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SURNAMES 



BY ERNEST WEEKLEY, M.A. 



1 Indeed, there is a woundy luck in names, sirs, 
And a main mystery, an a man knew where 
To vind it." 

(Ben Jonson, Tale of a Tub, iv. 2.) 



LONDON 

1916 



JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET, W. 



All Rights Reserved 



PREFACE 

The volume now offered to those who were kind enough 
to be interested in my Romance of Names is a secor 
offshoot of the Dictionary of English Surnames on 
which I have been engaged for some years. It differs 
in several ways from the former booklet. The Romance 
of Names was an attempt at a general survey of the 
subject, and, like all such first attempts, it contained 
a good many inaccuracies and dubious statements ' 
of which I have tried to purge later editions. It made 
no special attempt to deal with the curiosities of 
surname etymology, and the temptation to explore 
by-ways was firmly resisted. 

The present volume treats much more completely, 
and hence more ponderously, of certain groups of sur- 
names which I have investigated with some approach 
to thoroughness. It includes a very large proportion 
of names of etymological interest, 2 the majority of 

1 Sometimes due to accepting definite statements of my pre- 
decessors ; e.g. Bardsley. says, " It is a well-known fact that Haddock 
is an imitative variant of Haydock." It may be, but John Haddok 
{Fine R., Close R., and City B.) shows that it was also a nickname 
c. 1300. There are so many '' well-known facts " that become 
fictions when tested with a little evidence. 

2 Many of these are so odd and fantastic that I may be suspected 
of having invented them, but, with perhaps half a dozen doubtful 



vi PREFACE 

which have not been mentioned by earlier writers, and 
hardly any of which have been hitherto explained. Its 
relation to the Romance of Names is that of a more or 
less erudite treatise to a primer, matter which in the 
former book was dismissed in a paragraph or two being 
here expanded into a chapter. This involves a certain 
amount of repetition which I hope may be forgiven. 

As the theories and etymologies proposed are to a 
great extent novel, I have thought it well to give some 
of the data on which they are based. Consequently 
the book will be found duller than its predecessor, and 
will, I fear, have little attraction for any but the sur- 
name enthusiast. The author's own inclination, suc- 
cessfully fought against, was to give for each name a 
mass of evidence, variants and early examples, which 
most readers would rather be spared. The method 
actually followed has been the rather unsatisfactory 
compromise of giving evidence and foreign parallels 
in a certain number of cases, and the author cannot 
hope that this has been done with much system or 
consistency. After the alternative plans had been 
considered of relegating the medieval examples to 
footnotes or to an appendix, it was finally decided 
to insert them in square brackets after the modern 
names to which they refer, an arrangement which will 
perhaps irritate the rapid reader without satiating the 
student. The chief sources of these early examples are 

cases, every English name printed in italic type and included in the 
index is, or was as late as the nineteenth century, actually existent 
in this country. 



PREFACE 



vu 



enumerated on pp. xvi-xvii, but many other documents 
have been consulted and are indicated with more or 
less fullness when quoted. 1 To my colleague Mr. E. L. 
Guilford, Lecturer in History at University College, 
Nottingham, I am indebted for many medieval names 
drawn chiefly from unpublished Midland records. It 
will be noticed that a native or foreign parallel has 
often been preferred to direct evidence. This arises 
out of the comparative method which I have 
adopted, the only method which can lead to results 
of any value. 

The index contains some six thousand existing sur- 
names, including a certain proportion of French and 
German names and a sprinkling from other countries. 
In the body of the book appear probably almost an equal 
number of names which are presumably extinct, though, 
as a matter of fact, it is never safe to assume this even 
in the case of the most fantastic name. No student 
of the subject would be seriously startled at finding 
Longshanks and Strongbow dwelling side by side in 

1 To date exactly each, example would have involved an amount 
of labour and verification incommensurate with the result. The 
source quoted usually shows the century. The great majority of 
the examples come from the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, and 
names later than 1338 are as a rule dated. The names are given just 
as they occur, except that baptismal names, when their form is not 
in question, are normalized, while 7 and v are put for i and u where 
these latter are consonants. I have also occasionally, for the sake 
of clearness, added to final -4 the acute accent which was unknown 
to the Middle Ages. The county is also sometimes given when the 
habitat of the name is in question, but readers in search of an 
ancestor should notice that in many cases the county is simply that 
in which the bearer of the name happened to be hanged. 



viii PREFACE 

some remote village, though he would experience some- 
thing of the exultation of a naturalist encountering 
a dodo in Kensington Gardens. 

The author's excuse for publishing this second 
instalment of his harmless researches is that the end 
of his Dictionary, like that of all similar undertakings, 
has a way of receding as it is approached. It seemed 
possible that information representing the leisure 
amusement of several years might be doomed to the 
waste-paper basket by harassed executors, in which 
case some students of the English language might be 
the losers. 1 

The " practical man," when his attention is accident- 
ally directed to the starry sky, appraises that terrific 
spectacle with a non-committal grunt ; but he would 
receive with a positive snort any suggestion that the 
history of European civilization is contained in the 
names of his friends and acquaintances. Still, even 
the practical man, if he were miraculously gifted 
with the power of interpreting surnames, could hardly 
negotiate the length of Oxford Street on a motor-bus 
without occasionally marvelling and frequently chuck- 
ling. As a review of my former book puts it — 

" We go about our dignified proceedings, solemnly addressing 
each other by the names of beasts and birds and kitchen implements ; 
we are dressed like savages in fantastic feathers, and the most 
important list of honoured personages contains a set of nicknames 
graceless enough to keep us laughing for a month " (The Times, 
February 22, 1914). 

1 See p. 22. 



PREFACE ix 

I should like to thank by name all the friendly cor- 
respondents who have, often at r^al cost of time and 
labour, sent me information on the subject of surnames ; 
but the list would fill several pages. So I must limit 
myself to saying in the words of Captain Grose that — 
" Several gentlemen (and ladies), too respectable to be 
named on so trifling an occasion, have also contributed 
their assistance." 

Ernest Weekley. 



University College, Nottingham, 
April, 1916. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

BIBLIOGRAPHY ...... XV 



ABBREVIATIONS EMPLOYED .... XXI 

CHAPTER I 

THE STUDY OF SURNAMES .... I 

CHAPTER II 

THE TEUTONIC NAME-SYSTEM . . . .26 

CHAPTER III 

SOME LOCAL SURNAMES ..... 47 

CHAPTER IV 

THE CORRUPTION OF LOCAL SURNAMES . . 86 

CHAPTER V 

SOME OCCUPATIVE SURNAMES .... 102 



xii CONTENTS 

CHAPTER VI 

PAOB 

PHYSICAL NICKNAMES . . . . .124 

CHAPTER VII 

COSTUME NICKNAMES . . . . • M5 

CHAPTER VIII 

MISCELLANEOUS ADJUNCT-NAMES . . . 164 

CHAPTER IX 

VEGETABLE NICKNAMES ..... 184 

CHAPTER X 

PAGEANT NAMES ...... I98 

CHAPTER XI 

SOME COMPOUND NAMES ..... 225 

CHAPTER XII 

THE SHAKESPEARE TYPE OF SURNAME . . 252 



CONTENTS xiii 



CHAPTER XIII 

PAGE 

FRENCH SURNAMES 278 



CHAPTER XIV 

GERMAN SURNAMES ..... 2Q2 

CHAPTER XV 

DIVERGENT ORIGINS OF SURNAMES . . . 306 
INDEX 331 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



A. BOOKS ON NAMES 

Camden, Remains concerning Britain (London, 1605). 

Lower, Patronymica Britannica (London, i860). 

Lower, English Surnames 4 (London, 1875). 

Guppy, Homes of Family Names in Great Britain (London, 

1890). 
Bardsley, English Surnames 7 (London, 1901). 
Bardsley, Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames (Oxford, 

1901). 
Bjorkman, Nordische Personennamen in England (Halle a. S., 

1910). 

Macbain, Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language, 2 

pp. 396-412 (Stirling, 191 1). 
Matheson, Report on Surnames in Ireland (Dublin, 1909). 
Jenner, Handbook of the Cornish Language, pp. 192-202 

(London, 1904). 
Moore, Names, Place-names and Surnames of the Isle of Man 

(London, 1890). 

Ritter, Les Noms de Famille (Paris, 1875). 

Langlois, Table des Noms propres compris dans les Chansons 

de Geste (Paris, 1904). 
Chastelain, Vocabulaire Hagiologique (Paris, 1694). 
Schatzer, Herkunft und Gestaltung der franzosischen Heiligen- 

namen (Minister i. W., 1905). 



xvi BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Pachnio,* Die Beinamen der Pariser Steuerrolle von 1292 

(Konigsberg i. Pr., 1909). 
Kremers, Beitrage zur Erforschung der franzosischen Fami- 

liennamen (Bonn, 1910). 

Heintze, Die deutschen Familiennamen 3 (Halle a. S., 1908). 

Salverte, Essai historique et philosophique sur les Noms de 

Peuples et de Lieux (Paris, 1824). 
Yonge, History of Christian Names 2 (London, 1884). 



B. SOURCES FOR MEDIEVAL NAMES 

Searle, Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum (Cam- 
bridge, 1897) .... Searle 

1086. Domesday Book .... DB. 

1158-1192. Pipe Rolls (Pipe Roll Soc, 34 vols.) Pipe R. 

1189-1327. Abbreviatio Placitorum, 

Richard I. — Edward II. . Pleas 

1195-1214. Fines, sive Pedes Finium, sive 
Finales Concordije in Curia 
Domini Regis . . . Feet of Fines 

1 199-12 16. Rotuli de Liberate ac de Misis et 

Praestitis, regnante Johanne Lib. R. 

1 199-1326. Charter Rolls . . . Chart. R. 

1 199-1332. Fine Rolls .... Fine R. 

1200-1400. Documents illustrative of Eng- 
lish History in the thirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries, 
from the Records of the 
Queen's Remembrancer in 
the Exchequer . . Doc. III. 

1202-1338. Patent Rolls .... Pat. R. 

1205-1337. Close Rolls .... Close R. 

* Pachnio's dissertation, giving a great number of thirteenth- 
century French nicknames, is especially valuable for comparative 
purposes, and is freely quoted, especially in chapters vi. to viii. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



xvn 



1216-1307. Calendarium Genealogicum, for 

the reigns of Henry III. and 

Edward I. 
1216-1307. Testa de Neville sive Liber Feo- 

dorum, temp. Henry III. 

— Edward I. . 
1216-1377. Rotulorum Originalium in Curia 

Scaccarii Abbreviatio, 

Henry III.— Edward III. . 
1216-1336. Inquisitiones post Mortem sive 

Escaetae .... 
1272-1338. Register of the Freemen of York, 

Vol. I. (Surtees Soc, 1897) . 
1273. Hundred Rolls 

1275-1377. The Letter-Books (A. to F.) of 

the City of London 
1277-1326. Calendar of various Chancery 

Rolls : Supplementary Close 

Rolls, Welsh Rolls, Scutage 

Rolls .... 
1 2 84-1 43 1 . Inquisitions and Assessments re- 
lating to Feudal Aids 
Ancient Kalendars and Inventories of the 
Treasury of His Majesty's Exchequer . 
Liber Vitas Ecclesiae Dunelmensis (Surtees 
Soc, 1841) ..... 

In addition to the above a great number of county Assize 
Rolls, manor Court Rolls, abbey Cartularies, etc., have been 
consulted, the titles of which are given more fully. 



Cal. Gen. 



Testa de Nev. 



Exch. R. 

IpM. 

F. of Y. 
Hund. R. 

City A., B., etc. 



Chanc. R. 



Feud. Aids 



Exch. Cal. 



Lib. Vit. 



C. SOURCES FOR MODERN SURNAMES 



Return of Owners of Land in England and 
Wales, 1873, generally called the Modern 
Domesday Book .... MDB. 

Dictionary of National Biography . . DNB. 

2 



XV111 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



London Directory, 1842. 
Various Provincial Directories. 
Navy List, September 1914. 
Army List, January 1915. 
The London Gazette. 
The Daily Paper. 
The Casualty Lists. 



Paris Directory, 1907 



Bottin. 



Rangliste der Kaiserlich Deutschen Marine, 
I9I3- 



D. DICTIONARIES QUOTED 



The New English Dictionary 
The English Dialect Dictionary 



NED. 
EDD. 



Wright- Wulcker, Anglo-Saxon and Old 
English Vocabularies 2 (London, 1884) . 

Promptorium Parvulorum (1440), ed. May- 
hew (EETS.) 

Catholicon Anglicum (1483), ed. Herrtage 
(EETS.) 

Levins, Manipulus Vocabulorum (1570), ed. 
Wheatley (EETS.) .... 

Skene, De Verborum Significatione (Edin- 
burgh, 1599). 

Cowel, The Interpreter or Booke containing 
the Signification of Words (London, 

i637)- 
The same, enlarged (London, 1708). 

Blount, Law Dictionary (London, 1691). 

White Kennett, Glossary (London, 181 6). 

Nares, Glossary, ed. Halliwell and Wright 

(London, 1872). 



Voc. 



Prompt. Parv. 



Cath. Anel. 



Manip. Voc. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY xix 

Halliwell, Dictionary of Archaic and Pro- 
vincial Words 10 (London, 1887) . . Hall. 

Skeat and Mayhew, Glossary of Tudor 
and Stuart Words (Oxford, 1914). 

Palsgrave, Lesclarcissement de la Langue 

francoyse (1536) .... Palsg. 

Cotgrave, French-English Dictionary (1611) Cotg. 



E. SOURCES OF QUOTATIONS 

Chaucer, ed. Pollard (Globe Edition) . . Chauc. 

Piers Plowman, ed. Skeat . . . Piers Plowm. 

The Wyclifnte Translation of the Bible . Wye. 
Skelton, ed. Dyce. 
Cocke Lorelles Bote, sixteenth century 

(reprint, Aberdeen, 1848). 
Stow, Survey of London (1603). 



ABBREVIATIONS EMPLOYED 



AF. . 


. Anglo-French 


AS. . 


Anglo-Saxon 


Ass. . 


Assize 


Bottin 


Paris Directory, 1907 


Cal. Gen. 


Calendarium Genealogicum (1216- 




1307) 


Cart. . 


Cartulary or Chartulary 


Cath. Angl. . 


. Catholicon Anglicum 


Chanc. R. 


Chancery Rolls (1277-1326) 


Chart. R. 


Charter Rolls (n'99 . . .) 


Chauc. 


Chaucer 


City A., B., etc. 


City of London Letter-books (1275 


Close R. 


• • •; 

Close Rolls (1205 . . ) 


Cotg. . 


Cotgrave's French Dictionary (161 1) 


DB. . 


Domesday Book (1086) 


dial. . 


dialect 


dim. . 


diminutive 


DNB. . 


. Dictionary of National Biography 


Doc. III. 


Documents Illustrative of English 




History (thirteenth and four- 




teenth centuries) 


Du. . 


. Dutch 


EDD. . 


. English Dialect Dictionary 


Exch. Cal. . 


Ancient Kalendars and Inventories 




of the Exchequer. 


Exch. R. 


Rotulorum Originalium in Curia 




Scaccarii Abbreviatio (Henry III. 




—Edward III.) 


f. 


filius or filia 




xx i 



XX11 



ABBREVIATIONS EMPLOYED 



Feet of Fines 


. Fines, sive Pedes Finium(i 195-12 1 4) 


Feud. Aids . 


. Inquisitions and Assessments relat- 




ing to Feudal Aids (1284 . . .) 


Fine R. 


Fine Rolls (1199 . .) 


F. of Y. . 


. Register of the Freemen of York 




(1272 . . .) 


Fr. 


. French 


Ger. . 


German 


Goth. . 


Gothic 


Hall. . 


. Halliwell. 


Hund. R. 


Hundred Rolls (1273) 


Inq . . 


Inquests 


IpM. . 


Inquisitiones post Mortem (1216 

• • ■) 
Letters 


Let. . 


LG. . 


Low German 


Lib. R. 


Rotuli de Liberate ac de Misis et 




Praestitis (1199 . . .) 


Lib. Vit. . 


Liber Vitae Ecclesiae Dunelmensis 


Manip. Voc. 


. Manipulus Vocabulorum 


MDB. 


Modern Domesday Book (1873) 


ME. . 


. Middle English 


OF. . 


Old French 


OG. . 


Old German 


ON. . 


Old Norse 


Palsg. 


Palsgrave, Lesclarcissement de la 




Langue jrancoyse (1536) 


Pat. R. 


Patent Rolls (1202 . . .) 


Piers Plowm. 


Piers Plowman 


Pipe R. 


. Pipe Rolls (1158 . . .) 


Pleas . 


. Abbreviatio Placitorum, Richard I. 




— Edward II. 


Prompt. Parv. 


Promptorium Parvulorum 


Reg. . 


Register 


Sc. . 


Scottish 


Testa de Nev. 


. Testa de Neville 


Voc. . 


. Wright-Wulcker, Vocabularies 


Wye. . 


. Wyclifhte Translation of the Bible 



SURNAMES 

CHAPTER I 

THE STUDY OF SURNAMES 

" Nomen quum dicimus, cognomen quoque et agnomen intelli- 
gatur oportet " (Cicero). 

The study of surnames in England is chiefly asso- 
ciated with the names of Camden, Lower, Ferguson, 
and Bardsley, though many other writers have dealt 
with the subject, or with special aspects of it, both 
in books and magazine articles. Of these Camden, 
the first in date {Remains concerning Britain, 1605), rs 
still in many ways the best. His brief essay, weak as it 
necessarily is from the philological point of view, gives 
by far the clearest and most sensible introduction to 
the subject that has yet been penned. 

The first attempt at anything like a comprehensive 
Dictionary of Surnames is Lower's Patronymica 
Britannica (Lond. i860), which contains some 12,000 
names. He had previously published English Sur- 
names (Lond. 1842, 4th ed., enlarged, 1875). Lower 
seems to have been a genial antiquary, with a good 
deal of miscellaneous information, but no serious know- 
ledge of European languages. On the surnames of his 



2 THE STUDY OF SURNAMES 

native county, Sussex, he has often good first-hand 
information, but outside that he is quite untrust- 
worthy. He knew, however, something about the 
general history of surnames and had read all that had 
already been written in English on the subject. 
Some of his suggested etymologies are rather funny, 
and in many cases he does not seem to have taken 
the trouble even to open the Gazetteer. A couple 
of examples will suffice — 

"Bickerstaff. The O. Eng. bicker means to skirmish or contend, 
and a ' bicker-staff,' therefore, probably signifies a weapon analo- 
gous to a quarter-staff, or single-stick. The name belongs to the 
same class as Longsword, Broadspear, etc." 

" Rigmaiden. Two gentry families, settled respectively in 
Counties Lincoln and Lancaster, bore this remarkable name, which 
at the commencement of the present century was still extant. I 
can give no better etymology for the name than I have already 
assigned in Eng. Sum. ; viz., ' a romping girl.' " 

Now Bickerstaff, formerly Bickerstath (whence Bicker- 
steth), is a Lancashire parish near Ormskirk, Rigmaden 
is a seat in Westmorland, and the local surnames de 
Bikerstaf and de Riggemaiden can be easily attested 
from the medieval records of the north. I have noticed 
fifteen variants of Bickerstaff in the Lancashire Assize 
Rolls (1176-1285) and Rigmaiden is also found in 
several forms. Similarly, Lower explains Fifehead 
as from a promontory in Scotland, whereas Fifehead, 
formerly Five-hide, is a place in Dorset, in which 
county Fifehead, Fifett is a common surname. But 
there is a good deal of useful antiquarian, as distin- 
guished from etymological, information to be gleaned 
from Lower, and his rather ponderous good-humour 
does not excite the irritation which is evoked by the 
confident imbecility of some of his successors. 



EARLY THEORISTS 3 

Lower was followed by Ferguson, author of English 
Surnames and their Place in the Teutonic Family, 
The Teutonic Name System, and Surnames as a Science. 
He was by trade a cotton-spinner, by inclination an 
amateur philologist, and eventually a Member of 
Parliament. Like most people who dabble in the 
study of German, he was struck by its similarity to 
English, and jumped to the conclusion that our 
surname system, like our language, was chiefly of 
Teutonic origin. 1 In other words, he became the 
victim of a fixed idea, a more deadly enemy in philo- 
logical matters than ignorance itself. The consequence 
is that his Surnames as a Science ! bears some resem- 
blance to an elaborate lark, which begins by amusing, 
but soon palls. It is, of course, true that thousands 
of our surnames can be traced to personal names 
which were in use in Anglo-Saxon times, but, to 
establish such connection, it is just as well to supply 
a little in the way of evidence. For Ferguson it is 
quite sufficient to find a somewhat similar Anglo- 
Saxon name in Kemble 3 or Thorpe, 4 or, failing these 
sources, an Old German name in F6rstemann, b or, 
failing Forstemann, in his own imagination, to ex- 
plain Tom, Dick, and Harry as coming straight from 
the Twilight of the Gods into the London Commercial 
Directory. So Thompson, whom the ignorant might 
connect with Thomas, is really the son of doom ! 
That a surname is obviously taken from a trade does 

1 Which it is, of course, though not as Ferguson understood it. 

2 Second edition, revised, London, 1884. 

3 Codex diplomaticus Mvi Saxonici, London, 1845-8. 

4 Diplomatorium Anglicum Mvi Saxonici, London, 18 15. 

6 Altdeutsches Namenbuch : part 1, Personennamen, Nordhausen, 
1856. 



4 THE STUDY OF SURNAMES 

not disturb him. Archer, Iremonger, and Prentice, 
which are recorded by hundreds as " le arch ere," " le 
iremonger," " le prentice," are " Old Frankish " 
names, ' ' and the resemblance- to anything English is 
only an accident." Archer, we learn, is from OG. 
Erchear, Iremonger is related to Arminius the Cherus- 
kerf first, and Prentice comes from " an " AS. Premtsa. 
An unrecorded Old German name is just as useful 
for his purpose as one copiously attested. It is only 
a case of " not yet turned up," a phrase that recurs 
constantly in his book. Occasionally the intrusive 
place-name annoys him, but only for a moment. 
Prendergast is derived from an imaginary Pendgast, 
" an ancient compound, from the stem bend, with gast, 
hospes." A footnote admits that it may perhaps, 
however, be from a Welsh place-name (as of course it 
is), but it " illustrates the principle just the same." 

A contemporary, and to some extent a disciple, of 
Ferguson, Dr. Charnock, published in 1868 a small 
lexicon of unusual surnames under the title Ludus 
Patronymicus, or the Etymology of Curious Names. 
On Shakespeare he gives us the following remarks — 

" I have elsewhere (see Notes and Queries, vols. ix. and x.), 
stated that Shakespeare might be a corruption of Sigisbert, which 
would translate ' renowned for victory ' (sige, victory) ; in answer 
to which Mr. Ferguson seemed to think that the name might be 
from Sicisper, Sigisper, or Sigiper, which he would translate ' vic- 
torious bear' (perhaps rather 'victorious man'). My suggestion 
would seem probable from the fact that the name Shakeshaft might 
be from Sigishaft, Sighaft, used by the Franks for ' victorious,' 
or from Sigishaved, ' head of victory,' ' victorious leader.' I 
am, however, disposed to think that the latter name is merely a. 
corruption of Shakestaff ; and, as I have shown elsewhere, most 
names compounded of staff are derived from AS. sted, a place. On 
further consideration I am inclined to doubt my former derivation 



CRAZY ETYMOLOGY 5 

of the name Shakespeare, although it would easily corrupt from 
Sigisbert, by contraction of the first vocable, and by dropping of 
the final t, I agree with another correspondent of Notes and 
Queries in tracing the name to Jacques Pierre. . . . The nearest 
names to Jacques Pierre that I have been able to find are James 
Peters, Jacques Henri Bernardin de Saint-Pierre, and Petrus 
Jacobus." 

Perhaps, after all, it is only the gentleman's ixm. 

Theories every whit as crazy are constantly put for- 
ward by amateur philologists. A few years ago I 
read in Notes and Queries that Jennins is of Norse 
origin and means the " iron man," and that this family 
gave its name to Jenningham, now corrupted into 
Birmingham ! This statement easily beats the famous 
definition of the crab both in quality and on points. 
More recently, in the same publication, the suggestion 
was made that the puzzling name Shillito or Silito was 
from the medieval " de Sigillo." Even if this were 
phonetically possible, the theorist should have sup- 
ported his case with modern names corrupted from 
Molendinarius, Albo Monasterio, Veteri Ponte, or 
Sexdecim Vallibus. 

In fact, the study of English surnames, being a 
region of knowledge which has never been scientifically 
explored, is a regular happy huntihg-ground for the 
unauthorized amateur. Even men of learning, who 
should know how dangerous it is to stray from their 
own sphere of knowledge, occasionally trespass dis- 
astrously. I have recently read a most interesting 
and informative article on the " Place of the Wood- 
pecker in Religion," the author of which points out 
quite rightly that many of our surnames go back to 
instincts surviving from this prehistoric cult. But 
when he proceeds to tell us that the name Peckover 



6 THE STUDY OF SURNAMES 

is the OF. pic vert, green woodpecker, we are re- 
minded of those guileless etymologists who derive the 
Oxfordshire Shotover from chateau vert, while the 
suggestion that Woodhatch (Surrey) takes its name 
from the woodhack, or woodpecker, makes us wonder 
whether there is some similar explanation for Colney 
Hatch. 

The documentary study of surnames began with 
Bardsley, who shifted the field of investigation from 
the migration of the Aryans to the Middle Ages. He 
realized that practically all our surnames came 
definitely into existence between the Norman Con- 
quest and the end of the fourteenth century. His 
English Surnames ' contains a wealth of material 
drawn from various medieval sources, and his Dic- 
tionary of English and Welsh Surnames, published 
(Oxford, 1901) from his notes after his death, contains 
a valuable, though often wrongly grouped and wrongly 
interpreted, collection of authentic instances. Among 
all who have written on the subject, he appears to be 
the only one who knows that there are such things as 
chronology and evidence, and, where he goes wrong, 
it is simply from ignorance of medieval languages. 
I have given a few examples in the preface to my 
Romance of Names. Similar blunders are to be found 
on almost every page of his Dictionary, but it would 
be ungracious to insist on them. Personally I have 
derived the greatest help from his work, and, though 
I have never, when possible, used one of his instances 
without verifying it, I have often been guided to the 
origin of a name by his copious provision of early 
examples. His Dictionary is especially valuable for 

1 Seventh edition, London, 190 1. 



VARIOUS SOURCES 7 

the later history of names, because of the careful 
study of church registers by which he is often able 
to show the identity of surnames which have become 
widely divergent. This part of the subject can only 
be nibbled at by one individual, and a real Diction- 
ary of Surnames cannot come into existence until 
every county has been thoroughly documented by 
competent investigators. 

The study of surnames is, for historical reasons, 
more complicated in England than in any other Euro- 
pean country. In all European nations there is a 
strong foreign element, especially in frontier regions, 
but our Directory is perhaps the greatest hodge- 
podge of all. Taking the various elements in chro- 
nological order, we have first the " Celtic fringe," 
names from which (Gaelic, Welsh, Irish, Manx, Cor- 
nish) are now to be found in every corner of Eng- 
land. In fact, it is quite possible that the real old 
Welsh names (Cradock, Ennion, Traherne, etc.), now 
replaced largely by the unimaginative Jones, 1 Hughes, 
etc., are more numerous in England than in their 
native country. Then come the race whom we call 
traditionally the Anglo-Saxons, and from whom those 
few of us whose ancestors neither came over with 
the Conqueror nor escaped miraculously from the 
Massacre of St. Bartholomew are mostly descended. 
In the East and North, in Scotland, and sporadically 

1 The MDB. contains the names of 196 landholders in the Isle 
of Anglesey whose name begins with /, and every single one of 
them is Jones. The same phenomenon is observed in other coun- 
tries in which the adoption of fixed surnames is comparatively 
recent. Thus in Sweden about one-half of the population is ac- 
counted for by some fifteen patronymics of the type Olsen (Olaf), 
Jakobsen, Petersen, etc. 



8 THE STUDY OF SURNAMES 

all round the outer edge of the islands, names of 
Norse x origin are abundant ; and these, from the 
strictly philological point of view, should be divided 
into East Scandinavian and West Scandinavian. 
With 1066 we have the Norman irruption, and, 
through the centuries, a constant percolation . from 
various French provinces, 2 culminating in the great 
Huguenot invasion of the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries. On the East coast Dutch and Danish names 
are not uncommon ; while London, as the commercial 
focus of the world, has for centuries attracted immi- 
grants from various European countries, many of 
whom have been fruitful and have multiplied. In 
quite recent times there has been a steady peaceful 
penetration from Germany, and London and our 
manufacturing towns are largely colonized by this 
energetic race, no doubt destined to be the ruling 
class of the future. 3 

But, difficult as is the task of classifying and deriv- 
ing English surnames, it is nothing compared with 
that offered by American surnames. In the States 
the wear and tear of names, which in England extends 
over ten centuries, has been concentrated into one, 
and instead of half a dozen elements we have sources 
innumerable. In the early days of the Republic the 
problem was simpler, for the sparse population was 
drawn from practically four sources, British, Dutch, 
French, and German. In the earliest census taken, it 

1 I have described all names found before the Conquest as Anglo- 
Saxon, but many of them are really Norse. Those interested 
should study Bjorkman. 

2 French names are particularly common in Devon, a result no 
doubt of intercourse with the Channel Islands. 

8 This was written before the War. 



SURNAME GROUPS 9 

is interesting to notice the distribution of these names. 1 
We find, as we should expect, the French in the south, 
the Dutch in and around New York, and the Germans 
in Pennsylvania. But, since the time of the first 
census (1790), immigrants have crowded in from most 
countries, civilized and uncivilized, and their changed, 
distorted, or adapted names form a pathless etymo- 
logical morass. Even in 1790 one is struck by the 
prevalence of crude and grotesque nicknames, often 
obvious perversions of foreign names, but frequently, 
no doubt, deliberately assumed by, or conferred on, 
men who had cut even the surnominal tie with Europe. 
In one respect only are our English surnames easier 
to trace than those of continental countries. The 
possible variants and derivatives of any given personal 
name run theoretically into thousands, and in France 
and Germany, to take the two most important 
countries of which the surname system is related to 
our own, there has been no check on this process of 
differentiation. By contraction, aphesis, apocope, dia- 
lect variation, and many other phonetic factors, one 
favourite name often develops hundreds of forms, many 
of which appear to have nothing in common with the 
original. Thus Ger. Nolte can be traced step by step 
to OG. Arinwald, eagle mighty. The Old German 
names passed into France, underwent a new phonetic 
development, and were again varied ad infinitum. 
Thus Naudot is also from OG. Arinwald, which became 
Fr. Arnaud, whence, by aphesis, Naud, and, with the 
dim. suffix, Naudot. This dim. suffix again, which 

1 A Century of Population Growth in the United States (1790- 
1900), Washington, 1909. A copy of this elaborate and valuable 
work was most kindly sent to me by G. F. Parker, Esq., of New 
York, formerly U.S. Consul in Birmingham. 



io THE STUDY OF SURNAMES 

many other names share with Naudot, became, by 
a second aphesis, Dot, and then, with a new dim. 
suffix, Dottin. Many such series could be quoted 
among modern French surnames, e.g. Hanotaux, for 
Hanotot, from Hanot, from Han, from Jehan, i.e. John; 
or Denis, Denisard, Nisafd, Sard, Sardou. 

Now, in England, the parallel process was suddenly 
interrupted by the Norman Conquest. The Anglo- 
Saxon names which persisted remained in a state of 
arrested development and seldom formed familiar 
derivatives. Those which seem to form exceptions 
do so because the corresponding name existed in Old 
French and thus preserved a vitality which the Anglo- 
Saxon form had lost. Thus, Rawle, Rawlins, Rawkins, 
etc., belong to Fr. Raoul, from OG. Radwulf, counsel 
wolf, and our Tibbs, Tibbets, Tibbies, etc., derive from 
the Fr. Thibaut, OG. Theodobald, people strong, rather 
than from the cognate AS. Theodbeald, a rather rare 
name. From the Conquest the favourite names were 
French names of Germanic origin, e.g. William, Robert, 
Richard, or Biblical names, e.g. John, Thomas, Peter, 
of Greco-Latin or Eastern origin, and generally in- 
troduced in a French form. Nomenclature thus made 
a fresh start, and this start falls within historic and 
well-documented times. Practically all our surname 
groups of baptismal origin date from after the Con- 
quest and have no direct or conscious connection with 
their Anglo-Saxon or Celtic cognates. Taking at 
hazard, from vol. ii. of the Hundred Rolls, a list of 
people from various counties described as sons of 
Adam, we find that the font-names represented are 
Clement, Eustace, Geoffrey, Gregory, Henry, Hugh, 
Humphrey, John, Nicholas, Peter, Philip, Ralph, 



CLASSES OF SURNAMES n 

Richard, Robert, Roger, Simon, Thomas, William, not 
one of which was in real English use before the Battle 
of Hastings. 

But a close study of the cartularies of ancient 
manors and abbeys reveals the survival of thousands 
of Anglo-Saxon names among the peasantry, and 
most of them still exist. They do not, however, form 
groups of derivatives. Even when Anglo-Saxon names 
survived as such, they were often affected in sound by 
the Norman pronunciation, for it must be remembered 
that, during the period of formation of our surnames, 
French was the official language and a considerable 
proportion of the population was bilingual. For in- 
stance, Alphege is the Norman form of Elphick, AS. 
jElfheah, and the v of Elvin (/Elfwine), Colvin (Ceol- 
wine), is due to the same influence. Wace makes 
Edward into Ewart, a name which has other origins, 
and Leofwin into Lewin — 

" Lewine e Guert furent od lui " (Roman de Rou, 7857). 

The font-name is, strictly speaking, the only true 
name, the other classes of surnames, patronymic, 
occupative, or nickname, being descriptions, while the 
local surname is an address. Of all surnames those 
of local origin are of least interest, difficult though it 
often is to recognize the village or homestead in its 
archaic, distorted, or popular form (see chap. iv.). 
Probably at least half of our surnames are of the 
dull, unimaginative local kind, l but their etymological 

1 It is rather curious that a few names of this type should have 
acquired an aristocratic flavour. Cholmondeley is simply the " lea " 
of Ceolmund, who is now usually Coleman, and Ponsonby is the 
" by," or homestead, of Punshon. The exclusive Carlton represents 
the most commonplace of our village names, Ceorl's, or the churl's, 
" tun," or homestead. 

3 



12 THE STUDY OF SURNAMES 

explanation belongs to the student of place-names. 
As there is hardly a spot in England which has not 
given its name to a family, it follows that a complete 
etymological dictionary of English surnames would 
have to include a complete etymological dictionary of 
place-names, i.e. that one impossibility can only be 
achieved by the preliminary accomplishment of an- 
other. The study of these names would have to be 
carried on by counties or regions. If a circle, with 
say a ten-mile radius, were drawn on an ordnance map 
round a city such as Nottingham, it would be found 
that all the village-names in that circle existed in the 
town or county as medieval surnames. With the en- 
largement of the circle, these names would thin out 
in number and become more corrupted in form, until, 
except for their accidental appearance here and there 
in modern England, they would fade away like the 
last ripple produced by a stone in the water. A 
profound historical knowledge of the earlier forms 
and of the local pronunciation would of course be 
essential for the study of these names. 

In investigating the origins of names we can work 
either backwards or forwards. The field is immense 
and the materials are available in overwhelming mass. 
Lower seems to have used as general sources only 
Domesday Book and the Hundred Rolls, the latter a 
kind of later Domesday Book compiled in 1273. These 
are perhaps the two most valuable documents we have, 
because they give not only the name but the locality 
in which it occurs. But there are many other sources 
of hardly less value. For pre-Conquest names we 
have Searle's Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum, a com- 
plete list of names extracted from all manner of 



SOURCES 13 

sources, including the earlier compilations of Birch, 
Thorpe, Kemble, etc. After Domesday Book (1086) the 
most important sources are, for the twelfth century, 
the Pipe Rolls, beginning in 1158, and, for the thir- 
teenth century, the four great series of the Charter 
Rolls and Fine Rolls, from 11 99, the Patent Rolls, from 
1202, and the Close Rolls, from 1205. The earlier parts 
of these were printed in extenso early in the nineteenth 
century, and they are now continued in the form of 
Calendars, i.e. abstracts. Then we have the In- 
quisitiones post Mortem, from 1216, a number of minor 
rolls and documents dealing with special regions, and 
the numerous local records published by various 
antiquarian societies, such as the Camden, Chetham, 
Surtees, and Lancashire and Cheshire Record Societies. 
These latter sources are especially rich for the north 
of England, but most counties have now their anti- 
quarian societies, from the Transactions of which any 
amount of information can be acquired. An ordinary 
lifetime would not suffice for the investigation of a 
fraction of the superabundant material, and the con- 
tribution of any individual to the subject must 
necessarily be but a drop in the ocean. 

The Rolls are nearly always written in medieval 
Latin, but the names which occur in them are put 
promiscuously in latinized form, e.g. Johannes Arcu- 
balistarius, English, John the Arblaster, or Anglo- 
French, Jehan le Arbalestier. There is nothing 
like uniformity of spelling. Even a monosyllable like 
Bruce has dozens of forms, and in one north-country 
document I have noted fifteen spellings of so simple 
a name as Bradshaw. This applies, of course, equally 
to the spelling of other words, but while this has now 



14 THE STUDY OF SURNAMES 

been normalized by a kind of collective effort and the 
authority of the printer, the differentiation in the 
spelling 1 of names has gone on unchecked. 

From about the middle of the fourteenth century 
the records become of less etymological value, because 
the significant prefixes, le and de, del, atte, etc., tend 
to disappear. But even in the earliest Rolls caution 
is necessary. Many accidents and misunderstandings 
may have occurred between the verbal communica- 
tion made by the medieval peasant to the government 
official, who often had difficulty in understanding him, 
and the printed copy or abstract which we now pos- 
sess. It is never safe to draw inferences from isolated 
entries, which may be original mistakes, errors in 
transcription, misreadings of medieval contractions, 
or modern misprints. Le is constantly confused with 
de, especially in the Hundred Rolls, and in the earlier 
issues of the other series, and de is also often found 
prefixed to obvious nicknames and personal names 
which can be certified from much earlier records. 8 The 
entries are to a great extent artificial. The common 
patronymics in -s and -son rarely occur, and the font- 
names are given in full instead of in the abridged 
form actually in use. We find Egidius f. Waltarii for 
Giles Watson, and Reginaldus, Dionysius, Petronilla, 
and Theophania for people who were certainly known 
to their neighbours as Reynold, Dennis, Parnell, and 
Tiffen. 

1 It is considered a terrible solecism to write of the poet Spencer 
or of " rare Ben Johnson," but in Westminster Abbey these two 
spellings may be seen over adjacent tombs. 

* Some of our county histories are not blameless in this matter, 
and sprinkle de's in ludicrous fashion among the ancestors of the 
local gentry. 



ARTIFICIAL ENTRIES 15 

It may be noted here that the nomenclature of 
the Middle Ages is much more ornate than the super- 
ficial study of history would suggest. Female names 
especially have much of the penny novelette about 
them. I have come across Amanda, Bonajoia, Dulci- 
bella, Glorietta, Licoricia, Orgoylosa, Orielda, and 
many others. These gorgeous names seem to have 
been especially common among the Jews, e.g. the 
four Jewesses mentioned in vol. xxxiii. of the Pipe 
Rolls are Belleases, Duzelina, Pulcella, and Regina. 
In a great many cases it is impossible to say whether 
a modern name is a patronymic or a metronymic, for 
most of the male medieval font-names had feminine 
form also, e.g. Almarica, Alwina, dementia, Eustachia, 
Huelina, Theobalda, etc., and, as in modern times, 
we sometimes find a female font-name manufactured 
from that of the father or ancestor, e.g. Lescelina, 
daughter of Matthew f. Leising (Lane. Inq., 1205- 
1307), the latter gentleman's " by," or farmstead, 
having been the home of the Lazenby family. 

Occupative names given in Latin or French form 
have sometimes persisted (Faber, Bullinger), but we 
may be sure that Ricardus Molinarius or Richard le 
Mouner was generally in private life Dick Miller. 
There are few commoner entries than Cocus and le 
Keu, both now represented by Cook. 1 The same is 
true of nicknames. Many a modern Whitehead descends 
from a Blanchef or Blaunkfrunt of the Rolls, and the 
Caprons of to-day are far less numerous than those 
of the Middle Ages, most of whom were simply Hoods. 
The form which any name takes in the Rolls is due 

1 Kew still exists, but is not common, and often comes from 
Kew in Surrey. 



16 THE STUDY OF SURNAMES 

largely to the personality of the recorder, often doing 
his best with a population whose dialect was to him 
a meaningless jargon. Ralph Omnibon (Fine Rr.) 
looks like the official interpretation of Allgood, AS. 
MMgoA, and le Petit Chose has a thirteenth- century 
prototype in Stephen Aliquid whom we find in Cam- 
bridgeshire in 1273 (Hund. R.), apparently an un- 
couth fenman whose name the official compiler gave 
up as a bad job. 

The accidental character of modern names is illus- 
trated by the fact that the same man is often found 
with more than one description. With Publius 
Cornelius Scipio Africanus we may compare the 
humbler Adam Kokke in le Grene Pulter (F. of Y.), 
whose descendants may, along with other possibilities, 
now be Adams, Cox, Green, or Poulter, and Ricardus 
le Nouthird de Stanley Porter (ib.), who may now be 
represented by Richards, Nothard, Stanley, and Porter. 
So with Ralph Thomasman Fairfax (Pat. R.), Edmund 
Johanserjaunt Emmesone (ib.), Walter le Hore de 
Elmham called Starling (City D.), William Jones- 
someter Burdelays (Pat. R.), Nicholas Rogersser jaunt 
le Norreys (Coram Rege R. 1297), Everard Williamsman 
Attemersche (ib.), Richard Williamsser jaunt Pykerell 
(ib.), William Rogereswarener of Beauchamp of Son- 
day (Pat. R.). John le Cappeler, called " le prest " 
(City B.), appears in the same volume as John Prest, 
cappeler (hatter). This brings us to the fact, which 
may comfort some people, that trade-names were very 
often nicknames, e.g. Stephen le Espicer, called le 
Hornere (City E.), William Priour, cossun, i.e. horse- 
dealer (ib.), John le Naper, King's huntsman (Chart. R. 
1259), Elias Webster dictus Harpur (F. of Y.), Walter 



MODERN SURNAMES 17 

le Taillour, vicar of Crediton (Chanc. R.). It is pretty 
obvious that a man could not be Prentice by trade, 
nor could the Mawer or Plowman make much of a 
living by " mowing " or " ploughing " alone. Many 
names of this Matter type date back to the manorial 
system, under which tenants had to put in a certain 
amount of time in mowing, ploughing, hedging, etc., 
for their masters. 

Just as a well-established medieval name must 
have modern representatives, a well-established modern 
name must occur under some form in medieval records. 
By a well-established modern name, I do not mean 
one which is chiefly attested by the contemporary 
London Directory, or even in our great manufacturing 
centres, for these may be of Huguenot or later foreign 
origin, but one that has a regional existence dating 
back for a few centuries. This brings us to the ques- 
tion of modern sources. For a general dissertation 
on surnames the London Directory ' is sufficient. For 
the historical investigation of the subject it is useless. 
The method must be regional, and a great historical 
Dictionary of Surnames can only be compiled when 
the names of every county have been scientifically 
studied. This task is now being gradually carried out 
for place-names, and perhaps surnames will one day 
have their turn. Just as the main features in the 
political history of a country could be inferred from 

1 I generally use the edition of 1842, which, appearing before the 
conquest, is comparatively free from such misleading forms as 
Arbiter, Ger. Arbeiter, Freedman, Friedemann, Bloomingfield, 
Blumenfeld, Brilleslipper , Brillenschleifer, lens grinder. The 
modern Directory is full of such names, sometimes half translated, 
e.g. A Ithouse, Diamondstein, or fully, e.g. Bathmaker, Brilliantstone, 
or wrongly, e.g. Coopersmith, Kupferschmied, copper-smith. 



18 THE STUDY OF SURNAMES 

a study of its language alone, so the history of each 
county and region, political, ethnical, 1 and industrial, 
is imbedded in its surnames. 

For even now our population is largely stationary 
in abode. The Welsh milkman comes to London, 
drives his cart for twenty years, and then builds him- 
self a snug villa on the coast of Cardigan Bay. If he 
remains in London, his dynasty generally dies out 
within a few generations. Moreover, in most families 
some members, at any rate, remain on the native soil, 
and there are now probably many people inhabiting 
the very spot where their ancestors dwelt when Domes- 
day Book was compiled. It is sometimes thought 
that all names get to London sooner or later. They 
may do so, but they do not remain, and I do not 
believe that half of our surnames of long standing are 
represented in the London Directory. 

The name Fillery is a good example of stationary 
character. The only Fillery 2 I ever heard of used to 
bowl for Sussex some thirty or forty years ago. From 
the Percy Cartulary I find that Henry Filleray or 

x Here is a concrete example. Guppy, Homes of Family Names 
(P- 53). says, " The isolated colony of the Norfolk Howells and 
Powells invites some further explanation." I have also been struck 
by the frequent occurrence of Welsh names in medieval Norfolk. 
In an early volume of the Patent Rolls I find that Humfrey de 
Bohun, Earl of Hereford, complains that while he was absent in 
Wales on the King's service, assaults were committed on the ser- 
vants of his household at Norwich. Were there among these ser- 
vants some Welshmen from the Marches who settled down and 
married Norfolk wives ? Some such solution is no doubt the true 
one. In Canada at the present day there are plenty of Macdonalds, 
Macgregors, etc., who speak French only, being descendants of 
disbanded Highland soldiers who took to themselves French- 
Canadian wives in the eighteenth century. 

2 I have since found the name in *. casualty list of the Sussex 
Regiment. 



LOCAL CHARACTER OF SURNAMES 19 

Fyleray, also called Fiz le Rey, i.e. king's son, was a 
Sussex landholder in the thirteenth century. The 
casualty lists now being issued tell the same tale. 
In to-day's (Feb. 11, 1915) paper occurs Wyartt, the 
name of a private in the Suffolks, and, opening 
Bardsley, I find his first example is Lena Wyard, 
(Hund. R., Surf.). My own name, which is very un- 
common, is derived from a village in Northants. It 
has occurred in the casualty lists as that of a private 
in the Northamptons. Peverall is found among the 
Sherwood Foresters, largely recruited from the Peak 
country. The famous name Paston naturally occurs in 
the Norfolk Regiment. Hundreds of similar cases could 
be quoted. It is among the rank and file also that we 
find the great Norman names (Marmion, Maltravers, 
etc.), which have almost disappeared from the peerage. 
The best single source for modern names is un- 
doubtedly the Return of Owners of Land, officially com- 
piled in 1873 and generally called the Modern Domes- 
day Book (MDB.). From the two volumes devoted to 
England and Wales we find that, contrary to the 
opinion of the stump orator, the land of the country 
is held by nearly a million people, the immense majority 
of whom are small holders of the peasant class. As 
the return is by counties, it is easy to trace the names 
regionally in all their forms and corruptions, and to 
establish the locality in which any given surname 
first came into existence. Very often we may find 
the more correct form still borne by the squire and 
all manner of perversions represented by the cottagers 
who are his distant cousins. An odd-looking name 
can often be solved by a comparison with its neigh- 
bours, When we find Bathos by the side of Bathurst 



20 THE STUDY OF SURNAMES 

we recognize a natural corruption. The last five 
names in /- in Essex are Judd, Judson, Justums, Jut- 
son, Jutsum. Here Jud, i.e. Jordan, has given the 
patronymic Judson, altered to Jutson as Hudson has 
become Hutson. Then our love of final -m (cf. Bran- 
som, Hansom, Sansom) has produced Jutsum, from 
which, with a common metathesis (cf. Cripps for 
Crisp), we get the new patronymic Justums. When we 
find Phizacklea in Lancashire, we hardly need the 
intermediate Phizakarley, or the imitative Fitzackerley , 
to guide us to the original Fazakerley, the name of an 
ancient parish now absorbed in Liverpool. In the 
East Riding we find Mainprice in the same locality as 
the perverted Mamprize, and even Mempriss, Mim- 
press, Mainpidge. If a name occurs in isolation, and 
no rapprochement with characteristic names of the 
county is possible, we have to do with an immigrant 
whose kin must be sought elsewhere. In this way 
we can to some extent cover the same ground which 
would be explored in the impossible undertaking of 
examining the parish registers of the whole country. 
As a matter of fact, many of the surnames which 
seem to defy interpretation are found copiously 
represented in special districts. A few hours devoted 
to turning over the leaves of the MDB., or even a 
glance at Guppy, reveals the existence of numbers of 
unfamiliar names which surprise by their forbidding 
uncouthness. The explanation is that they represent 
the name of some medieval homestead, swallowed up 
centuries ago by the growth of towns, or even some 
field-name ; or they may spring from some dialect 
word which had died out before dialects became a 
matter of interest. Some of them might be solved 



LOCAL DISTRIBUTION OF SURNAMES 21 

by local antiquaries, but they defy the philologist. 
Such are Benjafield, which swarms in Dorset, Bosom- 
worth, common in Yorkshire, Cudlipp, 1 found all over 
Devon, Enticknap, common in Surrey and Sussex, 
and the great Cumberland name Routledge. 

Altogether local distribution must be taken into 
account in proposing an etymology. Bardsley derives 
Godsall, Godsell from Godshill (Isle of Wight) ; but it is 
almost entirely a Gloucestershire and Herefordshire 
name [Geoffrey de Godeshale, Fine R., Glouc.]. In 
Norfolk and Suffolk we find Garwood existing strongly 
side by side with Garrood, Garrod, Garrett. This sug- 
gests that Garwood, sometimes local (garth wood), is in 
these counties also the representative of AS. Gaerweard, 
with a change such as we find in Grimwood from 
Grimweard. The northern Yarwood is the same name. 
In the same region we find the similar parallelism of 
Legwood, Legood, Leggott, all probably from AS. Leod- 
geard, of which Leggett is the regular diminutive. 
Gaunt has two well-attested origins, the gaunt [Gilbert 
le Gant, Fine R.], and of Ghent [Richard de Gaunt, 
City F.]. But the home of the name is Lincolnshire, 
which is also, as a fen country, one of the great centres 
of bird nicknames. In that county the crested grebe is 
called the gannet, or gant, and hence we may conclude 
that most of the Lincolnshire Gaunts take their name 
from the bird — 

" These birds frequent . . . the great east fen in Lincolnshire, 
where they are called gaunts " (Pennant). 

The fairly common name Bray has two quite clear 
local origins, viz. from one of the many places in France 

1 This may be identical with Cutcliff, common in the same county, 
but neither is this a specific place-name. 



22 THE STUDY OF SURNAMES 

called Bray, and from Bray in County Wicklow [Robert 
de Bree, -provost de Develine, 1 Doc. III.]. No doubt 
Bray in Berks must also be considered. But the great 
home of the Brays is Cornwall, and Benedict le Bray 
(Close R., Cornwall) shows it to be a nickname from 
a Cornish adjective meaning " fine, brave." 

Finally, in dealing with nicknames, it must be 
remembered that, extraordinary and numerous as 
medieval nicknames are, many of them have gone 
unrecorded. As we have seen (p. i6), many indi- 
viduals, in fact perhaps the majority, had four names, 
of the type John Wilson at Town's End Saddler. But 
most John Wilsons had a fifth name, such as Whitehead, 
Shorthose, Nightingale, or Dolittle, and this fifth name 
stood the poorest chance, as a rule, of getting into 
official records. Therefore, although no solution of 
a name can be accepted as final without documentary 
evidence, it is at least probable that no common 
adjective or noun that could conceivably be used as 
a nickname is altogether absent from our surname list. 

The study of surnames may be regarded as a harm- 
less pastime or as a branch of learning. As a pastime 
it is as innocent as stamp-collecting, and possibly as 
intellectual. As a branch of learning it is an inex- 
haustible, and hitherto practically unworked, mine 
of philological knowledge. A complete dictionary of 
English surnames would not only form a valuable 
supplement to the NED., but would in a great measure 
revolutionize its chronology. This may seem of little 
practical importance at a time when our leaders of 
science, a word which used to mean knowledge, are 
exhorting us in unattractive English to do away with 
1 Dublin, hence the common Irish Devlin. 



NAMES OLDER THAN WORDS 23 

" ce vieux fatras de grec et de latin " and bend all our 
efforts on transforming the rising generation into a 
nation of super-plumbers. 1 But among the little band of 
attar des who rally round the tattered flag of intellectual 
pursuits, there will always be some to whom the study 
of our glorious language will have an irresistible appeal. 
Now language consists of words, and the oldest 
articulate words are names. It is more or less an 
accident that some of these, having become proper 
names, are excluded from the dictionaries. Others 
still discharge a double function and are equally 
the prey of the lexicographer and the name-hunter. 
Dictionaries draw, as a rule, on literary sources, i.e. 
on language which has already reached a somewhat 
artificial phase of evolution, but in the names and 
nicknames of the Middle Ages we hear the every- 
day speech of our ancestors, a disconnected speech 
perhaps, and without that thread of continuity 
which enables us to trace the dictionary word back 
through the centuries, but all the same a speech which 
is generally far older than literary records. Among 
words which occur as surnames in this volume there 
are few of which the examples do not ante-date by 
some centuries the earliest records in the NED. This 
applies especially to obsolete or dialect topographical 

words 2 (ch. iii.), and to trade-names* (ch. v.). 

» 

1 These gentlemen are apparently unaware that the uncanny 
efficiency of the Germans is not due to the neglect of " useless " 
studies. Even in such a by-way of knowledge as the study of 
surnames, almost the only work that can be taken seriously has 
been done by Germans or German-trained philologists. 

1 See, for instance, Borstall (p. 54), Fostall (p. 60). 

a The NED. has cheesemonger (c. 1510), quilter (1563), charwoman 
(1596). The first two are surnames in the Pipe R. for 1186, and 
Alice Charwoman lived in Nottingham in the fourteenth century. 



24 THE STUDY OF SURNAMES 

But there is hardly a noun or an epithet which can 
be used as a nickname, apart from the everyday 
Anglo-Saxon vocabulary, which is not found in the 
Rolls long before its first appearance in literature. 
The nocturnal mammal called a " bat " is usually 
bakke in Middle English, and this is one origin of the 
name Back [Henry le Bak, Coram Rege R. 1297] — 

" Moldewarpis and baches, var. rere-myis " (Wye. Is. ii. 20). 

The NED. dates the form bat from c. 1575. But it 
is a common thirteenth-century nickname [Geoffrey 
le Bat, Fine R., Reginald le Bat, Hund. R.], and 
of course one origin of Batt. l 

The study of surnames also reveals the existence 
of a large Anglo-French vocabulary which is other- 
wise almost unrecorded. These words must have 
been colloquially current during the period when 
the two elements were in process of fusion. In the 
long run they were rejected in favour of the native 
equivalents and dropped out of the language, except 
in so far as they had become fossilized as surnames. 
Examples of such words will be found passim in this 
volume, but they are chiefly illustrated by nicknames 
taken from adjectives or derived from names of birds 
and beasts. These two great classes of surnames, 
which would require a volume to themselves, are not 
included in the present work. One, unfortunately 
obsolete, nickname of this type may, however, be men- 
tioned here. Our familiar " pussy-cat," a word that 

1 Also from Bartholomew and from the AS. Beorht- names. 
Probably also an archaic spelling of " boat " [Stephen del Bat, 
Close R.y, cf. Barge, Galley, etc. (p. 171). Bateman is no doubt 
sometimes for " boatman." 



AN EARLY OCCURRENCE 25 

we should expect to find in popular use long before it 
was put down in black and white, is a modernized 
" puss-cat " — 

" Micia, a pusse-kat, a kitlin " (Florio). 

The NED. first finds it in 1565. But it was a sur- 
name three centuries earlier— 

" Ilyf le Messer vulneravit Robertum Pusekat juxta pontem de 
Corebrigge, ita quod statim obiit " {Northumb. Ass. R. 1256). 



CHAPTER II 

THE TEUTONIC NAME-SYSTEM 

" It seemeth to have been the manner, at giving of names, to 
wish the children might perform and discharge their names, as 
when Gunthram, King of the French, named Clotharius at the font, 
he said, ' Crescat puer et hujus sit nominis executor ' " (Camden). 

The names in use among all the Germanic races, 
including Scandinavia and Iceland, go back to that 
period in the history of the world when all men seem 
to have been poets. When we consider the beauty 
of the oldest of these names, their picturesque connec- 
tion with gods and heroes, war and the wilds, and with 
the great elementary abstract concepts which we no 
longer understand, and compare with them the name 
creations of the Romans, and still more of the Middle 
Ages, commonplace, prosaic, spiteful, or obscene, we 
feel thankful that there was once an age of poetic 
bandits and imaginative pirates. These Teutonic 
names were originally all dithemetic, 1 i.e. each name 

1 This very natural formation is common to the Aryan races, 
with the rather striking exception of the Romans. The chief Celtic 
names exemplify it, e.g. Donald, world-wielder, " much the same 
meaning as Dumnorix " (Macbain), Dugald, black stranger, i.e. 
Dane, Duncan, brown warrior, Morgan, sea-white. It is seen also 
in Oriental names, such as the Biblical Absalom, father of peace, 
Jeremiah, exalted of the Lord, Jonathan, the Lord's gift. This 
latter is a. very favourite combination ; cf. Godiva (Godgifu), 
Theodore, Dorothea, Deodatus, Dieudonne, etc. So also in Arabic 

26 



THE DITHEMETIC TYPE OF NAME 27 

consisted of two elements, e.g. Alfred, fairiy counsel, 
and there can be no doubt that in the earliest times 
the elements were understood by those who bore the 
names, as were the Greek names which they so strik- 
ingly resemble in structure and spirit. This resem-. 
blance has often been pointed out, e.g. Godwin, God 
friend, Theophilus, Folkard, people strong, Demos- 
thenes, Sebert, Sebright, victory bright, Nicophanes. 

At the period with which our historical documents 
deal, these names had largely ceased to have a real 
meaning. The elements of which they were composed 
were drawn chiefly from the archaic and poetic lan- 
guage and these elements were often combined so as to 
make no sense. A very common practice in naming 
children was to compound the name from that of the 
father and mother, somewhat after the practice fol- 
lowed by modern racehorse owners. Or one element 
persisted in a family, e.g. in the six generations from 
Edward the Elder to Edgar Atheling practically all 
the kings and royal princes have names in Ead, 
bliss. The elements are juxtaposed without anything 
to show their grammatical relationship, so that in 
interpreting them one can only indicate the general 
idea which each half expressed. Still, there are many 
examples of these compound names which still occur 
in Anglo-Saxon poetry as common nouns, e.g. Gold 
wine, gold friend, whence our surname Goldwin, 1 is 

Abdallah means " servant of God " (cf. AS. Godescealc), Saladin 
is " honour of the faith," and Nureddin, the name of the Turkish 
commander in Mesopotamia, means " light of the faith." 

1 Hence also Jeudwin, an Anglo-French form [Richard Joldewin 
or Jeudewyne, IpM.}. Jawdewin's Lane, Oxford, was perhaps 
named after Richard Jeodewyne, who is mentioned in the Godstow 
Cartulary, 

4 



28 THE TEUTONIC NAME-SYSTEM 

used of a liberal patron, Heremann, army man, whence 
Harman, means a warrior, Maegenheard, might hard, 
our Maynard, is found as an adjective in the sense of 
strong . 

Of the names dealt with here the great majority 
are common to the Teutonic languages, with certain 
small differences according as the forms are German, 
Scandinavian, or English. Some belong especially 
to one or other of these language groups, e.g. the 
names which contain the elements Brand, flame, sword, 
Cytel, cauldron, are Scandinavian, while those in 
-nand, bold, e.g. Ferdinand, are continental and of 
rare occurrence in Anglo-Saxon. In the following 
paragraphs I give the names in the normalized West- 
Saxon spelling, from Searle's Onomasticon Anglo- 
Saxonicum, calling attention occasionally to the Norse 
or continental forms and the surnames which they 
have produced in English and other languages. I have 
already [Romance of Names, ch. vii.) mentioned a 
number of obvious examples. Here I have rather 
selected those of which the origin is not immediately 
apparent or which have an unusual appearance. The 
great variation in the modern English forms is due 
to many accidents of time and place, but chiefly to 
the fact that the same name has often reached us 
through different channels — English, French, and 
Flemish. Possibly some of them are really Celtic 
names which have assumed an imitative form. It is 
thought, for instance, that Cerdic may be for Cradock, 
Caractacus. If this is so, Scott was doubly unfortunate 
in choosing a Welsh name for a typical Anglo-Saxon 
and then turning it into the ghost-name Cedric. 

The Teutonic name-system was carried into every 



MALE AND FEMALE NAMES 29 

corner of Europe, first by the Vikings, and later by 
those valiant Norman knights who were in the habit 
of setting out with a handful of followers to carve 
themselves out a kingdom. Thus Roderick, fame 
mighty, is found as wide apart as Wales {Pr other o,Ryrie, 
Prytherick) and Russia (Rurik), and has named such 
national heroes as the Spanish Cid (Don Rodrigo), 
Roderick Dhu, and Rory O'More. For fuller informa- 
tion on the historic warriors and saints who caused 
certain names to be popular in special regions those 
interested should consult Charlotte Yonge's Christian 
Names, a book which contains a vast amount of learn- 
ing couched in gracious form, though the etymological 
theories put forward are sometimes inaccurate and 
out of date. 

Most of the elements 1 used in these names can be 
put indifferently first or last, e.g. Hereric, whence 
Herrick, Richere, whence Richer, Reacher. Some are 
used only initially, e.g. Mcegen, as in Msegenfrith, 
whence Manfred, others only finally, e.g. -laf, as in 
Frithulaf, now Freelove, or -mund, as in Frithumund, 
whence Freemont. Generally the gender of the second 
theme corresponds with that of the person, e.g. names 
in the feminine nouns -thryth and -hild were given to 
females only. Examples are ^Ethelthryth, Awdrey, 
Gserthryth (Gertrude), Gartrude, and the two fierce 
queens Brunehild and Chriemhild. But this was not 
a fixed rule ; there are, for instance, many male 
names ending in the feminine -mund. 

The elements which enter into the composition of 
Teutonic names fall into various groups, such as 
deities and supernatural beings, animals, abstract 
1 The meanings of these elements are discussed further on. 



30 THE TEUTONIC NAME-SYSTEM 

ideas, weapons, titles and epithets, adjectives. The 
chief divine elements are God, Ans, Ing. 1 The great 
names of Odin and Freya seem to have been avoided, 
but Thor is very common. The element God appears 
to have been often felt as identical with good. 
Hence, perhaps, the later forms such as Goodrich, 
Goodwin, and also the shortened Good, which is by 
no means always a nickname. Here belong such 
apparently insignificant names as Gobi, Gobbett, 
Gobby, shortened from such compounds as Godbeorht 
(Theophanes), Godbeald (Theocrates). The latter 
survives in full as Godbolt and Goble, while the 
former is represented in French by Gobert and Joubert. 
Shortened forms of God names are German Goethe 
and Italian Giotto. It appears also as the second 
element in many modern English surnames, e.g. 
Wingood, from AS. Winegod, Osgood, Hosegood, Horse- 
good, from AS. Osgod. 

The Aasir r as Miss Yonge calls them, the Arisen as 
they are named by the Germans, were the divine race 
inhabiting Asgard, the Norse Olympus. This very 
interesting prefix, which may be taken as almost 
equivalent to God, appears in three forms. The Norse 
is As, the Anglo-Saxon is Os, and the German is Ans. 
From Ascytel we have Ashkettle and the -contracted 
Askell, Astell, etc., while in France a kind of com- 
promise between the Norse and German forms produced 
Anquetil, introduced into England as Ankettle. So 
also Fr. Angot is the doublet of Osgood. In Haskell 
we have the common addition of the aspirate [Has- 
chetill Werglice, Salisbury Chart.]. Several surnames 

1 The final -ing, which appears in an immense number of names 
derived from Anglo-Saxon, was a. tribal or patronymic suffix. 



COMPOUNDS OF THOR 31 

preserve the Anglo-Saxon form (Osborn, Osman, Osmond, 
Oswald, etc.), while the German gave the famous 
Anselm, whence our Ansell, Hansell and the Dutch 
dim. Enslin. Ing, the name of a demi-god, seems 
to have been early confused with the Christian angel 
in the prefix Engel, common in German names, e.g. 
Engelhardt, anglicized as Engleheart. 1 In Anglo- 
Saxon we find both Ing and Ingel. The modern 
name Ingoll represents Ingweald (Ingold), and Inglett 
is a dim. of similar origin. The cheerful Inglebright 
is from Ingelbeorht. The simple Ing has given, 
through Norse Ingwar, the Scottish Ivor. 

The Norse Thor became AS. Thur, which in the 
compound Thurcytel gave Scottish Torquil (whence 
MacCorquodale), and our Thur kettle, Thurkell, Thurtle, 
Thirkettle, Thirkell, Thirkhill, Turtle, and Tuttle,' as 
in Tuttlebee, from Thirkleby (Yorks). Thoroughkettle 
is found in the eighteenth century. Turketine may be 
formed in the same way as Anketin, Rosketin (p. 33), 
but Henry de Turkedene (Glouc. Cart.) suggests a local 
origin, from Turkdene (Glouc.) with the ending 
changed as in Heseltine (Hazeldean). Other com- 
pounds of Thor are Thurgisl, whence Thurgell, 
Thurgser, now Thurgar, and Thurfrith, the wife of 
Hereward (Torfrida), surviving as Turfery, Tuffery, 
Tollfree. The Thur names did not nourish in 
Germany, but the Norsemen took them to France, 
whence as Turbert, Turgis, Turpin, they came to 
England and gave Turbott, Turgoose, etc. The very 
common Thurstan became in France Tustain, Tustin, 

1 This may, however, be native [Petronilla f. Engelliert, Fine J?.] 

2 This has also a local origin, from toothill, a watch-tower — 
" David dwellide in the tote Ml " (Wye. 2 Sam. v. 9). 



32 THE TEUTONIC NAME-SYSTEM 

Tutin, all now well-established English surnames. I 
fancy that this will one day be found to be the 
origin of the supposed Celtic Tristram, of which 
the oldest form appears to be Durstan. Tarbatk is 
a curious corruption of Thurbeorht and Tarbun of 
Thurbeorn. 

With these mythological names may be grouped those 
in Ealh, temple, and the legendary Hun, giant, and Mlf, 
fairy. In connection with the first it should be noted 
that four of the commonest Anglo-Saxon elements, 
Mlf, Mthel, Eald, Ealh, very easily became confused, 
especially after the Conquest, and hence modern sur- 
names in AI-, Ayl-, El- (Alwin, Aylward, Elwin) may 
belong to any of them. We find historic Ealhfriths 
who were known also as Alfrith and Alfridus, which, 
as surnames, would easily fall together with those 
derived from Alfred and ^Elfric. So Aymer, Aylmer, 
may represent, and does in individual cases, both 
iElfmser and iEthelmser. The most famous name in 
Ealh is Ealhwine (Alcuin), which survives as Allchin, 
Alkin, and is perhaps not altogether foreign to Hawkins. 
Allcard is AS. Ealhheard, while Fr. Aucher corresponds 
to AS. Ealhhere, and may be derived directly from 
it, as the corresponding element is scarcely found in 
continental German names. Names in Mlf are very 
numerous and correspond to continental forms in Alb, 
Thus our Avery, less commonly Affery, Affray, Allfree, 
which stands for both Alfred and .ZElfric, is the same 
as Fr. Aubrey from Alberic. Alflatt, Elfleet, Elflitt is 
from yElfflfed, elf purity, Alliott from ^Elfgeat, Elver 
from oElfhere, Elvidge, Elvish from .ZElfheah, Elnough 
from jElfnoth, Elston from ^Elfstan, Elwall from 
iElfweald, and very probably [Halsey from ^Elfsige, 



ANIMAL NAMES 33 

with the incorrect H- 1 which we find in many names 
of this class. The tribal name of the dwarfish Huns 
was applied, curiously enough, in Old German to 
legendary giants, and is still so used in poetic style. 
It is not common in purely Anglo-Saxon names, though 
we have a few good examples, e.g. Hunfrith, whence 
Humphrey, and Hunbeorht which is Fr. Humbert and 
appears also in the Ger. Humperdinck. Hunbeald is 
so rare that we dare hardly invoke it to explain our 
Honeyball, but it is represented by Ger. Humboldt. 

When we come to the names of animals which were 
used in the formation of human names, we naturally 
find a great difference between the Greeks and the 
Teutons. Among the former we find chief honour 
paid to the lion (Leonidas, Timoleon), and the horse 
(Philip, Hippolytus, Xanthippe). To the old Teutons 
the lion was unknown, though the rather late name 
Leonard, lion strong, formed from it, appears in most 
European languages. The horse was also of little 
account on the salt seas and in the German forests, 
and the legendary nicknames of the Jutish invaders, 
" stallion " and " mare" (Hengist and Horsa), alluded 
to their flag, on which the white horse was a strange 
exotic beast to be classed with dragons and griffins. 
The only common Anglo-Saxon name formed directly 
from " horse " is Roscytel. This is fairly common in 
Middle English, and still survives as Roskill [Swein 
f. Roskil, Pipe R.], while the derivative Rosketin 

1 Examples are Hatchard (OF. Achard), Hansell (p. 31), 
Haskell (p. 30), Hasluch (AS. Aslac), Hosmer (AS. OsmEer), and 
Hansard, from OF. Ansard, OG. Anshard. The use of " Hansard " 
by modern writers on economics in the sense of a member of the 
Hanse League is a blunder. The first example of this use in the 
NED. is dated 1832 I 



34 THE TEUTONIC NAME-SYSTEM 

(cf. Anketin from Anscytel) has given Ruskin [Andrew 
Rosekin, Pat. R.]. The original Roskill has generally 
been swallowed up by Russell. Rosamond, Roseman 
contain the same element, but are of continental origin. 
For the Teutons the two kings of the forest were 
the bear and the boar, in connection with which we 
observe a very curious phenomenon. Beorn, so com- 
mon in Anglo-Saxon names, means warrior, while in 
Norse and German it means bear. Eofor, equally 
common, means boar in Anglo-Saxon and German, but 
warrior in Norse. In each case one language has 
personified the formidable beast into a human being. 
Any modern Barnard or Everett is therefore etymologic- 
ally a strong bear or boar, or a strong warrior, accord- 
ing as his ancestry is pure Anglo-Saxon or continental. 
The favourite Beorn name was Beornheard, whence 
Burnard, Burnett, Barnard, Barnett, etc. It has also 
many derivatives in French and German (Behrens, 
Bernhardt, etc.). Other names of this group which 
have survived are Beornheah, now Barnish, Burnage, 
Burnish (cf. Alphege, Elvish, from ^Elfheah), Beornher, 
one origin of the common Fr. Bernier, and of our 
Berner, Beornstan, now Burnstone, Beornweald, now 
Barnwell, Bernal, Burnell, and Beornwulf which would 
give the same result, but some of the English names 
here enumerated have an alternative origin. The 
same element is final in Sigebeorn, now Sibome, 
Thurbeorne, now Thorium, Wigbeorn, now Whyborn, 
etc. The simple Ber does not appear in Anglo- 
Saxon names, but Fr. Beraud, Beroalde, OG. Berwald, 
is the chief source of our Barrett. But the most inter- 
esting of the " bear " names in Fr. Berenger, OG. 
Beringar. It was very popular in England and shows 



THE WOLF 35 

the common confusion of -r-, -1-, -«-, in the modern sur- 
names Barringer, Berringer, Ballinger, Bellinger, Ben- 
ninger [John Beringer or Beniger, IpM.]. Its latest 
transformation is Bellhanger. Eofor is less common in 
Anglo-Saxon than the corresponding Eber in Germany 
(Ebers, Eberlin, etc.), and it is possible that the 
favourite Everard, Everett came to us from Eberhard, 
via Old French. But AS. Eoforwine, besides giving 
Everwin, has run riot with the vowels ! in Erwin, Irwin, 
Or win, Urwin. 

Quite as important as the bear and the boar are 
the mysterious wolf and raven, the companions of 
Odin. AS. Wulf appears initially in a great number 
of names, and the modern name Wolfe, Woof, is some- 
times a shortened form of these rather than a nick- 
name. Most historical of all is the dim. Ulfilas, the 
name of the translator of the Gothic Bible. Among 
compounds of Wulf are Wulfgar (Woolgar), Wulfnoth 
(Woolnough), Wulfred, Wulfric (Woolfrey, Woolfries), 
Wulfstan, whence the local Wolstenholme and Wolston- 
craft, Wulfwig (Woolley), and Wulfwine (Woolven, 
Woollen). In the Norse forms the initial has disap- 
peared, e.g. Ulph, Uff, and Uffendell, the doublet of 
the native Wolfendale, etc. In French these names 
replace initial W- by G- or Gu-, e.g. Golfier (Wulf here), 
one source of our Gulliver and the origin of the local 
Montgolfier. Almost as numerous are the names in 
which -wulf is final, but here the origin is generally 

1 Our surnames come from the dialects, and the dialects do as 
they like with the vowels, e.g. from Lamb we have Lomb, Lumb, 
common Middle English forms, and also Lemm, Limb. Long is also 
Lang, Lung, Leng, and possibly sometimes Ling. Cf. the local 
Crankhorn and Crankshaw, the first element of which, meaning 
" crooked," also occurs as Crenk-, Crink-, Cronk-, Crunk-. 



36 THE TEUTONIC NAME-SYSTEM 

disguised, 1 e.g. Addle from .ZEthelwulf, with which cf. 
the fine German name Adolf and its atrocious " latiniza- 
tion " into Adolphus, Raddle, Rattle, from Rgedwulf, 
Kinnell from Cynewulf, etc. In French names of 
similar origin the termination usually becomes -ouf, or 
-oul, e.g. Burnouf, Renouf correspond to AS. Brun- 
wulf, Regenwulf, while Raoul is our Ralph, 2 Relf, i.e. 
Rsedwulf. 

The raven appears initially in Rsfencytel, whence 
Rankill, Raefenhild, which is one source of Ravenhill, 
and Raefensweart, now Ravenshear, Ramshire, Ramsker. 
Wgelrsefen survives as Wallraven. The simple Raven, 
common also in place-names, is more often an Anglo- 
Saxon personal name than a later nickname from the 
bird. The raven names are especially Norse, and the 
corresponding German names, and hence Old French 
names also, are not numerous, but we have con- 
tractions of OG. Raban in the well-known dithemetic 
names Bertram and Wolfram. More numerous are the 
eagle names, beginning with Earn in Anglo-Saxon. 
By far the commonest of these is Arnold, a favourite 
German name, which takes in Low German the form 
Arend, the source of the Norfolk name Arrand. It is 
rare in Anglo-Saxon, so the probability is that our 
Arnall represents rather the much commoner Earnwulf. 
Two especially interesting Anglo-Saxon names are 
Earnthur, whence the so-called Keltic Arthur, and 
Earncytel, now Arkell, Arkle, Argles, Arkcoll, etc. From 
Arthur come the imitative Authors and Earthy. With 

1 Endings such as -weald, -wulf, -Mid are often confused, e.g. 
Gunnell represents both Gunwulf and Gunhild. 

2 Ralph itself is, however, due to French influence, as is shown 
by the loss of the medial -d-. 



NAMES OF WAR 37 

the same group may be classed the Norse Orm, dragon, 
serpent (worm), whence the famous Guthorm, still 
existing as Guthrum, Goodrum, while Wormald from 
Wurmbeald shows the Anglo-Saxon form. We have 
also a few names in Swan-, e.g. Swanhild, now Swannell ; 
but this is for AS. swan, a " swain " (see p. 42). The 
modern name Swan is more often a nickname. Many 
names similar to the above were used as cognomina 
by the Romans, e.g. Ursus, Aper, Lupus, Corvus, 
Aquila, but these were nicknames pure and simple. 

Among common Anglo-Saxon names we find no 
fewer than five elements, Bead, Gund (Guth), Heath, 
Hild, Wig, which contain the idea of war or battle. 
The names of Hildebrand and his son Hadubrand are 
thus identical in meaning. Sometimes these elements 
occur in combination, e.g. Gunhild (Gunnell), Heath- 
wig (Hadaway, Hathaway 1 ). Other examples are 
Beaduric (Badrick, Batters), Gundwine (Gunwin), 
Heathured {Hatred), Heathuwine (Hadwin), Hildegar 
(Hilger, Hillyar), Wigman (Wyman). Hilditch, Hildick 
looks local, but is AS. Hildheah, though the name is 
not in Searle [William f. Hildich, Close R.]. Wig is 
especially common as second element and is responsible 
for many names in -way which have a local appearance, 
e.g. Ellway (^Elfwig), Harraway (Herewig), Kennaway 
(Coenwig), Goodway (Godwig), Redway, Reddaway 
(Raedwig), Otway, Ottoway (Othwig), Bothway, Bother- 
way (Bodwig 2 ), and Hadaway (v.s.). So also in the 
first syllable we get Way-, as in Waymark (Wigmearc), 
Way good (Wigod), alternating with Why-, Wy-, as in 

1 Also local, of the " heath way." 

2 Not in Searle, but certified by the Norman form Bovig (DB.), 
and Alan Butewey {Hund. if.). 



38 THE TEUTONIC NAME-SYSTEM 

Whybird (Wigbeorht), Whyborn, Wyburn (Wigbeorn), 
etc. With this group may be classed also names in 
Sige, victory, e.g. Sibbald (Sigebeald), Sibary, Sibree 1 
(Sigebeorht), Sinnott, Sennett (Sigenoth), Syrett, Secret 
(Sigered), Search, 1 Surch (Sigeric), Brixey (Beorhtsige) ; 
in Here, army, e.g. Folchere, whence Folker, Fulker, 
Fulcher, Futcher, etc., Heregod, now Hargood ; and in 
Fcer, danger, e.g. Faerman (Fairman, 3 Farman, Fire- 
man). It is not impossible that our homely Farthing 
may sometimes derive from Fasrthegn. 

Equally warlike are the numerous names derived 
from weapons. Arms of offence and defence are 
/Esc, spear (ash), as in iEscwine (Ashwin), Bil, sword, 
as in Bilheard {Billiard), Bilweald (Billiald), Brand, 
sword (flame), as in Colbrand (Colbrain), Ecg, edge 
(of the sword), as in Ecgheard (Eachard), Gcer, spear, 
as in Gserwine (Garvin), Othgaer (Odgers), Helm, helmet, 
as in Helmaer (Helmer), Ord, spear point, as in Ordwig 
(Ordway), Ordgser (Or gar), shortened also to Ord 
[Humphrey FitzOrd, Salisbury Chart.}, and Rand, 
shield, as in Randwulf * (Randall, Rendle, Rundie), 
Beorhtrand (Bertrand), to be distinguished from Beorht- 
ram, 8 bright raven (Bartram) . But some names in Bil 
belong to William, for we find William " dictus Byl " 
in the thirteenth century. Here belongs probably 
the dim. Billion. Brand is much commoner alone 
than in compounds, and has also become Brond. 

1 For this rather unusual development cf. the pronunciation of 
Kirkcudbright. 

2 Reginald Serich or Serche {Coram Rege R. 1297). 

3 Of course, also a nickname ; cf. Fr. Belhomme. 

4 Randolph (shield wolf), Ranulf (raven wolf), Radulf, Ralph 
(counsel wolf), are separate names, though often confused. 

6 Neither name is in Searle. They came to us through French. 



ABSTRACT IDEAS 39 

Gellibrand, Gillibrand must represent Gislbrand [John 
Gilibrond, Lane. Ass. R. 1176-1285], though the name 
is not in Searle. Cytel, Ketel, cauldron (of the gods), 
is now found as Kettle, Kittle, Chettle, Cattle, etc., as 
well as initially in Kettlebum [Henry Ketelbern, 
Chart. R.], and in many names of local origin. 
Chilvers is for Cytelweard, found in DB. as Chilvert. 
Hence also Kilvert. 

Forming a transition from war to peace we have the 
important elements Burg, refuge, castle, and Mund, 
protection, as in Burgheard [Bur chard, Burchett), 
Wilburg (Wilbur), .ZEthelmund (Almond), Faermund 
(Farrimond) . Here also we might put Weard, guard, 
the derivatives of which easily get mixed with those of 
Heard, e.g. Coenweard (Kenward, Kennard). Frithu, 
peace, has given us many favourite font-names which 
have later become surnames, e.g. Domfrith (Dumphrey, 
Dumfiress), Frithugar (Fricker), Frithmund (Fiddy- 
ment 1 ). To the last name, or to some other com- 
pound of Frithu, such as the once favourite Frithu- 
swith or Friswid, patron saint of the University of 
Oxford, belong Fiddy, Fiddian, Phythian, Phethean. 
This element often becomes Free in modern surnames, 
e.g. Freestone from Frithustan, Freelove from Frithulaf 
[Frelof Pollard, Chart. R.]. It also appears in Frizzle, 
Froysell, which in Scotland has unaccountably become 
Frazer — 

" Simond ■ Frysel 
That was traytour and fykell " (Song, temp. Ed. I.) — 

1 The r is lost, as in Biddy (Bridget), Fanny (Frances). 

8 The common Middle English use of Simond for Simon suggests 
that the modern Symonds, Simmonds is only occasionally from AS. 
Sigemund — " Sy mound, I have sum thing for to seye to thee " 
(Wye. Luke, vii. 40). 



40 THE TEUTONIC NAME-SYSTEM 

and in Fr. Froissart, represented by our Frushard, 
Frusher. 

The importance of the tribal idea is reflected in the 
frequent occurrence of Folc, Leod, Theod, all meaning 
people, nation, e.g. Folcweard {Folkard, Vaulkhard), 
Leodgar (Ledger), Theodric (Terry, Derrick, Dethridge, 
Deny, Todrick), Theodbeald (Theobald, Tibbies, 
Tipple, Tidball, Tidbald, Tidboald, Tudball, Deeble, 
Dipple, Tebbutt, Debutt, Dyball, etc.). We have also 
the shortened Theed, Teed [William Thede, Hund. R.]. 
With this important group may be compared the 
numerous Greek names in demos and laus, e.g. Demo- 
critus, Laomedon, Nicodemus, Agesilaus, etc. The 
public meeting of the tribe is commemorated by names 
in Mceihel and Thing, both meaning assembly. From 
the first come Mauger, Major (Maethelgaer), and Maber, 
Malabar, and Fr. Maubert (Msethelbeorht) ; from 
the second our Dingle, Tingle, a common personal 
name in Middle English [William Dingel, Hund. R.~], 
from AS. Thingwulf or Dingolf. Similarly Greek had 
names such as Anaxagores, Pythagoras derived from 
the agora, the market-place, which was to the Greeks 
what the forum was to the Romans. The modern 
surname Lawman may be AS. Lagmann, lawyer, the 
name of the poet whom we call Layamon, but the 
latter is so rare a name that it is probably safer to 
refer Lawman to Lawrence (cf. Jackman, Hobman, etc.). 

A very common element connected with authority 
is Weald (wield), rule, as in Wealdwine, now Walwin, 
Wallen, but occurring much more commonly as a 
suffix, e.g. Beorhtweald (Brettle, Brittle), Grimbeald 
(Grimble), Hygebeald (Hubble), Winebeald (Wimble), 
etc. Property and its rights are represented by 



MISCELLANEOUS COMPOUNDS 41 

Geard, enclosure, " garth," Haga, enclosure, " haw," 
Mearc, mark, boundary, and Stan, stone, probably 
also in this case a boundary mark. Examples are 
Frithugeard (Freeguard), Haganfrith (Henfrey), Wig- 
mearc (Wymark, Waymark), Goldstan (Goldstone), 
Stanmaer (Stammers), Stanbeald (Stumbles : ). To Haga 
belongs the famous Nibelung Hagen, while Hammond 
is Fr. Ramon, short for OG. Haganmund. The Middle 
English contraction of Hagan was Hain — 

" Heyne hath a newe cote and his wyf another " {Piers Plowman) — 

the origin of our Haines, Haynes, which may also be 
from the same word in its literal sense of hedge, en- 
closure. Land and sea have given us Lambert (Land- 
beorht), Saffrey, Savory (Ssefrith), Seagram, Seagrim 
(Saegrim), and especially Sagar, Sayers, Sears and 
many other variants (Saegaer). These compounds are 
often not to be distinguished from those of Sige (p. 38), 
e.g. Seawright may represent Sseric or Sigeric. 

From a very large number of abstract ideas we may 
select the following — Amal, work, as in Amalric, 
whence, or from the transposed Amalric, come, chiefly 
through French, our Amory, Amery, Emery, Imray, 
Imrie, while the Italian form Amerigo ultimately 
named a continent ; Dceg, day, as in Daegheard, 
Daggett, Daegmser, Darner, Dsegmund, now Daymond, 
Dayman, Damant, etc., often altered to Diamond, 
and the shortened forms Dack and Day, the latter 
of which has other and more common origins ; Ead, 
bless, the first element in so many Anglo-Saxon 

1 Alan Stumbel {Pat. R.) ; cf. Bundle for Randle. " Rondulf 
theVeve " {Piers Plowm. A. ii. 78) is in the variants Rainald and 
Reynald. 



42 . THE TEUTONIC NAME-SYSTEM 

names, some of which are now a little disguised, e.g. 
Ager, Adger from Eadgar, Admer from Eadmasr ; 
Hyge, mind, courage, as in Hygebeorht, whence 
Hubert, Hubbard, Hibbert,Hobart, and the favourite ME. 
Hugh from which we have so many derivatives (Huggins, 
Howchin, Hewlings, Hullett, etc.) ; Laf, remnant, as 
in Anlaf, 1 now Oliffe ; Msegen, might, as in Msegenhild, 
one source of Meynell [Peter Maynild, Pat. R.] ; Noth, 
fame, as in Nothgaer, whence Ger. Notker, Fr. Nodier, 
and perhaps some of our Nutters ; Reed, counsel, of 
which the most popular compound was Rasdwulf, our 
Ralph, Relf, Raw, and, via Fr. Raoul, Raoulin, our 
Rawle, Rawlin a ; Thane, thanks, as in Tancred or 
Tankard and Ger. Danckwertz. Most of these can also 
occur finally, e.g. ^Etheldaeg, Allday, Ealdraed, Aldred, 
Aldritt, Alldread, etc. 

Besides Beorn (p. 34), Anglo-Saxon used Mann for 
warrior, hero. This occurs as second element in a great 
number of compounds of a descriptive kind, e.g. 
Freoman (Freeman) , Northman (Norman), Heardman 
(Hardman), etc., many of which are of course also 
nicknames of later formation. For servant we have 
Scealc, as in Godescealc, one source of Godsell, Gutsell, 
but much commoner in German (Gottschalk) , and 
Swegen or Swan,' usually occurring alone, Swain, 
Swan. All of these elements have poetically the 
meaning of warrior and in prose that of servant. 
Cuth, acquaintance, " kith," occurs in the favourite 
Cuthbeald and Cuthbeorht, the former of which shares 

1 This is the Anglo-Saxon form of Norse Olafr, Oliver. 
1 Rolfe, Roff have often interchanged with this group, but really 
represent ON. Hrolfr, cognate with Ger. Rudolf, fame wolf. 
8 Norse and Anglo-Saxon forms of the same word. 



EPITHETS 43 

Cobbold with Godbeald, while the latter survives as 
Cobbett, Cubitt. Cuttell, Cottle may stand for either 
Cuthhelm or Cuthwulf. Wine, friend, is very com- 
mon both as initial and final, e.g. Winebeald (Winbott), 
Glsedwine (Gladwin). The common Unwin, un-friend, 
enemy, is very rare as an Anglo-Saxon name, and must 
generally have been rather a nickname. Vinegar seems 
to be an imitative spelling of Winegaer. Gisl, hostage, 
is the first element of Gilbert, AS. Gislbeorht, but its 
popularity came through French. From Gislhere 
comes Ger. Gessler, the villain of the Tell myth. 
Thurgisl is the origin of Thurgill, and also of Fr. 
Turgis, whence Eng. Sturgess, and Todkill is earlier 
Theodgild, probably for Theodgisl. Wseltheof means 
the thief of slaughter, with a first element which we 
find in Valkyrie and Valhalla, while Friththeof, the 
hero of an ancient saga and a modern North Pole 
expedition, means thief of peace. Some authorities 
think the ending was originally -theow, servant, slave, 
which appears to survive in Walthew, Waltho, Waldo. 
Wiht, creature, sprite, is very common as first element, 
e.g. Wihtric, now Whittrick, Wightgar, now Widger. 
Another form, Uht, appears in the popular Uhtred, 
whence Oughtred and the imitative Outright. 

Among simple adjectives the commonest are Mthel, 
noble, as in .ZEthelweard (Aylward, Adlard, Allard) ; 
Beorht, bright, as in Beorhtman (Brightman ; cf . Greek 
Androcles), Beorhtgifu (Brighteve), Beorhtmaer (Bright- 
more, Brimmer), also very common finally, e.g. 
Gundbeorht, whence Fr. Gondibert, our Gombert, 
Gumpert, and Ger. Gompertz ; Beald, bold, as in Beald- 
here (Balder), Daegbeald (Daybell, Dabell) ; Cene, 
keen, bold, as in Cenered (Kindred), equivalent to Ger. 

5 



44 THE TEUTONIC NAME-SYSTEM 

Conrad (Thrasybulus) ; Cyne, royal, as in Cynesige 
(Kinsey), Cynewulf (Kinnell) ; Deor, dear, as in Deor- 
weald (Dorr ell, Durrell) ; Eald, old, as in Ealdwig 
(Aldwy) ; Eorp, swarthy, as in Eorpwine (Orpen), 
common also in the shortened form Earp, Orpe , Freo, 
free, as in Freobeorn (Freeborn) ; Grim, grim, as in 
Grimbeald (Grimble), whence also, by a common meta- 
thesis, Gumbrell 1 ; Healf, half, as in Healfdene (Hal- 
dane), the " half Dane " ; Heard, hard, strong, as in 
Heardbeorht, which has contributed to Herbert, Har- 
bor d, etc., Stanheard (Stannard) and Gif heard (Giffard), 
the latter rare in Anglo-Saxon, but a favourite Norman 
name (cf. Ger. Gebhardt) ; Leof, dear, as in Leofsige 
(Livesey, Lovesey), Leofred and Leofric (Livery, Luffery); 
Hlud, loud, famous, rare in Anglo-Saxon, but very 
common in German names, e.g. Ludwig, Luther, whence 
Fr. Louis, Lothair, etc. ; Ric, powerful, rich, as in 
Ricbeald (Richbell), Ricweald (Riggall), Ricweard 
(Richard, 1 Rickwood, Record), Leofric (Leveridge, 
Loveridge) ; Snel, swift, valiant, as in Snelgser (Snelgar) ; 
Wacer, bold, as in Eadwacer (Edicker), corresponding to 
the continental Odoacer ; Wealh, foreign, as in Walkling, 
Wakeling, a dim. of Old French origin, Vauquelin. 

Two common elements which hardly fall into any 
of the classes already mentioned are Regen and Gold. 
The former, related to Goth, ragin, counsel, seems to 
have been used in Anglo-Saxon as a simple intensive. 
From shortened forms of the common Regenweald 
(Reginald, Reynold, Fr. Renaud), Regenheard (Reynard, 
Renyard, Fr. Renard), Regenhere (Rayner, Fr. Regnier), 

1 For the change of vowel cf. Grimmett, Grummett, which are 
common side by side in Lincolnshire. 

2 This is also from Richard. 



SHORTENED FORMS 45 

etc., we sometimes get Raine, Raines, while Raybould is 
from Fr. Reybaud, corresponding to Regenbeald. Gold 
occurs both as initial and final, e.g. Goldhavoc [Gold- 
hawk), Goldwine (Goldwin, Jeudewin), Inggold (Ingold, 
Ingle) . Goldmore represents Goldmsr, though this is not 
in Searle [Guldemor w. of Richard Astmund, Fine R.]. 

