria, Cervera, see Cecerrce. 
Cervicornus E. 1536. 39 

Cesena, see Casena. 
Cetobrica, see Satobris. 
Ceulen, see Colonia. 
Ceuta, I8I7. 60 

Chablies, or Chablitz, see Cabelia. 
Chalons sur Marne, see Catalau- 
Chalons sur Saone, see Cabillo- 


CHAMBERIVM, 1484. 60 

Chanteloup, 1778. 60 

Charenton, see Carantonus. 
Charity (la) 1711. 60 

Charleston, 1785. 60 

Chariestown, 1730. 60 

Charleville, see Carolopolis. 
Charlottetown, see Roseau. 
Chartres, see Camutum. 
Chartreuse, 1697. 60 

Chaswan, see Chesroan. 
Chateau-fort, 1787. 61 

Chatillon-sur-Seine, 1825. 61 

Chaumont, 1598. 61 

Chemnitium, 1691. 61 

Cherium, 1607. 61 

Chesroan, 1735. 61 

Chester, 1656. 62 

Chiaramonte, see Clarus Mons. 
Chieri, see Cherium. 
Chillicothe, 1795. 62 

Chilonium, 1667. 62 

Chinsurah, 1820. 63 

Chios. 62 

Chivas, Chivazzo, see Clavasium. 
Christbourg, see Christlinga, 
Christiania, 1656. 63 

Christiansand, 1823. 63 




Christianstedt, 1770. 63 

Christlinga, 1577- 63 

Chrysopolis, 1793. 63 

Cibinium, 1670. 63 

Cincinnati, 1795. 63 

Citizum, see.Ciza. 
Citta di Castello, see Tifernum. 
Ciudad de los Reyes, see Lima. 

di Friuli, see Austria Ci- 

Ciza, 1677. 64 

Clagenfurt, see Klagenfurth. 

COLONIA Claudia, see Colonia 



Claroraontium, or \ 
Clarus Mons, i 
Clarus Mons, 1655. 64 

CLAVASIVM, 1486. 64 

Claudiopolis, 1566. 64 

Clausenburg, see Claudiopolis. 
Clausthal, 1727. 64 

Clermont, see Claromontium. 
Cleves, see Clivia. 
Clivia, 1625. 64 

Cluni, see Cluniacum. 
CLVNIACVM, 1493. 64 

Coblentz, see Confluentes. 
COBVRGVM, 1482, or 1530. 64 
Codania, see Hafnia. 
Codogno, see Cotoneum. 
Coesfeld, see Cosfeldia. 
Coevorde, 1829. 65 

Coimbra, see Conimbrica. 
Coire, see Curia Rfuetorum. 
Colberga, 1656. 65 

Coligni, 1679. 65 

COLLA, COLLIS, 1478. 65 

CoUe, see Colles Vatlis TrumpicE. 
CoUes Vallis Trumpiae, 1503. 65 
Colmar, see Columbaria. 
Colniaria, 1523. 65 

Coin, see Colonia Brandenburgica. 
Coloca, 1749. 65 

Colocza, see Coloca. 
Cologna, see Colonia Venetorum. 
Cologne, see Colonia Agrippina. 
Coloma, see Colonia Agrippina. 
Colombo, see Columbum. 
-^— — Allobrogum, see Geneva. 

Alpina, 1675. 66 

Brandenburgica, 1667. 




■ Julia Romana, see Hi- 

■ Munatiana, see Basilea. 

JO T seeColonia 

• ad opream, I „ , 
, c! /■ Branden- 

■ ad ouevum, i , 
J burgica. 

■ Venetorum, 1765. 67 
- Viriathica, see Madri- 

Ubiorum, see Colonia 

Coloswar, see Claudiopolis. 

Columbaria, 1754. 67 

Columbia, 1826. 67 

Columbum, 1737. 67 

Comaromium, 1795. 67 

Commelinus. 67 

Comopolis, 1620. 67 
Comorn, see Comaromium. 

Compiegne, 1783. 67 

Complutum, 1502. 68 

Compostella, 1673. 68 

COMVM, 1474. 68 

Concha, 1589. 68 
Condivincum Nannetum, see Nan- 


Condomium, 1689. 69 

Coneglianum, 1611. 69 

Confluentes, 1779. 69 
Coni, see Cuneum. 

Conimbrica, 1516. 69 
Consentia, see Cusentia. 

Constantia, 1505. 69 

Copenhagen, see Hafnia. 

Corbachium, 1678. 71 

Corbeil, 1802. 71 

Corcagia, 1649. 71 
Cordova, see Corduba. 

Cordova (S. America.) 72 

Corduba, 1585. 72 

Corfu, 1817. 72 

CORIA, 1469. 72 
Corigsmia, see Koregismum. 

Corinth, 1822. 72 

Corisopitium, 1659. 72 
Cork, see Corcagia. 
Comouaille, see Corisopitium. 

I N D E X. 


Corona, 1533. 73 

Correggio, 1555. 73 

Correria, 1687. 73 

Corte, 1794. 73 

Cortona. 73 

Cortracutn, 1626. 73 
Cortryck, see Cortracum. 

Corunna. 74 
Cosenza, see Cusentia. 

Cosfeldia. 1712. 74 

Cosminecum, 1561. 74 

Cotbus, 1796. 74 
Cothenum Anhaltinorum, 1621. 74 
Cothon, see Cothenum. 

Cotoneum, 1628. 74 

Cotta, 1822. 74 

Cotym, 1820. 74 
Courtray, see Cortracum. 

CRACOVIA, 1491. 74 

Crema, 1571. 75 

CREMONA, 1472. 75 
Crisopolis, see Chrysopolis. 

Crispinus (Jo.) 75 
Cronstadt, see Corona. 

Cuba. 75 

VM, 1489. 
Cuelen, see Colonic. 
Cuen^a, see Concha. 
Cumana, 1824. 
Cuneum, 1507. 
Curia Regnitiana, 1736. 

Rhaetorum, 1611. 

Variscorum, 1744. 

CVSENTIA, 1478. 
Custrinum, 1709. 
Cutna, see Kuttemherga. 
Cygnea, 1523. 
Czenk, 1799. 
Czenstochovia, 1693. 
Czernigov, see Tzernogavia. 

Damascus, 1605. 
Dampierre, 1707- 
Danhusiutn, 1592. 
Dantiscum, 1595. 
Dantzic, see Dantiscum. 
Danvers, 1776. 
Dar-el-kamar, 1821. 
Darmstadium, 1611. 








DAVENTRIA, 1475. 79 

Daubraviciutn. 79 

Debrecinuin, 1756. 79 
Debreczin, Debretzen, see Debreci- 


Dedham, 1816. 79 
Delft, see Delphi. 

DELPHI, 1477. 79 

Delskoi Monasterium, 1647- 79 
S. Denis, see Dionysium. 

S. Deodati fanum, 1507. 79 

Derpatura, 1642. 80 

Dertona, 1614. 80 

Dertosa, 1538. 80 

Dessavia, 1696. 80 

Detmoldia, 1787. 80 

Detroit, 1810. 80 
Deventer, see Daventria. 
Deuxponts, see Bipontium. 

Dia, 1660. 80 
St. Diey, see S. Deodati Fanum. 
Dijon, see Divio. 

SliSa.} ''''■ 
Dionvsium, 1535. 81 

Disentis, 1729. 81 

DIVIO, 1491. 81 

Divodurum, see MettB. 
Divona Cadurci, see Cadurcum. 
Dobrorailium, 1611. 81 

Doesberg, see Duisburgum. 
DOLA, 1490. 81 

S. Domingo, before 1700. 81 

S. Domingo de Calzada, see Cal- 

Dominica, 1802. 82 

Dordracum, 1571, 82 

Dordrecht, see Dordracum. 
Dorpatum, see Derpatum. 
Dort, see Dordracum. 
Dortmund, see Tremonia. 
Douay, see Duacum. 
Dracenum, 1816. 82 

Draguinianum, see Dracenum. 
Dresda, 1524. 82 

Driesen, see Trisinga. 
Drontheim, see Nidrosia. 
Duacum, 1565. 82 

Dublinura, 1551. 83 

Duderstadium, 1675. 84 

Duillier, 1677. 84 



I N D E X. 

