Skip to main content

Full text of "Men and women of the time; a dictionary of contemporaries"

See other formats


j? 4» 






Date Due 

||U «w> 


'" *W i t;-"lO ,l U 

195F"-'* U 

MET 2* 

'** - — ■ 

#&» y 




23 233 

Cornell University Library 
CT119 .M5 1899 

Men and women of the time: a dictionary 


3 1924 029 787 136 

Cornell University 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 9240297871 36 









Broadway, Ludgate Hill 

/V \^ut 

Printed by Ballantyne, Hanson 6* Co. 
At the Ballantyne Press 



THE^Fifteenth- Edition of "Men and Women of the Time" contains 1560 
new. biographies. Very many of the old lives have been re-written or 
greatly extended, and the volume is longer than its predecessor by nearly 
three hundred pages. It is, therefore, no exaggeration to speak of it as 
almost one half new. 

The Editor in his long labour of love has had much encouragement from 
his many correspondents, notably from experts in biography, whose candid 
estimate of " Men and Women of the Time," especially in its connection 
with the "Dictionary of National Biography," has been in the nature of a 
vote of confidence in the book. He desires to offer his sincere thanks to 
these gentlemen, and to couple with them all those who have assisted in the 
work of production. Especially is the Editor indebted to the late Mr. Edmund 
Routledge, whose sudden and pathetic death occurs on the eve of publica- 
tion, and who in 1898 gave him much advice and assistance, particularly 
in the compilation of lists of new biographies, and allowed him to make use 
of his well-known "Book of the Year," and the materials employed in its 
compilation; to his venerable friend Sir John Simon, K.C.B., for permission 
to use a privately circulated pamphlet ; to Mr. Auberon Herbert, ex- 
Governor Eyre, Dr. Haffkine, Mr. James Knowles, and a number of others, 
for important but hitherto unpublished matter ; to Mr. Mackenzie Bell for a 
revision, from personal knowledge, of the life of Mr. Swinburne; to the 
Rev. R. C. Fillingham for personally interviewing Count Okuma on behalf 
of the book ; to his American Editor, Dr. Winkelmann, for Transatlantic 
memoirs and additions; to Mr. Payen-Payne, and his collaborator, Mr. 
Holford Knight, for undertaking all lives, both new and old, of foreign 
celebrities ; to Mr. C. R. Hewitt, of the Royal College of Surgeons' Library, 
for memoirs of soldiers, sailors, and such statesmen as Lords Salisbury and 
Rosebery, of Mr. Cecil Rhodes, Dr. Jameson, and leading members of the 
Royal Family; and to Mr. F. W. Walton, M.A., Librarian of King's College, 
London, for various biographies and considerable sub-editorial assistance. 

The book has necessarily been long in the press, and it has therefore 
been found impossible to note some of the changes of the last nine or ten 


months in their proper places. Among these mention should be made of 
Mr. Justice BucknilFs elevation to the Bench, and Sir Joseph Russell 
Bailey's elevation to the Peerage as Lord Glanusk, under which title he 
should properly appear. Sir Henry Hawkins also should be under "Baron 
Brampton," Sir L. Alma-Tadema, R.A., should appear as a Knight, and 
Prof. Sir Michael Foster as a K.C.B. (both created June 1899). Sir David 
Barbour's recent services and honour should have been mentioned, as also 
Sir Godfrey Lushington's G.C.M.G. (June 1899), and the G.GB.'s of General 
Sir Robert Biddulph, Admiral the Hon. Sir E. R. Fremantle, and Admiral 
Sir John Ommaney Hopkins (June 1899), while to the name of Sir F. M. 
Hodgson the birthday honour of K.C.B. should have been added, and Earl 
Beauchamp's appointment to be Governor and Commander-in-Chief of New 
South Wales in succession to Viscount Hampden (January 1899), and his 
creation to be K.C.M.G. should also have been recorded. Dr. William 
Selby Church became President of the Royal College of Physicians, London, 
in March 1899, Dr. Lewis-Lloyd of Bangor is deceased, the young Duke of 
Albany, as heir-apparent to the Grand-Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, 
was taken by his mother, H.R.H. the Duchess of Albany, to complete his 
education in Germany (August 1899), and Maitre Labori was dangerously 
wounded on his way to the daily sitting of the Rennes court-martial 
(August 15). 

A short Appendix at the end of the book contains lives unavoidably 
omitted in the body of the work, in which the memoir of Jules Ferry should 
not, of course, appear. The List of Assumed Names has been doubled, and 
the Classified Index has been entirely re-cast, care having been taken to 
repeat individual names under all the necessary categories. A Subject Index, 
such as that attached to Mr. Boase's dictionary of deceased celebrities, 
would undoubtedly have added to the value of a work which is a storehouse 
of historical details as well as of biographies. The Editor sometimes thought 
of compiling such an Index, but found that even a scanty one would have 
proved inordinately long. The reader who is in search of movements 
rather than of men will doubtless know under what names to look for his 
facts, e.g., for "Lancet Commission" see "Twining, Louisa," and for 
"Jamaica Revolt" see "Eyre." 

During the passage of " Men and Women of the Time " through the 
press the following have died :— Latimer Clark, F.R.S. (Oct. 30, 1898), Prof. 
George James Allman, F.R.S. (Nov. 24, 1898), John Barrow, F.R.S. (Dec. 
1898), William Black (Dec. 10, 1898), Sir William Anderson, K.C.B. (Dec. 11, 
1898), General M. Annenkow (Jan. 22, 1899), Harry Bates, A.R.A. (Jan. 
30, 1899), the Rev. C. A. Berry (Jan. 31, 1899), Count Caprivi (Feb. 6, 


1899), the Right Hon. Sir J. W. Chitty (Feb. 15, 1899), the Right Hon. 
Sir George F. Bowen, G.C.M.G. (Feb. 21, 1899), Dr. A. K. H. Boyd (March 
1, 1899), J. R. Bulwer, Q.C. (March 4, 1899), Hon. S. J. Field (April 9, 
1899), Major-General Sir J. Alleyne, K.C.B. (April 23, 1899), the Duke of 
Beaufort (April 30, 1899), F. K. 0. L. Biichner (May 1, 1899), Einilio 
Castelar (May 25, 1899), Prof. W. G. Blaikie (June 11, 1899), H. Wollaston 
Blake (June 27, 1899), Victor Cherbuliez (July 1, 1899), Sir William 
H. Flower, K.C.B. (July 1, 1899), Sir Alex. Armstrong, K.C.B. (July i, 
1899), Prof. Banister Fletcher (July 5, 1899), Richard Congreve (July 5, 
1899), P. C. Chesnelong (July 1899), the Right Rev. C. Graves (July 17, 
1899), and the Right Rev. Daniel Lewis-Lloyd (Aug. 1899). 

Mention of these names will be found in the Obituary, which has 
been brought down to the end of July 1899. Some 370 biographies 
have, in fact, lapsed out of Edition Fifteen. But though the average of 
distinguished mortality in the period 1895-99 has been less than in that 
between 1891-95, scantier losses have been well-nigh counterbalanced by the 
importance of those lost. One need only cite at random such names as 
Bismarck, Gladstone, Alphonse Daudet, Lord Leighton. The death of Mr. 
Gladstone, whose biography was the lengthiest in the book, removes one of 
the survivors of the 1st Edition of "Men of the Time," published in 1852. 
These survivors now only number seven. They are Queen Victoria, the 
Emperor of Austria, the Prince de Joinville, the Duke of Argyll, Mr. T. 
Sidney Cooper, R.A., Mr. Frederick Goodall, R.A., and Mr. Philip James 
Bailey, author of "Festus." 

Kensington, August 1899. 






Albani, Madame 

Madame Gye. 

Enotrio Romano 

Giosue' Carducci. 

Alexander, Mrs. 

Mrs. Annie Alexander 

Fane, Violet . 

Lady P. W. Currie. 


Farren, Nellie . 

Mrs. R. Soutar. 


Frau Alice Liebling. 

Garrett, Edward 

Isabella Fyvie Mayo. 

Anderson, Mary 

Mdme. Antonio de 

Glouvet, Jules de 

Jules Quesnay de 



Arnaud, Arsene 

Jules Claretie. 

Goddard, Arabella . 

Mrs. Davison. 


William Schwenck 

Gould, Bernard 

Bernard Partridge. 


Gray, Maxwell 

Miss M. G. Tuttiett. 

Barker, Lady . 

Lady Broome. 

Green, Anna Katha- 

Bartet, Mdme. 

Jeanne Julia Reg- 


Mrs. Charles Rohlfs. 


Greenwood, Grace . 

Sara Jane Lippincott. 

Bateiuan, Kate 

Greville, Henry 

Alice Marie Celeste 


Mrs. George Crowe. 


Belloc, Marie 

Guilbert, Yvette 

Madame Schiller. 


Mrs. Lowndes. 


Comtesse de Martel 

Besieged Resident 

H. Labouchere. 

de Janville. 

Bickerdyke, John 

C. H. Cook. 


Rt. Hon. Sir W. Har- 

Boldrewood, Rolf 

Thomas Alex.Browne. 


Bon Gaultier . 

Sir Theodore Martin. 

Hobbes, John Oliver 

Mrs. Craigie. 

Braddon, Miss 

Mrs. John Maxwell. 

Hope, Anthony 

Anthony Hope Haw- 

Breitmann, Hans 

Charles Godfrey Le- 



Hyacinthe, Father 

Pere Loyson. 

Brynjolf Bjarme 

Henrik Ibsen. 

Ignatius, Father 

Rev. Joseph Leycester 

Byr, Robert 

Karl Emmerich 


Robert Bayer. 

Ik Marvel 

D. G. Mitchell. 

Caran dAche . 

Emanuel Poire 1 . 

Iota . . . . 

Mrs. Mannington 


Victorien Sardou. 


Carmen Sylva 

Elizabeth, Queen of 

Iron, Ralph 

Olive Schreiner (Mrs. 




Charles August e Sm- 


ile Durand. 

Istria, Princess Dora 

Princess von Koltzoff- 


Sir Graham J. Bower. 

d' . 


Cerito, Fanny . 

. Mdme. St. Leon. 

Jaff, Pierre 

P. F. de Rodays. 

Claudius Clear 

Dr. Robertson Nicoll. 

Jopling, Louise 

Mrs. Rowe. 

Cleeve, Lucas 

Mrs. Kingscote. 

Kendal, Mr. . 

William Hunter Ken- 


J. F. H. Fouquier. 

dal Grimston. 

Coquelin Aine 

Benolt Constant Coq- 

Kendal, Mrs. . 

Mrs. Kendal Grim- 



Coquelin Cadet 

Ernest Alexandre H. 

Kennedy, Kevin 

W. P. Ryan. 


Lamber, Juliette 

Mme. Edmond 

Corno di Bassetto 

GeorgeBernard Shaw. 


Dagonet . 

George Robert Sims. 

Lee,' Vernon . 

Violet Paget. 


. George Macdonald. 

Loti, Pierre 

Julien Viaud. 

Daly, Frederic. 

. Louis F. Austin. 

Lucca, Pauline 

Mdme. Wallhoffen. 

Daryl, Sidney . 

. Sir Douglas Straight. 

Luke Limner . 

John Leighton. 

Dilke, Mrs. Ashton 

. Mrs. Russell Cook. 

Lyall, Edna 

Ada Ellen Bayly. 

Dowie, Menie Muriel Mrs. Norman. 


William Abraham. 

Duncan, Sarah 

M'Grath, Terence 

Henry Arthur Blake. 


. Mrs. Everard Cotes. 

M'Kenzie, Marian 

Mrs. Smith-Williams. 

Eames, Emma . 

Mme. Emma Eames 

Maclaren, Ian . 

Rev. John Watson. 


Macleod, Mrs. Alick 

Mrs. Frederick 

Egerton, George 

. Mrs. Clairmonte. 


Emery, Isabel Wini 


Mrs. Humphry. 


. Mrs. Cyril Maude. 

Marryat, Florence 

Mrs. Francis Lean. 

Englishman in Paris Albert "Dresden Van- 

Mathers, Helen 

Mrs. Henry Reeves. 


Melba, Nellie . 

Mrs. Armstrong. 

2 This list contains only such assumed names, &c, as are mentioned in the text of the work. 


Merriman, Henry 

Seton . 
Miller, Joaquin 
Murray, Alma . 
Nauticus . 
Nauticus . 
Neilson, Julia 
Neruda, Mme. 


Nilsson, Christina 
Nordica, Mme. 
Novello, Clara 
Ogilvy, Gavin . 
0. K. 

Oldcastle, John 
O'Bell, Max 
Oscar Frederick 

Osman Digna -. . 

Fatti, Adelina 
Pen Oliver 
Petit Bob 

Phelps, Elizabeth 

Stuart . 
Philistine, The 
Poel, William . 
Rejane, Madame 
Q • . . 
Q. E. D. . 
Ristori, Adelaide 
Rives, Amelie . 


Hugh S. Soott. 
C. H. Miller. 
Mrs. Alfred Forman. 
Wm. Laird Clowes. 
Owen Seaman. 
Mrs. Fred. Terry. 

Lady Halle. 

F. F. H. Fouquier. 

Countess of Miranda. 

Mme. Doehme. 

Countess of Gigliucci. 

J. M. Barrie. 

Mme. Olga Novikoff. 

W. Meynell. 

Paul Bloue't. 

Oscar II. of Sweden 

and Norway. 
Osman Ali. 
Louise de la Ramfe. 
Baroness Cederstrom. 
Sir H. Thompson. 
Comtesse de Martel 

de Janville. 
Mrs. Herbert D. 

John Alfred Spender. 
William Pole, jun. 
Madame Porel. 
A. T. Q. Couch. 
Lady Colin Campbell. 
Alfred E. T. Watson. 
William Senior. 
Marquise del Grille 
Mrs. Amelie Chanler. 

Robertson, Mary F. 
Robins, Elizabeth 
Rochester, Mark 

Rorke, Kate 
Ross, Adrian . 
Samarow, Gregor 
Schreiner, Olive 

i Scrutator 

Sigerson, Dora 
Silent Member, The 

Sterling, Antoinette 
Swift, Benjamin 

Sylva, Carmen 

Terry, Kate 
Thackeray, Anne 

Thomas, Annie 
Toby, M.P. 
Twain, Mark . 

Vanbrugh, Violet 

Vasili, Count Paul . 

Warden, Florence . 
Winter, John Strange 
Woolgar, Sarah Jane 

Mme. Darmesteter. 
Mrs. C. E. Raimond. 
William Charles Mark 

Mrs. James Gardner. 
Arthur Reed Ropes. 
J. F. M. 0. Meding. 
Mrs. Cronwright- 

John Latey. 
Canon Malcolm Mac- 
Mrs. Clement Shorter. 
John Latey. 
Arthur Bingham 

Mrs. JohnMacKinlay. 
William Romaine 

Elizabeth, Queen of 

Mrs. Arthur Lewis. 
Mrs. Richmond 

James Bass Mullinger. 
Mrs. Pender Cudlip. 
Henry W. Lucy. 
Samuel Langhorne 

Mrs. Arthur Bour- 

Mdme. Edmond 

Mrs. James. 
Mrs. Arthur Stannaid. 
Mrs. Mellon. 


ABBAS PACHA, Khedive of Egypt, 
K.G.C.B., is the eldest son of the late 
Tewfik Pacha. He was born on July 14, 
1874, and succeeded his father in January 
1892, when he was eighteen years of age. 
He had previously studied with his brother, 
Mehetnet Ali, at the Theresianum Aca- 
demy, in Vienna, and was still there at 
the time of his father's death. He studied 
law and politics, for which he displayed 
great aptitude. Prince Abbas Pacha was 
made Hon. K.G.C.B. by the Queen in 1892. 
His attitude towards Great Britain is not 
considered a friendly one, he having early 
in 1893 substituted statesmen of anti- 
English sympathies for those appointed 
by England. Lord Cromer remonstrated 
with him, and the Khedive was persuaded 
to compromise ; but he is still not really 
friendly towards England. In July 1893 
he paid a visit of homage to the Sultan 
of Turkey. In 1895 a daughter was born 
to him in his harem, and he afterwards 
married the mother. 

ABBE, Cleveland, born in New York 
City, Dec. 3, 1838, is the son of George 
Waldo Abbe and Charlotte Colgate, both 
natives of the United States of America, 
and of purely English ancestry. The 
earliest American ancestry of this family 
was John Abbey, of Salem, Massachusetts, 
in 1637. Mr. Cleveland Abbe graduated 
in 1857 at the College of the City of New 
York, studied astronomy under Briinnow 
at the University of Michigan, 1859-60, 
also under Gould at Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts, 1860-64, and under Struve at 
Poulkova, 1865 and 1866. He took the 
degree of A.B. 1857, A.M. 1860, LL.D. 
(Michigan University) 1889, Ph.D. 1892; 
was Director of the Cincinnati Obser- 
vatory, 1868-74, Professor of Meteorology 
in the Signal Service, and Assistant to 
the Chief Signal Officer, 1871 to 1891, 
and is now (1893) Senior Professor of 
Meteorology in the "Weather Bureau of 
the Department of Agriculture." He is 
a Member of the National Academy of 

Sciences, and of numerous other scientific 
societies in America and Europe ; author 
of "The Weather Bulletin of the Cin- 
cinnati Observatory," 1869 ; " Annual 
Summary and Review of Progress in 
Meteorology," 1873 annually to 1889; 
' ' Report on the Signal Service Observa- 
tions of the Total Eclipse of 1878 " ; 
" Treatise on Meteorological Apparatus and 
Methods," 1887 ; "Preparatory Studies for 
Deductive Methods in Storm and Weather 
Predictions," 1890; "The Mechanics of 
the Atmosphere," 1891 ; and numerous 
smaller memoirs. He was Delegate to 
the International Convention of 1893 
in Washington on Prime Meridian and 
Standard Time ; and to the International 
Conference of Meteorologists in Munich, 
1891. As Meteorologist to the United 
States Scientific Expedition to the West 
Coast of Africa, 1889-90, he made the 
first extensive set of accurate observations 
at sea of the movements of upper and 
lower clouds — using a marine nephroscope 
devised by him for this purpose. 

ABBEY, Edwin Austin, R.A., R.I., 
was born April 1, 1852, at Philadelphia, 
U.S.A., and was a pupil of the Pennsyl- 
vania Academy of Fine Arts. In 1871 he 
began drawing for the publications of 
Harper Brothers. In 1876 he became a 
Member of the American Water- Colour 
Society. In 1878 he removed to England. 
He has illustrated the following works : 
" Selections from the Hesperides and 
Noble Numbers of Robert Herrick," 1882 ; 
"She Stoops to Conquer," 1887; "Old 
Songs," 1889 ; " Sketching Rambles in 
Holland," 1885 (in conjunction with G. H. 
Broughton, A.R.A.) ; "The Quiet Life," 
1890 (in conjunction with Alfred Parsons). 
The following are his principal water- 
colour pictures: "The Stage Office," 1876 ; 
"The Evil Eye," 1877; "The Sisters," 
1881; "The Widower," 1883; " The Bible 
Reading," 1884; "An Old Song," 1886; 
"The March Past," 1887; "Visitors," 1890. 
His oil-paintings are as follows: "May- 



day Morning," exhibited at the Royal 
Academy, 1890 ; " Fiatnetta's Song," 
Royal Academy, 1891; "Richard III. and 
the Lady Anne," Royal Academy, 1896; 
"Hamlet," 1897; "'King Lear," "The 
Bridge," and "Rebecca and Rowena," 
1898. Mr. Abbey was elected an Aca- 
demician in July 1898. He was elected 
Member of Royal Institute of Painters in 
Water Colours in 1883, and received a 
second-class medal at the Munich Inter- 
national Exhibition in 1883, and a first- 
class medal at the Paris Exposition Uni- 
verselle, 1889. Address : Morgan Hall, 
Fairford, Gloucestershire. 

ABBOT, Lyman, D.D., son of the 
late Jacob Abbot, was born at Roxbury, 
Massachusetts, Dec. 18, 1835. He gra- 
duated at the University of New York in 
1858 ; studied law, and was admitted to 
the Bar in 1856. After practising that 
profession for a short time he abandoned 
it for the study of theology, and was 
ordained a Congregational Minister in 
1860. He was pastor of various churches 
until 1865, when he was appointed Secre- 
tary of the American Union (Freedmen's) 
Commission, a position retained by him 
until 1868. For a portion of this time he 
was also pastor of the New England 
Church in New York, but he resigned 
in 1869 to devote himself to literature 
and journalism. He had charge of the 
"Literary Record" in Harper's Magazine 
for several years, at the same time con- 
ducting the Illustrated Christian Weekly. 
Subsequently he was associated with Mr. 
Beecher in editing the Christian Union, 
now called The Outlook, of which he later 
became (and still is) the senior editor. 
On Mr. Beecher's death he was invited to 
fill temporarily the pulpit of Plymouth 
Church, Brooklyn, and in 1889 was settled 
permanently over that church. In con- 
junction with his brothers Austin and 
Benjamin he wrote two novels, "Cone-cut 
Corners," 1855, and "Matthew Caraby," 
1858, which were published under the pseu- 
donym of " Benauly, " formed from the ini- 
tial syllables of the authors' names. He 
is the author also of " Jesus of Nazareth, 
His Life and Teachings," 1869; "Old 
Testament Shadows of New Testament 
Truths," 1870; "A Dictionary of Bible 
Knowledge," 1872 ; "A Layman's Story," 
1872 ; " Illustrated Commentary on the 
New Testament," 4 vols., 1875-87; "Life 
of Henry Ward Beecher," 1883; "For 
Family Worship," 1883 ; " In Aid of Faith," 
1886; "Signs of Promise," 1889; "The 
Christian Workers," "Illustrated New 
Testament Commentary," 1895; "Chris- 
tianity and Social Problems," 1896 ; " The 
Theology of an Evolutionist," 1897 ; in 
addition to which he has published a 

number of pamphlets, among them "The 
Results of Emancipation in the United 
States," 1867; and has also edited two 
volumes of sermons of Mr. Beecher, and 
a selection from Mr. Beecher's writings, 
entitled "Morning and Evening Exer- 
cises," as well as "The Soul's Quest after 
God." The degree of D.D. was conferred 
upon him by the University of the City 
of New York in 1876, and by Harvard 
University in 1890. 

ABBOTT, The Rev. Edwin Abbott, 

D.D., son of Edwin Abbott, Head Master 
of the Philological School, Marylebone 
Road, N.W. Born on Dec. 20, in London, 
in 1838, he was educated at the City of 
London School (1850-57), and at St. John's 
College, Cambridge, of which he became 
a Fellow (B.A., 7th Senior Optime and 
Senior in the Classical Tripos, 1861 ; first- 
class in Theological Tripos, 1862 ; M.A. 
1864). He was Assistant Master in King 
Edward's School, Birmingham, from 1862 
to 1864, and subsequently at Clifton Col- 
lege till 1865, when he was appointed 
Head Master of the City of London School. 
This school was at this time in Milk Street, 
Cheapside ; it now possesses sumptuous 
new buildings on the Embankment at 
Blackfriars, and under the Head Master's 
guidance has taken a position as one of 
the most efficient day schools in England. 
Dr. Abbott was twice Select Preacher at 
Cambridge ; Hulsean Lecturer in that 
University, 1876; also Select Preacher at 
Oxford, 1877. The Archbishop of Canter- 
bury conferred on him the degree of 
D.D. in 1872. Dr. Abbott has published 
the following theological works: "Bible 
Lessons," 1872; "Cambridge Sermons," 
1875; "Through Nature to Christ," 1877; 
"Oxford Sermons," 1879; the article on 
"Gospels" in the ninth edition of the 
Encyclopaedia Britannica ; and (in con- 
junction with Mr. W. G. Rushbrooke) 
"The Common Tradition of the Synoptic 
Gospels," 1884. His other works are a 
"Shakespearian Grammar," 1870; "Eng- 
lish Lessons for English People " (written 
in conjunction with Professor J. R. Seeley), 
1871; "How to Write Clearly," 1872; 
"Latin Prose through English Idiom," 
1873; "The Good Voices; or, A Child's 
Guide to the Bible," and "Parables for 
Children," 1875 ; an English Grammar, in 
two parts, entitled " How to Tell the Parts 
of Speech," and "How to Parse," 1875; 
an edition of Bacon's " Essays," 1876 ; 
"Bacon and Essex," 1877; a First Latin 
Book, entitled "Via Latina," 1880; "Hints 
on Home Teaching," 1883 ; " Francis 
Bacon, an Account of His Life and Work," 
1885 ; and a First Latin Translation Book, 
entitled "The Latin Gate," 1889. Other 
works published anonymously, but subse- 


quently acknowledged by Dr. Abbott, are 
"Philochristus," 1878 ; "Onesimus," 1882 ; 
" Flatland ; or, a Romance of Many Dimen- 
sions," 1884; and "The Kernel and the 
Husk," 1886. Dr. Abbott resigned the 
Head Mastership of the City of London 
School in 1889, and received a pension 
from the Corporation in 1890 ; since which 
he has published " Philomythus," 1891; 
" The Anglican Career of Cardinal New- 
man," 1892; a First Latin Construing Book, 
entitled "Dux Latinus," 1893 ; and "The 
Spirit of the Waters," 1897. Address: 
Wellside, Well Walk, Hampstead, N.W. 

ABBOTT, The B.ev. Professor 
Thomas Kingsmill, M.A., B.D., Litt. D., 
Librarian of Trinity College, Dublin, was 
born in Dublin on March 26, 1829, and 
educated at Trinity College, of which he 
became a Fellow in 1864, where he has 
held successively the Professorship of 
Moral Philosophy from 1867 to 1872, of 
Biblical Greek from 1875 to 1888, and, since 
1879, of Hebrew. He is the author of 
various theological and philosophical works, 
having published, amongst others, " Sight 
and Touch ; an Attempt to Disprove the 
Berkeleian Theory of Vision," in 1864; 
"The Elements of Logic," in its third 
edition, in 1895; "Essays chiefly on the 
Original Texts of the Old and New 
Testaments," and "Short Notes on Some 
Epistles of St. Paul," in 1892 ; a " Com- 
mentary on Ephesians and Colossians," 
1897 ; and a translation of Kant's "Ethics," 
with a Memoir and Kant's "Introduction 
to Logic." In 1880 he published a biblio- 
graphical work, "Par Palimpsestorum Dub- 
liniensium." He married in 1859 Caroline, 
daughter of the Rev. Joseph Kingsmill. 
Address : Trinity College, Dublin. 

ABD-UL-HAMID II., Sultan of 
Turkey, was born Sept. 22, 1842, being a 
younger son and the fourth child of Abd- 
ul-Medjid, the Sultan, who died in 1861. 
On August 31, 1876, he succeeded his 
brother, Mourad V., who was deposed, on 
proof of his insanity, after a reign of 
three months. Abd-ul-Hamid was solemnly 
girt with the sword of Othman in the 
Eyoub Mosque, Constantinople, on Sept. 7. 
He is a Turk and a Mussulman of the old 
school, and though without allies, he fought 
Russia rather than submit to any conditions 
which should bring about a disintegration 
of the Ottoman Empire. On April 21, 

1877, Russia declared war against the 
Porte, and in February 1878, after the 
fall of Plevna and the passage of the 
Balkans, the Turks were compelled to sue 
for peace. Since the Treaty of Berlin, in 

1878, the Sultan has shown no great anxiety 
to carry out the reforms, either in Europe 
or in Asia, which were therein stipulated, 

though in regard to Bulgaria and Eastern 
Roumelia he has been fairly loyal to that 
treaty. He was often praised by Lord 
Beaconsfield for his courage and ability ; 
but of late years he has been given over 
to the fear of assassination, and his dis- 
trust of his ministers is proverbial. He 
has been at various times under English, 
German, and Russian influence ; the last 
seems to be now prevailing, although his 
conduct towards Sir Philip Currie has 
been most flattering. The Sultan has 
never ceased to protest against the pro- 
ceedings of England in Egypt, and is 
believed to have secretly stimulated the 
rebellion of Arabi. His treatment of his 
Christian subjects in Armenia and Crete 
during the past three years has stirred up 
against him an almost universal feeling of 
contempt and execration. In August 1896 
an outbreak took place in Constantinople 
itself, which resulted in the murder of 
thousands of Armenian Christians in the 
city. The Sultan was directly accused by 
the ambassadors of the Powers of having 
instigated the perpetration of this massacre. 
No further steps, however, were taken, 
and he succeeded in emptying the city of 
nearly 30,000 Armenians by expulsive 
measures. Amongst his own Turkish 
subjects the successful issue of the war 
with Greece, in the early part of 1897, 
has placed him on a more secure footing. 
On the occasion of the marriage of his 
daughter, the Princess Naime, in March 
1898, the Sultan arranged that dinners 
should be given at his expense at different 
points throughout Constantinople, in order 
that rich and poor should share in the 

RAHMAH KHAN, Ameer of Afghani- 
stan, is a Barakzai, and was born about 
1830. He is the eldest son of Afzul Khan, 
and nephew of the late Ameer Shere Ali. 
During the civil war in 1864 Abdurrahman 
played a leading part on the side of his 
father against his uncle, and gained several 
battles. The great victories of Shaikhabad 
and Khelat-i-Ghilzai were mainly due to 
his ability. He was entrusted with the 
Governorship of Balkh, where he made 
himself popular by his moderation, and 
by marrying the daughter of the chief of 
Badakshan. In 1868 he was unable, how- 
ever, to offer a successful resistance to his 
cousin, Yakoub Khan, son of Shere Ali, 
who defeated him at Bajgah, near Bamain, 
and also finally at Tinah Khan. Abdur- 
rahman then fled from the country, ulti- 
mately reaching Russian territory. 
General Kaufmann permitted him to re- 
side at Samarcand, and allowed him a 
pension of twenty-five thousand roubles 
a year. He remained in Turkestan until 


1879, when he slowly made his way 
through Balkh to the Cabul frontier, and 
in July of the following year he was for- 
mally chosen by the leading men of Cabul, 
and acknowledged by the British Indian 
Government, as Ameer of Afghanistan. 
It has been pointed out by an eminent 
orientalist, "that he not only occupies the 
throne by right of heredity and national 
election, but that he is also a religious 
Sunni ruler, who reigns over a ' God- 
given ' country by the consensus fidelium." 
He has still further strengthened this 
strong position by the firmness and vigour 
of his administration. From the British 
Government he receives a regular subsidy 
of £160,000 a year, with large gifts of 
artillery, rifles, and ammunition to improve 
his military force. On Dec. 26, 1888, he 
was shot at by a Sepoy at Mazar-i-Sherif, 
but without injury. In September 1893 
the Ameer cordially received a British 
mission headed by Sir Mortimer Durand. 
His sympathies are British rather than 
Russian, and in letters written both before 
and after the Durand mission, to his friend 
Dr. Leitner, and published by the latter, 
he has expressed warm friendship for 
England. He suffered from a serious 
illness in the autumn of 1894, which 
caused considerable anxiety in England 
and India. He was made a G.C.S.I. in 
January 1894, and was invited by the Queen 
to visit England. Being, however, unable 
to come himself, he sent his second son, 
the Shazada Nasrullah Khan, who received 
a warm welcome, in 1895. He was sus- 
pected of conniving at the rising of the 
tribes along the Indo-Afghan frontier in 
July 1897, and he was requested by the 
Indian Government to prevent his subjects 
from participating in these revolts. His 
answer showed him to be thoroughly 
friendly to the British Government, and 
he gave further proof of this disposition 
when he refused in September to receive a 
deputation of Afridis which had set out 
for Cabul in order to beg for his aid 
against the English. 

ABDY, John Thomas, L.L.D., son of 

Lieut.-Colonel James Nicholas Abdy, was 
born July 5, 1822, and educated at the 
Proprietary School, Kensington, whence 
he proceeded to Trinity Hall, Cambridge, 
where he graduated as Senior in the 
Civil Law Tripos in 1844. In 1847 he 
took the degree of LL.B., and was created 
LL.D. in 1852. In 1850 he was elected 
a Fellow of his college, and in January of 
that year was called to the Bar by the 
Inner Temple. For a short time he went 
the Home circuit, but subsequently chose 
the Norfolk circuit. In 1854 he was ap- 
pointed Regius-Professor of Civil Law 
in the University of Cambridge, and he 

held that office till the close of the year 
1873. He is Lecturer on Law at Gres- 
ham College, London. In 1870 he was 
appointed Recorder of Bedford, and in 
the following year was promoted to be 
County Court Judge of Circuit No. 38. 
Judge Abdy has published "An Historical 
Sketch of Civil Procedure among the 
Romans," 1857; and an edition of "Kent's 
Commentary on International Law," 1866. 
In collaboration with Mr. Bryan Walker, 
M.A., he edited, translated, and annotated 
"The Commentaries of Gaius," 1870, and 
the "Institutes" of Justinian. He has 
retired from his judgeship, and in June 
1898 was succeeded in the Recordership 
of Bedford by Mr. W. Russell Griffiths. 

A BECKETT, Arthur William, 

youngest surviving son of the late Gilbert 
Abbott a Beckett, the well-known metro- 
politan police magistrate and man of 
letters (a descendant of an old West 
country family), by his wife Mary Anne, 
daughter of the late Joseph Glossop, Esq., 
of the Hon. Corps of Gentlemen-at-Arms, 
was born at Portland House, Hammer- 
smith, Oct. 25, 1844, and educated at 
Honiton and Felstead schools. He entered 
the War Office, but left the Civil Service 
after three years' experience of it to be- 
come, at the age of twenty, editor of the 
Glowworm, a London evening paper. During 
ten years he edited with much success 
several weekly periodicals and monthly 
magazines. In 1870-71 he was special 
correspondent to the Standard and Globe 
during the Franco-German War. For the 
next two years he was private secretary 
to the Duke of Norfolk. Since 1874 he 
has been on the staff of Punch, to which 
periodical he has contributed, amongst 
other series, "Papers from Pump-handle 
Court, by A. Briefless, Junior " ; published 
in a separate volume in 1889. From 1891 
to 1894 he was the editor of the Sunday 
Times. In 1897 he accepted the editorship 
of the Naval and Military Magazine. After 
serving for two years as Vice-President of 
the Newspaper Society, he was elected 
President for 1893-94 in succession to Sir 
Algernon Borthwick, Sir Charles Cameron, 
and Sir Edward Lawson. In 1898 he was 
elected Chairman of the London District 
of the Institute of Journalists. He is also 
a Member of the Council and Committee 
of Management of the Society of Authors, 
and an Hon. Member, "for distinguished 
services to journalism," of the Foreign 
Press Association. He is also a Captain 
(retired) of the 4th Battalion (Militia) of 
the Cheshire Regiment. Mr. a Beckett is 
author of several novels and of two three- 
act comedies, "L. S. D." and "About 
Town"; a domestic drama in one>act, "On 
Strike"; "Faded Flowers"; and "Long 


Ago." He has also dramatised (in con- 
junction with the late Mr. J. Palgrave 
Simpson) his novel "Fallen among 
Thieves," under the title of "From 
Father to Sod." In 1887 he edited and in 
some parts re-wrote his father's "Comic 
Blackstone," originally published in 1845, 
bringing it up to date. Having, in 1881, 
been called to the Bar by the Hon. Society 
of Gray's Inn, in 1887 he was appointed 
Master of the Revels of that Society by 
H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught, Treasurer, 
and the other Masters of the Bench, and 
in that office edited and produced "The 
Maske of Flowers " in the Hall of Gray's 
Inn, in honour of Her Majesty's Jubilee. 
The performance was repeated in 1891 at 
the Inner Temple, when Mr. k Beckett 
had the unique honour of being licensed 
by the Lord Chamberlain (the Earl of 
Lathom) "sole and responsible manager 
of the Inner Temple Hall Theatre " for 
the purpose. Mr. a Beckett married in 
1876 Susannah Frances, daughter of the 
late Forbes Winslow, Esq., M.D., F.R.C.P., 
D.C.L. (Oxon.), and granddaughter of the 
late Captain Thomas Winslow, of the 47th 
Regiment, first cousin of Singleton Copley, 
Esq., R.A., the father of Lord Chancellor 
Lyndhurst. Mr. and Mrs. a Beckett have 
had four sons, two of whom survive. 

ABEL, Charles Nicolas, archaeologist 
and politician of Lorraine, was born at 
Thionville, Dec. 2, 1824, and was educated 
at the Lycee of Metz and at Paris, where 
he obtained the degree of Doctor of Laws 
in 1847. After the annexation of Lorraine 
in 1871, he was elected to the Reichstag 
in 1874, and protested with the other 
French deputies against the German 
occupation. Knowing little of German, 
he retired from Parliament in 1878, and in 
1882 devoted himself entirely to his work 
on the local history of Lorraine, especially 
of the Moselle department. His chief 
works are : " Se'jour de Charles IX % a 
Metz," 1866 ; "Rabelais, me"decin stipendie' 
de la ville de Metz," 1870; "La Bulle 
d'Or a Metz," 1875 ; and in 1881 a collec- 
tion of his speeches was published. 

ABEL, Sir Frederick Augustus, 
K.C.B., D.C.L, F.R.S., was born in London 
in 1827, and is known principally in con- 
nection with chemistry and explosives. 
His published works are : " The Modern 
History of Gunpowder," 1866; "Gun 
Cotton," 1866; "On Explosive Agents," 
1872; "Researches in Explosives," 1875; 
and "Electricity Applied to Explosive 
Purposes," 1884. He is also joint-author 
with Colonel Bloxam of a "Handbook of 
Chemistry." Sir Frederick Abel has been 
President of the Institute of Chemistry, 
the Society of Chemical Industry, and 

the Society of Telegraph Engineers and 
Electricians. He was Professor of Chemi- 
stry at the Royal Military Academy from 
1851 to 1855, and was Chemist of the War 
Department from 1854 to 1888. In 1883 he 
was one of the Royal Commissioners on 
Accidents in Mines, and President of the 
Committee on Explosives from 1888 to 1891. 
He has been Organising Secretary of the 
Imperial Institute from 1887, and is at 
present also its Honorary Secretary and 
Director. He was President of the British 
Association at the Leeds meeting, 1890. 
He has also been President of the Iron 
and Steel Institute, Chemical Society, 
Institute of Chemistry, Society of Chemical 
Industry, Institute of Electric Engineers, 
and Chairman of the Society of Arts. He 
is Albert, Royal, Telford, and Bessemer 
Medallist. He was created C.B. in 1877, 
and Hon. D.C.L., Oxford, in 1883, and 
was made a KGB. in the same year. 
Addresses : 2 Whitehall Court, S.W. :' and 

ABERCORN (Duke of), James 
Hamilton, K.G., Chairman of the British 
South Africa Company, was born in 1838, 
and succeeded his father, the first Duke, 
in 1885. He was educated at Harrow 
and Christ Church, Oxford (M.A.). He 
represented Donegal in the House of 
Commons for twenty years, 1860-80, and 
was Lord of the Bedchamber to the 
Prince of Wales from 1866 to 1886. Since 
the latter year he has been Groom of the 
Stole in the same household. He married 
in 1869 Lady Mary AnDa Curzon, daughter 
of the first Earl Howe. Addresses : 61 
Green Street, W. ; Baronscourt, Newton 
Stewart, Ireland ; and Duddingston House, 

Bishop of. See Douglas, The Hon. 
and Right Rev. Aethue Gascoigne. 

ABERDEEN, Earl of, the Right 
Hon. Sir John Campbell Hamilton- 
Gordon, G.C.M.G., born Aug. 3, 1847, is 
the grandson of the Earl of Aberdeen who 
was Prime Minister in 1854. He was 
educated at the College Hall, in connection 
with the University of St. Andrews, and 
at University College, Oxford, where he 
graduated M.A. in 1871. He was made 
LL.D. of St. Andrews in 1883, Hon. LL.D. 
of Queen's University (Ontario), M'Gill 
University, Ottawa, Toronto, and Laval in 
1894, Hon. D.C.L. of the University of 
Bishops College, Lennoxville, in 1895, Hon. 
LL.D. of Princeton University in 1K97, and 
LL.D. of Harvard in June 1898. He suc- 
ceeded to the title on the death of his 
brother, Jan. 27, 1870. He entered the 
House of Lords as a Conservative, but in 


the session of 1876 he disagreed with 
some of the principal measures of his 
party, and in 1878, when the Earls of 
Derby and Carnarvon resigned their offices, 
Lord Aberdeen heartily supported the 
views of these statesmen. In the debate 
on the Afghan war he voted against the 
government of Lord Beaconsfield. In 1875 
he was a Member and subsequently Chair- 
man of a Royal Commission to inquire 
into the subject of Railway Accidents. 
In 1877-78 he was a Member of the Com- 
mittee of the House of Lords on Intem- 
perance. In 1880, having by that time 
become a recognised member of the 
Liberal Party, he was appointed Lord- 
Lieutenant of Aberdeenshire, and High 
Commissioner to the General Assembly of 
the Church of Scotland in 1881 and four 
succeeding years. In 1885 he was Chair- 
man of the Royal Commission on Loss of 
Life at Sea. In January 1886 he was ap- 
pointed by Mr. Gladstone Lord-Lieutenant 
of Ireland, with the mission of carrying 
out the Home Rule policy of the Govern- 
ment. In this capacity he was immensely 
popular in Ireland, and the scene in Dublin 
on the occasion of the "leave-taking" 
after the fall of the Gladstone Cabinet in 
July, is said to have been such as had 
never been witnessed there' before, at 
least not since the departure of Lord 
Fitzwilliam in 1795. He was sworn of 
the Privy Council in 1886. Subsequently 
Lord and Lady Aberdeen made a trip 
round the world, visiting India and the 
principal British Colonies. In May 1893 
Lord Aberdeen was appointed Governor- 
General of Canada. Lord Aberdeen has 
been largely connected with various re- 
ligious and philanthropic associations, and 
is president of not a few such societies. 
Since 1891 he has been Vice-President of 
the Royal Colonial Institute. He was 
married in 1877 to Ishbel Maria, second 
and youngest daughter of the 1st Lord 
Tweedmouth, and has four children. Lady 
Aberdeen is well known for the interest 
she takes in all movements affectiDg the 
welfare of women and of the Irish 
peasantry. In July 1898 his retirement 
from the Governor-Generalship was an- 
nounced. Addresses : Government House, 
Ottawa ; Haddo House and Tarland Lodge, 

ABERGAVENNY (Marquis of), Sir 
William Nevill, K.G., was born in 1826, 
and is the son of the fourth Earl of Aber- 
gavenny. He succeeded as fifth Earl in 
1868, and was created Marquis in 1876. 
He is Lord-Lieutenant of Sussex. He 
married in 1848 Caroline, daughter of 
Sir J. V. B. Johnstone. Addresses • 64 
Eccleston Square, S.W. ; and Bridge Castle, 
Tunbridge Wells. 

ABNEY, Captain William de Wive* 
leslie, C.B., D.C.L., E.R.S., was born at 
Derby on July 24, 1844, and is the eldest 
son of Canon Abney. He was educated 
at Rossall, and privately, and at the 
Royal Military Academy at Woolwich. 
He was appointed lieutenant in the Royal 
Engineers in 1861, and captain in 1873. 
He was formerly Instructor in Chemistry 
to the Royal Engineers, Chatham, and is 
now Director for Science in the Science 
and Art Department. He was President of 
the Royal Astronomical Society from 1893 
to 1895, and of the Physical Society from 
1895 to 1897. He was one of the scientific 
observers of the transit of Venus in 1874. 
His works are : "Instruction in Photo- 
graphy," 1870; "Treatise on Photography," 
1875 ; " Colour Vision, Colour Measure- 
ment and Mixture," 1893; "Thebes and 
its Five Greater Temples," 1876 ; and 
"The Pioneers of the Alps," written in 
conjunction with C. D. Cunningham, 1888. 
He is the author also of many papers 
in the Philosophical- Transactions, and the 
Proceedings of the Royal Society and the 
Philosophical, Magazine. He obtained the 
Rumford Medal of the Royal Society 
in 1883 for his researches in photo- 
graphy and spectrum analysis. Addresses : 
Measham Hall, Leicestershire ; Rathmore 
Lodge, Bolton Gardens, South, S.W. ; and 

ABRAHAM, Miss M. See Tennastt, 


ABRAHAM, William ("Mabon"), 
M.P. for the Rhondda Valley Division of 
Glamorganshire, was born in 1842, and is 
son of the late Mr. T. Abraham, a working 
miner, collier, and copper smelter. Edu- 
cated at Carnarvon village school, he has 
been a miners' agent from 1873 onwards, 
and in 1885 was returned to Parliament for 
the Rhondda Valley, retaining his seat ever 
since. He is Vice-President of the Mon- 
mouth and South Wales Mining Associa- 
tion, J.P. for Glamorganshire, and Member 
of the Royal Commission on Labour and 
Mining Royalties. He is prominently iden- 
tified with Labour questions, especially as 
they affect Welsh miners, and is a warm 
supporter of the Eistedfodd and all that it 
implies in the literary and social life of 
the Welsh. "Mabon" is Mr. Abraham's 
bardic name. Addresses : 6 Llewellyn 
Street, Pentre, Pontypridd ; and 8 Suffolk 
Street, S.W. 

ACLAND, The Right Hon. Arthur 
Herbert Dyke, M.A., M.P., late Vice- 
President of the Council of Education, is 
the third son of the late Right Hon. Sir 
Thomas Dyke Acland, Bart., and was born 
in 1847. He was educated at Rugby and 


Christ Church, Oxford, matriculating at 
the University in May 1866, and taking his 
B.A. degree in 1870 and his M.A. in 1873. 
He was ordained about this time, but after- 
wards retired under the Clerical Disabilities 
Relief Act of 1870. At Oxford he was for 
long a prominent don, having been ap- 
pointed successively Hon. Fellow and 
Senior Bursar of Balliol and Steward of 
Christ Church. His interest in economic 
questions and politics was always keen, 
and when at Christ Church, he gathered 
round him a group of similarly-minded 
dons and undergraduates, who were known 
as " The Inner Circle." From 1875 to 1877 
he was Principal of the Oxford Military 
School at Cowley. In 1885 he entered 
Parliament as Liberal member for the 
Rotherham Division of Yorkshire, and has, 
since 1886, continued to represent that 
constituency as a Gladstonian. He has 
been very prominent, in Parliament and 
out of it, in promoting the cause of Inter- 
mediate and Technical Education, and in 
August 1892 was appointed Vice-President 
of the Council of Education, a position 
which he held till the change of Govern- 
ment in 1895. He is author of a " Hand- 
book Political History of England" and 
of "Working-men Co-operators." He 
married, in 1873, Alice Sophia, eldest 
daughter of the Rev. Francis Cunningham. 
Addresses : 28 Cheyne Walk, S.W. ; West- 
holme, Scarborough ; and Athenseum. 

ACLAND, Sir Charles Thomas 
Dyke, M.A., son of the late Right Hon. 
Sir Thomas Dyke Acland, 11th Baronet, 
was born July 16, 1842, and succeeded to 
the baronetcy in May 1898. He was edu- 
cated at Bradfield, Eton, and Christ Church, 
Oxford, where he obtained third-class hon- 
ours in Classics in 1866. He is a barrister, 
a Deputy Warden of the Stannaries, and 
was formerly Lieut. -Colonel of the 1st 
Devon Yeomanry Cavalry. He sat in 
Parliament as member for East Cornwall 
from 1882 to 1885, and represented North 
Cornwall from 1885 to 1892. He was ap- 
pointed a Church Estates Commissioner in 
1886, and was Parliamentary Secretary to 
the Board of Trade from February to 
August of the same year. He is a Justice 
of the Peace for Devon, Somerset, and 
Cornwall, is an Alderman of the Devon 
County Council, and has been Chairman of 
the Technical Education Committee of the 
Devon County Council from its beginning. 
He is besides a Vice-President of the Bath 
and West of England and Southern 
Counties Agricultural Society, and has 
acted on various occasions as chairman of 
the different committees of this society. 
In 1879 he was married to Gertrude, 
daughter of Sir John Walrond Walrond, 
Bart. Addresses : Holincote, Taunton ; 

Killerton, Exeter ; 50 Lennox Gardens, 
S.W. ; and Athenaaum. 

ACLAND, Sir Henry "Wentworth, 
Bart., K.C.B., F.R.S., Emeritus Regius- 
Professor of Medicine in the University of 
Oxford; Radcliffe Librarian, Oxford ; Hon. 
D.C.L. of Cambridge, Edinburgh, Durham, 
and Hon. M.D. Dublin, OR Empire of 
Brazil, Member of various Medical and 
Scientific Societies in Athens, Christiania, 
and the United States, is the fourth son of 
the late Sir Thomas Dyke Acland, tenth 
baronet. He was born in 1815, and educated 
at Harrow and Christ Church, Oxford, and 
was elected, in 1841, to a Fellowship at 
All Souls. He took the degree of M.D. at 
Oxford in 1848, having been appointed 
Lee's Reader in Anatomy in 1845. In that 
capacity, with several able assistants, 
especially Professors Beale, Victor Carus, 
Melville, and Mr. Charles Robertson, he 
made the extensive Christ Church Physio- 
logical Series, on the plan of John Hunter, 
now in the Oxford University Museum — 
an institution to the foundation of which 
Dr. Acland's labours contributed not a 
little, his aim being to lay the foundation, 
on the widest basis, of a complete study of 
the Kosmos in the old classical university. 
He published, in 1859, with Mr. Ruskin, a 
short account of the aims of the Museum 
in "The Oxford Museum," republished in 
1894, with additions by Mr. Ruskin and 
himself. He became Regius-Professor of 
Medicine in 1858, and Radcliffe Librarian, 
and is Curator of the Oxford University 
Galleries and of the Bodleian Library. Ho 
was appointed a member of Mr. Gathorne 
Hardy's Cubic Space Commission in 1866, 
and of the Royal Sanitary Commission 
from 1869 to 1872. He represented the 
University of Oxford on the Medical 
Council from 1858 to 1875; has been 
President of the British Medical Associa- 
tion, of the Physiological section of the 
British Association, and of the Public 
Health section of the Social Science Asso- 
ciation. He published a treatise on " The 
Plains of Troy" in 1839, with a large care- 
ful drawing made on the spot in 1838. 
He has written several works on medical, 
scientific, and educational subjects, in- 
cluding an important sanitary work under 
the title of "Memoir on the Visitation of 
Cholera in Oxford in 1854," and another, 
called "Village Health," in 1884. He 
accompanied the Prince of Wales to 
America in 1860, and on his return was 
appointed honorary physician to his Royal 
Highness. Sir Henry Acland was also 
Physician to H.R.H. Prince Leopold dur- 
ing his Oxford career. From 1 870 to 1872 he 
was member of the Sanitary Commission, 
was President of the General Medical 
Council from 1874 to 1887, and was made 


K.C.B. in 1884. He retired from the 
Regius-Professorship of Medicine in 1894. 
He married Sarah, daughter of the late 
William Cotton, D.C.L., F.R.S. She died 
in 1878, and the Sarah Acland Nursing 
Home at Oxford is founded in her memory. 
Addresses : Broad Street, Oxford ; and 

ACTON (Lord), The Eight Hon. 
Sir John Emerich Edward Dalberg 
Acton, Bart., D.C.L., son of Sir Ferdinand 
Richard Edward Acton, Bart., of Alden- 
ham, Shropshire, by the only daughter of 
the Duke of Dalberg (afterwards wife of 
the second Lord Granville), was born at 
Naples in 1834, and when about three 
years of age succeeded to the baronetcy 
on the death of his father. For a few 
years he was a student in the Catholic 
College of St. Mary's Oscott, at the time 
when Dr. (afterwards Cardinal) Wiseman 
was at the head of that institution ; but 
his education was mainly due to the re- 
nowned ecclesiastical historian Dr. Dbl- 
linger, of Munich, with whom he lived for 
a considerable time. Sir John Acton re- 
presented Carlowin the House of Commons 
from 1859 to 1865. In the latter year he 
stood as a candidate for the borough of 
Bridgnorth, when he announced in a speech 
delivered to the electors that he repre- 
sented not the body, but the spirit of the 
Roman Catholic Church. He was success- 
ful at the poll by a majority of one, but 
on a scrutiny was unseated. In 1869, on 
the recommendation of Mr. Gladstone, he 
was created a peer of the United Kingdom 
by the title of Baron Acton of Aldenham. 
In the same year he repaired to Rome, on 
the assembling of the (Ecumenical Council, 
and while there rendered himself conspi- 
cuous by his hostility to the definition of the 
doctrine of Papal Infallibility, and by the 
activity and secrecy with which he rallied, 
combined, and urged on those who ap- 
peared to be favourable to the views enter- 
tained by Dr. Dollinger. It is believed 
that he was in relation with the AUgemeine 
Zeitung, and that much of the news pub- 
lished by that journal on the subject of 
the Council was communicated by his 
lordship. Lord Acton may be regarded 
as the leader of the "Liberal Roman 
Catholics," who are more or less out of 
accord with the traditions of the Holy 
See. He was the editor of the Home and 
Foreign Review, a trimestral periodical, 
commenced in 1862, and carried on till 
1864, when it ceased to appear, having 
been condemned by the English Roman 
Catholic hierarchy. At a later date he 
edited the Chronicle, a weekly newspaper, 
which for want of adequate support had 
but a brief existence ; and still more 
recently he conducted the North British 

Review, formerly an organ of the Congre- 
gationalists, which expired under his man- 
agement. His lordship also published in 
September 1870 "A Letter to a German 
Bishop present at the Vatican Council" 
(Sendschreiben an einen Deutschen Bischof 
des Vaticanischen Coneils, Nordingen, Sep- 
tember 1870). This elicited from Bishop 
Ketteler, of Mayence, a spirited reply, 
which has been translated into English. 
His lordship zealously advocated the cause 
of Dr. Dollinger,hisformer preceptor, and of 
the "Old Roman Catholic" party; and, con- 
sequently, upon the occasion of the Jubilee 
of the University of Munich, in August 
1872, the Philosophical Faculty conferred 
upon him the honorary degree of Doctor. 
In 1874 he rendered himself conspicuous 
by the prominent part he took in the con- 
troversy which was raised by the publica- 
tion of Mr. Gladstone's pamphlet on the 
Vatican Decrees. His lordship, in a series 
of letters to the Times, brought grave 
charges, against several of the Popes, 
although he said that there was nothing 
in life which he valued more than com- 
munion with the Roman Catholic Church. 
Lord Acton is the author of the article on 
" Wolsey and the Divorce of Henry VIII." 
in the Quarterly Review for January 1877. 
A French translation of Lord Acton's two 
letters on Liberty was published with a 
preface by M. de Laveleye, under the title 
of " Histoire de la Liberte dans l'Antiquite' 
et le Christianisme," 1878. One of his 
most recent publications is a reprint, en- 
titled " Lecture on the Study of History," 
1895. In 1887 Lord Acton was made 
D.C.L. at Oxford, and in 1890 was elected 
to an honorary fellowship at All Souls' 
College, Oxford — a distinction shared only 
by Mr. Gladstone. He was made an Hon. 
LL.D. of Cambridge in 1888. In 1892 
Lord Acton was appointed a Lord-in- 
Waiting, and remained so until 1895. Lord 
Acton married Countess Marie Arco-Valley 
in 1865. Addresses : Aldenham Park, 
Bridgnorth ; and Athenaeum. 

ADAM, Mme. Edmond, nie Juliette 
Lamher, was born at Verberie Oct. 4, 
1836, the daughter of a doctor. She 
started writing in 1858 under her maiden 
name. She first married M. la Messine 
and afterwards M. Edmond Adam, deputy 
for the Department of the Seine ; he 
was Prefet de Police at the time of the 
Franco-German war, and during the siege 
of Paris remained in the city ; he was 
created a life Senator, but died in 1877. 
Mme. Adam was with him, and after- 
wards recorded her experiences in "Le 
Siege de Paris : Journal d'une Parisienne," 
published in 1873. Mme. Adam has pub- 
lished a number of works on political 
and social subjects, especially the position 



of women. Amongst her other works are 
" Garibaldi," 1859 ; " Le Mandarin," " Mon 
Village," 1860 ; "Recits d'une Paysanne," 
1862; "Voyage autour du Grand-Pere," 
1863 ; " Recits du Golfe Juan," 1865 ; 
"Dans les Alpes," 1867; "Saine et 
Sauve," 1870; "Laide," 1878; "Palnne," 
1879 ; " Poetes Grecs Contemporains," 
1881 ; " La Patrie Hongroise ; Souvenirs 
Personnels," 3rd edit., 1884 ; " Le Ge'ne'ral 
Skobeleff," 1886; "Jalousie de Jeune 
Fille," 1889. She is also credited with 
having written the studies of foreign 
nations — Berlin, Vienna, London, St. 
Petersburg, Madrid, and Rome — published 
under the pseudonym of " Count Paul 
Vasili," which appeared within the years 
1884-87. In 1879 Mme. Adam started 
the Nouvelle Revue, which she continues to 
conduct with great ability, and personally 
contributes the fortnightly articles on 
Foreign politics. Her " Memoires," begun 
in 1895, are promised us. Her address in 
Paris is 190 Boulevard Malesherbes, where, 
under the Empire, she kept up her famous 
political salon. 

ADAM (Lord), James Adam, Judge 
of the Court of Session and Commissioner 
of Justiciary, Scotland, was born in Edin- 
burgh on Oct. 31, 1824, and is the son of 
James Adam, S.S.C. He was educated at 
the Academy and University, Edinburgh. 
He was Advocate-Depute from 1858 to 1859, 
from 1866 to 1867, and in 1874. In the latter 
year he was also Sheriff of Perthshire. In 
1876 he rose to the Bench. Addresses : 34 
Moray Place, Edinburgh ; and Athenieum. 

ADAMS, Charles Francis, great- 
grandson of John Adams, the second 
President of the United States, born in 
Boston, May 27, 1835, graduated at 
Harvard College in 1856, and admitted to 
the Bar in 1858. At the breaking out of 
the War of the Rebellion in 1861 he 
entered the army, in which he served 
until June 1865, attaining the rank of 
Colonel of Cavalry. At the close of the 
war he was breveted Brigadier-General. 
Subsequently he identified himself with 
questions connected with the development 
of the railroad system, and in 1869 was 
appointed one of the Board of Railroad 
Commissioners of Massachusetts, which 
position he resigned in 1879. In June 
1884 he became President of the Union 
Pacific Railway Company, resigning there- 
from in November 1890. He has contri- 
buted a number of articles to the North 
American Review, and in connection with 
the subject of railroads is the author of 
"A Chapter of Erie," 1869 ; "The Railroad 
Problem," 1875 ; " Railroads, their Origin 
and Problems," 1878; and "Notes on 
Railroad Accidents," 1879. He delivered 

at Cambridge, in 1883, the Phi Beta Kappa 
oration, entitled "A College Fetich." 
Since resigning the Presidency of the 
Union Pacific he has devoted himself to 
literature and historical research, publish- 
ing the "Life of Richard Henry Dana," 
in 1890 ; " Three Episodes of Massachusetts 
History," in 1892 ; and "Massachusetts, its 
Historians and its History," in 1893. In 
addition to the above he has contributed 
a number of papers on historical topics to 
the Proceedings of the Massachusetts His- 
torical Society, of which society he is a 

ADAMS, Charles Kendall, LL.D., 
was born at Derby, Vermont, Jan. 24, 1835. 
A.B. (Univ. of Michigan), 1861. He was 
appointed Assistant Professor of History 
and Latin at the University of Michigan 
in 1863, becoming full Professor in 1868. 
In 1881 he was made Non-Resident Pro- 
fessor of History at Cornell University, 
where, in July 1885, he succeeded to the 
Presidency on the resignation of President 
White. While at the former university he 
reorganised the methods of instruction in 
history substantially in accordance with 
the German system, and in 1869-70 founded 
an historical seminary, which was very 
efficient in promoting the study of history 
and political science. He was also made 
Dean of the School of Political Science on 
its establishment at the University of 
Michigan. In 1890 he was elected Presi- 
dent of the American Historical Associa- 
tion. In 1892 he resigned the Presidency 
of Cornell University and accepted the 
Presidency of the University of Wisconsin. 
He has published "Democracy and Mon- 
archy in France," 1874; "Manual of 
Historical Literature," 1882, 3rd edit. 
1889; "Representative British Orations," 
3 vols., 1884 ; " Christopher Columbus : His 
Life and Work," 1892 ; and in 1892 became 
editor-in-chief of "Johnson's Universal 
Cyclopaedia." He is also the author of a 
large number of pamphlets and papers on 
historical and educational subjects. 

ADAMS, "William, F.R.C.S., was 
born in London Feb. 1, 1820, his father 
being a surgeon in Finsbury Square. He 
was educated at Mr. W. Simpson's, Hack- 
ney, and afterwards at King's College, 
London. He was appointed in 1842 
Demonstrator of Morbid Anatomy at 
St. Thomas's Hospital ; in 1851 Assistant 
Surgeon ; and in 1857 Surgeon to the 
Royal Orthopoedic Hospital ; in 1854 Lec- 
turer on Surgery at the Grosvenor Place 
School of Medicine ; in 1855 Surgeon to 
the Great Northern Hospital ; and in 1874 
Surgeon to the National Hospital for the 
Paralysed and Epileptic. Mr. Adams was 
elected Vice-President of the Pathological 



Society of London in 1867 ; President of 
the Harveian Society of London in 1873 ; 
and President of the Medical Society of 
London in 1876. He is the author of "A 
Sketch of the Principles and Practice of 
Subcutaneous Surgery," 1857; "On the 
Reparative Process in Human Tendons 
after Division," 1860 ; " Lectures on Path- 
ology and Treatment of Lateral Curvature 
of the Spine," 1865, 2nd edit. 1882 ; "On 
the Pathology and Treatment of Club- 
foot," 1866 (being the Jacksonian Prize 
Essay of the Royal College of Surgeons 
for 1864), 2nd edit. 1873 ; " Subcutaneous 
Division of the Neck of the Thigh Bone 
for Bony Anchylosis of the Hip-Joint," 
1871 ; "On the Treatment of Dupuytren's 
Contraction of the Fingers ; and on the 
Obliteration of Depressed Cicatrices by 
Subcutaneous Operation," 1879, 2nd edit. 
1890 ; " On Congenital Displacement of 
the Hip-Joint," 1890; "Congenital Wry- 
Neck," in the Trans, of the Amer. Ortho}}. 
Assoc, 1896, &c. Address: 7 Loudoun 
Road, St. John's Wood, N.W. 

ADAMS, 'William Davenport, 

author, critic, and journalist, son of the 
late well-known author W. H. Davenport 
Adams, was born in 1851, and educated at 
Merchant Taylors' School and Edinburgh 
University. He contributed to boys' 
magazines at an early age, and began 
regular journalistic work in 1870. He has 
been editor of five newspapers, daily and 
weekly, and since 1885 has been on the 
editorial staff of the Globe as head of its 
Reviewing Department, besides contribut- 
ing much to the press at large. As a 
literary and dramatic critic he is well 
known. His chief publications include 
"A Dictionary of English Literature" and 
"English Epigrams," 1878; "The Witty 
and Humorous Side of the English 
Poets," 1880; "By-Ways in Bookland," 
1888; "A Book of Burlesque," 1891; 
"With Poet and Player," 1891; "A 
Dictionary of the Drama," and several 
anthologies in prose and verse. His wife, 
Mrs. Estelle Davenport Adams, is the 
compiler of "Flower and Leaf," 1884; 
"Sea-Song and River Rhvme," 1887; and 
the "Poets' Praise of Poets," 1894. Ad- 
dress : Globe Office, 367 Strand, W.C. 

ADAMS, Professor William Grylls, 

M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. , was born at Launces- 
ton, Cornwall, and is the brother of the 
famous astronomer John Couch Adams. 
He was appointed Professor of Natural 
Philosophy and Astronomy at King's 
College, London, in 1863, a post which he 
still retains. He is a Member of Council 
of the Royal Society, and is Vice-President 
of the Physical Society. He was President 
of the Mathematical and Physical Section 

of the British Association at Swansea in 
1880, and delivered the Presidential Ad- 
dress. He has published many papers 
on physical subjects in the Philosophical 
Transactions, Nature, the Philosophical 
Mai/azine, and kindred journals. Address ; 
43 Campden-Hill Square, W. 

ADAMS - ACTON", John, sculptor, 
born Dec. 11, 1836, at Acton, Middlesex, 
and educated at Ealing Grove School, was 
admitted to the Royal Academy in 1855, 
where he gained the first silver medal in 
each school and also the gold medal for 
an original composition in sculpture, 
subject — " Eve Supplicating Forgiveness at 
the Feet of Adam." He was sent to Rome 
by the Royal Academy as travelling 
student. His principal works in ideal 
sculpture produced in Rome and in Eng- 
land are : " The Lady of the Lake," " The 
First Sacrifice" (Abel), "II Giuocatore 
di Castelletto," "Pharaoh's Daughter," 
"Zenobia," "Cupid," "Psyche," from 
Morris's "Earthly Paradise." Mr. Adams- 
Acton has executed portrait statues or 
busts of Mr. Gladstone (St. George's Hall, 
Liverpool), Lord Brougham (Reform Club 
and Fishmongers' Hall), Mr. Bright (Sea- 
forth Hall, and the National Liberal Club, 
the last bust for which Mr, Bright gave 
sittings), Mr. Cobden, Sir Wilfrid Lawson, 
George Cruikshank, John Gibson (Royal 
Academy), George Moore, Charles Dickens, 
Dr. Jobson, and John Prescott Knight, 
R.A. ; also the following statues and busts 
for India : The Prince of Wales, Lord 
Napier of Magdala, and E. Powell (for 
Madras). The most important monu- 
ments executed by him are the Angel 
of the Resurrection, Mausoleum of Sir 
Titus Salt at Saltaire, Memorial to John 
and Charles Wesley in Westminster Abbey, 
the Waldegrave Memorial in Carlisle 
Cathedral, Charles Prest, Rev. John 
Farrar, and Sir Francis Lycett in the 
City Road Chapel, a bust of Mr. George 
Routledge, J. P., and a half-length portrait 
of Mr. John Landseer, A.R.A.. reading a 
book. Address: 8 Langford Place, St. 
John's Wood, N.W. 

ADDEBXiEY, The Hon. and Rev. 
James Granville, M.A., is the fifth son 
of the first Lord Morton, and was born on 
July 1, 1861. He was educated at Eton 
and Christ Church, Oxford, where he 
gained a third class in the School of 
Modern History in 1882. At the Univer- 
sity he was distinguished as an amateur 
actor, and in 1879 he founded the Pbilo- 
thespian Club, which in time became the 
Oxford University Dramatic Society. At 
College he also began to interest himself in 
those social movements with which he is 
now prominently identified, and was Head 



of Oxford House, Bethnal Green, from 
1885 to 1886. In 1887 he took orders, and 
was ordained Priest in 1888. From 1887 
to 1893 he was Head of the Christ Church, 
Oxford, Mission ; and has been successively 
Curate of Allhallows, Barking, from 1893 
to 1894, and of St. Andrew's, Plaistow, E., 
from 1894 to 1897. In the latter year he 
was appointed Minister of Berkeley 
Chapel, Mayfair. He labours with a small 
Brotherhood of Mercy, and is on the 
Council of the Christian Society Union. 
One of his best-known works is "Stephen 
Remarx," a religious novelette, published 
in 1893. He has also written "Fight 
for the Drama at Oxford," 1885; "The 
New Floreat, a Letter to an Eton Boy," 
1895; "Social Prayers," "God's Fast," 
and " Looking Upward," 1896 ; and 
" Paul Mercer," 1897. Address : Berkeley 
Chapel, W. 

ADLER, Felix, Ph.D., was born at 
Alzey, Germany, Aug. 13, 1851. He went 
to America when young, and graduated 
at Columbia College (N.Y.) in 1870, and 
subsequently studied at Berlin and Heidel- 
berg, where he obtained the degree of 
Ph.D. in 1873. He was Professor of 
Hebrew and Oriental Languages and Lite- 
rature at Cornell University from 1874 to 
1876, and since then has been at the head 
of the Ethical Society of New York (the 
first of a number of similar societies now 
spread over the United States and other 
countries), a new religious society esta- 
blished by him, which he addresses every 
Sunday, and which maintains a number 
of charities. His principal works are 
"Creed and Deed," 1877, and " The Moral 
Instruction of Children," 1892 ; in addition 
to which he has contributed many papers 
to periodical literature. 

ADLER, The Rev. Hermann, Ph.D., 
M.A. , son of Dr. Nathan Marcus Adler, 
was born in Hanover on May 29, 1839, 
and in 1845 accompanied his father to 
London when the latter received his call 
as Chief Rabbi. He studied at University 
College, London, and subsequently at the 
Universities of Prague and Leipzig. He 
obtained his B.A. degree at the University 
of London in 1859, and that of Doctor of 
Philosophy at Leipzig in 1861. In 1862, 
having completed his theological studies 
uuder his father and the famous Rapoport, 
Chief Rabbi of Prague, he was ordained 
as Rabbi by the latter. In 1863 Dr. Adler 
was appointed Principal of the Jews' Col- 
lege in London, and in the following year 
Chief Minister of the Bayswater Syna- 
gogue. When the health of his father, 
the Chief Rabbi, began to fail in 1879, 
he was appointed his coadjutor, with the 
title of Delegate Chief Rabbi. In 1881 

he served as a Member of the Mansion 
House Committee constituted for the relief 
of the persecuted Jews of Russia. In this 
capacity he attended, in conjunction with 
Sir Julian Goldsmid, M.P., conferences of 
representatives of the principal Hebrew 
congregations in Europe and the United 
States, held in Paris and Berlin. In 1885 
he went to the Holy Land, and visited 
several of the colonies founded there by 
Russian refugees. In 1888 he gave evi- 
dence before the Select Committee of the 
House of Lords on the sweating system. 
After the death of his father he was 
elected Chief Eabbi of the United Hebrew 
Congregations of the British Empire by 
the unanimous vote of the Delegates of 
the various committees, and was installed 
at a solemn service held at the Great 
Synagogue on June 23, 1891. Dr. Adler 
has aided in the establishment of many 
benevolent and educational institutions 
in his community. He was one of the 
founders of the Bayswater Jewish Schools, 
has assisted in establishing religious classes 
in connection with the Board Schools in 
the East of London, and helped to start a 
fund for subventioning poor ministers in 
the provinces. He is President of the 
Jews' College for the Training of Ministers 
and Teachers, founded by his father, and 
one of the Vice-Presidents of the Anglo- 
Jewish Association, of the Jewish Religious 
Education Board, and of numerous other 
institutions. He is also a member, and 
was in 1897 President, of the Jewish His- 
torical Society of England, founded during 
recent years. Dr. Adler is one of the Vice- 
Presidents of the Mansion House Council 
for the Dwellings of the Poor, and in this 
capacity he has formed a local branch for 
Paddington. He is an active member of 
the Hospital Sunday Fund, and of the 
Prince of Wales's Hospital Fund, a member 
of the Mansion House Committee to con- 
sider the best means of dealing with the 
distress in London caused by lack of em- 
ployment, and is one of the administrators 
of the People's Palace. He has also written 
much on religious, social, and literary 
themes. He is the joint author of " A 
Jewish Reply to Dr. Colenso's Criticism 
on the Pentateuch," 1865. He has pub- 
lished " Sermons on the Passages in the 
Bible adduced by Christian Theologians in 
Support of their Faith," 1S69 ; " The Jews 
in England"; "The Chief Rabbis of Eng- 
land"; " Ibn Gabirol, the Poet Philosopher" ; 
"The Purpose and Methods of Charitable 
Relief"; "Hebrew, the Language of our 
Prayers"; "A Pilgrimage to Zion : A 
Father's Barmitzvah Exhortation"; "The 
Sabbath and the Synagogue"; Sermons 
in memoriam of Sir George Jessel, Master 
of the Rolls, Sir Moses Montefiore, and 
the Baroness de Rothschild ; " Is Judaism 



a Missionary Faith 1 " in answer to Pro- 
fessor Max Miiller ; "The Ideal Jewish 
Pastor"; "The Functions of the Jewish 
Pulpit"; "The Nation's Lament for the 
Duke of Clarence " ; " The Loss of H.M.S. 
Victoria"; "The Jews in the Victorian 
Era," &c. The Chief Eabbi has published 
also "Comments in Hebrew on the Pass- 
over Ritual," and many lectures and 
articles which have appeared in various 
periodicals, more especially in the Nine- 
teenth Century, in which review he con- 
ducted a vigorous polemic against Pro- 
fessor Goldwin Smith, and vindicated 
his co - religionists against the charge 
of "incivism." He has taken part in 
Symposia on the Foundation of Belief in 
Immortality ; on Irresponsible Wealth ; 
and delivered lectures on the Wisdom 
and Wit of the Talmud ; Sanitation as 
taught by the Mosaic Law ; Jewish Wit 
and Humour ; Menasse ben Israel ; Moses 
Mendelssohn, &c. In 1867 he married 
Rachel, elder daughter of the late S. 
Joseph, by whom he has issue one son 
and two daughters. His City residence 
and office are at 22 Finsbury Square ; his 
West End residence at 6 Craven Hill. 

AD YE, General Sir John Miller, 
G.C.B., son of the late Major James P. 
Adye, R.A., was born on Nov. 1, 1819, at 
Sevenoaks, Kent, and entered the Royal 
Artillery at the close of the year 1836. 
Throughout the Crimean War and the 
Indian Mutiny he was Adjutant-General 
of the Royal Artillery. He also served in 
the Sitana Campaign of 1863-64, for which 
he received a medal ; and he has received 
besides, the Crimean, Turkish, and Indian 
Mutiny medals, and the 4th Class of the 
Medjidieh. He was created a C.B. in 1855, 
and a K.C.B. in 1873. In February 1874 the 
Queen granted to Sir J. M. Adye her royal 
licence and authority to accept and wear 
the insignia of Commander of the Order 
of the Legion of Honour conferred upon 
him by the President of the French 
Republic as a promotion from the class 
of Officer of the same Order which he 
received for his services during the 
Crimean War. He was Director of 
Artillery from 1870 to 1875, and was ap- 
pointed Governor of the Royal Military 
Academy at Woolwich in July 1875. He 
became a Lieutenant-General in the army 
in 1879. In 1880 he resigned the post o"f 
Governor of the Royal Military Academy 
nt Woolwich on being- appointed Surveyor- 
General of Ordnance. The following year 
he became Colonel-Commandant of the 
Royal Artillery. He was Chief of the Staff 
and second in command of the expedition- 
ary force sent to Egypt in 1882, and for 
his services he received the Egyptian 
medal and Khedive's star, the thanks of 

Parliament, the Grand Cross of the Order 
of the Bath, and the 1st Class of Medjidieh. 
In January 1883 he was appointed 
Governor of Gibraltar, in succession to 
Lord Napier of Magdala, from which ap- 
pointment he retired in November 1886. 
Sir John Adye is the author of " The 
Defence of Cawnpore by the Troops 
under the Orders of Major-General C. A. 
Windham in Nov. 1857," 1858 ; "A Review 
of the Crimean War to the Winter of 
1854-55," 1860; "Sitana: a Mountain 
Campaign on the Borders of Afghanistan 
in 1863," 1867; "Recollections of a 
Military Life," 1895; "Indian Frontier 
Policy,'" 1897. He married in 1856 Mary 
Cordelia, eldest daughter of the late Vice- 
Admiral the Hon. Sir Montagu Stopford, 
K.C.B. Residence, 92 St. George's Square, 

AFLALO, Frederick George, was 

born in London on the 17th of August 
1870. He was educated at Clifton College 
and at Rostock University, Mecklenburg, 
and during 1891 he pursued his studies in 
Italy. In 1895 he travelled in Australia, 
giving his attention more especially to 
Queensland. He founded the British Sea 
Anglers' Society in 1893 ; and he is editor 
of the Encyclopaedia of Sport, and of the 
Angler's Library. He is the author of 
" Sea Fishing on the English Coast," 1891 ; 
"The Sea, and the Rod, and Myamma" 
(in conjunction), 1892; "Sunny Dover" 
(in conjunction), 1893 ; " Hints and 
Wrinkles on Sea- Fishing," 1894; "A 
Sketch of the Natural History of Australia," 
1896 ; " A Sketch of the Natural History 
(Vertebrates) of the British Islands," 
1897; "Sea Fish," 1897. He has also 
edited "The Literary Year Book," 1896 
and 1897. Address : 50 Carlton Hill, N.W. 

AGNEW, Sir 'William, Bart., son 
of the late Thomas Agnew, Esq., of Man- 
chester, was born Oct. 20, 1825. He was 
educated privately in Manchester by the 
Rev. J. H. Smithson. He is a J.P. for 
Lancashire, Manchester, and Salford. He 
was for many years senior member of the 
firm of Thomas Agnew & Sons, London, 
Liverpool, and Manchester, and he is still 
Chairman of Bradbury, Agnew & Co., the 
proprietors and publishers of Punch. He 
was M.P. for South-East Lancashire in 
1880, and for the Stretford division of 
that county in 1885. He unsuccessfully 
contested the Prestwick division of the 
county in 1892. A Liberal in politics, he 
was President of the Salford Liberal 
Association, President of the Manchester 
Reform Club, and one of the founders of 
the Devonshire and National Liberal Club. 
He was Chairman of the Art Committee 
of the great Jubilee Exhibition in Man- 



Chester in 1887, was on the Royal 
Commission of the Melbourne Centenary 
Exhibition, and is a Member of the Royal 
Commission for the Paris Exhibition of 
1900. He married in 1851 Mary, the 
eldest daughter of George Pixton Ken- 
worthy, Esq., of Peel Hall, Lancashire, 
who died in 1892. His son and heir, 
George William, was born in 1852. Ad- 
dress : 11 .Great Stanhope Street, Park 
Lane, W. 

AIDE, C. Hamilton, was born in 
Paris, his father being a Greek, and his 
mother the daughter of Sir George Collier. 
He was educated at Bonn University, 
served for a few years in the army, and 
then turned his attention to literature. 
Amongst his publications may be men- 
tioned : "Rita," "The Marstons," "Mr. 
and Mrs. Faulconbridge," "Morals and 
Mysteries," "A Voyage of Discovery," 
" Poet and Peer," &c. In 1872 he wrote 
a play, "Philip," which was produced by 
Sir Henry Irving, and in 1874 the Kendals 
and John Hare played his "A Nine Days' 
Wonder." He has also written "A Great 
Catch," and has adapted "Doctor Bill" 
from the French. Mr. Aide is, moreover, 
known as a ballad writer, his best-known 
songs being perhaps " The Danube River" 
and " Remember or Forget." Addresses : 
Ascot Wood Cottage, Ascot ; and Athe- 

AIKINS, The Hon. James Cox, a 

Canadian statesman, was born in the 
township of Toronto, county Peel, Ontario, 
March 30, 1823. He was educated at 
Victoria College, Cobourg, and entered 
public life in 1854 by representing his 
native county in the Canadian Assembly, 
which he continued to do until 1861. 
In the following year he was elected a 
Member of the Legislative Council for the 
" Home" Division, comprising the counties 
of Peel and Halton. He continued to sit 
in the Council until it was abolished by 
Confederation, after which he was raised 
to the Senate. In December 1869 he be- 
came a Member of the Privy Council, 
and entered the Macdonald Government 
as Secretary of State,- remaining in that 
office until the fall of the Government in 
1873. In 1872 he framed and carried 
through Parliament the Public Lands Act 
of that year, and subsequently organised 
the Dominion Lands Bureau, a depart- 
ment of government entrusted with the 
management of the lands acquired in the 
North-West, chiefly from the Hudson's 
Bay Company, a department which is now 
controlled by the Canadian Minister of 
the Interior. On the return of the Mac- 
donald Government to power in 1878 
Senator Aikins resumed the portfolio of 

Secretary of State, exchanging it two 
years later for the office of Minister of 
Inland Revenue. In 1882 he was ap- 
pointed Lieutenant-Governor of the pro- 
vince of Manitoba and district of Keewatin, 
an office which he retained until his term 
expired in 1888, when he returned to Tor- 
onto, and in 1896 was again called to the 
Senate. He received the degree of LL.D. 
from Victoria College in 1892. 

AINGER, Canon Alfred, M.A., 
LL.D., Master of the Temple, was born 
in London on Feb. 9, 1837, and is the 
son of Alfred Ainger, architect. He was 
educated at King's College and at Trinity 
Hall, Cambridge. He took orders, and 
was ordained Priest in 1863. From 1860 to 
1864 he was Curate of Alrewas, Lichfield, 
and from the latter year to 1866 was 
Assistant Master at the Sheffield Collegiate 
School. In 1866 be was appointed Reader 
at the Temple Church, a position he con- 
tinued to hold until 1893. In 1894 he was 
appointed Master of the Temple, in suc- 
cession to the late Dean Vaughan, who 
had resigned the Mastership owing to ill- 
health. He is a Canon of Bristol and 
Chaplain in-Ordinary to the Queen. As 
an author, Canon Ainger is best known 
for his editions of Lamb's Collected Works, 
and for his "Memoir of Charles Lamb." 
He has also published "Sermons Preached 
in the Temple Church." Addresses : 
Master's House, Temple, E.C. ; and 

AITCHISON, George, RA„ architect, 
Athenaeum Club, was born at 52 Edgware 
Road, London, went to Merchant Taylors' 
School until his sixteenth year, was then 
articled to his father, George Aitchison, 
architect, and became student of the Royal 
Academy in 1847, and subsequently entered 
University College, London, where he 
gained prizes for mathematics, and gradu- 
ated B.A. at the London University in 
1850. From 1853 to 1855 he travelled 
in France, Switzerland, and Italy ; was 
elected a Fellow of the Royal Institute of 
British Architects in 1862 ; subsequently 
became a Member of the Council, and 
in 1889 was elected Vice-President, and 
President in 1896. He was for several 
years one of the examiners for the Volun- 
tary Architectural examination, and is also 
one of the examiners for the National Art 
Prizes at South Kensington. Mr. Aitchison 
gained medals at the following exhibi- 
tions, viz. : Philadelphia, 1876 ; Sydney, 
1879; Adelaide, 1887; and two at Mel- 
bourne — a bronze in 1881, and silver in 
1888 ; and one at Chicago in 1893 ; was 
made an Officer of Public Instruction by 
the French Government in 1879, having 
designed the fittings and furniture for 



the British Art section of the Paris Exhi- 
bition, 1878. On June 2, 1881, he was 
elected an Associate of the Royal Academy, 
and R.A. in 1898. He gave lectures on 
architecture at the Royal Academy in 1882, 
'83, '84, '85, '86, and '87. In 1885 he was 
elected a Corresponding Member of the 
Society Centrale des Architectes Francais, 
in Paris ; was elected Professor of Archi- 
tecture at the Royal Academy in 1887 ; in 
1888 he gave the Cantor Lectures on 
Decoration at the Society of Arts, and 
lectured on Renaissance Architecture at 
the South Kensington Museum in 1893. 
He decorated Kensington Palace for 
H.R.H. the Princess Louise, and the house 
and Arab hall for Sir Frederick Leighton, 
P.R.A., and did the coloured decoration 
of the Livery Hall for the Goldsmiths' 
Company. He has added to, altered, and 
decorated houses for the Duke of Montrose, 
Lord Hillingdon, the Duchess of New- 
castle, Lord Leconfield, Sir Wilfrid Law- 
son, M.P., Sir S. Waterlow, M.P., and 
others; and has built 60 and 61 Mark Lane, 
E.C., Founders' Hall, and the Royal 
Exchange Assurance Office, 29 Pall Mall, 
London. He was presented with H.M. 
the Queen's Jubilee medal, 1897; and 
nominated for the gold medal of the 
R.I.B.A. in 1898. In 1897 he was elected 
A.R.A. of the Royal Academy of Belgium. 
He is one of the contributors to the 
" Dictionary of National Biography." 


Aretas, M.P. , D.L., eldest son of the 
late Rev. Aretas Akers, of Mailing Abbey, 
Kent, was born Oct. 21, 1851, and edu- 
cated at Eton and at University Col- 
lege, Oxford. He was called to the 
Bar at the Inner Temple in 1874, and 
in 1875 assumed the additional name of 
Douglas. In 1880 he entered Parlia- 
ment as Conservative member for the 
East Kent Division, and now represents 
the St. Augustine's Division. In Lord 
Salisbury's administrations of 1885-86 
and 1886-92 he held the office of Parlia- 
mentary Secretary to the Treasury, and 
was principal "Whip " to the Conservative 
partv from 1885 to 1895. He was made 
a Privy Councillor in 1891. In 1895 he 
entered the cabinet, holding the office 
of First Commissioner of Public Works 
and Buildings. Addresses : Chilston Park, 
Maidstone ; 106 Mount Street, W. 

A.K.H.B. See Boyd, The Rev. A. K. H. 

ALB AN I, Madame. 


See Gye, 

ALBANY (Duchess of), H.R.H. 
Helene Fredrica Augusta, the daugh- 
ter of the Prince and Princess of Waldeck- 

Pyrmont, and sister of the Queen of the 
Netherlands, was bom on Feb. 17, 1861. 
She married H.R.H. the late Prince Leo- 
pold, Her Majesty's youngest son, on 
April 27, 1882, and became a widow by 
his sudden death at Cannes on March 28, 
1 884. The Princess lost her mother in 1888. 
She has two children, one of whom was 
born after the Prince's death ; the Prin- 
cess Alice Mary Victoria Augusta Pauline, 
born at Windsor Castle, Feb. 25, 1883 ; 
and the Prince Leopold Charles Edward 
George Albert, Duke of Albany, born at 
Claremont, July 19, 1884. The Princess 
receives a pension of £6000 a year from 
the British Government. 

ALBERT, King of Saxony, K.G., 

born April 23, 1828 ; succeeded his father 
Oct. 29, 1873. He received a thorough 
military education, and took part in the 
Danish war of 1848. He fought also on 
the side of the Austrians in the disastrous 
battle of Sadowa in 1866, and likewise 
in the Franco-German war in the opera- 
tions before Metz, and in the operations 
which terminated in the surrender of 
Napoleon at Sedan, and the siege of Paris, 
when he held the right bank of the Seine. 
On the conclusion of the war he was made 
Field-Marshal and Inspector-General of 
the German Army. He married Caroline, 
the daughter of Prince Gustavus Vasa of 
Sweden. His heir is his brother, Prince 

ALBERT (Archduke of Austria), 
Frederick Rodolph, born Aug. 3, 1817, 
is the son of the late Archduke Charles 
and the Princess Henrietta of Nassau- 
Weilburg. He married in 1844 the 
Princess Hildegarde of Bavaria, who died 
April 2, 1864, leaving two daughters. At 
an early age he entered the army, com- 
manded a division in Italy in 1849, took 
an important part in the battle of No- 
vara, received at the end of the campaign 
the command of the 3rd Corps d'Armee, 
and was afterwards appointed Governor- 
General of Hungary. During a leave of 
absence accorded to Field-Marshal Bene- 
dek in 1861 he was appointed to the 
command of the Austrian troops in Lom- 
bardy and Veuetia. During the campaign 
of 1866 he gained a victory over the Italian 
army at Custozza, and after the battle 
of Sadowa he was made (July 13, 1866)" 
Commander-in-Chief of the Austrian Army, 
which title he retained till March 1869, 
when he exchanged it for that of Inspector- 
General of the Army. He published in 
1869 a work on " Responsibility in War" 
( Tiber die Verantwortlichkeit im Kriege). This 
has been translated into French by L. 
Dufour, captain of artillery, and an Eng- 
lish translation of it is giVen in Captain 



W. J. Wyatt's "Reflections on the Forma- 
tion of Armies, with a View to the Reor- 
ganization of the English Army," 1869. 

ALDEN, William Livingston, was 

born in the United States on Oct. 9, 1837, 
and is the son of the Rev. Joseph Alden. 
He was educated at Jefferson College and 
at La Fayette College, both in the States, 
and practised as a barrister at New York 
from 1860 to 1865. He was then occu- 
pied as a journalist in the same city from 
1865 to 1885 : and in the latter year was 
appointed iS.S. Consul-General at Rome, a 
position which he held until 1889. Since 
then he has been engaged in novel writing. 
Amongst his publications there may be 
mentioned : " Domestic Explosives," 1877 ; 
"Shooting Stars," 1878; "Life of Chris- 
topher Columbus," 1S81 ; " Moral Pirates," 
1881 ; " Cruise of the Canoe Club," 1883 ; 
"Adventures of Jimmy Brown," 1885; 
"New Robinson Crusoe," 1888 ; "A Lost 
Soul," 1892; "The Mystery of Elias G. 
Roebuck," 1896; "His Daughter," 1897. 
Address : 61 Cloudesdale Road, S.W. 

ALDRICH, Nelson Wilmarth, 

American statesman, was born at Foster, 
Rhode Island, Nov. 6, 1841, and received 
an academic education. He was President 
of the Common Council of the city of 
Providence, R.I., 1871-73; was a member 
of the Legislature of the State of Rhode 
Island, 1875-76, serving the latter year as 
Speaker of the House of Representatives in 
that State. He was elected to the Forty- 
sixth and re-elected to the Forty-seventh 
Congresses. Elected to the United States 
Senate, he took his seat Dec. 5, 1881, and 
was re-elected in 1886 and in 1893. 

ALDRICH. Thomas Bailey, an 
American author, was born at Portsmouth, 
New Hampshire, Nov. 11, 1836. He has 
contributed prose and verse to various 
periodicals, most of which has subsequently 
been published separately. Among the 
collected volumes of verse are: "The 
Bells," 1855; "The Ballad of Baby Bell, 
and other Poems," 1856; "The Course of 
True Love Never Did Run Smooth," 1858 ; 
"Pampinea, and other Poems," 1861; a 
volume of '■ Poems," 1865; "Cloth of 
Gold, and other Poems," 1874 ; " Flower 
and Thorn," 1876; "Lyrics and Sonnets," 
1880; "Friar Jerome's Beautiful Book," 
1881; "Mercedes, and Later Lyrics," 
1884; "Wyndham Towers," 1889; and 
"The Sisters' Tragedy, and other Poems." 
Among his prose writings are : " The 
Story of a Bad Boy," 1869; "Marjorie 
Daw," 1873 ; " Prudence Palfrey," 1874 ; 
"The Queen of Sheba," 1877; "The Still- 
water Tragedy," 1880 ; and a volume of 
travels, entitled "From Ponkapay to 

Pesth," 1883. From 1881 to 1890 he was the 
editor of the Atlantic Monthly, Boston, but 
he resigned that position in order to de- 
vote himself entirely to writing. Since 
his retirement from editorship he has 
published "Two Bites at a Cherry, with 
other Tales," and "An Old Town by the 
Sea," 1893; "Unguarded Gates, and other 
I'oems," 1894; "Later Lyrics," 1895; 
"Judith and Holofernes," 1896. 

ALEXANDER, Mrs. See Hector, 
Mes. Annie Alexander. 

ALEXANDER I. (Obrenovitch), 
King of Servia, was born on Aug. 14, 
1876, and succeeded his father, the ex- 
King Milan, who abdicated in favour of 
his son, March 6, 1889, after divorcing 
his consort, Queen Natalie (}.t>.). He was 
under the guardiant-hip of two Regents till 
1893 (April). When Crown Prince he 
accompanied his mother, Queen Natalie, 
into exile after her separation from the 
King, but was forcibly removed from her 
at Berlin, and conveyed back to Belgrade. 
In 1893 the Prince suddenly dismissed his 
Regents, and assumed the reins of power. 
Under his rule Servia has suffered less 
from civil dissensions than during the 
Regency. In 1894, at his request, his 
father returned to Belgrade, for the pur- 
pose of assisting him in the government of 
the country. In 1897 he paid a visit to 
the Austrian Emperor at Vienna ; this 
incident may possibly indicate closer rela- 
tions between the two countries. 

ALEXANDER, George (George 
Alexander Gibb Samson), was born at 
Reading in 1858, and is the son of an 
Ayrshire man who married an English 
wife. He was educated at the school 
of Dr. Benham, Clifton, then at the High 
School at Stirling, and subsequently 
studied medicine at Edinburgh ; but after 
a short time went to London to take up a 
commercial life. Finally, however, after 
a good deal of amateur acting, he adopted 
the stage as his profession, first appearing 
in 1879 in Mr. Sydney Grundy's "The 
Snowball," at Nottingham. In 1881 Mr. 
Alexander joined Mr. Henry Irving at the 
Lyceum to play Caleb Deecie in "Two 
Roses," and afterwards Paris in "Romeo 
and Juliet." Then for a time he joined 
the Hare and Kendal Company at the St. 
James's and on tour. In 1883 he again 
joined Mr. Irving, and went with him to 
America, and then remained at the Lyceum 
until 1888, making his chief successes as 
Faust and Macduff ; after that he went 
to the Adelphi. On Feb. 1, 1890, he 
opened the Avenue Theatre as manager 
with "Dr. Bill." The other productions 
at this theatre were "The Struggle for 



Life " and " Sunlight and Shadow." With 
the last-named play Mr. Alexander pro- 
ceeded to the St. James's, which, under 
his management, has since been famous 
for such successes as "The Idler," "Lady 
Windermere's Fan," "Liberty Hall," "The 
Second Mrs. Tanqueray," " The Masque- 
raders," "The Prisoner of Zenda," "As 
You Like It," " The Princess and the 
Butterfly," "The Tree of Knowledge," 
"Much Ado About Nothing," and "The 
Conquerors." In 1882 Mr. Alexander 
married Miss Florence Theleur. Address : 
57 Pont Street, S.W. 

ALEXANDER, The Most Rev. 
William, D.D., D.C.L., Archbishop of 
Armagh and Primate of All Ireland, son 
of a clergyman beneficed in the north of 
Ireland, and nephew of Dr. Alexander, late 
Bishop of Meath, and cousin of the Earl 
of Caledon, was born at Londonderry, 
April 13, 1824. He was educated at 
Tunbridge School and at Exeter and 
Brasenose Colleges, Oxford, where lie 
graduated B.A. and M.A. He graduated 
in classical honours (Honorary 4th, 1847). 
He won the Theological Prize Essay in 
1850, and the Sacred Prize Poem in 1860, 
and was selected to recite a congratulatory 
ode to Lord Derby in the Sheldonian 
Theatre, 1853. Having entered Holy 
Orders, he served a curacy in the north 
of Ireland, and was preferred to one or 
two livings in the gift of the Bishop of 
Derry. He was formerly Bector of Camus- 
juxta-Morne, co. Tyrone, and Chaplain to 
the Marquis of Abercorn, Lord-Lieutenant 
of Ireland. In 1864 he was nominated 
to the Deanery of Emly, and in 1867 was 
an unsuccessful candidate for the chair 
of poetry at Oxford. He was appointed 
to the Bishopric of Derry and Raphoe, 
rendered vacant by the death of Dr. 
Higgin, July 12, 1867, being consecrated in 
Armagh Cathedral, October 13 following ; 
and enthroned as Archbishop of Armagh, 
March 24, 1896. Before his elevation to 
the episcopal Bench lie was created D.D. 
by diploma, and subsequently D.C.L. at 
the Encasnia, 1876, at Oxford. The Bishop 
has been Select Preacher before the Uni- 
versities of Oxford (1870-72 and 1882), 
Cambridge (1872 and 1892), and Dublin 
(1879). He is author of Commentaries on 
Colossians, 1st and 2nd Thessalonians, 
Philemon, and the three Epistles of St. 
John; vols, iii., iv., "Speaker's Com- 
mentaries"; of "The Witness of the 
Psalms, Bampton Lectures," 1876; of 
" The Great Question, and other Sermons," 
1885 ; of " Epistles of St. John, Twenty- 
one Discourses," 3rd edit., 1892, and of 
other works of a similar character. In 
1887 he published a volume of poems, 
entitled " St. Augustine's Holiday, and 

other Poems." He is also the author 
of a large series of single sermons, 
charges and reviews, essays and poems, 
in periodicals of the day. The Bishop 
has endowed his See permanently with 
£2000 a year and the See House, for 
which he has received the thanks of the 
Diocesan Synod of Derry and Raphoe, and 
a recognition from the Diocesan Council 
of "gratitude for his large sacrifice of 
income." He was married to Miss Cecil 
Frances Humphreys, who was herself well 
known as the author of "Moral Songs," 
"Hymns for Children," and' "Poems on 
Old Testament Subjects," and who died 
Oct. 15, 1895. 

ALEXANDER, William Henry, a 

Hampshire country gentleman, was born in 
1842. He became a barrister in 1863, and 
since 1890 has been a Trustee of the Na- 
tional Portrait Gallery, towards the build- 
ing fund of which he subscribed £80,000. 

ALEXANDRA, Princess of Wales. 

See Wales, Princess op. 

ALFONZO XIII., King of Spain, was 
born (posthumously) May 17, 1886 ; his 
mother, Maria Christina, being appointed 
Queen Regent. In August 1897 Queen 
Victoria made him an Hon. Knight Grand 
Cross of the Royal Victorian Order. 

ALEORD, The Right Rev. Charles 
Richard, D.D., formerly Bishop of Vic- 
toria, Hong-kong, was born Aug. 13, 1816, 
at West Quaxtonhead, Somersetshire, of 
which parish his father was rector. From 
St. Paul's School he was sent to Trinity 
College, Cambridge, with a Camden Ex- 
hibition (B.A., 1839; M.A., 1842; D.D., 
1867). After taking orders he became 
Incumbent of St. Matthew's, Rugby, in 
1841 ; Incumbent of Christ's Church, Don- 
caster, in 1846; Principal of the Metro- 
politan Training Institution at Highbury 
in 1854 ; and Incumbent of Holy Trinity, 
Islington, in 1865, where he had a high 
reputation as an Evangelical preacher. He 
was consecrated Bishop of Victoria, Hong- 
kong, Feb. 2, 1867, in place of Dr. George 
Smith, who had resigned that See in the 
previous year. He himself resigned the 
See of Victoria in 1872. He was Vicar of 
Christ Church, Claughton, near Birken- 
head, from June 1874 till September 1877, 
when he accepted the incumbency of the 
new district of St. Mary, Sevenoaks, Kent. 
He was appointed Acting-Commissary of 
the diocese of Huron, Canada, in 1880,. 
and retired in 1881. Dr. Alford is the 
author of " First Principles of the Oracles 
of God " ; a " Charge" on China and Japan ; 
and various sermons and pamphlets. Ad- 
dress : 30 Wilbury Road, West Brighton. 



ALGER, Russell Alexander, 
American soldier and political leader, was 
born in Medina County, Ohio, Feb. 27, 
1836, and comes of New England stock, 
his ancestry being Scotch and English. 
He was educated at the Richfield Academy 
in Summit County, Ohio, attending the 
autumn and winter terms, and working on 
a farm the remainder of the year. He 
studied law at Akron, Ohio, during 1857 
and 1858, and in 1859 was admitted to 
the Bar. He practised law but a short 
time, removing to Michigan on Jan. 1, 

1860. He entered the Army, Oct. 2, 

1861, as Captain in Second Michigan 
Cavalry ; Major of same regiment from 
April 17, 1862; Lieutenant-Colonel Sixth 
Michigan Cavalry, Oct. 30, 1862 ; and 
Colonel of Fifth Michigan Cavalry, June 
11, 1863. He was severely wounded at 
the battle of Boonsboro, Maryland, July 
8, 1863, and received brevet commissions 
as Brigadier-General and Major-General of 
Volunteers for gallant and meritorious 
services during the war between the 
States. He resigned from the army, and 
was discharged Sept. 20, 1864. He was 
Governor of Michigan in 1885 and 1886, 
and was appointed Secretary of War in 
President M'Kinley's Cabinet on March 5, 

ALGER, William Rounsville, was 
born at Freetown, Massachusetts, Dec. 28, 
1822. He graduated at the Cambridge 
Divinity School, 1847, and became pastor 
of a Unitarian Church in Roxbury. In 
1855 he removed to Boston, and in 1874 
became Minister of the Unitarian Church 
of the Messiah in New York, where he 
remained until 1879. Since then he has 
resided in Boston, engaged in literary 
work. He has published ' ' A Symbolic 
History of the Cross of Christ," 1851 ; 
"The Poetry of the Orient," 1856 (five 
editions); "A Critical History of the 
Doctrine of a Future Life," 1861 (14 
editions); "The Genius of Solitude," 1866 
(11 editions) ; " Friendships of Women," 
1867 (10 editions); "Prayers Offered in 
the Massachusetts House of Representa- 
tives," 1868; "Life of Edwin Forrest," 
1877; "The School of Life," 1881; and 
"Sources of Consolation in Human Life," 

ALINGr. See LiEBLiNa, Alice. 

ALISON, General Sir Archibald, 
Bart., K.C.B., son of Sir Archibald Alison, 
the first baronet, author of " The History 
of Europe," was born at Edinburgh, Jan. 
21, 1826, and received his education in the 
Universities of Glasgow and Edinburgh. 
Entering the military service of his country 
in 1846, he became a Captain in the 72nd 

Highlanders in 1853, Brevet-Major in 1856, 
Lieutenant-Colonel in 1858, and Colonel in 
1867. In the latter year he succeeded to 
the baronetcy on the death of his father. 
He served in the Crimea, in the expedition 
to Kertch, and at the siege and fall of 
Sebastopol ; in India during the Mutiny 
as Military Secretary on the staff of the 
late Lord Clyde ; and on the Gold Coast 
as Brigadier-General of the European 
Brigade, and second in command of the 
Ashantee Expedition in 1873-74. He com- 
manded his brigade at the capture of 
Requah, the battle of Amoaful, the action 
of Ordashu, and the fall of Coomassie. 
He lost an arm at the relief of Lucknow. 
Sir Archibald was Assistant Adjutant- 
General at Aldershot from October 1870 to 
October 1874, andDeputy Adjutant-General 
in Ireland from October 1874 to October 
1877, when he was promoted to the rank of 
Major-General. Subsequently he was ap- 
pointed Commandant of the Staff College in 
January 1878, and Chief of the Intelligence 
Department at the War Office from May 
1878 till 1882. A few days after the bom- 
bardment of Alexandria by Sir Beauchamp 
Seymour (now the Right Hon. Baron 
Alcester) a small body of British troops 
was landed (July 27) under the command 
of Sir Archibald Alison. He confined his 
proceedings at first to securing a position 
covering Alexandria, and occupying the 
line of railway which connected Alexandria 
with the suburb of Ramleh. After the 
arrival of the expeditionary force from 
England he commanded the 1st (the High- 
land) Brigade, 2nd Division, and at the 
decisive battle of Tel-el-Kebir, where it 
fought so gallantly on that memorable 
occasion. The Salahijah army laid down 
its arms to him at Puntah, and after 
Arabi's surrender a British army of occu- 
pation, consisting of 12,000 men, under 
the command of Sir Archibald Alison, was 
left in Egypt to restore order and protect 
the Khedive. Sir Archibald was included 
in the thanks of Parliament for his energy 
and gallantry, and was promoted to the rank 
of Lieutenant-General (November 1882). 
In May 1883 he relinquished the command 
of the army of occupation of Egypt and 
returned home. In August 1883 he was 
appointed to the command at Aldershot, 
and in February 1885 he became Adjutant- 
General. In October 1885 he resumed the 
command at Aldershot on the return of 
the force for the relief of Gordon at 
Khartoum. He was appointed Military 
Member of the Council of India at White- 
hall in 1889, and was promoted to the rank 
of General Feb. 20, 1889. He published an 
able treatise "On Army Organisation" 
in 1869, and has contributed at various 
times articles in Blackwood's Magazine. 
Address: 93 Eaton Place, S.W. 



ALLBUTT, Thomas Clifford, MA., 
LL.D., M.D., F.R.C.P., F.R.S., F.L.S., 
J. P., D.L., is the son of the Rev. Thomas 
AUbutt, sometime Vicar of Dewsbury, 
in Yorkshire, and afterwards Rector of 
Debaoh-cum-Boulge, in Suffolk. He was 
born at Dewsbury in 1836, and was edu- 
cated by a private tutor at Ryde, in the 
Isle of Wight, and afterwards under 
Archdeacon Hey, at St. Peter's School, 
York. He went up to Caius College in 
1856, took a scholarship in his first year, 
and subsequently three other scholarships 
in the college. Soon afterwards, however, 
he decided to enter the medical profession, 
and after a pass degree in Arts, went out 
in the Natural Science Tripos in the first 
class, with distinctions in chemistry and 
geology. On leaving Cambridge he entered 
at St. George's Hospital, and afterwards 
spent some time in the hospitals of Paris, 
and graduated in due course as M. A. and 
M.D. of Cambridge. After a brief stay 
in London Allbutt removed to Leeds, 
where he was soon after elected physician 
to the Leeds Infirmary, and rapidly ob- 
tained a large consulting practice in 
me ik-.ine, and for the last fifteen years 
of his residence in Yorkshire had perhaps 
the largest purely consulting physician's 
practice ever carried on in the provinces. 
During the same time he contributed 
largely both to medical and general lite- 
rature. His earliest works were concerned 
with the bodily temperature in health 
and disease, and by devising the "Short 
Clinical Thermometer," he did much to 
forward clinical thermometry in hospital 
and general practice. His friendship with 
Gr. H. Lewes and Lockhart-Clarke engaged 
him in the study of the pathology of the 
nervous system, and in the " Pathological 
Transactions " and elsewhere he published 
researches on this subject, among which 
his demonstrations of the pathology of 
tetanus and hydrophobia are best known, 
the latter being the first observations of 
the kind. Dr. Clifford Allbutt was also 
an early worker in the field of medical 
ophthalmoscopy, and published a work on 
that subject in 1868, which included in- 
vestigations on insanity, and the first 
demonstration of changes in the optic 
nerve in general paralysis and meningitis. 
Other researches were published at various 
dates on diseases of the nervous system, 
of the stomach and kidneys, and on the 
nature and treatment of consumption, in 
which latter attention was drawn to the 
value of the climate of the high Alps in 
the cure of phthisis, then little recognised 
in England. In 1884 Dr. Clifford Allbutt 
delivered the Gulstonian Lectures at the 
Royal College of Physicians on Visceral 
Neuroses, which were published in the 
same year ; and in 1885, in conjunction 

with Mr. Teale, he published a volume on 
the " Treatment of Scrofulous Neck." In 

1888 he delivered the Address on Medi- 
cine to the British Medical Association at 
Glasgow, his subject being the Classifica- 
tion of Disease, and received the honorary 
degree of LL.D. of that University. In 

1889 he was appointed a Commissioner in 
Lunacy, an office which he held for three 
years, when he was appointed by the 
Crown to be Regius - Professor of Physic 
in the University of Cambridge in succes- 
sion to the late Sir George Paget. He was 
elected a Fellow of the Linnean Society 
and of the Society of Antiquaries in 1867, 
and a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1 880. 
He is editor of the " System of Medicine," 
in course of publication by Messrs. Mac- 
millan, the first volume of which appeared 
in the spring of 1895. He acted for some 
years as a Justice of the Peace for the 
West Riding of Yorkshire, is a Deputy- 
Lieutenant for the West Riding and the 
city and county of York, and Justice of 
the Peace for Cambridgeshire. Permanent 
address : St. Radegund's, Cambridge. 

ALLCHIN, William Henry, M.D., 

was educated at University College, Lon- 
don, and took the degree of M.D. at the 
University of London in 1892. He was 
elected a Fellow of the Royal College of 
Physicians of London in 1878, andis a 
Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. 
He is at the present time Senior Physician 
to the Westminster Hospital, and Examiner 
in Medicine for both the London Uni- 
versity and the Army Medical Services. 
Dr. Allchin is the author of "Duodenal 
Indigestion " (Bradshaw Lectures of 1891 
at the Royal College of Physicians), " The 
Breaking Strain" (oration at the Medical 
Society of London in 1896). Articles : 
" Disorders of Digestion, and of Digestive 
Organs," and "Diseases of Intestines," 
in Quain's "Dictionary of Medicine"; 
"Chronic Peritonitis," "Tuberculous Peri- 
tonitis," and "New Growths of the Peri- 
toneum," in Clifford Allbutt's " System of 
Medicine," and other articles in various 
medical journals. Address : 3 Chandos 
Street, Cavendish Square, W. 

ALLCOCK, Rev. Arthur Edmund, 

M.A., is the son of the late Thomas All- 
cock, and was born at Harborne, Stafford- 
shire, on Feb. 16, 1851. He was educated 
at King Edward's School, Birmingham, 
and at Emmanuel College, Cambridge. 
Appointed an Assistant-Master at his old 
school in Birmingham in 1874, he became 
an Assistant-Master at Wellington College 
in 1880, and was ordained in 1889. Mr. 
Allcock was, in 1893, appointed Head 
Master of Highgate School. Address- 
The School House, Highgate, N 



ALLEN, Charles Grant Blairfindie, 
B.A., best known as Grant Allen, the 
second son of Joseph Antisell Allen, In- 
cumbent of Holy Trinity, Wolfe Island, 
Canada, was born at Kingston, Canada, 
Feb. 24, 1848, and educated in the United 
States and France, at King Edward's 
School, Birmingham, and at Merton Col- 
lege, Oxford : matriculated Oct. 19, 1867 ; 
B.A. 1871. Mr. Allen began to write early, 
and soon established a reputation as one 
of the most popular of scientific authors. 
He has been called "The Darwinian St. 
Paul"; his expositions of the Darwinian 
theory being particularly vivid, clear, and 
captivating. Besides a multitude of con- 
tributions to periodical literature, he has 
written the following books on more* or 
less serious subjects : " Physiological 
.Esthetics," 1877; "The Colour Sense," 
1879 ; " The Evolutionist at Large," 1881 ; 
"Anglo-Saxon Britain," 1881; "Vignettes 
from Nature," 1881 ; " Colours of Flowers," 
1882; "Colin Clout's Calendar," 1883; 
" Flowers and their Pedigrees," 1884 ; and 
"Charles Darwin" (in Mr. Andrew Lang's 
series of " English Worthies "), 1885. In 
1883 Mr. Allen began to attempt fiction, 
his first attempt in which line was "Strange 
Stories." Since that date he has produced 
the following works: "Philistia," 1884; 
"Babylon," 1885; "For Maimie's Sake," 
1886; "In All Shades," 1887; "The 
Devil's Die," 1888; "This Mortal Coil," 
1888 ; " The Tents of Shem," 1889 ; "Dr. 
Palliser's Patient" ; "Force and Energy" ; 
"Dumarescq's Daughter " ; " The Attis of 
Catullus"; "Science in Arcady " ; "The 
Woman Who Did," a novel which stirred 
up a storm of controversy, 1895 ; " The 
British Barbarians " in the same year ; and 
in 1898 a novel dealing with missionaries 
in the South Seas. He has also contributed 
a series of papers ("Post-prandial Philo- 
sophy ") to the Westminster Gazette, re-pub- 
lished in book-form in 1894 ; and in 1897 
he published " Historical Guides " to Paris, 
Florence, and Belgium, and "The Evolu- 
tion of the Idea of God." Address: The 
Croft, Hind Head, Haslemere. 

ALLETNE, Major- General Sir 
James, K.C.B., was educated at Chelten- 
ham College and at the Royal Military 
Academy at Woolwich. Entering the 
Boyal Artillery in 1862, he was present at 
the Red River Expedition of 1870, where 
he was in command of the Artillery. He 
next took part in the Zulu campaign, was 
present at the battle of Ulundi, was men- 
tioned in despatches, and received a medal 
and clasp. In the Egyptian Expedition 
of 1882 he served as Deputy Assistant- 
Adjutant-General, witnessed the action of 
Tel-el-Mahuta, and the battle of Tel-el- 
Kebir, was again mentioned in despatches, 

and received a medal and clasp, and the 
bronze star of the Osmanieh. During the 
years 1884-85 he was employed in the 
Soudan Expedition, was Director of River 
Transport, and Assistant-Adjutant-General 
at headquarters ; he commanded a separate 
contingent at the battle of Kirbekan, was 
mentioned in despatches, received two 
clasps, and obtained his colonelcy. He 
served as Commissioner for the Sub-divi- 
sion of Zululand in 1879, and was again 
employed in that capacity to delineate 
the Transvaal-Swazi boundary in 1880. 
Colonel Alleyne was created C.B. in 1891, 
and became Major-General in 1895. He 
received the Queen's Jubilee Medal in 
1897, and in the same year was created 
K.C.B. He now commands the Royal 
Artillery in the Aldershot district. Ad- 
dress : Aldershot. 

ALLIES, Thomas William, the son 

of a gentleman of Bristol, was born in 
1813, and educated at Eton, where he ob- 
tained the Newcastle Scholarship. He 
afterwards became in succession Scholar 
and Fellow of Wadham College, Oxford, 
where he graduated B.A. in 1832, taking a 
first-class in classics. He became examin- 
ing chaplain to Dr. Blomfield, Bishop of 
London, who appointed him in 1842 to 
the rectory of Launton, Oxfordshire, which 
he resigned in 1850, on becoming a Roman 
Catholic. He had previously published a 
volume of sermons, a work entitled "The 
Church of England Cleared from the 
Charge of Schism, upon the Testimonies 
of Councils and Fathers of the First Six 
Centuries," 1846, 2nd edit., 1848; and 
"Journal in France in 1845 and 1848," 
with "Letters from Italy in 1847 — of 
Things and Persons concerning the Church 
and Education," 1849. To give the grounds 
of his conversion he wrote " The See of 
St. Peter, the Rock of the Church, the 
Source of Jurisdiction and the Centre of 
Unity," 1850, 4th edit., 1896; preceded 
by " The Royal Supremacy viewed in 
reference to the Two Spiritual Powers of 
Order and Jurisdiction," 1850. He has 
since written " St. Peter, his Name and 
Office as set forth in Holy Scripture," 
1852, 4th edit., 1895 ; "Dr. Pusey and the 
Ancient Church," 1866 ; " Per Crucem ad 
Lucem, the Result of a Life," 5 vols., 
1879 ; "A Life's Decision," 1880, 2nd edit., 
1894 ; and several other works. His great 
work is entitled " The Formation of Chris- 
tendom," and is in 8 vols. (1865-96), which 
sell as ten, viz. : Vol. 1, "The Christian 
Faith and the Individual"; vol. 2, "The 
Christian Faith and Society " ; vol, 3, 
"The Christian Faith and Philosophy"; 
vol. 4, "Christendom as seen in Church 
and State"; vol. 5, "The Throne of the 
Fisherman built by the Carpenter's Son " 



vol. 6, " The Holy See and the Wandering 
of the Nations " ; vol. 7, " Peter's Rock in 
Mohammed's Flood " ; and vol. 8, " Monas- 
tic Life from the Fathers of the Desert to 
Charlemagne." Mr. Allies was appointed 
Secretary to the Catholic Poor School 
Committee for Great Britain in 1853, and 
continued to 1890. He was created Knight 
Commander of St. Gregory by Leo XIII. 
in 1885. Address : 3 Lodge Place, St. 
John's Wood, N.W. 

ALLINGHAM, Mrs. Helen, eldest 
child of Alexander Henry Paterson, M.D., 
was born near Bnrton-on-Trent, Sept. 26, 
1848. The family removed to Altrincham, 
Cheshire, and after Dr. Paterson's death, 
to Birmingham. At the beginning of 1867 
Miss Paterson came to reside in London 
under the care of her aunt, Miss Laura 
Herford, who was an artist, and who, 
about seven years previously, had practi- 
cally opened the schools of the Royal 
Academy to women. Miss Paterson her- 
self entered the Royal Academy schools in 
April 1867. She afterwards drew on wood 
for several illustrated periodicals, and 
eventually became one of the regular staff 
of the Graphic. She also furnished illus- 
trations to novels running in the Cornhill 
Magazine : " Far from the Madding 
Crowd," and "Miss Angel." In the inter- 
vals of drawing on wood she produced 
several water-colour drawings. "May," 
"Dangerous Ground," &c, were exhibited 
at the Dudley Gallery ; " The Milkmaid," 
and "Wait for Me," at the Royal Academy, 
1874. "Young Customers," 1875, attracted 
much attention ; as did also " Old Men's 
Gardens, Chelsea Hospital," at the Old 
Water-Colour Exhibition, 1877. In 1875 
she was elected an Associate of the Royal 
Society of Painters in Water-Colour, and 
in 1890 to the honour of full membership. 
Mrs. Allingham has also exhibited "The 
Harvest Moon," "The Clothes- Line," "The 
Convalescent," " The Lady of the Manor," 
"The Children's Tea," "The Well," 
"Lessons," and many scenes of English 
rural life. Among her later works are 
several portraits of Thomas Carlyle. 
Special exhibitions of Mrs. Allingham's 
drawings were held in 1886, 1887, and 
1889, also in 1891, 1894, and 1898, at the 
rooms of the Fine Art Society, and had 
great success. Miss Paterson was married, 
Aug. 22, 1874, to the late Mr. William 
Allingham, the poet. Address : Eldon 
House, Lyndhurst Road, Hampstead, 

ALLISON, William B., American 
statesman, was born at Perry, Ohio, March 
2, 1829, was educated at Western Reserve 
College, Ohio, and studied law and prac- 
tised his profession in Ohio, until he 

removed to Iowa in 1857. He served on 
the staff of the Governor of Iowa, and 
aided in organising volunteers in the be-, 
ginning of the war between the Northern 
and Southern States, was elected a Repre- 
sentative in the Thirty-eighth, and re- 
elected to the Thirty-ninth, Fortieth, and 
Forty-first Congresses, and was elected to 
the United States Senate, taking his seat 
March 4, 1873. He was re-elected in 1878, 
1884, 1890, and 1897. He is leader of the 
Senate Committee on Appropriations. 

ALLMAK, Professor George 
James, M.D., LL.D., F.R.C.S.I., F.R.S., 
F.R.S.E., M.R.I.A., F.L.S., Corr. M.Z.S.L., 
Hon. F.R.M.S., Hon. Fellow Royal Geolo- 
gical Society of Cornwall, Member of the 
Royal Dublin Society, and Hon. Member of 
various British and foreign societies, and 
Emeritus Regius - Professor of Natural 
History in the University of Edinburgh, is 
the eldest son of James Allman, Esq., of 
Bandon, and was born at Cork in 1812, 
and educated at the Belfast Academical 
Institution. Warmly attached to the prin- 
ciples of civil and religious liberty, he 
threw himself actively into the agitation 
which led to Catholic Emancipation ; and, 
believing he could best promote its object 
by engaging in the profession of the law, 
he resolved on studying for the Irish Bar. 
The love of natural science, however, 
which had at a very early age taken pos- 
session of him, caused him, before he had 
completed the required number of terms, 
to give up the profession of law for that 
of medicine. He graduated in Arts and 
Medicine in the University of Dublin in 
1844 ; and in the same year was appointed 
to the Regius-Professorship of Botany in 
that university, when he relinquished all 
further thought of medical practice. In 
1854 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal 
Society ; and in 1S55 he resigned his pro- 
fessorship in the University of Dublin on 
his appointment to the Regins-Professor- 
ship of Natural History and Keepership of 
the Natural History Museum in the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh, which he held until 
1870. Shortly after this the honorary 
degree of LL.D. was conferred on him 
by the University of Edinburgh. His chief 
scientific labours have been among the 
lower organisms of the animal kingdom, 
to the investigation of whose structure 
and development he has specially devoted 
himself. For his researches in this depart- 
ment of biology the Royal Society of Edin- 
burgh awarded to him in 1872 the Brisbane 
Prize ; in the following year a Royal Medal 
was awarded to him by the Royal Society 
of London ; in 1878 he received the 
Cunningham Gold Medal from the Royal 
Irish Academy, and in 1896 the Linnean 
Gold Medal from the Linnean Society of 



London. He was one of the Commis- 
sioners appointed by Government in 1876 
to inquire into the state of the Queen's 
Colleges in Ireland. Soon after his elec- 
tion to the Edinburgh chair he was nomi- 
nated one of the Commissioners of Scottish 
■Fisheries, an honorary post which he con- 
tinued to hold until the abolition of the 
Board in 1881. On the resignation of Mr. 
Bentham he was elected to the presidency 
of the Linnean Society, a post which he 
held until. 1983, when he resigned it in 
favour of Sir J. Lubbock. In 1879 he was 
President of the British Association for 
the Advancement of Science. On the com- 
pletion of the exploring voyage of the 
Challenger, the large collection of Hydroida 
made during that great expedition was 
assigned to him for determination and de- 
scription — a service which he had already 
performed for the Hydroida collected 
during the exploration of the Gulf Stream 
under the direction of the United States 
Government. He has served on the Coun- 
cil of the Royal Society of London, and on 
those of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 
and of the Royal Irish Academy, and has 
filled the post of Examiner in Natural 
History for the Queen's University in Ire- 
land, for the University of London, for 
Her Majesty's Army, Navy, and Indian 
Medical Services, and for the Civil Service 
of India. Results of his original investi- 
gations are contained in memoirs published 
in the Philosophical Transactions, the 
Transactions of the Royal Society of Edin- 
burgh, the Transactions of the Royal Irish 
Academy, and the Transactions of the 
IAnnean and Zoological Societies of London; 
as well as in reports presented to the 
British Association for the Advancement 
of Science, to the Mus. Comp. Zool. Har- 
vard University, and to the Commission 
of the Challenger Exploration ; and in com- 
munications to the Annals of Natural His- 
tory, the Quarterly Journal of Microscopic 
Science, and other scientific journals. His 
more elaborate works are "A Monograph 
of the Freshwater Polyzoa," fol., 1856, and 
"A Monograph of the Gymnoblastic 
Hydroids," fol., 1871-72, both published 
by the Ray Society, and largely illustrated 
with coloured plates. Dr. Allman is a 
member of the Athenseum Club, to which 
he was elected by the Committee. He 
married Hannah Louisa, third daughter 
of Samuel Shaen, Esq., of Crix, J.P. and 
D.L. for the county of Essex. Ad- 
dresses : Ardmore, Parkstone, Dorset ; 
and Athenseum. 

ALLMAN, Emeritus Professor 
George Johnston, LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S., 
Senator of the Royal University of Ireland, 
younger son of William Allman, M.D., 
Professor of Botany in the University of 

Dublin (1809-44), born in Dublin Sept. 
28, 1824, was educated at Dr. Wall's 
School and Trinity College, Dublin. He 
graduated in the University of Dublin, 
B.A. 1844, and LL.D. in 1853, and in the 
same year he was appointed Professor of 
Mathematics in Queen's College, Galway, 
and a Professor of the Queen's University 
in Ireland. He was also appointed Bursar 
of the Queen's College in 1864, Member of 
the Senate of the Queen's University in 
Ireland in 1877, and in 1880 he was 
nominated by the Crown one of the first 
Senators of the Royal University of 
Ireland. He was a Member of the Council 
of Queen's College, Galway, 1863-93, 
and in 1888 he was sent by the Corporate 
Body of the Queen's College as delegate 
to the University of Bologna on the 
occasion of the celebration of the Octo- 
centenary of that University. He is 
LL.D. ad eundem of the Queen's University 
(1863), and D.Sc. honoris causd (1882). 
In 1884 he was elected a Fellow of the 
Royal Society, and in 1893 he resigned his 
professorship and the bursarship of 
Queen's College, Galway. In 1853 Dr. 
Allman communicated to the Royal Irish 
Academy "An Account of the late Pro- 
fessor MacCullagh's Lectures on the 
Attraction of Ellipsoids," which he com- 
piled from his notes of the lectures 
(Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, 
vol. xxii.). He has since published 
" Some Properties of the Paraboloids " 
(Quarterly Journal of Mathematics, 1874); 
also " Greek Geometry from Thales to 
Euclid" (Hermathena, vol. iii., No. V., 
1777; vol. vi., No. XIII., 1887), and has 
collected these articles and published 
them in a volume with the same title 
("Dublin University Press Series," 1889). 
He has also contributed "Ptolemy" 
(Claudius Ptolemasus) and other articles 
to the last edition of the " Encyclopaedia 
Britannica." Permanent address : St. 
Mary's, Galway. 