The frequency with which any given Anglo-Saxon 
name occurs as a modern surname is not so much due 
to its wide use before the Conquest as to its associa- 
tion with some great personality. After the Conquest 
our baptismal system became, in the main, French, 
although the French names in use were largely cognate 
with the Anglo-Saxon names which they superseded 
(see p. 10). But the memory of famous saints, like 
Guthlac and Cuthbert, or abbots like Thurcytel and 
Ealhwine, was reverenced in those districts where they 
had lived and worked, and their names were given to 
children born of parents who had worshipped at their 
shrines. 

As we have noticed here and there, the modern 
surname often represents only the first element of the 
dithemetic personal name. A notable example is 
Folc, which owed its popularity to the Angevin dynasty. 
We find among its variants, Folk, Fulk, Fewkes, 
Foulkes, Foakes, Fooks, Fowkes, Folkes, Volks, Yokes,' 
and, with metathesis, Flook, Fluke, Fluck, Flux, while 
Fogg, Fuge, Fudge, Fuke are shortened from its com- 
pound Fulcher (Folker, Fulker, Futcher, Fudger, Volker, 

1 Here sometimes belongs Vaux, usually local, from one of 
many French place-names formed from vol. Vauxhall was once 
a manor belonging to the notorious Falkes de Breaute. His name, 
really the nominative of Falcon, Facon, survives as Fakes, Fawkes, 
F takes, Feggs. Though distinct from Fulk, the two names have 
been confused. 



46 THE TEUTONIC NAME-SYSTEM 

etc.). Foggathorp (Yorks) is Fulcartorp in DB., while, 
in the Coram Rege R. (1297), the same man is referred 
to as Henry Fulcher and Henry Fouch. The famous 
French name Foch is of course cognate. Other 
shortened names of this type, not already mentioned, 
are Oram from the Norse Orm [Orum solus, Lib. Vit.] 
and Worms from the Anglo-Saxon form, as in Wurm- 
here, Frew, From, from Freowine, whence Frewin, Fruen, 
Gold, generally shortened from some such name as 
Goldwine, Main, Mayne, from Maynard or some other 
compound of Mcegen, Wigg from one of the many 
Wig names, Winks, perhaps from Wincthryth (Lib. 
Vit.), etc. Many of these are simple, but a great 
many of our short names of Anglo-Saxon origin are 
very difficult to identify. This difficulty is increased 
by the fact that names of this type are seldom recorded 
in the Rolls. The latter give almost invariably, in 
whatever language they are written, the font-name in 
its full conventional form. Occasionally a clue helps 
us, as in the case of Fogg and Fudge (v.s.), but the task 
of extending the work of Kemble » by identifying the 
great mass of these names with their originals still 
awaits an enthusiast. 

N.B. — To have included many medieval examples 
would have made the foregoing chapter quite unread- 
able. The author's Dictionary of Surnames, if it is 
ever completed, will contain evidence of the survival 
and alteration of these Anglo-Saxon names. 

1 In his pamphlet, The Names, Surnames, and Nicknames of the 
Anglo-Saxons (Lond. 1846). This task has already been attempted, 
for German, by Starck, in his Kosenamen der Germanen (Vienna, 
1868). 



CHAPTER III 

SOME LOCAL SURNAMES 

" Nor indeed is he capable to beare any rule or office in town or 
countrey, who is utterly unacquainted with John an Okes and John 
a Stiles " (Howell, Forraine Travell). 

Apart from the innumerable names derived from 
towns, villages and estates, we have a very large 
number which originate from features of the land- 
scape (Hill, Wood, Field), or from specific buildings or 
parts of buildings (Church, House, Kitchen). Many of 
the words from which such names come are quite 
obsolete or survive only in local dialect. Some of 
these, such as Hurst, Shaw, Thwaite, etc., survive very 
strongly in compounds, and are often curiously cor- 
rupted. For these, of which I have given a summary 
account in my Romance of Names, see ch. iv. Here 
I propose to deal rather with a number of obsolete or 
unfamiliar words- which occur more often in their 
simple form. A few others are included because of 
their peculiar use as surnames. The list, though by 
no means exhaustive, contains a very large number 
of names which have never been explained, and the 
examples by which they are illustrated are usually 
some centuries older than the earliest records in any 
dictionary. A few others belonging to the same class 

47 



4 8 



SOME LOCAL SURNAMES 



will be found scattered about in other chapters of the 
book in which accident has led to their mention. 

In many cases names of this type are now specific 
place-names. We find constant references to " the 
Devizes," as to la Burcote, la Haye, la Poole, la Rye, 
la Sele, la Woodrow, etc., now known as Burcote, 
Hayes, Poole, Rye, Seal, Woodrow, but the entries 
show that the corresponding surnames often belong to 
the general as well as to the specific use of these words. 
In the early Rolls these names, or rather these addresses, 
are always preceded by prepositions, which have now 
generally disappeared. The following examples are 
put down just as they are printed in the Rolls : 



John Abovebrok 
Roger Abpvetun or Bovetun 
Roger ad oapud villae de Weston 
Laurence Atepleystowe 
Alan ad le Loft 
Thomas Attehallyat 
Walter Attenovene 
Richard Aten orchard 
John atte Churchestyghele 
Robert Attekirkstiel 
William Attelyhetewater 
Adam Blakothemor 1 
William Bithekirke . 
Walter Biendebrok . 
Thomas Bihunde Watere 
John Binetheinthetowne 
Geoffrey Bynethebrok 
William Binoptheweye 
Richard Bysowthewimpel 
Ughtred Bithewater 
William del Holewstret 
Paul de Subburgo 
Richard de sut le Vile 
William de sut le Bois 



(Hund. R.) 

(Pat. R.) 

{Coram Rege R. 1297). 

{Hund. R.) 

(HundR.) 

(F. of Y.) 

(Hund. R.) 

(Hund. R.) 

(Pat. R.) 

(F. of Y.) 

(Cal. Gen.) 

(Exch. R.) 

(Close R.j 

(Fine R.) 

(Hund. R.) 

(Pat. R.) 

(Hund. R.) 

(Hund. R.) 

(Hund. R.) 

(Cal. Gen.) 

(Hund. R.) 

(IpM.) 

(Pat. R.) 

(Fine R.) 



1 A misprint for Bakothemor, back of the moor. 



SURVIVAL OF PREPOSITIONS 



49 



Henry de ultra Aqua 

Edric de Ultra Usam » 

Henry in le Dyk 

Peter in le Hawe 

William in le Trees 

John in the Lane 

William Ithelane 

William Inthewro 

Peter Ofthechircheyard 

John Sourfleet 

Walter sub Muro or Onderwal 

William subtus Viam 

Martin super le Wal 

William Surlewe 

William ultra Swalle 

Thomas under the Hou 

John uppe the Hull 

Robert Wythouthetown . 



(Pipe R.) 

{Pipe R.) 

(Leic. Bor. Rec.) 

(Hund. R.) 

(IpM.) 

[City A .) 

[Fine R.) 

(Fine'R.) 

(Fine R.) 

(Coram Rege R. 1297.) 

(Leic. Bor. Rec.) 

(Nom. Villarum Yorks.) 

(Hund. R.) 

(Pat.R.) 

(IpM.) 

(Coram Rege R. 1297) 

(Pleas) 

(Hund. R.) 



Names in which the preposition has survived are 
still common in English as in other languages, e.g. 
Fr. Doutrepont, Ger. Zumbusch, Du. Bezuidenhout, 
south of the wood. At survives in many obvious 
names such as Atwood, Attewell. The following are 
less simple, Athawes (haw, a hedge enclosure), Atheis 
(hays, hedges), Athews (ME. hiwisc, homestead, whence 
Huish), Athoke (hook, bend), Atkey (quay), Ato, Attoe, 
Hatto (hoe, a sand-spit), Athow (how, a hill), Attack, 
Attick, Attock (oak), Attenbarrow (barrow, a mound), 
Attrie (rye, see p. 72), Attrill, AS. at thare hylle [Thomas 
Atterhill, Exch. R.], Attread (reed), Attride (ME. rithe, 
ride, a small stream), Attru (trough, see Trow ; or per- 
haps from rew, street, row), Attwooll (Wool, 2 Dors.), 
Atyeo (a Somerset surname, apparently from the river 

1 The Ouse ; cf . Surtees. 

1 I do not know the origin of this place-name, but Attwooll is a 
Dorset surname, and this suggests that Wool has some general 
meaning. 



50 SOME LOCAL SURNAMES 

Yeo). Atterbury is " at the bury," i.e. borough, and 
though there is an Attenborough in Notts, the fact 
that Attenborough is found along with Atterbury in 
many counties suggests that the two names are often 
of identical origin. So also Atherall, Attreall, at the 
heal (see p. 62). An interesting name of the same 
type is Ather smith, ME. at ther smethe, or level field, 
for which see p. 77. Athersuch probably contains Sich 
(q.v.), but the ending may be Such, a variant of Zouch, 
Fr. souche, a tree-stump. The reduction of At is seen 
in A' Barrow, A' Burrow, A' Ream (corner), as in Abear 
(see p. 53), Avann (see p. 59), Agutter. In the 
latter name [Robert atte Gotere, Pat. R.] gutter means 
stream — , 

" The guter of waters " (Wye. Hab. iii. 10). 

It seems to have been equivalent to gote, a channel, 
whence Gott [William atte Gote or de la Gotere, of 
Boston, Pat. R.]. At- is also changed to Ad- and even 
Ed-, Et-, as in Edmead, Ethawes. 

Names such as Nash, Noakes, Nail are well known 
to be aphetic forms of atten ash, atten oaks, atten hall. 
With these go Niles, Nayland, Nyland [Thomas Atteny- 
londe, Pat. R.], N orchard, Nendick (end dike). We 
also get aphetic forms in which the initial A- alone has 
disappeared. The stock example is Twells, at wells. 
Here belong Tash (at ash), Taw (Athaw, v.s.), Toe, 
Toes (Atto, v.s.), Trill (Attrill, v.s.), and probably 
Trood [Margaret atte Rude, Pleas.). The Border name 
Trodden may be from northern dial, roddin, a sheep- 
track. 

Occasionally the AF. al (a le) and a la seem 
to survive, e.g. Algate, Allchurch, Allpass, All-pike 



SURVIVAL OF PREPOSITIONS 51 

{Hallpike 1 ), Alltoft, Altree, Allabyrne (burn), but alter- 
native explanations could be given for most of these, 
e.g. the prefix may be aid, old, or Allabyrne may be 
only an elaboration of Alabone, Allibone, which in its 
turn is a perversion of Alban [Hugh Alybon, Coram 
Rege R. 1297]. Allhusen seems to represent aZand the 
old dat. plur. husum, houses. But del, de la, are 
common, the former being often altered to dal, dil, 
dol. Examples are Delahunte, Delahunty, Delhay, 
Dallicoat, Dallicott, Dallamore, Dillamore, Dollymore, 
Dellaway, Dilloway, Dolloway, Delbridge, Dealbridge, 
Dealchamber, Dillistones, Dallywaters, to which many 
more could be added. Dellow probably contains how, 
a hill [William Delhow, Hund. R.], while Dellew is 
for del ewe, water, also a common entry. 

Names in Du-, e.g. Dupree, Duppery, Fr. Dupre, of 
the meadow, Duberley, i.e. du Boulay (birch grove), are 
generally of more recent introduction from French. 
The retention of de in names of French origin, Danvers 
(Antwerp), Darcy (Arsy, Oise), Davers (Auvers, Manche), 
Dorsey (Orsay, Seine-et-Oise), is common, but we 
seem also to have a few cases of this preposition 
coalescing with a purely English word. Such appears 
to be the explanation of Dash or Daish (ash) and Dash- 
wood, Delderfield ; cf. Nicholas Dinkepenne, i.e. of 
Inkpen (Chart R.). 

Besides the obvious Bycroft, Byford, Bysouth, Bythe- 
way or Bidaway, Bythesea, Bywater, we have By- * 
in Bygrave, Bygreaves, where the second element may 

, l The aspirate need not trouble us ; cf . Edward Hupcornehill 
(Stow), John Sterthop {Close R.). 

2 In some cases this may be the noun bye, homestead, e.g. Byas, 
Byers, Bias, " by-house," may mean the farm-house. 



52 SOME LOCAL SURNAMES 

mean grove (ME. greve) or quarry, trench (ME. grcef), 
Bygott, which being a Lincolnshire name goes rather 
with Gott (v.s.) than with the nickname Bigod (bigot), 
and Bying (see ing, p. 64). To these should, I think, 
be added Bidlake and Bidmead, Bitmead, which con- 
tain the definite article, and probably Behagg, dial. 
hag, hedge, enclosure. For Overy, see p. 71. Names 
in Under- and Up- are fairly numerous and generally 
simple. Undrell is for Underbill and Upfill for Upfield 
or Upfold. With Upward cf . Downward or Downhard, 
Forward, Southward, etc. Sometimes in such names 
-ward is substituted for -wood (cf. Homeward for 
" holm wood," i.e. holly wood), but they are also to be 
taken literally. With Bartholomew Forward (Hund. 
R.) cf . Robert Avant (Ramsey Cart.) or Julian a Nether- 
ward (Hund. R.), evidently one origin of Netherwood. 
Downton and Upton must sometimes have been applied 
to men who lived " down town " and " up town " 
respectively. 

A few other prepositions occur sporadically. Inder- 
wick, Enderwick is ME. in ther wick, i.e. homestead, 
village, etc. The existence of Walter Underwater 
(Lane. Inq. 1205-1307) suggests that Bowater is for 
bove-water. 1 Neathway is " beneath the way," and 
Withinshaw, if not a corruption of " withy shaw," 
willow wood, belongs to the same class. In Hindhaugh 
and Hindmarsh the prefix may have adverbial or 
prepositional force. 

The following are examples of obsolete, dialect, or 
obscure place-words which have given surnames. It 
will be noticed that they are mostly monosyllables of 
Anglo-Saxon origin, but they include a few Old French 

1 Bove is older than above. 



DIALECT TOPOGRAPHY 53 

words. Some are quite simple, but are mentioned 
because of their compounds. Others I am unable to 
explain. Quite a remarkable proportion are names 
given to small strips of land, boundary ridges, trenches, 
etc. They seem to reflect the proprietary tenacity 
of the Anglo-Saxon. 

Bache, Batch, Bage. ME. bache, a river valley 
[Robert de la Bache, Pat. R.]. 

"Over baches and hulles " (Piers Plowm. C. viii. 159). 

It is common in Cheshire place-names. Compounds, 
Greatbatch, Huntbach. 

Bale, Bayles. AF. bail, an outer fortification, later 
replaced by bailey [Tessaunda del Bayl, Pat. R., John 
de la Baylle, Lond. Wills, 1258-1358]. Hence also the 
official Bailward. 

Ball. A common field-name in Somerset [John atte 
Balle, Kirby's Quest, Som.]. The name has other 
and more usual origins. Newball is a corruption of 
Newbold, new building. 

Barff, Bargh. Northern forms of barrow, a mound 
[Thomas atte Barghe, Pat. R., Yorks]. 

Barth. Sheltered pasture for cattle or calves — 

" Warme barth give lams 
Good food to their dams " (Tusser). 

Bay. 'A dam or pool. Hence the common Cam- 
bridgeshire name Bays [John atte Bey, Hund. R., 
Camb.J. Bay is also a colour nickname [Robert le 
Bay, Testa de Nev.]. 

Bear, Beer, Bere. West-country word for wood, 
AS. beam [Morin de la Bare, Hund. R., Dev., Henry de 



54 SOME LOCAL SURNAMES 

la Bear, ib., Elias de la Byere, ib.]. Compounds 
Langabeer, Conybeare, Shillibeer and the deceptive 
Shebear. This is perhaps one origin of Byers ; cf. the 
parallelism of Bubear, Boobyer, in Somerset, but in 
this group of names there has been confusion with byre. 

Bent. Very numerous meanings in Middle English, 
ranging from bent grass to battle-field (see NED.). 
Also confused with Bend [Robert de la Bende, Testa de 
Nev.]. Compound Broadbent. 

Binks. Northern form of Banks [John de Nighen- 
binkes, i.e. near banks, F. of Y.]. See NED. The 
intermediate form was " benks " [Robert Neynbenkes, 
Bp. Kellawe's Reg.]. 

Boak, Boakes. Northern form of balk, ridge, especi- 
ally as a boundary [Thomas del Bouke, 1429]. 
Boag is probably a variant. From balk also come 
Belk and Bilke [Henry del Belk, IpM., Norf.]. 

Boam. A common Derbyshire surname [John del 
Bom, IpM., Notts, 1279-1321]. I suppose it to be 
a phonetic variant of beam (p. 184). 

Boosey. A cattle-shed, byre. 

Borstall, Burstall. A winding hill-path, especially 
on the Downs [John Atteborstalle, Hund. R., Kent]. 
The example is just four centuries older than the first 
NED. record of the word. 

Boss. A conduit, fountain [Bartholomew de la 
Bosse, Close R.]. 

" Bosses of water made at Belingsgate about the year 1423 " 
(Stow). 

Breach. An opening, also fallow-land [Andrew de 
la Breche, IpM.]. 
Breeks, Brack. A northern dialect word, cognate 



DIALECT TOPOGRAPHY 55 

with above and also used of rocks [Robert del Brek, 
Lane. Inq. 1310-33]. It is ON. brekkr, a brink. 

Br end, Brent, Brind. Brow of a hill [Simon del Brend, 
F. of Y., Richard del Brynd, ib.]. 

Brewill, Browell, Bruel. OF. breuil, wood, thicket 
[Simon del Bruill, Chart R.]. Part of Savernake Forest 
is called the " Broyl of Bedewind " in IfiM., and the 
Broyle (Suss.) has the same origin. Cf. Fr. Dubreuil 
and de Broglie, the latter of which has given us Brolly. 

Brush. Broom, undergrowth, heather [Adam del 
Bruche, Exch. R.]. Cf. Fr. Delabrousse, des Brosses, 
etc. Hence also Brushett (see p. 128, n. 1). 

" Brusshe to make brushes on, bruyere " (Palsg.). 

Budden. This surname is sometimes of baptismal 
origin [Ermegard Budun, Hund. R.], from Baldwin or 
from one of the Bod- names ; cf . Fr. Bodin. But it is 
also local, a variant of bottom, which occurs as bodan 
in one of the earliest Anglo-Saxon glossaries [Stephen 
de la Buden, Pleas, Hants]. It is still a Hampshire 
name. 

Buggins. ME. bugging, a variant of bigging, a build- 
ing. 

" Cometh the maister budel brust ase a bore, 
Seith he wole mi bugging bringe ful bare." 

(Song of the Husbandman, temp. Ed. I.) 

Buist. ON. bustadr, homestead, whence also the 
Orkney and Shetland Isbister. 

Bumbey. A quagmire (Norf. and Suff.). 

Burst. A break in the land, from AS. geberst. It is 
so used in the Abingdon Chronicle [Hamelet de la 
Burste, Exch. Cal.]. 

Butt. A ridge or balk in ploughed land. Also a 



56 SOME LOCAL SURNAMES 

measure of land. But the surname Butt is often for 
Buck, altered in the same way as bat from bakke (see 
p. 24) [Roger le Buc or But, Close R., Hugh le But, 
Pat. R., James le But, ib.]. 

Cage. This may go with Penn, Mewis (p. 98), 
etc., or may be connected with a local prison — 

" Cage, catasta " (Prompt. Pan.). 

" Catasta, a. cage to punish or sell bond men in " (Cooper). 

In the Coventry Mysteries it is used of the " pageant " 
on which a king stands [John del Cages, Bp. Kellawe's 
Reg.]. 

Callow. Applied in the west to bare land [William 
de la Calewe, IpM., Heref.], the same word as callow, 
hairless, unfledged, which is the more usual origin of 
the surname. 

Cheyne. This is simply a Middle English spelling of 
" chain," probably meaning the barrier by which 
streets were often closed at night [Richard de Catena, 
Close R.] ; cf. Ban. 

" For other wey is fro the gatis none. 
Of Dardanas, there opyn is the cheyne " 

(Chauc. Troilus and Criseyde). 

Chuck. A tree-stump, OF. chouq, apparently re- 
lated to souche, a stump [Henry de Chokes, Close R., 
Roger de la Zuche, or de la Suche or de la Chuche, ib.]. 
Hence Choak, Chugg, Chucks. Also a nickname 
[Robert Choc, Pipe R., William Choc, Hund. R.]. 
Cf. Block (p. 156). 

Clench, Clinch. I can find no clue to the meaning 
of this word, apparently the origin of Clinch in Wilts. 
[Richard de la Clenche, Fine R., Wilts, John de la 
Clenche, Hund. R., Wilts]. A stream called the 
Clenche is mentioned in Glouc. Cart. 



DIALECT TOPOGRAPHY 57 

Cloud. ME. elude, a rock [Robert atte Cloude, 
Kirby's Quest], the same word as cloud (cumulus). 
Hence also Clout and possibly Clodd. 

Clyne. Old Welsh dun, dyn, a meadow [William 
ate Clyne, Exch. R.]. Also Clunn. 

Cock. The very common entry " atte Cok " refers 
not only to a shop-sign, but also to the same word 
commonly used of a water conduit. Cf. Boss. Hence 
also sometimes Acock, Adcock, Atcock [Ralph Atecock, 
Lond. Wills, 1282]. 

Cockshott, Cockshoot. " A broad way or glade in a 
wood, through which woodcocks, etc., might dart or 
shoot, so as to be caught by nets stretched across the 
opening " {NED.). 

" Cockesshote to take woodcockes with, volee " (Palsg.). 

Cradle. A place in Sussex called " le Cradele " is 
mentioned in the Percy Cartulary [Richard atte 
Cradele, Percy Cart., John de la Cradel, Pat. R.]. In 
Middle English, as now, the word was used of various 
arrangements in the way of framework or scaffolding, 
but its meaning here is very dubious. Perhaps the 
ending is the same as that of the next name. 

Crundall, Crundle. More than sixty crundels are 
mentioned in Thorpe's Codex Diplomaticus. AS. 
crundel is dubiously explained by Sweet as a chalk-pit, 
cavity, pond. Its modern dialect meaning of a ravine 
with running water in it suggests rather " crooked dell," 
from the adjective which has given the nickname 
Crum, Crump. 

Curtain. Dial, courtain, court-yard, straw-yard, 
Late Lat. cortina. 

Deal, Dole. These are ultimately the same word, 



58 SOME LOCAL SURNAMES 

meaning boundary, division [Alexander de la Dele, Fine 
R., William de la Dole, Hund. R.]. Dale is often for 
Deal. The word is still in use in various forms. Here 
generally belong also Dowell, Dowl, Dewell, Duett, 
and the Kentish dowel, a marsh, is perhaps the same 
word. Most of the words for boundary appear also 
to have been applied to a piece of waste land between 
two cultivated patches — 

" The waste called le dole " (Pat. R., Salop). 

Delf, Delph, Delves. ME. delf, quarry. [Hugh del 
Delf, Cal. Gen.] — 

" And thei gaven that monei to the crafti men and masouns, for 
to bie stoonys hewid out of the delves, var. quarreris " 1 

(Wye. 2 Chron. xxxiv. n). 

Dibb. Usually bapt. for Dibble, i.e. Theobald (see 
p. 40), but also from dial, dib, a dip, or valley [John 
del Dybbe, F. of Y., 1469]. 

Dillicar. A dialect name, in the lake country, for 
a small field. No doubt a compound of the very 
common Carr, Kerr, a fen, of Norse origin. 

Doust. ? A Middle English variant of " dust ' ' [John 
del Doustes, Lane. Inq. 1310-33]. Cf. such names as 
Chalk, Clay, Mudd. 

Drain, Drane. Obviously from the drain or channel 
[John atte Drene, Kirby's Quest, Som.J, a word first 
recorded by the NED. for 1552. Cf. Simon Drane- 
land [Hund. R., Camb.]. The examples are from the 
two chief fen counties. 

Dron. Dial, trone, a trench, a west-country word 
[Geoffrey Attedrone, Glouc. Cart.]. 

Dunt. I suppose this to be a phonetic variant of 

1 This is the origin of Quarrier [Nicholas del Quarere, Pat. RX 



DIALECT TOPOGRAPHY 59 

dent, dint, meaning a hollow [William Attedunt, Hund. 
R., Kent]. 

Ealand, Eland. A dial, form surviving from AS. 
igland, now corruptly written island under the influence 
of OF. isle. 

Eaves. Used in Middle English for edge, especially 
in the compound " wood eaves," whence Wouldhave. 
In Whiteaves the first element is probably with (p. 84). 

Fall. It is a little doubtful what this means as a 
surname [Richard del Fal, Hund. R., Gilbert de la 
Falle, Lane. Ass. R. 1176-1285], at any rate in com- 
pounds. In Horsfall, -fall may be for an earlier -fald, 1 
i.e. fold, enclosure, while in Woodfall it means the 
place where trees have been felled [Richard del 
Wodefal, Lane. Inq. 1310-33]. Still, although the 
NED. has no record of fall, cascade, till 1579, " the 
water's fall" (Spenser), the name Waterfall [Richard 
de Watterfall, Hund. R.] points to a much earlier use 
of the word. 

Fann. The winnowing fan [Gervase de la Fanne, 
Chart R.]. The west-country Vann is commoner 
[Richard atte Vann, Pleas, Wilts.]. Cf. the occupative 
Fanner and Vanner. 

Farndell. The obsolete farthingdeal, or fourth part 
of an acre. Cf. Halfacre. 

" Farding deale, alias Farundett of land, signifieth the fourth part 
of an acre " (Cowel). 

Hence also Fardell, Varndell. Farthing was also used 
in the same sense. 

Flatt. A common field-name in Yorkshire, and used 

1 The home of Horsfall is the West Riding, where it occurs side by 
side with Hors field. 

6 



60 SOME LOCAL SURNAMES 

in Suffolk of a flat oozy shore [Thomas del Flat, 
mariner, F. of Y.]. Hence also the Suffolk name 
Flatman. 

Force, Forse, Forss. This may be the northern 
force, a Scandinavian word for waterfall — 

" The fishery del fors" (Pat. R., Westm. 1320). 

But the analogy of Wilberforce, from a place formerly 
called Wilberfoss, suggests that Foss is more often the 
origin. Cf. Forsdyke for Fosdike, later corrupted to 
Frostick. 

Fostall, Forrestal. Dial, fore-stall, a paddock or 
way in front of a farmhouse (Kent and Suss.). The 
NED. quotes it for 1661, but it is much older [Osbert 
de la Forstalle, Hund. R., Kent, Albreda de Forstallo, 
Cust. Battle Abbey, 1283-13 12]. 

Foyle. Apparently some kind of excavation, Fr. 
fouille [John atte Foyle, Cust. Battle Abbey]. 

Fright. A Kentish form of frith, a wood, deer- 
forest, etc., so common in the phrase " frith and fell " 
[Henry del Fridh, Feet of Fines]. 

Gallantree. I only offer the conjecture that this 
Yorkshire name may be for " gallows tree," earlier 
" gallow tree," AS. gealgtreow ; cf. Godfrey de Galowes 
(Fine R.), Ralph de Furcis (Abingdon Chron.). 

Garston. An example of a common noun, AS. 
gcerstun, paddock, ' ' grass town ' ' [Henry de la Garston, 
Fine R.], which has become a specific place-name. Cf. 
Gratton, stubble field, AS. greed, grass, Barton, AS. 
beretun, " barley town," Leighton, AS. leactun, " leek 
town," kitchen garden, and the ubiquitous Burton, 
AS. burgtun, " borough town." From the latter we 
have Haliburton, the holy dwelling. 



DIALECT TOPOGRAPHY 61 

Gort. OF. gort, properly a whirlpool (Lat. gurges, 
gurgit-), but used in England of a kind of weir ; cf. Fr. 
Dugort. See gorce (NED.), which is really a plural 
form and apparently one origin of Joyce, for Burton 
Joyce (Notts) takes its name from the de Jorz family. 

Grape, Greep. A dial, word for trench, also found 
as grip [John atte Gripe, IpM.]. 

Ground. Used in dialect for a field or farm ; hence 
perhaps the East-Anglian name Grounds. But Roger 
Grond (Hund. R., Hunts), Augustin Grund (ib.) sug- 
gest a shortened form of Grundy, AS. Gundred, as a 
more probable origin of the name. 

Hallows. Possibly ME. halwe, shrine, sanctuary — 

" Feme halwes, kowthe in sondry londes " (Chauc. A. 14). 

But more probably a dial, form of hollow [William in 
le Halowe, Hund. R.]. 

Hames. Northern form of "home" [Adam del 
Hames, of le Hames, Cumb., IpM.]. Also Haimes. 

Hanger. A wood on a hillside [William del or atte 
Hanger, Pat. R.]. 

Hard. In the obsolete sense of hard or firm ground 
(sixteenth century, NED.), as at Portsmouth [Gilbert 
del Harde, Pat. R.]. Also Hards. In Harder the 
second element is -or, -over, a bank. 

Haugh. This very puzzling word occurs in an 
immense number of place-names and consequently in 
many surnames, but nobody seems to know what it 
means. 1 It has several compounds, Ridehalgh, Green- 

^"Healh, corner, hiding-place; bay, gulf" (Sweet), "recess 
corner, hollow " (Miller). " Dr. Mutschmann is mistaken in thinking 
that the exact sense of OE. healh is ' very uncertain ' ; it means 
' river meadow ' " (Sedgefield). " It does not necessarily mean a 
riverside pasture. A hale, in Gloucestershire, may occur on high 
ground away from any stream " (Baddeley). 



62 SOME LOCAL SURNAMES 

halgh, Hesmondhalgh, Feather stonehaugh. Its dative 
gives Heal, Hale, and most of the names ending in -all, 
-hall, -ell contain it, e.g. Brudenell (at the broad heal), 
Cleall (clay), Greenall, Greenhall, Blackall, Blackhall, 
Whitehall [Gilbert del Whitehalgh, 1397, Bardsley], 
Midgall [Migehalgh, Lane. Inq. 1310-33], Thomell, 1 etc. 
Related to it is ME. halk, a corner — 

" As yonge clerkes, that been lykerous 
To reden artes that been curious, 
Seken in every halke and every heme * 
Particular sciences for to lerne " (Chauc. F. 1119). 

Hence Halleck '' and sometimes Hawke and Hawkes. 
In Halkett, Hallett,' it is compounded with -head (see 
p. 128, «.). Haugh is quite distinct from Hough (Huff), 
How, a hill, though it has been confused with it, e.g. 
in Wardhaugh, probably for " ward hough," the beacon 
hill, equivalent to Wardle (ward hill) and Wardlaw, 
Wardlow, AS. hlcew, a hill, mound. Ridehalgh has been 
confused with Redhough [Thomas del Redhough, Bp. 
Kellawe's Reg.]. From the dial, form eale, we have the 
names Eales, Eeles, and it is probable that Neale is 
sometimes of the same origin (see p. 50) . 

Heald. ME. Meld, a slope [Isabel de la Helde, Fine 
R.]. Cf. Ger. Halde, very common in place-names 
and surnames. Heald may be also for Heal with 
excrescent -d ; cf . Neild for Neil. 

Heath. This seems to have absorbed " hythe," a 
quay, harbour. The latter was once a very common 

1 In this, and some other cases, it may have interchanged with 
■hill. 

1 A corner ; hence Hearn, Hum, Horn, etc. 

3 Cf. Frisian hallich, low-lying land near the sea. 

* Also a dim of Hal, or Harry. 



DIALECT TOPOGRAPHY 63 

name [Eustace de la Hythe, Hund. R., William atte 
Hythe, City F.~], but I find no modern examples. 

Helm. Dial, helm, a shelter [John de la Helme, 
Wore. Priory Reg.]. But Helm, Helms is^ more often 
short for one of the personal names in Helm- (p. 38). 

Here-path, Herapath. AS. herepceth, army path, 
main road. Cf. Ger. Herwegh. Is it too venturesome 
to derive the very common Cambridgeshire name 
Thoday from AS. theodweg, people way, highway ? 
Both this and Tudway may be rather from the Anglo- 
Saxon name Theodwig. Fossey may be from Fr. fosse, 
a ditch, but is more probably from the historic 
Fosse-way. 

Hoath, Hoad. An archaic word for heath 1 [John 
del Hoth, Hund. R.]. 

Honour, Honnor. " A seigniory of several manors 
held under one baron or lord paramount" (NED.) 
[Stephen Adhonour, Pat. R.]. 

Hook, Crook. Both used of a bend in the river 
[Richard de la Hoke, Feet of Fines, John del Crok, 
Lane. Inq. 1310-33], the latter especially in Scot- 
land. The first seems to have been used also of a 
sand-spit. But Crook is usually a nickname [Philip 
le Crok, Pat. R., Croc the huntsman, Chart. R.], and 
Hook is sometimes, like Hucks, a form of Hugh [Huka 
de Thorne, Pipe R.]. 

Hope. Another word of very vague meaning, " an 
enclosure in marsh land," " small enclosed valley " 
(NED.). But there also seems to have been a measure 
of land called a hope, cognate with Ger. Hube, Hufe, 

1 I have only Halliwell's authority for this. Is it a mixed form 
due to the constant coupling of " holt and heath " in Middle 
English ? 



64 SOME LOCAL SURNAMES 

a unit corresponding in use, if not in dimensions, to 
our Hide. In a copy of White Kennett's Glossary 
which I possess, several examples of this use have been 
inserted in MS. by the learned antiquary Sir Edward 
Smirke. In compounds -hope becomes -ap, -ip, -op, 
-up, Harrap, Bur nip, A hop, Greenup. This rather 
common name has, however, another origin [Hugh le 
Hope, Lane. Ass. R. 1176-1285, Vital le Hope, ib., 
William le Hope, Archbp. Peckham's Let.] which I 
cannot explain. No doubt also an abstract nickname 
(p. 218). 

Horn. As a local name this is a variant of Hearn, 
a nook, corner. Hence Langhorne, Hartshorn, Small- 
horn, Whitehorn, etc. ; see p. 62, n. 2. 

Hulk. A hut or shed [Agnes atte Hoik, Pat. R.] — 

" Tugurium, hulc " (Voc). 

Idle. An Anglo-French form ' of OF. isle, also ilde 
[John del Idle, IpM., Christiana del Ilde, Hund. R.] — 

" Ilde, lond in the se, insula " (Prompt. Parv.) 

Other island surnames are Ilett, appropriately found in 
Somerset and Cambridgeshire, and the Celtic Inch, 
Ince, Ennis [William del Enese, Hund. R.]. The form 
Enys is very common in Cornwall. 

Ing. A Middle English name for meadow, especially 
a swampy one, and still in dial. use. It is from ON. 
enge [Thomas atteEnge,.Fi«e R., Reginald de Ir)ga.,Pipe 
R.]. This word is very common in composition and 
one source of the name England, 2 for ing-land. Names 

1 Cf. meddle from OF. mesler, and see Madle (p. 250). 
1 In spite of the existence of English, Inglis, the name England 
is rarely from the name of the country. Deutsch is a German 



DIALECT TOPOGRAPHY 65 

such as Fielding, Penning, etc., have usually been 
explained as " man of the field, fen, etc.," but, 
although this tribal suffix occurs frequently in Anglo- 
Saxon place-names, it is perhaps equally probable that 
in surnames -ing means meadow, e.g. Wilding, wood 
meadow, Greening, Beeching, Bowring (bower), School- 
ing (cf. Schofield, Schoolcraft), Ravening, Watering, etc. 

Knaggs. Northern dial, knag, rock, hill-top. 

Knell, Knill. Apparently a phonetic variant of 
knoll [William atte Knell, Cust. Battle Abbey, John 
atte Knyle, Kirby's Quest, Som.J. Hence also Kneel. 

Knipe. Ridge, a lake-country word, surviving only 
in specific place-names (EDD.). 

Lart. A west-country word for " loft." Hence 
also perhaps Larter. 

Leach. Dial, letch, a boggy stream or a bog, earlier 
lache [John del Lache, Lane. Court R. 1323-4] — 

" Ductum aquae, quern vulgo Lacche vocant " (Abingdon Chron.). 

It is still used as latch in northern dialect. This is one 
origin of the name Leach, Leech, usually the physician. ' 
Its compounds are Blackledge, Bleakledge, Blackleach — 

" Between le Misies and Blake-lache unto the end of le Cawsaye " 
(Lane. Inq. 1310-33) — 

Cartledge, Cartlick [Robert de Cartelache, Lane. Court 
R. 1323-4], Depledge. 

name, but I do not think Deutschland is found, and the French 
surname France, not very common, is a shortened form of the 
baptismal Francois. England is also an imitative form of the Old 
French font-name Enguerrand, with the common change of r to I 
[John Ingelond, Pat. R., Geoffrey Ingelond, Hund. R., Simon 
Ingelond, »'&.] 

1 I find that Surgeon still exists, also the lengthened Middle 
English form Surgenor. 



66 SOME LOCAL SURNAMES 

Leese. Perhaps generally for "leas " (cf. Meadows) ; 
but there is a dial, lease, 1 pasture, AS. Ices — 

" The years have gathered grayly 
Since I danced upon this leaze " 

(Hardy, Wessex Poems). 

Lew. A sheltered spot [Alice ate Lewe, Hund. R.]. 

Liberty. I have already suggested [Romance of 
Names, p. 123) that this name comes from liberty in 
the sense of district outside the city walls, but subject 
to the city jurisdiction. I have, however, found no 
early example. I do not think it is an abstract nick- 
name. The apparently parallel Licence is an imita- 
tive spelling of Lysons,* of Lison (Calvados), whence 
also Lessons. 

Ling. This very common East Anglian name 
comes from the plant, and also specifically from Ling 
(Suff.), Lyng (Norf.), and Lyng (Som.), which accounts 
for the three regions which are the homes of the name. 
But the collocation of the word, in the following ex- 
tract, with sich, a trench, and put, a pit, suggests some 
other local meaning — 

" Le Putsich, le Mucheleput, le Litleput, le Ling juxta Coppeswell, 
and le Longsyche versus Clayputtes " (IpM., Warw. 1268). 

Link, Lynch. A ridge, sand-hill, AS. Mine. Dial. 
linch is especially used of an unploughed ridge making 
a boundary between two fields [Roger ate Lynche, 
Fine R.]. Link is possibly also a variant of Ling 
[John atte Lynk, Pat. R., Norf.]. 

1 See NED. 

1 Final -5 in local surnames of foreign origin is treated as arbit- 
rarily as in native names. We have Gamage, Cammidge, from Gam- 
aches (Somme), Cormell, from Cormeilles (Eure), but Lascelles, 
from Lacelle (Orne). 



DIALECT TOPOGRAPHY 67 

Lippiatt. The leap-gate, or leap-yate, " a low gate 
in a fence, which can be leaped by deer, while keeping 
sheep from straying " (NED.). Also Lipyeatt, Lippett. 
Cf. the variants of Lidgate, swing-gate, whence Lidgett, 
Lydiate, Liddiatt, etc. 

List. Used in Middle English in the sense of 
boundary [Peter de la Leste, Hund. R.]. Cf. the 
" lists" for a tournament. 

Loakes. East Anglian loke, path, road [Gilbert 
Ithelockes, Fine R.]. 

Lone, Loane. Dial, form of lane [John in la Lone, 
Glouc. Cart.]. 

Loop. Used in Middle English of an opening in a 
wall, whence modern " loop-hole " [Edith de la Lupe, 
Malmesbury Abbey Reg.]. But this name, though 
not common, has an alternative origin, the wolf 
[Robert le Lupe, IpM.]. 

Lyth. A Middle English and dial, word for slope, 
AS. hlith [Reginald atte Lith, Fine R.] — 

" Steep pastures are called the Lithe " (White's Selborne). 

But Gonnilda le Lyth (Hund. R.) points to a nickname, 
so that the surname, though rather rare, has two well- 
attested origins. For similar cases see pp. 316-19. Lyde 
is a variant. 

Maw. A variant of mow, heap, as in " barley- 
mow." The name is very common in Lincolnshire, 
and medieval examples of " de la Ma we " abound on 
the east coast [William de la Mawe, Hund. R., Suff .]. 
A local surname could, however, hardly come into 
existence in connection with such a transient thing 
as a haystack or cornrick, so that we must assume 
that the word is here used in the wider sense of mound, 



68 SOME LOCAL SURNAMES 

hillock, or that it meant also the stackyard or barn. 
Maw is also a variant of Maufe, Muff (p. 246). 

Meals. ON. melr, dune, sandhill, especially on the 
coasts of Lancashire and Norfolk [Alan del Mels, 
Lane. Inq., 1310-33, Elota del Meles, ib.]. I fancy that 
this word, often meole in Middle English, appears in 
Ashmall, Ashmole, and Cattermole. 

Mears. Two local origins — (1) mere, a lake, pool, 
whence also Man, Mans [Robert de la Mar, Lib. Vit.] ; 
(2) ME. mere, mear, AS. gemcere, a boundary, a very 
common word, also used of a green " balk " or bound- 
ary road. Hence in some cases Marston, ME. mere- 
stone, boundary stone. Mark, March, are also some- 
times from ME. mearc, boundary, apparently not 
related to the above [Roger del March, Fine R., 
Robert atte Mark, City D.]. 

Minster. The rarity of this name is surprising, 
although it is represented also by the lengthened 
Minister. As we have Beemaster, Buckmaster, Kil- 
master, Kilmister, and Kittermaster from Beaminster, 
Buckminster, Kilminster, and Kidderminster respec- 
tively, it seems likely that Master, Masters, Mister, 
may also have been sometimes corrupted in the same 
way from the simple Minster. 

Mountjoy. Montjoie is a common French place- 
name [Ralph de Mungai, Pipe R.]. The name 
has no connection with the war-cry Montjoie, the 
origin of which is unknown. Also Mungay, Mun- 
chay, Mingey — 

" Mont-joye, a barrow ; a little hill, or heap of stones, layed in 
or near a highway, for the better discerning thereof ; or in remem- 
brance of some notable act performed,or accident befallen, in that 
place " (Cotg.). 



DIALECT TOPOGRAPHY 69 

Mudge. A Devon and Cornwall word for mud, 
swamp. The surname is common in both counties. 

Ness. A headland, but not necessarily on the 
coast. Many of the examples I have found are 
inland [John atte Nesse, Pat. R., Richard atte Nesse, 
Coram Rege R. 1297, Suss.J. The second example 
may refer to Dungeness. In the Abingdon Chronicle 
ness is used as equivalent to stert. See Sturt. 

Pallant. AS. patent, palace, Lat. palantium for 
palatium ; cf . the Palant at Chichester. 

Pamment, Pament. Middle English form of pave- 
ment, street. In Nottingham are still High, Low and 
Middle Pavement, spelt pament in the Borough 
Records. Cf. Cosway, Cawsey — 

" And whenne y was nygh the awter y put of my showys and 
knelyd on my kneys upon the pament " (Monk of Evesham). 

Pett, Putt. Variants of Pitt. The first is a Kentish 
form ; for the second cf. Hull for Hill. Compounds 
Lampet, Lampitt, Lamputt, loam pit, AS. lampytt, and 
Clampitt, cloam pit. Cloam, AS. clam, clay, is still 
used in dialect for earthenware. Burpitt is possibly 
for " bear pit" ' ; cf. Bullpitt or Bowpitt, and Buckpit. 

Pickles. The Yorkshire dial, form of pightle, an 
enclosure (see NED). Hence also Pighills and Pight- 
ling, the latter compounded with ing, a meadow 

(P- 64). 

Pill. A west-country word for a creek [Robert 
Attepile, Hund. R., Som., Bennett de la Pylle, Fine 
R., Dev.]. Hence also Pile, Pyle, Pillman, and Pilla- 

1 Bearbloch appears to mean the stump to which the bear was tied ; 
but Bearpark is a perversion of the local Beaurepaire. 



70 SOME LOCAL SURNAMES 

way with the intrusive a which is characteristic of 
Devon names (Eastaway, Greenaway, etc.). 

Place, Plaice. ME. place has a wide range of mean- 
ings, including market square, plot of land, large house, 
hamlet, etc. But the modern name has absorbed an 
Old French word related to Plessis (p. 286), and 
meaning an enclosure [Richard de la Plesse, Hund. 
R.]. It is often entered as de Plexito. Cf. the Fr. 
Dupleix, which has assumed in England the imitative 
form Duplex. Hence also Pleass. 

Plank. Used in Middle English of a narrow foot- 
bridge [James de la Plaunche, Fine R.] — 

" Planche, a planke, or thicke board ; especially one thats laid over 
a ditch, brooke, or moate, etc., instead of a bridge " (Cotg.). 

Plaskett. A swampy meadow, usually " plashet," 
dim. of OF. plasq. The surname represents a Norman 
form. Also Plasked. 

Plott. The same as Piatt, a flat piece of land [Henry 
de la Plot, Lane. Ass. R. 1 176-1285]. 

Pluck. Apparently a phonetic variant of ME. 
plecke, a piece of ground [Nicholas de la Plock, Glouc. 
Cart.]. It is also found in Duplock, earlier Duplac 
(Norf. Court R.). But Diplock is more probably 
" deep lake." 

Quick. Usually a nickname, but also a northern 
variant of wick, a village [Albert de la Quicke, Lane. 
Inq. 1205-1307]. Cf. Quarton for Wharton, and Quick- 
fall for Wigfall, the latter probably the " wick-fald," 
or Wickfield. 

Rain. The name-group Rain, Rayne, Raines, 
Raynes, etc., has various origins. It may be baptismal, 
from the Anglo-Saxon element Regen- (p. 44), as in 



DIALECT TOPOGRAPHY 71 

Rayner, Reynold, etc. [Reine Bacun, Hund. R.], while 
the -s forms represent Rennes [Robert de Rennes, 
Hund. R.] and possibly also Rheims. It is also a 
nickname, perhaps from dial. Fr. raine, a frog 
[Robert le Rane, Pat. R.]. But the home of the name 
is Durham, and in that county rain is a dial, word 
for a strip of land, boundary, etc., which is no 
doubt the origin of most of the northern Raynes. 
The word is common in field-names in north-country 
records. 

Rees.' This name, usually for Welsh Rhys, is also 
from an obsolete word for stream, channel [Henry 
del Re or atte Ree, IpM., Heref.]. There are several 
references in IpM. to "la Ree " (Heref.), but the 
word seems to have been in general use. The church 
of St. Mary Overy was in 1502 Saint Mary " over the 
re." Overy and Undery are both existing surnames; 
with the latter cf. Walter Underwater (Lane. Inq). 
Ree may be related to ride (see p. 49) and Rye (Suss.), 

1 The majority of monosyllabic, and many dissyllabic, local 
names are commonly found with -s, originally due to analogy with 
Wills, Jones, etc., where -s is the sign of the genitive. It will be 
found that this addition of -s in local names generally takes place 
whenever it does not involve an extra syllable or any exertion in 
pronunciation, e.g. Birks but Birch, Noakes but Nash, Marks but 
March, Meadows but Field, Sykes but Sich. The only important 
exception to this phonetic rule is Bridges, which is usually derived, 
not from bridge, but from Bruges, once commonly called Bridges 
in English. This -s is also added to specific place-names, e.g. 
Cheales from Cheal (Line), Tarbox from Tarbock (Lane), Burls 
from some spot in Essex formerly called Berle [Robert de Berle, 
Hund. R., Ess.], Rhymes from Ryme (Dors.), etc. This tendency, 
still very strongly marked in uneducated speech, leads to some 
very curious results. I am told that the Earl of Stair is commonly 
called Lord Stairs by the Wigtownshire peasants. Still more ex- 
traordinary is the existing name Steadmances, of obvious origin. 



72 SOME LOCAL SURNAMES 

which was formerly la Rie [Geoffrey atte Rye, City E., 
Robert Atterie, IpM., Suss.]. The word is perhaps 
of Flemish origin ; cf. the South African Delarey. 
The scarcity of Ree is due to absorption by Ray 
[Robert de la Reye, Close R.]. 

Rew, Rue. AF. rew, from Fr. rue, street [Robert 
atte Rewe, Pat. R., Dors.] ; cf. Attru (p. 49). But 
Rew is also a nickname, a variant of rough [Walter le 
Rewe, Glouc. Cart.]. 

Rhine. A name given to the large drains or channels 
on the Somerset moors, AS. ryne, a channel. It was 
the Bussex Rhine which proved fatal to Monmouth's 
followers at Sedgemoor. I have, however, no evi- 
dence for a surname thus formed, so Rhine is perhaps 
rather for Rhind, Rind. There is a Perthshire 
hamlet called Rhynd, but the surname seems to be 
rather from a Welsh personal name [Rind Seis, 1 
Chart. R.]. 

Riddy. ME. rithie, apparently related to ride, a 
stream (p. 49) [Walter Atterithie, Glouc. Cart.\ 

Riding. Perhaps from one of the Yorkshire ridings, 2 
but more probably a variant of Ridding, a clearing in 
a wood [Raven del Riding, Pat. R.]. 

Risk. An archaic form of rush, AS. rise ; cf. Riss- 
brook. Hence also Rix, usually from Richard, but 
also from Exmoor rix, rushes [John de la Rixe, Hund. 
R., Scm.]. 

1 I.e. Rind the Saxon ; cf . Sayce, Seys, etc. 

1 Originally thriding, third part, the initial having been lost by 
confusion with the final sound of the north, east, west which 
always preceded it. We have the converse in the Middlesex 
village of Ickenham, formerly Tickenham. As time went on, 
people who lived "at Tickenham" found they were living "at 
Ickenham." 



DIALECT TOPOGRAPHY 73 

Roath. Apparently ME. roth, variant of root 
[William atte Rothe, Lond. Wills, 1305]. Or it may 
be identical with Routh, ON. ruth, a clearing, whence 
-royd, common in north-country surnames. 

Rood. A cross. Also Rude [Walter de la Rude, 
Fine R.]. Hence also Trood, " atte rood." Com- 
pounds Roodhouse, Roddis, Rodwell ; with the latter 
cf. Crosswell. 

Rule. La Riole, near Bordeaux, latinized as Reula 
and Regula, is constantly mentioned in London records. 
It gave its name to a London street and to the church 
of St. Michael Paternoster " Royal " [Henry de la 
Rule, City B., Alvyn de Reule, Henry de la Riole, 
Exch. Cal.]. In Chesh. Chamb. Accts. (1301-60) is 
mentioned Roger del Reulle, a shipmaster bringing 
wine from Bordeaux. 

Sale, Seal. Related words, the first representing 
OF. sale (salle), the second AS. sele, hall, dwelling- 
house. Compounds are Greensall and Normansell. 
Seal has become Zeal in Somerset. These names have 
become confused with dial, seal, sale, a willow, whence 
the Yorkshire names Sayle, Sayles [Agnes del Sayles, 
I 379l- Cf. Sallows, Salliss from the same tree, AS. 
sealh. 

Salterne. A salt house, also a salt marsh. 

Seath, Seth. AS. seath, a pit, pond, used in dialect, 
generally in the form sheath, of a brine-pit. Hence 
also Sheath and Sheat [Humfrey de la Shethe, Testa 
de Nev.]. It should be noted, however, with regard 
to Sheath, that Fr. Fourreau, whence Eng. Furrell, 
seems to be a costume nickname from the sheath or 
scabbard. 
Seed. I conjecture that this name, common in the 



74 SOME LOCAL SURNAMES 

north, may represent AS. geset, seat, dwelling, as in 
Somerset and the surname Honeysett. It occurs also 
in Adshead, Adsead (Adsett, Glouc), and in the simple 
Sait. This would explain Liverseed, Loverseed, from 
the personal name Leofhere ; cf. John de Burysede 
[Hund. R.~\ and the Lincolnshire name Whitseed. 

Selden, Seldon, Seldom. The dative plural of the 
very common ME. selde, a booth or shop [John atte 
Selde, Lond. Wills., 1294]. 

"One fair building of stone called in record Seldom, a shed " (Stow). 

Sell may sometimes represent the singular, but is 
usually baptismal [Nicholas Sell, Pat. R.], perhaps 
from Cecil. 

Shear. AS. scaru, division. Hence Landseer, AS. 
landscaru, boundary [Anthony de la Lanscare, Pat. R., 
Thomas de la Landshare, Hund. R.]. One example 
is from Devon, the other from Somerset. Hence this 
is the origin of the Devon name Shears, while Shar- 
land, also a Devon name, may contain the same 
elements reversed. The form Scare, Sheer is also a 
surname. Cheers seems to be a variant : [Walter de 
la Chere, Glouc. Cart.] and Chare also exists. Seear 
may belong here or to Sayer, AS. Sasgasr. 

Sheard, Shard. Middle English and dial, sherd, a 
gap in an enclosure or bank [John atte Sherde, 
Pat. R.]. The same word as in " potsherd." Shirt 
is an imitative spelling. 

Shed. A section of land. The same word as in 
" watershed." Hence Shead, Shedd, Shade. No doubt 

1 The substitution of Ch- for Sh- is not uncommon, e.g. Nicholas 
Chepe, Ralph de Chepeye, Osbert le Chephirde occur together in the 
Pat. R. Hence Cheap is sometimes a nickname, " sheep." 



DIALECT TOPOGRAPHY 75 

also from the building, which is also shad, shade in 
dialect. 

Shields, Scales. The English and Norse forms 
respectively for a shieling or shelter. The first is 
very common in Northumbrian farm-names, hence 
Blackshields, Greenshields. It is the same as ME. 
schiel [Adam del Scheie, Percy Cart.], whence Shiel. 
From Scales we have the compounds Summerscales ' 
and Winterscale, corrupted into Summerskill, Sum- 
mersgill, Wintersgill. Related to the numerous Scandi- 
navian names in -skjold, such as Nordenskjold, Lilien- 
skjold, etc. 

Shippen, Skippon. A dial, word for cow-house, AS. 
scipen [Richard de la Schepene, Coram Rege R. 1297]. 
Hence also Shippings— 

" Thropes, bernes, shipnes, dayeryes " (Chauc D. 871). 

By folk-etymology connected with " sheep-pen," but 
really cognate with " shop." But in Sheepwash, Ship- 
wash, Shipway, Shipsides, and most local names in 
Ship-, the first element is " sheep." 

Shire. Used in the sense of boundary [Thomas atte 
Shyre, Lond. Wills, 1349]. Here belong also some- 
times Shear, Shears (cf. Lankshear, Hamshar) ; but 

1 Various explanations are given as to local names in Summer-, 
Winter-. In Germany the corresponding names are considered to 
indicate a southern and northern aspect respectively. In the 
examples above we no doubt have the summer and winter camp of 
the herdsmen. Other examples are Summerhayes, from hay, an 
enclosure, Winterford, Winterflood, Winterbottom. Winterburn is a 
burn that runs in winter only. Another name, especially in 
Kent, for an intermittent spring is nailbourn, later eylebourn, whence 
the surname Elborn and probably Eborn. On this interesting work 
see Skeat, Trans. Phil. Soc, 1911-14, p. 37. 

7 



y6 SOME LOCAL SURNAMES 

Thomas Palle, called Sheres (Lond. 1376) suggests a 
nickname for a shearsmith or cutler. For the usual 
origin of Shears see p. 74. In compounds other than 
county names -shire is generally a corruption of 
-shaw ; e.g. Ormeshire for Ormeshaw. 

Sich. A trench, AS. sic [Robert de la Siche, 
IpM.], hence also Sitch and the Yorkshire Sykes 
[William Enlesik, Pat. R., John del Sykes, Lane. Inq. 
1310-33]— 

" Sich, sichettum and sicheitus, a little current of water, that uses 
to be dry in the summer, also a water-furrow or gutter " (Cowel). 

Slade. A valley, glade, strip of greensward [John 0' 
the Slade, City £>.], AS. slced, valley, familiar in the 
phrase the " greenwood slade." Hence also Slate, 
Sleath, and the compound Greenslade. 1 This is another 

1 Our ancestors did not show much imagination in describing 
scenery, and Green occurs with monotonous frequency — Greenacre, 
Greenall (heal, p. 62), Greenaway (cf . Eastaway, Westaway, and other 
Devon names), Greenberry (bury), Greenfield, Grenfell, Greengrass, 
Greenhalgh, Greenhall (p. 62), Greenhead, Greenhill, Greenhough, 
Greenhow (hough, a hill), Greenhorn (horn, a nook corner, p. 64, 
but possibly a nickname), Greenhouse (cf. Whitehouse, but possibly 
the house on the green), Greening (p. 64), Greenland (ME. laund, a 
stretch of open country), Greenist (seep. 95), Greenlaw (law, a hill), 
Greenlees, Greenop, Greenup (p. 63), Greenrod, Greenroyd, Grinrod 
(royd, a clearing), Greensall, Greensill (see Seal, p. 73), Greenshields 
(p. 75), Greenstock, Gristock (stoke, a homestead), Greensides (p. 138), 
Greenwell, Greenwood, etc. In F. of Y. we find also Greenayk (oak), 
Greenbank, Greenbergh (barrow, hill), Greengare, Greengore (gore, a 
triangular piece of land), Greenshagh. But occasionally there has been 
confusion with the Anglo-Saxon name-element Grim. In Suffolk we 
find Grimweard becoming Grimwood, whence the transition to Green- 
wood was inevitable. The compromise Greenward is also found. 
Conversely the very common northern Grimshaw, apparently 
" Grim's shaw " or " Grim's haw " (enclosure) is generally a corrup- 
tion of " green shaw," once as familiar as " green wood." 



DIALECT TOPOGRAPHY 77 

example of the elusive meaning of these dialect words. 
White Kennett defines it as a long, flat piece of land, 
while Wyclif actually uses it of a, presumably flat, 
ridge — 

" Semeye gede bi the slade, var. cop, of the hil . . . and curside " 
(2 Sam. xvi. 13). 

The EDD. offers a very wide choice of meanings : 
valley, hollow ; grassy plain between hills ; side or 
slope of a hill ; small, often hanging, wood ; strip of 
greensward through a wood ; green road ; piece of 
greensward in ploughed land ; strip of boggy land ; 
stagnant water in a marsh ; small running stream ; 
sheep-walk ; bare, flat place on top of a hill. 

Slape. Very puzzling. There is an early Scot, slape, 
a gap, breach, but the examples of de la Slape are 
all from the west, chiefly Somerset. Slope is quite a 
modern word according to the NED. Perhaps related 
to slipe, a long narrow strip, used in several counties, 
including Somerset. It also means the sloping bank 
of a dike or river ; cf . slype, a covered way from the 
transept of a cathedral to the chapter-house. 

Slay. Slope, lane through gorse, etc. (Suss.). Also 
Slee [Stephen atte Sle, Close R., Kent]. Probably 
identical with Slade (q.v.) ; cf. Smee for Smeed. But 
the surname is usually from ME. slegh, sly, skilful. 

Slipp. A long narrow slip (of land) ; see Slape. 

Smeed, Smeeth, Smedes. ME. smethe, a level place 
[Simon de la Smethe, Close R., Thomas atte Smyethe, 
IpM.]. See Aihersmith (p. 50) and cf. Smedley, 
Smidmore — 

" Smeth or smoth, planicies " (Prompt. Parv.). 



78 SOME LOCAL SURNAMES 

Hence also Smee and Smy, dialect forms. All these 
are also nicknames from the same word used in the 
sense of smooth, hairless [Philip le Smethe, Hund. R.]. 
So also the compounds Smeathman and Smithett (smeeth 
head) may be local or nicknames. 

Snaith, Snead. Specific place-names (Yorks and 
Wore), but from AS. snezd, a piece of land, from 
snithan, to cut, cf. Thwaite from ihwitan, to cut. Also 
Snee. 

Snape. A spring in arable ground, Devon (Hall.). 
But the word is quite undocumented, though recorded 
as a surname in various parts of England [Henry de 
la Snape, Hund. R., Suss., Adam del Snap, Lane. Inq. 
1310-33]. It appears also to have been used of winter 
pasture. Hence also Snepp. Compounds Harsnip, 
Dewsnap, Dewsnip. 

Snodgrass. This name contains the dial, adjec- 
tive snod, smooth, trim. 

Splatt. AS. splott, plot of land [William atte 
Splotte, Kirby's Quest, Som.J — 

" Landsplot, tantillum terrse " (Abingdon Chron.). 

Hence the compound Collinssplatt. 

Spon, Spong, Spun. A long narrow strip of ground, 
also found as spang. Of doubtful origin, but probably 
Scandinavian [Liulf del Espaune, Feet of Fines, Line.]. 
The dialect glossaries assign it to East Anglia. 

Spring. A dial, word for wood, plantation [Robert 
ad Springe, Ramsey Cart.]. I know several " springs " 
in the woods of Bucks. Cf . Goldspring. Of course the 
name may be also from spring in its more usual sense 
[Adam de Fonte, Wore. Priory Reg.] ; but it is rarely 
taken from the season. The Teutons divided the year 



DIALECT TOPOGRAPHY 79 

into Summer and Winter, hence the frequency of these 
words as surnames. Still, cf. Fr. Printemps. 

Staite. ME. stathe, a landing-place, as in Bicker- 
steth. Hence also State, Staight. And, as Bicker- 
steth has given Bickerstaff, this local name may be 
one origin of Staff. Stay is a modern dial, variant 
(EDD.). 

Staple. A post [Roger Atestaples, City A.]. Gen- 
erally Staples. 

Stent. A boundary, limit ; probably OF. estente, 
extent. 

Stile. AS. stigol, a stile, also an ascent. Hence 
Styles [Geoffrey atte Stile, City F.], Still, Stillman, 
Stiggles [Richard del Stigels, Pat. R.], Steggall, Steggles, 
and even Steckles, Stickles [Robert Atstychele, Malmes- 
bury Abbey Reg.]. This group of names illustrates a 
phenomenon of some importance, viz. that surnames, 
and to some extent place-names, form exceptions to 
phonetic laws. The rigid phoneticians will say that 
the -g- of AS. stigol must disappear (cf. sail from segl). 
The answer is that when it becomes a surname, its 
development may be arrested and an archaic form may 
persist. The home of both Styles and Stickles is Kent 
[Robert atte Estyghele, Hund. R., Kent], where they 
flourish abundantly side by side. The AS. Stigand 
should have become Stiant. It has done so and 
exists in the surnames Styants, Styance ; but it also 
survives as Stigand, Stiggants, Stiggins, Stickings. 
Similarly AS. fugol became fowl, but has also given 
the surname Fuggle [Robert le Fug el, Pipe R.], and 
Tickler perhaps represents a sharpened form of " the 
principal rebel Walter Tighlar " (Stow). Stoyle may 
be for Style, as the local Royle is for Ryle, but a ship 



80 SOME LOCAL SURNAMES 

called la Stoyle (Pat. R.) is obviously OF. estoile, 
star, and Lestoile is a common French surname. 

Stitch, Styche. Dial, stitch, a ridge, a balk of grass- 
land in an arable field [Richard Attestyche, Pleas.]. 
Styche is a good example of the effect on pronuncia- 
tion of an archaic spelling . 

Stoop. A dial, word for boundary post. Hence 
also Stopes, Stopps [William del Stopp, 1379, Bardsley]. 

" ' No stopes or rails,' was the cry at the time of the Notts 
enclosures of 1825 " (EDD.). 

Studd. A variant of Stead, place, dwelling ; cf. 
Richard del Pleystude (Glouc. Cart.), i.e. Playsted. 

Sturt. AS. steort, tail, as in the bird-name redstart, 
used of a tongue of land [William de la Sturte, Hund. 
R.]. Hence also Start. Cf. Start Point. 

" Boscus qui dicitur stert " (Feet of Fines). 

Swale. As this is chiefly a Yorkshire name, we 
must assign it to the river (see p. 161, «.). But swale 
has also various dial, senses, a valley, a salt-water 
channel (between Kent and Sheppey), a pleasant shade, 
to one of which probably belongs Tedric atte Suele 
(Pipe R.). Hence also Swell. 

Swire. ME. swire, neck. The surname Swire may 
be a nickname (cf. Neck, p. 135), but is also a dial, 
variant of Squire. In ME. swire was also swere and was 
evidently used of a " neck " of land. A " bottom " 
called "le Swere,"" le Sweres," is mentioned in 
Malmesbury Abbey Reg. Hence Swears. 

Tarn. A mountain lake. Hence Tarnsitt, tarn-side. 

Tart. Ft. tertre, a mound, hillock [Emma sur le 
Tertre, Leic. Bor. Rec.]. 



DIALECT TOPOGRAPHY 81 

Thake, Theak. An East Anglian word for thatch. I 
have found the name in Suffolk. Cf. the occupative 
names Thacker, Theaker, Thackster. 

Thay, They. An existing, though rare, surname, 
which is amply recorded [Philip atte Thegh, Cust. 
Battle Abbey, John de la The, Pat. R.]— 

" In la Thegh vi acrae grossi bosci " (Cust. Battle Abbey). 

It seems to be identical with Tye, Tey (q.v.), which 
is latinized as theia in the Pipe R. 

Ton. A west-country word for a rocky hill [Henry 
atte Torr, Fine R., Dev., Robert de la Torre, Coram 
Rege R. 1297, Corn.]. Hence Hayter, Haytor, Hector, 
high tor, and Grinter, green tor [Hugh de Grenetorre, 
Chanc. R., Dev.] Pictor, a Somerset name, prob- 
ably contains the same element. Torr has another 
origin from OF. tor, a bull [Hamo le Tor, Pat. R., 
Gilbert le Tor, City A .] . 

Trow. A Middle English and dial, form of " trough " 
[William atte Trowe, Hund. R.] — 

" Trow, vessel, alveus, alveolus " (Prompt. Parv.). 

This is also one origin of Trew [William Attetfewe de 
Bristow, F. of Y.]. The same word is used in the 
west of a small barge, in which sense it is still the sign 
of an inn at Jackfield (Salop). So the surname may 
belong to the same group as Barge, Hoy, etc. (p. 171). 
Tuer. A narrow passage or alley [William de la 
Tuyere or de la Twyere, Archbp. Romeyn's Reg. 1286- 
96] . I am not sure whether Twyer still exists. Tewer, 
Tuer has an alternative origin, the Tawyer, or 
leather-dresser [Martin le Tawyer, City E.] — 

" Tewer of skynnes, candidarius " (Cath. Angl.). 



82 SOME LOCAL SURNAMES 

Tuffi.il, Tuffield, Tofield. Dial, tuffold, twofold, a 
small shed, " lean-to," pent-house, ME. tofal, also 
spelt tuff all. Cf. Nicholas de Apenticio {Fine R.) — 

" Tofal, schudde, appendix, appendicium " (Prompt. Parv.). 

Tuffill may, however, be equally well derived from 
Theophilus [Simon Theofill, F. of Y.]. 

Twiss, Twitchen, Twitchell, Twizel. I put these 
together because they are no doubt related. They 
all contain the idea of a fork or branch. Twiss, un- 
recorded by the dictionaries, unless it is the dial. 
twitch, a bend in the road, is probably the original of 
which the others are derivatives [Hugh del Twys, 
Pat. R.]. With excrescent -t it gives Twist. Twitchen 
is used in dialect of a narrow passage connecting two 
streets [Richard de la Twitchene, Fine R.]. Hence 
also Twitching. Twizel, Twissell, Twitchell are AS. 
twisla, fork of a stream, as in Entwistle (Lane), 
whence the corrupted surname A nthistle. Birdwhistle is 
an imitative spelling of Birtwistle. Elys Bridestwesil 
or Britwesil was almoner to John of Gaunt. The first 
element is probably " bird." 

Tye. An extensive common pasture (Hall.). Also 
Tey, Tee [Hugh de la Tye, Hund. R., Adam de la Teye, 
Coram Rege. R. 1297]. Tighe represents an archaic 
spelling. 

Verge. Possibly in the sense of edge, boundary, 
but it may be OF. verge, rood, fourth part of an 
acre [Richard de la Verge, Close R.]. Also Varge. 

Voce, Vose, Voice, Voase. Fr. Vaux, plural of val, 
a valley, but common also as a specific French place- 
name [John de Vaus, Lib. Vit.]. This element appears 
in a few English place-names, e.g. Rievaulx, whence 



DIALECT TOPOGRAPHY 83 

Revis, Rivis, and Jervaulx, one origin of Jarvis. With 
these cf . Clarvis, from Clairvaux [Albin de Clairvaux, 
Ramsey Cart.]. 

Vyse, Vize. Of Devizes, once commonly called 
" the Vyse " and latinized as Divisce [Richard del Vise, 
Exch. R.]. 

Walne, Wawn. ME. walm, a well, spring. 

Waud. Variant of weald or wold [Walter de la 
Waude, Pat. R.]. Hence also Weld and Weale, the 
final -d of the latter being lost as in Wiles [Stephen de 
la Wile, Pat. R.] from the related Wild— 

"A franklin in the wild of Kent" (x Henry IV. ii. 1). 

The Weald of Sussex is also called the Wild. Hence 
the name Wildish 1 and the imitative Wildash. 

Waylett, Waylat. AS. weg-gelcetu, place where two 
or more roads meet [Cecily de la Weylete, Chart. R.] — 

" Sche sat in the weelot, var. place of two weyes, that ledith to 
Tampna " (Wye. Gen. xxxviii. 14). 

Waythe, Wath, Wathes. ON. vathr, a ford, once 
fairly common as second element in place-names, but 
now usually replaced by -with, -worth, e.g. Langworth 
(Leic.) was Langwath in the thirteenth century. 
Similarly -wade, a ford, its native cognate, has inter- 
changed with -wood, so that Braidwood may sometimes 
be identical in meaning with Bradford [Reginald de 
Braidewad, Pipe R.]. 

Wham, Whan. Possibly from AS. hwamm, a corner 
[William atte Whaune, Cust. Battle Abbey]. Cf. dial. 
wham, a morass. 

1 Cf. Devenish, from Devon, Kentish, etc. 



84 SOME LOCAL SURNAMES 

Wish. A damp meadow, marsh, common in old 
Sussex field-names. Hence Whish, which may, how- 
ever, be for Hewish, Huish, AS. hiwisc, a homestead — 

" 'Help yourself, Mr. Whish, and keep the bottle by you.' 
' My friend's name is Huish, not Whish, sir,' said the captain." 
(Stevenson and Osbourne, The Ebbtide.) 

With. ON. vithr, wood, once common in place- 
names, e.g. Asquith (ash). It has interchanged with 
wath (q.v.), and, like that element, has paid tribute 
to -worth, e.g. Askworth, Ashworth. 1 Also Wythe. 

Wong. A meadow, AS. wang. There are several 
"wongs" in old maps of Nottingham. Compound 
Wetwan [Thomas de Wetewange, Archbp. Peckham's 
Let. 1279-92]. Identical with ON. vangr, as in Stavan- 
ger— 

" Wong of lond, territorium " (Prompt. Parv.). 

Woodfine, Woodfin. A wood -heap, fairly common in 
Anglo-Saxon, now only surviving as a surname — 

" Strues, wudefine " (Voc). 

Wroe. ME. wra, nook, corner [John in the Wro, 
Pat. R.]. It has usually become Wray [Thomas del 
Wray, Lane. Ass. R. 1 176-1285], and has given a num- 
ber of north-country names in -wra, -wray, -ra, -ray, 
-ry, etc., e.g. Doowra (dove), Thackwray, Thackeray 
(thatch), Rather a (ME. r other, cattle), Cawthra, Cawthry, 
Whinray, Winnery, etc. It has also contributed to 
Rowe and, indirectly, to Rose 2 [Simon ithe Rose, Pat. 
R., Yorks]. Hence the Staffordshire name Durose for 
del Wros, and the Lincolnshire Benrose, Bemrose, Bem- 

1 In both of these the -worth is, of course, sometimes original. 
* Cf. Ruse from Revo (p. 72). 



CURIOUS SURVIVALS 85 

roose, in which the first element in probably " bean." 
Here may belong the Yorkshire name Ringrow, Ring- 
rose. Wroe may also sometimes be the second element 
of Morrow, as " le Murwra " (Cumb.) is mentioned in 
IpM., and of Woodrow, Wither ow, the latter having 
the Norse with (p. 84) for Eng. wood. With Bithray 
cf. Bidlake, etc. (p. 52). 

There are some local surnames which are of obvious 
origin, but whose rarity makes them interesting. 
Such are Cowmeadow, Farmmedows, Forresthill, Ozier- 
brook, Monument, Marthouse x (market-house), Ground- 
water, Bullwinkle, the bull's corner (cf. Bulpitt), Leafi- 
ingwell, evidently from some pool associated with the 
old ceremony of leaping the well — 

" Leaping the well, going through a deep and noisome pool on 
Alnwick Moor, called the Freemen's Well, a sine qua non to the 
freedom of the borough " (Hall.). 

I do not know whether the name of the famous 
Whig pamphleteer Oldmixon still survives. It is a 
compound of the dial, mixen, a dunghill — 

" Fumier, a mixen, dunghill, heape of dung " (Cotg.). 



1 Mart is more probably short for Martin. 



CHAPTER IV 

THE CORRUPTION OF LOCAL SURNAMES 

" ' Where d'you live ? ' I demanded. 

' Brugglesmith,' was the answer " (Kipling). 

The connection of a surname with a specific place- 
name is often obscured by considerable difference of 
form and sound. Sometimes the surname preserves 
the contracted local pronunciation familiar only to the 
inhabitants of the district. Such are Aram, Arum 
(Averham, Notts), Anster 1 (Anstruther, Fife), Littler 
(Littleover, Derb.), Wyndham (Wymondham, Norf.), 
Rowell (Rothwell, Northants), Startin (Staverton, 
Northants), Sneezum (Snettisham, Norf.), Bustin (Bris- 
lington, Som.), Badgery (Badgeworthy, Glouc), Roster 
(Wroxeter, Salop) . These examples, taken at random, 
can be largely added to a by any reader according to 
the district with which he is acquainted. In the 
above cases the local distribution of the surnames 
confirms the origin indicated, e.g. I have found Roster 
only in Salop. So also Finbow, found in Lincolnshire 
as Fenbough, is now chiefly represented at Stowmarket 
(Suff .) within two miles of its birthplace (Finborough). 

1 Hence also, I suppose, Ansterberry, the borough of Anstruther. 

■ For instance, I have no doubt that the Devon name Widgery 
is from Widworthy in that county, while Essery is for Axworthy, 
the " ash homestead." 

86 



CONTRACTIONS AND ECCENTRICITIES 87 

Often enough the surname has got back to the actual 
locality from which it was taken on the emigration of 
the ancestor, e.g. there are people called Freshney 
living at Friskney (Line). Sometimes such contrac- 
tions are made from local names which have not become 
specific place-names, e.g. Timblick for Timberlake. 
The contracted pronunciation of local names in Saint 
is a familiar phenomenon. 1 Some interesting examples 
of French origin are Cinnamond, or Sinnamon, from 
Saint-Amant, Cemery from Saint-Mary, Savigar from 
Saint-Vigor [Thomas de Sancto Vigore, 8 Fine R.], 
and Santler from Saint-Helier [Roger de Seinteller, 
Testa de Nev.]. 

Sometimes the local pronunciation or later perver- 
sion appears to be simply eccentric, e.g. Stuckey 
(Stiffkey, Norf.), Escreet (Escrick, Yorks), Orlebar 
(Orlingbury, Northants). Occasionally the surname 
preserves an archaic form,' e.g. Hockenhall (Huck- 
nall, Notts), Keyhoe (Kew, Surrey), Staveley (Staley 
Bridge, Chesh.), or represents a correct and natural 
development of a place-name which has become ortho- 
graphically perverted, e.g.Sapsworth (Sawbridgeworth, 4 
Herts). Tyrwhitt is the older form of Trewhitt 
(Northumb.), and Trash of Thirsk (Yorks). Shrosbree 
is evidently more phonetic than Shrewsbury, and 
Linkin is a fair attempt at Lincoln. 

1 Are Smiles and Smirke from St. Miles and St. Mark ? To the 
latter we certainly owe Seamark. 

* I can find nothing about this place or the name Vigor, whence 
our Vigors, Vigers [Ely Viger, Fine R.]. 

3 Or even an obsolete name, e.g. some of the Dunnetts come from 
Launceston, the earlier name of which was Dunheved. 

4 Etymologically the " worth," or homestead, of Sebert, AS. 
S?ebeorht. Hence the surname Sawbridge. 



88 THE CORRUPTION OF LOCAL SURNAMES 

As a rule, the further a local surname wanders from 
its home, the more it becomes distorted. Perhaps no 
name of this class has a greater number of forms than 
Birkenshaw, birch wood, also spelt Berkenshaw, Bur- 
kenshaw, Burkinshear , Bircumshaw. With the common 
change 1 of t for k it becomes Bertenshaw, Birtenshaw, 
Burtonshaw, and even Buttonshaw . Metathesis gives 
Briggenshaw (cf. Brickett for Birkett or Birkhead), 
Bruckshaw, and finally Brokenshire. There are prob- 
ably many other variants. The substitution of -shire 
for -shaw is also seen in Blackshire and Kirbyshire 
(kirk bye shaw), while we have the opposite change in 
Wilshaw. Both are unoriginal in Scrimshaw, Skrim- 
shire, the " skirmisher," or fencing master. Shire 
itself has many variants, which are, however, easily 
recognized, e.g. Lankshear, Willsher, Hamshar, etc., and 
Upcher, from Upshire (Ess.). A phonetic change 
which is rather the opposite of the usual tendency is 
the change of shaw to shall in Backshall, Upshall, 
Ringshall. 

Other examples of the corruption of north-country 
names are Barraclough, from a spot near Clitheroe, 
which becomes Barrowcliff in Notts and reaches 
London as Berry cloth and Berecloth (cf. Fair cloth for 
Fairclough) ; Carruthers, a Dumfries village, which gives 
Carrodus, Crothers, Cruddas, etc. in the north of 
England, and in the south sometimes Crowdace ; Blen- 
karne (Cumb.), whence Blenkiron, Blenkin, Blinkhorn; 
Birchenough (hough, a hill), found in East Anglia as 
Bicheno, Beechner ; and of course the -thwaite names, 
e.g. Branwhite (Branthwaite, Cumb.), Michaelwaite 

1 Cf. Kirtland for Kirkland, a common north-country place- 



IMITATIVE CORRUPTIONS 89 

(Micklethwaite), Posselwhite (Postlethwaite) , Mussel- 
white, Kibblewhite, and even Whitewhite. Frequently 
-wood has been substituted in the south for this uncouth 
ending, e.g. Thistlethwaite is the original form of Thistle- 
wood, for the first means the clearing or open land 
where thistles grow and the second makes no sense. 
The simple Thwaite appears also as Twaite, Twite,' 
Dwight, Thoyts. 

Occasionally the perversion of a local surname is 
due to the imitative instinct, e.g. Strawbridge, Strow- 
bridge for Stourbridge (Wore), but many names 
which look as though they belonged to this class, e.g. 
Barnacle, Clown, Hartshorn, 2 Stirrup, 3 (Styrrup, Notts), 
Unthank, Winfarthing, are genuine place-names re- 
corded in the Gazetteer. A very slight change of 
spelling is often rather disconcerting, e.g. Wincer 
(Windsor), Farnorth (Farn worth), and occasionally we 

1 Cf. Crostwight (Norf.), " cross thwaite." There is, however, a 
dial, twite, meaning a kind of linnet. 

1 Here the suffix is horn, a nook of land (p. 64) ; cf . Hearne, Hum, 
etc. But some of the -horn names are probably also nicknames. 
Such are Greenhorn, Langhorn, Rouhorn (rough), Whitehom [MarkWy- 
thorn, Hund. R.]. In the medieval play of Cain and Abel (Towne 
ley Mysteries) Cain's seven horses are Greynehorne, Whitehorne, 
Gryme, Mall, Morell, Stott, and Lemyng, every one of which is 
now a surname. Learning [William Leming, Hund. if.] is the present 
participle of the obsolete learn, to shine — 

" Radieux, radiant, shining, glittering, blazing, flaring, learning, 
full of beames " (Cotg.). 

> In the year 1280 occurs the name of Richard Stirrappe (Archbp. 
Wichwane's Reg.), the form of the entry, and the agreement of the 
spelling with the Middle English form of stirrup, suggesting a nick- 
name. But it is merely an early instance of a wrong entry. Richard 
was a Notts man, and the Archbishop's clerk, unacquainted with 
the little Notts hamlet, took the local name for a nickname and 
omitted the de, a good example of the care that has to be exercised 
in drawmg conclusions from old records. 



90 THE CORRUPTION OF LOCAL SURNAMES 

come across alterations of the most violent kind, such 
as Vickerstaff, a well-established Lancashire surname, 
which apparently belongs to Bickerstaffe. 

In fact, local surnames are, when once they stray 
from their habitat, most subject of all to corruption. 
The immigrant possessed of a baptismal or occupative 
name would generally find it accepted in his new 
surroundings without much change, and, if his nick- 
name were unfamiliar, he would soon be provided with 
a new one ; but the man who tried to teach his new 
Midland or East Anglian neighbours the name of the 
Northumbrian village by which he had hitherto been 
known, would be very much in the position of the 
medieval Baskerville or Blondeville, whose descend- 
ants have now become, not only Baskwell and 
Bloomfield, but even Pesterfteld and Blunderfield. 
The existence of a well-known town serves in some 
cases to normalize the spelling of a common surname. 
We do not, for instance, find many variants of York 
or Sheffield, but a place-name which has failed to 
develop into a specific settlement is especially subject 
to variation. In Lancashire documents there are 
several references to Gosfordsich [Walter de Gose- 
fordsiche, Lane. Inq.], i.e. the " sich " (see p. 76) by 
the "goose ford," a name which now exists as Gors- 
tidge, Gostige, Gossage, Gostick, Gorsuch. 

The suffix portion of local names varies in bewilder- 
ing fashion. We find -wood, -worth, -with (Norse for 
-wood), -wade, a ford, -thwaite, constantly interchanging, 
not only with each other, but also with the -ward 0/ 
Anglo-Saxon personal names and with the adverbial 
-ward. Thus the common names Norwood, Southwood, 
Eastwood, Westwood are sometimes for names in -ward 



DISGUISED ENDINGS 91 

[Robert a Westward or de la West, Hund. R.]. In 
fact -wood in surnames is generally to be regarded 
with caution, e.g. Stallwood is simply a perversion of 
the nickname " stalworth " or " stalwart." On the 
other hand, Homeward is an alteration of Homewood, 
for Holmwood, ME. holm, a holly. 

Yate, i.e. gate, is well disguised in Boyeatt (bow, an 
arch, town gate), Ditcheatt, Rowatt [Robert de la 
Rougate, Hund. R.~], Windeatt (wynd, an alley), 
Whiddett, Widdeatt (Woodgate ') ; Burnyeatt has in 
Scottish the special meaning of small watercourse. 
Gate itself, whether meaning gate or street, is not at 
once recognised in Norkett (north gate), Forget, Forketi 
(fore gate), Claggitt, Cleggett (clay gate), Foskett (foss 
gate), Poskitt (Postgate), Sloggett, Sluggett (slough gate). 
To these may be added Felgate, for field gate [Robert 
de Fildegate, Pat. R.] and Falgate, Folgate, for fall 
gate [Peter de le Falgate, Hund. R.], the latter mean- 
ing a gate across a high-road. 

We have a large number of surnames in -fitt, which 
may represent -field, -foot, or -ford, e.g. M or fitt, Murfitt 
(moor field or moor foot ?), Belfitt (Belfield or Belford ?), 
Breffitt (brae foot), Brumfitt (Broomfield), Rumfitt (Rom- 
ford), Welfitt (Welford). So also we find Kerfoot for 
Kerfield (Peebles), Playfoot for Playford (Sufi.), Fifoot 
for Fifield (see p. 128, n. 3), Linfoot for Linford, etc. 

One of the most interesting cases of suffix change is 
the confusion between -cock and -cote, -cott, a confusion 
that we find already in the Rolls. Grewcock, Growcock, 
Groocock, Grocott, Groucutt, Growcott all spring from 

1 Whiddett may also be for Woodhead. In fact this group is 
easily confused with that of local names in -head (p. 128, n. i.). 
There is not much difierence between Ditchett and Ditcheatt. 

8 



92 THE CORRUPTION OF LOCAL SURNAMES 

an original of the same type as the nicknames Pea- 
cock, Woodcock, and represent ME. grew-cok, from 
Fr. grue, a crane [Henry Grucok, Cal. Gen., Gerard 
la Grue, Fine R.]. On the other hand, Ellicock, 
Elcock, possibly dims, of Ellis, may also be for Ellicott, 
from Elcot (Berks), formerly Ellecotte {Chart. R.). 
The derivation of this name is, however, complicated 
by the existence of Elacota la Regrateresse {City 
B.) and William Alicot {Pat. R.), the latter of whom 
may also be responsible for some of the apparently 
local Alcotts, Aucutts, etc. To get back to firmer ground, 
the Oxfordshire name Didcock is certainly from Didcot 
(Berks), Slocock is for " slough cote," Woolcock for 
Woolcott (Som.), and Bulcock for Bulcott (Notts). 
Even Peacock is sometimes an alteration of the common 
Fr. Picot [Nicholas Pikot or Pyekoc, City A.]. Chil- 
cock is for Chilcote, and Peter de la Polecok {Testa de 
Nev.) should be " pool cot," while Robert Balkoc or 
Barkoc or Balkot {Cal. Gen.) shows how early the two 
endings were confused. Moorcock, which might be 
identical with Murcott (moor cote), is certified as a 
nickname by Martin Morkoc {Testa de Nev.) and by 
the existence of Morehen. Heathcock is also a nickname 
[Walter Hathecok, Hund. R.]. Among genuine com- 
pounds of -cote the most interesting is Caldecote, with 
a very large number of variants, such as Coldicott, Goldi- 
cott, Calcott, Cawcutt, and Corkitt ! Cf. with these Adam 
de Caldesete {Bp. Kellawe's Reg.) ; see Seed (p. 73). 

Another deceptive ending is -acre, a field, as in 
Hardacre, Hardaker, Hardicker. Its compounds are 
less simple than they look, e.g. Oldacre, sometimes 
equivalent to Oldfield, represents more often the ME. 
alder car, a " car," or marshy waste, overgrown with 



COMPOUNDS OF -ACRE 93 

alders. This is of frequent occurrence in Middle 
English, and is still used in dialect in the form 
owdaker. 

" Aleyr keyr, alnetum " (Prompt. Parv.). 

" All the londs, merys, marysses, alderkars " (Will, 1484). 

With Oldacre cf. Older shaw, the " alder shaw," and 
the still earlier form in Ollerhead, Ollerenshaw [John del 
Holerinchawe, 1332], and Lightollers, 1 Lightowler. 
Whittaker, which represents not only " white acre " (cf. 
Whitfield), but also "wheat acre" and "wet acre," 
is also sometimes a -car name [Adam de Whitekar, 
Lane. Court R. 1323-4]. Fouracre, Foweraker looks 
simple enough, but may very well come from the dialect 
foreacre, headland of a ploughed field, whence certainly 
Farraker. The well-known Lancashire name Stirzaker, 
Sturzaker, less commonly Steriker, is a genuine -acre 
name, the first element being ME. steor, a steer, bull. 
In Dunnaker the first element may be dun, a hill, or 
dun, brown. Waddicar, Waddicker are from a spot in 
Lancashire formerly known as Wedacre. In Waraker 
the first element is Domesday war a, 2 an outlying por- 
tion of a manor. This is further corrupted into 
Walliker and Warwicker, the latter of which has been 
assimilated to Warwick by imitative spelling. Half- 
acre was used in Middle English for any small piece 
of ground ; cf. Halfhide (p. 128, n. 3). Part of Brentford 
High Street is still called the Halfacre. 'Ranacre, 
Ranigar, Runacres seem to represent the Anglo- 
Saxon name Raefengar, raven spear. 

1 Cf. with this Lightbirkes, a Northumberland shieling mentioned 
in the Fine R. 

* On this important word see Round's Feudal England (p. 115). 



94 THE CORRUPTION OF LOCAL SURNAMES 

Among names compounded from trees the oak 
easily takes first place. Most villages have, or at any 
rate had, before the devastating effects of enlighten- 
ment were really felt, an old oak, gallows oak, haunted 
oak, or some other oak out of the common. In com- 
pounds the word often becomes -ack, -ick, -ock, -uck, 
and in some of the following examples the identifica- 
tion is more or less conjectural. Whiteoak, Whittock, 
Whittick, and Greenoak [Thomas de Greneayk, F. of 
Y.] are simple cases, also Shurrock, Shorrock, Sharrocks, 
[Herbert de Schirhoc, Fine R.] — 

" Shire oak, an oak tree marking the boundary of a shire or a 
meeting-place for a shire court " {NED.). 

Holyoak, Hollyoak may represent both the "holly " or 
"holm" oak, i.e. the evergreen oak, and the "holy 
oak " or " gospel oak " at the parish boundary where 
the procession stopped for the reading of the gospel 
when " beating the bounds" — 

" Dearest, bury me 
Under that holy oke, or gospel tree " 

(Herrick, To Anthea). 

Coppock, Coppack may be for " copped," i.e. polled, 
oak, for the earliest example of the word " cop " in the 
' NED. is " coppede ac." Bantock, Bantick is for " bent 
oak"; cf. Adam del Crokedaik (IpM.), Crummock, 
Cromack, crump, i.e. crooked, oak, and Cammack, from 
dial, cam, crooked. But the last three names may 
be dims, of crum and cam used as nicknames. In 
Brideoke, Briddock, the first element is probably ME. 
brid, bird, while Triphook, Trippick may be for 



THE ENDINGS -THORP AND -WICH 95 

"thorp 1 oak" (v.i.). There is also the classical 
example of Snook, Snooks, from Sevenoaks, not neces- 
sarily always the place in Kent so called, for a spot 
called the " seven oaks" is mentioned in the Abingdon 
Chronicle. The intermediate Sinnocks also survives, 
and I find that John Hardyng, of Senock, Kent, was 
indicted for horse stealing in 1551. Snake is probably 
the same name. In Buckoke we have the name of 
some famous trysting oak of medieval hunters. 

Another word that assumes very numerous variant 
forms when used as a suffix is -thorp* e.g. Hilldrop, 
Guntrip, Westrope, Redrup, Gilstrap, Winthrop, etc. 
Whatrup, which looks as though it belonged to the same 
class, is an illiterate alteration of Wardrop [Thomas de 
la Wardrobe, Hund. R.]. Hurst, a wood, is slightly 
disguised in Fairest, Greenist, Everest. The last name, 
of reposeful appearance, belongs almost exclusively 
to Kent [Tenentes de Everherst, Hund. R., Kent], 
The prefix is AS. eofor, a boar, common as first 
element in place-names. Wich, a dwelling, as in 
Norwich, has, as a suffix, often assumed the deceptive 
form -age, e.g. Swanage (Dors.) is Swanewic in the 
AS. Chronicle. Similarly Colledge represents Colwich 
(Staff.), and Stoneage, Woodage, Middleage, Winterage, 
which suggest epochs of civilization and of human life, 
also contain the ending -wich. Curiously enough, from 
the alternative -wick we get the equally deceptive 
Middleweek, while Nunweek is of course Nunwick 
(Northumb.). 

1 Browning has " The glowing triphook, thumbscrews and the 
gadge " (Soul's Tragedy, i. 332), but two out of the three instru- 
ments are ghost-words. 

