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Full text of "Genealogy of the family of Mark, or Marke; county of Cumberland. Pedigree and arms of the Bowscale branch of the family, from which is descended John Mark, esquire; now residing at Greystoke, West Didsbury, near Manchester ... To which is added a copy of an old vellum roll; compiled in 1746, for Jacob Mark of Dublin ... Also a collection of biographical excerpts and Appendix of genealogical notes, compiled by John Yarker"

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HENRY W. SAGE 

1891 



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Genealogy of the family of Mark, or Mark 




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<3enealoo£ 



OF THE 



FAMILY OF MARK, OR MARKE; 

COUNTY OF CUMBERLAND. 



(Senealog^ 



FAMILY of MARK, or MARKE; 

COUNTY OF CUMBERLAND. 



Pedigree and Arms 

OF THE 

BOWSCALE BRANCH OF THE FAMILY, 



FROM WHICH IS DESCENDED 



Jobn /Iftark Esquire; 

NOW RESIDING AT GREYSTOKE, WEST DIDSBURY, 
Near MANCHESTER; 

Chevalier, or Knight, of the (Grecian) Royal Order of the Saviour; 

A Justice of the Peace for the County Palatine of Lancaster, and for the City of Manchester; 

Mayor of the City in 1889-90 and 1890-91. 

TO WHICH IS ADDED A 

COPY OF AN OLD VELLUM ROLL; 

Compiled in 1746, 

FOR JACOB MARK, OF DUBLIN, 

With his Marriage Certificate. 



Also a collection of Biographical Excerpts and Appendix of Genealogical Notes 
Compiled by John Yarker. 



(PRIVATELY PRINTED.) 



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PALMER, HOWE AND CO., PRINTERS, 



MANCHESTER. 



preface* 



Having recently acquired, by the courtesy of 
Thomas P. Hogg, Esq., of Dublin, a copy of an old 
Vellum Roll, qualified as a Genealogy of the Mark 
family, which was compiled in 1746, for Jacob Mark of 
Dublin, a gentleman connected with the Mosedale 
branch of the family ; and having had many enquiries 
from gentlemen of the same name as myself, respecting 
the Genealogy of the family of Mark, I have thought 
it advisable to print the document, as being, to those 
who value the subject, an account of some interest, 
although intended to refer only to the line of the 
gentleman for whom the document was compiled. 

After due consideration of the subject matter of the 
Roll, I have thought it advisable to add a few notes, and 
to Preface the same, with my own Genealogy, in a Copy 
of the Pedigree which has been registered at the College 
of Arms, London, and I have added such other informa- 
tion that has come readily under my notice, together 
with a Copy of the Patent, or Grant of Arms, made to 
me by His Grace the Duke of Norfolk, the Earl Marshal, 
and other matters of interest to the family. 

In the Pedigree, and the matter of the Notes thereto 
added, I have to acknowledge, amongst others, the free 
and ready help of Mr. Rd. B. Brockbank, of Maryport, 



vi. PREFACE. 



Cumberland, and Mr. Isaac Sharp, of the Friends' 
Registry, Bishopsgate Street, London, the former being 
the Custodian of the Northern Registers of the Society 
of Friends with which my family were, for so many 
generations, connected ; and to express my thankful 
appreciation of the accuracy of those Registers, with 
the fact that their completeness made my task a 
much more easy one, than generally falls to the lot 
of the compilers of such family records. 

I need only add that this book has been printed, with 
the view that it may be useful and interesting, now and 
hereafter, to members of the Family generally. At their 
request, and at the request of friends who are highly 
competent judges of what ought to appear in a Work 
of this character, and with this intent, I have consented 
to the addition, whilst the Work was in progress, of a 
few plates, and left to others to include a large amount of 
newspaper extracts, which has brought it to its present 
compass, and much beyond what I had originally 
contemplated. 

JOHN MARK. 
Greystoke, 

24th December, 1898. 




Contents. 

General Introduction. page. 

On name of Mark, Arms, and Places i 

Persecution of the early members of the Society of Friends... 7 
Beaulieu or Bewley family, a Summary 11 

Part I. — Title, Family of Mark, of Bowscale, Cumberland. 

Book Plate 19 

Tabulated Pedigree of Mark, of Bowscale 20 

Facsimile of Grant of Arms 22 

Will of John Marke, Senior, 1669 23 

Notes on Pedigree 25 

Biographical Notes : Magazine and Review 31 

Conferment of Chevalier of the Order of the Saviour 46 

Facsimile of the Patent of the King of the Greeks 48 

Mayoralty of Manchester, 1889-90. 

Requisition and Investment 49 

Press Notices : Comments and Leading Articles. 

Manchester Courier 52, 71, 74, 117, 132, 207 

Manchester Evening Mail 69 

Manchester Guardian 52,60, 114, 146 

Manchester Examiner and Times 117, 143 

The London Daily News 60 

Manchester Evening News 69, 133 

Grocers' Review 120 

Banquets to the Judges of Assize. ..56, 83, 98, 111, 139, 116, 185, 207 

Memorial Statue to Dr. J. Prescott Joule 53, 54, 58, 217 

Visit of Mr. and Mrs. Gladstone 53, 59 

Hospital Sunday and Saturday Fund, Annual Meeting 56, 135 

Gas Workmen's Strike 57, 63, 71, 80 

Manchester & Salford Ragged School Union, Annual Meeting 58 

St. Andrew's Society, Annual Meeting and Banquet 61, 139 

Presentation of Prizes, 5th (Ardwick) Volunteer Battalion 61, 142 

Mission to Deep Sea Fishermen 62 

Death of Sir Joseph Heron, Town Clerk 63, 65 

New Year's Dinner to Ragged School Children 63, 64, 143 

Appointment of Town Clerk and Deputy 66, 82 

Juvenile Fancy Dress Ball at the Town Hall 67 

Address of the Manchester Coffee Roasting Company 69 

Banquet at the Arts Club 70 



viii. CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 

Hospital and Dispensary for Children, Pendlebury 70, 149 

Grand Ball at the Town Hall 71 

Royal Manchester Botanical Society, Meeting 71, 150 

Sunday Closing Association 7 2 

Manchester Royal Eye Hospital, Meeting 74, 149 

Manchester and Salford Sanitary Association, Meeting 75, 150 

Ancoats Recreation Committee ' ' At Home " 75 

The Dog Muzzling Order 76 

Promenade Concert at the Town Hall 77 

St. Mark's Ragged School, Hulme, Prize Distribution 78 

Young Men's Christian Association Gymnasium 78, 122, 205 

Manchester and Salford Discharged Prisoners' Aid Society... 78 

Extension of City Boundaries 79, 121 

Clergy of Manchester Superannuation Scheme 79 

Whalley Range Orphanage, Annual Meeting 80 

St. David's Day, Banquet at the Grand Hotel 80 

The Mayor and the Secretary of State for War on Proposed 

Removal of Cavalry Barracks 81, 84, in 

Technical Instruction Act, 1889, Appointment of a Com- 
mittee 83, 113, 201 

Society for Adult Deaf and Dumb, Annual Meeting 85 

Withington Congregational Church Bazaar 85 

Field Naturalists and Archaeological Society 86, 222 

Manchester and Salford Grocers' Association, Address and 

Banquet 86 

Lads' Club, Every Street, Gymnastic Competition 90 

Navvy Mission Society, Meeting at the Town Hall 90 

Manchester Home and Day Nursery, Meeting 90 

Prevention of Consumption, Lecture by Dr. Ransome 91 

Royal Society, Prevention of Cruelty to Animals 91 

Sir Charles Halle, Complimentary Banquet 91 

Manchester and Salford Penitentiary, Meeting 93 

Cadet Battalion Bazaar at Gentlemen's Concert Hall 93 

Opening of New Girls' Schools at Withington 94 

Jewish Tailoring Trade, Strike and Arbitration 94, 102 

Letter on Bimetallism 95 

District Grocers' Association and the Budget 95 

Edwin Waugh's Funeral, Press Notice 96 

Girls' Refuges and Homes and Children's Aid Society 96, 179 



CONTENTS. ix. 



PAGE. 

Visit of Mr. H. M. Stanley and Conferment of the Freedom 

of the City 97, 99, 104, 112, 126 

National Coffee Tavern Association, Conference 98 

Manchester School of Domestic Economy and Cookery 100 

Consuls and Vice-Consuls, Annual Dinner 100 

St. Mary's Church, Proposed Demolition 101, 190, 197 

Ancoats Art Museum, Annual Meeting 102 

Letter from the Very Rev. Dean Oakley, of Manchester 102 

Smithfield Market Extension 102 

Mayoress at the Salford Ladies' Sanitary Association and at 

the Manchester Mission Refuge 106 

Barnes Home Industrial Schools, Prize Distribution 106 

Destruction of Lost Dogs, Lethal Chamber versus Drowning.. 107 

Opening of the Sir Joseph Whitworth Baths, Openshaw 108 

Marriage of Mr. H. M. Stanley 109 

Whitworth Institute, Inaugural Proceedings 109 

Entertainment of the Marquis of Hartington and Sir 

Frederick Leighton at the Town Hall no 

Henshaw's Blind Asylum, Prize Distribution 113 

Manchester School Board, Distribution of Queen's Prizes, 

Science and Art Examinations 115 

Juvenile Fancy Dress Ball Portraits, presented to the Mayor 

and Mayoress, in handsome albums 116 

Manchester Association of Elocutionists, Opening Soiree 116 

Recreative Evening Classes Committee, Public Meeting ...... 118 

City Extension, Reorganisation of Committees of the Council 121 

The Mayor objects to an Annual Allowance, the proposal not 

adopted 122, 145, 163, 167 

Church of the Holy Name Bazaar in aid of Club Buildings... 123 

Visit of the Lord Mayor and Sheriff of London, and other 

Municipal Representatives to the Ship Canal Works 123 

Presentation of Prizes and Certificates, Examinations under 

Trinity College, London 125 

Imperial Federation, Address by Mr. G. R. Parkin 125 

British and Foreign Bible Society, Annual Meeting 127 

Holiday Trip of the Mayor and Family to Norway 243 

International Congress of Engineers 243 

Second Year's Mayoralty, 1890-91. 

First Meeting of the City Council of Greater Manchester 129 

Re-election of Mayor and Address on Municipal affairs 130 



x. CONTENTS. 



PAGE. 

Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society, Meeting 133 

Manchester Mill and Working Girls' Institute, Ancoats 133 

The Mayor, Magistrates, and Corporation Officials at the 

Cathedral 134 

Northern Counties Hospital for Incurables, Meeting 135 

Second Volunteer Battalion, Distribution of Prizes 135 

Meeting of City Justices on " First Offenders " Correspondence 136 

Oppression of Christians in Armenia, Public Meeting 138 

China Challenge Cup won by Lane. Volunteer Riflemen ... 139, 166 

Deputation to Home Secretary on " Scuttling" 140, 141 

Mr. Herbert Birley Memorial, Public Meeting 140 

Distribution of Prizes, 4th Volunteer Battalion, Manchester 

Regiment 1 43 

Opening St. John's Lads' Club, Deansgate 145 

Juvenile Ball in the Town Hall and Newspaper Comments... 145 

Diocesan Branch of Church of England Society 147 

Opening Baths Committee's Gymnasiums 148 

Manchester Hospital Work Society 148 

Manchester and Salford Penny Savings' Bank Association... 148 

Ladies of Manchester Wedding Present of Diamonds to the 

Mayor's daughter, Florence 149 

Grand Ball at the Town Hall to celebrate the marriage of 

Miss Florence Mark 1 50 

South Manchester Chronicle, Account of the Wedding 151, 159 

Manchester Ship Canal and Corporation Assistance, 159, 163, 168, 

171, 177, 186, 187, 190, 192, 194 

Bazaar at the Parish Schools, Gorton 162 

Opening of the Jewish Working Men's Club, Cheetham, with 

handsome gold presentation key 162 

St. John's Ambulance Association, Certificates to Policemen 164 

Concert in aid of Training Ship ' ' Indefatigable " 1 64 

National Society of Professional Musicians, Certificates 165 

Private Nursing Institution, Queen's Badges to Nurses 166 

Conference, re Prevention of Smoking by Boys 171 

Opening Working Girls' Social Club and Home, Oxford Street 176 

The Mayoress "At Home" to receive her Juvenile Ball Guests 176 

Home for Penitent Women, Bazaar at St. James's Hall 180 

Home for Gentlewomen at Higher Broughton 181 

Opening of Corporation Baths at Newton Heath 181 

Worshipful Company of Plumbers, Annual Banquet, London 181 



CONTENTS. xi. 



PAGE. 

Royal National Life Boat Institution, Annual Meeting... 181, 199 

The Mayor's Portrait in Oil at the Royal Academy, and the 
Mayor at the Royal Academy Banquet 182 

The John Bright Statue, selection of site 183, 198, 202, 203 

Church School-masters and School-mistresses' Benevolent 
Institution, Meeting 183 

The Directorate on the Ship Canal Board 184 

American Athletes entertained at the Botanical Gardens 184 

Royal Agricultural Society— Manchester Invitation for 

1893 185, 188 

An Indian Prince's visit to Manchester 185 

Corporation Bill in Parliament — the Mayor's evidence before 

a House of Lords' Committee 185 

Ship Canal, election of the Corporation Directors 192 

The Mayor at a Glasgow Corporation Banquet 193 

Teachers' Guild, Conversazione at the Town Hall 198 

Opening of a Free Library and Technical School at the Town 
Hall, Newton Heath, with presentation gold key 199 

Opening St. Paul's Methodist Chapel at Newton Heath 201 

Solemn Requiem Mass at the Greek Church 201 

The " Bee Hive," Portrait of Mayor and Paragraph 202 

St. Stephen's Church Bazaar, City Road 204 

Albert Memorial Church Bazaar, Harpurhey 204 

The Gentlemen's Concert Hall 204 

Freedom of the City conferred upon Alderman Hey wood 206 

Banquet to Ladies and Gentlemen at Town Hall 207 

The Election of Mayor for the ensuing year 207 

Copy of Resolution of City Council 208, 209 

Summary of the Years 1892-8. 

Of the Mayoralty 211 

Presidency of the Conservative Association, West Didsbury 212 

Marriage of Miss Maude Constance Mark 214 

Initiative by Alderman Mark of a Statue to the late Mr. 
Oliver Heywood 214, 219 

Opening of the Thirlmere Water Works 218 

Invitation to Alderman Mark to contest North Manchester .. . 219 

Occupation of Lingholm, Derwentwater 219, 222 

The Watch Committee and the Socialists 223 

Presidency of the East Manchester Conservative Association 224 

Visits of Rt. Hon. A. J. Balfour 229, 237 



xii. CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 

Royal Agricultural Show at Manchester, 1 897 „ 230 

Occupation of Cefn Mawr Hall, North Wales 234 

Resignation of Membership of City Council 234 

Lord Mayor's Luncheon, Manchester 239 

Birmingham Agricultural Show, 1898 , 240 

Conservative Association of East Manchester 240 

Conservative Association of Stretford Division 240 

National Union of Conservative Associations 244 

Arms of Alliance. 

Mark, Lee, Hutchinson 245 

Part II. — Title. Mark, of Limerick. 

Marriage Certificate of Jacob Mark 248 

Old Vellum Roll of Jacob Mark's Pedigree 251 

Appendix. Editor's Notes 256 

Mark, as a Titular Name 257 

Marcellus, and Marcus, as Family Name 259 

Marke, or Marks, in Essex 259 

Marke, or Marks, in Yorkshire 264 

Marke, or Marks, in Cornwall 265 

Additions to Vellum Roll 267 

Marks in Cumberland 268 

Marks in Ireland 271 

On the Aim and Value of Arms 272 

plates. 

Mr. Mark, with facsimile signature, at age of 45. 

Mrs. Mark. 

Alderman Mark, J. P., Mayor. 

Mr. Fredk. Wm. Lee. 

Mrs. Ethel Louisa Lee. 

Masters Walter and Emsley Mark Lee and Miss Phyllis Lee. 

Mr. Robert Frederic Lee. 

Mrs. Maud Constance Lee. 

Mr. R. Arthur Lord Hutchinson. 

Mrs. Florence Hutchinson. 

Miss Beryl B. Hutchinson. 

Souvenir of Lingholm. 

Greystoke, Didsbury, Entrance View. 

Greystoke, Didsbury, Garden View. 



(Beneral Jntrobuction. 



©n lame, arms, anb places. 




HE earliest names in this country, used as sire 
or surnames, were characteristic, or nick- 
i names ; then it became usual to designate a 
man after his estate, with the addition of de 
or del; others who had no estates, as well as many who 
had, were known by a Christian name, to which their 
father's name was added, with the addition of the French 
fitz, or Latin fil; a fourth form originated in trades and 
professions with the addition of le. In the South, family 
names became fixed and hereditary at an earlier period 
than in the North ; and about the close of the 14th century 
the prefix to the second name was generally abandoned ; 
hence after that period it is often difficult to decide to 
which origin some particular name may be assigned. 

The old Vellum Roll which we print in Part II. has, 
inferentially, adopted the view that Marke as a surname 
has sprang out of the third system of origin which we 
have named ; that is, some person who might be John fil 
Mark, or Mark fil Mark, abandoned the fil, and adopted 



2 FAMILY OF MARK, OR MARKE, 

his father's name as a sire-name ; it was a custom 
common in Wales with ap for fil. But the surname 
Merke or Marke has the prefix del, equal to de la, or, of 
the, hence it was a territorial name in its origin, and as 
the North, from the 12th century downwards, was being 
constantly reinforced from the South, the chances are 
that the name was southern in its origin. 

This southern name of Marke is Anglo-Norman, and 
Merke (Marke), as well as Marcseus (possibly Marcus), 
is found upon the Roll of Battle Abbey. There is also a 
Charter of King Henry (first), attested by W. Marc', and 
as the document is drawn in Latin it is probably Marcus 
abbreviated. The following records of Armorials are 
chiefly southern, and clearly have reference to this 
family: — 

i. Gules, a lion rampant, argent : Ingram del Merk. (Papworth's 
Ordinary, page 76, quoting Roll circa A.D. 1256-66; Harleian 
MS., 6589.) 

2. Gules, a lion passant, argent : William de Merc'. (Papworth, 

p. 76, Roll circa A.D., 1262-92; Harl. MS., 6137. (de Mert, 
in Harl. MS., 6137.) 

3. Gules, a lion rampant, argent, within a bordure engrailed, or: 

Joan de Merc. (Papworth, p. 76, Roll circa, A.D. 1277-87; 
Harl. MS., 6137. (de Mere in Harl. MS., 6589.) Merke. 
(Glover's Ordinary, 17th Cent.) Marks; Merks, Essex. 

4. As 3, with bordure indented : Sire Johan de Merk. (Papworth, 

p. 120, Roll circa A.D. 1308-14, of which he mentions several 
MSS.). Merke, Essex. 

5. Gules, a lion passant, within a bordure engrailed, argent : Markes, 

Essex; Markes, 1732. (Papworth, p. 119; Glover's 
Ordinary; Cotton MS., Tiberius, D. 10; Harl. MS., 1392, 

I459-) 

6. Gules, semy de lis, or, a lion rampant and a canton ermine: Marks, 

or Markes, Suffolk. (Papworth, p. 101.) 

7. Per pale, ermine and azure, a lion rampant, counterchanged : Marke. 

(Papworth, p. 90.) 



COUNTY OF CUMBERLAND. 



8. Per pale, argent and gules, a pile, counter changed : Mark; Marke; 

Marse. (Papworth, p. 1022 ; Harl. MS., 1465, fo. 5b.) 

9. Argent, a cross gules, Jive cinquefoils, or: John de St. Marke. 

(Papworth, p. 655; Glover's Ordinary; Cotton MS., 
Tiberius, D. 10 ; Harl. MSS., 1592, 1459.) 

10. Argent or chevron betiveen three trefoils, vert: Markes, Essex. 

(Papworth, p. 425.) 

11. Gules, a lion rampant, within an orle of eight fleur-de-lis, or, a canton, 

ermine : Marke, of Liscard, Cornwall. (Visit, of Cornwall, 
1620. John Marke, born before 1520.) 

The following tabular statement of Sir Bernard Burke, 
Ulster King of Arms, drawn from his General Armory, 
1878, usefully shews how the name of Merc, Merke, 
Marc, etc., settled into its present form ; the change of 
the letter e to a as well as a to e (very common in all 
names) ; but more particularly the final 5, being of 
modern origin : — 

Merks, (Co. Essex), Gu. a lion ramp. arg. a bordure engr. or. 

Crest : An otter's head and neck erased, Sa. (See our 

No. 3.) 
Marks, Gu. a lion ramp. ar. a bordure engr. or. (See our No. 3.) 
Markes, (Co. Essex), Gu. a lion pass. ar. a bordure engr. of the 

last. (See our No. 5.) 
,, (Co. Essex), Ar. a chev. between three trefoils, vert. 

(See our No. 10.) 
,, Gu. a lion ramp, within an orle of eight fleur-de-lis, 

or, a canton, ermine. (See our No. 11.) 
Marks, (Steeple Ashton, and Salisbury, Co. Wilts, and Pancras, 

Co. Middlesex.) Gu. semee-de-lis, a lion ramp. or. 

Crest : A demi-lion ramp, erm., holding a fleur-de-lis, or. 

(or, Markes, Co. Suffolk,) Gu. semee-de-lis, or, a lion 

ramp., and canton, erm. Crest, as last. (See our No. 6.) 
Marke, (Liscard, Co. Cornwall ; James Marke, son of John 

Marke, and grandson of William Marke, all of same 

place. Visit. Cornwall, 1620.) Gu. a lion ramp. 

within an orle of eight fleur-de-lis, or, a canton, erm. 

(See our No. 11.) 



FAMILY OF MARK, OR MARKE, 



Marke, (Woodhill, Co. Cornwall). Same arms. Crest : A demi- 

lion holding a fleur-de-lis in his dexter paw. (See our 

No. ii.) 
,, Per pale, erm. and az. a lion rampant, counterchanged. 

Crest: A lion's gamb, sa., holding a battle-axe, or. 

(See our No. 7.) 
„ Same arms, a bordure sa. bezantee. 
„ Per pale, ar. and gu., a pile counterchanged. (See our 

No. 8.) 
,, Ar. a cross gu., five cinque-foils, or. (See our No. 9.) 

It will be noticed that though this modern list omits 
to mention the names of the most ancient bearers, they 
are mostly differenced arms of the 13th century. 

For readers who are unacquainted with ancient 
manuscripts, it may be mentioned that there was no 
standard way of spelling names until comparatively 
modern times. The same name may be found spelled 
several different ways in the same deed, certain letters 
being used to record the sound phonetically, at the will 
of the scribe, and even this varied according to the 
language in which the document was written, where the 
name appears. The letters a and e are commonly found 
confounded dialectically. We have names in this 
Genealogy that have undergone some seventy different 
modes of spelling. 

There can be no doubt that the Anglo-Norman, and 
Continental name Mark, comes from the Chiefs or 
Counts of the Mearc (Saxon) ; Mark (German) ; Marque 
or Marche (French) ; the German term Mark-graf, said 
(probably erroneously) to be the origin of the name 
Musgrave, is of this nature. In Wales there is mention 
of Penmark, in Co. Glamorgan, the first syllable of which 
is found in the title of Pendragon, indicating the great 
military chief of the Dragon standard of ancient Briton, 



COUNTY OF CUMBERLAND. 



for which the later Saxon kings substituted Bretwalda, 
wielder of Britain. 

In Cumberland, the family name of Mark, or, as 
spelled in the 17th century, Marke, is not numerous; 
and though the county is very prone to the corruption of 
both family and place names, yet the simplicity of Mark, 
whether surname or place name, has preserved it so far, 
that we have only met with it as Marke and Marks, 
until finally the spelling settled into Mark. 

In the old Vellum Roll, compiled 150 years ago, and 
printed in Part II., the author states that the family of 
Marke entered Cumberland in the suit of Lord Dacre. 
This must mean soon after the year 1500, as the 
Genealogy is carried up to that point at Soulby ; but, 
though probable, the compiler gives no proof of the fact. 

There were branches of the family, in the 16th and 
17th century ; at Soulby, in Dacre parish ; at Bowscale, 
in the parish of Greystoke ; at Mosedale, in the parish of 
Caldbeck ; at Rose (the Bishop's seat), in the parish of 
Dalston, etc., and scattered members in other places. 
The heads of these families were, what may be termed, 
yeomen-gentry, locally statesmen, persons who farmed 
their own estates, which passed to the eldest son. 

At an early period the Markes of Bowscale, 
Mosedale, Blackwell, and Soulby, became loyal ad- 
herents of George Fox, the founder of the Sect of 
Friends, or Quakers, and continued so until recent 
times. Probably the most completely recorded family, 
in the Registry of Friends, is that of Marke of Bowscale. 

The Marks, both of Mosedale and Bowscale, were 
closely connected with the Bewlies of Haltcliffe Hall, and 
of Woodhall, both residences in the parish of Caldbeck, 
and as these were the earliest to accept the preaching of 



6 FAMILY OF MARK, OR MARKE, 

Fox, they were the most cruelly persecuted, and must have 
been impoverished by long imprisonments. Bewleys are 
much more numerous in Cumberland than Marks, from 
which it evidently appears that they are of older residence 
in the county ; though a Thomas Merkes was Bishop of 
Carlisle in the year 1397, but in a few years removed to 
the Tower of London, for loyalty to his deposed Monarch. 
The Quaker families of the Bewlies of Raughton and 
Gatesgill, parish of Dalston, were not closely connected 
with either those of Caldbeck, or the Markes, and the 
persecutions in Dalston parish were not so severe. But 
the relationships of the Quaker families of Cumberland 
are so intricate, that we will deal separately with the 
Bewley families, as it would be difficult to explain the 
intermarriages without a full account. 




COUNTY OF CUMBERLAND. 




persecutions of tbe tfrienbs. 




|T may now be of interest to shew how grievously 
the early Members of the Society of Friends 
were persecuted, and with what constancy, for 
conscience sake, they bore their sufferings. The names 
we give below are mostly concerned with this Genealogy, 
and numerous names, where that was not the case, have 
been omitted. Except where other references are given, 
the extracts are taken from an old book entitled "Besse's 
Sufferings," and have been reproduced, in recent times, 
by Richard S. Ferguson, Esqre., Chancellor of the 
Diocese of Carlisle. 

Sewell says, that in 1653, George Fox held a meeting 
at the Cross, in Caldbeck, "and some received the 
truth." . . . "The High Sheriff, Wilfrey Lawson, 
was eager to have his life taken." Cuthbert Studholme 
and Thomas Craston were the justices before whom Fox 
was arraigned, in 1653, at Carlisle. He was the guest of 
the Bewleys of Haltcliffe and of Woodhall, and at 
Wormanby, 1663, of David Hodgson. In the following 
year, 1654, Thomas Bewley and Hugh Stamper were in 
prison, at Carlisle, for keeping their hats on at the 
Sessions. Gough says, that in 1656, George Bewley, 
John Ellis, and Humphrey Sprage, were in Dorsetshire, 
where they were arrested, and ordered to be whipt ; 



8 FAMILY OF MARK, OR MARKE, 

Bewley suffered three inflictions because he returned 
twice to his inn, after being expelled the town, in order 
to obtain possession of his own horse. 

In 1657, imprisoned for "reproving" the Priests: 
John Grace, 22 weeks ; George Bewley (Woodhall) 
14 weeks ; John Burnyeat, 23 weeks. 

In 1660, Ann Bewley was in prison for refusing to 
swear. In the following year, John Marke, John 
Nicholson, and John Peacocke, were in prison at 
Carlisle, and remained there three years. 

In 1662, John Slee, George Bewley, Mungo Bewley, 
Anthony Fell, John Banks, and others, attended a 
meeting at Howhill (which appears in the Vellum Roll 
as the residence of the Slees), and were cruelly struck 
by George Fletcher, J. P. At the next sessions Slee was 
fined £5 ; three kine, one bull, one heifer (£13), were also 
distressed. George Bewley had three kine taken (£8). 
Mungo Bewley had two horses taken (^5 2s. 6d.). 

In 1663, Thomas Bewley had frequent seizures for 
tithes, and was in gaol at Carlisle, where he remained 
three years. Thomas Bewley, the younger, was 
distressed to the value of ^11 for £% 18s. in tithes. 
Thomas Fell, John Fell, James Barnes, and John Taffin, 
suffered by distress for refusing to swear. 

In 1673, Thomas Bewley, of Haltcliffe Hall, aged 
about 78, was prosecuted by Arthur Savage, priest, for 
£5, and had his feather-bed, bedclothes, and a cupboard, 
worth ^5, seized. No one would buy the goods, so the 
priest sued the bailiff, and made him pay with costs. 

In 1674, " On the 1st November the same priest 
again prosecuted the said Thomas Bewley for the tithes 
of wool, lambs, etc., and notwithstanding his very great 
age, sent him to prison." 



COUNTY OF CUMBERLAND. 



In 1676, " On the 20th of the month called January 
this year, Thomas Bewley, son of old Thomas Bewley 
aforesaid, and Alice Nicholson, of Woodhouse, widow, 
were committed to prison, at the suit of Arthur Savage, 
priest, of Caldbeck, at which time also George Bewley, 
an elder son of the same ancient man, was detained in 
prison by the same priest, where he had there lain two 
years." 

In 1682, " On the 20th of the month called April this 
year, the following persons were continuing prisoners, for 
tithes, at the suit of Arthur Savage, priest, of Caldbeck, 
viz. : Thomas Bewley and Alice Nicholson, who had 
been prisoners for five years and three months ; William 
Scott, five years and four months ; George Stalker, four 
years and four months ; Grace Stalker, five years and 
ten months." 

" In this year was discharged .... George 
Bewley, who had lain in prison more than five years." 

In 1684, " In the month called May this year, 
Thomas Stordy, William Johnson, John Robinson, 
Japhet Allason, Joseph Steel, John Banks, and John 
Bewley, of Gatesgill, were prisoners in Carlisle gaol." 

In 1684, Sewell says, " In this year died Thomas 
Stordy, of Moorhouse, in Cumberland ; a gentleman, 
who 22 years before had been condemned to a prenu- 
mire, because for conscience sake he would not swear 

. . . after which he suffered great fines and spoil 
for meeting. This Thomas Stordy released to the 
land-owners, and their heirs, for ever, an impropriation 
of ^10 per annum, which descended to him from his 
father and grandfather, making conscience as well of 
receiving as of paying tithes." 

John Hodgson, great-grandson of David Hodgson 



io FAMILY OF MARK, OR MARKE, 

and his wife Mabel Bewley, married, in 1753, Jane 
Stordy, of Moorhouse. The last of this branch, the 
elder line, David Hodgson, of Scotby, sold the patri- 
monial property of Wormanby, and was sometime 
Mayor of Liverpool, and died some years ago at an 
advanced age. 

Rutty says, "Thomas Wilson, of Soulby, visited 
Ireland in the service of the gospel, several times before 
he settled here. In the year 1695 he was married to 
Mary Bewley, of Woodhall, in Cumberland, and soon 
after came into Ireland, and settled near Edenderry, 
in the King's County." Her father was Thomas Bewley, 
of Woodhall, and her two brothers, Thomas and Mungo, 
were already settled in Ireland. 

The various connections of the family of Marke, or 
Mark, with the Friends mentioned herein, add interest 
to this Story of Persecution. We may add that the 
Genealogy of the Bowscale branch of the family of Mark 
follows in Part I., supplemented by Notes ; and that of 
the Mosedale and Blackwell Hall line (which carries the 
Genealogy two generations further at Dacre) is given in 
Part II., or the Vellum Roll with its Notes. 




COUNTY OF CUMBERLAND. 



ii 




CW* 



Beaulieu, or Bewle^ jfamil^ 




JHE founder of this family in Cumberland was 
Richard de Beaulieu. He held some conces- 
sions of lands from the Dacres, and various 
concessions between the years 1356-80 from King 
Edward III. In 1359 the King gave him the ward- 
ship of the heir and lands of John de Eglesfield ; in 
1372, a small estate at Raughton, alienated in that 
year by William Briswood, who inherited it from his 
sister Avicia, who had been wife of a de Raughton, 
an estate, as part of Inglewood forest, held of the 
King in chief; in 1380 he had permission to clear 
fourteen acres of Inglewood forest at Kirkthwaite. He 
had a son at Sowerby in 1386, and others at Raughton 
and Hesketh. His descendants, in each generation, 
held important offices in the county, down to the 17th 
century. 

The references to their coat armour is peculiar. 
According to John Denton, of Cardew, in his MS. 
" Account of the Most Considerable Estates and 
Families," begun early in the 17th century, and con- 
tinued down to 1749 by Gilpin and others ; the 
family of Raughton used the sparrow-hawk as their 
cognisance, because they had charge of the King's 
eyre of hawks in Inglewood forest. He shews also 



12 FAMILY OF MARK, OR MARKE, 



that the Dalston family of Dalston, the Suttons, and 
Bewlies of Caldbeck, all used the same arms slightly 
differenced, which may imply family alliance, service, 
or mutual defence ; and that the Bewlies of Hesket 
Hall had an old seal of John Sutton, whose arms they 
used as " heirs general " to the estate, which was 
purchased by Sir Wilfred Lawson about the year 1660. 
These arms were : Argent, a chevron between three 
daws' heads erased, sable. But these arms are again 
only slightly differenced from those of the above named 
Richard de Beaulieu, who was Knight of the Shire in 
1385, for in a Roll of Arms of " Northern Knights," 
said to be temp. Ric. II., the name William Beulieu 
has the same arms assigned, but with the chevron 
dauncette and the birds' heads oysell ; these are arms 
of the Knight of the Shire, 1404-5. 

The Denton, Dacre, and Bewley families were con- 
nected by marriage, and the first named is so old that 
antiquaries dispute whether they were of Roman, Saxon, 
or Danish descent. Burke says that Richard de Denton 
married Jane, daughter of Humphrey, Lord Dacre, and 
had a son John de Denton, who married Mary, daughter 
of William Bewley ; who, it may be added, had sons 
Richard and Thomas Bewley on Border Service, 1510-30, 
and filling other offices ; they had a sister Isabel, wife of 
Whitelay (a descendant of the heirs of the ancient 
Barons), and she is interred with her father, near the 
chancel of Greystoke Church, and commemorated by a 
brass in the floor, with the date 1543. In 1506 the 
before mentioned John Denton exchanged Denton and 
Gillesland, with Lord Dacre, for Wernel : he had two 
sons by his wife Mary Bewley, and two daughters, one 
of whom, Eleanor, married Sir Thomas Dacre, Knight. 



COUNTY OF CUMBERLAND. 13 

About the year 1600, William Lawson, of Isell, 
married Judith, the daughter of William Bewlie, of 
Hesket Hall, which the family had held, with the mesne 
Manor, for many generations, and their son, Sir Wilfred 
Lawson, Knight and Baronet, says the Denton MS., 
"purchased Hesket from his mother's relatives." 
Brayton had gone previously to the Salkelds. The 
Inquisition Post Mortem of the William Bewley just 
mentioned, shews that he held the mesne Manor, "one 
other messuage " and " a cottage " in Caldbeck, and 
various properties at Brayton with the Hall ; and that 
his son and heir was Richard Bewley. The last named 
had a daughter, Eleanor, who married, circa 1615, 
Christopher Richmond, of High Head Castle, Ivegill. 

At Raughton, a John Bewley, born soon after 1500, 
held, in 1577, considerable estates in Raughton and 
Gatesgill from the Queen in Chief, and had sons : 
George, William, Michael, and Mungo, who alienated 
the property, in 1608, to Sir Edward Musgrave. 
Nevertheless, the Inquisitions Post Mortem, 1600-1700, 
shew that the family still continued to hold property 
there, with an appearance that it was the original 
estate of 1372 ; the clan before 1600 consisted of some 
seventy families. 

There was, moreover, in or about 1550, a younger 
branch of the Hesket family in possession of the adjacent 
Woodhall. William Bewley, of Woodhall, who died 
1584, had a son George who inherited Woodhall, and 
a daughter Margaret, who married another George 
Bewley, and both are named in the 1643 Will of their 
brother George, together with their son John Bewlie. 
(A. Pedigree Notes). George Bewley, the elder, who 
died 1643, had three sons and three daughters : George 



i 4 FAMILY OF MARK, OR MARKE, 

(tercius) who inherited Woodhall ; Thomas, who had 
^103 ; and Mungo Bewley, of Ivegill, who, on the failure 
of issue in his elder brother George, inherited Woodhall ; 
and, as a Friend, was in prison, 1662-3. This Mungo 
Bewley had a son Thomas to succeed him at Woodhall, 
as also a daughter Mabel, who married David Hodgson, 
of Wormanby, a member of the Society of Friends. 

The above named Thomas Bewley died in 1693, 
leaving by his wife Margaret three sons : George Bewley, 
who inherited Woodhall, and Thomas and Mungo, also 
a daughter Mary, who married, in 1695, Thomas Wilson, 
of Soulby ; these three last went to Ireland, and became 
the progenitors of the numerous and influential families 
of the Bewleys of Ireland, of which the elder line 
returned to Liverpool. There are some good genealo- 
gists in this branch, and we are indebted for many 
valuable items in these notes to John Bewley, of Liver- 
pool and Stanwix, Esquire, and Justice Sir Edmund 
T. Bewley of Dublin. 

The succession was continued at Woodhall until 
recently, and is still represented by younger branches 
in Cumberland. The line in possession terminating in 
two daughters, of whom Hannah married, in 1834, 
Robert Kimberly Tipping, of Liverpool ; and Isabella, 
who married, in 1836, Robert Benson, Jun., J. P., of 
Preston, whose niece married the late William Brockbank, 
of West Didsbury. 

Lyson observes, in his Magna Britannia, that though 
this family was a younger branch of Bewley, of Hesket, 
he had not discovered what arms they bore. The fact 
is, that strict Quaker families repudiated armorial 
bearings, owing to their origin in the necessities of war. 
The Rev. Thomas Bewley, in his Will at Carlisle, 1715, 



COUNTY OF CUMBERLAND. 15 

seals with the blazon of a chevron between three birds 
heads, and proclaims it his own seal ; he was Rector 
of St. Cuthbert's, Carlisle. 

We will now turn to the Bewlies of Haltcliffe Hall, 
as it is more strictly the branch with which the families 
of Mark, of Bowscale and Mosedale, were allied. 

Thomas Beuilly, or Bewley, born about 1595, by 
his wife Dorothy (probably Nicholson) had two sons, 
George and Thomas, and a daughter Mary, who 
married, in 1658, Thomas Marke of Mosedale, as 
detailed in the old Vellum Roll. 

George Bewley (Senior), inherited Haltcliffe and 
Woodhouse, with lands at Castle Sowerby, and marrying 
Elizabeth Stordy, had two sons and three daughters : 
George; Samuel; Ruth, who married, in 1681, Samuel 
Brown ; Elizabeth uxor Bryan Lancaster, of whom see 
Note to old Vellum Roll ; and Abigail, who married, 
in 1688, George Peacock of Mosedale. 

George Bewley (Junior), the eldest son, inherited 
Haltcliffe, and married, in 1695, Sarah, sister of Samuel 
Rawlinson, by whom he left three children, in whom his 
line terminated : Thomas and Prescilla died unmarried ; 
Hannah married, in 1725, James Blakelin. The elder 
line continued in : 

Samuel Bewley, of Hallfield, younger brother of the 
last named ; he married in 1701, Sarah, daughter of 
William Greenhow, by whom he had two sons and 
three daughters : George, who married, in 1734, Sarah 
Moreland of Crookhall, Westmorland ; Thomas ; Sarah ; 
Abigail, born 1704, who married, in 1736, William 
Pattinson, brother of Barbara, wife of Isaac Marke ; 
lastly Ruth, who married, in 1734, Robert Latimer of 
Parcellstown. (B. Pedigree Notes.) 



1 6 FAMILY OF MARK, OR MARKE. 

We will now turn to the descents of the second 
son of Thomas Bewley of Haltcliffe Hall, born about 
1595 : — Thomas, Junior. 

Thomas Bewley, Junior, of Carfoot, married, in 1657, 
Margaret Williamson, and had, with several other 
children who died in infancy : Richard, born 1662 ; 
Joseph, born 1668. The eldest surviving son, Richard 
Bewley, died sine parole, at Haltcliffe Hall, in 1751, and 
in his will, at Carlisle, mentions his brother Joseph ; his 
nephews Samuel, and Joseph, Junior ; and Elizabeth 
his daughter ; kinswoman Mary. He makes his nephew 
Samuel Bewley residuary legatee. 

Samuel Bewley, above mentioned, who died 1763, 
left by his wife Elizabeth, a daughter Mary, who 
married, in 1750, Joseph Iveson of Wigton ; and an 
only son John Bewley, following : 

John Bewley married, in 1763 (died 1798), Julian 
(born 1736, died at the house of her son-in-law, John 
Fell, and buried at Shap, 1828), then orphan daughter 
of John Hodgson (elder brother of Field Marshal 
Studholme Hodgson), by his wife Julian Howard; son 
of John Hodgson, by his wife Jane Norman ; son of 
Rowland Hodgson, of Longbrough, by his wife Mary, 
sister of Michael Studholme of Westminster, and pre- 
viously of Rickerby, Carlisle ; second son of David 
Hodgson of Wormanby, and his wife Mabel, daughter of 
Mungo Bewley of Woodhall. Descendants, in the male 
line, exist in Cumberland ; and the family of Yarker, 
of West Didsbury, as shown in their printed genealogy, 
descend maternally from this marriage. 




4v. 



dfa6ili*r: rf.'^f >'■' -*&*rt*HA3>-: 



pebigvee 



OF THE 



FAMILY OF MARK OF BOWSCALE, 

IN THE 

PARISH OF GREYSTOKE, 

COUNTY OF CUMBERLAND; 

Represented by John Mark, Armiger, J. P. 

etc., etc., etc. 

TOGETHER WITH THE GRANT OF ARMS 
BY THE EARL MARSHAL; 

As Recorded in the Registers of the College of 
Arms, London. 

PART I. 




Book plate. 



th 8th ^Barbara, born 25 nth 

stered month, 1664 ; registered at 

eeting the Friends' Meeting House, 

Carlisle ; living 1669. 



I 

jfrances, bom 28th 7th 

month, 1667 ; registered 
at the Friends' Meeting 
House, Carlisle. 



Jane, bom 7th 1st 

month, 1 67 1 ; registered 
at the Friends' Meeting 
House, Carlisle. 



I 

rland ; .flBai'B, born ist 4th 

eeting month, 1697 ; regd. at the 

ied at Friends' Meeting House, 

stered Carlisle ; living unmarried, 

1718 and 1721-2. 



I 
iSStbet, born 5th 9th 
month, 1705 ; registered 
at the Friends' Meeting 
House, Carlisle ; living 
1718 and 1721-2. 



Gbomas flftarfce, bom 

2nd 12th month, 1708 ; 
registered at the Friends' 
Meeting House, Carlisle ; 
living 1718 and 1721-2. 



I 

, born dBar$2, born nth 2nd 

1753; month, 1736; Registered 

iends' at the Friends' Meeting 

rlisle ; House, Carlisle ; living 

1778. 



I 
IRtltb, born 18th nth 
month, 1738 ; registered at 
the Friends' Meeting House 
Carlisle. 



Savab, born 16th ist 
month, 1745 ; registered 
at the Friends' Meeting 
House, Carlisle ; living 
1778. 



Grey- IRlltb, born 26th nth 

born month, 1784 ; registd. at 

died the Friends' Meeting House 

Carlisle. 



\ 

Jane, bom 19th 10th 

month, 1798 ; registered 
at the Friends' Meeting 
House, Carlisle. 



I 

raiie, bom 13 April, 
1 ; registered at the 
ends' Meeting House 
rlisle. 



ham, afsd., 4 May, 
Dury, 29 Jan. 1891, 
3r House, Rochdale ; 



Ibannab, bom 12 

March, 1825 ; registd. at 
the Friends' Meeting 
House, Carlisle. 



2lnn, born 7 March, 
1838; registered at the 
Friends' Meeting House 
Carlisle. 



\ 

/IBatB, born 22 Feb., 
1842 ; registered at the 
Friends' Meeting House 
Carlisle. 



This Pedigree was compiled by me from 
Original Documentary Evidences. 

CHARLES H. ATHILL, 

Richmond Herald of Arms. 

Heralds' College, London, 
2,0th July, 1894. 



Cop£ of (Srant of Hrrm 

(See Facsimile.) 



FAMILY OF MARK, OR MARKE. . 23. 




Mill of Jobn flbarke, Senior. 

3n tbe 1Rame of (Boo Bmen. The twentye eight 

day of September, 1669. I John Mark of Bouskell in 
the County of Cumberland, Yeoman, Being of p'fitt 
memory and remembrance, praised be God, doe make 
and ordaine this my last Will and Testement in maner 
and forme following, first, I give and bequeath my soule 
unto Allmighty God my creator and Redemer and my 
body to the earth. Item I give unto my sonne John 
wife one ewe and a lambe. Item I give unto Josiwa 
my grand Child one ewe and one lambe, Unto Mary 
my grand Child one ewe and one lambe. And unto 
Barberry my grand Child one ewe and one lambe and 
unto Frances my grand Child one ewe and one lambe 
Item I give unto my sone John one gavelock wch was 
is grand-fathers And the rest of all my goods movable 
and unmovable I give and bequeath unto my sone 
Richard Marke whome I make whole and sole executor 
of this my last Will and Testement, in witness whereof 
I have hereunto set my hand and seale the daye & 
yeare above written f~~\ 

Sealed signed and delivered V^ 

in the prens of us Jur. ' John Mark -p 

wllliam todhunter t 
Edward Bristoe 

Folio 3. 

Proved at Carlisle gth November, 

1669, by the Executor. 



Botes to pebioree* 

jfifSt (BettCVatiOn. As we have prefaced these notes 
with the Will of the John Marke with whom the 
Registered Pedigree commences, we may mention that 
though Mosedale is in the parish of Caldbeck, yet it 
is within half a mile of Bowscale, in the parish of 
Greystoke. The place was anciently spelled Bouskell 
and gave origin to a family name. The estates were 
held by Customary, or Copyhold tenure of the Barony 
of Greystoke, and, upon the death of an owner, the 
heir-at-law was registered on the Court Rolls on payment 
of a small fine to the Lord. Anciently the only deed 
was a Copy of the Registration. 

SeCOltb (BeneratlOIl. John, son of John Marke, 
Senior, of Bowscale, was three years in prison, for 
conscience's sake, with John Nicholson and John 
Peacocke. The latter was probably brother of Janet, 
the wife of John Marke, Junior. A George Peacock 
married, in 1688, Abigail Bewley who is again con- 
nected with the family of Marke, in our note to the 
fourth generation. The Sarah, daughter of George 
Peacock of Moorhouse (Marrah, in some Registers), 
who married George Mark, 1722, as in the Vellum 
Roll, Part II., would be of the third generation from 



26 FAMILY OF MARK, OR MARKE, 

Janet, wife of John Marke, Junior, of Bowscale. In 
the year 1767 Isaac Peacock bequeathed ^20 to the 
poor of Motherby, Greystoke. (Whellan.) 

A Richard Marke, Quaker, of Soulby, had a daughter 
Jane, who married, in 1658, Hugh Peacock. Another 
Richard Marke, of Soulby, probably son of the former, 
married, in 1657, Margaret, daughter of John Slee (a 
family mentioned in the old Roll) of Grisedale, and left 
a family. About seventy years ago there was a cele- 
brated mathematical scholar of that name, at Tirrel, 
near Yanwath, Westmorland. 

^bil'fc (BeneratiOlt. There are several Wills at 
Carlisle made by the family of John Bewley of 
Mungrisedale ; for whose descent, see Note A in our 
Introductory Chapter, of Bewley, of Woodhall. 

John Bewlie, of Mungrisedale, by his wife Elizabeth, 
whose maiden name (by inference from several Wills) 
was Tinling, had three sons : Joseph and Daniel died 
in 1 73 1 and 1702, sine parole. There were also several 
daughters : Margaret married, in 1678, John Bell, of 
Seckmurthy ; Jane married, in 1692, Thomas Robinson ; 
and Elizabeth married, in i6g8, Nicholas Booke of 
Penrith ; all Quakers. 

John Bewley, of Swineside (younger brother of Joseph 
and Daniel), by his wife Margaret, who was buried at 
Mosedale in 1724, had two daughters only : Jane, the 
eldest, who married Joshua Marke, as in the Pedigree ; 
and Mary, who married John Strickett. His Will, 
made 28th February, 1718, and proved the same year, 
mentions his wife Margaret; his sister, Elizabeth Booke; 
his grandchildren, John and Mary Stirkett ; his grand- 
children, John, George, Mary, Benjamin, Isaac, Thomas, 
and Esther Marks ; his sister Bridget ; and appoints 



COUNTY OF CUMBERLAND. 27 

his grandson, George Marks, sole executor. Esther 
Marke, above named, married, in 1742, Robert Vaux. 

The Will of the above sister Bridget was made 17th 
May, 1729, and proved 2nd July, 1729 : she mentions her 
nephew John Bell ; her cousins William, Nathan, and 
Deborah Tinling ; and Isaac Boak. She leaves to 
Anne, daughter of Joseph Bewley, her landlord (son of 
Thos. Bewley, Junr., of the Haltcliffe Hall branch), 
2 is., when she attains twenty-one years of age. 

A more interesting Will is that of her brother Joseph 
Bewley of Hesket, made 6th June, 1730, and proved 
3rd April, 1731. He leaves to nephew Isaac Boak, ^35 ; 
to William, son of David Tinling of Carlisle, ^40 ; 
to Nathan, brother of William Tinling, £10 ; to Isaac, 
youngest son of Jon. Pearson of Ullock, ^10 ; to Abigail 
Bewley, his servant, £10 ; to Jos., son of Jos. Bewley, 
his landlord, ^3 3s.; to poor Quakers of Caldbeck, £3 ; 
to nephew John Bell, a messuage at Caldbeck, and 
residue, and he appoints him sole executor. The 
Will is witnessed by John Scott ; Simeon Nicholson ; 
Thomas Bewley. (The last named is of Haltcliffe 
Hall, born 1702. Thomas, son of Mungo Bewley of 
Woodhall, would be born about 1640, and died in 1693, 
for which see our introductory chapter.) 

f OUCtb (BeneratlOn. Barbara, daughter of William 
Pattinson and wife of Isaac Mark, had a brother William 
Pattinson, to whom we shall have to refer below ; but 
the connection can only be made clear by reference to 
Note B in our Introductory Chapter. 

John Marke, elder brother of Isaac Mark, above 
named, born 1691, married 1724, Ruth, daughter of 
John and Mary Walker, and they had a son, Isaac Mark, 
and three daughters : Jane, died in infancy ; Mary, 



28 FAMILY OF MARK, OR MARKE, 

married 1755, Thomas Marke, of the Blackwell Hall 
line; Ruth, married 1757, Elihu Robinson of Eaglesfield. 

George Marke, brother of the last named, born 1694, 
married 1736, Lettice, widow of Bristo, and had a son, 
Thomas Mark, of Newlands, Bowscale, who married 
1761, Sarah, daughter of William Pattinson and his wife 
Abigail, daughter of Samuel Bewley (B), by whom he 
had five sons and four daughters: George; John; Isaac; 
Thomas; Benjamin. Mary; Betty; Ruth; Sarah. The 
above named George Mark, and Joseph Priestman, 
witness the 1747 Will of Thomas Bewley of Woodhall. 

jflftb (BeneratlOn. The Priestmans claim to have 
held their lands at Caldbeck for many centuries ; in fact, 
since the place was disforested and a church established 
there, in which case the origin of the name becomes 
apparent. In the neighbourhood there was a class of 
yeomen who held their lands by a curious tenure, and 
who were termed " Knights of the Red-Spear," by 
which tenure they were compelled to brandish their 
spears, once a year, at the town of Penrith. In the 1578 
enquiry into the Estates held by the attained Thomas 
Percy, Earl of Northumberland, and of which Thomas 
Bewley was on the Commission, it is said that "the 
heirs of Robert Priestman held Wardflat (in Caldbeck), 
by like (military) service, and rendered 6d." 

In 1565, there was a John Priestman incumbent of 
Ainstable, and in 1643, a Robert Priestman was Rector 
of Kirklinton. 

The Miriam Priestman mentioned in the Pedigree 
was daughter of Jeremiah Cowman, or Cowan ; her 
husband, Joseph, was son of George, son of Thomas 
Priestman, who married, in 1685, Jane Priestman, at the 
house of Thomas Bewley of Woodhall. This Thomas 



COUNTY OF CUMBERLAND. 29 

Priestman, of Deerrudding, is mentioned in a Will, made 
in 1709, by Samuel Bewley, of Hallfield, and he also 
witnesses the 1712 Will of George Bewley, Senior, of 
Haltcliffe Hall. 

Siytb (BetterattOn. Hannah, the wife of Joseph 
Mark, of Howbeck, was a daughter of Joseph Wilson 
and his wife, Ann Fawcett. Her eldest sister Ann 
married John Worthington, of the firm of Crewdson & 
Worthington, and whose amalgamated business is con- 
ducted as Horrockses, Crewdson, & Co. Limited, of 
Manchester. Two other sisters married as follows : 
Sarah married Joseph Rooke, and Mary married his 
brother, John Rooke, whose son, George Rooke, is now 
a member of the Manchester Board of Guardians, in the 
Commission of the Peace, and resident at Moorside, 
Sale Moor : they were sons of Joseph Rooke, Senior, 
who owned a freehold estate at Papcastl -e, near Wigton, 
Co. Cumberland, and who established the chemical 
business of Rooke & Hunter, at Red Bank, Manchester. 

Whilst we are passing through the press, Joseph 
Wilson Rooke, second son of George Rooke, married, 
9th June, 1898, Mabel, only daughter of the late Sir 
Thomas and Lady Sowler. 

(Brant Of HntlS. This document is beautifully 
engrossed on fine vellum, and enclosed in a handsome 
box, covered with red morocco leather, and stamped 
in gold on the top, with three regal crowns, below 
which are the initials V.R. (Victoria Regina) ; on the 
side of the box again appear two crowns, with the V.R. 
between them. Alderman Mark will, perhaps, permit 
one who has read these notes to say, that on account of 
his eminent services to the City of Manchester during 
a period of over twenty years, the College of Arms 



3 o FAMILY OF MARK, OR MARKE. 

conceded him this new grant, with a reference thereto, 
in the blazon, to the Crest of the City of Manchester. 
Thus to the Lion of St. Mark, allusive to the name, has 
been added to his own Arms from that of Manchester, 
on a chief, the celestial globe, whilst the crest of the 
grantee is a lion, semee of bees, as found on the globe of 
Manchester. It is universally conceded that Mr. Mark's 
two years' Mayoralty, i88g-gi, was one of the most 
successful and pleasant on record, in the City of 
Manchester. 




Btoorapbical Botes. 




HE position of Mayor, or Lord Mayor, of a 
large city, is one of arduous work ; and during 
the years 1889-91 so many changes were in 
progress in the city of Manchester, that 
were the subject of comment in the journals of the day, 
that were we to attempt to collect the whole of such 
articles, they would fill a large volume. We will there- 
fore confine ourselves to a selection of the more important 
articles upon subjects in which Alderman John Mark 
took a prominent part, and arrange these, as far as 
convenient, in chronological order. In the Biographical 
Magazine (January, 1891, No. XXXII., Vol. XII., New 
Series, London) the following article appeared, with a 
portrait, a copy of which we give as a frontispiece to this 
book. A similar and earlier article appeared in the 
Northern Counties Grocers 1 Review for November 12th, 
1889, as also in other journals, but these mostly copy 
from each other, and we prefer to commence with the 
article of the Biographical Magazine :— 

" Alderman John Mark, who has been re-elected Mayor of Man- 
chester, is a typical representative of those men who, by a wise 
exercise of good natural abilities, by industry and perseverance in 
business, and in the duties immediately at hand, and by an earnest 
and sympathetic interest in the advancement and welfare of the 
community, win the respect and honour of their contemporaries. 



32 BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES. 



Whatever may have been the origin of such men, or whatever may 
be the conditions by which they are surrounded, their individuality 
and strength of character seldom fail to make an impression on those 
amongst whom their lives are cast, and to draw to them both 
influence and authority. By their uprightness, simplicity of life, and 
sterling merit they gain the public confidence, and their selection to 
share the burden of government, local or imperial, naturally follows, 
and the conferring upon them distinctions and dignities which such 
services, ably and faithfully performed, generally command. It may, 
therefore, be taken for granted that men who are thus selected and 
honoured by their fellows possess qualities which make that honour 
well deserved, whatever the distinction may be, and it is to the 
accident of circumstance, rather than to difference in qualifications, 
that a man owes the bestowal upon him of the chain of a Mayor, or 
the portfolio of a Prime Minister. Fortunately for this country there 
are amongst its sons many men who come under this category, and 
so long as they continue to form an appreciable element in the 
constitution of our social system, its glory will not tarnish nor its 
greatness decay. 

Much of that sturdy independence, determination to succeed, and 
real grit which mark the character of the best men of the North 
country are rightly said to be mainly derived from the sternness 
of their early surroundings. Keen necessity has often been the 
whetstone on which their wits were sharpened, but as a rule their 
youthful acquaintance with hardship, instead of souring, has greatly 
helped them in the subsequent battle of life. Many of the public 
men of Lancashire and the North, who have won for themselves 
an honourable place in the community, have risen from comparatively 
humble circumstances, and are justly proud of telling the story of 
their early struggles. Though Mr. John Mark may also be said to 
be the architect of his own fortune, yet his origin was neither 
obscure nor lowly. He was born in a quiet village in the parish 
of Greystoke, Cumberland, in December, 1832. His father's eldest 
brother inherited the family estate, and the younger brothers received 
small legacies out of it, and as is usual in thousands of cases in the 
Northern counties, they had to go to ordinary trades, the eldest son 
being the heir and " statesman." He has not forgotten that he owes 
much to his parents, who were much respected by all who knew 
them — to his father, who was a shrewd man with a keen insight into 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 33 

human nature, possessing a rare quality of wit, humour, and anecdote; 
and to an estimable mother who, on very limited means, brought up 
a large family in a most praiseworthy manner. They were members 
of the Society of Friends with a family pedigree traced back in 
the various registers of the Quaker meeting houses, probates of 
wills, etc., to a period anterior to the year 1650. They did not hold 
their religious beliefs so austerely as to prohibit any of those exercises 
which help to create for a youngster a sound mind in a sound body, 
and therefore to the natural health-giving breezes of the hills and 
dales of the lake country the children added many athletic exercises 
to the lasting advantage of their constitution. Among his school- 
fellows, in their Cumberland games, wrestling, football, rounders, 
hare and hounds, running, jumping, skating, and such like, John 
Mark was always in the first teams. Nor was his early education 
neglected, though to obtain it a daily trudge to and from a distant 
village school was necessary; and from the age of eight to fourteen 
this school work was dovetailed with hard work before and after 
school hours. He was next sent to the Friends' Boarding School at 
Wigton, where he had excellent teachers, and became associated 
with boys from Tyneside, Carlisle, Liverpool, and other places. 
Finding himself there amongst schoolfellows whose home advantages 
with regard to learning had been superior to his own, his ingrained 
determination not to be easily beaten by anyone was aroused, and in 
less than a year and a-half he had reached the highest place in the 
school, which he held for the remainder of his term of two years. 
In the competition for the honour of possessing the first place in the 
school, the last to surrender to him was his particular friend and 
school-chum, John Dixon, now the eminent civil engineer, who 
brought Cleopatra's Needle from Egypt and erected it on the 
Thames Embankment, and whose name is connected with great 
engineering enterprises in that country, but more recently as the 
builder of the new bridge at Hammersmith. Young Mark's natural 
ability and desire for knowledge was considerable, and it was a deep 
disappointment to him that he was unable to continue his studies, 
having to leave school at the age of sixteen to be initiated into the 
practical working of an extensive grocery trade. 

During the first few years in this business, he not only gained the 
confidence of his employer, but gave practical proof that he possessed 
unusual business aptitude. Considerable responsibility was therefore 



34 BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES. 



very soon placed upon him, and though arduous to a youth it must 
have had a highly beneficial effect in the formation of his character. 
At that susceptible age he was also fortunate in having in the same 
business a friend in one of the senior assistants, whom he remembers 
with gratitude. He describes him as " a fine manly Scotchman, of 
great rectitude of conduct, who took him in charge generally, kept 
him out of harm's way, and preserved him from many of those temp- 
tations to which young apprentices are subjected, especially in large 
cities and away from home influences.' - 

At the age of twenty-one he determined to try his fortune in 
Manchester, where he had near relatives in the Society of Friends, 
who always gave him a kindly welcome and encouragement. He 
was fortunate in immediately obtaining an engagement with the 
noted old firm of Richardson and Roebuck, of Market-place, then in a 
large way of business as family grocers. Mr. Roebuck, being a keen, 
hard-working man of business, soon perceived the aptitude and special 
abilities of his young assistant, and at the end of five years offered 
him a partnership, to take effect after the conclusion of seven years' 
service. This offer was accepted and carried out, but the arrange- 
ment, owing to the sudden serious illness of Mr. Roebuck, was not of 
long duration. Through Mr. Roebuck's failing health the partner- 
ship was terminated, and Mr. Mark, not being able to accept the 
overtures of Mr. Roebuck's son (who at that time came as a stranger 
into the business), he decided to start on his own account. Hand- 
some premises in St. Ann's-square were secured, and there with 
substantial financial support he began to establish the great business 
he has built up. Many customers of the old firm who had liked their 
treatment at his hands naturally gathered round him, and thus was 
launched a business which, under Mr. Mark's able guidance, was a 
success from the first, and has gradually grown to be one of the 
largest and best of its kind in the North of England. 

John Mark, however, is not the man to allow his intellectual out- 
look to be overshadowed by the cares of trade or the mere endeavour 
to get money. His early experience and training, combined with his 
tireless mental activity, made it almost inevitable that he should 
begin to interest himself in local affairs, in social and philanthropic 
movements, and in the many important questions which constantly 
demand attention in a great centre. When his business had become 
soundly established, he acceded to the wishes of the ratepayers of 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 35 

St. Ann's Ward, and was, without opposition, elected a member of 
the Manchester City Council in August, 1877. Serving first on the 
Paving and Highways, the Hackney Coach, and Nuisance, and, 
later on, the Free Libraries, Waterworks, Watch, Art Gallery, and 
other committees, he soon came to be recognised as a hard-working 
member. He threw himself into this new sphere of action with 
characteristic energy, importing into it much of the staunchness and 
thoroughness of his youth with the valuable addition of an extensive 
knowledge of the world, and of affairs, gained in the pursuance of his 
business career. The general sound common-sense, blunt honesty, 
and anxious determination that, wherever needed, justice should be 
done, and the welfare of the community advanced — qualities which 
he has invariably exhibited in Committee and in the Council — have 
gained for him a high place in the estimation of his co-members and 
in that of the citizens of Manchester. He respects the time of his 
colleagues and does not indulge in rhetorical verbosity in the 
Council, but he has the courage of his opinions, and when occasion 
requires he is not afraid of letting his voice be heard. 

In October, 1889, after twelve years' service as a Councillor, he 
was elected an Alderman of Manchester, and almost immediately 
afterwards the highest civic dignity of his city — the Mayoralty — was 
unanimously conferred upon him. He has discharged the duties 
with conspicuous impartiality and ability, and has given universal 
satisfaction. On several occasions in the Council and other meetings 
the Mayor has deemed it necessary peremptorily to put the cloture on 
discussions which were drifting into side issues more or less remote 
from the question under consideration, and he has always done so 
not merely with firmness, but with a reasonableness which has com- 
manded general respect and admiration. Alderman Mark has a 
happy faculty of terse and forcible expression of opinion, and though 
he makes no pretence of oratory of the florid platform order, he 
always speaks with freedom, decision, and dignity. There is a 
solidity, breadth, and character in his style and method which com- 
mand attention, and indicate strong common-sense and shrewdness. 
These qualities have contributed to make him what he is generally 
admitted to be, viz., one of the best Mayors Manchester has ever had, 
and there is every reason to believe that the citizens generally would 
have been disappointed if the Corporation had failed to call upon 
him to occupy the civic chair for another year. His consent to 



36 BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES. 

continue to make the great sacrifice of time and to bear the burdens 
of the office has given universal satisfaction. The sturdy indepen- 
dence of his character, the dignified manliness of his bearing, and 
the ready abnegation he has at all times displayed in the discharge of 
his onerous and multifarious duties have gained for him a position in 
the estimation of the people of Manchester of which he has every 
reason to be proud, and of which his recent (November) re-election 
as Mayor is nothing more than an indication. Bringing our memoir 
up to date as nearly as practicable, we may state that on New Year's 
Day, 1890, the Mayor gave a dinner at the Town Hall to over 1,000 
poor children. After the banquet (as they termed it) each child was 
presented by the Mayor with a new sixpence. Comment on this 
noble and thoughtful kindness is superfluous ! 

But the Mayor's energies have by no means been confined to his 
municipal duties. He has long been a cordial friend and helper in 
connection with many philanthropic and social institutions and 
movements in Manchester. The Manchester Ship Canal, an under- 
taking destined to become famous throughout the commercial world, 
had in him a staunch supporter from the first, and the great Jubilee 
Exhibition benefited by his confidence and practical support. 

In politics the Mayor of Manchester is a Liberal Unionist, but on 
the occasion of Mr. Gladstone's recent visit to the city he clearly 
showed the breadth of his views by not allowing his anti-Home Rule 
opinions to interfere with his duties as Mayor, as without political 
partiality, and with no hesitation, he gave to that great statesman an 
entertainment at the Town Hall worthy of his high position and his 
services to the country, feeling that as the representative of his 
fellow-citizens he was bound to offer a cordial welcome to an eminent 
and distinguished man. 

Mr. Mark's favourite recreation has been foreign travel. He has 
visited France and Germany several times, and made three voyages 
to the United States and Canada, and one to the West Indies. 
During the first voyage, undertaken in 1884, he wrote and sent home 
for the amusement of his family and friends a number of letters 
descriptive of his experiences in America and Havana. They pos- 
sessed considerable freshness and charm of style, combined with 
shrewd observation and valuable statement of facts. On his return, 
therefore, at the request of many friends, he was induced to place 
them in a permanent form, and after the addition of some extracts 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 37 



from a diary he kept during the journey, they were printed in a small 
volume, and published with the title of Diary of my Trip to America 
and Havana. It was hoped the third visit, made just before his 
assumption of the onerous duties of the Mayoralty of Manchester, 
might have resulted in the production of another volume of equal 
interest and utility. 

Alderman Mark is a Justice of the Peace for the City of Man- 
chester and Justice of the Peace for the County Palatine of Lancashire, 
a member of the Chamber of Commerce and of the Board of Governors 
of the Whitworth Institute and of the School of Art. In 1861 the 
Mayor of Manchester married Emily Mary, daughter of Mr. R. L. 
Jones, of Chester. An excellent likeness of the Mayoress of Man- 
chester appeared in an illustrated paper of December 14th, 1889." 

The article in the Grocers' Review contains so much 
of a similar character that we need not repeat it here, 
but may mention one or two points where additional 
information may be gained from its special bias as a 
business review. It informs its readers that Mr. Mark 
" received his first course of instruction from a clergyman 
whose school tutorship made a welcome addition to his 
stipend," and that, " thus grounded, he was sent to an 
extensive boarding school at Brookfield, near Wigton, 
where in a short two years he succeeded in distancing 
his fellows and taking the premier position." After re- 
cording Mr. Mark's establishment in business at St. 
Ann's Square, the Review proceeds : — 

" The rise and growing popularity of the ' ready-money ' and 
1 short-credit ' system did not escape Mr. Mark's observation. Stores 
of one sort and another made their appearance on every side, and it 
was clear that the competition thus sprung upon traders had to be 
fully and wisely met. Accordingly Mr. Mark gave his price list and 
terms of business a thorough overhauling, and then felt himself 
prepared to meet the Stores on an equal, if not a masterful footing. 
Keeping the very best commodities in each and every line touched 
by him, selling at prices the reasonableness of which is beyond 
dispute, his establishment a pattern of efficiency and good order, 



38 BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES. 

Mr. Mark is able to pursue his way, fearing neither the competition 
of rival tradesmen, nor Civil Service or other Stores. Success, 
exceeding in extent that which he had hoped for in even his most 
sanguine moments, has attended his efforts, and the name of John 
Mark is one honoured alike by the trade and by the public.'' 

A similar article to the one that we have printed in 
extenso appears also in the South Manchester Chronicle and 
Suburban News, for January 30th, 1891. There is also 
a short article in Good Ideas, Manchester, November 
22nd, 1890, from which we may extract. It is headed : 
" Alderman John Mark, Mayor of Manchester, 1889- 
go-91," and with a portrait : — 

"The Mayor of Manchester is essentially a man of business and of 
few words. He gets through the enormous amount of work insepar- 
able from his office in less time than, perhaps, any of his predecessors. 
. . As a receiver of deputations, on matters affecting citizens, he is 
perfection. He goes into every detail, and gives advice which nine 
times out of ten is good." 

A still later biographical sketch appears in Men of 
the Period, Lancashire, (Biographical Publishing Company, 
London,) from which we extract the following : — 

" His term of office as Mayor of Manchester was fraught with 
much good and earnest work tending to the advancement of the Cor- 
poration interests, and it is the general opinion that no one has filled 
the mayoral chair of this city with more credit to himself and satis- 
faction to the community in general. The ' Greater Manchester ' 
scheme is the most important work on record accomplished during his 
mayoralty. The extension of the city to double its former area by 
the incorporation of various Local Board Districts was certainly a 
great achievement, requiring very delicate and judicious negotiations 
under his Chairmanship (as Mayor) of the Amalgamation Committee, 
in order to adjust complicated and contending interests. Many other 
great movements closely connected with the civic life of Manchester 
have benefited by the advocacy of Alderman Mark. It is hardly neces- 
sary to speak of his active and zealous work in promoting the progress 
of the Manchester Ship Canal. This gigantic undertaking — which is 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 39 



now un fait accompli, and by which Manchester bids fair to secure the 
invaluable advantages of easy and economical communication with 
the ocean — always found in Mr. Mark one of its most able and 
vigorous supporters. He championed its cause through periods of 
doubt and difficulty, first as councillor, then as alderman, and finally 
as Mayor ; and who shall say how valuable has been the aid of such 
a sound business man to an enterprise which has had to fight its way 
to completion against a singularly powerful and resolute opposition ? 
When Manchester ultimately reaps the benefits promised by the 
Ship Canal, the citizens will not be likely to forget the efforts of one 
who urged them by speech and action to an oft-renewed confidence 
in the great scheme and its still greater possibilities. There can be 
no doubt that Manchester and its district have already derived 
enormous benefit from the reduction of railway rates and charges 
made to compete with the great waterway — a benefit that must by 
this time have more than balanced the interest upon the five millions 
advanced by the Corporation to complete this famous enterprise. 
Not only in public life has Mr. Mark manifested his agreement with 
Clarendon's precept that a man's duty is towards the well-being of 
others as well as towards his own advancement. In the quiet but 
noble sphere of unostentatious philanthropy his name is not unknown, 
and his good works are not unremembered. Mr. Mark's two years' 
mayoralty (1889-90 and 1890-91) was signalised by a New Year's 
Day dinner in each year, given in the Manchester Town Hall to 
1,200 of the very poorest Ragged School Children, and followed on 
each occasion by the distribution of as many new sixpences among 
the little ones as they left the building. These interesting events 
formed but one of the many instances in which the kindly nature of 
the popular Mayor was displayed. Foreign travel has been the 
favourite recreation of Alderman Mark, and in the brief period of 
leisure he has snatched from the round of business and municipal 
work he has made several noteworthy voyages to distant lands. 
France and Germany he has visited three or four times, while the 
United States and Canada have so interested him that he has 
journeyed thither on three occasions, making also a trip to the West 
Indies. His first transatlantic voyage, in 1884, was productive of a 
series of letters to his friends and family at home, in which his varied 
experiences were described in a style at once vivacious and graphic, 
while his incidental observations upon men and matters in the New 



4 o BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES. 

World possessed the interest attaching to shrewd commentary, as 
well as the instructive value always found in carefully-considered and 
authentic statements of fact. These letters and notes, subsequently 
printed at the request of many friends, in a neat volume, entitled 
' Diary of my Trip to America and Havana ' (Manchester : J. E. 
Cornish ; London : Simpkin, Marshall & Co.), were most favourably 
received by a wide circle of readers, who were pleased with their 
originality of style and observation, and with the absence of guide- 
book 'padding' and sentiment which distinguishes them from the 
published 'jottings' of many other travellers. The second edition 
of this little book lies before us, and we have found it well worth 
reading. Mr. Mark gives lively and entertaining pen-pictures of 
life in New York, Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, and other 
American cities, and displays a happy faculty of description, and an 
easy manner of conveying lucid ideas of the social and general 
customs of the ' Great Republic,' without too frequently instituting 
comparisons with those prevailing in our own country. He has got 
at the truth of many matters of interest, evidently by inquiry at first 
hand and by close personal observation ; and while his book is agree- 
able to the casual reader, it will hardly be less instructive to any one 
who may follow Mr. Mark's example by making a holiday visit to 
America. Mr. Mark speaks highly of the universal kindness and 
hospitality extended to him by our transatlantic cousins, and con- 
cludes his preface with the following noteworthy sentence : — ' If, 
however, it were more generally known how easy and pleasant the 
voyage can be made in the noble Atlantic liners, and what a 
friendly welcome the English people get everywhere in America, the 
number who go there on pleasure would soon be largely increased by 
many who now for recreation repeat their visits to the Continent.' 
Not the least interesting portion of Mr. Mark's ' Diary ' is that 
devoted to a recital of his experiences in Havana, a city of which too 
little is known here, and on which most writers ' agree to differ ' con- 
siderably. Mr. Mark gives us facts and comments of real value, and 
includes a capital little account of tobacco culture and cigar-making, 
his intimate connection with the cigar trade, as an importer, leading 
him naturally to take a special interest in the great Cuban industry. 
The many complimentary letters (more than five hundred in number) 
and other eulogistic notices called forth by the ' Diary ' on its publi- 
cation must have been highly gratifying to its author, and it is 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 41 

generally hoped that he will make further excursions in a similar 
field of literary effort. The public offices at present held by Alder- 
man Mark, in addition to his civic functions, are important. Inter 
alia, he is a Director of the Manchester Ship Canal, a member of the 
Manchester Chamber of Commerce, and is on the Board of Governors 
of the Whitworth Institute and of the School of Art." 



IReview of "H)iar£ of mp Grip to Hmerica 
ano Ibavana," 

(Extracted from the Manchester City News, nth April, 1885.) 

" Mr. John Mark, the representative of St. Ann's Ward in the Manchester City 
Council, was ordered by his doctor to go on a six weeks' holiday for 'change and 
rest.' He pleaded business and that he ' could not possibly be spared.' The 
medicine man was imperative and inflexible. So Mr. Mark started for the United 
States on the second day of October. He was away two months, landing in Liver- 
pool on his return on the first of December. To his amazement, and apparently 
somewhat to his disappointment, he found that his business had ' gone as smoothly 
as a well-adjusted machine ' during his absence. Another illustration of the in- 
exorably true and rather humbling saying of the first Napoleon, that ' no man is 
necessary.' 

Mr. Mark jotted down his impressions from day to day, and, as opportunity 
served, sent the leaves of his diary to his relatives and friends at home. These 
leaves now form a little book of over one hundred pages. But there is no suspicion 
of book-making about them. They are the genuine records of a plain-spoken, 
observant man of considerable shrewdness and common sense ; and they convey a 
clear notion of the several phases of life, manners, and social customs that came 
under the diarist's observation. Books and descriptive articles about America are 
numerous enough now-a-days, but we can hardly have too many of them if they 
are honestly written, and the public appetite for such works seems to be literally 
insatiable. The more recent travellers — Sir Lepel Griffin, Mr. Fox Turner, Mr. 
Daniel Pidgeon, and Mr. W. S. Adams — show a singular unanimity of opinion on 
many points. We believe all agree on the subject of the general discomfort of New 
York — the badness of the paving, the extortion of the cab drivers, and other 
disagreeable incidents of social life. 