Duisburgiim, 1592. 84 

Dun Eudain, see Edinburgum. 
Dunikerka, 1677- 84 

Dunkard town, see Ephrata. 
Diirlach, see Turrelacum. 
Durocorturum, see Remi. 
Dusseldorf, see Dusseldropium. 
Dusseldropium, 1561. 84 

Dyrenfurtum, 1679. 84 

Ebernburg, see Ebersburgum. 
Ebersburgum, 1520. 84 

Eblana, see Dublinum. 
Ebnat, 1824. 84 

Ebora, 1521. 85 

Eboracum, 1509. 85 

Ebrodunum, 1586. 85 

Ebroicum, 1601. 85 

Echmiazin, Ecsniiasim, Ecmeazin, 

Echota, 1827. 86 

Ecija, see Asti^um. 
Edinbrucium, see Edinburgum. 
Edinburgum, 1507. 86 

Eger, Egra, see Agria. 
Egina. 87 

Egmore, 1813. 87 

Eichstadium, 1787. 87 

Eichstadt, see Eustadium. 
Eimeo, 1817. 87 

Einsiedel, Einsidlen, 1680. 87 
Eisenach, see Jsenacum. 
Eisleben, see Islebia. 
Eisteta, see Eustadium, 
Elberfeld, 1515. 88 

Elbinga. 1641. 88 

Elna, see Perpinianum. 
Elsinore, see Helsingora. 
Eltville, see Alta villa. 
ELTWILLA, see Alta villa. 
Elvetiorum Argentina, see Argen- 
Embdanuni, 1534. 88 

Enibrica, Embricum, 1683. 88 
Enidon, see Embdanum. 
Emerita, 1545. 89 

Emmericura, see Embrica. 
Enchusa, 1609. 89 

Engadi Vallis, 1506. 89 

Engolismum, see Angolimium. 
Ephrata, 1760. 90 

Epila, 1596. 90 

Epinal, 1756. 90 

Eremus S.Mariie de Ruah, 1505. 90 
ERFORDIA, 1482. 91 

Ergovia, see Beronai 
Erlanga, 1744. 91 

Erphordia, see Erfordia. 
ESSIVM, 1472. 91 

ESSLINGA, 1473. 91 

Este, 1743. 92 

Estella, see Stella. 
Etienne, (S.) 1896. 92 

Etlingen, see Ettelinga. 
Etona, 1610. 92 

Etruria, 1787. 92 

Ettelinga, 1531. 93 

Evie, 1611. 93 

Evora, see Ebora. 
Evreux, see Ebroicum. 
EVSTADIVM, 1478. 93 

Exeter, see Isca Damnoniorum. 
Exeter, (North America) 1774. 93 
Exija, see Astigium. 
Exonia, see Isca Damnoniorum. 

Faenza, see Faventia. 
Fanum, 1502. 93 

Fanum Luciferi, 1569. 94 

Farnese, 1600. 94 

Fastemburgum, 1634. 94 

Faventia, 1616. 94 

Feldkirck, see Feldkirchia. 
Felsina, see Bononia. 
Fermo, see Ftrmium. 
Ferney, 1772 ? 94 

FERRARIA, 1471. 94 

Ferrol, 1804. 95 

Fiesole, 1821. 95 

Firenze, Fiorenza, see Florentia. 
Firmium, 1586. 95 

Fishkill, 1776. 95 

FIVIZANVM, 1472. 95 

Flaviobriga, 1583. 95 

Fleche, see Mexia. 
Flenopolis, see Flensburgum. 
Flensburgum, 1675. 95 

Flessinga, 1609. 96 

Flexia, 1612. 96 

FLORENTIA, 1471. 96 

Fluelen, 1824. 97 

Foligno, see Fulgineum. 



Fontanetura Comitis, 1610. 97 

Forest (la) 1625. 97 
Forli, see Forum Lwii. 

Fort-Marlborough, 1823. 97 
Fort St. George, see Madras. 

Fort-William, about 1800. 98 

Forum Cornelii. 98 

Julium, see AustricB Civitas. 

LIVII, 1495. 98 

Sempronii, 1513. 98 

Fossombrone, see Forum Sempronii, 

Franciscopolis, 1753. 99 
Francofortium, "j 

Francofurtum >1507. 99 

ad Maenum,J 
Marchi- ") 

ad Ode- 

► 1504. 100 
ram. ( 

Francophordia cis O- | 

deram. J 

Francphordia, see Francofurtum. 

Franequera, 1586. 100 

Frankenthal, 1611. 100 
Frankfort, see Francofurtum. 

Frankfort (America) 100 

Fraunitz. 100 

Fraustadium, before 1700. 100 

Fredericksburg, 1787. 100 

Fredericstadt, 1624. 101 

Freistadium, 1622. 101 
Freysinga, see Fridnga. 

Fresnes, 1778. 101 

FRIBVRGVM, 1493. 101 

Frideburgum, 1648. 101 

FRISIA, 1488. 101 

FRISINGA, 1495. 102 

Frogmore, 1812. 102 

FVLGINEVM, 1470. 102 
Fiinfkirchen, see Quinque Eccle- 

Fiirth, see Furtum. 

Furtum, 1653. 103 


Gades, 1610. 103 
Gaeta, see Gaietta. 

GAIETTA. 1487. 103 
Gaillon, see Gallio. 

Galitz, 1606. 103 

S. Galli Fanum, 1702. 103 

Gallio, 1644. 104 

Galveston, 1825. 104 
Ganabum, see Aurelia. 

GANDAVUM, 1483. 104 

Gandia. 104 

Garda. 104 
Gauda, see Gouda. 
Gebenna, see Geneva. 
Gedanum, see Dantiscum. 

Geismaria, 1629. 104 

GENEVA, 1478. 104 

GENVA, 1474. 105 
St. George, (Bermuda) 1784. 105 

St. George's Town, 1765. 105 

Gera, 1607. 105 
Gerinchemium, see Gorichenum. 

Germantown, 1735. 105 
S. Germanus in Ledii, 1695. 106 
Gerona, see Gerunda, 

S. Gervasius, 1602. 106 

GERUNDA, 1483. 106 

Gestkovicium, 1592. 107 
Ghent, see Gandavum. 
Giasium, see lassium. 

GIENNIVM, 1500. 107 

Giessa, 1606. 107 
Ginevra, see Geneva. 

Gippesvicum, 1548. 107 
Girona, see Gerunda. 

p. . ' > see Koregismum. 

Gissa, see Giessa. 

Gizeh, 1800. 108 

Glacium, 1698. 108 

Glascua, 1638. 108 
Glasgow, see Glascua. 
Glatz, see Glacium. 

Glogavia, 1621. 108 

Glucstadium, 1645. 108 

Glynd, 1770. 109 

Gmunda. 109 

Goa, 1563. 109 

tJoatimala, 1667. 109 
Goettingen, see Gottinga. 
Gorcura, see Gorichenum. 

Gorichenum, 1671. 109 

Goritia, 1773. 109 

Gorliciura, 1565. 109 
Gosfeldia, see Cosfeldia. 

Goslaria, 1607. HO 

Gotha, 1642. 110 

Gothoburgum, 1650. 110 



Gotstadium, 1616. 
Gottinga, 1757- 
GOVDA, 1477. 
Gozfelden, see Cosfeldia. 
GRADISCA, 1488. 
Graiacum, J 
GRANATA, 1486. 
Grange, 1768. 
Gratz, see Grtecium. 
Gravionarium, see Bamberga. 
Greenwich, 1554. 
Grenoble, see Gratianopolis. 
Grima, 1523. 







Gripswaldia, see Gryphiswaldia. 


Grodiscum, 1579 
Grodzisko, see Grodiscum. 
Groninga, 1610. 
Grosiana Officina, 1596. 
Gryphiswaldia, 1612. 
Guadalaxara, 1564. 
Guaiaquil, 1824. 
Guatimala, see Goatimctla. 
Guba, 1676. 
Guelpherbytum, 1541. 
Gueret, 1777. 
Guernsey, 1791. 
Guimaraens, see Virmaranum. 
Gustrovia, 1629. 
Guyana, 1824. 

Haarlem, see Harlemum. 
Hadamar, 1800. 
Haderslebia, 1784. 
HAFNIA, 1493. 
Hafod, 1807. 
Haga Comitum, 1593. 
Haga Schaumburgica, see Rinfhe- 

HAGENOA, 1489. 115 

Hailbruna, 1633. 115 

HALA MAGDEBVR--1 (1482.) 




Hala Suevorum, 1536 
Halberstadia, 1520. 
Halebum, 1706. 
Halifax, (America) 1751 










Halle, see Hala Saxonum. 

HAMBVRGVM, 1491. 116 

Hammipolis, 1646. 116 
Hammona, see Hamhurgum. 
Hanau, see Hanovia. 

Hannovera, 1547. 116 
Hanover, (North America) 1778. 


Hanovia, 1593. 116 
Harburg, see Hartberga. 