ALMA-TADEMA, Lawrence, R.A., 
R.W.S., H.R.S., F.S.A., painter, was born 
at Dronryp, in the Netherlands, Jan. 8, 
1836. His father was Pieter Tadema, a 
notary. He was intended for one of the 
learned professions, and in training for it 
the works of the ancient classical writers 
of course engrossed much of his attention. 
In 1852 he went to Antwerp, and entered 
the Academy there as a student. After- 
wards he placed himself with the late 
Baron Henry Leys, whom he assisted in 
painting several of the large pictures with 
which the Baron's name is associated. 
Subsequently he came to London, where 
he has resided for many years. He ob- 
tained a gold medal at Paris in 1864 ; a 
second-class medal at the International 



Exhibition at Paris in 1867 ; a gold medal 
at Berlin in 1872, and the grand medal 
in 1874. Mr. Alma-Tadema became a 
member of the Academy of Fine Arts at 
Amsterdam in 1862 ; Knight of the Order 
of Leopold (Belgium) in 1866 ; Knight of 
the Dutch Lion in 1868; Knight First 
Class of the Order of St. Michael of 
Bavaria in 1869 ; Member of the Royal 
Academy of Munich in 1871 ; Knight of 
the Legion of Honour (France) in 1873 ; 
Member of the Society of Painters in 
Water-Colonrs in 1873 ; and Member of 
the Boyal Academy of Berlin in 1874. In 
January 1873 he received letters of deniza- 
tion from the Queen of England, having 
resolved to reside permanently in this 
country. He was nominated a Chevalier 
of the Legion of Honour in 1873 ; and 
elected an Associate of the Royal Academy 
of London, Jan. 26, 1876. In the latter 
year he was also elected a Knight of the 
Third Class of the Golden Lion of Nassau ; 
in 1877 a Knight of the Third Class of the 
Crown of Prussia, and an Hon. Member 
of the Royal Scottish Academy ; in 1878 
he obtained a first-class medal at the 
Paris International Exhibition, and he was 
nominated an Officer of the Legion of 
Honour in the same year. Mr. Alma- 
Tadema was elected a Royal Academician 
June 19, 1879. He is an Hon. Member 
of the Royal Academies of Madrid, Vienna, 
Stockholm, and Naples. The Emperor of 
Germany, in January 1881, appointed him 
a foreign Knight of the Order Pour le 
Merite (Art and Sciences Division) ; and 
in the following month the French 
Academy of Fine Arts elected him its 
London correspondent in the section of 
Painting. His principal paintings are : 
"Entrance to a Roman Theatre," 1866; 
"Agrippina visiting the Ashes of Ger- 
manicus," 1866; "A Roman Dance," 1866; 
"The Mummy," 1867; " Tarquinius 
Superbus," 1867; "The Siesta," 1868; 
"Phidias and the Elgin Marbles," 1868; 
"Flowers," 1868; "Flower Market," 
1868; "A Roman Amateur," 1868; 
"Pyrrhic Dance," 1869; "A Negro," 
1869; "The Convalescent," 1869; "A 
Wine Shop," 1869; "A Jnggler," 1870; 
"A Roman Amateur," 1870; "The Vin- 
tage," 1870; "A Roman Emperor," 1871 ; 
"Une Fete intime," 1871; "The Greek 
Pottery," 3 871; "Reproaches," 1872; 
"The Mummy" (Roman period), 1872; 
"The Improvisatore," 1872; "A Halt," 
1872; "Death of the Firstborn," 1872; 
"Greek Wine," 1872; "The Dinner," 
1873; "The Siesta," 1873; "The Cher- 
ries," 1873; "Fishing," 1873; "Joseph 
Overseer of Pharaoh's Granaries," 1874 ; 
"A Sculpture Gallery," 1874 ; " A Picture 
Gallery," 1874 ; "Autumn," 1874 ; "Good 
Friends," 1874; "On the Steps of the 

Capitol," 1874; "Water Pets," 1875; 
"The Sculpture Gallery," 1875; "An 
Audience at Agrippa's," 1876 ; "After the 
Dance," 1876; "Cleopatra," 1876; "The 
Seasons" (4 pictures), 1877; "Between 
Hope and Fear," 1877; "A Sculptor's 
Model" (Venus Esquilina), "A Love 
Missile," 1878; "A Hearty Welcome," 
" Down to the River," " Pamona Festival," 
"In the Time of Constantine," 1879; 
"Spring Festival," "Not at Home," 
"Fredegonda," 1880; "Sappho," 1881; 
"An Oleander." and "The Way to the 
Temple" (his diploma work), 1883 ; "The 
Emperor Hadrian visiting a British 
Pottery," 1884; "AReadingfrom Homer," 
1885; "An Apodyterinm." 1886 ; "The 
Roses of Heliogabalus," 1888; "At the 
Shrine of Venus," and "A Dedication to 
Bacchus," 1889; "Comparisons," 1893; 
"At the Close of a Joyful Day," 1894; 
"Spring," 1895 ; " Whispering Noon," and 
"The Coliseum," 1896; "Watching," and 
"Her Eyes are with her Thoughts," &c, 
1897; and "The Conversion of Paula," 
1898. At the Grosvenor Gallery in 1876 
he exhibited a series of three pictures : 
"Architecture," "Sculpture," and "Paint- 
ing, "also "Cherries." A special exhibi- 
tion of his pictures was held at the 
Grosvenor Gallery in 1883. He received 
the Fine Art Medal of Honour at the 
Paris Exhibition, 1889. By his first wife 
he had two daughters, one of whom, Miss 
Laurence Alma-Tadema, is the author of 
"Love's Martyr," a novel; "The Wings 
of Icarus," a novel ; a translation of 
Maeterlinck's " Pelleas et Melisandre"; 
and a volume of poems, "Realms of 
Unknown Kings " ; and the other, Miss 
Anna Alma-Tadema, has made a brilliant 
dibut as a water-colour painter, gaining 
the second medal at the Paris Exhibition 
in 1889. His second wife, whom he 
married in 1871, was Miss Laura Theresa, 
youngest daughter of Dr. George Epps. 
This lady is an accomplished artist, and 
has exhibited several pictures at the Royal 
Academy, at the Society of French Artists, 
at the Grosvenor Gallery, and New Gallery. 
She won the gold medal at Berlin in 1896. 
Addresses : 17 Grove End Road, St. John's 
Wood, N.W. ; and Athenaeum. 

ALMOND, Hely Hutchinson, M.A., 
LL.D., was born at Glasgow on Aug. 12, 
1832, and is the son of the Rev. George 
Almond. He was educated at Glasgow 
University and at Balliol College, Oxford, 
where he obtained first-class Honours in 
both Classical and Mathematical Modera- 
tions, and second-class Honours in both 
the final schools of Lit. Hum. and Mathe- 
matics. He is an Hon. LL.D. of Glasgow. 
He was appointed Second Master of 
Merchiston Castle School in 1858, and 



became Head Master of Loretto School in 
1862. Mr. Almond is also the author of 
the following : " Sermons by a Lay Head- 
master," 1886 and 1892 ; " Edinburgh 
Health Lectures," 1884; "Football as a 
Moral Agent," published in the December 
1893 number of the Nineteenth Century, 
"English Prose Extracts," 1895. He was 
married in 1876 to Eleanora Frances, 
daughter of Canon Tristram. Address : 
North Esk Lodge, Musselburgh. 

AMAGAT, Emile Hilaire, was born 
in 1841 at St. Satur, near Sancerre, a 
village in the Department of Cher. His 
first intention was to become a manufac- 
turing chemist, which calling, however, 
he soon abandoned, and made up his mind 
to enter the profession of teaching. His 
early struggles were hard, and it was 
under difficult circumstances that he ob- 
tained the various degrees which the 
University of France grants. He was for 
some years assistant to the celebrated 
chemist Berthelot, at the College of France. 
He lived in Switzerland, and was a master 
at the Lycee of Fribourg from 1867 to 
1872, using this opportunity for composing 
his Doctoral thesis, which he presented 
at Paris in 1872. He taught chemistry 
for five years at the old normal school of 
Cluny, and in 1877 he became Professor 
of Physics in the free university of Lyons. 
This institution was then in course of 
formation, and he created there the de- 
partment of Physics, in which he carried 
out his principal experiments, and re- 
corded their results. He returned to Paris 
in 1891, and became an assistant at the 
Ecole Polytechnique, where he is at the 
present time occupied in examining candi- 
dates for admission to the school. He has 
been a Member of the Institute of France 
since 1889, was elected a Member of the 
Eoyal Society of London and of that of 
Edinburgh in 1897, and is a Member of 
the Dutch Society of Sciences, an Hon. 
Member of the Philosophical Society of 
Manchester and of the Scientific Society 
of Brussels. His principal experiments 
are connected with the study of the elas- 
ticity and expansion of fluids, which he 
observed under such conditions of tem- 
perature, and especially of pressure, as 
had hardly been reached up till that time 
in recent investigations. His most im- 
portant memoir is the one which he pub- 
lished in 1893, and which recapitulates 
the whole of the laws relating to the 
statics of liquids and gases. These laws 
were the outcome of his experiments. He 
has also published several memoirs relat- 
ing to the elasticity of solids. Since 1894 
he has particularly endeavoured to deduce 
the logical inferences resulting from his 
experimental investigations ; he has pub- 

lished, with this idea, his researches on 
the variation of the specific heats of fluids 
under the influence of temperature and 
pressure, and his researches on the in- 
ternal pressure of fluids. All his writings 
have been published in the "Comptes 
Eendus " of the Academy of Sciences, mid 
most of his memoirs have been given in 
full in the " Annales de Chimie et de 
Physique." Address: Ecole Polytechnique, 

AMPTHILL, Lord, Oliver Arthur 
ViUiers Russell, B.A., J.P., son of the 
1st Lord Ampthill, the well-known am- 
bassador, was born in Rome on Feb. 19, 
1869. He was educated at Eton and New 
College, Oxford, and was President of the 
University Union Society in 1891. In 
politics he is a Liberal Unionist, and he 
contested Fulham in the L.C.C. election 
of 1895 as a Moderate. He was Assistant 
Private Secretary to the Right Hon. J. 
Chamberlain, Colonial Secretary, from 
1895 to 1897, and in the latter year was 
appointed Private Secretary to that, states- 
man. At the present time (June 1898) he 
is engaged on the Sugar Bounties Confer- 
ence, which is sitting in Brussels. Lord 
Ampthill has a very considerable rowing 
reputation, inasmuch as he was a member 
of the Eton Eight from 1886 to 1888, and 
was their captain from 1887 to 1889 ; 
whilst at Oxford he rowed in the Uni- 
versity Eight from 1889 to 1891, and was 
the President of the O.U.B.C. in 1891 ; he 
is, moreover, at the present time President 
of the London Rowing Club. He was 
formerly a Lieutenant in the Royal 1st 
Devon Yeomanry Cavalry, and is now a 
Captain in the 3rd Battalion of the Bedford- 
shire Regiment. In 1894 he was married 
to Margaret, daughter of the 6th Earl 
Beauchamp, and has a son and heir, John 
Hugo, born in 1896. Address : 109 Park 
Street, W. 

ANCASTER, Earl of, The Right 
Hon. Gilbert Henry Heathcote 
Drummond Willoughby, was born in 
1830, and succeded his father as 2nd Baron 
Aveland in 1867, and his mother as 24th 
Baron Willoughby de Eresby in 1888. He 
was educated at Harrow and Trinity 
College, Cambridge. From 1852 to 1856 
he represented Boston in the House of 
Commons as a Conservative, and ;ilso sat 
for Rutland in the same interest from l x 56 
to 1867. He is Joint Hereditary Lord 
Great Chamberlain of England, and was 
created Earl of Ancaster in 1892. He is 
married to Evelyn Elizabeth, second 
daughter of the 10th Marquis of Huntly, 
and has a son and heir, Lord Willoughby 
de Eresby, M.P. for the Horncastle Divi- 
sion of Lincolnshire. Addresses : Nor- 



manton Park, Stamford ; Drummond 
Castle, Crieff, Perthshire; and 12 Bel- 
grave Square, S.W. 

ANDERSON, Mrs. Elizabeth Gar- 
rett-, M.D., daughter of Newson Garrett, 
Esq., of Aldeburgh, Suffolk, was born in 
London in 1836, educated at home and at 
a private school. Miss Elizabeth Garrett 
began to study medicine at Middlesex Hos- 
pital in 1860, completed the medical curri- 
culum at St. Andrews, Edinburgh, and the 
London Hospital, and passed the examina- 
tion at Apothecaries' Hall, receiving the 
diploma of L.S.A. in October 1865. She 
was appointed General Medical Attendant 
to St. Mary's Dispensary in June 1866, ob- 
tained the degree of M. D. from the Uni- 
versity of Paris in 1870, and in the same 
year was appointed one of the visiting 
physicians to the East London Hospital 
for Children and Dispensary for Women. 
On Nov. 29, 1870, Miss Garrett was elected 
a Member of the London School Board, 
being returned by a large majority at the 
head of the poll for Marvlebone. She was 
married Feb. 9, 1871, 'to Mr. J. G. S. 
Anderson, of the Orient line of steamships 
to Australia. In 1872 Mrs. Anderson aided 
in the establishment and organisation of 
the New Hospital for Women, then at 222 
Marylebone Road, and now at 144 Euston 
Road, of which the acting medical staff is 
composed entirely of women. Mrs. Ander- 
son has been for some years its Senior 
Visiting Physician. For twenty - three 
years she was Lecturer on Medicine at 
the London School of Medicine for Women, 
Brunswick Square. She is still Dean of 
the school. She was for many years on 
the Councils of the North London Col- 
legiate School for Girls, and of Bedford 
College. Mrs. Garrett-Anderson continues 
to practise in London as a physician for 
women and children. She has written 
various papers on medical and social 
questions, and is a Member of the British 
Medical Association. In 1897 Mrs. Ander- 
son was elected President of the East 
Anglian Branch of this Association. She 
was also for some years President of the 
Association of Registered Medical Women. 
Permanent addresses : 4 Upper Berkeley 
Street, Portman Square ; and Westhill, 
Aldeburgh, Suffolk. 

ANDERSON, Dr. John, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.R.S.E., F.R.G.S., &c, son of the 
late Mr. Thomas Anderson, Secretary to 
the National Bank of Scotland, Edinburgh, 
was born in that city on Oct. 4, 1833 ; 
educated at the George Square Academy 
and the Hill Street Institution and finally 
at the Edinburgh University. He took 
the degree of M.D. in 1861, and received 
a gold medal for his thesis, entitled 

"Observations in Zoology." Immediately 
after his graduation he was appointed 
Professor of Natural Science in the Free 
Church College, Edinburgh, but he re- 
signed the office in 1864, having been 
offered the Curatorship of a Museum 
which the Government of India intended 
to found in Calcutta, and of which the 
collections of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 
were to form the nucleus. He arrived in 
India in July 1864, and in the following 
year was appointed Superintendent of the 
Indian Museum, and two or three years 
afterwards he was also given the Chair 
of Comparative Anatomy in the Medical 
College, Calcutta. In 1868 he was selected 
by the Government of India to accompany 
an expedition to Western China, vid British 
and Independent Burmah, in the capacity 
of Scientific Officer. Again, in 1874, he 
was chosen by the Government of India 
to proceed once more to Western China 
in the same capacity as on the former 
expedition, and with instructions to ad- 
vance from Bhamo to Shanghai. This 
expedition was attacked by the Chinese, 
and was obliged to retreat to Burmah ; 
Augustus Raymond Margary having been 
treacherously murdered at Manwyne. In 
1881 Dr Anderson was sent by the Trustees 
of the Indian Museum, Calcutta, to investi- 
gate the Marine Zoology of the Mergui 
Archipelago, off the coast of Tenasserim. 
In 1887 he retired from the service of the 
Government of India. Besides numerous 
papers on zoology, a list of which is to be 
found in the Royal Society's Catalogue of 
scientific papers, Dr. Anderson is the 
author of the following independent 
works: "A Report on the Expedition 
to Western China vid Bhamo," published 
by the Government of India, 1871 ; "Man- 
dalay to Momien," an account of the two 
expeditions to Western China, the first 
under Major (afterwards Colonel Sir 
Edward) Sladen, and the second under 
the command of Colonel Horace Browne, 
1875; "Anatomical and Zoological Re- 
searches," including an account of the 
zoological results of the two expeditions 
to Western China, 1868-69 and 1875, 4to, 
with 1 vol. plates, 1878 ; " Catalogue of 
the Mammalia in the Indian Museum," 
Part I. published by the Trustees of the 
Indian Museum, 8vo, 1879; "Handbook 
to the Archaeological Collections of the 
Indian Museum, Calcutta," 2 vols., 8vo, 
published by the Trustees, 1881 and 1882. 
The scientific results of his researches in 
the Mergui Archipelago were published by 
the Linnean Society of London in vols. 
21 and 22 of their Journal, which were 
devoted exclusively to the subject, the 
various animal groups having been worked 
out by specialists. Dr. Anderson described 
the Mammals, Birds, Reptiles, and Bat- 



rachia, and gave an exhaustive account 
of the Selungs, the human inhabitants of 
the islands, adding a vocabulary of their 
language. And in connection with the 
same expedition to Mergui, a town which 
was once in Siamese territory, he published 
in 1890, in Triibner's Oriental Series, a full 
account of " English Intercourse with Siam 
in the Seventeenth Century." Dr. Ander- 
son is a Fellow of the Eoyal Societies of 
London and Edinburgh, of the Linnean 
Society, and the Zoological Society of 
London, of the Royal Geographical Society 
of London, of the Society of Antiquaries 
of London and of Edinburgh, of the Royal 
Physical and Botanical Societies of Edin- 
burgh, and of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 
He is also a Fellow of the Calcutta Uni- 
versity, and is a Corresponding Fellow of 
the Ethnological Society of Italy. In 1885 
the University of Edinburgh conferred on 
him the honorary degree of LL.D. In 
1896 Dr. Anderson published a small 
volume on "The Herpetology of Arabia," 
and he is now engaged issuing a work on 
" The Fauna of Egypt." The first vol., on 
"The Reptiles and Batrachians of Egypt," 
is illustrated by fifty-two 4to plates, the 
majority of the subjects having been drawn 
from life. 

ANDERSON, Mary. See Navakko, 
Madamb Antonio de. 

ANDERSON, William, F.R.C.S., born 
in London on Dec. 18, 1842, is the son of 
Mr. William Henry Anderson. He was 
educated at the City of London School, 
St. Thomas's Hospital, and in Paris. After 
passing through his medical career at St. 
Thomas's Hospital, where he became 
Cheselden Medallist, he was appointed in 
1873 Professor of Anatomy and Surgery at 
the Japanese Naval and Medical College 
at Tokio. In the following year he became 
Medical Officer to the British Legation at 
Tokio, and an adviser to the Sanitary De- 
partment of the Japanese Home Office. 
While organising the Naval Medical Ser- 
vice, and studying the diseases peculiar to 
the country, he devoted his leisure to in- 
vestigating the history and technique of 
the pictorial Arts of China and Japan, 
forming a large collection of illustrative 
paintings and engravings, which were after- 
wards acquired by the British Museum. 
Returning to England in 1880 to take the 
appointment of Assistant - Surgeon and 
Lecturer on Anatomy at St. Thomas's 
Hospital, he practised as a consulting sur- 
geon, and was elected full Surgeon to the 
Hospital in 1891, Hunterian Professor of 
Surgery and Pathology at the Royal College 
of Surgeons in the same year, and Professor 
of Anatomy in the Royal Academy of Arts 
in 1892. In the same year he took part in 

the formation of the Japan Society, and 
was elected its first Chairman of Council. 
He became an Examiner in Surgery at the 
University of London and at the Royal 
College of Surgeons of England in 1894, 
and Vice-President of the Anatomical 
Society of Great Britain and Ireland in 
1895. He is a member of several learned 
societies, and an Hon. Member of the 
American Society of Anatomists, and of 
the Japanese Society for the Advancement 
of Medical Science (Sei-I-Kwai). In 1895 
he was honoured by the Emperor of Japan 
with the decoration of the Third Class 
Order of the Rising Sun for services in 
connection with medical education in 
Japan and with the literature of Japanese 
Art. His published works include numer- 
ous standard contributions to the medical 
press, and to various literary and artistic 
Magazines and Reviews ; a short essay 
on the history of Japanese painting in 
the Transactions of the Asiatic Society of 
Japan for 1875 (the first outline of the 
subject in any European language); a 
"Treatise on the Pictorial Arts of Japan" 
(1 886) ; a descriptive and historical cata- 
logue of the collection of Japanese and 
Chinese pictures in the British Museum 
(1886) ; and a monograph on Japanese 
wood engravings (1895). His collection of 
Japanese and Chinese paintings was ex- 
hibited in the White Gallery of the British 
Museum in 1888-89, and a collection of 
engravings and illustrated books at the 
Burlington Fine Arts Club in 1890. 
Address : 2 Harley Street, Cavendish 
Square, W. 

ANDERSON, General William 
Warden, second son of the late Sir 
George Anderson, K.C.B., Governor of the 
Mauritius and of Ceylon, was born at 
Surat, in India, 1824, and appointed Cornet 
in the 2nd Bombay Lancers in 1840. He 
served through the Punjaub campaign of 
1848, and was present at the siege and 
capture of Mooltan, as well as the siege of 
Awah and of Kotah, 1857. He served 
throughout the Indian Mutiny, 1857, and 
was severely wounded in the engagement 
with the rebels at Gwalior. From 1858 
to 1867 he acted as Assistant-Political 
Resident, and Superintendent of the Gui- 
cowar's contingent of horse in Katywar. 
From 1867 to 1874 he was Political 
Agent in that province. He was pro- 
moted to Brevet-Major for services at 
Gwalior against the rebels, 1857 (medal 
with clasps) ; Major-General, 1878 ; Lieu- 
tenant-General, 1882 ; General, 1888. He 
more than once received the thanks of 
the Governor-General of India for the 
efficient manner in which he had dis- 
charged the duties of Political Agent in 



ANDERSON, Sir William, K.C.B., 
F.R.S., D.C.L., J.P., Director-General of 
Royal Ordnance Factories, was born at St. 
Petersburg on Jan. 5, 1835. He obtained 
his early education at the High Com- 
mercial School in his native city, and 
when he left in 1849 he was head of the 
school, silver medallist, and, although a 
British subject, he had conferred upon 
him the freedom of the city of St. Peters- 
burg. In 1849 Mr. Anderson became a 
matriculated student in the Applied 
Sciences Department of King's College, 
London, and went through the complete 
three years' course, taking many prizes, 
and leaving in 1851 with the degree of 
Associate, to become a pupil of the late 
Sir William Fairbairn at Manchester. He 
remained with Messrs. William Fairbairn 
and Sons for three years, and during that 
time was much employed in looking after 
important outwork. In 1855 Mr. Anderson 
entered into partnership with Messrs. 
Courtney & Stephens, of Dublin, and 
remained with them till 1864, being 
engaged chiefly in the construction of 
bridges, cranes, signals, and other fittings 
for railways. He devoted much attention 
to the theory of diagonally braced girders, 
then but little understood, and contributed 
several papers to the Institution of Civil 
Engineers of Ireland, of which body he 
became President in 1863. In the autumn 
of 1864 Mr. Anderson removed to London, 
joining the old-established firm of Baston 
and Amos, with the object of building new 
works on the Thames at Erith, the old 
premises in Southwark Street having been 
found inconvenient for large and heavy 
work. Mr. Anderson, under whose direct 
management the Erith works have been 
since their erection, became eventually 
the head of the firm of Easton & Ander- 
son. He is a Member of Council of the 
Institute of Civil Engineers, a Vice-Presi- 
dent of the Institute of Mechanical En- 
gineers, a Visitor of the Royal Institution, 
a Vice-President of the Society of Arts, and 
has contributed numerous papers on a 
variety of subjects to these bodies. His 
knowledge of the Russian language has 
enabled him to abstract many interesting 
papers for the "Foreign Abstracts" pub- 
lished by the Institution of Civil En- 
gineers. He has also translated the re- 
markable works of Chernoff on steel, and 
the researches of the late General Kala- 
kontsky, on the internal stresses in cast- 
iron and steel. He was selected by the 
Institute of Civil Engineers to deliver one 
of the heat series of lectures, namely, that 
on the "Generation of Steam"; by the 
School of Military Engineering at Chat- 
ham, to lecture on " Hydraulic Machinery 
and on Hydro-pneumatic Moncrieff Gun- 
Carriage " ; and delivered for the Society 

of Arts, under the Howard Trust, a course 
of lectures on the "Conversion of Heat 
into Work." In August 1889 he was 
appointed by Mr. Stanhope (Secretary of 
State for War) Director-General of the 
Royal Ordnance Factories, which comprise 
the laboratory, the carriage departments, 
and the gun factory at the Royal Arsenal, 
Woolwich, the Royal Gunpowder Factory 
at Waltham Abbey, and the small-arms 
factories at Enfield and Birmingham. 
The University of Durham has conferred 
on him the honorary degree of D.C.L., and 
he was in 1889 elected President of section 
G of the British Association. In June 
1895 he was made C.B., and in May 1897 
K.C.B. He is married to Emma, daughter 
of the Rev. J. R. Brown, Knighton, Rad- 
norshire. Address : Royal Arsenal, Wool- 

AETDREE, Dr. S. A., Swedish aero- 
naut, began studying air currents in 1877 
when on a voyage to the United States, 
with the idea of crossing the Atlantic in a 
balloon. Since 1892 he experimented in 
Sweden with the help of King Oscar. His 
now famous balloon, in which he and his 
two companions, Dr. Strindberg and Herr 
Fraenkel, started, was constructed under 
the superintendence of M. Henri Lach- 
ambre, and was taken to the N.W. corner 
of Spitzbergen, with the object of crossing 
the North Polar area. Herr Andree went 
there in 1896, when he did not consider 
the atmospheric conditions favourable 
enough for his enterprise ; but on July 11, 
1897, he started on his hazardous voyage, 
and only once has reliable information 
reached the expectant civilised world since 
that date, when the balloon disappeared 
behind the ice hummocks of the Frozen Sea. 
As in the case of Franklin, we consider 
Herr Andre"e to be alive till we have posi- 
tive proof of his death. His balloon was 
so constructed as to be capable of re- 
maining in the air for over fifty days, but 
he took provisions for only four months. 
He also took thirty-two carrier-pigeons, 
and told his friends not to be alarmed if 
they did not hear from him for a year. 
Of these pigeons, only one has brought a 
message ; it was shot near Spitzbergen on 
July 22, 1897, and carried a message dated 
July 13, stating that all was well. It 
was sent off in 82'2° N. lat., 15 - 5° E. long., 
and so in two days the balloon had ad- 
vanced 187 miles in a N.N.E. direction. 
He hoped to make land in Siberia or 
Alaska, but if he descended on the ice N. 
of 82° it is doubtful whi ther he would be 
able to secure a sufficiency of food by 
means of his gun. Several rumours have 
reached Europe of his having arrived at 
the Pole, but as yet none have received 
confirmation (August 1898). 



ANDREWS, Thomas, F.R.S., 
F.R.S.E., M.Inst.C.E., F.C.S., &c, was 
born Feb. 16, 1847, in Sheffield, and is 
the only son of the late Mr. Thomas 
Andrews of the same town. He was 
educated at Broomhank School by the 
late Rev. Thomas Howarth, M.A., and 
subsequently by private tuition, and was 
carefully trained in metallurgy, mining, 
and engineering by his father. On the 
death of his father in 1871 he succeeded 
him as proprietor of the Wortley Iron- 
works (one of the oldest-established iron- 
works in England), and the Wortley 
Silkstone Colliery. In addition to con- 
ducting and managing the ironworks, Mr. 
Andrews has rendered excellent service to 
metallurgical, physical, and engineering 
science, by a series of original researches, 
extending over many years, and con- 
nected with various branches of the above 
sciences. He has determined the relative 
corrosibility of wrought iron and modern 
steels in sea-water and in tidal streams, 
and shown that iron corrodes much less 
than steels. He has made elaborate re- 
searches, published by the Institute of 
Civil Engineers, on the " Effects of Tem- 
perature on the Strength of Railway Axles, 
in an Investigation extending over Seven 
Years," and has therein determined, on 
a large experimental scale, the resistance 
of metals to sudden concussion at varying 
temperatures down to zero Fahrenheit ; 
and indicated the influence of climatic 
temperature changes on the strength of 
railway material, and at the same time 
has ascertained some of the causes lead- 
ing to accidental fractures on railways. 
He has also studied the influence of 
sudden chilling on the physical properties 
of metals. He has conducted numerous 
other original investigations on the electro- 
motive force between vessels at high 
temperatures, &c. , and also an intricate 
research on "Electro-chemical Effects on 
Magnetising Iron," Parts I., II., III. ; the 
results of the latter research have shown 
that magnetised iron or steel is electro- 
positive to unmagnetised in certain chemi- 
cal solutions. In another part of this 
research Mr. Andrews observed that a 
current was produced when the opposite 
poles of two electrically connected magnets 
of approximately equal strength were im- 
mersed in solutions of various chemical 
substances, the north pole being generally 
positive to the south pole. Mr. Andrews 
has written papers on the " Passive State 
of Iron and Steel," discovering in these 
researches that the passive state of iron 
was influenced by magnetism ; and he 
also determined the relative passivity of 
the various modern steels, and the in- 
fluence of chemical composition, physical 
structure, &c, on the passivity of the 

metals. Mr. Andrews has also experi- 
mented on the "Heat Dilatation of 
Metals from Very Low Temperatures." 
In the course of another research he has 
made determinations of the plasticity of 
ice, and also on the relative conductivity 
of ice and snow, and on the contracti- 
bility of ice at low temperatures. He 
has also contributed various articles to 
Iron, The Engineer, Chemical Ncu'S, Nature, 
Poggendorff's Annalen, and other periodi- 
cals. The results of these numerous 
researches are embodied in about thirty- 
three papers, published in the Proceedings 
of the Royal Society, London ; Transactions 
and Proceedings of the Royal Society, Edin- 
burgh; Proceedings of the Institute of Civil 
Engineers ; Transactions of the Society of 
Engineers; Transactions of the Midland 
Mining Institute: British Association Re- 
ports ; Transactions of the Institute of 
Marine Engineers, &c. For some of these 
papers Mr. Andrews was awarded at dif- 
ferent times by the Institute of Civil 
Engineers a Telford Medal and three 
Telford Premiums successively, and also 
a premium by the Society of Engineers. 
In 189S the Society of Engineers awarded 
him the Bessemer Premium. He was in 
1888 elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, 
London, and has also been elected Fellow 
of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Member 
of the Institute of Civil Engineers, Fellow 
of the Chemical Society, &c. Numerous 
quotations are made from his metallur- 
gical researches in the recent valuable 
standard work on the " Metallurgy of 
Steel," by Henry M. Howe, Boston, U.S.A. 
He is patentee of an invention for 
hydraulic machinery in connection with 
the manufacture of iron. Mr. Andrews 
takes a practical interest in all Christian 
and educational labour, and has conducted 
large night-schools. In 1870 he married 
Mary Hannah, eldest daughter of the late 
Mr. Charles Stanley, of Rotherham. Ad- 
dress : Ravencrag, Wortley, near Sheffield. 

ANDREWS, The Right Hon. 
William Drennan, is a Judge in the 
Exchequer Division of the High Court of 
Justice, Ireland, and was sworn a Member 
of the Irish Privy Council in 1897. 

ANGELL, James Burrill, American 
educator and statesman, was born at 
Scituate, Rhode Island, Jan. 7, 1829. He 
graduated at Brown University in 1849, 
and spent some time in Europe studying 
and travelling. On his return to America 
in 1853 he was appointed Professor of 
Modern Languages and Literature at 
Brown University, where he graduated. 
In 1860 he became editor of the Daily 
Journal of Providence, and retained that 
position until called to the Presidency of 



the University of Vermont in 1866. In 
1871 he became President of the Univer- 
sity of Michigan, an office he has since 
continued to fill, except during the years 
1880-81, which he spent in China as 
Minister from the United States, and in 
1897-98, when he was United States Mini- 
ster to Turkey. In 1880-81 he was also 
chairman of a special commission to nego- 
tiate a treaty with China. This commission 
made a treaty in commercial matters, and 
also one on Chinese immigration. 

ANGUS, Joseph, D.D., was born Jan. 
16, 1816, at Bolam, Northumberland, and 
educated at King's College, Stepney College, 
and Edinburgh, where he graduated in 
1836, taking the first prizes in nearly all 
his classes, and at the close of his course 
gaining the University Prize for an essay 
on " The Philosophy of Lord Bacon," open 
to all students, both literary and medical. 
In 1840 he was appointed Secretary of the 
Baptist Missionary Society, and visited the 
West Indies on the churches in that island 
becoming independent of the Society. 
In 1849 he became President of Stepney 
College, which College was removed to 
Regent's Park in 1857. Dr. Angus, who 
was for several years English Examiner to 
the University of London and to the 
Indian Civil Service, is the author of the 
" Handbook of the Bible," "Handbook of 
the English Tongue," "English Litera- 
ture," "Christ our Life," and several 
other works. He has also edited Butler's 
"Analogy and Sermons," with notes, and 
Dr. Wayland's " Moral Science." He was 
a member of the New Testament Com- 
pany for the Revision of the Scriptures, 
and for ten years a member of the London 
School Board. In recent years the College 
at Regent's Park has made provision for 
largely extending its work ; and, in 
addition to the foundation of several 
scholarships, the sum of £30,000 has been 
contributed to it, through Dr. Angus, for 
increasing its efficiency. Special chairs 
were founded, and more than one lecture- 
ship has been established. 

ANHALT, Grand Duke of, Leopold 
Frederic Francois Nicolas, was born 
at Dessau on April 29, 1831, and suc- 
ceeded his father in 1871. He is a General 
of Prussian infantry, and a Knight of the 
Order of the Black Eagle. He was married 
to Antoinette, Princess of Saxe-Altenburg, 
in 1854, and his heir is the Hereditary 
Prince Leopold Fre'de'ric, born in 1856, 
and married to Marie, Princess of Baden. 
The fifth son of the Grand Duke, Prince 
Aribert, was married at Windsor Castle in 
1891 to the Princess Louise of Schleswig- 
Holstein, daughter of the Princess Chris- 
tian, and granddaughter of Queen Victoria. 

ANN AND ALE, Charles, M. A., LL.D., 
was born in Kincardineshire on Aug. 6, 
1843, and was educated at Aberdeen Uni- 
versity. He is engaged in all kinds of 
literary work, and has edited several im- 
portant works of reference, among which 
may be mentioned : " The Imperial Dic- 
tionary," Blackie's "Modern Cyclopaedia," 
" The Popular Cyclopaedia," " The Student's 
Dictionary," Burns's Works, &c. He was 
married in 1877. Address : 35 Queen 
Mary Avenue, Glasgow. 

ANNAND ALE, Professor Thomas, 

F.R.S.E., M.D., F.R.C.S. London and Edin- 
burgh, and Member of many Foreign 
Societies, was born at Newcastle - on - 
Tyne, Feb. 2, 1838, and educated at the 
Newcastle Infirmary and the University 
of Edinburgh. He became private assist- 
ant to the late Professor Syme, Demon- 
strator of Anatomy in the University of 
Edinburgh, and Surgeon and Lecturer on 
Surgery to the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary. 
Dr. Annandale's high reputation as a prac- 
tical and operating surgeon and teacher of 
surgery led to his appointment in October 
1877 as Regius-Professor of Clinical Sur- 
gery in the University of Edinburgh. He 
is Senior Surgeon to the Royal Infirmary, 
Consulting Surgeon to the Royal Sick 
Children's Hospital and to the Royal 
Maternity Hospital ; and is the author of 
"The Malformations, Diseases, and Injuries 
of the Fingers and Toes, and their Surgi- 
cal Treatment," 1865, being the Jacksonian 
Prize Essay of the Royal College of Sur- 
geons of London for 1864; "Abstracts of 
Surgical Principles," 1868-70, 2nd ■edit., 
1876; "Clinical Surgical Lectures," 
1874-75, reported in the Medical Times 
and British Medical Journal; "On the 
Pathology and Operative Treatment of 
Hip Disease," 1876 ; author of articles 
"Diseases of the Breast," "Internal De- 
rangements of the Knee-joint, and their 
Treatment by Operation," "On the Re- 
moval of Bone to Promote Healing of 
Wounds," and numerous contributions 
to professional periodicals. Address : 34 
Charlotte Square, Edinburgh. 

ANNENKOW, General Michael, 

son of General Michael Annenkow, and 
constructor of the Russian Central Asian 
Railroad, was born in 1838, and educated in 
St. Petersburg. He received his first com- 
mission in 1863, in the mounted Pioneers 
of the Guard. He afterwards entered the 
Russian Staff College, and served as a staff- 
captain during the'Polish insurrection ; at 
the end of which he became colonel, 
though only twenty-eight years of age. 
He spent four years in Poland, in police 
service, and in 1870 was attached to the 
German armies during the campaign in 



France ; and was afterwards given the 
chief direction of troops in Russia, and 
organised the railway battalions. Subse- 
quently he was one of Skobeloff's staff 
officers in the Merv campaign. Not only 
the Samarcand line, bat several other 
Russian strategic lines are due to him. 
To him is due a project for the creation 
of a Trans-Siberian Railway, which is to 
extend from Moscow to the borders of 
China. During a sojourn in Paris in 1891 
General Annenkow made his latest plans 
in this direction known to the French 
press. Since then his ideas have taken 
concrete shape in the greatest railway 
scheme in the world, being over 4700 miles 
long, and costing over £55,000,000 sterling. 
By means of this line Russia will soon be 
connected with Vladivostock and Port 
Arthur, on the Pacific Ocean. The Trans- 
Siberian Railway has now reached the 
Manchurian frontier, and the length in 
Chinese territory will be 950 miles. 

ANNUNZIO, Gabrielle d'. See 
D'Annunzio, Gabrielle. 

ANSON, Sir William Reynell, 
D.C.L., son of the late Sir John W. H. 
Anson, 2nd Bart., and Elizabeth Catherine, 
second daughter of General Sir Denis 
Park, K.C.B., was born on Nov. 14, 1843, at 
Avisford House, Walberton, Sussex. He 
was educated at Eton and Balliol College, 
Oxford, where he obtained a first-class in 
the school of Lit. Hum. He graduated 
B.A. in 1866, M.A. in 1869, B.C.L. in 
1875, and D. C.L. in 1881. He was a Fellow 
of All Souls' College from 1867 to 1881, 
and in the latter year was elected Warden 
of that society. He was called to the Bar 
in 1869, and held the appointment of 
Vinerian Reader in English Law at Ox- 
ford from 1874 to 1881. He was an 
Alderman for the city of Oxford in 1892, 
was appointed a Justice of the Peace for 
Oxfordshire in 1883, and was Chairman of 
the Quarter - Sessions in 1894. He was 
elected a Fellow of Eton College in 1883. 
Sir W. Anson is the author of "Principles 
of the English Law of Contrast," and 
"Law and Custom of the Constitution," 
Part I. "Parliament," Part II. "The 
Crown." Addresses : All Souls' College, 
Oxford ; and Athenaeum. 

ANSTRTJTHER, Henry Torrerjs, 

M.P., second son of the late Colonel Sir 
R. Anstruther, Bart., M.P., was born in 
1860, and was educated at Eton and at 
the University of Edinburgh. He was 
called to the Scotch Bar in 1885, and was 
elected Liberal-Unionist Member for the 
St. Andrews Burghs in 1886. He was re- 
elected for that constituency in 1895, and 
in the same year, on the formation of the 

present administration, he was appointed 
a Lord of the Treasury, and second Whip. 
He now, however, fills the office of prin- 
cipal Liberal-Unionist Whip. Mr. Ans- 
truther was at one time a Lieutenant in 
the Fife Light Horse Volunteers. He was 
married in 1889 to Eva, daughter of th 
4th Baron Sudeley. Addresses : 6 Chester 
Street, S.W. ; and Gillingshill, Pitten- 
weem, Fife. 

ANTHOPOULO, Pasha. See Cos- 


ARABI, Ahmed, the leader of the 
military insurrection in Egypt, 1882, was 
born of a fellah family, resident in a small 
village in the province of Charkieh, in the 
eastern portion of Lower Egypt, nearly on 
the borders of the Desert. He was enlisted 
in the army during the reign of Said Pacha, 
who initiated the system of replacing the 
foreign officers by native Egyptians. 
Arabi was one of those thus selected, and 
he rose rapidly in rank ; but the Viceroy 
was capricious, and one day he had Arabi 
punished with some hundred blows of a 
stick, and relegated him to half - pay. 
Arabi, who had learned to read and write, 
and had compatriots at Ezher, the reli- 
gious university of Cairo, went thither to 
study science, and although he could not 
complete a course which requires about 
twenty years to accomplish, he learnt 
sufficient to enable him to pass for a savant 
among his colleagues in the army. Ismail 
Pacha restored him to the army, and from 
this time Arabi was regarded by his Egyp- 
tian colleagues as a pious and learned man, 
his conduct being, according to Mussul- 
man morality, irreproachable. He married 
the daughter of the nurse of El Hami 
Pacha, son of Abbas Pacha, who had been 
brought up in the Prince's palace : this 
afforded him somewhat of a competence. 
During the Abyssinian campaign he man- 
aged to have the charge of the transport, 
and remained at Massama to forward the 
convoys. After the campaign he was 
employed in the transport of sugar from 
the Khedive's factories in Upper Egypt, 
and, having a quarrel with the manager of 
the Khedive's property, he returned to 
Cairo, and was again replaced in the army, 
being at the time lieutenant-colonel. He 
became the intimate counsellor of Ali Bey 
El Roubi, who was the means of raising 
Arabi from his obscurity. During the 
years 1876-78 he organised a sort of secret 
society among the fellah officers, which 
was not noticed in consequence of the 
events that were then engaging the atten- 
tion of the Khedive and the State. Some 
weeks previous to the coup d'ttat of Ismail 
Pacha against the European Ministry, 
several officers, among whom were Arabi 



and El Koubi, went to Ali Pacha Moubarek, 
a. fellah of Charkieh, and proposed to place 
him at their head to overthrow the Khe- 
dive and the European Ministry. Ali 
Pacha Monbarek, who was a member of 
the Ministry of Wilson and Blignieres, 
related the whole to the Khedive, who had 
an interview with the society of El Roubi 
and Arabi, and with their aid made the 
iamous revolution which brought about 
the fall of the European Ministry of 1879. 
Ismail Pacha would, doubtless, have sup- 
pressed the society had he remained a 
week or a fortnight longer in Egypt. At 
the accession of Tewfik, the bulk of the 
public were yet ignorant of the name of 
Arabi. In a short time afterwards the 
Khedive made him colonel, and entrusted 
him with a regiment. Ali Bey El Roubi 
was sent to Mansourah as President of the 
Tribunal of First Instance ; but the con- 
spiracy could not be destroyed, especially 
because no one in the Government, except 
perhaps the Khedive himself, considered 
that it had any real importance. At this 
time began the intrigues of the ex-Khedive, 
of Halim Pacha, and the Porte, and each 
party endeavoured to get hold of the only 
power that appeared to remain in Egypt, 
that is to say, this conspiracy of officers, 
which had drawn to it a large number of 
non-commissioneri officers, and even of 
soldiers, by promising them an increase 
of pay, with better clothing and rations. 
The tactics of Arabi were to awaken the 
interest of the people in the movement 
which he was preparing, and to which he 
gave the name of " The Awakening of the 
National Party." In September 1881 
Arabi appeared at the head of a military 
and popular revolt, compelling the Khedive, 
Tewfik Pacha, to dismiss his former Minis- 
try, and to convene a sort of Parliament 
called the Assembly of Notables, which met 
about the beginning of 1882. The affair 
of September 8 resulted in the overthrow 
of Riaz Pacha's Administration, which 
was unpopular because it was supposed 
to be too deferential to certain foreign 
interests. Cherif Pacha, who was there- 
upon appointed Prime Minister, pledged 
the Khedive to establish a Parliamentary 
Government. A manifesto was issued by 
the "National Party" on Dec. 18, 1881, 
containing an exposition of their views 
and purposes. They professed loyalty to 
the Sultan both as Imperial Suzerain and 
as Caliph of the Mussulman community, 
but would never suffer Egypt to be reduced 
to a Turkish Pachalic, and they claimed 
the guarantee of England and of Europe 
for the administrative independence of 
Egypt. They also professed loyalty to 
the Khedive, but would not acquiesce in 
a despotic rule, and they insisted upon 
bis promise to govern by the advice of a 

representative assembly. At the beginning 
of 1882 the Khedive and Cherif Pacha 
called together the Assembly of Notables. 
Arabi was then appointed Under-Secretary 
for the War Department, and was raised 
to the rank of Pacha. The Assembly of 
Notables wanted to vote the Budget. 
This claim was refused by the Khedive's 
Government on account of the financial 
Controllers, and hence arose the Egyptian 
crisis. Arabi and the army had, however, 
a monopoly of power. The Khedive was 
forced to accept a National Ministry, and 
the Organic Law, adopted in defiance of 
the protests of the Controllers, placed the 
Budgets in the hands of the Notables, 
thus subverting the authority of England 
and France embodied in the Control. 
Arabi, now substantially Dictator, and 
supported almost undisguisedly by the 
Sultan, proceeded to more daring measures. 
Eventually the English Government felt 
obliged to intervene by armed force. Then 
followed the bombardment of Alexandria 
by the fleet under the command of Sir 
Beauchamp Seymour (July 11, 1882), and 
subsequently (Sept. 13) the decisive defeat 
of Arabi and his army at Tel-el-Kebir by 
the British troops under Sir Garnet 
Wolseley. Arabi and his lieutenant, 
Toulba. Pacha, fled to Cairo, where they 
surrendered to General Drury Lowe. It 
was intended at first to charge Arabi with 
murder and incendiarism, but he was actu- 
ally brought to trial on the simple charge 
of rebellion (December 3). He pleaded 
guilty, and was condemned to death, but 
immediately afterwards the sentence was 
commuted by the Khedive to perpetual 
exile from Egypt and its dependencies. 
Ceylon having been chosen as the place 
of banishment, Arabi, with other leaders 
in the rebellion, were landed at Colombo, 
Jan. 16, 1883. 

ARBTJTH1TOT, Sir Alexander J., 

K.C.S.I., CLE., son of the then Bishop of 
Killaloe, was born in Ireland on Oct. 11, 
1822. He was educated at Rugby and at 
the old East India College at Haileybury, 
and entered the Madras Civil Service in 
1842. Appointed a Member of the Coun- 
cil of Madras in 1867, he filled that posi- 
tion until 1872. Subsequently he was a 
Member of the Governor-General's Council 
from 1875 to 1880 ; and eventually he be- 
came a Member of the Council of India in 
1887. He published in 1881 "Selections 
from the Minutes, and other Official Writ- 
ings, of Major-General Sir Thomas Munro, 
Governor of Madras," with an introductory 
Memoir and Notes. He was created a 
K.C.S.I. in 1873; is Vice-Chancellor of 
Madras and Calcutta Universities; and 
is a Fellow of thie Royal Historical Society. 
Sir A. Arbufchnot is married to Frederica, 



daughter of Major-General Fearon, C.B. 
Addresses: Newtown House, near Newbury; 
and Athenajum. 

ARCH, Joseph, leader of the agricul- 
tural labourers' movement, was born at 
Barford, Warwickshire, on Nov. 10, 1826. 
His father was a labourer, and he himself 
had, from an early age, to work in the 
fields for his living, beginning life, like 
Cobbett, as a scarer of birds. He married 
the daughter of a mechanic, and at her 
suggestion he added to his slender stock 
of book-learning. He used often to sit 
up late at night reading books, whilst 
smoking his pipe by the kitchen fire. In 
this way he contrived to acquire some 
knowledge of logic, mensuration, and sur- 
veying. He likewise perused a large num- 
ber of religious works, and for some years 
he occupied a good deal of his spare time in 
preaching among the Primitive Methodists. 
When the movement arose among the 
agricultural labourers, he became its re- 
cognised leader. In 1872 he founded the 
National Agricultural Labourers' Union, of 
which he became President. He went 
through the principal agricultural districts 
of England, addressing crowded meetings 
of the labouring classes, and afterwards he 
visited Canada to inquire into the . ques- 
tions of labour and emigration. Having 
once or twice offered himself unsuccess- 
fully as a candidate for a seat in Parlia- 
ment, Mr. Arch was elected in 1885 
Liberal member for North-west Norfolk, 
but after the dissolution of 1886 he was 
defeated by his former Conservative oppo- 
nent, Lord Henry Bentinck. At the 1892 
election he was returned for North-west 
Norfolk, and again in 1895. He has de- 
scribed himself as " The Prince of Wales's 
own M.P." In January 1898 appeared 
"The Life of Joseph Arch," edited by the 
Countess of Warwick. In this remarkable 
autobiography Mr. Arch describes his life 
and early home, and takes up his position 
in the following sentence : " I am all in 
favour of fostering the local spirit. Make 
a man proud of, and interested in, his 
birthplace or locality — make him feel he 
has a part in it — and you have started him 
on the road to good citizenship. Some 
will remain strongly local all their lives : 
others will broaden and widen from the 
local basis. The right and natural deve- 
lopment is from home to neighbouring 
homes ; then to the homes of the parish, 
the district, the county, the country, the 
empire, the world. But everything de- 
pends on individual effort ; the man must 
help himself if he is to help others." 
Address : The Cottage, Barford, Warwick. 

ABCEDALL, The Bight Rev. 
Mervyn, D.D., Bishop of Eillaloe, was 

educated at Trinity College, Dublin. Be- 
coming Vicar of Templebready in 1863, he 
was appointed successively Rector of St. 
Luke's, Cork, in 1872 ; Dean of Cork in 
1894; and Bishop of Killaloe in 1897. 
During the years 1872 to 1897 he acted as 
Examining Chaplain to Bishops Meade and 
Gregg of Cork, was Archdeacon of Cork 
from 1878 to 1894, and was made a Canon 
of St. Patrick's Cathedral in 1891. Ad- 
dress : Killaloe, Limerick. 

ARCHER, James, R.S.A. , was born in 
Edinburgh, June 10, 1824, and educated at 
the High School in that city. He received 
his art education in the school founded 
by the Honourable Board of Trustees for 
Manufactures in Scotland, and was ap- 
pointed an Associate of the Koyal Scottish 
Academy in 1850, and a full Academician 
in 1858. Mr. Archer, who left Scotland 
for London in 1862, first exhibited in the 
Royal Academy in the year 1850 a cartoon 
of a design of the Last Supper, followed 
by an oil picture of the same the year 
after. He made a series of pictures from 
the " Mort d' Arthur," of which one was 
exhibited in the Royal Academy, "The 
Mystic Sword Excalibur," and painted a 
series of pictures of children in costume, 
exhibited in the Royal Academy, of which 
"Maggie, you're Cheating," is the chief. 
He became a portrait painter in 1871, ex- 
hibiting a portrait of Colonel Sykes, M.P., 
from which time he painted many por- 
traits, one of the principal being that of 
Sir Charles 0. Trevelyan, and another 
that of Professor Blackie. Since that he 
has painted four large subject pictures : 
the first " The Worship of Dionysus " ; 
" Dieu le veult. Peter the Hermit Preaching 
the First Crusade"; "In the Second 
Century, You ! a Christian ? " and the 
fourth, "St. Agnes, a Christian Martyr." 
In 1884 he went for a few months to the 
United States, where he painted James G. 
Blaine, who that year was the defeated 
candidate for the Presidency ; and also 
Andrew Carnegie, the well-known Pitts- 
burg millionaire. In 1886 he went to 
India, where he remained for three years, 
spending the winters always in Calcutta. 
There he painted several of the native 
Rajahs, chiefly members of the well-known 
family of Tagore, one branch of which is 
an adherent to the reformed religious 
movement of the Brahmo Somaj. In Simla 
he painted Lady Dufferin in her silver- 
wedding dress, as well as her son, then 
Lord Clandeboye. There he also painted 
a posthumous portrait of Sir Charles Mac- 
gregor, and designed his commemorative 
medal. He returned to London in 1889. 
Among the portraits he painted after 1889 
was one of Sir Charles U. Aitchison, just 
returned to England from his Governor- 



ship of the Punjab, the portrait being 
commissioned by the Rajah of Capurthala ; 
and a posthumous portrait of the Earl of 
Dalhousie, painted for the city of Dundee, 
for whom he also painted their member, 
Sir John Leng. Among the pictures he 
has since painted are, " Music in the 
Gloamin','' "From the Ballad of Sir 
Patrick Spens," and " St. Bernard Preach- 
ing the Second Crusade." Permanent 
address : Haslemere, Surrey. 

ARCHER, "William, was born in 
1856 at Perth, Scotland, and is the son 
of Thomas Archer, C.M.G., late Agent- 
General for Queensland in London. Edu- 
cated mainly in Edinburgh, he took the 
M.A. degree, Edinburgh University, in 
1876. He commenced journalism as 
leader-writer on the Edinburgh Evening 
News from 1875 to 1878, with an interval 
of a year, during which he visited Aus- 
tralia. He published in Edinburgh "The 
Fashionable Tragedian," 1877 ; a pamphlet 
written in collaboration with Mr. Robert 
W. Lowe. He subsequently became dra- 
matic critic of the London Figaro, then 
edited by Mr. James Mortimer, 1879-81. 
He is best known as a translator of Ibsen. 
He translated from the Norwegian, with 
slight alterations, Henrik Ibsen's " Pillarsof 
Society," produced at the Gaiety Theatre, 
London, by Mr. W. H. Vernon, Dec. 15, 
1880. This was the first production of 
a play by Ibsen in England. He was called 
to the Bar (Middle Temple), 1883. In 1884 
he succeeded the late Dutton Cook as 
dramatic critic of the World, a post still 
retained in April 1898. He translated 
"A Doll's House," by Henrik Ibsen, pro- 
duced by Mr. Charles Charrington and 
Miss Janet Achurch at the Novelty Theatre, 
London, June 7, 1889, a production which 
excited general interest, in Ibsen in 
England. He has also translated, in col- 
laboration with Mr. Edmund Gosse, ' ' The 
Master Builder," by Henrik Ibsen, pro- 
duced at Trafalgar Square Theatre by Mr. 
Herbert Waring and Miss Elizabeth Robins, 
Feb. 20, 1893, and "A Visit," from the 
Danish of Edrard Brandes, produced by 
the Independent Theatre Society (Royalty 
Theatre), March 4, 1892. His principal 
publications are "English Analyses of 
French Plays represented at the Gaiety 
Theatre," 1879; "English Dramatists of 
To-day," London, 1882; "Henry Irving, 
Actor and Manager : a Critical Study," 
1883 ; " About the Theatre : Essays and 
Studies," 1886; "Masks or Faces? a 
Study in the Psychology of Acting," 1888 ; 
" William Charles Macready ; a Biography" 
(Vol. 1 of Eminent Actors Series), 1890 ; 
"Henrik Ibsen's Prose Dramas, Edited by 
W. A.," 5 vols., 1890-91; "Tales of Two 
Countries, from the Norwegian of A. 

Kielland," 1891 ; " Peer Gynt, Dramatic 
Poem by Henrik Ibsen, Translated by 
William and Charles Archer," 1892; 
"Eskimo Life, by Frithjof Nansen," 1893 ; 
"Hannele: a Dream Poem by Gerhart 
Hauptmann," 1894 ; ' ' Dramatic Essays of 
Leigh Hunt, William Hazlitt, John 
Forster, and George Henry Lewes " (3 
vols.), edited by William Archer and 
Robert W. Lowe, 1894 ; a yearly re-issue 
of criticisms contributed to the World, 
published under the title of " The Theatri- 
cal 'World'," of which 5 vols, have ap- 
peared, for 1893, '94, '95, '96, '97; transla- 
tions of Ibsen's " Little Eyolf " (1895) and 
"John Gabriel Bonkman " (1897) ; a trans- 
lation of Brogger and Rolfsen's "Life of 
Frithjof Nansen." He also translated two- 
thirds of Dr. G. Brandes's " William Shake- 
speare." Address : World Office, 1 York 
Street, Covent Garden. 

ARDAGH, Major-General Sir John 
Charles, K.C.I.E., C.B., son of the Rev. 
W. J. Ardagh, was born in August 1840. 
He was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, 
and at the Royal Military Academy, Wool- 
wich, entering the Royal Engineers as 
Lieutenant in April 1859. He was pro- 
moted Captain in August 1872, Major in 
September 1880, and reached the rank of 
Colonel in June 1885. In 1869 he accom- 
panied General Sir W. Jervois on a mission 
to Nova Scotia and Bermuda. His first 
staff appointment was that of Dept. Assist. 
Quartermaster- General of the Intelligence 
Department of the Army, in which capacity 
he was employed on missions to Holland, 
Austria, Italy, and Turkey. He was also 
present at the Conference at Constanti- 
nople in 1876, and the Congress at Berlin 
in 1878, and was appointed Chief Com- 
missioner for the Delimitation of the 
Turco- Greek Frontier in 1881. For a 
short time be was the Instructor in Mili- 
tary History at the School of Military 
Engineering. He went to Egypt in October 
1882 as Assistant Adjutant-General, and 
served through the campaign. He was 
present at the operations at Alexandria 
and the battle of Tel-el-Kebir, was men- 
tioned in despatches, and received the 
brevet of Lieut.-Colonel and the Osmanieh 
of the Fourth Class. In March 1884 he 
went to the Soudan as Commanding Royal 
Engineer and Chief of the Intelligence 
Department, and was present at the battles 
of El Teb and Tamai. He was several 
times mentioned in despatches, and re- 
ceived a C.B. Sir John Ardagh also ac- 
companied the expedition up the Nile, and 
was afterwards appointed Commandant of 
the Base at Cairo. As Colonel on the Staff 
of the Frontier Field Force he took part 
in the action of Giniss. He returned to 
England in November 1887 to take oyer 



the duties of Assistant Adjutant-General 
at headquarters, when he was also ap- 
pointed an extra A.D.C. to the Duke of 
Cambridge. He went to India in March 
1889 as Private Secretary to the Viceroy. 
In April 1895 he became the Commandant 
of the School of Military Engineering, 
which appointment he vacated in April 
1896 on being appointed Director of Mili- 
tary Intelligence at headquarters. Major- 
General Sir John Ardagh married Susan, 
Countess of Malmesbury, widow of the 
third Earl, in 1896. In 1897 the degree of 
LL.D. honoris causd was conferred on him 
by Trinity College, Dublin. Addresses : 25 
Sloane Gardens, S.W. ; AthenEeum. 

ARDILAUN, Lord, Arthur Edward 
Guinness, was born on Nov. 1, 1840, and 
succeeded his father as 2nd Baronet in 
1868. He was educated at Eton and 
Trinity College, Dublin. He represented 
Dublin as Conservative member of the 
House of Commons from 1868 to 1869, and 
again from 1874 to 1880. In the latter 
year he was raised to the Peerage under 
the title of Baron Ardilaun. He is the 
head of the great brewing firm of Arthur 
Guinness & Co., is President of the 
Royal Dublin Society, and is Lord Mayor 
of Dublin. To Lord Ardilaun belongs the 
credit of having restored St. Patrick's 
Cathedral at Dublin. He is married to 
Olivia Charlotte, daughter of the 3rd 
Earl of Bantry, but there is no heir to the 
Peerage, his brother, Benjamin Lee Guin- 
ness, born in 1842, being heir to the 
Baronetcy. Addresses : 11 Carlton House 
Terrace, S.W. ; St. Anne's, Clontarf, co. 
Dublin ; and Ashford Cong, Galway. 

Bishop of. See Chinnbry - Haldane, 
The Eight Rev. Jambs Robert Alex- 

ARGYLL, Duke of, His Grace 
The Right Hon. George Douglas 
Campbell, K.G., K.T., only surviving son 
of the 7th Duke, was born at Ardin- 
caple Castle, Dumbartonshire, on April 
30, 1823, and before he had succeeded his 
father, in April 1847, had become known 
as an author, politician, and public speaker. 
As Marquis of Lome he took an active 
part in the controversy in the Presbyterian 
Church of Scotland relating to patronage, 
and was looked upon by Dr. Chalmers as 
an important and valuable adherent. As 
early as 1842 he published a pamphlet 
which exhibited considerable literary 
ability, under the title of "A Letter to 
the Peers from a Peer's Son." His brochure, 
" On the Duty and Necessity of Immediate 
Legislative Interposition in behalf of the 
Church of Scotland, as determined by 

Considerations of Constitutional Law," 
was a historical view of that Church, par- 
ticularly in reference to its constitutional 
power in ecclesiastical matters. In the 
course of the same year he published "A 
Letter to the Rev. Thomas Chalmers, D. D., 
on the Present Position of Church Affairs 
in Scotland, and the Causes which have 
led to it." In this pamphlet he vindicated 
the right of the Church to legislate for 
itself ; but condemned the Free Church 
movement then in agitation among certain 
members of the General Assembly ; main- 
taining the position taken up in his ; ' Letter 
to the Peers," and expressing his dissent 
from the extreme view embodied in the 
statement of Dr. Chalmers, that "lay 
patronage and the integrity of the 
spiritual independence of the Church 
have been proved to be, like oil and 
water, immiscible." In 1848 the Duke 
published an essay, critical and his- 
torical, on the ecclesiastical history of 
Scotland since the Reformation, entitled 
" Presbytery Examined." It was a careful 
expansion of his earlier writings, and was 
favourably received. His Grace was a 
frequent speaker in the House of Peers on 
such subjects as Jewish Emancipation, 
the Scottish Marriage Bill, the Corrupt 
Practices at Elections Bill, the Sugar 
Duties, Foreign Affairs, the Ecclesiastical 
Titles Bill, the Scottish Law of Entail, and 
the Repeal of the Paper Duties. During 
the administration of Lord John Russell 
he gave the Government a general support, 
at the same time identifying his political 
views with those of the Liberal Conserva- 
tives. His Grace actively interested him- 
self in all questions affecting Scottish 
interests brought before the Legislature, 
especially in the affairs of the Church of 
Scotland. In 1851 he was elected Chan- 
cellor of the University of St. Andrews. 
In 1852 he accepted office in the Cabinet 
of the Earl of Aberdeen as Lord Privy 
Seal. On the breaking up of that Minis- 
try in February 1855, in consequence of 
the secession of Lord John Russell, and 
the appointment of Mr. Roebuck's Com- 
mittee of Inquiry into the state of the 
British Army before Sebastopol, his Grace 
retained the same office under the Premier- 
ship of Lord Palmerston. In the latter 
part of 1855 he resigned the Privy Seal 
and became Postmaster-General. In Lord 
Palmerston's Cabinet of 1859 the Duke 
resumed the office of Lord Privy Seal, 
which he exchanged for that of Postmaster- 
General on Lord Elgin being sent, in 1860, 
on his second special mission to China. 
He was reappointed Lord Privy Seal in 
1860, was elected Rector of the University 
of Glasgow in November 1854 ; presided 
over the twenty-fifth annual meeting of 
the British Association for the Advance- 




merit of Science, held at Glasgow in Sep- 
tember 1855 ; and was elected President of 
the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1861. 
On the formation of Mr. Gladstone's Cabi- 
net in December 1868 he was appointed 
Secretary of State for India, and he held 
that position till the downfall of the 
Liberal Government in February 1874. In 
the ensuing session he warmly supported 
the measure introduced and carried by 
the Conservative Government for the trans- 
fer of the patronage in the Church of 
Scotland from individuals to congregations. 
He was appointed Lord Privy Seal for the 
third time in May 1880, on Mr. Gladstone 
returning to power. That post he held till 
April 1881, when he resigned it in conse- 
quence of a difference with his colleagues in 
the Cabinet concerning some of the provi- 
sions of the Irish Land Bill. In announcing 
the circumstance to the House of Lords 
(April 8), he stated that in consequence of 
certain provisions of the Bill which, in his 
view, put the ownership of Irish property 
in commission and abeyance, he had felt 
obliged to resign his office in the Govern- 
ment, and his resignation had been accepted 
by Her Majesty. Since that time the 
Duke has taken an important part, by 
speech and pen, in political controversy, 
taking the Whig side, especially on the 
questions of Home Rule and those arising 
out of the Crofter agitation. His Grace is 
Hereditary Master of the Queen's House- 
hold in Scotland, Chancellor of the Uni- 
versity of St. Andrews, a Trustee of the 
British Museum, and Hereditary Sheriff 
and Lord-Lieutenant of Argyllshire. In 
1866 his Grace published "The Reign 
of Law," which has passed through nu- 
merous editions ; in 1869, "Primeval Man ; 
an Examination of some Recent Specula- 
tions " ; in 1870, a small work on the 
History and Antiquities of Iona, of which 
island his Grace is proprietor ; in 1874, 
"The Patronage Act of 1874 all that was 
asked in 1843, being a reply to Mr. Taylor 
Innes"; in 1877 (for the Cobden Club) 
observations "On the Important Question 
Involved in the Relation of Landlord and 
Tenant " ; in 1879, '• The Eastern Question 
from the Treaty of Paris to the Treaty of 
Berlin, and to the second Afghan War," 
2 vols.; and in 1884, "The Unity of 
Nature," a work on the Philosophy of 
Religion ; being a sequel to the "Reign of 
Law " ; " An Economic History of Scot- 
land," 1884; "Scotland as it Was, and as 
it Is," 1887 ; " The New British Constitu- 
tion," 1888 ; " The Highland Nurse," 1889 ; 
" Unseen Foundations of Society," and 
"Irish Nationalism," 1893; "Poems," 
1894; and "Philosophy of Belief," 1896. 
He is a frequent contributor to scientific 
journals, chiefly on Geology, the Darwinian 
Theory, &c. He married, first, in 1844, 

the eldest daughter of the 2nd Duke of 
Sutherland (she died May 25, 1878); 
secondly, in 1881, Amelia Maria, eldest 
daughter of Dr. Claughton, Bishop of St. 
Albans, and widow of Colonel Augustus 
Henry Archibald Anson ; and, thirdly, in 
1895, Ina Erskine, youngest daughter of 
the late Archibald M'Neill, of Colonsay, 
Argyllshire, and Woman of the Bed- 
chamber to Her Majesty the Queen. His 
Grace's eldest son, the Marquis of Lome, 
married in 1871 the Princess Louise. 
(See LOBNB.) Addresses: Inverary Castle, 
Argyllshire ; Argyll Lodge, Kensington ; 
and Athena?um. 

ARIA, Mrs. David B., journalist, 
was born in London, Aug. 11, 1864. She 
is the third daughter of Mr. and Mrs. 
Hyman Davis, and was married in March 
1884. Educated privately by Madame 
Paul Lafargue (eldest daughter of Karl 
Marx) and by Mr. Gilmore, she began 
writing for the press in January 1889, 
making the subject of costume her speci- 
alty, and endeavouring to bring to the 
description and criticism of the passing 
modes a more picturesque and lively style 
than had hitherto been adopted. When 
the Gentlewoman was started in 1890 Mrs. 
Aria was engaged upon the staff as prin- 
cipal fashion writer, designer of original 
costumes, and contributor of light social 
articles, a position in which she has con- 
tinued to the present time. In 1891 she 
commenced her well-known "Diary of a 
Daughter of Eve " in the newly-published 
Black and White, remaining on the staff of 
that paper until 1897, when she transferred 
her "Diary" to the pages of the Sketch, 
where it now appears. In 1892 she was 
writing also the fashion articles in the 
Pictorial World and St. Stephen's Review. 
She joined the staff of the Queen, writing 
chiefly the "Vista of Fashion," and became 
the editress of the pages devoted to dress 
in Hearth and Home, resigning that post 
in 1895. For some time Mrs. Aria contri- 
buted the Dress column to the Illustrated 
London News, and for the last two years 
she has written the Saturday column on 
" Frocks and Fashions " in the Daily 
Chronicle. She also writes "The Diary of 
Madame Sans G<5ne " in Country Life, and 
discourses monthly of the modes in The 
Woman at Some. Numerous are the peri- 
odicals, in addition to those named, in 
which her pen has been employed in con- 
nection with costume, theatrical criticism, 
or social causerie and satirical sketches. 
In April 1898 Mrs. Aria made her most 
ambitious journalistic venture, initiating, 
as editress, the publication of an illus- 
trated monthly journal entitled The World 
of Dress, a Survey of the Fashions of To-day 
and To-morrow. In the autumn of 1897 a 



new field of industry was opened to her ; 
she was engaged to design and arrange 
the numerous dresses for an elaborate 
spectacular melodrama at Drury Lane 
Theatre. Mrs. Aria's address is 7 Bruns- 
wick Place, Regent's Park, W. 

ARMAGH, Archbishop of. See 

Alexander, The Most Rev. William. 

ARMSTEAD, Henry Hugh, R.A., 
sculptor, was born in London, June 18, 
1828, and received his artistic education 
at the School of Design, Somerset House, 
Leigh's School, Maddox Street, Mr. Carey's 
School, and the Royal Academy. Among 
his masters were Mr. M'Manus, Mr. Her- 
bert, R.A., Mr. Bailey, R.A., Mr. Leigh, and 
Mr. Carey. As a designer, modeller, and 
chaser for silver, gold, and jewellery, and 
a draughtsman on wood, he has executed 
a large number of works. Among those 
in silver, the most important are the 
"Charles Kean Testimonial," the "St. 
George's Vase," "Doncaster Race Plate," 
the "Tennyson Vase" (Silver Medal ob- 
tained for that and other works in Paris, 
1855), and the "Packington Shield." 
His last important work in silver (for 
which the Medal from the 1862 Exhibi- 
tion was obtained) was the " Outram 
Shield," always on view at the South 
Kensington Museum. His works in marble, 
bronze, stone, and wood include the south 
and east sides of the podium of the Albert 
Memorial, Hyde Park, representing the 
musicians and painters of the Italian, Ger- 
man, French, and English Schools, and 
some of the greatest poets. There are 
also four large bronze figures on the Albert 
Memorial by Mr. Armstead, viz., Chemistry, 
Astronomy, Medicine, and Rhetoric. He 
also designed the external sculptural de- 
corations of the New Colonial Offices — 
reliefs of Europe, Asia, Africa, America, 
Australasia, Government, and Education ; 
statues of Earl Grey, Lord Lytton, Duke 
of Newcastle, Earl of Derby, Lord Ripon, 
Sir W. Molesworth, Lord Glenelg; and 
on . the facade, reliefs of Truth, Forti- 
tude, Temperance, and Obedience. Mr. 
Armstead designed the whole of the 
carved oak panels (beneath Dyce's Fres- 
coes) in her Majesty's Robing Room in 
New Palace, Westminster, illustrating the 
life of King Arthur and the history of 
Sir Galahad ; also the external sculpture 
of Eatington Park, Warwickshire, the 
large Fountain in the fore court of King's 
College, Cambridge, the marble reredos 
of the " Entombment of our Lord " at 
Hythe Church, Kent, and other works, 
including the effigies of the late Bishop 
of Winchester in Winchester Cathedral, 
of Dean Howard and Archdeacon Moore 
in Lichfield Cathedral, of Dean Close in 

Carlisle Cathedral, and of Lord Thynne 
in Westminster Abbey. The marble door- 
way in the crush-room of the Holborn 
Restaurant, including the wrought-iron 
screens for the fireplaces, &c. , are also by 
him, as well as the exterior stone doorway 
and corbel of the Hotel MiStropole. One 
of his most important works is the " Street 
Memorial." now in the central hall of the 
Law Courts, including life-size marble 
statue and alto rilievo of the " Arts and 
Crafts required for the erection and due 
enrichment of a great public building." 
Mention should also be made of his 
" Applied Mechanics " on the eastern 
side of the Albert Hall frieze, the sub- 
ject beginning with Archimedes and end- 
ing with Watt ; two sculptural reliefs in 
the Guards' Chapel, S.W., one of David 
struggling with the Lion, to represent 
" Courage," and the other Joshua with 
the Angel, to represent "Obedience." He 
has also executed certain ideal works, such 
as " Ariel," " Hero with the deadLeander," 
and his Diploma work, " The Ever Reign- 
ing Queen," as also " Playmates," shown 
in the Academy Exhibition of 1897. Other 
works executed by him are the effigy of 
Bishop Ollivant, now in Llandaff Cathe- 
dral, in marble, the bronze statue of 
Lieutenant Waghorn, R.N., the "Over- 
land Route," erected at Chatham, and 
the memorial to Mrs. Craik in Tewkes- 
bury Abbey ; also the marble monument 
in St. Paul's Cathedral (in the crypt) con- 
taining the effigy of the late Rev. B. 
Webb, and a reredos for the St. Mary's 
Church, Aberavon, containing statuettes 
of Our Lord and the four Evangelists, 
erected in memory of the late Mr. Llew- 
ellyn of Baglau Hall. Mr. Armstead was 
elected an Associate of the Royal Academy, 
Jan. 16, 1875, and an Academician, Dec. 18, 
1879. His studio is now at his residence, 
52 Circus Road, St. John's Wood, N.W. 

ARMSTRONG, Sir Alexander, 

K.C.B., F.R.S., LL.D., J.P., is a son 
of the late A. Armstrong, Esq., of Cra- 
han, co. Fermanagh, and Elizabeth, 
daughter of the late Hugh Stephens, Esq., 
of co. Donegal, Ireland. . He was educated 
at Trinity College, Dublin, and at the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh, where he graduated. 
Having entered the Royal Navy, he served 
in various parts of the world, including 
the Mediterranean, South America, North 
America, West Indies, Pacific Stations, 
Africa, Asia Minor, in the exploring ex- 
pedition to Xanthus in Lycia, and else- 
where, and for five years continuously in 
the Arctic regions in the search for Sir 
John Franklin's Expedition. He is one of 
the few surviving officers who have cir- 
cumnavigated the continent of America, 
and was frequently mentioned in the de- 



spatches connected therewith. He was 
present in H.M.S. Investigator at the dis- 
covery of the North-West Passage, having 
entered the Polar Sea via Behring's Strait, 
and returned to England through Baffin's 
Bay, with the surviving officer and crew 
of this vessel. During the Russian War 
he served in the Baltic, was present at 
the bombardment of Sweaborg, the block- 
ade of Cronstadt River, and other opera- 
tions, as also in two night attacks with 
a flotilla of rocket boats, for which he was 
gazetted. He has been Deputy Inspector- 
General of the Mediterranean Fleet and 
the Naval Hospitals at Malta, Haslar, 
and Chatham ; and he was promoted to 
be Inspector-General for special services 
in 1866. Three years later he be- 
came Director-General of the Medical 
Department of the Navy, from which office 
he retired in 1880. He was created a 
Knight Commander of the Order of the 
Bath, Military Division, in 1871 for his 
services. Sir Alexander Armstrong has 
received the Arctic, Baltic, and Jubilee 
medals, with clasp, 1887 and 1897 ; also 
Sir Gilbert Blane's gold medal. He is a 
Naval Honorary Physician to the Queen, 
and also Honorary Physician in the House- 
hold of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales. He 
is a Justice of the Peace for Middlesex, 
City and Liberties of Westminster, and 
County of London ; and is the author of 
" A Personal Narrative of the Discovery 
of the North-West Passage," 1857 ; and 
" Observations on Naval Hygiene, par- 
ticularly in connection with Polar Ser- 
vice." Married in 1894 Charlotte, Lady 
King Hall, daughter of the late S. Camp- 
bell Simpson, Esq., of 23rd Light Dra- 
goons, and granddaughter of the late 
Thomas and Lady Charlotte Giffard of 
Chillington Hall, Staffordshire, and also 
of William, 10th Earl of Devon. Ad- 
dresses : The Elms, Sutton Bonnington, 
Loughborough ; and Athenaeum. 

ARMSTRONG, Captain Sir George 
Carlyon Hughes, Bart., was born at 
Lucknow in 1836, and was educated pri- 
vately. He entered the army in 1855, and, 
after joining Stokes' Pathan Horse, served 
during the whole period of the Indian 
Mutiny, receiving the Mutiny Medal and 
Clasp. On Sept. 18, 1857, he was severely 
wounded at Mooradnuggar, near Delhi, 
and was consequently obliged to retire 
with a pension. He was then appointed 
Orderly Officer at the Royal Military 
College at Addiscombe, a position which 
he held until the abolition of the college ; 
on this occasion he received a Sword of 
Honour from the cadets. In 1872 he 
joined the staff of the Globe newspaper, 
and subsequently became its proprietor 
and editor. He is now sole proprietor of 

the Olobe, and part proprietor of the 
People. He was created a Baronet in 1892, 
and was married in 1865 to Alice, 
daughter of the Rev. C. J. Furlong. Ad- 
dress : 4 Ashburn Place, South Kensington. 

ARMSTRONG, George Elliot, is 

the eldest son of Sir George Armstrong, 
Bart., and after undergoing the usual 
training on H.M.S. Britannia he entered 
the Navy in December 1878. Appointed 
Lieutenant in 1890, he has served on the 
Mediterranean, North America, West 
Indies, Channel, and China stations. 
During the manoeuvres of 1891 he was in 
command of a torpedo boat, but he retired 
from the service in November 1891. He 
then joined the staff of the Globe, of which 
paper his father is proprietor, and was at 
that time editor, and in 1895 he became 
himself the editor. He is the author of 
"Torpedoes and Torpedo Vessels," 1896. 
Address : Cornerways, Weybridge. 

ARMSTRONG, Professor George 

Frederick, M.A., F.R.S.E., F.G.S., 
M.Insts.C.E. and M.E., J.P., is the elder 
son of Mr. George Armstrong and of Mary 
Ann, daughter of Thomas and Phcebe 
Knowles, of Doncaster, Yorkshire, and 
was born May 15, 1842. He received his 
general education at private schools and 
at Jesus College, Cambridge. Having 
from an early age developed a strong 
taste for mechanical pursuits and a more 
than ordinary skill in constructive art, it 
was naturally thought that engineering 
would afford him a suitable career. He 
was accordingly educated professionally 
in the Engineering Department of King's 
College, London, in the Plant Works and 
Locomotive Shops of the Great Northern 
Railway, and in the office of the Engineer- 
in-Chief, Mr. R. Johnson, M.Inst.C.E., 
on whose staff he was subsequently em- 
ployed for several years in the design and 
execution of many important works, and 
generally in the maintenance of the line. 
He was afterwards engaged in private 
practice in London, and in 1869 became 
Engineer to the promoters of the Isle of 
Man Railways, for whom he made all the 
requisite plans and surveys, and prepared 
designs for ways and works, and for the 
necessary rolling stock in connection with 
the lines then projected. In 1871 he was 
appointed first Professor of Engineering 
in the New Applied Science School at 
M'Gill University, Montreal; five years 
later he was offered, and accepted, the 
corresponding chair in the newly estab- 
lished Yorkshire College of Science at 
Leeds; and in 1885 was selected by the 
Crown to succeed the late Professor 
Fleeming Jenkin, F.R.S., as Regius-Pro- 
fessor of Engineering in the University of 



Edinburgh ; which appointment he still 
holds. He is also Engineering Adviser, 
under the Public Health Act, to the 
Local Government Board for Scotland. 
During his residence in Canada Pro- 
fessor Armstrong served for some time in 
the Canadian Militia, being senior Captain 
of the University Companies of the 1st 
(Prince of Wales) Regiment. For many 
years Professor Armstrong has taken an 
active part in the promotion of technical 
education at home and in the colonies, 
and has been closely identified with its 
progress. His Inaugural Address at Edin- 
burgh (which is published) was devoted to 
a consideration of the question in special 
relation to the education of engineers, 
and attracted considerable attention at 
the time of its delivery. He has at other 
times publicly dealt with the question in 
lectures, and in the columns of the Times. 
By intimately associating himself with 
the work of each of the International 
Exhibitions held in Edinburgh since 1885 
(filling, in the Exhibition of 1890, the 
positions of Convener of the Engineer- 
ing and Machinery Committee, and Vice- 
Chairman of the . Executive Council), he 
has rendered acceptable service in the 
cause of industrial enterprise. He was 
President of the Sanitary Engineering 
Section of the British Institute of Public 
Health in Edinburgh in 1893, and de- 
livered an address ; and from 1895 to 
1897 he was President of the Royal 
Scottish Society of Arts. He has also, 
in connection with their meetings in 
Edinburgh, acted as Local Secretary of 
the British Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, the Institute of Mechani- 
cal Engineers, and the Iron and Steel 
Institute. Professor Armstrong is the 
author of a number of papers on pro- 
fessional as well as on general science 
subjects which have been read before 
various learned societies, or contributed 
to scientific publications. During the 
summer and autumn of 1879 he undertook 
an extensive series of observations and 
experiments with a view of determining 
the diurnal variation in the amount of 
carbon dioxide in the air, the results of 
which were communicated in a paper to 
the Royal Society, and have since been 
accepted as a standard of reference on 
the Continent as well as in this country. 
In 1889 the Council of King's College, 
London, elected Professor Armstrong to 
the Fellowship of the College, the highest 
distinction the College is empowered, to 
bestow on its alumni. He is an Examiner 
for Science Degrees in the Departments 
of Engineering, Public Health, and Agri- 
culture in the University of Edinburgh ; 
Hon. President of the East of Scotland 
Engineering Association ; and a member 

of most of the professional institutes 
and societies. Addresses : The University, 
Edinburgh ; and St. Oswald's, Grasmere, 
R.S.O., Westmorland. 

ARMSTRONG, Henry E., Ph.D., 
LL.D., F.R.S., is Professor of Chemistry 
at the City and Guilds of London Central 
Institute at South Kensington. He is 
the author of " Introduction to the Study 
of Organic Chemistry," 1880. Address : 55 
Granville Park, Lewisham, S.E. 

ARMSTRONG, Walter, the son of 

Walter Armstrong, of Ennismore Gardens, 
was born in 1850 in Roxburghshire, and 
was educated at Harrow and Exeter 
College, Oxford. From 1880 to 1892 he 
was engaged as an art critic in connection 
with the Pall Mall Gazette and the St. 
James's Gazette, and in the latter year was 
appointed Director of the National Gallery 
of Ireland. He has written largely in con- 
nection with art subjects, and is the author 
of the following works : ' ' Life of Alfred 
Stevens," "Life of Peter de Wint," "Life 
of Thomas Gainsborough," "Life of Vel- 
asquez," "Notes on the National Gallery," 
" Scottish Painters" ; he is also co-editor 
of Bryan's "Dictionary of Painters." Mr. 
Armstrong is married to Emily Rose, 
daughter of J. C. Ferard, J.P., of Ascot 
Place, Berks. Address : 41 Fitzwilliam 
Square, Dublin. 

ARMSTRONG, Lord, formerly Sir 
William George, C.B., LL.D., D.C.L., 

F.R.S., son of the late Mr. William 
Armstrong, a merchant and alderman 
of Newcastle- on -Tyne, by the daughter 
of Mr. William Potter, formerly of Wal- 
bottle Hall, Northumberland, was born 
in 1810. He was educated at the school 
of Bishop Auckland, and afterwards 
articled to an eminent solicitor at New- 
castle, who subsequently adopted him as 
a partner ; but a strong bent for scientific 
pursuits eventually diverted him from 
the law. Early in life he began investi- 
gations on the subjects of electricity, 
which resulted in the invention of the 
hydro-electric machine, the most powerful 
means of developing frictional electricity 
yet devised. For this he was elected, 
whilst a very young man, a Fellow of the 
Royal Society. He then invented the 
hydraulic crane, and between 1845 and 
1850 the "accumulator," by which an 
artificial head is substituted for the 
natural head gained only by altitude ; and 
he extended the application of hydraulic 
power to hoists of every kind, machines 
for opening and closing dock gates and 
spring bridges, capstans, turntables, 
waggon-lifts, and a variety of other pur- 
poses. For the manufacture of this 



machinery he and a small circle of friends 
founded the Elswick Engine Works, near 
Newcastle. There, in December 1854, he 
constructed the rifled ordnance gun that 
bears his name. In 1858 the Eifle Cannon 
Committee recommended the adoption of 
the Armstrong gun for special service in 
the field, and Mr. Armstrong, on present- 
ing his patents to the Government, was 
knighted, made a C.B., and appointed 
Engineer of Rifled Ordnance, with a 
salary of £2000 a year. Between the 
years 1858 and 1870 the Armstrong gun 
and the position of Sir W. G-. Armstrong 
in reference to the Government under- 
went many changes ; but the leading 
feature of the gun, whether rifled or 
smooth, muzzle-loading or breech-loading, 
is in the coiling of one wrought-iron tube 
over another until a sufficient thickness 
is built up. The Armstrong gun has been 
largely adopted by foreign Governments. 
Sir William Armstrong extended the 
system to guns of all sizes, from the 
6-pounder to the 600-pounder, weighing 
upwards of twenty tons, and within three 
years introduced three thousand guns into 
the service. The Committee of Ordnance 
of the House of Commons, in their report, 
July 1863, state that they "have had no 
practical evidence before them that even 
at this moment any other system of con- 
structing rifled ordnance exists which can 
be compared to that of Sir W. Armstrong." 
In February 1863 Sir William resigned his 
appointment, and rejoined the Elswick 
manufacturing company, which has since 
expanded to one of the largest and most 
important manufacturing establishments 
in Europe, and has taken a leading part 
in the further development of artillery and 
other implements of war. In the same 
year he acted as President of the British 
Association meeting held at Newcastle-on- 
Tyne. In that capacity he drew attention 
to the gradual lessening of our supply 
of coal, and the probability of actual 
exhaustion at some future time. The 
discussion suggested by this important 
address led to the appointment* of a 
Royal Commission to inquire into all the 
circumstances connected with our national 
coal supply, and he was nominated a 
member of this Commission. He received 
the honorary degree of LL.D. from the 
University of Cambridge in 1862, and the 
honorary degree of D.C.L. from the Uni- 
versity of Oxford in 1870, and the honorary 
degree of "Master of Engineers" from 
the University of Dublin in 1892. Lord 
Armstrong is a Knight Commander of the 
Danish Order of the Dannebrog, of the 
Austrian Order of Francis Joseph, of 
the Spanish Order of Charles III., and of 
the Brazilian Order of the Rose. He was 
nominated a Grand Officer of the Italian 

Order of SS. Maurice and Lazarus in 1876. 
He received in 1895 the 2nd Class of the 
Imperial Order of the Rising Sun of 
Japan, in 1897 the 2nd Class of the White 
Elephant of Siam, and in 1898 the 1st 
grade of the 2od Class of the Imperial 
Order of the Double Dragon of China. 
Lord Armstrong has taken an active part 
in the inquiries concerning the operation 
of the Patent Laws, he being very hostile 
to them in their present forms. He has 
been thrice President of the Institution of 
Mechanical Engineers, as well as Presi- 
dent of the British Association (1863), of 
the Inst.C.E. (1882), and of the Newcastle 
Literary and Philosophical Society. At 
the general election of 1886 Sir William 
Armstrong stood as a Unionist Liberal 
candidate for Newcastle in opposition to 
Mr. John Morley, but was defeated. He 
was raised to the Peerage under the title 
of Baron Armstrong in 1887, the year of 
the Queer's Jubilee. He is a J.P. for 
Northumberland, of which county he was 
High Sheriff in 1873. Address : Cragside, 

ARNATJD, Arsene. See Claeetibs, 

ARNOLD, Sir Arthur, K.B., 1895, 
Hon. LL.D. Cambridge, J.P. and D.L. 
Co. of London, third son of Robert Coles 
Arnold, Esq., of Whartons, Framfield, 
Sussex, and Heath House, Maidstone, was 
born May 28, 1833. On the passing of the 
Public Works (Manufacturing Districts) 
Act, 1863, to meet the necessities of the 
cotton famine, Sir Arthur Arnold was ap- 
pointed Assistant - Commissioner, and in 
that capacity resided in Lancashire till 
1866, during which time he wrote " The 
History of the Cotton Famine," of which 
the original edition was published in 1864, 
followed by a cheaper one in 1865. After 
two years of subsequent travel in the south 
and east of Europe and in Africa Sir 
Arthur Arnold returned to England in 
1868, when he published " From the 
Levant," in 2 volp., containing letters 
descriptive of his tour. He then became 
the first editor of the Echo, which, under 
his direction and control, attained a great 
success. In 1873 the King of Greece con- 
ferred the Golden Cross of the Order of 
the Redeemer upon Sir Arthur, with special 
reference to his work " From the Levant." 
In the same year, upon the death of Mr. 
Baring, Sir Arthur Arnold was an unsuc- 
cessful candidate for the representation of 
Huntingdon. He resigned his connection 
with the Echo in 1875, and passed a year in 
travelling through Russia and Persia. The 
notice of this journey appeared in 1877, 
under the title of "Through Persia by 
Caravan." In 1 879-80 he issued two works, 



one entitled " Social Politics," and the 
other " Free Land." At the general elec- 
tion of 1880 he was returned to Parlia- 
ment for Salford. In the same year, in 
succession to Sir Charles Dilke, Sir Arthur 
Arnold was elected Chairman of the Greek 
Committee which was actively concerned in 
promoting the enlargement of the Hellenic 
kingdom in accordance with the sugges- 
tions of the Treaty of Berlin. In 1882 
Sir Arthur Arnold proposed in the House 
of Commons resolutions in favour of uni- 
formity of franchise throughout the United 
Kingdom, and the redistribution of political 
power, and upon a motion for adjourn- 
ment the policy of the resolution was, for 
the first time, sanctioned by a large majo- 
rity. In 1883 he moved for an elaborate 
return of electoral statistics, which the 
Government adopted in connection with 
the Reform Bill of 1884. In 1885 Sir 
Arthur Arnold established and was elected 
President of the Free Land League, which 
quickly obtained the support of a large 
number of members of Parliament. At 
the general election of that year and of 
1886 he unsuccessfully contested the 
Northern Division of Salford. Upon the 
formation of the London County Council 
in 1889 Sir Arthur Arnold was elected a 
County Alderman for the double term of 
six years. He was Chairman of the Council 
for two years, 1895-96. In 1898 he was 
re-elected, by 67 votes, Alderman for 
another term of six years. In May 1890 
he accepted an invitation from the North 
Dorset Liberal Association to contest that 
division at the next election, but was de- 
feated at the election in 1892. In 1867 
he married Amelia, only daughter of Cap- 
tain H. B. Hyde, 96th Regiment. Ad- 
dresses : 45 Kensington Park Gardens, 
W. ; Reform Club ; and Hyde Hill, Dart- 

ARNOLD, Sir Edwin, K.C.I.E.,C.S.L, 
second son of Robert Coles Arnold, Esq., 
J.P. for the counties of Sussex and Kent, 
and brother of the above, born June 10, 
1832, was educated at the King's School, 
Rochester, and King's College, London, 
and was elected to a scholarship at 
University College, Oxford. In 1852 he 
obtained the Newdigate Prize for his 
English poem on the " Feast of Bel- 
shazzar," and was selected in 1853 to 
address the late Earl of Derby on his in- 
stallation as Chancellor of the University. 
He graduated in honours in 1854. Upon 
quitting college he was elected second 
master in the English Division of King 
Edward the Sixth's School, Birmingham, 
and subsequently appointed Principal of 
the Government Sanskrit College at Poona, 
in the Bombay Presidency, and Fellow of 
the University of Bombay, which offices 

he held during the Mutiny, and resigned 
in 1861, after having twice received the 
thanks of the Governor in Council. He 
had then contributed largely to critical 
and literary journals, and was author 
of " Griselda, a Drama," and "Poems, 
Narrative and Lyrical " ; with some prose 
works, among which are "Education in 
India," "The Euterpe of Herodotus," a 
translation from the Greek text, with 
notes, and " The Hitopadesa," with Voca- 
bulary in Sanskrit, English, and Murathi. 
The last two were published in India. 
Sir Edwin Arnold has published also a 
metrical translation of the classical San- 
skrit work "Hitopadesa," under the title 
of "The Book of Good Counsels," a 
" History of the Administration of India 
under the late Marquis of Dalhousie," 
1862-64, as well as a popular account, 
with translated passages, of " The Poets 
of Greece." Since 1861 he has been upon 
the editorial staff of the Daily Telegraph. 
On behalf of the proprietors of that journal 
he arranged the first expedition of Mr. 
George Smith to Assyria, as well as that 
of Mr. Henry Stanley, who was sent by 
the same journal, in conjunction with the 
New York Herald, to complete the dis- 
coveries of Livingstone in Africa. He is 
a Fellow of the Royal Asiatic and the 
Royal Geographical Societies of London, 
and Hon. Correspondent of that of 
Marseilles. He published in 1874 "Hero 
and Leander," a translation in heroic verse 
from the Greek of Musseus ; and in the 
following year " The Indian Song of 
Songs," being a metrical paraphrase from 
the Sanskrit of the Gita Govinda of Jaya- 
deva. Upon the occasion of the procla- 
mation of the Queen as Empress of India 
on Jan. 1, 1877, he was named a Com- 
panion of the Star of India. In 1879 he 
produced "The Light of Asia," an epic 
poem upon the Life and Teaching of 
Buddha, which has since passed through 
more than sixty editions in England, and 
eighty in America. For this work the 
King of Siam decorated him with the 
Order of the White Elephant. In 1881 he 
published a volume of oriental verse under 
the title of " Indian Poetry," and he has 
printed several translations from the San- 
skrit epic the Mahabharata, and in 1883 
" Pearls of the Faith ; or, Islam's Rosary ; 
being the ninety -nine beautiful names of 
Allah, with comments in verse." Sir 
Edwin received the Second Class of the 
Imperial Order of the Medjidieh from the 
Sultan in 1876, and the Imperial Order of 
Osmanie in 1886. In January 1888 he was 
created Knight Commander of the Indian 
Empire by the Queen, and in October of 
the same year published "With Sa'di in 
the Garden," or "The Book of Love," a 
poem founded on the 3rd chapter of the 



Boston of the Persian poet Sa'di, for which 
he subsequently received from the Shah of 
Persia the Order of the Lion and Sun. He 
also published in 1888 a volume comprising 
most of his previous English poems and 
some new ones, under the title of " Poems 
National and Non-Oriental." In recent 
years there have appeared from his pen 
another epic, "The Light of the World " ; 
" The Tenth Muse " ; a volume entitled 
" Potiphar's Wife, and other Poems"; 
two books of travel, "India Eevisited" 
and " Seas and Lands " ; as well as 
" Japonica," a work on Japanese manners 
and customs, and " Adzuma," a Japanese 
tragedy. During his sojourn in Japan the 
Emperor conferred on him the Order of 
the Rising Sun, giving him the dignity of 
" Chokunin " of the Empire ; and the King 
of Siam has recently created him Grand 
Officer of the Crown of Siam. He was 
elected President of the Birmingham and 
Midland Institute for the year 1893. 
Address: 31 Bolton Gardens, S.W. 

ARNOLD, Thomas, M.A., is the 
second son of the late Dr. Arnold, of 
Rugby, and was born at Laleham, Staines, 
Nov. '30, 1823. Educated at Winchester, 
Rugby, and University College, Oxford, 
he took his degree (First Class Classics) 
in 1845. After serving for some time in 
the Colonial Office he went to New Zea- 
land ; passed thence to Tasmania in 1850, 
with the appointment of Inspector of 
Schools ; and, on becoming a Roman 
Catholic, returned to this country in 1856. 
He became a Professor in the Roman 
Catholic University at Dublin, thence 
moved to the Oratory School, Birming- 
ham, and thence to Oxford, He is a 
Fellow and an Examiner in the English 
Language and Literature at the Royal 
University of Ireland. He is the author 
of several works on English Literature, 
and editions of old texts, among them, 
"A Manual of English Literature" (now 
in a sixth edition) ; an edition of " Select 
English Works of Wyclif," 3 vols., 1869; 
" Selections from the Spectator " ; " Claren- 
don, Book VI." ; "Beowulf," text, transla- 
tion, and notes ; and, for the Master of the 
Rolls' Series, editions of "Henry of Hun- 
tingdon," and " Symeon of Durham." He 
is now engaged upon the "Chronicles of 
the Abbey of Bury St. Edmunds." On the 
establishment of the Royal University of 
Ireland Mr. Arnold was appointed a Fel- 
low. He married in Tasmania Julia 
Sorell, granddaughter of a former Gov- 
ernor of the Colony. She died in 1888, 
and he has since married Josephine, 
daughter of the late James Benison, of 
Slieve Rassell, co. Cavan. Mrs. Humphry 
Ward (q. v.) is his daughter. Address : 
Royal University of Ireland, Dublin. 


ley, M.P., the son of William Delafield 
Arnold, Director of Public Instruction in 
Punjaub, and the adopted son of the late 
Right Hon. W. E. Forster, M.P., was born 
in 1855. He was educated at Rugby and 
University College, Oxford, where he ob- 
tained first-class Honours in the Final 
School of Modern History. He was called 
to the Bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1879, and 
went the North-Eastern Circuit. He was 
elected Liberal Unionist member for West 
Belfast in 1892, and still represents that 
constituency. He is the author of "How 
to Solve the Irish Land Question"; " The 
Citizen Reader" ; '• The Laws of Everyday 
Life"; "This World of Ours"; "In a 
Conning Tower " ; " Things New and Old " ; 
"Our Home Army"; "A History of 
England," 1897. Mr. Arnold-Forster is 
married to Mary, daughter of Professor 
Story-Maskelyne. Address : 9 Evelyn 
Gardens, S.W. 

ARNOTT, Sir John, Bart., was born 
in 1817, and is the proprietor of the Irish 
Times. He sat in the House of Commons 
as member for Kinsale from 1859 to 1863, 
and was knighted in 1859 ; a baronetcy 
was conferred upon him in 1896. He 
married, first, a daughter of J. J. Mackinlay 
in 1852, and, second, a daughter of the Rev. 
E. L. Fitzgerald in 1872, and he has a 
son and heir, John, born in 1854. Address : 
Woodlands, Cork. 

ASHBOURNE, Lord, The Right 
Hon. Edward Gibson, Lord Chancellor 
of Ireland, was born in Dublin on Dec. 4, 
1837, and educated at Trinity College, 
Dublin, where, on taking his degree, he 
obtained first gold medal. In 1875 he 
entered Parliament as member for Dublin 
University, and in 1877 was made Attorney- 
General for Ireland. He held his post 
until 1880, when he went out of office with 
his party, but continued to sit for Dublin 
University. During the Liberal rule from 
1880 to 1885, Mr. Gibson was the chief 
spokesman of the Opposition on Irish 
questions, and the chief critic of the Irish 
Land Bill of 1881. On the accession of 
Lord Salisbury to office in 1885 Mr. 
Gibson was raised to the peerage with the 
title of Baron Ashbourne, and was made 
Lord Chancellor of Ireland, with a seat in 
the Cabinet, a post which he again filled 
under Lord Salisbury's second administra- 
tion in 1886, and has now held from 1895 
onwards. He is responsible for Lord Ash- 
bourne's Act (1885) for facilitating the 
sale of Irish holdings to tenants. He 
married in 1868 Frances, daughter of 
H. C. Cokes. Addresses : 5 Grosvenor 
Crescent, S.W. ; 12 Merrion Square, S. 
Dublin ; and Athenaaum. 



ASHB0RNHAM, Bertram, 5th Earl 
of, Viscount St. Asaph, and Baron of Ash- 
burnham, Knight Grand Cross of the Sove- 
reign Order of Malta and of the Pontifical 
Order of Pius, was born at Ashburnham, 
Oct. 28, 1840, being the son of Bertram, 
4th Earl, by his wife Katherine Charlotte, 
daughter of George Baillie, Esq., of Meller- 
stain and Jerviswood, and sister of George, 
10th Earl of Haddington. He was edu- 
cated at Westminster School, and at Fon- 
tainebleau in France. He was attached to 
the Marquis of Bath's special embassy to 
convey the Order of the Garter to the Em- 
peror of Austria in 1867. He succeeded his 
father as 5th Earl in 1878. He presided 
over the first meeting held in England to 
advocate "Home Rule" for Ireland, and 
was elected Chairman of the British Home 
Rule Association in 1886, but since then 
has taken no active part in politics. Lord 
Ashburnham is the chief representative of 
the Ashburnham family, which, in a direct 
male line, has continued at Ashburnham, 
in Sussex, from before the Norman Con- 
quest, and is described by Fuller in the 
early part of the seventeenth century as a 
" family of stupendous antiquity wherein 
the eminence hath equalled the anti- 
quity." Lord Ashburnham was the owner 
of the collection of MSS. and printed 
books formed by the late Earl, some por- 
tions of which had at different times pre- 
vious to 1895 been sold to the British and 
Italian Governments. In 1898 occurred 
the great sale of the Ashburnham Library. 
The library was divided into three por- 
tions, the final sale taking place at Messrs. 
Sotheby & Wilkinson's on May 14. The 
sale, as a whole, lasted three weeks, and 
realised nearly £63,000, many of the lots 
being unique. This famous dispersion of 
priceless books has been described as one 
of the four of the century, the others beiDg 
the Roxburghe, Heber, and Beckford sales. 
Addresses : 30 Dover Street, W. ; Ashburn- 
ham Place, Battle, &c. ; and Athenaeum. 

ASHCOMBE, Lord, George Cubitt, 

is the eldest son of the late Mr. Thomas 
Cubitt. He was born on June 4, 1828, 
and graduated M.A. at Trinity College, 
Cambridge, in 1854, where he was three 
terms a Prizeman. He was elected M.P. 
for West Surrey in 1860, and continued to 
represent it until 1885, when he was elected 
for the Mid or Epsom division. He filled 
the unpaid post of Second Church Estates 
Commissioner from 1874 to 1879, and has 
served on other Royal Commissions. In 
1880 he was sworn a Member of the Privy 
Council, and in 1892 was raised to the 
peerage as Lord Ashcombe. He has taken 
special interest in church and educational 
questions, is Chairman of the House of 
Laymen of the province of Canterbury, 

and was one of the founders of the large 
middle-class schools at Bramley and Cran- 
leigh, Surrey. He passed the Act 41 & 42 
Vict., c. 42, enabling all clerical impro- 
priators to redeem tithe-rent charge, and a 
speech delivered by him in 1872 on " Non- 
conformist Endowments," is among the 
publications of the Church Defence In- 
stitution. He is Vice-Chairman of the 
Surrey County Council, and Honorary 
Colonel of the 4th V. B. of the Queen's West 
Surrey Regiment, &c. His son, the Hon. 
Henry Cubitt, has represented the Reigate 
division of Surrey since 1892. He married 
in 1853 Laura, daughter of the Rev. James 
Joyce. Addresses : Denbies, Dorking ; and 
17 Princes Gate, S.W. 

ASHLEY, The Eight Hon. An- 
thony Evelyn Melbourne, son of the 
late Earl of Shaftesbury by his marriage 
with Lady Emily Cowper, eldest daughter 
of the 4th Earl Cowper, was born on 
July 24, 1836, and educated at Harrow 
and at Trinity College, Cambridge, gradu- 
ating M.A. in 1858. He was called to the 
Bar at Lincoln's Inn in Trinity Term, 1863, 
and joined the Oxford Circuit. Mr. Ashley, 
who is a magistrate for Dorset, for Hamp- 
shire, and for the county of Sligo, unsuc- 
cessfully contested the Isle of Wight in 
February 1874 ; he was, however, elected 
for Poole in May of the same year, and 
continued to represent that borough down 
to 1880, when he was elected for the Isle 
of Wight. Mr. Ashley was formerly private 
secretary to the late Lord Palmerston, and 
from 1863 to 1874 he was a Treasurer of 
County Courts. When the Liberals re- 
turned to power in April 1880 Mr. Ashley 
was appointed Parliamentary Secretary to 
the Board of Trade, and in May 1882 was 
chosen by Mr. Gladstone to succeed Mr. 
Courtney in the office of Under-Secretary 
of State for the Colonies. He was also 
second Church Estates Commissioner from 
1880 to 1885. He is official Verderer of 
the New Forest. At the general election 
of 1885 Mr. Ashley was defeated in the 
Isle of Wight contest by Sir Richard 
Webster, Conservative. In 1891 he was 
made a Privy Councillor. Mr. Ashley is 
the author of "The Life of Henry John 
Temple, Viscount Palmerston." He mar- 
ried in 1866 Sybella Charlotte, daughter 
of Sir Walter Rockliffe Farquhar, Bart., 
who died in 1886, and since then he has 
married Lady Alice Cole, daughter of the 
3rd Earl of Enniskillen. Addresses : 13 
Cadogan Square, S.W. ; and Athenasum. 

M.P., eldest son of the late Mr. Ellis 
Bartlett, a minister of Plymouth, Massa- 
chusetts, and Sophia, daughter of J. K. 
Ashmead of Philadelphia, was born at 



Brooklyn in 1849, and educated at 
Torquay and at Christ Church, Oxford, 
where he took a first-class in the final 
schools, and was President of the Oxford 
Union. He was called to the Bar at 
the Inner Temple in 1877, and was for 
some time an Examiner in the Education 
Department and in the Privy Council 
Office. In 1880 he entered Parliament as 
member for Eye ; and in 1885, 1886, 1892, 
and 1895 was returned for the Eccleshall 
Division of Sheffield. At the last election 
he was returned unopposed. He received 
the honour of knighthood in 1892. In 
Lord Salisbury's first two administra- 
tions Mr. Ashmead-Bartlett held the post 
of Civil Lord of the Admiralty. He has 
been a frequent and copious speaker in 
the House and on public platforms, espe- 
cially on questions of foreign policy. 
He has published " The Battlefields of 
Thessaly," 1897, and was taken prisoner, 
on Tuesday, May 4, of that year, during 
the Grfeco-Turkish wax, by a Greek war- 
ship, the commander of which mistook 
him for a spy, but the Greeks liberated 
him when it was discovered that he was 
a member of Parliament. His brother is 
married to Baroness Burdett-Coutts. He 
is married to Frances, daughter of H. E. 
Walsh. Addresses: 6 Grosvenor Street, 
W. ; and Grange House, Eastbourne. 

ASQUITH, The Right Hon. Herbert 
Henry, Q.C., M.P., second son of the late 
J. Dixon Asquith, Esq., of Croft House, 
Morley, Yorks, was born at Morley, Sept. 
12, 1852, and was educated at the City of 
London School and Balliol College, Oxford, 
of which he was Scholar, and afterwards 
Fellow. B.A. 1874 ; first-class Classics, and 
Craven Scholar. He was called to the Bar 
at Lincoln's Inn, June 1876 ; appointed a 
Queen's Counsel, February 1890 ; elected 
M.P. for East Fife in July 1886, and again 
in 1892. Together with the Lord Chief- 
Justice (then Sir C. Russell) he was engaged 
on behalf of the late Charles Parnell, M.P., 
during the Parnell Commission. In August 

1892 he was mover of the Amendment to 
the Queen's Speech which led to the 
division fatal to Lord Salisbury's Govern- 
ment, and when Mr. Gladstone formed 
his Ministry he was appointed Home 
Secretary and was sworn of the Privy 
Council, and placed on the Ecclesiastical 
Commission, on which he remained till 
1895. It was during the Home Rule 
Debates that he became famous, and rose 
to the most prominent position in the 
House. During the Labour disputes of 

1893 he took up a consistent attitude 
which commanded the approval of Parlia- 
ment, and in 1894 acted as arbitrator in 
the London cab strike, his award being 
considered satisfactory. He introduced 

the Disestablishment of the Church of 
Wales Bill in 1894, and conducted the 
same till it was rejected by the House. 
In February 1893 he was nominated for 
the Lord Rectorship of Glasgow. In 1895 
he was again returned for East Fife, the 
constituency he now represents. He has 
made many important speeches in Scot- 
land on the policy of Lord Salisbury's 
Government, and was designated by Lord 
Rosebery, in a speech delivered in 1896 at 
Edinburgh, shortly after his lordship's 
resignation of the leadership of his party, 
as destined in future to high office. At 
present he has returned to his practice 
at the Bar. He married in 1877 Helen, 
daughter of F. Melland, Esq., of Man- 
chester (who died in 1891), and in May 
1894 Miss Margot Tennant, daughter of 
Sir Charles Tennant, Bart. Addresses : 
20 Cavendish Square, W. ; and Athenaeum. 

ASTOR, William Waldorf, was born 
in New York on March 31, 1848, and is 
the only son of John Jacob Astor and 
Charlotte Augusta Gibbes. He received his 
education privately. He succeeded to the 
vast family estate in 1890, having for many 
years helped his father in the management 
of it. He was admitted to the Bar in 
1875, after which he devoted three years 
to politics, having been in the Legislature 
of the State of New York in 1878 and 1881. 
In 1882 he was appointed United States 
Minister to Italy, and remained in that 
position till 1885. He came to London in 
1891, and in October 1893 effected the pur- 
chase of the Pall Mall Gazette and Budget, 
which was the event of the journalistic 
year. (See Cooke.) During the same 
year he bought Cliveden, the Duke of 
Westminster's estate on the Thames. His 
estate office is a prominent feature on the 
Thames Embankment. Address : Clive- 
den, Taplow. 

ATHERTON, Mrs. GertrudeFrank- 

lin, authoress, was born on Rincon Hill, 
San Francisco, and is the daughter of 
Thomas L. Horn and Gertrude Franklin, 
a grand-niece of Benjamin Franklin. She 
was educated at St. Mary's Hall, Benicia, 
California, and at the Sayre Institute, 
Lexington, Kentucky. She was long in 
finding her first publisher, who, in 1888, 
brought out her novel "What Dreams 
May Come." This was followed by her 
popular book " Hermia Suydam," 1889; 
"Los Cerritos," 1890; "The Dooms- 
Woman," 1892 ; "Before the Gringo Came," 
1894 ; "A Whirl Asunder," 1895 ; "Patience 
Sparhawk, and her Times," 1897, perhaps 
her best -known book; "His Fortunate 
Grace," 1897. All these were American 
successes. Her two English novels are, 
"The Americans of Maundrell Abbey" 


4. , 

and " The Great Black Oxen," 1898. Mrs. 
Atherton is the widow of George H. Bowen 
Atherton, of Menlo Park, California. She 
travels much. Address : c/o Hampstead 
Branch, National Provincial Bank, N.W. 

ATHOLE. See Atholl, Duke of. 

ATHOLL, Duke of, Sir John James 
Hugh Henry Stewart Murray, K.T., 
was born on Aug. 6, 1840, and succeeded 
his father, the 6th Duke, in 1864. He 
was educated at Eton, and afterwards 
held a commission in the Scots Guards, 
of which he was captain. He is Heredi- 
tary Sheriff and Lord-Lieutenant of the 
county of Perth, where he owns enormous 
estates. He married in 1863 Louisa, 
daughter of Sir Thomas Moncrieff, Bart. 
Addresses : Blair Castle, Blair Atholl and 
Dunkeld, Perthshire ; and 84 Eaton Place. 

ATKINSON, Rev. Edward, D.D., 

was Senior Optime and third Classic at 
Cambridge in 1842. He was ordained in 
1844, and subsequently became Fellow and 
Tutor of Clare College. He became Master 
of Clare College in 1856, a position which 
he still continues to hold. Dr. Atkinson 
has served the office of Vice-Chancellor 
on three separate occasions, viz., from 
1862 to 1863, from 1868 to 1870, and from 
1876 to 1878. 

ATKINSON, Edward Tindal, was 

called to the Bar at the Middle Temple in 
1870, and was appointed a Queen's Counsel 
in 1886. He is Solicitor-General for the 
county Palatine of Durham, is engaged on 
the North-Eastern Circuit, and became 
Eecorder of Leeds in 1897. Address : 2 
Tanfield Court, Temple, E.C. 

ATKINSON, The Right Hon. John, 
Q.C., M.P., was born in 1845, and joined 
the Irish Bar in 1865. He sits for North 
Londonderry as a Conservative ; was 
Solicitor-General for Ireland from 1889 
to 1892, and Attorney-General for Ireland 
in 1892, and again since 1895. Address : 
68 Fitzwilliam Square, North, Dublin. 

ATKINSON, The Rev. John 
Christopher, D.C.L., was born at Gold- 
hanger, in Essex, in 1814, and received his 
education at Kelvedon, in that county, 
and at St. John's College, Cambridge (B.A. 
1838). He was appointed Vicar of Danby, 
in the North Riding of Yorkshire, and 
Domestic Chaplain to the late Viscount 
Downe in 1847, and Chaplain to the High 
Sheriff of Yorkshire in 1851. Dr. Atkinson 
is the author of "Walks, Talks, &c., of 
Two Schoolboys," 1859; " Play hours and 
Half -holidays," 1860 ; " Sketches in Natural 

History," 1861; "Eggs and Nests of 
British Birds," 1861; "Stanton Grange; 
or, Life at a Private Tutor's," 1864; "A 
Glossary of the Cleveland Dialect," 1868 ; 
" Lost ; or, What Came of a Slip from 
Honour Bright," 1869 ; besides many papers 
on archaeological and philological subjects 
in the Proceedings of various learned 
societies. For some time he was engaged 
on "The History of Cleveland, Ancient 
and Modern," partly published, and he has 
since edited the Chartularies of Whitby, 
in two volumes, for the Surtees Society, 
the Chartulary of Eievaulx Abbey, for the 
same series, and the Furness Coucher 
Book, in three volumes. Previous to the 
completion of the Furness and Eievaulx 
Chartularies he had issued "A Handbook 
of Ancient Whitby and its Abbey." In 
the year 1887 he had the honorary degree 
of D.C.L. conferred upon him by the 
University of Durham " in recognition of 
his many services to literature." Dr. 
Atkinson, who is now an Hon. Canon of 
York, has recently had a pension of £100 
a year granted to him from the Civil List, 
on the recommendation of Mr. Balfour, in 
recognition of his services to philology 
and scholarship. In 1897 he celebrated the 
jubilee of his appointment to the parish 
of Danby. Address : Danby Vicarage, 

ATTFIELD, Professor John, M.A. 
and Ph.D. of the University of Tubingen, 
F.E.S., Professor of Practical Chemistry 
to the Pharmaceutical Society of Great 
Britain from 1862 to 1896, was born near 
Barnet, Hertfordshire, on Aug. 28, 1835, 
and is the descendant of an ancient Hert- 
fordshire family, and son of the late John 
and Anne Winifred Attfield. In 1850 he 
was articled to Mr. W. F. Smith, manufac- 
turing pharmaceutical chemist, London. 
In 1853-54 he was a student in the Phar- 
maceutical Society's School, and First 
Prizeman in all subjects — chemistry, 
botany, pharmacy, and materia medica. 
From 1854 to 1862 he was Demonstrator 
of Chemistry at St. Bartholomew's Hos- 
pital, and lecture-assistant and research- 
assistant to the Professors of Chemistry 
there, namely, to Dr. Stenhouse, F.B.S., 
for three years, and afterwards for five 
years to Dr. Frankland, F.E.S., at the 
hospital, and concurrently at the Addis- 
combe Military College and the Royal 
Institution. During the same period he 
wrote most of the chemical articles in 
"Brande's Dictionary of Art, Science, and 
Literature," and in the Arts and Sciences 
Division of the "English Cyclopaedia," 
besides being a frequent scientific contri- 
butor to several journals and newspapers. 
In 1862 he took his University degrees, 
his thesis being an account of an original 



research "On the Spectrum of Carbon," a 
paper read before the Royal Society, and 
published in the Philosophical Transac- 
tions. In 1862, also, he was appointed 
to the Chair of Practical Chemistry in the 
Pharmaceutical Society's School, where 
he was the first Dean, and, 1887 to 1896, 
senior Professor. From 1860 onwards he 
wrote frequently on the subject of " Fire," 
both in scientific treatises and in a series 
of long letters to the Times, resulting in 
useful legislation and other public action, 
and in many appeals to him as an authority 
on the origin and causes of conflagrations. 
Dr. Attfield has always advocated the 
displacement of our existing system of 
weights and measures by the metric 
decimal system. He was for some time 
on the Council of the Metric Decimal 
Association. He is a Fellow, and was 
for several years on the Council, of the 
Chemical Society ; is a Fellow, was one of 
the founders, and was for several years on 
the Council, of the Institute of Chemistry 
of Great Britain and Ireland ; is a Life 
Member, and on the General Committee, 
of the British Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science ; is a Fellow of the Society 
of Chemical Industry ; was for two years 
President of the Hertfordshire Natural 
History Society ; was one of the five 
founders, for seventeen years Senior Secre- 
tary, and for two years President of the 
British Pharmaceutical Conference, an 
organisation for the encouragement of 
original research in pharmacy, each of his 
presidential addresses " On the Relations 
of Pharmacy and the State " drawing sup- 
porting editorial articles from the Times 
and from twenty or thirty other leading 
newspapers ; the members, on his retire- 
ment, presenting him with an illuminated 
address on vellum and five hundred spe- 
cially bound volumes of general literature. 
He was Secretary of the Food Jury at the 
International Health Exhibition in 1884, 
and, as some recognition of his services, 
the Council of the Exhibition presented 
him with eighteen bound volumes of their 
collected literature. He also wrote the 
Exhibition Handbook on "Water and 
Water Supplies," which has now reached 
a third edition. He has written largely on 
pharmaceutical education, and the relation 
of education to examination, his views, 
especially as regards compulsory public 
curricula, having gradually won the support 
of all leading pharmacists. The present 
chemical nomenclature of the Pharma- 
copoeias of Great Britain and the United 
States was adopted on his recommendation 
and long advocacy. His great work is " A 
Manual of Chemistry ; General, Medical, 
and Pharmaceutical," of which there have 
been published seventeen large editions in 
thirty-one years, nine being adapted to 

British and eight to American medical 
and pharmaceutical requirements. For 
this book he was awarded a gold medal 
at the first Pharmaceutical Exhibition in 
"Vienna in 1883, and the still higher prize 
of a diploma of honour at the similar 
Exhibition at Prague in 1896. He was 
the author of published lectures on the 
first (1864) "British Pharmacopoeia"; was 
appointed by the General Council of 
Medical Education and Registration of 
the United Kingdom one of the three 
editors of the " British Pharmacopoeia of 
1885 " ; and was editor of the 1890 Adden- 
dum to the " Pharmacopoeia." In the 
production of the latter he successfully 
brought about the recognised co-operation 
of the followers of medicine on the one hand 
and pharmacy on the other, the General 
Medical Council representing the medical 
practitioners of Great Britain, while the 
Pharmaceutical Society represented the 
body of chemists and druggists. This 
service has been gracefully and publicly 
recognised both by the Medical Council 
and by the Council of the Pharmaceutical 
Society. The Medical Council appointed 
him editor of the fourth " British Pharma- 
copoeia," and adopted his suggestion to 
give the work imperial extension of use- 
fulness in the Colonies and India. In the 
Preface to this work the following para- 
graph occurs : " The ' Pharmacopoeia ' has 
been edited by Dr. John Attfield, F.R.S., 
who has been since 1885 Annual Reporter 
to the Council on the progress of phar- 
macy, and who has advised it on all matters 
relating to pharmaceutical chemistry. 
The Council is much indebted to him, both 
for his scientific and for his literary 
services." On May 31, 1898, the General 
Medical Council, on motion from the 
chair, passed a vote of thanks "to the 
Editor, Dr. Attfield, for all he has done to 
make the ' Pharmacopoeia ' complete and 
accurate." In the Royal Society's Catalogue 
Dr. Attfield appears as author of thirty- 
seven original scientific papers, mostly of 
pharmaceutical interest, published in the 
Transactions of the Royal, Chemical, and 
Pharmaceutical Societies. His scientific 
and educational work has gained for him 
not only the much-coveted honour of being 
a Fellow of the Royal Society, but also 
the following twenty-three honorary dis- 
tinctions : Hon. Member of the Pharma- 
ceutical Societies of Great Britain, Paris, 
St. Petersburg, Austria, Denmark, East 
Flanders, Switzerland, Australasia, New 
South Wales, and Queensland ; of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association ; 
of the Colleges of Pharmacy of Phila- 
delphia, New York, Massachusetts, Chicago, 
Maryland, and Ontario ; and of the Phar- 
maceutical Associations of New Hamp- 
shire, "Virginia, Liverpool, Manchester, 



Georgia, and the Province of Quebec. At 
the Chicago College the chief lecture 
theatre was named " Attfield Hall," and 
his portrait in oils was hung on the College 
walls " in recognition of his aid in raising 
the College from its ashes after the great 
fire of 1871, and of his unselfish devotion 
to the cause of education." Professor 
Attfield in 1896 retired into private prac- 
tice as a chemical analyst and consultant. 
He is the Hon. Consulting Chemist and 
Analyst to the London Orphan Asylum and 
the Ventnor Consumption Hospital. He 
has laboratories at Temple Chambers, 
London, and at Watford. On the resigna- 
tion of his post at the Pharmaceutical 
Society, after thirty-four years of uninter- 
rupted educational labours, for services 
rendered as a Professor, the Council of the 
Society, each of the twenty-one members 
being present, accorded him unanimously 
the great and, to a retiring teacher, un- 
usual honour of a vote of thanks, compli- 
mentary speeches being made by the 
ex-President and President. On July 10, 
1897, a grand testimonial was presented to 
him on his retirement by large numbers of 
grateful pupils and by many public friends 
or former associates. It comprised an 
elaborate silver tea service and an album 
of autographs, which included the signa- 
tures of over a thousand pupils, and of two 
or three hundreds of Professors and other 
colleagues in the Universities and Colleges 
of Europe and America. His son, Dr. 
Donald Harvey Attfield, M.A., M.B., B.C., 
Cantab., and holding the diploma of 
Public Health of the same University, 
was born on June 9, 1866, and was for 
three years, 1894 to 1897, English Quaran- 
tine Medical Officer at the Port of Suez 
and the adjacent Sanatorium of Moses' 
Wells. During that period he was Sub- 
Director of the Mecca and Medina Pilgrim 
Encampment at El Tor, on the Gulf of 
Suez, and the Director of a similar encamp- 
ment at Ras Mallap. He voluntarily 
resigned this appointment in 1897, and 
is now Medical Officer of Health for 
Watford, and a consulting hygienist and 
bacteriologist. He is the author of pub- 
lished papers on "An Investigation of the 
Natural Solidified Sodium Sulphate Lakes 
of Wyoming, U.S.A.," "The Destruction 
of Bacteria in Polluted River Water by 
Infusoria," "The Treatment of Chronic 
Gastric Affections by aid of the Siphon 
Stomach Tube." Address : "Ashlands," 
Watford, Herts. 

Armand Gaston, Due d% a French poli- 
tician, was born in October 1823. His father, 
the Comte d'Audiffret, under the Restora- 
tion, was Director of Customs, Director of 
the National Debt, Councillor of State, 

and afterwards Receiver- General. His 
uncle, the Marquis d'Audiffret, was a Peer 
of France, and President of the Cour des 
Comptes. The name of d'Audiffret is that 
of an old family of Dauphine\ and their 
armorial bearings were to be seen in the 
Crusades. The Comte d'Audiffret, father 
of the present Duke, married the daughter 
of M. Pasquier, Director-General to the 
Tobacco Manufactories, and brother to the 
Chancellor Pasquier. It is from the 
latter, who died without issue, and who 
had adopted him in 1844, that the subject 
of this memoir derives his ducal title. In 
1845 young d'Audiffret, scarcely twenty- 
two years old, entered the Council of 
State as Auditor, and married Made- 
moiselle Fontenilliat, daughter of the 
Receiver-General of the Gironde. Suc- 
cessive family afflictions deprived him of 
his children and induced him to wish for 
a retired life ; and M. d'Audiffret went to 
live in Normandy on an estate which 
belonged to him. Here he passed twenty 
years of his life, occupied with agriculture 
and with political studies, in the midst 
of his books, the old library of the 
d'Audiffret family being one of the most 
ample literary collections which any in- 
dividual could possess. In 1858 he pre- 
sented himself for election to the Council- 
General, and in 1866 and 1869 to the 
Corps Legislatif. On every occasion the 
battle was strongly contested. Victorious 
the first time, the candidate was beaten 
on the two other occasions by the efforts 
of official pressure. After the fall of the 
Empire he was elected to the National 
Assembly in the Conservative interest by 
the Department of the Orme (Feb. 8, 1871), 
and voted with the Right Centre. He was 
nominated President of the Commission on 
Purchases, and in this capacity acquired 
sudden renown by the masterly way in 
which he encountered in debate M. 
Rouher, the champion of the fallen 
dynasty. By his eloquence he soon ac- 
quired a great and strong position in the 
Assembly. He was one of the principal 
originators of the downfall of M. Thiers, 
but he had assumed an attitude which 
would not permit of his being included 
in a ministry of which Bonapartists were 
members. After the check given to the 
proposed Monarchical Restoration, the 
Duke, as President of the Right Centre, 
was among those who supported the 
Septennate, and who powerfully contri- 
buted, in conjunction with his brother- 
in-law, M. Casimir-Perier, to the solution 
of Feb. 25, 1875. On the formation of 
the Buffet Ministry he was elected Pre- 
sident of the National Assembly. On 
Dec. 9, 1875, the Due d'Audiffret-Pas- 
quier, who, a few days previous, had 
joined the Left Centre, was the first 



person who was elected a Life Senator 
by the Assembly, by a majority amount- 
ing to four-fifths of all the votes recorded. 
In the sitting of March 13, 1876, he was 
elected President of the Senate. He con- 
tinued to hold that office till January 
1879, after the Senatorial elections, which 
gave the Republicans a majority in the 
Upper Chamber. On Dec. 26, 1878, he 
was elected to the seat in the French 
-Academy lately filled by Mgr. Dupanloup. 
Of the twenty-seven members present, 
twenty-two voted for him, and five ab- 
stained from voting. He is one of the 
few Academicians who have published no 
important works. For some years past he 
has lived in complete retirement. Ad- 
dress : 25 Rue Fresnel, Paris. 