Mr. Mark notices that when the revenue officers went on board the City of 
Chicago steamship at New York, they ' kept their top hats on in the saloon, while 
the passengers all stood uncovered ' — a specimen of Republican manners which is 
certainly indefensible. At the Metropolitan Hotel, where Mr. Mark put up, the 
charge is about 12s. 6d. a day, including everything — bedroom, four meals a day, 
and attendance, ' such as it is.' The eating capacities of the Americans astonished 
Mr. Mark. ' We were placed at a table where there were three gentlemen, strangers 



42 BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES. 

to each other, and at one time they had in all twenty-one small oval dishes before 
them, their plates and knives and forks being changed every few minutes, and fresh 
iced water. When these were at last removed, one of them said : ' Bring me some 
peach tart, some cherry pie, some ice cream, and fruit ; ' and another re-adjusted his 
serviette under his chin, took up the menu card, and said to the waiter: 'I have 
not had enough to eat. Bring me some venison and red currant jelly,' and I cannot 
remember what else. They had had soup and fish before we went in, and as a matter 
of course they all finished with coffee.' A distressing account is given of the dis- 
comforts of the railway cars, especially of the sleeping arrangements in the train 
which took Mr. Mark and his companion to Niagara and back. The stuffiness and 
heat are almost unendurable, and the lavatory accommodation is vile and insanitary. 
Then ' you go jolting on all night over a wretchedly-laid railway track, sometimes 
asleep, but generally in a wearied aching muddle.' With Washington Mr. Mark 
was not disappointed, although he went with high expectations. He mentions a 
curious fact, that of its 180,000 inhabitants, no fewer than 60,000 are people of 
colour and Chinese. The consumption of water is the almost incredible amount of 
120 million gallons a day, ' the largest quantity, proportionately to size, of any city 
in the world.' Manchester, with four times the population to supply, thinks itself 
well off with twenty million gallons a day. Philadelphia also left an agreeable 
impression upon Mr. Mark, and he quotes a statement that here ' a greater pro- 
portion of people live in their own houses than in any other city in the world.' The 
artizan class are in very comfortable circumstances ; and on this point the foreman 
of a large wholesale beef store at Chicago told him that ' their greatest difficulty was 
to dispose of second-rate, or any inferior quality, as all classes in Philadelphia want 
only the very best.' 

Mr. Mark spent about a fortnight in Havana. In point of novelty this is the 
freshest portion of the narrative, and the diarist is justified in giving to it almost a 
third of the whole of his book. He gives an adequate account of the various 
processes connected with tobacco culture and cigar-making. Here are a few 
interesting facts about cigar-making in Havana. The confident assertion, so freely 
made, that English and German cigars are sent out to Havana and returned with 
Havana brands and labels, has no foundation ; in fact, it cannot be done, as the 
importation into Cuba of all foreign tobacco, manufactured or otherwise, is strictly 
prohibited. The fictitious labels that appear on so many cigar boxes sold in the 
United Kingdom, are mostly imported imitations from other countries, in facsimile 
of noted brands, or with names and addresses that have no existence at Havana. It 
is almost needless to say that these fabrications purport to be made of tobacco of the 
Vuelta Abajo district. 

Cigar-making in all the best factories in Havana is done by men and boys, and 
mostly by piecework. Some of the first-class workers, who make the fine sizes and 
shapes, earn high wages, and nearly all are very independent and difficult to manage. 
Sometimes they are careless in their work, and frequently stay away or leave their 
work at any hour without notice. The men and boys, sometimes 150 to 200 in one 
room, are seated in orderly rows, at tables with divisions without lids, like boys at 
our school desks. Everyone is allowed to smoke, while at work, as many as he 
likes of the cigars he is making, and in this they appear to be wasteful, as large 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 43 

cigars, that had only been smoked a few minutes, are thrown down and lie about on 
the floor all over the workrooms. 

Cigar smoking in Havana is general among all classes, and all day long, and is 
not confined to men only ; but women are seldom seen smoking in the street, the 
exceptions being a few aged negresses. Fine cigars are dear and not a matter of 
course, even at Havana, but they can always be got by going to the best fabricas. 
Connoisseurs smoke their cigars when fresh made, and prefer those with dark 
wrappers. When a gentleman invites friends to dinner, he calls at a factory and 
orders the cigars to be made the same afternoon ; but there is no such thing known 
as green cigars, what is meant is freshly-made cigars. 

Really fine Havana cigars are not likely to be cheap again in the present 
generation, as the area of production of fine tobacco in Cuba cannot be extended, 
and the demand and consumption of the finest kinds increase year by year through- 
out the world. 

Mr. Mark, as a member of an English Municipal Council, did not fail, of course, 
to observe how they deal with things municipal in America, and here are a few of 
his notes, hints, and contrasts gained from a study of municipal government in 
New York. 

New York is undoubtedly a fine city, but it wants time and experience in 
municipal affairs before it can be a really enjoyable place to live in, as compared 
with the more matured institutions of an ancient capital like London. As a member 
of the Watch, Water, and Hackney Committees of our own City Council, I have 
naturally taken a good deal of notice of municipal affairs in America, and am of 
opinion that in these important matters we have not much to learn in New York. 

The tradesmen of New York, in carrying on business, may be congratulated on 
the freedom they enjoy from municipal interference, and it is to be hoped that 
abuse of their privileges may not result in more stringent regulations. At present 
it is evident that the requirements of trade are not curtailed for the convenience of 
pedestrians ; and it strikes me that to some extent we in Manchester might relax 
some of our bye-laws without much injury or inconvenience to the general public. 
In New York they recognise the fact that centres of large cities are chiefly places 
for business, without putting too fine a point upon it. We should bear in mind that 
trade is the proverbial ' goose that lays the golden egg ' so very necessary to meet 
municipal and imperial taxation ; and should not be harassed and driven outside the 
city boundary. For the first mile and a half at the lower end of Broadway may be 
seen daily two or three hundred large cases of goods on the footpaths, which are 
taken in to be unpacked as required all day long. And in busy streets off that part 
of Broadway, the wholesale produce stores are blocked in front with rows of 
waggons backed up to the sides. The loading and unloading of barrels, cases, 
sacks, and hampers of merchandise, is carried on upon planks and gangways across 
the footpaths, and passers-by must either get over them or go into the street around 
the horses' heads. In one instance my progress was intercepted by a two-horse 
load of straw standing sideways upon the footpath, horses and all. Higher up in 
Broadway, in the immediate vicinity of the best shops, there does not appear to be 
any obstruction to ladies and private carriages, any more than there is in Regent 
Street. 



44 BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES. 



Cab fares are here almost prohibitive, and there is nothing that a frequent 
visitor in London misses so much in New York as the smart and cheap hansom cab. 
In this convenient luxury, as in many other respects, it may be roundly calculated 
that a dollar in New York is about equivalent to a shilling in London. An English- 
man rebels against the tariff, and turns to the alternative omnibus, tramcar or 
elevated railway. Often I have paid a dollar for a four-wheeler from Madison 
Square "to our hotel — less than two miles. One evening we wished to have a drive 
in Central Park, and I suggested ' to take a hansom and do it properly.' My 
friend replied : ' All right, but where shall we find one ? ' At that moment I saw 
one pull up at a drinking trough at the opposite side of the square, and hastening 
across, I said to the driver : ' We want a drive in Central Park for an hour, and 
back to our hotel; how much would it be?' He replied: 'Six dollars.' I 
said : ' Did you understand me ? We only want a drive for an hour ; we don't 
want to buy your cab,' upon which he appeared to be offended and drove off, so we 
walked on to the park entrance and took the conveyance provided for the round trip 
at a quarter dollar each, paying the same additional fares for two more, as it does 
not start with less than four persons. 

Blacking boots appears to be a very profitable and very necessary occupation 
here. At hotels, if boots are not set outside the bedroom door by ten p.m., they 
are found there the next morning untouched ; and if this stringent rule be con- 
formed to, they are very indifferently ' shined.' In either case, it is necessary to 
descend to the elaborate establishment on the basement, and pay ten cents for each 
pair. On the footpaths and other available places outside are large throne-like arm 
chairs, with notice cards attached, such as : ' Shine, five cents ; ' ' Oil shine, ten 
cents.' The latter is also called ' the boss polish.' In some instances a large rent is 
paid for a good position for boot shining. I am told that at the door of a public 
building in Broadway, a sum equal to £300 a year is paid by the head man, and one 
can readily believe it, as I was informed by a boy, while giving me a ten-cents 
shine, that in the season he was on one of the steamboats plying to Coney Island, 
and made on an average four to five dollars a day. One day I asked a man what 
was the difference between a shine and an oil shine, upon which he stirred up a pot 
of blacking and said, with a flourish: 'This is the oil shine.' Taking my seat, I 
replied : ' Yes, I see ; but I don't quite understand the difference, and should like to 
have one of each. Just put a shine on this boot and an oil shine on the other.' He 
was amused at the novel order, and proceeded in silence. When finished, I placed 
the two together, and, seeing no difference, said : ' Now, you are quite sure this 
is the shine, and this the oil shine ? ' ' Yes,' he answered, and for a moment seemed 
puzzled what change to give me out of a quarter dollar, but honestly fumbled 
out the balance, retaining only five cents for the work. 

We cordially commend Mr. Mark's little book. It is unpretentious yet instructive, 
and conveys a good deal of information in a pleasant and eminently readable way." 

From many hundreds of complimentary letters upon 
the same work, we may quote a few as a sample of the 
rest: — 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 45 

Finchwood, Compstall, Nr. Stockport, 10th December, 1884. 
Dear Mr. Mark, 

We read aloud last night the leaves from your Diary with very 
great interest and pleasure. . . It is a very good, graphic, and 
withal a natural, authentic account of a most pleasant and instructive 
tour. . . Yours truly, Joel Wainwright. 

14, Park View, December 27th, 1884. 
My Dear Sir, 

I return your journal of your voyage, which I have read with the 
greatest interest. I envy you the power which you evidently possess 
of conveying in a few graphic words a clear impression of your daily 
experiences and the scenes you witnessed. . . 

Yours truly, Charles W. Sutton. 

Henbury Park, Macclesfield, Monday, March 30th, 1885. 
Dear Sir, 

I beg to thank you for your book on Havana. The description of 
that country, and parts of America, are very interesting, and your 
account of a bull fight is better than mine ; we both agree that it 
is a disgusting sight. "The Society for the Prevention of Cruelty 
to Animals " would soon be down on the picadores' horses in 
England. . . Believe me, yours sincerely, 

Thos. Unett Brocklehurst. 

United University Club, Pall Mall East, S.W., May 12th, 1886. 
Dear Mr. Mark, 

Many thanks for your book. I have read it with much pleasure. 
Besides being otherwise pleasantly written, it does what so many 
books on America don't do, it tells one of the ordinary outside sights. 
I like it all the more because it strengthens a comfortable conviction in 
one that England is the place to live in. 

Believe me, very truly yours, E. H. Pember. 

Moore, Oct. 28th, 1886. 
Dear Mr. Mark, 

I have to thank you for sending me a copy of your Trip to Havana 
and America. I have perused it with very great interest, and altho' it 
does not inspire me with an irrepressible desire to start on a visit to 
those regions, I have never met with a narrative more graphically 



46 BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES. 

descriptive of their social habits and manners than that contained in 
your book, which has both amused and instructed me. 

Believe me, yours truly, George Heron. 

[The Rev. Canon Heron.] 

25, Cavendish Square, W., 2nd May, 1893. 
Dear Mr. Mark, 

I have just received, and read with much pleasure and apprecia- 
tion of its great accuracy, your account of your Trip to the States. 
It certainly gives, to my mind, by far the most truthful and pictorial 
rendering I ever read. With kind regards and many thanks. 

Yours very sincerely, Victor Horsley. 



Cbetmlier of tbe ©r&er of tbe Saviour. 

On the 19th August, 1891, His Majesty the King 
of Greece issued a Decree nominating Mr. John Mark 
a Chevalier of the Order of the Saviour in Greece. 
Accordingly Monsieur J. Gennadius, the Greek Ambas- 
sador, repaired to Manchester to invest Mr. Mark 
personally with the Decoration of an Officer of the 
Order in gold; but finding Mr. Mark at Brighton, 
forwarded the same with the following courteous letter : — 

No. 431. 2, Eaton Square, 

London, November 7th, 1891. 
Sir, 

I have the honour to inform you that on my recommendation, 
and on the proposal of His Majesty's Government, the King, my 
august Sovereign, has been graciously pleased to confer on you the 
Cross of an Officer of the Royal Order of the Saviour. 

In transmitting you herewith the Ministerial Notification, as 
well as the Royal Diploma and the Insignia of the Order, I offer 
to you my congratulations on this testimony of the Royal favour; 
and I venture to express the confident hope that it may tend to 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 47 

strengthen the sympathy and friendship which you already entertain 
for Greece. 

I have the honour to be, with high consideration, Sir, 
Your obedient Servant, 
John Mark, Esq., etc., J. Gennadius. 

Manchester. 



fllMnisterial motiffcatfon. 

Ministere 

des Athenes le 31/12 Septembre, 1891. 

Affaires Etrangeres 

No. giii. Monsieur, 

Je me fais un plaisir de vous annoncer que Sa Majeste le Roi 
S'est plu par decret en date du 19 de ce mois a. vous conferer la Croix 
d'Officier de l'Ordre Royale du Sauveur. 

Je me felicite d' avoir ete a meme de faire valoir les titres que 
vous vous etes acquis a cette marque de distinction et m'empresse 
de vous transmettre, ci-joints, le brevet de votre nomination et les 
insignes de l'ordre. 

Veuillez agreer Monsieur, 
1' assurance de ma consideration tres distingu6e, 

J. Deligeorges. 
Monsieur, 

Mr. John Mark, 

Ancien Maire de Manchester. 

There are also some kindly letters and correspondence 
with Mr. Sotirios Hazzopulo, Consul for Persia and the 
Hellenes, in reference to the arrangements that he had 
made with his Ambassador at the Court of St. James, for 
the due presentation of this Decoration of Chevalier 
Officer of the Order of the Saviour. It may be mentioned 
that the constitution of this Order, which was founded in 
1833 by Otho I., is somewhat similar to that of the 
French Legion of Honour, which is conferred in gold, 
silver and bronze ; thus equivalent to the Commander, 



48 BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES. 

Chevalier and Esquire of the most ancient Byzantine 
Order of St. George, or the Grand Cross, Commander, 
and Companion, of more modern European Orders. 
The Gazette of July, 1898, announces that Her Majesty 
the Queen had graciously been pleased to allow His 
Grace Hugh Lupus, Duke of Westminster, to accept 
and wear the Order, though difficulties have often been 
raised in respect to conferring such privilege, unless the 
grantee had been in the service of the monarch conferring 
such Order. 



translation of tbe facsimile. 
(Beorge I Iking of tbe Ibellenes. 

We Grant to John Mark, Esquire, Mayor of Manchester, the 
Golden Cross of the Chevaliers of the Royal Militia of the Saviour, 
and in confirmation we give this Diploma, signed by us, and counter- 
signed by our Minister of Foreign Affairs. 

At Athens, this nineteenth day of August, in the year of our 
Lord one thousand eight hundred and ninety-one. 

On behalf of the King, the Viceroy: 
Konstantine, Crown Prince. L. Deliyeoryes. 






\ 



\ 



V \ 




J"^ 




flDa\>oralt$ of flDancbeeter, 1889*90. 



^tAl-H-j^y f 




QUARTERLY Meeting of the Manchester 
City Council was held on Saturday, the gth 
November, i88g, at noon, and presided over by 
Alderman W. Batty. Alderman Walton Smith moved 
that Alderman John Mark be Mayor. In moving this 
resolution, Mr. Smith said that the requisition presented 
to Mr. Mark was the unanimous wish of the Council 
expressed on the 4th September, previous to Mr. 
Mark's departure for America, and spoke in high terms 
of the excellent services Mr. Mark had rendered on the 
Libraries Committee and on the Water Committee, as 
well as on other Committees of which the speaker had 
not been a member, such as the Unhealthy Dwellings 
Committee, etc. Mr. A. E. Lloyd, in seconding the 
motion, said that the Council could not possibly have 
conferred the honour upon a more worthy or more 
deserving citizen. The motion was put to the Council 
and carried unanimously. The proposer and seconder 
then introduced Mr. Mark between them, and, upon his 
being informed of the resolution of the Council, took 
the various oaths and made the usual declarations ; after 
which Alderman Batty invested the new Mayor with 
the chain and badge of office, which he was sure that 
he would wear with dignity and display the kindness 



5 o MAYORALTY, 1889-90. 



and courtesy that he had always manifested. The 
Mayor then took the chair amid warm applause, and in 
a speech alluded to the various points that required 
attention by the Council. 

The City News of 16th November, 1889, thus reports 
the Mayor's speech : — 

" My first duty and pleasure is to thank you most heartily for the honour you 
have conferred upon me this morning in electing me for the ensuing year to the 
mayoralty of this great city, a position which has been held by many worthy 
predecessors, some existing in our memories only, and others happily still with us, 
on whose experience and advice I trust I may rely with confidence during my year 
of office. (Hear, hear.) In such reliance I enter upon the important duties of this 
position, believing that my most appropriate recognition of the municipal honour 
will be to endeavour to maintain the high traditions of this chair, and regard the 
public duties of the mayoralty as of the first importance. Some of my predecessors 
have in their inaugural speeches given the Council most interesting details and 
statistics of the municipal history of Manchester. Those examples I do not propose 
to emulate this morning, and I would rather direct your attention for a few minutes 
to matters of great importance now in hand. Among the yet somewhat novel 
duties devolving upon the Corporation are those relating to the newly-established 
County Council of Lancashire. Between the County Councils and County Boroughs 
there are certain important matters which still require adjustment, and I trust that 
the negotiations of this Council with that important body during the ensuing year 
may prove mutually beneficial, and that our relations may continue with unabated 
cordiality. A reference to the important question of city extension can hardly be 
avoided. The population of Manchester has overflowed its ancient boundaries, and 
for the last seven years at least this extension has occupied the public mind. The 
question will now be dealt with as regards certain districts, and to myself as Mayor 
it will be congenial to promote so desirable a consummation, and I anticipate that 
by November next your civic president will represent a. population and area con- 
siderably larger than at present. In his introductory address to this Council it 
would be impossible for the new Mayor to pass by without comment the momentous 
question of the general health of the city, which demands your serious attention. 
Since the beginning of the operations of the Unhealthy Dwellings Committee, 877 
houses have been dealt with, of which 112 were ordered to be pulled down; 320 
houses were ordered to be closed ; 175 back-to-back cottages have been made into 
double or through houses to secure ventilation ; 221 houses, covering an area of 
about 7,000 square yards, have been purchased by the Committee. The Council 
have recently authorised the Committee to extend its operations upon a larger scale, 
and in view of this they are seeking to demolish large blocks of insanitary property, 
condemned by the Medical Officer of Health, which will displace about 1,800 
people. The Committee now contemplate the erection of blocks of buildings for 
the labouring classes upon the sites of the demolished premises. They will be con- 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 51 

structed with the best sanitary arrangements so as to accommodate not less than the 
number of the inhabitants displaced. It has been ascertained in certain insanitary 
districts in London, Liverpool, Edinburgh, and Glasgow, where the death-rate has 
been the very highest, that where the old premises have been demolished and good 
sanitary property erected — accommodating even a larger population than that 
displaced — the rate of mortality has been very materially lowered and brought 
under the average. The Rivers Committee has finally settled upon a scheme for 
the complete drainage of the entire city. They are now advertising for tenders for 
the first instalment of the work, and the contract will probably be let within two or 
three weeks. The first instalment will form the principal outfall sewer from 
Davyhulme to the boundary of the city in Stretford Road, covering a distance of 
about five miles. The Committee will from time to time pursue their work through- 
out the city, which will include a total length of about twenty-three miles of brick 
sewers, varying in dimension from two feet in diameter to fourteen feet by ten feet 
six inches. It is expected that the whole of this work, for which the Corporation 
have already obtained borrowing powers to the extent of half a million, will be 
finished in a little more than two years, and in good time for the opening of the 
Ship Canal. When this work shall have been carried out it must of necessity 
exercise a marked effect upon the health of the city, as the whole of the sewage and 
polluted water which is now discharged in the various streams and rivers flowing 
through the city will be intercepted and dealt with at the outfall works. On the all- 
important water question it is satisfactory to mention that the Thirlmere works are 
making vigorous progress. The last section of the aqueduct has been let, and at no 
distant date the people of Manchester may rejoice that an unfailing supply of the 
purest water will be assured. With regard to the lighting of our city, we may 
anticipate that, in addition to our excellent gas supply, the electric light will ere 
long be introduced in its best and most effective form. A reference may be made 
to our admirable police force, of which we may be justly proud, and to the efficiency 
of our fire brigade, which by comparison with a. city of corresponding population 
and area seems to be maintained at a very moderate cost. At the city of Boston, 
which I recently visited, the Board of Fire Commissioners have in their fire depart- 
ment a staff of 700 men, 189 horses, and fifty-four engines, and here we have only 
fifty-one men, sixteen horses, and seven engines, all other appliances being in 
relative proportion. The cost at Boston is about £170,657, and at Manchester 
about £3,639 per annum, which is something for our ratepayers to be thankful for. 
The percentage of loss per fire here is little more than half. Time will not permit 
me to make specific reference to the excellent work of the other committees of the 
Corporation, whose labours in the public interest deserve full recognition. Having 
touched upon some of the prominent points of interest in the activity of this Cor- 
poration, it only remains for me to renew once more my acknowledgments of the 
great honour conferred upon me this morning, and to say, and to mean, that I will 
do my utmost to discharge to the best of my ability the many and responsible duties 
attaching to this mayoralty. I take courage in the hope that every member of the 
Council will accord to me the loyal support that is always extended to your mayor. 
The Mayor appointed Alderman Batty deputy-mayor, to take his place in case of 
illness or absence from the city." 



52 MAYORALTY, 1889-90. 

On the 10th November, or the day following his 
election, the new Mayor, accompanied by a large number 
of his fellow citizens, and escorted by police and military, 
attended morning service at the Cathedral. The Man- 
chester Courier says that : — 

"Fortunately the weather, though dull and threatening, kept fine during the 
Mayor's progress along the streets before and after service, and his worship's 
following was lined on either side of the public thoroughfares by a continuous and 
unbroken mass of spectators. The demonstration was the more remarkable in 
Albert Square and in the neighbourhood of the Cathedral, where the crowds 
assumed vast proportions. At the conclusion of the service the procession re-formed 
and returned to the Town Hall, the route being lined by a still larger crowd of 
spectators than that which had witnessed the earlier morning's proceedings." 

The Manchester Guardian, of the same date (nth 
November), was equally complimentary in a leading 
article upon the local Councils, and says : — 

"Mr. John Mark has been a member of the Manchester Corporation for more 
than twelve years, and throughout this period he has fully justified the confidence of 
his constituents. So completely satisfied, in fact, have they been with their member 
that since his first election he has invariably been re-chosen without opposition. 
Though not a native of Manchester, he came here as a very young man, and has 
ever since lived amongst us. He has been well known and universally respected 
both as a gentleman and as a business man, and when he entered the Town Council 
he applied to his public duties the same close application, industry, and foresight 
that made his commercial career so successful. He has done excellent work on the 
Watch, Waterworks, Art Gallery, and other Committees, and by his intimate 
acquaintance with municipal business, by his independence and respect for law, 
Mr. Mark has already given guarantees of his fitness for the important office which 
he was unanimously invited to accept. By an interesting coincidence Mr. Mark 
was elected Alderman at the previous meeting of the Council, but the ratepayers of 
St. Ann's Ward, who thus lose their tried representative, have the gratification of 
seeing his separation from them immediately followed by his becoming chief magis- 
trate of the city. The Mayor, it should be remembered also, has been a student of 
municipal and social life in some of the great cities of America, and his published 
opinions prove him to be one of those who, while cherishing loyalty to their own 
country and admiration for her institutions, have always been on the look-out for 
examples of better management and possibilities of improvement." 

A meeting of the General Purposes Committee was 
held in the Council Chamber of the Town Hall on the 
14th, when Alderman Mark was appointed Chairman, and 




l.Jfg? 



7y9?^A^^^9'^, 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 53 

the Deputy Mayor, Alderman Batty, Deputy Chairman. 
On the 15th November a meeting of the Manchester 
Geographical Society was held in the Mayor's Parlour to 
listen to an address by the Governor of Lagos. Alder- 
man Mark presided, and introducing Governor Maloney, 
did so in the following terms : — 

"The Mayor said he would take this opportunity of expressing his sense of the 
importance of such a Society in Manchester as the Geographical. In the interests 
of the trade of Manchester, we should know more about the countries to which we 
sent our goods, and from that point of view the Society deserved more support than 
it had hitherto received. (Applause.) " 

The Manchester Guardian, of the 19th November, 
reports that a deputation had waited upon the Mayor 
the previous day, and had presented a requisition calling 
for a public meeting to consider the best way of honour- 
ing the memory of the late Dr. J. Prescott Joule. " The 
Mayor expressed his entire sympathy with the deputa- 
tion, and promised to call a meeting on Monday after- 
noon next." 

The Manchester Guardian, of the 21st, reports a meet- 
ing of the " Manchester National Society for Women's 
Suffrage," on the 20th, over which the Mayor presided. 

" In opening the proceedings, the Mayor said he had not taken an active part in 
the movement, although any objection he might have to it was purely sentimental 
in kind. He could give no good reason why women who paid rates should not be 
on the Parliamentary as well as on the municipal register. Personally, he thought 
that if the object of the movement were achieved, women would be found more 
susceptible to the appeals of Parliamentary canvassers than were men. In Man- 
chester he believed that the addition of women ratepayers to the register would 
increase the number of voters by about 10,000. All the Parliamentary members 
for Manchester supported the movement." 

The Manchester Courier, of the 23rd, has the following 
item : — 

"The Mayor of Manchester and Mr. Gladstone. — The Mayor of Man- 
chester has sent the following invitation to Mr. Gladstone, on his forthcoming visit 

to Manchester : — 

Town Hall, Manchester, 19th November, 1889. 

Sir, — Upon your approaching visit to Manchester, may I express the hope 



54 MAYORALTY, 1889-90. 

that, as Mayor of the City, I may be permitted to have the honour of entertaining 
you at luncheon, at this Town Hall, on Wednesday, the 4th December next, when 
it would be my desire to invite some influential citizens, of all political parties, to 
meet you. It is also my desire to include in this invitation Mrs. Gladstone and Mr. 
Herbert Gladstone, M.P., and I would venture to suggest 1-30 p.m. as a time that 
may probably be convenient to you. I may add that it has been intimated to me 
by Mr. Thomas Ashton, that if you can see your way to accept this invitation, all 
suitable arrangements can be made for your convenience. 

I have the honour to be, sir, your obedient servant, 
Mr. Gladstone has accepted the invitation." John Mark, Mayor. 

We copy the following items from the Manchester 
Examiner and Times, of the 23rd and 25th November 
respectively : — 

" 'At Home' at the Manchester Town Hall. — The Mayoress of Manchester 
(Mrs. Mark) and the Misses Mark held the first ' at home ' of the present municipal 
year at the Town Hall, Albert Square, yesterday. These pleasant functions are 
very attractive, and there was a large attendance of ladies and gentlemen at the 
gathering. The guests were welcomed by the Mayoress and her daughters. The 
Mayor was present for some time during the afternoon. The next ' at home ' will 
be held on Friday the 29th inst., when the Mayoress will be glad to see as many of 
her civic, official, and personal friends as can conveniently be present." 

"Mr. Justice Charles attended service at the Manchester Cathedral yesterday 
morning. He was accompanied by the High Sheriff (Mr. C. M. Royds) and 
retinue, and was met at the Cathedral by the Mayor (Mr. Alderman John Mark). 
The Chief Constable (Mr. Malcolm Wood), and the Deputy Chief Constable (Mr. 
Smith) were in attendance. The sermon was preached by the High Sheriff's 
chaplain, the Rev. Canon Maclure. There was a large congregation." 

On the 25th a meeting, convened by the Mayor, was 
held at the Town Hall to decide upon some durable 
memorial to perpetuate the memory of Dr. Joule. 

" The Bishop of Manchester wrote : — 

' I think that it would be an honour to any town to be the birthplace and home 
of the man who first proved the truth of the great principle of the conservation of 
energy. I most heartily sympathise with the movement which the meeting is called 
together to initiate, and I shall very gladly give a contribution to any fund which 
may be to-day established or recommended.' 

The Mayor said that their relations, not merely with applied, but with pure 
science, extended much further back than 100 years. It was Crabtree, a Manchester 
linen draper, who, with his friend Horrox, was enabled by laborious mathematical 
calculations to be the first to observe the transit of Venus. Through the writings of 
Dr. Percival in the last century and the labours of Edwin Chadwick in this, 
Manchester might claim to have founded sanitary science ; and through the 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 55 

writings of Dr. Dalton and his scientific friends, they might also claim to have laid 
the foundations of meteorological science, though it had been somewhat ungener- 
ously said that their eminence in meteorology was a consequence of their having too 
much weather in this district. (Laughter.) The list might be greatly extended, 
but the mention of John Dalton brought them to the fact that there were two 
names which would always stand out prominently in the history of Manchester — 
the first of these was that of the discoverer of the atomic theory of matter, on which 
the great science of chemistry was now based, and which had been enormously 
fruitful, not only in its intellectual but in its practical results, and the other was 
that of James Prescott Joule. (Applause.) They would not expect him to attempt 
to enter into an exposition of the far reaching discoveries of Dr. Joule, but there was 
one aspect of the law of the conservation of energy which might well impress a 
plain business man like himself with a sense of its sublimity. It was that the forces 
which caused the planets to revolve in their times and seasons, which made plants 
grow, drove engines, lighted streets, and pulsated through telegraph and telephone 
wires, were but various manifestations of one energy, which was never lost, but only 
transfigured. The scientific work of Dr. Joule had made the name of Manchester 
famous throughout the world not merely as that of a great industrial and trading 
city, but as a city of intellectual culture and home of genius. This great man was 
born in Salford, but he learned his science as a boy from Dr. Dalton, in George 
Street, in this city. There he, for a period of nearly half a century, found the 
congenial society which stimulated his genius. He read many of his papers there, 
his experiments were performed in this city, and to the end he continued to reside 
in the suburbs in a quiet, unostentatious way, his riches truly consisting not in the 
extent of his possessions, but in the fewness of his wants. The last generation 
honoured the memory of Dalton by a statue in marble by Chantrey, which was 
considered to be one of the most beautiful works of art in the city, and it was 
suggested that they should show their appreciation of Dalton's great successor in a 
similar way. (Applause.) ' ' 

The proposal was formally made by Mr. Oliver 
Heywood, and supported by Professors Roscoe, Reynolds, 
Ward, Alderman Bailey, and Colonel Sowler to raise a 
white marble statue. 

" During the progress of the Joule memorial meeting Mr. Alderman Mark, who 
was in the chair, said : A memorandum has been put into my hand that Mr. James 
Walker, the great contractor of the Ship Canal Works, died at noon to-day after a 
short illness. I consider this a great public loss to Manchester. He was one of the 
most indomitable contractors that the world has ever seen, and I regard his 
death as a very great loss to Manchester and to us all. 

Mr. Alderman Bailey, one of the directors of the Ship Canal, rising immediately, 
said : We all very deeply regret the death of Mr. Walker. For fear there should 
be any misapprehension, I may say that the directors of the Ship Canal have been 
aware of his serious illness, and> that all steps have been taken of a legal character, 



56 MAYORALTY, 1889-90. 

and of a character that satisfies the directors that they will be able to carry on the 
great work of the Ship Canal. We were afraid the illness might injure the shares 
and the shareholders, and it has been kept secret in consequence. 
The business of the meeting was then proceeded with." 

Following immediately upon this was a meeting of 
the Hospital Sunday and Saturday organisation, held in 
the Mayor's Parlour, over which Alderman Mark pre- 
sided, which was attended by the leading clergymen of 
the city. The first proceeding was the reading of the 
report, after which, 

" The Mayor moved the adoption of the report. Having given a general sup- 
port to the suggestions contained in the report, he said he should make an exception, 
so far as recommends were concerned, in the case of people who desired to become 
in-patients of hospitals. Committees were liable to be imposed upon by persons 
who ought to go to the workhouse. These cases should be thoroughly investigated. 
The charities would be subject to very little abuse if recommends were abolished in 
other cases. Many poor people were straggling about the streets for hours in 
search of recommends, and that could be entirely done away with. He con- 
gratulated the meeting on the fact that the Rev. John Henn had consented to 
act as secretary, and, in concluding, expressed his strong personal opinion that 
necessary medical institutions should be placed in the same category as libraries, 
baths, parks, and kindred institutions to the extent that they should be a charge upon 
the rates. 

The Rev. Canon Crane, in seconding the motion, pointed out that if 50,000 
working men and working women in Manchester and neighbourhood would con- 
tribute id. per week towards the medical charities, a sum of /io.ooo (in round 
numbers) would be subscribed annually with very little inconvenience. Proceeding, 
he said he was rector of a very poor parish. One-third of the people in it ought to 
go into the workhouse. 

The Mayor said that was a startling thing to say." 

Commenting upon this subject the Manchester 
Guardian, of the 26th, says: — 

"The Mayor, who is never wanting in the courage of his opinions, ventured to 
say that our public hospitals ought not to be dependent on the contributions of the 
charitable, and he was bold enough to advocate the imposition of a hospital rate to 
reach 'those who were able and unwilling.' " 

" Mayoral Hospitality. — The Mayor of Manchester (Mr. Alderman Mark) last 
evening entertained at dinner in the Town Hall the Hon. Mr. Justice Grantham and 
the Hon. Mr. Justice Charles, Her Majesty's Judges of Assize, and the following 
gentlemen who were invited to meet them : — The High Sheriff (Mr. CM. Royds), 
the High Sheriff's Chaplain (Canon Maclure), the Under Sheriff (Mr. H. L. Wright) 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 57 



the Acting Under Sheriff (Mr. E.Wilson), Mr. Justice Grantham's Marshal (Mr. 
Evelyn Cecil), Mr. Justice Charles's Marshal (the Hon. Lionel Holland), Mr. H. 
Stephen (Clerk of Assize), Mr. John Addison, Q.C., M.P., Mr. W. Ambrose, Q.C., 
M.P., the Hon. Algernon Egerton, Sir W. H. Houldsworth, Bart., M.P., Mr. Robert 
Leake, M.P., Sir H. E. Roscoe, M.P., Mr. J. A. Bright, M.P., Sir Joseph C. Lee, 
Aldermen Asquith, Batty, Evans, Griffin, Sir J. J. Harwood, Heywood, King, Lamb, 
Livesley, Reade, Roberts, Schofield, Shaw, Smith, Thompson, and Windsor ; 
Councillors Aldred, Andrews, Ashcroft, Bagnall, Bax, Birbeck, Boddington, Brad- 
shaw, Brooks, Cardwell, Clay, Copeland, Cuff, Estcourt, Fullerton, Gibson, 
Grantham, Gunson, Hampson, Haworth, Hinchliffe, Hoy, Hutt, Leech, R. Lloyd, 
M'Cabe, M'Dougall, Myerscough, Mainwaring, Milling, Milne, Needham, Norris, 
O'Neill, Pingstone, Rawson, Richards, Roberts, Royle, Samson, Sherratt, Simpson, 
E. Tatton, J. Tatton, S. C. Thompson, Tunstall, Vaudrey, Williams, and Worthing- 
ton ; Mr. C. Arnold, Mr. Charles Agnew, Mr. William Agnew, Mr. B. Armitage 
(Sorrel Bank), Mr. Thomas Ashton, Mr. J. Broome, Mr. E. J. Broadfield, Mr. D. 
Bannerman, Mr. J. A. Beith, Mr. G. B. Behrens, Colonel R. Bridgford, C.B., Mr. 
R. Cooper, Mr. B. Carver, Mr. F. G. Crowther, Captain Robert Dauntesey, Mr. R. 
H. Edmondson, Mr. R. Falkner, Mr. T. W. Gillibrand, Mr. J. W. Hamilton, Mr. 
G. W. Heywood, Mr. Oliver Heywood, Mr. J. R. Heape, His Honour Judge Jordan, 
Mr. James Kenyon, Mr. T. Lloyd, Mr. T. Lings, Mr. Charles Lister, Mr. Henry 
Lee, Mr. J. H. Lancashire, Mr. F. W. Lee, the Mayor of Salford (Councillor 
Robinson), Mr. F. Mangnall, Mr. G. Milner, Mr. James Oliver, Mr. C. J. Pooley, 
Mr. Herbert Philips, Mr. J. K. Pyne, Mr. J. W. Radcliffe, Mr. J. A. Railton, Mr. 
W. T. Smith, Mr. C. E. Smith, Mr. W. H. Talbot (Deputy Town Clerk), the Town 
Clerk of Salford (Mr. S. Brown), Mr. William Tunstall, Mr. T. Worthington, and 
Mr. T. B. Wood." 

A special meeting of the General Purposes Committee 
was held on the 26th, over which Mr. Mark presided : — 

' ' The Mayor said the Committee had been summoned somewhat hurriedly to 
receive some explanation of the attitude of the Gas Committee towards their work- 
men. The Committee felt that they would like to be supported in the attitude they 
had assumed towards the men by the whole Council. He personally very much 
approved of the position they had taken up, their determination to resist the 
dictation of the men, and that orderly, well-conducted workmen in their service 
should be retained so long as they discharged their duties satisfactorily. He hoped 
the Council would take the same view." 

In the afternoon of the same day a conference upon 
the subject of the working of the Technical Instruction 
Act, 1889, was held under Mr. Mark's presidency: — 

" The Mayor observed that the scientific instruction of the future generation was 
a matter of vital importance at the present time. Manchester had always been in 
the forefront in work of this kind, and the city which boasted of Owens College, 



58 MAYORALTY, 1889-90. 

which was the seat of the Victoria University, and to which the magnificent Whit- 
worth Institute had been offered, was fitly chosen for such a gathering as that." 

On the 28th the Board of Trade held an enquiry at 
the Westminster Town Hall, Lord Balfour of Burleigh 
presiding. Amongst those present were the Mayor of 
Manchester (Alderman Mark), Alderman Sir John Har- 
wood, Councillor Leech, Mr. W. H. Talbot (Deputy 
Town Clerk), and Mr. Tomlinson, M.P. 

The following day a meeting was held to appoint an 
Executive Committee in reference to the Joule Memorial, 
over which the Mayor presided. 

On the evening of the 3rd December was held, at 
Central Hall, Oldham Street, the annual meeting of the 
Manchester and Salford Ragged School Union, over 
which Alderman Mark presided : — 

"The Mayor of Manchester, in moving the adoption of the report, said the great 
work of the Union deserved all the encouragement that the chief magistrate of the 
city could give. It was a very encouraging feature in these times that so many 
agencies were at work calling for the attention and contributions of the public. 
The fact that four new schools had recently been added to the Union, bringing the 
total to 38, showed they were engaged in a very great and important work by 
grappling with the wants of poor children of Manchester and Salford. With the 
army of superintendents and teachers, as stated in the report, an enormous amount 
of good must be done and a vast amount of evil checked. The 31 schools that had 
mission services for adults was a very important feature indeed, for after youths had 
left school they required the guiding hand of those who had trained them in their 
early life. They had 24 adult Bible classes, which was also a very important 
feature, as was also the provision which had been made for providing free meals at 
eight of the schools belonging to the Union. He specially commended to all the 
advantage of saving. They would find by encouraging habits of thrift it would be 
of the greatest possible value to them in after life. He himself, as soon as he was 
able, began to save a little. No matter what a person's income was, if they could 
commence to save they would find a desire to accumulate until they felt that it 
became a duty. The evening recreations which their organisation was giving was 
a very pleasing announcement. He was sorry the existing school premises were not 
better utilised than they at present were during the week nights. At the free 
libraries there was every facility for spending the evenings profitably, yet they 
might be made more use of, and he thought the suggestion contained in the report of 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 59 

utilising the schools in various districts as recreation and reading rooms was a very 
good one, and if he could in any way further the use of school premises for the 
recreation of the young during the week nights it would give him great pleasure to 
do so. He wished to speak specially of those youths who were growing into young 
men. He thought his hearers wo ild be surprised that in spite of all the educational 
agencies which had been and were continually at work, that a certain class of youths 
of the present day were giving the city authorities a great amount of trouble. He 
alluded to disorderly conduct at the street corners called ' scuttling.' It was a sad 
thing to see these youths, whose ages ranged from 16 to 18, and who had only 
recently left the board and other schools, creating such disorderly scenes, and not 
availing themselves of the opportunities for improvement which the free libraries 
and other attractions for their social welfare afforded. A special feature of this 
disorder was to assault young girls whilst on their way to the evening schools. 
Only three weeks ago Mr. Herbert Birley headed a deputation to the Watch 
Committee to complain of that particularly troublesome conduct of those boys, who 
had actually taken off their belts to beat a number of young girls. He wished to 
speak very seriously to those youths present at that meeting, and he appealed to 
them to behave with becoming propriety to their weaker sisters. As was usual in 
gigantic organisations of philanthropy, more money was wanted. They wanted 
more annual subscribers to the work of the Union, and they wanted more teachers. 
The work of the Union had his entire sympathy, and he trusted it would meet with 
every success in the future." 

On the 4th December, the Mayor entertained at 
luncheon Mr. and Mrs. Gladstone, who were on a visit to 
Manchester, and presided over a numerous company. 

"The Chairman proposed the toast of ■ The health of our illustrious guest, the 
Right Hon. Wm. Ewart Gladstone, and his amiable and devoted consort.' He said : 
I have invited to meet our distinguished visitors a few of my colleagues as well as 
other citizens representative of trade and commerce, and of art, science, and educa- 
tion, irrespective of their political opinions. My object was to give to the right hon. 
gentleman a hearty welcome, to realise for a short period a respite from the arena 
of controversy and Imperial politics, and to give to him in that quiet way an 
expression of our good wishes and a recognition of the great services he had made to 
the common country ; for Manchester, with the whole British Empire, universally 
admits and applauds his matchless eloquence and the wide scope of his intellectual 
genius. In the brief interval preceding the luncheon we have brought under the 
notice of the right hon. gentleman models of the Thirlmere Waterworks and the 
Ship Canal. These two great undertakings, now in progress, are of deep interest to 
Manchester, inasmuch as they involve the expenditure of more than ten millions 
sterling. I also take the opportunity, in the name of Manchester, to thank Mr. 
Gladstone for the appointment of our late beloved Bishop Fraser, whose earnest 
labours among us for fifteen years entered into the very souls of the people, and who 
from his great sympathies with every good work was aptly styled, ' the bishop of all 



60 MAYORALTY, 1889-90. 

denominations.' The time is short, and I have pledged myself that our guest shall 
be liberated from this entertainment by a quarter past three o'clock, to leave by 
special train at half-past three." 

Mr. Gladstone, at the conclusion of a lengthy speech, 
chiefly on Municipal Government, rising again, said: — 

"I hope I shall not be considered to make any unwarrantable deviation from the 
order of the printed proceedings if I request you to drink the health of the Mayor of 
Manchester. To myself it is a matter of particular satisfaction to acknowledge the 
special kindness which he has shown me, and you, I am sure, will welcome the 
opportunity of doing honour to one who has attained this high station amongst you, 
and who bears the high station as it ought to be borne. 

The toast was cordially honoured. 

The Mayor, in replying, said he would not dim the lustre of the magnificent 
address they had just heard by speaking for more than one moment. He had 
derived the greatest possible satisfaction from the visit of Mr. Gladstone to the 
Town Hall, and he should look back with pleasure to that visit as long as he lived. 

Lord Aberdeen proposed the health of the Mayoress, to which the Mayor briefly 
responded, and the proceedings terminated." 

The Manchester Guardian, of the 5th, thus comments 
on the subject in its leading article: — 

"Yesterday the Council of the National Liberal Federation completed its 
proceedings, and Mr. Gladstone took his leave of our city, after being entertained 
by the Mayor at a farewell luncheon in the Town Hall. The present Mayor, as is 
well known, is not to be counted amongst Mr. Gladstone's political followers, but is 
one of those wanderers from the fold whose parlous state Mr. Gladstone had only 
on the previous night exposed with the greatest energy and effect. Mr. Mark, 
however, bears no malice. In the bottom of his heart he probably believes, along 
with the rest of us, that Mr. Gladstone, in spite of all the hard things said about 
him, is perhaps the greatest of living Englishmen. As chief magistrate of the city, 
he felt it right to extend to him its hospitality, and he was rewarded by a little 
speech from Mr. Gladstone full of kindliness and a graceful recognition of the good 
feeling displayed towards him. At a time when political controversy tends to 
become somewhat embittered such interchange of courtesies is the more welcome, 
and we must all feel that Mr. Mark did not only a generous but a right thing in 
thus expressing, in the name not merely of a part but of the whole of the community, 
his sense of the honour due to one who has played so vast a part in the public life of 
England." 

The Daily News comments as follows: — 

"The Mayor of Manchester, Mr. Mark, is one of those Liberals who have not 
yet become reconciled to Home Rule, but with good sense and good taste he took 
the opportunity of Mr. Gladstone's presence in the neighbourhood to offer him the 
hospitality of the Corporation." 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 61 

On the 5th, the Manchester Guardian informs its 
readers that: — 

"The annual sale of work in aid of the funds of the Boys' and Girls' Refuge, 
Strangeways, in this city, was opened yesterday at the Refuge by Mrs. Moorhouse. 
The Mayor (Alderman Mark) presided, and there was a numerous attendance. 
The Mayor said this was his first visit to the Refuge, and he must say he was 
delighted with all he had seen. There could be no doubt that the institution was of 
great benefit to large numbers of poor children, and it really was a necessity in a 
large community like ours." 

The 6th being St. Andrew's Day, a meeting in 
celebration of the same was held at the Grand Hotel, 
by the St. Andrew's Society. Amongst the invited 
guests was Alderman Mark. Mr. E. J. Broadfield 
proposed the "City and Trades of Manchester," coupling 
the same with a kindly notice of the Mayor. 

"The Mayor, in reply, alluded to the many benefits which the people of 
Manchester enjoyed as a result of the work of the Corporation. He said our 
admirable police force gave security for the safety of life and property. We had 
the finest gravitation waterworks in the world, and, anticipating our future wants, 
we should, in a short time, have from Cumberland an inexhaustible supply of the 
finest water the world could produce. The present generation were not responsible 
for everything that might be deficient in the municipal government of Manchester, 
though he laid nothing to the charge of their honoured predecessors. They had 
allowed a very large area of property to be built up without leaving breathing 
spaces, and it was for the present generation to remedy that state of things. 
Scotchmen would appreciate one feature of the Corporation in that it did not rush 
into extravagant expenditure upon experimental science in the government of the 
city. Profiting by the experience of others, Manchester had perhaps the best 
system of tramways in the world ; and they would have a system of electric lighting 
in its best form. These things would be carried out without needless expenditure 
in experiments. In the walks of trade and commerce, science., and every branch of 
education, Manchester displayed equal energy. The report of the society contained 
many characteristic features. It stated that the Scotch were settling in Manchester 
in considerable numbers. He had not the smallest possible objection to that, but 
he rather felt for his successors, who might experience, in another form, a similar 
anxiety to that with which the Americans were considering the great Chinese 
question. He discovered another characteristic in the circumstance that the society 
did not seem to be spending any foolish money in sending Scotchmen back again." 

On the 7th, the annual presentation of the shooting 
prizes, won by members of the 5th (Ardwick) Volunteer 



62 MAYORALTY, 1889-90. 

Battalion of the Manchester Regiment, took place at the 
Drill Hall, Ardwick Green. Colonel Rocca presided, 
and with him were Alderman and Mrs. Mark, the Misses 
Mark, Colonel Church, and a number of other officers. 

"The Mayor, who was very cordially received, said it was most gratifying to 
him to learn what a high state of efficiency the battalion was now in. He had been 
rather surprised to hear Colonel Rocca's remark as to the want of appreciation on 
the part of the public of the volunteer force, because he could say for himself and 
all with whom he came in contact that they very highly appreciated the Volunteers. 
Apart from its great value for defensive purposes, the volunteer movement in this 
country had done much for the manhood and discipline of our young men. He 
remembered the first muster of the ist Manchester Volunteers in the Angel-yard in 
the Market-place. It did not exceed more than 20 or 25 men, and people crowded 
round to laugh at them as playing at soldiers. But times had changed since then. 
The volunteer movement had become a great fact, and the people were proud of 
their citizen soldiers, and of the efficiency they had attained. As for the open space 
which they desired, he was sorry it was not in his power to promise it to them at 
once, but if any opportunity offered to give the Volunteers of the district a parade 
and exercise ground he was sure it would not be lost sight of by him. 

The prizes were then distributed by the Mayoress, and afterwards there was an 
instrumental concert and a dance, the music being supplied by the excellent band of 
the battalion, under the conductorship of Mr. G. W. Gillett, bandmaster." 

Earlier in the same day the Mayor had presided over 
a meeting at the Town Hall, of the National Society of 
Professional Musicians, to award certificates to successful 
candidates. Mr. Mark spoke upon the importance of 
music, and its close association with our daily life. He 
was highly pleased with the success which had attended 
the formation of the Society. 

On the 17th: — 

"A meeting was held in the Mayor's Parlour, Manchester Town Hall, in aid of 
the Mission to Deep Sea Fishermen. The chair was taken by Alderman John 
Mark, the Mayor, and there was a good attendance. The Mayor stated that the 
operations of the Mission embraced the oversight of some 3,000 fishing smacks 
engaged in the deep sea fisheries. These smacks formed 19 different fleets, and 
found employment for 20,000 men. Amongst them were three hospital ships 
belonging to the Mission, with the aid of which fishermen who met with accidents 
received prompt attention. Without the help of the Mission these fishermen would 
be entirely destitute of spiritual ministrations, and it was doing a great deal of 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 63 

valuable work. To extend its usefulness money was necessary. It was indebted to 
the extent of £3,000, and if any words that he could say could help the Mission, he 
would only be too glad to supply them." 

On the 1 8th a meeting of the City Council was held 
in the Council Chamber: — 

"The Gas Question. — The Mayor said that before commencing the ordinary 
business he wished to say that the Gas Committee, under the direction of the 
Council, were doing all they possibly could to restore a full supply of gas to the 
public, and they confidently expected that in the course of two or three days the 
normal condition of things would be restored. They were in full sympathy with 
those who might not be able to re-engage immediately, and they did not require any 
pressure on that score. He desired further to say to the public how very much the 
authorities, and especially the Gas Committee, thanked them for the forbearance 
they had shown, often at great inconvenience, and also at considerable loss. On 
his own part, and on the part of the Gas Committee, he desired particularly to make 
this recognition, and to express their appreciation of the forbearance of the 
public." 

The Manchester Guardian, of the 26th December, 
gives the following announcement : — 

"The Mayor and Mayoress of Manchester and the Misses Mark have arranged 
to entertain, at the Town Hall, on New Year's Day, 1,200 of the poorest children 
connected with the ragged schools of the city. A dinner of roast beef and plum 
pudding is to be served in the large hall." 

On the 30th a special character was given to the 
Cathedral service in memory of the late Sir Joseph 
Heron. Mr. Mark had previously circularised the 
members of the Council and other prominent citizens to 
meet at the Town Hall at 10 a.m.: — 

"Addressing those present, the Mayor said he might add a word or two to the 
intimation in the circular which had been issued. He must express his regret that 
they were not to perform that ceremony at the resting place which they had 
prepared for their esteemed Town Clerk. The opportunity had not been afforded 
to them, and it had seemed that this special service was an alternative which they 
would all desire to enable them to show their respect and esteem for him. It was 
necessary to say on their own behalf that nothing had been wanting to show every 
possible attention, and they had no idea of anything but a removal to Manchester 
and interment here. Immediately on receipt of the intelligence of Sir Joseph 
Heron's death on Tuesday morning, their sympathy was expressed by telegram to 
Lady Heron, and they waited anxiously for several hours. Other telegrams were 
also sent, in which those concerned were reminded of the family vault, and the 



64 MAYORALTY, 1889-90. 



Corporation offered their services in every way, but he received no reply until 
Christmas Day evening. On the following morning, when it was too late for the 
Corporation to be represented in any way at the funeral, they telegraphed to the 
Mayor of Cannes, stating that their late Town Clerk was to be interred on the 
following day, and requesting him to cause a wreath of choice flowers to be 
presented at the funeral in the name of the Corporation of Manchester, and stating 
that any other attention that he could show would be very much appreciated. 
The Mayor also added that he had received a letter from Canon Crane, who was to 
have preached the sermon that day, stating that a serious accident had befallen his 
son, and he could not therefore be present, but he had sent to the Dean what he 
had intended to say of his old friend Sir Joseph Heron." 

The Manchester Courier, of the 2nd January, i8go, 
gives a most interesting account of the entertainment at 
the Town Hall of 1,260 children of the poorest and 
neediest class within the city boundaries, by Alderman 
and Mrs. Mark, assisted by Miss Mark and Miss Florence 
Mark. In response to a vote of thanks proposed by Mr. 
R. B. Taylor, Chairman of the Ragged School Union, 
seconded by Mr. R. Johnson, and carried with "three 
cheers for the Mayor, and one more for the Mayoress and 
her daughters," 

" The Mayor, in reply, said he had been exceedingly gratified by the kind words 
which had been addressed to him, but he had been more than gratified by the hearty 
cheers of the children, whose hearts, he hoped, had for once been gladdened. He 
did not know how many future Mayors and Mayoresses of Manchester there might 
be in the crowd of children before him, but it was within the reach of all of them, 
and he hoped they would all aim to attain that proud position. On these festive 
occasions it was usual to distribute some toys or sweetmeats, or something of that 
kind, to the children as they left the building. He was not going to do that, but 
the Mayoress, his daughters and himself intended to stand at the door and to give 
to every child as they passed out a new sixpence. This announcement was received 
with frantic cheering by the children, and it was some time before their exuberance 
could be checked. When quiet had been obtained, his Worship explained that he 
wished the children to enjoy the sixpence themselves. He wished it to be a day of 
pleasure to the boys and girls themselves. 

The Mayor and Mayoress and their daughters then left the platform, and took 
up their positions at the head of the grand staircase, and as the children filed past 
there was placed in their hands a bright, new sixpence. And so ended their after- 
noon of joy and delight. 

During the dinner and the distribution of sixpences a selection of music was 
played by the Ardwick Green Industrial School Band." 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 65 

We may add, from the Pendleton Reporter of the nth, 
the following : — 

THE MAYOR OF MANCHESTER'S TREAT. 

God bless the Mayor of Manchester, I felt constrained to pray, 
On reading of the act which he performed on New Year's Day ; 
Such noble-hearted men as these, methinks ought never die, 
But stay a thousand years, and then live on above the sky. 

The sight of such a motley crowd was doubtless such an one 

That heaven itself with wonder and delight would look upon ; 

And the shouts of those twelve hundred, and their merry ringing cheers, 

Will to the Mayor be music sweet through all the coming years. 

'Tis passing strange there are so few whom God has stewards made, 
Who are awake to duty's call, or on whose hearts are laid 
The weight of souls — nay, rather let me say the pleasure given, 
Of lifting by their kindly deeds these waifs from hell to heaven. 

To think — and, oh ! how painful is the thought — that there are those 
Who could without a sacrifice relieve a thousand woes, 
And yet so callously they go without a thought or care 
For their suffering fellow mortals, dying of mad despair. 

We think of one in other days who lifted up his eyes 
In hell, because he heeded not the warning to be wise ; 
But when his day of grace was past, and sealed his final fate, 
How gladly would he then have fed the Lazarus at his gate. 

And history still repeats itself, for thousands since his day 
Have trifled with the gifts of God, and spurned his love away ; 
Yet still our hearts in thankfulness go up to him in prayer, 
Because we have a remnant like our noble-hearted Mayor. 

R. T., Pendleton. 

On the 8th a meeting of the City Council was held, 
the proceedings being opened by the following tribute 
to the late Town Clerk: — 

"The Mayor said: Gentlemen, the next duty that devolves upon us this morn- 
ing is solemn and impressive, and must occupy our thoughts and attention for 
a short time before any other subject. Since the last meeting of the Council on the 
23rd December, and indeed in the evening of that very day, our respected Town 
Clerk, Sir Joseph Heron, died at Cannes, in the South of France, at an advanced 
age and full of honours, and it becomes my melancholy duty to propose that we 
shall now record our deep sorrow at the event, and our high appreciation of his long 
life devoted to the service of his native city. The form of resolution that I have 
prepared, and venture to submit for your adoption, is: — 



66 MAYORALTY, 1889-90. 



' That this Council have received with much sorrow intelligence of the death of 
Sir Joseph Heron, the first Town Clerk of Manchester, on the 23rd December, 1889, 
and desire to offer to Lady Heron and other relatives their sincere sympathy in this 
bereavement. When the Council remember that Sir Joseph Heron received his 
appointment on the 15th December, 1838, shortly after the Charter of Incorporation 
was granted to Manchester, and that he was actively concerned in the legislation 
which secured so many advantages in relation to its great undertakings, they realise 
that to his vigorous understanding no less than to his legal acumen this community 
is under great obligations. The Council would also express their high appreciation 
of Sir Joseph Heron's eminent qualities, which, combined with his long experience 
and sound judgment, placed him in the first rank of public servants, and gave him 
so exceptional a position in relation to municipal government. The Council feel 
that, however inadequately this resolution may set forth Sir Joseph Heron's services, 
it will place on record their sincere and affectionate tribute to the memory of one 
whose name will ever be honoured in the history of Manchester. ' 

When we remember that he of whom I speak was appointed, as the resolution 
states, the first Town Clerk of Manchester, on the 15th December, 1838, our minds 
are carried back for more than half a century in the history of this Corporation, 
which, as a comparatively young member, I shall not attempt to review in the 
presence of my colleagues of much longer experience and more intimate acquaint- 
ance; but I may be permitted to say that for more than thirty years I have 
entertained the greatest respect and admiration for the late Sir Joseph Heron. His 
memory is indelibly written in the annals of our proceedings and in the history of 
Manchester, and happily we possess, both in painting and sculpture, representations 
of him which we shall always treasure. It has not been permitted to us to follow 
the body of our late Town Clerk to the beautiful resting place prepared for him at 
our Southern Cemetery, and of his own selection ; neither was it practicable, under 
the circumstances, for a deputation from this Corporation to be present at the 
funeral which took place at the English cemetery at Cannes, but to the Mayor and 
municipality of Cannes we are indebted for such representation as the circumstances 
permitted; but on their own behalf, and in response to our request, M. Millet paid a 
tribute to the memory of Sir Joseph Heron by an address at the grave in eloquent 
and touching reference to the deceased and to the city of Manchester, which we all 
highly value and appreciate. To place upon our records a suitable memorial to Sir 
Joseph Heron would be a most difficult task for me to perform, and I submit the 
simple words of the resolution as suitable to give expression to our feelings." 

And again, in regard to the appointment of a 
successor, we read as follows: — 

"The Mayor said that when there was a slight hesitation with regard to anyone 
rising to second the resolution, he felt very strongly prompted to perform that duty 
himself. He was afraid his silence might be misconstrued, but the fact was he was 
always unwilling to usurp the position which belonged to his seniors. If his short 
experience as Mayor was of any value, he could only say — and he thought the 
experience of all past Mayors was the same, and would be the same with future 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 67 



Mayors— that if they had any doubt before, they would have none after they had 
been in the position of Mayor. They wanted not only a sound lawyer, but in various 
circumstances a courteous and diplomatic gentleman, and these qualities they had 
in Mr. Talbot in an eminent degree. They had also an industry which was perfectly 
surprising, and nothing was too much trouble to him. Mr. Talbot stood well with 
all their representatives in London; he was considered a sound lawyer and a 
courteous gentleman, and his assistance to the Mayor was invaluable. They might 
possibly get a more brilliant man to follow Sir Joseph Heron, but one more 
industrious or more devoted to the service of the Corporation it would be impossible 
to find." 

In regard to the appointment of a Deputy Town 
Clerk, a long and somewhat acrid discussion ensued, 
which was thus terminated by — 

"The Mayor: I have consulted the Town Clerk, and I am informed my ruling is 
valid ; and I propose now to inform Mr. Thomas Hudson that he has been elected 
Deputy Town Clerk of the city of Manchester, in recognition of his eminent services 
for a very long period of years. The question of your salary (the Mayor added, 
turning to Mr. Hudson) will be determined at a special meeting of the Council." 

On the same day a meeting of the Manchester and 
Salford Penny Savings Banks Association was held at 
the Town Hall, over which Alderman Mark presided. 
He briefly addressed the meeting, and expressed his 
interest in the work of the Association, and his sense of 
its importance in the encouragement of thrift amongst 
the working classes. 

Juvenile Manchester at the Town Hall. {Manchester 
Guardian, 16th January, i8go.) 

"A juvenile fancy dress ball was given by the Mayor last night at the Town 
Hall. It has become a custom in late years for the Mayor to entertain the citizens 
of the next generation, but we believe this is the first time the entertainment has 
taken the form of a fancy dress ball. Invitations were sent to 441 families, and 
between 400 and 500 children attended. The proceedings all through were exceed- 
ingly interesting, and from the picture point of view nothing could have been 
prettier. The whole of the first floor of the Town Hall was at the disposal of the 
Mayor's guests, including the sacred Council Chamber, which, by the way, was for 
some time the scene of the immortal drama of 'Punch and Judy.' The little folks 
began to arrive about half-past five, and by six o'clock the company was as good as 
complete. In the first place there was tea in the banqueting-room, and as soon as 
this was over the guests filed along the corridor to the large hall, where they were 



68 MAYORALTY, 1889-90. 

' received ' by the Mayor, with whom were Mrs. Mark, Miss Mark, Miss Florence 
Mark, and a number of other ladies and gentlemen. The guests, all in fancy 
costume, were announced as the characters they represented. The procession along 
the corridor was an exceedingly fine spectacle, and afforded an excellent opportunity 
for noting the beauty and variety of the costumes. A great deal of ingenious fancy 
had been exercised in the selection of characters. In many cases, where several 
members of a family attended, a group was made up with excellent effect. A brother 
and sister came as Romeo and Juliet, several sets of brothers represented the 
Princes in the Tower, there was a King, a Queen, and a Knave of Hearts, a cardinal, 
an archbishop, and an abbess. The bulk of the characters were, appropriately 
enough, taken from the story-books. Little Red Riding Hoods were as plentiful as 
buttercups in June. Perhaps next in favour was Bo-peep, of whom there could not 
have been less than a score. It was perhaps characteristic of the new generation 
that many of the characters came from the newest books and operas. There was 
half-a-dozen Fauntleroys, several Dorothys, one Jack Point, and a cluster of Elsie 
Maynards. Esmeralda and Carmen had many doubles, and the vague personage 
known as Prince Charming was also much of a favourite. Except an occasional 
Touchstone, a single Bassanio, and the two characters we have already mentioned, 
none of Shakspere's people were visible. Among flowers there was a number of 
daisies and daffodils, and under the head of miscellaneous were such things as a 
champagne bottle (the brand was Veuve Clicquot), such varieties as Night, Winter, 
Spring, Mirth, Folly (on which there was a great run) , gallants of various periods, 
two Duchesses of Devonshire, a Mephistopheles, several clowns, and bakers, cooks, 
Indians, soldiers, and sailors without end. Wherever they went, and no matter in 
what combinations, the children made a series of striking pictures. Little or 
nothing was done in the way of keeping up the idea of the characters, but with 
actors who had seen such an inconsiderable number of summers or winters effort of 
this kind could hardly be expected. Dancing, for which the large hall was reserved, 
was the main business of the evening, and the fact was made abundantly clear that 
juvenile Manchester dances extremely well. And one could not but be struck also 
with the handsome, healthy appearance of the new generation. Boys and girls alike 
were, as a rule, as straight as a bulrush. For those who did not care for a whole 
night of dancing there was a series of entertainments, including conjuring, shadow- 
graphy, ventriloquism, the 'Punch and Judy' drama, and magic-lantern views. 
Carriages were ordered for eleven o'clock. 

Among the gentlemen who acted as stewards were Mr. C. Malcolm Wood, Mr. 
Fred Lee, Mr. M'Quade, Mr. Sharp W. Galloway, Mr. Norman Gillibrand, Mr. J. 
Stafford Nuttall, Mr. J. Haslam M'Kean, Mr. D'Arcy Greenwood, Mr. Harry G. 
Berry, and Mr. Donald G. M'Niven; and among the private friends of the Mayor 
present were Mr. and Mrs. G. W. Agnew, Mr. and Mrs. Lewis Galloway, Mr. and 
Mrs. M. L. Yates, Mrs. C. Malcolm Wood and Miss Noble, Dr. and Mrs. Helme, 
Mr. and Mrs. J. A. Railton, Mr. and Mrs. Priestley, Mr. and Mrs. W. Briggs, Miss 
Emily Faithfull, Miss Charlotte Robinson, Miss Jones (Liverpool), Mrs. Fred Lee, 
Miss Gladwys Major (niece of the Mayoress, as Undine), Walter Lee and Mark Lee 
(the Mayor's grandsons, in Court dress)." 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 69 



Juvenile Ball at the Town Hall. (Manchester Evening 
Mail, 1 6th January, 1890.) 

" The mayoralty of Alderman Mark will doubtless be best remembered among 
the rising generation by the gorgeous spectacle of last night, when his Worship 
entertained upwards of 450 children at a Fancy Dress Ball. It will not be difficult 
for outsiders to understand that the ball was a brilliant success, or that to the 
juvenile mind it will be a fitting termination to the Christmas festivities. The 
spacious rooms were set apart for the young people exclusively, and to do the 
children justice it must be said that they fully rose to the dignity of the occasion. 
No admiral was ever prouder on his quarter-deck, and it must have been a sad 
moment when the hour for bed arrived and the youthful hero had to be stripped of 
his glory. Excellent taste was displayed in the dresses, although there was nothing 
strikingly original. The young guests were first relieved of their cloaks downstairs, 
and then they passed up the scarlet-carpeted stairway to the large hall, which had 
been transformed into a fairy-like scene of beauty. In the banqueting room there 
was a profusion of fruit and knick-knacks dear to the youthful mind, and after 
attention had duly been paid to them the children paid their respects to the Mayor 
and Mayoress, who were accompanied by a number of ladies and gentlemen. They 
afterwards walked in processional order through the corridors to the large hall, 
where the ball proper was held. The festivities were continued until eleven o'clock. 
Numerous amusements were provided in the ante-rooms." 

Presentation to the Mayor of Manchester. (Manchester 
Examiner, 22nd January, i8go.) 

' ' A deputation from the Manchester Coffee Roasting Company waited upon the 
Mayor of Manchester (Mr. Alderman Mark) yesterday forenoon, at the Manchester 
Town Hall, and presented him with a congratulatory address on his appointment as 
chief magistrate of the city. The deputation was headed by Mr. Jonathan Walker, 
chairman of the company, and he was accompanied by Mr. W. Unsworth, Mr. John 
Stovold, Mr. Jacob Taylor, and Mr. George Peck (hon. sec). The address was in 
the following terms: — 

To Mr. Alderman Mark, Mayor of Manchester, 1889-go. 

We, the members of the Manchester Coffee Roasting Company, of which you are 
a prominent member, desire to offer you our hearty congratulations upon your 
appointment to the high and honourable office of chief magistrate of our city. 
Your extensive business experience and knowledge of municipal affairs specially 
qualify you for .the position of chief magistrate of a growing municipality. We are 
confident that in your hands the dignity of the city will be upheld and the high 
office of mayor receive additional lustre. As a magistrate we feel assured that you 
will act justly and love mercy. The important office you hold on the bench and in 
the council afford you greater facilities for usefulness than have hitherto been afforded 
you, and we look forward hopefully to seeing you discharge the great responsibilities 

EI 



7 o MAYORALTY, 1889-90. 

attendant upon your position with honour to yourself and benefit to the community. 

We shall watch your career with sympathy and interest, feeling that our trade has 

been honoured in your appointment, and that a portion of the honour will be 

reflected upon us. 

Jonathan Walker, Chairman. 

Walker Unsworth, 

John Stovold, 

John S. Wood, 

Members of the Committee. 

George Peck, Honorary Secretary. 
The address was elegantly bound in red morocco, lined with white satin, and 
beautifully illuminated — the work of Mr. George Floyd. Mr. Walker, in presenting 
the address, referred in eulogistic terms to the high esteem in which the Mayor was 
held, not only among the trades with which he was connected, but among all classes 
of the community. The Mayor appropriately acknowledged the receipt of the 
address." 

A banquet took place at the Arts Club on the 21st, at 
which Mr. T. R. Wilkinson proposed the "Mayor and 
Corporation of Manchester." 

"The Mayor of Manchester, in responding, said he believed Manchester stood 
in the foremost ranks as regarded art, science, and literature. Manchester was seek- 
ing to incorporate with her many of her suburbs. As to the statistics of death-rate 
which had been alluded to, he might remind them that all the better portion of the 
people had gone to live in the suburbs, and that only those whose poverty compelled 
them remained within the Parliamentary boundary, and thus the death-rate was 
naturally high. The Corporation were not altogether responsible for the influences 
that surrounded them, but they were endeavouring as far as possible, and without 
overtaxing the community, to remedy the existing state of things." 

On the 22nd, the Mayor presented the certificates 
granted by the Worshipful Company of Plumbers, at a 
meeting held at the Town Hall. 

The same day Mr. Mark presided at a meeting of the 
General Hospital and Dispensary for Sick Children, held 
at Pendlebury. 

"The Mayor said that everyone must sympathise with the work of that 
institution, when they considered that no less than 10,846 new cases had been 
treated during the year. The institution was of great benefit to the suffering poor. 
He was glad to find that they had a seaside fund, and he had no doubt it would 
prove of great advantage and benefit. He looked with particular satisfaction at the 
experiment of sending nurses to attend cases outside. Since he had been appointed 
to the office of Mayor he had been struck with the great amount of time and labour 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 71 

that was devoted by the better classes to the amelioration of the sufferings of the 
poor, and it was a fact of a very gratifying character. He moved the adoption of 
the reports." 

The same day Mr. Mark presided at a meeting of the 
City Council. In reference to the discussion on the 
strike of the gas stokers, 

"The Mayor said he thought it would be the wish of the Council and the public 
to recognise the extraordinary exertions and devotion of the Gas Committee during 
the unfortunate strike, and to thank the Committee for those services." 

A discussion followed upon the subject of recreation 
rooms for young people, to keep them off the streets. 

"The Mayor said he believed very great good might be brought about by the 
proposal, in the way of preventing scuttling and obstruction of the streets. The 
schools of the Sunday School Union were not utilised during the week, and a 
suggestion had come to him that these places should be fitted up with simple 
gymnasia for little boys or little girls, so as to give them shelter and amusement." 

"Grand Ball by the Mayor and Mayoress of Man- 
chester," is the heading of an article in the Manchester 
Courier of the 25th January, 1890, announcing that the 
previous evening, 

"Between 400 and 500 ladies and gentlemen had been invited to a ball by 
Alderman and Mrs. Mark, in the Town Hall. The programme was made up of 
eighteen waltzes, two lancers, and two polkas. By a cleverly contrived arrange- 
ment, the conductor, by pressing a button, set electric bells ringing in various parts 
of the building to announce the beginning of each dance. A special refreshment 
buffet had been fitted up in the grand corridor, near the entrance to the Council 
Chamber. Supper, of the most recherche character, was served at n o'clock, the 
piece de resistance being a massive boar's head, d la Windsor, weighing nearly 112 lbs. 
Dancing was resumed at midnight, and continued until after two o'clock." 

At noon, on the 28th, the Royal Manchester Botanical 
Society held its 62nd annual meeting in the Mayor's 
Parlour, that functionary presiding, when the annual 
report and balance sheet was presented. 

"The Mayor, in proposing that the report, together with the statement of 
receipts and expenditure, should be adopted, said he had great pleasure in doing so, 
because it appeared to him to be a very satisfactory report. They had a president 
whose heart was warm in the interests of their botanical association, and they had 
a very strong committee of gentlemen who were enthusiastic in horticulture. The 



72 MAYORALTY, 1889-90. 

only regrettable part of the report appeared to him to be the anxiety the committee 
felt about the excess of expenditure over income. The income had considerably 
diminished, for there had been a falling-off of no less than £1,000 in the subscriptions 
received during the year. It was true that the society received £4,000 from the 
Jubilee Exhibition Committee, but, as he considered most properly and magnani- 
mously, they had expended that amount in putting the buildings which they also 
acquired into proper and substantial repair. As a matter of fact, they were formerly 
merely temporary structures, but now they were substantial buildings, and to 
maintain them in good condition would entail a future annual outlay. The 
exhibitions had been on a scale of magnificence which had been a delight to them 
all, and they must all feel that what the society had done had created a greater 
interest in floriculture and floral decorations, and in all that was delightful and 
civilising in the love of nature. The musical arrangements had been on a very 
liberal scale indeed, and it would be for the Executive Committee to consider how 
far they could cater for the public in that direction in the future with any degree of 
commensurate results financially. The society claimed very properly that during 
the sixty years of its existence it had catered for a great social and public want, and 
that it had exercised a most refining influence upon all classes of society. It would, 
therefore, be a pity if in a large community like this so excellent a committee should 
be left to feel any anxiety about the necessary financial support, which they ought 
to have. They would, however, have to consider the changed state of things which 
had come about since the establishment of the society. Those residents in 
Manchester proper, to whom the Botanical Gardens were formerly such a great 
delight, had removed out of the city to the suburbs, and it was only an extraordinary 
attraction that could induce them to leave their homes and incur an expensive 
journey with their wives and families to the gardens. That being so the Committee 
had thought it wise to reduce the price of tickets to subscribers." 

At the close of the proceedings, 

"Mr. John Galloway, jun., moved, and Mr. J. R. Hampson seconded a vote of 
thanks to the Mayor for the use of his parlour for the meeting, which was warmly 
accorded, as was also a vote of thanks to his Worship for presiding, and in acknow- 
ledging the double compliment, the Mayor said the way in which he had been 
received and supported in the duties of the Mayoralty, both by his colleagues in the 
Council and by the public, made him more and more desirous to discharge those 
duties to the very best of his ability." 

On the evening of the same day Mr. Mark presided 
over a meeting of the Sunday Closing Association. The 
annual report dealing with the subject was read by the 
Rev. Mr. Causer, the year closing with an adverse 
balance of ^262 14s. 

"The Chairman said it was not his intention to deliver an address upon the 
subject of Sunday closing, but he conceived it would be his privilege as Mayor to 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 73 

offer them facilities for the discussion of this open question. He had great pleasure 
in doing that, but he was not disposed to enter at any length into the controversy, 
and he preferred not to commit himself either for or against any particular interest. 
For himself he would gladly see all public houses entirely closed during the whole 
of Sunday. Yet he was not quite prepared to say that something might not be said 
on the other side, on behalf of what was generally termed the working man. 
Possibly as a preliminary stage he might wish to see the time diminished to what 
might be called the dinner and supper beer hours, with a very considerable interval 
between. He thought a very great deal of harm arose from public houses on a 
Sunday being open the whole time without any interval whatever. Of course the 
present audience did not go in for half measures of that kind, and he had nothing 
whatever to say against their forming their own opinion and going in for what they 
thought best. It should be remembered, however, that the better classes of society 
had an unlimited supply of intoxicants or stimulants at any time they liked, in their 
own homes or at their clubs. It was an exceedingly difficult problem to solve when 
they came to consider those who could not afford to have those stimulants at home 
or within their reach. However that might be, one was glad, in passing, to notice 
that in Manchester a very considerable improvement had taken place. He found 
that during the last ten years the very highest number of arrests on a Saturday 
afternoon for drunkenness in this great city in any one year amounted to no less an 
aggregate than 9,304 (in the year 1882), and that in the year 1889, according to the 
statistical returns he had just received from the Chief Constable, the number was 
reduced to 5,928. There was a great diminution and improvement, owing either to 
the efforts of the society or to the better condition and education of the working 
classes. It might be worth considering whether something ought not to be done in 
the way of closing the public houses on the Saturday afternoon. On looking at the 
statistical table before him he saw that it pointed to a very serious amount of 
drunkenness when men received their wages on Saturday afternoon. It was not 
only the drunkenness that they had to regret, but the prevention of thrift, which 
was a most serious phase of the question. He found that from midnight to midday 
on Saturday in 1889 there were arrested 137 persons ; and on Sunday in the same 
interval there were arrested 525 persons. From midday to midnight on Saturday 
1,800 persons were arrested, and on Sunday 883. From noon to 6 p.m. on Saturday 
the number arrested was 178, and on Sunday 45. From six to nine on Saturday 
there were 458, and on Sunday 29. From nine to ten o'clock on Saturday the 
number was 232, and on Sunday it was 50. From ten to eleven on Saturday 245, 
on Sunday 112. From eleven to twelve on Saturday night 550, and on Sunday 122. 
Thus they saw the aggregate of drunkenness was from noon to midnight on 
Saturday. He thought that the attention of temperance reformers should be 
particularly directed against Saturday afternoon as well as Sunday drinking. 
Besides being Mayor of the city, he was an attentive member of the Watch 
Committee, and these statistics from time to time, on everything that affected 
drunkenness or the well-being of the working classes, had his serious attention. 
He was unable to go further at the present time than to say that he hoped that the 
hours of public houses would be enormously restricted, and that he could not see 
that they could hope for entire Sunday closing." 



