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Cornell University 

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Arms of Balche, Visitation of Somersetshire, 1623. 

Harley Manuscript 1559, folio 347b (248b). 

British Museum. 





Member op the Philadelphia Bar 

The American Philosophical Society 

The Council of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



1211-13 Clover Street 




Copyright, 1907, by 

Press of 


Philadelphia, Pa. 


In 1845, my father, Mr. Thomas Balch, soon 
after his admission to the New York Bar, began 
to collect the information contained in this book. 
He never ceased in this aim until his death in 1877. 
After graduating at Harvard, I took up the work 
as he had left it and slowly added to the material 
in hand. In searching for facts, I often was misled 
into exploring a false trail. Gradually, the evi- 
dence sifted down to rock-bottom. I have taken 
the utmost care to verify all statements, and yet 
there are certainly errors in this work, for in a 
genealogy covering a period of more than four 
centuries, it is impossible to avoid them. In 1886 
and 1897 I visited in Somersetshire, Bridgwater, 
and in 1897 Ilminster and Horton, collecting on 
both trips valuable information. The documents 
in the archives in England I have had copied by 
competent experts, but I could not compare them 
with the originals. They are here reprinted in 

It is my hope sometime in the future to publish 
an addenda to this book, incorporating new in- 
formation and corrections. And I begin at once 
by adding that one of the Robert Balches of Bridg- 


water bought about 1682 the house of Admiral 
Blake, the hero of that town, and that the Balch 
family lived in it about sixty years. In 1777 
another Robert Balch was Mayor of Bridgwater. 
These items are gleaned from the Rev. Dr. Powell's 
recent book, The Ancient Borough of Bridgwater. I 
have forgotten to state that there is a handsome 
steel engraving of the Rev. Dr. Stephen Bloomer 
Balch by John Sartain, as well as a water color 
painting of him, probably also by Sartain, and 
a miniature on ivory belonging to the Presby- 
terian Historical Society, Philadelphia; and that 
my father was elected in 1875 an honorary mem- 
ber of Whig Hall at Princeton. As members of 
the family fought on different sides during our 
Civil War over the slavery question — two held 
commissions from the Union and two from the 
Confederacy — so during the Civil War in England 
between the King and the Parliament, some sup- 
ported the former and some, according to family 
traditions, the latter in the struggle over the form 
of government. In this book there is much relating 
to Presbyterianism, because many of the person- 
ages spoken of in the book were Calvinists. I am 
proud of them, especially of the old gentleman, my 
bisaieul, who planted and then for fifty -three years 
preached the Gospel in the District of Columbia ; but 
I do not wish it thought that I think the sum of right- 
eousness is to be found in any one church. Others 


of my ancestors were Episcopalians, Quakers, Hu- 
guenots, Catholics, Lutherans, and at least one, 
Major-General Thomas Harrison, an Independent. 
All these churches, and many others besides, it seems 
to me, have a raison d' Sire in the world. 

The contents of this book can have an interest 
for only a small number of people, and that is my 
excuse for including in it all sorts and manner of 
information, and reprinting some articles that other- 
wise would be practically lost to that circle of 
readers: and I recommend this work to some future 
worker on the same subject, who, profiting by the 
discovery of new documents, especially in England, 
may explain points that at present are obscure. 
It would be of much interest to find exactly where 
the two emigrants were born. In all probability 
they were remote kinsmen. It has not been my 
aim to write a complete genealogy, but to publish 
all the information at present available of the 
family in England, and of the descendants of John 
Balch "of Maryland." I have referred also in a few 
pages to John Balch "of Massachusetts" and some 
of his descendants. As valuable and interesting 
family papers have twice suffered from destruction 
by fire in the past — first in 1831, when the house 
of my bisaieul in Georgetown was burnt, and second 
in 1856, when some family letters that my father 
had left with the binder for mounting and binding 
were likewise destroyed — I have sought to place all 


information in my hands, that has come either 
through my father, or that I have myself collected, 
beyond any such recurrence in the future. Finally, 
believing it is good to have some reverence for the 
experiences of the past as we prepare for the future, 
I have acted on the thought expressed by Charles 
Lamb in one of his sonnets: 

" 'T is man's worst deed 
To let the 'things that have been' run to waste, 
And in the unmeaning present sink the past: 
In whose dim glass even now I faintly read 
Old buried forms, and faces long ago." 

In my work in our own country, I have re- 
ceived assistance from many kind friends, especially 
Charles Penrose Keith, Esq., the Rev. Louis F. 
Benson, D. D., John W. Jordan, Esq., and Miss 
May Atherton Leach, all of Philadelphia. 

T. W. B. 

Philadelphia, January 17th, 1907. 

The Balch Family of County 
Somerset, England. 

Balch, the name of a family of County Somerset, 1 
England, is either of Norman-French or English and 
not of British origin. At various times and with 
slightly different variations, this name is found in 
such far-distant countries as Baluchistan, Tibet, 
Afghanistan, Roumania, Russia, Servia, Germany, 
Flanders and Somersetshire. In Tibet there is the 
Balch Pass of the Balch Range of mountains. 2 In 
northern Afghanistan the town now standing where 
the ancient city of Bactra stood, is called by the 
Germans on their maps Balch, and by the English 
on their atlases Balkh. 3 In 1860 the Roumanian 
Minister of Foreign Affairs was Gregoire Balche. 

1 Somerset, the land of the Sumorsaetan, is one of the West-Saxon 
shires which grew by gradual conquest from the Welsh, as opposed 
to the Mercian shires which were mapped out around a town and 
called by its name. There has never been any central town or ac- 
knowledged capital in Somerset, though Somerton bears a name 
cognate with the land. Assizes, elections and like functions were 
held at different places at various times. The land had no distinct 
name before the English conquest. 

See the Encyclopedia Britannica: New York, Charles Scribner's 
Sons, 1887, Volume XXII., page 259. 

2 Geographical Journal: London, 1900, Volume XV., page 168. 
Glaciires or Freezing Caverns, by Edwin Swift Balch, Philadelphia, 

1900, page 263. 

3 Adolph Stieler's Hand Atlas: Gotha, Justus Perthes: "Iran und 
Turan;" Map No. 59, Ausgabe 1895. 

The Encyclopedia Britannica: London and Edinburgh, 1903. 


In 1870 Alexandre de Balch published at Odessa 
and Leipzig an essay entitled, M. Renan et Arthur 
Schopenhauer; Essai de critique. Among the offi- 
cers on the Russian cruiser Variag, when she was 
sunk by a Japanese squadron of cruisers and de- 
stroyers off Chemulpo harbor in February, 1904, 
was Lieutenant Balck. 4 In Servia one of the 
friends of King Milan, it is said, was a Baron Balch, 
who, at his death, it is related, left to his sovereign 
a fortune of two millions of florins. 5 

In the Nouveau Larousse Illustr6, Dictionnaire 
Universel Encyclopedique, at page 688, there is 
this statement: 

"Balchides (en serbe Baochitchi), dynastie serbe qui 
regna en Albanie et au Montenegro au XIV e et au XV e 
siecle. Elle eut pour fondateur, d'apres les ecrivains 
slaves, un Serbe nomme Balcha, mort en 1368, tandis 
que Du Cange pretend que les Balchides etaient appa- 
rentes a la maison des Baux (V. ce nom) — Un, une 
Balchide." 6 

The name of Balck or Balcke is found in the 
German Provinces of Silesia, Pomerania and West- 
phalia: 7 Balck is known also in Mecklenburg- 

* Tlie Public Ledger, Philadelphia, April 2nd, 1904. 

5 The Evening Bulletin, Philadelphia, 1904. 

6 In Old Provence, by Theodore Andrea Cook, the author in speak- 
ing of the castle and Counts of Les Baux, says in a footnote: "The 
Latin name in the deed is ' Balcius.' " New York, Charles Scribner's 
Sons, 190S, Volume II., page 127. 

7 Armorial Gineral Precede d'un Dictionnaire des Termes du Blason 
par J. B. Rietslap, Gouda, 1884, 2nd edition. 

Supply and Expenditure of Ammunition by Captain Balck, at- 


Schwerin. 8 A family of the name of van der Balcht 
is recorded in Brussels and Flanders. 9 The name 
of Balck is well known in Flanders and in Flemish 
means "une poutre," a "beam." Monsieur Al- 
bert Soenens, juge au Tribunal de Premiere In- 
stance de Bruxelles, writes from Brussels, May 
10th, 1904: " Le nom de Balfe ou Balcfc (avec k) 
est assez repandu dans tout le pays flam and: en 
langue flamande cela veut dire ' poutre.' " Similarly 
the French word balcon designates a platform ad- 
vancing out from a wall, and probably has the 
same origin as Balck. w Among the holders of land 
mentioned in Domsday Book, it is said occurs the 
name of Balchi. 11 In Norway the names Balchen 
and Balchens exist. In Scotland there is at the 
southern end of Loch Lomond the small town of 
Balloch and in the eastern mountains of Inverness 
Cairn Balloch. 12 In Alsace and Lorraine the names 
Belchen and Bolchen occur. In German speaking 

tached to the Infantry Regiment, Duke William of Brunswick, and 
Instructor of the War School at Engers. Translated from the Ger- 
man by First Lieutenant Gurovits, Eleventh United States Infantry. 
Washington, Government Printing Office, 1898. 

"Almanack de Gotha, 1905. Gotha, Justus Perthes, page S83. 

Armorial G6n6ral Pre'ce'dG d'un Dictionnaire des Termes du Blason 
par J. B. Rietslap, Gouda, 1884, 2nd edition. 

10 In L' Aiglon, Rostand uses the word baluchon in the sense of a 
support. At the end of the second act, he makes Flambeau say to 
the Due de Reistadt: "J'en fais un baluchon tenez, danz le mou- 

11 British Family Names, by Henry Barber, London, 1893, page 40. 
"Handy Royal Atlas of Modem Geography by Alexander Keith 

Johnston, Edinburgh and London, 1881. 


Lorraine, to the east of the French speaking city 
of Metz and close to the French speaking pays 
Messin, there is the small town of Bolchen. On 
the Franco-German frontier, a little north of Bel- 
fort, one of the mountains, known to the French 
as le Ballon d'Alsace is called by the Germans 
Elsasser or Walsche Belchen. 13 In the heart of 
southern Alsace, near Gebweiler, there is another 
summit called the Gebweiler Belchen, and not far 
away further north another named the Kleiner 
Belchen. 14 Belchen in German means a "balloon." 
In southern Alsace there is the commune of 
Balschwiller, near the Sulzbach. 15 

In northeastern Somersetshire, the term Batch 
is applied to a steep little hill and is common in 
the district. 16 

The name of Balch has come to light at two dif- 
ferent times in County Surrey, and occasionally in 

13 Handy Royal Atlas of Modern Geography, by Alexander Keith 
Johnston, Edinburgh and London, 1881. 

Northern France, by Karl Baedeker, Leipzig, 1894, page 332. 

Some Facts About Alsace and Lorraine, by Thomas Willing Balch, 
Philadelphia, 1895. 

Frankreich in 4 Blatten von C. Vogel: Gotha, Justus Perthes. 

Das Deutschtum in Elass-Lothringen, von Dr. Julius Petersen in 
the series Der Kampf um Das Deutschtum; Munich, 1902. Map at 
end of the monograph, Elsass-Lothringen. 

14 Northern France, by Karl Baedeker, Leipzig, 1894, page 333. 
li Armorial des Communes d'Alsace y compris les Pierres-Bornes 

avec des notices sur chaque armure par Louis Schoenhaupt, Stras- 
bourg, 1900, page 165. 

18 There is a hamlet called Batch in the parish of Lympsham in 
the Hundred of Wrington, just south of the Ax River. The History 
and Antiquities of the County of Somerset by the Reverend John 
Collinson, Bath, 1791, page 202. 


County Dorset, close to the southern end of County- 
Somerset. 17 

In the County of Surrey the name is met with 
in the reign of Henry the Third (1216-1272), in this 

" Newdigate, of Arbury, Warwickshire. 

" ' To which John, Richard the son of Roger le Balch, 
gave XX acres of land, in Newdigate, called Lamputts 
fields." * * * This John was son of Richard son 
of John de Newdigate, who lived in the reign of King 
John, whose wife was Agnes.' " 18 

And also thus: — 

" Newdigate of Arbury, Warwickshire. 

"This ancient family * * * doubtless derived its 
name from Newdigate, a town in Surrey * * * The 
first of any note was John de Newdigate, who lived in 
the reign of King John, whose wife was Agnes, by whom 
he had Richard, William and Robert. 

"To which Richard * * * he took to wife Alice, 
dau. of Walter de Horten, & had issue by her John, 
William & Peter. 

" To which John, Richard, the son of Roger le Balch, 
gave twenty acres of land in Newdigate called Lamputts 
fields." 19 

; ^At the end of the fifteenth century an isolated 

17 The will of Edward Balch is found in the York Registry, Jan- 
uary 25th, 1640: York, fol. 78, city. 

la The English Baronetage, by Thomas Wotton, London, 1741, III., 
part 2, page 618. 

l "The Baronetage of England, by E. Kimber and R. Johnson, Lon- 
don, 1771, Volume 2, pp. 413 and 14. 


group of people bearing the name of Balch is re- 
corded in Surrey. For in 1495 the will of Richard 
Balch of Farnham, Surrey, was admitted to probate 
in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury. 

In the fortieth year of the reign of Edward the 
Third, 1366-7, three acres of land in the district of 
Mortesthorne and Bremelham in Dorset were held 
by "Thomas Balch and Alice his wife" for life. 20 
Later John Balche, of Dorset, matriculated at 
Oxford University, June 22nd, 1604, at the age of 
fifteen; "famulus Mri. Hawley principalis. " 21 

Aclmiral Sir John Balchen, Knight, was born 
February 2d, 1669, but where is not known. He 
was captain, July 25th, 1697, of the Virginia Prize. 
There is a memorial to him in Westminster Abbey, 
in the north transept, a fine monument in relief by 
Scheemakers, representing a ship of war foundering 
in a storm. The inscription says, " To the mem- 
ory of Sir John Balchen, Knt., Admiral of the 
White Squadron of his Majesty's fleet in 1744. 
Being sent out Commander-in-Chief of the combined 
fleets of England and Holland, to cruise on the 
enemy, was, on his return home in his Majesty's 
ship the Victory, lost in the Channel by a violent 
storm; from which said circumstances of his death 

20 Dorset Records, being indexes, calendars and abstracts of records 
relating to the County of Dorset. Abstract of Dorset Feet of Fines, 
10-40 Edward III., A. D., 1 345-1366 ; edited by E. A. Fray and 
G. S. Fray, Birmingham, pages 111-112. 

21 Alumni Oxonienses; The Members of the University of Oxford, 
1500-1714; by Joseph Foster; Oxford, 1891. 


we may learn that neither the greatest skill, judg- 
ment, or experience, joined to the most firm, un- 
shaken resolution, can resist the fury of the winds 
and waves; and we are taught by the passages of 
his life, which were filled with great and gallant 
actions, but ever accompanied with adverse gales 
of fortune, that the brave, the worthy and the good 
man, meets not always his reward in this world. 
Fifty-eight years of faithful and painful services 
he had passed, when, being just retired to the gov- 
ernment of Greenwich Hospital to wear out the 
remainder of his days, he was once more, and for 
the last time, called out by his King and country, 
whose interest he ever preferred to his own, and his 
unwearied zeal for their escape ending only in his 
death; which weighty misfortune to his afflicted 
family became heightened by many aggravating 
circumstances attending it; yet amidst their grief, 
had they the mournful consolation to find his gra- 
cious and Royal Master mixing his concern with the 
general lamentations of the public, for the calami- 
tous fate of so zealous, so valiant, and so able a 
commander; and, as a lasting memorial of the sin- 
cere love and esteem borne by his widow to a most 
affectionate and worthy husband, this honorary 
monument was erected by her. He was born Feb. 
2nd, 1669, married Susanna, daughter of Colonel 
Aprice, of Washingly, in the county of Huntingdon. 
Died Oct. 7, 1744, leaving one son and one daughter, 


the former of whom, George Balchen, survived 
him but a short time; for being sent to the West 
Indies in 1745, Commander of his Majesty's ship 
the Pembroke, he died at Barbadoes, in December 
the same year, aged twenty-eight, having walked 
in the steps, and imitated the virtues and bravery 
of his good but unfortunate father." 

As stated, the origin of the name Balch or Balche 
found in County Somerset, in England, is either of 
English or Norman-French descent. The first ap- 
parently authentic mention of the name in the 
County of Somerset occurs in the following refer- 
ences, and the first time it appears under the 
simple form of Balch. 

In 1225, Edward Balch of the Hundred of Chyu 
[Chew], who had fled, returned and gave pledges; 22 
and before 1259 Richard Balisch held three acres 
of meadow land near Cury [Curry]. 23 

As early as the beginning of the thirteenth cen- 
tury the name was well scattered in the County of 
Somerset. In a Somerset tax list of the first year 

22 Assize Roll, g Hen. III., Ko. 755, membrane I2 b . Pleas of assize 
taken before H. de Paterhill and others at Ivelcestre in co. Somerset, 

9 Hen. 3. 

Inquisition taken in co. Somerset of the chattels and fugitives 
and persons hanged, by the coroner and 4 knights and others thereto 

Memorani. De Edwardo Balch de HundJ de chyu [Chew] qui fugit 
t I dum renen t innen pleg. 

23 Cartularies of the Benedictine Abbeys of Muchelney and Athelney, 
co. Somerset. Somerset Record Society, Volume XIV., 1899, page 


of the reign of Edward the Third, 1327, four tax- 
payers of the name of Balch appear in places well 
to the north, the center and the south of the 
county: Willielmo Balch of Thrubbewell in the Hun- 
dred of Kaynesham [Keynsham], 24 who paid iiij s., 
Roberto Balch, a freeman of the manor of Wryng- 
ton [Wrington], who paid iiis. vd., Johanne Balch 
of Stapeltone in the Hundred of Mertok [Martock], 
who paid vs. iii d., and Willielmo Balch of Purye 
[Perry] in the Hundred of North Perton [Pether- 
ton], who paid xii d. 25 

On March 2nd, 1492, Robert Balch succeeded 
John Holt, who had died, as incumbent of Hazel- 
bury, County Somerset. The patron of this church 
was Walter Knig[h]they, praeb. This incumbency, 
Robert Balch seems to have held until 1503. 26 

24 Collinson says Thrubwell or Trobbewell is partly in the parish 
of Butcombe and partly in that of Nemnet, both in the Hundred 
of Hareclive and Bedminster. The History and Antiquities of the 
County of Somerset, by the Reverend John Collinson, Bath, 1791, 
Volume II., page 314. 

25 Subsidy Roll H 1 Somerset, 1 Edw. III. Collection of a 20th 
granted to King Edward the Third after the Conquest made by 
John de Clyvedon and John de Erie in the 1st year of the reign 
of the said King [A. D. 1327]. Translated from the Latin. This 
roll contains fifty-nine membrances written on both sides in two 

The History and Antiquities of the County of Somerset, by the 
Reverend John Collinson, Bath, 1791, passim. 

The Rev. Dr. Powell, Vicar of Bridgwater, writes June 10th, 1906: 
"After thinking the matter over, it seems to me that William Balch, 
who paid a certain tax in 1327, and who came from Purye in the 
Hundred of North Perton, must have lived at Perry-Furneaux, in 
Wembdon. The same place, I fancy, was called Perry-Fitchet, 
though they may have been separate manors. " 

M The Hugo Manuscripts, 30, 279-280, in the British Museum. 


While the origin and meaning of the name 
Balch as used in Somersetshire are problematical, 
except that it is not of British origin, but is either 
of Xorman-French or English extraction, it is a re- 
corded fact that William Balche of Higham, County 
Somerset, who died in 1532-33, was living before 
Columbus crossed the Atlantic to America, as his son 
John Balche of Horton, County Somerset, was born 
in 1497 in the reign of King Richard the Second. 

At North Curry, which lies not far to the east of 
Taunton, there resided as early as 1562 Thomas 
Baulch or Balch, a yeoman of influence in that 

In July 1621, Hatton Balche was incumbent at 
Ling in Somersetshire, and apparently held the 
place for many years. 27 

On January 24th, 1642, Charles Balche de Stoke 
Gumber, was one of the patrons of the church at 
Brumpton Ralph, Somersetshire. 28 

At Wells another Thomas Balch lived in the latter 
part of the sixteenth century and was buried there 
January 27th, 1695, in the church of St. Cuthbert's. 
The inscription on his tombstone reads as follows: 
"Here lieth the body of Thomas Balch who died 
the 27 of Januar 1695 and also his daughter Martha 
died June 11th 1694." 

21 Hugo Manuscripts, 30, 279-280, in the British Museum. 
28 Hugo Manuscripts, 30, 279-280, in the British Museum . Brump- 
ton Ralph lies to the northwest of Taunton. 


In the sixteenth century Balches were settled in 
Bridgwater. On January 20th, 1570, Eleanor Balch 
was buried in Bridgwater; on April 19th, 1574, 
John Balch was married there to Avice Popham; 
on January 30th, 1579, Isable Balch was married 
there to Thomas Smyth; and on April 17th, 1585, 
Avice Balch was buried in Bridgwater. In the 
seventeenth century, two brothers, Robert and 
George Balch, the former of whom was born in 
1631, were living in the borough of Bridgwater. 
This branch of the family gave two mayors to 
Bridgwater and three members to Parliament who 
sat for Bridgwater. There are also records showing 
that Balches lived at Ilminster during the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth centuries. Thus adminis- 
tration was granted the last of February, 1656-57, 
to Mary Balch, relict of Samuel Balch of Ilmin- 
ster, County of Somerset, deceased. And Thomas 
Balch married Phcebe Savage at Ilminster on June 
30th, 173 1. 29 

These various groups of Balches scattered through- 
out Somerset were probably related and all mem- 
bers of one and the same family originating in the 
shire. After 1623, in which year their right to 
bear arms was confirmed by the visitation of the 
heralds from the College of Arms, members of the 
family are found in many more places in Somer- 
set than before that date. It was descendants of 

9 Book of Marriages, etc., belonging to the Ilminster Royal Peculiar. 


the group established in Bridgwater that, from 1764 
to 1824, owned Saint Audries, in the northwestern 
part of the shire, close to Bridgwater Bay. 

In two cases argued in the eighteenth century in 
the High Court of Chancery the plaintiff bore the 
name of Balch. In 1718 the case of Balch versus 
Westall 30 came up before Lord Chancellor Parker; 
and in 1728 that of Balsh versus Hyham 31 was 
argued before Lord Chancellor King. 

The Balch arms — Barry of six, or and az. on a 
bend engrailed gules three spear heads ar. — were 
confirmed to George Balche of Horton in 1623 by 
the heralds from the College of Arms in London 
during their visitation of Somerset. These arms are 
recorded in Harley manuscripts 1141 and 1445, 
both in the British Museum. And in Harley manu- 
script 1559, also in the British Museum, folio 347 b 
(248 b ) the arms are drawn in ink as described above 
and in addition, for crest, a demi griffin rampant is 
drawn in pencil. They are recorded also in the 
College of Arms upon the authority of the above 
manuscripts. These arms and crest have been used 
by the American branch of the family from co- 
lonial times, generally with the motto — Cceur et 
courage font Vouvrage. 

The family in Somerset would seem to divide 
into four groups that can be designated: 

so l Peere Williams Reports, 445. 
S1 2 Peere Williams Reports, 453. 


1. The Higham-Horton-Ilminster Group. 

2. The North Curry Group. 

3. The Bridgwater Group. 

4. The Wells-Bruton Group. 


From present known information, the Horton 
group begins with (1.) William Balche of Higham 
(High Ham), who was living during the Wars 
of the Roses, as he was born before 1477. He 
held lands, some two hundred acres or so, in East 
Coker, and other places. He died March 20th, 
1533. 32 He left a son. 
2. John Balche 

32 Escheators Inquisitions post mortem. Series II. File 921. n. 9. Som s 
Inquisicio indentat capt apud Wellys in Com pdeo viii die Mensis 
Novembr Anno Regni Regis Henrici octavi vicesimo quinto coram 
Thoma Horner Escaetore dci dni Regis in dco Com virtute officii 
sui post-mortem Willi Balche p sacrm tc Qui dicunt sup-sacrm 
sun qd p dcus Wills Balche diu ante obetus sui fuit seisit in dnico 
suo ut de feod de ducentis acr pastur Centu acr tr quadragint acr 
p u ti t trigenta acr Bosci cum suis ptin in Est Coker in Com 
p dco que onia t singula pastur t ceta p missa tenent' de Willo 
Courtenay Milite ut de Manio suo de Est Coker p diet p que s'uic 
Jur p dci ignorant. Et sic p dcus Wills Balche seisit obiit inde 
seisit post cuius mortem p diet pastur tr p u t t Bosc cum ptin 
descend Johi Balche ut filio t hered p dci Willi et valent p Annu 
in omibz ultra repris septem libr. Et ultius Jur p dci dicunt 
qd p dcus Wills Balche fuit seisit in dnico suo ut de feod de 
uno Mesuagio xx acr tr p u t t pastur cum suis ptin in Witedecomb 
in dco Com Som s t sic seisit obiit seisit post cuius mortem 
diet Mesuagia t cela p missa cum ptin descend p fato Johi Balche 
ut filio t hered p dci Willi Balche qd quidem Mesuag cum ptin 
tenet' de Robto Pike ut de Manio suo de Pykke seishe p que s uic 
Jur p dci penitus ignorant Et valet p Annu vlt u repris xs. Et 
ultius Jur p dci dicunt qd p dcus Wills Balche fuit seisitus in dnico 


2. John Balche, designated as of Horton in 
the Parish of Ilminster, which is at the southern 
end of Somerset, was born in 1496 or- 1497 in the 
reign of Henry the Seventh. 33 His will was dated 
April first, 1536, and proved September second, 
1552. It reads as follows: — 34 
T Johis Balche "In the name of god Amen. The first daie of Aprill 
in the yere of our Lorde god a Thousande fyve hundreth 
and xxxvith I John Balche of Horton in the Countie 
of Somersett hole of mynde and of perfytt remembrance 
make my testament and last will in maner and forme 
following (that ys to saye) ffirst I bequeathe my soule 
unto Almightie god, and my bodye to be buried within 
the parishe churche of Ilemynster at suche place as 

suo ut de feod de Medietate unius Mesuag xx a acr pastur cum ptin 
in Aldon (?) t de xx" acr tr cum ptin in ffydyngton iuxta Stokegussey 
in dco Com t sic seisit obiit seisit post cuius mortem Medietat dci 
Mesuag cum p misses descend p dco Johi Balche ut filio t hered p dci 
Willi Balche Et tenet' de Willo Carrant Milite ut de Manio suo 
de ffydyngton p que s'uic Jur p dci penitus ignorant Et valet p 
Annu in onibz ult u repris xiif iiii d . Et ultius Jur p dci dicunt 
qd p dcus Wills Balche die quo obiit nulla alid tr negz ten huit 
seu tenuit in Com p dco in dnico nee in suic Et p dcus Wills Balche 
obiit xx™ die Mercii Anno regni Regis Henrici viij, xxiiij te Et 
eciam dicunt qd dcus Johes Balche est eius filius t px heres p dci 
Willi Balche t est etatis xxxvj Annor b t amplius. In cuius tc. 

To the will of John Halley, February 1st, 1527, who was to be 
buried in the church yard of Saint Andrews at Aller, a William Balche 
is a witness. 28 Porch. Somerset Medieval Wills, 1501-1530. Som- 
erset Record Society, Volume XIX, 1903, page 268. 

33 In the will of Sir George Speke, Knt., September 6th, 1528, there 
is this item: "I will my servant John Balche be one of my nombr of 
my yoman servants, and have his part of my wearyng apparell. To 
my said servant John Balche as moch catall as cometh to the sume of 
66 s. 8 d. " 39 Porch. Somerset Record Society, Volume XIX., 
1903, page 277. John Balsche was a witness, ibid, page 278. He 
was to be buried in the church of Est Doulishe; he held lands in 
Mertock, Somerset, and East and West Doulish. 

34 Prerogative Court of Canterbury. 24 Powell. 

























shall please myn Executrix./ Item I bequeathe unto 
saynt Andrewys churche in Welle xiid./ Item I be- 
queathe and give unto the parishe churche of Ilemynster 
vis. viii d. And to the crosse store of the same Churche 
iii s. iiii a./ Item I give unto Sr. Poole for tithes 
forgotten iii s. iiii d/ Item I give and bequeathe 
unto my doughter Anne besides her purchase with her 
owne goodes xiii li. vi s. viii d. to be delyvered at her 
mariage/ Item I give and bequeathe unto my doughter s 
Alice and Agnes beside their pui chase and with their 
owne goodes, and to every of theym Tenne pounde 
to be delyvered at their mariage/ Item I give and 
bequeathe unto my sonne John beside his owne pur- 
chase and with his owne goodes Tenne poundes to be 
delyvered at his mariage./ Item I give and bequeathe 
unto my sonnes Thomas and Anthonye to euery of 
theym Tenne pounde./ And if it happen any of myn 
Elder Children to dye afore the daye of their mariage, 
That then I will that his parte so dyinge shall remayne 
unto Agnes Thomas and Anthonye/ And to the longest 
Lyver of theym three/ And yf it happen any of the 
three yonger Chyldren to dye afore their mariage that 
then I will his or theyr parte so dying shall remayne 
to myne Executrix/ and she to dispose the same as 
she thynkith best/ Item I give and bequeathe to my 
sonne George Balche myn heyre my Baye gelding in 
Donyett Parke/ The residue of my goodes not be- 
queathed my debte paide and all my will fulfillyd/ 
I frely give yt unto Isabell Balche my wief whome I 
make my whole Executrix./ And she to dispose of 
the same for the welth of my soule as she thynketh best 
And for the performance of this my will in eury poynt/ 
I make my ouerseers John Walys and Willy am Balche 
and they to do the same when nede shall requyre." 


This will was thus endorsed at the time it was 
proved : — 

" Probatum fuit sup a scriptu testm coram dno Cant 
Archiepo apud London Secundo die mens Septembris 
Anno dni Millimo quingentesimo quiquagesimo secundo/ 
Juramento Chroferi Robynson procur Executrice in 
hmoi testameto noiat Ac Approbatu et insinuatu. Et 
comissa fuit Admistraco oim bonor tc dci defuncti prefat 
ex 1 / De bene et fidetir Admistrand eadem Ac de pleno 
Inuentario tc exhibend/ Ad sancta dei Eu a ngelia in 
debita forma Jurat." 

John Balche learnt the profession of arms in 
the service of Sir Nicholas Wadham of Muryfield, 
County Somerset. 35 

In May, 1550, he was named as the first of the 
original seventeen trustees of the famous Ilmin- 

35 Extract from the Will op Sir Nicholas Wadham, Knight. 

"25 November 1539. I, Nicholas Wadham of Muryfelde in Co. 
Somerset, Knight. * * * * Also I will that Roger Fauntleroy, 
William Beoyn, John Balche, & Anthony Bolleyn my servants have 
every of them £3. 6. 8 above their wages yf they contynue in my 
service during my lyfe. Also I will that every other gentilman 
being in my service the tyme of my deceas have every of them above 
their wages 40 s." 

Proved 31 January, 1542. Prerogative Court of Canterbury, 15 

Sir Nicholas Wadham was a great grandson of Sir John Wadham, 
Justice of the Common Pleas in the reign of Richard the Second. In 
the temps of Henry the Eight, Sir Nicholas was an important personage. 
For in 1509 he was Captain of the Isle of Wight, and Vice-Admiral 
to Lord Surrey. In 1524 he obtained a license to make a park at 
Merifield of two hundred acres of pasture and forty acres of wood- 
lands. In 1530 he was appointed a commissioner to enquire into 
Cardinal Woolsey's estates. He died in 1542, having married four 
times. His second wife was Margaret Seymour, aunt of Jane Sey- 
mour, one of the Queens of Henry the Eight. A grandson of Sir 
Nicholas Wadham and Margaret Seymour, Nicholas Wadham, born 
in 1532, and his wife, founded Wadham College, Oxford. 

































I — i 




ster Free Grammar School. Consequently, he was a 
member of the Protestant Church of England. 
"The school above alluded to," Collinson in his history 
of Somerset, says, 36 "was founded in the year 1SS0 by 
Humphry Walrond and Henry Greenfield of Lea in 
this parish, and by them endowed with certain tenement 
and three centelages in Ilminster, called the Chantry- 
houses (being lands formerly appropriated to the support 
of sundry charities in the parish church here) and also 
tenements called Mody's, in the tithing of Winterhay, 
and another called Rippe's tenement in the tithing 
of Horton, both within this parish. These lands and 
tenements being taken to the crown, King Edward Vlth, 
in consideration of divers sums of money, did, by his 
letters patent bearing date April 2, IS SO, grant and 
assign to Giles Kelway of Strowde in the county of 
Dorset, esq. ; and William Leonard of Taunton, merchant. 
On the 16th of May, 15S0, the said Giles Kelway and 
William Leonard conveyed their right in all these lands 
to Humphry Walrond and Henry Greenfield, of Lea 
aforesaid, for the sum of 12 6£. They, 'tendering the 
virtuous education of youth in literature and godly 
learning, whereby the same youth so brought up might 
the better know their duty as well to God as to the 
King's Majesty, and for divers other honest and godly 
considerations,' assigned over all the said premises 
in the same month of May, and in the same year, to 
John Balch, John Sydenham, and others (in all the 
number of seventeen) for the purpose of choosing a 
proper schoolmaster to instruct and bring up, as well 
in all godly learning and knowledge, as in other manner 

ae The History and Antiquities of the County of Somerset, by the 
Reverend John Collinson, F. A. S. 1791, Bath. 


of learning, all such children and youth as should be 
brought to him, appointing the said schoolmaster a 
house, called the Crosshouse, for his habitation during 
his master-ship; and also for the choosing a bailiff of 
the premises, whose business was to be the collecting, 
the issues and profits of the lands, and the disposing 
of them to the payment of the schoolmaster's stipend, 
and other necessary expenses; the residue to be applied 
to the discharge of king's silvers, and to the mending 
and repairing the highways, bridges, water-courses, and 
conduits of water, wherewith the inhabitants of the 
said parish of Ilminster were then charged, or might 
be chargeable, as far as the money should extend." 

The fact that John Balche was named the first 
among the initial trustees of the Ilminster Free 
Grammar School shows that he was a man of im- 
portance and influence in the locality. His wife's 
given name was Isabel, but her maiden name is 
unknown. They were married probably in the 
early twenties of the sixteenth century, and had 
in all nine children: — 

• born about 1523-30. 

3. George Balche 

3. Anne Balche 

3. Alice Balche 

3. John Balche 

3. Agnes Balche, born before 1536. 

3. Thomas Balche, born before 1536. 

3. Anthony Balche, born before 1536. 

3. Joan Balche, born after 1536. 

3. Hugh Balche, born after 1536. 


While it is not possible to give from present knowl- 
edge the exact order of birth of the above nine chil- 
dren of John Balche of Horton and his wife, Isabel, 
yet from his will we know the order in which his 
sons and his daughters were born respectively, 
and also that Agnes, Thomas and Anthony were 
all younger than George, Anne, Alice and John, 
and that Joan and Hugh were younger than the 
others as they are not even mentioned in the will 
drawn in 1536. 

3. George Balche, of Ilminster and Horton, gentle- 
man, the eldest son and heir to John Balche of 
Horton, was born probably between 1523 to 
1530. He was a trustee of the Ilminster Free 
Grammar School in the years 1563 and 1568. 37 
For the muster in 1569 in County Somerset he 
furnished a corslet. His will, which here follows, 
tells us a good deal about him. 

"In the name of god amen the xxi 41 day of June t. Georgu Baiche 
and in the yere of o r Lorde god 1569 I George Balche 38 
gentleman of the pishe of Ilmynster hole of mynde and 
pfecte of memory doth make my testament in manner 
& forme folowing/ ffirst I gyve and bequeth my 
soule to almightie god and my body to be buried in 
the south yle of Brodway churche. Item I gyve and 
bequeth to the same churche ii s/ Item I gyve to the 
churche of Ilmyster ii s. Item I gyve to Margery my 
wife ii fetherbedde in the plo r w* all their apparell and 

37 Archives of the school, Oct. 1st, 1563, March 18th, 1568. 
38 Prerogative Court of Canterbury. 19 Sheffield. 


also two paire of shetes, Item iii potte iii pannes (the 
best pott and panne exceptid) half a dozen of platters 
and like many of pottingers and so of sawcers (six of 
the best platters and so pottingers and so of sawcers 
excepted) ii borde clothes and ii towelle (the best borde 
cloth and towell exceptid.) Item I gyve and bequeth 
to Katheryn my daughter thre score pounde of laufull 
money of england to be levied and paied of my lande 
and goode in Horton and this money to be received 
w* in ii yeres after my death and put in to the hande 
of William Pynnye and John Sand'wike and to be paied 
unto her at her age of xxvi' 1 yeres or elle at the day 
of her mariage if it be before Provided alwaies if she 
happen to die before her mariage or the aige of xxvi 
yeres that then I will that xxx ti of the said money 
be paied to George my sonne and tenne pounde to John 
my sonne and the rest to Nichas my sonne Also I gyve 
to George my sonne tenne pounde and a dune gelding 
at Luppitt Item to John Balche my brother my best 
heifer at Luppitt. Item to my brother Hugh Balche 
one golde ring set w* a pearle/ Item I gyve and be- 
queth to my servant way my seconde best crosse bowe 
and one heafer being w* Edmund Lane at Luppitt and 
my blacke brache. Item I gyve and bequeth to Nichas 
Luffe of Asshell the best yerling in fardinge and a crosse 
bowe./ The residue of my goode my debte paied and 
legace pfourmed I gyve and bequeath to Nichas my 
sonne whome I ordayne appointe and make my ex- 
ecuto r / And overseers to see the same Robert Hol- 
combe John Balche my brother William Pynnye and 
John Sand'wike and my sonne Nichas to abide the order 
of my overseers untill my legacies be pformed witnes 
to theis John Poole curator of Brodway Willm Pynnye 
Willm Pyrie & Thom a s Mighell." 


At the time this will was proved it was endorsed 
as follows: — 

"Probatum fuit testamentum suprascriptum coram 
magro Waltero Haddon Legum doctore Curie progatiue 
Cantuarien comissario apud London sexto die Augusti 


anno dni Millimo quingen Sexagesimo nono Juramento 
Georgii Heyball procur Nichi Balche Executor in testa- 
mento hmoi noiat/ Cui comiss fuit admistraco omiu 
et singlor bonor tc De bene tc Ad sancta dei Evangelia 

He married twice. His first wife was Jane 
Ashford, daughter of Nicholas Ashford, of Ash- 
ford, whom he married certainly as early as 1551, 
probably as early as 1550 and perhaps even before 
that date. They had five children: — 

4. Nicholas Balche. 

4. George Balche. 

4. John Balche. 

4. Maximilian Balche. 

4. Katherine Balche. 
4. Nicholas Balche, of Horton, was born in the 
early part of the year 1552. He was recognized 
as his father's heir, and died August 24th, 1607, 
seized of Horton and other lands in Martock, Can- 
nington and Fydington. 39 

39 Chancery Inquisition post mortem. Series II., Volume 409, N. 

Libata fuit Cur xxxj die Octobris Anno quarto infrascr p manus 
Georgii Pitt. 

Inquisico Indentata Capta apud Bridgwater in Com p d decimo Som s 
septimo die Septembris Anno Regni Dni nri Jacobi Dei grac Anglie 


On September 30th, 1583, he was called upon 
to furnish one light horseman to the military forces 

ffranc t Hibnie Regis fidei defensor tc Quarto t Scotie quadragesimo 
Coram ffrancisco Bynforde gen Escaetor dci dni Regis Virtute officii 
sui post mortem Nichi Balch gen defuncti p sacrm Robti Gooding 
gen Willmi ffrye gen Jo: Somsi gen Robt Baker Henr Nalor Johis 
Coxe Robt Perry Willmi Brome Jo. Valle Jo. Otewaye Robt Oldeman 
Jo: Woodborne t Thome Crane. 

Qui dicunt sup sacrm suu qd p'dcus Nichus Balche diu ante Cap- 
coem huius Inquisicons fuit seit in dnico suo ut de feodo de t in uno 
Capitat messuagio duobz aliis messuagiis duobz Curtelagus t duobz 
Cotagiis t sexaginta decern acr terr prati t pastur cu ptin in Horton 
infra pochiam de Ilemyster in Com p d. Et de t in Centu t Viginti 
acris terr prati t pastur bosci t Bruer cu ptin in East Coker in p 
diet Com. Et sic inde seit Existens idm Nichus p scriptu suu In- 
dentat gerent dat Vicesimo secundo die Aprilis Anno Regni Dne 
Elizabeth nup Rne Anglie Vicesimo Quarto factm inter ipm Nichm 
Balche p nomen Nichi Balche de Horton infr pochiam de Ilemyster 
in Com Soms gen ex una pte t Johem Maye ar t Dorotheam Maye 
vid p noid Johis Maye de Charter house Hydon in dco Com Soms ar 
t Dorothee Maye vid matris p d Johis ex alter pte Juratoribz p d 
tempore Capcois huius Inquisicois in Evidenciis ostens p naturat r 
integr amore t affeccoe Que ipe idm Nichus tunc huit t ger Seat 
Balche tunc uxor eius ac tal exit qual ip tunc pcreavit t tunc postea 
pcrearet sup Corpus dee Sare t p Juncture ipius Sare Convenit t 
Concessit p pd [sic] Script p se t hered suis ad t Cu p d Johe Maye 
t Dorothea Maye t hered eor b t alter eor b qd ipe idem Nichus 
Balch t hered sui ac omes t quelibt psona t psone t hered eor b 
qui tunc seit exist aut qui post dat eiusd Script seit Existerunt 
ac qui tunc legittime habuer aut in futuro here poterint ullu 
legittimu stat Titlm aut Interesse de t in p d Capitat mess t 
domo mancional terr Tentis pratis pascuis pastur t al p d p'miss 
cu ptin aut de t in ulla pte aut pcella eiusd a tempore Confeccois 
eiusd Scripti stabunt t seit Exister de t in p Capitat messuag 
t domo mancon terr tentis pratis pascuis pastur t Ceter p'miss cu 
ptin ac de qualibt pte t pcell eiusd ad vs t intencoes in ead In- 
dentur specificat t ad null aliu us sine intercoem, videlt ad vsum 
p d Nichi Balche t Sare uxor eius t hered de Corpor eor b legittime 
pcreat t pcreand Et p defectu tlis exitus ad usu Rectu hered p d 
Nichi Balche imppetm racoe Cuius ac virtute Actus pliament Dni 
Henr nup Re Anglie Octavi tent apud Westm quarto die ffebruarii 
Anno Regni sui Vicessimo septimo de vsibz in possessione trans- 
ferend p d Nichus Balche t Sara fuer seit de Tentis p d cu ptin in 
dnico s ut de feod talliat viz sibi t hered de Corpor eor b lillime pcreat 
Remaner inde p defectu tlis exitus Rectis hered ipius Nichi Balche 
imppetuu Et sic inde seit Existent p d Nich Balche obiit de tali 


raised in Somerset against the Spanish Armada; 
and on March 14th, 1586, he was again summoned 

stat seit p' Cuius mort p d Sara se tenuit intus in Tent p d cu ptin 
t fuit t adhuc est de eisd tent cu ptin seit in dnico suo ut de feod 
talliat videlt sibi t hered p d Nichi t Sare de Corpor eor b littime 
pcreat Remaner inde in forma p d Ac Jur p d sup sacrm suu p d 
ulterius dicunt qd pd Nichus Balche die quo obiit fuit scisitus in 
dnico suo ut de feod de t in uno messuagio t trigint acr tre prati t 
pastur cu ptin in Martocke in Com p d Ac de t in Octo acris tre t 
pastur cu ptin voc Dowers iac et exist infra poch de Cannington in 
eod Com Ac de t in Octo aliis acr terr t pastur cu ptin voc Barrolles 
Downes iac et existen infra poch de ffydington in Com p d Ac ulter 
Jur p d dicunt sup sacrm suu p r d qd omia p d messuag terr prat t 
pastur cu ptin in Horton infr poch de Ilemyster p r d Tenentur t 
tempore mortis p d Nichi tenebantur de Com Herford ut de manio 
e de Ilemyster in Com pd p fidelit seclm Cur t Redd triu solid p 
ann p omibz serviciis t valent p ann in omibz exit s ultr repris 
Quadragint sohd Et qd p d Tent cu ptin in East Coker p d Tenentur 
t tempore mortis p d Nichi Balche Tenebantur de Edro Phillipps 
milt servient Dni Re ad lege^ut de manio s de Eastcoker in Com 
p'd p fidelit t Redd septem solid t sex denar p ann t Valent p 
ann in Omibz Exit s ultr repris xls Et qd p d "Tenta cu ptin 
in Martocke p'd Tenentur t tempore mortis p d Nichi Balch 
tenebantur de Johe Every genoso ut de manio s de Witcombe 
in Com p'd p fidelit t Redd unius denar p ann p omibz servicus 
t valent p ann in omibz exit s ultr repris Octo solid Et qd p d 
Tenta cu ptin in Cannington p d Tenentur t tempore mortis p d 
Nichi Tenebantur de Edro Rogers Ar ut de manio s de Canington 
in Com p'd p fidelit t Redd xijd p ann p omibz serviciis Et valent 
p ann in omibz exit ultr repris Octo solid Et qd p d Tenta cu ptin 
in ffydington p d Tenentur t tempore mortis p d Nichi Balche Tene- 
bantur de Dniis manu de fydington ut de manio s de ffydington 
in Com pd p fidelit t Reddit duor b solid p ann p omibz serviciis 
Et valent p ann in omibz Exit s ultr repris ijs. viijd. Et Insup Jur 
p d dicunt sup sacrm suu p d qd p d Nicus Balch die quo obiit nulla 
al sine plur tras seu Tenta huit sine tenuit de dco dno Rege nee de 
aliqua al sine de aliquibz aliis psonis in dnico servic negz in us in 
Com p d Et qd ipe idm Nichus obiit Vicessimo-sexto die Augusti 
ultimo pterit ante Capcoem huius Inquisicois Et qd Geo: Balch 
gen est eius fillius t her ppinquior t fuit etatis tempore mortis p d 
Nichi Balch Viginti t Triu annor b t amplius. In cuius Rei Testi- 
moniu tm Escaetor q u m Jur p d p sentibz sigilla sua alternatim 
apposuer die Anno t loco supra dcis 

John Somersett Robert Baker 

Henrye Newton. 
ffra Bynjorde Esceator. 


to supply one "light horse." 40 He was a trustee 
of the Ilminster Free Grammar School in 1600 
and 1604. 41 He married Sarah May, daughter of 
Robert May of Charter House, Horton, Somerset. 
She was living in 1620 when she was assessed at 
Ilminster, as Sarah Balch, widow. They had three 
sons and two daughters as follows, except that it 
is not known in what order the daughters were 
born: — 

5. George Balche. 

5. William Balche. 

5. Nicholas Balche. 

5. Elizabeth Balch (sic). 

5. Balch (sic). 

5. George Balche of Horton, gentleman, the heir 
of Nicholas, was born in 1584. He was a man 
of substantial wealth in those times, for he was 
possessed in fee of several valuable tracts of land. 
During the visitation of Somerset in 1623 by the 
heralds of the College of Arms in London, he was 
summoned, as head of the family, to prove the 
right of the family to bear arms. On that visita- 
tion the right of the family to blazon on their 
shields "barry of six, or. and az. on a bend en- 

40 The Preparations in Somerset against tlte Spanish Armada, by 
Samuel Green, London, 1S88, pages 26 and 70, 71. 

"Archives of the school, Oct. 17th and 18th, 1600, and Oct. 
6th, 1604. 

































grailed gu., three spear heads ar.," and to carry for 
crest a demi grifiin rampant, was confirmed. 42 

He lived in a house built in the Tudor style that 
is to-day approached by an avenue of trees and is 
now known as "The Firs." Its embattled porch, 
ancient oak beams, quaint back stairs, and other 
features show its age. 43 

He was one of the trustees of the Ilminster Free 
Grammar School in 1600, 1605, 1606, 1607, 1633, 
1635, 1637, 1639, 1642, 1645, 1647, 1648, 1650, 1651, 
1655, and 1656, and very likely in the intervening 
years. 44 At the annual meeting of the trustees 
on the first Sunday of October, 1635, a time when 
the question of Sunday sports was a burning sub- 
ject, George Balche was one of the feoffees who voted 
to adjourn over until the following Tuesday: — 

"It is now the Sabbath day and wanting time to 
fynishe our account it is agreed by those whose names 
are under written to meete again on Tuesday. G. Speke, 
George Balche, Rd. Webbe," and others. 

42 Harley Manuscripts, Nos. 1141, 1445 and 1559 (British Museum). 

43 In 1651 in the rate book of Ilminster Parish this entry occurs: 
"late George Balch £.1. 1.0." In 1652 the name drops out and 
that of Henry Warre takes its place. Later occurs the name of Mr. 
Portman; in 1726 that of Henry Portman; and about 1864 the 
late Lord Portman sold it to Samuel Palmer, whose executors sold 
it in 1888 to Mr. Baker. 

44 Archives of the school. In 1655 in the Court of Common Bench 
at Westminster: case relating to lands in Aishill, Ilminster, Crickett, 
and the forest of Roch, otherwise Neroche. The trustees, including 
George Balche, plaintiffs versus Humfrey Walrond, Esq., Grace his 
wife and George Walrond deforcients. Result: the plaintiffs were 
ordered or agreed to pay the debts, the sum of eighteen pounds 


This George Balche of Horton, like his fore- 
fathers for at least three generations before him, 
belonged to the English Protestant Church. During 
the Civil War between the King and the Parliament, 
he was loyal to the former, and exercised under 
the authority of King Charles the office of coroner 
in the County Court in Somerset, when the Royal 
forces held possession of the shire. This entry of 
his services as coroner under the authority of the 
King has come down: "Mr. George Balch, the 
coroner his fee concerning Coles that destroyed 
himself, 13s, 4d." For thus adhering to the side 
of the Cavaliers, George Balche, after the Round 
Heads had finally won under the able leadership 
of Oliver Cromwell, was forced to pay a large fine, 
two hundred and twenty-one pounds sterling and 
seven shillings, one sixth of the value of his estates, 
to the Parliamentary authorities, in order to retain 
his landed estates. The papers in this compound- 
ing by George Balche for his estate, the originals 
of which are in the Royalist Composition Papers, 
are as follows: — 

George Balche of Horton in the 
County of Somersett gent. 4S 

His delinquency that he adheared unto the forces 
raised ag*. the pliament. 

He peticoned here the 11th of January 1648. 

Its deposed by Henry Warr gent, that the Compounder 

* 5 State Papers Domestic. Interregnum. Volume G. 208. fo. 10. 

- -**r 



tooke the Naconall Covenant before the Comittee of 
Somersett in Decemb 1648. But was omitted by mis- 
take of the Clarke of that Comittee to be inserted in 
their Certificate sent up of the 23 of the same Decemb. 
But it is Certified by that Comittee that he tooke ye 
Negative oath before them the 9th of Decemb. 1648. 

He Compounds upon a Certificate retourned out of ye 
Country, & upon a Particular delivered in under his 
owne hand By w° h he doth submitt to such ffine &c. 
And by w° h it doth appear. 

That he is seised in ffee to him & his heiresin possession 40 1. 
of & in certaine Lands and Tenements lyeing in the 
parish of Ilminster in the said County of Somersett 
of the yearly value before these troubles 40 1 . 

That he is seised of a like estate of an in certaine old old Rts. 
Rents or Rents of Assize lyeing in Coker and other \ s n 
places in ye said County of the yearly value before d 
these troubles 7 1 . 11 s . 2 d . 

Due to him by bond from M r . Cannicott of Ilebrewers 
200 1 . 

13 Jan. 1648. 

D. Watkins. 
Jo: Bradinge. 

fine at a sixt 22 1 1 7 s . 

To the right hono. ble the Comissioners for Composicons 
sitting at Goldsmiths hall. 

The humble Peticon of George Balch of Horton in 
the County of Somersett gent. 

That yo r peticoner haveing adhered to the fforces 
raysed against the Parliament was sequestred for that 
his delinquency, which still Continues under-sequestracon. 


He therefore humbly prays to be admitted to a favour- 
able Composicon for his said delinquency, and for his 
estate menconed in the annexed pticuler. 

And yo 1 pet. r shall pray &c 

George Balche. 
Rec. 11 Jan. 1648 & referred to the 

Jo: Leech. 

A Particular of the estate of George Balch of Horton 
in the County of Somersett gent, ffor which he desires 
to Compound. 

He is seized in ffee to him and his heires, ^ 
of and in Certaine Lands and Tenem ts 
lyeing and being in the pish of Ilmister in Mo 1 . s . d . 
the County of Somsett of the yearely value 
before these troubles of . . . - 

He is seized of a like estate of and in" 
Certaine old Rents or Rents of Assize, 
lyeing and being in Coker and other places V 7 1 . 1 
in the said County of ye yearely value be- 
fore these troubles of J 

There is oweing to him by Bond from 

M r . Cannicott of Ilebrewers a debt of . . . j 

This is a true pticuler of all my estate reall & psonall, 
for w ch I desire to Compound, to free my estate from 
sequestracon ; And I doe submitt unto, & undertake 
to satisfie and pay such ffine as shal be imposed on me 
by this hono ble : Comittee for the same, in order to ye 
freedome & discharge of my pson & estate; And I doe 
affirme that I was never member of this present pliam' 
nor Councellor at Lawe, nor Advocate, nor Proctor nor 
Attorney, nor any wayes towards ye lawe Comon or Civill. 

George Balche. 


Right hono ble 

Att the instance of George Balch of Horton in this 
County Gen', we doe certifie that he sate as a Coroner 
at the County Court in the tyme when the Kings Army 
had the power of this County and executed his office 
there as a Coroner in giveing Judgm' upon severall 
Exig ts . of High Treason preferred by the King's pty 
ag\ Parliam 4 men and others well affected to the 
Parliam* for their service done to and for the same. 
He tooke the Negative oathe the 9. th of December last. 
The Estimate of his Estate is here enclosed presented 
you, all which we leave to yo r Hono. rs Jedgm. ts and 
subscribe o. r selves. 

Right Hono. ble 
Yo r humble and faithfull servants 

Jonat. Pitt 
Ri : Trevillian 
Edw. Ceely Chr. Pittard. Rob. Morgan 

Tanton this 23 th 
of December 

[Addressed] To the Right Hono. ble the Comission." 
For Compounding with Delinquents 
At Goldsmiths Hall these 
[Endorsed] Geo. Balch 
IS Jan. 1648 

Report past Octob. 25°. 1649 
ffyne 221 1 

George Balche died in 1658. An admonition was 
granted to his niece, Dorothy Warre, July 13th, 1658. 


5. William Balche: of him nothing further is 

5. Nicholas Balche, died in 1658. An admonition 
was granted to his niece, Dorothy Warre, June 3d, 
1658. This grant was revoked and another was 
made December 9th, 1658, to his sister, Elizabeth 
Roy on. Other grants were made January 14th 
and February 14th, 1658-9. 

Of the two daughters of Nicholas Balche of Hor- 
ton (see ante page 24), nothing more is known than 
has already been stated. 

Of the other children of (3.) George Balche the 
first, of Horton, (see ante page 21) and his wife, Jane 
Ashford, brothers and sister of Nicholas Balche of 
Horton, all that is known is that George Balche was 
living in 1597, as he was assessed at Ilminster in 
that year, and that George, John and Maximilian, 
all died without issue. 

Of (4.) Katherine Balche nothing is known. 

3. George Balche of Ilminster and Horton, (see 
ante page 21) married for his second wife, about 

1557 to 1560, Margery Berry, daughter of Berry 

of Berry Narbor, County Devon. They had one son. 

4. Walter Balche, of Tavistock, County Devon, 
who was born of course as early as 1569, probably 
about 1560. This Walter Balche in turn had two 
sons : — 

5. George Balche, eldest son. 
5. William Balche. 


3. George Balche of Ilminster and Horton (see 
ante page 19), like his father, belonged to the Prot- 
estant Church of England, and from his will we 
learn that he was one of the local gentry. He held 
lands in Horton, East Coker, Martock and Canning- 
ton. He died and was buried about the middle 
of the year 1569, probably in the month of July. 

At Chancery Inquisitions post mortem, Series II., Volume 152, n. 129. Som s 

Inquisicio indentat Capt apud Yevell in Com pred vicesimo quinto 
die Octobr Anno regni Elizabeth dei grd Anglie ffranc et Hibnie 
Regine fidei defensor tc. vndecimo Coram Stepho Brent Armigo 
Escaetore dee dne Regine virtute bris eiusdem dne Regine de diem 
Clausit extremu eidem Escaetori post mortem Georgii Blache direct t 
huic inquisicioni annex p Sacrm Johis Jenes gen. Johnis Boyes gen 
Johis Hacker sen gen Egidii Hayne, gen Willmi Colmer gen Johis 
Vyrgyn gen Egidii Barnard gen Johis Phelps gen Willmi Jenes gen 
Robti Jenes gen Johnis fforde gen Willmi Stone gen Willmi Jen- 
nynge gen t Thome Williams gen Qui dicunt sup sacrm suu p d qd 
dcus Georgius Balche in dco bri noiat diu ante Capcoem huius 
Inquisicionis fuit seisit in dnico suo ut de feod de uno Capitli mes- 
suagio ac de t in duobus tenement t tribus Curtillagus cu sexagint 
septem acr terre prati et pastur in Horton infrd pochiam de Ilmyster 
in Com p dco Et sic inde seisitus obiit inde seisitus 

Et ultius Jur p dci p sacrm suu p d dicunt qd p dcus Georgius 
Balche in dco bri noiat fuit seisitus in dnico suo ut de feod die quo 
obiit de t in Cent et vigint acr terr prat pastur bosci t bruer in Est 
Coker in Com p dco Et sic seisitus existens obiit inde seisit 

Et ultius Jur p dci dicunt sup sacrm suu p d qd p dcus Georgius 
Balche in dco bri noiat fuit seisitus in dnico suo ut de feod die quo 
obiit de t in vno Tento et Triginta acr terr prat et pastur in Mar- 
tocke in Com p dco Et sic inde seisitus existens obiit inde seisitus 
Et qd dcus Georgius Balche in dco bri noiat fuit seisitus in dnico 
suo ut de feod de t in vno messuagio t viginti acr terr prat et pastur 
in Cannyngton in Com p dco Et sic inde seisitus obiit inde seisit. 
Et ultius Jur p dci dicut sup Sacrm suu p d qd oia p d mesuag 
tenta Curtillag terr prat et pastur in Horton infrd pochiam de Il- 
myster p d tenent' de Edwards Seymer milite vie Beachampe et 
Comit Heref p suic militar ut de manio suo de Ilmyster p d p quad- 
ragesimam ptem unius feod milit Et valent p annu in oibus suis 
exit ultra repris xl s. Et qd oia tenement Curtillag terr prat pastur 
bosc et bruer in Estcoker p d tenent' de Johne Zouche mi te 


Most of the younger children of John Balche of 
Horton (see ante page 18) — Anne Balche, Alice 
Balche, John Balche, Agnes Balche, Thomas Balche 
and Anthony Balche,— were all born before the year 
1536, when they are mentioned in their father's will. 
The other two children, Joan Balche and Hugh 
Balche, were both born subsequent to that date. 
Of all these nothing more is known, except of 
Thomas, Joan, and Hugh. 

3. Thomas Balche was born probably about the 
year 1534. He lived at Cote in the parish of Mar- 
tock, which lies to the east of that of Ilminster, 
and died there in 1594. In the muster in Somer- 
setshire in 1569 he was one of the archers that 
appeared. He was buried at Cote April 19th, 1594. 

Catherine uxoris sue ut de man io suo de Estcoker in Com p d sed 
p que s uitcd Jurat ignorant Et valent p annu in oibus suis exit 
ultra repris — vii li x s. Et ultius Jur p d sup sacrm suu p d dicunt 
qd oia tent terr prat et pastur in Martocke p d tenent' de Willmo 
Stanley mil dno Mountegle ut de huner suo de Martocke sed p que 
s uic Jur p d penitus ignorant Et valent p annu in oibus suis exit 
ultra repris — xxxij s. Et qd mesuag terr prat et pastur in Cannyng- 
ton pd tenent' de Georgio Rogers Ar ut de manio suo de Cannyngton 
p d sed p que s uic Jur p d penitus ignorant Et valent p annu in 
oibus suis exit ultra repris — viij s. Et insuper dicunt Jur p d qd 
dcus Georgius Balche in dco bri noiatus nulla alia sine plura terr 
negz tent in dnico negz in s uicio tenuit de dca dna Regina negz de 
aliquo alio in Com p d die quo obiit Et dicunt Jurat p d qd dcus 
Georgius Balche in dco bri noiatus obiit xxiij 110 die Junii ultimo 
p lerit Et qd Nichus Balche est eius filius et heres ppinquior et est 
etatis tempore mortis p dci Georgii Balche septemdecem annor b et 
ampluis In Cuius rei testimoniu tarn p dcus Escaetor q°m Jur p d 
pntibus Sigilla sua altnatim apposuer Dat die Anno t loco primo 
sup" dcis. 
p me 
Stephanu Brent John Boys Gyles Hayne Johes Virgyn 

William Jenys Willm Jenyngb 
Escaetorem Com p d 


He was a man of some means, for he left to his 
five children, after directing three shillings and 
four pence should be given to the church of Mar- 
tock, and to the poor of the parish a like sum, a 
total sum of one hundred and forty pounds ster- 
ling, and the remainder of the estate to his wife, 
Avis Balche, whom he named his executrix. His 
will is as follows: — 

In the name of god amen The xviii th Daye of Aprill T Thome 
in the yeare of our Lorde god one thousand ffive hun- Balche 
dreth Ninety ffower I Thomas Balche 47 Thelder of Cote 
w th in the parrishe of Martocke being of good and per- 
fecte remembrance Lawde and praise be given to Al- 
mighty god Doe make and ordayne this my Last will 
and testament in manner and forme following that is 
to saye ffirst I give and bequeathe my Sowle unto Al- 
mighty god my maker And to his Sonne Jesus Christ 
my Savyour and Redemer And my Bodye to the earthe. 
Item I give unto the Churche of Martocke aforesaide 
three shillings foure pence/ Item I give unto the 
poore people of the same parrishe three shillinge foure 
pence. Item I give unto my sonne Thomas Balche 
forty pounde to be paide as followeth that is to saye 
Tenne Poundes presently after my Decease And the 
Rest Tenne pounde a yeare within three yeares then 
next following the first payment/ Provided that if 
the saide Thomas Balche my sonne happen to marrye 
before the money be all paide Then he to have it all- 
together towarde his marriage and well doing/ Also I 
give unto the saide Thomas Balche my sonne all suche 

4 ? Prerogative Court of Canterbury. 51 Dixy. 


debte as are due unto me by Hughe Palmer and William 
Allen./ Item I give unto Roberte Balche my sonne 
fforty pounde. Item I give unto Marye Balche my 
Daughter twenty pounde and one hawked heffer and 
her Calfe. Item I give unto Anne Balche my Daughter 
twenty pounde/ Item I give tinto ffraunce Balche my 
Daughter Twenty pounde/ Item I give unto Avis 
Balche my Daughter Twenty pounde. Item my will 
is that this money shal be paide to my yonger Children 
when they come to full age/ And if any of them happen 
to dye before they come to full age Then theire porcons 
to remaine amongest the Rest. The Rest of all my 
goode and Chattelle not given nor bequeathed I doe 
give and bequeathe unto Avis my wyfe whome I doe 
make my full and wholle Executor/ These being 
Wittnesses Hughe Balche Thomas Dolyn Christofer 
Laver Nicholas Luffe and Henry Newton with others." 