AUFRECHT, Professor Theodor, 

LL.D., M.A., an Orientalist, was born at 
Leschnitz, Silesia, Jan. 7, 1821, and 
educated in the University of Berlin. 
He was appointed Professor of Sanskrit 
and Comparative Philology in the Univer- 
sity of Edinburgh in 1862. On April 21, 
1875, that university conferred on him 
the degree of LL.D., and shortly after- 
wards he left Scotland for Bonn, where 
he had been appointed Professor of San- 
skrit. Professor Aufrecht has published 
" A Complete Glossary to the Rig Veda, 
with constant reference to the Atharva 
Veda " ; " De Accentu Compositorum San- 
skritorum," 1847; " Halayudha's Abhid- 
hanaratnamala ; a Sanskrit Vocabulary, 
edited with a complete Sanskrit-English 
Glossary " ; " The Hymns of the Rig Veda, 
transcribed into English letters," 2 vols. ; 
" Ujjvaladatta's Commentary, the Una- 
distras," from a manuscript in the Library 
of the East India House, 1859 ; and " The 
Ancient Languages of Italy " (Oxford, 

AUSTEN-LEIGH, Rev. Augustus. 

See Leigh, Rev. Augustus Austen-. 

AUSTIN, Alfred, poet, critic, and 
journalist, was born at Headingley, near 
Leeds, May 30, 1835. His father was a 
merchant and magistrate of the borough 
of Leeds, and his mother was the sister of 
Joseph Locke, the eminent civil engineer 
and M.P. for the borough of Honiton, of 
which he was lord of the manor. Both his 
parents being Roman Catholics, he was 
sent to Stonyhurst College, and afterwards 
to St. Mary's College, Oscott. From Oscott 
he took his degree at the University of 
London in 1853, and in 1857 he was called 
to the Bar of the Inner Temple. But the 
publication, though anonymously, of a 
poem called "Randolph," at the age of 
eighteen, showed the bent of his disposi- 
tion ; and it may be stated on the authority 

of Mr. Austin himself, that he ostensibly 
embraced the study of the law onlyin defer- 
ence to the wishes of his parents, and from 
his earliest years was imbued with the 
desire and the determination to devote his 
life mainly to literature. The expression 
of this resolve may be found in a novel 
written and published while he was yet a 
minor. On the death of his father, in 
1861, he quitted the Northern Circuit, and 
went to Italy. His first acknowledged 
volume of verse, "The Season: a Satire," 
appeared in 1861. A third and revised 
edition of " The Season " appeared in 1869. 
His other poetical productions are : " The 
Human Tragedy : a Poem," 1862, repub- 
lished in an amended form 1876, and again 
finally revised in 1889 ; " The Golden Age : 
a Satire," 1871; "Interludes," 1872; 
"Madonna's Child," 1873; "The Tower 
of Babel," a drama, 1874; "Leszko the 
Bastard: a Tale of Polish Grief," 1877: 
"Savonarola," a tragedy, 1881; "Soli- 
loquies in Song," "At the Gate of the 
Convent," "Love's Widowhood, and other 
Poems," "Prince Lucifer," and "English 
Lvrics," all published between the years 
1881 and 1890. He has published three 
novels: "Five Tears of It," 1858; "An 
Artist's Proof," 1864; and "Won by a 
Head," 1866; also "The Poetry of the 
Period," reprinted from Temple Bar, 1870 ; 
and "A Vindication of Lord Byron," 1869, 
occasioned by Mrs. Stowe's article, "The 
True Story of Lord Byron's Life." He 
has written much for the Standard news- 
paper and for the Quarterly Review. 
During the sittings of the (Ecumenical 
Council of the Vatican he represented the 
Standard at Rome, and he was a special 
correspondent of that journal at the head- 
quarters of the King of Prussia in the 
Franco-German War. His political writ- 
ings include " Russia before Europe," 
1876; "Tory Horrors," 1876, a reply to 
Mr. Gladstone's "Bulgarian Horrors"; 
and '• England's Policy and Peril : a Letter 
to the Earl of Beaconsfield," 1877. In 
1883, in conjunction with Mr. W. J. Court- 
hope, he founded The National Review, and 
continued to edit that periodical till the 
summer of 1893. In 1892 Messrs. Mac- 
millan issued a collected edition of his 
poems in six volumes. "Fortunatus the 
Pessimist" was next published. In 1894 
was published " The Garden that I Love," 
and in the following year, " In Veronica's 
Garden," both of which volumes have 
rapidly passed through several editions. 
On New Year's Day 1896 Mr. Austin was 
appointed Poet Laureate in succession to 
Lord Tennyson, since which date Messrs. 
Macmillan have issued two volumes of 
poetry by him, entitled "England's Dar- 
ling" and "The Conversion of Winckel- 
mann." Mr. Austin is a deputy-lieutenant 



for the county of Hereford. Addresses : 
Swinford Old Manor, Ashford, Kent ; and 

AUSTIN, Louis Frederic, journal- 
ist, only son of Captain Thomas Austin, 
master mariner, of Dublin, was born in 
Brooklyn, U.S.A., Oct. 9, 1852, educated 
at the Merchant Taylors' School, Great 
Crosby, near Liverpool, came to London in 
1875, and entered journalism. He was for 
some years editor of the National Press 
Agency, has contributed to many periodi- 
cals, chiefly in the department of literary 
criticism and several essays, and is con- 
nected with the Daily Chronicle, the Illus- 
trated London News, the /Sketch, and the 
Speaker. In 1884, under the name of 
Frederic Daly, he published a biographi- 
cal sketch entitled "Henry Irving in Eng- 
land and America " ; and in 1896 a volume 
called "At Random : Essays and Stories." 
Address : Devonshire Club, St. James's, 

AUSTRIA, Emperor of. See Francis 
Joseph I. 

AUWERS, Professor Arthur, Ger- 
man astronomer, was born Sept. 12, 1838, 
at Gottingen, and was connected suc- 
cessively with the observatories of Koen- 
igsberg (1859), Gotha (1862), and Berlin 
(1866). He became in 1881 the Director 
of the New Observatory of Physical 
Astronomy at Potsdam. He is Perpetual 
Secretary of the Mathematical Sciences Sec- 
tion of the German Academy of Sciences. 
He has continued Herschell's observations 
on nebulse, which he terminated in 1857. 
He has written a number of important 
papers on astronomical subjects. He took 
part in the new observations on stars of 
the first nine magnitudes of the northern 
hemisphere in the revision of Argelander's 
maps. In 1874 he was in charge of the 
observations of the Transit of Venus at 
Luxor, and in 1882 at Punta Arenas. 

AVORY, Horace Edmund, was called 
to the Bar at the Inner Temple in 1875, 
.and is engaged on the South-Eastern 
Circuit, and at the Surrey Sessions. Ad- 
dress : 4 Crown Office Row, Temple, E.C. 

AXON, William Edward Army- 
tage, was born in Manchester in 1846, 
and after thirteen years' service in the 
Manchester Free Library, resigned the 
position of Sub-Librarian to devote him- 
self to literature and journalism. He is 
;the author, among other volumes, of 
" Stray Chapters in Literature, Folk-Lore, 
and Archaeology," 1888 ; " Annals of Man- 
chester," 1886; "Lancashire Gleanings," 
1883; "Cheshire Gleanings," 1884 ; "By- 

gone Sussex," 1896 ; " Life of William 
Lloyd Garrison," 1890 ; and "The Ancoats 
Skylark," 1894. The last-named includes 
translations from the French, Italian, 
German, Spanish, and other languages. 
Mr. Axon has contributed to the " En- 
cyclopaedia Britannica," the "Dictionary 
of National Biography," "Johnson's Ameri- 
can Cyclopaedia," Notes and Queries, the 
Academy, and other periodicals. He was 
one of the founders of the Library Associa- 
tion, and of the Lancashire and Cheshire 
Antiquarian Society, is a Fellow of the 
Royal Society of Literature, and a member 
of various learned societies at home and 
abroad. He has edited a reprint of 
"Caxton's Game and Playe of the Chesse," 
and has printed many pamphlets, some for 
private circulation, in advocacy of tem- 
perance and food reform, or in elucidation 
of obscure points of bibliography and 
literary history. Address : 47 Derby Street, 
Moss Side, Manchester. 

AYRTON, Professor "W. E., F.R.S., 
born in London 1847, is the son of the 
late Mr. E. N. Ayrton, M.A. , barrister. 
He was educated at University College 
School, where he gained numerous prizes, 
and entering subsequently into the Col- 
lege, gained the Andrews Exhibition in 
1865 and the Andrews Scholarship in 1866. 
Passing the examination with honours for 
his first B.A. in 1867, Mr. Ayrton in the 
same year came out first in the Entrance 
Examination for the Indian Government 
Telegraph Service. He was then sent by 
the Secretary of State for India to study 
electrical engineering with Prof. Sir 
William Thomson (now Lord Kelvin), com- 
ing out first at the Advanced Examination 
for the Indian Government Telegraph Ser- 
vice, and won the Scholarship. When in 
India Prof. Ayrton acted first as the Assis- 
tant Electrical Superintendent, and subse- 
quently as the Electrical Superintendent 
in the Government Telegraph Department, 
introducing, with the late Mr. Schwendler, 
throughout British India a complete system 
of immediately determining the position 
of a fault in the longest telegraph line by 
electrically testing at one end. In 1872-73 
Prof. Ayrton was on special duty in Eng- 
land on behalf of the Indian Government 
Telegraph Department, and in charge of 
the Great Western Telegraph Manufac- 
tory in London on behalf of the engineers, 
Prof. Sir William Thomson and the late 
Prof. Fleeming Jenkin. From the latter 
year until 1879 Prof. Ayrton was the 
Professor of Natural Philosophy and of 
Telegraphy at the Imperial College of 
Engineering, Japan, the largest English- 
speaking Technical University in existence 
at that date. In 1879 he was appointed 
Professor of Applied Physics at the City 



and Guilds of London Technical College, 
Finsbury, and in 1884 the Chief Professor 
of Physics at the Central Technical Col- 
lege, South Kensington, of the City and 
Guilds of London Institute, of which he 
now also is the Dean. In 1880 a Secretary 
of the Mathematical and Physical Section 
of the British Association, in 1881 he 
was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. 
Prof. Ayrton is a Past President of the 
Physical Society, a Past President of the 
Institution of Electrical Engineers, and 
the President of Section A of the British 
Association for 1898 ; he has been a Juror 
in the majority of the Electrical Exhibi- 
tions in England and abroad ; was a Judge 
in the Electrical Department at the Chicago 
Exhibition ; and one of the British Govern- 
ment Delegates to the Electrical Congress 
there ; is joint editor of Cassell's "Manuals 
of Technology," and the author of " Prac- 
tical Electricity," the most recently pub- 
lished work in this series, but already in 
its seventh edition. His lecture on the 
"Electric Transmission of Power," given 
at the meeting of the British Association 
at Bath in 1888, was so much appreciated 
that, at the request of the town, this lec- 
ture was repeated to an audience of 3000, 
the only time in the annals of the British 
Association that one of their lectures has 
been repeated. With Prof. Perry he is 
the joint inventor of the well-known 
Ammeters, Voltmeters, Electric Power 
Meter, Ohmmeter, Dispersion-Photometer, 
Transmission - Dynamometer, Dynamome- 
ter Coupling, Governed Electric Motor, 
Oblique Coiled Dynamo Machine, and 
Secohmmeter ; and with the late Prof. 
Fleeming Jenkin and Prof. Perry, of the 
system of Automatic Electric Transport 
known as " Telpherage." Over 100 papers 
published in the Proceedings and Transac- 
tions of the Eoyal Society, Physical Society, 
Institution of Electrical Engineers, and 
other societies have been contributed by 
Prof. Ayrton conjointly with Prof. Perry 
and others, of which some of the most 
important are: "The Specific Inductive 
Capacity of Gases " ; " The Contact Theory 
of Voltaic Action"; "A New Determina- 
tion of the Ratio of the Electromagnet to 
the Electrostatic Unit of Quantity " ; "A 
Duplex Partial Earth Test"; "Electricity 
as a Motive Power"; "Experiments on 
the Heat Conduction of Stone"; "On a 
Neglected Principle that may be Employed 
in Earthquake Measurements"; "The 
Magic Mirror of Japan " ; "Electric Rail- 
ways"; "Measuring Instruments used in 
Electric Lighting and Transmission of 
Power" ; "Economic Use of Gas Engines"; 
" Electromotors and their Government " ; 
" A New Form of Spring for Electric and 
other Measuring Instruments " ; " The Gas 
Engine Indicator Diagram"; "The Most 

Economical Potential Difference to use 
with Incandescent Lamps " ; " The Wind- 
ing of Voltmeters " ; " Economy in Electri- 
cal Conductors " ; "Uniform Distribution 
of Power from an Electrical Conductor " ; 
"Modes of Measuring the Co-efficients 
of Self and Mutual Induction " ; " The 
Driving of Dynamos with Very Short 
Belts"; "Portable Voltometers for Mea- 
suring Alternate or Direct Potential Dif- 
ferences " ; " The Magnetic Circuit in the 
Dynamo"; "The Efficiency of Incandescent 
Lamps with Direct and Alternate Cur- 
rents " ; "Measurement of the Power given 
by any Current to any Circuit" ; "Quadrant 
Electrometers"; "The Thermal Emissivity 
of Thin Wires"; "The Efficiency of 
Transformers and the Regulation of 
Transformers at Different Frequencies " ; 
" Variation of the P. D. of the Electric 
Arc with Current, Size of Carbons and 
Distance Apart " ; " The Design and Con- 
struction of Electrostatic Instruments." 
Prof. Ayrton, with Prof. Perry, has also 
taken out twenty-six patents in Great 
Britain, several of them also in France, 
Germany, America, and other foreign 
countries, and he is also a co-patentee 
with Mr. Mather of their well-known 
Electrostatic Voltmeters and Moving Coil 
Galvanometers. Address : 41 Kensington 
Park Gardens, W. 


BAB. See Gilbert, William 

BADENI, Count Casimir, ex-Chan- 
cellor of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, is 
a Pole by birth, and was born in 1846. 
His family was originally Italian, and 
migrated to Poland with Queen Bona, wife 
of Sigismund I. He studied law, entered 
the Austrian Civil Service, and became 
Governor of Austrian Poland, and was 
nicknamed "The Mikado of Galicia" 
because of his gorgeous ceremonials. In 
September 1895, he became Prime Minister 
of a non-party Cabinet, and he was chiefly 
supported by the Poles, the German 
Moderate Liberals, and the Young Czechs. 
His concession with regard to the official 
use of the Czech language in Bohemia 
brought down upon him the angry oppo- 
sition of the German element in Austria. 
On April 2, 1897, he resigned, but the 
Emperor refused to accept his resignation. 
Violent and discreditable scenes occurred 
in the Reichsrath between the Poles and 
Czechs on one side, and the Germans, 
Socialists, and Anti-Semites on the other.. 
The session was forcibly closed on June 3, 
and an attempt at an understanding 



made, which came to nought owing to the 
abstention of the Germans. When the 
session reopened in September the same 
scenes occurred, and owing to an insult 
from Herr Wolf, Count Badeni fought a 
duel with him on September 26, in which 
he was wounded. The Emperor accepted 
his resignation early in 1898, and he was 
succeeded by Count Goluchowski {q.v.). 

BAEYER, Adolf von, German 
chemist, born at Berlin, Oct. 31, 1835, is 
the son of a general renowned for his 
geodesic work. After having finished his 
studies at the Gymnasium Friedrich Wil- 
helm, he went to the Universities of Berlin, 
Heidelberg, and Ghent. He took his 
degree in 1860, and became Demonstrator 
in Chemistry at the Applied Sciences 
Academy of Berlin. He successively be- 
came Assistant Professor at the Military 
Academy in 1869, Professor at Strassburg 
in 1872,' and finally was called to fill the 
chair at Munich, vacant on the death of 
Liebig. He has acquired fame by his work 
of organic chemistry, above all by his 
researches on the action of the aldehydes, 
which led him to the discovery of a green 
colouring matter, coraleine, a red colour- 
ing matter, eosine, and lastly, to the dis- 
covery of indol, the base of indigo. 

BAGGALLAY, Ernest, M.A., son of 
the late Lord Justice Baggallay, was born 
July 11, 1850, and was educated at Marl- 
borough and Caius College, Cambridge. 
He was called to the Bar in 1873, and acted 
as Counsel to the Post Office from 1877 to 
1887. He sat in the House of Commons 
as Conservative member for Brixton from 
1885 to 1887. In the latter year he was 
appointed Police Magistrate at the West 
Ham Court, a position which he continues 
to hold. Mr. Baggallay was married in 1876 
to Emily, daughter of Sir W. W. Burrell, 
Bart. Addresses : 106 Elm Park Gardens, 
S.W. ; and The Moat, Cowden, Kent. 

BAILEY, Sir Joseph Russell, 

Bart., V.D., was born in 1810, and is 
the eldest son of the late Joseph Bailey, 
M.P., of Easton Court, Tenbury. He was 
educated at Harrow and Christ Church, 
Oxford. He represented Herefordshire in 
the House of Commons from 1865 to 1885, 
and Hereford from 1886 to 1892. In 1864 
he acted as High Sheriff of Breconshire, 
and was appointed Lord-Lieutenant in 
1875. He is a J.P. and D.L. for Radnor- 
shire and Herefordshire. In 1867 he was 
appointed Hon. Colonel of the Brecon 
Rifle Volunteers. He succeeded his grand- 
father, the 1st Baronet, in 1858, and was 
created a Peer in recognition of his ser- 
vices to the Conservative party at New 
Year 1899. He married in 1861 Mary Ann, 

daughter of Henry Lucas. Addresses : 
Glanusk Park, Crickhowell, Breconshire ; 
Easton Court, Tenbury, Worcestershire, &c. 

BAILEY, Joseph W., American 
political leader, was born in Copiah County, 
Mississippi, Oct. 6, 1863. He studied law, 
and was admitted to the Bar in 1883; 
removed to Texas in 1885, and settled at 
Gainsville. He served as Presidential 
Elector for the State at large in 1888, and 
was elected to the Fifty-second Congress, 
and re-elected to the Fifty-third, Fifty- 
fourth, and Fifty-fifth Congresses. He is 
one of the active and prominent leaders of 
the Democratic party in the United States 
House of Representatives. 

BAILEY, Philip James, author of 
"Festus," son of Thomas Bailey, author 
of the "Annals of Notts," who died in 
1856, was born at Nottingham, April 22, 
1816. Having been educated at various 
schools in his native town, he in 1831 
matriculated at the University of Glasgow, 
where he studied for two sessions under 
Professors Buchanan, Sir D. K. Sandford, 
Thomson, and Milne. In 1833 he began 
to study the law, was admitted a member 
of Lincoln's Inn in 1835, and called to the 
Bar in 1840. Having little inclination for 
legal pursuits, Mr. Bailey before this time 
had carried on an extensive and varied 
course of reading in the libraries of the 
British Museum and Lincoln's Inn, as well 
as at home. He was accustomed to the 
composition of verse from early years. 
" Festus," conceived and planned originally 
in 1836, and published in 1839, was well re- 
ceived in this country, where it has passed 
through eleven editions, and in America, 
where it has passed through upwards 
of thirty. The 11th, or Jubilee edition (so 
called from the fact that it was issued fifty 
years after the first edition), with a prose 
preface explanatory of the purpose of the 
poem, was published by Messrs. Routledge 
in 1889. Interviewed of late years by a 
contributor to The Young Man, Mr. Bailey 
is reported to have spoken of the inception 
of his famous work as follows : " I began 
in the most natural way imaginable. I 
merely started to write. From the time I 
was ten years old I had always been writ- 
ing verse, more or less. But I had time at 
my disposal — in those days I did pretty 
much as I liked — and I soon found myself 
making progress with ' Festus.' I had 
the theory of the poem in my mind, and 
the plan of working it out, as well as the 
conception of the main characters. I knew 
the theology was not popular, and that was 
probably why I embodied it in the work. 
The doctrine of Universalism has never 
been introduced into poetry, and in that 
aspect 'Festus' was different from any- 




thing that had previously appeared. That 
was the novel characteristic of the poem." 
At the same interview he explained that 
"the work has doubled in size since I 
closed the book for the first time. Many 
lyrics have been introduced, and the scope 
of the work has been considerably enlarged. 
Besides the additions, moreover, there have 
been deductions and many alterations." 
" The Angel World," 1850 ; " The Mystic," 
1855 ; " The Universal Hymn," 1867 ; all 
since mainly incorporated with " Festus " ; 
"The Age," a Satire, 1858; and a prose 
work on the international policy of the 
Great Powers, with a few minor and mis- 
cellaneous poems, comprise nearly the 
whole of Mr. Bailey's contributions to con- 
temporary literature. Address: The Elms, 
Ropewalk, Nottingham. 

BAIN, Professor Alexander, LL.D., 
born at Aberdeen in 1818, entered Maris- 
chal College in 1836, where he took the 
degree of M.A. in 1840. From 1841 to 1844 
he taught, as deputy, the class of Moral 
Philosophy in Marischal College ; from 1844 
to 1845 the Natural Philosophy Class. In 
1845 he was elected Professor of Natural 
Philosophy in the Andersonian University, 
Glasgow, but retired at the end of a year. 
In 1847 he was appointed by the Metropoli- 
tan Sanitary Commissioners their Assistant 
Secretary, and in 1848 became Assistant 
Secretary to the General Board of Health, 
which post he resigned in 1850. From 
1857 to 1862 he was Examiner in Logic and 
Moral Philosophy in the University of 
London. In 1858, 1859, 1860, 1863, 1864, 
1868, and 1870 he acted as Examiner in 
Moral Science at the Indian Civil Service 
Examinations. In 1860 he was appointed 
by the Crown Professor of Logic in the 
University of Aberdeen. In 1864 he 
was re-elected Examiner in the Univer> 
sity of London, and continued to hold that 
position till 1869. His first literary pro- 
duction was an article, in 1840, in the 
Westminster Review, to which he has since 
contributed at various times. In 1847-48 
he wrote text-books on Astronomy, Elec- 
tricity, and Meteorology in Messrs. Cham- 
bers's school series, several of Chambers's 
"Papers for the People," and the articles 
on Language, Logic, the Human Mind, and 
Khetoric in the "Information for the 
People." In 1852 he published an edition 
of the " Moral Philosophy of Paley," with 
dissertations and notes. ' ' The Senses and 
the Intellect " appeared in 1855, and 
"The Emotions and the Will," completing 
a systematic exposition of the human 
mind, in 1859 ; both works have passed 
through several editions. "The Study of 
Character, including an Estimate of Phre- 
nology," was published in 1861, an English 
Grammar in 1863, and a "Manual of 

English Composition and Khetoric " in 
1866. His more recent works are : " Men- 
tal and Moral Science," 1868; "Logic, De- 
ductive and Inductive," 1870 ; " Mind and 
Body ; Theories of their Relation," 1873 ; a 
collection of " The Minor Works of George 
Grote, with Critical Remarks on his Intel- 
lectual Character, Writings, and Speeches," 
1873 ; "A Companion to the Higher Eng- 
lish Grammar," 1874; "Education as a 
Science," 1879 ; "James Mill, a Biography," 
" John Stuart Mill, a Criticism, with Per- 
sonal Recollections," 1882; and "Practi- 
cal Essays," 1884. In 1880 he retired from 
the Logic chair of Aberdeen University. 
In 1881 he was elected by the students 
Lord Rector of the University, and again 
elected in 1884. In 1887 appeared Part I. 
of a revised and enlarged edition of the 
" Manual of Rhetoric," being devoted to the 
"Intellectual Qualities of Style"; accom- 
panying which was a volume on " Teaching 
English." The year following, 1888, was 
published Part II. of the " Rhetoric," on the 
"Emotional Qualities." In 1894 was brought 
out the fourth edition of " The Senses and 
the Intellect," revised for the last time. 
Address : Ferryhill Lodge, Aberdeen. 

BAIRD, Lieut.-Colonel Andrew 
"Wilson, R.E., F.B.S., A.I.C.E., F.R.G.S., 

born at Aberdeen, April 26, 1842, is the 
son of the late Mr. Thomas Baird, of Wood- 
lands, Cults, and was educated at Marischal 
College and University, and was for some 
years a pupil of Dr. Rennet, LL.D., the 
Mathematical Tutor in Aberdeen. Enter- 
ing Addiscotnbe College as a cadet of the 
Hon. East India Company's service in the 
beginning of 1860, he was transferred to 
the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, 
at the end of the year, and obtained a 
commission in the Corps of Royal Engineers 
in December 1861. After having finished 
his course of military engineering studies 
at Chatham, Lieutenant Baird proceeded 
to India in February 1864, and served 
under the Bombay Government. He was 
employed as Special Assistant in the 
Harbour Defences at Bombay, and held 
charge of the construction of the Middle 
Ground and Oyster Rock Batteries at vari- 
ous times between April 1864 and December 
1865, when he was appointed as Special 
Assistant Engineer in the Government 
Reclamations which were being carried out 
on the foreshore of the harbour. From 
January till July 1868 Lieutenant Baird 
was employed as Assistant Field Engineer 
with the Abyssinian Expedition (medal), 
during which time he held the charge of 
Traffic Manager of the railway, and he was 
mentioned in despatches for zeal and 
management in bringing safely and expedi- 
tiously troops and baggage for embarkation, 
Shortly after his return to Bombay, Lieu- 



tenant Baird was appointed to the Great 
Trigonometrical Survey of India (in 
December 1868). Employed successively 
on the triangulation in Kottywar and 
Guzerat, Lieutenant Baird suffered con- 
siderably from the trying work in the very 
hot weather, and was obliged to go on 
furlough to England in May 1870, and 
while on furlough he was selected by 
General Walker, R.E. (then chief of the 
Great Trigonometrical Survey), and em- 
ployed by order of the Secretary of State 
for India to study the practical details of 
tidal observations, and their reductions by 
harmonic analysis as carried on under the 
superintendence of Sir William Thomson 
for the British Association. On his return 
to India, in April 1872, Lieutenant Baird 
carried out a reconnaissance of the Gulf of 
Cutch, with a view to selecting sites for 
three Tidal Observatories, one at the 
mouth, and one at the head and as far 
into the "Runn" as possible, and one 
about the middle of the gulf. The tidal 
observatories, and the levelling operations 
in connection therewith, were carried out 
for special reasons in connection with the 
question of the depression of the great 
tract called the Runn of Cutch ; and 
Captain Baird was sent to England to 
carry out the calculations for reducing 
the tidal observations. Returning to India 
in June 1877, Captain Baird was appointed 
to the general superintendence and control 
of tidal observatories on the Indian coasts; 
these operations were gradually extended, 
until twenty tidal observatories (in India, 
Burmah, Ceylon, the Andaman Islands, and 
Aden) were working simultaneously, and 
as five years' work was completed at minor 
stations the observatories were removed 
to other places, and now over thirty 
stations have been observed at. In August 
and September 1881, Captain Baird was 
sent as one of the Commissioners from 
India to the Venice Geographical Congress 
and Exhibition. Here the Survey of India 
exhibited a complete set of tidal and 
levelling apparatus, diagrams, &c, and 
was awarded a Diploma of Honour ; and 
the Congress awarded Captain Baird a 
medal of the First Class for his works on 
tidal observations ; the Secretary of State 
for India and the Government of India 
recorded their thanks to Captain Baird for 
his services at this Congress. After fur- 
lough in England, Major Baird returned 
to India in April 1883, and resumed charge 
of the tidal and levelling operations until 
he was appointed to officiate as Mint 
Master of Calcutta in July 1885. Since 
then he has acted several times as Mint 
Master of Calcutta and Bombay, and in the 
intervals held the appointment of Assistant 
Surveyor-General. He was promoted to 
Lieutenant-Colonel in December 1888, and 

was confirmed as Mint Master, Calcutta, 
in August 1889. For his services in the 
tidal research, Colonel Baird was elected a 
Fellow of the Royal Society in May 1885. 
The following are the works of a public or 
official character which Colonel Baird has 
written : Articles on the Gulf of Cutch, 
Little Runn, and Gulf of Cambay, for the 
Bombay Gazetteer ; Notes on the Harmonic 
Analysis of Tidal Observations, published 
by order of the Secretary of State, 1872 ; 
Paper on the Tidal Observations of the 
Gulf of Cutch, read before the British 
Association, 1876 ; Account of the Tidal 
Disturbances caused by the Volcanic 
Eruption at Krakatoa (Java) in August 
1883, presented to the Royal Society ; 
Auxiliary Tables (two pamphlets) to facili- 
tate the calculations of Harmonic Analysis 
of Tidal Observations, published in India, 
1879 and 1882; Joint Report with Pro- 
fessor G. H. Darwin, F.R.S., &c, of the 
results of the Harmonic Analysis of Tidal 
Observations, presented to the Royal 
Society and reprinted from their Pro- 
ceedings, March 1885 ; Account of the 
Spirit-Levelling Operations of the Great 
Trigonometrical Survey of India, read 
before the British Association in 1885, 
and afterwards printed among the supple- 
mentary papers of the Royal Geographical 
Society ; Manual of Tidal Observations, 
published at the expense of the British 
Association ; Tide Tables for India Ports, 
prepared annually by Major Baird and Mr. 
Roberts of the Nautical Almanac Office by 
order of the Secretary of State for India. 
Colonel Baird is also an Associate of the 
Institute of Civil Engineers, and a Fellow 
of the Royal Geographical Society. 

BAKER, Sir George Sherston, Bart., 
J.P., was born in London, May 19, 1846, 
and succeeded to the baronetcy in 1877. 
He was called to the Bar at Lincoln's Inn 
in 1871, and in 1889 he was appointed 
Recorder of Barnstaple and Bideford. He 
has published " Halleck's International 
Law," 2nd edit. 1878, and 3rd edit. 1893 ; 
" The Laws Relating to Quarantine," 1879 ; 
"The Office of Vice-Admiral of the Coast," 
1884 ; and he has been editor of the Law 
Magazine and Review since 1895. He is 
married to Jane, daughter of the late F. 
J. Fegen, R.N., C.B., of Ballinlonty, Tip- 
perary, and has a son and heir, born in 
1877. Addresses : 18 Cavendish Road, St. 
John's Wood, N.W. ; and 1 The Cloisters, 
Middle Temple, E.C. 

BAKER, John Gilbert, F.R.S., F.L.S., 
born at Guisborough, in Yorkshire, Jan. 13, 
1834, was educated at schools belonging to 
the Society of Friends at Ackworth and 
York. He was appointed Assistant-Keeper 
of the Herbarium of the Royal Gardens, 



Kew, in 1866 ; appointed Keeper of the 
Herbarium in 1891 ; and Lecturer and De- 
monstrator of Botany to the Apothecaries' 
Company in 1882. He was for many years 
Lecturer on Botany to the London Hos- 
pital, and one of the assistant editors to 
Seemann's Journal of Botany. Formerly 
Mr. Baker was Curator, and afterwards 
Secretary, of the London Botanical Ex- 
change Club. His works on descriptive 
botany are as follows : " Synopsis Fili- 
cum," a descriptive catalogue of all known 
ferns, with plates of the genera — a work 
planned and commenced by the late Sir 
W. Hooker, 1868, 2nd edit. 1874; "Mono- 
graph of the Ferns of Brazil," in folio, 
1870, with fifty plates ; and since of the 
" Composite, Ampelidese, and Connar- 
acese," of the same country ; "Revision of 
the Order Liliaces," 7 parts, 1870-80 ; 
" Monograph of the British Roses," 1869 ; 
"Monograph of the British Mints," 1865; 
Monographs of Papilionacea? and other 
Orders in Oliver's " Flora of Tropical 
Africa," 1861-71 ; Descriptions of the 
Plants figured in Vols. I, III., and IV. of 
Saunders' "Refugium Botanicum," 1869- 
1871 ; "Popular Monographs of Narcissus, 
Crocus, Lilium, Iris, Crinum, Aquilegia, Sem- 
pervivum, Epimedium, Tulipa, Nerine, and 
Agave," 1870-77; "Monograph of the 
Papilionaceas of India," 1876; "Systema 
Iridacearum," 1877; "Flora of Mauritius 
and the Seychelles," 1877; "A Monograph 
of Hypoxidacea;," 1879 ; " A Monograph of 
Selaginella," 1884-85; "On the Tuber- 
bearing Species of Solanum," 1884. The 
following are the titles of Mr. Baker's 
works on geographical botany, &c. : " An 
Attempt to Classify the Plants of Britain 
according to their Geographical Relations," 
1855; "North Yorkshire: Studies of its 
Botany, Geology, Climate, and Physical 
Geography," 1863; "A New Flora of 
Northumberland and Durham, with Essays 
on the Climate and Physical Geography of 
the Counties" (aided by Dr. G. R. Tate), 
1868 ; " On the Geographical Distribution 
of Ferns through the World, with a Table 
showing the Range of each Species," 1868 ; 
"Elementary Lessons in Botanical Geo- 
graphy," 1875; many papers on the 
"Botany of Madagascar," containing de- 
scriptions of above 1000 new species, 1881- 
1890; "A Flora of the English Lake Dis- 
trict," 1885. In 1883 he edited, in con- 
junction with the Rev. W. Newbould, the 
first published edition of Watson's " Topo- 
graphical Botany," 1887; "A Handbook 
of the Fern Allies," 1888 ; "A Handbook 
of the Amaryllideaj," 1892 ; and " A Hand- 
book of the Bromeliacea;," 1890; "Syn- 
opsis of Petaloid Monocotyledons of South 
Africa," 1896, formerly vol. vi. of the 
" Flora Capensis," now edited by his chief 
at Kew, Mr. W. T. Thiselton-Dyer. 

BAKER, The Rev. William, D.D., 

Head Master of Merchant Taylors' School, 
youngest son of the late George Baker, 
Esq., of Reigate, was born at Reigate in 
December 1841, and educated at Merchant 
Taylors' School and St. John's College, 
Oxford, of which he was some time Fellow 
and Tutor, and of which he was appointed 
Hon. Fellow in 1895. He obtained a first- 
class in classics at Moderations in 1862, 
and a second-class in the Final Classical 
School in 1864, and was elected Denyer 
and Johnson Theological Scholar in 1866. 
He was appointed Head Master of Mer- 
chant Taylors' School on the retirement 
of Dr. Hessey at Christmas, 1870, and 
Prebendary of St. Paul's in 1880. He is 
the author of " A Manual of Devotion for 
School Boys," published in 1876; "Lec- 
tures on the Historical and Dogmatical 
Position of the Church of England," 1882 ; 
" A Plain Exposition of the Thirty-nine 
Articles," 1883; "Daily Prayers for 
Younger Boys," 1886 ; " Latin and Greek 
Verse Translations," 1895. 

BALDISSERA, General Antonio, 

Commander-in-Chief of the Italian army 
in Africa since 1896, is by birth a Venetian, 
and in 1866 held a commission in the 
Austrian army. Venice being ceded to 
Italy, Baldissera took service under the 
government of Florence. He was a mem- 
ber of the San Marzano Expedition to 
Africa, and afterwards was for three years 
in command of the Italian troops in Ery- 
threa. During this command he won for 
Italy Keren and Asmara without blood- 
shed. As a diplomat he divided the Abys- 
sinian leaders, outmanoeuvred Menelik 
himself, and thus expanded and solidified 
the Italian colony. He was recalled at 
the instance of Count Antonelli, and in 
the absence of his strong hand the Italians 
suffered constant reverses. Reappointed 
to his old post in 1896, in succession to 
the defeated General Baratieri, he has had 
to struggle with limited resources against 
victorious enemies and a [hostile public 
opinion in Italy. 

The Right Hon. Alexander Hugh 
Bruce, son of R. Bruce, of Kennet, Alloa, 
N.B., was born on Jan. 13, 1849, and was 
educated at Loretto, Eton, and Oriel Col- 
lege, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 
with honours in 1871, and proceeded to the 
degree of M.A. in 1872. The title, origin- 
ally granted in 1607, was attainted in 1716, 
on account of the "rising" of 1715, and 
was only restored to the present possessor 
in 1869. Lord Balfour is a Conservative 
in politics, and has served on the following 
important commissions during the past 
twenty-three years, viz. : Member of the 



Factory Commission, 1874-75 ; Member of 
the Endowed Institution (Scotland) Com- 
mission, 1878-79 ; Chairman of the Edu- 
cational Endowments Commission, 1882- 
1889 ; Chairman of the Welsh Sunday 
Closing Commission, 1889 ; Chairman of 
the Metropolitan Water Supply Commission, 
1893-94 ; and Chairman of the Rating 
Commission, 1896. He acted as Lord-in- 
Waiting to the Queen from 1888 to 1889, 
was Parliamentary Secretary to the Board 
of Trade from 1889 to 1892, and in 1895 he 
was appointed Secretary for Scotland, 
with a seat in the Cabinet. He is a mem- 
ber of the Church of Scotland, a Privy 
Councillor, and was elected Lord Rector of 
the University of Edinburgh in November 
1896. He was married to Katherine 
Gordon, sister of the Earl of Aberdeen, in 
1876, and has a son and heir, Robert, 
Master of Burleigh, born in 1880. Ad- 
dresses : Kennet, Alloa, N.B. ; 47 Cadogan 
Square, S.W. ; and Athenaeum. 

BALFOUR, The Bight Hon. Arthur 
James, M.P., LL.D., F.R.S., &c, eldest 
son of the late James Maitland Balfour, 
Esq., of Whittinghame, N.B., and Lady 
Blanche Mary Harriet, daughter of the 
2nd Marquis of Salisbury, was born July 
25, 1848. He was educated at Eton and 
at Trinity College, Cambridge, taking his 
B.A. degree with second class Honours in 
Moral Science in 1869. He entered Par- 
liament in 1S74 as M.P. for Hertford, 
which constituency he represented until 
1885, when he was elected for East Man- 
chester, for which he still sits. He acted 
as Private Secretary to the Marquis of 
Salisbury at the Foreign Office during the 
critical period 1878-80, when the Berlin 
treaty was negotiated. In June 1878 he 
accompanied a special mission to Berlin. 
In 1879 Mr. Balfour published his work, 
"A Defence of Philosophic Doubt." It 
attracted much attention, and gave pro- 
mise of abilities which could hardly have 
failed to win recognition even had the 
writer not been a Conservative politician 
connected by family ties with Lord Salis- 
bury. The publication was commonly 
taken to be an argument in favour of 
theological scepticism, but he himself has 
declared the very opposite, and that his 
design was to strengthen revealed religion. 
In the early portion of his parliamentary 
career Mr. Balfour acted for a time with 
the so-called "Fourth Party," a name 
facetiously given to a small number of 
Conservative members led by Lord Ran- 
dolph Churchill. He did not come into 
prominent notice until 1885, when he be- 
came a Privy Councillor and President of 
the Local Government Board. From July 
1886 to March 1887 he was Secretary for 
Scotland, with a seat in the Cabinet. In 

November 1887 he was appointed Chief 
Secretary for Ireland. The appointment 
was undoubtedly a great experiment, but 
the task of the pacification of Ireland, 
which had proved too much for such 
trained officials as Sir George Trevelyan 
and Sir Michael Hicks-Beach, was more 
or less successfully coped with by Mr. 
Balfour, and he soon checked the torrent 
of intimidation and crime which had 
flooded Ireland for so long. At one time, 
during his tenure of the Chief Secretary- 
ship, his unpopularity with the Irish Home 
Rulers was extreme, but he has since 
abandoned that cynical and almost con- 
temptuous manner towards them which 
was one of the causes of their hostility. 
His Irish policy, however unwise some 
may think it, was that which was con- 
sidered by most people in England as the 
only means of effectively dealing with the 
Irish question. His treatment of political 
prisoners and his extreme eviction policy 
will probably come to be regarded as 
errors which he would not now repeat, 
but on the whole Mr. Balfour has been 
throughout a conscientious friend to Ire- 
land, and, after the ten years of the "re- 
solute government " which he desired in 
1887, he now has the satisfaction of seeing 
his brother a popular Chief Secretary and 
active co-operator in the cause of Irish 
reform. Among the measures brought 
forward by Mr. Balfour was the Bill for 
the Improvement of Ireland by the drain- 
age of Bann, Barrow, and Shannon, and 
by the construction of light railways. 
The New Purchase of Land Bill, which 
had been dropped for some time after its 
first introduction, was passed in August 
1891. The Act provides further funds for 
the purchase of land in Ireland, and makes 
permanent the Land Commission ; it also 
creates a Congested Districts Board, which 
has power to relieve congested districts 
by providing seed potatoes, &c. During 
October 1890 he made a tour through the 
western districts of Ireland, visiting Mayo, 
Donegal, and other places threatened with 
famine. In January 1891, in conjunction 
with Lord Zetland, the Lord-Lieutenant, 
Mr. Balfour issued an appeal to the public 
for funds to relieve the distress caused 
by the failure of the potato crop. Large 
contributions were received, and a sum of 
nearly £60,000 was distributed. Upon the 
death of Mr. W. H. Smith, Mr. Balfour 
was unanimously elected leader of the 
House of Commons and First Lord of the 
Treasury, and throughout the session of 
1892 he continued to show increased 
ability in leading the Unionist party. In 
the following year his speeches against 
the Home Rule for Ireland Bill greatly 
added to his reputation. In April 1893 
he visited Belfast on the occasion of the 



great Ulster demonstration held there, 
taking the place of Lord Salisbury, whom 
illness prevented from attending. On the 
return of the Unionist party to power in 
1895, Mr. Balfour again became leader of 
the House. The various crises through 
which the country has passed since that 
date have called for a good deal of tact 
and patience, as well as skilful leadership, 
on the part of Mr. Balfour. The Jameson 
Raid, affairs in Egypt, West Africa, and 
China, have all brought their load of 
anxiety to the Government, which was 
subjected during 1897-98 to some sharp 
criticism, even from Conservative mem- 
bers, especially with regard to a supposed 
want of vigorous action in Chinese affairs. 
During the recent illness of the Prime 
Minister practically the whole business of 
the Foreign Office has been in the hands of 
Mr. Balfour. He has been the recipient of 
many university honours. He was elected 
Lord Rector of St. Andrews University 
in November 1886 and also of Glasgow 
University in 1890, and Chancellor of 
Edinburgh University in 1891. In 1888 
he was appointed Member of the Senate 
of London University, in which year he 
was also admitted to the Freedom of the 
City. Mr. Balfour is an Hon. LL.D. of 
nearly all the universities of the United 
Kingdom, a D.C.L. of Oxford, and F.R.S. 
He has been President of the Committee 
of the Council of Education for Scotland, 
and Keeper of the Privy Seal in Ireland. 
In 1887 he was appointed member of the 
Gold and Silver Commission ; and mention 
should be made of his bias in favour of 
bimetallism, .with regard to which he has 
said, "That if bimetallists could by inter- 
national arrangement fix some ratio of 
exchange between gold and silver coin, 
they would create an automatic system by 
which the demand and supply for gold 
and silver respectively would maintain 
that ratio at the point they fixed it." In 
July 1898 Mr. Balfour was elected Vice- 
President of the London Library to suc- 
ceed the late Mr. Gladstone. He is a D.L. 
for East Lothian and Ross-shire, and a late 
Captain of the East Lothian Yeomanry. In 
1894 he was chosen captain of the Royal 
and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews, and 
is also President of the National Cyclists' 
Union. Besides his "Defence of Philo- 
sophic Doubt," he has published " Essays 
and Addresses," 1893 ; and " The Founda- 
tions of Belief, being Notes Introductory 
to the Study of Theology," 1895. He also 
wrote the volume on "Golf" in the Bad-' 
minton series. Addresses : 10 Downing 
Street, S.W. ; Whitlinghame, Prestonkirk ; 
and Athenaeum. 

BALFOUR, The Right Hon. Gerald 
William, M.A., M.P. for Central Leeds, 

and Chief Secretary for Ireland, was born 
in 1853, and is the fourth son of the late 
James Maitland Balfour of Whittinghame 
and Lady Blanche Cecil, daughter of the 
second Marquis of Salisbury. He was 
educated at Eton and at Trinity College, 
Cambridge, where he obtained a first- 
class in the Classical Tripos. He was 
afterwards appointed Assistant Tutor, and 
elected Fellow in 1878. He entered Par- 
liament in 1885 as Conservative member 
for Central Leeds, and retains the seat. 
Since 1895 he has been Chief Secretary for 
Ireland. From 1885 to 1886 he was private 
secretary to his brother, the Right Hon. 
A. J. Balfour, at the Local Government 
Board. He was a Member of the Royal 
Commission on Labour in 1891, and became 
a Privy Councillor in 1895. In the last 
session of Parliament he successfully in- 
troduced an Irish Local Government Bill, 
similar to Mr. Ritchie's, which has done 
much to conciliate the Home Rulers. 
Some financial points in the bill were 
contested by the Irish landlords, but, 
on the whole, it gave universal satisfac- 
tion. The Act establishes County Councils 
and District Councils, and provides for 
the propertied classes not being "rated 
out of existence " by the distribution each 
year out of the Imperial Exchequer of a 
sum equal to one-half of the county cess 
and one-half of the poor-rate. It is this 
provision which differentiates it from the 
English and Scotch Acts. He married in 
1887 Lady Elizabeth, daughter of the 1st 
Earl of Lytton. Addresses : 24 Addison 
Road, W. ; and Chief Secretary's Lodge, 
Phcenix Park, Dublin. 

BALFOUR, Professor Isaac Bayley, 

Botanist, M.D. (Edin.), D.Sc. (Edin.), 
M.A. (Oxon.), F.R.S., F.R.S.E., F.L.S., 
F.G.S., and member of other British and 
foreign scientific societies, was born in 
Edinburgh March 31, 1853, being the 
second son of John Hutton Balfour, Pro- 
fessor of Botany in the University of 
Edinburgh, 1845-79. He was educated at 
the Edinburgh Academy and at the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh, where he was Baxter 
Natural Science Scholar, and graduated 
with honours in Science and Medicine. 
In 1879 he was appointed Regius Professor 
of Botany in the University of Glasgow, 
which chair he resigned on being elected 
in 1884 Sherardian Professor of Botany in 
the University of Oxford. This chair he 
resigned in 1888 on his receiving the 
appointment of Queen's Botanist in Scot- 
land, Keeperof the Royal Botanic Garden in 
Edinburgh, and Regius Prof essor of Botany, 
having previously been elected Professor 
of Botany in the University of Edinburgh. 
These positions he now holds. In 1874he 
was appointed by the Royal Society 



Naturalist to the Transit of Venus Ex- 
pedition to Rodriguez. The natural history 
results of the Expedition are published in 
the Philosophical Transactions, vol. clxiii. 
(1879). In 1880 he undertook, on behalf 
of the Royal Society and the British 
Association, the exploration of the island 
of Socotra. Reports upon the results of 
the Expedition have appeared in publica- 
tions of the British Association and of the 
Royal Institution. The botany of the 
island constitutes vol. xxxi. (1888) of the 
Transactions of the Royal Society, Edinburgh. 
Professor Balfour has contributed papers, 
chiefly on botanical subjects, to the various 
botanical journals and publications of 
scientific societies. He is editor of the 
"Annals of Botany." He is married to 
Agnes, daughter of Robert Balloon, a 
Glasgow merchant. Addresses : Inver- 
leith House, Edinburgh ; and Athenaeum. 

BALFOUR, The Right Hon. John 
Blair, Q.C., M.P., LL.D., P.O., is the son 
of the late Rev. Peter Balfour, minister of 
Clackmannan, by Jane Ramsay, daughter 
of Mr. John Blair of Perth. He was born 
at Clackmannan on July 11, 1837, and was 
educated at the Edinburgh Academy and 
the University of Edinburgh. He was 
called to the Scottish Bar in 1861, and was 
appointed Solicitor-General for Scotland 
on the formation of Mr. Gladstone's Ad- 
ministration in 1880. Mr. Balfour entered 
Parliament as M.P. for the counties of 
Clackmannan and Kinross in November 
1880, in the place of the late Mr. W. P. 
Adam, on the appointment of the latter as 
Governor of Madras, and was again elected 
in November 1885, in July 1886, in July 
1892, and in July 1895. In August 1881 
he was appointed Lord Advocate for 
Scotland, and held that office till the 
resignation of Mr. Gladstone's Administra- 
tion in June 1885 ; was re-appointed Lord 
Advocate in February 1886, when he held 
office till August 1886 ; and a third time in 
August 1892, when he held office till July 
1895 ; was made Privy Councillor and a 
Member of the Committee of Council on 
Education in Scotland 1883 ; elected Dean 
of the Faculty of the Advocates July 
1885, and again May 1889, and Deputy- 
Lieutenant for the County of the City of 
Edinburgh. He is also Hon. LL.D. of the 
Universities of Edinburgh and St. Andrews. 
Mr. Balfour has been twice married — first, 
in 1869, to Lilias Oswald, daughter of Lord 
Mackenzie, a Judge of the Court of 
Session (Supreme Court) of Scotland; and, 
secondly, in 1877, to the Hon. Marianne 
Eliza Wellwood Moncreiff, younger daugh- 
ter of the Right Hon. Lord Moncreiff, 
late Lord Justice Clerk of Scotland. Ad- 
dresses : 6 Rothesay Terrace, Edinburgh ; 
and Glarclune, North Berwick, N.B. 

BALL, Sir Robert Stawell, LL.D., 
F.R.S., was born at 3 Granby Row, Dublin, 
on 1st July 1840, and is the eldest son of 
the late Robert Ball, LL.D., a distinguished 
naturalist, and Director of the Museum in 
Trinity College, Dublin. He was educated 
at Tarvin Hall and Abbotts Grange, 
Chester, by Dr. Brindley, and entered 
Trinity College, Dublin, in 1857, gradu- 
ating there as University Student in 
Mathematics in 1861. He was appointed 
Astronomer to the late Earl of Rosse at 
Parsonstown, King's County, Ireland, in 
1865, Professor of Applied Mathematics 
and Mechanism at the Royal College of 
Science for Ireland in 1867, Fellow of the 
Royal Society in 1873, Andrews Professor 
of Astronomy in the University of Dublin, 
and Royal Astronomer of Ireland in 1874, 
Scientific Adviser to the Commissioners 
of Irish Lights in 1883, Lowndeau Pro- 
fessor of Astronomy and Geometry in the 
University of Cambridge, and Director of 
the Cambridge Observatory, and Fellow 
of King's College, Cambridge, in 1892, 
President of the Royal Astronomical 
Society in 1897. He is Hon. Fellow of 
the Royal Society of Edinburgh. He has 
published a long series of Memoirs on 
Dynamics in the Transactions of the Royal 
Irish Academy, for which he has been 
awarded the Cunningham Gold Medal of 
the Academy. He has been a Member of 
Council of the Royal Zoological Society 
of Ireland since 1869, and was President 
of the Society 1890-92. He is author 
of the following works among others : 
"Experimental Mechanics" (Macmillan), 
"Theory of Screws" (Hodges & Figgis), 
"The Story of the Heavens" (Cassell), 
"Starland" (Cassell), "In Starry Realms" 
(Isbister), "In the High Heavens" (Isbis- 
ter), London Science Class-books in Astro- 
nomy and Mechanics (Longmans), and 
"Time and Tide," besides many papers 
on Mathematics, Astronomy, and Physical 
Science in various publications. He is 
the editor of the "Admiralty Manual of 
Scientific Inquiry." Several of his works 
have been translated into foreign lan- 
guages. Sir Robert Ball has also lectured 
frequently on astronomy at the leading 
institutions in the United Kingdom. He 
was married on Aug. 5, 1868, to Frances 
Elizabeth, daughter of the late William 
E. Steele, Esq., M.D., Director of the 
National Science and Art Museum, Dublin, 
and he has six children. He is a member 
of the Athenaeum Club, Pall Mall, and 
his residence is at the Observatory, Cam- 
bridge. He was knighted on Jan. 25, 
1886. Addresses : The Observatory, Cam- 
bridge ; and Athenaeum. 

BANCROFT, Lady, ne'e Marie Eflie 
Wilton, actress, who belongs to an old 



Gloucestershire and Wiltshire family, is the 
daughter of the late Mr. Kobert Pleydell 
Wilton. After acting from early child- 
hood in the provinces, chiefly at the old 
Theatre Royal, Bristol, she first appeared in 
London in September 1856 at the Lyceum 
Theatre, as the boy in "Belphegor" and 
"Perdita the Royal Milkmaid." Subse- 
quently she fulfilled various engagements 
at London houses, notably making the 
fortune of the celebrated burlesques at the 
Strand Theatre. Mi^s Wilton, in partner- 
ship with Mr. H. J. Byron, became manager 
of the Prince of Wales's Theatre, London, 
at Easter 1865. Shortly afterwards she 
gave up burlesque acting, and devoted 
her entire attention to the production of 
English comedies, chiefly written by the 
late T. W. Robertson. She was married to 
Mr. (now Sir) S. B. Bancroft in December 
1867. Mr. and Mrs. Bancroft continued 
their successful career at the Prince of 
Wales's Theatre until January 1880, when 
they migrated to the Haymarket, of which 
Theatre they had become the lessees. The 
characters with which Lady Bancroft's 
name is best associated are Polly Eccles, 
Naomi Tighe, Mary Netley, Peg Woffing- 
ton, Jenny Northcote, Nan, Lady Franklin, 
and Lady Teazle. Mr. and Mrs. Bancroft 
retired from theatrical management in 
July 1885, the occasion being a remark- 
able tribute to their popularity both before 
and behind the curtain. Lady Bancroft 
has since shown considerable power as a 
writer by her important share in the book 
of reminiscences called "Mr. and Mrs. 
Bancroft on and off the Stage." Except 
for occasional charitable morning perform- 
ances Lady Bancroft did not again appear 
upon the stage until February 1893, when 
she took part in the revival of " Diplo- 
macy" at the Garrick Theatre. On the 
occasion of the performance of "Diplo- 
macy " before the Queen, Mrs. Bancroft 
was honoured by special marks of her 
Majesty's favour. 

BANCROFT, Sir Squire Bancroft, 
K.B., actor and theatrical manager, born 
in London, May 14, 1841, made his first 
appearance on the stage at the Theatre 
Royal, Birmingham, in January 1861. He 
afterwards accepted engagements in 
Dublin and Liverpool, playing almost 
every line of character, including im- 
portant Shakesperian parts, with Charles 
Kean, Phelps, and G. V. Brooke. He 
made his dibut in London on the occasion 
of the opening of the Prince of Wales's 
Theatre, under the management of Mr. 
Byron and Miss Marie Wilton, April 15, 
1865. Mr. T. W. Robertson's popular 
comedies, "Society," "Ours," "Caste," 
"Play," "School," and "M.P." were 
brought out at this theatre, and in each 

of them Mr. Bancroft created one of the 
leading characters. In 1867 Mr. Bancroft 
married Miss Marie Wilton, and a large 
share of the management of the Prince 
of Wales's Theatre thenceforward de- 
volved upon him. Among other parts 
subsequently performed by him at that 
house were Sir Frederick Blount in 
" Money," Joseph Surface in the "School 
for Scandal," Triplet in "Masks and 
Faces," Sir George Ormond in "Peril," 
Dazzle in "London Assurance," Blenkinsop 
in "An Unequal Match," Count Orloff in 
"Diplomacy," and Henry Spreadbrow in 
" Sweethearts." Mr. Bancroft's success- 
ful career at the Prince of Wales's Theatre 
was brought to a close on Jan. 29, 1880. 
In September 1879 he had become lessee 
of the Haymarket, and after expending 
£20,000 on its internal rebuilding and 
decorations, he began his management of 
that theatre on Jan. 31, 1880. The first 
performance was Lord Lytton's comedy, 
"Money." "Odette" was produced in 
April 1882, Mr. Bancroft taking the part 
of Lord Henry Trevene, with Madame 
Modjeska as Odette. This was followed 
by the "Overland Route " (September 1882), 
and the farewell revival of "Caste" in 
1883. M. Sardou's "Fedora" was pro- 
duced with marked success in May of the 
same year, which was followed by Mr. 
Pinero's comedy " Lords and Commons," 
and an elaborate revival of "The Rivals." 
Mr. and Mrs. Bancroft having realised a 
large fortune, retired from their excep- 
tionally successful career of management 
on July 20, 1885. Mr. Bancroft reappeared 
on the stage in the autumn of 1889 at the 
Lyceum Theatre with Mr. Irving, acting 
with great success the part of the Abb£ 
Latour in "The Dead Heart." Mr. Ban- 
croft subscribed £1000 towards General 
Booth's scheme for alleviating distress, 
foregoing his stipulation that ninety-nine 
others should subscribe the same amount. 
The Earl of Aberdeen was the first to 
follow suit. In February 1893 Mr. Ban- 
croft appeared at the Garrick Theatre in 
a revival of "Diplomacy," which had a 
notable success, being also acted before 
the Queen. Sir Squire Bancroft, who 
received the honour of knighthood in 1897, 
has since devoted much time to "Read- 
ings" throughout the country in aid of 
hospitals and similar institutions, to which 
he has given large sums. Permanent 
address : 18 Berkeley Square, W. 

BANFFY, Baron, was born in 1842 
at Klausenburg, in Transylvania, and was 
educated at the Universities of Leipzig 
and Berlin. After spending some time in 
travel he became a provincial prefect in 
Transylvania, and spread ideas of reform 
throughout his district. On the reforma- 


tion o£ the Upper Chamber in Hungary he 
was elected a life peer. He was returned 
to the Reichstag in 1892, and immediately 
became its President. On the retirement 
of Dr. Wekerle he succeeded him as 
Premier, on the distinct understanding 
that he should carry out his Liberal 
programme. He caused Count Kalnoky's 
resignation in 1895 by standing out 
against his high and dry Conservatism, and 
at the general elections of 1896 he was sup- 
ported strongly throughout the country. 

BANGOR, Bishop of. See Lloyd, 
The Right Rev. Daniel Lewis. 

BANKES, John Eldon, was called to 
the Bar at the Inner Temple in 1878, and 
is a Special Pleader on the North Wales 
and Chester Circuits. Address : 3 Hare 
Court, Temple, E.C. 

BANKS, William Mitchell, M.D., 
F.R.C.S., was born at Edinburgh in 1842, 
and was educated at the Edinburgh Aca- 
demy and at the University of Edinburgh. 
In 1864 he took the degree of M.D. with 
honours, gaining the University Gold 
Medal for an anatomical thesis on the 
Wolffian Bodies. After graduating, he 
acted as Demonstrator of Anatomy in the 
University of Glasgow under the late Pro- 
fessor Allen Thomson for two years, and 
then settled in Liverpool as a consulting 
and operating surgeon. Mr. Banks has 
contributed numerous surgical papers to 
various journals and societies, but his 
name has been more especially associated 
with the advocacy of extensive operative 
measures for the removal of cancer of the 
breast, and with attempts to find the most 
suitable operation for the radical cure of 
rupture. His chief work, however, has 
been in connection with the resuscitation 
of the Medical School of Liverpool, and 
with the origination of the University 
College of that city, now one of the three 
colleges of the Victoria University. In 
the laying down of the original constitu- 
tion of the college, and in the arrange- 
ments of the regulations for the medical 
degrees of the University, Mr. Banks's 
work has been of acknowledged service. 
He has also devoted much time and labour 
to the building of the new Liverpool Royal 
Infirmary, having endeavoured, by the 
introduction of the latest forms of con- 
struction and the most recent improve- 
ments in building materials, to render this 
hospital a model of sanitary science. Mr. 
Banks is Senior Surgeon to the Liverpool 
Royal Infirmary, and Emeritus Professor 
of Anatomy in University College, Liver- 
pool. He has been President of the 
Liverpool Medical Institution and of the 
Lancashire and Cheshire branch of the 

British Medical Association. He has been 
Vice-President and President of the Sur- 
gical Section of that Association, and 
delivered the address in surgery at Mon- 
treal in 1897, when the Association visited 
that city. On the formation of the Liver- 
pool Biological Society in 1886 Mr. Banks 
was appointed its first president, and in 
1893 he gave the annual oration before 
the Medical Society of London. He was 
the first representative of the Victoria Uni- 
versity on the General Medical Council, and 
has been a Member of the Council of the 
Royal College of Surgeons. He is a Justice 
of the Peace for the city of Liverpool. 
Address : 28 Rodney Street, Liverpool. 

BARATIERI, General, ex-Governor 
and Commander-in-Chief of the Italian 
colony in East Africa, is the son of a 
district judge in the Tyrol, and was born 
at Condino in 1841. Studying at Rova- 
redo, Trient, and Meran, he finished his 
classical education under the Franciscans 
at Circo. Settling in Italy in 1859, he 
joined Garibaldi, and was a volunteer 
in the "Thousand of Marsala." Subse- 
quently entering the regular army, he 
soon rose to be captain, and was wounded 
at Custozza, where he fought with dis- 
tinguished bravery. Joining an exploring 
expedition, he visited Khartoum. He was 
then for several years editor in Rome of 
the Rivista Militare, and was employed by 
Government as Military Attache to Berlin 
and Vienna. He had risen to be a Colonel 
of Bersaglieri when Italy began to become 
a colonising power. He accompanied 
General Gandolfi to Africa, and fought 
with distinction in the campaigns against 
the Abyssinians, Somalis, and Dervishes, 
succeeding his chief as Governor and 
Commander-in-Chief of the Italian colony. 
In 1895 he distinguished himself against 
Ras Mangascia, moving his troops and 
gaining victories with astonishing rapidity. 
In March 1396, however, his troops were 
overwhelmingly defeated by the Shoans 
in a battle of a day's duration, in which 
he was wounded, and lost three thousand 
Italians, including Generals Dabormida 
and Albertone, nearly half his artillery, 
and his ammunition and stores. He was 
recalled and succeeded by General Baldis- 
sera (q.v.). 

BARBER, The Rev. W. T. A., son 

of the Rev. W. Barber, Wesleyan (Mis- 
sionary) minister, was born Jan. 4, 1858, 
at Jaffna, Ceylon. He was educated at the 
Gymnasium, Stellenbosch, Cape Colony, 
and at New Kingswood School, Bath. 
He graduated B.A., London, 1882; M.A., 
Caius College, Cambridge, 1883 ; and B.D., 
Dublin, 1896. He entered the Wesleyan 
ministry in 1882, and was afterwards 



assistant tutor at the Richmond Theo- 
logical College, 1882-84 ; Principal of the 
Wuchang High School, Central China, 
1884-92 ; and General Secretary of the 
Wesleyan Missionary Society, 1896-98. He 
was appointed Head Master of the Leys 
School, Cambridge, in March 1898. He is 
author of "David Hill, Missionary and 
Saint " (1898). Address : The Leys, Cam- 

BARBOUR, Sir David Miller, 

K.C.S.I., was born in 1844. He went 
out early to India, and became Member 
of Council of the Governor-General of 
India in 1887, retaining this position 
until 1893. In 1889 he was created a 
K.C.S.I. Address : 4 Hungerford Terrace, 

BARDSLEY, The Right Rev. John 
Wareing, D.D., Bishop of Carlisle, born 
on March 29, 1835, at Keighley, in York- 
shire, is the son of the late Rev. Canon 
Bardsley, M.A., Rector of St. Ann's, Man- 
chester. He was educated at Burnley 
and Manchester Grammar Schools, and 
at Trinity College, Dublin, M.A., D.D. 
He was Vicar of St. Saviour's, Liver- 
pool, 1870-87 ; Archdeacon of Warring- 
ton, 1880-86 ; Archdeacon of Liverpool, 
1886-87; and Bishop of Sodor and Man, 
1887 to 1892, when he was translated to 
Carlisle. He is the author of " Counsels 
to Candidates for Confirmation, 1882; " The 
Origin of Man," 1883. He is married to 
Elizabeth, daughter of the Rev. B. Powell. 
Address : Rose Castle, Carlisle. 

BARING, "Walter, Minister at Monte 
Video since 1893, was born in 1844, and 
entered the Diplomatic Service in 1865. 
He has held offices at Teheran, Lisbon, 
Athens, and Montenegro, where he was 
Charge" d'Affaires in 1886. Address : H.M. 
British Legation, Monte Video. 

BARING-GOULD, The Rev. Sabine, 

M.A., of Lew-Trenchard, born at Exeter 
on Jan. 28, 1834, is the eldest son of 
Edward Baring-Gould, Esq., of Lew-Tren- 
chard, Devon, where the family has been 
seated for nearly 300 years, and of Char- 
lotte Sophia, daughter of Admiral P. 
Godolphin Bond. He was educated at 
Clare College, Cambridge, where he took 
the degree of M.A. in 1856. He was ap- 
pointed Incumbent of Dalton, Thirsk, by 
the Viscountess Down in 1869, and Rector 
of East Mersea, Colchester, by the Crown 
in 1871. On the death of his father in 
1872 he succeeded to the family pro- 
perty, and in 1881 to the Rectory of Lew- 
Trenchard. He is Justice of Peace for the 
County of Devon. Mr. Baring-Gould is 
the author of "Paths of the Just," 1854 ; 

"Iceland: its Scenes and Sagas," 1861; 
" Postmediajval Preachers," 1865; "The 
Book of Werewolves," 1865; "Curious 
Myths of the Middle Ages," 1st series, 
1866. 2nd series, 1867 ; " The Silver Store," 
1868; "Curiosities of Olden Times," 1869 ; 
" The Origin and Development of Religious 
Belief," vol. i. 1869, vol. ii. 1870; "The 
Golden Gate," 1869-70 ; " In Exitu Israel, 
an Historical Novel," 1870 ; " Lives of the 
Saints," 15 vols., 1872-77 ; " Some Modern 
Difficulties, a course of Lectures preached 
at St. Paul's Cathedral," 1874; "The Lost 
and Hostile Gospels : an Essay on the 
Toledoth Jeschu, and the Petrine and 
Pauline Gospels of the First Three Cen- 
turies of which Fragments remain," 1874; 
"Yorkshire Oddities," 2 vols., 1874; 
"Some Modern Difficulties," in nine lec- 
tures, 1875 ; " Village Sermons for a Year," 
1875 ; " The Vicar of Morwenstowe," 1876 ; 
"The Mysterv of Suffering," 1877 ; "Ger- 
many, Present and Past," 1879 ; " The . 
Preacher's Pocket," 1880; "The Village 
Pulpit," 1881 ; "The Last Seven Words," 
1884; "The Passion of Jesus," 1885; 
"The Birth of Jesus," 1885 ; " Our Parish 
Church," 1885; "The Trials of Jesus," 
1886; "Our Inheritance," 1888; "Old 
Country Life," 1889 ; "Historic Oddities," 
1889; "The. Tragedy of the Csesars," 2 
vols., 1893 ; " Strange Survivals," 1893. 
He was editor of The Sacristy, a quarterly 
review of ecclesiastical art and literature, 
1871-73. Of late years Mr. Baring-Gould 
has won celebrity as a novelist. He is the 
author of "Mehalah," "John Herring," 
"Court Royal," and "The Broom Squire" 
(1896), as well as of many short stories. 
Among his most recent works should be 
mentioned "Mrs. Curzenven" and "Cheap 
Jack Zita," 1893; "The Deserts of 
Southern France," "The Queen of Love," 
"A Garland of Country Song," "Old Fairy 
Tales Retold," 1894; "Noerni," "The Old 
English Fairy Tales," 1895; "Napoleon 
Bonaparte," 1896; "A Study of St. Paul," 
"Guavas the Tinner," and "Bladys," 
1897. He married in 1868 Grace, daugh- 
ter of Joseph Taylor, Horbury, York- 
shire. Address : Lew-Trenchard House, 
N. Devon. 

BARKER, Lady. See Broome, Ladt. 

BARKER, Iiieut.-General George 

Digby, C.B., the son of the late John 
Barker, of Clare Priory, Suffolk, and 
Georgiana, daughter of the late Colonel 
Weston of Shadowbuck, Suffolk, was born 
at Clare Priory in 1833. He was educated 
at the old Clapham Grammar School, and 
entered the army as an Ensign in the 
78tb Highlanders in 1853. After serving 
in the Persian Campaign of 1857, for 
which he received a medal, he was engaged 



throughout the Indian Mutiny, and was 
present at the battle of Cawnpore, and 
the first relief, defence, and capture of 
Lucknow. From 1874 to 1876 he held 
the position of Professor of Military Art 
at the Staff College ; he had himself been 
first in the competition for admission to 
the Staff College in 1864, and he had 
passed out first in 1866. Promoted to 
the rank of Major-General in 1887, he 
was appointed to command the forces in 
China and Hong-kong in 1890, and held 
this position until 1895, having acted as 
Governor of Hong-kong during part of 
the year 1891. He became a Lieutenant- 
General in 1895, and in the following year 
was made Governor and Commander-in- 
Chief of the Bermudas. General Barker 
was married in 1862 to Frances, daughter 
of the late George Murray of Eosemount, 
Boss-shire. Addresses: GovernmentHouse, 
Bermuda ; and Clare Priory, Suffolk. 

BARLOW, Jane, the daughter of the 
Eev. Dr. Barlow, Senior Fellow of Trinity 
College, Dublin, is the author of "Irish 
Idylls," published in October 1892; 
"Bogland Studies," "Kerrigan's Quality," 
"Strangers at Lisconnel," "Maureen's 
Fairing," "Mrs. Martin's Company," "A 
Creel of Irish Stories" (1898), "The End 
of Elfintown," and "The Battle of the 
Frogs and Mice" (translation). She has 
also written a number of short stories and 
poems for various magazines. Address : 
Raheny, co. Dublin. 

BARLOW, Thomas, M.D., was 
educated at University College, London, 
taking his M.D. degree at the University 
of London in 1874, and being elected a 
Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians 
of London in 1880. He is Physician to 
University College Hospital, and to the 
Hospital for Children in Great Ormond 
Street ; Professor of Clinical Medicine in 
University College, and Physician to Her 
Majesty's Household. Dr. Barlow has con- 
tributed numerous articles and papers to 
the Transactions of the Pathological Society, 
the Medico - Chirurgical Society, and the 
Clinical Society. Address : 10 Wimpole 
Street, W. 

BARLOW, William Henry, F.R.S. 
(L. & E.), Past Pres. Inst. C.E., Hon. 
Member Society des Inge"nieurs Civils, &c, 
born at Woolwich on May 10, 1812, is the 
son of Prof. Barlow, F.R.S., of the Royal 
Military Academy, was educated at Wool- 
wich ; pupil of H. R. Palmer, M.I.C.E. ; 
went to Constantinople in 1832 for Messrs. 
Maudslay & Field ; erected the estab- 
lishment for the reconstruction of the 
Turkish Ordnance ; and was employed to 
report on the lighthouses at the entrance 

of the Bosphorus in the Black Sea. For 
his services in Turkey he received the 
decoration of the " Nichan." Returned to 
England 1833, he became Assistant Engi- 
neer on the Manchester and Birming- 
ham Railway ; Resident Engineer on the 
Midland Counties ; and Engineer to the 
Midland Railway on the formation of that 
Company. He took offices in London in 
1857, and became Consulting Engineer of 
the Midland Company. He made many 
of the new lines of the Midland, including 
the London end of the line and the St. 
Pancras Station. He was Joint Engineer 
with Sir J. Hawkshavv for the completion 
of Clifton Bridge ; was the Engineer of 
the new Tay Bridge (1880-1887); and 
acted jointly with Sir J. Fowler and Mr. 
T. Harrison to settle the design of the 
Firth of Forth Bridge ; went to America 
as one of the Judges of the Centennial 
Exhibition ; and was one of the Vice- 
Presidents of the Royal Society in 1881. 
After the labours of Bessemer and others 
had reduced the cost of obtaining steel, 
Mr. Barlow took an active part in obtain- 
ing the recognition, in the rules and 
regulations of the Board of Trade, of the 
superior strength of this material for 
structural purposes. He served in three 
Commissions appointed by the Board of 
Trade: (1) to settle the coefficient to be 
used for steel in engineering structures ; 
(2) to inquire into the cause of the fall 
of the former Tay Bridge ; (3) to report 
on the provision to be made to resist wind 
pressure in engineering structures. He 
was for many years a Director of the Indo- 
European Telegraph Company ; was ap- 
pointed a Member of the Ordnance Com- 
mittee in 1881, from which duty ill-health 
compelled his retirement in 1888. He has 
contributed several papers to the Philo- 
sophical Transactions, viz., one on the 
"Illumination of Lighthouses" (1837), 
one on the "Diurnal Variation of Electric 
Currents on the Surface of the Earth" 
(1848), one on "Resistance of Flexure in 
Beams" (1855), and one on "The Logo- 
graph " (1874), and several papers to 
the Institution of Civil Engineers. He 
married Selina Crawford, daughter of 
W. Caffin, of the Royal Arsenal. Ad- 
dresses : High Combe, Old Charlton ; and 

BAENABY, Sir Nathaniel, K.C.B., 
Vice-President of the Institution of Naval 
Architects, London, was born in 1829 at 
Chatham, and belongs to a family which 
has produced many generations of ship- 
wrights in the Royal Dockyard there. He 
was apprenticed to the trade of shipwright 
at Sheerness in 1843, and in 1848 he won, 
by competition, an Admiralty Scholarship 
in the School of Naval Architecture at 



Portsmouth. In 1854 he superintended 
the construction of the Viper and 
Wrangler gun-vessels built by contract 
for the Royal Navy. In 1855 he entered 
the designing office at the Admiralty, and 
during the thirty years he served there he 
was concerned in the design and construc- 
tion of all but three of the entire list of 
sea-going fighting ships, armoured and 
unarmoured, which were in existence or 
were building at the date of his retire- 
ment, from ill-health, in October 1885. The 
exceptions were the Neptune, Orion, and 
Belleisle. He was appointed Chief Naval 
Architect in 1872, and afterwards, by 
change of title, Director of Naval Con- 
struction. He was the means of inaugu- 
rating the change in construction from 
iron to steel in shipbuilding in England, 
which has marked the last few years so 
notably. He initiated and was responsible 
for the formation of an Admiralty List 
of Merchant Ships having considerable 
security against foundering in collision, 
and appreciable fighting value as auxili- 
aries in war. He was one of the original 
founders of the Institution of Naval Archi- 
tects in 1860, and has contributed many 
papers on professional subjects to its 
Transactions, as well as the articles on 
the "Navy" and "Shipbuilding" to the 
"Encyclopedia Britannica." He prepared 
for H.M. Patent Office the first volume of 
" Abridgments of Specification of Patents 
in Shipbuilding, &c," published in 1862, 
and also the second volume of the same 
series. He was made a Companion of the 
Bath in 1876 on the recommendation of 
Mr. Disraeli, and a Knight Commander of 
the Bath in June 1885 on the recom- 
mendation of Mr. Gladstone. Residence : 
Moray House, Lewisham, S.E. 

BARNARD, Henry, LL.D., American 
educator, was born at Hartford, Connecti- 
cut, Jan. 24, 1811. He graduated at Yale 
College in 1830, studied law, and was 
admitted to the Bar in 1835. From 1837 
to 1840 he was a member of the Connecti- 
cut Legislature, and carried through that 
body a complete reorganisation of the 
common school system, and was for four 
years (1838-42) a member and secretary of 
the Board of Education created by it. 
Displaced by a political change in 1842, 
he spent more than a year in an exten- 
sive educational tour through the United 
States, with a view to the preparation of a 
History of Public Schools in the United 
States. He was called from the prosecu- 
tion of this work to take charge of the 
public schools of Rhode Island ; and after 
five years returned to Hartford, in 1849. 
In 1850 a State Normal School was 
established in Connecticut, and he was 
appointed Principal, with the added duties 

of State Superintendent of Public Schools. 
After five years of severe labour he retired 
from this work, but soon began the publi- 
cation of the American Journal of Education, 
Hartford, in 1855, which is still continued. 
In addition to this he has been engaged 
for many years in the publication of a 
Library of Education, which, in 53 vols., 
embraces about 800 separate works. He 
has been President of the American Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Education, 
was elected in 1856 President and Chan- 
cellor of the University of Wisconsin, 
which office he resigned in 1859 ; he was 
President in 1865-67 of the St. John's 
College, Annapolis, Maryland, and United 
States Commissioner of the Department of 
Education in 1868-70. While secretary 
of the Board he established the Connecticut 
Common School Journal, and founded, when 
in Rhode Island, the Rhode Island School 
Journal. His own contributions to edu- 
cational literature have been so numerous, 
that but few of them can be mentioned here : 
" School Architecture," 1839 ; "Education 
in Factories," 1842; "National Education 
in Europe," 1851 ; "Normal Schools in the 
United States and Europe," 1851; "Tribute 
to Gallaudet, with History of Deaf Mute 
Instruction," 1852; "School Libraries," 
1854 ; " Hints and Methods for the Use of 
Teachers," 1857; "English Pedagogy," 
1862; "National Education," 1872; 
"Military Schools," 1872; "American 
Pedagogy," 1875. 

BARNARDO, Thomas John, 

F.R.C.S.Ed., F.R.G.S., was born in Ire- 
land in 1845, being the son of the late 
John M. Barnardo. He was educated at 
private schools, and then proceeded to 
study medicine at hospitals in London, 
Edinburgh, and Paris. Whilst a student 
at the London Hospital in 1866, he had his 
attention drawn to the condition of desti- 
tute children, and on his own responsibility 
he opened a small house in Stepney 
Causeway. Year by year the Homes have 
extended and multiplied, and the original 
rule has been always carefully adhered to, 
viz., that no destitute child, boy or girl, 
should ever be refused admission. At 
present the Homes comprise twenty-four 
mission branches, and eighty-six distinct 
Homes dealing with every class and age of 
destitute children, three of these Homes 
being situated in Canada, one in Jersey, 
■ seventeen in the English counties, and the 
remainder in London. At the Home in 
Stepney Causeway boys are taught various 
trades, whilst at the Village Home at 
Ilford, in Essex, fifty-two separate cottages 
are used for the bringing up of girls on 
the family system, under " mothers." An 
important adjunct is the emigration 
agency, by means of which boys and' 



girls are removed to the Colonies, chiefly 
Canada, where suitable employments are 
found for them. Up to the present time 
over 32,000 children, of all ages, have been 
rescued and trained. Dr. Barnardo is the 
author of "Something Attempted, Some- 
thing Done " ; he has published a large 
number of small booklets on the rescue of 
destitute children, and he is the editor 
of Night and Day, a magazine devoted 
to the interests of his particular work. 
Address : Mossford Lodge, near Ilford, 

BARNES, Hon. Sir John Gorell, a 

Judge of the Probate, Divorce, and Ad- 
miralty Divisions, is the eldest son of the 
late Henry Barnes, Esq., shipowner, of 
Liverpool, and was born in 1848. He was 
educated at St. Peter's College, Cambridge, 
and took his B.A. degree in 1868, and his 
M.A. in 1871. He was called to the Bar at 
the Inner Temple in 1876 ; went on the 
Northern Circuit, and took silk in 1888. 
In 1892 he was appointed a Judge of the 
Probate, Divorce, and Admiralty Division 
of the High Court of Justice, and received 
the honour of knighthood in the same 
year. He married, in 1881, Mary, the 
eldest daughter of the late Thomas Mit- 
chell, Esq. Addresses : 14 Kensington 
Park Gardens, W. ; and Lamb Building, 

Cecil, M.A., is the second son of the Bev. 
Canon H. F. Barnes-Lawrence, and was 
born at Bridlington, Dec. 9, 1852. He was 
educated at KiDg's School, Canterbury, 
Durham Grammar School, and Trinity 
and Lincoln Colleges, Oxford, obtaining a 
scholarship at the latter college. Ap- 
pointed an assistant-master at Manchester 
Grammar School in 1876, he remained 
there until 1881, and after filling a similar 
position at Giggleswick Grammar School 
for two further years, he became, in 1883, 
Headmaster of the Perse Grammar School, 
Cambridge. Address : Beech House, Cam- 

BARNETT, Canon Samuel Augus- 
tus, M.A., was born in 1844, and educated 
at Wadham College, Oxford, where he took 
in 1866 a second in History. He was 
ordained deacon in 1867, and priest in 
1868, and was from 1867 to 1872 curate of 
St. Mary's, Bryanston Square. He was 
then appointed Vicar of St. Jude's, White- 
chapel. There has hardly been a scheme 
for the elevation or education of the people 
of East London which he and Mrs. Barnett 
have not initiated or supported. Their 
names are identified with Poor Law 
Eeform, the Extension of University 
Teaching, Charity Organisation, the 

Children's Country Holidays Fund, the 
Higher Education of Pupil Teachers, and 
many other philanthropic movements. 
With the help of friends from Oxford and 
elsewhere, Canon Barnett built "Toynbee 
Hall," close to St. Jude's Church, a kind of 
residential club and college, which forms a 
centre for university men who come and 
settle for a time to work among the poor. 
The success of his free exhibitions of loan- 
collections of pictures is attested by the 
increasing number of people — many of 
them of the humblest classes — who annu- 
ally crowd to see them. In theology Canon 
Barnett belongs to the Broad Church 
School. In 1893 he became a Canon of 
Bristol, and was succeeded at St. Jude's 
by the Rev. Ronald Bayne. In 1896 
he was appointed Select Preacher be- 
fore Oxford University. He still holds 
a curacy at St. Jude's, and has pub- 
lished, in conjunction with Mrs. Barnett, 
"Practicable Socialism" and "The Ser- 
vice of God." Address : Toynbee Hall, 

BARODA, The Maharajah Gaek- 
war of. His Highness Maharajah Syagi 
Rao Gaekwar was born on March 10, 1863, 
at the town of Kavalana, in the Nassick 
District, and is the son of the late Rao 
Bhikaji Rao Gaekwar. He was educated 
at the " Maharajah's School " at Baroda, 
under the personal supervision and tuition 
of Mr. F. Elliot, of the Indian Civil Service. 
It will be in the memory of our readers 
how the late Gaekwar, Mulhar Rao, for 
his attempt to poison Colonel Phayre, the 
British Resident, and for continual and 
gross misgovernment, was, after being 
tried by a mixed commission of European 
officials and native chiefs, deposed from 
his government and sent into exile at 
Madras, where he died at the end of 1882. 
On Mulhar Rao's deposition, and with the 
consent of the Earl of Northbrook, then 
"Viceroy of India, the Maharanee Jumna 
Bai adopted, on May 27, 1875, the present 
Maharajah, who was on the same day 
installed on the guddee or throne. During 
the minority of the Maharajah the ad- 
ministration was carried on by a Council 
of Regency under the direction of the 
European representative ; and Raja Sir 
Toujore Madhava Rao, Bahadoor, K.C.S.I., 
who was the Dewan to His Highness 
Maharajah Scindiah of Gwalior, was speci- 
ally selected to fill the post of Prime 
Minister, together with a seat at the 
Regency Board. On Dec. 28, 1881, and 
at the early age of eighteen, his Highness 
was invested with full and sovereign powers, 
and since he has held the reins of state, he 
has, with the assistance of Sir Madhava 
Rao, whom he has retained as his Prime 
Minister, given satisfaction by his aptitude 



for work and desire to introduce reforms. 
His Highness is an excellent English 
scholar, speaking the language as fluently 
as his own. 

BABR, Mrs. Amelia Edith, was born 
at Ulverston, Lancashire, March 29, 1831, 
and is the daughter of William Henry 
Huddleston. She was educated at the 
Glasgow High School, and in 1850 mar- 
ried Mr. Robert Barr, a Glasgow merchant. 
In 1854 she went to the United States, and 
after residing for a few years at Austin, 
Texas, removed to Galveston, in the same 
state, where, in 1867, her husband and 
three sons died of yellow fever. She went 
to New York in 1809 with her daughters, 
and taught for two years, and then began 
writing for publication. In addition to 
newspaper and magazine contributions, 
she has published "Romance and Reality," 
1872 ; " Young People of Shakespeare's 
Time," 1882 ; " Cluny M'Pherson," 1883 ; 
" Scottish Sketches," 1883 ; " The Hallam 
Succession," 1884 ; " The Lost Silver of 
Briffault," 1885; "Jan Vedder's Wife," 
1885 ; " A Daughter of Fife," 1886 ; " The 
Last of the M'Allisters," 1886 ; " The Bow 
of Orange Ribbon," 1886 ; " Between Twe 
Loves," 1886; "The Squire of Sandal- 
Side," 1887 ; " Paul and Christina," 1887 ; 
"A Border Shepherdess," 1887; "Master 
of His Fate," 1888 ; " Remember the 
Alamo," 1888; "Christopher and other 
Stories," 1888; "Feet of Clay," 1889; 
" Friend Olivia," 1890 ; " A Rose of a Hun- 
dred Leaves," 1891 ; "A Sister to Esau," 
1891; "Love for an Hour is Love for 
Ever," 1892 ; "A Singer from the Sea," 
1892 ; " Girls of a Feather," 1893 ; " The 
Lone House," 1894 ; " Prisoners of Con- 
science," 1897, &c. Address: Cherry 
Croft, Cornwall Heights, Cornwall-on- 
Hudson, New York. 

BARRES, Maurice, French novelist, 
born at Charmes sur Moselle, Aug. 17, 
1862, was educated for the law, but pre- 
ferred literature. At the end of 1883 he 
founded and edited a small literary paper 
called Les Jaches d'Eucrc, which only lasted 
a year, and was the organ of a new school. 
He then wrote for the Revue Contemporaine 
and the Voltaire. In 1888 he published a 
novel called "Sous l'ceil des barbares," 
which advocated the doctrine of absolute 
selfishness, also "Sensation de Paris," and 
" Le Quartier Latin," both of a pessimistic 
character. His attitude of absolute nega- 
tion was more marked in an essay called 
" Huit Jours chez Monsieur Renan " (1888). 
He made himself a niche among the 
coming young men in literature, and was 
regarded as the head of a new school 
called "The Decadents." He entered the 
Chamber of Deputies in 1889 as member for 

Nancy, and was a warm partisan of General 
Boulanger. Paris address : 100 Bonhard 

BARRETT, Wilson, actor, is the son 
of a gentleman-farmer, and was born in 
Essex on Feb. 18, 1846. He was educated 
at a private school, and entered the 
dramatic profession by his own choice 
at an early age. Mr. Barrett first appeared 
on the stage at Halifax, and first essayed 
management as the lessee of the Burnley 
Theatre. In 1874 he took the Amphi- 
theatre, Leeds. This house was destroyed 
by fire in 1876, and a limited company 
then built the Grand Theatre, Leeds, 
which was opened with Mr. Barrett as 
lessee in 1878. In 1879 he undertook the 
management of the Court Theatre, London. 
Here he produced "Heartsease," an 
adaptation of Schiller's "Marie Stuart," 
"Frou Frou," "Romeo and Juliet," 
" Juana," a poetical play by W. G. Wills, 
and " The Old Love "and the New." In 
1881 Mr. Barrett became sole lessee and 
manager of the Princess's Theatre, where 
he revived "The Old Love and the New." 
In the following September he produced 
Mr. G. R. Sims' drama, "The Lights o' 
London," and played Harold Armytage 
for 286 nights. " The Romany Rye," by 
the same author, was produced in 1882, 
and "The Silver King" in the same year. 
In this drama Mr. Barrett created the 
part of Wilfred Denver, which he played 
for 300 consecutive nights. In December 
1883 he created the part of Claudian 
in the poetical play of that name, and 
played it for 300 nights. In October 1884 
he made his first appearance in London 
as Hamlet. Hamlet was played for 117 
nights, and then Mr. Barrett appeared as 
Junius Brutus in the late Lord Lytton's 
tragedy "Junius; or, the Household 
Gods." This was followed by revivals of 
" The Silver King " and " The Lights o' 
London." In 1885 Mr. Barrett produced 
the drama "Hoodman Blind," written by 
Mr. Henry A. Jones and himself, in which 
he played Jack Yeulett for 171 nights. 
Mr. Barrett is also part-author with Mr. 
Clement Scott of the modern drama 
"Sister Mary," produced at Brighton in 
1886, and with Mr. Sydney Grundy of the 
classical tragedy "Clito," which followed 
the "Lord Harry" at the Princess's. At 
the same theatre he produced the "Ben- 
my-Chree," an adaptation of Hall Caine's 
famous novel " The Deemster," and sub- 
sequently "The Good Old Times," which 
was written in collaboration with Mr. 
Hall Caine ; and in 1889 his own romantic 
drama " Now-a-Days." "The Golden 
Ladder " was produced by Mr. Barrett at 
the Globe Theatre. On May 18, 1889, he 
took farewell of his patrons for a long 



engagement in America. Since his return 
from that tour Mr. Barrett has written and 
played " Pharaoh," a four-act tragedy. He 
also revived "Othello" and "Virginius." 
In November 1893 Mr. Barrett again 
sailed for America, and in December of 
that year produced his adaptation of Hall 
Caine's " Bondman " at the Chestnut Street 
Theatre, Philadelphia. In 1895 he returned 
to London, and achieved a marvellous 
success with the spectacular religious 
drama " The Sign of the Cross," a tale 
of the early Christians, written by himself. 
He sustained the chief role, and Miss Mary 
Jeffries was his leading lady. It ran for 
over a year and a half at the Lyric Theatre. 
He also produced " The Daughters of 
Babylon," and at the end of 1897 he took 
another trip to America. Address : Gar- 
rick Club. 

BARRIE, James Matthew ("Gavin 
Ogilvy"), was born on May 9, 1860, at 
Kirriemuir, a small weaving town in For- 
farshire. He attended school there, and 
afterwards went for five years to Dumfries 
Academy. Subsequently he took the art- 
classes at Edinburgh University, and 
graduated as an M.A. in 1882. He was 
for eighteen months leader-writer on a 
Nottingham paper ; then became a jour- 
nalist in London, writing chiefly for the 
St. James's Gazette, to which paper and 
the British Weekly, the Speaker, and the 
National Observer, he still frequently con- 
tributes. His first book, "Better Dead," 
a satire on London life, appeared in 1887, 
and was followed by two more important 
works the year after, namely, " Auld Licht 
Idylls," and " When a Man's Single." In 
1889 he published " A Window in Thrums," 
and in 1890 "My Lady Nicotine." The 
" Thrums " of three of these stories is 
his native town. " Sentimental Tommy " 
followed, and in 1896 appeared " Margaret 
Ogilvy," a memoir of the author's mother. 
During 1891 "The Little Minister," his 
first long story, appeared in Good Words, 
and was shortly republished in book form. 
In 1892 "Walker, London," a comedy by 
Mr. Barrie, the scene of which is laid on a 
house-boat, was produced at Toole's, and 
enjoyed a phenomenal run. This was 
followed by "Jane Annie," written in 
conjunction with Mr. Couan Doyle, and 
produced at the Savoy in May 1893, and 
by "The Professor's Love Story," pro- 
duced by Mr. Willard in America and at 
the Garrick Theatre, London, 1894. His 
latest great dramatic success has been 
"The Little Minister," produced by Mr. 
Cyril Maude at the Haymarket in No- 
vember 1897. This play, based on bis 
novel, has had a long run. He mar- 
ried at Kirriemuir, in July 1894, Miss 
Mary Ansell, who made her mark in 

"Walker, London." Address: Kirriemuir, 
Forfar. - 

BARRINGTON, Rutland, was born 
at Penge on Jan. 15, 1853, and made his 
first appearance on the stage, at the 
Olympic in " Clancarty " in 1874. He was 
for some time an entertainer, travelling 
two years with Mrs. Howard Paul's 
company. In 1S77 he appeared as Dr. 
Daly in "The Sorcerer," which was pro- 
duced in the November of that year at the 
Opera Comique. His association with Mr. 
D'Oyly Carte dates from these times, when 
he began his well-known career as an 
actor and singer in Gilbert and Sullivan 
opera, making his classic hit in " The 
Mikado." As an actor of high comedy 
Mr. Barrington has also made a name. 
His first success in this direction was 
attained in " The Dean's Daughter," 
adapted by Mr. F. C. Philips from that 
author's novel of the same name. The 
play was produced by Mr. Barrington at 
the St. James's Theatre, of which he be- 
came manager in 1888, after severing his 
connection with the Savoy. He acted the 
part of the Dean, but the play was shortly 
withdrawn. In November he appeared 
as Mr. Thursby in " Brantinghame Hall.'' 
Returning to the Savoy, where he had 
only missed appearing in "The Yeomen of 
the Guard," he played the part of Giuseppe 
Palmieri in " The Gondoliers," December 
1889. He was the Rajah in "The Nautch 
Girl," 1891 ; and the Vicar in the revival 
of "The Vicar of Bray," 1892. Subse- 
quent parts have been Rupert Vernon in 
" Haddon Hall," 1892 ; a Proctor in "Jane 
Annie," 1893 ; King Paramount in " Utopia 
(Limited)," 18y3 ; Dr. Brierley in "The 
Gaiety Girl," 1894. In the latter year he 
replaced Mr. Monkhouse at Daly's. He 
appeared at the Lyric as the Regent in 
"His Excellency," in October 1894. In 
November 1895 he resumed his famous 
part of the Mikado at the Savoy. His 
most recent appearances have been at 
Daly's, as a Japanese magnate in "The 
Geisha," and a Roman Prefect in "The 
Greek Slave," 1898. 

BARRINGTON, Sir Vincent H. B. 

Kennett, M.A. , L.L.M., born Sept. 3, 1844, 
is the eldest son of the late Captain Vincent 
F. Kennett of the Manor House, Dor- 
chester, by Arabella Henrietta, daughter 
and co-heiress of the late Sir Jonah Bar- 
rington, Judge of the High Court of 
Admiralty in Ireland, M.P. for Tuam and 
Clogher, and widow of Edward Hughes 
Lee. He assumed by Royal Licence, 1878, 
the additional surname and arms of Bar- 
rington under his mother's will, but con- 
tinues to sign "Barrington." Both his 
parents are of ancient descent. He was 



educated at Eton and Trinity College, 
Cambridge, where he obtained a scholar- 
ship, and graduated as Wrangler in the 
Mathematical Tripos, 1867, and in Law 
Honours, 1869. Barrister InnerTemple, 1872, 
and formerly Lieutenant, Royal Elthorne 
Militia, Married, 1878, Alicia Georgette, 
daughter of the late George G. Sandeman 
of Westfield, Hayling Island. He was en- 
gaged as Commissioner under the Geneva 
Convention (Red Cross) during the follow- 
ing wars : Franco-German war, 1870-71, 
serving at Saarbruck, Metz, Orleans, siege 
of Paris, and afterwards in the East of 
France for relief of wounded during Bour- 
baki's retreat ; Carlist war, 1873-76, serv- 
ing at sieges of Bilbao and Pampeluna, 
and the last battles on the French frontier ; 
Turco-Servian war, 1876, after which he 
joined Viscountess Strangford's mission in 
relief of the victims of the Bulgarian re- 
volution ; Turco-Rnssian war, 1877-78, 
serving with a staff of forty-five surgeons 
as Chief Commissioner of the Stafford 
House Committee, which established eleven 
hospitals, six field ambulances, and other 
means of relief in Europe and Asia. He 
also served during the Suakim Expedition 
1885 and the Servo-Bulgarian war, 1885-86, 
and was engaged in ambulance work during 
revolutions in Argentina and Brazil, and in 
Venezuela, where he founded its Red Cross 
Society. For war services he was knighted, 
1886, and received Egyptian war medal 
and clasp, Khedival Star, the Orders of 
Osmanie (Turkish), Takova (Servian), Isabel 
Catolica (Spanish), Alexander (Bulgarian), 
the French bronze cross, and the Turkish, 
Saxon, and other war medals ; and also 
the silver and bronze medals of the Royal 
Humane Society for swimming to the 
rescue of drowning men. He was an 
early worker in the St. John Ambulance 
Association ; Deputy Chairman of its Cen- 
tral Committee since 1883, and appointed 
for services Honorary Associate of the 
Order of St. John, 1875, and Knight of 
Grace, 1889. As Government nominated 
member of the Metropolitan Asylums 
Board since 1883, he has taken special in- 
terest in its fever and smallpox ambulance 
department ; was Chairman of its Statis- 
tical Committee, 1887-92, and Cholera 
Committee. He was formerly partner in 
Wollaston & Sons, when he was elected on 
the Council of the London Chamber of 
Commerce, 1883, Deputy Chairman, 1889, 
and has since been Chairman of its South 
American Section, and on the Council of 
the Association of Chambers of Commerce 
since 1886. He was President of the Jury 
(Life Saving Section) Brussels Exhibition, 
1876, and on the Juries of the Exhibition 
of Paris, 1889 (Social Economy), and Health 
Exhibition 1884, and on the Commissions 
of these Exhibitions, and of the Brussels 

Exhibition, 1898. He has also been Special 
Commissioner to the Governments of. 
various South American Republics on rail- 
way and harbour matters, and to India, 
Egypt, and other countries. He is author 
of various papers on Floating Hospitals 
(Epidemiological Society), 1883; River Pol- 
lution (Fisheries Exhibition), 1883; Ambu- 
lance Organisation of the Metropolis during 
Epidemics (Health Exhibition),1884; Recent 
Progress in Ambulance Work (Sanitary 
Congress, Dublin), 1884 ; Organisation of 
the Metropolitan Asylum Board (Congress 
of Hygiene), 1891, &c. Address: 57 Albert 
Hall Mansions, S.W. 

BARJRJNGTON, Hon. -William 
Augustus Curzon, British Minister 
Plenipotentiary to the Argentine Republic 
and to the Republic of Paraguay since 
1896, was born on Jan. 28, 1842, and is the 
third son of the 6th Viscount Barrington. 
He was educated at Woolwich and the 
University of Bonn, and entered the diplo- 
matic service in 1859, becoming succes- 
sively Secretary of Legation at Buenos 
Ayres, 1883, Acting Charge - d'Affaires and 
Consul-General at Lima, 1884 ; Consul- 
General at Buda-Pesth in 1885 ; Charge - 
d'Affaires at Belgrade, and, afterwards, 
First Secretary at the Embassies of Madrid 
and Vienna. Address : H.B.M. Legation, 
Buenos Ayres. 

BARROS, Prudente Josede Moraes, 

late President of the United States of 
Brazil, born at Itu, in the state of Sao- 
Paulo, in 1841, studied law, and in 1863 
became a barrister, and acquired a great 
reputation as an orator. In 1866 he was 
elected deputy for his native state, and 
became one of the Commission of the 
Budget. In 1870, when the Republican 
party was formed, he was one of the first 
to join it. In 1885 he was elected to 
the Chamber of Rio de Janeiro, and vigor- 
ously upheld the Republican cause. After 
the revolution of Nov. 15, 1889, Barros 
was named Governor of the Province of 
Sao-Paulo, one of the richest in the 
country. He occupied this post until 
November 1890, and governed with great 
moderation. He was elected a Senator'of 
the Federal Congress charged to formu- 
late the Constitution of the New Republic, 
and on its meeting he was chosen Pre- 
sident. In 1891 he was a candidate for 
the Presidency of the Republic, but was 
defeated by Marshal de Fonseca, the 
dictator. At the second election in 1892 
he was successful, and the vote was ratified 
by universal suffrage in 1894. He entered 
into power on Nov. 15, 1894, in spite of 
the resistance of the followers of General 
Peixoto (q.v.). In 1898 he was succeeded 
as President by Campos-Sales. 



BARROW, John, F.R.S., F.S.A., 
F.R.G.S., was born in 1808, being the 
second son of Sir John Barrow, Bart., and 
was educated at the Charterhouse. He 
became Keeper of the Records at the 
Admiralty, and took an active part in pro- 
moting the search for Sir John Franklin, 
the officers engaged in the search pre- 
senting him with a handsome silver orna- 
ment representing the Arctic circle. He 
is, besides, an authority on mountaineer- 
ing, and has been an active member of 
the Alpine Club. Mr. Barrow is the author 
of " Naval Worthies in Queen Elizabeth's 
Reign," "Life of Sir Francis Drake," "Ex- 
peditions on the Glaciers," &c. Addresses : 
17 Hanover Terrace, Regent's Park, N. ; 
and Athenaeum. 


of. See Waeb, The Right Rev. Hbnby. 

BARRY, The Right Rev. Alfred, 
D.D., D.C.L., late Bishop of Sydney, is the 
second son of the late eminent architect 
Sir Charles Barry, and was born in London 
on Jan. 15, 1826. He was educated at 
King's College, London, and at Trinity 
College, Cambridge, where he graduated 
B.A. as fourth Wrangler, second Smith's 
prizeman, and seventh in the first-class 
of the Classical Tripos in 1848, obtaining 
a Fellowship in the same year. Dr. Barry, 
who was ordained in 1850, was from 1851 
to 1854 Sub-Warden of Trinity College, 
Glenalmond ; and subsequently held from 
1854 to 1862 the Head Mastership of the 
Grammar Schools at Leeds, which he 
raised to a very high position by his 
energy and ability. In 1862 he was ap- 
pointed to the Principalship of Chelten- 
ham College. In 1868 he became Principal 
of King's College, London ; in 1869 
Examining Chaplain to the Bishop of 
Bath and Wells ; in 1871 was made a 
Canon of Worcester ; in 1875 Honorary 
Chaplain, and in 1877 Chaplain in Ordinary 
to the Queen ; and in 1881 Canon of 
Westminster. He was also a member of 
the London School Board from 1871 to 
1877. On Jan. 1, 1884, he was consecrated 
Primate of Australia, Metropolitan of New 
South Wales, and Bishop of Sydney, which 
office he resigned for urgent private reasons 
in May 1889. On his return to England 
he acted as Assistant Bishop in the diocese 
of Rochester from 1889 to 1891 ; in 1891 
was appointed to a Canonry at St. George's, 
Windsor, and in 1895 to the Rectory of 
St. James', Piccadilly ; and undertook the 
duties of Assistant Bishop in the diocese 
of London in 1897. Dr. Barry is the author 
of an "Introduction to the Old Testa- 
ment," "Notes on the Gospels," "Life of 
Sir C. Barry, R.A.," "Cheltenham Col- 
lege Sermons," " Sermons for Boys," 

"Notes on the Catechism," "Religion for 
Every Day ; Lectures to Men," 1873 ; 
"What is Natural Theology?" being the 
Boyle Lectures for 1876; "The Manifold 
Witness for Christ," the Boyle Lectures 
for 1877, 1878 ; "Some Lights of Science 
on the Faith," the Bampton Lectures for 
1892; "The Ecclesiastical Expansion of 
England," the Hulsean Lectures for 1896 ; 
"England's Mission to India," 1894; 
"Christianity and Socialism," 1891; be- 
sides some volumes of sermons at Here- 
ford, Worcester, Westminster, and Sydney. 
In 1851 he married Louisa, daughter of 
Canon T. E. Haughes. Addresses : The 
Cloisters, Windsor Castle ; St. James's 
Rectory, Piccadilly ; and Athenaeum. 

BARRY, Charles, F.S.A., is the eldest 
son of the late Sir Charles Barry, and 
was born in 1823. He showed an early 
desire to be an architect, and was edu- 
cated for the profession in his father's 
office, and was for several years assisting 
him in various important works, both 
public and private, including the New 
Houses of Parliament. His health failing, 
in 1846 he went abroad and travelled 
through France, Germany, and Italy, 
studying the architectural works in those 
countries, and was absent 1J years. He 
did not return to his father's office, but 
at his recommendation started practice 
on his own account, associating with him 
as partner the late Robert R. Banks, Esq. , 
who had for some years been one of the 
principal assistants of Sir Charles. This 
association (which was founded on sincere 
personal friendship as well as artistic 
sympathy) remained unbroken till the 
death of Mr. Banks in 1872. During 
that time, and since, Mr. Barry has had 
an extensive and varied practice. In 
1856, at the International competition for 
the "Government Public Offices," the 
design sent in by his partner and him- 
self was placed second in merit by the 
assessors for the then projected Foreign 
Office ; the work was, however, given (after 
strong remonstrances) to Sir Gilbert (then 
Mr.) Scott, whose design had obtained 
only the third place. Among his more 
public works may be named the New 
Burlington House, Piccadilly, the New 
College at Dulwich, and the large Indus- 
trial School at Feltham for the County of 
Middlesex. Among a large number of 
works for private clients may be men- 
tioned "Bylaugh Hall," Norfolk, "Steven- 
stone," North Devon, for the Hon. Mark 
Rolle, and the almost rebuilding " Clumber 
House," Nottinghamshire, for the Duke 
of Newcastle. Mr. Barry has since 1858 
held the office of architect and surveyor 
to the Dulwich estate, and has erected 
there several churches, and a large number 



of private residences, besides his work at 
the old college and the erection of the 
New College. In 1876 Mr. Barry was 
elected President of the Royal Institute 
of British Architects, and held that office 
for three years. In 1878 he was one of 
the Royal Commission for the French 
Universal Exhibition for that year, and 
acted therein as the sole representative 
British Member of the small International 
Jury of the Fine Arts Section for making 
the awards for Architecture from the 
various countries therein represented. In 
recognition of this service the French 
Government, at the instance of the Prince 
of Wales, conferred on him the distinction 
of the Cross of an Officer of the Legion 
of Honour. In 1877 Mr. Barry received 
from his colleagues of the Royal Institute 
of British Architects the Queen's Gold 
Medal of the Institute, which is awarded 
once in three years to an architect of 
eminence. He is an Hon. Member of the 
Academies of Fine Arts at Vienna and 
Milan, and was elected a Fellow of the 
Society of Antiquaries of London in 1876, 
and is one of the original members of 
the Surveyors' Institution. Mr. Barry has 
been from its foundation a Member of 
Council of the City and Guilds of London 
Institute, and has always taken an active 
part in the proceedings of that body. 
Mr. Barry has lately completed the new 
Institution of Civil Engineers in Great 
George Street, Westminster, which has 
been carried out at a cost of £60,000. It is 
an elaborate example of the Classic style 
of Architecture, externally and internally. 
Office address : Parliament Mansions, 
Victoria Street, Westminster. 

BARRY, Sir John "Wolfe-, K.C.B., 
F.R.S., LL.D., D.L., M.I.C.E., is the 
fifth and youngest son of the late Sir 
Charles Barry, R.A., and was born in 
London on Dec. 7, 1836. He was edu- 
cated at Trinity College, Glenalmond 
(where his elder brother, the Rev. Alfred 
Barry, afterwards Bishop of Sydney and 
Primate of Australia, was sub-warden), 
and at King's College, London. To acquire 
a practical knowledge of work, he was 
placed with Messrs. Lucas Brothers, and 
was afterwards articled to Mr. (afterwards 
Sir John) Hawkshaw. While with Sir John 
Hawkshaw he was engaged as Resident- 
Engineer on the bridges over the Thames 
and the large stations at Charing Cross 
and Cannon Street. On leaving Sir John 
Hawkshaw's service in 1867 he commenced 
practice on his own account, and has 
carried out the Lewes and East Grinstead 
Railway; the Earl's Court Station, and 
the Ealing and Fulham Extensions of the 
Metropolitan District Railway; the St. 
Paul's Station and the new bridge over the 

Thames at Blackfriars ; the railways for 
the completion of the " Inner Circle " (in 
conjunction with Sir John Hawkshaw); 
the Barry Dock, near Cardiff (the largest 
single dock in the United Kingdom), and 
railways connecting it with the South 
Wales coalfield ; and very many other im- 
portant undertakings. Mr. Barry carried 
out for the Corporation of London the 
Tower Bridge, which work was commenced 
in conjunction with Sir Horace Jones, the 
City architect, to whom was entrusted the 
architectural features of the bridge as 
distinguished from the engineering work, 
but who died soon after the work was 
commenced. By the agreement with the 
Corporation the responsibility for both the 
architectural and engineering work of the 
bridge then devolved on Mr. Barry. On 
the completion of the bridge, in the 
summer of 1894, Mr. Barry was made a 
C.B., K.C.B. 1897. In 1872 Mr. Barry 
visited the Argentine Republic and laid 
out a railway from Buenos Ayres to Ros- 
ario, which has since been carried out, 
though not on the original route selected 
by Mr. Barry. In 18— Mr. Barry was 
appointed Consulting Engineer to carry 
out with Messrs. Blythe & Cunningham 
of Edinburgh, and Mr. C. Forman of Glas- 
gow, the important works of the under- 
ground system of railways in Glasgow 
known as the Glasgow Central Railway; 
and in 18 — he was similarly appointed to 
execute with Mr. C. Forman the Lanark- 
shire and Dumbartonshire Railway, which 
is partly an underground railway in the 
western parts of Glasgow, but also gives 
access to the important manufacturing 
districts between Glasgow and the town 
of Dumbarton. In 1886 the Government 
appointed Mr. Barry on the Royal Commis- 
sion on Irish Public Works, and important 
legislation, based on the Reports of the 
Commission, has taken place on the sub- 
jects of drainage, light railways, and 
fishery harbours. In 1889 he was nomi- 
nated by the Board of Trade, jointly with 
Admiral Sir George Nares, K.C.B., and 
Sir Charles Hartley, K.C.M.G., on a com- 
mission ordered by Parliament to settle 
certain important matters connected with 
the river Ribble, and the same commission 
was reappointed in 1897 to report on 
further proposals connected with the same 
river. In December 1889 he was appointed 
by the Government on the Western (Scot- 
tish) Highlands and Islands Commission, 
a commission having objects similar to 
those of the Royal Commission on Irish 
Public Works. In 1894 he was appointed 
Chairman of a Commission (of which the 
other members were Sir George Nares, 
K.C.B., and Mr. G. F. Lyster, the Con- 
sulting Engineer of the Mersey Dock and 
Harbour Board) to examine and report on 



the navigation of the Lower Thames. In 
1892 Mr. Barry was appointed by the 
Foreign Office as one of two British repre- 
sentatives on the "Commission Consultative 
Internationale des Travaux " of the Suez 
Canal, which position he still occupies. In 
1895 Mr. Barry was appointed by the Gov- 
ernment of Natal as their Consulting 
Engineer in England. In conjunction with 
Sir Charles Hartley, K.C.M.G., he pre- 
sented to the Natal Government an exhaus- 
tive report on the various proposals for the 
improvement of the harbour of Durban, 
and submitted proposals which have been 
adopted by that Government. In 1896 he 
was appointed by the County Councils of 
Middlesex and Surrey their Engineer in 
connection with the new bridge across 
the Thames at Kew. In 1897 Mr. Barry 
was appointed by Government on a 
Committee on the desirability of estab- 
lishing a National Physical Laboratory, 
the report of which is shortly expected. 
In 1897 Mr. (then newly created Sir) J. 
Wolfe-Barry was appointed by the Tyne 
Commissioners Engineer in conjunction 
with Messrs. Coode, Son, & Matthews 
to examine and report on the extensive 
damages which had taken place in the 
north breakwater of Tynemouth harbour, 
and to take steps for the reparation of 
this important work. Sir J. Wolfe-Barry 
is Consulting Engineer to the follow- 
ing public companies : The North-Eastern, 
Caledonian ; London, Chatham, and Dover ; 
Metropolitan, Metropolitan District, Barry 
Railway Companies, and to the Surrey Com- 
mercial Dock Company, in addition to the 
other appointments to which reference has 
already been made. Mr. Barry is a Member 
of Council of the Institution of Civil En- 
gineers, and was elected President in 1896, 
and was again elected to the same post in 
1897 ; a Member of the Institution of 
Mechanical Engineers ; Associate of Coun- 
cil of the Surveyors' Institution ; a Fellow 
of the Royal Institution and Society of 
Arts ; and a Lieut.-Colonel in the Engineer 
and Railway Volunteer Staff Corps ; and a 
member of the Army Committee. He is 
the author of a small volume, "Railway 
Appliances," in the Text-books of Science 
Series (Longmans, 1876), and of a course 
of lectures delivered at the School of Mili- 
tary Engineering, Chatham, in conjunction 
with Sir F. J. Bramwell, on the "Railway 
and the Locomotive," published in 1882. 
Mr. H. M. Brunei, son of the late I, K. 
Brunei, joined Mr. Barry in partnership in 
1878, and Mr. C. A. Brereton and Mr. 
Arthur John Barry, nephew of Sir J. Wolfe- 
Barry, also became his partners in 1892, 
and these gentlemen have been associated 
with him in most of the above works. He 
married in 1874 Rosalind Grace, youngest 
daughter of the Rev. E. E. Rowsell, Rector 

of Hambledon, Surrey. By royal warrant 
Sir J. Wolfe-Barry was permitted to assume 
for himself and his descendants the name 
of Wolfe as a surname. He is a Deputy- 
Lieutenant of the County of London, is 
LL.D. of Glasgow University (honoris 
catcsd), and a Fellow of the Royal Society. 

BARTET, Madame, nom de thidtre 
of Jeanne Julia Regnault, French actress, 
was born in Paris, Oct. 28, 1854. She 
entered the Conservatoire in 1871, and 
made her debut at the Vaudeville in the 
part of Vivette in " LArlesienne " in 1872. 
In 1873 she played in "L'Oncle Sam," in 
1875 in "Manon Lescaut," in 1876 she 
created the part of Louise in " Fromont et 
Risler," and in 1877 that of the Countess 
Zicka in Sardou's "Dora," known in Eng- 
land as "Diplomacy." Madame Bartet 
entered the Theatre Fra^ais in 1880, and 
made her debut in " Daniel Rochat." She 
took Madame Bernhardt's place soon after 
as the Queen in "Ruy Bias." The chief 
plays in which she has since acted are, 
" Le De"pit Amoureux," " Le Gendre de M. 
Poirier," " On ne Badine pas avec l'Amour," 
"La Roi s'amuse," and "L'Etrangere. " 
She was much appreciated in London when 
the Comedie Fran$aise played at Drury 
Lane in 1893. She appeared in "Grosse 
Fortune " by Meilhac in 1896. 

BARTHOLDI, Auguste, born at 
Colmar (Alsace), April 2, 1834, was in- 
tended for a lawyer, but Ary Scheffer, who 
was a friend of the family, recognised his 
latent artistic talent, and the use of Ary 
Scheffer's studio was the turning point of a 
life subsequently noteworthy for the pro- 
duction of the " Lion de Belf ort " and the gi- 
gantic "Liberty e'clairant le Monde," which, 
constructed in copper, on an internal iron 
frame designed by M. Eiffel, was, in 1884, 
presented by the French Committee to the 
United States, and was erected on Bedloe's 
Island, at the entrance to the harbour of 
New York, in 1886. It is by far the largest 
bronze statue in the world, being 150 feet 
high, or higher than the column in the 
Place Vendome at Paris. A small replica 
has been erected at the Pont de Grenelle, 
Paris, by American subscriptions. 

BARTHOU, Louis, French Deputy 
and Minister of the Interior, was born at 
Oloron, in the Basses-Pyrenees, Aug. 25, 
1862. He is a Doctor of Laws and Muni- 
cipal Councillor of Pau, and was elected as 
deputy for Oloron in 1889, for which he 
has since sat. He was Minister of Public 
Works in the Duruy Cabinet of 1894, and 
Minister of the Interior in the Meline 
Cabinet of 1896, retiring with his col- 
leagues in June 1898. Paris address : 7 
Avenue d'Autin. 



BARTON, Clara, American philan- 
thropist, born at Oxford, Massachusetts, 
about 1830, was educated at Clinton, New- 
York. She entered the United States 
Patent Office as clerk in 1854, but on the 
outbreak of the war between the states 
she determined to devote herself to the 
care of the soldiers in the field. At the 
beginning of the Franco-German war she 
assisted the Grand Duchess of Baden in 
preparing military hospitals, and gave the 
Red Cross Society much aid during the 
war, and afterwards at Strasbourg and 
in Paris. At the close of the war she 
was decorated with the Golden Cross of 
Baden and the Iron Cross of Germany. 
In 1881, on the organisation of the Ameri- 
can Red Cross Society, she became its 
president, and still retained that position, 

BARTON, Dunbar Plunket, Q.C., 
the son of the late T. H. Barton, by his 
wife, a daughter of the third Baron 
Plunket, was born in 1853, and was 
educated at Harrow, and Corpus Christi 
College, Oxford. He was called to the 
Irish Bar in 1880, was appointed a Q.C. in 
1889, was called to the English Bar in 1893, 
and was elected a Bencher of Gray's Inn 
in February 1898. Returned to the House 
of Commons as Conservative member for 
Mid-Armagh in 1891, he still represents 
that constituency in the Conservative 
interest, and he has, since Jan. 1, 1898, 
held the appointment of Solicitor-General 
for Ireland. Mr. Barton acted as private 
secretary to the late Duke of Marlborough 
when he was Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, 
and in his university days was President 
of the Oxford Union. He is a Director 
of the well-known brewing firm of Arthur 
Guinness & Co., and is a Justice of the 
Peace for Dublin and Armagh. Addresses : 
12 Mandeville Place, W. ; and 13 Clare 
Street, Dublin. 

BASCUNAN, Aurelio, Charge" d' 
Affaires for Chile at the Court of St. James's, 
belongs to one of the oldest families in 
Chile, and was born in 1866. In 1879 he 
passed his examination of Bachiller, being 
the youngest to attain that degree in the 
University of Santiago. In 1882 his uncle, 
the President Santa Maria, appointed him 
his private secretary, which position he 
vacated for that of second secretary of the 
Chilian Legation in Peru after the war 
between the two countries. From Lima 
Ire was transferred to Buenos Ayres, and 
there he held a position in the Foreign 
Office until 1895, when he was appointed 
to the Legation in London. In 1898 the 
Legation at Paris was added to his charge. 
On the occasion of the Jubilee in 1897 he 
was decorated with the Jubilee medal ; he 

is also an Officer of the Legion of Honour 
and a Commander of Isabella la Catolica. 
He married the daughter of the ex- 
Premier of Chile, Mr. Carlos Antunez. 
Address : Members' Mansions, Victoria 
Street, S.W. 

BASSET, Alfred Barnard, M.A., 
F.R.S., is the only son of the late Mr. 
Alfred Basset of London, and was born 
on July 25, 1854. His father died during 
his childhood, and he was brought up by 
his grandfather, the late John Swinford 
Basset, of Stamford Hill, Middlesex, whom 
he succeeded. He was educated at Grove 
House School, Tottenham, entered Trinity 
College, Cambridge, in October 1873, and 
was elected to a foundation scholarship 
in April 1878. He graduated B.A. in 1877, 
having been 13th Wrangler in the Mathe- 
matical Tripos of that year. After leav- 
ing Cambridge he studied law in the 
chambers of Mr. John Rigby, Q.C., and 
was called to the Bar on June 25, 1879 ; 
but after the expiration of a few years he 
gave up the practice of his profession, and 
resumed the study of Mathematics. He 
was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society 
on June 8, 1889, and is the author of a 
"Treatise on Hydro -dynamics," in two 
volumes, a "Treatise on Physical Optics," 
1892, and also of several papers on 
Mathematical Physics. He married, in 
1882, Edith Sarah Irwin, only child and 
heiress of the late Thomas Gustave de 
Chaundre, of Rouen and Dublin. Address : 
Fledborough Hall, Holyport, Berks. 

BASTIAN, Professor Henry Charl- 
ton, M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., was born at 
Truro, in Cornwall, April 26, 1837, and 
educated at a private school at Falmouth 
and in University College, London. He 
graduated M.A. in 1861, M.B. in 1863, and 
M.D. in 1866, these degrees being con- 
ferred by the University of London. He 
was elected F.R.S. in 1868, and F.R.C.P. 
in 1871. Dr. Bastian is a Fellow of several 
Medical Societies ; he is also a Correspond- 
ing Member of the Royal Academy of 
Medicine in Turin, and of the Soc. de 
Psychol. Physiolog. of Paris. In 1866 he 
was appointed Lecturer on Pathology, 
and Assistant-Physician to St. Mary's 
Hospital. These posts he held until his 
appointment as Professor of Pathological 
Anatomy in University College, and Assis- 
tant-Physician to University College Hos- 
pital in December 1867. He was elected a 
physician to this hospital in 1871 ; and in 
1878, on taking charge of in-patients, a 
professorship of Clinical Medicine was 
conferred upon him. In 1887 he resigned 
the Chair of Pathological Anatomy at 
University College, and was elected Pro- 
fessor of the Principles and Practice of 



Medicine. Dr. Bastian was Dean of the 
Faculty of Medicine in University College 
during the sessions 1874-75 and 1875-76 ; 
he served as Examiner in Medicine to the 
Queen's University in Ireland for 1876-79, 
and he has discharged similar duties for 
the University of Durham, and for the 
Royal College of Physicians of London. 
In 1887 the honorary degree of M.D. was 
conferred upon him by the Royal Uni- 
versity of Ireland, and he was elected an 
Hon. -Fellow of the King and Queen's 
College of Physicians in Ireland. For 
some years past he has acted as one of the 
Crown Referees in cases of Supposed In- 
sanity. Dr. Bastian was elected President 
of the Neurological Society of London in 
1892, and a Censor of the Royal College of 
Physicians in 1896 and 1897. In this latter 
year he delivered before the College the 
Lumleian lectures on " Some Problems in 
Connexion with Aphasia and'other Speech 
Defects." He has published the following 
works : " The Modes of Origin of Lowest 
Organisms," 1871; "The Beginnings of 
Life," 2 vols., 1872; "Evolution and the 
Origin of Life," 1874; "Clinical Lectures 
on the Common Forms of Paralysis from 
Brain Disease," 1875; "The Brain as an 
Organ of Mind," 1880 (the latter work has 
been translated into French and German) ; 
" Paralysis ; Cerebal, Bulbar, and Spinal," 
1886; "Various Forms of Hysterical or 
Functional Paralysis," 1893; and "A 
Treatise on Aphasia and other Speech 
Defects," 1898. He is also the author of 
"Memoirs on Nematoids : Parasitic and 
Free," in the Philosophical Transactions 
and the Transactions of the Linnean Society. 
In his monograph on the Anguillulidse he 
described 100 newspecies discovered by him 
in this country. Dr. Bastian is the author 
of numerous papers on Pathology and 
Medicine in the Transactions of the Patho- 
logical and Medico- Chirurgical Societies; of 
papers on the more recondite departments 
of Cerebral Physiology in the Journal of 
Mental Science, Brain, and other periodi- 
cals ; and of some joint articles with the 
editor in Dr. Reynolds' " System of Medi- 
cine." Dr. Bastian was likewise one of 
the principal contributors to Quain's 
"Dictionary of Medicine" (1882), having 
written nearly the whole of the articles on 
Diseases of the Spinal Cord, as well as 
many others on Diseases of the Nervous 
System. Having resigned his Professor- 
ship at the College, and his Physiciancy 
at University College Hospital after thirty 
years of service, Dr. Bastian has recently 
(1898) been elected Emeritus Professor of 
the Principles and Practice of Medicine 
and of Clinical Medicine in University 
College, and Consulting Physician to the 
Hospital. Addresses : 8a Manchester 
Square, W. ; and Athenaeum. 