2 See examples in Baddeley's Gloucestershire Place-Names (p. x). 



96 THE CORRUPTION OF LOCAL SURNAMES 

But hardly any suffix is so well represented as the 
simple word house. We have from it many quite 
obvious compounds, e.g. Newhouse and Whitehouse, 
and others whose survival is interesting, such as Ale- 
house, ^ Barkhouse, i.e. tan-house, Duckhouse, Dyhouse, 
Porthouse (gate-house), Sainthouse, Seedhouse, Tap- 
house, Woolhouse, together with the somewhat dis- 
guised Felthouse (field). Childerhouse, though not in 
the NED., presumably means orphanage [John de 
la Chyldrehus, Chart. R.] ; cf. Children [John Atte- 
children, Pat. R.] and Fr. Auxenfants (p. 280). The 
well-known Suffolk Aldhouse is generally an imita- 
tive form of a personal name Aldus, well recorded 
in the Rolls [Nicholas f. Aldus, Close R., Aldus 
Waveloc, Hund. R.] ; it is also found as Aldus, Aldous, 
Aldis, Awdas, etc. 

But often -house as a suffix is changed into -ows, -ers, 
or -as, -ess, -is, -os, -us, e.g. Bellows, Churchers, Dyas, 
Portess* Burdis, Stannus, Stannas, Stannis, all obvious 
except Burdis (Bur das, Burdus), which may be for 
" bird-house," or for Bordeaux. Bellows has a variant 
Billows, and Windows 3 is probably for Windus, i.e. 
wynd-house. Meadows is sometimes for " mead 
house," whence also Meadus. Other examples in -ers 
are Duckers and Drakers, Smithers, Smeathers (see 
Smeeth, p. 77), Salter s, Charters (charter-house), Stathers 
(ME. stathe, landing-place), Parkers, J ewers,* Childers 

1 The two bearers of this name in the Lond. Dir. (1843) are both 
publicans. 

1 This may be for Porteous (p. 156), but it is quite possible that 
the latter name is sometimes altered from Porthouse. 

3 Cf., however, the French name Lafenestre. 

4 Cf. the Jew-house at Lincoln, said to be the oldest inhabited 
building in England. 



COMPOUNDS OF -HOUSE 97 

(for Childerhouse, v.s.), Hillers, Boggers, Suthers. We 
have something similar to these forms in Janders, 
which actually represents the heroic Chandos [Robert 
de Jaundos, Lib. R.]. 

Examples of the other endings are Dyas, Hollas, 
Hollas or Wholehouse, for " hole house," Dallas (dale), 
Beddis, Biddis, from AS. bedhus, chapel, the origin of 
the common Welsh place-name Bettws and, sometimes, 
of the name Beddoes [John del Bettis, Nott. Bor. Rec.]. 
With Bullas [Simon de la Bulehouse, Fine R.] cf. 
Ramus and Coultas, Cowtas, Coultish. Brockis is 
for Brookhouse, Nunniss for Nunhouse, Roddis for 
" royd-house," from the northern royd, clearing, or 
for " rood-house." Charteris is for Charterhouse, an 
imitative corruption of Chartreuse. For Millhouse we 
have Mellers, Mellis [Richard de Melius, Chart. R.], 
and even Millist, the latter with an excrescent -t as 
in Middlemist for Middlemiss (Michaelmas) ; cf. 
Bonus, Bonest, for " bone-house," i.e. charnel-house. 
I am not sure whether Porterhouse still exists, but 
Pendrous, Pendriss is for " pender-house," the Pender 
being the same as the Pinder or Pounder. Malthus, 
Brewis, 1 Cottis, Loftus, Lowas, Lowis, Newis are ob- 
vious. With Boggis cf. Finnis [William del Fenhus, 
Hund. R., Suff.], and Carus, Carass, Caress, from 
car, a marsh (see p. 93). Harkus is for " hawk- 
house," as Harker is for Hawker. Fawcus, Falkous, 
suggest early shortened forms of Falconas, but are 
more probably variants of the personal names Fawkes 
(falco), as -us for -es is common in some Middle English 

1 Possibly also one of the many variants of Bruce; Alan del 
Breuhous (Pat. R.) confirms the first derivation, but John de Brew- 
ouse (Close R.) might be for either. 



98 THE CORRUPTION OF LOCAL SURNAMES 

texts. With Falconas goes Mewis, from " mew," in 
its original sense of a cage for hawks. 1 

Wortos contains the archaic " wort," vegetable. In 
Pettus we have the Kentish Pelt, for Pitt. With Crannis 
[Richard de Cranehous, Pat. R.] cf. Duckers. Barkis 
was an East Anglian name long before Dickens [Alfred 
de Barkhus, Pat. R., Stiff.]. Barrass may be for " bar 
house," the house at the entrance to a town (cf. Gatus), 
or from the obsolete barrace, a barrier or outwork of 
a fortress, whence the French name Ban as. Baylas is 
for " bail-house " (see Bale, p. 53), and the very common 
Bayliss must also sometimes belong here. Burrus is 
" bower-house " and Burrows may sometimes have the 
same origin. Dayus is still used in dialect for a dairy 
(see Day, p. 233), and Adam del Cheshus (Hund. R.) 
suggests that Buttress may sometimes represent 
"butter-house." The Lincolnshire Govis is perhaps 
connected with the dial, verb to gove or goave, i.e. 
to store com in a barn, whence the occupative Gover, 
Govier. Copus [Thomas del Cophous, Fine R.] may 
be the house on the " cop," or hill, or the house with 
the pointed roof, like the " copped hall" of the City 
which still survives in Copthall Buildings. Names of 
the type here dealt with are especially common in the 
north and the Roll of the Freemen of York has many 
early examples of them. The above list is far from 
complete. Circus perhaps belongs to the same group, 
though I can suggest no origin for it. Lewtas is 
probably connected with AS. Meow, shelter (see Lew). 
Wyclif has the inverted houselewth. Dwerryhouse, 
formerly also Dwarryhouse, means " dwarf house " — 
" No dwery is but lyke a gyaunt longe " (Lidgate). 
1 On the origin of our " mews " see my Romance of Words, p. 120. 



COMPOUNDS OF -LAND 99 

The compounds of -land 1 offer no phonetic difficulty, 
but include some names of antiquarian interest, and 
others of deceptive aspect. Olland, old land, is still 
used in Norfolk and Suffolk for land that has lain 
some time fallow. Buckland 2 is etymologically " book 
land," i.e. land held by written charter. Headland is 
not necessarily a cape — 

" Headland, that which is ploughed overthwart at the ends of the 
other lands " (Worlidge, Diet. Rust. 1681). 

The Scottish term is Headrigg (ridge). Frankland, AS. 
Francland, was used in ME. for France. Eastland was 
applied specifically to the Baltic countries [Eremon 
de Estland, Hund. R., Godeschalke de Estlaund, ib.], 
and Norland, Westland, Southland may also refer 
to large geographical areas. Britland once meant 
Wales. The Devon name Yalland, Yelland, Yol- 
land contains the adj . yald, a West Saxon form of old 
[John de la Yaldelonde, Hund. R., Dev.]. Mark- 
land was originally a division of land of the annual 
value of a mark. The surname has an alternative 
origin from mark, a boundary. In Trueland the 
adjective has the archaic sense of good, suitable, 
genuine. Cf. Truefitt, where the suffix is probably 
field (p. 91). Both Freeland and Goodland are some- 
times personal names [Hugh Freeland, Hund. R., 
Hugh Godland, ib.]. They would be AS. Frithuland 
or Freoland, and Godland, names which are not given 

1 But it should be remembered that the ending -land often repre- 
sents ME. laund, open country, F. lande, a moor. 

4 Like all place-names in Buck-, it may also have to do with 
either bucks or beech trees. 



ioo THE CORRUPTION OF LOCAL SURNAMES 

by Searle, although the elements of which they con- 
sist are copiously attested. Other -land names cor- 
rupted from personal names are Checkland, for Checklin, 
a variant of Jacklin [Ranulf Jaklin, Pat. R.], Jose- 
land, for Jocelyn [Joselan de Nevill, Yorks Fines, 
temp. John], and Candeland [Kandelan de Slyne, 
Lane. Ass. R. 1176-1285], more usually Candlin, 
from Gandelyn. 

Many apparent compounds of -way are from AS. 
personal names in -wig (p. 37). Genuine local com- 
pounds are Birkway (birch), Buckaway (AS. hoc, 
beech), Salway, Selway 1 (AS. sealh, willow), Rodaway 
(road), Narraway, etc. Carroway is probably for 
Garroway, from Garway (Herel). Faraway is from 
Farway (Dev.), with the -a- which is characteristic of 
Devon names (see Greenaway, p. 76, n.). The Dorset 
Samways was formerly (15 17) Samwise, which seems 
to point clearly to AS. samwis,* dull-witted, lit. half 
wise. Jennerway is one of the many variants of 
Janways, the Genoese. Jackways shows the the old 
dissyllabic pronunciation of Jacques — 

" The melancholy Ja-ques grieves at that " 

(As You Like It, ii. 1). 

Spurway seems to be a phrase-name, the native equiva- 
lent of Pickavance (p. 268), and I should assign a like 
origin to Harkaway, though the NED. has no early 
record of the phrase. Cf. Rumbelow, no doubt a nick- 

1 This even is dubious. It may be AS. Selewig [Richard Salewy, 
Wore. Priory Reg.]. 

1 This sam^still survives in the perverted " sand-blind " and 
some dialect expressions, 



THE CORRUPTION OF LOCAL SURNAMES 101 

name for a sailor. Stephen Romylowe was Constable 
of Nottingham Castle in 1355 — 

" Your maryners shall synge arowe 
Hey how and rumby lowe " 

{Squire of Low Degree). 



CHAPTER V 

SOME OCCUPATIVE SURNAMES 

" Sitot entre; le premier moutardier salua d'un air galant et se 
dirigea vers le haut perron ou le Pape l'attendait pour lui remettre 
les insignes de son grade : la cuiller de buis jaune et l'habit de 
safran " (Alphonse Daudet). 

Besides the large number of occupative surnames of 
obvious meaning (Draper, Fuller, Singer, etc.) and 
those which, though a little more difficult to trace 
(Cordner, Latimer, Pilcher, etc.), have a well-docu- 
mented history and have not got far from dictionary 
forms, there are a good many names of somewhat 
rare occurrence or of deceptive appearance, of which 
I propose to give here a selection. Many of them 
present no difficulty, but their survival seems 
interesting. First it must be noted that many sur- 
names in -er, suggesting an occupation or a habit, do 
not belong to this class at all. Some of them are 
Anglo-Saxon personal names, e.g. Asker, Asher, Asser, 
AS. vEschere, Fricker, AS. Frithugar, Hollier, Hull- 
yer, AS. Holdgar [William f. Holdegar, Pipe R.~\, 
Ringer, 1 AS. Regengar [Richard Reynger, Chart. R.~\. 
Diver and Ducker are no doubt nicknames, both 
words being used of various kinds of diving birds, 

1 Possibly also for Bellringer, or even for " -wringer " [John le 
Wringer, Fine R.~\ ; but Ringer is still a font-name in Norfolk. 

102 



NAMES IN -ER 103 

while the two surnames are found especially in the 
fen-country. Diver has been a Cambridge name since 
1273 [Gunnilda Divere, Hund. R., Camb.], while Ducker 
is common in Lincolnshire. Cf. William Plungun 
(Nott. Bor. Rec.) and Fr. Leplongcon — 

" Plongeon, the water-fowle called a ducker " (Cotg.). 

Duckering, also a Lincolnshire name, is local, the 
" ing " frequented by " duqkers " ; cf. Ravening 
(p. 64). Dipper, which looks as if it belonged to the 
same class as Diver and Ducker, is local, of Ypres 
[John de Ipre, Lane. Ass. R. 1176-1285]. Diaper ' is 
a variant. The same place has given the Scotch name 
Wiper, Wypers, and the medieval Ypre, locally 
"Wipers," Tower of Rye reminds us of the connection 
between the Cinque Ports and Flanders. Thus history 
repeats itself. 8 

Many names in -er are from specific place-names, 
e.g. Docker (Lane), Hever (Kent), Laver (Ess.), and 

1 The old etymologists also derived, though wrongly, the material 
called diaper from Ypres. 

2 A chapter could be written on war-maps and surnames. If 
we follow to-day (Feb. 28, 1916), as the great struggle for Verdun 
is proceeding, the sketch-map in the Times from Nieuport to that 
fortress, we see to the immediate east and west of the allied line, 
as we go through the country of the Flemings, Pickards, Champneys, 
Lorings, and Burgoynes, the original homes of the families of 
Bethune, Lyle, Dowey, Arts, Amy as, Cambrey (Kembery, Gambray)t 
Noon (Noyon), Sessions (Soissons), Reames, Challen, Vardon, to note 
the chief places only. Armentieres ought to be represented, for it 
is very common in the Rolls, and John Darmentiers was sheriff 
of London in 1300. All the above are amply attested and there 
are many variants. A little farther south the famous salient of 
Saint-Mihiel reminds us of the popular form of Michael, which has 
given us Mighill, Myhill, Miall, and is the chief source of Miles. 
With the intermediate Miggles cf. Span. Miguel. 



104 SOME OCCUPATIVE SURNAMES 

others represent the local or vulgar pronunciation, 
which is very fond of substituting -er for a more dis- 
tinctive ending. Such are Laidler (Laidlaw), Powner 
(Pownall), Pepler (Peplow), S cotter (Scottow), Crafer 
(Crayford), Stunner (Stanhoe), Snusher (Snowshill), 
Bearder (Beardall '), Priestner (Priestnall 1 ), Hensher 
(Henshaw), Brister (Bristow, i.e. Bristol) — 

" Nunk ! did ever I tell thee o' my Brister trip, 
Ta zee Purnce Albert an' the gurt irn ship ? " 

(John's Account of his Trip to Bristol, 1843). 

With this cf. Brisker for Briscoe. All the above 
place-names also exist as surnames in their more correct 
form. 

So also Mesher is for Measure, which, in its turn, is 
Fr. masure, a hovel, tumble-down dwelling ; cf. Fr. 
Desmasures. The Yorkshire name Creaser, Creazer 
appears to be for cress-over, where over, which regularly 
becomes -er in compounds, 2 is an archaic word for bank 
[John de la Cressovere, Close R.]. Stopper is a variant 
of Stopher, for Christopher, Mailer is the Welsh name 
Meyler [Mayelor Seysenek, i.e. the Sassenach, Exch. 
Call], or, as a Scotch surname, means a payer of rent, 
and Hinder is the comparative of hind, courteous, a 
later form of ME. hend — 

" As hinde as an hogge 
And kinde as any dogge " 

(Skeltonica). 

Cf. such names as Elder, Richer, Younger, and even 
Better (p. 323). 

1 Neither name is in the Gazetteer. They represent small spots 
in -heal (p. 62), probably the " priest's heal " and the " bird heal." 
1 As in Greener from green-over. 



DOMESTIC NAMES 105 

The multiplicity of occupative names is largely due 
to the infinite differentiation of functions in the 
Middle Ages. Nowhere is this more apparent than in 
the names derived from domestic office. We even find 
the name Household, with which we may compare 
Fr. Menage. In a fifteenth-century Courtesy Book 1 
we find precise directions as to the duties of each Sar- 
vant, viz. the Marshall, Groom, Usher, Steward, Panter, 
Ewer, Sewer, Cook, Squire, Yeoman, Amner, Carver, 
Waiter, Gentleman, Page, Porter, Butler; and several 
of these genera were further subdivided into species. 
Other names of the same type are Chamberlain and 
Seneschal, the latter also corrupted to Senskell and 
Sensicall. The Storer, Storrar [John the Storiere, Pat. 
R.] was also the convent treasurer. And there were, 
of course, a number of assistants to each of the digni- 
taries mentioned above, e.g. the Cook had the help 
of the Sculler, Squiller, Skitter [John le Squiller, City 
E.] in the " squillery " or scullery, and of the Skeemer 
[Richard le Skymere, Cal. Gen.] and Baster in the more 
delicate processes of his art. A more responsible 
office was that of the Guster, or taster [Robert le 
Gustur, Fine R.]. Jester is also a surname, but the 
ancestor was not necessarily a buffoon — 

" Of alle maner of mynstrales, 
And gestiours that tellen tales " 

(Chaucer, House of Fame, iii. 107). 

In many cases the official bore the name of his realm, 
e.g. Chambers appears as de la Chambre/ so that 

1 " A generall Rule to teche every man that is willynge for to 
lerne to serve a lorde or mayster in every thyng to his plesure" 
(ed. Chambers, E.E.T.S. 1914). 

* Cf. Roger atte Bedde, king's yeoman (Close R.). 



106 SOME OCCUPATIVE SURNAMES 

corresponding to the above names we find not only 
the obvious Kitchen and the rather uncommon Draw- 
bridge, but also many less simple names. The Mar- 
shalsea l was originally a court which had jurisdiction 
over the royal household ; the name is also found as 
Marshallsay. With the Usher, Rusher, is connected 
Rush, Fr. huis, a door, and also Lush [Thomas de 
le Uisse, Hund. R.] and Lusher [Geoffrey le Ussher or 
Lussher, Lib. Cust. Lond.]. Witcher, Whitcher are 
variants of the same name [Richard le Wicher, Feet of 
Fines] . The Panter, now sometimes Panther, has also 
given the name Pantrey [John de la Paneterye, Pleas], 
while Lewry, Lury, from the office of Ewer, even sur- 
vives as the fuller Delhuary. Cf . also Lewer and Lower 
[Robert Lewer or le Ewer, IpM.]. S fence, from the 
" dispense," or store-room, is also found as Ex-pence 
[Ralph de Expensa, Bp. Kellawe's Reg.]. With Cook 
is connected John de la Cusyn (City F.), possibly now 
represented by Cushion, Cushing, which run parallel 
in Norfolk. With the Amner, or almoner, goes Am- 
bery, Ambrey. This might be from the archaic and 
dialect aumbry, a cupboard, store-room, Fr. armoire, 
but it is also a corruption of " almonry " — 

" The almonry (of Westminster), now corruptly called the Ambry " 
(Stow). 

The Butler's domain was the " butlery," whence 
Buttery [William de la Botelrie, Yorks Knights' Fees, 
1303]. Even Nursery exists as a surname. 

There are many other names which come from the 
various offices of great households and monasteries. 

1 Perhaps no surname of the occupative class has so wide a 
range of meanings as Marshall. See NED. 



OFFICIAL NAMES 107 

Spittle, i.e. hospital, is also found as Ashpital. Farmery 
is for infirmary [Robert de la Fermerie, Pat. R.] — 

" Fermory, infirmarium, infirmatorium " (Cath. Angl.). 

The misericord, " an apartment in a monastery in 
which certain relaxations of the rule were permitted " 
(NED.), has given the contracted Mascord [John de la 
Misericorde, 14th century]. Frater, which looks like 
the latinization 1 of " brother," is Middle English for the 
monastery refectory [Thomas del Freytour, F. of Y.] — 

" ffreyiowr, refectorium " (Prompt. Parv.). — 

or the name may be for ME. fraterer, the superinten- 
dent of the frater [Walter le Freytur, Glouc. Cart.]. 
Saxty, Sexty are for sacristy (cf . sexton for sacristan) and 
V ester , Vesty are both related to the vestry, or robing- 
room [John del Vestiarie, IpM.]. The first represents 
the French form vestiaire, while in the second the -r- 
has been lost, as in Laundy for Laundry (p. 108) and 
Dunphie for Dumphrey (p. 39). Herbage is OF. her- 
berge, hostel, shelter, and a similar origin must some- 
times be assigned to Harbour, Arber [William le 
Herberere, Lond. Wills, 13 18-9]. The Herber, or Cold- 
harbour, was at one time the mansion of Sir John 
Poultney, near Dowgate — 

" A great old house called the Erber " (Stow). 

Wimpress is " winepress." For Fann, Vann, the 
winnowing-fan, see p. 59 — 

" Van, a vanned or winnowing sive " (Cotg.). 

1 Pater is a variant of Peter, Mater of Mather, mower. 

i This is not always a result, as in Vowler, for Fowler, of west- 
country pronunciation. Fan is Anglo-Saxon from Lat. vannus, 
while van is the same word though French. Cf . William le Fannere 
or Vannere (Lond. Wills, 1292-3). 

9 



io8 SOME OCCUPATIVE SURNAMES 

Other names connected with the subdivision of 
labour are Furnace, Furness, corruptly Furnish, Var- 
nish, Darey [Alan de la Dayerie, Pat. R.], and Landry, 
Laundry [Robert de la Lavendrye, Fine R.]. But the 
last, though not common, has an alternative origin 
from the French personal name Landry, OG. Landrich 
[William Landri or Laundry, Fine R.]. Another un- 
common name with a double origin similar to that 
of Frater is Parlour [Ralph le Parlour, Fine R., Henry 
le Parlour or del Parlur, Cal. Gen.]. The parlour 
was originally the conversation and interview room 
at a monastery. Gennery, 1 Ginnery are from the 
" enginery," some kind of workshop. The NED. has 
the word first for 1605, in the sense of the art of 
constructing military engines, but William del Engin- 
nerie (Close R., temp. Hen. III.) shows that its popular 
form was in use more than three centuries earlier. 
Among the many forms of Jenner, the engineer, is 
Genower. Chevery is OF. chevrerie, goat- fold, and John 
Chivery, if the name is genuine, was of like descent. Of 
the same type is Bargery, from Fr. bergerie, a sheep-fold. 
I suppose that Gallery may be from an official whose 
duties lay in that part of the mansion, while Roof may 
have been the sentinel on the tower. Bardsley explains 
this name as a variant of the Norse Rolf, but Bartholo- 
mew del Rof (Pat. R.), the common Fr. Dutoit, and 
the Du. Vanderdecken point to an alternative origin. 
Still more limited is Carnell, Crennell, AF. quernel, 
F. creneau, a battlement [William de la Karnayle or 
Kernel, Ramsey Cart.]. And it is probable that Garrett 
owes something to OF. garite, a watch-tower, turret, 

1 January may be an imitative alteration of this, or from OF. 
genevroi, a juniper thicket [Koland de la Genveray, Close R.]. 



ACCIDENTS OF LOCALITY 109 

which is also the oldest meaning of our garret; cf. 
Soller [John del Soler, Pat. R.], still used in dial, of a 
loft or upper room — 

" Sollere, a loft, gamier " (Palsg.). 

" Thei wenten up in to the soler " (Wye. Acts, i. 13). 

Postans is derived from the postern gate [John de la 
Posterne, Testa de Nev.]. 

Some of the above names may be simply due to the 
accident of locality rather than to occupation. This 
applies still more to the following, which I put here 
because they approach the others in character. Frary 
is Middle English for a brotherhood, or Friary. Chan- 
try, Chantrey is from residence near a chantry, an 
endowment or endowed chapel with the function of 
praying for the soul of the benefactor. Chaucer's 
Poure Persoun of a Toun looked after his flock — 

" He sette not his his benefice to hyre 
And leet his sheepe encombred in the myre. 
And ran to Londoun, unto Seint Poules, 
To seken hym a chaunterie for soules " 

(Prol. 510). 

It has absorbed the domestic chandry, or chandelry, 
the candle-store [John of the Chandry, John of Gaunt' s 
Reg. 1372-6]. Charnell meant both a mortuary chapel 
and a cemetery [Alice de Cimiterio, Malmesbury Abbey 
Reg.]. Mossendew is the ME. measondue, synonymous 
with hospital — 

" Maison Dieu, an hospitall, or spittle, for the poore " (Cotg.). 

Lower suggests that Domesday, Dumsday may be the 
same name latinized, domus dei, but, in default of 
evidence, it is perhaps safer to regard it as a pageant 
nickname (ch. x.), from some representation of the 



no SOME OCCUPATIVE SURNAMES 

Day of Judgment. Maudling may also derive from 
a religious institution [Nicholas atte Maudeleyne, 
Pat. R.~\. Monnery is OF. moinerie, a monastery, 
and I imagine that Mendary, found in the same 
county, is an altered form. Tabernacle was used 
in Middle English, not only in connection with the 
Jews, but also of a canopied structure, niche, etc., 
and in dial, for a woodman's hut. Monument, Mone- 
ment probably record residence near some elaborate 
tomb, the oldest meaning of the word in English. 
Checker, Chequer, is official, of the exchequer [Ralph del 
Escheker, Fine R., Roger de la Checker, Hund. /?.], 
and I conjecture that Tolputt may be for tolbooth, 
now associated only with Edinburgh, but a common 
word in Middle English — 

" A pupplican, Levy bi name, sittynge at the tolbothe " (Wye. 
Luke, v. 27). 

A few uncommon surnames have an official origin. 
Fitchell itself [William le Fychele, Hund. R.] is the 
natural popular form of " official " [Nicholas le Official, 1 
Pat. R.]. Brevetor meant a bearer of "brevets," 8 
i.e. official documents, especially Papal indulgences — 

" Brevigerulus, anglice a brevytour " (Voc). 

Every antiquarian dictionary of the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries contains the mysterious word 
spigurnel, a sealer of writs, on the origin of which the 
NED. throws no light. " It is evident that the word 
had no real currency in English, and its appearance is 
due to Camden and Holland, copied by Phillips, Blount, 

1 Cf. Fr. Lofliciaux (Bottin). 

' Hence perhaps the Staffordshire name Brevitt ; cf . Porteout 
(p. 156). But it may be rather for the local Breffitt, brae foot (p. 91). 



RARE OFFICIAL NAMES in 

Harris, Bailey, etc." (NED.). It is, however, of such 
frequent occurrence in the Rolls [Edmund le Spigornel, 
Fine R., Nicholas Spigurnel, Hund. R., Henry Lespi- 
gurnel, Doc. III., Henry Spigornel, City C], that it is 
surprising that it is not better represented as a sur- 
name. It exists as Spickernell, Spicknell, Pickernell. 1 
To the official class belong also Regester and Macer — 

" Macere, or he that beryth a mace, septiger " {Prompt. Parv.). 

The oldest meaning of Sizer, i.e. " assizer," is a " sworn 
recognitor " (NED.), and I imagine that a Vizer or 
Vizor [John le Visur, Hund. R.] had to do with " re- 
vising." Gawler, Gowler [Geoffrey le Gooler, Pleas], 
besides meaning usurer — 

" Goulare, or usurare, usurarius, generator " (Prompt. Parv.) — 

may also come from the same word, gaveller, gawler, 
applied to a mining official in the Forest of Dean. 
Alner is the name of the official more usually called 
" alnager," from Fr. aune, an ell, who attested the 
measurement and quality of cloth. 

Some rather rare occupative surnames are due to 
the fact that in Middle English there were generally 
two words, English and French, for each of the 
commoner callings. The native Flesher has almost 
disappeared, absorbed by Fletcher and superseded by 
the French Butcher. The native Baker has generally 
prevailed over both Bullinger (also found as Pullinger, 
Pillinger) and Pester* [John le Pestur, City A.]. So 
Peacher, Petcher [John le Pechur, Pat. R.], Paster 
[Henry le Pastur, Hund. R.], Scotcher, OF. escorcheur, 
make a very poor show against Fisher, Shepherd, 

1 Cf. Pink for Spink, chaffinch. 

2 The Latin form Pistor also survives. 



ii2 SOME OCCUPATIVE SURNAMES 

Skinner. The latter is sometimes represented by Flear, 
for flayer. Sotcher is the natural result of OF. and 
ME. soudiour, a soldier — 

" Sodioure, miles, bellator " (Manip. Voc). 

Flecker, Flicker [Simon le Fleckere, Northumb. Ass. R. 
1279] are variants of Fletcher, the arrow-maker, and 
Shermer, Shurmer, Skirmer, Skurmer, etc., represent 
the obsolete scrimer, fencer, sword-player [William 
le Schirmere, Pat. R.] — 

" The scrimers of their nation, 
He swore, had neither motion, guard, nor eye, 
If you opposed them " [Hamlet, iv. 7). 

More common is the extended Scrimygeour, with a 
great number of variants, Scriminger, Scrimger, etc. 
(see also p. 88). Guyer, Gyer, Gwyer, is OF. guieor, 
guide [Henry le Gyur, Chart. R.} — 

"Conscience, that kepere was and gyoure" [Piers Plowm.'B. xx.71). 

It is also found as Wyer, Wire, from an Old French 
dial. form. Carker, Charker, are Anglo-French equiva- 
lents of Carrier, Charrier, formed from cark, chark, a 
burden (charge). 

Many names of deceptive appearance can be solved 
by the study of old records. Bardsley guesses Punter 
to mean the man in charge of a punt. But Ralph le 
Punter, custos pontis de Stanes (Close R.), shows that 
he was a Bridgman 1 or Bridger, less commonly Brick- 
master. 2 Rower also savours of the water-side, but a 

1 Punt is of course equivalent to Bridge [Roger del Punt, Pat. R.]. 

2 For " brig-master." Cf. Brick, Brickstock for Brigstock, and 
Bricker for Bridger. But most names in Brick- probably contain 
" birk," e.g. Brickdale, Brickett, Brickland, Brickwood, etc. The 
last may, however, very well be an alteration of the ME. brigge- 
ward, just as Haywood is often for the official Hay ward. 



ANGLO-FRENCH WORDS 113 

record (City C.) of a payment made by the Corporation 
of London to Dionisia la Rowere for wheels makes 
it clear that she was of the same craft as Robert 
Rotarius, i.e. Wheeler (Chart. R.). The rare name 
Setter is wisely explained by Lower as " probably some 
handicraft. " Later writers have assumed, I know 
not on what grounds, that a setter was one who put 
on arrow-heads. The NED. gives several mean- 
ings for the occupative setter, but the only one old 
enough for surname purposes is " setter of mes, 
prepositor" (15th century). It knows nothing about 
arrow-heads. In City E. I find that John Heyroun, 
" settere," and William le Settere were called in as ex- 
perts to value an embroidered cope, hardly the work 
of an arrowsmith. This confirms a suspicion I had 
previously had that this Setter may represent OF. 
saieteur, a maker of sayete, a kind of silk. 

Some rare surnames connected with hunting are 
Varder, the verderer [William le Verder, Exch. JR.], 
Berner, OF. brenier, the keeper of the hounds [John le 
Berner, Close R.], and the synonymous Brackner 
[Gilbert le Braconer, ib.], which in modern French 
(braconnier) has come to mean poacher. Related to the 
latter is Bracher, from ME. brack, a hound, though there 
has no doubt been some confusion between this and 
the names Brazier and Bracer, the latter of which 
means brewer, Fr. brasseur. Juster, Jewster, is evidently 
the jouster [Thomas le Justur, Fine R.], and Punyer 
is from OF. pugneour, poignour, a champion — 

" De Sarraguce Carles guarnist les turs, 
Mil chevalers i laissat puigneurs " 

{Chanson de Roland, 3676). 

In the Lib. R. we find William le Poignur or Pugnear 



114 SOME OCCUPATIVE SURNAMES 

or Punner de la Galee, apparently a formidable mariner. 
Ferler, Furler, is OF. fourrelier, a Sheather — 

" Fourrelier, a scabberd maker " (Cotg.). 

Stamer is OF. estamier [John le Stamer, FineR.], now 
replaced by etameur — 

" Estamier, a tynner, tynne-man ; pewterer " (Cotg.). 

Fulloon, from Fr. foulon, a fuller [Thomas le Fulun, 
Pat. R.], is an example of the small group of French 
occupative names in -on. The above examples, to 
which many more could be added, show that medieval 
England was bilingual to an extent which has hardly 
been realized. 

Among occupative surnames derived from archaic 
or obsolete words, whether French or English, may be 
mentioned Biller, a maker of bills or axes [Hugh le 
Biller, Fine R.], Fower, a sweeper, scavenger [Roger 
le Fower, Hund. R.] — 

" ffewar, or clensar, mundator, emundator, purgator " (Prompt' 
Parv.)— 

Kittler, kettle-maker, Alefounder, inspector of ale, 
still found in Suffolk, Flather, a maker of flathes, or 
flawns, 1 Theaker, a northern variant of Thacker, 
thatch er, ! Crapper, similarly a variant of Cropper, 
which the NED. defines as " one who crops," Meader, 
a mower, whence Grasmeder, Bester, a herdsman [John 
le Bestere, Hund. R. t Hunts'], Keeler, a bargeman, 

1 There is also a surname Flawn ; cf . Cake, Wastell, Cracknell, etc. 
! Cf. Whattler, from AS. watol, hurdle, also used of thatch. 
■ It is still found in that county. For its deceptive appearance 
cf Bestman (p. 237). 



ARCHAIC WORDS 115 

still used in the north of a manager of coal-barges and 
colliers, Marler, a worker in a marl-pit [John le Marler, 
Pat. R.], Retter, a common Devon surname, perhaps 
from ME. retten, to rate, reckon — 

" Reite not the innocent blood in the myddil of the puple Israel " 
(Wye. Deut. xxi. 8) — 

Counter, a keeper of accounts, treasurer — 

" A shirreve hadde he been, and a oountour, 
Was nowher such a worthy vavasour " 

(Chauc. A. 359) — 

Dyter, an " inditer," or scribe — 

" The dyteris, var. endyters, scribis, of the kyng " (Wye. Esther, 
viii. 9) — 

Render, Rinder, the Tenderer [John le Render, Archbp. 
Wickwane's Reg. 1279-84], the exact meaning of which 
cannot be decided, Shutter, Shittter, 1 and Spindler, 
makers of shuttles and spindles respectively, Styer, a 
horseman, rider — 

" Bite the feet of an hors, that the stiere thereof falle bacward " 
(Wye. Gen. xlix. 17) — 

Stickler, an umpire, Heckler,* a dresser of hemp or 
flax, Cosier, a cobbler, Oilier, an oil merchant [Reginald 
le Oyler, Leic. Bor. Rec], Sarter, an " assarter," or 
clearer of forest land, and many more. Some names 
of this class, e.g. Faggeter, Basketter, Trumpeter, 
Preacher, Teacher, Minstrell, Pronger, Organer, Outlaw, 

1 For this form see p. 130, n. Similarly a Britcher is not a 
maker of " britches," but a thinned form of Bracher [p. 113). 

2 Hence our verb to heckle, i.e. to " tease." See Romance of 
Words, p. 12. With the name Heckler cf. Burler, a cloth-dresser — 
" Burler, extuberarius " (Cath. Angl.), 



n6 SOME OCCUPATIVE SURNAMES 

are interesting only by their survival. Cheeper, 
Chipper means buyer, or rather, haggler, cheapener — 

" So many chepers 
So fewe biers 
And so many borowers 
Sawe I never " 

(Skelton, Maner of the World, 105). 

In Lincolnshire occurs the compound Colcheeper, but 
this is perhaps Du. koolschipper, a collier, for Dutch 
names are not uncommon in the county. 

Then we have a number of names which look very 
simple, but the exact meaning of which is very difficult 
to establish. Such are Borer [Robert le Borier, City 
E.], Drawer, Dresser, Gatherer, Sealer, all susceptible 
of various interpretations, e.g. a Sealer [William le 
Seeler, Pat. R.] may have made, or affixed, seals. In 
Acts of Parliament he is coupled with the chaff-wax 
(see p. 317) and also defined as identical with the 
" alnager," or official measurer of cloth (p. 111). The 
earliest sense given by the NED. for dresser is cloth- 
dresser (1520) ; but John le Dressour (Chesh. Chamb. 
Accts. 1301-60) may have been something quite 
different — 

" Dresseur, a straightner, directer, leveller ; settler ; a raiser, 
erecter ; framer, fashioner, orderer, instructer " (Cotg.). 

Still, as it is a Yorkshire name, it very probably has to 
do with cloth. A Rayer [Ralph le Rayer, Fine R.] 
" arrayed," but the verb is almost as vague as " dress." 
So we cannot decide whether the original Drawer drew 
wire, water, beer, pictures, or a barrow. In the sense 
of tavern waiter it appears to be a Tudor word. In 
modern dialect a Gatherer works in the harvest fields. 



COMPOSITE ORIGINS 117 

Binder means book-binder [Nicolas le Bokbindere, 
Lond. Wills, 1305-6, William Ligator Libror', Hund. 
R., Oxl] . It is still an Oxford name. 

A certain number of these surnames have two or 
more possible origins. An obvious case is Porter, 
which may mean a door-keeper or a bearer. 1 Burder 
may be for " birder," i.e. Fowler, but would equally 
well represent OF. bourdour, jester [John le Burdeur, 
Pat. R.]— 

" Bourdeur, a mocker, jeaster ; cogger, lier, foister, guller of 
people " (Cotg.) 

" Godes mynstrales and hus messagers and hus murye bordiours " 
[Piers Plowm. C. x. 136). 

Bowler, Boaler, a maker of bowls, had also in Middle 
English the meaning of one who loved the bowl. In 
1570 two inhabitants of the parish of St. Martin in the 
Fields were presented as " common bowlars " — 

" For hit beth bote boyes boilers atten ale " 

(Piers Plowm. C. x. 194). 

Disher means dish-maker [Richard le Dischere, 
Pat. R.]. But in Piers Plowman " Dawe the dykere " 
or " Dawe the delvere " is also called " Dawe the dis- 
schere." Therefore Disher may be for " ditcher." 
Cf. Dishman for " ditch-man." Pillar, Piller, is 
generally local [Thomas Attepiler, Close R.], but also 
occupative [Dike le Pilur, Lane. Ass. R. 1176-1285], 
perhaps a plunderer — 

" Pylowre, or he that pelyth other men, as cachpolls or odyre lyk, 
pilator, depredator " (Prompt. Parv.) — 



1 It has very probably also absorbed the " portrayer " [Nicholas 
le Portreour, City £>.]. 



n8 SOME OCCUPATIVE SURNAMES 

but quite as possibly a respectable " peeler " of trees. 
As late as 1732 I find in the Nottingham Borough 
Records a payment to — 

" The pillars of the bark for work done in the copies." 

Salter has two origins besides the obvious one. It 
may mean a player on the psaltery [Pagan le Salterer, 
Northumb. Ass. R. 1256-79] and also a Leaper, Dancer, 
Hopper, Saylor, Tumber, Fr. tombeur — 

" Master, there is three carters, three shepherds, three neatherds, 
three swineherds, that have made themselves all men of hair ; they 
call themselves saltiers ; and they have a dance which the wenches 
say is a gallimaufry of gambols " (Winter's Tale, iv. 3). 

This suggests Skipper, 1 which is not always a sea- 
faring name. Cicely la Skippere (Pat. R.) was evi- 
dently so named from her agility. The word skip had 
in Middle English no suggestion of youthful frivolity — 

" And whanne the apostlis Barnabas and Poul herden this . . . 
thei shipten out among the puple " (Wye. Acts, xiv. 13). 

Curtler, Kirtler may be identical and mean a maker 
of kirtles, or short gowns, ME. curtil, but Gilbert le 
Curtiler (Pat. R.) may represent OF. courtilier, a 
gardener, found occasionally in Middle English as cur- 
tiler. Sellar, Seller, means not only a saddler, Fr . sellier, 
but also what it appears to mean in plain English a 

1 Oddly enough Saylor, Salier, F. sailleur, leaper [Hugh le 
Saylliur, Hund. R.], is also unconnected with the sea, although G. H. 
Le Seilleur, A.B., H.M.S. Lion, was mentioned in Admiral Beatty's 
despatch, January 24, 1915. The very numerous American Saylors 
are mostly German Sellers, i.e. Ropers. 

* It is of course also connected with " cellar " [William atte 
Selere, City F., Ranulf le Celerer, Pat. R.]. 



NAMES OF DECEPTIVE APPEARANCE 119 

[Gilbert le Seller, City A., William le Vendur, Chanc. 
R.]- 

"The sellers of Saba and Reema, thei thi marchauntis " (Wye. 
Ezek. xxvii. 22). 

A few occupative names are of somewhat deceptive 
appearance. Foister, Foyster, is a variant of Fewster, 
Fuster, the maker of the wooden frame of saddles. 
This is also one source of Foster [Thomas Foster or 
Fuster, Kirby's Quest, Yorks, 1285], which more usually 
represents Forster, forester — 

" Forty fosters of the fe 
These outlawes had y-slawe " 

(Ballad of Adam Bell). 

Nor can we doubt that the name Foster also represents 
ME. foster, used both of a foster-child and foster- 
parent ; cf. Nurse, Gossip, etc. 

" The Greekes, whom wee may count the very fathers and fosters 
of all vices " (Holland's Pliny). 

Caller means a maker of " cauls," net-work head- 
dresses. Robert le Callere was sheriff of London in 
1302— 

" Call for maydens, retz de soye " (Palsg,). 

Milliner is for Milner, i.e. Miller, or is a thinned form 
(see p. 130, n.) of the synonymous AF. Mulliner. 
Copper represents the once common Cupper [Roger 
le Cuppere, Chart. R.], now almost swallowed up 
by Cooper, as " buttoner," a common trade-name 
in the City Letter-Books, has been by Butler. Comer 
may be a variant of Comber, but a ME. comere [John 
le Comere, Pat. R.] was a newcomer, stranger — 

" For knowynge of comer es thei copyde hym as a frere " (Piers 
Plowm.C. iii. 240). 



120 SOME OCCUPATIVE SURNAMES 

Cf. Guest, Strange, Newcome, etc. Pardner, Partner, 
are from " pardoner " [Matthew le Pardonner, Close R.]. 
Booer is for " boar " or " boor," which have become 
indistinguishable as surnames [Robert le Boor or le 
Bore, Exch.R.]. Ripper is a variant of rippier, one 
who carried fish inland for sale in a rip, or basket, and 
is also a dialect form of reaper. Sirdar is quite a 
modern alteration of ME. serdere, a sword er [John le 
Serdere, Pat. R.]. Swindler is altered from Swingler, 1 
a beater of flax. Cheater is for the official escheater, 
but may also, like Chaytor, come from the normal 
Fr. acheteur, which we have generally rejected for the 
Norman acatour, Cater, Cator. Tricker, a Suffolk 
name, is probably Du. trekker, as hard to define as 
our own Drawer (p. 116), but Treacher [Matilda le Tres- 
shere, Pat. R.] is OF. trecheor (tricheur), a traitor — 

" Knaves, thieves, and treachers by spherical predominance " 
(Lear, i. 2). 

Pooler, Puller, represent OF. poulier, hen-keeper, or 
poulter [John le Pulier, Pleas] — 

" Poulier, a poulter " (Cotg.). 

Nipper and Plyer, which seem to have some affinity 
with each other, occur in the country of the Nappers, 
or Napiers, and the Players respectively. Poacher has 
a parallel in Purser, a maker of purses, but its habitat, 
Lincolnshire, suggests something more adventurous. 
A Powncer "pounced," i.e. pulverized, various pro- 
ducts, e.g. woad (p. 275). Latter appears to mean a 
lath-maker. Wader has not to do with " wading," but 

1 We have the opposite change in Shingler, for our shingle, a 
roof-lath, is ultimately Lat. scindula, whence Ger. Schindel. 



NAMES IN -STER 121 

with " woad " [Robert le Weyder or le Wodere, Lond. 
Wills, 1305]. It is common in north-country 
records. With W adman, Wademan, cf. Thomas le 
Maderman (Lond. Wills, 1258-1358), who was not 
necessarily more insane than other men. Finally, the 
original Bircher was not an educationist but a shep- 
herd [Alan le Bercher, Hund. R.]. Fr. berger, variants 
berchier, berquier, latinized as bercarius or bercator, 
is one of the commonest entries in cartularies and 
manorial rolls [Martin Bercarius, Cust. Battle Abbey, 
Richard Bercator, ib., Geoffrey le Berkier, Testa de 
Nev.]. It has usually become Barker, as in Piers 
Plowman — 

" Thyne berkeres ben al blyndte that bryngyth forth thy lambren " 
(C. x. 260.) 

The NED. follows the late Professor Skeat in errone- 
ously explaining these blind shepherds as " barking 
dogs." 

The ending -ster, originally feminine, soon lost this 
distinction in Middle English. It has given us Bolster 
[Robert le Bulester, Pat. R.] for Bowler (p. 117), and 
possibly Bolister, though the latter may be for Ballister, 
Balster, the " balestier," or cross-bow man, who has 
generally become Bannister. Broster is for ' ' broiderer ' ' 
[Gelis Browdester, F. of Y. 1375], and Sumpster, spelt 
Somister in Manchester ' in the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries, is the obsolete summister, explained 
by Halliwell as " one who abridges." 

Many names in -er are rather to be regarded as nick- 
names. Laker means one fond of fun, from a dialect 

1 Now Simister, a common Manchester name. Cf. Simner for 
Sumner, summoner, and see p. ijo, n. But Simister is also for 
" sempster." 



122 SOME OCCUPATIVE SURNAMES 

verb which has now become "lark" [Robert dictus 
Layker, Bp. Kellawe's Reg.] — 

" Lakers, such is the denomination by which we distinguish 
those who come to see our country, intimating thereby not only 
that they are persons of taste who wish to view our lakes, but idle 
persons who love taking ; the old Saxon word to ' lake,' or play, 
being of common use among schoolboys in these parts" (NED. 1805). 

Scambler may be a maker of " scambles," 1 or benches, 
but in Scottish it means a parasite, sponger — 

" Scambler, a bold intruder on one's generosity or table " 
(Johnson's Dictionary) . 

Ambler, a nickname of gait, has absorbed the occupa- 
tive " ameller," i.e. enameller [John le Aumayller, 
goldsmith, City B.]. With Copner, ME. copenere, 
lover [Richard le Copenere, Testa de Nev., Dors.], cf. 
Lover, Paramor, Woor [John le Wower, Hund. R.]. 
Shuter, Shooter, was once, as is shown by numerous 
puns, the regular pronunciation of " suitor," whence 
also Sueter, but the " wooer " sense is much later than 
that of litigant ; cf. Adam le Pledur (Fine R.). It is 
possible that Spouncer may be a nasalized form of 
" espouser " [Thomas le Espouser, Hund. R.], explained 
by the NED. (1653) as an arranger of marriages. Spyer, 
whence Spire, is rather official, the watchman [William 
le Spiour, Chesh. Chamb. Accts. 1301-60] — 

" The wayte, var. spiere, that stode upon the toure of Jezrael " 
(Wye. 2 Kings, ix. 17). 

Revere is the Middle English form of reiver, robber 
[Alwyn le Revere, Cust. Battle A bbey] — 

" The revere of Gentilis hymself shal reren " (Wye. Jer. iv. 7.) 



1 Hence shambles. See Romance of Words, p. 106. 



SOME OCCUPATIVE SURNAMES 123 

The first Trouncer was presumably a man of his 
hands, though the verb was not always colloquial — 

" But the Lorde trounsed Sisara and all his charettes, and all hys 
hoste, with the edge of y° swerde, before Barak " {Judges, iv. 15, 
transl. of 1551). 

Boxer is probably for Boxall (Boxwell, Glouc), though 
Stephen Pugil is found in the Pipe R. Yarker, Yorker, 
are from dialect yark, for jerk, 1 used of the " jerky " 
manner of sewing of shoemakers — 

" Watt Tinlinn was by profession a sutor, but by inclination and 
practice an archer and warrior. The captain of Bewcastle is said 
to have made an incursion into Scotland, in which he was defeated 
and forced to fly. Watt Tinlinn pursued him closely through a 
dangerous morass. The captain, however, gained the firm ground ; 
and, seeing Tinlinn dismounted and floundering in the bog, used 
these words of insult : — ' Sutor Watt, ye cannot sew your boots ; 
the heels risp and the seams rive.' — ' If I cannot sew,' retorted 
Tinlinn, discharging a shaft which nailed the captain's thigh to the 
saddle, ' if I cannot sew I can yerk ' " (Scott. Note to Lay of the 
Last Minstrel, iv. 4). 



1 The late Professor Skeat suggests with much probability 
(Trans. Phil. Soc. 1911-14, p. 51) that this is the origin of the 
cricket " yorker." 



10 



CHAPTER VI 

PHYSICAL NICKNAMES 

" He brought me some chops and vegetables, and took the covers 
off in such a bouncing manner that I was afraid I must have given 
him some offence. But he greatly relieved my mind by putting a 
chair for me at the table, and saying very affably : ' Now, six-foot I 
come on ' " [David Copperfield) . 

The most puzzling class of surnames consists of those 
which appear to be taken from some adjunct of the 
personality, whether physical, moral, or external, 
tacked on to the baptismal name without further 
qualification. I mean such names as Head, Shanks, 
Belt, Mantell, apparently descriptive of appearance 
and costume, or those which are the names of objects 
(Baskett, Staff), commodities (Mustard, Wheat), articles 
of diet (Cake, Beer), plants and flowers (Garlick, Lilly), 
and all manner of minute portions of creation down to 
Barleycorn and Hempseed. When such names occur 
as compounds (Broadhead, Crookshanks, Broadbelt, 
Longstaff, Goodbeer, Lillywhite, etc.) they may almost 
always be accepted as genuine sobriquets, which can 
easily be paralleled from the other European languages 
or from historic names dating back to the earliest 
times, such as Sweyn Forkbeard, Rolf Bluetooth, 
William Longsword, etc. But, when they occur with- 

124 



PHYSICAL NICKNAMES 125 

out qualification, 1 they are often rightly suspected of 
being merely imitative spellings of, or accidental 
coincidences with, names which are really of baptismal, 
local, or occupative origin. Thus Armes is from the 
personal name Orme (cf. Armshaw for Ormshaw), Eye 
is simply " island," and Gaiter is AF. gaitier, a watch- 
man, guard. So also, Hamper is a maker of hanaps, 
or goblets [John le Hanaper, City £).], Tankard is 
a personal name Thancweard, whence also Tancred, 
Tubb is one of the innumerable derivations of Theobald, 
Barrett is the personal name Berald, OG. Berwald, bear 
mighty, Billett is a reduction of AS. Bilheard, spear 
strong, whence also Billiard, Pott is an aphetic form of 
Philpot, i.e. little Philip, etc. 

Writers on surnames have usually dealt with these 
names in two ways. One method is simply to give a 
list of such names without comment or history, the 
other is to explain conjecturally, without evidence, any 
name of this class as a perversion of something else. 
The truth is, as usual, a compromise between the two. 
It can be shown, by documentary evidence and by a 
comparison with the surname system of France and 
Germany, 2 that the majority of these names are what 
they appear to be, though many of the more common 
have been reinforced from other sources. For instance, 
the common name Head is sometimes undoubtedly a 
nickname [William de Horsham called le Heved, City 

1 Such names, when genuine, undoubtedly indicate something 
conspicuous or abnormal in the feature selected. Such a name as 
Foot would have been conferred on a man afflicted with a club 
foot. 

2 There are also many Latin examples, e.g. Caligula, small buskin, 
Caracalla, Gallic cloak, Scipio, staff, Scapula, shoulder-blade, Struma, 
hump, etc. 



126 PHYSICAL NICKNAMES 

£.], with which cf. Walter Caboche {Malmesbury 
Abbey Reg.) — 

" Caboche Men tymbree, a well-garnished head-peece, well-tackled 
braine-pan, a. stayed, or discreet pate " (Cotg.). 

But it is also local [Thomas del Heved, Hund. R.], 
the word being used either in the sense of top end (cf. 
Muirhead, Woodhead, etc.) or possibly as a shop-sign. 
We find also as common surnames Ger. Haupt, Kaftf, 
and Fr. Tete, the latter being often the origin of our 
Tait, Tate, though this is also found as an Anglo-Saxon 
personal name, from ON. teitr, merry. 

In dealing with these names a little common sense 
and familiarity with life are required. We know 
that the popular tendency has always been to make 
the unfamiliar significant. But, if we have been to 
school, we know that there is no limit to the possi- 
bilities of nickname manufacture ; and, if we are 
philosophers, we know that human nature never 
changes. In some comic paper lately I came across 
the following gracious piece of dialogue — 

" Who was that bloke as I see yer with last night ? " 
" Wot ? 'Im with the face ? " 
" No ; the other one." 

If we go back to the thirteenth century we find that 
Philip ove (with) la Teste (Pat. R.) and Emeric a la 
Teste (ib.) owed their names to a similar play of fancy. 
The great difficulty is that when such names are 
recorded in our Rolls in their English form the sobri- 
quet, as a rule, is simply added to the baptismal name 
without any connecting particle, e.g. Richard Thumbe 
(Pat. R.), John Tothe (ib.), so that we can never be 
absolutely sure whether we have not to do with an early 



FRENCH AND GERMAN PARALLELS 127 

case of folk-etymology. In French records, and, 
though to a less extent, in German, the use of preposi- 
tions makes the nickname origin clear. Thus Thomas 
Aladent and Pierre a la Dent (Pachnio), with whom 
we may compare Haim as Denz (Roman de Rou) may 
be considered to certify our Tooth and Dent 1 [Quidam 
Capellanus Willelmus Dens nomine, Royal Let. 
Hen. III.] as genuine nicknames, while Peyne mit der 
Vust (Heintze, 1366), whence Ger. Faust, would incline 
us to accept the nickname origin of Fist, whence also 
Feast, even if it were not absolutely confirmed by 
Johannes cum Pugno (Pipe R.) and Simon Poynge 
(Nott. Bor. Rec). Cf. Poincare (p. 288) and Robert 
Pointer, i.e. ftoing de fer (City E.). 

If we examine man from top to toe, first anatomically 
and then with an eye to his costume, we shall find that 
there is hardly a detail of either inventory which has 
not produced a surname, many perhaps now obsolete or 
corrupted beyond recognition, but the great majority 
still in use and easily recognised. It will be noticed 
that English and Anglo-French words occur indifferently 
in names of this class, and that among the latter are 
many terms which the language has since rejected. 
Names of the physical class also reveal the same 
habits of observation and gift for describing conspicu- 
ous features which are to be noticed in rustic names of 
birds, plants, etc. Education has changed all that, 
and we cannot imagine a modern peasant giving any 
one the nickname Larkheel (p. 142) or christening a 
flower the " larkspur." 

Taking first the larger divisions of the human geo- 
graphy, we find Head, Body, and Limb, of which the 

1 Cf. Durden, Ft. Duredent [John Deurdent, Fine R.]. 



128 PHYSICAL NICKNAMES 

first has been already dealt with. Compounds of Head 
are Broadhead, Cockhead or Coxhead, Fairhead [Adam 
Beaufront, Close R.], Greathed, Lambshead [Agnes 
Lambesheved, Hund. R.], Leithead (little), Redhead, 
Ramshead, Whitehead, Weatherhead, W ether ed (sheep's 
head), all of them genuine nicknames. More often 
-head is reduced to -ett, 1 as in Blackett, Brockett [John 
Brokesheved, 2 Close 2?.], Brownett, Bovett (AF. bof, Fr. 
bceuf), Bullett [William Bolesheved, Pat. R.], Cockett, 
Dovet [William Dowfhed, F. of Y. 1354], Duckett, 
Gossett [John Goosheved, Lib. Vit.], Hawkett [John 
Hawksheved, F. of Y.], Hogsett, Doggett [Roger 
Doggisheved, Yorks Fines, temp. John], Redit, 
Thickett, Strickett (stirk-head, Front-de-Bceuf), Perrett 
[Robert Pereheved, Hund. R.], and possibly Brasnett, 
from the " brazen head " used as a sign. With 
Roughead, Ruffhead, Rowed [William Ruhheved, 
Pat. R.] may be compared the Old French epic hero 
Guillaume Tete-d'Etoupes, tow-head, and the more 
modern Struwelpeter. With these go Redknap [cf. 
Robert Bealknappe, Glouc. Cart.], Hartnupp, and 
Blacktop, Silvertop. Here may be also mentioned 
Pelly [Hugh le Pele, Fine R.]— 

" Pele, pild, hairlesse, bauld " (Cotg.). 

In some cases -head is substituted for the obsolete 
local -hide (of land), e.g. Halfhead, 3 Fifehead, Fifett 
(see p. 2), while Redhead, Whitehead have absorbed 

1 This reduction to -ett also takes place when the -head is local, 
e.g. Aikett (oak), Bndgett, Ditchett, Grasett, Graven, Puplett (poplar), 
W air ett (water), etc. For Smithett see p. 78. 

2 Brock, a badger. 

3 Halfhide also exists ; cf. Halfacre. It is interesting to notice 
the substitution of -head or -field for the obsolete -hide in the 



COMPOUNDS OF -BODY 129 

compounds in -hood 1 [William Redehod, Pat. R., 
Agnes Wythod, Hund. R.]. With these cf. Robert 
Blachod (Close R.), John Fairhode (City D.). 

The simple Body is not a nickname, but a personal 
name, found also in French and Flemish, and derived 
from the OG. Bodo, which may be short for one of the 
many names in Bod-, command, or even for Baldwin. 
In compounds, -body has rather the sense of person, 
as in nobody, busibody, etc. Well-established examples 
are Freebody, Goodbody, Handsomebody, Lightbody 
(probably ME. Hit, little), Prettybody, Truebody. In 
Peabody, Paybody, Peberdy, Pepperday, Pipperday, 
the first element may be the obsolete pea, pay, peacock 
(p. 194). The formation does not seem very natural, 
but cf. Reginald Pefot (Pipe R.) and Robert Levedi- 
bodi, i.e. lady body (IpM., Notts). Many obsolete 
compounds of -body occur in the Rolls. Jellicorse, an 
existing surname, may represent Gentilcorps, or per- 
haps Jolicorps, and Bewkers is Fr. Beaucors [Jehan 
Biaucors, Pachnio]. In the Pat. R. occurs the name 
of John Ordegorge Gentilcors, i.e. John filthy throat 
handsome body, perhaps a man of good presence and 
foul vocabulary, but the double nickname is quite 
unique. 

Limb is for Lamb, either a nickname or short for 

place-names Fifehead, Fifield. There are several such places in 
England, all earlier known as Five-hide — ■ 

" It is an interesting and curious fact that we owe to the five- 
hide unit such place-names as Fivehead, Somerset ; Fifehead, 
Dorset ; Fifield, Oxon ; Fifield and Fyfield, Wilts ; Fyfield, 
Hants ; and Fyfield, Essex — all of them in Domesday ' Fifhide ' 
or ' Fifehide ' — as well as Fyfield, Berks, which occurs in Domesday 
as ' Fivehide ' " (Round, Feudal England, p. 69). 

1 We have the opposite change in Robert Shevenehod {Hund. R.) 
and Adam Hudcrul, curly head [City C). 



130 PHYSICAL NICKNAMES 

Lambert, the latter of which has sometimes become 
Limbert 1 [William Lembe or Lymbe, Lane. Inq. 
1310-33]. Lem records the intermediate stage. Of 
the same origin are Lomb, Lumb, so that this name 
has run through the five vowels. Joynt is an Irish 
Huguenot name, Fr. Lejoint, from the OF. joint, 
graceful, slim, etc. 

Skull, Scull, is a Norse personal name [Ralph f. Scule, 
Close R.]. It means fox or the evil one. Face is 
aphetic for Boniface [Face le Ferrun, Pipe R.] and 
Pate is for Patrick. I have found no trace among 
modern surnames of Alexander Rodipat (Pat. R.) 
or Adam Rudipol (Fine R.). The simple Poll is for 
Paul, OF. Pol ; cf. Pollett, Poison. From noil, used 
both for head and nape of the neck, we have Hartnoll, 
common in Devon — 

" If oon hadde be hard nollid, wondur if lie hadde be giltles " 
(Wye. Ecclesiasticus, xvi. 11). 

Forehead, Forrett is a true nickname [Roger Forheved, 
Close R.] and " brow " may appear in the compound 
Whybrow [Whitebrow the plasterer, F. of Y.]. The 
simple Brow is local, at the " brow " of the hill [Richard 
atte Bro, Pat. R.], though I find also Richard Surcil 

1 This thinning of the vowel in surnames is a phenomenon which 
has never, I believe, been dealt with by any phonetician, but there 
is no doubt of the tendency. An early example is Philip Bribisun 
(Hund. R.) for Brabazon, the man from Brabant. It is seen in the 
names Shcllcross for Shallcross, Flinders for Flanders, Willacy for 
Wallasey, Shipster for Shapster, Pettinger for Pottinger, Plimmer for 
Plummer, Birrell forBurrell, Chiplinioi Chaplin, and hundreds more. 
It has, of course, parallels in vulgar speech, the best-known example 
being the change from master to mister. Cf. also Jim for James, 
weskit for waistcoat, and Mr. Mantalini's demnition. I am inclined 
to think that Stringfcllow, formerly Strengfellow, contains the 
northern Strang, strong 



THE HAIR 131 

{Fine R.). Oxbrow, in spite of the Swedish Oxenstiem, 
is probably from Oxborough (Norf .), Spreadbrow from 
Spro thorough (Yorks), Albrow from Alburgh, Albury, 
Aldeburgh, etc., and Blackbrow from Blakeborough 
(Lane), though it would be a very natural nickname. 
Hair is imitative for the nickname Hare [Philip le 
Hare, Pat. R.] and Hairlock is for Harlock, a variant of 
Horlock (hoar), often spelt Horlick. Other compounds 
of -lock are Blacklock, Blakelock, Whitlock, Blaylock, 
Blellock, from the obsolete blae, May,' an adjective 
probably meaning ash coloured, Proudlock [Thomas 
Purdelok, Northumb. Ass. R. 1256-79], Silverlock, 
Gowanlock [Robert Guldelok, Pat. R.] ; but the suffix 
in these names may sometimes be -lake, which often 
becomes -lock, as in Fishlock. The commonest of these 
compounds, Whitlock, has three well-attested origins 
- — (1) white lock, (2) white lake [Williame atte Whyte- 
lak, Kirby's Quest, 1327], (3) the personal name 
Witlac, which occurs in DB. [Whitlac de Longo Vado, 
Fine i?.]. Whitelark is an imitative spelling of one of 
these. We have compounds of -hair itself in Fairer, 
Farrar z [John Fayerher, Pat. R.], and in Harliss, the 
hairless, while Polyblank is of course Fr. poil blanc, 
white hair. To return to -lock, we have the puzzling 
Lovelock, which the NED. does not find as a common 
noun till 1592. This is not an insuperable objection, 
as I have frequently found words used as surnames 
three or four centuries earlier than their first dictionary 
record ; but it would perhaps be safer to regard John 
Lovelok {Pleas) and Walter Loveloker {Hund. R.) 
as belonging to the ME. lovelich, lovely, affectionate, 

1 Blay, Blee, is also a surname, probably from complexion. 

2 In the nickname of Harold Harfager the elements are reversed. 



132 PHYSICAL NICKNAMES 

of which the variant lovelok occurs in Piers Plowman. 
In fact, the name, which is fairly common in some 
parts of England, may have an alternative origin from 
ME. lovelaik, dalliance [John Lovelayk, Fine R.] ; 
cf. Laker (p. 122). Tress is short for Tristram. Red- 
mayne is local, of Redmain (Lane), a place which is 
the usual origin of Redman, though this is no doubt 
also a nickname. Curll and Crisp, Cripps both mean 
curly in Middle English, but Curley is also a bird nick- 
name, the curlew [Richard Curlue, IpM.], found more 
rarely as Kirlew. Absence of hair has given the native 
Bald, generally reduced to Ball, and the augmenta- 
tive Ballard. From Old French come Chaffe, Chave, 
Shave, Shafe, Shove, Shovel, Cavell, Caffyn, Coffin, 1 and 
sometimes even Cave. Two examples must suffice 
[Bartholomew le Chauf, Pat. R., John Cauvel, Pat. R.]. 
With these cf. Favell, tawny [Hugh Falvel, Pipe R., 
Thomas Fauvel, Fine R.], and Flavell, yellow-haired. 
A pretty name, which may refer to the hair or the 
complexion, is Nutbrown [John Notebroun, Close R.], 
with which cf. John Perbroun, i.e. pear brown {ib.). 

Nothing in one's appearance attracts the critical 
attention so readily as the nose, but, though there are 
many references in the Pipe R. to Moss cum Naso and 
his wife Duzelina, I do not know a single modern 
surname * derived from this feature, unless the legend- 
ary origin of the local Courtenay [Hugh de Courteney, 

1 This is the traditional etymology of Coffin, but I am not sure 
that this name, variant Goffin, which is found in Devon from the 
earliest times, is not rather connected with Cornish Couch and 
Welsh Gough, red. 

2 It is possible that some of our names in -ness, e.g. Hogness, 
Thichnesse, are physical rather than local. The simple Neese (p. 245), 
Kneese may also refer to this feature. 



THE NOSE AND EYE 133 

Hund. R.] has a tributary source of truth [William 
Curtnies, Pat. R.]. Peter le Noseless (Pat. R.), Agnes 
Kattesnese (Hund. R.~\, Adam cum Naso (Leic. Bor. 
Rec), and Roger Withenese (ib.) show that this feature 
did not escape the notice of our ancestors. Cammish, 
found as le Chammus (Notts, 1272), means flat-nosed, 
Fr. camus, but a number of names which appear to 
belong here, e.g. Cammis, Camis, Keemish, etc., may 
equally well be local, of Cambois (Northumb.). Beake, 
Bick are not nose-names, as they occur in Middle 
English with the definite article [William le Beke, 
Hund. R., Richard le Byke, Close R.], but I cannot 
explain them. Mariota Gosebeck (Hund. R.) is a very 
evident nickname. Cheek, Cheke, is possibly a nick- 
name, but I have no evidence except a ME. Chericheke ; 
cf., however, Fr. Bajoue, baggy cheek. 

Eye in isolation is local (p. 125) and Eyett is its dim. 
But the compounds of the physical -eye are numerous 
and have not hitherto been recognized as such, e.g. 
Blackie [Roger Niger Oculus, Cat. Gen.], Blowey, 
Brightey [John Claroil, Close R.], Brownie, Calvey, 
Dovey, Whitey, Birdseye, Goosey, Starey (ME. star, 
starling), Hawkey, Harkey 1 [Geoffrey Hawkseye, 
Lond. Wills, 1330], Littley [cf. Andreas dictus Parvus 
Oculus, Pachnio], Silvery, Goldie, Goldney [Richard 
Geldeneye, Fine R.], Sheepy, Smalley, Wildey. Cf. 
with these William Sweteye (Hund. R.) and the 
medieval French names Brun-Eul, Blancus Oculus, 
Oculus Auri, quoted by Pachnio. German surnames 
in -auge are also numerous. An alternative origin 
from -ey, island, is possible for some of the above. 
Cf. Rowney, at the " rowan island " [Walter atte 
1 Cf. Harhins for Hawkins and Harher for Hawher. 



134 PHYSICAL NICKNAMES 

Roueneye, Hund. R.~], Roffey, at the " rough island " 
[Amfrid de la Rogheye, ib.]. 

Bouch, Buche, Budge, are Anglo-French names, 
" mouth " [Michael od (with) la Buche, Pat. R.]. For 
the form Budge cf. budge-at-court, Fr. bouche a cour, 
free victuals. This surname may sometimes have 
had an occupative origin, for William del Bouch, lay- 
brother of Furness Abbey (Pat. R.), was evidently 
employed in the provisioning part of the establish- 
ment. The English Mouth is also a modern surname, 
and Merrymouth is not uncommon in the Rolls [Adam 
Mirimouth, Pat. R.]. It is interesting to find Henry 
Millemuth (Northumb. Ass. R. 1256-79) three cen- 
turies earlier than the first dictionary record of " mealy 
mouthed." Muzzle is, I think, an imitative alteration 
of the nickname Mustell, Mustol, from OF. musteile, 
mustoile, a weasel [Hugh Mustel, Close R., Custance 
Mustel, Hund. R.]. I doubt whether Chinn is gener- 
ally a nickname, though I have known it so used by 
modern schoolboys. In Simon Chyne (Ramsey Cart.) 
we have perhaps the shortened form of Chinulf [John 
Chinulf, Wore. Priory Reg.], AS. Coenwulf, bold wolf. 
Or Chinn may be from chien, a common nickname 
[John le Chen, Chart. R.], which would readily assume 
the imitative form, apart from the regular tendency 
of e to become i before n, as in ink, ME. enke, or the 
local surname Ind, for " end." 

Tongue is, so far as my evidence goes, local, from a 
" tongue" of land [Benedict del Tunge, Pat. R.], or 
from one of the places specifically named Tonge, Tong. 
To the same source belongs Tongs. Gum is a variant 
of Gomme, ME. gume, a man [Geoffrey le Gom, Coram 
Rege R. 1297], as in bridegome, now perverted to bride- 



THE NECK 135 

groom. Whitear and Whittear are variants of Whittier, 
an occupative name, " white tawer," i.e. a kind of 
leather-dresser [Walter le Whytetawere, Pat. R.], 
whence also perhaps Whitehair. Boniface is of course 
a font-name, Bonifacius, though its use as the land- 
lord's name in Farquhar's Beaux' Stratagem, and its 
natural fitness of sound, have combined to give it a 
suggestion of rubicund joviality. 

Gar gate, Gargett, is from OF. gar gate, throat, gullet 
[Hugh Gargate, Pipe R.], a name earned in the same 
way as that of the mythical Grandgousier and no 
doubt present to the mind of the creator of Gargantua. 
Neck seems to be a true nickname [Isabel Necke, 
Fine R.] and is found in compounds, e.g. the historical 
Edith Swanneck, the less-known Agnes Cousdecine, 
col-de-cygne (Hund. R.), and Simon Chortneke (ib.). 
Robert Tunekes (Leic. Bor. Rec.) perhaps had what is 
now called a double chin. The existence of ME. 
Swanswire suggests that Swire (see p. 80) may also 
be a physical nickname. Here also may sometimes 
belong Halse, from ME. halse, neck [John Langhals, 
Close R.] and also Haddrell, Hatherall [William Haterel, 
Pat. R.], from ME. hattrel, the nape of the neck (also, 
the crown of the head), of Old French origin, but 
differently explained by Cotgrave— 

" Hastereau, the throat piece, or fore-part of the neck (belike from 
the Walloones, by whom a mans throat, or neck, is thus tearmed)." 

This is a common word in Middle English (see Mr. 

Mayhew's note in the Prompt. Parv). It may be 

noted that the name, with many variants, seems to 

belong especially to Gloucestershire, while in the 

adjacent Monmouth we find Hatterell Hill, perhaps 

so named from its shape. 



136 PHYSICAL NICKNAMES 

The fairly common Beard [William cum Barba or 
od la Barbe, City D.], also spelt Beart, is curiously 
short of existing compounds, though it has no doubt 
contributed to Whitbread [Philip Wytberd, Pleas, 
Peter Whitbred or Whytberd, Coram Rege R. 1297]. 
Blackbeard and Fairbeard exist, though rare, and in 
Blackbird, Silverbird, the original suffix is also prob- 
ably -beard [cf. William Barbedor, Pat. R.]. Thomas 
Dustiberd (Pat. R.) and Ralph Jolifberd (F. of Y .) are 
not now represented, nor, unfortunately, Ralph Barbe 
de Averil or Barba Aprilis, who was chaplain to Hugh 
Earl of Chester in the twelfth century. We may 
perhaps assume that he resembled Chaucer's franklin — 

" Whit was his berd as is a dayeseye " (A. 332). 

The insignificance of the beard in our modern sur- 
names is in curious contrast with the place it occupies 
in history. The reader will at once think of the Lango- 
bards, Bluebeard, Charlemagne " a la barbe fleurie," 
Sweyn Forkbeard, Barbarossa, Graf Eberhard der 
Rauschbart, Blackbeard the pirate, etc. The German 
compounds of -bart are still numerous and fantastic. 
A possible English example is Massingberd [Richard 
Massyngberd, Close R., Line, 1329]. Lower says — 

" A very old Lincolnshire family, dating from temp. Henry III. 
. . . the final syllable clearly having reference to the appendage of 
the masculine chin. The meaning of the other portion of the name 
is not so obvious, as no word resembling massing is found in early 
English or Anglo-Saxon. In some Teutonic dialects, however, that 
or a similar form means " brass," and hence Massingberd may 
signify Brazenbeard, with reference to the personal peculiarity. 
Inf. Rev. F. C. Massingberd, M.A." 

This is quite possibly a correct guess. There is an 
ON. messing, brass, still used in German, and found 



WHISKERS 137 

in Anglo-Saxon as mcesling, mceslen, while Lincolnshire 
is of course a chief habitat of Norse words. 

Whisker is merely an imitative spelling of the personal 
name Wiscard [Wischard Leidet, Pipe R.], repre- 
sented by Fr. Guiscard and Scottish Wishart, 1 but OF. 
gernon, i moustache, whiskers, has given us Garnon, 
Garnham [Adam as Gernons, Pipe R., William Bought, 
called Gernon, City D., William Blancgernun, Pat. 2?.]. 
Harold's scouts took the shaven Normans for priests 
until the king enlightened them— 

" ' N'ont mie barbes ne guernons,' 
Co dist Heraut, ' com nos avons ' " 

(Roman de Ron, 7133). 

In Grennan we have the Old French iorm grenon. ON. 
barthr,' beard, has also contributed to Barrett, and the 
same feature is incorporated in Skegg, though both 
reached England as personal names rather than nick- 
names. Sweyn Forkbeard is recorded in the AS. 
Chronicle as Svein Tjuguskegg. 

The rest of the human form divine will give us less 
trouble, as nicknames fasten most readily on visible 
parts and facial characteristics. Shoulders is an existing, 
though uncommon, surname [Hugh Schulder, Coram 
RegeR. 1297]. ME. wambe, belly (cf. Scott's Wamba), 
a common name in the Middle Ages [Matthew a le 
Wambe, Leic. Bor. Rec], still survives in Whitwam or 

1 John Wiseheart, Bishop of Glasgow [Pat. R.) is an obvious 
perversion. 

2 This is of cognate origin with Swedish gren, branch, fork, common 
in names. The connection between this word and a Viking beard 
will be apparent to the reader who remembers Sweyn Forkbeard 
and the bold, bad whiskers of Admiral von Tirpitz. 

8 This word is found only in compounds. The Viking Barthr 
is called Baret in Old French records. 



138 PHYSICAL NICKNAMES 

Whitwham 1 ; and Whalebelly is a well-known Norfolk 
surname. Cf. Walter Alipanch (Hund. R.) and Sancho 
Panza. Back is probably not anatomical, though 
Petrus ad Dorsum is found in Old French, as it has 
three other well-authenticated origins : (i) local [John 
atte Back, Bardsley, 1327], (2) baptismal [Backa 
solus, Lib. Vit.], an Old French name of Germanic 
origin, whence also Bacon; (3) ME. bakke, bat (p. 24). 
It is, however, strange that we find no compounds of 
-back, corresponding to such medieval names as Cattes- 
bak and Longueeschine or OF. Maigredos. Thornback 
is no doubt from the fish. 

Side exists as a surname, but is local [William del 
Syde, F. of Y.], the word being used either of the 
edge of a wood, the side of a hill, or the bank of a 
river, in all of which senses it is common in compound 
surnames, e.g. Akenside (oak), Bumside, Greensides. 
In Half side the first element perhaps means half-way. 
Tinside is of course for Tyne-side, as Tinnett is 
for Tynehead [Richard del Tyndiheved, Lane. Inq. 
1310-33]. Shipsides is probably from a pasture 
(sheep). But undoubted nicknames are Heaviside, 
Ironside, and Whiteside [Robert Whytside, Fine R.], 
the last being also local [Richard de Whiteside, 
Close R.]. In my Romance of Names (p. 126) I 
have suggested that Handyside, Hendyside, may 
represent ME. hende side, gracious custom, but the 
variant Handasyde suggests a possible nickname of 
attitude, "hand at side," for a man fond of standing 
with arms akimbo ; cf. Guillelmus Escu - a - Col 

1 But perhaps local, AS. hwamm, corner ; cf. Alexander del 
Qwhom {Bp. Kellawe's Reg.), where the initial Q- is north-country 
for W-, as in Quartern for Wharton, Quigley for Wigley, etc. 



THE HAND 139 

(Pachnio). The formation of Strongitharm is some- 
what similar. Silverside is local, from a spot in the 
Lake Country [John de Sylversyd, Preston Guild R. 
1397, Bardsley]. Hardrib seems to be a nickname, as 
also Broadribb, Brodribb, the latter no doubt sometimes 
corrupted, as Bardsley suggests, from Bawdrip (Som.). 
Rump is a common name in Norfolk, and there are 
plenty of early examples from East Anglia [Robert 
Rumpe, Ramsey Cart., Roger Rompe, Pat. R., Suff., 
Casse Rumpe, Hund. R., Camb.]. It is probably 
short for Rumbold or some other personal name 
in Rum-, noble. Heintze derives the corresponding 
German Rumpf in the same way. But Fessey seems 
to represent Fr. fessu, explained by Cotgrave as 
" great buttockt." Richard le Fessu was butler to 
Edward II. (Pat. R.), and the change of form is 
normal ; cf. the vulgar pronunciation of nephew, 
value — 

" In short, I firmly du believe 

In Humbug generally, 
Fer it's a thing thet I perceive 

To hev a solid vally " 

(Russell Lowell, The Pious Editor's Creed). 

Hand, Hands, may be explained as rimed on Rand, 
Rands (Randolph), as Hob is on Robert and Hick on 
Richard, but nickname origin is also certain [Robert 
Asmains, Close R., Ralph cum Manibus, ib.]. White- 
hand exists, and Balmain means fair hand [John Bele- 
meyns, Pat. R.]. To the same origin must be some- 
times ascribed Main, Mayne. Cf. Fist (p. 127). Quater- 
main, Quarterman, is also a nickname [Herbert Quatre- 
mains, Fine R.] ; cf. William Quaterpe (Pat. R.). The 
arm appears only in compounds [Armstrong, Strongi- 
11 



140 PHYSICAL NICKNAMES 



], but we have, through French, Firebrace, Fair- 
brass, Farbrace [Stephen Ferebraz, City A .], and Bradfer 
[Matthew Brazdefer, Ramsey Cart.]. This last has 
also given Bradford, just as Pettifer has sometimes 
become Pettiford. Is Stallibrass [William Stalipres, 
Pipe R.] a hybrid imitation of these with steel as its 
hist component ? Such hybrids occur, e.g. the medieval 
name Maynstrang, a compromise between " hand 
strong " and " main forte." 

The common surname Legg is both baptismal and 
local [Nicholas f. Legge, Fine R., Pagan de la Leg, 
Kirby's Quest, 1327]. In the first case it is short for 
Ledger, Legard [Leggard de Aula, Hund. R.], AS. 
Leodgser or Leodgeard ; in the second it is an archaic 
spelling of Leigh, Lea, a meadow. Here also belong 
Barleggs, barley meadows, and Whitelegg [Richard de 
Whiteleg, Lane. Ass. R. 1176-1285], though Henry 
Whitshonk (Lane. Court R. 1323-4) suggests an 
alternative origin for the second. It is possible that 
there may have been a later formation from the " leg " 
used as a hosier's sign, but for this I have found no 
evidence. Leg, being a Norse word, may occur in the 
compound Sprackling, corruptly Spratling [Gervase f. 
Sprakeling, Feet of Fines], which Bjorkman identifies 
with the Old Norse nickname Sprakaleggr, of the 
creaking legs ; cf. Ger. Knackfuss. In Middle English 
the native shank seems to have been preferred in de- 
scriptive epithets [Walter Schanke, Pipe R.], hence 
Shanks, Crookshanks or Cruickshank, Sheepshanks, and 
the less common Ettershank, from dial, edder, etter, a 
thin rod used in fence making — 

" Edder and stake 
Strong hedge to make " (Tusser). 



THE LEG AND FOOT 141 

We also find compounds of jambe, e.g. Foljambe, Full- 

james [Thomas Folejambe, Hund R.~], while the still 

commoner Bellejambe [Adam Belejambe, Pat. R.] 

has been transformed into Belgian. Knee may refer 

to some geographical feature, like Ger. Knie, which 

Heintze derives from the same word used of a nook in 

a wood, but it may also come from Knaith (Line), 

spelt Kneye in the Fine R. ; cf. Smee for Smeeth (p. 77). 

Kneebone, being a Cornish name, is best left alone. 

Shinn, Shine appears to be a personal name, occurring 

chiefly on the Welsh border, and hence probably Keltic. 

It may even be a thinned form (p. 130, n.) of Shone, 1 

Welsh for John. For Foot cf. Gregory cum Pede 

(Leic. Bor. Rec.) and Jean Aupie, Andreas ad Pedem 

(Pachnio). This has several compounds, Barfoot or 

Burfoot, Broadfoot, Lightfoot [Lyghtefote Nuncius, in 

the Towneley Play of Ccesar Augustus], Longfoot, 

Proudfoot, Whitefoot (cf. Blampied, Blampey), Crowfoot, 

Gray foot [gray, a badger), Pauncefote, Puddifoot. The 

last, also found as Puddephatt, Puttifoot, etc., is well 

attested as a nickname in Middle English, and belongs 

to a dial, adjective meaning thick or stumpy. Cf. 

Richard Pudito (Hund. R.), John Podipol (ib.), John 

Podihog (Lane. Court R. 1323-4) — 

" He had club feet, and . . . his nickname Poddy came from 
this peculiarity of his walk " (H. Armitage, Sorrelsykes) . 

Puddifant, Puttifent means " chubby child " (see 
p. 247), unless it is merely a corruption of Buttivant 
(p. 256, n.). The obsolete, or apparently obsolete, com- 
pounds of -foot are very numerous (see p. 144). With 
Pettifer, i.e. pied defer, cf. John Stelfot (City C), Ralph 
Irenfot (Pat. R.), and with Pettigrew, pied de grue, cf. 
1 With this cf. Cornish Chown [John Chone, Close R., Cornwall]. 



142 PHYSICAL NICKNAMES 

Ger. Kranefuss. Heels generally belongs to AS. heath, a 
local term of doubtful meaning (see p. 62). But I have 
found Larkehele as a medieval name and also John 
dictus Talun (Archbp. Giffard's Reg. 1266-79). In 
the latter example talon may have its later meaning 
of claw rather than heel, but it is much older than any 
instance of talon, claw, in the NED. Anyhow, it is 
possibly the origin of Tallents. Toe, Toes, are local 
(p. 50), but Prictoe is apparently a nickname from some 
physical peculiarity. 

Among internal organs we have Heart, Lung, Kidney, 
Giblett. The first, generally for the animal nickname 
Hart, may sometimes be genuine ; cf. Richard Quoer 
(Hund. R.) and Fr. Cceur ; but Lung is a variant of 
Long [Geoffrey le Lung, Hund. R.], Kidney is an 
Irish name, and Giblett is a dim. of Gilbert. With 
Goodhart, Goodheari we may compare Bunker [William 
Boncuor, Fine R., Robert Finquoyr, Hund. R.]. 
Hartfree has a suggestion of the Restoration dramatists, 
but is probably AS. Heardfrith. Bowell is a variant 
of Powell, Welsh ab Howel [Strael Aboel, Fine R., 
Glouc.J, and Bowles is local, of Bouelles (Seine-Inf.) 
[Hugh de Boeles, Fine R.]. Brain, found chiefly on 
the Welsh border, is a Keltic name ; cf. Macbrain. 
Blood is a Welsh patronymic, ab Lloyd, which became 
Blood, Bloyd, Blud just as the simplex gave Flood, 
Floyd, Flud. The compounds Wildblood, Young- 
blood are temperamental rather than physical. They 
are perhaps really compounds of blood in its figurative 
sense of offspring, person J — 

" This Abel was a blissid blod " (Cursor Mundi, 1035). 

1 Cf . the similar use of Ger. Blut — " Ein junges Blut, a very youth " 
(Ludwig). Jungblut is a German surname. 



OBSOLETE PHYSICAL NICKNAMES 143 

Cf. the more modern " young blood," " wild young 
blood," used of a buck or gay spark. 

Bone is usually for Fr. le bon, but both Bones and 
Baines x may be taken literally [Simon Baynes, Fine 
R., Muriel Bones, Chart. R.]. Compounds are Long- 
bones, Langbain, 1 Cockbain, Smallbones, Rawbone, the 
obsolete Sorebones, and the existing Hollebon, Hollobone, 
hollow bone, 3 corresponding exactly to Ger. Holbein 
[Arnoldus dictus Holbein, 13th century, Heintze]. Col- 
larbone is an imitative spelling of Colbourne, Allbones is 
from Alban, and Rathbone is, I think, local, from Rad- 
bourne (Derb.). It is a Cheshire name. Lower gives 
Skin as a surname. I have not met with it, but Purple 
may mean " clear skin," OF. pure pel [Roger Purpel, 
Pat. R.]. Earskin is of course for the local Erskine. 
Tear is for the Gaelic MacTear, son of the carpenter. 

Here are a few more, apparently obsolete, nick- 
names of this class. Although many of them are 
French in form, they all occur in England in the twelfth 
and thirteenth centuries. Probably some of them still 
exist : Barheved (one origin of Barrett), Brokinheved, 
Flaxennehed, Hevyheved, Hundesheved, Kenidheyd 
(kennet, a small hound), Sleghtheved, Wysheved, 
Todheved (tod-, a fox), Visdelu (wolf's face), Visdechat, 
Clenebodi, Hendibodi, Oyldebuf {ceil de bceuf), Grasen- 
leol (gras en I'ceil), Fatteneye, Mauregard or Maure- 

1 Bain is usually Scottish, equivalent to Bean, fair, but it is 
also a nickname from ME. bain, ready ; cf. Robert Unbayn, i.e. 
the unready (F. of Y.). 

2 Here, and in some other compounds, bain perhaps means es 
pecially leg; cf. Adam Coltbayn (Northumb. Ass. R. 1256-79}. 
In the Towneley Mysteries " langbain " is used for a sluggard. 

3 Holloman is a variant of Holliman, usually " holy man " 
[William Haliman, Pat. it.]. 



144 PHYSICAL NICKNAMES 

ward, Scutelmuth, Swetemouth, Widmuth, Dogmow, 
Belebuche, Quatrebuches, Treynez (three noses), 
Sharpberd, Stykberd, Tauntefer (dent de fer), Auburn- 
hor, Yalowehair, Blanchpeil (foil), Rugepeil, Beaupel, 
Curpel (court), Blakneyk, Longecoo (cou), Longto, 
Irento, Clenhond, Lefthand, Blanchemains,Malemayns, 
Tortemayns, Mainwrench (twisted ?), Beaubras, For- 
braz, Bukfot, Bulfot, Coufot, Doggefot, Gildenefot, 
Gosefot, Harefot, Hundesfot, Kaifot (kye, cow), Playfot 
(splay ?), Sikelfot, Sorefot, Fothot, Pedechen (pied de 
chien), Pedelever (lievre), Pettegris (grice, a pig), Pe 
de Argent, Hautepe, Brotmbayn, Crokebayn, Brune- 
coste (now Bronkhurst ?), Querdebeof (cceur), Cornde- 
beof, Cormaleyn (cceur malin), Curmegen (cceur 
mechant?), Catteskyn, Sancmedl£, Slytwombe, Rich- 
wombe (cf. Fr. Richepanse), Pesewombe, 1 Calvestayl, 
Wytebrech, Smalbehynd, Fayrarmful. 

1 Pause d pois is an invective epithet applied to the English in a 
French patriotic song of the fifteenth century attributed to Oliver 
Basselin— 

" Ne craignez point a les batre, 
Ces godons {goddams), panches a pois : 
Car ung de nous en vault quatre, 
Au moins en vault-il bien troys." 



CHAPTER VII 

COSTUME NICKNAMES 

Sir,' said Mr. Tupman, his face suffused with a crimson glow, 
' this is an insult.' ' Sir,' replied Mr. Pickwick in the same tone, 
' it is not half the insult to you that your appearance in my presence 
in a green velvet jacket with a two-inch tail would be to me ' " 
(Pickwick) . 

Having examined man anatomically, we will now make 
a detailed exploration of his costume in peace and war. 
When a small boy assumes his first topper, he knows 
he must steel his heart against the salutation " Ullo, 
'at," with which members of the outspoken classes will 
greet him, and a provincial tragedian, impersonating 
a picturesque brigand, has been encouraged from the 
gallery with " Go it, boots ! " The Middle Ages 
were equally attentive to the conspicuous in costume 
and there is scarcely an article of attire 1 or an adjunct 
of equipment which has not given a surname, either 
in isolation, Hatt, Hood, or accompanied by an adjec- 
tive, Curthose, Hardstaff. It need hardly be said that 
many names of this type have an alternative shop- sign 
origin [Thomas del Hat, Hund. R.]. The Tabard 
will occur at once to everyone, and Crowne is another 
obvious case. As an example of the way in which 

1 Space does not allow of describing the garments mentioned 
and their varied meanings in ME. Those interested should consult 
the NED. or Fairholt's Costume in England. 

H5 



146 COSTUME NICKNAMES 

names have been taken from garments we may take 
the extreme case of Coverlid. It would seem incredible 
that anyone should be nicknamed from a counterpane 
or quilt, if we had not as evidence Matilda Cooptoria 
(Hund. R.)— 

"Hoc coopertorium, a coverlyd" (Voc). 

From the head-gear we get Halt, Capp [Alward 
Capp, Pipe R.], Hood, Capron (Ft. chaperon), and the 
obsolete Capoce [Nicholas Capoce, Pat. R.~\ — 

" Capuchon, a capuche ; a monk's cowle or hood " (Cotg.). 

The Middle English compounds of Hood seem to have 
been absorbed by those of Head (p. 129). Cowl, Cowell, 
is usually a Manx name (see p. 319, n. 1), but may some- 
times belong here. Toye is a dial, word for a close- 
fitting cap [Warin Toy, Hund. R.]. It now belongs to 
the north and is used several times by Scott. Feather 
may be an alteration of Father, once much commoner 
as a surname than now ; cf . Penny feather for Penne- 
father, 1 a miser [Justinian Panyfader, Archbp. Peck- 
ham's Let. 1279-92]. But John Fether (Bp. Kellawe's 
Reg. 1334) points to literal interpretation. Bonnett 
is generally of French origin, a derivative of bon 
(see p. 289). Among the many sources of Barrett must 
probably be reckoned OF. barrette, a biretta, so 
common in the expression " parler a la barrette" — 

" Barrette, a cap, or bonnet." 

" Parler a sa barrette, to expostulate with him face to face ; to 
speake home, and to his teeth, unto him " (Cotg.). 



1 This has also become Pannifer, Penfare. Cf. the rustic " gran- 
f er " for grandfather. The earliest NED. record for "penny- 
father " is 1549. 



NECK-WEAR 147 

This word, which has given a French surname, may be 
responsible for Walter dictus Baret (Archbp. Giffard's 
Reg. 1266-79), but this may be the OF. and ME. 
barat, guile, contention, etc., whence also Barter — 

" Baratowre, pungnax (sic), rixosus " (Prompt. Parv.). 

To costume also occasionally belongs Chappell, OF. 
chapel (chapeau). The hatter is generally " le chap- 
lier " in the Rolls, whence Shapler} With the Sussex 
name Quaife, from a Norman form of coif [Andrew 
Coyfe, Pat. R.], cf. Lucy la Queyfer, i.e. the coif-maker 
(ib.). Kercher, Kurcher, Kerchey, are from kerchief in 
its original sense, couvre-chef — 

" With this kerchere I kure thi face " (Coventry Mysteries). 

Neck-wear seems to be recorded in Collar, Ruff, 
Scarf, and Partlett, but none of these are genuine. 
Collar is an imitative spelling of Collier, a charcoal- 
burner. The ruff came after the surname period 2 and 
Ruff is simply a phonetic spelling of Rough ; cf. Tuff 
for Tough [Nicholas le Toghe, Hund. R.]. Ruff ell, 
Ruffles, I take to be local, at the " rough heal " ; see 
p. 61, and cf. Roughley, Roughsedge. Scarf is an Old 
Norse word, still used in the Orkneys for the cor- 
morant or shag, and made into a personal name in 

1 It is strange that the name is not commoner. Hatter is equally- 
rare. Sh- for Fr. Ch- shows comparatively modern adoption. I 
take it that Shrapnel is a metathesis of the Fr. Charbonnel, Char- 
bonneau, " little coal," found in DB. as Carbonel. The inter- 
mediate Robert Sharpanel occurs in Cockersand Cart. 