At the time of proving this will was thus en- 
dorsed : — 

" Probatum fuit Testamentum Suprascriptum apud 
London Coram Venerabili viro mro Willmo Lewyn 
Legum Doctore Curie Prerogative Cant Magro Custode 
sine Commissario Ltime deputato vicesimo secundo die 
mens Junii Anno Dni Millimo Quingentesimo Nonagesimo 
Quarto Juramento mri ffrancisci Clerk notarii publici 
procuratoris Avicie Balche Relicte diet defuncti et 
executricis in hmoi — Testamento nominat Cui com- 
missa fuit administraco etc De bene et fideliter ad- 
ministrand etc Ad sancta dei Evangelia Jurat." 

3. Thomas Balche of Cote in Martock and his wife 
Avis, had a number of children : — ** 

4. Thomas Balche, baptized Oct. 7th, 1559. 

** Thomas Balche's will. The registers of the parish of Martock. 



Twins (?) 

4. Robert Balche. 49 

4. Mary Balche, baptized Jan. 7th, 1565-6. 

4. Johana (?) Balche, 

baptized March 4th, 1576. 
4. Mary (?) Balche, 

baptized July 13th, 1576. 
4. Francis Balche, baptized Jan. 7th, 1589. 
4. Alice (?) Balche, baptized March 7th, 1591. 
4. Avis Balche, baptized Jan. 30th, 1591-2. 

The following marriages recorded in the Martock 
registers show that other Balches besides Thomas 
Balche, who died in 1594 and his children, lived at 
Martock and the immediate neighborhood: — 

Apr. 6th, 1572, Alice Balche- John Moore. 

Sept. 8th, 1589, Henrie Balche-Marye Gould. 

Nov. 22nd, 1589, William Balche-Alice Moore. 

Apr. 7th, 1594, Gyles Balche-Agnes Perryn. 

Jan. 22nd, 1598, Robert Balch-Eliz. Ffrench. 

Oct. 4th, 1604, Ursula Balch-John Hulkyns. 

April 7th, 1605, Edyth Balch-Zeiles Bacon. 

Nov. 10th, 1606, Joane Balch-John Hylborne, 

Jan. 17th, 1607, Henry Balch-Julian Parker. 

Oct. 10th, 1612, Francis Balch- Alexander Hutch- 

May 18th, 1614, Edyth Balch-John Bradford. 

Jan. 26th, 1614, Hester Balch-Thomas Becke. 

49 From the present available authorities it is not known in what 
year this Robert was born, but his father's will shows that he was 
younger than Thomas; and perhaps he was younger than some of 
his sisters. 


Jan. 17th, 1617, Henry Balch-Margaret Geise. 
June 3rd, 1630, Gregory Balch-Repentance 

3. Joan Balche, according to the Herald's visita- 
tion of Somerset in 1573, married Robert Hyett of 
Street, Somerset, son of Philip Hyett of Michelney, 

3. Hugh Balche, of Ilminster, gentleman, was born 
subsequently to 1536. He was a trustee of the 
Ilminster Free Grammar School in 1600, 1604, 1605, 
1607, 1608, 1611, and 1612, and probably in the 
intervening years. He was bayliff for the school in 
1611, and handed in his account in October 1612. 
For some time it was the custom for one of the 
trustees to hold this position for one year ; after 
1620 it became apparently a life appointment. He 
died in 1615 or 1616. His will is as follows: 50 

T Hugonis " Hugh Balche of Ilmister in the Countie of Somersett 
Balche. g ent k e j n g e s j c k e of bodie but of perfect remembrance 
thanckes be to god The seavententhe daie of ffebruarie 
in the yeare of our Lorde god one thowsand six hundred 
and fyfteene did in the presence of John Membrie of 
Ilmister aforesaide Clothier, William Hunte of the 
same Butcher and Robert Crokeham of Ilmister afore- 
saide Shomaker make his laste will and Testament 
Nuncupative in manner and forme followinge ffyrste 
he gave to his sonne William Balche his Gunne and 
moulde. Itm he gave to five Children which he had 
by his former wife Tenne shillinges a peece. Item 

60 Prerogative Court of Canterbury. 52 Cope. 


he gave to the poore of the Parrishe of Ilmister Tenne 
shillinges All the reste of his goodes and Chattels he 
gave unto Elizabeth his wife. Signu Johannis Membrie 
Signum Willmi Hunte Signum Roberti Crokeham. He 
gave further in the presence of John Membrie presentlie 
after the making of his former will to the Churche of 
Ilmister five shillinges Signum Johis Membry." 

This will at the time it was proved was thus 
endorsed : — 

"Vicesimo quinto die mensis Maij Anno Domini 
Millesimo Sexcentesimo decimo sexto emanavit Comissio 
Elizabethe Balche relce dicti defuncti Ad administrand 
bona iura et credita dicti defuncti iuxta tenorem testa- 
menti hmoi eo quod nallum omnino in eodem nominav- 
erit executorem De bene tc. vigore Comissionis tc 

We thus learn from Hugh Balche's will which he 
made when almost at the point of death, that he 
was twice married. By his first wife, whose name 
is unknown, he had five children as follows: — 
4. Thomas Balche. 

4. George Balche, named in his brother's will. 
4. John Balche, married and had issue born be- 
fore 1658 and living at that time. 

4. Mary Balche, married • Gaird. 

4. Susan Balche, married Beck. 

4. Thomas Balch, a citizen of London, died in 

1658. He married Elizabeth . In his will he 

mentions his cousins Woodrosse and Daniel Bell. 
His will reads thus: 


Thomas Baich j n the name of God Amen the first day of September 
One Thousand Six hundred fiftie and eight 1658 I Thomas 
Balch 61 Cittizen and Clothworker of London being sicke 
and weake in Bodie but of perfect minde and memorie 
thankes be therefore given unto Almightie God And 
knowing nothing is more certaine then death and nothing 
more uncertaine then the hower thereof doe therefore 
make and declare this my last will and Testament 
(that is to say) First I commend my Soule into the 
hands of the Almightie God Father Sonne and Holy 
Ghost trusting faythfullie and believing through the 
only meritts death and resurrection of Jesus Christ 
my Saviour to obtaine remission of all my sinns and 
to raign with him in his most blessed Kingdome My 
bodie to be decently buried att the dis-cretion of my 
Executrix hereafter named And for such Worldly Estate 
as it hath pleased God to indowe me with I give and 
dispose in manner and forme following (that is to say) 
I give and bequeath unto my Cozin Margarett Wood- 
rosse now with mee Five hundred pounds after the 
death of my Wife Elizabeth Balch whoe I make my 
sole Executrix Item I give unto my Bro. George Balch 
Fortie shillings. Item I give unto my Bro. John Balch: 
Children each of them fortie shillings a peece Item 
I give unto Mary Geird my sister five pounds Item 
I give unto my sister Susan Beck Twentie shillings 
for to buy her a Ring Item I given unto David Wood- 
rosse and Robert Woodrosse and Sarah Carwarthine 
and Elizabeth Woodrosse and Mary Woodrosse and 
Judith Woodrosse each of them Twentie shillings a 
peece Item I give unto William Powell Twentie shillings 
to buy a Ring. Item I give unto my Cozin Daniell 

61 Prerogative Court of Canterbury, Wotton folio 524. 


Belt Fortie shillings to buy a Ring And doe further 
desire my said Cosin Daniell Belt to be aiding and 
assisting unto my said Wife for the disposing and order- 
ing of the said Legacies hereby bequeathed And I make 
Elizabeth my said wife sole Executrix of this my last 
Will and Testament Item I give alsoe unto Elizabeth 
my Wife all and singular my household goods plate 
juells and moveables in and aboute my dwelling house 
att the time of my decease Item I give and desire 
that Fifty pounds may be expended upon my Funerall. 
In witness whereof I the said Thomas Balch to this 
last will and Testament of myne have sett my hand 
and seale Given the day and yeare first above written 
Before this was sealed I give unto my Cosin Ann Belt 
Twentie shillings to buy a Ring Thomas Balch. 

Signed Sealed and delivered in the presence of Henry 
Farewell John Smith Daniell Belt William Power. 

This Will was proved att London ye two and Twentith 
day of the Moneth of September in the yeare of our 
Lord God one Thousand six hundred Fiftie and Eight 
before the Judges for probate of Wills and granting 
Administrations lawfully authorized by the oath of 
Elizabeth Balch the Relict and sole and only Executrix 
named in the above written Will To whome Administra- 
tion of all and singular the Goods Chattels and debts 
of the said deceased was graunted and committed she 
being first legallie sworne truly and faythfullie to ad- 
minister the same. 

3. Hugh Balche (see ante page 37), by his second 
wife, Elizabeth , had one son:-- 

4. William Balche. 


George Balch of Winterhay in the parish of 
Ilminster, was assessed at Ilminster in 1641, as of 
Winterhay, and was buried at Ilminster, May 3rd, 
1672. He was a trustee of the Ilminster Free 
Grammar School in 1639, 1642, 1647, 1650, 1653, 
1660, 1664, and 1666 and most likely for the inter- 
vening years. 52 It would seem to be reasonably 
certain that he was related to the Horton Balches. 

He married Margaret , who was buried at 

Ilminster, Nov. 15th, 1682, adn. n June 14th fol- 
lowing. His will was dated March 29th, 1672, 
and proved at Wells, June 16th, 1682. They had, 
Philippa Balch, 1672, unmarried. 
Margaret Balch, wife in 1672, of William 

Anne Balch, unmarried in 1672, married be- 
fore 1682 to James Bright of Ilminster, 
It is evident from the known records that William 
Balche, of Higham (see ante page 13), who was 
born before 1477 and died in 1533, either had other 
sons besides John Balche of Horton, or else he had 
brothers or first cousins. For there is a grant 
dated in 1528 by the Abbot of Mauchelney, of 
Rippe's Mill, in Horton, Ilminster, to Sir Henry 
Daubeney, John Balche, George Balche, and thir- 

52 Archives of the schools, Oct. 16th, 1639, Oct. 4th, 1642, Oct. Sth 
and Oct. 20th, 1647, Oct. 1st, 1650, Nov. 21st, 1653, Oct. 6th, 1664, 
March 18th, 1666. 


teen other knights and gentlemen in trust for a chan- 
try priest in the "church of Ilemyster." When 
translated the grant, the original of which is 
in the Ilminster Grammar School, runs thus:— 53 

"All those messuages, lands, tenements, meadows, 
pasture, and feed, with their appurtenances in the tith- 
ing of Winterhay in the parish of Ilmyster called Modies 
tenement, by John Sherbourne, Abbot formerly of the 
Monastery of Muchelney aforesaid, and the convent of 
the same place, leased to farm to Henry Dawbeny, Kt. 
lord de Dawbeney, Thomas Speke, Hugh Paulet, Nich- 
olas Wadham, junr., esquire, John Poole, Thomas 
Michell and John Baltyn, clerk, John Bonoyle, John 
Balche, George Balche, John Chyke of Horton, senr. 

63 Grant of Rippe's Mill, in Horton, Ilminster. 

(OMNIBUS XPD FIDELBS (fidelibus) ad quos presens s-criptu 
p venit Johes Shirborne Abbas monastri beatori aplosi Petri vPauli 
de Muchelney in com. Some s.' vi emsen loci convent saltern 
in dno sempitern. Nonite nos psat abbem v convent triduum 
assensu v consensu uris tradidisse dimisisse v hoc psent script, uri 
confirmasse Henrico Dawbeney milit. dno De Dawbeney [Lord 
Daubeney] Thome Speke Hugon Paulett Nicho Wadhm Jun armigris 
Johi Pole Thome Radberd Thome Michell vi Johi Batten clici Johis 
Bonvile Johi Balche Johi Barfote Georgio Balche Johi Chike de 
Horton Johi Chike nlio suo Thome Hawker v Johi Spicer omnia ilia 
mes. Terro Tent. prat. past, vi pasturo ad suos ptnd in Horton in 
parochie de Ilemyst quo omnia sunt Johes Rippe clericus ibm quon- 
dam tnuit hendi v tenendi omnia v suigla pmifs ad suis ptndi pset 
Henrico Dawbeney etc., etc. v assign suis ad tri ducent annos xx 
sequem v plenari complendi post dat psenm. Reddo inde ante 
nobis psat Abbi v convent v success uris quatuor solidi sex denaro ad 
quatuor anni tnnos ibm usuat ac duos solidi ante ad festu sa Martini in 
jeme necnon quatuor solidi ante ad festu de Thome apli v sex denari 
ante ad gulam augusti p omibs officis sinvis v ali demandi satu sine 
rexat vi vire eccliast durant tnuo pdco et si contingat pdict. reddit 
seu aliqua ut psent pmiss parcellam aretro fore in parte vel in toto 
post aliquae tnu timore pdico qui solui debeat per vim mensem 
sidebit modo petat non solut ad tunc bene licebit nobis psat abb v 


John Chike, his son, Thomas Hawker, John Barfote 
John Spicer and Thomas Redbere clerk, by deed of the 
same Abbot and convent given in their chapter house 
under the seal of the convent aforesaid the third day of 
November A. D. 1S28, to have and to hold all and singu- 
lar the premises with their appurtenances to the afore- 
said Henry Dawbeney and the others aforenamed and 
their assigns for the term of a hundred and eighty years 
next following immediately after the death surrender 
or forfeiture of Agnes wife of John Wilmote junr., who 
holds the same premises for the term of her life, Ren- 
dering therefor annually to the said Abbot and convent 

convent v success uris in omnibus pmiss ad suis ptnd intrare vi 
distringere ac distrucon sic capt. inde abducere affugare apportare 
vi penes nos retinere quonsque de predict reddit sic aretro existen 
vuaco Imprimis expen. causa emse hici nobis plenarie fuit satisfact 
et psolut Et pdico Henricus Dawbeny etc. etc. omniae pdict ures 
ve eta pmis ad suis ptn len vi compitent reparabunt v maintenebunt 
sumptribs corj ppis ve eppen durant tnio pdco et ad fine tin supaao 
[supra?] dabunt duo den success suis tres solidi v quattuor denar 
nove hicet et nonite insup nos psat abbem v convent attornasse v 
loco uro posuisse dilcos nobis in xpo Thomae Rose v Thorn Dunster 
sen uros heres v legittios attorn convict v dimr ad intrand viae v nos 
uris in ombs pmiss ad suis ptn ac ad omes v suiglat persones inde ex- 
pellend v amovendi ac deinde plenat v pacificit possessione v seisinet 
psat Henrico Dawbeney etc. etc. assign suis deliband heredi eis ad 
usu v manutentia pmi suior ut agend in ecclesia de Ilemyster sed 
in vim formae v essend huic psent script uro. 

In ems rei testiom huic psent script sigilii urm appossuum Dat in 
domo ura capitbus tertio die mensis Novembre anno Dini millimo 
quinquentesimo vicessimo octavo et anno regni Rex Henrico Octam 
vicesimo et anno supra Johis Shirbone abbis septimo. 


and their successors vijs. vijd. at the usual annual terms, 
with divers other covenants as in the said deed specified, 
and rendering per annum beyond the aforesaid rent of 
vijs. vijd. reserved — iiij li. vjs. vd." 

That this John Balche and George Balche were 
named in 1528 trustees of an ecclesiastical benefit 
points to the probability that they were at the time 
of the grant, men of mature years, and consequently 
more probably brothers than sons of William Balche 
of Higham, who died in 1 533 . And the fact that they 
are named trustees in the grant shows that the 
family at the beginning of the sixteenth century 
had risen into prominence in and about the neigh- 
borhood of Ilminster. 

Returning to the records of Higham (High Ham) , 
we find in the will of John Dier, rector of the parish 
church of Higham in the diocese of Bath and Wells, 
who died September 10th, 1499, this item: "To 
John Balshe, my godson, one silver spoon." 54 It is 
known that another William Balche lived at Higham 
about the years 1550 to 1560, and that his son of the 
same name was also living at that place in 1599. 
For the Rev. Adrian Schaell, Rector, in the oldest 
parish register of High Ham, dating from 1569, 
wrote on a few stray leaves in 1599 that the "chap- 
s' 7 Moone folio 49. John Dier (Dyer), A. B., was instituted rector 
of High Ham, June 12th, 1457. 

Was this John Balch the same individual who was designated as 
of Horton and was born in 1496 or 1497, and died in 1552? Or did 
this John Balch belong to an earlier generation? 


pie at Beare was destroyed within these fifty years." 
This chapel was dedicated to Saint John the Baptist. 
The rector's entry then continues: "One William 
Balch, a gentleman (by whose appointment I know 
not pulled down the same small chappie) of Beare 
in High Ham, and with the rubble stones and 
timber thereof builded to himself a faire howse, 
wherein his sonne of the same name, William, 

The senior of these two William Balches was 
very possibly the William Balche who in Sep- 
tember, 1560, was a captain in the military forces 
raised in Somersetshire to repel the Spanish Ar- 
mada. 65 

It is very possible that the William Balch who 
pulled down the chapel at Beare to build him- 
self a house was either a son or a nephew of 
the William Balche of Higham, who died in 
1533. Consequently it may be inferred that the 
Balches were living at Higham long before the 
year 1500. 

On January 25th, 1607, another William Balche, 

65 In September 1560, the " mowster mayster [muster master] of 
Somerset was held. There were twenty-one " captaynes " of the 
" abell " men of Somerset, and each captain had 300 men, except 
William Balche, who had 200 only, the total available being 6,939." 
The Preparations in Somerset against the Armada by Samuel Green, 
F. S. A.; London, 1888. 

One of the corporals of " shott " in the district of Langport, 
Muchelney and Pytney (Pitney) in the military forces trained at 
Bridgwater in October, 1S86, by Sir John Stawell against the Spanish 
invasion was a William Balch. — Ibid., pages 87, 90. 


probably a son of William living in 1599, was mar- 
ried at Higham. On November 9th of the same 
year Elizabeth Balche was married at the same 
place. On June 25th, 1618, another Elizabeth 
Balche was married there also. On June 19th, 1619, 
William Balche, senior, of Higham was married; 
this was probably the William Balche who was 
married in January 1607. And the same entry 
shows that in 1619 there was probably yet another 
William Balche living at Higham. It was prob- 
ably the "Senior" whose will was proved at the 
Probate Registry of Wills on August 3rd, 1630. 
This will of William Balch of Beare in Higham 
is dated November 9th, 1629. After providing for 
his burial in the churchyard of Higham, the 
testator leaves everything to his son, Samuel Balch. 
On March 1st, 1630, Samuel Balche, brother of the 
second Elizabeth Balche above mentioned, was 
married also at Higham. And this Samuel was 
living in 1637. On January 19th, 1655-6, Samuel 
Balch, son of Samuel Balch, and Mary his wife, 
was baptized. Six days later, that is, January 
25th, 1655-6, William Balch, a child, was buried. 
The next year, Nov. 21st, 1656, Samuel Balch, 
generosus, was buried, and on February 7th, 1681-2, 
Mary Baulch was also interred. Thus members of 
the family are recorded as living at Higham during 
all of the sixteenth and most of the seventeenth 



In the Parish of North Curry, which is situated 
close to and westward of that of Higham (High 
Ham) on the other side of the River Parret, a pros- 
perous yeoman family bearing the surname of Balch 
was firmly established in the middle of the sixteenth 
century. That this family was living there at a 
much earlier date is probable, for in the Cartulary 
of Muchelney Abbey, it is mentioned that in 1259, 
Richard Balsich held three acres of meadow land at 
Cury, which may mean North Curry The North 
Curry Register, which begins in 1539, 56 is in a good 
state of preservation, and it shows that as early as 
1562 at least, (1.) Thomas Baulch or Balch, 57 a pros- 
perous yeoman, who must have been born before 
1542, was established, with his wife, Agnes, at North 
Curry. She died and was buried there April 3d, 
1585. He outlived his wife fifteen years and was 
buried at North Curry March 30th, 1600. His will, 
the date of which is lost except that he executed it 
in the month of October, probably on the 20th, was 
proved in the Probate Register of Wells, July 17th, 
1600. It read thus:— 

66 On June fifteenth, 1572, Margaret Baulche was married at 
North Curry to John Dorc, but no mention occurs in the North 
Curry register of any Baulche who could have been her parent. 

67 Among the light horsemen from the Hundred of Somerton in 
1586 in the military forces drilled in Somerset to repel the Spanish 
Armada was Thomas Balch. — The Preparations in Somerset against 
the Spanish Armada, by Samuel Green, London, 1888, page 44. 


«i * * * day of October in the * * * the grace 
of God * * * faith I Thomas Balch of the p'ish 
of North Curry * * * to mynd the instability of 
this mortal life and advised * * * to bestowe * * * 
all in order and dyspose myselfe towards Almyghtie god 
and my goods and chattells towards the world whence 
by his bountiful grace and goodness I receaved the same 

* * doe by these presents make pronounce and de- 
clare this my last will and testament in * * * and 
forme followynge 

That is to say I surrende my soule into the handes of 
almig * * * god beseechynge him of his infinite 
mercy and for the * * * and passion of his son 
* * * Jesus Christ our Lord and Saviour to recave 
the same into the everlasting fellowship of God * * * 
blessed presence whensoever it shall please his * * * 
eternytie to * * * my * * * bodye from this 
transitorie life and my bodye to be buried in the church 
yarde of the psh church of North Curry aforesaid Itm. 
I give to the pish church of North Curry lOd Itm I 
give to the Almshouse at Taunton 3d Itm I gyve to the 
almshouse at Langport 6d Itm I give to each of my god- 
children 3d Itm I give to each of the two maydens 
now in my house 12d Itm I give to syx of John Mailer 
als Brodforde his children six chilver lambs the said six 
lambs to be delivered at midsomer next insuing the date 
hereof Itm. I gyve to the same John Mailer als Brodforde 
two bushells of wheat and two bushells of barley and my 
Hutt ? * * * and one pigg * * * shall please 
my son John Balch to bestowe upon him Itm. I * * * 
all my lease house grounds which have yet to run in ye 
Burgage and grounds and tenements situate lying and 
being in Newport and Wrauntadge unto John Balch my 


son and to the issue of his bodye lawfully to be begot- 
ten and in defaulte of such issue of the bodye of my son 
John Balch lawfully to be begotten the remainder to 
John Mailer als. Brodforde and after him the said John 
Mailer the remainder to Richard Mailer als. Brodforde 
son of the said John Mailer and in default of issue of 
the body of the said Richard Mailer als Broforde the re- 
mainder thereof to Thomas Mailer als. Brodforde and 
his heirs and assigns during the said term yet to come 
and unexpired. Itm. all the residue of my goods here- 
tofore not given or bequeathed unto John Balch my son 
whom I ordain and make my full and whole executor 
in witness hereunto Robert Crouch and William Foster 
with others." 

Thomas Balch and his wife, Agnes, had two chil- 
dren : — 

2. I. Joan Balch. 
2. II. John Balch. 

2. I. Joan Balch was baptized at North Curry 
November 2d, 1562, and died young. 

2. II. John Balch was baptized at North Curry 
August 6th, 1564, and buried there May 20th, 1639. 
In October, 1586, he was one of the "pyckes" of the 
Hundred of North Curry who were trained by Sir 
John Stawell, at Bridgwater to help repel the 
expected Spanish Armada. 68 He married at North 

88 "The names of the ccc shott and pyckes trayned by Sir John 
Stawell, Knight, at Bridgwater the viiith day of October in the 
xxviiith year of her maties Raigne Anno Domini 1586." The Prep- 
arations in Somerset against the Spanish Armada by Samuel Green, 
F. S. A.; London, 1888, pages 87, 90. 


Curry February 23d, 1595, Eleanor Halsey. They 
had four children: — 

3. I. Thomas Balch. 

3. II. John Balch. 

3. III. Joan Balch. 

3. IV. Robert Balch. 
3.1. Thomas Balch was baptized at North Curry 
June 6th, 1602. He went to Wadham College, Ox- 
ford, where he received the B. A. degree June 27th, 
(sic) 1626, and the M. A. July 9th, 1630. 59 He was 
a Deacon, September 22d, 1627, of Bristol Cathedral; 
for a time he was schoolmaster at Tavistock, Devon, 
and June 21st, 1643, he was inducted as Vicar of 
Dulverton, Somerset, where he was buried July 23d, 
1648. During the Civil War he seems to have 
favored King Charles's cause. By his will which 
here follows, he divided his estate equally between 
his wife and sons. 

" In the name of God Amen The tenth day of July Tm Thome 
in the yeare of our Lord God one thousand six hundred 
forty and eight I Thomas Balch 60 Vicar of Dulverton in 
the County of Somersett being weake of body but of 
pfect memory and understanding doe make and or- 
dayne this my last Will and Testament in manner and 
forme following. Inprimis I Comend my sould to All- 
mighty God who made it and in Christ redeemed it. And 
my body to Christian buriell in an assured hope of a 

69 Alumni Oxonienses: The Members of the University of Oxford, 
1500-1714; by Joseph Foster, Parker and Co., Broad Street, Oxford, 

,0 Prerogative Court of Canterbury. 130 Essex. 


joyfull and glorious resurrection. Item I give unto the 
poore of Dulverton aforesaid one pound to be distributed 
the day of my funerall Item I give unto my daughter 
Elianor thirty pounds unto the fifty pound which M r . 
Cruso gave unto her and I have receaved for her, soe 
that her porcon in all is eighty pound. Item I give 
unto my brother Robert Balche all my sermons and 
manuscripts Item I give unto my brother John Balch 
the money which Robert Perry doth owe and all the 
money which he himselfe doth owe me, excepting one 
bond of tenn pounds which money my will is he shall 
keepe four yeares longer soe that he give in new security 
to my Executo rs hereafter menconed for the true pay- 
ment of it at the times. Item I give unto Elianor the 
daughter of my brother John Balch one pound. Item 
I give unto my brother Edward Halsey one pound. 
Item I give unto Phillipp Perry tenn-shillings, to George 
Hill one pound, to Elizabeth Taramy tenn shillings. 
Item I give unto my Sisters Sarah and Anne Byom one 
pound a peece. Item I give unto my sonne ffrancis 
Balch tenn pounds over and above his portion hereafter 
menconed. Item my Will is that all the rest of my 
goods and Chattells (debts and legacies being paid) be 
duely estimated and sold by my said Executo rs and 
devided into five equall parts whereof I give one 
part to Elizabeth my wife and the other four parts to 
my four sonns ffrancis, John Thomas and Robert. Item 
my will is that my said Executo rs shall have power to 
take the said portions given to my saide children or any 
part or porcon of them and shall disburse in the 
purchase of some living or lease for lives or yeares, 
for the lives of ffrancis John and Thomas my sonns, 
And my will is that such living soe purchased shall be 


imployed partly for the maintenance and education of the 
said children, and partly for the raysing up of the por- 
cons laid out in the purchase. And for the remaynder 
of the said estate I leave itt to the discretion of my said 
Executors to leave it to which of the children they shall 
thincke most fitt. Item if I in my life time shall pur- 
chase any such estate, my will is, that my said Execu- 
tors shall have power to pay out of the said porcons 
such somes as shall be left unpaid at the time of my 
death for and toward the use aforesaid. Item my 
will is that my said Executo rs shall have power to imploye 
the said porcons of my said children or any part of them 
for the placing of them in schooles of learning or bindinge 
them out Apprentices as they shall see fittest for them. 
Item my will is that if any of my children die before 
they come to the age of one and twenty yeares, that 
then their whole porcons or what shall remayne not 
disposed of shall be equally devided and given to the 
surviving children. Lastly I doe ordaine and constitute 
Elizabeth my wife M r . John Byon my father in lawe 
M r . Samuell Periam my brother in lawe M r . Robert Balch 
my brother to be Executors in trust of this my last Will 
and Testament, and for their paynes I give unto each 
of them twentie shillings to buy a ringe, and satisfaction 
out of my estate for what expense they shall be at in 
pformance of this said trust. In Wittness whereof I 
have sett my hand and Seale the day and yeare above 
written. Thomas Balch./ Sealed published and de- 
livered in the presence of Ro: Sydenhm George Peppin, 
John Grase." 

At the time this will was proved it was endorsed 
as follows: — 


" Probatum fuit Testamentum suprascriptum apud 
London Coram venli viro dno Nathanaele Brent milite 
legum dcore Curie Prerogative Mro sive Custode ltime 
constitut Undecimo die Mensis Septembris Anno Dni 
Millmo Sexcenmo Quadragesimo Octavo Jurament Eliza- 
bethan Balch relce dci def et unius Execut in hmoi tes- 
tamento noiat Cui Comissa fuit Administraco oium et 
singulorum bonorum jurium et creditorum dci def de 
bene et fidelr administrand eadem Ad sea Dei Evan- 
gelia Vigore Comissionis in ea parte emanat jurat. 
Reservata ptate similem Comissionem faciend Johanni 
Byam Samueli Perriam et Robto Balch Executor fiduciar 
in testamento pred etiam noiat cum venerint seu eorum 
alter venerit eand petitur." 

The Rev. Thomas Balch married Elizabeth Byam, 
daughter of the Rev. John Byam, whose estate 
divers inhabitants of Dulverton sought to have 
sequestrated because, as they alleged, the Rev. John 
Byam had adhered during the Civil War to the 
King's side. But the commissioners appointed by 
Parliament to pass judgment upon cases of seques- 
tration confirmed the Rev. John Byam in his 
estate as his accusers failed to make good their 

To the honorable the Commissioners for Compounding 
with Delinquents The humble petition of the parisoners 
of Dulverton in ye County of Summerset. 61 

That whereas the parsonage of Dulverton in the 
County of Summersett being lyable to sequestration, 

el State Papers Domestic Interregnum, Volume G. 81 fo. 317. 

Vicar of Dulverton, Somersetshire. 


as part of the estate of one John Byam of the said County 
a sequestred delinquent, being granted unto him by 
the deane and Chapter of Wells by their Indenture 
bearing date the thirteenth of September, in the five- 
teenth yeere of the late King ffor three lives all which 
lives are yet in being, and whereas the said Byam hath 
prevented sequestration therof, by pretense of a lease 
made by him ye said Byam (before Cause of sequestra- 
tion) unto one Thomas Balch late of the said Dulverton 
deceased, which said Balch did often say as by the 
oaths of severall inhabitants of ye said Dulverton can 
bee proved that hee had noe interrest in the said parson- 
age notwithstanding ye said pretended lease, but that 
hee did receave the profitts thereof only as a servant 
to the said Byam: and whereas one George Pippin of 
ye said Dulverton successor of the said Balch was aboute 
nine months since questioned by the Commissioners 
of sequestrations upon the said pretended lease: and 
had by them given him a months tyme to prove the 
same and upon his desire two months more, and upon 
his further desire three months longer and yet in all 
this tyme hath not proved the same but only seekes 
delayes to the prejudice of ye Commonwealth. 

Most Humbly therfore prayes your Honors that an 
order may bee granted to the Commissioners of the 
said County forthwith to sequester the said parsonage. 
And your petitioners shall pray etc. 

Henry Seymour. Aldred Crewes. 

Endorsed] Ye petition of ye Inhabitants of Dulverton 
in ye County of Summersett. 
17 Dec, 1651. 
Byam ye def. to shew cause to us within 14 dayes 
after notice why it should not be seq d . 


To the Honorable the Commissioners for Compounding 
with Delinquents. 62 

The humble petition of Diverse of the Inhabitants 

of Dulverton in the County of Summersett. 

That upon our petition presented unto your honors 
aboute five weekes since Shewing that the parsonage 
of Dulverton being lyable to sequestration as part of the 
Estate of one John Byam a sequestred delinquent, 
which by fradulent means & false pretenses of the said 
Byam, hath bin diverse yeeres kept ffrom sequestration 
to the prejudice of the Commonwealth upon reading 
of which petition itt was ordered that the said Byam 
should shew cause within 14 dayes after notice why 
the said parsonage should not bee sequestred otherwise 
an order to issue out to sequester the same : since which 
tyme the sayd Byam hath shewed noe Cause more 
than his petition putt in to make longer delayes and to 
abuse & delude your Honors with all being as full of false- 
hood as words: as by the originall orders of the Com- 
mittee by which ye said Byam was sequestred in June, 
1646 doth appeare, & where as hee sayeth in his petition 
that hee conveyed away the said parsonage unto Thomas 
Balch in ye yeere 1649, wee know to bee noe lesse false 
then ye Rest of his petition, ffor to our knowledg the 
said Thomas Balch was Buried the twenty third day 
of July, 1648. 

Your petitioners therfore Humbly pray that acording 
to your fformer order an order may issue out forthwith 
to sequester the said parsonage that the Commonwealth 

62 State Papers Domestic Interregnum, Volume G. 81 fo. 319. 


may bee noe longer prejudiced by such false and fraud- 
ulent pretenses & your petitioners shall pray. 

Henry Seymour 
Aldred Cruse. 
[Endorsed] Dulverton Inhabitants 
rec d 14 Feb., 1651. 

By the Commissioners ffor Compounding with De- 
linquents, 17 December, 165 1. 63 

Upon the petition of the parishoners of Dulverton 
in the County of Summersett alledging that the parson- 
age of Dulverton which is lyable to sequestration ffor the 
delinquency of John Byam of ye said County is kept 
ffrom sequestration upon pretence of a lease made by 
him to one Thomas Balch who is since dead, and his 
pretended right Claymed by one George Pippin who 
as is alledged hath had severall months given him to 
make out his title and hath not don the same itt is 
therfore ordered that the said John Byam doe within 
foureteene dayes after notice heereof shew cause to us 
why the said parsonage should not bee sequestred 
otherwise an order to issue out to sequester the same. 
Samuell Moyer, Edward Winslow. 
William Mollings 
Richard Moore. 

To the Hono ble ye Com rs for Compounding w th 
Delinq. ts The Humble peticon of John Byam 
of Clatworthy in ye County of Somersett, Clerke. 64 

That by peticon presented to yo r hono. rs by some of the 
parishoners of Dulverton in the said County of Somsett 

63 State Papers Domestic Interregnum. Volume G. 81, fo. 321. 
84 State Papers Domestic Interregnum. Volume G. 81 fo. 323. 


yo r pet r was required by yo r Order beareing date ye 
17th of Dec r last hereunto annexed to shew Cause why 
the psonage of Dulverton aforesaid should not be seq. d 
for his delinq. cy and that he should shew Cause to ye 
Contrary thereof w° h yo r pet r is able sufficiently to doe, 
for he never adhered to or any way assisted ag* the pliam' 
or did any Act w ch may bring him w th in the Compasse 
of Seq. con And besides in ye year 1649 for valuable Con- 
sideracon he Conveyed away the said psonage to Thomas 
Balch who since sold the same to Thomas Pippin as by 
severall Deeds of Purchase ready to be produced will 
appeare as alsoe by the peticoner his just manifestacon 
concerning ye same under his hand hereunto annexed 
w** he is ready further to make appeare by oath to yo r 
Com." in the Cuntrey being aged about 70 yeares and 
not able to travile. 

Yo. r pet. r therefore humbly praies y* the said Pur- 
chasers may quietly enjoy ye said Parsonage of Dulver- 
ton and that yo r pet r & them may bee dismissed from 
farther trouble & attendance concerning the same. 
And he shall pray &c. 
John Byam. 
By the Com. rs for Compounding &c. 
28° Januarii 1651? 5 

Upon the peticon of John Byam of Clatworthy in the 
County of Somersett Clerke (a Coppie whereof is here- 
unto annexed & attested by our Reg. r ) And upon pe- 
rusall of our order of ye 17th of Decemb last grounded 
upon a peticon presented in ye name of ye pishoners of 
Dulverton in ye said County of Somset whereby wee 

65 State Papers Domestic Interregnum. Volume G. 81 fo. 325. 

(In Volume G. 15 pages 140 and 228 there are copies of the above.) 


ordered y* ye said John Byam should within fourteen 
daies after notice shew cause to us why ye psonage of 
Dulverton should not be seq. d otherwise an order to 
issue forth to seq. r the same. Now for y t he hath ac- 
cordingly fyled his peticon herenow read sheweing cause 
why ye same should not be seq. d , And not any pson 
appeareing to make good w* is alleadged in ye said 
peticon of y e pishon rs of Dulverton. It is therefore 
Ordered y* ye peticoner be discharged & ye purchasers 
of ye said psonage pmitted to enjoy ye same w th out 
interrupcon if ye Com rs for seq cons in ye said County 
of Somsett can say nothing against it whereof they are 
to take notice & all other psons whom it concernes. 

14 March. 51 
judgem. 1 being given in the Case 
already the Com. rs can do nothing 
further in the Case. 

To the Honorable Commissioners for Compound- 
ing &c. 66 
In obedience to yo T order, & to give you satisfacon 
touching the peticon of some few of the pishioners of 
Dulverton (To omitte my p r tended delinquency) w ch 
all the world canot prove against mee, & the sequestra- 
con w th out cause w ch I feele to sensibly in mee & mine, 
& the implacable hatred of those Informers against mee 
for Sixteene yeares & more through my opposinge theire 
pretended customes, & overthrowing them in Chancery 
& Comon Law, when I was somtimes Viccar theire, & 
the joyninge of one Henry Seamo r now Viccar of the 
saide Dulverton with them against mee, for no other 
cause but for reproving his idle & evill courses, (to omitt 

86 State Papers Domestic Interregnum. Volume G. 68, fo. 695. 


all this) though all this bee moste true) as lookeing or 
hoping for no advantage att all by thease things: (I say) 
where as yt is aleaged that the psonage of Dulverton is 
kept from sequestracon under pretence of a Lease made 
by mee unto Tho: Balch deceased, That the saide Tho: 
Balch had a real lease by the advise of Counsell learned 
in the Law, made over unto him by myself under my 
hand & seale, & delivered as my act & deede for divers 
causes & consideracons theire in expressed, bearing date 
1639 ; the w° h he convaied being doubtfull of his life, hav- 
ing beene long sicke of a dropsy, unto his brother in Law 
George Pippin, after he had 8 yeares or there aboutes, 
quietly enjoyed the same, since w° h time by the mallice 
of the foresaid pishioners, he hath been questioned be- 
fore the Comittee, & since before the Comissioners for 
this County of Somersett, for the saide Lease, where in 
he hath given such satisfacon as the Com (as I am in- 
formed) doe rest contented & have accepted at his 
hands, untyll yt shall otherwise appeare unto them: 
And this is enough (as I conceive) & as much as can & 
may be said herein, though I believe my neglect in an- 
swering if theire had been any, would not bee cause to 
sequester another mans knowne right. This is as much 
as I can say, & unto this I will depose; And I beseech 
yo r Hono rs not to finde fault with my answere for want 
of forme, for I am a poore man, & canot pay a Counselor 
or Advocate to draw yt up as you may expect, but I 
know how to sett forth the truth in plaine words, w° h I 
doubt not but you will favorably receive att the hands of 

yo r humble servant 

John Byam. 
[Endorsed] John Byam's Pet. 

rec. d 20 Jan. 1651 (2) 
28 Jan. 1651. 


The Rev. Thomas Balch and his wife, Elizabeth 
By am, had several children as follows: — 

4. I. Francis Balch, baptized at Tavistock, 
Devon, May 19th, 1641. 67 He matric- 
ulated at Oxford University, Magde- 
len Hall, July 12th, 1661. 68 

4. II. John Balch, baptized at Tavistock, May 
22d, 1642. 69 He lived at first at 
Spitalfields, County Middlesex, and 
afterwards at Stephney in the same 
county. His will was proved in 1682. 
He married Katherine Wheeler, who 
died August 30th, 1769. They had a 
daughter, Elizabeth Balch. 

4. III. Thomas Balch, baptized at Dulverton, 
July 9th, 1646; he was living in 1648. 

4. IV. Robert Balch, "gent.," matriculated at 

Oxford University, St. Alban Hall, 

June 3rd, 1668. 70 

3. II. John Balch was baptized at North Curry 

September 23rd, 1604; his will was proved at Wells, 

B7 " 1641, May 19, Francis the Sonne of Mr. Thomas Balch, school- 
master of this town was baptized." Parish of Tavistock, County 
Devon, Register of Baptisms. Letter of the Rev. Henry G. Le Neven, 
Rector of Tavistock, November 23rd, 1904. 

^Alumni Oxonienses: The Members of the University of Oxford, 
1500-1714, by Joseph Foster, Oxford, 1891. 

60 " 1642, May 22, John the Sonne of Mr. Thomas Balch, school- 
master baptized." Parish of Tavistock, County Devon, Register of 
Baptisms. Letter of the Rev. Henry E. Le Neven, Rector of Tavi- 
stock, November 23rd, 1904. 

70 Alumni Oxonienses : The Members of the University of Oxford, 
1500-1714, by Joseph Foster, Oxford, 1891. 


1671, by his wife Margaret Balch. He married 
first at North Curry, November 26th, 1632, Joan 

Browne, and secondly Margaret . By his first 

wife he had seven children: — 

4. I. John Balch, baptized at North Curry in 
1643 and died in the same year. 

4. II. Eleanor Balch, baptized in 1633 and liv- 
ing in 1671. 

4. III. Thomasine Balch, baptized in 1636. 

4. IV. Joan Balch, baptized in 1638, died 1639. 

4. V. John Balch, died 1652. 

4. VI. Amy Balch, named in her father's will, 

3. III. Joan Balch, born and died at North Curry 
in 1609. 

3. IV. Robert Balch, third son and youngest child 
of John Balch of North Curry, yeoman, was baptized 
there March 29th, 1607. He studied at Merton 
College, 71 Oxford, where he received the B. A. 
degree June 21st, 1632, and the M. A. in 1635. 
From 1641 to Christmas, 1653, he was head master of 
Sherborne Grammar School; he served as rector 
of Bleadon, Somerset. His will is dated 1655. 
He married Frances , who in 1658 was re- 
corded as widow and executrix. They had four 
children : — 

71 Alumni Oxonienses: The Members of the University of Oxford, 
1500-1/14; by Joseph Foster, Oxford, 1891. 


I. Robert Balch, born circa 1654, studied 
at Wadham College, Oxford, where he 
received the B. A. degree in 1673 and 
the M. A. in 1676. He was a fellow of 
the University in 1676, a proctor in 
1680 and subwarden in 1685. 72 

All three minors 
in 1655: Two mar- 

4. II. Katherine Balch, 
4. III. Elizabeth Balch, 
4. IV. Joan Balch, 

ried before 1682, 
one a Merriman, 
one a Vining, and 
all three were liv- 
ing in 1682. 


This group, which was probably settled at Bridg- 
water before Elizabeth began to reign in 1558, was 
connected, doubtless, with William Balch who was 
living in 1327 not far from Bridgwater at Purye 
in the Hundred of North Perton or Pertherton. 
The records of the church of Saint Mary the Virgin 
at Bridgwater tell us that Eleanor Balch was buried 
there on January 20th, 1570, John Balch was mar- 
ried to Avice Popham April 19th, 1574, Isable Balch 
was married to Thomas Smyth January 30th, 1579, 
and Avice Balch was buried April 17th, 1585. The 
early entries are not complete. But about the 

72 Alumni Oxonienses: The Members of the University of Oxford, 
1500-1714; by Joseph Foster, Oxford, 1891, 


middle of the seventeenth century two brothers 
(1. A) Robert Balch and (1. B) George Balch were 
living at Bridgwater. 73 

1. A. Robert Balch, who was born in 1631, married 
three times; first he married at Bridgwater, Mary 
Tuck, September 18th, 1660, she died January 28th, 

1672 — secondly, he married Susanna , her will 

is dated at Taunton in 1677, and she died March 
22, 1677 — and third he married Elizabeth Everard, 
who was living in 1704 at the time of his death. 
Robert Balch was Mayor of Bridgwater in 1689 
and 1696, and his name is among the names of 
Mayors painted in the Town Hall; he represented 
the Borough in Parliament in 169 1-2. 74 He died 
in April, 1705, and was buried on the 20th of the 
month in the seventy -fifth year of his age. He, 
like many of his family, is buried at Bridgwater in 
the church of Saint Mary the Virgin, and like the 
Horton, North Curry and Higham Balches, was a 
member of the English Protestant Church. Robert 
Balch by his first wife had seven children, and by 
his second wife one child that was living March 
26th, 1677. The seven children of Robert Balch 
and his first wife, Mary Tuck, were: — 

73 The facts and information about this '• group " were furnished 
in part by the Rev. Dr. Arthur H. Powell, Vicar of Bridgwater and 
Rural Dean, and the Rev. W. M. K. Warren, curate of Bridgwater, 
from the Bridgwater registers. The known records do not show 
which, Robert or George Balch, was the older. 

74 Members of Parliament: Ordered by the House of Commons to be 
printed, I March 1878, Part I., page 568. 

1— 1 






(— 1 
















— f 






2. I. Robert Balch, baptized at Bridgwater 
September 8th, 1661, and died June 
13th, 1682. 

2. II. Mary Balch, baptized at Bridgwater 
July 14th, 1663. She married on 
April 14th, 1685, John Harvey at 
Chilton Trinity. She was living a 
widow in Janttary 1736. 

2. III. George Balch. 

2. IV. Elizabeth Balch, baptized September 
27th, 1665. 

2. V. John Balch, died May 2nd, 1673. 

2. VI. Ann Balch, married Bartholomew 

2. VII. Hannah Balch, died September 28th, 


2. III. George Balch was baptized at Bridgwater 
November 16th, 1667. He was Mayor of the town 
in 1699 and 1709, and his name appears among the 
list of the Mayors whose names are painted in the 
Town Hall. He represented the Borough in Par- 
liament from 1700 to 1708. 75 He was buried in 
January, 1738. He married Susanna Everard. 
They had eleven children in all: — 

3. I. John Balch, born 1697. 

3. II. Elizabeth Balch, baptized March 14th, 

7o Members of Parliament: Ordered by the House of Commons to 
be printed, I March 1878, Part I,, page 603, Part II., page 5. 


3. III. Henry Balch, baptized June 5th, 1701. 
3. IV. Robert Balch. 

3. V. George Balch, baptized at Bridgwater 
March 14th, 1700. 

3. VI- XI. Six children who died infants among 

whom were Robert Balch, buried 
June 17th, 1682, and John Balch, 
died April 4th, buried April 9th, 1696. 

3. I. John Balch was born at Bridgwater and 
baptized April 18th, 1697. He was buried Nov- 
ember 14th, 1732. He married on October 14th, 

1723, in Wells Cathedral, Amy Bart. They had:— 

4. I. Robert Balch, born 1724-25. 

4. II. Amy Balch, born in 1725, and died 

April 18th, 1726. 
4. III. Elizabeth Balch, born in 1726, and died 

July 22nd, 1729. 
4. IV. Amy Balch, born in 1727-8, and died 

April 6th, 1728. 

4. I. Robert Balch was born January 3rd, 

1724, and died on April 15th, 1779. He was elected 
to represent the Borough in Parliament in 1753. 
In 1764 he bought the landed estate of Saint Audries 
in northwestern Somersetshire. In the Diary of 
George Bubb Dodington, Baron of Melcombe Regis, 
dated from 1749 to 1761, there are references to 
this member of the Balch family a propos of an 
electoral dispute in which Dodington was concerned. 


j>*" ; 



/ * 

• -# 




ft : 

4 '»• * 


i wm v-v 



' ,: ^FS$^ 


Bridgwater, Somersetshire. 



"From the Diary of the late George Bubb Dodington 
Baron of Melcombe Regis: From March 8, 1749, 
to February 6, 1761." London 8 ov 1785. 

"I received an account from Bridgewater that, at Oct. n, 1752. 
the Mayor's feast, Mr. Balch, who was present, was 
declared candidate to succeed Mr. Poulett. I sent an 
abstract of the letter, with one of my own, to Mr. Pel- 

" Saw Mr. Pelham, and spoke to him about this sudden Oct. 13, 1752. 
event at Bridgewater. He agreed that it was wholly 
Earl Poulett 's fault, in not determining and recommend- 
ing somebody sooner. He seemed to be well enough 
satisfied, from the character I had given him of Mr. 

"Came on the election, which I lost by the injustice April 17, 1754. 
of the Returning Officer. The numbers were, for Lord 
Egmont 119, for Mr. Balch 114, for me 105. Of my 
good votes, 15 were rejected: 8 bad votes for Lord 
Egmont were received." 

"At home I found a letter from Mr. Balch, acquaint- May 29, 1754. 
ing me that he had brought Mr. Burroughs with him, 
to lay the Bridgewater business before the Ministry." 

"We went to town before dinner. I told Messrs. May 30, 1754. 
Balch and Burroughs, that having laid the whole affair 
before the Duke of Newcastle upon my arrival, and he 
having assured me, that he would appoint a time to go 
through and settle it, which he had neglected to do, I 
would not go to him : but I advised them to wait on him, 


and that I thought the best way would be, that Mr. 
Balch should write a note to acquaint his Grace, that 
he had brought Mr. Burroughs with him, who, in con- 
junction with himself, was best able to give him an 
account of the injustice the whole party laboured under, 
who thought themselves well entitled to his Grace's 
protection, in obtaining that justice, which they were 
determined to prosecute; therefore desired to know 
when they might wait on him, to lay that whole transac- 
tion before him." 

June i, 1754. "Waited on the Duke of Dorset. Mr. Balch resolved 
to write the note I advised (of which I gave him a draught) 
and send it that night." 

June 3, 1754. "Went to the Duke of Dorset's, and acquainted 
him with my situation with the Ministry. Went to the 
House. Mr. West desired to speak with me — said 
that Mr. Balch had written to the Duke of Newcastle 
(which letter he shewed me) who had appointed to 
see him on Thursday; but the Duke desired to see me 
first. I told him, that I would go to him to-morrow." 

June 4, 1754. "Went early to the Duke of Newcastle's. He told 
me that he had received a letter from Mr. Balch, but 
desired to advise with me, before he saw him: that 
nothing was settled, or he should have sent to me long 
before: that he was against multiplying petitions, for 
reasons obvious to me: that he knew nothing of Lord 
Egmont; but had heard that he sometimes talked as if 
he was willing to battle it: that if it should be made a 
point, he did not know, if we were certain of carrying 
it : that Lord Egmont would make a party : that possibly, 
the Princess might wish he should be let alone, or at 


least, that those of the late Prince's servants might be 
for him. I said, that I had laid this affair before him 
already; that he knew, I had pushed it in the country 
with such an expence and trouble, and so absolutely, 
considering it a service which the King (as his brother 
told me) wished: that it had cost me 3,400^ that I was 
fairly chosen, nor would the Returning Officer have 
dared not to return me, had he not been encouraged 
by the servants of the administration: that the borough 
was lost solely by a Lord of the Bedchamber and the 
Custom-house Officers: that they might retrieve it, or 
not, just as they pleased; leave it in Tory hands, or 
recover it, get rid of Lord Egmont, as an opponent, 
or keep him in, as a friend, I should neither be satisfied 
or dissatisfied with it, I should not be obliged by the 
one, or disobliged by the other. I dealt clearly with 
him, and desired to be understood without any am- 
biguity: I had told him this before, and my opinion 
and resolution was the same. He said, he acknowledged 
it, and desired me to advise what was to be done. I 
told him, I could not advise, because I did not know 
the truth of my own situation ; it was time to come to a 
full explanation upon that head, for it must come to a 
decision: that I had done all the services in my power, 
and spent very great sums, of all which they, now, 
had the benefit; that I had made no bantering bargains, 
but had done it frankly, with a plain, avowed, and ac- 
cepted intention to take off the edge of the King's ill- 
grounded resentment, and prove my attachment to 
his Grace ; to shew myself his immediate friend. * * * 
A few lines were in this place torn, by an accident, 
from the Manuscript. * * * I replied, it must 
come to a conclusion, one way or another: after ac- 


cepting both offer and execution of all I could do, I 
was to remain under an absolute proscription, and 
exclusion from all favour, that every other subject of 
my rank might justly expect, I must do as I could, but 
it must be explained and fully. He said, he himself 
liked to deal explicitly, and to understand clearly what 
was expected: that he had laid my services before the 
King in the best manner he could; though some people 
(of whom he would inform me afterwards) had en- 
deavored to insinuate to his Majesty, that I had not 
the power I pretended to at Weymouth. I asked him, 
if he himself did not tell me in that room, that he had 
declared to the King, that the borough was redelivered 
into my hands, on the express condition to take his 
election of two, for that time only? * * * this 
being the opposite side of the leaf, which was mentioned 
before to have been torn, a few lines are also here want- 
ing. * * * he would do it in the best manner he 
was able: that it had been insinuated, and he had not 
said, expressly, that he would; but had not said, he 
would not: that if I had my view upon any particular 
thing, or office, he would move it, and try to get it, in 
the most cordial manner. I said, as to going to the 
King, I would pospone that consideration for a minute: 
that, as to the last, he well knew I never thought of 
making bargains, that I left that matter totally to him. 
He said, that there were few things that a man of my 
rank coud accept, and that none of them were vacant: 
I said, it was true, but I did not impute that to him. 
that as he was at the head of the Treasury, I should 
chuse a seat there, if it was vacant, sooner than any 
thing, but I could not take that; at the same time I 
begged he would observe, that I did not expect to be 


Privy Seal, if Lord Gower should die; that I did not 
come to make bargains for this, or that thing, or time; 
he had forced me, before I went into the West to say, 
that Sir Thomas Robinson's office, or my own again 
(both which were then vacant) I should like very well; 
he gave them away without considering me. I desired 
nobody to be removed, much less to die. He must 
think that 2000^ a year would not make my fortune, 
with one foot in the grave : that as to rank, I had heard 
that the King was odd about titles : that I had as much 
respect for the Peerage as any man, but he could not 
but see, that, in my situation, without succession or 
collateral, a Peerage to me, was not worth the expence 
of new painting my coach: that I desired to pass my 
life as his attached friend and servant, persuaded that 
he would, as such, do me favourable justice the first 
opportunity that offered. He said, that he understood 
me very well: that I could have no competitor in the 
House of Commons; I expected then any employment 
that I could take, which should first fall; and added, I 
suppose you will be disobliged, if you have not the 
very first that falls. I demurred a little at the oddness 
and bluntness of the proposition, and did not well con- 
ceive the intention of it, but after a little pause, said, — 
that is a hard word, my Lord, I do not absolutely say 
that. There may be, possibly, reasons that my real 
friendship for him might make me acquiesce in; I will 
not say so hard a word at once; the case will speak 
itself, but it must come to a positive issue — and now, 
my Lord, I must resume the offer your Grace made of 
going immediately to the King, to demand a categorical 
answer, whether he be determined, after all I have 
done and spent for his service (of which he now reaps 


the utility) to suffer no return to be made me, when 
opportunity throws it in the way, but to exclude me 
from all the advantages I am entitled to, in common 
with the rest of his subjects, both of my rank and my 
services? As to his resolution, it must be known, but 
as you profess your sincere desire, that I should be 
properly considered, it lies upon you to do it in the 
best manner, and at the properest time: I do not pre- 
scribe to morrow or the next day, this week or the next ; 
but as this is the only obstacle, it must be known, ab- 
solutely, and in a reasonable time: if I am proscribed 
from amongst all my fellow-subjects, I must, and shall 
submit to the King's pleasure with all possible respect: 
but as your Grace has re-assured me, that you have 
represented what I have done, fairly and favourable 
to him ; till I know it from your Grace, I cannot believe 
that so just and generous a Prince would accept a poor 
subject's offers of service, and suffer him to carry them 
into execution, at so great an expence, with a resolution 
absolutely to exclude him from all sorts of common 
favour. I thought it would be what never happened 
before, or to me only. He said, he would do everything 
in his power, and did not imagine it could end so. I 
told him, that I heartily wished it might not, but it 
must end one way or another, it must not remain as 
it was ; for I was determined to make some sort of figure 
in life : I earnestly wished it might be under his protection, 
but if that could not be, I must make some figure ; what 
it would be, I could not determine yet; I must look 
around me a little, and consult my friends, but some 
figure I was resolved to make. He said, he would do 
his best to settle it to my satisfaction; he did not think 
it could end in a proscription. I said, I ought to hope 


so, for my own sake ; but if he should not be able to ob- 
tain common indulgence for a friend, whom he favoured 
and thought useful, and who had given such convincing 
proofs of his utility, I should be sorry for myself indeed, 
but I should also be sorry for him too; it was being 
upon a very indiferent footing indeed, I should therefore 
be very sorry for it, upon his account, as well as my 
own. He said, he would do his utmost to prevent it 
from coming to that, for, now, he understood me thor- 
oughly. He then desired that we might advise to- 
gether about the Bridgewater affair. I said, I thought 
that all attempts to quiet the Whig party there would 
be vain, without beginning to turn out the officers. 
He seemed very unwilling to go so far; and at last said, 
that he knew I was a man of honour, and he would 
trust me with a secret, which I must never reveal, not 
even to the Duke of Dorset ; and then, after a multitude 
of precautions, and exacting engagements of honour 
from me not to divulge it: he told me, that the truth 
was, that he had a mind that this petition should not 
go on; and if I could assist him in bringing it about, 
he should be much obliged to me: — but if it should be 
known, it would be reported and believed that he had 
made up with Lord Egmont, which was by no means 
true; for, upon his honour, he had neither spoken to 
him, or seen him, or had any negociation with him; 
for he knew very well, that if the King was informed 
that the town was resolved to petition, and there were 
the least grounds to throw out Lord Egmont, he would 
order him to push it with the utmost vehemence. I 
said, I had often told him it was no cause of mine; be 
it how it should, I should not take it as a matter of 
payment or dissatisfaction: that I would certainly keep 


his secret, which, however, every body would see through, 
if no justice was done: that I would do all I could with 
Mr. Balch and the town, to quiet them; but that, with- 
out punishing the officers, I feared he would find it 
impracticable, which he would better judge of when 
he saw Messrs. Balch and Burroughs on Thursday. 
What, if he offered the alternative, and tried to make 
the giving up the officers, the price of dropping all 
farther proceedings? He said, it was a good thought, 
and he must scramble off as well as he could. So we 
parted, with usual protestations." 

June 6, 1754. " I saw Messrs. Balch and Burroughs, who had been at 
the Duke of Newcastle's. His Grace had talked them 
over, but nothing positive, not so much as punishing 
the offenders, but he told Mr. Balch that he would send 
Lord Dupplin to him — While they were with me, Lord 
Dupplin was at Mr. Balch's, and soon after they met, 
talked very amicable, and agreed to meet here on Teus- 
day. This haste to see Mr. Balch, was in order to learn 
all he could, that he might talk it over with the Duke 
at Clermont, between Saturday and Teusday." 

June 13. "I saw Messrs. Balch and Burroughs, who had been 
with the Duke of Newcastle, and were promised by him, 
in the strongest terms, that our party should be sup- 

Robert Balch married Susanna Everard, who was 
born in 1724 and died in 1767. They had nine chil- 
dren: — 

5. I. Robert Everard Balch, born in 1745, 
died young. 


5. II. Robert Everard Balch, born 1746, 

died young. 
5. III. Robert Everard Balch, of Saint Au- 

5. IV. Susanna Balch, died young. 
5. V. Susanna Balch, died in 1767. 
5. VI. Elizabeth Balch married the Rev. R. 

Chambre of Thornton, County 

5. VII. Frances Amy Balch, married G. Ward 

of New Castle-upon-Tyne. 
5. VIII. Christina Balch, born in 1759, and 

died unmarried at Saint Audries 

in 1824. 
5. IX. George Balch of Saint Audries. 

5. III. Robert Everard Balch, of Saint Audries, 
was born in 1754 and died in 1799. 76 He was 
named July 17th, 1787, a Justice for Somerset, 
and he was also a Major of the Somerset militia 
and one of the subscribers to Collinson's History 
of Somerset, published at Bath in 1791. 

5. IX. George Balch of Saint Audries was born 
November 18th, 1762, and died in 18 14," and was 
buried at Bridgwater January 14th. Like his brother 
Robert, he subscribed for Collinson's History of 

76 Gentleman's Magazine, 1799, Volume LXIX., page 622. 
" Gentleman's Magazine, March, 1814, Volume LXXXIV., page 


Somerset. In 1805 he had some correspondence 
with the Rev. Dr. S. B. Balch of Georgetown, D. C. 78 
Sir Alexander Acland Hood, Bart., M. P., the 
present owner of Saint Audries, writes: 

"January 7, 1904. 
"St. Audries, Bridgwater. 

"My Dear Sir: — I am afraid I have not a great deal 
of information here about the Balch Family. 

"This estate was bought in 1764 by Mr. George Balch 
of Bridgwater, who was succeeded by his son Robert 
Evered, who died 1799, and was succeeded by his 
brother George, who died 1810, who was succeeded by 
his sister Christiana, who died in 1824, leaving the es- 
tate to her heir-at-law, Robert Harvey, who sold it to 
my Grandfather, Sir Peregrine Acland. I wish I could 
tell you more. When I was a boy many old people 
here remembered Miss Christiana Balch well, and spoke 
of her with great affection and regard. 