BATEMAN, Sir Frederic, M.D., 
F.R.C.P., LL.D., is the son of John Bate- 
man, of Norwich, and was born in 1824. He 
took the degree of M.D. at the University 
of Aberdeen in 1850, and was elected a 
Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians 
in 1876. He is a consulting physician to 
the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital, and 
a Justice of the Peace for the county of 
Norfolk. His publication, "Aphasia and 
the Localisation of Speech," gained for 
him the Alvarenga prize of the Academy 
of Medicine of France, and he is also the 
author of "Darwinism tested by Lan- 
guage," and " The Idiot, and his place 
in Creation." He received the honour of 
knighthood in 1892, and he was married, in 
1855, to Emma, daughter and heiress of 
John Gooderson, of Heigham Fields House, 
Norwich (she died in 1897). Addresses : 
Upper St. Giles Street, Norwich ; and 
Burlingham Lodge, Alburgh, Norfolk. 

BATEMAN, Kate Josephine. See 

Ckowb, Mes. Geokge. 

BATES, Henry, A.R.A., better known 
as Harry Bates, sculptor, came to London 
in 1879, studied under Jules Dalou at the 
Lambeth School, and in 1881 was admitted 
a student of the Royal Academy Schools, 
where he gained the gold medal and tra- 
velling studentship for sculpture in 1883. 
He has been a constant exhibitor at the 
Royal Academy, his designs often being 
in the shape of bas-reliefs on panels. He 
has designed "The Homer Panel," "The 
jEneid Panel," "The Story of Psyche," 
"Hounds in Leash," and "Pandora," 
which was bought under the terms of the 
Chantrey Bequest. In 1895 he exhibited a 
bronze bust of General Lord Roberts, W.C., 
G.C.B., and in 1896 four portrait busts, 
including one of Lord Lansdowne, and a 
full-sized model of an equestrian statue of 
Field-Marshal Lord Roberts for Calcutta. 
The finished statue was recently unveiled 
by Lord Elgin in Calcutta. The pedestal 
is adorned with allegorical figures repre- 
senting Courage and Fortitude, and the 
friezes encircling it represent the march 
from Kabul to Kandahar. In 1898 he 
exhibited a reduced model in bronze and 
boxwood of the Roberts statue, besides a 
bust and a memorial tablet. He was 
made A.R.A. in 1892. Address: 10 Hall 
Road, N.W. 

BATESON, William, M.A., F.R.S., 
Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge, 
was born at Whitby, Yorkshire, on the 8th 
of August 1861. He is the son of the late 
Rev. W. H. Bateson, D.D., Master of St. 
John's College, Cambridge. From Temple 
Grove School he obtained a foundation 
scholarship at Rugby, and thence proceeded 



to St John's College, Cambridge, graduat- 
ing in the Natural Sciences Tripos in 1883 
and 1884. Elected to a Fellowship at St. 
John's College in 1 885, he became Balfour 
Student in 1887, and was awarded a Rol- 
leston Prize in the University of Oxford in 
1888. He was elected a Fellow of the 
Royal Society in 1894. His first work was 
a study of the anatomy and development 
of Balanoglossus, material for this research 
having been collected in America during 
two visits to the marine laboratory of the 
Johns Hopkins University. The results 
appeared as a series of papers in the 
Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science 
in 1884-86. In 1886 and 1887 he under- 
took a journey to the Aral Sea, and to 
other salt, alkaline, and bitter lakes in 
Western Central Asia, with the object of 
examining their fauna. Subsequently he 
has devoted himself to a study of the facts 
of Variation, and has published papers re- 
lating to the subject, in particular a collec- 
tion of the evidence, entitled " Materials for 
the Study of Variation " (Macmillan, 1894). 
Address : Norwich House, Cambridge. 

BATH and WELLS, Bishop of. 

See Kennion, Right Rev. George 

BA.TTENBERG, Princess Henry of 
(H.R.H. Princess Beatrice), was born 
April 14, 1857, and was married at Osborne 
on July 23, 1885, to Prince Henry Maurice 
of Battenberg, who, however, died on 
Jan. 20, 1896, from a fever contracted 
during the Ashanti campaign of 1895-96. 
The Princess has four children, viz., 
Alexander Albert, born Nov. 23, 1886 ; 
Victoria Eugenie, born Oct. 24, 1887 ; 
Leopold Arthur, born May 21, 1889 ; and 
Maurice Victor, born Oct. 3, 1891. She 
occupies the position of Governor of the 
Isle of Wight, a post held by Prince Henry 
until his death. Her Royal Highness has 
compiled a Birthday Book, and also devotes 
time to painting. She has always, even 
during her married life, lived with the 
Queen, and she still continues to do so. 

BATTERSEA, Lord, Cyril Flower, 

son of the late Mr. P. W. Flower, of Furze- 
down, Streatham, was born in 1843, and 
educated at Harrow and at Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge He was called to the 
Bar at the Inner Temple in 1870. In the 
Parliament of 1880-85 he sat as a Liberal 
for Brecknock, and in 1885 and 1886 was 
returned for the Luton division of Bedford- 
shire, and sat for the same till 1892. In 
Mr. Gladstone's short Government of 1886 
Mr. Cyril Flower was one of the Junior 
Lords of the Treasury, or "Whips" of 
the party. In 1892 he was made a peer 
under the title of Lord Battersea. He 

married in 1878 Constance, eldest daughter 
of the late Sir Anthony Rothschild. Both 
he and his wife are much interested in the 
welfare of their party, and have been warm 
supporters of the Eighty Club. They are 
devoted to the interests of the lower 
classes in London, and have done much 
for the People's Entertainment Society. 
Lord Battersea is President of the Recrea- 
tive Evening School Association. He is 
also known as the owner of some fine 
paintings by Botticelli, Moroni, Da. Vinci, 
Morretti, as well as by Burne-Jones, Sandys, 
Whistler, &c. Addresses : Overstrand, 
Cromer; Aston Clinton, Tring; and Surrey 
House, 7 Marble Arch, W. 

BAVARIA, King of. See Otto, 
King of Bavaria. 

BAVARIA, Regent of. See 

Luitpold, Prince Charles Joseph 

BAYER, Karl Emmerich Robert, 

an Austrian writer, generally known by 
his norn de guerre of Robert Byr, was born 
at Bregenz, in the Tyrol, April 15, 1835, 
and received his education in the Military 
Academy at Wiener-Neustadt, which he 
left on his appointment as lieutenant in 
the Count Radetzky's Hussar Regiment. 
In 1859 he was advanced to the rank of 
captain, and during the Italian campaign 
he was placed on the general staff. After 
the conclusion of peace Bayer began his 
literary career by the publication of his 
"Sketches of Military Life" ("Kantoni- 
rungsbilder "), 1860. In 1862 he retired 
from active service, and settled in his 
native town, where he still continues to 
reside. Bayer is chiefly known to fame as 
a novelist. Military life he has described 
in his first work, already mentioned, in 
"Austrian Garrisons" (" Oesterreichische 
Garnisonen"), 1863, and in "Quarters" 
("Anf der Station"), 1866. His "In the 
Years Nine and Thirteen "(" Anno Neun 
und Dreizehn "), 1865, contains biographical 
sketches of actors in the German War of 
Independence. To another class of works 
belong the following novels: "The Home 
of a German Count " ( " Ein Deutsches Graf- 
enhaus"), 1866; "With a Brazen Face" 
(" Mit eherner Stirn "), 1868 ; " The Struggle 
for Life "(" DerKampf umsDasein"), 1869 j 
i'Sphinx," 1879; "Nomaden," 1871; 
"Ruin" ("Triimmer"), 1871; "Quatuor,"a 
collection of tales, 1875 ; " Ghosts" ("Lar- 
ven"), 1876; and "A Secret Despatch" 
("Eine geheime Depesche"), 1880; and 
" Sesam," 1880 ; " The Path to the Heart" 
("Der Wegzum Herzen"),1881 ; "Turn of 
Life" ("Am Wendepunkt des Lebens"), 
1881; "Implacable" ("Unversbhnlich"), 
1882; "Lydia," 1883; "Andor," 1883; 



"Am I to do it?" ("Soil IcM "),1884; 
"Castell Ursani," 1885; "Dora," 1886; 
"Villa Miraflor," 1886; " Will-of-the- 
Wisp" ("Irrneische"), 1887 ; " The Path to 
Fortune" ("DerWegzum Gliick"), 1889; 
"Wood Idyl" (Waldidyll "), 1889. He has 
also written plays which have been per- 
formed in public. 

BAYFIELD, Rev. Matthew Albert, 
M.A., was born at Edgbaston, Birming- 
ham, June 17, 1852, and is the son of 
L. A. Bayfield, Chartered Accountant, of 
Birmingham. He was educated at King 
Edward's School, Birmingham, and Clare 
College, Cambridge, of which latter founda- 
tion he was a scholar, and from which he 
graduated with first-class classical honours 
in 1875. Appointed an Assistant Master 
at Blackheath School in 1875, he obtained 
a similar position at Marlborough College 
in 1879 ; and after acting as Headmaster's 
Assistant at Malvern College from 1881 to 
1890, he became Headmaster of Christ 
College, Brecon, in 1890, and eventually he 
was, in 1895, appointed Headmaster of 
Eastbourne College. Mr. Bayfield has 
edited "Ion," "Alcestis," and "Medea," 
and, in conjunction with Dr. Verrall, 
"Septem contra Thebas," and, with Dr. 
Leaf, the "Iliad." He is also the author 
of "Latin Prose for Lower Forms." 
Address : Eastbourne College. 

BAYLEY, Sir Steuart Colvin, 
K.C.S.I., C.I.E., Member of Council at the 
India Office, formerly Lieutenant-Governor 
of Bengal, was educated at Hail ey bury, 
and arrived in India in 1856. His first 
post was that of Assistant-Magistrate and 
Collector of the 24 Pergunnahs, and he 
subsequently rose through various grades 
till he was appointed Commissioner of the 
Dacca Division in 1873. Four years later 
he was acting as personal assistant to 
the Viceroy for famine affairs. His more 
recent appointments have been : Chief 
Commissioner of Assam, June 1880 ; Resi- 
dent at Hyderabad (Nizam's Dominions), 
March 1881 ; a Member of the Governor- 
General's Council, May 1882 ; Lieutenant- 
Governor of Bengal, April 1887 ; and Sec- 
retary in the Political Department, India 
Office, January 1891. He was created 
K.C.S.I. in 1890. Addresses : India Office ; 
Charles Street, Westminster, S.W. ; and 
AthenEeum. ■ 

BAYLISS, Sir Wyke, F.S.A., second 
son of John Cox Bayliss and Anne Wyke, 
was born on Oct. 21, 1835, at Madeley, 
Salop. In 1845 the family removed to 
London, and he pursued his studies at the 
National Gallery, the British Museum, and 
the Royal Academy, with the intention of 
becoming an artist. At the age of eighteen 

he entered an architect's office, where the 
speciality of his work gave a bent to, 
though it was not sufficient to break, his 
purpose of becoming a painter. Architec- 
ture, and especially the Gothic of our 
cathedrals, became at once the motive of 
all his pictures. He has travelled much 
abroad, and has painted almost all the chief 
cathedrals of the Continent. Amongst his 
best-known paintings may be mentioned 
"La Sainte Chapelle," exhibited at the 
Boyal Academy in 1865; "The White 
Lady of Nuremberg," " The Interior of 
S. Mark's, Venice," 1880 ; " Vespers in S. 
Peter's, Rome," 1888 ; " The Golden Duomo, 
Pisa," 1892; "The Interior of Strasburg 
Cathedral," " Chartres Cathedral," &c. 
He is also the author of "The Witness 
of Art," "The Higher Life in Art," "The 
Enchanted Island " ; and has for many 
years been engaged upon a work which 
is announced for immediate publication, 
under the title of ' ' Rex Regum, a Painter's 
Study of the Likeness of Christ, from the 
time of the Apostles to the present day." 
In 1875 he was elected a Fellow of the 
Society of Antiquaries of London ; in 1888 
he was elected President of the Royal 
Society of British Artists ; and in 1897 he 
received the honour of knighthood. One 
or two exhibitions of his works have been 
held, and in the catalogue of one of them 
appear several sonnets written by the 
artist in illustration of the subjects of his 
pictures. He is well known as a lecturer 
at the London Institution, the Midland 
Institute, &c. He was married in 1858 to 
Elise, daughter of Rev. T. Broade, of 
Staffordshire. Address : 7 North Road, 
Clapham Park, S.W. 

BAYLY, Miss Ada Ellen, "Edna 
Lyall," is the youngest daughter of the 
late Robert Bayly, of the Inner Temple, 
Barrister-at-Law. She was born and edu- 
cated at Brighton, and at an early age 
made up her mind to write. Her first 
story, "Won by Waiting," was published 
in 1879. This was followed by " Donovan," 
1882; "We Two," 1884; "In the Golden 
Days," 1885; " Knight -Errant," 1887; 
"Autobiography of a Slander," 1887; 
"Derrick Vaughan, Novelist," 1889; "A 
Hardy Norseman," 1889 ; " Max Here- 
ford's Dream," 1891 ; " To Right the 
Wrong," 1893; "Doreen : the Story of a 
Singer," 1894; "How the Children Raised 
the Wind," 1895; "Autobiography of a 
Truth," 1896; and "Wayfaring Men," 
1897. Address : 6 College Road, East- 

BEACHCROFT, Richard Melvill, 
was born on Jan. 22, 1846, and is the son 
of Richard Beachcroft, and Henrietta, 
daughter of the late Sir James Cosmo 



Melvill, K.C.B. He was educated at 
Harrow, and being admitted a solicitor 
in 1868, he became eventually a partner in 
the firm of Beachcroft, Thompson & Co., 
of 9 Theobalds Eoad, W.C. He has acted 
as Solicitor to Christ's Hospital since 1873, 
and is a member of the Court of the 
Clothworkers' Company, with which com- 
pany his family has been connected for 
nearly two centuries. Mr. Beachcroft is 
an original member of the London County 
Council, having been the representative 
of North Paddington in the first Council. 
Elected an alderman in 1892, he became 
Deputy-Chairman in 1896, and Vice-Chair- 
man in 1897. He is an old member of 
the Alpine Club, and has been a frequent 
and enthusiastic climber of many of the 
Swiss and Tyrolese mountains. He is 
married to Charlotte, daughter of the 
late Kobert M. Bonnar- Maurice, of Bodyn- 
foel Hall, Montgomeryshire. Addresses : 
11 Craven Hill, W. ; and 9 Theobalds Road. 

BEALE, Dorothea, daughter of the 
late Mr. Miles Beale, M.R.C.S., was born 
in London, 1831, and educated chiefly at 
home. She attended the opening lectures 
of Queen's College in 1848. When for the 
first time public examinations were thrown 
open to women she took certificates for 
English, French, German, Latin, Mathe- 
matics, Music, and Pedagogy. In 1850 
she was appointed the first lady Mathe- 
matical Tutor, and was also appointed 
Latin Tutor. In 1858 she was elected 
Principal of the Ladies' College, Chelten- 
ham, which, numbering at that time 69 
pupils, has since risen to about 500, 
of whom about 99 are boarders. There 
is besides an overflow school of about 
80. There are in connection with the 
Ladies' College two residential colleges 
of St. Hilda, in Cheltenham and Oxford; 
and a Mission Settlement, known as St. 
Hilda's, in Shoreditch, has been built by 
the Cheltenham Ladies' College Guild, and 
was opened by the Bishop of London 
in April 1898. Miss Beale has published 
"Text-book of English and General His- 
tory"; "Chronological Maps" ; "School 
Hymns," reprinted with long introduc- 
tion ; " Report of Schools Enquiry Com- 
mission of 1868." She has edited and 
written a large part of a volume, "Work 
and Play in Girls' Schools," and has issued 
a large number of short papers on educa- 
tional and literary subjects, and has con- 
tributed many articles to the Journal of 
Education, Fraser, The Nineteenth Century, 
Atlanta, Parents' Magazine, Monthly Packet, 
&c. She edits the Ladies' College Magazine. 
Miss Beale has been largely instrumental 
in advancing the movement for the Higher 
Education of Women. The Ladies' Col- 
lege gained a gold medal at the Inter- 

national Exhibition, and Miss Beale re- 
ceived the title of Officier d'Acade'mie. 
She is a Member of the Socie'te des 
Sciences et Lettres. Address : Ladies' 
College, Cheltenham. 

BEALE, Emeritus Professor 
Lionel Smith, M.B., F.R.S., Consulting 
Physician to King's College Hospital, and 
Emeritus Professor of the Principles and 
Practice of Medicine at King's College, 
London, formerly Professor of Physiology 
and of General and Morbid Anatomy, and 
afterwards Professor of Pathological Ana- 
tomy, and Examiner in Medicine. He 
was born in London in 1828, educated in 
King's College School and in the Medical 
Department of King's College. He was 
elected a Fellow of the Royal College 
of Physicians in 1859, is an Hon. 
Fellow of King's College, a Fellow of 
the Medical Society of Sweden, of the 
Microscopical Societies of New York and 
California, the Royal Medical and Chirur- 
gical, the Microscopical, and the Patho- 
logical Societies ; he was formerly President 
and is now Treasurer of the Royal Micro- 
scopical Society, and of the Quekett 
Club, Member of the Academy of Sciences 
of Bologna, Corresponding Member of the 
Aoad^mie Royale de Medicine de Belgique, 
&c., and the author of several works on 
medicine, physiology, medical chemistry, 
and the microscope. Among these works 
are : ' ' The Microscope in its Application 
to Practical Medicine " ; " How to Work 
with the Microscope," of which there have 
been several editions ; "The Structure of 
the Tissues of the Body" ; "Protoplasm; 
or, Life, Matter, and Mind " ; " Disease 
Germs, their Supposed and Real Nature, 
and on the Treatment of Diseases caused 
by their Presence " ; " Life Theories, their 
Influence upon Religious Thought," 1871 ; 
" The Mystery of Life : Facts and Argu- 
ments against the Physical Doctrine of 
Vitality, in reply to Sir William Gull," 
1871 ; "Our Morality and the Moral 
Question," now in a second edition ; " The 
Liver," 1889; "On Life and on Vital 
Action in Health and Disease " ; " The 
Anatomy of the Liver " ; " Urine, Urinary 
Deposits, and Calculous Disorders," four 
editions; "Urinary and Renal Derange- 
ments and Calculous Disorders : Diagnosis 
and Treatment " ; " One Hundred Urinary 
Deposits," in eight sheets; "On Slight 
Ailments " ; " The Physiological Anatomy 
and Physiology of Man," in conjunction 
with his colleagues at King's College, the 
late Dr. Todd and Sir J. Bowman ; and of 
other works. He has contributed several 
memoirs to the Royal Society, "On the 
Structure of the Liver " ; " The Distribu- 
tion of Nerves to Musole " ; " On the 
Anatomy of Nerve -Fibres and Nerve- 



Centres," &c, which are published in the 
Philosophical Transactions and in the Pro- 
ceedings of the Royal Society, and numerous 
papers to the Royal Microscopical Society, 
and a memoir in the Medico-Chirurgical 
Transactions, 1854. He was the editor of 
the Archives of Medicine, and has also 
contributed to the Lancet, Medical Times 
and Gazette, Medical and Chirurgical Review, 
and the Microscopical Journal. He resigned 
his professorship at King's College in 

1896, having held that post for more than 
forty years, and became Emeritus Pro- 
fessor of Medicine. Address : 61 Grosvenor 
Street, W. 

BEATRICE, Princess. See Batten- 
berg, Princess Henby of. 

BEAUCHAMP, Earl, William 
Lygon, was born Feb. 20, 1872, and suc- 
ceeded his father as 7th Earl in 1891. 
He was educated at Eton, and Christ 
Church, Oxford. He acted as Mayor of 
Worcester from 1895 to 1896, and he was 
elected Progressive Member for Finsbury 
on the London School Board in November 

1897. Lord Beauchamp is at present un- 
married, and the heir to the title is his 
brother, Edward, born in 1873. Addresses : 
125 Piccadilly, W. ; and Madresfield Court, 
Malvern Link, Worcestershire. 

BEATJCLERK, "William Nelthorpe, 
J. P., D.L., LL.D., British Minister to Peru 
and Ecuador, was born in 1849, and is the 
son of Captain Lord Frederick Beauclerk, 
R.N. After having graduated at Trinity 
College, Dublin, with honours in law and 
history, he was appointed to the Foreign 
Office, and became an Attache at Copen- 
hagen in 1874. He has been Secretary at 
St. Petersburg, 1879 ; Rome, 1880 ; Wash- 
ington, 1887 ; Berlin, 1888. In 1890 he 
was appointed Secretary of Legation at 
Peking, where he married the daughter of 
Sir Robert Hart, Bart., in 1892. He then 
was Consul-General at Buda-Pesth (1897), 
and on Sept. 22, 1898, he was appointed to 
his present post. 

BEAUFORT, Duke of, Henry 
Charles Fitzroy Somerset, K.G., Mar- 
quis and Earl of Worcester, Earl of Gla- 
morgan, Viscount Grosmont, Lord Lieu- 
tenant of Monmouthshire, &c, was born 
Feb. 1, 1824. His Grace, who is a Con- 
servative in politics, succeeded his father 
as eighth Duke, Nov. 17, 1853. He entered 
the Life Guards in 1841, exchanged into 
the 7th Hussars, where he became Captain 
in 1847, became Lieut. -Colonel in 1858, and 
retired in 1861. He was M.P. for East 
Gloucestershire, 1846-53, was Master of 
the Horse under Earl Derby's second 
administration, 1858-59, and was reap- 

pointed to that office under Earl Derby's 
third administration, in July 1866, con- 
tinuing in that post till 1869. He takes 
a great interest in horse-racing, and is 
President of the Four-in-Hand Club. In 
March 1898, on the occasion of a lawn 
meet at Badminton, his former seat, he 
was presented with an oil portrait of him- 
self, painted by Mr. Ellis Roberts, and 
subscribed for by upwards of 1000 fol- 
lowers of his late pack " in recognition 
of his long services to country sport." 
He is one of the joint editors of the 
sporting books known as "The Badminton 
Library." His Grace married, July 3, 
1845, Georgina Charlotte, eldest daughter 
of the late Earl Howe. Address : Stoke 
Park, near Bristol. 

BEBEL, FerdinandAugust, German 
Socialist, born at Cologne, Feb. 22 or 29, 
1840, was educated at Wetzlar, and set up 
at Leipzig as a turner. Even in 1862 he 
was already one of the most active leaders 
of the popular movement in Germany. In 
1S65 he induced the Workers' Union of 
Leipzig to adopt a Socialistic propaganda. 
In 1867 he entered political life as Member 
for Glaucbau - Meerane in the North 
German Diet. In 1871 he formed part of 
the first Imperial Reichstag. He worked 
at his trade during the recess, and was the 
chief of that section called the Eisenacher 
Arbeiterpartei, which was in co-operation 
with the International Workers' Union 
of London, with Karl Marx at its head. 
Together with Herr Liebknecht, he was 
accused of high-treason in 1872, and con- 
demned to two years' confinement in a 
fortress. In 1874 he was re-elected to tbe 
Reichstag, and actively opposed Bismarck's 
laws against the Socialists. In fact, from 
1874 until 1886 he was continually being 
arrested and imprisoned for his doctrines, 
and in the intervals of imprisonment he 
was being elected to the Parliament and 
fighting the Iron Chancellor. In 1890 he 
spoke violently against the annexation of 
Alsace - Lorraine, which he called the 
" fatal crime " of Bismarck, involving the 
huge armaments of modern days. His 
chief writings are : " Unsere Ziele," " Der 
Deutsche Bauerkrieg," "Die Frau und 
der Sozialismus," 1883 (18th edit., 1893); 
"Die Socialdemokratie," 1895. 

BECKER, Bernard Henry, author 
and journalist, born in 1833, was for years 
attached to All the Tear Round, and has 
written a large number of original stories 
and sketches in that journal, as well as in 
the World and other papers, and was for- 
merly on the staff of the Daily News. In 
1874 he produced " Scientific London," 
an account of the rise, progress, and con- 
dition of the great scientific institutions 



of the capital. Mr. Becker published in 
1878 a book in two volumes, entitled 
"Adventurous Lives." Having in the 
winter of 1878-79 acted as the Special 
Commissioner of the Daily News in 
Sheffield, Manchester, and other distressed 
districts of the North and Midlands, he 
was sent in a similar capacity to Ireland 
in the autumn of 1880, when he discovered 
Mr. and Mrs. Boycott herding sheep, and 
wrote those letters on the state of Con- 
naught and Munster which have since 
appeared in a collected form as " Dis- 
turbed Ireland," and given rise to several 
discussions in the House of Commons. 
In 1884 Mr. Becker produced " Holiday 
Haunts," the title of which explains itself, 
like that of the more recent " Letters from 
Lazy Latitudes," published in 1886. 

BECKLES, the Bight Rev. Edward 
Hyndman, D.D., son of the late John 
Alleyne Beckles, Esq. (descended from the 
Beetles family, of Durham), was born in 
Barbados in 1816, received his education 
at Codrington College, Barbados, and 
after holding different cures in the West 
Indies, was consecrated Bishop of Sierra 
Leone in 1859. He resigned that see in 
1870, being succeeded in it by Dr. Cheet- 
ham. In the same year he was appointed 
Rector of Wooton, Dover, and in 1873 
Rector of St. Peter's, Bethnal Green, 
London. In February 1877 he was ap- 
pointed Superintending Bishop of the 
English Episcopalian congregations in 
Scotland. Address : St. Peter's, Bethnal 
Green, E. 

BEDDARD, Frank E., M.A., F.R.S., 
son of the late John Beddard, was born at 
Dudley in 1858, and educated at Harrow 
and New College, Oxford. After taking 
his degree he was for some time a Demon- 
strator under the late Professor Rolleston, 
and afterwards became Assistant Editor of 
the Challenger Reports. He is at present 
Prosector of the Zoological Society of 
London, Examiner in the University of 
London, and Lecturer on Biology at Guy's 
Hospital. He was elected F.R.S. in 1892. 
Mr. Beddard is author of the following 
works: "Report on the Isopods collected 
during the Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger" ; 
"Animal Colouration"; "Contributions 
to the Anatomy of the Anthropoid Apes " 
( Transactions of the Zoological Society, 1893) ; 
a '■' Monograph on the Oligochceta " 
(Clarendon Press, 1895) ; and numerous 
contributions to the Quarterly Journal of 
Microscopical Science, and to the publica- 
tions of the Royal and Zoological Societies. 
He has also contributed popular articles 
on zoological subjects to Blackwood's and 
other magazines. Address: United Uni- 
versity Club, Suffolk Street. 

BEDDOE, John, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., 

born at Bewdley, in Worcestershire, Sept. 
21, 1826, was educated at Bridgnorth 
School, University College, London, and 
the University of Edinburgh. He gradu- 
ated B.A. in London in 1851, and M.D. 
in Edinburgh in 1853. Dr. Beddoe served 
on the civil medical staff during the 
Crimean War. Since then he has prac- 
tised as a physician at Clifton, and held 
sundry hospital appointments, but is now 
residing at the Chantry, Bradford-on- 
Avon. He was President of the Anthro- 
pological Society in 1869 and 1870, and he 
was a Member of the Council of the British 
Association for several years. He was 
elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, and 
a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, 
in 1873, and is an honorary member of 
sundry Continental and American scientific 
societies, and officer (1st Class) of the 
French Order of Public Instruction. Dr. 
Beddoe has written numerous papers, 
medical, statistical, and anthropological, 
and he has largely applied the numerical 
method to ethnology. In 1868 his Essay 
on the Origin of the English Nation took 
the first prize, £150, of the Welsh National 
Eisteddfod. It formed the basis of his 
principal work, "The Races of Britain," 
which was not published until 1885. His 
other most considerable works and papers 
are " Stature and Bulk of Man in the 
British Isles " ; " Relations of Tempera- 
ment and Complexion to Disease"; "On 
Hospital Dietaries " ; " Comparison of 
Mortality in England and Australia " ; 
and on the "Natural Colour of the Skin 
in certain Oriental Races." He is joint 
author of the " Anthropological Instruc- 
tions for Travellers " of the British Asso- 
ciation, and was elected President of 
the Anthropological Institute in 1889 and 
1890. In 1891 he was given the LL.D. 
of the University of Edinburgh, and as 
Rhind Lecturer for the year delivered a 
course of lectures in Edinburgh on the 
Anthropological History of Europe. He 
married in 1858 Agnes Montgomerie 
Christison (niece of the eminent physician 
of that name, Sir Robert Christison, Bart.), 
who has since been well known in con- 
nection with various philanthropic move- 
ments, chiefly for the benefit of women. 
Addresses : The Chantry, Bradford-on- 
Avon ; and Athenreum. 

BEDFORD, Bishop of. Sec Isling- 
ton, Bishop op. 

BEDFORD, Vice - Admiral Sir 
Frederick George Denham, K.C.B., 
son of Vice-Admiral Edward J. Bedford, 
was born in December 1838, and entered 
the Navy in July 1852. He served as a 
midshipman in H.M.S. Sampson during 



1854, in which vessel he was present at 
the bombardment of Odessa, the taking 
of the redoubt Kaleh, and also the bom- 
bardment of Sebastopol. For these ser- 
vices he received the Crimean and T-urkish 
medals. In 1855 he took part in the Baltic 
Expedition as a midshipman in H.M.S. 
Vulture, and was present at the bombard- 
ment of Sveaborg, subsequently receiving 
the Baltic medal. He was promoted 
Lieutenant in 1859, Commander in 1871, 
and Captain in 1876, and commanded 
H.M.S. Skak in her memorable engage- 
ment with the Peruvian ironclad Huascar 
off Ylo in May 1877. As captain of H.M.S. 
Monarch he did excellent work in organis- 
ing the flotilla on the Nile for the relief 
of General Gordon in 1884, and received 
the special thanks of the Admiralty for 
this service. He was promoted to C.B. in 
1886, and in 1888 was appointed Aide-de- 
Camp to the Queen. Admiral Bedford 
served as a Lord Commissioner of the 
Admiralty from 1889 to 1892, and was 
also a member of a Committee appointed 
to take evidence and report upon the 
manning of the Navy. He was promoted 
to the rank of Eear-Admiral in May 1891, 
and hoisted his flag on H.M.S. i>t. George 
as Commander-in-Chief at the Cape and 
West Africa station in 1892. It was a 
most eventful commission. In 1894 he 
conducted the operations at Bathurst on 
the river Gambia for the punishment of 
Fodi Silah, a rebellious slave-raiding chief. 
Later on it was found necessary to land 
a punitive expedition against the chief 
Nanna of Brohemie in the Benin River, 
and in recognition of services performed in 
both these expeditions Admiral Bedford 
received a K.C.B. In February 1895 he 
landed a Naval Brigade for the punish- 
ment of King Koko of Nimby, the chief 
town of Brass, on the Niger River, and 
brought the operations to a successful 
issue. He received the Africa medal with 
three clasps. On resigning the command 
of the Cape station he was presented with 
an appreciative address from the inhabi- 
tants of Simon's Town. He returned to 
England in 1895, and has since been ap- 
pointed Second Sea Lord of the Admiralty. 
He is the author of the following nautical 
works, which have passed through many 
editions: "The Sailor's Pocket-Book," 
"The Sailor's Hand-Book," and "The 
Sailor's Ready Reference Book." Vice- 
Admiral Sir Frederick Bedford is married 
to Ethel, a daughter of E. R. Turner, Esq., 
of Ipswich. Addresses : 56 Lexham Gar- 
dens, W. ; and United Service Club. 

BEDFORD, Duke of, Herbrand 

Arthur Russell, was born Feb. 19, 1858, 
in Eaton Palace, London, and succeeded 
his brother as 11th Duke in 1893. He was 

educated at Balliol College, Oxford, and 
he entered the army by joining the Grena- 
dier Guards in 1879. He served in the 
Egyptian Campaign of 1882, receiving a 
medal with clasp, and the Khedive's star ; 
and he acted as A.D.C. to the Marquis of 
Dufferin, when Viceroy of India, from 
1884 to 1888. He is Chairman of the 
Bedfordshire County Council, a Major of 
the 3rd Battalion of the Bedfordshire 
Regiment, and Hon. Colonel of the Bed- 
fordshire Volunteers. The Duke was 
married in 1888, when Lord Herbrand 
Russell, to Marydu Caurroy, daughter of the 
Ven. W. Tribe, late Archdeacon of Lahore, 
and has a son and heir, the Marquis of 
Tavistock, born in 1888. He is a Liberal 
Unionist in politics, and a Justice of the 
Peace ; whilst he devotes a good deal of 
time to the study of Zoology and Natural 
History, and in 1897 he published, "The 
History of a Great Agricultural Estate." 
Addresses: 15 Belgrave Square, S. W. ; 
Woburn Abbey, Bedfordshire ; Endsleigh, 
Tavistock, Devonshire ; Thorney, Peter- 
borough ; and Oakley House, Bedfordshire. 

BEER, Frederick, was born on July 8, 
1858, and is the son of the late Julius 
Beer. He was educated at Magdalene 
College, Cambridge. He has devoted a 
good deal of time to travelling, and he 
went to Khartoum before the siege of 
that town. He has been proprietor of the 
Observer London Sunday paper since 1880, 
inheriting it from his father, and he has 
edited it since 1894. He is married to 
Rachel, daughter of the late Sassoon D. 
Sassoon. Address : 7 Chesterfield Gar- 
dens, W. 

BEER, Rachel, daughter of the late 
Sassoon D. Sassoon, was educated at home, 
and spent two years in hospital nursing. 
She has, since October 1893, managed and 
edited the Sunday Times, of which she is 
proprietress. She is a Member of the 
Institute of Journalists, and also of the 
Institute of Women Journalists. Mrs. 
Beer is probably the only woman editor 
of a general newspaper in England. She 
composed and published some piano and 
instrumental music. She is married to 
Mr. Frederick Arthur Beer, editor of the 
London Observer. Address : 7 Chesterfield 
Gardens, W. 

BEERE, Mrs. Bernard, is a daughter 
of Mr. Wilby Whitehead, and widow of 
Capt. E. C. Dering, a son of Sir Edward 
Dering, Bart. She was prepared for the 
stage by Mr. Hermann Vezin, and made 
her dibnt at the Opera Comique, but soon 
after, on the occasion of her marriage, 
abandoned the profession. On her return 
to the stage she appeared as Julia, in " The 



Eivals," at the St. James's Theatre, and 
during her engagement there played Lady 
Sneerwell, Grace Harkaway, and Emilia. 
She subsequently took part in " The School 
for Scandal," and "The Rivals." On 
April 12, 1882, Mrs. Bernard-Beere repre- 
sented Bathsheba Everdene, in "Far from 
the Madding Crowd," at the Globe. After 
this she proceeded to the Haymarket, 
where, on May 5, 1883, she was " cast for " 
the title part of Mr. Herman Merivale's 
version of " Fe"dora." Her next characters 
were Mrs. Devenish, in "Lords and Com- 
mons," and Countess Zicka, in "Diplo- 
macy." During 1888 she appeared in a 
succession of plays at the Opera Comique 
Theatre, of which " As in a Looking- 
Glass " was the most remarkable. Then 
followed a long absence from the stage, 
which was much regretted by her many 
admirers. In 1897 Mrs. Bernard Beere 
again came before the public in the part 
of Charlotte Corday, in the play of that 
name, at the Grand Theatre, Islington, 
Mr. Kyrle Bellew taking the part of Marat 
in the same piece. On Dec. 23, 1897, she 
made her formal reappearance on the 
stage, playing in "A Sheep in Wolf's 
Clothing," at the Comedy Theatre. 

BEERNAERT, Auguste, Belgian 
statesman, was born at Ostend in 1824, 
and was called to the Bar in 1859, where 
he pleaded before the Court of Cassation, 
especially in commercial cases. He went 
in for politics, and attached himself to 
the moderate Liberal party, under whose 
auspices he wrote ioxL' EtoilcBclge. In 1874 
he openly became a member of the Clerical 
party, and accepted the position of Minister 
of Public Works from M. Malon. This 
sudden recantation made a scandal, and 
the late Premier, M. Frere Orban, made 
it the subject of a vote of censure on the 
new Ministry. In 1878 he went into oppo- 
sition with the rest of his colleagues, and 
was the toughest opponent the Liberal 
Ministry had. The parliamentary struggles 
became so acute that even the Pope had 
to intervene as mediator. In 1884, on the 
return of the Conservatives to power, M. 
Beernaert became Minister of Agriculture, 
and the chief adviser of the Premier. The 
local authorities were given the power of 
suppressing lay schools, and the taxes that 
the Clerical party had violently opposed 
when in opposition were retained. This 
gave rise to much irritation, and the 
Premier resigned. Thereupon M. Beernaert 
became Minister of Finance and President 
of the Council, a position he held until 
1894. During his long premiership his 
chief difficulty was to fight the Socialists, 
and to quell the strikes of 1885 among the 
miners. He dealt with the latter by start- 
ing great public works, by reforming the 

prison laws, and developing the system of 
national defence. He took an active part 
in acquiring the Congo Free State, of which 
King Leopold is the President, and in the 
Congress at Brussels for the suppression 
of the Slave Trade. He resigned in 1894 
on the question of the Revision of the 
Constitution and Universal Suffrage. In 
the new chamber at the end of 1894 he 
was elected President, and he is still the 
chief of its orators. In 1895 he presided 
over the 14th Congress of the Society of 
Social Economics at Paris. 

BEESLY, Professor Edward Spen- 
cer, was born at Feckenham, Worcester- 
shire, in 1831, and educated at Wadham 
College, Oxford. He was appointed Assis- 
tant-Master of Marlborough College in 
1854, and Professor of History in Uni- 
versity College, London, in 1860. At the 
General Election of 1885 he was the 
unsuccessful Liberal candidate for West- 
minster, and in 1886 he stood, also without 
success, for East Marylebone. Professor 
Beesly is the author of several review 
articles, pamphlets, &c, on historical, 
political, and social questions, treated 
from the Positivist point of view. He is 
one of the translators of Comte's " System 
of Positive Polity." A series of lectures 
by Professor Beesly on Roman history, 
entitled " Catiline, Clodius, and Tiberius," 
was published in 1878. He is also the 
author of "Queen Elizabeth" in the 
" Twelve English Statesmen " series, pub- 
lished by Messrs. Macmillan (1892). Ad- 
dress : 53 Warrington Crescent. 

BEET, Rev. Joseph. Agar, D.D., 

Professor of Systematic Theology at the 
Wesleyan College, Richmond, is the son of 
W. J. Beet, a manufacturer, and Sarah 
Baugh, his wife, and was born at Sheffield, 
Sept. 27, 1840, and was educated at Wesley 
College, Sheffield, and at the Wesleyan 
College, Richmond. After beingfor twenty- 
one years engaged in pastoral work, he was 
elected to the chair which he now occupies. 
In 1877 Dr. Beet published a commentary 
on the Epistle to the Romans, which, 
after passing through eight editions, is 
now being rewritten. This volume was 
followed by others on the Epistles to 
Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philip- 
pians, and Colossians. In recognition of 
the value of these works, he received in 
1891 from the University of Glasgow the 
decree of D.D. In 1889 he delivered the 
Fernley Lecture on "The Credentials of 
the Gospel " ; and in 1896 gave courses of 
lectures at the University of Chicago, and 
at the Chautauqua and Ocean Grove 
(U.S.A.) Summer Schools. He has also 
published three volumes of theological 
lectures, of which the latest, on "The Last 



Things," appeared in 1897, and other 
smaller works ; and is a frequent con- 
tributor to The Expositor, Two of his vol- 
umes have been translated into Japanese, 
and are used as theological text-books in 
Japan. AU the above works, even the 
commentaries, are contributions to sys- 
tematic theology and to apologetics ; for 
the aim of Dr. Beet's expositions has been 
to learn from the writings of St. Paul the 
writer's conception of Christ and the 
Gospel, in order thus, and by comparison 
with the conceptions of other New Testa- 
ment writers, to learn the historic reality 
of Christ and the eternal reality of God. 
He has endeavoured to treat theology 
on a thoroughly scientific and philoso- 
phical method, all conclusions resting on 
observed matters of fact, and all facts 
being used as avenues of approach to 
broad principles. On behalf of the Anglo- 
Armenian Association Dr. Beet had the 
honour of presenting to Mrs. Gladstone on 
her eighty-fifth birthday (Jan. 6, 1897) a 
portrait of the Catholicos of Etchmiadzin, 
the head of the Armenian Church, on the 
occasion of the unveiling of a window in 
Hawarden Church in memory of the Ar- 
menian martyrs. Address : Wesleyan Col- 
lege, Eichmond, Surrey. 

BEETON, Henry Coppinger, was 

born in London, May 15, 1827. He was 
appointed Agent-General for British Col- 
umbia by Order in Council, 1883 ; a 
Commissioner of the International Fish- 
eries Exhibition, 1883, and of the Health 
Exhibition, 1884 ; a Royal Commissioner 
of the Colonial and Indian Exhibition, 
1886 ; on the Colonies Committee of the 
Chicago Exhibition, 1883. Addresses : 2 
Adamson Road, South Hampstead ; Arma- 
dale, Weston-super-Mare. 

BEEVOK, Sir Hugh Reeve, M.D., 
F.R.C.P., son of the late Sir Thomas 
Beevor, 4th Baronet, sometime secretary 
to Richard Cobden, President of the Nor- 
wich Union Fire Office, was born on Oct. 
31, 1858, at Hingham, Norfolk. He was 
educated at Felstead School and King's 
College, London. He is an Assistant Phy- 
sician to King's College Hospital and to 
the City of London Hospital for Diseases 
of the Chest. He is also Medical Officer 
to the Norwich Union Life Insurance 
Office, and has been, since January 1896, 
Dean of the Medical Faculty of King's 
College. He is married to Emily, daughter 
of Sir William Foster, Bart., and has a son 
and heir, Thomas, born 1897. 

BEIT, Alfred, was born at Hamburg 
in 1853, and went out to South Africa 
when 'quite young. He was engaged in 
the . diamond trade at Kimberley from 

1875 to 1888, and he is a partner in the 
firm of Wernher, Beit & Co. On the 
occasion of the sitting of the Jameson 
Commission, Mr. Beit was summoned as a 
witness. He is at present unmarried. 
Addresses : Park Lane, W. ; Cape Town, 
and Kimberley. 

BELGIANS, King of. See Leo- 
pold II. 

BELJAME, Alexandre, was born on 
Nov. 26, 1842, at Villiers-le-Bel, Seine-et- 
Oise, France. His mother was a daughter 
of Bosc, Member of the Institute and 
friend of Madame Roland, whose " Me- 
moirs " he preserved and published. After 
spending some years in England at Ayles- 
bury and Weston-super-Mare, M. Beljame 
studied at the Lycee Charlemagne, Paris, 
of which he was a distinguished scholar. 
He was one of the first to compete for 
the degrees in English established by M. 
Duruy, was received first at the " Agre- 
gation d'anglais " in 1868, and taught for 
several years at the Lyc^e Louis-le-Grand, 
Paris. In 1881 he was made Docteur es 
Lettres (the vote in his favour being 
unanimous) by the University of Paris, 
where he was soon after offered a lecture- 
ship of English Literature, since trans- 
formed into an assistant-professorship. 
At the Sorbonne Professor Beljame has 
grouped round him more than two hun- 
dred students of English literature, some 
of whom have already made their mark 
in the French universities and lycees. 
They attend his lectures zealously, and are 
greatly attached to him. When he was 
made a Knight of the Legion of Honour, 
his present and former pupils presented 
him with a diamond cross. He is also 
Maitre de Conferences at the Ecole Nor- 
male Superieure. Professor Beljame is a 
frequent visitor to London, and his face is 
well known in the reading-room of the 
British Museum. His principal works are: 
" Le Public et les Hommes de Lettres en 
Angleterre aul8 e Siecle" (Dryden, Addison, 
Pope), Paris, Hachette, 1881 ; 2nd edit., 
with index, 1897 (crowned by the French 
Academy) ; " Qua? e Gallicis verbis in An- 
glican! linguaru Johannes Dryden intro- 
duxerit," Paris, Hachette, 1881 ; a French 
edition of Tennyson's "Enoch Arden," 
Paris, Hachette, 1892; 4th edit., 1898; 
"Tennyson, Enoch Arden, traduction en 
prose frangaise," Paris, Hachette, 1892; 
3rd edit., 1897; "Shelley, Alastor, tra- 
duction en prose avec le texte anglais en 
regard et des notes," Paris, Hachette, 1891 ; 
" Shakespeare, Macbeth, texte critique avec 
la traduction en regard," Paris, Hachette, 
1897 (crowned by the French Academy) ; 
"Les Premieres ceuvres dramatiques de 
Shakespeare," a report of lectures given 



at the University of Paris, published by 
the Revue des Cours et Conferences. In the 
same periodical have also appeared some 
of his lectures on Pope, the English Novel, 
&c. Address : Paris, 29 Rue de Conde. 

BELL, Alexander Graham, Ph.D., 
was born at Edinburgh, March 3, 1847. 
He was educated at the Edinburgh High 
School and Edinburgh University, and 
also studied for a time at the London 
University. He went to Canada in 1870, 
and thence, in 1872, to the United States. 
He had acquired prominence as a teacher 
of deaf-mutes before his inventions of the 
speaking telephone and photophone (first 
exhibited in 1876 and 1880 respectively) 
brought him wealth and fame. He is a 
member of various learned societies, and 
has published a number of papers on 
electrical subjects and the teaching of 
speech to deaf-mutes. 

BELL, Charles Dent, D.D., Hon. 
Canon of Carlisle, son of Henry Humphrey 
Bell, Esq., landed proprietor, was born 
Feb. 10, 1819, at Ballymaguigan, county 
Derry, Ireland. He was educated at the 
Academy, Edinburgh, at the Royal School, 
Dungannon, county Tyrone, and entered 
Trinity College, Dublin, as Queen's Scholar 
in 1839 ; received the degree of B.A. and 
Divinity Testimonial, 1842 ; and was Vice- 
Chancellor's Prizeman for English verse, 
1840, 1841, 1842; M.A., 1852; B.D. and 
D.D., 1878; Deacon, 1843; Priest, 1844. 
The following have been his appointments : 
Curate of Hampton-in-Arden, 1843-45; 
Curate of St. Mary's Chapel, Reading, 
1845-46 ; Curate of St. Mary's-in-the- 
Castle, Hastings, 1 846-54 ; Incumbent of 
St. John's Chapel, Hampstead, 1854-61 ; 
"Vicar of Ambleside and Rural Dean, 1861 ; 
Hon. Canon of Carlisle, 1 869 ; Vicar of 
Rydal with Ambleside, 1872 ; Rector of 
Cheltenham, 1879; Surrogate of Chelten- 
ham, 1884. He is the author of "Night 
Scenes of the Bible and their Teachings," 
1860 ; " The Saintly Calling," 1874 ; " Hills 
that bring Peace," 1876; "Voices from 
the Lakes," 1876 (now out of print) ; 
"Angelic Beings and their Ministry," 1877 ; 
"Roll Call of Faith," 1878; "Songs in 
the Twilight," 1878 (now out of print); 
" Hymns for Church and Chamber," 1879 ; 
" Our Daily Life, its Dangers and its 
Duties " and " Life of Henry Martyn," 
1880; "Choice of Wisdom" and "Living 
Truths for Head and Heart," 1881 ; " Songs 
in Many Keys," 1884; "The Valley of 
Weeping and Place of Springs" and 
"Gleanings from a Tour in Palestine and 
the East," 1886 ; " A Winter on the Nile," 
1888; "Reminiscences of a Boyhood in 
the Early Part of the Century, a New 
Story by a Old Hand," 1889; in 1893 he 

published "Poems, Old and New," and in 
1894 "Diana's Looking-Glass and other 
Poems," and more lately two volumes of 
sermons, "The Name above every Name," 
and "The Gospel the Power of God." 
Dr. Bell was one of the promoters of the 
Dean Close Memorial School, Cheltenham, 
Chairman of Committee, and a Trustee; 
ex-officio Chairman of the Committee of 
the Cheltenham Training College for Male 
and Female Students. During his In- 
cumbency he restored the fine old parish 
church of Cheltenham, and built in the 
parish the noble new church (St.Matthew's). 
Address : Loughrigg Brow, Ambleside. 

BELL, Charles Frederic Moberly, 

the son of the late Thomas Bell, of Egypt, 
was born April 2, 1847, and was educated 
privately. He acted as correspondent of 
the Times in Egypt from 1865 to 1890, 
and in the latter year was appointed 
Assistant-Manager of that journal. He 
is the author of "Khedives and Pashas," 
1884 ; " Egyptian Finance," 1887 ; " From 
Pharaoh to Fellah," 1889. Mr. Bell was 
married in 1875 to a daughter of the Rev. 
James Chetaway. Addresses : 98 Portland 
Place, W. ; and Burgh Heath, Epsom. 

BELL, Francis Jeffrey, was born in 
Calcutta on Jan. 26, 1855. After taking 
his degree at Oxford (Magdalen College) 
in 1878, he entered the service of the 
Trustees of the British Museum, and has 
since been constantly employed on work 
in the Zoological Department, where he 
devotes himself chiefly to the lower marine 
invertebrates. In 1879 he was appointed 
Professor of Comparative Anatomy and 
Zoology at King's College, London, which 
post he resigned in 1896, being then made 
Emeritus Professor and later on a Fellow 
of the College. From 1879 to 1886 he was 
a contributor to, and for the last two of 
those years editor of, the Zoological Record. 
From 1879 to 1897 he devoted a large 
amount of time to preparing abstracts of 
c urrent researches of zoology for the Journal- 
of the Royal Microscopical Society. For some 
years he was editor of this journal, and 
from 1883 to 1898 he was one of the 
Secretaries of that Society. In 1896 he 
was appointed Secretary "to the Inter- 
national Congress of Zoology, which met 
at Cambridge in August 1898. While at 
Oxford he prepared a translation of Pro- 
fessor Genbaur's famous treatise on the 
" Elements of Comparative Anatomy." In 
1885 he published with Messrs. Cassell a 
text-book of "Comparative Anatomy and 
Physiology." He prepared for the Trustees 
of the British Museum a descriptive cata- 
logue of British Echinoderms. He took a 
large part in the revision of the chapters 
dealing with animals in the last edition of 



Dr. Carpenter's work on the microscope 
edited by Dr. Dallinger, and he has edited 
a new edition, 1895, of Gosse's " Evenings 
at the Microscope." He has published 
various memoirs in the Proceedings and 
Transactions of various learned societies, 
many of which have dealt with Echino- 
derms. Of these the most extensive is 
the report on the Echinoderms collected 
by H.M.S. Alert. He has also contributed 
critical reviews and articles on popular 
natural history to various periodicals. He 
is an Hon. Member of the Manchester 
Microscopical Society, and a Corresponding 
Member of the Linnean Society of New 
South Wales. Mr. Bell acted as Examiner 
in Morphology in the Honours School at 
Oxford in 1892 and 1893, and examined 
for the Natural Science Tripos at Cam- 
bridge in 1897 and 1898. Permanent 
address : British Museum of Natural His- 
tory, Cromwell Road, S.W. 

BELL, The Kev. George Charles, 

M.A., fifth in the succession as Master of 
Marlborough College, is the eldest son of 
George Bell, Esq., merchant of London, 
and was born July 9, 1832, at Streatham. 
He was educated, 1842-51, at Christ's 
Hospital (the Bluecoat School), in London. 
As a Grecian, he gained a scholarship at 
Lincoln College, Oxford, 1851, and went 
up to the University, having, in addition, 
a school exhibition. In his second year 
he migrated to Worcester College, where 
he had won a Clarke scholarship, 1852. 
In the last term of 1854 he took a first- 
class in the Final Classical School, and 
in the following spring a first in the Final 
Mathematical School. In 1S57 Mr. Bell 
gained the Senior University Mathematical 
Scholarship, and was elected Fellow and 
Mathematical Lecturer of his College. He 
received Deacon's orders in 1859, and six 
years later was appointed Second Master 
of Dulwich College. In 1868 Mr. Bell was 
elected as Head Master of his own old 
school, Christ's Hospital. In the follow- 
ing year he was ordained Priest. Mr. Bell 
remained at Christ's Hospital for eight 
years, and in 1876, on the resignation of 
Archdeacon Farrar, he accepted the Mas- 
tership of Marlborough. While in London 
Mr. Bell took an active part in supporting 
Mrs. Wifliam Grey's scheme for the educa- 
tion of girls : in recognition of this he was 
appointed a Vice-President of the Girl's 
Public Day School Company. He has 
been an active member of the Head 
Master's Conference since its foundation, 
and was Chairman of its Committee for 
three periods of three years each. He 
has also, for many years, been a Member 
of the Council of the College of Preceptors. 
Since 1890, as an Almoner of Christ's 
Hospital, he has taken a prominent part 

in the work of carrying the scheme of 
the Charity Commissioners into effect, by 
removing the London Boarding School to 
a new site at Horsham. The following is 
a list of the various stages in Mr. Bell's 
career : Scholar of Lincoln College, Ox- 
ford, 1851 ; Scholar of Worcester College, 
Oxford, 1852 ; first-class Mathematical 
Moderations, 1852; first-class Classics 
(Final Schools), 1854 ; first-class Mathe- 
matics (Do.), 1855; B.A., 1855; Senior 
Mathematical Scholar, 1857; Fellow of 
Worcester, 1857, and M.A. ; Mathematical 
Lecturer of Worcester College, 1857-65 ; 
Mathematical Moderator, 1859-60; or- 
dained Deacon, 1859, Priest, 1869, by 
Samuel Wilberfoice, Bishop of Oxford; 
Mathematical Examiner, 1863 ; Select 
Preacher, 1867 and 1885 ; Second Master 
of Dulwich College, 1865-68; Head Master 
of Christ's Hospital, 1868-76 ; Master of 
Marlborough College, 1876 ; Prebendary 
of Sarum, 1886 ; has published " The In- 
crease of Faith," a sermon preached in 
Salisbury Cathedral, 1887; "Confidence in 
Christ," preached in Westminster Abbey, 
1888; and "Religious Teaching in Se- 
condary Schools," Macmillan, 1897. He 
married in 1870 Elizabeth, second daugh- 
ter of Edward Milner, Esq., of Dulwich 
Wood. Club : Athenaeum. 

BELL, Henry Thomas Mackenzie, 
poet and critic, is better known simply as 
Mackenzie Bell. He is the son of the late 
Thomas Bell, and nephew of the late 
Thomas Mackenzie (see " Men of the Time," 
7th edit.), sometime Solicitor-General for 
Scotland, subsequently a Scottish judge 
under the title of Lord Mackenzie, and 
author of "Studies in Roman Law" (5th 
edit. 1898). He was born in Liverpool on 
March 2, 1856. During early childhood 
he had the misfortune to have a slight 
stroke of paralysis — the result of a fall 
owing to a nurse's carelessness. But for 
many years his health has been good, and 
he has done much literary work, and 
travelled considerably. In 1884 he settled 
in London, and in the same year published 
his monograph on the poei#and novelist, 
Charles Whitehead, and thereby attracted 
well-deserved attention to that early friend 
of Dickens, who was originally asked to 
write the letterpress to the drawings by 
Seymour — letterpress which was ultimately 
undertaken by Dickens, and became "The 
Pickwick Papers." A new edition of Mr. 
Mackenzie Bell's monograph, prefixed to 
which was an appreciation of Whitehead 
by Mr. Hall Caine, was issued in 1894, and 
had a cordial reception from the press. 
Mr. Mackenzie Bell has written numerous 
important critical articles in "The Poets 
and the Poetry of the Century," and has 
been a contributor of signed articles, poems, 



or letters, to The Fortnightly Review, The Pall 
Mall Magazine, The Atlantic Monthly, The 
A thenceum. The Speaker, The Literary World, 
Temple Bar, The Lady's Realm,, Black and 
White, The A cademy, "The Savage Club 
Papers " (third series), "The Dictionary of 
National Biography," and other publica- 
tions of repute. His " Spring's Immortality 
and other Poems " appeared in the autumn 
of 1893, a third edition being published in 
April 1896. His "Christina Kossetti : a 
Biographical and Critical Study," copy- 
righted in Great Britain and in the United 
States of America, January 1898, attracted 
much attention, and reached a third edi- 
tion in February of the same year. His 
latest publication is a second volume of 
original verse, entitled "Pictures of Travel 
and other Poems." Address: 33 Carlton 
Road, Putney, S.W. 

BELL, Sir Isaac Lowthian, Bart., 
F.E.S., D.C.L., was born in 1816. After 
completing his studies of physical science 
at Edinburgh University and the Sorbonne 
at Paris, he entered the chemical and iron 
works at Walker. In 1850 he became 
connected with the chemical works at 
Washington, in the county of Durham, 
then in the hands of his father-in-law, the 
late H. L. Pattinson, F.K.S. Under his 
direction they were greatly enlarged, and 
an extensive establishment was constructed 
for the manufacture of oxy chloride of lead, 
a pigment discovered by Mr. Pattinson. 
In 1873 he ceased to be a partner in these 
works, which are now carried on by a 
grandson of Mr. Pattinson's. Mr. Bell, in 
connection with his brothers, Messrs. 
Thomas and John Bell, founded, in 1852, 
the Clarence Works on the Tees, one of the 
earliest, and now one of the largest, iron- 
smelting concerns on that river, which 
these gentlemen carry on in connection 
with extensive collieries and ironstone 
mines. Recently, arrangements have been 
made for obtaining salt from a bed of the 
mineral, found at a depth of 1200 feet 
at Port Clarence. Mr. Bell has been a 
frequent contributor to various learned 
societies on Subjects connected with the 
metallurgy of iron, and has recently com- 
pleted a very elaborate experimental re- 
search on the chemical phenomena of the 
blast-furnace. He has filled the posts of 
President to the Iron and Steel Institute, 
to the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 
to the Mining and Mechanical Engineers 
of the North of England, and that of 
President of the Society of Chemical Indus- 
try. In recognition of his services as 
Juror of the International Exhibitions at 
Philadelphia in 1876, and at Paris in 1878 
and 1889, he was elected a Member of the 
American Philosophical Institution and an 
Officer of the Legion of Honour. He has 

filled the office of Sheriff, and was twice 
elected Mayor of Newcastle-on-Tyne, the 
last time in order to receive the members 
of the British Association at their meeting 
in the year 1863. He received the Howard 
Bequest from the Institute of Civil En- 
gineers in 1892, and the Prince Consort's 
Gold Medal from the Society of Arts in 
1894. He was elected M.P. for Hartlepool 
in July 1875, but ceased to represent that 
borough in 1880. Sir Lowthian Bell is the 
author of several important writings on 
the iron and steel industries. Permanent 
Address : Rowton Grange, Northallerton. 

BELL, James, C.B., D.Sc, Ph.D., 
F.R.S., born in 1825, is a native of the 
county Armagh ; was educated principally 
by private tuition and at University 
College, London, where he distinguished 
himself in chemistry and mathematics. 
He became Deputy-Principal of the Somer- 
set House Laboratory, Inland Revenue 
Department, in 1867, and was Principal 
from 1875 to 1894. In connection with 
his official position he was Chemical 
Examiner of lime and lemon juice for 
the supply of the British merchant navy, 
1868-94, and from 1869 until 1894 he 
acted as Consulting Chemist to the Indian 
Government, and nearly all of the prin- 
cipal public departments. On the passing 
of the Sale of Food and Drugs Act in 
1875 he was appointed to the difficult 
and responsible position of Chemical 
Referee under that Act for the United 
Kingdom. He was elected a Fellow of 
the Royal Society in 1884, and the degree 
of Doctor of Science was conferred upon 
him in 1886 by the Senate of the Royal 
University, Dublin. He obtained the 
degree of Doctor of Philosophy under the 
ordinary statutes of the University of 
Erlangen ; and was President of the 
Institute of Chemistry of Great Britain 
and Ireland in 1888 to 1891, and created 
a Companion of the Bath in 1889. As 
regards his scientific work, Dr. Bell is, 
perhaps, best known from his valuable 
series of chemical researches into the 
composition of articles of food, and the 
variations that occur in their constituents. 
The results 'of these original researches, 
with improved methods of analysis, were 
elaborated and embodied by him in a 
work entitled " The Chemistry of Foods," 
and published in three parts, 1881-83. 
This work has since been translated into 
German, and published in Berlin. Among 
his other scientific work may be men- 
tioned his study of the grape and malt 
ferments, published in the Journal of the 
Chemical Society, 1870, and also his laborious 
and interesting research on tobacco, the 
results of which were published in 1887, 
in the form of a pamphlet, entitled "The 



Chemistry of Tobacco." The report of 
the result of his investigation into the 
constitution of butter and the variations 
in its composition, was regarded as of so 
much importance that it was presented to 
the House of Commons, and published as 
a Parliamentary paper in June 1876. In 
addition to his scientific labours, Dr. Bell 
has compiled two departmental books, 
partly educational and partly legal and 
technical. Dr. Bell's services have often 
been called into requisition on different 
Government Committees ; of these we may 
instance the Committee on the Adultera- 
tion of Fertilisers and Feeding Stuffs ; a 
Treasury Committee on the Exportation of 
Essences and Perfumes ; a Board of Trade 
Committee on the Use of Disinfectants in 
the Mercantile Marine ; and the Brewers' 
Materials Committee. Dr. Bell, from his 
extensive practical and scientific know- 
ledge, occupied a unique position on these 
Committees, and was able to render valu- 
able assistance in dealing with the various 
questions submitted to each Committee 
for inquiry and solution. On more than 
one occasion Dr. Bell's services have 
proved useful to a Chancellor of the 
Exchequer. It is well known, for instance, 
that on the adjustment of the tobacco 
duties in 1887, to meet the difficulties of 
the situation, he suggested that a limit 
to the quantity of water permissible in 
manufactured tobacco should be fixed by 
law, and he devised a scheme for carrying 
out the same, with the result that the 
application of the enactment has been 
most successful alike to the revenue, the 
trade, and the consumer, who obtains his 
tobacco without being loaded with water, 
as in former days. To several successive 
Committees of the House of Commons 
Dr. Bell has rendered, as an expert witness, 
important assistance by his suggestions 
and his views on practical questions ; and 
for the Playfair Committee on British 
and Foreign Spirits, he solved to their 
satisfaction the difficult and intricate 
problem of the changes that take place in 
the maturing of whisky. Permanent resi- 
dence : Howell Hill Lodge, Ewell, Surrey. 

BELLAMY, The Rev. James, M.A., 
D.D., President of St. John's College, 
Oxford, was born in London on Jan. 31, 
1819, and is the eldest son of the late James 
William Bellamy, Headmaster of Merchant 
Taylors' School from the year 1819 to 1845. 
He was educated at Merchant Taylors', 
and entered St. John's at the age of 
seventeen. In 1841, during his college 
days, he was librarian of the Union Society. 
He obtained a second class in Lit. Hum., 
and a first class in Mathematics in 1841 
(B.A. 1841; M.A. 1845; B.D. 1850; D.D. 
1872). He was Fellow of his College till 

1871, when he became President and 
Tutor from 1850 to 1860; Mathematical 
Moderator, 1853-54 ; Member of the Heb- 
domadal Council, 1874-78 ; and Vice- 
Chancellor, 1886-90. Address : St. John's 
College, Oxford, &c. 

BELLOC, Elizabeth Ragner, 
Madame, nie Bessie Ragner Parkes, 
was born at Birmingham on the 10th of 
June 1829. She was the only daughter of 
the late Joseph Parkes, Taxing Master in 
Chancery, and through her mother, nie 
Eliza Priestley, Madame Belloc is a great- 
granddaughter of Dr. Joseph Priestley. 
In 1858 Miss Bessie Parkes became actively 
connected with the Economic Section of 
the Association for the Promotion of Social 
Science. She founded and edited for some 
years the English Women's Journal, which 
had for its main object the amelioration of 
the industrial position of women. In this 
enterprise she was principally assisted by 
Madame Budichon {nit Barbara Leigh 
Smith), the daughter of the late Member 
for Norwich. Madame Belloc entered the 
Roman Catholic Church in 1864, and mar- 
ried three years later Louis Maire Belloc, 
a member of the French Bar, and only 
son of the well-known French painter, 
Jean Hilaire Belloc. Madame Belloc was 
widowed in 1872. Her published works 
include " Gabriel, a Poem," 1856 ; " Essays 
on Woman's Work," two editions, 1864- 
1866; "Vignettes," 1865; "In a Walled 
Garden," three editions, 1895 ; "A Passing 
World," 1897. Madame Belloc has also 
contributed largely to periodical literature. 
Address : 11 Great College Street, West- 
minster, S.W. 

BELLOC, Marie Adelaide. See 

Lowndes, Mrs. 

BELMORE, Earl, Trie Right Hon. 
Sir Somerset Richard Lowry-Corry, 
G.C.M.G., son of the 3rd Earl, whom he 
succeeded in 1845, was born in London 
on April 9, 1835, and educated at Eton 
and Trinity College, Cambridge. He was 
elected as senior representative peer for 
Ireland in 1857 ; was Under-Secretary of 
State for the Home Department in Lord 
Derby's third administration, from July 
1866 to July 1867 ; and Governor of New 
South Wales from January 1868 to February 

1872. He is a Privy-Councillor in Ireland, 
1867, was created K.C.M.G. in 1872 and 
G.C.M.G. in 1890. He was President of 
the Commission on Trinity College, Dublin, 
in 1877, and is now President of the 
Manual and Practical Instruction (Ireland) 
Commission. He has been one of the 
Lords Justices-General and General 
Governors of Ireland, and a Member 
of the Judicial Committee of the Irish 



Privy Council. He published, in 1887, 
"Parliamentary Memoirs of Fermanagh 
and Tyrone," besides other works on 
Irish county history. He is married to 
Anne Elizabeth Honoria, daughter of 
the late Captain Gladstone, R.N., M.P. 
Addresses : Castle Coole, Enniskillen ; and 

BELPEB, Lord, The Right Hon. 
Henry Strutt, 2nd Baron, was born on 
May 20, 1840, and succeeded to the title 
in 1880. He was educated at Harrow and 
at Trinity College, Cambridge. He sat as 
M.P. (Liberal) for Derbyshire, East, from 
1868 to 1874, and in the General Election 
of the latter year he unsuccessfully con- 
tested the same constituency, but in 1880 
he was returned for Berwick-on-Tweed. 
For many years Lord Belper was Colonel 
of the South Notts Yeomanry Cavalry. 
He is a J.P. for the counties of Derby and 
Leicester, and also Chairman of the Notts 
Quarter-Sessions and the Nottinghamshire 
County Council. His lordship is an Aide- 
de-Camp to the Queen, and in 1895 was 
appointed Captain of Her Majesty's Body 
Guard of the Hon. Corps of Gentlemen- 
at-Arms, and also a Privy Councillor. He 
is an LL.M. of Cambridge. In 1874 he 
married Lady Margaret Coke, daughter of 
the 2nd Earl of Leicester, and has issue — 
the Hon. William Strutt, heir, born in 
1875, has five daughters. The family seat 
is Kingston Hall, Kegworth, Derbyshire. 

BEN EDEN, Professor Pierre 
Joseph van, M.D. , LL.D., was born at 
Malines, Dec. 19, 1809, and became Pro- 
fessor at the Faculty of Sciences at Lou- 
vain in 1836. He has devoted a long life 
to researches in many branches of anatomy, 
zoology, physiology, ichthyology (fossil and 
recent), and ethnology. Besides his larger 
work, Professor Van Beneden has pub- 
lished nearly 300 memoirs in the Trans- 
actions of various scientific societies. 
Professor Van Beneden is M.D. and 
D.Sc, LL.D., Edinburgh, Member of the 
Academy of Science of Belgium, Foreign 
Member of the Royal Society of London, 
Corresponding Member of the Institute of 
France (Academic des Sciences, 1892), of 
the Academies of Berlin, Boston, Lisbon, 
Montpellier, Munich, and of numerous 
scientific societies, and Knight Com- 
mander or Grand Officer of Orders of Bel- 
gium, Brazil, Italy, and other countries. 
He is the father of Dr. Edouard van 
Beneden (born 5th March 1846), Professor 
of Zoology at the University of Liege, 
whose work has been principally devoted to 
researches on the embryogeny of animals, 
for which he was awarded the Serres Prize 
of the Academy of Sciences of Paris in 

BENEDETTI, Comte Vincent de, 

a French diplomatist, of Italian extrac- 
tion, born at Bastia, in Corsica, in 1817, 
was educated for the Consular and Diplo- 
matic service. After having been appointed 
Consul at Palermo in 1848, he became first 
Secretary to the Embassy at Constanti- 
nople until May 1859, when he was ap- 
pointed to succeed M. Bourse as Envoy 
Extraordinary and Minister at Teheran. 
M. Benedetti, who declined to accept the 
office, was some months afterwards named 
Director of Political Affairs to the Foreign 
Minister — a position associated with the 
successful career of MM. de Rayneval 
and d'Hauterive, and with the names of 
Desages, Armand, Lefebre, and Thouvenel. 
It fell to the lot of M. Benedetti to act as 
secretary and editor of the Protocols in 
the Congress of Paris in 1856, and he was 
made Chevalier of the Legion of Honour 
in June 1845, Officer in 1853, Comman- 
der in 1856, Grand Officer in June 1860, 
and Grand Cross in 1866. Having been 
appointed Minister Plenipotentiary of 
France at Turin in 1861, on the recogni- 
tion of the Italian Kingdom by the French 
Government, he resigned when M. Thouve- 
nel retired from the Ministry of Foreign 
Affairs, and was appointed Ambassador at 
Berlin, Nov. 27, 1864. M. Benedetti ob- 
tained great notoriety in connection with 
the remarkable draft of a secret treaty 
between France and Prussia, which was 
published in the Times on the 25th of July, 
1870, at the very beginning of the war 
between those two Powers. The docu- 
ment stated that the Emperor Napoleon 
III. would allow and recognise the Prussian 
acquisitions consequent upon the war 
against Austria ; that the King of Prussia 
would promise to assist France in acquiring 
Luxemburg ; that the Emperor would not 
oppose a Federal reunion of North and 
South Germany ; that if the Emperor 
should occupy or conquer Belgium, the 
King should afford armed assistance to 
France against any other Power that 
might declare war against her in such 
case ; and that the two Powers should 
conclude an offensive and defensive 
alliance. The publication of this extra- 
ordinary document caused great conster- 
nation and excitement throughout Europe. 
Its authenticity was not denied, bnt France 
declared that although M. Benedetti had 
written the document, he had done so at 
the dictation of Count Bismarck ; whereas 
the latter statesman declared that through 
one channel or another France had inces- 
santly demanded some compensation for 
not interfering with Prussia in her projects. 
Both statesmen agreed in saying that their 
respective Sovereigns declined to sanction 
the treaty. On the outbreak of the war, 
M. Benedetti was of course recalled from 



Berlin ; and since the fall of the Empire 
he has disappeared from public notice, 
having retired to Ajaccio. In October 
1871, however, he published a pamphlet, 
in which he threw upon Count Bismarck 
the whole responsibility of the draft treaty, 
but the German Chancellor utterly crushed 
his opponent by a weighty reply. In 1872 
he was elected a Member of the Conseil 
General of Corsica, and since then he has 
been an advocate at the Bar of Ajaccio. 
An English translation of his " Studies in 
Diplomacy " appeared in 1S95. 

BENHAM, The Rev. Canon 
William, B.D., Rector of St. Edmund, 
Lombard Street, was born at West Meon, 
Hants, Jan. 15, 1831, his father being the 
village postmaster, as his grandfather had 
been before him. He was educated at the 
village National School, and was favour- 
ably noticed by the rector, Archdeacon 
Bayley, who, being blind, took him to his 
house as his little secretary. He taught 
the youth Latin and Greek, and after his 
death in 1844, Mr. Benham was sent to St. 
Mark's College, Chelsea, to be trained for 
a schoolmaster. After working in that 
capacity for a few years, Archdeacon 
Bayley's family furnished him with the 
means of going through the Theological 
Department of King's College, London. 
He went out with a first-class, and was 
ordained by Archbishop Tait, then Bishop 
of London, as Divinity Teacher to his old 
college at Chelsea. He remained there 
from 1857 to 1864, when he became 
Editorial Secretary to the Society for 
Promoting Christian Knowledge, and 
Curate of St. Lawrence Jewry, under the 
present Dean of Exeter. In 1867 he was 
favourably noticed as a preacher by some 
members of Archbishop Longley's family, 
unknown to himself, and this led to the 
Archbishop offering him the vicarage of 
his own parish of Addington. He acted 
as the Primate's private secretary during 
the first Lambeth Conference, and passed 
the Resolutions through the press, and 
also his last Charge. Archbishop Tait 
made him one of the Six Preachers of 
Canterbury in 1872, and gave him the 
vicarage of Margate in the same year. 
His chief work there was the carrying out 
the restoration of the parish church. In 
1880 he was appointed to the vicarage of 
Marden, and in 1882 to the rectory of St. 
Edmund the King, Lombard Street, in the 
City of London. In 1889 Archbishop 
Benson conferred on him an honorary 
Canonry in Canterbury Cathedral. Bishop 
Creighton appointed him Boyle Lecturer 
in 1897. Canon Benham has published 
"The Gospel of St. Matthew, with Notes 
and Commentary," 1862 ; " English Ballads, 
with Introduction and Notes, " 1863; "The 

Epistles for the Christian Year, with Notes 
and a Commentary," 1864 ; "TheChurchof 
the Patriarchs," 1867 ; "The 'Globe' edition 
of Cowper's works," 1870 ; Commentary 
on the Acts in the " Commentary of the 
Society for Promoting Christian Know- 
ledge," 1871; "A Companion to the 
Lectionary," 1872 ; a new translation of 
Thomas h Kempis's " Imitatio Christi," 
1874; "Memoirs of Catherine and Crau- 
furd Tait," 1879 ; "Readings on the Life 
of Our Lord and His Apostles," 1880; 
"How to Teach the Old Testament," 
1881; "Short History of the American 
Church," 1884; an edition of "Cowper's 
Letters," 1885; "Diocesan History of 
Winchester," 1885; "Sermons for the 
Church's Year," 2 vols., 1885; and a 
" Dictionary of Religion " ; " Life of Arch- 
bishop Tait," jointly with the Bishop of 
Winchester, 1894. He was editor of Griffith 
and Farran's "Library of Ancient and 
Modern Theology." He has also contri- 
buted articles to "The Bible Educator," 
Macmillan's Magazine, and other periodi- 
cals. He married (1) Louisa Marian Engel- 
bach, and (2) Caroline E. Sandell. Ad- 
dress : 32 Finsbury Square, E.C. 

BBNN, John Williams, London 
County Council, son of the Rev. Julius 
Benn, Congregational Minister, was born 
Nov. 13, 1850, at Hyde, Cheshire. He 
came to London in 1851, and was educated 
privately. He was engaged in art and 
trade journalism until 1889, when he 
entered public life as member of the first 
London County Council, representing East 
Finsbury ; he was re-elected in 1892, with 
the Earl of Rosebery, K.G., as colleague, 
and again in 1895. He acted as ' ' Whip " of 
the Progressive Party on the London 
County Council from 1890 to 1894, and 
has taken an active part, as a Liberal, in 
London politics. In 1898 he became 
London County Councillor for the Ken- 
nington Division of Lambeth. In 1892 he 
contested the St. George's East Division of 
the Tower Hamlets for the parliamentary 
seat, and defeated the Right Hon. C. T. 
Ritchie ; he was defeated by four votes at 
the election of 1895. He has held various 
chairmanships of the London County 
Council, being Vice-Chairman of that 
body from 1895 to 1896. He was appointed 
J.P. for the county of Essex in 1894. He 
has contributed numerous articles to news- 
papers and magazines, mostly on social 
topics concerning the Metropolis. He has 
taken a special interest in the Tramway, 
Telephone, Water, and Housing Questions, 
and his action secured inquiries in the 
House of Commons as to the Unification 
of London and the telephone service. He 
is now Chairman of the Highways Com- 
mittee of the London County Council. 



He contested the borough of Deptford, in 
the parliamentary interest, in November 
1897, and reduced the majority by 900 
votes. He is on the Executive of the 
London Reform Union and the London 
Liberal and Radical Union, and is much 
in demand as a political speaker. He has 
taken a prominent part in the Temperance 
movement, and is frequently on the plat- 
form of the United Kingdom Alliance and 
the National Temperance League. He 
occasionally lectures on art subjects, being 
a ready draughtsman, and well versed in 
all the processes of illustration. Some of 
his work appeared in the articles on 
"Artistic M.P.'s " which recently appeared 
in the Strand Magazine. He was founder 
of the firm of Benn Brothers, Limited, of 
11 Finsbury Square, and is President of 
the recently formed Commercial Press 
Association, which represents the combined 
trade journalism of the country. Address : 
Westminster Palace Hotel, London, S.W. 

BENNETT, Enoch Arnold, was born 
in Staffordshire on May 27, 1867, and was 
educated at Newcastle Middle School. 
After following the legal profession for 
some time, he became assistant-editor of 
Woman in 1893, eventually succeeding to 
the editorship in 1896. Address : 9 Ful- 
ham Park Gardens, S.W. 

BENNETT, Henry Curtis, J. P., was 
born at Weedon, on May 11, 1846, and 
is the son of the Rev. George Peter 
Bennett, for thirty-two years Vicar of Kel- 
vedon, Essex. He was educated at Kelve- 
don, and was called to the Bar in 1870. 
He was appointed a Metropolitan Police 
Magistrate in 1886, and continues to hold 
this position. Mr. Bennett is married to 
Emily Jane, daughter of F. Hughes-Hallett, 
of Brooke Place, Asnford, Kent. Addresses : 
118 Lexham Gardens, Kensington, W.; and 
Boreham Lodge, Chelmsford, Essex. 

BENNETT, "William Henry, 

F.R.C.S., is Surgeon to St. George's Hos- 
pital, and Lecturer on Clinical Surgery in 
the Medical School of that Institution. 
He is a Member of the Court of Examiners 
of the Royal College of Surgeons of Eng- 
land, and he occupies the position of H.M. 
Inspector of Anatomy. He is the author 
of " Lectures on Varicose Veins of the 
Lower Extremities," "Lectures on Vari- 
cocele," " Lectures on Abdominal Her- 
nia," and of numerous articles in the 
various medical journals, and transactions 
of medical and surgical societies. Address : 
1 Chesterfield Street, Mayfair. 

BENNIGSEN, Rudolph von, born 
at Liineberg, Hanover, July 10, 1824, 
studied jurisprudence at Gottingen and 

Heidelberg, and qualified as an advocate, 
but entered the judiciary and rose to the 
functions of a judge at Gottingen. In 
1855 the city of Aurich elected him to the 
Second Chamber of the Hanover Legis- 
lature, but the King refused him the 
indispensable consent of the Crown to 
accept that legislative office. Thereupon 
he resigned his judgeship, took his seat in 
the Parliament (1856), and at once assumed 
a position as leader of the Opposition. In 
1859 Bennigsen and Miguel, with a few 
others, drew up and issued a programme 
or scheme of German unity. In this 
document it was declared that only Prussia 
could be at the head of a united Germany, 
and in fact Bennigsen advocated at this 
period that which Prince Bismarck long 
afterwards accomplished. The National- 
Verein held its first sitting Sept. 16, 1859, 
at the invitation of Bennigsen, and he 
himself was chosen President. The Frank- 
fort Assembly formed the permanent or- 
ganisation of the National-Verein, and 
fixed its seat in the city of Coburg. At 
the time of its dissolution in 1866 it num- 
bered 30,000 members, of whom 10,000 
were from Prussia. In that year the 
organisation of the North German Con- 
federation making inevitable and speedy 
realisation of the Empire, the Union had 
no further raison d'etre, and it was accord- 
ingly dissolved. Bennigsen, who by the 
annexation of Hanover was made a 
Prussian, became a member both of the 
Prussian Lower Chamber and of the North 
German Reichstag. During the war in 
1870 he was in confidential relations with 
the Prussian authorities, and undertook 
two important missions — one to the South 
German States, where he discussed the 
conditions of a possible unity ; the other 
to the camp of Versailles, in the winter of 
1871, where the same negotiations were 
afterwards carried out to a practical 
result. In 1873 he was elected President 
of the Prussian House of Deputies. At 
the elections of 1877 the Socialist party 
opposed his candidature, but without 
success. He was re-elected to the Reich- 
stag, and endeavoured to effect an under- 
standing between Prince Bismarck and the 
National Liberals, but the negotiations 
ended in the disruption of his party. In 
1883 he retired from the Reichstag, but 
was again elected in 1887, and again took 
command of the National Liberal party. 
He kept his seat in 1890 at the head of 
greatly diminished forces. In 1888 he 
was appointed by the Emperor Chief 
Administrator of Hanover. 

BENSON, Edward Frederic, novel- 
ist, was born on July 24, 1867, at Wellington 
College. He is the son of the late Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury and of Mary Sidg- 



wick, and was educated at Marlborough 
and King's College, Cambridge, of which 
he was a Scholar. He was elected Wortz 
Student in 1892, Prendergast Student in 

1893, and Craven Travelling Student in 

1894, He was at work in Athens for the 
British Archaeological School from 1892 to 

1895, and in Egypt for the Hellenic Society 
in 1895. He has travelled in Egypt, 
Greece, Italy, and Algeria. He became 
famous with his first novel, "Dodo," in 
1893, and has since published "Six Common 
Things," 1893 ; "Rubicon," 1894; "Judge- 
ment Books," 1895 ; "Limitations," 1896; 
"The Babe B.A.," 1897; and "The Vin- 
tage," 1898. He was captain of the 
Marlborough rugby team, and played 
racquets for his school in 1886-87. Ad- 
dress : 9 St. Thomas Street, Winchester. 

BERATJD, Jean, French painter, was 
born at St. Petersburg, Dec. 31, 1849, of 
French parents. Although the son of a 
sculptor, he was intended for the law, and 
finished his studies in 1870. During the 
siege of Paris he was one of the mobiles of 
the Seine ; he then became a pupil of 
Bonnat (q.v.), and in 1874 began sending 
pictures to the Salon. The chief of these 
are: "Leda," 1875; "The Return from 
the Burial," 1876, his first sensational 
picture ; " Coquelin Cadet " in the role of 
Matamore, 1878; " Montmartre," 1881; 
" The Journal des Dibats," 1889, a collection 
of portraits of the staff. Since 1890 M. 
Beraud has exhibited at the Champ de 
Mars. Among his pictures there have 
been "Monte Carlo, Rien ne va plus," 
"l'Arlequine," and a set of scriptural 
pictures, in which, following the example 
of the mediaeval schools, he has depicted 
Christ in antique garb, but all the other 
personages in modern dress. The best- 
known of these is " Mary Magdalene at the 
house of Simon the Pharisee," in which 
Mary, in a ball dress, is kneeling at the 
feet of our Lord, and the diners are in 
irreproachable evening dress. It achieved 
a succes de scandale, as the men were 
hardly-disguised portraits of the chiefs of 
Parisian literary circles and society. 

BERESFORD, Rear-Admiral Lord 
Charles William de la Poer, C.B., 
M.P., second son of the Rev. John Beres- 
ford, 4th Marquis of Waterford, by 
Christiana Julia, fourth daughter of the 
late Colonel Charles Powell Leslie, of Glas- 
longh, co. Monaghan, was born Feb. 10, 
1846, at Philiptown, co. Dublin. He 
entered the Royal Navy in 1859, was 
appointed a Lieutenant in 1868, and 
advanced to the rank of Commander in 
1875. He served successively in the Marl- 
borough, the Defence, the Olio, the Tribune, 
the Sutlej, the Research, the Royal yacht 

Victoria and Albert, the Galatea, the Gos- 
hawk, and Bellerophon. In 1872 he was 
appointed Flag-Lieutenant to the Com- 
mander-in-Chief at Devonport ; and he 
accompanied the Prince of Wales as Naval 
aide-de-camp to India in 1875-76. In 1877 
he joined the Thunderer, and was commander 
of the Royal yacht Osborne from 1878 to 
1881. His lordship received the gold 
medal of the Royal Humane Society and 
of the Liverpool Shipwreck and Humane 
Society for having on three occasions 
jumped overboard and saved lives at sea. 
On one of these occasions, when he rescued 
a marine who had fallen overboard at 
Port Stanley, Falkland Islands, he was 
attired in heavy shooting clothes, and his 
pockets were filled with cartridges. At 
the time of the bombardment of the forts 
of Alexandria, Lord Charles Beresford was 
in command of the gunboat Condor, and 
in the action of July 11, 1882, he greatly 
distinguished himself by his gallant con- 
duct. The ironclad Timiraire, which got 
ashore at the beginning of the engage- 
ment, was safely assisted off by the Condor, 
Then the formidable Marabout batteries, 
which constituted the second strongest 
defence of the port of Alexandria, were 
effectually silenced. This latter success 
was chiefly due to the gallant way in which 
the Condor bore down on the fort and 
engaged guns immensely superior to her 
own. So vigorous, indeed, was the attack 
on the big fort, that the Admiral's ship 
signalled "Well done, Condor." It was 
ascertained that the Khedive, who had 
taken refuge with Dervish Pacha at 
Ramleh, was in imminent danger. Arabi 
Pacha had sent a body of troops to guard 
the palace, and ordered them to kill the 
Khedive ; but Tewfik and Dervish managed 
to bribe the men, and to communicate 
with Admiral Sir Beauchamp Seymour, 
who despatched the Condor inshore to 
keep the Egyptian troops in check. The 
Khedive then succeeded in getting away, 
and drove to Ras-el-Tin. As the confla- 
gration and looting continued in the city 
of Alexandria, the Americans were asked 
to land marines to assist in keeping order, 
and a regular police system was organised 
under Lord Charles Beresford, while Cap- 
tain Fisher, of the Inflexible, took command 
of the land forces. Strong measures were 
necessary to subdue the looters. Several 
of the scoundrels detected in the very act 
of setting fire to houses were summarily 
shot in the great square, and those caught 
plundering were flogged. Lord Charles 
Beresford was promoted to the rank of 
Captain (Aug. 7, 1882) for the services he 
had rendered at the bombardment of 
Alexandria. In September 1884 he was 
appointed on the staff of Lord Wolseley 
for the Nile Expedition, and assisted in the 



arduous work of getting the boats up to 
Korfci. In command of the Naval Brigade 
with Sir Herbert Stewart across the Desert, 
he was the only man not killed of those 
in immediate charge of the machine-gun 
at Abu Klea, and was subsequently left in 
charge of Zeraba when the troops marched 
on Gubat. In February 1885, with the 
small river steamer Sofia, he rescued Sir 
Charles Wilson's party (who had been 
wrecked on their return from Khartoum), 
after having had the boiler of his steamer 
repaired while anchored for twenty-four 
hours under fire of the enemy's fort, which 
fire was kept down solely by the two 
machine-guns on board. His lordship sat 
in the House of Commons as member for 
the county of Waterford, in the Conserva- 
tive interest, from February 1874 till April 
1880, when his candidature was unsuccess- 
ful. On many occasions he called atten- 
tion to the state of affairs connected with 
the Navy, and several naval reforms were 
effected through his instrumentality. In 
November 1885 he was returned for the 
Eastern Division of Marylebone by a 
majority of 944 over the late sitting 
member, and easily retained the seat at 
the election of 1886. He was appointed 
Junior Lord of the Admiralty on the 
accession of Lord Salisbury to power, 
which post he resigned in 1888 on a 
question affecting the strength of the 
Navy. He subsequently brought before 
the House of Commons detailed proposals 
for strengthening the fleet by seventy 
ships, at a cost of twenty millions. The 
Naval Defence Bill may be said to have 
resulted from these proposals. In Decem- 
ber 1889 he was appointed to the command 
of the first-class armoured cruiser Un- 
daunted, for service in the Mediterranean, 
having previously retired from Parliament. 
During this command he was instrumental 
in saving from shipwreck the Seignelay, a 
French cruiser of 1900 tons, which had 
parted her cable in a gale, and had gone 
u shore. Lord Charles offered to save the 
ship, although the French officers had 
declared that to get her off was a "physical 
impossibility." Owing to shallowness of 
water, the Undaunted could not approach 
within 850 yards of the French ship ; but, 
after working hard for three days, the 
crew of the Undaunted got a chain cable 
right over the Seignelay, and ultimately 
succeeded in drawing the French vessel 
into deep water. Lord Charles and his 
crew received the thanks of the French 
Government, personally conveyed by the 
French Admiral, and his lordship was 
also presented with a beautiful Sevres 
vase, the Admiralty not permitting him to 
accept the Legion of Honour which was 
offered. The Undaunted came home in 
June 1893, and paid off. Shortly after- 

wards Lord Charles was appointed to the 
command of the Steam Reserve at 
Chatham, where he did invaluable service, 
passing thirty-three vessels into the Navy, 
after conducting the necessary trials. In 
the early part of 1897 he was appointed 
Naval Aide-de-Camp to the Queen, and 
took part in the Jubilee procession. He 
was promoted to the rank of Rear- Admiral 
in September of the same year. After 
being offered forty-sir seats in Parliament, 
Lord Charles elected to fight the vacancy 
created at York by the death of Sir Frank 
Lockwood, and succeeded, by a majority 
of 11, in securing the seat, the first cap- 
tured for the Government since the 
General Election of 1895. A petition was 
then presented by his opponents, asking 
for a re-count and scrutiny, but the pro- 
ceedings were ultimately withdrawn, and 
Lord Charles retained the seat. In a 
letter to Alderman Rymer, chairman of 
his party in York, written in August 1898, 
he begged to be excused from his coming 
Parliamentary engagements, on the ground 
that he had been requested by the Chair- 
man of the Associated Chambers of Com- 
merce to proceed to China to make a 
report on the future prospects of British 
trade and commerce with that country. 
He started for the East on Aug. 24, 1898. 
His mission, we are informed, may be 
purely political, and it is ostensibly based 
on the principle, "That no commercial 
development of China is possible until 
China can guarantee security to trade 
and commerce by adequate and efficient 
military and police protection." Lord 
Charles Beresford married in 1878 Nina, 
eldest daughter of the late Richard 
Gardner, Esq., M.P., and has issue, two 
daughters, Kathleen Mary, born 1879, and 
Eileen Theresa Lucy, born 1889. He is 
also heir-presumptive to his nephew, the 
Marquis of Waterford. Addresses: 2 Lower 
Berkeley Street, Portman Square; and Park 
Gate House, Ham Common. 

BERESFORD, Lord WiUiam Leslie 
de la Poer, #.C, K.C.I.E., the third son 
of the 4th Marquis of Waterford, was born 
on July 20, 1847, and was educated at Eton. 
He joined the 9th Lancers in 1867, served 
in Zululand in 1879, where he obtained 
the Victoria Cross, and was Lieutenant- 
Colonel of the 9th Lancers from 1890 to 
1894. He was A.D.C. to Lord Lytton, 
when Viceroy of India, from 1876 to 1880, 
and acted as Military Secretary to Lords 
Ripon, Dufferin, and Lansdowne during 
their respective tenures of the Viceroyalty, 
from 1882 to 1894. Lord William was 
married, in 1895, to Lily Warren, daughter 
of the late Commodore Price, of New York, 
and widow of the 8th Duke of Marlborough, 
and has a son, William Warren de la Poer, 



born Feb. 4, 1897. Addresses : 3 Carlton 
House Terrace, S.W. ; and Deepdene, 

BERKELEY, Ernest James 
Lennox, C.B., was born in 1857, and is the 
son of George Rawdon Lennox Berkeley. 
He was educated at the Royal Academy, 
Gosport, and the Royal Military College, 
Sandhurst. He is the Commissioner and 
Consul-General for the British Protectorate 
of Uganda, and was made a C.B. in 1897, 
when he married the daughter of Sir 
James Harris. Address : 10 St. James's 
Place, S.W. 

BERKLEY, George, Civil Engineer, 
was born in London on April 26, 1821, and 
educated at private schools, and appren- 
ticed to Samuda Bros, in 1835, with whom 
he worked in the shops and on designs of 
atmospheric systems of working railways, 
steam-engines, &c. From 1841 to 1849 
he was assistant to Robert Stephenson, 
during which period he was engaged on 
experiments with locomotives, alteration 
of gauge and rolling stock of the Eastern 
Counties and North - Eastern Railways ; 
inquiry into systems of working atmos- 
pheric railways, question of gauge referred 
to Royal Commission in 1846, and other 
work. From 1849 to 1859 he was engaged 
on inquiry into the water supply of Liver- 
pool and neighbourhood for Robert 
Stephenson ; Engineer to London and 
Blackwall Railway ; North and South- 
western Junction Railway and Branch to 
Hammersmith ; Hampstead Junction Rail- 
way ; Stratford and Loughton Railway ; 
Wimbledon and Croydon ; East Suffolk 
system of railways ; Wells and Fakenham, 
and other lines ; and from 1851 to 1859 
represented Robert Stephenson as Engineer 
to the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, 
and succeeded to the post on the death 
of Robert Stephenson. In 1874 he was 
appointed one of the Consulting Engineers 
to the Colonial Office for Railways in 
Natal, and viaducts and other work in the 
Cape Colony. In 1885 he was appointed 
Consulting Engineer to the Indian Midland 
Railway; and in 1887, in conjunction with 
his son, was appointed Engineer to the 
Argentine North - Eastern Railway. In 
1845 he wrote a paper on the atmospheric 
system of railways, and in 1870 a paper 
on the strength of iron and steel, for the 
Institution of Civil Engineers. He is 
senior Vice-President of the Institution 
of Civil Engineers ; a Member of the 
Athenreum Club ; and has' been for some 
years on the Board of Managers of the 
Royal Institution. Address : Athenseum. 

Beeee, Mbs. Beenabd. 

BERNHARDT, Sarah, nie Rosine 
Bernardt, French actress, was born at 5 
Rue de l'Ecole de Mddecine in Paris, Oct. 
22, 1844. Her mother was Julie Bernardt, 
a Jewess born at Berlin, but living in 
Amsterdam since her childhood, who had 
come to Paris when a young woman to 
gain her livelihood. As all the birth 
registers of Paris were burnt during the 
Commune, these particulars can only be 
obtained from the entry registers of the 
Conservatoire. She spent her early life 
in Holland at her grandfather's, an Am- 
sterdam optician. She was sent to the 
Convent Grand Champ at Versailles at 
the age of seven, and was renowned for 
her violent temper. There she had as 
schoolfellow her future rival, Sophie Croi- 
zette, afterwards Madame Stern. She left 
in 1858, and on Nov. 29, 1859, she entered 
the Paris Conservatoire, and became a 
pupil of MM. Provost and Samson, pro- 
fessors of elocution. She gained a second 
prize for tragedy in 1861, and a second 
prize for comedy in 1862. This opened 
the doors of the Theatre Fran^ais to her, 
and on Aug. 11, 1862, she made her dibut 
in "Iphigenie," and on the 24th in the 
"Valerie " of Scribe. She attracted hardly 
any notice from the public ; but M. Fran- 
cisque Sarcey, who was then writing for 
L' Opinion Nationale, gave her a few lines, 
in which he said her elocution was perfect, 
but her acting that of a schoolgirl. She 
left the Comedie Francaise after eight 
months, or rather was dismissed for hav- 
ing boxed the ears of one of the seniors, 
Mademoiselle Nathalie. She then went 
to the Gymnase, and appeared on June 25, 
1863, in "Le Pere de la debutante" and 
other pieces. However, in April 1864 the 
discipline of daily work became too much 
for her, and she went to Madrid, thus 
losing her place. Returning, she went to 
the Porte St. Martin Theatre, and on Deo. 
8, 1865, she appeared in "La Biche au 
bois." She did not stay long here, and 
for a year was absent from the theatre ; 
after which, in January 1867, she pre- 
vailed upon M. Duquesnel to give her a 
place at the Odebn, having been recom- 
mended to him by M. Camille Doucet. 
Her success was not quick, but it was 
sure. She played Armande in " Les 
Femmes Savantes," Albine in " Britan- 
nicus," Mariette in "Francois le Champi," 
and Zacharie in "Athalie." On Jan. 14, 
1869, she created the part of Zanetto in 
"Le Passant," by Francois Coppee. The 
poet had been persuaded to give her the 
part by Mme. Agar, one of her fellow- 
actors. She was a great success as the 
Florentine page, and in the dedication 
the poet alludes to her beauty and talent 
as the chief factors in the success of the 
piece. During the war of 1870 she was 



untiring in working with the Oddon am- 
bulance, and when the theatre opened 
again, she appeared in "Jean Marie," by 
M. Andre" Theuriet, and ' ' Mademoiselle 
AisseV' by Louis Bouilhet. On Feb. 19, 
1872, the turning-point of her career was 
reached, for she then appeared in a 
revival of " Euy Bias" as the Queen, 
Marie de Neuborg. The part seemed to 
have been written for her ; the expression 
of her "golden voice " was so soft, and at 
the same time so touching, that her suc- 
cess became a triumph. M. Perrin, who 
had succeeded Thierry as Director of the 
Comedie Fran9aise, determined that this 
star must shine in his firmament alone, 
and she made her reappearance in "Made- 
moiselle de Belle-Isle" on Nov. 6, 1872. 
She worked hard with wondrous results : 
her Junie in " Britannicus " was received 
rapturously on December 14, and on March 
23, 1874, she created the part of Berthe 
de Savigny in " Le Sphinx," by Octave 
Feuillet. Mademoiselle Croizette was 
playing the chief female part, but she was 
completely eclipsed by Madame Bernhardt 
in the part of the outraged but forgiving 
wife. In the month of December she 
played Phedre at three days' notice, and 
at once was compared to Bachel, who had 
been presumed till then to be unapproach- 
able in that r6le. It still remains her 
favourite part, and she includes it invari- 
ably in her repertoire whenever she comes 
to London. She was elected a sociitaire 
of the Comeciie Francaise in 1875, and in 
1876 played Mrs. Clarkson in "L'Etran- 
gere " ; Andromaque and Dona Sol in 
1877. "Ruy Bias" was produced in 1879, 
and she was as great a success at the 
Comedie Francaise as she had before been 
at the Odeon. For seven years she had 
been one of its members, and knowing her 
impetuous nature, people were wondering 
how long she would be able to bear the 
restrictions of such a position, when the 
expected happened. In 1879 the Comedie 
Francaise visited London, and gave a bril- 
liant series of performances at the Gaiety 
Theatre, under the direction of Mr. John 
Hollingshead. Madame Bernhardt was 
unable one night to play her part in 
"L'Etrangere," and some of the London 
papers made certain criticisms on her 
conduct, which were followed up by the 
Paris Figaro. Thereupon she resigned her 
position of sociitaire and accepted an en- 
gagement to visit the United States. How- 
ever, on her return to France from London 
she was persuaded to remain, and played 
Clorinde in " L'Aventuriere, " a part she 
disliked. In consequence she was ad- 
versely criticised by the press. Being 
further refused the part of Celimene in 
Musset's " On ne badine pas avec l'amour," 
she betook herself to her country house, 

and refused on any account to reappear 
in public. Thereupon the theatre brought 
an action against her for breach of con- 
tract, and she was compelled to pay £4000 
damages. In May 1880 she went on a 
provincial tour through France, and then 
returned to London to play "Adrienne 
Lecouvreur " and "Froufrou." In August 
she went to Copenhagen, where she was 
received with the same enthusiasm as in 
London. She then accepted a tempting 
offer to go to America, where she was 
rumoured to have made gigantic sums. 
The people received her as a queen both 
in the United States and in Mexico, and 
their enthusiasm even went the length of 
acclaiming her as a compatriot, for in 
spite of her denials the newspapers per- 
sisted in saying she was born at Eochester, 
N.Y. In March 1881 she returned to 
France, and almost at once set off for 
Russia, Holland, and Belgium. In April 
1882 she was married at the Church of 
St. Andrew, Wells Street, London, to M. 
Damala, one of the members of her com- 
pany, from whom she was divorced shortly 
afterwards. He died in 1889. On Decem- 
ber 11 of the same year she created her 
greatest rSle, that of Feclora, in the play 
of that name by M. Victorien Sardou 
{q.v.), at the Vaudeville, Paris. She also 
appeared in "Nana Sahib," by M. Jean 
Richepin, and, in 1883, in "Macbeth." 
In 1884 M. Mayer became the Director of 
the Porte St. Martin Theatre, and Madame 
Bernhardt entered into a five years' engage- 
ment with him. On December 26 of that 
year she created Theodora in the play of 
that name, which ran for nearly a year. 
She paid another visit to London in 1886, 
playing Fedora at the Gaiety, and went 
on to America, only returning to Paris in 
July 1887, bringing back £32,000 profit. 
In November of that year she played La 
Tosca in the play of that name, her best 
rtle after Fe'dora. During her foreign tour 
in 1888 the Turkish Censor of Plays pro- 
hibited " Theodora " at Constantinople. 
Mr. F. C. Philips' (q.v.) novel, "As in a 
Looking-Glass," furnished her with a new 
play, " Lena," in 1889. The next year M. 
Jules Barbier wrote for her " Jeanne 
d'Arc," which she brought to London in 
June at the old Her Majesty's. In October 
she created the title-rdle of " Clebpatre," 
by MM. Sardou and Emile Moreau, and 
then started on her third journey to 
America, which was continued into Aus- 
tralia, where Sydney was decorated in her 
honour. At this time there was some talk 
of her return to the Comedie Francaise, 
but she would not bind herself for three 
years. She returned to Europe in 1892, 
starting at once for London, where she 
played at the Royal English Opera-House, 
now the Palace Theatre. In 1893 she took 



the Renaissance Theatre in Paris, and 
brought out " Les Rois," by M. Jules 
Lemaitre (q.v.), and on Jan. 24, 1894, 
"Izeyl," by MM. Armand Silvestre {q.v.) 
and Morand, in which she appeared at 
Daly's in June 1894, with other plays of 
her repertoire. In 1895 she produced " La 
Princesse Lointaine," the second work of 
M. Edmond Rostand [q.v.), the author of 
"Cyrano de Bergerac." She again visited 
Daly's in 1895; in 1896 she was at the 
Comedy, and produced "Magda," a trans- 
lation of Sudermann's "Heimat. " At the 
end of the year took place the fete organ- 
ised by M. Henri Bauer in her honour. 
It consisted of a lunch at the Grand 
Hotel of 500 guests, and a performance 
at the Renaissance of the third act of 
"Phedre" and the fourth act of "Rome 
vaincue," by M. de Parodi, followed by 
the recitation of poems in her honour by 
MM. Francis Coppee, Edmond Rostand, 
Andre 1 Theuriet, and Catulle Mendes. The 
only harsh note on a very great day was 
the refusal of the Government to bestow 
the Legion of Honour on the great actress. 
In 1897 she produced "Lorenzaccio," an 
adaptation of De Musset by Armand 
d'Artois, and " Spiritisme," by no means 
Sardou's masterpiece. She visited London 
as usual in June, and appeared at the 
Adelphi in the above-named and several 
of her old successes. In the autumn of 
the year she underwent a painful opera- 
tion under Dr. Pozzi, but was no sooner out 
of the doctor's hands than she performed 
in Signor Gabriele d'Annunzio's " La Fille 
Morte " and M. Romain Coolus' " Lysiane." 
The latter she brought to London in June 
1898, where her stay at the Lyric was 
rendered notorious by the refusal of the 
Lord Chamberlain to allow the represen- 
tation of "Le Songe d'une Matine'e de 
Printemps," by Signor d'Annunzio. Be- 
sides being an actress, Madame Bernhardt 
has tried other arts, and has exhibited 
sculpture at the Salon 1874-86, has painted 
pictures, and in 1888 wrote a play, 
"L'Aveu," which was performed at the 

BERRY, Rev. Charles Albert, D.D., 

was born at Leigh, Lancashire, on Dec. 14, 
1852, and was educated at a private school 
at Southport, and the Airedale Independent 
College, Yorkshire. He was pastor of St. 
George's Road Chapel, Bolton, from 1875 
to 1883, and in the latter year received a 
call to the Queen Street Congregational 
Chapel, Wolverhampton. He was, in 1887, 
asked to succeed Henry Ward Beecher, of 
Brooklyn, U.S.A.; this invitation, however, 
he refused, as also other requests to come 
to London. He has visited America on 
several occasions, and has travelled in 
Egypt, Palestine, Australia, and New Zea- 

land. Dr. Berry was elected, in 1897, 
Chairman of the Congregational Union of 
England and Wales, and he has also 
served the office of President of the 
National Council of Evangelical Free 
Churches. He is the author of "Vision 
and Duty," 1892 (series of "Preachers 
of the Age"); "Mischievous Goodness," 
1897 ; and a volume of sermons. Address : 
13 Parkdale, Wolverhampton. 

BERRY, The Hon. Sir Graham, 
K.C.M.G., was born in 1822. He was a 
shopkeeper in Chelsea, who went out to 
Victoria in 1852 in the height of the gold- 
digging fever, but instead of turning his 
attention to the gold mines he settled 
down to business in Melbourne. In 1860 
he was elected to the Victorian Parlia- 
ment as an advanced Liberal, and again 
in 1864, but was defeated in the next elec- 
tion, and then, devoting his energies to 
journalism, became proprietor and editor 
of the Geelong Register. He soon, however, 
re-entered Parliament, and in 1870 first 
took office as Treasurer, and five years 
later became Premier for a short time. 
In 1877 Sir G. Berry was returned at the 
head of an overwhelming majority, and 
once more took the Premiership. While 
in office he passed several important de- 
mocratic measures, including a land tax 
on large estates, but failed to carry a 
proposal for a fundamental reform of the 
Legislative Council. Sir G. Berry then 
visited England in order to induce the Im- 
perial Parliament to take up the matter, 
but failed, though through his efforts the 
question was eventually settled. On his 
return the general election of 1880 placed 
him in a minority, but he was subsequently 
restored to power, and carried some note- 
worthy reform measures. Again thrown 
out by a want of confidence vote, Sir G. 
Berry entered a coalition Ministry, in 
which he was Chief Secretary and Post- 
master-General (1884-85). Early in 1886 
Sir G. Berry, with Mr. Service, was Vic- 
torian delegate to the first Federal Council, 
and shortly afterwards he was appointed 
Agent -General in London for Victoria, 
which post he held until February 1892. 
On returning to the colony he accepted 
the office of Treasurer in the Shiels 
Ministry, which succumbed to a vote of 
want of confidence in January 1893. The 
honour of knighthood was conferred in 
1886 on Sir Graham Berry in recognition 
of his services to the colony. He was 
Executive Commissioner for Victoria at 
the Colonial and Indian Exhibition. In 
1869 he married Madge, daughter of J. B. 
Evans of Victoria. Address : Melbourne. 

BERRY, William Bisset, M.D., 
Speaker of the Cape Legislative Assembly 



was born at Aberdeen, and graduated at 
the University of his native town. In 
1867 he established himself in practice in 
the eastern districts of Cape Colony. He 
took a great interest in municipal and 
educational work, and served on several 
government commissions, being an expert 
with regard to native problems. In 1893 
he was elected to the Legislative Assembly 
for Queenstown. He is a strenuous ad- 
vocate of compulsory education for all. 
He supports Mr. Rose Innes as a Moderate, 
but has backed up Mr. Rhodes' policy in 
Charterland. He is popular with both 
sides of the House. 

BERTHELOT, Pierre Eugene Mar- 
celin, a French chemist, the son of a 
physician, was born at Paris, Oct. 25, 1827. 
From a very early age he has devoted him- 
self to scientific studies, and made special 
researches into the synthesis of fatty bodies 
and alcohol, and into thermo-chemistry. 
The degree of Doctor of Sciences was 
conferred upon him in April 1854, and 
in 1861 the Academy of Sciences awarded 
him the sum of 3500 francs for his 
researches. In 1859 he was appointed 
Professor of Organic Chemistry at the 
Superior School of Pharmacy, and in 1865, 
at the request of the Academy of Sciences, 
a new chair of organic chemistry was 
erected for him at the College de France. 
He was elected a Member of the Aca- 
demie de Me'decine in February 1863, and 
entered the Acade'mie des Sciences, March 
3, 1873, in the place of Duhamel. He has 
since been elected Foreign Member of the 
Royal Society of London, and of most 
of the Academies of Europe and the 
United States. On Sept. 2, 1870, he was 
elected President of the Scientific Com- 
mittee of Defence, and during the siege 
of Paris was engaged in the manufacture 
of guns and ammunition, and especially 
of nitro-glycerine and dynamite. Since 
1878 he has been President of the Com- 
mittee on Explosives, to which body the 
new smokeless powder is due. On April 
6, 1876, he was named Inspector-General 
of Higher Education. The labours of M. 
Berthelot have had for their object, prin- 
cipally, the reproduction of the substances 
which enter into the composition of organ- 
ised beings, and his labours have opened 
a new field for science, which, up to his 
time, had limited itself almost entirely to 
analysis. The dyeing trade has benefited 
largely by bis discoveries in extracting 
dyes from coal tar. He has for forty years 
contributed extensively to the Annates de 
Chimie et de Physique, of which he is now 
editor, La Synthase des Carbures d'Hydro- 
gene, &c, and has written " Chimie Organ- 
ique fondle sur la Synthese," 1860 ; " Legons 
sur les Principes Sucres," 1862; "Legons 

sur les Me'thodes Generales de Synthese," 
1864; "Legons sur l'Isomerie," 1865; 
" Traite' Elementaire de Chimie Organ- 
ique," " Sur la Force de la Poudre et 
des Matieres Explosives," 1872 and 1889 ; 
' ' Verification de 1' Are'ome'tre de Baume'," 
1873 ; " Les Origines de PAlchimie," 
1885 ; " Collection des anciens Alchim- 
istes grecs," 1888 ; besides numerous scien- 
tific and philosophical articles for the 
Revue des Deux Mondes, the Revue des 
Oours Scientifiques, Le Temps, &c. , which 
have been collectively published under 
the title "Science et Philosophie." He is 
one of the founders and the director of 
the " Grande Encyclopedic," of which the 
first volume was published in 1885. M. 
Berthelot was decorated with the Legion 
of Honour in 1861, made an Officer in 
1867, Commander in 1879, and Grand 
Officer in 1886, in which year he became, 
for a short time, a member of the French 
Cabinet. In 1889 he was elected Secre- 
taire perp^tuel de l'Academie des Sciences 
de Paris, and in 1895 Minister for Foreign 

BEBTILLON, Alphonse, French 
anthropologist, younger brother of Dr. 
Jacques Bertillon, was born at Paris in 
1853. He has devoted himself especially 
to ethnography, and has acquired a Euro- 
pean reputation by applying anthropometry 
to the detection of criminals. As Chief of 
the Identification Office at the Prefecture 
de Police in Paris, he instituted in 1880 a 
system of measuring which has given mar- 
vellously precise results. Out of the 700 
anthropometric discoveries of old criminals 
during the first six years of the use of 
his system, not one error has been dis- 
covered. Other governments have followed 
the example of France, and it was intro- 
duced at Scotland Yard in 1896. His chief 
works are " Ethnographie Moderne, les 
races sauvages," 1883; "1' Anthropo- 
metric judiciaire a Paris en 1889," 1890; 
"la Photographie judiciaire," 1890; 
"Identification anthropome'trique," 1893. 

BERTILLON, Jacques, French 
doctor and statistician, born at Paris in 
1851, is the elder son of Dr. Louis Adolphe 
Bertillon, statistician and botanist. He 
studied medicine at Paris, and became a 
doctor in 1883. He is one of the heads of 
department of the Statistical Office of the 
Prefecture of the Seine. He married the 
lady doctor Caroline Schultze, who is 
physician to the Qdeon Theatre. He has 
published "Atlas de statisque graphique 
de la ville de Paris en 1888," 1890. 

BERTRAND, Joseph Louis Fran- 
cois, a French mathematician, born in 
Paris, March 11, 1822, evinced from a very 



early age an extraordinary taste for mathe- 
matics, and when eleven years of age, on 
leaving the College of St. Louis, he entered 
the Ecole Polytechnique. He was succes- 
sively Professor at the Lycee Saint-Louis, 
Examiner for admissions at the Ecole 
Polytechnique, Teacher of Analysis at the 
same school, Assistant Professor of 
Mathematical Physics at the College of 
France, and Professor of Special Mathe- 
matics at the Lycee Napoleon. In 1856 he 
was admitted to the Academie des Sciences 
in place of Sturm, and on the death of 
Elie de Beaumont, in 1874, was elected 
perpetual secretary. Besides his three 
great works, "Traite d'Arithme'tique," 
1849; "Traite d'Algebre," 1856; and 
"Traite" de Calcul Differentiel Integral," 
1864-70, he has written a number of 
memoirs relative to physics, pure mathe- 
matics and mechanics, of which the follow- 
ing are the principal : " Sur les Conditions 
d'Integralite" des Fonctions differentielles," 
" Sur la Theorie Generale des Surfaces," 
" Sur la Similitude en Mechanique," " Sur 
la Theorie des Phenomenes Capillaires," 
"Sur la Theorie de la Propagation du 
Son," &c, which have appeared in the 
Journal de I'ficdle Polytechnique or the 
Mimoires de V Acadimie des Sciences. Lately 
he has written monographs on d'Alembert 
(1889) and Pascal (1890). He was made 
an Officer of the Legion of Honour in 
August 1867, and Commander in December 

BESANT, Mrs. Annie, ne'e Wood, 
is of Irish parentage, being the daughter 
of William Page Wood and Emily, daughter 
of James Morris, and was born in London 
on October 1, 1847, and brought up at 
Harrow. In 1867 she married the Eev. 
Frank Besant, who was at that time a 
master at Cheltenham, and was subse- 
quently Vicar of Sibsey, in Lincolnshire. 
In 1873 she was legally separated from 
him. In 1874 her keen interest in political 
and social topics brought her into contact 
with the Secularists. She joined the 
National Secular Society, and published 
pamphlets under their auspices. On the 
publication of the notorious "Fruits of 
Philosophy," she was prosecuted in con- 
nection with the late Mr. Bradlaugh, M. P. 
(June 1877), but the prosecution was a 
failure. In 1883 Mrs. Besant became 
deeply interested in Socialism. She was 
during three years a member of the Lon- 
don School Board. After a lifelong devo- 
tion to Free Thought she joined the 
Theosophical Society in 1889, and has 
carried on active Theosophical propaganda 
at home and in India and the United 
States. In March 1893 she returned from 
a lecturing tour in the United States, where, 
as in India, to which she paid a lengthy 

visit in 1894, the Theosophical cult is very 
popular. She has now resumed her acti- 
vities at home. She resides at the Theo- 
sophical European Headquarters in St. 
John's Wood, N.W., and in 1893 published 
her biography under the title of " Through 
Storm to Peace." Other works from her 
pen are "Reincarnation" and "Seven 
Principles of Man," 1892; "Death and 
After," 1893; "Building of the Kosmos," 
1894; "Karma," "In the Outer Court," 
and "The Self and its Sheaths," 1895; 
"Path of Discipleship " and "Man and 
his Bodies," 1896 ; " Four Great Religions," 
" The Ancient Wisdom," and " Three Paths 
to Union with God," 1897. She edits the 
Theosophical Review in conjunction with 
G. R. S. Mead. Address : 19 Avenue Road, 
Regent's Park, N.W. 

BESANT, Sir Walter, was born at 
Portsmouth in 1838, and educated at 
King's College, London, and Christ's Col- 
lege, Cambridge, where he graduated in 
high mathematical honours. He was in- 
tended for the Church, but abandoned 
this career. He was then appointed 
Senior Professor in the Royal College of 
Mauritius, but was compelled by ill-health 
to resign, and returned to England, where 
he has since resided. In 1868 he produced 
his first work, "Studies in Early French 
Poetry." In 1873 he brought out "The 
French Humourists, " in 1877 "Rabelais" 
for the Ancient and Foreign Classics, 
and in 1882 "Readings from Rabelais," in 
1879 "Coligny," and in 1881 "Whitting- 
ton" (Chatto & Windus). Mr. Besant 
acted for many years as Secretary of the 
Palestine Exploration Fund, in which 
capacity he wrote, in 1871, a "History 
of Jerusalem," with the late Professor 
Palmer, and was editor of the great work 
entitled "The Survey of Western Pales- 
tine." He has contributed to most of the 
magazines. In 1871 he entered into the 
partnership with the late Mr. James Rice 
which produced the series of novels that 
bear their joint names. Mr. Besant has 
also written, under his own name, "The 
Revolt of Man," "The Captain's Room," 
"All Sorts and Conditions of Men," 1882, 
which led to the establishment of the 
People's Palace in the East End of 
London; "All in a Garden Fair," 1883; 
"Dorothy Foster," 1884; "Uncle Jack," 
1885 ; " Children of Gibeon," 1886 ; "The 
World Went Very Well Then," 1887; 
"For Faith and Freedom," 1888; "The 
Bell of St. Paul's," 1889; "Armorel of 
Lyonnesse," 1890; "St. Katherine's by 
the Tower," 1891 ; " The Ivory Gate," 
1892; "The Rebel Queen," 1893; "Be- 
yond the Dreams of Avarice, 1895 ; 
"The Master Craftsman," "The City of 
Refuge," 1896; "A Fountain Sealed" 



and "The Changeling," 1897, and two 
or three volumes of short stories. He 
also, with Mr. Rice, put on the stage 
two plays, one performed at the Royal 
Court, a dramatic version of "Ready 
Money Mortiboy," and the other, " Such 
a Good Man," the play from which 
their story bearing the same title was 
written. He wrote a book on the people 
of London, 1892 (Chatto & Windus) ; on 
"Westminster," 1895; and a small book 
on the history of London, 1893 (Long- 
mans). His "Rise of the British Empire" 
appeared in 1897. Mr. Besant has also 
written a biography of the late Professor 
Palmer, 1883 ; and " The Eulogy of Richard 
Jefferies, " 1888. On the establishment 
of the Incorporated Society of Authors, 
he was elected the first Chairman of the 
Executive Committee, and in succession 
to the late Sir Frederick Pollock he was 
re-elected to the same office, which he 
held for four years. He is editor of The 
Author, a monthly paper devoted to the 
interests of literary men and literary be- 
ginners. He is now the Director of the 
" Survey of London." Latterly Sir Walter 
Besant has taken great interest in the 
scheme for celebrating the millenary of 
King Alfred, and in February 1898 he 
lectured, at Winchester, upon the Alfred 
Commemoration. Addresses: FrognalEnd, 
Hampstead ; Athenaeum. 

BESANT, "William Henry, M.A., 
D.Sc, F.R.S., the son of a merchant at 
Portsmouth, was born at Portsmouth in 
1828, and was educated at the Grammar 
School, and at a Proprietary School at 
Southsea, and proceeded, in 1846, to 
St. John's College, Cambridge, where he 
graduated BA. in 1850 as Senior Wran- 
gler and First Smith's Prizeman. He 
was elected to a Fellowship at St. John's 
College in 1851, and was appointed Lec- 
turer in 1853. The Fellowship ceased in 
1859, but he was retained as Lecturer, and 
held that appointment until June 1889. 
In 1856 he was Moderator and in 1857 
Examiner for the Mathematical Tripos. 
In 1859 he acted as deputy for the Vice- 
Chancellor in the examination for the 
Smith's Prizes. From 1859 to 1864 he was 
one of the Examiners for the University 
of London. In 1871 he was elected a 
Fellow of the Royal Society. He is also 
a Member of the Royal Astronomical So- 
ciety, and of the London Mathematical 
Society. In 1883 he received the degree 
of Doctor of Science, being the first D.Sc. 
created by the University of Cambridge. 
He has been very active as a private tutor, 
college lecturer, and examiner in Cam- 
bridge and elsewhere. In 1885 he was 
again Moderator for the Mathematical 
Tripos. In May 1889 he was re-elected to 

a Fellowship at St. John's College. Dr. 
Besant has published treatises on " Hydro- 
Mechanics," "Elementary Hydrostatics," 
"Geometrical Conic Sections," "Dyna- 
mics," " Roulettes and Glissettes," and 
has written various papers in the Messenger 
of Mathematics and in the Quarterly Journal 
of Mathematics. Dr. Besant married the 
only surviving daughter of the late Pro- 
fessor Willis in 1861. Private address : 
Spring Lawn, Harvey Road, Cambridge. 



BESNARD, Armand Louis Charles 
Gustave, French Admiral, was born at 
Rambouillet, Oct. 11, 1833, and entered the 
Naval School in 1849. He was present at 
the bombardment of Petropaulovsk during 
the Crimean war, and was engaged in 
China during the second Chinese war. In 
1863 his bravery in Cochin China, at Vinh- 
Long, gained him the Legion of Honour. 
During the war of 1870 he was Chief of 
the Staff (acting as brevet lieutenant- 
colonel) to the army of Brittany, and was 
present at the battles of Drou^ and Le 
Mans. In 1873 he was promoted to a 
captaincy, and was Chief of the Staff to 
Admiral Jaures. In 1879 he was assistant 
to Commander Gougeard, the Minister of 
Marine in the Gambetta Cabinet ; after its 
fall he commanded the Friedland, and 
then the training-ship Iphiginie. In 1886 
he attained flag rank, and became Chief 
of the Staff at the Admiralty, until he was 
appointed to the command of the Chinese 
squadron. In 1892 he was promoted 
Vice - Admiral and Prefet Maritime at 
Brest, when M. Ribot gave him the port- 
folio of the Admiralty in his Cabinet (Jan. 
26, 1895). This post he held until the fall 
of the Meline Ministry in June 1898. He 
is a Grand Officer of the Legion of Honour, 
Paris Address : 45 Boulevard Lannes. 

tilda Barbara, was born at Westerfield, 
Suffolk, in 1836, and began to write when 
quite young. Her first effort in fiction, a 
story, " The White House by the Sea," 
published when she was nineteen, has 
been many times reprinted in popular 
editions, also translated into Norwegian 
and other languages ; since that time she 
has devoted herself entirely to literature, 
contributing to Punch, the Graphic, the 
Pall Mall Gazette, Macmillan's Magazine, 
and other leading periodicals, and pub- 
lishing numerous novels and novelettes. 
Amongst the most popular are: "John 
and I," "Doctor Jacob," "Kitty," "The 
Sylvestres," "Bridget," "Disarmed," 
"Pearla," "Love and Mirage," "Half- 
way," "A Dream of Millions," "Felicia," 



"Forestalled," "Brother Gabriel," "For 
the Other World." Many of these stories 
originally appeared in American and 
English serials, and have been translated 
into French, German, and Norwegian. 
They have also been reissued in popular 
editions in America, Germany, and at 
home. Amongst Miss Betham-Edwards's 
miscellaneous contributions to literature 
may be mentioned " A Winter with the 
Swallows in Algeria" and "A Year in 
Western France." In 1885 she published 
a volume of "Poems," containing, among 
other reprints, " The Golden Bee," which 
attracted the attention of Charles Dickens 
when the authoress was in her teens, and 
which was republished in popular form 
in 1897. In 1889 this writer issued a 
centennial edition of Arthur Young's 
"Travels in France," with notes, bio- 
graphy, and general sketch of France, the 
result of personal experience and obser- 
vations ; also, "The Roof of France; or, 
Travels in Lozere." In recognition of 
these works the French Government in 
1891 conferred upon Miss Betham -Edwards 
the dignity of Officier de l'lnstruction Pub- 
lique de France. She is the first English- 
woman thus honoured. In 1892 and 1894 
appeared in 2 vols. " France of To-day." 
This writer's hymn, "God make my life a 
little light," has now found a place in 
most hymnals, anthologies, &c. , and is 
included in Dr. Julian's great Dictionary 
of Hymnology recently issued. Miss 
Betham-Edwards's latest contributions to 
fiction are : " The Romance of a French 
Parson," 1892; "The Curb of Honour," 
1893; "A Romance of Dijon," 1894; "The 
Dream Charlotte," 1896; "A Storm-Rent 
Sky," 1898. She also edited "The Auto- 
biography of Arthur Young," 1898 ; and 
among forthcoming works are her "Re- 
miniscences" and "Poems," a complete 
edition. In 1894 she received a Civil List 
pension of £50 a year in consideration of 
her services to literature. Address : Villa 
Julia, Hastings. 