2 Hence the explanation I have given of Quiller in my Romance 
of Names (p. 171) is wrong. It is simply the queller, i.e. killer 
[Matthew le Queller, Archbp. Gray's Reg. 1225-54]. Als ° Keller 
[Simon le Keller, F. of Y.]. 

" Crackers, facers, and chylderne quellers " (Cocke Lorelle). 



148 COSTUME NICKNAMES 

England [Hugh Scarf, piscator/f . of Y., Henry Scharf, 
Hund. R., Line.]. A kind of ruff worn in Tudor times 
was called a partlet, perhaps from the name of Dame 
Partlet the hen in the Romance of Renard, but the 
surname must go back to the latter. 

Coate has got hopelessly mixed up with cote, cott, a 
dwelling, but we may assume that so common a 
word must have contributed to the ubiquitous 
Coates, while the existence of the Middle English 
nickname Turnecotel points to a dim. of the word 
as one origin of Cottle, Cuttle. Medlicott for " med- 
ley coat," i.e. motley, seems to be certified by 
Peter Miparty (Fine R.), Fr. mi-parti corresponding 
exactly to "motley"; but Body coat is an imitative 
spelling of Bodicote (Oxf.) Altogether this garment 
is rather disappointing, though there are probably 
some names in -cote, -cott, to which it has contri- 
buted. Lower gives Gaicote, a name I have not met 
with. Mantell is as old as the Conquest [Tustin 
Mantel, DB.]. Freemantle is a place in Hants where 
Henry II. built a great castle. It is constantly referred 
to in the Pipe R. as Frigidum Mantellum, though I 
do not know the origin of the name. But the existence 
of the opposite chaud-manteau [Alice Caumantel, 
IpM.] suggests that Freemantle, formerly Freitmantel, 
may also be a nickname. Pilch is etymologically a 
" pelisse," or fur cloak — 

" Pylch, pellicium, pellicia " {Prompt. Parv.). 

Tippett is a dim of the favourite Theobald (p. 40), or 

1 An appropriate nickname for a fisherman. Here is a more 
modern case, " At 5, Commerce St., Buckie, on the 18th inst., 
William Cowie, ' Codlin,' fisherman, aged 79 years " (Banffshire 
Advertiser, Aug. 19, 1915). 



SURNAMES IN -LESS 149 

may come straight from Fr. Thibaut. With the historic 
Curtmantle cf. William Curtepy (Pat. R.), who wore a 
short pea-]a.cket — 

" Ful thredbare was his overeste cowtepy " (Chauc. A. 290). 

OF. gonelle, a dim. of gown, is one origin of Gunnell. 
Geoffrey Grisegonelle was a Count of Anjou. William 
Sanzgunele (Pipe R.) belongs to an interesting type of 
name which, though not confined to the costume group, 
may be conveniently mentioned here. Existing names 
of this class are Bookless, Careless, corrupted to Carloss 
[cf. Robert Soroweles, Lond. Wills, 13 19], Faultless 
[John Saunfaille, City D.], Hoodless, Landless, Lawless, 
Loveless, Peerless or Pearless, Lockless (cf, Harliss), 
Reckless or Reatchlous, all of which are obvious and to 
be taken literally. They can be authenticated from 
the Rolls and by foreign parallels, e.g. Fr. Sansterre 
(Landless or Lackland), Ger. Ohnesorg (Careless), etc. 
Wanless, sometimes perverted to Wanlace, Wanlass, 
Wandloss, is ME. wanles, hopeless, luckless. 1 Fairless 
is explained by Lower as a contraction of " fatherless " 
[William Faderles, Rievaulx Cart.], but perhaps comes 
rather from ME. fere, companion, equal, commonly 
coupled with peer in the expression " without jeer or 
peer." It might even be for " fearless." Artless is an 
alteration of Arkless (p. 215), Rugless is for Ruggles, AS. 
Hrocwulf, rook wolf [William Roculf, Pat. R.], Nickless 
may be for Nicholas, or for " neckless " [Simon 
Nekeles, Hund. R.], and Sharpless is for the local 
Sharpies (Lane). Makeless, the matchless, does not 
seem to have survived [Gilbert Makeleys, Leic. Bor. 

1 Cf. Wanghope, from ME wanhope, despair, but, like all -hope 
names (p. 63), with a possible local explanation. 



150 COSTUME NICKNAMES 

Rec], unless it is the origin of Maclise. Thewlis, 
Thewless 1 in modern dial, means sluggish, easy-going — 

" He was a quiet, thewless, pleasantly conforming man " (Crockett). 

Cf. the obsolete John Blodles (Hund. R.), Peter le 
Noselese (Pat. R.), William Tothelesse (Lane. Court R. 
1323-4), Thomas Berdless (Leic. Bar. Rec.) ; see also 
Harliss (p. 131). To the same group belong Santer 
[John Sansterre, Hund. R.] and possibly sometimes 
Sansom ; cf. Fr. Sanselme, OF. sans-healme, helmetless. 
To return to garments, we have Cloake [Alicia Clok, 
Yorks Knights' Fees, 1303], Jack, Jackett, and Doublett. 
Jack and Jackett are of course usually baptismal, the 
ultimate origin being the same in any case. With 
Doublett cf. Alexander Purpoynt (Stow, 1373) — 

" Pourpoynt, a doublet" (Cotg.). 

Jestico looks like a perversion of Fr. justaucorps, cor- 
rupted forms of which were common in Scotland — 

" It's a sight fer sair een to see a gold-laced jeisticor in the Ha' 
garden" {Rob Roy, ch. vi.). 

Wimple-was a surname as late as the eighteenth century, 
so probably still exists, and " le Wimpler " is a very 
common entry in the Rolls. Cape and Cope are both 
sometimes from garments ; cf. Guillaume a la Chape 
(Pachnio) and Henry Scapelory, i.e. scapulary (Annal. 
Monast.) — 

" Chappe, a churchmans cope ; also a judges hood " (Cotg.) — 

but I fear that Waistcoat and Weskett must be regarded 

as corruptions of the local Westcott. Taber is for tabard 

[John Tabard, Lane. Court R. 1323-4], and of course 

1 The simple Them is probably ME. theowe, slave, bondman. 



DETAILS OF ATTIRE 151 

has been confused with Tabor (p. 175). It was not 
necessarily a herald's dress, for it was worn by Chaucer's 
Plowman — 

" In a tabard he rood upon a mere " (A. 541). 

Similarly Surplice is derived from the name of a gar- 
ment not originally limited to ecclesiastical use. We 
are told that Absalom, the clerk wore a kirtle of light 
watchet — 

" And therupon he hadde a gay surplys " (Chauc. A. 3323). 

Slavin [Robert Sclavyn, Fine R.] is from the name of a 
kind of cloak often mentioned in Middle English — 

" His slaveyn was of the old schappe" (Richard the Redeless, iii. 236). 

It is supposed to have been a Slavonian garment and 
is explained by Cotgrave (s.v. esclavine) as a seaman's 
gown. Overall is local, the first element being ME. 
over, river bank, while the second may be " hall" or 
"heal" (p. 61). The sleeve seems to have survived 
only in Gildersleeve [Roger Gyldenesleve, Hund. R.] ; 
cf. William Grenescleve (Lane. Ass. R. 1176-1285) 
and Roger sine Manica (Feet of Fines). We do not 
seem to have any name derived from the glove, except 
the dim. Gauntlett, though Pachnio has Robert aus 
Ganz and others. Mitten seems to be a genuine nick- 
name [Roger Mitayn, Pat. R.]. 

Belt has a compound Broadbelt [John Bradbelt, Pat. 
R.], chiefly found in the same county (Chesh.) as Brace- 
girdle. The first element of the latter is dubious, 
breeks or breast ? — 

" Go and have to thee a lynyn bregirdil " (Wye. Jer. xiii. 1). 
" A spousesse schal forgete hir brest girdil " (ib. ii. 32). 



152 COSTUME NICKNAMES 

It gave the name of a trade [William Brigerdler, City 
B.]. With the above names cf. Adam Whitbelt (Pat. 
R.) and Henry Fairgirdle (Leic. Bor. Rec). The 
obsolete name Tutegurdel suggests a very full habit of 
body. Buckle is generally local [Alexander de Boukhill, 
Fine R.], and Hombuckle is perhaps, as suggested by 
Bardsley, a corruption of Arbuckle, which, in its turn, 
is for the local Harbottle (Northumb.). In Yorkshire 
this is also found as Hardbattle. Hose l (cf. Raoul aus 
Heuses, Pachnio) has interchanged with House [Nicholas 
de la Hose, Lane. Ass. R. 1176-1285], and the latter 
has generally prevailed. Thus Shorthouse 2 is com- 
moner than the original Shorthose [John Shorthose, 
Lane. Ass. R. 1176-1285], Whitehouse has absorbed not 
only Whitehose [Galiot Wy those, Pat. R.], but also 
Whitehause, i.e. white-neck, which occurs in F. of Y., 
and Whitehorse, perhaps an innkeeper's name [Robert 
Whithors, Pat. R.]. The fairly common ME. Curthose 
[Robert Curthose, Hund. R.] is now almost lost in 
Curtis, 3 generally from le curteis, the courteous. The 
intermediate form appears as Curthoys. Gaiter, found 
also as Gater, Gayter, Gaytor, Geator, is either OF. 
gaiteor, a watchman, or an archaic and dialect form of 
Goater [Michael le Geytere, Hund. R.]. Probably 
both origins are represented — 

" Custodies qui vocantur Gategeters " (Nott. Bor. Rec. 1279). 
" Whether I sail ete fleysse of bulles, or I sail drynke blode of 
gaytes " (Hampole's Psalter, xlix. 14). 



1 This word has a very wide range of meanings in Middle English, 
gaiter, stocking, greaves, breeches, etc. See NED. 

a Hence also Shorters, Shortus ; cf . Churchers, Smithers, etc. (p. 96). 

3 For this change cf. Mellis and other corruptions of -house 
(P. 96). 



FOOT-GEAR 153 

Stockings is local, at the stumps or forest clearing 
[Edmund del Stocking, Hund. R., John atte Stocken, 
Cust. Battle Abbey, 1283-13 12]. Boot, like Fr. Bout, 
is a dim. of some Teutonic name in Bod-, command, 
and Button, Fr. Bouton, is a derivative. In spite of 
Caligula, I doubt whether Boot is ever a costume name. 
The apparently parallel cases of Startup and Buskin 
can be explained differently. A startup was a rough 
country boot or high-low (see NED. and Nares) — 

" Payre of startoppes, houssettes " (Palsg.) ; 

but the word is formed in the same way as the sur- 
name, from " start up " [William Stirtup, Archbp. 
Gray's Reg. 1225-54]. We now say upstart, but cf. — 

" That young startup hath all the glory of my overthrow " 

(Much Ado, i. 3). 

Buskin is merely a metathesis of buckskin, 1 which may 
have been applied to various garments [Richard de 
Gravde called Bokskyn, City D., Peter Buckskyn, 
Fine R., Walter Buskyn, ib., Martin Peildecerf, Pat. R.]. 
It may even have been a nickname from the quality 
of the human cuticle. There is, however, nothing to 
prevent Messrs. Startup and Buskin from having been 
nicknamed from their style of footgear ; cf. Robert 
Heghscho (F. of Y.). Slipper is occupative, the sword- 
sharpener ; see NED., s.v. swordslyper. Clapshoe is a 
variant of the local Clapshaw, apparently the haw, or 
perhaps shaw, of Clapp, AS. Clapa. 

1 This is the origin of the common noun buskin. The NED. 
quotes (c. 1490), " My Lord paid to his cordwaner (shoemaker) 
for a payr bucskyns xviiid." The continental words suggested 
by the NED. for our bushin (first record, 1503) have no connection 
with the English word. 



154 COSTUME NICKNAMES 

There is a large group of colour nicknames which 
may also be referred to costume. Even Black, White, 
Grey, Brown, may occasionally belong here, but though 
I have come across thousands of medieval Greens, 
they have all been local, "attegrene," "delagrene." 
Still, cf. Fr. Levert and Ger. Griin. Blankett, Blewitt or 
Bluett, Blunkett, Plunkett, 1 Russett, Scarlett, are all used, 
in Middle English, not only of colours, but of certain 
materials usually made in those colours ; in fact scarlet 
as a material is older than the same word applied to 
a colour. Bissell, Bissett are formed similarly from 
F. bis, dingy, and Violett [Violetus solus, Pipe R.] 
must surely belong to costume. With these names, 
which are abundantly exemplified in the Rolls and 
exist also in French, go Burrell, Borrell, homespun, and 
hence, figuratively, simple, uneducated, and Ray, a 
striped cloth often mentioned in Middle English — 

"When men with honest ray could holde them self content" 

(Barclay, Ship of Fools, 8). 

Lambswool also appears to describe costume, and 
Woolward, Woollard must sometimes represent ME. 
wulleward, clothed in wool — 

" Faste, and go wolwarde, and wake, 
And thole hardnes for Goddes sake " 

(Hampole). 

Adjuncts of the costume are Staff, Clubb, Burdon, a 
pilgrim's staff, and Kidgell, Kiggel, Kitchell, Ketchell, 
ME. kycgel, s a cudgel [Walter Kigel, Chart. R., Matilda 
Kiggel, Hund. R.]. These are all well recorded and 

1 Also local, from some place in Brittany [Alan de Plukenet, 
Plugenet, Plogenet, etc., Chart, if.]. Hence also Plucknett. 
' Kidgel, cudgel, is still in dial, use (EDD.) 



ADJUNCTS OF COSTUME 155 

are supported as nicknames by Giles Machue {Pat. R.), 
a Norman form of Fr. massue, a club. With Staff cf. 
Tipstaff, 1 given by Lower as a surname, from " tipped 
staff," and the more familiar compounds Blackstaff, 
Hardstaff [cf. Adam Toghstaf, Pat. R.], Longstaff. 
Baston [Thomas Bastun, Pat. R.] is of similar origin — 

" Baston, a staff, club, or cowlstaff . But in our statutes it signi- 
fies one of the Warden of the Fleets servants or officers, who attends 
the kings Court with a red staff, for taking such to ward as are com- 
mitted by the Court " (Blount). 

Trounson is for truncheon [Robert Trunchun, Hund. 
JR.], but Blackrod, Whiterod, Greenrod, Grinrod, Bushrod, 
are local, the second element being royd, a northern 
word for a clearing [Adam de Blackrod, Lane. Ass. R. 
1176-1285], and Wand is probably an alteration of the 
nickname Want, meaning mole. 

In the case of names of this type, we must also 
consider the possibility of a grotesque physical re- 
semblance being suggested. One has heard of a tall 
lady being described as a " maypole." Leschallas, the 
vine-prop, is a common French surname, and Vinestock 
is found in England. Gadd comes from dial, gad, a 
long tapering stick, used figuratively of a lanky person 
[Joseph le Gad, Pat. R.]. In one of Maupassant's 
stories there is a bony forester called Nicholas Pichon 
dit L'Echasse, with whom we may compare Robert 
Stilt (Ramsey Cart.) — 

" Eschasses, stilts, or scatches to go on " (Cotg.). 

This seems to be the natural explanation of the German 
name Tischbein (table-leg). Clubb was used for a 

1 Tiptaft, Tiptoft is local, from some place in Normandy formerly 
called Tibetot, a Scandinavian name in -toft. It also survives as 
Tiptod. 
12 



156 COSTUME NICKNAMES 

rustic bumpkin [Geoffrey Clubbe, Leic. Bor. Rec). 
while " bumpkin " itself is possibly from the Dutch for 
a tree-stump. Block, Blogg, 1 is no doubt to be ex- 
plained in the same way [Benedict Blok, Exch. R.] — 

" Ye are suche a calfe, suche an asse, such a blocke " 

(Ralph Roy ster-D oyster, iii. 3). 

With this group of names goes Whipfi, a nickname 
for a carter [Allan Wyppe, Hund. R., Roger Wyppe, 
Archbp. Romeyn's Reg. 1286-96] ; cf. William Whippe- 
stele, i.e. whiphandle (Pat. R.). Purse, Pouch, Pockett, 
Satchell are also to be taken literally, and Bernard 
Pouch, collector of customs z at Sandwich in the early 
fourteenth century (Fine R.), suggests to us how such 
names may have been acquired ; cf. William Baglite, 
i.e. little bag (Pat. R). But Wallett, so far as my evi- 
dence goes, is an alteration of valet, a servant [Robert le 
Vallet or le Wallet, Close R.]. It is also local, for Wall- 
head (see p. 128). Porteous in Middle English means a 
breviary, but as the name (also Porteas, Portas, etc.) is 
essentially Scottish, it may come from the special use 
of the same word in Scottish law — 

" Porteous . . . signifies ane catalogue, contenand the names of 
the persones indited to the justiceair, quhilk is given and delivered 
be the justice clerke to the crowner " (Skene). 

Budgett, Bowgett, probably belongs to AS. Burgheard, 
usually Buchard in Middle English ; hence also 
Buckett. Trussell is doubtful, although Trousseau, a 
pack, is a common French surname. Troussel is 
frequently found in the Rolls, but it may be identical 

1 Cf . Blagg for Black, Jagg for Jack, Slagg for Slack. 
8 Cf. John de la Barre, collector of customs at Chichester, temp. 
Ed. I. (Fine Rolls). 



ORNAMENTS OF DRESS 157 

with the bird nickname Throssell, Thrussell. Bundle 
is probably local, of Bunhill, 1 and Pack is one of the 
many forms of the great Easter name Pascal [John 
f. Pake, Hund. R.]. 

Coming to purely ornamental adjuncts we have 
Ring [Robert Ring, Hund. R.] and Goldring [Richard 
Goldring, Yorks Knights' Fees, 1303]. Ribbans, a Nor- 
folk name, is no doubt the Flemish Rubens, which is 
a Frisian derivative of Rupert, Robert. Here also we 
may put the precious metals, Gold, Silver, Argent. Gold 
is usually a shortened form of one of the Anglo-Saxon 
names in Gold (p. 45) ; but it is also a nickname [John 
dictus Gold, Archbp. Peckham's Let. 1279-92, Thomas 
withe Gold, Pat. R.]. With the second example I 
should connect Wiegold ; cf. Wyberd 2 (with the beard?). 
Pur gold occurs in Blomefi eld's History of Norfolk as 
Puregold. Golden, Goulden, usually for the patronymic 
Golding, is also decorative [Henry le Guldene, Pat. R.]. 
Both this name and Fr. Dore were perhaps due to the 
colour of the hair. Silver may in some cases be reduced 
from the occupative " silver er " [William Sylvereour, 
F. of Y . 1416], but it is of quite common occurrence 
as an epithet, and Argent is a well-established name in 
both English and French. Jewell, found also as Joel, 
Joule, Joll, Jull, is a personal name of Old French 
origin [Judhel de Totenais, DB.]. It is found earlier 
as Judikel, and I fancy it springs from a metathesis 
of ON. Joketel, whence also Jekyll, Jickles, Giggle, 3 

1 Cf. Brindle (Lane), formerly " burn-hill." 

2 The common AS. Wigbeorht would explain this more safely ; 
but Searle has no name corresponding to Wiegold. 

3 Hence the place-name Giggleswick. The usual view is that 
Judicael is Keltic. Perhaps two originals are present in the above 
group of names. 



158 COSTUME NICKNAMES 

and many other variants. The common surname 
Diamond is no doubt as a rule altered from Daymond, 
Dayment, AS. Dsegmund, day protection, but Dia- 
manda wife of John Coroner (Lond. Wills, 1348-9) 
shows that it was used as a fanciful font-name. Ger- 
man has of course many jewel surnames, but they are 
usually Jewish and of modern adoption. Our Ruby, 
Rubey is local, of Roubaix [Hubert de Ruby, Cal. 
Gen.] — 

" Le marchant de Ruby ne pouvoit vendre sa marchandise audit 
pays de Flandres " {Deposition of Bernard de Vignolles, temp. 
Henry VII.). 

Pearl appears to be a nickname from the gem, but 
I have found no example sufficiently old to be conclu- 
sive. Beryl, Berrill, occurs in the Rolls [Walter 
Beryl, Fine R.], but is probably an imitative form of 
the name Berald (p. 34), and Jasper is also baptismal, 
Fr. Gaspard, 1 the name of one of the three Wise Men 
from the East ; it has also given Gasper. Finally, 
Rainbow, usually an imitative spelling of OF. Reim- 
baud, corresponding to AS. Regenbeald, may also have 
been a nickname for a man who loved bright colours, 
for we have the parallel case of the Minnesinger 
Regenbogen, still a German surname. 

Having considered man in his civil attire, let us now 
examine him when armed for battle. Armour is for 
the occupative "armourer," and has preserved the 
article in Larmor, Larmour [Manekyn Larmurer, 
City E.]. Harness is baptismal [Robert f. Hernis, 
Hund. R.], from an aspirated form of the Domesday 
Ernegis, Erneis, an Anglo-Saxon name in Earn-, eagle, 

1 It is a Persian name, meaning " treasurer." 



DEFENSIVE ARMOUR 159 

probably Earngisl, eagle hostage. But the existence 
of Fr. Beauharnais and Ger. Hamisch points also to a 
nickname, which is confirmed by William Duble Har- 
neys, saddler (City A.). Helm may be short for one 
of the Anglo-Saxon names in Helm-, such as Helmaer, 
helmet famous, whence Helmers, and is also local 
(see p. 63) ; but Basnett is from the basin-shaped helmet 
which was the usual head defence of the medieval 
soldier — 

" And a brasun basynet on his heed " (Wye. 1 Sam. xvii. 5). 

Cf . the German names Kesselhut and Ketelhod, the latter 
being the Low German form (kettle hat). William 
Salet (Exch. Cal.) took his name from the type of 
helmet 1 which superseded the bascinet. Caplin, 
Chaplin, sometimes represent OF. and ME. capeline, a 
mailed hood [cf. James Cape de Mayle, Pat. R.]. Haber- 
shonis from " habergeon " (2 Chron. xxvi. 14), a diminu- 
tive of hauberk [Simon Hauberk, Pat. R.]. This name 
is further corrupted to Habberjan, Habberjam, and 
Habbijams. The corresponding Ger. Panzer 2 is a 
fairly common name. This group was once much 
larger, but as the names for defensive armour became 
obsolete, the corresponding surnames died out or 
became corrupted beyond detection. William Wam- 
beis (Fine R.) and Roger Gaumbeis (IpM.) took their- 
names from the gambeson, or wadded doublet, worn 
under the armour, perhaps the origin of Gamson. 
William Curbuill (Percy Cart.) wore armour of cuir- 

1 On the origin of salet, salade, a helmet, see my Romance of 
Words, p. 199. 

2 Hence the gepanzerte Faust or " mailed first." 



160 COSTUME NICKNAMES 

bouilli, boiled leather, once highly esteemed for this 
purpose — ■ 

" Hise jambeux were of quyrboilly " (Chauc. B. 2065). 

This may survive in Corbally and Garbally. There are 
plenty of local Actons without invoking the medieval 
acton or auqueton (Fr. hoqueton) which was also worn 
under the armour, but the garment was important 
enough to give its name to a trade [Simon le Actoner, 
Pat. R.]. Both Shield [Roger Shelde, Pat. R.~\ and 
Buckler are sometimes to be included here ; but the 
latter is, of course, generally occupative x [George 
le Bukeler, Pat. R.]. Skew may represent OF. escu 
[John Escud, Pat. R.\ as in Fortescue and Fr. Durescu. 
Cf. with these names Walter Talevaz (Salisbury 
Chart.)— 

" Talevas, a large, massive, and old-fasioned targuet, having, in 
the bottome of it a pike, whereby, when need was, it was stuck into 
the ground " (Cotg.). 

Greaves has probably no connection with armour. It 
has three other well-established origins, viz. grieve, 
a land steward, ME. grcef, a quarry, excavation, and 
ME. greve, a grove. 

Among offensive weapons we have Sword, Sard 
[Syrich Swerd, Pat. R., William del Espeye, ib.], 
Spear, Spearpoint,* Dagger, Lance ; the last is more 
usually short for Lancelot, but Longuelance, Lance- 
levee are common medieval names ; cf. also Fr. 
Lalance. Rapier is a variant of Raper, the northern 

1 In this class of names especially the reader must be reminded 
that many of them could be from shop-signs — 

" Jelian Joly at sygne of the boheler " (Cocke Lorelle). 

8 Is this rather a perversion of the local Pierrepoint, Pierpont ? 



OFFENSIVE ARMS 161 

form of the occupative Roper, and Brand, though it 
means sword, is a personal name (see p. 38). Ap- 
parent compounds of -lance, such as Hulance, Roy- 
lance, Sandelance, are merely accidental spellings of 
Hullins, dim. of Hugh, Rylands, Sandilands, both local ; 
cf. pence for " pennies," Simmance for Simmons, Pearce 
for Piers, etc. Pike may occasionally belong here, and 
Hallpike is perhaps for "half-pike" (but see p. 51). 
With Knife cf. Jehan Coutiau (Pachnio). Halbard, 
Halbert may be a weapon name, but the reader will 
remember Halbert Glendinning. As Dart is essentially 
a Devon name, it probably comes from the river ' 
Dart. Brownbill, a common Cheshire name, is doubt- 
ful. There are no early records, and the oldest occur- 
rence of brownbill in the NED. is 1589. Of Brown- 
sword also I find no earlier example than John 
Brownswerd, 1561 (Bardsley), Randell Brownsworthe, 
1583 (ib.), so that it is impossible to say whether the 
name is local or represents the weapon. Still, as 
brown, in the sense of " burnished," is a regular 

1 In my Romance of Names (p. 114) I have put forward the view 
that river surnames are rare and doubtful. They are, however, 
more numerous than I thought, e.g. Henry atte Sture (Pat. R., 
Suffolk), Richard atte Stoure (Coram Rege R., Essex), the river 
Stour dividing these two counties. Cf . also Colder, Tweed, Solway, 
Wharf, a Yorkshire name, Gilpin, a. stream in Westmorland, 
whence also the imitative Giltpen. So also Churn, from a 
headstream of the Thames, whence also Churnside, Chermside, 
Chirnside, with which cf. Calderside, Deebanks, Creedybridge . Salli- 
banks may belong to Solway, but perhaps rather to AS. sealh, willow ; 
cf. Embanks (yew), Firbanhs, etc. Allenwaters and Gillingwater 
are both existing surnames, the first reminiscent of a famous song, 
the second probably from Gilling Beck (Yorks). Dickens may 
have invented Tim Linkinwater' s name, but " linking water," 
from the Scottish link, to trip along nimbly/ is quite a possible 
formation. 



162 COSTUME NICKNAMES 

epithet of the sword in Middle English, I am inclined 
to think that the origin of the name is to be found in 
the " bonny brown sword " of ballad poetry ; cf. 
Richard Whitswerd (Close R.). 

Another name which may belong to this class is 
Glave, Gleaves, the latter very common in East 
Anglia. The word gleave, still used in dialect of a 
fish-spear, is the same as glaive, which in Middle 
English means both sword and spear and in Old 
French almost always the latter. In Middle English 
the word has also the special meaning of a spear set 
up as the goal of a race and awarded as a prize to the 
winner, the origin, I suppose, of the name Wins-pear l — 

" Certes thei rennen all, but oon of hem takith the gleyve " 
(Wyclif, Sermons). 
" Glayfe wynner, braveta " (Cath. Angl.). 

It seems very possible that a nickname could come 
from this practice, references to which are numerous 
in Middle English literature. Cf. Prizeman and the 
origin I have suggested for Popjoy (p. 201). In the 
same way Arrow may come from the silver arrow 
awarded to the successful archer [Ralph Arwe, City D.] ; 
cf. the obsolete Sharparrow. " Mangnall's Questions " 
are not very suggestive of medieval romance, but 
Robert Mangonell (Fine R.) undoubtedly took his 
name from the warlike engine with which he was an 
expert. That Spurr was a spurrier's sign is evident 
from the fact that Richard le Sporiere (City B.) is 
also called Richard Sporon (OF. esporon, a spur) ; cf. 
Thomas Esperun or Sporun (Pat. R.), whose name now 

1 Cf . also Winspur, Winsper, which may be the same, or may refer 
to winning one's spurs. 



OBSOLETE COSTUME NICKNAMES 163 

exists as Spearon, Sperring, Spurren. Cockspur was 
a London name as late as the eighteenth century, and 
no doubt still exists somewhere. 

Of the same type as the names mentioned in this 
chapter are the following which appear to be obsolete 
— Whitebelt, Curtwallet, Brounsack, Pilchecurt (court), 
Ruggebag, Wydhos, Witheskirtes, Curtemanch, Grene- 
hode, Irenpurs, Penipurs, Smalpurs, Halebourse, Red- 
cal, Shortecal (see Caller, p. 119), Losgert, Blank- 
herneis, Straytsti'rop, Langboue, Longespeye, Curt- 
brand, Descosu (Fr. decousu, ragged), Smalygurd, a 
list which could be added to almost indefinitely. 



CHAPTER VIII 

MISCELLANEOUS ADJUNCT-NAMES 

" Oh ! quand ce jour-la je parus dans la cour du college pendant 
la recreation, quel accueil ! 

' Pain de sucre ! pain de sucre ! ' s'ecrierent a la fois tous 
mes camarades " (Anatole France). 

Besides the numerous nicknames derived from a 
characteristic of physique or dress discussed in chap- 
ters vi. and vii., we have a large number of surnames 
which appear to be taken from tools and implements, 
household objects of all kinds, articles of food and 
drink, and even coins and numbers. Many of these 
are due to the imitative instinct, but the majority are 
perhaps what they appear to be, and their use as sur- 
names is due to the object in question having got to 
be regarded in some way as an inseparable adjunct of 
some individual. In Nelson's time the carpenter was 
called Chips and the purser Dips, while in Jellicoe's 
time the torpedo-lieutenant is known as Torps. When 
Smollett wanted names for three sea-dogs, Trunnion, 
Hatchway, and Pipes presented themselves naturally. 
We can imagine in the same way that the names 
Meteyard, Meatyard, Ellwand, Elrod were conferred 
upon early drapers who usually had such an imple- 
ment in hand, or even put it, in the case of their 

164 



NAMES FROM WARES 165 

apprentices, to irregular but effective uses. Or the 
ancestor of the Ellwands may have been long and thin. 
Baskett 1 is generally derived from an ancestor who 
regularly carried, or had charge of, a basket. We 
have also the surname Maund, from the archaic and 
dialect maund, a large basket, and it may be assumed 
that Gilbert del Maunde, serjeant of the almonry of 
St. Swithin, Winchester {Pat. R.), had charge of the 
alms-basket ; cf. Ernolph del Bracyn (Fr. brassin, a 
brewing vat), mentioned among the officials of a 
hospital in the Chart R. Some men were no doubt 
named after the commodities they dealt in. Every- 
one remembers that Dobbin's school-name was Figs, 
a delicate allusion to his father's grocery, and I have 
known schoolboys with the sobriquets Bricks and 
Balsam, the reference being in each case to the source 
of the family opulence. Hence such a name as 
Hardware, with which cf. Robert Smalware (Pipe R.). 
The following examples have a strong trade suggestion 
about them — 



Alexander Fresharing, fishmonger 
Henry Graspeys (porpoise), fishmonger 
Pyke the fishmonger . . . . 

John Tupp, carnifex . . . . 

Nicholas Wastal, cook 
William Duble Harneys, saddler . 



(City B.) 
(Citv D.) 
(F.'ofY.) 
lib.) 

(City C.) 
(City A.) 



Why people should be named Nail or Horsnail, 
Horsnell is hard to say, but the fact remains that 
these names exist and that they mean literally what 
they appear to mean [Ralph Nayl, Hund. R., William 
Horsnail, Close R.]. The corresponding Nagel and 

1 It is sometimes for Bassett, a dim. of Bass, i.e. has, low ; cf. 
casket from Fr. cassette. 



166 MISCELLANEOUS ADJUNCT-NAMES 

Hufnagel l are well established in Germany, and French 
even has Ferdasne (fer d'dne). Equally unaccount- 
able is Trivett, Trevitt [Ralph Trevot, Pat. R.], which 
is, however, guaranteed by Ger. Dreyfus and Augustine 
Tripoude [Archbp. Wickwane's Reg. 1279-84], for trivet 
and tripod are ultimately identical. No doubt some 
names of this type were sign-names. In the early 
Rolls this can be plainly seen [Hayn atte Cok, City E., 
Adam de la Rose, City B.\ and, even at a later date, 
when the preposition has been dropped, the connection 
is often pretty obvious. Such entries as John Aguillun, 
i.e. goad (F. of Y.), John Whitehors, taverner (ib.), 
seem to point to a shop- sign as clearly as Whitebrow 
the plasterer (ib.) to the outward and visible sign of 
a calling. One has read of an American dentist who 
suspended a gigantic gilded tooth before his premises, 
and, as every tradesman had a sign in medieval 
England, we may suppose that the name Needle, 

Neild 2 — 

" For thee fit weapons were 
Thy neeld and spindle, not a sword and spear " 

(Fairfax, Tasso, xx. 95) — 

was acquired by a tailor whose emblem was a needle 
of exaggerated dimensions — 

" Moses, merchant tailor, at the needle " (Pasquin's Nightcap). 

Ballance is clearly of sign origin, for Ralph Belancer, 
i.e. scale-maker, who, according to Stow, was sheriff 
of London in 1316, is called in the French Chronicle of 

1 Heintze gives thirteen German surname compounds of -nagel, 
one of which, Wackernagel, is very familiar to students of German 
literature. 

2 This is also for Neil with excrescent -d, but neeld is still dialect 
for needle ; hence also Neelder for Needier. 



IMPLEMENTS 167 

London Rauf la Balance. Crucifix is no doubt also a 
sign-name, and in Limmage, for Vintage, the article 
survives. See also Sfiurr (p. 162). But such clear cases 
are not numerous, and it is impossible to say whether 
John Hunypot (Pat. R.) owed his name to the sign of bis 
shop, to rotundity of person, to a mellifluous style of 
oratory, or was named ironically from a particularly 
vitriolic vocabulary. Equally mysterious is the origin 
of John Sadelbowe (Hund. R.), Roger Hayrape l (Pat. 
R.), Robert Butrekyde 2 (Hund. R.), and hundreds of 
other such names, with which we may compare such 
German 3 names as Birkenrut (birch rod), Windelband 
(swaddling clothes), etc. 

In this chapter I give a certain number of charac- 
teristic names of this class, pointing out as far as 
possible those that are genuine nicknames and those 
which most readily admit of an alternative explana- 
tion, and leaving it to the reader to decide how such 
odd names were originally acquired. 

Among names which are those of tools and imple- 
ments we have Auger, Axe, Chisell, Coulter, File, 
Funnell, Gimblett, Hammer, Hatchett, Last, Lathe, 

1 Perhaps from an elementary style of dress. The costume of 
Dancer, the famous miser, consisted for the most part " of hay-bands, 
which were swathed round his feet for boots and round his body for 
a coat." 

2 A butter-cask. The word is first recorded by the NED. three 
centuries later (1567). 

3 The comparison with grotesque German names must not, how- 
ever, be pushed too far, as a large number of these are only about a 
century old, having been forcibly conferred on such Jews as were 
not responsive to the pecuniary suggestions of those entrusted with 
the task of diffusing surnominal Kultur. Examples of such names 
are Dintenfass (inkstand), Quadratstein (square stone), Maschi- 
nendraht (machine wire), etc. 



168 MISCELLANEOUS ADJUNCT-NAMES 

Mallet, Mattock, Plow, Rake, Shackle, Shuttle, Wim- 
ble, Windlass. There are plenty more, but these 
will suffice as examples. Auger, also Augur, is a 
personal name identical with Fr. Augier, from OG. 
Adalgar, and hence a doublet of Alger, Elgar. Axe 
may be a metathesis of Ask, an archaic form of Ash ; 
cf. the vulgar pronunciation of the verb " ask " ; but 
it may very well go with Dagger, Sword, etc. (p. 160) ; 
cf. Robert Axe (Hund. R.), Ebrard Bradex, i.e. 
broad axe (Pipe R.), and Fr. Hachette. Our Hatchett 
probably has two origins. It is a normal reduction 
of Hatchard (p. 33, ».), but its connection with the 
implement is supported by Robert Coignee (Chart.R.) — 

" Coignie, an hatchet, or axe " (Cotg.). 

With these cf . Twybell, from the name of a two-edged 
axe — 

" Twybyl, ascia, bisacuta, biceps " (Prompt. Paw.). 

" Twyble, an instrument for carpentars, bernago " (Palsg.). 

Chisell is local, of Chiswell (Ess.), Coulter is occupative 
and equivalent to Coltard, Coulthard, 1 etc., the colt- 
herd. File, which occurs regularly in Kent in the com- 
pany of Fill, has a bewildering number of possible 
origins. It may be baptismal, for Philip or Felix 
[Adam f. Fille, Chesh. Chamb. Accts. 1301-60], or 
come from ME. file, 2 fellow, still in use in the Artful 
Dodger's time — 

" At this point, the Dodger, with a show of being very par- 
ticular with a view to proceedings to be had thereafter, desired the 
jailer to communicate ' the names of them two files as was on the 
bench ' " (Oliver Twist, ch. xliii.). 



1 Said to exist also as Coldtart. 

2 There is also a ME. file, wench ; cf . Fr. Lafille. 



IMPLEMENTS 169 

Most probably of all it is simply Field or Fylde with 
the -d lost, as in Wiles from the local Wild [Robert de 
la Wile, Pipe R.] ; cf. the Lane. Files, for Fildes, also 
Up/ill for Upheld, Butterfill, Morfill, etc. 

Funnell, a Sussex name, is for Furnell, found in 
the same county, and this is the very common Fr. 
Fournel, a dim. of four, an oven, furnace. This 
somehow suggests Tunnell, which is the AS. Tunweald 
[Henry Tonild, Pal. R.). Gimblett is a dim. of Guil- 
laume with metathesis of m and I ; in fact, it is a 
doublet of Wilmot, which shows the same metathesis 
in Wimlott, Wimblett. Hammer is the Scandinavian 
hammer of Thor, occurring very commonly in local and 
personal names. It is also found as Hamar. Captain 
Hammer commanded the Danish ship which brought 
to England the bodies of the murdered crew of the 
E 13. Last would seem to come from a shoemaker's 
sign, but, if this were the case, we should expect to 
find it generally diffused, whereas it is purely a Suffolk 
name. The only clue I have found is John Alast 
(Hund. R., Line), which may be for " at last." Lathe 
is Middle English for a barn [William de la Leythe, 
Archbp. Giffard's Reg. 1266-79]. Mallett is the regular 
reduction of Maillard, a French personal name from 
OG. Madalhart, but is probably also a dim. of Mai, 
i.e. Mary ; cf. Pallett. Mattock is generally an 
imitative form of Welsh Madoc, but may in some 
cases be from the tool. With Reginald Mattock 
{Coram Rege R. 1297) cf. John Pykoyse (Pat. R.) — 

" Picquois, a pickax " (Cotg.). 
Pitchfork is a corruption of the local Pitchford (Salop). 



170 MISCELLANEOUS ADJUNCT-NAMES 

Plow was a common inn and shop sign [Roger de 
la Plow, Pat. R.]~ 

" Master Nicke, the silkman at the Plow " (Pasquin's Nightcap). 

Hence perhaps also Plews, Plues. Rake is more 
probably local, from a dialect word for a rough path, 
pasture [Geoffrey del Rakes, Lane. Inq. 1310-33]. It 
is more often found as Raikes, whence also Reeks, 
Rex. Cf. the compound Hollindrake, Hollingrake, 
from dialect hollin, holly. Shackle is a personal name 
[Robert Schakel, Coram Rege R. 1297] which appears 
in some place-names, e.g. Shackleford, Schackleton ; 
but it was perhaps originally a Norse nickname, from 
ON. skokull, waggon pole, etc. Shuttle is probably 
also a personal name [Simon Shitel, Pat. R.], from 
AS. Sceotweald, as in Shuttleworth (but see p. 183). 
Wimble is for Wimbolt, AS. Winebeald, and Windlass, 
Windless should probably be added to the -less names 
on p. 149, for it seems to represent AS. wineleas, 
friendless ; cf. Henry Frendles (Lane. Ass. R. 1176- 
1285). It might, of course, be a phrase-name, " win 
lass" (seep. 263). 

The examples dealt with above mostly illustrate 
the fact that in names of this type we must always 
look out for imitative corruption, but in most of 
them the alternative literal meaning is not excluded. 
When a name is at all common it usually has 
more than one origin. For instance, Winch, which 
might have been put with the above, is derived 
from Winch (Nori), from the " winch " of a well 
or floodgate [Richard Attewynche, Pat. R.], and also 
from ME. wenche, a young woman, which dropped 
out of the surname list as the word degenerated in 



VESSELS AND VEHICLES 171 

meaning [Philip le Wenche, Fine R., William le 
Wenche,, Pat. R.]. Cf. Maid, Maiden. 

A small group of surnames connected with sea- 
faring and the waterside belong rather to occupative 
names. Such are Barge, Bark, Boat, Catch or Ketch, 
Galley, Hoy, Shipp, Wherry. These are all genuine, 
though Shipp is also for " sheep " ; and several of them 
are found among the Freemen of York much earlier 
than the corresponding entries in the NED. Catch 
is the earlier form of Ketch [Henry de la Keche, City E.}. 
Cf. such names as Cart and Wain. It is quite possible 
that Carratt, Carrett, Carritt, Carrott, all found in 
Lincolnshire, represent AF. carete [Nicholas de la 
Carete, Pat. R.] for Fr. charrette, charotte. At the 
risk of wearisome repetition, one must keep emphasizing 
the fact that the creation of surnames is due to un- 
changing human nature, and that their investigation re- 
quires common sense. There is nothing more natural 
than that a man should be nicknamed from the object 
most closely associated with his daily activity. Just 
as Gager, Gaiger is from the office of " gauger " [William 
le Gaugeour, gauger of wines in England, Ireland and 
Wales, Fine R.], so Gage was a nickname for an official 
of the same class [Nicholas Gauge, troner : of wools 
in Lynn, Fine R.~\. 

To consider all the cases in which people have been 
named from the commodities they dealt in would take 
up too much space, so a few illustrative examples must 
suffice. There can be no doubt that surnames were 

1 The official in charge of the tron, or weighing machine. He was 
also called a Poyser, Poyzer. Sir William Gage, of Suffolk, to whom 
we owe the greengage, had not wandered far from the home of this 
possible ancestor. 

13 



172 MISCELLANEOUS ADJUNCT-NAMES 

acquired in this way, for we even find the inclusive 
Chaffer [Henry Chaffar, Pat. R.] — 

" The chafjare, var. marchaundie, of the Jentiles " (Wye. Is. 
xxiii. 2) — 

and Marchandy, Marchandise both exist in French. I 
have found Clothes in Somerset, the home of the 
surname Clothier, in its older sense of cloth-worker. 
So also Cords and Ropes [Geoffrey Rope, Pat. R., 
Richard Cordel, ib.] are probably of trade origin, 
though they may have been nicknames for that 
busy medieval official, the hangman. Cordwent is 
simply " cordwain," 1 i.e. Cordovan leather [Lambert 
Cordewen, Hund. R.]. With the famous Hogsflesh we 
can compare Robert Pigesfles (City A.) and Johannes 
dictus Venesun (Archbp. Romeyn's Reg. 1286-96). 
The latter name, of which I have found several medieval 
examples, is no doubt absorbed by Vinson, Vincent. 

This brings us naturally to the large number of 
names connected with foods and drinks, most of 
which can be accepted as genuine, though it is a moot 
point how far they are due respectively to the fame of 
the purveyor or the predilections of the consumer. 
The odd and homely character of many names of this 
class is exemplified by Casembrood, the name of a 
famous Dutch admiral, which has a parallel in Geoffrey 

1 In a somewhat ambitious book on surnames published a lew 
years ago we find the astounding statement that " Lord Teynham, 
being a Roper, must have drawn his family from one who was a 
' cord-wainer,' pacing hourly backwards and dealing out the hemp 
that was being spun and twisted, a monotonous toil from dawn to 
sunset, unenlightened by a glimpse of the future in which a descend- 
ant would wear the six pearls and have as crest a lion rampant 
bearing a ducal crown." Macaulay's schoolboy could have told 
the author that a cordwainer's interest in cords is only equalled by 
his enthusiasm for wains. 



ARTICLES OF FOOD 173 

Cheseandbrede (Yorks Knights' Fees, 1303). Besides 
well-known existing compounds of -bread we find in 
Middle English such names as John Barlibred (Pipe R.), 
Adam Cokinbred ' (Leic. Bor. Rec), Cicely Cromebred 
(Ramsey Cart.), John Drybred (Hund. R.), John 
Netpayn (Pat. R.), and William Halibred (Exch. R.), 
the latter still existing as Hallowbread, Hollowbread. 
The French compounds of Pain- are equally numerous — 

" M. Painlevi, Minister of Instruction and Inventions, returned 
to Paris to-day from England " (Daily Telegraph, Feb. 25, 1916). 

Cf. Isabella Levanbrede (Yorks, 1379). To bread 
belongs also Bulteel [Agnes Buletel, Hund. R.], con- 
nected with OF. buleter (bluter), to bolt, sift — 

" Bultel is the refuse of the meal, after it is dressed by the baker " 
(Blount). 

Crust is short for Christian as Trust is for Tristram, 
and Crumb is local, 2 of Croom [Adam de Crumb, 
Chart. R.]. Cake, Langcake, Longcake are all existing 
surnames; Matilda Havercake, i.e. oat-cake, occurs 
in the Hund. R. and Robert Wytecake in Archbp. 
Wickwane' s Reg. (1279-84) ; cf. John Foace, of Rouen 
(Pat. R.)— 

" Foiiasse, a bunne, or cake, hastily baked " (Cotg.). 

Pancoucke, a famous French publisher of the eighteenth 
century, is simply the Dutch for pancake (pankoek), and 
our Pancutt is possibly an alteration of the same name. 
But Honeybun, Hunnybun are variants of the local 
Honeybourne. Another imitative name is Suet, for 
Seward, AS. Saeweard [John Suard, Fine R., John 
Suet, ib.}. 

1 For cachet bread ; see NED. 

* It may be also a variant of Crump, a nickname meaning crooked. 



174 MISCELLANEOUS ADJUNCT-NAMES 

But, leaving aside such obvious names as Pudding, 
Pottage, we will consider a few derived from obsolete 
words. Brewitt, Browett is OF. and ME. brouet, broth, 
pottage, the ultimate origin of the Scottish brose [John 
Brouet, Pal. R.]. Fermidge, Firmage, Furmidge is 
AF. furmage (frontage), cheese. Haggas, now limited 
to Scotland, was a common word in Middle English — 

" Hakhis, puddyngs, tucetum " (Prompt. Parv.). 
" Haggas a podyng, caliette de mouton " (Palsg.). 

With these cf. John Blaksalt (Pat. R), Henry Peper- 
wyte (City C), John Blancbulli, i.e. white broth 
(Chart. R.), Walter Jussel (Glouc. Cart.) — 

" Jussellum, quidam cibus f actus ex ovis et lacte, anglice Jussell " 
(Voc). 

Sharlotte, which we now connect with apples, may 
be ME. charlet — 

" Charlette, dyschmete, ptpo " (Prompt. Parv.). 

Collop seems a very odd name, but the oldest example 
I have found [Thomas Colhoppe, Feet of Fines] is 
identical with the earliest recorded form of the common 
noun collop. Drink names are less numerous. We 
have Milk [William Mylk, F. of Y.], x Beer (generally 
local, see p. 53), Goodale, Goodbeer, Coolbear, etc., 
and, in earlier times, William Surmelch (Pipe R.), 
Robert Rougevyn (Pat. R.), and a host of similar 
names. We even seem to have general terms for food 
and drink in Vivers or Veevers, Vittles, 1 and Beveridge. 
The first I cannot prove — 

" Vivres, victualls, acates " (Cotg.). 



1 This name, found in Devon, is more probably an imitative 
corruption of Vidal, from Vitalis, also a Devon surname 



MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS 175 

though it seems a natural nickname for a provision 
dealer or innkeeper — 

" Amongst others, one Mother Mampudding (as they termed her) 
for many years kept this house, or a great part thereof, for victu- 
alling " (Stow) — 

but Beveridge is amply attested [William Beverage, 
IpM., Walter Beverage, Hund. R.]. We may con- 
clude this somewhat prosaic group of surnames with 
those of two contrasted medieval entertainers, William 
Coldbord (Lane. Ass. R. 1176-1285) and Agnes Bone- 
table ' (Pipe JR.). 

Among musical instruments we find Bugle, Drum, 
Flute, Fidel or Fydell, Harp, Lute, Organ, Pipe, 
Timbrell, Tabor, and Trump. Not all of these are 
what they seem, though the fact that Marmaduke 
Clarionett was living in York in 1559 inclines us to 
consider their claims favourably. ME. bugle, besides 
being short for " bugle-horn," meant wild ox — 

" Oxe and sheep, and she geet, hert, capret, bugle " (Wye. 
Deut. xiv. 5). 

It was also the name of a plant, often confused with 
the bugloss — ■ 

" Buglosa, bugle" (Voc.) — 

and, as the latter has given a surname, Buglass, our 
Bugle may go with the plant-names (ch. ix.). There 
is also a hamlet called Bugle in Cornwall. In the 
absence of early forms it is impossible to decide. But 
Bugler, first recorded by the NED. for 1840, can 

1 Cf. with these John le Caldeloverd (Hund. R.) and the existing 
name Bonhote. 



176 MISCELLANEOUS ADJUNCT-NAMES 

hardly have been a Hornblower. As the name belongs 
exclusively to Dorset, I guess that it comes from 
Bugley in that county. Mandlin is an alteration of 
Maudlin, i.e. Magdalen; cf. Manclark (p. 234). Drum 
and Drummer are probably both local, the former 
being a common Scotch and Irish place-name, mean- 
ing " ridge," while the latter can easily have been 
corrupted from one of the innumerable spots beginning 
with the same syllable. Both drum and drummer are 
Tudor words in the NED., and I have found no early 
examples of their surname use. In Middle English 
the instrument was called " taber " [Richard le 
Taborer, Pat. R.\ whence the occupative Tabrar, 
Taberer, Tabborah, while Taber, Tabor may be 
shortened from this — 

Taberes and tomblers " (Piers Plowm. A. ii. 79) — • 

or be simply the name of the instrument used as a 
nickname for the musician ' [Suein Tabor, Pipe R.]. 
Tabreit is also found and Tambourin is a French name. 
The existence as surnames of Fidler or Vidler, 
Flutter, Harper, Luter, Piper, Trumper, all of which 
are well documented, is in favour of accepting 
Fidel, Flute, Harp, Lute, Pipe, Trump at their face 
value, but some of them have an alternative origin. 
Fidel is sometimes Fr. fiddle, faithful, Flute is 
rather an imitative form of Flewitt, AS. Flodweald 
[Fluold solus, Lib. Vit.\ and Harp is a sign-name 
[Florencia atte Harpe, Bardsley, 1327]. Organ is a 
personal name [Organ Pipard, Testa de Nev.]. It 
has also become Orgies, by a natural corruption 

1 Cf . Fr. trompette, trumpeter, and our own " first violin." 



COINS 177 

which occurs also in the case of the common noun 
of the same form — 

" Orgies, tymbres, al maner gleo " (NED., 14th cent.). 

Pipe is generally local, for a pipe or water-conduit 
[Thomas atte Pipe, of Bristol, Pat. R.~\ ; cf. Conduct, 
Cundick. Timbrell l may be for Tumbrell, a name given 
to the official in charge of the tumbrel, " an instrument 
of punishment, the nature and operation of which 
in early times is uncertain ; from sixteenth century 
usually identified with cucking-stool" (NED.). We 
may suppose that John Tumberel, collector of customs 
at Haverfordwest (Fine R.), worked this machine in 
his spare time. Probably Root is sometimes from 
the rote, the most famous of all medieval instruments 
[Simon Rote, Hund. R.~], and William Sawtrey, the 
first Lollard martyr, took his name from the psaltery. 
In English, as in other languages, we find a certain 
number of surnames derived from coins, e.g. Farthing, 
Halfpenny, Penny, Shilling, also Shilling (John Eskel- 
ling, Pat. R\ Twopenny, Tippenny, % Besant, Ducat, 1 
Duckett, or from sums of money. Pound is local, 
Guinea is an imitative spelling of the Irish Guiney, 
and Shekell is for Shackle (p. 170). Shillings-worth is 
local, the " worth," or homestead, of a man named 
Shilling. Cf . Shillingshaw , in which the second element 

1 See p. 130, «. Still, Robert Tymperon (Bp. Kellawe's Reg.) 
suggests an early form of " tambourine," used by Ben Jonson some 
centuries later, and Timperon is still a Cumberland name. 

* Also Thickpenny, Moneypenny [William Manypeni, Pat. R.]. 
Limpenny is local, from Lympne (Kent). 

* Shakespeare spelt the coin ducket, while ducat is a restored form. 
There is also a personal name Duckett, for Marmaduke, and another 
origin is " duck head." It is impossible to separate them. 



178 MISCELLANEOUS ADJUNCT-NAMES 

may be shaw, a wood, or haw, an enclosure. The 
following medieval examples are instructive, though 
they do not tell us how the names were acquired — 



Robert Alfmarck, now 


A llmarh 


.Hall 




mark 






{Hund. R.) 


William Brodepeny 


. 


. 


. (Writs of Pari.) 


Christiana Deudeners ; 


cf. Twopenny 


(ib.) 


John Deumars 






[City A .) 


Richard Dismars, now Dismore (cf 




Sissmore f or " sis- 


liars ") 




{Pat. R.) 


Roger Duzemars . 






{Fine R.) 


John Fivepeni 






{Hund. R.) 


Thomas Godespeny 






{Close R.) 


John Halfpound 






{City E.) 


Thomas Mardargent 






{Fine R.) 


John Nynpenyz 






{Bp. Kellawe's Reg 


Osbert Oitdeniers (huit 


deniers] 




{Pipe R.) 


Gerard Quatremarc 






{Pat. R.) 


Thomas Quatresoz 


. 




{City C.) 


Henry Quinzemars 






{Close R.) 


Richard Threeshillings 






{Pat. it.) 


Edmund Trentemars 






{City A .) 


Fulk Twelpenes 






{Hund. R.) 


Geoffrey Twentemarc 






{ib.) 


Cecily Treydeners . 






(Pat. R.) 


Laurence Wytepens 






(ib.) 



With the last of these cf. the well-known Dutch 
name Schimmelpeninck. One can only guess at the 
various ways in which certain sums became associated 
with certain individuals. We know that Uncle 
Pumblechook had an irritating way of alluding to 
Pip as " six penn'orth of ha'pence," and that David 
Balfour was also temporarily nicknamed by Lady 
Allardyce — 

" ' O, so you're Saxpence I ' she cried, with a very sneering 
manner. ' A braw gift, a bonny gentleman. And hae ye ony ither 
name and designation, or were ye bapteesed Saxpence ? ' " 



NUMBERS 179 

The names in the above list seem to be nearly all 
extinct in England, though many • of the same type 
are still found in France and Germany. But it seems 
likely that some of our number names are shortened 
from them. This can be seen in the case of Andrew 
Sixantwenti alias Vinte-sis-deners, i.e. twenty-six 
pence (Leic. Bor. Rec). Thus the name Eighteen, 1 
well established at Reading, may be short for " eigh- 
teen pence." Another possibility is that it repre- 
sented the age of an , ancestor ; cf. Robert Quinzanz 
(Chart. R.). Pachnio has many examples from medie- 
val Paris, e.g. Raoul iiij Deniers, Guillaume ix Deniers, 
Symon Quatuordecim, Jehan Quatre-Cenz, etc. In 
the last two examples the items may have been cows, 
sheep, etc. ; cf. Robertus Quatuor Boum, Geffroi as 
ij Moutons (Pachnio). And there is a medieval Latin 
poem on a peasant known as Unusbos, a kind of Little 
Claus. 

Among existing names of this form are Two, Four, 
Six, Twelve, Twelves, Eighteen, Forty, most of which 
are susceptible of another explanation. Two may be 
short for Twoyearold (p. 250), but is more probably 
local, of Tew (Oxl). Four has two clear origins, 
other than the numeral, viz. Fr. four, an oven [Hugh 
de la Four, Hund. R.], and the archaic fower, a 
scavenger [John le Fower, Fine R.~\. Six is for Siggs, 
short for one of the Anglo-Saxon names in Sige- 
[TEdiic Sigge, Pipe i?.]. Twelve is perhaps short for 
Twelftree or Twelvetrees, and Forty, Fordy is local 
[William de la Fortheye, Hund. R., Oxi], apparently 
the island by the ford. In the Hund. R. are several 
examples from Oxfordshire, which is still the home of 
1 Cf. Fr. Dixneuf (Bottin). 



180 MISCELLANEOUS ADJUNCT-NAMES 

the name. Million is probably the Fr. Emilien, from 
Emile, Billion belongs to Bill (p. 38). It is found in 
Norfolk, sometimes also as Bullion. Milliard is an 
artificial spelling of Millard [Robert le Milleward, 
Hund. i?.]. Unitt or Unite seems to be a Welsh name 
[Unieth the cutler, Glouc. Cart.], possibly from Welsh 
uniaith, monoglot, of one language, a man who could 
not, like most of the borderers, speak both Welsh and 
English. Among ordinals of English origin I have 
only come across Third, which may be short for 
Thirdborough, 1 the peace-officer of a tithing, originally 
the head man of a frank-pledge or frithborh, from 
which latter word it is probably corrupted. In fact, 
the more correct Freeborough exists as a surname. 
But in French we find Prin, 1 Prime, Premier, Second, 
Thiers, Tierce, whence our own Prin, Prynne, Pring, 
Print, Prime, Primmer [Roger le Premier, Pat. R.\ 
and Tyers, Terse [John Ters, Leic. Bor. Rec.]. The 
curious Lancashire name Twiceaday, Twisaday means 
" twice a day " [John Twysontheday, Pat. R., Cumb. 
1410], but remains mysterious. 

Essentially connected with the individual are oath- 
names and other characteristic phrases. Here again 
we have sadly degenerated, and few of this type are 
now among us. We have Par doe, Pardy, etc., from 
pardieu, Mordue, Mordey, from mort-dieu, Dando or 
Daddow, for dent-Dieu 3 [William Dandewe, Archbft. 
Romayn's Reg. 1286-96], and the rather Chadbandian 

1 With this cf . the synonymous name Headborough — " I must go 
fetch the headborough " (Taming of the Shrew, i. 12). 

2 Prin, prime are Old French forms from primus, still surviving 
in printemps, prime-abord, etc. The existence of the name De la 
Pry me suggests an alternative origin for Prime. 

3 Or possibly from OF. Damnedieu, Dominus Deus. 



OATH-NAMES 



181 



Godbehere, Goodbehere [Geoffrey Godbeherinne, City B.\ 
Some of the following still exist in a disguised form — 

William Adieu l . 
Robert Benedicite 
Walter Corsant (corps 
Richard Coursedieu 2 



saint) 



John Depardeu . 
Simon Deudamur 
Deudevize solus . 
Deulacresse Judasus (D 
Henry Deuleseit 
Deulebeneye f . Chere 
Deulesaut (Dieu le sauve) Coc 
Deulaie (Dieu Vaide) f . Elyas 
Deusdedit, sixth Archbishop 

Canterbury 
Roger Deus-salvet-Dominas 3 
John Deutait 

Richus Deugard or Deuvusgard 
John Fadersoule . 
William Goddesbokes . 
Richard Godesname . 
William Godespays 
Olive Goadbles . 
John Godsalve . 
Basilia Godsowele 
William Godthanke 
William Gracias . 
Simon Halidom . 
William Helbogod 
John Heylheyl . 
Ralph Modersoule 
John Papedy (pape-Dieu) 
John Parfey 
William Placedeux (plaise Dieu) 
John Purdeu 



(Writs of Pari.) 
(Exch. R.) 
(Hund. R.) 
(Exch. R.) 
(Close R.) 
(Chart. R.) 
(Lib. Vit.) 
hi I'accroisse) (Fine R.) 
(Hund. R.) 
(Fine R.) 
(Pat. R.) 
(Close R.) 



of 



(DB.) 

(Pat. R.) 

(ib.) 

(Chesh. Chamb. Accts) 

(F. of Y.) 

(City B.) 

(Pat. R.) 

(Pat. R.) 

(Exch. Cal.) 

(Hund. R.) 

(ib.) 

(Bp. Kellawe's Reg.) 

(ib.) 

(Exch. R.) 

(City B.) 

(Close R.) 

(Bp. Kellawe's Reg.) 

(Pat. R.) 

(Lane. Inq.) 

(Hund. R.) 



1 Cf. Farewell [Richard Farewel, Hund. if.] 

1 For corps Dieu, but possibly a phrase-name (ch. xii.) for a 
man who had taken the advice given to Job by his wife. Cf. 
Adam Crusseking, i.e. curse-king (thirteenth century). 

3 With this early representative of " three cheers for the 
ladies " cf. Ger. Frauenlob, a Minnesinger and a cruiser. 



182 MISCELLANEOUS ADJUNCT-NAMES 



It will be noticed that most of these are of French 
formation. Pardy, Par doe, etc., are really distinct 
from Purdy, Purdue, etc., the first representing rather 
de par Dieu, i.e. de parte Dei, in God's name, as in 
modern French de par le roi, while Purdue is rather Fr. 
pour Dieu. Also the common Pardoe, Pardow has an 
alternative origin from OF. Pardou, for the personal 
name Pardolf. Deulaie (v.s.) may be the origin of 
Duly. Deugard has given Dugard. For Godsave see 
p. 316. Godsowele is one origin of Godsall, Goodsell, 
Gutsell, and Modersoule has become Mothersole, 
Mothersill. Parfey is now Purefoy. 

Finally, we find in Middle English a number of 
nicknames evidently derived from the word or phrase 
which a man overworked. Most of us could quote 
similar cases within our own experience. Examples 
are — 



Milo Ancoys, OF. ansois, rather 
Robert Autresy, OF. autresi, also 
Hugh Comment 
Michael Houyece, Ho yes ? 
Robert Jodiben, je dis Hen 
William Jurdemayn, to-morrow I 
Hugh Oroendroyt, OF. orendroit, 

straightway . 
Peter Ouy 
David Paraventure 
Richard Pernegarde, prends garde 
Pagan Purquey, pourquoi 
John Recuchun, " I must slumber 

again " . . 

Ralph Sachebien . 
William Wibien, oui Men 



(Hund. R.) 
(Pat. R.) 
[Hund. R.) 
(IpM., Notts) 
{Fine R.) 
(Hund. R.) 

(13M century) 
(Pipe R.) 
(Pat. R.) 
(Exch. R.) 
(Hund. R.) 

(Fine R.) 
(Ramsey Cart.) 
(Pleas) 



These are practically all of French formation, and I can- 
not with certainty identify any of them with existing 
surnames. They are inserted here for the satisfaction 



ODDITIES 183 

of students, as an example of the fantastic manner 
in which surnames can be formed, and as a caution 
against explaining everything odd as a " corruption." 
In the Nottingham Borough Records occurs the name 
of Elias Overandover. He may have been a man 
fond of wearisome iteration in speech, or with a 
penchant for turning somersaults, or of antique con- 
scientiousness in the performance of the common 
task — 

" My godsire's name, I tell you, 
Was In-and-in Shittle, and a weaver he was, 
And it did fit his craft ; for so his shittle 
Went in and in still, this way and then that way " 

(Ben Jonson, Tale of a Tub, iv. 2). 



CHAPTER IX 

VEGETABLE NICKNAMES 

" Bot. Your name, honest gentleman ! 
Peas. Peaseblossom. 

Bot. I pray you, commend me to Mistress Squash, your mother, 
and to Master Peascod, your father " 

{Midsummer Night's Dream). 

Vegetable surnames may have come into existence 
in various ways. Tree names are generally local, and 
there is probably no well-known English tree which 
has not contributed to the list. Most of these present 
no difficulty, but occasionally dialect forms have pre- 
vailed, e.g. Hamblock for hemlock. We also find the 
obsolete Beam 1 [Osborn Atebeame, Hund. R.] and its 
compound Nutbeam [John atte Notebem, ib.]. Local 
also are such considerable growths as Broom, Reed, 
Gorse, Furze, Fern, etc., with their compounds such 
as Thickbroom [Richard de Thickbrome,* Pleas.], 
Feamside [Nicholas del Fernyside, Lane. Court R. 
1323-4], Redfern [William del Redferne, ib.]. We 
may perhaps also suppose that two contiguous Johns 
whose huts were overgrown with ivy and jessamine 

1 " Not found later than Anglo-Saxon " (NED.). But the above 
example shows that the word survived into the Middle English 
period. We still have the compound hornbeam and others which 
are less common. 

2 This was a manor near Lichfield. 

184 



CEREALS 185 

respectively may have been distinguished by the 
names Ivy, Ivey, and Jessemey, Jessiman. 

The above are simple cases, but there are also a great 
many surnames taken from the vegetable world which 
can only be regarded as nicknames created by the 
mysterious medieval folk-lore of which we unfortunately 
know so little. We still sometimes describe a person 
as a daisy, and, in our more subtle moments, even as a 
tulip or a peach, while the quite modern nut, or more 
elaborate filbert, perhaps represents a recurrence of a 
long-dormant instinct inherited from far-off ancestors. 
Among surnames of this type we find the names of 
plants, flowers, fruits, vegetables, and also minute 
products and parts of vegetation. Here, as always, 
French and German parallels are abundantly numerous; 
while in Latin we find Cicero, Fabius, Lentulus, 
Piso, etc. 

Plant itself is generally local [John de la Plaunt, 
of Rouen, Pat. R.], from OF. plante, enclosure, planta- 
tion, but its occurrence in the Rolls without de [Robert 
Plante, Hund. R.] suggests that it was also a nick- 
name, from ME. plant used in a variety of senses, 
sprig, cudgel, young offspring (see NED.). We find 
all the important cereals, Corn, Wheat, Barley, Oats, 
Rye. The first seems to be genuine, perhaps for a 
peasant whose corn crops were particularly successful, 
or for one who lived among cornfields ; cf. Fr. Desbleds, 
OF. bled (ble). It has a compound Oldcom, whence 
also Allcorn, with which cf. Johanna Goldcorn (Cal. 
Gen.) and Robert Oldbene (Hund. R.). Wheat is 
more often one of the very numerous variants of 
the occupative Wait, a watchman ; but cf. the 
common Fr. Froment. Barley is a local name and 



186 VEGETABLE NICKNAMES 

also a variant of Barlow, but Desorges is a French 
surname. 

Gates is generally the Old French nominative of Odo, 
Otto [Otes de Houlond, City F.], but cf. Fr. Alavoine. 
Rye is generally local, but the corresponding Seigle is 
a common French surname. In each of these, there- 
fore, a double origin is possible, while a local de- 
rivation is also not excluded. Maize is an imitative 
spelling of Mayes, from May, which has various 
origins (p. 248). Grain is usually a nickname, 
OF. grain, morose ' [Dominus Johannes dictus le 
Greyne, Nott. Bor. Rec.]. Drage, Dredge, Drudge are 
dialect names for a mixed crop, especially of rye and 
wheat. From its more usual name, mestlyon, comes 
Maslin, though this has also another origin, from a 
Middle English personal name Mazelin, probably, like 
Fr. Massillon, from Thomas [Mazelin de Rissebi, 
Hund. R.] — 

" Metail, messling, or maslin ; wheat and rye mingled, sowed, 
and used together " (Cotg.). 

Millett is a dim. of Miles or Millicent. Hardmeat might 
be taken for a local " hard mead," the more so because 
Meat, Meates are for Mead, but William Hardmete 
[Hund. R.) shows it to be a nickname from the obso- 
lete hard-meat, used of corn and hay, as food for 
cattle; contrasted with grass. No doubt Greengrass 
has a similar origin . Grist is for Grice, with excrescent -i ; 

1 A very interesting chapter could be written on nicknames from 
Old French adjectives which have survived in England. Examples 
are Tardew, OF. tardieu (tardif), used also as a name for the snail, 
Vesey, Vaisey, Voysey, etc., OF. envoisi, playful, AF. enveisi [William 
le Enveyse, Hund. R.], Mishin, F. mesquin, paltry, etc. 



MEDICINAL PLANTS 187 

cf. Moist for Moyes, i.e. Moses, and Twist for Twiss 
(p. 82). Grice itself has two origins, Fr. gris, grey, 
and ME. grice, a pig. 

Among plants that have given surnames we notice 
that the odorous, pungent, and medicinal varieties 
predominate, probably because they lent themselves 
more readily to emblematic use. It is known that 
magical properties were ascribed to many of them. 
We have, among medicinal plants, Skirrett, Camamile, 
Tansey, Spurge, Staveacre, Bettany, Rue. The last 
two are doubtful. Bettany, found in Staffordshire 
along with Betteley, is probably from Betley in that 
county, and Rue, which runs parallel with Rew in Wilt- 
shire, may be AF. rew, street, Fr. rue. Still, both 
these plants have a good deal of folk-lore about them, 
e.g. according to Burton, the Emperor Augustus re- 
garded betony as efficacious for the expulsion of 
devils, while Shakespeare's allusions to rue, the herb 
of grace, are numerous. But, rather than attempt an 
explanation of each name in detail, I will refer the 
reader to that very charming lecturer, Perdita [Winter's 
Tale, IV. iv.). Staveacre is for stavesacre, which, in 
spite of its English appearance, is almost pure Greek. 
It was an emetic and a remedy against vermin. With 
these go also Buglass (p. 175), and probably Sidwell, 
Sitwell [Thomas Sitwele, Pat. R.], from sedwall, once 
regularly coupled with ginger and other spices— 

" And he hymself as sweete as is the roote 
Of lycorys, or any cetewale " 

(Chauc. A. 3206). 

Here generally belongs Ambrose, common as a medi- 
eval surname, but rather rare as a font-name [William 

14 



188 VEGETABLE NICKNAMES 

Ambroys, Hund. R., Richard Ambrosie, ib.]. It was 
used of the wild sage — 

" Ambrose an herbe, ache champestre " (Palsg.). 

And it is very likely that Alexander x or Saunders is 
often to be classed with it. This was a common 
name for the horse-parsley — 

" Alysaundere, herbe, macedonia " (Prompt. Parv.). 

For an example of saundres, coupled with brazill (p. 189), 
see the epigraph to ch. xii. 

I observe that Herr v. Werimdh is (Nov. 1915) 
Burgomaster of Berlin, and Wormwood is given as a 
surname by Camden, though I do not know if it now 
exists — 

" Wermuth, ein bitter kraut, wormwood " (Ludwig, Germ. Diet., 
1716). 

Darnell, tares [William Dernel, Glouc. Cart.], was con- 
sidered to produce intoxication ; cf . its French name, 
ivraie. With Weeds cf. Fr. Malherbe, Malesherbes, and 
Ger. Unkraut. Balsam is local [Robert de Balsam, 
Hund. R.], of Balsham (Camb.), and the Yorkshire 
Balm is a corruption of Balne in that county. 

More associated with the kitchen are Mustard, Gar- 
lick, Ginger, Pepper, Parsley, Marjoram, Fennell, 
Savory, the last of which is an imitative spelling of 
Savary, Saffrey, etc. [Savaricus Clericus, Pipe R., 

1 Another source of this common surname is no doubt to be 
found in the romances of Alexander and their dramatic adaptations 
(p. 216). Speaking generally, when a surname seems to represent 
a font-name in its unaltered form, it has a subsidiary origin, e.g. 
Arnold, Harrold, Rowland are all sometimes local, from Arnold 
(Notts and Yorks), Harrold (Beds), and " roe-land " [Peter de 
Rolond, Pat. R.]. 



FLOWERS 189 

Savari de Duntrop, Fine R.]. I have even found it 
spelt Savoury. Sometimes such names may have 
been adopted in place of cumbrous trade-names, such 
as Thomas le Mustarder (City B.), John Garleke- 
mongere (IpM.). So also Brazil, BrazellTociay be from 
the vegetable dye which gave its name to a South 
American country and a medieval trade [Robert Blund, 
brasiler, Leic. Bor. Rec] ; cf. Adam Saffran (Pat. R.). 
Pepper may also be shortened from Pepperell, the 
latinized form, Piperellus (DB.), of P ever el, which does 
not, however, dissociate it from pepper. Pepperwell 
is a curious corruption of the above name. The OF. 
peyvre, peyvrier, very common in the Rolls [Paulin 
Peyvre, Chart. R., John le Peverer, Pat. R.], are now 
represented by Peever, Peffer. Fennell is undoubtedly 
from the plant, Fr. fenouil [William Feneyl, Pat. R.], 
though it has other possible origins. It was an 
emblem of flattery — 

" Woman's weeds, fennel I mean for flatterers " 

(Greene, Upstart Courtier). 

Parsley might be a variant of Paslow (q.v.), but the 
corresponding Ger. Petersilje is found c. 1300. 

Flower-names, such as Jasmin, Lafleur, were often 
given to valets in French comedy, and later on we 
find them among soldiers, as in the case of Fanfan la 
Tulipe. Much further back we find the romantic 
story of Flore and Blancheflour and the German 
Dornroschen. The reader will naturally think of 
Chaucer's Prioress — 

"And she was cleped madame Eglentyne " (Prol. 121). 

To begin with, we have Flower [ElyasFlur, Fine R.], 



igo VEGETABLE NICKNAMES 

Bloom [William Blome, Pat. R.}, Blossom [Hugh 

Blosme, Hund. R.} — 

" The braunches ful of blosmes softe " 

(Chauc. Legend of Good Women, 143). 

With these A . James Beauflour (Close R.). Flower has 
an alternative origin from ME. floer, arrow- smith 
[John le Floer, Hund. R.]. The commonest of such 
names, Rose, has several origins. It is baptismal 
[Richard f. Rose, Hund. R.], from a name which may 
come from the flower or from Rosamond (p. 34), a 
sign-name [Adam de la Rose, City B., Adam atte Rose, 
City D.], and is often imitative from the local Row 
or perhaps Wroe [William of the Rows, Northampt. 
Bor. Rec, Simon ithe Rose, Pat. R., Yorks.]. Lilley, 
Lilly is sometimes from the font-name Lilian, of 
doubtful origin [Geoffrey Lilion, Hund. R., Nicholas 
Lillie, ib.], and has specific local origins. It must 
also be a sign-name, though I have found no early 
example. The name Lilygreen, which has occurred in 
the casualty lists, is probably Swedish Liliengren (see 
p. 195). With James Popy (Hund. R.), still found as 
Poppy, cf. Thomas Coklico (Pat. R.) — 

" Coquelicoq, the wild poppie, corne-rose, red corne-rose" (Cotg.). 

Fr. Pavot and Ger. Mohn, Mohnkopf are also well- 
established names. 

The latter, meaning " poppy head," suggests a short 
digression on the possibility of some names of this 
class having originated in a fanciful resemblance. I 
imagine that Mohnkopf 1 may have been applied to a 

1 The seventeenth-century German epigrammatist Logau uses it 
of an empty, sleepy head — • 

' ' Capito hat Kopf s genug, wenig aber hat er Sinnen ; 

Wie ein Mohnkopf lauter Schlaf, sonsten hat er nichts darinnen." 



FANCIFUL RESEMBLANCES 191 

bald-headed man, just as we find, conversely, the 
field poppy called in German dialect Glatzen (Glatze, 
a bald pate). We know that pill-garlic, i.e. peeled 
garlic, was used in the same way in English — 

" Your pyllyd garleke hed 
Cowde hoccupy there no stede " 

(Skelton). 

So Onion, Onions, usually, as a Shropshire name, from 
the Welsh Any on, Ennion, Eynon, etc. (anian, nature, 
genius), is also a nickname [Roger Oygnoun, Lond. 
Wills, 1295]. Cf. Albert Chive (Pipe 22.) and William 
Chiboulle (Chart. 22.), the latter from ME. chibol, an 
onion, still in dialect use — 

" Ciboule, a chiboll, or hollow leek " (Cotg.). 

The first Sweetapple [John Swetapple, Fine R.] may 
have been a cultivator of particularly choice fruit, but 
his name reminds me strongly of a schoolboy of my 
acquaintance whose unconsciously sardonic expression 
earned for him the name Sour Plum. Mosscrop, an 
archaic name for the tufted club-rush, may have been 
suggested by the combination of a thin body and a 
shock head. 

To come back to flower-names, we have Daisy [Robert 
Dayeseye, Hund. R.], Primrose [Peter Premerole, 1 
Pat. 22.], Marigold, Pimpernell, Columbine or Collingbine, 
while Dandelyon, still found in America, 2 was a Kentish 
name up to the middle of the fifteenth century. 
Thomas Eglentyn and Peter Parvenk (periwinkle) 

1 This is the older form, the modern -rose being due to folk- 
etymology. 

2 But, like all American names, to be regarded with caution 
See p. 9. 



192 VEGETABLE NICKNAMES 

occur in the Pat. R. Each of these no doubt has a 
tale to tell. Violet is probably a colour nickname 
(p. 154). Lavender, usually occupative, the Launder, 
or " washerman," may also occasionally be a nickname 
[John Lavender, taillur, Pat. R.]. Galliver, Gilliver, 
are from ME. gilofre [Peter Gylofre, Leic. Bor. Rec], 
now corrupted to gillyflower, 1 a flower emblematic of 
frailty. I fancy that this is due to association with 
Queen Guinevere, from whose name we get Junifer, 
Juniper} The MDB. contains the name Rosontree, but 
the locality (Yorks) suggests a misprint for Rowntree 
(rowan tree, mountain ash). The first Woodbine was 
perhaps named from his clinging propensities, but 
we can hardly accept Tulip, the first mention of the 
flower by a Western European being about the middle 
of the sixteenth century (NED.). It is evidently an 
imitative spelling, but of what ? 

Fruit-names may also in some cases be local, e.g. 
Plumb may be for Plumtree, Pear for Peartree. But 
in Old French we often find them used with the definite 
article in such a way as to suggest a nickname, e.g. 
Raoul la Prune, Gautier la Poire (Pachnio), the latter 
individual perhaps having a head of the shape which 
earned the nickname Poire for the last legitimate king 
of France, and which suggested the medieval " pear 
head" (p. 128), now Perrett. These examples- show 
that Pear, Pears is not always an imitative spelling 

1 The following extract (1683) is a good example of "preposterous" 
etymology — " The July-flower as they are more properly called, 
though vulgarly Gilliflower and Gillofer." This is like " June- 
eating " for jenneting. 

2 Junipher was still common as a font-name in Cornwall in the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (Bardsley). It is curious 
that in dialect the juniper is sometimes called the genifer (EDD.), 



FRUITS 193 

of Fr. Pierre. So also in English we find William le 
Cheris 1 (Leic. Bor. Rec), who is perhaps the same 
person as William Chirecod (ib.), with whose name cf. 
Peascod (p. 196). But many apparent fruit-names are 
not genuine. Grapes may be from an inn-sign, but 
is more likely connected with Grepe (p. 61), Raisin is 
an imitative form of Rayson (p. 239), and Muscat is 
an imitative alteration of Muskett, a nickname from 
the sparrow-hawk — 

" Mouchet, a musket ; the tassell 2 of a sparhawke " (Cotg.). 

The oldest form of damson is damascene, from Damascus. 
Hence the name Damson is probably the " dame's 
son " [Geoffrey Dammesune, Pipe R.]. Pippin is Fr. 
Pepin, whence also the East Anglian Pepys [Richard 
Pepin or Pepis, Hund. R., Camb.], and, as a Somerset 
name, is altered from Phippen, dim. of Philip, which 
is common in the same county. It may also be a 
fruit-name; cf. Costard (p. 194). Medlar is a nick- 
name [William le Mesler, 3 Hund. R.]. Filbert is 
simply the French name Philibert [Dominus Fylbard, 
Hund. R.], OG. Filuberht, very bright, whence the 
nut also probably takes its name. 4 Dewberry is local, 
of Dewsbury, spelt Deubire in 1202, but Mulberry, 

1 The older form of cherry, Fr. cerise. The -s has been lost 
through being taken as the sign of the plural, as in pea from pease. 
It is possible, however, that le Cheris may be the Old French nom. 
of cheri, " the cherished." This -s does not appear much in Anglo- 
French, but there are other examples of it in the same record as 
the above. See Bern (p. 319). 

2 Hence the surnames Tassell, Tarsell, Taycell. The older form 
of the word was tiercel. See Romance of Names, p. 221. 

3 For the intrusion of -d- in our meddle from OF. mesler (mller) 
cf. Madle (p. 250), Idle (p. 64). 

* See Romance of Words, p. 35. 



194 VEGETABLE NICKNAMES 

Mulbry appears to be genuine. Orange is doubtful, 
for, though Richard Orenge (Archbp. Peckham's Lett. 
1279-92) points to a nickname, Orangia de Chercheyerd, 
who was hanged in 1307 (Cal. Gen.), suggests a fantastic 
personal name, which must apparently have been 
formed from that of the fruit. There is also the 
town of Orange (Vaucluse), but I have found no evi- 
dence to connect the name with it. The name Rasp- 
berry is found in East Anglia, and, although the NED. 
does not record the word till the seventeenth century, 
the name may be genuine, for French has both 
Framboise and Framboisier — 

" Framboise, a raspis, hindberry, framboiseberry " (Cotg.). 

Mellon is Irish, I suppose for M alone, i.e. the tonsured 
servant of John. Costard is a very common Middle 
English nickname, perhaps for a round-headed man ; 
hence also Coster, Custer, Custard. 

A few kitchen-garden names have already been men- 
tioned, but the group is not large. Bean is usually 
Scottish, Gael, ban, white, whence Bain, but this will 
not account for the common Norfolk name Beanes, 
occurring as Bene in the Hund. R. The bean seems- 
to have been a favourite crop in East Anglia, e.g. in 
the Ramsey Cartulary there is mention of plots called 
Benecroft, Benedale, Benemede, Benehill, Bene- 
furlange ; cf. Barton-in-Fabis (Notts), Barton-in-the- 
Beans (Leic). I see no reason to doubt that Eustace 
Sparaguz {Fine R.) took his name from the most 
delicate of vegetables. Pease is also genuine, but 
Pea, 1 Pee is for Peacock as Poe is for Pocock. From 

1 See p..i93, n. I. 



BOTANICAL DETAILS 195 

the same bird, AS. pawa, we have Paw, Pay, Pow, 
Poye — 

" Gold, and sylver, and yver, and apis, and poos " (Wye. 
2 Chron. ix. 21). 

An apparently authentic nickname of the vegetable 
type is Neap, Neep [Henry le Nep, Hund. R.], which 
is Middle English for " turnip." It is seldom that 
so clear an instance is found in the Rolls. Cf . Ameline 
la Navete (Pachnio) — 

" Navette, rapeseed ; also, as naveau." 

" Naveau blanc de jardin, the ordinary rape, or turnep " (Cotg.). 

The most curious of the vegetable surnames are 
those which are formed from botanical details, and 
here again I can make little attempt to explain their 
occurrence. Similar names are common in other 
languages, and Swedish especially has a very large 
number in -gren, branch, -quist, 1 twig, -Mad, leaf. 
Twigg has parallels in Fr. Rameau and Ger. Zweig, 
the latter also having compounds, e.g. Mittenzweig, 
with the twig, and Sauber zweig, clean twig, the name of 
an officer mentioned (Daily Telegraph, Nov. 2, 1915) 
in connection with the murder of Nurse Cavell, and 
evidently, if there is anything in heredity, originally 
ironic. Both Spray and Sprigg are used in dialect of 
a lean, lanky person ; cf. p. 155. In English we have 
also Branch [Benjamin Branche, Hund. R.] occurring 
very commonly without de, though John de la 
Braunche (F. of Y. 145 1) suggests local origin, or per- 

1 In the casualty lists (Jan. 19, 1916) occurs the name A.pplequisl, 
evidently of Swedish origin. 



196 VEGETABLE NICKNAMES 

haps a sign. Branch/lower is an alteration ' of the nick- 
name Blanchflower. Bough is local [John atte Bough, 
Pat. R.], in the sense of Bow, arch, with which it is 
really identical. 2 Budd is an Anglo-Saxon personal 
name, short for Botolf or some such dithemetic name, 
and Leaf is an imitative spelling of Leif, dear [John le 
Lef, Pat. R.] ; cf. Leveson, which, in the form Leofsunu 
(see Fr. Cherfils, p. 247), was already a personal name 
in Anglo-Saxon. With Ivyleaf cf. Ger. Kleeblatt, clover 
leaf, and Rosenblatt, whence, or perhaps through one 
of the Scandinavian languages, our Roseblade. Hoc- 
cleve is more probably a complete plant-name, AS. 
hoclef, mallow. Sapp is a nickname [William le Sap, 
Hund. R.]. In dialect it means a simpleton, cf. sap- 
head, sapskull, but its history is unwritten. 

Then we have fantastic names like Goldstraw, Pepper- 
corn, Barleycorn, the last-named once common as grain 
d'orge [William Greindeorge, Hund. R.], now Grandage, 
Graddige. Graindorge is still a common French surname. 
With Peascod [Henry Pesecod, Pat. R.], Pescott, Pease- 
good, Peskett, Bisgood (?), cf. Benskin (bean-skin) 
and Maddy Benestol (Hund. R.) whose name con- 
tains dial, stale, a stalk. But Podd, also Poad, Poat, 
is a nickname from ME. pode, a toad [John le Pod, 
Hund. R.]. I doubt whether Seed (see p. 73) belongs 
here, but Hempseed is an uncomplimentary nickname — 
" Do, do, thou rogue ; do, thou hempseed " (2 Henry IV. II. i.) ; 

1 It could be explained as dissimilation, but there is a general 
tendency for I and r to interchange. See the forms of Berenger 
(p. 35). Branchett is no doubt for Blanchett, a colour name, and Mr. 
Pett Ridge's less refined characters occasionally used " brasted " 
as an intensive epithet. 

2 It is only in English that this word, meaning something bent, 
has acquired a meaning connected with trees. 



BOTANICAL DETAILS 197 

though the only time I have come across it was in 
connection with a gallant exploit in the War. Cf. Ger. 
Hanf stengel, hemp-stalk. Our Hempenstall is merely- 
one of the many variants of Heptonstall (Yorks). 
In Lillicrap, Lillycrop we seem to have the archaic 
crop, " head " of a plant, or tree, bunch of foliage, 
etc. ; cf. Mosscrop and Ger. Mohnkopf. Gower uses it 
in his version of the famous scene in which Tarquin 
strikes off the heads of the tallest plants — 

" Anon he tok in honde a yerde 
And in the gardin as thei gon, 
The lilie croppes on and on, 
Wher that thei weren sprongen oute, 
He smot of, as thei stode aboute " 

(Conf. Amant. vii. 4676). 

With the poetical Flowerdew, whence Flowerday, cf. 
Robert Honiedewe (Salisb. Chart.) and Ger. Morgenthau, 
morning dew. Maydew is for Matthew, and preserves 
the intermediate form between the original and Mayhew, 
Mayo, OF. Mahieu. Mcrridew, Merriday, Merredy 
are the Welsh Meredith [Mereduz de Beauveir, City £).]. 
They are further corrupted in Lancashire into Mella- 
dew, Mellalieu, Mellalue. 

In my Romance of Words (p. 196) I have mentioned 
Ferguson's conjecture as to the curious name Ivimey, 
Ivermee, Evamy, Efemey, 1 etc. I am afraid the pic 
turesque derivation there suggested will not hold 
water. In City A . I find Peter Yvenes or Yvemeys, 
a Spanish immigrant. I do not know the origin of 
his name, but he looks like the true ancestor of the 
Ivimeys. 

1 The two last may represent Euphemia. 



CHAPTER X 

PAGEANT NAMES 

" II y avoit lors une dame, qui, pendant les jeux, avoit joue 
Conscience, et qui pour cela en eut le nom tout le temps de sa vie " 
(Beroalde de Verville, Le Moyen de parvenu). 

It has always been recognized by students of surname 
lore that our Prophets, Priests, and Kings generally 
owe their names to ancestors who had enacted such 
parts in medieval pageant 1 ; but this source of modern 
surnames is much more considerable than has usually 
been supposed. Grown people are almost as fond of 
" dressing up " as children, and in recent years we 
have seen a revival of the type of pastime once so 
dear to our ancestors and still popular on the con- 
tinent. Some twenty years ago the author was 
present at the elaborate display by which the Swiss 
celebrated the seventh centenary of their Republic. 
On that occasion it looked as though the whole able- 

1 The pageant was originally the scaffolding on which the players 
stood or acted. In the case of the shorter plays and smaller tableaux 
it was movable. In fact the cars of Lord Mayor's Show are its 
descendants — " Every company had his pagient, which pagiants 
weare a high scafolde with two rowmes, a higher and a lower, upon 
four wheeles. In the lower they appareled themselves, and in the 
higher rowme they played, beinge all open on the tope, that all 
behoulders might heare and see them " (From a contemporary 
description of one of the last Chester performances). 

198 



PROCESSIONS 199 

bodied population were parading in historic garb for 
the edification of the physically unfit and the chil- 
dren of the country. In medieval England no im- 
portant feast of the Church, no event in the life of the 
monarch, or, in the provinces, of the local magnate, 
no visit of a foreign dignitary, was allowed to pass 
without the accompaniment of something like a Lord 
Mayor's Show — 

" One other show, in the year 1377, made by the citizens for dis- 
port of the young prince, Richard, son to the Black Prince, in the 
feast of Christmas, in this manner :— On the Sunday before Candle- 
mas, in the night, one hundred and thirty citizens, disguised, and 
well horsed, in a mummery, with sound of trumpets, sackbuts, 
cornets, shalmes, and other minstrels, and innumerable torch lights 
of wax, rode from Newgate, through Cheape, over the bridge, through 
Southwarke, and so to Kennington, beside Lambhith, where the 
young prince remained with his mother, and the Duke of Lancaster 
his uncle. ... In the first rank did ride forty-eight in the likeness 
and habit of esquires, two and two together, clothed in red coats and 
gowns of say or sandal, with comely visors on their faces ; after them 
came riding forty-eight knights in the same livery of colour and stuff ; 
then followed one richly arrayed like an emperor ; and after him 
some distance, one stately attired like a pope, whom followed 
twenty-four cardinals, and after them eight or ten with black visors, 
not amiable, as if they had been legates from some foreign prince " 
(Stow). 

There are possibly to-day people named Squire, 
Knight, Emperor 1 or Cayzer, Pope, Cardinall, Leggatt, 
whose ancestors figured in this particular procession. 
Two names of this class may be specially mentioned, 
the first, Count [Peter le Counte, Fine R.\ because of 
its rarity, the second, Marquis, because, though so 
common in the north, it seems unrecorded except as a 
female font-name [Marchisa f. Warner, Yorks Fines, 

1 Still a surname in the nineteenth century, though I have not 
come across a living example. 



200 PAGEANT NAMES 

temp. John]. It is rather odd to find the German 
equivalent recorded for the same county [William 
Margrayve, F. of Y.]. Lavicount is an example of the 
grammatical methods of Anglo-French. 

Such a procession as that described above was a 
very mild affair compared with some of the more 
scenic pageants which were enacted on great occa- 
sions — 

" At certain distances, in places appointed for the purpose, the 
pageants were erected, which were temporary buildings representing 
castles, palaces, gardens, rocks or forests, as the occasion required, 
where nymphs, fauns, satyrs, gods, goddesses, angels and devils 
appeared in company with giants, savages, dragons, saints, knights, 
buffoons, and dwarfs, surrounded by minstrels and choristers ; the 
heathen mythology, the legends of chivalry and Christian divinity 
were ridiculously jumbled together without meaning " (Strutt). 