"The proper place for your Book is the County Mu- 
seum at the Castle, Taunton, where I am sure your Book 
would be much valued, especially as, curiously enough, 
it occupies the Hall in which Judge Jeffreys held the 
'Bloody Assize' after Monmouth's Rebellion. 
"Yours very truly, 

"T. W. Balch, Esq. 

"The address is 

'Hon. Secretary 

Somerset Archaeological Society 
The Castle, Taunton.'" 

78 These letters were burnt in the fire that destroyed Dr. Balch's 
house in 1831. 

.5.5 p2t1&3-3 s : = T3 : '* Ay t-* w * c -*^ £r .- »«■ 



Returning to (1. B) George Balch, who with his 
brother Robert (see page 62) was living in Bridg- 
water about the middle of the seventeenth century, 
it is known he was buried there in the church of 
Saint Mary the Virgin on March 26th, 1678. His 
will and the inventory of his estate, which follow, 
show that he was a leading merchant of Bridgwater. 

In the name of God Amen I George Balch of Bridg- Bridgwater 

water in the County of Somersett Mercer being weak of Testum 

J ° Georgii Balch 

Body but of perfect mind & memory do (revoking all 

others) make & ordain this my Last Will & Testament 
in Manner and form following Imprimis I committ my 
Soul to Almighty God my Maker hopeing for the par- 
don of all my Sins through the Merritt & mediation of 
Jesus Christ my Saviour & Redeemer & my Body to 
Christian buriall hopeing for a Joyfull resurrection at 
the last & great day Item I give & bequeath unto Ann 
my Wife all that estate term or terms of years that I 
now have for or by reason of my intermarriage with her 
and that I injoyed in right of her my wife Item I give & 
bequeath to the said Ann my wife my now dwelling house 
with the appurtenances for & during the term of fourteen 
years to commence from the day of my decease ; if the 
right title & interest in the said house with the appur- 
tenances I now have do so long continue) in con- 
sideracon of a Sufficient Maintenance & schooling 
of George Balch my son for & during the aforesaid 
term. And after the expiracon of the aforesaid 
fourteen years I give & bequeath the aforementioned 
house with its appurtenances unto the said George 
my son for & during the full term & time that 
shall be then to come & unexpired And also I do 


hereby desire and impower my Trusty and well beloved 
Brother & friends hereafter menconed to bargain for & 
buy my said Sons life into the aforementioned dwelling 
house I give & bequeath all my household stuff Plate 
and utensills belonging to housekeeping to my wife & 
Children now born or to be born equally to be divided 
between them & the Severall parts & proportion of each 
child to be delivered to him or her as he or they shall 
attaine the age of one & Twenty or Marry which shall 
first happen Item All the Rest of my Goods Chattalls & 
Creditts (my debts being paid & my funerall charges 
defrayed) I give and bequeath unto George my Son, 
Mary & Ann my Daughters now alive & to the Child or 
Children (my Wife may now go withall &) yet unborn 
equally to be divided between them only my Will further 
is that the cost of the life of my Son George to be bought 
into the aforemenconed house be allowed out of his pro- 
portion mencconed aforesaid And if either of my afore- 
said Children now alive & yet unborn shall happen 
to dye before either of them attain the age of one 
& Twenty or Marry that then each of their said 
proporcons so dying be equally divided & remain 
to the Survivor or Survivors of them And further 
my Will is that if it shall happen that my said Son 
George Balch shall dye before the fourteen years above 
mentioned be expired that then the Income of the 
said dwelling house for the residue and remainder of 
years then to come & unexpired be equally divided 
(after the aforemenconed fourteen years be expired) 
between my Wife & Surviving child or children And 
lastly I do request-desire & hereby impower consti- 
tute & appoint my Trusty & well beloved Brother 
Robert Balch & my Trusty & well beloved friends 


Mr. John Gardner Senior & Roger Hoar Senior to be 
my Executors in Trust for my aforesaid Wife & 
Children & and see this my Will faithfully performed 
giving them or either of them power on the death of 
either of them to chose another In Witness hereof I 
have hereunto sett my hand & Seal this Seventeenth 
day of March in the year of our Lord God according 
to the computacon of the Church of England One 
thousand Six hundred Seventy Seven. 

Signed & Published in the 

f Seal. 

presence ot A skeleton sta nding> 

FFRANCIS TUTHILL / on withering grass 

I with a dart pointed 

EDW. WHITEHEAD I downwards in the right ; 

\ hand and holding an 1 

Nathaniel Blinman. V hour glass with 

X. the left. 

[Indorsement] Bridgwater T. 
George Balch. 

Vicesimo quarto die mens Martii Anno Dni (Styl Angl) 
1678° Ad t0 omnin et singulorum bonorum &c. dicti 
defti cum Testo suo hmoi annex duran monor cetatibus 
Georgii Balch Mariae Balch et Annae Balch Legatarioru 
priulium atranoinatoru et ad aorum usum &c. concessa 
fuit p discretum virum Mgrum Jacobum Douch Clicum 
Artium Bacchum Surrum Venlis Viri Guilielmi Peirs 
sacrae Theo. ffl Dris Archini Taunton Quibusdam Roberto 
Balch et Rogero Hoare Execubus ffidejussor intranoinalis 
durand minor aetatibus dcrum Minorum et Legatarioru 
de bene et laudabilit r tuend et-educando dcos Minores 
et Legatarios durantibus eorum Minobis aetatibus ac de 
bene et fidlr adjuado bona &c. dicti defti duran: minor 
aetabus dcrum Minorum et Legatarioru et ad eorum usum 
&c. dqz Compto &c. jurat &c. salvo jura Cigus canqz. 



A true and perfect Inventory of all the Goods Chattells & 
Creditts of George Batch late of Bridgwater deceased taken 
and apprized by William Meihwyn & William Cooper 
this one & Twentyeth day of February 167f. 

Imp r . mis His wearing Apparrell . . . 
In the Little Parlour 



5 Lether Chair es, 1 Matted 

Chair & a Side Table 0001 02 

In the Celler under ye Parlour 

6 half hh Tuninger 2 little 
Barrel Is one great Stoole . . . 

one Beer horse 



0001 06 08 


In the Little Buttery 

2 Barrells, a little stool & a 
horse 0000 06 

In the Kitchen 

1 Table Board, one Presse 
one Skreen & Settle 

2 low lether Chaires 2 Matted 
Chaires 1 childs chair 

Two p r . of fire grates 1 p r of 

Andirons, 2 joynt stooles . . 
a p r . of Tongues, 2 fire panns, 

2 frying panns, 1 Jack 

3 Spitts, 1 fire fork, 1 Tosting 
Iron & other things 

Item in Bookes 0005 00 00 

006 00 00 



In the Great Buttery 1. s. 

1 Table board, 1 dresser, 1 
Iron Dripping pan and other 
Small things 0000 06 

0010 01 08 

0048 05 00 


0006 07 04 

Item 4 Potts con : 84 

at6 d 02 02 00 


73 of Brasse at 12 d . 03 13 00 

1 130 of Pewter at 8 d . 04 06 08 
193 of Plate at 5s 

In the Several Chambers 
607 of ffether Beds & Bolsters 

& pillows at 8 d 0020 04 

1 mock Bed con. 37 1 0000 12 

In the great Parlour 
18 Lether Chaires one double 
Table Board, one Side Table 
one pair of Doggs one fire 
pan & tongues, 2 Carpetts 
4 Mapps & 4 Stooles 

In the Parlour Chamber. 
7 Lether chaires, one Side 
board, one Presse, 2 Look- 
ing Glasse, 1 p r of Andirons 
1 p r . of curtains & valance, 
1 Rugg, 1 p r of Blanketts 
1 chest of Drawers & 1 Win- 
dow Curtain 

In the Passages 
6 Lether chairs 1 great timber 
chair two side Tables, one 
Chest, 1 Presse 


0007 06 08 

0002 02 06 



0006 17 00 

In the Swan Chamber 1. s. d. 

4 Lether chairs 1 Stoole 1 Side 

Table 1 chest of drawers 

2 p r . of Andirons 1 pr of 

Bellows 1 Standing Bed- 
stead 1 Trundle Bedstead 1 

p r . of curtains & valance, 3 

Ruggs 2 p r & half of Blan- 

ketts 2 Window curtains & 

1 Small looking Glasse .... 
Item a p r . of Blew Curtains 

& valance 0001 10 00 

In the Middle Chamber 
1 Presse 1 livery Cupboard 1 
Side Board 1 Box 3 Trunks 
1 chair & 1 looking Glasse . 

In the Forechamber 
12 Learge chairs & Stooles, 
1 Couch of ye Same 1 Chest 
of Drawers, 1 Side Table 1 
Stand one Standing Bed- 
stead, 6 Cushions 1 Cage & 
Glasses 1 p r of Searge cur- 
tains & vallens w th . Silk 
fringe 1 Rugg, 1 p r . of Blan- 
ketts 2 looking Glasses, 2 
p r . Andirons, 1 p r . of Brass 
fire pan & tongues 

In the Kitchen Chamber 

1 p r of curtains 1 Side board 

3 chairs one Box & 1 p r . of 

fire Doggs 

0003 18 08 

0131 07 06 

0014 03 04 

0000 13 04 



In the Swan Garratt 

2 Standing Bedsteads, 2 p r 

of curtains and vallens 3 

Chests 1 form 4 Blanketts 

and 2 Carpetts 

Item In Several Sorts of Lin- 
nen & a Suit of white Cur- 

In the Fore Garratt 
2 half headed bedsteads 2 
Chests 1 Side table 1 Rugg, 
1 p r . Curtains & vallens and 

1 p r . Blanketts 

In the Closett 
5 Chaires & a Side Table. . . 
Item in money in Purse . . . 

Item in debts Sperate 

Item in desperate debts 

Item one Chattall Lease for 

2 lives after 14 years 

s. d. 

0003 08 04 

0014 10 00 

0001 10 00 













020 00 00 

In the Brew House 
A furnace in the Wall, a Coop 
and Severall Brewing ves- 

In the Passage below 
a Clock & Case 

In the Bolting house 
a Cheese Rack a Meal Tubb, 
a Salter & one other Small 
Tubb with other Lumber. . 

0006 00 00 

0003 00 00 

0000 10 00 


In the Wood house & Stable 1. s. 

1 Corn Chest 6 Planks, one 
Gray Mare ffurniture for 
horses and other Lumber . 

In the Warehouses 

0012 03 00 

In Severall Presses, Engines 

Tubbs, Boxes & other things 
belonging to the cutting of 





In the Shopp 

In Severall Sorts of cutt Leaf 

& Role tobacco with other 




shopp goods 

Item Things forgotten 







the other side .... 




Sum Totall 






George Balch married Ann Pearce. They had 
five children: — 

2. I. George Balch. 

2. II. George Balch. 

2. III. George Balch, baptized October 7th, 
1672, and buried at Bridgwater Octo- 
ber 1st, 1695. 

2. IV. Mary Balch, married July 9th, 1696, S. 
Codrington, of the city of Bristol. 

2. V. Ann Balch, baptized May Sth, 1668, and 
living in 1677. 


At* "* - >/vl J / /fir 


* i ?iM hnMt ' 





,j/ '-'t/ /•■■■, C|l, ^im 

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'f >: 

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Bridgwater, Somersetshire. 



This group would seem to begin with a Thomas 
Balch who was living at Wells in the latter part of 
the sixteenth century, and was buried there in the 
church of Saint Cuthbert's, January 27th, 1695. 
The inscription on his tombstone reads as follows : 
" Here lieth the body of Thomas Balch, who died 
the 27 of Januar 1695 and also his daughter 
Martha died June 11th 1694." Traditions say 
that he or his father was born in Bridgwater. 

Individuals bearing the name of Balch are re- 
corded in many places in Somerset, but without 
any other apparent connection with the foregoing 
four groups except the similarity of the name. Of 
such individuals there lived at West Chinnock, in 
the southern part of the county, in 1569, Robert 
Balche, and in the early part of the seventeenth 
century William Balch, a yeoman. In his will, 
dated December 7th, 1611, the latter says :- 


" In the name of God amen the seaventh day of De- TWillm 
cember Anno Domini one thousand sixe hundred and Bawlch 
eleaven I William Bawlche of West Chinnock in the 
countie of Somerset husbandman do make my last will 
and testament in mann' and forme following: First I 
bequeathe my Soul to God and my bodye to the Earthe. 
Itm I give to the parishe churche of Chesselborowe twoe 
shillings six pence. Item I give to the poore of West 

79 Prerogative Court of Canterbury, Fenner folio 32. 


Chinnocke twoe shillings six pence. Item I give unto 
Azarias Bawlche twelve pence. Item I give unto Johane 
Bawlch daughter of Hughe Bawlch twelve pence. Item 
my will is that my sonne Peter Bawlch shall have 
twentie poundes And to be put to use for hym untill he 
come to age of one and twentie yeres. And all my 
houshould stuffe to remayne unto hym after my wyves 
decease And my wife to keepe the Boye and to bring 
him up to her charage as long as he will be governed by 
her. Item I give unto Hughe Bawlche and unto Thomas 
Mudford fy ve shillinges a piece to the end that they shalbe 
overseers to see this my last will and Testament per- 
formed. The residue of all my goodes chattels and 
debtes not given nor bequeathed I give and bequeathe 
to Ellinor my wife whome I make my Executrix of this 
my last will and testament. Witnesses hereunto 
Thomas Mudford and Robert Butler. 

" Probatum fuit Testamentum suprascriptum apud 
London coram venerabili viro Dno Johanne Benet 
milite legum doctore Curie Prerogative Cantuarienss, 
Magistro Custode sive Commissario legitime constituto 
vicesimo septimo die Mensis Maii Anno Domini millesimo 
Sexcentesimo Duodecimo Juramento Elianore Bawlche 
Relicte dicti defuncti et Executricis in eodem testaments 
nominat. Cui commissa fuit Administraco bonorum 
Jurium et Creditorum dicti defuncti de bene et fideliter 
administrand &c. ad sancta Dei Evangelia vigore Com- 
missionis inea parte als Emanat Jurat. ex r ." 

Is the Hughe Bawlch referred to in the above 
will the Hugh Balche of Ilminster, (see ante page 
36), who died in 1615 or 1616? 

In the Archdeacon's Court at Taunton, the wills 
of the following individuals are recorded: Robert 


Balch, Crewkerne, 1662 ; Robert Balch, Crewkerne, 
1663 ; Thomas Balch, Broadway, 1670; Henry 
Balch, Curland, 1675; Roger Balch, Hatch Beau- 
champ, 1677; James Balch, Durston, 1681; and Mary 
Balch, Beer Crocomb, 1702. 

The Balch Family of America. 

During the seventeenth century two emigrants 
bearing the surname of Balch, settled in the British 
North American colonies, — John Balch, who im- 
migrated to Massachusetts in 1623, and John Balch, 
who came over to Maryland in 1658. No connec- 
tion has been found between these two emigrants, 
John Balch "of Maryland" and John Balch "of 
Massachusetts" but inasmuch as they both came 
from County Somerset, and that several groups 
of individuals bearing the same surname of Balch 
were living in several parts of that shire at the dates 
that these two John Balches came across the Atlan- 
tic to settle in two of the English colonies, it is 
reasonable to suppose that they were kinsmen, 
though probably remote ones. 




The first emigrant, John Balch "of Massachu- 
setts," who came from Somersetshire to America, 
accompanied Captain Robert Gorges in his voy- 
age, 1623, to New England. John Balch "of 
Massachusetts" was born probably before 1600. 80 
Apparently he was originally a member of the Church 
of England, but after he settled in Massachusetts, 
he gave up Episcopacy and joined the local 
church. 81 He settled at Salem, in the field that 
was soon called the "old Planter's marsh." He 
was among the original members of the First 
Church of Salem, was made a freeman of that 
town in May, 1631, and was one of the five set- 

80 In A History of the Balche Family, compiled by William F. Balch, 
of New York, printed in The New England Historical and Genealogical 
Register for the year 18SS (Boston 1855, Volume IX., pages 233-238), 
it is stated that a George Balche was born in Somersetshire in 1536, 
and that he had two sons, George Balch born in 1577 and John Balch, 
born in 1579. The latter it is stated in this article was probably the 
John Balch who came to Massachusetts in 1623, and that the former 
was the ancestor of the Balches of Saint Audries. From all the records 
at present known, it is, quite clear that the Balches of Saint Audries 
were not descended from the George Balch said to have been born in 
1577, and a careful search of the records of Somerset have so far 
failed to reveal any record of George Balch said to have been born 
in 1536 or of his two sons. (In a. letter dated at Bridgwater. Feb- 
ruary 14th, 1905, the Rev. Dr. Arthur H. Powell, Vicar of Bridgwater, 
says: " Concerning John Balch, said to have been born 1579 ; his 
brother in 1577 ; and their father in 1536, we have no evidence.") 
The Balches of Saint Audries seem to have descended from Robert 
Balch who was born in 1631, was married in Bridgwater in 1660, 
and was buried there in 1705. (See ante, page 62.) 

^Historical Collections of the Essex Institute, Salem, Mass., 1859, 
Vol. I., pages 109-10. 


tiers to each of whom a farm of two hundred acres 
was granted January 25th, 1635-6, at the head of 
Bass River. Three years later he removed to his 
farm, and lived here until his death in May, 1648. 82 

He married first Margary , and second, Agnes 

Patch. By his first wife he had three sons: 

I. Benjamin Balch, born during the winter of 
1628-9, died after January 31st, 1714-15. 

II. John Balch, born about 1630, died June 16th, 

III. Freeborn Balch, born about 1631, died about 

From the eldest son, Benjamin, a large and nu- 
merous family has sprung that has spread over 
the New England and the Northern States to the 
Pacific coast. 83 

To this family belonged the Rev. William Balch, 
who was born at Beverly, Mass., September 30th, 
1704. He graduated at Harvard College in 1724, 
and was pastor of the new church at Bradford, New 
Groveland, from 1727 for a period of over sixty 
years. He died January, 1792. Among his printed 
works there are these two sermons: 

82 Historical Collections oj the Essex Institute, Salem, 1857, Vol. I. 
page 151. 

83 An exhaustive and good account of the Massachusetts family- 
is given in Genealogies oj the Balch Families in America, by Galusha 
B. Balch, M. D.; Salem, Mass., 1897 ; but the account of the Mary- 
land family given in that book is not accurate. 

Concerning the Massachusetts family, see also, First Reunion and 
Organization of the Balch Family Association, by the descendants of 
John Balch, one of the " Old Planters" of Naumkeag, now Salem, 
Beverly, and North Beverly, Massachusetts; 1905. 


"Mr. Balch's Sermon at the Ordination of Mr. Ben- 
jamin Parker. The Duty of Ministers to aim at pro- 
moting, and being Partakers of the Gospel. A Sermon 
Preach'd at the Ordination of Mr. Benjamin Parker To 
the Pastoral Care of a Church in Haverhill, November 
28, 1744. Made publick at the Desire of the venerable 
Council (consisting of Eleven Churches) conven'd on 
that Occasion, and a considerable Number of other Min- 
isters and Gentlemen. By William Balch, A. M., Pastor 
of a Church in Bradford. ' He stood in too much Awe 
of his great Master, to fear or know any Man, [in the 
Discharge of his duty] or to be sway'd by any worldly 
Considerations. He believ'd firmly, that he must render 
an Account of his Conduct at the Day of Judgment, 
and wisely resolv'd to act, as that he might do it with re- 
joicing.' Life of Dr. Gale. Boston: Printed by Rogers 
and Fowle, for J. Edwards in Cornhill. 1744." The 
text of the sermon was: "I Cor. IX. 23. And this I do 
for the Gospel's Sake, that I might be Partaker thereof with 

"Mr. Balch's Sermon Before the Convention, May 2Q, 
1760. Simplicity and godly Sincerity, in a Christian Min- 
ister, the sure Way to Happiness. A Sermon preached 
before the annual Convention of Ministers, in Boston, 
N. E., May 29, 1760. By William Balch, A. M., Minister 
of the second Church in Bradford. Boston N. E. Printed 
by B. Macom, at the New Printing-Office, near the Town- 
House, MDCCLX." The text of the sermon was; 
"II Cor. I. 12. For our rejoicing is this, the Testimony of 
our Conscience, that in Simplicity and godly Sincerity, not 
with fleshly Wisdom, but by the Grace of God, we. have 
had our Conversation in the World, and more abund- 
antly to you-wards." 


Among the descendants of John Balch "of 
Massachusetts" was the Rev. Thomas Balch, who 
was born in Charlestown, Mass., October 17th, 
1711. After graduating at Harvard College in 
1733, he prepared for the ministry of the Congrega- 
tional Church, and was ordained at South Dedham, 
June 30th, 1736. In 1744 he was a Chaplain in 
the expedition against Cape Breton. The follow- 
ing account that he wrote of that expedition is 
in the records of the South Parish at Dedham. 

"Having an Inclination and being desired by the 
Committee of War to attend the Army as one of the 
Chaplains in the Expedition against Cape Breton, I ac- 
cordingly obtained consent of my People on March 11, 
1744-5 and on the 13, took my leave of my family and 
People. Arrived in Safety & Health at Canso on the 
2nd of April. Sailed from Canso to Cape Breton on 
April 29, entered Chappeaurouge Bay the next morning, 
and soon after went on Shore. The seige of Louesborg 
continued until June 17. On which Day we entered 
and took possession of that Strong & important place, 
upon Terms of Capitulation. Sailed from Louisborg for 
New England, July 11, arrived in Safety at Boston on 
the 27 of 3rd month, 1745, Laus Deo." 

He published: Preaching the Gospel, sermon, 
Edgertown, July 29th, 1747, at the ordination of 
D. Newman, Boston, 1747; — Christ present with his 
ministers and churches, sermon, October 9th, Bos- 
ton, 1748; — A Sermon (on Dan. IV. 35) preached to 
the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company at Bos- 


ton, June 6th, 1763, Being the Anniversary of their 
Election of Officers. Boston, Mass., 1763; A Sermon 
(on Luke XI. 28) preached at the ordination of Mr. 
B. (enjamin) Balch; Providence, 1769. 

The Rev. Thomas Balch married Mary Sumner, 
left a number of children, and died at South 
Dedham, January 8th, 1774. 

Another descendant of John Balch "of Massa- 
chusetts" was the late P. H. Balch, who lived on 
the Pacific Coast, and wrote The Bridge of the Gods: 
A Romance of Indian Oregon. 8 * First published 
in 1890, by 1902 it had reached a seventh edition. 
It is a description of the Indians of our north west 
Pacific Coast. The story begins in New England 
towards the end of the seventeenth century, where 
a young Puritan clergyman, the Reverend Cecil 
Gray, decides to carry the Gospel to the Indians of 
the Far West. Then the scene changes to the 
valley of the Columbia River in Oregon. There the 
warlike Willamettes, with their war chief, Mult- 
nomah, head a powerful confederacy of the tribes. 
The story is wrapped around the legends of the 
great natural bridge, — The Bridge of the Gods — 
that two hundred years ago, according to Indian 
traditions, that have come down in several lan- 
guages, spanned the mighty Columbia River, where 

84 The Bridge of the Gods: A Romance of Indian Oregon, by P. H. 
Balch. Chicago, A. C. McCTurg and Company, 1902. Seventh Edition. 
The preface is dated at Oakland, California, September, 1890, 


to-day are the rapids. With the fall of the bridge, 
falls the power of the Willamettes and passes to 
the "palefaces." The book is well written and in- 

To the Massachusetts family belonged also the 
late Francis Vergnies Balch, an eminent member 
of the Boston Bar. He was born in 1839, and 
graduated at Harvard with the class of 1859, "of 
which he was both the first scholar and class orator." 
In January, 1893, he was elected a member of the 
Colonial Society of Massachusetts. 

At a largely attended Bar Meeting, held in the 
Supreme Judicial Court Room, at Boston, March 
26th, 1898, in memory of his career as a member 
of the Bar, appropriate resolutions were adopted 
and entered upon the record of the -Court. 85 John 
C. Gray, Esq., Alexander S. Wheeler, Esq., Felix 
Rackemann, Esq., and other members of the Boston 
Bar spoke. Upon the presentation of the reso- 
lutions to the Court, Mr. Justice Barker made a 
speech of acceptance and ordered that they should 
be placed upon the records of the Court, which then 

^Proceedings at Bar Meeting held at Boston March 26, 1898, upon 
the death of Francis Vergnies Balch. 



The second emigrant, John Balch "of Maryland," 
who came from County Somerset, crossed over to 
Maryland in 1658, 88 not to escape political or relig- 
ious persecution but to improve his fortune. Ac- 
cording to family traditions his immediate relations 
supported the Parliament during the Civil War, 
while more remote kinsmen fought for King Charles. 87 
The 30th of December, 1663, he assigned his right 
to fifty acres, to which he was entitled from the 
Province for having paid his own transportation 
to Maryland, to John Floyde. To that instru- 
ment John Balch made his mark, being sick at the 
time, like Colonel Ninian Beall when he made his 

88 The original entry is in Liber 6, folio 8g, in the Maryland Land 
Office at Annapolis, and is as follows: 

"John Baltch enters his own right transported in the year 1658 
the which he assignies to John Floyde in the words, 

" ' I John Baltch do assign over unto John Floyde all my Title and 
Interest of one Right due unto me for my transportacon in this 
province as Witness my hand this 30th day of December, 1663. 

" Witness The mark of X John Baltche." 

" ' Danl. Jbrrifer.' " 

87 During the Civil War the great mass of the people of Somerset, 
especially in the towns, took the side of the Parliament. But from 
1643 to 164S the shire was in the hands of the Royalists, except 
Taunton, which held out heroically under Blake until relieved by 
Lord Fairfax on May 11th, 164S. Other successes by the Parlia- 
mentary forces followed until the whole county was again in their 
hands. The strong Puritan feeling in the shire was shown forty 
years later by the support given in Somerset to the Monmouth 

The Encyclopedia Britannica; New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 
1887, Vol. XXII., page 259. 


mark to his last will and testament, 88 but he could 
both read and write. 89 He was born probably be- 
fore 1635. In England he belonged to the Presby- 
terian Wing of the English Church. 90 In Maryland 

ai The Brooke Family of Whitchurch, Hampshire, England, together 
with an Account of Acting Governor Robert Brooke of Maryland and 
Colonel Ninian Beall of Maryland and some of their descendants by 
Thomas Willing Balch, Philadelphia, 1899, page 32, 

89 Family manuscripts. 

90 Presbyterianism was first brought to the shores of the New 
World by Huguenots, who were sent out from France by Admiral 
Gaspar de Coligny to plant a French colony in Brazil, about IS 55, 
and in Florida in 1562. Owing to the lack of support and the in- 
difference of the French crown, and the massacre of Saint Bartholo- 
mew in 1572, the effort to extend the French language by colonizing 
the Huguenots in America failed; and it was reserved to the Reformed 
Church of Holland to first establish the Presbyterian form of church 
government in America, 

Of the colony of New Amsterdam, Peter Minuit, who sprang of 
Huguenot stock that had sought a refuge at Wesel on the Rhine, 
was appointed in 1625 the first governor. He took up his charge 
in the New World in 1626, and became the first of the long line of 
executives of a commonwealth that has developed into what is to- 
day the State of New York. The Dutch did not flee from Holland 
because of oppression, for Holland was then the asylum of the per- 
secuted of all lands. The first minister of the Reformed Dutch 
Church who ministered in America, was the Rev. Jones Michaelius. 
He came to New Amsterdam in the Spring of 1628. Seven years 
before he was one of the delegates to the Synod of North Holland that 
was held in the city of Haarlem in 1621, on August 24th and the fol- 
lowing days. The Rev. Everardus Bogardus, who arrived with 
Governor Van T wilier in 1633, was the second clergyman, and the 
Rev. Johannes Megapolensis, who came to New Amsterdam in 1642 
and died in New York in 1670, was the third pastor of the Dutch 
Reformed Church in America. 

American Presbyterianism also took its rise in large measure 
from the adherence of that system of church polity in England. 
Presbyterianism was established by Elizabeth as the State Church 
in les Isles de la Mancke in 1576, and James the First on his accession 
to the throne of England, formally confirmed the Presbyterian form 
of church government for the Channel Islands. This system was 
partially overturned in Jersey on June 30th, 1623, but in Guernsey 
and Alderney Presbyterianism continued as the State Church until 


he married Catharine Cleland of a Scottish family, 

the Act of Uniformity in 1662. In England itself the English Church 
began to be Presbyterian in form by Act of Parliament in June, 1646, 
and so continued for a number of years until, after Lord Fairfax's 
retirement as commander-in-chief of the Parliamentary army, it 
was gradually in part overthrown by the Independents under the 
lead of Oliver Cromwell. The Presbyterian form of church polity, 
however, was restored in full in February, 1660, and so continued 
until the next year. 

From England to the Middle Colonies came Alexander Whitaker 
the "self-denying Apostle of Virginia," a son of the distinguished Dr. 
William Whitaker, Professor of Divinity in Cambridge University, 
and a cousin of Dr. William Gouge, of Blackfriars, a leading member 
of the Westminster Assembly, and first moderator of the London 
Provincial Synod. The Rev. Francis Doughty and the Rev. Richard 
Denton, who were thrust out of their preferments at home, sought 
refuge with the Dutch at New Amsterdam, becoming respectively 
the First and the Second English Presbyterian Ministers in that city 
which later upon its capture by the English in 1664 was renamed 
New York. Subsequently, as a result of the struggle in that town 
between the Presbyterians and the Episcopalians, the Rev. Francis 
Doughty had to flee for his life; but he became the chief Apostle of 
Presbyterianism in the Middle States. In Maryland, he was seconded 
by the Rev. Matthew Hill, a close friend and correspondent of Richard 
Baxter. By the latter 's aid and influence Hill came over to Mary- 
land after he was ejected in 1662 from his parish of Thirsk in his 
native Yorkshire. Many English lay adherents of Presbyterianism 
crossed over to the Colonies, and among this number was John Balch 
"of Maryland," who crossed in 16S8. The "Title Deeds" of Presby- 
terianism in the United States are derived not only from the Reformed 
Church of Holland and the Presbyterian members of the Church of 
England, who came across the ocean either voluntarily, or because 
of the Act of Uniformity, but also from the Church of Scotland. In 
the seventeenth century Scotch divines and many laymen, like Colonel 
Ninian Beall, who fought in the Scottish Army against Cromwell and 
the Independents at Dunbar (16S0), brought across the Atlantic 
Ocean the religious polity of Geneva, as embodied by John Knox 
in the established Church of Scotland. Accessions came also from 
Ireland, among whom was the Rev. Francis Makemie. Educated at 
the University of Edinburg and ordained by the Presbytery of Laggan, 
MaKemie came to Maryland in 1683, and subsequently organized the 
Synod of Philadelphia. The Scotch-Irish came in increasing num- 
bers; and also the refugee Huguenots. These latter established a 
number of churches of their own, of which that of Charleston, S. C, 
is still maintained as an independent Huguenot Church, with the 
service in the French language. 


and left two sons who were brought up in the Pres- 
byterian faith. 91 

1. I. Thomas Balch. 
1. II. Robert Balch. 92 
As the descendants of John Balch "of Mary- 
land" were brought up in Presbyterianism in Mary- 
land and not in Episcopacy, to which their kinsmen 
in England returned when it was re-established by 
the Act of Uniformity in 1662, it would seem that 
the Presbyterian form of church government was 
more in accord with the greater political freedom 
that then prevailed in the English colonies than 
in England itself. In other words that Presby- 
terianism was closer than Episcopacy to the Dem- 

A Manual of the Reformed Church in America, 1628- 1902, by Edward 
Tanjore Corwin, D. D., New York, 1902, pages IS, 19, etc. 

Ecclesiastical Records, State of New York; published by the State 
under the supervision of Hugh Hastings, State Librarian. Albany, 
1901, Vol. I., page 43 et seq. 

History and Characteristics of the Reformed Protestant Dutch Church, 
by David D. Demarest, pastor of the Reformed Protestant Dutch 
Church of Hudson, New York, 1856. 

History of the Presbyterians in England, by the Rev. A. H. Drysdale, 
London, 1889, pages 164 et seq., 287, 291, etc. 

A History of the English Church during the Civil Wars and under 
the Commonwealth, 1640-1660, by William A. Shaw, London, 1900. 

The Encyclopaedia Britannica: New York, 1895, Ninth Edition, 
Vol. XIX., Charles Scribner's Sons, article entitled, Presbyterianism. 

Pioneers of France in the New World by Francis Parkman, Boston, 
1880; the first part, Huguenots in Florida with a sketch of Huguenot 
colonization in Brazil. 

Gaspard de Coligny, Admiral of France, by A. W. Whitehead, 
London, 1904. 

Les £tats-Unis an XX e Steele par Pierre Leroy-Beaulieu, Paris, 
1905, page 13. 

91 Family manuscripts. 

02 Of the younger son, Robert Balch, nothing more is known. 


ocratic spirit of individualism that obtained in the 
colonies. Or as Dryden expressed the essence of 
Presbyterianism in an uncomplimentary way in 
his "Hind and Panther": — • 

"As poisons of the deadliest kind, 
Are to their own unhappy coasts confined, 
So Presbytery and its pestilential zeal 
Can flourish only in a common weal," 

The elder of these two sons, Thomas Balch, who 
was born about 1660, was of a restive and im- 
pulsive disposition, and fond of moving about 
and adventure. When not much over twenty he 
went over to Somersetshire. In England he knew 
Richard Baxter and was much influenced by that 
eminent divine. 93 Brought up a Protestant, he 

93 Richard Baxter, styled by Dean Stanley, "The Chief of the 
English Protestant Schoolmen," a theologian with Presbyterian 
leanings, was born at Rowton, Shropshire, Nov. 12th, 1615, and 
died at London, Dec. 8, 1691. He was neutral or moderate during 
the Civil War, favoring a monarchy and at the same time remaining 
on friendly terms with the Puritans. In 16S0 he wrote the Saint's 
Everlasting Rest. Just prior to the Restoration, he fixed his resi- 
dence at London. Charles the Second appointed him one of his 
chaplains, and Clarendon offered him the Bishopric of Hereford, 
which, however, he declined. Upon the passage of the Act of Uni- 
formity in 1662, Baxter seceded from the Anglican church. The 
notorious Judge Jeffreys fined him in 1685 five hundred marks on 
a charge of sedition which was based on a passage in one of his writings, 
Paraphrase on the New Testament, that was construed into a libel 
on the Church of England. For failing to pay this charge he was 
imprisoned nearly eighteen months. 

During the trial Jeffreys acted like an infuriated madman, but 
through it all he showed sparks of intelligence. One of Baxter's 


readily, when "King Monmouth" raised his stand- 
ard in south-western England in June, 1685, joined 
the Duke's forces, and became a captain in his 
army. After the disastrous battle of Sedgemoor, 
July 5th, 1685, in which Monmouth's army was 
routed and his cause destroyed, Thomas Balch 
found it advisable, owing to the activities of the 
notorious Colonel Kirke and his men, known as 
"Kirke's lambs," to leave England for the New 
World. Accordingly, shortly after, he sailed, dis- 
guised, from Bristol and landed at Annapolis, Mary- 
land, in 1685. His part in Monmouth's rebellion 
was the thread round which George Parker, at one 
time Mayor of Bridgwater, Somerset, wrapped an 
account of Monmouth's rising in a book entitled, 
Tom Balch; an Historical Tale of West Somerset dur- 

counsel, Mr. Rotheram, said that the divine frequently attended 
divine service, that he went to the sacraments and persuaded others 
to do so, and that in the book upon which the accusation of sedition 
was based, Baxter had spoken moderately and honorably of the 
bishops of the Church of England. "Baxter for Bishops!" Jeffreys 
exclaimed, "that's a very merry conceit indeed; turn to it, turn to 
it." Thereupon Rotheram read: "That great respect is due to those 
truly called to be bishops among us." "Ay," said Jeffreys, "this is 
your Presbyterian cant — truly called to be bishops — that is himself 
and such rascals, called to be bishops of Kidderminster and other 
such places, bishops set apart by such factions, snivelling Presbyterians 
as himself. A Kidderminster bishop he means." The reference 
to Kidderminster is to the fact that for some years before the 
Civil War between the King and the Parliament, Baxter 
was chosen minister of that place. In Kidderminster, Baxter 
made a tremendous impression and gained a. great influence over 
the people. During his stay there he wrote The Reformed Pastor, 
a notable book. 

The Encyclopedia Britannica, New York, Samuel L. Hall, 1877. 


ing Monmouth's Rebellion. This book was pub- 
lished at Bridgwater in 1879. 94 
Mr. Parker, in his preface, says: — 

"In the course of a long and active life amidst its 
toils, my amusements have been of a literary character. 
Amongst the many manuscripts in my possession I have 
selected for publication an Historical Tale. The reader 
will find it evinces the strong and ardent feelings towards 
Protestantism, manifested by the county families of 
Somersetshire at the time of Monmouth's Rebellion, and 
it displays the severe trials some of them endured. 

" The Poems appended are mostly written in the 
Somersetshire dialect, and are intended to describe and 
commemorate what the peasantry, and some immedi- 
ately above them, were about many years ago, and to 
evidence a noble heartiness of character worth record- 

Mr. Parker in his book represents the father of 
Tom Balch as the owner of Saint Audries. It was 
not until much later, in 1764, that Saint Audries 
came into the possession of another branch of 
the Balch family. 

{> *Tom Balch; an Historical Tale of West Somerset during Mon- 
mouth's Rebellion; together with Amusing and other Poems, some of 
them in the Somersetshire (Zumerzetshire) dialect, by George Parker, 
Bridgwater, Robert Brodie, 1879. A first edition of this book was 
printed it is said in the early seventies, about 1872. In August, 
1886, the present writer and his brother visited Bridgwater. They 
saw and talked with Mr. Parker, the author of Tom Balch. Mr. 
Parker, who lived in the house of Admiral Blake, called the present 
writer "Tom," and said that his own book, Tom Balch, was based on 
some original incidents. Further Mr. Parker added that in his 
youth he had always heard that the Balch family was settled in 
Somerset from time immemorial. 


In describing the causes that led the people of 
south-western England to join "King Monmouth," 
Mr. Parker says: — 95 

"The reign of James II. now began. He proceeded 
further on that path which was so obnoxious to the bulk 
of the people. He went openly to mass with all the 
ensigns of dignity, and even sent one Carlyle as his 
agent to Rome, to make submission to the Pope, and 
to pave the way for the admission of England into the 
bosom of the Roman Catholic Church. The Spanish 
Ambassador ventured one day to advise His Majesty 
against putting too much confidence in his friends. ' Is 
it not the custom in Spain,' said James, 'for the King 
to consult with his Confessor?' 'Yes,' answered the 
ambassador, 'and that is the reason why our affairs 
turn out so very ill.' The people of England were 
roused, although they did not avow it openly at once. 
They entertained the most determined hostility against 
their new sovereign. In the west of England especially 
from the pulpits the people were warned of their dan- 
ger, and no one took a more active part amongst the 
laity, in endeavoring to impress upon the minds of their 
tenantry the vast importance of upholding Protest- 
antism, than did the Balches; even Tom, who, unfor- 
tunately, was so thoughtless generally, joined most ear- 
nestly the popular side, and no surrender became the 
determination of the people. The hum of rebellion 
seemed to be sounding through the land ere its thun- 
ders were heard, and the energies of the youthful part 
of the community were soon brought into action by the 
news of the landing of Monmouth at Lyme," which took 


Tom Batch, page 63. 


place June, 1685. He came as the champion of the 
Protestant cause, and most nattering was his reception. 
Here opened a field suitable to the spirit and taste of Tom 
Balch, who upon hearing the day he was to enter Taunton, 
made a point of being there. It was the first time in 
his life he had ever witnessed anything like a military 
procession, and when they entered the town, what with 
the display of uniforms and the enthusiasm of the people, 
his heart was at once devoted to Monmouth. He was 
well known at Taunton as the heir of a family of dis- 
tinction in the neighborhood, and very soon obtained an 
introduction at headquarters. As the Duke was most 
anxious to enlist in his cause every one of note, when 
Tom was introduced to him he was welcomed most cor- 
dially, flattered by remarks on his fine natural figure 
and soldier-like appearance, which only required mili- 
tary accoutrements to make it complete. A Captain's 
commission was offered him ; he was flattered and hastily 
promised, ere he left Taunton, to take an oath of alle- 
giance to the Duke as his sovereign, who really admired 
him for his frankness of manner, and it was contrived 
military clothes should be supplied to him, and he be- 
came really and earnestly a captain of the Duke's army. 
He procured a short leave of absence to make his friends 
at home acquainted with the change in his affairs." 

After returning to Maryland, Thomas Balch 96 
married Agnes Somerville, and died in 1730. 

They had one son : 

2. I. Hezekiah Balch. He was brought up in the 
Presbyterian faith, and received from his father 

96 There are family traditions that he was a clergyman of the Pres- 
byterian Church. 


what was for those days a good education. At the 
end of 1720 he was appointed administrator of the 
estate of William Jenkins. The record of this runs 
thus: '"W m - Jenkins his adm.' Bond in Comon 
forme by Hez a Balch his adm. with Thomas John- 
son & John Duely his sureties in fifty pounds sterd. 
Dated December 27, 1720." 97 

He married twice; first Martha Bloomer, and 

second Sarah , 98 By his first wife he had 

two sons, born in Saint George's Parish, Maryland: 
3. I. James Balch, born December 5th, 

3. II. John Balch, born January 23d, 1715- 

By his second wife he had two sons and one 
daughter, born in Saint George's Parish, Maryland, 
of whom nothing is known except the dates of their 

3. III. Thomas Balch, born November 15th, 

3. IV. Hezekiah Balch, born March 6th, 1721. 
3. V. Mary Balch, born October 2d, 1725. 
3. I. James Balch was born December 5th, 1714, 
in Saint George's Parish, 100 Maryland, and visited 

97 Testamentary Proceedings, Liber 4, folio 306, Annapolis, Maryland. 

" s St. George's Parish Register of Births, Marriages and Deaths, 
1692-1780: Maryland. 

"See post, page 374. 

100 Saint George's Parish Register of Births, Marriages and Deaths, 
1692-1780: Maryland. 


in 1732 England and the Low Countries. Return- 
ing to Maryland he was married on January 19th, 
1737, to Anne Goodwyn of the Eastern Shore of 
Maryland. 101 They settled on Deer Creek, Harford 
County, in 1743. 102 She died in 1760. In 1769 he 
removed with his family to North Carolina. He 
died in 1779, three years after the death of his best 
beloved son, Hezekiah James Balch. He was the 
author of some short poems. 

They had a number of children: — 

4. I. Mary Balch, born March 7th, 1738. 103 

4. II. Elizabeth Balch, born April 25th, 1740. 

4. III. Margaret Balch, born 

4. IV. Rhoda Balch, 

4. V. Hezekiah James Balch, born 1746, 
died 1776, unmarried. 

4. VI. Stephen Bloomer Balch, 

4. VII. James Balch, born December 25th, 

4. VIII. William Goodwyn Balch, born 1751; 
died October 14th, 1822. 

4. IX. Rachel Balch, 

4. X. John Balch, born 1760. 

4. XL Amos Balch. 

101 St. George's Parish Register of Births, Marriages and Deaths, 
1692-1780: Maryland. 

102 Conveyance November 2nd, 1743 by Jacob Giles and Isaac Web- 
ster to James Balch; T. B. No. 3. 1742-1745, folio 387, Land Records 
in the Baltimore Record Office in the Court House, Baltimore. 

103 St. George's Parish Register of Births, Marriages and Deaths, 
1692-1780: Maryland. 



4. V. Hezekiah James Balch was born on Deer 
Creek, Harford County, Maryland, in 1746. He was 
graduated at Princeton College (now Princeton Uni- 
versity), in 1766, receiving the A. M. degree. While 
at Princeton, he was one of the founders of the 
Cliosophic Society. 104 After leaving college he 
studied for the ministry of the Presbyterian Church 
and was licensed to preach the Gospel in 1767 by 
the Presbytery of Donegal. 105 In 1 7 69 he took charge 
of two congregations in North Carolina, Rocky 
River and Poplar Tent, which he continued to 
serve until his death. 106 He was ordained in 1770 
by the Presbytery of Donegal. 107 Together with Dr. 
Ephraim Brevard and William Kennon, both like 
himself graduates of Princeton College, he drew 

10< " 1765. 


"Pro desse Quam conspici. 

" May 9, 1905. 
" Mr. Thomas Willing Balch. 
" Dear Sir: 

" We have in our records the name of Rev. Hezekiah James 
Balch, signer of the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence, N. C. 
He joined the society in 1765 and graduated in 1766. 
" Yours truly 

" ROBERT E. DOANE, '06. 

" Cor. Sec.'' 

105 Records of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of 
America embracing the minutes of the General Presbytery and General 
Synod 1706-1788 : Philadelphia, Presbyterian Board of Publication, 
1904, page 378. 

'■""Sketches of North Carolina, Historical and Biographical, by the 
Rev. William Henry Foote, New York, 1846, pages 439, 479, 482. 

107 Minutes of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, page 


up the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence, 
May 20th, 1775, was one of the speakers before the 
assembled delegates, and one of the signers of that 
declaration. 108 Passionately fond of freedom for 
the individual, and, so far as the constitution of the 
church to which he belonged could be considered 

108 " In the convention that met at Charlotte, May 19th, 1775, there 
was one minister of the gospel, Hezekiah James Balch, of Poplar 
Tent. That he was active in the preparatory steps for that con- 
vention is evident from the fact that he was one of the members 
that prepared resolutions to be submitted to the convention, which 
resolutions, after consultation, were amended and adopted by the 
committee, and by the convention, and published to the world." 
Sketches of North Carolina, Historical and Biographical, by the Rev. 
William Henry Foote, New York, 1846. Pages 36, 338, 339. 

See also : Why North Carolinians believe in the Mecklenburg Declara- 
tion of Independence of May zoth, 1775. Third Edition, Revised and 
Enlarged by George W. Graham, M. D., of the Mecklenburg Historical 
Society, Charlotte, N. C, 1898. Published by the Queen City Print- 
ing and Paper Company, pages 6, 7, 19. 

Sketches of Western North Carolina, Historical and Biographical, 
by C. L. Hunter, Raleigh, N. C, 1877, pages 23, 45, 47. (There are 
a number of mistakes in this account.) 

The Charlotte Daily Observer, Charlotte, N. C, May 23rd, 1900. 

Harper's Weekly, New York, July 7th, 1906. 

In answer to a request for information a propos of a pretended 
facsimile of the signatures of the signers of the Mecklenburg Declara- 
tion of Independence this letter was received from the Librarian of 
the Mecklenburg Historical Society: — 

" Charlotte, June 23, 1898. 
" Thursday. 
" Mr. E. S. Balch, 
" My Dear Sir: 

" I received your letter making inquiries about the omission 
of the name of Hezekiah James Balch. I sent you in reply a little 
book that was prepared for this May celebration, that contains an 
article by Dr. George W. Graham which is considered very thorough 
and exhaustive. It tells the whole story of the Mecklenburg Declara- 
tion of Independence. The original copy of the Declaration was 
destroyed by fire in John McKnitt Alexander's house. So there 
were other copies made from memory and there have been long and 


an example, 109 bred a believer in a republic, he used 
as a motto a phrase expressive of his character, Ubi 
libertas, ibi patria. In a letter penned in 1774, he 
exclaims, "There can be no freedom without order! 
Oh for the order which is in Christ, that we might have 
that freedom which is in him also!" And then he 
expounds eloquently what would be the condition of 
the land if the order and freedom secured by his di- 
vine Master's laws could prevail throughout it. He 

sometimes bitter controversies about the different copies, some 
people going so far as to say that the Resolutions of May 31st are 
the only work of the committee who met here on May 20th. This 
article of Dr. Graham I think is very satisfactory. All the traditions 
of the town and county point to the 20th of May as the day when 
the Declaration of Independence was read to the people assembled, 
from the steps of the old Court House by Col. Thomas Polk. 

" That pretended fac simile was made by an ingenious old man in 
Charlotte who gathered from various sources the handwriting of 
many but not of all the signers of the Declaration. He probably 
did not succeed in getting the autograph of Rev. Hezekiah James 
Balch, and so it does not appear in that pretended fac simile, which 
really has thrown uncertainty and perplexity and done no good to the 
records of those days. On the Monument in the Court House yard 
the name of Hezekiah James Balch is the second or third name, and 
has an honored place. 

" Please keep the little book about Charlotte as a souvenir of our 
acquaintance, made so pleasantly through books and histories. 

" Although I am not a native of Charlotte and cannot claim for 
my ancestors a. share in making the glorious history of Mecklenburg 
as you can, I have lived here so long and have been so entirely 
identified with the place that I am as proud of her history as you 

" Very truly and respectfully, 

" (MRS.) B. L. DEWEY." 

Dr. George W. Graham, writes from Charlotte, N. C, Nov. 12th, 
1906, that the name of Hezekiah J. Balch " stands second in the list 
of signers on the Mecklenburg Declaration Monument erected here. ' ' 

109 Histoire de la Reformation en Europe au temps de Calvin par 
J. H. Merle d'Aubigne\ Paris, 1863. Vol. I. pages 1-15, 465. 


died unmarried at the beginning of 1776 before 
the storm of war had reached North Carolina. 110 
In 1872, William S. Harris, a ruling elder of 
Poplar Tent Church, read before Concord Presby- 
tery an historical sketch of Poplar Tent Church. 111 
In it he said: — 

"Mr. Balch served as pastor from 1769 to the period 
of his death, which untimely event occurred in 1776, 
when this great sorrow came, the little band of settlers 
felt that ' their strong staff was broken, and the beauti- 
ful rod.' 

" Mr. Balch was a man of ripe learning and pressed 
forward with unwavering devotion to the cause of his 
Divine Master. Abundant in every good word and work, 
he took an active part in moulding and preparing the 
popular mind for the great struggle of the revolution. 
He looked to the achievement of principles, upon which 
a government of regulated liberty and law could be es- 
tablished, and which should be removed from its strong 
foundations no more forever. Hence he was a prominent 
actor in the convention, which declared independence of 
the crown of Great Britain, at Charlotte, May 20th, 1775. 
He died the following year in the prime of life and in 
the midst of his usefulness. It is a remarkable co -inci- 
dence that all of the original bench of elders were re- 

110 Sketches of North Carolina, Historical and Biographical, by the 
Rev. William Henry Foote, New York, 1846, page 439. 

Historical Sketch of Poplar Tent Church, by William S. Harris, 
Ruling Elder of said church, read before Concord Presbytery, April 
22d, 1872. Charlotte, N. C, 1873, pages 3, 6. 

111 Historical Sketch of Poplar Tent Church, by William S. Harris, 
Ruling Elder of said church; read before Concord Presbytery, April 
22d, 1872. Charlotte, N. C, 1873, page 6 et seq. 


moved about the same time with their pastor and, 
doubtless, were gathered with him to the fold of the 
Great Shepherd. 

" In the year 1847, a number of citizens met at Poplar 
Tent on the occasion of a railroad meeting, consisting 
of the late Judge Osborne, Dr. Charles W. Harris, now 
no more, and several others yet living, where attention 
was drawn to the fact that there was no monument to 
mark the grave of Balch; whereupon the fund was im- 
mediately raised to build a suitable monument at the 
spot where tradition located his grave, in the centre of 
the first burial ground. This centre was ascertained 
through the knowledge of Abijah Alexander, then more 
than ninety years of age, and by whom in part one line 
or wall of the original enclosure had been built. 

"The Rev. James A. Wallace, a native of Poplar Tent, 
then a minister of the Presbyterian Church in the Synod 
of South Carolina, was informed of the praiseworthy 
effort to rescue the name and grave of this illustrious 
man from oblivion, and was appealed to, to write a 
suitable epitaph. He did so cheerfully, and furnished 
the beautiful record which is carved on the marble, that 
now covers his mortal remains." 

The inscription on the tombstone at Poplar Tent 
reads as follows: 

"Beneath this marble repose the mortal remains of 
the Rev. Hezekiah James Balch, first Pastor of Poplar 
Tent Congregation and one of the original members of 
Orange Presbytery. He was licensed a Preacher of the 
everlasting gospel by the Presbytery of Donegal in 1767, 
ordained to the full work of the holy Ministry in 1769 
and rested from his labors, A. D. 1776, having been the 


Pastor of the united congregation of Poplar Tent and 
Rocky River about seven years. He was distinguished 
as one of the committee of three who prepared that im- 
mortal document, the Mecklenburg Declaration of In- 
dependence, and his eloquence, the more effectual from 
his acknowledged wisdom, purity of motive and dignity 
of character, contributed much to the unanimous adop- 
tion of that instrument on the twentieth of May, 1775." 

The Rev. Hezekiah James Balch should not be 
confounded with his brother, the Rev. James Balch, 
who was born December 25th, 1750, and died Jan- 
uary 12th, 1821, nor with their first cousin, the 
Rev. Hezekiah Balch, who was born in 1741 and 
died in 1810, both of whom married and left de- 
scendants. 112 

Since, owing to the similarity of names, Heze- 
kiah James Balch, James Balch, and Hezekiah 
Balch, have been so much confused one with an- 
other, at times even welded into one single individ- 
ual, the statements in the records and minutes 
of the Presbyterian Church of the United States, 
proving that all three were pastors of the Presby- 
terian Church, and three distinct and different per- 
sons, are here given in full. 

" Donegal Presbytery report, * * * that they 

112 Annals of the American Pulpit; or Commemorative Notices of 
Distinguished American Clergymen of Various Denominations, by 
William B. Sprague, D. D., New York, 1858, Vol. III., page 417. 

Princeton College during the Eighteenth Century by Samuel Davies 
Alexander, an Alumnus, New York, 1872, page 105. 

Catalogue of Princeton University, 1746-1896. 


have licensed Hezekiah James Balch to preach the gos- 
pel," 1768. 113 

" Mr. Hezekiah James Balch, a licensed candidate under 
the care of Donegall Presbytery, is appointed on the 
same mission, and the Presbytery to which he belongs 
are authorized to ordain him, if upon trial he acquits 
himself according to their satisfaction and accepts a call 
from Carolina," 1769. 114 

"The Presbytery of Donegall report, that they have 

ordained Messrs. Hezekiah James Balch and John King. 


" Hanover Presbytery report, that they have ordained 
Mr. Hezekiah Balch," 1770. 115 

In the year 1770, the Rev. Hezekiah James Balch 
was taken from Donegal Presbytery, and the Rev. 
Hezekiah Balch from Hanover Presbytery, and 
together with several other clergymen, were elected 
into the Presbytery of Orange. 116 

"The Presbytery of Abingdon reported, that they had 
licensed Mr. James Balch to preach the gospel," 1787. u7 

In 1798, the Rev. Hezekiah Balch and the Rev. 
James Balch were both members of the Presby- 
tery of Abingdon. 118 

113 Records of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of 
America, 1706-1788, page 378. 

114 Records of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of 
America, 1706-1788, page 399. 

llb Records of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of 
America, 1706-1788, page 401. 

""Records of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of 
America, 1706-1788, page 409. 

117 Records of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of 
America, 1706-1788, pages 531, 536, 537. 

118 Minutes of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the 
United States of America, 1789-1820, page 137. 


The Rev. William Henry Foote speaking a propos 
of the Mecklenburg Declaration says: 119 

"In less than one quarter of a century after the first 
permanent settlement was made in Mecklenburg, men 
talked of defending their rights not against the Indians, 
but the officers of the crown; and took those measures 
that eventuated in the CONVENTION of May 20th, 
1775, to deliberate on the crisis of their affairs. Of the 
persons chosen to meet in that assembly, one was a 
Presbyterian minister, Hezekiah James Balch of Poplar 
Tent; seven were known to be Elders of the Church — 
Abraham Alexander, of Sugar Creek, John McKnitt 
Alexander and Hezekiah Alexander, of Hopewell, David 
Reese, of Poplar Tent, Adam Alexander and Robert 
Queary, of Rocky River (now in the bounds of Phila- 
delphia), and Robert Irwin, of Steel Creek; two others 
were elders, but in the deficiency of church records, their 
names not known with certainty, but the report of tra- 
dition is, without variation, that NINE of the members 
were elders, and the other two are supposed to have been 
Ephraim Brevard and John Pfifer. Thus ten out of 
the twenty-seven were office-bearers in the church; and 
all were connected with the congregations of the Pres- 
byteries in Mecklenburg. 

"The names of the persons composing the convention, 
as given in the State documents collected by Dr. J. 
McKnitt Alexander, are as follows : 

119 Sketches of North Carolina, Historical and Biographical, by William 
Henry Foote. New York: Robert Carter, 58 Canal Street, 1846, 
pages, 204, 208. 


Abraham Alexander — Chairman. 
John McKnitt Alexander — Secretary. 
Ephraim Brevard — Secretary. 

Rev. Hezekiah J. Balch, Charles Alexander, 

John Pfifer, Zaccheus Wilson, jun., 

James Harris, Waightstill Avery, 

William Kennon, Benjamin Patton, 

John Ford, Matthew McClure, 

Richard Barry, Neill Morrison, 

Henry Downe, Robert Irwin, 

Ezra Alexander, John Flenniken, 

William Graham, David Reese, 

John Queary, John Davidson, 

Hezekiah Alexander, Richard Harris, jun., 

Adam Alexander, Thomas Polk." 

Concerning the Mecklenburg Declaration of In- 
dependence, Dr. George W. Graham of the Meck- 
lenburg Historical Society, says: — 120 

"In the months of March and April, 1775, the leading 
men in the County of Mecklenburg, North Carolina, 
held meetings to ascertain the sense of the people and 
to confirm them in their opposition to the claims of Par- 
liament to impose taxes and regulate the internal policy 
of the Colonies. At one of these meetings, when it was 
ascertained that the people were prepared to meet their 
wishes, it was agreed that Thomas Polk, then Colonel 
Commandant of the County, should issue an order di- 
rected to each captain of militia, requesting him to call 
a company meeting to elect two delegates from his com- 

120 Why North Carolinians believe in the Mecklenburg Declaration 
of Independence of May 20th, 1775, by Dr. George W. Graham, of 
the Mecklenburg Historical Society, Charlotte, N. C, 1898. 


pany to meet in general committee at Charlotte on the 
19th day of May, 121 giving to the delegates ample power 
to adopt such measures as to them should seem best 
calculated to promote the common cause of defending 
the rights of the colony and aiding their brethren in 
Massachusetts. Colonel Polk issued the order, and the 
delegates were elected. They met in Charlotte on the 
day appointed. The forms of their proceedings and the 
measures to be proposed had been previously agreed 
upon by the men at whose instance the committee was 
assembled. The Rev. Hezekiah James Balch, Dr. Eph- 
raim Brevard, and William Kennon, Esq., an Attorney - 
at-law, addressed the committee and descanted on the 
causes which had led to the existing contest with the 
mother country, and the consequences which were to be 
apprehended unless the people should make a firm and 
energetic resistance to the right which Parliament as- 
serted of taxing the Colonies and regulating their in- 
ternal policy. 

"On the day on which the committee met, the first 
intelligence of the action at Lexington, in Massachusetts, 
on the 19th of April, was received in Charlotte. This 
intelligence produced the most decisive effect. A large 
concourse of people had assembled to witness the pro- 
ceedings of the committee. The speakers addressed their 
discourses as well to them as to the committee, and 
those who were not convinced by their reasoning were 
influenced by their feelings and all cried out: 'Let us 
be independent! Let us declare our independence and 

121 "The delegates met on the 19th day of May, and after sitting 
in the court-house all night, neither sleepy, hungry, nor fatigued, 
adopted the declaration 'about 2 o'clock A. M., May 20.' Testimony 
of John McKnitt Alexander, Secretary of the 'General Committee.' " 
Foot-note in Dr. Graham's monograph. 


defend it with our lives and fortunes!' A committee 
was appointed to draw up resolutions. This committee 
was composed of the men who had planned the whole 
proceedings, and who had already prepared the resolu- 
tions which it was intended should be submitted to the 
general committee. Dr. Ephraim Brevard had drawn 
up the resolutions some time before and now reported 
them, with amendments, as follows: 

" ' I. Resolved, That whosoever directly, or indirectly, 
abets, or in any way, form or manner countenances the 
invasion of our rights, as attempted by the Parliament 
of Great Britain, is an enemy to his country, to America, 
and to the rights of men. 

"'II. Resolved, That we, the citizens of Mecklenburg 
County, do hereby dissolve the political bonds which 
have connected us with the mother country, and ab- 
solve ourselves from all allegiance to the British crown, 
abjuring all political connection with a nation that has 
wantonly trampled on our rights and liberties and in- 
humanly shed innocent blood of Americans at Lexing- 
ton and Concord. 

"III. Resolved, That we do hereby declare ourselves 
a free and independent people; that we are, and of 
right ought to be a sovereign and self governing people 
under the power of God and the General Congress; to 
the maintenance of which independence we solemnly 
pledge to each other our mutual co-operation, our lives, 
our fortunes, and our most sacred honor. 

'"IV. Resolved, That we hereby ordain and adopt as 
rules of conduct all and each of our former law, and 
that the crown of Great Britain cannot be considered 
hereafter as holding any rights, privileges, or immu- 
nities amongst us. 


"'V. Resolved, That all officers, both civil and mili- 
tary, in this County be entitled to exercise the same 
powers and authorities as heretofore; that every mem- 
ber of this delegation shall henceforth be a civil officer 
and exercise the powers of a justice of the peace, issue 
process, hear and determine controversies according to 
law, preserve peace, union and harmony in the county, 
and use every exertion to spread the love of liberty and 
country until a more general and better organized sys- 
tem of government be established. 

"'VI. Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be 
transmitted by express to the President of the Conti- 
nental Congress, assembled in Philadelphia, to be laid 
before that body.' 122 

"These resolutions were unanimously adopted and 
subscribed by the delegates as follows : 

Abraham Alexander, John McKnitt Alexander, 

Chairman. Secretary. 