Harderovicum,! jgj3 ^^j 
Hardervicum, J 

Harfleur, 1720. 117 

Harg, 1757. 117 

HARLEMVM, 1483. 117 

Harlinga, 1663. 117 

Hartberga, 1611. 117 

Hartford, 1764. 117 

HASSELTVM, 1480. 118 

Havana, i^^g^ ^^g 
Havannah, J 

Haverhill, 1782. 118 
Havre-de-Grace, see Frandscopolis. 

Havre le, (America) 1826. 118 

Hedernheim. 118 

HEIDELBERGA, 1485 118 
Heilbron, see Hailbruva. 

S. Helena, 1825. 118 

Helenopolis, see Franco/, ad Mx- 


S. Helier, 1826. 119 

Helmestadium, 1580. 119 

Helsingfors, 1825. 119 

Helsingora, 1603. 119 
Henrichau, -x 

Henrichs, I n • 7- 

Hennchsdorf, I ^ 

Henrichswald, J 

Henricopolis, 1573. 119' 

HERBIPOLIS, 1479. 119 

Herborna, 1585. 120 
Hermannstadt, see Cibinium. 
Hermanopolis, see Cibinium. 

Hernosandium, 1706. 121 
Hilburghausen, see Hilperhusin. 

Hildesia, 1605. 121 

Hilperhusia, 1774. 121 

Hirsberga, 1765. 121 
Hirschberg, see Hirsberga. 

HISPALIS, 1476. 121 
Hispaniola, see St, Domingo. 



Hobart's Town, 1818. 121 

Hoffa, see Curia Regnitiana, and 

Curia Variscorum. 
HOLMIA, 1483. 122 

Holstein, 1712. 123 

Holum, Hola, 1530. 123 

Holyrood House, 1687. 126 

Homburgum, 1711. 127 

Hononooro, 1822. 127 

Hoogly, 1778. 127 

Hoolum, see Holum. 
Hoornia, | 

Horna, J ' 

Hrapseya, 1780. 127 

Huesca, see Osca. 
Hydra. 127 

Hyetopolis ad Istrum, 1687- 128 

S. Jacobus de Tlatilulco, 1599. 128 
Jaen, see Giennium. 
S. Jago de la Vega, 1756. 128 
Japan, see Amacusa, Tacacum, and 

Jaroslavia, 1622. 128 

Jassium, 1816. 128 

Javarin, see Jaurinum. 
Jaurinum, 1805. 130 

Ichenhusium, 1544. 130 

S. Jean de Maurienne, see Mau- 

Jeddo, see Yedo. 
Jelgawa, 1816. 
Jena, 1545. 
Jesi, see Essium. 
Jesnitzium, 1702. 
ILARDA, 1479. 
Imola, see Forum Cornelii. 
Inspruck, see CEnipons. 
Insula ad lacum Acronium, 

Insulae, 1604. 

Interamum, 1637. 

Inthal, see Engadi. 

St. John, 1748. 

St. John's (New Brunswick 

Jonkioping, see Junecopm. 

Jordanimola, 1823. 

Iprffi, 1610. 


Ipswich, see Gippesvicum. 





.) 131 


Iraciense Monasterium, 1609. 132 
Irun, 1739. 132 

Isca Damnoniorum, 1668. 132 
Ischar, see Sora. 

Isenacum, 1524. 132 

Isernia, see ^sernia. 
Isidis Vadum, see Oxonia. 
Isle of Man, 1769. 132 

Islebia, 1566. 132 

Isna, 1532. 133 

S. Juan de la pena. 133 

Juli, 1612. 133 

Juliobriga, see Lucronium. 
Juliomagutn, see Andegavum. 
Junecopia, 1688. 133 

Jiinkoping, see Junecopia. 
Juretum, 1587. 133 

Iverdon, see Ebrodunum. 
Iverskoi Monasterium, 1647. 133 
Ixar, see Sora. 

Kahira, 1798. 134 

Kaire, see Kahira. 
Kaiwai, 1717- 134 

Kalisz, see Calissium. 
Karalauska, 1735. 134 

Karass, 1807- 134 

Kassa, see Cassovia. 
Kazanum, 1803. 134 

Kehl, 1785. 135 

Kemper, see Corisopitium. 
Kempten, see Campidunum. 
Kesroan, see Chesroan. 
Keulen, see Colonia. 
Kharkof, 1820. 135 

Khizurpoor, 1807- 135 

Kiang-ning, see Nandanum. 
Kiel, see Chilonium. 
Kiew, see Kiovia. 
Kilia, see Chilonium. 
Kilkennia, 1641. 136 

Kilonium, see Chilonium. 
Kingston, (Jamaica) 1720. 136 
Kiobenhafn, see Hajkia. 
Kiof, see Kiovia. 

Kiovia, 1618. 136 

Klagenfurth, 1777. 137 

Knoxvillei 1793. 137 

Koburgum, see Coburgum. 
Koevorde, see Coeoorde. 
Kolocz, see Coloca. 



Konigingratz, see Reginohrade- 

Konigsburg, see Mons-Regalis, and 

Mons- Regius. 
Koregismum, 1597. 137 

Kosmin, see Cosminecum. 
Kotbus, see Cotbus. 
Kotye, see Cotym. 
Kralitz, 1579. 137 

Kruswick, 1700. 137 

Kuteinski Monasterium, 1632. 137 
KVTTENBVRGA, 1489. 137 
Kuzaia, see Libanits Mons. 

Labacum, 1578. 138 

Labodunura, see Ladeburgum. 
Ladeburgum, 1603. 138 

Lancaster, (America) 1751. 138 
Landessuta, ^^^^^ j3g 

Liandsnutum, J 
Langensalza, see Longosalissa. 
Langres, see Lingones. 
LANTENACVM, 1484. 138 

LANTRIGVERVM, 1499. 138 
Laon, see Laudunum. 
La Rocea, see Lupite. 
Lascanum, 1639. 139 

Lassay, 1727. 139 

Laszczovia, 1610. 139 

Laiibach, see Lahaciim. 
Laubuna, 1687. 139 

Laudunum, 1685. 139 

Lavenburgum, 1703. 139 


LAVINGA, J^*'"^- ^^^ 

Lauretum, 1637. 139 

Lauri, 1664. 139 

Lausanna, 1556. 140 

Laus Pompeia, 1587. 139 

Laybach, see Labacum. 

Lebanon, see Libanus. 

Lecce, see Lycium. 

Lee Priory. 140 

Leerdam, see Lauri. 

Leghorn, see Ligumus. 

Legio, 1512. 140 

LEIDA, 1483. 140 

Leipsic, (Little) see Gera. 

Leipsic, see Lipsia. 

Leira, 1794. 141 

LEIRIA, 1492. 141 

Leith, 1652. 141 

Le Mans, see Cenomani. 

Lemburg, see Leopolis. 

Lemgovia, 1563. 142 

1495. 142 

Lentia, 1636. 142 

Leodicum, Iikcc i^r. 

Leodium, l^^^^" 1*2 

Leon, see Legio. 

Leopolis, 1586. 143 

Leovardia, 1597. 143 

Lerida, see Ilerda. 

Lerma. 143 

Lesina, 1640. 143 

Lesna, 1635. 143 

Leszno, see Lesna. 

Leucadea. 143 

Leucopetra, 1721. 143 

Leucorea, see Vitemberga. 

Leutmeritz, see Litomericium. 

Leutomischl, see Litomislium. 

Leutschovia, 1617. 143 

Leuwarden, see Leovardia. 

Lexington, (Kentucky) 1786. 

Lexington, (Virginia) 1816. 143 

Leyden, see Leida. 

Leyrargordum, see Leira. 
Libanus Mons, 1610. 143 

Libau, 1825. 145 

Libourne, see Liburnia. 
Liburnia, 1650. 145 

Licha, 1597. 145 

Licium, see Lycium. 
Liebau, see Lobavia. 
Liege, see Leodium. 
Liegnitz, see Lignicium. 
Liesina, see Lesina. 
LIGNICIVM, 1481. 145 

Lignitz, see Lignicium. 
Ligumus, 1650. 145 

Lima, 1586. 145 

Limoges, see Lemovicense castrum. 
Lincia, 1 ^ ^• 
Linckia, ^seeLcBiM. 

Lincopia, 1635. 146 
Lindau, see Lindaugia. 

Lindaugia, 1601. 146 

Linga, 1732. 146 

Lingones, 1595. 146 
Linkoping, see Lincopia, 



Lintzium, see Lentia. 
LIPSIA, 1480. 146 

Lisboa, Lisbon, see Ulyssipo. 
Lisle, see Insula. 
Lissa, see Lesnu. 