Then we have the popular games and representations 
associated with church festivals, the boy " Bishop," 
the " Pope " of Fools, the " Lord " of Misrule, the 
" Abbot " of Unreason, the bull-baitings, archery con- 
tests, joustings, running at the quintain, the May 
games with their Robin Hood pageants, the rough 
horseplay of the Hockday sports, of which the chief 
feature, the binding of men by women and vice-versa, 
perhaps survives in the names Tieman and Bindlass, 
Bindloss. It is quite possible that Peacock, Pocock, 
and Popjoy, Pobjoy, Pobgee, Popejoy may have been 
in some cases nicknames conferred on successful 
athletes — 

" In the year of' Christ 1253, the 38th of Henry III., the youth- 
ful citizens, for an exercise of their activity, set forth a game to run 
at the quinten ; and whoever did best should have a peacock which 
they had prepared as a prize '' (Stow). 



ARCHERY 201 

Shooting at the popinjay, a wooden figure of a parrot 
set up as a mark, is often mentioned, not only by 
English writers, but also by Rabelais. Of course these 
two names may also come from signs, or they may 
be nicknames due to some characteristic of the original 
bearer 1 ; but the following is suggestive — 

" Papegay, a parrot, or popingay ; also, a woodden parrot (set up 
on the top of a steeple, high tree, or pole) whereat there is, in many 
parts of France, a generall shooting once every yeare ; and an 
exemption for all that yeare, from la faille, obtained by him that 
strikes dovrtie the right wing thereof, (who is therefore tearmed Le 
Chevalier ;) and by him that strikes downe the left wing, (who is 
tearmed Le Baron ;) and by him that strikes down the whole 
popingay (who for that dexteritie or good hap hath also the title of 
Roy du Papegay,) all the yeare following " (Cotg.). 

Most important of all, perhaps, from the surname 
point of view, is the medieval drama, with its long 
and detailed representations of the most important 
episodes from the Old and New Testaments and from 
the lives of the Saints. In these performances the 

1 The origin of bird nicknames would repay study. In some cases 
no doubt they were due to some external feature, but most of them 
are probably connected with the qualities, invariably bad, which 
folklore symbolised in certain birds. The Peacock personified vanity, 
the Woodcock, according to popular superstition, had no brains, the 
Capon and Daw were both fools, the Buzzard was a type of ignorance, 
and so on. Most interesting of all is the woodpecker, whose many 
dialect names (Speight, Speck, Pick, Rainbird, etc.) nearly all exist 
as surnames. Now the woodpecker, a retiring and inconspicuous 
bird, has none of the prominent characteristics which make Jay, 
Nightingale, Crane, Goose, etc., such natural nicknames. His place 
in the surname list is due to an unconsciously persisting myth which 
is perhaps older than Genesis and Olympus. See Rendel Harris, 
The Place of the Woodpecker in Religion (Contemporary Review, 
Feb. 1916). On the general characteristics which medieval folk- 
lore ascribed to various birds we get some light in Chaucer's Parlia- 
ment of Fowls and Skelton's Philip Sparrow. 



202 PAGEANT NAMES 

number of actors was often enormous, and the spec- 
tacle was prolonged for days or even weeks — 

" The miracle plays in Chaucer's days were exhibited during the 
season of Lent, and sometimes a sequel of scripture histories was 
carried on for several days. In the reign of Richard II. the parish 
clerks of London put forth a play at Skinner's Wells, near Smith- 
field, which continued three days. In the succeeding reign another 
play was acted at the same place and lasted eight days ; this drama 
began with the creation of the world and contained the greater part 
of the Old and New Testament. . . . Beelzebub seems to have been 
the principal comic actor, assisted by his merry troop of under- 
devils. . . . When the mysteries ceased to be played, the subjects 
for the drama were not taken from historical facts, but consisted of 
moral reasonings in praise of virtue and condemnation of vice, on 
which account they were called moralities. The dialogue was 
carried on by allegorical characters such as good doctrine, charity, 
faith, prudence, discretion, death, and the like, and their discourses 
were of a serious cast ; but the province of making the spectators 
merry descended from the devil in the mystery to the vice or iniquity 
of the morality, who usually personified some bad quality incident 
to human nature, as pride and lust " (Strutt). 

Now most of us have within our experience cases 
of nicknames conferred in connection with private 
theatricals and fancy-dress balls, and it is easy to 
believe that, at a period when the surname was not 
a fixed quantity, distinction in some piece of acting 
or buffoonery may have often earned for the per- 
former a sobriquet which stuck. I do not mean to 
say that all the names I am about to enumerate 
belong with certainty, or exclusively, to this class, but 
I think that in the case of most of them there is a 
strong presumption for such an origin. To go thor- 
oughly into the question would involve a close study 
of the medieval drama, 1 and a much more intimate 

1 See E. K. Chambers, The Meditzval Stage (Oxf. 1903). Some 
characteristic plays and extracts will be found in Pollard's Eng 
Miracle Plays, 6th ed. (Oxf. 1914). 



ALLEGORY AND DRAMA 203 

knowledge of the history of pageantry, than can be 
gleaned from the popular account of Strutt. The 
reader who cares to look through the long lists of 
dramatis -persona in the Chester, Coventry, Towneley, 
and York plays, will see that there is hardly a name 
in this chapter which cannot be illustrated, or at 
least paralleled, from those collections. 

The whole question also has a psychological aspect. 
The rise of allegory and the flourishing of the drama 
are connected with the awakening consciousness of 
the people as a whole. It was a somewhat dull, prosaic 
awakening, showing itself in a realistic, bludgeon- 
wielding type of satire and a homely morality, and, 
from the surname point of view, in a striving after a 
name that meant something to its bearer. We see 
something of this spirit in the nomenclature adopted 
by Jack Straw and his followers. The following pro- 
clamation is contemporary with John Ball — 

" John Schepe, some time St. Mary's priest of York, and now of 
Colchester, greeteth well Joha Nameless and John the Miller and 
John the Carter, and biddeth them that they beware of guile in 
borough, and stand together in God's name, and biddeth Piers Plow- 
man go to his work, and chastise well Hob the Robber (Robert Hales, 
the Treasurer) and all his fellows, and no mo, and look that ye shape 
you to one head and no mo." 

And as late as the reign of Henry VII. rebellious 
peasants revived these old names which symbolized 
their condition in life and their aspirations — 

" Taking Robyn of Riddesdale, Jack Straw, Thomolyn at Lath * 
and Maister Mendall for their capteyns " (Letter of Henry VII.). 

To the same attitude of mind belong many of 
the phrase- names dealt with in ch. xii., and their 

1 ME. lathe, a barn, .. 
15 



204 PAGEANT NAMES 

descent can be traced through the Elizabethans and 
the Restoration dramatists via Smollett and Fielding 
to the modern novelists. For even Dickens, sumptu- 
ous as is his collection of genuine surnames, occasion- 
ally descends to such stuff as Veneering and Verisopht — 

" A curious essay might be written on the reasons why such 
names as Sir John Brute, Sir Tunbelly Clumsy, Sir Peter Teazle, Sir 
Anthony Absolute, Sir Lucius O'Trigger, Lord Foppington, Lord 
Rake, Colonel Bully, Lovewell, Heartfree, Gripe, Shark, and the 
rest were regarded as a matter of course in the ' comedy of manners.' 
. . . The fashion of label-names, if we may call them so, came down 
from the Elizabethans, who, again, borrowed it from the medieval 
moralities" (William Archer, Play-Making). 

The surnames which may with more or less cer- 
tainty be connected with medieval spectacles fall 
into several groups. Many Old Testament names 
such as Adam and Eve, Abel, David, Solomon or Salmon, 
Sampson, Jonas, 1 etc., no doubt sometimes belong here. 
Geoffrey Golias 2 or Gullias (Hund. R.) has a modern 
representative in Gullyes and Gully [William Golye, 
Hund. R.]. The form Golie is used by Wyclif. From 
ME. Goliard, a satiric poet or jester, popularly con- 
nected with Golias, we have Gullard [John Goliard, 
Close R., John le Golert, Derby Cart. 1353], of which 
Gullett is the regular reduction. I have seldom found 
Solomon as a medieval font-name, while William 
dictus Salamon (Lond. Wills, 1287) is a clear case 

1 Was the original Whalebelly a piece of realistic mechanism in a 
Jonah pageant ? One has heard of the pantomime actor who earned 
his bread as the left hind-leg of an elephant — 

" In this same interlude, it doth befall 
That I, one Snout by name, present a wall " 

(Midsummer Night's Dream, V. i). 

1 The Middle English form of Goliath, found also in Shakespeare. 



OLD TESTAMENT CHARACTERS 205 

of a nickname. Pharaoh, 1 Pharro is explained by 
Bardsley as a corruption of Farrow. It is more likely 
that the latter is corrupted from Pharaoh, a very 
spectacular personage ; but the Scotch surname Ptolomey 
evidently belongs to Bartholomew ; cf. Fr. Tholomie. 
A particularly interesting name is Absolom, not uncom- 
mon as a modern surname and with a number of dis- 
guised variants. We know from Chaucer that this 
was a nickname for a man with a fine head of hair — • 

"Now was ther of that chirche a parissh clerk, 
The which that was y-cleped Absolon ; 
Crul was his heer and as the gold it shoon, 
And strouted as a fanne, large and brode " 

(Chauc. A. 3312). 

This became, by a common metathesis, Aspelon 
[Adam Absolon or Apsolon or Aspelon, City B.], 
whence Aspenlon, Asplin. The local-looking Asp- 
land is the same name with spurious -d [John 
Apspelond, City £.] and Ashplant is an imitative 
spelling. 

A doubtful case is Pottiphar, explained by Bardsley 
as an imitative corruption of Pettifer (p. 141). It may 
be from an Old Testament play, for although Potiphar 
himself plays no part in history, we can hardly 
imagine that the medieval drama would omit to put 
his wife upon the scene, and for the audience she would 
be Mrs. Potiphar. Cf. James Dalileye (Close R.), 
who presumably played Delilah in another highly 
dramatic Biblical scene. 

But many names which might appear to belong to 
this class are deceptive. Shadrake is an alteration of 
the bird nickname Sheldrake, Ogg is not the King of 

1 Pharao Kircke was buried at Repton, Dec. 1, 1602. 



206 PAGEANT NAMES 

Bashan, but AS. Ocga or Ogga, shortened from some 
such name as Ocgweald, AS. oga, terror, Leah is a 
form of the local Lea, and Rachell comes via Fr. Rachilde 
from OG. Raghild, for which see Regin and Hild 
in ch. ii. Some Welsh surnames, such as Jeremiah, 
Matthias, Mordecai, belong to the later name-creation 
with which the modern Welsh have replaced their 
Aps. Perhaps in some cases such names were substi- 
tuted for Welsh names of somewhat similar sound, just 
as Jeremiah was adopted in Ireland for Diarmid. This 
would seem to be the explanation of Enoch, which is 
spelt Egenoc in the Gloucester Cartulary. The Suffolk 
name Balaam is an alteration of the local Baylham, 
from a village in that county, but Robert Balaam 
{Pat. R., Cornwall) suggests also a nickname. Jermy 
is not from Jeremy, but from Jermyn, 1 with which it 
runs parallel in Norfolk. Noah was an important 
character in the old drama and the popular form of 
the name was Noy, whence Noyes, Noyce. The Chester 
play of Noah's Flood ends with the lines — 

" My blessinge, Noye, I geve thee heare, 
To thee, Noye, my servant deare ; 
For vengance shall no more appeare, 
And now fare well, my darlinge deare 1 " 

Saul, Sawle, generally for Fr. Salle, Lasalle, is another 
possible case. This is necessarily guess-work, but it 
is noticeable that the Biblical names which occur 
commonly as surnames are invariably connected with 
those episodes in Old Testament history which were 

1 This is Fr. Germain, from Germanus, used as a personal name, 
but Gilbert le German (Pat. R.) and Jermany, Jarmany point also 
to local origin. 



NEW TESTAMENT NAMES 207 

constantly dramatized for edification. I have seen 
somewhere, but failed to make a note of, a vaguely 
spelt ME. Nebuchadnezzar. 

From the New Testament we have Herod, [Seman 
Herodes, Pat. R.] and Pillatt l [Alan Pilate, Pleas]. 
The character of Herod as a stage braggart was 
familiar to Shakespeare — 

" I would have such a fellow whipped for o'erdoing Termagant ; 
it out-herods Herod " (Hamlet, iii. 2). 

With this cf. Jordan Travagan {Lib. R.), for Terva- 
gant, the earlier form of Termagant. The following 
excerpt from the sums paid in 1490 to the Coventry 
smiths who acted the Passion reads oddly— 

" Imprimis to God, ijs ; item to Cayphas, iijs iiiid ; item to 
Heroude, iijs iiiid ; item to Pilatt is wyffe, ijs ; item to the devyll 
and to Judas, xviijd ; item to Petur and Malchus, xvjd ; item to 
Pilatte, iiijd." 

Several rather uncommon names of office, e.g. 
Governor and Commander [William le Comandur, 
Hund. R.], seem to be associated especially with the 
Passion Play. The most interesting is Poyner, i.e. 
" painer," or tormentor [John le Poynur, Hund. R.~\, 
which still survives, while Turmentur, of which I 
have found several medieval examples, has naturally 
dropped out of use. Officer, still a Nottingham sur- 
name, may be rather corrupted from the maker of 
" orphrey," or gold embroidery [John le Orfresour, 
Pat. R.\ though " officer," in the sense of servant, 

1 The very popular role of Pontius Pilate, one of the stock villains 
of medieval drama, may account for the large number of derivatives 
of Pontius in France, Pons, Ponsard, Poinson, etc., whence our 
names in Punch-, Pinch-. 



208 PAGEANT NAMES 

especially of the crown, is a common word in Middle 
English ; cf. Fitchell (p. no). Lathron, 1 corrupted 
into Leathern, Letheren, is an early form of Fr. larron, 
thief, penitent or otherwise. In Fr. Lelerre we have 
the old nominative of the same word. Cf. Adam 
Maufetour, i.e. malefactor (IpM.). It is curious 
to find Christ as an existing surname, but it is no 
doubt from the font-name Christian. With Virgin 
and the latinized 3 Virgoe, Vergo goes Mildmay (p. 246), 
for " mild " was the traditional epithet of the Holy 
Virgin — 

" Ave Maria ! maiden mild " (Lady of the Lake, iii. 29). 

Goad is no doubt for God, which has also become 
Good ; cf. Goadbles (p. 181). Godson, though it 
obviously has other origins, is also to be taken liter- 
ally [Henry FizDeu, Chart. R.\ The naivete of the 
old drama is amazing. In the play of Cain and Abel, 
Cain, when admonished by the Almighty, addresses 
him scornfully as " Hob over the wall." 

Among the supers are Postle or Posthill, Martyr, and 

1 This is philologically interesting ; cf. Dainteth (p. 223). Latheron 
is still in dial, use as a term of contempt. The EDD. derives it 
from Fr. laideron, ugly person, but this is a comparatively modern 
word. 

2 The stage directions and, in the earliest examples, the dialogue, 
were in Latin. This will account for Pontifex, which may be either 
for Pope or for one of the high priests in the Passion play [Gilbert 
Pountife, Pat. R.]. Another purely Latin name is Coustos, but 
custos was once in general use as an English word, e.g. Berners, in 
the preface to his translation of Froissart, says that history has 
time as " her custos and kepar." Pr eater , Pretor, Prater may be 
for "praetor" or for "prater." With the latter origin may be 
compared such names as Whistler [Elias le Wistler, Glouc. Cart.] 
or the obsolete Geoffrey le Whiner [Pat. P.), Richard le Titteler, 
whisperer, tatler (Hund. E.), John Sternitour, sneezer (ib.). 



THE MYSTERIES 209 

Saint, Sant, Saunt, while Devill ' [Osbert Diabolus, 
Pat. R.] has naturally survived less strongly than 
Angell [Edward le Angel, 2 Fine R.\ There was more 
than one type of stage angel, hence the more definite 
Henry Angel-Dei (Hund. R.), and Fr. Bonnange. 
Seraphim still exists as a surname [Peter Serapin, 
Pat. R.]. Pilgrim, with its odd variants Peagrim, 
Piggrem, Paragreen, 3 etc., may also belong here, also 
Armitt (hermit), with which we may compare not only 
Fr. Lermitte, but also Reclus. In all probability some 
of the favourite saints, such as Christopher and George, 
contributed to the surname list via the popular drama. 
The fact that the latter, a very rare medieval font- 
name, is so common a surname in its unaltered form, 
is an argument for nickname origin. Both were also 
favourite inn-signs.* 

With George goes naturally Dragon [William le 
Dragon, Hund. R.~\. The name is found in French 
and the other Romance languages, and in the Close 
R. we find mention of a Spaniard with the pleasing 
name Demon Dragon. Griffin, usually a Welsh name 
related to Griffith, is also sometimes a nickname [John 

1 I read to-day (Nov. 20, 191 5) that Herr Teufel is, appropriately 
enough, German press agent in Bale. Here may belong sometimes 
Dible, Dibble. The Prynce of Dybles is an important character in 
the play of Mary Magdalene. 

2 It is likely that Messenger, Massinger are also sometimes of 
dramatic origin, for there is a nuncius in most medieval plays, and his 
part is important. 

a These may equally well come from Peregrine, which is etymo 
logically the same word. 

* " From thence towards London Bridge, on the same side, be 
many fair inns, for recepit of travellers, by these signs, the Spurre, 
Christopher, Ball, Queene's Head, Tabarde, George, Hart, Kinge's 
Head, etc." (Stow). 



210 PAGEANT NAMES 

Griffon, Fine R.]. In the OF. Mysttre de la Passion 
it is the nickname of a comic character whom Satan 
instructs in the use of dice. Although Paradise, Heaven, 
and Hell were realistically staged in the old drama, 
these surnames have another origin. Paradise is local, 
a pleasure-garden, especially that of a convent — 

" There is (at Hampton Court) a parterre which they call Para- 
dise " (Evelyn, Diary). 

Heaven, a Bristol name, is generally for the Welsh 
Evan, and Hell ' is simply a variant of Hill [William 
de la Helle, Chart. R.~\. 

Surnames derived from ecclesiastical titles are 
generally too obvious to require explanation. 3 Bishop 
occurs as early as DB., but his superior does not seem 
to have survived, though arcevesque is common enough 
in the Rolls and Hue Archevesque was a Norman 
poet of the thirteenth century. Bishoprick is an 
abstract nickname to be compared with Office — 

" His bishoprick, marg. office or charge, 3 let another take " 
(A.V. Acts, i. 20). 

With the still existing Archdeacon, Arcedeckne, cf. 
Roger le Archprest (Pleas.), who possibly enacted 
Annas or Caiaphas in the Passion Play. Rarer names 
of this type are Novice, Novis, Reverand, Curate 
[Henry Curete, Lane. Court R. 1323-4 J, Minchin. The 
latter is ME. minchen, a nun, a derivative of monk, 
regularly used, for instance, in the Cartulary of God- 

1 Hellcat is a curious perversion of Halkett (p. 61). 

2 It is curious to find William Hugh, pape, and Reginald le 
Ercevesqe charged together with murder at Exeter [Pat. R.). 

8 Is this the origin of the name Charge, or is this for Jarge ? Pre- 
bend is also a surname, but can Preferment be genuine ? 



THE CLERGY 211 

stow Nunnery. It is supposed to be the origin of 
Mincing Lane — 

" A third lane out of Tower Street ... is called Mincheon Lane, 
so called of tenements there sometime pertaining to the Minchuns 
or nuns of St. Helen's in Bishopsgate Street " (Stow). 

Labat, Labbett is a Huguenot name, representing Pro- 
vencal abat, abbot, with the definite article. Ankrett, 
anchorite, still exists by the side of the simple Anker, 
Anchor, Annercaw — 

" An anchor's cheer in prison be my scope " 

[Hamlet, iii. 2). 

To church office belongs also Reglar, Rigler, a member 
of a religious house, often contrasted with " secular " 
[Nicholas le Secular, IpM.] — ■ 

" Of seculer folke he can make reguler, and agayne of reguler 
seculer" (NED. 1528). 

" Secular " does not seem to have survived, but the 
synonymous Temporall, Temprall, is still a surname, 
while Regelous is a corruption of " religious " in its 
old sense of monk. Stroulger, Strowger, Strudger is 
perhaps a popular form of " astrologer," a nickname 
often applied in Middle English to the cock. 

A rather fascinating group of surnames is associated 
with the struggle between Christianity and Mahomet 
as represented in medieval romance. I have not 
found Christian or Pagan except as personal names, 
but the popular form Curson — 

" As I am a cur sen man " 

(Marlowe, Faustus, iv. 6) — 

was often a nickname l [Simon le Curson, Pat. R., 
1 Curson has also another origin. 



212 PAGEANT NAMES 

Walter le Hethen, ib.]. We cannot imagine that the 
latter was a professed heathen, for such views were 
not popular in the Middle Ages. He had no doubt 
played the part of a " paynim " in some dramatic 
performance. The same applies to John le Reneyie, 
the renegade (Nott. Court R. 1310). Similarly the 
common medieval names Hate-Christ and Shun- 
Christ [Hugh Hatecrist, Pipe R., William Shunecrist, 
Exch. R.] were probably borne by men who had 
enacted the role of an awful example in a morality. 
Cf. Thomas Corescros, curse-cross (Hund. R.). 

The legitimate heathen are, however, well repre- 
sented. The chief character on their side was 
naturally the Soldan of the Saracens, whence our 
Sowden, 1 Soden, Saltan. With Robert le Sowdene 
{Hund. R.) cf. John Saladin (ib.) — 

" He that playeth the sowdayne is percase a sowter. Yet if one 
should . . . calle him by his owne name . . . one of his tormen- 
tors a might hap to breake his (one's) head " (Sir Thomas More). 

Here belong also such names as Turk, Tartar, Arabin, 
Larby, OF. I'Arabi [Ponce Araby, City A.], Moor, 
Morris, and Sarson, for we cannot suppose that John 
Saracenus, prebendary of Bridgnorth (Pat. R.), was 
a real live Saracen — 

" I sey, ye solem Sarson, alle blake in your ble" 

(Skelton, Poems against Garnesche, i. 36). 

Blackmore, generally local, is also for " blackamoor " 
[Beatrix Blakamour, Mem. of Lond.]. Memmett, 
Memmott, Meymott, and probably Mammon, Mawman, 
represent the ME. Maumet, Maument, i.e. Mahomet 
[Ralph Maumet, Fine R.], whom our ancestors repre- 

1 Also a local name, from sow and dean ; cf. Sugden. 

2 See p. 207. 



DEMONS 213 

sented as a god or idol. He is regularly coupled with 
Tervagant (p. 207). Cf. also Peter Amiraill (Doc. 
III.) and Richard Babiloyne (Coram Rege R. 1297), 
whose names may still survive in some unrecognizable 
form. Admiral, an extension of emir, was originally 
used of a Saracen chieftain, 1 and Lamiral is still a 
common French surname. The " Amiral of Babi- 
loyne ' ' is often mentioned in old romance. 

Champion, Campion may have fought on either side, 
but the stock Christian protagonists were the douzepers, 
or twelve peers, sometimes confused with Charlemagne's 
Paladins. In English a new singular was formed and 
became a common nickname [Simon Duzeper, Close 
R., William Duzeper, Hund. R.], which survives as 
Dashper and Disper. Epithets often applied to the 
Saracens were OF. malfe and malfeu, representing a 
barbarous Latin male-fatus and male-fatutus z [Simon 
le Malfe, Pipe R., William Maufee, Pat. R.]. Hence 
our Morfey, Morphy, Morphew, the spelling of the 
latter having been influenced by the obsolete morphew, 
a leprous eruption. Malfe was also applied specifically 
to the devil, which brings us to surnames derived 
from supernatural beings. Poke, Pook [William le 
Puk, Kirby's Quest], and Puckle [William le Pokel, 
IpM.] are from our old friend Puck, an imp, used in 
Piers Plowman of Satan — 

" Fro the poukes poundfalde no maynprise may ous fecche 8 " 

(Piers Plowm. C. xix. 280). 
" The hell waine, the fier drake, the puckle, Tom Thombe, Hobb 



1 See my Romance of Words, p. 46. 

2 Cf. the origin of Mallory, OF. maleuri, Lat. male-augur atus 
[Anketil Malore, Pat. R., Crispian Malure, Hund. R.]. 

3 This line contains three surnames — Pook, Penfold, Mainprice. 



2i 4 PAGEANT NAMES 

gobblin . . . and such other bugs " (Scott, Discovery of Witchcraft, 
1584). 

Both names have another origin, for puke, pook was 
a woollen cloth of a special colour (cf . Burnett, Ray, etc., 
p. 154), and Puckle is also local [Robert de Pukehole, 
Cust. Battle Abbey}. This brings us, even geogra- 
phically, rather near " Pook's Hill." With Ghost l 
[Fabian le Gost, Ramsey Cart.] cf. Spirett, Spirit, the 
French name Lesprit and the twelfth-century chronicler 
Jourdain Fantosme. Warlock, Werlock, Worlock, 2 a 
Middle English name for the devil, and later for a 
wizard, is from AS. wcerloga, a traitor, more literally 
an early exponent of the " scrap of paper " theory. 
The suffix is cognate with Ger. liigen, to lie. 3 An 
essential figure in every pageant was the wodewose, 
AS. wuduwasa, faun, satyr, known in later times 
as the Woodhouse, Wodehouse. 1 The intermediate 
form was wodwysse (temp. Ed. III.). Hence the names 
Woodiwiss, Widdiwiss, and perhaps Whitewish — 

" Wodewose, silvanus, satirus " (Prompt. Parv.). 



1 James Ghost, bedstead maker, 5, Little Charlotte St., Black- 
riars Rd. (Lond. Dir. 1843). 

2 But warlock is also a dial, name for mustard, so that Nicholas 
Warloc (Hand, if.) may belong to the same group as Garlick, Pepper, 
etc. (p. 188). 

" Mustard, or warlohe, or senwyn, herbe, sinapis " (Prompt. Parv.). 

Warlow appears to be a true nickname. In the Towneley Mys- 
teries Pharaoh refers to Moses as " yond warlow with his wand." 

3 In Truelock, an abstract nickname, from ME. treulac, fidelity, 
we have the same suffix as in " wedlock." 

4 It gave its name to " an ancient East Anglian family, Barons 
Wodehouse and Earls of Kimberley, the supporters of whose shield 
of arms are too wodewoses " (H. D. Ellis, Proceedings of the Suffolk 
Institute of Archcsology and Natural History, xiv. 3). 



ROBIN HOOD 215 

Probably some names derive directly from the 
Robin Hood pageant — 

" Bishop Latimer relates that, going to preach at a certain church, 
he found it locked, because the inhabitants were all attending 
Robin Hood — so he ' was faine to give place to Robin Hoode's 
men ' " (Strutt). 

On this see also Note 10 to Scott's Abbot. The char- 
acter of Friar Tuck would account for some of our 
Fryers, Freres, etc., and no doubt Littlejohn sometimes 
belongs to this group. Merriman may have been 
applied to a cheerful person, but it was also the regular 
epithet for the followers of a knight or outlaw, 1 
especially in the phrase " Robin Hood and his Merry 
Men." It has also been altered to Merriment.* In 
the same way we may perhaps assume that Wiseman, 
besides its literal meaning, may have been one of the 
" wise men " of the East in the Candlemas pageant. 
Greenleaf was, according to Lower, also a character 
in the Robin Hood celebrations, and he quotes, from 
Fabian's Chronicle, mention of " a felow wych had 
renued many of Robyn Hodes pagentes, which named 
hymselfe Grenelef" (1502). Robert of the Lefgrene 
{Pat. R.) has some savour of the outlaw in his name. 
Mylord is perhaps for may-lord, " a young man chosen 
to preside over the festivities of May-Day " (NED.), 
but Melady, which looks like may-lady, is for Melody, 
an Irish name. 

A few great names from antiquity may have figured 
in the pageants. One clear example seems to be 
Hercules, also found as Herkless, Ar cuius, Arkless, who, 
in the character of a swaggering bully, was quite 

1 Outlaw is still a Norfolk surname [Richard Utlawe, Hund. i?.]. 
J Still used in Suffolk of a comical person (EDD.) 



2i6 PAGEANT NAMES 

familiar to the Middle Ages. Both Chaucer and 
Shakespeare deprive him of the aspirate — 

"My chief humour is for a tyrant: I could play Ercles rarely " 
(Midsummer Night's Dream, i. 2). 

Another name of somewhat similar character is 
Brettoner, Bruttner, a libel on the men of Brittany — 

" A Brutiner, a braggere, a-bostede him also " (Piers Plowm. A. 7, 
142). 

Cf. William le Tirant {Fine R), and such names as 
Alexander and Ccesar which may obviously be some- 
times of dramatic origin. Cu-pitt, Cupiss, common in 
Derbyshire, may quite well be from Cupid [William 
Cupide, Leic. Boy. Rec. 1199]. But classical surnames, 
with a few exceptions, are not what they seem, e.g. 
Hector is local, " high tor " (p. 81), Cato is also local, 
at the "hoe" or "how" frequented by wild cats 
[Robert de Catho, Fine R.], and Kitto, which looks 
like its offspring, is a Cornish name, ultimately a dim. 
of the Welsh Griffith. Phoenix appears to be a nick- 
name. The word was common in Middle English in 
the sense of a paragon, and Finnis may sometimes 
represent its popular form fenice, OF. fenis — 

"Hie phenix, a phenes " (Foe). 

Finally, we come to the rather large group of sur- 
names taken from abstract qualities. To the Puritans 
we owe such baptismal names, generally female, as 
Faith, Hope, Charity, but this fashion came too late 
for surname purposes. The same tendency can be ob- 
served much further back in the history of names. We 
have such Greek names as Sophia, wisdom, Irene, 
peace, and many of the Teutonic names, which repre- 



ABSTRACT NAMES 217 

sent our oldest stratum, are formed from abstract 
ideas, e.g. the shortened Hugh is simply AS. hyge, 
mind. It is equally natural that medieval English- 
men should have nicknamed people by the names of 
the virtues and vices which they seemed to personify, 
and, as the epigraph of this chapter seems to show, 
there can be little doubt that such names were often 
acquired by those who had played abstract parts in 
the moralities. 

No doubt some of the existing surnames of this 
type are imitative corruptions, e.g. Choyce is for the 
font-name Joyce [William Choys, Pat. R.~], Victory is 
probably an alteration of Vickery, an early form of 
Vicar, Honour is local, from the same word used of a 
special kind of fief (see p. 63). Element is for Elliman, 
which, in its turn, may represent the " man " of 
Ellis, or F. Allemand, which has generally become 
Allman; Emblem is an imitative spelling of Emblin 
(Emmeline) ; Memory or Membery is local for Mow- 
bray, from Montbrai (Manche), the origin also of 
Momerie, Mummery; Argument is probably from 
Aigremont, a common French place-name ; Drought and 
Troth are AS. thryth, might, an element in many Anglo- 
Saxon names ; Courage is a hamlet in Berks, but 
still Courage is a French surname ; Foresight is the local 
Forsyth ; Zeal is a parish in Devon ; Trust is short for 
Trustrum, i.e. Tristram, and so on. Other examples 
of such imitative forms will be found scattered about 
in other chapters, but in none of the above, and 
similar, cases is the literal meaning absolutely barred. 

But, allowing for this incessant striving after a 
significant form, there remain a considerable number 
of abstract surnames which can be taken at their 



2i8 PAGEANT NAMES 

face value. Both Virtue and Vice are well-established 
surnames. Of the three cardinal virtues, Faith, Hope, 
Charity, Hope is generally local (see p. 81), and 
Charity has also a double origin. It is usually ab- 
stract [John Caritas, Leic. Bor. Rec, John Charite, 
Pat. R.], but Brother Miles of La Charite of the Priory 
of St. Andrew's, Northampton (Pat. R.), points to 
charite in its Old French sense of hospice, refuge. 
Verity is a true abstract, found also in the popular 
forms Vardy, Varty. It is a common name in the 
West Riding. With Pride [Richard Pride, Fine R.~\, 
naturally a favourite figure in edifying drama, we 
may compare Orgill, Fr. orgueil [Gerard Orgoyl, 
City D.]. Gentry formerly meant both high rank 
and good breeding. Chaucer says of the lion — 

" Of his genterye 
Hym deyneth nat to wreke him on a. flye " 

(Legend of Good Women, 394). 

See also Hamlet, ii. 2. Kindness has parallels in Fr. 
Bonte [cf. Nicholas Bonty, Close R.} and our Goodship, 
but, being a Border name, it may be rather Mackinnis, 
with the common loss of the prefix. With Wonder 
cf. Marvell [Geoffrey Merveyle, Pat. R.\ Speed and 
Goodspeed are genuine [Stephen Sped, Fine R., 
Ralph Godisped, Hund. R.}. Hazard x is perhaps 
usually baptismal, AS. iEscheard, whence also Has- 
sard, Hassett, but the existence of Chance, Luck, 
Ventur 2 [William Aventur, Hund. R.~] shows that it 

1 For incorrect aspirate in Anglo-Saxon names, see p. 33, «. 1. 
Here we have also the influence of the abstract term. 

2 Venters, Ventress, Ventris are for "venturous," with just the 
same phonetic change as in the -house names (p. 96). Cf. Fr. 
Laventure and Laventureux. 



VICES 219 

may also be a nickname. Bad luck was responsible 
for the name of John Amesas (Hund. R.), who habitually 
made the lowest throw in dicing — ■ 

" I had rather be in this choice than throw ames-ace for my life " 
(All's Well, ii. 3). 

Craft is generally a variant of the local Croft, but the 
abstract Kraft is a German surname, Forfeitt had 
formerly the sense of wrong-doing [cf . Thomas Trespas, 
Hund. J?.]. Profit is of course for the nickname Prophet 
(p. 198). Glew, Glue is an archaic form of glee [Agnes 
Glewe, Hund.. R.I— 

"Glu, or menstralsy, musica, armonia" [Prompt. Parv.). 

Vices and virtues are equally well represented. 
Trickery, a Devon name, has a parallel in Engayne, 
OF. engan, trickery, a very common name in the 
Rolls, starting with Richard Ingania {DB.). It seems 
to have become Engeham, now nearly absorbed by the 
local Ingham. With Greed [William Grede, Pipe R.~] 
cf. Greedy [Helya le Gredie, Leic. Bor. Rec.]. Tred- 
gett, or Trudgett, is ME. treget, jugglery, deceit [cf. 
Simon le Tregetor, Hund. i?.] — 

" By my treget, I gadre and threste 
The gret tresour into my cheste " 

(Romaunt of the Rose, 1825). 

Fitton [Richard Fiton, Fine R.] is a common Middle 
English word for lying, deceit. Its origin is disputed, 
but the NED. regards derivation from fiction as 
inadmissible — 

" Fytten, mensonge, menterie " (Palsg.). 

Boast had in Middle English the sense of boasting, 
vainglory [Robert dictus Bost, Archbp. Peckham's Let.]. 
16 



220 PAGEANT NAMES 

Cf. Galfridus Gloriosus l (Pipe R.) and John le Boster 
(Pat. R.). Bessemer, Bismire is ME. bismer, mockery 
[William Bessemere, Hund. R.l Ryott 2 [Philip Ryot, 
Close R.l once meant debauchery, riotous living, and 
I should guess that Surkett, Serkitt, Circuilt is related 
to OF. and ME. surquidie, arrogance — 

" Presumpcioun ... is called surquidie " (Chauc. I. 403). 

More pleasant qualities are embodied in the names 
Worship [Thomas Worthshipp, Close R.\ Thrift, cor- 
rupted to Frift, Sillence, Patience, Pennance, Pru- 
dence [Henry Prudence, Feet of Fines], Goodhead, i.e. 
goodness, Comfort [William Cumfort, Hund. R.\ with 
which cf. Sollas [Ralph Solaz, Northumb. Ass. R.~\, 
Manship, Manchip, corresponding generally in Middle 
English to Lat. virtus, Friendship, Quaintance [John 
Cointance, Lib. R.~\, and Brotherhood — 

" And ech of hem gan oother for tassure 
Of bretherhede whil that hir lyf may dure" 

(Chauc. B. 1231). 

This last name may be also local, of the same type as 
Monkhouse, Nunnery, etc. Holness might be a con- 
traction of Holderness (Yorks), but it is purely a 
Kentish name and no doubt for " holiness." 3 Welfare 
is certified by Ger. Wohlfart. Cf. Farewell, Farwell, 

1 An epithet quaintly applied to the Kaiser by that eminent 
humanist Ferdinand of Bulgaria. 

2 Revel is a font-name, very common in Old French and Middle 
English, possibly derived from Lat. rebellus. But the fact that the 
name is so common in Yorkshire points to an alternative origin from 
Rievaulx [Ivo de Rievalle, Lib. Vit.]. Cf. Revis (p. 82). 

3 Holyhead is doubtful. In Middle English it means " holiness," 
but I have found the name, also as Hollyhead, in the neighbour- 
hood of the Hollin- surnames, so it may be equivalent to Hollings- 
head, i.e. at the " holly head." 



ABSTRACT NAMES 221 

and the parallel Ger. Lebwohl. With Service, Sarvis, 
and Fair service cf. Thomas Wrangeservis (Writs of 
Pari.). Lawty, Lewty, Luty is " lealty," OF. leaute 
[Thomas Leaute, Pat. R.~\. The French troops in 
Morocco are at present (Nov. 1915) commanded by 
General Lyautey, and the more anglicized form Loalday 
is an existing English surname — 

" Thenne swar a bocher, ' By my leaute! 
Shalt thou ner mor the Kyng of Fraunce se.' " 

(Song on the Battle of Courtrai, temp. Ed. I.). 

The corresponding native name is Holdship, AS. 
holdscipe, loyalty. With Counsell [John Counseil, 
City D.~\ we may compare Read, Reed, among the many 
origins of which must be included ME. rede, counsel — 

"Reed, counsell, concilium" (Prompt. Parv.). 

Hence Goodread, Goodred, Goodered [Richard Goderede, 
F. of. Y. 1465], and Meiklereid. In Middle English 
we find the less complimentary Robert Smalred (Pipe 
R.), Philip Lytylred (John of Gaunt' s Reg. 1372-6), 
and William Thynnewyt (Lane. Court. R. 1325). 

Instance meant in Middle English eager supplica- 
tion. Peace usually belongs to this group [William 
Pays, Fine R., Nicholas Pax, 1 Hund. R.], and Small- 

1 In one of the Chester plays " Death is personified, and a play 
on the Salutation is prefaced by a long prologue in heaven, in which 
the speakers are (besides Deus Pater and Deus Filius) Veritas, Mis- 
ericordia, Justitia, and Pax" (Pollard, English Miracle Plays). Here 
we have not only a plausible origin of the names Verity, Mercy or 
Marcy, Justice, Peace, but also an indication of the fact that Death is 
not always local, of Ath (Belgium). The name is quite common in 
Essex, where it is occasionally altered to Dearth. With Robert 
Death (Cust. Battle Abbey) cf. the common French surname Lamort, 
also found in England as Mori, and the famous Russo-German 
Todleben, death-life. Mortleman also suggests a dramatic personifi- 
cation of the uncertainty of human life. 



222 PAGEANT NAMES 

peace, Smallpeice, very common in Surrey, is its 
opposite. Hawisia Crist a pes (Nott. Bor. Rec.) was 
so named from her habitual ejaculation, which was 
probably not unconnected with the fact that her 
husband was Henry Lytilprud, i.e. " little worth," 
whence our Littleproud. 1 It contains the older form 
of the common ME. prow, profit, use, whence also in 
some cases the surname Prow — 

" That shul been for youre hele and for youre prow " 

(Chauc. B. 4140). 

Nor is it likely that our name Heal is quite indepen- 
dent of the common ME. hele, health, salvation. 
Deeming appears to mean judgment — 

" Ffor drede that they had of demyng therafter " 

(Richard the Redeless, ii. 94). 

With this cf. Sentance, Sentence, and William Jugement 
(Wore. Priory Reg.). Flattery is a quality that lends 
itself readily to dramatic impersonation. Hardiment in 
Chaucer means courage, daring — 

" Artow in Troye, and hast non hardiment 
To take a womman which that loveth thee ? " 

(Troilus and Criseyde, iv. 533). 

Travell retains the older meaning of travail, toil ; 
Plenty was in the thirteenth century the name of a 
lady [Christina Plente, Hund. R.], and a ship called 
la Plentee is mentioned in the Pat. R. Skill also 
apparently belongs here [Walter Skil, Pat. R.~\ ; cf. 

1 The synonymous Petibon is found both in Middle English [John 
Petibon, Pat. R.] and in modern French. Littleproud may, however, 
have been a modest person like Robert Proudofnouth (Nott. Court R. 
1316), but Richard Smalprout (Hund. R.) supports the first explana- 
tion. 



ABSTRACT NAMES 223 

Slight, usually for " sleight " [Johannes dictus Slegh 
or Slegt, Bfi. Kellawe's Reg.]. Wisdom is derived 
by Lower from an estate in Devon, but it is 
always found without de [Hugh Wysdam, Hund. 
i?.]. The oldest meaning of Purchase is pursuit, 
pillage [Andrew Purchaz, Fine R.], it is also one 
origin of Purkiss [John Purkase, 1 Hund. R.], also 
Pirkiss, Porcas, Porkiss. In fact there is hardly a 
common abstract term which could conceivably be 
personified in an individual that does not exist as a 
modern surname ; and for most of these names 
medieval prototypes can be quoted. 8 

Physick and Dainteth, Dentith are of special interest. 
The former has generally been explained as an imitative 
corruption of the local Fishwick. This may be true in 
some cases, but " physic " is personified by Langland — 

" Phisik shal his furred hodes for his fode sele" 

(Piers Plowm. B. vi. 271) — 

and Richard Physik (Malmesbury Abbey Reg.) certifies 
it as a nickname. Dainteth is an archaic form of 
Dainty. The latter, a Northants name, is generally 
local, of Daventry, or Daintry, in that county. But 
Dainteth [Agnes Deynteth, Nott. Bar. Rec.] is OF. 
deintet, Lat. dignitat-em, and shows the transition of 
the final dental on its way to complete disappearance. 
The only existing word which preserves this inter- 
mediate sound is faith, OF. feid (foi), Lat. fid-em. 
The two names Nation and Sumption, Sumsion may 

1 This might, however, be ME. percase, perchance ; cf. Per- 
adventure (p. 182). 

' Many which occur in the Rolls appear to be no longer repre- 
sented, e.g. Cuvenant, Damage, Purveance, Testimonie, Blithehait, 
the last apparently from an unrecorded ME. blith-hede, Bliss. 



224 PAGEANT NAMES 

be for Incarnation and Assumption. 1 If so, they do 
not belong to this chapter, but to the group of names 
taken from church seasons, such as Christmas, Pente- 
cost, Middlemas, etc. But they may equally well be 
for " damnation " and " presumption." 2 A very 
possible pageant name is Welladvise, Wellavize, 
Willavise," the " well advised " ; but dial, well-avized, 
comely, is related to visage ; cf. Uack-avized, swarthy. 
For the loss of the final -d, cf. Wellbelove, Wellbelow 
for Wellbeloved. 

1 Asuncion is a baptismal name in Spain. 

2 This loss of the first syllable is normal in dialect speech. It 
is just as natural that the north-country name Tinnion should be 
for Justinian [Justinian Penyfader, Archbishop Pechham's Reg. 
1279-92] as that King Constantine of Greece should be called Tino 
by his imperial brother-in-law. 

3 Bien-avisi et Mal-avise is the title of an Old French morality 
play. 



CHAPTER XI 

SOME COMPOUND NAMES 

" ' This infant was called John Little,' quoth he, 
' Which name shall be changed anon. 
The words we'll transpose, and wherever he goes, 
His name shall be called Little-John' " 

(Old Ballad). 

A type of surname which is very common in Middle 
English,and is still stronglyrepresented intheDirectory, 
is that of which we may take Brownsmith, Littlejohn, 
Goodchild, Dawbarn, as types, i.e. surnames formed by 
adding a qualifying word to an occupative name, a 
baptismal name, or a name indicating relationship. 
Brownsmith is the smith with the brown complexion, 
Littlejohn points to a small ancestor, 1 but probably 
also to one who had enacted the part of Little John 
in some Robin Hood play or procession, Goodchild is 
pretty obvious, and Dawbarn means the " bairn " of 
Daw, i.e. David. 

Compounds of this type are very much more 
numerous in French and German than in English (see 
chs. xiii, xiv), but we have a fairly large number of 

1 Of course nicknames often go by contraries, as is the case of the 
historical Little John himself. Snowball [Pavia Snowball, Fine R.] 
may have been applied to a swarthy person, as Boule de neige is in 
France to a negro, and Goodchild may have obtained his sobriquet 
by indulging in parricide. A wall-eyed portress in Marguerite 
Andoux' Marie-Claire is called Beloeil. 

225 



226 SOME COMPOUND NAMES 

them, some common, some rare, and many which have 
never been explained. Taking first the occupative class, 
we notice that these compounds occur chiefly in connec- 
tion with the true old English words which lack the 
later agential suffix -er. They are connected with the 
essential activities of life, and are thus distinguished 
from the more modern names which spring from the 
shopkeeper and the specialized craftsman. 1 These 
names are Wright, Smith, Hunt, Webb, Bond, the 
farmer, with its compound Husband, and Grieve or 
Reeve, the farm steward. To these we may add Hine, 
later Hind, Mann, 1 which often means simply the 
servant, Knight, originally also the servant, Herd, the 
herdsman, Day, the farm worker, Swain, knave, and 
Ladd. Nearly all of these are found in compounds, 
and those of Wright and Smith are fairly numerous, 
though insignificant when compared with the German 
compounds of Schmidt and Meyer (see p. 298). 
From Wright 3 we get, according to the nature of 

1 Names of the later type, if long and cumbersome, have generally 
been reduced or have disappeared. In one volume of the Nott. Bor. 
Rec. I find Richard le Boustringer, John Breadseller, Hugh Last- 
maker, Walter Pouchmaker, Martin Tankardmaker, John Ham- 
barowman, i.e. hand-barrow man. We still have Bowmaker, Slay- 
maker, the maker of " slays" for looms, Millmaker, Shoemaker, the 
last two very rare, also Ashbumer, Ironmonger, Stonehewer, whence 
Stanier, Whittier (see p. 135), and others which are easily recognised 
Woodier, Woodger are for " wood-hewer." Shoemark, Slaymark 
appear to be for Shoemaker, Slaymaker. With the former cf. Ger. 
Schuhmach. It is possible that they go back to Anglo-Saxon forms 
of the type Hunt, Webb, etc., but the loss of -er, though rare, is 
not without example, for in the case of one family the occupative 
Ashbumer has been shortened to Ashburn. 

1 Cf. Humm [Gilbert le Homme, Pat. R., Geoffrey Homo, »"&.]. 

* Wraith, Wreath are perversions of Wright The intermediate 
Wraight is common in Kent. 



COMPOUNDS OF WRIGHT 227 

the occupation, the very obvious Boatwright or 
Botwright, Cartwright, Cheesewright, Plowright, Ship- 
wright, Sivewright, Wainwright, Wheelwright. Wood- 
wright may be the wright who lived in the wood (cf. 
Wildsmith, p. 228), but more probably the " mad" 
wright ; cf. Woodmason, and see p. 308. In Arkwright we 
have the dialect ark, a bin, meal-chest, and Tellwright 
is for tile- wright. William Basketwricte {Pat. R.), 
Thomas le Glasenwryth (Chesh. Chamb. Accts. 1301-60), 
have given way to Basketter and Glaisher, and I have 
found no descendants of Matthew le Glewryte (Pat. 
R.), Simon le Bordwryte (IpM.), or Richard le Hair- 
wright (Leic. Bor. Bee). The personality of the 
Wright is expressed in Goodwright, Micklewright, 1 Old- 
wright, Whitewright, and John Longus Faber (Writs of 
Pari.). Allwright, Woolwright, may be imitative spell- 
ings of the AS. Ealdric and Wulfric, but the first may 
equally well be for Oldwright, northern auld-, and the 
latter may mean a wool- worker. Goodwright (vs.) 
may be AS. Godric, and Seawright is from AS. Saeric, 
or perhaps from the more common Sigeric ; cf. Sea- 
ward from Saeweard or Sigeweard. Aldritt may belong 
here or to Aldred, AS. Ealdred. Henwright is the Irish 
name Enright, Enraght, and Kenwright is for Kenrick, 
AS. Coenric. Many of the above names are some- 
times spelt -right instead of -wright. 

The technical compounds of Smith are curiously 
few. Blacksmith and Whitesmith are both said to 
exist by Lower, though I have not come across them, 
and Locksmith has generally yielded to Locker, Lockyer. 
With Brownsmith (p. 225) cf. Randolf Redsmith (Nott. 
Bor. Rec). On the analogy of Plowright we should 
x See note on Harrismith (p 228). 



228 SOME COMPOUND NAMES 

expect Harrismith, 1 Harrowsmith to mean " harrow 
smith," but I expect they are perversions of Arrow- 
smith [John le Arewesmyth, Pat. R.~\, which, in America, 
has become Arsmith. Greensmith is local, the smith 
on the green, 2 and Wildsmith, Wilesmith, is the smith 
in the wild, rather a Forest Lovers sort of figure * ; cf. 
Shawsmith, Brooksmith. Specialists have given the 
names Shoesmith, Shear smith. Sixsmith may contain 
scythe, the earliest Anglo-Saxon form of which is 
sighthi, or more probably sickle [John Sykelsmith, 
I-pM.]. In Sucksmith, Shucksmith, we have Fr. soc, 
a plough-share, whence ME. sock, suck, still in dial use— 

" Y e sucke of a plow, venter " (Manip. Voc). 

Grossmith is, I think, comparatively recent, and 
adapted from Ger. Grobschmied, blacksmith. Clock- 
smith, of which there are several examples in the 
Repton Register (1578-1670), appears to be extinct. 
Nasmyth, Nay smith, is explained by Lower as " nail 
smith," by Bardsley as " knife-smith." The fact 
that Knifesmythe was a medieval name, surviving 
into the sixteenth century as Knysmithe, is in 

1 A possible explanation of these names is Michael the Wright 
and Harry the Smith. Cf. Fr. Jeanroy, Goninfaure, and Ger. Schmidt- 
henner (Heinrich), Schmidtkunz (Conrad). But the only examples 
of such a formation I have found in English are Pascoewebb (p. 230) 
and Fosterjohn (p. 242). Johncook is more probably for Johncock 
(P- 2 39). though literal interpretation is possible. Walking is of 
course Watkin. 

2 Is Greenprice the Price who lived on the green or is it a barbarous 
hybrid Green-pres ? Fr. pre 1 , whence Pray, is a common element in 
Middle English names [Henry de la Preye, Hund. if.]; and is one 
source of Preece, Price. 

3 So Hollinpriest suggests a pious hermit among the hollies. It is 
found in Cheshire, where Hollin- names, such as Hollingshead, are 
numerous, but it is perhaps for " holy priest." 



HUNT AND HUNTER 229 

favour of the second derivation. Being a Scottish 
name, it inevitably has a legendary origin. Some 
prince or noble, fleeing from his enemies, took refuge 
in a shoeing forge and hastily donned the garb of a 
journeyman smith. The pursuers, of course, came to 
the same smithy to get one of their horses shod, and 
at once noticed the clumsiness of the smith's assistant. 
" You're nae smith " were the words that showed he 
was detected. Though led away captive, we may 
assume that he was released and had issue. Other- 
wise there could be no Nasymths now ! Lower also 
gives Spearsmith and Bucksmith, which I have not 
met with. The latter is perhaps for " buckle-smith " — 

" Bokell smythes leches and gold beters " 

(Cocke Lorelle). 

Greysmith, like Brownsmith, refers to personal appear- 
ance ; cf. Robert Greygroom (Fine R.). 

I do not know of any modern compounds of Hunt, 
and only one of the later Hunter, viz. Todhunter, i.e. 
fox-hunter, but in the Rolls we find Foxhunt, Boar- 
hunt, Wolfhunt. Hunt has nourished at the expense 
of Hunter by absorbing the nickname hund, hound 
[Henry le Hund, Pat. R.\ and is also local, " of the 
hunt " ; cf. the still existing Delahunte. The office of 
Common Hunt to the City of London was not abolished 
till 1807. The corresponding OF. veneur has given us 
Venour and Venner. Gravenor, though it has inter- 
changed with Grosvenor, is etymologically grand 
veneur [Richard le Grantvenor, Fine R.~\. Hunt is 
one of the few occupative names of which the feminine 
form has also given a surname. 1 This is found as 

1 For a large number of obsolete nouns of this form, as also for 
words in -ster, see Trench, English Past and Present. 



230 SOME COMPOUND NAMES 

Huntress, Huntriss [Agnes Venatrix, Hund. R.]. The 
only other names of this type I have found are Pewtress, 
Vickress, and possibly Clarges [Juliana la Clergesse, 
Malmesbury Abbey Reg.]. Such names were once 
commoner, 1 e.g. in the Gloucester Cartulary occur 
Alice la Carteres, Alice la Horsmannes, Isabella le 
Prestes, Matilda le Piperes. 

Webb has, I think, only two compounds, Green- 
webb, the weaver who lived on the green (cf. Green- 
smith), and Norwebb, the weaver at the north end 
of the town«; with these cf. John le Bothwebb 
(Malmesbury Abbey Reg.), i.e. the weaver who occu- 
pied a booth. Pascoewebb, Pascal the weaver, is an 
example of a formation which is commoner in French 
and German (see p. 228, n. 1). Bond, 2 gives New- 
bond, Newbound [Walter le Newebond, Hund. R.~\, and 
Blackbond, Blackband, while corresponding to Young- 
husband we find John Yongebonde (Chart. R.). 
Goodban, Goodbun, Goodband 3 may belong here or to 
Goodbairn. Willbond may be for " wild bond " [cf. 
Edwin Wildegrome, Pipe R.~\. Lovibond, Loveband, 
Levibond, seems to mean " the dear bond " [Nicholas 
Leveband, Hund. R.~] ; cf. Loveday (q.v.). Lightbound 
is an alteration of the local Lightborne (Lane). 

Grieve, with the imitative spelling Grief, has a com- 
pound Fairgrief, Fairgray. Forgreive is perhaps rather 
to be compared with Forman, a leader. Reeve is also 

1 We also have many names in -ster, originally used of trades 
especially practised by women, e.g. Brewster, Baxter, but this 
distinction was soon lost [Simon le Bakestere, Cat. Gen.]. 

2 Hence also Band, Bound, Bunt [Richard le Bande, IpM., Ger- 
vase le Bunt, Malmesbury Abbey Reg.]. 

3 Final -band may also stand for the local -bourne, -burn, e.g. 
Millband for " mill-burn," Chadband from Chatburn (Lane). 



"THE SERVICE OF THE ANTIQUE WORLD" 231 

found as Reef. Its compounds are very numerous 
in Middle English, and it is strange that so few have 
survived. I find Oldreive [William le Oldereve, Pat. R.], 
which, as a modern Devon surname, is neighboured by 
Oldrey (cf. Fairgray), and of course Sherriff (shire 
reeve), Shreeve, Shrive, a name less often due, perhaps, 
to official position than to a successful interpretation 
of the Sheriff of Nottingham in a Robin Hood pageant. 
The Scottish form Shirra also exists as a surname, 
and I suspect that Shearer, Sharer, a common name 
in Scotland, is sometimes of the same origin. ' I can- 
not help thinking that Woodroffe, Woodruff, a plant 
nickname, owes something to the woodreeve, i.e. 
Woodward. But the apparent disappearance of the 
borough-reeve, dike-reeve, port-reeve, etc., is curious. 
Perhaps they were converted into Borrowman, Berry- 
man, Dickman, and Portman, as the word reeve 
became archaic. 

From Hine we have Goodhind [John Godhine, 
Wore. Priory Reg.], a type of name [Richard Fidelis 
Serviens, Ramsey Cart.] once very common. With 
Goodlad, Goodlud, Goodlet, cf. the common French 
names Bonvillain, Bonvalet, and the extinct Robert 
le Godegrom {Hund. R.), and Richard le Lovegrom 
(Malmesbury Abbey Reg.). Lightlad 2 (little) and the 
synonymous Petivallet exist as English names. With 
Goodlass cf. Sotelass (sweet). Goddard is occasionally 
the "good herd" ; cf. Whiteheard, Whittard for " white 
herd. ' ' The prefix Bon- is common in the Rolls [Richard 

1 It is generally a sheep-shearer, and, in Northumbria, a reaper. 

2 The only surviving compound of " boy " appears to be Littleboy. 
Warboy is of course from Warboys (Camb.), and Mortiboy, Martiboy, 
found also as Mortiboy s, evidently comes from some " dead wood." 



232 SOME COMPOUND NAMES 

Bonswan, Coram Rege R. 1297] ; cf. Bonfellow for 
Goodfellow. To this class belongs Goodhugh, Goodhue, 
Goodhew, which I have previously explained l --£s for 
" good Hugh," an explanation which may in some 
cases be right, for the name is fairly common, and 
Hugh, which probably ranks sixth in popularity (after 
John, William, Thomas, Robert, Richard) among 
medieval font- names, may naturally have joined the 
Littlejohn, Goodwillie class [John Godehugh, Pat. R.~\. 
But the real origin, from ME. hiwe, servant, jumps 
to the eyes [John Godhyue, Lane. Court R. 1323-4]. 
And the same word hiwe is often the origin of the 
usually baptismal Hugh, Hew, Hewes, etc., just as 
hine is of Hine, Hinds, etc. In fact, the two words, 
which are ultimately cognate, are used as equivalent 
in Middle English — 

" He withalt non hewe, var. hyne, hus hyre overe even " 

(Piers Plowman, C. viii. 195). 

Thrale represents thrall, a serf [John leThryl, 2 Pai. R.~\. 
Goodchap is for Goodcheap, a nickname for a trades- 
man [Jordan Godchep, City A.]. Cf. Geoffrey Bon- 
marche (City A.), whose name survives as Bomash — 

" Bon marchi, good cheap, dog cheap, a low rate, a reasonable 
price" (Cotg.). 

Good game, which Bardsley derives from the medieval 
Goodgroom, is, as the example [Walter Godgamen,' 
Hund. R.] shows, an abstract nickname, " good 
sport," perhaps equivalent to Fairplay. From Ladd 
we have the dim. Ladkin. The apparent compound 

1 Romance of Names, p. 60. 

2 Thrill in the Scottish form ; see NED. 

3 Gamen is the older form of game. 



COMPOUNDS OF DAY 233 

Sommerlat, Summerlad 1 is ON. Sumerlida, summer 
warrior, of very common occurrence in Anglo-Saxon 
records [Sumerlede, DB.] ; cf. William Sumersweyn 
{Ramsey Cart.) and Winter led (DB.), the latter a 
Viking of sterner stuff. 

The original meaning of " dey " was a " kneader," 
as in AS. hlafdige, loaf kneader, whence lady. 2 It was 
then used of a woman servant, especially a dairy 
woman, and later of a farm-worker in general. Good- 
day is sometimes from this word ; cf . Goodhind, Good- 
hew. Faraday, Fereday, Ferriday has been explained 
as " travelling day," from ME. fere, to travel. 
The formation would be like that of Delveday (v.i.), 
but I have found no early examples. The Lincoln- 
shire name Tolliday or Tolladay is very puzzling. It 
may mean " Tolley the dey," or the " dey of Tolley " 
[cf. Godus Tholynwyf, 1397, Bardsley], In Leic. Bor. 
Rec. occurs the name of Richard Tollidenoitt (AF. 
toille de noit, toil by night). Was the first Tolliday 
the opposite of this ? Or does the name represent 
" toil dey " ? Cf. William Delveday (City C), William 
Plouday 3 (Hund. R.). The fairly common Loveday, 
though usually of similar origin to Holiday, Hockaday, 
must in some cases actually represent an archaic form 
of lady [Margot la Levedy, 4 Lane. Court R. 1323-4]. 
It may also be simply the dear servant ; cf. Richard 
le Lovegrom (Malmesbury Abbey Reg.). 

1 The development of this name suggests a possible etymology 
for lad, which the NED. regards as unsolved. 

2 Cf. the origin of lord, from AS. hlafweard, the " loaf ward." 

3 But Plough-day was also used for Plough Monday, the first 
Monday after Epiphany, so that the above example may belong to 
the same class as Holiday, Pentecost, etc. 

4 She was fined for selling bad ale, so she was really no lady. 



234 S° ME COMPOUND NAMES 

Knave, once common in compounds [William Gode- 
knave, IpM., Ascelin Wyteknave, Hund. JR.], has not 
entirely disappeared. It still survives as Kneefe, Nave, 
usually absorbed by Neave, ME. neve, nephew, and in 
the compounds Balnave, servant of Baldwin, and 
Beatniff, servant of Beatrice. If Pecksniff is a real 
name, it means the servant of Peck. It is possible 
that in these names, as in Attneave (Adam), the 
suffix is -neve, which would bring them into the group 
of kinship compounds (p. 245) ; but Stephen le Knef 
{Pat. R.) favours the first solution. 

AS. ceorl, churl, survives as Carle, with dim. Carlin, 1 
but I find no modern form of Aldceorl (Lib. Vit.). 
Swain, a Norse word for servant, is cognate with AS. 
Swan, with the same meaning. From it we have 
Goodswin, Goodswen, while Goldswain means the 
" swain " of a man named Gold. 2 Coxon and Boeson 
are very suggestive of coxswain and Boatswain. I find 
Boeson still in Kent, where it has an ancestor [John 
Botsweyn, Pat. R., Canterbury], but Coxon is rather 
Cock's son. Another name of this type is Dreng, 
Dring, which, like so many of this class, ranges from 
the poetic meaning of warrior to the prose meaning 
of servant. It has also given Thring, a variant 
used by Layamon. The Yorkshire name Kettlestring 
means the dring of Kettle. We also find compounds 
of a few very common exotic names, e.g. Clark, 
whence Beauclerk, Bunclark (bon clerc), and Manclark 3 
[Saegser Malclerc, Pipe R.]. From Fr. Mauclerc 

1 In the north this also means " old -woman." 

2 A personal name Goldswegen is quite possible, but it is not given 
by Searle. 

3 For the change of I to n, ci.Muncaster (Cumb.), formerly Mulcaster. 



COMPOUNDS OF KNIGHT 235 

we have Mockler, and, if Buckler were not already 
so well provided with ancestors, it could be simi- 
larly referred to Beauclerc. With the dim. Clarkm 
cf. Robert Peticlerc [City D.). Similarly from Ward 
we have Pettiward [Roger Petygard, Pat. R.], Mal- 
ftress is AF. mal ftrest, bad priest. Cf . Allpress (p. 287). 
Knight has a by- form Knevit, Knivet, apparently 
due to Norman treatment of the -gh- sound. Com- 
pounds of Knight are Halfnight and Roadnight, Rod- 
night, both usually without the -k-. The former, 
AS. radcniht, was a tenant who held his land on 
condition of accompanying his lord as a mounted 
servitor. He was the same as a " knight-rider," a 
title which survives as a London street, though not 
as a surname. Another name for the same rank 
was AS. r adman, whence Rodman. Midnight is 
simply a nickname [Henry Midnight, Pat. R.], per- 
haps for a man of gloomy temperament. 1 The cor- 
responding Neirnuit, latinized Nigra nox, is common 
in the Rolls [Richard Neyrnuyt, Pat. R.], and 
the contrasted Midday was a fourteenth-century 
nickname. Midy is found in French and Mitt- 
nacht in German. Halfnight [John le Halfknyght, 
Chanc. R.] seems to be unknown to the dictionaries. 
As ME. half man, coward, has also survived as 
Half man, Halman,* I take it that a " half-knight " 
was a servitor of small efficiency ; cf . Richard 

1 Or he may have been a man of midnight activities, but I think 
the first suggestion more probable. Cf . the numerous -weathers in 
English and -wetiers in German. We have Fairweather or Fart- 
weather, Merry weather, Many weathers, an uncertain person, A llweather, 
and even Fouweather [William Foulweder, Ramsey Chart.]. 

8 Halman, Hallman is also occupative [William le Halleman, 
Nott. Court R. 1308]. Cf. Bowtrman, Kitchingman, etc. 

17 



236 SOME COMPOUND NAMES 

Alfthein (Pleas). Which brings us naturally to 

Doubleday — 

" In Sunderland live, in the same house, Mr. Doubleday and Miss 
Halfknight" (Notes and Queries, Aug. 30, 1873). 

I fancy that the Doubleday [Ranulf Dubleday, Fine R.] 
was not only a Goodday (p. 233), but actually as good 
as two. If this conjecture is right, Doubleday and 
Halfnight offered as strong a contrast in the thirteenth 
century as they apparently do in the twentieth. 
Doubleday may, however, be a fantastic formation of 
the same type as Twiceaday (p. 180), and as impossible 
of explanation. 

Mann often means servant [Michael le Man, 
Hund. R., Henry le Man, City B.]. Its compounds are 
very numerous, and, though the -man in them does 
not always mean servant, it may be of interest to 
explain a certain number of them here. If we take 
the commonest, viz. Goodman, we can see that it has 
many possible origins — (1) the AS. Godman [William 
f. Godemon, Lane. Inq. 1310-33], or Godmund, with 
the common substitution of -man for -mund, (2) the 
good " man," i.e. servant, (3) the " man " of Good, a 
common personal name (see p. 30), (4) the " good 
man," (5) the " goodman " of the house, i.e. the 
master. With this cf. Goodiff, Goodey, which repre- 
sents " goodwife," just as Hussey is occasionally from 
"housewife" [Richard Husewyf, Fine R.]. When 
-man is added to a personal name, it usually means 
servant of, e.g. Addyman, Harriman, Potman (Philpot), 
Human (Hugh), Monkman. Gilman, Wilman, Jacka- 
man may also represent the French dims. Guillemin, 
Wuillemin, Jacquemin. It is often local, generally 



COMPOUNDS OF MAN 237 

with a suggestion of occupation, e.g. Brickman (bridge), 
Houseman, Kitchingman, Yeatman (gate), Parkman, 
Smithy man, Meatman (mead), Moorman, Sellerman 
(cellar). With these go Chesterman, Penkethman, the 
only examples I know of -man added to a specific place- 
name, and both from the same county (Chesh.). 
Nyman is AS. neahmann ; cf. Neighbour. Sometimes 
-man is attached to the name of the commodity which 
the bearer produced or sold, e.g. Flaxman, W adman 
(woad), Honeyman [Gilbert le Honyman, Pat. R.]. In 
a large number of cases such names descend from 
personal names in -man or -mund, e.g. Ashman, 
Chilman, Osman, Rickman, Walkman [^Escman, Ceol- 
mund, Osmund, Ricman, Wealhman]. Cf. the numer- 
ous Greek names in -ander, Alexander, Lysander, 
etc. Pure nicknames of medieval origin are Bleak- 
man (pale), Hindman (ME. hende, courteous), Lyteman, 
Lillyman, Lutman (little), Proudman, Slyman or Slee- 
man. Juneman is a hybrid, from Fr. jeune, whence 
also June. Some of these compounds are decep- 
tive, e.g. Bestman is occupative, the " beast man " 
(cf. Bester, p. 114) ; so also Coltman, Fullman (foal), 
Cappleman (ME. ca-pel, a nag), Palfreyman. Chess- 
man is for Cheeseman, and Beautyman or Booty- 
man, which Lower identifies with " bothie man," 
from Sc. bothie, a hut, is possibly a nickname, equiva- 
lent to Bonnyman, though its formation would be 
unusual. Cf. Booty, which is certainly in some cases 
from "beauty" [William Beaute, Close R.]. I fancy 
that Middleman ' is for " mickle man," as Middlemas 
is for Michaelmas. This ending is also substituted 

1 The same change has occurred in some- local names in Middle-, 
e.g. Middleditch may be for " mickle ditch." 



238 



SOME COMPOUND NAMES 



for the local -nham, e.g. Sweatman for Swettenham 
(Chesh.), Tottman for Tottenham (Middlesex), Twy- 
man for Twynam (Hants). In many of the commoner 
names of this type more than one origin has to be 
considered ; see Goodman (p. 236). 

The following Middle English examples show how 
words indicating servitude were tacked on to the 
names of employers — 



William Dengaynesbaillif 


(Pat. R.) 


William Judde Knave 


(Chesh. Chamb. Accts.) 


Ralph Sweynesman 


(Fine R.) 


Laurence Geffreysman Stace, i.e. 




Lawrence the servant of Geof- 




frey Stace .... 


(City E.) 


Reginald le Personeman 


(Coram Rege R. 1297) 


Johannes-that-was-the-man-of-Crise 


(c. 1400) 


Roger le Priourespalfrayman 


(Pat. R.) 


Henry le Meireserjaunte 


(Nott. Court R.) 


Richard Jonesserjant, i.e. John's 




servant .... 


(Pat. R.) 


John le Parssonesservante . 


(Pleas.) 


Rolaundeservant solus 


(Pat. R.) 


Henry Jonesquier 


(Pat. R.) 


Alan le Garzonwater, i.e. the 




garcon of Walter . 


(Pat. R.) 


John othe Nonnes 


(City B.) 


William del Freres 


(F. of Y.) 


Robert Drewescok 


(Pat. R.) 


Robert Godescoc 


(Pat. R.) 



The last of these corresponds in meaning with the 
AS. Godescealc, 1 servant of God [William Godescal, 

1 This name suggests a parallel with those Celtic names with a 
prefix which originally meant servant, the second element being 
God, Christ, Mary, etc., or a saint's name. Such are the Scottish 
names in Gil-, i.e. " gilly," e.g. Gillies, servant of Jesus, which, when 
proceded by Mac-, becomes MacLeish. Scotch names in Mai-, Mil- 
mean " tonsured servant," Gaelic maol, bald. Hence Malise or 
Mellis, servant of Jesus, Malcolm, servant of Columba [Malcolumb i . 



SON WITH OCCUPATIVE NAMES 239 

Pat. R.], for Cock, which has various origins as a 
surname, was once the familiar appellation for a 
servant. The boy in Gammer Gurton's Needle is 
always referred to by this name — 

" My Gammer is so out of course, and frantyke all at ones, 
That Cocke, our boy, and I poor wench, have felt it in our 
bones." 

Some of the names ending in -cock may contain this 
meaning, e.g. Johncock may mean John's boy or John 
the boy. 

It is especially from the type of occupative names 
dealt with in the preceding pages that we find forma- 
tions in -son. Such are Smithson, Wrightson, Grayson 
(grieve's son), Rayson, Reason, 1 Raisin (reeve's son), 
Herdson, Hindson, Manson, 1 Day son, Ladson, Swain- 
son, Hewson, Clarkson. Other names of this type are 
Archerson, Cookson or Cuckson, Taylorson, Shepherd- 
son, Sargisson (sergeant), etc. Sardison is no doubt 
a corruption of the last name, as both are equally 
common in Lincolnshire. Surgison, like Surgerman, 
may belong to Sargent or Surgeon, the latter still a 
surname, though almost absorbed by the former. 

Waldefer, Archbp. Gray's Reg. 1225-54]. M is found also as Mil- 
in Milvain (Bean) and Macmillan, son of the bald gilly. In Ireland 
we have such names as Malone (John), and a great number in Mul-, 
while Mylecrist represents the Manx form. In Cospatrick, Gos- 
patrick the prefix is cognate with Welsh gwas, man, whence the 
Fr. vassal. 

1 Reason is also an abstract nickname [Roger Raisoun, burgess in 
Parliament for St. Albans temp. Ed. II., Close R.]. 

2 Manson is perhaps more usually for Magnusson, an Orkney 
and Shetland name. Magnus became a personal name in Scandi- 
navia owing to the fame of Charlemagne, Carolus Magnus. The 
Vikings took it to the northern islands, where it became a surname. 
In Ireland it has given MacManus. 



240 SOME COMPOUND NAMES 

Surgenor represents an obsolete elaboration of Surgeon. 
Woodison may be " son of the woodward." As for 
Crowdson, Crewdson, I believe it is the son of the 
Crowder or fiddler, a kind of cousin of Tom the Piper's 
son. It belongs to Lancashire, which is the home of 
this type of name ; cf. Adam le Harpersone (Lane. 
Court R. 1323-4), and Rutson, the latter the son of the 
Rutter, or fiddler. 

While on this subject, it should be noticed that 
many apparent -son names are really local. One may 
spend some time on Crowson and Strawson before dis- 
covering that they are local pronunciations of Croxton 
(Norf.) and Stroxton (Line). So also Frogson is cor- 
rupted from Frodsham, Cawson from C auston, Musson 
sometimes from Muston, Wesson from Weston, Esson 
from Easton, Foxon from Foxton, and Brobson is a 
perversion of Brabazon, the man from Brabant. On 
the other hand, the Scottish Johnston is generally an 
improved version of Johnson (Macbain). 

Before leaving the subject of compound occupative 
names, there are a few deceptive or obsolete examples 
worth noting. Fairminer or Farminer is simply a 
corruption of Fairmaner, which may allude to the 
good manners of the original possessor, but is more 
likely local ; cf . Fr. Beaumanoir . Longmate, like Mate, 
contains mead. Fairbard is probably for Fairbeard, 
though the simple Bard is a thirteenth-century sur- 
name [William le Bard, Coram Rege R. 1297], i.e. much 
earlier than its recognition as a dictionary word. Its 
Scottish form is Baird, and the word has risen in the 
world — 

" The Schireffe ... sal punish sorners, over-lyars, maister-full 
beggars, fuilles, bairdes, vagaboundes " (Skene). 



COMPOUND ANIMAL NAMES 241 

In Goodearl the second element may be rather the 
personal name Earl [Stephen f. Erl, Ramsey Cart.] than 
the title, but cf. John Brounbaron (Pat. R.), John 
Folbaroun (ib.). Littlepage, Smallpage need no ex- 
planations, and Pennycook 1 or Pennycock is for the 
local Penicuik (Midlothian). 

Along with these may be mentioned a few compound 
animal nicknames such as Goodlamb, Whitelam, 
Wildgoose* Willgoss, Wildgust [Edric Wildegos, Feet 
of Fines], Graygoose, Wildrake, Hornram, Wildbore, 
Wilgress, dial, grice, pig [William Wildegris, IpM.], 
Duncalf [cf. Henry Dunfoul, Chesh. Chamb. Accts. 
1301-60], Metcalfe* (mead calf?). The Oxfordshire 
Fortnum is from Fr. fort dnon [Nicholas Fortanon, 
Hund. R., Oxf.]. Names of this type were once 
much commoner. Cf. Gilbert Blakeram (Hund. R.), 
Thomas Bonrouncyn (Pat. R.), Gilbert Dayfoul (ib.). 
With the Wild- names cf. David Wildebuf (Hund. R.). 
In Wildman the first element is descriptive rather 
than local [cf. /Edwin Wildegrome, Pipe R.], but 
Wilder is local, of the wilder ne or wilderness [John 
atte Wilderne, Fine R.]. Machell, latinized as malus 

1 Penny cad, Penny card are evidently from Fr. Penicaud. 

* "The fact that that Negoose, Negus belongs to Norfolk, which is 
the home of the " goose " names (Goose, Gooseman, Gozzard, Gazard, 
goose herd), suggests that it is also a compound of -goose. But in 
the same county I find Edgoose, which may possibly be a compound 
of -house (edge-house), from AS. ecg, corner, whence the name Egg. 
So Negus might be " atten-eg-house." Cf. Nash, Nye, etc. 

3 It has been suggested to me that this puzzling name, which, 
though so common in the north, seems to be quite undocumented, 
may have been an ironic substitution for Turnbull 1 

" Mr. Metcalfe ran off, upon meeting a cow, 
With pale Mr. Turnbull behind him." 



242 SOME COMPOUND NAMES 

catulus, and Machin, Fr. Malchien, are uncompli- 
mentary compounds, but the latter has also other 
origins. Polecat [Thomas Polkat, Pat. R.~\ survives as 
Polliket. Weatherhogg, a Lincolnshire name, means in 
that county a male pig. 

Among surnames compounded from font-names 
John leads easily, as do Jean in French and Johann 
or Hans in German. In the latter language, with its 
love of compounds, we find something like a hundred 
names which contain Johann or its pet forms. From 
LG. LiUjens, little John, comes our Lutyens. In 
English we have Brownjohn, Goodjohn, Littlejohn, 
Micklejohn or Meiklejohn, Prettyjohn, Properjohn. 
With Fosterjohn, i.e. John the Foster (see p. 119), cf. 
Pascoewebb (p. 230). With Upjohn, for Welsh ap 
John, cf. Uprichard. The fact that John was used 
like Jack, almost as an equivalent of man or servant, 
will explain Durand le Bon Johan (Hund. R.), the 
origin perhaps of Bowgen, Budgen. Similarly Grud- 
geon seems to represent Fr. Grosjean and Pridgeon 
Fr. Preux X -Jean, while Spridgeon, Spurgeon may be 
the same name with the prefixed 5- which we occa- 
sionally find in surnames. Rabjohn " may be Robert 
the servant, or perhaps Robert the son, of John, and 
Camplejohn may mean wry- mouthed John, from 
the Keltic word which has given Campbell. With 
Dunbobbin, Dunbabin, cf. the obsolete Brounrobyn 
(Lane. Inq. 1310-33). Goodrobert survives as Good- 

1 To this archaic Fr. adj., meaning doughty, we owe not only 
Proud, Prout, but also Prewse, Prowse, Prew, Prue, Prow, with the 
dim. Prewett, Pruett. 

1 Rabjohns is a Devon name, and the neighbouring Dorset is the 
home of Rabbetts, which comes, I suppose, from Robert, though it 
may represent Raybould, AS. Regenbeald [Richard f. Rabot, Pipe R.]. 



NAMES OF KINSHIP 343 

rop. With Goodwill, Goodwillie, cf. Hervey Pruguillun, 
i.e. Preux-Guillaume (Feet of Fines). But Goodwill 
may also be an abstract nickname ; cf. Fr. Bonvouloir. 
Gaukrodger 1 means clumsy Roger, but Gaybell is an 
imitative perversion of Gabriel. Other apparently 
obsolete names of this class are Dungenyn (Exch. 
R.), a hybrid from the English adj. dun and Fr. 
Jeannin, Jolifewille (Pleas), Dulhumphrey (Lower), 
Petinicol (Hund. R.), Halupetir (ib.), Dumbbardolf 
(ib.), Dummakin (ib.), Makin, whence Makins, Meakin, 
being a dim. of Matthew, and Dunpayn (Fine R.), 
from the very common Pain or Pagan. Walter 
Gobigrant (Leic. Bor. Rec.) seems to mean " big 
Goby," i.e. Godbold. The only modern parallel 
I know to this formation, with the adjective put 
second, is Wyattcouch, i.e. little Guy the red (Cornish), 
unless Elsegood is for " good Ellis, or Alice," and 
Drakeyoung for Drake junior. Cf. William le Loverd- 
newe, i.e. the new lord (IpM.). Goodbrand is a per- 
sonal name, Norse Gudbrand, and Littledyke, which 
looks so obvious, may be for " little Dick " [cf. Richard 
Litelhikke, 1385, Bardsley]. 

A good many surnames are formed by compounding 
terms indicating relationship. Now, excepting for a 
few interesting survivals, we use only -son or Fitz-, 
and, as early as the thirteenth century, we find such 
an illogical description as Margery le Prestesson 
(Pleas). The following medieval examples show a 
much greater variety — 

Ricardus avunculus Wilhelmi (Pleas) 

John Nikbrother . . . (Derbyshire Charters) 



1 In F. of Y. 1685 it is spelt Corkroger I 



244 



SOME COMPOUND NAMES 



Henry Huchild 

William Personcosin 

Adam Childesfader 

Robert Barnfader . 

John le Frer Win . 

William Makeseyre, i.e. heir of 

Mack 
Aernaldus frater Archidiaconi 
William Jonesneve 
John Gener Adding 
William Richardesneveu 
Patrick William Stepsone 
William Gamelstepsone . 
Alicia Thepunderesstepdoghtre 
Alicia Armwif , i.e. wife of Orme 
Amabilla Folcwif, i.e. wife of 

Fulk .... 
John Wilbarne, i.e. the " bairn " 

ofWUl . 
William Godesbarn 1 
Adam Gibbarne 
William le Barnemawe, i.e. the 

brother-in-law of the bairn 
William Dobmagh . 
William Godesmagh 
William Hauwenmogh 
John Gibbemogh . 



(Hunt. R.) 
(F. of Y.) 
(Pat. R.) 
(F. of Y. 1426) 
(Percy Cart.) 

(State Trials, Ed. I.) 

(Pipe R.) 

(Coram Rege R. 1297) 

(Northumb. Ass. R. 13th cent.) 

(Coram Rege R. 1297) 

(ib.) 

(Cal. Gen.) 

(c. 1400) 

(Hund. R.) 

(ib.) 

(Bardsley, 1379) 
(Pat. R.) 
(ib.) 

(Hund. R.) 
(Cockersand Cart.) 
(F. of Y.) 

(Lane. Inq. 1 205-1 307) 
(Lane. Court R. 1323-4) 



All the names of relationship have given surnames 
uncompounded, but usually with the addition of -s, 
e.g. Fathers, Fadder, Mothers, Sones, Soanes [Walter 
le Sone, Pat. R.\ Fitz, Fice [Antony fice Greffown, 



1 No doubt a name assumed by some pious man. Cf. the AS. 
Godescalc, God's servant, once common, but now swallowed up by 
Godsall, Godsell. Curiously humble is Thomas Godesbest (Leic. 
Bor. Rec), a type of name by no means uncommon in the Middle 
Ages. Pachnio quotes Festu-Dieu, God's straw, and Tacon-Dieu, 
OF. tacon, a patch on a shoe. More assertive is William le Godes- 
halu, the saint of God (Nott. Court R. 1308), while Geoffrey Goddes- 
wynnyng (ib.) appears to mean God's gain. 



NAMES OF KINSHIP 245 

NED. c. 1435], Darter, Brothers, Brodder, 1 Godson 
(cf. Fr. Lefilleul), Frere, Uncles, Eames (ME. erne, 
uncle), Child, Fant, Faunt (Fr. enfant), Cousins, 
Cozens, and even Cozze, Nephew (rare), Neave (ME. 
neve, nephew), Neech, Neese,* Widdows, Gaffer or 
Gayfer 5 (grandfather *), of which Gaff is perhaps 
the shortened form, Gammer (grandmother, as in 
Gammer Gurton's Needle), Belcher, Bowser, Bewsher, 
from OF. bel-sire, sometimes in the special sense of 
grandfather, Beldam, grandmother. With Bewsher 
cf. the opposite Malsher. Also Husband,' Kinsman, 
Parent, Gossip, Comper [Roger le Comper, John of 
Gaunt's Reg.~\ — ■ 

" Compere, a gossip " (Cotg.). 

With Comper goes Marrow, from archaic marrow, a 
companion, mate [John le Marwe or le Marewe, Leic. 
Bor. Rec.\— 

" Marwe or felawe yn travayle, socius, compar " (Prompt. Parv.). 

In one volume of the Fine R. we find John Darcy le 

1 This may be rather occupative, the " broiderer " [Richard le 
Broudeour, Bp. Kellawe's Reg.]. 

2 From OF. nies, the nom. of neveu [Walter le Neise, Hund. R.]. 
It is found in Middle English. See NED., s.v. niece, where, how- 
ever, the origin of the masculine word is not correctly explained. 
Neese may also be for " nose " (see p. 133). 

3 This is perhaps rather from Gaifier, a very common name in Old 
French epic, and, as it is often applied to Saracen chiefs, perhaps 
the Eastern Giafar, vizier to Haroun-al-Raschid. It might also 
represent the northern form of Go-fair [James Gafaire, F. of Y.]. 
See also p. 253, n. 1. 

* The analogy of gossip, Fr. compare, Ger. Gevatter, all used in 
the familiar sense of our gaffer, suggests that gaffer, gammer may be 
rather for godfather, godmother. 

6 This usually means husbandman, master of the house, etc. 
See p. 226. 



246 SOME COMPOUND NAMES 

Cosin, John Darcy le Frere, and John Darcy le Neveu, 
an example which shows how purely accidental is the 
possession of such surnames at the present day. 
Odam is ME. odam, son-in-law, cognate with Ger. 
Eidam, which now, like odam, is practically obsolete 
except as a surname — 

" Octiatus, Daries' odame 
After theose hostes he came." 

(King Alexander, 14th cent.). 

Foad, Foat, Food, found chiefly in Kent, represent ME. 
fode, a child 1 [William le Fode, Cust. Battle Abbey]. 
For this word, really identical with food, see NED. 
Grandison is local, I suppose from Granson in Switzer- 
land [Otto de Granson or de Grandisono, Fine i?.], and 
Outerson is the son of Ughtred. Practically all the 
corresponding surnames exist in French and German, 
and there is even a Parisian named Feretmlre (Bottin, 
1907). 

Of the compounds formed from kinship names the 
most interesting are those illustrated by the five last 
examples in the list of medieval compounds given 
on pp. 243, 244. ME. maugh, really identical with 
May (q.v.), seems to have been used vaguely for any 
relative by marriage — 
" Mow, housbandys sister or syster in law, glos " (Prompt. Parv.). 

In the north it usually means brother-in-law, in 
which sense it has given the names Maufe, Muff, 
Maw. 1 But it also survives in several compounds, 
viz. Gods-mark,* Hitchmough (corrupted to Hickmott) 

1 It also means a wife, a young man. 

2 For this name see also p. 67. 

3 It is also possible that this is an oath-name (p. 181), though a 
curious one, " by God's brother-in-law." In the Porkington MS. 
of the fifteenth-century poem Mourning of the Hare we find " by 



NAMES OF KINSHIP 247 

from Richard, and especially Watmough, Whatmaugh, 
Whatmore, etc., from Walter. There are probably 
many more names of this class which still live in dis- 
guise, as the formation was once very common. 

From ME. barn, bairn, etc., we have Whiteborn, 
the complimentary Fairbairn, Goodbairn, Goodband, 
Goodbun, and the patronymics Dawbarn (David) and 
Giberne (Gilbert). With Dearborn cf. Fr. Cherfils. 
Many names in -burn, e.g. Blackburn, Fairbum, Day- 
burn, may in some cases belong here. Maybin is 
probably the bairn of May and Huband the bairn 
(or perhaps bond) of Hugh. For Barnfather, Bairns- 
father, Banfather, see p. 244. The simple barn is 
also one of the many origins of Barnes. With Fair- 
child, Goodchild, Littlechild, cf . Fauntleroy and Fillery, 
both meaning King's son (p. 18). Bonifant is bon 
enfant [Walter Bonenfant, Hund. R.~], i.e. Goodson, Good- 
child, and Bullivant, Pillivant includes both this and bel 
enfant [Colin Belenfan, Close R.]. The opposite Mali- 
phant [Nicholas Maleffaunt, Pat. R., Alan Evilchild > 
Hund. R.] also exists. Richard Beaufaunt (Pat. R.) 
has perhaps contributed to Bevan or Biffen. The 
simplex exists as Fant, Faunt, Vant. With the obso- 
lete Folenfant cf . the surviving Sillifant, while Selibarn 
(F. of Y.) is perhaps still represented by Sillibourne, 
Silburn. The epithet silly was rather complimentary 
than otherwise, for it meant gentle, innocent ; cf. 
Roger Seliday (Pat. R.), Robert Selisaule (ib.). 

Fairbrother, Farebrother, Farbrother belongs to the 
old courteous style of address as in " fair sir," "beau 

cokkes soule," euphemistic for " by Goddessoule " (p. 181). In the 
Cambridge MS. of the same poem this is replaced by " by cokkes 
mawe." 



248 SOME COMPOUND NAMES 

sire," etc. With Alderson, usually " older son," cf. 
the common French surname Laine". With the simple 
Alder, Elder, cf. Younger, but both the former are also 
tree-names. For some other surnames formed from 
comparatives, see p. 104. 

The nickname sire [William le Syre, Fine R.] sur- 
vives as Syer, 1 Syers, Surr, Sirr. Its compounds are 
Bonser* Bouncer, Mountsier, M oncer, Muncer [John 
Monsyre, Fine R.], Sweetsur [William Swetesyr, Pat. R.], 
Goodsir, whence also perhaps Goacher, Goucher, Dunsire, 
which I cannot explain, and those mentioned on p. 245. 
Cosher perhaps represents " coy sire" [Simon Coysire, 
Hund. /?.]. Maiden was used in Middle English of the 
unmarried of both sexes [John le Mayde, Pat. R., Ralph 
le Mayden, ib., William Pucele, ib.], but in compounds 
such as Chilmaid, Denmaid, Longmaid, Maidland, 
maid is for mead, a meadow. On the other hand, Mead 
often represents maid [John le Meide, Lond. Wills, 
1279]. May, a young man or maiden, has the familiar 
compound Mildmay [cf. Richard Dusemay, Pat. R.], 
and the less common Whitmee [William Wytemey, 
Hund. R.] and Youngmay [Martin le Yungemey, ib.]. 
The simple May is also local, apparently from an 
obsolete variant of "mead" [William Attemay, Pat. R.]; 
cf. Smee for Smeed (p. 77). Burkmay, for " birk mead," 
suggests that Peachmay is possibly for "beech* mead." 

A few names which also suggest age and kinship 
may conclude the chapter. Such are Springall, Sprin- 
gate, Springett, Springhalt, the springald, young man 

1 Cf. Dame, Dames, though this may also be from an archaic 
spelling of the local Damm, Damms ; cf . Gape for Gapp. 

2 This is also the local pronunciation of Bonsall (Derby). 

3 Initial P- for B- is not uncommon in surnames. 



NAMES OF KINSHIP 249 

[Auger Espringaut, Pat. R., Julian Springald, Hund. JR.], 
and Stripling, Stribling [Adam Stripling, Pat. R.]. 
But the first group may also belong to the warlike 
instrument which was called a springald ; cf. Mang- 
nall (p. 162) — 

" And eke withynne the castell were 
Spryngoldes, gunnes, bows and archers " 

(Romaunt of the Rose, 4190). 

Damsell represents OF. damoisel, a young squire, rather 
than the fem. form. For Milsop, i.e. "milksop," 
see p. 268. Nursling, or Nutshalling, is a place in 
Hants. But John le Norrisone occurs in Nott. Court 
R., and the award of an honorary C.B. to Brigadier- 
General Nourrisson of the French Army has just 
been announced (Nov. 17, 1915) — 

" Nourrisson, a nursling, nurse-child, or nursing child " (Cotg.). 

Suckling is a genuine nickname, but Baby is rather for 
Barbara, as Gaby is for Gabriel. With Twin, whence 
Twint, cf. Gemmel, OF. gemel, used by Wyclif of Jacob 
and Esau [Alan Gemellus, Pipe R., Richard Gemel, 
Fine R.]. The Gemmels of Scotland, the chief home 
of the name, perhaps have another origin. Fr. Besson, 
whence our Bisson, is a dialect word for twin. Man- 
kin, Miniken, is for " manikin " [Stephen Manekin, 
Testa de Nev.]. Neame, usually for ME. erne, uncle 
[cf. Thomas Nuncle, Pat. R.], is also an Anglo-French 
form of Fr. nain, 1 dwarf [John le Neym, Pat. R.]. 
Male, Mayle, Maskelyne are simply what they appear 
to be [William le Male or Masculus, Percy Cart., Henry 
Maskelyn, Testa de Nev.], but Manfull, a Notts name, 

1 Lenain is a common French surname. The corresponding 
English name is Murch — 

" Murch, lytyl man, nanus" (Prompt. Parv.). 



250 SOME COMPOUND NAMES 

is from Mansfield, 1 whence also the imitative Manifold. 
An interesting variant of Male is Madle, OF. masle, 
due to the Anglo-French practice of intercalating -d- 
between -si- as in meddle, OF. mesler, idle, OF. isle (see 
Idle). Twoyearold is still a Lancashire surname and 
has a medieval parallel in Adam Fivewinterald. 