BETHELX, George Richard, M.P., 
the son of W. F. Bethell, of Rise Park, 
Hull, was born March 23, 1849, and was 
educated at Laleham and Gosport Naval 
School. After the usual training on board 
the Britannia, he entered the Navy in 1862, 
and served as a sub-lieutenant during 
surveys conducted in the Mediterranean 
and in the Gulf of Suez. After becoming 
a Lieutenant he served on board the 
Challenger, the Alert, and the Minotaur 
during the years 1872 to 1884. In the 
latter year he was attached to Sir C. 
Warren's expedition to Bechuanaland, 
and was also in that year promoted to 
be Commander. He holds the Khedive's 
bronze star, and the Egyptian medal. 

Commander Bethell was elected, in 1885, 
Conservative member for the Holderness 
Division of the East Riding of Yorkshire, 
and he has retained the seat up to the 
present time. Address : Sigglesthorne, 

BEVEK.LEY, Bishop of. See Cboss- 
thwaitb, The Right Rev. Robebt J. 

BHOWNAGGREE, Sir Mancher- 
jee, K.C.I.E., M.P., only son of the late 
Merwanjee Bhownaggree, a Parsee mer- 
chant and public-spirited citizen of Bom- 
bay, was born in that city on Aug. 15, 
1851. He was educated at the Proprietary 
School and Elphinstone College, and ap- 
pointed Fellow of the Bombay University 
in 1881. When at college he won a prize 
for an essay on the Constitution of the 
East India Company, which three years 
later he enlarged into an abbreviated 
history of the growth of the famous John 
Company. Receiving a journalistic train- 
ing under the well-known Anglo-Indian 
publicist Mr. Robert Knight, he was ap- 
pointed one of the sub-editors of the 
Statesman newspaper in 1871, in which 
year he also delivered a public lecture on 
the history and growth of the Times news- 
paper. On the death of his father in the 
following year the charge of the Bombay 
State Agency of the large territory of 
Bhavnagar devolved upon him, and from 
that time his connection with the press, 
which has been maintained up to now, 
became a non-professional one. In 1877 
he published a Gujarati translation of Her 
Majesty's " Leaves from the Journal of our 
Life in the Highlands " ; and until he came 
to England in 1881 to read for the Bar, he 
was an active member on the governing 
bodies of several public institutions. For 
eight years he was secretary of the first 
female English school in Western India, 
and during his tenure that academy was 
placed in a fine building of its own. He 
was also secretary for many years of the 
Bombay branch of the East Indian Asso- 
ciation ; and on the Mechanics' Institute, 
the Gymnastic Institute, and many other 
public bodies he did important work. In 
1881 the Bombay government appointed 
him a Justice of the Peace. He varied 
his study in law here by taking part in 
the proceedings of several public bodies 
and serving upon their councils. He was 
called to the Bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1885, 
in which year he read an exhaustive paper 
on the subject of female education in India 
before the Society of Arts. Mr. Matthew 
Arnold presided on the occasion, and he 
and several other speakers so highly com- 
mended the lecture that the Society's 
silver medal was awarded for it. In 1886 
he served as one of the Commissioners 



from India on the Colonial and Indian 
Exhibition, and was created a CLE. In 
the following year he was asked by the 
Mahraja of Bhavnagar, with the consent 
of Lord Eeay's Government at Bombay, to 
assist him in establishing a constitutional 
administration and in reorganising the 
judicial and police departments in his 
State. This was so novel an innovation 
on the strictly autocratic form of rule 
which had prevailed from time imme- 
morial in native India that the task was 
fraught not only with difficulty, but with 
danger. It was, however, accomplished 
with tact and firmness, the unwavering 
support of the Maharajah Takhtsingjee 
and the enlightened co-operation of fellow 
councillors — Dewan Vittaldas, Mr. Proctor 
Sims, and Dr. Barjorjee Byramjee — making 
it so successful in practice from the first 
that the new constitution has been since 
firmly fixed in the State, and even found 
imitators in other territories. It struck a 
blow at the absolute exercise of individual 
authority, and put an end to the strife of 
rival factions which is so fruitful a source 
of mischief in the India of the Rajahs. 
This brought about a combination of 
powerful malcontents, who fiercely at- 
tacked the Mahraja and the gentlemen 
who were Mr. Bhownaggree's coadjutors 
in scurrilous sheets which were spread 
broadcast over India. Thereupon followed 
in 1890 the famous prosecution known 
as the "Bhavnagar Defamation Cases," 
which ended in the conviction and punish- 
ment of the ringleaders of the gang. A 
complete exposure of the blackmailing 
system of the lower native press and of 
the various pernicious influences which are 
at work at the courts of native states was 
made in the course of the trial, and formed 
the subject of a valuable and bulky report 
which Mr. Bhownaggree wrote at its con- 
clusion. When thus engaged in political 
and judicial work, he did not neglect the 
educational and social duties which fell 
upon him as a public man. He was the 
Secretary and chief worker of the Ruk- 
mabai Defence Committee, which had for 
its object the protection of Hindu women 
against the evils of infant marriage. He 
gave valuable evidence before the Public 
Service Commission, which dealt with the 
question of the wider employment of the 
people of India in the administrative 
service of their country, and successfully 
worked to place the Bombay Gymnastic 
Institute upon a permanent basis by hous- 
ing it, with the co-operation of the Govern- 
ments of Lord Reay and Lord Harris, in a 
fine building and large playground in one 
of the most conspicuous sites in the city. 
The death of his only sister Ave in 1888 
fell upon him heavily, and in order to 
perpetuate her memory he founded the 

Nurses' Home at Bombay, and erected the 
East Corridor of the Imperial Institute in 
London, in which city she was educated. 
Both these monuments bear her name, as 
well as several prizes endowed in connec- 
tion with female education, of which he, 
following in the footsteps of his father 
and mother, has been a staunch advocate 
throughout his life. His other contribu- 
tions to different charities make up a 
handsome total. Returning to London in 
1891, his old activity upon public bodies 
was resumed, and his friends perceived 
that if he entered upon a parliamentary 
career his energies would find adequate 
scope in English public life, and also serve 
the purpose of cementing the bonds 
between Great Britain and her Indian 
Empire. He was thus induced to enter 
into the political arena, and the path to 
success, which seemed long and difficult, 
was not made either smoother or shorter 
by his accepting the offer of North-East 
Bethnal Green to contest it in the Con- 
servative interest. Mr. George Howell 
had been in possession of the seat by 
large Radical majorities ever since it be- 
came a separate constituency in 1S85. 
But after a plucky fight Mr. Bhownaggree 
was elected on the 16th July 1895. In 
questions of domestic legislation he is a 
progressive Conservative, and a strong 
Imperialist as regards our foreign policy 
and possessions. He insists upon India 
being regarded from an entirely non- 
political standpoint, and holds firmly to 
the belief that British rule has given her 
an unprecedented period of peace and of 
opportunities for material progress, on 
which he regards her future prosperity 
must mainly depend. Any movements 
which tend to shake the foundations of 
that rule he strongly deprecates, but in 
his criticism of the policy and actions of 
either party towards India he follows an 
independent line. Permanent address : 
3 Cromwell Crescent, S.W. 

BICKERDYKE, John. See Cook, 
C. H. 

BICKEESTETH, The Right Rev. 
Edward Henry, D.D., Bishop of Exeter, 
born at Islington, Jan. 25, 1825, son of the 
late Rev. Edward Bickersteth, Rector of 
Watton, was educated at Watton and 
Trinity College, Cambridge. He was 
Chancellor's English Medallist in 1844, 
1845, and 1846; proceeded B.A. (Sen. 
Opt.) in 1847, Classical Tripos, 3rd Class ; 
took the degree of M.A. in 1850; and 
gained the Seatonian Prize in 1854. Mr. 
Bickersteth became Curate of Banning- 
ham, Norfolk, in 1848; Curate of Christ 
Church, Tunbridge Wells, 1852 ; Rector of 
Hinton Martell, Dorset, in the same year ; 



Vicar of Christ Church, Hampstead, in 
1855; Chaplain to the Bishop of Ripon 
in 1861 ; Rural Dean of Highgate in 
1878 ; and Dean of Gloucester in 1884. 
On the translation of Dr. Temple to the 
See of London, Dr. Bickersteth was ap- 
pointed Bishop of Exeter, and was con- 
secrated in 1885. He is author of the 
following books : "Poems," 1848; "Water 
from the Well-Spring," 1853; "The Rock 
of Ages ; or, Scripture Testimony to the 
One Eternal Godhead of the Father, and 
of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit," 1858 ; 
"Practical and Explanatory Commentary 
on the New Testament," 1864; "Yester- 
day, To-day, and for Ever : a Poem in 12 
books," 1866; "The Spirit of Life; or, 
Scripture Testimony to the Divine Person 
and Work of the Holy Ghost," 1868 ; " The 
Hymnal Companion to the Book of Com- 
mon Prayer," 1870; "The Two Brothers, 
and other Poems," 1871; "The Master's 
Home-Call, 1872; "The Reef and other 
Parables," 1873; "The Shadowed Home 
and the Light Beyond," 1874; and "The 
Lord's Table," 1882. The " Hymnal Com- 
panion," of which a revised and enlarged 
edition, with tunes, appeared in 1876, is 
now in use in many thousands of churches 
in England and the Colonies. He married 
(1) in 1848 Rosa, daughter of the late Sir 
Samuel Bignold, Norwich (she died in 
1873) ; and (2) in 1876 Ellen, daughter of 
the late Robert Bickersteth. Address : 
The Palace, Exeter. 

BICKMORE, Albert Smith, was born 
at St. George's, Maine, March 1, 1839. He 
graduated at Dartmouth College in 1860, 
and immediately began to study Natural 
History under Agassiz, who, in the follow- 
ing year, placed him in charge of the 
department of Mollusca in his Museum of 
Comparative Zoology at Cambridge, Mass. 
He had, very early in his scientific career, 
determined to establish at New York a 
Museum of Natural History. Partly to 
make collections for this, and partly to 
supply some deficiencies in the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology, he sailed in 1865 
for the East Indies. He spent one year 
making collections of shells and small 
animals in the East Indian Archipelago ; 
then traversed a large portion of China ; 
visited and explored Japan, crossed Siberia, 
visiting its mines, Central and Northern 
Russia, and other European countries, and 
returned to New York after an absence of 
about three years. In 1869 he published 
in London and New York a volume of his 
"Travels in the East Indian Archipelago," 
and a German edition at Jena. In 1870 
he was elected Professor of Natiiral^ His- 
tory in Madison University, Hamilton, 
New York. He has been a frequent con- 
tributor to the American Journal of Science, 

and the Journal of the Royal Geographical 
Society ; and is now Director of the Museum 
of Natural History, New York, which was 
inaugurated at the close of 1877. 

BIDDULPH, General Sir Michael 
Anthony Shrapnel, G.C.B., is the second 
son of the late Rev. Thomas Shrapnel 
Biddulph of Amroth Castle, Pembroke- 
shire, sometime Prebendary of Brecknock, 
by Charlotte, daughter of the Rev. James 
Stillingfleet, Prebendary of Worcester, and 
was born at Cleeve Court, Somerset, in 
1825. He was educated at Woolwich, and 
entered the Royal Artillery in 1843 as a 
second lieutenant. He was promoted to 
first lieutenant in 1844 ; became captain in 
1850, brevet major in 1854, brevet lieu- 
tenant-colonel in 1856, colonel in 1874, 
major-general in 1877, lieutenant-general 
in 1881, and general in 1886. General 
Biddulph served throughout the Eastern 
campaign of 1854-55, including the battles 
of Alma, Balaclava, and Inkerman, and 
the siege and fall of Sebastopol. He was 
Deputy Adjutant-General of Artillery in 
India from 1868 to 1871 ; and in 1876 he 
was appointed Brigadier-General in com- 
mand of the Rohiikund district ; he also 
commanded the Quettah field force in 
Afghanistan 1878-79. He was nominated 
a Companion of the Order of the Bath 
(military division) in 1873, and promoted 
to a Knight Commandership of that 
Order in 1879 (G.C.B.). In 1881 he was 
appointed to the divisional staff of the 
army in Bengal. He is Gentleman-Usher 
of the Black Rod and Groom-in-Waiting, 
President of the Ordnance Committee, and 
Keeper of the Regalia. Sir Michael 
Biddulph married, in 1857, Katherine, 
daughter of Captain Stamati, Command- 
ant of Balaclava. Address : 2 Whitehall 
Court, S.W. 

BIDDTJLPH, General Sir Robert, 

G.C.M.G. , K.C.B., is the son of the late Mr. 
Robert Biddulph of Ledbury, Hereford- 
shire, by Elizabeth, daughter of Mr. George 
Palmer, M.P., of Nazing Park, Essex. He 
was born in London, Aug. 26, 1835, and 
educated at the Royal Military Academy, 
Woolwich. He was appointed second 
lieutenant in the Royal Artillery in 1853 ; 
captain in 1860 ; major in the army in 
1861 ; lieutenant-colonel in 1864 ; colonel 
in 1872 ; brigadier-general in 1879 ; major- 
general in the army in 1883; and lieu- 
tenant-general in 1887. He was Deputy 
Assistant-Adjutant-General in India from 
1858 to 1860 ; Military Secretary in China 
in 1860-61 ; Military Secretary in Madras 
from 1861 to 1865 ; and Deputy Assistant- 
Quartermaster-General at Woolwich from 
1868 to 1871. He was one of the Assistant 
Boundary Commissioners under the Reform 



Aot of 1867, and acted as private secre- 
tary to Mr. Cardwell when that statesman 
was Secretary for War, in 1871-73. From 
1873 to 1878 he was Assistant Adjutant- 
General at Headquarters ; in March 1879, 
he was nominated her Majesty's Com- 
missioner for arranging the payment due 
to the Turkish Government under the 
Convention concluded in the previous 
year ; and in May 1879 he was appointed 
High Commissioner and Commander-in- 
Chief of the island of Cyprus, on the 
transfer of Sir Garnet Wolseley to Natal ; 
Inspector-General of Becruiting, 1886-87 ; 
Quartermaster-General of the Army in 
1887 ; Director-General of Military Educa- 
tion from March 1888 to January 1893. 
Under his administration the state of the 
island of Cyprus has very greatly im- 
proved ; and to him is due much of the 
credit for the successful " locust war " 
urged against that deadly insect-plague. 
From January to October 1893, he was 
Quartermaster-General to the Forces at 
Headquarters. In October 1893 he was 
appointed Governor and Commander-in- 
Chief of Gibraltar, a post he now holds. 
He was nominated a Companion of the 
Order of the Bath (military division) in 
1877, and created a Knight Commander of 
the Order of SS. Michael and George in 
1880, a G.C.M.G. in 1886. In 1892 he was 
promoted to the rank of General. He 
married, in 1864, Sophia, daughter of the 
Bev. A. L. Lambert, rector of Chilbolton, 
Hampshire, and widow of Mr. B. Stuart 
Palmer. Address : The Convent, Gibraltar. 

BIDWELL, Shelford, F.B.S., eldest 
son of the late Shelford Clarke Bidwell, 
Esq., J. P., was born on March 6, 1848, at 
Thetford, Norfolk, and was educated pri- 
vately, and at Caius College, Cambridge. 
He graduated B.A. (Mathematical Tripos) 
in 1870, LL.B. (Law Tripos) in 1871, and 
M. A. in 1873, and was called to the Bar 
(Lincoln's Inn) in 1874. He has devoted 
much time to experimental scientific work, 
especially in relation to electricity, mag- 
netism, and optics. Accounts of his re- 
searches are contained in numerous papers 
published in the Philosophical Transactions 
and the Proceedings of the Royal Society, 
the Proceedings of the Physical Society, the 
Philosophical Magazine, Nature, and other 
scientific journals. He was elected a 
Fellow of the Boyal Society in 1886, was 
President of the Physical Society, 1897-98 ; 
and a Member of the Institution of Elec- 
trical Engineers, and other associations. 
He married in 1874 Annie Wilhelmina 
Evelyn, daughter of the Bev. E. Firmstone, 
M.A., Sector of Wyke, near Winchester, 
and has three children. Addresses : Biver- 
stone Lodge, Southfields, S.W. ; 1 Mitre 
Court Buildings, Temple. 

BIERSTADT, Albert, was born near 
Diisseldorf, in Germany, Jan. 7, 1830. 
His parents emigrated to the United 
States when he was two years of age, and 
settled in New England. He went to 
Germany in 1853, studied painting in 
Diisseldorf, spent a winter in Borne, made 
the tour of Switzerland and the Apennines, 
and returned to the United States in 1857, 
In 1859 he accompanied General Lander's 
expedition to the Bocky Mountains, where 
he spent several months in making sketches. 
He was made an Academician in 1860. In 
1863 he produced his celebrated picture, 
"View of the Bocky Mountains — Lander's 
Peak," which at once gave him a high 
reputation. Among his subsequent works, 
the most noticeable have been — " Sunlight 
and Shadow," "The Storm in the Bocky 
Mountains," " Domes of the Yosemite," 
"Laramie Peak," "Emigrants Crossing 
the Plains," "Mount Hood," "Mount 
Whitney," "Scene near Fort Laramie," 
"Geysers of the Yellowstone," "Great 
Trees of California," " Matterhorn," 
"Bocky Mountain Sheep," "Settlement of 
California," "Discovery of the Hudson," 
"Last of the Buffalo, "and "Landing of 
Columbus." He travelled in Europe in 
1867, 1878, and 1883, and in 1863 and 1873 
visited the Pacific coast, while in 1889 he 
went to Alaska. In 1871 he was made a 
member of the Academy of Fine Arts of St. 
Petersburg. He has received medals in 
Belgium, Germany, Bavaria, and Austria, 
the Legion of Honour, the Eussian Order 
of St. Stanislaus, and the Turkish Order 
of the Medjidie. His house and studio at 
Irvington, New York, were destroyed by 
fire in November 1882 ; but though his 
loss was considerable, his more valuable 
pictures were fortunately at his studio in 
New York City, and so escaped destruction. 

BIGELOW, John, American states- 
man and author, was born at Malden-on- 
Hudson, New York, Nov. 25, 1817. He 
graduated at Union College in 1835, was 
admitted to the Bar in 1839, became joint 
proprietor with William C. Bryant, and 
Managing Editor of the New York Evening 
Post in 1849, was appointed Consul at 
Paris by President Lincoln in 1861, Chargd 
d'Affaires in December 1864, and Envoy 
Extraordinary and Minister Plenipoten- 
tiary to the Court of France in April 1865 ; 
he resigned, and returned to the United 
States in the beginning of 1867 to devote 
himself to literary pursuits. He was 
chairman of the commission organised at 
the request of Governor Tilden to investi- 
gate the management of the canals of the 
State of New York in 1874, in 1875 was 
elected Secretary of State of the State of 
New York, in 1884 was offered the position 
of Chamberlain of the City of New York, 



and in 1885 was appointed Assistant 
Treasurer of the United States at New York, 
which he declined. During the years 
1843-45 Mr. Bigelow was a frequent con- 
tributor to the Democratic Revieto. He was 
one of the five inspectors of the State 
prison at Sing Sing, 1845-48, and was the 
author of all their annual reports to the 
Legislature. He visited the island of 
Jamaica in 1850, and upon his return pub- 
lished "Jamaica in 1850; or the Effect 
of Sixteen Years of Freedom on a Slave 
Colony." During his residence in Paris he 
published "Les Etats Unis en 1863." 
Also while in Paris he became possessed 
of the original manuscript of the auto- 
biography of Benjamin Franklin, from 
which he published, in 1868, the first 
correct copy ever printed of that famous 
story. Among his other writings are 
" Some Becollections of Antoine Pierre 
Berryer," 1869; "France and Hereditary 
Monarchy," 1871; a "Life of Benjamin 
Franklin," in 3 vols., 1875 (of which the 
third edition was issued in 1892); "The 
Wit and Wisdom of the Haytians," 1877 ; 
and "Molinos, the Quietist," 1882. He 
has been for many years an occasional 
contributor to Harper's, the Century, and 
Scribner's. He edited the "Writings and 
Speeches of Samuel J. Tilden," 2 vols. 
1885; and "The Writings of Benjamin 
Franklin," in 10 vols., 1888. "Some 
Becollections of Laboulaye " were printed 
privately for him in 1889, and he con- 
tributed a " Life of William Cullen 
Bryant " to the " American Men of 
Letters" series in 1890. In 1895 he pub- 
lished "The Life of Samuel J. Tilden," 
and in 1896 " The Mystery of Sleep." Mr. 
Bigelow is one of the executors of the will 
of the late Samuel J. Tilden, and is Presi- 
dent of the Board of Trustees of the 
" Tilden Trust." In 1886 the New York 
Chamber of Commerce, in response to an 
invitation of M. de Lesseps, requested Mr. 
Bigelow to accompany him to visit the 
works of the Panama Canal Company and 
report their situation and prospects. Mr. 
Bigelow's report was published by the 
Chamber of Commerce, to which body he 
was immediately after elected an honorary 
member. He was appointed by President 
Cleveland sole Commissioner of the United 
States to the International Exposition of 
Sciences and Industry at Brussels in 1888. 

BIGGE, Sir Arthur John, K.C.B., 
C.M.G., Lieutenant-Colonel in the Royal 
Artillery, Private Secretary and Equerry 
to the Queen, was born on June 18, 1849, 
and is the fourth son of the Eev. J. F. 
Bigge, Vicar of Stamfordham, and Caro- 
line Mary Ellison. He entered the Boyal 
Artillery in 1869, and saw service in the 
Zulu War (1878-79), being mentioned in 

despatches and gaining the Zulu medal. 
In 1879 he was appointed Aide-de-Camp 
to General Sir Evelyn Wood, then in com- 
mand of No. Four Column in the Zulu 
campaign. He became Captain in 1880, 
Major in 1885, and Lieutenant-Colonel in 
1893. His Court appointments date from 
1880, when he became Assistant-Keeper 
of the Privy Purse and Assistant Private 
Secretary to the Queen. In 1881 he was 
appointed Equerry-in-Ordinary, and in 
May 1895 Private Secretary to Her 
Majesty. He received the honour of 
knighthood in the latter year. He is 
married to Constance, daughter of the 
Rev. W. F. Neville, Vicar of Butleigh. 
Addresses : Winchester Tower, Windsor 
Castle ; and St. James's Palace, S.W. 

BIGHAM, Sir John C, K.B., Judge 
of the Queen's Bench Division of the High 
Court of Justice, was born in 1840, and is 
the son of John Bigham, merchant, of 
Liverpool. He was educated at the Boyal 
Institution, Liverpool, and at Berlin and 
Paris. He went to the Bar in 1870, took 
silk in 1883, and was elected a Bencher of 
his Inn in 1886. At the Bar he had a con- 
siderable practice. In 1892 he contested 
the Exchange Division of Liverpool for 
the Unionists, and was returned to Parlia- 
ment for that division in 1895, retaining 
his seat till October 1897, when he was 
raised to the Bench and knighted. While 
in Parliament he was a Member of the Com- 
mittee on the Jameson Eaid in 1897. In 
1870 he married Georgina, daughter of 
John Rogers, of Liverpool. Addresses : 19 
Palace Gate, Kensington, W. ; and Gold- 
smith Building, Temple, E.C. 

BILCESCO, Mademoiselle Sarmisa, 

Doctor at Law, a Roumanian by birth, is 
the first lady who obtained the degree of 
a Doctor at Law in France. She was born 
in 1867 at Bucharest, where her father is 
Governor of the National Bank. When 
only sixteen she graduated as Bachelor of 
Lettres, and the year after as Bachelor of 
Sciences. Encouraged by these early suc- 
cesses, Mlie. Bilcesco felt tempted to con- 
tinue her studies in Paris, where she arrived 
with her mother in 1884. She at once put 
herself under the direction of M. Georges 
Bourdon, Secretaire of the Chamber des 
Deputes, and ridacteur of the journal Le 
Temps, who prepared her for all examina- 
tions. After having been admitted as 
student at the Sorbonne, Mile. Bilcesco 
studied three years for the degree of a 
licentiate, and two years longer for that of 
a doctor. She passed all her examinations 
with honours, and took the first place 
among the licentiates of her year. But 
her crowning triumph was her examination 
for the degree of a doctor, which took 




place on June 12, 1890. The thesis she 
selected was "The Status or Position of 
Mothers under French and Roman Laws," 
a paper of 504 pages, which she read before 
a large audience, the jury congratulating 
her on the choice of the subject, and the 
remarkable manner in which she had 
treated the same. Mile. Bilcesco is not 
only a first-rate scholar, but likewise a 
talented musician. She returns to Bucha- 
rest, where she proposes to claim admis- 
sion to the Roumanian Bar, not so much 
to set up as a lawyer, as to decide the 
question of a woman's right to practise the 
profession of the law. 

BILLOT, Jean Francois, French 
general and senator, born at Chaumeil, 
Aug. 15, 1828, and admitted to the Ecole 
de St. Cyr, Dec. 1, 1847, was appointed 
to the Staff in 1849. By successive pro- 
motions he became Colonel in November 
1870. The brilliant portion of his military 
career has been almost entirely African. 
He was recalled from Algiers to France 
on the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian 
War. He was promoted to field rank, and 
took command of the 18th Corps d'Armfe 
He was victorious at the engagements of 
Beaune-la-Rolande and Villersexel. At 
the conclusion of peace he was elected 
to the National Assembly by his own 
department of Correze, and sat among the 
Republicans of the Left. He opposed 
vigorously the attempts of a monarchic 
restoration in 1873, and in 1875 was elected 
a senator. He had the chief part in the 
passing of a bill for the reorganisation of 
the Staff of the French army, opening it 
to all ranks in February 1878. In 1879 
he was appointed Chief of the 15th Corps 
d'Arme~e at Marseilles, and in 1882 became 
Minister of War in the Freycinet Cabinet, 
which post he continued to hold in the 
Duclerc Cabinet of August of the same 
year. His chief work was in the cause 
of the army of Africa, of the artillery of 
fortresses, and of the defence of the In- 
valides against suppression. He resigned 
Jan. 30, 1883, for refusing to deprive the 
Orleans princes of their military rank. In 
1885 he became head of the 1st Corps at 
Lille, and then a Member of the Conseil 
Supeneur de la Guerre. In 1889 he strenu- 
ously opposed the bill on regional recruit- 
ing, and on the 8th of July was made a 
Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour, of 
which he had been a Chevalier since 1859. 
In 1897 he played an unenviable part in 
the Dreyfus-Esterhazy-Zola trials, and he 
was the chief factor in endeavouring to 
place the army on an impossible pinnacle 
above suspicion. This attempt of a mili- 
tary caste to form itself into a dictator- 
ship was regarded with dismay by all true 
friends of the French nation abroad. 

However, he felt he had gone too far, and 
moderated the tone of his witnesses in the 
Courts. General Billot retired with his 
other colleagues of the Meline Cabinet in 
June 1898. 

BINNIE, Sir Alexander B,., M.Inst. 
C.&.M.E., F.G.S., F.R.M.S., &c, Engineer 
to the London County Council, was born 
in London in 1839, and was educated at 
various private academies. He was a 
pupil and assistant to the celebrated J. F. 
Le Trobe Bateman, F.R.S., who was Presi- 
dent of the Institution of Civil Engineers, 
and Engineer to the Glasgow and Man- 
chester Waterworks. Iu early life Mr. 
Binnie was engaged on railway construc- 
tion in England and Wales. He entered 
the Public Works Department of India 
by open competition in 1868, and during 
his six years' service in that country was 
engaged in the exploration which led to 
the discovery of coal in the Central 
Provinces, for which he received the com- 
mendation of the Government of India ; 
he successfully designed and constructed 
the whole of the works for the supply 
of the City of Najpur with water, for 
which he again received the commenda- 
tion of Government ; he was also engaged 
on railway work, and for a short period 
acted an Assistant Secretary, Public Works 
Department, to the Chief Commission of 
the Central Provinces. For fifteen years 
he was Engineer to the Bradford Corpora- 
tion, during which period he designed and 
successively constructed many large works 
at a cost of over one million sterling, and 
among them the highest reservoir embank- 
ment (125 feet) in the United Kingdom ; he 
also laid out and designed for the Corpora- 
tion a large extension of the waterworks 
in the Nedd Valley at an estimated cost of 
£1,250,000. Sir Alexander is the author of 
a paper on the Najpur waterworks, for 
which he received from the Institution of 
Civil Engineers a Telford medal and 
premium. He has been appointed on 
more than one occasion Lecturer on Water- 
works at the School of Military Engineer- 
ing at Chatham, and his lectures have 
been published by Government, besides 
which he is the author of many valuable 
professional reports, and an address as 
President to the Bradford Philosophical 
Society on "Heat in its Relation to Coal." 
Since his appointment as Chief Engineer 
to the London County Council, he has 
been engaged on the purification of the 
sewage discharged into the river, which 
has made such a marked improvement 
in the condition of the Thames ; has con- 
structed the new bridge over the Lee 
at Barking Road ; has designed and com- 
pleted the Blackwall Tunnel ; prepared 
new designs for Highgate Archway and 



Vauxhall Bridge ; besides laying out works 
for bringing a supply of water from Wales 
to supplement the present Thames and 
Lee sources. Since 1890 Sir Alexander 
Binnie has been Chief Engineer to the 
London County Council. He received the 
honour of knighthood in 1897. Address : 
77 Ladbrooke Drive, W. 

BINYON, Laurence, son of Rev. 

Frederick Binyon, was born at Lancaster, 
1869, educated at St. Paul's School and at 
Trinity College, Oxford ; Newdigate Prize, 
1890 ; B.A., 1892. He was appointed 
Assistant in the British Museum Printed 
Books Department in 1893, and transferred 
to Department of Prints and Drawings in 
1895. He published works are : in verse, 
" Primavera " (part author), 1890 ; " Lyric 
Poems," 1894; "Poems," 1895; "London 
Visions," 1895; "The Praise of Life," 
1896; "Porphyrion," 1898: in prose, two 
portfolio monographs, "Dutch Etchers," 
1895, " Crome and Cotman," 1897 ; 
"Descriptive Catalogue of Drawings of 
the British School in the British Museum " 
(in progress), vol. 1, 1898. Address : British 

BIRDWOOD, Sir George Chris- 
topher Molesworth, M.D., C.S.I., 
K.C.I.E., LL.D., eldest son of the late 
General Christopher Birdwood, 3rd Bom- 
bay Native Infantry, and Commissary- 
General, Bombay, was born at Belgaum, 
Bombay, Dec. 8, 1832. He was educated 
at Plymouth New Grammar School, and 
the University, Edinburgh, where he took 
the degree of M.D. , and passed the usual 
examination of the College of Surgeons in 
1854. He was appointed to the Medical 
Staff of the East India Company on their 
Bombay Establishment in the same year. 
His first charge was of the Southern Mah- 
ratta Horse, Kalludghee, in 1855. Later he 
was transferred to the 1st Battery 2nd 
Brigade of Artillery at Sholapore, where 
he was also at different times in charge 
of the 8th Madras Cavalry, 3rd Bombay 
Native Infantry, and the Civil Station. In 
1856 he was sent to the Persian Gulf in 
medical charge of the Company's steamship 
Ajdaha, and on his return to Bombay in 
April 1857 he was appointed Acting Pro- 
fessor of Anatomy and Physiology in Grant 
Medical College, and from that date to 
his leaving India continued to be connected 
with the college almost without interrup- 
tion in the chairs successively of Anatomy 
and Physiology, and Botany and Materia 
Medica. In the same year Dr. Birdwood 
was appointed Curator of the Government 
Central Museum at Bombay. Later he 
was appointed Registrar of the University ; 
and he also held the offices of Honorary 
Secretary to the Bombay Branch of the 

Royal Asiatic Society, and Honorary Sec- 
retary to the Agri-Horticultural Society of 
Western India. With the assistance of 
the late eminent Hindu physician, Dr. 
Bhau Daje, he was mainly instrumental 
in establishing the Victoria and Albert 
Museum and the Victoria Gardens in 
Bombay. In 1864 he was appointed Sheriff 
of Bombay, and in 1868 Special Commis- 
sioner for the Government of Bombay at 
the International Exhibition held in Paris 
in that year. In 1869 he was forced finally 
to leave India, through permanently broken 
health. On the occasion of the proclama- 
tion of the Queen as Empress of India, 
Jan. 1, 1877, he was appointed to the Com- 
panionship of the Star of India ; and the 
honour of knighthood was conferred on 
him in September 1881. In 1887 he had 
conferred on him the honorary degree of 
LL.D., Cambridge, and was decorated 
with the insignia of the Knight Companion- 
ship of the Order of the Indian Empire. 
He still maintains his official ties with 
India, having been appointed, about 1879, 
Special Assistant in the Revenue, Statis- 
tics, and Commerce Department of the 
India Office. He was a Royal Commis- 
sioner and Member of the Finance Com- 
mittee of the Colonial and Indian Exhi- 
bition of 1886 ; and Chairman of the 
Committee of the British Indian Section 
of the Paris Exhibition of 1889 ; a Royal 
Commissioner for the Chicago Exhibition 
of 1893 ; and a Member of the London 
and Antwerp Consultative and Executive 
Committees for the British Section at the 
Antwerp Exhibition of 1894. He is the 
author of " Catalogue of the Economic 
Products of the Bombay Presidency (Vege- 
table)," 1st edit. 1862, 2nd edit. 1868 ; 
"The Genus Boswellia (Frankincense 
plants), with illustrations of three new 
species," in the Transactions of the Lin- 
nean Society, vol. xxvii. ; the article 
"Incense," in the "Encyclopaedia Britan- 
nica " ; " The Perfumes of the Bible," in 
Cassell's "Bible Educator"; "Handbook 
to the British Indian Section, Paris Exhi- 
bition of 1878 ; " the article " On an Ancient 
Silver Patera," in the Transactions of the 
Royal Society of Literature, vol. xi. New 
Series, 1881 ; " Handbook on the Indus- 
trial Arts of India," 1880; "The Arts 
of India," 1881; "Ausstellung Indischer 
Kunst - Gegenstande, zu Berlin," 1881; 
" Indiens Konstslojd en Kortfattad Skild- 
ring," Stockholm, 1882; "Indiens Kunst- 
industrie, Kjobenhaven," 1882; "Report 
on the Miscellaneous Old Records of the 
India Office," 1879, reprinted 1890 ; and 
"The First Letter Book of the (English) 
East India Company," 1893. He has also 
contributed introductions to " The Miracle 
Play of Hassan and Husain," by Sir Lewis 
Pelly, 1879 ; to " Eastern Carpets," by Mr. 



Vincent Kobinson, 1882; to "The Dawn 
of the British Trade in the East," by Henry 
Stevens, 1886 ; to " Eepresentative Men of 
India," by Sorabji Jehanghier, 1889; the 
"Catalogue of the Indian Section of the 
Edinburgh Forestry Exhibition," 1884 ; and 
an Appendix on "The Aryan Fauna and 
Flora," to Professor Max Muller's "Bio- 
graphies of Words," 1888 ; a " Report on 
Spanish Chestnuts," 1892 ; and a Mono- 
graph on " The Antiquity of the Oriental 
Manufacture of Sumptuary Carpets," to 
the monumental work on " Oriental Car- 
pets," published by the Royal and Im- 
perial Ministry of Commerce, Worship, 
and Education, 1892-94, the English 
edition of which, edited by Mr. Caspar 
Purden Clarke, C.I.E., was issued in 
Vienna. He was a constant contributor 
to the Indian press, and for some time 
editor of the Bombay Saturday Review. 
Letters by him on the opium trade, 
which had appeared in the Times, were 
republished in Mr. W. H. Brereton's 
"Truth about Opium," 1882. He is also 
the author of the article "Are we De- 
spoiling India? — a Rejoinder, by 'John 
Indigo,' " in the National Review for Sep- 
tember 1883 ; and of a review of Sir 
Henry Yule's "Hobson Jobson," in the 
Quarterly Review for 1887 ; and of the 
following articles in the Asiatic Quarterly 
Review: "The Christmas Tree," January 
1886; "The Empire of the Hittites," 
January 1888; "The Mahratta Plough," 
October 1888 ; and " Leper in India," April 
1890. He has been a contributor also to 
the Bombay Quarterly Review, the Journal 
of the hast Indian A ssociation. the Journal 
of the National Indian Association, the Jour- 
nal of the Society of Arts, and the Journal 
of Indian Art. Sir George Birdwood 
married in 1856 Frances Anne, eldest 
daughter of the late Edward Tolcher, 
Esq., R.N., of Harewood, Plympton St. 
Mary's, Devon. Address : 7 Apsley Terrace, 
Acton, W. 

BIBBELL, Augustine, Q.C , M.P., 

youngest son of the Rev. C. M. Birrell of 
Liverpool, and Harriet Jane Grey, daughter 
of the Rev. Henry Grey, D.D., of Edin- 
burgh, was born Jan. 19, 1850, at Waver- 
tree, near Liverpool. He was educated at 
Amersham Hall School, near Reading, and 
Trinity Hall, Cambridge, where he gradu- 
ated with honours in Law and History in 
1872. He was called to the Bar by the 
Inner Temple, November 1875, and prac- 
tises in the Chancery Division ; is the 
author of "Obiter Dicta," two series, 1884 
and 1887; and "Life of Charlotte Bronte," 
1887; "Res Judicata;." 1892; "Men, 
Women, and Books," 1894; "Lectures on 
Trustees," 1896 ; and an edition of Boswell, 
1897. He contested the Walton Division 

of Liverpool in 1885, and the Widnes 
Division of Lancashire in 1886, both un- 
successfully. He was returned to Parlia- 
ment for West Fife in July 1889, on the 
retirement of the Hon. K. P. Bruce, and 
again in 1892 and 1895. He was ap- 
pointed Quain Professor of Law at Uni- 
versity College, London, in 1896, where in 
June 1898 he delivered the annual oration 
on Founder's Day, taking as his subject, 
" University Ideals." He married first, in 
1878, Margaret, daughter of the late 
Archibald Mirrielees, formerly of St. 
Petersburgh (she died in 1879) ; and 
second, in 1888, Eleanor, widow of the 
Hon. Lionel Tennyson, and daughter of 
Frederick and Lady Charlotte Locker 
Lampson. Addresses : 30 Lower Sloane 
Street, S.W,, and 3 New Square, Lincoln's 
Inn, &c. 

BISHOP, "William Henry, American 
author, was born at Hartford, Connecticut, 
Jan. 7, 1847, and graduated at Yale Col- 
lege in 1867. He has been a frequent con- 
tributor to periodical literature, and in 
addition has published " Detmold," 1879; 
" The House of a Merchant Prince," 1882 ; 
"Choy Susan, and other Stories," 1884; 
"Old Mexico, and Her Lost Provinces," 
1884; "Fish and Men in the Maine 
Islands," 1884 ; " The Golden Justice," 
1887; "The Brown Stone Boy, and other 
Queer People," 1883 ; " The Yellow Snake," 
1891; "A House -Hunter in Europe," 
1893; "A Pound of Cure," and "Writing 
to Rosina," 1894; "The Garden of Eden, 
U.S.A.," 1895. 

BISPHAM, David S., principal bari- 
tone at the Royal Opera, Covent Garden, 
and at the Metropolitan Opera House, 
New York, was born in Philadelphia, U.S.A., 
Jan. 5, 1857, of families of old English 
Quaker stock, the name Bispham having 
been associated from time immemorial 
with the county of Lancashire, England, 
while his mother's family name, Scull, has 
been associated with the west of England 
since the time of William the Conqueror. 
Notwithstanding the influences of more 
than two hundred years of Quaker doc- 
trine, which, in the United States, is even 
more strictly insisted upon than in the 
mother-country, the musical faculty which 
might have been quenched by lack of use 
in previous generations found unmistak- 
able vent, and, at an early age, in David 
Bispham, who, though granted but a small 
measure of musical education in his youth, 
has through insistence upon one object, 
and the maintenance of the highest stan- 
dard of vocal art and achievements, attained 
to a position on the operatic stage and the 
concert platform unsurpassed by any singer 
in the English-speaking world to-day. He 



made his dibut as the Due de Longueville 
in "The Basoohe," Royal English Opera, 
in 1891, and has sung the principal rdles 
in French, German, and Italian at the 
Royal Opera, Covent Garden. Address : 
19 Kensington Gore, S.W. 

BJORNSEN, BjSrnstjerne, a Nor- 
wegian novelist and dramatic poet, was 
born Dec. 8, 1832, at Quickne, in Norway, 
where his father was pastor. He com- 
pleted his education at the Universities of 
Christiania and Copenhagen, and first 
became known in consequence of some 
articles and stories which he contributed 
to newspapers, especially the Folkeblad, an 
illustrated journal, in the columns of which 
appeared his " Aanum," "Ole Stormsen," 
and "En munter Mand." The years 1856 
and 1857 he passed at Copenhagen, where 
he studied the works of Baggesen, of 
CElenschlager, and of the principal Danish 
writers. Afterwards he published in Faed- 
rdandet (Fatherland) his novel of " Thrond," 
which was followed by "Arne," perhaps 
his most popular story, and the idyllic 
peasant romance, "Synnceve Solbakken," 
Ole Bull appointed him as manager of the 
Bergen Theatre, and in 1858 he put on the 
stage, " Halte Hulda," and "Mellena 
Slagene " (Between the Battles). As a 
Christiania editor and journalist Bjornsen 
expressed strong republican opinions, 
which aroused considerable public excite- 
ment. He was finally condemned to a 
year's imprisonment for treason, but 
escaped to Germany, and afterwards to 
America, and did not return to Christiania 
until 1882, when he once more began the 
work of agitation against the Govern- 
ment and the union of the two Scandina- 
vian kingdoms. He settled near Lille- 
hammer, became leader of the ' ' Peasants' 
Party," and acquired some influence in 
political quarters. He has produced some 
notable tragedies and other pieces for the 
stage. These are "Halte Hulda," "Mal- 
lem Slagene," " Kong Swerre," the trilogy 
of "Sigurd Slembe," some translations 
of French plays, and the tragedy of " Mary 
Stuart." His comedy, "En Hanske," was 
translated by Mr. Osman Edwards for the 
English stage in 1894. The following 
works of his have been translated into 
English: "Arne; a Sketch of Norwegian 
Country Life," translated from the Nor- 
wegian by A. Plesner and S. Rugeley 
Powers, 1866 ; "Ovind ; a Story of Country 
Life in Norway," translated by S. and E. 
Hjerleid, 1869 ; " The Fisher Maiden," a 
Norwegian tale translated from the author's 
German edition, by M. E. Niles, 1869 — 
also translated from the Norwegian, under 
the title of "The Fishing Girl," by A. 
Plesner and F. Richardson, 1870; "The 
Happy Boy : a Tale of Norwegian Peasant 

Life," translated by H. R. G., 1870 ; "The 
Newly Married Couple," translated by S. 
and E. Hjerleid, 1870; and "Love and 
Life in Norway," translated from the 
Norwegian by the Hon. A. Bethell and A. 
Plesner, 1870. In recent years, " In God's 
Way," and the "Heritage of the Kurts," 
both very powerful novels, have appeared 
in Mr. Edmund Gosse's International 
Series. As a lyric poet Bjornsen takes 
high rank ; he has even attempted the 
composition of epic verse. He has been 
a voluminous writer and dramatist, and in 
all his work has striven to become a 
vehicle of national feeling, seeking to give 
expression to the Norwegian spirit. He 
has a strong dislike for the modern cult of 
mere French imitation, and has done his 
best to discourage the practice. In this 
respect he is, without question, one of the 
most stimulating influences for the revival 
of Scandinavian literature. 

BLACK, "William, was born at Glas- 
gow in 1841, and received his education at 
various private schools. His youthful 
ambition was to become an artist, and he 
studied for a short time in the Govern- 
ment School of Art in his native city, but 
eventually he drifted into journalism, be- 
coming connected with the Glasgoio Weekly 
Citizen while yet in his teens. In 1864 he 
came to London, and wrote for magazines. 
He was attached, in the following year, to 
the staff of the Morning Star, and was 
special correspondent for that paper during 
the Prusso-Austrian war of 1866, scenes 
from which appeared in his first novel, 
"Love or Marriage," published in 1867. 
This novel dealt too much with awkward 
social problems, and was not successful, 
but the author's next work of fiction was 
favourably received. It was entitled "In 
Silk Attire," 1869, and a considerable por- 
tion of it was devoted to descriptions of 
peasant life in the Black Forest. Then 
followed " Kilmeny " and " The Monarch 
of Mincing Lane," the former dealing 
mostly with Bohemian artistic life in 
London. But his first real hold of the 
novel-reading public was obtained by 
"A Daughter of Heth," 1871, which went 
through many editions. Next came " The 
Strange Adventures of a Phaeton," 1872, 
which literally described a driving excur- 
sion that the author made from London to 
Edinburgh, with a thread of fiction inter- 
woven. It is said that a good many 
Americans, amongst others, have adopted 
this plan of exploring the English counties, 
and have taken the "Adventures" as a 
sort of guide-book. In 1873 was published 
"A Princess of Thule." It was followed 
by " The Maid of Killeena and other 
Stories," 1874; " Three Feathers," 1875, the 
scene of which was laid in Cornwall ; 



"Madcap Violet," 187G ; "Green Pastures 
and Piccadilly," 1877 ; "Macleod of Dare," 
1878; "White Wings; a Yachting Ro- 
mance," 1880 ; " Sunrise : a Story of these 
Times," 1881; "The Beautiful Wretch," 
1882; " Shan don Bells," 1883 ; "Yolande," 
1883 ; " Judith Shakespeare, " 1884 ; "White 
Heather," 1885; "Sabina Zembra," 1887; 
" The Strange Adventures of a House- 
Boat" (a sequel to the Phaeton Adventures), 
1888; "In Far Lochaber," 1889; "The 
New Prince Fortunatus," and "Stand 
Fast, Craig-Royston I " 1890; "Donald 
Ross of Heimra," 1891; " Wolfenberg," 
1892; and "The Handsome Humes," 
1893; "Highland Cousins, 1894 ; "Briseis," 
1896 ; &c. For four or five years Mr. 
Black was assistant editor of the Daily 
News, but he practically ceased his connec- 
tion with journalism over fifteen years ago. 
Addresses : 15 Buckingham Street, W.C. ; 
and Paston House, Brighton. 

BLACKLEY, The Rev. Canon Wil- 
liam Lewery, M.A., is the second son of 
the late Travers R. Blackley, Esq., of Ash- 
town Lodge, co. Dublin, and Bohogh, co. 
Roscommon. He was born at Dundalk, 
Ireland, Dec. 30, 1830, and received part 
of his early education on the Continent. 
Having entered Trinity College, Dublin, in 
his sixteenth year, he obtained his B.A. 
degree in 1850, and his M.A in 1854, in 
which year he was ordained to the curacy 
of St. Peter's, Southwark ; shortly after he 
became Curate of Frensham, where he 
remained thirteen years, and was then 
promoted by Bishop Sumner in 1867 to 
the rectory of North Waltham , Hants ; 
whence, in 1883, he was preferred by 
Bishop Harold Browne to the vicarage of 
King's Somborne, in the same county, and 
to an Honorary Canonry in the Cathedral 
of Winchester. In 1889 he was appointed 
by the Dean and Chapter of Westminster 
to the vicarage of St. James the Less, 
Westminster, which he now holds. In 
1857 he published his metrical translation 
from the Swedish of Bishop Tegner's 
famous poem, " The Frithjof Saga." This 
was followed by the publication of his 
"Practical German Dictionary," which in 
its original and abridged forms has passed 
through many editions. In 1867 he pub- 
lished his "Critical English New Testa- 
ment " ; and his volume on " Word Gossip " 
followed in 1869. He also, besides frequent 
contributions to all the leading reviews, 
wrote, for the National Society, the 
Teacher's Manual, "How to teach Domestic 
Economy," 1879 ; and ' ' The Social Economy 
Reading Book," 1881 ; and his book on 
" Thrift and Independence, a Word to 
Working Men," was published by the 
S.P.C.K. in 1883. In November 1878 he 
published an article in the Nineteenth 

Century under the title of "National In- 
surance, a cheap, practical, and popular 
way of preventing Pauperism," which 
immediately attracted public attention. 
A sermon preached by Canon Blackley in 
Westminster Abbey in September 1879, on 
"Our National Improvidence," also at- 
tracted much notice. The National Provi- 
dent League was formed in 1880, for the 
purpose of educating public opinion on the 
subject of National Insurance against 
pauperism. Canon Blackley's proposals 
have reached far beyond this country, with 
the result that movements more or less 
upon his lines have been started in France, 
Switzerland, Italy, and New Zealand; 
while a complete system of National In- 
surance has been established throughout 
the whole German Empire, securing sick 
pay, accident pay, and old age pensions to 
all workers. Address : 75 St. George's 
Square, S.W. 

BLACKMOBE, Richard Dodd- 
ridge, novelist, son of the Rev. John 
Blackmore, was born at Longworth, Berk- 
shire, in 1825. His maternal grandmother 
was a granddaughter of Dr. Doddridge. 
He was educated at Tiverton School and 
Exeter College, Oxford, where he obtained 
a scholarship and graduated B.A. in 1847, 
taking a second-class in Classics. He was 
called to the Bar at the Middle Temple in 
1852, and afterwards practised as a con- 
veyancer. He is the author of " Poems 
by Melanter," "Epullia," "The Bugle of 
the Black Sea," "Fringilla," and the fol- 
lowing novels : " Clara VaughaD," 1864; 
" Cradock Nowell : a Tale of the New 
Forest," 1866 ; "LornaDoone: a Romance 
of Exmoor," 1869; "The Maid of Sker," 
1872; "Alice Lorraine: a Tale of the 
South Downs," 1875 ; " Cripps the Carrier : 
a Woodland Tale," 1876 ; "Erema ; or, My 
Father's Sin," 1877; "Mary Anerley," 
1880; " Christowell : a Dartmoor Tale," 
1882 ; "Remarkable History of Sir Thomas 
Upmore," 1884; " Springhaven," 1887; 
" Kit and Kitty," 1889 ; " Perlycross," 1894 ; 
" Tales from the Telling- house," 1896 ; and 
" Dariel," 1897. Mr. Blackmore has also pub- 
lished "The Fate of Franklin," a poem, 
1860; "The Farm and Fruit of Old," a 
translation of the first and second Georgics 
of Virgil, 1862 ; and a translation of " The 
Georgics of Virgil," 1871. Mr. Blackmore is 
a large fruit-grower at Teddington, and has 
at times contributed interesting letters to 
the Times on the subject of fruit-growing. 

BLACKWOOD, William, publisher 
and editor of Blackwood's Magazine, was 
born on July 13, 1836, at Lucknow, and 
is the eldest son of Major William Black- 
wood, of the 59th Native Infantry, and 
Emma, eldest daughter of Brigadier-Gene- 



ral George Moore, also in the East India 
Company's service. Major Blackwood was 
of the second generation of publishers of 
that name, and his father, William, was 
the founder of the famous house. Mr. 
William Blackwood was educated at Edin- 
burgh Academy and at the University of 
Edinburgh, and completed his studies at 
the Sorbonne (Paris) and at Heidelberg. 
He entered the publishing business under 
Major Blackwood and his uncle, Mr. John 
Blackwood, in 1857. He has devoted much 
space as a publisher and editor to accounts 
of travel as well as to fiction. In his capa- 
city of country gentleman he was at one 
time Lieutenant of the Midlothian Yeo- 
manry Cavalry, and is a member of the 
Royal Company of Archers. He has re- 
ceived the Jubilee Medal presented by the 
Queen to those who have attended her 
personally at least on three occasions. 
Addresses : 45 George Street, Edinburgh ; 
37 Paternoster Row, E.C. ; and Gogar 
Mount, Midlothian. 

BLAIKIE, Professor William Gar- 
den, D.D., LL.D., F.R.S.E., son of an 
eminent lawyer, who afterwards was Lord 
Provost of Aberdeen, was born at Aber- 
deen in 1820, and educated at the Grammar 
School and University of his native town. 
As soon as he was qualified he received an 
appointment to~the parish of Drumblade, 
but on the Disruption in 1843 he and his 
congregation joined the Free Church of 
Scotland. After a short ministry in the 
country be was invited to go to Edin- 
burgh, and there, in company with other 
young men of zeal, founded the Pilrig Free 
Church. In 1864 the University of Edin- 
burgh conferred on him the degree of 
D.D., and a few years later he received 
the degree of LL.D. from the University 
of Aberdeen. In 1868 he was appointed 
Professor of Apologetics and Pastoral 
Theology in New College, Edinburgh. In 
■1888, as "Cunningham Lecturer," he de- 
livered a course of lectures on " The 
Preachers of Scotland," afterwards pub- 
lished. Dr. Blaikie was one of the chief 
promoters of "The Alliance of Reformed 
Churches holding the Presbyterian sys- 
tem," commonly called "The Pan-Presby- 
terian," and was one of the chief secretaries 
at each of the four meetings in Edinburgh, 
Philadelphia, Belfast, and London. He 
was President of the meeting at Toronto 
in 1892. In the same year he was chosen 
Moderator of the General Assembly of the 
Free Church. He has edited various perio- 
dicals, including the North British Review, 
Sunday Magazine, Catholic Presbyterian, &c. 
He has also written "Better Days for 
Working People," "Personal Life of David 
Livingstone," " The Work of the Ministry," 
"Personal Ministry and Pastoral Methods 

of our Lord," three volumes of the "Ex- 
positor's Bible," "Heroes of Israel," "Life 
of Dr. Chalmers " (" Famous Scots " series), 
"Memoir of Principal David Brown of 
Aberdeen," &c. He has contributed to 
many magazines and journals, including, 
besides those which he edited, the Quiver, 
the Expositor, Harper, MacmiUan, Good 
Words, Sunday at Home, Blackwood, &c. 
Of the " Present Day Tracts," issued by the 
Religious Tract Society, a considerable 
number have been written by him. Ad- 
dresses: 9 Palmerston Road, Grange, Edin- 
burgh ; and 2 Tantallon Terrace, North 

BLAIR, Lieut. -General James, C.B., 

y.ffi., entered the army on June 30, 1844 ; 
lieutenant, March 19, 1848; captain, Oct. 
23, 1857; major, June 10, 1864; lieut.- 
colonel, June 10, 1870 ; colonel, June 10, 
1875; major-general, July 2, 1885 ; lieut.- 
general, Jan. 9, 1889. Lieut.-General J. 
Blair served throughout the Indian Mutiny 
campaign of 1857-59, and was present at 
the siege of Neemuch, siege and assault of 
Kotah, and pursuit of Tantia Topee (medal 
with clasp, and Victoria Cross). He re- 
ceived the 11. C "for having on two occa- 
sions distinguished himself by his gallant 
and daring conduct. First, on the night of 
Aug. 12, 1857, at Neemuch, in volunteer- 
ing to apprehend seven or eight armed 
mutineers, who had shut themselves up 
for defence in a house, the door of which 
he burst open. He then rushed in among 
them, and forced them to escape through 
the roof ; in this encounter he was severely 
wounded. In spite of his wounds, he pur- 
sued the fugitives, but was unable to come 
up with them in consequence of the dark- 
ness of the night. Second, on Oct. 23, 
1857, at Jeerum, in righting his way most 
gallantly through a body of rebels, who had 
literally surrounded him. After breaking 
his sword on one of their heads, and re- 
ceiving a severe sword cut on his right arm, 
he rejoined his troop. In this wounded 
condition, and with no other weapon than 
the hilt of his broken sword, he put himself 
at the head of his men, charged the rebels 
most effectually, and dispersed them." 

BLAKE, Sir Henry Arthur, G.C.M.G., 
F.R.G.S. , Governor and Commander-in- 
Chief of the Colony of Hong-Kong, born 
at Corbally, Limerick, Jan. 18, 1840, is 
the eldest son of Peter Blake, Esq., County 
Inspector of Irish Constabulary, second 
son of Peter Blake, of Corbally Castle, co. 
Galway (see title "WALLSCOURT," Burke's 
Peerage), and Jane, daughter of John Lane, 
Esq., of Lanespark, co. Tipperary (Captain 
17th Light Dragoons). He was educated 
at Dr. St. John's academy, Kilkenny, and 
Santry College ; entered the Royal Irish 



Constabulary, February 1859 ; Resident 
Magistrate, 1876 ; was one of the five 
Special Resident Magistrates (now Divi- 
sional Commissioners), selected in January 
1882 to concert and carry out measures 
for the pacification of Ireland ; had execu- 
tive charge of the following counties : — 
Kildare Co., Queen's co., Meath, Carlow, 
Galway East and Gal way West ; was Gover- 
nor of Bahama 1884 to 1887 ; Governor of 
Newfoundland 1877 to 1888, in which year 
he was appointed Governor of Queensland, 
but resigned his commission on return to 
England. He was appointed Captain- 
General and Governor-in-Chief of Jamaica, 
January 1889, where he presided over the 
Legislative Council till February 1893, 
when Dr. Philipps was appointed in his 
place. In 1897 he left Jamaica for Hong- 
Kong, of which he was then appointed 
Governor. He has contributed from time 
to time articles in The Westminster Review, 
The Nineteenth Century, The Fortnightly, 
The St. James's Gazette, &c. , and has pub- 
lished "Pictures from Ireland," by Terence 
M'Grath. He married, first, in 1862, Jane, 
eldest daughter of Andrew Irwin, Esq., 
Ballymore, co. Roscommon ; she died in 
1866 ; second, 1874, Edith, eldest daughter 
of Ralph Bernal Osborne, Esq,, of Newton 
Anner, co. Tipperary. Address : Govern- 
ment House, Victoria, Hong-Kong. 

BLAKE, Henry Wollaston, M.A., 
was born in 1815, and is a Director of the 
Bank of England. He is a Fellow of the 
Royal Society, and of the Royal Geogra- 
phical Society. He is married to Edith, 
daughter of the Rev. Prebendary E. B. 
Hawksham, Rector of Weston-under-Pen- 
yard, Herefordshire. Addresses : 8 Devon- 
shire Place, W. ; and Athenfeum. 

BLANDFORD, George Fielding, 

M.D., was born at Hindon, Wiltshire, on 
March 7, 1829, and was educated at Rugby 
and Oxford. He is an M.D. of that Uni- 
versity, and a Fellow of the Royal College 
of Physicians of London. He was formerly 
President of the Medico-Psychological As- 
sociation of Great Britain and Ireland, 
and in 1894 he acted as President of the 
Psychological Section of the British Medi- 
cal Association. Dr. Blandford is the 
author of : " Lectures on Insanity and its 
Treatment," 4th edit., 1892 ; the article 
"Insanity " in Quain's "Dictionary of 
Medicine"; the article "Prognosis of In- 
sanity" in Tuke's "Dictionary of Psycho- 
logical Medicine," and the Lumleian 
Lectures on Insanity, published in the 
Lancet in 1895. Addresses : 48 Wimpole 
Street, W. ; and Athenaeum. 

BLANFORD, William Thomas, 
LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S., F.R.G.S., As- 

sociate of the Royal School of Mines, and 
Fellow of Calcutta University, was born 
on Oct. 7, 1832, in Bouverie Street, London. 
He was educated at private schools in 
Brighton and Paris, at the Royal School 
of Mines, London, and at the Mining 
School, Freiberg, Saxony. He was Presi- 
dent of Section C (Geology) of the British 
Association at Montreal in 1884 ; was Vice- 
President of the Royal Society in 1892-93; 
President of the Geological Society, 1888- 
1890 ; Vice-President of the Zoological 
Society from 1893 to 1897; Vice-President 
of the Royal Geographical Society from 
1893 to 1896; and is a Past-President and 
Hon. Member of the Asiatic Society of 
Bengal. He served on the Persian Boun- 
dary Commission in 1871-72, was on the 
Staff of the Geological Survey of India 
from 1855 to 1882, and he was attached 
to the Abyssinian Expedition as Geologist 
in 1867-68, accompanying the army to 
Magdala, and receiving a medal for his 
services on the expedition. He is the 
author of : " Geology and Zoology of Abys- 
sinia," 1870; "Eastern Persia," voL ii. ; 
"Zoology and Geology," 1876; "Manual 
of the Geology of India" (part author), 
1879 ; editor of " The Fauna of British 
India," and author of "Mammalia," 1888- 
1891 ; "Birds," vol. iii. 1895; vol. iv. 1898 ; 
also of numerous reports and papers on 
geology and zoology, chiefly relating to 
India. He is married to Ida Gertrude, 
daughter of R. L. Bellhouse. Addresses : 
72 Bedford Gardens, W. ; and Athenasum. 

BLASHILL, Thomas, Capt. H.A.C., 
son of Mr. Henry Blashill, of Sutton-on- 
Hull, was educated at Hull and Scar- 
borough, and professionally in London 
offices, and at University College. He is 
the Superintending Architect of Metro- 
politan Buildings, and Architect to the 
London County Council, is a Member of 
Council of the Royal Institute of British 
Architects, and Vice-President and Trea- 
surer of the British Archaeological Associa- 
tion ; a Past-President (1862) of the London 
Architectural Association ; a Fellow of the 
Surveyors' Institution, and F.Z.S. He 
was elected a District Surveyor of Metro- 
politan Buildings, 1876, and Superintend- 
ing Architect, 1887. He has published a 
" Guide to Tintern Abbey," 1879 ; a "His- 
tory of Sutton in Holderness," 1896; and 
has read papers "On Health, Comfort, 
and Cleanliness in the House," before the 
Society of Arts ; on "Oak and Chestnut 
in Old Timber Roofs," before the Institute 
of Architects; on " Party- walls,. &c," 
before the Architectural Association ; on 
"Shoring," "The Growth and Seasoning 
of Timber," and on "English and Con- 
tinental Doors," before the Carpenters' 
Company ; on " The Influence of the 



Public Authority on Street Architecture," 
before the Congress at Edinburgh in 1889; 
on " Artizans' Dwellings," and on " Fire and 
Panic." Address : Sutton in Holderness. 

BLIND, Karl, was born at Mannheim, 
Sept. 4, 1826, and studied jurisprudence 
and ancient Germanic literature at Heidel- 
berg and Bonn. Active among students, 
working men, gymnastic associations, and 
the army, as a leader of Democratic circles, 
he was in 1846 and 1847 tried andimprisoned 
in Baden and Bavaria on charges of high- 
treason, but acquitted. In 1848, at Karls- 
ruhe, he took a leading part in the pre- 
parations for a national rising. Arrested 
while endeavouring to expand the move- 
ment into one for a German Common- 
wealth, he was freed by the successes of 
the Kevolution. During the Provisional 
Parliament at Frankfort he insisted, at 
mass-meetings, on the abolition of the 
Princely Diet, and the election of a pro- 
visional revolutionary executive. Wounded 
in a street-riot, he was proscribed after 
participating in the Republican rising led 
by Hecker. From Alsace he agitated for 
a new levy. Falsely accused of being 
implicated in the Paris Insurrection of 
June, he was imprisoned at Strassburg, 
and transported in chains to Switzerland ; 
the Mayor of St. Louis generously pre- 
venting his surrender to the Baden au- 
thorities, which had been planned by the 
French police. During the first Schleswig- 
Holstein war, he, with Gustav von Struve, 
led, in September 1848, the second Re- 
publican Revolution in the Black Forest. 
At the storming of Staufen he fought on 
the barricade, and was among the last 
who left the town. Being made a prisoner 
through the treachery of some militiamen, 
he was court-martialled, his life being 
saved by the secret sympathy of two of 
the privates who were members of the 
Court. Sentenced, after a State trial, 
lasting ten days, to eight years' imprison- 
ment in the spring of 1849, he was being 
secretly transported to the fortress of 
Mainz, when he was liberated by the 
people and soldiers breaking open the 
prison at Bruchsal. Heading the same 
day a hastily formed number of free corps, 
he endeavoured, with Struve, to take 
Rastatt, and then entered the capital of 
Baden. He was a firm opponent of Bren- 
tano, the chief of the new Government, 
whom he accused of being in occult 
connection with the ejected dynasty — a 
fact afterwards proved, when Brentano was 
declared a "traitor" by the Constituent 
Assembly. With Dr. Frederick Schiitz 
he was sent on a diplomatic mission to 
Paris, accredited to Louis Napoleon, the 
then President of the Republic. There, 
in violation of the law of nations, he was 

arrested as being implicated in Ledru 
Rollin's rising for the protection of the 
Roman Republic, and threatened with 
being surrendered to the Prussian courts- 
martial if he continued to uphold his dip- 
lomatic quality. He refused to yield, and 
after several months of imprisonment, was 
banished' from France. After this he 
lived in Belgium with his wife, who has 
made many sacrifices for the popular 
cause, and also undergone imprisonment. 
New prosecutions induced him to come 
with his family to England, whence he 
carried on a Democratic and National 
German Propaganda. After an amnesty 
in 1862, the House of Deputies at Stuttgart 
gave him a banquet. He was the speaker 
of the London Germans at Garibaldi's 
entry. He promoted the Schleswig-Hol- 
stein movement in connection with leaders 
of the Schleswig Diet, whose confidential 
communications he transmitted to the 
English Foreign Office ; and he was at 
the head of the London Committee during 
the war of 1863-64. At Berlin, his step- 
son met with a tragic death in the at- 
tempt on the life of Prince Bismarck on 
May 7, 1866. For many years Karl Blind 
operated with Mazzini, Garibaldi, and 
other European leaders, and supported 
the cause of Hungary, Poland, the Ameri- 
can Union, and the American Republic ; 
for which thanks were expressed to him 
by President Lincoln and President 
Juarez. During the war of 1870-71 he 
supported his country's cause. ' In Eng- 
land he has been a member of Executive 
Committees on Transvaal, Egyptian, and 
other affairs. Many political writings, 
and essays on history, mythology, and 
Germanic literature, published in Ger- 
many, England, America, Italy, and Spain, 
have proceeded from his pen ; chiefly 
political biographies — Ledru Rollin, Francis 
Deak, and Freiligrath. He has exerted 
himself to bring about the national testi- 
monial for the philosopher Feuerbach, and 
the monuments for the great minne-singers 
Hans Sachs and Walther von der Vogel- 
weide. His step-daughter, Mathilde Blind, 
who died in 1896, was well known as a 
poetess and champion of woman's rights. 
Address : S. Hampstead, N.W. 

BLISS, Cornelius N., was born at 
Fall River, Massachusetts, Jan. 26, 1833, 
and received an academic education at 
Fall River and at New Orleans, Louisiana. 
He entered mercantile pursuits in the 
latter city, but soon removed to Boston, 
Massachusetts, continuing his connection 
with commercial affairs in that city and in 
New York. He was a member of the Pan- 
American Conference, and President of 
the Protective Tariff League, but declined 
to be a candidate for the Governorship of 



New York in 1885, and refused again a 
similar offer made in 1891. He was ap- 
pointed Secretary of the Interior in Presi- 
dent M'Kinley's Cabinet, March 5, 1897. 

BLOFELD, Thomas Calthorpe, was 

born in 1836, and was educated at Eton 
and Trinity College, Cambridge. He was 
appointed Recorder of Ipswich in 1877, 
and he also occupies the position of Chan- 
cellor of the Diocese of Norwich. 

BLOMFIELD, Sir Arthur "Wil- 
liam, M.A., A.B.A., F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A., 
was born at Fulham Palace on March 6, 
1829. He is the fourth son of the late 
Right Rev. Charles James Blomfield, D.D., 
Bishop of London (1828-57), and of 
Dorothy, daughter of Charles Cox, Esq. 
He was educated at Rugby and at Trinity 
College, Cambridge, where he obtained 
his M.A. degree in 1854, afterwards study- 
ing architecture under the late P. C. 
Hardwick, Architect to the Bank of Eng- 
land, whom he eventually succeeded in 
that post. He was elected an Hon. Mem- 
ber of the Royal Academy of Arts at 
Copenhagen, and received the Order of the 
Danebrog (3rd Class) from the King of 
Denmark in 1887, on the occasion of the 
consecration of the English Church of St. 
Alban, built by him at Copenhagen. In 
1888 he was elected an Associate of the 
Royal Academy, and received the honour 
of knighthood in 1889. In 1891 he re- 
ceived the gold medal of the Royal Insti- 
tute of British Architects presented annu- 
ally by the Queen, on the recommendation 
of the Institute, to some one who has 
rendered distinguished service to archi- 
tecture by his work or writings. Addresses : 
28 Montagu Square, and 6 Montagu Place, 
W. ; Springfield, Broadway, Worcester- 

BLOOD, Brigadier - General Sir 
Bindon, K.C.B., R.E., eldest son of 
William B. Blood, Esq., J. P., of Granagher, 
county Clare, was born in November 1842, 
and entered the army as a Lieutenant of 
Royal Engineers in December 1860, reach- 
ing the rank of Captain in 1873, Major in 
July 1881, and Lieut.-Colonel in July 1888. 
He was engaged in the expedition of 1878 
against the Jowakis, an Afridi tribe, who 
were constantly raiding the North-West 
frontier of India, and was awarded medal 
with clasp. In 1879 Sir Bindon Blood 
went to South Africa, and took part in the 
Zulu campaign, for which he received a 
brevet majority. He also saw considerable 
service during the Afghan war. In 1882 
he took part in the Egyptian expedition, 
being present at the battle of Tel-el-Kebir. 
He was mentioned in despatches, and 
received a brevet of Lieut.-Colonel and 

the Osmanieh of the 4th Class. In the 
expedition into Chitral of 1895 he acted 
as Chief Staff Officer, and had command of 
the Malakand Field Force, being present 
at nearly all the operations, including the 
storming of the Malakand and Amandara 
Passes, the passage of the Swat River, and 
the relief of Chakdarri. He was mentioned 
in despatches, and specially promoted to 
K.C.B. In January of 1896 he was ap- 
pointed a Brigadier-General in the Bengal 
Command, and was Chief Staff Officer of 
the Chitral Relief Force in 1896. Sir 
Bindon Blood married in 1883 Charlotte, 
daughter of Sir Auckland Colville, K.C.S.I. 
Address : Granagher, Ennis, county Clare. 

BLOTJET, Paul, "Max O'Rell," 

was born in Brittany (France) on March 
2, 1848, educated in Paris, and took his 
degrees of B.A. and B.Sc. in 1864 and 
1865. He received his commission in the 
French army in 1869 ; fought in the 
Franco-Prussian war ; was made a prisoner 
at Sedan on Sept. 3, 1870 ; fought against 
the Commune ; was severely wounded, and 
pensioned. He came to England as news- 
paper correspondent in 1873 ; was ap- 
pointed Head French Master of St. Paul's 
School in 1876, and resigned his Master- 
ship in 1884. In 1883 he published 
"John Bull and his Island," which took 
Paris and London by storm, and was soon 
translated into English, and also into most 
European languages and several Asiatic 
tongues. In 1884 he published "John 
Bull's Daughter"; in 1885, "The Dear 
Neighbours " ; in 1886, " Drat the Boys I "•; 
in 1887, "Friend MacDonald"; in 1889, 
"Jonathan and his Continent " ; "Jacques 
Bonhomme," 1890; in 1891, "A French- 
man in America"; and "John Bull and 
Co." — a sketch of our Colonies, 1894. He 
has also written several educational,works, 
amongst which is "French Oratory" (Ox- 
ford, 1883). All the works of "Max 
O'Rell " have been translated into English 
by his wife. Several orders, French and 
others, have been conferred on him. 
During the years 1887, 1888, 1889, and 
1890 he gave lectures in the United 
Kingdom and in America. In 1891 he 
started on a two years' tonr round the 
world, during which he gave 446 lectures 
in the United States, Canada, Australia, 
New Zealand, and South Africa. Since 
then he has been occupied in lecturing 
throughout the English provinces. One 
of his favourite lectures is " The Gospel 
of Cheerfulness," as exemplified by the 
habits and disposition of the French 
people, in which he contends that the real 
Frenchman is not known to the English. 
The Englishman gets his ideas of the 
French from what passes on the boule- 
vards and from literature ; because the 



French do not understand hospitality, and 
only admit their intimate friends to their 
homes ; whereas French literature deals 
with exceptions, and not the real repre- 
sentative Frenchman, the small landowner 
deeply attached to his country and his 
cottage. Address : 8 Acacia Road, N.W. 

BLOWITZ, Henri Georges Ste- 
phane Adolphe Opper de, Times corre- 
spondent in Paris, was born of Jewish 
stock at the chateau of Blowitz, Pilsen, 
Bohemia, on Dec. 28, 1825. By a decree 
of May 6, 1860, he was permitted to 
assume the present form of his name, 
which in France and Germany implies 
noble rank. He was engaged for some 
time in the invention of a machine for 
wool-carding by steam. On Oct. 5, 1870, he 
was naturalised as a Frenchman, having for 
many years been employed as a teacher 
of German at various French lyce'es, espe- 
cially that of Tours (1850), and as a lite- 
rary and political journalist. In the latter 
capacity he wrote for the Gazette du Midi, 
and sent a weekly letter to the Lyons 
journal, La Decentralisation. He revealed 
the history of Ismail Pasha's special train 
which caused De Lesseps' defeat in the 
elections of 1869. After the war of 1870 
he gave M. Thiers his warmest support, 
and was of the greatest assistance to 
General Espivent de la Villeboisnet in his 
efforts to suppress the Commune at Mar- 
seilles by being in communication with 
Thiers at Versailles by a private wire from 
a house belonging to his wife, when other 
communications had been cut by the Com- 
munards. At the General's request he was 
decorated with the Legion of Honour in 
June 1871. In July of the same year he 
became temporary correspondent to the 
Times, and three years later was appointed 
their chief Paris representative. He in- 
augurated constant telegraphic communi- 
cation, and obtained the concession of a 
special wire from 9 p.m. till 3 a.m. for his 
paper. In 1875 he revealed the plans of 
the German military party for a second 
invasion of France, and sent the whole of 
the Berlin Treaty to the Times before it 
was signed. His communications to the 
Times have often been of European im- 
portance. He was one of the originators 
of what is now known as the "interview," 
and Thiers, Gambetta, Prince Bismarck, 
the Marquis Tseng, Jules Ferry, Leo XIII., 
Prince Lobanoff, and the late Sultan at 
various times made use of him in his 
capacity of interviewer in order informally 
to gauge public opinion, or to influence it 
in their own favour. M. de Blowitz was 
promoted to be an Officer of the Legion of 
Honour on July 30, 1878. Besides of late 
years writing almost daily for the Times, 
he has published "Feuilles Volantes," 

1858; a comedy entitled " Midi a Quatorze 
Heures," " Le Mariage Royal d'Espagne," 
1878, 'and several other political pamphlets. 
He married in 1865 Anne Am^lie Arrand 
d'Aquel. Paris address : Boulevard des 
Capucines 35. 

BLTJMENIHAL, Field - Marshal 
Leonard Count von, Chief of the 
General Staff of the Prussian Army, was 
born on July 30, 1810, at Schweldt, on the 
Oder. He was, like the majority of the 
leaders of the Prussian army, a soldier 
from childhood. Educated from 1820 to 
1827 in the military academies of Culm 
and Berlin, he was entered on July 27, 
1827, as Second Lieutenant in the Guard 
Landwehr Regiment (the present Fusilier 
Guards), attended from 1830 to 1833 the 
general military school in Berlin, was from 
1837 to 1845 Adjutant to the Coblenz Land- 
wehr battalion, and became for the first 
time in 1846 Premier Lieutenant in the 
topographical division of the General Staff. 
In order that he might be thoroughly ac- 
quainted with technical military science, 
Blumenthal had been ordered for service 
during the following years to the Artillery 
Guards and the division of the Pioneer 
Guards. He had already, in March 1848, 
taken part, as Lieutenant in the Fusilier 
battalions of the 31st Infantry Regiment, 
in the street - fights in Berlin. Some 
months later Blumenthal was transferred 
as Captain (Jan. 1, 1849) to the General 
Staff, to which he has, with slight inter- 
ruptions, belonged for about twenty-five 
years. In 1849 he took, as a member of 
the staff of General von Bonin, part in 
the Schleswig - Holstein campaign, and 
fought in the skirmishes at Auenbiill and 
Beuschau, in the battle of Colding, and 
in the affairs at Alminde, Gudsoe, and 
Tauloo - Church, and took, in the siege 
and battle of Fredericia, so active and 
conspicuous a part, that he was, on May 
14, 1849, promoted as Chief of the General 
Staff of the Schleswig-Holstein Army. 
His capabilities were regarded as being 
so brilliant, that in the following year 
(1850) he was named as General Staff 
officer of the Mobile Division under 
General von Tietzen in the electorate of 
Hesse. He was next sent, intrusted with 
special military propositions, to England, 
and was rewarded with the Order of the 
Red Eagle (4th Class, with swords). On 
June 18, 1853, advanced to the rank 
of Major in the Grand General Staff, 
Blumenthal was, as military companion 
and as General Staff officer of the 8th 
Division, appointed to take part in the 
spring exercises of that year in Thuringia 
and at Berlin. His linguistic and de- 
partmental knowledge led to his being 
entrusted with further commissions to 



England. In 1859 he was named the 
personal Adjutant of Prince Frederic 
Charles. On July 2, 1860, he became 
Colonel and Commander of the 31st, later 
of the 71st, Infantry Regiment. In 1861 
he accompanied General von Bonin to the 
British Court, and became then the con- 
ductor of the foreign officers at the 
autumn manoeuvres on the Rhine, and 
military companion of the Crown Prince 
of Saxony at the coronation in Kiinigs- 
berg. Colonel von Blumenthal had been 
for some time Chief of the Staff of the 
Third Army Corps, when, on Dec. 15, 
1863, he was nominated the Chief of the 
General Staff of the combined Mobile 
Army Corps against Denmark, and then 
had the first opportunity of exhibiting 
his splendid abilities. The part which he 
took in that war, especially at Missunde, 
in the storming of the trenches at Diippel, 
and the passage on to the island of Alsen, 
was so extremely important, that on June 
25, 1864, he was promoted to be Major- 
General, and received the Order pour le 
Merite. After the peace, General von 
Blumenthal commanded first the 7th and 
next the 30th Infantry Brigade. In the 
Austrian war of 1866 he was Chief of the 
General Staff of the Second Army of the 
Crown Prince, and for his distinguished 
services received the Oak-leaf of the Order 
pour le Mirxte (one of the rarest distinc- 
tions in the army) and the Star of Knight 
Commander of the Order of the House of 
Hohenzollern. On Oct. 30, 1866, he was 
designated Commander of the 14th Divi- 
sion in Diisseldorf, and accompanied the 
Crown Prince in the autumn of 1866 to 
St. Petersburg. When, on the outbreak 
of the war with France, the Crown Prince 
was entrusted with the supreme command 
of the Third Army, General von Blumen- 
thal was requested to accept the important 
post of Chief of the General Staff; and 
his Imperial Highness, when presented by 
the Emperor of Germany with the Iron 
Cross, declared that the same distinction 
was equally due to General von Blumen- 
thal. In 1871 he was sent to England to 
represent the German Empire at the 
autumn manoeuvres at Chobham. Von 
Blumenthal was made Field-Marshal in 
1888, and Count in 1883, and is recog- 
nised as one of the most distinguished 
strategists of modern Germany. 

BLUNT, The Right Reverend 
Richard Frederick Lefevre, Bishop of 
Hull, Suffragan to the Archbishop of York, 
is the third son of Samuel Jasper Blunt, 
Esq., late senior clerk of the Colonial 
Office, and Elizabeth Mary Lee, daughter 
of R. E. N. Lee, Esq., of Chelsea, was born 
Nov. 16, 1833, and was educated at 
Merchant Taylors' School. After he had 

studied law in the Temple and Lincoln's 
Inn Fields he entered the Theological 
Department of King's College, London, 
and became Theological Associate (1st 
Class) in 1857, when he was ordained to 
the curacy of St. Paul's, Cheltenham, 
under the Rev. C. H. Bromby (now Bishop 
Bromby). In 1860 he became senior curate 
to his cousin, Rev. Gerald Blunt, at St. 
Luke's, Chelsea, and in the next year 
married Emily Jane, eldest daughter of 
John Simpson, Esq., of the Cedars, Upper 
Tooting. In 1864 he was appointed by 
Lord Hotham to the vicarage of Scar- 
borough, and received from Archbishop 
Longley, at the request of Bishop Tait and 
the Principal and Professors of King's 
College, the degree of M.A., and five years 
afterwards he was elected Fellow of King's 
College, in 1870 he was appointed Rural 
Dean, and in the following year was 
collated to the Prebendal Stall of Grindall 
in York Minster, and in 1873 he was pre- 
ferred to the Archdeaconry of the East 
Riding. During the winter of 1880 he 
acted as chaplain at Christ Church, 
Cannes, and in 1881 was made Hon. 
Chaplain to the Queen. In 1882 he 
received the degree of D.D. from Arch- 
bishop Tait, and in the following year he 
was collated by Archbishop Thomson to 
the Residentiary Stall in York Minster, 
and resigned his Prebendal Stall. In 
1885 he became in due course Chaplain-in- 
ordinary to the Queen, and in 1886 he was 
appointed Select Preacher at Cambridge. 
On Bishop Magee succeeding to the Arch- 
bishopric of York, Archdeacon Blunt was 
nominated by the Crown as Bishop 
Suffragan of Hull, to which See he was 
consecrated on May 1, 1891. In the 
following year he resigned his Arch- 
deaconry, and was collated to the Pre- 
bendal Stall of Bole in York Minster. 
He has been a Member of the Convoca- 
tion of York since 1873, and one of the 
Assessors since 1888. Besides many 
charges, sermons, and papers, he has 
published " The Divine Patriot, and other 
Sermons " " Doctrina Pastoralis," Lectures 
in the Divinity School, Cambridge, 
"Notes for Confirmation Lectures," 
' ' Private Prayers and Daily Interces- 
sions," "Meditations on the Holy Com- 
munion Service," the last four being 
published by the S.P.C.K. Addresses: 
The Vicarage, Scarborough; and The Resi- 
dence, York. 

BLUNT, Wilfrid Scawen, the son of 
F. S. Blunt of Crabbet Park, was born at 
Petworth House on Aug. 17, 1840, and 
succeeded to the Crabbet estates on the 
death of his elder brother in 1872. He 
was educated at Stonyhurst and Oscott, 
and was in the Diplomatic Service from 



1858 to 1870. During the years 1877 to 
1881 he travelled a good deal in the East, 
visiting Arabia, Syria, Persia, and Meso- 
potamia ; and after taking part in the 
Egyptian National Movement of 1881 to 
1882, he visited India. He contested Cam- 
berwell in the Home Rule interest in 1885, 
and again in the following year stood for 
Kidderminster in the same interest. As 
the result of calling a meeting in a pro- 
claimed district of Ireland in 1887, Mr. 
Blunt was committed to prison for two 
months, this time being spent in Gal- 
way and Kilmainham Gaols. He is well 
known as an authority on Arab horse- 
breeding. He is the author of the well- 
known " Love Sonnets of Proteus," 1880 ; 
" The Future of Islam," 1882 ; " The Wind 
and the Whirlwind," 1883 ; "Ideas about 
India," 1885; "In Vinculis," 1889; "A 
New Pilgrimage," 1889; "Esther," 1892; 
" Stealing of the Mare," 1892 ; " Griselda," 
1893. He was married, in 1869, to Lady 
Anne Noel, daughter of the 1st Earl of 
Lovelace, and has a daughter. Addresses: 
Crabbet Park, Three Bridges, Sussex ; and 
104P Mount Street, Grosvenor Square, W. 

BLYDEN, Edward Wilmot, Ameri- 
can negro author, was born at St. Thomas, 
West Indies, Aug. 3, 1832. His parents 
were of pure negro blood, and he developed 
early a taste for languages. He returned 
to Africa and edited the Liberia Herald at 
the age of nineteen. He has filled the 
positions of Presbyterian pastor, Principal 
of Alexander High School, and President 
of Liberia College. He was Commissioner 
for Liberia to the General Assembly of the 
American Presbyterian Church in 1861 and 
1880. He has since been Secretary of State 
for the Interior, and in 1892 was appointed 
to his present post of Minister of Liberia 
at the Court of St. James's. His chief 
works are: "From West Africa to Pales- 
tine," 1873 ; " Liberia, its Status and 
its Field," "Christianity and the Negro 
Race," and " Africa and the Africans." 

BLYTH, Sir James, Bart., son of 
James Blyth of Chelmsford, Essex, and 
Caroline, daughter of Henry Gilbey of 
Bishop Stortford, Herts, was born at 
Chelmsford in 1841. He is a distinguished 
agriculturist, and has been honoured by 
the King of the Belgians with the Imperial 
Order of Leopold in recognition of his 
services to Agriculture and the Fine Arts. 
He has also the Order of the Mejidieh for 
his services to Egyptian Agriculture. For 
many years he has taken a keen interest 
in dairying, and erected in 1892, as an 
object-lesson, an electric model dairy in 
his grounds at Blythwood. He is owner 
of the well-known Blythwood herd of 
Jersey cattle, stud of Shire horses, and 

flock of Southdown sheep ; and his Blyth- 
wood Challenge Bowls, designed to pro- 
mote the best rypes of dairy cattle, are 
attractive features at the Agricultural 
Shows. Sir James's letters on " The 
Future of British Agriculture," contributed 
to the Times during his Presidency of the 
British Dairy Farmers' Association, which 
were copied and criticised by the Press 
of the United Kingdom, and reprinted in 
pamphlet form, aroused widespread interest 
among farmers, on whom they impress the 
necessity of producing, to a much greater 
extent, perishable articles of food, for 
at present we pay to foreign countries 
some fifty million pounds sterling annually, 
but Sir James Blyth contends that they 
can for the most part be grown in equal 
or greater perfection in Great Britain and 
Ireland. Sir James is also a Governor or 
Vice-President of many Agricultural and 
other Societies, Member of Council of the 
British Empire League, a Visitor of the 
Royal Institution, and a Director of W. and 
A. Gilbey, Limited. He married in 1865 
Eliza (who died 1894), daughter of William 
Mooney of Clontarf , co. Dublin. Heir : 
Herbert William. He was created a 
Baronet in 1895. Addresses : 33 Portland 
Place, London, W.; and Blythwood, Stan- 
sted, Essex. 

BODDA-PYNE, n(e Louisa Pyne, a 

popular English singer, daughter of a well- 
known singer, Mr. G. Pyne, was born in 
1832, and was at a very early age the 
pupil of Sir George Smart, and made her 
first appearance about 1842. She sang in 
Paris with great success in 1847, appeared 
in opera in 1849, performed at the Royal 
Italian Opera in 1851, and visited the 
United States, where she was enthusias- 
tically received, in 1854. After an absence 
of three years she returned to her native 
land, and was, in conjunction with Mr. 
Harrison, joint-lessee for a short season of 
the Lyceum and Drury Lane, and from 
1858 till 1862 of Coven't Garden Theatre. 
The enterprise having failed, she trans- 
ferred her services to her Majesty's 
Theatre, and has frequently performed at 
her Majesty's Concerts at Windsor Castle 
and Buckingham Palace. She is married 
to Mr. Frank Bodda. 

BODINGTON, Nathan, M.A. Litt.D., 
was born at Aston, near Birmingham, on 
May 29, 1848, and was educated at King 
Edward's School, Birmingham, and at 
Wadham College, Oxford. At the Uni- 
versity he gained first-class honours in 
the Final School of Lit. Hum. in 1872, and 
was three years later elected a Fellow of 
Lincoln College. During the years 1873 
and 1874 he was an Assistant Master at 
Manchester Grammar School, and at West- 



minster School, and from 1875 to 1881 
he held a classical tutorship at Lincoln 
College, and was also a lecturer at both 
Lincoln and Oriel Colleges. Mr. Bodington 
was appointed Professor of Classics in the 
Mason College at Birmingham in 1881, 
but in the following year he went to Leeds, 
as Principal of, and Professor of Greek in, 
the Yorkshire College. He is at present, 
moreover, Vice-Chancellor of the Victoria 
University. Addresses: Shire Oak Road, 

BODKIN, Archibald Henry, was 

called to the Bar at the Inner Temple in 
1885, and is engaged on the South-Eastern 
Circuit, and at the Middlesex and Kent 
Sessions. Address : 5 Paper Buildings, 
Temple, E.C. 

BODLEY, John Edward. Courtenay, 

son of Edward Fisher Bodley, J. P., of Shel- 
ton, Staffordshire, and Dane Bank House, 
Cheshire, by Mary Ridgway, who was the 
last survivor of the elder branch of the 
family which claimed to be the heirs- 
general of the Ridgways, Earls of London- 
derry (extinct). Born at Shelton, June 6, 
1853, educated privately and at Balliol Col- 
lege, Oxford (B.A. 1877 ; M.A. 1879) ; called 
to the Bar, 1874, while an undergraduate, 
on his twenty-first birthday, and was thus 
the youngest barrister ever called to the 
English Bar, as some years before he went 
to the University, being prevented by ill- 
health from preparing for Oxford, he had 
entered at the Inner Temple at an un- 
usually early age. After taking his 
degree he joined the Oxford Circuit, and 
published in Blackwood's Magazine, in 1882, 
a sketch of circuit-life entitled " The 
Souchester Sessions." He became private 
secretary to the President, of the Local 
G-overnment Board (Right Hon. Sir C. W. 
Dilke) in 1882. In 1884 he was appointed 
Secretary to the Royal Commission on the 
Housing of the Working Classes, and was 
the author of the Report (1885) which was 
signed by H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, 
Cardinal Manning, the Marquis of Salisbury 
and the majority of the Commissioners. 
Between 1885 and 1889 Mr. Bodley tra- 
velled extensively, visiting many of the 
continental capitals, to study European 
politics, and spending two years in traver- 
sing South and East Africa, British North 
America, and the United States. As the 
result of his travels he wrote a few 
articles in the Edinburgh, Quarterly, and 
other English Reviews, two of which, on the 
Roman Catholic Church in America, were 
republished in the United States under 
the title of " The Catholic Democracy of 
America." In 1890 Mr. Bodley undertook 
his work on France, and went to live in 
that country for the purpose of devoting 

himself entirely to it. It occupied him 
exclusively and without interruption for 
more than seven years, until the appear- 
ance, in February 1898, of the first two 
volumes of "France," which deal with 
' ' political France after a century of 
revolution." The years of labour bestowed 
on the work were justified by the re- 
markable reception bestowed on it by 
the English and American reviewers, as 
well as by French critics of all schools. 
French and German editions of the first 
series will shortly appear, and meanwhile 
the author is engaged in further volumes, 
which will treat of the Church, Educa- 
tion, and the Administrative System. Mr. 
Bodley married in Algeria in 1891 Evelyn 
Frances, eldest child of Mr. John Bell, of 
Mustapha Rais, Algiers, and Rushpool Hall, 
Yorkshire. Address : Chateau de Belle- 
fontaine, Biarritz. 

BODY, George, D.D., Canon Mis- 
sioner of Durham, was born at Cheriton 
Fitzpaine, Devonshire, on Jan. 7, 1840, 
and was educated at Blundell's School, 
Tiverton, under the headmastership of 
Rev. T. B. Hughes, M.A. From this school 
he passed as Diocesan Student, from the 
Diocese of Exeter, to St. Augustine's 
Missionary College, Canterbury. Through 
ill-health he had to give up his purpose 
of undertaking foreign missionary work, 
and passed from Canterbury to St. John's 
College, Cambridge, in October 1859. In 
Lent, 1863, he was ordained Deacon, his 
first Curacy being at St. James's, Wednes- 
bury, in the Diocese of Lichfield. From 
Wednesbury he went to the Curacy of 
Sedgley, in the same Diocese, and from 
Sedgley to Wolverhampton. In 1870 he 
was appointed Rector of Kirby Misper- 
ton, on the nomination of the Earl of 
Feversham, which benefice he held until 
1884. In 1883' he was called to the 
Diocese of Durham as Canon Missioner, 
From 1880 to 1885 he represented the 
Archdeaconry of Cleveland in the Con- 
vocation of York. In 1885 he was made 
D.D. of Durham {honoris causd), and in 1890 
was elected a Vice-President of the Society 
for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign 
Parts as a recognition of his interest in 
foreign mission work. He has published 
many Sermons and two volumes of Lec- 
tures: (1) "The Life of Justification," in 
1870, and (2) "The Life of Temptation," 
in 1870, each of which is in its 7th edit. 
Recent works of his are "Activities of the 
Ascended Lord," 1891: "The School of 
Calvary," 2nd edit. 1891; and "The Life 
of Love," 1893. 

BOETTICHER, Karl Heinrich 
von, German statesman, was born at Stet- 
tin, Jan. 6, 1833. After studying law, be 



entered the Civil Service in 1862. He has 
held various posts in the Ministry of the 
Interior, and was appointed Secretary in 
1880, a post he held, together with the 
Vice-Presidency of the Prussian Ministry, 
until June 1897, when he resigned at the 
same time as Baron von Marschall, in con- 
sequence of the opposition of the Agrarian 

BOISSIER, Professor Marie Louis 
Gaston, was born Aug. 15, 1823, at Nimes, 
and educated at the Lycee of that town, 
and at the Lycee Louis-le-Grand, Paris. 
In 1846 he became Professor of Rhetoric 
at Angouleme, and ten years later was 
called to Paris as supplementary professor 
at the Lycee Charlemagne. In 1861 he 
proceeded to the College de France as 
Professor of Latin Oratory, in succession 
to Havet, and then became deputy to 
Sainte Beuve in the chair of Latin Poetry. 
On June 8, 1876, he was elected a Member 
of the French Academy, succeeding Patin 
in the 39th chair. In 1895 he was elected 
Perpetual Secretary of the 'Academy. M. 
Boissier has written "Le Poete Attius," 
1856 ; " Une Etude sur Terentius Varron," 
1859; "Ciceron et ses Amis," 1866 ; "La 
Religion Romaine d' Auguste aux Antonins," 
1875; "Madame de SevigneV' and many 
critical papers in the Revue des Deux 
Mondes and the Revue de V Instruction 

BOITO, Arrigo, Italian poet and 
composer, born Feb. 24, 1842, the brother 
of Camille Boito, the critic, entered the 
Conservatoire of Milan in 1853. He 
travelled in France, Poland, and Germany, 
where he became one of Wagner's dis- 
ciples. His first work was "Le Mefistofele," 
which, when produced in 1868 at La Scala, 
Milan, met with startling failure, but when 
reproduced in 1875 at Bologna achieved 
immediate success. His other operas are 
"Nerone," "Ero e Leandro," "La Sorella 
d'ltalia," and "Oda all' Arte." He is 
known as a poet, and has published in 
1877 "Libro dei versi" and "Re Orso." 
He is, however, chiefly known as a lib- 

BOLDREWOOD, Rolf. See Browne, 
Thomas Alexander. 

BOMBAY, Bishop of. See Mac- 


BOND, Hon. Robert, born in New- 
foundland, Feb. 25,. 1857, was educated at 
Queen's College, Taunton, England. He 
studied for the legal profession, but left it 
to enter politics. He was elected to the 
Newfoundland Assembly in 1882, and be- 
came Speaker of that body in 1885. On 

the retirement of Sir William Whiteway 
in 1886, Mr. Bond became leader of his 
party. On the return of the former to 
active politics in 1889, he entered his 
Cabinet as Colonial Secretary. In 1890 
he was one of three delegates sent to Eng- 
land relative to the " French Shore Treaty 
Question," and was the same year ap- 
pointed by the Imperial and Newfound- 
land Governments to visit the United 
States to arrange a reciprocity treaty be- 
tween that country and Newfoundland. 
In 1892 he was sent to Halifax with three 
others to confer with representatives from 
the Canadian Government upon the ques- 
tion of the fisheries and other matters of 
difference. He was unseated and dis- 
qualified in 1894. He afterwards, on the 
removal of the disability by Act of Parlia- 
ment, returned to office, and was one of 
the delegates who negotiated terms of 
union with Canada at Ottawa in April 

BOND, The Right Rev. William 
Bennett, M.A., LL.D., Bishop of Montreal, 
was born at Truro, in 1815. He received 
his education in various public and private 
schools in Cornwall and in London, and at 
an early age emigrated to Newfoundland, 
where he studied for the ministry with 
Archdeacon Bridge ; and at Montreal, to 
which he had meantime repaired, was in 
1840 ordained a Deacon, and in 1841, a 
Priest. For several years, under the 
direction of the late Bishop Mountain, of 
Quebec, he organised many mission 
stations in the Eastern Townships of the 
Province of Quebec ; was incumbent of 
Lachine for a number of years ; and 
assistant minister in St. George's, 
Montreal, of which he finally became 
incumbent. He maintained his connec- 
tion with this parish for the long period 
of thirty years, successively becoming 
Archdeacon of Hochelaga and Dean of 
Montreal. On the resignation of Bishop 
Oxenden, he was, in 1879, elected by the 
synod of the diocese to the Bishopric of 
Montreal. Bishop Bond is President of 
the Theological College of the Diocese of 
Montreal, and is an LL.D. of the Univer- 
sity of M'Gill College. Address : Bishops- 
court, 42 Union Avenue, Montreal. 



See Martin, Sir 

BONNAT, Leon, a French painter 
and Member of the Institute, was born at 
Bayonne June 20, 1833, was a pupil of 
Madrazo and Leon Cogniet, and in 1857 
obtained the second prize at Rome for his 
"Resurrection de Lazare." Since that 
time he has been a constant exhibitor at 
the annual Salons Among his works 



may be mentioned " Le bon Samaritain," 
1859 ; "Adam et Eve trouvant Abel mort," 
1861 ; " Pelerins dans l'eglise Saint Pierre 
de Rome," 1864; "Ribera dessinant a la 
porte de l'Ara Coeli a Rome," 1867. After 
a tour in the East he produced the 
"Assumption," 1869; " Femme fellah et 
son enfant," 1870; "Femmes d'Ustaritz," 
1872, and many others which have been 
rendered popular through engravings. 
His "Christ" for the Court of Appeal 
was especially noteworthy for the truth 
of the anatomy and condition of the 
corpse. M. Bonnat obtained two medals 
of the second class in 1861 and 1867, and 
the Medal of Honour in 1869. In 1867 he 
was decorated with the Legion of Honour. 
For many years he has confined himself 
to portraiture, and his best portraits, such 
as those of Thiers and Victor Hugo, Jules 
Ferry and President Carnot (1890), have 
gained him European celebrity. 

BONNEY, Professor, The Bev. 
Thomas George, D.Sc. (Cantab.), Hon. 
LL.D. (Montreal), Hon. D.Sc. (Dublin), 
F.R.S., F.S.A., F.G.S., &c, son of late Rev. 
T. Bonney, M.A., was born July 27, 1833, at 
Rugeley, and educated at Uppingham 
School and St. John's College, Cambridge, 
where he graduated as 12th Wrangler 
and 16th in second-class classics in 1856. 
He was elected in 1859 to a Fellowship, 
which he still holds. From 1856 to 1861 
he was Mathematical Master at West- 
minster School, but returned to Cambridge 
in the latter year. During his residence 
there he was active in securing for Natural 
Science a due place in Academic studies 
and promoting reforms in the University. 
He was appointed a tutor of the College 
in 1868, and was Lecturer in Geology. In 
1877 he was elected Professor of Geology 
at University College, London, and in 
1881, on being appointed Secretary of the 
British Association, finally quitted Cam- 
bridge to reside at Hampstead. He re- 
signed the latter post in 1885, was President 
of the Geological Section at the meeting 
in 1886, and delivered one of the Evening 
Discourses in 1888. He was for six years 
Secretary of the Geological Society, and 
President in 1884-86. In 18S9 he received 
the Wollaston Medal. He has been also 
President of the Mineralogical Society, 
and was Rede Lecturer at Cambridge in 
1892. (See Rede.) In Geology, Professor 
Bonney has chiefly devoted himself to 
Petrological and Physical questions, and 
has written numerous papers printed in 
the Quarterly Journal of the Geological 
Society, the Geological Magazine, the pub- 
lications of the Royal Society, &c. He is 
author of "The Story of our Planet," 
"Ice Work," "Charles Lyell and Modern 
Geology," and a contributor to other 

works of science or biography. He was 
President of the Alpine Club in 1880-82, 
and is the author of " Outline Sketches in 
the High Alps of Dauphine\" 1865 ; " The 
Alpine Regions," 1868 ; besides furnishing 
the text to several illustrated books on 
the Alps, Norway, &c. He has also con- 
tributed largely to several works of de- 
scriptive topography, such as "Picturesque 
Europe," "Our own Country," "English 
Cathedrals," &c., and translated Pierotti's 
"Jerusalem Explored," 1864; and "Cus- 
toms of Palestine," 1864. Ordained in 
1857, Professor Bonney was one of the 
Cambridge Preachers at the Chapel Royal, 
Whitehall, 1876-78, and has been six 
times a Special Preacher before the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge, on one occasion 
being Hulsean Lecturer. These lectures, 
" On the Influence of Science on Theology," 
have been published (1885), besides two 
other small volumes and several detached 
sermons. He was Boyle Lecturer in 
1890-91, publishing the lectures in volumes 
entitled "Old Truths in Modern Lights," 
and " Christian Doctrines and Modern 
Thought." He is an Examining Chaplain 
to the Bishop of Manchester, and an Hon. 
Canon of that Cathedral. Addresses: 23 
Denning Road, N.W. ; and Athenaeum. 

BONVALOT, Pierre Gabriel, French 
explorer, born at Espagne, in the Aube, in 
1853, was a traveller and linguist from his 
earliest years. In 1880 he was charged by 
the Minister of Public Instruction with, 
a mission to Central Asia. He visited 
Turkestan, Bokhara, and Samarcand, dis- 
covered the ruins of Chari-Samane, and 
returned to Europe by the Amu Daria and 
the Caspian Sea in 1882. In 1885 he was 
again entrusted with a mission to Persia 
and the Turcoman country. He was made 
prisoner by the Afghans, but despite their 
hostility he made noteworthy discoveries 
in the Pamirs, and crossed into Cashmere, 
August 1887. In 1889 M. Bonvalot agreed 
to accompany Prince Henri d'Orleans in 
crossing Asia from Siberia to Tonkin. 
They started from Paris on the 6th July, 
crossed the Chinese frontier on Sept. 1, 
and marching for a year and twenty-five 
days, arrived on the borders of the Red 
River in December 1890. The most diffi- 
cult part of their journey was the crossing 
of the Tibetan tableland. Their observa- 
tions and 700 photographs interested the 
learned world, and the Geographical Society 
of France awarded them its Gold Medal 
in 1890. Since then M. Bonvalot has 
travelled in Abyssinia. 

BOOTH, Charles, LL.D., author and 
statistician, was born in Liverpool on 
March 30, 1840, and was educated at the 
Royal Institution School. Since 1862 he 



has been a partner in Alfred Booth & Co., 
Liverpool, and was President of the Royal 
Statistical Society from 1892 to 1894. He 
received the honour of the LL.D. of 
Cambridge University in 1898. He has 
published in nine volumes a standard 
work entitled " Life and Labour of the 
People in London," 1891-1897; "Pau- 
perism and the Endowment of Old Age," 
1892; "The Aged Poor," 1894. He mar- 
ried in 1871 Mary, daughter of Charles 
Zachary Macaulay. Addresses : 24 Great 
Cumberland Place, W. ; and Athenasum. 

BOOTH, The Rev.William, "General" 
of the Salvation Army, was born at 
Nottingham, April 10, 1829, and educated 
at a private school in that town. He 
studied theology with the Rev. William 
Cooke, D.D., became a minister of the 
Methodist New Connexion in 1850, and 
was appointed mostly to hold special 
evangelistic services, to which he felt so 
strongly drawn that when the Conference 
of 1861 required him to settle in the 
ordinary circuit work, he resigned, and 
began his labours as an evangelist amongst 
the churches wherever he had oppor- 
tunity. Coming in this capacity to the 
East End of London he observed that the 
vast majority of the people attended no 
place of worship, and he started " The 
Christian Mission" in July 1865. To this 
mission, when it had become a large 
organisation, formed upon military lines, 
he gave in 1878 the name of "The Salva- 
tion Army," under which it soon became 
widely known, and grew rapidly until it 
now has (April 1898) 4611 corps and out- 
posts at stations established in the United 
Kingdom, France, the United States, 
Australasia, India, the Cape of Good Hope, 
Canada, Scandinavia, Holland, Belgium, 
Italy, Japan, West Indies, South America, 
and elsewhere. 13,623 officers or evan- 
gelists are entirely employed in and sup- 
ported by this Army, under the General's 
absolute direction, and they hold upwards 
of 79,095 services in the open air and in 
theatres, music halls, and other buildings 
every week. The General has published 
several hymn and music books, volumes 
entitled "Salvation Soldiery," "Training 
of Children," and "Letters to Soldiers," 
describing his views as to religious life 
and work. "Holy Living" and "Orders 
and Regulations for the Salvation Army " 
are some of the smaller publications 
issued by him for the direction of the 
Army as to teaching and services. He 
also contributed an article on "The 
Salvation Army" to the Contemporary 
Review for August 1882. Mrs. Booth 
shared largely in all the General's efforts, 
and further explained their views in 
"Practical Religion," "Aggressive Chris- 

tianity," "Godliness," "Life and Death," 
and " The Salvation Army in Relation to 
Church and State." She died of cancer 
in October 1890, after a painful illness 
borne with Christian fortitude. The 
General's eldest son is his Chief of Staff, 
managing all his business ; his eldest 
daughter, with her husband, directs the 
work in Belgium and Holland ; another 
son is in charge of the work in Australasia ; 
the second daughter, together with her 
husband, supervises the operations in the 
United States of America ; the third 
daughter has the direction of affairs in 
Canada ; the fourth daughter and her hus- 
band are at the head of the work in France 
— so that each member of the family is 
actively employed in some branch of the 
Army's service. The General established 
The War Cry as a weekly gazette of the 
Army in 1880. It is now published 
weekly in England, similar papers being 
published at each Colonial and Foreign 
headquarters, so that there are now 34 
weekly War Cry's, with a circulation of 
over 652,776. En Avant appears in Paris, 
Strids Ropet in Stockholm, the Jangi 
Pokar (Gujarati) edition in Gujarat, a 
Tamil one in Madras, a Singhalese one in 
Ceylon, and an English and Marathi 
edition in Bombay. Belgium, Holland, 
and Germany also publish separate edi- 
tions in their respective languages. In 
November 1890 he published a volume 
entitled ' ' In Darkest England and the 
Way Out," containing a scheme for the 
enlightenment and industrial support of 
the lowest classes. The General appealed 
for £100,000 with which to begin the 
work of social rescue, and subsequently 
started 76 rescue homes for fallen women, 
and 100 " slum posts," besides a system of J 
Labour Bureaux, and food dep6ts, shelters, 
factories, and homes for inebriates. In 
May 1892 General Booth again stated that 
£30,000 a year would be necessary in 
order to carry out the " Darkest England " 
scheme. The appeal was endorsed by 
such well-known public men as the Earl 
of Aberdeen, Lord Compton, Mr, H. H. 
Fowler, Mr. Labouchere, and Archdeacon 
Farrar. Subsequently General Booth sub- 
mitted the working of the scheme to a 
committee of inquiry, consisting of the 
Earl of Onslow, Sir Henry James, M.P., 
Mr. E. Waterhouse (President Institute 
of Chartered Accountants), Mr. Walter 
Long, and Mr. C. E. Hobhouse, M.P. 
These gentlemen reported favourably as 
to the working of the scheme and the 
application of the funds thereto sub- 
scribed. In 1896 there were two notable 
celebrations, the one in commemoration of 
his return from his second tour in South 
Africa, Australasia, Ceylon, and India (this 
was held in March at the Crystal Palace), 




and the other a Twelve Days' Exhibition 
of the work of the Army throughout the 
world (held at the Agricultural Hall). 
Address : 101 Queen Victoria Street, E.C. 

BOOTHBY, Guy Newell, was born 
at Adelaide, South Australia, on Oct. 13, 
1867, and is the eldest son of Thomas 
Wilde Boothby, sometime Member of 
the House of Assembly, and grandson of 
Mr. Justice Boothby. He has travelled a 
good deal, and in 1891 he crossed Australia 
from north to south. He is the author of : 
"On the Wallaby," 1894; "In Strange 
Company," 1894 ; " The Marriage of 
Esther," 1895 ; "A Lost Endeavour," 1895 ; 
"A Bid for Fortune," 1895; "Beautiful 
White Devil," 1896 ; "Dr. Nikola," 1896 ; 
" Fascination of the King," and " Sheilah 
M'Leod," 1897, &c. He is married to 
Rose Alice, third daughter of William 
Bristowe, of Champion Hill. Address : 
Alveston, Thames Ditton, Surrey. 

BORNIEB, Vicomte Henri de, 

French poet and dramatist, born at Lunel, 
Dec. 25, 1825, studied at Montpellier and 
and Saint-Pons, and in 1845 completed his 
legal studies at Paris. The same year he 
published "Les Premieres Feuilles," a 
volume of poems, and submitted a play 
to the The'atre Francais, "Le Mariage de 
Luther." They attracted the notice of 
Salvandy, the Minister of Public Instruc- 
tion, who appointed the youthful poet a 
supernumerary at the Bibliotheque de 1' 
Arsenal, where he has risen successively 
to be sub-librarian, librarian, and finally, 
in March 1889, administrator. In July 
1891 he was made an Officer of the Legion 
of Honour. In 1853 he published a play, 
"Dante de Beatrix," and in 1884 he wrote 
a recitation for the Odeon, " La Muse de 
Corneille," which has often been recited 
on the poet's birthday. A pendant to this 
was " Le Quinze Janvier ou la Muse de 
Moliere," which he wrote for the Fran9ais 
in 1860. The following year he obtained 
the first prize for poetry with " L'Isthme 
de Suez," and again in 1863, and the prize 
for eloquence in 1864 with "L'EIoge de 
Chateaubriand." In 1868 his "Agamem- 
non" was played at the Francais, and his 
" La Fille de Roland " in 1875. Among later 
dramas must be mentioned " L'Aretirj " 
(1885), destined to show the deplorable 
effects of licentious reading, and "Maho- 
met," on which he had worked for several 
years. This last had been accepted by the 
Francais, but was forbidden by the Govern- 
ment at the request of the Turkish Ambas- 
sador as likely to offend the religious 
susceptibilities of their Turkish subjects, 
Ma.rch 1890. His complete poetical works 
were published in 1888 in 2 vols. He was 
elected to the French Academy in 1893 in 

succession to Xavier Marmier, and lives 
at 1 Rue de Sully, Paris. 

BOSISTO, Joseph, C.M.G., was born 
March 21, 1827, at Hammersmith. He 
became a druggist, and emigrated to 
Adelaide, South Australia, in 1848, where 
he remained for three years, and estab- 
lished the wholesale business of Messrs. 
Faulding & Co. After a short attack of 
the gold fever in 1851, he went to Mel- 
bourne, and began business at Bridge 
Road, Richmond. The business, at first 
almost purely a pharmaceutical one, soon 
developed into a regular manufacturing 
concern, and upon its founder discovering 
the remarkable antiseptic properties of 
the eucalyptus trees, it developed into a 
large undertaking. The Pharmaceutical 
Society of Victoria was founded by Mr. 
Bosisto in 1857, with the aid and cordial 
co-operation of a few of the chief pharma- 
ceutists of Victoria, and has proved to 
have exerted a highly beneficial influence 
in the development of pharmaceutical 
and therapeutical knowledge throughout 
the colony. Mr. Bosisto sat as a Municipal 
Councillor for over twelve years, in the 
course of which time he held the office of 
Mayor for two consecutive periods. He 
was elected Chairman of the Richmond 
Magisterial Bench for five years succes- 
sively, was returned to Parliament in 1874, 
and has always been placed at the head of 
the poll in the elections until 1886. Mr. 
.Bosisto was appointed President of the 
Royal Commission of Victoria at the Colo- 
nial and Indian Exhibition, 1886. 

BOTTOMLEY, James Thomson 

M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., F.R.S.E., F.C.S. 
Lecturer on Natural Philosophy, and elec 
trical engineer, was born at Fortbreda, 
county Down, Ireland, on Jan. 10, 1845, 
His father was William Bottomley, mer 
chant, of Belfast, and Justice of the Peace 
his mother was second daughter of the 
late Dr. James Thomson, Professor of 
Mathematics in the University of Glasgow, 
and a sister of Sir William Thomson, 
F.R.S., now Lord Kelvin, and Professor 
James Thomson, F.R.S., both Professors in 
Glasgow University. Mr. Bottomley was 
educated partly at a private school, and 
partly at the Royal Belfast Academical 
Institution. His parents intended that he 
should enter the then Established Church 
in Ireland, and he was sent to Trinity 
College, Dublin, with that object ; but 
when he had passed through half of his 
undergraduate course, the desire of follow- 
ing a scientific career became so strong 
that he was permitted to pursue his bent. 
He then became a pupil, and subsequently 
an assistant, of the late Dr. Thomas 
Andrews, F.R.S., Professor of Chemistry 



in Queen's College, Belfast, studying with 
him Chemistry and Chemical Physics, and 
devoting much attention at the same time 
to Mathematics and Natural Philosophy. 
He finally took the degree of B.A. in Trinity 
College, Dublin, and the degrees of B.A. and 
M.A. with first-class Honours and Gold 
Medals in Natural Philosophy and Chemistry 
in the Queen's University in Ireland. After 
a year's residence in Glasgow with his 
uncle, Sir William Thomson, where he 
studied Chemistry under the late Dr. 
Thomas Anderson, and Physics in the 
Natural Philosophy Laboratory, Mr. Bot- 
tomley was appointed Demonstrator in 
Chemistry at King's College, London, 
under the late Dr. W. A. Miller, F.RS. 
He held this office only one year ; for, to 
his great disappointment, his health be- 
came injuriously affected in the Chemical 
Laboratory, and he was glad, with the 
consent of Dr. Miller, and at the wish of 
Professor W. G. Adams, to be transferred 
to the post of Demonstrator in Natural 
Philosophy in King's College. In 1870 he 
removed to Glasgow to take part in the 
teaching of the Natural Philosophy Class 
in the University, under a special arrange- 
ment made for that purpose, Sir William 
Thomson being at that time actively en- 
gaged in the great work of laying some of 
the submarine cables ; and Mr. Bottomley 
has continued to assist, and when neces- 
sary represent, Sir William Thomson since 
that time. He is the author of original 
papers on ' : Conduction of Heat," " Radia- 
tion of Heat," "Elasticity of Wires," &c., 
which have been published in The Philo- 
sophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 
The Proceedings of the Royal Society, 
Philosophical Magazine, Proceedings of 
the British Association, and elsewhere. 
He is also the author of elementary text- 
books on "Dynamics," and on " Hydro- 
statics," and of "Four Figure Mathe- 
matical Tables." He is Fellow of the 
Eoyal Society, of the Royal Society of 
Edinburgh, and of the Chemical Society, 
Member of the Institution of Electrical 
Engineers, and of the Physical Society. 
Address : 13 University Gardens, Glasgow. 

BOTTOMLEY, "William Beecroft, 

M.A., Ph.D., F.L.S., F.C.S., only son of 
Joseph Bottomley, Esq., was born at Ap- 
perley Bridge, Leeds, in 1863, and edu- 
cated" at the Royal Grammar School, 
Lancaster. He gained a Natural Science 
Scholarship at St. Mary's Hospital, Lon- 
don, in 1883, and studied there and at 
University College, London, during 1883 
and 1884. In 1885 he proceeded to Ger- 
many, studying at the Universities of 
Heidelberg and Erlangen. In 1886 he 
was appointed Lecturer on Biology and 
Science Tutor in St. Mary's Hospital, 

which appointment he continued to hold 
until 1891. In 1888 he entered King's 
College, Cambridge, as Exhibitioner, and 
graduated in 1891. In 1892 he was ap- 
pointed Assistant to the Professor of 
Botany in University College, London. In 
the following year, 1893, he was elected 
Professor of Botany in King's College, 
London ; and in 1894 Professor of Biology 
in the Royal Veterinary College, London, 
both of which appointments he still holds. 
After graduating at Cambridge, Professor 
Bottomley was for three years engaged 
giving series of University Extension Lec- 
tures throughout Kent upon Botany in 
its relation to Agriculture. He was thus 
brought into intimate touch with matters 
connected with rural economy, and be- 
came an earnest advocate of Agricultural 
Co-operation. In 1895 he founded the 
South-Eastern Co-operative Agricultural 
Society upon similar lines to the Syndi- 
cats Agricultural of France, for the joint- 
purchase of agricultural requisites and 
joint-disposal of produce. He also joined 
with Mr. Yerburgh in promoting the 
establishment of Rural Co-operative Credit 
Banks, and became Hon. Secretary of the 
Agricultural Banks Association. In 1896 he 
spent six weeks in Germany investigating 
the working of the Raiffeisen Rural Credit 
Banks, and upon his return read a paper 
at the Liverpool Meeting of the British As- 
sociation for the Advancement of Science, 
describing the Raiffeisen Banks of Ger- 
many, with their unlimited liability of 
members, limited areas of operation, ab- 
sence of all paid administrative posts, 
exclusion of individual profit, and exami- 
nation into application of loan granted, 
and its economic utility. He also published 
a series of articles upon ' ' Raiffeisen and 
his Work," showing that it would be ad- 
vantageous to the agricultural industry 
of Great Britain if some system could 
be established in this country somewhat 
similar to the Raiffeisen organisation with 
its Local Rural Loan Banks, grouped into 
county areas, and these again controlled 
and directed by a central association. 
Professor Bottomley is also joint Hon. 
Secretary, with Dr. Paton of Nottingham, 
of the English Land Colonisation Society, 
which has for its object the establishment 
of co-operative colonies of small holdings. 
He is also Chairman of the Board of Direc- 
tors of the West Indian Co-operative Union, 
which has recently been formed to promote 
agricultural co-operation and the develop- 
ment of minor industries in the West In- 
dian Islands. He is the author of numerous 
papers upon science, rural economy, and 
agricultural co-operation ; and is also well 
known for his popular lectures upon various 
scientific subjects. Address: The Botanical 
Laboratories, King's College, London. 



BOUGHTON, George Henry, K.A., 
was born near Norwich in 1833. His 
father was William Boughton. His family 
went to America in 1836, and he passed 
his youth in Albany, New York, where he 
early developed an artistic taste. In 1853 he 
came to London, and passed several months 
in the study of art. Returning to America 
he settled in New York, and soon became 
known as a landscape painter. In 1859 he 
went to Paris, where he devoted two years 
to study, and in 1861 he opened a studio 
in London. He was elected an Associate 
of the Royal Academy June 19, 1879. 
Among his best works are : ' ' Winter 
Twilight," "The Lake of the Dismal 
Swamp," "Passing into the Shade," 
"Coming into Church," "Morning 
Prayer," "The Scarlet Letter," "The Idyl 
of the Birds," "The Return of the 'May- 
flower,'" "Counsellors of Peter the Head- 
strong," "A Morning in May, Isle of 
Wight," and " The Ordeal of Purity" (1894). 
In recent Academies he has exhibited the 
following : " Sunrise after Sharp Frost, 
Suffolk," and a portrait of Gladys, daughter 
of Walter Palmer, Esq., 1895 ; " A Sports- 
woman on a Highland River," "The Gar- 
dener's Daughter," and two portraits, 
1896; "Memories" (Diploma work), and 
"After Midnight Mass, fifteenth century," 
1897; and "The Road to Camelot," and 
two portraits, one of a daughter of Mr. 
and Mrs. Kendal, 1898. Mr. Boughton 
has of late years made a study of the 
picturesque aspects of the old Puritan life 
of New England, and many of his recent 
works have illustrated it. He has also 
visited Holland, and painted a number of 
Dutch scenes, and, with Mr. Edwin Abbey, 
is the author of "A Sketching Tour in 
Holland," 1885. He has frequently ex- 
hibited at the National Academy of New 
York, and was made a Member of that 
Academy in 1871. He was made R.A. in 
March 1896. Address : West House, 
Campden Hill, W. 

liam, a French painter, and Member of 
the Institute, was born at La Rochelle, 
Nov. 30, 1835. He began life in a 
business house at Bordeaux, but obtained 
permission to attend the drawing school of 
M. Alaux for two hours a day. His fellow 
pupils treated him with contempt on account 
of his business connections, and when at 
the end of the year he gained the first 
prize, the excitement was so great that a 
riot ensued, and a formal protest was made 
by the pupils against his receiving it, but 
without effect. He then turned all his 
attention to painting, and entered the 
studio of Picot in Paris, and later, entered 
the Ecole de Beaux Arts, where his pro- 
gress was rapid. Having gained the " Prix 

de Rome " with his picture of " Zenobia on 
the banks of the Araxes," in 1850 he went 
to Rome, and in 1854 exhibited "The 
Body of St. Cecilia borne to the Cata- 
combs," since which time he has occupied 
a leading position among the artists of 
the Modern French School. His next 
great work was " Philomela and Procne," 
1861. Both these pictures are now in 
the Luxembourg. " Mater Afflictorum," or 
"Vierge Consolatrice," 1876, was pur- 
chased by the French Government for 
12,000 francs. Among his pictures ex- 
hibited at the Salon mav be mentioned, 
"The Bather," 1870; ""Harvest Time," 
1872; "The Little Marauders," 1873; 
"Homer and his Guide," 1874; "Flora 
and Zephyrus," 1875; "PieU," 1876; 
' ' Youth and Love," 1877 ; " The Scourging 
of Our Lord," 1880; "The Virgin with 
Angels," 1881 ; " Slave carrying a Fan," 
1882; "The Youth of Bacchus" and 
"Byblis," 1885 ; "Love Disarmed," 1886; 
"Love Victorious," 1887 ; "Baigneuses," 
1888; "Pyscheand Love," 1889; "L'Amour 
Mouille'," 1891.' M. Bouguereau executed 
the mural paintings in the St. Louis Chapel 
of the Church of St. Clotilde and in the 
Church of St. Augustine. Many of his 
pictures have been engraved by Francois. 
They have been made familiar by the 
Autotype Company in England. Address : 
75 Rue Notre Dame des Champs, Paris. 

BOTJLENGER, George Albert, 

F.R.S., F.Z.S., was born at Brussels on Oct. 
19, 1858. In 1882, after having served a 
time as Aide-Naturaliste in the Royal 
Belgian Museum, he was appointed first- 
class Assistant in the Zoological Depart- 
ment of the British Museum, and there 
took charge of the collections of Reptiles 
and Fishes. On these groups of animals 
he has published very numerous memoirs 
and papers, from 1877 to the present day. 
He is the author of the British Museum 
Catalogues of Reptiles (7 vols., 1885-96) 
and of Batrachians (2 vols., 1882), which 
are the standard works for the determina- 
tion of these animals, and of a " Catalogue 
of Percoid Fishes," 1895. Other works 
are "Fauna of India, Reptiles and Batra- 
chians," 1890, and "The Tailless Batra- 
chians of Europe," 1897-98. Since 1880 
he has prepared the annual reports on 
Reptiles and Fishes for the "Record of 
Zoological Literature." Address : 8 Court- 
field Road, South Kensington, S.W. 

BOTJXNOIS, Edmund, M.P., son of 
the late W. Boulnois, of Baker Street, 
Marylebone, was born on June 17, 1838, 
and was educated at King Edward's School, 
Bury St. Edmunds, and St. John's College, 
Cambridge, where he graduated M.A. in 
1868. He has sat in the House of Com- 



mons since 1889 as Conservative member 
for East Marylebone, and he also repre- 
sents the same constituency on the London 
County Council. Mr. Boulnois is a Justice 
of the Peace for both London and Middle- 
sex, is Chairman of the West Middlesex 
Waterworks Company, Director of the Lon- 
don Life Association, and the Westminster 
Electric Supply Corporation, and he is the 
proprietor of the Baker Street Bazaar, in 
London. Address : 27 Westbourne Ter- 
race, W. 