Literomericium, 1626. 147 

Lithopontum, see Harg. 
Litomislium, 1585. 147 

Livorno, see Ligurnus. 
Llanymddyfri, 1770. 147 

Llundain, see Londinum. 
Lobavia, I717. 147 

Lodeacum, see Lantenacum. 
Lodeve. see Lutrivianum, and Lo- 

Lodi, see Laus Pompeia. 
Lodova, 1641. 147 

Loevestein, 1622. 147 

Logrono, see Lucronium. 
LONDINVM, 1480. 147 

London, (New) 1709. 149 

Longosalissa, 1752. 149 

Lordelo Monasterium. 149 

Loretto, see Lauretum. 
Losana, see Lamanna. 
Loscum, 1573. 149 

Los reyes, see Lima. 
Lotzin, 1748., 149 

LOVANIVM, 1473. 149 

Loudeac, see Lantenacum,. 
St. Louis, 1810. 150 

Louvain, see Lovanium. 
LVBECA, 1475. 150 

Lubeca, (Lubiecz) 1592. 150 

Luben, see Luhinum. 
Lubiana, see Labacum. 
Lubiecz, see Lubeca. 
Lubinum, 1601. 150 

Lublinum, 1547. 150 

LVCA, 1477. 150 

Lucanum, 1766. 151 

S. Lucar de Barranieda, see Fanum 

Lucca, see Luca. 

Lucerna Helvetiorum, 1528. 151 
Luciferi Fanum, see Fanum Lud- 
Lucknow, 1822. 151 

Luclavicia, 1548. 151 

Lucronium, 1507. 151 

Lugano, see Lucanum, 

LVGDVNVM, 1473. 151 

Lugdunum Batavorum, see Leida. 

Lugny, I6I7. 152 
Luklawice, see Luclavicia. 

Lundinum Scanorum, 1676. 152 

LVNEBVRGVM. 1493. 153 

Luneville, 1749. 153 

Lupiae, 1669. 153 
Lutetia, see Parisii. 
Luteva, see Lodova. 

Lutrivianum, 1584. 153 

Luxemburgum, 1578. 153 

Luyck, 1670. 153 
Lwow, see Leopolis. 

Lycium, 1634. 153 

Lynchburg, 1810. 153 
Lyons, see Lugdunum. 


Macabebe, 1621. 153 

Macao, 1590. 154 

Macerata, 1575. 156 

Maclovium, 1609. 156 
Mayon, see Matisco. 

Madras, 1772. 156 

MADRITVM, 1499. 157 

Maestricht, see Trajectum ad Mo- 


MAGDEBVRGVM, 1483. 157 
Maille, see Malliacum. 
Maillzais, see Malliacum. 
Majorca, see Pahna Balearium. 

Malabar, 1577- 157 

Malaca, (Malaga) 1599. 157 

Malacca, 1816. . 157 
Malborow, see Marpurgum. 

Malda, 1780. 159 
Malines, see Mechlinia. 

Malliacum, 1616. 159 
Mallorca, see Palma Balearium 

Malmogia, (Malmoe) 1528. 159 
St. Maloes, see Maclovium. 

Malta, 1647. 160 

Mancunium, 1732. 160 

Manfredonia, 1680. 160 

Manheraium, 1738. 160 

Manilla, 1590. 160 

Manresa, 1788. 161 

MANTVA, 1472. 161 

Mantua Carpetanorum, 1568. 162 

Maquasse, 1826. 162 

Maracaibo, 1824. 162 


Marburgum, see Marpurgum. 

Marchena. 1 62 

Marchioburgunij 1615. 162 

Marcobraita, 1787- 368 
Marhanna, see Chesroan. 

St. Maria Mayor, 1767. 162 

Marienborn, 1744. 163 

Marienburg, 1744. 163 
Marienthal, Marihaussen, see Val- 

lis S. MarieB. 

Marienwerder, 1781. 163 

Marietta, 1799. 164 

Marinuin, 1777- 164 

Marpurgum, 1527. 164 
Marseilles, see Massilia. 

MARSIPOLIS, 1473. 164 

Martinico. 164 
Martinmunoz. .164 
Martisburgum, see Marpurgum. 

Massa, 1679. 164 

Massilia, 1594. 164 

MATISCO, 1493. 165 
Matrltum, see Madritum. 

Mauriana, 1704. 165 
Mayence, see Moguntia. 

Mazzarino, 1690. 165 
Meaux, see Meldee. 

Mechlinia, 1582. 165 

Medica, 1575. 165 
Medina, see Methymna. 
Medina de Rioseco, see Rivus Sic- 

Medioburgum, 1582. 165 

MEDIOLANVM, 1469. 165 
Mediomatrices, see Met(S. 

Mediterranean, 1812. 166 
Meissen, see Misena. 

Mekelbourg, 1688. 166 

Meldae, 1522. 167 

Meldorpiuin, 1788. 167 

MEMMINGA, 1482. 167 

St. Menehould, 1722. 167 
Mentz, see Moguntia. 
Merida, see Emerita. 
Mersberg, see Marsipolis. 
Messalonge, see Missolonghi. 

MESSANA. 1473. 167 

MetiB, 1501. 168 

Methymna Campi, 1504. 168 

Duelli, 1558. 168 

Metina, see Methymna Campi. 

Metz, see Meta. 

Mexico, 1549. 168 

Micro-Praga, 1549. 174 
Middleburg, see Medioburgum. 

Middlehill, 1824. 174 

St. Mihiel, ] 620. 174 
Milan, see Mediolanum. 

Militello, 1617. 174 

Mindelhemium, 1518. 174 

Minda, 1542. 174 

Mindona, 1550. 174 
Mindonedo, see Mindona. 

Mirandula, 1519. 174 

Er}i^^«- 175 

Misraim. 175 

Missolonghi, 1824. 175 

Mittavia, 1774. 176 

Modena, see Mutina. 
MOGVNTIA, 1457. 176 

Mohilow, 1617. 177 

Molinae, 1644. 177 

Molshemium, 1618. 178 

Mompelgartura, see Mons Belli- 

MONACHIVM, 1500. 178 

Monaco, 1586. 178 

MONASTERIVM, 1486. 178 
Monasteriura Casinas, see Casinos, 

et sic de cseteris. 
Mondonedo, see Mindona. 
Mondovi, see Mons Regalis. 
Monreale, see Mons Regalis. 
Mons, see Monies. 

Albanus, 1637. 178 

Argisus, 1785. 178 

Belligardus, 1588. 178 

Faliscus, 1727. 179 

Monachorum. 179 

Pessulanus, 1650. 179 

Regalis, (Monreale) 1651.179 

MONS REGALIS, 1472. 179 

REGIVS, (Monterey) 1494. 

Mons Regius, 1551. 180 
Montargis, see Mons Argisus. 
Montauban, see Mons Albanus. 
Montbelliard, see Mons Belligardus. 
Montbrillant, 1743. 180 
Monte Cassino, see Casinas. 
Chiaro, see Clarus Mons. 



Monte Fiascone, see Mons Faliscus. 
• Rev, see Mons regius. 

Montego'bay, 1775. 180 
Monteneau, see Mons Regalis. 

Monies, 1540? 180 

Montevideo, 1807. 180 

Montilla, 1627. 18] 

TERIVM, 1499. 181 
Montpelier, see Mons Pessulanus. 
Montreal, see Mons Regalis. 

(America) 1775. 181 

Montrejan, see Mons Regalis. 

Montreuil, 1663. 182 

Montroulles, 1698. 182 
Montserrat, see Montis Serrati 

Merges, see Morgii. 

Morgii, 1568. 182 

Morlaix, 1626. 182 

Moscua, 1553. 182 
Movea, see Eimeo. 
Moulins, see Molina. 

Moulsey. 184 

Mulhusium, 1561. 185 
Munich, see MonacMum. 
Munster, see Monasterium. 

MVRCIA, 1487. 185 

Mussipontum, 1596. 185 

MVTINA, 1475. 185 

Mythig, 1718. 185 

Nagera, see Naxara. 

Nagercoil, 1827. 186 

Nagy Szorabar, 1672. 186 
Naiara, see Naxara. 