To the obsolete examples quoted in this chapter 
may be added the following — Bonsquier, Childesfader 
(cf. Bairnsfather) , Langebachelere, Belmeistre, Bel- 
verge, Bruncarl, Malnllastre (Fr. Maufildtre, the bad 
son-in-law) , Hardimarchaunt, Lady chapman, Trewchap- 
man, Calveknave, Forsterknave, Rouknave, Smart- 
knave, Whiteknave, Bonserjant, Aldegrome, Greygrom, 
Litelgrom, Shepgrom, Bonswayn, Madsweyn, Litsweyn, 
Sikersweyn (sure), Yongswayn, Surewyne (friend), 
Porbarn, Petytmey, Donemay, Prodemay, Levemay, 
Levedame, Lefquene, Quenemay, Sotemay (sweet), 
Boncristien, Bonchevaler, Bonseygnur, Frankchivaler, 
Smalperson, Petitsire, Litilpage, Langeclerk, Schort- 
frend, Stalwortheman, Malvoisin, Malharpin (OF. 
harfiin, a harper), Homedieu, Witwif, Blakshyreve, 
Countereve, Lithbond, Bedelking, Witebitele, Coper- 
kyng, Whiteking, Wodeking (mad), Jolyfray (AF. jolif 
rey), Wodeprest, Wytknyt, Godeboy, Jolifboie, Bliss- 
wen che, Joymeyde, Joyemaiden. The last three are 
probably disparaging ; cf. Fr. fille de joie. Animal 
compounds are Hogelomb, Tythinglomb, Maloysel, 
Maulovel (cf. Machell), Mallechat, Swethog, Wodegos, 
Wodemousse, Whytebull, Qwytgray {gray, a badger), 

1 The -5- in such names is quite optional ; cf . Wilford, Wilsford, 
Manbridge, Mansbridge, etc. For the change of -field, -fold to -full cf. 
Hatfull, Oakenfull, etc. Fairfoul, which looks like a fantastic nick- 
name, is probably for Fairfield ; but see p. 319. 



OBSOLETE COMPOUNDS 251 

Jolicok, Whytkok, Yongkok, Wytkolt, Dunnebrid. 
Witfis, Stocfis, Fresfis, Rotenheryng were probably 
trade-names for fishmongers. Wytecole may refer to 
Nicholas, but more likely to cabbage. More abstract 
compounds, which do not properly belong to this 
chapter, are Godestokne, Curtevalur, Tartcurteis, 
Petikorteis, Tutfait, Tutprest, Megersens, Moniword, 
Maucuvenant, Maucondut (male conductus , cf. Mawditt), 
Mautalent, Scortrede, Littylrede, Smalchare, Stille- 
prud, Seldholi, Stranfers (strong fierce), Welikeing. 



18 



CHAPTER XII 

THE SHAKESPEARE TYPE OF SURNAME 

" Johannes Shakespere, querens, optulit se versus Ricardum de 
Cotgrave, spicer, defendentem, de placito conventionis ; et queritur 
de eo quod dictus Ricardus, die Jovis proximo post festum Sancti 
Bartholoma^i Apostoli, anno regni regis nunc xxx mo primo, vendidit 
eidem Johanni unum ' stik ' de ' saundres ' pro ' brasill,' et 
manucepit quod fuit ' brasill,' et sic conventionem inter eos factam 
fregit, ad grave dampnum ipsius Johannis viginti solidorum, unde 
producit sectam " (Nottingham Borough Records, Nov. 8, 1357). 

The above is, I believe, the earliest known occurrence 
of the most famous of all English names. This very 
interesting type of surname is found plentifully not 
only in English, but in all the related European lan- 
guages. 1 Many examples, both English and French, 
are quoted by Darmesteter in his treatise on compound 
words. Ritter gives about 150 French examples and 
Vilmar collected nearly 250 German instances. Some 
examples of such will be found in chapters xiii. and 
xiv. (pp. 288, 303). Among them occur names familiar 
to everybody, such as Fr. Boileau (Drinkwater) * 
Ger. Klof stock ' (knock stick), and It. Frangipani, 

1 An interesting Danish example is Ole Lukoje, Olaf Shut-eye, a 
popular nickname for the dustman, recently adopted as a pseudonym 
by a brilliant English military writer. 

* I do not know whether medieval wit was equal to naming a 
drunkard thus ironically, but the following entries are suggestive — 
Margery Drynkewater, wife of Philip le Taverner (City E.), Thomas 
Drinkewater, of Drinkewaterestaverne (Lond. Wills, 1328). 

3 Cf. our Swingewood and possibly Girdwood, ME. gird, to strike. 

252 



MODE OF FORMATION 253 

break bread, said to be due to the benevolence of that 
well-known Italian family. Generally such names are 
compounded of a verb in the imperative followed by 
its object, while less often the second component is 
an adverb, e.g. Golightly [William Galigtly, Pat. R,], 
also found as Galletly, Gellatly, with which we may 
compare John Gofayre ' {Pat. R.) and John Joligate 
(ib.). Steptoe apparently has a similar meaning, 
though its formation is abnormal. 

Names of this type hardly appear in Domesday 
Book, though Taillefer, whence Telfer, Telford, Talfourd, 
Tolver, Tulliver,* is anterior to that compilation, but 
they swarm in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. 
Of the many hundreds I have collected, only a small 
proportion seem to have survived, though probably 
many more live on in disguise. Many of the medieval 
examples are of quite unquotable coarseness, and point 
either to the great brutality or the great naivete of our 
ancestors. This method of formation is one of the 
most convenient and expressive that we have. There 
are hundreds of common nouns so formed, e.g. holdfast, 
makeshift, stopgap, holdall, turnkey, etc. As applied 
to persons they are nearly always disparaging,' e.g. 
cut-throat, ne'er dowell, swashbuckler , scapegrace, skin- 
flint, or are contemptuous substitutions for occupative 

1 This is perhaps one origin of Gover, Govier. Stow men- 
tions a Govere's Lane in the City, the earlier name of which was 
Gofayre Lane [John Gofaire, Lond. Wills, 1259-60, John Goveyre, 
ib. 1291]. 

2 I am told that It. Tagliaferro has adopted the form Tolver in the 
U.S. " Taillefer, the surname of the old Earls of Engoulesme ; so 
tearmed because William the second Earle thereof, clove with his 
sword, at one blow, an armed captain down to the stomack 1 " 
(Cotg.). 

3 See Trench, English Past and Present, pp. 219 seq. 



254 THE SHAKESPEARE TYPE OF SURNAME 

titles, e.g. sawbones for a surgeon, or the dial, bangstraw 
for a thresher. 1 Warring theologians have always 
been great coiners of these phrase-names. Compli- 
mentary examples, such as Welcome (cf. Fr. Bienvenu, 
It. Benvenuto), Makepeace 2 [Gregory Makepais, Leic. 
Bor. Rec], are exceptional. 

I fancy that this type of surname owes something 
to the vogue of allegory and allegorical drama in the 
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. At any rate, 
such compounds have been beloved by allegorists from 
Lang land to Bunyan. The latter 's Standfast was a 
surname four centuries before the Pilgrim's Progress 
[William Stanfast, Fine R., Adam Standefast, IpM.], 
and I have also found his Saveall both as a medieval 
and twentieth-century name. Langland frequently 
personifies Dowell, Dobet, Dobest, the first of which 
may be one source of our Dowell, and he has many 
references to Saywell, who still figures in the rustic 
proverb " Say well is good, but Do well is better." 

This suggests a short digression on the ending 
-well in surnames. Many of these are of course local, 
well having its wider, older meaning, which includes 
fountain, stream, pool, etc. Some are from specific 
place-names, e.g. Bakewell, the name of a well-known 
advocate of cremation some years ago, Hopewell or 
Hopwell, Tidswell, etc., all Derbyshire. Others, such 
as Cantwell [Gilbert de Kentewelle, Hund. R.], Tuck- 
well, Tugwell 3 are from spots which I cannot identify. 
Callwell, Cordwell are among the many variants of 

1 Cf. Martin Betewete (Hund. R.) and Fr. Babied. 

* Cf. Alice Makehayt {Hund. R.). 

8 These may even be phrase-names. Tuchwell may have been a 
good "tucker" of cloth (cf. Tazewell, p. 256), and Tugwell may be 
from ME. tug, to wrestle. 



NAMES IN -WELL 255 

Cauldwell 1 (cold) . Glidewell is also local, from the gleed 
or glide, i.e. kite, to which we owe also Gledhill, Gleadle, 
Gledstanes, Gladstone. Others again are perversions, 
e.g. Caswell and Kidwell take us very far back in history, 
for they represent the Welsh names Caswallon and 
Cadwal, the former of which was latinized as Cassi- 
velaunus, just as Caradoc or Cradock was made into 
Caractacus. Kidwell or Kiddell is the Somerset form 
of Cadwal, which in Gloucestershire has become Caddell, 
Cadle. Caldwall, found in Hereford, is no doubt the 
same. Rouncewell is also historic, from Roncevaux 
[Ralph de Runcevill, Pat. R.]. It is also found as 
Rounsevel, Rounswell. Perhaps the name came rather 
from the alien priory of the name in London than 
from the Pyrenean pass. This priory became the 
brotherhood of Rouncival, which existed till the middle 
of the sixteenth century (Stow) . Ottewell, Otterwell i 
is a personal name [Otuel de Bosco, Fine R.] made 
famous by the medieval Romance of Otuel. It is 
a dim. of Odo, Otto, which, in its turn, is short for one 
of the Anglo-Saxon names in Oth- [Otulph le Drivere, 
Pat. R.], whence Ott. See also Pepperwell (p. 189). 

But there still remain a few names in which -well is 
simply the adverb in composition with a preceding 
verb. Such are Eatwell [Robert Mangebien, Pipe R.], 
Fretwell, ME. fret, 1 to eat, devour, Lovewell, Meanwell, 
Treadwell or Tretwell [Richard Tredewelle, Pat. R.] 

1 Cf. Sortwell for " salt well." 

z This may be local ; cf . Otterburn. 

3 This occurs in several Middle English names (p. 273). Robert 
Fretemon {Pat. R.) may have been an English Manesse (p. 303), but 
his name is perhaps from AS. Frithumund. 

" Adam afterward ageines hus defence 
Frette of that fruit " 

(Piers Plowm., B. xviii. 194). 



256 THE SHAKESPEARE TYPE OF SURNAME 

and probably many more. Among them are a few 
trade descriptions, e.g. Thackwell for a good thatcher, 
and the Somerset Tazewell, Taswell, for a good " teaser " 
of cloth. With the variant Toswill cf. Tozer, for 
"teaser." The corresponding French names in -lien 
and German names in -wohl are also fairly numerous. 

As has already been suggested, surnames of this 
class are generally disparaging. It is even likely that 
the historic Taillefer and the first Shakespeare, Shake- 
shaft, Shackshaft, and Shakelance were heroes of a 
somewhat obtrusive character. Examples of " fright- 
fulness " are uncomfortably numerous. We find 
an extraordinary number of Middle English names 
beginning with break-, burn-, kill-, fill- (skin), or with 
the corresponding Fr. brise-, brule-, tue-, pele-. In fact 
French, or rather Anglo-French, predominates over 
Anglo-Saxon in names of this class. 1 We still have 
Breakspear, Braksper [William Brekespere, Ramsey 
Cart.] and the hybrid Brisbane [Thomas Briseban, ib.]. 
With the latter cf. Crakebone [John Crakebon, Lane. 
Court R. 1323-4], still an American name, though I have 
not come across it in England. Modern French has 
Brisemur, Brispot, and others which also occur com- 
monly in our Rolls. Burnhouse, Burness, Burniss 
[William Bernhus, 13th century] may sometimes be local, 
at the "burn house," but Burnand, Brennand, though 
they may have other origins, point to a public official 
[Simon Brenhand, Hund. R.]. Of the same craft was 

1 Sometimes we have both forms, e.g. Buttifant, Butterfant, Fr. 
boute-avant, push forward [Robert Boute-Avant, Pacrmio], corre- 
sponds to the native Pushfirth. I only suggest as a guess that Mank- 
telow, Manhletow, Mankelow may represent manque Veau or manque 
de Veau, a French version of Ralph Sparewater (Pleas). 



" FRIGHTFULNESS " 257 

Henry Brendcheke (Northumb. Ass. R. 1256-79). 
Criminals were still " burnt in the hand " in the 
eighteenth century. Cf. Haghand, for " hack hand," 
and possibly also Branfoot. In one of the Towneley 
Mysteries the " second tormentor " is called Spy 11- 
payn. The original Strangleman may have been 
official or amateur. In French we still find Brule- 
bois and Brulefer, probably trade-names. 1 

Among kill names we find ME. Cullebol, Cullebolloc, 
Cullefincke, Cullehare, Cullehog, the last perhaps 
surviving as Kellogg. Cf. Fr. Tubeuf, Tuvache. For 
the pill names, such as Pi-lecrowe, Pilecat, cf. the still 
existing Fr. Pellevillain which has a parallel in a Middle 
English Fleybund (flay bond). Jean Poilevilain was 
master of the mint to Philip VI. of France, and a 
medieval bearer of the name had himself depicted on 
his seal dragging a " villain " by the hair. Cf. Butlin, 
Bucklin, contracted from boute-vilain, hustle the churl 
[Adam Buttevilein, FineR.], and the obsolete Butekarl 
(Feet of Fines). ..Of the same type is Fr. Ecorcheville 
(p. 288), found also in Middle English along with Es- 
corceberd, Escorchebuef, etc. These are only illustrative 
examples of a type of name which is only too common 
in our records. In the list of presumably extinct 
phrase-names which forms an appendix to this chapter 
will be found further examples. 

Sometimes the phrase-name is merely descriptive 
of the bearer's occupation, e.g. Drawater. An interest- 

1 Marwood, though it can be explained locally, may also have 
been a nickname for an incompetent carpenter [William Marwod, 
F. of Y.]. Cf. the numerous French names in Gdte- (p. 262) and our 
own Thumbwood, apparently from the archaic verb to " thumb," 
i.e. to handle clumsily. 



258 THE SHAKESPEARE TYPE OF SURNAME 

ing example is the Derbyshire Copestake, applied to a 
woodcutter [Geoffrey Coupstak, F. of Y. 1295 ; cf. 
Geoffrey Cuttestuche, Glouc. Cart.]. This naturally 
becomes Copestick, and in Yorkshire Capstick. With 
this name cf. Hackblock and Hackwood. Boutflour, 
Bought/lower was a nickname for a miller, " bolt 
flour " [John Bulteflour, Bp. Kellawe's Reg. 1303], 
from the archaic bolt, to sift, l and in Boltwood, Bought- 
wood the second element is " woad," an important 
medieval commodity ; cf. Powncewayde (p. 275). 
Pilbeam was a barker of trees ; see Pillar (p. 118) 
and Beam (p. 184). In Ridland, Ridwood, Redwood we 
have the dialect rid, to clear, as in ridding ; cf . Simon 
Draneland [Hund. R., Camb.]. Hamahard suggests a 
smith, " hammer hard," and has German parallels in 
Klopf hammer, Schwinghammer (p. 303), but it is more 
likely an alteration of Haimard {DB.), apparently a 
Norman form of Hagenheard (see p. 41). I have 
found no early example of Clinkscales, but I expect 
the ancestor was an energetic tradesman or money- 
changer. Cf. John Rattilbagge (Hund. R.). Tylecote 
appears to have been a tiler. In Spingarn the second 
element is a still existing form of " yarn." Doubtfire, 
for " dout fire," was perhaps in charge of a furnace, 
or he may have seen to the enforcing of the curfew. 
Cf. OF. Abat-Four and Tue-Four (Pachnio). John 
Adubbe-dent (Pipe R.) was an early dentist. With 
Cutbush cf. Tallboys, Fr. Taillebois. Tradition makes 
the first Fettiplace gentleman-usher to the Conqueror. 
The etymology of the name, AF. fete place, make 
room; points to some such office. The early examples 

1 Cf. the ME. name Boute-tourte [Guy Buteturte, Pipe R.] 
Tourte was coarse bread made from inferior meal. 



NAMES IN LOVE 259 

are all" from Oxfordshire, and Adam Feteplaz, Fete- 
place, Feteplece, a thirteenth-century Mayor of Oxford, 
is mentioned repeatedly in the Rolls. 

But examples of this kind are not very numerous, 
and the great majority of phrase-names are descriptive 
of character, e.g. Lovejoy, Doolittle [John Dolitel, Percy 
Cart., John Faypew, City D.], habit, e.g. Drinkale, 
Drinkall [William Drinkale, 1 Pat. R.], Ridout, Rideout 
[cf. Adam Prikafeld, Pat. R., Robert Chevalchesol, 
i.e. ride alone, Pipe R., Geoffrey Wendut, Fine R.], 
or even gesture, e.g. Bendelow [cf. Arnold Stoupe- 
doun, Pat. R.]. The famous name Penderell appears 
to mean " hang ear " [Richard Pendoraile, Chart. R.], 
the opposite aspect being represented by John Kokear 
(Leic. Bor. Rec). Similarly, the existing Luckup has 
a pendant in the obsolete Regardebas. 

The mention of Lovejoy reminds us that we have a 

large number of surnames of which love is the first or 

second element. These are not all as simple as they 

appear, e.g. Loveguard is for the AS. Leofgeard, while 

Loverock is an alteration of the dial, laverock, a lark 

[Richard Laveroke, Fine R.], which has also become 

Liverock (p. 130, n.). Loveluck is for Lovelock (p. 131). 

Lovelady is a genuine phrase-name [cf. Simon Baise- 

belle, Fine R.] ; cruder are T of lady or Tiplady and 

Toplass, Topliss, for which see Othello, Li. But the 

oldest forms of Lovelace, Loveless go to show that in 

this name the second element is not -lass, but -less 

(p. 149). Compounds in which the second element -love, 

1 " Drink-ale " seems the natural solution ; cf . Fr. Boicervoise. 
But Drinkhall [Thomas Drynkhale, Hund. R.] suggests rather the 
phrase drinc heil, to which the answer was wees heil (wassail). 
Drinkall might be also " drink all " ; cf. Gatherall (p. 266), Wastall, 
" waste all (?) ". 



260 THE SHAKESPEARE TYPE OF SURNAME 

in its ordinary abstract meaning, is qualified by an 
adjective are Dearlove, Sweetlove, Truelove, Newlove, 
Proudlove. Dearlove has an alternative origin from 
AS. Deorlaf, beloved remnant, of which Searle has 
several examples. Manlove, Menlove is abstract, from 
AS. mannlufe, philanthropy. Fullalove, Fullilove is, 
of course, " full of love," commoner in the Rolls in 
the form Pleindamour, which still exists in Dorset 
as Blandamore. Waddilove is a phrase-name which 
seems very out of place ' in the thirteenth century 
[John Wadeinlove, Hund. R.]. 

But, just as Love is often from AF. love,' a wolf [Alan 
le Love, Hund. R.], so many compounds in -love are 
phrase-names of an energetic character. Catchlove, Fr. 
Chasseloup, means wolf hunter [Alan Cacheleu, Pat. R.]. 
We also find in the Pat. R. Alan Cachehare, perhaps the 
same man as the above, and Walter Cachelevere, Fr. 
lihvre, hare. Spendlove, Spendlow, Spenlow, Spindelow 
is OF. espand-louve [Robert Spendelove, Northumb. 
Ass. R. 1256-79, Jehan Spendelouve, Pachnio], which 
perhaps refers to disembowelling.' Pritlove, which 

1 In fact " wade in love " is so unlike anything medieval that I 
am inclined to guess that the first element may belong to ME. weden, 
to rage, and that the name may mean rather " furious wolf." See 
Catchlove and cf . Walter Wodelof (Pat. R.), from the related ME. 
wode, mad. This seems to be now represented by Woolloff. 

2 Lovell is usually its diminutive ; cf . Ger. Wolfing, Wiilfing. In 
the medieval French romance of Guillaume d'Angleterre, one of the 
twin " babes in the wood," rescued from a wolf, is christened Lovcl 
by his finders — 

" Lovel por le lo l'apelerent 
Que anmi le chemin troverent 
Qui l'an portoit parmi les rains : 
Einsi fut li los ses parrains." 

3 Pachnio's suggestion to read espance is negatived by the English 
form. 



NAMES IN -GOOD 261 

looks like " pretty love," is also a Kultur name [Alex- 
ander Pricklove, Exch. R.] with a common phonetic 
corruption. Cf. Prickman. Cutlove ' is paralleled 
by ME. Cutfox and other names of the same type 
(p. 272). In Marklove, whence also Marklow, Martlow, 
Martlew, we have the verb to " mark " in its common 
medieval sense of striking or aiming with a weapon 
or missile. Truslove appears to contain ME. truss, to 
bind, also to pack up, as in Truscott (coat) ; cf. Packe- 
hare (p. 274). It is natural that the hated wolf should 
be selected for ill-treatment, and Roger Frangelupus 
(Abingdon Cart.), though bad Latin, confirms both the 
etymologies proposed above and the general theory that 
the verb in these compounds was originally an im- 
perative. In local names, such as Lovecraft, Lovegrove, 
Loveland [Margery de la Lovelond, Pat. R.], it is at least 
possible that the first element also means wolf, and 
Wildlove is probably an animal nickname (seep. 241). 
The name Lovegood brings us to the problem of names 
in -good. Some of these, e.g. Thurgood, Osgood, Win- 
good, are simply Anglo-Saxon personal names con- 
taining the element god (see p. 30) ; but others are 
phrase-names of the Shakespeare type and the inter- 
pretation of the second component is doubtful. Bid- 
good, Bedgood [Hervey Budgod, Close R.] I take to 
mean " pray God " ; cf. Ger. Fiirchtegott. Lovegood 
might be for " love God " [Simon Lovegod, Fine R.], 
the opposite of Hatecrist (p. 212), or again for " love 
good," equivalent to Henry Hatewrong (IpM.) ; but 
its use in Cocke Lorelle — 

" Gregory Love good of Royston mayer " — 

1 Cutwolf, which I have not found later than the sixteenth century, 
is rather the Anglo-Saxon personal name Cuthwulf [William 
Cuthewulf, IpM.']. 



262 THE SHAKESPEARE TYPE OF SURNAME 

suggests rather that good has here the sense of wealth, 
property, as in Gathergood and Scattergood [Robert 
Scatergod, Cocker sand Cart.]. With the former cf. 
Sparegod (p. 275), and with the latter " Slyngethryfte 
fleshmonger" {Cocke Lorelle). Habgood, Hobgood, 
Hapgood, Hopgood [William Hebbegod, Fine R.] may 
contain the obsolete hap, to seize — 

" Happer, to hap, or catch ; to snatch, or grasp at " (Cotg.). 

But the antiquity and variants of the name point 
rather to ME. hap, hop, to cover, wrap up. Getgood 
sounds hopeful, but is really commercial. Dogood, 1 
with its northern variant Duguid, is a compli- 
mentary phrase-name ; cf. Faceben (p. 273). Whether 
Digweed is a southern attempt at the latter or a 
name for a gardener I cannot say. 

Some names which appear to belong to the Shake- 
speare class are due to imitative spelling. Tearall is 
for Terrell, i.e. Tyrrell, an Anglo-French form of AS. 
Thurweald, Catcheside is local (Catch erside, 2 Northumb.), 
Quickfall is for Wigfall (p. 70), Carvall is for Carvell, 
Carvill, from Cherville (Marne), Kilmaster is of course 
from Kilminster (Caithness), Marbrow from Marbury 
(Chesh.), Pillbrow from Pulborough (Suss.) or Pilsbury 
(Derb.). Wastall may be for Wastell (p. 165), but 
names in waste- were once common (p. 277) and French 
still has Gastebled, Gatble, Gastebois, Gatbois and other 

1 Toogood may have been confused with this, but is really an 
adjectival nickname. In French we find Trodoux and Troplong. 
There is a fairly common Middle English name Tropisnel, Tropinel, 
OF. isnel, swift, still found in Somerset as Trapnell. With Toogood 
goes Sargood, from ME. sar, very, as in " sore afraid." Perhaps the 
original bearer of the name was " unco' guid." 

1 Hence Kitcherside ; see p. 130, «. 



TURN AND WTN 263 

names formed from gdter. Cf. also Waister [John le 
Wastour, Pat. R.]. Ticklepenny, according to Lower, 1 
is from a " place near Grimsby," but is remarkably 
like Ger. Kustenpfennig, kiss penny. Pinchback is of 
course for Pinchbeck (Line.) and Huntback for Hunt- 
bach (p. 53). Handover is for the local Andover, and 
Filpot, in spite of the corresponding Ger. Fiillkrug, is 
probably for Philpot, i.e. little Philip. Stow adopts 
the Filpot spelling for the famous fourteenth-century 
Lord Mayor of London. Makeman is either the 
" man " of Mack or for AS. Magenmund, and Putwain 
is one of the many variants of Fr. Poitevin, whence 
also Patvine, Potwin, Portwine, etc. 

Some verbs appear with notable frequency in these 
compounds. From turn we have Turnbull [Robert 
Turnebul, Pat. R.], whence also Turnbill, Trumble, 
Tremble, and the less vigorous Turnpenny [Nicholas 
Turnepeny, Hund. R.]. With the former cf. William 
Turnebuk (Pat. R.), with the latter Richard Turnegold 
(ib.). French has several such names, including 
Tournemeule, probably a name for a hay-maker. From 
win we have Winbow, Winrose, Winspear, Winspur 
(p. 162), Winpenny, Wimpenny, Vimpany [William 
Winepeny Chesh. Chamb. Accts. 1301-60], with which 
we may compare Fr. Gagnedenier. If Windlass, Wind- 
less (p. 170), is " win lass," the -d- is intrusive, as also in 
Windram, a nickname for a successful athlete — 

" Over-al, ther he cam, 
At wrastlyng he wolde have awey the ram " 

(Chauc. A. 546). 



1 I fancy that some of Lower's " places " and " spots " were 
extempore efforts. The only suitable " place " in Lincolnshire that 
I can get news of is Ticklepenny's Lock, which was named from a 
man called Ticklepenny. 



264 THE SHAKESPEARE TYPE OF SURNAME 

John Winram was sub-prior of St. Andrews in 1550. 
In the F. of Y. we find " Winshifi the mariner," which 
suggests a competent pirate, but the surname is per- 
haps from AS. winescifte, friendship (p. 220). One of 
the most curious of the Win- compounds is the common 
Norfolk name Winearls, in which the second element is 
the dialect " earls, arles," earnest-money. With 
Waghorn, Wagstaff cf. Walter Waggespere (Lane. 
Ass. R. 1176-1285), while Waggett may sometimes 
be the equivalent of Ger. Schuddekopf, shake-head 
(see p. 128). To the Shake- names may be added 
Shacklock [Hamo Shakeloc, Hund. R.], with which 
cf. John Werpeloc (Leic. Bor. Rec.) and William 
Wrytheloc (Malmesbury Abbey Reg.), and Shakelady, 
Schacklady, with which cf. Robert Schaketrot (Lane. 
Court R. 1323-4) — 

" An old trot with ne'er a tooth in her head" 

{Shrew, i. 2), 

and John Daubedame (Leic. Bor. Rec.) — 

" Dauber, to beat, swindge, lamme, canvasse throughly " 

(Cotg.). 

Of the Hack- names the most interesting is Hak- 
luyt. The DNB. describes the geographer as of a 
family long established in Herefordshire, probably of 
Dutch origin. The " Dutch " appears to be suggested 
by the second syllable. The name means " hack 
little," ME. lilt, and the founder of the family was 
probably a woodcutter without enthusiasm [Peter 
Hakelut, IpM., Heref.]. Walter Hackelute or Hakelut 
or Hakelutel occurs repeatedly in thirteenth-century 
records of Hereford and Salop. 



PASS AND PIERCE 265 

There are also two rather large groups containing 
the verbs pass 1 and pierce. From the first come Passe- 
low, " cross water," whence also Paslow, Parslow, 
Pasley, Pashley, Pashler * [Edmund Passelewe or Passe- 
ley e or Passhelye, Pat. R.], Passmore [Stephen Passe- 
mer, Fine 2?.], Passavant [Alan Passavaunt, Lane. 
Ass. R. 1176-1285], contracted to Passant. In 
French we find Passelaigue,' Passerieu (OF. rieu, a 
stream), Passelac, Passepont, etc. With Passavant cf. 
the hybrid Startifant, Sturdevant, Sturtivant, in which 
the first element is ME. stert, to start. In the F. of Y. 
it is spelt Stirtavaunt. The Pierce- names are very 
curious, and it is hard to say exactly what the verb 
meant in these compounds. The much discussed Per- 
ceval, Percival is simply what it appears to be, viz. 
" pierce vale" Another hero of romance was Perce- 
forest. One origin of Percy, Pearcey, Pursey, etc. is 
perce-haie, pierce hedge [William Percehaye, Hund. R.]. 
Passifull and Passfield, which look like compounds of 
pass, are in all probability corruptions of Percival, 
and Purcifer, a Yorkshire name, shows the same slur- 
ring as in Brammer for the local Bramhall. Finally, 
Pershouse, Purshouse is " pierce house." Thirlway, 
Thirlaway contains the obsolete " thirl," to pierce, 
but the whole compound may be local, meaning 
a gap. 

Somewhat akin to this group are the French names 
in Tranche-, some of which, such as Trenchemer, 
Tren chelae are found also in Middle English. With 

1 The charger of the paladin Gerier was Passecerf {Chanson de 
Roland). 

• Cf. Brister for Bristow (p. 104). 

3 Aigue (aqua) is a southern form of eau; cf. Aigues-mortes. 



266 THE SHAKESPEARE TYPE OF SURNAME 

Tranchevent cf. Ger. Schneidewind and our Sherwin 
[Thomas Sherewynd, Fine R.], the latter the same type 
of man as William Windswif t, mariner (F. of Y.) . We 
have other compounds of shear in Sherlock, Shurlock 
[Simon Skyrloc, Chart R.], and in Shargold, Shergold, 
perhaps a coin-clipper or a worker at the mint 1 ; but 
Shearwood is local, of Sherwood. Another element 
which was once common is tread. We have still 
Tredwell, Tretwell, Treaddell, and Tredgold 2 [Walter 
Tredegold, Hund. R.], the last-named appearing also 
as Threadgold, Thridgould; cf. Threadgate, in which 
gate means street. In Middle English we find also 
Thomas Tredebalk {Chart. R.), Symon Tredhard 
(Yorks, 1379), and Richard Tradesalt (Rievaulx Cart.). 
Treadaway, Treadway is local [John de Treddewy, 
Exch. R.], from treadway, a thoroughfare, which was 
in use as late as the seventeenth century. 

Gather occurs in Gather good (p. 262), Gather cole, 3 
Gatherall. The last-named, of the type of Walter 
Prentout (Lond. Wills, 1340), still a French surname, 
and Godwin Given out (Rievaulx Cart.), has also become 
Catherall,* with which cf. Catherwood for " gather 
wood," and Abraham Cathermonie (Rievaulx Chart). 
In the Pat. R. we find Nicholas Gadrewit whose 
pursuit was wisdom rather than wealth. Tirebuck 

1 " The other (lane), corruptly called Sermon lane, for Shere- 
moniers' lane, for I find it by that name recorded in the fourteenth 
of Edward I. ... It may, therefore, be well supposed that lane 
to take name of Sheremonyars, such as cut and rounded the plates 
to be coined or stamped into sterling pence" (Stow). 

1 With this cf. Ger. Rosentreter, the trampler of roses. 

* It is uncertain whether the second element means charcoal 
or cabbage [Robert Gaderkold, Pat. R.]. 

1 I think Cathedrall must be an imitative alteration of this. 



MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 267 

may be local, of Tarbock (Lane), but the first element 
may be the obsolete tire, to tear, rend — 

" I graunte wel that thou endurest wo 
As sharp as doth he, Ticius, in helle, 
Whos stomak foules tiren evere mo 
That highten voltoures, as bookes telle " 

(Troilus and Criseyde, i. 785). 

This etymology is supported by William Randekide 
(Leic. Bor. Rec.) and the Lancashire Tyrer [Henry le 
Tyrer, Bp. Kellawe's Reg.}, formerly also Tyre-hare, 
though this latter may perhaps refer to a blameless 
hairdresser. 

Knatchbull may have been applied to a butcher, or 
perhaps to some medieval Milo of Crotona ; cf. John 
Felox (13th century) — 

' ' With a great clubbe (Commodus) knatched them all on the hed ' ' 
(NED. 1579). 

Benbow, Benbough, Bebbow are of course "bend-bow " 
[William Bendebowe, City F.~]. Robin Hood's follower 
Scathelock is still found as Scadlock, Shadlock, Shatlock, 
Shedlock, Shotlock, Shackcloth, though the compound 
can hardly be said to make sense. Evidently Shack- 
lock has contributed also to this group. There are a 
considerable number of medieval names in -lock ; see 
p. 264. Rackstraw, Raickstraw, Rextrew, Rockstro, is 
occupative, "rake straw"; cf. Ralph Frapaile, i.e. 
frappe-paille (Pat. R.), a thresher, and see "bang- 
straw " in the EDD. Prindeville was a successful 
soldier, Fr. prend ville. Parlby is altered from the 
once common parle bien [John Parlebien, Pat. R.] 
and Chantler is for the still commoner chante clair 
[Roger Chauntecler or Chaunteler, Pat. R.]. Cash- 

19 



268 THE SHAKESPEARE TYPE OF SURNAME 

man is for " catch man " [Mabel Cacheman, Pat. R.]. 
Shadbolt, Shotbolt may be for " shoot bolt " (cf. 
Benbow, p. 267), or the first element may be a past 
participle and the whole compound have been ap- 
plied to one who had shot his bolt ; cf. the common 
Middle English name Lancelevee. Hurlbatt is doubt- 
ful, for Matthew Herlebaut (Pat. R.) looks like a 
personal name. Still, John Hurlebadde (Pat. R.) and 
Thomas Draghebat l (ib.) tend to authenticate it as 
a phrase-name. Plantrose [John Plaunterose, Hund. 
R.] and Pluckrose [Alan Pluckrose, ib.] still exist and 
have plenty of medieval support ; cf. Simon Schakerose 
(Pat. R.), Peter Porterose (ib.), Andrew Plantefene 2 
(Leic. Bor. Rec), Elyas Plantefolye (Fine R.). Pluck- 
rose has a parallel in Culpepper 3 [Thomas Cullepeper 
or Colepepyr, Pat. R.], with which cf. Richard Culle- 
bene (Hund. R.). 

Among examples in which the second element is 
adverbial we find, besides the quaint Gotobed or Gotbed, 
such names as Rushout (cf. Rideout, p. 259) and Rusha- 
way, the latter perhaps a conscientious objector, like 
Robert Torne-en-Fuie (Pachnio). Fulloway may be 
for " follow way," as Followfast is found in the four- 
teenth century, and Standeven, Standaloft both seem 
to belong here also. Pickavant, altered to Pickavance, 
Pickance, Pickervance is Fr. pique-avant, spur forward. 

Subject and verb are inverted in Hornblow, Komi- 
blow, Orneblow and possibly in Milsopp, Mellsop 

1 This seems to be the native equivalent of Trailbaston, a term 
first applied to a class of malefactors. On the interesting develop- 
ment of this compound into a legal term see NED. 

a Fr. foin, hay, Lat. fcenum. 

3 There is just a possibility that this means " black pepper" 
cf. Thomas Piperwyt (Cust. Battle Abbey) and John Blaksalt (Pat. R.) 



MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 269 

[Roger Melkesopp, Hund. R.]. The latter may mean 
what is sopped in milk, but, as applied to a baby, or 
to a spiritless person, it may be rather one who sups 
milk — 

" Hay 11, lytyll tyn mop, rewarder of mede 1 
Hayll, bot oone drop of grace at my nede ! 
Hayll lytyl tnylk sop ! hayll, David sede I " 

(Towneley Mysteries). 

Similar inversions are found in Middle English, as in 
the pleasing John Cou torment [Pat. R.). The original 
Overthrow was perhaps a skilled wrestler ; cf. Henry 
Overdo {Close R., Ed. IV.). John Lyngeteill, tailor 
(F. of Y.), may be for taille-linge, or the second element 
may be toile, cloth. 

It excites no surprise that so many of these names 
have disappeared. They are, as this chapter shows, 
and as will be seen still more clearly from the list on 
pp. 270-7, nearly always contemptuous. Also they are 
often cumbersome, so that even so complimentary a 
name as that of J ehan Qui de riens ne s'esmoie (Pachnio), 
i.e. John Dreadnought, had a very poor chance of 
surviving. Occasionally such names have been ab- 
sorbed by others. There can, for instance, be little 
doubt that some of our Penfolds L represent the occupa- 
tive " pen-fowl " [Henry Pynfoule, Pat. R.], an official 
who has become more usually Catchpole (Fr. chasse- 
poule). Walkinshaw, Wakenshaw, has a local look, 
but the existence of Rangecroft suggests that it may be 
simply " walk in shaw," perhaps a forest ranger — 

" Walkers, seeme to be those that are otherwise called foresters. 
Crompton in his Jurisdictions, fol. 1 54, hath these words in effect : 
There bee foresters assigned by the King, which be walkers within 
a certain space assigned them to looke unto " (Cowel). 

1 This has several variants, e.g. Pennifold, Pinfold, Pinfield. 



270 THE SHAKESPEARE TYPE OF SURNAME 

Hence perhaps also Walkland. Or the name may 
have been applied to a forest outlaw. Cf. Jourdain 
Saill-du-Bois (Pachnio), Hugo Saildebroil > (ib.), found 
also in Middle English as Saudebroyl, both of whom 
probably obtained their sobriquets by their unwelcome 
sorties from the woods that bordered the medieval 
highway. Walklate is as natural a nickname as " toil 
by night" (see p. 233). Other names of the same 
type, some not easy to interpret, are Wakelam i 
(cf. Esveillechien, p. 273), Shearhod (hood), Stabback, 
Settatree, Makemead [Gregory Makemete, Pat. R.], 
Lockbane, Saltonstall (cf. mountebank and saltimbanque). 
The obsolete names in the following list all come 
from the same sources as those which are quoted 
throughout this book. To save space I have omitted 
the baptismal names and references. Some of them 
no doubt still exist in a corrupted form and perhaps 
others are wrongly included here. A few, which I cannot 
interpret, may amuse the leisure of some of my readers. 
It will be noticed that Anglo-French prevails over the 
native element, while there are a few hybrids. Many 
are evidently trade descriptions, but the majority 
allude to some habit, or even some isolated act, on the 
part of the original bearer. 

Baillebien (OF. baffler, to give. Baysers 

Cf. F. Baillehart [halter], Besecu 

Baillehache [axe], whence Bail- Banesthef (banish thief) 

hache) Banthane (cf. Crusseking, but 

Baisedame (cf. Lovelady) Banfather is for Bairnsfather 

Bayseboll (one who loved the p. 244) 

bowl) Barreduk (cf. Facehen) 



1 See Brewill (p. 55). 

3 The rather vigorous-looking Wahem and Whackum are for the 
local Wakeham. 



OBSOLETE NICKNAMES 



271 



Beivin (boi-vin), a very common 
Middle English name, still 
found as Bevin) 

Berebred 

Berhors 

Beritawey (with the bear- names 
cf. those in port). 

Berewater 

Bereswerd 

Bernereve 

Brenecote 

Brengest 

Brendhers (horse ?) 

Bryndboys (in these five names 
we have Middle English forms 
of burn) 

Betewater 

Byggeharme (ME. big, to build, 

, contrive) 

Bindethef 

Bindewinter 

Bitebere 

Bytewant (ME. want, a. mole ; 
cf. Moulbayt) 

Blouhorn 

Boteturte (see p. 258, n. 3) 

Brekbek 

Brekedisshe 

Brekedure (door) 

Brechedure 

Brechehert 

Brekemast 

Brekpot 

Brekerop (cf. Crakestreng) 

Brekstaf 

Bridebek (cf. Bridoye, the judge 
inRabelais. Geesewerebridled 
by passing a feather through 
the orifices of the beak to 
prevent them from straying 
through hedges. Hence" oison 
bride 1 , a sot, asse, gull, ninnie, 
noddie" Cotg.). 



Brysbank 

Brisbon (bone) 

Brisecoc 

Briscop (cup) 

Brisefer 

Briselaunce 

Brisemustier (OF. moustier, 

monastery) 
Brisepot 
Bristimbre 
Brusebar 
Brusekaillou 
Bruselance 
Brusepot 
Bukelboots 
Bukepot (ME. buck, to wash, 

clean, as in buck-basket) 
Buskeleche 



Cachefis 

Cacchefrensh 

Cachehors 

Cachemaille (Fr. maille, a small 
coin ; cf. Pinsemaille. Cache- 
maille is an existing English 
name, no doubt Huguenot) 

Cachemay (ME. may, a maiden ; 
? cf. Bindlass, p. 200) 

Cachepot (cf. Fr. Chassepot, 
p. 289) 

Cachevache (cf . names in Chase-, 
Cake-, Kach-) 

Cakedan (Fr. daim, a deer) 

Cakerowe 

Castepac 

Chaceporc 

Chasehare 

Chasemuine (Fr. moine, a monk) 

Chanteben 

Chauntemerle (Fr. merle, a black- 
bird ; but Chantemerle is a 
common French place-name) 



272 THE SHAKESPEARE TYPE OF SURNAME 



Chantemesse 

Charthecrawe 

Chaucebuef, Causebuf 

Caucepe 

Causseben (Fr. chausser, to shoe) 

Chipawey 

Chopfox 

Clocoppe (ME. clock, to hobble, 
Fr. clocher. Cf. Startup [p. 153] 
and trollop, Trollope, from 
ME. troll, to saunter, prowl) 

Clevegris (ME. gris, a pig) 

Clevehog (these two names are 
sometimes misprinted Clene- 
in the Hund R. Cf. the names 
in Tranche-, Trenche-) 

Cnaplok 

Cokechinne 

Countefoghel (before they were 
hatched ?) 

Coupchesne 

Coupeforge (? a mistake for 
Coupegorge) 

Copefranceis 

Copegray (dial, gray, a badger) 

Coupne (coupe-nez) 

Coursedieu (cf. Crusseking) 

Crakpot 

Crakesheld 

Crakestreng (cf. Brekerop. 
" Baboin, a crack-rope, wag- 
halter, unhappy rogue, 
wretchlesse villaine," Cotg.) 

Crevecuor (hence Crawcour and 
sometimes Croker. Cf . Breche- 
hert. But the name is local ; 
there are four Crevecceurs in 
France) 

Crollebois, Corlebois (OF. croller, 
to shake ; cf . Curlevache) 

Crusseking (curse) 

Cuethemarket (know the mar- 
ket ?) 



Cullebene (cf. Peckebene) 

Cullebere ("kill bear" or Pick- 
barlik ?) 

Cullefinch 

Cullehare 

Culletoppe (Fr. taupe, a mole. 
For cull, to kill, see also p. 257) 

Curairs 

Curedame 

Curlevache 

Cuttecope 

Cutfox 

Cuthog 

Cuttepope 

Cutsweyn 

Cuthup 

Cutwesyll (this may be for wea- 
sel, but is more probably a 
perversion of weasand, throat) 



Dyngbel 

Dyngesande (ME. ding, to 

pound, crush) 
Dragebrech 
Dreghorn 
Drawespe 
Drawlace 

Drawespere, Draespere 
Draweswerd 
Draneck (not from draw, but 

from thraw, twisted.a northern 

form of throw, so it does not 

really belong to this group. 

Thrawnecked is still in dial. 

use) 
Drounepak 
Dringkedregges 
Drynkpany (possibly belongs 

elsewhere. Drinkpenny was 

used in the same sense as Fr. 

pourboire and Ger. Trinkgeld. 

Cf. Virgil Godspeny, Pat. R., 



OBSOLETE NICKNAMES 



273 



and the existing French name 
Potdevin, from pot-de-vin, a 
present made in concluding a 
bargain, etc. Hansell also no 
doubt has sometimes a similar 
origin) 

Drynkestor 

Dubedent (see p. 258) 

Duleram 

Dunpurs (perhaps for " don 
purse." But it may mean 
"brown purse"; cf. Irenpurs 
[p. 163] and Alexander Hari- 
pok, i.e. hairy pouch, F. of Y.) 

Enganevielle (OF. enganer, to 

trick, deceive) 
Esveillechien 
Etebred 
Et[h]ebutter 
Etelof 
Etemete 

Faceben (Dogood) 

Facehen (one who could " say 
boh to a goose." But a line 
in Cocke Lorelle suggests that 
there was a verb face, meaning 
to ill-treat, whence Facer — 
" Crakers, facers, and chyl- 
derne quellers ' ' ) 

Falleninwolle (? well) 

Felebesche (cf. Coupchesne) 

Fernon (a ME. Dreadnought) 

Ferewyff 

Fiercop (OF. fier-coup, strike 
blow) 

Findesilver 

Forthwynde (probably for wend, 
cf. Wendut, Gangeof, Rideout) 

Fretecok 

Freteheved 



Fretelof 

Fretemette (cf. the names in 

Ete- and see p. 255) 
Froisselewe (cf. Betewater) 
Fulsalt (Fr. fouler, to tread) 
Futladame 



Gangeof 

Gaderpenye 

Gardleberd 

Gastehuse 

Gatteprest (cf. the names in 

Waste-) 
Gerdelaf 
Ginful(? trap fowl; cf. Pynfoule, 

p. 269) 
Girdethewode (see Girdwood, 

p. 251, n. 3. But it may be for 

" guard the wood ") 
Gnawebon 
Gnawepeny 
Gobefore 
Godsendus 
Gointhewynd 
Gratefige (Fr. gratte figue ; cf. 

Squarcefige) 
Grindlas 

Grindelove (see p. 260) 
Gripchese 

Guanaben (Fr. gagne-bien) 
Gurdepack 
Gyrdecope, Gyrdinthecope 



Hackebon 

Hachchebutere (cf. Avice la Bu- 

terkervere, Close R.) 
Hakkefot 
Hackenose 
Hacsmal 
Hactare 
Haldelond 



274 THE SHAKESPEARE TYPE OF SURNAME 



Halskyng (ME. halse, to em- 
brace) 

Hatekarle (cf. Ger . Bauernjeind) 

Hatet[h]rift 

Hauntewak (wake, now used 
only oi a funeral feast, for- 
merly meant a " revelling o' 
nights ") 

Heldhare (ME. helden, to hold, 
keep) 

Hykepin 

Hoppeschort 

Hotgo 

Hundecrist (cf. Hatecrist, Shone- 
crist, p. 212) 

Hurtequart (a drinker's name ; 
cf. the archaic expression 
" crushing a quart ") 

Hurtevent (cf . Tranehevent, 
Sherwin, p. 266. It is also a 
French place-name, no doubt 
meaning " face wind," Mod. 
Fr. heurter, to encounter 
roughly) 



Kacheboye (see names in Cache-, 

Chase-, Cake-) 
Kachelewe 
Kachepeny 
Keekhorn 
Kembelof (apparently " comb 

wolf " ; cf. unkempt) 
Kepecat 
Kepegest 
Kepeharm 



Lacklove 

Lapewater 

Laughwell 

Lenealday 

Levetoday 



Lievelance 

Liggescheld 

Lockeburs, Locenpurs 

Locout (probably " look out ") 

Lulleman 



Makebeverege 

Makeblisse 

Makeblythe 

Makefair 

Makehayt 

Makejoy 

Makesayle 

Mangebacun 

Mangefer 

Mangehaste (OF. haste, a spit; cf. 

Taillehast) 
Mangevileyn 
Marewater 
Mendfaute 
Metlefrein 

Moulbayt (cf. Bytewant) 
Mucedent (OF. mucier, to hide, 

cover up ; cf. Adubbe-dent, 

P-258) 



Ottespur 



Pailcerf (skin stag, or perhaps 
for " poil de oerf ") 

Paynlow (torture wolf) 

Pakharneys (cf. Trusseharneys. 
In the Towneley Mysteries 
Cain's horse-boy is called 
Pike-harneis, probably the 
same name) 

Parchehare 

Parlefrens 

Passlewelle 

Passeflabere (a nickname applied 



OBSOLETE NICKNAMES 



275 



in Annal. Monast. to Ranulf 
Flambard, whose name sur- 
vives as Flambert. It appar- 
ently plays on his name and 
suggests handing on the torch) 

Peckebene 

Peckechese 

Peckewether 

Percesoil, Percesuil (also mis- 
printed Percefoil) 

Percevent 

Pichepappe (apparently the 
same as Fr. Piepape, and of 
the same type as Crusseking, 
Shonecrist, etc., but I cannot 
explain the first syllable) 

Pickbarlik 

Pikebone 

Pikechin 

Pikhorn 

Pikemumele (? Fr. mamelle) 

Pikewastel 

Pylcok 

Pillegos (cf. Jehan Escorche- 
Rainne, skin-frog, Pachnio) 

Pillemyl (mule) 

Pilemus (mouse) 

Pinchehaste 

Pinsemaille (" Pinse-maille, a 
pinch peny, scrape-good, nig- 
ard, miser, peniefather,"Cotg.) 

Pinchepeny 

Pinchshu 

Pineferding 

Pirnetote (see Prentout, p. 266) 

Playscefonte 

Polprest (an ecclesiastical hair- 
dresser) 

Portebryf 

Portegoie, Portejoie 

Porterob 

Portesoyl (cf. the names in Bere- 
and the existing French sur- 



names Portebois, Portefaix, 

Portelance, Portenseigne) 
Pouchmete 
Pownsewayd (a " pouncer," or 

pulverizer, of woad. Cf. 

Wader, p. 120) 
Prikeavant (an alteration of 

Pickavant, p. 268) 
Prikehering 
Prikehors 
Prikeskin 
Pullebrid (here pull is equivalent 

to pill ; see p. 257) 
Pulegos 
Pulhare 



Rennaway 

Reulebon (AF. reule-bien, rule 

well) 
Rerepaunch 
Ringebelle 
Rivegut 
Robechild 
Rollevilain 
Romefare (a pilgrim to Rome) 

Sachevin (OF. sachier, to draw. 
It may, however, be an al- 
teration of the French sur- 
name Sacavin, from " sac a 
vin, a drunken gulch, or gor- 
belly ; a great wine-drinker " 
Cotg.) 

Sacquespee (cf . Draweswerd. 
This name, common in our 
Rolls, has perhaps been ab- 
sorbed by Saxby. It is still 
found in France as Sacquepi) 

Sailleben 

Schapacape, Shapeakap, 
Shappecape (a tailor ?) 

Schitebroch 



276 THE SHAKESPEARE TYPE OF SURNAME 



Scorchevileyn 

Scrapetrough (the name of a 

miller in F. of Y.) 
Scrothose 
Scubledekne 
Sefare 
Serveladi 
Shakeshethe 
Shavetail 
Skillehare 
Sletlame 
Sparegod 
Spekelitel 
Spelkelesing (a mistake for 

" speak leasing ") 
Spikefis 
Spilblod 
Spillecause 
Spillecok 
Spilcorn 
Spilfot 
Spiking 
Spilewyn 

Spitewinch (wench) 
Sprenhose, Sprenghoese (ME. 

sprenge, to scatter. Cf. Waste- 

hus, Bernhus) 
Springemare, Springemer 
Spurecat 
Spirecoc 
Spirhard 
Spirewhit 
Spongeboll 
Spurnestan 
Spurneturtoys 
Squarsefige 
Stalebond 
Stelecat 
Step wrong 
Stikeman 
Strecketayle 
Strokehose 
Sturpot 



Supewortes 
Swetinbedde 



Taillebosc 

Taillehast 

Taylemayle 

Taillepetit (cf. Hacsmal) 

Tamehorn 

Tendhogge 

Thurlewynd (synonymous with 
Percevent) 

Tyreboys 

Tirelitel 

Tireavant 

Tosseman 

Totepeny (an early example of 
tout, in its original sense of 
looking out, watching for) 

Tracepurcel 

Tradesalt 

Tredepel 

Tredlef 

Tredewater 

Trenchebof 

Trenchelake 

Trenchemer 

Trenchmore 

Trenchepin (Fr. pain ?) 

Trenchesey 

Trenchesoil 

Trenchevent, Trinchevent 

Trendelove, Trendeluwe (ME. 
trend, to turn. The second 
syllable means wolf. Cf. Turn- 
bull, Turnbuck) 

Trotemenil (for Fr. trotte-menu, 
used of a tripping gait) 

Trussebut 

Trusseharneys (" His gilly-trush- 
harnish, to carry his knap- 
sack," Waverley, ch. xvi) 

Trussemulle 



OBSOLETE NICKNAMES 



277 



Trussevilain 

Tukbacon 

Turnecotele 

Tornemantel (of course the first 

syllable might be the adj. 

torn) 
Turnepet 
Turnetrave (trave, a dial, word 

for a shock of corn ; cf . Fr. 

Tournenteule) 



Vatost 



Wagetail 

Waynpayn (a Picard form of Fr. 

Gagnepain) 
Waytecake (a gamekeeper, 



wayte, to guard, and cake, 
variant of chasse ; cf . Cakedan) 

Wakewo 

Wantemylk 

Wardebien 

Wasthose, Wasthus 

Wastepayn 

Wastepeny 

Waveloc 

Wendut, Wyndout 

Wetebedde 

Whirlepeni 

Whirlepipyn 

Widfare 

Winnelove 

Wynneyene (again) 

Wipetail 

Wryngetayl, Wrangtayle 

Wrytheloc 



CHAPTER XIII 

FRENCH SURNAMES 

"As to bravery, foolish, inexperienced people of every nation 
always think that their own soldiers are braver than any others. 
But when one has seen as much as I have done, one understands 
that there is no very marked difference, and that although nations 
differ very much in discipline, they are all equally brave — except 
that the French have rather more courage than the rest " (Brigadier 
Gerard) . 

Soon after the beginning of the war I read, in a usually 
well-informed periodical, that General J off re was of 
humble extraction, and owed his name to an immediate 
ancestor, who, pursuing the calling of an itinerant 
dealer, was wont to commence his remarks with the 
words J'offre ! This statement, whatever may be 
thought of it philologically, seems at any rate to 
indicate some interest in the onomatology of our gallant 
allies. French names, like our own, have a history 
that can be traced, and are formed on a system which 
can be easily illustrated. From about the eleventh 
century, when the surname (i.e. super name) began to 
be added to the simple appellation which satisfied our 
remoter ancestors, down to about the middle of the 
fourteenth century, when names became hereditary 
instead of changing with the individual, surnames 
have been formed in four ways only. Ihey are. 
baptismal, from the name of the father or mother, e.g. 

278 



CLASSES OF SURNAMES 279 

Lamartine, ClSmenceau (little Clement) ; local, from 
place of birth or residence, e.g. Dupont (Bridge), Dupre 
(Mead), Lallemand (Allman) ; occupative, from trade 
or office, e.g. Boucher (Butcher), Serrurier (Lockyer), 
Lemaitre (Master) ; or descriptive, from some peculi- 
arity of appearance, character, costume, habits, etc., 
e.g. Legrand (Grant) Lebon (Boon), Beauharnais (fine 
armour) Boileau (Drinkwater) . Thus, corresponding 
to our Messrs. Williams, Mills, Baker, Small, we find 
in France Messieurs Guillaume, Desmoulins, Boulanger, 
Lepetit. Not only so, but, as in our language is a 
mixture of English and French and a large proportion 
of our population was bilingual during the period in 
which our surnames took form, most common French 
surnames are found also in this country, so that the 
four mentioned above not only translate the given 
English equivalents, but also flourish among us as 
Gilham, Mullins, Bullinger, and Pettitt, with, of course, 
many variant spellings. 

With a fair knowledge of modern French, which, 
judging from the published versions of the French 
despatches, is somewhat to seek in high places, and some 
tincture of the older forms of the language, it is possible 
to ascertain the meaning and origin of nine-tenths of 
the names in the Paris Directory. But the tenth 
name, or perhaps, in the case of a very well equipped 
student, the twentieth name, is often a teaser, the diffi- 
culties to be overcome being sometimes greater, some- 
times less, than those encountered in the study of 
English surnames. Speaking generally, these diffi- 
culties are of a special nature resulting from the char- 
acter and genius of the language. 

The misleading aspect of a name, due to erratic 



2 8o FRENCH SURNAMES 

spelling, is a common phenomenon in both languages, 
but the French practice of omitting the final consonant 
in pronunciation often leads to an orthographic sub- 
stitution of a specially baffling character. Dumouriez 
suggests nothing, but if we replace the final -z by -r 
we get at once the dialect mourier, a bramble, and the 
name is then as simple as Dubuisson (Bush) or Delarbre 
(Tree). Montegut is obviously Montaigu, the pointed 
hill (Peake), Darboy is for d'Arbois, from a place in 
the Jura, and Duclaux is simply Duclos (Close). The 
well-known name Hanotaux is for Hanotot, formed 
from Jean by the most puzzling process in which the 
language indulges — thus, Jehan, Han, Hanoi, Hanotot. 
A phonetic spelling gives Leclair for Leclerc (Clark), 
Lemerre for Lemaire (Mayor), Chantavoine for champ 
d'avoine, oat field, while Ozanne disguises the more 
homely Auxdnes, a nickname of a type not uncommon 
in French and meaning either an ass-driver or a dealer 
in those quadrupeds. Similarly we find Ozenfant for 
Auxenfants, corresponding to the Mr. Quiverfull of 
the old-fashioned comic papers. In Lailavoix is 
hidden OF. lez la voie (Bytheway) with the obsolete 
preposition lez (Lat. latus) which survives in Plessis- 
les-Tours, and possibly in such English place-names 
as Chester-le-Street. 

We have also, as in English, to consider dialect 
peculiarities. Lat. faber, a smith or wright, gives in 
the north Flvre, Lefevre, but in the south Fabre and 
Faure, along with other variants and intermediate 
forms. La Chaussee (Cawsey, Cosway) is in Provencal 
La Caussade, and SalcHe, drawn and quartered in 1582, 
was a southerner who in the north would have been 
Saussaye, willow-grove (Lat. salicetum). Canrobert, 



DIALECT AND ARCHAIC FORMS 281 

corresponding to such an English name as Robertshaw, 

contains the Normand-Picard word for champ, the 

normal form of which is preserved in Changarnier, 

Warner's field. With the latter goes the heroic Chandos 

(Bonefield). The famous actor Lekain had a name 

which is a variant of Lequien, a dialect form of Lechien. 

Belloc is the southern form of Beaulieu, Castelnau of 

Chdteauneuf. Corday is dialect for Cordier (Corder, 

Roper), Boileau is found also as Boilaive, Boileve, 

Boylesve, and Taine is an archaic or local pronunciation 

of Toine, for A ntoine. So also we have archaic spellings 

in Langlois, as common a name in France as French 

and Francis are in England, Picquart, the Picard 

(Pickard), and Lescure, i.e. I'ecuyer (Squire). In fact, 

while some names gradually change their sound and 

spelling in conformity with those of the words from 

which they are derived, others, and perhaps the 

majority, preserve archaic forms which afiect their 

pronunciation and disguise their origin. A tadpole 

is called in French tetard, while in Old French a man 

with a big head was nicknamed Testard, a name which 

is still common by the side of Tetard. Also many of 

the variations which occur are due to the date of 

adoption. A name acquired in the twelfth century 

will not have the same form as one that dates from the 

fifteenth, e.g. the nickname Rey (King) is older than 

Leroy, and Levesque is obviously anterior to Leveque 

(Bishop, Levick). Souvestre represents the Old French 

form of Silvester, of which Silvestre is a modern restored 

spelling. 

Taking in order the four classes of names, baptismal, 
local, occupative, descriptive, it is interesting to 
notice the resemblances and differences in the methods 



282 FRENCH SURNAMES 

by which surnames are created and multiplied in the 
two languages. We have in English more than a 
dozen names derived from William, without taking 
into account those with an initial G (Gill, Gillott, 
Gilkes, etc.) which belong to the French form Guil- 
laume. Williams, Williamson are English formations 
to which French has no exact parallel, and, although 
the prefix in Fitzwilliam is the French word fils, French 
surnames of this type are very rare. But we also 
shorten William to Will and create by diminutive 
suffixes Willy, Willett, Willing, Wilcocks, Wilkin, 
Wilkes, etc. French proceeds in the same way, but 
with much greater freedom, e.g. Guillaumet, Guillaumin, 
Guillaumot, Guillaumy, Guille, Guillemain, Guillemard, 
Guillemat, Gillemaud, Guillemeau, Guillemenot, Guille- 
min, Guillemineau, Guillemot, Guillermin, Guillet, Guil- 
liet, Guillon, Guillot, Guillotin, Guillon, Guilmet, Guilmin, 
and a few dozen more, 1 piling one diminutive suffix 
on to another ad infinitum. Shortened forms such as 
Joffre from Joffroy (Jeffrey), Foch from Fochier, Fouche 
(Fulcher) are easy to recognize, and the addition of 
suffixes, as in Joffrin, Geoffrin, Joffron, Joffrenot, 
presents no difficulty. 

So far things are simple. But the tendency of 
French, with its stress on the last syllable, is more 
often in the direction of the decapitation of a name, 
as in our Bert for Herbert. Simple examples are Colas 
for Nicolas, Nisard for Denisard, Bastien for Sebastien, 
Jamin for Benjamin, Stophe, Stofflet for Christofthe. 
But after this decapitation there generally begins a 
chain of names which is very difficult to trace, e.g. 

1 Including dialect forms in W and V-, e.g. Wuillemin, Wilmotte, 
Viilemain, etc. 



DERIVATIVES OF FONT-NAMES 283 

from Thomas we get Mas, Massed Masset, Massenet, 
Massillon, and eventually, by a new decapitation, 
Sillon, which only preserves the final letter of the 
original name. So from Garaud (Jerrold) we have 
Raud, Rod, Rodin, and from Bernard come not only 
Bernardin, Bernadot, Bernadotte, but also Nadaud, 
Nadot, while these may go on to Daudet, Dottin, etc. 
This is a game to which there is no limit, and, as names 
can be dealt with both head and tail, it is often im- 
possible to decide how a series has begun. Such a 
name as Bert, with its Berthon, Berthollet, Bertilleau, 
etc., may be from the first syllable of Bertrand, Berthe- 
lemy (Bartholomew), etc., or from the final of Albert, 
Hubert, etc. Similarly Nicot may belong to Nicolas 
or Janicot, the latter name a diminutive of Jean, 
and possibly the origin of our Jellicoe, Garot may 
represent Garaud (Jerrold) or Margarot (Margetts, 
Meggitt), Filon may come from Philippe or Theophile. 
This love of derivatives is especially characteristic of 
French onomatology, while in English the practice 
exists, though in a much more restricted degree, e.g. 
Philip, Philpot, Pott, Potkins. On the other hand, 
French has not our trick of riming names (Dick, Hick, 
from Richard, Dob, Hob, from Robert). 

Hence the French surname groups of baptismal 
origin are much larger than ours. Jean and Etienne 
(Stephen) are said to have each more than one hundred 
derivatives, while Pierre has about two hundred. It 
will be noticed that these most popular font-names 
are all Biblical. So also the Easter name Pascal 
has a large number of derivatives, e.g. Pasquin, Pdquin, 
Pasquet, Pasquier, etc., and, among female names, 
1 Massi is also for Matthew. 
20 



284 FRENCH SURNAMES 

the great saints such as Marie, Catherine, Marguerite, 
head the list, e.g. Mariette, Mariotte, Riotte, 1 Marat, 
Marot ; Catinat, Cathelineau, Linel , Margot, Margoton, 
Got, etc. The relative popularity in France of Biblical 
_ and Teutonic font-names has varied in the past. Before 
the Frankish conquest practically all the saints and 
martyrs 2 of Gaul have Greco-Latin names, though a 
few of Teutonic origin appear by the fifth century. 
By the eighth century the latter are in a majority, 
and by the twelfth the Greco-Latin names are swamped 
by the new-comers. In modern France these once so 
popular names, Beranger, Fouquier, Gamier, Gautier, 
Lambert, Oger, Regnard, etc., all of which have also 
given English surnames, have mostly fallen out of use, 
though very common as surnames. A few, such as 
Charles, Edouard, Henri, Louis, Robert, are stillpopular, 
but, speaking generally, French parents have gone back 
for the names of their children to the Bible and the 
Greco-Latin martyrology, e.g. Jean, Thomas, Philippe, 
Pierre; Alexandre, Eugene, Theophile, Victor, etc. 

French surnames of baptismal origin are occasionally 
accompanied by the article, Landrieux, Lasimonne, 
and also by the preposition de and d, Demichel, Duber- 
trand, Aladenise. These compounds had possessive 
force, just as in modern rustic French " 1' enfant a la 
Martine " means Martine's child. Such surnames 
formed from female names do not as a rule point to 
illegitimacy, but rather to the importance of the mother 
in the French family. Martin's wife was called La 
1 This may be equally well an abstract nickname ; cf . Ryott 

(p. 220). 

1 It should be remembered that French Christian names are usually 
taken from the Calendar, the name given being that of the saint on 
whose feast the child is born. 



LOCAL NAMES 285 

Martine and ruled the roost. Another peculiarity of 
French surnames of this class is the frequency with 
which they are qualified by an adjective. In English 
we have as a rule only compounds of John, e.g. Little- 
john, Meiklejohn, Prettyjohn, etc., with an occasional 
Goodwillie or Gawkroger (see p. 242), but in French 
most common font-names are thus used. On his 
last visit to England President Poincare was accom- 
panied by Captain Grandclement. Cf. Bonbemat 
(Bernard), Beaujean, Grandcolas (Nicolas), Petitperrin 
(Pierre), Maugirard (Gerard), Grosclaude. Sometimes 
the article is also used, e.g. Lepetitdidier, from one of 
the few French names (Desiderius) which have never 
nourished in England. In France this name has been 
prolific, e.g. Didon, Didot, Diderot, etc. 

French surnames of local origin may, like their 
English companions, range in order from a country 
to a plant, e.g. Despagne (Spain), Lenormand (Norman), 
Damiens (Amyas), Dupnis (Wells), Lacroix (Cross, 
Crouch), Delpierre (Stone), Lepine (Thorne), Despots 
(Pease), but, while our names have, except in a few 
cases such as Atterbury, Bythesea, Delahunte (pp. 48- 
52), shed both preposition and article, French more 
often keeps both. So we find Croix, Lacroix, Delacroix, 
Salle, Lasalle, Delasalle, whence sometimes our Sale. 
With names of towns beginning with a vowel de is 
commonly prefixed, e.g. Davignon, Davranche. More- 
over, every French town has a corresponding adjective, 
a privilege accorded in this country only to the capital. 
So Bourgeois, besides being a descriptive name (Burgess), 
may mean the man from Bourges, while Boulnois, also 
well established in England, indicates an inhabitant 
of Boulogne. 



286 FRENCH SURNAMES 

More interesting than names taken from specific 
places are those derived from common names, the 
majority of which belong, like our Clough, Hay, Shaw, 
Croft, etc., to the archaic and provincial vocabulary. 
To-day (Oct. 13, 1915) we read that Admiral de 
Lapeyrere has been succeeded by Admiral du Fournet. 
The first represents perriere, a stone quarry, whence our 
Perrers, the second is a diminutive of four, an oven. 
The importance of the public oven in medieval France 
is attested by the frequent occurrence of the surname 
Dufour. In Dussault we have Old French sault, a 
marsh, wood, in Dumas a southern word for a " manse " 
or homestead, in Dumesnil (Meynell) a diminutive of 
the same word. Lapommeraye, equivalent to our 
Appleyard, has given us Pomeroy. Duplessis comes 
from the" pleached " enclosure which, as Scott reminds 
us in the first chapter of Quentin Durward, has given 
a name to so many French villages. In Dubailleul 
we have an Old French word for a fort or " bailey," 
and the origin of a luckless royal name (Balliol). Des- 
preaux, of the meadows, a name assumed by Boileau, 
has given us Diprose, while the common Ferte, Laferte 
is an Old French name for a fortress, Latin firmitas. 
In Duquesne we have the Norman form of chene, 
an oak, and Dupuy contains what was once the 
regular French name for a hill. This word is the 
origin of our " pew." In fact Dupuy has become 
Depew in America. Delcasse probably means " of the 
hut " ; Blois del Casset was a Knight of the Round 
Table. Pertuis, hole, is well established in England 
as Pertwee, and the well-known Maupertuis, the name 
of Renard's den in the old romance, has a parallel in 
William Foulhole {Nott. Court R. 1308). 



OCCUPATIVE NAMES 287 

When we come to occupative names, we are again 
confronted by crowds of diminutives. Corresponding 
to our Shepherd we find not only Berger, Leberger, 
Labergere, but also Bergerat, Berger et, Bergeron, Bergerot, 
to quote only the most frequent variants, while Boucher 
gives us Boucharin, Bouchereau, Boucheron, Bouchet, 
etc., and of course Leboucher and Labouchere. In a 
recent casualty list occurred the Canadian names 
Dansereau and Mercereau. We have no native English 
parallel to such names, though Cantrell, Chantrell, 
derived from French Chantereau, Chanterelle is not 
uncommon. 

Corresponding to our names like Monks, Parsons, 
Reeves, which meant originally the monk's servant, 
the parson's son, etc., we find a number of French 
occupative names preceded by de or d, e.g. Dufaure, 
Augagneur. The word gagneur, contained in the name 
of the late French Minister of Marine, was used in Old 
French for any thriving worker. With this formation 
we may compare Aupretre, the origin of our Allpress, 
which was in 1273 spelt Alprest (Hund. R.). In 1235 
Jordan le fiz Alprestre, i.e. Jordan the priest's son, 
was lodged in Nottingham gaol on an accusation of 
homicide (Pat. R.). 

Many of our occupative names represent obsolete 
trades and callings, e.g. Fletcher, the arrow-maker, 
Frobisher, the furbisher of armour, Catchpole, the 
constable. So also we find among common French 
surnames Flechier, Laumonier (almoner, Amner), 
Verdier (forester), Larmurier (Armour), Larbalestier 
(Arblaster, Alabaster). Or existing names are taken 
from archaic and dialect names for occupations, e.g. 
Meissonnier, the harvester (cf. our Mawer), Sabatier, 



288 FRENCH SURNAMES 

the southern form of savetier, a cobbler, Lesueur, the 
shoemaker (Sutor), Molinier, the miller (Mulliner), 
Pellissier, the maker of fur cloaks (Pilcher), Lequeux, 
the cook, F err on, the smith (Fearon), Grangier, 
the farmer (Granger), Lemire, the physician (Myer), 
Marillier, the churchwarden, Perrier, the quarryman, 
Teissier, the weaver, and many more. 

On French nicknames, as on English, a very big 
book could be written. There is no name of bird or 
beast, no epithet, complimentary or spiteful, but 
usually the latter, which has not been used to form a 
surname. Some are of incredibly fantastic formation, 
others of unquotable grossness. Here I will only 
mention some which are connected with famous men, 
or which are of special interest at the present moment. 
To begin with, President Poincare's name means 
" square fist," an honest sort of weapon, which is at an 
initial disadvantage against the mailed, or knuckle- 
duster, variety. By an odd coincidence two of General 
Joffre's ablest lieutenants, Maud'huy and Maunoury, 
bear ancient nicknames of identical meaning. Maud'huy 
is an artificial spelling of the common name Mauduit. 
William Mauduit was Chamberlain to the Conqueror 
and founded the Mawditt family. The name is 
derived from Lat. male doctus, ill taught, by which 
it is commonly rendered in medieval documents. 
Maunoury is from mal-nourri, where nourri has its 
Old French sense of reared, educated. 1 The opposite 
Biennourry also exists and corresponds to the well- 
known German name Wolzogen (wohl erzogen). The 
name Ecorcheville has also won honour in the war. 

1 It may also have the modern meaning ; cf . William Wellefedd 
(F. of Y. 1397)- 



NICKNAMES 289 

It is a mild alteration of the medieval Escorchevieille, 
skin old woman, a very brutal nickname, with numerous 
parallels in French and English (see p. 256). Cf. the 
existing surname Pellevillain, flay serf (p. 257). Names 
formed in this way from a verb are very common in both 
languages. Cf. French Chasseloup, hunt wolf, whence 
our deceptive Catchlove, Chassepot, not the pot-hunter, 
but the seeker after gratuitous meals, Gardebois, the 
"woodward," Fatout (fac-totum) , or our own Shake- 
speare, Golightly, Doolittle, etc. 

The simpler kinds of nicknames formed directly 
from adjectives or nouns are generally accompanied 
by the article, e.g. Lebas (Bass), Lebel (Bell), Lerouge 
(Rudge), Larousse (Rouse), Laigle (Eagle), Leveau 
(Veal), Lesturgeon (Sturgeon). When an adjective 
and noun are combined, the article is more often 
omitted, e.g. Bonvallet (Goodhind), Petigas (Littleboy), 
Blanch emain (Whitehand), though it is also found in 
such names, e.g. Lepetitcorps (Lightbody). Adjective 
nicknames also form innumerable derivatives. In 
English we have the name Jolly and its older form 
Joliffe. French has Joly, Joliot, Jolivard, Jolivaud, 
/olivet, etc., while the derivations of Bon, such as 
Bonnard, Bonnet, Bonneau, Bonnel, Bonneteau, etc., 
run into dozens. This applies also to a less extent to 
names derived from animals. Corresponding to our 
Bull, Bullock, we have not only French Lebceuf, but also 
Bouvet, Bouvot, Bouvelet, Bouvard, Bouveau, though 
some of these may also be formed from the occupative 
name Bouvier (Buller). 

To sum up, French surnames are very like English, 
the chief points of difference being the retention of 
prepositions and the article, the common decapitation 



290 FRENCH SURNAMES 

of baptismal names, and the extraordinary power of 
multiplication by means of diminutive suffixes. There 
is also hardly a well-established French name which 
is not found in England, whether it " came over with 
the Conqueror," was imported during the Middle Ages, 
at the Huguenot migration, or in quite recent times. 
And, generally speaking, the earlier its introduction, 
the greater will be its divergence from the modern 
French form and the difficulty of establishing their 
identity. 

Those interested in this harmless amusement will 
find pastime, and perhaps some profit, in analysing 
any group of well-known French names. If we take, 
for instance, the chief writers associated with the 
golden age of French literature, viz. Descartes, Pascal, 
Malebranche, Corneille, Racine, Moliere, La Fontaine, 
Bossuet, Bourdaloue, La Bruyere, La Rochefoucauld, 
and the already explained Boileau and Massillon, we 
shall find that they can all be assigned, though in some 
cases conjecturally, to one of the four groups. Pascal 
is a baptismal name associated with the Easter festival, 
and Corneille is probably from Cornelius, though it 
may be a nickname (Crowe). Obvious local names 
are La Fontaine and La Bruy&re (Moore), while La 
Rochefoucauld is from the rock fortress of Foucauld, 1 
the old Teutonic Folcwald, or ruler of the people. 
Descartes is probably local, from OF. quarte, a certain 
area in the outskirts of a town, and Bourdaloue looks 
like a corruption of bord de I'eau (Bywater). Racine 
is much commoner in France than the corresponding 
Root in England. Moli&re, the name adopted by 

1 " The French submarine Foucault sank an Austrian cruiser in 
the neighbourhood of Cattaro " (Reuter, Jan. 15, 1916). 



NICKNAMES 291 

Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, is Old French for a quarry 
from which mill-stones are obtained. Malebranche 
is an uncomplimentary nickname of the same type as 
Malherbe or the Italian Malaspina, and Bossuet means 
the little hunchback. 



CHAPTER XIV 

GERMAN SURNAMES 

" Ca obeit magnifiquement, surtout aux ordres appuyes de coups 
de bottes " (Claude Farrere). 

German surnames, like English and French, are of 
four origins. They may be baptismal, local, occupa- 
tive, or nicknames. Taking as examples four names 
famous in literature, Goethe, like his hero Goetz, is an 
abbreviation of one of the numerous Old German names 
in God, e.g. Gottfried (Godfrey, Jeffrey), Gotthardt 
(Goddard), etc., Hans Sachs was of Saxon descent, 
the ancestors of Schopenhauer were "hewers" of 
" scoops," and Schiller is a Swabian form of Schieler, 1 
squinter. As is natural in the case of a language so 
closely allied to our own, many German names, in fact 
the great majority, not only correspond in meaning 
but also in form with English names. If Herr von 
Bethmann-Hollweg were an Englishman, he would 
be Mr. Bateman-Holloway. Similarly, the famous 
general whose name is borne by the elusive Goeben 
would have been in English Gubbins, both names going 
back by devious ways to Gottbrecht, God bright (Godber). 
Of the four classes of surnames the oldest is that 

1 Cf. our Skeel, originally a Norse nickname, the squinter [Sceal 
f. Colbain, Lib. Vit.] 

292 



SHORTENED FONT-NAMES 293 

which is composed of baptismal names, sometimes 
surviving in full, but generally made almost unrecog- 
nizable by all manner of abridgement, mutilation, and 
dialect variation. The correspondence of these Teutonic 
dithemetic names with those of Greece has already 
been noticed (p. 27). Other examples are Dietrich, 
people powerful, i.e. Demosthenes, Ludwig, glorious 
fight, i.e. Clytomachus, Vilmar, greatly famous, i.e. 
Pericles, Conrad, bold counsel, i.e. Thrasybylus. In 
process of time these musical names of heroic meaning, 
such as Eberhard, boar strong (Everett), Gunther, battle 
army (Gunter), Megenhard, might strong (Maynard), 
Hubrecht, bright counsel (Hubbard) , Rdmheld, fame ruling 
(Rumbold), etc., have often been reduced to cacopho- 
nous monosyllables distinguished by great economy of 
vowels. Still, unattractive as their present form may 
be, these names belong to the oldest period of the race, 
and Bugge, Bopp, Dietz, Dankl, and Kluck have as 
much right to look down on most of their polysyllabic 
neighbours as our own Bugg, Bubb, etc., on such up- 
starts as Napier, Pomeroy, Percy, and Somerset, for 
are they not the modern representatives of the heroic 
Burghart, castle strong, Bodebrecht, rule bright, Dietrich, 
people mighty, Dankwart, reward guardian, and Chlodo- 
wig, 1 glorious victory ? 

Dankl, the Austrian general, and the redoubtable 
Kluck illustrate the two chief ways of forming 
diminutives of German names, the essential element of 
such diminutives being I in the south and k in the north. 
Other examples areBebel (Badbrecht), Handel(Hando\f), 
Hebbel (Hadubrecht), Ranke (Randolf), Tieck (Theo- 
bald), etc. Another very common ending is z, or sch, 
1 Hence Ludwig, Clovis, Louis. 



294 GERMAN SURNAMES 

and often these elements are combined in one and the 
same name. This appears in the names of the two 
teachers of modern Germany, Nietzsche and Treitschke. 
I have seen it stated that both these sages were of 
Slavonic origin, their names being quoted in support 
of the statement. Without knowing anything of their 
genealogy, I have no hesitation in stating their names 
to be pure German. It is not unfitting that the crazy 
degenerate who loathed his own nation and succeeded 
in sending it mad should have a name which is the 
diminutive oiNeid, envy, the first element in Niedhardt, 
envy strong, while Treitschke goes back also appro- 
priately to Drudi or Thrudr, one of the Walkyries, or 
" death choosers." 

The third of the illustrious trio, Bernhardt, belongs 
to a different group, and incidentally, the regular 
collocation of his name with those of a madman of genius 
and of a considerable scholar must surprise even him- 
self. When the full baptismal name becomes a sur- 
name in German, it usually does so in an unaltered 
form. Genitives such as Peters and patronymics such 
as Mendelssohn (son of Immanuel), Mackensen (son of 
Mack), are not common, and are usually of Low German 
origin. Thus we generally find simply Arnold, Hilde- 
brand, Oswald, etc. But in a large number of cases a 
latinized form of the genitive occurs, so that Bern- 
hardi, which I have seen explained as Italian, is a 
survival of some such name as Johannes filius Bern- 
hardt ; cf. such names as Bartholdy, Henrici, Jacoby, 
Matthaei, Nicolai, etc. 

In the case of the non-German names which came 
in with Christianity, as often as not the last syllable 
has survived instead of the first, e.g. Hans from 



LOCAL NAMES 295 

Johannes, Klaus from Nicolaus, Mobius from Bartholo- 
mseus, Bastel from Sebastian, Grethe from Margarete, 
and these shortened forms lend themselves to further 
endless variations. Hans, like our John, is so common 
as to need qualification. I once lived in Switzerland 
in a house which contained three of the name, who for 
purposes of distinction were known as Johannes, 
Hans, and Hensli. So, corresponding to our Mickle- 
john, Littlejohn, etc. (p. 242), we find in German not 
only Aldejohann, Jungjohann, Grossjohann, Lutjens, 
etc., but also Langhans, Kleinhans, Guthans, Schwarz- 
hans, and many more. But this subject is endless, and 
space only allows of the above brief indications. 

Names of local origin may range from an empire to 
a tree, and may be either nouns or adjectives, e.g. 
Oestreich, Preuss, Schottldnder, Polack, Czech, Elsdsser, 
Hess, Flemming, Bremer (from Bremen), Kammerich 
(Cambrai), Backhaus ' (Backhouse), Fichte (fir), Beer- 
bohm (Low German for pear-tree), Griinewald (Green- 
wood), Kreuz (Cross), Eck (Corner), etc. More often 
than in English such names are accompanied by the 
endings -er and -mann (cf. our Bridger, Bridgman), 
hence Berger (Mountain), Brunner (Fountain), Kapftler 
(Chappell), Heinemann (Grove), Winckelmann (Corner), 
Hoffmann (Stead), etc. 

It is probable that the majority of modern German 
surnames are of local origin, easily recognized by such 
characteristic endings as -au, originally island, now 
wet meadow- land, as in Gneisenau ; -horst, wood (Hurst), 
as in Scharnhorst ; -ow, a Slavonic ending often con- 
fused with -au, as in Billow, Jagow ; -itz, also Slavonic, 

1 It means " bake-house," while our Backhouse, Bacchus is both 
for " bake " and " back.'' 



296 GERMAN SURNAMES 

as in Tirpitz ; -brilck, bridge, as in Delbruck ; -stein, 
stone, as in Bieber stein ; -hain, hedge, grove (Hayne), as 
in Falkenhayn ; -dorf, village (Thorp), as in Bernstorff ; 
-burg, castle (Burrough), as in Dernburg, Hindenburg ; 
-rent, clearing (Royd), as in Kalckreut ; -berg, mountain 
(Barrow), as in Gutenberg, and many others. But the 
study of these names belongs to topography. As in 
the corresponding English names we come across many 
obsolete and dialect words, such as Kamp or Kampf, 
an early loan from Lat. campus, whence Rennenkampf, 
race-course, a German name borne by a Russian 
general, and Kuhl, pool, so that Baron Kuhlmann, 
late of London, is a German Pullman. In many 
cases surnames of local origin are still preceded by 
prepositions and the article (for English examples 
see pp. 49-52), e.g.Anderbrugg, Vorderbrugg, Ingenohl, 1 
a corruption of in dem Ohl, a dialect name for a 
tract of good agricultural land, Biedenweg (Bythe- 
way), Vorbusch, Zumbusch, von der Heyde (Heath), 
von der Tann (Pine), LG. ter Meer (Bythesea), etc. 

1 his brings us to the question of von, so grievously 
misused by writers on the war, some of whom ought 
to know better. This preposition simply means 
"of" and was originally put with nearly all local 
surnames. It is still so used in some parts of Switzer- 
land, where I have had my boots mended and my 
shirts washed by vons dating back to the Middle Ages. 
It gradually dropped, like the del, de la, etc., which we 
find in our own medieval Rolls ; but, corresponding 
to our own Delmar, Delafield, Delamoor, etc. (p. 51), 
we find a few survivals, such as von der Tann, von der 

1 Admiral von Ingenohl was succeeded by Admiral von Pohl 
(Pool). 



THE PREFIX VON 297 

Goltz, 1 von der Heyde, etc., in which the retention is 
generally due to the ennobling of these families. As 
von came to be recognized as the nobiliary prefix, it 
got added to names of all descriptions. For instance, 
the name of Lieutenant von Forstner, renowned for his 
epic onslaught on the lame cobbler of Saverne, merely 
means Forster (forester), and Colonel von Reuter, who 
commanded the regiment involved, has one of the 
commonest of German names, meaning a " clearer of 
land," related to Baireut, Wemigerode, the Riitli, etc. 
So we find von Schmidt, von Kleinschmitt, von Miiller, 
von Zimmermann (Carpenter), von Kettler (Tinker), 
von Bernhardt, von Kluck, von Moltke, the last name 
being a diminutive of the same class as Kluck, possibly 
from Matilda ; cf. our Mault, Mould. 

Now, it is curious that we English, who never dream 
of saying von Bismarck, which would be excusable 
in the case of a territorial name (the bishop's mark or 
frontier), will insist on von Moltke, von Kluck, etc., 
which, in German, is a vulgarism only committed by 
the sort of people who in English address letters to 
" Mr. Smith, Esquire," or refer to a clergyman as 
" the Rev. Jones." Of course when the full title is 
given, the von is used, e.g. General von Kluck, Herr 
von Jagow, but otherwise it should always be omitted. 
The exception is a name like von der Tann, including 
the article, where the von is original and logical. The 
Germans have a cruiser called the von der Tann, but 

1 I can find no trace in Old German of this word used as a topo- 
graphical term, but in a German document of the year 1500 dealing 
with a grant of land occurs the word Goltzweg. Professor Fiedler, 
of Oxford, ingeniously suggests to me that this may be MHG. golze, 
pair of breeches (Lat. calcea), applied to a fork in the road. 



298 GERMAN SURNAMES 

the Gneisenau, Schamhorst, Moltke, and Blucher 
appear, or did when this chapter was written, without 
the particle. 

Many corresponding Dutch names in van are well 
established in England, e.g. the obvious Vandam, 
Vandervelde, Vandersteen, while the more aristocratic 
Vansittart is from the Netherland town Sittard. Some- 
times it combines with the article to produce the prefix 
Ver- as in Vereker (acre), Verschoyle (schuyl, shelter). 

Occupative names are in German more numerous 
than in English. This is due to the national tendency 
to elaborateness of description and differentiation. 
We are generally satisfied with the simple -er, but, 
corresponding to our Baker, we find in German not 
only Becker or Beck, but also Kuchenbecker (cake), 
Weichbecker (soft), Pfannebecker (pan), Semmelbecker 
(simnel), Weissbecker (white), and many others. So 
also the German compounds of Schmidt far exceed in 
number those of Smith. We find, among others, 
Blechschmidt (tin), Kupferschmied (copper), Silber- 
schmidt, Stahlschmidt, Hackenschmidt (hoe), Huf Schmidt 
(Shoesmith), Schaarschmidt (Shearsmith), Sichel- 
schmidt, Dorfschmidt, Rosenschmidt (at the sign of the 
Rose), and about twenty more. But the commonest 
of all such elements is Meyer, farmer, the compounds 
of which number some hundreds. 

Also we find a great number of names in -macher, 1 
e.g. Radermacher (Wheeler), Sattelmacher (Sadler), 
Schleiermacher (veil), Wannemacher (bath) ; in -giesser, 

1 Names of this type were once much commoner in English (see 
p. 226, n. 1). They have generally been simplified, e.g. Robert le Jese- 
maker (Hund. R.) is now represented by Jesser. Dutch generally 
adds -s to occupative names, e.g. Raekmakers (Wheeler). 



OCCUPATIVE NAMES 29.9 

founder, e.g. Kannengiesser, Potgieter ; in -binder, e.g. 
Biesenbdnder (besom), Fassbender (cask), now appearing 
in the London Directory in the proverbial form Fast- 
binder, Buchbinder, Biirstenbinder (brush) ; in -Schneider, 
cutter, tailor, e.g. Brettschneider (board), Riemen- 
schneider (thong), Steinschneider ; in -hauer, hewer, 
e.g. Steinhauer (Stanier), Fleischhauer (Flesher), Holz- 
hauer; in -brenner, e.g. Aschenbrenner (Ashburner), 
Kalckbrenner ; in -schldger, striker, e.g. Kesselschldger, 
Lautenschldger (lute) ; in -meister, e.g. Sutermeister 
(Lat. sutor), Backmeister (bake), Werckmeister (Fore- 
man) ; and in -mann, e.g. Sudermann (Lat. sutor), 
Schumann. The obsolete worthe, wright, survives in 
both Schubert and Schuchardt. To these may be added 
a few other odd compounds, such as Biengrdber, one 
who digs out wild bees, Gildemeister , guild master, 
Fiirbringer, " fore-bring er," i.e. attorney, Schwerdt- 
feger, sword polisher (Frobisher), Seidensticker, silk 
embroiderer, Saltsieder, salt boiler, Mussotter, jam 
boiler, Weissgerber, white tawer (Whittier), Leim- 
kilhler, glue cooler. As in England, some of the com- 
moner surnames of this class are from words now obso- 
lete, or refer to obsolete trades, such as Schroder, 
Schroter, Schroer, tailor (shredder), Kiirschner, maker 
of pelisses (Pilcher), Kriiger, innkeeper, etc. 

Forming a transition from the occupative surname 
to the nickname, we have those names which are 
indicative of rank, office, etc., and which are seldom 
to be taken literally. 1 We find the same series in 
German as in other European languages, viz. among 
titles, Kaiser, Kbnig, Furst and Prinz, Herzog, with its 
Low German form Hartog, Graff (Markgraff, Landgraff), 
1 See chap. x. 
21 



300 GERMAN SURNAMES 

Ritter, Junker. Of a more official character are Kanzler 
(Chancellor), Richter (Judge), Probst (Provost), Vogt 
(Lat. vocatus), corresponding to our Bailey, Marschall, 
Hauptmann, Faehndrich (ensign) , But -germeister : Among 
ecclesiastical nicknames are Pafist, Bischoff, AM, 
Pfaff, Monch, Koster (Sexton). Such names as Arm- 
or uster (Arblaster), Schiitz (Archer), Bartenwerffer, 
axe-thrower, may have been of occupative origin or 
nicknames due to the skill of their original owners. 
Some interesting surnames are of domestic origin. 
Such is Knecht, which has gone down in the world as its 
English cognate, Knight, has gone up, with its com- 
pounds, Gutknecht (Goodhind) and Liebknecht. Other 
names of this class are the very common Koch, Schenk, 
butler, " skinker," Hofmeister, steward, head- servant, 
Schatzmann, treasurer, Wdchter, watchman (Waite), 
with its compound Saalwachter (Hallward). 

It is possible within the limits of a chapter to give 
only brief indications for nicknames, in many ways 
the most interesting of all surnames. In German we 
find the equivalents of all our own common surnames 
of this class, together with a number of examples of 
a grotesqueness rare in modern English. The exist- 
ence of this latter class is partly due to the fact that 
German surnames, at least in some provinces, became 
hereditary at a much later date than in England, so 
that local wit has had less wear and tear to endure, 
and also to the fact that absurd names were often 
conferred forcibly on the Jews as late as the beginning 
of the nineteenth century. These latter I leave out 
of account. All the ordinary adjectives occur, e.g. 
Gross, Klein, Lang, Kurtz, Schwarz, Weiss, Roth, Griln, 
Hubsch (Pretty), Hesslich (ugly), Freeh, bold (Freake), 



NICKNAMES 301 

Frey, Kohl, bald (Callow), Kluge (Wise), Liebe (Leif), 
Ehrlich, honest, Frohlich (Merry), Wunderlich, 1 etc. 
The article which once accompanied these names has 
often survived in the Low German forms, e.g. de Witt 
(White), Devrient (Friend), de Beer (Bear), de Hoogh 
(High), etc. Most names of relationship also occur, e.g. 
Vater, Kind, Stisskind, Liebeskind (Leif child), with the 
compound Kindesvater (Barnfather), Vetter (Cousins), 
Neef (Neave), Brautigam, Ohm (Eames), Wittwer. 