BOURCHIER, Arthur, M.A., the 
only son of Captain Charles John Bour- 
chier, late 8th Hussars, was born at Speen, 
Berkshire, on June 22, 1864, and was edu- 
cated at Eton, and Christ Church, Oxford. 
Whilst at the University he founded the 
Oxford Dramatic Society, and was instru- 
mental in bringing about the building of 
the new theatre there, in which he played 
the characters of Shylock, Falstaff, Brutus, 
Eeste, and Thanatos (in the "Alcestis"). 
Taking to the stage as a profession, he 
made his first appearance at Wolverhamp- 
ton, as Jacques in "As You Like It," in 
1889, and he subsequently played this part 
at the St. James's Theatre, London. He 
has appeared as Joseph Surface at the 
Criterion, and as Charles Surface at Daly's 
Theatre ; and in 1895 he became manager 
of the Royalty Theatre, where he produced 
"The Chili Widow" (which ran over 300 
nights) and "The Queen's Proctor." He 
has adapted several plays, amongst them 
being " The Chili Widow," from the French. 
Mr. Bourchier was married in 1894 to Miss 
Violet Vanbrugh, the well-known actress 
(j.t>.). Address : 190 Earl's Court Boad, W. 

BOURCHIER, Mrs. Arthur. See 

Vanbktjgh, Miss Violbt. 

BOURGEOIS, Leon Victor Au- 

guste, French statesman, was born in 
Paris, May 21, 1851. He was educated 
at the Lyc^e Charlemagne, and became 
Doctor of Laws. He was Secretary of 
the Bar Committee, and entered official 
life in the Office of Public Works in 
1876. He was elected Sous-Pre'fet of 
Eeims in 1880, and Pre'fet of the Depart- 
ment of the Tarn in 1882. In the strike 
at Carmaux he conciliated the miners, 
and was rewarded with the Legion of 
Honour. In 1885 he was appointed Pre- 
fet of the Haute-Garonne, and returned 
to Paris in 1886 to the Ministry of the 
Interior. In 1887 he became Pre'fet de 
Police, and was successful in that difficult 
office at the time of President Gravy's 
resignation, when there was much fear 
of a dangerous rising. He entered the 
Chamber in 1888 as Deputy for the Marne, 
and became Under-Secretary of the In- 

terior in the Floquet Cabinet, which 
resigned in 1889. In 1890 he became 
Minister of the Interior on the resignation 
of M. Constans, which he exchanged for 
that of Public Instruction in the Freycinet 
Cabinet of the same year. In 1895 he 
undertook the formation of a Radical 
cabinet on the overthrow of M. Ribot, but 
he found himself absolutely dependent 
upon the votes of the Socialists for a 
working majority in the Chamber. This, 
and a conflict with the Senate, led to his 
downfall in April 1896, when he was suc- 
ceeded by the Protectionist and Moderate 
Cabinet of M. Meline. He has published 
a study of democracy in France ; and in 
June 1898 he was offered, and accepted, 
the portfolio of Public Instruction in the 
Brisson Cabinet of that year. 

BOURGET, Paul, French poet and 
novelist of the psychological school, was 
born at Amiens on Sept. 2, 1852. His 
father, a learned mathematician, was 
afterwards Rector of the Academies of 
Aix and Clermont. M. Bourget was edu- 
cated at Clermont, at the Sainte-Barbe 
College in Paris, and at the College des 
Hautes Etudes. Together with Richepin, 
Bouchor, and other future celebrities, he 
formed part of a literary society that led 
him to abandon teaching as a profession. 
In 1872 he began writing for the Renais- 
sance journal, and in 1873 published an 
article in the Revue des Deux Mondes, 
characteristically entitled " Le Roman 
realiste et le Roman pi^tiste." His first 
volume of poems, "La Vie inquiete," ap- 
peared in 1874. He then left poetry for 
romance, and among his best known-works 
we may mention "Etudes et Portraits," 
1888; "Portraits d'Ecrivains " ; "Etudes 
Anglaises " ; "Pastels, dix portraits de 
femmes," 1889; " Nouveaux Pastels," 
1891 ; and the following novels : " Cruelle 
Enigme," 1885 ; "Mensonges," 1887; "Le 
Disciple," 1889, a study of the scientific 
and pessimist tendencies of the age ; and 
"Cosmopolis," which contains a study of 
the present Pope. His poems were pub- 
lished in two volumes in 1885-87. M. 
Bourget is a traveller, and admires Eng- 
land and the English, and he has lectured 
before the University of Oxford. He has 
shown himself a psychological "maniac," 
as he himself says, and a passionate lover 
of the analytic school, inaugurated by 
Stendhal. He is one of the most widely 
read novelists in France, and was elected 
a Member of the French Academy in 1894 
to the seat of Maxime du Camp. Among 
his recent works should be mentioned 
"Notre Coeur," 1890; "La Terre Pro- 
mise " and " Sensations d'ltalie," 1892 ; 
"L'Idylle Tragique " and "Outre Mer," 
1895. The last-mentioned deals with the 



United States of America. His last work, 
"Voyageuses " (1898), has been published 
in book form, after running as a serial in 

BOUTELLE, Charles Addison, 

American statesman, was born at Dama- 
riscotta, Maine, Feb. 9, 1839, and received 
an academic education. He followed his 
father's occupation as shipmaster, and in 
the spring of 1862 was appointed Acting 
Master in the United States Navy, and 
was promoted for gallant conduct to be 
Lieutenant, May 5, 1864. Afterwards in 
command of the U.S. S. Nyanza, he parti- 
cipated in the capture of Mobile, and was 
assigned to command naval forces in Mis- 
sissippi Sound. He was honourably dis- 
charged, at his own request, Jan. 14, 1866. 
In 1870 he became managing editor, and 
in 1874 proprietor, of the Whig and Courier 
of Bangor, Maine. He was elected to the 
Forty-eighth Congress, and re-eleoted to 
the Forty-ninth, Fiftieth, Fifty-first, Fifty- 
second, Fifty - third, Fifty - fourth, and 
Fifty-fifth Congresses. He is leader of 
the Committee on Naval Affairs of the 
United States House of Representatives. 

BOWELL, Hon. Sir Mackenzie, 

K.C.M.G., Canadian statesman, was born 
at Rickinghall, Suffolk, England, Dec. 27, 
1823. He went to Canada with his parents 
in 1833, entered the military service as en- 
sign in the Bellville Rifle Company in 1857, 
and after some service on the American 
frontier in 1864 and later, he was made 
major in 1867 and lieut.-colonel in 1872, re- 
tiring with that rank in 1874. He repre- 
sented North Hastings for twenty-five years 
in the House of Commons, being then called 
to the Senate. In 1878 he entered Sir 
John Macdonald's Cabinet as Minister of 
Customs, occupying that office for thirteen 
years ; under Sir John Abbott he was 
Minister of Militia, and under Sir John 
Thompson he was Minister of Trade and 
Commerce. On the death of the latter Mr. 
Bowell formed an Administration, Decem- 
ber 1894, the main policy of which was the 
enforcement of remedial legislation in the 
matter of the Manitoba School question. 
Having failed to accomplish this object, 
he retired from the Government, April 27, 
1896. He was appointed a K.C.M.G. 
Jan. 1, 1895, shortly after becoming Prime 

BOWEN, The Eight Hon. Sir 
George Ferguson, G.C.M.G.,Hon. D.C.L. 
and Hon. LL.D., the eldest son of the late 
Rev. Edward Bowen, born in 1821, was 
educated at the Charterhouse and Tri- 
nity College, Oxford, where he obtained a 
scholarship in 1840, and graduated B.A. as 
first class in classics in 1844. In the same 

year he was elected to a Fellowship of 
Brasenose College, and became a member 
of Lincoln's Inn. He was Chief Secretary 
to the Government of the Ionian Islands 
from 1854 to 1859, and was appointed in 
that year the first Governor of the new 
colony of Queensland, in Australia, com- 
prising the north-eastern portion of the 
Australian Continent. He was appointed, 
in 1868, Governor of New Zealand ; and in 
May 1873, Governor of Victoria. He was 
Governor of Mauritius from 1875 to 1883, 
when he was appointed Governor of Hong- 
Kong. He retired on his pension in 1887 ; 
but in 1888 he was appointed Royal Com- 
missioner at Malta to make arrangements 
respecting the new Constitution granted to 
that island. Sir George is the author of 
"A Handbook for Travellers in Greece," 
one of Murray's Handbooks ; " Mount 
Athos, Thessaly, and Epirus : a Diary of 
a Journey from Constantinople to Corfu," 
1852; "' Ithaca in 1850" and "Imperial 
Federation," 1886, &c. A full account of 
his public services will be found in " Thirty 
Years of Colonial Government," being a 
selection from the "Despatches and Let- 
ters of the Right Hon. Sir G. F. Bowen, 
G.C.M.G, Hon. D.C.L. Oxford, Hon. LL.D. 
Cambridge. Edited by Stanley Lane- 
Poole." Sir George Bowen is a member of 
the Governing Bodies of the Imperial In- 
stitute and of Charterhouse School, and 
married in 1856 the Countess Roma, 
only surviving daughter of Count Roma, 
G.C.M.G., then President of the Senate of 
the Ionian Islands. The Countess Roma 
died in 1893, and he was again married 
in 1896 to Florence, daughter of Dr. T. 
Luby, Senior Fellow of Trinity College, 
Dublin, and widow of the Rev. H. White. 
Addresses : 16 Lowndes Street, S.W. ; and 

BOWER, Frederick Orpen, D.Sc, 
F.R.S. (1891), F.L.S., F.R.S.Ed., was born 
on Nov. 4, 1855, at Ripon, Yorkshire. He 
is the younger son of Abraham Bower, 
Esq., J.P., of Elmcrofts, Ripon, Yorks. 
Educated at Ripon Grammar School, 
Repton School, and Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, he graduated in the first class of 
the Nat. Sci. Tripos in 1877. Having 
served as assistant to the Professor of 
Botany in University College, London, he 
was appointed first Lecturer in Botany at 
the Normal School of Science (now Royal 
College of Science), South Kensington, in 
1882, and in 1885 Regius - Prof essor of 
Botany in the University of Glasgow. He 
acted as Examiner in the University of 
London in 1885-89. He has co-operated 
with Dr. D. H. Scott in translating the 
"Comparative Anatomy of Phanerogams 
and Ferns," by De Bary (Clarendon Press, 
1884), and with Professor Vines in the 



production of a "Course of Practical In- 
struction in Botany," in its third edition 
in 1891. He is the author of numerous 
memoirs published by the Royal Society, 
the Linn. Soc, in the Q.J.M.S., and "An- 
nals of Botany." One of his most recent 
works is " Practical Botany for Beginners," 
1894. Address : 45 Kersland Terrace, 
Hillhead, Glasgow. 

BOWER, Sir Graham John, K.C.M.G., 
the son of Admiral James Paterson Bower, 
was born in Ireland on June 15, 1848. He 
was educated at the Naval Academy at 
Gosport, entered the Navy in 1861, and 
retired in 1880 as Commander. In the 
latter year he became private secretary to 
Sir Hercules Robinson, Governor of the 
Cape, and High Commissioner for South 
Africa, and from 1884 to 1897 he acted as 
Imperial Secretary to the High Commis- 
sioner. He came to England after the 
Jameson raid, and gave evidence at the 
parliamentary inquiry held at Westminster 
regarding that event. Sir Graham has 
recently (1898) been appointed Colonial 
Secretary of the Island of Mauritius. He 
is the author of "Practical Federation," 
a book published under the name of " Cen- 
turion." He was created a K.C.M.G. in 
1892, and was married in 1882 to Maude 
Laidley Mitchell, of Sydney, N.S.W. 

BOWLES, Thomas Gibson, M.P., 
was born in 1842, and was educated pri- 
vately in England and abroad, and at 
King's College, London. He was in the 
Inland Revenue Department of the Civil 
Service from I860 to 1868, and in the 
latter year he founded the paper Vanity 
Fair, selling it, however, eventually. In 
the year 1878 he assisted in starting the 
Stafford House Committee for the relief 
of the distressed and suffering Turks, and 
he was presented with the Order of the 
Medjidie. He has represented King's Lynn, 
as Conservative member in the House of 
Commons, since 1892. He is the author of: 
"The Defence of Paris," " Maritime War- 
fare," 1878 ; " Flotsam and Jetsam," 1882 ; 
"Log of the Nereid," 1889. Mr. Bowles 
was married in 1876 to Jessica, daughter 
of General Evans Gordon (she died in 
1887). Addresses : 25 Lowndes Square, 
S.W. ; and Wilbury House, Salisbury. 

BOWBJNG, Edgar Alfred, C.B., a 
younger son of the late Sir John Bowring, 
was born in 1826, and educated at Univer- 
sity College, London. He entered the 
Civil Service in the Board of Trade in 1841, 
and filled in succession the post of private 
secretary to the Earl of Clarendon, to 
Earl Granville, and to Lord Stanley of 
Alderley. He was appointed Precis Writer 
and Librarian to that department in 1848, 

and Registrar in 1853, but retired from the 
service on the abolition of his office at the 
end of 1863. He acted as Secretary to the 
Royal Commission for the Great Exhibition 
of 1851, and held that appointment until 
his election as M.P. for Exeter at the 
general election of 1868. His services were 
so highly appreciated by the late Prince 
Consort, the President of the Commission, 
that immediately after H.R.H.'s decease, 
her Majesty nominated Mr. Bowring a 
Companion of the Order of the Bath, Civil 
Division. Mr. Bowring lost his seat for 
Exeter at the general election of February 
1874. He is the author of an English 
poetical version of "The Book of Psalms," 
English versions of the poetical works of 
Schiller, Goethe, and Heine, and (jointly 
with Lord Hobart) of a reply to the " So- 
phisms of Free Trade," by Mr. Justice 
Byles. Besides having been a frequent 
contributor to periodical literature, he is 
understood to have translated two small 
volumes of German hymns, selected by 
the Queen, and privately printed for her 
Majesty's use, one volume on the death of 
the Duchess of Kent, and the other on 
that of Prince Albert. 

BOYD, The Kev. Andrew Kennedy 
Hutchison, D.D. and LL.D., born at 
Auchinleck, Ayrshire, of which parish his 
father was incumbent, November 1825, was 
educated at King's College, London, and 
at the University of Glasgow, where he 
obtained the highest honours in philo- 
sophy and theology, and was author of 
several prize essays, taking the degree of 
B.A. in April 1846. He was ordained in 
1851, and has been incumbent successively 
of the parishes of Newton-on-Ayr, Kirk- 
patrick-Irongray (in Galloway), St. Ber- 
nard's (Edinburgh), and of the University 
city of St. Andrews, which he still holds. 
He first became known as a writer by 
papers which appeared in Fraser's Magazine 
under the signature of A. K. H. B. Of 
these, the most important have been 
reprinted ; the best known of these being 
" The Recreations of a Country Parson " 
(three series). Dr. Boyd is also the author 
of many volumes of sermons, under the 
titles of "The Graver Thoughts of a 
Country Parson," and "Counsel and Com- 
fort spoken from a City Pulpit," "Present- 
day Thoughts : Memorials of St. Andrews 
Sundays," 1870; "Towards the Sunset," 
1883 ; " What Set Him Right," 1885 ; and 
"The Best Last," in 1888. He received 
the degree of D.D. from the University of 
Edinburgh in 1864, and of LL.D. from the 
University of St. Andrews in 1889. In 
May 1890 he was elected Moderator of the 
General Assembly of the Church of Scot- 
land. His latest works are " Twenty-five 
Years of St. Andrews," published in 1892 ; 



" St. Andrews and Elsewhere," 1894 ; and 
" The Last Years of St. Andrews." He is 
a member of the Middle Temple, and 
studied for two years for the English Bar. 
In 1895 he was made a Fellow of King's 
College. Address : 7 Abbotsford Crescent, 
St. Andrews. 

BOYD, The Rev. Henry, M.A., D.D., 
Principal of Hertford College, Oxford, was 
born on Feb. 26, 1831, and is the third son 
of William Charles Boyd, Esq. He was 
educated at Hackney School and at Exeter 
College, Oxford, where he matriculated at 
the age of seventeen. He was in the second 
class in Lit. Hum. in 1852, and was Ellerton 
Essayist in 1853, and Denyer Theological 
Essayist in 1856 and 1857 (B.A. 1852; 
M.A. 1857; B.D. and D.D. 1879). From 
1862 to 1874 he was incumbent of St. 
Mark's, Victoria Docks, E., and from 1875 
to 1890 was Hon. Canon of Kochester. In 
1874 Dr. Boyd was elected Fellow, and in 
1877 Principal, of Hertford. In 1879 he 
was select preacher before the University, 
and in 1890 Vice-Chancellor. Address : 
Hertford College, Oxford. 

BOYD, Hon. Walter, LL.D., was born 
at Dublin on Jan. 28, 1833, and was edu- 
cated at Portora, Enniskillen, and Trinity 
College, Dublin. He was called to the 
Irish Bar in 1856, was appointed Q.C. in 

1877, and Queen's Advocate for Ireland in 

1878. He became a Judge in the Irish Court 
of Bankruptcy in 1885, and after holding 
that position for twelve years, he was in 
1897appointed a Justice of the High Court 
of Justice in Ireland. He is the author of 
" Law and Practice of the Court of Admir- 
alty in Ireland." Addresses : 66 Merrion 
Square, Dublin ; and Howth House, Howth, 
County Dublin. 

BOYLE, Sir Courtenay, K.C.B., was 
born in Jamaica on Oct. 21, 1845, being 
the son of Cavendish Spencer Boyle, and 
was educated at Charterhouse and Christ 
Church, Oxford. Appointed private secre- 
tary to the Viceroy of Ireland in 1868, he 
became an Inspector of the Local Govern- 
ment Board in 1873, returning again to 
the private secretaryship to the Viceroy in 
1882. Three years later, in 1885, he was 
appointed Assistant Secretary to the Board 
of Trade, and after seven years' service in 
that position, he became Permanent Secre- 
tary to the Board of Trade in 1893. Sir 
Courtenay Boyle was created a K.C.B. in 
1892, and is married to Lady Muriel Sarah 
Campbell, daughter of the 2nd Earl of 
Cawdor. He played in the Oxford cricket 
eleven from 1864 to 1867, and has also 
represented his University at tennis. 
Address : 11 Granville Place, Portman 
Square, W. 

BOYLE, The Very Rev. George 
David, Dean of Salisbury, is the eldest 
son of the late Right Hon. David Boyle, 
Lord Justice-General and President of the 
Court of Session in Scotland, by his second 
marriage with Camilla Catherine, eldest 
daughter of the late Mr. David Smythe, of 
Methven, Perthshire, and was born in 
1828. He was educated at the Edinburgh 
Academy, the Charterhouse, and at Exeter 
College, Oxford (B.A. 1851, M.A. 1853). 
Between 1853 and 1860 he held in succes- 
sion curacies in Kidderminster and Hagley. 
He was Incumbent of St. Michael's, Hands- 
worth, from 1861 to 1867, and Rural Dean 
of Handsworth, 1866-67. He was appointed 
Vicar of Kidderminster in 1867, and Rural 
Dean in 1877, and he was Hon. Canon of 
Worcester from 1872 till 1880, when he 
was appointed Dean of Salisbury. Dean 
Boyle is the author of "My Aids to the 
Divine Life," " Richard Baxter," " Re- 
collections of the Dean of Salisbury," 
1895; and editor of "Characters and 
Episodes of the Great Rebellion from 
Clarendon." He married in 1861 Mary 
Christiana, eldest daughter of the late Mr. 
William Robins, of Hagley, Worcester- 
shire. Addresses : Deanery, Salisbury ; 
and Athenaeum. 

BOYNE, Leonard, actor, was born in 
Ireland in 1852, was educated by a private 
tutor at Dublin, was originally intended 
for the army, but eventually entered the 
dramatic profession in 1869. Unsuccessful 
at first, he soon, however, by bard and 
conscientious work, advanced rapidly in 
his profession, and before he was twenty 
years of age he was leading man in the 
Theatre Royal, Newcastle-on-Tyne, and 
was playing such parts as Bob Brierly, 
Macduff, and Richmond. Shortly after- 
wards he supported Mrs. Scott-Siddons at 
Glasgow, playing Charles Surface, Orlando, 
&c. He first appeared in London in 1874, 
in the character of John Fein in "Pro- 
gress," and in the following year he was 
engaged by Miss Ada Cavendish to play 
Romeo, Orlando, Claude Melnotte, and 
similar parts. In 1884 he joined Wilson 
Barrett's company, in order to take the 
important part of Claudian in the play of 
that name. Since then he has played in 
" The Armada," " Sister Mary," " Ariane," 
"The English Rose," and "The Prodigal 

BOYS, Charles Vernon, F.R.S., was 
born at Wing, near Oakham, Rutland, and 
is the youngest son of the Rev. Charles 
Boys. Mr. C. V. Boys was educated at 
Marlborough College and at the Royal 
School of Mines, of which he is an Asso- 
ciate. He was appointed Demonstrator in 
1881, and Assistant Professor of Physics 



in 1889, at the Normal School of Science 
and Royal School of Mines, South Kensing- 
ton and Jermyn Street. He resigned this 
position at the beginning of 1897, on being 
appointed one of the Metropolitan Gas 
Referees. He is the author of several 
papers published by the Royal Society, the 
Physical Society, the Royal Institution, 
and the Society of Arts ; of which the 
more important, or the best known, are on 
integrating and other calculating machines, 
on quartz fibres, on the "radio-micrometer," 
and other instruments for measuring 
radiant heat, on the photography of flying 
bullets by means of the electric spark, and 
on the measurement of the Newtonian 
Constant of Gravitation or the Weight of 
the Earth. He is a Fellow of the Royal 
Society, Officer of Public Instruction of 
France, Member of the Physical Society 
of London, and of the Royal Institution. 
Address : 66 Victoria Street, S.W. 

BBACKENBXJRY, Lieut.-General 
Sir Henry, K.C.B., K.C.S.I., R.A., born 
at Bolingbroke, Lincolnshire, Sept. 1, 1837, 
was educated at Tonbridge, Eton, and 
Woolwich. He was appointed to the 
Royal Artillery in April 1856, and served 
in the suppression of the Indian Mutiny 
in 1857-58. Subsequently he was appointed 
to the staff of the Royal Military Academy 
at Woolwich, first as Officer for Discipline, 
then as Instructor in Artillery, finally as 
Professor of Military History. He served 
throughout the Franco - German war as 
chief representative of the British National 
Society for Aid to Sick and Wounded in 
War, received the Iron Cross from the 
Emperor of Germany, and was made Officer 
of the Legion of Honour by the French 
Government, and Knight of the First Class 
of the Bavarian Order of St. Michael. 
Being appointed Military Secretary to Sir 
Garnet Wolseley, he served with him 
throughout the Ashanti Campaign, 1873- 
1874. He served as a member of a special 
mission to Natal in 1875, was Assistant 
Adjutant-General to the Cyprus Expedi- 
tionary Force in 1878, and raised and 
organised the Cyprus Military Police. In 
1879 he accompanied Sir Garnet Wolseley 
to South Africa as Military Secretary, and 
later succeeded Sir G. Colley as Chief of 
the Staff, in which capacity he served 
throughout the closing operations of the 
Zulu war and the campaign against Seku- 
kuni. In 1880 he was appointed Private 
Secretary to the Viceroy of India, and 
returned to England with the Earl of 
Lytton on his resignation. He was 
Military Attach^ to the British Embassy 
at Paris from January 1881 to May 1882, 
when he was appointed Assistant Under- 
Secretary for Ireland, to deal with all 
matters relating to police and crime in 

that country. He resigned the latter post, 
however, on July 19, 1882. In 1884 he 
was appointed Deputy Adjutant-General 
of the Nile Expeditionary Force, and 
subsequently Brigadier-General and second 
in command of the River Column of the 
expedition. When General Earle was 
killed during the action of Kirbekan, 
General Brackenbury assumed command 
of the column, and conducted it to near 
Abu Hamed, whence it was recalled by 
Lord Wolseley, down the rapids to Korti. 
He was promoted to be a Major-Genera], 
June 15, 1S85, for distinguished service in 
the field, and Lieut.-General, April 1, 1888. 
He was appointed head of the Intelligence 
Department of the War Office, Jan. 1, 
1886, and retained this position till March 
1891. In 1888 he was appointed a Member 
of a Royal Commission, under the Chair- 
manship of Lord Hartington, to inquire 
into the administration of the Naval and 
Military Departments of the State. In 
April 1891 he was appointed a Member of 
the Council of the Governor-General of 
India, and continued in this position till 
April 1896. He was knighted in 1894. 
He has been President of the Ordnance 
Committee since May 1896, and was ap- 
pointed Colonel Commandant of the Royal 
Artillery in 1897. He is the author of 
" Fanti and Ashanti," 1873 ; " Narrative of 
the Ashanti War " ; " The River Column " ; 
and of several military pamphlets. He 
married Emilia, daughter of E. S. Halswell, 
and widow of Reginald Morley, in 1861. 
Address : 23 Hanover Square, W. 

BRADDON, The Bight Hon. Sir 
Edward Nicholas Coventry, K.C.M.G., 
son of Henry Braddon of Skirdon Lodge, 
Cornwall, and brother of the novelist, Miss 
E. Braddon (Mrs. Maxwell), was born June 
11, 1829 ; educated at private schools and 
by private tutor, and at the London Uni- 
versity ; went to India in 1847 to the 
mercantile house of his cousins, Messrs. 
Bagshaw and Co. (afterwards Braddon and 
Co.), Calcutta. After eight years spent in 
mercantile pursuits, he was engaged in 
civil engineering in charge of an Assistant 
Engineer's length of the East India Rail- 
way, during which time he led a small 
force of volunteers against the insurgent 
Santhals ; he subsequently served as a 
volunteer with the 7th N.I. against the 
rebels, and on the close of the rebel- 
lion pursued and captured fourteen of the 
leading Santhals implicated in the murder 
of several Europeans and natives. As 
some recognition of these services he 
received the appointment of Assistant 
Commissioner in charge of the Deoghur 
District, Santhal Pergunnahs, October 1857. 
He served under Sir George Yule as a 
volunteer against the rebel Sepoys in the 



Purneah and adjoining districts (Mutiny 
medal and favourable mention in des- 
patches). Raised a regiment of Santhals, 
for which service he was thanked specially 
by the Lieut.-Governor of Bengal. In 
April 1862 Mr. Braddon was promoted to 
be superintendent of Excise and Stamps, 
Oudh ; subsequently made Inspector- 
General of Begistration, and Superinten- 
dent of Trade Statistics in that Province, 
and during eighteen months acted in 
addition as Revenue Secretary to the 
Financial Commissioner. Retired from 
the service, Mr. Braddon made Tasmania 
his home. He arrived there in May 1878, 
and was elected in July 1879 a member of 
the House of Assembly for West Devon. 
That seat he retained through four elec- 
tions until he left Tasmania as Agent- 
General. In 1876 he was appointed leader 
of the Opposition. In 1887 he took office 
in a new Administration as Minister of 
Lands and Works and Education. On 
Oct. 29, 1888, he was appointed Agent- 
General for Tasmania, but was succeeded 
in that office by Sir Robert Herbert, K.C.B., 
in 1893. Since 1894 he has been Premier 
and Leader of the House of Assembly. In 
1891 he was made a K.C.M.G. He was 
sworn of the Privy Council on the occasion 
of the Queen's Jubilee, 1897. Sir E. 
Braddon has contributed many articles to 
reviews, magazines, and newspapers. His 
first published work, "Life in India," 
came out in 1870, since which he has pub- 
lished, in 1895, " Thirty Years of Shikar." 
He married, second, in 1876 Alice, daughter 
of W. H. Smith. Address : Treglith, West 
Devon, Tasmania. 

BRADDON, Mary Elizabeth. See 

Maxwell, Mrs. John. 

BRADFORD, Colonel Sir Edward 
Ridley Colborne, G.C.B., K.S.C.I., Com- 
missioner of Police in succession to Mr. 
Munro since the year 1890, is a son of the 
late Rev. W. M. K. Bradford, Rector of 
West Meon, Hants, by Mary, daughter of 
the late Rev. H. C. Ridley, and he was born 
in 1836. He entered the Madras Army in 
1853, became Lieutenant in 1855, Captain 
in 1865, Major in 1873, Lieutenant-Colonel 
in 1879, and Colonel in 1883. Sir Edward 
Bradford has the Persian medal, and 
served with the 14th Light Dragoons in 
the Persian campaign from February 21 
till June 8, 1857, in the Jubbulpore district 
during 1857, and afterwards in the North- 
Western Provinces with General Michel's 
force in Mayne's Horse against Tantia 
Topee in 1858. He was present at the 
general action of Scindwha and the action 
and pursuit at Karai, and served with 
General Napier's columns in Mayne's Horse 
from December 1858 to September 1859, 

and was present in several actions with 
the enemy, gaining the medal, and being 
twice thanked in despatches. The new 
Commissioner has held the position of 
General Superintendent of the operations 
for the suppression of Thnggi and Dacoity, 
was Resident First Class and Governor- 
General's Agent for Rajpootana, and has 
been Chief Commissioner in Ajmere. He 
has since his return to this country been 
Secretary of the Political and Secret De- 
partment of the India Office. Sir Edward, 
who was knighted in 1885, and appointed 
A.D.C. to the Queen in the year 1889, 
accompanied H.RH. the late Duke of 
Clarence and Avondale on his visit to 
India. He held the appointment of AD.C. 
till 1893. He has lost his left arm, the 
result of an encounter with a tiger some 
years ago. Addresses : 58 Eccleston Square, 
S.W. ; and Athenaeum. 

BRADFORD, John Rose, M.D., was 
born in London, May 7, 1863, and was 
educated at University College School, 
University College, and University College 
Hospital. He holds the degrees of M.D. 
and D.Sc. of London ; is a Fellow of the 
Royal College of Physicians, and was 
elected a I"ellow of the Royal Society in 
1894. Elected Assistant-Physician to Uni- 
versity College Hospital in 1889, he became 
subsequently Physician, and was appointed 
Professor Superintendent of the Brown In- 
stitution in 1896. Dr. Bradford has made 
contributions to scientific and medical 
literature, in the Proceedings of ike Royal 
Society, and in the Transactions of various 
medical societies. Address : 60 Wimpole 
Street, W. 

BRADLEY, Professor Andrew 

Cecil, son of the Rev. Charles Bradley, of 
St. James's, Clapham, and half-brother of 
Dean Bradley, was born at Clapham, March 
26, 1851. He was educated at Cheltenham 
College, whence in 1869 he passed as an 
Exhibitioner to Balliol College, Oxford. 
Having taken his degree, with a first-class 
in honours in 1873, he was in the following 
year elected to a Fellowship in Balliol 
College, and soon afterwards gained the 
Chancellor's prize for an English Essay. 
He was elected to a lectureship in philo- 
sophy, and continued as a teacher at 
Balliol until the beginning of 1882, when 
he became Professor of Modern Literature 
and History at the newly-founded Univer- 
sity College, Liverpool. Here he remained 
until July 1889, when, on the resignation of 
Professor Nichol, he was appointed Regius 
Professor of English Language and Litera- 
ture in the University of Glasgow. Besides 
various literary and philosophical articles 
and addresses, he is the author of an essay 
on Aristotle's Conception of the State, 



published in Mr. Evelyn Abbott's " Hel- 
lenica." He is also the editor of the "Pro- 
legomena to Ethics," a work left unfinished 
by Professor Green, who was his tutor at 
Oxford. Address : Glasgow University. 

BRADLEY, The Very Rev. George 
Granville, D.D., LL.D., Dean of West- 
minster, is one of the sons of the Eev. 
Charles Bradley, who was for many years 
vicar of Glasbury, in the county of Brecon, 
and sometime incumbent of St. James's 
Chapel at Clapham, Surrey. He was born 
in 1821, and educated under the Rev. C. 
Pritchard at the Clapham Grammar School, 
and for three years under Dr. Arnold at 
Rugby, from which school he was elected 
to an open scholarship at University Col- 
lege, Oxford, where he was a favourite 
pupil of Dean Stanley, who at that time 
was tutor. He took his Bachelor's degree 
in Easter Term, 1844, as a first class in 
Classical Honours, and in 1845 obtained 
the Chancellor's prize for a Latin essay, 
his subject being "The Equestrian Order 
in the Roman Republic." Having been 
elected to a Fellowship in 1844, he pro- 
ceeded M.A. in 1847. Mr. Bradley was 
one of the assistant - masters of Rugby 
School for some years, under Dr. Tait 
and his successor, Dr. Goulburn, and was 
elected in 1858 to the Headmastership of 
Marlborough College, on the preferment 
of his predecessor, Dr. Cotton, to the 
bishopric of Calcutta. Mr. Bradley was 
ordained deacon in 1858 by the Bishop 
of London, and priest in the same year 
by the Bishop of Salisbury. In December 
1870 he was elected to the Mastership of 
University College, Oxford, in the place 
of the late Dr. Plumptre. The honorary 
degree of LL.D. was conferred upon him 
by the University of St. Andrews, Feb. 25, 
1873. He was appointed Examining Chap- 
lain to the Archbishop of Canterbury in 
1874 ; was Select Preacher at Oxford, 
1874-75 ; held the post of Hon. Chaplain 
to the Queen, 1874-75 ; and of Chaplain 
in Ordinary, 1876-81. In October 1880, he 
was nominated a Member of the Oxford 
University Commission, in the place of 
Lord Selborne, resigned. He obtained a 
Canonry in Worcester Cathedral in Feb- 
ruary 1881, and August in the same year 
he was appointed by the Crown to the 
Deanery of Westminster, in succession to 
the late Dean Stanley. The degree of 
D.D. was conferred upon him at Oxford, 
Oct. 28, 1881. In 1882 he delivered at 
Edinburgh a series of lectures, afterwards 
published under the title of " Recollections 
of Arthur Penrhyn Stanley," 1883. On 
the death of Mr. Theodore Walrond, Dr. 
Bradley undertook the task of preparing 
for publication the biography of Dean 
Stanley, which was finally completed by 

Mr. R. E. Prothero at the close of the year 
1893. In 1885 he published a volume of 
Westminster Abbey Lectures on the Book 
of Ecclesiastes, and in 1887 a similar 
volume on the Book of Job. He is also 
the writer of two books on Latin Prose, 
which have had a large circulation. Dr. 
Bradley married in 1849 Marian Jane, 
fifth daughter of the Rev. Benjamin Phil- 
pot, formerly Rector of Great Cressingham, 
Norfolk. One of his daughters, Margaret 
L. Woods (q-v.), wife of the late President 
of Trinity College, Oxford, is the authoress 
of "A Village Tragedy," 1887, and other 
well-known works. Another daughter, now 
Mrs. A. Murray Smith, is the authoress of 
the "Life of Lady Arabella Stuart," pub- 
lished in 1886, and, with a third sister, 
of the "Deanery Guide" to Westminster 
Abbey. The Dean's eldest son, Mr. A. G. 
Bradley, is the author of " The Life of 
General Wolfe," "Sketches in Old Vir- 
ginia," and other works. Addresses: The 
Deanery, Westminster ; and AthenEeum. 

BRADLEY, Henry, son of John 
Bradley, was born at Manchester, Dec. 3, 
1845, and was educated at Chesterfield 
Grammar School. After spending some 
part of his early life in teaching, he found 
work as a commercial clerk and foreign 
correspondent at Sheffield. Removing to 
London in 1884, he took up literary work, 
contributed to the Academy and the 
Athenceum, and was temporary editor of 
the Academy for a portion of the year 
1884-85. He acted as President of the 
Philological Society from 1891 to 1893, 
and joined Dr. Murray as joint-editor of 
the Oxford English Dictionary in 1889. 
He is the author of: "The Story of the 
Goths," 1888; revised edition of " Strat- 
mann's Middle-English Dictionary," 1891 ; 
revised editions of "Morris's Elementary 
Lessons in Historical English Grammar," 
and of ' ' Morris's Primer of English Gram- 
mar," 1897 ; and he has edited the sections 
E., F., and G. of the Oxford English 
Dictionary. Address : North House, Clar- 
endon Press, Oxford. 

BRADY, Professor George 

Stewardson, born in 1832, at Gateshead- 
on-Tyne, was educated at Ackworth School, 
Yorkshire, Tulketh Hall, Lancashire, and 
at the University of Durham College of 
Medicine, Newcastle-upon-Tyne; M.D., 
and LL.D. (hon.) St. Andrews; F.R.S. ; 
Corresponding Member of the Zoological 
Society of London, and Academy of Natural 
Science, Philadelphia, &c. ; Professor of 
Natural History in the Durham College 
of Science, Newcastle-upon-Tyne ; Hon. 
Physician to the Sunderland Infirmary. 
His principal published works are as fol- 
lows : " A Monograph of the Recent 



British Ostracoda," in Transactions of the 
Linnean Society, 1868 ; " A Monograph of 
the Post-Tertiary Entomostraca of Scot- 
land and Parts of England and Ireland " 
(Palasontographical Society, 1874 — jointly 
with H. W. Crosskey and D. Robertson) ; 
" A Monograph of the Fossil Ostracoda of 
the Antwerp Crag" (Transactions of the 
Zoological Society of London, 1875) ; "A 
Monograph of the Free and Semiparasitic 
Copepoda of the British Islands," 3 vols. 
(Bay Society, 1877-80); "Report on the 
Ostracoda of the Challenger Expedition " 
(1880); "Report on the Copepoda of the 
Challenger Expedition " (1884) ; "A Mono- 
graph of the Marine and Fresh-Water 
Ostracoda of the North Atlantic and of 
North-Western Europe : Section 1, Podo- 
copa " (Transactions of the Royal Dublin 
Society, vol. iv. 1889 — jointly with the Rev. 
Canon Norman, D.C.L.) ; " A Supplemen- 
tary Report on the Myodocopa obtained 
during the Challenger Expedition" (Trans- 
actions of the Zoological Society of London, 
1897) ; " On Ostracoda Collected in the 
South Sea Islands by H. B. Brady, Esq., 
D.C.L., F.R.S. " (Transactions of the Royal 
Society of Edinburgh, 1889), besides numer- 
ous contributions to medical and scientific 
journals. Professor Brady was in practice 
as physician and surgeon in Sunderland 
from 1857 to 1892, and held the positions 
of Physician to the Sunderland Infirmary 
and to the Sunderland Children's Hospital, 
the Girls' Reformatory, and the Industrial 
School. He is now President of the " Sun- 
derland Subscription Library and Literary 
Society," and of the " Sunderland Micro- 
scopical Society," and Vice-President of 
the " Natural History Society of North- 
umberland, Durham, and Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne." He has been twice President of 
the "Tyneside Naturalists' Field Club," 
and was a Vice-President of the Interna- 
tional Congress of Zoologists, 1898. Ad- 
dress : The Durham College of Science, 

BRADY, Sir Thomas Francis, son 

of Patrick William Brady of Cavan, was 
born in July 1824, and was educated 
at Trinity College, Dublin. He entered 
the Irish Board of Public Works in 1846, 
and was appointed an Inspector of Irish 
Fisheries in 1860, which position he con- 
tinued to hold until 1891. He has served 
as a Member of several Royal Commissions, 
viz., that on " Sea and Oyster Fisheries" 
in 1868, and the one on "Trawling" in 
1884. Sir Thomas is the author of: 
" Digests of the Irish Fishery Laws," and 
is married to Annie, daughter of John 
Lipsett, Manor House, Ballyshannon. He 
received the honour of knighthood in 
1886. Address: 11 Percy Place, Dublin; 
and Baltimore, county Cork. 

BRAMLEY, Frank, A.R.A., son of 
Charles Bramley of Fiskerton, Lincoln, 
was born near Boston, Lincolnshire, on 
May 6, 1857, and was educated at Lincoln. 
He studied at the Lincoln School of Art 
and at Antwerp, and was elected an Asso- 
ciate of the Royal Academy of Arts in 
1894. Amongst his works there may be 
mentioned: "Domino," 1886 ; "Eyes and 
no Eyes," 1887; "A Hopeless Dawn," 
1888 (purchased under the terms of the 
Chantrey Bequest); "Saved," 1889; "For 
of such is the Kingdom of Heaven," 1891 ; 
"Old Memories," 1892; "After Fifty 
Years," 1893 ; "Sleep, a Portrait of Mrs. 
Bolitho," 1895 ; "After the Storm," 1896; 
and several portraits in 1897. Mr. Bram- 
ley was married, in 1891, to Katherine, 
daughter of John Graham of Huntingstile, 
Grasmere. Address : Huntingstile, Gras- 
mere, Westmoreland. 

BRAMWELL, Sir Frederick 
Joseph, Bart., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., 
Past President of the Institution of Civil 
Engineers, youngest son of the late George 
Bramwell, banker, was born in the year 
1818. From his earliest boyhood he 
showed great interest in mechanics, as 
evinced by his endeavours to repeat, in a 
rough model, the steam ^engines and 
winding machinery which he had seen at 
the age of nine in use in the construction 
of the St. Katharine's Dock. In 1834 he 
was apprenticed to one of the old school 
of mechanical engineers, John Hague, 
with whom he served his time, and with 
whom he continued for a few years as 
principal draughtsman ; then, after a varied 
experience in the employment of others, 
in 1853 he began business on his own ac- 
count as a civil engineer. In 1856 he was 
elected an Associate of the Institution of 
Civil Engineers ; in 1862 was transferred 
to full membership of that body ; in 1867 
was elected a Member of its Council, and 
in 1884-85 had the honour of filling the 
position of President, having previously 
been, in the years 1874-75, President of 
the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. 
In 1881, on the formation of the present 
Ordnance Committee, he was appointed 
one of the two lay members of that Com- 
mittee. He has also, in the exercise of 
his profession, and at the instance of the 
Government, served on several committees 
which have been appointed for various 
purposes. Having been for some years a 
member of the British Association, he 
was in 1872 made President of Section G 
(Mechanical Section), and was selected to 
refill this office on the occasion of a visit 
of the Association to Montreal in 1884, 
and was elected President of that body 
for the year commencing with the Bath 
meeting, September 1888. In 1873 he 



was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, 
and in the year 1878 served on its Council. 
Having been a member of the Board of 
Managers of the Royal Institution for 
some time, he was, on the retirement of 
Sir William Bowman in 1885, appointed 
to the position of Hon. Secretary of that 
body. In 1884 he was nominated by 
H.R.H. the Prince of Wales to the position 
of Chairman of the Executive Council of 
the Inventions Exhibition which was held 
in the following year. On the formation 
of the City and Guilds of London Institute 
for the Advancement of Technical Educa- 
tion, he was appointed by the Goldsmiths' 
Company as one of their representatives, 
being at that time Prime Warden of the 
Company, and was elected by the Execu- 
tive Committee of the Institute to be their 
Chairman. In 1885 he became Hon. Sec- 
retary of the Royal Institution of Great 
Britain. In 1881 he received the honour 
of knighthood in connection with his 
services in the promotion of technical 
education, and in 1886 the honorary 
degree of D.C.L. from Oxford. In 
1889 he was created a Baronet, and 
in 1891 was made an honorary LL.D. 
of Cambridge. Addresses : 1A Hyde 
Park Gate, S.W. ; Four Elms, Kent ; 5 
Great George Street, Westminster ; and 

BRAMWELL, John Milne, M.B., 
born at Perth, N.B., May 11, 1852, is 
the son of James Paton Bramwell, M.D., 
of Perth, and was educated at Perth 
Grammar School and the University of 
Edinburgh, where he took the degree of 
M.B. and CM., 1873. Immediately after 
graduating, he was appointed surgeon in 
the Liverpool, Brazil, and River Plate 
Mail SS. Co., remained a year in the 
Company, made three voyages to Brazil 
and River Plate ; then he was appointed 
Assistant-Surgeon at the Perth City In- 
firmary, and subsequently settled in Goole 
as partner with Malcolm Morris (now 
Lecturer on Skin Diseases, St. Mary's 
Hospital, London). He has recently de- 
voted much study to hypnotism, to which 
his attention was first drawn by seeing, 
when a child, hypnotic experiments per- 
formed by his father. He read Dr. 
Gregory's book on the subject, and a 
translation from the German book by 
Reichenbach, and never lost interest in 
the subject ; but he commenced its serious 
study not many years ago, and has read 
much of the important Continental lite- 
rature bearing upon it. He has twice 
visited Nancy, and observed the methods 
employed there, and at La Salpe'triere at 
Paris, and has also spent some time at the 
hypnotic cliniques in Switzerland, Holland, 
and Sweden. The French methods of in- 

ducing hypnosis differ. He combined the 
two methods, and found the result far 
more successful than that obtained by 
either of the French schools, pushed hyp- 
notic practice more boldly after returning 
from France, and has treated many cases. 
On March 28, 1890, he gave to medical 
men at Leeds demonstration of hypnotism 
as an Anaesthetic, a report of which was 
published in The Lancet and The British 
Medical Journal of April 5, 1890. Mr. 
Bramwell's publications are : "Extractions 
under Hypnotism," The Journal of the 
British Dental Association, March 15, 1890 ; 
an article in Health on hypnotism, May 
16, 1890; "Successful Treatment of Dip- 
somania, Insomnia, &c., &c, and Various 
Diseases by Hypnotic Suggestion," 1890-92 ; 
' ' Alterations in the Special Senses and 
Induction of Anaesthesia for Operative 
Purposes by Suggestion in the apparently 
Waking State," 1892; "Hypnotism with 
Illustrative Cases," Transactions of the 
Harveian Society ; "On Imperative Ideas," 
Brain, Parts lxx. and lxxi. ; "James Braid, 
Surgeon and Hypnotist," ibid. , Part Ixxiii. ; 
" Un Cas d'Hyperhydrose Localised Traitd 
avec Succes par la Suggestion Hypnotique," 
Revue de VHypnot, 1895 ; " La Gueiison 
des Obsessions par la Suggestion," ibid., 
1896; "Hypnotic Anaesthesia," Practi- 
tioner, 1896; "James Braid: his Work 
and Writings," Proceedings of the Society 
of Psychological Research, 1896; "Per- 
sonally Observed Hypnotic Phenomena : 
and What is Hypnotism?" ibid., 1896; 
" On the Evolution of Hypnotic Theory," 
Brain, Part lxxvi., 1896; "On the So- 
called Automatism of the Hypnotised 
Subject," and "On the Appreciation of 
Time by Somnambules," Dritter Internat. 
Cong, fur Psychol., Miinchen, 1896; "Sug- 
gestion : its Place in Medicine and 
Scientific Research" ("Humane Science 
Lectures by Various Authors," George 
Bell & Sons), 1897. Address : 2 Henrietta 
Street, Cavendish Square, W. 

BKANDES, Georg, a Danish author 
of Jewish family, was born at Copenhagen, 
Feb. 4, 1842. He studied in the University 
of his native city, 1859-64, applying him- 
self first to Jurisprudence and then to 
philosophy and aesthetics. In 1862 he 
gained the gold medal of the University 
by an essay on "Fatalism among the 
Ancients," and afterwards passed the 
examination for his degree with the 
highest distinction. As soon as he had 
graduated he left Denmark and spent 
several years in different countries on the 
Continent. He was at Stockholm in 1865 ; 
passed the winter of 1866-67 at Paris ; was 
in Germany in 1868 ; and in France and 
Italy in 1870-71. He published "Dualis- 
meni von nyeste Filosofi" (" The Dualism 



of the Philosophy of the Present Time ") 
in 1866, with reference to the relations 
between science and faith — a work which 
exposed him to violent attacks from the 
orthodox party; "^Esthetic Studies," 
1868; "Criticisms and Portraits," 1870; 
and "French ^Esthetics at the Present 
Day," 1870. On returning from his travels 
he became a private tutor in the University 
of Copenhagen, and delivered the series 
of lectures which were published at Copen- 
hagen in 5 vols., 1872-82, under the title 
of " Hovedstromninger i det 19 Aarhun- 
dredes literatur" ("The Great Literary 
Currents of the Nineteenth Century"), 
and were subsequently translated into 
German by himself. He has given Danish 
translations of John Stuart Mill's essay on 
the " Subjection of Women," 1869, and 
his " Utilitarianism," 1872 ; and edited 
" Soren Kierkegaard," 1877 ; and "Danske 
Digtere " (Danish Poets), 1877. In October 
1877 Brandes left Denmark and settled in 
Berlin, where he diligently studied and 
made himself master of the German lan- 
guage. At Berlin he composed the bio- 
graphies "Esajas Tegner" and "Benjamin 
d'Israeli," both published in 1878. In the 
spring of the year 1883 he returned to 
Denmark, his fellow-countrymen having 
guaranteed him an income of 4000 crowns 
for ten years, with the single stipulation 
that he should deliver public lectures 
on literature at Copenhagen. He has 
further published "Ferdinand Lassalle," 
1881; "Men and Works," 1883; "The 
Men of the Modern Literary Revival," 
1883; "Ludwig Holberg," 1884 ; "Berlin," 
1885; "Impressions of Poland," 1888; 
" Impressions of Russia," 1888 ; and 2 vols, 
of his "Essays," 1889. English transla- 
tions of his works, edited in England and 
America, are "Lord Beaconsfield," 1880; 
"Eminent Authors of the Nineteenth Cen- 
tury," 1886 ; and " Impressions of Russia," 
1889. His Study of Shakespeare in 1898 
was received with much favour in Eng- 
land. It was principally translated by Mr. 
William Archer, and is worthy of a scholar 
who has soaked himself in Shakespereana 
for the last thirty years. On the disputable 
point of the sonnets, he supports the theory 
that the originator of them was the Earl 
of Pembroke, whose liaison with Mary 
Fitton he holds to be the subject of the 
series. He points out the change that 
took place in Shakespeare's plays after 
his patron, Lord Southampton, had been 
condemned for participation in Essex's re- 
bellion — how the optimism of " Henry V." 
changes to the sombreness of "Lear" 
and " Coriolanus." The great purpose of 
his book is to show that Shakespeare was 
a man, and not a mere label for the author 
of some plays and poems. His contempt 
for the Baconian theory is marked. 

BE, AND IS, Sir Dietrich, Ph.D., 
K.C.I.E., F.R.S., son of Dr. Christian 
August Brandis, Professor of Philosophy 
at the University of Bonn, by Caroline, 
daughter of Bernhard Housmann, of Han- 
over, was born at Bonn on March 31, 1824. 
He was educated at the High School 
(Gymnasium) of Bonn, Copenhagen, and 
Gottingen, and from 1837 to 1839, while in 
Athens (where his father had been called 
to assist in organising the University), 
was educated by Dr. Ernst Curtius, now 
Professor at Berlin. He studied at the 
Universities of Copenhagen, Gottingen 
and Bonn ; took his degree as Doctor of 
Philosophy at Bonn in 1848, was lecturer 
on Botany at that University from 1849 to 
1855 ; was appointed by Lord Dalhousie, 
then Governor-General of India, Superin- 
tendent of Forests in Pegu, which appoint- 
ment he gained in January 1856. The 
charge of the forests of Tenasserim and 
Martaban was added in 1857. On the 
amalgamation of the provinces he was 
appointed Superintendent of Forests in 
British Burmah. In November 1862 Dr. 
Brandis was called to Calcutta to organise 
Forest administration in the provinces 
immediately under the Government of 
India, and in 1864 he was appointed In- 
spector-General of Forests to the Govern- 
ment of India. On several occasions he 
was deputed to assist in the organisation 
of Forest business in the minor Presi- 
dencies, viz., to Sind in 1868, to Bombay 
in 1870, and to Madras in 1881. While on 
furlough to recruit his health, Dr. Brandis 
published (in 1874) a Forest Flora of 
North- West and Central India. In 1878 
he founded the Indian Forest School at 
Dehra Dim, in North-West India, for the 
education of natives of India for the post 
of forest rangers. In 1883 he retired from 
the service. Of his numerous official 
publications the most important are a 
"Report on the Attaran Forests," pub- 
lished at Calcutta in 1861, and a "Report 
on the Forest Administration in the 
Madras Presidency," published at Madras 
in 1883. In 1878 Dr. Brandis was created 
a Companion of the Indian Empire, and 
in 1887 the honour of a Knight Com- 
mander of the same Order was con- 
ferred upon him. In 1874 Dr. Brandis was 
made an Hon. Member of the Scottish 
Arboricultural Society, and in 1875 he was 
elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. Of 
the numerous papers contributed by him 
to scientific periodicals may be mentioned: 
" On the Distribution of Forests in India," 
"Ocean Highways," 1872; "Progress of 
Forestry in India," Transactions, Scottish 
Arboricultural Society, 1884; "Regen und 
Wald in Indien," Deutsche Meteorologmhc 
Zeitschrift, October 1887. He is now living 
in retirement at Bonn, his native place. 



BRANDL, Alois, German author, 
was born at Innsbruck, June 21, 1855, and 
studied at the University of Vienna, and 
then at Berlin under Miillenhoff and 
Zupitza, where he specialised in Old 
English. This led to his coming to Eng- 
land in 1879, where he studied under 
Sweet and Furnivall. In 1884 he became 
Professor of English at Prague, at Gottin- 
gen in 1888, and was called to succeed 
Ten Brink at Strasbourg in 1892. This 
post he resigned for a corresponding one 
in Berlin in 1895. His chief works are : 
"Thomas of Erceldoune," 1881; "S. T. 
Coleridge und die Englische Eomantik," 
1886; and "Shakspere," 1894. He has 
edited the Archiv fur das Stadium dtr 
ntueren Sprachen since 1896. Berlin 
address : Kaiserin Augusta Strasse 73. 

BRASSEY, Lord, Sir Thomas 
Brassey, K.C.B., D.C.L., D.L., J.P., 1st 
Baron, eldest son of Thomas Brassey, the 
well-known contractor for public works, 
was born at Stafford on Feb. 11, 1836, and 
educated at Bugby and University College, 
Oxford, graduating in honours in the 
Modern Law and History School. He 
was elected for Devonport in 1865, has 
represented Hastings from 1868 to 
18S6, and was appointed Civil Lord of the 
Admiralty in 1880, and Secretary to the 
Admiralty in 1884. He is the author of 
"Work and Wages," "Lectures on the 
Labour Question," "English Work and 
Foreign Wages," "British Seamen," "The 
British Navy," in 5 vols., and The Naval 
Annual, a serial publication, commenced 
in 1886. He has published numerous 
pamphlets on political, economical, and 
naval questions. Lord Brassey began his 
career in Parliament by seconding a motion 
by Mr. Thomas Hughes in 1869 for an 
inquiry into the Labour Laws. In 1871 he 
began the first of a series of speeches on 
Naval Administration. The subjects dealt 
with have included the defence of the 
commercial harbours, the organisation of 
the Comptroller's Department of the Ad- 
miralty and of the Dockyards, the principal 
reform advocated being a more decen- 
tralised management. In treating of 
ship-building policy, the objections to 
extreme dimensions have been strongly 
urged. The Question of the Naval Re- 
serves was brought forward by Lord 
Brassey in Parliament on several occa- 
sions, and he succeeded in obtaining the 
consent of the Admiralty to the enrolment 
of a second class reserve, for which the 
fishing population would be eligible. The 
present strength of the force is 10,000. 
He also took an active part in establishing 
the Royal Naval Artillery Volunteers. 
Lord Brassey moved for a select committee 
on the Euphrates Valley Railway in 1871, 

and for a Royal Commission on Marine 
Insurance in 1875. In 1879 he seconded 
Mr. Chaplain's motion for the appointment 
of a Royal Commission on Agriculture. 
In 1874-75 he served on the Royal Com- 
mission on Unseaworthy Ships, in 1885 he 
was appointed a member of the Com- 
mission on the Defence of the Coaling 
Stations, and in 1893-94 he acted as the 
President of the Royal Commission on 
Opium, which held its inquiry in India 
and Burmah. As a yachtsman, Lord 
Brassey has made many distant voyages. 
In 1876-77 he went round the world in 
the Sunheam. In 1884 he visited the West 
Indies, and in 1886-87, India, Australia, 
and the Cape. A series of letters by him 
on the state of the defences of the coaling 
stations on the route to Australia by the 
Suez Canal, and to India by the Cape of 
Good Hope, was published in the Times. 
He was the first yachtsman who obtained 
a Board of Trade certificate for com- 
petency to navigate as master. The late 
Lady Brassey was the author of the well- 
known work, "Voyage of the Sunbeam," 
and other popular books of travel. She 
died at sea, Oct. 14, 1887. At the general 
election of 1886 Lord Brassey withdrew 
from Hastings and offered himself as a 
Gladstonian Liberal for one of the divisions 
of Liverpool. He was defeated, and on 
the resignation of Mr. Gladstone's Govern- 
ment he was raised to the peerage. Lord 
Brassey has taken an active part in the 
organisation of the Imperial Federation 
League. He introduced the deputation to 
Lord Salisbury, at whose instance the con- 
vening of the Colonial Conference of 1887 
was considered by the Government. In 
1895 he was appointed to the Governorship 
of Victoria, a position which he still 
occupies. He is a Younger Brother of the 
Trinity House, a Governor of University 
College, London, and a Commander of the 
Legion of Honour. On Sept. 8, 1890, Lord 
Brassey married the Hon. Sybil de Vere 
Capell, youngest daughter of the Vis- 
countess Maiden, and sister of the present 
Earl of Essex. His heir is the Hon. 
Thomas Brassey, born in 1862. Addresses : 
24 Park Lane, W. ; Normanhurst, Battle, 
Sussex ; and Athenaeum. 

BREADALBANE, Marquis of, The 
Right Hon. Gavin Campbell, E.G., D.L., 
was born April 9, 1851, and succeeded his 
father as Earl of Breadalbane (in the Scotch 
Peerage) in 1871. He was educated at 
St. Andrews, was a Lord-in-Waiting from 
1873 to 1874, Treasurer of the Queen's 
Household from 1880 to 1885, and Lord 
Steward of the Household from 1892 to 
1895. He also acted as Lord High Com- 
missioner to the General Assembly of the 
Church of Scotland from 1893 to 1895. He 



is a Major in the 5th Volunteer Battalion 
of the Royal Highlanders, and Brigadier- 
General of the Royal Company of Archers. 
Lord Breadalbane was created a Marquis 
in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 
1885, and was married, in 1872, to Alma, 
daughter of the 4th Duke of Montrose. 
Address : 19 Cavendish Square, W. ; and 
Taymouth Castle, Perthshire. 

BKEAI, Michel Jules Alfred, a 

French philologist, was born at Landau, 
Bavaria, of French parentage, March 26, 
1832. He received his early education in 
France, and studied Sanskrit at Berlin, 
under Professors Bopp and Weber. Re- 
turning to Paris, he joined the staff at 
the Bibliotheque Impenale, and in 1862 
obtained the Academy's prize for his 
"L'Etude des Origines de la Religion 
Zoroastrienne." In 1864 he was made 
Professor of Comparative Grammar at the 
College of France. M. Breal was elected 
a Member of the Institute, Dec. 3, 1875, 
and made Director at the Ecole des Hautes 
Etudes. In 1879 he was appointed In- 
spector-General of Public Instruction for 
secondary education. He retired in 1888, 
but still keeps his position as a member 
of the Council of Higher Education in 
France. He was made a Commander of 
the Legion of Honour in 1890. Among 
his works are : " Hercule et Cacus, Etude 
de Mythologie comparee," 1863 ; transla- 
tion of the " Bopp's Grammaire compared 
des Langues Indo-Europe'ennes," 1867-72 ; 
" Quelques Mots sur l'lnstruction publique 
en France," 1872 ; " L'Enseignement de la 
Langue Francaise," 1878; "Excursions 
pedagogiques," 1880; "La Relorme de 
Forthographie Francaise," 1890. Address : 
70 Rue d'Assas, Paris. 

BREITMANN, Hans. See Leland, 
Charles Godfrey. 

BKETT, Hon. Reginald Baliol, 

C.B., was born in London, June 30, 1852, 
and is the eldest son of Lord Esher, 
Master of the Rolls. He was educated at 
Cheam School, in Surrey, and at Eton, 
and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he 
graduated in 1874, and took his M.A. degree 
in 1877. At the end of that year he was 
appointed private secretary to the Marquis 
of Hartington, then the leader of the 
Liberal party. At the general election in 
1880, Mr. Brett was returned to Parliament 
for Falmouth, defeating Sir Julius Vogel, 
the late Prime Minister of New Zealand. 
Mr. Brett continued for a time to act as 
unpaid secretary to the Marquis of Hart- 
ington, who was appointed Secretary of 
State for India in Mr. Gladstone's Gov- 
ernment. At the general election of 1885 
Mr. Brett contested Plymouth, and was 

defeated by Sir Edward Clarke, M.P. In 
1895 he was appointed Secretary to H.M. 
Office of Works, and in June 1897, was 
created a Companion of the Bath. Mr. 
Brett is the author of " Footprints of 
Statesmen," 1892, "The Yoke of Empire," 
and of many articles on historical and poli- 
tical subjects in the Fortnightly Review and 
the Nineteenth Century. In September 
1879 he married Eleanor, the youngest 
daughter of M. Sylvain Van de Weyer, one 
of the founders of Belgian independence, a 
member of the Provisional Government of 
1830, and for many years subsequently 
Belgian Minister at the Court of St. James. 
Addresses ; 2 Tilney Street, Mayfair ; 
Orchard Lea, Windsor Forest ; The Roman 
Camp, Callander. 

BRETTL, Karl Hermann, was born at 
Hanover, Aug. 10, 1860, and educated from 
1868 to 1878 atthe Lyceum of his native town. 
From 1878 to 1883 he studied at the Univer- 
sities of Tubingen, Strassburg, under Ten 
Brink, and Berlin, where he took his 
degree of Ph.D. in 1883. In that year he 
went to Paris and studied under Gaston, 
Paris, and translated Tobler's work on 
" Old and Modern French Versification." 
In June 1884 he was appointed University 
Lecturer on German at Cambridge, and in 
1886 the degree of M.A. [honoris causa) was 
conferred upon him. He was appointed 
Lecturer in German at Newnham and 
Girton Colleges in 1885, and in 1897 he 
obtained the degree of Litt.D., and was 
appointed Secretary to the Special Board 
of Mediaeval and Modern Languages. He 
has examined for the Universities of Cam- 
bridge, Oxford, London, Victoria, Ireland 
(Royal), and the London Chamber of Com- 
merce. Since 1897 he has acted as German 
sub-editor of The Modern Quarterly, the 
organ of the Modern Language Association, 
of which he has been a prominent member 
from its commencement in 1893. Dr. 
Breul is an enthusiastic supporter of the 
teaching of modern languages as living 
tongues, and is in thorough accord with 
those teachers who are endeavouring to 
introduce the more scientific educational 
methods of Germany into England. His 
chief publications are : " Le Dit de 
Robert le Diable" (Halle, 1895); "A. 
Bibliographical Guide to the Study of 
German " (London, 1895) ; editions of Ger- 
man classics, such as "Das Bild des 
Kaisers," "Wilhelm Tell," "Maria Stuart," 
" Wallenstein " (Cambridge University 
Press, 1888-96); "Die Frauencollegen 
an der Universitat Cambridge" (1891). 
Address : Engelmere, Cambridge. 

BREWER., David Josiah, American 
jurist, is the son of an American missionary 
to Turkey, and was born at Smyrna, in 



Asia Minor, June 20, 1837. He graduated 
from Yale University, New Haven, Con- 
necticut, in 1856, and from the Law School 
at Albany, New York, in 1858. He estab- 
lished himself in his profession at Leaven- 
worth, Kansas, in 1859, and resided there 
until he removed to Washington to enter 
upon his duties in the Supreme Court of 
the United States. In 1862-65 he was 
Judge of the Probate and Criminal Courts 
of Leavenworth County ; from 1865 to 
1869, Judge of the District Court, and in 
1870 was elected a Justice of the Supreme 
Court of his State, being re-elected in 
1875 and 1882. In 1884 he was appointed 
Judge of the United States Circuit Court 
for the Eighth District, and was appointed 
a Justice of the Supreme Court of the 
United States in December 1889. In 
1896 he was appointed a member of the 
Venezuela Boundary Commission, of which 
he was unanimously elected President. 

BKIALHONI, General Alexis 
Henri, a Belgian military engineer, and 
writer on military subjects, son of General 
Laurent Mathieu Brialmont, was born at 
Venloo, in the province of Limburg, May 
25, 1821. He quitted the military school 
at Brussels with the rank of sub-lieutenant 
in 1843. Being connected, as au engineer 
officer, with the management of the fortifi- 
cations, he was appointed to carry out the 
works at the fortress of Diest. From 1847 
to 1850 he was private secretary to General 
Chazal, then Minister of War. In 1855 he 
left the corps of engineers and became a 
member of the staff, attaining to the rank 
of Captain in 1857. In due course he 
became Major-General, and in 1877 Lieu- 
tenant-General. He was appointed In- 
spector-General of Fortifications and of 
the Sappers and Miners in Belgium in 1875. 
Lieut. - General Brialmont has written 
many works on military history and tac- 
tics. The following are the principal : 
"Eloge de la Guerre, ou refutation des 
doctrines des Amis de la Paix," 1 vol. in 
12mo, 1894; "Precis d'Art militaire," 4 
vols, in 12mo, 1850 ; " Considerations poli- 
tiques et militaires sur la Belgique," 3 vols, 
in 8vo, 1851-52; " Histoire du Due de 
Wellington," 3 vols, in 8vo, 1856 ; " Agran- 
dissement general d'Anvers," 1 vol. in 8vo, 
with atlas, 1858 ; " Complement de l'CEuvre 
de 1830," 1 vol., in 8vo, 1860 ; "Etudes sur 
la Defense des Etats et sur la Fortification," 
3 vols, in 8vo, with atlas, 1863; "Etudes 
sur l'Organisation des Armies," 1 vol. in 
8vo, 1867 ; "Traits de Fortification poly- 
gonale," 2 vols. gr. in 8vd, with atlas, 
1869; "La Fortification a fosses sees," 
2 vols. gr. in 8vo, with atlas, 1872 ; " La 
Fortification improvisee," 1 vol. in 12mo, 
1870 ; " Etudes sur la Fortification des 
Capitales et 1'investissement des Camps 

retranches," 1 vol. gr. in 8vo, 1873; "La 
Defense des Etats et les Camps retranches," 
1 vol. in 8vo, 1876 ; "La Fortification du 
champ de bataille," 1 vol. gr. in Svo, with 
atlas, 1879 ; " Manuel de Fortification de 
Campagne," 1 vol. in Svo, 1879; "Etude 
sur les Formations de Combat de l'lnfan- 
terie, l'attaque et la defense des positions 
retranches," 1 vol. in Svo, 1880; "Tac- 
tique des trois Armees," 2 vols, in 8vo, 
with atlas, 1881 ; " Situation militaire de 
la Belgique, travaux de defense de la 
Meuse," 1 vol. in Svo, 1882; "Le general 
Todleben, sa vie et ses travaux," 1 vol. in 
12mo, 1884; "La Fortification du temps 
present," 2 vols. gr. in 8vo, with atlas, 
1885; "Influence du Tir plongeant et des 
Obus-torpilles sur la Fortification," 1 vol. 
gr. in Svo, with atlas, 1888; "Les regions 
fortifiers," 1 vol. gr. in 8vo, with atlas, 
1890; and forty pamphlets on political 
and military subjects, published from 
1846 to 1890. General Brialmont made the 
principal fortifications of Antwerp in 
1858 ; the fortifications of Bucharest in 
1883, as well as those of Liege, and of 
Namur in 1887. 

BRIDGE, Sir John, J.P., born in 1824, 
was educated at Trinity College, Oxford, 
and was called to the Bar at the Inner 
Temple in 1850. Appointed a Police 
Magistrate at the Bow Street Court in 
1872, he became Chief Police Magistrate 
for London in 1890, and in the same year 
he received the honour of knighthood. Sir 
John was married in 1857 to Ada Louisa, 
daughter of George Bridge. Addresses : 
50 Inverness Terrace, W. ; Headley Grove, 
Epsom ; and Athenasum. 

BRIDGE, Sir (John) Frederick, 
Mus.D., F.R.C.O., Organist at Westminster 
Abbey, son of John Bridge, was born 
Dec. 5, 1844, at Oldbury, Worcestershire, 
educated at Rochester Cathedral School 
under John Hopkins, and afterwards 
became a pupil of Sir John Goss. He 
was appointed Organist of Holy Trinity 
Church, Windsor, in 1865 ; of Manchester 
Cathedral in 1869 ; Professor of Harmony 
at Owens College, Manchester, in 1871 ; 
Permanent Deputy Organist of West- 
minster Abbey in 1875; and succeeded to 
the full offices of Master of the Choristers 
and Organist in 1882. He is also Pro- 
fessor of Harmony and Counterpoint at 
the Royal College of Music. Sir John 
Bridge has composed the oratorio "Mount 
Moriah," a cantata, "Boadicea," "Hymn 
to the Creator " (the song of St. Francis), 
produced at the Worcester Festival, 1884 ; 
"Rock of Ages" (Latin translated by 
Mr. Gladstone), produced at the Bir- 
mingham Festival, 1885; "Callirhoe" at 
the Birmingham Festival, 1889; church 



music and part songs. He is the 
author of theoretical works on Counter- 
point, Double Counterpoint, and Canon, 
and "Organ Accompaniment" — all pub- 
lished in Novello's series of Primers. 
He wrote an oratorio for the Worcester 
Festival of 1890, and has composed "The 
Inchcape Rock " and other works for 
various societies. He was appointed 
Gresham Professor of Music in 1891. His 
last work is a Primer, entitled " Musical 
Gestures," which is a new system of teach- 
ing the rudiments of music by Manual 
Exercises. On Sir Joseph Barnby's death 
in 1896, he .was appointed Conductor of 
the Royal Choral Societj'. For the concert 
which concluded the season, and whicli 
was made the occasion of a celebration of 
the Jubilee, he set Mr. Rudyard Kipling's 
ballad, " The Flag of England," to music. 
He was knighted by her Majesty on the 
occasion of the Diamond Jubilee, 1897. 
Address : The Cloisters, Westminster Ab- 
bey, S.W. 

BRIDGES, Robert, M.A., M.B. Oxon., 
poet, the son of I. T. Bridges, of St. Nicholas 
Court, Isle of Tlianet, was born on Oct. 23, 
1844, and was educated at Eton and 
Corpus Christi College, Oxford, of which 
latter foundation he is an Hon. Fellow. 
On leaving Oxford he pursued the study 
of medicine at St. Bartholomew's Hospital, 
London, and eventually became Assistant 
Physician at the Children's Hospital, in 
Great Ormond Street, and Physician at 
the Great Northern Hospital. He retired 
from his medical duties in 1882. Dr. 
Bridges has a considerable reputation as a 
poet, and has published numerous plays 
and poems, the latter having been often 
privately printed at the Rev. Mr. Daniell's 
private printing press, Worcester College, 
Oxford. He is also the author of "An 
Essay on Milton's Poems," and "A Cri- 
tical Essay on Keats." He was married in 
1884 to Mary, eldest daughter of Alfred 
Waterhouse, R.A. Address : Yattendon, 

BRIGGS, Charles Augustus, D.D., 

was born in New York City, Jan. 15, 1841. 
He was educated at the University of 
Virginia (1857-60), and at the Union 
Theological Seminary, New York City 
(1861-63), studying afterwards at the 
University of Berlin under Dorner and 
Rodiger (1868-69). From 1870 to 1874 
he was pastor of the Presbyterian Church 
at Rosselle, N. J., and since 1874 he has 
held a Professorship at the Union Theo- 
logical Seminary. On his transferral in 
1891 from the chair of Hebrew and Cog- 
nate Languages to that of Biblical Theo- 
logy, he made an Address on "Authority 
of Holy Scripture " that provoked con- 

siderable controversy on the inerrancy 
of the Bible, and ultimately (in 1893) 
caused his suspension by the American 
Presbyterian Church from the ministry. 
He retains his Professorship, however, as 
the trustees and faculty of the seminary 
have sustained him in the controversy. 
He has nevertheless recently formally 
withdrawn from the Presbyterian Church, 
and applied for orders as a Protestant 
Episcopal clergyman. His principal pub- 
lications, in addition to contributions to 
periodicals, are: "Biblical Study," 1883; 
"American Presbvterianism," 1885; 
" Messianic Prophecy," 1886 ; " Whither ? " 
1889; "Biblical History," 1890; "Autho- 
rity of Holy Scripture," 1891 ; "The Messiah 
of the Gospels," 1894; "The Messiah of 
the Apostles," 1895. He was one of the 
translators of the Commentaries on the 
Psalms and Ezra in the " American Lange 

BRIGHT, The Right Hon. Jacob, 

M.P., son of the late Mr. Jacob Bright 
and brother of the late Right Hon. John 
Bright, was born in 1821, and educated at 
the Friends' School, York. He sat for 
Manchester from 1867 to 1874, and again 
from 1876 to November 1885, when he 
was defeated ; he was returned in 1886, 
and again in 1892, for the South- West 
Division of Manchester. He retired in 
1895. Mr. Jacob Bright has identified 
himself with the chief Radical movements 
of his time, and has for many years been 
in favour of Home Rule for Ireland. He 
obtained the Municipal vote for women 
in 1869, and has always supported their 
efforts to obtain the Parliamentary vote. 
He has, in fact, been one of the most 
thorough supporters of women in all that 
concerns their property and their status. 
In 1883 he succeeded in preventing the 
ratification of a treaty which proposed to 
give both banks of the Congo to Portugal. 
Mr. Gladstone then made the unprece- 
dented promise that the treaty should not 
be ratified without the consent of the 
House of Commons. Nothing more was 
heard of the treaty, and shortly after- 
wards freedom of commerce on the Congo 
was secured by the African Conference at 
Berlin. Mr. Jacob Bright is a Director of 
the Manchester Ship Canal. He is Chair- 
man of John Bright & Brothers of Roch- 
dale. He married in 1855 Ursula, daughter 
of Joseph Mellor, merchant, of Liverpool. 
Address : 31 St. James's Place, S.W. 

BRIGHT, James Franck, D.D., 

Master of University College, Oxford, was 
born in St. James's, Westminster, on May 
29, 1832, and is the third son of Dr. Richard 
Bright of Guy's Hospital. He was edu- 
cated at Rugby, and matriculated at 



University College at the age of eighteen. 
He was in the first class in Law and 
History in 1854; B.A., 1855; M.A., 1858; 
B.D. and D.D., 1884. From 185G to 1872 
he was an assistant master at Marlborough 
College, and at the head of its Modern 
Department ; and returned to his College 
in 1872, when he became Lecturer and 
Tutor in Divinity and Modern History at 
Balliol, and Modern History Lecturer at 
University. In 1874 he was elected a 
Fellow of his College, in 1875 Dean, in 
1877 Tutor, in 1881 Master. From 1872 
to 1875 he was Modern History Lecturer 
at University ; from 1873 to 1875 at Wad- 
ham and Queen's ; from 1875 to 1881 at 
New College ; from 1873 to 1875 Lecturer 
and Tutor at Corpus Christi ; aad from 
1872 to 1882 Lecturer and Tutor in Divinity 
and Modern History at Balliol. In 1877 he 
was appointed an Hon. Fellow of Balliol. 
He has been History Examiner on numerous 
occasions, and is the author of the well- 
known text-book, "A History of England," 
in 4 vols. In 1897 he published lives of 
Maria Theresa and Joseph II. He married 
in 1864 Emmeline Theresa, daughter of 
the Eev. E. D. Wickham, Vicar of Holm- 
wood. Addresses : University College, 
Oxford ; and Athenaeum. 

BRIGHT, Canon "William, D.D., 
Regius Professor of Ecclesiastical History, 
and Canon and Sub-Dean of Christ Church, 
Oxford, was born at Doncaster Dec. 14, 
1824, and is the son of William Bright, 
Town Clerk of Doncaster. From Rugby 
School he was elected scholar of Univer- 
sity College, Oxford, where he graduated 
in the first class in Classics in 1846. The 
next year he was elected a Fellow of his 
College, and gained the Johnson Theological 
Scholarship and the Ellerton Theological 
Prize, and in 1849 he proceeded MA. 
Applying himself to the study of divinity, 
he was ordained deacon in 1848, and 
priest in 1850, and in the succeeding year 
became theological tutor in Trinity Col- 
lege, Glenalmond. He returned to Oxford 
in 1859, and was afterwards appointed 
Tutor of University College. He was pro- 
moted in 1868 to the Regius Professor- 
ship of Ecclesiastical History, and to the 
canonry of Christ Church, which is attached 
to that chair. The University conferred 
upon him the degree of D.D. in 1869. He 
became Proctor for the Chapter in Con- 
vocation in 1878, and on subsequent 
occasions, and was Examining Chaplain 
to the Bishop of Lincoln, 1885-93. Dr. 
Bright's works are : " Ancient Collects 
selected from Various Rituals," 1857, 1867 ; 
"A History of the Church, from the Edict 
of Milan to the Council of Chalcedon," 
1860, 1888; "Select Sermons of St. Leo 
on the Incarnation, with his ' Tome,' 

translated with notes," 1862, 1886 ; "Faith 
and Life : Readings from Ancient Writers," 
1864, 1866. In 1865 he published, in 
collaboration with the Rev. P. G. Medd, 
M.A., a Latin version of the Book of 
Common Prayer; "Hymns and other 
Verses," 1866 and 1874; reprints of 
"Eusebius's Ecclesiastical History," "St. 
Athanasius's Orations against the Arians," 
"Socrates' Ecclesiastical History," "Select 
Anti-Pelagian Treatises of St. Augustine," 
and " St. Athanasius's Historical Writings," 
with introductions, in 1872, 1873, 1878, 
1880, 1881, 1882, 1883, 1893; "Chapters 
of Early English Church History," 1878, 
1888, 1897 ; " Later Treatises of St. Athana- 
sius, translated with Notes and Appendix," 
in the " Library of the Fathers," 1881 ; 
" Notes on the Canons of the First Four 
General Councils," 1882, 1892; "Private 
Prayers for a Week," 1882; "Family 
Prayers for a Week," 1885; " Iona, and 
Other Verses," 1886; "Addresses on the 
Seven Sayings from the Cross," 1887 ; 
"The Incarnation as a Motive Power," 
1889, 1891; "Lessons from the Lives of 
Three Great Fathers, 1890-91 ; " Morality 
in Doctrine," 1892 ; " Waymarks in Church 
History," 1894; "The Roman See in the 
Early Church, and other Studies in Church 
History," 1896; "The Law of Faith," 
1898. Address : Christ Church, Oxford. 

BRISSON, Eugene Henri, a French 
politician, was born July 31, 1835, at 
Bourges, and is the son of a lawyer in that 
city, studied law in Paris, and entered the 
profession in 1859. He wrote for the Temps 
and the Avenir National, and established 
in 1868, in conjunction with MM. Lacour 
and Allain-Targe, the Revue Politique. As 
a democratic candidate at the elections in 
1869 he was unsuccessful in obtaining a 
seat in the Corps L^gislatif, but after 
the Revolution of Sept. 4, 1870, he was 
appointed Deputy Mayor of Paris by the 
Government for the National Defence. 
This position he resigned on October 3. 
On Feb. 8, 1871, he was elected as repre- 
sentative of the Seine in the Assembly, 
and submitted a proposition of amnesty 
for all political crimes. At the general 
elections in February 1876, he was elected 
for the tenth arrondissement of Paris, and 
followed in the new Chamber the same 
political line. He was one of the 363 
deputies who refused a vote of confidence 
to the Broglie Cabinet. At the opening 
of the session of 1879 M. Brisson was 
elected Vice-President, and was named 
President of the Budget Commission on 
February 27 of the same year. He suc- 
ceeded M. Gambetta as President of the 
Chamber, Nov. 3, 1881, and was re-elected 
in 1883. He accepted the office of Prime 
Minister on the fall of M. Ferry in 1885, 



but after a few months gave place to M. de 
Freycinet. At the elections of September 
1889, he was the only Republican candi- 
date elected in Paris, "au premier tour 
du scrutin. " In the autumn of 1890 
he put forward proposals for compelling 
religious bodies to pay up considerable 
arrears due from them under the new 
laws relating to church property. These 
proposals caused considerable discussion 
in the newspapers. In 1892 he brought 
forward a plan for completely reorganising 
the French naval forces, but the Naval 
Budget Committee refused to support him 
against the existing Ministry. He was 
one of the candidates for the Presidency 
of the French Republic in June 1894, and 
stood second in the poll, receiving 195 
votes to M. Casimir-Perier's 451. In 1896 
he was elected President of the Chamber 
of Deputies, and his firm action during the 
difficult days of the Zola trial (1897) has 
been much admired throughout France. 
At the beginning of the new Parliament in 
May 1898, he was defeated on the re-elec- 
tion of President by M. Paul Deschanel, a 
moderate Republican (q.v.). M. Brisson is 
well known for the Spartan nature of his 
Republicanism ; his address in Paris is Rue 
Mazagran 9, and he lives on the fifth floor 
in a bare flat that the Iron Duke would 
have admired. He has never been known 
to take a cab, but always travels on the 
outside of omnibuses. In fact, he is the 
living embodiment in France of what we 
should call the Nonconformist conscience. 
His mission in life is to preside over 
Commissions of Inquiry, especially when 
scandals have to be investigated with 
inflexible severity. His presidency of the 
Panama Commission was appreciated by 
all. When the Meline Cabinet fell in 
June 1898, after MM. Peytral, Sarrien, and 
Ribot (q.v.) had failed to form cabinets, 
M. Brisson was commissioned by the Pre- 
sident to undertake this duty, which he 
carried to a successful issue. His com- 
bination was a Radical one, and included 
MM. Cavaignac, Sarrien, Delcasse", and 
Bourgeois (q.v.). With a courage that 
merits all honour, M. Brisson and his 
colleagues persisted in their patriotic work 
of vindicating before the civilised world 
the unimpeachable integrity and absolute 
justice of the national conscience. As 
the weeks dragged their weary course, 
the tension of the situation became dan- 
gerously strained, and special means had 
to be adopted to preserve public order. 
On the Chamber reassembling on Oct. 
25, 1898, the Government was violently 
assailed, and received a sudden blow by 
the dramatic and reprehensible resigna- 
tion of General Chanoine (q.v.), the new 
Minister of War. After a series of votes 
affirming the supremacy of the civil over 

the military power, declaring continued 
confidence in the army, and rejecting by 
274 votes to 261 a motion censuring the 
Government for "not causing the army 
to be respected," the Chamber, on the 
motion of M. de Malny, called upon 
the Government to institute prosecutions 
against persons "insulting the army." 
This proceeding M. Brisson declined to 
take, and the subsequent vote of confi- 
dence in the Government was lost by 
286 to 254 — an extraordinary majority, 
M. Brisson and his ministers immediately 
withdrew from the Chamber, and tendered 
their resignations, whicli were at once 
accepted by M. Faure, Parliament being 
adjourned till November 4, when M. 
Charles Dupuy returned to office. Thus 
fell a Government which will be famed 
hereafter for its determined effort to free 
the nation from an aggressive militarism. 

BEISTOL, Bishop of. See Bbowne, 
The Right Rev. Geoege Foeeest. 

BROADBENT, Sir William Henry, 

Bart., M.D., F.R.S., the son of John 
Broadbent, of Longwood Edge, Hudders- 
field, was born in Yorkshire on Jan. 23, 
1835, and was educated at Huddersfield 
College, Owens College, Manchester, and 
Paris. He has been Physician to the 
Western General Dispensary, the London 
Fever Hospital, and St. Mary's Hospital, 
of which last-named institution he is now 
a consulting physician. He has occupied 
the position of President of the Harveian 
Society of London, of the Medical Society 
of London in 1881, of the Clinical Society 
during the years 1887-88, and of the 
Neurological Society from 1895 to 1896. 
He has, moreover, served as Censor of the 
Royal College of Physicians of London 
during the years 1888-89 and 1895-96. 
Since 1892 Sir William has been Physician- 
in-Ordinary to the Prince of Wales, and he 
attended both the Duke of Clarence, on 
the occasion of his fatal illness in 1892, 
and also the Duke of York, who went 
through a severe attack of typhoid fever 
in 1891. He is the author of " The Pulse," 
1890 ; " The Heart," 1897. In 1893 he was 
created a Baronet, and he has a son and 
heir, John, born 1865. Sir William Broad- 
bent was in July 1898 appointed one of 
her Majesty's Physicians Extraordinary, 
in the room of Sir Richard Quain, M.D., 
deceased. Address : 84 Brook Street, 
Grosvenor Square. 

BROADHTJRST, Henry, M.P., J.P., 
son of a journeyman stonemason, was born 
at Littlemore, near Oxford, on April 30, 
1840, and received some education at a 
village school there. He worked as a 
journeyman stonemason up to the year 



18T2, when he became Secretary of the 
Labour Representation League. In 1875 
he was appointed Secretary of the Parlia- 
mentary Committee of the Trades Union 
Congress, but resigned through ill-health 
in 1890. During the agitation on the 
Eastern Question he took a leading part in 
the organisation of meetings, &c, in 
support of Mr. Gladstone's policy. He 
was elected Member of Parliament for 
Stoke-on-Trent in 1880 ; was a member of 
the Royal Commission on Reformatories 
and Industrial Schools in 1881-82 ; served 
on the Royal Commission on the Housing 
of the Working Classes in 1884-85 ; and 
at the general election of 1885 he was 
returned for the Bordesley Division of 
Birmingham. In February 1886 he was 
appointed Under-Secretary of State for 
the Home Department in Mr. Gladstone's 
Ministry. At the general election of 1886 
he successfully stood for West Nottingham, 
but was not re-elected in 1892. He took 
a leading part in the passing of the Em- 
ployers' Liability Act, 1880, and many 
other measures affecting the industrial 
classes. He is the author of the Leasehold 
Enfranchisement Bill, and during the ses- 
sions of 1884-85 he had charge of the 
Deceased Wife's Sister Bill. He is also a 
prominent advocate of Old Age Pensions. 
He has served on the Royal Commission 
on the Condition of the Aged Poor. He 
resigned his seat on the Market Royal 
Commission, and has been twice offered 
important Inspectorships which he has 
refused — the first occasion being in 1882, 
when he declined an Inspectorship of 
Factories and Workshops ; the second in 
1884, when he declined one of Canal Boats. 
He was elected Member of Parliament for 
Leicester in 1894, on the occasion of the 
double vacancy caused by the retirement 
of Sir T. Whitehead and Mr. T. A. Picton, 
and now represents that constituency. 
In the Eastern Counties he holds many 
important public positions. Address : 

BROCK, Thomas, R.A., sculptor, was 
born in 1847 at Worcester, where his 
father, William Brock, was a decorator. 
He was educated first at the Government 
School of Design in that city, then came 
to London and studied at the Royal 
Academy, where he obtained both silver 
and gold medals. He became a pupil and 
afterwards an assistant of the late J. H. 
Foley, the sculptor. After Mr. Foley's 
death he completed the numerous works 
left unfinished by him, the chief of these 
being the O'Connell monument in Dublin. 
Among Mr. Brock's ideal works 
mentioned "Salmacis," "Hercules stran- 
gling Antseus," statuettes of Paris and 
(Enone, and a large equestrian group, " A 

Moment of Peril," purchased for the 
nation by the Royal Academy. He exhi- 
bited at the Royal Academy in 1889 " The 
Genius of Poetry." Among portrait statues 
may be named Richard Baxter, Robert 
Raikes, Sir Rowland Hill, Sir Richard 
Temple, Sir Erasmus Wilson, the poet 
Longfellow (the latter for the Westminster 
Abbey Memorial), Sir Richard Owen, a 
bronze, now in the Natural History Museum, 
South Kensington ; Dr. Phillpott, a marble 
bust in Worcester Cathedral ; Lord Bowen ; 
Lord Derby ; Sir Richard Quain. In the 
Royal Academy's Exhibition of 1898 he 
had no less than five sculptures, including 
a statue of Eve, and a bronze bust of 
Henry Tate, Esq., to be placed in the 
National Gallery of British Art. He was 
elected an Associate of the Royal Aca- 
demy Jan. 16, 1883; R.A. in 1891. Ad- 
dress : 30 Osnaburgh Street, Regent's 
Park, N.W. 

BRODRICK, The Hon. George 
Charles, LL.B., D.C.L., Warden of Merton 
College, Oxford, is the second son of the 
seventh Viscount Middleton, formerly Dean 
of Exeter, and was born at Castle Rising, 
Norfolk, May 5, 1831. He was educated 
at Eton School, and at Balliol College, 
Oxford, taking his degree in 1854 (first- 
class Mods., 1852 ; first-class Lit. Hum., 
1853; Law and History School, 1854; 
English Essay Prize and Arnold Historical 
Essay, 1855). He was elected a Fellow of 
Merton College in 1855. He was President 
of the Union Debating Society. He also 
carried off, in 1858, the Law Scholarship 
at the University of London, where he 
took the degree of LL.B. In 1885 he was 
created D.C. L. of Oxford by a University 
decree. He was called to the Bar from 
Lincoln's Inn in 1859, and for some years 
practised as a barrister on the Western 
circuit. In conjunction with Mr. Free- 
mantle (now Dean of Ripon) he edited, in 
1865, " The Ecclesiastical Judgments of 
the Privy Council." In 1877 Mr. Brodrick 
was unanimously elected by the School 
Board for London to fill a death vacancy, 
being the first member so elected. He 
long served on the Council of the London 
Society for the Extension of University 
Teaching, and he is a member of the 
governing body of Eton College. He took 
an active part in promoting the Uni- 
versity Tests Act, and other measures of 
academical, and generally of educational 
interest. In 1868, and again in 1874, he 
contested the borough of Woodstock as 
a Liberal candidate, and in 1880 he was a 
candidate for the undivided county of 
Monmouthshire. In February 1881, he 
was elected Warden of Merton College in 
the place of the late Dr. Bullock-Marsham. 
Mr. Brodrick is known to have contributed 



largely, but for the most part anonymously, 
to the daily Press and leading periodicals. 
A selection of articles published under his 
own name, together with two more elabo- 
rate treatises on "Primogeniture" and 
" Local Government," and other occasional 
essays, were republished in a volume 
entitled "Political Studies" in 1880. In 
the following year he published a work 
entitled " English Land and English Land- 
lords," being an inquiry into the origin, 
structure, and proposed reform of the 
English Land system ; and he afterwards 
discussed the Irish Land question, and 
the claim of Tenant-right for British 
farmers, in three articles which appeared 
in Fraser's Magazine for 1881-82. Mr. 
Brodrick is also the author of articles on 
"The Progress of Democracy in England," 
and " Democracy and Socialism," which 
appeared in the Nineteenth Century during 
1883 and 1884. His latest contributions 
to literature are mainly connected with 
academical history, including a volume 
entitled "Memorials of Merton College," 
1885 ; a compendious " History of the 
University of Oxford," 1886 ; and several 
papers on kindred subjects. Since the 
adhesion of the late Mr. Gladstone to 
Home Rule in 188G, Mr Brodrick has been 
an active member of the Liberal Unionist 
party. Addresses : Merton College, Ox- 
ford, &c. ; and Athenaeum. 

BRODRICK, The Right Hon. 
William St. John Freemantle, M.P., 

eldest son of Viscount Midleton, and 
nephew of the Hon. G. C. Brodrick, Warden 
of Merton College, was born in 1856 and 
educated in Eton and at Balliol College, 
Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1879, 
and M.A. 1882. He was also President 
of the Oxford Union Debating Society. 
He represented West Surrey in the Parlia- 
ments of 1880-85, and after the passing of 
the Redistribution Act successfully stood 
for the Guildford Division of the county, 
which he still represents. He served on 
the Royal Commission on Prisons in Ire- 
land, 1883-85. In Lord Salisbury's second 
Administration, 1886-92, Mr. Brodrick 
was appointed Financial Secretary to the 
War Office. It was on his motion that 
Lord Rosebery's Government was over- 
thrown in June 1895, and he was appointed 
Under-Secretary of State for War, with 
charge of the War Office business in 
the House of Commons, July 1895. He 
was raised to the Privy Council in 1897, 
and in October 1898 was appointed Under 
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs in 
succession to Lord Curzon. He married 
Lady Hilda Charteris, third daughter of 
the Earl of Wemyss, in 1880. Addresses : 
Peper-Harrow, Godalming ; 34 Portland 
Place, W., and Athenaeum. 

BROOKE, The Rev. Augustus 
Stopford, born in Dublin in 1832, was 
educated at Trinity College, Dublin, where 
he gained the Downe prize and the Vice- 
Chancellor's prize for English verse. He 
graduated B.A. in 1856 and M.A. in 1858. 
He was curate of St. Matthew, Marylebone, 
1857-59; curate of Kensington, 1860-63; 
minister of St. James's Chapel, York Street, 
St. James's Square, 1866-75 ; and became 
minister of Bedford Chapel, Bloomsbury, 
June 1876. He was appointed a Chaplain 
in Ordinary to the Queen in 1872. Mr. 
Brooke is the author of "Life and Letters 
of the late Frederick W. Robertson," 1865 ; 
"Theology in the English Poets," 1874; 
" Primer of English Literature," and four 
volumes of "Sermons," 1868-77; "The 
Early Life of Jesus," a volume of poems 
1888 ; a "History of English Poetry," a 
standard study of Tennyson, 1894 ; and 
"The Old Testament and Modern Life," 
1896. In 1880 he seceded from the Church 
of England, his reason for this step being 
that he had ceased to believe that miracles 
were credible, and that, since the Estab- 
lished Church founded its whole scheme 
of doctrine on the miracle of the Incarna- 
tion, disbelief in that miracle put him 
outside the doctrines of the Church of 
England. Mr. Brooke then joined the 
Unitarian Church, and officiated for some 
years at Bedford Chapel, Bloomsbury. 
In 1895, after prolonged illness, he resigned 
this position. 

BROOKE, Sir Charles Anthony, 

G.C.M.G., born in 1829, son of Sir James 
Brooke, the famous first Rajah of Sarawak, 
was educated at Crewkerne Grammar 
School, and passed into the Royal Navy, 
where he rose to be a Lieutenant. He 
succeeded his father as 2nd Rajah of 
Sarawak in 1868, and has since ruled that 
state with the same skill and success. 
He was created a G.C.M.G. in 1888. He 
married Margaret, daughter of Clayton de 
Windt, of Biunsden Hall, Wiltshire. Ad- 
dresses : Sarawak, Borneo ; and 12 Hans 
Place, S.W. 

BROOME, Mary Ann, Lady (for- 
merly Lady Barker, under which name 
most of her books were published), is the 
eldest daughter of the late W. G. Stewart, 
Esq., Island Secretary of Jamaica, in which 
island she was born. Sent to England at 
two years old, she returned to Jamaica 
in 1850. In 1852 she married Captain 
(afterwards Colonel) G. R. Barker, Royal 
Artillery, who distinguished himself very 
highly in the Crimean war and the Indian 
Mutiny, and was made K.C.B. for services 
in the field. Lady Barker went to India 
to join Sir George in 1860, but he died 
that year, and she returned to England. 



In 1865 Lady Barker married tue late Mr. 
Frederick Napier Broome, then of Canter- 
bury, New Zealand, and accompanied him 
back to the Middle Island. In 1869 Mr. 
Napier Broome and his wife returned to 
England. "Station Life in New Zealand," 
from her pen, was published in that year, 
and its success encouraged the author 
to write, in the following year, a small 
volume for children called " Stories About." 
This second work was soon followed by 
"A Christmas Cake in Four Quarters," 
"Spring Comedies," "Travelling About," 
"Holiday Stories," "Ribbon Stories," 
" Sybil's Book," "Station Amusements in 
New Zealand," "Boys," "The White Bat," 
&c, besides many articles for magazines. 
In 1874 she published also a little book 
called "First Principles of Cooking," of 
which the circulation has been large, and 
almost immediately after its appearance 
she accepted the post of Lady Superin- 
tendent of the National Training School 
of Cookery, South Kensington. She was 
also for some years editor of Evening Hours, 
a family magazine. Mr. Napier Broome 
having entered the Colonial service in 
1875, her next experiences were of South 
Africa and Mauritius. Her life in the 
former country is described in "A Year's 
Housekeeping in South Africa," 1877. In 
1883, her husband having been appointed 
Governor of Western Australia, she went 
to that colony, which is described in her 
la«t published book, "Letters to England," 
1885. On leaving Western Australia in 
1890, Lady Broome received an affectionate 
farewell from the people of the colony, 
by whom she was greatly beloved. Sir 
Frederick Napier Broome, K.C.M.G., died 
on Nov. 26, 1896. 

BROS, James, son of Thomas Bros, 
barrister, was born in 1841, and was called 
to the Bar at the Inner Temple in 1866. 
He was appointed a Police Magistrate at 
the Clerkenwell Court in 1888. Address : 
31 Elm Park Gardens, S.W. 

BEOUARDEL, Paul Camille Hip- 
polyte, French doctor and authority on 
forensic medicine, was horn at St. Quentin, 
Feb. 13, 1837, educated at the Lycee St. 
Louis at Paris, and attained the doctorate 
in 1865. He became Physician at the 
H6pital St. Antoine in 1873, was made 
Professor of Forensic Medicine in 1879, 
and elected a member of the Academy of 
Medicine in 1880, of which he is now the 
dean. He succeeded Wurtz in 1884 as 
President of the Consulting Committee of 
Public Hygiene in France. He is often 
called upon to give evidence in the courts 
of law on delicate points of forensic medi- 
cine. He has also travelled on medical 
missions, notably to Germany in 1883, to 

study trichinosis, on which he published 
important reports. He was made a Com- 
mander of the Legion of Honour in 1885. 
His chief works are : " L'Uree et la Foie," 
1877 ; " Etudes Me"dico-Legales sur la Com- 
bustion du Corps humain," 1878; "Des 
Causes d'erreur dans les Expertises Relatives 
aux Attentats a la Pudeur," 1883; " Le 
Secret Me'dical," 1886, dealing with a case 
arising out of the death of the painter 
Bastien Lepage ; besides works in colla- 
boration with eminent men of science. 
Recently he has published " L'Infanticide " 
and "La Mort et la Mort Soudaine," 1897, 
and " La Responsabilitd Me'dicale," 1898. 

BROUGH, Miss Fanny, actress, a 
daughter of Robert Brough, was born in 
the fifties. She first made her appearance 
on the boards, being then quite young, at 
the Princess's Theatre, Manchester, in 
Mr. Calvert's company, staying there two 
years, and once taking the role of Ophe- 
lia to Mr. Barry Sullivan's Hamlet. She 
made her first appearance in London at 
the St. James's Theatre as Fernande in 
the autumn of 1890, and afterwards at the 
same house took other parts in the "Two 
Thorns" and "War," and, during Mrs. 
John Wood's management, played in many 
comedies, and in the "Caste" Company 
took many leading- parts. She was engaged 
in many provincial tours, and came back 
to the Princess's and Drury Lane in 
various characters. She played the part 
of Mrs. Othello at Toole's Theatre in 1893, 
and appeared at a set of morning perform- 
ances at the Lyric on April 5, 1894. One 
of her latest notable performances was in 
" The Eider-down Quilt," produced by 
Mr. Playfair in 1896. 

BROUGH, Lionel, comedian, was 
born at Pontypool, Monmouthshire, March 
10, 1836, being the fourth son of Mr. Barna- 
bas Brough, and a younger brother of the 
weU-known comic authors, " The Brothers 
Brough." His first employment was in the 
capacity of office-boy to Mr. J. Timbs, in 
the Illustrated London News office, in 
Douglas Jerrold's time. Subsequently he 
published the first number of the Daily 
Telei/rnpli, and for five years he was con- 
nected with the Morning Star. Going to 
Liverpool with other members of the 
Savage Club to give amateur theatrical 
performances in aid of the Lancashire 
Relief Fund, he achieved so decided a 
histrionic success that he was offered a 
regular engagement by Mr. A. Henderson, 
and accordingly made his first professional 
appearance at the Prince of Wales's Theatre 
at Liverpool in 1864. His first appearance 
in London was at the Queen's Theatre in 
1867. Mr. Brough was manager of Covent 
Garden Theatre for Mr. Dion Boucicault 



during the season in which "Babil and 
Bijou " was produced. He afterwards be- 
came, for a short time, joint lessee of the 
Novelty Theatre, Great Queen Street. For 
the last thirty years he has played a round 
of the principal "low comedy" parts in 
almost every important theatre in London 
and the provinces ; in comic opera, farce, 
burlesque, plays, &c, and particularly in 
most of the "Old Comedy" revivals. It 
is on record that he has played Tony 
Lumpkin in " She Stoops to Conquer," 776 
times. He has also played in America, 
and some years ago played a repertoire of 
thirty-eight pieces through all the principal 
towns in South Africa. Mr. Brough has 
been engaged for some time at the Hay- 
market and her Majesty's Theatres under 
the management of Mr. Beerbohm Tree, 
playing in all the principal productions 
during a series of seasons. During one 
vacation he again visited South Africa, 
taking a journey of 14,000 miles, to tell 
anecdotes for fourteen nights. On his 
last appearance at Johannesburg he was 
persuaded to play " Tony Lumpkin " once 
more, so that he now has the record of 
having played it 777 times. He again 
visited America with Mr. Tree and his 
company, taking the part of " The Laird " 
in "Trilby," and playing in " Seats of the 
Mighty," and opened at her Majesty's 
Theatre in "The Silver Key." He is now 
engaged at the "Avenue." Permanent 
address : Percy Villa, South Lambeth. 

BROUGHTON, Miss Rhoda, a popu- 
lar English novelist, is the daughter of a 
clergyman, and was born Nov. 29, 1840, in 
North Wales. Her principal works are : 
"Cometh Up as a Flower," 1867; "Not 
Wisely, but Too Well," 1867 ; "Red as a 
Rose is She," 1870; "Goodbye, Sweet- 
heart, Goodbye," 1872; "Nancy," 1873; 
"Tales for Christmas Eve," 1873 (repub- 
lished in 1879 under the title of "Twi- 
light Stories"); "Joan," 1876; "Second 
Thoughts," 1880; "Belinda," 1883; and 
"Doctor Cupid," 1886. More recently she 
has published "Alas," 1890 (2nd edit. 
1891); "Mrs. Bligh," 1892; "A Beginner," 
1894; "Scylla or Charybdis?" 1895; and 
"Dear Faustina," 1897. Address: Holy- 
well Street, Oxford. 

BROWN, Alexander Cram, M.A., 
M.D. (Edin.), D.Sc. (Lond.), Hon. LL.D. 
(Aberd.), F.R.S., F.R.S.E., F.R.C.P.E., 
F.C.S., F.I.C., son of the Rev. John Brown, 
D.D., of Bronghton Place Church, was 
born in Edinburgh on March 26, 1838. 
He was educated at the Edinburgh High 
School and at Mill Hill, and at the Uni- 
versities of Edinburgh, Heidelberg, and 
Marburg. In 1863 he was appointed Lec- 
turer and in 1869 Professor of Chemistrv 

in the University of Edinburgh, and in 
1891 was elected President of the Chemi- 
cal Society of London, which office he 
held for two years. He is the author of 
many papers in scientific journals, and 
in the publications of learned societies. 
He married Jane Bailie, daughter of 
the Rev. James Porter, Drumlee, county 
Down. Address : 8 Belgrave Crescent, 

BROWN, Horace T., F.R.S.,was born 
at Burton-on-Trent on July 20, 1848, and 
was educated at Burton-on-Trent and 
Atherstone Grammar Schools, and at the 
Royal College of Chemistry. He was 
engaged in brewing at Burton-on-Trent 
from 1866 to 1893. He acted as Vice- 
President of the Chemical Society from 
1894 to 1897, received the Longstaff Medal 
of the Chemical Society in 1894, and is a 
member of the International Catalogue 
Committee of the Royal Society. He has 
contributed many papers on chemical, 
biological, and geological subjects in the 
Transactions of the Chemical Society, Pro- 
ceedings of the Royal Society, Quarterly 
Journal of the Geological Society, &c. He 
was married in 1874 to Annie, daughter 
of Paul J. Fearon. Address : 52 Nevern 
Square, Kensington, W. 

BROWN, John George, N.A., Ameri- 
can figure painter, was born at Durham, 
England, Nov. 11, 1831. He began his art 
studies at the age of eighteen, at first at 
Newcastle-on-Tyne, and afterwards spent 
a year at the Edinburgh Royal Academy. 
Removing to America in 1853, he entered 
the schools of the National Academy of 
Design in New York, and in 1856 opened a 
studio in Brooklyn, where he remained 
until 1860, when he transferred his studio 
to New York City. He was made an 
Academician in 1863, and was one of the 
founders of the Water-Colour Soeiety, of 
which for the past seven years he has been 
President. He has twice (1880 and 1885) 
exhibited at the London Royal Academy, 
and has received several medals and hon- 
ourable mention in Paris. Eight of his 
pictures were exhibited at the Chicago 
Exposition in 1893. Among his more im- 
portant productions are, " His First Cigar," 
"Curling in Central Park," "The 'Long- 
shoreman's Noon," "Tough Customers," 
"The Thrilling Moment," "The Passing 
Show," "The Dress Parade," " The Three 
(Scape) Graces," " Left his Money on the 
Piano," "The Lost Child," "The Transit 
of Venus," " A Merry Air and a Sad Heart," 
"Clear the Track]" "The Dog Show," 
"A Collection of Antiques," "As Good as 
New! " "The Old Folks at Home," "Plot- 
ting Mischief," "Under the Weather," 
"The Wounded Playfellow," "A Jolly 



Lot," "The Monopolist," "Day Dreams," 
"You're a Nice Pup," and "Watching the 
Clouds. " 

BROWN, Pisistratus. See Black, 

BROWN, Robert, F.S.A., born at 
Barton-upon-Humber, July 6, 1844, was 
educated at Cheltenham College, and is 
known as a writer on archaic religion, 
mythology, and astronomy. His works 
are " Poseidon : a Link between Semite, 
Hamite, and Aryan," 1872 ; " The Great 
Dionysiak Myth," 2 vols., 1877-78; "The 
Religion of Zoroaster, considered in con- 
nection with Archaic Monotheism," 1879 ; 
"The Religion and Mythology of the 
Aryans of Northern Europe," 1880; 
"Language, and Theories of its Origin," 
1881; "The Unicorn," 1881; "The Law 
of Kosmic Order," 1882 ; " Eridanus : 
River and Constellation," 1883 ; " The 
Mythe of Kirks', " 1883 ; "The Phainomena 
or ' Heavenly Display ' of Aratos : Done 
into English Verse," 1885; "A Trilogy 
of the Life to Come," and other poems, 
1885 ; " The Etruscan Inscriptions of 
Lemnos," 1888 ; " The Etruscan Nume- 
rals," 1889; "Remarks on the Tablet of 
the Thirty Stars, or Babylonian Lunar 
Zodiac," 1890. In 1895 appeared his 
"Tellis and Kleobeia, and other Poems," 
and in 1898, "Semitic Influence on 
Hellenic Mythology," a criticism of Max 
Miiller and Andrew Lang, which has 
given rise to considerable discussion. 
Mr. Brown is a member of the Royal 
Asiatic Society, and was in 1892 Secretary 
to the Hellenic Section of the Inter- 
national Oriental Congress (London), 
when he published " The Celestial Equator 
of Aratos." Address : c/o Captain Bolton, 
Booking Hall, Braintree, Essex. 

BROWN, Rev. William Haig. See 

Haig-Bkown, Rev. William. 

BROWNE, The Right Rev. George 
Forrest, D.D., Bishop of Bristol, Hon. 
Fellow of St. Catharine's College, and Hon. 
D.C.L. of Durham, son of George Browne, 
Proctor of the Ecclesiastical Court of York, 
and Anne, daughter of the Rev. R. Forrest, 
Precentor of York Minster, was born at 
York, Dec. 4, 1833, and educated at St. 
Peter's School, York, and Catharine Hall, 
Cambridge, graduating in 1856. He was 
Mathematical Master at Glenalmond, 1857 ; 
ordained Deacon 1858, Priest 1859, by the 
Bishop of Oxford ; and appointed Theo- 
logical Tutor and Bell Lecturer in. Ecclesi- 
astical History in the Episcopal Church of 
Scotland, 1862 ; Fellow and Lecturer of 
St. Catharine's, Cambridge, 1863. He 
vacated his Fellowship on his marriage 

with Mary Louisa, eldest daughter of Sir 
J. Stewart Richardson, Bart, of Pitfour 
Castle, Perthshire, and was rector of Ash- 
ley, 1869-74 ; Proctor of the University, i 
1869-71, 1876-78, 1879-81 ; Secretary of 
the University Commission, 1877-81 ; a 
Member of the Council of the Senate 
(1874-92), the General Board of Studies, 
and various Boards and Syndicates ; Secre- 
tary of the Cambridge Local Examinations, 
1869-92 ; and of Local Lectures, 1877-92 ; 
and editor of the official University Re- 
porter, Statuta, Ordinances, Endowments, 
&c. He has been University Preacher on 
various occasions, is a Magistrate for the 
Borough of Cambridge, was Alderman of 
the County Council for Cambridgeshire, 
and is a member of the governing body 
of Selwyn College. As a member of the 
Alpine Club, Mr. Browne published in the 
Comkill Magazine various papers on Alpine 
Expeditions; on "Subterranean Ice," in 
Fraser, &c, and a book on " The Ice Caves 
of France and Switzerland," 1864. He 
published "University Sermons," in 1879, 
1880, and 1888; "The Venerable Bede," 
1880 ; and since 1881 has published a 
number of papers on " English Sculptured 
Stones of pre-Norman Type." He was 
Disney Professor of Archaeology in the 
University of Cambridge from 1888 to 
1893, and is a Vice-President of the 
Society of Antiquaries. From 1893 to 
1897 he published five volumes of Early 
Church History, namely: (1) "Lessons 
of Early English Church History " ; (2) 
" Christianity in these Islands before the 
Coming of Augustine"; (3) "Augustine 
and his Companions"; (4) " The Conver- 
sion of the Heptarchy"; (5) "Theodore 
and Wilfrith"; and "in 1895, "Oil the 
Mill," a collection of holiday essays. In 
1891 he was made Canon of St. Paul's, 
in 1895 Bishop of Stepney, and in 1897 
Bishop of Bristol, then separated from 
Gloucester. A considerable number of 
the publications of the Church Historical 
Society, of which he was the first chair- 
man, were from his pen. Addresses ; The 
Palace, Bristol ; and Athenaeum. 

BROWNE, Sir J. Crichton. See 


BROWNE, John Hutton Balfour, 

Q.C., brother of Sir James Crichton- 
Browne, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., was born 
Sept. 13, 1845, at Crichton House, Dum- 
fries, Scotland. His father was Dr. W. A. 
F. Browne, F.R.S., at that time Medical 
Superintendent of the Crichton Royal 
Institution, Dumfries, but afterwards 
Commissioner in Lunacy for Scotland. 
His mother was a daughter of Dr. Andrew 
Balfour, of Edinburgh, a sister of J H. 
Balfour, Professor of Botany in the Uni- 



versity of Edinburgh, and also connected 
with Dr. Hutton, the geologist, whose 
work on " The Theory of the Earth " made 
an epoch in the history of geology. He 
was educated at the Dumfries Academy 
and the University of Edinburgh, where 
he obtained high distinction in Philosophy 
and in Literature. He was for several 
years President of the Speculative Society, 
and at one time intended to become a 
Scotch advocate. In 1868 he began to 
read for the English Bar, and was "called" 
to the Bar by the Middle Temple in June 
1870. He went the Midland Circuit. In 
1870 he published a work on " The Medical 
Jurisprudence of Insanity." In 1874, 
having written and published a work on 
the "Law of Carriers," he was appointed 
Registrar and Secretary to the Railway 
Commission, which appointment he held 
until 1881. He published in 1874 a work 
on "The Law of Rating," and afterwards 
several other legal works. In 1880 he 
published a well-known work on the " Law 
of Railways." In 1896 appeared his "Law 
of Compensation." He went to the Par- 
liamentary Bar in 1874, and was made a 
Queen's Counsel in 1885. He has been 
engaged for the promoters in all the Bills 
for the formation of a Ship Canal to Man- 
chester ; is, perhaps, the leading authority 
on Gas and Water Bills, and conducted, as 
leader, the case of the Traders against all the 
Railway Companies, in 1889-90, in England, 
Scotland, and Ireland, before the Board 
of Trade in settling the Classification of 
Articles, and the Schedule of Rates, under 
the Railway and Canal Traffic Act, 1888. 
He is a Justice of the Peace for the county 
of Dumfries, Justice of the Peace, and 
a Deputy-Lieutenant for Kirkcudbright- 
shire. In 1870 and 1871 he wrote and 
published several works of fiction, which 
were fairly popular; one, "For Very 
Life," was published first in the St. James's 
Magazine, and was praised by Lord Beacons- 
field, at that time Mr. Disraeli ; another, 
" Men were Deceivers Ever," was dedicated 
to Carlyle, who was a countryman, almost 
a townsman, of the author ; another, 
" Sir Edward's Wife," went through 
several editions. In 1874 he married a 
daughter of Lord Justice Lush. Per- 
manent address : Goldielea, near Dum- 
fries, N.B. 

BROWNE, General Sir Samuel 
James, G.C.B., K.C.S.I.. ».«., was born 
in 1824, and entered the Bengal Army in 
the 46th Bengal Native Infantry, Dec! 22, 
1840 ; became lieutenant, Oct. 26, 1844 ; 
captain, Feb. 10, 1855 ; brevet major, 
July 20, 1858 ; major, Feb. 18, 1861 ; 
brevet lieut. - colonel, April 26, 1859; 
lieut. - colonel, Dec. 22, 1866 ; brevet 
colonel, Nov. 17, 1864 ; major-general, 

Feb. 6, 1870; lieut. - general, Oct. 1, 
1877; general, Dec. 1, 1888. Sir Samuel 
James Brown served throughout the 
Punjaub Campaign of 1848-49, and was 
present at the passage of the Chenab, the 
actions of Ramnuggar, Sadvolapore, Chil- 
lianwallah, and Goojerat (medal with two 
clasps) ; was in command of the Punjaub 
Cavalry and Corps of Guides ; served on 
the Derajat and Peshawur frontier from 
1850 to 1869, including operations against 
Oomurzaie Wuzeerees in 1851-52; the 
Bozdar Belooch Expedition in March 1857; 
the attacks on Narinjee (Eusofzai border) 
in July and August 1857 ; and in various 
minor skirmishes (medal with clasp) ; was 
in command of the 2nd Punjaub Cavalry 
during the Indian Mutiny Campaign of 
1858, including the siege and capture of 
Lucknow (Brevet of Major), actions of 
Korsee, Rooyah, and Allygunge, and cap- 
ture of Bareilly. He commanded a field 
force of cavalry and infantry in the attack 
and defeat of the enemy in their position 
at Seerpoorah. and capture of their guns 
and camp (several times mentioned in 
despatches, and thanked by the Com- 
mander - in - Chief, and by Government. 
Brevet of Lieut. -Colonel, C.B., Victoria 
Cross, and medal with clasp). He received 
the V.€. "for having, at Seerpoorah, in an 
engagement with the rebel forces under 
Khan Alie Khan, on Aug. 31, 1858, whilst 
advancing upon the enemy'sposition at day- 
break, pushed on, with one orderly sowar, 
upon a 9-pounder gun that was command- 
ing one of the approaches to the enemy's 
position, and attacked the gunners, thereby 
preventing them from reloading and firing 
upon the infantry, who were advancing to 
the attack. In doing this a personal con- 
flict ensued, in which Major Browne, Com- 
mandant of the 2nd Punjaub Cavalry, 
received a severe sword-cut wound on the 
left knee, and shortly afterwards another 
sword-cut wound, which severed the left 
arm at the shoulder, not, however, before 
he had succeeded in cutting down one of 
his assailants. The gun was eventually 
captured by the infantry, and the gunners 
slain." In 1876 he was made K.C.S.I., 
and in the Afghan war of 1878-79 he 
commanded the 1st Division Peshawur 
Valley Field Force in the attack and cap- 
ture of the Fort of Ali Musjid ; the forcing 
of the Khyber Pass in November 1878, 
and subsequent operations till the end of 
the campaign (received the thanks of the 
Government of India, and of both Houses 
of Parliament, K.C.B., medal with clasp). 
He received the honour of G.C.B. in 1891. 
Addresses : The Wood, Ryde, I. W., and 
United Service Club. 

BROWNE, Thomas Alexander, 

Australian novelist under the pseudonym 



of " Rolf Boldrewood," was born in London, 
August 6, 182G, and is the eldest son of 
Captain Sylvester Browne and Eliza Ansell 
Alexander. He was educated at Sydney 
College, New South Wales, where he took 
the prize for English Composition in 1842. 
In early life he was one of the pioneer 
squatters in the goldfields of Victoria, and 
became a Police Magistrate and Warden 
of the Goldfields of New South Wales, from 
which post he retired in 1895. His first 
novel, " Robbery under Arms " was an in- 
stant success when published in England 
in 1888, and has run through scores of 
editions, the last of which has been a 
sixpenny one in 1898. His other works 
are : " The Miner's Right," and " A. Colonial 
Reformer," 1890; "A Sydney-Side Saxon," 
1891 ; "A Modern Buccaneer," 1894 ; " The 
Squatter's Dream," 1895 ; " Old Melbourne 
Memories," 1895; and "My Run Home," 
' 1897. Address : Melbourne Club, Mel- 

BROWNING, Oscar, M.A., Senior 
Fellow and Assistant - Tutor of King's 
College, Cambridge University ; Lecturer 
in History and Principal of Cambridge 
University Day Training College, was born 
in Cumberland Terrace, Regent's Park, 
London, on Jan. 17, 1837, being the 
youngest son of William Skipton Brown- 
ing, merchant, and Mariana Margaret 
Bridge, his wife. He was educated at 
Eton College, and became a Scholar of 
King's College, Cambridge, in 1856. While 
at the University he was President of the 
Union Society, and took his degree in 1860 
as fourth in the first class of the Classical 
Tripos. He accepted a mastership at 
Eton in May 1860, and remained there till 
December 1875. After a short stay abroad 
he returned to Cambridge, and has since 
that time been chiefly engaged in College 
and University work. He is well acquainted 
with modern languages, and was made Offl- 
cier d'Acade"mie by the French Government 
in 1889. Soon after his return to Cam- 
bridge he became Secretary of the Teachers' 
Training Syndicate, a post which he still 
holds. He has taken a prominent part in 
all movements for the training of teachers. 
He was an intimate friend of the late Sir 
John Seeley, and under his influence has 
devoted himself at Cambridge mainly to 
the teaching of Political Science, and of 
modern Political History. He has always 
taken an interest in politics, and was one 
of the founders of the "Eighty Club." He 
has stood for Parliament as a Home Ruler 
in three general elections — for Norwood in 
1886, East Worcestershire in 1892, where 
he fought a vigorous battle against Mr. 
Austen Chamberlain, and for the West 
Derby division of Liverpool in 1895. The 
demands of practical work have left him 

but little time for continuous literary 
labour, but he has published a considerable 
number of books, of which the following 
are the most important : " Modern Eng- 
land," 1879; "Modern France," 1880; 
" History of Educational Theories," 1881 ; 
"Political Memoranda of the Duke of 
Leeds," 1884; "Earl Gower's Despatches 
from Paris," 1885; "England and Napo- 
leon in 1803," 1887; "History of Eng- 
land," in 4 vols., 1890; "Life of George 
Eliot," 1890; "Aspect of Education," 
1888. He .also contributed articles on 
" Dante " and "Goethe " to the last edition 
of the "Encyclopaedia Britannica," which 
have since been republished. He has 
written a good deal for the Edinburgh, 
Quarterly, Fortnightly, and other Reviews, 
and has collected some of these articles in 
a volume entitled "The Flight to Var- 
ennes, and other Historical Essays," 1892. 
He has also published a " Life of Barto- 
lommeo Colleoni," 1891; "The Citizen, 
his Rights and Responsibilities," being a 
handbook of practical politics, 1893 ; 
"Guelphs and Ghibellines," 1894; "The 
Age of the Condottieri," 1895 ; forming 
together a short history of mediaeval Italy ; 
"The Journal of Admiral Sir George 
Rooke," 1897 ; and a " Life of Peter the 
Great," 1898. He was an early member of 
the Alpine Club, and made a journey from 
Cambridge to Venice by way of Carinthia 
on a tricycle in 1882, being the first to 
cross the Alps on that kind of machine. 
Permanent addresses : King's College, 
Cambridge ; 88 St. James' Street, London, 
S.W. ; and Athenaeum. 

BEOWNLOW, Earl, The Bight 
Hon. Adelbert Wellington Brownlow 

Oust, was born in London in 1844, and 
succeeded his brother as 3rd Earl in 1867. 
After serving in the Grenadier Guards from 
1863 to 1866, he represented North Shrop- 
shire in the House of Commons during the 
following year, when he was called to the 
Upper House. Appointed Parliamentary 
Secretary to the Local Government Board 
in 1885, he became Paymaster-General in 
1887, and two years later was made Under 
Secretary of State for War, filling this last- 
mentioned office until 1892. Lord Brown- 
low is Lord Lieutenant of Lincolnshire, an 
Ecclesiastical Commissioner for England, 
was appointed a Trustee of the National 
Gallery in 1897, and in the same year became 
an A.D.C. to the Queen. He was married 
in 1868 to Adelaide, daughter of the 18th 
Earl of Shrewsbury and Talbot. Addresses : 
8 Carlton House Terrace, S.W. ; and Ash- 
ridge Park, Berkhampstead, Herts. 

BROWNLOW, The Right Bev. 
William Robert, D.D., Roman Catholic 
Bishop of Clifton, is the eldest son of the 



Rev. William Brownlow, Eector of Wilms- 
low, Cheshire, and Frances, only daughter 
of E. J. Chambers, Esq., and grand- 
daughter of Sir Robert Chambers, Chief 
Justice of Bengal, and an intimate friend 
of Dr. Johnson. Bishop Brownlow was 
born July 4, 1830, and educated at Rugby 
under Dr. Tait, and at Trinity College, 
Cambridge, where he took mathematical 
honours in 1852. He became a minister 
of the Established Church, and from 1853 
to 1863 held curacies at Great Wyrley, St. 
Bartholomew's, Cripplegate, Tetbury, and 
St. John's, Torquay. In 1863 he was 
received into the Catholic Church by Dr. 
Newman at the Oratory, Birmingham, and 
made his studies for the priesthood at the 
English College, Rome, where he was 
ordained by Cardinal Patrizi in 1866. 
Returning to England, he was appointed to 
the charge of the Mission and Dominican 
Convent at St. Mary Church near Torquay, 
where he remained from 1867 until 1888. 
In 1878 he was appointed a Canon of Ply- 
mouth Cathedral, and Diocesan Inspector 
of Schools. In 1888 the Bishop of Ply- 
mouth appointed him his Vicar-General, 
and Administrator of the Cathedral Mis- 
sion. In 1893 Pope Leo XIII. appointed 
him one of his Domestic Prelates ; and by 
Brief, dated March 20, 1894, he was made 
Bishop of Clifton, in succession to the 
Hon. and Right Rev. Dr. Clifford, who had 
died in the preceding year. Mgr. Brown- 
low was consecrated in the Pro-Cathedral, 
Clifton, on May 1, 1894, by Cardinal 
Vaughan. While at Tetbury, Mr. Brown- 
low delivered and published a course of 
lectures on the History of the Church ; 
he translated and edited the "Cur Deus 
Homo " of St. Anselm, and published a 
Memoir of his only sister. Since 1863 he 
has published several controversial pam- 
phlets, "How and why I became a 
Catholic," a first and second " Letter to 
Anglican Friends who frequent St. John's, 
Torquay," five " Lectures on English 
Church History " for the magic lantern ; 
a series of Dialogues between Catholics 
and Non-conformists, and "Episcopal 
Jurisdiction in Bristol," in reply to Dr. 
Browne, the new Bishop of Bristol. 
Bishop Brownlow has also written a 
"Memoir of Sir James Marshall, late Chief 
Justice of the Gold Coast," and a 
"Life of Mother Rose Columba Adams," 
Foundress of the Dominican Convent at 
North Adelaide, formerly Prioress at St. 
Mary Church. In partnership with Dr. 
Northcote he assisted in the publication 
of the English " Roma Sotterranea," which 
embodied in 1869 the principal results of 
the researches of the great Roman archae- 
ologist Commendatore De Rossi, and ten 
years later the further discoveries of the 
same eminent authority in a second edi- 

tion in 2 vols., published by Longmans 
in 1879. They also edited the late Mr. 
William Palmer's "Early Christian Sym- 
bolism," illustrated with hand-painted 
plates, and published by Kegan Paul and 
Company. Mgr. Brownlow frequently 
lectured on the Catacombs before the 
Torquay Natural History Society, and 
gave a course of lectures on ,r Slavery and 
Serfdom in Europe," which were after- 
wards published. He also read papers 
before the Devonshire Association on St. 
Boniface, St. Willibald, and his Brother 
and Sister, on Bishop Grandisson, on St. 
Mary Church in mediaeval times, and on 
mediaeval clerical and social life in Devon. 
Address : Bishop's House, Park Place, 
Clifton, Bristol. 