Nakhitchevan, 1821. 186 

Namurcum, 1639. 186 
Nanceium, 1510. 186 

Nancianum, 1620. 186 

Nangasaqui, 1592. 186 

Nan-king, see Nancianum. 
NANNETES, 1493. 187 

Nanquinum, see Nancianum. 
Naples, see Neapolis. 
Narva, 1701. 187 

Nassau, (America) 187 

Natchez, 1810. 187 

Nauplia, 1824. 188 

Naupotamos, 1722. 188 

Naxara, 1615. 188 

NEAPOLIS, 1471. 188 

Neapolis Nemetum, 1579. 188 
Nedelicz. 188 

Neisse, see Nissa. 
Nellore. 189 

Nemausura, 1606. 189 

Neoboleslavia, 1518. 189 

Neobrandenburgum, 1741. 189 
Neoburgum, (Neuburg) 1545. 189 
Neoburgum, (Nyborg) 1707- 189 
Neocoraum, 1533. 190 

Neomagus, 1652. 191 

Neostadium, 1571. 191 

. in Palatinatu, Neosta- 
dium ad Hartam, see Neapolis 
Neoweda, 1790. 191 

Neozolium, 1790. 191 

Nerolinga, 1525. 191 

Nesvitz, 1562. 191 

Neuburg, see Neoburgum. 
Neuchatel, see Neocomum. 
Nevers, see Nivemum. 
Neuhusium, 1690. 192 

Neusol, see Neozolium. 
Neustadt, see Neostadium. 
Neustadt-an-der-Hart, see Neapo- 
lis Nemetum. 
Neuwied, see Neoweda. 
Newark, (America) 1795. 192 

Newbern, 1754. 192 

New Brandenburg, see Neobran- 
Newburv-port, 1773. 192 

Newcastle-on-Tyne, 1639. 192 
Newhaven, 1754. 192 

Newhausel, see Neozolium. 
New Lexington, 1815. 193 

New London, 1710. 193 

New Orleans, 1803. 193 

Newport, (Rhodelsland) 1732. 193 
New York, 1693. 194 

Nicasa, 1666. 194 

S. Nicolai de Portu ~j 

Pagus. >1518. 194 

Nicolasbourg. J 

S.Nicholas. 1825. 194 

Nidrosia, about 1560. 194 

Nienhus, see Neuhusium. 
Niesviecium, 1562. 194 

Nimeguen, see Noviomagium. 



Niortum, 1594. 194 
Nismes, see Nemausum. 

Nissa Silesiorum, 1612. 195 
Nivelles, see Nivigella. 

Nivernum, 1592. 195 

Nivigella, 1780. 195 
Nizza, see Niccea. 

NONANTVLA, 1480. 195 

Nordhusa, 1703. 195 
Nordlingen, see Nerolinga. 

Nordovicura, 1568. 195 

NORIMBERGA, 1470. 199 

Northampton, 1803. 199 
Norwich, see Nordovicum. 

Norwich, (America) 1773. 199 

Nottingham, 1714. 199 

Nova Insula, 1541. 199 

NOVA PELZNA, 1475. 199 

Novaria, 1533. 200 

NOVI, 1479. 200 

Noviodunum, 1746. 200 

NOVIOMAGIVM, 1479. 200 
Novostadium, see Neostadium. 

Novum Castrum. 201 
Noyon, see Noviodunum. 

NOZANVM, 1491. 201 

Nuits, 1736. 201 

Nupufell, 1578. 201 
Nuremberg, see Norimberga. 

Nuten, 1772. 201 
Nyborg, see Neoburgum. 

Nycopia, 1645. 201 

Nyon, 1783. 202 

Ober-Ursel, see Urselke. 
Odensee, see Othonia. 

Odessa, 1825. 202 

Odrig, 1688. 202 
Oedenburg, see Sopronium. 
Oehringa, see Oringa. 

Oelsna, Oels, 1530. 202 

Oenipons, 1592. 202 
Oettlingen, see Ettelinga. 
Offen, see Buda. , 

Offenbacum, 1609. 203 

OFFENBVRGVM, 1496. 203 

Ognata. 203 

Oldenburgum, 1665. 203 
Olita, see Oliva. 

Oliva, 1647. 203 

Olmedo. 203 


Olmutz, see Olomucwm. 
OLOMVCVM, 1 ,,„f, 

Olyssipo, see Ulyssipo. 

St. Oraer's, see Audomaropolis. 

Onate, see Ognata. 

Onoldium, 1607. 204 

Ootmorsen, see Otmarmm. 

Oporto, see Portus Lusitanice. 

OPPENHEMIVM, 1494. 204 

Opsloe, see Ansloga. 

Orange, see Arausio. 

Orbitellum, 1667. 204 

Orense, 1547. 204 

St. Oreste, see Mom Faliscus. 

„ .P , ' Uee Oriola. 
Orihuela, J 

Oringa, 1693. 

Oriola, 1602. 

Orleans, see Aurelia. 

St. Orso, see Vicentia. 

Ortesium, 1585. 205 

Orthes, see Ortesium. 

Orthona Maris,-) 

Ortonna, J 

Orvieto, see Urbs Fetus. 

Osca, 1576. 205 

Osma, see Oxoma. 

Osmiana, 1615. 205 

Osnabrugum, i „ 

1,/ ^''•^^• 




Ossuna, see Urso. 

Ostrobia, ^ 

Ostrogia, > 1580. 205 


Otaheite, see Tahiti. 

Othonia, 1698. 206 

Otmarsum, 1647. 207 

Ottembura, see Ottinpurra. 

Otthinium, see Othonia. 

Ottinpurra, 1509. 207 

Oudenarde, see Aldenarda. 

?;S:}^795. 207 

Oudewater, 1669. 207 

Oxomense Burgum,/ ' 

OXONIA, 1468 or 1478. 207 


Paddenburg,! ^-^g 
Fadenborn, J 




Padeborna, 1600. 214 

xj J ' !■ see Patavium. 
radii a, J 

PalaeopolisAduaticorura, 1606. 214 

Palseopraga, see Praga. 

Palentia, 1572. 214 

Palermo, see PANORMUM. 

Palma, 1814. 215 

Palma Balearium, 1540. 215 

Paimonium, 1567. 215 

Palmyra, 1755. 215 

Paltheniorum Officina. 215 

Palum, 1552. 215 

PAMPELVNA, 1489, or 1495. 216 

Panama, 1824. 216 

Paniovicia, 1608. 216 

PANORMVM, 1477. 216 

Papenhemium, 1786. 216 

PAPIA, 1471. 216 

Paramaribo, 1826. 217 

PARISH, 1470. 217 

PARMA, 1472. 218 

Parthenopa, see NEAPOLIS. 

Passau, \ ^^ patavia. 

Passavium, J 

Passay, 1780. 218 

Patakon, see Saros-pcitdkm- 

PATAVIA. 1481. 219 

PATAVIVM, 1472. 219 

Pateo, 1825. 219 

Patras, 1828. 219 

Pau, see Palum. 

Pavia, see Papia. 

St. Paul trois Cbateux, see Au- 

giista Tricassiorum. 
Pedepontium, 1739. 219 

Pekin, 1603. 220 

Pelsna, see Nova Pelzna. 
Penang, 1825. 220 

Penig, 1804. 220 

Pera, see Constantinopolis. 220 
Perigueux, see Petracora. 
Pernavia, 1698. 220 

Perouse, see Perusia. 
Perpignan, see Perpinianum. 
PERPINIANVM, 1500. 221 

Perugia, see Perusia. 
PERVSIA, 1475. 221 

Pesaro, see Pisaurum. 
Pescia, see Piscia. 
Pesclavium, 1560. 221 

Pesenacum, 1661. 221 

Pesthinum, Pestum, 1763. 222 
St. Petersburg, see Petropolis. 
Petracora, \ ^^^^ ^^^ 

Petrocorium, J 

Petropolis, 1711. 222 

Pferda, see Furtum. 
Pfoerten, see Porta. 
Pfortzheim, see Phorca. 
Phanum, see Fanum. 
Pheibia, see Plebisacium. 
Philadelphia, 1686. 224 

Philippine Islands, see Macabebe, 

and Samplai. 
PHORCA, 1500. 225 

Piacenza, see Placentia. 
Piazzola, 1684. 225 

PICTAVIUM, 1479. 225 

St. Pierre, (Martinique) 1767. 225 
Pignerol, see Pinarolium. 
Pilsen, see Nova Pelzna. 
PINAROLIVM, 1479. 225 

PINCIA, see Fallisoletum. 
Pinczovia, 1559. 226 

Piobe de Sacco, see Phbisadum. 
PISA, 1483. 226 

Pisaurum, 1504. 226 

Piscenae, see Pesenacum. 
PISCIA, 1485. 226 

Pistoria, Pistoya, 1643. 226 

PLACENTIA, 1475. 226 

Placentia, (America) 227 

Plauen, see Plavia. 
Plavia, 1670. 227 

PLEBISACIVM, (1472 or) 1475. 

Ploena, 1692. 227 

Plymouth, 1825. 227 

Poczatec, 1552. 228 

Podium, 1628. 228 

Poitiers, see Pictavium. 
POLLIANVM RVS, 1476. 228 
Pompeiopolis, see Pampehma. 
Pondicherry, 1784. 228 

Pons CEni, see (Enipons. 
Pont-a-Mousson, \ see Mussipon- 

Moncionis, J turn. 