Compounds descriptive of appearance are Breitkopf 
(Broadhead), Grosskopf (Greathead), Krauskopf, 
Kraushaar (Crisp), Gelhaar (Fairfax), Schwartzkopf * 
(Blackett), Widderkop (Ramshead, Weatherhead), and 
similar compounds of the alternative Haupt, such as 
Breithaupt, etc., Bar fuss (Barfoot), Katzfuss, Breitfuss 
(Broadfoot), Leichtfuss (Lightfoot), Langbein (Lang- 
bain), Krummbein (Cruikshank), Rehbein, roe leg (cf. 
Sheepshanks), Holbein (hollow), Gansauge, goose-eye, 
Dilnnebacke, thin cheek, Dickhaut, thick hide, Harnack, 
obstinate (hard neck) . Sometimes the physical feature 
is emphasized without an accompanying adjective, e.g. 
Haupt, Kopf (Head), Faust (Fist), Zahn (Tooth). From 
costume come Mantel, Weissmantel, Ledderhose, 3 Lein- 
hos, Beckenhube (Basnett), Rothermel, red sleeve, Panzer, 
hauberk (Habershon), and many others. 

Birds, beasts, and fishes are well represented, especi- 
ally birds, e.g. Adler (Eagle), Geyer, vulture, Fink, 
Strauss, ostrich, Storch, Pfau (Peacock), Elster (Pye), 

1 Cf. Nicholas le Merveleus (Pat. R.}. 

3 It is curious that the Germans use the Schwartzkopff torpedo 
and we the Whitehead. 

3 Cf . John Letherhose (Hund R.), Richard Goldhose (ib,), and the 
famous Ragnar Lodbrog, hairy breeches. 



302 GERMAN SURNAMES 

Falcke, Habicht (whence Habsburg), Hahn (Cock), 
Rebhuhn (Partridge), Sftecht, wood-pecker (Speight), 
Taube, though this last, like Taubmann, may belong to 
taub, deaf, Wildegans (Wildgoss), etc. These, like the 
corresponding English surnames, were sometimes 
taken from the signs of houses. The same applies to 
animal nicknames such as Lowe, Wolff, Fuchs, LG. 
Voss, Hase (Hare), Eichorn (Squirrel), Hirsch (Hart), 
Kalb, Schaff, etc. Among fish-names may be mentioned 
Hecht (Pike), Kaulbars (Perch), Stockfisch, Krebs 
(Crabbe), but these names are, for obvious reasons, 
less numerous than those of birds and quadrupeds. 

The two smallest classes of nicknames are those 
connected with coins and exclamations, represented in 
English by such names as Penny (p. 177) and Pardoe 
(p. 182). Both classes exist in German, e.g. Hundert- 
mark (cf. Mrs. Centlivre), Pfundheller, Weisspfennig, 
Schilling, Fiinf schilling, Funfstilck, and Gottbehut, God 
forbid, Gotthelf, GottwaUz, God rule it. With these may 
be mentioned a number of abstract nouns which 
probably became surnames at the period of the pre- 
dominance of allegory (see p. 217), such are Freude 
(Joy), Gluck (Luck), Dienst (Service), Ajidacht (Wor- 
ship), Wohlfart (Welfare), etc. 

All the seasons are represented, viz. Fruhling or Lenz, 
Sommer, Herbst (Harvest), and Winter, also most of the 
days of the week, the commonest being Sonntag and 
Freytag, and the feasts of the church, e.g. Ostertag, 
Pfingst (Pentecost), Weihnacht (Christmas). Then we 
have descriptive compounds such as Wolzogen, well- 
bred, Ansorg, Ohnesorg, Kleinsorg (Careless), Juden- 
feind, Jew-hater, Burenfeind, peasant-hater, Sussen- 
guth, sweet and good (cf. Peter Richeangod, Pat. R.) ; 



THE SHAKESPEARE TYPE 303 

some names taken from the vegetable world, e.g. 
Knobloch (Gar lick), Wermuth (Wormwood), Rubsamen, 
rape- seed, Sir oh (Straw), Erbsmehl, pea-meal, Gersten- 
korn (Barleycorn), etc. ; and quite a number dealing 
with articles of food, usually preceded by an adjec- 
tive, e.g. Siissmilch, Sauerbrei (broth), and especially 
the numerous compounds of Brot and Bier, such as 
Weissbrodt (Whi thread), Casembrood, cheese and bread, 
Roggenbrod (rye), Truckenbrod (dry), etc., and Gutbier, 
Bosbier, Sauerbier, Zuckerbier, etc., most of which have 
English parallels. 

Lastly, we have the large group of phrase-names, con- 
sisting of a verb followed by a noun or an adverb, such 
as our Shakespeare and Golightly (ch. xii). There 
are probably several hundreds of these in German, 
almost all of which can be paralleled by modern English 
names, or by others which, though recorded in our 
Rolls, are now obsolete. Some of these are warlike, 
e.g. Schuttespeer (Shakespeare), Haueisen (Taillefer), 
Hauenschild, Zuckschwerdt, draw sword, 1 occasionally 
with the verb following, as in Eisenbeiss (Mangefer), 
Manesse, man-eater, ogre. Sporleder, spur leather, 
was probably a Hotspur, Rumschottel* clear dish, a 
glutton, Irrgang a wanderer, Liesegang a Golightly. 
Regedanz, start dance, and Liebetanz explain themselves. 
Puttkamer, clean room, was a Chamberlain. Common 
surnames belonging to this class are Klinkhammer, 
Pochhammer and Schwinghammer, Schnapauff, snap up, 
Schlagentweit, strike into the distance, Fiillgrabe, fill 
ditch, Fullkrug (Filpot), Macheprang, make show, 
Kiesewetter, discern weather, Kerruth, turn out, Hebe- 

1 Cf. Henry Draweswerd (Hund. R.) 

2 Cf. Terricus Wide-escuele, i.e. vide icuelle (Pachnio). 



304 GERMAN SURNAMES 

streit, start quarrel (cf. p. 254, n. 2), Habenicht, have 
nought, Fiirchtenicht, fear nought, Findeisen, find iron, 
Schluckebier, swallow beer, Schmeckebier, taste beer, 
Trinkwasser (Drinkwater), etc. With these cf. the 
obsolete English examples on pp. 270-7. 

In conclusion, it may be said that there is simply 
no limit to the eccentricity of nicknames, though their 
interpretation is often a matter of conjecture. The 
German name Alleweldt, 1 all the world, has Middle 
English parallels Tutlemund and Altheworld. It is 
hard to see why a man should be nicknamed Lindequist, 
lime twig (originally Swedish), but this well-known 
German name is surpassed in minuteness by the French 
name Brindejonc. The names mentioned in this chapter 
all come, with the exception of a few of special interest 
at the present moment, from a recent German navy 
list and are in no way to be regarded as peculiar or 
exceptional. 2 A few other miscellaneous examples 
from the same source are Rohwedder (Fouweather, 
p. 235, n. 1), Trurnit, grieve not, Mdgdefrau, maid wife, 
Ehrenkonig, honour the King, Vogelgesang, Morgenrot 
(Dawn), Kranzlin (Garland), Hufnagel (Horsnail), 
Buttersack (see p. 167), Luchterhand, left hand, s Neunzig 
(see p. 179), Hochgeschurz, high kilted, Handewerk, 
Gutjahr (Goodyear), Hiinerfurst, prince of Huns, Teufel 

1 In Middle High German this phrase seems to have been used 
as an exclamation of joy and wonder. Walther von der Vogelweide, 
when after long waiting he received a fief from the Kaiser of his day 
(1220), commenced his hymn of thanks with the line — 

" Ich han min lehen, al die werlt ! icb. nan min lehen." 

2 Most of them enjoy the hospitality of the London Commercial 
Directory (1913). 

8 Cf. Sinister, OF. senestre, left-handed, awkward [Simon Senestre, 
of Dieppe, Close if.]. Lefthand is a ME. name. 



LATINISMS AND GRECISMS 305 

and its compound Manteuffel, man devil, the latter 
an honourable name in German military history before 
the destruction of Louvain. 

At the period of the Renaissance it was a very usual 
practice for men of learning to latinize or hellenize their 
names. The case of Melanchthon will occur to the 
reader. We have a few examples in English, e.g. 
Torrens (Brook), Pontifex (Pope), Sutor, shoemaker, 
etc. Such names are much commoner in German. 
Well-known examples are Neander (Neumann), Sark- 
ander (Fleischmann), Treviranus (of Trier), Curtius 
(Kurz), Vulpius (Fuchs), Fabricius (Schmidt), Pistorius 
(Becker), Avenarius (Habermann), Textor (Weber), 
Sartorius (Schneider). There is actually a Gygas 
in the list from which I have compiled this chapter. 
Even the Brown, Jones, and Robinson of Germany, viz. 
Milller, Meyer, and Schultz, sometimes appear glorified 
as Molinari, Agricola, and Prdtorius, and there is a 
contemporary Prussian court chaplain Dryander whose 
ancestors were named Eichmann. 



CHAPTER XV 

DIVERGENT ORIGINS OF SURNAMES 

" En histoire, il faut se r£soudre a beaucoup ignorer " 

(Anatole France). 

An esteemed correspondent writes to the author that, 
owing to the many and various side-possibilities in 
etymology, he is inclined to think that the origins 
of most surnames are mere guesses, and that the whole 
study can only be regarded as a game or an amusement. 
He seems to me both right and wrong. It is perfectly 
easy to show, by irrefutable evidence, the derivation 
of the great majority of surnames, but it is at the 
same time impossible to say to the individual, " Your 
name comes from so-and-so," unless that individual 
has a pedigree dating back to the Middle Ages. To 
take a simple example, there can be no doubt as to 
the origin of the three names Cordery, rope-walk 
[John de la Corderie, Cat. Gen.], Cordurey, king's heart 
[Hugh Queorderey, Fine R.], Cowdery, Fr. coudraie, 
hazel copse [William de la Coudray, ib.]. But to any- 
one familiar with medieval orthography it is quite 
certain that these three names have been commonly 
confused, especially whenborne by the peasant class, and 
there are modern variants such as Caudery, Cordaray, 

306 



SUBSIDIARY SOURCES OF SIMPLE NAMES 307 

Cowderoy, which one would be shy of assigning definitely 
to either of the three etymons. Hence we may say 
that, in the matter of the individual name, etymological 
certainty is possible, while genealogical certainty is 
problematical. Moreover, there are many common 
names which have several well-attested etymologies, 
and others that have a subsidiary origin which would 
never occur to superficial observation. 

What, for instance, could be simpler than Butcher, 
Child, Cross, Harrison, Nicholl, Stone, Wills, and 
Wood ? Yet each of these has been reinforced from 
sources only known to the scientific explorer. Butcher 
has nearly absorbed Butchart, a common Middle English 
font-name, which comes to us via Old French from 
OG. Burghart, castle strong. This would become 
Butcher as inevitably as Punchard, 1 Fr. Ponsard [Simon 
Ponzard, Fine R.], has given Puncher. Child is occa- 
sionally local [Margery atte Child, Pat. R., Suss., 
Thomas Attechild, Hund. R., Kent]. This is the 
Norse keld, a spring, as in Salkeld, whence Sawkill, 
which in the south took the form " child." Hence also 
Honey child, 1 from a spot in Romney Marsh. Cross, 
usually local, is also a nickname [Robert le Cros, IpM.], 

1 Hence also Pinkhard or Pinkett (cf. Everard, Everett) and 
Pinker. Cf. Pinkerion from Pontchardon (Orne) [William de 
Pontcardun, Fine R,]. 

2 Apparently " honey spring." There are a good many names in 
Honey-, some from specific place-names, e.g. Honeybourne (Honeybun, 
Hunnybun), Honeychurch, Honeycomb, and others, e.g. Honeysett, 
Honeywell, Honey wood, which correspond to no known locality. I 
have a suspicion that in some cases this Honey- is an alteration of the 
much more natural Holy-, a phonetic change common in both place- 
names and surnames. The EDD. gives " Honeyfathers ! " as an 
expression of surprise used in Yorkshire, and explains it as " sweet 
saints." Is it not rather " holy saints " ? 



308 DIVERGENT ORIGINS OF SURNAMES 

an alteration of Fr. gros. 1 Harrison has swallowed up 
the medieval nickname herisson, hedge-hog [William 
Herizun, Testa de Nev.]. Hence also Hear son, while 
Harsum, Hearsom, Hersom may belong here or to the 
ME. hear sum, ready to hear, obedient. By an odd 
metathesis the Normans transformed Lincoln into 
Nicol,of very common occurrence in medieval chronicles, 
hence Nicholl, Nicoll is often local [Alured de Nicol, 
Close R., Thomas de Nichole, Hund. R.]. Stone, 
usually local, is sometimes short for one of the Anglo- 
Saxon names in Stan-, such as Stancytel, Stangrim, 
Stanheard, etc. [Robert Ston, Ramsey Cart.]. This 
applies also of course to Stanes, Staines. Wills is 
sometimes a variant of Wells [John atte Wille, Pat. R.]. 
Hence Atwill, Honey will, Twills (p. 50). Wood is 
often a nickname from the obsolete wood, mad [Peter 
le Wod, Pat. R., Robert leWode, Close R.] ; cf. Robert 
le Madde [Lane. Court R. 1323-4), Ralph Badintheheved 
{Hund. R.). This is also one origin of Woodman; 
cf. Alexander Wodeclerc (Close R), i.e. the crazy 
priest, and Walter Wodeprest (Malmesbury Abbey 
Reg.). Wallis, Welch, etc., may occasionally mean 
French, as the early Norman settlers before the Con- 
quest were called walisc by the English (see Romance 
of Words, p. 151). Even the ubiquitous and simple 
Smith is sometimes local, of the smeeth, or plain (see 
Athersmith, p. 50), and is also a nickname, the 
" smooth " [Philip le Smethe, Hund. R.]. Cf. Smeath- 
man. It need hardly be said that some Thompsons 
come from Thompson (Norf.), an example of 's ton 

1 Hence also the adj. coarse, earliest form cors, a metathesis of 
cros. Every shade of meaning in which coarse is employed has a 
parallel in gross and Fr. gros. 



MANY ORIGINS OF ONE NAME 309 

becoming -son (see p. 240), while others represent the 
baptismal dims. Thomasin, Thomasine [Bartholomew 
Thomasyn, City F.]. 

These examples show sufficiently that even the 
simplest and commonest surnames are sometimes less 
simple than they look. But in some cases the multi- 
plicity or choice of origins is quite obvious. The 
common name Burnett may be (1) baptismal, for Bur- 
nard, Bernard, AS. Beornheard, (2) a nickname, dim. 
of brown, or from the material called burnet (see p. 154), 
(3) a nickname, "brown head" (see p. 128), (4) local, 
at the " burn head," cf. Beckett, (5) local, at the " burn 
gate" (see p. 91). It has also interchanged freely 
with Barnett, which is generally of identical origin. 
The rather less common Burnett may be for Beornweald 
[Simon Bernald, Pat. R.], Beornhild [Geoffrey Burnild, 
Hund. R.], Beornwulf [Geoffrey Burnolf, Fine R.], 
from "burn hill" [Richard de Burnhul, Pat. R.], or 
it may be a nickname from " brown " [Burnellus 
Venator, Doc. III.], in which sense it is used indiffer- 
ently with the preceding name [Alan Burnell or Burnet, 
Pat. R.]. Probably in the case of these two names all 
the origins indicated are represented by the existing 
surname. But, if we take the rather uncommon Burret, 
we find that the possible etymologies are hardly less 
numerous. Is it, for instance, for Burrard, from an 
Anglo-Saxon name in Burg-, such as Burgweard, Burg- 
heard, Burgweald, all well attested in the Rolls, or for 
" boar head " [Robert Burheved, Fine R.], or for the 
" bower head " [Walter de la Burethe, Hund. R.] ? 
In the case of so uncommon a name it is probable that 
one only of these prototypes is represented. 

There are, however, many well-diffused names which, 



310 DIVERGENT ORIGINS OF SURNAMES 

like Burnett, have several clear origins. Such is Low, 
generally local, at the " low," l or mound [Ralph de la 
Lowe, Hund. R.], probably also at the " lough," and 
also a nickname, the wolf [William le Lou, City B .] . The 
existence of High and Bass shows that the entry " le 
lowe " is often for the English adjective, and Low is 
also one of the shortened forms of Lawrence ; hence 
Lowson. Drew is from the name Drogo, of uncertain 
origin [Drogo f. Ponz, DB.], and is also a nickname 
from OF. dru, which has two meanings, viz. "lover" and 
" sturdy " [John leDreu, Hund. R.]. It is occasionally 
an aphetic form of Andrew. Druce is the same as the 
above, from OF Drues, the nom. case of the name 
Drogo, or for the patronymic Drews. It is also local, 
of Dreux (Eure-et-Loire), in which case it may repre- 
sent the name of the town [Herman de Drewes, DB.] 
or the adjective formed from it [Hugh le Drueis, Close 
R.]. 

Angell and Angle [Robert en le Aungle, Fine R.] 
have been confused, to the advantage of the former, 
which is both a pageant nickname (see p. 209) and a 
personal name [Angel Clericus, Malmesbury Abbey 
Reg.]. But these names also represent a contracted 
form of the Norse Ankettle [Henry Angetil or Angel, 
Pat. R.] ; cf. the contractions of Thurkettle (p. 31). 
Wynn has three origins, Welsh gwyn, white, fair, AS. 
wine, friend, or the same word as an element in such 
personal names as Winfrey, Winward, etc. (p. 43). Hogg 
is a nickname [Alice le Hog, Hund. R.], a variant of 
Hough,* i.e. hill [Richard del Hog, Writs of Pari.], a 

1 In the north Law. 

2 Cf. Cape la Hogue and the hillock called Hooghe at the point 
of the famous Ypres salient. 



ALTERNATION OF G- AND W- 311 

variant of Hugh or How [Hogge the neldere, Piers 
Plowm., variant readings, Hugh the nedelere, Houwe 
the neldere *]. Ware is local for Weir, also from AS. 
wara, a common Domesday word used for an out- 
lying part of a manor, 2 and is a nickname, the " ware," 
or wary [Adam le War, Feet of Fines] — 

" A Sergeant of the Lawe, war and wys " (Chauc. A. 309). 

There is also no reason why it should not come from 
ware, merchandise. Marchandise is a fairly common 
French surname and is found also in our records [Ralph 
Marchaundise, Northumb. Ass. R. 1256-78]. 

The above are simple cases which require no philo- 
logical knowledge. Less obvious is the double origin 
of the series Gale, Gales, Gall, Gaul, Gallon. The first 
is from " gaol " and the second from Wales, Fr. Galles, 
but all are also baptismal [John Gale, Pleas, Thomas 
Galyen, ib.], from an OF. Gal, Galon, which is OG. 
Walo, short for some name such as Walter. Both the 
G- and W- forms are found in Old French [Galo or 
Walo, Bishop of Paris, Ramsey Cart.]. Thus the above 
series of names are sometimes identical with Wale, 
Wales, Wall, Waule, W alien [Richard f. Wale or Wales, 
Pipe R.]. Gales has a further possible origin, of 
Galicia [Piers Gahcien, Exch. R., John de Galiz, ib.] — 

" Of tydynges in Wales 
And of Sainct James in Gales " 

(Skelton, Elynour Rummyng, 354). 

Similar cases are Gass, Gash, Gaze, Gasson ' [Robert 

1 See p. 166. 

* See Round, Feudal England, pp. n 5-7. 

5 The forms in -on are the Old French accusative. 



312 DIVERGENT ORIGINS OF SURNAMES 

Gace, 1 Pat. R.] for Wace, Wass, Wash, Wason. They 
come from OG. Waso, which belongs to the adj. 
hwas, sharp [Walter Wasce, Feet of Fines, Richard 
Wason, IpM.]. Forms of this adjective are still in 
English dial, use, and the name Wass is consequently 
also a nickname [Henry le Was, IpM.]. Finally, like 
Wash, it is local, from ME. wase; ooze, pool, whence 
specifically the Wash [Richard atte Wase, Hund. R., 
Norf.]. So also Gate, Gates may be identical with 
Waite, i.e. watchman, from the OF. gaite [AdamleGayt 
or de la Geyte, Exch. R.]. 

Less complicated are the four origins of Perry, (i) for 
Peter or Pierre, (2) for Peregrine, (3) for Welsh Parry, 
i.e. ap Harry, (4) local, at the pear-tree, ME. pirie, 
whence also Pirie, Pury [Alexander atte Pery, City F., 
Richard de la Pirie, Hund R.] — 

" And thus I lete hym sitte 'upon the pyrie, 
And Januarie and May romynge myrie " 

(Chauc. E. 2217). 

There is scarcely a common surname, except those 
of easily understood frequency, like Baker, Green, 
Field, etc., which could not be dealt with in the same 
way, and, at the risk of wearying the reader, I will give 
a few more examples. Garland is certified as a nick- 
name by the synonymous Ger. Krantz, Krdnzl. 
It may have been taken from the sign of an inn — 

" The Garland in Little East Cheape, sometime a brewhouse" 
(Stow). 

In the north it runs parallel with Gartland, i.e. the 
" garth land." It was also a personal name [Bartholo- 

1 Menage refers to Wace the chronicler as Gasse. Swash is the 
same name with prefixed S- [Guacio or Swacio de Limeriis, Salisb 
Cart.]. 



NAMES IN HAN- 313 

mew f. Gerland, Pipe R.], perhaps originally a nick- 
name from OF. grailler, to cry hoarsely, croak, etc., 
which would explain its use as a dog's name in Chaucer. 
Cf. also Richard James called Greylond (Lond. Wills). 
The commonest source of Ray is probably OF. rei, a 
king. It is also for Rae, the northern form of the 
animal nickname Roe, and we cannot doubt that it is 
often for the local Wray (p. 84) and Ree (p. 71), and is 
also a costume nickname (p. 154). Swan is a nickname 
[Hugh le Swon, Hund. R., Walter le Cigne, Close R.]. 
It also represents AS. swan, herdsman, which we have 
replaced by the Norse cognate swain. This word, 
in its poetic sense of warrior, was an element in 
personal names [Swan f. Robert, Fine R.]. Finally, 
Henry atte Swan, of St. Osith, keeper of Queenhithe 
and collector of murage in London (Pat. R. 1319), 
was perhaps the owner of the hostelry which gave its 
name to Old Swan Pier. 

March is local, at the " march," or boundary, besides 
of course coming specifically from March (Camb.) or La 
Marche in France [Richard de la Marche, hermit of 
Charing, Pat. R.]. It has also been confused with 
Marsh, which has got the better of the exchanges [John 
atte Marche or Mersshe, City E.], and is a variant of 
the font-name Mark [March Draper, City A., Mark le 
Draper, City C.]. Hann, Hancock, Hankin, Hanson 
are rightly connected by Bardsley with Flemish forms 
of John. Camden, with equal correctness, says that 
Hann is for Rann (Randolph) ; cf. Hob from Robert, 
Hick from Richard. But Hanne or Henry of Leverpol 
(Lane. Inq. 1310-33) shows a third, and perhaps chief, 
origin. The harassed reader will be tempted to conclude 
that any name can come from anything, nor will he be 



314 DIVERGENT ORIGINS OF SURNAMES 

far wrong. I was lately asked whether Dobson was 
derived from the French place-name Aubusson. There 
is no reason why it should not be, if it can be shown 
that any d'Aubussons ever settled in England. But 
Robert is a safer etymon. 

In the case of a great number of names we observe 
a simple double origin, without being able to regard 
either as predominant. Such are Agate, " atte gate " 
or Agatha, Rudge, Fr. rouge or dial, rudge, a ridge, 
Wild, " le wild " or " atte wilde," Coy, of Quy (Camb.) 
[John de Coye, 1 Pat. R., Camb.] or the " coy " [Walter 
le Coye, Pat. R.]. Agnew comes from Agneaux (Manche) 
[John de Aygneaus, Chart. R.] and is a nickname, Fr. 
agneau [Richard Agnel, Pat. R.] ; cf. the common 
French surnames Lagneau, Lagnel, Laignel, Laignelet, 
etc. Vale is local and also from Fr. veille, watch, while 
Veal is both OF. le viel, the old [Adam le Viel, Lib. R.] 
and le vel, the calf [Richard le Vel, City B.], and of 
course Vale and Veal are themselves now hopelessly 
mixed up. 

The above are simple examples in which the double 
origin appears on the surface, but there are others less 
obvious. Gower is sometimes from the Glamorgan 
district so named [William de Goar, Pleas], but more 
often from a personal name Gohier [Goher de Alneto, 
Chart. R.], which comes through Old French from OG. 
Godehar ; it is thus a doublet of the native Goodier, 
Goodair, etc., AS. Godhere. The name has a possible 
third derivation from a shortened form of OF. goherier, 
a harness maker [Ernald le Goher, Close R.]. With 
Gower may be mentioned Power, generally the " poor," 

1 He seems to have been an important person. I find him also 
as de Quoye and de Queye. 



DOUBLE ORIGINS 315 

but also from OF. Pokier, a Picard [Randulf Puherius, 
Pipe R., Roger le Poher, Fine R.]. Tyson is explained 
by Bardsley as a form of Dyson, 1 from Dionysius or 
Diana, and, when we note the swarms of Tysons 
who, in Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancashire, 
confront the innumerable Dysons of the West Riding, 
there can be no doubt that this is correct. But the 
first Tyson on record was Gilbert Tison {DB.), who 
came over with the Conqueror — 

" Gysbright Tysoun fut le primer des Tysouns " (Percy Cart.). 

His name was no doubt a nickname from Fr. tison, 
a firebrand ; cf. our Carbonnel and Fr. Charbonneau.* 
Mould, Mold, Moule are old forms of Maude. Stow 
mentions Henry Fitzwarin and "Dame Molde his 
wife," the parents of Lady Richard Whittington. But 
these names also represent dialect forms of the animal 
nickname Mole — 

" Paid the mould catcher, £2 " (Nott. Bor. Rec. 1724). 

Bruton is local (Som.) and also for le Breton [John 
le Brutun, Hund. R.] ; cf. Bruttner (p. 216). Gibbons, 
usually from Gilbert or Gib, comes sometimes from 
Gobion (Gubbins), an Old French name belonging to 

1 The change is common ; cf . Tennyson and Denison, both from 
Dionysius (Denis). The Welsh Denbigh and Tenby both represent 
the " Dane bye." 

* Our Littlecole is doubtful. It may be formed like Fr. Petinicol. 
The Normans inherited from their Scandinavian ancestors a love 
of trivial and crude nicknames, and some of the proudest names in 
English history are of undignified origin, e.g. Marmion, now found 
also as Mormon, Marment, is OF. marmion, equivalent to modern 
marmot, monkey, brat. There is another OF. marmion, supposed 
to mean " marmot," but it is of no great antiquity and would not of 
course be a Norman name. 
22 



316 DIVERGENT ORIGINS OF SURNAMES 

OG. Godbrecht. This is found as Norman Gubiun 
[Richard Gubiun or Gibiun, Pleas] ; cf. ribbon, ruban. 
Similarly Higgins belongs perhaps as much to Hugh 
as to Hick (Richard). Gainer, Gaynor, Ganner is oc- 
cupative (see Augagneur, p. 287), and is also a variant 
form of Guinevere — 

" And Dame Gaynour, his quene, 
Was somewhat wanton, I wene " 

(Skelton, Phyllyp Sparowe, 636). 

Geary, Jeary is short for one of the Anglo-Saxon names 
in Gcer-, or from one of the cognate Old French names. 
As Geri it was the name of one of the paladins. It is 
occasionally a nickname [John le Gery, Hund. R.], 
from an obsolete adjective meaning uncertain, change- 
able — 

" Right so kan geery Venus overcaste 
The hertes • of hir folk ; right as hir day 
Is gereful, right so chaungeth she array '' 

(Chauc. A. 1535). 

Sometimes we find that an extremely rare name has 
more than one legitimate claimant. The name Godsave 
reached the author from a regimental mess, where the 
bearer was known as the " national anthem." This 
interesting name, found also as Godsiff, represents 
the Middle English phrase " o' God's half," properly 
" on God's behalf," but generally used as a kind of 
exclamation. In one of the Chester Plays Noah says 
to his wife — 

" Wiffe, come in I why standes thou their ? 
Thou art ever frowarde, I dare well sweare. 
Come in, one Godes halfe 1 tyme it were, 
For fear leste that we drowne." 

Thomas Agodshalf , whose name is latinized as de parte 



RARE NAMES 317 

Dei, 1 married a sister of Becket, Walter a Godeshalf lived 
in Sussex in the thirteenth century (Cust. Battle Abbey), 
de Godeshalf and Godsalve are found among the 
Freemen of York, Thomas Godsalve, whose portrait 
by Holbein can be seen at Dresden, was Registrar of 
the Consistory Court of Norwich in the sixteenth 
century, Godsawfe is found in Notts in the seventeenth 
century, and in fact the name is well attested in various 
parts of England up to comparatively recent times, 
and very likely still flourishes in some remote spot. 
Nothing would seem clearer than that this should be 
the origin of Godsave. But, on the other hand, it may 
be simply " God save " ; cf. the many names of that 
type given on p. 181, some of which were even used as 
font-names [Deulesalt a f. Jacob, Pipe R.] nearly five 
centuries before the Puritan eccentricities, Chaucer, 
which still exists as Chauser, is usually said to come 
from OF. chauceor, a maker of leathern hose, very 
common in the Rolls, and Baldwin le Chaucer de Cord- 
wanerstrete ! (City B.) seems conclusive. But the 
modern Chauser may equally well represent the ME. 
chauffe-cire, heat wax, a name for a Chancery official 
[Ellis le Chaufesire, Pat. R.]. See NED., s.v. chaff-wax, 
and Ducange, calefactor cera — 

" Chauffe-cire, a chafe-wax, in the Chancerie " (Cotg.). 

It could also quite well represent a " chalicer." 

Anger is a personal name, Fr. Angier, OG. Ansgar 
(p. 30) [Ansger solus, DB.]. It is also derived from 

1 See Depardeu (p. 181). Probably some of our Pardews are 
simply French versions of Godsave. 
* Diotisalvi is an Italian name. 
3 For cordwainer see p. 172 



318 DIVERGENT ORIGINS OF SURNAMES 

Angers, whence also Ainger, while it can hardly be 
excluded from the great class of abstract nicknames 
(pp. 216-224) ; cf. Ger. Zorn. Bottle seems to be a rare 
name, but, in addition to ME. hotel, a building, house, 
it has ancestors in the shape of Anglo-Saxon names in 
Bod- [Botild or BotilHod, Hund. R., Robert Buthewlf, 1 
Chart. R.]. Bellasis is local [Robert de Beleassise, 
F. of Y.], from Bellasis (Northumb.) or Bellasize 
(Yorks), both of French formation; 2 but there is a 
font-name Belle-assez, fair enough [Beleassez Iudsea, 
Pipe R.], which is not uncommon in Middle English 
and would give the same result. With this cf. Good- 
enough, Goodnow [William Godynogh, Pat. R.], White- 
now, Oldknow, Thomas Fairynowe (Pat. R.), Richard 
Langynou [Fine R), and even Woodnough, i.e. mad 
enough (p. 308). Lew, already explained (p. 66) as 
local, is also a variant of Low, wolf (p. 310). The 
full Leleu is still found in Devon. Nothard may be 
the " neat-herd " [Nicholas le Noutehird, F. of Y.] or 
the AS. Notheard, valour strong. Fear has alternative 
origins from ME. fer, fierce, proud (Fr. fier), and fere, 
a companion, as in Playfair, and of course has been 
confused with Fair. 

Stutfield is authentically derived from Etoutteville 
(Seine-Ini), with the regular substitution of -field for 
-ville [Helewin de Estuteville, Fine R.], but it can also 
be for " stot-field," from ME. stot, a nag, bullock 
[John de Stotfold, Chart. R.]. Trist is short for Tris- 
tram and alternatively local, at the "tryst" [Peter 
atte Treste, Hund. R.], the earliest meaning of which 
is connected with hunting. Cue is the cook, ME. 

1 Botolph, whence Boston, Botolf's town. 
s Cf. Belsize, London. 



UNSUSPECTED SOURCES 319 

le keu from Old French, but there is a Sc. McCue, for 
MacHugh, which would inevitably become Cue l in 
England. Suddard is a dialect form of the local 
Southward and a Scotch form of Fr. soudard, a soldier. 
Bew is usually Welsh ap Hugh {Pugh), but also a French 
nickname representing a later form than the more 
common Bell [Peter le Beus, 2 Leic. Bor. Rec.]. Uzzell 
probably represents both AS. Osweald and OF. oisel 
(oiseau), whence also Lazell, Layzell, Fr. Loisel. The 
antithetic Fairfoul might be for " fair fowl," for " fear- 
ful," or for " fair field," each derivation being legitimate 
and easily paralleled, but it may also have its face 
value, as a nickname applied to a man of contrasts ; 
cf. Roger Fulfayr (Hund. R.), who may, however, have 
been " full fair." 

Finally, we have the case of a name of obvious and 
certain origin which has an unexpected subsidiary 
source. Some striking examples were given at the 
beginning of the chapter. Hull and Pool are evidently 
local, the former being a variant of " hill " — 

"' On a May morwenyng on Malverne hulles " 

(Piers Plowm. C. i. 6). 

But Hull was a common font-name in Lancashire 
[Adam f. Hul, Lane. Inq. 1310-33, Hull f. Robert, ib.], 
hence Fitzhull. No doubt it is for Hulbert, an Old 
French name cognate with AS. Holdbeorht, gracious 
bright. Pool is a common Anglo-French spelling 
of Paul, whence also Poll, Pollett, sometimes Powell 
and generally Powles. Arundell, Arndell, Arran- 

1 This is a common phenomenon, the aphetic name usually keep- 
ing the final -c of Mac, e.g. Cawley, Callister, Clish, etc. So also we 
find Carty for the Irish Macarthy, while Casement is for Mac-Esmond. 

1 This -s is the OF. nominative. 



320 DIVERGENT ORIGINS OF SURNAMES 

dale are obviously from Arundell (Suss.), but Osbert 
Arundel l [Rievaulx Cart. c. 1140) was named from 
OF. arondel, a swallow. Beaver, Beevor, etc., show 
the usual pronunciation of Belvoir (Leic.) and have no 
connection with an animal which was extinct in 
England long before the surname period. But John le 
Bevere* (Fine R.), like Geoffrey le Buver (Close R.), 
was a thirsty soul, though not necessarily to be classed 
with William Aydrunken (Northumb. Ass. R. 1256-79). 
Bourne is generally local, from Fr. borne, a boundary, 
no doubt often confused with burn. It is also a nick- 
name, the one-eyed ' [Walter le Borne, Pipe R., Peter 
Monoculus, Exch. R.], still common in France as 
Leborgne. 

Other examples of reinforced local names are Tower, 
sometimes the " rawer," leather dresser [Gilbert le 
Tower, Hund. R.], and Myer, k OF. mire, the physician — 

" Je sui malade a mort, si requier vostre ale. 
Que myere ne me puet aidier par sa clergie " 

(OF. poem, 14th cent.). 

Buxton is occasionally a personal name [Ailric Bucstan, 
Pipe R.], of the same type as Wulfstan. Venn, usually 
for the local Fenn [Nicholas Dibbe of la Venne, IpM., 

1 It is exceptional to find bird nicknames preceded by the article. 

1 The vowel change is regular ; cf . beef, people, retrieve, etc. Or 
rather, in this case, we have kept the original vowel, the French 
u being due to lalialization. 

3 The earliest meaning was probably " squinting." Hence 
Leborgne may be rather Strabo than Codes. 

1 Myer, Myers is generally local, at the " mire,'' and in modern 
times often stands for Ger. Meyer. OF. mire, a doctor, perhaps 
became a popular nickname in connection with the quack doctor of 
the medieval drama. It is a very common entry {mire, meir, meyre), 
and has evidently been confused with Mair, Mayor. In fact it is 
likely that many of the latter spring from mire. It is hardly neces- 
sary to say that the local Mears (p. 68) is also implicated. 



REINFORCED BAPTISMAL NAMES 321 

Som.J is also baptismal, probably for Vincent [William 
f. Venne, Lane. Inq. 1310-33]. Over is ME. overe, 
bank, sea-shore, whence several English place-names. 
In Middle English it seems to be used chiefly as a 
rime for Dover. The surname Over, whence also Owers, 
is also occupative, from OF. ovier, an egg-merchant 
[Thurstan le Over or Ovarius or Owarius, Leic. Bor. 
Rec.]. 

The above are examples of local surnames which 
have other subsidiary origins. Baptismal surnames 
have been similarly reinforced from other sources. 
Even the simple A dam is sometimes local, " atte dam " ; 
cf. Agate, Adeane, etc. Willis has encroached on 
Willows [Andrew in le Wylies, Percy Cart.]. I have 
already suggested (p. 232) that Hugh may sometimes 
represent AS. hiwa, a servant. It is also, like Hogg, 
a variant of the local Hough [William del Hughe, 
F of Y.J. In fact Hugh, Hough, How, Hogg are so 
mixed up that a small chapter would be required to 
elucidate their history. Hitch, usually for Richard, is 
occasionally local [Richard Attehiche, Hund. R.J, 
probably a variant of "hatch" or "hutch." The 
derivative Hitcheon, from Fr. Huchon (Hutchin), dim. 
of Hugh, suggests that the Hitch- group, like the 
Hig- group, belongs to Hugh as well as Richard. Bellis, 
having its home in North Wales, is clearly ab Ellis, 
but it is also a variant of Bellhouse (see p. 96). Bryan 
and Bryanson are both occasionally local, from Brienne, 
a common French place-name [Guy de Briane, Fine R.J, 
and Briancon [Bartholomew de Brianzun, ib.J. Neale, 
which represents the font-name Nigel and also the Norse 
Niel, i.e. Nicholas, is sometimes derived from Nesle 
(Somme) . The merchants of Amyas (Amiens), Neal and 



322 DIVERGENT ORIGINS OF SURNAMES 

Corby, all now in the department of Somme, are often 
mentioned in City records and appear to have enjoyed 
special privileges. It is only natural that each town 
should have given an English surname. Catlin, whence 
also Gatling, is usually from Catherine [William Cateline 
or Katelyn, Fine R.], and may even be a dim. of the 
Norse Kettle [Ketelinus le Fevre, Coram Rege R. 1297], 
but it also records stray Catalans, i.e. incomers from 
Catalonia [Arnold Catellan, Pat. R., John de Cateloyne 
or Catelyne, ib.j . Everett, besides representing Jiverard, 
AS. Eoforheard, almost certainly means " boar head," 
cf. Bullett and the other examples on p. 128. 

Here it may be noted that personal names in -ett, -itt 
are not always to be regarded as dims. In Tamsett 
we have merely the French dim. ending -et (Thomas-et), 
but in Hewett, Howitt, Willett, and many other names ' 
the ending may be the usual reduction of -ard, so that 
they would be from Heward, Howard, 1 Willard, rather 
than from the Hugh and Will which represent a first 
syllable shared by these names with other Anglo- 
Saxon names. 

An occupative name may also conceal one of the 
other classes. Metier, usually the "miller" 2 — 

"Monde the mulnere, var. mellere, and moni mo" 
(Piers Plowm. A. ii. 80) — 



1 Howard has several origins, but the identity, as personal names, 
of the shortened How and Hew suggests that its chief origin is Fr. 
Huard, OG. Hugihart. Searle has neither Hygeheard nor Hyge- 
weard, but such names must have existed. 

1 It is interesting to note that, according to the NED., miller, 
meller, milner, mulliner, are not found before the fourteenth century. 
They are all, however, common as thirteenth-century surnames. 
The Anglo-Saxon term was mylenweard (Millward, Millard), really 
the official in charge of the lord's mill. In the Pat. R. occurs William 
le Wyndmylneward. 



REINFORCED OCCUPATIVE NAMES 323 

is also the " better " [John le Meillur, Chart. R.] ; cf. 
Fr. Meilleur, Ger. Besser, and our own Better [John le 
Bettre, Pat. R.]. Biddle, Bittle is not only for AS. 
bydel, the beadle, but, its home being Gloucestershire, 
represents Welsh ab Ithel (whence Beihell, Bithell, 
etc.), the simplex being found in Wiltshire as Iddols. 
Ryder is obviously occupative, but the home of the 
name is North Wales, a country singularly unsuited 
for cavalry. Hence it must often be from a Welsh 
personal name [Mereduc f. Reder, Pat. R.]. Mawer, 
a " mower " [Thomas le Mawere, Pat. R.], is in East 
Anglia a variant of the dial, mawther, a girl, in fact 
this is probably the usual origin of the name, which 
belongs chiefly to Lincolnshire. 

" The old Mawther biled.'em, she did. Mrs. Gummidge biled 
'em " (David Copperfield, ch. vii.). 

Very common names such as Carter, Cooper, Tucker 
easily swallow up uncommon names which have ceased 
to be understood. In Carter is almost lost Charter, 
which itself may have various origins, including that of 
Carthusian monk [Philip le Chartrar or le Carter or 
de Chartraas, 1 Salisb. Cart.]. Cooper, Couper, Cowper 
includes not only " cupper," but also Du. hooper, a 
merchant, lit. buyer, which we still have in horse-coper ; 
and the not uncommon Toutcceur, all heart [Geoffrey 
Tutquor, Royal Let. Hen. III. 1216-35, William Tut- 
quere, F. of Y.] has been lost in Tucker. 

Even the obvious nickname has often a secondary 
source. I will take three examples only. Bird is 
from ME. brid, properly a young bird, 2 and used later 

1 Fr. Chartreuse, Eng. Charterhouse. 

* For bird in general fowl was used, as in the Bible, 



324 DIVERGENT ORIGINS OF SURNAMES 

of the young of other animals and even of children. 
In the fourteenth century it is used for maiden, by 
confusion with ME. burde, berde, and possibly also with 
bride, so that these words must also be considered 
in tracing the pedigree of the Birds — 

" Thir breeks o' mine, my only pair, 
That ance were plush, o' guid blue hair, 
I wad hae gien them ofi my hurdies 
For ae blink o' the bonie burdies I " 

{Tarn o'Shanter). 

Ruddick, found also as Rodick, Riddick, Reddick, etc., 
is an Anglo-Saxon dim. of the name Rudd, i.e. red, and 
in dialect is a name for the robin — 

" The tame ruddok and the coward kyte" 

(Chauc. Pari, of Foules, 349). 

But Robert del Rowdick (Leic. Bor. Rec), whose name 
is clearly local, may have been the ancestor of some 
of the Ruddicks. Cox is one of our commonest sur- 
names and represents Cocks, the simple Cock being of 
at least four origins, none of which will very well 
account for David atte Kokes (Hund. R., Norf.) and 
John del Cogges (Chesh. Chamb. Accts). Apparently 
these names refer to the boat called a " cog " or" cock." 
For similar names see p. 171. The use of the plural is 
unusual, but cf . Hoyes, a common Lincolnshire surname, 
and Bates, sometimes an archaic northern form of 
" boat " [Adam del Bate, IpM.]. 

I had intended to have included in this volume 
a chapter on imitative name-forms, of which examples 
are to be found on almost every page of the book. But 
the subject is so vague and endless and so unsuited 
for methodical treatment that I will only mention a 



IMITATIVE SPELLINGS 325 

few characteristic instances. The natural tendency 
is to strive at giving meaning to the unintelligible and, 
among a number of accidental variants, to prefer that 
which suggests something significant, however remote 
this may be from the real sense of the name. But the 
reader whose patience has held out so far will have 
come to see that surnames are often of such bizarre 
and unexpected origin, that one must exercise great 
caution in arbitrarily describing the unusual as imita- 
tive. Bardsley regards Tortoiseshell as an imitative 
form of the local Tattershall. The habitat of the name 
(Staffordshire) does not favour this, and there is no 
reason why it should not be a nickname, probably of 
costume, just as we have tortoiseshell cats and butter- 
flies. The tortoise was well known to our ancestors, 
and has given the existing names Tortiss, Tortise, the 
latter occurring in Norfolk, where the Promptorium 
Parvulorum was compiled — 

" Tortuce, a beeste, tortuta" {Prompt. Parv.). 

Beetle may be an alteration of Beadle, but we have a 
number of well-authenticated insect nicknames, e.g. 
Ampt, Emmett, 1 Furmy, all meaning ant, Bee, Coachafer, 
Flay or Fly, Hornett, Wasp, etc., and Robert Scarbode 
(IpM.) certifies Beetle as a nickname — 

" Escarbot, the blacke flie called, a beetle " (Cotg.). 

There are, of course, some cases in which we may 
legitimately infer imitative origin even without docu- 
mentary evidence. When, in the roll of a regiment 
largely composed of Irishmen, we find Kingseller, 
Flirty and Cavemer, we need not hesitate to recognize 

1 Usually a dim. of Emma. 



326 DIVERGENT ORIGINS OF SURNAMES 

the fine old Irish names Kinsella, Flaherty and Kava- 
nagh. Coldbreath, Cowhorn and Laughland may be 
similarly accepted as for the Scottish Galbraith, Colqu- 
houn and Lachlan, while Cossack is the Irish Cusack. 
The Welsh Rhys, Rees is very common in England as 
Rice and occasionally as Race. Stow tells us that in 
1531 Sir Rice Grifith was beheaded on Tower Hill, 
and I have come across Race Alisaundre in a monastery 
cartulary near the Welsh Border. Another origin of 
Race is Fr. ras [John le Ras, Hund. R.]. 

" Ras, shaven, cleane shaven " (Cotg.). 

Straight 1 is perhaps merely a variant of Street [Ralph 
del Strate or atte Strete, Close R.]. 

Sometimes a name, without being imitative, suggests 
something quite remote from its meaning. Lugger is 
AS. Hlothgar, famous spear. It cannot be of the same 
origin as Galley, Barge, etc. (p. 171), for, according to all 
nautical authorities, the name of the craft dates from 
the eighteenth century. Pinion is one of the many 
names from Welsh ap Eynon ; cf. Binyon, Bennion, 
etc. Pamphlett is a dim. of the name Pamphile [John 
Panfelot, Pat. R.]. Cf. the derivation of the common 
noun pamphlet, from Pamphilet, " a familiar name of 
the twelfth-century amatory poem or comedy called 
Pamphilus, seu de amore, a highly popular opuscule 
in the thirteenth century " (NED.). With the Eastern- 
looking Durbar, Doorbar, AS. Thurbeorht, cf. Sirdar 
(p. 120). In Icemonger is preserved AS. isen, iron. 

The locality in which an imitative name is found 
often furnishes a clue to its origin. Examples are 
Blackcow, of Blackhall (Lane), and Muse, a York- 

1 The -g- of straight, for strait, OF. estreit (itroit), is not original. 



IMITATIVE SPELLINGS 327 

shire name, of Meaux in that county. So also Doubt, 
Doubting are found in Somerset with Dowd, Doweling, 
these probably from David. In Bucks Coughtrey is 
found side by side with Cowdery (p. 306), while in 
Lincolnshire Cushion occurs as a variant of Cushing. 
Names that have wandered far from their homes can 
often be traced back thither through a series of forms. 
To those mentioned on p. 88 may be added Counter- 
patch, a London version of Comberbach (Chesh.), of 
which Cumberpatch is an intermediate form, Kingrose 
for Kinross, and Roseworm for the much prettier 
Cornish Rosewarne. 

Names of baptismal origin get perverted if unfamiliar. 
Williams does not change, but Paton, no longer recog- 
nized as a dim. of Patrick, is altered to Patten, Pattern, 
Patent. Any form, whatever absurdity it suggests, is 
preferred to the unintelligible. Thus Mahood, from 
Maheut, the Old French form of Matilda, sometimes 
becomes Mawhood, and Dawtrey, i.e. de Hauterive, 
is spelt Daughtery. Liptrapp is a perversion of Liptrott, 
an early German immigrant, Liebetraut, " Dearlove," 
probably a Huguenot name. Loyal and Royal are 
doubtful. Though quite possible nicknames, they 
are perhaps rather for Lyle, Ryle or Lyall, Ryall. The 
first two are local and the second two baptismal, 
though they have of course been confused. Lyall is 
for Lyulph, representing an Old Danish Lithwulf [Liolf 
f. Liolf, Fine R.], and Ryall is for Riulf [Henry f. Riolf, 
Lib. R.], AS. Ricwulf. 

One result of imitative spelling is that we find 
many names suggesting adverbs, conjunctions and 
interjections, or even parts of verbs. These are 
generally pretty simple, e.g. While is for Wile (see p. 83), 



328 DIVERGENT ORIGINS OF SURNAMES 

Whence is at the " wence," i.e. the cross-roads. This 
is simply the plural of went, a way [John del Wente, 
Pat. R.]. Where is for Ware (p. 311) and the second 
element of Whereat is yate, a gate (seep. 91). In con- 
nection with these names it may be noted that initial 
Wh- is often artificial, e.g. Whatkins, Whisker (p. 137), 
Whybird, AS. Wigbeorht, etc. Heigho is for Hayhoe, 
at the " high hoe." Would is of course for Wood ; cf. 
Wouldhave (p. 59). Goe, very common in Lincoln- 
shire, where it is neighboured by Goy, is local, from 
one of many places in France called Gouy [Hugh de 
Goe or de Goy, Close R.]. 

Most collectors of odd surnames have been attracted 
by the great class of names in -ing. A curious little 
book ' now before me has a list of 150 such names, and 
this list could easily be doubled. It is probable that 
hardly any 2 of these names are really present parti- 
ciples. We might nickname a man " Dancing Jimmy," 
but, for surname purposes, he would become " Jimmy 
the Dancer." A great many of these -ing names are 
Anglo-Saxon patronymics, e.g. Billing, Golding, etc., 
and some may be formed from local names and mean 
inhabitant. In the Abingdon Cartulary are mentioned 
the Beorhtfeldingas, Lamburningas, Winterburn- 
ingas, Cnottingas, Horningas, who inhabited the 
" bright field," " lang burn," etc. ; but it is uncertain 
how far this formation survived into the surname 
period. Perhaps the majority of these names are due 
to the vulgar tendency to add final -g after -n, as in 
" kitching." Here belong Panting, Painting, for 

1 C. L. Lordan, Of Certain English Surnames and their Occasional 
Odd Phases when seen in Groups (London and Romsey, n.d.). 
* But see Leeming (p. 89, n. 2). 



PRESENT PARTICIPLES 329 

Pantin, Panton, a dim. of Pantolf ' [William Pauntolf, 
Lib R., William Paunton, ib.]. Going is the French 
name Gouin [John Gowyn, Pat. R.], Howling is a 
double dim. of How or Hugh ; cf. Fr. Huelin, Hulin. 
Wearing and Warring are for Warin, a common Old 
French name (Guerin) which usually gives Warren. 
Dusting is a form of Thurstan [William Dusteyn, 
IftM.] and is also found in the shortened form Dust. 
Fearing is for Fearon, OF. feron, a smith, and Basting 
is a perversion of Bastin, i.e. Sebastian. And so ad 
infinitum. It is possible that in a few cases the origin 
of an -ing name may be an abstract noun ; see Deeming 
(p. 222) ; while many of them are local compounds of ing, 
a meadow (p. 64). 

But we have a few surnames derived from French 
present participles used as nicknames. Such are 
Currant [Beatrice Corant, Ramsey Cart.], Mordaunt 
[Robert le Mordaunt, Hund. R.], Morant or Murrant 
[John le Moraunt, Coram Rege R. 1297, Amicia le 
Murant, Close R.]. The latter name is more likely 
aphetic for OF. demorant (demeurant) than for mourant. 
Cf. Hugh le Demurant [Pipe R.), Johanna la Manaunte 
(Testa de Nev), Alexander Sujournant (Glouc. Cart.). 
These examples seem to show that Remnant, like the 
common noun remnant, represents the Old French 
present participle remanant. Many more names of 
this type occur in the Rolls, e.g. Penaunt, Poygnaunt, 
Saillaunt, Trenchaunt, Taylant, Erraunt, etc., and 
probably some of these are still in existence. 

The examples in this chapter are taken almost at 

1 Of Old French introduction, from OG. Bandwolf, banner wolf, 
which does not appear to be found in Anglo-Saxon. It is fairly 
common in the Rolls. 



330 DIVERGENT ORIGINS OF SURNAMES 

random and most pages of the London Directory 
would yield similar results. The reader will, I think, 
conclude that a real Dictionary of English Surnames 
would be rather a big book, and that compilations 
which dispense with evidence are not to be taken 
seriously. 



INDEX 



This index contains, with a very few doubtful cases, only names which 
were in existence as late as the nineteenth century. Foreign names are 
printed in italics. It will be sometimes found that more than one origin is 
indicated for the same name. 



A'barrow, 50 
Abbott, 200 
Abear, 50 
Abel, 204 
Absolom, 205 
Abt, 300 
A' Burrow, 50 
Acock, 57 
Acton, 160 
Adam, 204, 321 
Adams, 16 
Adcock, 57 
Addle, 36 
Addyman, 236 
Adger, 42 
Adlard, 43 
Adler, 301 
Admer, 42 
Adsead, 74 
Adshead, 74 
Affery, 32 
Affray, 32 
Agate, 314 
Ager, 92 
Agnew, 314 
Agricola, 305 
Agutter, 50 
Ahearn, 50 
Aikett, 128, n. 1 
Ainger, 318 
Akenside, 138 
Alabone, 51 
Aladenise, 284 
Alavoine, 186 
Albrow, 131 
Alcott, 92 
Aldejohann, 295 
Alder, 248 
Alderson, 248 
Aldhouse, 96 

23 



Aldis, 96 
Aldous, 96 
Aldred, 42, 227 
Aldritt, 42, 227 
Aldus, 96 
Aldwy, 44 
Alefounder, 114 
Alehouse, 96 
Alexander, 188, 216 
Alflatt, 32 
Algar, 168 
Algate, 50 
Alkin, 32 
Allabyrne, 51 
Allard, 43 
Allbones, 143 
Allcard, 32 
Allchin, 32 
Allchurch, 50 
Allcorn, 185 
Allday, 42 
Alldread, 42 
Allenwaters, 161, ». 
Alleweldt, 304 
Allfree, 32 
Allgood, 16 
Allhusen, 51 
Allibon, 5 1 
Alliott, 32 
Allman, 217 
Allmark, 178 
Allpass, 50 
Allpike, 50 
Allpress, 287 
Alltoft, 51 
Allweather, 235, n. 
Allwright, 227 
Almond, 39 
Alner, in 
Alphege, n 

331 



Alsop, 63 
Altree, 51 
Alwin, 32 
Ambery, 106 
Ambler, 122 
Ambrey, 106 
Ambrose, 187 
Amery, 41 
Amner, 105, 106 
Amory, 41 
Ampt, 325 
Amyas, 103, «. 2 
Anchor, 211 
Andacht, 302 
Anderbrugg, 296 
Angell, 209, 310 
Anger, 317 
Angle, 310 
Angot, 30 
Anker, 211 
Ankettle, 30 
Ankrett, 211 
Annercaw, 211 
Anquetil, 30 
Ansell, 31 
Ansorg, 302 
Anster, 86 
Ansterberry, 86, ». 
Anthistle, 82 
Anyon, 191 
Applequist, 195, n. 
Arabin, 212 
Aram, 86 
Arber, 107 
Arbuckle, 152 
Arcedeckne, 210 
Archdeacon, 210 
Archer, 4 
Archerson, 239 
Arculus, 215 



332 

Argent, 157 
Argles, 36 
Argument, 217 
Aris, 103, n. 2 
Arkcoll, 36 
Arkell, 36 
Arkle, 36 
Arkless, 149, 215 
Arkwright, 227 
Armbruster, 300 
Armes, 125 
Armitt, 209 
Armour, 158 
Armshaw, 125 
Armstrong, 139 
Arnall, 36 
Arnaud, 9 
Arndell, 319 
Arnold, 36, 188, ». 
Arrand, 36 
Arrandale, 319 
Arrow, 162 
Arrowsmith, 228 
Arsmith, 228 
Arthur, 36 
Artless, 149 
Arum, 86 
Arundell, 319 
Aschenbrenner, 299 
Ashburn, 226, ». 1 
Ashburner, 226, n. 1 
Asher, 102 
Ashkettle, 30 
Ashmall, 68 
Ashman, 237 
Ashmole, 68 
Ashpital, 107 
Ashplant, 205 
Ashwin, 38 
Ask, 168 
Asker, 102 
Askell, 30 
Aspenlon, 205 
Aspland, 205 
Asplin, 205 
Asquith, 84 
Asser, 102 
Astell, 30 
Atcock, 57 
Athawes, 49 
Atheis, 49 
Atherall, 50 
Athersmith, 50 
Athersuch, 50 
Athews, 49 
Athoke, 49 
Athow, 49 
Atkey, 49 
Ato, 49 



INDEX 

Attack, 49 
Attenbarrow, 49 
Attenborough, 50 
Atterbury, 50 
Attewell, 49 
Attick, 49 
Attneave, 234 
Attock, 49 
Attoe, 49 
Attread, 49 
Attreall, 50 
Attride, 49 
Attrie, 49 
Attrill, 49 
Attru, 49 
Attwooll, 49 
Atwill, 308 
Atwood, 49 
Atyeo, 49 
Aubrey, 32 
Aucutt, 92 
Aucher, 32 
Augagneur, 287 
Auger, 168 
Augier, 168 
Augur, 168 
AuprHre, 287 
Authors, 36 
Auxdnes, 280 
Auxenfants, 280 
Avann, 50 
Avenarius, 305 
Avery, 32 
Awdas, 96 
Awdrey, 29 
Axworthy, 86, n. 2 
Aylmer, 32 
Aylward, 32, 43 
Aymer, 32 

Baby, 249 
Bacchus, 295, n. 
Bache, 53 
Back, 24, 138 
Backhaus, 295 
Backhouse, 295, ». 
Backmeister, 299 
Backshall, 88 
Badgery, 86 
Badrick, 37 
Bage, 53 
Bailhache, 270 
Baillehache, 270 
Bailward, 53 
Bain, 143, ». 1, 194 
Baines, 143 
Baird, 240 
Bairnsfather, 247 
Bajoue, 133 



Bakewell, 254 
Balaam, 206 
Bald, r32 
Balder, 43 
Bale, 53 
Ball, 53, 132 
Ballance, 166 
Ballard, 132 
Ballinger, 35 
Ballister, 121 
Balm, 188 
Balmain, 139 
Balnave, 234 
Balsam, 188 
Balster, 121 
Band, 230, ». 2 
Banfather, 247 
Bannister, 121 
Bantick, 94 
Bantock, 94 
Bard, 240 
Barff, 53 
Barfoot, 141 
Bar fuss, 301 
Barge, 171 
Bargh, 53 
Bark, 171 
Barkhouse, 96 
Barkis, 98 
Barleggs, r40 
Barley, 185 
Barleycorn, 124, 196 
Barnacle, 89 
Barnard, 34 
Barnes, 247 
Barnett, 34, 309 
Barnfather, 247 
Barnish, 34 
Barnwell, 34 
Barr, 56 
Barraclough, 88 
Barrass, 98 
Barrell, 125 
Barrett, 34, 137, 143, 

146 
Barringer, 35 
Barrowcliff, 88 
Bartenwerffer, 300 
Barter, 147 
Barth, 53 
Bartholdy, 294 
Barton, 60 
Bartram, 38 
Baskett, 124, 165 
Basketter, 115, 227 
Baskwell, 90 
Basnett, 159 
Bastel, 295 
Baster, 105 



Bastien, 282 
Bastin, 329 
Basting, 329 
Batch, 53 
Bateman, 24, n. 
Bates, 324 
Bathos, 19 
Bathurst, 19 
Batt, 24 
Batters, 37 
Baxter, 230, «. 1 
gay, 53 
Baylas, 98 
Bayles, 53 
Bayliss, 98 
Bays, 53 
Beake, 133 
Beam, 184 
Bean, 143, n. 1, 194 
Beanes, 194 
Bear, 53 

Bearblock, 69, n. 
Beard, 136 
Bearder, 104 
Bearpark, 69, ». 
Beart, 136 
Beatniff, 234 
Beauclerk, 234 
Beauharnais, 159, 279 
Beaujean, 285 
Beaulieu, 281 
Beaumanoir, 240 
Beaurepaire, 69, ». 1 
Beautyman, 237 
Beaver, 320 
Bebbow, 267 
Bebel, 293 
Beck, 298 
Beckenhube, 301 
Becker, 298 
Beddis, 97 
Bedgood, 261 
Bee, 325 
Beeching, 65 
Beechner, 88 
Beemaster, 68 
Beer, 53, 124, 174 
Beerbohm, 295 
Beetle, 325 
Beevor, 320 
Behagg, 52 
Behrens, 34 
Belcher, 245 
Beldam, 245 
Belfitt, 91 
Bellasis, 318 
Bellhanger, 35 
Bellinger, 35 
Bellis, 321 



INDEX 

Belloc, 281 
Bellows, 96 
Bellringer, 102, «. 
Belt, 124 
Bemrose, 85 
Bemroose, 85 
Benbough, 267 
Benbow, 267 
Bend, 54 
Bendelow, 259 
Benjafield, 21 
Benninger, 35 
Bennion, 326 
Benrose, 85 
Benskin, 196 
Bent, 54 
Benvenuto, 254 
Bere, 53 
Berecloth, 88 
Bdrenger, 34 
Berger, 287, 295 
Bergerat, 287 
Bergeret, 287 
Bergeron, 287 
Bergerot, 287 
Berkenshaw, 88 
Bernadot, 283 
Bernadotte, 283 
Bernal, 34 
Bemardin, 283 
Berner, 34, 113 
Bernhardt, 34, 294 
Bernstorff, 296 
Berrill, 158 
Berringer, 35 
Berrycloth, 88 
Berryman, 231 
Bert, 283 
Bertenshaw, 88 
Berthollet, 283 
Berthon, 283 
Bertilleau, 283 
Bertram, 36 
Bertrand, 38 
Beryl, 158 
Besant, 177 
Bessemer, 220 
Besser, 323 
Besson, 249 
Bester, 114 
Bestman, 237 
Betbell, 323 
Bethmann-Hollweg, 292 
Bethune, 103, ». 2 
Bettany, 187 
Better, 323 
Bevan, 247 
Beveridge, 174 
Bevin, 271 



333 



Bew, 319 
Bewkers, 129 
Bewsher, 245 
Bezuidenhout, 49 
Bias, 51, ». 2 
Bicheno, 88 
Bick, 133 
Bickerstaff, 2 
Bickersteth, 2 
Bidaway, 51 
Biddis, 97 
Biddle, 323 
Bidgood, 261 
Bidlake, 52 
Bidmead, 52 
Bieberstein, 296 
Biedenweg, 296 
Biengrdber, 299 
Biennourry, 288 
Bienvenu, 254 
Biesenbdnder, 299 
Bifien, 247 
Biller, 114 
Billett, 125 
Billiald, 38 
Billiard, 38, 125 
Billing, 328 
Billion, 38, 180 
Billows, 96 
Binder, 117 
Bindlass, 200 
Bindloss, 200 
Binks, 54 
Binyon, 326 
Birchenough, 88 
Bircher, 121 
Bircumshaw, 88 
Bird, 323 
Birdseye, 133 
Birdwhistle, 82 
Birkenrut, 167 
Birkenshaw, 88 
Birkett, 88 
Birkhead, 88 
Birkway, 100 
Birrell, 130, ». 
Birtenshaw, 88 
Birtwhistle, 82 
Bischoff, 300 
Bisgood, 196 
Bishop, 200, 210 
Bishoprick, 210 
Bismarck, 297 
Bismire, 220 
Bissell, 154 
Bissett, 154 
Bisson, 249 
Bithell, 323 
Bithray, 85 



334 



INDEX 



Bitmead, 52 
Bittle, 323 
Black, 154 
Blackall, 62 
Blackband, 230 
Blackbeard, 136 
Blackbird, 136 
Blackbond, 230 
Blackbrow, 131 
Blackburn, 247 
Blackcow, 326 
Blackett, 128 
Blackball, 62 
Blackie, 133 
Blackleach, 65 
Blackledge, 65 
Blacklock, 131 
Blackmore, 21a 
Blackrod, 135 
Blackshields, 75 
Blackshire, 88 
Blacksmith, 227 
Blacktop, 128 
Blagg, 156, ». 1 
Blakelock, 131 
Blampey, 141 
Blampied, 141 
Blanchemain, 289 
Blanchett, 196, n. 1 
Blanchflower, 196 
Blandamore, 260 
Blankett, 155 
Blay, 131, ». 
Blaylock, r3i 
Bleakledge, 65 
Bleakman, 237 
Blechschmidt, 298 
Blee, 131, n. 
Blellock, 131 
Blenkarne, 88 
Blenkin, 88 
Blenkiron, 88 
Blewitt, 154 
Blinkhorn, 88 
Bliss, 223, ». 2 
Block, 156 
Blogg, 156 
Blood, 142 
Bloom, 190 
Bloomneld, 90 
Blossom, 190 
Blowey, 133 
Bloyd, 142 
Blud, 142 
Bluett, 154 
Blunderfield, 90 
Blunkett, 154 
Boag, 54 
Boak, 54 



Boakes, 54 
Boaler, 117 
Boam, 54 
Boast, 219 
Boat, 171 
Boatswain, 234 
Boatwright, 227 
Bodin, 55 
Body, 127, 129 
Bodycoat, 148 
Boeson, 234 
Boggers, 97 
Boggis, 97 
Boicervoise, 259, n. 
Boilaive, 281 
Boileau, 252, 279 
Boileve, 281 
Bolister, 121 
Bolster, 121 
Boltwood, 258 
Bomash, 232 
Bon, 289 
Bonbemat, 285 
Bond, 226 
Bone, 143 
Bones, 143 
Bonest, 97 
Bonfellow, 232 
Bonhote, 175, n. 
Boniface, 135 
Bonifant, 247 
Bonnange, 209 
Bonnard, 289 
Bonneau, 289 
Bonnet, 289 
Bonnet, 289 
Bonneteau, 289 
Bonnett, 146 
Bonnyman, 237 
Bonser, 248 
BonU, 218 
Bonus, 97 
Bonvallet, 289 
Bonvouloir, 245 
Boobyer, 54 
Booer, 120 
Bookless, 149 
Boosey, 54 
Boot, 153 
Booty, 237 
Bootyman, 237 
Bopp t 293 
Borer, 116 
Borrell, 154 
Borrowman, 231 
Borstall, 54 
Bosbier, 303 
Bosomworth, 31 
Boss, 54 



Bossuet, 291 
Botherway, 37 
Bothway, 37 
Bottle, 318 
Botwright, 227 
Bouch, 134 
Boucharin, 287 
Boucher, 279, 287 
Boucher eau, 287 
Boucheron, 287 
Bouchet, 287 
Bough, 196 
Boughtflower, 258 
Bough twood, 258 
Boulanger, 279 
Boulnois, 285 
Bouncer, 248 
Bound, 230, n. 2 
Bourdaloue, 290 
Bourgeois, 285 
Bourne, 320 
Bout, 153 
Boutflour, 258 
Bouton, 153 
Bouvard, 289 
Bouveau, 289 
Bouvelet, 289 
Bouvet, 289 
Bouvier, 289 
Bouvot, 289 
Bovett, 128 
Bowater, 52 
Bowell, 142 
Bowerman, 235, n. 2 
Bowgen, 242 
Bowgett, 156 
Bowler, 117 
Bowles, 142 
Bowmaker, 226, n. 1 
Bowpitt, 69 
Bowring, 65 
Bowser, 245 
Boxer, 123 
Boyeatt, 91 
Boylesve, 281 
Brabazon, r30, »., 240 
Bracegirdle, 151 
Bracer, 113 
Bracher, 113 
Brack, 54 
Brackner, ir3 
Bradfer, r40 
Bradford, 140 
Bradshaw, 13 
Braidwood, 83 
Brain, 142 
Braksper, 256 
Brammer, 265 
Branch, 195 



Branchett, 196, n. 1 
Branchflower, 196 
Brand, 38, 161 
Branfoot, 257 
Bransom, 20 
Branwhite, 88 
Brasnett, 128 
Br&utigam, 301 
Bray, 21 
Brazell, 189 
Brazier, ir3 
Brazil, 189 
Breach, 54 
Breakspear, 256 
Breeks, 54 
Bref&t, 91 
Breitfuss, 301 
Breithaupt, 301 
Breitkopf, 301 
Bremer, 295 
Brend, 55 
Brennand, 256 
Brent, 55 
Bretonner, 216 
Brettle, 40 
Brettschneider, 299 
Brevetor, no 
Brevitt, no, n. -» 
Brewill, 55 
Brewis, 97 
Brewitt, 174 
Brewster, 230, ». 1 
Brick, 112, n. 2 
Brickdale, 112, n. a 
Bricker, 112, ». 2 
Brickett, 88, 112, n. 2 
Brickland, 112, n. 2 
Brickman, 237 
Brickmaster, 112 
Brickstock, 112, n. 2 
Brickwood, 112, ». 2. 
Briddock, 94 
Brideoke, 94 
Bridger, 112 
Bridges, 71, ». 
Bridgett, 128, n. 1 
Bridgman, 112 
Briggenshaw, 88 
Brighteve, 43 
Brightey, 133 
Brightman, 43 
Brightmore, 43 
Brimmer, 43 
Brind, 55 
Brindejonc, 304 
Brisbane, 256 
Brisemur, 256 
Brisker, 104 
Brispot, 256 



INDEX 

Brister, 104 
Britcher, 115, n. 1 
Britland, 99 
Brittle, 40 
Brixey, 38 
Broadbelt, 124, 151 
Broadbent, 54 • 
Broadfoot, 141 
Broadhead, 124, 128 
Broadribb, 139 
Brobson, 240 
Brockett, 128 
Brockis, 97 
Brodder, 245 
Brodribb, 139 
Brokenshire, 88 
Brolly, 55 
Brond, 38 
Bronkhurst, 144 
Brookhouse, 97 
Brooksmith, 228 
Broom, 184 
Broster, 121 
Brotherhood, 220 
Brothers, 245 
Brow, 130 
Browell, 55 
Browett, 174 
Brown, r54 
Brownbill, 161 
Brownett, 128 
Brownie, 133 
Brownjohn, 242 
Brownsmith, 225 
Br owns word, 161 
Bruce, 13 
Bruckshaw, 88 
Brudenell, 62 
Bruel, 55 
Brulebois, 257 
Brulefer, 257 
Brumfit, 91 
Brunner, 295 
Bjushi 5jL 
"Brusne'tt, 55 
Bruton, 3T5 
Bruttner, 216, 315 
Bryan, 321 
Bryanson, 321 
Bubear, 54 
Buchbinder, 299 
Buche, 134 
Buck, 56 
Buckaway, 100 
Buckett, 156 
Buckland, 99 
Buckle, 152 
Buckler, 160, 235 
Bucklin, 257 



335 

Buckmaster, 68 
Buckoke, 95 
Buckpit, 69 
Bucksmith, 229 
Budd, 196 
Budden, 55 
Budge, 134 
Budgen, 242 
Budgett, 156 
Bugge, 293 
Buggins, 55 
Buglass, 175, 187 
Bugle, 175 
Bugler, 175 
Buist, 55 
Bulcock, 92 
Bullas, 97 
Bullett, 128 
Bullinger, 15, in, 279 
Bullion, 1 80 
Bullivant, 247 
Bullpitt, 69 
Bullwinkle, 85 
Billow, 295 
Bulteel, 173 
Bumbey, 55 
Bunclark, 234 
Bundle, 157 
Bunker, 142 
Bunt, 230, n. a 
Burchard, 39 
Burchett, 39 
Burdas, 96 
Burder, 117 
Burdis, 96 
Burdon, 154 
Burdus, 96 
Burenfeind, 302 
Burfoot, i4r 
Biirgenneister, 300 
Burgoyne, 103, «. 2 
Burkenshaw, 88 
Burkmay, 248 
Burler, n5, ». 2 
Burls, 71, n. 
Burnage, 34 
Burnand, 256 
Bumard, 34 
Burnell, 34, 309 
Burness, 256 
Burnett, 34, 309 
Burnhouse, 256 
Burnip, 63 
Burnish, 34 
Burniss, 256 
Burnouf, 36 
Burnstone, 34 
Burnyeatt, 91 
Burpitt, 69 



336 

Burrell, 154 
Burret, 309 
Burrows, 98 
Burrus, 98 
Burst, 55 
Burstall, 54 
Biirstenbinder, 299 
Burton, 60 
Burtonshaw, 88 
Bushrod, r55 
Buskin, 153 
Bustin, 86 
Butchart, 307 
Butcher, in, 307 
Butler, 105 
Butlin, 257 
Butt, 56 
Butterfill, 169 
Butterfant, 256 
Buttersack, 304 
Buttery, 106 
Buttifant, 256, n. 
Button, 153 
Buttonshaw, 88 
Buttress, 98 
Buxton, 320 
Buzzard, 201, ». 
Byas, 51, ». 2 
Bycroft, 51 
Byers, 51, n. 2, 54 
Byford, 51 
Bygott, 51 
Bygrave, 51 
Bygreaves, 51 
Eying, 51 
Bysouth, 51 
Bythesea, 51 
Bytheway, 51 
Bywater, 51 

Cachemaille, 271 
Caddell, 255 
Cadle, 255 
Caesar, 216 
Cafiyn, 132 
Cage, 56 

Cake, 114, re. 1, 124,173 
Calcott, 92 
Caldecote, 92 
Calder, 161, ». 
Calderside, 161, n. 
Caldwall, 255 
Caller, 119 
Callister, 319, n. 1 
Callow, 56 
Callwell, 254 
Calvey, 133 
Camamile, 187 
Cambrey, 103, ». 2 



INDEX 

Camis, 133 
Cammidge, 66, ». 
Cammis, 133 
Cammish, 133 
Campion, 213 
Camplejohn, 242 
Candeland, 100 
Canrobert, 280 
Cantrell, 287 
Cantwell, 254 
Cape, 150 
Caplin, 159 
Capon, 201, n. 
Capp, 146 
Cappleman, 237 
Capron, 15, 146 
Capstick, 258 
Carass, 97 
Carbonnel, 315 
Cardinall, 199 
Careless, 149 
Caress, 97 
Carker, 112 
Carle, 234 
Carlin, 234 
Carloss, 149 
Carlton, n, ». 
Carnell, 108 
Carr, 58 
Carratt, 171 
Carrett, 171 
Carrier, 112 
Carritt, 171 
Carrodus, 88 
Carrott, 171 
Carroway, 100 
Carruthers, 88 
Cart, 171 
Carter, 323 
Cartledge, 65 
Cartlick, 65 
Cartwright, 227 
Carty, 319, re. 1 
Carus, 97 
Carvall, 262 
Carvell, 262 
Carver, 105 
Carvill, 262 
Casembrood, 172, 303 
Casement, 319, re. 1 
Cashman, 267 
Castelnau, 281 
Caswell, 255 
Catch, 171 
Catcheside, 262 
Catchlove, 260 
Catchpole, 269 
Cater, 120 
Cathedrall, 266, n. 4 



Cathelineau, 284 
Catherall, 266 
Catherwood, 266 
Catinat, 284 
Catlin, 322 
Cato, 216 
Cator, 120 
Cattermole, 68 
Cattle, 39 •* 
Caudery, 306 
Cauldwell, 254 
Cave, 132 
Cavell, 132 
Caverner, 325 
Cawcutt, 92 
Cawley, 319, n. 1 
Cawsey, 69 
Cawson, 240 
Cawthra, 84 
Cawthry, 84 
Cayzer, 199 
Cemery, 87 
Chadband, 230, ». 3 
Chafi, 132 
Chaffer, 172 
Chalk, 58 
Challen, 103, «. 2 
Chamberlain, 105 
Chambers, 105 
Champion, 213 
Champneys, 103, ». 2 
Chance, 218 
Chandos, 281 
Changarnier, 281 
Chantavoine, 280 
Chantereau, 287 
Chanterelle, 287 
Chan tier, 267 
Chantrell, 287 
Chantrey, 109 
Chantry, 109 
Chaplin, 159 
Chappell, 147 
Charbonneau, 147, ». 1, 

315 
Charbonnel, 147, «. i 
Chare, 74 
Charge, 210, re. 3 
Charity, 218 
Charker, 112 
Charnell, 109 
Charrier, 112 
Charteris, 97 
Charters, 96 
Ghasseloup, 260, 289 
Chassepot, 289 
Chdteauneuf, 281 
Chaucer, 317 
Chauser, 317 



Chave, 132 
Chaytor, 120 
Cheales, 71, n. 
Cheap, 74, n. 
Cheater, 120 
Checker, no 
Checkland, 100 
Checklin, 100 
Cheek, 1-3 
Cheeper, 116 
Cheers, 74 
Cheesewright, 227 
Cheke, 133 
Chequer, no 
Cherfils, 196, 247 
Chermside, 161, n. 
Chessman, 237 
Chesterman, 237 
Chettle, 39 
Cheyne, 56 
Chilcock, 92 
Child, 245, 307 
Childerhouse, 96 
Children, 96 
Chilmaid, 248 
Chilman, 237 
Chilvers, 39 
Chinn, 134 
Chiplin, 130, «. 
Chipper, 116 
Chirnside, 161, «. 
Chisell, 168 
Choak, 56 

Cholmondeley, 14, n. 
Chown, 141, n. 
Choyce, 217 
Christ, 208 
Christian, 211 
Christopher, 209 
Chuck, 56 
Chugg, 56 
Church, 47 
Churchers, 96 
Churn, 161, n. 
Churnside, 161, ». 
Cinnamond, 87 
Circuitt, 220 
Circus, 98 
Claggitt, gr 
Clampitt, 69 
Clapshaw, 153 
Clapshoe, r53 
Clarges, 230 
Clarkin, 235 
Clarkson, 239 
Clarvis, 83 
Clay, 58 
Cleall, 62 
Cleggett, 91 



INDEX 

CUmmceau, 279 
Clench, 56 
Clinch, 56 
Clinkscales, 258 
Clish, 319, n. 1 
Cloake, 150 
Clodd, 57 
Clothes, 172 
Clothier, 172 
Cloud, 57 
Clout, 57 
Clown, 89 
Clubb, 154, 155 
Clunn, 57 
Clyne, 57 
Coachafer, 325 
Coate, 148 
Cobbett, 43 
Cobbold, 43 
Cock, 57, 239, 324 
Cockbain, 143 
Cockett, 128 
Cockhead, 128 
Cocks, 324 
Cockshoot, 57 
Cockshott, 57 
Cockspur, 163 
Coffin, r32 
Colas, 282 
Colbrain, 38 
Coldbreath, 326 
Coldicott, 92 
Coldtart, 168, ». 1 
Coleman, 11, n. 
Collar, 147 
Collarbone, 143 
Colledge, 95 
Collingbine, 191 
Collinssplatt, 78 
Collop, 174 
Coltard, 168 
Coltman, 237 
Columbine, 191 
Colvin, 11 
Comer, 119 
Comfort, 220 
Commander, 207 
Comper, 245 
Conduct, 177 
Conrad, 293 
Conybeare, 54 
Cook, 15, 105 
Cookson, 239 
Coolbeer, 174 
Cooper, 323 
Cope, 150 
Copestake, 258 
Copestick, 258 
Copner, 122 



337 



Coppack, 94 
Copper, 119 
Coppock, 94 
Copus, 98 
Corbally, 160 
Corday, 281 
Corderay, 306 
Cordery, 306 
Cordier, 281 
Cords, 172 
Cordurey, 306 
Cordwell, 254 
Cordwent, 1 72 
Corkitt, 92 
Cormell, 66, ». 
Corn, 185 
Comeille, 290 
Cosher, 248 
Cosier, 115 
Cospatrick, 238, ». 
Cossack, 326 
Costard, 194 
Coster, 194 
Cosway, 69 
Cottis, 97 
Cottle, 43, 148 
Couch, 132, n. 1 
Coughtrey, 327 
Coultas, 97 
Coulter, 168 
Coulthard, 168 
Coultish, 97 
Counsell, 221 
Count, 199 
Counter, 115 
Counterpatch, 327 
Couper, 323 
Courage, 217 
Courtenay, 132 
Cousins, 245 
Coustos, 208, n. 2 
Coverlid, 146 
Cowderoy, 307 
Cowdery, 306 
Cowell, 146 
Cowhorn, 326 
Cowl, 146 
Cowmeadow, 85 
Cowper, 323 
Cowtas, 97 
Cox, 16, 324 
Coxhead, 128 
Coxon, 234 
Coy, 314 
Cozens, 245 
Cozze, 245 
Cracknell, 114, ». 1 
Cradle, 57 
Cradock, 7 



338 

Crafer, 104 
Craft, 219 
Crakbone, 256 
Crane, 201, ». 
Crankhom, 35, n. 
Crankshaw, 35, ». 
Crannis, 98 
Crapper, 114 
Crawcour, 272 
Creaser, 104 
Creazer, 104 
Creedybridge, 161, n. 
Crenk : , 35, n. 
Crennell, 108 
Crewdson, 240 
Crink-, 35, n. 
Cripps, 20, 132 
Crisp, 20, 132 
Croft, 219 
Croix, 285 
Croker, 272 
Cromack, 94 
Cronk-, 35, n. 
Crook, 63 

Crookshanks, 124, 140 
Cross, 307 
Croswell, 73 
Crothers, 88 
Crowdace, 88 
Crowdson, 240 
Crowfoot, 141 
Crowne, 145 
Crowson, 240 
Crucifix, 167 
Cruddas, 88 
Cruickshank, 140 
Crum, 57 
Crumb, 173 
Crummock, 94 
Crump, 57 
Crundall, 57 
Crundle, 57 
Crunk-, 35, ». 
Crust, 173 
Cubitt, 43 
Cuckson, 239 
Cudlipp, 21 
Cue, 318 
Culpepper, 268 
Cumberpatch, 327 
Cundick, 177 
Cupiss, 216 
Cupitt, 216 
Cupper, 119 
Curate, 2ro 
Curie, 132 
Curley, 132 
Currant, 329 
Curson, 211 



INDEX 

Curtain, 57 
Curthose, 145, 152 
Curthoys, 152 
Curtis, 152 
Curtius, 305 
Curtler, 118 
Cushing, 106 
Cushion, 106, 327 
Custard, 194 
Custer, 194 
Cutbush, 258 
Cutcliff, 21 
Cutlove, 261 
Cuttell, 43 
Cuttle, 148 
Czech, 295 

Dabell, 43 
Dack, 41 
Daddow, 180 
Dagger, 160 
Daggett, 4T 
Dainteth, 223 
Dainty, 223 
Daish, 51 
Daisy, 191 
Dale, 58 
Dallamore, 51 
Dallas, 97 
Dallicoat, 51 
Dallicott, 51 
Dallywaters, 51 
Damant, 41 
Dame, 248, n. 1 
Darner, 41 
Dames, 248, n. 1 
Damiens, 285 
Damm, 248, n. 1 
Damms, 248, n. 1 
Damsell, 249 
Damson, 193 
Dancer, 118 
Danckttierts, 42 
Dando, 180 
Danhl, 293 
Dansereau, 287 
Danvers, 51 
Darboy, 280 
Darcy, 51 
Darey, 108 
Darnell, 188 
Dart, 245 
Darter, 161 
Dash, 51 
Dashper, 213 
Dashwood, 51 
Daudet, 283 
Daughtery, 327 
Davers, 51 



David, 204 
Davignon, 285 
Davranche, 285 
Daw, 201, ». 
Dawbarn, 225, 247 
Dawtrey, 327 
Day, 41, 226 
Daybell, 43 
Dayburn, 24,7 
Dayman, 41 
Dayment, 158 
Daymond, 41, 158 
Dayson, 239 
Day us, 98 
Deal, 57 
Dealbridge, 51 
Dealchamber, 51 
Dearborn, 247 
Dearlove, 260 
Dearth, 221, ». 
Death, 221, ». 
de Beer, 301 
De Broglie, 55 
Debutt, 40 
Deebanks, 161, ». 
Deeble, 40 
Deeming, 222 
de Hoogh, 301 
Delabrouise, 55 
Delacroix, 285 
Delahunt, 51, 229 
Delapeyrire, 286 
De la Pryme, 180, n. 2 
Delarbre, 280 
Delarey, 72 
Delasalle, 285 
Delbridge, 51 
Delbriick, 296 
Delcassi, 286 
Delderfield, 51 
Delf, 58 
Delhay, 51 
Delhuary, 106 
Dellaway, 51 
Dellew, 51 
Dellow, 51 
Delph, 58 
Delpierre, 285 
Delves, 58 
Demichel, 284 
Denis, 10 
Denisard, 10 
Denison, 315, n. 1 
Denmaid, 248 
Dennis, 14 
Dent, 127 
Dentith, 223 
Depew, 286 
Depledge, 65 



Dernburg, 296 
Derrick, 40 
Derry, 40 
Desbleds, 185 
Desbrosses, 55 
Descartes, 290 
Desmasures, 104 
Desmoulins, 279 
Desorges, 186 
Despagne, 285 
Despois, 285 
Despriaux, 286 
Dethridge, 40 
Deutsch, 64, n. 2 
Devill, 209 
Devlin, 22, ». 
Devrient, 201 
Dewberry, 193 
Dewell, 58 
de Witt, 301 
Dewsnap, 78 
Dewsnip, 78 
Diamond, 41, 158 
Diaper, 103 
Dibb, 58 

Dibble, 58, 209, n. 1 
Dible, 209, n. 1 
Dickhaut, 301 
Dickman, 231 
Didcock, 92 
Diderot, 285 
Didon, 285 
Didot, 285 
Dienst, 302 
Dietrich, 293 
Dietz, 293 
Digweed, 262 
Dillamore, 5r 
Dillicar, 58 
Dillistones, 51 
Dilloway, 51 
Dingle, 40 
Dintenfass, 167, n. 3 
Diplock, 70 
Dipper, 103 
Dipple, 40 
Diprose, 286 
Disher, ri7 
Dishman, 117 
Dismore, 178 
Disper, 215 
Ditcheatt, 91 
Ditchett, 91, n., 128. 

n. 1 • 

Diver, 102 
Dixneuf, 179, ». 
Dobson, 314 
Docker, 103 
Doggett, 128 



INDEX 

Dogood, 262 
Dole, 57 
Dolittle, 22 
Dolloway, 51 
Dollymore, 51 
Domesday, 109 
Doolittle, 259 
Doorbar, 326 
Doowra, 84 
Dori, 157 
Dorfschmidt, 298 
Dorrell, 44 
Dorsey, 51 
Dot, 10 
Dottin, 10, 283 
Doubleday, 236 
Doublett, 150 
Doubt, 327 
Doubtfire, 258 
Doubting, 327 
Doust, 58 
Doutrepont, 49 
Dovet, 128 
Dovey, 133 
Dowd, 327 
Dowding, 327 
Dowell, 58, 254 
Dowey, 103, n. 2 
Dowle, 58 
Downhard, 52 
Downton, 52 
Downward, 52 
Drage, 186 
Dragon, 209 
Drain, 58 
Drakers, 96 
Drakeyoung, 243 
Drane, 58 

Drawater, 257 

Drawbridge, 106 

Drawer, 116 

Dredge, 186 

Dreng, 234 

Dresser, 116 

Drew, 310 

Drews, 310 

Drey jus, 166 

Dring, 234 

Drinkale, 259 

Drinkall, 259 

Drinkhall, 259, ». 