Ephraim Brevard, Charles Alexander, 

Hezekiah J. Balch, Zacheus Wilson, Sen., 

John Phifer, Waightstill Avery, 

James Harris, Benjamin Patton, 

William Kennon, Matthew McClure, 

John Ford, Neil Morrison, 

Richard Barry, Robert Irwin, 

Ezra Alexander, David Reese, 

William Graham, John Davidson, 

John Queary, Richard Harris, Sen., 

Hezekiah Alexander, Thomas Polk, 
Adam Alexander, 

122 Martin's History of North Carolina, Chapter XL, Vol. II. Foot- 
note in Dr. Graham's monograph. 


'" In a few days,' m as directed in Resolve 6, the pro- 
ceedings were taken by Captain James Jack, of Char- 
lotte, with a letter of explanation to the President of 
the Continental Congress which was then sitting in Phila- 
delphia. 'The President returned a polite answer to 
the address which accompanied the resolutions, in which 
he highly approved of the measures adopted by the 
delegates of Mecklenburg, but deemed the subject of 
the resolutions premature to be laid before Congress.' 
At the time the messenger from Charlotte arrived in 
Philadelphia with the declaration, Congress was pre- 
paring a petition to the King, which was signed by 
every member on July 8, 1775, stating that 'We have 
not raised armies with the ambitious design of sepa- 
rating from Great Britain and establishing independent 
states,' 124 and of course any measure indicating inde- 
pendence was 'premature to be laid before Congress,' 
just then. Thus the bold action of the Scotch-Irish 125 
of Mecklenburg failed of recognition by the Conti- 
nental Assembly. 

"John McKnitt Alexander was secretary of the 'Gen- 
eral Committee' which met in Charlotte on May 19th- 
20th, 1775, and became custodian of its records, which 
were burned with his dwelling in April, 1800. After 
their destruction he prepared from memory a copy of 
the Mecklenburg Declaration for his friend, General 
William R. Davie, which is known as 'The Davie Copy.' 

123 Testimony of John McKnitt Alexander, Secretary of General 
Committee, page 135, Governor Graham's address. Foot-note in 
Dr. Graham's monograph. 

124 See " Davie Copy" in Archives of the University, at Chapel Hill, 
N. C. Foot-note in Dr. Graham's monograph. 

125 The signers of the Mecklenburg Declaration were not all Scotch- 
Irish. Thus Hezekiah James Balch was of English descent; and 
Brevard seems like a French Huguenot name. 


It is written in the past tense, instead of the present, 
contains errors in the text, and omits the sixth resolution. 
He added a certificate, however, dated Sept. 3d, 1800, 126 
saying : ' That the foregoing statement, though fundamen- 
tally correct, may not literally correspond with the 
original record of the transaction of said delegation.' 

"In 1819, two years after the death of Mr. Alexander, 
an account of the proceedings of the 'General Com- 
mittee' at Charlotte was published in the Raleigh Reg- 
ister, including a facsimile of the 'Davie Copy' with 
this note appended: 

"'The foregoing is a true copy of the papers on the 
above subjects, left in my hands by John McKnitt 
Alexander, deceased. 

"'J. M'KNITT.' 

"This article was referred to Mr. Jefferson, and its 
appearance seems to have vexed him greatly; for, in a 
decidedly petulant letter, 127 he wrote Ex-President Adams, 
' I deem it a very unjustifiable quiz ;' pronounced 
the Mecklenburg Declaration 'spurious,' and criticised 
harshly the patriotism of the members of the Con- 
tinental Congress from North Carolina in 1775-76, 
accusing, Hooper, of Toryism, and Hewes of 'waver- 
ing' in the American cause, in all of which history 
has shown him to be in error." 128 

4. VI. Stephen Bloomer Balch was born April 5th, 
1747, on Deer Creek, Harford County, Maryland. He 

126 See Davie Copy in the archives of the University at Chapel Hill, 
N. C. Foot-note in Dr. Graham's monograph. 

127 Jefferson's works, Vol. IV., page 314. Foot-note in Dr. Graham's 

128 Colonial Records of North Carolina, Vol. 10, page 85, and Jones' 
Defence of North Carolina, page 314. Foot-note in Dr. Graham's 


graduated at Princeton College in 1774, receiving 
the A. B. degree. At Princeton he was a member 
of Whig Hall, 129 and was one of the signers in 1773 
of Dr. H. L. Hodge's diploma. 130 

After graduating at Princeton, he went to Lower 
Marlboro, Calvert County, Maryland, where he 
took charge of a classical academy. On October 
1st, 1775, he was commissioned captain in the Cal- 
vert County militia; he held this command for 
three years and was in actual service against the 
enemy from December 1st, 1775, to December 1st, 
1777,131 When the British appeared on the shores 
of the Patuxent River and Chesapeake Bay, he 
marched out with his company to assist in re- 
pulsing them. He was in a number of actions, 
but, though frequently offered promotion, declined 

129 Catalogue of the American Whig Society, instituted in the College 
of New Jersey, 1769. Princeton, N. J., published by order of the 
Society, 1893, page 6. 

130 Addresses and Proceedings at the Celebration of the One Hundredth 
Anniversary of the founding of the American Whig Society of College 
of New Jersey, Princeton, N. J., June 29th, 1869, Princeton 1871, 
pages 99, 103. 

Princeton College during the Eighteenth Century, by Samuel Davies 
Alexander, an alumnus. New York 1872, page 173. 

131 Records of the Revolutionary War, by W. T. R. Saffell, New York, 
1858, page 537. 

For his military services during the War of Independence, Dr. 
Balch, after the total loss of his house by fire in 1831, which at his 
advanced age he felt severely, was persuaded by his friends to apply 
for and was granted a pension the following year, November 23d, 
under the Act of Congress of June 7th, 1832. See the original papers 
of the proceedings held before Chief Judge Cranch of the Circuit 
Court of the District of Columbia, which are in the office of the Com- 
missioner of Pensions, Department of War. 


it, inasmuch as he thought he could be of more 
service on the Chesapeake border, with all of which 
he was familiar from childhood, and at the same 
time could continue his preparation for the min- 
istry. In 1778, when the feeling was universal 
that, owing to the defeat of Burgoyne (1777) and 
the French alliance, our independence was secured, 
and the acknowledgment of it was merely a 
question of time, he resigned from the service in 
order to give himself up more assiduously to his 
clerical duties. He was licensed to preach by the 
Presbytery of Donegal on June 17th, 1779. 132 

While in North Carolina, on one occasion General 
Isaac Williams, the Whig leader in the district, 
asked him to preach. The General, in full regi- 
mentals, with two pistols in his belt, led the sing- 
ing. Dr. Balch, dwelling on the horrors of the war, 
said in part: — 

"Your country, it is true is laid waste by a vandal 
foe— your wives and daughters are outraged — your fire- 
sides and altars are desecrated — your churches in ruins — 
the blood so recently shed at Beaufort's defeat, cries for 
vengeance — the bones of our countrymen are bleaching 
alike amid the snows of Canada and the sands of Caro- 
lina. What though victory perched not on our standard 
either at Camden, Brandywine or Germantown? Yet 
see the stripes and stars unfurled to the breeze at Tren- 
ton, Princeton and Monmouth. The God of hosts led 

132 Records of the Presbyterian Church of the United States of America, 
1706-1788, page 491. 

From an Engraving by John Sartain. 


the armies of Israel: to them he was a cloud by day 
and a pillar of fire by night. He is now the same Al- 
mighty protector of all who trust in his divine help, and 
he will yet rescue us out of the house of bondage. Soon 
our armies will regain their good fortune. The dark 
prospect now before us will be succeeded by the smile of 
inspiring hope— the misfortune of defeat and disaster will 
yield to the shout and joy of victory — the scourge of war 
will cease, and peace will soon gladden every heart and 
we shall become a great and prosperous people." 

In 1780 he was called by the Presbyterians of 
Georgetown on the Potomac to establish a church 
among them. Accepting, he arrived there March 
16th, 1780, and remained in charge of the church 
he founded until his death fifty-three years after- 
wards. In the Synod that met at Philadelphia, 
May 21st, 1783, he was one of the representatives 
of the Presbytery of Donegal. In succeeding years 
he again and again represented at the meetings of 
the Synods, first the Presbytery of Donegal, then 
the Presbytery of Baltimore and afterwards the 
Presbytery of the District of Columbia. 133 In the 
order of the Synod of Philadelphia, October, 1823, 
creating the Presbytery of the District of Columbia, 
the name of the Rev. Dr. Stephen Bloomer Balch 
heads the list of the ministers chosen to form the 
new Presbytery. 

133 Records of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, 
1706-1788, pages 491, 496, 501, 506, 515, 528, 542. 

Minutes of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, 1789- 
1800, pages 17, 101, 140, 170, 192, 214, 243. 


the armies of Israel: to them he was a cloud by day 
and a pillar of fire by night. He is now the same Al- 
mighty protector of all who trust in his divine help, and 
he will yet rescue us out of the house of bondage. Soon 
our armies will regain their good fortune. The dark 
prospect now before us will be succeeded by the smile of 
inspiring hope — the misfortune of defeat and disaster will 
yield to the shout and joy of victory — the scourge of war 
will cease, and peace will soon gladden every heart and 
we shall become a great and prosperous people." 

In 1780 he was called by the Presbyterians of 
Georgetown on the Potomac to establish a church 
among them. Accepting, he arrived there March 
16th, 1780, and remained in charge of the church 
he founded until his death fifty-three years after- 
wards. In the Synod that met at Philadelphia, 
May 21st, 1783, he was one of the representatives 
of the Presbytery of Donegal. In succeeding years 
he again and again represented at the meetings of 
the Synods, first the Presbytery of Donegal, then 
the Presbytery of Baltimore and afterwards the 
Presbytery of the District of Columbia. 133 In the 
order of the Synod of Philadelphia, October, 1823, 
creating the Presbytery of the District of Columbia, 
the name of the Rev. Dr. Stephen Bloomer Balch 
heads the list of the ministers chosen to form the 
new Presbytery. 

133 Records of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, 
1706-1788, pages 491, 496, 501, 506, 515, 528, 542. 

Minutes of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, Ij8g- 
1800, pages 17, 101, 140, 170, 192, 214, 243. 


Towards the close of the eighteenth century Dr. 
Balch opened a school at Georgetown and pub- 
lished the following announcement:— 


"Conformably to advertisement, the subscribers be- 
gan Academic exercises on the 1st inst. under favor- 
able auspices, since which period a prospect of render- 
ing the institution respectable has considerably bright- 
ened. That the public may know the principles of our 
establishment, the following Prospectus is presented 
to their view. Exercises in the English, Latin and Greek 
languages, writing, arithmetic, practical geometry, as- 
tronomy and geography will be strictly attended to, 
every day in the year, Sundays and the usual holidays 

" From the 20th of September to the 20th of March, 
the pupils will assemble at eight o'clock in the morning, 
and be released at twelve. In the evening they will 
meet at two o'clock and be dismissed at five. 

"During the remaining half of the year, the hours of 
attendance shall be so regulated as shall best comport 
with convenience, due notice being seasonably given. 

"The price of tuition, for an English scholar, will be 
Five dollars by the quarter, which will extend to writing 
and arithmetic as far as through the rule of proportion. 
For Latin or Greek scholars, or for those who shall have 
advanced beyond the rule of proportion in arithmetic, 
or for instruction in any other science taught in this 
Academy, the quarterly price of tuition will be six dol- 
lars and sixty five cents. 

"Each member of the Academy shall either procure 


one half cord of good fuel for its use during the inclem- 
ency of winter, or pay two dollars to procure it. 

"Each student of sufficient age and capacity to at 
tend to a regular course of instruction in the English 
language shall provide for himself Harrison's English 
Grammar, Perry's Royal Standard English Dictionary 
and the American Preceptor by Caleb Bingham. If in 
Arithmetic 'Gough' will be preferred in geography, and 
the necessary introduction thereto in astronomy, the 
last edition of Morse's Universal Geography will be the 
most acceptable. No spelling books will be admitted 
except Perry's only sure guide of these; care shall be 
taken to procure a reasonable supply. Students in the 
Latin and Greek languages will procure the Philadelphia 
Latin Grammar, Young's or Ainsworth's Dictionary, 
i^Esop's Fables, Eutropius, Caesar's commentaries, Ovid, 
Virgil, Mair's introduction to making Latin, Cicero in 
usam Delphini-Wettenhall's Greek Grammar, the Greek 
testament, Lucian's Dialogues, Homer and Xenophon. 
Let those who wish to demonstrate the problems of 
Euclid, procure Stone's edition of that author. Each 
scholar at entrance must pay one quarter in advance. 

"We hereby pledge ourselves to the public that no 
attention shall be wanting on our part towards the youth 
entrusted to our care, either in point of morality or 
science, and hope to discharge our official duties with 
all good fidelity. 


"Georgetown, Oct. 11, 1798." 

There are two copies known of two sermons by 
Dr. Balch On the Certain and Final Perseverance 


of the Saints, that were published at Georgetown 
at the beginning of February, 1791, and which 
are believed to be the first publication printed 
within the District of Columbia. Of these two 
copies one was presented to the Library of Prince- 
ton University by A. A. E. Taylor of the class of 
1854 of Princeton. The other copy belongs to the 
Messrs. W. H. Lowdermilk and Company, of Wash- 
ington, D. C. Through the courtesy of John T. 
Loomis, Esq., managing partner of that firm, the 
title page of this publication is reproduced full 
size, and the sermons are reprinted. 







of the 

Presbyterian Congregation, 


Psalm XCII. 12. 

The Righteous shall flourish like a 

Palm-tree; He shall grow like 

a cedar in Lebanon. 

George-Town: Printed, for the Author, by 

M. Day and W. Hancock. 






Perfeverance of the Saints. 

B Y 


or THE 


PSALM xcn. 12. 

the righteous shall flourish like a 

palm-tree; he shall grow like 

a cedar in Lebanon* 

GEORGE-TOWN: Frintbd, po* the AUTHOR, ax 



To the 

Inhabitants of George-town, 

But especially 

To the 

Author's Hearers, 

The following 



As a public testimony of respect, 

Inscribed ; 

By their servant, 

In the Gospel, 

George-town, Feb. 1, 1791. 



The following Sermons were, at first, delivered by the 
author to the Presbyterian Congregation, in George- 
Town. They are now, with a few alterations, published, 
by particular request. — Many, probably, will charge him 
with ostentation, merely, because his name is prefixed 
to them. It was once intended they should have been 
anonymous; but, reflecting, that it is hardly possible 
for the author of such a publication to remain long con- 
cealed; that there is often as much, sometimes more 
vanity discoverable, in withholding, than in prefixing the 
true signature; for these reasons, the Sermons tell the 
name of their author. 

They are now sent out into a carping, sensorious 
world, attended with his ardent wishes and prayers, 
that they may be blessed for the comfort, edification 
and establishment of the churches of Christ. He has 
only to add, that, although what he endeavors to prove 
may be denied by many pious persons, yet he earnestly 
intreats even those to read these discourses with atten- 
tion, and without prejudice. 



The Certain and Final Perseverance of the 
Saints Asserted and Proved. 


The Righteous also shall hold on his way ; And he that 
hath clean hands shall be stronger and stronger. 

My Friends, 

An attachment to the doctrines and modes of practice, 
peculiar to each religious sect, has ever been discover- 
able in the conduct of their respective members. What 
appears strange is, this attachment has manifested itself 
by an open opposition to those who differed from them, 
and is deeply rooted and interwoven in the hearts of 
the wicked as well as the godly. We frequently see 
men notorious for wickedness, to appearance, as zealous, 
sometimes more so, for the special tenets and prac- 
tices of their own sect, than the truly pious are for 
those which characterize the respective denominations 
to which they belong. Saint Paul was a Pharisee, and, 
as he himself declared, in the presence of King Agrippa, 
he was one of the most straitest of that sect. Of all 
others, he was the most violent opposer and persecutor 
of Christ, in his mystical members. For this he had no 
reason more solid, than that the scheme of Christianity 
was directly opposed to that system of religion which 
he had adopted as his own. The Sadducees also, were 
avowed enemies to the doctrines and practices of the 
disciples of Christ; merely, because they believed and 
taught the resurrection of the dead, and a state of future 
rewards and punishments, after death; all which they 
strenuously and boldly denied. 


This attachment to and partiality for every punctilio, 
in what they supposed to be related either to the doc- 
trines, or to the modes of practice introduced by Jesus 
Christ, were carried to an extravagant height by the 
apostles themselves, at least in some instances. 

The disciples were sent out to preach — to heal the 
sick — to raise the dead — and, to cast out devils: In 
their travels they met with one employed in expelling 
the evil spirits from those that were possessed. They 
straightway forbad him, because he did not do and say 
exactly as they did. But in this they erred; for our 
Saviour, in answer to their declaration, said, Forbid 
him not. Such was their zeal for their own party, that 
they would willingly, have destroyed those who acted 
contrary to their wishes. A village in Samaria would 
not receive their master: Lord, say they, wilt thou 
that we command fire to come down from heaven and 
consume them? This was a manifestation of party-zeal, 
which was not according to knowledge ; for our Saviour 
immediately turned and rebuked them, saying to them, 
Ye know not what spirit ye are of. 

Human nature is the same in every age of the world ; 
and, therefore, whatever was the conduct and temper of 
religious sects, long ago, with respect to themselves and 
to others who thought differently from them, this same 
conduct and temper are discoverable, in a greater or 
lesser degree, in the respective members of the several 
religious societies into which Christendom is, at present, 
divided. — They have a zeal, not well regulated, and they 
are too closely wedded to everything that may be called 
peculiar to themselves. 

From this enthusiastic misplaced zeal, and from this 
narrow, partial temper, have originated, in a great 


measure, all the furious persecutions which have brought 
millions to the stake; drenched the world in human 
blood, disgraced rationality itself, and filled the pages, 
both of profane and sacred history, with the execrable 
deeds of men. 

I am, pointedly, against persecuting, or speaking evil, 
or bitter things about any religious sect whatsoever. 
Let them only demean themselves, as good, peaceable 
members of the civil communities to which they respect- 
ively belong, and, I am fully persuaded, they ought to 
be privileged with the belief of their own peculiar doc- 
trines; with the exercise of their own particular modes 
of worship, and with the full and free use of the un- 
alienable rights of their own consciences. Every indi- 
vidual, and every religious sect, of a persecuting spirit, 
should read the speech, and copy the example of Ga- 
maliel, a doctor of the law among the Jews. The Sad- 
ducees had laid hands upon, and put the Apostles into 
the common prison, for teaching things contrary to their 
faith and practice. An angel of the Lord had unbolted 
the doors of the prison, and commanded them to depart 
to the temple, and to speak to the people all the words 
of this life. When immediately engaged in fulfilling this 
mandate, a captain, with his officers, came, and as it 
appears, persuaded them to appear before the Jewish 
council for trial. They came. The high priest put 
many questions to them, which gave Peter an oppor- 
tunity of addressing his judges in a warm and pointed 
manner. He did so. They were filled with resentment 
and indignation against the apostles. At this crisis, 
says the sacred historian, there stood up in the council 
a Pharisee, named Gamaliel, a doctor of the law, had 
in reputation among all the people, and commanded to 


put the apostles forth a little space; and he said unto 
them, Ye men of Israel, take heed to yourselves what 
ye intend to do as touching these men. For before 
those days rose up Theudas, boasting himself to be 
somebody to whom a number of men, about four hun- 
dred, joined themselves ; who was slain, and all, as many 
as obeyed him, were scattered and brought to nought. 

After this man rose up Judas of Gallilee, in the days 
of the taxing, and drew away much people after him; 
he also perished, and all, even as many as obeyed him, 
were dispersed. And now, I say unto you, refrain from 
these men, and let them alone; for if this counsel, or 
this work be of men, it will come to nought; but if it 
be of God, ye cannot overthrow it; lest happily ye be 
found even to fight against God. There is so much good 
sense in this address, and there was, in my judgment, 
so much propriety in repeating it in this place, that I 
could not well avoid it. And I ardently wish the senti- 
ments it contains were deeply engraven upon the hearts 
of all who call themselves Christians; and that the ex- 
ample set by Gamaliel, may ever be copied by mankind 
in general. In this case, more unanimity and love 
would every where abound among different denomina- 
tions of Christians. 

But notwithstanding what has now been said, and 
although persecution for the sake of religion ought 
to be held in detestation; yet, certainly, there can 
no good reasons be given which should hinder those, 
who think differently about matters of faith and prac- 
tice, from talking, or writing, in a calm, dispassion- 
ate manner, about their respective opinions, that he, 
who is in an error, may meet with full conviction. The 
rtde to be observed in this case, is to make use of soft 


words and hard arguments. This was our Saviour's 
practice. When he saw men in an error, if that was 
very dangerous, he took the most effectual methods to 
show them where their mistake lay; and he generally 
treated such with tenderness and compassion; exhibit- 
ing meekness of temper, for which he was eminently 
remarkable. The apostles themselves reasoned, both in 
private and in public, with those who had been misin- 
formed, and by this means directed them into the right 
way. Sometimes those popular teachers disputed with 
men, who they knew had imbibed erroneous opinions; 
and the happy consequences commonly were, that they 
were convinced and brought to the knowledge of the 

What I have now said seems to justify the design, as 
well as the general strain of these discourses. The in- 
tention of them is to correct an error in doctrine, and 
the manner of doing this, is reasoning meekly and 
calmly. Had I found fault with some particular mode 
in practice, I should not have taken so much pains to 
correct it; but the fundamental doctrines of the Chris- 
tian religion should, I apprehend, be well supported and 

It is really distressing, to men of piety and sensibility, 
to see the children of the same father, the members of 
the same family, the followers of the same Jesus, and 
the expectants of the same future happiness, mutually 
encouraging variances and dissentions, one with another, 
about doctrines which, in fact, support the Christian 

In no age, perhaps, have those variances and dissen- 
tions arisen to a greater height, than in the present. 
Tenets, which by many have been received as orthodox, 


are now, by great multitudes, entirely exploded, and 
others, directly opposite, are embraced, countenanced, 
and taught, both in public and in private. 

The certain and final perseverance of the Saints, is a 
doctrine which was certainly believed and published by 
the writers of the Old and the New Testament. It has 
been embraced and firmly credited, by many of the 
faithful, ever since God has had a church in the world. 
Long ago it was contradicted by Arminius, a Low 
Country divine; and, ever since his time, his followers 
and adherents have been its violent opposers. 

The state of the dispute, or question, seems to be 
this : Those who advocate the final perseverance of the 
Saints, affirm, That a man, who is once made a child of 
God, by regeneration, justification, adoption, and sancti- 
fication, though he may, and frequently does fall into 
sin, yet he will persevere in his religious course of life, 
and will finally be made happy in the enjoyment of God 
forever. — Those who deny the final perseverance of the 
Saints, assert, That a man of the above description, even 
when he has obtained the greatest degree of sanctifica- 
tion of which he is capable in this life, may, and fre- 
quently does fall away, from that advanced state of 
grace, totally and finally, insomuch, that after death he 
is made everlastingly miserable. 

This, if I mistake not, is a just and fair state of the 
different opinions entertained by those who contend 
about the final perseverance of the Saints. I fully 
agree, in judgment, with all who advocate this doctrine ; 
not because it was taught me in my childhood, but be- 
cause I find it clearly asserted and strongly supported 
by the Word of God; and, because it appears to me to 
be the opinion, of the two, which is most consistent 


with reason, and the sentiments and experience of those 
who have had the best opportunity of acquiring an en- 
lightened information. 

Indeed, those who contend for, and teach the total 
and final apostacy of the believer, inculcate a doctrine, 
as I suppose, in its tendency, subversive of the Word of 
Truth; derogatory from the honor of God, and uncom- 
fortable to the children of the heavenly King. And 
nothing but such a view of it could have induced me 
to appear in print, in vindication of that which stands 
directly opposed to it. 

If we apprehend the meaning which the Spirit of God 
intended to convey by the text, the words of it contain 
and establish the whole truth for which we contend, 
and something more: For they assert, That a true 
believer shall persevere in his religious course of life; 
and, also, that he shall increase and grow in grace. He 
shall hold on his way : he shall be stronger and stronger. 
That is, he shall not only retain those graces, which 
were implanted in his soul when he was made a new 
creature, but those graces themselves shall, also, be 
increased, or strengthened, in his progress towards 

In my further enlargement upon this subject, I pro- 
pose, through the assistance of Divine Grace, 

I. To support and prove the doctrine contained in 
the text: — That a true believer will persevere in his 
religious course of life; and that he will grow in grace; 
or, in the words of the text, will hold on his way, and 
be stronger and stronger. 

II. To state and answer some of the plainest and most 
weighty objections which are usually laid in against the 
Saints Perseverance and Growth in Grace. 


III. To conclude with a practical application of what 
may be said. 

I. I am to support and prove the doctrine contained 
in the text: That a true believer will persevere in his 
religious course of life; and that he will grow in grace; 
or, in the words of the text, will hold on his way, and 
be stronger and stronger. This proposition is complex 
in its nature, and divides itself into two parts, each of 
which must be distinctly illustrated. If we can demon- 
strate the truth of this proposition, in both its parts, 
the opinion directly opposed to it, namely, That a true 
believer may, and frequently does, fall from grace, 
totally and finally, will, of necessity, be superseded or 
set aside. There is so wide a difference between moving 
onward in the paths of holiness, having these graces 
strengthened and confirmed more and more: which 
graces, at first, constituted him holy, or righteous ; and 
that of falling for ever from grace, that to support and 
prove the former will, without doubt, destroy the latter. 
If the one is a truth, the other cannot but be false. 

I confess, however, it puts me a little to a stand to 
fix upon a proper method of proceeding in this demon- 
stration. There are some who will believe nothing 
which is not pointedly proved by Holy Scripture ; many 
there are who wrest its meaning to their own de- 
struction; and even when it is opened up to them, 
in a plain and rational way, they with great reluc- 
tance admit the light; and rather than confess their 
error, and ask further assistance, they often put such a 
construction upon it, as they suppose will best establish 
what they have adopted as an article of their faith. 
A third class depend much upon close reasoning, and 
the opinions and experience of men of genius and im- 


proved talents, for the confirmation and establishment 
of their belief about Christian Doctrines. 

It will be best as I suppose, that the multitude at 
large may be satisfied; first to prove the doctrine by 
Scripture, and, in doing so, to avoid, as much as pos- 
sible, making use of any passages, except such as are 
plain, that every one may see and be convinced of their 
proper application; and if at any time some proofs, a 
little dark and intricate, should be brought forward, 
these must be explained in a clear and satisfactory 
manner. When we have established the truth proposed, 
in the way now mentioned, we will give it all the sup- 
port we can, by reason, and by the sentiments and ex- 
perience of those who have had the best opportunities 
of knowing. 

And oh! that the Spirit of God may enlighten my 
understanding and guide my pen, while employed in 
vindicating His own truth. 

1. Then, let us endeavor to support and prove the doc- 
trine of the Saints Perseverance by the Word of God. 
This was given by inspiration of God, and is profitable 
for doctrine; for reproof; for correction; and, for in- 
struction in righteousness. It is a sure word of prophesy, 
whereunto we do well that we take heed as unto a light 
that shineth in a dark place. And let Deists and Infi- 
dels say what they will, it contains all those things 
about religion which should be believed and practised, 
by such as are seeking future happiness according to 
the will of their Creator. 

I begin with the words of the wise and inspired Solo- 
mon. Proverbs, XXIV. 16. A just man falleth seven 
times, and riseth up again. This is full to our purpose, 
and beautifully illustrates and supports that for which 


we contend. We grant, as I have already hinted, that 
a good man may, and frequently does fall into sin; 
but, at the same time, we strenuously assert, that he will 
be deeply penitent for his transgressions, and will still 
hold on his way. These ideas are clearly contained in 
the text just now mentioned. A just man falleth seven 
times ; — that is, he falleth frequently ; but still he riseth 
up again. Our antagonists cannot turn this argument 
against us, by saying, the Christian cannot be progressive 
in his religious course of life, when he falls: For they 
might as well assert, that a man, who sets out on a 
journey, and by chance stumbles and falls now and 
then, tho' he rises and pursues his journey, is not pro- 
gressive in his motion, as to say, that a Christian, who 
falls now and then into sin, though he repents of it, 
does not hold on in his religious course of life. 

As a further testimony of the truth of this important 
and comfortable doctrine, let us attend to the words of 
God himself, published to the Israelites by his prophet 
Hosea. Hosea, II. ig, 20. And I will betroth thee unto 
me for ever; yea I will betroth thee unto me in righteous- 
ness, and in judgment, and in loving-kindness, and in 
mercies. I will even betroth thee unto me in faithfulness, 
and thou shalt know the Lord. In these passages, the 
great God is the speaker, though he makes use of the 
prophet as an instrument, to confirm the believing 
Israelites in the faith of their perseverance. He makes 
the bargain, not for a day, a month, or a year — but 
for ever; and, in the tenor of the covenant he puts a 
gracious promise, which his justice, mercies, and faith- 
fulness are bound to have fulfilled: I will betroth thee 
unto me, says he, for ever, and that in righteousness, 
and in mercies, and in faithfulness. 


To establish the truth yet more strongly and fully, 
and thereby to convince gainsayers, we have the ex- 
press words of him who was greater than a prophet, even 
Jesus the Mediator. John, X. 28, 2g. And I give unto 
them eternal life, and they shall never perish; neither shall 
any pluck them out of my hand: My Father which gave 
them me, is greater than all; and no man is able to pluck 
them out of my Father's hand. He is here speaking of true 
believers, to whom, he says, he gives eternal life ; by which 
is plainly intended, that he communicates the princi- 
ples of spiritual life in this world, which will issue in 
eternal life in that world which lies beyond the grave : — 
He adds, And they shall never perish ; neither shall any 
pluck them out of my hand. Comfortable doctrine, in- 
deed, to every child of God ! They have made an happy 
escape from that imminent danger of eternal death, to 
which they were every moment exposed, while in a 
state of nature ! Their faces are turned towards the city 
of the living God ; and though they are in an enemies 
land, yet the Captain of their Salvation has taken fast 
hold of them: None, however subtle; none, however 
envious, shall be able to pluck them out of his hand. 
He goes on to confirm believers more and more in the 
Faith of their Perseverance : For this purpose, he brings 
to their view the power of God — My Father is greater 
than all: He is above all — superior to all the believer's 
enemies, both temporal and spiritual; and, surely, as 
if he had said, he will never permit created weakness to 
overcome infinite, uncreated power. He will not stop 
here ; but from the greatness and superiority of his 
Father, concludes, for the consolation of his followers, 
that no man is able to pluck them out of his Father's 
hand. He represents believers as held fast by the hand 


of God, so that none can, by strength, power, or strata- 
gem, arrest them from him. My Father, says he, is 
Almighty ; he has an arm of power ; his hand is invincibly 
strong; worlds unnumbered are supported and upheld 
by it; and, surely, since he has taken hold of believers 
with this powerful hand, they need not be afraid that 
he will suffer them utterly to fall away from grace. 
Nothing can be more full to our purpose, than the 
words of the apostle Peter : I Peter, I. 5. Who are kept 
by the power of God, through faith, unto salvation. That we 
may see the scope, and feel the full force of this passage 
of God's word, when applied as a proof, for establishing 
the Final Perseverance of the Saints, we must observe, 
the apostle in the preceding verses had been excited 
to ascriptions of praise and thanksgiving to God the 
Father, and to his Son Jesus Christ; because, by the 
resurrection of the latter, believers had been begotten 
again unto a lively hope ; and to an inheritance incorrupt- 
ible, undefiled, and that fadeth not away — which in- 
heritance, he assures the saints, was reserved in heaven 
for them; who, says he, are kept by the power of God, 
through faith, unto salvation. Here we are presented 
with a view of two things employed in the believer's 
preservation and perseverance; these are, the Power 
of God, and Faith. The power of the Omnipotent God 
is engaged to bring him to glory : That almighty power, 
which nothing can resist — that almighty power, which 
upholds the vast fabric of creation — that almighty power, 
before which the strongest created beings feel their ab- 
solute weakness — that almighty power, for fear of which 
all the infernal hosts shrink into the burning pit, and 
would gladly hide themselves from its irresistible opera- 
tions. This power, on the one hand, exerts itself in 


promoting every believer's perseverance. On the other 
hand, faith, saving faith, and if saving, it will bring 
the believer to salvation, is employed as an instrument 
in the preservation and perseverance of the saints. 
Faith realizes the invisible things of the other world; 
presents them to the view of the servants of God; gives 
them ravishing conceptions of that exceeding and eternal 
weight of glory, for the enjoyment of which they have 
long sighed; teaches them a contempt of the vanities 
of the world; fortifies them against temptations of 
every kind, and puts songs of victory and triumph in 
their mouths. When, by faith, believers get a sight 
of the promised Land, and the glories and pleasures to 
be enjoyed there, their enemies may combine, and 
plan their ruin, but they cannot effect it. Death, in 
her most frightful shape, will have no influence in pro- 
ducing a revolt; but, frequently, the stronger the temp- 
tations, and the more fierce the torments employed to 
make them cease from their perseverance, so much the 
more are they determined to overcome; and so much 
the more are their views of future happiness rendered 
clear and attracting, and their anxieties, for the enjoy- 
ment of it, strengthened and increased. This was the 
case with Stephen, the first Christian Martyr. His 
persecutors were full of rage, and gnashed on him with 
their teeth, and in his presence prepared instruments 
for his death. But, we are told, his face was like the 
face of an angel — and now his faith became so strong 
that it evidently disclosed to him the glories of the other 
world; for he saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing 
on the right hand of God. 

I am so much pleased with this subject, and find such 
a fulness in Holy Writ for its support, that I hardly 


know when or where to stop. Unprejudiced Christians 
will be glad to read the many proofs I am bringing for- 
ward to establish the Saints progressive motion towards 
Heaven; and, for their comfort and encouragement, I 
shall still proceed: — See, to this purpose, John IV. 14, 
I. Peter I. 23. But whosoever drinketh of the water that 
I shall give him, shall never thirst ; but the water that I 
shall give him, shall be in him a well of water springing up 
unto everlasting life. Being born again, not of corruptible 
seed, but of incorruptible, by the Word of God which liveth 
and abideth forever. In the one of these passages, grace, 
in the believer's heart, is compared to a fountain which 
is never dried up or exhausted, but continually sends 
forth streams of water: In the other, it is compared to 
a seed that never dies ; to a seed that is not subject to 
corruption. The comparisons, in both cases, are, no 
doubt, very just ; and, if so, they prove, that grace once 
communicated, can never be lost. 

Let us now hear the conclusion of the seraphic Saint 
Paul, when speaking upon, and in support of, the saints 
progress in the paths of holiness. In the eighth chapter 
of his epistle to the Romans, he issues an absolute 
challenge to all created beings, and defies them, by their 
might, cruelty or policy, to effect a separation between 
Christ and his followers. Who, says he, shall separate 
us from the love of Christ? Shall tribulation? or distress? 
or persecution? or famine? or nakedness? or peril? or 
sword? For I am persuaded that neither death, nor life, 
nor angels, nor principalities, nor powers, nor things 
present, nor things to come, nor height, nor depth, nor 
any other creature, shall be able to separate us from the 
love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord. I ask 
those, who deny the believer's perseverance, what does 


the apostle mean by those strong expressions? Does 
he intend by them that the saints are in imminent 
danger of turning devils incarnate, and of going down 
to the sides of the pit? Surely you will not, you can 
not, you dare not take this sense from them. Read 
them with attention; consider their purport, and you 
must say, that Saint Paul, in these verses, declares, 
that neither things in hell, nor things upon earth, nor 
yet things in heaven, acting separately or conjunctly, 
can, by any means, produce a separation between Christ 
and a believing soul; and, if this cannot be effected, 
every one of his genuine followers will persevere in his 
christian course of life. 

Having established the truth contained in the first 
part of the proposition, by the testimony of scripture, 
I must now apply myself to prove the other part of it, 
in the same way, namely, That the graces of a true 
believer will be stronger and stronger as he advances 
onward toward heaven. Both the Old and the New 
Testament contain passages clearly indicative of this 
truth. For the sake of instruction and conviction let 
us read and examine the sense of the text : The righteous 
shall be stronger and stronger. It is not said, he may 
gather strength; but there is an absolute promise in- 
cluded in the words; He shall be stronger and stronger. 
We must also observe, that God is the one who makes 
the promise, by his servant Job; and, surely, he is able 
to perform; neither is he a man that he should he, or 
the son of man, that he should repent. From this, 
let us turn our eyes to a passage still more plain and 
convincing, Prov. IV. 18. But the path of the just is 
as the shining light, which shineth more and more unto 
the perfect day. Grace, when first implanted in the heart, 


is like the morning light, both weak and dim. The light 
grows stronger as the sun advances ; in like manner, as 
the Christian moves on towards heaven, his graces grow 
stronger and shine brighter. Let us read, to the same 
purpose, Psalm XCII. 12, 13, 14, and Malachi IV. 2. 
The righteous shall flourish like the palm-tree: he shall 
grow like a cedar in Lebanon. Those that be planted in 
the house of the Lord, shall flourish in the courts of our 
God. They shall still bring forth fruit in old age; they 
shall be fat and flourishing. But unto you that fear my 
name shall the sun of righteousness arise with healing in 
his wings; and ye shall go forth, and grow up as calves 
of the stall. 

We have, also, evidences of this truth in the New 
Testament. - James IV. 16. But he giveth more grace. 
John XV. 2. And every branch that beareth fruit, he 
purgeth it, that it may bring forth more fruit. Philippians 
I. 6. Being confident of this very thing, that he which 
hath begun a good work in you, will perform it until the 
day of Jesus Christ. How exceedingly plain and strong 
are these texts, to prove the point under consideration ; 
and how very hard it is to construe them in any other 
way, or to understand them as being applicable for the 
support of any other doctrine. He, that is, God, gives 
more grace ; that is, greater degrees of it. God the Father 
purges by afflictions, trials and temptations, those who are 
real, though they may be weak believers, and by those 
means he renders them more fruitful — that is, their graces 
are made stronger; they shine brighter; have a greater 
similitude to God himself, and, in their lives and con- 
versations, copy more exactly Jesus their great Fore- 
runner and Redeemer. In the heart of every pious 
person, God has really begun a good work; and the 


opinion of Saint Paul was, that it would be carried on, 
not for a day, or a year, but until the day of Jesus 
Christ. He was convinced, that every true believer 
would be ripened for glory, and would come to his grave 
like a shock of corn in his proper season. 

In pursuance of the method laid down, we must, 
secondly, prove the Saint's Perseverance and Growth in 
Grace by reasoning on it. We adduce, as arguments 
in support of their perseverance, God's tenderness and 
compassion for his children, and the high value he sets 
upon them. Every true believer is a child of God; a 
member in his numerous family. For every such child 
he has bowels of compassion. Will he then suffer him 
to revolt entirely, and have his name blotted out of his 
book for ever? We shudder at the conclusion — we can- 
not believe it; for he tells us, by David, Like as a father 
pitieth his children, so the Lord pitieth them that fear 
him. Will a tender father suffer the children of his 
youth and riper years to forsake his family forever? 
He will not: — Neither will God suffer those who are 
once made his, and enrolled with his children, entirely 
to revolt from him. On the contrary, he will make 
use of means by which he will attach them more and 
more to himself — He will enlarge their hearts, that they 
may run in the way of his commandments. He will 
draw them, that they may run after him. Besides, 
God sets a high value on believers. He calls them his 
own; considers them as his jewels; and declares they 
shall be his in that day when he makes up his jewels. 
Will a man suffer his jewels to be lost? No; he prizes 
them at a high rate. Neither will God allow his sons, 
who are jewels in his eyes, to be lost; consequently they 
must, having once set out upon their journey heaven- 


ward, continue in it until they arrive at the place of 
their destination. 

The perseverance of the saints may be argued from 
the greatness of the price paid for them; from the con- 
tinued intercession of the Redeemer, in their behalf; 
and from the great and precious promises made to them 
by God, in Christ. The price paid was infinite; for the 
human and divine natures were united in Jesus, which 
enhanced the value of his obedience and death. He was, 
also, the substitute and surety of believers; and when 
they are brought out of a state of nature, into a state 
of grace, his obedience and sufferings are considered by 
God, the Judge, as their own. But if they do not per- 
severe, these are lost, with respect to them — Shocking 
idea ! Shall we thus make a trifle of an all-perfect right- 
eousness, and set at nought the superlatively great and 
stupendous sufferings of the Son of the eternal God? 
Christ also intercedes for the perseverance of believers: 
For we are told, by John, that if any man sin, we have 
an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the Righteous. 
And he declared, himself, that his Father heard him 
always. He prayed for Peter that his faith should not 
fail. His advocacy, or intercession, must be effectual, 
since his Father is ever ready to grant his requests. 
Believe it then, my friends, that the Saviour of men, 
though he was once transfixed to a cross, has been for 
many ages upon a throne, supporting the character of 
a Powerful Advocate for all believers. Shall the Chris- 
tian's enemies then overcome one, who bought him at 
so great a price, and who constantly presents his obe- 
dience and sufferings to his Father, as arguments in favor 
of his progressive motion towards heaven? Certainly no. 
Besides, there are great and precious promises made, 


by God, to believers, in Christ; and we ought to believe 
that these promises will be fulfilled; and if so, every 
follower of the Lamb must, and will, persevere. I, says 
God to his people, will never leave thee, nor forsake 
thee. For the mountains shall depart, and the hills be 
removed, but my kindness shall not depart from me. 
To which, let me add the words of David. The steps 
of a good man are ordered by the Lord ; and he delighteth 
in his way. Though he fall, he shall not utterly be cast 
down; for the Lord upholdeth them with his hand. 

The point under consideration may be proved from 
the union which takes place between Christ and his 
people: This union is of the most intimate nature — it 
is like that of the head and the members; or, like that 
of the vine and the branches. Now he that is joined 
unto the Lord, is one Spirit, and he is made a partaker 
of the Divine Nature; how then is it possible, that the 
believer can apostatize from God, totally and finally? 
He is made a member of Christ, spiritually ; he is cut off 
from the old stock, in which he was growing, in a state 
of nature, and he is really engrafted into Jesus Christ — 
the same spirit operates in both; surely then he must 
go forward towards the perfection of his nature. 

Reason, also, tells us, that such an one will grow 
stronger and stronger; for, it is the nature of grace to 
aspire to its native place, to rise to its giver. As the 
Spirit of God carries on a work of sanctification in the 
man, it is his business to kill the evil qualities of the 
heart; the person's love for the world is destroyed; his 
corruptions of every kind are gradually weakened, and, 
by consequence, grace takes a deeper and a faster hold 
of his heart. The more he dies to sin, the more and 
the stronger does he grow in grace. He bears the fruits 



of the spirit, love, joy, peace, faith, meekness, humility 
and patience; and these, by degrees, gathering strength, 
render him ripe for glory, and make him a suitable 
companion for saints and angels. 

For the sake of argumentation, we will, for a moment, 
grant all that our antagonists contend for; and we will 
say, a believer may, and frequently does fall from grace, 
totally, and finally, and, consequently, does not grow 
in grace: Then let us notice the absurdities that will 
unavoidably take place. A true believer, has true faith. 
That faith is the effect of God's having made a choice 
of him— and that choice is the unchangeable purpose of 
God. Now, if he loses his faith, the eternal purpose of 
God must also be lost, or, at least, rendered ineffectual: 
This is an absurdity, however, too gross to be admitted. 
Again, if the believer does not persevere, he loses his 
faith; but faith is the condition of the Covenant of Grace, 
and therefore the Covenant itself may also be abrogated, 
with respect to those who cease to believe; but, the 
covenant also is immutable; for God says, expressly, / 
will make an everlasting covenant with them, that I will not 
turn away from them, to do them good ; but I will put my 
fear in their hearts, that they shall not depart from me, 
Jeremiah XXXII. 40. Again, if the believer falls away 
from grace, totally and finally, or does not persevere, it 
may sometimes happen, that he that believes has not 
eternal life, even when he does believe; for he loses 
that life, and, consequently, it could not be an eternal 
life: But Christ says, expressly, That every believer, 
without exception, has eternal life abiding in him. The 
believer, say our antagonists, does not increase or grow 
stronger in grace — Then he grows weaker. But this 
would be to say, That a man may be a Child of God, 


and yet not have the work of sanctification carried on 
in his heart at all — Very absurd would such a conclu- 
sion be! For the Spirit of God is given as a spirit of 
holiness to all and every Christian, and he kills sin, and 
strengthens grace. I have been thus particular to put 
this matter out of dispute, and to vindicate a great and 
comfortable Gospel Truth from illiberal abuse. 

We come now to the third and last source of argu- 
mentation, by which we mean to support, or, at least, 
to strengthen the Doctrine of the Saints final Perse- 
verance and Growth in Grace: viz. By the opinions and 
experience of those who have had the best opportuni- 
ties of acquiring an enlightened information. 

I do not mean, that the opinions and experience of 
men shall be taken as absolute, incontestible evidence, 
in favor of the proposition we are endeavoring to estab- 
lish. For it ever was and ever will be a truth, that good 
and wise men are liable to mistakes. But granting 
this, they ought to have some weight in determining 
our belief about doctrines. Upon the saints final per- 
severance and growth in grace, the fathers, who suc- 
ceeded the apostles in the work of the ministry, spoke 
very clearly. Tertullian, eminently pious and learned, 
has this remarkable expression: — "How glorious a thing 
"it is, that Christians are carried on by little and little, 
"until they arrive to perfect happiness in the new Jeru- 
salem." Saint Gregory says, "That the righteous man 
"travels on, from one degree of grace and strength, un- 
" til another, until he meets the light of Heaven." 
These venerable fathers seem, in those sentences, to 
have given the opinions of those who lived in their 
respective ages. 

I need not tell my readers, that Zuinglius, Calvin, and 


Luther, contended for the doctrine we advocate; for 
they must, generally, be acquainted with their senti- 
ments concerning it. In support of the saints pro- 
gressive motion in the paths of holiness, and of their 
growth in grace, let me call, as witnesses, the determina- 
tions of the different Synods and General Councils which 
have long adorned the Presbyterian Churches in several 
parts of the world. The Low Country divines, of this 
denomination, have long since established them both 
in deliberate assemblies. The Synods and councils of 
England, Scotland, and America, have done the same. 
Hear their sense of the matter, in the seventeenth arti- 
cle of that church: "They whom God hath accepted in 
"his beloved, effectually called, and sanctified by his 
"spirit, can neither totally nor finally fall away from 
"a state of grace, but shall certainly persevere therein 
"unto the end, and be eternally saved." And this 
article has been accepted as a part of the creed of the 
Presbyterian Church in America. In another place they 
speak of believer's spiritual nourishment and growth in 
grace, which certainly is inseparably connected with 

Next I must bring into my assistance the sentiments 
of the pious framers of the articles and liturgy of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church, who, certainly, advocated 
that for which we contend. Hear their conclusion in 
their seventeenth article. They have been speaking of 
those whom God hath chosen for happiness out of man- 
kind—Such, they assert, are bro't, by Christ, to ever- 
lasting salvation. They go on, and say, "Wherefore 
"they which be endued with so excellent a benefit of 
"God, be called according to God's purpose, his spirit 
"working in due season: They, through grace, obey the 


"calling: They he justified freely: They he made sons 
"of God by adoption: They he made like the image of 
"his only begotten Son, Jesus Christ: They walk relig- 
iously in good works; and, at length, by God's mer- 
"cies, they attain everlasting felicity." Can anything 
be stronger or more full to our purpose, than what we 
have now repeated? Certainly not. 

I am unhappy, that my not being acquainted with the 
articles of the Baptist, and some other churches of note, 
prevents me from bringing in their sentiments, as sup- 
ports of the proposition endeavored to be proved in this 
discourse. That the members of the Baptist Church 
think as we do about it, I know to be a fact; but the 
words they make use of, I cannot here put down. 

What shall I say more? Let experience, or that 
knowledge which Christians have acquired by trial and 
practice, here speak in behalf of the saints persever- 
ance and growth in grace. She will, I am persuaded, 
give in her verdict in our favor: — She will force every 
believer to say, that, in the midst of temptations, and 
sins, and afflictions, he has found a strong inclination 
to go forward; that he has often felt a heavy stroke 
given to the body of death within him, and, by con- 
sequence, he has felt his graces taking a deeper root 
in his soul, and becoming stronger and more fruitful. 
Could we, my brethren, pass from this to the other 
world, and appeal to the experience of all the righteous, 
who have arrived safe in those realms of perfect peace 
and love, I am fully persuaded we should have a new 
illustration of both parts of the proposition. They 
would tell us, that since their admission into those re- 
gions of felicity, they have often been exhilarated and 
lost in wonder, when they took a view of the instru- 


ments employed by their divine Master, in conducting 
them to, and preparing them for Heaven. They would, 
there is no doubt, extol, in songs of joy, the wisdom, 
power, and faithfulness of their Almighty Benefactor. 
Their tongues would loudly recommend that faith by 
which they walked while on earth, and which, with re- 
spect to them, is now turned into sight. Above all, 
hallelujahs would burst from every mouth to their 
Advocate, Jesus Christ. They would all, with one con- 
sent, acknowledge, that back to perdition they could 
not have gone; that before them the path was open, 
along which they were compelled to travel; and, that 
all things wrought together to establish and strengthen 
their graces. This would be the language of the Pa- 
triarchs: It would be re-echoed by the united voices 
of all the Prophets, Apostles, and Martyrs. In a single 
word, the meanest Saints, in the upper Temple, would 
tell us, experimentally, that perseverance and growth 
in grace are inseparably connected with true religion; 
and that, from the moment of their conversion until 
their dissolution, they made progress heaven-ward, and 
became stronger and stronger. 

I have now, my friends, proved the first doctrinal 
proposition : In doing this, a variety of arguments have 
been employed. These have been drawn from scrip- 
ture, reason, opinions and experience. This was done 
in order to satisfy every class of men, and to put the 
matter in dispute, as much as possible, beyond con- 
troversy. 134 

134 1 am conscious that the attentive reader will perceive some small 
disorder in the management of the different arguments made 
use of: This was occasioned by the complex nature of the proposi- 
tion laid down for discussion. It consisted of two parts, or branches, 
inseparably connected, and yet capable of distinct illustration. — It 


Leaving the objections usually laid in against what 
has been said, together, with an improvement of the 
whole, for the ground of another discourse, I conclude 
this in the words of the Apostle Jude: — Now unto htm 
that is able to keep you from falling, and to present you, 
faultless, before the presence of his glory, with exceeding 
joy; to the only wise God, our Saviour, be glory and 
majesty, dominion and power, both now and ever. Amen. 


Objections, to the Final Perseverance and 
Spiritual Growth of the Saints, Stated and 


The righteous also shall hold on his way; and he that 
hath clean hands shall be stronger and stronger. 

My Friends, 

In the preceding discourse, upon this subject, after 
a suitable introduction, it was proposed, 

I. To support and prove the doctrine contained in 
the text: — That a true believer will persevere in his 
religious course of life; and that he will grow in grace; 
or, in the words of the text, will hold on his way, and 
be stronger and stronger. 

was, therefore, necessary to have an eye to both through the whole 
of the sermon, and to establish them in the order in which they 
were at first mentioned. They go hand in hand, and the one or 
the other being proved, the other is inferable from it; for there must 
be growth in grace where there is perseverance, and, certainly, there 
can be no growth in grace if perseverance is wanting. 


II. To state and answer some of the plainest and 
most weighty objections which are usually laid in against 
the Saints Perseverance and Growth in Grace. 

III. To conclude with a practical application of what 
might be said. 

The truth of the first of these propositions, in both 
its parts, I have already proved, by a variety of strong 
arguments — and, had not the present age been pro- 
ductive of great multitudes, who are disposed to lay 
in objections against what has been advanced, the 
subject might have been closed, with a warm and in- 
teresting improvement of what had been said. How- 
ever, as matters are circumstanced, I am under the ne- 
cessity of meeting our opponents upon their own ground, 
and must endeavor, in this discourse, to state and an- 
swer their several objections to the truth of what we 
have asserted and proved, in the preceding sermon: 
When I have done this, a door will be opened for a 
practical application of the whole subject. Here I 
cannot do less than to call down the assistance of the 
Holy Ghost, both upon myself and you: — May he 
enable me to speak, and you to hear, as become the 
oracles of God to be spoken and heard. Two plans 
are concerted, in order to set aside and overthrow the 
truth, and even the probability of our opinion. 1st. 
The objectors suppose, certain bad consequences will 
unavoidably follow from the admission of that for which 
we have contended, and making these bad consequences 
the foundation, they erect upon it a superstructure, as 
they fondly suppose, high enough to overtop, and 
weighty enough to overthrow, all we have advanced. 
This is chiefly done in the way of reasoning. But as 
there are many who are not wholly satisfied with this 


process, there is a 2d. plan adopted for destroying 
the truth of our doctrinal proposition, that is, they 
form a proposition directly opposed to it, namely, That 
a true believer may, and frequently does, fall away from 
a state of grace, and, consequently, from growing in 
grace, totally and finally; insomuch, that after death he 
is made everlastingly miserable. The truth of this 
position they attempt to establish by the Word of God; 
and, I will say, I have not a single doubt but that they 
believe they prove it, in a manner, plain and full. These 
two schemes it must now be my work to exhibit, one 
after the other, and, in the same order, to point out 
their insufficiency for accomplishing the end at which 
they aim. 

1st. Then, granting the truth and certainty of the 
believer's final perseverance, growth in grace, and the 
impossibility of his falling from grace totally and finally, 
have a direct tendency, say our opponents, to encourage 
an inattention to christian duties. Upon this matter 
they reason thus: — If we are true believers, we shall 
certainly persevere; we shall grow stronger; it is im- 
possible for us to fall from grace totally and finally, 
according to your plan; we will not, therefore, bestir 
ourselves, in the smallest degree, about those matters; 
we will attend to the exercise of no duties whatsoever. 
The bare repetition of such sentiments does, in my 
judgment, justify us in drawing the conclusion, that 
those who make use of them either have no true religion 
at all, or, that they are very ignorant of, and have, as 
yet, felt very few of those effects which unavoidably 
follow, upon being brought out of darkness into God's 
marvellous light. Have we not seen that Saint Paul 
gave full credence to what we have advocated? Cer- 


tainly we have. Had it then such an influence on his 
conduct? Was he inattentive to, and negligent of, the 
duties which belonged to, and were obligatory on Chris- 
tians? No; he was far otherwise — He laboured more 
abundantly than all the apostles — He was frequent in 
the exercise of prayer and praise — His love to God was 
strong and very fervent. For the promotion of his 
master's honour, and his own soul's peace, he denied 
himself, took up his cross, and followed him. He de- 
clared, in this he exercised himself, to have a conscience 
void of offence toward God and toward man. In a 
single word, he performed, punctiliously, every duty 
which he was convinced he owed either to himself, his 
fellow-men, or to his Creator. And did he perform all 
these things knowing, at the same time, that he was 
bending his course heaven-ward; that he was, conse- 
quently, growing stronger in grace; and that it was 
impossible for him to fall away from grace? Surely he 
did. He knew these were some of the means appointed 
by God for the promotion of these important things 
just now mentioned, and therefore he could not, he 
would not neglect them. He knew he should reach the 
mark — And, he knew as well, that he must run with all 
his might towards it. Hence he tells us: Phil, III., 12, 
1 j, 14. Not as though I had already attained, either were 
already perfect: but I follow after, if that I may apprehend 
that for which also I am apprehended of Christ Jesus. 
Brethren, I count not myself to have apprehended; but 
this one thing I do, forgetting those things which are 
behind, and reaching forth unto those things which are 
before, I press toward the mark, for the prize of the high 
calling of God in Christ Jesus. Are these the words of the 
very same apostle who, in his epistle to the Romans, 


boldly declares, that nothing can effect a separation be- 
tween Christ and his followers ? Yes ; they are the words 
of the very same Paul. It is, then, sufficiently plain, that 
the belief of what we have proved, had no such per- 
nicious influence upon his conduct, as the objectors to 
the doctrine calculate upon. On the contrary, his ardor 
in the Christian warfare was increased, and his graces 
shown brighter, which, I am fully persuaded, are the 
unavoidable fruits or consequences of a firm belief of 
what we have advocated. I draw this conclusion, not 
altogether from the example of Paul, and other holy 
men of whom we read in the Word of God; but, also, 
from some observations I have made myself. It was 
my lot long ago to live, for many years, among a people, 
who all believed in the certainty of every true Christian's 
final perseverance and spiritual growth, and in the con- 
sequent impossibility of their falling, for ever, from grace. 
These people were, in general, exemplary in their lives; 
seemed to be devoted to God, and to live to his glory. 
Vices, of every kind, they appeared both to hate and 
to shun : And upon a fair comparison, they were better 
magistrates, better subjects, better neighbors, better 
masters and mistresses, better husbands and wives, 
better parents and children, than I have, generally, 
known those to be who deny our doctrine, and infer 
such dreadful consequences from it. Why, then, should 
our opponents be alarmed, and cry out against the evil- 
tendency of that for which we plead? If such mis- 
chievous effects were concealed in our sentiments, would 
they not come forth uniformly and at all times? I 
apprehend it would, in common, be the case. From this 
objection, then, our opinion has received no harm: — It 
stands, as yet, unmoved. 


Secondly, Our opponents state, That, allowing what we 
have contended for to be true, a door is opened for loose 
living, and all the exhortations, promises and threat- 
nings, which are interspersed throughout the Word of 
God, are thereby, rendered entirely useless. These, say 
they, are the unavoidable evils which flow from such 
opinions, and, therefore, we cannot be persuaded of the 
truth and validity of what you have said in the former 
discourse. We pointedly deny that these conclusions can 
be drawn, with any degree of propriety, from the prem- 
ises. With respect to the first of these objections, the 
Apostle Paul has given a short, but unsatisfactory an- 
swer to it, in Rom. VI., 1, 2. What shall we say then, 
Shall we continue in sin, that grace may abound? God 
forbid. How shall we, that are dead to sin, live any longer 
therein? In the close of the preceding chapter he had 
been shewing, that where sin abounded grace did much 
more abound ; to which doctrine he foresaw some licen- 
tious persons might object, and say, If the riches of 
grace be thus manifested in the pardon of sin, may we 
not take more liberty and multiply our offences? This 
conclusion he rejects, with the greatest abhorrence, and 
shews it cannot be the case: How, says he, shall we, 
that are dead to sin, live any longer therein ? We may, 
with great propriety, apply what the apostle here ad- 
vances to those who object against our sentiments as 
favorable to licentiousness. Can you see any good rea- 
son at all for living and wallowing in iniquity, because 
you are Christians and traveling towards Heaven, and 
growing into a ripeness for perfect blessedness ? Because 
you cannot, possibly, fall from grace, will you, therefore, 
prove, by your conduct, that you have no true grace? 
If you are God's children you are dead to sin: that is, 


you have no relish for it, no desire after it. Had you 
your choice, you would not indulge a single thought, 
speak a single word, nor yet do a single action, which 
would be offensive to that God who has done so much 
for you : Much less would you be willing to give up to your 
irregular appetites and inclinations, and, having removed 
every impediment out of the way, yield yourselves up 
as servants to all kinds of wickedness. These reflections 
compel me to draw the conclusion, that those who oppose 
our sentiments, as being friendly to loose living, either 
do not understand the matter, or, which I fear is the 
case with many of them, they have never as yet had 
the love of God shed abroad in their hearts. 

Our opponents add, that, in our plan, this other evil 
consequence is comprehended and naturally flows from 
it ; namely, that the exhortations, promises, and threat- 
enings, which are interspersed throughout the Word of 
God, are thereby rendered entirely useless and ineffectual 
to promote the end at which they aim. Would the 
All-wise Being, say they, tell believers to watch and 
pray, to grow in grace; and, that in him, who draws 
back, his soul shall have no pleasure, if their final per- 
severance and growth in grace were certainly fixed, 
insomuch, that there is no possibility of their falling 
away from these totally and finally? Surely all these 
may have a place in God's Word, and, nevertheless, 
what we have said remain, unalterably, true. God 
promises those blessings to believers; but, he promises 
them in and through means to be used by them. He 
communicates grace and strength to them, and makes 
them instruments in his own hand to promote his glory 
and their own real happiness. I would not be under- 
stood here as asserting, that the Christian's perseverance 


and spiritual growth depend on his own exertions; far 
be that from me : But I say, God uses him as an instru- 
ment in his own hand, for promoting those important 
subjects. The All-wise knows his people's imperfec- 
tions ; knows that sin is not entirely vanquished ; 
knows that every wrong step they take dishonors him 
and wounds their own souls ; and, therefore, though he 
has established them in the ways of holiness, and will 
finally bring them to the participation of endless joys ; 
yet, with great propriety, does he exhort them to 
go forward; promise rewards to the conqueror; and 
threaten to punish such as fall to his dishonour, though 
they be not utterly cast off. There are some circum- 
stances, in the story of Paul's shipwreck, recorded in 
the Acts of the Apostles, which, if repeated, will throw 
light upon this matter, though they bear relation to 
earthly things. We will repeat them:— The ship was 
taken in a storm, and all the passengers, momently, 
expected to sink as lead in the mighty waters. At this 
crisis, an Angel of the Lord delivered Paul from his 
fears: — He promised him that he and all those who 
sailed with him, should get safe to land. The winds, 
however, became more boisterous; the waves ran high; 
the ship was tossed to and fro by them ; fear seized upon 
the ship-men, and they determined to abandon her 
and the rest of the crew to the mercy of the triumph- 
ant billows. Paul immediately stepped forward and 
interposed his advice; saying, Except these abide in 
the ship ye cannot be saved. On the one hand, we 
have here the promise of God to the Apostle, that all 
the passengers should get safe to land ; and, on the other 
hand, we have this same Apostle asserting, that if the 
ship-men left the ship, they could not be saved. The 


promise then, of their salvation, and the means by 
which, under Providence, it was to be effected, were in- 
separably connected. Some how, after the same man- 
ner, it is with respect to that eternal life after which 
we look. True believers are exhorted to go forward 
towards it ; they have promises made to them, that they 
shall certainly persevere and be prepared for it; they 
are told, that if they neglect the use of means, it will 
fair [sic] the worse with them ; for, that they are to look 
for these blessings in the way of holiness and in the use 
of means, which are as certainly appointed as the end at 
which they aim. 