Pontidee MonasteriUm, 1740. 228 
Popayan, 1824. 228 

Porentrui, see Bruntrutum. 
Porta, 1785. 229 


see Portesium. 

Port an Prince, 1750. 228 

PORTESIVM, 1490. 229 

Portiani Castrura, 1743. 229 
Portici, 1 
Porto, J 
Porto, see Partus. 

Portroyal. 229 

Portsmouth, (America) 1756. 229 

Portua, 1640. 229 
Portucale, see Partus Lusitania. 

Portus, 1691. 229 

Portus Ferrarius. 229 

Portus Lusitaniae, 1612. 229 
Posen, see Posnania. 

Posnania, 1579. 230 

Posonium, 1612. 230 

Potschaev, 1618. 230 

Potsdam, 1760. 230 

Pottendorf, 1668. 230 

Poughkeepsie, 1807. 230 
St. Pourgain, see Partiani Casirum. 

PRAGA, 1478. 230 

Pratum Albuini, 1535. 231 
Prenzlau, see Primislavia. 
Presburg, see Pasanium. 

Primislavia, 1747. 231 

Prince of Wales' Island, 1807. 231 

PROMENTOVR, 1482. 232 

Prostanna, 1549. 232 

Prostitium, 1603. 232 

Providence, 1762. 232 
Provins, see Provmum. 

PROVINVM, 1496. 232 
Psyra, see Ipsara. 

Puebla de Guadaloupe. 233 
Puebla de los Angeles, see Angelo- 

Pulo Penang, see Prince of Wales' 


Puschiavo, 1 d 7 • 
T, i_, >see Pesclavmm. 
Puschlavsr, J 

Puteoli, 1663. 

Puy, see Podium. 

Puy en Velay, see Anicium. 

Puzzuolo, see Puteoli. 



Quam-cheu, 1 1 «/, , 
Quang-tcheou, p"'^- 
Quebec, 1764. 
Quedelinburgum, 1632. 



Quemper, see Corisapitium. 
St. Quentin, 1627. 234 

Quesada. 234 

Quevillium, 1645. 234 

Quiers, see Cherium. 
Quilemburg, see Culemburgum. 
Quimper-Corentin, see Corisapi- 
Quinque Ecclesias. 234 

Quitoa. 234 

Raab, see Jaurinum.. 
Raceburgum, 1670. 235 

Racholium, 1632. 235 

Racovia, 1577- 235 

Ragland Castle, 1750. 235 

Ragusium, 1667. 236 

Raiz, see Ratiastum. 
Rakow, see Racovia. 
Rangoon, 1814. 236 

Ratiastum, see Lemovicense Ca- 
RATISBONA, (see Hyetopolis') 

Ratzebourg, see Raceburgum. 
Ravenna, 1583. 237 

Ravenspurgum, 1626. 237 

Reate, 1679. 237 

Recanetum, 1606. 237 

REENEN. 237 

Regensburg, see Ratisbona. 
Reggio, see Regium. 
Reginohradecium, 1618. 237 

Regiomontum, see Mons Regius. 

REGIVM, 1475. 237 

REICHENSTEIN, 1477- 238 
Remi, 1557. 238 

Rennes, see Rhedanes. 
Revalia, 1682. 239 

REVTLINGA, 1482. 239 

Reyes, Cividad de los, see Lima. 
RHEDONES, 1484. 239 

Rheims, see Remi. 
Rhingavia, see Rignavia. 
Rhodopolis, see Rastachium. 
Rhydychen, see Oxania. 
Richelieu, chateau de, 1640. 240 
RieiF, see Riva. 
Rieti, see Reate. 
Riga, 1638. 240 



Rigiacum Atrebatium, see Atreba- 


Rignavia, 1577- 240 
Rimini, see Ariminum. 


Rio de Janeiro, 1813. 240 
Rioseco, Medina de,seefiiDMsSiccMs. 

Ripa, 1508. 241 

Riva de Trento, 1558. 241 

Rivus Siccus, 1618. 241 
Rocca, (la) see Lwpice. 
Rochelle, see Rupella. 

Rochester, 1648. 241 
Rochfort, see Rupifortium. 

Rochmanow, 1619. 241 
Rodez, see Rutheni. 
Roermond, see Ruremonda. 

Rogensburg, 1735. 241 

Rohan, 1682. 241 

ROMA, 1467. 241 

Ronchum, 1677- 243 

Rpncilio, 1620. 243 

Ronneburgum, 1807. 243 

Rosa (Jonas) 243 

Roschildia, 1534. 243 

Roseau, (America) 1765. 243 

ROSTOCHIVM, 1476. 243 

Rotenburgum, 1627. 244 

Roterodamum, 1589. 244 
ROTHOMAGVM, 1483 or 1487. 


Rotwila, 1606. 244 
Rouen, see Rothomagum. 
Rougemont, see Rubeus Mons. 

Roveredo, 1749. 245 

Rovetta, 1820. 245 
Rovigno, Rovigo, see Rovilio. 

Rovilio, 1574. 245 
Ruah, see Eremus. 

RVBEVS MONS. 1481. 245 
Rudolphipolis, "] 
Rudolphiverda, j 

Rudolphopolis, VI 666. 245 
Rudolphostadiura, I 
Rudolstadium, J 

Ruien, 1789. 245 

Rupella, 1564. 245 

Rupifortium, 1714. 246 

Ruremonda, 1620. 246 

Rutheni, 1627. 246 

Saardam, see Zamerdam. 

Sabaria. 246 

Sabioneta, 1551. 246 

Saena, see SeruE. 

Ssetobris. 247 

Safad, see Saphita. 

Saganura, 1629. 247 

Sagium, 1731. 248 

SaTiagun. 248 

Saint-Mandd, 1660. 248 

Sais, see Sagium. 

Salamanca, see Salmantica, and 

Vallis Paradisi. 
Salem, 1768. 248 

Salernum. 248 

Salicetum, 1646. 249 

Salinse. 249 

Salingiacum, 1538. 249 

Salisburgum, 1620. 249 

Sallodium, 1517. 249 

SALMANTICA, 1481. 249 

Salmurium, 1582. 250 

Salo, see Sallodium. 
Salonichi, see Thessalonica. 
Salsette, see Racholium. 
Saltzburg, see Salisburgum. 
Saluces, see Salutice. 
SALVTI^, 1481. 250 

Saluzzo, see Salutice. 
Samalcalda, 1574. 251 

Samarobrina, see Ambiani.. 
Sambor, see Szamotulium. 
Samielum, 1613. 251 

Samoscium, see Zamoscium. 
Samplai, or Sampaloc, 1736. 251 
Sancianum, 1700. 252 

Sanctandreana Officina. 252 

Sandomir, see Sendomiria. 
Sancrdam, see Zamerdam. 
Sangeorgiana Officina. 252 

Santa F2, see Bogota. 
Santa Martha, 1824. 252 

Santa Maura, see Leucadea. 
Santangelium, 1664. 253 

Santiago, (Chili) 1825. 253 

Santiago de Galicia, see Compos- 

Saphita, 1563. 25» 

Saragossa, see CcEsar Augusta. 
Sarepta, 1808. 253 




Saros-Patakon, 1653. 253 

Sarvar, see Sabaria. 
Sarzina, see Serezana. 
Sassaris, 1640. 253 

Savannah, 1762. 253 

Saverne, see Taberna. 
SAVILLIANVM, 1470. 254 

Savioneta, see Sabioneta. 
Saumur, see Salmurium. 
SAVONA, 1474. 254 

Saroy, (the) before 1660. 254 

Scala Dei. 254 

SCANDIANVM, 1495. 254 

Scaphusia, 1592. 255 

Scara, 1707- 255 

Schaffhausen, see Scaphusia. 
SCHEDAMVM, 1483. 255 

Schelestadt, see Selestadium. 
Schemnitium, 1796. 255 

Schiedam, see Schedamum.. 
Schlettstadt, see Selestadium. 
Schleusinga, 1609. 255 

Schlichtingsheim, 1680. 255 

Schneeberga, 1725. 256 

SCHOENHOVEN, 1495. 256 
Schrattental, 1501. 256 

Schuol, 1657. 256 

Schussenried, see Sortense Mona- 

Schwabach, see Suobacum. 
Schwaback, 1752. 257 

Schweidnitz, see Suvidnia. 
Schwerin, see Suerinum. 
Scio, see Chios. 