74 MAYORALTY, 1889-90. 



Commenting in a leading article upon this subject, 
the Manchester Courier said that — 

" The Mayor of Manchester invariably brings sound common sense to bear upon 
the public questions with which he deals. He does not approach them from a 
selfish or narrow point of view, but treats them in relation to their general bearing 
and application. He presided yesterday over a meeting of the Central Association 
for stopping the Sale of Intoxicating Liquors on Sunday. The chief object of the 
members of the organisation is to put an end to drunkenness. It is with no inten- 
tion of interfering with the proper liberty of the people that they propose to render 
it impossible to purchase intoxicating refreshment on that day. They recognise the 
fact that the course they recommend would not put a stop to drinking such liquors, 
because numbers of people who are able to provide stocks beforehand would do so. 
What is aimed at is the removal of what is considered to be a temptation to drink 
which some people are not only too weak to withstand, but too foolish to yield to 
with any degree of moderation." 

On the 29th, the Manchester Royal Eye Hospital 
held a meeting to consider the balance sheet. The 
President of the meeting, the Mayor, moved : — 

" That the report and balance sheet be adopted and printed for circulation. He 
said the report was very satisfactory, both as to the results achieved at the hospital 
and as to the financial position of the institution. It was satisfactory as regarded 
the number admitted to treatment at the hospital, and as to the handsome bequest 
by the late Mr. Rylands and other legacies. It touched them all by its reference to 
their late friend, Mr. Alderman Goldschmidt, who was, so to speak, the parent of 
the institution for the past twenty years. Mr. Goldschmidt had been removed from 
a sphere of great usefulness, and they could only hope that those who were left 
would endeavour in some measure -to emulate his excellent example. Other friends 
of the institution had been removed, among them the late Mr. Procter and Sir 
Joseph Heron, to whose loss fitting reference was made in the report ; and cognisance 
was also taken of the services rendered by the honorary medical staff, the house 
surgeon, and the secretary, and of the valuable assistance rendered to the institution 
by Messrs. Armstrong Brothers. It was very gratifying to the Committee of 
Management that neighbouring towns seemed to realise their responsibilities in 
supporting the hospital. This was a point to which the attention of other towns 
had had to be called in connection with a number of Manchester institutions ; but 
in no other instance, he believed, had the same support been obtained as was forth- 
coming to the Eye Hospital from such sources. An eye hospital was less liable to 
abuse than many other charities. A person might feign various forms of illness, but 
there could be no mistake whatever about an affection of the eyes ; and people giving 
money in support of such an institution knew that, so far at least as the patients 
were concerned, there could be no abuse of their generosity." 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 75 

The annual meeting of the Manchester and Salford 
Sanitary Association was held on the 30th. The 
presiding officer, the Mayor, said : — 

"It was very gratifying to see such a large gathering of ladies and gentlemen 
who were concerned in the sanitary well-being of Manchester and Salford. The 
meeting was representative of many kindred affiliated societies, there being the 
Manchester and Salford Sanitary Association, which was the parent body, the 
Ladies' Branch, the Noxious Vapours Abatement Association, the Open Spaces 
Committee, the Children's Country Holiday Fund, and the Cheap Meals Committee. 
It gave him pleasure to recognise the good work that was being done by these 
affiliated societies. They touched a branch of sanitary work which hardly came 
within the operations of the two corporations. Especially valuable was the 
sympathy extended by the ladies' branch to the poor people in the lower districts of 
Manchester and Salford. More help was wanted in this department, and the 
assistance of ladies who had leisure time, kind hearts, and common sense was highly 
desirable. He regretted the retirement of Alderman Schofield from the Manchester 
Health Committee, and expressed the hope that those who were carrying on the 
work of that department now would be found in sympathy with the objects of the 
association. In their new Medical Officer they had a vigorous sanitary reformer. 
He hoped that the association would deal tenderly with the question of smoke abate- 
ment, as they might drive business out of Manchester by harassing people about the 
smoke emitted from their works. While there was a great deal of carelessness in 
the management of boilers, a great deal of smoke which was emitted could not be 
avoided. There was a disposition on the part of manufacturers and others to march 
with the times, and this should be remembered. It was a fact that the harassing of 
some manufacturers had driven them outside their boundaries, and while he admitted 
that there were some noxious vapours which by all means ought to be stopped, he did 
not think that common smoke was very injurious to human health." 

The reports of the various societies were taken as 
read, and accepted. The Mayor, referring to comments 
upon his remarks respecting the smoke nuisance, said : — 

" He did not enjoy smoke. The weight of scientific evidence and sentiment was 
against it ; but he just ventured to say a word on behalf of manufacturers and others 
who were struggling from day to day to maintain the supremacy of Manchester in 
trade. Several large works, which he named, he would prefer to see inside the city 
boundaries than outside, as they now were, polluting the beautiful places around 
Manchester. There was no want of vigilance on the part of the Corporation in 
putting into operation the powers they possessed. He then put the resolution, 
which was carried unanimously." 

On the 2nd February, Alderman and Mrs. Mark were 
the guests of the Ancoats Recreation Committee at an 



76 MAYORALTY, 1889-90. 



" at home," held in the New Islington Hall. Mr. Charles 
Rowley presided, and in a neat and complimentary speech 
offered the best wishes of Ancoats to Alderman Mark and 
his friends, who were there in such a homely fashion. 

"The Mayor, who was received with hearty applause, said that Mrs. Mark and 
himself had looked forward to the visit to Ancoats with very considerable pleasure, 
and he hoped it would not be the last time they might have the opportunity of 
coming into the district. Taking all in all, he considered the reception given to him 
as a compliment to the Corporation, which he had, in his mayoral capacity, the 
honour to represent. There was a great deal of sympathy felt with, and a great 
deal of hard work done by, the workers in the Corporation, to ameliorate the con- 
dition of the people of Ancoats. They could not, however, travel so fast as Mr. 
Rowley and his friends would like, because it would be a most expensive operation 
to root out at once all the houses in Ancoats that might not be found fit for human 
habitation. He was proud of being a citizen of Manchester, and the desire to come 
from Cumberland to the filth of a great city lay, he confessed, in the ' filthy lucre ' 
of Manchester. He would, however, rather spend twenty years in doing his little 
best in Manchester than in running to seed in the beautiful mountainous district of 
Cumberland. He came to Manchester a great deal poorer, perhaps, than many of 
those present, though he did not despair at the dreadful surroundings of the city ; 
and he should never be wanting in sympathy with the working classes, of whom the 
people of Ancoats formed a part. With regard to municipal government, they had 
a great deal to bear and to suffer with each other. In Manchester he thought that 
on the whole they had a very good government, and as long as he was a member of 
it he should do his best to help both rich and poor. 

During the evening a musical programme was successfully performed by Miss 
Mark and friends. The Mayor also gave two readings, one of which — a humorous 
narrative of Cumberland life, in dialect — produced roars of laughter." 

On the 3rd, the Mayor presided over a meeting of the 
General Purposes Committee ; and the same day over a 
meeting called in response to a requisition of the citizens 
to consider the subject of the muzzling of dogs. 

" The Mayor said the first intention was to ask him to call a public meeting, but 
he intimated that, although he attached considerable importance to the question, he 
did not think it was of sufficient importance to justify him in acceding to the request, 
though as Mayor he should be very pleased to afford facilities for its discussion. 
The order for muzzling dogs, in this area, was felt to be exceedingly vexatious and 
difficult in its application. In so far as that went he entirely agreed, but he was not 
present, and no one was present, to defy the law, or to place any difficulty in the 
way of carrying it out. Their object was, if possible, to offer some practical 
suggestions whereby the inconvenience might be mitigated. He had received a 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 77 



private letter on the subject from Sir Henry Roscoe, and also a pamphlet. He had 
read both communications carefully, and if the statements they contained were 
accepted he was bound to say that the weight of evidence would appear to be in 
favour of stamping out rabies by muzzling dogs, and that dog-muzzling orders, as 
enforced in various European countries, had had that tendency. He had no reason 
to doubt the truth of the statements." 

A resolution against the Dogs' Muzzling Order was 
proposed by Mr. Herbert Philips, seconded by Dr. 
Hutton, and supported by Mr. B. Sugden. 

" The Mayor, in introducing the next speaker, said he should like to know whether 
hydrophobia was in any instance spontaneous, whether there was such a thing as 
' nervous terror hydrophobia,' or whether hydrophobia could only be occasioned by 
a lick or a bite from an infected dog. Many dogs, he was aware, were destroyed in 
the belief that they were suffering from rabies, when the truth was that they were 
not. A relation of his own, very recently, found her dog in the farm yard; it was 
evidently in a most dreadful state of agony. There was a great hue and cry, and the 
gardener was sent for to bring his gun. The lady had sufficient presence of mind to 
carry the dog into the house. There she found it was suffering from ear-ache. She 
administered a few drops of a homoepathic medicine in the ear, and four or five 
minutes afterwards the dog was comfortably asleep on the hearthrug. If she had 
been a little later the dog would have been condemned as mad, and shot, and duly 
reported in the rabies statistics." 

The quarterly meeting of the Manchester City 
Council was held on the 5th, over which the Mayor, 
Alderman Mark, presided, when the usual routine 
business was transacted. 

On the evening of the 10th, about 400 guests, repre- 
senting the various philanthropic institutions of the city, 
were present at the invitation of Mrs. Mark, at a drawing 
room and promenade concert at the Town Hall. The 
primary object was to give an impetus to the work of the 
Manchester and Salford Ladies' Sanitary Association, 
and for that purpose a generous amount was con- 
tributed. 

Alderman Mark, on the 13th, was called upon to open 
a Bazaar in All Saints' School, to raise funds to pay off 



78 MAYORALTY, 1889-90. 



the debt on St. Cuthbert's Mission Chapel and School, 
Clayton Bridge, and to redecorate All Saints' Church, 
Newton Heath. At this function, Mrs. Mark, Miss 
Mark, and Miss Florence Mark were present. 

On the 24th, Alderman and Mrs. Mark and Miss 
Mark attended a meeting of the St. Mark's Ragged 
School, Hulme, for the distribution of prizes. On the 
same evening, Alderman Mark presided at a meeting of 
the Young Men's Christian Association, when the 
members of the Gymnasium gave a display in the large 
hall, which was crowded with members and friends. 

On the following afternoon, Mr. Mark presided at a 
meeting, held in the Town Hall, by subscribers to the 
Manchester and Salford Discharged Prisoners' Aid 
Society. 

"The Mayor moved the adoption of the report, and that it be circulated. It 
was satisfactory to observe, he said, that there had been fewer convicts remitted to 
the society during the past two years, and that last year, out of forty-five received 
thirty-two were working when last heard of. That was a very large and satisfactory 
percentage, largely due, he was told, to the existence of the Ship Canal works, of 
which kind of labour the men might be particularly fitted. The number of short- 
time prisoners not accounted for might be explained by the number who returned at 
once to their abodes in outlying districts. As to the old offenders, whilst there was 
in the aggregate a great diminution in the number of convictions, many of these 
offenders did turn up again and again, and in many cases seemed past reclamation. 
They could not take it for granted that there was a permanent diminution of crime. 
They hoped that such would be the case, and that the advantages of education and 
the institutions now existing for checking juvenile crime, were having a very material 
effect. The First Offenders' Act, by which magistrates were able to give another 
chance to those who had made a slip, was, in his estimation, an eminently good 
measure. He appealed for subscriptions. There was a necessity for the existence 
of the society, and it was doing good day by day." 

In reply to Mr. Lister's criticism of the aims of the 
society, the Mayor said : — 

" Mr. Lister had not put the case in a fair way when he said that the society 
(which must have officers and a staff) had distributed /26, and it had cost £200 to 
do it. The view he (the Mayor) took was that it did much good in giving practical 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 79 

advice and sympathy, in supervising the spending of the money to which the 
prisoners had become entitled, and in finding situations for them. He did not agree 
with Mr. Lister's suggestion about endeavouring to help all the prisoners. A 
number of them came out of gaol very much ashamed, and got back to their friends, 
and did not want to be followed by the agents of the society." 

At the enquiry into the question of the proposed 
extension of the City Boundaries, on the 26th, the 
Mayor was called upon for evidence on the subject. 

"Alderman John Mark (Mayor of Manchester), examined by Mr. Addison: His 
work on the Amalgamation Committee had been of three months' duration, but he 
had been a member of the Watch Committee, which had charge of the fire brigade, 
for many years. Generally, he agreed with the evidence given by Sir J. J. Harwood. 
He considered the Manchester Fire Brigade one of the most efficient in the world, 
and its administration was carried on at a comparatively low cost compared with 
the cost of fire brigades in the United Kingdom and in the United States. The 
cost was about £7,000 a year. The whole city was in connection with the central 
fire station. As the out-townships were amalgamated, branch fire stations were 
established in them. The proportion of property destroyed by fire in Manchester 
was lower than anywhere else. The police force of Manchester he considered in a 
very high state of efficiency, both with regard to the protection of life and property 
and the prevention of crime. The number of constables had, by reason of the last 
newly added districts, been increased from 500 to goo. Their relations with the 
county police were of an amicable character, but there were occasions when they 
clashed. They had a detective force in Manchester which was a terror to evil-doers. 
He considered that Manchester stood in the front rank of municipal corporations, 
and that its financial, educational, and general position was so good that, personally, 
he would not ask one of the out -townships to come in and be joined to the city, but 
he felt that it was desirable that they should come in. It was desirable that open 
spaces in the outskirts of the city should be enclosed for the benefit of the 
inhabitants. It was desirable on general grounds. The people in the outskirts of 
the city were practically part of the city. They were one community. They used 
Manchester institutions, and enjoyed all the advantages of the city, and he would 
not, as he had said, ask any of the out-townships to come in, with one exception, and 
that was Moss Side. Moss Side he would compel to come in." 

A public meeting to consider a proposed superannua- 
tion scheme for the Clergy of Manchester, was held at 
the Town Hall, on the afternoon of the 26th. 

" The Mayor said the meeting had been called by Archdeacon Anson to promote 
a superannuation scheme set on foot at a diocesan conference in 1886. It seemed 
to him that the scheme was a very deserving one. It had already received a good 
deal of support, and he hoped that the objects would ultimately be entirely realised. 



80 MAYORALTY, 1889-90. 

The hardworking clergy of this and other dioceses were, as a rule, not very liberally 
rewarded. They were very often blessed with large families, and as they were 
expected to educate their children in a way that was very expensive, they were 
unable to provide for old age and infirmity. The existing arrangement for super- 
annuation, which left them with a third of their slender stipend, did not meet the 
circumstances of the case. The scheme now in hand had therefore a very strong 
claim on the support of the well-to-do public, and also on the well-to-do clergy." 

On the 28th, Mr. and Mrs. Mark and their daughters 
were present, with about 120 ladies and gentlemen, at a 
tea, given by the Gas Committee, in recognition of the 
services which had been given, by entertainments and 
concerts, at the gas works during the recent strike. The 
entertainment was held in the state apartments of the 
Town Hall, and the Mayor spoke a few kindly and 
appreciative words to the guests. 

On the 1st March, 1890, the subscribers to the 
Whalley Range Orphanage held a meeting to consider 
the report, over which Mr. Mark presided. 

" The Mayor, in moving the adoption of the annual report and the treasurer's 
statement, said the work done by that institution was of the most excellent kind, and 
it was thoroughly well done by the committee who had the work in hand, and 
especially so by the hon secretary, Mrs. Galloway. It had been asserted that 
institutions of that kind should be large ones, in order that the philanthropic work 
carried on by them might be economically done. The aim of Mrs. Galloway, and 
those associated with her, was to bring up orphan girls in all the best habits for 
domestic service, in the use of furniture, and everything that appertained to a dwelling 
which it would be impossible for them to acquire in the same degree, with home-like 
comfort, in a large institution. When they found that the total expenditure did not 
exceed /16 per annum per child in that institution, he was sure they would all admit 
that the place was economically administered, and that it was worthy of the greatest 
support. There was another advantage in having small institutions such as that, 
which was that the influence of a lady like Mrs. Galloway was brought to bear upon 
the children with far greater force than it could be possible in a huge building. He 
agreed very much with Mrs. Galloway that the ages of the children at which parents 
could claim them from the institution, should be extended two years." 

The Welshmen resident in Manchester held a meet- 
ing at the Grand Hotel, on the same day, dedicated to 
St. David, over which Mr. W. Pritchard Morgan, M.P., 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 81 



presided. Mr. Mark, being present, responded to Mr. 
E. G. Hughes' toast of " Prosperity to Manchester and 
Salford," as follows : — 

"The Mayor of Manchester, in replying on behalf of the city, said he claimed for 
Manchester that they in the Corporation fulfilled in a very high degree the reason- 
able expectations of municipal government. They had on hand at the present 
moment some very large schemes for the amelioration of all classes of the community, 
and especially of the working classes, by the removal of unhealthy dwellings and the 
erection of artisans' dwellings on a model principle, which, he thought, would be 
satisfactory and successful. They had also a sewage scheme, the proportions of 
which were gigantic, and he believed the engineering skill which would be brought 
to bear upon it would have a most satisfactory result, not only to Manchester, but 
also to the large districts which they were now seeking to incorporate. They had 
anticipated the future wants of Manchester in the matter of water, and they were 
bringing from Cumberland an unlimited supply of the purest water that could be 
obtained in the United Kingdom. He believed it was one of the obligations which 
they had a right to lay upon their representatives in the City Council that their 
commerce and manufactures should not be hampered for want either of the purest 
gas that could be made or an unlimited supply of pure water. The Manchester 
Corporation had held out a helping hand to the great Ship Canal scheme, which he 
hoped and believed would give them an advance in their maritime and commercial 
relations, such as Manchester had previously had no experience of, while he believed 
their sister, Salford, would have an equal share in the improvement. As to the 
Welsh, with whom he had been associated for the first time that evening, he desired 
to pay his tribute to their good citizenship. They kept the best order, and gave 
about as little trouble as anybody possibly could. They were remarkable for their 
thrift, and in Manchester they could bear testimony to their high educational and 
professional attainments. So eminent a position did they occupy in the medical 
faculty, that it appeared to him that if they wanted any of their frailties attended to 
they must go to a Welshman." 

A monthly meeting of the City Council was held on 
the 6th. 

"The Mayor said his attention had been called to a matter which he viewed with 
some degree of alarm, and that was the proposed removal of the Cavalry barracks. 
After consulting with the chairman of the Watch Committee and the Chief Constable, 
he wrote a letter to the Secretary of State for War (Mr. Stanhope) in the following 
terms : — 

1 Sir, — I have the honour to inform you that my attention has been called to your 
speech in the House of Commons last night, in which you are reported to have said 
that it is contemplated by the War Office to disestablish the Cavalry barracks at 
Hulme, Manchester, and to remove them to Lichfield or elsewhere. Such a step 
would deprive Manchester and the district, containing a population of about 2,000,000 



82 MAYORALTY, 1889-90. 

and an enormous amount of property, of protection and security in any emergency 
which may arise. The Chief Constable and other authorities responsible for the 
maintenance of law and order regard the removal of the Cavalry beyond the limit of 
immediate assistance with great alarm, and the Council are desirous to put their 
view of the undesirability of such a step before you. I should be glad if you can fix 
an early day to receive a deputation on behalf of the Council and the inhabitants 
generally on this very important matter.' 

Continuing, the Mayor said he had sent copies of the resolution to the members 
of the Government representing Manchester. He had received the following reply 
from the War Office : — 

' I am directed by the Secretary of State for War to acknowledge the receipt of 
your letter respecting the contemplated removal of Cavalry from Manchester. Mr. 
Secretary Stanhope desires me, with much regret, to inform you that the disestablish- 
ment of the Cavalry barracks was arrived at after most careful consideration, and 
that it will not be possible to reconsider the decision arrived at by Her Majesty's 
Government. I am therefore to intimate to you that Mr. Stanhope would be very 
sorry to put the members of a deputation to the trouble of coming to London to 
urge their views upon this point alone, but should the Council desire to bring to his 
notice the question of public safety, and the measures necessary to secure it on the 
removal of the troops, he will have pleasure in receiving it.' 

He (the Mayor) hoped he had correctly represented their feelings and the feeling 
of the public generally in the matter. He strongly objected to the removal of the 
Cavalry, believing that the prevention of disturbances was better than cure. The 
very fact that a troop of Cavalry could sweep any of our streets in a few minutes had 
certainly a very wholesome influence. He did not think that a great city like 
Manchester should be treated in this way, and be deprived of Cavalry. The 
authorities responsible for the maintenance of law and order might at least have been 
consulted. He was not aware that anyone had been asked a question in reference to 
the matter. It was on the grounds that the Hulme barracks were insanitary and 
unsuitable for their present purposes, but even granting that, there were in the neigh- 
bourhood of Manchester many very convenient places where new barracks might 
have been erected, and where there was plenty of room for exercise grounds. There 
were public occasions and State occasions when they required a military display, and 
they were fairly entitled to it. On all grounds he very much regretted that the War 
Office had thought proper to come to this decision without consulting the local 
authorities in any way." 

At this meeting something like a scene occurred upon 
the question as to the legality of the appointment of 
Mr. Hudson as Deputy Town Clerk. A compromise 
was suggested by Alderman Chesters Thompson of the 
appointment of Mr. Hudson as Deputy, at a salary of 
£700 per annum. 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 83 



' ' The Mayor said if the compromise suggested could be arrived at he would be 
very glad indeed, but he begged of them not to do it on his account. Censure or no 
censure, if the Council had made a mistake, it must have an opportunity of setting 
itself right. He was firmly convinced that the notice to make the appointment in 
the Town Clerk's department and, the Court of Record and other matters entirely 
covered his ruling, and he had been confirmed in that opinion by high legal authority. 
He had no regret about the matter, except that the Council did not take the course 
which Sir John Harwood, Alderman Heywood, and himself wished it should take." 

Closing the proceedings was the report upon the 
Technical Instruction Act, 1889, when — 

1 ' The Mayor said he wished a committee to be appointed to consider the whole 
matter, and he moved accordingly that a committee be appointed to consider the 
provisions of the Act, such committee to consist of the Mayor, the Deputy Mayor 
(Alderman Batty), Sir John Harwood, Alderman Thompson (representing Owens 
College), Alderman Hopkinson (the Art Gallery), Mr. Rawson (Technical School), 
Mr. Schou (School Board), Mr. Milne (School of Art), Mr. Southern (Free Libraries), 
Mr. Boddington, Alderman Windsor, Mr. Chesters Thompson, and he would like to 
add the name of Mr. Hoy, who he thought would make a very good chairman of the 
committee." 

The same evening the Mayor and Mayoress enter- 
tained at dinner, in the Town Hall, the Hon. Justice 
Mathew and the Hon. Justice Charles, Her Majesty's 
Judges of Assize, with a large number of ladies and 
gentlemen who were invited to meet them. This being 
the first time on which ladies were invited to meet the 
Judges at these regular Mayoral functions, their consent 
had to be obtained, and at the conclusion of the banquet 
they expressed their pleasure, with great cordiality, at 
the innovation. 

On the 1 2th, the Mayoress of Manchester, in the 
absence of Mr. Mark, opened a Bazaar at the Sale and 
Ashton Public Hall, in aid of the Sale Congregational 
Church. 

"Mrs. Mark, in opening the bazaar, said she had been requested by the Mayor to say 
how much disappointed he had been at not being able to fulfil his promise to open 
that bazaar. Engagements made long beforehand were necessarily subject to his 
municipal duties, which commanded his first attention. She (Mrs. Mark) thought 



84 MAYORALTY, 1889.90. 

the results of the extension scheme might be considered very satisfactory. There 
were now fourteen class-rooms in the school, the average attendance of the scholars 
in the afternoon was 200, under the care of twenty-one teachers, and there were 
1,300 volumes in the library. 

On the motion of the Rev. Adam Scott (Pastor of the Church), seconded by 
Mr. J. Robson, a vote of thanks was accorded to Mrs. Mark for opening the bazaar. 
The business proper was then commenced. During each day various entertainments 
are to be given as an additional means of attraction." 

On the 14th, Mr. Edward Stanhope, Secretary of 
State for War, received a deputation from Manchester, 
with ' regard to the proposed removal of the Cavalry 
barracks from Hulme. The Mayor (Mr. Alderman 
Mark), Mr. Rawson, Mr. Wood, Chief Constable, Mr. 
W. H. Talbot, Town Clerk, Sir Henry Roscoe, M.P., 
and Mr. Jacob Bright, M.P., were present. 

" The Mayor, in explaining the object of the interview, stated that a letter received 
from the War Department spoke of the decision to remove the cavalry from 
Manchester as final, but as Mr. Stanhope had expressed willingness to receive a 
deputation on the question of the security and good order of Manchester, he had 
come with his colleagues to urge their views from that standpoint. He might observe 
that Manchester was not consulted before the decision was come to. He expressed 
the utmost confidence in the Manchester police, but urged that occasions sometimes 
arose when it became necessary to afford them the support of the cavalry. The 
presence of cavalry had averted possible great disasters at the time of the Fenian 
and Socialist movements, and recently in the case of the serious gas strikes, when all 
available troops were kept ready to repress any attack on the gasworks, which at one 
time seemed probable. Manchester, he said, was the centre of Lancashire trade, a 
town which returned six members to Parliament, which contributed largely to the 
public revenues, and considered itself entitled to the prestige of having a cavalry 
regiment quartered in it, as had been the case for the last fifty years. He could not 
defend the barracks nor their sanitary condition and situation, but large spaces were 
available close to Manchester which offered excellent barrack sites and exercise 
grounds. He also urged that cavalry were essential for escorts, as Manchester often 
entertained Royal and other distinguished visitors. On such occasions, if cavalry 
had to be moved from Lichfield or York, heavy expense would fall on the town. He 
urged that cavalry were very popular, and the pecuniary advantage to Manchester 
by their presence was between £15,000 and £20,000 a year. The town was of the 
first importance, and ought not to be degraded by the removal of the troops. Mr. 
Mark further drew attention to the great want of training grounds for Volunteers, 
and urged that if the Hulme barracks were disestablished the ground ought to be 
retained as an open space for the benefit of the Volunteers." 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 85 



The Mayor, on the 17th, presided at an annual meet- 
ing of the Adult Society for the Deaf and Dumb, held at 
the Institution, Grosvenor Street, All Saints, to receive 
the report. 

" The Mayor said he was pleased to learn what a large amount of good was being 
done by that institute at a very small cost. The work of the society began, as the „ 
report stated, where the school work ended, and it, therefore, took hold of the 
unfortunate young people at a very important age, and continued to look after them 
through life. He dare say there were hundreds of people in Manchester who had 
never thought of the great work that was being carried on ; he had not known of it 
until brought face to face with it in the discharge of his duty as the Mayor of the 
city. He was satisfied that there was great need for the society ; that it was doing 
a most useful and benevolent service ; and that its benefits would be largely increased 
if the appeal of the committee were generously responded to by the public." 

A bazaar, in aid of the Withington Congregational 
Church, was opened on the 18th in the Assembly Room, 
Free Trade Hall, Manchester, which is described as of 
Oriental brightness and colour. 

"The Mayor said when he promised to open that bazaar he really did not realise 
the responsibility he was undertaking. But he was there, and he cheerfully acquiesced 
with their wishes, and felt it a great pleasure to perform the duty. For any short- 
comings he was sure he might plead with acceptance. The object of the bazaar was 
to provide a Sunday school and a lecture hall in connection with the Congregational 
Church at Withington and Didsbury ; to carry out the project it was determined to 
spend the sum of /3,ooo, half of which had already been contributed by the congre- 
gation. It might be asked why a congregation in a residential suburb like Withington 
came into the city to hold a bazaar ? The answer, he thought, was a very good one. 
He found from the official hand-book, which he thought was a work of art in print- 
ing and compilation, that some ten years ago, when it was felt that a place of worship 
was wanted for this good denomination the friends set to work and started with an 
eye to spending some /4,ooo. Like other good Christians they found their estimate 
had to be largely exceeded, and they proceeded, the bill being made still larger by a 
misfortune which befel them through a storm, a beautiful window they had placed 
in the front of the chapel on Palatine Road being blown to ' smithereens,' and when 
they looked for the window the morning following the storm it was not. Naturally 
they pulled long faces, and said this is a ' blow,' but ' they raised the wind again ' 
and erected another window. Although only a comparatively small congregation 
they had succeeded in raising /i.ooo a year, in addition to offertories which, he under- 
stood, averaged from /700 to /800 a year, and hitherto they had never asked anybody 
outside for a penny, but had of course received the usual grant from their Society's 
Church Building Fund. They had, therefore, no occasion to offer any apology for 



86 MAYORALTY, 1889-90. 



this appeal, especially as their honest intentions were to give the people value for 
their money. All the work of the stalls had been contributed gratuitously, and they 
could therefore afford to sell cheap, and, added the Mayor, they mean to do it, so 
that they may clear the whole of the articles. He thought bazaars gave opportunities 
of affording help to very worthy objects, and there were no doubt friends in town 
who would give the helping hand to this good work. Wishing it God speed he 
declared the bazaar open." 

On the 19th, Mr. Mark presided at a meeting of the 
Field Naturalists' and Archaeological Society, held at the 
Memorial Hall. 

" The Mayor said he could not resist the invitation of the society to attend their 
spring soiree when he heard that his friend Mr. Alderman Bailey was going to deliver 
an address on the Manchester Ship Canal, an enterprise in which he took a very 
deep interest. He was surprised and delighted to see from the newspapers that the 
share capital of the Ship Canal Company which had remained unsubscribed for — 
about ^140,000 — had been applied for at par value, a fact which fully demonstrated the 
enthusiasm of the promoters of that great undertaking. The directors had shown a 
heartiness in pushing forward their magnificent scheme which was worthy of admira- 
tion. Undoubtedly they could have purchased shares at less money than they did, 
yet the action of the directors and their friends in subscribing for the shares when 
the market price was at £2 discount was a clear contribution on their part of 
^28,000 towards the completion of the canal. The importance of the canal was 
greater than they could possibly estimate, and although, like many others, he had 
only given as it were a donation towards it, yet if he never received a shilling in return 
from the company, his contribution would come back fourfold in the greater prosperity 
that would attend the city." 

A complimentary banquet to the Mayor of Manchester 
was given at the Grand Hotel, on Thursday, the 20th, by 
the Manchester and Salford Grocers' Association, over 
which Alderman Nuttall, the President of the Association, 
presided. The object of the banquet was the presenta- 
tion of an address to Alderman John Mark, which reads 
as follows, and to which the recipient of the address 
replied upon its presentation to him by the Chairman : — 

"To his Worship the Mayor of Manchester, 
Mr. Alderman John Mark. 

Dear Mr. Mayor, — We take the opportunity afforded by the present occasion of 
assuring you that it was with the most lively feelings of satisfaction we heard last 
autumn that you had accepted the invitation of the City Council to occupy the high 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 87 

and honourable position of Mayor of this city. The fact that on no previous 
occasion since the incorporation of the city had a member of our trade been called 
upon to fill the civic chair, lent additional zest to our feelings of gratification, and 
remembering also that in this city, where gentlemen of high social position and of large 
capacity in the administration of public affairs are so numerous, additional lustre 
was given to the honour conferred upon the trade to which we belong in the 
selection of your Worship by the Council. At the first meeting of the members of 
the Manchester, Salford, and District Grocers' Association subsequent to the public 
announcement of your acceptance of the invitation to the Mayoralty, the idea was 
given expression to, and found ready acceptance with all present, that the trade 
should in some signal manner express its sense of the distinguished honour which, 
through your Worship, had been conferred upon it, and it was ultimately decided 
that the celebration should take the form of a Complimentary Banquet, together with 
the presentation of this Address as a permanent souvenir of the occasion. We have 
watched and noted, with feelings of earnest and kindly interest, the rare combination 
of ability, dignity, and courtesy, combined with liberality and kindness, which you 
have brought to bear in discharging the onerous duties of your exalted position, 
winning the highest encomiums from your fellow-citizens of every rank and station 
in society, and we trust that your remaining years may be abundantly blessed with 
health and happiness, together with a consciousness of work well done and a life 
spent in honour and usefulness. 

We remain, dear Mr. Mayor, on behalf of the Manchester, Salford, and District 
Grocers' Association, your Worship's obedient servants, 

William Nuttall, President. 

Arthur R. Evans, Hon. Secretary. 

Robert Dixon, Secretary. 

"The Mayor of Manchester, whose rising was the signal for prolonged applause, 
said the cordiality of their reception, that magnificent banquet, and the eulogistic 
terms of the address which they had been pleased to present to him, were calculated 
to disturb the balance of the mind of any ordinary individual, and they would perhaps 
believe him when he said that he was conscious of his inability to express the feelings 
which moved him. Next to the great honour which had been conferred upon him in 
the mayoralty of the city of Manchester, he prized most highly the good will of his 
fellow-citizens — if they would allow him he would correct that by saying his fellow- 
tradesmen — amongst whom he had lived for more than thirty years, during which 
time, so far as he was aware, he had not made a single enemy. If he had done, he 
sincerely regretted it. It was, of course, almost impossible for a man of strong 
impulse to be guarded in what he said and did every moment, but no feeling of 
jealousy, no unworthy motive, had actuated him in regard to any of his fellow- 
tradesmen of Manchester and Salford, whom he held in very high respect. That 
night's proceedings registered an epoch in his life, next in significance only to the 
conferrence upon him of the mayoralty of Manchester. In the address which had 
been presented to him they had expressed in far too eulogistic terms their apprecia- 
tion of the public position which he held. When at the unanimous request of his 
colleagues in the City Council he consented to accept the mayoralty, he was 



88 MAYORALTY, 1889-90. 

conscious — and expressed the feeling — that he was in no sense a worthy represen- 
tative of the great commercial, manufacturing, scientific, and educational district of 
which Manchester was the centre. But his colleagues thought otherwise, and he 
said that, having so expressed himself, if in their judgment he would be able so to 
discharge the duties of the office as to be satisfactory to the citizens, he would leave 
himself in their hands. In the choice which the members of the City Council made 
he recognised the personal compliment that was paid to himself and to the share 
which he had taken in public work, and also the compliment that was paid to the 
trade which he had the honour to represent. They stated in the address that no 
grocer had previously occupied the civic chair. That, he must admit, was the fault 
of the grocers themselves. The grocery trade was both ancient and honourable, but 
if its members had not come forward and devoted some of their time to the public 
service, it was impossible that they could receive this public recognition. When he 
was invited to become a representative in the City Council of the ward in which his 
business was carried on, the thought occurred to him: — 'What prospect have I of 
doing anything to signalise my life ? I am engaged in distributing the products of 
other people. I am doing nothing for the national wealth, and the best thing I can 
do is to devote some of my time to the service of my fellow-citizens.' He now found 
that his colleagues in the council and his fellow-citizens were not slow to recognise 
sacrifice of time to the public service. It was often remarked to him that the 
office he held was a thankless one. He did not find it anything of the sort. In only 
a very small degree, if at all, was there any lack of appreciation of the services 
rendered by the Corporation ; and in his office of Mayor he had been received with 
the greatest possible kindness, nay, with enthusiasm, and it was his earnest hope that 
during the remainder of his term of office he might in no degree fall short of the 
expectations which might reasonably be formed concerning him. The address 
spoke of his personal qualifications. Well, some of them had a greater estimate of 
them than he had himself. He was not conscious that he had done anything 
worthy of the flattering remarks which they had been kind enough to make concern- 
ing him ; but from his boyhood he had felt a sturdy self-reliance, and a determina- 
tion to succeed, and he believed that if he had not been a grocer he would have 
succeeded in anything else that he had undertaken. People said, 'he has been a 
lucky fellow.' Who made the luck? He came into an old concern as a junior 
amongst as fine a lot of fellows as ever did credit to a grocer's establishment, and he 
had to put his shoulder to the wheel and work night and day, as he believed no 
grocer's assistant at the present day did work. At that time they knew nothing but 
bed and shop, and it was under such circumstances that the most sturdy and deter- 
mined came to the front, and the weak ones had to go to the wall. With such 
associations and under such circumstances he could not but succeed. They had 
most kindly expressed their good wishes for his future prosperity. Whilst he 
occupied the rather exalted position in which he had been put, he hoped that their 
wishes might be realised, and that he might continue to the end of his year of office 
blessed with the same robust health as he now enjoyed. They had referred in very 
high terms to the duties which he was, as Mayor, called upon to perform. Those 
duties were not light, but he did not feel that they constituted any pressure upon Ms 
resources, and he hoped to be able to discharge them till the end of his term of 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 89 

office. He did not expect that it was going to be a very eventful year. There was 
nothing to make it so ; but, in any case, he hoped he should be able to hand over 
the handsome badge of office, which had a tradition of fifty years, unsullied to his 
successor. They would expect him, perhaps, to say a word or two about the trade 
to which they belonged. He believed that its prospects were as good as ever, but 
there was one phase of it which he must very strongly condemn. At one time they 
used to feel that the grocery trade had a sheet anchor of respectability in its tea 
department. He was grieved to say that that department had been completely 
depraved and demoralised by lying advertisements. The public taste had been 
vitiated until the public did not know what fine tea was, and the grocer who would 
persevere in selling the finest class of teas would be considered a fraud if he asked 
anything like an adequate price for it. What was the reason ? He contended that 
it was the demoralising effect of the wording of the advertisements, which were 
thrust before the public at every turn. It was a disgrace to the trade in which they 
were engaged to see these advertisements, which would be fresh in all their minds. 
Such advertisements implied censure upon the neighbours of those who issued them, 
for if some one said he was selling the finest tea the world produced at 2s. per lb., 
the man next door who asked 2s. 6d. was a fraud. That was a censure upon him 
which no man had a right to pass, and it was a disgrace to the tea trade that such a 
thing should be done. He would pay every respect to honest competition and 
rivalry in trade, but none of them had any right to thus cast censure upon their 
fellow-tradesmen. He wished to express, what he felt very much, his appreciation 
of the compliment paid to him personally by the presence of visitors from a 
considerable distance. His friend, the Mayor of Salford, did not come from so very 
far away, but they had there Colonel Macfie, Mr. Tate from Liverpool, Mr. Alder- 
man Pink from Portsmouth, honoured by the whole grocery trade of the United 
Kingdom, and deservedly so, and Mr. Dutton from Chester, than whom there was 
not a more respected representative of the trade. He considered that this was a 
very great compliment to him personally, and he begged to thank those gentlemen 
for the sacrifices they had made in being present. He could not conclude without 
saying one word as to the mournful event in which he had taken part that afternoon, 
in laying to his last rest one of their most respected and beloved fellow-tradesmen, 
Mr. Jonathan Walker. He believed there was no one among them who was more 
highly respected and more deservedly trusted. He was a simple-minded, straight- 
forward gentleman, and it grieved him (the Mayor) sadly that he had been taken to 
his rest. They would miss him very much in many ways. He had the pleasure of 
receiving from Mr. Walker's hands, only a few weeks ago, a beautiful address from 
the Manchester Coffee Roasting Company, accompanied by words of sincerity, 
friendship, and admiration, which touched him deeply. Turning again to their 
present gathering, he thanked them from the bottom of his heart for the very hand- 
some way in which they had received him that evening; for that beautifully 
illuminated address, which in itself was a work of art, and which he should prize to 
the longest day he lived." 

We may add that the address itself is handsomely 
illuminated and bound in blue morocco. 



go MAYORALTY, 1889-90. 

On the 23rd: — 

"The Mayor of Manchester (Alderman John Mark) presided at the second annual 
gymnastic competition between the lads' clubs of Manchester and District, which 
took place on Saturday at the Every Street gymnasium. There were present over 
700 working lads and their friends. In the course of a few opening remarks, the 
Mayor expressed the pleasure it gave him to be present to witness healthy rivalry 
and friendly competition in a form of exercise which he himself had taken considerable 
part in when a youth, in the old Athenaeum days, and to which to a great extent he 
attributed the sound constitution he enjoyed. He trusted that the Corporation, who 
had been going into the matter lately, would soon provide gymnasia in various parts 
of the city for the benefit of the rising generation." 

Following upon this meeting, of the 23rd, was one of 
the Navvy Mission Society, held at the Town Hall, over 
which, in the absence of the Mayor, Mr. Oliver Heywood, 
the banker, presided. The chairman expressed his 
appreciation of the Mayor's ready sympathy, which had 
proved very helpful in promoting the benefit of local 
philanthropic objects. On the motion of Archdeacon 
Anson, seconded by Archdeacon Barber, a vote of thanks 
was accorded to the speakers, and a similar compliment 
was paid to the chairman, on the motion of Lady 
Egerton, seconded by Miss Faithfull. In replying, the 
chairman said that the meeting was due to the suggestion 
of the Mayoress, and a vote of thanks was passed to the 
Mayor and Mayoress for their aid in the movement. 

Following next to this meeting we find one of the 
subscribers of the Manchester Home and Day Nursery 
for the Children of Widows, over which Mr. Mark 
presided. The report represented their need of help. 

" The Mayor said he had visited the institution that morning, and was very much 
gratified at the appearance of all that he saw. He considered that it was a most 
valuable institution, and it was doing an exceedingly useful work, and he hoped the 
subscriptions in its aid might increase, in order to relieve the committee of any feeling 
of anxiety. But for the existence of this institution, and if the children cared for 
there were not supported by voluntary subscriptions, they would be a large charge 
upon the rates of the city." 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 91 

On the 26th, Mr. Mark presided over a meeting held 
at New Islington Hall, when an address, upon the 
" Prevention of Consumption," was delivered by Dr. 
Arthur Ransome. 

On the 28th, the annual meeting of the Royal Society 
for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, was held at the 
Town Hall, under the presidency of Mr. Mark. 

"The Mayor, in moving the adoption of the report, said that in spite of the great 
amount of supervision exercised by the officers of the society a very large amount of 
cruelty was still practised towards dumb animals, and the society therefore claimed 
the support and continued assistance of the public. He wished the society could do 
something to prevent the brutal practices which were often witnessed in suburban 
districts during the summer months. On the road to Northenden during the summer 
months he had seen from sixteen to twenty men in a cart drawn by a poor attenuated 
animal, which was mercilessly flogged as it struggled along. He was, however, told 
that in such cases the officers of the society could take no steps unless the animal 
was suffering from sores or other forms of affliction. He thought that gross cruelty 
was practised in the way he had described, and he had often stood aghast with horror 
at the brutal treatment some dumb animals received. He wished that more could be 
done to prevent it." 

On the evening of the following day, Alderman Mark 
presided over a complimentary banquet to Sir Charles 
Halle, at the Queen's Hotel. 

"The Mayor proposed the toast of the evening, 'The health of Sir Charles Halle,' 
and on rising was warmly greeted. He said : The cordiality and enthusiasm with 
which the name of Sir Charles Halle is greeted by this representative assembly 
anticipates and fulfils the object of this magnificent banquet. Our desire is to 
accentuate the regard and esteem entertained to him personally, to show our great 
admiration for his brilliant accomplishments in music, and to express our high 
appreciation of the great services he has rendered to the community, which received 
well-deserved recognition in the honour of knighthood. As you are aware, Sir Charles 
Halle will shortly leave England for a few months' visit to Australia, and we desire 
to take this opportunity to bid him farewell, to wish him a pleasant and prosperous 
voyage, and safe return. These sentiments, I am sure, will be echoed in the hearts 
and minds of thousands of the citizens of Manchester, where his name has long been 
a household word, and I may add that nothing but the limit of space has excluded 
many sincere friends who would have been glad to join in this manifestation of the 
high regard in which he is held. Of the many claims of our guest to our gratitude 
it will be quite unnecessary for me to speak at any length, but in my representative 
capacity as Mayor of the city, I may be permitted to say how much we appreciate 



92 MAYORALTY, 1889-90. 



what he has done to extend the cultivation and love of music during the last forty 
years, especially in Manchester. And what Manchester owes to the industry and per- 
severance of Sir Charles Halle, sometimes under great difficulty, is engraved upon all 
our memories, and will continue to exercise a lasting influence to the benefit of future 
generations. In Manchester we are not always blest with Italian skies, and we have 
not magnificent collections of pictures like some great commercial cities of the middle 
ages, yet we are rich in the possession of art treasures in our homes, and in taste to 
appreciate and enjoy them ; we have lovely gardens in all our suburbs ; and in the 
city we may be justly proud of our University, our School of Art, and many other 
educational institutions. As to the privileges we possess with regard to music, we do 
not yield to any modern city. We have in the Gentlemen's Concerts the oldest 
musical society in the kingdom, one with a history of more than a century and a half, 
and one which we hope will continue to flourish for generations to come. We have 
not, it is true, any such Conservatorium of Music as that of Leipsic or Berlin, and we 
have nothing like either the Academy of Music or the Royal College of Music in 
London ; but neither Leipsic, nor Berlin, nor London is so rich in musical advantages 
of another kind. And I venture to say that no other city in Europe can boast of such 
a musical record as that of the thirty-three consecutive series of orchestral concerts 
in this city, directed and conducted by Sir Charles Halle. I spoke just now of the 
Gentlemen's Concerts, and we should not forget that but for the Concert Hall, with 
which he has now been connected for more than forty years, Sir Charles Halle might 
not have settled here. But he had not been long in Manchester before his influence 
made itself felt in a much wider sphere. If he did not implant he did much to foster 
and extend the taste for classical chamber music, and there are some here present 
who look back with intense pleasure to his chamber concerts in the old Town Hall. 
But it was in 1857, at the Art Treasures Exhibition, that the public of Manchester 
and the district were first introduced to Sir Charles Hall6 as an orchestral conductor. 
When it was determined to collect, as far as possible, in the noble galleries at Old 
Trafford, the choicest works in painting, sculpture, and other fine arts, the Committee 
determined to give music also a place in the Exhibition, and Sir Charles Halle was 
commissioned to engage and conduct an orchestra. It was then that the public of 
Manchester were well able to appreciate the works of Beethoven, Mozart, and Haydn, 
as well as the pictures of Reynolds, Gainsborough, Murillo, and Raphael, and I think 
I may say that, thanks to Sir Charles, they have never since been deprived of the 
opportunity of being able to do so. I say thanks to him, for this opportunity was 
afforded to us by no committee, and by no endowed institution, but solely by the 
spirited enterprise of our guest. To his unaided efforts we owe the splendid musical 
privileges which have been the pride of Manchester and the envy of other cities 
during the last thirty years. I may perhaps say this for the community, that he had 
confidence in us; he never lost faith in the town of his adoption. He believed and 
discovered that we were capable of understanding the highest forms of musical art, 
and not the least of his many claims on our respect is that he never condescended to 
the meretricious or the pretentious. In orchestral and choral music he has allowed 
us to hear the noblest works, and year after year he has introduced to us some of the 
most famous vocal and instrumental soloists of the day. Nor must we forget that 
Sir Charles Hall6 in other ways, as teacher and pianist, has done a very important 




(Ouine/' =z£&&u^O' <^2L^e/ 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 93 



work in encouraging the study and practice of high-class music in our homes. I do 
not pretend myself to be one of his pupils, though not insensible to the delights of 
his charming concerts, but I am told that the show pieces with which young ladies 
were wont to display their powers in our drawing rooms before he became high-priest 
of his profession and music-master-general to the district would be thought very poor 
performances now ; and I suppose it is not less true that such works as Beethoven's 
sonatas would have been quite beyond the general comprehension forty years ago. 
I might say much more, but everyone here could stand up in evidence to Sir Charles 
Halle's immeasurably great services as a benefactor to Manchester in elevating the 
public taste, and in furnishing us with the most refined and delightful of enjoyments. 
He is now going to leave us for six months, and in proposing his health I am sure I 
may in your name wish to him and to Lady Halle a pleasant voyage to the great 
Australian continent, with an increase of the world-wide fame that has preceded him 
to the Antipodes, and a safe return in due season to old England and his adopted 
city of Manchester." 

The annual meeting of the Manchester and Salford 
Penitentiary was held at the Town Hall, on the 17th 
April, 1890, and was presided over by Alderman Mark. 
The Mayor moved the adoption of the report and 
balance sheet, and said that the Penitentiary deserved 
all their sympathy, and they could only hope and pray 
that the objects of the institution might be as fruitful in 
good results as they had been in the past. 

The same day Mr. Mark opened a three days' Bazaar 
at the Gentlemen's Concert Hall, on behalf of funds for 
the 1st Cadet Battalion of the Manchester Regiment. 

" Shortly after noon, Major A. P. Ledward introduced the Mayor, who said he 
was pleased to open the Bazaar. The Corporation of Manchester had very properly 
given facilities for the drilling of the corps, though of course it was not within its 
capacity to subscribe to its funds. The regiment had been organised to some extent 
on a self-supporting basis, every member contributing something towards its 
maintenance, which gave them a feeling of independence which might otherwise be 
lacking. The inspectors gave their services free. The cadets were boys from fourteen 
to eighteen years of age, and the drill and instruction they received were calculated 
to keep them out of mischief and increase their self-respect. The corps received no 
aid from Government beyond the loan of carbines and bayonets. They would 
shortly wear the scarlet uniform of the Manchester Regiment, and to pay for the 
outlay was one of the objects of the bazaar. They also required headquarters, 
where the cadets would be kept separate from the lads' clubs in the city. £i,ooo 



94 MAYORALTY, 1880,-90. 

was the sum they required. Preparations for the bazaar had been in progress since 
Christmas. He earnestly pleaded for help for the cause, and hoped the public would 
support it. His Worship then declared the bazaar open." 

The same evening the Mayor and Mayoress enter- 
tained a number of ladies and gentlemen at the Town 
Hall. 

The new girls' schools at Mauldeth Road, Withington, 
were opened on the 21st, when there was a large attend- 
ance. 

"The Mayor (Mr. Alderman Mark) said that those who knew something of the 
duties of the Mayor of Manchester might think he could find quite sufficient to do 
without going outside the boundaries of the city. But he could not resist the 
invitation given him by his neighbours in Withington to be present on this interesting 
occasion. The new school would supply a want which had long been felt. It was 
important that the girls in that neighbourhood, after the age of eleven or twelve, 
should be able to carry on their education close to their own homes, and that they 
should not have to travel every day to Manchester to school. The new school aimed 
at giving an education equal in every way to that of a first-class boarding-school, and 
it would differ from the ordinary school in being under the management of a 
committee. That, he thought, was a decided advantage. From a circular which had 
been sent to him he saw that the course would include the English language and 
literature, classical and modern languages, history, geography, mathematics, natural 
science, class singing, drawing, drill, needlework, sloyd, and other subjects. There 
was a large playground attached to the premises, and great attention, he understood, 
would be given to healthful exercises. He had no doubt the school would soon be 
filled to its utmost capacity, and he had great pleasure in declaring it open." 

On the 22nd, the masters and men engaged in the 
Jewish tailoring trade met the Mayor at the Town Hall, 
with the object of arriving at a settlement of their existing 
differences. After some questioning, with the object of 
ascertaining the relative position of the two classes — 

"The Mayor said as the masters declined to engage all the hands by the week, 
and as the workers declined to be engaged by the day, they must fall back upon 
piecework as the only solution of the difficulty. The workers' representatives had 
very properly, in his opinion, conceded that they would no longer engage the under- 
hands for such unconscionably long hours as they had hitherto worked. They were 
willing that they should work twelve hours a day, with an hour off for dinner and 
half an hour for tea. For that concession on the part of the machinists it seemed 
inevitable that they must be paid a rather better price for piece. He thought they 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 95 

had asked rather too much, for it was a serious thing to attack a large branch of trade 
like this with an advance of about fifty per cent. Something like twenty per cent 
would be as much as the trade could bear, and the master tailors ought to pay an 
advance per garment of three half-pence to machinists and one penny to the presser, 
and of course the terms of the agreement which had been signed by some of the 
master tailors would stand, so that the prices would not be disturbed until ist 
March, 1891. The Mayor concluded by expressing his obligations to Messrs. 
Frankenburg, Belisha, Dowdall, and Arrandale for their assistance." 

The Examiner and Times thus reports settlement : — 

"Yesterday afternoon representatives of the Jewish master tailors and their 
employes on strike met the Mayor of Manchester, at the Town Hall, in connection 
with the existing dispute. It was ultimately agreed that the piece-work system 
should be maintained ; that the machinists should receive three half-pence extra per 
garment, and the pressers one penny, for a ten and a half hours day. In the evening 
this compromise was accepted by meetings of masters and men, and the strike is 
therefore settled." 

The Mayor of Manchester and Bimetallism. {Man- 
chester Courier, 23rd April, 1890): — 

"We are asked to publish the following letter from the Mayor of Manchester, 
which was read at the Bimetallic Conference, held the other day at the Westminster 
Palace Hotel, London : — 

Town Hall, Manchester, 14th April, i8go. 

Dear Sir, — In answer to your letter of the 10th inst, received on my return from 
London late on Saturday night, I regret it is not possible for me to accept the 
invitation of the president of the Bimetallic League to lunch at the Westminster 
Palace Hotel, on Thursday, the 17th inst., as I have invited my colleagues to a 
banquet here on that evening. 

I have not been able to follow the arguments for and against bimetallism, or to 
study the question to enable me to contribute any opinion at a meeting on the subject 
to promote the objects of the league, although I attach very great importance to 
bimetallism, and 'the free coinage of gold and silver at a fixed ratio' as the only 
convenient basis for international commerce. 

It has always appeared to me that gold and silver, when once converted into 

coins, these monetary tokens should represent fixed relative standard values, and not 

be subject to fluctuations. — Yours truly, 

John Mark, Mayor. 

H. M'Neil, Esq., Bimetallic League, 5, Cross Street, Manchester." 

On the 24th, the Mayor presided at a meeting of the 
Manchester, Salford, and District Grocers' Association, 
held in the evening at the Grand Hotel, to consider the 
expediency of asking that the changes proposed in the 



96 MAYORALTY, 1889-90. 

Budget of the Chancellor of the Exchequer, upon the 
articles affecting the trade, might be postponed for a 
month. Mr. Mark expressed an opinion that the 
Chancellor could not afford to change his mind in the 
face of public opinion. It was elicited that the larger 
dealers had been consulted, or had placed themselves in 
communication with the Government. 

"The Chairman said the Association could not dictate to any member of the trade 
as to when he should make the reduction to the public. It was in the discretion of 
each to do as he liked, but the sound policy was that as soon as the thing became law 
the public were entitled to it. He should make his reduction on the ist May, and 
he should give the full reduction of the tea duty. He was exceedingly sorry to see 
the remarks of the Chancellor of the Exchequer, reflecting upon the retail, trade of 
the country generally, as to the enormous profits that were abstracted from poor 
people. Those remarks had no foundation in fact, and he was sure Mr. Goschen 
would be the last man to have said what he did if he had been fully and properly 
informed." 

A meeting of the General Purposes Committee of the 
Manchester City Council was held on the 30th, over 
which the Mayor presided. 

The Liverpool Daily Post of the 5th May, 1890, 
contains the following reference to the funeral of Mr. 
Edwin Waugh on the previous Saturday: — 

"I found, on looking at the Manchester papers, that by order of the Mayor 
(Alderman John Mark), of whom everybody has something good to say, the flag at 
the Town Hall and those of the chief public buildings in the city had been at half- 
mast since Wednesday. The whole district seemed to mourn the loss of a man who 
had been the friend of everyone." 

On the 6th, the subscribers to the Girls' Refuges 
and Homes and Children's Aid Society, held their 
meeting in the Mayor's Parlour, and was presided over 
by Alderman Mark. 

"The Mayor, in moving the adoption of the report and statement of accounts, 
said they were so exhaustive and complete that he would not attempt to dwell upon 
more than a very few items. It would be impossible, in view of the short time they 
had had the draft report in their hands, to offer any practical criticisms upon the 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 97 

work, even if they were disposed to do so. There was so much to commend, and so 
little, if anything, to criticise, that he had no hesitation whatever in commending 
the report for their adoption. If he were the chairman of the Board of Guardians, 
instead of the Mayor of Manchester, he might possibly be able to speak with even 
more gratitude than he did of the work which that society was accomplishing — a 
society which was so justly supported by liberal donations and subscriptions. He 
had had the pleasure of visiting the institutions, and he was exceedingly pleased with 
all the details. He had heard a man who accomplished a great deal described as a 
two-handed man. He thought that in connection with the various branches of this 
institution there must be a great many two-handed men, doing their utmost from day 
to day to alleviate the sufferings of the poor children. It had been his lot during the 
few months that he had occupied his present position to preside over a great number 
of philanthropic meetings, some of them in connection with refuges and such like 
institutions, but this seemed to combine and roll them all into one, and further 
extensions being contemplated, he knew not where they would stop. One could not 
for a moment doubt the enormous good that was being done by this institution. The 
only regret he felt was that, after so much time and pains and money had been spent 
upon boys, they should be sent to Canada or elsewhere, to enrich other countries ; 
and that girls also should be sent away, when there were so many openings for female 
labour that there was somewhat of a dearth of good domestic servants. Upon 
another point, speaking with the greatest diffidence, he would say that the public 
should not be asked for funds for the maintenance of young men who had passed 
through the Refuge. With regard to the proposed teaching of a new industry, he 
would suggest that it should be baking rather than printing. In conclusion, the Mayor 
said he had been applied to by Mr. Shaw, or the Committee, to interest himself in 
obtaining a visit from some Royal personage or personages, for the purpose of 
opening the new buildings, and he had had the greatest possible pleasure in using 
what influence he possessed to attain that object. He was very happy to say that he 
thought their efforts would not be fruitless, and that during the summer or early 
autumn they would receive a visit from some one who would be very acceptable to 
them, and who would formally open the new buildings in Strangeways, of which they 
might justly be proud. He thought that those who had laboured so long and so 
industriously to provide such a noble institution deserved a recognition of that kind." 

A monthly meeting of the City Council was held in 
the Council Chamber on the 7th, over which the Mayor 
presided. Apart from the general business of such 
meetings was that of the expected visit of Mr. H. M. 
Stanley. 

"The Mayor then said he had been in communication with the Manchester 
Chamber of Commerce, the Athenaeum, and the Geographical Society in respect to 
the expected visit of Mr. Stanley. He might say that the Athenaeum authorities 
invited Mr. Stanley to visit Manchester as soon as he arrived at Zanzibar, and they 
received a letter from him dated from Cairo, and written in January. They had 



g8 MAYORALTY, 1889-90. 

made him a very tempting offer to come to Manchester to give an address, and one 
which they could not compete with as a Corporation. He was in friendly negotia- 
tion with that and other bodies named, and he wanted the Council to pass a 
resolution authorising the Mayor and the Deputy-Mayor and Alderman Heywood to 
take such steps as they might deem desirable, in conjunction with the Chamber of 
Commerce, the Athenasum, and others, when an opportunity was afforded. If Mr. 
Stanley came to Manchester to deliver an address the Corporation might be 
authorised to offer him some suitable hospitality — perhaps a reception or something 
of that kind. He moved a resolution to authorise himself and the Deputy-Mayor 
and Alderman Heywood to take the necessary steps." 

The resignation of Alderman Batty, from ill health, 
was announced. 

"The Mayor said Alderman Batty had communicated with him, announcing his 
resignation, a step which he had been compelled to take in consequence of his 
health. He expressed the great regret which all the members must feel in losing so 
valuable a colleague as Alderman Batty. He moved : ' That this Council receive 
with sincere regret the resignation of their respected colleague, Alderman Batty, 
and desire to record their sentiments of sincere esteem and regard, and of regret 
that the state of his health should render his retirement necessary.' 

The Mayor said he had already written a. letter to Alderman Batty full of the 
sympathy which he sincerely felt, and he was sure that the resolution now proposed 
would be a great gratification to him." 

On the 8th, the Mayor entertained, at the Town 
Hall, at dinner, in the evening, the Right Hon. Baron 
Huddleston and the Hon. Mr. Justice Lawrance, Her 
Majesty's Judges of Assize, and Lady Diana Huddle- 
ston. Besides the Mayor's family, there was a large 
and distinguished company, too numerous for specifica- 
tion in these pages. 

The annual conference of the National Coffee Tavern 
Association was resumed at the Town Hall on the 8th. 
In the absence of Sir John Harwood, the president, the 
chair in the morning sitting was occupied by Alderman 
White, of Birmingham ; at the afternoon sitting by 
Alderman Mark, supported by Alderman Agar, Lord 
Mayor of York, Sir John Harwood, Alderman Heywood, 
Alderman White, Mr. W. H. Newett, etc. 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 99 

"The Mayor of Manchester gave the delegates a hearty welcome to Manchester, 
and expressed his sympathy with them in their work. He remarked that the object 
of their labours was to afford a counter-attraction to the baleful and excessive 
drinking of alcohol. No one could shut his eyes to the fact that the excessive 
drinking of intoxicating liquors was a very great curse, especially to the working 
classes, and any measures to provide beverages of a less hurtful character must 
exercise a very beneficial influence. He therefore wished that in great centres of 
population those engaged in the coffee-house movement should succeed more and more 
in their endeavours, and give all possible facilities to the public to obtain harmless 
refreshments. He thought there was much less drinking amongst the working 
classes of America than there was in England. On three occasions he had visited 
the United States, and it was a remarkable thing that he never saw an intoxicated 
person in the streets of the United States, Canada, or in the West Indies. During 
the whole time he was there he never saw a drunken brawl or an arrest for any kind 
of drunken disorder. He did not mean to say that drunkenness did not exist in the 
United States — statistics proved that it did — but as an observant man who did not 
go to bed at nine o'clock at night, he was able to say that he had returned for the 
third time from the United States without ever seeing a drunken person. He pointed 
to the facilities which existed in the United States for people obtaining iced water, 
and recommended that in England the public should have greater opportunities of 
obtaining pure water in sultry weather. Sir John Harwood, the president of the 
Conference, was the chairman of the Waterworks Committee of the Manchester 
Corporation, and he recommended the delegates to put pressure upon him to see if 
something could not be done in Manchester in the direction he had indicated." 

Mr. H. M. Stanley's visit to Manchester. (Manchester 
Guardian, 17th Ma)', 1890): — 

"The Mayor of Manchester (Mr. Alderman Mark) forwarded the letter of which 
a copy is subjoined to Mr. H. M. Stanley on May 12th, inviting him to visit 
Manchester : — 

Town Hall, Manchester, 12th May, 1890. 

Sir, — I have the honour to inform you that the members of this Corporation, and 
also many influential citizens who are connected with the Manchester Chamber of 
Commerce, the Manchester Athenseum, and the Manchester Geographical Society, 
desire that among your numerous engagements your intention of visiting Manchester 
may be realised. I now, as the Mayor of the city, convey to you the unanimous 
and cordial invitation of the City Council, adopted at their last meeting, that you 
would honour them by accepting their hospitality, as the guest of the Mayor and 
Corporation, in this Town Hall at an early date, when opportunity also will be 
afforded to the Manchester Chamber of Commerce, the Manchester Athenaeum, and 
the Manchester Geographical Society, to present to you their acknowledgments of 
your distinguished services to the interests of commerce and civilisation. It is 
desired that you should during your stay in Manchester take up your abode in the 
Mayoral apartments, where many distinguished visitors have been received. May I 



ioo MAYORALTY, 1889-90. 

ask that you will be good enough to intimate to me the probable date of your visit, 
so that all needful arrangements may be made ? Awaiting the favour of an early 
reply, I have the honour to be, sir, your obedient servant, 

Henry M. Stanley, Esq. John Mark, Mayor. 

Yesterday morning the Mayor received the following reply from Mr. Stanley : — 

34, De Vere Gardens, W., 15th May, 1890. 

Sir, — May I be allowed to express to you, and to the members of the Corporation 
of the City of Manchester, my most sincere and hearty thanks for the great honour 
you have done me in offering me the hospitality of your city, and in requesting me 
to occupy during my stay in Manchester the Mayoral apartments, an honour which 
I shall be most proud to accept. I shall probably arrive in Manchester from 
Newcastle on the 19th or 20th of June. — I am, sir, yours most sincerely, 

John Mark, Esq., Mayor of Manchester. Henry M. Stanley." 

On the 20th, the Manchester School of Domestic 
Economy and Cookery was opened by Mrs. Mark, 
accompanied by Miss Mark and Miss Florence Mark. 
The Examiner and Times thus mentions the matter in a 
leading article of its issue of the 21st: — 

"In the absence of the Mayor, the task of formally opening the new premises of 
the Manchester School of Domestic Economy and Cookery yesterday was undertaken 
by Mrs. Mark, and right admirably was the task fulfilled." 

The annual dinner of the Consuls and Vice-Consuls 
resident in Manchester, was held in the Queen's Hotel, 
on the evening of the 21st. The Mayors of Manchester 
and Salford were also present. Mr. T. R. Wilkinson 
proposed "The Corporations of Manchester and Salford." 

"The Mayor of Manchester, in replying on behalf of the city, said that during 
the twelve years he had occupied a seat in the Council he had never discovered on 
committee or sub-committee, in contracts, or in any other way, a. scintilla of 
suspicion of anything like self-seeking. If it did exist, or if it had existed in the 
past, he for one should not be satisfied until it was sifted to the very bottom. It 
was not sufficient that a detractor of the Manchester Corporation should say it was 
not the present Aldermen and the present Councillors, and that it was not the 
present officials. When the Corporation of Manchester was detracted by irrespon- 
sible scribblers, it was the duty of himself and those associated with him to sift to 
the very bottom such calumnies as had been circulated. Was it a fair thing that 
they should rest under an imputation upon the sons of their former officials, and 
that these should be pointed at with the finger of scorn as the children of a man who 
had robbed the Gas Committee of the City of Manchester ? He said ' No.' If there 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 101 

was any truth in these imputations let them try to discover it. It was puerile non- 
sense to say that they wished to crush out the public spirit of individuals who dared 
to utter these allegations. They might be true or they might be false, but it was 
their duty to find out which they were. There would be no 'crushing out.' It 
would be no satisfaction to him as the Mayor, or to those who were associated with 
him, to crush out the public spirit of anyone who desired the welfare of his fellow- 
citizens and had something to unfold. If they were able to disclose anything to 
them which was unworthy of them or of their officials, let them know it, and they 
would not be martyrs, but they would be worthy of their greatest respect." 

On the 4th June, 1890, a meeting of the Manchester 
City Council was held, the Mayor presiding. Some 
discussion ensued upon the demolition of St. Mary's 
Church, and Mr. Gibson proposed, and Mr. B. T. Leech 
seconded a resolution to the effect that the subject be left 
to the Mayor and the Chairman of Committee. 

"The Mayor said the amendment set up an impossible proposition. They had, 
in his estimation, been met in this matter in the most generous manner. The 
course proposed would not benefit the living of St. Ann's. It was intended to 
apply £50 which the Dean and Chapter would pay and the /30 which the Corpora- 
tion would pay to the maintenance of a mission room in a more populous part of the 
united parish of St. Mary and St. Ann. If there were any interference, which was 
a most remote contingency, on the part of the Dean and Chapter, they would cease 
to pay the /30 a year. They would be tenants at will probably for ever, and it 
would be a most unfortunate thing if negotiations broke down. Although it had 
been said that the church and churchyard cost the Dean and Canons nothing, they 
had to remember they were not given unconditionally, and the Dean and Canons 
had to see that the spiritual interests of the parish were properly provided for. His 
only regret was that the open space which the church occupied was not to be 
devoted to any purpose which the Corporation might think proper hereafter, and he 
hoped they might have the words modified. The churchyard, however, was 
unreservedly at their disposal. They had made inquiries in other places, and it was 
suggested that a map be made of the churchyard and of the gravestones, and there 
would be no objection to covering it with a few inches of soil and making the 
churchyard an open space for ever. Hereafter the Corporation might desire to put 
a flower market on it, which would be an inoffensive way of utilising the site, to 
which no objection could be taken, and he very strongly deprecated the amendment 
moved. He had made inquiries, and found it was not possible to have the 
reversionary clause removed. 

The Mayor reminded the Council that the reversion would occur only when the 
land was required for ecclesiastical purposes, owing to the Corporation finding it 
necessary to remove St. Ann's." 

GI 



io2 MAYORALTY, 1889-90. 



The annual meeting of the subscribers to the 
Manchester Art Museum of Ancoats was held on the 
5th, under the presidency of Alderman John Mark. 

"The Mayor, in moving the adoption of the report and balance sheet, said the 
work the museum was doing gave, he thought, abundant proof that the committee 
might be safely entrusted with a larger income. He had on many occasions to plead 
for greater support to valuable institutions, but he had never done so with greater 
sincerity than he did now. The educational influences of the museum were very 
great, and he thought its claims ought to be placed very strongly before the public. 
There was scarcely one of the many institutions over whose annual meetings he had 
to preside that had not some very generous friend, and he could not help thinking 
that if they could attract the attention of some one to whom £200 or /300 a year 
was not of very great importance, that institution would be very materially helped, 
and the giver would be supporting a most deserving object." 

Alderman Mark having forwarded a letter of sympathy 
upon the illness of the Very Rev. Dean Oakley, received 
the following acknowledgment from Miss Oakley : — 

"Deganwy, Llandudno, gth June, 1890. 
Dear Mr. Mayor, 

Your kind letter of sympathy to my mother gives me the opportunity of doing 
now what I should otherwise have postponed. On Saturday night I was called up 
at midnight to go to my father, who wanted to give me a message. It was this: — 
' Please write to the Mayor, if I die, and tell him I am very sorry not to shake his 
hand once more. I wanted to thank him for the part he has taken lately in the 
Jewish Tailors' Strike, and for putting out his strong arm to aid the weak and 
oppressed. He has always been most kind and courteous to me, and I send him my 
grateful remembrances, and also to his wife.' 

I can only thank you again for your sympathy. It will be a great comfort to us 
hereafter to know how many people love my father. There is no change to-day — 
the weakness must increase. — I remain, dear Mr. Mayor, yours very sincerely, 

Violet Oakley." 

On the 1 8th, a meeting of the City Council was held 
under the presidency of Alderman Mark. The principal 
business was the proposed extension of the approach to 
Smithfield Market, and Alderman Roberts moved the 
adoption of the report of the Markets Committee. 

"The Mayor read the two memorials referred to by Mr. Alderman Roberts. 
The first, he said, contained 70 signatures, and the second 103. The text of the first 
has already been published. The memorialists in the second case expressed 
approval of the Markets Committee's scheme on the ground that it would provide 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 103 

for a better approach to and from the market for the heavy traffic of the various 
carriers and farmers, which had been long felt and too long delayed. The widening 
of Whittle Street would supply that want, giving a short access to the centre of the 
ground occupied by the various salesmen and wholesale dealers. There could be no 
doubt that the extension could be carried out at much less cost on the eastern than 
on the western side of Oak Street, as suggested, the cost of land being double in the 
latter area than the former. The memorialists believed that any extension towards 
Thomas Street would increase the evils which the improvement was intended to 
remedy, viz., the obstruction to shopkeepers and business people in the vicinity of 
the market ; whilst by extending in an easterly and north-easterly direction they 
obviated this evil, and carried the market in the direction which would supply good 
standing room for the vehicles of buyers visiting the market from the out-townships, 
viz., Oldham Road, Cable Street, Cross Street, &c." 

An amendment was proposed referring the proposal 
back for further consideration. 

"The Mayor supported the original motion. He said he had given this question 
considerable attention. He had visited the site, and he had no hesitation whatever 
in giving his verdict in favour of the proposition of the Markets Committee. It was 
the most sensible improvement that could be effected at the present time. The 
Markets Committee had not had the happiest time in the past, and they did not 
want to put a scheme before the Council which would subject them to any reproach. 
Their scheme came forward as the result of very serious consideration. If anyone 
would visit the market they would see that it was confined by a very high wall on 
the Oak Street and Edge Street side, while it was perfectly open in the direction of 
comparatively inferior property opposite the market itself. The most convenient 
plan was, therefore, to continue the long avenue through Whittle Street. The 
scheme was not as bold as some might have wished, but the Markets Committee 
had had the satisfaction for a long time of handing over a handsome surplus towards 
the reduction of the rates, and they were anxious not to launch into a large and 
expensive scheme before they knew what the effect of the Ship Canal would be upon 
the produce markets of the city. However those markets might be affected, they 
could not reduce the growth of the market produce of the southern portion of 
Manchester. The vehicles conveying the produce from the southern districts would 
have to get to Shudehill somehow, and if they did not go down Oldham Street they 
must go down a much more congested thoroughfare, namely, a portion of Market 
Street as far as High Street. He himself thought very little of the congestion in 
Oldham Street. It was the duty of the Council to effect the greatest possible 
convenience with the least possible disturbance, and at the least possible cost. He 
had no hesitation in advising the Council to adopt the scheme brought forward by 
the Markets Committee." 

A special meeting of the Manchester City Council 
was held on the 21st, for the purpose of conferring the 



io 4 MAYORALTY, 1889-90. 

honorary freedom of the city on Mr. H. M. Stanley. 
The Aldermen and Councillors were nearly all present, 
as well as a few privileged persons. The Mayoral chair 
was prettily decorated, on a raised platform, and seats 
were reserved on the platform for Mr. Oliver Heywood, 
the Mayoress, and the members of the Mayor's family. 
Alderman John Mark, the Mayor, and Mr. W. H. Talbot, 
the Town Clerk, were in full official robes. 

"The Mayor, addressing Mr. Stanley, then said: I esteem it a great privilege 
that it devolves upon me as Mayor to present to you, on behalf of my fellow-citizens, 
the honorary freedom of the City of Manchester, as a token of our high appreciation 
of your distinguished services in your explorations in Central Africa. Although no 
words of mine can give additional lustre to your great achievements, the occasion 
requires that I should briefly supplement the resolution which has been inscribed 
upon the roll conferring the freedom of the city. In the first place, I would express 
the hope that it may be enhanced in your estimation by the fact that in this great 
municipality this distinction has only been granted on one previous occasion. Mr. 
Oliver Heywood, the distinguished visitor referred to, is now present. You have 
already been for several months in this country, and some of the incidents and 
results of your last remarkable expedition have been communicated to the public by 
your speeches and letters, yet it may be said with truth that the public enthusiasm 
and interest are unabated, and although this is not the only occasion on which you 
have recently received the highest honour which it is in the power of municipalities 
to bestow, yet we feel assured that a similar honour has never been conferred with 
greater cordiality. As you are doubtless aware, the City of Manchester is the 
centre of a large manufacturing and commercial district, embracing, within a radius 
of twenty-five miles from this chamber, not less than twenty-six municipal boroughs 
and a population of several millions of people. In this large industrial community 
your career and achievements have naturally awakened the deepest interest, and I 
venture to say that nowhere has news in regard to your movements been looked for 
with greater interest, or the successive stages of your progress been watched with 
greater anxiety, than here. If Manchester and Lancashire hold their supremacy in 
their great industries, as we intend they shall do, there is no part of her Majesty's 
dominions more interested in the inevitable outcome of your great work. The 
graphic accounts of your travels presented by you to the world will form an 
enduring record of your indomitable courage and the successful prosecution of a 
great and perilous enterprise in the exploration of the River Congo, and tracing its 
course from the interior of Africa to the Atlantic Ocean. The native races among 
whom you travelled so long have found in you a friend indeed, who has raised a 
powerful voice in calling public attention to their sufferings and miseries in a manner 
that has deeply impressed the whole civilised world. It cannot be doubted that the 
representations which you have so forcibly made upon this subject will influence a 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 105 



vigorous and humane policy towards those tribes, and we trust that the objects you 
so strongly advocate and so earnestly desire may be speedily accomplished. We 
hope that the recognition of your eminent services which the City of Manchester has 
the pleasure of giving in the proceedings of to-day may in some degree inspire and help 
forward your efforts to civilise and to benefit the native races of Africa. Time would 
not permit, and any language which I can command would fail adequately to express 
our feelings of wonder and admiration at the revelations of your last expedition in the 
Dark Continent, from which we all rejoice that you have returned in health and 
safety. In concluding these remarks, permit me to hold out to you the right hand of 
fellowship from the citizens of Manchester, with a cordial welcome, and to ask your 
acceptance of the freedom of this city, and at the same time to express our best 
wishes for your long life and happiness. 