These objections, then, against our sentiments, which 
state, that they open a door for licentiousness, and ren- 
der the exhortations, promises and threatenings, in the 
Word of God, entirely useless, must also fall to the 
ground, and leave us in the quiet possession of what we 
have asserted and proved. Having expended the force 
of reason, in attacks of this kind, upon our sentiments, 
and willing to satisfy all parties, they, secondly, form 
a proposition directly opposed to that for which we 
have contended. They say, That true believers may, 
and frequently do, fall from a state of grace, totally 
and finally; and, consequently, that they do not grow 
stronger in grace. The truth of this, they attempt to 
support by the Word of God. I am now to mention 
these several proofs, drawn from Holy Scripture, and 
shew their insufficiency for promoting the end at which 
they aim. They have recourse to the words of the 
Prophet for the establishment of their doctrine: Ezekiel 
III. 20. XVIII. 24. We will repeat the words in both 
places, and then endeavor to give them a consistent 
explanation. Again, when a righteous man doth turn 


from his righteousness, and commit iniquity, and I lay a 
stumbling-block before him, he shall die; because they hast 
not given him warning; he shall die, in his sin, and his 
righteousness, which he hath done, shall not be remembered; 
but his blood will I require at thine hand. But when the 
righteous turneth away from his righteousness, and com- 
mitteth iniquity, and doeth according to all the abomina- 
tions that the wicked man doeth, shall he live? All his 
righteousness that he hath done shall not be mentioned; 
in his trespass, that he hath trespassed, and in his sin, 
that he hath sinned, in them shall he die. These pas- 
sages are nearly the same in signification — at least 
those parts of them which are brought forward to estab- 
lish the truth of the aforementioned doctrine; both 
of them assert, That, when a righteous man turns from 
his righteousness which he hath done, and commits 
iniquity, all his righteousness, which he hath done, shall 
not save him from ruin everlasting. I am sorry to 
know, that there are multitudes in the world ignorant 
enough to advance these passages, for the support of a 
doctrine, which, surely, can derive no assistance from 
them. Let us examine their meaning, and make a fair 
trial. What are we to understand by this righteous man, 
and by his turning from his righteousness? By the 
righteous man we must understand, one who is right- 
eous in his own, and perhaps, in the estimation of others : 
The Scripture speaks of such. — Luke XVIII. g. And 
he spake this parable unto certain which trusted in them- 
selves that they were righteous, and despised others. Matt. 
XXIII. 28. Even so ye also outwardly appear righteous 
unto men, but within ye are full of hypocrisy and iniquity. 
The righteousness here spoken of, is a righteousness of 
the man himself; it is his: It is what he has done: 


It is a webb of his own weaving; a righteousness of 
works altogether — This we grant he may loose en- 
tirely: From this he may turn. His impure heart 
can no longer contain its wickedness; the external 
restraints are broken asunder, and the man is shewn 
in his proper colors. He boldly apostatizes from his 
hypocritical profession. That this is a fair explanation 
of those texts, I can venture to call, as witnesses, many 
of those who, nevertheless, contend for the possibility 
and frequency of a total and final fall from grace. I 
hope none of them suppose that a man is to be saved 
by his own works; but by the merits and righteousness 
of the Saviour of men. Yet, in the passages we have 
been considering, it is the man's righteousness that he 
hath done from which he turns himself away. Nothing, 
then, can be concluded for our opponent's scheme— nor 
yet against us, from this effort. 

We proceed to the citation and explanation of some 
other sentiments, which, at first sight, seem to favor their 
proposition, and, consequently, to bear hard against what 
we have been at considerable pains to establish: Read 
John XV. 2, 6. Every branch in me that beareth not 
fruit, he taketh away. If a man abide not in me, he 
is cast forth as a branch, and is withered. These are the 
words of Christ himself. They are figurative. He 
had called himself the vine, believers the branches, 
and his Father the husbandman, or dresser of the 
branches. The passages give ground for the following 
question: What are we to understand by men's being 
in Christ? The answer to this question, will, sufficiently, 
explain those texts, and, at the same time, shew that 
those who found upon them their opinion of the possi- 
bility and frequency, of the believer's total and final 


apostasy from grace, do really mistake their meaning. 
Men may be in Christ two ways: 1st. Some are really 
united to him by faith, and by his spirit dwelling in 
them — Such are all true believers. 2nd. Some are said 
to be in Christ by a sacramental implantation; having 
been baptized in his name, they were thereby made 
members of his visible Church, and such make a visible 
profession of adhering to him: But as they are not 
really and spiritually united to him, they derive no 
nourishment from him, and, consequently, they cannot 
bring forth any good fruit. God may dig about and 
manure them: He may give them a solemn call; may 
allow them privileges in abundance — still they are barren. 
Then he cuts them off, and they wither forthwith. They 
are like the unfruitful fig-tree, with which he had taken 
so much pains, and, after all, it was cut down as a 
cumberer of his ground. As yet, then, we remain in 
possession of that truth for which we have been con- 
tending, and our adversaries perceiving some of those 
sacred pillars, upon which they have erected their argu- 
ments for proving the total and final apostasy, already 
to give way, they proceed and bring forth others, which, 
they fondly suppose, will not be so easily set aside and 
overthrown. We follow them, and will, in the whole 
of our process keep the investigation of truth in our 
eye, as the principal object to be sought after. 

They bring in support of their opinion, Heb. VI. 4, 5, 
6. ibid X. 26, 27, as also, 2 Peter, II., 21, 22. We will 
repeat these passages at full length, and examine how 
far any are justifiable in making use of them to establish 
the total and final apostacy of true believers. For it 
is impossible for those who were once enlightened, and have 
tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the 


Holy Ghost, and have tasted the good word of God, and 
the powers of the world to come ; if they shall fall away, 
to renew them again unto repentance : seeing they crucify 
to themselves the Son of God afresh, and put him to an 
open shame. Fgr if we sin wilfully, after that we have 
received the knowledge of the truth, there remaineth no more 
sacrifice for sins, but a certain fearful looking for of judg- 
ment and fiery indignation, which shall devour the adver- 
saries. For if after they have escaped the pollutions of 
the world through the knowledge of the Lord and Saviour 
Jesus Christ, they are again entangled therein, and over- 
come; the latter end is worse with them than the beginning. 
For it had been better for them not to have known the 
way of righteousness, than, after they have known it, to 
turn from the holy commandment delivered unto them. 
But it has happened unto them according to the true 
proverb, The dog is turned to his own vomit again; 
and The sow that was washed to her wallowing in the mire. 
I readily allow, to those who contend for the apostacy 
of the saints, that, if there is anything in the Word of 
God which favours and supports it, these verses just 
recited seem to do so: — But we will not depend upon 
the bare repetition of them: We will examine them, 
thoroughly, and weigh their import with all the im- 
partiality imaginable ; having done this, we shall be able 
to conclude, with some degree of exactness, whether 
they are properly or improperly applied, when ad- 
vanced as proofs of the possibility and frequency of 
believers total and final revolt from God. 

Four things are observable in the one and the other 
of the two passages just now cited from the Epistle to 
the Hebrews : — 1 . Great attainments, in what appears to 
be religion, are spoken of, and men are evidently repre- 


sented as being the subjects of those, seemingly, relig- 
ious advancements. Those attainments, in the first 
passage, are pointed out by the phrases — Enlightened, 
tasting the heavenly gift, partaking of the Holy Ghost, 
tasting the good Word of God, and the powers of the 
world to come. In the other passage, they are com- 
prized in the single phrase — Receiving the knowledge of 
the truth. 2. It is suggested that such may fall away 
from this apparent progress in religion. This idea is, 
in the first quotation, conveyed by the phrase — If they 
shall fall away ; in the other, by the words — For if we sin 
wilfully. 3. We are taught to believe, that it is a matter 
very difficult indeed to bring those, who thus backslide 
from such advancements in what appears to be religion, 
to a hearty and willing profession of it afterwards. 
This is communicated to us, in the first passage, by the 
words — For it is impossible to renew them again unto re- 
pentance ; the same sentiment is conveyed in the second 
recited place, by the phrase — There remaineth no more 
sacrifice for sin. 4. Reasons, for the seeming impossi- 
bility of such apostates being restored, or induced to 
engage in the exercises of true religion, are given in 
both passages : In the first, because they crucify to 
themselves the Son of God afresh, and put him to an 
open shame; in the second, because a certain fearful 
looking for of judgment has already taken possession of 
them, and a fiery indignation is prepared to devour 
them, being adversaries of the Almighty. 

We see by these remarks, that those different scrip- 
ture-texts, are parallel one with the other. This par- 
allelism will greatly assist us in an explanation of them. 
The first contains a great variety of words to express 
the utmost length to which men may go in what appears 


to be religion, and yet be destitute of the life and power 
of it in their heart. The second does this by a single 
phrase — Receiving the knowledge of the truth; which 
certainly teaches us, that to have our minds enlightened 
in the knowledge of Jesus and his gospel, is all that can 
be meant by that variety of phraseology made use of 
in the first cited passage, and with this opinion exactly 
agree many of our most learned commentators, both 
ancient and modern — I name only Calvin and Bullinher 
of the former class, and Burkit and Fox of the latter. 
They say, "To be enlightened, to taste the heavenly 
gift, to be made a partaker of the Holy Ghost, to taste 
the good Word of God, and the powers of the world to 
come, are phrases, figuratively used, to express and 
represent the same thing; namely, the knowledge and 
acknowledgement of the gospel." — 

"It is called illumination,' (say they) 'because men 
being blind before, are hereby enlightened : It is called 
a tasting of the heavenly gift, because this knowl- 
edge comes from Heaven, and because it is partially 
relished by those to whom it is communicated: They 
are said to be made partakers of the Holy Ghost, because 
this knowledge is given them by the Spirit of God : They 
are said to taste of the Word of God, because they dis- 
cover a certain sweetness in it, and especially in its 
promises; though they, as yet, have no proper claim 
to them: They taste the powers of the world to come, 
because they, falsely, suppose, that, having a right to 
the promises which make the joys of paradise good to 
believers, they will not be denied to them, and, there- 
fore, as happiness is desirable, they endeavor to satisfy 
themselves with some fore-taste of it." 

Now, surely, a man may receive the knowledge of 


the truth, and nevertheless, be in an unconverted 
state: Even the devils believe the truths of the gos- 
pel. The stony ground hearers received the word and 
it sprang up. Herod heard John gladly. Felix trem- 
bled at the truth of Paul's sermon. Agrippa felt the 
force of his sentiments, and was almost persuaded to 
be a Christian. From those attainments, then, in what 
appears like religion, we acknowledge men may fall 
away totally and finally; and when they do so, it is 
a difficult matter to engage them in religious exercises 
any more. I say, difficult — for the original word, adu- 
naton, should be understood in this qualified sense: 
By thus revolting from a religious profession, they have 
called Christ an impostor; done what they could to 
crucify him again; and have cast a contempt upon 
the plan of salvation through him. Besides, by their back- 
sliding they have procured a horror of conscience; 
future judgment is ever before their eyes; have exas- 
perated the Almighty, who considers them as his ad- 
versaries, and has, therefore, clad himself with ven- 
geance as with a cloak; his fiery indignation is blown 
up, and is prepared for the destruction of such ad- 
versaries; and, since they have thus treated Christ, 
the only sacrifice for sin, they are to expect no other 
atonement, whatsoever, for their offences. If such are 
the consequences of apostatizing, after men have been 
instructed in the plan of salvation, and after they have 
made a visible profession of religion, it is no wonder 
if it be a hard matter to bring such forward, even as 
far as they had advanced before they departed from 
their external profession of piety. We have critically 
examined two passages, upon which our opponents laid 
great stress, for establishing the total and final apos- 


tasy of true believers; and, consequently, for over- 
throwing what we have proved, at considerable length, 
in the former discourse. We have seen they can derive 
no assistance from them; surely, they will be equally 
unsuccessful in attempting to draw a proof, for the 
support of their tenet, from the verses we recited 
from the writings of the apostle Peter — for the same 
characters are there drawn: They are such as, by the 
knowledge and visible profession of religion, having, 
for a time, ceased to wallow in sin, have turned back, 
with the dog to his vomit, and with the sow that 
was washed to her wallowing in the mire. We may 
observe they are still dogs and swine — unclean ani- 
mals. Of such, the apostle declares, it had been bet- 
ter for them not to have known the way of salva- 
tion, through Christ, than, after they had known it, to 
turn from the holy precepts and directions which were 
given to them, in order to direct them towards hap- 
piness: By which he means, that, in consequence of 
the pains which had been taken with them, and of 
the light and knowledge which had been communi- 
cated to them, since they had abused them, their re- 
pentance would be rendered more difficult; and, in 
case that did not take place, their future torments 
would be rendered more dreadful and insupportable. 
We have then, as yet, found nothing in all our re- 
searches, that can speak in favor of the total and 
final apostasy of believers, and, therefore, we still re- 
main in possession of that for which we have con- 
tended. But they tell us Paul himself was afraid of 
apostatizing totally, and finally, as appears by i Cor. 
IX. 27. But I keep under my body, and bring it into 
subjection: lest that by any means when I have preached 


to others, I myself should be a cast-away. In the first 
part of the verse, he tells the Corinthians how much 
pains he took in subduing his own lusts and corrup- 
tions, and, in the latter part, he assigns the reason for 
his conduct, in that matter, lest, by any means, when I 
have preached to others, I myself should be a castaway. 
This last part of the verse is not well translated. It 
would be more consistent with the original, and with 
the meaning of the Word of God, in general, to render it 
thus: Lest somehow or other, having preached to others, 
I myself might be disapproved: That is, If Paul did not, 
by his own example, teach the necessity and propriety 
of mortifying his lusts and corruptions, having pub- 
licly enjoined these things upon others, he himself 
would be disapproved by them, and, indeed, by God 
his judge; for he would have then acted the same 
part as the Scribes and Pharisees did, who bound 
heavy burdens upon men's shoulders, and would not 
so much as touch them with one of their fingers, for 
which they stand reproved by our Saviour. Nothing, 
then, can be concluded from this assertion of Saint 
Paul in their favor. He, too, frequently tells us in 
his writings, of his full assurance of future happiness, 
to allow us to conclude, that he had the most dis- 
tant fears of falling, totally and finally, from grace. 

But, say our antagonists, we can prove our point 
by examples taken from Holy Scriptures. David, Solo- 
mon and Peter, fell totally from grace; Hymeneus, 
Alexander and Judas, fell totally and finally from it. 
David's sin was very great indeed; but I deny that 
it was a total fall from grace. For, when he was 
artfully reproved by Nathan, the Prophet, he imme- 
diately confessed his crime, and made application 


for more grace: Therefore, he earnestly prays to his 
heavenly Father, Psalm LI. n. in these words, Take 
not thy holy spirit from me; which proves, that the spirit 
had still a place of habitation in his heart, though he had 
sinned to the dishonor of God, and to the wounding 
of his own soul. With respect to Solomon, though he 
multiplied his iniquities very much, yet he did not 
fall totally from grace; as we learn from a gracious 
promise, made by God to his father David, in his be- 
half, 2 Sam. VII. 14, 15. I will be his father, and he 
shall be my son: If he commit iniquity, I will chasten 
him with the rod of men, and with the stripes of the 
children of men: But my mercy shall not depart away 
from him. Neither did Peter fall totally; which may be 
proved by the prayer of Christ for him. He prayed that 
his faith should not fail: As also; because he did 
not deny his Master out of malice, but through fear; 
and, because he wept bitterly on account of his sin. 
Hymeneus, Alexander and Judas are brought by our 
opponents as examples, to prove the possibility of be- 
lievers totally and finally falling from grace. In 1 
Tim. I. ig, 20, these men, and the crime with which 
they are charged, are both mentioned by Saint Paul. 
This Apostle had been employed to deliver a charge 
to Timothy, when he was ordained for the work of 
the ministry, and he tells him to war a good warfare, 
holding faith and a good conscience; which some hav- 
ing put away, concerning faith have made shipwreck: 
Of whom (says he) is Hymeneus and Alexander; whom 
I have delivered unto Satan that they may learn not 
to blaspheme. By faith here we are to understand 
the doctrine of the gospel, and particularly, the resur- 
rection of the dead; which doctrine, many suppose 


those men pointedly denied. By a good conscience, 
we are to understand such a conscience as teaches us 
to avoid, as much as possible, offending both God 
and men. 

Hymeneus and Alexander, say our adversaries, by 
their bad conduct, and by pointedly denying a principal 
doctrine of the gospel, fell from grace totally and finally. 
How came they by this knowledge? Can they prove 
that they were good men before? They cannot. If by 
what is said about them, they could draw the conclusion 
that they fell totally from grace, yet there is not the 
least ground to say, that they fell finally ; for the Apostle 
says, he had delivered them to satan that they might 
learn not to blaspheme; that is, that they might cor- 
rect what was amiss in themselves, which evidently 
proves that he did not consider their case as desperate. 
But the truth is, there is no good reason to say either 
that these men fell totally or finally from grace. The 
presumption is, that, like many now a days, they had 
for a time made a splendid profession of religion, and 
their hearts being as yet unchanged, they revolted from 
that external profession, and embraced errors diametri- 
cally opposite to those things which they had pretended to 
believe. The advocates for apostasy, total and final, 
can receive little assistance then from the examples of 
those men who are noted by Paul in his charge to Tim- 
othy. I am ready to believe they now begin to despair 
of carrying their point, and had Judas never lived, they 
would now terminate the dispute and say, they were 
mistaken: But, say they, he was one of the twelve 
chosen for publishing the gospel: He was a follower 
and a disciple of the Redeemer of men. These things 
we grant. But, my friends, let me pose you with one 


question — Does there not appear to be something sus- 
picious in the whole of his character? Certainly there 
does. We hear very little of him as a good, a success- 
ful preacher. Very few traits of his zeal for religion are 
left upon record in Scripture. He appears to have had 
an uncommon attachment to wealth: He kept the bag 
and what was put in it. We must then, conclude, he 
early appeared religious for the sake of worldly gain; 
and the best reasons we have for thinking so; for, 
before he betrayed his Master, our Saviour drew his 
character in a few words — 'One of you is a devil,' 
meaning Judas. How then could he be a good man 
and a devil at the same time? My brethren, I close 
this part of the subject, by asserting, that if there is a 
possibility of a believer's falling from grace, totally and 
finally, it cannot, in my judgment, be proved either by 
Scripture or Reason. 

I come now to the third thing proposed, which is, to 
make a practical application of what has been said. 

1. From what has been said, let us embrace the op- 
portunity of examining ourselves. Are we progressive 
in our Christian course? Do we grow stronger and 
stronger in grace? Some of you, my christian friends, 
I doubt not, can answer these questions in the affirma- 
tive, while others of you will be ready to say, we cannot 
even tell what is meant by them. To both these classes 
of my hearers, I would address a few things. 

First. To you who are bending your course heaven- 
ward, and gathering strength as you go forward, I say, 
be very thankful to God for your present safety, and 
for the certainty you possess of your future happiness. 
It is true you live in a world full of enemies, of enemies, 
too, which meditate your destruction; but you are en- 


tirely safe: The Word of God; the attributes of God; 
your faith; and Jesus your Redeemer, who bought you 
with his own blood, are all engaged for your present 
safety. The Lord Christ, O believers! appears in that 
high court above, as your powerful advocate and inter- 
cessor: He sees, and narrowly watches all your deter- 
mined foes; knows the temptations with which you are 
tried, and knows your own strength. Remember, he 
has long since been trampling upon the necks of your 
adversaries; that he was once tempted as you are, yet 
without sin, and, that knowing your feeble frames and 
what you are able to bear, if he permits you to be tried, 
he will proportion the trial to your strength, insomuch, 
that you will come off more than conquerors through 
him that loved you, and will be enabled to sing, Re- 
joice not against us, O our enemies, for when we fall we 
shall arise: We can do all things, through Christ that 
strengtheneth us. If any of you were pursued by a 
common enemy; if you were hard pressed by him, and 
were just ready to conclude that you must submit with- 
out a further effort to make your escape, and if, as in a 
moment, all the rocks and mountains in the whole 
world, were suddenly thrown around you for a munition, 
would you not think yourself entirely safe; completely 
defended against the formidable attacks of your pur- 
suer? I know you would. But let me tell you, your 
safety in that case would be more doubtful, than this is of 
which we speak. You are held, my friends, in the right 
hand of God, and none is able to take you from him. 
Be thankful, then, for this blessing : And be thankful for 
the certainty you have of your future happiness. You 
are engaged in a spiritual warfare; you are conquering 
the nations which beset you, by little and little, and you 


certainly will go on and persevere unto the end. Hear 
then the gracious promise made to you by him who is 
your life: Rev. III. 21. To him that overcometh will I 
grant to sit with me in my throne, even as I also over- 
came, and am set down with my father in his throne. 

2. I have a few things to say to you, who are ignorant 
about matters relative to the spiritual life. Consider, 
my friends, that you are rational creatures and account- 
able for your actions. Do you think you were born 
solely for the gratification of your sensual appetites? 
Do you content yourselves with the bare form of god- 
liness, while you deny the life and power of it in your 
hearts? Believe it, my friends, true religion is no 
chimera; your hearts must be changed by the power of 
God, if ever you enter into the kingdom of heaven. 
Consider how liable you are every day to fall away, 
totally and finally, from the hypocritical profession you 
make of love to God and his laws. Consider, also, the 
advantages you will gain, by becoming the genuine 
followers and disciples of Jesus. Your happiness will 
then be eternally fixed. Troubles may come ; tempta- 
tions may be thrown in your way; you may sometimes 
fall to the dishonor of God; but, believe it, you will at 
last triumph and be crowned with laurels of victory. 
I cannot but accuse many of you for your neglect of 
the things which belong to your soul's peace. It is 
not uncommon to see many of your pews almost empty 
upon Sabbath days, if the weather is, even in a small 
degree, inclement. Do you not think you will have to 
give an account to God for such negligences? Do you 
not run all risques of contracting disorders, nay, dis- 
eases and death itself, and that very frequently, rather 
than be absent from a ball or an assembly? Surely 


you do: And I earnestly pray to God, that you may 
take shame and confusion to yourselves on account of 
that preference which you give to the works of dark- 
ness. May your consciences, and the word and spirit 
of God reprove you sharply, even in your private 
chambers. May you have neither sleep nor slumber 
till you have yielded up yourselves to be the servants 
and soldiers of King Jesus. I have been endeavoring 
to instruct you for many years, and, with respect to 
some of you, I may say, with God's servant of old — I 
am afraid of you, lest I have bestowed upon you labour 
in vain. 

In conclusion — From what has been said, we have 
good reason to say, that those are in an error who teach 
the possibility of true believers total and final fall from 
grace. Let such consider, whoever they are, that they 
speak in direct opposition to the general tenor of the 
Word of God, as we have already proved.— Let them, 
in future, examine their Bibles more accurately: Let 
them, also, examine their hearts, and if they are of the 
happy number who have passed from death to life, they 
will find their mistake, and, as Christians ought to do, 
acknowledge it. I hope yet to see and hear of many 
of them being thus changed in sentiment. I conclude 
in the words of the text, — The righteous also shall hold 
on his way, and he that hath clean hands shall be stronger 
and stronger. 

Another publication of Dr. Balch, a copy of 
which is in the library of Princeton University, is 


A Series 



addressed to the Rev. Adam Freeman, a member of the 

Baptist Church, 





These letters contain two parts : 
I. A Vindication of the right of infants to the Sac- 
rament of Baptism, according to the scripture. 
II. Some animadversions on a pamphlet lately pub- 
lished by Mr. Adam Freeman, entitled, "Infant 
Baptism deceased, or, Seven Mountains over 
against Seven Mountains." 


Territory of Columbia: 

Printed by Green and English. 



Mr. Jackson of Georgetown writes: 135 

"Dr. Balch was one of the founders and a member 
of the board of twelve trustees of the Columbian library 
about 1803, in which he took an active interest. A 
dispute arose whether tales, romances and novels should 
be introduced. Some of the trustees thought them in- 
jurious by creating a morbid taste, while others con- 
tended their effect was to quicken the imagination. Dr. 
Balch was opposed to novels, and in his speech remarked : 
'You may do as you please, but mark my words the 
tale shelf will have all the custom.' It was decided, 
however, by a vote of nine to three that novels should 
be provided. The preliminaries being settled, the works 
were purchased in Philadelphia, and in due season they 
arrived by vessel packed in boxes. The library con- 
tained 2,000 volumes, which was afterward increased 
to 3,500, and was open every Wednesday afternoon 
from 2 until S o'clock, and twice a week during the 
winter months, books to be returned in fourteen days 
under a penalty of d]4, cents. Rev. David Wiley was 
appointed librarian. The books were kept in the same 
room with the globes and chemical apparatus used in 
the school." 

Among Dr. Balch's friends were George Wash- 
ington, who sometimes attended his church, Thomas 
Jefferson and Albert Gallatin. A few weeks after 
the death of General Washington, Dr. Balch gave 
notice that he would speak of the life and serv- 
ices of the dead statesman. He preached in the 
open air to more than a thousand people, from the 

135 The Evening Star, Washington, April 1st, 1893. 


last verse of the tenth chapter of the book of Esther, 
" For Mordecai the Jew, was next unto King Ahasue- 
rus, and great among the Jews, and accepted of the 
multitude of his brethren, seeking the wealth of his 
people, and speaking peace to all his seed." 

During Jefferson's first administration the French 
charge d'affaires, who received for Napoleon the 
Louisiana purchase money of fifteen millions of dol- 
lars, was Louis Andre Pichon. He and his wife 
were Huguenots and during their residence in 
Washington, they attended Dr. Balch's church. 
The pastor baptized one of the Pichons's children. 
The next morning Monsieur Pichon handed Dr. 
Balch a note containing thirty dollars, the diplomat 
explaining in his broken English, that there were 
' ' ten for de leetle boy, ten for de madame and ten 
for mineself," and he mentioned that in France it 
was customary to pay for baptisms. 

The defeat of Napoleon in his Russian cam- 
paign was celebrated in the District of Columbia 
in 1813, doubtless on account of the friendly re- 
lations that had long existed between the United 
States and the Muscovite Empire. 136 

In the Federal Republican and Commercial Ga- 
zette, Georgetown, {Col.) June 4th, 18 13, the follow- 
ing notice was given: 

136 For the diplomatic relations between America and Russia see 
Early Diplomatic Negotiations of the United States with Russia by 
John C. Hildt; Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins Press, 1906. 

]n Georgetown, District of Columbia. 

the rev. stephen bloomer balch. 179 


"Friday, June 4. 


" The Committee of Arrangements, for the celebration 
of the Russian Victories, inform the public, that the 
ceremonies of the day for Saturday, the 5th of June, will 
commence at Mr. Balch's Church, at two o'clock, with 
prayer, preceding an address to be delivered by Mr. 
Custis. Dinner will be served at the Union Tavern at 
four o'clock. 

"Gentlemen are requested to call for their Tickets of 
Admission to the dinner early in the morning. 

"A fine Band of Music will attend in the Church and 
at Dinner. 

" John Peter, 
Robert Beverly, 
William Marbury, 
Thomas Peter, 
Francis Dodge, 
John S. Stull, 
Washington Bowie, 
John Lee." 

Three days later, June 7th, the following account 
was printed in the same paper. 

"Georgetown, Monday, June 7. 137 

"The Russian Victories were celebrated in this place 
on Saturday last, with great pomp and feeling. The 

137 Federal Republican and Commercial Gazette, Georgetown (Col.) 
June 7th, 1813. 

For the oration by Mr. Custis of Arlington on June 5th, 1813, see 
the Federal Republican, June 11th, 1813. 


first part of the exercises were performed at Mr. Balch's 
church in the presence of a large and brilliant assembly 
of ladies and gentlemen. It consisted of music of an 
exquisite sort by a selected band of professors, who at- 
tended from a distance, and an admirable oration by 
Mr. Custis of Arlington, which at every touch moved 
the heart, and was throughout admired and applauded. 
The oration was preceded and followed by appropriate 
prayers with intervals of music." 

Mr. Custis's full name was George W. P. Custis, see Federal Re- 
publican of June 16th, 1813. 

The Russian Minister, Mr. Daschkoff, was present at the dinner; 
see his letter to Mr. Custis, Federal Republican, June 16th, 1813, third 
page, in which he says: — 

"Washington, 7th June, 1813. 

"Sir: — In delivering your Oration on the occasion of the celebration 
of the Russian Victories, you have been guided by the motives of 
an enlightened and independent patriot. The subject of it could 
not fail to be highly interesting to every friend of humanity and 
virtue. You must have been much gratified, on perceiving the 
strong impressions produced upon your respectable audience by the 
dignified, touching and eloquent manner you presented it to their 
minds. You succeeded in making them fully to sympathise with 
the distress of my countrymen, who have so bravely stemmed the 
fatal hurricane, raised from the revolutionary den of France, & 
made them magnanimously rejoice with us for having crushed the 
most impious attempt against our national independence. You 
may imagine, sir, what effect it produced upon the hearts of those, 
whose cradles have been burned with their beloved Moscow, and 
whose tears can only be assuaged by their enemy's blood. 

"Permit me to express to you, my gratitude, that of my family, 
and of all my countrymen, who shall peruse your Oration, for the 
zeal and interest you have displayed in our cause, and allow me to 
send a small medal, with the likeness of Alexander I. the only one 
which is now in my possession. I cannot give you a greater token 
of the value set on your acquaintance. 

"I have the honor to be, with the most sincere and high consider- 
ation, sir, your very humble and obedient servant. 

" To Mr. Custis, of Arlington. 


The dinner was held at the Union Hotel at four 
o'clock, Governor T. S. Lee presiding. "The Rus- 
sian Legation and foreign consuls were invited 
and attended." 

In the Federal Republican of June 9th, 1813, 
on the third page, there is this item: — 

"The celebration of the festival commemorative of 
the recent victories of Russia, commenced on Satur- 
day last, at two o'clock at the Rev. Mr. Balch's church," 

Dr. Balch was a firm believer in the rights of the 
individual and was in favor of gradually liberating 
the slaves and sending them to Liberia. He was 
opposed to slavery and corresponded on the sub- 
ject with Wilberforce, and he and his congregation 
provided for Sunday School instruction for the col- 
ored people. He educated seventy-four youths for 
the ministry. He practiced what he preached: "It 
is not good that man should be alone," and as an 
example to others, he married three times. He had 
a robust, vigorous constitution and "a bold honest 
countenance." He was a lover of books, and 
among the classics preferred Horace to Virgil. 
His personal sacrifices during his long life were 
numerous. Among them was the destruction in 
1831 of his house by fire, and he and his wife 
barely escaped with their lives. With his house 
the early Sessional Records of the church, many 
family and historical papers, and also a valuable 


portrait of the Rev. Francis Makemie, were de- 
stroyed. 138 

Mr. Jackson, of Georgetown, D. C, says : 139 

" The church which he had erected in 1782 at the cor- 
ner of 30th and M streets northwest after ten years had 
elapsed would not seat all who desired to attend divine 
worship, and it became necessary to enlarge the building 
by extending the north front in 1793, and with charac- 
teristic enterprise he had a steeple erected and a bell 
placed in it. Soon after the removal of the seat of gov- 
ernment to Washington city considerable accessions were 
made to the congregation, and it was necessary to still 
further enlarge the church edifice, which was done under 
the immediate superintendence of Dr. Balch. All pro- 
testant denominations worshiped here and received the 
word of God at the mouth of Dr. Balch, and communed 
together at the same altar, such was the liberality that 
prevailed in those days. In 1821, the building being in- 
sufficient to accommodate all who desired to attend, it 
was determined to pull down the old building and erect 
a much larger edifice, which remained standing until 
the spring of 1873, when it was demolished and the ma- 
terial used in constructing a new church on P near 
Thirty -first Street. 

"The Presbyterian Church was in fact the mother 

ias The Presbytery of Washington City and the Churches under its 
care. Washington, 1888, page 31. 

139 Article on Dr. Balch in the Washington Evening Star of April 
1st, 1893, by W. S. Jackson, Esq., of Georgetown, D. C. 

An important account of Dr. Balch's career is given in a book by 
Mr. Jackson's father: The Chronicles of Georgetown, D. C, front iy ji 
to 1878, by Richard P. Jackson, a native of Georgetown, and a mem- 
ber of the Washington Bar: Washington, D. C, R. O. Polkinhorn, 


church of the town. Other denominations sought shelter 
under its roof while their church was being erected or 
remodeled. When the Methodist Protestant Church 
was organized in 1829, Dr. Balch invited them to his 
church and labored and sympathized with them until 
they found a resting place. He was a friend of George- 
town College in its infancy, and was a frequent visitor 
to the institution and often dined with the priests of 
Catholic Trinity Church. On one occasion they apolo- 
gized for the appearance of the table on fast day. 
Dr. Balch replied: ' Well, well, brothers; if you call this 
fast day what do you have on feast day ? ' He was also 
instrumental in organizing several Presbyterian churches 
within the bounds of the Synod of Baltimore, one of 
them in the city of Frederick, Md., where he often 

4: * * :H * 4 s 

" On Sunday morning, September 22, 1833, at nine 
o'clock A. M., as he was preparing to go to church to 
perform his official duties, he was stricken with apo- 
plexy and sank to rest like the sun without a cloud 
to hide his lustre. As the news of his death spread 
through the town the citizens, irrespective of religious 
creed, expressed themselves with one accord: 'Well 
done, good and faithful servant, enter thou into the 
joy of thy Lord.' A successful plaster cast of his face 
was taken just after his death. On Monday the Board 
of Aldermen and Common Council of Georgetown passed 
the following resolution: — 

"' That we have learned with deep regret the death 
of our aged and venerable fellow citizen, Dr. Stephen 
Bloomer Balch, who for more than fifty-three years, has 
been a useful and honored minister of religion in the 


town, illustrating the holy profession he made through 
his long career by a life of uniform piety towards God, 
and benevolence, liberality and kindness to his fellow 
men, descending to his tomb full of years, and rich in 
the reverence, esteem and love of the whole community. 

"'Resolved, that as a testimony of respect to his mem- 
ory, the members and officers of this corporation will 
attend his funeral to-morrow (Tuesday) at ten o'clock 
A. M. 

"'Resolved, that the clerk of the corporation be re- 
quested to transmit a copy of these resolutions to the 
family of the deceased.' 

"The town was draped in mourning, business places 
were closed, and all the bells tolled as the remains of 
this faithful apostle of God were carried from his resi- 
dence, No. 3302 N. Street, to the church where he had 
so often performed the last sad rites to hundreds and 
thousands. Ministers of all denominations, including 
eight priests, representing the Catholic Church, who had 
loved and venerated him in life, joined in the funeral 
cortege. When the hearse reached the church the pro- 
cession was still forming at the residence. 

"The funeral sermon, an eloquent discourse on the 
life and services of the deceased, was preached by the 
Rev. Elijah Harrison, of Alexandria, Virginia, from 
Acts viii. 2 : ' And devout men carried Stephen to his 
burial, and made great lamentation over him.' After 
the funeral sermon his remains were incased in the front 
wall of the church. 

" His life was checkered with many severe trials. Dug 
out of one home, flooded out of another and burnt out 
of a third, yet his fortitude and piety, resignation and 
cheerfulness forsook him not. Keeping his eye stead- 


Outside the Presbyterian Church in Georgetown, D. C. 

Removed in 1873 to Oak Hill Cemetery. 


fastly fixed on his sacred calling, he was to his expiring 
day faithful to his Master. 

" In October, 1835, a handsome monument was erected 
by his family to his memory in front of the church he 
founded and so long presided over. It was of white 
marble, representing a pyramidal tablet resting upon a 
solid Ionic base against the wall between the doors of 
the main entrance, with no other ornament than a wreath 
beautifully sculptured at the top. It bore the following 
inscription : — 


To the memory of 

Stephen B. Balch, D. D. 

Who died September 22nd, 1833, 

In the 87th year of his age. 

He was the founder of this church, 

And for more than half a century 

Its revered Pastor. 

He planted the Gospel in this town, 

And his example was for many years 

A light to its inhabitants. 

He being dead, yet speaketh. 

" ' Reliquiae mortales 

Stephani Bloomer Balch, D. D., 

Sub hoc marmore 


His children have erected this tablet 

To record 

The virtue of the dead and the 

Gratitude of the living.' 


"In the spring of 1873, when the church was demol- 
ished, his remains were reinterred in the Presbyterian 
cemetery on 33rd Street near the chapel. In the spring 
of 1874 the philanthropic William W. Corcoran wrote to 
his children requesting the privilege of removing the 
remains to Oak Hill cemetery. Writing to his son, the 
Rev. Thomas B. Balch, he said: 'I knew your father 
from boyhood, and the sentiments of profound esteem 
with which at an early age I regarded him were undi- 
minished at the close of his protracted and exemplary 
life.' And on June 18, 1874, the remains of this apostle 
of God were reinterred near the Chapel in Oak Hill 
cemetery. A mural tablet ordered by W. W. Cor- 
coran was mounted on the wall of the Chapel bearing 
the following inscription in letters of gold: — 

"'In honor of 
Stephen Bloomer Balch, D. D., 


On "Deer Creek," near Bait: Md. 

April, A. D. 1747, 

Came to Georgetown, D. C. 

March 16th, A. D. 1780 

Died September 22 A. D. 1833. 

He planted the Gospel in 

Georgetown ; Founded 

"The Bridge Street Presbyterian Church" 

And was for more than 50 years 

Its Pastor. 

In life he Practiced what he Preached 

No Eulogy can add to such 

A Record.' " uo 

140 Mr. Jackson at the end of his article wrote: 


In 1818, he received from Princeton College the 
degree of D. D. 

The Rev. William B. Sprague, D. D., in 1858, 
wrote of Dr. Balch: — U1 

"During his residence in Calvert County, he made the 
acquaintance of Bishop Claggett, from whom he re- 
ceived many kind attentions, and with whom he was 
ever after in very friendly relations, till the close of the 
Bishop's life. 

"He continued teaching for about four years, and 
received the greater part of his salary in Continental 
money — 'rather a bright remuneration' — to use the lan- 
guage of his son, 'for fighting with mosquitoes, and for 
being conquered quite frequently by the Tertian ague.' 

"He then went to Pennsylvania, and was licensed to 
preach the Gospel, by the Presbytery of Donegal, on the 
17th of June, 1779. Hearing, about this time, of the 
death of his father, he returned to the South, and spent 
some months in travelling as a sort of missionary in the 
Carolinas. On his way thither, he spent a Sabbath in 
Georgetown, and preached in the hamlet which had been 
founded in September, 1751, by George Beall, whose 
granddaughter he subsequently married. The people in- 
vited him to remain, promising to build him a church, 
but he declined at that time, though he gave some en- 
couragement of returning to them after performing his 
projected tour at the South. 

"It is my desire that this sketch may be the means of arous- 
ing not only the Presbyterians of the District, but the citizens 
of Georgetown, to erect in some public place a monument to this 
worthy pioneer of religion and education, for many years 'a lamp 
unto our feet and a light unto our path.' " 

141 Annals of the American Pulpit, by William B. Sprague, D. D., 
New York, 1858, Volume III., page 410. 


"While Mr. Balch was itinerating in North Carolina, 
he was subjected to many privations and hardships. 
On one occasion, night overtook him when he was in a 
strange neighbourhood; but he discovered a dwelling 
not far from the road, which he supposed, from its ap- 
pearance, must be the residence of some wealthy man. 
He made his way to it, and was very hospitably received 
by the lady of the house, though her husband was not 
at home. Being greatly fatigued, he retired early, and 
soon fell asleep; but it was not long before the gentle- 
man of the house, who was no less a personage than 
General Williams of North Carolina, returned unex- 
pectedly, entered his chamber, and intimated to him, 
in no equivocal terms, that he should allow no one who 
was not a Whig to sleep under his roof. 'Let me rest 
in peace then,' said his guest, 'for I was educated under 
Dr. Witherspoon, — one of the Signers of the Declaration 
of Independence.' The next day, the General enter- 
tained Mr. Balch with a poem which he had composed 
on the Stamp Act; and, on the following Sabbath, as 
the enemies of the Revolution laid great stress on the 
apostolic injunction to be subject to the higher powers, 
he earnestly requested his clerical guest to discourse 
upon that passage. He did so, much to the annoyance 
of the Royalists who were present, while the General, 
with several pistols in his belt, acted as Clerk. 

"Mr. Balch was invited to settle over a congregation 
in North Carolina; but he had made up his mind to 
return to Georgetown, with a view to establish there 
a Presbyterian Church. Accordingly, he went thither 
in March, 1780, and found as unpromising a field of 
labour as can easily be imagined. He preached for 
some time in a room rented for the purpose; and, in 


1782, a few individuals interested in sustaining Divine 
institutions, joined in building a very plain house for 
public worship. There were seven persons, including 
the Pastor, who joined in the first celebration of the 
Lord's Supper. Shortly after this, he was instrumental 
in establishing a Presbyterian Congregation in Freder- 
icktown, Md. 

"The return of Peace, at the close of the Revolu- 
tion, contributed not a little to the growth of the 
village in which Mr. Balch was settled. His church 
gradually increased, and many Episcopalians who re- 
sided in the neighbourhood joined in their worship. 
Still he found his salary quite inadequate to the sup- 
port of his family; and, in order to meet his current 
expenses, he was obliged to resort to some other busi- 
ness; and he chose that of instructing youth. Accord- 
ingly, he was in the habit, for many years, of con- 
ducting the education of young men; and among his 
pupils were not a few who have since attained to great 
usefulness and prominence. 

"After the removal of the seat of government to 
Washington City, the Episcopalians, who had been 
accustomed to worship in the Presbyterian Church, 
established a church of their own; and thus the num- 
ber who contributed to Mr. Balch's support was tem- 
porarily somewhat diminished. The loss was, however, 
quickly much more than made up by fresh accessions 
from various quarters; insomuch that it became de- 
sirable that the place of worship should be enlarged. 
Into this project Mr. Balch entered with great resolu- 
tion and vigour; and it was chiefly, if not entirely, by 
contributions obtained through his persevering efforts, 
that the enlargement was effected. Mr. Jefferson, who 


was then President of the United States, contributed 
in aid of his object seventy-five dollars. He applied 
to Albert Gallatin, Secretary of the Treasury, but he 
declined giving, on the ground of the excessive fre- 
quency of similar applications. Mr. Balch immediately 
dropped the matter, and began to converse on general 
subjects; and among other questions which he asked 
was one in regard to the success of Napoleon, in sub- 
verting the Genevese Republic. Mr. Gallatin said em- 
phatically that his country was gone. ' I am sorry to 
hear it,' rejoined Mr. Balch, 'for the city of Geneva 
has produced more illustrious men in Church and State 
than any other spot on the globe.' He then rose and 
bade the Secretary good morning; but, before he had 
proceeded far, was called back to receive from Mr. 
Gallatin a handsome donation. 

"From this time Mr. Balch's congregation gradually 
increased until 1821, when the old church edifice was 
taken down, and a more commodious and more ele- 
gant house erected in its place. The night before the 
dismantling of the old building, Mr. Balch preached a 
sermon to an immense assemblage, in which he dis- 
coursed somewhat at large upon the history of the 
congregation. It was an occasion of deep interest to 
him; and while he rejoiced in it as marking a favour- 
able epoch in the history of his congregation, it could 
not but awaken in his mind many sad and tender 

"In the year 1818, Mr. Balch was honoured with 
the degree of Doctor of Divinity from the College at 
which he was educated. 

"In the year 1831, Dr. Balch experienced a great 
calamity in the burning of his house. Some time be- 
fore day, the watchman, in going his accustomed 


round, observed a light in one of the front rooms, but 
did not at first suppose that it was any thing out of 
the common course. When he came near the house 
again, he observed that it was wrapped in flames. The 
fire gained on the building so rapidly that, in a few 
moments, every way of escape was cut off, except by 
a slippery shelving roof which was under the window 
of his chamber. Several fruitless attempts were made 
to pass the stairway; but, as he opened the door that 
led to it, he saw nothing but a cloud of smoke mingled 
with sparks of fire. In this extremity, Dr. Balch, with 
great self-possession, resolved to lead the way on the 
roof. When the aged couple were discovered in these 
awfully perilous circumstances, a feeling of horror ran 
through the assembled multitude; but when it was 
perceived that their escape was effected, it gave way 
to a shout of generous exultation. He escaped with 
only the garments in which he slept; his apparel, fur- 
niture, library, manuscripts, — every thing which his 
house contained, was burnt to ashes. The loss was one 
which he ill knew how to sustain ; but a circumstance 
occurred shortly after, by means of which he was saved 
from the embarrassment to which he might otherwise 
have been subjected. One of his early pupils suggested 
to him the idea that he was entitled to a pension, under 
the then recent law of Congress, providing for Revolu- 
tionary claims. An application was accordingly made, 
his claim was granted, and before his decease he drew 
the sum of twelve hundred dollars. 

"Dr. Balch, after he had passed the age of four- 
score, retained so much vigour as to be able to preach 
occasionally without inconvenience. A few Sabbaths 
before his death, he had preached three times in Alex- 


andria, besides attending a funeral. On the Sabbath 
immediately preceding his death, on returning from 
public worship, he showed manifest signs of indispo- 
sition, and found himself unable to walk home. He 
revived, however, and, during the week, evinced his 
accustomed cheerfulness. The next Sabbath morning, 
(September 7, 1833,) after having rested well during 
the night, he awoke and took some refreshment; but 
was immediately seized with a spasm of the heart, 
which caused almost instantaneous death. The tidings 
of his departure produced a great sensation in the 
whole community. The Aldermen and Common Coun- 
cil of the town passed a unanimous resolution to at- 
tend his funeral. The town Gazette was clothed in 
mourning; while funeral badges were displayed not 
only in the church, but upon the market house, and 
upon all the stores in the streets through which the 
immense procession passed. A Funeral Discourse was 
delivered on the following Sabbath, by the surviving 
Pastor of the Church; and there was subsequently an- 
other before the Presbytery of which he was a mem- 
ber, by the Rev. Elias Harrison of Alexandria. His 
ministry in Georgetown extended through a period of 
fifty-three years." 

In answer to a request from Dr. Sprague for 
personal reminiscences of Dr. Balch the Rev. Elias 
Harrison, D. D., of Alexandria, Va., wrote: — 

"Alexandria, May 7, 1857. 
"Rev. and dear Sir: It gives me pleasure to comply 
with your request for my reminiscences of the Rev. Dr. 
Balch, late of Georgetown, partly because the very inti- 
mate relations in which we were placed towards each 


other, during the last seventeen years of his life, gave 
me the best opportunities of knowing him, and therefore 
enable me to speak of him with great confidence, and 
partly because my estimate of his character is such that 
I am glad to co-operate in any effort to embalm his 

"The first time I ever saw him was in 1813, when I 
was a student at Princeton College, in company with his 
son Thomas. He came there on a visit, — the first he 
had ever paid to the institution, since he was graduated ; 
and, as was to be expected, it was an occasion to him 
of much pleasurable excitement. He remained there for 
several days, — being frequently present both in the com- 
mon dining hall, and in the recitation room ; and moving 
about freely, as he did, among the students, — with some 
of whom he was acquainted, he became exceedingly pop- 
ular. Their attention was particularly drawn to him by 
the sly humour which came out both in his language 
and in his countenance ; while the anecdotes in which he 
abounded, concerning the scenes and incidents of bygone 
days, called forth peals of laughter, which were heard 
from one end of the College grounds to the other. In 
these explosions he himself always joined most heartily; 
and it was said that Dr. Green, who was then President 
of the College, and who was more than commonly tena- 
cious in regard to ministerial propriety and dignity, took 
him to task in respect to the freedom of his demeanor, 
intimating that such loud 'horse laughs,' as he termed 
them, would lessen his influence and injure his reputa- 
tion. To this Dr. Balch replied, — for he afterwards told 
me the story, — that for his own part, he always did love 
a good 'horse laugh;' and that if he (Dr. Green) had 
indulged himself in that way a little more frequently, 


he never would have supposed that his own nose was 
the nozzle of a tea-pot, or that his head was made of 
glass — alluding to certain imaginings predicated of Dr. 
Green, (whether true or false I know not) at a time 
when he was suffering under the influence of great nerv- 
ous depression. In the end, however, our venerable 
President became so much interested in the Doctor and 
his irrepressible humour, that he not only relaxed some- 
what from his accustomed dignity, but actually, in some 
degree, caught the contagion, and heartily shared in the 
laugh which at first he seemed to deprecate. Before Dr. 
Balch took his departure for home, he expressed to the 
occupants of a certain room an earnest wish to be per- 
mitted to sleep there one night, as it was the room 
which he had occupied during his whole college life, 
and it was not likely that he should ever be there again. 
His request was very cheerfully complied with; and 
this, with other pleasant circumstances, served to leave 
a most agreeable impression on the minds of the stu- 
dents, and to render his visit among them a delightful 
episode in the tedious monotony of college life. 

"After this I never saw him until I came to this city 
in the close of the year 1816. It was, I think, the last 
week in December of that year, when, in accordance 
with a long established rule for mutual convenience and 
profit, it was his turn to aid my venerable colleague, 
Dr. Muir, in the solemnities of the Lord's Supper. I 
then heard him preach for the first time; and though 
the discourse could not be called an eloquent one, there 
was still a something, both in matter and manner, that 
rivetted my attention so closely, as to leave an im- 
pression which the lapse of more than forty years has 
done little to efface. In person, he stood before us, 


large, tall, and rather commanding. His countenance, 
though solemn, seemed after all to have in it a tinge of 
dry humour. His language, though chaste and well 
adapted to his subject, was the suggestion of the mo- 
ment, — for he never wrote his discourses. His method 
was lucid and natural, and yet peculiarly his own. And 
his manner was characterized by fervour, unction, and 
I would say, originality withal. The impression which 
he left upon me, was somewhat strange indeed, but it 
was on the whole highly favourable both to his intellect 
and his heart — an impression, I may add, which none 
of his subsequent exhibitions ever served to remove or 
impair. He was a great friend to loud as well as ani- 
mated speaking in the pulpit; and in this, my first, 
interview with him, he counselled me most earnestly 
never to lose sight of that important requisite in a 
preacher; — adding, in his usual quizzical manner, that 
young ministers were little aware of its importance, for 
it was often accepted by the people as a substitute for 
good sense and sound argument. 

"Dr. Balch was also greatly in favour of preaching 
without a manuscript, and especially without writing at 
all ; and he seemed, at that first interview, to take quite 
a fancy to me, because I had avowed my determination 
never to take even short notes into the pulpit, and so 
far as practicable, to avoid the common practice of 
always writing fully for the Sabbath. He told me, if 
I remember right, that he scarcely ever wrote a whole 
sermon, and had never written the half of one during 
his whole pastorate; and he certainly gave a somewhat 
remarkable reason for it. It was this: — When on his 
way from the Carolinas to the place of his final settle- 
ment, — Georgetown, he was invited to preach at a cer- 


tain church in Virginia, at which there were several 
ministers of the Baptist denomination, and a very large 
gathering of people. The services had been opened by 
a discourse which, though delivered with great vehe- 
mence and boldness of manner, seemed to him very crude, 
disjointed and illogical. [The Baptist clergy were not 
then what they have become since — they were doubtless 
pious and devoted men, but few of them had anything 
beyond a common education.] 142 Inasmuch as he had 
taken his diploma at College, and withal had several 
well prepared discourses with him, which he had care- 
fully committed to memory, he indulged the rather self- 
complacent reflection that, as he was to follow the illit- 
erate preacher, he should, to say the least, not suffer in 
a comparison with him. He acknowledged that the evil 
principle within him so far gained a momentary control, 
that he was expecting to hear his sermon spoken of in 
no measured terms of approbation ; but, instead of that, 
as he was walking behind a large number of people, 
after the sermon had been delivered, he heard them 
speak of it as absolutely so poor a thing as not to 
be worth the time they had spent in listening to it; 
while his illiterate predecessor was extolled to the skies. 
' From that time,' said the Doctor, ' I firmly resolved 
never again to attempt either to preach a great sermon, 
or to write out another sermon for the pulpit' — a re- 
solve to which I believe he adhered, without a single 
exception, till his dying day. 

" It would be a mistake, however, to suppose that he 
did not study his sermons. He did not study them in 
the ordinary way; and yet the orderly method and 
compact arrangement by which they were marked, 

142 This sentence is enclosed in brackets in the text. 


showed that they were the product of no inconsiderable 
thought. He generally formed a brief outline of his 
discourse in the early part of the week, and then occu- 
pied himself leisurely in filling it up before the Sabbath. 
These skeletons were written in very small paper books, 
made for the purpose, each of which would perhaps hold 
a hundred or more; but they were never taken with 
him into the pulpit. I have seen many of them, and 
have remarked their apparent neatness and freedom 
from both erasures and blots; but was never able to 
decipher a solitary line, except by a vigorous effort of 
the imagination; for his handwriting was scarcely more 
legible to me than Arabic. His preaching was most 
frequently doctrinal, and was characterized by great 
fearlessness and energy. He evidently cared little for 
the praise of man, and I have sometimes thought, still 
less for his censure. I am inclined to think that the 
general character of his pulpit performances was such 
as to justify the remark said to have been made by a 
respectable and excellent old lady, that 'it was always 
very good living.' 

" In his disposition he was kind, amiable and emi- 
nently social. I never saw him out of temper but once, 
and then but for a short time; while, during a long 
course of years in which I was familiar with him, and 
met him in almost every variety of circumstances, he 
was pre-eminently good natured, cheerful and buoyant. 
His exuberance of good humour continued with him till 
the close of life; and some of his friends of nervous 
temperament found it an excellent antidote to depres- 
sion of spirits. He was, in relating humorous anecdotes, 
absolutely irresistible — neither the dignity of Dr. Green 
nor the sobriety and quietness of my revered colleague 


Dr. Muir, was proof against it. I must confess there 
was no man whom I welcomed more heartily than Dr. 
Balch, when I found the blues were gathering upon me; 
for though I was constrained to think, with the vener- 
able President of Nassau-Hall, that his laughing explo- 
sions were perhaps too frequent and sometimes too 
violent, yet he actually did more for me in certain 
moods than any physician could do; and then there 
was such an air of naturalness about it, that you seemed 
to feel that, with such a constitution as he had, it could 
hardly be otherwise. 

"He was very urgent with young ministers to get 
married, if possible, as soon as they were settled. And 
as he was often appointed to charge the newly installed 
pastor, he not unfrequently hinted at what he regarded 
a duty on this subject, in that solemn exercise. He did 
so at my installation; and though, on the whole, the 
charge was very judicious, and unusually solemn, he 
could not resist the impulse to say, — and with an arch- 
ness of tone and manner that was marked by the whole 
congregation, and created a universal smile, — that it 
would be well for me to remember that ' a Bishop ' must 
not only be 'blameless,' but 'the husband of one wife.' 
He saw me married not many months afterwards and 
offered me his congratulations on the occasion, with a 
heartiness that could not have been greater, if he had 
supposed that I had got married merely out of respect 
to the advice he had given me at my installation. 

"Dr. Balch's pastoral relation seems to have been a 
happy one. His charge gradually increased from a 
mere handful of people to one of the largest congrega- 
tions of our denomination in this whole region. His 
people respected and loved him; and those of them 


who still survive, never speak of him but with a feeling 
of profound veneration. He was always welcome in 
their families; and his open and cheerful manner, and 
freedom from all stateliness and reserve, made him a 
great favourite, especially with the young. I believe it 
is uncommon that a minister, during so long a period, 
retains in so high a degree the affection of his people. 

"A few years before his death, he was affected with 
a sudden paralytic stroke, while in the midst of his dis- 
course on the Lord's day. It came without a moment's 
premonition, rendering him both stiff and speechless, 
but neither depriving him of consciousness, nor changing 
his bodily position. Taken home, he was soon restored 
to speech, and in a few weeks, by proper medical treat- 
ment, to about his accustomed health. While he was 
confined to his bed, I called to see him; and finding 
him at the moment alone, he seemed unusually gratified, 
and hardly able to express his feelings of joy that an 
opportunity was once more given him of speaking with- 
out restraint. 'For,' said he, 'neither my family nor 
my physician, though transcendently kind, and earnestly 
seeking my recovery, have rightly understood my case; 
they have interdicted all company, and laid an embargo 
on my tongue ever since it has been restored to use, 
and I know very well that these two things, if persisted 
in, instead of curing me, will hasten me out of the world. 
I must see my friends, and I must talk, or I must die.' 
And he did talk rapidly, though he saw my alarm at 
the announcement of the prohibition, and though Mrs. 
Balch, rushing in at the sound of his voice, urged every 
consideration she could to prevent it. Strange to say, 
he recovered rapidly from that hour; and often did he 
remind me afterwards of that accidental, or rather 


providential, circumstance of my finding him alone ; ' for 
I verily believe,' said he, 'it was the means, under God, 
of continuing my life a little longer.' 

"This attack is supposed to have resulted immediately 
from his discontinuing the use of tobacco; to which he 
had been immoderately given for more than sixty-five 
years. In all other kinds of personal indulgence he was 
very sparing; and had never tasted ardent spirits, to 
the amount of a spoonful, from the age of twelve years. 
His physician had warned him of the probable issue of 
a sudden breaking up of this habit, and advised him, 
by all means, if he were to attempt it at all, to let it 
be a gradual process; but, being rather obstinately set 
in his resolves, when once made, he persisted, until he 
had well nigh experienced the worst. He then resumed 
the practice for three or four years, and during the 
whole period enjoyed uninterrupted good health; when, 
relinquishing it again, he was again visited in the pulpit 
of a neighbouring brother with an attack similar to the 
other, though not so severe or protracted. He then 
returned to it once more, and continued it in modera- 
tion till his death. 

"One of the last Sabbaths of his life Dr. Balch spent 
with me, and assisted me in the administration of the 
Lord's Supper; and he was apparently in as good health, 
both of body and of mind, as at any time when I had 
seen him for a number of years. He preached for me 
that day twice, and preached also at the Protestant 
Methodist Church in the evening, in addition to the 
services rendered at the Lord's table. It was generally 
remarked that his sermons were not only longer, but 
far more solemn and impressive than usual; but he 
suffered no inconvenience from the labours of the day. 


He left me apparently in fine health and in excellent 
spirits, and I heard no more from him until the astound- 
ing news came that he was dead; and that was quickly 
followed by an urgent request that I should come and 
take part in the funeral solemnities. I did go and meet 
the sad demand that was made upon me, — sharing the 
service (so far as the addresses were concerned) with 
the Rev. Mr. Brooks of the Episcopal Church, with 
whom Dr. Balch had been in the most cordial relations. 
I was subsequently called upon by the Presbytery to 
preach his Funeral Sermon, which I did at its sessions 
in the First Church in Washington City, and in the 
presence of an immense audience, which had been at- 
tracted to the service from a desire to do honour to the 
memory of that venerable man. 

"I have already intimated that Dr. Balch was tall 
and well proportioned in his physical structure. His 
countenance was a fair index to his character. His 
eyes were rather small, though keen; his face perhaps 
a little too long for beauty, and his neck too short for 
the head that was above it. His gait was always slow 
and cautious, and his movements indicated either that 
he was very absent in mind, or that his faculties were 
intensely concentrated on some particular subject. His 
dress was never of the most fashionable kind; nor was 
he always so particular in respect to it as to escape the 
imputation of being a little slovenly; yet, on the whole, 
his personal appearance was very respectable, and in 
society he was not lacking in due attention to the rules 
of politeness. He was an early riser, and would often 
take a long stroll, before any of his family or neighbours 
were up; and in all ordinary circumstances, ten o'clock 
at night would find him either in bed, or in his room 


preparing for it. It was doubtless to the regularity of 
his habits, the cheerfulness of his spirits, and the utter 
absence of every thing like agitating or corroding pas- 
sion, quite as much as to his native vigour of constitu- 
tion, that was to be attributed not only his exemption 
from the ordinary maladies which prevail among men, 
but a state of scarcely interrupted usefulness or enjoy- 
ment to the close of an unusually long life. 

"Notwithstanding Dr. Balch's passion for the hu- 
morous and the ludicrous, he thought much and felt 
much on the subject of personal religion, and to his 
particular friends, he spoke of it with both freedom 
and feeling. I never heard him express a doubt of his 
personal interest in the merits of his Redeemer; and 
towards the close of life he seemed to dwell upon the 
prospects of the opening future with a greatly increased 
interest and solemnity. But the nature and perma- 
nency of his religious principles were most effectually 
tested by the purity of his life, the stern fidelity with 
which he rebuked the various forms of evil, and his 
readiness to make personal sacrifices for the cause of 
Christ. In view of all that I knew of him, I cannot 
doubt that when he was dismissed from his labours on 
earth, he went to receive the plaudit, 'Well done, good 
and faithful servant.' 

"Yours very truly, 


Dr. Balch married first, on June 10th, 1781 at 
Georgetown, Elizabeth Beall of Georgetown, born 
there in 1762 and died at the same place June 27th, 
1827. The ladies of Georgetown being patriotic, 
positively refused to drink tea during the Revolu- 


tion, and so the cups used at the wedding were 
not much larger than thimbles. She was a daughter 
of Colonel George Beall (1729-1807) of Georgetown, 143 

143 Colonel George Beall was the son of Colonel George Beall of 
Georgetown (1695-1780) and Elizabeth Brooke, his wife, and a 
grandson of Colonel Ninian Beall (1625-1717) of the Rock of 
Dumbarton, Prince George's County, Maryland, and Ruth Moore 
his wife. Colonel Ninian Beall, called the "Covenanter," was born 
in Scotland in 1625, either in Dumbartonshire or Fifeshire. He was 
in the Scottish army which fought against Cromwell at Dunbar in 
1650, where he was taken prisoner and soon after transported to 
Maryland. With his knowledge of arms, he became in a short time 
a. man of importance in the military forces of the province. Finally 
he became a full Colonel and commander of the provincial troops. 
Much of the land upon which Georgetown, D.C., now stands was 
granted to him by Lord Baltimore in 1703. Elizabeth Brooke was 
the daughter of Colonel Thomas Brooke of Brookfield, Prince George 
County, Maryland, President of the Council and Acting-Governor 
of Maryland, and Barbara Dent, his second wife, a grand daughter 
of Major Thomas Brooke (1632-1676) of Calvert County, and Eleanor 
Hatton, his wife, and a great grand daughter of Robert Brooke, who 
emigrated from Whitchurch, County Southampton, England, to 
Maryland in 1650, and Mary Baker, his first wife. Robert Brooke 
matriculated at Wadham College, Oxford, in 1618, received his B. A. 
in July 1620, and M. A. in April 1624. He was a member of the 
Council of Maryland and for a time Acting-Governor of the Province. 
He was a son of Thomas Brooke of Whitchurch, gentleman, who 
graduated at New College, Oxford, in 1584, was a barrister at law in 
the Inner Temple in 1595 and sat for Whitchurch Borough in the 
Parliament that was summoned to meet at Westminster, March 19th, 
1603-4 and was dissolved February 9th, 1610-11; he died in 1612. 
Thomas Brooke married Susan Forster, daughter of Sir Thomas 
Forster, who was spoken of in 1587 as a barrister in both Coke's and 
Croke's Reports, and was called on November 24th, 1607, to the bench 
as judge of the Common Pleas and sat in that Court until his death 
May 18th, 1612. Thomas Sutton named him one of the first governors 
of the Charter House Hospital. His youngest son, Robert Forster, 
was appointed by Charles the Second Chief-Justice of the King's 

Symonds in his diary of the marches of the Royal Army during the 
Civil War, thus describes a monument erected to the memory of 
Thomas Brooke and his wife Susan Forster in the church of Whit- 


and Elizabeth Magruder, his wife. Dr. Balch 
married secondly, on November Sth, 1828, Elizabeth 
King, who died November 23d, 1828. He married 
for the third time on November 9th, 1830, Mrs. 
Jane Parrott, of Easton, Maryland. 