Sclavow, 1784. 257 

Scutari, see Chrysopolis. 
S. Sebastiani Fanum, 1674. 257 
Secerrae, see Cecerrce. 
Sedanum, 1689. 257 

Sedinum, see Stetinum. 
Seez, see Sagium. 
Ses;obia, see Segovia. 
SEGOBRICA, 1479. 257 

Segodunum, see Rufheni. 
Segontia, 1575. 257 

Segorbe, see Segobrica. 
Segovia, 1588. 258 

Selestadium, 1518. 258 

Selles, see CellcB. 

Sena Gallica, 1694. 258 

SENiE, 1479. 258 

Senapaniowce, see Paniovicia. 
Sendomiria, before 1740. 258 

Senogallia, see Sena Gallica. 
Senones, ") ^^gg ggg 

Sens, } 

Serampore, 1800. 259 

Serezana, 1607. 263 

SerravaHis, 1604. 263 

Servesta, 1583. 263 

Sessa, see Siiessa. 

„ , ' > see Stetobris. 
Setuval, J 

Sevenbergen, 1683. 263 

Seville, see Hispalis. 

Sezza, see Suessa. 

Sgravenhage, see Haga. 

Shawnee-town, 1828. 264 

Shelburne, 1783. 264 

Siegen, see Sigena. 

Sienna, see Sena. 

Sigena, 1596. 264 

Sigeth, see Szigetvar. 

Siguenza, see Segontia. 

Silusia, see Schleusinga. 

Singapore, 1823. 264 

Sinigaglia, see Sena Gallica. 

Skalholt, 1685. 264 

Skara, see Scara. 

SLESVICVM, 1486. 265 

Slovanka, 1766. 265 

Slovita. 265 

Slouske, "^ 

Sluckum, |-1674. 265 

Slucze, J 

Smalcalda, see Samalcalda. 

Smyrna, 1658. 265 

Snagof, 1701. 266 

Soest, see Susatum. 

Solcovia, 1692. 266 

Soleure, 1712. 266 

Solingen, see Salingiacum. 

Solisbacura, 1657. 266^ 

Solin, see Solna. 

Solna, 1703. 266 

SONCINVM, 1484. 266 

Sondershusa, 1697. 267 

Sopronium, 1627. 267 

Sora, 1627. 267 

SORA, SORIA, 1485. 267 

Sorethum, see Sortense Monast. 

Soria, see Coria. 



Soroe, see Sora. 


1478. 268 
Soteiopolis, 1612. 268 
South wark, 1514. 268 
Spa, 1789. 269 
Spina Nemetum, 1595. 
SPIRA, 1471. 269 
Spoletum, 1672. 269 
Stabiae, 1656. 269 
Stada, see Statio. 
Stambul, see Constantinopolis. 
Stargardia, 1777- 267 
Statio, 1661. 269 
Steinavia, 1662. 269 
Steinberg, 1522. 270 
before 1500, 270 
Steinfurtum, 1604. 270 
Stekelburt, 1519. 270 
Stella Navarrorum, 1541. 271 
Stenbro', see Harg. 
Stendalia, 1671. 271 
Stenefordium, see Stemfwtwm. 
Stetinura, 1579. 271 
Stirling, 1571. 271 
Stockholmia, see Holmia. 
Stoer, (Jac.) 271 
Stolpa, 1675. 272 
Stralesundia, 1645. 272 
Strasburg, see Argmtima. 
Straubinga, 1631. 272 
Strawberry Hill, 1758. 272 
Strega Silesiorum, 1715. 272 
Strengnesia, 1623. 272 
Striatina, 1604. 272 
Striveling, see Stirling. 
Stuhlweissenburg, see Alha Caro- 
lina, and Alha Regalis. 
Stutgardia, before 1522. 273 
Subdinnum, see Cenomani. 
VM, 1465. 273 
Sudercopia, "I j5i]_ ,274 
Siiderkoping, J ' 
Suerinum, 1789. 274 
Suessa. 274 
Sully, 1630. 274 
Sulzbach, see Salisbamm. 
Suobacum, 1689. 274 
Suolla, see ZwoIIce. 

Supraslium, Suprassum, about 

1700. 274 

Surat, 1820. 274 

Susatura, 1721. 275 

Suvidnia, 1683. 275 

SwinfurtumadManuw), 1605. 275 

Sydney, 1795. 275 
Sylva Ducis, see Buscum Ducis. 
Synaguphu, see Snagof, 

Syracuse. 1820. 275 

Szamotulium, 1558. 276 

Szigetvar, 1541. 276 
Szombar, see Nagy Siombar. 
Szombatel, see Sabaria, 


Taberna, 1792. 276 
Tacacum, ijgg^ ^ 

Tacaxuctium, J " ' 

Taga, (perhaps Tacha, Taehau,) 

1696. 277 

Tahiti, 1818. 277 
Takagus, see Tacacum. 
Tallinnas, see Revalia. 

Tananarivou, 1825. 277 

Tani'ore, 1810. 277 

TARACO, 1499. 278 
Tarragona, see Taraco. 

TARRAZONA, 1486. 278 
Tarstu, see Tergeste. 

TARVISIVM, 1471. 279 

Tavistock, 1525. 279 

TAVRINVM, 1474. 281 

Taurum, 1630. 281 

Tayabas, 1703. 281 

Teate, 1601. 281 

Tebriz, 1822. 281 
Teflis, see Tiflis. 

TegemseenseMonast. 1732. 282 

Telo Marti us, 1704. 282 

Tergeste, 1629. 282 

Tergovista, 1710. .283 
Tergow, see Gouda. 
Terni, see Interamum. 
Tertona, see Dertona, 

Testaria, 1711. 283 
Teutoburgum, see Duisburgitm. 


Thiela, 1658. 283 

Thiengen, 1560. 284 

Thierrium. 284 



THOLOSA, 1479. 284 

Thorn, see Torunium. 
Ticinum, see Papia. 
Tifernum, 1539. 284 

Tiflis, 1711. 284 

Tigernum, see Thierium. 
Tigurum, 1521. 285 

Tiktin, 1717. 285 

Tila, Tillum, see Thiela. 
Tiphernum, see Tifernum. 
Tirasso, see Tarrazona. 
Tirgowischt, see Tergovista. 
Tirnau, see Tyrnavia. 
Tlascala, 1650. 285 

Todi, 1655. 285 

Tokis, or Tokoesi, see Toquinum. 
Toledo, see Toletum. 
TOLETVM, 1486. 286 

TOLOSA, (Spain) 1488. 286 

Tolosa Palladia, see Tholosa. 
Tongeren, see Palaopolis. 
Tongerloa, 1794. 287 

Tongres, see Palceopolis. 
Toquinum, 1596. 287 

Torgavia, 1597. 288 

Tornacum, 1557. 288 

Toro, see Taurum. 
Torpatum, see Dorpatum. 
Tortona, see Dertona. 
Tortosa, see Dertosa. 
Torunium, 1568-70. 288 

Toscolano, see Tusculanum. 
Toul, see Tullum. 
Toulon, see Telo Martins. 
Toulouse, see Tholosa. 
Tourcoing, 1753. 288 

Tournay, see Tornacum. 
Tours, see Turones. 
Trajectum Inferius, see Trajectum 

ad Rhenum. 
Trajectum ad Mosam, 1685. 288 

1473. 289 

Trajectum ad Viadrum, see Franco- 

Trajectum Superius, see Trajectum 

ad Mosam. 
Trani, see Tranum. 
Tranquebaria, 1712. 289 

Tranum, 1617- 290 

Trapani, 1707- 290 

J 689. 


TREBIA, 1470. 290 

Trebotes* 291 

TREC^, 1483. 291 

Treguier, see Lantriguerum. 

Tremonia, 1545. 291 

Trent, see Tridentum. 

Trev^ecca, 1791. 291 

Treves, see Treviri. 

Treviri, 1583. 292 

Treviso, see Tarvisium.. 

Trevium, Trevi, see Trebia. 

Trevoltium, 1 

Trevoux, } 

Tricasses, see Treca. 

TRIDENTVM, 1476. 293 

Tridinum, 1508. 293 

Triers, see Treviri. 

Trieste, see Tergesfe. 

Trigueros, 1636. 293 

Trino, see Tridinum. 

Trisinga, 1775- 293 

Troca, Troki, see Troyga. 

St. Trond. , 294 

Troyes, see Trecce. 

TROYGA, 1497. 294 

Truxillo. 294 

TVBINGA, 1498. 294 

Tudela, see Tutela. 

Tugenus Pagus, | ^^3^, ^95 

Tugmra, J 

Tulle, see'Tutela. 

Tullum, 1505. 295 

Turiaso, see Tarrazona. 

Turicum, Turigum, see Tigurum. 

Turin, see Taurinum. 