The Mayor then presented to Mr. Stanley the address of the Corporation, 
contained in a silver-gilt casket, amid hearty applause." 

In the afternoon, Mr. Stanley was entertained at 
luncheon in the banqueting chamber of the Town Hall, 
by the Mayor, with whom were present Mrs. Mark, Miss 
Mark, Miss Florence Mark, and Mrs. F. Lee. After 
luncheon the usual loyal toasts were honoured. 

"The Mayor then proposed the health of their distinguished guest, Mr. Stanley. 
The City of Manchester, he said, had through its corporate representatives that 
morning, by the powers given to it, presented the freedom of the city for distinguished 
services to Mr. Stanley. Their feelings of satisfaction in the accomplishment of 
that object were, he thought, unanimous, and he expressed not only his own feelings 
but theirs when he said that they, wished him in his future career every good wish, 
and that they connected with that wish the estimable lady who in the near future 
would become the Tennant of his future existence for better or for worse, and 
they very much wished that the better might in a large degree prevail. It was 
not his wish, and he was sure it was not theirs, to overtax the energies and the 
patience of Mr. Stanley, in the recognition of the honours which they desired to heap 
upon him in Manchester in no small degree. They did not expect from him, unless 
it were his particular wish to delight them with his eloquence, any reply to that 
simple toast, because they felt that he had very handsomely responded to the addresses 
which were presented to him that morning. Indeed they were thankful after his long 
tour in Scotland to have him there at all looking so well as he was. He had watched 
with much interest, and had been very much surprised that in Scotland they had not 
claimed Mr. Stanley as a countryman. That was really astonishing, and he was 
sure they would all feel it that they had not claimed Mr. Stanley as a Scotchman. 
Well, he did not care where he came from — he was a very good fellow. The time 
was very limited, and they could very well understand, after the exhaustion of a 
lengthened speech on the previous night and that morning, Mr. Stanley's recuperative 
power should be somewhat considered. He (the Mayor) thought it was good for him 



106 MAYORALTY, 1889-90. 

to have a little sea air, and accordingly he had made arrangements with the directors 
of the Ship Canal to take him for a short trip over the canal course. Of course that 
was entirely relaxation and rest, for which Mr. Stanley had been pleading that 
morning. There was one subject that was very near to Mr. Stanley's heart besides 
that to which he had previously alluded, and it was that a steamer should be placed 
on the Lake Victoria Nyanza for the use of missionary enterprise. It would cost 
£5,000, and towards that £1,000 had already been contributed, and if one could 
excite any of their sympathies in this direction he would be very glad. Mr. Stanley 
was very much in earnest about the value of missionary enterprise in Central Africa, 
and if any of them felt disposed to 'hedge a bit,' they might very well contribute to 
this good purpose. He proposed to them with all heartiness, as representing the 
cordiality of Manchester, 'The health and happiness of Mr. Stanley.' " 

At the conclusion of the luncheon, Mr. Stanley made 
a short tour of inspection of the Manchester Ship Canal 
works. In the evening the Town Hall was crowded at a 
brilliant reception, some 1,300 persons having accepted 
the Mayor's invitation. 

On the 24th, Mrs. Mark opened, at Higher Broughton, 
a private sale of work in aid of the Manchester and 
Salford Ladies' Sanitary Association ; and on the follow- 
ing day, at St. John's Parade, a sale of work in aid of the 
Manchester Mission Refuge. 

On the 2nd July, 1890, a meeting was held at the 
Barnes Home Industrial Schools, Heaton Mersey, the 
occasion being the annual distribution of prizes to the 
boys, Mr. Mark and family being present. 

" The Mayor of Manchester said there could be no doubt that the exceedingly 
satisfactory reports to which they had listened must be gratifying to all interested in 
the work of the schools. To those who, like himself, could take a glance back for a 
period of, say, fifty years, it spoke eloquently of progress made, and when they 
remembered that boyhood comprised the happiest days of one's life it was pleasant 
to think that these lads were so well cared for. Not only had the health of the 
Home during 1889 been good, but there had through the year been no death. The 
percentage of passes he thought extraordinary. With regard to those boys who had 
left the school the report was also very satisfactory. Out of 298 who had left the 
school, 260 had done so during the last three years, and were doing well. He was 
glad that the managers had introduced farm work into the duties of the boys. It 
was not only a sound, healthy occupation, but one in which work could easily be 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 107 

found in many of our colonies. From the result of his own visits to the United 
States he knew that in that part of America there was plenty of room, and it might 
truthfully be said that they were waiting for such lads as were here trained in Canada 
and elsewhere. Therefore he not only congratulated the Committee, but would 
remind the boys that there was a grand future for them if they would only continue 
to do their duty. The farm connected with the institution was eighty-three and a. 
half acres in extent, and while the lessons in agricultural work would be so useful, 
they must at the same time hope that agricultural pursuits would not strain the 
finances of the Home to too great an extent. £500 would be wanted for the various 
purposes of stock and tillage on the farm, and help was therefore urgently needed. 
Surely the appeal required no more than the bare mention. The institution had a 
noble founder, and should be nobly supported. . With regard to the proposed new 
bill dealing with industrial schools, he thought that while it was a good feature that 
the time for supervision over these lads was extended from sixteen to eighteen years 
of age, it would be a mistake to take the schools out of the hands of the School 
Boards and place them under the charge of the County Councils as was proposed. 
The School Boards had had control of these industrial schools now for twenty years, 
and the general result had been good, while the County Councils were not so fitted 
in the various degrees of oversight to undertake what was eminently School Board 
work. Concluding, the Mayor urged the lads always to entertain a high and proper 
sense of duty, and wished them in the future health, progress and prosperity. The 
Mayor then distributed the prizes, which were 140 in number — sixteen for scholastic 
work, thirty-four industrial, fourteen special prizes, and seventy-five for good 
conduct." 

On the same day, a meeting of the City Council was 
held. The subject of the destruction of dogs cropped up, 
and the muzzling order generally. 

"The Mayor said the process of drowning as carried on at the city pound was as 
expeditiously and perfectly performed as it could be. The cage in which the dogs 
were enclosed was completely immersed under the water in something less than two 
seconds, the bubbling of air from the bodies of the dogs ceased in less than a minute, 
and all consciousness must have gone from the animals in less than half a minute. 
He had no hesitation whatever in recommending the Committee to continue the 
present practice in Manchester, until, perhaps, science would furnish a shorter and 
more expeditious death by electricity. He thought they would not be wise in 
adopting the lethal chamber. It produced upon those who witnessed its operation 
the most painful sensation." 

"The Mayor, referring again to the visit to the Dogs' Home at Battersea, said 
his remarks had reference only to the lethal chamber, and to the unpleasant 
impression its operation made upon their minds. The dogs at the Home were well 
cared for by the superintendent and his assistants. They had fine kennels and were 
treated as pets, and everything was as clean, orderly, and humane as possible." 



108 MAYORALTY, 1889-90. 

After this, Mr. A. E. Lloyd made a complaint 
against Mr. Chesters Thompson, in reference to matters 
of seats at the reception of Mr. Stanley. 

"The Mayor said that, notwithstanding the justification given by Mr. Thompson, 
they all knew his action was quite irregular. If the Reception Committee or the 
Mayor had been asked to make room for two or three friends of a member of the 
Council it would have been done, but not on the floor of the house. The action 
referred to was quite irregular, and if multiplied by seventy-six it might be very 
inconvenient." 

Saturday afternoon, the 5th, was devoted to the open- 
ing of the baths erected by the legatees of Sir Joseph 
Whitworth, in Ashton Old Road, Openshaw. In opening 
the proceedings, the Mayor (Alderman John Mark), who 
was well received, said : — 

" He wished at once to acknowledge the compliment which had been paid to him 
as the Mayor of Manchester, by the Whitworth Legatees and by the Openshaw 
Local Board. It was an excellent omen of the mutual understanding which would 
exist between Openshaw and Greater Manchester in the future. Openshaw and its 
industries were part of the outcome and overflow of the great City of Manchester, to 
which they were all proud to belong. That interesting ceremony was a fitting 
recognition of the obligations which genius and capital owed to labour. Labour 
would be of small avail if it were not for genius, as exemplified in the late Sir Joseph 
Whitworth, and the capital which genius commanded- -but, on the other hand, 
genius and capital would be of small avail if it were not for the intelligence and 
industry of the artizan population, of which Openshaw was so largely composed. 
The result of these many obligations in this instance, as in many others, was that 
genius and capital became enriched, as they deserved to be enriched ; and it was a 
very becoming recognition of the riches and prosperity that the Whitworth legatees 
were now about to endow and enrich the artizans of Openshaw with magnificent 
baths. He was a stickler for the independence of the working men, and held that 
what the working men could do for themselves others should not do for them, but 
there were certain things working men as individuals could not enjoy, which were 
conducive to their health and well-being, and such were the magnificent public 
baths about to be presented to Openshaw. He had had the privilege of seeing the 
baths in the company of their respected friend Mr. Darbishire, and anything more 
complete in the shape of baths he did not think existed in the world. They had 
been finished almost regardless of expense, and he hoped that the people of the 
district would enjoy them in the fullest sense. In November, should the provisional 
order of the Local Government Board be confirmed by Parliament, Openshaw 
would become a part of the Greater Manchester, and he felt sure that the people of 
the district would have no cause to complain of the transfer. The Whitworth baths 




r ^ 



- 



^ 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 109 



would then come under the jurisdiction of the Baths Committee of the City 
Corporation, and he could safely say they would always be carried on in the same 
manner and for the same objects as were contemplated by the Whitworth legatees. 
No less than 360,000 people annually used the four baths already belonging to the 
citizens of Manchester ; the number in the winter months, when few of the baths 
were open, being 82,500." 

We find the names of Mr. and Mrs. Mark amongst 
the company present at the marriage of Mr. H. M. 
Stanley to Miss Dorothy Tennant, on the 12th. 

On the 17th, the inaugural proceedings in connection 
with the Whitworth Institute took place. The Governors 
of the Institute proceeded, at three o'clock, to the large 
tent erected near Grove House, and they invited Alder- 
man Mark to take the chair. Besides -the Governors 
there were present, on the platform, the Marquis of 
Hartington, M.P., Sir Frederick Leighton, Bart., P.R.A., 
SirW. H. Houldsworth, Bart., M.P., Sir Charles Robinson, 
Mr. B. Robinson (Mayor of Salford), Mr. F. J. Headlam, 
Mr. T. R. Wilkinson, Mrs. Mark and her three daughters 
(Mrs. Fred. Lee, Miss Mark, and Miss F. Mark). Follow- 
ing upon this, in the evening, the Mayor and Corporation 
gave a banquet at the Town Hall, in honour of the 
occasion, over which the Mayor presided. After the 
usual loyal toasts had been honoured, 

"The Mayor then proposed 'The residuary legatees of the late Sir Joseph Whit- 
worth (Lady Whitworth, Chancellor Christie, and Mr. R. D. Darbishire).' In doing 
so, he said that residuary legatees were often the very happy persons who came in for 
a large share of the estate that had been left. But these legatees came in for a large 
share of the onerous trust which had been submitted to them to adequately discharge 
the intentions of the testator in the application of a large amount of accumulated 
wealth. Many considerations must have weighed with these gentlemen in adequately 
discharging the great trust which they had accepted. Fortunately for the city of 
Manchester, the legatees of the late Sir Joseph Whitworth had decided, and he 
thought very wisely, after that assiduous and careful consideration, to confer upon 
the citizens of Manchester, especially of the middle-class and working-class of the 
community of Manchester, the benefits at their disposal. The name of Sir Joseph 
Whitworth was of world-wide reputation, and required no eulogy from him, and it 



no MAYORALTY, 1889-90. 



would ill become him to make any attempt to set before them the grand qualities of 
that great man. His genius, his industry, led to great success and the accumulation 
of a great fortune, but he never forgot the obligations which he owed to the working 
man, and he had by the disposal of his property given strong evidence of his desire 
to elevate in every possible way the intelligent artisan population of their great city. 
Sir Joseph Whitworth found in his youth the engineer's workshop equipped with 
primitive implements. What did they find at the conclusion of his labours ? There 
were representatives of his firm then present who would with the greatest equanimity 
tell them how to weigh the earth and to calculate the motion of the sun. One was 
impressed in going through those wonderful works with admiration, and almost with 
reverence, for the genius which had created them. They were highly gratified by 
the presence of two of Sir Joseph Whitworth's legatees in the persons of Chancellor 
Christie and Mr. R. D. Darbishire, and he held in his hand a note from Lady Whitworth 
expressing her regret that the state of her health prevented her from leaving home 
and the sincere pleasure which it would have given her to be present. He felt that 
Manchester owed great obligations to the legatees of Sir Joseph Whitworth for the 
great benefits which in their wisdom they had seen fit to confer upon the community. 
He could not estimate the importance of the inauguration of the Whitworth Institute 
in which they had taken part that day, and he could only hope that the great men 
with which their district was very plentifully supplied, would take to heart the 
obligations they owed to the great community in which they lived. He wished with 
all cordiality long life and happiness to the legatees of the late Sir Joseph Whitworth, 
with a desire that they might for many years to come live to cherish and support 
and guide and direct the great works which they had initiated. He thanked the 
legatees particularly on behalf of the great working classes for the benefits they had 
conferred in providing the Whitworth Park — one of the most delightful resorts for 
recreation that Manchester possessed. He proposed in all sincerity and heartiness 
the health of the residuary legatees of the late Sir Joseph Whitworth, coupling with 
it the names of Chancellor Christie and Mr. Darbishire. 

The Marquis of Hartington and Sir Frederick Leighton, who are the guests of 
the Mayor and Corporation, occupied the State apartments of the Town Hall last 
night, and will to-day leave for London." 

On the 17th, the Manchester City Council met at the 
Town Hall, the Mayor presiding. The principal business 
was the discussion of a question as to whether chairmen 
of permanent committees should occupy that position 
more than three years in succession. 

"The Mayor said he was unwilling to occupy their time in discussing this 
matter, but he objected both to the amendment and to the resolution. He did not 
think any case had been made out that this would lead to any improvement in the 
selection of either chairman or deputy-chairman, or the management of the business 
of the Corporation. If his own experience had not brought him to that conclusion, 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. in 

the speeches of Mr. Rawson and Sir John Harwood would have been sufficient to 
bring him to it. There was already a standing order that no member should be 
chairman of two committees, and he did not see that any case had been made out 
that they should tie their hands, or the committees should tie their hands in the 
selection of the best men to fill these positions. Why should they put aside the 
long experience of members of that Council who might have been there twenty, 
thirty, or even fifty years. The chairman and deputy-chairman were usually 
selected from the fact that they had a great deal of experience in some department 
of the Corporation work, and not only so, but that they were at a time of life and a 
position when they could afford to give their time unstintingly for the public service. 
A great number of members of that Council had been induced to become the 
representatives of various wards by a feeling that for many years to come their 
membership would not be a very great tax upon their time. He had not heard in 
the speeches which had been delivered any reason for tying the hands of the 
Council. To his mind the ordinary decay of years removed their services quite fast 
enough, and left sufficient room for promotion. In these circumstances he objected 
to any change." 

On the 18th, the Mayor and Mayoress (Mr. and Mrs. 
Mark) entertained at dinner, in the Town Hall, Mr. 
Justice A. L. Smith and Mr. Justice Vaughan Williams, 
Her Majesty's Judges of Assize, and a numerous company. 

On 6th August, 1890, the Mayor of Manchester (Mr. 
Alderman Mark), who was accompanied by Mr. Maclure, 
M.P., had an interview with Mr. Stanhope, the Secretary 
for War, and presented to him a memorial urging the 
desirability of securing the Hulme Cavalry barrack site, 
when vacated, as an open space for drill and exercise 
purposes for the Volunteer regiments, and as an open 
space for that portion of Manchester. Among the docu- 
ments which the Mayor handed in, in support of the 
memorial, was the following communication : — 

" 2nd V.B. Manchester Regiment (late ist Manchester). 

Headquarters, 3, Stretford Road, Hulme, 

Manchester, 5th August, 1890. 

Sir, — We desire to draw your attention to a matter of considerable importance 

to the Volunteer force in this city, and to ask for your assistance. We find great 

difficulty in obtaining suitable places for battalion drills within a convenient distance 

from the centre of the city, which is an absolute necessity, our men being nearly all 



ii2 MAYORALTY, 1889-90. 

engaged at work and business till the last minute. The decision of the Government 
to remove the cavalry barracks from Hulme presents a favourable opportunity of 
acquiring an ' open space ' at a convenient distance, to be used as a drill and exercise 
ground by our Volunteer regiments. It seems to us that the Government might be 
induced to assist in this matter by granting the site at their disposal, or some 
sufficient part of it, if you, as Mayor of the city, would urge the necessity on their 
notice. We venture to hope that the great strength and well-maintained efficiency of 
the Volunteer forces in Manchester, extending over a period of more than thirty years, 
may be considered worthy of this great boon as some recognition of their loyalty and 
public spirit. We would also urge that on public grounds the Corporation might be 
asked to co-operate with the Government in this object, which would not only 
provide a drill and exercise ground for Volunteers, but also an open space in a 
crowded locality for the recreation of the people. Knowing the interest that you 
have already taken in the welfare of the Volunteer force, we venture to ask you for 
your influential support, and to be kind enough to fix a day for us to see you to urge 
the importance of this matter.-^ Yours obediently, 

Ralph Peacock, Colonel, Lieutenant Colonel commanding the 
Manchester Artillery. 

Robert Bridgford, Lieutenant Colonel commanding 2nd V.B. 
Manchester Regiment. 

Egerton Ellesmere, Lieutenant Colonel commanding 4th V.B. 
Manchester Regiment. 

Henry L. Rocca, Lieutenant Colonel commanding 5th (Ardwick) 
V.B. Manchester Regiment. 

A. Ledward, Hon. Major commanding 1st Cadet Battalion 

Manchester Regiment. 

Mr. Stanhope stated that the representations made by the Mayor would receive 

most careful consideration. He added that the Treasury would have to be consulted, 

but he hoped a decision would ultimately be come to which would commend itself 

to the inhabitants of Manchester." 

On the 3rd September, 1890, a meeting of the 
Manchester City Council was presided over by the 
Mayor, when the casket, supplied by Messrs. Elkington 
and Co., was exhibited, intended for the scroll conveying 
the freedom of the city for Mr. H. M. Stanley. A dis- 
cussion ensued upon the recommendations of the City 
Justices on the subject of "scuttling." 

"The Mayor said the disorderly conduct of some of the youths in the city was a 
matter of great regret to them. He could not, however, put the resolution to the 
Council without saying that any steps the Council might take would not be the 
direct result of the resolution of the city justices. The subject had been in the 
minds of the Council for some months past, the members conceiving that it was their 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 113 

bounden duty to try to provide some other place than the public streets for the 
evening recreation of young people, and he hoped that the experimental efforts they 
were about to make would receive the support of the Council." 

Following upon this, Alderman Roberts presented a 
report from the Markets Committee. 

"The Mayor seconded the adoption of the report. He said it was obvious that 
provision should be made for receiving the cargoes of live and dead meat which 
might be brought to the city along the Ship Canal. Although the Markets Com- 
mittee were asking for considerable powers, they were asking for no greater powers 
than were necessary for the purpose of acquiring suitable property." 

The next business before the Council was to receive 
the report of the Committee which had been appointed to 
consider the Technical Instruction Act. Apparently 
some friction had arisen on the subject of the grants 
made to the Technical School and the Board Schools. 

"The Mayor seconded the resolution. He said he hoped the Council would 
adopt the recommendations of the Committee. He did not look upon the letter of 
the Manchester School Board as seriously as Mr. Hoy did. Having got all they 
asked the School Board were fairly well satisfied, and it was only in view of favours 
to come that they had placed the letter before the members." 

On the 5th, the Mayor was called upon to distribute 
the prizes at Henshaw's Blind Asylum, Old Trafford, and 
was accompanied by the Mayoress and their daughter, 
Mrs. Fred. Lee ; Mr. Armitage presiding. 

" The prizes, to the number of about one hundred, having been distributed by 
the Mayor and Mayoress, the Mayor said that, as an old citizen of Manchester, he 
must express the pleasure he had derived from this his first visit to the Asylum. 
After having made a round of the institution, it was easy to understand that it was, 
as he had learned, one of the first in the country. They might as citizens of Man- 
chester congratulate themselves on having such an institution on their borders, open 
not only to people of all ages and all denominations, but also of almost every land. 
Its equipment was most gratifying. The workshops, schools, and exercise grounds 
were bright, open, and wholesome. He was glad to find that not only were the 
principles of elementary education taught in such a way as to bring the pleasure of 
mental relaxation within the scope of the blind, but that they also received that kind 
of technical training which would enable them to earn their livelihood by the exer- 
cise of their own industry. Blindness, fortunately, like other afflictions, had its 
compensations, and it did not affect mental vision. There were examples of men 
who had suffered in like manner to those there gathered who had yet risen to the 



ii4 MAYORALTY, 1889-90. 

highest positions in the country, and the inmates need therefore not be gloomy, but 
endeavour to get an idea of the brightest side of things. Turning to the occupants 
of the institution itself, he found there were igo inmates to be provided for, and it 
was absolutely necessary, therefore, to keep the needs of this Asylum in view. As 
to these inmates, he hoped the prizes which had just been given them would be a 
stimulus to further exertion and greater success. He heartily wished them all the 
prosperity that life could afford. Concluding, the Mayor again urged the claims of 
the institution on those who were willing to assist in its good work." 

The Manchester Guardian, of the 10th, contains the 
two following articles : — 

" The Mayoralty of Manchester. — An informal meeting of the Manchester 
City Council was held yesterday, in the Mayor's Parlour at the Town Hall, to con- 
sider the mayoralty for the coming municipal year. Mr. Alderman Heywood presided, 
and there was rather a small attendance of members. It was unanimously resolved 
that the Mayor (Mr. Alderman Mark) be requested to fill the office for a second year. 
Mr. Alderman Windsor and Mr. A. E. Lloyd were appointed to make the necessary 
arrangements for a formal requisition. The Mayor, we understand, is willing to 
accept an unanimous invitation." 

"The Manchester City Council have done well in deciding to ask Mr. John Mark 
to occupy the Mayoral chair for a second year, and we are sure that the citizens will 
be gratified if he accepts the invitation. The position is one of dignity and honour, 
but it is also one which makes very serious demands upon the time, energy, and 
purse of its holder. It is one of the healthiest signs of English public life that so 
many men are to be found ready and willing to discharge the honorary duties that 
belong to the organisation of civic rule and of philanthropic effort. True, when the 
number of those really carrying on the business of the government of the city — using 
the word government in its widest sense, and including in it all organised effort for 
the public good — is compared with the enormous number who take no active part in 
the work, the discrepancy is somewhat startling ; but, after all, this should rather 
heighten our gratitude to those who, if they do not exactly ■ scorn delights and live 
laborious days,' at least are willing to give a cheerful tithe of their time and talent 
for the benefit of the common weal. Certainly if we hope to increase the number of 
public-spirited citizens, it must be by showing gratitude for the services of those we 
already possess, and by giving them the honour that is fairly their due. In a com- 
munity like Manchester there is ample room for the services of all who desire to 
help the public good. Mr. Mark has a record in civic work to which he can point 
with just pride, and the courtesy and dignity with which he has discharged the 
heavy and responsible duties incumbent upon the occupier of the civic chair, have 
certainly won golden opinions from his fellow-citizens, who feel that in a second term 
the energy and administrative capacity of the city would be worthily represented." 

We see also that Alderman Mark had caused to 
be erected in the Town Hall corridor a receptacle for 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 115 

newspapers, periodicals, etc., intended for charitable 
distribution. 

On the nth, the Queen's prizes, awarded in the 
Science and Art examinations in connection with the 
Manchester School Board, were distributed in the Town 
Hall by the Mayor. After a speech by Mr. Herbert 
Birley, the Chairman of the Board, 

" The Mayor, who was cordially received, said the business they had in hand that 
morning was one in which they all felt the greatest possible interest, and it was 
gratifying to find that the classes in which the prizes had been gained were the 
largest in the country. On looking through the prospectus he found that the system 
of continuation classes provided in the city was of the most elaborate kind. Self- 
culture was now within the reach of everyone in Manchester, and greater facilities 
in this direction were offered year by year. The advantages enjoyed by the youths 
and girls of the present time were enormously in advance of anything within his 
reach in his young days, and they sincerely hoped that the result would be a marked 
improvement upon the fortunes of the city. As far back as thirty years ago employers 
set the example of establishing schools and institutes round their great works, but in 
those days this was the exception and not the rule. An immense advance on these 
lines had now been made, and it was most important that young people should 
rightly estimate the strides that had been taken. The mere reception of a prize for 
conspicuous ability in any subject was not the ultimate object of the donors of the 
prize, but was intended to stimulate the receiver to make greater exertions in the 
future. Students, after passing the elementary stage, should choose some of the 
various branches of education for the closest application ; it was no use attempting 
to cram themselves with too many subjects. He wished more particularly to refer 
to the commercial side of the education which was within the reach of young people, 
and would dwell with special emphasis upon the usefulness of acquiring a knowledge 
of modern languages. There was nothing in which men of his own generation were 
so deficient, as compared, for instance, with the Germans, as in their knowledge of 
modern languages, and consequently they were placed at a great advantage indeed. 
If an English manufacturer had anything to introduce to purchasers on the Continent 
he would, in all probability, have to employ a German as salesman, and that was a 
position of affairs which should not be allowed to continue. Many subjects, 
especially for girls, could also be studied with advantage in the evening classes of 
the Manchester School Board. Reverting again to boys, the Mayor spoke of the 
enormous saving of time which a thorough knowledge of mental arithmetic secured, and 
said he hoped this branch of study received the most careful attention. Concluding, 
he strongly advised young people to begin the practice of thrift as early as they could. 
However slender their earnings might be, he counselled them to live within their 
income and to save a little. This course would teach them to rely on their own 
strength and their own resources, and would bring a great advantage in its train, as 
men were very ready to push along those who seemed to be going along without help." 



n6 MAYORALTY, 1889-90. 

The Examiner and Times, of the 17th, announces the 
presentation to the Mayor and Mayoress of two hand- 
some albums, containing from 150 to 160 portraits of the 
children who were present at the Juvenile Ball, given in 
January of this year, and we copy the article. 

"A pleasant and interesting gathering, arising out of the children's fancy dress 
ball given by the Mayor and Mayoress of Manchester in January last, took place in 
the Mayor's private drawing room at the Town Hall yesterday afternoon. On the 
occasion of the ball, the Mayor (Mr. Alderman Mark) expressed a strong desire to 
obtain, as a souvenir of the occasion, as many photographs of the children present as 
was possible. The happy idea was taken up by a number of the parents of the 
children, with the result that two handsome albums, containing from 150 to 160 
portraits, were prepared. These were presented to the Mayoress yesterday. Among 
the ladies and gentlemen present were the Mayor and Mayoress, the Misses Mark, 
Miss Emily Faithfull, Mr. W. S. Boddington, Mr. C. Malcolm Wood, Mr. Thomas 
Craven, and Mr. C. S. Wilson. After Mr. Boddington had explained the nature of 
the gift, the albums were presented to the Mayoress by Miss Mabel Wood. Mrs. 
Mark briefly thanked the ladies and gentlemen concerned for so pleasant a gift, and 
the Mayor also acknowledged the present. The formal proceedings were then closed. 
Those desirous of inspecting these mementos of the ball will be afforded an oppor- 
tunity of doing so on the occasion of the next ' At home ' given by the Mayoress. 
The albums were choicely bound by Messrs. Palmer and Howe, of Princess Street, 
in this city." 

On the evening of the 19th, the Mayor attended 
the Opening Soiree of the Manchester Association of 
Elocutionists, held in the Memorial Hall, Albert Square, 
when — 

" The Mayor, in response to the chairman's appeal for a few words, said he believed 
he would at once break every condition which had been laid down by the President 
of the association. He was there to show the interest he took in the work of self- 
improvement in which the members were engaged. There was something due to 
those who listened to a public speaker. When one addressed himself to the public 
he ought not to make it an effort on the part of others to hear or to understand. 
People who endeavoured to speak with their teeth and lips closed, and who muttered 
their words in an inaudible manner, were greatly at fault. The throat, as well as 
the tongue and the palate, ought to assist the lips in giving a distinct accentuation 
and force to the language, so that the words of the speaker might be distinctly heard. 
He believed one of the greatest charms in Mr. Gladstone's eloquence was in his lip 
action, and in his not attempting to speak with his mouth closed. Proceeding to 
speak of his own efforts to educate himself, the Mayor remarked that when he first 
came to Manchester he was engaged as an assistant in a shop, in which there were 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 117 



six or seven other young men. They were not unmindful of the necessity of self- 
improvement. They criticised leading articles in the Times, and shorthand, French, 
and music were attempted. They had no such time or opportunities as were now 
afforded to young people. Not the least important part of their study would be that 
of English literature, in prose and in verse, and they should practise elocution. By 
improving themselves in elocution they would do mufch to improve their mental 
faculties, and would gain a great deal of information. A great deal of time was 
wasted in newspaper reading, and he was one who was guilty in that respect. After 
a hard day's work, he confessed that, instead of taking up a, good book, one was 
exceedingly apt to take recreation in the newspaper — and something to it, not to be 
described. The Mayor was cordially thanked for his presence, and a programme of 
recitals was then rendered." 

We print below two leading articles, both of the 26th, 
and representing the two extremes of the political 
weather-cock. The first is from the Manchester Courier 
(Conservative), the second from the Manchester Examiner 
and Times (Radical). 

" Mr. Alderman John Mark will be Mayor of Manchester for another year. A 
requisition, representing practically the unanimous wish of the Council, was pre- 
sented to him yesterday, asking him to consent to his re-election, and he consented. 
The proceeding will give general satisfaction, Mr. Mark having, during the present 
municipal year, discharged the duties of the office of chief magistrate in such a 
manner as to earn the approval and admiration of the entire community. He has 
not been a time-serving Mayor, but has performed the functions appertaining to the 
office with conspicuous ability, impartiality, and distinction. There have been 
occasions on which a weaker man would have given way to clamour, occasions when 
considerations of personal ease would have led to the perfunctory discharge of the 
duties devolving upon him ; but Mr. Mark has proved himself to be superior to all 
this, and prepared to act without fear or favour. The manly dignity which has 
characterised him during his mayoralty, his readiness to put personal considerations 
in the background for the sake of promoting the interests of the community, have 
produced a highly gratifying impression on all hands, and if there is matter for sur- 
prise at all, it is not that he should have been requested to continue in office for 
another year, but that he should have consented to do so. It is certainly a dis- 
tinction of which any citizen might well be proud, bufit is a distinction which calls 
for self-sacrifices of no ordinary kind. Those sacrifices Mr. Alderman Mark is 
prepared to make, and we have no doubt whatever that he will continue so to 
discharge the duties of the office as to deepen the sense of obligation under which 
the city now feels towards him. Every credit is due to him for the able and effective 
manner in which he has sustained the honour and dignity of the city, for the deep 
personal interest he has displayed in the advancement of its welfare and prosperity, 
and we are glad the members of the Council have availed themselves of the 



n8 MAYORALTY, 1889-90. 

opportunity which re-election affords of marking their sense of the value of his 
services, and that he has acceded to their solicitations to retain the Mayoralty for 
another year, though the responsibilities and difficulties of the office will, it is 
expected, be even more important and onerous than during the municipal year 
now coming to a close." 

" Honour to whom honour is due. Yesterday the Manchester City Council, 
in unanimously requesting Alderman Mark to accept the Mayoralty of Manchester 
for another term, cleverly succeeded in enlarging the meaning of the old epigram. 
Not only is honour due to the Mayor for the conspicuously able and dignified 
manner in which he has discharged the innumerable and onerous duties pertaining 
to the high office of Chief Magistrate of one of the most important cities of the 
Kingdom, but in performing those duties he has exhibited so many excellencies 
and goodnesses of head and heart, that those who asked him once more to accept 
the greatest honour which a city can confer upon one of its members honoured 
themselves in so acting. That the mass of the citizens will warmly endorse the 
decision of the Council, and be gratified by Mr. Mark's re-acceptance of the 
office, there can be no question. The Mayor has found out by practical experience 
that the duties of the Mayoralty of a city like Manchester, with its vast rami- 
fications of interests, and its hand, as it were, upon the business affairs of half 
the globe, demand great personal sacrifices, the possession of tact, acumen, 
knowledge, and strength of character of a degree beyond the usual, and an almost 
unlimited purse. There can be no wonder that he should have doubts about 
satisfying everybody, though it is not a little curious that those doubts should 
mainly relate to the question of eating and drinking. Why should the Mayor 
exercise his mind concerning the manner in which his hospitality has been dis- 
pensed ? To be royally hospitable is one of the chief duties — nay, privileges — 
which the office confers, and the privilege is enhanced by allowing the recipient 
to pay for it out of his own pocket. If it is fair to assume from the experience 
of Liverpool, where the hospitable proclivities of the Mayor are encouraged by 
a grant from the public purse, the annual expenditure of the Mayor of Manchester 
on hospitality cannot be less than £2,000. This, as Alderman Mark hints, is 
'lively music,' and not many will quarrel with his application of the Scotch 
proverb that ' those who pay the piper have a right to call the tune.' Whether 
he has ' called the tune ' or no, it has been a splendid one, and those who cast 
their minds back upon the many and magnificent public functions of the last 
twelve months will acknowledge that the Mayor has well sustained the honour 
of Manchester in this respect. In matters of serious business, his current year 
of office has been marked by the conclusion of one of the most important matters 
that have engaged the attention of the Council for years past. The amalgamation 
of the out-townships is practically a fait accompli, and next year Mr. Mark will 
have the high satisfaction of being the first Mayor of Greater Manchester." 

A public meeting was held in the Town Hall, on the 
26th, in furtherance of the work of the Recreative Evening 
Classes Committee, and was presided over by the Mayor. 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. n 9 



" The Mayor said he fully recognised the value of the work in which the Com- 
mittee was engaged, and he had to thank them for it. All who were engaged in the 
municipal government of a great city must recognise heartily and gratefully any work 
which gave occupation to boys and girls in the evenings. There was an old and 
often-quoted proverb, ' train a child in the way he should go, and when he is old he 
will not depart from it.' Its veracity was unquestionable, and so widely was it 
believed that philanthropic institutions now mainly directed their energies towards 
the culture of the young, in preference to concerning themselves about the welfare 
of adults. People were beginning more generally to accept the teaching which said 
that there was more chance of reclaiming the young than the old. With this im- 
pression, the Committee, which was formed of influential and representative ladies 
and gentlemen, had endeavoured to reach Poverty's offspring in order to teach the 
young some notion of their legitimate end in life. This function it had discharged to 
the present time with praiseworthy energy. It had, however, one serious obstacle 
to contend with in that it had not a sufficient number of assistants and teachers. 
Teachers had been obtained to give instruction in music, drill, and fancy basket 
working ; but next year there was a probability that the Committee would be in a 
position to have classes on other subjects. To increase the area of their influence, 
the Committee had determined to work in conjunction with those societies which 
were most closely engaged in the cultivation of the young. Together with the 
Ragged School Union, they had resolved to hold classes and give entertainments at 
the Ragged Schools, as well as in several large important centres around Manchester. 
Printed information concerning the objects and action of the Committee had been 
extensively circulated, whilst by a large correspondence in the newspapers they had 
urged the desirability of promoting continuous education. The difficulties with 
which the Committee had to contend were very great. The boys who at present 
lounged about our street corners at night would one day be a factor in the ruling of 
the country. To increase the welfare of the nation these lads must be induced to 
receive, and, if possible, to retain, instruction. By entering the clubs which the 
Committee had provided for their use, a healthful fund of learning and recreation 
was at their service. Lads all desired amusement in the first instance, and if they 
could not obtain it by the help of such resources, they were only too liable to search 
for it in places of questionable character. Perhaps one of the best means of attract- 
ing them lay in the gymnasium. Muscular exercise was receiving much attention 
nowadays, and the advent in one of the poorer quarters of the town of a gymnasium 
was rightly looked upon by the boys as a great boon. At the present time there was 
a great tendency to favour too much the cultivation of the intellect, whilst corporeal 
exercise was sadly neglected. The consequence was that boys were growing up 
weakly and undersized. The societies had therefore much to recommend them 
to public notice from that point of view. The introduction of sloyd into our educa- 
tional systems must, beyond all doubt, be advantageous in so far as it taught boys to 
handle tools. A lack of knowledge of tools was very common. There were adults 
who could not hammer a nail straight, or even attempt to do so without striking their 
fingers at the first blow. A slight knowledge of the trades was of great value to 
ordinary people ; and the educated people coming into contact with the poorer 
classes could not but improve their at present somewhat rude exterior and give them 



i2o MAYORALTY, 1889-90. 



some greater degree of refinement. The Committee had his fullest sympathy, for 
he felt certain that its work was such as would render most material benefit to the 
nation at large. In order to fully accomplish their mission, however, more teachers 
must be obtained, and it had been computed that about thirty more entertainments 
must be arranged for. Then again, the Committee was unfortunately hindered in the 
performance of its voluntary and praiseworthy duty owing to a lack of funds. That 
was, of course, the most serious matter of all. Many demands were made upon 
public generosity, but he was certain that this institution was worthy of support. 
The Corporation had turned its attention recently to the necessity for providing re- 
creation for the youth of the city, and places of amusement other than the public 
streets ; and they would assist voluntary effort as far as they could. He hoped the 
experiment the Corporation were about to make would have the effect of greatly 
■extending efforts of this kind. It was hardly to be expected that boys and girls who 
had been liberated from the fifth standard could remain idle about the streets with- 
out getting into mischief, and it seemed to him to be the duty of a great Corporation 
as far as it could to provide the means of recreation and healthful amusement." 

In addition to the two articles, already quoted, upon 
the election of Alderman John Mark, as Mayor, for a 
second year, we give another from the Grocers' Review 
of the 30th September. 

"The Manchester City Council has unquestionably done the right thing. So 
far as we have been able to gather, its members are not marked ordinarily by 
superlative wisdom; indeed, it would be unfair to expect exceptional ability from 
the members of so mixed an assembly, elected in so haphazard a way as are the 
gentlemen who compose our municipal bodies. Taking them all round, however, 
they are marked by an average amount of common sense, and a strong proportion 
of business insight and shrewdness. Under these circumstances it is only natural 
that they should like to have at their head a man of tact and judgment, trained 
in those business qualities which go to make up the successful trader, and the 
capable ruler in municipal and other public capacities. Few men, we take it, 
answer this description better than Mr. Alderman John Mark, whom his colleagues 
on the City Council have with great unanimity re-elected Mayor. Mr. Mark's 
training, as we had occasion to point out twelve months ago, has been essentially 
a commercial one. From his youth up his post has been in the shop, and in 
the building up and management of a great business he has displayed high qualities 
•of mind and temper. His first appointment as Mayor was, therefore, no cause for 
wonder. It was an absolutely clear case of ' the right man in the right place,' and 
if actual proof of this were needed by anyone, his now expiring year of office has 
afforded ample testimony. Possibly he has done even better than his friends 
expected. In the Council Chamber, clear, calm, dignified; outside our great 
municipal building, pleasant, affable, worthily upholding the traditions of his office, 
he has been eminently a successful first magistrate. With this record before 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 121 



them, it is not surprising that his colleagues should have asked him to continue 
in office for another year, and it is matter for congratulation that he has acceded 
to their wish. Mr. Mark appears to have some doubt as to whether he has 
succeeded in giving satisfaction in the matter of dispensing mayoral hospitality. 
We can quite understand that there may be some difficulty in the case. A mayor 
is sure to have hosts of friends — at any rate hosts of hospitality-loving acquaint- 
ances — and it may well be that some of them will imagine that a sufficient share 
of cakes and ale has not come their way. These acquaintances notwithstanding, 
we do not think the Mayor need fear for his reputation in the matter of 
hospitality. Certain we are of one thing, and that is that he has a crowd of 
loving little people who would sing his praises with no faltering voice. The happy, 
animated, brilliant appearance of the Town Hall on the memorable evening when 
the children had their fancy dress ball will not soon be forgotten by those who 
had the pleasure of taking a peep at it, nor, assuredly, will its memory quickly 
fade from the recollections of the merry children who danced away the sunny 
hours." 

A meeting of the Manchester City Council was held 
on the 1st October, 1890. 

"The Mayor stated that in consequence of the enlargement of the Council by 
the out-townships which will shortly come within the city, the Council Chamber 
would have to be reseated so as to accommodate 104 members. Authority was given 
to the Town Hall Committee to invite a few tenders from suitable contractors." 

"The Mayor moved the adoption of the report and recommendations of the 
Special Committee appointed to consider the consolidation of committees, in the 
absence of Alderman Sir John Harwood, whose medical adviser recommended him 
for the present to abstain from public speaking. The bearing of this report the 
Mayor explained at length. It was desired in future, he said, to avoid the over- 
lapping of jurisdiction and inspection in sanitary matters, and the Committee 
concluded unanimously that a Sanitary Committee should be formed. To this 
committee they would delegate the present duties of the Unhealthy Dwellings 
Committee, and of the Health and Nuisance Committees so far as they related to 
matters of health. Some portion of the Nuisance Committee's duties might perhaps 
be delegated to the Watch or other Committees, but nearly the whole of them would 
merge in the proposed Sanitary Committee. The remainder of the duties of the 
Health Committee were to be given to a body to be called the Cleansing Committee. 
The Paving Committee would be very much overloaded with work by the incorpora- 
tion of the large areas in the out-districts, and the Committee recommended that the 
present duties of that Committee as to the building plans and the new building 
by-laws should be transferred to the Improvement Committee. The Mayor added 
a recommendation of his-own that the name of this be Improvement and Buildings 
Committee. The duties of the Hackney Coach Committee should be transferred to 
the Watch Committee, on which it was proposed to appoint the members of the 
Hackney Coach Committee to form a Sub-committee. He proposed to eliminate a 



122 MAYORALTY, 1889-90. 

recommendation in the report to the effect that, ' in the first instance, not more than 
one councillor from any ward (except New Cross, which, being a double ward as 
regards representation, shall be entitled to two members) should be upon any com- 
mittee, so as to diffuse the representation as widely as possible.' " 

A long discussion ensued in regard to making the 
Mayor of the City an annual allowance. 

"The Mayor said that when Mr. Williams told him the purport of the resolution, 
he said personally he would prefer that nothing of the kind were done beyond the 
provision of carriages and horses for the Mayor. It should be their first considera- 
tion that the dignity and independence of their Mayor should be supported, and in 
his view, with the experience he had, so soon as they made an allowance towards the 
Mayor's hospitalities they would deprive the office of its dignity and the Mayor of 
his independence. There would arise, he was quite sure, a clamouring for and an 
expectation of invitations and disbursements to charities and bazaars and so forth 
which would be entirely unbearable, if it were known that the Mayor had an 
allowance from the City Funds." 

At the meeting of the Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion on the 6th, the prizes gained in the educational and 
athletic classes were distributed by Mr. and Mrs. Mark 
and Mr. Henry Lee, Mr. Herbert Philips occupying the 
chair. 

"The Mayor of Manchester said : I look with envy upon the present time, when 
the opportunities of improving the education are so good and so near at hand, as 
compared with what they were thirty or forty years ago, and I view with particular 
pleasure and satisfaction the very large attendance at this Association. I am sure 
the progress of the world towards domestic happiness, and everything that conduces 
to a good life, is fostered by this magnificent Institution. The great variety of 
subjects which have been chosen, and for which prizes have been distributed this 
evening, is exceedingly gratifying. Not the least is the excellent exhibition we have 
had of physical exercises. I have seen many assaults-at-arms, and I know a good 
deal about athletics, but I have never seen the performance more beautifully executed 
than to-night. I take for granted that those who are occupying themselves in 
physical exercises are also using other opportunities of improving their mental 
faculties, and that this is simply a little by-play to keep their superfluous energies 
under command. The most satisfactory part of the Institution is that in the last 
report you are able to give such a magnificent record of increasing strength and 
prosperity and usefulness. Not the least of the advantages of the Association is that 
young men coming fresh from the country meet with suitable associates, who will 
show them the right way, who will not lead them into mischief, and I commend the 
Institution on these grounds very strongly indeed." 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 123 



"The Mayoress of Manchester, Mrs. John Mark, accompanied by the Misses 
Mark and Mrs. Lee, held an 'At Home' on the ioth, at the Town Hall, when the 
Mayoress was visited by a very large number of ladies and gentlemen. The albums 
recently presented to the Mayoress, on behalf of the young people who attended the 
juvenile fancy dress ball last winter, containing photographs of the young people, 
were shown to the visitors." 

On the 14th, the Mayor was called upon to open a 
Bazaar, to provide funds to build a club for lads and 
working men, in connection with the Church of the Holy 
Name. 

" The Mayor opened the business. He expressed the gratification which it 
afforded him, on behalf of the Corporation, to give countenance and support to 
movements like the one now being proceeded with. The Corporation must be 
extremely grateful to all who grappled with the great duty of providing recreation 
and continuous education to young people. He was not one of those who would 
give everything to the working classes gratuitously ; but there were certain things 
which in their individual capacity the working classes could not obtain, and it was 
the duty of corporations to supply these wants. It was a very great satisfaction to 
those who had taken part in the development of this bazaar, that it aroused so much 
public enthusiasm. It could not be otherwise, for the zeal and enthusiasm of Father 
Vaughan were of a kindling and inspiriting character. He was sure that they were 
animated by the feeling that the sacrifices and efforts that Father Vaughan and 
others had put forth might meet with their due reward." 

This was followed by speeches from the Marquis of 
Ripon, Father Bernard Vaughan, and Mr. John Wm. 
Maclure, M.P. 

On the 15th, Sir Henry Isaacs, the Lord Mayor of 
London, and a number of representatives of Municipal 
Corporations, visited the Ship Canal works. In the 
evening the Mayor and Corporation of Manchester 
entertained, at the Town Hall, the Lord Mayor of 
London and a numerous company, Mr. Mark presiding. 
The usual loyal toasts were cordially accepted, and the 
evening was enlivened by the choir boys of the Cathedral, 
who occupied the Minstrels' Gallery. 



124 MAYORALTY, 1889-90. 

"The Mayor of Manchester, in proposing 'The Lord Mayor of London and 
municipal institutions,' said that out of the ancient charter of the city of London had 
sprung municipal institutions of healthy growth all over the United Kingdom. Men 
in high positions were ready to come forward and fulfil the high duties of citizenship 
which municipal government involved without fee or reward, and in the main their 
services were rendered with single-mindedness and resulted in great benefit to the 
community. He wished to express the great pleasure he had in seeing the Right 
Hon. C. T. Ritchie among them. To him they were indebted for an Act of 
Parliament which gave some trouble to municipal corporations; but he (the Mayor) 
hoped they would convince Mr. Ritchie that between county councils and the 
councils of county boroughs all financial difficulties could be adjusted; and, further, 
that those bodies would convince him that they were worthy of his confidence, and 
that he might extend a larger decentralising measure of self-government to municipal 
corporations and to county councils. He would that they could convince Mr. 
Ritchie what an enormous amount of good they could do if he would only let them 
have plenty of money on very easy terms. He (the Mayor) was sure that on the 
present occasion they would go very far to convince their right hon. guest that this 
was the case. To Sir James Fergusson he wished, as Mayor, to give expression of 
his sense of the great courtesy which Sir James had always extended to everything 
relating to Manchester, and to the assistance which he had ever rendered to the city. 
He did not forget that the affairs of the city received every attention from Sir 
William Houldsworth, Sir Henry Roscoe, Mr. Jacob Bright, and the other members 
for the city, but he had especial pleasure in acknowledging Sir James's services now 
that the hon. baronet was in their company. Concluding, the Mayor claimed that 
the Manchester Corporation had lent substantial aid in procuring the passing of the 
Manchester Ship Canal Bill. They expected that the canal would largely increase 
the prosperity of the manufactures and other industries of Lancashire, South 
Yorkshire, and Cheshire, and they noted with pleasure that the work was being 
prosecuted with a vigour which commanded universal admiration." 

We extract the following from the Manchester 
Examiner and Times of the 17th. 

"Yesterday the Lord Mayor of London (Sir Henry Isaacs) brought to a close 
his visit to this city. Mr. Sheriff Augustus Harris left Manchester by the midnight 
train for London on Wednesday, immediately after the municipal banquet. In 
the morning the Lord Mayor, Mr. Sheriff Farmer, and the Lord Provost of 
Glasgow, accompanied by the Mayor of Manchester (Mr. Alderman Mark) and 
the members of the Reception Committee — Mr. Alderman Heywood, Mr. Alderman 
Thompson, Mr. Alderman Hopkinson, and Councillors Milne and S. C. Thompson — 
visited the works of Sir Joseph Whitworth's Limited, the cotton mills of Messrs. 
Shaw, Jardine & Co., and the Royal Exchange. On returning to the Town Hall 
lunch was served, after which the Lord Provost left for Glasgow. The Lord 
Mayor and Sheriff Farmer, accompanied by the Mayor and Mayoress (Mrs. Mark), 
then visited the bazaar in aid of the clubs connected with the Church of the 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 125 



Holy Name, at the St. James's Hall, Oxford Street. This brought to a close 
the day's sight-seeing, and the visitors were shortly afterwards escorted by the 
Mayor and members of the Reception Committee to the London Road Station, 
from which the Lord Mayor and Sheriff Farmer left by the 5-30 London and 
North-Western train for Euston. Before leaving, both visitors expressed extreme 
satisfaction at the manner in which they had been received as the guests of the 
Mayor and Corporation during their short stay in this city." 

On the 17th, the Mayor occupied the chair at a 
meeting in the large room of the Town Hall, on the 
occasion of the presentation of prizes and certificates 
gained in the local examinations under the auspices of 
Trinity College, London. 

A meeting was held on the 21st, in the Mayor's 
Parlour, to listen to an address on Imperial Federation, 
by Mr. G. R. Parkin, Mr. Mark presiding. 

"The Mayor, in opening the proceedings, said that so far as he understood 
the objects of the Imperial Federation League he was entirely in accord with them, 
and had therefore had great pleasure in affording facilities for the holding of that 
meeting in Manchester. The objects of the League commended themselves very 
much to his approval, and they were, shortly put, to secure by federation the 
permanent unity of the Empire. The League had no politics, and in that respect 
commended itself to them. The Earl of Rosebery was the president, and Mr. 
Stanhope was vice-president, while the names of others showed at once that it 
was not confined to any particular element. There might be differences of opinion 
as to Imperial Federation; and some would go to a much greater length in the 
direction of commercial union and otherwise. In his opinion we could, with a 
fuller development of the mutual interests of Great Britain and her dependencies, 
be very much independent of the rest of the world. He would particularly suggest 
that we ought to have a very much cheaper communication, both by post and 
telegraph, with our dependencies. That matter had been on his mind for years. 
Whether we lost money or not, we ought to have a very cheap inter-communication 
with our own Colonies quite independently of the rest of the world." 

On the 25th, the Mayor was called upon to present 
to Mr. William Young, a testimonial, on vellum, granted 
by the Royal Humane Society, for saving the life of a 
little girl who had fallen into the Rochdale Canal. 

On the same day, the Mayor attended at the Town 
Hall to examine any objections or withdrawals of 



i 2 6 MAYORALTY, 1889-90. 

candidates for the City Council. Mr. A. D. Jackson took 
objection to the nomination paper of Mr. Cornelius Law, 
on the ground of mis-statement of address. 

"The Mayor, after looking through Mr. Law's nomination papers, said they 
numbered twelve, and had all been received in due and legal form. On one of 
them the place of abode was described as ' Hadden Lodge, Sale, and 25, Cross 
Street, Manchester.' The objection just handed in was made on the ground that 
this description was incorrect. The objection was signed ' A. D. Jackson,' and 
was dated ' 25th November,' although the month was actually October. — Mr. Law : 
I object also that it is not properly signed. 'A. D.' may mean anything. — The 
Mayor (after consultation with the Town Clerk) : I decide that the objection handed 
in by Mr. Jackson is not a good objection. — Mr. Jackson : May I ask on what 
grounds, Mr. Mayor ? — The Mayor replied that it was not for him to give any 
reason. All the nominations would stand good. — On the motion of Mr. Law a 
vote of thanks was passed to the Mayor for his attendance." 

On the 28th, Mr. and Mrs. H. M. Stanley visited 
Manchester, and were received on the platform by 
Alderman and Mrs. Mark, and escorted to the Mayor's 
carriage. On arriving at the main entrance of the Town 
Hall, the Mayor and Mayoress and their guests alighted, 
and were met by the members of the Mayor's family, as 
well as other invited guests, including the Mayors of 
several neighbouring towns. The object of Mr. and Mrs. 
Stanley's visit was to open the new building of the Boys' 
and Girls' Refuges, Strangeways, at the Clegg Memorial 
Hall. 

" The Mayor, in opening the proceedings, said he was sure the uppermost feeling 
in all their minds was one of thankfulness at the completion of that great work. 
Those Refuges had been doing most excellent service for the community for the last 
twenty years, and he suggested that the proceedings should be opened with praise 
and prayer." 

Mr. Leonard Shaw read an address to Mrs. H. M. 
Stanley, which was responded to by Mrs. and Mr. 
Stanley, who expressed a hope that, on their return from 
America, they would be able to see their Manchester 
friends again. 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 127 



"The Mayor described this as one of the most important and interesting 
ceremonies it had been his pleasure to attend during his mayoralty. On behalf of 
the guardians of the poor and of the Corporation he recognised the great work of 
that institution, which grappled with a species of crime and destitution very difficult 
to cope with in a large city. He hoped that on its new basis it would be an agency 
of still greater good, and he wished those who were engaged in it God speed in 
their labours." 

Mr. Henry Lee described the progress of the Institu- 
tion, just opened by Mr. and Mrs. Stanley. 

After this ceremony the guests were entertained at 
luncheon in the Town Hall. 

"After luncheon, the loyal toasts having been honoured, the Mayor proposed the 
health of Mr. and Mrs. Stanley, and expressed the thanks of the company to them 
for the visit they had paid. He felt personally grateful to them for having acceded 
with so much pleasure to the invitation which he had the honour of conveying to 
them, and he was sure they might congratulate themselves upon the success of the 
ceremony that morning. He felt highly honoured by their presence that day, and had 
been especially charmed by the manner in which Mrs. Stanley had discharged the 
ceremony. He was sure the expressions of her sympathy must have touched all 
hearts. In the simple words at his command he offered Mr. and Mrs. Stanley their 
most sincere congratulations on their marriage, and their best wishes for their future 
happiness and prosperity." 

On the evening of the same day the annual meeting 
of the British and Foreign Bible Society was held at the 
Town Hall, Mr. Mark presiding. 

"The Mayor, who was cordially received, moved the adoption of the report and 
financial statement, and the re-election of the officers. He remarked that upon the 
whole the Manchester and Salford branch of the society might be congratulated upon 
its healthy condition. In some respects it had its ebb and flow, but there was a 
continuous growth in their distribution of the Holy Scriptures. The objects of the 
society were to encourage a wider circulation of the Scriptures, without note or 
comment, and that commended itself to every denomination. It was, therefore, a 
matter of regret that the annual subscriptions should show some falling off in a large 
and populous district like this. This ought not to be, and it was small consolation 
or satisfaction to the Committee that the deficit was in some degree made good by 
casual gifts. The report very properly referred to the loss the auxiliary had 
sustained by the death of a revered friend — the late Mr. Napier — whose connection 
with their work they esteemed very highly indeed. Concluding, the Mayor said his 
sympathies were entirely with the society in its world-wide work. It was of the 



128 MAYORALTY, 1889-90. 

greatest possible importance that copies of the Holy Scriptures should be not only 
in every home, but in every hand, and they hoped that the circulation of the Holy 
Word might be largely increased and blest amongst the peoples." 

On the 29th, a meeting of the Manchester City 
Council was held, over which the Mayor presided. On a 
question as to open spaces — 

"The Mayor said the Council and the public were very anxious that open 
spaces should be acquired, but it was for the Parks Committee to see that they 
did not inflate the price of land by extreme urgency ; and it appeared to him 
that in this particular case they were paying a very outside price." 




Second H)ear, 1890*01. 



H| HE first meeting of the City Council since the 
incorporation of Blaokley and Moston, Crump- 
sail, Longsight, Miles Platting, Newton Heath, 



Openshaw, and part of Gorton within the municipal 
area of Manchester, took place on the ioth November, 
1890, and was held in the Council Chamber of the Town 
Hall. Owing to the additional space required for the 
new members, temporary seats of a not very inviting 
character were improvised, but the Mayor, who took his 
seat at eleven o'clock, informed the members of the Council 
that these seats were of a temporary character, and would 
be replaced by more comfortable ones in good time ; that 
a new carpet would be provided ; and that the ventilation 
of the Chamber would receive the most careful attention 
of the authorities. The galleries reserved for the public 
were crowded with ladies and gentlemen, amongst whom 
were the Mayoress (Mrs. Mark) and the Misses Mark, 
who evinced the liveliest interest in the proceedings. 

The Aldermen and Councillors having taken their 
respective seats, the Mayor, a few minutes before twelve 
o'clock, removed the chain of office from his shoulders, 
and announced that he resigned that badge of honour 
until his successor was appointed. Alderman Mark 
thereupon ceased to be Mayor of Manchester, and left 
the Council Chamber. 



1 3 o MAYORALTY, 1890-91. 

Alderman Heywood, as father of the Council, was 
voted to the chair, and expressed regret at the absence, 
through indisposition, of Alderman Sir John Harwood, 
the Deputy Mayor. 

•■Alderman Hopkinson then said he had great pleasure in proposing for their 
acceptance the following resolution : — ' That Alderman John Mark be and he is 
hereby elected the Mayor of this city for the ensuing year.' To the representatives 
of the newly-incorporated wards, whose presence for the first time in that Council 
Chamber they warmly welcomed, this resolution would commend itself by the 
fact that the requisition to Alderman Mark, asking him to allow himself to be 
nominated to-day, was signed by every then member of the Council, and also by 
their own knowledge of his able and conciliatory conduct of the negotiations 
resulting in the extension of the city. Alderman Mark's term of office had been 
distinguished by the conspicuous ability with which he had presided over the meet- 
ings of the Council, uniting in an eminent degree judicial firmness, courtesy, and 
self-control. His hospitality had been wide and generous. His assiduous and 
diligent attention to all the duties of chief magistrate have won the cordial approval 
of the members of the Council and of all classes of the community. 

The resolution was seconded by Alderman Roberts, and supported by Mr. 
Higginbottom. 

Alderman Mark was then brought into the Council Chamber by his proposer 
and seconder amid loud cheers, the Town Hall bells meantime ringing a merry peal. 
He was duly invested with the chain and badge of office, and, having made the usual 
declaration, took his seat. 

The Mayor, on rising to address the Council, was very cordially received. He 
said he thanked them very sincerely for the honour they had conferred upon him ' 
now for the second time. To be Mayor of Manchester was an honour of which any 
man might justly feel proud, and to be unanimously re-elected Mayor of Greater 
Manchester, a city now comprising a population of more than half a million of 
people, was a very high compliment which almost commanded acceptance with a 
willingness to make whatever personal sacrifices the position demanded. He wel- 
comed those new members who appeared there for the first time as representatives 
of the wards recently added to the city, and if he might be permitted to have an 
opinion he would say he thought they were an acquisition to the Council, and that 
when the election of aldermen was completed as proposed, even that bench of 
municipal wisdom would be invigorated by an infusion of fresh blood, and in several 
cases by long and valuable experience in local government. It had been often said 
that the great increase of members of the Council would make it much more difficult 
for the Mayor. He hoped it might not be so, and must rely on that loyalty and 
support which was always given to the Mayor, and with that confidence he felt 
assured that their debates would be conducted with becoming dignity and order. 
These newly-incorporated districts doubled the area of the city, and added over 
100,000 to the population. It could not be doubted that the jurisdiction of one 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 131 

central authority in the administration would but promote the general welfare with 
regard to higher educational institutions, science and art classes, technical instruction, 
free libraries, parks and cemeteries, baths, main drainage, gas, water, markets and 
highways, and last, but not the least, the police ; so that they might confidently 
hope and expect that these unions might be conducive of mutual satisfaction and 
prosperity. And that these happy results might be realised, the Council had this 
year made a new departure in the nomination of committees, in the appointment of a 
Special Committee to consider and recommend how the capabilities of individual 
members could be most advantageously employed, and their thoughts and energies 
mainly directed to specific and congenial work. The Unhealthy Dwellings Com- 
mittee and the Health and Nuisance Committees had been abolished or transformed 
into a new Sanitary Committee and a Cleansing Committee, and the duties of the 
Hackney Coach Committee transferred to the Watch Committee, where it was hoped 
that more direct police supervision might be exercised with great advantage. With 
reference to municipal work the most important of the year was, of course, the City 
Extension Act which had just come into operation. During the year it had devolved 
upon him to preside at several important meetings of the fourteen county boroughs 
of Lancashire, and it was satisfactory to state that between them most friendly 
relations continued. The fact that the population of those fourteen boroughs was 
nearly 2,000,000 gave an idea of the almost marvellous growth of municipal 
institutions in Lancashire. As to the question of financial adjustment impending, 
the county boroughs had, by mutual concessions, been enabled to make proposals to 
the Lancashire County Council, which it was hoped might lead to a final and satis- 
factory adjustment, that in future these newly-constituted authorities might be able 
to act in harmony upon that difficult question. In addition to financial questions, 
conjoint action would be necessary upon many subjects of great public interest and 
importance, such as the Rivers' Pollution and the Protection of Sea Fisheries, upon 
which a joint board had been formed, consisting of representatives of the Lancashire 
County Council, and the County Boroughs of Lancashire, with the authorities on the 
north-west coast. Joint interests also existed in the management of lunatic asylums, 
the Assize Courts, and the assessment of the entire geographical county in which 
Manchester was represented. Another subject to which he made special reference 
last year was the general health of the city and the special work of the Unhealthy 
Dwellings Committee. This subject still demanded to be dealt with, and they 
must look to the new Sanitary Committee to continue the work with a vigorous hand, 
that the reproach of our high death-rate might be wiped out, and ere long become a 
matter of history. Mr. Ritchie, the President of the Local Government Board, in a 
speech recently made in that Town Hall , referred to a sum of £30,000 a year coming 
to Manchester under the Local Government Act, which he suggested should be 
applied to the payment of interest upon £1, 000,000 to be borrowed for sanitary im- 
provements, to enable them to sweep away whole areas of unhealthy dwellings. 
Although their municipal exchequer showed only a small sum in favour of the city 
rate under the Local Government Act, there was no doubt that through contributions 
from that source, in reduction of the poor rates, the city would annually be indirectly 
relieved to the extent of not less than the sum named. Whether or not any specific 
funds could be applied out of the contributions from the public exchequer, they 



i 3 2 MAYORALTY, 1890-91. 

might fairly expect that increased assessments would give a buoyancy to the city 
finances to meet all requisite sanitary improvements. In anticipation of the opening 
of the Manchester Ship Canal, many new buildings were already in progress and 
others in contemplation. His remarks would be incomplete without referring for a 
moment to the statutory powers obtained to supply electric light to the central part 
• of the city, which had been placed in the hands of the Gas Committee ; to the 
labourers' dwelling scheme, enabling the Corporation to acquire land on which to 
erect blocks of dwelling-houses on a comprehensive scale. In all these matters 
affecting the general well-being of the city, he had no doubt that the old and the new 
would merge without jealousy as one great and united corporation." 

The Manchester Courier, in a leading article of the nth, 
thus comments upon the second year's election of Alder- 
man Mark to the Mayoralty: — 

"Alderman John Mark's unanimous re-election as Mayor of Manchester will 
give general satisfaction. During the past year, he has discharged the duties of the 
office with conspicuous ability and fairness. He has pursued a manly and an 
independent course, has held the balance evenly in cases of doubt and difficulty, and 
has at all times treated members of all parties with due courtesy and consideration. 
There has been nothing finikin in his management of corporate affairs. Whenever 
it has been necessary to adopt an attitude of firmness and decision, he has never 
allowed personal predilections to stand in his way. But for his resolute ruling, 
there would on several occasions have been protracted and acrimonious discussions 
which would have served no useful purpose, and which might have engendered feel- 
ings of personal animosity. Much credit is due to Mr. Mark for the clear mental 
grasp he has taken of the questions under consideration, and for the promptness and 
decision with which he has put a stop to the introduction of side issues and irrele- 
vant verbiage. A Mayor with a more practical mind and sounder judgment 
Manchester never had, and it would have been strange indeed if the members of 
the Council had failed to indicate their appreciation of his qualities, and of the con- 
spicuous ability he has displayed in the discharge of the duties of his high office by 
re-electing him for another year. It is not every citizen who is equal to the strain 
which the conscientious performance of the duties of the office involves, and it is 
matter for congratulation that after the trials and troubles of a not uneventful year, 
Mr. Mark finds himself capable of bearing it for another term. To be the first Chief 
Magistrate of ' Greater Manchester ' is a distinction of no mean importance, and 
Mr. Mark has fairly earned it. Considering the peculiar character of the body over 
which he presides, ' judicial firmness, courtesy, and self-control ' have been indis- 
pensable qualifications, and he has frequently demonstrated that he possesses them 
in an eminent degree. The coming municipal year will be one of exceptional interest 
and importance, and that fact has, no doubt, prompted the Council to call upon Mr. 
Mark to retain the reins of office and protect and uphold the dignity and character 
of the community." 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 133 

The Manchester Evening News of the same date is 
equally complimentary. 

"The unanimity with which Mr. Alderman Mark was re-elected Mayor is 
gratifying evidence of the acceptability of his services. In truth, Mr. Mark has well 
earned his popularity. No one probably but the Mayor of Manchester himself 
knows how continuous and exacting are the demands which the responsibilities of his 
office make upon his time, energy, and resource. The gliding years do not lighten 
the burden. Indeed, every twelve months seem to increase it. It is a matter of 
common and universal knowledge how admirably Mr. Mark has done his work. 
Serious difficulties have had to be faced — he began his years of office, it will be 
remembered, with the gas strike, and there has been a ceaseless demand on his 
services in every conceivable direction. But through it all he has not only com- 
manded success, he has thoroughly deserved it. The coming year's responsibilities 
are not likely to be small. The mere fact that he is now the Mayor of a Greater 
Manchester, with a doubled area and a population increased to half a million, rather 
suggests the refrain 'double double, toil and trouble.' But that is not an aspect of 
the situation which will carry dismay to so firm, courageous, and discreet a man 
as Mayor Mark has proved himself to be in the past and may be confidently 
expected to show himself in the future." 

On the 13th, the Mayor presided at a meeting of the 
Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society, held in the 
Town Hall, when an address was delivered by General 
Pitt Rivers, on the Romano-British excavations and 
discoveries in Dorsetshire. 

The same day the Mayor had presided over a meeting 
of the General Purposes Committee, the business being 
of a formal character. 

On the 15th, the Mayor was present at the laying of 
the foundation stones of the Manchester Girls' Institute, 
now being built by the Manchester Mill and Working 
Girls' Society in Mill Street, Ancoats. After speeches by 
Alderman Forrest and Mr. W. H. Johnson, president of 
the Institute: — 

"The Mayor of Manchester, who was then called upon, said he attended in his 
official capacity to give countenance and support to the efforts so nobly rendered in 
the interests of that institution, which had for its aim the uplifting of the female part 
of our teeming working population. It was his particular privilege to occupy a high 



i 3 4 MAYORALTY, 1890-91. 

position when there seemed to be an awakening of good objects. The educational 
advantages of the new institution would be of the greatest possible importance, and 
the provision made for recreation was also an element of which he had heard with 
especial interest. The conditions of life in some homes were not altogether what 
one could desire them, but through the agency of such institutions as that, they could 
hope to instil into the minds of the young, lessons which might result in more home 
comfort. He commended the institute to the support of those able to help it, and 
spoke highly of the example set by the Procter trustees." 

The day following, being Sunday, besides a number 
of public men and corporation officials, the Mayor was 
accompanied, from the Town Hall to the Cathedral, by 
some hundreds of volunteers, a considerable body of 
police, and the fire brigade. 

After the service the procession was reformed, and 
on arrival at the Town Hall the members of the council, 
city magistrates, officers of volunteers, and others, par- 
took of the Mayor's hospitality. 

" His Worship took the opportunity of thanking the Volunteers for taking part 
in the procession. Their presence, he said, had been very gratifying to the members 
of the Corporation, and he was sure it had been gratifying also to the public, who 
liked a little display on those occasions. The response which the Volunteers had 
given to the intimation — it was more an intimation than an invitation— to take part 
in the procession had been very handsome indeed. The weather had been regrettable, 
but notwithstanding that the Volunteers had given an amount of colour to the 
proceedings which had been exceedingly agreeable. Colonel Rocca, as the senior 
officer present, acknowledged the compliment in suitable terms, and the company 
then separated." 

On the 17th a meeting of the Manchester City 
Council was held, the Mayor presiding. Owing to a 
misunderstanding as to the election of Aldermen, Mr. 
J. M. Elliott tendered his resignation as a member of the 
Council, and enclosed his cheque for £50, the statutory 
fine. 

" The Mayor said that no one regretted more than he did what he might call the 
misunderstanding that had arisen in this matter, and in connection with which, he 
had been informed, a considerable amount of party feeling had been manifested. 
He regretted, too, that Mr. Elliott had felt it necessary, in consequence, to resign 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 135 

his position as a member of the Council, for they would have been glad to have had 
the benefit of his long experience in public matters. He could not help also 
regretting the terms employed by Mr. Elliott in his letter. He thought the Council 
would accept his recommendation that the resolution about to be moved should be 
adopted without discussion, so that any possible display of acrimonious feeling 
might be avoided. The Mayor then moved a resolution declaring a vacancy in the 
representation of Newton Heath Ward, and a further one remitting the fine of /50." 

A meeting of the Supporters of the Northern Counties 
Hospital for Incurables was held in the Mayor's Parlour, 
Alderman Mark presiding. After the reading of the 
report by Mr. R. Armistead, the Secretary, 

"The Mayor, in moving the adoption of the report, spoke of the increasing 
demands made upon benevolent people in the present day. One way in which he 
thought the ordinary income of deserving charities might be supplemented was by 
having an annual charity ball." 

The next proceedings upon which we find Alderman 
Mark's attendance was the presentation of prizes to the 
Second Volunteer Battalion the Manchester Regiment, 
Colonel Bridgford presiding. 

" The Mayor said that if he could do anything towards securing a more suitable 
drill ground he should be most glad to do it. It would be a graceful compliment on 
the part of the Government to give them a few acres of ground to be used for drill 
purposes. The site of the cavalry barracks in Hulme would be exceedingly con- 
venient, both in area and distance, and if any compromise could be come to between 
the Corporation of Manchester and the military authorities with a view to the hand- 
ing over of that ground to the former, he thought the Corporation might very well 
undertake to put the ground thoroughly well in order, with the condition that the 
Volunteers should have a right to exercise and drill upon it for all time. Manchester 
might well be proud of its Volunteer force ; it was of the greatest possible benefit, 
maintaining, as it did, the physical well-being, good order, obedience, and regularity 
of the young men of the city. The Mayoress afterwards handed the prizes to the 
successful marksmen of the past season." 

On the 24th, the Mayor presided over the twenty-first 
annual meeting of the Manchester and Salford Hospital 
Sunday and Saturday Fund. 

"The Mayor, in moving the adoption of the report, congratulated the sub- 
scribers on the continued success of the movement, which seemed to have obtained 
a good hold on the public, both as regarded Sunday collections and Saturday 



136 MAYORALTY, 1890-91. 

contributions. One had to regret with the committee that the large number of 
outlying towns that benefited very much by the charities did not send their con- 
tributions. They were not at all surprised that they should use the best medical 
advice to be obtained in the district for their poor, but they thought the outlying 
districts ought to recognise the value of the institutions where such medical aid and 
surgical skill were rendered gratuitously, to those coming from large towns like 
Oldham and Bolton, and so forth, and they should be very glad to see that the 
movement was recognised in those places. Considerable stress had been laid upon 
that before. He was very much struck with it last year, so he had an abstract made 
with regard to Hospital Sunday collections to see exactly how they stood in the 
matter. In Manchester they received £2,088, Salford £565, outside Manchester and 
Salford — places which were really part of themselves — £1,834, while the sums from 
other towns were exceedingly small. The same might be stated with regard to the 
Hospital Saturday Fund. In Manchester the sum collected was £1,964, Salford 
£479, outside Manchester and Salford £736, and not specified £338. From the list 
of places enumerated he found — Oldham £1 os. 3d., Guide Bridge £1 7s., Sale 18s., 
Prestwich £1 16s. 8d., and Stretford £3 3s. 6d. Some of those places were very 
populous, and sent a great many difficult cases to the hospitals, and he thought, 
therefore, the tradesmen in those districts might help the movement a little more 
cheerfully. The report was very satisfactory, and they could only hope that it 
might be increasingly so." 

The Mayor of Salford (Mr. B. Robinson) thought the 
funds ought to be largely increased, as the area of the 
Institution covered something like a million inhabitants. 

" The Mayor said the amount given in charities was found not to vary very much. 
That they ought to be largely increased he agreed with the Mayor of Salford, but he 
pointed out that other organisations were extremely active." 

The Rev. B. Snell enquired if the Mayor had made 
any comparison of the amounts collected with that of 
other large towns. 

"The Mayor said he had not, but he thought the newspapers had referred to 
them in reporting the result of the Hospital Saturday and Sunday collections." 

On the 27th a meeting of City Justices was held in 
the Mayor's Parlour, over which Mr. Mark presided. 
The meeting was called by a requisition signed by 26 
magistrates, with reference to certain correspondence on 
first offenders. The Mayor said he thought it would be 
convenient if he read some of the provisions of the First 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 137 



Offenders Act. It was an act to permit the conditional 
release of first offenders in certain cases. This being 
read the Mayor continued : — 

" It appeared from this that considerable safeguards were placed around first 
offenders or juvenile offenders, and it would be for those who were not satisfied with 
the way in which the magistrates exercised their functions to suggest some better 
mode of dealing with such persons. For his own part he thought there was a good 
deal of misapprehension in the public mind. It was thought that in Manchester the 
magistrates were manufacturing a great number of criminals in a very arbitrary 
manner under the Corporation by-laws. He believed they were doing nothing of 
the kind. The so-called first offenders who were committed by the justices of 
Manchester were under the criminal law, and on inquiry it would appear, he 
thought, that very few juvenile offenders were ever sent to prison amongst other 
criminals for the first time. It would be within the knowledge of all of them that 
many so-called first offenders were really old offenders, and some had been for a 
long time doing wrong. It was within his own knowledge that what he might call a 
conspiracy of five adult persons in his employment, receiving good wages as 
warehousemen or cellarmen, was carried on. They had been for months exchanging 
commodities with each other and robbing at all ends. They were brought before 
the city justices, and to all intents an4 purposes in the eye of the law they were first 
offenders. Now it was in the discretion of the magistrates how they would treat such 
adult persons of from 30 to 50 years of age, most of them in the receipt of good 
wages and robbing their employers, and he thought it would be shown that very 
great pains were taken by the city justices not to send juvenile offenders into 
the company of hardened criminals. He believed that a great many did go to 
prison upon very small fines and very large costs. They might be prepared to pay 
a shilling fine, but when it was backed by five shillings costs, or a half-crown fine 
and 7s. 6d. costs, they found it beyond their power to pay, and so a great many were 
committed, and he thought the magistrates might wisely use their discretion 
in fining without costs." 

After a lengthy speech by Sir John Harwood, Mr. C. 
Lister pointed out that a good many young persons were 
sent to prison under the Corporation by-laws, when the 
following occurred : — 

"The Mayor : What is the class of offences under the Corporation by-laws? 

Mr. Lister : Sixty-two are cases of stealing and embezzlement — 

The Mayor : Are those under the by-laws ? 

Mr. Lister : No ; but I am giving you the numbers that make up the total of 
624. I cannot give you them in any other way. 

The Mayor: But you have singled out a certain number as having been com- 
mitted under the Corporation by-laws. 