BRUANT, Aristide, French popular 
singer, was born at Courtenay, Loiret, 
May 6, 1851, of middle-class parents, and 
was educated at the Lycfe of Sens. In 
1870 he formed one of a band of free- 
lances that opposed the invading Germans. 
After the war he came to Paris, and 
entered the service of the Northern Rail- 
way Company. He then began to spend 
his leisure time in singing and composing 
songs. At last he became a public singer, 
first at the Epoque and then at the Smla, 
singing the songs he himself had composed 
and written. Later he would only sing at 
cafe's and clubs, such as the Chat Noir, 
and then opened a cafe of his own in the 
Boulevard Rochechouart, called the Mir- 
litem. He was proposed for the " Socie'te' 
des Gens de Lettres," by Francois Coppe'e 
(q. v.), and Oscar Me'te'nier has written his 
biography. His best known songs are : 
"A la Villette," "Serrez vos rangs," "A 
laRoquette," "Aupresde ma Blonde," "A 
Biribi." He has written " Sur la Rue" 
and " Sur la Route," two collections of 
poetic songs and monologues, and he edits 
two newspapers, the Mirliton and the 
Lanterne de Bruant. He was a candidate 
for the Chamber of Deputies in May 1898 
for the twentieth arrondissement of Paris. 

BRUCE, Sir Charles, K.C.M.G., J.P., 
D.L., of Arnot, Kinross, of which county 
he is a Deputy-Lieutenant, is the son of 
the late Thomas Bruce, Esq., of Arnot, and 
was born in 1837, and educated at Harrow. 
He is the author of " Die Geschichte von 
Nala und Damayanti," a critical revision 
of the Sanscrit text, published by the 
Imperial Academy of St. Petersburg, 1862, 
and of other Sanscrit and Vedic studies. 
He published in 1863 a translation of 
" Nala und Damayanti " in English verse ; 
in 1865, " The Story of Queen Guinivere, 
and Other Poems." He was appointed 
Assistant-Librarian at the British Museum 
in 1863 ; Professor of Sanscrit, King's 



College, 1865 ; Hector of the Royal College, 
Mauritius, 1868 ; Director of Public In- 
struction, Ceylon, 1878 ; was President of 
the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic 
Society ; appointed Colonial Secretary of 
Mauritius, 1882 ; Lieut.-Governor and 
Government Secretary of British Guiana, 
1885 ; and has on several occasions ad- 
ministered the Government of Mauritius 
and British Guiana. He was appointed 
Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the 
Windward Islands, 1893. In 1889 he was 
made a K.C.M.G. In 1897 he was trans- 
ferred to Mauritius, of which he is now 
Governor. He married in 1868 Clara, 
daughter of J. Lucas. Addresses : Arnot 
Tower, Leslie, Scotland ; and Le Reduit, 

BRUCE, Hon. Sir Gainsford, KB., 
Q.C., D.C.L., Justice of the High Court, 
eldest son of the Rev. J. Collingwood 
Bruce, LL.D., D.C.L., F.S.A., of Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne, by Charlotte, daughter of T. 
Gainsford Bruce, Esq., of Gerrard's Cross, 
Bucks, was born in 1834, and educated at 
Glasgow University. He was called to 
the Bar at the Middle Temple in 1859, and 
joined the Northern Circuit in the same 
year. In 1883 he became a Q.C., and in 
1887 a Bencher. He was Solicitor-General 
for the County Palatine of Durham from 
1879 to 1886, Attorney-General from 1886 
to 1887, and Temporal Chancellor from 
1887 to 1892, when he was appointed a 
Judge of the High Court of Justice 
(Queen's Bench Division), and received the 
honour of knighthood. He was for fifteen 
years Recorder of Bradford. In April 1880 
he unsuccessfully contested Gateshead, 
and afterwards stood for three northern 
constituencies without being returned, but 
in November 1888 he was elected for the 
Holborn Division of Finsbury, and sat till 
July 1892 as a Conservative. He is part- 
author of " Williams and Bruce's Admiralty 
Practice" and of "Maude and Pollock on 
Shipping." In 1868 he married Sophia, 
daughter of Francis Jackson, Esq., of 
Chertsey. Addresses : Yewhurst, Bromley, 
Kent ; Gainslaw House, near Berwick- 
upon-Tweed ; and Athenaeum. 

BRUCE- JOY, Albert, R.H.A.,F.R.G.S., 

sculptor, was born in Dublin on Aug. 21, 
1842, and is the son of the late Dr. W. 
Bruce-Joy. He was sent, at the age of 
nine, to Dr. Becker's school at Offenbach, 
near Frankfort, and continued his educa- 
tion in Paris under a private tutor, and at 
King's College, London. At the age of 
seventeen he went to the South Kensington 
Schools of Art, and in 1862 became a pupil, 
for four years, of Foley. In 1863 he entered 
the Royal Academy Schools, and in 1866 
went to Rome and studied art for three 

years. In 1866 he first exhibited at the 
Royal Academy, since which date he has 
been a large and constant contributor to 
its exhibitions. At the Paris Exhibition 
of 1878 he was voted one of the three 
medals awarded to Great Britain for 
sculpture, sharing this signal honour with 
Leighton and Boehm. At the Paris Salon 
of 1896 the only award made to busts by 
sculptors of all nationalities was made to 
Mr. Bruce-Joy. In 1885, at the Antwerp 
Exhibition, he represented Great Britain 
on the International Jury for Fine Arts. 
As a sculptor he has chiefly produced 
colossal statues. Of these the principal 
are a statue of Mr. John Laird, the Harvey 
Tercentenary Statue at Folkestone ; the 
Graves Statue at the Royal College of 
Physicians, Dublin ; the statue of Lord 
Chief-Justice Whiteside in St. Patrick's 
Cathedral, Dublin ; that of Mr. Gladstone 
in front of Bow Church, London ; that 
of Mr. John Bright in the Art Gallery 
at Birmingham ; and that of the same 
statesman in the Town Hall Square, Man- 
chester ; that of Oliver Heywood in the 
same square ; that of Lord Frederick 
Cavendish at Barrow-in-Furness. He has 
also executed memorials of Admiral Sir E. 
Codrington (of Navarino) in St. Paul's ; of 
Dean Daunt in Dublin ; and of Mr. Pratt 
in Harrow School Chapel ; besides many 
busts in marble and terra-cotta of cele- 
brities past and present. Of these especial 
mention should be made of the bust 
of "Lord Farnborough," in the House 
of Commons; the "Berkeley" Statue in 
Cloyne Cathedral ; the " Montgomery " 
Memorial in the India Office, and monu- 
ment in St. Paul's Cathedral ; the bust of 
Mr. Gladstone in the Walker Art Gallery, 
Liverpool ; and that of Sir Edward Harland 
in Belfast Harbour ; the city's bust of Lord 
Salisbury in the Mansion House ; Arch- 
bishop Benson's bust ; Lord Cairns's, in 
Lincoln's Inn ; the "Astronomer Adams" 
monument in Westminster Abbey, where 
also is his bust of " Matthew Arnold " ; 
the "Adams" memorial bust, St. John's 
College, Cambridge; the "Archdeacon 
Hannah " bust, in Brighton Pavilion ; the 
bust of "Robert M'Donnell" (late Presi- 
dent), in Royal College of Surgeons, 
Dublin; the "Whitley" statue, St. 
George's Hall, Liverpool ; in which city 
also are his statues of " Alexander Balfour " 
and "Christopher Bushell"; the Mark 
Firth memorial bust in Firth College, 
Sheffield ; and that of " Colonel Akroyd," 
in Halifax Museum, and " Davies " in 
Peel Park Museum, Manchester. Among 
American subjects we note his busts of 
Miss IMary Anderson ; the Hon. Colonel 
Loudon-Snowden (late Ambassador to 
Spain) ; George W. Childs, of Philadelphia 
Ledger; the Hon. Chauneey Depew, the 



property of the Lotos Club, New York ; 
and a monument in Lowell. Among his 
ideal subjects, mention should be made of 
"The Young Apollo," "The Forsaken," 
"The Pets," "Moses and the Brazen 
Serpent," "The First Flight," and 
among his many medallion portraits of 
the late Duke of Albany and Sir Humphry 
Davy. This list is long, but it represents 
only a selection from over one hundred and 
fifty things in his catalogue. English ad- 
dresses : The Studio, Beaumont Road, West 
Kensington, &c. ; and Athenseum. 

BRTJCH, Max, musical composer, was 
born at Cologne, Jan. 6, 1838, and received 
his first musical instruction from his 
mother (nie Almenriider), who was a highly 
esteemed teacher of music, and who often 
in her young days sang at the Rhenish 
musical festivals. At the age of eleven 
Bruch attempted compositions on a large 
scale, and at the age of fourteen he had 
already brought out a symphony at 
Cologne. From 1853 to 1857 he held the 
Mozart scholarship at Frankfort o/M., and 
in that capacity he was a special pupil of 
Ferdinand Hiller (then Conductor of the 
Cologne concerts, and Director of the 
Cologne Conservatorium) in the theory of 
music and composition ; and of Karl 
Reinecke (till 1854), and of Ferdinand 
Breunnung in playing the piano. After a 
short stay in Leipzig, he resided from 
1858 to 1861 as musical teacher at Cologne, 
and was assiduous in composing. On the 
death of his father in 1861, he set out on 
an extensive tour of study, which, after 
brief stays at Berlin, Leipzig, Vienna, 
Dresden, and Munich, ended at Mannheim, 
where his opera " Lorelei " (after the text 
written by Geibel for Mendelssohn) was 
produced in 1863. At Mannheim, also, 
between 1862 and 1864 he wrote the 
chorus-works, " Frithjof," "Romischer 
Triumphgesang." " Gesang der heiligen 
drei Konige," and " Flucht der heiligen 
Familie." In 1864-65 he was again on his 
travels, visiting Hamburg, Hanover, Dres- 
den, Breslau, Munich, Brussels, and Paris. 
Then he brought out his "Frithjof" with 
success at Aix-la-Chapelle, Leipzig, and 
Vienna. From 1865 to 1867 he was musical 
director at Coblentz, and from 1867 to 
1870 Director of the Court Orchestra at 
Sondershausen. At Coblentz he wrote 
among other things, his well-known First 
Concerto for the Violin, and at Sonders- 
hausen two symphonies and portions of a 
Mass. The opera " Hermione," which was 
produced in 1872 in Berlin, where Bruch 
resided from 1871 to 1873, had only a 
succes d'estime. The choral work, or 
secular cantata, " Odysseus," likewise 
belongs to the period of the composer's 
residence at Berlin. After he had been 

five years (1873-78) at Bonn, devoting his 
time exclusively to composing " Arrninius," 
"The Lay of the Bell," and his Second 
Concerto for the Violin, and after he had 
paid two visits to this country for the 
purpose of producing some of his works, 
he became in 1878, on the resignation of 
Stockhausen, Director of Stern's Singing 
Academy at Berlin ; and in 1880 he was 
nominated to succeed Sir Julius Benedict 
as Director of the Philharmonic Society at 
Liverpool. In 1881 he married the vocalist, 
Miss Tuczek, of Berlin. 

Alfred, French painter and engraver, is 
the son of a distinguished architect, and 
was born at Havre on Nov. 5, 1845. He 
followed the artistic courses of M. Pils and 
M. Lalaune, and then devoted himself to 
painting. Among his works are many 
architectural paintings, some water-colours, 
and copies of the great masters, including 
Constable, Corot, and Turner. Among his 
best known engravings are "Nine Aquatint 
Engravings, after Turner," 1877 ; " Daphnis 
and ChloeV' after Fran cais; "Chill October," 
after Millais, 1884 ; ' ' Parting Days," after 
Leader, 1887. M. Brunet-Desbaines gained 
a medal of the first class in 1886, and a 
gold medal at the Paris Exhibition of 1889. 
He is chiefly noted for his etchings of 
architectural and natural beauties, few 
great illustrated works appearing without 
one of his masterpieces. 

BRTJNETIERE, Ferdinand, French 
author, was born at Toulon, July 19, 1849, 
and educated at the Lyc^e Louis-le-Grand. 
On failing for the Ecole Normale, he 
turned to literature, and in 1875 won 
distinction by a criticism on Wallon's 
"Saint Louis et son Temps," in the Revue 
Blcuc. He then joined the staff of the 
Revue des Deux Mondes, of which he became 
secretary, and finally chief editor, the post 
he now holds. In 1886 he was Professor 
of French Literature at the Ecole Normale, 
and was decorated with the Legion of 
Honour in 1887. His chief works are, 
" Etudes critiques sur l'histoire de la Langue 
Francaise," 1880, which was crowned by 
the French Academy ; " Nouvelles etudes 
critiques," 1882 ; " Le Roman naturaliste," 
1883; "l'Evolution des genres de Litera- 
ture," 1890, in which he applied the 
Darwinian theory to literature. His Essays 
have been translated by Mr. D. N. Smith, 
and were published in 1898. 

BETONEB, Sir John Tomlinson, 

Bart., M.P., the son of the Rev. John 
Brunner of Zurich, who eventually became 
a schoolmaster at Everton, Liverpool, was 
born at Everton in 1842, and was educated 
at his father's school. Entering business 



at Liverpool in 1857, he eventually, assisted 
by the well-known chemist Ludwig Mond, 
F.RS. iq.v.), established the Winnington 
Alkali Works at Northwich, which are 
now the largest of their kind in the world. 
He is a member of the Council of Univer- 
sity College, Liverpool ; and he has been a 
considerable benefactor to both that insti- 
tution, and to several schools and public 
libraries as well. He has presented North- 
wich with a free library. Elected as 
Liberal member for Northwich in 1885, he 
represented that constituency until 1886. 
He was again elected for the same borough 
in 1887, and still holds the seat. Sir 
John has published handbooks on Public 
Education in Cheshire in 1890 and 1896. 
Address : 9 Ennismore Gardens, S.W. ; 
and Winnington Old Hall, Northwich, 

BRTJNTON, Thomas Lauder, M.D., 
F.R.S., was born in Roxburghshire in 1844, 
and educated at Edinburgh University, 
where he graduated M.D. and D.Sc, 
obtaining honours and a gold medal for his 
thesis "On Digitalis," and the Baxter 
Scholarship in Natural Science. In 1867 
he made some observations on the path- 
ology of angina pectoris, which, together 
with the knowledge he possessed of the 
physiological action of nitrate of amyl, led 
him to the successful application of the 
drug to the treatment of the disease. This 
application affords one of the earliest and 
best marked instances of rational as distin 
guished from empirical therapeutics. After 
spending about three years in foreign travel 
and study, he was appointed Lecturer on 
Materia Medica at the Middlesex Hospital, 
London, in 1870, and in the following year 
he was appointed to St. Bartholomew's 
Hospital. In 1874 he was elected a Fellow 
of the Royal Society. In 1886 he was 
appointed a member of the commission to 
report upon the treatment of hydrophobia, 
and went to Paris to examine Pasteur's 
system. In 1889 he was deputed by the 
Lancet to represent it, at the invitation of 
the Nizam's Government, on the second 
commission appointed at Hyderabad, to 
investigate the action of chloroform. He 
wrote the section on Digestion, Secretion, 
and Animal Chemistry in Sanderson's 
" Handbook for the Physiological Labora- 
tory," which was the first text-book of 
practical physiology published in this 
country. In conjunction with Sir Joseph 
Fayrer he investigated the action of snake 
poison, and discovered that life could be 
greatly prolonged, though not ultimately 
saved, by the use of artificial respiration. 
His work has been chiefly directed to 
ascertaining the action of drugs with a 
view to their application in disease ; and 
he has published, alone or in conjunction 

with others, numerous papers on this 
subject, as well as the Goulstonian lectures 
on "Pharmacology and Therapeutics," in 
1877 ; the Croonian lectures at the Royal 
College of Physicians in 1889 on " The 
Connection between Chemical Structure 
and Physiological Action " ; and a text- 
book in which he has treated the action of 
drugs from a physiological point of view. 
His lectures on the "Action of Medicines," 
delivered in 1896, were published in 1897. 
He delivered the Harveian Oration before 
the Royal College of Physicians on Oct. 

18, 1894, and the general address for 
England at the twelfth International 
Medical Congress at Moscow on Aug. 

19, 1897. Address: 10 Stratford Place, 

BRYAN, George Hartley, D.Sc, 
F.R.S., the only son of Robert Purdie 
Bryan, of Clare College, Cambridge, was 
born at Cambridge on March 1, 1864. He 
was eddcated at Peterhouse College, Cam- 
bridge, graduated in the Mathematical 
Tripos in 1886, was Smith's Prizeman in 
1888, and held a Fellowship at Peterhouse 
from 1889 to 1895. He now occupies the 
Chair of Pure and Applied Mathematics in 
the University College of North Wales. 
Address : Plas Gwyn, Bangor, Carnarvon- 

BRYAN, William Jennings, Ameri- 
can political leader, was born at Salem, 
Marion County, Illinois, March 19, 1860, 
and was educated at local schools, and 
at Illinois College, where he graduated in 
1881. He studied law at Chicago for two 
years, and began the practice of his pro- 
fession at Jacksonville, Illinois, where a 
year later he married Mary E. Bard of 
Perry, Illinois. In 1887 they removed to 
Lincoln, the capital of the State of Neb- 
raska, where his wife was also a'dmitted 
to the Bar, and gave him efficient aid in 
the practice of his profession. He became 
widely known as an orator, advocating a 
tariff for revenue only. In 1890 he was 
elected to Congress, and was re-elected in 
1892, but refused a third nomination in 
1894. In Congress he actively supported 
the Democratic view of the tariff, and be- 
came a conspicuous advocate of the free 
coinage of silver, gaining notice also by 
his readiness as a speaker and his skill 
in parliamentary tactics. In 1896 he was 
a member of the National Democratic Con- 
vention, and was put in nomination as a 
presidential candidate on July 10, although 
his nomination had not been thought of as 
possible until the delivery by him of an 
oration before the Convention advocating 
the free coinage of silver. At the election 
(November 1896) he received 176 electoral 
votes, while his opponent received 271. 



Mr. Bryan has devoted his time since that 
election principally to lecturing and poli- 
tical agitation. 

BRYANT, Sophie (nie "Willock), 
D.Sc. , London, is the daughter of the late 
Rev. W. A. Willock, D.D., formerly Fellow 
of Trinity College, Dublin. She was born 
in Dublin, and spent her childhood in the 
northern county of Fermanagh, where her 
father played a prominent part in the Irish 
National Educational Movement. After 
the family moved to London, she gained 
an Arnott Scholarship at Bedford College. 
At nineteen she married Dr. William Hicks 
Bryant of Plymouth, and after his death 
— a year later — resumed her work as a 
student, more especially in mathematics 
and philosophy, and became Mathematical 
Mistress in the North London Collegiate 
School for Girls, under Miss Frances Mary 
Buss, whom she afterwards succeeded in 
1895 as Headmistress of the school. In 
January 1879, when the University of 
London was first opened to women, Mrs. 
Bryant took the second place in the 
Matriculation Examination, and in 1881 
graduated in Science, with Mathematical 
and Moral Science honours. In 1884 she 
took the degree of Doctor of Science in 
the Moral Science Branch, being the first 
woman to take that degree. In 1894, Mrs. 
Bryant, with Lady Frederick Cavendish 
and Mrs. Henry Sidgwick, was selected 
to serve upon the Royal Commission on 
Secondary Education. Besides contribut- 
ing various philosophical and scientific 
articles to Mind, the Philosophical Maga- 
zine, the International Journal of Ethics, 
the Contemporary Review, the Journal of 
the Anthropological Institute, Proceedings of 
the Aristotelian Society, the Proceedings of 
the London Mathematical Society, Dublin Uni- 
versity Review, and the Economic Journal; 
and educational articles to the Journal of 
Education, the Educational Review, and the 
Educational Times, Mrs. Bryant has pub- 
lished the following books : " Educational 
Ends " (Longmans, Green & Co.) ; "Celtic 
Ireland " (Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibnerand 
Co.); "Studies in Character" (Swan Son- 
nenschein & Co.); "The Teaching of 
Morality in the Family and the School" 
(Swan Sonnenschein & Co.), 1898; and 
" The Teaching of Chiist on Life and 
Conduct" (Swan Sonnenschein & Co.), 
1898. Mrs. Bryant takes an active part, 
especially as a lecturer and speaker, in 
various educational, social, and political 
movements, is one of the promoters of the 
London School of Ethics, and is noted for 
the warm interest which she takes in all 
phases of the Irish question, and the close 
and continuous attention with which she 
follows it. Address : North London Col- 
legiate School for Girls. 

BRYANT, Thomas, F.R.C.S. Eng- 
land and Ireland, M.Ch.R.U. Ireland, Con- 
sulting Surgeon to Guy's Hospital, and 
Surgeon Extraordinary to the Queen, was 
the son of the late T. Egerton Bryant, a 
medical practitioner of South London, and 
Fothergillian Medallist and President of 
the Medical Society of London. He was 
born on May 20, 1828, and was educated 
at King's College School, and as a medical 
student at Guy's Hospital. He became a 
Member of the College of Surgeons in 1849, 
and a Fellow in 1853, and was elected a 
Member of the Council of the College in 
1880, and of the Court of Examiners in 
1882. In 1890 he was made President of 
the College, and had the distinction of 
being re-elected on two occasions. He has 
also served as Hunterian and Bradshaw 
Lecturer at the College, and in 1893, on 
the centenary of John Hunter's death, he 
was the Hunterian orator — an occasion on 
which the Prince of Wales and the Duke 
of York honoured him by their presence. 
He is now a Member of the Council of 
his College, and its representative on the 
General Medical Council, of which he is 
Joint-Treasurer. As honorary degrees, he 
possesses the M.Ch. of the Royal University 
of Ireland, the M.D. of the Dublin Uni- 
versity, and the F.R.C.S. of the Irish Col- 
lege of Surgeons ; he is also a Member of 
the Surgical Society of Paris. At Guy's 
Hospital Mr. Bryant worked as a surgeon 
from 1857 to 1888, and for thirteen years 
he lectured on surgery in the school ; he 
is now Consulting Surgeon to the Hospital. 
He is at present President of the Royal 
Medical and Chirurgical Society, and has 
been President of the Medical Society of 
London, of the Clinical Society, the Hun- 
terian Society, and the Harveian Society ; 
he has also been Vice-President of the 
Pathological Society. As a writer he has 
done much work ; in 1863 he published 
his " Lettsonian Lectures on the Surgical 
Diseases of Children " ; in 1872 he pub- 
lished his work on " Surgery," which ran 
through three editions in a brief period, 
for the fourth was issued in 1884 ; in 1887 
he wrote his book on " Diseases of the 
Breast." In the Guy's Hospital Reports and 
the Transactions of the Medical and Chirur- 
gical Society many papers from his pen are 
to be found ; in the Cruy's Reports, on 
" Ovariotomy," " Diseases of the Testicle," 
"Hernia," "Strictures," "Stone in the. 
Bladder," and on " Operative Surgery " ; in 
the Medical and Chirurgical Society's Trans- 
actions, those on the " Torsion of Arteries,"' 
"Torsion of the Testicle," "Prolapse of 
the Female Urethra," and "Intussuscep- 
tion due to the Presence of a Villous 
Growth in the Rectum," being the most 
important. In the Lancet, he has, during 
the past few years, been giving some in- 



teresting records of his general surgical 
experience, including a paper on " Ab- 
dominal Injuries," printed in 1895, and 
one on "Rectal Surgery" in 1898. Ad- 
dresses : 65 Grosvenor Street, W. ; and 
Athenaeum Club. 

BRYCE, Right Hon. James, D.C.L., 
M.P., F.R.S., the son of James Bryce, 
LL.D. , of Glasgow, and Margaret, eldest 
daughter of James Young, Esq., of Abbey- 
ville, co. Antrim, was born at Belfast, 
May 10, 1838, and educated at the High 
School and University of Glasgow, and at 
Trinity College, Oxford (of which he was 
a scholar), graduating B.A. 1862, with a 
double first class. He obtained various 
University prizes, and proceeded to study 
for a time at Heidelberg. He was elected 
Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford, 1862, and 
became a barrister at Lincoln's Inn in 
1867, practising for some years. In 1870 
he was appointed Regius Professor of Civil 
Law in Oxford University, a post which 
he resigned in 1893, and in 1880 was elected 
Liberal member for the Tower Hamlets. 
He was Assistant - Commissioner to the 
Schools Inquiry Commission, 1865-66, and 
in 1894-95 was Chairman of the Royal 
Commission on Secondary Education. He 
is Hon. LL.D. of Glasgow and Edinburgh 
Universities, Hon. Doctor of the Univer- 
sities of Buda Pesth and Michigan; and 
Corresponding Member of the Institute of 
France, and of the Academies of Turin 
and Brussels. In 1885 he was elected 
member for South Aberdeen, which he 
now represents, and was appointed Under 
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs in 
Mr. Gladstone's Government in 1886. He 
was one of the chief supporters of the 
Home Rule Bill, and after the dissolution 
was returned unopposed for South Aber- 
deen in 1886. In 1892 he was appointed 
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster with 
a seat in Mr. Gladstone's Cabinet, and in 
1894 succeeded Mr. Mundella as President 
of the Board of Trade. Mr. Bryce's literary 
works are: "The Holy Roman Empire" 
(1st edit., 1864, 12th edit., 1895; trans- 
lated into German, 1873 ; do. into Italian, 
1886 ; do. into French, 1889) ; " The Trade 
Marks Registration Acts, 1875 and 1876, 
with Introduction and Notes," 1877 ; 
"Transcaucasia and Ararat, a Narrative 
of a Journey in Asiatic Russia in the 
Autumn of -1876, with an Account of the 
Author's Ascent of Mount Ararat," 1877 
(3rd edit., 1878; 4th edit., 1896); nume- 
rous articles in magazines, mostly political, 
historical, or geographical, including de- 
scriptions of Iceland, and of the highlands 
of Hungary and Poland ; " Two Centuries 
of Irish History," 1888, edited by him, 
with an Introductory Chapter ; " The 
American Commonwealth," 1888 (2nd edit., 

1889; 3rd edit., 1893); and an important 
work entitled, "Impressions of South 
Africa," 1897. He has been active on 
various political and social subjects, such 
as the Abolition of University Tests, the 
Protection of the Christian Subjects of 
the Sultan and the Extension of the Fron- 
tiers of Greece, the Preservation of Com- 
mons and Open Spaces, the Reform of 
Endowments, the Revision and Consolida- 
tion of the Statute Law, the Establishment 
of a Universal International Copyright, and 
the Creation of a Teaching University in 
London ; and he has carried Acts for the 
Reform of City Parochial Charities and for 
the Amendment of the Law of Guardian- 
ship (known as the "Infants Bill"), and 
the International and Colonial Copyright 
Act, 1886. Mr. Bryce married in 1889 
Elizabeth Marion, daughter of Thomas 
Ashton, Esq., of Ford Bank, Didsbury, 
near Manchester, ex-High Sheriff of Lan- 
cashire. Addresses : 54 Portland Place, 
W. ; and Athenasum. 

BTJCCLEXJCH, Duke of, William 
Henry Walter Montagu Douglas 
Scott, K.G., K.T., J.P., D.L., was born in 
London on Sept. 9, 1831, and succeeded 
his father as 6th Duke in 1884. He was 
educated at Eton and Christ Church, 
Oxford, and sat in the House of Com- 
mons as Conservative member for Mid- 
lothian from 1853 to 1868, and from 1874 
to 1880. He was Lieut. -Colonel of the 
Midlothian Yeomanry from 1856 to 1872, 
and is now Lieut.-General of the Royal 
Company of Archers (the Queen's Body- 
guard in Scotland), and is also Lord 
Lieutenant of Dumfriesshire. He was 
married in 1859 to the third daughter of 
the 1st Duke of Abercorn, and he sits 
in the House of Lords under the title of 
Earl of Doncaster. Addresses : Montagu 
House, Whitehall, S.W. ; Boughton House, 
Kettering ; and numerous other country 

BTJCHAN, Alexander, M.A., LL.D., 
born at Kinnesswood, in Kinross -shire, on 
April 11, 1829, is the son of Alexander 
Buchan and Janet Hill. He was educated 
at the Free Church Training College, Edin- 
burgh, and at the Edinburgh University, 
where he graduated as Master of Arts. 
He was engaged as a public teacher till 
Christmas 1860, when he was appointed 
Secretary of the Scottish Meteorological 
Society. He is the author of " The Handy 
Book of Meteorology," 1867 (2nd ed., 1868) ; 
and " Introductory Text Book of Meteor- 
ology," 1871; the article "Meteorology" 
in the last edition of the "Encyclopedia 
Britannica," " Reports on Atmospheric 
Circulation and Oceanic Circulation," 
being two of the reports of the CJiallenger 




Expedition; besides numerous monographs 
in the publications of the learned societies 
at home and abroad, including " The Mean 
Pressure and Prevailing Winds of the 
Globe," "Weather and Health of Lon- 
don," " Climatology of the British Isles," 
&c. He is M.A. Edinburgh University ; 
LL.D. Glasgow University; Curator of 
the Library and Museum of the Royal 
Society, Edinburgh ; Member of Meteoro- 
logical Council ; Foreign Member of the 
Royal Society of Sciences of Upsala ; Hon. 
Member of the Philosophical Society, Man- 
chester ; Corresponding Member of the 
Philosophical Society, Glasgow ; Corre- 
sponding Member of the Philosophical 
Society, Emden ; Hon. Member of the 
Meteorological Societies of Austria, Ger- 
many, Algiers, Mauritius, &c. He was 
married to Sarah, daughter of David 
Ritchie, Musselburgh, in July 1864. Ad- 
dress : Heriot Row, Edinburgh. 

BUCHANAN, George WiUiam, 

was born at Copenhagen on Nov. 25, 1854, 
and is the son of Sir Andrew Buchanan, 
Bart., G.C.B. He was educated at Wel- 
lington, and entered the Foreign Office 
as Attache in 1875. He held posts at 
Vienna, Rome, and Tokio, and in 1890 he 
acted as ChargtS d' Affaires at Berne. In 
1893 he was appointed to his present post 
of Charge d'Affaires at Darmstadt and 
Carlsruhe. He married Lady Georgiana, 
daughter of the 6th Earl of Bathurst, in 
1885. Address : The British Legation, 

BUCHANAN, John Young, M.A., 
F.R.S., the son of John Buchanan of 
Dowanhill, was born in Scotland, Feb. 20, 
1844, and was educated at Glasgow High 
School ; at the Universities of Glasgow, 
Marburg, Leipzig, and Bonn ; and at the 
Ecole de Medicine, Paris. He served as 
chemist and physicist on the Challenger 
Expedition, and was subsequently Lecturer 
in Geography in the University of Cam- 
bridge. He now devotes his time to 
chemical studies and investigations. Ad- 
dress : Christ's College, Cambridge. 

BUCHANAN, Robert "Williams, 

poet and prose writer, was born at Cavers- 
wall, Staffordshire, on Aug. 18, 1841, and 
is the only son of Robert Buchanan, 
socialist, missionary, and journalist, and 
his wife, Margaret Williams, of Stoke- 
upon-Trent. He was educated at the 
High School and the University of Glasgow. 
His first work, " Undertones," appeared 
in 1862, and was followed by "Idylls and 
Legends of Inverburn," in 1863, and 
"London Poems," in 1866. Mr. Buchanan 
edited "Wayside Posies," and translated 
the National Ballads of Denmark in 1866. 

Then followed " North Coast Poems," 
1867; "The Bar of Orm," 1869; "Napo- 
leon Fallen : a Lyrical Drama," 1871 ; 
"The Land of Lome; including the 
Cruise of the Tern to the Outer Hebrides," 
1871; "The Drama of Kings," 1871; "The 
Fleshly School of Poetry," an attack on 
the poems of Mr. D. G. Rossetti and Mr. 
Swinburne, 1872; and "Master Spirits," 
1873. Many years ago his tragedy of 
"The Witchfinder" was brought out at 
Sadlers Wells Theatre ; and a comedy by 
him, in three acts, entitled "A Madcap 
Prince," was acted at the Haymarket in 
August 1874. He has also contributed to 
the stage, "A Nine Days' Queen," in 
which his sister-in-law, Miss Harriet Jay, 
the novelist, first appeared as an actress ; 
and a dramatic version of her novel, " The 
Queen of Connaught." In 1869 Mr. Buch- 
anan gave, in the Hanover Square Rooms, 
a series of "Readings" of selections from 
his own poetical works. A collected 
edition of his poems was published in 
3 vols., 1874. Previously to that he had 
issued anonymously two works which 
achieved instant popularity ; " St. Abe 
and his Seven Wives," and "White Pose 
and Red," both humorous stories in verse. 
In 1876 Mr. Buchanan published his first 
novel, "The Shadow of the Sword," which 
has been since followed bv "A Child of 
Nature," 1879 ; " God and the Man," 1881 ; 
" The Martyrdom of Madeline," 1882 ; and 
several other novels from time to time. 
A new volume of poems, entitled "Ballads 
of Life, Love, and Humour," and a 
"Selection" from his various poems, were 
issued simultaneously in 1882. His novel, 
"Love Me for Ever," appeared in 1883, 
and his comedy, " Lady Clare," was 
brought out at the Globe Theatre on April 
11 in the same year. "Alone in Lon- 
don," a drama written in conjunction with 
Miss Harriet Jay, was produced at the 
Olympic, Nov. 2, 1S85, and "Sophia," an 
adaptation of Fielding's " Tom Jones," at 
the Vaudeville on April 12, 1886. This 
play had a phenomenal run of close upon 
two years. His play, "Joseph's Sweet- 
heart," was produced early in 1888, and 
ran for eighteen months. In the same 
year he published an epic poem, entitled, 
" The City of Dream." In 1890 the drama, 
" A Man's Shadow," was produced at the 
Haymarket. In 1891 his works were, 
" The Moment After," " The Gifted Lady " 
(a satire on Ibsen), " The Coming Terror," 
a collection of papers reprinted from 
newspapers, and " The Outcast" ; and in 
1892, " Come Live with Me and be my 
Love." Early in 1893 he published " The 
Wandering Jew," a poem which led to 
long correspondence in the Daily Chronicle. 
In 1894 his play, " Dick Sheridan," was 
produced at the Comedy Theatre, and 



shortly afterwards ,: The Charlatan" at 
the Haymarket. Mr. Buchanan's more 
recent contributions to literature have been 
"The Devil's Case" (a work which pro- 
voked much controversy), the " Ballad of 
Mary the Mother," and a prose story, the 
" Bev. Annabel Lee." A complete edition 
of his poetical works, in 1 vol., was 
published by Messrs. Chatto & Windus 
in 1885. Address : 36 Gerrard Street, 
Shaftesbury Avenue, W. 

BUCHHEIM, Charles Adolphus, 
Phil. Doc. (Eostock), F.C. P., was born in 
Moravia, Jan. 22, 1828. After having com- 
pleted his academical studies, including a 
course of Padatjoijik at the University of 
Vienna, he devoted himself, botli at that 
town and successively at Leipzig, Brussels, 
and Paris, to the production of belletristic 
and historical works, which occupation he 
continued for some time after his arrival 
in 1852 in this country. He also translated 
some of Dickens' works into German, and 
towards the end of the fifties he devoted 
himself to the teaching profession and to 
the production of educational works (in- 
cluding an annotated edition of Schiller's 
" Wallenstein"), which were most favour- 
ably received. His popularity" in this 
country and in America is based on his 
annotated editions of German classics, 
issued at the Clarendon Press. In the 
thirteen volumes hitherto published Pro- 
fessor Buchheim has practically shown for 
the first time that the works of Lessing, 
Goethe, Schiller, and Heine are as worthy 
as the ancient classics of a scholarly treat- 
ment, and the result is that his editions 
are largely used wherever German is 
taught through the medium of English, 
and have even been introduced into 
German schools. Dr. Buchheim is also 
the editor of the "Deutsche Lyrik," the 
" Balladen .und Bomanzen," and " Heine's 
Lieder und Gedichte," in the "Golden 
Treasury Series," and in 1883 he issued, 
conjointly with the Bev. Dr. Wace, the 
Principal of King's College, a volume 
entitled "First Principles of the Beforma- 
tion," to which he contributed an essay on 
the "Political Course of the Eeformation," 
and a translation of one of Luther's 
celebrated "Beformationsschriften." In 
1863 Dr. Buchheim was appointed Professor 
of the German Language and Literature 
in King's College, London, and later on he 
was elected Fellow of the College of Pre- 
ceptors. He filled the post of Examiner 
in German to the University of London 
during three periods of five years each, 
and he also acted, and still acts, as 
examiner for various public examining 
bodies in Great Britain and Ireland, espe- 
cially so for the Universities of Oxford, 
Cambridge, and New Zealand. In Decem- 

ber 1897 the University of Oxford con- 
ferred upon him the honorary degree of 
M.A. He was at one time German tutor 
to the children of the Prince and Princess 
of Wales. Address : 47 Leamington Boad 
Villas, W. 

BUCHNEB, Eriedrich Karl Chris- 
tian Ludwig, M.D., a German philosopher, 
born at Darmstadt, March 29, 1824, is the 
son of a distinguished physician in that 
town. After a preliminary education, he 
was sent in 1843 to the University of 
Giessen, where he studied philosophy, 
though he subsequently at Strasburg turned 
his attention to medicine, in compliance 
with the wishes of his family. He took 
his doctor's degree at Giessen in 1848, 
and then continued his studies in the uni- 
versities of Wiirzburg and Vienna. After 
practising medicine for some time in his 
native place, he settled at Tubingen as 
a private lecturer, being also appointed 
Assistant Clinical Professor. He was 
deprived of this position, however, by the 
authorities, in consequence of the philo- 
sophical doctrines propounded in his 
famous book on "Force and Matter," 
1855. He thereupon returned to Darm- 
stadt, and resumed practice as a physician. 
In the work referred to — which is entitled 
in German "Kraft und Stoff" (1855; 
16th edit., 1888), and which has been 
translated into most European languages — 
Dr. Bucbner explains the principles of his 
system of philosophy, which he contends 
is in harmony with the discoveries of 
modern science. He insists on the eternity 
of matter, the immortality of force, the 
universal simultaneousness of light and 
life, and the infinity of forms of being in 
time and space. Dr. Biichner has further 
explained his system in " Nature and 
Spirit," 3rd edit., 1876; "Physiological 
Sketches," 2nd edit., 1875; and "Nature 
and Science," 3rd edit., 1874 ; " Man, and 
his Place in Nature," 3rd edit., 1889; 
"The Intellectual Life of Animals," 3rd 
edit., 1880; "The Theory of Darwin," 
5th edit., 1890; "Light and Life," 1882: 
"The Future Life and Modern Science," 
1889, and several other works. He has 
also contributed to periodical publications 
various treatises on physiology, pathology, 
and medical jurisprudence. Dr. Biichner's 
brother George, who was born in 1813, 
and died in 1837, was also a doctor by 
profession, but was distinguished as a 
poet. His sister Louise, who was born in 
1823. and died in 1877, wrote novels and 

BUCK, Dudley, American musical 
composer, was born at Hartford, Connec- 
ticut, March 10, 1839. He studied three 
years at Leipzig and in Dresden, and one 



in Paris, under Hauptmann, Eichter, Eietz, 
Moscheles, Plaidy, and Schneider. In 1862 
he returned to America, and in 1864 began 
a series of organ concerts in the principal 
cities and towns of the United States, 
which were continued for a period of 
fifteen years, and which made him widely 
known to the American public both as a 
performer and as a composer. From Hart- 
ford, where, since his return from Europe, 
he has been organist of the North Congre- 
gational Church, he removed in 1869 to 
Chicago, to assume charge of the music in 
St. James's Church, but immediately after 
the great fire there in 1871, where he met 
with severe losses (including unpublished 
compositions), he went back to the East 
and took the musical direction of St. Paul's 
Church, Boston, and shortly afterwards 
was appointed organist of the Music Hall 
in the same city. These positions he 
retained for three years, relinquishing 
them in 1875 to become assistant conductor 
in Theodore Thomas' (N.Y.) Central Park 
Garden Concerts. In the following year 
his cantata, "The Centennial Meditation 
of Columbia," was performed under the 
direction of Mr. Thomas by a chorus of 
1000 voices and an orchestra of nearly 
200 pieces at the inauguration of the 
Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia. 
Later in the same year (1876) he became 
organist of the Holy Trinity Church, 
Brooklyn, where he still remains. Among 
his numerous compositions may be men- 
tioned two " Motett Collections," a series 
of "Studies in Pedal Phrasing," several 
groups of songs, a " Symphonic Overture " 
to Scott's "Marmion," the "Forty-sixth 
Psalm," and " The Legend of Don Munio," 
a romantic cantata of which the text is a 
metrical version of Irving's "Alhambra." 
The largest of his works is " The Light of 
Asia" (the text from Sir Edwin Arnold's 
poem), published in 1885. In the same 
year he wrote "The Voyage of Columbus" 
(a cantata), which was first performed by 
the Apollo Club, a Brooklyn Society of male 
voices founded and conducted by Mr. Buck. 
His " Golden Legend," based on Long- 
fellow's poem of the same title, received 
the prize offered by the Cincinnati Music 
Festival Association for the best composi- 
tion for solo voices, chorus and orchestra 
($1000), Other of his works are a comic 
opera, " Deseret," produced in New York 
in 1880 ; " Illustrations in Choir Accompani- 
ment," 1877 ; and a number of literary- 
musico treatises on themes connected with 
his profession. Among his latest works 
are two cantatas for church use, "The 
Story of the Cross" and "The Triumph 
of David," and a "Communion Service 
in C," in nine numbers. Mr. Buck is 
on the editorial staff of "The People's 
Cyclopaedia. " 

BUCKLE, Vice-Admiral Claude 
Edward, was born in February 1839, and 
entered the navy in August 1852. As a 
cadet he served in the Black Sea during 
the Russian war, and was engaged in the 
operations connected with the embarkation 
of the allied army at Varna. He joined 
H.M.S. Valorous as midshipman in 1854, 
and was present in two night attacks on 
the sea front of Sebastopol, and also at the 
capture of Kertch and Kinburn, for which 
he was awarded the Crimean and Turkish 
medals with Sebastopol clasp. In 1856 he 
proceeded to China in the Inflexible, and 
was engaged in the destruction of the 
Chinese Fleet at Escape Creek. Mr. (now 
Admiral) Buckle was afterwards attached 
to a detachment which succeeded in 
dragging its two field-guns up the wall of 
Canton. These he brought into action at 
a very opportune moment, and for this 
service was mentioned in despatches. As 
a Lieutenant in H.M.S. Mar/icienne, he took 
part in the attack on Pei-ho Forts, being 
in command of a gun and scaling ladders, 
was twice severely wounded, and again 
mentioned in despatches by the Com- 
mander-in-Chief. He received the China 
medal and three clasps. He was a Lieu- 
tenant in H.M.S. Hero, when she took 
H.E.H. the Prince of Wales to Canada. 
He was promoted Commander in 1866, 
and Captain in 1877, and was appointed 
A.D. C. to the Queen, and Senior Naval 
Officer at Gibraltar in 1889. He hoisted 
his flag as Rear-Admiral in H.M.S. Howe 
during 1895, having been selected to take 
over the duties of Senior Officer on the 
Coast of Ireland. During this command 
he had a narrow escape from drowning. 
In company with a dockyard labourer, 
Admiral Buckle was examining some large 
subterranean water tanks in Haulbowline 
Yard, when the man, who was showing the 
way by the light of a candle, struck his 
head against a beam, and fell half -stunned 
into a tank. The Admiral promptly 
jumped in after him, and with great 
difficulty succeeded in saving him, after 
which the Admiral himself was assisted 
out. He also holds the Eoyal Humane 
Society's medal for saving life in Queens- 
town Harbour. Vice-Admiral Buckle was 
promoted to his present rank in December 

BUCKLE, George Earle, the editor 
of the Times, is the eldest son of the Eev. 
George Buckle, Canon and Precentor of 
Wells, and was born June 10, 1854, at 
Twertou Vicarage, near Bath, and educated 
at Honiton Grammar School, 1863-65, and 
Winchester College, where he was a scholar 
on the Foundation, 1866-72. He was a 
scholar of New College, Oxford, 1872-77, 
I where he won the Newdigate Prize for 



English Verse, 1875, and gained a first 
class in Literal Humaniores, 1876, and a 
first class in Modern History, 1877 ; 
graduating B.A. 1876, and M.A. 1879. He 
■was Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford, 
1877-85, and was called to the Bar at 
Lincoln's Inn, 1880. He entered the Times 
office on the editorial staff in 1880, and 
was appointed editor on Mr. Chenery's 
death in February 1884. He married in 
1885 a daughter of Mr. James Payn, the 
novelist. Addresses : 76 Ashley Gardens, 
S.W. ; and Athensonm. 

BUCKNILL, Thomas Townshend, 
Q.C., M.P., the second son of Sir J. C. 
Bucknill, F.R.S., was born in 1845, and 
was educated at Westminster and at 
Geneva. He was called to the Bar at the 
Inner Temple in 1868, became a Q.C. in 
1885, and in the same year was appointed 
Becorder of Exeter. He is also a member 
of the Bar Committee, and was elected 
a Bencher in 1891. He has sat in the 
House of Commons since 1892 as Conser- 
vative member for the Epsom Division of 
Surrey, and he served as County Alderman 
for Surrey from 1889 to 1892. Mr. Buck- 
nill has edited Cunningham's Reports and 
Sir S. Cook's Common Pleas Reports. Ad- 
dresses : Hylands House, Epsom ; 10 King's 
Bench Walk, Temple, E.C. ; andAthenaanm. 

BUCKTON, George Bowdler, of 

Weycombe, Haslemere, Surrey, Fellow of 
the Royal, the Linnsean, the Chemical and 
Entomological Societies of London, and of 
the Entomological Society of France, was 
born in London on May 24, 1817. His 
father, George Buckton, Esq., of Oakrield, 
Hornsey, Proctor of the Prerogative Court 
of Canterbury, Doctor's Commons, came of 
an old Yorkshire family, whilst his mother 
was eldest daughter of Eichard Merricks, 
Esq., of Runcton House, Mundham, Sussex. 
Partial paralysis, through an accident in 
very early life, incapacitated him for a 
university career. He studied under the 
private tutorships of Rev. Oliver Lodge, 
Rector of Barking, and the Rev. Dr. Meuse, 
formerly Headmaster of the Cholmondeley 
School at Highgate. The early friendship 
of Thomas Bell, F.R.S., led to his intro- 
duction in 1845 to the Linnaean Society, on 
whose Council he served for several years. 
On the death of his father, he moved into 
London, and joined as a student the Royal 
College of Chemistry, under Professor A. 
W. Hofmann, who became his close friend. 
Singly and in conjunction with him, he 
published several papers on organic che- 
mistry in the Transactions of the Royal 
and Chemical Societies, of which he be- 
came a member in 1857 and 1852 respec- 
tively, and on whose Councils he served, 
enjoying the society of Bell, Owen, Yarrell, 

Forbes, Sir J. Hooker, E. Day, and West- 
wood, on the physical side, of Brodie, 
Odling, Frankland, Abel, Crookes, and 
other chemists. In 1867 he was elected a 
member of the Philosophical club of the 
Royal Society. He was the first in this 
country, as an amateur, successfully to 
grind astronomical specula on Foucault's 
method of silver on glass. In 1865 he 
married Mary Ann, only daughter of 
George Odling, Esq., M.R.C.S., of Croy- 
don, and settled in Haslemere, where 
he gathered materials for his monograph, 
in 4 vols., of the "British Aphides," 
published by the Bay Society in 1876, 
the coloured plate being lithographed 
,by himself from nature. In 1890 his 
illustrated monograph of the "British 
Cicadas" was published by Macmillan, 
and followed in 1895 by a monograph of 
"Eristalis tenax." Papers from his pen 
have appeared down to the present time 
in the Transactions of the Entomological 
Society of London, and in the Museum 
Notes of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 
Address : Weycombe, Haslemere. 

BUDGE, Ernest A. Wallis, Litt.D., 

F.S.A.., was educated at Christ's College, 
Cambridge, where he became Assyrian 
Scholar and Tyrwhitt Hebrew Scholar of 
his university. He is now keeper of the 
Egyptian and Assyrian antiquities in the 
British Museum. Mr. Budge is the author 
of numerous publications, among which 
may be mentioned: "Assyrian Texts," 
1880 ; " The History of Esarhaddon," 1881 ; 
"Babylonian Life and History," 1884; 
"The Dwellers on the Nile," 1885 ; "Mar- 
tyrdom of St. George," 1888 ; " History of 
Alexander the Great," 1889; "The Nile," 
1890; "Catalogue of the Fitz-William 
Egyptian Collection," 1893; "The Mum- 
my," 1893; "Discourses of Philoxenus," 
1894; "Eabban Hormizd," 1894; "St. 
Michael," 1894; "Book of the Dead". 
(Papyrus of Ani), 1895 ; " First Steps in 
Egyptian," 1895; "An Egyptian Reading 
Book for Beginners," 1896; "Life and 
Exploits of Alexander the Great," 1896 ; 
"Oriental Wit and Wisdom," 1896, &c. 
Address : 10 St. Lawrence Road, W. 

BULGARIA, Prince of. See Fer- 

BULLEB, Admiral Sir Alexander, 
K.C.B., son of the Rev. Richard Buller, 
of Lanreath, Cornwall, was born in June 
1834, and entered the navy in 1848. He 
served as mate in H.M.S. Royal Albert in 
the Black Sea during the Crimean war, 
and as Lieutenant in H.M.S. Princess Royal 
was present at the capture of Kertch and 
Kinburn, and in all the operations before 
Sebastopol. For these services he received 



the Crimean and Turkish medals. He 
was promoted Commander in 1863, and 
Captain in 1869. In the latter rank he 
commanded the Naval Brigade landed 
for operations against the Malays in the 
Straits of Malacca during the Perak Cam- 
paign of 1875. He was created a C.B. and 
received the Perak Medal with clasp. 
Admiral Buller was appointed Aide-de- 
Campto the Queen in 1884, and from 1889 
to 1892 he filled the office of Admiral 
Superintendent of Malta dockyard. He 
proceeded to the China station as Com- 
mander-in-Chief in 1895, and owing to the 
aggression of certain European powers, 
the squadron under his command was in- 
creased in strength, becoming, after the 
Mediterranean fleet, the most important 
English force in foreign waters. He re- 
linquished the command in January 1888, 
when he became a full Admiral. He was 
created a K.C.B. in May 1896, and also 
holds the Royal Humane Society's medal 
for assisting to save life while a Lieutenant 
in H.M.S. Edgar. He married in 1870 
Emily, daughter of Henry Tritton, Esq., of 
Beddington, Surrey. Address : Erie Hall, 
Plympton, Devon. 

BTTLLER, The Right Hon. Lieut.- 
General Sir Redvers Henry, ©.C, 
G.C.B., K.C.M.G., is the eldest surviving 
son of the late James Wentworth Buller, 
M.P., of Downes, Crediton, Devonshire, 
and of Charlotte, daughter of the late 
Lord H. Howard, and was born in 1839. 
He entered the 30th Rifles May 23, 1858 ; 
lieutenant, Dec. 9, 1862 ; captain, May 28, 
1870; major, April 1, 1874; lieut. -colonel, 
Nov. 11, 1878; colonel, Sept. 27, 1879; 
Major-General, May 21, 1884. He served 
with the 2nd Battalion 60th Rifles through- 
out the campaign of 1860 in China (medal 
with two clasps); with the 1st Battalion 
on the Red River Expedition of 1870 ; 
accompanied Sir Garnet Wolseley to the 
Gold Coast in September 1873 ; and served 
as D.A. Adjutant and Quartermaster- 
General and Head of the Intelligence 
Department throughout the Ashantee War 
of 1873-74, including the action of Essa- 
man, battle of Amoaful, advanced guard 
engagement at Jarbinbah, battle of Orda- 
hai (slightly wounded), and capture of 
Coomassie (several times mentioned in 
despatches, brevet of Major, C.B., medal 
with clasp). He served in the Kaffir War 
of 1878-79, and commanded the Frontier 
Light Horse in the engagement of Taba 
ka Udoda, and in the operations at Moly- 
neux Path and against Manyanyoba's 
stronghold (several times mentioned in 
despatches) ; also throughout the Zulu 
War of 1879, and commanded the cavalry 
in the engagements at Zeobane Mountain 
and Kambula ; conducted the reconnais- 

sance before Ulundi, and was present in 
the engagement at Ulundi (several times 
mentioned in despatches, thanked in 
General Orders, brevet of Lieut. -Colonel, 
Aide-de-Camp to the Queen, Victoria Cross, 
C.M.G., medal with clasp). The %.€. was 
given "for his gallant conduct at the 
retreat at Inhloband, on March 28, 1879, 
in having assisted, while hotly pursued by 
Zulus, in rescuing Captain C. DArcy of 
the Frontier Light Horse, who was retir- 
ing on foot, Colonel Buller carrying him 
on his horse until he overtook the rear- 
guard ; also for having on the same day, 
and in the same circumstances, conveyed 
to a place of safety Lieutenant C. Everitt 
of the Frontier Light Horse, whose horse 
had been killed under him. Later on, 
Colonel Buller, in the same manner, saved 
a trooper of the Frontier Light Horse, 
whose horse was completely exhausted, 
and who otherwise would have been killed 
by the Zulus, who were within eighty 
yards of him." Colonel Buller served in 
the Boer War of 1881 as Chief of the Staff 
to Sir Evelyn Wood, with the local rank 
of Major-General ; in the Egyptian War 
of 1882 in charge of the Intelligence De- 
partment, and was present in the action at 
Kassassin, September 9, and at the battle 
of Tel-el-Kebir (mentioned in despatches, 
K.C.M.G., medal with clasp, third class of 
the Osmanieh, and Khedive's Star) ; served 
in the Soudan Expedition under Sir Gerald 
Graham in 1884, in command of the 1st 
Infantry Brigade, and as second in com- 
mand of the expedition, and was present 
in the engagement at El Teb and Temai 
(twice mentioned in despatches, promoted 
to Major-General for distinguished service 
in the field, medal and two clasps) ; served 
in the Soudan campaign in 1884-85 as 
Chief of the Staff to Lord Wolseley. 
When Sir Herbert Stewart was wounded, 
and Colonel Burnaby had been killed, he 
took command of the Desert Column, and 
withdrew it from Gubat to Gakdul in the 
face of the enemy, defeating them at Abu 
Klea Wells on February 16 and 17 (men- 
tioned in despatches, K.C.B., medal and 
clasp). From 1887 to 1890 Sir Redvers 
Buller was Quartermaster-General of the 
Army, and in October of the latter year 
became Adjutant-General to the Forces in 
succession to Lord Wolseley. In April 
1891 he was promoted to the rank of 
Lieutenant-General. G.C.B. 1894. He is 
married to Audrey, daughter of the 4th 
Marquis Townshend, and widow of the 
Hon. G. T. Howard. Addresses: 29 Bruton 
Street ; Downes, Crediton ; and Athenseum. 

B TILLER, Sir Walter La-wry, 
K.C.M.G., F.R.S., the descendant of an 
ancient Cornish family and the oldest sur- 
viving son of the late Rev. James Buller, 



was born at Newark, in the Bay of Islands, 
New Zealand, on Oct. 9, 1838. He re- 
ceived his early education at Auckland 
College, and afterwards became a pupil of 
William Swainson, F.K.S. , the celebrated 
zoologist, who had settled in that colony. 
For a continuous period of fifteen years 
he held various official appointments, but 
chiefly in connection with native affairs, 
as he had early acquired a thorough know- 
ledge of the Maori language ; and on eight 
different occasions he received the special 
thanks of the Colonial Government. Dur- 
ing this time he also contributed largely 
to zoological literature, and was elected a 
Fellow of the Linnean and of various other 
learned societies. From 1855 to 1860 he 
acted as Government Interpreter and 
Native Commissioner. In 1861 he was 
appointed editor-in-chief of The Maori 
Messenger, an English and Maori journal 
published by authority. At the age of 
twenty-four he was appointed a Resident 
Magistrate, and three years later a Judge 
of the Native Land Court. In 1865 he 
served as a volunteer on Sir George Grey's 
staff at the taking of the Weraroa Pa, 
for which lie received the New Zealand 
War Medal. On that occasion, declining 
the protection of a military escort, he 
carried the Governor's despatches, at night, 
through forty miles of the enemy's coun- 
try, attended only by a Maori orderly, for 
which gallant service he was mentioned in 
despatches. In 1871 he visited England, 
and two years later published a splen- 
didly illustrated "History of the Birds of 
New Zealand." The Royal University of 
Tubingen bestowed upon him the honorary 
degree of Doctor of Science, and he re- 
ceived several other foreign distinctions. 
In 1874 he was called to the Bar at the 
Inner Temple. In 1875 Her Majesty, in 
recognition of the value of his scientific 
work, created him a C.M.G. ; and in 1876 
he was elected F.R.S. In 1882 he pub- 
lished a "Manual of the Birds of New 
Zealand," for the use of students ; and in 
1883 was awarded the Gold Medal of the 
New Zealand Exhibition, "for Science 
and Literature." From 1875 to 1885 in- 
clusive he practised his profession in the 
Colony with remarkable success. In 1886 
he returned to England as New Zealand 
Commissioner at the Colonial and Indian 
Exhibition, and for his services on that 
occasion was promoted by Her Majesty 
to the rank of K.C.M.G. In 1887 he was 
awarded the Galileian Medal by the Royal 
University of Florence ; and in 1888 he 
published a new and much enlarged edition 
of " The Birds of New Zealand " (imperial 
quarto). In 1889 he was a Member of the 
Mansion House Committee for the Paris 
Exhibition, and served on the Executive 
Council of that body. In the following 

year he proceeded to New Zealand, and 
in 1893 returned to England to represent 
that Colony on the permanent governing 
body of the Imperial Institute, retaining 
this position until 1896. Sir Walter Buller 
holds the rank of Officier in the Legion 
of Honour. He is also "Officier de ['In- 
struction Pnblique" (Gold Palms of the 
Academy), Knight first class of the Order 
of Francis Joseph of Austria, Knight first 
class of the Order of Frederick of Wur- 
temberg, and Knight first class of the 
Order of Merit of Hesse-Darmstadt. Ad- 
dress : The Terrace, Wellington, New 

BULLOCK, The Rev. Charles, B.D., 

was born in 1829. He was ordained to the 
Parish of Rotherham, and became Rector 
of St. Nicholas, Worcester, in 1860. Re- 
signing this post in 1874, he devoted him- 
self to popular literature ; and in recogni- 
tion of his services in this direction the 
Archbishop of Canterbury conferred on 
him the degree of B.D. The magazines 
edited by him are The Fireside (first pub- 
lished in 1864), Home Words, which in its 
localised form is known throughout the 
country, and The Day of Days, for Sunday 
reading. In 1876 he founded Hand and 
Heart, as a penny illustrated Church of 
England Social and Temperance Journal. 
More recently he has established "The 
News : a National Journal and Review" 
He is also author of several religious books, 
of which we may mention his " Memorials 
of Frances Ridley Havergal." Address : 
Coomrith, Eastbourne. 

BULOW, Bernhard von, German 
Foreign Secretary, was born in 1850, and 
is a son of the Herr von Biilow who was 
Foreign Secretary of Germany between 
the years 1873 and 1879. In 1873, after 
entering the German Foreign Office, he 
became successively Secretary of Embassy 
in Rome, St. Petersburg, and Vienna. 
During the Russo-Turkish War he dis- 
charged the arduous duties of Charge' 
d'Affaires at Athens. He was one of the 
Secretaries of the Berlin Congress, served 
subsequently in diplomatic capacities in 
Paris and St. Petersburg, and was ap- 
pointed Minister to Roumania in 1888. 
In 1893 he became Minister to Italy. In 
the absence from his post of Baron Mar- 
schall von Buberstein in 1897 he acted as 
Foreign Secretary in Berlin, and succeeded 
to that office on October 21. 

BTJLWEB, Sir Henry Ernest Gas- 
coigne, G.C.M.G., was born on Dec. 11, 
1836, and is the youngest son of the late 
W. E. Lytton Bulwer of Heydon, Norfolk, 
and Emily, daughter of the late General 
Gascoigne. He was educated at Trinity 



College, Cambridge. After serving as 
private secretary to the Lieut. -Governor 
of Prince Edward's Island he became, in 
1860, an official Resident of the Ionian 
Islands ; in 1866, Receiver-General and 
Treasurer of Trinidad ; in 1867, Admini- 
strator of Dominica ; and from 1871 to 
1875, Governor of Labuan, and Consul- 
General at Borneo. He was then appointed 
Lieut.-Governor of Natal, which post he 
held until 1880. In 1882 he was appointed 
Governor of Natal ; in 1883 he was made 
G.C.M.G. ; and in 1885, Lord High Com- 
missioner of Cyprus. He retired from his 
Cyprus post in 1892. Addresses : 17 South 
Audley Street, W. ; Heydon, Norwich ; 
and Athenaeum. 

BULWER, James Redfoord, Q.C., 
J.P., Master in Lunacy, was born on May 22, 
1820, and is the son of the Rev. James 
Bulwer. He was educated at King's 
College, London, and at Trinity College, 
Cambridge. Called to the Bar at the 
Inner Temple in 1847, he was Recorder of 
Ipswich from 1861 to 1866, and then for 
twenty years edited the Common Law 
Series of the Law Reports. In 1886 he 
was appointed Recorder of Cambridge. 
He represented Ipswich in the Conservative 
interest in Parliament from 1874 to 1880, 
and Cambridgeshire from 1881 to 1885. 
Address : 2 Temple Gardens, E.C. 

BUNSEN, Professor Robert Wil- 
helm Eberhard, M.D., chemist and phy- 
sicist, bom March 13, 1811, at Gottingen, 
where his father was professor of Occi- 
dental literature ; studied in the university 
the physical and natural sciences, and 
completed his education at Paris, Berlin, 
and Vienna. Having at Gottingen in 1833 
taken his degrees for teaching chemistry, 
he succeeded Wohler three years later as 
Professor of this science in the Polytechnic 
Institution at Cassel. In 1838 he was 
appointed Assistant Professor in the Uni- 
versity of Marburg, became Titular Pro- 
fessor in 1841, then Director of the Chemi- 
cal Institute. In 1851 he passed to the 
University of Breslau, and in 1852 to the 
University of Heidelberg. Some years ago 
Professor Bunsen declined a call to Berlin 
which he received at the same time as 
Professor Kirchhoff, with whom he is the 
founder of stellar chemistry (spectrum 
analysis). He has made many important 
discoveries, and the charcoal pile which 
bears his name is in very extensive use, as 
is the Bunsen burner and magnesium light. 
From the spectrum analysis down to the 
simplest manipulations of practical chemi- 
stry his numerous discoveries have ren- 
dered the most distinguished services to 
science. The University of Leyden con- 
ferred on him the honorary degree of M.D. 

in February 1875. In July 1877 the Uni- 
versity of Heidelberg commemorated the 
twenty-fifth anniversary of Professor Bun- 
sen's election to the Chair of Experimental 
Chemistry. In January 1883 he was ap- 
pointed one of the eight Foreign Associates 
of the Paris Academy of Sciences. He 
has written on hygrometry (1830) ; a work 
on gasometry (1857), which has been trans- 
lated into English by Sir H. E. Roscoe ; 
and on the analysis of ashes and mineral 
waters. In May 1898 the Society of Arts 
awarded him their Albert Medal "in recog- 
nition of his numerous and most valuable 
applications of chemistry and physics to 
the arts and to manufactures." 

BURBTJRY, Samuel Hawksley, 

F.R.S., born at Kenilworth on May 18, 
1831, was educated at Kensington Gram- 
mar School, and afterwards at Shrewsbury 
School, and at St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, where he was Craven University 
Scholar in 1853 ; fifteenth Wrangler and 
second in the Classical Tripos and second 
Chancellor's Medallist, 1854; M.A. 1857. 
He was called to the Bar in 1858, and 
elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 
1890. He is joint author (with Rev. H. W. 
Watson) of "The Application of Generalised 
Co-ordinates to the Dynamics of a Material 
System," 1879 ; " The Mathematical Theory 
of Electricity and Magnetism," 1885 and 
1889 ; author of a paper " On the Second 
Law of Thermodynamics in Connexion with 
the Kinetic Theory of Gases," Philosophical 
Magazine, 1876 ; " On a Theorem in the 
Dissipation of Energy," Philosophical Maga- 
zine, 1882 ; and various other papers on 
mathematical and physical subjects in that 
magazine. He is married to Alice, daughter 
of Thomas Edward Taylor, of Dodworth 
Hall, J.P. , D.L. Addresses : 17 Upper 
Phillimore Gardens, Kensington ; and 1 
New Square, Lincoln's Inn. 

BURDETT, Sir Henry Charles, 
K.C.B., is the son of the late Rev. Halford 
R. Burdett, of Northampton, and grandson 
of the Rev. D. J. Burdett, rector of Gil- 
morton, Leicestershire, a living which had 
been in the Burdett family almost uninter- 
ruptedly since the time of Queen Elizabeth. 
Mr. Burdett was born at Broughton, Ket- 
tering, on March 18, 1846, and began his 
active career in the Midland Bank, Bir- 
mingham. In 1 868 he was appointed Secre- 
tary to the Queen's Hospital, Birmingham, 
and in a very short time succeeded in 
uniting the two rival medical colleges of 
that town under one management, thus 
constituting the present strong and useful 
medical school of the Midlands. He was 
for a time Secretary to the Society for 
exempting Charities from Rating ; and was 
also the first to organise the system of 



training nurses according to modern ideas 
and methods, insisting specially upon the 
employment of young women only. The 
latter idea was much criticised at the time, 
and many evils were predicted of its future 
working. As all the world knows, however, 
its success has been great beyond the most 
sanguine expectations. In 1873 Mr. Bur- 
dett became a medical student, and, at 
Birmingham and Guy's Hospital, London, 
went through the whole curriculum neces- 
sary for medical examination and practice. 
A year later he was appointed House Gov- 
ernor of the Dreadnought Seaman's Hospi- 
tal, Greenwich, and in six years raised the 
income of that institution from £7000 to 
£13,000 a year. In 1877 he established 
the well-known paying hospital for the 
middle and upper classes at Fitzroy House, 
Fitzroy Square, having succeeded in raising 
no less a sum than £26,000 for that purpose. 
Perhaps the most permanently valuable, 
as it is certainly the most interesting, of 
Mr. Burdett's public services was the 
founding in 1888 of the National Pension 
Fund for trained nurses and hospital 
officials. Among those who have helped 
in the establishment of the Fund, and 
without whose munificent aid indeed it 
would have been impossible for Mr. Bur- 
dett to realise his benevolent ideal, may 
be mentioned Lord Eothschild, Mr. J. S. 
Morgan, Mr. H. Hambro, and Mr. Huchs 
Gibbs, each of whom gave £5000 to form 
a bonus fund for the increase of pensions. 
Several other gentlemen contributed vary- 
ing sums, and the Fund started with nearly 
£30,000 in hand. The Princess of Wales 
occupies the position of President and the 
Prince of Wales that of Patron to the 
Fund. In every department of hospital 
administration and finance Mr. Burdett is 
admittedly the chief authority in the whole 
of the British Empire. From 1883 to 1897 
he was Secretary of the Share and Loan 
Department of the London Stock Ex- 
change. He was created K.C.B. in 1897. 
He is founder and editor of The Hospital, 
and since 1881 has published and compiled 
the well-known "Burdett's Official Intelli- 
gence." He also annually publishes the 
handbook " Burdett's Hospitals and Chari- 
ties," and was the author in 1891 of the 
standard work "The Hospitals and Asy- 
lums of the World," in four thick volumes, 
together with a portfolio of plans. He 
married in 1875 Helen, daughter of the 
late Gay Shute, F.R.C.S. Address: The 
Lodge, Porchester Square, W. 

BURDETT - COUTTS, Baroness, 
Angela G-eorgina Burdett -Coutts, is 

the youngest daughter of the late Sir 
Francis Burdett, Baronet, and grand- 
daughter of Mr. Thomas Coutts, the 
banker, and was born on April 26, 1814. 

In 1837 she succeeded to the great wealth 
of Mr. Coutts, through his widow, once the 
fascinating Miss Mellon, who died Duchess 
of St. Albans. The extensive power of 
benefiting her less fortunate fellow- 
creatures thus conferred, the Baroness 
Burdett-Coutts has wisely exercised, 
chiefly by working out her own well-con- 
sidered projects. A consistently liberal 
churchwoman in purse and opinions, her 
munificence to the Establishment is his- 
torical. Besides contributing large sums 
towards building new churches and new 
schools in various poor districts through- 
out the country, Miss Coutts erected and 
endowed at her sole cost the handsome 
church of St. Stephen's, Westminster, with 
its three schools and parsonage ; and more 
recently, another church at Carlisle. She 
endowed, at an outlay of £50,000, the 
three colonial bishoprics of Adelaide, Cape 
Town, and British Columbia ; besides 
founding an establishment in South Aus- 
tralia for the improvement of the abori- 
gines. She also supplied the funds for 
Sir Henry James's Topographical Survey 
of Jerusalem ; and offered to restore the 
ancient aqueducts of Solomon to supply 
that city with water — a work, however, 
which the Government did not fulfil. In 
no direction are the Baroness's sympathies 
so fully expressed as in favour of the poor 
and unfortunate of her own sex. Her ex- 
ertions in the cause of reformation, as well 
as in that of education, have been nume- 
rous and successful. For young women 
who had lapsed out of well-doing she pro- 
vided a shelter and a means of reform in 
a "Home" at Shepherd's Bush. Nearly 
half the cases which passed through her 
reformatory during the seven years it 
existed resulted in new and prosperous 
lives in the Colonies. Again, when Spital- 
fields became a mass of destitution, Miss 
Coutts began a sewing-school there for 
adult women, not only to be taught, but 
to be fed and provided with work ; for 
which object Government contracts are 
undertaken and successfully executed. 
Nurses were sent daily from this unpre- 
tending charity in Brown's Lane, Spital- 
fields, amongst the sick, who were pro- 
vided with medical comforts ; while outfits 
were distributed to poor servants, and 
clothing to deserving women. In 1859 
hundreds of destitute boys were fitted out 
for the Royal Navy, or placed in various 
industrial homes. In the terrible winter 
of 1861 the frozen-out tanners of Ber- 
mondsey were aided, and at the same time 
she suggested the formation of the East 
London Weavers' Aid Association, by 
whose assistance many of the sufferers 
from decaying trade were able to remove 
to Queensland. One of the black spots 
of London in that neighbourhood, once 



known to, and dreaded by, the police as 
Nova Scotia Gardens, was bought by Miss 
Coutts, and upon that area of squalor and 
refuse she erected the model dwellings 
called Columbia Square, consisting of 
separate tenements let at low weekly 
rentals to about two hundred families. 
Close to it is Columbia Market, one of the 
handsomest architectural ornaments of 
North-Eastern London. The Baroness 
takes great interest in judicious emigra- 
tion. When a sharp cry of distress arose 
some years ago in the town of Girvan, in 
Scotland, she advanced a large sum to 
enable the starving families to seek better 
fortune in Australia. Again, the people of 
Cape Clear, Shirkin, close to Skibbereen, 
in Ireland, when dying of starvation, were 
relieved from the same source, by emigra- 
tion, and by the establishment of a store 
of food and clothing, by efficient tackle, 
and by a vessel to help them in their chief 
means of livelihood — fishing. Miss Coutts 
materially assisted Sir James Brooke in 
improving the condition of the Dyaks of 
Sarawak, and a model farm is still entirely 
supported by her, from which the natives 
have learnt such valuable lessons in agri- 
culture that the productiveness of their 
country has been materially improved. 
Taking a warm interest in the reverent 
preservation and ornamental improvement 
of our town churchyards, and having, as 
the possessor of the great tithes of the 
living of Old St. Pancras, a special con- 
nection with that parish, the Baroness, in 
1877, laid out the churchyard as a garden 
for the enjoyment of the surrounding poor, 
besides erecting a memorial sundial to its 
illustrious dead. In the same year, when 
accounts were reaching this country of the 
sufferings of the Turkish peasantry flying 
from their homes before the Russian inva- 
sion, Lady Burdett-Coutts instituted the 
Turkish Compassionate Fund, a charitable 
organisation by means of which the sum 
of nearly £30,000, contributed in money 
and stores, was entrusted to Mr. Burdett- 
Coutts and to the British Ambassador for 
distribution, and saved thousands from 
starvation and death. In recognition of 
her important services the Order of the 
Medjidieh was conferred upon her. This 
is but an imperfect enumeration of the 
Baroness's good works as a public bene- 
factress. The amount of her private chari- 
ties it is impossible to estimate. She is a 
liberal patroness of artists in every depart- 
ment of art. In June 1871 Miss Coutts 
was surprised by the Prime Minister with 
the offer from her Majesty of a peerage, 
which honour was accepted. Her ladyship 
was admitted to the freedom of the City 
of London, July 11, 1872, and to the free- 
dom of the City of Edinburgh, Jan. 15, 
1874. On Nov. 1, 1880, the Haberdashers' 

Company publicly conferred their freedom 
and livery on the Baroness Burdett-Coutts 
in recognition of her judicious and ex- 
tensive benevolence and her munificent 
support of educational, charitable, and 
religious institutions and efforts through- 
out the country. She has since become a 
member of the Turners' Company, and was 
received with great enthusiasm during a 
recent visit to Ireland, where she had 
previously organised a fishing fleet, having 
its headquarters in Bantry Bay. The 
Baroness has also taken a leading part in 
promoting and supporting the Children's 
Protection Society, of which she was at 
once asked to become President on the 
death of the late Lord Shaftesbury. The 
Baroness was married on Feb. 12, 1881, 
to Mr. William Lehman Ashmead-Bartlett, 
who obtained the royal license to use the 
surname of Burdett-Coutts. Addresses : 
1 Stratton Street, Piccadilly, W. ; and 
Holly Lodge, Highgate. 

BURGESS, James, C.I.E., LL.D., 
F.R.S.E., Hon. A.R.I.B.A., F.R.G.S., &o., 
was born in the parish of Kirkmahoe, 
Dumfriesshire, on Aug. 14, 1832. In 1855 
he went to Calcutta as a Professor of 
Mathematics, and in 1858 wrote a paper 
"On Hypsometrical Measurements," and 
published editions of some English text- 
books, with philological notes, &c, for the 
Calcutta University Examinations in 1859. 
Early in 1861 he removed to Bombay, and 
was engaged in educational work till 1873. 
There he contributed papers on the Tides, 
Hypsometry, &c, to the Philosophical 
Magazine, Transactions of the Bombay 
Geographical Society, &c. As Secretary 
to the Commission on the Colaba Obser- 
vatory in 1865, he prepared the report for 
Government on that establishment. In 
1869 he published a large folio on "The 
Temples of Shatrunjaya," illustrated by 
forty-five photographic views. This was 
followed by a similar volume on the anti- 
quities at Somnath, Girnar, and Junagarh. 
In 1871, besides some educational class- 
books, appeared a monograph on " The 
Rock-Temples of Elephanta or Gharapuri," 
illustrated ; and in 1872 he started The 
Indian Antiquary, a monthly journal of 
Oriental archaeology, history, literature, 
and folk-lore, which he conducted for 
thirteen years, and which soon acquired 
a European reputation. He travelled 
through Gujarat and Rajputana in 1872, 
and wrote the letterpress for a large folio 
of views of the architecture and scenery 
of these countries. The Bombay Govern- 
ment nominated him in 1873 to organise 
and direct the Archaeological Survey of 
that Presidency and the neighbouring 
states, Gujarat, &c. ; and since 1873 the 
results of this survey have been partly 



published in quarto volumes fully illus- 
trated, viz. : " Report on the Antiquities 
in the Belgaum and Kaladgi Districts," 
1874 ; " On the Antiquities of Kathiawar 
and Kachh," 1876; "On the Antiquities 
of Bidar and Aurangabad Districts," 1878 ; 
"The Buddhist Caves and their Inscrip- 
tions," "Caves of Elura and other Brah- 
manical and Jaina Caves in Western India," 
1883 ; " The Muhammadan Architecture of 
Gujarat," 1896; and "The Antiquities of 
Dabhoi in Gujarat" (published by H.H. 
the Gaikwar of Baroda), 1888, in about a 
dozen occasional papers, 1874-85, and in 
a special volume on "The Cave-Temples 
of India," the caves in Northern and East- 
ern India being described by the late Mr. 
James Fergusson. Other volumes richly 
illustrated are in preparation. The super- 
intendence of the Archaeological Survey of 
the Madras Presidency was added to that 
of Western India on its initiation in 1881, 
the results of which are published in "The 
Buddhist SMtpas of Amaravati and Jagga- 
yapeta," with numerous plates and wood- 
cuts, and other volumes are in preparation. 
In 1885 he was put in charge also of the 
surveys in Northern India, and appointed 
Director-General of the Archaeological 
Survey of India. In 1888 he edited and 
published " The Sharqi Architecture of 
Jannpur," from the reports of Dr. A. 
Fiihrer and Mr. E. W. Smith, the pro- 
vincial surveyors, with seventy-four sheets 
of architectural drawings. He also started 
and edited for Government The Epigraphia 
Indica, issued in fasciculi, forming two 
large quarto volumes, 1891 and 1894, con- 
taining important Sanskrit and Pali in- 
scriptions translated by the most com- 
petent Oriental scholars. He retired from 
the Directorship of the Surveys in 1889, 
and the office was then abolished. He 
recently prepared " Constable's Hand- 
Gazetteer of India," 1898, and published a 
paper in the Transactions of the Royal 
Society of Edinburgh on a definite Integral, 
that plays an important part in various 
departments of physical research, with 
very extensive tables of values. At its 
fiftieth anniversary, 1897, the Imperial 
Russian Archaeological Society elected him 
an honorary member ; he is also an Honor- 
ary Corresponding Member of the Batavian 
Society of Arts and Sciences, and of the 
Berlin Society of Anthropology, Ethnology, 
&c. Hon. LL.D. Edinburgh, 1881 ; created 
C.I.E., 1885. Address : 22 Seton Place, 

BXTRNAND, Francis Cowley, born 
in 1837, and descended on his father's side 
from an old Savoyard family, and on his 
mother's from Hannah Cowley, the author- 
ess, and educated at Eton and Trinity 
College, Cambridge, where, in his first 

year, he founded the Club known as the 
A.D.C., or Amateur Dramatic Club. Mr. 
Burnand took his degree in 1857-58, and 
for a time read for the Church under 
Canon Liddon at Cuddesdon. Afterwards 
he was called to the Bar in 1861, and occa- 
sionally practised. He married early, and 
began to write, being introduced by Mr. 
George Meredith to Once a Week. He is 
the author of about a hundred dramatic 
pieces, principally burlesques. His chief 
work for Punch was the now well-known 
serial "Happy Thoughts," and "Strap- 
more," a parody of Ouida's " Strathmore." 
His burlesque of Douglas Jerrold's nautical 
drama, "Black-eyed Susan," achieved what 
was in those days the unprecedented run 
of over four hundred consecutive nights 
at the Royalty Theatre, Dean Street, Soho ; 
and later his comedy "The Colonel" ran 
for about a year and a half at the Prince's 
Theatre in Tottenham Court Road, which 
has now disappeared. In 1879 he published 
"The 'A.D.C.'; being Personal Reminis- 
cences of the University Amateur Dramatic 
Club, Cambridge " ; and in July 1880 he 
became editor of Punch on the death of 
Tom Taylor. His connection with Punch 
dates from the publication of his burlesque 
novelette "Mokeanna" by Mark Lemon. 
In 1888 his parody of "Ariane," entitled 
" Airey- Annie," was produced at the 
Strand Theatre. He has of late years 
added "Very Much Abroad," "Quite at 
Home," and "Very Much at Sea," &c., to 
the "Happy Thought" books. Together 
with Sir Arthur Sullivan he wrote " The 
Chieftain," produced at the Savoy in 1894. 
Mr. Burnand divides his time between 
Ramsgate and London. Addresses : 27 The 
Boltons, S.W. ; and 18 Royal Crescent, 

BURNETT, Mrs. Frances Hodgson, 

nee Hodgson, was born at Manchester, Nov. 
24, 1849. There she passed the first fif- 
teen years of her life, acquired her educa- 
tion, and gained her knowledge of the 
Lancashire dialect and character. At the 
close of the American Civil War reverses 
of fortune led her parents to leave Eng- 
land for America, where they settled at 
Knoxville, Tennessee, 1865. She there 
began to write short stories for the maga- 
zines, the first of which appeared in 1867. 
In 1872 her dialect story, "Surly Tim's 
Trouble," was published in Scribner's 
Montldy (now The Century), and in book 
form in 1877. " That Lass o' Lowrie's" 
was first presented, serially, in Scribner, 
and its remarkable popularity demanded 
its immediate separate issue, 1877. In 
1878-79 some of her earlier magazine 
stories were reprinted, viz. : " Kathleen 
Mavourneen," "Lindsay's Luck," "Miss 
Crespigny," "Pretty Polly Pemberton," 



" Theo," "Dolly" (also issued under the 
title of "Vagabondia"), " Jarl's Daughter," 
and "Quiet Life." "Haworth's " appeared 
in 1879, and was followed by "Louisiana," 
1880 ;"AFair Barbarian," 1881 ; "Through 
One Administration," 1883 ; " Little Lord 
Fauntleroy," 1886 ; " Sarah Crewe," 1888 ; 
" The Pretty Sister of Jose," 1889 ; and 
' ' Little Saint Elizabeth, " 1890. From 1886 
until 1894 her work was confined princi- 
pally to studies of child life. Among these 
may be mentioned, " The One I knew the 
Best of All — A Memory of the Mind of a 
Child," which is autobiographical. Of her 
children's stories the most widely known is 
probably " Little Lord Fauntleroy," which 
has been published in nearly every Conti- 
nental language. In 1896 Mrs. Burnett 
published a novel of the period of Queen 
Anne, entitled "A Lady of Quality," and 
in lS97a second novel of the same period, 
entitled "His Grace of Osmonde." Mrs. 
Burnett's dramatic work has been — the 
play of "Esmeralda," a dramatisation 
(written in collaboration) of one of her 
short stories, successfully played in New 
York and London ; " The Real Little Lord 
Fauntleroy," which was produced at 
Terry's Theatre, London, and the Broad- 
way, New York, and which is still being 
played in England, America, France, and 
Germany ; " Phyllis," produced in London 
and Boston ; " Nixie " (in collaboration), 
played at Terry's and the Globe Theatre, 
London, in 1890 ; " The Showman's 
Daughter," produced at the Eoyalty 
Theatre, London, in 1892 ; " A Very 
Young Couple," which was played in 
America in 1892 ; " The First Gentleman of 
Europe" (in collaboration), produced at 
the Lyceum Theatre, New York, in 1897 ; 
and the drama " A Lady of Quality" (in 
collaboration), now playing in the United 
States. Mrs. Frances Hodgson Burnett, 
then Miss Hodgson, was married in 1873 to 
Dr. Burnett. She has resided much at 
Washington. Her present address is 63 
Portland Place. 

BURNS, John, M.P., L.C.C., labour 
leader, is the son of Alexander Burns, an 
engineer, formerly of Ayrshire, and was 
born in humble circumstances at Vauxhall 
in 1858. He was sent to Christ Church 
School, Battersea, and at the age of ten 
years was set , to work in a local candle 
factory. He then became a rivet boy at 
a Vauxhall engineer's, and afterwards 
bound himself apprentice to an engineer 
at Millbank, under whom he served till he 
was twenty-one. Throughout his earlier 
years he read omnivorously, and imbibed 
Socialistic theories from a fellow-workman, 
a Frenchman, who had fled from Paris 
after the Commune. On coming of age 
he worked for a year as foreman engineer 

on the Niger, and on his return from West 
Africa spent his savings in a six months' 
tour of Europe. As a boy he had got into 
trouble with his employers for delivering 
an open-air address, but he did not come 
into public notice as a speaker until at 
an Industrial Remuneration Conference in 
London he delivered certain speeches on 
Socialism which attracted attention. Since 
that time he has constantly addressed work- 
man audiences. Becoming prominent in 
his own union — the Amalgamated En- 
gineers — he stood as a Socialist candidate 
for the western division of Nottingham 
at the General Election of 1885, but 
obtained only 598 votes. In 1886 he took • 
a leading part in the unemployed agita- 
tion, and was one of the heads of the crowd 
which broke from its leaders and caused 
a riot in the West End on Feb. 8, 1887. 
Subsequently he contested the right of 
public meeting in Trafalgar Square, and 
underwent a short term of imprisonment 
(six weeks) for resisting the police. During 
the great Dock Strike of 1889 John Burns 
was the hero of the hour. He addressed 
dockers' meetings in the East End every 
day for weeks, walking from Battersea 
every morning and returning on foot at 
night. His main contention was that the 
docker deserved sixpence (a " tanner ") 
more a day than he had hitherto been 
paid, but he was also indefatigable as an 
organiser and strike manager. When the 
dock labourers finally won a great victory 
in their long struggle for higher wages 
Burns's reputation as the first of labour 
leaders and labour organisers was made. 
He is now regarded as an authority on 
labour, and the mouthpiece of respectable 
artisan opinion in London, and his help 
and advice are constantly sought by work- 
men and their organisations. He has 
been four times elected to the London 
County Council as member for Battersea, 
and he has been returned to Parliament 
twice for the same division. Address : 
108 Lavender Hill, Battersea. 

BURNSIDE, Sir Bruce Lockhart, 

Kt., second son of the late Hon. J. J. 
Burnside, Surveyor-General of the Baha- 
mas, was born on July 26, 1833, at Baha- 
mas, and was educated at King's College 
there and privately. He was called to the 
Bar by Lincoln's Inn in 1856 ; and during 
the war which shortly afterwards broke 
out between the North and the South in 
America he was conspicuous for the active 
part which he took as legal adviser to 
what was called the Confederacy in the 
many delicate questions of international 
law which were at that time raised in con- 
sequence of the blockade of the Southern 
ports and of the fitting out of armed 
cruisers by the Confederate Government. 



He successfully defended the Alexandra, 
the Orelo, and the Florida, prosecuted 
in the B. A. Court for breaches of the 
Foreign Enlistment Act. He was Speaker 
of the House, Solicitor, and Attorney- 
General of the Bahamas, and was made 
one of Her Majesty's Council. He pre- 
pared a valuable "Manual for Justices of 
the Peace," for which he received the 
thanks of the Colonial Government. In 
1879 he was appointed Queen's Advocate 
of Ceylon, and was employed at Downing 
Street for a considerable time in preparing 
a "Penal Code" and a "Criminal Pro- 
cedure Code," which were afterwards 
passed by the legislature, and for which 
he was specially commended by Lord 
Derby, the Secretary of State. In 1883 
he was appointed Chief-Justice of Ceylon, 
there being at the time most scandalous 
arrears in the Supreme Court, which had 
attracted public attention and condemna- 
tion. He retired in 1893. Sir Bruce was 
knighted in 1885. He married in 1856 
Mary, daughter of E. Francis. Address : 
Fincastle, Colombo. 

BURROWS, Montagu, R.N., M.A., 
F.S.A., third son of Lieut.-General Mon- 
tagu Burrows and of Mary Anne, daughter 
of Captain Larcom, R.N., Commissioner 
of Malta Dockyard, was born at Hadley, 
Middlesex, Oct. 27, 1819, and educated 
at the Boyal Naval College, Portsmouth, 
where he obtained the "First Medal" 
in 1834. On passing through the R.N. 
College as a mate in 1842 he obtained 
a First Class in Mathematics. He served 
continuously in the Royal Navy until 
he obtained the rank of Commander in 
1852, and became a retired Post-Captain 
in 1862. He matriculated at Oxford Uni- 
versity early in 1853, and obtained a 
Double First Class (Classics and Modern 
History) ; took the degree of M.A. there 
in 1856, and received an Hon. M.A. 
degree at Cambridge in 1859 ; was 
elected to the Chichele Professorship of 
Modern History (the first since its founda- 
tion) in 1862 ; became a Fellow of All 
Souls in 1870 ; Chairman of the Oxford 
School Board in 1873 ; and Member of the 
Hebdomadal Council of his University in 
1876. During his service in the navy he 
was engaged in several actions with Malay 
pirates, under Captain Chads, and he 
received medals from the English and 
Turkish Governments for the capture of St. 
Jean d'Acre' in 1840. He was employed 
on the coast of Africa for some years in 
the suppression of the slave trade, and 
was made Commander for his services 
on the staff of H.M.S. Excellent. He is 
the author of "Pass and Class: An Ox- 
ford Guide-Book through the courses of 
Literae Humaniores, Mathematics, Natural 

Science, Law, and Modern History," 3rd 
edit., 1866; "Constitutional Progress : a 
series of Lectures delivered before the 
University of Oxford," 1869; "A Memoir 
of Admiral Sir H. Chads, G.C.B.," 1869; 
" Worthies of All Souls : — Four Centuries 
of English History illustrated from the 
College Archives," 1874 ; " Parliament 
and the Church of England," 1875 ; "Im- 
perial England," 1880; "Oxford Univer- 
sity during the Commonwealth" (Camden 
Society), 1881 ; " Wiclif's Place in His- 
tory," 1882 (new edit. 1884); "Life of 
Admiral Lord Hawke," 1883 (2nd edit. 
1896); "History of the Brocas Family 
of Beaurepaire and Roche Court," 1886 ; 
"History of the Cinque Ports," 1888 (4th 
edit. 1895) ; " Memoir of William Grocyn " 
(in "Collectanea," vol. ii., of the Oxford 
Historical Society), 1890; "Commentaries 
on the History of England," 1893; "His- 
tory of the Foreign Policy of Great Bri- 
tain," 1895 (2nd edit. 1897) ; articles in 
the Quarterly and Edinburgh Reviews, &c. 
In 1892, for services to France in relation 
to the publication of the Gascon Rolls, he 
was made " Officier de l'lnstruction Pub- 
lique." He married in 1849 Mary Anna, 
daughter of Sir James W. S. Gardiner, Bart., 
of Roche Court, Hants ; and has three sons 
and one daughter — Edward Henry, H.M. 
Inspector of Schools, married to Dorothy, 
daughter of Ralph Assheton, Esq., of 
Downham Park ; Stephen Montagu, H.M. 
Civil Service, Ceylon, married to Isabel 
Cruickshank, Sydney, Australia ; the Rev. 
Alfred ; and F. Emily, married to Bishop 
Scott of N. China. Address : 9 Norham 
Gardens, Oxford. 

BTJRT, Thomas, M.P., was born Nov. 
12, 1837, at Murton Row, near Percy Main, 
Northumberland, and is the son of Peter 
Burt, a coal miner. While he was yet a 
child seventeen months old, his parents 
went to Whitley, whence they had to 
remove about a year afterwards, when the 
pit was thrown out of gear by an explo- 
sion. Their next place of abode was New 
Row, Seghill, now styled Blake Town, 
where they remained five years, and at a 
later period they settled at the Seaton 
Delaval Colliery. Young Burt, who had 
been working in the coal pits from ten 
years of age, here began that course of 
self-culture which has gone so far to sup- 
ply the deficiencies of his previous educa- 
tion. In 1860 he removed to Choppington, 
and in 1865 he was appointed Secretary to 
the Northumberland Miners' Mutual As- 
sociation. In this capacity he rendered 
himself so popular among the miners that 
it was determined to nominate him as the 
working-class candidate for the represen- 
tation of Morpeth at the general election 
of February 1874. He was returned by 



3332 votes against 585 given for Captain 
Duncan, the Conservative candidate. In 
Jane 1880 lie was elected a member of the 
Reform Club by the Political Committee, 
under the rule empowering the body to 
elect two candidates in each year for 
marked and obvious services to the Liberal 
cause. He is President of the Miners' 
National Union, and has presided over 
several important conferences of miners 
held at Manchester, Birmingham, and else- 
where. He has been President of the 
Trades Union Congress, Newcastle-on- 
Tyne, in 1891. He has also presided at 
several International Miners' Conferences 
held in Paris, Brussels, and other places 
on the Continent. Mr. Burt has been a 
member of several Royal Commissions, 
including those inquiring into accidents 
in mines, loss of life at sea, mining royal- 
ties, and the Labour Commission, of which 
the Duke of Devonshire was President. 
He was one of the British delegates to the 
International Labour Conference held at 
Berlin in March 1890. Mr. Burt was in- 
vited by Mr. Gladstone in 1892 to join his 
administration as Parliamentary Secretary 
to the Board of Trade, a post which he 
accepted and held until the general elec- 
tion of 1895. He is the author of articles 
in the Nineteenth Century, Contemporary, 
and Fortnightly. In 1860 he married Mary, 
daughter of Thomas Weatherburn. Ad- 
dress : 20 Burdon Terrace, Newcastle-on- 

BUST, T. Seymour, F.R.S., M.R.A.S., 
&c. , is the fourth son of the late Rev. 
Charles Henry Burt, and was student of 
Wadham College, Oxford ; then Curate 
of Plympton St. Mary, Devon ; next of 
Westgate House, Bridgwater, Somerset, 
and for upwards of twenty years Vicar 
of Cannington, in the same county ; a 
chaplain-in-ordinary to H.R.H. the Duke 
of Sussex ; an acting magistrate for 
Somerset ; a retired chaplain to the 24th 
Light Dragoons. He is a Fellow of the 
Royal Society, and a Member of the Royal 
Astronomical Society ; and has published 
the following works : — "Papers on Scien- 
tific Subjects," vols. 1, 2, 3, 1837 and 1858 ; 
" Trip in Search of Ancient Inscriptions," 
1838 ; " Metrical Epitome of the History 
of England," 1852 ; " Poems by Koi Hai," 
1853 ; " Account of a Voyage to India 
via the Mediterranean," 1857 ; " A Trans- 
lation into Blank Verse of all Virgil's 
Works," vols. 1, 2, 3, &c, 1883-84; 
" Transposition into Blank Verse of Wes- 
ley's translation of T. a Kempis," 1883- 
1884; "Transposition into Blank Verse 
of 'Hamilton's Translation of Sacred His- 
tory,'" 1883-84; " Transposition into Blank 
Verse of the Rev. Newman Hall's ' Come 
to Jesus,'" 1883-84. He is likewise the 

author of numerous papers published in 
the Journal of the Asiatic Society of 
Bengal, — " Description of the Mode of 
Extracting Salt from the damp sandbeds 
of the River Jumna as practised by the 
Inhabitants of Bundelkhund " ; " Inscrip- 
tion found near Bhabra, three marches 
from Jeypore on the road from Delhi to 
Nusseerabad " ; " Description of an Instru- 
ment for trisecting angles " ; " Notice of 
an Inscription on a Slab discovered in 
February, 1883 " ; "Inscription taken from 
a Baolee at Bussuntgurh, at the foot of the 
Southern range of hills running parallel 
to Mount Aboo " ; " Observations on a 
second Inscription taken in facsimile from 
the neighbourhood of Mount Aboo" ; " De- 
scription with Drawings of the ancient 
stone pillar at Allahabad called Bhim 
Sen's Gadd or Club, with accompanying 
copies of four inscriptions engraven in 
different characters upon its surface." 

BURTON, Sir Frederic William, 
R.H.A., F.S.A., Hon. LL.D. Dublin, ex- 
Director of the National Gallery, third 
son of Samuel Burton, of Mungret, co. 
Limerick, and grandson of Edward William 
Burton, of Clifden House, co. Clare, was 
born in Ireland in 1816, and educated at 
Dublin, where he first studied drawing 
under the brothers Brocas. He was 
elected Associate of the Royal Hibernian 
Academy of Arts in 1837, and R. H. 
Academician in 1839, in which latter year 
his picture (in water colours), " The Blind 
Girl at the Holy Well," was chosen for 
publication by the Irish Art Union, and 
was engraved by Ryall. In the following 
year the picture of ' ' The Arran Fisher- 
man's Drowned Child "'also was engraved 
for the Irish Art Union. A large com- 
position of the same year, "The Con- 
naught Toilet," representing peasant girls 
at a stream, preparing themselves to enter 
the market town, was, together with the 
former, exhibited at the Royal Academy 
in London in 1842. The latter picture 
was afterwards destroyed by fire at the 
Pantechnicon, where it had been tempo- 
rarily deposited by its owner. From 1832 
to 1851 his time was occupied in portrait 
painting. About 1840 he was elected 
member of the Royal Irish Academy of 
Science, Antiquities, and Belles Lettres, 
and for many years sat in the Council of 
Antiquities. In 1851 he went to Munich. 
There, at Nuremberg, and in various 
wanderings in Upper Franconia, where 
he found ample subjects for the pencil, 
about seven years were passed. In 1855 
he became Associate, and in the following 
year full Member of the (now Royal) 
Society of Painters in Water Colours, and 
continued to exhibit annually at their 
rooms until 1870, when he retired from 



the Society. In November 1886 he was 
elected an Honorary Member. He ex- 
hibited also on various occasions at the 
Royal Academy and the Dudley Gallery. 
In 1874, Sir William Boxall having re- 
signed the Directorship of the National 
Gallery, Mr. Burton was nominated to 
that post, from which he retired in March 
1894. He is primarily responsible for 
the large and very important additions 
to the collection which have been made 
during the past twenty years, and which 
include Leonardo da Vinci's "Virgin of 
the Rocks," Raphael's " Ansidei Madonna," 
Vandyck's " Equestrian Portrait of Charles 
I." (the last two from Blenheim), the 
"Ambassadors," by Holbein, and the 
' ' Portrait of Admiral Parcja," by Velazquez 
(both from the Radnor collection), and 
the various purchases from the Hamilton 
and other famous sales. Since 1863 Sir 
F. W. Burton has been a Fellow of the 
Society of Antiquaries. In 1884 he re- 
ceived the honour of knighthood, and in 
1889 the hon. degree of LL.D. of Dublin. 
Addresses : 43 Argyll Road, W. ; and 

BUSCH, Moritz, German author and 
journalist, was born Feb. 13, 1821, at 
Dresden, and educated at the University 
of Leipzig. On the completion of his 
theological and philosophical studies he 
became a journalist, and was employed 
on the staff of various newspapers. In 
1851 he visited America, and on his 
return in 1853 published an account of his 
tour. Subsequently he travelled for some 
years in the East, then took up journalism 
again, and finally, in 1870, settled in Berlin, 
where he obtained an appointment at the 
Foreign Office. From that time up to 
Prince Bismarck's death in July 1898, Dr. 
Busch was the inseparable companion and 
confidant of the old Chancellor, taking 
daily notes of his sayings, and earning for 
himself the title of "Bismarck's Boswell." 
In 1880 he published an account of the 
life of his hero, writing soon after a second 
instalment, since famous under the title 
of "Our Chancellor." Bismarck himself 
declared in 1891 that "little Busch" 
should some day write "a secret history of 
our time from good sources," and, during 
the short interval between his dismissal 
and his death, Bismarck used every oppor- 
tunity of informing his faithful scribe on 
those matters which were to be explained 
to an expectant world after his decease. 
But forty -eight hours from the death 
of his beloved master Dr. Busch con- 
tributed to the Times newspaper an im- 
portant article, "Bismarck and William 
I.," and round this essay, for a season, 
centred the comment of a world. It opened 
with an analysis of the character of the old 

Emperor, passed to a consideration of the 
constitutional struggle and the momentous 
Congress of Princes in 1863, and proceeded 
to explain " how Bismarck prepared the 
French War" and the tragic incident of 
the " Ems Despatch," concluding with the 
testimony of the old Emperor's gratitude 
when he wrote in 1872 that he returned 
thanks to Heaven for having placed 
Bismarck at his side in the decisive hour, 
thus giving to his reign " a fulness which 
exceeded all thought and comprehension." 
This remarkable contribution to Bismarck- 
lore was eclipsed in September 1898 by the 
issue of a three-volume work, "Bismarck : 
Some Secret Pages of his History," being 
the record of a diary kept by Dr. Moritz 
Busch during twenty-five years of official 
and private intercourse with the great 
Chancellor. The publication of these 
memoirs naturally excited considerable 
notice, and evoked strong expressions both 
of approval and disapproval. In England 
the volumes were welcomed, on the whole, 
as probably the nearest approach to an 
authentic revelation that the world would 
see, and were described by a journal, 
certainly not over-critical, as " one of the 
most remarkable, if not the most agree- 
able, books of the century." On the 
Continent, however, the work has been 
vigorously assailed as pedantic, inaccurate, 
and, indeed, scarcely appreciably valuable. 
This criticism may be the result of 
unpleasant surprises, for we in England 
can understand the probable correctness 
of the Saturday Review's remark that the 
diary " is a book which may well bring a 
blush to the cheek of every Hohenzollern 
who reads it." While the storm of 
criticism was at its height Dr. Moritz 
Busch was understood to have disappeared, 
or to have become lost to the world's eye. 
This unusual proceeding was either an 
enforced retirement owing to Imperial 
displeasure, or but a mere, yet timely, 
exercise of an instinct of self-preserva- 
tion. Dr. Moritz Busch was still invisible 
at the beginning of October 1898. 

BUSH, The Rev. Joseph, late Presi- 
dent of the Wesleyan Conference, was 
born March 8, 1826, in the village of 
Ashby, near Spilsby, Lincoln. He was 
educated at Spilsby Academy and Gram- 
mar School. In November 1840 he was 
apprenticed at Horncastle with Mr. Mark 
Holdsworth. In March 1849, on the 
nomination of the Rev. Joseph Fowler, he 
was recommended for the work of the 
ministry by the City Road Quarterly 
Meeting. After passing the May District 
Meeting and the July Committee he was 
accepted by the Conference for the Home 
Work, and" his name was placed on the 
List of Reserve. In February 1850 he 



was sent by the President, the Eev. Thomas 
Jackson, to the Maidstone Circuit as 
supply for the Eev. George Hanibly Rowe, 
who died a few days after Mr. Bush's 
arrival in the circuit. He remained at 
Marden until the end of August, when he 
was received into Richmond College. At 
the Conference of 1853 Mr. Bush was 
appointed as Mr. Rattenbury's assistant in 
Leeds. In 1854 he went to London 
(Hinde Street) ; in 1857, to Islington ; in 
1860, to York ; in 1863, to Bolton ; in 
1866, to Manchester ; in 1869, to Brixton 
Hill ; in 1872, to Newcastle-on-Tyne ; in 
1875, to Edinburgh ; in 1878, to Bradford ; 
in 1881, to Altrincham ; and in 1884, to 
Highbury. He was then appointed the 
General Superintendent of the North- 
west Essex Mission. In 1871 Mr. Bush 
was appointed one of the Conference 
official Letter- writers, and held the office 
fifteen years — until, in 1886, he was asso- 
ciated with the Secretary of the Con- 
ference in the compiling and editing of 
the " Minutes." In 1872 he was elected 
Chairman of the Newcastle District, and 
has since been Chairman of the Edin- 
burgh and Aberdeen, the Halifax and 
Bradford Districts, and the First London 
District. In 1873, on the nomination of 
Dr. Gervase Smith, he was elected into 
the Legal Hundred, having then served 
twenty-one years in the ministry. From 
time to time Mr. Bush has used his pen 
in the service of Methodism. He has 
published the following : — " The Sabbath : 
Whose Day Is It?" "Bread from Heaven"; 
"The Class Meeting"; "Courtship and 
Marriage " ; " Mary Bell Hodgson : a 
Memorial " ; " Character, and other 
Sermons " ; "Methodist Sunday Schools " ; 
" What to Preach, and How " ; " How to 
Keep our Members : Practical Counsels 
addressed to Class Leaders " ; " The 
Intermediate State ; or, The Condition 
of Human Souls between the Hour of 
Death and the Day of Judgment." In 
addition Mr. Bush has written on various 
subjects for the monthly periodicals and 
the London Quarterly. He has also 
edited " The Mission of the Spirit " ; 
"The Pillar and Ground of the Truth"; 
and "The Life of the Rev. William 0. 
Simpson." Some years ago, by direction 
of the Conference, Mr. Bush re-cast the 
" Liverpool Minutes," and also collected 
and classified all resolutions of the Con- 
ference on Pastoral Work from 1811 to 
1884, interweaving and embodying the 
whole in one homogeneous document. 
This pamphlet is the " Methodist Manual 
of Pastoral Duty." 

BUTCHER, Professor Samuel 
Henry, M.A., Hon. LL.D. (Glasgow), 
Hon, Litt. D. (Dublin, on the occasion of 

the Tercentenary celebration of that Uni- 
versity), J.P. for co. Kerry, is the eldest 
son of the late Samuel Butcher, Bishop of 
Meath, and of Mary, daughter of the late 
John Leahy, Esq., of Southhill, Killarney ; 
was born in Dublin, April 16, 1850, and 
educated at Marlborough College, under 
Dr. Bradley, now Dean of Westminster. 
He was elected to a Minor Scholarship at 
Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1869 ; to a 
Foundation Scholarship in that college, 
and to the Bell University Scholarship, 
in 1870 ; to the Waddington University 
Scholarship in 1871 ; and obtained the 
Powis Medal for Latin Hexameters in 
1871 and 1872. He was Senior Classic 
and Chancellor's Medallist in 1873, and 
held a Mastership at Eton College for a 
short time. He was elected to a Fellow- 
ship at Trinity College, Cambridge, in 
1874, and held an Assistant Tutorship 
there till 1876. Having vacated his Fellow- 
ship at Cambridge by marriage, he was 
elected to an Extraordinary Fellowship, 
without examination, at University College, 
Oxford, where he was Lecturer till 1882, 
when he was elected to the Chair of Greek 
at Edinburgh University, on the retire- 
ment of Professor Blackie. He published 
in 1879, in conjunction with Mr. Andrew 
Lang, a prose translation of the " Odyssey," 
now in its tenth edition ; in 1881 a 
small volume on "Demosthenes," in Mac- 
millan's Classical Series; in 1891 "Some 
Aspects of the Greek Genius " (Macmillan 
and Co.), now in a second edition ; in 1895 
"Aristotle's Theory of Poetry and Fine 
Art, with a Critical Text and Translation 
of the Poetics," a second edition of which 
appeared in 1898. In March 1886 he was 
elected a member of the Athenseum Club, 
without ballot, by the committee. In 1889 
he was appointed a Member of the Scottish 
Universities Commission. Since 1889 he 
has been one of the representatives of the 
Edinburgh Senatus Academicus on the 
University Court of Edinburgh University. 
Since 1886 he has vigorously supported 
the Unionist cause by speaking and writ- 
ing. He is brother of J. G. Butcher, Q.C., 
M.P., and in 1876 married Rose Julia, 
youngest daughter of the late Archbishop 
Trench. Addresses : 27 Palmerston Place, 
Edinburgh; and Athenasum. 

BUTE, Marquis of, John Patrick 
Crichton Stuart, K.T., LL.D., is the son 

of the 2nd Marquis, and was born at Mount 
Stuart House, in the isle of Bute, Sept. 12, 
1847, succeeded to the title on the death 
of his father in 1848, and received his 
education at Harrow School, whence he 
proceeded to Christ Church, Oxford. He 
was admitted into the Roman Catholic 
Church by Monsignor Capel, in London, 
on Dec. 1, 1868. He was created a Knight 



of the Order of the Thistle in February 
1875, and is Lord-Lieutenant of the county 
of Bute. The honorary degree of LL.D. 
has been conferred upon him by the Uni- 
versities of Glasgow, Edinburgh, and St. 
Andrews. He presented the Great Hall 
to the buildings of the former. Lord Bute 
has published " The Roman Breviary, trans- 
lated out of Latin into English"; "The 
Coptic Morning Service for the Lord's Day, 
translated into English"; Bikelas' " Essays 
upon Christian Greece"; "The Arms of 
the Royal and Parliamentary Burghs of 
Scotland," as well as lectures and essays, 
mostly upon Scottish and Continental sub- 
jects. These include a description of some 
Christian monuments of Athens and of a 
personal visit to Patmos. The Marquis 
of Bute has also written on the language 
of the aborigines of Teneriffe, ' ' The Altus 
of St. Colum ba," &c. He was elected Mayor 
of Cardiff in 1891 (being the first Peer 
chosen for such an office since the Reform 
Bill), and Provost of Rothesay in 1896 ; and 
Lord Rector of St. Andrews University 
in 1892, and again in 1895. His lordship 
married in 1872 the Hon. Gwendoline Mary 
Anne, eldest daughter of Lord Howard of 
Glossop, and has issue, living, three sons 
and a daughter. Addresses : St. John's 
Lodge, Regent's Park ; Cardiff Castle, &c. ; 
and Athenaeum. 

BUTLER, Lady Elizabeth Souther- 
den, daughter of the late Mr. Thomas J. 
Thompson, by Christiana, daughter of Mr. 
T. E. Weller, was born at Lausanne, in 
Switzerland. Her parents removed to 
Prestbury, near Cheltenham, where, at 
the age of five years, Miss Thompson first 
began to handle the pencil. After two or 
three years' sojourn at Prestbury, Mr. and 
Mrs. Thompson went to live in Italy, and 
the young artist continued her studies at 
Florence. In 1870 the family returned 
to England, and took up their abode at 
Ventnor, where they remained till the 
great success of Miss Thompson's picture 
of the "Roll Call" made a removal to 
London desirable. At one period she 
studied in the Government 'School of Art, 
Kensington. For some years she exhibited 
at the Dudley and other galleries. Her 
first picture at the Royal Academy was 
"Missing," 1873. It was followed in 1874 
by the "Roll Call," a picture, which at- 
tracted universal attention, and which 
was purchased by the Queen. "The 28th 
Regiment at Quatre Bras " was exhibited 
at the Academy in 1875 ; " Balaclava," in 
Bond Street, in 1876; and "Inkerman," 
in Bond Street, in 1877. In later years she 
has painted: '"Listed for the Connaught 
Rangers," "The Remnants of an Army," 
1879 ; " The Defence of Rorke's Drift," 1881 ; 
" Floreat Etona 1 " 1882, an incident in the 

attack on Laing's Nek ; a picture represent- 
ing the famous charge of the Scots Greys 
at Waterloo, 1882; "Tel-el-Kebir," 1885; 
"To the Front," 1889; "Evicted," 1890; 
"The Camel Corps," 1894; "Halt on a 
Forced March," "The Dawn of Water- 
loo," 1895; and "Steady, the Drums and 
Fifes," 1897. Miss Thompson became 
the wife of Major-General Sir William 
Francis Butler, K.C.B., June 11, 1877. Ad- 
dresses : Cape Town ; Monavoe, Delgany, 

BUTLER, The Very Rev. Henry 
Montagu, D.D., LL.D. (Glasgow), late 
Dean of Gloucester, Master of Trinity, 
Camb., and ex -Vice -Chancellor of the 
University of Cambridge, is the fourth 
and youngest son of the late Rev. George 
Butler, D.D., Head Master of Harrow, 
and afterwards Dean of Peterborough, 
and was born July 2, 1833, and educated 
at Harrow, under Dr. Vaughan, and 
at Trinity College, Cambridge. He was 
elected Bell University Scholar in 1852, 
and Battie University Scholar in 1853. 
In 1853 he won Sir W. Browne's medal 
for the Greek ode, and in 1854 the Porson 
Prize for the Greek ode, the Camden medal 
for Latin hexameters, and the Members' 
Prize for a Latin essay. In 1855 he 
graduated B.A. as Senior Classic, and in 
the same year was elected Fellow of his 
college. On the retirement of Dr. Vaughan, 
at Christmas 1859, he was elected to the 
head-mastership of the school, over which 
his father had presided for twenty-four 
years, from 1805 to 1829. He held this 
post until 1885, when he was appointed 
Dean of Gloucester. In 1886 he resigned 
the Deanery, being nominated by the 
Crown Master of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, in succession to the late Dr. Hep- 
worth Thompson. He was Vice-Chancellor 
of the University in 1889 and 1890. He 
was Honorary Chaplain to the Queen, 1875- 
1877; Chaplain-in-Ordinary, 1877; Preben- 
dary of St. Paul's and Examining Chaplain 
to the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr. Tait, 
1879, and to his successor, Archbishop 
Benson, 1883. He has been several times 
Select Preacher at the Universities of Ox- 
ford and Cambridge ; and he published in 
1861 and in 1866 volumes of " Sermons 
preached in the Chapel of Harrow School." 
He is brother of Canon Butler, and was 
married in August 1888 to Miss Ramsay 
of Girton College, who distinguished her- 
self by taking the first place in the Cam- 
bridge Classical Tripos in 1887. Address : 
Trinity Lodge, Cambridge. 

BUTLER, Major-General Sir Wil- 
liam Francis, K.C.B., A.D.C. to the 
Queen, was born in the county of Tipper- 
ary, Ireland, in 1838, and educated at 




Dublin. He was appointed Ensign of the 
69th Regiment, Sept. 17, 1858; Lieu- 
tenant, November 1863; Captain, 1872; 
Major, 1874 ; and Deputy-Adjutant-Quar- 
termaster - General, Headquarter Staff, 
1876. Major Butler served on the Red 
River Expedition ; was sent on a special 
mission to the Saskatchewan Territories 
in 1870-71 ; and served on the Ashanti 
Expedition in 1873, in command of the 
West Akim native forces. He was several 
times mentioned in despatches of Sir 
Garnet Wolseley, and in the House of 
Lords by the Field-Marshal Commanding- 
in-Chief. He was appointed a Companion 
of the Bath in 1874. In February 1879 
he was despatched to Natal to assume 
the responsible post of Staff Officer at the 
port of disembarkation. In the subse- 
quent expeditions under Lord Wolseley, 
Major-General Butler has generally held 
an important post, and especially in the 
Soudan Expedition. On the return of the 
forces he was left behind in command 
of the British advanced posts. He was 
Colonel on the Staff in Egypt from 1890 
to 1892, and Brigadier-General in Egypt 
from December 1892 to November 1893, 
when he was appointed Major-General 
at Aldershot. He till lately held the 
South - Eastern District command, with 
headquarters at Dover, and was appointed 
to the command of the troops at the 
Cape in 1898. General Butler is the 
author of " The Great Lone Land," 
1872; "The Wild North Land," 1873; 
"Akimfoo," 1875; and "Far Out: Rov- 
ings Retold," 1880; "Red Cloud, the 
Solitary Sioux," 1882 ; " The Campaign 
of the Cataracts," 1887 ; "Charles George 
Gordon," 1889; "Sir Charles Napier," 
1891. He was married June 11, 1877, at 
the church of the Servite Fathers, Ful- 
ham Road, London, to Miss Elizabeth 
Thompson, the painter. Address : Cape 

BUTLIN, Henry Trentham, born 
at Camborne, Cornwall, son of the Rev. 
W. W. Butlin, was educated at home and 
at St. Bartholomew's Hospital, London. 
He is a Fellow of the Royal College of 
Surgeons of England; D.C. L. (hon. causd) 
of the University of Durham ; and Sur- 
geon to St. Bartholomew's Hospital. 
During the year 1896-97 he was President 
of the Pathological Society of London, of 
the Laryngological Society, and of the 
Metropolitan Branch of the British Medi- 
cal Association, and was for six years 
Treasurer of the British Medical Associa- 
tion. He is now a Member of the Council 
of the Royal College of Surgeons of Eng- 
land. As Erasmus Wilson Professor of 
Pathology, and later Professor of Patho- 
logy and Surgery to the College of Sur- 

geons, he delivered a series of lectures on 
malignant disease ; and he has published 
several works on malignant disease and 
on the operative surgery of the same. 
Address : 82 Harley Street, W. 

BUTTERFIELD, "William, F.S.A., 
architect, was born Sept. 7, 1814. He 
early devoted himself to a study of the 
various periods of Gothic architecture, 
and consequently found himself in warm 
sympathy and intercourse with the Cam- 
bridge Camden Society, which was just 
then coming into existence, and which 
played an important part in the revival of 
Gothic architecture. He has in his prac- 
tice introduced various colours to a large 
extent into ecclesiastical and domestic 
buildings by the help of brick, stone, 
marble, and mosaic combined ; and .he 
has made great use of tiles which have 
figures and subjects painted upon them, 
and which are afterwards fired. Amongst 
the buildings designed by him are : 
St. Augustine's College, Canterbury ; the 
entire buildings of Keble College, Ox- 
ford ; Balliol College Chapel, Oxford ; St. 
Michael's Hospital, Axbridge ; the County 
Hospital, Winchester ; the School Build- 
ings at Winchester College ; the Grammar 
School, Exeter ; the Chapel, Quadrangle, 
and many other large buildings at Rugby 
School ; the rebuilding of Rugby Parish 
Church ; Heath's Court, Ottery St. Mary ; 
the Guards' Chapel, Caterham Barracks; 
All Saints, Margaret Street, London ; St. 
Alban's, Holborn ; St. Augustine's, Queen's 
Gate ; Gordon Boys' Home Buildings, near 
Bagshot ; St. Thomas, Leeds ; togetherwith 
a large number of other new churches, 
such as St. Mary Magdalene's Church and 
tlie Vicarage at Enfield ; and old build- 
ings and churches restored, as St. Cross, 
Church and Hospital Buildings, near Win- 
chester ; St. Mary's Church in Dover 
Castle, and the Parish Church, Totten- 
ham. He has also added the new buildings 
to Merton College, Oxford, and has restored 
its chapel. St. Augustine's new Church, 
Bournemouth ; Parish Church, Barnet ; 
Chapel and other works at Fulham Palace; 
Ardleigh Church, Essex ; Chapel and Do- 
mestic Buildings at Ascot Priory are fur- 
ther instances of his method and style. 
Addresses : 42 Bedford Square, W.C. ; and 

BUXTON, Sydney, M.P., was bom 
in 1853, and is the grandson of Sir Thomas 
Fowell Buxton, and the son of Charles 
Buxton, M.P., and of Emily, daughter of 
Sir Henry Holland the physician. He was 
educated at Clifton College and Trinity 
College, Cambridge. He was a Member 
of the London School Board from 1876 
to 1881. In 1880 he unsuccessfully con- 



tested Boston at the General Election, was 
returned for Peterborough in 1883, and 
defeated in 1885. In 1886 he stood for 
Croydon at a bye-election, but was not re- 
turned. In the same year he was elected 
for Poplar, and re-elected in 1892 and 
again in 1895. In 1892 he was appointed 
Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies. 
In 1882-84 Mr. Sydney Buxton acted as 
Hon. Secretary of Mr. Tuke's Irish Emi- 
gration Fund, and was instrumental in 
emigrating some 10,000 persons, in fami- 
lies, from the congested districts of Ire- 
land. In 1889 he, with the late Cardinal 
Manning and the Lord Mayor, constituted 
the "Mansion House Committee of Con- 
ciliation," which helped to bring the great 
dock strike of the year to a satisfactory 
conclusion. From 188G to 18S9 he was 
a Member of the Royal Commission on 
Elementary Education. In 1891 he moved 
the "Fair Wages Resolution" in the 
House of Commons, and in the same year 
was successful in raising the age of " half- 
timers" from ten to eleven. He is the 
author of a " Handbook to Political Ques- 
tions," 1880 (now in its ninth edition) ; "A 
Political Manual"; "Finance and Poli- 
tics : an Historical Study, 1796-1884," 
1889; a "Handbook to Death Duties," 
1890 ; besides numerous pamphlets and 
articles on political and financial subjects. 
In 1882 Mr. Sydney Buxton married Con- 
stance, daughter of Sir John Lubbock. 
She died in 1892. In 1896 he married 
Mildred, daughter of Hugh Colin Smith. 
Addresses: 15 Eaton Place, S.W. ; and 

BUXTON, Sir Thomas Fowell, 

Bart., G.C.M.G., son of the late Sir Edward 
North Buxton, M.P., and grandson of the 
well-known philanthropist, was born Jan. 
26, 1837, and succeeded his father as 3rd 
baronet in 1858. He was educated at 
Harrow and Trinity College, Cambridge, 
and sat in the House of Commons as 
Liberal Member for King's Lynn from 
1865 to 1868. He acted as High Sheriff 
of Norfolk in 1876, and was Colonel of 
the 2nd Tower Hamlet Volunteers from 
1864 to 1883. In April 1895 Sir Thomas 
Buxton was appointed Governor of South 
Australia. He has retired from this Go- 
vernorship. He has made himself conspi- 
cuous as a philanthropist, is of Evangelical 
principles ; and was married in 1862 to 
Victoria, daughter of the 1st Earl of 
Gainsborough. Addresses : 14 Grosvenor 
Crescent, S.W. ; and Warlies, Waltham 

BUZZARD, Thomas, M.D., was born 
in London, and was educated at King's 
College, London, at first in the School, 
and later in the Medical Department of 

the College. M.R.C.S. 1854, graduated 
M.B. in the University of London 1857, 
and M.D. 1860 ; University Medical Scholar 
and gold medallist ; Fellow of King's 
College, London ; M.R.C.P. London 1867, 
and F.R.C.P. 1873 ; Physician to the 
National Hospital for the Paralysed and 
Epileptic, Queen Square, Bloomsbury. Dr. 
Buzzard was President of the Harveian 
Society of London in 1889 ; President of 
the Neurological Society of London in 
1890 ; President of the Clinical Society 
of London in 1895-96. He is Fellow of 
the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society 
of London ; Member of the Pathological, 
Clinical, and Ophthalmological Societies ; 
and author of several works on the subject 
of Neurology, besides numerous contribu- 
tions to medical and other journals. Dr. 
Buzzard was attached to the Headquarters 
of H.H. Omer Pasha in the Crimean Cam- 
paign in 1855-56. He was present at the 
siege of Sebastopol ; with the second ex- 
pedition to Kertch : and at the battle 
of the Tctrernaia. After the fall of 
Sebastopol he accompanied the army 
of Omer Pasha to the Caucasus in its 
winter campaign, and took part in the 
establishment and conduct of a base 
hospital for Turkish troops at Trebi- 
zonde, in Asia Minor. Address : 74 Gros- 
venor Street, W. 

BYLES, William Pollard, the son 

of William Byles, founder of the Brad- 
ford Observer, was born Feb. 13, 1839, and 
was educated privately. He represented 
the Shipley Division of Yorkshire in the 
House of Commons from 1892 to 1895, 
and has very decided opinions as a Radical 
and a Social Reformer. He is now pro- 
prietor of the paper which his father 
founded, viz., the Bradford Observer, Ad- 
dress : Oakfield, Bradford. 

BYE, Robert. See Bayer, Karl Em- 
meeich Robert. 