Turnonium, 1564. 295 

TVRONES, 1496. 295 

Turrelacum, 1512. 295 

Turusa, 1685. 295 

TVSCVLANVM, 1479. 295 

Tutela, 1572. 296 

Tyrnavia, 1626. 296 

Tzchernigov, see Tzernogama. 

Tzenna, see Zinna. 

TZERNOGAVIA, 1492. 296 

VADSTENA, 1491. 296 

Vadum Isidis, see Oxoma. 
Valencense, Valenciennes, see Va- 



Valentia, Valence, (France) 1602. 


VALENTIA, (Spain) 1474. 297 

Valentinianae, 1608. 298 
Valladolid, see Fallisoletum. 

Vallis Paradisi, 1603. 298 

VALLIS S. MARINE, 1474. 298 
Vallis Trompia, see Colles V. Tr. 

Vallis Umbrosa, 1511. 298 

Vallis Vosagica, 1507. 298 

VALLISOLETVM, 1493. 299 
Vall'ombrosa, see Vallis Umbrosa. 
Valparaiso, see Vallis Paradisi. 
Vannes, see Veneti. 

Varadinum, XVIth cent. 299 

Varallum, 1604. 299 
Varhely, see Vasarhely. 

Varsavia, Varsovia, 1578. 299 

Vasarhelv, 1793. 300 

Vasatum', 1530. 300 

Vaugirard. 300 
St. Ubes, see Satobris. 

Uclesiura, Ucles, 1624. 300 
Udina, see Utinum. 
Veimaria, see Vinaria. 

Veldkirchium, 1655. 300 

Velitrae, Velletri, 1644. 300 
Vend6me, see Vindocinum. 

Veneti, (Vannes) 1678. 300 

VENETIiE. 1469. 301 

Veperv, 1772. 303 

Vera Cruz, 1826. 304 

VERCELL.E, 1485. 304 
Verdun, see Verodunum. 

Verets, 1735. 304 
Verlanga, see Berlanga. 

Verodunum, 1583. 304 

VERONA, 1470. 305 

Versaliae, j jygg 306 
Versailles, J 

Vervieres, 1828. 307 

Vesalia Clivorum, 1543. 307 
Vesontio, see Bisuntia. 

Vesullum, Vesoul, 1779. 307 
Vevay, see Vibiscus. 

Viana, 1619. 307 

Vibii Forum, 1684. 307 

Vibiscus, 1605. 307 

Viburgum, 1528. 307 
Vid, (la) see Vitis Monasterium. 

VICENTIA, Vicenza, 1473. 308 

Victor, (S.) 1549. 308 

Vicus ^quensis, 1586. 308 

VIENNA AVSTRIiE, 1482. 308 


Vienne, 1478. 309 

Vignon, (E.) 309 

Vigornia, 1548. 309 

Villa braxima. 309 

Villafranca, 1671. 309 

ViUagarcia, 1761. 310 

Villa Manta, see Mantua Carpeta- 

nova Infantium, 1628. 310 

Viridis, 1581. 310 

Vitiosa, 1636. 310 

Villefranche, see Villafranca. 
Vilna, 1517. 310 

Vinaria, 1701. 311 

Vincennes, 1755. 311 

St. Vincent, (Spain) I6O7. 311 
Vincentius. 311 

Vindeshemium, 1680. 311 

Vindinum, see Cenomanum. 
Vindobona, see Vienna Austrice. 
Vindocinum, 1667. 311 

Vinisima, Vinsheim, see Vindeshe- 
VIQVERIA, 1486. 311 

Virdunum, see Verodunum. 
Virmaranum. 311 

Visseum, Viseo, orViseu, 1571. 311 
Visingia, 1667. 312 

Vismaria, 1698. 312 

Visolinum, 1588. 312 

Vitemberga, 1503. 312 

VITERBIVM, 1488. 313 

Vitis Monasterium, 1626. 313 
Vitodurum Helvetiorura,l789. 313 

Vitry-le-Frangais, 1759, 
Vitteburga, see Vitemberga. 

Viviacum, see Vibiscum. 
Vizagapatam, 1812. 
VLMA, 1473. 
Ultrajectum, see Trajectum. 
Ultzen, see Ulysseea. 
Ulyssaea, 1575. 
Ulvssinga, 1630. 
VLYSSIPO, 1489. 
Uman, 1685. 
Vneuskoi Monasterium, 1692. 







United States of America, many 

towns in. 315 

Voegel. 315 
Voghera, see Viqueria. 

Volaterrae, Volterra, 1763. 316 
Voyge, Voyse, see Vallis Vosagica. 

Upsalia, 1510. 316 
Urach, see Auracum. 

Uraniburgum, 1596. 318 

Vratislavia, 1503. 318 

URBINVM, 1481. 318 

Urbs vetus, 1586. 319 
Urcesa, see Uelesiwm. 

Ursellse, 1558. 319 
S. Ursius, see Vicentia. 

Urso, Ursao, 1549. 319 


Vryburg. "J 
Vrystadt. J 
VTINVM, 1484. 319 

Utraria, Utrera, 1654. 319 

Utrecht, see Trajectum ad Rhenum. 
Uttinpurra, see Ottinpurra. 
Vuormacium Vangionum, 1514. 

Uxamense Burgura, see Oxoma. 

Wadstena, Wadstein, see Vad- 

Waldenburg, 1713. 320 

Wales, 1734. 320 

Walpole, 1793. 320 

Wandesburgum, | ^ggg 3 

Wansbecum, J 
Waradin, Wardein, see Varadinum. 
Warsaw, see Varsavia. 
Waterford, 1555. 320 

Watertown. 322 

Wegrow, see Wengroma. 
Weimar, see Vinaria. 
Weissenburg, see Alba Julia. 
Weissenburgum Noric. 1729. 323 
Weissenfels, see Leucopetra. 
Wengrovia, 1570. 323 

Wesel, see Vesalia. 
Wessenbrunii, see Wessofontanum. 
Wessofontanum Coenobium. 
Westeras, see Arosia. 
Westminster, (America) 1778. 323 

Wetzlar, see Testaria. 

Wiburg, see Viburgum. 

Wien, see Vienna. 

Wilhermsdorff, 1744. 326 

WiUiamsburg, 1682. 326 

Wilmersdorfium, 1589. 326 

Wilmington, (Delaware) 1761. 326 

(Carolina) 1763. 326 

Wilna, see Filna. 

Winchester, see Wintonia. 

Windsheim, see Vindeshemium. 

Windsor, (America) 1783. 327 

WINTERBERGA, 1484. 327 

Winter Harbour, 1819. 327 

Winterthour, see Vitodurum. 

Wintonia, 1545. 327 

Wirceburgiim, see Herbipolis. 

Wisbaden, 1821. 328 

Wisingsburg, 1 rr' • • 
■,,r. . " ° > see vismsm. 
Wismgsoe, J ° 

Wismar, see Vismaria. 

Wittemburg, see Vitemberga. 

Wolfenbuttel, see Guelpherbytum. 

Woodbridge, 1751. 328 

Worcester, see Vigomia. 

(America) 1775. 328 

Worms, see Vuormacium. 

Wschowa, see Fraustadium. 

Wurtzburg, see Herbipolis. 

Wysolyin, see Visolinum. 

Xerezium, see Asta. 
XERICA, 1485. 329 

Yedo, 1785. 329 

York, see Eboracum. 

(America) 329 

Ypres, see Iprce. 
Ysni, see Isna. 
Yverdun, see Ebrodunum. 

Zabern, see Taberna. 
Zagrabia, 1743. 329 

Zamerdam, 1648, 329 

ZAMORA, 1482. 330 

Zamoscium, Zamoski, 1557. 330 
Zapetha, Zapetra, 1568. 330 

Zaragosa, see Ccesar Augusta. 
Zaslavium, 1572. 330 

Zeitz, see Ciza. 
Zell, see Cella. 
Zenna, see Zinna. 

I N D 

E X. 


Zerbst, see Servesta. 

Zolkiew, see Solcovia. 

Zeyma, 1605. 


Zombor, see Nagy Szombar. 

Zierizea, 1615. 


Zug, see Tugium. 

ZiUy, 1791. 
Zimmermannus M. 


Zullicbavia, 1 ,-,, 
Zullichovium, J 


ZINNA, 1492. 


Zurich, see Tigurum. 

Ziric Zee, see Zierizea. 

Zutphania, Zutphen, 1611. 


Zitia, see Ciza. 

Zweybrucken, see Bipontium. 

Zittavia, 1586-7. 


Zwickau, see Cygnea. 

Znoima, Znaym, Znoym, 


Zwifalda, Zwiefalten, 1504. 



ZWOLL^, 1479.