"Whit-church Church. 

"Against the north wall chancel, a faire monument, the statue of 
a man in a barr-gowne, and a woman. 

' Thom. Brooke, Ar. etat. 52, ob. 13 Sep. 1612. Susanna uxor ejus, 

filia natu max. Thomas Forster Militis in parochia Hunsdon com. Hertf. 

Quarterly, 1 and 4, Cheeky, or and azure, on a bend gules a lion 

passant or [Brooke]; 2 and 3, Argent, a fess embattled sable, in chief 

two estoils of the second [Twyne]; impaling. 

"Quarterly, 1, and 4, a chevron vert between three bugle-horns, 
sable [Forster]; 2 gone; 3 Argent, on a bend sable three martlets or, 
Crest, on a wreath azure and or, a demi-lion erased or." 

The monument is now in the belfrey. They lie outstretched side by 
side; their heads, collars, hands and cuffs are white; the rest of their 
dress is black, except that the middle of her gown in front from top 
to bottom is a light red. 

Thomas Brooke of Whitchurch was a son of Richard Brooke of 
Whitchurch and his wife Elizabeth Twyne. Brasses of Richard 
Brooke and his wife, together with two smaller ones underneath of 
their three sons and their three daughters, respectively, the whole 
mounted by the Brooke and the Twyne arms are affixed to one of the 
walls of the church of Whitchurch: originally all these brasses were 
upon the floor of the church. Under the brasses a brass plate bears 
the following inscription, which I copied myself in September, 1897: 

"Pietatis Opus. 
"This grave (of grief e) hath swallowed up with wide and open mouth, 
The bodie of good Richard Brooke, of Whitchurch, Hampton South 
And Elizabeth his wedded wife, twice twentie yeares and one, 
Sweete Jesus hath their soules in heaven, ye ground flesh, skin and bone 
In Januarie (worne with age) daie sixteenth died hee, 
From Christ full fifteene hundred yeares and more by ninetie three, 
But death her twist of life in Maie, daie twentieth did untwine 
From Christ full fifteene hundred yeares and more by ninetie nine, 
They left behinde them well to live, and growne to goode degree. 
First, Richard, Thomas, Robert Brooke, the youngest of the three 
Elizabeth, and Barbara, then Dorathee the last, 
All six the Knot of Natures love, and kindnes keeping fast, 
This Toome stone with the Plate thereon, thus graven fare and large 


Dr. Balch and his first wife, Elizabeth Beall, had 
eleven children as follows: — 

5. I. Ann Amia Balch, died young. 

5. II. Harriet Balch. 

5. III. Alfred Balch. 

5. IV. Lewis P. W. Balch. 

5. V. George Beall Balch. 

5. VI. Hezekiah James Balch, died unmarried. 

5. VII. Thomas Bloomer Balch. 

5. VIII. Franklin Balch, died young. 

5. IX. Ann Eleanora Balch. 

5. X. Elizabeth Maria Balch. 

5. XI. Jane Whann Balch. 

5. II. Harriet Balch was born at Georgetown, D.C., 

June 17th, 1783. As a young girl and later she 

was very fond of society. "Dr. Cutler wrote to his 

wife in 1803, of a dinner at the Balchs's, in the 

Did Robert Brooke, the youngest Sonne, make of his proper charge. 
A Citizen of London State, by faithful service free, 
Of Marchantes, greate adventurers, a brother sworne is hee, 
And of the Indian Companie (come gaine or losse) a limb, 
And of the Goldsmithe liverie, All these Godes giftes to him; 
This Monument of memorie in love performed hee; 
December thirtie one, from Christ sixteene hundred and three. 
"Anno Domini 1603: Laus Deo." 

Robert Brooke who gave these brasses was the uncle of Robert 
Brooke who came over to Maryland in 1650 in his own ship, bringing 
his wife, children, and a large number of servants, forty people in all. 

See The Brooke Family of Whitchurch, Hampshire, England, 
together with an account of Acting-Governor Robert Brooke of Alary- 
land and Colonel Ninian Beall of Maryland and some of their 
descendants by Thomas Willing Balch, Philadelphia, 1899. See also 
The Founders of Anne Arundel and Howard Counties, Maryland, by 
J. D. War&eld, Baltimore, 1905, page 101, for an account of the 
Beall Family. 


company of many members of Congress. Miss Anna 
King was one of the guests, which revived delight- 
ful recollections of the previous winter spent in her 
father's house in Washington, where the company 
was very agreeable. 'I very much miss,' he says, 'the 
amusement Miss Anna King used to afford us, with 
her forte-piano and excellent voice. She is the most 
intimate friend and companion of Miss Harriet Balch. 
They attend together the boarding-school, dancing 
school, and assembly.'" 144 She married first James 
R. Wilson, United States Navy, and after his death 
Major-General Alexander Macomb, commander-in- 
chief of the United States Army, who fought the 
battle of Plattsburg in 1814. An oil picture of Gen- 
eral Macomb that he had painted for his wife, taken 
after the battle of Plattsburg and now in the writer's 
possession, shows the General standing in full uni- 
form and looking into the distance : his orderly holds 
his horse close by, and in the background the tents 
of the American Army are seen. General and Mrs. 
Macomb lived in Washington in a large house which 
still stood in 1897 on Farragut Square at the north- 
west corner of Seventeenth and I Streets. Mrs. 
Macomb died May 22d, 1869. 

5. III. Alfred Balch was born at Georgetown, D. C., 
September 17th, 1785. He graduated at Princeton 

114 Social Life in the Early Republic by Anna Hollingsworth Wharton, 
Philadelphia and London, 1902, page 82. Dr. Manasseh Cutter was 
one of the United States Senators from Massachusetts. 


College in the class of 1805, securing the A. M. 
degree at Princeton, where he was a member of 
Whig Hall; 145 and then studied for the Bar. In 
1813 he went to Nashville, Tennessee, upon legal 
business. There he remained, and soon gained the 
friendship of Andrew Jackson, which lasted until 
the death of the hero of New Orleans. Jackson, 
when President, named him Commissioner of Indian 
treaties, and in 1840 Martin Van Buren appointed 
him United States District Judge for the middle 
district of Florida: 146 

"I nominate to the Senate Alfred Balch, of Tennes- 
see, to be judge of the United States for the middle 
district of Florida, for the term of four years, in place 
of Thomas Randall, whose term of service has expired. 


"Washington, March 10th, 1840." 

In a letter addressed from Nashville, Tennessee, 
in 1818 to "William Jones, Esquire, President of 
the Bank of the United States, Philadelphia," Judge 
Alfred Balch advocated the establishment of a 
branch of the bank in Nashville: 

"Nashville, 4th March, 1818. 

"Understanding that some hesitation exists as to the 
propriety of locating a Branch of the Bank of the 

146 Catalogue of the American Whig Society in the College of New 
Jersey, 176(1, Princeton, N. J. Published by order of the Society, 
1893, page 10. 

146 Executive Proceedings of the Senate, Vol. IV., page 265. 


United States at this place, I have thought it might 
be very proper to state to you the reasons which should 
induce an immediate adoption of this measure. 

"The late law of our Legislature taxing all banks 
created in this State by an authority other than that 
of this State, has produced a great excitement in this 
part of the country — it has called forth the strongest 
expressions of disapprobation against those who passed 
it from almost every influential man in this quarter, 
and their sentiments have been re-echoed by the great 
mass of the people. Since the beginning of the year, 
an universal expectation has prevailed here, that a 
Branch of the United States Bank would be immedi- 
ately located in Nashville, and it would seem to be bad 
policy to disappoint this universal expectation, es- 
pecially if it is intended ever to establish a Branch in 
this State. In addition, at our last session of our legis- 
lature a law was passed creating eleven new banks, one 
at this place. Notice was given that books for the sub- 
scription of the stock would be opened on the 17 th of 
last month, but previous to that time it was understood 
that a Branch of your institution would be speedily in 
operation in this place, and instantly the notice was 
countermanded. With regard to eight of the remaining 
ten there has been the same result from the same cause. 
Feeble or almost abortive attempts have been made to 
set up the remaining two in the hope that they could 
be made Branches of our State Bank. I believe most 
confidently that a Branch of your institution here, will 
destroy the wishes and the hopes of all persons who 
have been friendly to these new Banks, for all men here 
regard their establishment as injurious to the country, 
because of the limited circulation of their paper, their 


conflicting interests and consequent dissentions, and 
their total inability to make for the State a circulating 
medium calculated to transact the business by effecting 
the exchanges and facilitating the commercial enter- 
prizes of a population that is spread over an unduly 
extended territory, and which is pushing by the aid of 
their adventurous spirit their capital and products to 
the lakes on the one hand and to the Gulf of Mexico 
on the other. 

"We have scarcely any Banking capital amongst us. 
We hold nearly one twentieth of the whole population of 
the Union and yet we have not one million of Banking 
capital in our whole State. The District of Columbia 
has three millions. Our population is continually in- 
creasing as well by emigration as by natural means. 
Our exportations of tobacco are becoming very great. 
For the want of Banking capital our merchants are 
compelled to dispose of their drafts upon the north from 
the south, many times at considerable loss. The aug- 
mented quantity of the products of our soil requires an 
additional capital for its purchase and transmission to 
a safe and profitable market. The scarcity of circulating 
medium in the State renders the currency and credit of 
your notes perfectly certain, and a large amount super- 
added in circulation would at once develope the resources 
of the country, and quicken the industry of the people, 
and secure a large profit to the mother Bank at Phila- 

"This then is a most propitious season for the crea- 
tion of an establishment which will secure these objects 
not the least of which is the prosperity of a section of 
the Union that is every day becoming more interesting, 
more populous and more commercial. 


"But should you forbear to adopt this measure, the 
new Banks will be forced by necessity upon the people. 

"Permit me further to observe. This place receives 
annually from the merchants of Philadelphia one mill- 
ion of dollars worth of goods. Our great market is 
New Orleans. Where we sell our staple commodities 
we look naturally for those which we wish to buy. It 
is a thousand miles from this place to New Orleans 
by water. Our steamboat navigation will roll the 
floods of the Mississippi back on their sources. It is 
the interest of Philadelphia to connect us and it to- 
gether. To link our interests, to annihilate the dis- 
tance which separates us, to supply us with our lux- 
uries and articles of necessity as she has done for the 
last thirty years. 

"As to the law of our Legislature taxing a Branch 
of your Bank if put into operation here, almost all 
men agree that it is impolitic and unconstitutional, 
and no man here has ever dreamed that the feeblest 
effort would ever be made to execute it. 

"The deep interest which I have in the prosperity 
of this place and this section of the country must be 
my apology for troubling you with the foregoing ob- 
servations. If they shall assist in any the least de- 
gree to a proper decision upon our interests and those 
of the institution over which you preside with such 
distinguished ability, it will give me sincere pleasure. 
On the entire correctness of the facts which I have 
stated you may confidently rely. 

"With great respect, I remain your obt. servt. 

" Wm. Jones, Esqr., 

" Philadelphia." 

JUDGE L. P. W. BALCH. 211 

Judge Balch died at his country place, Rose 
Mont, near Nashville, on June 21st, 1853. He 
married: first Mary Lewis, and after her death, 
Anna Newman. He had one child: 

6. I. Alfred Newman Balch, who died in 1840. 

5. IV. Lewis Penn Witherspoon Balch was born 
at Georgetown, D. C, on December 31st, 1787. He 
graduated at Princeton College in 1806, receiving 
the A. M. degree, where he was a member of Whig 
Hall, 147 and then studied law with his kinsman 
(afterwards Chief Justice) Roger Brooke Taney. 148 

From a letter to "Richard Smith, Esq., Bank of 
the U. S., Washington," we learn that Mr. Balch 
took an interest in the political events of the day. 

"Frederick, June 21, 1831. 
"Dear Sir: 

" When you can see or communicate readily with 
Geo. C. Washington, I wish you to put into his hands 
at least the one hundred [torn here] of McDuffie's report, 

147 Catalogue of the American Whig Society instituted in the College 
of New Jersey, 1769, Princeton, N. J., printed by order of the 
Society, 1893, page 10. 

148 The Brooke Family of Whitechurch, Hampshire, England, together 
with an account of Acting Governor Robert Brooke of Maryland, and 
Colonel Ninian Beall of Maryland, by Thomas Willing Balch, Phila- 
delphia, 1899. 

Memoir of Roger Brooke Taney, LL.D., Chief Justice of the Su- 
preme Court of the United States 1836-1864,, by Samuel Tyler, LL.D., 
Baltimore, 1872. 

Chief Justice Taney's relation to the Federal Constitution and his 
influence thereupon, by George W. Biddle, Philadelphia, 1889. 

Roger Brooke Taney, a paper read before the Law School of Dickin- 
son College, March 10, 1899, by Walter George Smith, Philadelphia, 


for distribution on the east side of Monocasy. As to 
our side I will try to take care of that. I wish you also 
to impress on his mind the duty and necessity of being 
very active during the campaign. Our success depends 
on rousing the party. Urge him to impress the minds 
of the people with the pro [torn here] of turning out at the 
electoral election in September. That is the most im- 
portant of all, not only because the Senate continues 
for five years, but also because whichever party tri- 
umphs then, must succeed in October. We shall cer- 
tainly do our duty in this County. Since I saw you, I 
have been out somewhat among our friends and find 
them ripe for the contest. 

" Could you not by some means, hunt me up one copy 
of Clark's address? Perhaps some person in the City 
may have it. Enquire of Muton. I think he may suc- 
ceed in finding it. Send it to me as soon as possible. 
I wonder if any of the numbers called ' Politics for 
Farmers,' published by Niles last year can be had for 
distribution? Enquire. 

" With great regard y r friend 

"L. P. W. BALCH." 

In 1834 he took to Baltimore twenty-two slaves 
he had freed and offered to send to Liberia at his 
own expense. When Mr. Balch's mission became 
known to the merchants of Baltimore, they sold him 
what was necessary to fit out these twenty-two 
negroes for the voyage to Liberia, at cost price, 
thereby contributing about fifteen hundred dollars 
to the purpose. On that trip to Baltimore, Judge 
Balch took with him as an aid in looking after the 


JUDGE L. P. W. BALCH. 213 

slaves, his eldest son Lewis, and his young son, 

Thomas, then a boy only of thirteen years of age. 

The following letter of Reverdy Johnson, a leader 

of the Baltimore Bar, addressed to " L. P. W. Balch, 

Esqr. Atty. at Law, Frederick Town," is endorsed 

on the outside "Reverdy Johnson's letter when his 

house was in ruins." 

"Balt. 17 Augt. 1835. 
"My dear Sir:— 

"In the midst of all my troubles tears have never 
come from me until reading your most kind letter. 
There is something so touching in a heartfelt sym- 
pathy, that I was entirely overwhelmed by it. What 
I have lost in property is to me comparatively of no 
value. I would at any moment cheerfully sacrifice all 
to stand unimpeached before my fellow citizens, and I 
must hope that so far I do retain with a large por- 
tion of them my reputation for integrity unimpaired. 
I am entirely unable to say how deeply sensible I feel 
for your kindness. My heart is too full to suffer me 
to describe my feelings. Any effort to do so would 
be more than useless. There is only one thing more 
that you can do to make me if possible still more 
warmly grateful to you than I am already. My pro- 
fessional character is better known to my brethren 
than to any other class of the community. And an 
expression of opinion from your hand would be most 
highly gratifying to me. 

" I suggest it with diffidence and feel that you duly 
appreciate my motives. 

"Truly yr. friend 

"L. P. W. Balch, Esqr." 


The following paragraphs are extracts taken 
from the diary of Judge Balch. 

"Married April 10, 1839, by the Right Rev. Bishop 
Onderdonk of the Diocese of New York, the Rev. Lewis 
P. W. Balch rector of St. Bartholomew's church, New 
York, son of Lewis P. W. Balch, Esq., of Frederick, 
Maryland, to Miss Anna Jay, oldest daughter of Hon. 
William Jay of Bedford, N. Y. 

"Nov. 17, 1839. I hear this morning that Gen. Har- 
rison is nominated as Whig Candidate for the Presi- 
dency by the Harrisburg Convention — vote in all 254, 
Harrison 143, Clay 90, Scott 16. It is greatly to be 
regretted that a military chieftain is to supersede the 
great orator and statesman of the West. I fear the 
precedent. Congress not yet formed, all is confusion, 
no message, nothing done." 

" 1840, March 3. The greatest political meeting of 
the Whig party I ever saw met this evening in the 
Court House. I addressed the people for an hour and 
a half. Universally praised." 

"April 4, 1840, Saturday. Letter from Thomas at 
New York via Washington of the 23rd ult. informing 
us that he is now the second scholar in Columbia Col- 
lege. Oh Lord be praised and bless thy name for this 
evidence of thy favor and pray that we may all be 

" From the Baltimore Patriot of Dec. 22, 1841 : 

"Married Tuesday the 21 inst. at St. Peters Church 
Baltimore by the Rev. Mr. Balch of St. Bartholomew's 
New York, Dr. Charles H. Stephen son of the Hon. 

JUDGE L. P. W. BALCH. 215 

Judge Stephen of Maryland to Miss Virginia Balch 
daughter of L. P. W. Balch Esq. all of Leetown, Vir- 

"Genl. Macomb died in 1841." 

"Jany. 27, 1842. This day I received from Josiah 
Bayley, Esq. Atty. Gen. of Md. a commission of dep- 
uty Atty. Gen. for Frederick County in place of James 
Raymond, Esq., resigned. The office is worth perhaps 
$1500 per annum but may be the means of increas- 
ing my other professional business. * * * Bless the 
Lord Oh my soul and all that is within me bless his 
holy name." 

[New York.] "Dec. 29, 1843. Attended morning 
services in the church (St. Bartholomew's). Lewis 
read prayers. Mr. Cambreling [Stephen Cambreling of 
the New York Bar] and others called on me. Warm 
eulogiums on Lewis by various persons. Visited Mrs. 
Banyear and Miss Jay, aunts of Anna. 

" Saturday Dec. 30. Thomas and I walked down 
to the battery at the foot of Broadway, saw the fine 
bay and the blue line of the mighty Atlantic. 

"Sunday 31. For the first time I saw my beloved 
son in his own pulpit preaching to his devoted and 
affectionate flock. He was dressed in his surplice and 
afterwards in his robes. How beautiful and splendid 
the sight to my aged eyes. But a few years since he 
was on my knee or riding on the pommel of my 
saddle. Now he is preaching the word of life to a 
numerous, intelligent assembly; to men of all ages and 
ranks, from the gray head to those of middle and 
youthful life. 


"Monday Jan. 1st, 1844. Attended prayers in the 
church this morning. Lewis read. After this we were 
constantly engaged in receiving company; four hun- 
dred I suppose were there. It was indeed a most pleas- 
ant sight, so many cheerful faces. All seemed to ad- 
mire and venerate their rector. This is an immemorial 
custom in this great city. I wished it prevailed over 
the United States as it is productive of much good 

"On Tuesday the second I dined with Dr. Lyel, 
Bishop Onderdonk and others." 

"Wednesday Jan. 14, 1844. I read last night an 
account of the death of two old friends, Richard B. 
Magruder and Capt. John Rose. The first was nearly 
of my age — school fellows — Whigs [members of Whig 
Hall] at Princeton. The second was married to my 
mother's sister, Anna Beall, in 1792 or thereabouts by 
my father in Georgetown, D. C. I was so small at the 
time that a negro woman held me in her arms to wit- 
ness the ceremony." 

"Monday April 29, 1844. I started at 8 A. M. for 
Baltimore to attend the Gubernatorial Convention in 
which I represent this County (Frederick) in part. 

"Tuesday 30. Convention meets at the Universalist 
Church, every delegate there, a hundred and one in 
number. Much harmony. M. G. Pratt of Prince George 
County, the nominee." 

"Extract from the Frederick Herald of August 3, 

' Married on Tuesday the 30th July by the Rev. Mr. 
Balch rector of St. Bartholomew's, New York City, the 

JUDGE L. P. W. BALCH. 217 

Rev. Freeman Clarkson, rector of St. Anne's Church, 
Fishkill Landing, New York, to Catherine eldest 
daughter of Lewis P. W. Balch, Esq. of Maryland.' " 

Here is a letter from a fellow student of Judge 
Balch at Princeton, Theodore Frelinghuysen, of New 
York, who was the candidate for Vice-President in 
1844 of the unsuccessful Whig Party. 

"New York Octr. 27, 1848. 
"L. P. W. Balch, Esqr. 

"My dear Sir: 

" Your kind favor of August 12 th arrived during my 
summer vacation and rural ramblings, and when I 
came to the city, I concluded to defer a reply until I 
had the pleasure of nominating your worthy son for a 
D. D. to our Council, which I did on Wedy. Evg. last, 
and from the approbation from which it was appa- 
rently met, I have no doubt of its confirmation for 
the next commencement in June. By our laws a nomn. 
must lay at least three months. I will attend to it. 
And I am glad of the occasion, as I deem your son, in 
all respect deserving of such notice. I thank you my 
kind friend, for the interest, I hold in your recollections 
and prayers. It is very pleasant in a world of many 
and sore trials, to think of you in the [torn off here] 
relations of christian friendship and hope. I wish that 
we could visit you in your tranquil retirement. I often 
long for such retreat. Mrs. F. joins in kind remem- 

"Yrs. very truly, in the best 
of bond 



An additional extract from Judge Balch's diary 
tells of his eldest son's trip to Europe. 

"June 12, 1850. Wednesday; Lewis and his second 
wife, formerly Miss Emily Wiggin, and Augusta and Mr. 
and Mrs. Robert Ralston of Philadelphia, start this day 
from Boston, via Halifax to Liverpool, and thence to 
the residence of Mr. Wiggin, father of Emily. 

"They arrived at Liverpool on Saturday 22nd June 
at .seven o'clock A. M. The steamer Europa left the 
dock for New York as the Asia entered." 

Judge Balch voted for Henry Clay for President, 
for General Fremont, and also for Abraham Lin- 
coln both times. All through the war of Secession 
he was for the Union, and in March, 1865, he was 
chosen a State Circuit Judge for the northeastern 
counties of West Virginia, and served in those 
troublesome times with credit until the following 
March. He contributed to the Southern Literary 
Messenger a number of biographical sketches — on 
Roger Brooke Taney, Daniel Sheffy, Samuel Cooper, 
Robert White, Jeremiah T. Chase, Lawrence Ever- 
heard and others. He died August 29th, 1868. 149 On 
March 14th, 1811, he married Elizabeth Willis 
Wever, daughter of John Adam Wever (originally 
von Weber) of Virginia. She was born May 10th, 
1790, and died July 7th, 1874. 

Judge and Mrs. Balch had twelve children ; 

140 He also wrote A Ride to Graceham, Southern Literary Messenger, 
Volume XV., 1849, page 121. 













THE REV. L. P. W. BALCH. 219 

they were all born at Leesburg, Loudon County, 

6. I. Adam Weber Balch, born March 31st, 
1812, died July 30th, 1813. 
Lewis Penn Witherspoon Balch. 
Catharine Elizabeth Spencer Balch. 
Virginia Melancthon Balch. 
Harriet Cornelia Balch, born Dec. 26th, 

1819, died Aug. Sth, 1820. 
Thomas Balch. 

Anna Beall Balch, born May 25th, 1823, 
died Sept. 12th, 1824. 
6. VIII. Sylvester Whitefield Balch, born March 

9th, 1825, died June 22d, 1825. 
6. IX. John Wilson Balch, born July 22d, 1826, 

died Aug. 15th, 1826. 
6. X. Frances Carter Balch, born July 10th, 

1827, died July 28th, 1827. 
6. XI. Alexandrine Macomb Balch. 
6. XII. Stephen Fitzhugh Balch. 

6. II. Lewis Penn Witherspoon Balch was born 
at Leesburg, Loudon County, Virginia, February 1st, 
1814. He entered West Point in 1831 and grad- 
uated at Princeton College in 1834, receiving the 
A. M. degree, and at the General Theological Sem- 
inary, New York, in 1836. At Princeton he was 
a member of the American Whig Society. 150 Or- 

150 Catalogue of the American Whig Society instituted in the College 
of New Jersey, 1769, Princeton, N. J., Printed by order of the Society, 
1893, page IS. 


dained a Deacon of the Protestant Episcopal Church 
by Bishop "White, he was for ten months in charge 
of St. Andrew's Church, Philadelphia. He was 
ordained a priest by Bishop Meade. Prom 1837 
to 1850 he was Rector of St. Bartholomew's Church, 
New York. He was Rector of Christ Church, Bal- 
timore, for five years; Rector Emmanuel Church, 
Newport, R. I., from 1859 to 1866. In sight of 
his home at Newport, which was between the first 
and the second beaches, was Berkeley's Rock, 
where Bishop Berkeley (1684-1753) is said to have 
written the lines — 

" Westward the course of empire takes its way; 
The four first acts already past, 
A fifth shall close the drama with the day ; 
Time's noblest offspring is the last." 

Dr. Balch named one of his sons born at Newport 
after the author of the above quotation. In 1866 
Dr. Balch was Rector of St. Michael's Church, 
Bristol, R. I. He was Secretary of the House of 
Bishops of the Protestant Episcopal Church from 
1853 to 1866. Canon of the Cathedral of Montreal 
and Chaplain to the Metropolitan from 1866 to 
1871 ; he was also Clerical Secretary to the Montreal 
Diocesan Synod. On September 13th, 1868, the 
day after the funeral of Bishop Fulford, First 
Bishop and Metropolitan, Canon Balch preached 
the sermon in Christ Church Cathedral, Montreal, 
on the work of the dead Bishop. From 1871 to 

THE REV. L. P. W. BALCH. 221 

1873 he was Rector of the Church of the As- 
cension at Baltimore. Afterwards, he was Rector 
of Grace Church, Detroit, from November 1874 to 
June 4th, 1875. He died at Detroit, Michigan, 
June 4th, 1875. He was buried at Plymouth, 
New Hampshire, June 9th, 1875. In 1849, he 
received from Union College, New York, the degree 
of D. D. 

Here follows a letter that he wrote on the propo- 
sition to colonize the Republic of Liberia with 
American Africans as a happy solution of the 
slavery problem in our country, which caused the 
Civil War of 1861-65: 


"At the recent annual meeting of the Colonization 
Society, in this city, the following interesting letter was 
read : — - 

"Baltimore, May 13, 1857. 

"My Dear Bishop Potter: — I am laboring under the 
effects of a severe cold, and, with extreme difficulty, 
preached to-day. I am satisfied that it would be peril- 
ous, and, in the face of the prohibition of my physician, 
I cannot venture to travel to Philadelphia and speak 
to-morrow night at the anniversary of the Pennsylvania 
State Colonization Society. 

" May I ask you to do me the favor to read this letter, 
and what will be better still for the cause we love, supply 
my deficiencies, and expand and enforce which is here 
only imperfectly given, for I am writing from a sick bed. 

Jil American and Gazette, Philadelphia: Wednesday, May 13, 1857. 


" It was with no ordinary satisfaction I received and 
accepted the invitation of the committee to address the 
meeting of your society. Colonization has an heredi- 
tary claim on my feeble services. My venerated grand- 
father [the Rev. Dr. Stephen Bloomer Balch] was one 
of its original founders, and more than twenty-eight 
years ago I recognized that claim, and founded the first 
juvenile Colonization Society which has been formed in 
this country. 

" Later still, my maternal grandfather assigned to me 
the pleasing task of conveying from Virginia to Balti- 
more twenty-two colored persons, most of whom had 
been born on his estate, and all of whom he liberated, 
and at an expense of nearly SI 000, comfortably fitted 
out and sent to Liberia. Through Commodore Perry 
and Bishop Payne I learn that they and their descend- 
ents are among the most useful and respectable citi- 
zens of the Colony. The letters which we receive from 
time to time indicate their appreciation of the advan- 
tages which they enjoy. And a comparison of their 
social, political and religious condition in Africa, with 
the same conditions of eleven colored persons liberated 
by my father, and remaining in this country, would, 
if any doubt existed on the subject, abundantly satisfy 
me of the great benefits which colonization presents to 
the African race. 

"In connection with this fact, there is an incident 
not without interest, and quite suggestive, which you 
will permit me to relate. Their number and appear- 
ance attracted attention and excited inquiry and when 
the merchants of Baltimore learned who they were, and 
what was their destination, without an exception, they 
threw off the profits, and in many cases added valuable 

THE REV. L. P. W. BALCH. 223 

presents. The goods and presents, at market value, 
were probably not less than $1500. More recently still 
I was honored by the board of managers of the American 
Colonization Society, with the appointment of commis- 
sioner to visit, in behalf of colonization those countries 
whose governments had acknowledged the independence 
of Liberia. I think, therefore, on the score of ancestral 
interest in this cause as well as some humble personal 
efforts in its behalf, and the declared confidence of the 
able and efficient board entrusted with the management 
of this vast plan of benevolence, that I am fairly en- 
titled to credit when I say that I deeply regret my ina- 
bility to be present at the approaching anniversary. 

"To my apprehension, the object of your meeting, is 
not to discuss the abstract question of African Coloni- 
zation. The day has gone by when that can be con- 
sidered an open question. Its essential element has so 
pervaded the families of the earth, and become the 
characteristic feature of the present generation, that 
it might almost give name to the age. To colonize a 
nation in Australia or California excites no more sur- 
prise than the formation of State after State by the vast 
tide of emigrants rolling to the West. It matters not 
what causes may have produced these great results; 
whether religious intolerance, like that which drove a 
gallant band to the deck of the Mayflower — or the res 
angusta domi, which sends multitudes to the ore beds of 
California — or the social inequality and disfranchised lot 
of the lower classes of Europe, which compel them to 
seek the freer institutions and fertile plains of this west- 
ern continent — in every case colonization has proved 
the effectual remedy for the evils. It has done more. 
It has demonstrated its practical benefit as the means 


ordained of God to throw new sources of comfort, use- 
fulness, and happiness to whole races of men. And it is 
difficult to imagine on what principle of logic or philoso- 
phy the African race alone is to be excluded from this 
salutary development of Providence. Slowly but surely 
will the evils which attend slavery to both races force 
into the hearts and consciences of the civilized world 
the conviction that colonization is the remedy not only 
for the evil as it exists in this country, but that it is, 
humanely speaking, the only possible way in which the 
millions of Africa can be enlightened. And the sternest 
prejudice must yield — the most determined hostility to 
the cause be changed into friendship, as state after state 
of the republic of Liberia wheels into line, and the Ethio- 
pian nation asserts its rank among the kingdoms of the 

"Already there stretches along the western coast of 
Africa for seven hundred miles, a republic, recognized by 
many of the most powerful governments. In agriculture , 
commerce, arts, and sciences, as well as in morals, she 
will compare favorably with the early colonial history 
of this or any other country. And all this has been 
done by the American Colonization Society. 

"All honor to the men who formed this Society. 
They were their own prophets. They had minds to 
grasp some of the results now achieved. They had 
hearts to cling to the widespread beneficence of the 
scheme, even though it should be baptized in the blood 
of its early friends. The wisdom of their plan — the 
ability of the scheme to accomplish the result sought, 
is no longer an open question. The general verdict 
of mankind will sooner or later set to its seal that the 
true friend of the African race is the A. C. S. ; whilst 

THE REV. L. P. W. BALCH. 225 

the gracious approval of God must become apparent 
to the most sceptical, by the manifestations of his Provi- 
dence. Hence I conceive that the real object of such 
meetings as the approaching anniversary is to hear 
what has been done, and see if any new light has been 
shed by Providence to encourage and animate the 
friends of colonization. 

"The complicated nature of those acts and expres- 
sions of God's will, which we term Providence, and the 
remote causes which sometimes combine to produce its 
most striking results, whilst, on the other hand, they 
make us cautious in reaching conclusions, yet, on the 
other, startle us with their extraordinary simplicity 
and power. Franklin, as he floated on the water, 
drawing the electric fluid with his kite, little dreamed 
that he was a co-worker with Morse in joining the east- 
ern and western hemispheres by the electric cable. 

"We cannot separate the wonders of science and 
their application to the laws of trade from the direct 
control of God. And the formidable problem of the 
ultimate removal of the African race to their native 
land, seems to me about to be served by one of the 
simplest laws of trade. 

"Whenever emigration to Africa, like emigration to 
America, shall become self-paying, the work is done — 
at least it becomes then only a question of time. And 
then the repulsive power of slavery in America, and 
the attractive power of freedom in Africa, will com- 
bine to produce the result. And no thoughtful man 
can look at an Irish laborer in America, without feel- 
ing that the time must come, when by reason of the 
increased speed, cheapness, and facility of commercial 
intercourse with Africa, the colored race will have no 


more difficulties to overcome, in returning to the land 
of their fathers, than European emigrants conquered in 
seeking a refuge in the United States. This is the law 
of trade to which I allude. And our God has, in this 
instance, bound up with the law and united to its power 
the two controlling facts, that the real interest and 
happiness of the African lie in his own country. Once 
take this position as a centre, and how many radiating 
lines are there issuing from and returning to it. 

"The noble gift of a packet ship to the society by the 
late Mr. Stephens, of Maryland — the effort in the same 
direction in Maine — the incipient measures, only de- 
layed, not abandoned, to induce our government to 
establish a mail service to Africa — stated frequent 
steam communication with Europe — a rapidly increas- 
ing and valuable commerce — the exploration of the in- 
terior — the recent successful experiment of the Rev. 
John Seys, demonstrating the fact that an entire ex- 
pedition of colonists can be settled in the interior with- 
out the loss of a single one, and without suffering from 
the acclimating fever; these, and other facts which 
might be cited are among the indications of Providence 
which encourage the friends of this cause. 

"But there are sterner elements moving us to action. 
Recently this country was convulsed as it never was 
before by a political contest. The element of bitterness 
which gave intensity even to the virulence of party 
strife, sprang from slavery. And but a short time 
before the unseemly spectacle was presented to the 
world of the doors of an American Congress for a long 
time closed by the manacled hand of slavery. 

" It has entered as an element of discord not merely 
into political life, but into the sacred enclosures of 

THE REV. L. P. W. BALCH. 227 

social relations, and the still more holy precincts of 
religion. For the first time, that terrible treason, 
disunion, seemed to assume a palpable shape and form, 
and statesmen, philanthropists, and patriots, are alike 
roused to the necessity of earnest effort to settle this 
vexed and vexatious question. These I regard as 
warnings of Providence, whose effect must be to create 
a deeper interest in the colonization cause. We do not 
claim that it is free from defects. Time and experi- 
ence will indicate where its operations may be improved. 
But its mission to some extent has been accomplished 
beyond the power of man to frustrate. 

"The foundations have been laid, and as one contem- 
plates that vast temple being erected on the continent 
of Africa, one is forcibly reminded that, like that of 
Solomon, its several parts have been fitted and framed 
in distant lands, then borne by the Providence of God 
and placed almost without the sound of a hammer. 
Nor can we doubt that the head corner stone of that 
spiritual building, elevated so as to catch the earliest 
ray of the rising sun and retain the last beam of fading 
twilight, is none other than the same Divine Being who 
said, ' Ethiopia shall soon stretch out her hands to God.' 

"The present is full of promise — the future is bright 
with hope. Let every friend of the cause possess his 
soul with the assurance it is of God, and will succeed. 

"Believe me, my dear Bishop, 

"Ever faithfully and affectionately yours, 


" Rt. Rev. A. Potter, D. D., 

" President of the Pennsylvania State 
Colonization Society." 


The Rev. Dr. Balch was married first on April 
10th, 1839, by Bishop Onderdonk to Anna Jay, 
daughter of William Jay of New York, and grand- 
daughter of John Jay, first Chief Justice of the 
Supreme Court of the United States. 152 She died 
in 1848. Dr. Balch and his wife had five children: 

7. I. Augusta Balch, born December 26th, 1840, 
and died April 30th, 1888. She married on April 
20th, 1881, George Augustus Peabody of Salem, 

7. II. Lewis Balch, died young. 

7. III. Elizabeth Balch. She was born April 
20th, 1843, and died May 23d, 1890. 

She wrote, Zorah, A Love Tale of Modern Egypt, 
printed in 1887, and shortly before her death, she 
published An Author's Love, being the unpublished 

162 As early as 1665, Pierre Jay, a prosperous merchant, was settled 
in the old Huguenot town of La Rochelle. By 1685, a year "mem- 
orable for the revocation of the Edict of Nantes," Pierre Jay, who 
was strongly attached to the principles of V £glise Reformie, found 
that expatriation from his native land, or the abjuration of his re- 
ligious faith were the distressing alternatives presented to him. In 
the summer of 1685, troops were introduced into La Rochelle and 
quartered upon the Huguenots. Dragoons were placed in the house 
of Pierre Jay "to live and act at their discretion." Finding the sit- 
uation intolerable he preferred expatriation for himself and his 
family to the alternative of giving up their religious beliefs. The 
family first sought a refuge in England and subsequently in the 
British North American colonies. And thus it was to the short 
sighted policy of Louis the Fourteenth, in contrast with the more 
liberal views of Cardinal Richelieu, that France lost a family which 
gave to the United States of America in John Jay the first Chief 
Justice of their Supreme Court. 

See The Lives and Times of the Chief Justices of the Supreme Court 
of the United States, by Henry Flanders of the Philadelphia Bar, 
Philadelphia, 1881. 


letters of Prosper Merime'e's " Inconnue," in which 
she answered the letters of Merim6e to his " In- 
connue." 153 In the Epilogue, she wrote: "By the 
tideless sea at Cannes on a summer day, I had 
fallen asleep, and the flashing of the waves upon 
the shore had doubtless made me dream. When 
I awoke the yellow paper covered volumes of Pros- 
per Merimee's Lettres & une Inconnue lay beside 
me ; I had been reading the book before I fell asleep, 
but the answers — had they ever been written, or 
had I only dreamed?" 

7. IV. Anna Balch, died young. 

7. V. Lewis Balch, born July 7th, 1847. In 1866, 
he began the study of medicine at McGill Univer- 
sity, Montreal, Canada. The next year he contin- 
ued his medical studies at the College of Physicians 
and Surgeons, the medical department of Colum- 
bia University, taking the M. D. degree in 1870. 
In 1873 he settled in Albany, N. Y., where he lived 
until 1898. In a letter to the writer he says: — 

"I became in 1875, I think attending surgeon to St. 
Peter's Hospital, afterwards Consulting Surgeon, fol- 
lowed by, in later years the appointments of attending 
surgeon to the Albany Hospital, the Homeopathic Hos- 
pital, the Child's Hospital and the Day Nursery; Pro- 
fessor of Anatomy, Albany Medical College, 1876 to 

153 Prosper Merim6e born at Paris in 1803, died at Cannes in 1870. 
He was elected a member of I'Acacttmie Francaise in 1844. His Let- 
tres d, une Inconnue, Mademoiselle Jenny Dacquin, extending from 
1841 to 1870, were published in 1873, three years after his death. 
See the Nouveau Larousse Illustr6, Paris. 


1887 ; Professor Medical Jurisprudence and Hygiene, 1887 
to 1898; Health Officer of Albany 1884 to 1898; Secre- 
tary State Board of Health 1886 to 1894. At one time, 
I was on the Consulting Board of the State Hospital at 
Poughkeepsie ; at another time an examiner of the Medi- 
cal Applicants before the Regents of New York State. 
Sometime in the eighties, I do not remember the year, I 
received an Honorary Degree of Ph. D. from Union Uni- 
versity, to which the Albany Medical College was at- 
tached, and also an honorary degree of M. D. from the 
Medical College itself. Soon after graduation in 1870, I 
entered the National Guard of New York as Captain and 
Assistant Surgeon in the 3 7th Regt. of Infantry, was trans- 
ferred to the 7 1st Infantry, became Major and Surgeon, re- 
signing in 1873 when I moved to Albany. In 1877, when 
the great railroad strikes were on, I again entered the 
Guard as Major and Surgeon of the 10th Inft. and served 
in that capacity until 1896 or 1897, when I was trans- 
ferred to the Surgeon General's Office of the State. In 
April 1898, I went out with the 2nd New York Volunteer 
Infantry as Major and Surgeon. May 23rd, I was detailed 
as Chief Surgeon, 2nd Division 3d Corps, at Chickamauga, 
was relieved early in June and went to Tampa with the 
regiment, acting as Brigade Surgeon until June 12th or 
14th, when I was detailed as Chief Surgeon, 2nd Divi- 
sion 4th Corps. I served until about August 3rd or 4th, 
when I was relieved and ordered to Fernandina to join 
my regiment. About September 1st, the command was 
ordered to Troy, New York, to muster out. I was 
relieved from duty with that regiment and ordered to 
examine 3rd New York Volunteers for Muster out. On 
3rd November, 1898, I was made Brigade Surgeon 
United States Volunteers resigning my commission as 


surgeon of the 2nd New York, November 8th or 10th 
and ordered to Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, as Chief 
Surgeon, 2nd Brigade 2nd Division 2nd Corps. Order 
changed at Harrisburg to Macon, Georgia, as Sanitary- 
Inspector 1st Division 1st Corps and to go with first 
troops to Cuba. I sailed from Savannah, Georgia, 
December 1st and landed at Trinidad, Province of 
Santa Clara, December 6th. Took station toward end 
of December in Aerifuegar on staff of Major General 
John C. Bates. January 14th, ordered with Major 
John A. Logan to Sangua La Grand. We took the 
trip across Cuba on horseback, examining into the con- 
dition of the country as we rode. May 1899, ordered 
to Matanzas as Sanitary Inspector in Department of 
Matanzas and Santa Clara on staff of General James 
W. Wilson. August 1899, I was relieved and ordered 
to New York, receiving on arrival orders to go to San 
Francisco. Reported there in September and sailed 
the 30th of September for the Philippines, arriving 
the 28th October. Ordered as Brigade Surgeon, 2nd 
Brigade, 2nd Division 8th Corps (General Grant). 
Served there, going on campaign or what we used to 
call a 'hike,' until after Christmas, when was relieved 
and ordered to Zamboaryo, island of Mindanao as 
Chief Surgeon of the Military District of Mindanao 
and Jolo. Served until April 18, 1900, when we went 
on board hospital ship "Relief" ill. Sailed for home 
on transport "Grant" from Manila, May 15th, 1900. 
Arrived San Francisco June 10th. Granted four months 
sick leave in July, went to Rhode Island where 
November 13th, 1900, I was 'honorably mustered 
out by order of the President.' After that it was 
merely trying to recover my health, not doing any- 


thing 'till I took hold of Herbert's school after his 
death to close it up. Last winter I was from Septem- 
ber 'till June acting Professor of Military Science at 
the Rhode Island Agricultural College, Kingston. On 
June 21st, I was appointed on the Sanitary Corps for 
the Canal, landed here the 28th of June and on July, 
the 8th, assigned as health officer of Panama which 
same I am at present." 

In 1897 he published A Manual for Boards of 
Health and Health Officers. He married, November 
2d, 1870, Jane Byrd Swann, at Hartford, Conn. 

8. I. Lewis Balch, born May 3d, 1872. He 
was married November 2d, 1904, at Wakefield, 
Rhode Island, to Sally Rodman Thompson, daugh- 
ter of Robert Thompson, and granddaughter of 
General Isaac P. Rodman, who fell at Antietam. 

The Rev. Dr. Balch (see ante page 228) married 
secondly, April, 1850, at St. Andrew's Church, Phila- 
delphia, Emily Wiggin. She was born October 15th, 
1825, and died April 2d, 1891. She was the daughter 
of Timothy Wiggin and Catherine Holme, his wife. 154 
Catherine Holme was descended from Edward 
Holme and Jane Hastings, his wife. Dr. Balch 
and his second wife had ten children: — 

7. VI. Alfred Holme Balch, born February 28th, 
1851, died June 7th, 1898; he married in 1887, 
Ruth Flanders Paxton. 

154 The Holme family predigree is traced back to Raudelphus Fitz 
Norman, who possessed the Manor of Holme. One of his descendants 
was Robert de Holme, from whom descended Burncustan Holme, 
Esq., (1664) of Keursley, County Lancaster. 


7. VII. William Ralston Balch, born December 
9th, 1852. He wrote and published The Life of 
James A. Garfield, Philadelphia, 1881, The Mines, 
Miners and Mining Interests of the United States, 
1882, and The Battle of Gettysburg; an historical 
account, Philadelphia, 1885. 

7. VIII. Catherine Holme Balch, born October 
20th, 1854. 

7. IX. Henry Herbert Balch, born May 7th, 
died February 19th, 1902; married November, 
1891, Clarissa Tilghman Fleming. 

They have two children : 

8. I. Henry Herbert Balch, born October 2 5th, 1892. 
8. II. Clarissa Anne Balch, born April 17th, 1894. 
7. X Emily Balch, born April 8th, 1858, died 

April 25th, 1890. 

7. XI. Ernest Berkeley Balch, born January 
15th, 1860. 

7. XII. Adeline Balch, born August 9th, 1861; 
she married August 9th, 1887, Joseph Howland 
Coit, Jr. They have one son : 

8. I. Henry A. B. Coit, born May 26th, 1888. 

7. XIII. Ellen Mary Balch, born February 25th, 
1864. She married August 31st, 1887, Oliver 
Whipple Huntington. 

7. XIV. Edith Cazenove Balch, born May 29th, 
1866. She married July 1st, 1897, the Rev. Clifford 
Gray Twombly. 

7. XV. Stephen Elliott Balch, born March 5th, 


1869. He married May 1st, 1903, Josephine Marty n 

6. III. Catherine Balch, born November 28th, 
1815, and died July 1st, 1850. She married the 
Rev. Freeman Clarkson. 

6. IV. Virginia Balch, born March 18th, 1818. 
She was married at St. Peter's Church, Baltimore, 
by her brother, the Rev. Dr. Balch, of St. Bartholo- 
mew's Church, New York, in December, 1841, to 
Dr. Charles H. Stephen, son of the Hon. Judge 
Stephen, of Maryland. 

The following item appeared in one of the 
Washington papers, probably the Evening Star, in 

"Mrs. Virginia Balch Stephen on her eightieth birth- 
day last week was given a surprise party. Friends made 
it a red letter day with gifts, floral offerings, letters 
and congratulatory visits. Mrs. Stephen is the grand- 
daughter of Rev. Dr. Balch, the first minister in the 
District of Columbia. When on a visit to her aunt, 
Mrs. General Macomb, Sir Charles Vaughan, the English 
minister gave her a dinner on her eighteenth birthday, 
with the privilege of inviting all her friends, among 
whom she included Daniel Webster, Henry Clay and 
other celebrities of that day. On her recent birthday 
not only relatives and friends called, but some of the 
clergy and Baron Riedl de Riedenau, secretary of the 
Austrian legation ; Wu Hsueh-Lien and Fung Ping Wan 
of the Chinese legation. The evening was very pleas- 
antly concluded by musical selections rendered by Miss 


Dr. and Mrs. Stephen had one daughter: 

7. I. Elizabeth Juliana Stephen, who married Dr. 
James R. Rogers and had two children: — 

8. I. Charles Stephen Rogers born in 1870, and 
died young. 

8. II. Katherine Elizabeth Rogers born in 1872. 

6. VI. Thomas Balch was born July 23d, 1821. 
He entered Columbia College (now Columbia Uni- 
versity), New York, in 1838, with the class of 1842. 
At the end of his Freshman year he received from 
the college a silver medal for standing at the head 
of his class in geometry. Abram S. Hewitt, a class- 
mate of his, said that "Tom Balch was the master 
of English style in the class." At the beginning 
of his Senior year he became ill, and so was unable 
to keep up with his class. In addition, owing to his 
father having manumitted his slaves in 1834, he was 
unable to count on further help from home, and he 
found it, therefore, additionally difficult to put off 
the study of a profession. Accordingly, he began 
soon after his illness the study of the law with 
Stephen Cambreling and was admitted to the New 
York Bar, January 17th, 1845. 155 In 1849 he went 

155 "B y THB Honorable 
"Samuel Nelson, Esqr. Chief Justice 

(of the) 
State op New York. 

"To all to whom these PRESENTS shall come, Greeting: 

"Be it Known that Thomas Balch having been duly examined 
and regularly admitted as an Attorney in the Supreme Court of the 


to the " West" to examine land titles and look after 
other interests represented by Mr. Cambreling. For 
this purpose he visited Detroit, Chicago, and other 
towns, and made a tour in Wisconsin of several 
hundred miles. For this last trip he fitted out at 
Chicago, where he engaged an Indian guide. While 
in Wisconsin, at one time he spent eleven days with 
the Indians without seeing a "Pale face." During 
this tour he shot three deer for food. At the end of 
1849, owing to the development of his legal practice 
in Philadelphia, he settled there and was promptly 

State of New York in the present Term of January in the Year of 
our Lord one Thousand eight Hundred and forty-five I do hereby 
authorize and License the said Thomas Balch to appear in the said 
Court and there to Practice as an Attorney according to the rules 
and customs of the said Court and the Laws of this State. 

"Given under my Hand and Seal the seventeenth day of January 
in the Year of our Lord one Thousand eight Hundred and forty- 
five, in the sixty-ninth year of the Independence of the United States 
of America. 


[Upon the back of the above certificate the following 
is inscribed]. 
"Be it Remembered that on this seventeenth day of January 
in the January Term in the year of our Lord one thousand eight 
hundred and forty-five, Personally appeared in open Court the within- 
named Thomas Balch and took and subscribed the oaths as an At- 
torney of this Court as required by law. 


"By the Hon. Reuben H. Walworth, 
"Chancellor op the State op New- York: 

' ' To all to whom, these Presents shall come. 

"Know Ye that Thomas Balch having been duly examined and 
regularly admitted as a Solicitor in the Court of Chancery in the 
State of New York, on this seventeenth day of January, in the year 
of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and forty-five I do hereby 

The above phototypes show the two sides of a 
silver medal given by Columbia College in 1839 to 
Thomas Balch. The inscription on the obverse 
side is: "Curat. Coll. Col. Nov. E. B. Bale F % -" 
The inscription on the reverse is: "Virt. et Dil. 
P. R. M. II. T. W. Balch In Geom. Bract. 1839 " 


admitted to the local Bar. 166 There he knew well 
Charles Chauncey, one of the leaders of the Phila- 
delphia Bar, Henry C. Carey, the economist, Henry 
Paxil Beck, Dr. Charles Frederick Beck, Edward 
Shippen of the Philadelphia Bar, and later Henry 
Carey Baird. His card of invitation to the assem- 
bly balls for the season of 1849-50, when three Assem- 

authorize and license the said Balch to appear in the said Court 
and there to practice as a solicitor according to the rules and customs 
of the : aid Court, and the laws of this State. 

"Given under my Hand, and the 
Seal of our said Court on the 
seventeenth day of January one 
thousand eight hundred and 

Upon the back of the above certificate the following is inscribed: 

"State of New York, ss. 

"On this seventeenth day of January, 1845, the within named 
Thomas Balch appeared in open Court before the Chancellor, and 
took and subscribed the oath of office prescribed by the Constitution, 
as a Solicitor in the Court of Chancery of said State. 

"JOHN M. DAVIDSON, Register." 

158 "Be it Remembered, that at a Supreme Court of Pennsylvania 
holden at Philadelphia in and for the Eastern District before the 
Honorable John Bannister Gibson, Esquire, Chief Justice, and his 
associates, Justices of the said Supreme Court, on the tenth day of 
December Ao Di. one thousand eight hundred and forty-nine. 

"Thomas Balch Esquire was on motion of William B. Heiskell, 
Esquire, Sworn and admitted to practice as an Attorney and Coun- 
sellor of said Court. 

"In Testimony Whereof I have 
hereunto subscribed my name 
and affixed the seal of the said 
Court at Philadelphia, this 
twenty-first day of December, 
Anno Domini, 1849. 


" Prothonotary." 


blies 157 were given at Musical Fund Hall, has been 
preserved and is thus inscribed: — 


"The honor of Mr. Thomas Balch's 

" Company is requested for the Season. 

"John M. Scott, 
Thomas Cadwalader, 
Joseph Swift, 
Charles Willing, 
Richard Vaux, 
M. G. Evans, 


James H. Blight, 
B. W. Ingersoll, 
William T. Twells, 
Alexander Biddle, 
William W. Fisher, 
.Bernard Henry, Jr." 

During these years Mr. Balch wrote some short 
essays, romances and poems. A part were printed 
in the Southern Literary Messenger. Of these the 
following are examples: — 


Being an Essay by a New Contributor. 

Without thee, what were unenlightened man ? 

A savage, roaming through the woods and wilds — 

Nor moral excellence, nor silent bliss, 

Nor grace, nor love were his. — Thomson's Seasons. 

There is so little stirring now-a-days, that we feel 
disposed to discourse a trifle upon a subject much 
talked of, but little understood. 

157 The balls known as the "Philadelphia Assemblies" were started 
in 1748-49, with fifty-nine subscribers. The managers that season 
were John Swift, Lynford Lardner, John Wallace, and John Inglis. 

158 The Southern Literary Messenger, Devoted to Every Department 
of Literature and the Fine Arts. Volume XV. Richmond, Virginia, 
1849, page 345. Other articles were, Discipulus, a tale of St. Valen- 
tine Eve I., Volume XVI., 1850, page 666; Ibid II., Volume XVII., 
1851, page 175; Goethe's Wilhelm Meister, Volume XVII., 1851, page 


In saying that Flirtation is a subject much talked 
of, but little understood, we make no rash assertion. 
Every science has its pretenders, and none has more 
ignorant worshippers than this. Be it ours, writing 
from a chair, which, like its occupant, has seen better 
days; be it ours to expound some of its mysteries 
for the benefit of youthful "hearts now pregnant with 
celestial fire." 

In the first place then, Flirtation is not lovemak- 
ing, nor anything like it. For in the one case, a man 
starts on a voyage at the commencement of which he 
casts aside the rudder of reason and trusts to pros- 
perous breezes and the favor of the gods for reaching 
in safety "the haven where he would be." In the 
other, like the experienced mariner sent to explore 
a hitherto unknown coast, he approaches it warily, 
sounds the depths and shallows, sends out boats hither 
and thither to make observations, takes the bearings 
of the headlands and inlets, carefully notes them all 
in his log-book; and, when all has been explored, sails 
away to other lands. In an expedition of this kind, 
however, there is no mistaking icebergs for continents, 
as the English journals say was the case with our 
famous Exploring Expedition. 

Nor in the next place, is Flirtation to be mistaken 
for Coquetry. The foam of champagne is not that of 
the juice of night-shade, though the one resembles the 
other. There is some difference between an exhilarat- 
ing beverage and a deadly poison. We need not cau- 
tion our own sex, however, against the practice of 
coquetry. This belongs by prescriptive right only to 
women. The theory on this subject is, that there are 
no broken hearts amongst them; that they do not sur- 


render their tender affections until their Papas have 
been duly consulted; but, as soon as leave is asked 
and obtained, that then the gentle feeling darts like 
lightning into their souls, subduing, controlling and 
changing their characters. But to them we would ad- 
dress a word of warning as to the use of this power, 
for we have known some manly hearts, beating high 
with generous aspirations, completely wrecked in this 
way; and the curse of a wounded spirit never fails to 

Nor in the next place is Flirtation to be mistaken 
for friendship. They are not only distinct, but in 
most respects, antagonistic. Perhaps I cannot better 
explain this principle to the students of this science, 
than by relating the following narrative. They can 
also sharpen their wits by studying it. 

Mr. A., a young law-student, left a certain town to 
the Eastward, for the purpose of attending a law- 
school. Whilst there, he became acquainted with Miss 
B., who had much to recommend her; at least suffi- 
cient to cause him to fall in love with her. He had 
reason to suppose that she was not indifferent to him, 
but being proud and unpossessed of fortune, whilst 
she was very wealthy, he tore himself away, pursued 
his studies elsewhere, and on obtaining his license, cast 
anchor in one of our large cities, there to struggle with 
those trials and mortifications, to suffer those anxi- 
eties, those sickening hours of hope deferred, which only 
a young, unfriended lawyer can fully know, and which 
drive some to the fearful guilt of self-destruction. 

Nearly two years had elapsed, from the time that 
he first saw her, when she, whose image was graven 
on his heart, made an unexpected visit to the city in 


which he resided. He called to see her. She was cold 
and distant. Still something in her manner bade him 
call again. He went, went frequently. At last he ad- 
dressed her. She refused him. He threw himself back 
on his pride, and although gentle and friendly in his 
demeanor, yet he laid aside his love for her altogether. 
She appeared perplexed. The period fixed for her visit 
expired, yet she lingered. At last she went, and they 
parted friends. 

They met twice or thrice during the two years next 
succeeding. From each interview they parted friends. 
Another year passed on. They met again. Something 
in her tone brought back old times. His heart told 
him that he had not made due allowance for her 
wounded pride — that he should have said something 
in explanation of his abrupt departure from the law- 
school, before addressing her. So he once more stood 
before her as a lover. 

"It was too late," she said. "Once she had ad- 
mired — perhaps loved him — but it was too late." 

No matter what happened further at that interview, 
nor what happened subsequently. As she well said — • 
"it was too late" — but the heart of an ambitious and 
distinguished lawyer often turns despondently to dreams 
of the past, and to think of his friend. 

We ought in the next place, after having shown 
what Flirtation is not, to define what it is. But Meph- 
istopheles truly says — "he who wishes to define any 
living thing, seeks first to drive the spirit out of it. 
He then has the parts in his hand, only the spiritual 
bond is wanting." Such a catastrophe we by no means 
desire, for Flirtation we consider not only a spiritual 
thing, but one essentially and entirely spiritual. To 


drive the spirit out of it then would not even leave 
the parts in our hand. So we will proceed to consider 
the various shapes in which this "living" thing de- 
velopes itself. 

And here we premise that a flirtation, like man 
himself, is the creature of circumstances. The relative 
position of the parties is always so modified by the 
accidents of birth, wealth, personal appearance and 
the like, that it would be vain to attempt laying 
down rules invariably to be followed. But certain 
maxims, the result of experience and observation we 
may disclose, which if shaped a little to suit the oc- 
casion, may prove of service to those ambitious of be- 
coming masters in a science of so much delicacy and 
dexterity as Flirtation. 

As the first of these, we would say: Let no man 
enter on a flirtation with a lazy mind — Cogenda mens 
ut incipiat says Seneca, and in nothing is this precept 
more true than in matters of this kind. The intellect 
must be aroused, the faculties strained, memory made 
to yield up its hoarded stores of information, imagi- 
nation to shed its varied lights over passing scenes, 
perception awakened to every tone of voice, to every 
light and shadow which passes over the countenance, 
while the will, like a strong man armed, must pre- 
serve a calm, serene composure within. 

We admit that all this is difficult to attain. But 
let no one suppose it unworthy of his best efforts. 
In point of fact, woman constitutes, in one way or 
another, the principal object of man's existence dur- 
ing that long period, which reaches from boyhood to 
the grave, from the hour that we form dim, fantastic 
visions of happiness to be realized through her instru- 


mentality, to the time when we look back with sor- 
rowful hearts over dissipated delusions and dwell in 
those recollections which are "pleasant but mournful 
to the soul." 

And here let an "old fellow" (as we are familiarly- 
called by the wanton juveniles around us,) let one, 
who is no longer an actor in gay scenes, say some- 
what as to the pleasures of memory. They are after 
all the most certain. We soon learn that the phan- 
toms of hope glide delusively before our eyes; that 
to-morrow may deceive us; that the once loved may 
prove faithless; that change may come even to the 
wanderer, weary with his too long sojourning on earth. 

But of the past, nothing can rob us. It changes not. 
Yesterday cannot deceive us. The well-known voice, 
the friendly face, the trusty hand, are ours forever. 
But a truce to our digressions. 

We were saying that a flirtation was worthy of a 
man's best efforts. We deliberately repeat our asser- 
tion. No man can enter upon one with a woman of 
talent and feeling, without being greatly improved 
thereby both mentally and morally. To illustrate our 

Many years ago, a friend of ours, about one-and- 
twenty, good looking, intelligent, and ambitious of im- 
provement, had occasion to visit one of our large cities 
for some three or four months. Soon after his arrival 
there, he became acquainted with two young ladies, 
one of whom was staying at the house of the other 
on a friendly visit. My friend had his evenings en- 
tirely at his command, and as they told him that they 
approved highly of innocent Flirtations, he determined 
to try his powers by encouraging two sprightly girls 


at once. A bold man, truly! But he succeeded, and 
returned to his home in appreciation of character and 
capacity to use his powers ten years older. Such had been 
the mental exercise to which he had been subjected. 

My friend is one of those who are disbelievers in 
the theory held in polite society, that women never 
die of broken hearts. Accordingly he tells a touching 
story of one of these girls, which I cannot forbear re- 
lating briefly. It has a moral in it; besides which it 
has the rare merit of being true. 

She was just seventeen the night he first became 
acquainted with her. Her portrait, which we have 
seen, bespeaks her as eminently beautiful, and yet all 
who ever knew her say, that it wants the holy lustre 
which shone upon her countenance. The beauty of 
her person, the charms of her conversation, the fasci- 
nation of her manner, proved too much for my friend. 
He was young. His will was not yet the strong man 
armed. He loved and was loved. 

She was to return some two or three weeks before the 
time fixed for her departure. The evening before she 
left, she sang to him once more the plaintive melodies 
which had so often delighted his ear, for not the least 
of her attractions was a sweet voice. She shed many 
tears at the thought of parting, for a presentiment that 
they would next meet in sadness came over her. 