BYRNE, The Hon. Mr. Justice 

(Sir Edmund Widdrington Byrne), the 
eldest son of Edmund Byrne, solicitor, 
Westminster, was born at Islington, June 
30, 1844, and was educated at King's 
College, London. He was called to the 
Bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1867, was appointed 
a Q.C. in 1888, was elected a Member of 
the Bar Committee in 1891, and a Bencher 
in 1892. He represented the Walthamstow 
Division of Essex in the House of Com- 
mons from 1892 to 1897, and in the latter 
year he was appointed a Judge of the 
Chancery Division of the High Court of 
Justice. He was married in 1874 to 
Henrietta, daughter of the late James 
Gulland of Newton-Wemyss, Fife. Ad- 
dress : 33 Lancaster Gate, W. 



CABLE, George Washington, novel- 
ist, son of George W. Cable, of Virginia, 
was born in New Orleans on Oct. 12, 1844, 
where he resided almost uninterruptedly 
until 1884, when he removed to New Eng- 
land. His present residence is in North- 
ampton, Massachusetts. At the age of 
fourteen his father died, leaving his family 
in such reduced circumstances as to compel 
his son to leave school in order to aid in 
the support of his mother and siste s. 
From that time until 1863 he was usually 
employed as a clerk. In that year he 
entered the Confederate armj*, where he 
remained until the close of the Civil War. 
Returning to New Orleans, he made such 
a living as he could — at first as an errand 
boy (though he was nearly twenty-one 
years of age), then in book-keeping, and 
finally secured a position in a prominent 
house of cotton factors, which he left in 
1879 to devote himself exclusively to litera- 
ture. His first literary work was in the 
form of contributions to the New Orleans 
Picayune, under the signature of " Drop- 
Shot." His work, however, did not attract 
any very general attention until his Creole 
sketches appeared in Scribner's Monthly, 
now The Century Magazine. These were 
published in book form in 1879, under the 
title of "Old Creole Days." They were 
followed by "The Grandissimes," 1880; 
"Madame Delphine." 1881 ; " The Creoles 
of Louisiana," 1884 ; " Dr. Sevier," 1884 ; 
"The Silent South," 1885; "Bonaventure," 
1887; "Strange True Stories of Louisiana," 
1889; "The Negro Question," 1890; and 
" John March, Southerner," 1894. In these 
Mr. Cable has shown such a mastery of the 
Louisiana dialect and such an insight into 
the Creole character as to give him a 
prominent place among American writers ; 
and the public readings from his works 
which he has given during the past few 
years in Northern cities have been very 
largely attended. Although writing addi- 
tional essays from time to time, and a few 
short stories, he has devoted his later years 
almost entirely to the platform and to the 
establishment of charitable societies, not- 
ably the Home Culture Clubs for the edu- 
cational benefit of the working poor. 
Address : Tarrya while, Northampton, 

CADGE, William, F.R.C.S., received 
his medical education at University College 
Hospital, London, where he was at one 
time Assistant-Surgeon and Demonstrator 
in Anatomy. He was formerly Member of 
Council of the Royal College of Surgeons, 

England ; is Fellow of the Royal Medical 
Chirurgical Society, and Consulting Sur- 
geon to the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital, 
to which he has given two donations, the 
first being anonymous, of £10,000 each. 
As Hunterian Professor of Surgery and 
Pathology he lectured at the Royal College 
of Surgeons in 1886 on the surgical treat- 
ment of stone, and contributed to Mor- 
ton's "Surgical Anatomy" the "Surgical 
Anatomy of the Head and Neck and other 
limbs," and to the Lancet of 1847 a brief 
account of the last illness and autopsy of 
Liston. In 1874 he delivered an address 
on Surgery to the British Medical Associa- 
tion. Address : 49 St. Giles's Street, 

CADOGAN, Earl, The Eight Hon. 
George Henry Cadogan, K.G., J.P., 

Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, eldest son of 
the 4th Earl, was born at Durham on 
May 12, 1840. He succeeded to the title 
on the death of his father in 1873, having 
been for a few months previously M.P. for 
Bath. He was appointed Parliamentary 
Under-Secretary for War in May 1875 ; 
and Under-Secretary of State for the 
Colonies in March 1878, in succession to 
Mr. J. Lowther, who had been advanced 
to the post of Chief Secretary for Ireland. 
He went out of office with the Conserva- 
tive party in April 1880. In Lord Salis- 
bury's second administration, 1886, he 
was appointed Lord Privy Seal, without 
a seat in the Cabinet, but he joined the 
Cabinet in 1887, and was appointed 
Chairman of Grand Committees in 1889. 
In Lord Salisbury's third administration 
he was appointed Lord - Lieutenant of 
Ireland, with a seat in the Cabinet, 1895. 
He is a Hereditary Trustee of the British 
Museum. He married in 1873 Beatrix, 
daughter of the 2nd Earl of Craven, 
M.P. for Bath. Addresses : Viceregal 
Lodge, Dublin ; Chelsea House, Cadogan 
Place, S.W. ; Culford Hall, Bury. 

CAFFYN, Kathleen Mannington, 

("Iota"), widow of the late Mr. Manning- 
ton Caffyn, was born at Waterloo House, 
co. Tipperary, and is the daughter of 
William Hunt and Louisa Going. The 
future novelist was educated under English 
and German governesses, and then went 
through a short course of training at St. 
Thomas's Hospital preparatory to becoming 
a nurse under the National and Metro- 
politan Nursing Association. Shortly after 
entering on this career she married Mr. 
Mannington Caffyn, a surgeon and writer 
of some repute, his novel, " Miss Milne and 
I," having been one of the notable books 
of its time. He died when, shortly after 
their marriage, they had gone out to 
Sydney. Mrs. Mannington Caffyn began 



her literary career during her early widow- 
hood in the Colonies. At first she contri- 
buted to the papers, and in 1894 sprang 
into sudden fame by her " Yellow Aster," 
which proved a sensational example of 
the problem novel at a time when " The 
Heavenly Twins " had made that style of 
writing momentarily popular and import- 
ant. Her subsequent works have been : 
" Children of Circumstances," 1894 ; " A 
Comedy of Spasms," 1895 ; and " A Quaker 
Grandmother," 1896. Address : 6 Cedar 
Gardens, Putney, S.W. 

CAILLARD, Sir Vincent Henry 
Penalver, was born on Oct. 23, 1856, and 
is the son of Judge Caillard and Emma 
Louisa Reynolds, first cousin once removed 
to the late Lord Beaconsfield. He was 
educated at Eton and at the Royal Mili- 
tary Academy, Woolwich, where he was 
Pollock Gold Medallist, and obtained a 
commission in the Royal Engineers in 
1875. Early in 1879 he was appointed to 
assist the English Commissioner on the 
Montenegro Frontier Commission ; in the 
October of that year he was on the Arab 
Tabia Commission. In 1880 he rejoined 
the Montenegrin Commission, and in July 
was sent on a special political mission to 
Epirus in behalf of the Report to the 
Berlin Congress. At the naval demonstra- 
tion at Dulcigno in September he was 
specially attached to Sir Beauchamp Sey- 
mour; in 1882 he was in the service of 
the Intelligence Department, and in the 
August of that year he was attached to the 
Headquarter Staff during the Egyptian 
campaign. He had thus gained a very 
wide and varied experience of Levantine 
affairs when, in October 1883, he was ap- 
pointed President of the Ottoman Public 
Debt Council. He has held this arduous 
post for more than fourteen years, and has 
also been Financial Representative of 
England, Holland, and Belgium in Con- 
stantinople. In April 1898 it was an- 
nounced that he was about to relinquish 
his post as Administrator of the Public 
Debt, in order to take up his residence in 
London, at the instance of certain leading 
financiers who desire the advantage of his 
experience in the matter of financial 
organisation and administration. He has 
various orders, including the Medal and 
Bronze Star, Egyptian campaign, 1882 ; 
Grand Cordon of the Medjidieh ; Grand 
Cordon of Ordre pour le Merite Civile, &c. 
He married in 1886 Eliza Frances, sister of 
Sir John Hanham, Bart. Club: St. James's. 

CAINE, Thomas Henry Hall, novel- 
ist and dramatist, was born in 1853. He 
began life as an architect, but at an early 
period turned his attention to literature. 
He lived with Dante Rossetti in London 

during the trying twelve months pre- 
ceding that poet's death in 1882, and 
published " Recollections of Rossetti " in 
the same year. He published " Sonnets 
of Three Centuries" in 1882; "Cobwebs 
of Criticism," 1883. Then he began his 
career as a novelist, publishing "The 
Shadow of a Crime " in 1885 ; " A Son of 
Hagar" in 1887; also "The Deemster," 
1887, which was dramatised under the 
title of "Ben-my-Chree," 1888. In 1890 
he published "The Bondman"; "The 
Scapegoat," 1891 ; "The Manxman," 1894 
(twice dramatised under the same name, 

1894 and 1895) ; and " The Christian," 1897. 
The last mentioned provoked much contro- 
versy, and passed through a first edition 
of 50,000 copies within a month. Mr. Hall 
Caine was principal agent in the abolition 
of the English three-volume novel. In 

1895 he went to Canada as the ambassa- 
dor of the Society of Authors to protest 
against the proposed Canadian copyright 
legislation. He framed a compromise, 
which was accepted by the interested 
parties and, with modifications, by the 
Dominion Government and the Colonial 
Office as a basis of fresh legislation. His 
permanent address is Greeba Castle, Isle 
of Man. 

CAINE, "William Sproston, J.P., was 

born at Seacombe, Cheshire, March 26, 
1842, and is the son of Nathaniel Caine, 
J.P. for Lancashire and Liverpool, a Liver- 
pool merchant. He was educated privately 
by the Rev. Richard Wall, M. A. ; married 
in 1868 to Alice, daughter of Rev. Hugh 
Stowel Brown, of Liverpool. In 1873 he 
contested Liverpool in the Liberal interest 
at a bye-election, and afterwards at the 
General Election in 1874, both times un- 
successfully. In 1880 he was returned for 
Scarborough, and again in 1884 on his ap- 
pointment to the office of Civil Lord of the 
Admiralty in Mr. Gladstone's administra- 
tion of 1880-85. In 1885 he consented to 
contest the county of Middlesex at the 
following General Election, and on the 
passing of the Redistribution Act stood 
for the Tottenham division of that county 
in 1885 without success. At a bye-election 
in April 1886 he was returned for Barrow- 
in-Furness by a large majority, and was 
again returned at the General Election. 
In 1892 he was elected for the Eastern 
Division of Bradford, and was defeated 
for the same constituency in 1895. He 
is a J.P. for the North Riding of York- 
shire and the county of London, and is 
largely engaged in the iron trade of Cum- 
berland. He was Chairman of a Special 
Commission for the reorganisation of the 
Metropolitan Constituencies in the Liberal 
interest, and is now a Member of the Royal 
Commission on Indian Expenditure and 



the Koyal Commission on the Licensing 
Laws. Mr. Caine separated from Mr. 
Gladstone on the Home Rule question, 
and has been one of the whips of the 
Liberal Unionist party, but rejoined the 
Liberal party in 1890, accepting Mr. Glad- 
stone's amended scheme for the govern- 
ment of Ireland. He is an active leader in 
the Temperance Reformation, and is Presi- 
dent of the British Temperance League 
and the National Temperance Federation, 
and is a Director of the United Kingdom 
Temperance and Provident Institution. 
He is the author of "A Trip Round the 
World in 1887-88" ; " Hugh Stowell Brown: 
a Memorial Volume," 1888 ; " Picturesque 
India," 1890; and "Young India," 1891. 
Address : North Side, Clapham Common, 

CAIRD, Edward, M.A., Hon. D.C.L., 
Master of Balliol, was educated at Glasgow 
University and Balliol College, Oxford, of 
which he was a Snell Exhibitioner. In 
1861 he was Pusey and Ellerton Scholar, 
took a first class in Classical Moderations 
in 1862, and a first class in Literas Hu- 
maniores in 1863. He was subsequently 
elected to a Fellowship at Merton College, 
where he was for two years a tutor until 
appointed to the Chair of Moral Philosophy 
at Glasgow. On the death of Dr. Jowett 
he was elected Master of Balliol (Nov. 
14, 1893). He has published the follow- 
ing works : " The Critical Philosophy of 
Immanuel Kant," 2 vols.; "The Social 
Philosophy and Religion of Comte " ; " The 
Evolution of Religion," 2 vols, (being the 
Gifford Lectures at St. Andrews, 1891-92), 
1893; "Hegel," in Blackwood's Philo- 
sophical Classics; "Essays in Religion 
and Philosophy," 1892. Address: Balliol 
College, Oxford. 

CAIRD, Mrs. Mona, authoress, only 
daughter of John Alison, inventor of the 
vertical boiler, was born at Ryde, in the 
Isle of Wight. Her first acknowledged 
work was "Whom Nature Leadeth." This 
was followed in 1887 by "One that Wins," 
and in the spring of 1889 by " The Wing 
of Azrael." In the Westminster Review for 
August and November 1888 Mrs. Mona 
Caird wrote articles on " Marriage " and 
" Ideal Marriage," which led to a volumi- 
nous correspondence in the Daily Telegraph, 
entitled "Is Marriage a Failure?" She 
afterwards contributed to the Fortnightly 
an article entitled " The Morality of Mar- 
riage," which was a reply to Mrs. Lynn 
Linton's attack on the " Wild Woman " 
in the Nineteenth Century. Other works 
from her pen are: "A Romance of the 
Moors," 1891 ; "The Yellow Drawing-Room 
and other Short Stories," " The Daughters 
of Danaus," 1894; "A Sentimental View 

of Vivisection," "Beyond the Pale," 1896; 
" The Morality of Marriage," 1897. Club : 

CALLENDAR, Professor Hugh 
Longbourne, F.R.S., F.R.S.C, LL.D., 
son of the Rev. Hugh Callendar, M.A., 
Fellow and Tutor of Magdalene College, 
Cambridge, who died in 1867, was born on 
April 18, 1863, at Hatherop, Gloucester- 
shire. He was educated at Marlborough 
College, of which he was head boy in 
1880-82. He entered Trinity College, 
Cambridge, in Sept. 1882, and was elected 
Mayor Scholar in December of the same 
year, and Bell University Scholar in Feb. 
1883. He was in the first class in Classics 
in 1884, was 14th Wrangler in 1885, and 
was elected to a College Fellowship in 
Natural Science in 1886. He became a 
University Extension Lecturer in 1892, 
Professor of Physics at the Royal Hollo- 
way College in 1893, and M'Donald Pro- 
fessor of Physics at M'Gill University, 
Montreal, in Oct. 1893. In 1897 he was 
appointed Professor of Physics at Uni- 
versity College, London. In June 1894, he 
was elected F.R.S., and was made LL.D. 
in 1898. He has written various papers 
on subjects connected with the measure- 
ment of temperature, the most important 
of which have appeared in the Phil. 
Trans. A, 1887, and A, 1891. He has also 
devised a system of shorthand, published 
by the Cambridge University Press under 
the titles of "Phonetic Cursive," 1889, and 
"Orthographic Cursive," 1891. Address: 
University College, Gower Street, W.C. 

CALVE, Madame Emma, operatic 
singer, was born in France in 1866, her 
father being a civil engineer. She took 
her first lessons from M. Laborde, and 
subsequently with Madame Marchesi, and 
made her debut at the Theatre de laMonnaie, 
Brussels, 1882, in Gounod's "Faust." She 
played in Paris in 1884 at the Theltre 
Italien, with MM. Maurel and Edouard de 
Reszke, in "Aben Hamet," and then at the 
Ope'ra Comique, where she sang in the 
following roles : The Countess in Mozart's 
" Nozze di Figaro " ; the heroine of Felicien 
David's "Lalla Rookh;" and Pamina in 
Mozart's "II Flauto Magico"; and after- 
wards made a tour in Italy, visiting Milan, 
Rome, Naples, and Florence, including 
in her repertoire Ophelia in Ambroise 
Thomas's "Hamlet," and Leila in Bizet's 
" Pecheurs des Perles." She appeared 
at Covent Garden in 1892 as Santuzza in 
"Cavalleria Rusticana," and in "L'Amico 
Fritz," the leading soprana part in which 
she had created at the Costanza Theatre, 
Rome, in October 1891. She sang in both 
at Windsor Castle by command of the 
Queen in July 1893. She visits Covent 



Garden annually in the season. Her Paris 
address is 1 Rue Dumont d'Urville. 

C AMBON, Pierre Paul, French diplo- 
matist, was born on Jan. 20, 1843, and his 
first appointment was that of Secretary of 
the Alpes-Maritimes Department in April 
1871. In 1872 he was promoted to be 
Preset of the Aube, and ne has held the 
same post in the Departments of the Doubs 
and Nord. In 1882 he beoame Resident in 
Tunis, and distinguished himself for his 
organising activity in the new French Pro- 
tectorate — law, finance, and public works 
being entirely reconstituted. In this work 
he came into conflict with General Bou- 
langer, the military governor, and although 
he was supported by the government then 
in power, he had to resign when Boulanger 
was appointed Minister of War. In 1886 
he was appointed Ambassador at Madrid, 
whence he succeeded the Count de Mon- 
tebello at Constantinople in 1890. Here 
he distinguished himself in the delibera- 
tions following on the Grasco-Turkish War. 
In September 1898 he was appointed Am- 
bassador at the Court of St. James' in 
succession to the Baron de Courcel (q.v.). 
His younger brother, Jules Martin, born 
1845, after being Governor - General of 
Algeria, was appointed Ambassador at 
Washington, where he was the interme- 
diary between Spain and the United States 
after the Cuban War in August 1898. M. 
Paul Cambon is a Grand Officier of] the 
Legion of Honour ; and his Paris address is 
15 Rue de Milan. 

laume, Contl di, Italian statesman, was 
born at Florence Aug. 8, 1820, and is 
the son of Conti Louis di Cambray-Digny, 
who rose from cobbler to be the chief 
minister of Ferdinand III., Grand Duke 
of Tuscany. He was educated at Pisa, 
and at the age of twenty-two returned to 
Florence, where he became one of the 
counsellors of the Grand Duke Leopold II., 
and advised him, even up to the last 
moment, to grant concessions to the people 
and renounce his Austrian alliance. In 
1859 the Grand Duke was compelled to 
fly, and Tuscany joined Piedmont. The 
Count was thereupon elected deputy for 
Tuscany in the new Parliament. In 1865 he 
presided at the sexcentenary celebration 
of Dante's birth, and delivered an oration 
before his monument. In 1867 he became 
Minister of Finance of the kingdom of 
Italy, and found a deficit of 900,000,000 
lire. He proposed to meet this by a tax 
on corn-grinding, which was very unpopu- 
lar, but was accepted out of necessity. 
He also brought forward a bill for bring- 
ing the manufacture of tobacco under the 
administration of the State, which, after 

violent opposition, passed in August 1868. 
His Ministry fell in November 1869 on a 
minor point, and he has since lived in 

CAMBRIDGE, Duke of, the Bight 
Hon. Field-Marshal H.R.H. George 
William Frederick Charles, K.G., K.P., 
G.C.M.G., G.C.H., G.C.B., G.C.S.I., son of 
Adolphus Frederick, the 1st Duke, grand- 
son of King George III., and first cousin 
to Her Majesty Queen Victoria, was born at 
Hanover, March 26, 1819, and succeeded his 
father July 8, 1850. He became a Colonel 
in the army Nov. 3, 1837, was advanced 
to the rank of Major-General in 1854, when 
he was appointed to command the two 
brigades of Highlanders and Guards, 
united to form the first division of the 
army sent in aid of Turkey against the 
Emperor of Russia ; and was promoted to 
the rank of General in 1856. In 1861 he 
was appointed Colonel of the Royal Artil- 
lery and Royal Engineers, and was pro- 
moted to the rank of Field-Marshal Nov. 
9, 1862. His Royal Highness has been 
successively Colonel of the 17th Light 
Dragoons, of the Scots Fusilier Guards, and 
in succession to the late Prince Consort, 
of the Grenadier Guards. At the battle 
of the Alma his Royal Highness led his 
division into action in a manner that won 
the confidence of his men and the respect 
of the veteran officers with whom he served. 
At Inkerman he was actively engaged, 
and had a horse shot under him. Shortly 
after this, in consequence of impaired 
health, he was ordered by the medical 
authorities to Pera for change of air, and 
after staying there some time proceeded 
to Malta ; whence, his health still failing, 
he was directed to return to England. At 
a later period his Royal Highness gave the 
result of his camp experience in evidence 
before the Committee of the House of 
Commons appointed to investigate the 
manner in which the war had been con- 
ducted. On the resignation of Viscount 
Hardinge in 1856 the Duke of Cambridge 
was appointed to succeed as Commander- 
in-Chief, and continued to hold that post 
till the autumn of 1895, the appointment 
being perpetuated by Letters Patent in 
1887. In 1895 the new scheme of Army 
Reform led to the Duke's retirement. His 
mother, the Duchess of Cambridge, died 
April 6, 1889, at the advanced age of 
ninety-two. He is Ranger of Hyde Park 
and Richmond Park. 

CAMERON, Sir Charles, Bart., M.P. 
(Glasgow, Bridgeton Division), son of 
the late John Cameron, newspaper pro- 
prietor, of Glasgow and Dublin, by his 
marriage with Miss Galloway, was born 
at Dublin in 1841. He married in 1869 



Frances Caroline, youngest daughter of 
the late J. W. Macauley, M.D. He was 
educated at Madras College, St. Andrews, 
and at Trinity College, Dublin. He studied 
medicine at Dublin University School, 
and was gold medallist of the Pathological 
Society, Dublin. He graduated B.A. as 
First Senior Moderator, and gold medallist 
in Experimental and Natural Sciences in 
1862, and took the first place in examina- 
tions for degrees of M.B. and Master in 
Surgery. He also studied at the medical 
Bchools of Paris, Berlin, and Vienna ; pro- 
ceeded to the degrees of M.D. and M.A. in 
1865 ; and in 1871 took out those of LL.B. 
and LL.D. He edited the North British 
Daily Mail newspaper from 1864 to 1874. 
He served as a member for the City of 
Glasgow in the Parliaments of 1874 and 
1880, and on the subdivision of the con- 
stituency sat for the College Division of 
Glasgow in the three succeeding Parlia- 
ments until 1895, when he was defeated. 
He was elected member for the Bridgeton 
Division of Glasgow on the retirement of 
Sir George Trevelyan in 1897. He was 
President of the Health Section, Social 
Science Congress, in 1881, and of the 
Public Medicine Section, British Medical 
Association Congress, in 1884. He was 
created a baronet in 1893, and D.L. of 
Glasgow in 1894. In 1876 he succeeded in 
carrying the Publicans' Certificate (Scot- 
land) Act, a measure which conferred on 
the popularly elected magistrates of Scot- 
tish burghs the power of refusing new 
liquor licenses. To him, too, are due the 
introduction of the Inebriates Acts, the 
abolition of imprisonment for debt in 
Scotland in 1880, an amendment of the 
Scottish Marriage Laws, 1878, and the re- 
solution to the effect that the minimum 
charge for inland telegrams should be 
reduced from a shilling, at which it then 
stood, to sixpence, the carriage of which 
in the House of Commons in 1883 led to 
the introduction of the present system 
of sixpenny telegrams. Sir C. Cameron 
served in 1894 as Chairman of a Depart- 
mental Committee appointed by the Pre- 
sident of the Board of Agriculture to 
report on the coastwise transit of cattle. 
In 1894-95 he was Chairman of a Depart- 
mental Committee appointed by the Sec- 
retary for Scotland to inquire into the 
alleged increase of habitual offenders, 
vagrants, and inebriates in Scotland, and 
the best manner of dealing with it ; and 
in 1896 he was appointed a Member of 
Lord Peel's Royal Commission on the 
Liquor Licensing Laws. Address: Bal- 
clutha, Greenock. 

CAMERON, Professor Sir Charles 
Alexander, C.B. (1898), M.D., R.U.I., 
F.R.S.C.I., M.K. and Q.C.P.I., D.P.H., and 

ex-Examiner, Cambridge University, A.H. 
(Aoti. causd), D.P.H., R.C.S.I. (hon. causd), 
was born in Dublin on July 16, 1830. His 
father, Captain Ewen Cameron, was grand- 
son of the unfortunate Archibald Cameron, 
younger brother of "Lochiel," who was 
executed for taking part in the Jacobite 
rising in 1745. Sir Charles's mother was 
Belinda Smith, a county Cavan lady. Sir 
Charles was educated at schools in Dublin 
and Guernsey. He studied medical and 
chemical science in Dublin and Germany, 
graduating as Doctor of Medicine and 
Doctor of Philosophy in 1856. At first he 
devoted much attention to agricultural 
chemistry. In 1867 he read a paper before 
the British Association detailing experi- 
ments which proved that urea could be 
assimilated by plants, and that all the 
nitrogen which they required could be 
taken from it. In 1862 he contributed a 
series of papers to the Cliemical News on 
"The Inorganic Constituents of Plants." 
In 1862 he was elected Public Analyst 
for the city of Dublin, and was the only 
analyst in the United Kingdom who suc- 
ceeded in applying the provisions of the 
first and very defective Adulteration of 
Food Act of 1860. He next turned his 
attention to sanitary science, and in 1867 
was elected Professor of Hygiene or Poli- 
tical Medicine in the Royal College of 
Surgeons in Ireland. He was for some 
years Lecturer on Chemistry and Physics 
in two medical schools — Steevens Hospital 
Medical College, and Ledwich School of 
Medicine. Sir Charles's public lectures on 
Hygiene, open to ladies, were numerously 
attended. He is an Hon Member and 
Professor of Chemistry and ex-Professor 
of Anatomy to the Royal Hibernian Aca- 
demy of the Fine Arts, &c, Lecturer on 
Agricultural Chemistry and Geology in 
the Albert (Government) Model Farm, 
Glasnevin, and he is Public Analyst for 
the greater number of Irish counties and 
boroughs, as well as Consultant to nearly 
all the Public Departments. He holds the 
Professorships of Chemistry and Hygiene 
in the College of Surgeons, and he has 
the entire control of the Public Health 
Department of the Dublin Corporation, 
being both Executive and Superintendent 
Medical Officer of Health. Under his 
rigime an immense improvement has taken 
place in the dwellings of the working 
classes, and the state of public health has 
been greatly improved. Sir Charles and 
the Irish Registrar-General were appointed 
in 1888 to inquire into the conditions of 
the Royal Barracks in Dublin. Sir Charles 
served on the juries of several of the great 
exhibitions, including that of Paris in 
1867. He was President of the Royal 
College of Surgeons, 1885-86 ; President of 
the British Public Health Medical Society* 



1880-90 ; Vice-President of the Institute of 
Chemistry, 1884-90 ; President of the Bri- 
tish Institute of Public Health, 1890-93 ; 
of the Irish Medical Association, 1891-92 ; 
of the Society of Public Analysts ; and 
Hon. Member of many Medical Societies 
abroad and in America. His chief works 
are a voluminous "History of the Royal 
College of Surgeons in Ireland, and of the 
Irish Medical Institutions, including 300 
Biographies," and a "Manual of Hygiene, 
and Compendium of the Sanitary Laws." 
His smaller works, including translations 
of poems from the German, are numerous. 
His "Elementary Agricultural Chemistry 
and Geology " is on the list of the school 
books of the National Education Com- 
missioners. His original papers chiefly 
appear in the Proceedings of the Royal 
Society and the Royal Dublin Society, the 
Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy 
and of the Royal Academy of Medicine, 
the Chemical News, the Dublin Journal of 
Medicine. In pure chemistry he is best 
known for his numerous papers on Sele- 
nium Compounds. Sir Charles was knighted 
in 1886, "in recognition of his services in 
the improvement of Public Health, and 
his scientific researches." He is Hon. 
Member of the Academy of Medicine of 
Sweden, the State Medical Society of 
California, the Hygiene Societies of France, 
Paris, Bordeaux, Belgium, the Institute 
of Architects, the Institute of Civil Engi- 
neers. In social life Sir Charles has a 
great reputation as an after-dinner speaker, 
and he frequently occupies the chair at 
public dinners. He has presided at the 
Sanitary Congress, Portsmouth, 1892, and 
at many public gatherings in London, 
Dublin, and other places. In 1862 he 
married Lucie, daughter of John Macna- 
mara, solicitor, of Dublin. She died in 
1883, leaving seven children, of whom five 
survive. Address : 51 Pembroke Road, 

CAMPBELL, Lady Colin, nee Ger- 
trude Blood ("G. Brunefllle," "Vera 
Tsaritsyn," "Q.E.D.," "Fiamma," &c), 
author and journalist, is the daughter of 
Edmond Maghlin Blood, who died in 1891, 
and whose estates in county Clare have 
been held in the family since the middle 
of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. Miss 
Gertrude Blood was not sixteen when she 
published an account of foreign travel in 
Cassells'. In the same year she published, 
under the pseudonym of " G. E. Brunefille," 
a story of child-life in Italy, entitled 
"Topo," which was illustrated by Miss 
Kate Greenaway. At the same time she 
studied painting in Florentine studios, 
and, under her father's guidance, became 
^acquainted with the best work of Con- 
tinental masters, both old and modern. 

As a journalist Lady Colin Campbell has 
been at various times English correspon- 
dent for sundry Italian and American 
papers, as well as for the Parisian Le 
Gaulois. The first article she sent to the 
Saturday Review resulted in her being 
requested to join the staff of that then 
famous literary journal ; and her contri- 
butions ranged from book-reviewing and 
essays, art and musical criticisms, to 
papers on sporting subjects, but treated 
from a purely literary standpoint. One 
series of these latter was re-issued under 
the title of " The Book of the Running 
Brook and of Still Waters." Other essays 
on fishing, and the art of fencing, from 
her pen, form part of the "Gentlewoman's 
Book of Sports." Upon the latter subject, 
indeed, Lady Colin (owing to her acquaint- 
ance with the play of nearly every swords- 
man of note and her own practice under 
the greatest masters of the Continent) 
is recognised as one of the best woman 
experts living. As art critic Lady Colin 
has contributed at different times to many 
other papers and periodicals, among others 
to the Art Journal, the Pall Mall Gazette, 
the National Review, and Les Lettres et les 
Arts. But above all, "Q.E.D.'s" accounts 
of her own impressions " In the Picture 
Galleries," which since 1889 have appeared 
almost weekly in the World, will remain 
as a critical conspectus, year by year, of 
English painting. Although Lady Colin 
Campbell's first novel, "Darell Blake," 
ran through many editions, the literary 
form she affects most, which no doubt fits 
in best with her multifarious tastes and 
interests, is that of small and very definite 
compass. She has published a number 
of short stories, all marked with much 
"point." But perhaps the most original 
style, among Lady Colin's various styles, 
is to be appreciated in her characteristic 
" Woman's Walks," of which nearly some 
two hundred have already appeared (the 
matter of half-a-dozen octavo volumes at 
least) in the columns of the World. Lady 
Colin Campbell is distinguished not only 
with the pen. She has an admirable con- 
tralto voice, trained in early days by Baci 
(the pupil and successor of the Romani 
who formed most of the great singers of 
his time) and later by Tosti. In painting 
she was the pupil of Duveneck ; in fencing, 
of Camille Provost himself and Phillippe 
Bourgeois ; she is a rider of the haute-icole 
as well as of the hunting-field ; a noted 
swimmer ; adept in fly-fishing ; and she 
was one of the early promoters of ladies' 
cycling. She was married in 1881 to Lord 
Colin Campbell, fifth son of the Duke of 
Argyll, and at that time M.P. for Argyll- 
shire. Two years later she obtained a 
divorce on the ground of cruelty, which 
was upheld against appeal. Lord Colin 



Campbell died in 1895. Address : 67 Car- 
lisle Mansions, Victoria, S.W. 

CAMPBELL, The Rev. Lewis, 

M.A., LL.D., Emeritus Professor of Greek 
in the University of St. Andrews, son of 
Robert Campbell, R.N., sometime Governor 
of Ascension Isle, and cousin of Campbell 
the poet, was born in Edinburgh Sept. 3, 
1830. He was educated at the Edinburgh 
Academy, at Glasgow University, and at 
Trinity and Balliol Colleges, Oxford, in the 
former as Scholar, in the latter as Snell 
Exhibitioner. He was thus brought into 
contact with the late Master of Balliol 
(Professor Jowett), whose influence as a 
college tutor was already conspicuous. 
He took a first-class in Classics in 1853, 
was Fellow of Queen's from 1855 to 1858, 
and tutor from 1856 to 1858. In 1857 he 
was ordained by the Bishop of Oxford, and 
in 1858 became Vicar of Milford, Hants. 
He remained there until 1863, when he 
was appointed Professor of Greek in the 
University of St. Andrews, a post from 
which he retired in 1892. Professor 
Campbell has published many works on 
classical subjects, of which the chief are : 
" The Theaetetus of Plato," 1861 (2nd edit., 
1883); "The Sophistes and Politicus of 
Plato," 1867; "Sophocles — The Plays and 
Fragments," Vol. I., 1871 (2nd edit., 1879) ; 
Vol. II., 1881 ; Verse Translations of 
Sophocles, 1873-83, and of ^Eschylus, 
1890; "Sophocles" in Macmillan's series 
of Classical Writers, 1879. The 1883 
edition of "Sophocles in English Verse" 
having been exhausted, a final edition was 
published by Murray in 1896. Professor 
Campbell has also written articles on Plato 
and Sophocles in the " Encyclopaedia Bri- 
tannica," and contributed various papers 
to the Quarterly, National, and Classical 
Reviews, the American Journal of PkUology, 
and other home and foreign periodicals. 
He fortnightly published in 1877 a volume 
of sermons, " The Christian Ideal," and in 
1882 (in conjunction with Mr. Garnett), 
"The Life of James Clerk Maxwell." 
Since 1892 he has been resident in London, 
and from the time of Professor Jowett's 
death in 1893 has been active as one of 
his literary executors. In 1894 he repub- 
lished by his friends' desire the work on 
the Epistles of St. Paul, which had been 
the subject of a violent controversy in the 
author's lifetime. The work was repub- 
lished by Murray & Co. The com- 
mentary is condensed, but the essays, 
including the famous Essay on the Inter- 
pretation of Scripture, contributed to " Es- 
says and Reviews" in 1860, are reprinted 
entire. In the same year, 1894, there 
appeared the edition of Plato's " Republic " 
(3 vols. 8vo), on which Professors Jowett 
and Campbell had long been engaged 

together ; and in the spring of 1897 was 
published "The Life and Letters of Ben- 
jamin Jowett," 2 vols. 8vo, by Abbott 
and Campbell, which in a few months 
reached a third edition. An edition of the 
text of .Sschylus for Macmillan's Par- 
nassus Series has been amongst the labours 
of these last years ; and the smaller edition 
of Sophocles by Campbell and Abbott is 
being prepared for a new issue at the 
Clarendon Press. In 1894-95 Professor 
Campbell held the Gifford Lectureship at 
St. Andrews, and he hopes shortly to pub- 
lish the substance of his lectures in a 
volume on " Religion in Greek Literature." 
He also contemplates the preparation, in 
collaboration with others, of a new Con- 
cordance or Lexicon to Plato. A new 
and original theory of the Order of 
the Platonic Dialogues, propounded by 
Professor Campbell in 1867, has lately 
met with wide recognition. Addresses : 
32 Campden House Chambers, W. ; and 

CAMPBELL, Mrs. Patrick, who has 

become famous in the title-rdle of "Mrs. 
Tanqueray " at the St. James's Theatre, 
was born at Forest House, Kensington 
Gardens, and is the youngest daughter 
of John Tanner and Louisa Romanini. 
She was married in 1884 to Patrick Camp- 
bell, third son of Patrick Campbell, of 
Stranraer. She was educated at private 
schools and in Paris, gained a scholar- 
ship at the Guildhall School of Music, 
and made her name as an amateur actress 
long before she was known in professional 
circles. Her early amateur successes were 
gained with a West Norwood dramatic 
society, "The Anomalies," in 1886-87. 
From 1888 to 1891 she toured with various 
dramatic companies, including Mr. Ben 
Greet's, and first attracted the attention 
of the critics while playing the part of 
Helen in an amateur performance of " The 
Hunchback," given at Colchester. In 1890 
she gained an opportunity of appearing on 
the London stage in a matinie performance 
of Mr. Louis Parker's "A Buried Talent" 
at the Vaudeville. Here she again made 
so favourable an impression as to be en- 
couraged to try a theatrical venture on 
her own account. In June 1891 she took 
the Shaftesbury Theatre in order to essay 
Rosalind. In August she obtained an en- 
gagement at the Adelphi, where, except 
for an interruption by illness, she remained 
till she went to the St. James's to act 
Paula in "The Second Mrs. Tanqueray." 
At the Adelphi Mrs. Campbell created four 
parts : as Astrea in " The Trumpet Call," 
Elizabeth Cromwell in the "White Rose," 
Tress in "The Lights of Home," and Clarice 
Berton in "The Black Domino." "The 
Second Mrs. Tanqueray " had a long run. 



In November 1894 Mrs. Campbell appeared 
as Kate Cloud, the heroine of " John 
a'Dreams," at the Hay market Theatre. 
She has also appeared as Agnes in "The 
Notorious Mrs. Ebbsmith," as Fedora, 
as Juliet in the revival of "Romeo and 
Juliet" by Mr. Forbes Robertson at the 
Lyceum in September 1895, as Lady 
Teazle in "The School for Scandal," and 
as Ophelia in "Hamlet," also in company 
with Mr. Forbes Robertson at the Lyceum. 
In October 1898 she played Lady Macbeth 
at the same theatre, with the last-named 
actor as Macbeth. Address : Milford, 

Bight Hon. Sir Henry, G.C.B., MP., 
LLC, D.L., J.P., is the second son of the 
late Sir James Campbell, of Stracathro, 
Forfarshire, some time Lord Provost of 
Glasgow, by Janet, youngest daughter 
of the late Mr. Henry Bannerman, of Man- 
chester, and was born in 1836. He was 
educated at the University of Glasgow 
and at Trinity College, Cambridge (B.A., 
1858; M.A., 1861). In 1872 he assumed 
the additional surname of Bannerman, 
under the will of his uncle, Mr. Henry 
Bannerman, of Hunton Court, Kent. Mr. 
Campbell-Bannerman, who is a magistrate 
for the counties of Lanark and Kent, 
has represented the Stirling district of 
burghs in the Liberal interest since 
December 1868. He was Financial Secre- 
tary at the War Office from 1871 to 1874 ; 
was again appointed to that office in 1880; 
and in May 1882 was nominated Secretary 
to the Admiralty. He was Chief Secre- 
tary for Ireland, 1884-85, during which 
time he was said by Mr. Tim Healy to be 
governing Irishmen with " Scotch jokes " ; 
and in Mr. Gladstone's third Cabinet, 1886, 
held the office of Secretary of State for 
War, and was again appointed to the same 
office in Mr. Gladstone's Ministry, 1892. 
The Unionists suggested him as a candi- 
date for the Speakership to which Mr. 
Gully was appointed. He is a man of 
great wealth, a moderate and cool politi- 
cian, and somewhat of an opportunist, and 
has been described as " a survival of that 
rapidly decaying type of M.P. which de- 
clines to be perturbed overmuch about 
insignificant trifles." At the time of 
going to press he has been elected by 
his party as Sir William Harcourt's suc- 
cessor in the leadership of the Liberal 
party in the House of Commons. He has 
received the honorary degree of LL.D. 
from the University of Glasgow. He 
married in 1860 Charlotte, daughter of 
the late Major-General Sir Charles Bruce, 
K.C.B. Addresses : 6 Grosvenor Place, 
S.W. ; Belmont Castle, Meigle, Scotland ; 
and Athenaeum. 

CAMPOS, Arsenio Martinez, a 

Spanish general and statesman, born in 
1834, the son of a brigadier-general, left 
the Staff School at Madrid with the rank 
of lieutenant, went through the campaign 
in Morocco, in 1859, as a member of the 
staff of the commander-in-chief. O'Donnell, 
and was there promoted to the rank of 
major. In 1864 he joined the army of 
Cuba as colonel, and he remained six years 
in that island. On his return to Spain in 
1870 he was sent, with the title of brigadier- 
general, to join the Army of the North, 
which was engaged in repelling the Carlist 
rebellion. After the abdication of King 
Amadeo he declined to give in his adhesion 
to the new order of things, and made no 
secret of his antipathy to the Republic. 
He was put on the retired list in 1873, and 
shortly afterwards was confined in a for- 
tress as a conspirator. From his prison he 
addressed to General Zabala, Minister of 
War, the well-known letter in which he 
requested permission to go and fight, as 
a private, under the orders of General 
Concha, the Carlist forces in Navarre and 
the Basque Provinces. This letter obtained 
for him his liberty, and he was sent to 
the Army of the North, in April 1874, to 
command a division of the Third Corps. He 
took part in the engagements of Las 
Munecas and Galdames, which led to the 
siege of Bilbao being raised, and he was 
the first to enter the liberated city on 
May 1, 1874. When General Concha re- 
organised the Liberal army, Martinez 
Campos was appointed General in com- 
mand of the Third Corps. He fought at the 
head of his troops on the 25th, the 26th, 
and particularly on the 27th of June, the 
day on which the Commander-in-Chief, 
General Concha, was killed in the attack 
on Monte Moru, near Estella. General 
Martinez Campos, besieged at Zurugay, on 
the same day, by the main body of the 
Carlists, opened a passage through the 
enemy's ranks, at the head of a column 
which numbered barely 1800 men, and 
went to rejoin, at Murillo, the head- 
quarters, where he was able to organise 
the retreat of the army on Tafalla. Re- 
turning to Madrid, he continued to con- 
spire almost overtly in favour of Don 
Alfonso, whilst Marshal Serrano, chief of 
the executive power, was operating against 
the Carlists. In conjunction with General 
Jovellar he made the military pronuncia- 
micnto of Sagonto, which gave the throne 
of Spain to Alfonso XII. The new Gov- 
ernment sent him into Catalonia, as Cap- 
tain-General and Commander-in-Chief of 
that military district. In less than a 
month he pacified the country, put down 
the Carlist bands, and took the command 
of the Army of the North. He brought 
the civil war to a close by the defeat of 



Don Carlos at Pena de Plata, in March 
1876. The high dignity of Captain-General 
of the Army, which is equivalent to that 
of a Marshal of France, was the recom- 
pense for his signal services. A year 
afterwards he was appointed Commander- 
in-Chief of the army in Cuba, which the 
rebels had held in check for seven years. 
Under his leadership the Spaniards were 
uniformly victorious, but neither these 
triumphs nor the strategical talents of the 
Commander-in-Chief would have succeeded 
in bringing about the complete pacification 
of the island if the recognition of the 
political rights of the Cubans and new 
Liberal concessions had not satisfied the 
demands of the insurgents. On his return 
to Spain, General Martinez Campos ac- 
cepted the portfolio of War and the Presi- 
dency of the Council (March 7, 1879), and 
endeavoured to procure the fulfilment of 
the promises made to the Cubans ; but not 
obtaining the support of the Cortes he 
resigned, and was succeeded by Senor 
Canovas del Castillo (Dec. 9, 1879). Early 
in 1881 the Conservative Government of 
Senor Canovas del Castillo was overthrown, 
and a coalition between Senor Sagasta and 
General Martinez Campos came into power, 
and retained it till October 1883, when 
it resigned in consequence of being unable 
to obtain from the French Government a 
satisfactory apology for the insult offered 
to King Alfonso by the Paris mob on his 
visit to Paris. In March 1883 he warmly 
opposed the project for a Pyrenean railroad, 
on the ground that it would lay Spain open 
to French attacks. On Jan. 18, 1884, he 
received the command of the Spanish 
Army of the North, and resigned it in 
February 1885. The following December 
he was elected President of the Senate. 
In 1888 he was appointed Captain -General 
of New Castille. This post he left in order 
to proceed to Cuba, where the refusal to 
grant reform had rekindled the insurrec- 
tion. He arrived at Havana, April 26, 
1895, and successfully met the rebels in 
several engagements. In September he 
forwarded a petition for Home Rule, and 
throughout he was in favour of meeting 
the rebels half-way. This petition, how- 
ever, did not meet with favour at home, 
and he was recalled in January 1896, to be 
succeeded by General Weyler (q.v.). Since 
then he has been Governor of Madrid, and 
during the threatened dynastic troubles he 
has been the chief counsellor of the Queen 
Regent [q.v.). 

CANDOLLE, Anne Casimir Pyra- 

mus de, Hon. Doctor of the University of 
Rostock, son of Alphonse, grandson of 
Augustin Pyramus, born at Geneva, Feb. 
20, 1836 ; has published several papers on 
anatomy of plants and descriptive botany 

in the " Prodromus " and the Monographies 
of his father as well as in " Memoires de 
la Socie'te de Physique et d'Histoire natur- 
elle de Geneve," a society of which he was 
President in the year 1882. 

CANDY, George, M.A., Q.C., was 
born in Bombay, Oct. 14, 1841, being the 
third son of the Rev. George Candy, then 
Incumbent of Trinity Church, Bombay. 
He was educated privately at Cheltenham, 
Bristol, and at the Islington Proprietary 
School, whence he went in 1860 with an 
Open Scholarship to Wadham College, Ox- 
ford. At Oxford he went in for athletics, 
winning, in 1862, the Prize Foils at 
Maclaren's Gymnasium, and rowing stroke 
of the College Torpids, and seven of the 
College Eight. He obtained a second 
class in Classical Moderations, and a 
second class in Greats, reading privately 
with T. H. Green of Balliol, afterwards 
Professor of Moral Philosophy, and with 
Edward Caird, afterwards Master of Balliol. 
He accepted in 1865 a mastership at St. 
Peter's College, Radley, but resigned 
through ill-health. He then resided in 
Oxford, taking private pupils, and edited 
Gray's Poems for the "British India 
Classics," afterwards becoming successively 
Master at Wellington, Marlborough, and 
Manchester. He was called to the Bar in 
November 1869, joined the Oxford Circuit, 
and went the Oxford and Gloucester 
Sessions. He married in 1873 Emily, 
daughter of Colonel Joseph Reade Revell 
of Round Oak, Englefield Green, by whom 
he has issue. He joined the Home Circuit 
in 1874, and went the Surrey Sessions. 
He took Silk in 1886. He published in 
1879 a "Treatise on the Jurisdiction, 
Practice, and Procedure of the Mayor's 
Court, London"; in 1883 a "Treatise on 
the Powers and Discretion of Licensing 
Justices" ("Is Local Option a Fact?"); 
in 1888 "Registration versus Muzzling," 
with suggestions for a reform of the Dog 
Laws; in 1893 "The First Step to Pro- 
hibition," a criticism of the Local Control 
Bill of Sir W. Harcourt ; in 1897 "The 
Public and the Publican," the decision of 
the House of Lords in "Boulter v. Kent 
Justices " examined. In February 1896 he 
unsuccessfully contested Southampton in 
the Unionist interest, being rejected by 35 
votes out of a total poll of 11,077. He has 
been a journalist nearly all his life, having 
written for the Globe, Pall Mall Gazette, 
Echo, and Morning Advertiser. Addresses: 
84 St. George's Square, S.W. ; 3 Har- 
court Buildings, Temple ; and the Maze, 
Gold Hill, Chalfont St. Peter's, Bucks. 

CANNING, Sir Samuel, C.E., upon 
whom the responsibility of laying the 
Atlantic cables of 1865, 1866, and 1869 



devolved, is the son of the late Robert 
Canning, Esq., of Ogbourne St. Andrew, 
Wiltshire, and was born in 1823. He 
began his career as assistant to the late 
Mr. Joseph Locke, C.E., F.R.S., from 1844 
to 1849, and was resident engineer during 
the formation of the Liverpool, Ormskirk, 
and Preston Railway. Since then he has 
been engaged in the manufacture and sub- 
mersion of the most important lines of 
submarine telegraph cables almost from 
their initiation in 1850. He was among 
the pioneers of Atlantic cables, and 
achieved the submergence of the first line 
of 1858, and that of other Atlantic lines. 
To his skill and energy the success of the 
Atlantic expedition of 1866 is undoubtedly 
due ; he perfected the paying-out and the 
recovering and grappling machinery for 
that cable, which so materially aided its 
submersion, and the recovery of the cable 
lost in the preceding year. He has also 
connected England with Gibraltar, Malta, 
and Alexandria, and laid other important 
lines of cable connecting various countries 
in the Mediterranean, North Sea, &c. He 
received the honour of knighthood in 1866, 
a Gold Medal from the Chamber of Com- 
merce of Liverpool March 14, 1867, and 
the Insignia of the Order of St. Jago 
d'Espada from the King of Portugal. He 
married in 1859 Elizabeth, daughter of 
the late W. H. Gale. Address : 1 Inver- 
ness Gardens, W. 

CANNON, Joseph G-. , American 
statesman, was born at Guilford, North 
Carolina, May 7, 1836, and received a 
liberal education. He studied law, and 
was admitted to the Bar, commencing 
the practice of his profession at Tuscola, 
Illinois. He was States Attorney from 
March 1861 to December 1868 ; and was 
elected to the Forty-third Congress, and 
re - elected to the Forty - fourth, Forty- 
fifth, Forty-sixth, Forty-seventh, Forty- 
eighth, Forty-ninth, Fiftieth, Fifty-first, 
Fifty-third, Fifty-fourth, and Fifty-fifth 
Congresses. He is leader of the Com- 
mittee on Appropriations of the House of 

CANTERBURY, Archbishop of. 

See Temple, The Most Rev. Frederick. 

CAPEL, The Right Reverend Mon- 
signor Thomas John, D.D., was born 
Oct. 28, 1836. Having completed his edu- 
cation by six years' private tuition under 
the Rev. J. M. Glennie, B.A., Oxon., in the 
autumn of 1860 he was ordained priest 
by Cardinal Wiseman. In January 1854 
he became co-founder and Vice-Principal 
of St. Mary's Normal College at Ham- 
mersmith. Shortly after ordination he 
-was obliged to go to a southern climate 

to recruit his strength. When staying at 
Pau, he established the English Catholic 
Mission, and was formally appointed its 
chaplain. Subsequently, his health having 
improved, he returned to London, where 
his sermons and doctrinal lectures in 
various churches, and more especially at 
the Pro-Cathedral at Kensington, soon 
raised him to the foremost rank among 
English preachers. During several visits 
to Rome he also delivered courses of Eng- 
lish sermons in that city by the express 
command of the Sovereign Pontiff. Mon- 
signor Capel, while labouring at Pau in 
the work of "conversions," was named 
private chamberlain to Pope Pius IX. in 
1868, and after his return to England 
domestic prelate in 1873. With returning 
health Monsignor Capel once more took 
to the work of education, and in February 
1873 established the Roman Catholic Public 
School at Kensington. He was appointed 
Rector of the College of Higher Studies 
at Kensington — the nucleus of the Roman 
Catholic English University — in 1874, by 
the unanimous vote of the Roman Catholic 
Bishops, and he held that appointment 
until he resigned it in 1878. Then having 
delivered a series of conferences on the 
Doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church 
in Florence by the wish of Leo XIII., 
Monsignor Capel carried out his long-pro- 
posed visit to America. There, in all the 
great cities, he lectured and preached to 
large audiences on religious, social, poli- 
tical, and literary subjects. In 1882 Mon- 
signor Capel wrote " Great Britain and 
Rome," urging the importance of having 
a Papal Nuncio accredited to England, 
and during his tour in America he 
published treatises on "Confession," 
"The Holy Catholic Church," "The 
Name Catholic," "The Pope the Head 
of the Christian Church," besides re- 
editing the well-known work, "Faith 
of Catholics." He is now resident in 

MONTECUCCULI, Count Georg Leo 
von, late German Chancellor, is the eldest 
of the four sons of Julius Edward von 
Caprivi, who was a high legal functionary 
in the service of the Prussian State. 
General von Caprivi was born at Char- 
lottenburg on Feb. 24, 1831. Entering a 
general regiment in his eighteenth year 
he won rapid promotion, and served with 
distinction in the campaigns of 1864 and 
1866. In 1870 he acted as Chief of the 
Staff to the 10th Corps, of which he is 
now the Commander, and reaped fresh 
laurels in all the battles on the Loire. 
Swiftly ascending the other steps of the 
military ladder, he was appointed in 1883 
to the command of the 30th Division at 



Metz ; and next year, passing from the 
army to the navy, he succeeded Herr von 
Stosch, on the latter's retirement from 
the head of the Admiralty. In a short 
time naval men by profession were amazed 
at the mastery of their art and the percep- 
tion of their interests which were displayed 
by a mere landsman and soldier. Soon 
after the present Emperor's accession, on 
the death of Count Monts, he reorganised 
the navy ; the command of the Imperial 
fleet being vested in Admiral von der 
Goltz, while something like a ministry of 
marine was created under Rear-Admiral 
von Heusner ; and it was on this occasion 
that General von Capri vi, sharing in the 
redistribution of military commands, was 
rewarded for his loyalty to the army, no 
less than for his naval services, with the 
10th or Hanoverian Army Corps, which is 
one of the finest in the whole army. 
During the manoeuvres of the autumn of 
1889, when the Hanoverians and West- 
phalians met in mimic warfare, with 
smokeless powder and other innovations 
on their trial, the Emperor had oppor- 
tunity enough anew to study the character 
of General von Caprivi, and this general's 
character and ability to serve him in a 
political capacity must have fairly con- 
vinced his Majesty, otherwise he would 
neser have asked him to assume the 
enormous burden of responsibility which 
Prince Bismarck had laid down. It was 
not. without grave scruples and self-dis- 
trust that General von Caprivi listened 
to the proposals of the Emperor ; but his 
Majesty, it is said, had finally decided to 
have a soldier for his new Chancellor, 
thinking, as he does, with Frederick the 
Great, that a General must be the surest 
conductor of a foreign policy, as knowing 
best how far he can go with the army 
behind him. On March 19, 1890, the 
appointment of General Caprivi as suc- 
cessor to Prince Bismarck was made 
public. The General received the title 
of Count from the Emperor in December 
1891. He gave up his position as Prussian 
Prime Minister to Count von Eulenberg 
in March 1892, but remained Chancellor 
and Minister for Foreign Affairs. In 1892 
and 1893, despite of prolonged opposition, 
he conducted the German Army Bills suc- 
cessfully through Parliament. He unex- 
pectedly resigned in October 1894, owing 
to friction with Count Eulenberg in the 
matter of the Agrarian League malcon- 
tents. The Emperor, to show that his 
resignation was only due to personal 
reasons, gave him the Black Eagle set 
in diamonds, and his successor, Prince 
Hohenlohe, carried out his policy. 

CAEAN D'ACHE. See PoiiuS, 


ander, a native of Constantinople, belongs 
to one of the most distinguished families 
of the Greek community in the Turkish 
capital, and through his wife is connected 
with the noble family of the Aristarchi. 
He was brought up at Constantinople, and 
was sixteen years of age when he was 
sent to the west of Europe to complete 
his studies. On his return to Turkey he 
was employed in the Government offices 
of the Sublime Porte, and soon attracted 
notice by his assiduity and intelligence. 
In several capitals of Europe he occupied 
the post of First Secretary of Embassy, 
and he was appointed, for the first time, 
Under-Secretary of State for Foreign 
Affairs during the Grand-Vizieriat of the 
late A'ali Pacha. About this period he 
was nominated Minister of the Sultan at 
the Court of Rome, where he resided for 
two years. He was recalled to occupy, 
for the second time, the post of Under- 
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, 
and was sent, as chief plenipotentiary of 
Turkey, to the Congress of the Great 
Powers which assembled at Berlin in 
1878 to revise the provisions of the 
Treaty of San Stefano. He had pre- 
viously been raised to the rank of Muchir. 
Afterwards he became Minister of Public 
Works, and in November 1878 he was 
appointed Governor-General of Crete. In 
May 1885 he was appointed Prince of 
Samos and adjoining islands, which were 
accorded a measure of autonomy under 
the suzerainty of the Porte. 

CARDEN, Colonel Sir Frederick, 

K.C.M.G., was born in 1839, and was 
educated at the Royal Military College, 
Sandhurst. Entering the Bengal Army 
in 1858 he served on the North-West 
Frontier of India in 1863, and was men- 
tioned in despatches. He was Deputy- 
Assistant Quartermaster-General at Alder- 
shot from 1872 to 1878, and in the follow- 
ing year went out to South Africa to take 
part in the Zulu War of 1879-81, when 
he was again mentioned in despatches. 
He was engaged in the Transvaal in 1881, 
and acted as Assistant Military Secretary 
in China from 1882 to 1883. After being 
Sub-Commissioner for Zululand from 1884 
to 1886 he was appointed Resident Com- 
missioner in 1890. He now occupies the 
position of Governor and Commander-in- 
Chief of Sierra Leone, and was created a 
K.C.M.G. in 1897. He married in 1887, 
as his second wife, Katherine, daughter of 
the late J. Saville, and widow of Colonel 
Kent Jones. Address: Government House, 
Freetown, Sierra Leone. 

CARDTJCCI, Giosue, Italian poet and 
critic, is the son of a physician, and was 



born at Val-di-Castello, near Pietra Santa, 
on July 27, 1836, and educated at the 
college of the Scolopii at Florence, where 
he early gave proof of his talents. In 
1858 he founded a literary review, the 
Poliziano, in which he proposed to render 
the Italian language classical in form 
though modern in thought. At the same 
time he published his Juvenilia, and 
several critical essays on the old Italian 
poets. These writings obtained him, in 
1860, an appointment as Professor of 
Italian Literature at the University of 
Bologna. He was returned, in 1876, to 
the Italian Chamber as a Republican, and 
became a senator in 1890. Among Signor 
Carducci's poetical works may be men- 
tioned his famous " Hymn to Satan," pub- 
lished under the pseudonym of "Enotrio 
Romano"; "Levia Gravia," 1875; " Odi 
Barbari," Odes in irregular metres, 1880 ; 
"September, 1792," 1883. M. Luzol has 
translated the Barbaric Odes into French, 
and Mr. G. A. Greene has published some 
translations of Carducci in his "Italian 
Lyrists of To-day." A complete edition 
of his poetical works in twenty volumes 
began to be published at Bologna in 1889. 
Among Carducci's critical works may be 
mentioned " Literary Studies," 1874 ; 
"Commentaries on Petrarch," 1879; 
"Critical Conversations" and "Lives and 
Portraits," 1884. Address : Bologna. 

CARINI, Isidore, was born at Palermo 
(Sicily) on Jan. 7, 1843, and ordained Priest 
in 1866, Canon of the Cathedral of Palermo 
in 1875, Professor of Palaeography and 
Curator of the Archives of Palermo in 
1877. In 1882 he was sent by the Govern- 
ment into Spain to collect and publish 
documents relative to the Sicilian Vespers ; 
and recalled to Rome by His Holiness 
Leo XIII. as assistant archivist and first 
Professor of Palaeography at the new Vati- 
can school in 1884. In 1889 he was ap- 
pointed Premier Prefet at the Vatican 
Library. Canon Carini has been a prolific 
writer, not merely upon archaeological 
subjects, but also on religion, literature, 
languages, bibliography, &c. He is a 
member of various literary societies, and 
for his services during the cholera in 1885 
received a gold medal from the King of 

CARLE. See Saedou, Victoeien. 

CARLING, Hon. Sir John, K.C.M.G., 
was born in London, Ontario, on Jan. 23, 
1828, and was educated in the public 
schools of his native place. For a number 
of years he was a member of the firm of 
Carling & Co., brewers, London, and was 
a director of the Great Western Railway, 
the London, Huron, and Bruce Railway, 

and the London and Port Stanley Railway. 
He was elected Trustee of the Board of 
Education, London, in 1850, and held this 
office until in 1854 he became a member 
of the Board of Aldermen for the same 
city. In 1857 he was returned as a mem- 
ber for London to the General Assembly, 
holding the seat continuously until the 
Confederation. He was Receiver-General 
of Canada in 1862 ; was elected to the 
Commons in 1867, holding the seat to 
1874, and was also returned to the Legis- 
lative Assembly of Ontario in 1867. He 
was Minister of Agriculture and Public 
Works from July 1867 until December 
1871 ; was sworn of the Privy Council, and 
was Postmaster-General from May 23, 1882, 
until Sept. 25, 1885, when he resigned this 
portfolio and accepted that of the Minister 
of Agriculture. He was re-elected to the 
Commons in 1878, and continued to sit for 
London until 1891. He was called to the 
Senate in 1891, but resigned his seat in 
the spring of 1892, and again successfully 
contested London for the Commons. He 
retained the portfolio of Minister of Agri- 
culture until September 1892 ; since then 
he has been a member of the Cabinet 
without portfolio. He was called to the 
Senate in 1896. He was created K.C.M.G. 
in 1893. He is married to Hannah, daugh- 
ter of Henry Dalton, London, Ontario. 
Address : London, Ontario. 

CARLISLE, Bishop of. See Bards- 
ley, The Right Rev. John Waeeing. 

CARLISLE, Earl of, George James 
Howard, born Aug. 12, 1843, is the son 
of the Hon. Charles, fourth son of the 
6th Earl, and succeeded to the title as 
9th Earl in 1889. He was educated at 
Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge, and 
sat in the House of Commons as Liberal 
Member for East Cumberland from 1879 
to 1880, and from 1881 to 1885. He is a 
Justice of the Peace and a Trustee of the 
National Gallery. He was married in 
1864 to Rosalind, youngest daughter of 
Lord Stanley of Alderley. Addresses : 1 
Palace Green, Kensington, W. ; and Na- 
worth Castle, Carlisle. 

CARLISLE, John Griffin, American 
statesman, was born in Campbell (now 
Kenton) County, Kentucky, Sept. 5, 1835. 
He received a common school education, 
studied law, and began its practice in 
1858. From 1859 to 1861 he was a mem- 
ber of the Kentucky House of Representa- 
tives, and of the State Senate from 1866 
to 1871, resigning his seat to accept the 
office of Lieut. -Governor, to which he was 
elected in August 1871, and which he 
occupied until 1875. In 1876 he was 
elected a member of the lower branch of 



Congress, where he continued to sit until 
May 1890, when he was sent to the United 
States Senate to fill the unexpired term of 
the late Senator Beck (to 1895). From 
1883 to 1889 he was the (Democratic) 
Speaker of the House of Representatives, 
and from 1893 to 1897 Secretary of the 
Treasury under President Cleveland. 

CARLOS I., Dom Carlos, King of 
Portugal and the Algarves, son of Louis I., 
was born in Lisbon on Sept. 28, 1863, 
married in Lisbon, May 22, 1886, Amelie, 
Princess of Orleans-Bourbon, daughter of 
the late Comte de Paris, and has two 
children. He succeeded to the throne on 
Oct. 19, 1889. During a financial crisis in 

1892 King Carlos and the Royal Family 
renounced a fifth of their yearly income 
for the benefit of the nation. In April 

1893 an attempt was made on the king's 
life as he was being driven through 
Lisbon. He visited England in November 

CARLOS, Don, Duke of Madrid, 
Carlos Maria de los Dolores Juan 
Isidoro Josef Francesco Quirino An- 
tonio Miguel Gabriel Rafael, who 

claims, under the special law of succession 
established by Philip V., to be the legiti- 
mate King of Spain by the title of Charles 
VII., was born at Laybacb, in Austria, on 
March 30, 1848. His father, Don Juan, 
was the brother of Don Carlos, Charles VI., 
known as the Count de Montemolin, in 
support of whose claims the Carlist risings 
of 1848, 1855, and 1860 were organised. 
As Charles VI. died without children, 
Jan. 13, 1861, his rights devolved upon 
his brother, Don Juan, who had married 
on Feb. 6, 1847, the Archduchess Maria 
Teresa of Austria, Princess of Modena, 
who is still living at Gratz, in Austria. 
Their son, the present Don Carlos, who 
was educated principally in Austria, mar- 
ried on Feb. 4, 1867, Margaret de Bourbon, 
of Bourbon, Princess of Parma, daughter of 
the late Duke Ferdinand Charles III., Ma- 
demoiselle de France, Duchess of Parma, 
and sister of the late Comte de Cham- 
bord (Henry V. of France). In October 
1868 Don Juan abdicated in favour of his 
son, whose standard was raised in the 
north of Spain by some of his partisans, 
April 21, 1872. On July 16 in that year 
Don Carlos published a proclamation, ad- 
dressed to the inhabitants of Catalonia, 
Aragon, and Valentia, calling upon them 
to take up arms in his cause, and pro- 
mising to restore to them their ancient 
liberties ; and in the following December 
Don Alfonzo, the brother of Don Carlos, 
assumed the command of the Carlist 
bands in Catalonia. Don Carlos himself 
made his entry into Spain July 15, 1873, 

announcing that he came for the purpose 
of saving the country. From that period 
the war was waged with remarkable vigour, 
and the various governments which came 
into power at Madrid strove in vain to 
dislodge the Carlists from their strong- 
holds in the north of Spain. When the 
Republic came to an end, and the eldest 
son of the ex-Queen Isabella returned to 
Spain as Alfonso XII., Don Carlos issued 
a proclamation, dated at his headquarters 
at Vera, Jan. 6, 1875, calling upon Spain 
to adhere to his side. The contest was 
carried on with great stubbornness and 
gallantry by the Carlists for more than a 
twelvemonth after that ; but in January 
1876 Tolosa, their last stronghold, fell, and 
its defenders, flying in disorder, sought 
refuge on French territory. This war is 
called the "Four Years' War," to distin- 
guish it from the " Seven Years' War " of 
1833 to 1840. In both several prominent 
Englishmen fought on the Legitimist side. 
Don Carlos passed through France to 
London and travelled in the United States 
and Mexico, and in 1877 joined the Rus- 
sian army in Turkey and fought at Plevna, 
where he was decorated by the Emperor 
for charging the enemy at the head of 
his own escort. In 1880 he returned to 
France, but was expelled the country by 
President Grevy (Aug. 12, 1881) for having 
attended Mass with French Royalists on 
St. Henry's Day (July 15), in honour of 
the Comte de Chambord. This order has 
never been rescinded. In 1884 he visited 
India, and was the guest of the Duke of 
Connaught at Meerut ; he returned through 
Ceylon and Egypt. In 1887 he visited 
South America, being the first member of 
the Spanish Bourbons to see these old 
Spanish possessions. Alfonso XII. made 
every possible effort to restore the lost 
prosperity of his kingdom and to secure 
and consolidate his own dynasty, but in 
1885 he died prematurely. The fight for 
the succession now raged between Maria 
Christina of Austria, the widow of Alfonso 
XII. , and Don Carlos. However, the 
posthumous birth of the present king in 
the following year, 1886, kindled in the 
nation a feeling of loyalty to the varying 
fortunes of the House of Bourbon, which 
has continued to exist up to the present 
time. Many rumours have been current 
as to the intentions of Don Carlos, but up 
till now he has not taken any definite step 
toward reasserting his old claim. It is 
considered, however, that he is merely 
waiting for a favourable opportunity. He 
lives for the most part of the year in his 
palace on the Grand Canal at Venice, 
welcoming all Spaniards who offer him 
their respects. Tall, handsome, and with 
engaging manners, he is said to be a 
consummate horseman, and was without 



doubt one of the pluckiest of soldiers 
during the Carlist war. His father, Don 
Juan, died at Brighton Nov. 18, 1887, 
where he resided incognito. Don Carlos 
lost his first wife at Viareggio in 1893, 
and in the next year married the Princess 
Berthe de Rohan, a descendant of the old 
sovereigns of Brittany. His only son, Don 
Jaime, is at present serving in the Russian 
army, gaining experience for a probable 
Spanish campaign, signs of the approach 
of which are not lacking. The following 
skeleton table will show his claim : — 

Carlos IV. 


Ferdinand VII. 



Alfonso XII. 

Alfonso XIII. 

Carlos V. 
(War of 1833). 



Carlos VI. Don Juan. 

Carlos VII. 

Don Carlos has five children — the Infanta 
Blanca, born Sept. 7, 1868 ; the Infante 
Jaime (Don Jaime), Prince of the Asturias, 
born June 27, 1870 ; the Infanta Elvira, 
born July 28, 1871 ; the Infanta Beatrix, 
born March 21, 1874 ; and the Infanta 
Alicia, born June 29, 1876. 

CARMEN SYLVA. See Elizabeth, 
Queen of Roumania. 

CARNEGIE, Andrew, the "Iron 
King," an American manufacturer, was 
born at Dunfermline, Scotland, Nov. 25, 
1837. His family removed to the United 
States in 1848 and settled at Pittsburgh, 
Pa., and two years later Andrew began 
his business career by attending a small 
stationary engine. This he soon left to 
become a telegraph messenger, and later 
he became an operator. While clerk of 
the superintendent of the telegraph lines 
of the Pennsylvania R. R. Co. at Pitts- 
burgh, he aided in the adoption by that 
company of the Woodruff sleeping-car, 
and this gave him the nucleus of his pre- 
sent great fortune. He was made super- 
intendent of the Pittsburgh division of 
the Pennsylvanian road, and soon after- 
wards acquired an interest in some oil 
wells that proved very profitable. Subse- 
quently he became associated with others 
in establishing a rolling-mill, which has 
grown to be the largest and most complete 
system of iron and steel industries in the 
world ever controlled by one individual. 
He has spent large sums of money for 
educational and charitable purposes. At 
his native place he erected, in 1879, com- 
modious swimming-baths for the use of 
the people, and in the following year gave 

it $40,000 for a free library. He gave 
$50,000 in 1884 to the Bellevue Hospital 
Medical College at New York for a histo- 
logical laboratory. Since 1885 he has 
expended nearly two millions of dollars 
on a music-hall, library, and art gallery at 
Pittsburgh and Alleghany City, Pa. A 
large music-hall in 1890 was built in New 
York through his generosity, at a cost of 
$1,125,000. Edinburgh has also received 
$250,000 from him for a free library ; and 
other libraries have been established by 
him at Braddock, Pa., and elsewhere. His 
latest benefaction is the gift of $50,000 
for a public library at Ayr. He has fre- 
quently contributed to periodicals on the 
labour question and similar economic 
topics, and has published in book form 
"An American Four-in-Hand in Britain," 
1883; "Round the World," 1884; and 
" Triumphant Democracy," 1886 (new 
edition 1893), besides several pamphlets. 

Charles Auguste Emile. 

CARON, Hon. Sir Joseph. Philippe 
Rene Adolphe, Canadian statesman, 
was born in the city of Quebec Dec. 24, 
1843. He was educated in the seminary 
there, and graduated B.C.L. at M'Gill 
University in 1865. He was called to the 
Bar soon after, and for some years devoted 
himself to his profession, and was created 
a Q.C. by the Marquis of Lome in 1879. 
He sat in the House of Commons for the 
county of Quebec from March 1873 to 
1891, when he was returned for Rimouski. 
At the General Election of 1896 he was 
elected for Three Rivers and St. Maurice. 
He entered Sir John Macdonald's govern- 
ment as Minister of Militia Nov. 9, 1880, 
and was continued in that office under Sir 
John Abbott until Jan. 25, 1892, when 
he became Postmaster-General. He re- 
mained at the head of the Post Office 
Department under Sir John Thompson and 
Sir Mackenzie Bowell, and retired from 
office with the latter April 27, 1896. For 
his services while at the head of the 
Militia Department during the Riel re- 
bellion in 1885 he was created a K.C.M.G. 

CARPENTER, George Alfred, M.D. 
London, and M.R.C.P., was born in 1859. 
He is the son of the late John William 
Carpenter, M.D., St. Andrews, and nephew 
of that distinguished pioneer in and ex- 
ponent of hygiene, the late Alfred Car- 
penter, M.D., of Croydon. He was edu- 
cated at Epsom College and at King's 
College, London, matriculating at the 
London University in 1879. The following 
year he entered as a student at St. 
Thomas's Hospital, and during a very suc- 
cessful career he obtained many prizes. 




He became a Member of the Royal College 
of Surgeons of England in 1885, and gra- 
duated M.B. of London University in 1886, 
proceeding M.D. in 1890, his thesis being 
"Tuberculosis of the Choroid," a subject 
to which he has given much attention. 
In November 1885 he was appointed 
Registrar and Pathologist to the Evelina 
Hospital for Sick Children, and some two 
years later Resident Medical Officer, a 
post which he held until his appointment 
on the full staff of the Hospital as Phy- 
sician to out-patients in January 1889. 
During his connection with the Evelina 
Hospital as a junior Dr. Carpenter entered 
as a student at Guy's Hospital. For- 
merly he was Deputy Medical Superin- 
tendent of the Coppice Lunatic Hospital, 
Nottingham, and is now Medical Officer 
of Health for Beckenham, Kent. Dr. 
Carpenter is a frequent contributor to 
medical literature in this country and 
America. The following papers on various 
subjects are a few of the more impor- 
tant which have come from his pen : 
"Cases of Hereditary Ataxia," 1888; 
"Craniotabes in Young Children: a Re- 
cord of 100 Cases," 1889; "Tubercular 
Peritonitis," 1891 ; "Congenital Syphilis," 
" Impetigo Gangrenosa, with Tuberculosis 
of the Lungs," 1894 ; " Fibroid Disease of 
the Heart- in an Infant," "Double Optic 
Neuritis," "On the Value of Rectal 
Exploration as an Aid to Diagnosis in 
Children's Diseases," 1896; "On Infant 
Feeding," 1898. A separate work on 
"Congenital Affections of the Heart" 
appeared in 1894. Dr. Carpenter is also 
the author of the fifteenth edition of 
Chavasse's "Advice to a Mother," which, 
with but few and trifling exceptions, has 
been re-written by him. It is a work 
which has been translated into most of 
the European and Asiatic languages. Dr. 
Carpenter is also the editor of Pediatrics, 
the well-known medical journal. 

CARPENTER, The Right Rev. 
William Boyd, D.D., D.C.L., Bishop of 
Ripon, born March 26, 1841, was educated 
at St. Catherine's College, Cambridge 
(B.A. 1864, M.A. 1867). He is the son of 
the Rev. Henry Carpenter, Incumbent of 
St. Michael's, Liverpool, and of Hester, 
daughter of Archibald Boyd, Londonderry, 
Ireland. After holding various curacies 
he was, in 1870, appointed Vicar of St. 
James's, Holloway, where he remained 
until, in 1879, he became Vicar of Christ 
Church, Lancaster Gate, W. He was 
Select Preacher at Cambridge in 1875 and 
1877; Hulsean Lecturer at Cambridge, 
1878 ; Honorary Chaplain to the Queen, 
1878 ; Select Preacher at Oxford in 1882; 
Bampton Lecturer, 1887 ; and received 
from the University of Oxford an honorary 

D.C.L. in 1889. In 1882 he was appointed 
to a vacant canonry at Windsor. On the 
death of the late Dr. Bickersteth he was, 
in 1884, consecrated Bishop of Ripon. He 
presided over the Church Congress held 
at Wakefield in 1886, and at Bradford in 
1898 ; and in 1887 he was selected by the 
House of Commons to preach the Jubilee 
Sermon at St. Margaret's, Westminster. 
He is the author of "Thoughts on Prayer," 
1871; "Narcissus"; "Heart Healing"; 
"The Witness of the Heart to Christ" 
(Hulsean Lectures), 1879; and a Com- 
mentary on Revelation in the same year ; 
" Truth in Tale," " Permanent Elements of 
Religion" (Bampton Lectures), 1889; "Lec- 
tures on Preaching," "Christian Reunion," 
and the "Great Character of Christ," 
1895, &c. Addresses : The Palace, Ripon ; 
71 Carlisle Place, S.W. ; and Athenaeum. 

CARR, Joseph William Comyns, 

was born in 1849. In 1870 he matricu- 
lated at the London University, and after- 
wards passed in the honours division of 
the first examination for the degree of 
Bachelor of Laws. He became a student 
of the Inner Temple in 1869, and was 
called to the Bar in 1872, having gained a 
studentship in Roman and International 
Law at the Inns of Court. Mr. Comyns 
Carr then joined the Northern Circuit, but 
shortly afterwards ceased to practise at 
the Bar, and devoted himself to literature 
and journalism. From 1870 to 1880 he 
was a constant contributor to the principal 
literary reviews and magazines. Writing 
especially upon subjects connected with 
art, he held for some years the post of art 
critic on the Pall Mall Gazette, and in 
1875 he accepted the English editorship of 
L'Art He was also associated with Sir 
Coutts-Lindsay in the establishment of 
the Grosvenor Gallery, and was one of 
the directors of that institution. His 
works on art include "Drawings by the 
Old Masters," 1877; "The Abbey Church 
of St. Albans," 1878 ; "Examples of Con- 
temporary Art," 1S78; "Essays on Art," 
" Art in Provincial France," 1883 ; and 
" Papers on Art," 1884. Mr. Carr has also 
written for the stage. In 1882 he pro- 
duced a dramatised version of Mr. Hardy's 
novel, "Far from the Madding Crowd"; 
and in 1884 he collaborated with the late 
Hugh Conway in the drama of "Called 
Back," founded upon the popular story of 
that name. " King Arthur," acted at the 
Lyceum in 1895, was from his pen. To- 
gether with Mr. Haddon Chambers, Mr. 
Comyns Carr wrote "In the Days of the 
Duke," acted at the Adelphi in 1897, and 
in 1898 he was one of the collaborators in 
the musical play, "The Beauty Stone," 
produced at the Savoy. Address : 18 
El don Road, Kensington. 



CARR GLYN. See Glyn, The Right 
Rev. Hon. Edward Care. 

CARRINGTON, Earl, The Bight 
Hon. Sir Charles Robert Wynn- 
Carrington, G.C.M.G., Joint Hereditary 
Lord Great Chamberlain of England, was 
born in 1843, and educated at Eton and 
Trinity College, Cambridge, where he took 
the degree of B.A. in 1863. Subsequently 
he entered the Royal Horse Guards, where 
he rose to the rank of Captain, and after- 
wards became Lieut.-Colonel of the 3rd 
Battalion of the Oxfordshire Light In- 
fantry. From 1865 to 1868 he was M.P. 
for Wycombe. He was Captain of the 
Corps of Gentlemen-at-Arms from 1881 to 
1885 ; Governor of New South Wales from 
1885 to 1890; Lord Chamberlain of the 
Queen's Household from 1892 to 1895 ; 
and is a member of the London County 
Council, in which he represents West St. 
Pancras as a Progressive. Lord Carrington 
was A.D.C. to the Prince of Wales on his 
visit to India in 1875-76, and has travelled 
in the United States and the Colonies. 
He was appointed Chairman of the Welsh 
Land Commission in 1893. In July 1895 
Lord Carrington was granted the dignities 
of a Viscount and an Earl by the names, 
styles, and titles of Viscount Wendover 
of Chepping Wycombe, in the county of 
Buckingham, and Earl Carrington. In 
politics he is a strong Liberal. In July 
1878 he married Cecilia, eldest daughter of 
Charles, 5th Lord Suffield. Addresses : 
Gwydyr Castle, Llaurwst, &c. ; and 50 
Grosvenor Street, W. 

CARRINGTON, Major-General Sir 
Frederick, K.C.M.G., K.C.B., is the son 
of Edmund Carrington, Esq., of Chelten- 
ham, where he was born on Aug. 23, 1844. 
He entered the army as Ensign in the 
24th Foot, now known as the South Wales 
Borderers, and was promoted Lieutenant 
in 1867 and Captain in 1878. In the 
expedition to Griqualand, West South 
Africa, of 1875 he organised and com- 
manded the Mounted Infantry. During 
the Kaffir War of 1877-81 he saw consider- 
able war service as commander of the 
Frontier Light Horse, which was after- 
wards called " Carrington's Horse." He 
was present at the battle of Quintana, and 
the subsequent operations in the Transkei 
and in the Peri Bush, being mentioned 
in despatches. During 1878-79, as Com- 
mandant of the Transvaal Volunteer Force, 
he had charge of the advance guard and 
the left attacking party at the storming 
and taking of the stronghold of Sekukuni, 
a rebellious Kaffir chief. He was men- 
tioned in despatches, and received the 
Brevet of Major and Lieutenant-Colonel, 
and also a C.M.G. In the Basutoland 

Campaign of 1880-81 Sir Frederick Car- 
rington commanded the Cape Mounted 
Rifles during the siege of Mafeteng by the 
Basutos, who were repulsed with great loss. 
Subsequently obtaining supreme command 
of the Colonial Forces in the further opera- 
tions he gained many victories over the 
rebels, on one occasion being severely 
wounded. He was promoted to Colonel 
in 1884, and in the Bechuanaland Expedi- 
tion of that year he commanded the 2nd 
Mounted Rifles. He was for several years 
employed on special service in South Africa 
and the Bechuanaland Border Police Force, 
and was promoted to Major-General in 1893 
in consideration of these services. During 
the operations in Zululand of 1888 he com- 
manded the native levies. In May 1895 Sir 
Frederick went to Gibraltar to take over the 
command of the Infantry Brigade. He mar- 
ried in 1897 Susan Margaret, eldest daugh- 
ter of Mr. and Mrs. Elmes, Colesbourne. 
Address : College Lawn, Cheltenham. 

CARRINGTON, Very Rev. Henry, 
M.A., Dean and Rector of Booking, was 
born in 1814, and was educated at Charter- 
house and Caius College, Cambridge, 
where he took his M.A. degree. He became 
Dean of Booking in 1845, an appointment 
which he still holds. He has translated 
Victor Hugo's poems, and has also pub- 
lished a metrical translation of Thomas a 
Kempis. In 1842 Mr. Carrington married a 
daughter of Captain Haseldine Lyell, R.N., 
and has two daughters, one of whom, Evelyn 
Lilian Haseldine, is now Contessa Mar- 
tinengo, and is the authoress of " Studies 
in Folk-lore," "Italian Characters," and 
"The Liberation of Italy." Address: 
Booking Deanery, Braintree, Essex. 

CARRTJTHERS, "William, F.R.S., 

F.L.S., was born at Moffat, Scotland, in 
1830, and educated at the Academy there, 
and afterwards at the University and 
New College, Edinburgh. He entered the 
British Museum as assistant in the de- 
partment of Botany in 1859, and succeeded 
Mr. J. J. Bennett as keeper of that depart- 
ment on his retirement in 1871. He has 
now retired. Mr. Carruthers has con- 
ducted many original investigations on 
living and fossil plants, and has published 
numerous memoirs on fossil botany in 
the journals and transactions of learned 
societies. He re-edited Lindley and Hut- 
ton's " Fossil Flora," and was afterwards 
engaged in preparing an account of the 
fossil plants of Britain, supplementary to 
that work. Address : 14 Vermont Road, 
Norwood, S.E. 

CARSON, The Right Hon. Edward 
Henry, Q.C., M.P., is the second son of 
the late Edward Henry Carson, C.E., of 



Dublin, and Isabella, daughter of Captain 
Lambert, of Castle Ellen, co. Galway. 
He was born in 1854, and educated at 
Portlushington School and Trinity College, 
Dublin, of which he is M.A. He went to 
the Irish Bar, and in time became Bencher 
of the King's Inns, Dublin, and in 1889 
Q.C. (Irish). At the time that Mr. Arthur 
Balfour held the Irish Secretaryship and 
spoke of the necessity of resolute govern- 
ment for twenty years to come, Mr. Carson 
was much in his counsels. In 1892 he 
was Solicitor-General for Ireland. In the 
same year he was returned to Parliament 
for that anti-Nationalist stronghold, Dub- 
lin University, and was re-elected in 1895. 
He has transferred the scene of his legal 
activity from Ireland to England, and in 
1894 became a Q.C, having been called to 
the English Bar in 1893. Here he has 
won a very high reputation as a cross- 
examiner, having figured in many famous 
trials. In Parliament he sits as a Conser- 
vative, but in 1898 criticised Mr. Gerald 
Balfour's Irish Local Bill with great can- 
dour. He was sworn of the Irish Privy 
Council in 1896. Address: 39 Kutland 
Gate, S.W. 

CARTER, Sir Gilbert Thomas, 

K.C.M.G., Governor of the Bahamas since 
1897, was born in 1868, and educated at the 
Royal Naval School, Greenwich, whence 
he entered the Royal Navy in 1864. He 
was appointed Administrator of the Gambia 
Settlement in 1888, and from 1891 to 1897 
he was Governor of Lagos. In 1893, he 
was created a K.C.M.G. Address: Govern- 
ment House, Nassau, Bahamas. 

CARTER, Robert Brudenell, son 

of Thomas Carter, Major, Royal Marines, 
by his second wife Louisa, daughter of 
Richard Jeffreys of Basingstoke, in the 
countv of Hants, Esq., was born on Oct. 
2, 1828, at Little Wittenham, Berks, of 
which parish his grandfather, the Rev. 
Henry Carter, a younger brother of Eliza- 
beth Carter, the translator of "Epictetus," 
and famous letter-writer, was Rector for 
more than fifty years. Educated at pri- 
vate schools and at the London Hospital, 
Mr. Carter became a Member of the Royal 
College of Surgeons of England in 1851, 
and a Licentiate of the Society of Apo- 
thecaries in 1852. He served during the 
Crimean War with the local rank of Staff- 
Surgeon, obtaining the English and Turkish 
Crimean medals. In 1864 he became a 
Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons, 
and in 1868 settled in London to practise 
as an ophthalmic specialist. He was 
appointed Surgeon to the Royal South 
London Ophthalmic Hospital in 1869, 
Ophthalmic Surgeon to St. George's Hos- 
pital in 1870 (and retired as Consulting 

Ophthalmic Surgeon in 1893), Ophthalmic 
Surgeon to the National Hospital for the 
Paralysed and Epileptic, Consulting Sur- 
geon to the Shropshire Eye, Ear, and 
Throat Hospital, and to the Ophthalmic 
Hospital of the Order of St. John at Jeru- 
salem. He is a Member (representing the 
Society of Apothecaries) of the General 
Medical Council ; has been Orator, Lett- 
somian Lecturer, and President of the 
Medical Society of London ; Hunterian 
Professor of Pathology and Surgery to the 
Royal College of Surgeons ; a Vice-Presi- 
dent of the Clinical Society ; and, besides 
membership of the other medical societies 
of London, is a Corresponding Member of 
the Medico-Chirurgical Society of Edin- 
burgh, and a Foreign Associate of the 
French Society of Hygiene. He is a 
Knight of Grace of the Order of the 
Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in Eng- 
land. He has written a large number of 
books and essays on medical, ophthal- 
mological, and educational subjects, the 
principal being: "The Pathology and 
Treatment of Hysteria," 1853; "The In- 
fluence of Education and Training in pre- 
venting Diseases of the Nervous System," 
1855 ; " On the Artificial Production of 
Stupidity in Schools," 1857 ; "A Practical 
Treatise on Diseases of the Eye," 1875 ; 
"Eyesight, Good and Bad," 1879; "Lec- 
tures on Cataract," 1884 ; the articles on 
Diseases of the Eye in Quain's " Diction- 
ary of Medicine," and in Heath's "Dic- 
tionary of Surgery"; and the article on 
Medical Ophthalmology in Allbutt's " Sys- 
tem of Medicine." Addresses : 31 Harley 
Street, W. ; "Kenilworth," Clapham Com- 
mon, S.W. ; and Athenaeum. 

CART WRIGHT, The Right Hon. 
Sir Richard John, K.C.M.G., Canadian 
statesman, was born at Kingston, Dec. 4, 
1835. He was educated at his native city 
and at Trinity College, Dublin, and entered 
the Canadian Parliament as a Conservative 
in 1863, but in 1870 left that party, and 
has since been one of the Liberal leaders 
of the Dominion. In 1873 he was made 
Minister of Finance in the Mackenzie 
Government, an office he retained until 
the general defeat of the Liberals in 1878. 
In July 1896 he became Minister of Trade 
and Commerce in Sir Wilfred Laurier's 
Government, and during Mr. Laurier's 
absence from Canada in 1897, he was tem- 
porary leader of the Government in the 
House of Commons. He is now Member 
for Central Huron. In 1879 he was created 
a Knight Commander of the Order of St. 
Michael and St. George and G.C.M.G. in 
1897. In 1859 he married Frances, daughter 
of Colonel Alexander Law, of the East 
India Company's Service. Address : King- 
ston, Canada, &c. 



CARYSFORT, Earl of, William 
Proby, K.P., J.P., born at Glenart Castle, 
co. Wioklow, in 1836, succeeded his brother 
as 5th Earl in 1872. He was educated 
at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge 
(M.A.), and is Lord- Lieutenant of the 
county of Wicklow. He is the possessor 
of some celebrated pictures by Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, Hobbema, Gerard Dow, Franz 
Hals, Landseer, Roruney, &c., most of 
which are kept at Elton Hall, Peter- 
borough ; also of an extensive library con- 
taining several Caxton Bibles and a Prayer- 
book of Henry VIII. He was married in 
I860 to Charlotte, eldest daughter of the 
Rev. Boothby Heathcote, of Friday Hill, 
Chingford, Essex. Addresses : 10 Hereford 
Gardens, Park Lane, W. ; and Elton Hall, 

CASATI, Gaetano, is the son of a 
doctor at Monza, where he was born in 
1838. He studied at Monza, Milan, and 
Pavia, devoting himself more especially 
to mathematics. When one-and-twenty, 
inspired by the youthful ardour of those 
days for the independence of Italy, he 
became a soldier in Piedmont, joining 
the corps of Bersagliere. He obtained 
advancement, and in 1867 was elevated 
to the rank of captain. But service in the 
army did not offer him sufficient scope for 
his energy. He set his mind on becoming 
an African explorer, and to this end gave 
in his resignation in 1879. Regarded as a 
man of great promise and capacity, he 
was commissioned by the Societa d'Es- 
plorazione Commerciale d' Africa to pro- 
ceed to that country at their expense, and 
he sailed from Genoa on Dec. 24, 1870. 
He went by way of Suakim and Berber to 
Khartoum, where he arrived about the 
middle of May 1880, his immediate object 
being to reach the Bahr-el-Ghazel, and 
there see his fellow-countryman, Gessi 
Pacha, then governor of that particular 
Tegion. In this he succeeded, and the 
meeting of the two was of a touching 
character. Gessi soon afterwards nursed 
Casati through a dangerous fever, paying 
him the most devoted attention, and re- 
fusing to leave him until he was thoroughly 
restored to health. Then, however, Gessi 
moved on to Khartoum, intending to return 
to Europe, though he got no farther than 
Suez, where he died. After Gessi's depar- 
ture -Casati had another severe attack of 
fever, this time of prolonged duration, but 
lie was able, on Oct. 14, 1880, to proceed 
to Rumbeck. After this nothing was heard 
about him by his friends until a letter 
reached them from Tangasi, dated Dec. 
29, 1881, stating that he had been kept 
a prisoner by a certain chief, Azanga by 
name, and had only succeeded in making 
his escape on the 7th of that month. 

Getting on the march again in 1881, Casati 
made his way to the Niam-Niam territory, 
which lies immediately to the west of 
what was once Emin Pacha's province, 
and has since been visited and described 
by George Schweinfurth. In a letter dated 
April 13, 1883, Casati describes his cordial 
reception by Emin Pacha at Lado, where 
he saw also Junker, the Russian explorer. 
Emin Pacha, .he says, treated him with 
"rare liberality and generosity." At that 
time, however, the Mahdi was assuming 
a very threatening attitude, and thus the 
three Europeans found themselves " united 
but shut in " in this extreme corner of the 
Egyptian possessions. Two expeditions 
were organised to effect their rescue, one 
conducted by Dr. Fischer, which got as 
far as the east of Victoria Nyanza, and 
then had to return for want of the requi- 
site goods for barter ; and the other led 
by Dr. Lenz, who proceeded by way of 
the Congo, but also was obliged to abandon 
his attempt, leaving, as we all know, the 
real honours of the rescue to be obtained 
by Stanley. At the request of Emin 
Pacha he went to live as "resident" in 
the territory of King Kabba Rega, son of 
M'tesa, of Unyoro. In this capacity part 
of his duty was to play the rfjle of Emin's 
postmaster. Emin forwarded to him all 
his correspondence for Europe, and he 
had to devise the means as best he could 
by which it was to be sent to the coast. 
At first Casati was well treated by the 
king ; but, after the lapse of about twenty 
months, Kabba Rega changed his humour, 
and condemned him to death, together 
with an Arab merchant named Biri, who, 
Casati heard, was actually killed. Casati, 
however, though at first tied with cords 
round his neck, arms, and legs, managed 
to escape with some of his men. Chased 
from place to place, he got over sufficient 
ground during the night to reach at last 
the Albert Nyanza, where lay his sole hope 
of safety, though even then he ran the 
risk of being caught by a certain chief in 
that region who, as he heard, had received 
orders from the king to capture and 
murder him. Happily they found a boat, 
in which one of the men went off to tell 
Emin Pacha what had happened. Two 
days afterwards Emin Pacha arrived in 
his steamer, and rescued Casati from his 
perilous situation. It was high time. For 
three days Casati had not had a morsel of 
food to eat. "I am now in safety, it is 
true," wrote he from the Albert Nyanza 
on March 25, 1888, "but I am oppressed 
with grief at the loss of all my notes. The 
work of so many years has vanished like 
smoke I " But Casati had previously sent 
home sufficient information to show that 
he had already done valuable service to 
the cause of African exploration. 



CASHEL, Bishop of. See Day, The 
Right Rev. Maurice Fitzgerald. 

Pierre, ex-President of the French Re- 
public, is the son and grandson of states- 
men, his father, Auguste Casimir-Perier, 
the diplomatist, having been Minister of 
the Interior in 1871, whilst his grand- 
father was leader of the Opposition on the 
accession of Louis-Philippe, and after- 
wards Premier. The ex-President was 
born on Nov. 8, 1847. After a brilliant 
career as a student of literature and his- 
tory he received the University degree of 
licencii is lettres, and in the Franco-Prussian 
War joined the Mobiles of the Aube who 
were summoned to Paris, where during 
the siege he behaved with such gallantry 
as to be mentioned in an Order of the 
Day, and afterwards to receive the decora- 
tion of the Legion of Honour. When his 
father joined the first Republican Cabinet of 
M. Thiers, he became chef du cabinet under 
him at the Ministry of the Interior. In 
order to open to him a political career his 
father resigned his position as Councillor- 
General of the Aube in April 1874, and 
introduced him to the electors of Nogent- 
sur-Seine, under the sanction of the 
Perier political tradition. He was elected 
Deputy without opposition on July 18. 
The same year he conducted a brisk 
electoral campaign in his department in 
support of the Republican candidature of 
General Saussier. At the general elec- 
tions of February 1878, he was elected 
unopposed for Nogent-sur-Seine. His 
profession of faith was resolutely Re- 
publican, and he joined the Left Centre 
and the Republican Left in the Chamber 
of Deputies, voting constantly with the 
majority supported by these groups. 
After the crisis of May 1877, he was one 
of the 363 deputies who refused to pass 
a vote of confidence in the Broglie 
Ministry. At the succeeding elections 
he was returned by a large majority over 
the Bonapartist candidate, M. Walkenaer, 
and when in December a purely Repub- 
lican Cabinet was formed he was appointed, 
under M. Bordoux, Under-Secretary of 
State at the Ministry of Public Instruc- 
tion. He retained this post until the 
Cabinet Dufaure went out of office in 
January 1879. Three months later he 
abandoned the Left Centre for the Re- 
publican Left. Re-elected for Nogent- 
sur-Seine in August 1881, he joined the 
Union Re"publicaine. In February 1883, 
he retired from the Chamber on the law 
being passed to exclude members of 
French royal families from public em- 
ployments. In this he followed family 
tradition, and is in consequence still re- 
garded as Orleanist in tendency. In the 

following March he consented to re-enter 
Parliament, and on Oct. 17, 1883, was 
appointed Under-Secretary of State at the 
Ministry of War, and remained there till 
his superior Minister, General Campenan, 
retired in January 1885. In the October 
elections of the same year he was returned 
by a large majority for the Aube. In 
September 1889 he was again elected 
for Nogent-sur-Seine. In each successive 
Parliament M. Casimir-Perier has enjoyed 
great personal influence among the Re- 
publican majority. In 1890 he was elected 
Vice-President of the Chamber and Presi- 
dent of the Budget Committee. In the 
summer of 1894 he was elected President 
of the French Republic, immediately after 
the assassination of the late President 
Carnot. His political tradition was not 
so purely revolutionary as that of the 
Carnots, but his election took place at a 
crisis in the affairs of France when an 
essentially strong and courageous man 
was needed at the head of the State. 
But in Casimir-Perier the French Cham- 
bers, and, indeed, the French people 
thought they had at last found a " strong 
man " who would defend them against the 
combined assaults of predatory radicalism 
and of a form of revolutionary socialism 
inimical to all social order. It is not too 
much to say that the election of M. Casi- 
mir-Perier was hailed by all Europe as 
an indication of the determination of the 
French nation to combat the destructive 
agencies which threatened the national 
security. Hence, Casimir-Perier became 
the mark of the motley crowd of maligners 
who were the recognised apostles of social 
disorder. The President was traduced and 
openly insulted in every possible manner, 
and so persistent did these disgraceful 
tactics become that the Government at last 
took action, and prosecuted M. Girault- 
Richard, a writer of small repute, who had 
published libels on Casimir-Perier, which 
were described as nothing less than "atro- 
cious." Girault-Richard was sentenced to 
six months' imprisonment; and one of the 
advanced Radical arrondissements of Paris, 
thinking the affair an excellent opportunity 
for placing on record their absolute indiffer- 
ence to the critical issues at stake, elected 
the scribe as a Deputy, and the Socialists, 
carrying the campaign on to a further 
point, demanded that Girault-Richard 
should be "given to the Chamber" — that 
is, released. Although the release by 
Napoleon III. of M. Rochefort, while under 
sentence for a political offence, provided 
a precedent for this proposed action, the 
Government determinedly refused the So- 
cialist demand, and after a debate, which 
was not so violent as was anticipated, the 
Chamber supported the Government by 
309 votes to 219. Naturally, immense in- 



terest was taken in this vote, especially 
as it was whispered that the President 
would consider an adverse vote as per- 
sonal to himself. Meanwhile, however, 
serious differences began to arise between 
M. Casimir - Perier and his supporters. 
Mention has already been made of the 
fact that his election to the Presidency 
was hailed by France, and by Moderate 
Europe as well, as a supreme triumph 
of Moderate ideas. Considerable dissatis- 
faction was aroused, therefore, when the 
notion gained currency that the President 
was not always inclined to present so bold 
a front to the advances of the Radicals as 
had been expected. This feeling came to 
a head on the election of a President of 
the Chamber. The Radical leader himself, 
M. Brisson, ran for the chair, and it was 
felt that his defeat could be assured only 
by the counter-nomination of a Minister. 
But Casimir-Perier would not allow the 
nomination to be made. He was willing 
to stand against M. Brisson for the chief 
place in the State, but he would not permit 
one of his Ministers to stand against him 
for the chief place in the Chamber. Con- 
sequently the election of M. Brisson re- 
sulted. During the week following, the 
Government were defeated on a resolution 
which they had refused to endorse, and 
M. Dupuy and his colleagues, justly re- 
garding this as a vote of " No confidence," 
immediately left the Chamber, and ten- 
dered their resignations. To the astonish- 
ment of the Ministry, and, indeed, of the 
whole nation, the President did not accept 
the resignations, but informed the Premier 
that he must retain power for a time, since 
he (Casimir-Perier) had determined to re- 
sign the Presidential Chair. M. Dupuy, 
suddenly confronted with a crisis of the 
utmost gravity, protested against the 
President's step, but all' to no purpose. 
M. Casimir-Perier persisted in his inten- 
tion ; and in a few hours his formal letter 
of resignation was read in both Chambers. 
In this document, which was received in 
the Chamber with comparative silence, but 
in the Senate with jeering interruptions, 
the Prpsident said that "the attempt to 
mislead public opinion has succeeded " ; 
that his twenty years of public life had 
not convinced Republicans of the sincerity 
and ardour of his political faith ; that for 
six months a campaign of insult had been 
waged against him, as well as against 
Parliament and the Magistracy ; that he 
could not acknowledge it to be his duty 
to bear such insult, and that he conse- 
quently laid down his functions. "Per- 
haps in doing so I shall have marked out 
the path of duty to those who are soli- 
citous for the dignity of power and the 
good name of France in the world." It is 
difficult to decide how far Casimir-Perier 

was justified in suddenly leaving the helm 
of State. At the time, the best informed 
English opinion averred that the action 
was condemned by all Europe. However, 
there was but one course for the French 
Parliament to adopt, and his resignation 
was accepted. During the Zola trial of 
1898, it became known that the real reason 
for his resignation was the fact that his 
Cabinet concealed material facts of their 
policy from him, so that he nearly found 
himself in a serious quarrel with Ger- 
many, owing to his ignorance of the 
Dreyfus scandal. It was even said that 
private documents on the Dreyfus affair 
from the German Ambassador in Paris to 
his Emperor had been abstracted and 
photographed en route. In order to disso- 
ciate himself from such acts, and prevent an 
immediate declaration of war, M. Casimir- 
Perier retired from the Presidency and 
from political life. Addresses : 23 Rue 
Nitot, Paris; and Chateau de Pout-sur- 
Seine, Aube. 

CASSAGNAC, Granier de. See 
Granier de Cassagnac, Paul de. 

CASTELAR, Emilio, for long a 
Spanish statesman, and one of the most 
eloquent orators of the age, was born at 
Cadiz on Sept. 8, 1832. His father was a 
mercantile man and a strong Liberal, but 
died when his sou was only seven. Emilio 
was brought up at Elda, a* village not very 
farfrom the famous Elche, sometimes called 
Elche of the Palms. From Elche he was 
sent to Alicante with the object of further 
pursuing his studies in that provincial 
capital. He remained at Alicante till he 
was sixteen years of age, a studious lad, 
evincing little, if any, inclination for the 
customary recreations of his fellow-stu- 
dents. However, he is said to have been 
at this time passionately attached to the 
study of history, with a sustained enthu- 
siasm for the classics, and evidencing early 
and brilliant promise of literary power and 
of a high and poetic imagination. In 
October 1848 he migrated to Madrid, the 
city destined to be the scene of his greatest 
achievements. For six years he worked 
steadily on, attracting considerable atten- 
tion by reason of his contributions to 
newspapers and reviews. Suddenly, in 
September 1854, he electrified Madrid and 
the country by a speech at a great electoral 
meeting in the capital. A vast concourse, 
tired and listless owing to much platform 
declamation, was unexpectedly thrilled in 
a few minutes by young Castelar's oration, 
and, in an hour, the hardly known youth- 
ful democrat had become a celebrity. 
Hundreds of thousands of copies of his 
address were scattered throughout the 
country, and the Liberal papers, conscious 



of the advent of a new champion, did their 
utmost to obtain his co-operation. A few 
weeks later, he further increased his 
widening reputation by several speeches 
made in the defence of various journals 
which had been prosecuted for political 
articles. The ideas which he preached in 
these early days have crystallised into a 
philosophy of life, for, in his political 
ideals, Castelar has scarcely changed. 
These theories of the State and its func- 
tions gained for him a notoriety almost 
unexampled in one so young, nevertheless 
carrying with it recognition and encourage- 
ment in high quarters. He was appointed 
Professor of History and Philosophy in the 
University of Madrid ; but, unlike many 
similarly favoured, this position did not 
shut his mouth, and in 1866 he took a 
prominent part in the revolutionary move- 
ment which was finally crushed by Serrano. 
On this occasion he was condemned to 
death, but he made good his escape, and 
sought refuge first at Geneva and after- 
wards in France. When the revolution 
broke out in September 1868, he returned 
to his native country, and was one of the 
most energetic leaders of the Republican 
movement. He exerted himself to the 
utmost in order to bring about the estab- 
lishment of a Republic, but at the general 
election for the Constituent Cortes in 
February 1869, the Republicans succeeded 
in returning only a small proportion of 
their candidates, among whom, however, 
was Senor Castelar. In the discussions 
respecting the new constitution of Spain, 
Senor Castelar advocated, but unsuccess- 
fully, the principle of Republican institu- 
tions. In June 1869 he vigorously op- 
posed the project of a regency, and he 
was also concerned in the Republican in- 
surrections which occurred in October of 
that year. In the government chosen by 
the Cortes after the abdication of King 
Amadeo, Senor Castelar was Minister of 
Foreign Affairs. On Aug. 24, 1873, he 
was elected President of the Cortes by 135 
votes against 73, but he vacated that post 
on September 6, when he was nominated 
President of the Executive Power. His 
first measure was the prorogation of the 
Cortes and the assumption of dictatorial 
power. He next took energetic, but in- 
effectual, measures to suppress the Carlist 
insurrection, and despatched the Minister 
of War in person to Cuba to protect 
Spanish interests in that island. When, 
however, the Cortes re-assembled on Jan. 
2, 1874, it refused by 120 votes against 
100, to pass a vote of confidence in Presi- 
dent Castelar, who resigned. Thereupon 
General Pavia, as Captain-General of 
Madrid, forcibly dissolved the Cortes, and 
appointed a provisional government, with 
Marshal Serrano at its head. Soon after 

the pronunciamiento in favour of Alfonso 
XII., Senor Castelar quitted Madrid and 
proceeded to Geneva, January 1875. While 
in that city, being disgusted at the 
educational decree promulgated by the 
Spanish Government, he resigned the 
Chair of History in the University of 
Madrid, March 6, 1875. Subsequently he 
returned to Spain, and succeeded, though 
not without considerable difficulty, in ob- 
taining a seat in the Cortes as Deputy for 
Madrid, at the elections of January 1876. 
Since that time he has spoken frequently, 
and always with effect ; but he has been a 
politician without a party, too advanced 
for Sagasta and too moderate for the 
Zorrillists. Senor Castelar has never form- 
ally renounced his Republican convictions, 
but he came to recognise that the existing 
monarchical regime had realised, except in 
so far as concerned the form of govern- 
ment, every article of his old programme, 
bestowing on the country order and peace, 
and no small share of material prosperity. 
Accordingly, in 1893, he retired from 
public life, and advised his adherents to 
join the Liberal party, although he him- 
self was not prepared to do so. His many 
friends naturally concluded that his 
brilliant career had closed, but in May 
1898, during the war with America, 
Castelar wrote an article in a French 
magazine reproaching the Queen-Regent 
with unjustifiably interfering in political 
affairs, drawing a parallel between the 
then position of her Majesty and that of 
Marie Antoinette on the eve of the French 
Revolution. The article in question raised 
a storm of indignation in Spanish political 
circles, but scarcely outside, since the 
Queen-Regent, at the time, was becoming 
very unpopular with the people. One of 
the more chivalrous Republican journals 
said that it was not for the Queen-Regent, 
wounded as woman, mother, and queen, 
that men with human feelings felt most 
pity ; nor was it for Spain, in the hour of 
supreme danger, to receive from him who 
was once her favourite son no better 
assistance than those miserable sugges- 
tions in the article referred to ; it was for 
Don Emilio Castelar, who might be one of 
the greatest figures of this century, and 
who seemed obstinately resolved to pre- 
vent his glory from surviving him. Some 
biting references to Senor Castelar were 
made in the Contemporary Review for June 
1898, in an article by Dr. E. J. Dillon 
on "The Ruin of Spain." Sefior Castelar 
has been a voluminous writer, and the 
following are included amongst his col- 
lected works : " Lucan : his Life, his 
Genius, his Poems " ; " A History of Civili- 
sation during the First Five Centuries 
of Christianity " ; " Portraits of Euro- 
pean Celebrities (Semblanzas) " ; "Sou- 



venirs of Italy"; "History of the Re- 
publican Movement in Europe " ; " The 
Eeligious Revolution " ; " Historical Studies 
in the Middle Ages " ; " The History of a 
Heart" ; " Historical Gallery of Celebrated 
Women"; "The Formula of Progress"; 
"Political and Social Questions"; "The 
Ransom of the Slave"; "Letters on 
European Politics"; "Tragedies of His- 
tory"; "Contemporary Russia," 1881; 
"The Life of Lord Byron," and numberless 
articles, essays, and contributions to con- 
temporary literary, philosophical, political, 
and historical thought. It is being freely 
whispered among public men in Spain that 
Senor Castelar is beginning to feel some 
slight mental strain after so many years 
of toil. His friends — and they are to be 
found in all grades and places — thus seek 
to account for the revolutionary character 
of his latest writings during the Hispano- 
American War. 

CASTLETOWN, Lord, Bernard 
Edward Barnaby FitzPatrick, 2nd 
Baron Castletown, of Upper Ossory, was 
born in London on July 29, 1849, and 
educated at Eton and Brasenose College, 
Oxford, graduating, after obtaining a place 
in Class II. of the Law and Modern History 
School (B.A.) He went through the Franco- 
Prussian campaign as assistant under the 
Red Cross Society, and was present in Paris 
during the earlier days of the Commune. 
From 1871 to 1875 he served in the 1st 
Life Guards, and was with the Household 
Cavalry in the Egyptian -Campaign of 
1882, gaining the medal and clasp after 
Tel-el-Kebir. He has travelled extensively 
in Lapland, the little-known parts of Asia 
Minor, the Rocky Mountains, and British 
North America. He sat in Parliament 
for three years as Conservative member 
for Portarlington (1880-83), and took a 
prominent part in the discussion of Irish 
questions. Since his accession to the 
House of Lords his political attitude has 
always been that of a "Moderate." In 
1885 he was appointed Chairman of the 
Barrow Drainage Royal Commission, and 
he is a D.L. and J.P. for Queen's County, 
Ireland. He married in 1875 Ursula, only 
child of Viscount Doneraile. Address : 
Doneraile Court, Doneraile, Ireland, &c. 

CATES, Arthur, F.RI.B.A, F.S.I., &c, 
architect, born in London, April 29, 1829, 
was educated at King's College School, 
and became a pupil of Sydney Smirke, 
R.A. In 1870 he succeeded Sir James 
Pennethorne as Architect to the Land 
Revenues of the Crown in London, 
under the Commissioners of her Majesty's 
Woods and Forests. He succeeded Sydney 
Smirke, R.A., as Surveyor to the Honour- 

able Society of the Inner Temple, and on 
retiring from practice at the end of 1897 
resigned these and other appointments. 
For some years he was Hon. Secretary to, 
and is now a Vice-President of, the Society 
of Biblical Archaeology. He was Hon. 
Secretary to the Architectural Publi- 
cation Society, and brought "The Dic- 
tionary of Architecture " to a successful 
termination. He has been (1887-91) a 
Vice-President of the Royal Institute of 
British Architects, and is Chairman of 
" The Tribunal of Appeal " constituted 
under the London Building Act, 1894. 

CAUSTON, Richard Knight, M.P., 
son of the late Sir J. Causton, was born in 
1843. He represented Colchester in the 
House of Commons from 1880 to 1885, 
and since 1895 has been Liberal member 
for West Southwark. He was Master of 
the Skinners' Company during the year 
1877-78, and during the last administra- 
tion was a Junior Lord of the Treasury from 
1892 to 1895. He is Director of the firm 
of Sir Joseph Causton & Sons, Limited, a 
Commissioner of Lieutenancy for London, 
Chairman of the London Liberal and 
Radical Union, and a member of the 
Executive Committee of the London 
Chamber of Commerce. He was married 
in 1871 to Selina Mary, eldest daughter of 
the late Sir T. Chambers. Address : 12 
Devonshire Place, W. 

CAVAIGNAC, Jacques Marie 
Eugene Godefroy, French Minister of 
War, was born May 22, 1853, and is the 
son of General Eugene Cavaignac, who 
was the Chief of the State in 1848, and 
the principal rival of Louis Napoleon for 
the Presidency. The family, like that 
of the Carnots and Casimir-Periers, is a 
famous one in the history of French 
Republicanism, for the first well-known 
Cavaignac was a Member of the Conven- 
tion, and voted for the death of Louis XVI. 
The subject of our biography was a dis- 
tinguished scholar at the Lycee Louis le 
Grand, and in 1867 had taken many prizes. 
The Prince Imperial, then twelve years 
old, was to distribute them, but young 
Cavaignac refused to accept his from the 
hands of the son of his father's successful 
rival, who had basely betrayed the Re- 
public. During the Franco- Prussian War 
he volunteered, and gained the Military 
Medal for his bravery at Avron. In 1872 
he entered the Ecole Polytechnique, and 
obtained a post as engineer at Angouleme. 
He returned to Paris to study law, and in 
1881 obtained a post in the Conseil d'Etat. 
He was elected to the Chamber in 1882 
for Saint-Calais, and sat with the Repub- 
licans. In 1885 he became Under-Secre- 
tary of War under GeneralCampenon in 



the Brisson Cabinet, and in 1891 he was 
Minister of Marine. During the Panama 
scandals in 1890 he proposed a famous 
resolution for the cleansing of political 
life. At the fall of the Maine Cabinet in 
June 1898 he was chosen by M. Brisson 
for the Ministry of War, and he incurred 
some blame by continuing General Billot's 
(q.v.) policy with regard to the Dreyfus 
affair. He made a speech in the Chamber 
in which he declared his belief in Dreyfus' 
guilt, and it was posted up throughout 
France. However, on examining the 
dossier he discovered a forged document 
by Colonel Henry, which led to that 
officer's suicide. On M. Brisson declaring 
a new trial necessary, he declared his con- 
tinued belief in the justice of the original 
sentence, and sooner than give way he 
resigned in the early days of September 
1898. He is looked upon as one of those 
who may one day be called to the Presi- 
dency, unless he suffer his father's fate. 

CAVAN, Earl of, The Right Hon. 
Frederick Edward Gould Lambart, 
K.P., J.P., was born in 1839, and succeeded 
his father as 9th Earl in 1887. He was 
educated at Harrow, and entering the 
navy, he was present as a Lieutenant at 
the siege of Sebastopol in 1854, and at the 
bombardment of Canton in 1856. He sat 
in the House of Commons as member for 
the East Division of Somerset from 1885 
to 1892, and held office as Vice-Chamber- 
lain in 1886. He is the author of " With 
Yacht, Camera, and Cycle in the Medi- 
terranean " ; " With Yacht and Camera in 
Eastern Waters." Lord Cavan is the 
owner of the yacht Roseneath, some of 
whose cruises have been published ; and is 
the President of the Lawn Tennis Associa- 
tion of England, Scotland, Ireland, and 
Wales. He was married in 1863 to Mary, 
daughter of the Bev. John Olive, Hector 
of Ayot St. Lawrence, Herts. Address : 
Wheathampstead House, Wheathampstead. 

CAVENDISH. See Jones, Henry. 

CECIL, Lord Eustace Brownlow 
Henry, second surviving son of the 2nd 
Marquis of Salisbury, by his first wife, was 
born in London in 1834, and educated at 
Harrow and Sandhurst. He entered the 
army in 1851, served in the Crimea, and 
retired as Captain and Lieutenant-Colonel, 
Coldstream Guards, in 1863. He repre- 
sented South Essex in the House of Com- 
mons, in the Conservative interest, from 
July 1865 to December 1868, and West 
Essex from 1868 until 1885. In February 
1875 he was appointed Surveyor-General 
of Ordnance, which post he retained until 
the resignation of his party in 1880. Lord 
Eustace Cecil is the author of " Impres- 

sions of Life at Home and Abroad," 1865. 
He is a magistrate for Middlesex, Essex, 
and Dorset, and a county alderman of 
Dorset. Addresses : 111 Eaton Square, 
S.W. ; and Lytchett Heath, Poole. 


Graham John. 

See Bower, Sir 

CESNOLA, Count, Luigi Palma di, 
LL.D., archaeologist, was born at Rivarolo, 
near Turin, Italy, June 29, 1832. He re- 
ceived a collegiate education, after which 
he was placed in a seminary with a view 
to his entering the priesthood. Preferring, 
however, a more active life, he left the 
seminary to enter the Sardinian army on 
the outbreak of the war with Austria in 
1848. In February 1849 he was promoted 
to a Lieutenancy on the battle-field for 
bravery. On the close of the war, he was 
ordered to the Royal Military Academy at 
Cherasco (near Turin), from which he 
graduated in 1851. After remaining in 
the army several years, he went to New 
York in 1860, and in 1861 was made a 
Lieutenant-Colonel in the Volunteer ser- 
vice of the U. S. army, and subsequently 
Colonel of the 4th New York Cavalry, and 
served throughout the war, commanding a 
brigade of cavalry much of the time. At 
Aldie, Va., June 17, 1863, he was presented 
by General Kilpatrick with his own sword 
for heroic conduct on the battle-field, and 
at the next charge he was severely 
wounded, made a prisoner of war, and 
was confined in Libby Prison for over nine 
months. At the close of the Civil War he 
was appointed American Consul at Cyprus, 
where he remained until the Consulate 
was abolished (1865-77). It was while he 
occupied that position that he made the 
discovery of antiquities with which his 
name is now associated. He has been 
made an honorary member of many scien- 
tific and literary societies, both in Europe 
and in America, and the kings of Italy and 
Bavaria have bestowed knightly orders 
upon him. Both Columbia and Prince- 
ton Colleges conferred on him the degree 
of LL.D. In 1873 the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art in New York secured by 
purchase the Cypriote antiquities col- 
lected up to that date, and Cesnola was 
granted an extended leave of absence to 
visit New York and arrange and classify 
them. Returning to Cyprus in 1873, he 
made further discoveries and collections, 
which also were secured to the Metro- 1 
politan Museum. In 1877 he settled per- 
manently in New York. In 1878 he was 
made a Trustee of the Museum, and Sec- 
retary of the Board of Trustees. In 1879, 
when the museum was removed to Central 
Park, he was appointed Director of it. 
Since that day his time has been chiefly 



devoted to promoting the growth of the 
Museum, which is to-day one of the leading 
Museums of the world. He published a 
narrative of the discoveries and excava- 
tions in 1878 under the title of "Cyprus: 
its Ancient Cities, Tombs, and Temples" ; 
and in 1882 a description of the " Metro- 
politan Museum of Art." In 18'JO he issued 
the second volume of the "Atlas of the 
Cesnola Collection," under the auspices of 
the Museum. 

CHADWICK, Bight Rev. George 
Alexander, D.D., Bishop of Derry and 
Raphoe, was born in 1840. He was edu- 
cated at Trinity College, Dublin, and was 
ordained in 1863, becoming Rector of 
Armagh in 1872, and holding that prefer- 
ment until 1896. He was Dean of Armagh 
from 1886 to 1896, and in the latter year 
was consecrated Bishop of Derry and 
Raphoe. He is author of " Christ Bearing 
Witness to Himself" (Donnellan Lectures), 
1879; "As he that Serveth," 1880; "My 
Devotional Life," 1882 ; and of " Exodus " 
and "St. Mark," in the Expositor's Bible. 
Address : The Palace, Londonderry. 

CHAMBERLAIN, The Right Hon. 
Joseph, M.P., Secretary of State for the 
Colonies, was born in London in July 1836. 
He is the eldest son of the late Joseph 
Chamberlain, a member of one of the 
City Companies, and his mother was a 
daughter of Mr. Henry Harben. He was 
educated at University College School, 
and afterwards became a member of a 
firm of screw manufacturers at Birming- 
ham, Messrs. Nettlefold and Chamberlain, 
which his father had joined in 1854. He 
retired from business'in 1874, shortly after 
the decease of his father. Mr. Chamberlain 
had at this time obtained a certain local 
celebrity in consequence of his advanced 
Radical opinions, and the fluency of speech 
with which he expressed them in one of 
the Birmingham debating societies. In 
1868 he was appointed Chairman of the 
first Executive Committee of the Educa- 
tion League, and in November of the same 
year a member of the Birmingham Town 
Council. In 1873 he became Chairman of 
the Birmingham School Board, of which 
he was first elected a member in 1870. 
Mr. Chamberlain is also an alderman of 
Birmingham, and was three times in 
succession elected Mayor of the borough. 
To his energy was due the transfer of 
the Gas and Water Works to the borough 
authorities, and. he was the author of the 
improvement scheme which has entirely 
transformed the face of central Birming- 
ham. His name was first brought before 
the public in February 1874, when he 
came forward at the general election to 
oppose Mr. Roebuck at Sheffield. He was 

not successful, but in June 1876 he was 
returned unopposed for Birmingham, to 
fill up the vacancy occasioned by the 
retirement of Mr. Dixon. He soon made 
his mark in Parliament, and at the general 
election of April 1880, he was returned 
with Mr. Muntz and Mr. Bright for Bir- 
mingham, the three Liberals having a 
large majority over the Conservative can- 
didates. On the formation of Mr. Glad- 
stone's administration immediately after 
that election, Mr. Chamberlain was nomi- 
nated President of the Board of Trade, 
with a seat in the Cabinet. As such he 
prepared and passed the Bankruptcy Act 
which is now in force, and attempted, but 
in vain, to pass a strong Merchant Shipping 
Bill. Meanwhile his influence was rapidly 
increasing outside the House ; he came to 
be regarded as the leader of the extreme 
Radical party, and enunciated schemes for 
the regeneration of the masses which were 
based on the doctrine of the ' ' restitution " 
of land and the "ransom" of property. 
During the general election of 1886 he 
was most severe in his strictures on the 
moderate Liberals, and produced an "un- 
authorised" programme, which included 
the re-adjustment of taxation, free schools, 
and the creation of allotments for com- 
pulsory purchase. He was returned free 
of expense by the western division of 
Birmingham in February 1886, and became 
President of the Local Government Board, 
but resigned in March because of his 
strong objection to Mr. Gladstone's Home 
Rule Bill, and after the "Round Table" 
conference had failed to re-unite the 
Liberal party, he assumed an attitude of 
uncomprising hostility to his old leader's 
new policy. He visited Ulster in 1887, 
and did much to strengthen the Unionist 
cause there. Mr. Chamberlain is of opinion 
that Unionism, in order to remain a power 
in politics, should abandon its merely 
negative policy. Shortly afterwards he 
went to America as Chairman of the 
Fisheries Commission, which had been 
appointed to settle the fishery disputes 
between the United States and Canada. 
On the elevation of Lord Hartington to 
the Peerage as Duke of Devonshire, he 
was nominated the leader of the Liberal 
Unionist party in the House of Commons. 
During the general election of 1892 he 
spoke and worked with marked effect. 
He strongly opposed the Government in 
most of their measures during 1894, but 
took practically no part in the Disestablish- 
ment debate. In the autumn he delivered 
several speeches in the North, and in the 
course of one of them made the significant 
statement that the gulf between him and 
the Liberal party could not now be bridged 
over. On the formation of the Coalition 
Ministry in June 1895, Mr. Chamberlain 



took office under Lord Salisbury as Colonial 
Secretary, and has proved a remarkably 
successful Minister. In his first year of 
office he had trouble with Prempeh, King 
of Ashanti, who was endeavouring to evade 
the Treaty of 1874. Mr. Chamberlain 
refused to meet the ambassadors sent to 
England by Prempeh, and decided to 
despatch a punitive expedition to the 
Gold Coast. Sir Francis Scott was ap- 
pointed in charge, and by forced marches 
soon reached Kumassi. The king was 
dethroned and a British resident installed. 
There was no bloodshed, and the excellent 
medical arrangements enabled the force 
successfully to withstand the pestilential 
climate. Prince Henry of Battenberg, 
however, who was accompanying the ex- 
pedition as a volunteer, had an attack of 
fever, and returned to the coast. He after- 
wards embarked on a cruiser for Madeira, 
and died on the way. In the autumn of 
1895 serious trouble with the Transvaal 
was anticipated, owing to the closing of 
the Drifts by Mr. Kruger. Mr. Chamberlain 
promptly sent an ultimatum to the Boer 
President, and the Drifts were at once 
re-opened. The question of the Drifts 
proved to be only one of a long series of 
grievances of the English residents in the 
Transvaal, and agitation for constitutional 
reform increased in intensity during 1896, 
and culminated in the Jameson Paid in 
December of that year. As soon as the 
news of this incursion reached England, 
Mr. Chamberlain ordered the High Com- 
missioner of South Africa publicly to 
repudiate Dr. Jameson's proceedings. At 
the same time he ordered a proclamation 
to be issued calling upon the British resi- 
dents in Johannesburg to disarm, which at 
once placed them entirely in the hands of 
the Boers. Immediately after the battle 
of Krugersdorp, on receiving the rumour 
that Jameson and his fellow-prisoners were 
to be shot, Mr. Chamberlain wired to the 
Transvaal President, that he relied upon 
his generosity in the hour of victory. All 
the consequences of the raid were met by 
Mr. Chamberlain with unswerving spirit, 
and his able en