1 38 MAYORALTY, 1890-91. 

Mr. Lister : I said ' some of them ' ; I did not say the whole of them. 

Mr. Alderman King: You said many were offenders under the Corporation 
by-laws. 

Mr. Lister : Nine were charged with obstructing the footpaths. 

Mr. Alderman King: That is under the Police Act. 

Mr. Lister said the point was not very material, and he would withdraw 
the remark. 

The Mayor: We don't want Manchester stigmatised as manufacturing criminals. 

Mr. Lister said that at the Strangeways Police Court the magistrates gave time 
for the payment of fines in from 50 to 60 per cent of the cases. 

Mr. Headlam : We give plenty of time when there is any reasonable security. 

Mr. Lister: I am glad Mr. Headlam has mentioned that, for I have gone 
into that question and found that 300 persons have been given time within the last 
quarter, and that 7,300 persons were summoned; so there is no proportion there. 

Mr. Headlam : I say whenever the security is good we give time for the payment. 
If the security is not good enough, and there is no chance of payment, I don't 
see why time should be given. 

Mr. Lister: My only contention is that for offences under the by-laws time 
ought to be given. 

A Magistrate: It is given." 

On the 27th, a public meeting was convened in the 
Town Hall, in accordance with a numerously signed 
requisition, to condemn the oppression of Christians in 
Armenia. 

"The Mayor presided, but explained that although he occupied the chair he was 
not responsible for the terms of the memorial or any resolutions which the meeting 
might be pleased to pass, but it would be his duty to sign them and forward them to 
the proper quarter. He complained that the promoters of the meeting had taken a 
great liberty with the Mayor — in ignorance, he hoped — in posting on the notice 
boards of the Town Hall an inflammatory placard covering the notice issued 
by himself. This was done in the night time, and the placard was headed ' Reign of 
terror in Armenia.' The promoters of the meeting had no right to cover up 
the placards of the Mayor of Manchester with one of their own composition. With 
these observations he would now ask the Bishop of Manchester to move the 
first resolution." 

A resolution was then moved by the Bishop of Man- 
chester and carried unanimously ; and a second by the 
Rev. Canon Hicks, seconded by the Rev. B. J. Snell. 

"The resolution having been adopted, the meeting concluded with a vote 
of thanks to the Mayor, on the motion of Mr. A. O. Arsenian, seconded by Mr. 
G. E. Stuttart. The latter explained that no disrespect had been intended to 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 139 

the Mayor by the promoters of the meeting in the posting of the placards. The 
incident was probably due to the unauthorised audacity of some billposter. Every- 
body connected with the meeting extremely regretted the occurrence. — The Mayor 
promised to forward the resolutions to the Prime Minister, and said he had been 
glad to give the citizens of Manchester, and particularly their Armenian citizens, 
whom they respected very much, an opportunity of expressing their views on 
an important subject." 

In the evening of the same day, the Mayor entertained 
at dinner, in the Town Hall, Mr. Justice Cave, one of 
Her Majesty's Judges of Assize, the High Sheriff, Major 
Bird, and a number of distinguished guests, Mr. Justice 
Wills being detained in Court. 

On the 28th, Colonel R. Bridgford, C.B., introduced 
a deputation of Manchester Volunteer Officers, to request 
that the Mayor would take charge of the large China 
Challenge Cup, won for three years in succession by the 
Lancashire Volunteer Riflemen. The Mayor informed 
the deputation that he would bring the matter before the 
Town Hall Committee with the view of finding a suitable 
place for the reception of the trophy. 

On the 28th— 

' ' There was a good gathering at the Mayoress's ■ At Home ' in the state 
apartments of the Town Hall. Mrs. Mark was assisted in the duty of receiving 
visitors by her daughters, Miss Mark and Miss F. Mark." 

On the evening of the 29th, the St. Andrew's Society 
held its twelfth annual dinner at the Grand Hotel, when 
Sir Frank Forbes Adam presided, and the Mayor of 
Manchester was present. Amongst the toasts proposed 
was that of " The City and Trade of Manchester," by 
Mr. P. J. Ramsay. 

" The Mayor acknowledged the toast. The chairman, he said, had asked him if 
Manchester were a wealthy city. He had replied that there was a large number of 
men here who possessed from £50,000 to £150,000 or £200,000, and that there were 
some — a smaller proportion — who had enormous wealth. He (the Mayor) thought 
that was a very satisfactory state of things in a commercial community, and he 



140 MAYORALTY, 1890-91. 

recognised that Scotchmen had contributed in a large degree to the prosperity of the 
city. Reference had been made to the newly incorporated districts of Manchester. 
The Chairman, who had been absent from the city for seventeen years, would not be 
surprised to learn that it had overflown its boundaries in that period, and that a 
large proportion of the population and of the industries had gone outside. Well, it 
had seemed best that these should be brought within the city boundaries ; and he 
thought the sequel would show that the recent arrangement would be for the benefit 
of all. The city had now a population of something like half a million, and an area 
of over 12,000 acres. Reference had been made to the recent financial crisis. He 
thought it redounded to the credit of Manchester that that crisis had not disturbed 
it one iota. It was to the credit of Manchester and Manchester banks that in the 
squeeze they were able to render substantial help." 

On the 3rd December, 1890, the Mayor presided at 
the monthly meeting of the Manchester City Council. 

A meeting of Magistrates representing Manchester, 
Salford, and the Manchester division of the County, was 
held at the Town Hall on the 4th, Mr. Mark presiding, 
when it was resolved that a deputation should wait upon 
the Home Secretary to bring before him the question of 
" scuttling." 

In compliance with a requisition, the Mayor called a 
public meeting on the 4th, at the Town Hall, to consider 
the question of providing a suitable memorial of the late 
Mr. Herbert Birley. 

"The Mayor spoke of Mr. Birley as one of Manchester's most distinguished 
citizens, who had rendered signal service in a most unobtrusive manner. He was 
sure the suggestion that the name of Mr. Birley should be suitably perpetuated 
in their midst would meet with a most sympathetic response from all Manchester 
citizens. Even without any memorial the name of Mr. Birley could not possibly 
fade from the present generation." 

A motion was carried to perpetuate his memory in 
some suitable form, and the Mayor expressed his 
sympathy with the movement. 

A deputation representing the Justices of the City of 
Manchester waited upon the Home Secretary, on the 12th, 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 141 

to urge the question of the punishment of "scuttlers." 
The deputation was introduced by Mr. Lees Knowles, 
M.P., who informed the Home Secretary that scuttling 
might be described as outrageous horse-play, taking the 
form of faction fights. The Mayor of Manchester said 
that, in the first instance, he proposed to read a state- 
ment prepared by Mr. Le Court, Clerk to the Manchester 
City Justices. 

' ' He then handed in a list of forty-two scuttling cases reported in the Manchester 
Guardian between January 31st, 1888, and September 2nd, i8go. He also produced a 
number of belts, sticks, and other weapons used by scuttlers in their encounters. 

The Home Secretary, examining the list of cases, said he noticed cases of stab- 
bing. One had been accustomed to believe that the law was strong enough to put 
down serious stabbing. 

The Mayor of Manchester : We expected to be met with that objection, but there 
is a strong feeling that the full penalty of the law ought not to be inflicted in the case 
of youths such as those concerned in these cases. They are liable in some instances 
to five years' penal servitude. It is thought to be a pity, however, to run the risk 
of making them hardened criminals by sending them to prison for this class of crime. 
The opinion is general that corporal punishment would be much more summary, and 
would put a stop to the evil. The Mayor proceeded to refer to several cases 
mentioned in the list, one being a case of stabbing in which eleven youths were 
concerned. 

The Home Secretary asked the date of the case. 

The Mayor of Manchester : October 2nd, 1889. 

The Home Secretary : What was done with them ? 

Mr. Leresche : They received nine calendar months' imprisonment, the indict- 
ment being for common-law riot, there being no proof of the actual stabber. 

The Home Secretary : Then you could not have flogged anybody ? I want to 
know why the existing law has failed. 

Mr. Leresche : No, not in that case ; but we want a short and sharp remedy. 

The Home Secretary : Is it a case of English and Irish ? 

The Mayor of Manchester : Oh, no ; it is not that. There are more youths in 
Strangeways gaol for this offence than for any other. 

Mr. Lister, in reply to the right hon. gentleman, said that in a case decided on 
August 3rd, 1890, in which grievous bodily harm had been done, two prisoners 
received five years' penal servitude, and others were sentenced to twelve months' 
imprisonment. 

The Mayor of Manchester : These affrays have led the divisional police superin- 
tendents to give certain localities extra police protection, both of uniform and plain- 
clothes officers, and the superintendents are of opinion that corporal punishment 
would have a very deterrent effect. 



142 MAYORALTY, 1890-91. 

The Home Secretary : Has it ever occurred to the police to administer corporal 
punishment when they find rioting going on ? 

The Mayor of Manchester : It is exceedingly difficult to apprehend them in the 
act. They get away as soon as the police appear. Moreover, I do not think the 
police have the power to inflict corporal punishment. 

The Home Secretary : Where a fight is going on, and knives are being used, the 
police might use force to disperse the riot. 

Mr. Leresche : That is done, no doubt, when the police get there and have to 
clear the street, but as to the police administering actual punishment in each parti- 
cular case, I am afraid the law would hardly allow it. 

The Home Secretary : I should have thought the police would be fully justified 
in charging two mobs fighting each other. 

The Mayor of Manchester said that in these cases a mere fine did no good. The 
fine was paid by comrades, and the offender was treated as a hero. The deputation 
thought that birching for those under a certain age, and flogging for those over that 
age, would help the authorities to keep down the offence. 

The Home Secretary : What is the age beyond which flogging is not allowed now ? 

The Mayor of Manchester : Fourteen years. 

The Home Secretary : I suppose all these youths are above fourteen ? 

Mr. Headlam : They vary from fourteen to twenty-one. 

The Mayor of Manchester : And they are assisted by girls, who bring missiles 
forward. 

Mr. Headlam : You cannot flog them for assault — only when there is felony." 

In the end the Home Secretary pointed out to the 
deputation the difficulty of dealing with "scuttling" as a 
special offence. 

On the 13th, the Mayoress (Mrs. John Mark) 
distributed the prizes awarded in the 5th (Ardwick) 
Volunteer Battalion Manchester Regiment, at the Head 
Quarters, Ardwick Green ; Mr. and the Misses Mark 
being also present. 

" Colonel Clarke moved, and Colonel Rocca seconded, a vote of thanks to the 
Mayor and Mayoress for their presence that evening, and this was cordially agreed to. 

The Mayor, in reply, said it was a source of pride and satisfaction to the citizens 
of Manchester that the battalion had maintained its efficiency for so great a number 
of years, It was very satisfactory indeed to find that the volunteer regiments were 
composed of the very cream of the young men of the city, who, engaged during the 
day in commercial pursuits, were able to give their attendance with such regularity 
at their drills as they had done during the past year. It was also a matter for great 
congratulation that the battalion had earned such a large grant ; it spoke volumes 
for its efficiency, which he hoped would be maintained. Last year he ventured to 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 143 

promise them, that if he could do anything as Mayor of Manchester to further the 
object they had in view, viz., the acquisition of an exercise and drill ground, he 
would do so. Though their wishes had not been realised in this respect, he had kept 
his promise. He had had an interview with the Secretary for War, and had men- 
tioned the matter to him, urging upon him the claims of the Manchester volunteers. 
If he could do anything more in this direction he would do so, and he believed the 
Corporation of Manchester would also see that the scheme received their support." 

On the igth, the Mayor attended the presentation of 
prizes to members of the 4th Volunteer Battalion Man- 
chester Regiment, at the Drill Hall, Burlington Street, 
the proceedings being under the direction of Colonel 
W. A. Lynde. 

" The Mayor, who was received with loud applause, said he did not know that it 
was possible to bring a regiment of Volunteers up to a greater state of efficiency than 
that which Colonel Lynde had just recorded. He congratulated the officers and 
men very warmly upon their position. The citizens were proud of their Volunteers, 
and he was sure that if these citizens should unfortunately require their assistance 
at any time it would be given with soldier-like courage and bravery. He had had 
to speak on two or three occasions lately at distributions of Volunteer prizes, and he 
had little new to say now. There was, however, an object which he had set his 
mind upon accomplishing if it were possible, and the influence of their colonels might 
possibly be of great assistance in achieving that object. He was endeavouring to 
persuade the authorities at the War Office to effect some compromise with the 
Corporation, whereby when the Hulme Barracks are vacated their site might be 
secured for all time as an open space for the people, and more especially as an exer- 
cise and drill ground for the city Volunteers. He thought the Volunteers had a 
strong claim upon the War Office for recognition of the great efficiency of their arm 
of the service in the city for a long period of years past, and if during his term of 
office he could do anything more than he had done to further the object he had 
named, he should most certainly do it. 

Mrs. Lynde was then introduced by the Mayor, and performed the office of 
distributing the prizes. The band was in attendance, and after the presentation 
there was a dance for the men and their friends." 

Mayoral Hospitality to Ragged School Children, New 
Year's Day, 1891. We print the following from the 
Examiner and Times of the 2nd : — 

" The new year could scarcely have been entered upon more happily and 
graciously than it was in this city when, for the second time during his tenure of 
office, the Mayor of Manchester (Alderman John Mark) generously extended his 



i 4 4 MAYORALTY, 1890-91. 



bounty to over one thousand little children. And the entertainment, rich and 
plenteous though it was, had additional charm for the youngsters from the fact that 
it was given in the noble Town Hall, and an added grace because it was presided 
over by the Mayor himself, and his lady the Mayoress, and his daughters the 
Misses Mark. His Worship's guests, who were gathered from the squalid streets 
and the dark courts which come within the sphere of influence of the Manchester 
Ragged Schools, began to arrive a few minutes before noon. They were at once 
admitted to the building, and, to the music of the pattering of their own feet as they 
ascended, probably for the first time, the grand staircase, they were ushered into the 
large hall where dinner was to be served. Eleven hundred little waifs and strays 
had, by noon, taken their seats at the tables running from one end of the hall to the 
other. But there was still room for more, and, on the personal invitation of the 
Mayor, seventy-five little urchins, who had gathered round the main entrance of the 
Town Hall, were brought in and seated at his Worship's hospitable board. Then 
there were the boys of the Ardwick Industrial School Band, who had played some 
cheerful music while the children had been assembling, and the teachers who had 
escorted them to the hall. So that, when grace had been sung and seats were taken, 
the Mayor was host to about 1,200 guests. Just before the feast was spread his 
Worship briefly addressed the juvenile company, and in the name of the Mayoress, 
and his daughters and his own, wished them all 'a very happy New Year.' 'The 
same to you, and many of them,' was the shrill but hearty response from the little 
throats to this kindly greeting. Then they were told, and their eyes glistened with 
pleasure as they heard the words, that they had been invited there to enjoy a good 
dinner, and to be sent away very happy indeed. The children would no doubt have 
been thoroughly content with this prospect, but there was another little surprise in 
store for them ; for the Mayor announced that, as a souvenir of the occasion, they 
would each be presented with a new sixpenny piece as they left the hall, and the 
exclamations of wild delight with which this intimation was received indicated in 
(he most unmistakable way how exactly their tastes had been suited. This sixpence, 
they were assured, was to be regarded as their own property — to keep it or to spend 
it, just as they thought proper. The prospect of the immediate possession of such 
vast riches filled the little ones with high glee, and made them extremely happy. 
And then, before they had altogether recovered from their pleasurable sensations, 
came the welcome announcement that they could ' fall to.' And they fell to with 
great heartiness, the good things provided disappearing very rapidly under the 
influence of keen appetites. They all rose from the table thoroughly satisfied, and 
as they trooped downstairs they each received the promised sixpence either from the 
hand of the Mayor himself, or from the Mayoress or her daughters, and then passed 
out into the street, with sensations of complete happiness and enjoyment filling their 
little minds." 

A meeting of the Manchester City Council was held 
on the 7th, in the Town Hall, under the presidency of the 
Mayor, Alderman Mark. 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 145 



A proposal was made by Mr. Rawson that the Chief 
Constable's Salary be advanced from ^800 to ^1,000 
per annum. 

"The Mayor seconded the proposition. He said Mr. Malcolm Wood was 
a very able officer, a man of more than ordinary ability — in his tact, in his man- 
agement of the police force, in his organisation of processions, and in the general 
management of the police of this great city. They had passed through some 
troublous times, and he thought Manchester might congratulate itself on having 
passed through them so well, and he believed this was owing greatly to the tact and 
to the ability of the Chief Constable. He might mention that the Chief Constable 
of Liverpool received ^1,000 per annum, and that was the only city with which they 
could make a fair comparison. Birmingham, with 400 police, paid their Chief 
Constable £800." 

After this a lengthy and somewhat divergent dis- 
cussion ensued upon the subject of an annual allowance 
to the Mayor. 

"The Mayor said the position of Mayor for the time being was more or less 
compromised in its dignity. He wished to say that he did not initiate these 
suggestions, and that he did not suggest them in any possible way. He had 
distinctly expressed his views against an allowance being made as depriving the 
office of its dignity and the Mayor of his independence. Taking a broader view of 
the question, he did say it was a reasonable suggestion on the part of the Council, 
that those Mayors who had no carriage establishment should not be required to set 
up an expensive establishment to be disbanded again in twelve months. He thought 
the provision of an equipage was a reasonable proposition, and he considered the 
expressions of ' flunkeyism ' and ' pauperism ' which had been made use of were 
altogether beside the question. When he was elected to the honourable' position he 
knew what the consequences would be. He was prepared to bear those consequences 
cheerfully and ungrudgingly, and he believed there were many others equally ready 
to do the same. It ought not to. go to the public that the Mayor was going about in 
cabs or omnibuses, and that the Council now proposed to put him into a carriage. 
He had enlarged his own establishment so that it might be commensurate with the 
dignity of the city, and he possessed at the present time more than the carriages 
recommended in the report. He was distinctly against a money allowance, and 
especially against a parsimonious allowance, but he agreed to the provision of an 
equipage for the sake of everybody concerned." 

On the 6th, the Mayor, accompanied by the Mayoress 
and Miss Mark, opened St. John's Lads Club, Deansgate. 

On the 13th, the Mayor and Mayoress gave a Juvenile 
Ball in the Town Hall, which was opened for that 



146 MAYORALTY, 1890-91. 

purpose at half-past five o'clock. About 400 boys and 535 
girls availed themselves of the invitations sent out. The 
Manchester Guardian, of the following day, thus alludes to 
the assembly, and the Ladies 7 Pictorial Magazine for 24th 
January has also a paragraph on the Juvenile Carnival. 

"Mayor Mark has a very fair chance of taking a permanent place in the 
knowledge and memory of Young Manchester. Certainly one of the causes of his 
unlimited personal popularity is his kindly hospitality towards the rising generation. 
Last year's Fancy Dress Ball was a function — to use an ugly but apparently 
necessary word — which will not easily be forgotten by those who took even the most 
modest part in it. This year Mr. Alderman Mark slightly changed the character of 
the entertainment. It was not a Fancy Dress Ball, but a Ball of the usual style. 
The change may not have increased the picturesqueness of the show. It is 
impossible to get much variety, for instance, out of the sombre black which is still 
de rigiteur for male wear on these occasions. But, for all that, last night's entertain- 
ment was a delightful occasion to the guests, and there was any amount of room for 
dainty device and beauty of colour in the dressing of the girls. We fancy those who 
had the opportunity of seeing the assembled crowd of young folks must have 
arrived at the pleasing conclusion that the citizens and the citizenesses of the future 
are, at least in their present stage of development, an exceedingly promising and good- 
looking set. Is it possible, however, that the boys of the day are already showing a 
weakness which is said to characterise their seniors ? Can it be that they nurse a 
secret contempt for the dance ? One can only hope not. But the fact that the 
young ladies far out-numbered the young gentlemen is not without a certain element 
of gloomy suggestiveness. There were 535 of the former and about 400 of the latter, 
their ages varying from nine to sixteen. The Police Band, playing in the sculpture 
hall, welcomed them as they arrived and as they passed up the grand staircase, 
between lines of choice evergreens. The reception rooms, also charmingly decorated 
with exotic and native plants, rapidly filled. With the utmost cordiality the Mayor, 
along with Mrs. Mark and the Misses Mark, greeted their young guests, who speedily 
divided themselves into the sections most attractive to their tastes. In the large 
hall Messrs. Forsyth Brothers' band played an admirable programme of music. 
The hall was filled, and in the sixteen dances the young people engaged with a zest 
and enjoyment which their elders no longer know. Elsewhere the 'Brothers 
Eccentrique' gave humorous musical sketches. Funny songs, it was observed, met 
with a far heartier reception than their sentimental brethren, and a negro sketch 
was heard with huge delight. Mr. and Miss Frakell, in another room, gave a 
capital exhibition. Their- excellent entertainment was peculiarly suited to the 
tender years of their hearers. Bewildering feats of legerdemain were successful ; a 
clever ventriloquial entertainment aroused long continued mirth ; and the vagaries 
of their old friend Mr. Punch once again delighted the children beyond measure. 
It goes almost without saying that everything passed smoothly and pleasantly, and 
the enjoyment of the youngsters, from those who devoted themselves with praise- 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 147 

worthy and untiring industry to the refreshment department — mostly boys, we were 
told — to their more dignified big brothers and sisters who danced as only young folk 
can, was complete. None but those who take the responsibility of entertaining any 
considerable number of children can know how much anxiety and effort it involves. 
Hence the heartiness of the universal congratulations to the Mayor on the perfect 
success of his juvenile ball." 

On the 14th, the Diocesan Branch of the Church 
of England Society met at the Town Hall, under the 
presidency of Mr. Mark. 

"The Mayor, in moving the adoption of the report, said the friends of the Society 
must feel some disappointment that its work had not been taken up with more zeal. 
He could not help asking himself why work of that kind could not be associated 
with existing institutions in Manchester instead of their increasing establishment 
and managerial charges in a very large degree. In addition to the Poor-law 
Guardians, we had in Manchester the .great Boys' Refuge in Strangeways, which 
was unsectarian, he believed, and open to all. We had also a Boys' Home in Wood 
Street ; Mrs. Galloway's Girls' Refuge, or cottage home, at Whalley Range — than 
which there could be no better institution of the kind — the Girls' Home in Devon- 
shire Street, Higher Broughton; the Gordon Boys' Home, the Prison Gate Mission, 
and the Police Court Mission — all for the rescue of waifs and strays and those who 
might be in danger of becoming criminals. He had a fear that the zeal of their 
friends in these matters might be rather apt sometimes to interfere with the 
responsibility of parents. That Society seemed to contemplate taking children 
from people who were overburdened with their families, and placing the little ones 
under foster mothers. It diminished the responsibility of parents, however, to have 
their children provided for in that way. Now why had they such an amount of 
indifference on the part of the clergy to the work ? They supposed their circulars 
were thrown into the waste paper basket ; and he was afraid that was so. They 
asked for assistance from the alms-boxes and offertories ; but if all the boxes that 
were required in churches were placed in a row it would be a very considerable 
row ; and one was not very much surprised that the clergy could not give offertories 
for every imaginable thing that came up, no matter how good it might be. The 
report stated that a home for girls was contemplated ; but we had already in 
Manchester St. Mary's Home, at Rusholme — an excellent institution, he believed — 
a Mission Refuge in Byrom Street, and a Female Penitentiary at Bloomsbury. 
Well now, with all those organisations in existence, he asked why should they 
multiply them ? Why should the Church of England wish to place children in a 
separate category? He was afraid they would think he had taken a great deal upon 
himself in making those comments; but, attending many such meetings as that, he 
could not help forming his own opinions. He sympathised most earnestly with 
everybody who desired to take poor destitute children or other unfortunate persons 
by the hand ; and he would be exceedingly sorry if his criticisms damped anybody's 
enthusiasm even in the smallest degree." 



148 MAYORALTY, 1890-91. 

On the evening of the 15th, Alderman Mark opened a 
Gymnasium established by the Baths Committee of the 
Corporation at Leaf Street, Hulme. He also opened at 
a later hour a similar Gymnasium at the Mayfield 
Baths, both being constructed by covering over the 
ordinary bathing space in a very substantial manner. 

"The Mayor expressed the hope that it would be appreciated, and by its 
popularity lead the Corporation to further work of the same character. He thought 
it was the bounden duty of the Corporation to find means of healthful recreation, 
and shelter from the weather, for youths after they were liberated from school or 
from work on these dark and cold evenings. He thought the Baths Committee had 
taken wise action in making the baths accessible to the poorest in the summer, and 
in making provision in so pleasant a way for the long and cold nights of winter." 

On the same day, the second annual meeting of the 
Manchester Hospital Work Society was held in the 
Mayor's Parlour, the Mayor presiding. 

On the 2 1st, the annual meeting of the Manchester 
and Salford Penny Savings Bank Association was held 
at noon in the Mayor's Parlour, Mr. Mark presiding. 

"The Mayor, in proposing the adoption of the report, said the most satisfactory 
paragraph it contained was the one recording that the steady increase in the work 
of the banks in previous years had been maintained. That fact indicated that the 
working classes had been at any rate fairly employed, and that they were adopting 
the means of thrift and saving in a larger degree. He was afraid that the resources 
of working people had been somewhat heavily drawn upon by the recent severity of 
the weather, but still upon the whole there was at present a healthy condition of 
trade and a satisfactory state of employment. Some observations were made at 
their annual meeting last year to the effect that the banks connected with the 
Association were principally those of Church schools, and that the Nonconformist 
bodies had comparatively few banks in their list. He should be glad to hear that 
there had been an improvement in this respect." 

On the 21st, there was a meeting of the General 
Purposes Committee of the City Council, the Mayor 
presiding. A discussion ensued with regard to the amal- 
gamation of Droylsden with Manchester, as a separate 
ward on special terms. 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 149 



On the 22nd, the subscribers to the General Hos- 
pital and Dispensary for Sick Children met, under the 
presidency of Alderman Mark, at the Hospital, Pendle- 
bury. 

"The Chairman said the report showed an amount of usefulness which should 
commend the hospital to benevolent persons. There was a slight decrease in the 
number of patients treated in the hospital ; but, seeing that they were looking for a 
better state of the public health, he did not think that should cause any regret. 
They could not share the feelings of the governor of a gaol who complained that 
certain cases were not sent there because he had not sufficient men to work the 
treadmill. He regretted that there had been a decrease in their income, and hoped 
that the more than generous example of Mr. William Agnew would be followed by 
others of large means." 

The annual meeting of the trustees and friends of the 
Manchester Royal Eye Hospital was held at the Town 
Hall on the 22nd, the Mayor presiding. 

"The Mayor, in moving the adoption of the annual report, a summary of which 
has already been published, said that the immediate friends of the institution and 
the public generally might well be congratulated upon the report which had been 
read. That the Board of Management were able to present such a report was 
eminently satisfactory. There was no affliction which, in his opinion, was greater 
than the loss of the precious sight, and the means which had been taken in 
Manchester to alleviate, as far as possible, that terrible affliction redounded very 
much to the credit of the city. The financial position of the institution was 
exceedingly satisfactory, the investments were sound and reliable, and in every way 
the hospital was in a good position." 

We copy the following from the Examiner and Times 
of the 23rd. 

"The Approaching Marriage of Miss F. Mark. — Miss Florence Mark, the 
youngest daughter of the Mayor of Manchester, was yesterday the recipient of an 
elegant gift from 230 ladies, in view of her approaching marriage. The present 
consists of a bracelet composed of three rows of diamonds, and a cluster of diamonds 
in the centre — in all forty-eight stones ; a diamond crescent brooch, with aigrette for 
the hair (thirty-seven diamonds) ; and an illuminated address on vellum. The out- 
side cover of the address (which is in book form) bears the date of Miss Florence 
Mark's wedding-day (January 29th). Inside, on a beautifully illuminated page, are 
the words, 'To Miss Florence Mark, on the occasion of her marriage during the 
second year of her father's mayoralty, the accompanying gift of diamonds is pre- 
sented by the following ladies of Manchester.' Then follow the names of the 
230 subscribers, led by Lady Egerton of Tatton, Lady Brooks, Lady Houldsworth, 



150 MAYORALTY, 1890-91. 

Lady Lee, Lady Roscoe, Lady Sowler, and Mrs. Moorhouse. The articles will be 
on view for a few days at the establishment of Messrs. Ollivant and Botsford, St. 
Ann Street, in this city." 

On the 23rd, the supporters of the Manchester and 
Salford Sanitary Association held their annual meeting 
in the Town Hall, the Mayor presiding. The various 
reports of the different branches of the Association were 
read. 

"The Mayor, in moving the adoption of the various reports, expressed the 
pleasure it gave him to preside over a gathering whose organisations embraced and 
were doing such good work. He would not attempt to enter into the details of the 
report, but would leave that duty to the chairmen of the different branches of the 
Association who were to follow him." 

On the 27th, the Mayor and Mayoress gave a Ball at 
the Manchester Town Hall ; which had this special 
feature that it commemorated the approaching marriage 
of the Mayor's youngest daughter, Miss Florence Mark, 
with Mr. Robert Arthur Lord Hutchinson. About 600 
invitations were issued. Dancing commenced about half- 
past eight, and was continued until close upon three 
o'clock the following morning. 

On the 28th, 

"The sixty-third annual meeting of the proprietors of the Royal Manchester and 
Northern Counties Botanical and Horticultural Society was held in the Town Hall, 
in this city. The Mayor (Mr. Alderman John Mark) presided, and moved the 
adoption of the annual report, which, he said, on the whole, might be considered 
satisfactory, though not so much so as could be desired, when it was remembered 
that the object of the Society was to give instruction and pleasure to the community 
without any pecuniary advantage to the proprietors. The success of this Society 
depended largely upon the weather. During the past year the Council had, in the 
most praiseworthy manner, provided attractive entertainments. In the coming year 
they contemplated having garden parties, an exhibition of hardy fruits, and a 
conference on the subject of fruit growing. This subject was a most important one, 
because fruit might be grown much more extensively than it now was. The musical 
entertainments of the past year would be continued in the coming year on a very 
extensive scale, and he hoped the Council would meet with success. The appeal of 
the Council for donations in reduction of the debt had met with a fair response, but 
not so good a one as could have been hoped for. The debt had been reduced by 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 151 

£1,758. The reduction of subscriptions from 21s. to 15s. had not been a success. 
As to the flower shows, he had noticed that a good many of the prizes frequently 
fell to the same exhibitors, and he thought that it was worth considering whether it 
would not be well to exclude plants that had become historical, and offer prizes for 
plants that had never before taken prizes. In that way the cultivation of plants 
would be encouraged. Amateurs were discouraged when they knew that somebody's 
magnificent collection would carry all before it." 

Marriage of Miss Florence Mark. (Extracted from 
the South Manchester Chronicle, 30th January, 1891.) 

" To say that village life in Didsbury and municipal life in Manchester were en 
fete on the 29th, is to but inadequately convey an impression of the widespread 
publicity which characterised the rejoicings and festivities attendant upon the 
marriage of Miss Florence Mark, the youngest daughter of the Mayor of Man- 
chester. Apart from the honourable and distinguished public position held by Mr. 
Alderman Mark, the private and social standing of the respective families of the 
contracting parties would alone have sufficed to secure to the great and happy 
event under notice considerable, if not actually abnormal interest and attention. 
When, therefore, the intrinsic lustre of the auspicious occasion has been indirectly 
enhanced by the dignity of the highest municipal honours in Manchester, little room 
is there for wonder that the fashionable circles should have united with the more 
plebeian ranks of society in pronouncing the wedding to have been the leading 
incident of the season in respect both to its brilliancy and social significance. 
Seldom, if ever, has an event of this character so deeply and enthusiastically 
engaged local interest, and the remembrance of the memorable circumstances by 
which it has been heralded, escorted, and succeeded, is not likely to be of transitory 
endurance. 

The bride, Miss Florence Mark, is, as has been already intimated, the youngest 
daughter of Mr. Alderman John Mark, J. P. (Mayor of Manchester), of Greystoke, 
Palatine Road, Didsbury. Her eldest sister is married to Mr. Fred. Lee, of Lecon- 
field, Didsbury, grey cloth agent. Mr. Alderman Mark's business is one that 
comes under the important and comprehensive category of a Tea and Wine 
Merchant and High-Class Family Grocer and Italian Warehouseman, and his 
establishment in St. Ann's Square, Manchester, is one of the largest and most 
extensive in the North of England. Though resident in Christ Church parish, the 
Mark family have always attended Emmanuel Church, Barlow Moor, where Miss 
Florence, though not an active worker, is well known and held in high esteem for 
her many amiable qualities. The fortunate gentleman of the bride's choice, and the 
partner of her future joys and sorrows, is Mr. Robert Arthur Lord Hutchinson, of 
Rochdale. Mr. Hutchinson is the second son of Mr. Robert Hopwood Hutchinson, of 
Tenter House, Rochdale. He is, in business, a large flannel manufacturer, and is 
the proprietor of Greenbooth Mills, Rochdale, finding employment for hundreds of 
hands. As an indication of the feeling with which he is regarded by his employes, 
it may here be stated that among the presents is one ' from the mill hands,' consisting 
of a handsome timepiece and ornaments of agate, bearing beautifully coloured 



152 MAYORALTY, 1890-91. 

pictorial representations of scenes from Shakespeare. Mr. Hutchinson holds the 
position of chairman of the Norden Local Board, which post he has filled with 
marked success for many years. A present from the members of the Local Board 
betokens his colleagues' sincere regard for him. In his own locality Mr. Hutchinson 
is probably as well known and as popular as the Mayor is in Manchester, and he 
can boast of very high family connections. 

THE PROCEEDINGS AT CHURCH. 

The marriage was publicly solemnised yesterday (Thursday) at Christ Church, 
Barlow Moor Road, Didsbury. The scene at the church was one of unusual 
splendour and picturesqueness. The interior of the sacred edifice had been very 
chastely adorned with palms and white flowers, and presented an exceedingly 
appropriate aspect. The pulpit was very neatly decorated with lace and white 
flowers, and the chancel was bordered with a variety of choice plants. The choir 
stalls were occupied by the near relatives of the bride and bridegroom, and a special 
stall in the front was set apart for the representatives of the Press. Outside the 
church, extending from the porch to the outer gate, a. large awning had been 
erected, and the path thus sheltered and protected was daintily carpeted. The 
service was arranged to commence at two o'clock, and for some time immediately 
prior to that hour, as well as at intervals during the morning, a joyous peal of bells 
gave public proclamation of the event. About the appointed time a long array of 
wedding equipages drove up, and the occupants were greeted upon their arrival 
with cheers by a large crowd of interested spectators which had assembled. The 
bride entered the church supported by her father, and her long Court train was 
carried by her two nephews, Masters Walter and Mark Lee, aged six and four years 
respectively. These two boys were dressed alike in the Old Court Costume, consisting 
of black velvet knee breeches and coat, lined with heliotrope silk, heliotrope and 
white brocaded waistcoats, and three-cornered hats. Their stately mien created no 
little interest. This sentiment, however, soon subsided into one of absorbing 
admiration as the bridal party, in all its splendour, merged into view. The scene 
was well worthy of the occasion, and the occasion, beyond all doubt, was worthy of 
the scene. The church was crowded to its utmost limits, every seat, and even all 
available standing room, being occupied. Notwithstanding that the accommodation 
afforded to the worshipping public by Christ Church is very commodious, such was 
the immense crowd of eager aspirants for seats that admission to the church had 
perforce to be restricted to ticket-bearers, numbers being thus greatly disappointed. 
The church is estimated to hold 600 persons, but the number present must have 
considerably exceeded 700. The doors had to be closed upon a large crowd of 
ladies, and the scene of the struggle for admittance against the police, was both 
amusing and exciting. The bride was attended by six bridesmaids : — Miss Mark 
(sister), Miss Dethick, Miss Nellie Dethick, Miss Wickham, Miss Pollitt, and Miss 
Hilda Major (cousin). Mr. Herbert Whiteley acted as best man, and Messrs. J. 
Pilling, Edgar Weldon, C. W. Robinson, and F. W. Stott acted as groomsmen. 
The bridal party also included the Mayor and Mayoress, Mrs. Hutchinson (mother 
of the bridegroom), Mr. R. L. Jones (grandfather of the bride), Miss Jones, 
Alderman and Mrs. Major, Mrs. H. P. Baly, Mrs. Wragge, Mrs. Baly, Mr. and Mrs. 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 153 

Fred. W. Lee (brother-in-law and sister of bride), Miss Major, and the Mayoress's 
stewards — Messrs. J. W. Botsford, Norman Gillibrand, D'Arcy Greenwood, 
S. W. Wilkinson, H. Pollitt, J. H. Mc.Kean, J. Mc.Quade, R. Musgrave, D. Mc.Niven, 
and G. Lowcock. Mr. Hutchinson, the father of the bridegroom, was unavoidably 
absent through illness. The service was not choral. Mr. Varley, the organist of 
Christ Church, presided at the organ. Mr. Kendrick Pyne was unable to be present, 
and Mr. Lord, an intimate friend of the bridegroom, had promised to act as organist 
for the occasion, but he was indisposed. The service was performed by the Very 
Rev. the Dean of Manchester, assisted by the Rev. Walter Thompson, rector of 
Christ Church, and the Rev. O. Fynes Clinton, rector of Emmanuel Church, Barlow 
Moor. The bride was given away by her father. By some misunderstanding the 
chimes did not cease ringing at the right time, and the Rev. W. Thompson opened 
the service with an accompaniment from the bells, as surprising as it was unusual. 
At the conclusion of the service the Dean, in an address to the young couple, 
directed their special attention to one of the rubrics in the marriage service, 
requiring the bride and bridegroom to receive the sacrament at as early a date after 
the marriage as convenient. He said this rubric was sadly neglected and deemed of 
little import, but he hoped to see the time when the administration of the Holy 
Communion to a married couple would form part — and not the least important 
part, too — of the marriage service. The Dean also spoke impressively of the 
marriage state as symbolising the union between Christ and the Church. 

Prior to the service, Mr. Varley played the following selections:— Handel's 
' Second Concerto in B flat ' ; ' Andante and Allegro,' by Bach ; Lemmen's ' Grand 
chorus' ; and 'Berceuse in A,' by Delbruck. After the Dean had pronounced the 
threefold blessing, Mr. Varley played Wely's ' Allegro ' while the register was being 
signed in the vestry. This formality accomplished, Mendelssohn's ' Wedding 
March ' resounded in swelling strains of solemn triumph from the organ, amid which 
the bride and bridegroom left the church, and drove to the Manchester Town 
Hall, after receiving a volley of felicitous congratulations. A crowd of friends and 
well-wishers, gathered outside the church, bestowed cordial greetings upon the 
newly-married couple, together with showers of rice, as they entered their carriage. 

THE BRIDAL COSTUMES. 

One of the most interesting features of the marriage was the singular splendour 
and magnificence of the bridal costumes. Their costliness, though strikingly 
apparent, was not so impressive a consideration as their almost unsurpassed loveli- 
ness, and the tasteful ingenuity of their design was only to be equalled by their 
artistic workmanship. The bride's costume was of white Lyons Bengaline. The 
petticoat and long Court train were deeply bordered all round with white fox fur. 
The bodice was stylishly draped with white chiffon. Her veil, which was of white tulle, 
was fastened with ostrich feathers, and the only ornaments were three rare articles, 
composing a present from some 300 of the leading ladies of Manchester — a bangle 
composed of three rows of diamonds, a diamond crescent brooch, and a diamond 
aigrette. Over eighty diamonds were employed in the construction of these valuable 
ornaments. The bride's bouquet was composed of real orange blossom, sent by one 
of the bridegroom's most intimate friends, the Due de Ferrai. Some white roses 



154 MAYORALTY, 1890-91. 



and lilies had also been specially grown by the Due de Ferrai for this special 
purpose, but these had unfortunately been destroyed by the severe frost. The bride's 
long Court train was held, as already stated, by her two youthful nephews, attired as 
pages. The six bridesmaids, whose names have been given, were all apparelled 
alike in handsome costumes of pale heliotrope corded silk, trimmed with white fox 
fur and silver passementerie. Their girdles were of silver with tassels to match, 
and they wore white felt Watteau hats trimmed with white fox fur and doves. 
Their ornaments consisted of gold bracelets with signet heads, and prettily carved 
flower ornaments, the gifts of the bridegroom. Each carried a very beautiful 
bouquet, in which tea roses and lilies of the valley predominated. Mrs. Mark, the 
mother of the bride, was attired in a costume of rich Lyons velvet in cornflower blue 
(the new royal blue), deeply bordered all round with handsome dark sable fur. The 
bodice was prettily trimmed with sable and point de gaze lace. She wore a bonnet to 
match, and carried a bouquet of choice orchids. Mrs. Fred Lee, sister of the bride, 
wore an exquisite dress of cream and gold brocaded silk, trimmed with brown emu 
feather trimming and brown velvet, with velvet sleeves to match. Other noteworthy 
costumes were observed, the particularisation of which space will not permit. The 
whole of the costumes were designed and prepared by Messrs. Kendal, Milne and 
Co. , of Manchester. 

THE BRIDE'S TROUSSEAU. 

The bride had an elaborate trousseau, which included some very dainty novelties 
in wearing apparel. There were several tea gowns, and amongst them a distinguished 
looking gown of pale salmon coloured brocade, with front of chiffon to match . A very 
pretty gown was one in a delicate tone of pink, made of soft silk, and trimmed with 
Irish lace. Another, almost equally attractive, was of soft clinging material in art 
green, with a front of white silk. In addition to these there was a variety of com- 
fortable gowns for the toilet, breakfast, and morning wear, too numerous to mention. 

THE RECEPTION AT THE TOWN HALL. 

A grand reception was held at the Manchester Town Hall after the service, at 
which over 120 guests, in addition to those already named as forming part of the 
bridal party, were present. The following is an official list of the invited guests: — 
Mr. Herbert Whiteley, Mr. J. Pilling, Mr. Edgar Weldon, Mr. C. W. Robinson, 
Mr. F. W. Stott, Mr. and Mrs. Aders, Mr. and Mrs. Ross, Mr. and Mrs. Malcolm 
Wood, Mr. and Mrs. James Murgatroyd, Mr. and Mrs. Dethick, Miss Mabel 
Dethick, Mr. and Mrs. Crouchley, Mr. Broadfield, Mr. and Mrs. W. E. Gordon, 
Mr. and Mrs. Will Holland, Captain Williams (A.D.C. to Sir Baker Russell, 
Aldershot), the Misses Veevers, Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Maclure, Mrs. Maclure, 
Mr. Oliver Heywood, Mr. Herbert B. Mack, Mr. Harry Patteson, Mr. and Mrs. 
Watts, Mr. and Mrs. A. Dyson, Mr. and Mrs. Hall, Mr. and Mrs. Broome, Mr. and 
Mrs. W. Slater Boddington, Mr. and Mrs. Henry Boddington, Mr. R. M. Shears, 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Neill, jun., Mr. Herbert W. Brockbank, Mr. and Mrs. T. W. 
Brown, Mr. and Mrs. Rooke, Mr. and Mrs. Walton Gillibrand, Mr. and Mrs. Percy 
Hutchinson (brother and sister-in-law of bridegroom), Mr. and Mrs. Goldthorpe, 
Mr. and Mrs. M. L. Yates, Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Fry, Mr. and Mrs. Priestley, 
Mr. and Mrs. Briggs, Miss Lily Briggs, Mr. and Mrs. Lewis Galloway, Mr. and 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 155 



Mrs. Graham, Miss Beatrice Graham, Mr. and Mrs. E. J. Brockbank, Mr. Thomas 

B. and Miss King, Mr. and Mrs. Joseph King, Dr. and Mrs. Torrop, Mr. and Mrs. 
Bullough, Mr. and Mrs. Veevers, Mr. and Mrs. Jason Wilson, Mr. and Mrs. 
Ed. Crabtree Watts, Mr. and Mrs. J. S. Neill, Mrs. O'Fynes-Clinton, Mr. and Mrs. 
George Whiteley, Mr. Frank Schofield, Miss Blanche Oram, Miss Emily Faithfull, 
Mr. and Mrs. Tom Craven, Mr. and Mrs. H. S. Smith, Mr. and Mrs. Hurst, 
Mr. and Mrs. Nelson Rusden, Captain Openshaw, Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Hutchinson 
(Grantham), Mr. Fred Lee (Grantham), Mr. J. W. Addleshaw, Miss Charlotte 
Robinson, Mr. and Mrs. W. Wilkinson, Mr. Jesse Collinge. The usual toasts 
incidental to an occasion of this character, as well as a large number of special 
toasts appropriate to the special circumstances of the event, were honoured with 
much enthusiasm. The bridescake, which was exhibited, was a magnificent 
specimen of the art it represented, and fully harmonised with the general scale of 
costly elaborateness that pervaded the whole proceedings. It was in three tiers, 
and was decorated with white flowers. The Mayoress's stewards — Messrs. 

C. Malcolm Wood (Chief Constable of Manchester), J. W. Botsford, H. Berry, 
Sharp Galloway, J. S. Nuttall, Donald Mc.Niven, J. H. Mc.Kean, R. Musgrave, 
W. H. Dethick, Harry Pollitt, George Lowcock, D'Arcy Greenwood, J. Mc.Quade, 
and Norman Gillibrand — continued the tenure of their offices until the conclusion of 
the reception , having acted in the same capacities at church, and at a ball given in 
the Town Hall on Tuesday evening. They were distinguished by badges 
consisting of the city of Manchester coat of arms worked in gold. After the 
reception, a family party of about forty went to the theatre, there to spend the 
remainder of a singularly happy day. 

THE HONEYMOON. 

At five o'clock in the afternoon the bride and bridegroom left the Town Hall for 
London, en route for the Riviera, where they intend to spend their honeymoon. The 
bride was habited in a travelling costume of pale grey cloth (in which was worked a 
black scroll pattern), edged with astrachan ; a black and grey ' Terry ' bonnet, edged 
with astrachan ; and a grey tight-fitting coat lined with plaid silk. 

MAYORAL BALL IN THE TOWN HALL. 

The Mayor and Mayoress gave a ball at the Town Hall, on Tuesday night, in 
honour of the wedding. About 600 invitations were sent out, and as they arrived, 
the guests were received in the State apartments by the Mayor and Mayoress. Mr. 
Vetter's band had been engaged, and the floor of the large hall had been specially 
prepared for dancing. Plants were freely used in the decoration of the corridors 
and staircases. Dancing was kept up until three o'clock on Wednesday morning. 
The assemblage of gay and beautiful costumes was much enhanced by the brilliant 
uniforms of the officers of the garrison, and a very pleasing and successful feature 
of the entertainment was that at midnight the dancing was suspended for an hour, 
and the whole company were seated at supper at the same time by an arrangement 
of tables in the continuous suite of the State apartments; the tables being very 
beautifully decorated with flowers and parti-coloured candles. 

THE PRESENTS. 

The presents are almost as remarkable for their great number as for their 
costliness. Fully 200 separate gifts have been received, and such was the grand 



156 MAYORALTY, 1890-91. 



display they made that, in response to many influential requests, they were publicly 
exhibited at the Town Hall on Tuesday afternoon, and a numerous crowd of visitors 
took advantage of the exceptional opportunity thus offered. On Monday, Miss 
Florence Mark was the recipient of an elegant gift from some 300 of the principal 
ladies of Manchester. The present consisted of a bracelet composed of three rows 
of large lustrous diamonds, with a magnificent cluster in the centre — in all forty- 
eight stones ; a diamond crescent brooch, with aigrette for the hair, composed of 
thirty-seven diamonds ; and an illuminated address on vellum. The outside cover 
of the address, which was in book form, bore the date of Miss Florence Mark's 
wedding day, 'January 29th,' and on a beautifully-illuminated page inside were 
inscribed the words : ' To Miss Florence Mark, on the occasion of her marriage, 
during the second year of her father's mayoralty, the accompanying gift of diamonds 
is presented by the following ladies of Manchester.' Then followed the signatures 
of the 300 subscribers, headed by those of Lady Egerton of Tatton, Lady Cunliffe 
Brooks, Lady Houldsworth, Lady Lee, Lady Roscoe, Lady Sowler, and Mrs. Moor- 
house. Messrs. Ollivant and Botsford, jewellers, of St. Ann Street, Manchester, 
who were the makers of the beautiful ornaments, publicly exhibited them in the 
windows of their establishment during the early part of the week, and the ornaments 
were greatly admired by large crowds of spectators. Another present of particular 
importance was a large case of twelve solid finger bowls, silver gilt, each engraved 
with the family crest of the bridegroom. All the necessary information was 
contained in the following inscription : — ' Presented to Miss Florence Mark, on the 
occasion of her marriage, by the Mayoress of Manchester's (Mrs. Mark) stewards, 
January 20th, 1891. — (Signed) C. Malcolm Wood (Chief Constable of Manchester), 
J. W. Botsford, H. Berry, Sharp Galloway, J. S. Nuttall, Donald Mc.Niven, 
J. H. Mc.Kean, R. Musgrave, W. H. Dethick, Harry Pollitt, George Lowcock, 
D'Arcy Greenwood, J. Mc.Quade, and Norman Gillibrand. These gentlemen were 
united in the presentation in their capacity as the Mayoress's stewards. Other 
presents of special interest were a new brougham by the father of the bride, School 
of Art embroidery work (her own sole handiwork) by the mother of the bride, a 
wonderful old George III. soup-ladle by Mr. R. Fred Lee (of Grantham), a costly 
piece of old china by Mr. and Mrs. Grimshaw, a highly ornamental table centre by 
Miss Emily Faithfull and Miss Charlotte Robinson, a solid silver afternoon tray by 
the best man, a silver toilet set by Mrs. Fred. Lee, a case of fish knives and forks 
by Miss Mark, and a grand piano by Mr. Percy Hutchinson, only brother of the 
bridegroom. The following is the official list of the presents : — Father of bride, 
a new brougham ; mother of bride, School of Art embroidery work, comprising three 
bed-covers, mantel borders, etc. ; Mr. and Mrs. Hutchinson (father and mother of 
the bridegroom), cheque, household furniture, linen, etc., and ring; Mr. and Mrs. 
Fred. W. Lee (brother-in-law and sister to bride), silver toilet set; Miss Mark, fish 
knives and forks; Mr. and Mrs. R. Percy Hutchinson (brother and sister-in-law of 
the bridegroom), Steinway's grand piano; Mr. R. L. Jones, silver clothes-brush; 
Mr. C. R. Jones, silver brush; Miss Jones, silver button-hook; Alderman and 
Mrs. Major, silver tray; Mrs. Mark (Kent), silk embroidered folding screen; Ladies 
of Manchester, diamond bracelet, crescent brooch with aigrette; Norden 
Local Board members and officers, a cabinet of Rodgers' table cutlery; 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 157 

Mr. J. W. Addleshaw, Worcester kettle drum, tea service, and silver spoons; Mr. 
and Mrs. Lockett Agnew, feather fan ; Mr. Harold Addleshaw, silver vinagrette ; 
Mr. and Mrs. Aitken, table screen ; Mr. and Mrs. Andrew, vase ; Mr. and Mrs. Aders, 
candle lamp stands ; Anonymous, paper knife ; Anonymous, large family Bible ; 
Councillor and Mrs. Batty, mirror mounted in Algerian onyx ; Mr. and Mrs. Bird, 
Knight's Shakespeare (eight vols.) ; Mrs. Bullough, hand-painted folding screen ; 
Councillor and Mrs. Boddington, silver afternoon tea set (George III. period) ; Mr. 
and Mrs. Brockbank and the Misses Brockbank, ebony and silver-backed brushes ; 
Mr. and Mrs. Briggs, nutcrackers and grape scissors, etc. ; Mr. and Mrs. Broome, 
silver cream and sugar ; Mrs. Baly, silver candlesticks ; Mr. and Mrs. H. P. Baly, 
silver nutcrackers ; Mr. Herbert Brockbank, silver card case ; Miss Butterworth, 
cushion ; Mr. and Mrs. E. E. Baly, silver scent bottle ; Herr and Frau Paul von 
Beckerath, album ; Miss Butterworth, opossum carriage rug ; Mr. and Mrs. F. 
Baume, painted screen ; Mr. and Mrs. T. Brown, serviette rings ; Miss Olive Baly, 
silver thimble in case ; Miss Briggs, hand-painted tea cosy ; Mr. and Mrs. W. S. 
Boddington, Vienna basket ; the Misses Craven, Worcester ornaments ; Mrs. and 
the Misses Cummins, ornament ; Mr. and Mrs. Smith Carrington, travelling clock ; 
Mr. and Mrs. Crouchley, escritoire in polished hardwood stand ; Captain and Mrs. 
Cooke, jar ; Mr. and Mrs. Tom Craven, silver gilt salt-cellars ; the Misses and Mr. 
W. S. Cronshaw, silver spoons ; Cowburn's Carriage Works, carriage warmer ; Mr. 
Coddington, M.P., and Mrs. Coddington, cheque ; Sir Raylton and Lady Dixon, 
silver flower vases ; Mr. and Mrs. Dethick, stand lamp, standard ; Mrs. Dixon, and 
Mrs. Redmayne, tablecloth ; Mr. and Mrs. C. W. Dudley, silver butter dish ; Mr. 
and Mrs. John Dunn, silver gilt dessert dish ; Mr. and Mrs. Peter Dunn, silver gilt 
compotes; the Misses Dethick, silver salt-cellars; Mr. and Mrs. Dreydel, salad bowl ; 
Mr. and Mrs. A. K. Dyson, pearl and diamond bracelet ; Miss Emerton, silver bread 
fork ; Mr. and Mrs. Scott Forbes, butter and cheese dish ; Miss Faithfull and Miss 
Robinson, white brocade table centre ; Mr. J. H. Fryer and family, bacon and entree 
dishes ; Mr. and Mrs. Fry, riding whip ; Mr. and Mrs. Fowle, silver match box ; 
Mr. Stanley Galloway, silver table ornaments ; Mr. and Mrs. Lewis Galloway, silver 
bowl ; Mr. and Mrs. Gorton, Worcester jug ; Mr. and Mrs. Graham, album screen ; 
Miss-Beatrice Graham, afternoon tea serviettes; Mrs. and Miss Gorton, photo frame ; 
the Misses Gleaves, silver spoons (afternoon tea) ; Miss Gillibrand, photo frame ; 
Mr. and Mrs. Grimshaw, antique bowl and cover; Mr. W. T. Gillibrand, oil paint- 
ing by Bright Morris ; Mr. and Mrs. Hurst, Worcester jar ; Mr. and Mrs. A. 
Hutchinson (Grantham), pearl and lace fan ; Sir John and Lady Harwood, clock 
mounted in Algerian onyx ; Mr. and Mrs. W. H. Holland, Worcester vase ; Mr. 
and Mrs. Hall, salver ; Mr. Augustus Harris, silver gilt flower vases ; Mr. and Mrs. 
Hampson, ivory napkin rings and knife rests ; Mr. Hodgkins, case of skeleton leaves; 
Mr. Percy Haworth and Miss Wilkinson, overmantel ; Mr. and Mrs. Milner Helme, 
Worcester bon-bon dishes ; Mr. R. A. A. Jones, silver cake basket ; Mr. Jeweson, 
cheese scoop ; Mr. and Mrs. Joseph King, inkstand ; Mrs. King, table ; Mr. Thomas 
and Miss King, case of sugar spoons ; Mr. and Mrs. Langstien, silver berry spoons ; 
Miss Lowcock, knife rests (ivory and silver) ; Consul and Mrs. Lilly, Brazilian lace 
handkerchief and case ; Mr. and Mrs. T. P. Ling, case of dessert knives ; Councillor 
A. E. Lloyd, silver sugar castor ; the Misses Lazonby, writing desk ; Mrs. Lazonby, 



158 MAYORALTY, 1890-91. 



silver muffineers ; Mr. and Mrs. W. C. Lord, claret jug ; Mr. and Mrs. Leigh 
(Tabley), china candlesticks; Mr. and Mrs. Lawson, Worcester bon-bon dishes; 
Mr. Fred. Lee (of Grantham), antique soup ladle (George III. period) ; Mr. and Mrs. 
Lowe, case oyster forks, mother-of-pearl and silver ; the Misses Mollison, four silver 
table pots ; Mrs. Moffit and sister, bacon dish ; Mr. and Mrs. Miller, Worcester 
jars ; Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Maclure, silver card case ; Mademoiselle Molini, set of 
netted mats ; Mr. and Mrs. J. T. Murray, egg-stand ; Mr. and Mrs. Clifford Milne, 
handkerchief satchet ; the Misses Janet and Hilda Major, cucumber dish ; Alice 
Mills, butter knife ; Mr. and Mrs. J. D. Milne, case of cheese scoop, butter knives, 
and pickle forks ; Mr. and Mrs. Murgatroyd, brass inkstand ; Miss Murgatroyd, silk 
tablecloth; Mr. Norris, cloth carriage rug ; Mr. Bower Ogden, salt-cellars ; Captain 
Openshaw, silver game pie dish ; Mr. J. Pilling, fish slice ; Mr. and Mrs. Plevin, 
silver and glass preserve dish ; Mr. and Mrs. Priestley, pearl and sapphire brooch ; Mr. 
and Mrs. Pollitt, silver afternoon tea service (Queen Anne period) ; the Misses Pollitt, 
four silver berry spoons (antique) ; Mr. J. and Mr. H. Patteson, breakfast castors ; Mr. 
William Powell, silver toilet set ; Mr. Edward Powell, clock and barometer, horse 
shoes, and splinter bars ; Mr. Herman Parrot, silver sugar bowl and tongs ; Mr. and 
Mrs. J. Kendrick Pyne, antique copper urn ; Mr. and Mrs. Ross, diamond and pearl 
bracelet ; Mr. and Mrs. Nelson Rusden, silver crumb scraper ; Mr. and Mrs. 
Redmayne, pearl and lace fan ; Mr. and Mrs. F. Robinson, silver berry spoons ; 
Mr. and Mrs. Lewis Robinson, brass writing set ; Mr. and Mrs. Salkeld Robinson, 
travelling clock ; Mr. Charles Robinson, overmantel ; Mr. F. and Mr. A. and the 
Misses Robinson, stand lamp ; Mr. and Mrs. H. M. Stanley, ' In Darkest Africa,' 
with autograph ; Mr. and Mrs. Fell Smith, pink crape fan ; the Mayor and Mayoress 
of Salford, silver fruit dishes; Mrs. Saatweber and the Misses Leicester, brass 
writing set ; Mr. and Mrs. Herbert Smith, silver water jug ; Miss Slater, silver jam 
pot holder ; Mr. Hezekiah Sharp, three books on political economy ; Mr. and Mrs. 
Smelt, pair of Worcester jars ; Mr. and Mrs. Frank Schofield, folding screen ; Mr. 
Ernest and Mr. Harold Simmons, driving whip ; Miss Mary Schofield, painted 
d'oyleys in silk; -Mr. Charles Stott, two ivory hair brushes; Mr. and Mrs. R. B. 
Taylor, a lizard skin purse ornamented with silver ; Councillor and Mrs. Chesters 
Thompson, silver afternoon tea set ; Mr. Leighton Tebby, oil painting; the Rev. and 
Mrs. Walter Thompson, three Doulton ornaments; Dr. and Mrs. Torrop, nut- 
crackers and grape scissors; Mr. and Mrs. Tarbolton, table gong ; The Town Clerk 
and Mrs. Talbot, four silver salt-cellars; Mr. and Mrs. J. J. Towndrop, Worcester 
brackets; Rev. Father Vaughan, triple ivory scissors ; Mrs. and the Misses Veevers, 
ornaments ; Mr. and Mrs. Vicary, clothes brush in silver stirrup ; Mr. E. Weldon, 
silver handled paper knife ; Mrs. E. Weldon, antique sauce spoons; Mr. and Mrs. 
Watts, muffineers; Mr. and Mrs. Edward Watts, cake basket; Mr. and Mrs. Walsh 
and Miss Threlfall, Worcester jar; Mrs. W. H. Whalley, lace handkerchief; 
Mrs. Wragge, jewelled lamp; Mrs. W. Wilkinson, pair of silver-mounted toilet 
bottles; Mr. John and Miss Walsh, Worcester ornaments; Mrs. Whiteley, cheque; 
Mr. Herbert Whiteley, silver afternoon tea tray; Mr. and Mrs. Jason Wilson, silver 
biscuit box; Mr. J. H. Wilson, case of fruit spoons; Miss Wickham, two china fruit 
dishes; Mr. and Mrs. Woodgate, brass paper stand ; Mrs. Fred Wilkinson, painted 
cushion; Mr. Samuel W. Wilkinson, riding whip; Mr. and Mrs. Weigenthaler, 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 159 



silk carton of bon-bons ; Mr. and Mrs. C. Malcolm Wood, silver mounted scent 
bottles; Mr. and Mrs. Fletcher Waters, table easel for photos; Captain Williams, 
silver mustard pot ; Mr. Whittaker, photo album ; Mr. and Mrs. George Whiteley, 
pair silver-backed hair brushes; Mrs. Wright (Southport), cruet stand; Mr. and 
Mrs. Yates, afternoon tea cream and sugar; the servants at Tenter House, tantalus 
case; the maidservants at Greystoke, silver inkstand; the Mayoress's stewards, 
twelve silver finger bowls; Greenbooth Mills workpeople, clock and vases; 
coachman and wife at Tenter House, china breakfast service." 

On the 3rd February, there was a special meeting 
of the General Purposes Committee at the Town Hall 
for the purpose of receiving a report on the position 
of the Manchester Ship Canal. 

"The Mayor, in opening the business of the meeting, said that the subject which 
they had met to consider was one of unusual importance. He would dive into the 
subject at once by saying that a few days ago Sir Joseph Lee (deputy chairman of 
the Ship Canal Company) waited upon him, and made certain statements relating to 
the completion of the canal. He considered that the statements were of such im- 
portance that he asked Sir Joseph Lee if the directors of the Ship Canal Company 
would address to him a letter which he could lay before his colleagues for their con- 
sideration. The letter was written and was as follows : — 

Manchester, January 31, 1891. 

Dear Mr. Mayor, — Sir Joseph Lee informs me that he has related to you the 
various causes which make it impossible that the Manchester Ship Canal can be 
completed with our present capital. It is our intention to inform the shareholders 
at Tuesday's meeting that it will be necessary to apply to Parliament for an increase 
of our capital powers. The Board having very carefully considered the financial 
position of the company and the extreme difficulty of obtaining new capital in the 
open market, think it advisable that an appeal should at once be made to your 
Corporation for assistance. The sum necessary for the completion of the canal after 
the capital powers of the company have been exhausted is in round figures £1 ,700,000. 
This apparent deficit is mainly due to the lock-up of the plant and other assets of 
the company, which cannot be realised until the canal is completed. The directors 
are ready to give any further information that will enable the Corporation to form a 
decision upon the appeal made to them. — I am, dear Mr. Mayor, yours very truly, 

Egerton of Tatton, Chairman. 
The Worshipful the Mayor of Manchester. 

Proceeding, the Mayor said that that morning he and Sir John Harwood had had 
an interview with Lord Egerton and Sir Joseph Lee, and had entered into further 
particulars. As the result of the interviews he begged to propose the following 
resolution : — 

'That it be recommended to the Council that the communication from the 
Chairman of the Manchester Ship Canal Company, now read, be referred to a 
special committee ; that such committee be authorised to communicate with the 



160 MAYORALTY, 1890-91. 

directors of the Manchester Ship Canal and others, and obtain full information on 
the subject, and to present a report embodying the results of their inquiries and 
recommendations for consideration at a special meeting of the Council.' 

The Ship Canal directors, the Mayor continued, found themselves in their present 
position from no fault of their own, nor from any want of foresight so far as one 
could see. The death of their late contractor, Mr. Walker, was one cause of the 
crisis. The great flood and the long frost were other causes ; the increased cost of 
labour of from 20 to 25 per cent, was another ; and there were various other causes 
which would be explained to the satisfaction of the Council. Circumstances had 
arisen which made it necessary for the directors of the Ship Canal to take over the 
work from the trustees of the late Mr. Walker on the 24th of November last, thereby 
locking up nearly £1,000,000 of capital in the plant. It was impossible to realise 
the value of the plant before the opening of the canal, and the directors found them- 
selves in a position which compelled them to apply to Parliament for increased 
capital powers. The directors were fully aware that they had pretty well exhausted 
the public resources, and if they wished to carry their undertaking to a successful 
issue, they must be backed up by some powerful Corporation like that of Manchester. 
They therefore looked hopefully to the Corporation, because in the past it had given 
very general approval to their enterprise. When the Ship Canal Company had 
fought their bill through two sessions of Parliament they came to the Manchester 
Corporation and said, ' Unless we can get some assistance, we shall be unable to 
proceed further,' and the Corporation, to its credit, came to their assistance with 
something like £18,000, equivalent to a rate of 2d. in the pound. The bill was 
obtained, and Messrs. Rothschild having failed to raise the necessary capital, the 
Canal Company again came to the Corporation, and then, during the mayoralty of 
the late Mr. Alderman Goldschmidt, a Consultative Committee was appointed to 
inquire into the whole question. The Committee was composed of gentlemen of 
the very highest commercial standing, and they reported very favourably upon the 
whole project. The capital was subscribed, and, as far as then appeared to the 
engineers and every one else, the original capital should have been sufficient to 
complete the undertaking. From a variety of causes, which it would be the duty of 
the committee which he had recommended for appointment to inquire into, the 
directors now found that they would require more capital. The Corporation had 
not been pledged to anything by what he had said to any of the directors, or by 
what Sir John Harwood or anybody else had said. They were there to consider 
the question with open minds, and to decide whether— the reputation of Manchester 
being at stake— the Corporation could come to the assistance of the Ship Canal 
Company, and assist in the completion of the canal. Manchester, he said, had a 
very great reputation and a very great responsibility to maintain in this matter. 
This great undertaking had been subscribed to by all classes of Manchester people — 
in a large degree, in a moderate degree, and in a small degree— and if the Corpora- 
tion could see their way to help the directors of the Canal Company to the comple- 
tion of this great work, he hoped the support would not be found wanting. The 
directors of the company, as he understood it, did not ask the Corporation to lend 
the money, but they asked that Manchester should, in some way, become guarantee 
for the raising of the additional capital required. The Corporation, in the first 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 161 



instance, would have to be satisfied; the ratepayers would have to express their 
approval ; and Parliament would have to sanction that approval before anything 
could be done. His (the Mayor's) apology, if apology were needed, for calling that 
meeting at such an unusual time, with something of urgency, was that time is an im- 
portant factor in the matter. The meeting could not be held before the meeting of 
the shareholders that day, and it would be convenient if the proceedings of that 
afternoon could be endorsed by the Council meeting of the following day. That 
was the explanation for calling the meeting that afternoon. In what was said that 
afternoon it was very important that they should be exceedingly guarded, and not 
create any panic or want of confidence in the public mind. There was no necessity 
for panic or loss of confidence. The undertaking was as sound and as sensible as 
ever it was. The experience of those who had had to do with the execution of 
works, from the building of a house upwards, was that such works rarely escaped 
extras and unforeseen expenditure ; and in an immense undertaking of the nature of 
the Ship Canal it would be more strange if, accurately or even approximately, they 
could have estimated the actual expenditure. The directors gave very sufficient 
reasons for the deficit, among them being the locking up of capital and various items 
of expenditure which were entirely unconceived. He thought it was undesirable for 
him to give any opinions of his own upon the proposal now being made, and would 
leave it entirely in the hands of the Council. It might be asked what precedent 
there was for a corporation lending its assistance to a project of this kind, and the 
answer would be that the precedents were very numerous indeed. At Liverpool, 
Bristol, Newcastle, Hull, and 20 or 25 other places, corporations had put their hands 
to great works of this kind for the benefit of their respective cities and boroughs, 
and he could only hope that the Manchester Corporation, in its wisdom, might be 
able by following suit to bring the great project of the Ship Canal to a successful 
issue." 

Sir John Harwood, in a lengthy speech observed that 
the Mayor, himself, and others had given the matter 
thoughtful consideration, and had come to the conclusion 
that all things considered, the proposal they were recom- 
mending was that which would meet with the least 
objection. Concluding a lengthy discussion of the whole 
subject, Sir John Harwood observed that nothing was 
more natural than that the Ship Canal Directors should 
confer with the Mayor and Deputy-Mayor, with a view of 
finding out with what prospects of success they could 
approach the Council. 

" The Mayor, alluding to the same point, said Manchester had not got an alarmist 
Mayor, and he hoped it never would have. So long as he retained his office he 
should take the course which, in his opinion, would best serve the public interest, 



162 MAYORALTY, 1890-91. 

and he was perfectly justified in calling together a dozen or fourteen of the senior 
and most responsible members to confer with him. If the endorsement of 
Manchester upon the proposed security were not sufficient, then they should call 
in Bolton, Oldham, and other towns, but at present he felt that the great Corporation 
of Manchester should rise to the occasion, and by its own action relieve the Canal 
Company of their difficulties. 

The resolution was carried unanimously. 

The Mayor next moved that the Committee be composed of the chairmen of the 
various committees of the Council, with power to add to their number." 

On the 4th, the Mayor, accompanied by Mrs. Mark 
and Miss Mark, opened a very attractive and well 
stocked Bazaar, at the Parish Schools, Gorton. 

" The Mayor said it was the first bazaar that he had come to in Gorton, and that 
was probably because a rather important ward of Gorton had only just been 
incorporated with the city,- but it was by no means the first bazaar he had attended. 
He had, however, great pleasure in being there and in formally declaring the bazaar 
open. He did not know that he had seen a larger attendance at any bazaar he had 
ever attended, and he felt convinced that at the end of their labours the committee 
would be satisfied with the result. He was one of those who held that ministers 
of religion should have no anxiety as to financial matters in connection with their 
high office : those matters should be discharged by their church officers ; and 
further, he was also of opinion that when such a magnificent ;church as theirs had 
once been provided, and consecrated to public worship among such a great artisan 
population as they had in that district, extraordinary efforts ought not to be 
necessary to keep the sacred edifice in a condition worthy of the great purposes for 
which it was erected." 

On the same day the Mayor opened a new Club 
House and Lecture Hall in Exchange Street, Cheetham, 
intended for Jewish Working Men of the district, and 
was presented with a beautiful gold key. 

"The Mayor, who was accompanied by the Mayoress and Miss Mark and the 
Mayor of Salford, was heartily welcomed by a large and fashionable company, there 
being an unusual muster of ladies. At the outset his Worship was presented with 
a handsome gold key and a scroll setting out the particular objects for which the 
club is intended. In declaring the club open, he congratulated the Jewish 
community of Manchester on entering into possession of such a spacious and 
substantial building. He hoped the club would be used as those who had provided 
it intended it should be used. In this great cosmopolitan city, added the Mayor, 
where there were so many races, creeds, and denominations, there was no race more 
orderly or who were better citizens than the community to which they belonged. 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 163 

Considering the vast number of Jews there were in Manchester it was exceedingly 
rare that any offence against the laws of the country or against the by-laws of the 
city was committed." 

The presentation key is of solid gold of about five 
inches in length ; on one side is a shield of Arms of the 
City of Manchester, colours in enamel, and on the reverse 
a plate upon which is engraved the following inscription : 

"Presented to His Worship the Mayor of Manchester, John Mark, Esq., 

ON THE OCCASION OF HIS OPENING THE JEWISH WORKING Men's CLUB, 4TH 

February, 1891." 

A quarterly meeting of the City Council was held on 
the 4th, the Mayor presiding. The subjects under 
consideration were very numerous and important. On 
the subject of the lighting and ventilation of the Hall, 

" The Mayor said the Town Hall Committee had hoped to be able to include in 
their proceedings a recommendation to the effect that the Town Hall should be 
independently lighted with an installation of electric light. That building was of 
sufficient magnitude to warrant a separate installation. Apart from the desirable- 
ness of good light, it was a question of health, as frequently the gas had to be used 
during the day time, and that absorbed thp. oxygen which was so necessary to their 
well-being." 

Mr. Gibson again introduced the question of the 
Mayor's equipage and allowance. 

"The Mayor said the Council had already 'dealt with the question, and then 
refused to deal with it.' He as chairman of the Town Hall Committee was inclined 
to think it was rather ' too large an order ' to come from the Town Hall Committee. 
He thought it would be better if Sir John Harwood raised the question directly in 
the Council and not in committee. 

Alderman Sir John Harwood said he thought he could furnish reasons ' why the 
order should not be large.' It would not be a large order, but he ventured to 
suggest that the reasons he should give would be unanswerable. 

The Mayor : Will it be an order worth having ? " 

On the Ship Canal difficulty, 

"The Mayor, in moving the approval of the report, said he thanked every 
member of the Council for the hearty support they gave to his recommendations 
on Tuesday. He felt that the result had given great public satisfaction and relief 
to the public mind." 



164 MAYORALTY, 1890-91. 



A letter was read from Councillor Schou, resigning 
his seat for St. Clement's Ward on account of ill health. 

" The Mayor, in his reply to the letter, said that the resignation to be effectual 
should be accompanied by the fine of /50, which would doubtless be remitted by 
the Council, and added : ' I can assure you that the members of the* Council deeply 
regret your absence and contemplated retirement, and that your public services, 
with the courteous bearing and spirit always manifested by you, have been 
fully appreciated by your colleagues and by myself especially.' 

The resignation was accepted, and it was decided to remit the fine." 

On the question of the Census, 

"The Mayor said he had had some lengthened correspondence with the Regis- 
trar-general, the effect of which was that he had told him they were disposed in every 
department to render all the assistance possible to facilitate the taking of the census. 

Sir J. J. Harwood suggested they should have a day census taken in Manchester. 

The Mayor said it would be a very interesting return. Every inquiry would be 
made, and if the proposal could be carried out it should be done." 

Sir John Harwood introduced the question of the 
diminution of the police force. 

' ' The Mayor said there was every disposition to render the assistance indicated 
by the resolution. The Government, he would like to remind them, paid one-half of 
the expense of the police, and that they objected to them being made into private 
inspectors. But so far as it was possible the committee would render every possible 
assistance to the Sanitary Department." 

On the 6th, the Mayor distributed the certificates of 
the St. John's Ambulance Association to a number of the 
members of the City Police force; in this distribution 
there were 65 recipients. 

" The Mayor, addressing the men, said it was a source of great satisfaction to the 
Watch Committee that the members of the force were qualifying themselves for 
membership of the St. John's Ambulance Association, by which they would be 
enabled to render very great assistance to their fellow-men under very many circum- 
stances. The Watch Committee were so satisfied with the importance of the 
movement, that in future they intended to make it almost a condition that officers 
joining the force should qualify themselves for the Association." 

On the 18th, the Mayor presided over a Concert at the 
Central Hall in Oldham Street, in aid of the funds of the 
training ship Indefatigable, stationed in the River Mersey. 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 165 

"The Mayor, in opening the proceedings, said that while they were met that 
evening to enjoy an attractive programme, they were also gathered together in 
support of the good work which was being done on board the Indefatigable. It was 
one thing to rescue the waifs and strays in their great city, but it was quite another 
thing to find occupations for them. Manchester was, therefore, indebted to the 
committee of the training ship for relieving them of something like ten or twelve 
boys each year, and, by an apprenticeship, converting them into seamen for the 
British mercantile service. This was the first time the claims of the ship had been 
brought before the public of Manchester, and he hoped that they would be liberally 
supported." 

On the 19th, the Mayor presided at the annual 
distribution of certificates, at the Town Hall, to the 
successful candidates of the National Society of Pro- 
fessional Musicians. 