In the morning a little package reached him. It 
contained a lock of hair and a note, in which she 
prayed to the God, who is ready to answer the peti- 
tions of the pure in heart, that He would bless the 
object of her love. 

He was hurried off to a distant part of the country. 

" The Southern breeze was on his brow." 


Travelling and exciting occupations soon changed the 
current of his thoughts, and he came to regard the 
whole affair as one of those childish attachments, which 
spring up like a flower and are just as short-lived. 

But towards the close of the summer, chance made 
him acquainted with a gentleman from the place where 
the girl resided. She became the subject of conversa- 
tion, and then my friend learnt that her family thought 
she was dying of consumption. 

He had matters to detain him where he then was, 
but he cast all considerations aside other than the 
thought of ministering to her grief. He hastened as 
rapidly as possible to her father's house. It was late 
in the afternoon when he reached it. He paused as 
he lifted the latch of the wicket. The honey-suckle 
and the jasmine gave forth their perfumes, and the 
roses and lilies displayed their beauties. 

He sat down for a moment, for he was sick at 
heart. But nerving himself, he entered the house. 
Was she indeed dying? No! She was only more 
beautiful than ever. 

Several hours were spent together that evening — 
hours of fearful anguish and self -accusation on his part, 
of truthful forgiveness and gentle blessings on hers. 
She had never doubted him. She had only blamed 
herself. Day after day did she take less and less in- 
terest in the amusements of society, in the occupations 
of study. Her only recreation was to sing over, so 
long as the physicians would allow her, the songs 
which he had loved. Her only consolation was to 
dream that the past was no longer the past, but was 
once more the present. Night and morning had her 
prayers ascended to the throne of grace in his behalf. 


She was happy now, and felt that she should soon get 
well, for he loved her. 

Ere the dawn of the next morning had fairly broken, 
my friend was called to her room. 

She was dying. The death damps were on her brow, 
and yet her eye lighted up with something of its former 
glory as she turned to gaze on him. A few words of 
parting — a promise to watch over him through life — 
an entreaty so to live that she might welcome him to 
Heaven when he came to die — a prayer for his happi- 
ness — and her angelic spirit had left its mortal abode. 

Three days of watching beside her corpse, — more than 
beautiful in death, — three days of that agony which 
man can know but once; one night beside her grave; 
and then — out again into the wide world. 

But to return to my maxims. Another general maxim 
is — be careful to select a woman in a transition state. 
My language must appear as mystic as that of the Del- 
phic oracle; but I will do what the Pythoness never 
did. I will explain. 

"One who is formed," says Goethe, "there is no such 
thing as pleasing; one who is forming will always be 
grateful." For example: take a young girl before she 
fairly embarks in society, to whom all things promise 
enjoyment, who hastens impetuously to snatch the pleas- 
ures which mother earth spreads so bountifully before 
her, and if you can so command your powers as to 
render yourself agreeable to her, I know few things 
more likely to afford a summer's amusement than to 
study the developments of her mind, the fluctuations 
of her feelings, and your mutual action and reaction 
upon one another. 

Another maxim is — that a flirtation in the country 


differs essentially from one in town. In the latter case, 
the comparative unfrequency with which the parties 
meet, and the variety of topics afloat, enable the gen- 
tleman to go always prepared; whereas, in the former, 
he is thrown back on his own resources, and is com- 
pelled to affect sentiment and to cherish a taste for the 
beauties of nature. On the other hand he seldom de- 
rives as much improvement from a flirtation in the city 
as from one in the country ; because, in the city, he sees 
the lady chiefly in the masquerade which ' ' good society ' ' 
teaches its members to wear ; but in the country he can 
enter more deeply into her character, explore more ac- 
curately her motives of action — and, by the way, if 
wise, he will make some of these discoveries a staple of 

Speaking of conversation — let him be careful to cul- 
tivate a sportive, half -quizzing mode of talking, even 
upon the most seriously sentimental subjects. The most 
daring propositions may be made in a jocose manner 
with perfect impunity. The least touch of the lachry- 
mose and a man is gone. He has given up "the rib- 
bands." Besides, women admire that graceful way 
which some men have of passing over the dull and 
dwelling only on the sprightly parts of a subject. The 
way in which a man talks is, with them, of more con- 
sequence than the matter. Let him not, however, for- 
get the remark of De Stael (a great authority in these 
things) — en toute chose c'est la froideur qui offense, et 
V imagination, au contraire, a presque toujours de la bon- 

"A knack at rhyming" is also quite necessary and 
must be cultivated. A little satire, or a bit of tender- 
ness, or raillery, when put into tolerable verse, will often 


prove of most essential service. As examples: here is 
something for an over-confident belle. 

159 Here's to broken hearts a plenty! 

Bravo! fill the goblet high! 
Never, until maids are scanty, 

Never cease to woo and sigh. 
Theirs' are hearts were made for breaking 

Fragile things indeed are they — 
Don't then disappoint the making, 

But in flirting pass the day — 

Who in woman's faith believeth? 

Let the fool his cap put on — 
Her glory is that she deceiveth 

Trusting hearts too quickly won — 
But to him who her well knoweth, 

Who in her doth not confide, 
At his feet she lowly boweth, 

Lays aside her "female pride." 

Truth and Honor heaped upon her 

Are like water, poured on sands 
Thirsting 'neath the suns of summer — 

Truth and Honor buy no lands. 
But bring wealth, and straight you'll gain her 

"Quick! my lady's carriage call" — 
Magic words those are to win her — 

Take her to your lofty hall. 

And here is something for a sentimental Miss. 

159 These verses have been set to the music of an air from the 
opera of L'Elisir d'Amore, Io co rico. 


I care not for Fame, 

I care not for wine, 
I care but for woman, 

In her beauty divine. 
I know that good wine 
Its pleasure can give, 
But with woman's dear love 
In rapture we live — 

So give me not Fame — 

Give me not wine — 
Give me but woman 
In her beauty divine. 

I know Madam Fame 
Her glory can shed 
O'er the brows of the living, 

And the tombs of the dead. 
Still glory is but fleeting 

And fadeth away, 
Like dew of the morning 
Before coming day — 

So give me not Fame — - 

Give me not wine — 
Give me but woman 
In her beauty divine. 

I ask but in dying, 

On her bosom to rest, 
In her white arms folded, 

To her beating heart prest — 
To feel the tear falling 

From her soft beaming eye — 
To know that she drinks in 

My last earthly sigh. 


So give me not Fame — 
Give me not wine — 

Give me but woman 
In her beauty divine. 

Or by way of mystifying some would-be man-killer, 
verses like these might be sent. 

Oh, Leslie's Kate! Oh, Leslie's Kate 

When first with thee I met, 
I little thought 'twould be my fate 

A lesson strange to get — 
But ever since I thee have known — 

I know no reason why — 
Thy face upon my path hath shown 

Like stars in twilight sky. 

Oh, Leslie's Kate! 'twill not be soon 

That I forget the dance, 
When to thy side I bent me down 

To catch their earnest glance — 
And then the pleasant morning call, 

When by your side I sat — 
You hinted that of all the ball 

You only thought of that. 

Nor, Leslie's Kate! will time so soon 

That evening's spell efface, 
When magic tricks and arts were shown 

To childhood's wondering gaze — 
For me, enchantments had no charm; 

The arts did idle seem, 
For near me breathed the living form 

Of some bewitching dream. 


We met no more in such gay hours — 

For soon affliction came — 
More potent far that life of ours 

To nourish my wild flame. 
I knew now that it lurk'd within — 

But in my pulse it stirr'd 
Till other eyes were all unseen, 

And other tones unheard. 

I dream'd that Honor, Faith and Truth, 

All in that bosom dwelt — 
Ah ! shattered was the dream of youth, 

And 'fore my God I knelt — 
I prayed that I might thee forgive, 

This world I might forget, 
And in his awful presence live 

Though but too sinful yet. 

I wandered 'neath those sunny climes 

Rich in the gems of art — 
The music of Cathedral chimes 

Stole o'er my broken heart — 
But not the halls where genius dwells 

Could wake life in my breast ; 
And to mine ear the old church bells 

Spake of eternal rest. 

Sad, solemn thoughts steal o'er me now — 

We'll meet not as we've met — 
For Death upon my youthful brow 

His icy seal hath set. 
Yet happy are the early dead — 

In peaceful graves they sleep — ■ 
But may life's sweets on thee be shed 

And God thy spirit keep. 


These are given, not for their merit, but by 
way of specimens to the reflecting student. Valen- 
tines also come very well into play in their proper 
season. We once knew a very doubtful field carried 
by a judicious use of this species of artillery. Like 
verses, however, they should be spicy rather than sen- 

Another maxim is— rather under, than over, dress. 
This may seem a startling paradox; nevertheless it is 
true. That passion which St. Paul has so appropriately 
called "the lust of the eye" has but little more than a 
momentary influence over women. A dazzling exterior 
may produce a first impression but no one, who 
is merely "varnished over with good breeding," as 
Sir Fopling has it, can hope to effect any thing more 

The attentive student, however, will carefully note 
the dress of women. Nothing perhaps is so indicative 
of female character as female costume. From the ill- 
made, awkwardly put on gown and unbecoming hat 
of the elderly Puritan female, whose heart is overflow- 
ing with the "milk of human kindness," to the "gay 
and debonair" attire of the fashionable belle, which 
is so well calculated to display in luxurious freedom 
the charms of the wearer; female fancies, tastes, feel- 
ings and principles are disclosed to the discerning eye 
in ribbons, flowers, jewels, and frocks. There are in- 
dicia to be found here from which conclusions may be 
drawn with almost unerring accuracy. The Philosophy 
of Female dress is yet to be written. One of these 
days a little entreaty from my young female friends 
may extract something from me on the subject. One 
thing I will now say: Let my student behold yonder 


girl. The neat straw hat, so delicately yet so taste- 
fully trimmed, that ten minutes after she has left your 
sight you cannot say whether it was trimmed or 
not; the quiet yet well-chosen color of that dress, 
so modestly made, so neatly fitting, coming up 
close to the well-formed throat which emerges from 
a little frill of lace, like the bust of Iris from the 
lotos leaf: the well-arranged hair, gracefully brushed 
back from the temples, giving thereby the clear line 
of that part of the face where genius most loves 
to dwell, and disclosing the small white ear sitting 
close to the head: the little edging of lace cuff just 
falling on the well-selected glove : the snowy stockings 
and the neat but easy slipper scarcely, yet still, 
visible beneath a dress neither too long nor short: let 
him behold her well, then flee away. Depart! Let 
him not seek lessons of her. It may not be. She is 
too earnest and beautiful of soul. She looks upon 
life with too trustful an eye, too confiding a heart. 
Like the sensitive plant she may not be touched 
without suffering, and though too gentle doubtless 
to express her feelings in words, yet let him be- 
ware. The curse of a wounded spirit never fails to 

I have not even opened this subject. I had some- 
thing to say on the Italian adage Donna che prende, 
tosto se rende, and quite a little sermon to deliver 
on that pithy, pregnant remark of Mephistopheles to 
Faust : — 

Mein guter Freund, das wird sich alles geben; 
Sobald du Dir vertraust, sobald weisst Du zu 


I had something to say about the various classes of 
women, the prude, the blue, the belle, et omne id genus; 
and the different modes of approaching them; some 
more maxims to suggest, and some more tales to tell. 
But I am not expected to say so much as to take up 
a whole number of the Messenger, and therefore I will 
say no more at present. But I have left my address 
with my friend, the Editor, who will duly forward all 
packages, and I stand ready to counsel with any one 
disposed to seek and take the advice of an elderly 

One word, however, before I close this essay. We 
all remember the tale in the Arabian Nights, in which 
Ali Baba (I believe) goes to the cave of the thieves, 
and on pronouncing certain magical words, the door 
opens and he enters a store house full of curiosities 
and treasures. Thus, I confess, human nature appears 
to me a vast receptacle of wondrous mysteries of hid- 
den oracles, 

1A.7iv 7Tor£ /lafla KaraKoi/maei 
Mcyac ev rmnoiq 9E02. e0 

prophecies, eternal in their nature, with Divinity mighty 
in every line. To this cave, — filled with mournful 
truths, unexplained problems, unsatisfied desires, un- 
heeded sympathies, — Flirtation is the key, the "open 
sesame" by which we gain admittance. If we are wise 
we will return to our homes laden with jewels and all 
manner of precious stones. 

This song was written upon the death of 
his favorite sister, Catherine, Mrs. Clarkson, in 

160 Sophocles. 


SONG. lfJ1 
From "The Pilgrims," an Unpublished Poem. 


The hand so often clasped in mine 

Lies lifeless by thy side — 
And sadly rests my lip on thine 

Which oft I've press'd with pride;— 
The loving voice, from which so oft 

I consolation drew, 
Responds not in thy tones so soft — 

My beautiful, my true. 


Yet why should I repine when Death 

A better life hath given, 
And led thee by the hand of faith 

To rest for aye in Heaven? 
No! whilst on earth I linger on, 

Let this my comfort be — 
Though I in chains still strive alone — 

Oh loved one! thou art free. 

In the Messenger there also appeared anony- 
mously — 

LINES 162 

Sent to a Lady with a bouquet of flowers on Christ- 
mas Eve: — 

161 The Southern Literary Messenger, Devoted to Every Department 
of Literature and the Fine Arts. Volume XVI., Richmond, Virginia, 
1850, page 209. 

162 The Southern Literary Messenger, Devoted to Every Department 
of Literature and the Fine Arts. Volume XVI., Richmond, Virginia, 
1850, page 624. 



'Tis said, that from man's earliest birth 

Two spirits unto him are given, 
To guide, to tempt him whilst on Earth, 

And lead to Hell or Heaven. 

I know not of the legend's truth, 

But this to me my soul doth tell, 
That thou couldst guide my steps on Earth, 

And lead to Heaven as well. 

It may not be. Thou canst not love. 

No earthly thoughts within thee rise; 
Thine eyes are fixed on things above; 

Thy hopes are in the quiet skies. 

Yet kindly take these buds from me; — 

'Tis but a Christmas gift I send 
To say, I only ask to be 

Thine earnest, humble, faithful friend. 

In 1853 he was elected one of the Domestic 
Secretaries of the Historical Society of Pennsyl- 
vania. In 1854 he was one of the founders 
of the Philadelphia Cricket Club, 163 and the same 
year he helped to organize the Seventy- Six 


"Philadelphia Cricket Club to celebrate its Semi-Centennial. 

"The Philadelphia Cricket Club will celebrate its fiftieth anniver- 
sary on February 10th. A club dinner will be given at the club- 
house, at Wissahickon, at which several of the original founders 
of the club and many of the older representatives of other cricket 


Society, 164 an association formed to publish and 

reprint manuscripts and rare books. 

He took much interest in the Franklin Institute 

of Philadelphia, and in 1854 delivered the address 

at the close of its exhibition that year. 

Report of the Twenty-fourth Exhibition of Ameri- 
can Manufacturers, held in the City of Phila- 
delphia, from November 14 to December 2, 1854, 
by The Franklin Institute of the State of Penn- 
sylvania, for the Promotion of the Mechanic 
Arts ; together with a catalogue of the Articles 
Deposited previous to November 14, 1854: and 
the Address delivered at the close of the exhi- 
bition, by Thomas Balch, Esq. 

Philadelphia: Barnard & Jones, Printers, 1855; pages 

clubs will be present. The Philadelphia Cricket Club is now the oldest 
club in the country. It was organized on February 10th, 1854, at a 
meeting held at the office of William Rotch Wister, Esq., and among 
the names of those enrolled as founders were John H. Atwood, William 
S. Blight, Thomas Balch, William M. Bradshaw, Thomas Hewson 
Bache, James B. England, William Logan Fisher, Jr., Morton P. 
Henry, George Harding, Dr. William Hunt, G. R. Ingersoll, Hartman 
Kuhn, Dr. Francis W. Lewis, John Lambert, Richard C. McMurtrie, 
Dr. S. Weir Mitchell, Benjamin W. Richards, John Samuel, J. Dick- 
inson Sergeant, William Rotch Wister and Henry Wharton." Phila- 
delphia Evening Bulletin, January 27th, 1904. 

Some Reminiscences of Cricket in Philadelphia before 1861 by Will- 
iam Rotch Wister, Philadelphia, Press of Allen, Lane and Scott, 
1904, page 23. 

184 The Seventy-Six Society was formed in 1854 by Edward D. 
Ingraham, Henry J. Williams, Henry Pennington, William Duane, 
Thomas Balch, Townsend Ward, Charles F. Beck, John Jordan, Jr., 
and five other gentlemen. It was very successful until owing to 
the Civil War it was broken up. The society published four books 
in all: — Papers Relating to the Case of Silas Deane (1855), edited by 
William D. Ingraham; The Examination of Joseph Galloway, Esq., 
by a Committee of the House of Commons (1855), edited by Thomas 
Balch ; Papers Relating to Public Events in Massachusetts preceding the 
American Revolution (1856); and Papers relating chiefly to the Mary- 
land Line during the Revolution, edited by Thomas Balch (1857). 


Ladies and Gentlemen: — 

The pleasure of addressing you this evening is one 
which I did not anticipate until within a few days. 
The invitation extended by the Committee was, how- 
ever, regarded by me, as too agreeable a compliment 
to be declined; yet, I must trust to the kind feelings, 
which I entertain for both the Institute and many of 
its members, to suggest to me some thoughts on this 
occasion, to which you may not be unwilling to listen. 

It seems to me, that this Institute, rightly interpreted, 
has a significance far beyond that of a mere association 
for scientific purposes, a meeting of gentlemen employed 
in kindred professional pursuits, at which they can ex- 
change ideas, or pick up the latest mechanical gossip of 
the day; for it illustrates the difference between the 
mode in which those engaged now-a-days in artisan life, 
follow their occupations, from that of their predecessors. 
Prior to the sixteenth century, when the general mind 
of Europe was disturbed alike in Religion and Philosophy ; 
a disturbance which in religion was developed into the 
Reformation, and in Philosophy was manifested by an 
active discipleship of the inductive method; here and 
there shown a bright intelligence which shed some light 
over the dreary darkness. Some scholar emended or 
explained a text in a neatly written manuscript, which 
was strongly bound, and carefully put away on the 
shelves of his monastic library, there to repose in undis- 
turbed security until, after the lapse of a long tract of 
time, some other lonely, ingenuous student should take 
it down and hold communion with the kindred spirit. 
Here and there a discerning man, disgusted with the 
subtleties of the Schoolmen, despising the frivolities of 


the Logicians, proclaimed some genuine addition to the 
actual wisdom of mankind as the results of his labors. 
But he also "stood alone; master in his art; without 
disciples ; without fellowship. ' ' Nay, fortunate were they, 
both Scholar and Philosopher, if they escaped with 
neglect and contempt only, and were not denounced 
as heretic and necromancer, and punished by the dun- 
geon and the rack. 

Let us consider for a little while the life and labors 
of a man of science during the Dark Ages, such a one 
as was Roger Bacon, and contrast in your mind, as we 
go along, the sufferings and difficulties which beset his 
career, with the means and appliances afforded in these 
latter days to a votary. Compare the long and weary 
imprisonments inflicted on him by the Church, the scorn 
and contumely with which he was regarded by his war- 
like kinsmen and acquaintances, compare them with the 
friendships formed, the kindly associations engendered, 
the rewards and emoluments, which now await the suc- 
cessful competitor in the industrial arts. Wholesome 
reflections cannot fail to occur to you in so doing ; grati- 
tude to the Giver of all good for having cast your lines 
in pleasant places, thoughtful recognition of the solemn 
responsibility, which rests on the men of this generation, 
to do each his part towards the progress of his race, to 
strive to the uttermost in aiding to free humanity from 
error, to teach and act forbearance and justice, to ex- 
tend mutual assistance. Verily, unto whom much has 
been given, of them shall much be required. 

Roger Bacon was born in the year 1214, near Ilchester, 
in the County of Somerset. He was of an ancient and 
respectable family, and as such, he should, according 
to the opinion of the age, have given himself to martial 


pursuits. Everywhere around him was heard the clash 
of arms, and blood, shed in civil war, flowed most freely. 
The mere mention of the names of Henry III. and 
Edward I., recalls the sanguinary wars waged by Glou- 
cester and Pembroke and Hurbert De Burgh for power 
in England, by Wallace and Bruce for freedom in Scot- 
land. The times invited him : the path of glory was open. 

The Church was wealthy and powerful. The priest- 
hood was ignorant and corrupt. Some were sunk in 
sensual indulgence. Others had no object beyond the 
aggrandizement of their Order; an object which they 
endeavored to attain by any measures, no matter how 
cruel or unrighteous. The debasement of the laity was 
deemed essential to the perpetuity and extension of the 
hierarchy ; and thus every effort for the increase of knowl- 
edge was discountenanced or punished by the Clergy. 

To devote himself to science under such circumstances 
was indeed a dismal and perilous resolution. But Bacon 
had within him a law, which warred with prejudices 
and superstitions, and compelled him to yield himself 
a willing victim. Doubtless the spirit, which God 
always bestows on those whom He intends for leaders 
in the untrodden pathway of man's progress, opened 
a clear vision of the triumphs of him who should add 
to human comfort, alleviate human suffering, overturn 
old errors, disclose new truths. Doubtless he well 
understood how much nobler is the mission of the bene- 
factor than that of the destroyer; how much more 
glorious is the liberator than the enslaver; and, thus 
sustained, he earnestly yet serenely did the work ap- 
pointed for him to do. 

Bacon began his studies at an early age at Oxford, 
whence, according to the fashion of the day, he went 


to the University of Paris, then in the highest repute. 
Here he greatly distinguished himself, and after receiv- 
ing the degree of Doctor of Laws, returned to Oxford, 
in 1240. The reputation, which he had by this time 
acquired, procured for him some generous friends through 
whose liberality he was enabled to purchase books, con- 
struct apparatus, and make experiments, more expen- 
sive in their character than his own means could have 
afforded. He devoted himself to Natural Philosophy, 
and such was his assiduity, so varied were his labors, 
"that he left more than eighty works, treatises on 
grammar, philology, mathematics, physics, optics, geog- 
raphy, astronomy, chronology, chemistry, medicine, 
logic, ethics, metaphysics, theology, and sundry mis- 
cellaneous subjects." He proposed a reformation of 
the Julian calendar substantially that which was sub- 
sequently adopted. To him is ascribed the invention 
of the air-pump, the diving-bell, the camera-obscura, 
of optical lenses and the telescope, the discovery of 
gunpowder and, most probably, of phosphorus. Many 
of his partially developed discoveries in chemistry and 
practical mechanics have since been realized. In his 
treatise "Of the Cure of Old Age," written expressly 
but unsuccessfully to soften, if possible, the heart of 
Pope Nicholas IV., and obtain his release from impris- 
onment, he makes observations which are now asserted 
as principles of phrenologists; and so analyzes the re- 
spective nutritive qualities of vegetable and animal 
food, that modern vegetarians might almost claim him 
for one of themselves; whilst, though he objects to 
frequent bathing as turning the hair prematurely gray, 
hydropaths may well say, that he was a warm advocate 
of the wholesome effects of pure water. 


Bacon, it seems, boldly avowed that the principles 
which laid at the bottom of all his treatises were these : 
that the investigation of phenomena is the true way 
of ascertaining the laws which govern them; that the 
cultivation of natural science leads to juster concep- 
tions of moral truth. Such enlightened views, such 
elevated aims aroused the fiercest ecclesiastical wrath. 
He was forbidden to read his lectures to the students. 
He was imprisoned and denied necessary food. He 
retaliated by denouncing the ignorance and corruption 
of his monkish persecutors to the Pope. But he ap- 
pealed to Christ's vicegerent in vain. At length Clem- 
ent IV. ascended the Papal throne. This wise and 
liberal-minded churchman protected and encouraged 
him. In token of his gratitude he prepared the "Opus 
Magnus," a collection made from his principal writings, 
and dedicated it to Clement. The persecutions he had 
undergone, the malicious stories circulated by his ene- 
mies of the Brazen Head, of his magical practices with 
Bungay, of his dealings with the Devil, had only served 
to extend his fame throughout Europe, and attract at- 
tention to his writings. Nicholas III., succeeded Clem- 
ent ; and Jerome D'Asculo, the then general of the Fran- 
ciscans, prohibited the perusal of Bacon's works and 
imprisoned him, although then in his sixty-fourth year, 
and, lest he should appeal to the Pope, obtained before- 
hand a confirmation of the sentence. After the lapse 
of ten years, he was, through the intercession of some 
Englishmen, released from his cruel confinement, and 
in 1294, "the wonderful doctor," as he was called by 
his contemporaries, expired, having spent his long life 
in the service of his fellow creatures. 

It is not mine to portray in fitting colors this great 


and good man's struggles and labors and sufferings; 
to follow him into his cloister and laboratory and dun- 
geon; to show how it was his 

"to hope till Hope creates 
" From its own wreck the thing it contemplates. " 

Sooner or later some eloquent pen will pay to his 
memory its just tribute. His chiefest glory was his 
intelligent advocacy of that kind of philosophical in- 
vestigation since known as Induction. Some centu- 
ries later a persuasive, perspicacious exposition of it 
sufficed to give lustre to his otherwise dishonored name- 
sake. Yet in fact it is not to the corrupt Chancellor, 
but to the persecuted Friar that men owe the greatest 
debt of gratitude. 

Such men never live in vain. Their labors are never 
without fruit. A little while, and Faust, and Gutten- 
berg, and Schaffer, were casting types and printing 
the Mazarine Bible. How great, how glorious, the 
change wrought by this invention. Thenceforth neither 
priests nor Kings could arrest human progress. Thence- 
forth "no good deed could die tongueless," but one 
discovery certified another. Heroes have wept because 
there were no more worlds to subdue ; but through all 
ages and all climes, the moral force of types will go forth 
conquering and to conquer. To-day, hosts of fighting 
men "are loud with life." To-morrow, "kind earth has 
swallowed up their foot prints." To-day, the tranquil 
thought is first uttered, the persuasive song is first heard. 
To-morrow, a thousand heads ponder over the one, a 
thousand hearts respond to the other. Thenceforth 
they can never perish, but centuries hence men will best 
appreciate their truth and power. 

The English mind, essentially practical in its charac- 


ter, eagerly seized upon the inductive method when once 
it became fairly known. The American mind, equally 
practical but more enthusiastic, moreover entirely freed 
from European prejudices, has devoted itself to its de- 
velopment. No one, who has cast his eyes even occa- 
sionally over such publications as the Journal of the 
Franklin Institute and the Scientific American, no one 
who has ever visited one of the Annual Exhibitions 
which have done so much honor to this Institute and 
its members, could fail to be impressed with the general 
and healthy attention to practical science and mechan- 
ics manifested by our people. Not only in the cotton 
gins, in steamboats, in telegraphs, in Virginia reapers, 
and in the ten thousand kindred inventions, is the 
genius of the nation shown; but all men have heard 
something of wooden clocks and Yankee notions. The 
planing machine has done much to diminish the ex- 
pense of erecting buildings, but the records also show, 
that not long before it a patent was granted for "an 
improved mode of paying our national debt." 

What, it may be asked, is to be the ultimate result 
of this national disposition? No mortal eye can scan 
the future but we are permitted to judge of it from the 
past. That teaches us that nations, as well as individ- 
uals, have each a particular mission. May we not then 
hazard a conjecture for answer? May we not indulge 
the hope, that the mission of the American people is 
to free man from the necessity of mechanical drudgery, 
and leave him at liberty to give his powers, both of 
mind and body, to labor which requires intelligence? 
Perhaps this hope may not prove false. Perhaps this 
may explain our growing tendency to gather in large 
cities, and live by our wits rather than to earn our 


bread by monotonous, unintellectual toil; a disposition 
contemplated by some of our profoundest thinkers, with 
solicitude, if not with apprehension. If such be indeed 
our mission, then have we one as noble as any yet given 
to a nation. But let us not forget that with its dignity 
comes a corresponding responsibility; that with the 
power of doing great good to our fellow creatures 
comes the duty of making the best use of it. Then let 
us as citizens, as members of the industrial classes, as 
individuals, labor earnestly yet cheerfully in our respec- 
tive spheres of action. 

In 1855, upon motion of the Hon. Thomas Ewing 
of Indiana, Thomas Balch was admitted as a Coun- 
sellor of the Supreme Court of the United States, 
over which his kinsman, Chief Justice Taney, pre- 
sided. 165 The same year he edited for the Seventy- 
Six Society the Examination of Joseph Galloway by 
a Committee of the House of Commons, and at the 
request of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 

165 "E Pluribus Unum. 
"Supreme Court of the United States op America. 

"Thomas Balch, Esquire, of Philadelphia, State of Pennsylvania 
was, on motion first made to the Court in this behalf by the Hon. 
Thomas Ewing, duly admitted and qualified, as an Attorney and 
Counsellor of the Supreme Court of the United States, on the fifth 
day of January in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred 
and fifty-five, and of the Independence of the United States of America 
the 79th. 

"In Testimony Whereof, I, William Thomas Carroll, Clerk of 
said Court, have hereunto set my hand and affixed the seal of said 
Court, at the City of Washington, this fifth day of January, in the 
year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifty-five. 


"Clk. Sup. Ct. U. S." 


Letters and Papers relating chiefly to the Provincial 
History of Pennsylvania with some notices of the 
writers. As a great number of the letters included 
in this collection were written to or by members 
of the Shippen family, notable in colonial days, the 
book became known as "The Shippen Papers." 
In 1854 he was elected as a Democrat to the first 
Common Councils of the newly consolidated city ' 
of Philadelphia sitting in that body for two years. 
He lived on Girard Street, that ran from Eleventh 
to Twelfth between Chestnut and Market Streets, 
and was elected from the then Ninth Ward, a Whig 
stronghold. For various reasons, one being that 
he was a "Free Soiler," he ran far ahead of his 
associates on the Democratic ticket in that Ward 
and was one of the few Democrats elected in the 
city in that contest. In those days party organi- 
zation was not so developed as now, and candidates 
could assert their own individual views more than 
now; and, in the words of John Austin Stevens, 
Mr. Balch "was called to preside over important 
committees, where he displayed moral courage and 
firmness in difficult situations." 166 

His services in the City Councils were referred to 
in an editorial entitled "Good City Government," 
in the Philadelphia Evening Telegraph of December 
6th, 1894, which said: " If the people of Philadelphia 
really wish good municipal government, they will 

lee The Magazine of American History, New York, June, 1877. 


have to make some personal effort to get it, and 
they will have to begin with City Councils. There 
was a time when citizens of the highest distinction, 
as Horace Binney, Peter McCall, Colonel James 
Page, Henry Paxil Beck, George M. Wharton, and 
Thomas Balch, were proud to hold seats in Councils. 
These men were all eminent for ability and public 
spirit. They were pecuniarily interested in honest, 
economical, sagacious government, and they had, 
and showed they had, a broad interest in the wel- 
fare of the city." In 1856 he took an active part 
with George William Curtis and other gentlemen 
in the presidential election in behalf of General 
Fremont, and so originated a warm friendship with 
the "Easy Chair" that only ended with death. 167 
In 1857 he edited for the Seventy -Six Society Papers 
relating chiefly to the Maryland Line during the 

In 1859 Mr. Balch and his family went to Europe. 
They crossed on the Cunard S. S. Persia. On the 
ocean, approaching Europe in a dense fog, the Persia 

167 George William Curtis was born at Providence, R. I., February 
24th, 1824, and died August 31st, 1892, on Staten Island. Among his 
early books were the Potiphar Papers and Prue and I. In 1863 he 
became the political Editor of Harper's Weekly. From month to month 
he contributed from 1853 to 1892 to Harper's Monthly under the title 
of "The Easy Chair," brief essays on topics of literary, social and 
political interest. He was president of the Metropolitan Museum 
of Art and filled other important posts. His writing was always 
direct, clear and forcible; his fairness of mind and sweetness of tem- 
per were invincible. See Orations and Addresses of George William 
Curtis, edited by Charles Eliot Norton, 1894. George William Curtis, 
by Edward Cary, 1894. 


passed the west-bound Cunarder, the America, very 

close. Both ships were coming on at full speed, 

running twelve to fourteen knots an hour. The 

lookout of the Persia shouted "Iceberg. Hard 

aport." Both ships sheered, and then passed 

within a hundred to a hundred and fifty feet of 

each other. 

From York, England, he wrote to his mother: — 

York, July 4th, 1859. 
My dear Mother: 

I begin a letter here, but shall not probably finish it 
until we reach Edinburgh. 

To begin with when I left off in my last letter to 
Henry Beck from London, I mentioned, I believe, that 
Emily and I lunched one day with Mrs. Beaumont, 
that being the English mode of giving an early dinner — 
for you have at the luncheon the same courses of fish, 
flesh, fowl and sweets that you have at dinner — wines, 
etc. We had a very pleasant time. Mr. Mowbrey, 
Mrs. Ralston, Mr. and Mrs. Cochrane were there. On 
our way we saw the Queen coming from Windsor. She 
looks like a plain, unaffected gentlewoman, an impres- 
sion increased by subsequently seeing her at the Hay- 
market Theatre, where Mr. Seward had invited Emily 
and myself to go with him. 

Another evening I went with Governor Seward to Lord 
Palmerston's reception; and besides the Dallases saw 
Charlie Hutchinson there. There I saw all the men 
who are so famous on our side of the water : Lord Claren- 
don, Marquess of Lansdowne, Duke of Devonshire, 
Duke of Newcastle, etc. None of them came up to my 
idea of a thoroughbred English nobleman like Lord 


Clarendon — graceful and gracious, elegant in attire, 
courteous in manner, pleasing in conversation, he was 
indeed a finished gentleman. Lord Lansdowne, whose 
political career as Lord Henry Petty father can ac- 
quaint you with, was a meek, gentle old man, exactly 
the reverse of the resolute statesman I expected to see. 
Lord Palmerston is a sprightly youth of fourscore! 
more lively far I found, than many of the young men I 
saw. Lady John Russell is a buxom dame. One could 
hardly realize that she was the dame of the little man 
in the huge white hat whom we saw riding in the Park 
in the morning. The women were to my taste well 
dressed. They all looked so clean and neat, fairly 
shining. I saw no one there that I knew except Mrs. 
Dallas. Very few were pretty, some were stylish 
looking. In point of beauty they do not compare with 

On Friday, June 24th, I went to the Fishmongers' 
dinner at five o'clock. Mr. Boddington sent me the invi- 
tation. It was a grand affair given by one of the chief 
guilds of London. Admiral Sir Charles Napier, Major 
General Napier, Mr. Mure, M. P., Mr. Hanbury, M. P., 
made speeches. Mr. Hanbury sat next to me. I found 
him very agreeable. We discussed the West Indian 
emancipation. Tasted Turbot and White Bait for the 
first time, exceedingly nice. The room in which we dined 
was of princely dimensions. After the dinner an im- 
mense golden bowl, filled with rose water, was sent 
round. The guests dipped their napkins in and washed 
their faces. The bowl is three hundred years old and in- 
scribed with the names of the Prince Wardens as each 
one goes out of office. 

On Tuesday the 28th we dined with Mr. Coleridge, 


whose father, Sir John Coleridge, 168 the eminent lawyer, 
was there. After dinner we chatted awhile. A very nice 
dinner. They do not sit and drink wine after dinner as 
formerly. They adjourned quite soon after the ladies 
retired. We sat down about eight. The French fashions 
have completely exploded the old English habits — an 
hour or an hour and a half at the utmost, and the light 
French wines and dishes make up the time and viands. 
Next day we started off for Matlock Baths, which 
we found to be a most picturesque village. The neigh- 
borhood abounds in charming excursions. We visited 
Chatsworth, the magnificent seat of the Duke of Dev- 
onshire. A vast park, through which herds of deer, 
flocks of sheep, and numerous cattle were wandering 
and feeding — huge old trees, some very fine, surround 
a mansion for which art has done even more than nature. 
The Derwent winds around the base of the hill on which 
the house is built. As you cross the bridge, you see 
"Queen Mary's Bower," so loved and frequented by 
that unhappy lady, when a prisoner at Chatsworth, and 
driving down to the gardens, you pass the charming 
residence of Sir Joseph Paxton, member of Parliament, 
builder of the Crystal Palace, Head Gardener! You 
may judge of the style in which Chatsworth is kept up, 
not only from the importance of the head gardener, but 
also from the fact that at the kitchen gardens sixty- 
three gardeners are employed. From this place a pleasant 
drive takes you to the house, where a porter with livery 

168 Sir John Taylor Coleridge, nephew of the author of The Ancient 
Mariner, was born in 1790 at Tiverton. Graduated at Oxford, he was 
called to the Bar in 1819, and in 1835 was appointed one of the 
Judges of the King's Bench. In 1852, Oxford gave him a D. C. L. 
and in 1858, resigning his judgeship, he was made a member of the 
Privy Council. In 1869 he published his Memoir of the Rev. John 
Keble, that reached a third edition within a year. He died in 1876. 


finer than our militia regimentals opens the gate and 
conducts you in grand style and solemn flourish to the 
main hall, and then a guide, female, takes you through 
the State apartments, picture galleries, and especially 
the Hall of Statuary. For myself I dwelt mostly on 
the famous bust of Napoleon by Canova, a fine bust 
of Byron, and a Cupid with a butterfly. However, 
there were many other beautiful sculptures. The vases 
were fine, particularly a Blue John considered the most 
perfect specimen extant. From the orangery you are 
taken by one of the floral gardeners through the grounds 
and gardens and conservatory. The great conserva- 
tory covers an acre of ground and has some palms equal 
to those at Kew Palace. The artificial cascade was 
put on for our amusement, and it was very pretty when 
turned on, though it looked rather droll to see the cat- 
aract "getting up". One part of the grounds is called 
"the American", and there have been gathered rocks, 
trees, everything in fact, to resemble as near as possible 
an American glade. And in the sunny spots are Rhodo- 
dendrons and other flowers native to us. Now let 
me add the most curious thing of all. The owner of 
this splendid estate, who can ride for miles in every 
direction, and not leave his own land, scarcely ever 
visits it. He has so many other mansions! and this 
chiefly enjoyed by his people and visitors. " Lord, what 
is man?" Duke or no duke? I saw his grace at Lord 
Palmerston's, a more modest, unpretending gentleman, 
rather retiring in fact, you could not find. So exactly 
the reverse of a pompous, purseproud nouveau riche. 

The children dined at Edenser, a lovely little spot. 
After they had finished, we drove over to Haddon Hall, 
a ruin, though in perfect condition. It belongs to the 


Duke of Rutland, and here it was that Queen Elizabeth 
was entertained so sumptuously. From there we had 
a drive back through a most lovely valley, where the 
waters of the Avon and the Derwent meet. Next day 
we went to Crich, a curious old village mentioned in 
Domesday Books. Winfield Manor, the decayed old 
palace of the Earls of Shewsbury, also claimed a visit, 
and there, as at Kenilworth, we found nettles and weeds 
and trees growing in the halls once filled with the beauty 
and nobility of England, and the apartments of the 
knights and men-at-arms occupied by horses, cows and 
asses. Above, on the ruined turrets, coats of armor and 
all the pomp of heraldry; below heaps of dung. So 
much for earthly greatness. But a short time ago, the 
last Earl of Shrewsbury, the premier Earl of England, 
was gathered to his fathers, — a youth, whose short 
span of life was one struggle with death. Now, another 
Talbot holds the princely possessions. 

On Saturday we came here to York, and lost no time 
in a visit to the Minster, which is considered the finest 
in England. But it did not impress me as much as 
Westminster Abbey. We walked on the city walls, 
visited all the gates, the ruins of Saint Mary's, of Saint 
Leonard's, gazed upon the old Roman tombs and the 
monkish relics. York has a solemn air. The monu- 
ments of Roman and Feudal greatness are so many 
and complete, the town is such a dull cathedral city,— 
the narrow streets, the old houses with gables projecting 
over the footwalks — all conspire to give it a funereal tone. 
The liveliest things I saw there were the corbels on 
the pinnacles and turrets of the cathedral. They rep- 
resented the effects of the various deadly sins, and the 
variety of grotesque forms and expression is infinite. 


From 18S9 to 1873, Mr. Balch lived in Europe, 
residing chiefly at Paris, at 48 Avenue Gabriel, at 
the corner of the Avenue Matignon and over- 
looking les Champs Elys6es. 

In 1860 he took a trip to the Pyrenees, of which 
he left the following notes. 

On the 15th of August at Biarritz, I visited a con- 
vent in the neighborhood, where the nuns are vowed to 
perpetual silence and seclusion. It was impressive to 
see them kneeling with their faces all covered, utterly 
excluded from the world, not seeing, not speaking even 
to one another until death comes to take one of their 
number. On the 17th I drove over in a closed car- 
riage with the Marquis de Montesquieu to Saint Sabas- 
tian to see a bull fight ; for a while it rained in torrents ; 
afterwards it cleared off and the scenery was glorious. 
At Iran visited Chateau or Maison of Louis XIV., where 
the nuptials with Ann dAutriche were celebrated. At 
Iran much trouble about the passports as Monsieur 
Montesquieu had none and he was obliged to travel as 
my courier. Breakfasted at Fonda of San Juan at Iran ; 
very good. Met two young Madridians who said sport 
at Saint Sabastian was very poor. Reached Saint 
Sabastian at 2.45; visited Cathedral which was full of 
gilded altars, virgins, saints, etc. At the bull fight the 
Alguazil, whose saddle was expensively plated read 
a proclamation. Music struck up and the sport 
began. A miserable, sickening, disgusting butchery. 
Two bulls ran away, four were killed ; two horses were 
killed. The crowd seemed angry and called out "Malo, 
malissimo." Left at 7.30. At Iran more difficulty 
about the passports. Got a piece of bread and a 


glass of sour wine. Nothing else till this morning. 
Reached here at 3 A. M. 

On August 25th started with my family in a car- 
riage for Irun. Got a Spanish breakfast there. Eggs 
cooked in oil, etc. Good sherry. Took post horses and 
Spanish driver. The horses were harnessed with rope. 
Went to Fuenterrabia, a curious decayed old town, 
with deserted old palaces and fortifications tumbling to 
pieces. Old church filled with gilded shrines, painted 
images, a Christ in the tomb, and over it the Mater 
Doloroso, all dressed in black and lace. Several virgins 
with poupZes dressed in ridiculous finery. A woman 
showed us the priests' robes, kept in a piece of exceed- 
ingly old furniture, and under the protection of an 
image of a virgin with a sword run through the heart. 
Left Irun at 3.15, and a mounted gendarme rode with 
us to the bridge over the Bidassoa, and handed us over 
to the French authorities. The resemblance of gen- 
darmes and alguazils to the officials described by Gil 
Bias are marvellous. They looked as if they had stepped 
out of its pages. At the French custom house, the of- 
ficials examined the carriage very carefully, and made us 
all dismount. The scenery was magnificent. Many of the 
hills covered with verdure like early spring. Vast fields 
of maize and great improvements everywhere on the 
French side. Along the road on the Spanish side partic- 
ularly, there were many crosses marking spots of murders. 
On one side were the Pyrenees, on the other the ocean. 

August 31st. At Lastello. We left Biarritz on the 
27th and drove to Pau by way of Orthez, where we 
saw a fine chateau. From Pau we drove to Eaux- 
Bonnes, then to Eaux-Chaudes. While there we had a 
heavy rain storm, which passed away and at night the 


moon shone gloriously over the rocks. Our rooms hung 
right over the Gave and the torrent made such a noise 
that I could not sleep. The scenery is very varied in 
the Pyrenees. The Val d'Ossau is very beautiful, ter- 
minating in the rugged Pic du Gers. The fine road to 
Eaux-Chaudes is very wild and savage. We were fortu- 
nate in our view of the Pic du Gers. The sun was setting 
on it, showing snow and rugged top. We were equally 
fortunate in seeing the Pic d'Ossau in a brilliant sunshine. 
Half an hour after clouds shut out his cloven head. 

Mr. Balch wrote to his family at Paris: — 
Hotel d'Angleterre. 

Caen, Saturday morning. 

I had a very pleasant though somewhat dusty ride, 
at least as far as Lisieux, where we found it raining. 
The country is beautiful and the whole route has 
churches, cathedrals, ruined abbeys, chateaux, or other 
objects of interest to a traveller. What struck me 
most was the great number of "improvements" (as 
we call them in America) that is new buildings going 
up, or recently constructed. Some of them were very 
fine. Normandie is a country which reminds one of 
parts of Maryland and Pennsylvania in its tillage and 
the general features of the landscape. 

Caen is a most interesting city. I took a long walk 
last evening. -after my arrival. The streets are filled 
with old houses with Gothic fronts, and everywhere 
you see the shop-women busy making lace, which is 
the principal article of manufacture. I went to the 
Chateau, an old feudal, now a barracks, and the Bourse, 
a beautiful front in the Italian style. In the evening 
I visited the church of Saint Jean. 


The hotel is tolerably good though I don't like stone 
floors to my bed room. The people are very civil; 
but Paris spoils one for travelling. I got up at six 
this morning, so as to write this letter, and am just 
about starting for Lion-sur-mer. 

In France he saw much of Guizot, 169 and was 
often a visitor at le Val Richer, the old Huguenot's 
country home in Normandy. He described le Val 
Richer in a letter as follows: — 

Val Richer, Feb. 24, 1862. 

We had a very pleasant journey indeed to Lisieux. 
Little Pierre made a famous traveller. He let his Papa 
and myself read and talk as much as we chose without 
interrupting us, or complaining of fatigue. We did not 
look at anything in Lisieux yesterday, because we are 
going there this morning, and I shall have full time to 
see the cathedral, the old Norman houses, etc. At 
Lisieux the carriage met us. M. Guizot 's house is 
about twelve kilometers, through beautiful country. 
His house was an old abbaye, which he has changed 
and improved very much and rendered very com- 
fortable. M. de Witt has built a wing to it. The 
library is a very handsome room, that is, if one may 
call any part particularly the library, for the books 

189 Francois Pierre Guillaume Guizot, the historian and one of the 
Prime Ministers of Louis Philippe, was born at Nimes, October 4th, 
1787, of a Calvinistic family. He was educated at Geneva, settled in 
Paris in 1806, and died at le Val Richer in Normandy in 1874. He 
was a member of V Acadhnie FranQaise and a great power in the 
consistory of the Protestant Church in Paris. He was a voluminous 
writer. The best known of his works is Histoire de France racontfe a 
mes petits-enfants. 


are all over the house. But what is to me one of the 
most agreeable features, is a very long gallery in which 
the monks used to promenade in the olden times. 
Sensible people those old monks! They took good care 
of their health as well as their pleasure. 

This morning after a cup of tea I took a walk to see 
the Chateau la Roque, an old Norman building with a 
moat, or little lake all around it. You go over a 
bridge to get into the court yard. Yesterday we had 
a very pleasant dinner and M. Conrad de Witt's chil- 
dren are nice. Marguerite, a little girl, is charming. 
She speaks English perfectly. Although we had seven 
children at table, and one only two years old, we had 
not a word, nor the least noise and disturbance. They 
all sat up and behaved like little ladies and gentlemen. 

He also knew intimately Cornells de Witt, 170 
Michel Chevalier, 171 the economist, Pierre Antoine 
Berryer, 172 the leader of the French Bar, and 
Prevost-Paradol of V Acad6mie Frangaise, the author 

170 Cornells Henri de Witt, historian and depute a V Assemblee 
nationale (1871-1876), was born at Paris in 1828 of a Protestant 
family. He married M. Guizot's second daughter, Mademoiselle 
Pauline Guizot. He was the author of Histoire de Washington, etc. 
He died at le Val Richer in Normandy in 1892. 

171 Michel Chevalier was born at Limoges, January 13th, 1806, 
and died in 1881. He was the author of many works on finance, 
Cours d'e'conomie politique fait au College de France (1842-1850), 
Lettres sur V organisation du travail et la question des travailleurs (1848), 
La Question de I'or, 1852, De la baisse probable de I'or, 1859, etc. He 
voted in the Corps Ligislatif in 1870 against the declaration of war 
with Prussia. He wrote for Le Journal des 6conomistes, La Revue 
des Deux-Mondes, and Le Journal des D6bats. He negotiated for 
France with England the Chevalier-Cobden Commercial Treaty, 1860. 

172 Pierre Antoine Berryer was born at Paris, January 4th, 1790, and 
died at Augerville, November 29th, 1868. He was for many years 
the unquestioned leader of the French Bar. A visit that he paid 
to Lord Brougham in 1865 was made by the benchers of the Temple 
and of Lincoln's Inn the occasion of a banquet they gave in his honor. 


of La France Nouvelle (1868). m A propos of the 
last time Mr. Balch saw Prevost-Paradol, he left the 
following note: — 

' ' I parted with Prevost-Paradol the day before he left 
for Washington, and he assured me that he had every 
reason to believe that there was no fear of the storm of 
which I fancied I heard some distant mutterings. He 
dreaded and deprecated, more than any one I knew, a 
conflict between France and Germany. He believed 
that his country was utterly unprepared in a military 

173 Lucien Anatole Prevost-Paradol, the brilliant author of Essais 
de politique et de littcrature (18S9, 1862, 1863), Quelques Pages d'His- 
toire Contemporaine (1862-1866) and La France Nouvelle (1868), 
and a member of V Acadimie Frangaise, was the leading writer in 
the Journal des Dgbats and the Courrier du Dimanche against the 
autocratic Empire. He was born at Paris in 1829 and entered the 
Ecole Normale in 1849. In the days of the Imperial censorship, as 
some one said, "Prevost-Paradol excellait avec J. J. Weiss dans l'art 
de tout faire entendre sans tout exprimer." Subsequently, when 
Emile Ollivier assumed under the liberal Empire the responsibilities 
of Government, Prevost-Paradol accepted under him the post of 
minister to the United States. Upon hearing of the declaration of 
war with Germany, against which Prevost-Paradol had argued with 
all his power in La France Nouvelle, overwhelmed by his certainty 
of the crushing defeat of his country, Prevost-Paradol killed himself 
at Washington. In La France Nouvelle, he expounded and advocated 
the advantages of a liberal constitutional government. In the last 
chapter, De I'Avenir, he reviewed the growing influence of the English 
and the Slavonic languages in the world, the more rapid increase of 
the German race than the French, and urged with clearness and force 
that France, in order to maintain her influence and power among the 
nations in the future affairs of the world must develop her colony 
of Algeria and further extend her sway over Tunis to the eastward 
and Morocco to the westward. Time has amply proved how clearly 
Prevost-Paradol reasoned and saw into the future. 

Concerning PreVost-Paradol's career, see the excellent study of 
him by his friend Octave Greard, also a member de V Acadimie Fran- 
gaise: Prevost-Paradol, 6tude suivie d'tm choix de lettres, Paris, 1894. 
For Taine's letters to Prevost-Paradol see H. Taine, sa vie et sa cor- 
respondence, Paris, Hachette, 1902, passim. 


point of view, and he spoke most sadly and sorrowfully 
of the political-moral condition of his fellow citizens. 
He regarded the large majority in favor of the plebiscite 
as absolute proof that political life was so thoroughly 
extinguished among the French, and that they were so 
thoroughly disorganized, that it would need at least 
another score of years of real contest to train them and 
give them the moral and political vitality necessary for a 
great struggle. 

"The only thing that made Prevost-Paradol hesitate 
to accept Ollivier's call to represent France at Wash- 
ington was the uneasy feeling about war, in which he 
thought the Gallic race, in its then demoralized con- 
dition, would go to the wall. Only the day before he 
left Paris (for Washington) we bade each other good 
bye, and then again, he said he would not leave France 
were he not so positively assured by the Emperor that 
there was no danger of war. We parted; he to take 
the train for Havre, and I to start the same evening 
for Spa, in Belgium. 

"As I passed out of the door, I met General Chan- 
garnier entering to make his adieux to the young diplo- 
matist whom he held in great esteem." 

Mr. Balch also knew well during his sojourn at 
Paris many other notable Frenchmen, E. de Parieu, 
President du Conseil d'Etat, the Marquis de Noailles, 
historian and diplomat, Gen6ral L'Herillier, 
Edouard Laboulaye, the historian and novelist, 
G6n6ral Fave, commandant de l'Ecole Poly tech- 
nique Imperiale, the Comte de Sartiges, at one 
time French Minister at Washington, Henry 


Moreau, avocat a la cour d'Appel, General le 
Marquis de Galliffet, who led the charge of the 
French cavalry at Sedan, and commanded the expe- 
dition that occupied in 1872 the oasis of El Golea, 174 
and Dr. Kern, ex-President of the Federal Council 
of Switzerland, and for many years Swiss Minister 
to France. 

Early during the Civil War the Consulship at 
Paris became vacant. That was before the At- 
lantic cable was in operation and at the request of 
William L. Dayton, United States Minister to 
France, Mr. Balch took up for a short time the 
duties of United States Consul at Paris, on August 
26th, 1861, until a permanent successor could be 
appointed by the authorities at Washington. 

During a large dinner at the Tuileries in the 
early sixties, to which among other foreigners the 
Emperor Napoleon the Third invited Mr. Balch, 
the latter happened to be looking towards the 
Emperor as Louis Napoleon's favorite drink, 
syphon and claret, was prepared for him. A 
waiter filled the Emperor's tumbler half full of 
claret, and a second one then came up with the 
syphon. But he pressed the handle of the syphon 
bottle so hard, that the mixture of claret and syphon 
flew over the table cloth and the Emperor's clothes. 
Napoleon turned his head away from the waiter and 

174 he Sahara, Le Soudan et Us Chemins de Fer Transsahariens par 
Paxil Leroy-Beaulieu, Paris, 1904, page 15. 


in addition raised his hand, so that he could not see 
who had so awkwardly spoilt his apparel. 

During a visit home in the latter part of 1864, 
Mr. Balch visited the Headquarters of the Army 
of the Potomac, and wrote this letter to his 
children at Paris: — 

"Headquarters Army of the Potomac. 

"Nov. 25th, 1864, Friday. 

"Here is Papa seated in Gen. Collis' tent, who is in 
command of this Brigade, a very nice fire blazing in 
front of him, the band of the Zouaves playing airs from 
Trovatore, and playing them very well too — Not very 
far are the enemy's pickets and now and then they 
amuse themselves by firing shells and bombs just to 
keep our troops on the alert. You may fancy that it 
is not very quiet here, when the cars pass by ramparts 
thrown up to keep them from being struck by the shells, 
and as we came along one set of our batteries is called 
Fort Hell and the other Fort Damnation. The Southern 
sharpshooters are so clever, that if you put your hand 
up over the fortification you get a bullet through it in 
an instant. The men in the pickets sometimes for fun, 
stick a cap on a bayonet, put it up and down as quick 
as possible, but it does not escape a bullet hole in it. 
But as you see I am getting ahead of my story. — On 
Tuesday as I wrote to your Mama, I went to Miss Agnes 
Robinson's wedding to Capt. Charles Chauncey. The 
wedding went off very well. At Mr. Robinson's request 
I took up Mrs. Judge Cadwalader. Mrs. W. Camac 
asked after you all and says you must not forget your 
old playmate Willie. I left quite early and on going 


back to the hotel met Emily and Mary Cadwalader, 
who asked me up to Trenton to dine on Thanksgiving 
day, which I declined, having made up my mind to 
accept a 'Pass' which Mr. Dana, Adjutant Secretary of 
War, had sent me to visit the Army of the Potomac. 
I saw Frank Barton. He and Mr. Sam Shober were 
also going down the Potomac by invitation from Gen. 
Gibbon. So we arranged to meet in Washington on 
Thursday at 12. Next day I saw your Uncle Edwin, 
who talked a good deal about you both. I then went 
on to Baltimore by the 12 o'clock train — reached there 
at 4 P. M., went to your Aunt Virginia's, found your 
cousin Bettie much better, her knee not so stiff. As I 
wanted to see Mr. Preston Smith, who had sent me an 
invitation to his box at the opera and sent his son for 
me, I went there and heard part of Faust exceedingly 
well sung. I arranged some matter with Mr. Smith. 
Next day early train to Washington, met Barton and 
Shober and took the Thomas Collyer, a very fast steamer 
and went down to Fortress Monroe and from there by 
the James River to City Point, where are Gen. Grant's 
headquarters. There were a number of nice officers on 
board and I had a pleasant time. I was invited by 
the Provost Marshall to his rooms where I found a 
party of ' stumps,' that is, every officer there has lost 
a leg or an arm — all hastening back to their comrades 
as a battle is now expected almost hourly. I hope it 
will take place while I am here — It must be a magnifi- 
cent spectacle, two or three hundred thousand men in 
battle array. Westover and other nice places along the 
river are quite changed, tents swarm all along the shores 
and around the houses. The Carters are now living 
very quietly at Shirley, unmolested by our troops. At 


City Point, I fell in with Gen. Collis, or rather he found 
out I was there and came after me and brought me to 
his headquarters where I now write. Camp life is a 
thing very different from any scenes through which I 
have passed. I have been among the Indians and 
roughed there much harder than here in one way, but 
the exposure here is of a different sort — to a civilian 
like myself, who is not in danger unless he uselessly 
goes into it or lets himself be run over by an orderly 
or something of that sort; there is merely a little more 
cold, a little less good cheer, and sleeping in a tent 
under a blanket, instead of a roof and in a bed. — This 
evening, after the music, Gen. Collis took me over to 
Gen. Meade's. He lives in a tent, plainly enough as 
you may imagine. He was very gracious, apologized 
for not being at home to-morrow, but hoped to see me 
on Sunday, if I could stay over. It was a gay sight to 
see the fires of the guardhouses and in the tents all 
through this part of the encampment. It looked so 
cheerful that one could hardly suppose that two vast 
hostile armies are here, ready like two tigers to spring 
on each other, and with danger so around, that Gen. 
Meade, as well as other officers, cautioned me very 
earnestly not to get shot. Drums are beating as I now 
write, near eleven o'clock at night, and it may be that 
something is going on, though it is hardly possible that 
any great move can be made under a week, as the 
ground is too much cut up by the late rains. Still 
there is no certainty, and I hope to have the pleasure 
of writing to you that the last great battle of the war 
has been fought and gained. It will be a frightful 
struggle when it does come off. 

' ' When we passed Fortress Monroe I got off for an 


hour. It was a glorious sunrise and our boat took us 
right by our great Armada, one hundred and sixty- 
three vessels in all. The Ironsides, and many other 
splendid vessels, Monitors and all other kinds, — among 
others, the Florida, about which so much fuss is now 
being made, was equipped and ready to sail. The 
Atlanta which Commodore Rogers captured in such a 
brilliant fashion at Mobile, was also ready, and a for- 
midable craft she is. Admirals Porter and Farragut are 
to command. Both of them brave, gallant and experi- 
enced officers. General Sherman, it is now thought, will 
certainly take Savannah or Charleston, and Farragut 
will probably co-operate with him. 

"General Grant's line of battle extends over thirty- 
five miles. It lies something in this fashion, and if you 
will take the atlas you will see on the map of Virginia 
something of the geography and study it out against I 
get back. You will realize how close the lines of Gen- 
eral Lee are when I tell you that they talked to one 
another and even agree not to shoot and exchanged 
papers and so on. But I must close. 

"Ever your affectionate 


Towards the close of the Civil War, the temper 
of the American people against England was thor- 
oughly roused, and a hostile demonstration at Wash- 
ington would have met with a hearty response 
throughout the country. The situation was not 
encouraging for a peaceful settlement. The Eng- 
lish Government throughout had assumed an at- 
titude such as to preclude, apparently, all hope of 
an adjustment. 




In 1864, Thomas Balch, who was present at 
Cherbourg during the fight between the Kearsarge 
and the Alabama (June 19th, 1864), 175 proposed — 

175 On Thursday, June 30th, 1864, some of the American colony 
in Paris gave a dinner, at short notice, to Captain Winslow, at Phil- 
lippe's on the Rue Montorgueil, at that time the leading restaurant 
of Paris. Besides Captain Winslow and a few of his officers, there 
were present: Mr. Dayton, the American Minister to France, John 
Bigelow, the American Consul at Paris, Thomas Balch, Mr. Beck- 
with, John Camac, Mr. Chadwick, G. H. Coster, William L. Dayton, 
Jr., W. E. Johnston, Mr. Jones, Mr. Langdon, V. F. Loubat, John 
Monroe, Mr. Pennington, John Reubell, George T. Richards, Joseph 
Swift, Stewart Thorndike, J. J. Vanderkemp and others. 

The dinner that was served to, as one of the participants put 
it, "Our Hero of the Kearsarge," was as follows: — 


Potage a la Bisque et Consomm^ Quenelles et Laitues. 


Turbot deux sauces. Filets Orly sauce tomates. 

Jambon d'Yorck aux epinards. 


Filet de Boeuf a la jardiniere. Poulardes brais£es truffees. 

Cotelettes d'agneau Maintenon fin. 

Salade a la russe. Mayonnaise de homard. 

Punch a la Polonaise. 


Dindonneau nouveau. Canetons a la rouennaise. 


Haricots flageollets maitre d'hotel. Pois a la francaise. 

Croutes a la parisienne et aux ananas. 

Mac6doine de fruits glacis. 


Mr. Dayton's letter accepting the invitation of the committee 
was as follows: — 

"Thursday, A. M., 

"6 Rue de Presbourg. 
" My Dear Sir: — It will give me, as well as my son, much pleasure 
to join you at dinner at Phillippe's this (Thursday) evening at six 
o'clock. " Very truly yours, 

"Thos. Balch, Esq., "WILLIAM L. DAYTON. 

"48 Av : Gabriel." 


after mature reflection and looking up the works 
of Grotius, the Due de Sully, Castel de Saint-Pierre, 
Leibniz, Bentham, Kant and many other writers and 
numerous precedents — Thomas Balch proposed to 
various continental jurists, that the differences be- 
tween the United States and England arising out of 
the cruise of the Alabama and kindred causes, should 
be argued before an International Court of Arbitra- 
tion. In November, 1864, Mr. Balch, during a visit 
home, urged upon some of his friends, among them 
General Nathaniel P. Banks, the submission of the 
Anglo-American differences to such a court. 176 Gen- 
eral Banks requested Mr. Balch to see President Lin- 
coln, and arranged an interview. The President ques- 
tioned Mr. Balch, then lately returned from Europe, 
largely about trans-Atlantic affairs. The President 
ridiculed the Mexican Empire and said that he con- 
sidered it " a pasteboard concern on which we won't 
waste a man nor a dollar. It will soon tumble to 
pieces and, may be, bring the other down with it." 
To Mr. Balch's suggestion that the difficulties with 
England should be argued before a Court of Arbi- 

176 International Courts of Arbitration, by Thomas Balch, 1874. 
Reprinted at Philadelphia, 1899. Henry T. Coates and Co., page 9, 
note 6. 