Drinkwater, 252 

Dron, 58 

Drought, 217 

Druce, 310 

Drudge, 186 

Drum, 176 

Drummer, 1 76 

Dry under, 305 



339 



Dubailleul, 286 
Duberley,"5i 
Dubertrand, 284 
Du Boulay, 51 
Dubreuil, 55 
Dubuisson, 280 
Ducat, 177 
Ducker, 102 
Duckering, 103 
Duckers, 96 
Duckett, 128, 177 
Duckhouse, 96 
Duclaux, 280 
Duclos, 280 
Duell, 58 
Dufaure, 287 
Dufour, 286 
Du Fournet, 286 
Dugard, 182 
Dugort, 6r 
Duguid, 262 
Duly, 182 
Dumas, 286 
Dumesnil, 286 
Dumouriez, 280 
Dumphrey, 39 
Dumpress, 39 
Dumsday, 109 
Dunbabin, 242 
Dunbobbin, 242 
Duncalf, 24r 
Dunnaker, 93 
Dunnebacke, 301 
Dunnett, 87, n. 3 
Dunphie, 107 
Dunsire, 248 
Dunt, 58 
Dupleix, 70 
Duplessis, 286 
Duplex, 70 

Duplock, 70 

Dupont, 279 

Duppery, 51 

Dupri, 51, 279 

Dupree, 51 

Dupuis, 285 

Dupuy, 286 

Duquesne, 286 

Durbar, 326 

Durescu, 160 

Durose, 85 

Durrell, 44 

Dussault, 286 

Dust, 329 

Dusting, 329 

Dutoit, 108 

Dwerryhouse, 98 

Dwight, 89 

Dyas, 96 



340 

Dyball, 40 
Dyhouse, 96 
Dyson, 315 
Dyter, 115 

Eachard, 38 
Ealand, 59 
Eales, 62 
Eames, 245 
Earl, 241 
Earp, 44 
Earskin, 143 
Earthy, 36 
Eastaway, 70, 76, «. 
Eastland, 99 
Eastwood, 90 
Eatwell, 255 
Eaves, 59 
Eberhard, 293 
Eberlin, 35 
Ebers, 35 
Eborn, 75, n. 
Eck, 295 

Ecorcheville, 257, 288 
Edicker, 44 
Edmead, 50 
Eeles, 62 
Efemey, 197 
Ehrenkonig, 304 
Ehrlich, 301 
Eichhom, 302 
Eidam, 246 
Eighteen, 179 
Eisenbeiss, 303 
Eland, 59 
Elborn, 75, n. 
Elcock, 92 
Elder, 248 
Element, 217 
Elfleet, 32 
Elflitt, 32 
Elgar, 168 
Ellicock, 92 
Ellicott, 92 
Elliman, 217 
Ellwand, 164 
Ellway, 37 
Elnough, 32 
Elphick, 11 
Elrod, 164 
Elsdsser, 295 
Elsegood, 243 
Elster, 301 
Elston, 32 
Elver, 32 
Elvidge, 32 
Elvin, 11 
Elvish, 32 



INDEX 

Elwall, 32 
Elwin, 32 
Emblem, 217 
Emblin, 217 
Emery, 41 
Emmett, 325 
Emperor, 199 
Enderwick, 52 
Engeham, 219 
England, 64 
Engleheart, 31 
English, 64, n. 2 
Ennion, 7, 191 
Ennis, 64 
Enock, 206 
Enslin, 31 
Enticknap, 21 
Enys, 64 
Erbsmehl, 303 
Erwin, 35 
Escreet, 87 
Essery, 86, n. 2 
Esson, 240 
Ethawes, 50 
Ettershank, 140 
Evamy, 197 
Eve, 204 
Everard, 35 
Everett, 34, 35, 95, 322 
Everwin, 35 
Ewart, 11 
Ewbank, 161, n. 
Ewer, 105 
Expence, 106 
Eye, 125, b3 
Eyett, 133 
Eynon, 191 

Faber, 15 
Fabre, 280 
Fabricius, 305 
Face, 130 
Facon, 45, n. 
Fadder, 244 
Faehndrich, 300 
Faggetter, 115 
Fairbairn, 247 
Fairbard, 240 
Fairbeard, 136, 240 
Fairbrass, 140 
Fairbrother, 247 
Fairburn, 247 
Fairchild, 247 
Faircloth, 88 
Fairer, 131 
Fairest, 95 
Fairfoul, 250, n., 319 
Fairgray, 230 
Fairgrief, 230 



Fairhead, 128 
Fairless, 149 
Fairman, 38 
Fairmaner, 240 
Fairminer, 240 
Fairplay, 232 
Fairservice, 221 
Fairweather, 235, ». 1 
Faith, 218 
Fakes, 45 
Falcke, 302 
Falcon, 45, ». 
Falconas, 97 
Falgate, 91 
Falkenhayn, 296 
Falkous, 97 
Fall, 59 
Fann, 59, 107 
Fanner, 59 
Fant, 245, 247 
Faraday, 233 
Faraway, 100 
Farbrace, 140 
Farbrother, 247 
Fardell, 59 
Farebrother, 247 
Fareweather, 235, ». 1 
Farewell, 181, n. 1, 220 
Farman, 38 
Farmery, 107 
Farminer, 240 
Farmmedows, 85 
Farndell, 59 
Farnorth, 89 
Farraker, 93 
Farrar, 131 
Farrimond, 39 
Farrow, 205 
Farthing, 38, 59, 177 
Farwell, 220 
Fassbender, 299 
Fathers, 146, 244 
Fatout, 289 
Faultless, 149 
Faunt, 245, 247 
Fauntleroy, 247 
Faure, 280 
Faust, 127, 301 
Favell, 132 
Fawcus, 97 
Fawkes, 45, n. 
Fazakerley, 20 
Feakes, 45, n. 
Fear, 318 
Fearing, 329 
Fearnside, 184 
Fearon, 329 
Feast, 127 
Feather, 146 



Featherstonehaugh, 62 
Feggs, 45, n, 
Felgate, 91 
Felthouse, 96 
Fenbough, 86 
Fennell, 188, 189 
Fenning, 65 
Ferdasne, 166 
Fereday, 233 
Ferler, 114 
Fermidge, 174 
Fern, 184 
Ferriday, 233 
Ferron, 288 
Ferti, 286 
Fessey, 139 
Fettiplace, 258 
Feme, 280 
Fewkes, 45 
Fewster, 119 
Fice, 244 
Fichte, 295 
Fiddian, 39 
Fidel, 176 
Fiddy, 39 
Fiddyment, 39 
Fidler, 176 
Fielding, 65 
Fifehead, 2, 128 
Fifett, 2, 128 
Fifoot, 91 
Filbert, 193 
File, 1 63 
Files, 169 
Fill, 168 
Fillery, 18, 247 
Filon, 283 
Filpot, 263 
Finbow, 86 
Findeisen, 304 
Fink, 301 
Finnis, 97, 216 
Firbank, 161, «. 
Firebrace, 140 
Fireman, 38 
Firmage, 174 
Fishwick, 223 
Fist, 127 
Fitchell, no 
Fitton, 219 
Fitz, 244 
Fitzackerley, 20 
Fitzhull, 319 
Flambert, 275 
Flather, 114 
Flatman, 60 
Flatt, 59 
Flattery, 222 
Flavell, 132 



INDEX 

Flawn, 114, ». 1 
Flaxman, 237 
Flay, 325 
Flear, 112 
Flichier, 287 
Flecker, 112 
Fleischhauer, 299 
Fleming, 103, n. 2 
Flemming, 295 
Flesher, rn 
Fletcher, in 
Flewitt, 176 
Flicker, ir2 
Flinders, 130, n. 
Flirty, 325 
Flood, 142 
Flook, 45 
Flower, 189 
Flowerday, 197 
Flowerdew, 197 
Floyd, 142 
Fluck, 45 
Flud, 142 
Fluke, 45 
Flute, 176 
Flutter, 176 
Flux, 45 
Fly, 325 
Foad, 246 
Foakes, 45 
Foat, 246 
Foch, 46, 282 
Fochier, 282 
Fogg, 45 
Foister, 119 
Foljambe, 141 
Folgate, 91 
Folk, 45 
Folkard, 27, 40 
Folker, 38, 45 
Folkes, 45 
Food, 246 
Fooks, 45 

Foot, 125, n. 1, 141 
Force, 60 
Fordy, 179 
Forehead, 130 
Foresight, 217 
Forfeitt, 219 
Forget, 91 
Forgrieve, 230 
Forkett, 91 
Forman, 230 
Forrestal, 60 
Forresthill, 85 
Forrett, 130 
Forsdike, 60 
Forse, 60 
Forss, 60 



341 

Fbrslner, 297 
Fortescue, 160 
Fortnum, 241 
Forty, 179 
Forward, 52 
Fosdike, 60 
Foskett, 91 
Foss, 60 
Fossey, 63 
Fostall, 60 
Foster, 119 
Fosterjohn, 228, n. i, 

242 
Foucault, 290 
Fouchi, 282 
Foulkes, 45 
Four, 179 
Fouracre, 93 
Fourreau, 73 
Fournel, 169 
Fouweather, 235, n. 1 
Fower, 114 
Foweraker, 93 
Fowkes, 45 
Foxon, 240 
Foyle, 60 
Foyster, 119 
Framboise, 194 
Framboisier, 194 
France, 64, ». 2 
Frangipani, 252 
Frankland, 99 
Frary, 109 
Frater, 107 
Frazer, 39 
Freeh, 300 
Freebody, 129 
Freeborn, 44 
Freeborough, 180 
Freeguard, 41 
Freeland, 99 
Freelove, 29, 39 
Freeman, 42 
Freemantle, 148 
Freemont, 29 
Freestone, 39 
Frere, 215, 245 
Freshney, 87 
Fretwell, 255 
Freu.de, 302 
Frew, 46 
Frewin, 46 
Frey, 301 
Freytag, 302 
Friary, 109 
Fricker, 39, 102 
Friendship, 220 
Frift, 220 
Fright, 60 



342 

Frizell, 39 
Frogson, 240 
Frohlich, 301 
Froissari, 40 
Froment, 185 
Frostick, 60 
Frow, 46 
Froysell, 39 
Fruen, 46 
Friihling, 302 
Frushard, 40 
Frusher, 40 
Fryer, 215 
Fuchs, 302 
Fudge, 45 
Fudger, 45 
Fuge, 45 
Fuggle, 79 
Fuke, 45 
Fulcher, 38, 45 
Fulk, 45 
Fulker, 38, 45 
Fullalove, 260 
Fiillgrabe, 303 
Fullilove, 260 
Fulljames, 141 
Fiilihrug, 263, 303 
Fullman, 237 
Fulloway, 268 
Fulloon, 114 
Fiinfschilling, 302 
Fiinfstuck, 302 
Funnell, 169 
Fiirbringer, 299 
Fiirchtegott, 261 
Fiirchtenicht, 304 
Furler, 114 
Furmidge, 174 
Furmy, 325 
Furnace, 108 
Furnell, r69 
Furness, 108 
Furnish, 108 
Furrell, 73 
Fiirst, 299 
Furze, 184 
Fuster, 119 
Futcher, 38, 45 
Fylde, 169 



Gaby, 249 
Gadd, 155 
Gaff, 245 
Gaffer, 245 
Gage, 171, n. 
Gager, 171 
Gagnedenier, 263 
Gagnepain, 277 



INDEX 

Gaicote, 148 

Gaiger, 171 

Gainer, 316 

Gaiter, r25, 152 

Gale, 311 

Gales, 3rr 

Gall, 311 

Gallantree, 60 

Gallery, 108 

Galletly, 253 

Galley, 171 

Galliver, 192 

Gallon, 31 r 

Gamage, 66, n. 

Gambray, 103, n. 2 

Gamson, 159 

Ganner, 316 

Gansauge, 301 

Gape, 248, n. r 

Gapp, 284, n. 1 

Garaud, 283 

Garbally, 160 

Gardebois, 289 

Gargate, 135 

Gargett, 135 

Garland, 312 

Garlick, 124, 188 

Garnham, 137 

Garnon, 137 

Garot, 283 

Garrett, 21, 108 

Garrod, 21 

Garrood, 21 

Garroway, 100 

Garston, 60 

Gartland, 3T2 

Gartrude, 29 
Garvin, 38 
Garwood, 21 
Gash, 311 
Gasper, 158 
Gass, 311 
Gasson, 311 
Gastebled, 262 
Gastebois, 262 
Gatbli, 262 
Gate, 91, 3r2 
Gater, r52 
Gates, 312 
Gatherall, 266 
Gathercole, 266 
Gatherer, 116 
Gathergood, 262 
Gatling, 322 
Gaukrodger, 243 
Gaul, 311 
Gaunt, 2r 
Gauntlett, 151 
Gawler, in 



Gaybell, 243 
Gayfer, 245 
Gaynor, 316 
Gayter, 152 
Gaytor, 152 
Gazard, 241, ». 2 
Gaze, 311 
Geary, 316 
Geator, 152 
Gebhardt, 44 
Gelhaar, 301 
Gellatly, 253 
Gellibrand, 39 
Gemmell, 249 
Gennery, 108 
Genower, 108 
Gentleman, 105 
Gentry, 218 
George, 209 
Germain, 206, n. 
Gerstenkom, 303 
Gessler, 43 
Getgood, 262 
Geyer, 301 
Ghost, 214 
Gibbons, 315 
Giberne, 247 
Giblett, 142 
Giffard, 44 
Giggle, 157 
Gilbert, 43 
Gildemeister, 299 
Gildersleeve, 151 
Gilham, 279 
Gillies, 238, n, 
Gillibrand, 39 
Gillingwater, 161, n. 
Gilliver, 192 
Gilman, 236 
Gilpin, 161, ». 
Gilstrap, 95 
Giltpen, 161, n. 
Gimblett, 169 
Ginger, 188 
Ginnery, 108 
Giotto, 30 

Girdwood, 252, n. 3 
Gladstone, 255 
Gladwin, 43 
Glaisher, 227 
Glave, 162 
Gleadle, 255 
Gleaves, 162 
Gledhill, 255 
Gledstanes, 255 
Glew, 219 
Glide well, 255 
Gluck, 302 
Glue, 219 



Gneisenau, 295 
Goacher, 248 
Goad, 208 
Gobb, 30 
Gobbett, 30 
Gobby, 30 
Gobert, 30 
Goble, 30 
Godbehere, 181 
Godbolt, 30 
Goddard, 231 
Godsall, 21, 182, 244, n. 
Godsave, 316 
Godsell, 21, 42 
Godsiff, 316 
Godsmark, 246 
Godson, 208, 245 
Godwin, 27 
Goe, 328 
Goeben, 292 
Goethe, 30, 292 
Goetz, 292 
Goffin, 132, n. 1 
Going, 329 
Gold, 46, 157 
Golden, 157 
Goldhawk, 45 
Goldicott, 92 
Golding, 157, 328 
Goldmore, 45 
Goldney, 133 
Goldring, 1.57 
Goldspring, 78 
Goldstraw, 196 
Goldstone, 41 
Golds wain, 234 
Goldwin, 27, 45 
Golfier, 35 
Golightly, 253 
Gombert, 43 
Gomme, 134 
Gompertz, 43 
Gondibert, 43 
Goninfaure, 228, ». 1 
Good, 30 
Goodair, 314 
Goodale, 174 
Goodbairn, 230, 247 
Goodban, 230 
Goodband, 230, 247 
Goodbeer, 124, 174 
Goodbehere, 181 
Goodbody, 12 9 
Goodbrand, 243 
Goodbun, 230, 247 
Goodchap, 232 
Goodcheap, 232 
Goodchild, 225, 225, »., 
247 



INDEX 

Goodday, 233 
Goodearl, 241 
Goodenough, 318 
Goodered, 221 
Goodey, 236 
Goodfellow, 232 
Goodgame, 232 
Goodhart, 142 
Goodheart, 142 
Goodhead, 220 
Goodhew, 232 
Goodhind, 231 
Goodhue, 232 
Goodhugh, 232 
Goodier, 314 
Goodiff, 236 
Goodjohn, 242 
Goodlad, 231 
Goodlamb, 241 
Goodland, 99 
Goodlass, 231 
Goodlet, 231 
Goodlud, 231 
Goodman, 236 
Goodnow, 318 
Goodread, 221 
Goodred, 221 
Goodrich, 30 
Goodrop, 242 
Goodrum, 37 
Goodsall, 182 
Goodsir, 248 
Goodship, 218 
Goodson, 247 
Goodspeed, 218 
Goodswen, 234 
Goodswin, 234 
Goodway, 37 
Goodwill, 243 
Goodwillie, 243 
Goodwin, 30 
Goodwright, 227 
Goose, 201, »., 241, «. 2 
Gooseman, 241, «. 2 
Goosey, 133 
Gorse, 184 
Gorstidge, 90 
Gorsuch, 90 
Gort, 61 

Gospatrick, 238, n. 
Gossage, 90 
Gossett, 128 
Gossip, 119, 245 
Gostick, 90 
Gostige, 90 
Got, 284 
Gotbed, 268 
Gotobed, 268 
Gott, 50 



343 

Gottbehilt, 302 
Gotthelf, 302 
Gottschalk, 42 
Gottwaltz, 302 
Goucher, 248 
Gough, 132, ». 1 
Goulden, 157 
Gover, 98, 253, n. 1 
Governor, 207 
Govier, 98 
Govis, 98 
Gower, 3r4 
Gowler, in 
Goy, 328 

Gozzard, 241, n. 3 
Graddige, 196 
Graff, 299 
Grain, 156 
Graindorge, 196 
Grandage, 196 
GrandcUment, 285 
Grandcolas, 285 
Grandison, 246 
Gr angier, 288 
Grape, 61 
Grapes, 193 
Grasett, 128, n. 1 
Grasmeder, 114 
Gratton, 60 
Gravenor, 229 
Gravett, 128, ». 1 
Grayfoot, 141 
Grayson, 239 
Greatbatch, 53 
Greathed, 128 
Greaves, 160 
Greed, 219 
Greedy, 219 
Green, 16, 154 
Greenacre, 76, «. 
Greenall, 62, 76, ». 
Greenaway, 70, 76, n. 
Greenberry, 76, n. 
Greener, 104, ». 2 
Greenfield, 76, ». 
Greengrass, 76, »., 186 
Greenhalgh, 61, 76, ». 
Greenhall, 62, 76, ». 
Greenhead, 76, ». 
Greenhill, 76, n. 
Greenhorn, 76, »., 89, 

n. 2 
Greenhough, 76, n. 
Greenhouse, 76, ». 
Greening, 65, 76, ». 
Greenist, 76, ». 1, 95 
Greenland, 76, ». 
Greenlaw, 76, ». 
Greenleaf, 215 



344 

Greenlees, 76, n. 
Greenoak, 94 
Greenop, 76, ». 
Greenprice, 228, ». 1 
Greenrod, 76, »., 155 
Greenroyd, 76, «. 
Greensall, 73, 76, «. 
Greenshields, 75, 76, «. 
Greensides, 76, n., 138 
Greensill, 76, ». 
Greensmith, 228 
Greenstock, 76, ». 
Greenup, 73, 76, ». 
Greenward, 76, ». 
Greenwebb, 230 
Greenwell, 76, «. 
Greenwood, 76, ». 
Greep, 61 
Grenfell, 76, ». 
Grennan, 137 
Grethe, 295 
Grew, 92 
Grewcock, 91 
Grey, 154 
Greysmith, 229 
Grice, 185 
Grief, 230 
Grieve, 226 
Griffin, 209 
Grimble, 40, 44 
Grimmett, 44, ». r 
Grimshaw, 76, «. 
Grinrod, 76, »., 155 
Grinter, 81 
Grist, 186 
Gristock, 76, «. 
Grobschmied, 228 
Grocott, 91 
Groocock, 9r 
Groom, 105 
Grosclaude, 285 
Grosjean, 242 
Gross, 300 
Grossjohann, 295 
Grosskopf, 301 
Grossmith, 228 
Grosvenor, 229 
Groucott, 91 
Ground, 61 
Grounds, 6r 
Groundwater, 85 
Growcock, 91 
Growcott, 9r 
Grudgeon, 242 
Grummett, 44, n. 1 
Griln, 154, 300 
Grundy, 61 
Griinewald, 295 
Gubbins, 315 



INDEX 

Guest, 102 
Guill-, 282 
Guillaume, 279 
Guinea, 177 
Guiscard, 137 
Gullard, 204 
Gullett, 204 
Gulliver, 35 
Gully, 204 
Gullyes, 204 
Gum, 134 
Gumbrell, 44 
Gumpert, 43 
Gunnell, 36, n. 1, 37, 

149 
Gunther, 293 
Gunwin, 37 
Guntrip, 95 
Guster, 105 
Gutbier, 303 
Gutenberg, 296 
Guthans, 295 
Guthrum, 37 
Gutjahr, 305 
Gutknecht, 300 
Gutsell, 42, 182 
Guyer, 112 
Gwyer, 112 
Gyer, ir2 
Gygas, 305 

Habberjam, 159 
Habberjan, r59 
Habbijams, 159 
Habenicht, 304 
Habershon, 159 
Habgood, 262 
Habicht, 302 
Hacheite, 168 
Hackblock, 258 
Hackenschmidt, 298 
Hackwood, 258 
Hadaway, 37 
Haddrell, 135 
Hadwin, 37 
Hagen, 41 
Haggas, 174 
Haghand, 257 
Hahn, 302 
Haimes, 61 
Hain, 41 
Haines, 41 
Hair, 131 
Hairlock, 131 
Hakluyt, 264 
Halbard, 161 
Halbert, 161 
Haldane, 44 
Hale, 62 



Halfacre, 93 
Halfhead, 128 
Halfhide, 128, «. 3 
Halfnight, 235 
Halfpenny, 177 
Halfside, 138 
Haliburton, 60 
Halkett, 62 
Hallas, 97 
Halleck, 62 
Hallett, 62 
Hallman, 235, «. 2 
Hallmark, 178 
Hallowbread, 173 
Hallows, 61 
Hallpike, 51, i6r 
Halman, 235 
Halse, 135 
Halsey, 32 
Hamahard, 258 
Hamar, 169 
Hamblock, 184 
Hames, 61 
Hammer, 169 
Hammond, 41 
Hamper, 125 
Hamon, 41 
Han, 10, 280 
Hamshar, 75, 88 
Hancock, 313 
Hand, r39 
Handasyde, r38 
Handel, 293 
Handewerk, 304 
Handover, 263 
Hands, 139 
Handsomebody, 129 
Handyside, 138 
Hanfstaengl, 197 
Hanger, 61 
Hankin, 3r3 
Hann, 313 
Hanotaux, 10, 280 
Hanot, 10, 280 
Hanotot, 10, 280 
Hans, 294 
Hansard, 33, «. 
Hansell, 31, 33, »., 273 
Hansom, 20 " 
Hanson, 313 
Hapgood, 262 
Harbord, 44 
Harbour, 107 
Hard, 61 
Hardacre, 92 
Hardaker, 92 
Hardbattle, 152 
Harder, 61 
Hardicker, 92 



Hardiment, 222 

Hardman, 42 

Hardrib, 139 

Hardmeat, 186 

Hards, 61 

Hardstaff, 145, 155 

Hardware, 165 

Hargood, 38 

Harkaway, 100 

Harker, 97, 133, n. 

Harkey, 133 

Harkins, 133, ». 

Harkus, 97 

Harliss, 131 

Harlock, 131 

Harman, 28 

Harnack, 301 

Harness, 158 

Harnisch, 159 

Harp, 176 

Harper, 176 

Harrap, 63 

Harraway, 37 

Harriman, 236 

Harrismith, 228 

Harrison, 308 

Harrold, 188, n. 

Harrowsmith, 228 

Harsnip, 78 

Harsum, 308 

Hartfree, 142 

Hartnoll, 130 

Hartnupp, 128 

Hartog, 299 

Hartshorn, 64, 89 

Hase, 302 

Haskell, 30, 33, n. 

Hasluck, 33, ». 
Hassard, 218 
Hassett, 218 
Hatchard, 33, n. 
Hatchett, 168 
Hatfull, 250, ». 
Hathaway, 37 
Hatherall, 135 
Hatred, 37 
Hatt, 145, 146 
Hatter, 147, n. 1 
Hatto, 47 
Haueisen, 303 
Hauenschild, 303 
Haugh, 61 
Haupt, 126, 301 
Hauptmann, 300 
Hawke, 62 
Hawkes, 62 
Hawkett, 128 
Hawkey, 133 
Hawkins, 32 



INDEX 

Hayhoe, 328 

Haynes, 41 

Hayter, 81 

Haytor, 81 

Haywood, 112, ». 2 

Hazard, 218 

Head, 124, 125 

Headborough, 180, n. 1 

Headland, 99 

Headrigg, 99 

Heal, 62, 222 

Heald, 62 

Heam, 62, ». 2 

Hearsom, 308 

Hearson, 308 

Heart, 142 

Heath, 62 

Heathcock, 92 

Heaven, 2 10 

Heaviside, 138 

Hebbel, 293 

Hebestreit, 304 

Hecht, 302 

Heckler, 115 

Hector, 81, 216 

Heels, 142 

Heigho, 328 

Heinemann, 295 

Hell, 210 

Hellcat, 210, ». 1 

Helm, 63, 159 

Helmer, 38, 159 

Helms, 63 

Hempenstall, 197 

Hempseed, 124, 196 

Hendyside, 138 

Henfrey, 41 
Henrici, 294 
Hensher, 104 
Henwright, 227 
Herapath, 63 
Herbage, 107 
Herbert, 44 
Herbst, 302 
Hercules, 215 
Herd, 226 
Herdson, 239 
Herepath, 63 
Herkless, 215 
Herod, 207 
Herrick, 29 
Hersom, 308 
Herwegh, 63 
Herzog t 299 
Heseltine, 31 
Hesmondhalgh, 61 
Hess, 295 
Hesslich, 300 
Hever, 103 



345 

Hew, 232 

Hewes, 232 

Hewett, 322 

Hewish, 84 

Hewlings, 42 

Hewson, 239 

Hibbert, 42 

Hickmott, 246 

Hide, 63 

Hig-, 321 

Higgins, 316 

Hildick, 37 

Hilditch, 37 

Hilger, 37 

Hill, 47 

Hilldrop, 95 

Hillers, 97 

Hillyar, 37 

Hind, 226 

Hindenburg, 296 

Hinder, 104 

Hindhaugh, 52 

Hindman, 237 

Hindmarsh, 52 

Hinds, 232 

Hindson, 239 

Hine, 226, 232 

Hirsch, 302 

Hitch, 321 

Hitch-, 321 

Hitcheon, 321 

Hitchmough, 246 

Hoad, 63 

Hoath, 63 

Hobart, 42 

Hobgood, 262 

Hobman, 40 
Hochgeschiirz, 304 
Hockenhall, 87 
Hoffmann, 295 
Hofmeister, 300 
Hogg, 310 
Hogness, 132, ». 2 
Hogsett, 128 
Hogsflesh, 172 
Holbein, 301 
Holdship, 221 
Hollas, 97 
Hollebon, 143 
Hollier, 102 
Holliman, 143, «. 3 
Hollindrake, 170 
Hollingrake, 170 
Hollingshead, 220, ». 3 
Hollinpriest, 228, ». 3 
Hollobone, 143 
Holloman, 143, ». 3 
Hollowbread, 173 
Hollyhead, 220, n. 3 



346 

Hollyoak, 94 
Holmwood, 91 
Holness, 220 
Holyhead, 220, «. 3 
Holyoak, 94 
Holzhauer, 299 
Honeyball, 33 
Honeybourne, 307, n. 2 
Honeybun, 173, 307, 

n. 2 
Honeychild, 307, n. 2 
Honeychurch, 307, ». 2 
Honeycomb, 307, ». 2 
Honeyman, 237 
Honeysett, 74, 307, n. 2 
Honeywell, 307, ». 2 
Honeywill, 308 
Honeywood, 307, •«. 2 
Honnor, 63 
Honour, 63, 217 
Hood, 15, 145, 146 
Hoodless, 149 
Hook, 63 
Hope, 63, 218 
Hopewell, 254 
Hopgood, 262 
Hopper, 118 
Hopwell, 254 
Horlick, 131 
Horlock, 131 
Horn, 62, n. 2., 64 
Hornblow, 268 
Homblower, 176 
Hornbuckle, 152 
Hornett, 325 
Horniblow, 268 
Horsegood, 30 
Horsfall, 59 
Horsfield, 59, n. 
Horsnaill, 165 
Horsnell, 165 
Hose, 152 
Hosegood, 30 
Hosmer, 33, n. 
Hough, 62, 310 
House, 47 
Household, 105 
Houseman, 237 
How, 62 

Howard, 322, n. i 
Howchin, 42 
Howell, 18, n. 1 
Howitt, 322 
Howling, 329 
Hoy, 171 
Hoyes, 324 
Huard, 322, n. 1 
Huband, 247 
Hubbard, 42 



INDEX 

Hubble, 40 
Hubert, 42 
Hubrecht, 293 
Hiibsch, 300 
Hucks, 63 
Huelin, 329 
Huff, 62 

Hufnagel, 166, 304 
Hufschmidt, 298 
Huggins, 42 
Hugh, 42, 217, 232 
Hughes, 7, 321 
Huish, 84 
Hulance, 161 
Hulbert, 319 
Hulin, 329 
Hulk, 64 
Hull, 319 
Hullett, 42 
Hullins, 161 
Hullyer, 102 
Human, 236 
Humbert, 33 
Humboldt, 33 
Humm, 226, ». 2 
Humperdinck, 33 
Humphrey, 33 
Hun, 173 
Hunderimark, 302 
Hiinerfiirst, 305 
Hunnybun, 307, ». 2 
Hunt, 226, 229 
Huntbach, 53 
Huntback, 263 
Huntress, 230 
Huntriss, 230 
Hurlbatt, 268 
Hurn, 62, ». 2 
Hurst, 47, 95 
Husband, 226, 245 
Hush, 106 
Husher, 106 
Hussey, 236 

Icemonger, 326 
Iddols, 323 
Idle, 64 
Ilett, 64 
Imray, 41 
Imrie, 41 
Ince, 64 
Inch, 64 
Ind, 134 
Inderwick, 52 
Ing, 64 
Ingenohl, 296 
Ingham, 219 
Ingle, 45 
Inglebright, 31 



Inglett, 31 
Inglis, 64, n. 2 
Ingold, 45 
Ingoll, 31 
Instance, 221 
Iremonger, 4 
Ironmonger, 226, n. 1 
Ironside, 138 
Irrgang, 303 
Irwin, 35 
Isbister, 55 
Ivermee, 197 
Ivey, 185 
Ivimey, 197 
Ivor, 31 
Ivy, 185 
Ivyleaf, 196 

Jack, 150 
Jackaman, 236 
Jackett, 150 
Jackman, 40 
Jackways, 100 
Jacoby, 294 
Jagg, 156, ». 1 
Jagow, 295 
Jakobsen, 7, «. 
Jamin, 282 
Janders, 97 
Janicot, 283 
January, ro8, «. 
Janways, roo 
Jarmany, 206, ». 
Jarvis, 83 
Jasper, 158 
Jay, 201, ». 
Jeanroy, 228, n. 1 
Jeary, 316 
Jekyll, 157 
Jellicoe, 283 
Jellicorse, 129 
Jenner, 108 
Jennerway, 100 
Jennins, 5 
Jeremiah, 206 
Jermany, 206, n. 
Jermy, 206 
Jermyn, 206 
Jessemay, 185 
Jesser, 298, n. 
Jessiman, r8s 
Jester, ros 
Jestico, rso 
Jeudwin, 27, 45 
Jewell, 157 
Jewers, 96 
Jewster, 113 
Jickles, 157 
Joel ,157 



Missing Page 



Missing Page 



Limmage, 167 
Limpenny, 177, n. 2 
Lindequist, 304 
Linel, 284 
Linfoot, 91 
Ling, 35, «., 66 
Link, 66 
Linkin, 87 
Linkinwater, 161, ». 
Lippett, 67 
Lippiatt, 67 
Liptrapp, 327 
Liptrott, 327 
Lipyeat, 67 
List, 67 
Littleboy, 231 
Littlechild, 247 
Littlecole, 315, n. 2 
Littledyke, 243 
Littlejohn, 215, 225, 

242 
Littlepage, 241 
Littleproud, 222 
Littler, 86 
Littley, 133 
Liverseed, 74 
Livery, 44 
Livesey, 44 
Loakes, 67 
Loalday, 221 
Loane, 67 
Lockbane, 270 
Locker, 227 
Lockless, 149 
Locksmith, 227 
Lockyer, 227 
Lofficiaux, no, n. 1 
Loftus, 97 
Loisel, 319 
Lorab, 35, »., 130 
Lone, 67 
Long, 35, n. 
Longbones, 143 
Longcake, 173 
Longfoot, 141 
Longmaid, 248 
Longmate, 240 
Longstafl, 124 
Loop, 67 
Lord, 200 
Loring, 103, n. 2 
Lothair, 44 
Louis, 44 
Love, 260 
Loveband, 230 
Lovecraft, 261 
Loveday, 230, 233 
Lovegood, 261 
Lovegrove, 261 



INDEX 

Loveguard, 259 
Lovejoy, 259 
Lovelace, 259 
Lovelady, 259 
Loveland, 261 
Loveless, 149, 259 
Lovell, 260, n. 2 
Lovelock, 131 
Loveluck, 259 
Lover, 122 
Loveridge, 44 
Loverock, 259 
Loverseed, 74 
Lovesey, 44 
Lovewell, 255 
Lovibond, 230 
Low, 3ro 
Lowas, 97 
Lowe, 302 
Lower, 106 
Lowis, 97 
Lowson, 310 
Loyal, 327 
Luchterhand, 304 
Luck, 218 
Luckup, 259 
Ludwig, 44, 293 
Luffery, 44 
Lugger, 326 
Lumb, 35, »., r30 
Lung, 142 
Lury, 106 
Lush, 106 
Lusher, 106 
Luther, 44 
Luter, 176 
Lutjens, 242, 295 
Lutman, 237 
Luty, 221, 242 
Lutyens, 242 
Lyall, 327 
Lyautey, 221 
Lyde, 67 
Lydiate, 67 
Lyle, 103, ». 2, 327 
Lynch, 66 
Lysons, 66 
Lyteman, 237 
'Lyth, 67 



Maber, 40 
Macbrain, t42 
MacCorquodale, 31 
Macer, nr 
Machell, 241 
Macheprang, 303 
Machin, 242 
Mackensen, 294 



349 

MacLeish, 238, n. 2 
Maclise, 150 
MacManus, 239, n. 2 
MacMillan, 238, ». 
Mactear, 143 
Madle, 250 
Mdgdefrau, 304 
Magnus, 239, n. 2 
Magnusson, 239, n. 2 
Mahood, 327 
Maiden, 248 
Maidland, 248 
Mailer, 104 
Main, 46, 139 
Mainpidge, 20 
Mainprice, 20 
Mainprize, 213, n. 3 
Mair, 320, n. 4 
Maize, 186 
Major, 40 
Makeman, 263 
Makemead, 270 
Makepeace, 254 
Malabar, 40 
Malaspina, 291 
Malchien, 242 
Malcolm, 238, n. 
Male, 249 
Malebranche, 291 
Malesherbes, 188 
Malherbe, 188, 291 
Maliphant, 247 
Malise, 238, m. 
Mallett, 169 
Mallory, 213 
Malone, 194, 238, n. 
Malpress, 235 
Malsher, 245 
Malthus, 97 
Maltravers, 19 
Mammon, 212 
Mamprize, 20 
Manbridge, 250, n. 
Manchip, 220 
Manclark, 234 
Mandlin, 176 
Manesse, 303 
Manfred, 29 
Manfull, 249 
Mangnall, 162 
Manifold, 250 
Mankelow, 256, ». 
Mankin, 249 
Manktelow, 256, n. 
Manlove, 260 
Mann, 226, 236 
Mansbridge, 250, n. 
Manship, 220 
Manson, 239 



350 

Mantel, 301 
Mantell, 124, 148 
Manteuffel, 305 
Manyweathers, 235, «.i 
Marat, 284 
Marbrow, 262 
March, 68, 313 
Marchandise, 172, 311 
Marchandy, 172 
Marcy, 221, n. 
Mar got, 284 
Margoton, 284 
Mariette, 284 
Marigold, 191 
Marillier, 288 
Mariotte, 284 
Marjoram, 188 
Mark, 68 
Markgraff, 299 
Markland, 99 
Marklove, 261 
Marklow, 261 
Marler, 115 
Marment, 315, n. 2 
Marmion, 19, 315, n. 3 
Marmon, 315, n. 3 
Marot, 284 
Marquis, 199 
Marr, 68 
Marrow, 245 
Marrs, 68 
Marschall, 300 
Marsh, 3r3 

Marshall, 105, 106, n. 
Marshallsay, 106 
Marshalsea, ro6 
Marston, 68 
Mart, 85, n. 
Marthouse, 85 
Martiboy, 23T, n. a 
Martlew, 261 
Martlow, 261 
Martyr, 208 
Mar veil, 218 
Marwood, 257, n. 
Mas, 283 
Maschinendraht, 167, 

». 3 
Mascord, 107 
Maskelyne, 249 
Maslin, 186 
Masst, 283 
Massenet, 283 
Masset, 283 
Massillon, 186, 283 
Massingberd, 136 
Massinger, 209, ». 2 
Master, 68 
Masters, 68 



INDEX 

Mate, 240 
Mater, 107, ». 1 
Mather, 107, n. 1 
Matthaei, 294 
Matthias, 206 
Mattock, r69 
Maubert, 40 
Mauclerc, 234 
Maud'huy, 288 
Maudling, no 
Mauduit, 288 
Maufe, 68, 246 
Maufildtre, 250 
Mauger, 40 
Maugirard, 285 
Mault, 297 
Maund, 165 
Maunoury, 288 
Maupertuis, 286 
Maw, 67, 246 
Mawditt, 288 
Mawer, 17, 323 
Mawhood, 327 
Mawman, 212 
May, 246, 248 
Maybin, 247 
Maydew, 197 
Mayes, 186 
Mayhew, 197 
Mayle, 249 
Maynard, 28, 46 
Mayne, 46, 139 

Mayo, 197 

Mayor, 320, n. 4 

Mead, 248 

Meader, ri4 

Meadows, 96 

Meadus, 96 

Meals, 68 

Meanwell, 255 

Mears, 68, 320, n. 4 

Measure, r04 

Meat, 186 

Meatman, 237 

Meatyard, 164 

Medlar, 193 

Medlicott, 148 

Megenhard, 293 

Meiklejohn, 242 

Meiklereid, 221 

Meilleur, 323 

Meissonnier, 287 

Melady, 215 

Melladew, 197 

Mellalieu, 197 

Mellalue, 197 

Meller, 322 

Mellers, 97 

Mellis, 97, 238, n. 1 



Mellon, 194 
Mellsop, 268 
Melody, 215 
Membery, 2T7 
Memmett, 212 
Memmott, 2r2 
Memory, 217 
Mempriss, 20 
Menage, 105 
Mendary, no 
Mendelssohn, 294 
Menlove, 260 
Mercereau, 287 
Mercy, 22 r, «. 
Merredy, 197 
Merriday, 197 
Merridew, r97 
Merriman, 215 
Merriment, 2r5 
Merryweather,235, n. 1 
Mesher, 104 
Messenger, 209, n. 2 
Metcalfe, 241 
Meteyard, 164 
Mewis, 98 
Meyer, 298, 305 
Meyler, 104 
Meymott, 212 
Meynell, 42 
Miall, 103, n. 2 
Michaelwaite, 88 
Micklejohn, 242 
Micklewright, 227 
Middleage, 95 
Middleditch, 237, »• * 
Middleman, 237 
Middlemass, 237 
Middlemiss, 97 
Middlemist, 97 
Middleweek, 95 
Midgall, 62 
Midnight, 235 
Midy, 235 
Miggles, 103, n. 2 
Mighill, 103, n. 2 
Mildmay, 208, 248 
Miles, 103, n. 2 
Milk, 174 

Millard, 180, 322, n. * 
Millband, 230, ». 3 
Millett, 186 
Millhouse, 97 
Milliard, 180 
Milliner, 119 
Million, 180 
Millist, 97 
Millmaker, 226, ». 1 
Millward, 322, n. 2 
Milner, 119 



Milsopp, 249, 268 
Mil vain, 238, ». 
Mimpress, 20 
Minchin, 210 
Mingay, 68 
Miniken, 249 
Minister, 68 
Minster, 68 
Minstrell, 115 
Miskin, r86, ». 
Mister, 68 
Mitten, T51 
Mittenzweig, 195 
Mittnacht, 235 
Mbbius, 295 
Mockler, 235 
Mohn, 190 
Mohnkopf, 190 
Moist, 187 
Mold, 315 
Mole, 315 
Moliire, 290 
Molinari, 305 
Molinier, 288 
Molthe, 297 
Momerie, 217 
Moncer, 248 
Monch, 300 
Monement, no 
Moneypenny, 177, n. * 
Monkhouse, 220 
Monkman, 236 
Monnery, no 
Montaigu, 280 
Montigut, 280 
Montgolfier, 35 
Monument, 85, no 
Moor, 212 
Moorcock, 92 
Moorman, 237 
Morant, 329 
Mordaunt, 329 
Mordecai, 206 
Mordey, r8o 
Mordue, r8o 
Morehen, 92 
Morfey, 213 
Morfill, 169 
Morfitt, 91 
Morgenrot, 304 
Morgenthati, 197 
Morphew, 213 
Morphy, 213 
Morris, 212 
Morrow, 85 
Mort, 221, n. 
Mortiboy, 23r, ». 2 
Mortiboys, 231, ». 2 
Mortleman, 221, n. 



INDEX 

Mosscrop, 191 
Mossendew, 109 
Mothers, 244 
Mothersole, 182 
Mothersill, 182 
Mould, 297, 315 
Moule, 315 
Mountjoy, 68 
Mountsier, 248 
Mouth, 134 
Mowbray, 2r7 
Mudd, 58 
Mudge, 68 
Muff, 68, 246 
Muirhead, 126 
Mulberry, 193 
Mulbry, 194 
Miiller, 297, 305 
Mulliner, 119 
Mullins, 279 
Mummery, 217 
Munchay, 68 
Muncer, 248 
Mungay, 68 
Murch, 249, n. 
Murcott, 92 
Murfitt, 91 
Murrant, 329 
Muscat, 193 
Muse, 326 
Muskett, 193 
Musselwhite, 89 
Musson, 240 
Mussotter, 299 
Mustard, 124, 188 
Mustell, 134 
Mustol, 134 
Muzzell, t34 
Myer, 320 
Myers, 320, «. 4 
Myhill, 103, ». 2 
Mylecrist, 238, ». 
Mylord, 215 

Nadaud, 283 
Nadot, 283 
Nagel, 165 
Nail, 165 
Nail, 50 
Narraway, 100 
Nash, 50 
Nasmyth, 228 
Nation, 223 
Naud, 9 
Naudot, 9 
Nave, 234 
Nayland, 50 
Naysmith, 228 
Neale, 62, 321 



351 

Neame, 249 
Neander, 305 
Neap, 195 
Neathway, 52 
Neave, 245 
Neck, 135 
Neech, 245 
Needle, 166 
Needier, 166, n. 2 
Neef, 30 r 
Neelder, 166, «. 2 
Neep, 195 

Neese, 132, n. 2, 245 
Negoose, 241, ». 2 
Negus, 241, «. 2 
Neighbour, 237 
Neild, 62, r66 
Nendick, 50 
Nephew, 245 
Ness, 69 
Netherwood, 52 
Neunzig, 304 
Newball, 53 
Newbold, 53 
Newbond, 230 
Newbound, 230 
Newcome, 120 
Newhouse, 96 
Newis, 97 
Newlove, 260 
Nicholl, 308 
Nickless, 149 
Nicolai, 294 
Nicoll, 308 
Nicot, 283 
Niedhardt, 294 
Nietzsche, 294 
Nightingale, 22, 201, n. 
Niles, 50 
Nipper, .120 
Nisard, 10, 282 
Noah, 206 
Noakes, 50 
Nodier, 42 
Nolle, 9 
Noon, 103, n. 2 
Norchard, 50 
Nordenskjold, 75 
Norkett, 91 
Norland, 99 
Norman, 42 
Normansell, 73 
Norwebb, 230 
Norwood, 90 
Nothard, 16, 318 
Nolker, 42 
Noumsson, 249 
.Novice, 210 
Novis, 210 



352 

Noy, 206 
Noyce, 206 
Noyes, 206 
Nunnery, 220 
Nunniss, 97 
Nunweek, 95 
Nurse, 119 
Nursery, 106 
Nursling, 249 
Nutbeam, 184 
Nutbrown, 132 
Nutter, 42 
Nyland, 50 
Nyman, 237 

Oakenfull, 250, n. 
Oates, 186 
Oats, 185 
Odam, 246 
Odgers, 38 
Oestreich, 295 
Office, 210 
Officer, 207 
Ogg, 205 
Ohm, 301 
Ohnesorg, 149, 302 
Oldacre, 92 
Oldcorn, 185 
Oldershaw, 93 
Oldknow, 318 
Oldmixon, 85 
Oldreive, 231 
Oldrey, 231 
Oldwright, 227 
Oliffe, 42 
Oliver, 42, a. i 
Olland, 99 
Ollerhead, 93 
Ollerenshaw, 95 

Oilier, 115 

Olsen, 7, ». 

Onion, 191 

Onions, 191 

Oram, 46 

Orange, 194 

Ord, 38 

Ordway, 58 

Organ, 176 

Organer, 115 

Orgar, 38 

Orgill, 218 

Orgies, 176 

Orlebar, 87 

Orme, 37 

Ormeshire, 76 

Orneblow, 268 

Orpe, 44 

Orpen, 44 

Or win, 35 



INDEX 

Osborn, 31 
Osgood, 30, 261 
Osman, 31, 237 
Osmond, 31 
Ostertag, 302 
Oswald, 31 
Ott, 255 
Otterwell, 255 
Ottewell, 255 
Ottoway, 37 
Otway, 37 
Oughtred, 43 
Outerson, 246 
Outlaw, 115, 215, n. 1 
Outright, 43 
Over, 321 
Overall, 151 
Overthrow, 269 
Overy, 71 
Owers, 321 
Oxbrow, 131 
Oxenstiem, 131 
Ozanne, 280 
Ozenfant, 280 
Ozierbrook, 85 

Pabst, 300 
Pack, 157 
Pagan, 211 
Page, 105 
Painlevi, 173 
Painting, 328 
Palfreyman, 237 
Pallant, 69 
Pallett, 169 
Pament, 69 
Pamflett, 326 
Pammant, 69 
Pancoucke, 173 
Pancutt, 173 
Pannifer, 146, n. 

Panter, 105 

Panther, 106 

Pantin, 329 

Panting, 328 

Panton, 329 

Pantrey, 106 

Panzer, 159, 301 

Pd.qu.in, 283 

Paradise, 210 

Paragreen, 209 

Paramor, 122 

Pardew, 316, ». 1, 317 

Pardner, 120 

Pardoe, 180 

Pardy, 180, 182 

Parent, 245 

Parkers, 96 

Parkman, 237 



Parlby, 267 
Parlour, 108 
Parnell, 14 
Parsley, 188, 189 
Parslow, 265 
Partlett, r47 
Partner, r20 
Pascal, 290 
Pascoewebb, 228, n. 1, 

230, 242 
Pashler, 265 
Pashley, 265 
Pasley, 265 
Paslow, 265 
Pasquet, 283 
Pasquier, 283 
Pasquin, 283 
Passant, 265 
Passavant, 265 
Passelac, 265 
Passelaigue, 265 
Passepont, 265 
Passerieu, 265 

Passfield, 265 

Passifull, 265 

Passmore, 265 

Paster, in 

Paston, 19 

Pate, 130 

Patent, 327 

Pater, 107, ». 1 

Patience, 220 

Paton, 327 

Patten, 327 

Pattern, 327 

Patvine, 263 

Pauncefote, 141 

Pavot, 190 

Paw, 195 

Pay, 195 

Paybody, 129 

Pea, 194 

Peabody, 129 

Peace, 221 

Peacher, in 

Peachmay, 248 

Peacock, 92, 200, 201, 
n. 

Peagrim, 209 

Pear, 192 

Pearce, 161 

Pearcey, 265 

Pearl, 156 

Fearless, 149 
Pears, 192 
Peartree, 192 
Peascod, 196 
Pease, 194 
Peasegood, 196 



Peberdy, 129 
Peckover, 5 
Pecksniff, 234 
Pee, 194 
Peerless, 149 
Peever, 189 
Peffer, 189 
Pellevillain, 257, 289 
Pellissier, 288 
Pelly, 128 
Pender, 97 
Penderell, 259 
Pendriss, 97 
Pendrous, 97 
Penfare, 146, n. 
Penfold, 213, ». 3, 269 
Penkethman, 237 
Pennance, 220 
Pennefather, 146 
Pennifold, 269, ». 
Penny, 177 
Pennycad, 241, ». 1 
Pennycard, 241, n. 1 
Pennycock, 241 
Penny cook, 241 
Penny feather, 146 
Pepler, 104 
Pepper, 188, 189 
Peppercorn, 196 
Pepperday, 129 
Pepperell, 189 
Pepperwell, 189 
Pepys, 193 
Perceval, 265 
Percival, 265 
Percy, 265 
Peretmere, 246 
Perrers, 286 
Perrett, 128, 192 
Perrier, 288 
Perry, 312 
Pershouse, 265 
Pertuis, 286 
Pertwee, 286 
Pescott, 196 
Peskett, 196 
Pester, in 
Pesterfield, 90 
Petcher, in 
Peters, 294 
Petersen, 7, n. 
Petersilje, 189 
Petibon, 222 
Petigas, 289 
Petinicol, 315, n. 2 
Petitperrin, 285 
Petivallet, 213 
Pett, 69, 98 
Pettifer, 140, 141 



INDEX 

Pettiford, 140 
Pettigrew, 141 
Pettinger, 130, n. 
Pettitt, 279 
Pettiward, 235 
Pettus, 98 
Peverall, 19, 189 
Pewtress, 230 
Pfaff, 300 
Pfannebecker, 298 
Pfau, 301 
Pfingst, 302 
Pfundheller, 302 
Pharaoh, 205 
Pharro, 205 
Phethean, 39 
Phizacklea, 20 
Phizakarley, 20 
Philpot, 125 
Phippen, 193 
Phcenix, 216 
Physick, 223 
Phythian, 39 
Pick, 201, ». 
Pickance, 268 
Pickard, 103, n. 2 
Pickavance, 268 
Pickavant, 268 
Pickernell, n 1 
Pickervance, 268 
Pickles, 69 
Picquart, 281 
Pictor, 81 
Piepape, 275 
Piggrem, 209 
Pighills, 69 
Pightling, 69 
Pike, 161 
Pilbeam, 258 
Pilch, 148 
Pile, 69 
Pilgrim, 209 
Pill, 69 
Pillar, 117 
Pillatt, 207 
Pillaway, 69 
Pillbrow, 262 
Piller, 117 
Pillinger, 111 
Pillivant, 247 
Pillman, 69 
Pimpernell, 191 
Pinch, 207, «. 
Pinchback, 263 
Pinder, 97 
Pinfield, 269, n. 
Pinfold, 269, ». 
Pinion, 326 
Pink, in, ». 1 



353 



Pinker, 307, ». 1 
Pinkerton, 307, n. 1 
Pinkett, 307, n. 1 
Pinkhard, 307, ». 1 
Pipe, 177 
Piper, 176 
Pipperday, 129 
Pippin, 193 
Pirie, 312 
Pirkiss, 223 
Pistor, in, ». 2 
Pistorius, 305 
Pitchfork, 169 
Pitt, 69 
Plaice, 70 
Place, 70 
Plank, 70 
Plant, 185 
Plantrose, 268 
Plasked, 70 
Plaskett, 70 
Piatt, 70 
Play fair, 318 
Playfoot, 91 
Pleass, 70 
Plenty, 222 
Plessis, 70 
Plews, 170 
Plimmer, 130, n. 
Plott, 70 
Plow, 170 
Plowman, 17 
Plowright, 227 
Pluck, 70 

Plucknett, 154, n. 1 
Pluckrose, 268 
Plues, 170 
Plumb, 192 
Plumtree, 192 
Plunkett, 154 
Plyer, 120 
Poad, 196 
Poat, 196 
Pobgee, 200 
Pobjoy, 200 
Pochhammer, 303 
Pockett, 156 
Pocock, 200 
Podd, 196 
Poe, 194 

Poincari, 127, 288 
Poinson, 207, ». 
Poitevin, 263 
Poke, 213 
Polack, 295 
Poll, 130, 319 
Pollett, 130, 319 
Pollikett, 242 
Poison, 130 



354 

Polyblank, 131 
Pons, 207, ». 
Ponsard, 207, n. 
Ponsonby, 11, n. 
Pontifex, 208, ». 2, 305 
Pook, 213 
Pool, 319 
Poole, 307 
Pooler, 120 
Pope, 199, 200 
Popejoy, 200 
Popjoy, 200 
Poppy, 190 
Porcas, 223 
Porkiss, 223 
Portas, 156 
Porteas, 156 
Portebois, 275 
Porteous, 96, ». 2, 156 
Portefaix, 275 
Portelance, 275 
Portenseigne, 275 
Porter, 16, 105, 117 
Portess, 96 
Porterhouse, 97 
Porthouse, 96 
Portman, 231 
Portwine, 263 
Poskitt, 91 
Posselwhite, 89 
Postans, 109 
Posthill, 208 
Postle, 208 
Potdevin, 273 
Potgieter, 299 
Potman, 236 
Pott, 125 
Pottage, 174 
Pottiphar, 205 
Potwin, 263 
Pouch, 156 
Poucher, 120 
Poulter, 16 
Pound, 177 
Pounder, 97 
Powe, 195 

Powell, 18, «. 1, 319 
Power, 314 
Powles, 319 
Powncer, 120 
Powner, 104 
Poye, 195 
Poyner, 207 
Poyser, 171 
Poyzer, 171 
Prater, 208, ». 2 
Prdtorius, 305 
Pray, 228, «. 2 
Preacher, 115 



INDEX 

Preater, 208, ». 3 
Preece, 228, n. 2 
Preferment, 210, n. 3 
Premier, 180 
Prendergast, 4 
Prentice, 4, 17 
Prentout, 275 
Pretor, 208, n. 2 
Prettybody, 129 
Prettyjohn, 242 
Preuss, 295 
Prew, 242, n. 1 
Prewett, 242, n. 1 
Prewse, 242, ». 1 
Price, 228, ». 2 
Prickman, 261 
Prictoe, 142 
Pride, 218 
Pridgeon, 242 
Priest, 198 
Priestner, 104 
Prime, 180 
Primmer, 180 
Primrose, 191 
Prin, 180 
Prindeville, 267 
Pring, 180 
Print, 180 
Printemps, 79 
Prinz, 299 
Pritlove', 260 
Prizeman, 162 
Probst, 300 
Profit, 219 
Pronger, 115 
Properjohn, 242 
Prophet, 198 
Prothero, 29 
Proud, 242, «. 1 
Proudfoot, 141 
Proudlove, 260 
Proudman, 237 
Prout, 242, ». 1 
Prow, 222, 242, n. 1 
Prowse, 242, n. 1 
Prudence, 220 
Prue, 242, n. 1 
Pruett, 242, n. 1 
Prynne, 180 
Prytherick, 29 
Ptolomey, 205 
Puckle, 213 
Puddephatt, 141 
Puddifant, 141 
Puddifoot, 141 
Pudding, 174 
Pugh, 319 
Puller, 120 
Pullinger, in 



Punch, 207, n. 
Punchard, 307 
Puncher, 307 
Punshon, 11, n. 
Punt, 112, n. 1 
Punter, 112 
Punyer, 113 
Puplett, 128, n. 1 
Purchase, 223 
Purcifer, 265 
Purdue, 182 
Purdy, 182 
Purefoy, 182 
Purgold, 157 
Purkiss, 223 
Purple, 143 
Purse, 156 
Purser, 120 
Pursey, 265 
Purshouse, 265 
Pury, 312 
Pushfirth, 256, n. 
Putt, 69 
Puttifent, 141 
Puttifoot, 141 
Puttkammer, 303 
Pu twain, 263 
Pyle, 69 

Quadratstein, 167, n. 3 
Quaife, 147 
Quaintance, 220 
Quarrier, 58, n. 
Quarterman, 139 
Quarton, 70, 138, n. 
Quatermain, 139 
Quick, 70 
Quickfall, 70, 26a 
Quigley, 138, n. 
Quiller, 147, ». 2 

Rabbetts, 242, n. 2 
Rabjohns, 242 
Race, 326 
Raehell, 206 
Rachilde, 206 
Racine, 290 
Rackstraw, 267 
Raddle, 36 
Radermacher, 298 
Rae, 313 

Raemakers, 298, n. 
Raickstraw, 267 
Raikes, 170 
Rainbird, 201, ». 
Rainbow, 158 
Raine, 45, 70 
Raines, 45, 70 
Raisin, 193, 239 



Rake, 170 

Ralph, 36, 42 

Rameau, 195 

Ramshead, 128 

Ramshire, 36 

Ramsker, 36 

Ramus, 97 

Ranacre, 93 

Rand, 139 

Randall, 38 

Randle, 41, n. 

Rands, 139 

Rangecroft, 269 

Ranigar, 93 

Ranke, 293 

Rankill, 36 

Rann, 313 

Raoul, 36 

Raper, 160 

Rapier, 160 

Raspberry, 194 

Rathbone, 143 

Rattle, 36 

Raud, 283 

Raven, 36 

Ravenhill, 36 

Ravening, 65 

Ravenshear, 36 

Raw, 42 

Rawbone, 143 

Rawkins, 10 

Rawle, io, 42 

Rawlin, 42 

Rawlins, 10 

Ray, 154, 313 

Raybould, 45 

Rayer, 116 

Rayne, 70 

Rayner, 44 

Raynes, 70 

Rayson, 239 

Reacher, 29 

Read, 221 

Reames, 103, n. 2 

Reason, 239 
Reatchlous, 149 
Rebhuhn, 302 
Reckless, 149 
Rectus, 209 
Record, 44 
Redknap, 128 
Reddaway, 37 
Reddick, 324 
Redfern, 184 
Redhead, 128 
Redhough, 62 
Redit, 128 
Redman, 132 
Redmayne, 132 



INDEX 

Redrup, 95 
Redway, 37 

Redwood, 258 
Ree, 72 

Reed, 184, 22 r 

Reef, 231 

Reeks, 170 

Rees, 71 

Reeve, 226 

Regedanz, 303 

Regelous, 211 

Regenbogen, 158 

Regester, in 

Reglar, 211 

Regnier, 44 

Rehbein, 301 

Relf, 36, 42 

Remnant, 329 

Renard, 44 

Renaud, 44 

Render, 115 

Rendle, 38 

Rennenhampf, 296 

Renouf, 36 

Renyard, 44 

Retter, 115 

Renter, 297 

Revel, 220, n. 2 

Reverand, 210 

Revere, 122 

Revis, 83 

Rew, 72 

Rex, 170 

Rextrew, 267 

Rey, 281 

Reynard, 44 

Reynolds, 14, 44 

Rhind, 72 

Rhine, 72 

Rhymes, 71, n. 

Ribbans, 157 

Rice, 326 
Richards, 16 
Richbell, 44 
Richepanse, 144 
Richer, 29 
Richter, 300 
Rickard, 44 
Rickman, 237 
Rickwood, 44 
Riddick, 324 
Ridding, 72 
Riddy, 72 
Ridehalgh, 61 
Rideout, 259 
Riding, 72 
Ridland, 258 
Ridout, 259 
Ridwood, 258 



355 

Riemenschneider, 299 

Riggall, 44 

Rigmaiden, 2 

Rigler, 211 

Rind, 72 

Rinder, 115 

Ring, 157 

Ringer, 102 

Ringrow, 85 

Ringrose, 85 

Ringshall, 88 

Riotte, 284 

Ripper, 120 

Risk, 72 

Rissbrook, 72 

Ritter, 300 

Rivis, 83 

Rix, 72 

Roadnight, 335 

Roath, 73 

Rockstro, 267 

Rodaway, 100 

Rod, 285 

Roddis, 73, 97 

Roderick, 29 

Rodick, 324 
Rodin, 283 

Rodman, 235 

Rodnight, 235 
Rodwell, 73 
Roff, 42, n. 2 
Roffey, 134 
Roggenbrod, 303 
Rohwedder, 304 
Rolfe, 42, n. 2 
Rbmheld, 293 
Rood, 73 
Roodhouse, 73 
Roof, 108 
Root, 177 
Ropes, 172 
Rosamond, 34 
Rose, 84, 190 
Roseblade, 196 
Roseman, 34 
Rosenblatt, 196 
Rosenschmidt, 298 
Rosentreter, 266, ». 2 
Roseworm, 327 
Roskill, 33 
Rosontree, 192 
Roster, 86 
Roth, 300 
Rothera, 84 
Rothermel, 301 
Rough, 147 
Roughead, 128 
Roughley, 147 
Roughsedge, 147 



356 

Rouhorn, 89, «. 2 
Rouncewell, 255 
Rounseval, 255 
Rounswell, 255 
Routh, 73 
Routledge, 21 
Row, 190 
Rowat, 91 
Rowe, 84 
Rowed, 128 
Rowell, 86 
Rower, 112 
Rowland, 188, n. 
Rowney, 133 
Rowntree, 192 
Royal, 327 
Roylance, 161 
Royle, 79 
Rubens, 157 
Rubey, 158 
Rubsamen, 303 
Ruby, 158 
Rudd, 324 
Ruddick, 324 
Rude, 73 
Rudge, 314 
Rue, 72, 187 
Ruff, 147 
Ruffell, 147 
Ruflhead, 128 
Ruffles, 147 
Ruggles, 149 
Rugless, 149 
Rule, 73 
Rumbelow, 10 1 
Rumfitt, 91 
Rumschbttel, 303 
Rump, 139 
Rumpff, 139 
Runacres, 93 
Rundle, 38, 41, ». 
Ruse, 84, ». 2 
Rushaway, 268 
Rushout, 268 
Ruskin, 34 
Russell, 34 
Russett, 154 
Rutson, 240 
Rutter, 240 
Ryall, 327 
Ryder, 323 
Rye, 185, 186 
Rylands, 161 
Ryle, 327 
Ryott, 220 
Ryrie, 29 

Saalwachter, 300 
Sabatier, 287 



INDEX 

Sacavin, 275 
Sachs, 292 
Sacquepi, 275 
Saffery, 41, 188 
Sagar, 41 
Saint, 209 
Sainthouse, 96 
Sait, 74 
Suicide, 280 
Sale, 73, 285 
Salier, 118, n. 1 
Salle, 285 
Sallibanks, 161, «. 
Sallis, 73 
Sallows, 73 
Salmon, 204 
Salter, 118 
Salterne, 73 
Salters, 96 
Saltonstall, 270 
Saltsieder, 299 
Salway, 100 
Sampson, 204 
Samways, 100 
Sandelance, 161 
Sandilands, 161 
Sanselme, 150 
Sansom, 20, 150 
Sansterre, 149 
Sant, 209 
Santer, 150 
Santler, 87 
Sapp, 196 
Sapsworth, 87 
Sard, 10 
Sard, 160 
Sardison, 239 
Sardou, 10 
Sargisson, 239 
Sargood, 262, n. 1 
Sarkander, 305 
Sarson, 212 
Sarter, 115 
Sartorius, 305 
Sarvant, 105 
Sarvis, 221 
Satchell, 156 
Sattelmacher, 298 
Sauberzweig, 195 
Sauerbier, 303 
Sauerbrei, 303 
Saul, 206 
Saunders, 188 
Saunt, 209 
Saussaye, 280 
Savary, 188 
Saveall, 254 
Savigar, 87 
Savory, 41, 188 



Savoury, 189 
Sawbridge, 87, ». 4 
Sawle, 206 
Sawkill, 307 
Saxby, 275 
Saxty, 107 
Sayce, 72, n. 1 
Sayer, 74 
Sayers, 41 
Sayle, 73 
Saylor, 118 
Saywell, 254 
Scadlock, 267 
Scales, 75 
Scambler, 122 
Scare, 74 
Scarf, 147 
Scarlett, 154 
Scattergood, 262 
Schaarschmidt, 298 
Schaff, 302 
Scharnhorst, 295 
Schatzmann, 300 
Schenk, 300 
Schiller, 292 
Schilling, 302 
Schimmelpeninck, 178 
Schlagentweit, 303 
Schleiermacher, 298 
Schluckebier, 304 
Schmeckebier, 304 
Schmidt, 297 
Schmidthenner, 228, «. 1 
Schmidtkunz, 228, n. 1 
Schnapauff, 303 
Schneidewind, 266 
Schofield, 65 
Schoolcraft, 65 
Schooling, 65 
Schopenhauer, 292 
Schottldnder, 295 
Schroder, 299 
Schroer, 299 
Schrbter, 299 
Schubert, 299 
Schuchardt, 299 
Schiiddekopf, 264 
Schultz, 305 
Schumach, 226, n. 1 
Schumann, 299 
Schiittespeer, 303 
Schiitz, 300 
Schwartzhans, 295 
Schwartzkopf, 301 
Schwarz, 300 
Schwerdtfeger, 299 
Schwinghammer, 303 
Scotcher, in 
Scotter, 104 



Scrimger, 112 
Scriminger, 112 
Scrimshaw, 88 
Scrimygeour, 112 
Scull, 130 
Sculler, 105 
Seagram, 41 
Seagrim, 41 
Seal, 73 
Sealer, 116 
Seamark, 87, n. 1 
Search, 38 
Sears, 41 
Seath, 73 
Seaward, 227 
Seawright, 41, 227 
Sebert, 27 
Sebright, 27 
Second, 180 
Secret, 38 
Seear, 74 
Seed, 73, 196 
Seedhouse, 96 
Seidensticker, 299 
Seigle, 186 
Seiler, ri8, n. 1 
Selden, 74 
Seldom, 74 
Seldon, 74 
Sell, 74 
Sellar, 118 
Seller, 118 
Sellerman, 237 
Selway, 100 
Semmelbecker, 298 
Seneschal, 105 
Sennett, 38 
Sensicall, 105 
Senskell, 105 
Sentance, 222 
Sentence, 222 
Seraphim, 209 
Serkitt, 220 
Serrurier, 279 
Service, 221 
Sessions, 103, n. 2 
Seth, 73 
Settatree, 270 
Setter, 113 
Seward, 173 
Sewer, 105 
Sexty, 107 
Seys, 72, ». 1 
Shackcloth, 267 
Shacklady, 264 
Shackle, 170 
.Shacklock, 264 
Shackshaft, 256 
Shadbolt, 268 



INDEX 

Shade, 74 
Shadlock, 267 
Shadrake, 205 
Shakelady, 264 
Shakelance, 256 
Shakeshaft, 4, 256 
Shakespeare, 4, 252, 

256 
Shanks, 124, 140 
Shapler, 147 
Shard, 74 
Sharer, 231 
Shargold, 266 
Sharland, 74 
Sharlotte, 174 
Sharpless, 149 
Sharrocks, 94 
Shatlock, 267 
Shaw, 47 
Shawsmith, 228 
Shead, 74 
Shear, 74, 75 
Sheard, 74 
Shearer, 231 
Shearhod, 270 
Shears, 74, 75, 76 
Shearsmith, 228 
Shearwood, 266 
Sheat, 73 
Sheath, 73 
Sheather, 114 
Shebear, 54 
Shed, 74 
Shedlock, 267 
Sheepshanks, 140 
Sheepwash, 75 
Sheepy, 133 
Shekell, 177 
Sheldrake, 205 
Shellcross, 130, n. 
Shepherdson, 239 
Shergold, 266 
Sherlock, 266 
Shermer, 112 
Sherriff, 231 
Sherwin, 266 
Shiel, 75 
Shield, 160 
Shields, 75 
Shillibeer, 54 
Shilling, 177 
Shillingshaw, 177 
Shillingsworth, 177 
Shillito, 5 
Shine, I4r 
Shingler, 120, ». 
Shinn, 141 
Ship-, 75 
Shipp, 171 



357 

Shippen, 75 
Shipsides, 75, 138 
Shipster, 130, ». 
Shipwash, 75 
Shipway, 75 
Shipwright, 227 
Shire, 75 
Shirra, 231 
Shirt, 74 
Shitler, 115 
Shoemaker, 226, ». 1 
Shoemark, 226, n. 1 
Shoesmith, 228 
Shone, I4r 
Shooter, 122 
Shorrock, 94 
Shorters, 152, ». 2 
Shorthose, 22, 152 
Shorthouse, 152 
Shortus, 152, ». 3 
Shotbolt, 268 
Shotlock, 267 
Shoulders, 137 
Shrapnel, r47, n. 1 
Shreeve, 231 
Shrive, 231 
Shrosbree, 87 
Shucksmith, 228 
Shurlock, 266 
Shurmer, 112 
Shurrock, 94 
Shuter, 122 
Shutler, ri5 
Shuttle, 170 
Sibary, 38 
Sibbald, 38 
Siborne, 34 
Sibree, 38 
Sich, 76 

Sichelschmidt, 298 
Side, 138 
Sidwell, 187 
Silberschmidt, 298 
Silburn, 247 
Silito, 5 
Sillence, 220 
Sillibourne, 247 
Sillifant, 247 
Sillon, 283 
Silver, 157 
Silverbird, 136 
Silverside, 139 
Silvertop, 128 
Silvery, 133 
Silvestre, 281 
Simister, 121, ». 
Simmance, 161 
Simmonds, 39, ». 2 
Simner, 121, n. 



358 



INDEX 



Sinister, 304, n. 3 

Sinnamon, 87 

Sinnocks, 95 

Sinnott, 38 

Sirdar, 120 

Sirr, 248 

Sissmore, 178 

Sitch, 76 

Sitwell, 187 

Sive wright, 227 

Six, 179 

Sixsmith, 228 

Sizer, in 

Skeel, 292, n. 

Skeemer, 105 

Skeer, 74 

Skegg, 137 

Skew, 160 

Skill, 222 

Skiller, 105 

Skilling, 177 

Skin, 143 

Skipper, 118 

Skippon, 75 

Skippings, 75 

Skirmer, 112 

Skirrett, 187 

Skrimshire, 88 

Skull, 130 

Skurmer, 112 

Slade, 76 

Slagg, 156, ». 1 

Slape, 77 

Slate, 76 
Slavin, 151 
Slay, 77 

Slaymaker, 226, ». 1 
Slaymark, 226, ». 1 
Sleath, 76 
Slee, 77 
Sleeman, 237 
Slight, 223 
Slipp, 77 
Slipper, 153 
Slocock, 92 
Sloggett, 91 
Sluggett, 91 
Slyman, 237 
Smallbones, 143 
Smalley, 133 
Smallhorn, 64 
Smallpage, 241 
Smallpeace, 221 
Smallpeice, 222 
Smead, 77 
Smeathers, 96 
Smeathman, 78, 308 
Smedes, 77 
Smedley, 77 



Smee, 78 

Smeed, 77 

Smeeth, 77 
■ j Smidmore, 77 

Smiles, 87, ». 1 

Smirk, 87, n. 1 

Smith, 226, 308 

Smithers, 96 

Smithett, 78 

Smithson, 239 

Smithyman, 237 

Smy, 78 

Snaith, 78 

Snake, 95 

Snape, 78 

Snead, 78 

Snee, 78 

Sneezum, 86 

Snelgar, 44 

Snepp, 78 

Snodgrass, 78 

Snook, 95 
Snooks, 95 
Snowball, 225, ». 
Snusher, 104 
Soanes, 244 
Soden, 212 
Sollas, 220 
Soller, 109 
Solomon, 204 
Soltan, 212 
Solway, 161, n. 
Sommer, 302 
Sommerlat, 233 
Sones, 244 
Sonntag, 302 
Sortwell, 255, n. 1 
Sotcher, 112 
Sotelass, 231 
Southland, 99 
Southward, 52 
Southwood, 90 
Souvestre, 281 
Sowden, 212 
Spear, 160 
Spearon, 163 
Spearpoint, 160 
Spearsmith, 229 
Specht, 302 
Speck, 201, n. 
Speed, 218 
Speight, 201, n. 
Spence, 106 
Spencer, 14, ». 1 
Spendlove, 260 
Spenlow, 260 
Sperrirrg, 163 
Spicknell, in 
Spickernell, n 1 



Spindelow, 260 
Spindler, 115 
Spingarn, 258 
Spink, in, ». 1 
Spire, 122 
Spirett, 214 
Spirit, 214 
Spittle, 107 
Splatt, 78 
Spon, 78 
Spong, 78 
Sporleder, 303 
Spouncer, 122 
Sprackling, 140 
Spratling, 140 
Spray, 195 
Spreadbrow, 131 
Spridgeon, 242 
Sprigg, 195 
Spring, 78 
Springall, 248 
Springate, 248 
Springett, 248 
Springhall, 248 
Spun, 78 
Spurge, 187 
Spurgeon, 242 
Spurr, 162 
Spurren, 163 
Spurway, 100 
Spyer, 122 
Squiller, 105 
Squire, 105, 199 
Stabback, 270 
Staff, 79, 124, 154 
Stahlschmidt, 298 
Staight, 79 
Staines, 308 
Staite, 79 
Stallibrass, 140 
Stallwood, 91 
Stamer, 114 
Stammers, 41 
Standaloft, 268 
Standeven, 268 
Standfast, 254 
Stanes, 308 
Stanier, 226, n. 1 
Stanley, 16 
Stannard, 44 
Stannas, 96 
Stanner, 104 
Stannis, 96 
Stannus, 96 
Staple, 79 
Staples, 79 
Starey, 133 
Start, 80 
Startifant, 265 



Startin, 86 
Startup, 153 
State, 79 
Stathers, 96 
Staveacre, 187 
Staveley, 87 
Stay, 79 

Steadmances, 71, ». 
Steckles, 79 
Steggall, 79 
Steggles, 79 
Steinhauer, 299 
Steinschneider, 299 
Stent, 79 
Steptoe, 253 
Steriker, 93 
Steward, 105 
Stickings, 79 
Stickler, 115 
Stickles, 79 
Stigand, 79 
Stiggants, 79 
Stiggins, 79 
Stiggles, 79 
Stile, 79 
Still, 79 
Stillman, 79 
Stirrup, 89 
Stirzaker, 93 
Stitch, 80 
Stockfisch, 303 
Stockings, 153 
Stofflet, 282 
Stone, 308 
Stoneage, 95 
Stonehewer, 226, n. 1 
Stoop, 80 
Stopes, 80 
Stophe, 282 
Stopher, 104 
Stopper, 104 
Stopps, 80 
Storch, 301 
Storer, 105 
Storrar, 103 
Stoyle, 79 
Straight, 326 
Strange, 120 
Strangleman, 257 
Strauss, 301 
Strawbridge, 89 
Strawson, 240 
Stribling, 249 
Strickett, 128 
Stringfellow, 130, n. 
Stripling, 249 
Stroh, 303 
Strongitharm, 139 
Stroulger, 211 



INDEX 

Strowbridge, 89 
Strowger, 211 
Strudger, 211 
Stuckey, 87 
Studd, 80 
Stumbles, 41 
Sturdevant, 265 
Sturgess, 43 
Sturt, 80 
Sturtivant, 265 
Sturzaker, 93 
Stutfield, 318 
Styance, 79 
Styants, 79 
Styer, 115 
Styche, 80 
Styles, 79 
Such, 50 
Suckling, 249 
Sucksmith, 228 
Suddard, 319 
Sudermann, 299 
Sueter, 122 
Suett, 173 
Summer, 75, »., 79 
Summerhayes, 75, n. 
Summerlad, 233 
Summerscales, 75 
Summersgill, 75 
Summerskill, 75 
Sumner, 121, n. 
Sumpster, 121 
Sumption, 223 
Sumsion, 223 
Surch, 38 

Surgenor, 65, »., 240 
Surgeon, 65, »., 239 
Surgerman, 239 
Surgison, 239 
Surkett, 220 
Surplice, 151 
Surr, 248 
Surtees, 49, «. 1 
Siissengutk, 302 
Susskind, 301 
Sussmilch, 303 
Sutermeister, 299 
Suthers, 97 
Sutor, 305 
Swain, 42, 226, 234 
Swainson, 239 
Swale, 80 

Swan, 37, 42, 234, 313 
Swannell, 37 
Swash, 312, n. 
Swears, 80 
Sweatman, 238 
Sweetapple, 191 
Sweetlove, 260 



359 

Sweetsur, 248 
Swell, 80 
Swindler, 120 
Swingewood, 252, n. 3 
Swingler, 120 
Swire, 80, 135 
Sword, 160 
Syer, 248 
Syers, 248 
Sykes, 76 
Symonds, 39, ». a 
Syrett, 38 

Tabborah, 176 
Taber, 150, 176 
Taberer, 176 
Tabernacle, no 
Tabor, 151, 176 
Tabrar, 176 
Tabrett, 176 
Tagliaferro, 253, ». 2 
Taillebois, 258 
Taillefer, 256 
Taine, 281 
Tait, 126 
Talfourd, 253 
Tallboys, 258 
Tallents, 142 
Tambourin, 176 
Tamsett, 322 
Tancred, 42, 125 
Tankard, 42, 125 
Tansey, 187 
Taphouse, 96 
Tarbath, 32 
Tarbox, 71, n. 
Tarbun, 32 
Tardew, 186, «. 
Tarn, 60 
Tarnsitt, 80 
Tarsell, 193, ■«. 2 
Tart, 80 
Tartar, 212 
Tash, 50 
Tassell, 193, n. ■* 
Taswell, 256 
Tate, r26 
Taube, 302 
Taubmann, 303 
Taw, 50 
Tawyer, 81 
Taycell, 193, n. 2 
Taylorson, 239 
Tazewell, 256 
Teacher, 115 
Tear, 143 
Tearall, 262 
Tebbutt, 40 
Tee, 82 



360 

Teed, 40 
Teissier, 288 
Telfer, 253 
Telford, 253 
Tellwright, 227 
Temporall, 211 
Temprall, 211 
Tennyson, 315, ». 1 
Terrell, 262 
Terry, 40 
Terse, 180 
Tcstard, 281 
TMe, 126 
retard, 281 
Teufel, 209, n. i, 305 
Tewer, 81 
Textor, 305 
Tey, 82 

Thacker, 81, 114 
Thackeray, 84 
Thackster, 81 
Thackwell, 256 
Thackwray, 84 
Thake, 81 
Thay, 81 
Theak, 81 
Theaker, 81, 114 
Theed, 40 
Theobald, 40 
Thew, 150, «. 
Thewless, 150 
Thewlis, 150 
They, 81 
Thickbroom, 184 
Thickett, 128 
Thicknesse, 132, n. ■* 
Thickpeimy, 177, ». 2 
Thiers, 180 
Third, 180 
Thirdborough, 180 
Thirkell, 31 
Thirkettle, 31 
Thirkhill, 31 
Thirlaway, 265 
Thirlway, 265 
Thistlethwaite, 89 
Thoday, 63 
Tholomii, 205 
Thompson, 3, 308 
Thorburn, 34 
Thornback, 138 
Thornell, 62 
Thoyts, 89 
Thrale, 232 
Threadgold, 266 
Thridgould, 266 
Thrift, 220 
Thring, 234 
Throssell, 157 



INDEX 

Thrussell, 157 
Thumbwood, 257, «. 
Thurgar, 31 
Thurgell, 31, 43 
Thurgood, 261 
Thurkell, 21 
Thurkettle, 31 
Thurtle, 31 
Thwaite, 47, 89 
Tibbets, 10 
Tibbies, 10, 40 
Tibbs, 10 
Ticklepenny, 263 
Tickler, 79 
Tidbald, 40 
Tidball, 40 
Tidboald, 40 
Tidswell, 254 
Tieck, 293 
Tieman, 200 
Tierce, 180 
Tiff en, 14 
Tighe, 82 
Timberlake, 87 
Timblick, 87 
Timbrell, 177 
Timperon, 177, n. 1 
Tingle, 40 
Tinnett, 138 
Tinnion, 224, n. 2 
Tinside, 138 
Tiplady, 259 
Tippenny, 177 
Tippett, 148 
Tipple, 40 
Tipstaff, 135 
Tiptaft; 155, ». 
Tiptod, 155, n. 
Tiptoft, 155, ». 
Tirebuck, 266 
Tirpitz, 295 
Tischbein, 155 
Todhunter, 229 
Todkill, 43 
Todleben, 221, n. 
Todrick, 40 
Toe, 50, 142 
Toes, 50, 142 
Tofield, 82 
Toine, 281 
Tolladay, 233 
Tollfree, 31 
Tolliday, 233 
Tolputt, no 
Tolver, 253 
Tongs, 134 
Tongue, 134 
Toogood, 262, ». 1 
Tooth, 127 



Toplady, 259 
Toplass, 259 
Topliss, 259 
Torr, 81 
Torrens, 305 
Tortise, 325 
Tortiss, 325 
Tortoiseshell, 325 
Toswill, 256 
Tottman, 238 
Tough, 147 
Tournemeule, 263 
Tower, 320 
Toye, 146 
Tozer, 256 
Traherne, 7 
Tranchevent, 266 
Trapnell, 262, ». 1 
Trask, 87 
Travell, 222 
Treacher, 120 
Treadaway, 266 
Treaddell, 266 
Treadway, 266 
Treadwell, 255 
Tredgett, 219 
Tredgold, 266 
Tredwell, 266 
Treitschke, 294 
Tremble, 263 
Tress, 132 
Tretwell, 255, 266 
Trevett, 166 
Trew, 81 
Tricker, 120 
Trickery, 219 
Trill, 50 

Trinkwasser, 304 
Triphook, 94 
Trippick, 94 
Trist, 318 
Tristram, 32 
Trivett, 166 
Trodden, 50 
Trodoux, 262, n. 1 
Trollope, 272 
Trood, 50, 73 
Troplong, 262, «. 1 
Troth, 217 
Trouncer, 123 
Trounson, 155 
Trousseau, 156 
Trow, 81 
Truckenbrod, 303 
Trudgett, 219 
Truebody, 129 
Truefitt, 99 
Trueland, 99 
Truelock, 214, ». 3 



Truelove, 260 
Trumble, 263 
Trumper, 176 
Trumpeter, 115 
Trumit, 304 
Truscott, 261 
Truslove, 261 
Trussell, 156 
Trust, 173, 217 
Trustrum, 217 
Tubb, 125 
Tubeuf, 257 
Tucker, 323 
Tuck well, 254 
Tudball, 40 
Tudway, 63 
Tuer, 81 
Tuff, 147 
Tuffery, 31 
Tuffield, 82 
Tuffill, 82 
Tugwell, 254 
Tulip, 192 
Tulliver, 253 
Tumbrell, 177 
Tunnell, 169 
Turbert, 31 
Turbott, 31 
Turfery, 3r 
Turgis, 31, 43 
Turgoose, 3r 
Turk, 212 
Turketine, 31 
Turnbill, 263 
Turnbull, 263 
Turnpenny, 263 
Turpin, 31 
Turtle, 31 
Tustain, 31 
Tustin, 31 
Tutin, 32 
Tuttle, 31 
Tuttlebee, 31 
Tuvache, 257 
Twait, 89 
Tweed, 161, «. 
Twelftree, 179 ' 
Twells, 50 
Twelve, 179 
Twelvetrees, 179 
Twiceaday, 180 
Twigg, 195 
Twills, 308 
Twin, 249 
Twint, 249 
Twisaday, 180 
Twiss, 82 
Twissell, 82 
Twist, 187 



INDEX 

Twitchell, 82 
Twitchen, 82 
Twitchings, 82 
Twite, 89 
Twizel, 82 
Two, 179 
Twopenny, 177 
Twoyearold, 250 
Twybell, 168 
Twyer, 81 
Twyman, 238 
Tye, 82 
Tyers, 180 
Tylecote, 258 
Tyrer, 267 
Tyrrell, 262 
Tyrwhitt, 87 
Tyson, 315 

Uff, 35 
Uffendell, 35 
Ulph, 35 
Uncles, 245 
Underhill, 52 
Undery, 71 
Undrell, 52 
Unite, 180 
Unitt, 180 
Unkraut, 188 
Unthank, 89 
Unwin, 43 
Upcher, 88 
Upfield, 52 
Upfill, 52, 169 
Upfold, 52 
Upjohn, 242 
Uprichard, 242 
Upshall, 88 
Upton, 52 
Upward, 52 
Urwin, 35 
Usher, 105 
Uzzell, 319 

Vaisey, 186, n. 
Vale, 314 
Vandam, 298 
Vanderdecken, 108 
Vandersteen, 298 
Vandervelde, 298 
Vann, 59, 107 
Vanner, 59 
Vansittart, 298 
Vant, 247 
Varder, 113 
Vardon, 103, n. 2 
Vardy, 218 
Varge, 82 
Varndell, 59 



361 



Varnish, 108 
Varty, 218 
Vater, 301 
Vaulkhard, 40 
Vauquelin, 44 
Vaux, 45, «. 
Veal, 314 
Veevers, 174 
Venn, 320 
Venner, 229 
Venour, 229 
Venters, 218, n. z 
Ven tress, 218, ». 2 
Ventris, 218, «. 2 
Ventur, 218 
Verdier, 287 
Vereker, 298 
Verge, 82 
Vergo, 208 
Verity, 218, 221, ». 
Vermuth, 188 
Verschoyle, 298 
Vesey, 186, ». 
Vester, 107 
Vestey, 107 
Vetter, 301 
Vicar, 217 
Vice, 218 
Vickerstaff, 90 
Vickery, 217 
Vickress, 230 
Victory, 217 
Vidal, i74y «. 
Vidler, 176 
Vigers, 87, «. 2 
Vigors, 87, n. 2 
Vtimar, 293 
Vimpany, 263 
Vinegar, 43 
Vinestock, 155 
Vinson, 172 
Violett, 154, 192 
Virgin, 208 
Virgoe, 208 
Virtue, 218 
Vittles, 174 
Vivers, 174 
Vize, 83 
Vizer, in 
Vizor, in 
Voase, 82 
Voce, 82 
Vogelgesang, 304 
Vogt, 300 
Voice, 82 
Vokes, 45 
Volker, 45 
Volkes, 45 
von, 296 



362 

von der Goltz, 296, 297 
von der Heyde, 296, 297 
von der Tann, 296, 297 
Vorbusch, 296 
Vorderbrugg, 296 
Vose, 82 
Voss, 302 

Vowler, 107, n. 2 
Voysey, 186, n. 
Vulpius, 305 
Vyse, 83 



Wace, 312 
Wdchter, 300 
Wackemagel, 166, ». 1 
Waddicar, 93 
Waddicker, 93 
Waddilove, 260 
Wademan, 121 
Wader, 120 
Wadman, 121, 237 
Waggett, 264 
Waghorn, 264 
Wagstaff, 264 
Wain, 171 
Wainwright, 227 
Waister, 263 
Waistcoat, 150 
Wait, 185 
Waite, 312 
Waiter, 105 
Wakelam, 270 
Wakeling, 44 
Wakem, 270, ». 2 
Wakenshaw, 269 
Waldo, 43 
Wale, 311 
Wales, 311 
Walkinshaw; 269 
Walkland, 270 
Walklate, 270 
Walkling, 44 
Walkman, 237 
Wall, 311 
Wallen, 40, 311 
Wallet, 156 
Walliker, 93 
Wallis, 308 
Wallraven, 36 
Walne, 83 
Walthew, 43 
Waltho, 43 
Walwin, 40 
Wand, 155 
Wandless, 149 
Wanghope, 149, «. 
Wanlace, 149 
Wanlass, 149 



INDEX 

Wanless, 149 
Wannemacher, 298 
Want, 155 
Waraker, 93 
Warboy, 231, ». 2 
Wardhaugh, 62 
Wardlaw, 62 
Wardle, 62 
Wardlow, 62 
Wardrop, 95 
Ware, 311 
Warlock, 214 
Warlow, 214, ». 2 
Warren, 329 
Warring, 329 
Warwicker, 93 
Wash, 312 
Wason, 313 
Wasp, 325 
Wass, 312 
Wast all, 262 
Wastell, 114, ». 1 
Waterfall, 59 
Watering, 65 
Wath, 83 
Wathe, 83 
Watking, 228, n. 1 
Watmough, 247 

Watrett, 128, «. 1 

Waud, 83 

Waule, 311 

Wawn, 83 

Way good, 37 

Waylatt, 83 

Waylett, 83 

Waymark, 37, 41 

Waythe, 83 

Weale, 83 

Wearing, 329 

Weatherhead, r2 8 

Weatherhogg, 242 

Webb, 226 

Weeds, 188 

Weichbscker, 298 

Weihnacht, 302 

Weiss, 300 

Weissbecker, 299 

Weissbrodt, 303 

Weissgerber, 299 

Weissmantel, 301 

Weisspfennig, 302 

Welch, 308 

Welcome 254 

Weld, 83 

Welfare, 220 

Welfitt, 91 

Welladvise, 224 

Wellavize, 224 

Wellbelove, 225 



Wellbeloved, 225 
Wellbelow, 225 
Werckmeister, 299 
Werlock, 214 
Wermuth, 303 
Weskett, 150 
Wesson, 240 
Westaway, 76, ». 
Westland, 99 
Westrope, 95 
Westwood, 90 
Wethered, 128 
Wetwan, 84 
Whackum, 270, n. 2 
Whalebelly, 138, 204, 

». 1 
Wham, 83 
Whan, 83 
Wharfe, 161, n. 
Whatkins, 328 
Whatmaugh, 247 
Whatmore, 247 
Whatrup, 95 
Whattler, 114, n. 2 
Wheat, 124, 185 
Wheelwright, 227 
Whence, 328 
Where, 328 
Whereat, 328 
Wherry, 171 
Whiddett, 91 
While, 327 
Whinray, 84 
Whipp, 156 
Whish, 84 

Whisker, 137, 328 

Whitbread, 136 

Whitcher, 106 

White, 154 

Whitear, 135 

Whiteaves, 59 

Whiteborn, 247 

Whitefoot, 141 

Whitehair, 135 

Whitehall, 62 

Whitehand, 139 

Whitehead, 15, 22, 128 

Whiteheard, 231 

Whitehorn, 64, 89, n. 3 

Whitehouse, 96, 152 

Whitelam, 241 

Whitelark, 131 

Whitelegg, 140 

Whitenow, 318 

Whiteoak, 94 

Whiterod, 155 

Whiteside, 138 

Whitesmith, 227 

Whitewhite, 89 



Whitewish, 214 
Whitewright, 227 
Whitey, 133 
Whitlock, 131 
Whitmee, 248 
Whitseed, 74 
Whittaker, 93 
Whittard, 231 
Whittear, 135 
Whittick, g4 
Whittier, 135, 226, n. 1 
Whittock, 94 
Whittrick, 43 
Whitwam, 137 
Whitwham, 138 
Wholehouse, 97 
Whybird, 38, 328 
Whyborn, 34, 38 
Whybrow, 130 
Wickfield, 70 
Widdeatt, 91 
Widderkop, 301 
Widdiwiss, 214 
Widdows, 245 
Widger, 43 
Widgery, 86, n. 2 
Wiegold, 157 
Wigfall, 70 
Wigg, 46 
Wilberforce, 60 
Wilbur, 39 
Wild, 83 
Wildash, 83 
Wildblood, 142 
Wildbore, 241 
Wildegans, 302 
Wilder, 241 
Wilde y, 133 
Wildgoose, 241 
Wildgust, 241 
Wilding, 65 
Wildish, 83 
Wildlove, 261 
Wildman, 241 
Wildrake, 241 
Wildsmith, 228 
Wiles, 83, 169 
Wilesmith, 228 
Wilford, 250, ». 
Wilgress, 241 
Willacy, 140 ». 
Willavise, 224 
Willbond, 230 
Willett, 322 
Willgoss, 241 
Willis, 321 
Wills, 308 
Willsher, 88 
Wilman, 236 

25 



INDEX 

Wilmot, 169 
Wilsford, 250, n. 
Wilshaw, 88 
Wimble, 40, 1 70 • 
Wimblett, 169 
Wimbolt, 170 
Wimlott, 169 
Wimpenny, 263 
Wimple, 150 
Wimpress, 107 
Winbolt, 43 
Winbow, 263 
Wincer, 89 
Winch, 170 
Winckelmann, 295 
Windeatt, 91 
Windelband, 167 
Windlass, 170, 263 
Windless, 170, 263 
Windows, 96 '-, 

Windram, 263 
Windus, 96 
Winearls, 264 
Winfarthing, 89 
Winfrey, 310 
Wingood, 30, 261 
Winks, 46 
Winnery, 84 
Winpenny, 263 
Winrose, 263 
Winship, 264 
Winspear, 162, 263 
Winsper, 162, ». 
Winspur, 162, «., 263 
Winter, 75, »., 79 
Winter, 302 
Winterage, 95 
Winterbottom, 75, n. 
Winterburn, 75, n. 
Winterflood, 75, n. 
Winterford, 75, n. 
Winterscale, 75 
Wintersgill, 75 
Winthrop, 95 
Winward, 310 
Wiper, 103 
Wire, 112 
Wiscard, 137 
Wisdom, 223 
Wiseman, 215 
Wish, 84 
Wishart, 137 
Witcher, 106 
With, 84 
Witherow, 85 
Withinshaw, 52 
Wittwer, 301 
Wodebouse, 214 
Wohlfart, 220, 302 



363 



Wolfe, 35 
Wolfendale, 35 
Wolff, 302 
Wolfing, 250, ». 2 
Wolfram, 36 
Wolstencroft, 35 
Wolstenholme, 35 
Wolzogen, 288, 302 
Wonder, 218 
Wong, 84 
Wood, 47, 308 
Woodage, 95 
Woodbine, 192 
Woodcock, 201, n. 
Woodfall, 59 
Woodfin, 84 
Woodfine, 84 
Woodger, 226, ». 1 
Woodhead, 126 
Woodhouse, 214 
Woodier, 226, n. ± 
Woodison, 240 
Woodiwiss, 214 
Woodman, 308 
Woodmason, 227 
Woodnough, 318 
Woodroffe, 231 
Woodrow, 85 
Woodruff, 231 
Woodward, 231 
Woodwright, 227 
Woof, 35 
Woolcock, 92 
Woolfrey, 35 
Woolfries, 35 
Woolgar, 35 
Woolhouse, 96 
Woollard, 154 
Woollen, 35 
Woolley^35 
Woolloff, 260, n. 1 
Woolnough, 35 
Woolven, 35 
Woolward, r54 
Woolwright, 127 
Woor, 122 
Worlock, 214 
Wormald, 37 
Worms, 46 
Wormwood, 188 
Worship, 220 
Wortos, 98 
Would, 328 
Wouldhave, 59 
Wraight, 226, n. 3 
Wraith, 226, n. 3 
Wray, 84 
Wreath, 226, n. 3 
Wright, 226 



364 

Wrightson, 239 
Wroe, 84, 190 
Wulfing, 260, n. 2 
Wunderlich, 301 
Wyartt, 19 
Wyattcouch, 243 
Wyberd, 157 
Wyburn, 38 
Wyer, 112 
Wyman, 37 
Wymark, 41 
Wyndham, 86 
Wynn, 310 



INDEX 

Wypers, 103 
Wythe, 84 

Yalland, 99 
Yarker, 123 
Yarwood, 21 
Yate, 91 
Yeatman, 237 
Yelland, 99 
Yeoman, 105 
Yolland, 99 
Yorker, 123 
Youngblood, 142 



Younger, 248 
Younghusband, 230 
Youngmay, 248 

Zahn, 301 
Zeal, 73, 2T7 
Zimmermann, 297 
Zom, 318 
Zouch, 50 
Zuckerbier, 303 
Zuckschwerdt, 303 
Zumbusch, 49, 296 
Zweig, 195 



Printed by Hazell, Watson & Viney, Ld., London and Aylesbury, England.