' ' The Mayor, who was received with applause, said he need scarcely perhaps 
assure those present of the pleasure he felt in presiding over such a gathering, 
particularly when it had been convened by a society which had for many years 
laboured for the mental cultivation of our citizens, in an art both pleasing and 
instructive. The National Society of Professional Musicians owed its creation to 
Manchester, and the large number of certificates that he had the pleasure of distri- 
buting that afternoon was a very satisfactory proof of its power and influence, and 
emphasised the fact that they had obtained in many instances a high degree of 
excellence in the study and practice of music. No less than 457 persons presented 
themselves for that examination during the preceding year from this city alone, and 
the proportionate number of successful candidates was exceedingly high. This result 
was not due to any sudden outburst of success, but was the gratifying result of an 
annual increase in the number, thus affording us a proof of the implicit confidence 
which was placed in the awards of the society, and the value in which they were 
held by the students generally. The systematic course of examination which had 
been adopted was highly commendable, as it not only dealt with the matured 
musician, but comprehended those who were not, comparatively speaking, so far 
advanced. By a gradual process of development the attainments of the novices 
were strengthened, and considerable assistance rendered them in their efforts to 
become proficient performers. It gave him great pleasure to observe the lengthy 
list of successes, and to congratulate those students whose endeavours had been so 
worthily crowned, and also, in passing, to compliment the teachers through whose 
instrumentality these pleasing results had been brought about. Nor must he neglect 
to offer commendation to the society for the great success which now attended its 
efforts to raise the musical tone and standard of our own city in particular, and of 
the whole of England generally. Of that they had ample illustration from the fact 
that so many of the leading operatic and concert singers had been fostered under the 
guidance of Manchester tuition. Particularly might he refer to the circumstance 
that Madame Clara Samuell, Madame Conway, and Mr. Seymour Jackson, all of 



1 66 MAYORALTY, 1890-91. 

whom he was proud to say were local artists, whose exceptional abilities had 
deservedly won high places in the musical profession. Others, whose genius was 
beyond all question, had settled in Manchester, making it both their home and the 
scene of their labours. Notably amongst the number was Sir Charles Halle, whose 
concerts had never ceased to sustain the highest interest from the very first. We 
had now a variety of talent in our midst second to no other provincial city, and he 
was sure we all must be sincerely impressed with the excellencies of their services, 
as well as with the work of the society, which has had so much to do in fostering all 
deserving talent." 

On the 26th, the Mayor entertained at dinner, at the 
Town Hall, the Hon. Justice Day and the Hon. Justice 
Lawrance, Her Majesty's Judges of Assize, the High 
Sheriff, and a numerous company of guests. 

On the 27th, there was a numerous gathering at the 
Town Hall, over which the Mayor presided, to witness 
the presentation of Queen's badges to nurses engaged in 
the work of the Manchester and Salford Sick, Poor, and 
Private Nursing Institution. 

' ' The Mayor said he hoped the numerous attendance was an indication of the 
great interest taken in the estimable work of the Manchester and Salford Nursing 
Institution. That institution had three branches, the largest being in Salford, where 
the nurses had attended 3,000 cases and paid 42,000 visits. The nurses of the 
Ardwick and Ancoats branch had attended 1,400 cases and paid 36,000 visits, and 
those of the Hulme branch, only recently established, had attended 114 cases and 
paid 2,800 visits. These statistics meant the doing of an enormous amount of good 
among the poor of the district, and were of a kind which ought to obtain increased 
support for the institution." 

Mr. Oliver Heywood addressed the meeting on the 
good work, and then distributed the badges. 

On the 28th, the Manchester team of the National 
Rifle Association handed over to the care of the Mayor, 
until June next, the China Cup, mentioned in our 
previous pages, and which has been annually shot for by 
county teams during twenty-six years. 

"The Mayor expressed great pleasure in accepting the custody of the trophy 
with the concurrence of the Town Hall Committee, and said he hoped the cup 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 167 

might long remain in Lancashire through the prowess of Lancashire marksmen. 
He congratulated the Volunteers of the county upon the fact that they had won the 
cup for the third time in succession, and he especially congratulated the members of 
the winning team upon their phenomenal scoring. At the present time the Volun- 
teer battalions of Manchester had about 4,500 members, and out of the British 
Volunteer force of 220,000 Lancashire contributed no fewer than 28,000. His (the 
Mayor's) desire to give every possible assistance to the Manchester Volunteers during 
his mayoralty was well known, and he was still engaged in striving to fulfil his promise 
to obtain, if possible, the site of the Hulme Cavalry Barracks for the purposes of a 
Volunteer drill and exercise ground. With regard to a shooting range, it was 
impossible for the city to find one, but he hoped that some of the great landowners 
of the county would see their way towards providing for the wants of the Manches- 
ter Volunteers in that respect." 

On the 4th March, a meeting of the City Council 
was held, over which the Mayor presided. 

"The Mayor said he had been waited upon by a deputation from the Electric 
Light Sub-committee of the Gas Committee, asking him to postpone the confir- 
mation of that portion of the Committee's minutes authorising them to advertise for 
tenders for lighting the Town Hall by electricity by means of a separate installation. 
The postponement proposed was for a month, in order that the Sub-committee 
referred to . might place before the Council a report upon the subject which would 
have some bearing upon their decision." 

' ' The Mayor moved the following resolution : 'In accepting the resignation of 
Mr. Alderman Windsor, the Council desires to express its sense of the valuable 
public services he has rendered as a member of this Council for so long a period, 
and to express their regret that his business engagements have rendered it necessary 
that he should resign his position as an Alderman of this city.' He said that resolu- 
tion would no doubt meet with the approval of the Council, and he moved it with 
great regret." 

" The Mayor moved that the consent of the Council be given to the increase, by 
the Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancashire, of the salary of Mr. H. W. West, 
Q. C, Judge of the Salford Hundred Court of Record, from /600 to £700 per annum. 
In moving the resolution, the Mayor said Mr. West had not received any advance 
of salary since 1878. Since that time the business of the Court had largely 
increased, and Mr. West had performed the duties as Judge of that Court with great 
ability and satisfaction." 

The question of the Mayoral allowance was again on 
the carpet. 

" The Mayor said that as the Council knew his opinion on the subject he should 
not address tbem again upon it." 



168 MAYORALTY, 1890-91. 



Alderman Griffin moved the establishment of a 
restaurant for members of the Corporation and their 
employees. 

" The Mayor : Does anybody second it ? (No response). Well, I am not sur- 
prised. There is already an enormous amount of stewing and cooking going on in the 
basement of this hall. It is a very objectionable feature, and there is really no space 
for the institution contemplated by Mr. Alderman Griffin. Instead of increasing 
such accommodation we ought to diminish it to the greatest possible extent." 

A special meeting of the Manchester City Council 
was held on the 9th, to consider the application for 
assistance from the Manchester Ship Canal Company, 
the Mayor presiding. 

"The Mayor, in moving the adoption of the report, said the Committee met on 
the 6th February, and since then they had held many prolonged meetings. The 
first consideration which presented itself to the Committee was naturally — Would 
the Corporation be justified on motives of public policy in granting a very great 
boon of an extraordinary character ? They realised the great public importance of 
getting this waterway to Manchester, and that the ten millions of money already 
spent should not be wasted. In instructing Mr. Hill, the Corporation engineer, he 
told that gentleman that the Canal Company wanted further capital and were looking 
to the Corporation for it; that the Corporation had lent a willing ear to the 
Company, but that they could not pledge the ratepayers' 'neck or nothing,' however 
anxious they were to see this great scheme carried out ; and that they wished for his 
independent opinion. To complete the investigation they asked the Directors of the 
Ship Canal Company to furnish them with the reasons for their present difficulties, 
to give them a full financial statement, to show their statutory obligations, contracts, 
agreements, the cost of the works executed and the estimate for completion, and so 
on. Mr. Moulton, Q.C., Mr. Hill, and Mr. Thackray, of the finance department, 
were asked to check off the statements made to them. The Canal Company gave 
them the fullest information. There was a feeling that the report did not disclose 
everything that had come to their knowledge. When so much had been frankly 
told, why should there be any suspicion that something material had been withheld ? 
The Committee felt their great responsibility in this matter, and they had told the 
whole truth and nothing but the truth. The only thing that could be ascribed as a 
fault to the directors was the first estimate which placed their present requirements 
at a million to a million and a quarter. But he thought they could understand that 
when people were coming to ask for a great obligation of that kind they naturally 
did not want to frighten the Corporation. They did not know how they would be 
received, and they still maintained that for a million and a quarter they could bring 
ships to Manchester in twenty-six feet of water. That, however, did not satisfy the 
Committee. The Committee attached very great importance to the completion of 
all the works, and considered it was absolutely necessary that their assistance should 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 169 



be such as would ensure the completion of the canal once and for all. The actual 
deficit, according to their figures, was £2,172,072, including for contingencies fifteen 
per cent instead of the usual margin of ten per cent which was allowed in great 
contracts. This was considered advisable in face of the great difficulties that might 
arise in constructing a great waterway. Another important point was that such 
assistance, if given, should be rendered as early as possible — and another point was 
that if any interruption of the works occurred through want of capital the damage 
both to the works and to the credit of the Company would be very lamentable. 
Then came the question as to how the assistance could be afforded. If the 
Corporation decided to come in now 'to save the concern,' it would at first sight 
appear that they ought to do so at a low rate of interest, with a prior claim for 
repayment over debenture holders and shareholders. But as the existing debenture 
holders were pretty sure of their interest out of the profits of the Bridgewater Canal, 
such a course would probably lead to a Parliamentary fight, which would most likely 
end in a defeat of the bill. That would lead to stoppage of the works, and therefore 
that mode of procedure was not recommended. Assuming, then, that it was the 
desire of the Corporation to render the necessary assistance without altering its 
position as a private undertaking, and to leave its transference to a public trust out 
of consideration for the present, the Corporation could not do better than come in 
as debenture holders to rank after the existing debentures. While not wishing to 
drive a hard bargain with the Canal Company, they desired at the same time to so 
arrange that in giving pecuniary aid they should not burden the ratepayers. The 
suggestion of the Committee was that the Corporation should lend the money to the 
Company on debentures under a stipulation that the same should be repaid after a 
certain number of years. By such an arrangement the Corporation would from 
time to time lend the money to the extent of two or two and a half millions, and the 
probable result would be that the canal would be made and the other £800,000 of 
existing or authorised debentures would be taken up, and on completion of the 
works the new debentures would become exceedingly marketable. The committee 
were advised that it would be a security which the Corporation would be justified 
in taking, without leading to any ultimate charge on the rates, and without hanging 
a burden round the neck of the Ship Canal Company. Supposing this means of 
assistance were adopted by the Corporation the next question was — What legal and 
Parliamentary requirements were necessary for carrying it out ? It was quite clear 
that in the first place a bill would have to be promoted jointly by the Corporation 
and the Ship Canal Company. The Company would have to show to Parliament 
that they required these additional capital powers to enable them to complete the 
canal, and at the same time the Corporation would have to support them by showing 
that the ratepayers consented to their lending the money to the Company upon the 
proposed securities. Such a bill should, however, not be put forward until they had 
first ascertained that the Local Government Board and the Home Office would 
support it. Mr. Moulton was of opinion that if the whole matter was properly 
explained to those authorities it would meet with their approval and the bill could 
be carried this year. This was indeed absolutely necessary, for without relief this 
autumn operations would be interrupted. Opposition from the debenture holders 
was not likely, because their rights were not touched, and ordinary shareholders 



xyo MAYORALTY, 1890-91. 



would see it was to their interest that the canal should be earning as soon as 
possible. The only fear was that the great managing departments of State might 
object on grounds of policy. If the Corporation undertook the responsibility of 
finding the money required for the completion of the canal, they ought to have some 
control over expenditure by an equivalent representation on the Board. For the success 
of the bill it was necessary that the Corporation should manifest the utmost prudence, 
because if Parliament thought this lending of public money was not sufficiently 
hedged round with protective conditions they might reject the bill on that ground, 
which would be a calamity to the Ship Canal Company and a public disappointment 
in the failure of a great Manchester enterprise, from which a great development of 
Manchester and Lancashire industries was expected to result. It was not to be 
expected that the railway companies would oppose the bill, for Parliament, having 
once sanctioned the enterprise, would not allow the railway companies to prevent it 
being carried out. The payment of interest out of capital to present preference and 
ordinary shareholders was the only proposal on which there might be a probable 
difference of opinion. The money had been subscribed on such payment until next 
year as sanctioned by Parliament, and of £752,000, £261,682 was yet unpaid. But 
the Committee thought that Parliament would now only consent to lend public 
money to complete the undertaking when shown that every other means and resource 
had been exhausted. About two-thirds of the work was done, and it was satisfactory 
to find that Mr. Hill reported that it reflected great credit upon the contractors and 
engineer. ' It was,' he said, ' substantially done, and the necessary repairs would 
be small. He did not see where the contractors could have improved upon the 
materials used, and so far as construction went there was no fault to find, but, on 
the contrary, the work was very well done.' An extension of time was necessary, 
and Mr. Hill assumed it would probably take nearly two years to complete, and, 
therefore, the opening of the Ship Canal might possibly not appear in next year's 
almanac. He did not know that any question which had been placed before a 
Committee of that Council had more seriously engaged the attention of the Council 
than the one now before them. Very prolonged meetings had been held in consulta- 
tion and deliberation, and the results were now embodied in the report which was 
presented to them unanimously. He concluded by moving that the report be 
adopted, and that the existing Committee be reappointed, and authorised to take all 
measures desirable for the purpose of giving effect to the recommendations of 
such report." 

After a lengthy speech by Sir John Harwood, in 
favour of the movement, 

"The Mayor said that, in anticipation of the decision of the Council, he had 
arranged to leave Manchester for London during that afternoon, in order to see the 
President of the Local Government Board, the Home Secretary, and members of 
Parliament, and to place their views thoroughly before them on this question. He 
hoped to be able to influence them in support of the Bill. The ratepayers' meeting 
would be held without delay." 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 171 

On the 17th, there was a conference, over which the 
Mayor presided, "to consider proposals for the prevention 
of smoking by boys." 

"The Mayor explained that he was in the chair because of his official position. 
It was well known, he said, that he smoked cigars ; but he did not consider that it 
was inconsistent in him to preside over the meeting under the circumstances. The 
Anti-Narcotic League, which had promoted the meeting, endeavoured to suppress 
the smoking of tobacco either by juveniles or adults, and it viewed with regret the 
fact that the habit of smoking was increasing rapidly in this country. He thought 
they must all admit that it was increasing. The only compensation which the 
public seemed to derive from it was in the fact that snuff-taking was decreasing very 
much. Thirty or forty years ago the freemasonry of good fellowship was the passing 
of the snuffbox, but this habit was rapidly disappearing. When he was approached 
in reference \o the present meeting, he made an observation which was considered 
of some value. He said that he himself had a robust constitution, and that he 
attributed the circumstance in a great measure to the fact that he neither smoked nor 
drank wine until he was over thirty years of age. No one had a greater objection to 
juvenile smoking than he had, or to the exceedingly filthy habit of smoking and 
spitting in the streets, especially by juveniles. In his view, the smoking of cheap 
cigarettes was especially pernicious, cigarettes being more injurious than either 
cigars or pipes. Since the conference was announced, he had received a number of 
letters from all parts of the country. Mr. Josiah Oldfield, writing from London, 
said he found that smoking was a habit which tended to create a selfish and lazy 
disposition, and, therefore, acted injuriously upon the moral man, to say nothing of 
the correlation of pipe and glass leading to dissipation. Mr. Alexander Devine, who 
had had a good deal of experience among boys, wrote that in his opinion eighty per 
cent of the working lads smoked. He (the Mayor) thought this was an exaggeration, 
but undoubtedly things were bad enough." 

We cut the following from the Examiner and Times of 
the 20th: — 

"The Mayor of Manchester (Mr. Alderman Mark) will take a brief holiday in 
the Lake District from to-morrow until the following Tuesday. The Mayoress of 
Manchester (Mrs. Mark) will be ' At Home ' at the Town Hall on Friday, April 3, 
from three to five o'clock, to receive the children who were present at the juvenile 
ball in January last. As the Easter holidays will not then be over, it may be ex- 
pected that a goodly number of young people will be present. It is not intended to 
issue invitation cards." 

On the 23rd, a statutory meeting of the owners and 
ratepayers of Manchester was held at the Town Hall, to 
consider the promotion of a Bill in Parliament to enable 



172 MAYORALTY, 1890-91. 



the Corporation to render financial assistance to the Ship 
Canal Company. The Mayor presided over a numerous 
gathering. 

"In proposing the resolution the Mayor said the report which was referred to had 
been published in extenso in the newspapers, and therefore he assumed that every 
one was acquainted with its contents. He must, however, briefly refer to some 
portions of that exhaustive report. The negotiations with the Manchester Ship 
Canal Company were initiated in the latter part of January, and after some pre- 
liminary interviews with the directors, the chairman of the Ship Canal Company, 
Lord Egerton, addressed a letter to the Corporation asking for financial assistance. 
The gravity of the situation being apparent, he (the Mayor) summoned a meeting of 
the 'General Purposes Committee of the Council to consider the application of the 
company. The first consideration which naturally presented itself was, would the 
Corporation be justified on public grounds in rendering sufficient financial help to 
complete the enterprise, and thus obtain a great waterway to Manchester ? The 
General Purposes Committee considered that on all hands they were justified in 
taking the question into serious consideration. Their conclusions were reported to 
the City Council on the 4th of February, and the Council referred the matter to a 
special committee. That Committee met on the 6th February, and at once felt the 
importance of a thorough independent inquiry, with a view of securing the best 
interests of the ratepayers. They deemed it absolutely necessary that they should 
have an independent report, and accordingly Mr. Hill, the engineer of the Thirlmere 
scheme, was asked to make an investigation of the project and report to the special 
Committee. Mr. Thackray, the assistant treasurer to the Corporation, was also 
asked to investigate the financial position of the company, and advice was sought 
from Mr. Fletcher Moulton, Q.C., as to how the Corporation could render the 
necessary aid. Mr. Hill afterwards reported that the difficulties which the Ship 
Canal Company had encountered were not due to any defect in the project itself, 
that their anticipations of success were well founded, and that the probable earning 
power of the canal was not affected by any information which they had obtained. 
Mr. Hill said that the works as projected were practicable in execution, that the 
most difficult portions of the works were far advanced, that no unforeseen compli- 
cations had appeared, that the work was well and substantially done, and, in fact, 
that the company at the present time had in the works the value of the money 
expended. That was a very satisfactory report. The financial report showed that 
the Parliamentary estimate was insufficient to complete the undertaking under exist- 
ing circumstances, and that the present borrowing powers were exhausted. The 
confidence of the Special Committee in the project was not shaken, and the question 
was to their minds entirely as to the amount of capital necessary to complete it. 
They discovered sufficient reasons to account for the want of more capital. Extra 
works had been required along the line of the canal, and especially at Ellesmere 
Port, works which were included after the Parliamentary estimate was framed. 
Then the unfortunate death of Mr. T. A. Walker left the works to be finished by his 
trustees, and eventually the directors found it advisable to cancel the contract. 



II^HHHH 



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JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 173 

Capital was also locked up in the plant to the extent of about one million, and then 
the work would probably have to be finished at higher wages and greater cost of 
material. Another item in excess of the estimate was the purchase of land on the 
canal to avoid severance and arbitration costs, which would, in many instances, 
have amounted to the value of the land itself. If the directors had had plenty of 
money that was a wise investment, because what had cost them in excess of their 
wants £360,000 might be fairly estimated to realise double that amount, because he 
might tell them that scarcely a day elapsed without there being applications for 
sites on which to build works and manufactories along the canal. That was what 
they expected from the first, and he was confident that when the undertaking was 
completed they would have a grand series of works and quays on both sides of the 
canal from here to Liverpool. The Special Committee, however, had not taken the 
value of the land into their calculation at all. Assuming the ratepayers consented 
to render the required assistance, a bill in Parliament would have to be promoted 
by the Ship Canal Company to show that their present capital powers were not 
sufficient to complete the undertaking, and on the other hand the Corporation would 
have to promote a bill in Parliament to show that they were willing to give the 
assistance sought for. It would also be necessary to obtain a suspension of the 
standing orders to enable the bills to pass this session, but he believed there would 
not be much difficulty in obtaining the suspension of those orders. Then as to the 
amount required. The Ship Canal Company — slightly amending the letter of Lord 
Egerton's — said that £1,765,072 were required, and for other works which could be 
deferred £406,000, or a total of £2, 172,072, but Mr. Hill advised that there should 
be fifteen per cent added for contingencies instead of ten per cent. It was also anti- 
cipated that wages and materials would not remain exactly as they were now, and 
the interest on the new capital and the extension of time were matters to be taken 
into consideration. The Corporation, therefore, could not estimate the additional 
capital required at less than £2,500,000 to complete the undertaking without inter- 
ruption. With such an enormous plant on the canal there should be no interruption 
of the work, and the Corporation urged that the scheme should proceed without 
delay. Therefore, although the Corporation believed the project could be completed 
for £2,500,000, they recommended that powers should be obtained to raise 
£3,000,000 capital, the whole of which need not be issued if the estimate of 
£2,500,000 was correct. As to the mode of assistance, the Special Committee said : 
At first sight it would seem that as salvors they ought to stand first, and in priority 
even to the existing debenture holders. But we are of opinion that it would be un- 
wise to contend for such a position. The existing debenture holders have lent their 
money on the faith of the priority of their charges, and it would hardly be possible 
to induce them to consent to have this priority taken away, however great the 
benefits which the undertaking would thereby receive. Moreover, the injury to the 
credit of the company by any attempt of the kind would more than counteract any 
advantage that the superiority of position would give to the Corporation, having 
regard to the magnitude of the sums required, and the amount of existing debentures. 
All sums, therefore, advanced by the Corporation must rank as a charge upon the 
undertaking next after the debentures at present authorised; but, of course, in 
priority to all the shares. As appears from what has already been stated, we are of 



174 MAYORALTY, 1890-91. 

opinion that the difficulties of the Ship Canal Company are due to causes of a 
financial character, and not to anything which affects either the public utility of the 
undertaking or its probable earning capacity. This does not lessen the imperative 
need of the assistance asked for, if the undertaking is to be saved from failure, but 
it leads us to the belief that the required assistance can be given without any serious 
risk of throwing any burden upon the ratepayers of Manchester. We are of opinion 
that the assistance rendered by the Manchester Corporation, while sufficient in 
amount to ensure the full completion and equipment of the canal, should not take 
the form of a permanent loan of public money or a guarantee of returns, but that 
the Corporation should require the company, when it has obtained further borrow- 
ing powers, to issue its new debentures on fair terms, which will make them an 
acceptable security to the ordinary investing public when the canal becomes a pro- 
ductive property, and that the Corporation should obtain powers to lend all sums 
required for the completion of the undertaking, receiving in return these debentures 
at par. The Corporation will at the same time take power to sell such debentures 
at par so soon as the improved credit of the undertaking renders them marketable. 
In this way the public money will only be used to such an extent and for such a 
period as is absolutely necessary, and the arrangement for removal of the present 
difficulties will automatically give way, when the proper time comes, to the normal 
state of things, viz., that the capital of the undertaking, whether derived from shares 
or debentures, should be in the hands of the investing public, among whom its 
revenues will be divided. We are of opinion that in this way the full assistance re- 
quired can be promptly given to the Ship Canal Company without on the other 
hand any substantial risk of imposing a burden upon the city of Manchester, and on 
the other hand without laying any undue or unnecessary burden on the Ship Canal 
Company, which would lessen the fair return of its shareholders in case of its success. 
If the ratepayers consented to such financial assistance being given, they would 
expect, and Parliament would expect, that the Corporation should be represented on 
the directorate of the Ship Canal Company as long as the loan continued, in propor- 
tion to the amount of capital contributed, and also that the engineer appointed by 
the Corporation should exercise control over the expenditure, by his signature to 
certificates of expenditure. Having regard to the exceptional nature of the under- 
taking, the report stated : ' At the present time the works are being carried on under 
the administration of the company, by the staff and employes that formerly carried 
them on for the executors of the late Mr. T. A. Walker. As the funds will, to a 
large extent, be provided by the Corporation under the scheme, it will be necessary 
that the Corporation should have fitting representation upon the Board of the Com- 
pany, and such representation ought to continue until the loan of the Corporation 
is finally discharged. But in addition to this, we think that as the Corporation pro- 
pose to find such additional moneys as are necessary for the completion of the canal, 
they should have a more direct and effective check upon the expenditure by appoint- 
ing an engineer to act in conjunction with the engineer of the company, in certifying 
the amount expended, and that the advances should be made against their joint 
certificates. In recommending this we do not desire in any way to show a want of 
confidence in the able engineer of the Ship Canal Company, but we feel that Parlia- 
ment will expect the Corporation to retain some such control as this over the user 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 175 

of moneys provided by it for the purposes of the undertaking.' Now they came to 
a question which he was afraid was one of difficulty, namely, the payment of interest 
during construction. That subject had received the serious consideration of the 
Special Committee and the Council. Power was given to the company to pay in- 
terest out of capital during construction to the amount of £752,000. Of that sum 
£490,318 had already been paid, leaving £261,682 unpaid. Now, although a large 
amount of the capital of the company was subscribed on the faith of that provision, 
it was considered that Parliament would not sanction payment of interest to the 
shareholders of a private undertaking out of money provided on the security of the 
city rates, and the Committee deeply regretted that they found it necessary, in an 
application to Parliament, to cancel that obligation. The money was not in hand 
to pay it with. The interest of the debenture holders was secured by the profits of 
the Bridgewater Canal, but although they felt compelled to put a clause in the bill 
cancelling the obligation to which he had referred, it would be in the discretion of 
the Parliamentary Committee, if they thought fit, to strike it out. In their estimate 
of the amount of extra capital required, they had assumed that if the Corporation 
came to the assistance of the Ship Canal Company the remainder of the four per 
cent debentures would at once be taken up. It would be observed that they took no 
account of the value of the plant to be realised on the completion of the works, nor 
of the lands to be sold, leaving those items available for working capital. They 
recommended that the company be required to pay all the expenses connected with 
the bill, and of the inquiries necessary, and all expenses incurred or to be incurred 
by the Corporation in connection with that matter. The report was the unanimous 
voice of their representatives in the City Council, and he hoped that unanimous 
consent would be given to the bill which they desired to promote in Parliament. 
The interests of Manchester were so largely involved in the Ship Canal undertaking 
that there was positively no alternative but to step in and render such assistance as 
would complete the project. It was not sufficient for them that 42,000 shareholders 
had embarked their money in that enterprise. That aspect of the question might 
appeal very strongly to their feelings, but it would not be sufficient for a great Cor- 
poration like Manchester to render assistance of such an extraordinary character, 
but it was an element of the case worthy of consideration, and he hoped that the 
recommendations the City Council made would receive a magnanimous and liberal 
interpretation." 

This statesman-like speech of Alderman Mark would 
seem to have given much satisfaction to the meeting 
generally, and it was followed by the support of Sir John 
Harwood, Alderman King, Mr. J. T. W. Mitchell, and 
Mr. G. J. Davies. The Mayor at this stage announced 
that any ratepayer was at liberty to speak for or against 
the proposal. Mr. Edward Eaton volunteered to submit 
some plan to a committee. 



176 MAYORALTY, 1890-91. 



"The Mayor said he could understand anything that was not very mysterious. 
He then assured Mr. Eaton that he would listen to his plans when the meeting 
terminated, with which assurance Mr. Eaton left the platform." 

" The vote was then taken, and, amid loud cheering, the resolution was declared 
carried, only two hands being held up against it. The meeting then ended. No poll 
being demanded, the Corporation have now obtained the ratepayers' sanction to the 
promotion of the bill in Parliament." 

On the evening of the 23rd, the Mayor opened the 
Working Girls' Social Club and Home, at 315, Oxford 
Street. 

" In declaring ^the institution open, the Mayor remarked that the home had 
during its short existence of a few months suffered for want of support, and he 
appealed to the charitably disposed to give it the help it deserved. Mrs. Hyland, a 
Manchester lady well known for her philanthropy, had taken the premises in which 
they were assembled on lease, and had made liberal promises with regard to certain 
future expenses. Associated with her was an excellent working committee. The 
objects of the club were to provide pleasant social evenings for working girls ; to 
give instruction in cookery, musical drill, and singing ; and to improve their educa- 
tion where it was found necessary. There would also be attached to the home a 
savings bank, a register office for all feminine workers, and the names of needlewomen, 
charwomen, and washerwomen would be supplied to persons requiring helpers of 
this description. All these facilities would be offered at the small subscription of 
twopence per week. The home also contained dormitories for forty lodgers. He 
regretted to find an impression abroad that the institution was under the domination 
of a certain creed ; as a matter of fact it was quite unsectarian, and girls who went 
there would find that in the matter of worship and other practices they would be left 
unfettered." 

There was a meeting of the City Council on the 2nd 
April, presided over by Alderman Sir John Harwood, 
Deputy Mayor, in the absence of Alderman John Mark, 
the Mayor. 

We print the following from the Manchester Courier 
of the 4th, and a similar notice appears in the Examiner 
and Times. 

" The Mayoress of Manchester (Mrs. Mark) was 'At Home ' yesterday afternoon 
in the Manchester Town Hall. Her duties as hostess were exercised in an 
altogether new sphere on this particular occasion. An 'At Home' with the Mayoress 
is usually an agreeable afternoon call, with just that suggestion of ceremonial which 
can never be dissociated from such a lordly suite of apartments as the state rooms 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 177 

of the Manchester Town Hall. The Mayoress's guests yesterday were all young 
people — the children who attended the recent juvenile ball given by the Mayor and 
Mayoress. To each of the young guests the visit must have been accompanied by a 
revival of delightful memories. The Mayoress was assisted at the reception by Mrs. 
Fred. Lee, Mrs. Hutchinson and Miss Mark (her daughters), and the stewards who 
officiated at the ball. The Mayor's Parlour was used as a cloak room ; the recep- 
tion took place in the drawing room, and the visitors found great attractions in the 
banqueting hall in the shape of a liberal supply of refreshments. There were over 
200 children present." 

A meeting of the City Council was held on the 8th, 
over which the Mayor presided. 

" The Mayor proposed that a vote of sympathy and condolence be tendered to 
the family of their late esteemed colleague, Mr. Alderman Schofield. The resolution 
stated that the Council desired to record their sense of the public services rendered 
by their late colleague, and their sincere grief that they were deprived of his counsel 
and companionship by his death. For nearly a quarter of a century Alderman 
Schofield had devoted his time and energy in a remarkable degree to the municipal 
affairs of the city, and served upon important committees of the Corporation with 
great distinction. In such estimation was he held by the Council that a unanimous 
request was presented to him to occupy the Mayoralty of Manchester during the 
Jubilee year, 1887, and the same feelings which prompted the Council to make that 
offer had existed in unabated force up to the present time. 

The Mayor afterwards referred to the deaths of Mr. Myerscough, Sir Thomas 
Sowler, and Mr. James Smith, secretary of the Provident Society. Sir Thomas 
Sowler, he said, was one of the most respected of Manchester's citizens. For more 
than half a century he had borne in their midst an irreproachable public life. In 
that Council they had no politics, and he did not propose to talk politics in reference 
to Sir Thomas Sowler, but it might be fairly said that in the principles the deceased 
gentleman so consistently advocated, he was singularly free from any offensive 
personalities or sensational announcements of any kind. Those who agreed with 
him politically, and those who disagreed, would all be ready to lay upon Sir 
Thomas's bier the olive branch of peace. His funeral was proceeding at that 
moment, and it was a matter of regret to many of them that their public duties 
prevented them from attending the sad ceremony. It was truly said by those who 
enjoyed the late Sir Thomas's friendship and the intimacy of his home life that he 
was a beloved husband and father and a real true friend. 

The Mayor said his attention had been called to a statement made in the Salford 
Town Council by Mr. Alderman Dickins, which seemed to have created some mis- 
apprehension, and which might have given the public the impression that Manchester 
was not as courteous to Salford as she really always desired to be. Mr. Alderman 
Dickins, as reported, asked the Town Clerk whether he had read the Parliamentary 
notice of the Manchester Corporation with respect to the Ship Canal undertaking, 
which indicated that what was proposed to be done was to be done by Manchester 
alone on the one hand and by the Ship Canal Company on the other, and that no 



178 MAYORALTY, 1890-91. 

mention was made of any other boards or corporations. To that question the Town 
Clerk of Salford replied that he had applied to the City Council for a copy of the 
Bill, but was informed that they had not got one. The inference was that the Man- 
chester Corporation were unwilling to accommodate Salford in the smallest particular. 
The fact was that on Wednesday morning last a clerk from the Salford Corporation 
called at the Manchester Town Hall and asked for a copy of the Corporation Bill, 
saying it was wanted for presentation to the Council at ten o'clock that day. The 
Town Clerk and the Deputy Town Clerk were out of town ; the Bill was not printed, 
and the Deputy Town Clerk had the only copy of the draft that existed. A clerk 
telegraphed to Mr. Hudson, the Deputy Town Clerk, who replied that the Ship 
Canal Bill was not yet settled and printed. The contents of that telegram were 
communicated to the Town Clerk of Salford. Some people might think this un- 
important, but from what had been said about the matter elsewhere he deemed it of 
considerable importance. Some misapprehension had also been created in the public 
mind by a statement attributed to Mr. Alderman W. H. Bailey, of Salford. Sir 
John Harwood and others had stated that the Manchester Corporation had agreed 
to assist the Ship Canal Company because every available resource of the company 
had been completely exhausted, and yet Mr. Bailey was reported as saying at a 
meeting of the Jews' Working Men's Club, in Cheetham, that Baron Rothschild was 
prepared to support the Canal Company. What Mr. Bailey really said was that in 
the early days of the Ship Canal agitation Lord Rothschild stated to Daniel Adam- 
son that this was a great national enterprise, and ought to be assisted, and that he 
would do his best for it. He never mentioned Baron Rothschild's name. Mr. 
Bailey simply wished to say that Lord Rothschild at the very commencement of the 
Ship Canal agitation expressed his friendliness to the undertaking, which was a very 
different thing to saying that in this crisis Baron Rothschild had said the scheme 
should not want for capital if he could help it, because if that were the case there 
would be no justification for the Manchester Corporation assisting the Ship Canal 
Company. 

THE PRICE AND QUALITY OF GAS. 

The Mayor said he had been memorialised to call a public meeting on this sub- 
ject, but he thought it was not a subject for a public meeting. The management of 
the gas, water, and other departments of the city was deputed to representatives of 
the people. The Gas Committee had been properly memorialised by the society 
referred to, and no doubt the memorial would be reported upon in due course. 

Alderman Sir John J. Harwood wished to supplement the Mayor's remarks. He 
held that there was no need to have so much instruction from various associations. 
The people elected their own representatives to the Council, and if any particular 
associations wished to affect that representation they should do so at the polling 
booths. 

Dr. Simpson said he entirely differed from that view. The matter was one which 
should not be left merely to be dealt with at municipal elections. It ought to be 
discussed by the Council. 

The Mayor intimated that discussion of the matter at the present was out of 
order, and suggested that Dr. Simpson might put a notice upon the agenda paper to 
bring it up at a future meeting. 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 179 

IMPROVEMENTS IN OXFORD ROAD. 

The Mayor, referring to the Denmark Road plot, said that the Whitworth 
Trustees were going to make a special feature of the opposite side of Oxford Street. 
The existing trees between the Union Chapel and the Eye Hospital would remain, 
and between them would be a wide footpath for the public use. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

In reply to questions by Dr. Simpson and Mr. Gunson, the Mayor stated that 
inquiries had been made as to the best means of ventilating the Town Hall, and it 
had been decided that an installation of electric lights would very much reduce the 
nuisance of lack of ventilation complained of. He hoped that soon some progress 
would be made in the matter. Sir J. J. Harwood said all the scientific authorities who 
had been consulted differed in opinion upon the matter. 

The Mayor moved the following increases of salary on the recommendation of 
the Watch Committee : — Superintendent Godby, from /280 to /300 per annum ; 
Superintendent Meade, from /280 to £290 per annum ; Superintendent Bannister, 
from /250 to £260 per annum ; Superintendent Hicks, from /250 to £260 per 
annum ; Superintendent Hornsby, from /250 to £260 per annum ; and Superintendent 
Roberts, from £200 to /210 per annum. He said the Watch Committee had 
received a memorial from the superintendents asking for an increase of salary in 
consequence of the extra responsibility involved by the increase of the area of the 
city. Superintendent Godby had been forty-four years in the service of the 
Corporation, Superintendent Meade thirty-five years, Superintendent Bannister 
twenty-two years, Superintendent Hicks nineteen years, Superintendent Hornsby 
eighteen years, and Superintendent Roberts thirteen years. In Liverpool the 
superintendents, after ten years' service, received £300 per annum." 

On the 13th, Alderman Mark presided, at the Town 
Hall, over the annual meeting of the Boys and Girls 
Refuges and Homes and Children's Aid Society. 

"The Mayor moved the adoption of the report and balance sheet. He said he 
considered it a great privilege to do so, and to have the opportunity of congratu- 
lating Mr. Shaw and the Committee on the great work which they had accom- 
plished, and especially on the celebration that day of the twenty-first anniversary of 
the opening of the Refuges. Their scope and general usefulness were so great as to 
entitle them to very distinct recognition on public grounds in the reduction of and 
prevention of crime and pauperism in this large centre of population. The 
report was exceedingly complete, and the balance sheet so satisfactory that they 
might indeed congratulate the Committee and wish them every possible future 
success. When they were able to present that balance sheet with the extraordinary 
work which they had accomplished comparatively free from debt, it was shown that 
they had an amount of public confidence and appreciation of their work which must 
be highly gratifying. That confidence was put in evidence continually by the 
receipt of large donations from those who were so well satisfied with the useful 
work which was being carried on. A friend once resident in Manchester has sent a 
donation of /500 as a token of his appreciation of the work, and because it was the 



180 MAYORALTY, 1890-91. 

twenty-first anniversary of the society. Under the eighteen heads of this extraor- 
dinary society — the largest charity in Manchester — every phase of child destitution 
seemed to be reached ; and they had to congratulate Mr. Shaw and the Committee 
on the accomplishment of their great extension scheme during last year. It would 
be seen that the institution had during the year dealt with a larger number of 
children than in any other year. Having surveyed in detail the branches of the 
Refuge work, the Mayor said he would be sorry if the report gave the impression 
that through the Corporation by-laws and police regulations a large number of 
juvenile offenders were being manufactured. It was stated that 1,358 children 
under sixteen years of age had been brought up before the magistrates under Cor- 
poration by-laws. This was incorrect, the only by-law affecting children in force in 
the city being the very recent one having reference to the Sunday crying of news- 
papers, which appeared not stringent enough. All other dealings with juveniles 
were under the laws passed by Parliament, under which the Watch Committee or 
police had no alternative but to carry out the various acts. 857 offenders were said 
to have been guilty of no crime. This was true in so far as they had committed no 
felony, but the offences they had committed fell under the following heads (exclu- 
sive of School Board prosecutions) : Breach of the peace, pitch and toss, wilful 
damage, obstruction of streets, cruelty to animals, drunkenness, and assaults. These 
it would be admitted were serious offences, though it might be regrettable that the 
light offences could not be separated from the more criminal ones of felony. But 
as he had said there was no alternative. In some cases the magistrates were 
extremely lenient with juvenile offenders, and let them off with a caution, if 
possible ; but if any other course was to be adopted an alteration of the law must be 
sought. With regard to ■ scuttling,' which was a subject he had taken part in laying 
before the Home Secretary, he only looked upon it as an excess of energy and as 
horseplay. Many lads brought up for that offence were not on the whole hopelessly 
bad, and they on the deputation suggested that what such lads wanted was a good 
whipping and sending back to their work next morning. The matter got more 
serious where there was a use of the knife, but in those cases he thought the guilty 
lads were egged on by others without having in the first instance any intention of 
committing a breach of the law. Referring to the boy messenger brigade connected 
with the institution, the Mayor said he hoped that the work of that body would not 
be interfered with by the Postmaster-General." 

On the afternoon of the 14th, the Mayor opened, in 
St. James's Hall, Oxford Street, a bazaar, having for its 
object the raising of funds for the enlargement of the 
Home for Penitent Women, conducted by the Nuns of 
the Good Shepherd, at Blackley. 

' ' The Mayor said it was originally hoped that a very charming Empress would have 
been able to favour them with her presence on that occasion. Then the promoters had 
looked forward to the presence of a noble duke, and being disappointed in these hopes 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 181 

they had fallen back upon the Mayor of the city. He acceded to the request that 
had been made to him, because he was aware that the principal attractions were the 
bazaar itself and the magnificent collection of articles for sale, upon which months 
of patient industry by ladies and many generous contributions on the part of gentle- 
men had been spent. The Institution which the promoters were seeking to aid was 
deserving of very liberal support and sympathy. It was established at Levenshulme 
in a small way in 1867. In 1871 it migrated to Victoria Park, and in 1884, having 
outgrown the limits of accommodation there, the home was removed to Blackley. 
Accommodation was at present found for 120 inmates, and the Committee were 
anxious to provide for not fewer than 300. Since the establishment of the home 
1,400 girls and women had passed through it. There was an impression abroad that 
the institution was sectarian, but, although it was obviously managed by Catholics, 
the rules of the institution provided that all applicants should be admitted irrespec- 
tive of creed or denomination, and should be allowed to come out in the same 
faith. There were now six houses of the kind in England, and a large number 
under the same sisterhood were spread over other countries. He believed that the 
appeal on behalf of the Blackley Home would not be in vain, and in that belief he 
had great pleasure in declaring the bazaar open." 

On the 17th, there was a meeting at the Town Hall, 
of the friends of the Home for Gentlewomen, Higher 
Broughton, at which were present Alderman Mark (Mayor), 
Mrs. Mark, and Miss Mark. 

On the 22nd, the Mayor formally opened the new 
Corporation Baths, which have been erected at Newton 
Heath. 

The Courier says, in its issue of the 23rd: — 

"The Mayor of Manchester (Mr. Alderman Mark) was present at the annual 
banquet of the Worshipful Company of Plumbers, held in the Merchant Taylors' 
Hall, London, on Monday evening. The Mayor responded to the toast of the 
' Municipal Corporations of Great Britain and Ireland.' " 

On the afternoon of the 24th, the Mayor presided, at 
the Town Hall, over an annual meeting of the Royal 
National Lifeboat Institution. 

" The Chairman, in moving the adoption of the report and balance sheet, said 
the excellent results achieved by the boats of that branch of the Lifeboat Institution 
sufficiently established its claim upon their sympathy and support. He also thought 
that the experiments referred to entitled the Institution to an increased amount of 
donations and subscriptions." 



1 82 MAYORALTY, 1890-91. 

On the 30th, the Mayor presided over a meeting of 
the General Purposes Committee of the City Council. 
The Mayor moved and Councillor Southern seconded 
the adoption of the report of the Parliamentary Sub- 
Committee, and Alderman Reade regretted the absence 
of anything relating to the improvement of Knott Mill 
Station. 

"The Mayor said the position was this, that the railway was jointly owned by 
the London and North Western and the Manchester, Sheffield, and Lincolnshire 
companies, and until they had come to an agreement as to what should be done the 
committee had no power to enforce it. The committee had urged with what 
strength they possessed as a Parliamentary Committee the desirability — in fact, the 
necessity — of better station accommodation at Knott Mill. They found that the 
Sheffield Company — and it should be noted to their credit — were anxious to proceed 
with the improvement, and with a view to doing so they were acquiring land in the 
hope that an agreement with the other company would be arrived at and a 
satisfactory improvement of the station carried out. The resolution was 
agreed to." 

"The Mayor moved the adoption of the report of the Amalgamation Sub- 
Committee. He said it mainly referred to the compensation that was to be paid to 
those officials in districts which had come into the city for whom the Corporation 
had been unable to find employment. They were under the obligation of either 
finding them suitable employment at similar remuneration, or compensating them on 
a scale from which they had little power to deviate, except upwards. They had seen 
these gentlemen individually, and he thought the recommendation of the committee 
was a satisfactory one. They had made some small addition to the lowest scale of 
compensation on which these gentlemen were entitled to make their claims on the 
Corporation, and they had an assurance that the recommendations the committee 
now made would be received by them with every satisfaction. As the whole amount 
was a small advance on what they were entitled by law to claim from the Corporation, 
he hoped the recommendations of the committee would be accepted." 

We find from the London Times of the 4th May, 1891, 
that the portrait, in oil, of Alderman John Mark, by Miss 
Emma Magnus, was exhibited at the Royal Academy, 
and that the Mayor was present at the annual dinner of 
the Academy on the 2nd, which was presided over by Sir 
Frederick Leighton, and at which were present the Prince 
of Wales and other members of the Royal Family, with a 
host of Ambassadors, Ministers, and ex-Ministers. 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 183 



A monthly meeting of the Manchester City Council 
was held on the 6th May, over which the Mayor presided, 
and there was a good attendance of members. The 
business was of an extensive but formal character. A 
discussion ensued upon some correspondence between 
the Mayor and Alderman W. H. Holland, as to the best 
situation for the statue of Mr. John Bright, whether it 
should be in Albert Square or St. Ann's Square. The 
Mayor contended that there was great appropriateness in 
placing the statue in juxtaposition with that of Cobden, 
and a minimum of inconvenience would arise from it. 
The statue of Bishop Fraser, in Albert Square, was a 
bronze, so that the objection mentioned by Alderman 
Holland applied also to Albert Square. He moved the 
consideration of the subject be referred to a special sub- 
committee. This course was eventually agreed to. 

On the morning of the 9th, the Mayor presided at the 
thirty-fourth annual meeting of the members of the 
Church School-masters and School-mistresses' Benevolent 
Institution, held at the Town Hall. 

" In moving the adoption of the report the Mayor of Manchester expressed his 
sympathy with the objects of the institution. He said that the members wholly 
belonged to the elementary schools of the Church of England, and he could well 
imagine that many of them were feeling the competition of the board schools, and 
that it was not therefore so well within their own personal earnings to provide for their 
advancing years. The thrift fund of the institution was an excellent one, and he 
hoped that it would be heartily supported. He was afraid there was an increasing 
disposition on the part of various classes to take advantage of all kinds of provident 
institutions, and to place less reliance upon their own individual efforts. He hoped, 
however, that individual responsibility would not be lessened by those who 
supported institutions of that kind. As an evidence of the desirability of such an 
institution as that under whose auspices they had assembled, the Mayor pointed out 
that there were no less than 16,516 head teachers in the voluntary schools of England 
who received less than £100 per annum, and of those a large number were employed 
in Church schools. Of a total of seventy-three head masters in voluntary schools 
with salaries less than /50 per annum, forty-five belonged to Church schools, while 
out of a total of 2,634 head masters in voluntary schools receiving £75 per annum 



184 MAYORALTY, 1890-91. 



and less than /ioo, 1,760 belonged to the Church schools. Of head mistresses there 
were 191 connected with the Church schools who received under £40 per annum, 
379 who received £40 and under £45, 480 who received £45 and under /50, 4,512 
who received £50 and under £75, and 2,318 who received £75 and less than ^100 
per annum. 

The Mayor said he was glad to hear that the salaries of teachers in voluntary 
schools had improved during late years. He received what education he possessed 
at a village school in the parish of Greystoke, the master of which was ' passing rich 
on £20 a year.' The monotony of their educational life, however, was more relieved 
than it was in these days. People were not so squeamish then about their boys 
being hit on the heads with a slate— for sometimes the scholars greatly deserved 
it — but nowadays it was as much as a teacher's freedom was worth to relieve his 
feelings in that direction." 

On the 3rd June, the Mayor presided over a monthly 
meeting of the City Council. 

On a discussion as to the use of wood in paving, 

"The Mayor said that his experience was that the noise caused by the granite setts 
to occupiers of premises such as the shops in Cross Street, which were let at a high 
rental, was very distracting. If the noise could be minimised by the substitution of 
wood pavement, he thought the Paving Committee might reasonably be asked to 
carry out the work." 

Following this was a discussion upon the strength of 
the Directorate on the Ship Canal Board. 

" The Mayor said he would take care to see that the wish of the Council to have 
five directors was enforced, though the proposal came rather late in the day. To 
have a controlling influence on the directorate was, however, a different matter. The 
present directorate of twelve was composed of hard-working men, who had stuck by 
the canal from the first, who were men of great public spirit, and who had borne 
the heat of the battle for years. Were they going to turn their backs on these men 
who had shown such extraordinary zeal on behalf of the public ? It was entirely 
out of the question. The Corporation had not got its Bill yet, but neither the 
Council nor the company were disposed to lose any time over the matter. The 
committee was to meet the Ship Canal Company on the following day to discuss 
the future prosecution of the work, and the Finance Committee would be notified at 
the earliest possible moment when the money would be required. He would under- 
take to substitute the word 'shall' for 'should' in the resolution." 

The Athletic News, of the 27th, reports that the 
American Athletes, as well as the officials, were enter- 
tained at dinner in the Botanical Gardens, Alderman 
Mark presiding. 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 185 

" ' The Visitors ' was proposed by the Chairman, who said, as Mayor of the city, 
he could only express his great pleasure at being amongst them that evening, and 
in welcoming not only their American friends, but those who had come from the 
various parts of the United Kingdom that day. He thought it redounded great 
credit on them, that they had at both inconvenience and expense to themselves come 
to compete, not for money, but for the honour which was attached to winning the 
handsome cups and medals, which he had had the pleasure to present to them. He 
was sorry that the weather had been so unfavourable, but, in spite of that, the 
sports had been carried on and conducted in a manner which was highly creditable 
to everybody connected with them. Being a Cumberland man he had always taken 
an interest in athletic sports of all kinds, and should continue to encourage them. 
He thought that they would all be more proud to be beaten by their American 
brethren than anyone else, and he hoped that the best feeling would always prevail 
between the Athletic Association of Great Britain and that of the United States." 

The Manchester Courier, of the 29th, reports that Sir 
Humphrey de Trafford had addressed a letter to the 
Mayor of Manchester — through whose kindly and able 
mediumship the negotiations will most likely be con- 
ducted — of a site in Trafford Park, on which to hold the 
annual show of the Royal Agricultural Society in 1893. 

The Manchester Guardian, of the gth July, contains 
the following paragraph : — 

" Yesterday the Mayor of Manchester (Mr. Alderman Mark) conducted over a 
portion of the Ship Canal works, commencing at Pomona, His Highness Prince 
Kumar Shri Chatra Sintye, heir apparent Rajpipla State, also Dr. E. D. Catel, 
chief medical officer Rajpipla State, and Captain Campbell-Preston. After seeing 
as much of the works as time would permit, the party proceeded to Macclesfield 
and inspected the fine silk mill of Messrs. Brocklehurst and Sons, returning to the 
Manchester Town Hall by the 2-30 train. The party left for London last evening 
by the 5-20 Midland train." 

On the 17th, the Mayor entertained at dinner, at the 
Town Hall, Mr. Justice Smith and Mr. Justice Wright, 
Her Majesty's Judges of Assize, the High Sheriff, and 
numerous other guests. 

On the 30th, the Mayor of Manchester was present 
in London, before a House of Lords' Select Committee, 
on the Manchester Corporation Bill. 



186 MAYORALTY, 1890-91. 

" The Mayor of Manchester gave evidence. There had, he said, been such en- 
couragement given in the House of Commons that the Corporation now asked the 
Committee to make the thrift scheme compulsory. It would apply only to future 
appointments, and he did not anticipate that any burden would result that would be 
felt by the ratepayers. 

The Chairman said the Committee desired to know the advantage of the scheme 
being compulsory. 

The Earl of Arran remarked that it appeared to be somewhat arbitrary. 

The Mayor said that the object was to enable servants to retire. At present the 
Corporation, like others, retained servants in their employ who had given valuable 
service often from a feeling that they might not have sufficient to retire on comfort- 
ably in their declining years. Inquiry had been made into railway companies' 
pension schemes, and it was felt that the scheme would be most beneficial. 

Lord Hatherton : In the case of misconduct would they forfeit anything ? 

The Mayor : Yes, they would receive their own contribution only. The amount 
added by the Corporation would not come to them in such cases as embezzlement 
or fraud. Turning to the question of the Corporation's supplying water for hydraulic 
power purposes, the Mayor continued that the matter had been pressed on the 
Corporation by packers and others who required it. In regard to the cattle question, 
he said that the Markets Committee had had it brought very prominently under 
their notice that they ought to make provision for the arrival of foreign cattle on the 
Ship Canal, and their slaughter. Therefore he had, in company with other gentle- 
men, inspected the Deptford markets, and also those at Birkenhead, in order to 
estimate what would be required, and they had come to the conclusion that an area 
of some ten or twelve acres would be required. Those would have to be adjacent 
to the Ship Canal, and as near to Manchester as the Board of Agriculture might be 
expected to permit the slaughter of foreign cattle at. At the present moment Salford 
had perhaps the finest live-stock market in the kingdom, and Manchester had none. 
But Manchester did not wish to dispossess Salford, its only desire being to look 
ahead towards the arrival of ships in the Ship Canal with live cattle from America 
and elsewhere. The site selected would be on the Manchester side of the canal. 
This petition was the first thing he had ever heard of in the shape of opposition 
from Salford. 

Cross-examined by Mr. Yates : The land at Stretford chiefly belonged to Sir 
Humphrey de Trafford, but the Ship Canal Company had purchased land largely in 
excess of their requirements." 

On the 30th, the Mayor presided over a special 
meeting of the City Council, at the Town Hall, on the 
Ship Canal Loan Act. 

"The Mayor said the joint Bill promoted by the Ship Canal Company and the 
Corporation had received the Royal Assent and had become law. It was necessary 
that the Council should give effect to the powers contained in the Act. Only those 
who had been concerned in the promoting of a Bill in Parliament in all its stages 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 187 

could realise the very great anxiety attending it. The Special Committee had, from 
its earliest stages, felt a great deal of anxiety, and had bestowed a great deal of 
pains upon the measure ; and he thought it was a matter of congratulation that it 
had come through the ordeal almost exactly in the shape in which it was presented 
to Parliament. They might inquire, why that urgency in calling a special meeting, 
and why the next meeting would not have been time sufficient for the business 
necessary ? The answer was that money was urgently required, and secondly that 
they were advised that the present was a very opportune time to issue the loan to 
the public. The committee had considerable anxiety lest the Bill should not be got 
through Parliament in time; people would soon be scattered by the holiday season, 
and if they had been a week later it would have been the worse for them. If the 
Council saw its way that morning to authorise the creation of the stock, the matter 
would go forward without any loss of time. He moved the reception of the report 
of the Finance Committee, which was seconded by Alderman Sir J. J. Harwood and 
agreed to." 

Sir John Harwood advocated an enquiry into the 
position of the Canal. 

" The Mayor said he did not think the £3,000,000 would be required. The highest 
sum he had ever heard mentioned was £2, 150,000. He agreed with Sir John Harwood 
that they ought to know exactly the financial position of the company before the 
new directors put their hand to the work or gave them any money." 

After further discussion, 

" The Mayor said he was sorry to see a feeling which tended in the direction of 
withdrawing that assistance to the Ship Canal which they had been trying to get 
during the last few months. He would have preferred that the report of the Finance 
Committee should have been accepted as it stood." 

The Courier, of the 31st, thus comments upon the 
matter : — 

"At a special meeting of the Manchester City Council, yesterday, the Mayor 
(Alderman Mark) presiding, the report of the Finance Committee with regard to the 
issue of redeemable stock, at three per cent, interest, to the extent of /i, 500,000 by 
the Bank of England, for Ship Canal purposes, was adopted. The formal resolutions 
as to the issue of stock were then formally put and agreed to. A discussion arose 
as to whether or not the Special Ship Canal Committee should nominate the five 
directors on the Ship Canal Board, or whether the Council should itself undertake 
the duty. It was decided that the committee should recommend five names for 
adoption by the Council. Alderman King moved, as an amendment to the report, 
that the resolution with regard to non-remuneration of directors from the Council 
until the canal was completed be not adopted. Mr. Estcourt seconded the amend- 
ment, but all the members of the Council, except the mover and seconder, voted 
against it, and the report of the committee was then adopted. Upon the motion of 



188 MAYORALTY, 1890-91. 



the Mayor, it was resolved that the Special Committee re Manchester Ship Canal 
should be authorised to confer with Mr. Hill, C.E., with a view to his appointment 
by the Council as engineer to the Corporation, under the provisions of the Man- 
chester Ship Canal Act, 1891, provided that satisfactory terms could be arranged 
with him." 

The Manchester Examiner and Times, of the 5th August, 
states that the Finance Committee have requested that 
the following letter be addressed to the Chairman of the 
Ship Canal Company : — 

MANCHESTER SHIP CANAL. 

" Town Hall, Manchester, August, 1891. 

My Lord, — I have the honour to enclose copy of a resolution adopted at the 
meeting of the Council held on Thursday last. I am desired to request that the 
directors of the Manchester Ship Canal Company will be good enough to furnish a 
full statement as to the liabilities, and the state of the accounts generally, of the 
company from the 31st December last up to the 1st August, 1891, the same to be 
certified by Messrs. Thomas, Wade, Guthrie, and Co. 

It is desired that this statement should contain full particulars as to any 
temporary loans or advances made by bankers or others to the company. 

The Finance Committee propose to recommend the Council, at its meeting on 
Wednesday next, to authorise them to make payments, by way of loan to the 
company under the Act, of such amounts as will enable the company to discharge 
their weekly payments for a period of five weeks, at the rate of not exceeding 
^40,000 per week. 

In the meantime I trust that the Corporation may receive the information asked 
for, and any other particulars which the directors may desire to furnish, and that 
the officials of the company and Messrs. Thomas, Wade, Guthrie, and Co. be instructed 
to afford any information which the Corporation may desire. — I am, your lordship's 
obedient servant, John Mark, Mayor. 

The Right Hon. Lord Egerton of Tatton, Chairman 
of the Manchester Ship Canal Company, Spring 
Gardens, Manchester." 

On the 5th, the Mayor presided over a public meet- 
ing at the Town Hall, for the purpose of appointing a 
Committee in support of the invitation of the City 
Council forwarded to the Royal Agricultural Society to 
hold their meeting for 1893 in Manchester. Amongst 
those present were the Earl of Sefton, Lord Egerton 
of Tatton, Sir J. C. Lee, Mr. Oliver Heywood, Mr. 




' ' . 









JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 189 



Henry Boddington, the Mayor of Salford, Mr. Thomas 
Gair Ashton, and others too numerous to mention. 

" The Mayor said the suggestion that the Royal Agricultural Society should be in- 
vited to hold its 1893 meeting at Manchester was first conveyed to him in a letter 
from Sir Humphrey de Trafford, who offered, if their invitation were accepted, to place 
Trafford Park at their disposal for the purposes of the show. Knowing the very 
great interest felt in the matter in this district, he had no hesitation whatever in 
bringing the subject under the notice of the City Council. They unanimously gave 
their support to the resolution which he submitted to them on the 15th of July, and 
subsequently he called upon the secretary at the offices of the society in London, 
and on the 30th of July they had a reply in which the Council expressed their 
thanks for the invitation, and intimated that it would be taken into due consider- 
ation at their next meeting. The importance of holding the show in this great 
centre of population will be patent to all. It was alike important to landowners, 
tenants, manufacturers, merchants, and tradesmen of all classes, and he had no 
doubt whatever that they might hope for a very successful meeting. The previous 
Royal Show in Manchester was in 1869, and was one of the best on record. The 
admissions on that occasion numbered 189,102, and the surplus was ,£9,153, with 
which the society were very much gratified. The next largest to that was at York 
in 1883, when the surplus was £5,200. With their greatly increasing population, 
and the facilities which they could offer to the show in 1893, they could confidently 
expect an even greater success than that of 1869. Chester had also invited the 
society to hold its meeting there that year, and urged that as the society had not held 
its show there since 1858, the claims of the County of Chester and the_Principality 
of Wales were entitled to consideration. He had no doubt Chester's invitation 
would be backed up by the Duke of Westminster, Lord Tollemache, and others, so 
that they must not take it for granted that Manchester's invitation would be 
acceded to at once. Their claims must be backed up by an influential Council, an 
active working Executive Committee, and by liberal support to the local funds. 
With these he believed they would be successful, and that the society would 
consent to come to Manchester. Trafford Park was very conveniently situated, and 
was very accessible both by road and rail, but there was also a site of seventy acres 
available, so that they would not need to enter very far into the Park. He was 
confident, too, that the Ship Canal would be opened before 1893, so that that water- 
way would be available for the conveyance of both stock and machinery. He had 
received an enormous number of replies to letters of invitation which were sent out 
for that meeting, and they were all of a very encouraging kind — promises of support 
and of readiness to work were their chief characteristics. From among others he 
had received letters and telegrams from Lord Derby, the Earl of Lathom (who 
offered to subscribe £100), Lord Cross, Lord Hartington, Lord Winmarleigh, the 
Duke of Rutland, Lord Emlyn, Lord Crewe, the Hon. Tatton Egerton, Sir James 
Fergusson, Bart., M.P., Vice-chancellor Bristowe, the Bishop of Salford, Mr. 
Benton (who intimated his intention to contribute £100 to the local fund), Sir U. 
Kay-Shuttleworth, Colonel Le Gendre Starkie, Principal Ward, Mr. J. W. Maclure, 



i go MAYORALTY, 1890-91. 



M.P., the Right Hon. J. T. Hibbert, Mr. J. Jardine, Mr. Elliott Lees, M.P., the 
Mayor of Blackpool, Mr. W. H. Higgin, Q.C., Mr. Councillor Grantham (who 
offered to become a guarantor for /ioo), Mr. Herbert Philips, Mr. G. J. Armytage, 
chairman of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway Company, who offered whatever 
facilities in their power to the society, and from others. 

A vote of thanks was passed to the Mayor, who, in replying, announced that 
about £1,000 in subscriptions had been already promised, including Lord Egerton, 
£100 ; Lord Sefton, £100 ; Messrs. J. and N. Philips and Co., £100 ; Sir Humphrey 
de Trafford, /ioo ; Mr. J. Mellor, /50 ; Mr. J. Galloway, junior, £50 ; Sir J. C. Lee, 
£50; J. R. Bridgford and Sons, /50 ; Mr. E. Holt (Cheetham), £50; and Mr. F. 
Mehl, /50." 

On the 5th, also, there was a quarterly meeting of the 
City Council, over which the Mayor presided. A some- 
what lengthy discussion ensued upon the demolition of 
St. Mary's Church, in Parsonage, also some were anxious 
that the tower should be allowed to remain. 

" The Mayor said that on July 5 he wrote to Mr. Alderman Chesters Thompson : 
' Dear Chesters Thompson, — There seems to be a good deal of feeling and outcry 
against the demolition of St. Mary's Church tower, of which no doubt you will have 
heard. I have not been to look at it, and only now venture to suggest that it may 
be well to take heed of public sentiment and consider whether it should be preserved 
on its architectural merits as a tower of observation on the proposed vacant space, 
if it can be done consistently with good taste and without the necessity of a 
constant caretaker.' The Committee wished him to visit the tower, and he did so 
strongly imbued with the sentiments Mr. Boddington and Mr. Mainwaring had 
expressed, but he came away with a very different opinion. He had inspected the 
tower and had come to the conclusion that there was no architectural beauty about 
it worth preserving. Some of the upper portions might be beautiful in design, but 
the lower portion was about as plain as could be, and the tower, if allowed to 
remain, would be a very plain and meaningless obelisk." 

THE SHIP CANAL. 

"The Mayor moved that the report of the Special Committee re the Manchester 
Ship Canal be approved and adopted. Its main feature was the recommendation 
that the following gentlemen, all being members of the Committee, should be elected 
to the directorate of the Manchester Ship Canal Company as representatives of the 
Manchester Corporation: The Mayor, Alderman Sir J. J. Harwood, Alderman 
Chesters Thompson, Alderman Walton Smith, and Mr. J. W. Southern. The 
Mayor said the Committee thought that those who had had experience of the affairs 
of the Canal Company by reason of their connection with the Special Committee 
would be most useful on the directorate. He thought the names of the gentlemen 
nominated would recommend themselves to the Council as those of men who would 
render very good service. He hoped every gentleman elected would fulfil all the 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 191 

responsibilities of the position — would attend all meetings, and go over their sections 
of the canal every week, as the other directors did. If they were not prepared to 
face all weathers this coming winter he was afraid their influence would not be felt 
upon the Ship Canal Board in the way the Council expected it would. He had done 
his best to bring the arrangements with the Canal Company to a successful issue. 
He had declared that he would not allow himself to be nominated on the Board in 
the first place because he thought there were others better adapted for the work 
than himself, in the second place because his time was already very much occupied, 
and in the third place because the directors were not to receive any remuneration. 
He entirely objected to that, not because the fee, which was mere petty cash, was 
anything to him, but because he thought the work stood altogether in a different 
category to public and philanthropic work. It had been pointed out to him, 
however, that if he declined to serve it would look as if he desired to shirk some 
responsibility and to place it upon the shoulders of others, and that being so he had 
consented to allow himself to be nominated, and if elected he would do his level best 
to fulfil all the duties of the position. Services that were unrequited by any 
remuneration whatever were not so open to criticism and revision as were those that 
received some moderate reward. He, however, had to give way to superior numbers, 
and would loyally abide by the decision of the Committee." 

Some of the members here took exception to the 
nomination by the Committee of five directors from 
amongst themselves, instead of making the selection from 
the whole Council. 

' ' The Mayor said this was a mere recommendation on the part of the Committee ; 
it was not dictation. It was stated at the last meeting of the Council that it would 
be convenient if the Special Committee were asked to place five names before the 
Council for election. Five gentlemen had been recommended, but if the Council 
thought fit all might be overlooked and five others substituted. The Council was 
in no way disfranchised by the recommendation of the Committee, and the 
Committee had no intention of dictating to the Council in any degree. The 
Committee had been animated solely by a desire to recommend what would 
commend itself to the Council and to the public. 

The Mayor also said he would not like it to go forth to the public that the Ship 
Canal directors had already mortgaged the property of the Company. He wished 
to tell the Council and the public distinctly that the Ship Canal directors had not 
actually exhausted their full capital powers, but still had a respectable margin. He 
was made acquainted with this fact on Tuesday night, and he could quite vouch for 
the correctness of it. What the Council had asked for was perfectly reasonable. 
These negotiations were begun five months ago, and without casting reflections upon 
the board of directors or on any single individual, it was perfectly reasonable that 
the Corporation representatives now going on the Board should know what was the 
exact financial position of the Company on August i. It must not be assumed that 
the Corporation distrusted the statements made by the directors." 



ig 2 MAYORALTY, 1890-91. 

After there had been some further discussion of the 
subject, in which many members of the Council took 
part, 

"The Mayor at this stage suggested that they should start de novo with the 
election, and that it should be conducted in the same manner as is the election of 
aldermen ; that is to say, that slips of paper should be distributed, and that each 
gentleman should write down the names of the five for whom he wished to vote. 
With the consent of the Council, the Mayor ruled that any voting paper containing 
more or fewer than five names should be discarded. 

Slips of paper were then distributed, and were afterwards handed to the Town 
Clerk, who read out the names written thereon. Seventy-three papers were given 
in. Of these, two were discarded — one because it bore six names, the other because 
only four were on it. The voting resulted as follows: The Mayor, fifty-eight; 
Alderman Sir J. J. Harwood, fifty-eight; Mr. J. W. Southern, forty-four; Mr. H. 
Boddington, forty-two; Mr. Alderman S. Chesters Thompson, thirty-seven; Mr. 
Alderman Walton Smith, twenty-eight; Mr. Gunson, twenty-two; Mr. Williams, 
sixteen; Mr. Andrews, eight; Mr. Alderman Joseph Thompson, eight; Mr. Ping- 
stone, eight; Mr. Alderman Hinchliffe, five; Mr. George Clay, four; Mr. Alderman 
King, three; Mr. Worthington, three; Mr. Alderman Hopkinson, three; Mr. B. T. 
Leech, three; Mr. Samson, two; Mr. Tunstall, one; Mr. Alderman Higginbottom, 
one ; Mr. Royle, one. 

A formal resolution was then unanimously passed, on the motion of Mr. 
Alderman Griffin, appointing the Mayor, Alderman Sir John Harwood, Mr. J. W. 
Southern, Mr. H. Boddington, and Mr. Alderman Chesters Thompson the repre- 
sentatives of the Corporation on the board of directors of the Manchester Ship 
Canal Company." 

The report of the Finance Committee with respect to 
the Ship Canal was then presented to the Council, and 
Alderman King moved, as follows, that it be adopted. 

"After fully considering the whole matter, and remembering that the company 
must have money without delay, the Committee had agreed to recommend 
that they be authorised to pay the company such amounts as would enable 
them to discharge their weekly payments for a period of five weeks at a rate not 
exceeding £40,000 per week. Lord Egerton had replied to the letter of the 
Mayor, in the following terms : ' Dear Mr. Mayor, — I beg to acknowledge the 
receipt of your communication of the 30th ult. The company's accounts for the 
half year ended 30th June have been made up, and are now in process of audit by the 
auditors. A duly certified statement shall be furnished to you on completion, 
together with the other information asked for, as early as possible. We shall be 
glad at any time to give all the information in our power in answer to any inquiry 
that may be made by the Corporation, and we have instructed the officers of the 
company accordingly.' It was quite clear from this that the Council would have 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 193 

no difficulty in getting all the information they required. He was glad to say that 
the first issue of the new stock to the extent of £1,500,000 had been very satisfactory, 
tenders having been received for over £2,600,000. 

Mr. George Clay asked how the Finance Committee arrived at the £40,000 a 
week for five weeks. If they went on at this rate, by the end of next year the 
whole of the £3,000,000 would be gone. Sir Joseph Lee told the Parliamentary 
Committee that they wanted £25,000 a week. He moved as an amendment that a 
sum not exceeding £30,000 a week be paid to the Canal Company. 

Alderman Sir John Harwood said that if the whole of the £40,000 was not needed 
it would not be paid. They all agreed that the works must not be stopped. 

The Mayor pointed out that while the average amount required might be 
£25,000 a week, just now the company might want more than that. Of course as 
section after section was completed the amount of money required would decrease." 

In the evening of the 18th August, the Mayor of 
Manchester was one of the guests of the Corporation 
of Glasgow, together with the Lord Mayor and his 
colleagues. The banquet took place in the City Cham- 
bers, George's Square ; the chair being occupied by 
Lord Provost Muir. The Lord Provost gave as one of 
the toasts of the evening that of the " Municipal Corpor- 
ations of the Kingdom," coupling it with "the name of 
our honoured guest the Mayor of Manchester." 

"The Mayor of Manchester, in replying, said that it had been his privilege on 
many occasions to respond to the toast of the Mayor and Corporation of Manchester, 
but it was an extraordinary responsibility that was laid upon him that evening. He 
wished to know why he had been selected to reply single-handed to so important a 
toast when everybody who had preceded him had been bracketed with some able 
speaker on whom he could rely. On a recent occasion he had the honour of accep- 
ting the invitation to the Mansion House of the Lord Mayor of London. He went 
in all the regalia which his official position afforded, made his bow to the Lord 
Mayor and passed on, as it were, into obscurity. But the Lord Provost of Inverness 
walked up in his Highland dress and was received with rounds of applause, and, as 
the Americans say — he did not know the equivalent expression in Scotland — ' took 
the cake.' He wanted to know why the Lord Provost of Inverness was not on his 
legs to assist him on this occasion. However that might be, it would not detract 
from the measure of thanks which the municipalities represented there that night 
wished to give to the great Corporation of Glasgow for its munificent hospitality. 
He recognised that this friendly intercourse between great Corporations was of great 
national value. Among municipal institutions they at once accorded to the great 
city of London the premier place. There were, however, ancient municipal institu- 
tions in this country not less honourable although more obscure. Glasgow held one 



194 MAYORALTY, 1890-91. 

of the very foremost places next to London. But the Lord Provost had prudently 
refrained from prophecy, and he (the Mayor) gave the meeting due notice that, 
having taken example from the magnificent waterway which had been created in the 
Clyde, the people of Manchester were making their city into a port by the con- 
struction of a splendid canal, and in time perhaps they would surpass Glasgow in 
maritime enterprise and even in the matter of naval architecture. In conclusion he 
expressed the hope that the good understanding that exists between Glasgow and 
Manchester and Liverpool, and the other great municipalities, might continue for 
many years to come." 

A Glasgow evening paper thus speaks of the matter: 

' ' Sir Augustus (Druriolanus) Harris has improved as a public speaker since his 
last appearance, in his managerial capacity, on the stage of the Grand Theatre in 
this city. But, all ' odious caparisons ' apart, the Mayor of Manchester was, perhaps, 
the best specimen of the municipal orator in the hall. He talked in a loud, clear 
voice, and in the monotone which some orators consider essential, and, though he 
did not keep the promise to be brief, which won him effusive applause at the start, 
he at least afforded some amusement by his description of the figure which the 
Provost of Inverness cut at a certain Mansion House function, where his 'kilted body 
and unkilted legs ' — we quote His Honour of Manchester — ' took the cake.' Cotton- 
opolis, it seems, is going to eclipse Glasgow when the Canal is finished. A syndicate 
there is already talking about graving docks." 

On the 22nd, the Mayor presided over a meeting of 
the General Purposes Committee of the City Council, 
held at noon, to consider the report of the special com- 
mittee in reference to the Ship Canal. 

"The Mayor said he would briefly run over some of the items, because, although 
he was happy to anticipate a favourable reception of the report and its adoption, it 
was so important that they could not pass it lightly over. He reminded them that 
a special meeting of the Council was held on the 50th July, at which it was resolved 
that no money should be advanced without the sanction of a special resolution of 
the General Purposes Committee or of the Council. The Finance Committee were 
authorised to carry out the resolution, and to make such arrangements as were 
desirable. On the 5th August there was another meeting of the Council, at which a 
letter from the Mayor to the Chairman of the Ship Canal Board was approved, 
requiring them to furnish a full statement of the liabilities of the Company from the 
31st December to the 1st August, and he thought they would agree with him that 
that request had been very fully and sufficiently complied with. From the first 
moment that the Ship Canal Directors approached the Corporation for the 
assistance necessary in the straits in which they found themselves, it was understood 
that they would be able to find the means of carrying on the works continuously 
until about the end of July, and it was of the utmost importance that the work should 
never be disturbed or the men distributed over the country. Therefore they had to 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 195 

resort to the only means in their hands, and had to obtain temporary loans and 
advances upon their debenture shares, which was a perfectly legitimate way of 
getting the money. In the first place they obtained an advance of £246,000 from 
Messrs. Rothschild upon first mortgage debentures amounting to £290,000, and 
Messrs. Rothschild had the option of paying the difference of fifteen per cent any 
time up to February next, less one per cent commission, and as those mortgage 
debentures would have improved in value by the recent advance the probability was 
that they would elect to let the interest run on and then pay the difference. There- 
fore the Council in all probability would not have to deal with that at all. In the 
next place there were £369,000 worth of second mortgage debentures upon which 
the Canal Board obtained an advance from two bankers of £150,000 each, and they 
were paying interest only upon the £300,000, not upon the whole; but these the 
Board had the option of redeeming, and it would be obvious to all of them who 
desired from the first to assist the canal as far as they could legitimately do, so that 
the large sum of money which was now in their hands might, some portion of it, be 
devoted to taking up the second mortgage debentures, which were now a marketable 
security, and it was obvious also that this should be done if only because the extra- 
ordinary success of the loan had brought in a very large amount of money, which 
had been placed to the credit of the general account, and the Ship Canal Company 
would actually have to pay four and a half per cent upon that money while the 
bank were only allowing one and a half per cent. The only other item which 
appeared on the face of the explanation they had given was that they had had a 
bank overdraft of £135,000, which ought to be made good. They would observe 
that in reply to his letter the Ship Canal Board said : ' We shall be glad at any time 
to give all the information in our power in answer to any inquiries that may be 
made by the Corporation, and will instruct the officers of the Company accordingly.' 
The Committee had found that spirit manifested by the Company in all their 
inquiries, and there seemed no disposition to hold back anything as to the state of 
their affairs. The Mayor proceeded to point to passages in the report of the Special 
Committee (the salient points of which have already been published), and said the 
expenditure from the 1st January to the 31st July was rather more, taking it per 
week, than they thought was necessary. It had generally been worked out at 
£40,000 per week, but he found in making a comparison of the previous six months 
ending December, 1890, that in that half-year the expenditure was £1,464,051, and 
for the half-year ending June it was £1,129,067, the difference being accounted for 
by the fact that the contractors in the former half-year were paid off, and they also 
were paid interest on that half-year which they were not paid on the last half-year. 
The difference would also be accounted for by the fact that during the summer 
months and the long days they pushed forward the works with great energy. In 
wet weeks, when the men could not work, the expenses fell very much lower than in 
fine weeks. They must expect fluctuations in the amount of work done and in the 
material absorbed from week to week. The Committee had given a very great deal 
of careful attention to the statement of accounts delivered, and they were of opinion 
that it was entirely satisfactory. The facts connected with the Corporation loan 
were very significant as to the position in which their security was regarded by the 
financial world and by the public. They were urged by some to place a fixed price 



1 96 MAYORALTY, 1890-91. 

upon the stock, but they were advised by the Governor of the Bank of England and 
by the Government Broker and others, that they were not in a position to risk 
failure under any terms whatever, and if they had fixed £96 and the money had not 
come in they would have been very much disappointed and inconvenienced. There- 
fore a minimum, which was sure to be a success, was fixed at £94. Those who 
tendered above £96 got stock to the extent of £1, 500,000, and those who tendered 
below that price did not receive any. There was only one other financial event of 
the year which was at all equal to it in success, and that was the Indian Government 
loan for £2,500,000, for which there were offers of £4,000,000 and upwards. The 
Royal assent was only given to the bill on the 28th July, so that he thought they 
might congratulate themselves that so much had been done in about three weeks. 
He moved : ' That the report now read be approved and adopted, and that the 
General Purposes Committee do, by this special resolution, sanction and direct that 
the whole of the proceeds arising from the issue of £1, 500,000 of stock created under 
the resolution of the Council on the 30th July last as received by the Corporation 
from the Bank of England be transferred by way of loan to the special account 
of the Manchester Ship Canal Company, under the Manchester Ship Canal Act, 
1891, and subject to the provisions of section 15 of that Act, whereby no payment 
can be made out of the special account except upon a certificate signed jointly by the 
engineer of the Corporation and the engineer of the Company in respect of works 
and equipment, and by the secretary of the Company and the treasurer of the city of 
Manchester in respect of other purposes.' " 

Discussion now ensued as to the sum the Canal 
expended weekly, and — 

' ' The Mayor said he had made a very particular inquiry as to whether there was 
any excessive amount of money paid for night work or overtime, but he found that 
as far as possible that had been dispensed with. All extraordinary expenditure, 
indeed, had been kept down, and only in a case of extraordinary emergency was 
anything beyond the ordinary rate of wages paid for any part of the work. The 
Company would be very glad to spend £60,000 per week judiciously. The 
item of interest was enormously great, and every week or month that could be 
saved in the opening of the Canal for traffic was of the greatest importance. As to 
Mr. Wilson's question, Mr. Southern had very properly said that the weeks varied, 
and he endeavoured to explain that some weeks the expenditure was as low as 
£25,000 and in other weeks £30,000. When the end of the month came salaries had 
to be paid and invoices for material met, etc., and then the expenditure might 
be £80,000. It would thus be seen that the expenditure was bound to vary. 
The Council must give their representatives on the Board credit for keeping a 
vigilant eye upon the carrying out of the work." 

On the desirability of sub-contracting : — 

"The Mayor said he would promise that that should be done. They had only 
been appointed, as it were, about twenty minutes. They had attended one meeting, 
but one did not get hold of the entire subject in that time. The Council could take 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 197 



it from him that if they could see their way to re-let or sub-let any portion of 
the work judiciously it would be done. It would at once occur to the minds of the 
Council that there was considerable over-lapping and intersection of contracts 
already in existence. The Committee were thoroughly alive to the importance of 
getting the work dane as efficiently and cheaply as possible. It might be advisable, 
if they found that such was the case, to let the works go on as they were; but 
the Council might be sure that the matter would be well looked into." 

On the 2nd September, the Mayor presided over a 
meeting of the City Council. 

"The Mayor said it was their duty to express their regret that the Openshaw 
Ward had been deprived of two representatives in so short a space of time. 
The two members — Councillors Battersby and Erwin — who had been taken from 
them gave promise of very excellent service in that Council, and it was with 
mournful regret they placed on record the loss of those gentlemen. Their successors 
he cordially welcomed. 

ST. MARY'S TOWER. 

The Mayor read a memorial from the Manchester Society of Architects with 
reference to the proposed demolition of the tower of St. Mary's Church. The 
memorial said : ' Although the tower itself is not possessed of much architectural 
beauty, yet it presents features of archaeological interest, particularly in the curious 
combination of Gothic remains, possibly from some earlier building, with masonry 
of a later style. As a memorial of the past and a vantage-point for the prospect from 
its summit, it might, we venture to think, be allowed to stand. We would at all 
events strongly recommend that it remain untouched for, say, twelve months, when 
the question of facing up the east end and putting the whole in repair could then be 
entertained.' This memorial, the Mayor said, was received on Tuesday, and he had 
a conversation with the gentlemen who presented it. He pointed out to them that 
if the tower were allowed to stand it would be necessary to construct a proper stair- 
case to the summit, to put a cage over the top to prevent suicides, and to provide an 
attendant in uniform. The deputation said they thought the tower might be faced 
up to the east and allowed to stand from its archaeological interest, and they 
supported that view by a letter from Mr. Waterhouse in which that gentleman had 
asked them if they did not think their Society might lift up its voice in favour of the 
retention of the tower, not so much because of its architectural excellence, but 
because of its peculiar interest. Even Mr. Waterhouse, therefore, could only defend 
the tower as a patch-work piece of architecture. Just to test the feeling of the 
Council, he would move that that part of the minutes of the Parks Committee 
dealing with St. Mary's Tower should be referred to the Committee for further 
consideration. 

The Mayor : There is no doubt the initial mistake was made in pulling down 
St. Mary's Church, which was in an excellent state of preservation, instead of 
pulling down St. Ann's Church, when we could have extended St. Ann's Square." 

n 1 



ig8 MAYORALTY, 1890-91. 

Following upon this was a discussion of the site for 
the statue of John Bright. 

"The Mayor said that after a full examination of the various sites the Committee 
had come to the conclusion that the Infirmary esplanade was the most suitable place. 
When the sculptor was informed of that he was very much distressed indeed, as he 
considered that to place a work of such a character with its face to the north would 
have the result that it would only be seen with advantage for a few hours in the day. 
Out of consideration for his feelings, the Committee again met, and ultimately decided 
that it should be placed in Albert Square. He (the Mayor) thought that the statue 
of Bishop Fraser should be removed from its present position to the Mount Street 
side of the Albert Memorial, with its face towards the Memorial, and that Mr. Bright's 
statue should be placed on the Princess Street side of the Memorial with its face 
towards it. He would also suggest that the Bishop's statue should be slightly 
elevated by the addition of an extra block. 

In answer to Mr. Pingstone, the Mayor stated that the tram line which at present 
ran through the centre of the pavement in Albert Square was about to be removed, 
and in future the trams would go round the end of the pavement." 

Dr. Simpson asked to postpone a resolution instruc- 
ting the Rivers Committee to report on the condition of 
the Irwell. 

"The Mayor said Dr. Simpson knew that extensive works were in progress to 
remedy the evils of which he complained. What were their great sewage works for ? 
They were constructing enormous sewers as speedily as they possibly could, but 
they could not take the sewage out of the river until the sewers were completed, nor 
could they allow the water to go into the Ship Canal docks in its present condition." 

On the nth, the Teachers' Guild held an evening 
Conversazione at the Town Hall. 

"The Mayor, who presided, cordially welcomed the members of the Teachers' 
Guild. He was extremely glad that they were holding their present conference in 
Manchester, and it had given him the opportunity of inviting a great number of 
ladies and gentlemen from Manchester and the neighbourhood who were interested 
in education, and who were pleased to meet the members of the guild. On no more 
important subject could they hold conferences than on the subject of education, for 
the periodical exchange of views, and the extension of personal acquaintance among 
those who were engaged in the same duties and pursuits. He understood the guild 
was composed of teachers of all creeds, including university professors, college 
lecturers, masters and mistresses of grammar schools and day schools, elementary 
teachers and private teachers. Its present aim was to bring about the registration 
of qualified teachers, so that the profession might be duly recognised in the same 
way as the medical and legal professions. He understood from the programme of 
the conference that every possible feature of modern education was brought under 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 199 

useful and practical discussion. Such an organisation was full of interest to the 
general public, and was significant of the most useful results. He hoped the guild 
would do something to bring the systems of teaching, which were very different at 
the present time, into more harmony, and that it would be successful in their one 
particular aim of securing provision for old age. At the present time education 
occupied the minds of all men ; they were in the midst of an education boom. All 
sorts of education were before them, and taxation in consequence was rather heavy ; 
and in addition to that burden some of them had to give their support to Voluntary 
schools. He regretted the fact that education nowadays seemed to have the effect 
of causing young people to despise the dignity of manual labour. The Mayor then 
spoke of the importance of acquiring a knowledge of foreign languages, especially 
French, German, and Spanish, for commercial pursuits, remarking that it was 
unfortunately the case that when an English house wanted to send a salesman 
abroad not one in every twenty was an Englishman. Manchester, he added, might 
claim not to be without interest for those concerned with education. In the last 
quarter of a century great progress had been made in many places, but in no place 
more than in Manchester. Twenty-five years ago higher education, as represented 
by the Owens College, was just beginning to take root. The places were few, the 
buildings were poor, and the curriculum was imperfectly organised and incomplete. 
Since then, through the munificence of Manchester people, enormous advances had 
been made, and a sum of not less than ^500,000 had been spent in the endowment 
of the Owens College. The Mayor then described the work of some of the chief 
educational institutions in Manchester, including the Owens College, the Grammar 
School, the Hulme Grammar School, the High School for Girls, and the day training 
school in connection with the Owens College. 

On the evening of the 21st, a joint meeting of the 
council and executive of the Life Boat Saturday Fund, 
was held in the Association Hall, Peter Street, to elect 
the officers and fix the date of collection ; Mr. C. W. 
Macara presiding. 

"The Chairman proposed that the Mayor of Manchester should be the president 
of the council. The motion was agreed to, and the Mayor, in accepting the position, 
said he could not conceive any circumstances more distressing than the wreck of a 
ship within sight of shore without there being the means of succour close at hand, 
and the interval between the wreck of a ship and the rescue, where possible, must 
also be very distressing. He thought that those who went forth from the shore, 
risking their lives to save the lives of those who were in peril, should be equipped 
with the best possible means that science had given, so that they might have to face 
only the very minimum of danger to themselves." 

On the 28th, the Mayor went to open a Free Library 
and Technical School at the Town Hall, Newton Heath. 
The presentation key is a piece of beautiful workmanship 



2 oo MAYORALTY, 1890-91. 

in solid gold, and about six inches in length. On one 
side, round the handle, is the legend in raised letters 
" Manchester Public Reference Libraries," and on the 
middle of the barrel " 1891"; the reverse of the key has 
the Arms of the City of Manchester in enamelled work, 
and in the middle of the barrel the monogram J.M. in 
relief. The inscription is placed upon a shield at the 
head of the key : — 

"Presented by the Libraries Committee to Alderman John Mark, Mayor 
of Manchester, on the opening of the Newton Heath Branch Library, 28th 
September, 1891." 

Alderman Mark having accepted the presentation 
and opened the rooms, a public meeting was held in the 
Assembly Hall. 

"The Mayor said Manchester might be proud of the fact that they were the first 
municipality to admit a rate to be levied for library purposes. Libraries in Man- 
chester had long since passed their elementary stage. Some might say they were 
provided at very considerable expense. He did not think it was a bad investment. 
We had in Manchester been limited to a library rate by Act of Parliament to one 
penny in the pound, which in Greater Manchester yielded something like £10,000. 
We had gone to Parliament and obtained powers to extend the rate to twopence in 
the pound. Yet it was still of worth if by the distribution of wholesome literature 
and increasing the education of the people the result was to reduce the poor rate by 
one penny in the pound, and the gaol rate and the police rate. It was a very valuable 
investment, and they admitted the wisdom of those who preceded them in establish- 
ing institutions for the people, libraries, art galleries, parks, museums, and baths, not 
entirely, but almost free. In addressing the Teachers' Guild a short time ago, he 
was surprised on looking into the subject to discover the number of colleges and 
schools of various kinds now in full work in Manchester. It was quite remarkable 
how much attention was being paid to continuous education by evening classes. He 
might have instanced the valuable work of the Free Libraries Committee. The 
growth of its work was shown by remarkable figures. The number of volumes used 
in the reference library last year was 307,785 ; of volumes lent for home use, 
700,242 ; used in the reading room on workdays, 105,354 • use d on Sundays, 16,022; 
used by boys on workdays, 315,647; used by boys on Sundays, 119,758. The 
aggregate of books borrowed was 667,038; of visitors to the newsrooms 466,804; of 
users of the reference library 236,521 ; and of the boys' rooms 435,405. The total 
number of users was 4,195,109. To the credit of the borrowers it might be said that 
last year only 73 books had not been returned ; 106 were missing, but 71 of these 
were paid for by the borrowers and 22 by the guarantors. The total number 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 201 

of volumes in the reference library was 92,942, in the lending library 106,708, and in 
the reading rooms 2,991, giving a total of 202,641. He recognised the importance of 
all these advantages being placed within their reach, but it rested with the people to 
use them. He appealed to parents to take an interest in their children's education, 
and to wives to allow their husbands the opportunity of pleasant home reading." 

On the 1 st October, the Mayor was called upon 
to open a bazaar in the Town Hall, Newton Heath, in 
aid of the scheme for the erection of St. Paul's Methodist 
New Connexion Chapel, Newton Heath. 

' ' The Mayor said he recognised most strongly that those were most worthy 
of help who were trying to help themselves. It was a peculiar satisfaction that he 
heard the promises of support which that congregation was likely to receive, 
and which he thought it richly deserved. He heartily approved of the object of the 
bazaar, and in declaring it open he wished it every success." 

On the 3rd, the Mayor presided at a meeting in the 
Town Hall, for the distribution of prizes gained by the 
students of the Manchester Technical School, at the 
examinations in April last. After the reading of the 
Report, the meeting was addressed by Mr. Oliver Hey- 
wood, and followed by — 

"The Mayor, who spoke of the satisfaction with which the members of the City 
Council regarded the good understanding that existed between the great educational 
institutions of the city, and the pleasure it gave them to be able to aid in the great 
work of education. It was exceedingly gratifying to him that the high standard of 
education had been maintained in the Technical School. He was sure the commercial 
supremacy of this country was quite safe in the hands of the present generation. He 
strongly recommended young men to give more attention to the acquirement of 
modern languages, especially French, German, and Spanish— and a little bit of 
English." 

On the 4th, the Greek Church, Higher Broughton, 
had a Solemn Requiem Mass sung for the repose of the 
soul of the Princess Alexandra (Grand Duchess Paul), 
eldest daughter of the King of Greece, and niece of the 
Princess of Wales. 

" The Mayor of Manchester (Alderman Mark) attended officially, accompanied 
by C. Malcolm Wood, Chief Constable. His Worship wore the golden decoration 
of the Order of the Cross of the Saviour, and the Chief Constable was decorated 
with the silver cross of the same Order, these marks of distinction having been 
recently conferred upon them by the King of the Hellenes." 



202 MAYORALTY, 1890-91. 

The Bee Hive, of this date, contains a portrait of the 
Mayor with the following comments: — 

' ' Many of our members will be glad to have in the Bee Hive the likeness of 
Mr. Alderman Mark, who has so ably filled the office of Chief Magistrate of our 
city for the last two years. Mr. Mark is a splendid specimen of those self-made men 
who, by hard work, patient industry, steady perseverance, and honesty of character, 
have raised themselves into positions of influence, and of whom we are proud to 
have so many in Lancashire. JMr. Mark not only takes in his present position a 
practical interest in many philanthropic works of our city, but, before becoming an 
employer, when serving very long hours as an assistant, he gave up most of his little 
leisure to the self-denying work of a Sunday School and a Ragged School Teacher, 
and he still retains his practical sympathy for poor children. I do not think our 
Town Hall has ever been better used than on the last two New Years' days, when 
Mr. Mark as Mayor, and his good wife, entertained two thousand Ragged School 
children, boys and girls, to dinner ; and he spoke to them a few kindly words from 
his own experience. It seemed to me as though such a gathering on New Year's 
Day was a fitting start for a year's work in the Town Hall. 

On the 9th September Mr. Mark gave a Conversazione in the Town Hall, to 
which he invited 500 of our members, and I sent him their names and addresses 
from our roll book, in the order in which fchey there appear, as it was impossible for 
His Worship to invite at one time the whole of our membership." 

On the 7th, the Mayor presided over a monthly 
meeting of the City Council. 

"The Mayor reported the arrangements made for the unveiling of the statue of 
the late John Bright in Albert Square on Saturday. They provided that the mem- 
bers of the Council will assemble in the State apartments of the Town Hall at 
twelve o'clock, together with the members of the Statue Memorial Committee, ladies, 
Members of Parliament, and others. It was hoped that some members of the family 
of the late Mr. Bright would be present. At half-past twelve a procession will be 
formed to Albert Square and proceed to the enclosure surrounding the statue. The 
ceremony of unveiling will be performed by the Earl of Derby, who will also deliver 
an address. Mr. B. Armitage (Chomlea), chairman of the Memorial Committee, 
will subsequently present to the Mayor, on behalf of the Corporation, a deed of gift 
vesting the statue in the Corporation. The arrangements were approved. 

THE DEATH OF MR. W. H. SMITH. 

The Mayor said it was becoming that they should refer for one moment to the 
death of a very highly esteemed member of Her Majesty's Government, of which he 
was sure the whole nation would have heard with profound regret — he meant 
Mr. W. H. Smith, the First Lord of the Treasury and leader of the House of 
Commons. His death had come somewhat suddenly at last. He had died in 
harness and in the full usefulness of the sphere to which he had been called, and it 
would be with the greatest regret of all parties in the State that they were deprived 
of his valuable services at a comparatively early age.' 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 203 

Mr. J. C. Abbott introduced a motion touching upon 
a single carter being allowed to take charge of two carts. 

"The Mayor said he thought the question could be very well disposed of. He 
did not wish to interrupt Mr. Abbott, but he desired to put him in possession of 
some facts. The subject of carters having charge of more than one horse and cart, 
connected by chains or straps, etc., had been brought before the Watch Committee 
and considered by them on several occasions, and the Chief Constable had presented 
a return showing that during the week ending 5th September last 1,200 such carts 
passed through certain of the public streets. Of that number 913 were in conformity 
with the law as laid down in section 102 of the Police Act, leaving 286 which were 
in contravention of the section. The Watch Committee did not think it advisable, 
in view of the trade of the city, to instruct the police to take any action in the matter. 
It would appear that, so far as danger to passengers and cruelty to animals were 
concerned, the various modes of connecting two carts together were equally 
objectionable, and if it was desirable to alter the state of things it was also advisable 
to consider the matter very carefully, and it would be necessary to obtain fresh local 
powers from Parliament. No by-law could be made upon the subject." 

On the 10th, the Mayor, accompanied by Mrs. Mark 
and Miss Mark, were at Belle Vue Gardens, in the 
interests of the "Life Boat Saturday Fund." 

On the same day the ceremony of unveiling the statue 
of John Bright, in Albert Square, took place. This was 
done by the Earl of Derby, with a short speech, and the 
Mayor read letters from Mr. Jacob Bright, Sir William 
Houldsworth, Bart., M.P., Sir Henry James, and numer- 
ous others of distinction, who, from various causes, were 
unable to be present. This was followed by a lengthy 
speech from the Earl of Derby ; after which, Alderman 
W. H. Holland read over the deed, and handed same to 
the Mayor, conveying the statue from the subscribers to 
the Mayor, Aldermen, and Citizens. 

"The Mayor said that as representing the Corporation and citizens he received 
that statue with very great pride and satisfaction. The place which had been 
selected as a site for the statue was no doubt very suitable, being in front of 
the Town Hall, near the centre of municipal activity. But he could have wished 
that it had been placed in closer proximity to Mr. Bright's dear friend, Mr. Cobden. 
Having enlarged upon the eminent qualities and abilities of Mr. Bright, he said the 
loss of Bright was not the loss of this nation only, for his winged words had flown to 



204 MAYORALTY, 1890-91. 

the ends of the earth, and found an echo in every isle and continent. They must 
make some acknowledgments to the eminent sculptor who had reproduced with so 
much fidelity the striking features of John Bright, and their gratitude was also due 
to the committee and to the subscribers for that handsome gift." 

On the 14th, the Mayor opened a bazaar in the Hulme 
Town Hall, in aid of St. Stephen's Church, City Road. 

"The Mayor, in declaring the bazaar open, said that in the parish there was a 
population of something like 5,000, not all church-going people, of course, for there 
were no doubt Nonconformist places of worship and Nonconformist schools. In 
looking over the programme he found that satisfactory work was done by St. 
Stephen's Church. He found there were in the Sunday school 400 scholars ; in the 
Sunday evening ragged schools there was an attendance of something like 200 ; and 
there was one feature he was very glad to observe — a special service on Sunday 
evening for the very poor people, whose great poverty might give rise to a desire not 
to put in an appearance at the ordinary service. The congregation contributed very 
fairly to the offertories and ordinary expenses of the church. But churches got into 
disrepair and needed decorating. He would fain hope that churches would not alto- 
gether lean upon outside help so much. Congregations allowed everything to get 
dismal about their place of worship, and then there was an extraordinary effort made 
every few years to get extraneous assistance. When they needed their own houses 
painted and decorated they did not go and ask the neighbours to do it ; they felt 
some obligation themselves. If there was a small nucleus of a repair and decoration 
fund in every church it would be an exceedingly good thing. However, in the case 
of St. Stephen's, they wanted the money and they meant to get it. In conclusion the 
Mayor congratulated them on the picturesque appearance of the hall." 

On the 21st, at noon, the Right Hon. A. J. Balfour 
opened a bazaar at the Gentlemen's Concert Hall, the 
object being to raise .£1,000 wherewith to improve the 
Albert Memorial Church, Harpurhey. The Mayor of 
Manchester presided, and was accompanied by the 
Mayoress and Miss Mark, and the former spoke of the 
good that was being done by the congregation, and then 
introduced Mr. Balfour, who made a lengthy speech. 

On the same day, in the afternoon, the Mayor pre- 
sided over a meeting of the Proprietors of the Gentle- 
men's Concert Flail, at the Town Hall, the object being 
to bring its claims under public notice. 

" The Mayor said he was entirely in sympathy with the objects of the meeting. 
It was well known that some years ago the select concerts held at the Gentlemen's 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 205 

Concert Hall were so popular that people desirous of becoming subscribers had to 
wait for a great number of years before they could get their names on the list ; but, 
partly by the very superior concerts given by Sir Charles HallS and others, there had 
been less demand of late years for admission to the Gentlemen's Concert Hall. It 
was felt that the present generation had not quite remembered the position which 
the Gentlemen's Concerts occupied some years ago, and that it only required to be 
better known by ladies as well as gentlemen to make it as great a success now and 
in the future as it had been in the past. With that view the committee had wisely 
determined to seek the aid of the ladies in their efforts to resuscitate, if he might use 
the word, the concerts, and they should be ladies and gentlemen's concerts. It 
would be a pity if the concerts, which had continued for more than 150 years, should 
be entirely discontinued, and he trusted their efforts that day would be successful." 

On the same day, at noon, the Earl of Derby opened 
a two days' Conference in the Town Hall, on Fruit 
Growing, the assembly being under the auspices of the 
Royal Botanical and Horticultural Society of Man- 
chester. The Mayor having introduced the Earl of 
Derby, the latter proceeded to address the assembly on 
the advantages of fruit growing, as well as of its use as a 
nourishing food. 

On the 24th, Alderman John Mark was present at the 
unveiling of the statue of Mr. John Bright in the Town 
Hall, Rochdale. 

On the 26th, the Mayor and Mayoress attended the 
annual Assault at Arms, and distribution of prizes, in 
connection with the Young Men's Christian Association 
in Peter Street. 

' ' The proceedings commenced with a gymnastic display under the direction 
of Professor Renshaw. After the prizes for chess, drawing, and music had been 
presented by the Mayoress (Mrs. Mark), the Mayor, who presented the prizes 
for languages, shorthand and book-keeping, said it gave him great pleasure to take 
part in that prize distribution. He addressed them as one of themselves. He came 
to Manchester a good many years ago without a situation, but with very good 
credentials and friends. He recommended all to improve the education they had 
received as much as their time permitted. They should consider that a good know- 
ledge of English composition and writing was a necessity if they would get on in any 
walk in life. Young men in business suffered much from the want of a knowledge of 
foreign languages. He strongly recommended these, and also shorthand and mental 
arithmetic, as subjects of study.'' 



206 MAYORALTY, 1890-91. 

On the 28th, a meeting of the Manchester City 
Council was held under the presidency of the Mayor. 
The Improvement and Buildings Committee recom- 
mended the improvement of St. Ann's Square, by taking 
into their charge the land surrounding the Church, for 
which an allowance of £100 per annum was to be made. 
Alderman Asquith objected to this price. 

"The Mayor said he thought that the terms were very reasonable, and he 
congratulated Mr. Clay upon the result of his negotiations with the church 
authorities." 

After this, considerable discussion took place upon the 
subject of a "Destructor" for Longsight. 

" The Mayor said the matter seemed to have been rushed a little upon the 
district, and he thought the inhabitants ought to have some opportunity afforded 
them of stating their objection to the proposal. He had received a deputation that 
morning which might be called an influential deputation. He could only promise 
the gentlemen constituting the deputation that he would do what he could to see 
that their request for a postponement be granted. He did not regard the destructor 
as a nuisance, and the objections were altogether sentimental. No alternative sites 
were suggested by the deputation. They were not prepared to assist the committee 
in that regard. All they seemed anxious about was that the destructor should not be 
established at Longsight." 

The next point was the question recommended by the 
General Purposes Committee of conferring the honorary 
freedom of the city upon Alderman Heywood. 

" The Mayor moved that the resolution be referred to a special committee, and 
that the committee also take into account the question of conferring a similar honour 
upon Alderman J. Thompson. 

The Mayor said he knew that Alderman Heywood regarded the honour as of 
priceless worth. He esteemed nothing so much as the good feeling and confidence 
of his colleagues." 

The Manchester Guardian, in its leading article of 
the 29th, thus alludes to the subject. 

"Yesterday the Manchester Town Council, at a meeting specially convened for 
the purpose, conferred upon Mr. Alderman Heywood the freedom of the city. The 
suggestion that this honour should be bestowed upon our eminent fellow-townsman 
was made by the Mayor at the last meeting of the General Purposes Committee. 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 207 

The Mayor, Mr. Alderman Mark, expressed a wish that it might take place before 
the termination of his year— his second year — of office, and it is fit that he should 
enjoy the pleasure which is due in part to his own happy inspiration. There is not 
a member of the Council who would not have been equally ready to take the first 
step in bestowing this distinction upon one who merits it so well ; but the Mayor 
deserves the credit of the 'happy thought,' and its realisation will serve as a 
pleasant memorial of his civic reign." 

On the evening of the 28th, Alderman and Mrs. Mark 
entertained at dinner, in the Town Hall, a numerous 
assembly of ladies and gentlemen. 

The Manchester Courier, of the 7th November, con- 
tains the following paragraph: — 

" The last of the Mayoress's successful ' At Homes' took place in the state apart- 
ments of the Manchester Town Hall yesterday afternoon. The guests, who 
numbered over 300, were received by Mrs. Mark and her daughters. Among the 
callers were Mr. J. W. Maclure, M.P., Mr. and Mrs. W. Agnew, Mr. B. Armitage 
(Chomlea), and Mr. and Mrs. J. Lilly. The rooms were prettily decorated with 
flowers." 

On the 9th, the Mayor presided over a meeting of the 
City Council; the first business being the election of a 
Mayor for the ensuing year. Alderman Bosdin T. Leech 
was proposed, seconded and unanimously elected, to fill 
the high position. 

' ' The Mayor announced to Mr. Alderman Leech the unanimous decision of the 
Council, and added that he had now the pleasure of performing the last act of his 
mayoralty in transferring to so worthy a successor the badge and chain which was 
the insignia of office, which they were assured would receive additional lustre in the 
way in which he would discharge the responsible duties of Mayor and chief magis- 
trate of the city. He trusted that his tenure of office might afford to himself and to 
the Mayoress and the members of his family much pleasure and gratification. 

The newly elected Mayor then subscribed to the usual declaration, and the 
retiring Mayor having placed the chain of office upon his shoulders, inducted him 
into the chair amid hearty plaudits." 

The Manchester Courier, in its leading article of the 
10th, thus comments: — 

"The members of the Manchester City Council are to be congratulated on having 
elected Alderman Leech as Alderman Mark's successor to the office of Mayor. In an 
important thriving city like Manchester, where municipal work and responsibilities 



208 MAYORALTY, 1890-91. 

are only equalled in a few great centres in the world, the Mayor must possess more 
than ordinary tact, judgment, and practical business qualities to earn for himself the 
gratitude and praise of his fellow citizens. Manchester has been fortunate in the 
selection of its Mayors, and Alderman Mark, and we believe the newly-elected 
Mayor, will be added to the list of the most worthy municipal presidents whose years 
of office have been distinguished by great enterprises and successful local govern- 
ment. For two years Alderman Mark has discharged his duties with dignity, 
conscientiousness, and satisfaction. Eager that great achievements should be 
accomplished with the least possible friction among men of different opinions in the 
municipal chamber, Alderman Mark has been impartial and just, and has earned the 
approval of all who have any knowledge of the work he has done. In social 
affairs his generosity, courtesy, and kindliness have been highly appreciated, and in 
the discharge of social functions he has been assisted by Mrs. Mark and his 
daughters. His two years of office have been made notable by many gigantic under- 
takings that will have considerable effect upon the future of Manchester, and in all 
municipal enterprises his knowledge of local affairs and his practical acquaintance 
with the needs of the city have been of great value." 

The formidable array of work given, during two years, 
in the foregoing pages, by no means represents the full 
amount of labour. There is the attendance of the Ma)'or 
upon numerous committees, and frequent attendances in 
London upon Corporation affairs, of which we have no 
account. The Mayor attends the first meeting only in 
the municipal year of all Committees, when the several 
Chairmen are elected, he is ex-officio a member of all, 
but not expected to attend ordinary committees. 

COPY OF RESOLUTION OF THE CITY COUNCIL. 

One of the first proceedings of the City Council, under 
its new Mayor, was to pass a vote of thanks to Alderman 
Mark, for his services to the City during the two years he 
occupied the Mayoral seat. This document is a splendid 
piece of illuminated workmanship, engrossed on vellum, 
bound in royal blue morocco, tooled with diamond design 
on cover, of which we give the text herewith. 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 



209 




Cit\> of flfoancbester. 




gT a Meeting of the Council, held the gth day of 
November, 1891, it was moved by Alderman 
King, seconded by Councillor Southern ; 
and IReSOlVeb IttnanimOUSl^, That the 
Council desire to express their sense of the 
admirable manner in which 

Hibernian flftarfc 

has discharged the duties and sustained the dignity of the 
Mayoral Office during the past two years. 

Among the important matters which have taken place 
during that period, and to the success of which Hibernian 
flDatR has largely contributed, the following should be 
specifically referred to, viz. : — The passing of the City 
Extension Act 1890, whereby the area of the City was 
more than doubled, and its population and rateable value 
largely increased ; the satisfactory settlement of the financial 



210 MAYORALTY, 1890-91. 

questions under the Local Government Act affecting 
Manchester as a County Borough ; the enactment of 
the valuable Act of 1891, conferring various additional 
powers upon the Corporation ; also the passing in the 
same Session of Parliament of the very important 
measure in relation to the Manchester Ship Canal, and 
the financial arrangements in connection therewith. These 
form a record which will cause the Mayoralty of 
Hlbennait flDaVft to be long remembered. 

The Council have been much impressed with the 
zealous and unremitting attention given by HlbCWian 
fIDatft to the important and responsible duties which have 
devolved upon him during his tenure of office; with the 
courtesy and ability with which he has presided over the 
deliberations of the Council and with the distinguished 
manner in which he has represented the Corporation and 
the City upon many public occasions. 

They desire to convey to Hibernian flDarft their 
sincere thanks for his eminent services, and to express 
their best wishes for the future welfare of himself and 
flDl*0. ADarR and the members of their family. 

(A TRUE EXTRACT). 

WM. HENRY TALBOT, Wainn (link. 
ai&erman /l&arfe. 



Summary of tbe \>ears 1892*98. 




1892. 

E have quoted so largely in the foregoing pages 
that it is unnecessary further to develop Mr. 
Mark's opinions upon the various topics which 
agitated the City Fathers, from time to time, with the 
development of Greater Manchester. It is only those 
who have an intimate knowledge of the subject that can 
form any opinion of the amount of time and labour 
involved in the government of a great city like Man- 
chester. Suffice it here to say that each week saw some 
forty meetings of committees, sub-committees, etc., in 
some cases as many as ten in one day, lasting from 9-30 
a.m. to 5-30 p.m. In addition to this, for two years, the 
Manchester Ship Canal continued a matter of great 
anxiety for the Directors, as, owing to the death of 
Mr. Walker, the contractor, the work had to be let in 
sections to other contractors, rendering it still more 
necessary for the Directors to make visits of inspection of 
works, and frequently all day from end to end. 

We will therefore shorten this account by relating a 
few of the more salient particulars as they occurred, and 
by saying that for several years Alderman Mark was often 
in attendance, about three meetings a week, upon matters 
affecting the Ship Canal, besides fulfilling his duties upon 



212 SUMMARY OF THE YEARS 1892-98. 

the bench as a magistrate, and continuing his interest in 
city duties by attendance upon its committees, often 
entailing visits to London and other cities. 

During the year 1892 Alderman Mark acted as deputy- 
Mayor. On the 4th January he was invited to join the 
Board of the Port of Manchester Warehouses Limited, 
but felt himself unable to do so from a feeling that it 
might conflict with his duties to the Ship Canal Com- 
pany. 

On the 19th January, Mr. and Mrs. Mark were invited 
to attend a meeting of the Victoria Girls' Club, on which 
occasion Mr. Mark addressed the meeting. 

On the 29th, Mr. Mark accepted the invitation of Sir 
H. F. de Trafford, Bart., to dine at Trafford Park with 
Lord Faversham and the Inspection Committee of the 
Royal Agricultural Society; and on the following day 
proceeded with these to view the site at Trafford Park 
and at the old Racecourse at Castle Irwell, Salford. 

On the 3rd February, Mr. Mark attended the meet- 
ing of the Council of the Royal Agricultural Society at 
London; and we find correspondence shewing his con- 
tinued interest in the work of the Art Gallery Exhibitions. 
He was also appointed Chairman, with Councillor Joseph 
Brooks and Councillor Robert Gibson, of a Board of 
Directors of the " Old America" Exhibition held at the 
Royal Botanical Gardens, Old Trafford. 

In the same month Mr. John William Maclure, M.P., 
was urging Mr. Mark's acceptance of the Presidency of 
the Conservative Association for the new Polling District 
of Albert Park, Didsbury, in the Stretford Division of 
South East Lancashire. 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 213 



At a meeting of the Town Hall Committee of the 
Council, held the 17th day of February, 1892, the follow- 
ing was resolved : — 

ROYAL AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

" Resolved : That the best thanks of the Committee be given to the ex-Mayor — 
Alderman Mark — for his attendance in London, and for the efforts he has made with 
a view to obtaining the Royal Agricultural Society to hold their Show in Manchester 
in 1893, and the Committee desire also to express their regret that the Society have 
not been able to see their way to accept the invitation given by this Corporation. 

[A true extract.] 
Alderman Mark. Win. Henry Talbot, Town Clerk." 

On the 19th, he was presiding at a Concert given by 
the Congregational Church, Palatine Road, in aid of the 
Charter Street Recreation Rooms. 

In March, Mr. Mark was serving upon the grand jury 
at the Assizes, and aiding, as chairman of the committee, 
the completion of the statue of the late Dr. J. Prescott 
Joule, by Mr. Alfred Gilbert, A.R.A. 

On the 8th was present, as chairman, at a meeting 
of the local committee of invitation for ie Royal Agri- 
cultural Society to hold its 1893 Meetin in Manchester, 
but when Chester had been decided upon. 

"96, King Street, Manchester, March ioth, 1892. 
Sir, 

I am instructed by the local committee, who have promoted this object, to 
express to you their grateful acknowledgment of the service you rendered to them on 
the occasion of the meeting of the Council of the Royal Agricultural Society of 
England on the 3rd ult., and to say how much they valued your presence on that 

occasion. 

Yours faithfully, 

Mr. Alderman Mark. Frank Whitworth, Local Secretary." 

On the nth March, Mr. Mark attended the annual 
meeting of the municipal corporations, and lunched at 
the Mansion House, London. 

On the 21st, attended the funeral of Mr. Oliver 
Heywood, Banker, Manchester. 

O I 



214 SUMMARY OF THE YEARS 1892-98. 

On the gth April, was present at the opening of the 
Girls' Institute by Lady Aberdeen. 

On the 27th April, Miss Maude Constance, second 
daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Mark, was married to Mr. R. 
Frederic Lee, who was recently the very popular Mayor 
of Grantham. The ceremony took place at Christ 
Church, Didsbury, and was very numerously attended. 

On the 3rd May, the Chancellor of the Duchy of 
Lancaster issued his fiat placing Mr. Mark upon the 
Commission of the Peace for the County of Lancaster, 
he having previously been a magistrate for the city by 
appointment made by the Duke of Rutland. 

In the same month, was interesting himself in obtaining 
subscriptions for a statue of the late Mr. Oliver Heywood; 
and on the 26th he was present at the Town Hall to 
support the Mayor in entertaining his guests, on the 
occasion of the installation of Earl Spencer as Chancellor 
of the Victoria University, Manchester. 

On the 26th July, there was an initiative meeting of 
the Executive Committee to further the object, in which 
Mr. Mark was taking a great personal interest, of erecting 
a statue of the late Mr. Oliver Heywood ; and the Com- 
mittee decided, on the 19th October, to commit the work 
to the hands of Mr. A. Bruce Joy. 

On the 3rd October, Mr. Mark attended the Mayor's 
banquet at the Town Hall, to welcome Sir Francis de 
Winton, the distinguished African explorer. 

On the 26th October, the ceremony of conferring the 
freedom of the city upon Mr. Thomas Ashton, and upon 
Mr. James Jardine, took place at the Town Hall. 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 215 

"Mr. Alderman Mark supported the resolution conferring the freedom of the 
city on Mr. Ashton. Mr. Ashton, he said, had been a conspicuous figure in con- 
nection with the commerce of Manchester, its higher education at Owens College 
and Victoria University, and its philanthropic institutions. He could say much in 
the way of compliment to Mr. Ashton, but regard for that gentleman's feelings held 
him from doing so. He would only say that Manchester was under a great debt to 
him for his participation in all that concerned the welfare of the city. It was owing 
to men of his great public spirit that they had been able to build up a municipality 
which occupied a foremost position in the kingdom." 

On the 23rd November, Alderman Mark, as chairman 
of the Watch Committee, and by order of the City 
Council, presented to Mr. Alfred Tozer a beautifully 
engrossed and framed Resolution, testifying their appre- 
ciation of his long and valued services as Superintendent 
of the Fire Brigade. 

1893. 

In August and December last, efforts had been made 
in the City Council to reduce the strength of the Police 
Force, and we copy the following from the City News of 
the 4th February, 1893 : — 

STRENGTH OF THE POLICE FORCE. 

■•Alderman Mark moved the adoption of a report of the Watch Committee, 
submitted to the Council in December last, in reference to the strength of the police 
force. He said that it had been argued that there had been a great diminution in 
crime in the city, and a general improvement through education and other influences 
which had been brought to bear upon the people. It was also alleged that com- 
plaints had been made that the Manchester out-districts were over-policed. Whilst 
it was true that serious offences for sessions and assizes were fewer in number than 
they used to be. Last year there was a total decrease of 363 cases, largely owing to 
the Summary Jurisdiction Act, which enabled the magistrates to deal at once with 
offenders, instead of sending them to the assizes. The number of persons appre- 
hended by the police and brought before the justices last year was 25,584, being an 
increase on the previous year of 1,377. In a community like this the detection of 
crime was a small part of the duties of the police. The civil work was of enormous 
magnitude, and at least four-fifths of it was in the direction of maintenance of order 
in various ways. Last year 16,472 summonses were granted which the police had 
to deal with, and 5,867 premises had been left insecure. Nuisances to the number 
of 4,106 were reported by the police to the medical officer of health, an increase of 
2,184 as compared with the previous year. The police restored 3,224 lost children 
to their guardians, and they had to perform other duties. Scuttling in Ancoats, 



2i6 SUMMARY OF THE YEARS 1892-98. 

Gorton, aud other districts had given much extra work. So serious had the offence 
become that a deputation waited upon the Home Secretary and suggested that the 
justices should have power to order offenders to be whipped. The Home Secretary 
did not approve of that, but recommended an increase in the police force. Com- 
plaints were being constantly received by the police of offences which required the 
attention of the police. The answer of the Chief Constable and of the Watch Com- 
mittee to the question whether the city was over-policed was emphatically ' No.' 
No reduction in the number could be effected without injuring the efficiency of the 
force. In Manchester the police were required to do a great deal of special or extra 
duty at political meetings, concerts, theatres, regulating the traffic, and in other 
directions. Sickness, again, frequently took a considerable number of men away 
from duty. This was no personal or party matter with him. It was a very 
important public question, and it demanded their most serious attention. He 
did not think this was a time to relax the police supervision of the city. That 
time might be arriving but it had not yet come. Even in the respectable neigh- 
bourhood of Didsbury Superintendent Bent had been compelled to ask for increased 
protection because of the number of footpads and disorderly persons recently found 
there. The Watch Committee were decidedly of opinion that, taking into con- 
sideration the very many different duties of the police, this was not the time to 
reduce the force. If they were to change their policy and reduce the strength 
of the force of the city the Council must take the responsibility of it." 

The Editor offers the following comments: — 

" Alderman John Mark was under a great disadvantage in having to address the 
Council late in the day on the subject of the proposed reduction in the expenditure 
on the police. Members appeared to have had enough for one day already, and one 
by one kept slipping out until there was no quorum present, and the Council 
promptly adjourned for a fortnight. But Alderman Mark, who is Chairman of the 
Watch Committee, had time to tell the Council that, so far as he and his Committee 
were concerned, the resolution passed at a former meeting of the Council to reduce 
the expenditure on the police by £2,000 could not — we rather think he meant would 
not — be carried out. Alderman Mark harped upon the impossibility of reducing 
the number of the city police if due regard must be had to the safety of the city 
and the comfort of the citizens. If we remember rightly the resolution in question 
said nothing about discharging police officers and reducing the number of men, but 
merely that £2,000 less should be spent. If economies to that extent could be 
arranged the matter would be at an end, so far as the resolution is concerned. 
The question whether or not the city is over-policed in the matter of constables 
will no doubt be debated by those who believe we are over-policed, at the next 
meeting of the Council. Statistics are not always an infallible guide in such 
matters. The different characteristics of each town or city must be considered, 
and the pursuits of the people. The number of temptations to commit offences, 
as in the case of public-houses, must also be considered." 

On the 3rd February, met nine gentlemen who were 
deputed to discuss with the Board of the Ship Canal the 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 217 

subject of the foreign cattle traffic ; and on the following 
day attended the dinner of the 4th Volunteer Battalion of 
the Manchester Regiment ; and on the 26th, was at 
Thirlmere with the Waterworks Committee. 

On the gth March, was at London as one of the Art 
Gallery Deputation, visiting the studios, to obtain works 
suitable for the Manchester Autumn Exhibition. 

On the election of Lord Mayor for the year 1893-4, 
the Manchester Courier of the 10th November, 1893, has 
some appropriate and complimentary remarks in a leader 
which we copy herewith: — 

" The fact that the event was known to be imminent will not diminish the satis- 
faction universally felt by the citizens of Manchester at the election of the Lord 
Mayor to a second term of his high office. During the year that has elapsed, 
Alderman Marshall has by his courtesy, his dignity, and his indefatigable industry, 
given unbounded satisfaction to everyone with whom his duties have brought him 
in contact. His re-election is the more suitable because of the peculiar importance 
of his office during the coming year. With such affairs in prospect as the opening 
of the Ship Canal, the completion of the Thirlmere water scheme, and the inaugura- 
tion of the electric light and hydraulic power under the control of the Corporation, 
it is especially desirable that Manchester should put her best man in her best place. 
No Mayor in England out of all those elected yesterday will have such important 
and conspicuous duties to perform as will fall to the lot of Lord Mayor Marshall, 
who also possesses, as everyone knows, the unique historical distinction of having 
been the first Lord Mayor of the city. It may be remembered, as of hopeful augury, 
that the last person honoured by selection for a second consecutive term of the 
mayoralty was Alderman Mark, who then won, and has since retained, a. place 
second to none in the esteem and regard of his fellow-citizens. We can wish the 
Lord Mayor no better fate than to rival the last double mayoralty in prosperity and 
success, and we feel assured that that wish will be amply fulfilled." 

On the 8th December, at half-past three o'clock, the 
statue of the late Dr. J. P. Joule was unveiled by the 
Right Honourable Lord Kelvin, upon which occasion 
Mr. Mark addressed the assembly. 

1894. 

On the 1st January of this year, a pro-forma opening 
of the Manchester Ship Canal took place ; and on the 14th 



218 SUMMARY OF THE YEARS 1892-98. 

February, Mr. Mark accepted an invitation at the open- 
ing of the Pontoon Dry Docks Company Limited. 

On the 1st March, Mr. Mark accepted an invitation 
from the Lord Mayor to meet the Marquis of Lome, and 
was complimented with a seat next to the Marquis. 

On the 2 1 st May, the formal opening of the Ship 
Canal by Her Majesty the Queen took place. 

On June 30th, with the object of obtaining some 
relief from the management of a large business, Mr. Mark 
registered the same as a Limited Liability Company in 
the sum of £100,000, the incorporation being a private 
one, no shares were offered to the public. The business, 
which is that of Tea Merchant, Family Grocer and 
Italian Warehouseman, occupies extensive shop, ware- 
house and wine cellar premises in the centre of the city, 
at rentals exceeding £2,000 a year, and has branch 
establishments at Sale, Cheshire ; and at Jermyn Street, 
London. 

On the 30th July, Mr. and Mrs. Mark accepted an 
invitation to meet the president and members of the 
British Archaeological Association; and on the following 
day from the members of the Institution of Mechanical 
Engineers. 

On the 1 2th October, the opening of the Thirlmere 
Waterworks took place, at which Mr. Mark was present, 
and took an active part in the arrangements. 

On the 18th December, Mr. Mark accepted an invita- 
tion from the Mayor of Salford — Mr. W. H. Bailey — to 
meet the Right Honourable Lord Egerton of Tatton. 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 219 

1895. 

In January, some correspondence took place with 
Mr. A. Bruce Joy, in reference to a matter which was 
finally decided on the 27th March, at the last meeting of 
the Executive Committee of the Oliver Heywood statue, 
when Mr. Mark proposed that they should acquire from 
Mr. Joy, at a cost of fifty guineas, the model of the statue, 
as a gift to the Technical School Committee. 

A deputation from the North Manchester Conserva- 
tive Association waited upon Mr. Mark, inviting him to 
contest North Manchester at the next Parliamentary 
election, to which the following reply was returned : — 

" Town Hall, Manchester, March ist, 1895. 
Dear Mr. Richards, 

I have very carefully considered the invitation given to me on Wednesday 
morning by yourself, and an influential and representative deputation from the 
Conservative Association of North Manchester, to contest that division at the 
next Parliamentary election, and it is with very great reluctance and regret that 
I have to say I do not see my way to accede to your request. 

It would be a great honour to represent such an important constituency, and I 
feel sure I should make, at all events, a good fight for the seat, but in any case it is 
' a large order ' to one who has not been expecting anything of the kind, and I am 
advised that for the present it would not be good for me to enter into the strife of a 
Parliamentary election, which might possibly involve a complete change in my 
public work and private plans and arrangements. 

Nothing could have been more encouraging and agreeable than the kind and 
complimentary way you and your colleagues put the matter before me, and I beg to 
thank you for your confidence, and the offer of your hearty support. 

I must apologise for not sending an answer yesterday ; it was really delayed in 
the hope that I might be able to see it in another light. 

Yours very truly, John Mark. 
To John Richards, Esq., 

Chairman North Manchester Conservative Association." 

During the summer months of this year, Mr. and 
Mrs. Mark were occupying a mansion situated on lake 
Derwentwater, in Cumberland, and at this time, Mr. 
Mark attended a meeting at Penrith, held under the 



22o SUMMARY OF THE YEARS 1892-98. 



presidency of Henry Howard, Esquire, of Greystoke 
Castle, to consider the project of a light railway from 
Penrith through the Caldbeck mineral district. 

On the 14th September, Alderman Mark was present 
at the laying of the Foundation Stone of the Norden 
Conservative Club by Mr. Mark's daughter, then Mrs. 
R. A. L. Hutchinson. The assembly was addressed by 
Mr. G. Kemp, M.P.; Colonel Royds, M.P.; Mr. Mark, 
and others. Mr. Hutchinson returned thanks for the 
cordial reception given to his wife, and concluded by 
proposing a vote of thanks to Mr. Kemp. 

" Alderman Mark seconded the proposition. He addressed the assemblage as 
'Ladies and gentlemen of Norden, particularly young ladies and young gentlemen.' He 
said the event of that day was one of the very greatest possible interest and import- 
ance to them all. The Conservative principles which would from time to time be 
fostered in that new club would have very great effect upon their future welfare. 
He had come very firmly to the conviction that the political principles which were 
supported by the Conservative party were the right principles to sustain the consti- 
tution of this great country, which had been centuries in forming. He had been 
called upon at very short notice to second the resolution of thanks to Mr. Kemp. 
In his presence there that day to support his daughter in that interesting event, no 
more pleasing duty could have been required of him than to second such a vote- 
He rejoiced in Mr. Kemp's return to Parliament perhaps as much as anyone in that 
district. He had seen in Mr. Kemp a very promising young man, and now he had 
settled down to the sober duties of political life. He (Alderman Mark) did not say 
with his son-in-law (Mr. Hutchinson) that the weight of Cabinet affairs were already 
telling upon his health, but he did know that Mr. Kemp had applied himself in all 
seriousness to the duties which they sent him to Westminster to perform. He was 
not going to deliver a political speech, but he might say he did rejoice with them in 
the building of that Conservative club to foster Conservative principles in that 
district, and he congratulated them upon the bright future of the political party in 
that district. He thought it would be a long time, if Mr. Kemp was spared to them, 
before Heywood Division would be again represented by a make-shift Liberal. Mr. 
Kemp was one of the right sort. He would support one of the strongest Govern- 
ments that had ever existed in this country. They might rely upon him to do that 
with loyalty ; and he (Alderman Mark) was sure that on every possible occasion 
when Mr. Kemp could show his interest in this district, as he was doing that day, it 
would give him the utmost possible pleasure to forward their interests. He wished 
Mr. Kemp long life and success in his political career." 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 221 

On the 28th November, Lord Egerton of Tatton, with 
Her Grace the Duchess of Buckingham and Chandos, 
opened a three days' bazaar in Christ Church School 
Buildings, Burton Road, West Didsbury. The bazaar 
was a great success, and exceeded the most sanguine 
expectations of the promoters. Mrs. Mark took an active 
part in the work, and presided at one of the stalls, being 
ably assisted by the untiring energy of several of her lady 
friends. We copy the following from the local news- 
paper. 

" Alderman John Mark presided, and supporting him on the platform were Lord 
Egerton of Tatton, who was accompanied by Her Grace the Duchess of Buckingham 
and Chandos, Sir Wm. Cunliffe Brooks and Lady Brooks, Archdeacon Anson, Rev. 
W. Thompson (Rector of Christ Church), Rev. W. Muzzell (Rector of St. Paul's, 
Withington), Messrs. M. Parker- Smith, F. Pierson, E. Colman, Arthur Lings, and 
T. Blatherwick, whilst in the audience we noticed the Revs. G. Danyer, G. Atkinson, 
and H. Sparrow, Mr. John Moore, J. P. (chairman of the Withington District 
Council), S. Yates, and a host of gentlemen forming the committee. 

Alderman Mark, in a speech brimful of humour and local interest, opened the 
proceedings. He said the bazaar and the object for which it was promoted had 
roused the highest interest and enthusiasm in the district. He never knew a bazaar, 
in fact, which had excited so much. He considered that a high honour had indeed 
been paid him by asking him to preside on that occasion. The fact that Lord 
Egerton had, along with his esteemed wife, the Duchess of Buckingham and 
Chandos, been announced to open the bazaar had given great satisfaction all round. 
They offered no apology for holding the bazaar, inasmuch as after exhausting all 
other resources to discharge the debt upon the church and parochial buildings — 
which are second to none in the diocese of Manchester — he still found there was a 
deficiency, which could not readily be met by any other means. Formerly the 
Parish Church of Didsbury provided all the religious instruction for the neighbour- 
hood, but in 1858, through the generosity of the Birley family, about whom the 
highest thing he could say was that they were a people ' zealous of good works,' 
the Church of Emmanuel at Barlow Moor was built, and for twenty years the two 
agencies (Didsbury Parish Church and Emmanuel Church) provided accommoda- 
tion for the district. Later something put it into the heart of Mr. Roberts, of The 
Oaks, Didsbury, to build a church in that growing locality, and in nominating the 
Rev. W. Thompson its first rector, Mr. Roberts had shown a discrimination which 
they all now appreciated. Through his (Mr. Thompson's) untiring energy and zeal, 
the parish which had grown so rapidly was now in possession of exceptional advan- 
tages, and he had deservedly received a very warm support from its lay residents. 
In 1882 Christ Church was built, at a cost of £13,060, and since then a further 



222 SUMMARY OF THE YEARS 1892-98. 

.£10,000 had been spent in additions and extensions, and a provision for further 
accommodation. The worthy alderman referred in complimentary terms to the 
unselfishness of the Rev. O. Fynes Clinton, Rector of Emmanuel Church, in per- 
mitting so large a slice of his parish to be partitioned off, for the purpose of forming 
the new parish of Christ Church, and after a pleasing allusion to the articles upon 
the stalls, he said that they were not going to resort to raffles, which were illegal, 
nor to a slaughter on the last day, which was not fair to the ladies who had laboured 
so dexterously to present them with so beautiful a picture. The articles would be 
sold at reasonable prices, and the amount required, he had not the least doubt, 
would be raised. He expressed his great pleasure in being allowed to share with 
Lord Egerton and her Grace the Duchess of Buckingham and Chandos and with Sir 
"William and Lady Brooks in that day's work, and he would ask Lord Egerton 
kindly to declare the bazaar open." 

1896. 
During the whole of this, and the following year, 
much time continued to be given by Alderman Mark in 
attendance at the various Committees of the City Council, 
at Magisterial duties, and other public work. 

In the months of May and June, Mr. and Mrs. Mark 
were in occupation of the Lingholm Mansion at Lake 
Derwentwater, in Cumberland, where they spent very 
delightful holidays, entertaining members of their family 
and many other visitors, including a pleasant visit of the 
" Manchester Field Naturalists' and Archaeologists' 
Society," who in their Annual Report for 1896, page 33, 
refer to it in the following pleasant and complimentary 
terms : — 

" On Saturday morning the sober greys of Friday were ' no more seen,' and the 
sun, after his day of seclusion, shone more gloriously than before. And this was as 
it should be, for our way lay not among wild wildernesses of barren rock, but across 
the glistening expanse of Derwentwater itself. By the courteous invitation of Mr. 
Alderman Mark, of Manchester, the whole party crossed the lake to Lingholm, his 
summer residence. Songs befitting the occasion spontaneously broke forth, the 
gentle plash of the oars bringing boatmen and singers to near kinship. As the little 
flotilla reached the landing stage, Mr. Mark received the company in person, and 
guided them to the lawn, where Mrs. Mark and other members of the family accent- 
uated the welcome. In a humorous speech Mr. Mark told us how happy they had 
all been in making preparation for our coming, recounting the amusing suggestions 
that had been made by the young people for our entertainment, and how thoroughly 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 223 

delighted they all were to welcome so many Manchester friends. Lingholm is a 
splendid example of Gothic domestic architecture. While rooms and roofs have 
been apparently jotted down without any set plan, every line and angle tells in the 
total effect. The many French windows widely opening on to terrace or verandah, 
and the pillars and trellis so hidden under greenery, suggest an extensive summer- 
house rather than a palatial residence, as it really is. The fostering care of the 
sheltered situation and the genial climate have enabled many rare and curious 
creepers to abundantly clothe the grey stone walls ; clusters of bright flowers here 
and there start up among the greens and greys in careless grace. The furniture as 
well as the building was designed by Mr. Waterhouse, R.A., to whose genius we are 
also indebted for our Corporation Buildings. After pleasant rambles in wood and 
grounds the party found themselves in the spacious dining-room, where a gracious 
hospitality was dispensed. Votes of thanks were warmly accorded to Mr. and Mrs. 
Mark, and most happily responded to by Mr. Mark, whose geniality would fain have 
made us believe that they were the real gainers by our visit. It was perfectly 
delightful to see a man whose life has been spent in the thick of business and city 
turmoil able to cast it behind, and to stand, as it were, on his native heath, frank and 
merry, ready to enjoy, and to make others enjoy, a. holiday with all the zest and 
enthusiasm of youth. Yes, there are some men who never grow old ; men who 
know how to rejuvenise themselves every year as the spring does, and whose very 
presence acts as a rejuvenising power upon all whose happy fortune brings them 
across their path. Mr. Walter Butterworth was asked to conclude the visit with an 
old English song, for nothing but melody could express the exhilaration of the 
moment." 

Following this, much anxiety was thrown upon the 
Watch Committee, and upon Alderman Mark as Chair- 
man, by the insistence of the Socialistic Party to hold 
Sunday meetings on the public thoroughfare at Ardwick 
Green, an alleged right which the Council disputed by 
the prosecution of the leaders of the movement for 
obstructing the traffic. The views of Alderman Mark 
met with the full approval and confirmation of the 
City Council, and, at the close of the Municipal year, 
the Watch Committee passed unanimously the following 
Resolution, a copy of which was duly engrossed and 
presented to him : — 

Cit\> of flftancbester. 

At a Meeting of the Watch Committee of the 
Council, held the 2gth day of October, 1896, it was moved 



224 SUMMARY OF THE YEARS 1892-98. 

by Alderman King, seconded by Councillor Greenhow, 
and Resolved Unanimously, "That this Committee desire 
to record their high appreciation of the manner in which the 
Chairman (Alderman Mark), has conducted the business of 
this Committee during the past year, and for the impartiality 
and courtesy displayed by him when presiding over their 
Meetings. 

(A TRUE EXTRACT). 

WM. HENRY TALBOT, ®oinn Clerk." 
" Hloerman ZlDarft." 

The Manchester Council have well recognised that 
Civic government demands a broad and enlightened 
toleration of the opinions of others, and that the intro- 
duction of political differences into the discussion of 
Municipal affairs should be avoided. In this respect 
few men have earned a better title to freedom from 
political bias than Alderman Mark, and equally few 
have received more unstinted praise from men of all 
shades of political opinion. As a party politician we 
shall find uppermost the same broad and thoughtful 
views which distinguished Mr. Mark as a member of 
the City Council, and it is in this capacity that our 
next extracts from the journals of the day will be made. 
He will thus speak for himself, as Alderman, Mayor, 
and Politician. 

On the 3rd September an interview was sought by a 
deputation from the East Manchester Conservative Asso- 
ciation to invite Alderman Mark to accept the office of 
President, to which he at length consented. The distin- 
guished member of that division expressed his hearty 
approval of the appointment in the following letter dated : 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 225 



"Balmoral Castle, 11/9/96. 
My Dear Mr. Samson, 

It is with the greatest gratification that I learn from your letter of the 10th 
instant that my friend Mr. Alderman Mark is prepared to accept the Chairmanship 
of the Party in East Manchester. His abilities and character, the high position he 
holds in Manchester, eminently qualify him for the post, and I think we all owe him 
a debt of gratitude for the public spirit which has induced him to allow himself to 
be nominated. I should be grateful to you if you would take an early opportunity 
of expressing my personal sense of the great service he is prepared to render to the 
Party and to myself. 

Yours ever, 

ARTHUR JAMES BALFOUR." 

The Manchester Courier, in its issue of the 22nd 
September, introduced the subject to the public in the 
following terms : — 

■•A quarterly meeting of the Council of the East Manchester Conservative 
Association was held yesterday evening at the Ardwick Conservative Club. Mr. 
John Halliday presided over a large and thoroughly representative gathering. The 
special business before the meeting was the reception of the report of a sub-com- 
mittee appointed three months ago to consider the presidency of the association, and 
to recommend a successor of the late Colonel W. Willmott Mawson for the approval 
of the Council. In their report the sub-committee put forward the name of Alderman 
John Mark for acceptance as president. The nomination was warmly supported by 
Mr. John Whittaker, Councillors J. Tunstall and W. Pollitt, Mr. B. South, Mr. W. 
Richmond, Mr. J. Pickvance, Mr. S. Eyre, Mr. J. J. Chantler, Mr. W. B. Gleave, 
Mr. E. Briggs, and others, and was unanimously approved by those present, with 
loud applause. It was resolved that Alderman Mark should be formally waited on 
by a deputation, and asked to accept the office, and that, in the event of his compli- 
ance with the request, a special meeting of the whole association should be called to 
ratify the choice of the Council." 

We also extract a paragraph from the Evening News 
of the same day : — 

" The East Manchester Conservatives have decided to ask Mr. Alderman Mark 
to accept the position of president of their association, in succession to the late 
Colonel Mawson. Mr. Balfour, it is stated, is aware of the selection, which meets 
with his full approval. Until lately Mr. Mark was included in the ranks of the 
Liberal Unionists, but now, it must be assumed, he has formally joined the Conser- 
vatives. Under his leadership there is no probability of the Conservative organisa- 
tion of the district becoming weaker. All the greater, therefore, is the necessity for 
the Liberals of the division to be up and doing, if they mean to persevere in their 
intention of compelling Mr. Balfour to seek a constituency outside Manchester." 



226 SUMMARY OF THE YEARS 1892-98. 

On the 15th October, Mr. Mark was waited upon 
at the Carlton Club, Spring Gardens, by a number of 
gentlemen, thoroughly representative of each of the local 
organisations of the Party ; and we extract the following 
from the report of the proceedings as given in the Courier 
of the next day : — 

" Alderman John Mark was waited upon yesterday evening by a deputation from 
the various branches of the East Manchester Conservative Association with 
a request that he would accept the post of president of the association, in 
succession to the late Colonel W. Willmott Mawson. The worthy alderman acceded 
to the request, and announced that he had been induced to do so by the cordiality 
of the invitation, the assurance that the party organisation in the division was in an 
excellent condition, and the knowledge that the choice of the party had the direct 
approval of Mr. Balfour, the representative of the constituency. 

All the members of the deputation joined in the request to Mr. Alderman Mark 
to become the president of the association. 

Alderman Mark said their invitation had been conveyed to him in such flattering 
terms, and gave him so much encouragement, that it left him very little choice but 
to accept it and occupy the very proud position to which it related. When first the 
matter was intimated to him it came as a very great surprise. His first feelings 
were that in an important constituency like East Manchester someone should follow 
Colonel Mawson who had an immediate connection with the division. The choice, 
however, was theirs, and not his ; and if he could do anything to fill the lamentable 
gap cause by the death of their late president, who bore the respect of them all so 
deservedly, he should be willing to do it. He (Alderman Mark) did not shrink from 
the task they set him, great as he acknowledged it to be, because he was quite sure 
he would receive every possible support from the members of the association, and he 
was assured of the thorough organisation of the party in the division and of the 
existence of a thoroughly sound Conservatism in East Manchester, which would hold 
the constituency against all comers. He hoped there would be no misgivings in the 
division about his (Alderman Mark's) solid Conservatism. He never was a Radical. 
He had been a moderate Liberal, and a follower of Mr. Gladstone, but in 1886, when 
the unfortunate Home Rule Bill was brought in, he felt compelled to throw off his 
allegiance to Mr. Gladstone. Since then he had never given any but a Conservative 
vote, and he hoped he never would. He had been greatly encouraged to accept the 
post of their president, inasmuch as Mr. Balfour had himself expressed approval of 
their choice." 

On the 2nd December, a Special General Meeting 
of the East Manchester Conservative Association was 
held in the Ardwick Town Hall, Mr. John Halliday, 
the Chairman of the Executive Committee, presiding, 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 227 

the object of the meeting being the election of the new 
president. The Secretary, Mr. Samuel Hewitt, read 
the special report of the Executive Council on the 
appointment of president, in which it was pointed out 
as "essential that their president should be a man of 
means and occupying a high social position, in order 
that he might be able whenever Mr. Balfour visited the 
constituency to entertain him in a manner not only 
befitting his position as the Member for that con- 
stituency, but also as the recognised leader of the 
Conservative Party in the House of Commons, and 
probably the future Prime Minister of the country." 
The Chairman moved, " That the report of the Council 
be adopted, and that Alderman John Mark, J. P., be and 
is hereby elected president of the Association." This 
was seconded by Mr. W. Fitzgerald, and unanimously 
adopted : — 

"Alderman John Mark said they had just conferred upon him a very high honour. 
He esteemed it as such sincerely, and thanked them for it. When their deputation 
waited upon him it was a matter of very great surprise to him, and he thought they 
were making a mistake in not having had someone more immediately associated with 
that particular division. To fill the place of his late friend, Colonel Mawson, would, 
he felt, be exceedingly difficult ; and now having heard from the report the qualifica- 
tions necessary he was almost daunted by the high estimate that was put upon any- 
one who presumed to do so. Colonel Mawson was peculiarly fitted to fill that 
high position with the success that attended him, in a greater degree than could 
possibly be possessed by a comparative outsider like himself, whose only claim upon 
them was that he was a fellow citizen, and that since he had been able to spare some 
time from his busy occupation he had for 19 years devoted a considerable amount of 
time to public business. He was not skilled in electioneering tactics, but he took a 
great interest in politics, and he felt that as they had an organisation in East Man- 
chester second to none he would, in some measure, be able to fulfil their expecta- 
tions. It would be their duty to keep East Manchester well to the front. They 
were in the proud position of having Mr. Balfour as their representative at the 
present time ; but it might not always be so. With a candidate like him he was 
sure they need not fear ; but his desire was to keep up their organisation to such a 
pitch that they could return for East Manchester any Conservative candidate they 
might choose. He would not go into politics, and would only say that he was 
exceedingly gratified that they were led by such a noble coalition Ministry as we 



228 SUMMARY OF THE YEARS 1892-98. 

had at the present time. It was a perfect treat to him on the previous night to 
listen to the speech of that splendid young fellow, Mr. Curzon. It was most 
inspiriting to hear his address, and one felt that the honour and destinies of this 
great empire were safe in the hands of such men, with that great statesman, Lord 
Salisbury, at their head to refer to in any matter of doubt or difficulty. In conclusion, 
he assured them he was beginning his new work in very good earnest, and he hoped 
they would be very good friends for a considerable time to come. 

On the motion of Mr. J. D. Chantler, seconded by Mr. M. Williams, the new 
president was thanked for his address. A similar compliment was paid to the 
chairman for presiding, on the motion of Mr. J. Maltby, seconded by Mr. Watson." 

At the same meeting a special resolution of confidence 
in the present Ministry was passed, the result of which is 
reported in the following extract from the Manchester 
Courier of the 8th December : — 

■ ' At a special meeting of the East Manchester Conservative Association held last 
week in the Ardwick Town Hall, for the purpose of electing a president in place of 
the late Colonel W. W. Mawson, the following resolution was adopted : — ' That this 
meeting of the East Manchester Conservative Association desires to express its 
unabated confidence in the present Ministry and Unionist Administration under the 
guidance of the Marquis of Salisbury and the Right Hon. A. J. Balfour, which, in 
spite of exceptional difficulties in foreign and colonial affairs, has maintained the 
honour and interest of the Empire, both at home and abroad.' 

The Right Hon. A. J. Balfour, M.P., has acknowledged the resolution in the 
following letter to Alderman Mark : — 

' 10, Downing Street, Whitehall, S.W., Dec. 5, 1896. 

Dear Alderman Mark, — I beg to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of 
December 3rd and its accompanying resolution. It is a source of special gratifica- 
tion to me that at the meeting which elected you president of the East Manchester 
Conservative Association a resolution should have been passed expressing such full 
and generous confidence in the Unionist Administration. I hope you will both 
accept my hearty congratulations upon your acceptance of office, and will also 
convey to those who took part in the meeting the thanks of myself and my colleagues 
for the resolution which they passed in our favour.— Yours very truly, 

Arthur James Balfour.' " 

On the 17th, Alderman Mark attended two political 
meetings, which are thus reported in the Manchester 
Courier of the 19th December : — 

" Mr. Alderman Mark, the newly-elected president of the East Manchester 
Conservative Association, attended two meetings in Bradford and Beswick, for the 
purpose of being introduced to the members and workers of the local Associations 
and clubs. He was accompanied by Mr. John Halliday, chairman of the Executive 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 229 

Committee of the Divisional Association, and Mr. Joseph Maltby. The first meet- 
ing was held at the Bradford Conservative Club, presided over by Mr. R. Le Neve 
Foster, and the second meeting was held at the Beswick Conservative Club, presided 
over by Mr. Joseph Pickvance. Alderman Mark, in addressing the meetings, 
expressed the pleasure he felt at being introduced to the members and workers of 
the party, and his appreciation of the kind remarks made by the respective chairmen, 
relative to himself. Although somewhat of a stranger among them, he hoped he 
should no longer remain so, and he trusted as time went on they would become firm 
and fast friends. Nothing should be wanting on his part to maintain the present 
efficiency of the organisation and to be ready for any emergency. He thought it was 
only right that if the leaders of the party required the services of the workers, with- 
out whom they could not hope to obtain victories at times of elections, they should 
be consulted, and it was his intention to act in accord with them. At both meetings 
a hearty vote of thanks was given to Alderman Mark for the early opportunity he 
had taken of visiting the clubs. These two successful meetings concluded with a 
cordial vote of thanks to the respective chairmen." 

On the 24th, Mr. Mark visited three Conservative 
Clubs in the East Manchester division, and of which 
we copy the report of the Courier, in its issue of the 
26th December : — 

" Alderman John Mark, the newly-elected president of the Conservative Associa- 
tion for the division, visited three Conservative clubs in East Manchester for the 
purpose of being introduced to the members. The first club visited was the Beacons- 
field, in Chancery Lane, Ardwick. The meeting was presided over by Mr. John 
Halliday, the chairman of the club. The second club was the Salisbury, in Hyde 
Road, Ardwick, where the meeting was presided over by Councillor Fitzgerald, the 
chairman of the club ; and the third club was the Balfour, in Higher Temple Street, 
Chorlton-upon-Medlock, where Mr. B. South, the chairman of the club, presided. 
Alderman Mark addressed these gatherings, and received a hearty welcome at each 
place. Votes of thanks were accorded to the new president of the association for his 
addresses, and also to the respective chairmen for presiding." 

1897. 
On the 9th January, 1897, the Right Honorable 
A. J. Balfour, M.P., First Lord of the Treasury, visited 
his constituents, accompanied by Mr. Sandars, his 
private secretary. He left Rowsley, after a visit to the 
Duke of Devonshire, soon after eleven o'clock in the 
morning, and arrived at the Central Station, Manchester, 
at a quarter to one, where he was met by Alderman Mark, 



230 SUMMARY OF THE YEARS 1892-98. 

Mr. J. W. Maclure, M.P., and several other gentlemen 
of the Conservative organisations of Manchester. After 
lunch with the Mayor of Salford, and about 120 guests, 
Mr. Balfour left with his friends in order to address his 
constituents in the Drill Hall of the Manchester Artillery 
in Hyde Road, Ardwick. On his arrival, Mr. Balfour 
was received with the utmost enthusiasm by a crowded 
meeting of many thousands of persons. The chair being 
occupied by Mr. Mark the newly-elected president of the 
division : — 

" The Chairman, in opening the proceedings, said that as the newly-elected pre- 
sident of the East Manchester Conservative Association, he felt it a very great 
honour to be with them that afternoon, to aid in giving another enthusiastic welcome 
to their honoured member, Mr. Balfour, and to congratulate them upon the fact that 
the hon. gentleman had been able, at some personal inconvenience to himself, to 
come there to address them so near the opening of Parliament, when he might be 
able to speak to them in a spirit of political prophecy. He could assure Mr. Balfour 
that those assembled at that great meeting were his own supporters, who, at four 
contested elections, had recorded their votes for him, and had returned him on the 
last occasion by an increased majority. He was confident they would do it again. 
They were justly proud of him as their member, and as the eminent leader of the 
House. Mr. Balfour, he might add, was just as loyally attached to East Manchester 
as they were attached to him. That being so he thought he might fairly ask Mr. 
Balfour to take them into his confidence, and give them a forecast of the Queen's 
Speech. He was pleased to be able to inform Mr. Balfour that on the platform each 
of the Conservative and Unionist organisations of the whole of the six divisions of 
the city were represented. He could not sit down without saying how deeply they 
all felt the great loss they had sustained in East Manchester by the untimely death 
of Colonel Mawson. It would be impossible for anyone to fill Colonel Mawson's 
place, but he could only hope and trust that when the time arrived, they would do 
their best to show Mr. Balfour that they were still his firm supporters in East 
Manchester." 

After a lengthy speech by the Hon. Member, a vote 
of thanks was given to Alderman Mark for presiding, to 
which he briefly replied, and the proceedings closed with 
the National Anthem. 

The Royal Agricultural Show of the year 1897 was 
held at Trafford Park, after more than a year's pre- 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 231 

liminary arrangements by the Local Committee, of which 
Mr. Mark was the indefatigable chairman. It was 
opened on the 23rd June, the President of the year being 
H.R.H. the Duke of York, who was the guest of the 
Earl of Ellesmere at Worsley Hall. His Royal Highness 
visited the Show on the morning of the 28th, and in the 
afternoon of the same day he presented the Champion 
Cups, provided by the Manchester Local Committee, at 
a Special Meeting of the Council held in the Showyard. 

At a meeting on the 24th, Sir John Thorold, ex- 
President, in the unavoidable absence of His Royal 
Highness, the President, occupied the Chair, as also at a 
meeting on the 25th, on which occasion the Earl of Derby 
submitted a Resolution : — " That the best thanks of the 
Society are due, and are hereby tendered, to the Man- 
chester Local Committee for their exertions to promote 
the success of the Meeting." This resolution, having been 
seconded by Mr. Frankish, was carried unanimously : — 

" Mr. Alderman Mark (Chairman of the Local Committee) begged to acknowledge 
the very handsome and complimentary terms in which the resolution had been 
moved and so heartily responded to. The Local Committee were under great 
obligations, first of all for the privilege of holding the Show in that noble park, 
which had enabled them to give an invitation to the Society, and in the second 
place for the generous and enthusiastic response to their appeal for funds worthy of 
the occasion. They were exceedingly gratified at the almost spontaneous replies 
that they received, amounting in the aggregate to something more than £10,000, and 
which he had the satisfaction of saying had all been paid. They were also indebted 
to local tradesmen for valuable assistance, and also to the Press, who had at all 
times given prominent notice to the proceedings of the Committee, and to all that 
appertained to the Royal Show. The Committee and those members of it who had 
come more intimately into connection with the members of the Royal Society 
would, he was sure, one and all, desire him to express their sense of the courtesy 
and kindness which they had received, and especially from the officials, and from 
their ubiquitous Secretary, Mr. Clarke, whose energy was unfailing and whose 
courtesy seemed to be natural. From Mr. Bennison, the Surveyor, they had 
received every kindness, support, and attention, and he begged to tender their thanks 
for all that great assistance which had enabled them to present to the Society a 
showground and all its belongings which, he ventured to say, had never been 



232 SUMMARY OF THE YEARS 1892-98. 

excelled. Manchester might perhaps be supposed to send invitations of this kind 
from a sense of its power, wealth, industries, and the number of its population. 
He ventured, however, to say that they sent such invitations from a real and 
enthusiastic interest in the subject. It might surprise some there to know that 
Lancashire had a greater area under cultivation for agricultural purposes than any 
other county in England, and the immense populations surrounding Manchester 
were very largely interested in agricultural productions as consumers. Manchester 
never did anything by halves. They either took up a thing with enthusiasm and 
tried to do it well, or they let it alone altogether. They hoped that their efforts 
might enable the Society to have a very successful meeting. They had done their 
best to make it a success, and they hoped that any shortcomings might be kindly 
forgiven. He begged to thank them all for the very handsome way in which they 
had spoken of the Local Committee." 

At the close of this meeting Earl Spencer, K.G., was 
elected President, to take the office after the conclusion 
of the Manchester Meeting, and as such presided at the 
London Meeting of the Council on the 28th, when he 
expressed his regret that his duty to the Navy had 
prevented his attendance at the Manchester Meeting on 
the 25th when his election took place ; he also read a 
letter from H.R.H. the Duke of York expressing his great 
satisfaction " of the magnificent and highly interesting 
Show which we have just held at Manchester," and 
thanking the various officials and the Local Committee 
" in bringing the Manchester Meeting of 1897 to so 
satisfactory a conclusion, despite all the difficulties 
occasioned by the weather." 

On the morning of the 29th, the sixth and last 
day, His Royal Highness again visited the Show. He 
then proceeded to the Town Hall, where he was enter- 
tained at luncheon, and was presented with an elaborately 
illuminated address ; after which, the Duke proceeded to 
the London Road Station to return to London. The 
report of the Manchester Guardian of the 30th says, that 
"before leaving, the Duke shook hands heartily with 
Mr. Alderman Mark, and thanked him, as Chairman of the 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 233 

Local Committee, for the very successful arrangements 
which had been made in Manchester for the Show." 

The Show would seem to have created some enthu- 
siasm in Manchester, as a leading firm of calico printers 
struck off some thousands of two tastefully designed 
pictorial handkerchiefs, printed in colours. The bordering 
of these illustrating a variety of prize cattle and agri- 
cultural implements exhibited. In the centre of one 
handkerchief is a map of the ground, whilst that of the 
other contains portraits of the Queen, H.R.H. the Duke 
of York, the Lord Mayor, J. F. Roberts, and Mr. Mark. 
The 25 Silver Cups specially made for the Manchester 
Local Committee's Champion Prizes are of the early 
Georgian period, very handsome and massive, with two 
handles, and weighing 60 ounces each. On one side is 
the Arms of the City of Manchester in relief, and the 
inscription — 

"MANCHESTER MEETING, 1897." 

On the other side of the Cup, which was presented to 
Alderman Mark in recognition of his services as Chairman 
of the Committee, is a raised medallion portrait of 
H.R.H. the Duke of York, and below this is inscribed: — 

"ROYAL AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF ENGLAND. 

PRESENTED TO 

JOHN MARK, ESQUIRE, 

IN RECOGNITION OF THE SERVICES RENDERED BY HIM 

AS CHAIRMAN 

OF THE 

MANCHESTER LOCAL COMMITTEE." 

A contemporary journal has the following : — 

" In last week's St. James's Budget there is an excellent portrait of Alderman 
John Mark, Chairman of the Local Committee of the Royal Agricultural Show at 
Manchester, to whose energy and ability the success of that meeting is attributed. 
Our contemporary, in referring to Alderman Mark's personal popularity, says: — 
' He is always spoken of as the most popular Mayor Manchester ever had, haviDg 



234 SUMMARY OF THE YEARS 1892-98. 

been elected to that office for two years in succession,' and, after referring to the 
different important posts he now fills, goes on to say, ' there are many in Manchester 
to-day who are amazed at his having 'escaped being knighted.' To 'escape' 
knighthood is distinctly good ; but we note from the Manchester papers that the 
Duke of York, on leaving, ' singled out Alderman Mark for special thanks for all 
that he had done in connection with the Show as Chairman of the Local Committee. 
He said that he was pleased indeed with all that he had seen, and with the great 
success of the Society's meeting ; ' and added, ' I must thank you again for all you 
have done for the Show.' So that after this Royal recognition the Alderman may 
not have ' escaped ' after all." 

Alderman Mark had for some time been meditating a 
second residence, with the object of leading the more 
leisurely life of a country gentleman, and, whilst still 
keeping open his mansion at West Didsbury, he, 
accordingly, on the 1st August, 1897, took possession 
of Cefn Mawr Hall, near Mold, North Wales, about 
fifteen miles from Chester. 

At the request of the City Council, and with the 
sanction of the Watch Committee, of which Alderman 
Mark had been a member for eighteen years, and Chair- 
man since 1893, a Commission appointed by the Home 
Secretary held an enquiry into certain allegations 
seriously affecting the conduct and efficiency of some of 
the superior officers in one of the five Divisions of the 
Police force. After an exhaustive hearing of voluntary 
statements, from both policemen and civilians, of a very 
conflicting and contradictory character, and not given 
under oath, the Commission reported that although the 
general management of the force was good, yet the late 
Superintendent of one of the Divisions, whom the Com- 
mittee had already called upon to resign, had been lax 
and irregular in his duties, and that this had had a bad 
influence upon some of his immediate subordinates. This 
led to much unpleasant newspaper correspondence, and 
criticism of the Chief Constable and the Watch Com- 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 235 

mittee, which Mr. Mark, in defence of the Committee, as 
Chairman, indignantly resented as most unjust, and 
finally, on the 6th October, 1897, he resigned his seat as 
a member of the Council. His resignation was received 
with great surprise, and it was proposed to re-elect him 
at once, but Mr. Mark promptly intimated that his 
resignation was final, upon which his cheque for the fine 
of £50 was returned, with a unanimous vote of regret at 
the loss of the services of an old and valued colleague. 
It may be mentioned that Mr. Mark had had this step in 
contemplation for some two or three years previously, and 
had frequently expressed this intention to some of his 
senior colleagues in the Council, and had also promised 
his family that he would retire on the completion of 
twenty years' service, having entered the Council as a 
representative of St. Ann's Ward in August 1877. Hence 
his resolution to retire from the onerous duties of the 
Council and the Ship Canal Directorate gave great satis- 
faction to his family, and left him with leisure for more 
recreation and the indulgence of his inclination for the 
outdoor occupations of riding, driving, and recreation 
with gun and fishing rod. 

On the other hand, the resignation of Mr. Mark fell 
like a bomb amidst both friends and opponents of the 
Watch Committee, and led to a deluge of letters from the 
public and from friends, as well as from colleagues on the 
City Council and Ship Canal Directorate. Some of these 
letters expressed sympathy, others congratulation at the 
relief from exacting duties, some again dwelt on the 
ingratitude of the public for services rendered, whilst 
others urged Mr. Mark to re-enter the Council. All 
equally spoke in appreciation of his upright conduct 



236 SUMMARY OF THE YEARS 1892-98. 

as a public man, and expressed a desire that the friend- 
ships contracted might not be severed by the resignation 
of public duties. 

On this question, the Manchester City News, in its 
leader of the 9th October, offers the following remarks : — 

" We do not know that anybody called on Alderman Mark to resign his seat on 
the Council, or singled him out specially for personal attack. . . Mr. Mark has 
done excellent and unwearied service to the city during his twenty years' connection 
with the City Council, during two of which he occupied the Mayoral Chair. These 
services received ample acknowledgment from all the speakers in the Council this week. ' ' 

Even at the date we write, a year after this resignation, 
one hears on all hands expressions of regret at Mr. Mark's 
retirement from the Council, not only amongst the public, 
but as well from his old colleagues, and from the per- 
manent officials of the Town Hall, who speak in the 
highest terms of Mr. Mark's urbanity and courtesy. We 
may add to this that with the exceedingly active life that 
Mr. Mark has led for half a century, of which nearly one 
half has been devoted without stint to the service of 
the City of Manchester, it is not surprising that Mr. Mark 
should have desired leisure from the cares of office, or 
that he should have resolved, in any event, to seek this 
repose. Though constantly travelling between Wales 
and his pleasant Mansion at Greystoke, West Didsbury, 
and occupying himself in covering his land at the latter 
place with handsome villa residences, Mr. Mark has still 
left himself time for political and other public duties, and 
may, therefore, enjoy many years in devoting his time to 
the general good of the community in place of the more 
circumscribed area of municipal life, and the municipal 
treadmill. 

In a biography of this career it is difficult to do justice 
to a personality seen in so many aspects, and we will 
only add a few recent notices. 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 237 

1898. 

On the 10th January, 1898, the Right Honorable 
A. J. Balfour, accompanied by Miss Balfour, arrived in 
Manchester and became the guests of Mr. and Mrs. Mark 
at West Didsbury. In the evening, Mr. Balfour 
addressed a crowded meeting of his constituents, num- 
bering many thousands, at the Artillery Drill Hall, 
Ardwick, over which Mr. Mark presided. 

' ' The Chairman said the magnificent reception which they had given the right 
hon. member spoke well for the political convictions of East Manchester. It was 
now a year since their hon. member addressed his constituents, and since that time 
it had been his (Mr. Mark's) privilege to attend a great number of Executive 
Committee Meetings of the East Manchester Conservative Association. He assured 
the right hon. member that there was even greater enthusiasm in his support, and 
in support of the Cabinet that he represented, than there was twelve months ago, 
and, if there should happen to be a general election four or five years hence, he was 
quite sure that East Manchester would give a very, satisfactory account of itself, if 
either their present esteemed representative placed himself at their disposal, or some 
other equally staunch Conservative member. Mr. Balfour belonged to a Cabinet 
which was not ' made in Germany,' and the artillery of those who differed from them 
in politics, in the Autumn campaign, did not seem to have made any serious 
indentation in the Cabinet of which their worthy representative was one of the most 
important panels. Before he called on the right hon. gentlemen to address them 
he would like to read a letter which he had received from their friend, Sir J. W 
Maclure, M.P. It reads: ' Whalley Range, Manchester, ioth January, 1898. My 
dear Mark, — With the greatest regret I am compelled to deny myself the pleasure 
of taking my small share in doing honour to-night to our trusted leader of the House 
of Commons. As you know, he has no more faithful henchman than myself. The 
doctors urge me most strongly to avoid exposure for a further week or two to the 
night air, particularly after crowded and heated rooms, as the Drill Hall will be 
most certain. I shall run the risk at Didsbury to-morrow night, but ask my friend, 
Mr. Balfour, to pardon my involuntary absence this evening. — Ever sincerely yours, 

'John Mark, Esq., J. P. Jno. Wm. Maclure.' 

He had spoken long enough, and he had the greatest pleasure possible in knowing 
that it was his privilege that evening to introduce to them their representative." 

On the following day, the nth, Mr. Balfour dis- 
tributed the prizes at the annual gathering of the Man- 
chester Artillery Volunteers. Following upon this, Mr. 
and Mrs. Mark held a "Conversazione," or "At Home," 



238 SUMMARY OF THE YEARS 1892-98. 

to which about 500 Conservative workers were invited, 
and which Mr. and Miss Balfour also attended. 

" Mr. Mark expressed the pleasure it had given Mrs. Mark and himself to see so 
many gathered to meet Mr. and Miss Balfour, and to witness the cordiality of the 
reception given to the First Lord of the Treasury. That was not an occasion for 
political speeches — they had had a good many such speeches during the last 24 
hours — but he was sure they would be gratified to hear a few words from Mr. 
Balfour, whose remarks, however, would be preceded by the inevitable song." 

After a song by Mr. C. Blacow, Mr. Balfour 
addressed the assembly in a short and complimentary 
speech, in which he dwelt upon the good work of 
Mr. Mark on behalf of the cause, remarking that he was 
the guiding spirit of their organisation, and concluded by 
requesting the assembly to join him in thanking Mr. 
and Mrs. Mark for the opportunity afforded of this 
pleasant meeting ; and to which Mr. Mark briefly 
responded. 

After this, Mr. Balfour proceeded with Mr. Mark and 
friends to West Didsbury, where he opened a Conservative 
Club at the West Didsbury Public Hall, a new and hand- 
some building erected by a Company of Shareholders. 
Following the programme, the ceremony took place on 
Tuesday, the nth January, 1898, with the Right Hon. 
the Earl Egerton as patron, John Mark, Esq., J. P., 
president, as chairman of the West Didsbury Polling 
District. After an entertainment, the officers and 
committee assembled to meet Mr. Balfour at the 
entrance at 11-30, and led him to the reception room; 
after which, Mr. T. Griffith, the chairman, introduced 
the president, J. Mark, Esq. The president then called 
upon Mr. Balfour to declare the Club open, which being 
done, the president called upon Sir John William Maclure, 
M.P. After which, a vote of thanks to Mr. Balfour, M.P., 
was proposed by Mr. J. W. G. Coombs, J. P., C.C., and 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 239 

seconded by Mr. H. T. Crofton. Mr. Mark then pro- 
posed, and Mr. E. Horkheimer seconded, a vote of 
congratulation to Sir John William Maclure, Bart., M.P. 
The ceremony concluded with a vote of thanks to 
the chairman. Mr. Mark then left with his distinguished 
visitors, and dancing succeeded, which was kept up with 
great enjoyment. 

On Monday, the 20th June, the Lord Mayor of 
Manchester, Alderman Gibson, entertained at luncheon, 
at the Town Hall, the members of the City Council, 
and some twenty-six ex-members, amongst whom was 
Alderman Mark, the purpose of the meeting being in 
honour of the completion of the 61st year of Her Majesty's 
reign. A congratulatory telegram was despatched to 
Her Majesty, and a gracious reply was received. 

" The Lord Mayor next asked the company to drink to the health of the ex- 
members present, and warmly welcomed their old colleagues, not one of whom but 
whose absence was regretted by every member of the Council." 

After Sir Anthony Marshall had responded : — 

' ' Mr. John Mark, who was called upon by acclamation, said he hardly dared trust 
himself to speak of his experiences of municipal life. They had engrossed his 
attention for more than twenty years, and his interest was not diminished by his 
retirement. But in obedience to his own feelings, for he had been long enough in 
the Council, and being convinced that a large number of his esteemed colleagues 
thought they had had quite enough of him, and that the march of progress was being 
impeded by fossil members like himself, he thought it better to make room for 
somebody else. He was quite sure he had carried into private life the respect of 
those of his colleagues who might have differed from him on some points, as well as 
the respect of a large number of the citizens of Manchester. The other night 
he happened to be reading through the newspaper records of his two years of 
mayoralty — 1889-91 — and he was not ashamed of his speeches and his conduct of the 
Council during the whole of that period. 

Mr. Mark concluded by proposing the health of the Lord Mayor, who, he said, 
was ably and successfully discharging the duties of the office. 

The Lord Mayor, in acknowledgment, spoke of the regard and respect he 
entertained for Mr. Mark, and reminded him that it was he who separated himself 
from the Council, and not the Council which separated from him." 



240 SUMMARY OF THE YEARS 1892-98. 

The following day Mr. Mark was one of the guests at 
the banquet entertainment of the Judges of Assize. 
Many of the assembly wore their Military and Consuls' 
uniforms, and Mr. Mark appeared in full Court dress. 

The Royal Agricultural Society held its annual 
country meeting this year at Birmingham, and was open 
from the 18th to the 24th June, the Right Honorable 
Earl Spencer, K.G., being president. Mr. Mark visited 
the Show three days, and on the 22nd was present at the 
luncheon and reception given by the Council to H.R.H. 
the Prince of Wales, who honoured the Show with his 
presence on that day. 

On the 10th October, Mr. Mark, as president or 
chairman, attended a meeting of the Conservative 
Association of the East Division of the City of Man- 
chester in support of the Right Honorable A. J. Balfour; 
and on the 4th November presided at a meeting, held at 
the Public Hall, West Didsbury, in support of Sir John 
William Maclure, Bart., M.P., for the Stretford Division 
of South East Lancashire : — 

" The Chairman, in the course of a lengthy address, first expressed satisfaction 
at the large attendance. It was true the hall was not crowded, but that was an 
aristocratic neighbourhood, and the people dined late. That was also a residential 
district, which was increasing very rapidly in population, and he had every reason 
to believe that the sensible people who came to reside there were, in a large 
majority, supporters of the Conservative cause. He had been requested to move 
the following resolution, without which proceedings of the kind would be incomplete. 
The resolution read : ' That the Conservative Unionist Associations of West 
Didsbury and Withington, in the Stretford Division of South East Lancashire, at 
this representative meeting, desire to place on record their unabated confidence in 
Her Majesty's Government, and especially to express their approval of the able 
administration of foreign affairs by the Marquis of Salisbury, iu firmly maintaining 
the honour, dignity, and paramount interests of the Empire under conditions of 
exceptional difficulty.' He thought the terms of the resolution would not strain the 
political convictions of anybody present. Very free criticism had been expressed 
by the public, and even by the Conservative Press, that Lord Salisbury was not 
sufficiently progressive and demonstrative in the administration of foreign affairs. 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 241 



But he ventured to say that they had been timely advised by the Blue Book on 
the Fashoda affair with France in a manner which commanded their commenda- 
tion and admiration. Negotiations of exceptional difficulty had been conducted 
with firmness, yet with a courtesy and politeness, that they must all admire. In 
dealing with a friendly power and great nation like the republic of France, those 
negotiations require to be conducted in a very diplomatic manner, and he thought 
they must all admit that Lord Salisbury and Sir Edward Monson, our Ambassador at 
Paris, had conducted them in a very able, firm, and decided manner. It appeared 
now that we should have a very peaceful solution of these differences, and if the 
susceptibilities of the French nation were at all hurt by the strong feeling expressed 
in this country he was sure that there was no intention to do anything beyond 
maintaining the honour and dignity of England. It was very satisfactory to Her 
Majesty's Government, and to those who supported them, that their action in this 
matter had received the endorsement of the great statesmen of the other political 
party. In point of fact, when the honour and dignity of the country were in 
question, there was no party. He hoped that any ill-feeling and irritation caused 
in France would be allayed by subsequent events. Annoyance on the part of the 
French was only to be expected, but it was impossible for the English Government 
to withdraw any of the requirements expressed in the correspondence and in the 
negotiations. Lord Salisbury had put his foot down, and there it remained, and the 
French would withdraw from the miserable mud island called Fashoda, on the Nile. 
The whole of the Egyptian question might be raised, and we could not anticipate 
what might be the outcome of that. The Government had been very much blamed 
that events did not progress as rapidly as could be desired with regard to Crete. 
The impossible Turk was an exceedingly difficult problem to deal with, and it was 
one thing to say that he must be bundled out bag and baggage and another thing to 
do it. Besides, there was the Concert of Europe, which had to be brought into one 
mind before prompt action could be taken in anything regarding that island. 
Those who were used to public affairs knew that a committee of one worked very 
harmoniously indeed, but when there was a committee of four or five, constituting 
the Concert of Europe, it became a very difficult matter to proceed unanimously 
with the business in hand. We were now, however, in a very fair way to have 
Turkish rule and misrule in Crete brought to an end, but it was to be hoped that 
when that came about there would be no kind of military garrison or Turkish 
authority left to operate in the island, because it would very soon become an 
unknown quantity. The Turk must be turned out bag and baggage in order to 
accomplish any good purpose. With regard to China, he thought that the open 
door would be maintained, and that we should have to thank Lord Salisbury and 
the Conservative Government for protecting our rights in the Far East. There was 
evidence that we were not going to lose any of our interests in that quarter, and 
whilst we were not belligerent, we were strong and confident in our power to secure 
our rights. He for one had never lost confidence in Lord Salisbury's administration 
in foreign affairs. Bismarck once said that Lord Salisbury was a reed, painted to 
look like iron, but the reed was even stronger than steel. He considered it repre- 
hensible on the part of the supporters of the Government to criticise so severely, as 
they had done, the foreign policy of Lord Salisbury, who had discharged his duties 

Q 



242 SUMMARY OF THE YEARS 1892-98. 

to the country with infinite dignity and credit under the moat difficult and arduous 
circumstances. With regard to domestic and home legislation, he did not intend to 
enter upon it. Government after Government had been blamed for not passing a great 
number of measures in every session of Parliament. He was afraid that there might 
be too much legislation. If he were appointed governor of any island or state he 
would consider how much he could let the people alone, and not endeavour to interfere 
with the manners and customs which existed. At the present day he thought there 
was too much legislation, but such as the Conservative Government had given was of 
a satisfactory kind with one or two exceptions. He did not, for instance, like to see the 
Government go back on the great scientific discovery as regards vaccination by adopt- 
ing the new Vaccination Act. He thought the terms of the resolution before the 
meeting expressed the general feelings of the country. Continuing, the speaker said 
it had been stated that there ought to be no politics in municipal affairs. He could 
bear testimony, by long experience, that within the municipal councils politics very 
seldom played any part on any question, but outside the Council, at the time of 
municipal elections, there was a great deal of politics. If he could read rightly by 
the result of the municipal elections which had taken place that week very con- 
siderable support had been given to Conservative candidates, and he took it that it 
was a sign that the Government had lost none of the confidence of the country with 
regard to the administration of the affairs of the Empire." 

A vote of confidence in Sir John Wm. Maclure, M.P., 
was carried by the meeting, to which Sir John 
responded : — 

" He thanked the meeting for the confidence expressed in him, and went on to 
speak of the friendship existing between himself and the chairman. He had known 
Mr. Mark for nearly 40 years, and he had had an opportunity of seeing that 
gentleman's usefulness as a member of the Manchester Corporation, and also his 
goodness of heart by his support of public charities in this country. When he (Sir 
John) heard Mr. Mark's words of praise he felt not only very proud, but also 
very humble. Mr. Mark was a man who deserved well of his fellow-citizens, and 
of all who were in any way associated with him. Proceeding, Sir John said he had 
endeavoured to do his duties in Parliament to the best of his ability. He had not 
been injured in health by attending to those duties. He was not afraid of anyone 
opposing him in that constituency, which he would represent as long as he could 
talk, and as long as he could walk. His only regret was that he could get no one to 
stand against him in order that they might be able to show what they could do. 

On the motion of Sir John W. Maclure a vote of thanks was accorded to Mr. 
Mark for his services in the chair. — The vote was musically honoured, Sir John 
himself lustily leading the way. — The meeting then terminated." 

We will only add, by way of closing this portion of 
our subject, that the excerpts, which we have been at 
some trouble in collecting, are not alone useful in a 



JOHN MARK, MANCHESTER. 243 

biographical sense, but that, to some extent, they also 
embody interesting lessons upon municipal affairs, and 
their preservation in book form may hereafter afford some 
useful information and statistics which may be of value to 
future historians of Manchester. 

In a book of this character, which is chiefly intended 
to preserve the memorials of a very active life for the 
information of friends and future generations of one's 
own family, it is impossible to avoid the omission of 
details which ought to have appeared in their proper 
places ; one such may be mentioned here, and it is that 
in the autumn of 1890, Mr. and Mrs. Mark accompanied 
by Miss Mark and Miss Florence Mark, made a very 
enjoyable trip to Norway, visiting Stravanger, Bergen, 
Vossevanean, Eide, Vik, Odde, Stalheim, Gutevangen, 
with the waterfalls, glaciers, and Fiords en route, which 
Miss Mark described very fully in an interesting and 
amusing diary. At many intervals Mr. Mark indulged 
in his favourite pastime of fishing. Prior to departing 
for Norway, on the gth August, 1890, the Annual 
International Congress of Engineers interested in Inland 
Navigation, was held at the Manchester Town Hall, and 
extended over several days. The Mayor and Mayoress 
(Alderman and Mrs. Mark) received the visitors, who 
came from all parts of the world, at a grand reception, 
and also had the honour of entertaining at their Town 
Hall Apartments Lord and Lady Balfour, of Burleigh ; 
Sir Michael Hicks-Beach ; Sir Courtenay Boyle ; Sir 
Charles Tupper, the High Commissioner of Canada, and 
others. 

To bring our account up to the day of printing, 
we add that Mr. Mark attended, as the Delegate of 



244 SUMMARY OF THE YEARS 1892-98. 

the Manchester Conservative Association, the Bristol 
Conference of the National Union of Conservative 
Associations, on the 29th and 30th November, 1898. 

In these pages it has been sought to avoid all un- 
necessary comments, other than is preserved in the 
journals of the time, the open details and criticisms of the 
press to which all public men are subject, and to add 
thereto as little as possible ; in fact, to attempt to print 
a diary out of such material as is open to everyone ; 
and under such circumstances it is not possible to 
attempt either literary excellence or completeness. 




JONES, LEE, HUTCHINSON. 245 



arms of alliance. 

John Mark, Armiger = (4th September, 1861) = Emily 
Mary, daughter of Robert Lewis Jones, Esqre. 

Brms of Jmpalement. 

Sable, a chevron, between three spear heads, argent. 

Crest.— A cubit arm erect in armour holding in the 
gauntlet a spear of the first headed argent, im- 
brued gules. 

(The Honourable Robert Jones, who built the bridge over the 
St. Lawrence, was of this family.) 

©f ffiiretence. 

The husbands and their children are each entitled to add the 
Arms of Mark to those they bear as family Arms ; the parents 
in an Escutcheon of Pretence, the descendants bearing the same 
quartered, or quarterly-quartered (as the case may be), with the 
proper differences, namely, label, crescent, mullet ; the following 
are given from two emblazoned escutcheons : — 

LEE. 
Robert Frederic Lee, of Grantham = (27th April, 1892) = 

Maud Constance Mark, second daughter : — 

Arms. — Vert, a fesse, cotised, between three leopards' 
faces, or. 

Crest. — A leopard's face as in the arms. 

Motto. — Fide et consttmtia. (By fidelity and constancy.) 

(Similar arms to these were borne by the descendants of Lee, Lord 
Mayor of London in 1430; Lee, Archbishop of York in 1531, etc., 
but the leopards' faces were on the fesse. There is also a handsome 
monument, of the year 1594, to the Sotheby family, in Pocklington 
Church, co. York, in which, with some nine other coats, the Arms of 
Sotheby are impaled with: — gules, on a fesse, cotised, or, three 
leopards' heads of the first, for Gervase Lee of Southwell, co. Notts, 
who married Bridget Sotheby, of Pocklington in 1581.) 



246 ARMS OF ALLIANCE. 

HUTCHINSON. 

Robert Arthur Lord Hutchinson = (29th January, 1891) = 
Florence Mark, third daughter: — 

Arms.— Quarterly, 1st and 4th : Per pale, gules and 
azure, semee of eight cross-crosslets, or, and a lion 
rampant, argent, for Hutchinson ; 2nd and 3rd 
quarter: quarterly, istand4th; gules, on a chevron 
between, in chief, two lions rampant, and in base an 
eagle displayed, double-headed, or, three cross- 
crosslets, azure, for Butterworth ; 2nd: Or, three 
bars, gules, and in chief a lion passant, gules, 
Ormerod as a quartering of Lord ; 3rd : Argent, on 
a fesse between three cinque-foils, azure, three 
pheons argent, for Lord. 

Crest. — A cockatrice, wings expanded, azure, combed, 
wattled, and membered or, langued gules. 

Motto. — Cunctanter tamen fortiter . (Slowly yet resolutely.) 

(We take this blazon from a shield of the last generation in which 
the quartered coats are borne in an Escutcheon of Pretence (Lord 
quartering Ormerod, and Butterworth quartering these, beingheiresses), 
by Robert Hopwood Hutchinson, of Blackburn, whose family derived 
from Berwick-upon-Tweed, and came into Lancashire as agent of 
the then Duke of Buccleugh. The Hely-Hutchinsons, Earls of 
Donoughmore, are of the same descent.) 



OLD VELLUM ROLL. 

Compiled for Jacob Mark of Dublin ; 

In the Year 1746. 

Descended from the Marks of Mossdale. 



PART II. 



3ntrobuction. 

It is somewhat difficult to discover, in this country, the Chronicles 
upon which Will Devall founded the following Genealogy. Sir 
Walter Scott in his Quentin Durward, has seized upon a member of 
the family of Marck as one of his principal characters, and brings him 
into prominence in the year 1468 at an insurrection in Liege, brought 
about by the machinations of Louis XI., and directed against his 
feudatory Charles the Bold of Burgundy. He there causes William 
de la Marck to kill in cold blood the Bishop of Liege, Louis de 
Bourbon, and to meet his death at the hands of Quentin Durward, 
and his uncle Ludovic Lesly. But in his Notes he corrects the 
anachronism, and shows that William de la Marck leagued himself 
with the people of Liege in 1482, assembled an army of banditti, 
dressed them in a red uniform with a boar's head on the left sleeve, 
and taking prisoner the Bishop, cut him over the face and then slew 
him with his own hand. Scott does not, in all cases, quote his 
authorities, but he causes Louis XL to term Marck a descendant of 
the Princes of Sedan, as noble in blood as himself. Sir Walter 
mentions amongst the Chronicles he has consulted, the Memoirs of 
Philip des Comines; Jean de Troyes; Oliver de la Marcke; Sleidan; 
Petitot, &c. 

The following short Notes are all that we need extract from Sir 
Walter Scott, as every interested reader can consult the work for 
himself: — 

" In the more woodland districts of Flanders, the Duke of Gueldres and William 
de la Marck, called from his ferocity the Wild Boar of Ardennes, were throwing off 
the habits, of knights and gentlemen, to practise the violences and brutalities of 
common bandits."— (Introduction of 1831^. 

" We have already noticed the anachronism respecting the crimes of this atrocious 
Baron, and it is scarcely necessary to repeat that if he in reality murdered the Bishop 
of Liege in 1482, the Count of La Marck could not be slain in the defence of Liege 
four (14) years earlier. In fact the Wild Boar of Ardennes, as he was usually 
termed, was of high birth, being the third son of John I. Count of La Marck and 



ii. INTRODUCTION. 

Aremberg and ancestor of the branch called Barons of Lumain. He did not escape 
the punishment due to his atrocity, though it did not take place at the time, or in the 
manner narrated in the text. Maximilian, Emperor of Austria, caused him to be 
arrested at Utrecht, where he was beheaded in the year, 1485, three years after the 
Bishop of Liege's death.'' 

" It is scarcely necessary to add that the marriage of William de la Marck with 
the Lady Hameline is as apocryphal as the lady herself. The real bride of the 
Wild Boar of Ardennes was Jean de Arschel, Baroness of Scoonhoven." 

It follows from this that William, brother to Count John de la 
Mark, of the Vellum Roll, who is said to have come to England with 
Neville, Earl of Warwick, in 1462, was uncle of the Wild Boar of 
Ardennes. 

It is outside a work of this character to attempt to follow in detail 
the numerous younger branches of an ancient name. Suffice it to 
say here that descendants of Marcellus, who was a companion of 
William the Conqueror, held their lands termed Marke from the fief 
of Bononie, and the Counts of Boulogne who were connected with 
those of Turry, or Turennius, and an ancient writer states that the body 
of the Blessed Marcellus, whom some term Martialis and the Apostle 
of the Aquitanes, lay in a chapel of the citadel of that place. Amongst 
the Knights of Flanders in the pay of our King John is found the name 
of Marke, who would seem to be of a later immigration. Of the main 
branch of the line of which Sir Walter Scott treats, the Count 
Eberhard of Altena obtained the Castle and name of Marke before his 
death in 1240; and his descendants, at other times, acquired the 
Countships of Arenberg, of Sedan, Lumaine, and Cleves of whom one 
married Elizabeth of Burgundy. The Marke family also acquired, 
before 1480, the Dukedom of Boulogne, and the Princedom of Sedan. — 
(Spinero). 

Mr. Will Devall states that the accompanying document took him 
nearly three years to compile, which is an amply sufficient excuse for 
the meagre details of this Introduction to his Manuscript, and the 
Notes which follow it. It is scarcely necessary to add that the 
Marriage Certificate with which the Roll is prefaced forms no part of 
the original, but was sent at an earlier period, as an interesting 
document, by Mr. E. J. Grubb, in whose possession it is. 



249 

flfcamaoe Certificate of Jacob fllbarfc 

Mitbtn mentioned. 

In possession of Ernest J. Grubb, Esq., of Cayrick-on-Suir. 

WbereaS Jacob Mark, son of Thomas Mark, of 
Carlile, in Cumberland, in Great Britain, and Rebekah 
Lancaster, daughter of John Lancaster, of Kendal, in 
Westmorland, in Great Britain aforesaid, both of the 
City of Dublin, Having declared their intention of taking 
each other in Marriage before several Meetings of the 
People called Quakers in the said City according to the 
good order used amongst them : Whose proceedings 
therein after a deliberate consideration thereof with 
regard unto the Righteous Law of God and example of 
his People recorded in the Scriptures of Truth (in 
that case) were approved by the said meetings they 
appearing Clear of all others, and having Consent 
of Parents and Relations concerned. 

NOW these are to Certify all whom it may concern 
that for the full accomplishing of their said intentions 
this Third day of the Sixth Month commonly called 
August in the year one thousand and seven hundred and 
thirty-one they the said Jacob Mark and Rebekah 
Lancaster appeared in a Publick Assembly of the 
aforesaid People met together to worship God in their 
Publick Meeting Place at Meath Street in Dublin, and 
in a solemn manner He the said Jacob Mark taking the 
said Rebekah Lancaster by the hand did openly declare 
as followeth viz.: Friends you are my witnesses that I 
take Rebekah Lancaster to be my wife promising by 
Divine assistance to be unto her a loving and faithful 
husband till it please the Lord by death to separate 
us. And then and there in the said Assembly the 
said Rebekah Lancaster did in like manner declare 
as followeth, viz.: Friends you are my witnesses that 
I take Jacob Mark to be my husband promising by 



250 



y*. 6 <>^<«).^4- ♦<►♦♦♦•»<>•♦<> ♦♦^♦<>-^^<>' ♦••^^ <» 



Divine assistance to be unto him a loving and faithful 
wife till it please the Lord by death to separate us. 

And the said Jacob Mark and 
Rebekah as a further Confirmation 
thereof did then and there to these 
presents set their Hands as Husband 
and Wife. 



Jacob Mark. 
Rebecha Mark. 



And We whose names are hereunto subscribed being 
present among others at the Solemnization of the said 
Marriage and Subscription in manner aforesaid as 
Witnesses hereunto have to these presents subscribed 
our names, the day and year above written. 

MEN. 

Joseph Gill 

George Cooke 

Peter Judd 

William Brookfield 

Saml. Fuller 

Isaac Summers 

Edmd. Garnett 

Timothy Thorby 

Edwd. Forcett 

Thomas Lockye 

Rob Lowe 

Daniel Cowman 

George Walker 

John Stoddart 

Thos. Cusack 

Abm. Clibborn 



Jane Locky 
Anna Gill 
Jane Robinson 
Elizabeth Pirn 
Alise Goulbee 
Mary Greenwood 
Lydia Unthank 
Frances North 
Eliz. Leary 

Thomas Mark 
Deborah Barton 
Elizabeth Mark 
Mary Bewley 
Rebekha Mark 



Jno. Crosthwaite 
John Pemberton 
Will Willan 
Joseph Haughton 
Roger Haycock 
Isaac Ashton, Jnr. 
Danl. Bewley 
Saml. Sandwith 
Thos. Bell 
Nathaniel Russell 
Joseph Barcroft 
Edward Hewson 
Thos. Walker 
John Key 
Luke Rice 
Joshua Clibborn 

WOMEN. 
Frances Biker 
Esther Brookfield 
Sarah Slater 
Ann Hewson 
Deborah Devitt 
Mary Jessop 
Mary Thomas 
Mary Bramery 
Mary B...igl? 

RELATIONS. 
Elizabeth Sutton 
Margret Gregson 
John Castleton 
Jane Ashton 
Sarah Johnson 



James Henderson 
John Hallrohy 
John Burton 
William Goulbee 
John Bramery 
John Goulbee 
Thomas Biker 
John Chritchett 
Richard Middleton 
Richard Burk 
Js. Gill 

Jonathan biglu 
Abraham Devitt 
John Goulbee 
Joshua Jackson 
John Jackson 

Dorothy Carbrory 
Jane Peile 
Ann Pratt 
Abigail Edwards 
Sarah Addison 
Mary Francis 
Rachel Francis 
Crumsale Francis 
Elizabeth Carmack 

Caleb Carleton 
Nathan Beeby 
David Bancroft 
Fras. Randall 



■^t^***^**^*-^^^*"^^^*^ 251 



©lb IDellum IRolL 

15 c. Acts $be (Benealogp ano j£ii6igns armorial of fll>r. 

3aCOb flDarft of George's Lane, Merchant: Lineally 
Descended in Direct Line from John Mark Cotemporary 
and Fellow Servant of Saint Barnabas who was Fellow 
Labourer with the Apostle Paul in the work of the 
Gospel about the year of Christ 40 and Sailed with 
Barnabas into Cyprus and so continued preaching the 
Gospel in Perils and Dangers untill his Death which 
happened in the year 60 by being burned to death by a 
Heathen King in Asia. To whom succeeded Jechoniah 
Mark who at the Destruction of Jerusalem was taken 
Prisoner by Titus Vespasian and brought to Rome where 
he was had in great esteem by the Emperour. He marryed 
Priscilla the sister of Josephus that learned and valliant 
Jew : he left one son named Josiah who succeeded his 
father in his Honour and of the Love of the People of 
Rome. He went into Britain with the Roman Legions 
and there marryed a Chief's Daughter of that part of 
England called Lancashire, and by her had three sons 
John, Thomas, and David: John and Thomas dyed young 
and David survived them and marryed a daughter of the 
Prince of Wallia or Guallia now called Wales and had 
two sons Richard and Jacob : Richard marryed Ginefred 
Aprichard of Carnarthen, a woman of great figure and 
fortune, by whom he had one son fa descendant! named 
Paul who came over into Ireland with Henry the Second 
and stayed here till the Kingdom owned the King of 
England to be Lord of Ireland and accompanyed the 
King back to Normandy, his sons having appeared in 



252 ^^^^^4*4*^^*^4'4-44'<>-$4'<>-^4- 

Arms against him, and there remained with the King 
till his return into England. He marryed a Daughter 
of Rodolphus Earl of Roan by whom he had two 
sons Robert and Henry. Henry marryed Sigismunda 
Daughter of the Earl of Bretaigne, by whom he had 
one son called Issachar who marryed a Brother's 
Daughter of the said Earl by whom he had three 
sons, John, Richard, and Peter ; John and Peter dyed 
unmarryed and Richard marryed a Daughter of the Earl 
of Bolognia, a man renowned in arms. He left three 
sons, William, Ferdinand, and Tancred : William and 
Ferdinand dyed without Issue and Tancred marryed 
a Daughter of the Earl of Blois by whom he had one 
only son named Cadwallader, he marryed a Daughter of 
the Count of Soissons, he was at the battle of Agincourt 
fought between the Dauphin of France and Henry the 
fifth of England and brought Prisoner there and was in 
great favour with the King on account of Valour, after 
the King's death in the Minority of Henry the seventh 
[Sixth], he returned to Ffrance and there marryed a 
Daughter of the House of Conti who were of the Blood 
Royal : by her he had two sons John and William. 
John marryed a Daughter of the House of Burgundy 
who afterwards was created John Duke Delamark, and 
William came over into England with the Earl of 
Warwick when he went to Espouse the Daughter of 
the King of Ffrance for Edward the Sixth [fourth] , 
who had by the said Earl's means Deposed Henry the 
seventh [Sixth] , who was a weak and unfortunate 
Prince. He marryed a Daughter of Lord Hastings and 
took the part of King Henry along with the Earl of 
Warwick till the death of the Earl and King which 
put an end to an Intestine War that almost Depopulated 



253 

the Kingdom. He left only one son (who in the 
usurpation of Richard the third went to the Earl of 
Lancaster, afterwards Henry the Senth), his name was 
Henry who marryed a daughter of Sir Walter Blunt 
who was killed at the famous Battle of Bosworth : he 
left one son named Salathiel Mark who Marryed 
Joanna Lewelling one of the Daughters of Lewelling 
Prince of Wales, being related to the family before, 
by whom he had a son named Benjamin who marryed 
a Daughter of Sir John Surry of Windsor, Knt.; who 
had a son called Jacob who went with the Earl of 
Leicester, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, to support 
the States of Holland against the Spaniards, when by 
his Valour and Bravery, on his return home, was re- 
commended by the Earl to the Queen who gave him to 
wife a beautifull Lady, one of her Maids of Honour 
called Isabella Powis, Daughter of John Powis, Esqre., 
from whom the present Duke of Powis descended. 
He left a son called Reubon Mark who marryed Jane 
Morgan only daughter of James Morgan of Thredegar 
in Wales, Esqre., who had several Daughters who were 
marryed to gentlemen of the first Rank and Familys 
in South Wales, and one son named Richard Mark 
who marryed the daughter of James Stanley, Esquire, 
who was great-grandson of Sir John Stanley who was at 
the Battle of Bosworth aforesaid. He left a son named 
Jeremiah Mark who marryed the daughter of Samuel 
Aprichard of Denbeigh, Esquire, and had large posses- 
sions, but by taking part with the Royal party lost 
all. He was at the Battle of Edgehill and was 
Standard Bearer to the King. He had his horse shot 
under him and himself sorely wounded when the 
Standard was taken by Cromwell's men and retaken 



254 ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 

by Thomas Smith who for his Bravery was made Knight 
Banneret : said Jeremiah had one son named Thomas 
Mark who marryed Mary daughter of Sir Thomas 
Davenport of Shrewsbury, Knight, and accompanied 
the Earl of Sussex into Cumberland to Daker Castle : 
he left one son also named Thomas Mark : he marryed 
Margaret Walker daughter of James Walker of Sulby, 
Gentleman : he had two Sons and one Daughter ; the 
Sons' names were John and Thomas Mark ; John 
marryed Hannah Lancaster, Daughter of Joseph Lan- 
caster, of Daker, Gentleman, and had one son named 
Thomas Mark, and two Daughters : Thomas marryed 
Sarah Dawson, Daughter of William Dawson, of Hutton, 
Gentleman. Thomas Mark purchased the estate of 
Mossdale and removed thither and had a Son named 
Thomas and three Daughters ; he marryed Elizabeth 
Slay daughter of John Slay of the How, Gentleman : 
the family of the Slays lived at How upwards of four 
hundred years, and the son and heir of the family who 
always inherited the Estate being called John : said 
Thomas had two Sons, Thomas and George, and three 
Daughters : Thomas marryed Mary Bewly, Daughter 
of Thomas Bewly of Hollow Hall, in Coldbeck, Gent., 
and removed to Blackwell Hall, near Carlisle, and had 
two Sons Benjamin and Thomas and two Daughters : 
Thomas succeeded his father at Blackwell Hall and 
marryed Elizabeth Hudson Daughter of Mungo Hudson 
of Castle-soherby, Gentleman, and had three Sons Isaac, 
Jacob, and Josiah, and two Daughters : Isaac Mark 
marryed Mary Daughter of Joseph Seallby and Dwells 
at Elerton Hall near Heskit in the forest, and Jacob 
came over into Ireland about the year one thousand 
seven hundred and sixteen and marryed Rebecca 



++++++++++++++++++++++*+++++ 255 

Lancaster Daughter of John Lancaster of Kendal in 
Westmorland, Gentleman, and has Issue two Sons, 
Thomas and John, and two Daughters, Elizabeth and 
Jane, and are now living : which Jacob Mark is the 
person for whom this Genuine Genealogy is compiled, 
which has been with great labour and expense, having 
taken up near three years since the same was taken in 
hand, and considering the many Historys of Judea, 
Italy, France, Germany, and England, besides several 
manuscripts and antient Records it has been compleated 
with great accuracy and expedition. 

Which I Attest, 

Will Devall 

Dublin, 23rd of 

Septr. 1746. 

But note that George Mark youngest Son of Thomas 
who marryed Mary Shirday, widow of Thomas Shirday 
of Moorhouse near Carlile, Gentleman, and lived 
at Moorhouse some time and afterwards removed to 
Mossdale and had one son called George and one 
daughter : George the son marryed Sarah Peacock 
daughter of George Peacock of Moorhouse, Gentleman, 
and hath four Sons and two Daughters. Now as 
George was not the eldest son of Thomas, as we 
could not regularly incert it in the foregoing Genealogy, 
and as being of the family could not with justice 
but take notice of the alliance here. 

Will Devall. 



Hppenbij:. 



£ottor'0 motes. 

(with additions to the general introduction). 

i. This mythical account implies derivation of a 
sirename Marke, from the Apostolic Christian name, and 
the compiler might well have included King Marke of 
Cornwall, who slew Sir Tristram of the Round Table. 
Again he may intend us to read "a descendant," in 
place of " a son," who went to Ireland with Henry II. 

The armigerous English family of Marke is of 
Norman origin, though (like many chiefs of the Norman 
race), they may be of Breton or Cymric blood. An 
ancient Cymric Triad says that there are three things 
the birthright of every Briton, — five acres of land for 
a home, the right of armorial bearings, and suffrage 
in making the laws. [Rev. R. W. Morgan's translation, 

in "The British Kymry," Carnarvon, N.D.] 

The Roll of Battle Abbey includes the family of 
Merke (Marke) as Companions of the Bastard, 1066. 
There is a Charter of King Henry (first, 1100-35), 
to the Abbot of Whitby, attested by W. Marc'; R. de 
Conhill ; Fulco de Oilly. Henry II. went to Ireland 
in 1172. 

2. The departure back of Normans was not un- 
common, but the name, as we shall see, continued to 



258 MARKES IN ESSEX. 



be represented in this country. Spinerod, in his History 
of the Illustrious Families of Europe, printed, 1680, in 
the Latin language, frequently names families of Mark 
derivation. In his Pedigree of the Dukes of Mantua, 
he has an Altanano, who died 1240, and had acquired 
the Castle of Mark and assumed the name ; and, in 
the 15th century, a Franciscus Marchio. In the pedi- 
gree of the Duke Juliaci, there is mention of the Count 
Von der Marck, and also of Josina daughter of Philip 
Count Marcanus ; and of Cleves who sprang from 
these Counts. In another pedigree of Jacobo Harlaei 
Chanvaloni, he gives the descent of the Dukes Bullionii, 
surnamed de Marca, from this personage, by his wife 
Catherine daughter of Francisi Marcan. There was 
also a Count de la Marche in Acquatine, 1167; and 
the Heraldic Works of France and Belgium have 
frequent mentions of the name, as : — la Marck ; la (or 
Van) Marcke ; Marcq ; (at times adding the estate); 
Marque ; Marques ; la Marche ; Marches, etc. An old 
province of France, adjacent to Britany, has the 
latter name, and Oliver and Philip de la Marche were 
eminent litterateurs before 1400. Analogous variations 
of spelling are found in this country, and in the time 
of Henry the Second the old name Markham is found 
spelled Marcham. 

There is a MS. in the handwriting of Sir William 
Dugdale, by way of additions to his Baronage, preserved 
in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, and printed in Col- 
lectanea Topographica et Genealogica, vol. 1, 1834, P- 53) 
intended as an addition to page 51, col. 2, line 23, of 
Dugdale's original work — it reads as follows : — 

"Arthur by reason he was not Earle of Richmund, though he succeeded his father 
in the Earledome of Britany, I shall say no more than that he first marryd Beatrice, 



EDITOR'S NOTES. 259 



Viscomtess of Limoges, and begot by her two sons: John, who was also Duke of 
Britany, but died without issue, and Guy Earle of Ponthien ; secondly, Yoland, daughter 
and heire to Almeric Earle of Montfort, by whom he had issue : John Breno, Earle of 
Montfort and Duke of Britany, and three daughters, viz., Blanche, wife to Robert Earle 
of Marke ; Alice, Comtesse of Dendosme; and Beatrice marryd to Guy, Earle of La Dai, 
and the said Arthur departing this life in Britany in A? 1311 was buried at Plonarmel." 

In these cases, there is no doubt that the name is 
derived from the title of Counts of the Mark, or district 
of the March or boundary. 

In proof of the continuous existence in England of the 
Norman family of Merke, or Marke, we give various 
references scattered through the pages of the two fine old 
volumes of the History and Antiquities of Essex, by Philip 
Morant, M.A., London, 1768. In our introduction we 
called attention to the eccentricities of ancient spelling, 
and need only remark here that in putting into order the 
references of Morant we shall preserve his language and 
spelling and that of his authorities. 

It seems that one Marcellus, mentioned in Doomsday 
Book, had various Manors to which he or his descendants 
gave the name of Merke or Marke, and Marci or Marcy, 
and which the Battle Abbey Roll gives as Merke, and 
Marcaeus, but the ordinary custom was to take the surname 
from the Manor. Marcellus was a family name in ancient 
Rome, and Marcel is found as an early surname in France. 
The Latin Marcus means a brazier's hammer, and in 
French Marteau is a hammer, and Marteler a hammerer, 
hence the Regent Charles, of the 8th century, was sur- 
named Martel as the hammerer of the Saracens. All the 
principal families of Marke in Essex seem to have parted 
with their estates in the 13th and 14th centuries, though 
the name continued in that county. 

" The Dunmow Hundred.— The Maner of Marks, or MARCAS-fee. Held at the 
Doomsday by Marcellus." 



260 MARKES IN ESSEX. 



(W. (Wm.) Marc' who witnessed Henry I. Charter was probably, with others, 
his son.) 

' ' The family of Merc has given name to many places in Essex as Merhs-Tay, 
Merks in Latton, &c. (at Aldham, Dunmow, High Estre, Little Bardfield, &c") 

"Simon de Merc held two fees in Dunmow and Roncewell in 1210 and 1211." 
Placitorum, 6 Ric I. (1194), refers to the holdings of Aitrop and Simon de Merc'. 

" Harlow Hundred. — Mark-Hall, stands near the Church. This Maner took its 
name from Adelop de Merc, who held it under Eustace of Bologne, as well as 
Merks in Dunmow." 

" Ingelram de Merc held in 1258 this Maner of the King, in ca., of his Honor of 
Bologne, it comprehending then 500 acres of arable, 8 of meadow, 12 of pasture, 20 
of wood, 576 days' work, 15s. 3d. J yearly rent, and 4 acres of garden. Robert was 
his son and heir ; Jacomima, his widow, dyed possessed of it in 1340 ; her eldest son 
and heir, Ingelram, was beyond sea, and, if dead, it came to his brother Robert. 
The latter sold it to Henry Ferrers, who with Isabel his wife had it, and died in 
1343." — (From Inquests Post Mortem.) 

" Hinckford Hundred. — The Maner of Mark. William de Mark was presented 
in 1254. He was succeeded by Richard, his son and heir, who left it unto his 

son John that held it in the reign of King Edward III., of the Honor of Clare." 
There was an earlier John whose arms we give as 1282. 

' ' Becontree Hundred. — The Maner of Marks. There are many estates named Marks, 
probably from Henry de Merk who was Lord of Bird/eld, Shortgrave, and Latton in 
the time of King Henry III. (1216-72.) The Maner House here called Marks Hall 
is an old building now only a farm house." Morant says that there is another Manor 
of Marks about a mile from Romford. The le Breton family had estates here and 
also in North Yorkshire. 

" Onger Hundred. — Standon, or Standon Marei, was so named because it stands on 
a stony or gravelly hill. And the addition of Marci came from its ancient Lords 
the Mark or Merk family ; which had several estates hereabouts. For Serlo de 
Marcy held four fees belonging to the Honor and Castle of Aungre ; and Ralph de 
Marcy two Knights' fees. They had also considerable estates in other parts of the 
country. As for Massy it is visibly a corruption from the word Marci." 

" The ancient owners of it after the Marks were the Spigurnell family. 
Edmund Spigurnell, who died in 1295, held in Standon of Ralph le Merk by the 
service of three quarters of a Knight's fee, 180 acres of arable, 8 acres of meadow, 
20 of pasture, £4 10s. rent of assize, 16 acres of wood, with the works of the 
customary tenants." The Rectory. " It hath the tithes of Marks Maner in Roding 
where anciently stood a Chapel named Capella de Roothing Marci; which the Rectors 
of Standon have sometimes been instituted to with the Church." The name Rooth- 
ing points to the ancient existence here of a "Mark," or "Thing," a place of 
Assembly. 

Testa de Neville shews that John de Marke had, in 1302, a grant of Free-warren 
at Rothing. 

We may quote from the printed Government Records 
a few additions to the notices of Morant. If time allowed 



EDITOR'S NOTES. 261 



these notices might be vastly extended, and we spare the 
compositor and reader the abominable abbreviated Latin 
by giving the substance in a few words. 

The Great Rolls of the Pipe. (Pipe Roll Society) :— 

These shew that Rad. or Ralph de Marci rendered yearly accounts of his Essex 
holdings from 7 to 21 Henry II. (1161-75.) 

Ricardus, or Richard de Marci renders account from Essex 11 Henry II. (1165.) 

Johi', or John de Merc' falco' iiij li. p Ide br., same year, Hants. 

In Feet of Fines, Robertus de Marci concorded with Hugh de Noeres for tene- 
ments per Galfr. de Childeston, 7 Ric. I. (1196.) 

Excerpta le Rotulis Finium. (Roll of Fines on acquiring lands) : — 

Phillipus Marc' is thrice mentioned in 1221-2 in reference to lands in Surrey, 
York, and Notts ; and at the latter place with Olive, who was wife of Roger de Monte 
Begois, Henry Stuteville, and others. He is also several times mentioned in Testa 
de Neville in relation to lands in Notts, Chester, and Derbyshire. 

Engeram de Merc', son and heir of Simon de Merc' paid x£ scutage, xv. Feb., 
1222, upon two Knights' fees in Dunmawe, held of our Lord the King of his Honor 
of Bolon. 

Ingeramo de Merc' has concessions in 1250. See Arms. 

Rad. or Ralph de Merk' son and heir of Henr. de Merk paid seizen on lands 
in Berdfeld, and Latton, 10 April, 1234, when he gave in his homage to the King. He 
was to give security for £15, a considerable sum in those days, when a horse or a cow 
sold for 4 shillings. 

Willms. de Merk', son and heir of Walti. de Merk', the King in 1254, com- 
mits his lands to Henry de Mara ; he was no doubt a Minor, and will be the William 
whose Arms we give as 1277. 

Henr. de Merk' defunct ; 12 July, 1259, the King commits his estates to Roger 
de Thurkleby. 

Robert de Merk', son and heir of Ingrami, inherited 1259, and the King's 
Escheator was ordered to take security. 

Placitorum Abbreviate. (Ric. I. to Ed. II. — 1189 to 1327): — 

Eustac' de Merc' was father of Alexander, and had 4 John (1203) lordship of 
a Hide of land in Rmewell held by Henrie del Merc', and there is mention of a 
postnatus brother William. In 4 Hen. III. (1219) Eustach de Merc had a claim 
of iiij li. made against him by Prior of Cruce Rohays. 

Ela de Marcy, concorded in Sussex 7 John (1206) with Ric'us de Cumbe in 
respect to the 16th part of a Knight's fee in Hertlee with land at Bullokestand, the 
16th part of a fee at Farhesford, and the 32nd part of another at Petland. 

S'lon, or Serlonis de Marci, concords with Jordan de Ramsden in Essex, 8 
Ric. I. (1197) 

Willelmus de Marc', and Ala his wife are tenants in same year, he will be 
identical with the next notice. 



262 MARKES IN ESSEX. 



Willi. Marcy, temp. King John, had married in her widowhood, Ale de Saukeuill 
daughter of Rad. de Dene, who had in her right enfeoffed some lands in Essex on 
payment of vij s. per annum in perpetuity. 

Robert de Marci appears in a Charter of the same period. 

Will'us de Marcy, under 25 Henry III. (1241.) 

Joh'es de Merk', in 43 Henry III. (1259 in Essex.) 

Rob'to Merke. In 17 Ed. I. (1289). Robert de Veer, Earl of Oxford, held land 
in Stepelbumsted of Rob'to Merke, in homage, but not related by blood to Gilbert de 
Balliolo. 

Ralph, or Rad'i de Merke son and heir of Thome de Merke, conceded 18 
Ed. II. (1325) to Augustino le Walleys and Mabill his wife the Manor of Mark/mil 
in Layton co. Essex. This Manor afterwards became the property of St. Helen's 
Nunnery, London. 

Testa de Neville. (Henry III. to Edward I., 1216 — 1306) : — 

Rog'us Mark', in Com. Su'ht held at La Lye of Roger de Vetriponte, by 
serjeantry and also a carucate at same place of John de Insula, of the Honor of 
Richmond. 

Simon de Merc' held 2 Knights' fees in Dmimaw, Runewell, Stanem, Damesdon, 
Rithewihebroc , and Banefield ; in the same villa Joh. Flandr. held of him the fourth 
part of a Knight's fee. Honor of Bonome. 

Henr. de Merc' held 3 Knights' fees in Berdefeld, Linton, and Scorteive, joined to 
Neuport, and Finkinfeld, which Petr. fil. Alwini holds ; and at Weston joined to Clare 
and Runnewell which Eustache Salvage holds. 

Joh'es de Merc' held 2 Knghts' fees in Waumford, Sibinton, and Shebinton. 
Honor of Bonome. 

Will's de Merc' held 1 Knight's fee in Chesterton in Honor of Bonome. 

Matill. filia Egidij de Merk' participated in a fief at Code'hm in the said Honor. 
Fief of Peve'll in Norfolk. 

Henry de Merk' is credited with payment of v marcs scutage. 

Calendarum Rotulorum Chartarum : 

Joh'is de Marke and Cecilia de Hastings his sister, 25 Ed. I. (1297), held 
between them Comberton Manor, Cantebr. 

He also held Rathing Alba Maner' and 30 Ed. I. (1302), had a grant from the 
King of Free-warren there. 

Documents Illustrative of English History. (13th and 14th Centuries) : — 

These contain some notices in connection with pay and hawks : 

Gob'to de Mark, 14 John (1213), was one of the Militi Flanderensis and had a 
payment of xx Marcs. 

Ph. Marc'; Chrestinos de Merc' ; Watikin de Merc' or Merk' (at Windlesor); 
Henr. de Merc' or Merk' (a 2nd time at Giseburn) ; Will, de Merc' (a 2nd time 
at Dovercourt.) 

These notices enable us to bring down the Markes of Essex from the Conquest 
to the beginning of the 14th century, when their lands passed into other hands, and 
a more extensive search would connect them with other branches of the name, which 
in or about 1300, had settled into Marke. 



EDITOR'S NOTES. 



263 



Marcellus ; held the Marcus-fee at Dunmow, 1086. 

I 
William Marc' ; witnesses Charter of K. Hen. I. 



Ralph de Marci ; On Pipe Rolls, 1 161-75. 



Adelop de Merc', 
held Dunmow, etc. 



I 

Simon de Merk', 
Dunm. & Rune- 
well, 1195 — 1222. 



Eustace de Merc', 
Runewell, 1202-19. 



I 

Ric. de Marci, 1165. 

John de Merc', 1165. 

Robt. de Marci, 1204. 



Elias, 1206, 
Roger, 1240. 



Henry de Merk', Serlode William 
Birdfield, Marci, Marcy, 

Latton, Sec, 3 fees. 4 fees. =Ala. 



Ingelram de Merk', 
2 K fees, 1222-58. 



Philip, 1221-9. 
John, 1259-82, 
2 fees. 



Ralph de Merk, 
Seizen, 1234. 



Ralph le 
Merk, 2 fees. 



Robert de Merk', 
Heir, 1259, Liv., 1289. 

Ingelram, 
died abroad. 
Robert, sold. 



Thos. de Merke, 
Latton, &c. 

I 
Ralph de Marke, 
Liv., 1324. 



John Marke, Ralph 
Rothing, Marke, 
1302, Sister, co. York, 
Cecilia 1294. 

Hastings. 



Walter de 
Merk'. 

Wm. de Merk', 
Liv., 1254. 

Ric. de Merk'. 

John de Merk', 
Liv. temp. Ed. 3. 

The authorities for the following names and arms 
will be found in our Introductory Chapter. 

3. An English Roll of Arms of about 1260 assigns 
to Ingelram del Merk, — Gules, a lion rampant, argent. 

The same Arms, lion passant, are assigned to 
William de Merc in a Roll of about a.d. 1277. 

Two Rolls of about 1282 and 1310 have Joan de 
Merc and Sire Johan de Merk, who bore : — Gules, a 
lion rampant argent, within a bordure indented, or, the first 
named having the bordure engrailed. There were in 
Essex others named Merkes, Markes, Marks, Marke, 
etc., who used derivations of these arms, the final s 
being a comparatively late addition, as is evident from 
its absence 1256-1314. It would come into individual 
use to mark the possessive case, as when the Manors 



264 MARKES IN CO. YORK. 

were disposed of, we find them designated Mark's Manor, 
or Mark's Hall. 

4. In 1294 Ralph Marke was one of the Jurymen 
on the Inquisition, or inquiry into the Yorkshire estates, 
of the Norman family of Johh de Albiniaco, which met 
at Middleton-upon-Leven . (Printed Yorks. Inq. Post- 
mortem). He was evidently a man of standing, from 
his acting upon the Inquest of so important a family, 
whether introduced into Yorkshire by the Earl of Rich- 
mond, or representing, as is more probable, a branch 
of the Essex family, who bore the name of their estate. 
Unless there was one of the name who had a previous 
settlement in Yorkshire, (and there is no mention of the 
name in Kirkby's Inquest, 1287), he must have died 
shortly after, as we find the following record in the 
" Lay Subsidy Roll," of 1301-2, printed by the York- 
shire Archaeological Society : — 

Kirkltatham, Yearby, and East Coatham. 
" De Agnete que juit uxor Radulphi Marke, xiijd." 
" De Stephana Marke iis. viijd." 

" De Willelmo Marke . . xijd o." 

It will be noticed that in Yorkshire, where Norman- 
French was less in use, we get the modern spelling. 
As this family increased and multiplied they would 
spread into Cumberland, and other of the northern 
counties. 

Mark's Manor in Becontree Hundred, Essex, was 
given to St. Helen's Nunnery, and is indexed Marke in 
the best and most extended edition of Dugdale's Mon- 
asticon, but thus given in the Valor Ecclesiasticus of King 
Henry VIII.:— 

"Maniu' de Marck' cum pertin. £1$ 6s. 8d." 

Morant says called in the Book of Alienations, 36 Hen. viii. (1545) : 

" le Marke with appert'." 



EDITOR'S NOTES. 265 

Amongst the list of Freemen of the City of York we 
find the following: — John Markes, spicer, 1387 ; Thomas 
Mark, skynner, 1433. In 1446, there is a William 
Markeson, but this man would be of a Saxon descent 
whose ancestors assumed their father's christian name of 
Mark as a sirename. 

Thomas Merkes (Markes) was Bishop of Carlisle, 
1397, but Henry IV. dispossessed him. 

Sir Francis de la Marque, of France, was at 
Conway with Montacute, Earl of Salisbury, on the 
invasion of King Henry IV., 1399. [Rev. R. W.~ 
Morgan, in " The British Kymry."] 

Page 252 : — 

5. Read Henry sixth. Compiler seems to have got 
into confusion with his chronology. He may mean for 
Agincourt (141 5), Cressy, or Poictiers. Read forward, 
— Edward fourth, and Henry sixth, year 1461 ; Warwick 
was in France then, but to marry the English Princess 
to the French Prince. The Court having arranged 
this marriage otherwise, Warwick retired in dudgeon 
to his castle at Middleham, Co. York. 

6. William Mark (and his forefathers) in 1441 
held a messuage and lands at Bossingham, in Corn- 
wall. (Inquisitonum ad quod donum). 

In 1540 John Marke, and later many of his 
descendants, were of importance at Liscard in Cornwall ; 
they bore : — Gules, a lion rampant, within an orle of eight 
fleur-de-lis, or, a canton ermine. (Visitation, 1620.) From 
this it would seem that the Heralds accepted as 
probable a descent from the same family as Sir John 
and Ingelram del Merke, and descendants yet exist 



266 MARKES IN CO. YORK. 

at Liscard. Anciently Bordures and Chiefs were 
added to indicate younger branches and these again 
differenced. 

Marke, Markes, Mark, continued to be represented 
in Yorkshire. In 1561, Richard Ellerker was plaintiff, 
and Anthony Marke deforcient, in respect to the fourth 
part of 3 messuages and a cottage with lands at Myton- 
upon-Swale and Aldwarke. In 1564, John Beu'ley, Esq., 
was plaintiff, and Anthony Marke and Elienora, his 
wife deforcients, in three parts of a third part of 10 
messuages and 6 cottages, with land in Cliffe and 
Lunde, in the parish of Hemynborough. 

Richard Markes, of Beverley, married Anne, daugh- 
ter of John Kay, armiger, of Woodsome. (Visit 1563). 

1° I 575> Richard Markes and Joanna, his wife, 
were plaintiffs, and Ralph Creyke and Katherine, his 
wife, deforcients, in 5 messuages with land, in Beverley. 
In 1578, the same Richard Markes, gent, was plaintiff, 
and Thomas Hewett, gent, and Anne, his wife, defor- 
cients in 3 messuages in Beverley. He was again 
plaintiff the same year, and Bartholomew Dauncy, and 
Elizabeth, his wife, deforcients, in messuage and land 
in Beverley. — (Feet of Fines, Yorkshire Arch. Society). 
Richard Markes, gentleman, of Beverley, died 1578 ; 
will at York. 

Richard Marks, of Ricall, 15 April, 1598, gentleman, 
gave £120 bond to Margaret Atman, alias Smailes, of 
Beverley. — (Yorks. Arch. Soc, Vol. 1894). 

The name had entered Scotland before 1570, as in 
that year we read of Thomas, Adam, and James Mark, 
at Liddlesdale ; and the Penrith Parish Registers record 



EDITOR'S NOTES. 267 



the burial in 1580 of John Mark, a " Scottishman," who 
had children James, Edward, and Thomas buried there 
^fr), 1570, 1586, and a son John baptized in 1570. 

A John de St. Mark, bore arms : argent, a cross, 
gules, cinque/oils, or. 

In London, Sir Henry Markes was Attorney General 
1635- 

In 1664, a Walter Marks was witness to a transfer 
at Cottingley, Baynard Castle. 

Page 253;— 

7. The compiler would seem to have mistaken the 
family of the Herberts, Lords Powis, for the important 
family of Powys, ancestors of the Lords Lilford. The 
Herberts have a genealogy for 1,200 years, and inter- 
married with the Morgans of Tredegar. 

8. The compiler is again in confusion with his 
chronology ; the Battle of Edgehill was fought 1642. 
The family of Fienes became Lords Dacre, and the 
heiress having married a Lennard, the latter were 
created Earls of Sussex as late as 1675. 

Page 254:— 

9. As the compiler is dealing only with the line 
of his patron, he omits to relate the descents of 
Richard Marke (Born about 1600), Senior and Junior, 
of Soulby ; and of John Marke (Born c.c. 1600), Senior 
and Junior, of Bowscale, all of whom joined the Society 
of Friends about the same period as the line of which 
the compiler treats. Intermarriages occur between all 
branches of the Lancasters, Slees, Bewleys (of Haltcliffe 
Hall and Woodhall), Markes, Stordys, Hodgsons, 



268 MARKES IN CUMBERLAND. 

Peacocks, etc. Whellan (i860) mentions Thomas Mark 
as still a landowner at Soulby, in Dacre, where the 
compiler fixes the first residence of this branch of the 
family of Mark. Whilst passing through the press we 
have had an opportunity of comparing notes with the 
eminent Justice Sir Edmund Thos. Bewley, of Dublin, 
and it enables us to add some additional particulars. 
In the year 1530, or thereabouts, Richard Beauley, 
(sixth in descent from the Richard of 1356, who in- 
herited Thistlethwaite, in Middlescough, from his father 
Thomas de Beaulieu) was in possession of the Halls of 
Hesket and Brayton, and had a brother Thomas Beauley, 
reported as sick ; from whom the Beauley's of Woodhall, 
a residence held on the same tenure as Hesket Hall, 
namely, George Beauley, who (died in 1578, and had two 
brothers) left a son William, and five other children. 
This eldest son William Beauley died in 1584, leaving 
(with a daughter Margaret, who married her cousin 
George Bewley) a son George Bewley, who died in 1643. 
This last had three sons, Thomas Builley or Bewley, 
who acquired Haltcliffe Hall in 1641, George, who had 
Woodhall (died 1663), and Mungo, of Ivegill, from whom 
descended a numerous family, now represented with 
distinction in Ireland. We may mention, though not in 
due course, that the eminent Dr. John Dalton (born at 
Eaglesfield 1766, Sept. 5, and died at Manchester, 1844, 
28 July), was with a brother Jonathan, sons of Jonathan 
Dalton, of Eaglesfield, and cousin, by maternal descent 
to George Bewley, of Woodhall, their fathers having 
married sisters, the daughters of John Greenup. The 
Mary Bewley, here mentioned, who married Thomas 
Mark, of Mosedale, was of the Haltcliffe branch. Bryan 
Lancaster, Quaker, married Elizabeth, daughter of 



EDITOR'S NOTES. 269 



George Bewley, of Haltcliffe Hall, and, on his death in 
1719, left an estate at Kendal, which he charged with £9 
per annum for the benefit of the poor of the parish. He 
was probably father of the John Lancaster named in the 
foregoing Roll and in the Marriage Certificate itself. 

10. Prior to this, Blackwell Hall was in the tenancy 
of the Brougham family. (Hutchinson). 

11. Benjamin Mark, married, in 1690, Sarah 
Langhorne, of Helton, Westmoreland, and had three 
sons born at Mosedale — Thomas and Phineas, Israel 
who died, aged 24, in 1719. 

12. This name should be Stordy, not Shirday. 
From a letter that we have seen, written by a descendant 
in Philadelphia; Thomas Marke, of Blackwell Hall, 
married, 4/4/1660, Elizabeth Slee, of How, and left a 
daughter Rebecca, born 1663, married 1689, Thomas 
Watson, who emigrated in 1702 to America. A 
Matthew Marke, in 1698, had lands from Penn, in 
Pennsylvania. 

George Marke, Junior, by his wife Sarah Peacock, 
had several children : Mary ; George ; Sarah ; Thomas, 
born 1728; Isaac, born 1729; Benjamin, born 1732; 
Joseph, died next year ; John, born 1734. 

Thomas Marke, born 1728, son of George, Junior, 
married, in 1755, Mary, daughter of John and Ruth 
Mark, of the Bowscale line, and dying before his wife, 
in 1761, she re-married, in 1765, Joseph Peat; leaving, 
by her first husband : Sarah ; George, born 1758 ; Mary, 
who married, in 1787, William Skelton, of Moorhouse. 

The last, above mentioned, George, son of Thomas 
Marke, by his wife Mary, had four sons and four 



27o MARKS IN IRELAND. 

daughters : George, born 1790 ; Sarah ; Mary ; Isaac ; 
Esther; John; Thomas; Nancy; Ruth, born 1805. 

[Note. — A Benjamin Mark married at Kendal, in 
1760, Isabel Mann, of Kirkby Lonsdale; there is no 
evidence whether he was of the Mosedale or Bowscale 
line.J 

Page 255:— 

13. It is worth while to add a note in regard to this 
old Vellum Roll, which was highly prized by its 
possessors. It passed into the hands of John Mark, of 
Limerick, whose daughter Sarah married, 14th Feb- 
ruary, 1817, James Wellington, of Castle Wellington, Co. 
Tipperary. (Burke's L. G.) The Roll came into the 
possession of Anna, youngest daughter of John Mark, who 
married Ryder Hungerford, of Dublin, and when she 
died, 4th January, 1894, she gave the document to her 
cousin, William Hogg, of Dublin, particulars of whose 
descent we give herewith. William Hogg, by his wife 
Abigail Hamilton, had a son, Jonathan Hogg, of Cale- 
don, who married Anna, daughter of John Mark, senior, 
leaving a son, William Hogg, and a daughter, Rebecca, 
who married Thomas Bewley, J. P., of Rockville, Black- 
rock, Co. Dublin. This son, William Hogg, married 
Mary, daughter of Thomas Pirn, of Monkstown, near 
Dublin. He died April 6th, 1871, and left three sons, 
Jonathan Hogg, D.L., Thomas Pirn Hogg, and William 
Hogg, all of Dublin, and to whose kindness the writer is 
indebted for this document. 

There was, however, an earlier emigration into 
Ireland of a family of the name of Mark, than that 
recorded in this Roll. It is stated in a letter v of the 
Rev. John Mark, of Dunboe Manse, Castlerock, County 



EDITOR'S NOTES. 271 

Londonderry, dated the 25th December, 1889, that two 
brothers of the name, from England, went to reside in 
Ireland, in the early years of the Commonwealth. One 
of the brothers settled at Armagh, and the other in the 
County of Down. The first named line died out, but 
the second, though not numerous, still exists, and has 
been composed of the better class of agriculturalists and 
professional men. The Rev. Mr. Mark gives it as his 
opinion that the name originated ex officio from one who 
had authority in the district of the " Mark." 

In concluding these scattered notes upon an interest- 
ing old document, it may be pointed out that though it 
may embody genuine details of a continental and later 
immigration into this country of a family of the name, 
later than that of which these notes treat, yet that there 
has been a numerous and equally influential representa- 
tion of the name from the time of the Conquest (1066) 
to the present day, which spread into various count es, 
and which this Roll does not attempt to touch, and 
which is worthy of a more thorough investigation than 
has yet been given to it. There is no doubt that most 
of the dispersed branches that we have alluded to might 
be worked out into a connected and reliable pedigree, 
and we print this as assistance to those who are 
disposed to undertake the labour. There are three 
principal branches named herein ; those of Essex, York- 
shire, Cumberland ; and to perfect an historical and 
reliable account it necessitates an examination of the 
old Wills in the several counties, and of Richmond, at 
Somerset House ; the documents at the Record Office, 
Fetter Lane, London, — Inquests Post Mortem ; The 
Close Rolls ; Feet of Fines ; Parliamentary Writs ; Lay 
Subsidy Rolls, etc. Much of this is now accessible to 



272 ON THE VALUE OF ARMS. 



the public in the large folios printed by our Govern- 
ment ; there is no lack of material by which to work 
out the descents of the name in Cumberland, Yorkshire, 
and Essex, and the moderate expense of this would be 
amply repaid. 

As to the right to bear Arms, a few words may be 
added in closing these notes. In recent times the sub- 
ject had got into much confusion, the public having, in 
a general way, arrived at the opinion that they had a 
right to adopt the Coat of Arms of any person of the 
same name as themselves. Recently, a few writers have 
sought to remedy this erroneous impression, amongst 
whom may be mentioned Mr. Joseph Foster, and Mr. 
A. C. Fox-Davies. 

In old times when a man's face was hidden by his 
helmet, and his body sheathed in armour, some symbol 
was necessary for mutual recognition, and hence the 
adoption of certain emblems, primarily upon the shield 
and then upon the surcoat covering the armour. The 
crest on the helmet was afterwards added, and even 
now may be changed, like the motto, by any who 
bear arms of their own right. The ancient and con- 
tinuous use of Arms by any family is, therefore, prima 
facie evidence that the family owning such Coat comes 
of a soldierly family, and usually derives from the 
landowning class, for land was mainly held by condi- 
tions of military service. It was in these times equally 
necessary that there should be a King of Arms to 
regulate the bearings, or there might have been many 
persons in the field using the same symbols. 

In this ancient necessity for the use of Arms we can 
find no analogy in the present state of society, and the 



EDITOR'S NOTES. 273 



writer remembers the late Mr. Whalley, M.P., making 
a speech in the House of Commons, in which he spoke 
of " those trumpery things called grants of Arms." But 
even at the present day, and looking at the subject in 
a modest form, they form a pretty and graceful addition 
to family history, and at times are of great value. 
There are numerous families in this country, it must be 
said, who might be able to prove an ancient hereditary 
right to Arms, which would not be admitted by the 
Heralds, because the families had neglected to pay the 
fees, and register their proof at the "Visitations." 

The present state of the laws of Arms is altogether 
unsuited to our social advancement, and requires a re- 
formation. 

Since Hudibras addressed Sidrophel in the lines: — 

"Nor does it follow, 'cause a herould 
Can make a gentleman, scarce a year old, 
To be descended of a race 
Of ancient Kings in a small space, 
That we should all opinions hold 
Authentic that we can make old." 

Unbounded changes have taken place in our surround- 
ings. Education has advanced with giant strides, trade 
has enormously enriched the country, whilst, on the 
other hand, numbers of the descendants of the landed 
gentry have merged in the lowest strata; the "divine 
right of kings" to govern has disappeared with other 
customs unsuited to the views of the times. There can 
be no question that there are numerous families who 
have a much superior title to bear Arms, than any that 
a modern Herald can grant, if they would take the 
trouble to prove it. 

Such instances will swell the necessity of those 
others which might be advanced in favour of such a 



274 ON THE VALUE OF ARMS. 



reform as might be brought about by a Conference of 
Garter, Lyon, and Ulster, or the Kings of Arms in 
England, Scotland, and Ireland, leading to the adoption 
of uniform laws, fees, and all other matters connected 
with Arms. Any distinction in such respect between these 
three branches of the United Kingdom is an absurdity 
and should not exist. The Irish King of Arms has 
privileges connected with the confirmation of Arms by 
user which is not possessed by that of England, whose 
sole power rests in making a new grant. Even as a pretty 
addition to family vanity, and the embellishment of the 
panel of a carriage, the existence of an Authority for grant- 
ing Arms is necessary, and in our days such Authority 
could only ensure a willing obedience by its popularity. 



John Yarker. 



West Didsbury, 

Nr. Manchester, 5th Dec, 1898. 



PRINTED BY PALMER, HOWE AND CO., PRINCESS STREET, MANCHESTER. 






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