The Alabama Arbitration, by Thomas Willing Balch, Philadelphia, 
Allen, Lane and Scott, 1900, passim. 

General Nathaniel P. Banks, who was elected Governor of Massa- 
chusetts in 18S7, 1858 and 1859, served three years in the Civil War; 
in 1864 he was elected to Congress, and except that he failed of re- 
election in 1872, continued to serve in the lower House until 1877. 
For a number of years he was chairman of the Committee on Foreign 


tration, the President said that he thought it might 
be possible in the future, that it was "a very 
amiable idea, but not possible just now, as the 
millennium is still a long way off." But he added: 
" There is no possible risk of a quarrel with England, 
as we have enough on our hands. One quarrel is 
enough for a nation or a man at a time." As to 
the proposed Court of Arbitration he said: "Start 
your idea. It may make its way in time, as it is 
a good one." On arriving in London, on Christmas 
Day, 1864, Mr. Balch spoke of it to several friends, 
but found no one except Richard Cobden, 177 to 
treat it other than as the conceit of a well-meaning 

177 At the beginning of January, 1865, Richard Cobden wrote to 
Mr. Balch:— 

"Midhurst, 3d January, 1865. 

"My Dear Mr. Balch: — I was very sorry to miss the opportunity 
of seeing you in London. There are very many topics on which I 
should have liked to have talked with you. * * * I think it 
depends entirely on the discretion of your own authorities at Wash- 
ington to remain at peace with all the world until your civil war 
is ended. I do not say that you have not grievances ; but one quarrel 
at a time, as Mr. Lincoln says, is enough for a nation or an individual. 
With the British Government I do not think, on the whole, you have 
as much to be angry about as to be grateful for what it has refused 
to do in conjunction with France and other powers. Against individ- 
ual British shipbuilders and capitalists I admit you have very just 
grounds of grievance and I have said as much publically. The French 
Government has no doubt given you just ground of complaint by 
their occupation of Mexico. But I don't think your Congress shows 
much wisdom in trying to push Mr. Lincoln into hostilities on that 
subject at present, and I hope he will give the 'House' a hint that 
they may find full employment in domestic affairs, particularly in 
their finances, for the present. The Canadian affair will be peaceably 
arranged. * * * 

"Very truly yours, 



Finally, Mr. Balch made his plan public in an 
open letter. More than one editor refused to pub- 
lish it. But Horace Greeley, who feared no 
unpopularity where a cause was entitled, as he 
thought, to a hearing, gave it a place in the col- 
umns of the New York Tribune, May 13th, 1865. 178 
The letter was addressed to the able and con- 
scientious correspondent of that journal at Paris, 
Mr. W. H. Huntington, and was as follows: — 

Here is an extract from another letter of Richard Cobden to Mr. 
Balch :— 

"Midhurst, 17th Feb., 186S. 

"There never was a more absurd canard than that invented by 
the Southern sympathizers — that England and France contem- 
plated an intervention. And there is almost as great absurdity in 
the programme which the same party has cut out for you when the 
war ends — viz., that you are to begin a war with France or England 
or all the world. Now, I have a very different work in store for you. 
When the war ceases, you will be like two line-of-battle ships after 
a desperate struggle; all hands will be required to clear the wreck, 
repair damages in hull and rigging, look after the wounded and bury 
the dead. There will be great suffering among all classes before 
you return to a normal state of things. You have been in a saturnalia 
of greenbacks and Government expenditure, which may be likened 
to the pleasant excitement of alcohol. But peace will be the head- 
ache after the debauch, with the unpleasant tavern reckoning." 

Some of the letters that passed between Lord Palmerston and Lord 
John Russell upon the question of intervention show that they thought 
of joining Napoleon the Third against the Union. 

The New York Tribune, April 21st, 1865, page 8. International 
Courts of Arbitration, by Thomas Balch. Edition of 1899, page 18, 
note 14. 

178 This letter will be found in the New York Tribune of May 13th, 
1865, on the fourth page, in the upper right hand corner. The 
Tribune of that date can be found in the New York Public Library 
(Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations), the Library Company of 
Philadelphia, a number of other American libraries, and in the British 


"A letter from Thomas Balch. 

"Paris, March 31st, 1865. 
" My Dear Sir, — You asked me to put in writing the 
observations which I made to you yesterday touching 
the outstanding questions between England and the 
United States. I should be sorry to make you read all 
that you so kindly listened to. It would be to tax you 
rather too severely. But the current of my remarks 
was to this effect: 

"I. That both England and the United States pre- 
ferred claims which, if not judiciously managed, might 
and perhaps would lead to war. 

"II. That the American claims were chiefly the dep- 
redations of the Alabama, whilst it seemed from the tenor 
of Mr. Layard's recent speech, that the British claims 
were also such as to rest upon questions of law. Neither 
set of claims was strictly national; they were rather 
those of individuals, merchants, shipowners, and others. 

"III. That as to such claims, war was a barbarous 
manner of enforcing them; that the most successful 
war would after all be a most expensive and unsatis- 
factory process of litigation; and that the civilized and 
Christian way of ascertaining their validity and extent 
should be by arbitration. 

" IV. That the best manner of composing such a 
Court of Arbitration would be, that each party should 
select some competent jurist, those two to select an 
umpire. The claims to be presented, proved and argued 
before this Court, whose decisions should be final and 
without appeal. 


"V. That such a proposition, proceeding from our 
Government, would, without doubt, receive the coun- 
tenance and support of all intelligent Englishmen. It is 
true that some of the speeches recently made in Parlia- 
ment about us and Canada are of a nature to discourage 
such expectations. On the other hand, it must be borne 
in mind that these gentlemen form a class apart; that 
it is their political faith to believe and say unseemly 
things of Republican institutions, of the men, habits of 
life, and principles of action developed under them. But 
it was long ago that the wisest of men gave us the 
measure of such people, and the experience of man- 
kind has confirmed his judgment. 

"VI. Such a proposition from our Government would 
at once quiet all the foolish alarms which have, or ap- 
pear to have, taken possession of so many persons in 
England. It would also uphold and strengthen all the 
advocates of progress. It would give greater force to 
their arguments in favor of just reforms and liberty; 
and this not only in Great Britain, but throughout 
Europe. The abandonment of the old system of arbi- 
tration by a reference to a Sovereign, more or less unfit 
from the very nature of his position, and the introduc- 
tion of a tribunal, almost republican in its character, 
whose decisions would have a weight as precedents, an 
authority heretofore unknown as expositions of inter- 
national law, would be no trifling events in the march 
of Democratic Freedom. 

"VII. Such a proposition would also be in accord 
with our traditional policy of peace and goodwill to- 
wards men. 


"The most serious objection that has been urged, so 
far as I have heard, against such a Court of Arbitra- 
tion, is the difficulty of finding gentlemen not already 
biased by their feelings or in some way committed in 
their opinions. 

"This objection applies, however, in a measure, to 
all human tribunals; it would apply to arbitration by 
a sovereign, and would leave us no solution other than 
the dread arbitrament of war. For myself, I cannot 
believe that there are not to be had in England and 
America gentlemen of the requisite learning, experi- 
ence, and impartiality for a position so dignified and 
useful. At all events, there are many eminent men 
in Europe in every way qualified for this high duty. 
I have in my mind's eye a Swiss publicist, who, after 
having filled the most responsible stations at home, is 
now worthily representing his people in their most im- 
portant diplomatic post. 179 The decisions rendered by 
him and gentlemen like him would be such as two 
great and free nations could accept with satisfaction. 
I dare say he has friendly feelings towards the Re- 
public, but he cannot be wanting in like sentiments for 
the old Champion of Liberty. The preferences of such 
enlightened statesmen could not possibly be of a char- 
acter to influence their judgments, and the parties most 
interested might well be content to abide their award. 

" Believe me, my dear sir, yours sincerely, 


179 This referred to that most worthy, high-minded gentleman, Dr. 
Kern, formerly President of the Federal Council, of Switzerland, 
but then Minister to France. He was born at Berlingens in 1808, 
and was chosen President of the Federal Council in 1850. 

180 In 1874, Professor James Lorimer, the Regius Professor of 
Public Law and of the Law of Nations in the University of Edin- 


The publication of this letter proved that the 
proposition was not popular at that time in the 
United States. Writing seven years later of this 
event Mr. Balch said: "At home I was met in a less 

burgh, wrote to Mr. Balch a letter concerning International Arbi- 
tration, in which he said: — • 

' ' Considering the interest which is everywhere taken in International 
Arbitration at present, and more especially with a view to the dis- 
cussion that will take place at the meeting of the International In- 
stitute at Geneva in October, I think it very desirable that you should 
republish the letter which you addressed to the ' New York Tribune'. 
in 1865, adding to it such suggestions as your observation of sub- 
sequent events may enable you to offer. 

"I do not know to what extent that letter, or anything else you 
said or did, may have led to the negotiation of the Treaty of Wash- 
ington, by which the threatened war between our countries is believed 
by many to have been averted; but certain it is, that the letter was 
a very remarkable anticipation of the treaty which was negotiated 
six years afterward. The tribunal which you suggested almost 
exactly corresponded to that appointed under Article XII. of the 
Treaty, and even the great tribunal which sat at Geneva under 
Article I. was only a fuller realization of your original conception, 
by a larger infusion of the neutral element than you had contemplated, 
into the Court. In this respect it certainly was an improvement. 
But for the presence of the neutral judges it is doubtful if the work 
would have been brought to a successful issue, and I think it very 
worthy of consideration whether, on all future occasions, the Com- 
missioners ought not to be appointed exclusively from neutrals." 

See the New York Tribune, April 11th, 1874. International Courts 
of Arbitration by Thomas Balch, 1874. Reprinted at Philadelphia, 
1899, Henry T. Coates and Co., page 28. 

In the above letter Professor Lorimer points out how closely Mr. 
Balch's suggestion was followed in the Treaty of Washington, as may 
be seen by a. comparison of the letter printed in the Tribune on May 
13th, 1865, and Articles XII. and I. of the treaty. 

In Article XII. of the Treaty of Washington (1871), after a state- 
ment of some matters other than the Alabama claims that should 
be referred for settlement to three Commissioners, provision was 
made for the appointment of the Commissioners in the following 
manner: "One Commissioner shall be named by the President of the 
United States, one by Her Britannic Majesty, and a third by the 
President of the United States and Her Britannic Majesty conjointly; 
and in case the third Commissioner shall not have been so named 


satisfactory manner. The Civil War was near its 
end, and the passions aroused by it were at their 
highest. I received more than one angry rebuff, 
and sometimes the contempt which the idea ex- 

within a period of three months from the date of the exchange of 
the ratification of this treaty, then the third Commissioner shall be 
named by the Representative at Washington of His Majesty the 
King of Spain. In case of the death, absence, or incapacity of any 
Commissioner, or in the event of any Commissioner omitting or 
ceasing to act, the vacancy shall be filled in the manner hereinbefore 
provided for making the original appointment; the period of three 
months in case of such substitution being calculated from the date 
of the happening of the vacancy." Treaties and Conventions con- 
cluded between the United States of America and other Powers since 
July 4th, 1776. Department of State. Washington: Government 
Printing Office, 1889, page 484. 

In Article I . , the Court of Arbitration to consist of five Arbitrators 
to try the "Alabama Claims" was provided for as follows: — 

"One [Arbitrator] shall be named by the President of the United 
States; one shall be named by Her Britannic Majesty; His Majesty 
the King of Italy shall be requested to name one; the President 
of the Swiss Confederation shall be requested to name one; and His 
Majesty the Emperor of Brazil shall be requested to name one. 

"In case of the death, absence, or incapacity to serve of any or 
either of the said Arbitrators, or, in the event of either of the said 
Arbitrators omitting or declining or ceasing to act as such, the Presi- 
dent of the United States, or Her Britannic Majesty, or His Majesty 
the King of Italy, or the President of the Swiss Confederation, or 
His Majesty the Emperor of Brazil, as the case may be, may forth- 
with name another person to act as Arbitrator in the place and stead 
of the Arbitrator originally named by such head of a State. 

"And in the event of the refusal or omission for two months after 
receipt of the request from either of the high contracting parties of 
His Majesty the King of Italy, or the President of the Swiss Con- 
federation, or His Majesty the Emperor of Brazil, to name an Arbi- 
trator either to fill the original appointment or in the place of one 
who may have died, be absent, or incapacitated, or who may omit, 
decline or from any cause cease to act as such Arbitrator, His Majesty 
the King of Sweden and Norway shall be requested to name one or 
more persons, as the case may be, to act as such Arbitrator or Arbi- 
trators." Treaties and Conventions concluded between the United States 
of America and other Powers since July 4th, 1776. Department of 
State. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1889, page 479. 


cited was not always civil. Some good people 
went so far as to say that I had lived so long abroad 
that I had become 'a Britisher.' Not en- 
couraging for my idea of a mild-mannered way of 
cutting the knot of difficult national questions." 
Still Mr. Balch did not despair, and continued to 
work among his friends and acquaintances, both at 
home and abroad, and soon he found in James 
Lorimer, of the University of Edinburgh, and 
Prevost- Paradol, of V Acad6mie Frangaise, two pow- 
erful helpers. 

Mr. George H. Yeaman, United States Minister 
at Copenhagen, sent to Mr. Balch the following 
letter: — 

"Legation of the United States, 

"Copenhagen, 26 March, 1867. 

"Dear Sir: — I have read with much interest your 
letter of the 13 May, 1865, to the Editor of the New 
York Tribune, and now published in the ' Social Science ' 
for this month, which you have kindly sent me. In that 
letter you propound what seems to you the best method 
of amicably settling the pending controversies between 
the United States and Great Britain. 

"Omitting all discussion of the propriety and feasi- 
bility of now referring the matters in dispute to arbitra- 
tion, the mode you advocate, I only desire to express 
my decided approbation of your suggestion as to the 
mode of selecting and organizing tribunals of arbitra- 
tion, in cases where the powers interested agree to a 
reference. That the tribunal or arbiter shall not be 
the executive head of a government, but a small 


number of jurists of acknowledged character and 

"I have never believed in the durability and efficacy 
of any of the schemes for an international tribunal to 
settle all disputes and prevent all wars. Whether it is 
well or unfortunate, it is quite clear that in the present 
stage of the development and practice of political science, 
there can be no reference but by agreement, and the 
agreement must be had in each case as it arises, and the 
tribunal or arbiter must be selected for the occasion. 

"While this remains the only practical mode of se- 
curing the benefits of a reference, every sound reason 
is against the ordinary plan of selecting a crowned, or 
other executive head of a government, and sustains the 
plan of selecting a tribunal composed of those who make 
the understanding and the elucidation of law, in its 
largest sense as the science of justice, the study of their 

"It is no disparagement of those generally found at 
the heads of the executive governments of the civil- 
ized world, to say that they are not generally those best 
acquainted with jurisprudence; and that every govern- 
ment, of whatever form, nearly always contains within 
its limits, a number of jurists more learned in their 
profession and better qualified by their habits of thought 
to conduct such an investigation than the executive 
head of that government. Neither is it any impeach- 
ment of their probity or their desire to render a just 
judgment to say that executive rulers, are, from their 
position, more apt to be influenced by motives of policy, 
or of personal or political partiality, than a court of inter- 
national jurists would be ; while some, who might render 
real service in that capacity, would occasionally decline 


to act on account of the delicate embarrassment in which 
any action might involve them. And those who con- 
sent to act, no doubt often refer the case, for investiga- 
tion and advice, to a subject of their own selection, one 
unknown to the parties, at least not agreed upon by 
them ; and though the award may come formally as from 
the crown, it is really the opinion of some person not 
embraced in the reference and who neither incurs blame 
nor makes reputation by his judgment. Thus the par- 
ties are put in the position of abiding by the award of 
one selected for them by another; they know not what 
influenced the selection, and however learned the ad- 
visor may be, the parties have not had the advantage 
of a consultation and comparison of views. These ob- 
jections manifestly do not apply to the case of an um- 
pire selected in advance by referees in view of the pos- 
sibility of their own disagreement. 

" Thus the advantages of learning, and of freedom from 
all improper influences are on the side of a select com- 
mittee or board of jurists. From their breasts self- 
ishness, jealousy, partiality and refined policy, as ap- 
plied to the matter before them, are all excluded. They 
work out their conclusions in the light of usage, pre- 
cedent, right reason, natural right, science. What of 
ambition they may have is constrained to be innocent 
and laudable, for it can only be gratified by building a 
reputation, which, in their vocation, can have no other 
foundation than justice and truth. The judgments of 
such tribunals would be sought for and recognized as 
the highest evidence of what the law is ; and they would 
develop, polish, and make symmetrical the law of na- 
tions, as the judgment of Hard wick, Eldon, and Mans- 
field have done the law of England, and as the judg- 


merits of Kent, Marshall and Story have done the law 
in the United States. 

" I have been much impressed with your observa- 
tion that this 'would be no trifling event in the march 
of Democratic Freedom.' It would accelerate and 
illustrate the progress of democratic freedom, a free- 
dom that is far more secure against license than any 
scheme of personal government or irresponsible power 
can be, because it would be a tribute to the dominion 
of mind, intelligence, reason, science, over accident, 
force and tradition in the affairs of men. The strug- 
gle for that domination is the beginning, and its full 
consummation is the highest and fairest fruit of de- 
mocracy. If that element in government has been the 
most rare and the least successful, it is because that 
while appearing to be the most simple, it is really the 
most difficult, and it is the most difficult because the 
conditions of its success are the highest and the least 
frequent among men. 

"Very respectfully, 

"Your obedient servant 


" Thomas Batch, Esq., Paris." 

He continued to urge this solution of the diffi- 
culty, until the negotiation of the treaty of Wash- 
ington (1871) was an accomplished fact. In May, 
1869, while at home for a few months, he pressed 
this idea upon Senator Sumner, and Secretary Fish 
and President Grant. 

In 1868 he published a pamphlet on the Fusil 
Roberts: expose - du systeme du General Roberts: ex- 


traits des rapports officiels commandos par les gou- 
vcrncments de la France et du Bre'stl. 181 

In the spring of 1869, he made a trip to Egypt : 

I left Paris, Monday evening, February 8, 1869, 
at 7.15 P. M. by fast express train, which was very 
crowded. I was in a coupe with Monseigneur l'Arche- 
veque d'Avignon who evidently au fond du cceur desires 
a war with Russia. He quitted us at Avignon. Ar- 
rived at Marseilles at 11.30. Breakfasted at the station 
very well, after which we drove a little in the new parts 
of the town. 

Went on board La Peluse, a fine large vessel of 2100 
tons. The Captain, Jauet, is an officer in the French 
Navy, lieutenant de vaisseau. Left at 5 P. M. pre- 
cisely. Weather magnificent. Fair dinner, only nine at 
table; not many first class passengers. So far from 
being seasick I smoked three cigars before going to bed. 
I am as comfortable as possible, as my cabin is for six 
persons, while I am alone. 

February 9th, 12.45 P. M. A most magnificent day. 
The ship has been running for some hours at 11.6 knots. 
We are passing through the Straits of Bonifaccio. Pyra- 
mid erected as a monument to mark the spot where a 
French frigate was lost in February 1855. There were 
750 soldiers and 250 crew on board; not a soul saved. 

Our party on board begins to make acquaintance. 
A young Scotchman of the Indian civil service, now on 
his way to Mauritius says " Docks, roadstead of Mauri- 
tius etc. very fine, but no commerce; kept up at ex- 
pense of the British government." Passing through 
Strait noticed a stone exactly resembling a bear. 

181 Paris, Legras, Libraire-Editeur, 27 Boulevard des Capucines, 


4 P. M. We have gone safely through the Straits, 
which are very narrow in some parts. The coasts of 
Sardinia and Corsica are rugged and rocky, with sharp 
dangerous promontories jutting into the sea. Dangerous 
navigation, yet here it was that in spite of its peril 
Nelson delighted to shelter his fleet, watch for the 
French and pounce upon them when least expected. 

Thursday, February 11. Weather warm, sun in- 
tense. But as air comes from south it is a little moist. 
At breakfast to-day the Captain said the flights of quail 
were exceedingly curious to witness. One troop will 
come from Egypt by way of Candia, another from 
Tunis by way of Sicily, another from Morocco by way 
of Spain. They fly from 24 to 28 hours without stop- 
ping, at an average rate of 20 miles an hour, and when 
they reach the coast they are almost dead with fatigue 
and starvation. They are caught in great quantities in 
nets and fattened for the market. Once landed they 
spread all along the coast and into the interior. Their 
flight to Africa is in the fall and to Europe in the spring. 
The broods hatched in Africa, being untouched by 
sportsmen, are greater in number than those going 
from Europe. 

He also mentioned a curious incident that happened 
to him a few weeks ago. A flight of swallows was seen 
in the air. The three leaders stopped on his ship and 
in ten minutes more the side and ropes in fact every 
spot where a bird could sit was black with the birds. 
There were tens of thousands. He gave orders not to 
disturb them ; next morning early the leaders rose into the 
air, twittered and called for a minute or two, issued orders 
in fact, and in five minutes more not a bird was left on 
the ship ; all were on the wing southward to Africa. 


At 2.30, sighted Stromboli; then passed through the 
Lipari Archipelago and left Stromboli smoking and look- 
ing like an old giant. At night the waters are always 
lit up by these fires. Reached Messina about 8 o'clock. 
It was very gay to look at from the boat. The Straits 
are very narrow — a rifle shot from side to side. Boats 
filled with passengers came along side. As soon as the 
boatmen had got rid of the passengers and their luggage, 
the boatmen lit up their boats and took out lots of coral 
necklaces, bracelets etc., but the prices were so exceed- 
ingly small that I concluded they could not possibly be 
genuine. But their cries and the fashion in which they 
chaffed one another, the lights, the boats rocking on the 
swells of the Straits, made the scene most picturesque. 

Friday morning. Three young Englishmen from Mon- 
treal came aboard at Messina. They say my brother 
(the Rev. L. P. W. Balch) has the respect and esteem 
of everybody in Montreal, and that he is called upon to 
be foremost in all important enterprises and has done 
a great and noble work in paying off the debt of the 

Monday, February IS. We arrived in time to see 
the Pharos last night. The Pharos founded by Ptolemy, 
the first of the kind ever built. The night was magnifi- 
cent, moon bright. There was a dense fog this morn- 
ing, so we could not enter the harbor until 1 o'clock, as 
there are many sunken rocks. The approach to the 
port was interesting. Numerous vessels of different 
nations, Egyptian warships, an English gun boat and 
many small boats and feluccas were about. The mo- 
ment we anchored crowds of Arabs rushed on deck, but 
we had the government boat waiting for us and escaped 
much of the annoyance. We got our luggage through 


the Custom House without any difficulty, and drove to 
Abbat's Hotel. Afterwards I drove to Cleopatra's 
Needle, Pompey's Pillar, the Vice-Roy's Garden and 
the Canal, which is a fashionable drive. 

Tuesday morning, Alexandria. Pini Bey fits sent 
his coups for me and then drove me to the arsenal. 
We saw two regiments of soldiers drilling and one bat- 
talion firing by platoons ; they made some good targets. 
Stopped at the Bourse coming back and it was curious 
to see people of all nations and colors buying and selling, 
cotton, corn, stocks, etc. In the afternoon he took me 
to see his father's palace, which was a present from the 
late Vice-Roy. It resembles a palace in Germany or 
Holland and has a pretty garden. 

It is quite impossible to convey one's first impres- 
sion of Egypt. The odd mixture of human beings of 
all nations and colors; the variety of costumes; the 
long lines of dromedaries, the "no end" of dogs and 
donkeys, altogether one feels for a day or two, at least, 
as if one were taking part in some comedy on an im- 
mense scale, and wondering when the curtain will drop 
and the thing come to an end. Alexandria is being 
rapidly Europeanized, and reminds me, with its long 
rows of streets unpaved but flanked by handsome houses, 
of Chicago when I was there in 1849, and gives me the 
impression that there is the same brilliant future, and 
why not, since like Chicago, cotton and corn are sent 
from her port to all the world. We had a capital drago- 
man from hotel; Henry Busutil. 

Wednesday, February 17. We left at 8 o'clock; 
fine day, not hot. Went by Lake Mereotis; large but 
shallow. First impressions of Arab villages very curi- 
ous. Vast numbers of wild duck, teal, snipes, etc., 


on lakes and ponds. Wheat growing luxuriantly like a 
green sea. At 9.30 A. M. arrived at Damanur: here 
Delta begins and Nile ends. Crossed the Nile at Kafar- 
zeyat by a splendid bridge. The country swarms with 
population. Green turbans, which indicates that the 
wearer has been to Mecca, are to be seen occasionally. 
All along the banks of the new Canal are swarms of 
little tents, each of which is alive with children. Passed 
a string of twenty-seven camels, each carrying two 
bales of cotton, slung like saddle bags. Near Gaylouh ( ?) 
had our first view of the pyramids forty miles off. 

Arrived at Cairo at 12.30. His Excellency, Pini Bey 
minister etc., and his son came to the station to meet us, 
and took us to Sheppeard's Hotel in his carriage, giving 
me the place of honor. The young man is extremely 

This afternoon met Mr. Henry M. Stanley of the 
New York Herald, who had been its correspondent dur- 
ing the Civil War, and afterwards made quite a name 
by his zeal and cleverness as its correspondent at Abys- 
sinia. He is a short, thick set, sturdy young man of 
twenty-eight to thirty. He was often cited in the 
English papers for dispatches from Abyssinia several 
days ahead of Lord Napier's telegram. He then went 
to Greece and Crete and to Spain during the Revolution. 
He was then sent to Aden en route to Zanzibar to meet 
Dr. Livingstone, but at Aden met a British ship return- 
ing with news that there was no chance of Livingstone 
coming back that way. Pursuant to orders he came 
to Cairo to organize an expedition to meet Livingstone 
on the Nile, but here met Dr. Kirk's (map?) and now 
returns to New York via Paris. 

Thursday, February 18. Tasted butter for the first 


time since I left Paris. It looked exactly like hogs' 
lard, but did not taste badly. Set off at 8 in a jaunty 
carriage. Crossed a bridge where the draw was open, 
but for a roupee the captain had it shut up, leaving all 
the boats to wait until I had crossed. Very pleasant 
drive through a most fertile country. The Vice-Roy 
has built or is building four new palaces on that side of 
the river ; the railway to Thebes is also on that side and 
will be open next year, it is thought. 

The pyramids, the desert, the sphynx have been 
so often and well described and one has seen so many 
engravings of them that all that is left to the modern 
traveller is to note his own special sensations. Beyond 
a doubt nothing of human work produces so nearly 
the sensation of awe such as that with which we regard 
the manifestations of God's great power as these won- 
derful monuments which have existed for so many 
generations. The advances of the desert are heaping 
piles of sand upon the sphynx, but it is impossible to 
express the singular emotion, sympathy I may say, 
which I felt when gazing at it. I have never seen any- 
thing, not even a great cyclone on the ocean, which has 
more strongly appealed to my feelings. 

Friday, February 19. This evening I was presented 
to the Vice-Roy, after the first act of the theatre. A 
small, rotund man of fifty, or thereabouts, with keen 
bright eyes. We exchanged a few words. He was 
very civil, and told me that if my visit could be made 
more pleasant by orders from him to inform him. 

Saturday, February 20. To Mosque of Mehemet 
Ali by way of Bazaars. Exceedingly curious and in- 
dustrious population. To the Citadel. At the Mosque 
the floors were covered with thick carpet. Three thou- 


sand lights. Priests were reading the Koran about the 
tomb of Mehemet Ali ; had to put slippers over my shoes. 
Beautiful fountain in the centre of sacred court, where 
people wash head, hands and feet before entering 
mosque for prayers. Marble courtyard with alabaster 
pillars; thence to Joseph's well. Returning saw Arab 
letter writer and indicted letter to children. Back to 
Arab bazaars, visiting Mosque of Hassan and others 
en route, very old; not over clean in corridors, etc. 
In the afternoon to Choubra palace of Halim Pasha; 
younger son of Mehemet Ah ; a hundred and ninety acres ; 
2 palaces for his wives; 25 in each says Aclimed. If he 
were to put them all together they would certainly 
quarrel. Beautiful palms surrounded by colonnades 
of marble. Went into various apartments; amongst 
others the room in which the great Mehemet Ali breathed 
his last. 

Sunday, February 21. Up early and down to mu- 
seum at Boulak, thence to Embebah, thence to palace 
of Hassan Pasha to see the Nilometer. The palace is 
at the end of the island and built on sea wall. After- 
wards to old Cairo. Saw a Coptic church and down in 
vault, the place where the Virgin Mary lodged during 
the flight into Egypt. Then to the Mosque of Sultan 
Amron, which must have been magnificent. It was 
much destroyed by a Pasha who took 300 columns of 
marble for his palace. Past the Mosque of Melech 
Adhel en route, and the palace of Mustaffa, much pulled 
down. Then to another old Coptic church where paint- 
ings were very curious. In the afternoon drove out to 
see obelisk at Heleopolis and then to Joseph's sycamore, 
where I saw one of the Vice-Roy's sons, good looking, 
but rather scared sort of expression. Quite a number 


of visitors of all sorts including three very fat Greeks. 
In the evening to the circus. The Vice-Roy was there, 
for which reason no programme was printed or an- 
nounced. There was a trapeze performance by two 
brothers, which was so daring and dangerous that the 
audience fairly screamed with excitement. 

Monday, February 22. Received a letter from 
Mr. Vernon " Pour introduire Monsieur Thomas Balch, 
qui se rend dans ITsthme pour visiter la ligne des trav- 
aux. Veuilez, je vous prie, lui donner toutes facilit6s 
pour la visite qu'il se propose de faire, ainsi que tous 
les renseignements qu'il vous demandera sur la marche, 
la conduite et les details de nos travaux." Left at 9.30. 
Breakfast at Zaggazig. I was alone in a car with a com- 
mercial agent of the Messageries Imperiales. He de- 
scribed the mode of doing things in Egypt most hu- 
morously. The revenues of Egypt are about $200,000,- 
000, of which nearly, or quite one-half is spent in gas- 
pillage. More than 2000 heads of cattle pass daily by 
Suez. The revenue is 2000 piastres daily. The gov- 
ernment gets 400 piastres a month. The rest is a pure 
robbery. The magnificent establishment of Alexan- 
dria for railways, etc., has the most complete collection 
of tools and machinery possible, but nothing which will 

At Ismailiah M. de Lesseps and a large party got in, 
among others the engineer of the Pen. and Or. Co., Mr. 
Stone. He was very polite and after finding out who 
I was he took my letter to M. de Lesseps in the adjoin- 
ing compartment. On getting to Suez, M. de Lesseps 
asked for Mr. Balch in a clear loud tone. He took 
my hand in both of his and invited me to go with him 
to-morrow. To P. and O. Hotel where M. de Lesseps 


ordered room for me, number 33. Queer dinner; variety 
of things all served helter-skelter by Hindoos. We had 
rather a jolly crowd however. Three years ago the 
population was not quite 3000, now it is upwards of 
30,000. Three years ago all the water was brought 
from the Nile in skins on the backs of camels and sold 
for half a franc a bottle. 

Tuesday, February 23. Up at 5.30. Found M. de 
Lesseps down stairs. He was exceedingly kind. We 
breakfasted at Chalouff very well and mounted some 
on horses, some on donkeys, and a most romantic and 
picturesque calvalcade we made streaming along the 
sides of the canal, twenty or more Arab boys dressed 
in white with gay scarfs leading. The rest followed. 
Arrived late at Ismailiah. 

Wednesday, February 24. Received the following 
general letter of introduction from M. de Lesseps : — 

" Direction generale des travaux. 

Suez, le 24 fevrier 1869. 
"Mr. Balch, citoyen des Etats-Unis d'Amerique est 
specialement recommand£ sur toute la ligne de travaux. 
" Les moyens de transport et 1' hospitality lui seront 
fournis par les agents de la compagnie. 

' ' Mr. l'agent superieur directeur gal. des travaux, Mrs. 
les ingenieurs de division et chefs des services voudront 
bien se mettre a sa disposition. 

"Le President 



Across the sand to El Guize (?), thence to Shally 
and V. R. (?), built by Said Pasha just before he died 
and round by Lake Timsah to the water works. At 
El Guiez there is a little town built because this was 
the high point between the two seas. It is curious to 
note here at Ismailiah the fraternity and good feeling 
of the employees. No castes nor beaurocracy. Also 
that the people who have built Ismailiah come to love 
the desert as the sailor does the sea. A French gentle- 
man, Mr. Voisin, told me he found three months too 
long at Paris and pined for the sun. 

Thursday, February 25. Left at 6.30 A. M. in a 
little steamer; glorious sunrise. Crossed Lake Timsah, 
which three years ago did not contain a drop of water 
and now is a great salt lake. Mr. Nicholais agent of 
Lloyd steamers, described the canal six years ago as a 
"petite rigole maritime." Day bright but cool. Break- 
fasted at Tamtarah, where Moses passed with children 
of Israel. Tamtarah means bridge or passage. Reached 
Port Said at 2.30. Lloyd's Austrian agent met me and 
we went to the Phare, which we mounted and where 
we had a view of the town and the Port. Then in a 
barque to the breakwater ; walked along it ; it is made 
of artificial stone 122,000 each weighing 20 tons. The 
wind outside was so strong that the waves dashed clear 
over the breakwater. Left Port Said at 9.30 P. M. 
Just now there is great trouble here about the attack 
by certain desperado Greeks on Dr. F. of the French 
Navy. He was stabbed in several places and beaten 
over the head last night and his life is despaired of. 

Friday, February 26. Reached Cairo at 5.30 P. M. 

Saturday, February 27. Visit to the Kalipha's Tombs. 
Of the tomb of the Mameluques my dragoman Achmed 


said "When Mohammed killed them he bring all de 
bones and de meat and bury him all up together — 
nobody know who he be." 

Sunday, February 28. Left at 8 A. M. by train at 
Imbibah for [name illegible]. Thence to catacomb 
by donkey and pyramids of Sakarah. In the train met 
a Frenchman who is director of the works for building 
bridges for the upper Egyptian Railway. He said the 
gaspillage here exceeds belief. He has a corvee of 4000 
men. The Colonel of Cavalry and the prefect keep back 
1000 and charge for them all the same. When he com- 
plained they laughed and told him he did not know the 
ways of the country. They divided the sum paid by 
the Vice Roy for the labor of these men between them- 
selves. After visiting the very curious village of [name 
illegible], I went on to Memphis statue of Chereostrees 
and to the pyramids. My donkey did his best to fall 
down as he was badly shod. Showers of rain. The 
Frenchman sought shelter at the house of Mr. Mariette. 
I kept on to the catacombs where are the tombs of the 
Athesiest or sacred bulls ; went through all the galleries ; 
one tomb in granite polished like glass; twenty-four in 
all. Some have been taken away. There are some 
beautifully preserved specimens of columns, figures, 
sculptures, etc. Some of the female figures have been 
disfigured. Then called on Mr. Mariette, who is very 
enthusiastic about Egyptian civilization. After a little 
chat he sent an aid to show me the tomb of a king, 
which has just been opened and never before shown. 
The pictures and sculptures were as fresh as if the painter 
were still at work. 

The desert gives me a sense of awe — for it is composed 
of ruins crumbled into dust of a great city whose palaces 


have never been equalled, but whose history is lost in 

At the station saw a young pretty Arab girl who joked 
with the men, old and young about her, like the best of 

Thursday, March 4. Went to a ball at the Vice- 
Roy's. It was a most gay sight; grounds were splen- 
didly lighted up, grottos, kiosques, etc. Palace very 
pretty; great crowd, very few ladies. The Vice-Roy 
received in the room alongside the grand hall. He was 
very civil to me; pretty fair supper. De Lesseps, Sir 
John Lawrence, the Duke of Sutherland and lots of 
English were there; Voisin Bey, in fact all the canal 
was there; Alexandria in general came out in great 
force. Left at 2. 

Monday, March 8. Left at 8 A. M. ; reached Alex- 
andria at 12 o'clock. 

Tuesday, March 9. Sailed to-day; wind fair, sea 
calm, but poor ship. 

Friday, March 12. Approaching Messina we saw Etna 
for awhile, covered with snow, out of which streamed 
a column of smoke. We arrived at Messina 5.30 P. M., 
after a hurried dinner we took the boat and went ashore. 
Visited Cathedral, which is half eastern in its struc- 
ture, with beautiful columns of red granite. The 
portail curious for its sculptures. Took a boat and 
back to ship and chaffed the coral men who were just 

Soon after we came to the coast of Calabria, wild and 
rugged. Made some rough sketches. Of a sudden, just 
as we were talking of the dismal character of the country, 
a railway train came in sight bound to Reggio. It 
seemed strangely different from the scene through which 


it passed. Molitto seemed rather a large town and 
Reggio a prosperous one. 

We quitted Messina at a few minutes before 8, and 
with rather a misty night after midnight saw a lurid 
spot in the sky which was Stromboli. 

Sunday, March 14. Yesterday the mistral blew. I 
amused myself by telling all the stories of storm and 
shipwreck, or as a Frenchman expressed it this morning, 
I spread a veritable "panique" through the ship. We 
were, however, not without a certain danger, as at 10 
o'clock some of the officers were for returning and going 
to Naples. Some one more decided than the rest, 
counselled delay until midnight when the wind went 
down. The morning is clear and bright. We lay off 
Monte Cristo for some time, and are now near Cape 

Monday, March 15. Reached Marseilles and took 
train to Paris. It was very cold. The mountains and 
hills are covered with snow. There was a wind ahead 
so strong that we were eighteen miles behind time at 

At the end of June, 1870, Mr. Balch took his 
family from Paris to Spa for the summer, and soon 
after the Franco-German War broke out. He 
went to Paris in August for a few days and in 
September he paid a visit to Sedan. He spent 
the winter at Wiesbaden, and afterwards made a 
tour in Italy. 

August 12, 1870, Friday. Left Spa and went to 
Bruxelles with H. G. Chadwick. 

August 13. Left Bruxelles, 9 A. M. train with Chad- 
wick. Day pleasant. No people in fields. Here and 


there, solitary old woman or a child. Wheat left in 
rows; ploughs, harrows standing in fields. Factory 
chimneys not smoking; otherwise scarce a sign of war. 
Arrived Paris 5.30. Dined Cercle des Chemins de Fer. 
Sunday, 3 P. M., no news. Breakfasted at Cercle with 
Cornells de Witt. He is not discouraged. He says 
there are four men in France especially detested by the 
Emperor, Bazaine Changarnier, Trochu, M [name illegible] 
and on these four men he now depends. 

Thursday, September 22, 1870. Left Spa with Ed- 
win, at 7.20 A. M. by railroad to Liege and thence to 
Libramont. Left Libramont in diligence at 5 P. M. 
Two farmers from Mons in diligence. Arrived Bouillon 
8.30. Lodgings chez Toussaint, 26 rue du Moulin. 

Friday, September 23. Whilst walking up the 
street at Bouillon a heavy large shutter fell between 
Edwin and myself; escape narrow, miraculously so. 
Left Bouillon at 7.15 A. M. in an open, rough trap, for 
battlefield and Sedan. Day bright, but windy. On the 
road, we met, from time to time, red cross people, am- 
bulances, tourists, etc. At Belgian frontier, were huts 
of French farmers, escaping from Prussian exactions. 
At the first place we came to with signs of the battle, 
La Chapelle, there were graves of francs tireurs. Visited 
the Ambulance Hollandaise, a church filled with 
wounded. Thence to Givonne, where we saw marks of 
cannonade and many graves of horses. Here the Crown 
Prince of Saxony attacked. Thence to D'egines (?) 
whence the Bavarians shelled the French on the oppo- 
site heights, the shells passing clear over the town of 
Sedan. Edwin picked up a "giberne." Met a convoy 
of wounded Saxons, — gave them cigars. Thence to 
Dr. Frank's hospital, in the Chateau of Moncalle, 


within a lovely park, just by Bazeills. He was very 
polite, took us to see two rooms of his patients, several 
severely wounded. He has several ambulances under his 
care. He walked to our carriage with us. Gave him some 
fruit and the two latest newspapers. Graves, with inscrip- 
tions, of dead officers and soldiers in park. Bazeills was a 
scene of desolation beyond description. Every house in 
village burnt to ashes. Some still smoking. Then to 
Balon : curious effects of shells. Soon after to the Meuse. 
Then to Sedan. Looked strange to see Prussian sen- 
tinels on ramparts at gates. Prussian soldiers and 
officers all through town. Drove to Hotel Europe. 
Wretched breakfast, exceptionally dear. "Lapins," which 
one gentleman said were cats, and beefsteaks which cer- 
tainly tasted like some horsemeat which I went to eat 
once in Paris. Then bought some photographs. Then to 
Kron Asfeld (?) highest work at Sedan, now American 
Ambulance. Dr. Sims exceedingly polite. He was going 
to breakfast, and we regretted we had eaten, as he had 
genuine mutton chops and chickens. Ladies nursing 
there, one a Miss Pearson, son of Lt., who re- 
ceived sword of Essex [Phrase in part illegible.] She 
has it now. Action of Phoebe and Essex, 1813. Dr. Sims 
showed us positions of armies, and Napoleon's head- 
quarters. 3000 French killed, 13,000 wounded. Bavarians 
had 60,000 on going into action; lost 15,000; Prussian 
loss not heavy. The French batteries were on heights on 
one side of town. Prussian on the other. Bullets went 
over. Two French generals and many other officers 
killed there. Soldiers beat their guns to pieces. No 
command, no order. Dr. Sims had two men killed in 
front of hospital door. Three cannon balls cut holes 
into wall of room where they were operating. Several 


killed just below. Dr. Sims saw men cut slices from 
horses killed by bombs and eat flesh raw. He says 
that for some days they all lived on horseflesh. Fare 
very decent now, but every one of his aids has been 
taken down sick. Much typhus in Sedan and neigh- 
borhood. Dr. Pratt and Dr. May joined us and we 
walked on ramparts. Sentinel informed us we must 
clear out as his orders were to fire. Day before yester- 
day one of the American doctors was fired at by sen- 
tinel, who just missed him. In Sedan, met Jack Chad- 
wick in street. Mr. Robert had bought some chassepots 
and sabres. We did not, on account of difficulty of pass- 
ing douanes. Carriage could not drive to Chateau where 
King and Emperor met, as the Governor had shut up 
three gates. Drove round fortifications, thence to see 
where cavalry was beaten back ; stench horrible. Thence 
to visit heights where French were; fields all covered 
with torn knapsacks, gibernes, all sorts of proofs of 
slaughter. We picked up a box of chassepot cartridges 
intact. Lots of others loose on ground. In some 
places the ground was black with blood, and many new 
made graves of corpses just buried. Saw whole wagon 
loaded with knapsacks. Edwin picked up on French 
heights the knapsack of a Franc tireur, casque, etc. The 
American doctors said the Chassepot was better than the 

Drove back late in the evening to Bouillon, where we 
are lodged in a wretched little house, -as we could not 
get in at Hotel de la Poste. Decent, civil, obliging 
people, who do their best to make us comfortable, but 
it was not to be done. 

Saturday, 24. Visited Chateau de Bouillon, the sihge 
of Godefrey de Bouillon. Subterranean passages, etc. 


Left at 11.30 by diligence. Dined at Bertry. Thence 
to Neuf chateau. (?). Thence to Langlier. Thence by 
train to Luxembourg. Delayed at one place for two 
hours. Heard much rolling noise. Scolded guard and 
conductor, who said there was no answer from stations. 
Arrived Luxembourg 8.45 P. M. instead of 6.3 S P. M. 
Hotel de l'Europe, good beds, wretched cuisine, exorbi- 
tantly dear. 

25 September, Sunday. Luxembourg. Learned this 
morning that Bazaine had cut off three convoys and 
cut telegraph wires last night. This was the cause of 
our delay on the railroad and the noise we heard was 
the cannonade. Went to see fortifications, etc. in prog- 
ress of demolition. As soon as they are torn down nice 
houses are put up, but it seems a pity that such marvel- 
lous works of military genius and human labor should 
be removed, not kept for future generations. Left 
Luxembourg 12.10, arrived Spa, 9.35. Nice country. 

October 15, 1870. From Spa to Cologne. 

October 16. To Koblenz. Hotel Anker. Head waiter 
told me Marie, Tom's nurse, was so furious about war 
she was ready to bite a German. Enormous number of 
soldiers at Koln. The same at Koblenz. 14th army 
corps going to Metz because Frederick Karl has lost so 
many men by dysentery and typhus. All suburbs of 
Koln bore proof to how Prussians were getting ready; 
trees cut down; new earthworks, some finished, some 
half finished, cannon mounted, cannon covered but 
ready for ramparts, etc. Went to camp at Koblenz 
where are the French prisoners. 

October 18. Up the Rhine by Steamer Manheim. 
On to Wiesbaden. Hotel Rose. 

October 19. Met General L'H6rillier this afternoon 


at Kursaal. Very glad to see each other. He was 
slightly wounded but looks well. 

October 22. A day or two ago there was a curious 
coincidence. As we were in the Kursaal listening to the 
last piece of music, "Am Schonen Rhein" we could not 
understand why cannon sounds were brought in to 
waltzing time. What was more remarkable was the 
extraordinary resemblance to real cannon. An officer 
sitting underneath the gallery laughed at the attempt 
to give an idea of a battle. On coming back from the 
theatre in the evening we had an explanation. General 
von Manstein, commanding the Ninth Corps d'armee 
was buried at the sound of the guns which we heard 
and mistook for part of the music. He arrived at 
Gravelotte and the first thing he saw was his only son 
killed. The shock was so great that he fell senseless 
and was brought back here, but only to die. 

November 4, Friday. Edwin and myself walked over 
to Mainz. A lovely day. Went via Mosbach and then 
along the stockades and fortifications some ten English 
miles. Saw French troops coming by the hundred from 
Metz, fine healthy looking men. Saw also French 
soldiers, cavalry of the line, etc., working in fields, dig- 
ging potatoes, piling wood for German peasants. Came 
back in railroad with a French General who had served 
under Bazaine and who was very friendly to him. He 
said Bazaine never once attempted to cut his way out. 
That he could have done so easily at any time up to 
the 25th of October. In the sortie no quarter was 
given, and even the wounded were bayonetted. Some 
eight hundred Prussians found in a wood where they 
had got by mistake were made prisoners. But all the 
rest on both sides finished! 


In the spring of 1871 Mr. Balch made a tour of 

February 18, 1871. Venice. Hotel Danieli. Have 
come south this month, by way of Stuttgart, Ulm, Augs- 
burg, Munich, Insbruck, Bozen, Verona. At Verona 
saw the carnival. This is their highest feast day. All 
streets alive, thronged. Sacks of confetti thrown into 
our carriage. Saw Museum, Tomb of Juliette, amphi- 
theatre, etc. Today visited in Venice, Church of St. 
Anastia, Cavalli tomb, Pelligrini tomb; Duomo, picture 
by Titian, tomb Scaligeri. Piazzi di Signori. Place du 
Marche\ Colonne erected by Venetian Republic. Na- 
poleon I. took lion off. 

February 19. To San Giorgio, Santa Maria della 
Salute, Galleria della arti, Rialto, Piazza di San Marco. 
Received invitation to a ball to-morrow from the Nuova 
Societa Apollinea at the request of a member, Sigr. 
Murrarelli Verpariano. 

February 20. Did some shopping. Then to Palace 
of Doges. Gondola to Arsenal. A pleasant young 
officer, Emilio Algranati, took us around. To Giardini 
Publici. Then to San Giorgio, Giudecca, Salute and 
Back at 11. Went to ball with El., who danced six 
times. Very pretty ball; nice rooms. Back at hotel 
at 3.30 A. M. 

February 21. On to Padua. Left 4.50, arrived 
6. Hotel Stella d'Oro; dear and bad. 

February 22nd. Padua. Visited Church San An- 
tonio. Young priest showed us about. Gorgeous ; many 
interesting tombs, Contarini, Horace Bembo, Convetu (?) 
Pompeius. To Bologna in afternoon. Hotel Brun. 
Took carriage and drove to Campo Santo; first one 
and origin of others. 


February 23. To Florence, Hotel Victoria; dear 
and disgusting. 

February 25. Florence. Got rooms in a villa near 
Hotel Italie; very nice. Edwin and I went to Cascino 
and Zoological Gardens 

February 26th. Sunday. Drove to Corso in after- 
noon. All world there in gala; King and suite. 

March 2nd. Left Florence 10 A. M. with Elise and 
Edwin for Rome. Lunch at Foligno. Arrived Rome 
8.30, Costanzi's Hotel. 

March 3rd. Drove to Porta Pia. Thence to St. 
John Lateran. Santa Scala crowded with people going 
up. Thence to Forum Trajan. St. Peters. Capitol. 
Through statuary. Coliseum in evening by moonlight, 

Saturday. Up early. Left Costanzi at quarter 
before 9. Arrived at Naples 5.5. Pleasant English- 
man and wife in car. Hotel de Russie. Sat next the 
Rush's at dinner. In the evening Vesuvius blazed 

Sunday. Elise went to church; Edwin and I to 
museum. After lunch drove to San Martino and Cas- 
tel Sant Elmo. Came back by Posilipo and ruins of 
[name illegible]. After dinner in Rush's parlor. 

Monday. 9 A. M. Went to Pompeii in carriage; 
made thorough visit. Lunched at Sun (Sola) not bad 
nor dear. Back by Herculaneum. Elise went to bed 
with a headache. 

Wednesday, 8 March. Left 8 A. M. with Rev. Mr. 
Garland, Dr. LeConte, Mr. Weld, Mr. Rogers, his wife and 
daughter, Lambert Palmer and Mr. Noyes of the Juniata, 
Edwin and Elise. Railway to Vietri. Carriage to 
Amain and back. Three small horses to each carriage. 


Most lovely ride. Scenes most varied and charming 
at each turn of the road. Lunched at Amalfi. Thence 
back by same road to Salerno, 7 P. M. Looked bright 
at distance. Hotel Victoria, clean and comfortable. 

March 9. Thursday. Up at six. Lovely morning. 
Confusion about breakfast, as about yesterday's din- 
ner. Did not go to Cathedral built by Robert Guiscard. 
By train to Battipaglia. Carriages to Paestum. On 
way crossed river in most primitive boat. Here bri- 
gands stopped diligence from Eboli last week. Saw 
lady and gentleman on horseback. He had a revolver. 
She also, I think. They were followed by three servants 
mounted and armed. We were much impressed by the 
ruins. So perfect. Standing there after so many cen- 
turies when the city which they adorned had crumbled 
into dust. Lunched in temple of Neptune. Then drove 
back to Battipaglia. By rail to Naples. Reached 9 
P. M. Our trip to Paestum was made more pleasant by 
Noyes and Palmer. 

March 15th. By train to Rome: 1.05 to 9 P. M. 

March 16th. Thursday. Went in a carriage to the 
Campagna to see the meet of fox hunt. Prince Hum- 
bert there. Did two or three churches. 

March 17th. Friday. Rome. Went to Tilton's 
studio with Edwin. Good water sketches; Venice, Nile, 
Egypt, Paestum. Afterwards to St. John Lateran, and 
to museum, with things from catacombs, mosaics, etc. 

While residing at Paris, Mr. Balch wrote Les 
Frangais en Arne'rique pendant la Guerre de Vlnde"- 
pendence des Etats-Unis, 1777-1755, an account of 
the part that the French Military expedition under 
the orders of Count Rochambeau took in the 


War of Independence. For this work he consulted 
many unpublished manuscripts, some of which, 
like that of Dupetit-Thouars, he collected himself, 
while others were placed at his disposal by the fami- 
lies of the writers. Returning home in 1873, he 
published in 1874 a short monograph, International 
Courts of Arbitration, in which, besides giving some 
account of the Alabama arbitration, he discussed and 
defined the possibilities of settling international dis- 
agreements by a resort to Courts of Arbitration. 182 
Summing up the results of the Geneva Tribunal, 
as a precedent, he said: 

1,2 In the Revue de Droit International et de Legislation Compare" e , 
Brussels, 1899, page 200, there is a compte rendu or review of Inter- 
national Courts of Arbitration, by Thomas Balch, second edition 
published by his son Thomas Willing Balch. Philadelphia, 1899, 
Henry T. Coates and Company. 

"L'etude de M. Balch a ete publiee pour la premiere fois, en 1874, 
dans le Law Magazine and Review. II a 6te rendu compte ici meme de 
la reimpression de l'interessante oeuvre en 1895. [Voir Revue, tome 
XXVII., page 612.] * * * Le moment est opportun. La reunion 
de la Conference de la Haye garantit de nouveaux progres de l'idee 
de l'arbitrage international. II etait bon de remettre en memoire le 
nom d'un des hommes qui ont le plus contribu6 a prouver que l'ar- 
bitrage n'est pas une utopie de reveur, mais un mode efficace et 
pratique d'apaisement de bien des conflits. 

"II y a quelque trente ans, le differend de V Alabama avait pris un 
caractere de grande acuite. La guerre paraissait inevitable. L'at- 
titude du gouvernement anglais semblait ecarter tout espoir d'ar- 

"Le mode le plus usite d'apaisement des conflits internationaux 
avait jusque-la consiste dans la designation d'un monarque comme 
arbitre des pr6tentions des Etats en conflit. L'experience avait 
revele les multiples inconvenients de cette pratique. Deja les Etats- 
Unis avaient, quelques annees auparavant, rejet6 une proposition 
d'abandonner a un souverain le droit de juger leurs reclamations. 

"L'Angleterre et les IJtats-Unis, d'ailleurs, n'etaient pas separes 
seulement par des questions de fait. L'arbitre aurait eu a trancher, 
avant tout, de graves questions de principes. Les fitats-Unis avaient 


"The friends of International Courts of Arbitration 
may fairly assert that this mode of settling great 
national questions has been fully and successfully 
tried, that it may be considered as having thereby 
passed into and henceforth forming a distinct part of 

toujours soutenu que dans les guerres maritimes les navires des 
puissances neutres devaient jouir de tous les privileges et de toutes 
les immunites des eaux territoriales. L'Angleterre n'avait point 
encore adopts ces vues si progressives. Pouvait-on esperer de voir 
les Etats-Unis abandonner a un souverain le droit de condamner 
des regies juridiques qu'ils avaient pratiquees pendant des annees 
et pour la revendication desquelles ils avaient, en definitive, combattu 
en 1812-15 contre la Grande-Bretagne ! 

"Tous les esprits larges et pacifiques recherchaient et suggeVaient 
d'autres modes d'apaisement du conflit. C'est alors que divers 
juristes songerent a la constitution d'une cour arbitrale. M. Balch 
eut a ce sujet avec le president Lincoln (1864) une conversation 
int£ressante. Tout en trouvant l'idee bonne et digne d'etre emise 
et discut^e, Lincoln pensait qu'elle ne serait pas accueillie a ce moment 
par l'opinion publique americaine. En fait, l'idee etait si impopu- 
laire que plusieurs journaux refuserent de publier une lettre ou M. 
Balch l'exposait et la defendait. Finalement, toutefois, Horace 
Greeley consentit a l'inserer dans le New York Tribune (mai 1865). 
M. Balch y proposait que les deux fitats en litige choisissent chacun 
un juriste competent, et que ces deux arbitres se missent d'accord 
sur le choix d'un troisieme. II montrait combien ce plan etait 
simple et pratique. La voix pacifique de M. Balch ne ren- 
contra point d'echo tout d'abord. Mais deux ans plus tard, quelques 
publicistes, Laboulaye, Henri Moreau, Holtzendorff, Kapp, discute- 
rent sa lettre dans des conferences et des articles de revue. La 
discussion donna de la vigueur a l'idee; elle fit des progres constants 
et fut realisee par le traite de Washington. 

"Les regies tracees par ce traits furent vivement et justement 
critiquees. La reunion de la cour arbitrale a Geneve et l'apaisement 
du conflit n'en furent pas moins un triomphe pour l'idee de l'arbi- 
trage. II ne pouvait plus 6tre question desormais d'utopie et de 
reverie. Un pas enorme avait 6t6 fait, et le nom de M. Balch sera 
toujours cite avec reconnaissance avec celui de Lorimer dans l'his- 
toire de l'arbitrage international. F. C." 

French and German translations of International Courts of 
Arbitration have been printed: Internationale Schiedsgerichtshofe, 
Philadelphia, 1899, and Tribunaux Intemationaux d' Arbitrage, 
Philadelphia, 1900. 


that uncertain and shapeless mass of decisions and dicta 
which we call International Law. Without participating 
in the visions so grandly developed by Zuinglius, and 
so fondly cherished by Grotius, of the good time, a good 
time to be won only by toil and unremitting efforts, — 

' Till the war-drum throbb'd no longer, and the battle- 
flags were furl'd 
In the Parliament of man, the Federation of the 
world.' 183 

we may reasonably expect that through such tribu- 
nals, through their proceedings and decisions, and not 
through empirical codes, we may ultimately arrive at some 
more tangible and better ordered system of International 
Law ; one to which the assent of civilized peoples may be 
given greatly to the benefit and peace of mankind." 

About this pamphlet Henry Moreau wrote him 
the following letter in English: — 

"Paris 9 Oct. 1874. 

"370 rue St. Honore. 
"My Dear Balch, — Many thanks for your kind 
souvenir. I perused with the greatest interest and satis- 
faction your remarkable pamphlet on International Courts 
of Arbitration, and found you have given full evidence 
of your paternal right on this service which ended so hap- 
pily both for America and England, the quarrels spring- 
ing from the Alabama matter and the San Juan Bound- 
aries. I thank you also for having mentioned my name 
in such an honorable company, with the publicists who 
have illustrated the dark points of International Law. 

5}» 5(* *f5 *fi 5JC £]€ 2(C 


" Avocat a la cour d'Appel." 
183 Tennyson's Locksley Hall. 


Mr. Huntington wrote as follows : — 

" 42 Rue La Bruyere, Paris, 

" 30th Oct. 1874. 
" Dear Mr. Balch, — Your essay on International 
Courts of Arbitration reached me, per Sauton, two morn- 
ings ago, and has been read with great interest. I am 
glad to see that you are not grown weary of well-doing, 
but take the success of the Geneva Tribunal — which 
was partly yours— rather as an encouragement to new 
effort than as final reward. It seems to me that you 
have happily chosen your time to redirect public atten- 
tion to the principle and practicability of International 
Arbitration as a means of preventing the wars which 
every civilized, Christian, European nation is now ex- 
hausting itself in strained preparation of quite other 
means to urge in the impending future. What is wanted 
for the general acceptance of your idea is the general 
presentation of it to the tax-paying, conscripted, rank- 
and-file-people : — the circulation by the million of brief, 
intelligible, readable tracts like your essay. For no war 
can now be carried on without more or less popular 
assent: but the assent to the brutal exercise of the 
ultima ratio regnum is secured by previous working on 
the passions of the people, who are assured that there is 
no other means of settling national differences without 
loss of national honor and interest. See how the 
Franco-Prussian war was worked up, in proof : and how 
these ' Autumn manouvres, ' grating and blazing away 
over the parade grounds of all Europe last month, are 
gotten up and kept up. 

***** * * 



On his work in favor of submitting the "Alabama 
Claims" to International Arbitration, Mr. Herbert 
Welsh wrote in the Editorial column of City and 
State 18i on June 2nd, 1898, as follows: — 

"The late Thomas Balch of Philadelphia, who was 
perhaps the one man most instrumental in securing ar- 
bitration as the means of settling the Alabama Claims, 
must, viewed from this point, be regarded a hero, surely 
not less great than Admiral Dewey. The latter, with 
skill and courage, won a brilliant naval victory for his 
country and destroyed many ships and men belonging 
to her enemies ; but the former was the unremembered 
instrument by which peace between the two great 
English-speaking peoples was maintained when a deadly 
and destructive war otherwise was certain to occur. It 
is possible the day may yet dawn when Fame will be- 
stow her favors with a less capricious hand, and when the 
humane conserver will earn grateful remembrance as well 
as the successful destroyer. Arbitration of the Alabama 
Claims, before the fact, and when England and the United 
States were burning with international hatred, seemed 
much further beyond the range of possibility than did 
arbitration of the facts in the case of the 'Maine.' When 
Mr. Balch visited Mr. Lincoln on this subject in Novem- 
ber, 1864, the President observed that 'the idea was a 
good one, but that in the then existing temper of the 
American people it was neither possible nor popular.' 
In fact, as he quaintly expressed it, we were 'not near 
enough to the millennium for such methods of settling 
international quarrels.' But yet this international quar- 
rel was so settled, and in no other way.' 

184 City and State, published every Thursday. Herbert Welsh, 
Managing Editor and Publisher, Philadelphia . 


Two weeks later, on June 16th, 1898, Mr. Welsh 
wrote in City and State: — 

" Some of our readers have been surprised to learn from 
City and State something of the part which the late 
Thomas Balch played in regard to the arbitration of the 
Alabama Claims. They did not know that the towns- 
man of ours was at all concerned in bringing about a 
peaceful settlement of a great international difficulty. 

"For our own part, while we are fully ready to honor 
American heroes who are eminent by virtue of military 
or naval services to their country, we feel with peculiar 
keenness not only the intrinsic justice, but the future pub- 
lic necessity, of giving as well the meed of permanent 
praise and recognition to those (all too readily forgotten) 
who have rendered great service to their native land by 
some purely peaceful achievement. To those who have 
studied history in a broad and liberal spirit as its pages 
have been unfolded within the last three centuries, is it 
not apparent that the necessity for securing methods 
and cultivating a spirit whereby the international law 
court shall take the place of war will more and more 
assert itself? If this be true, the lovers of peace and the 
practical workers for securing it are likely in the future to 
play a still more important part than the steadily ad- 
vancing one which they have performed in the recent 
past. To whom, then, could the citizens of Philadel- 
phia — a city whose name is synonymous with brotherly 
love — more appropriately raise some permanent memo- 
rial than to their own townsman, Thomas Balch, whose 
suggestions and efforts, at a most critical period in our his- 
tory, led directly to an amicable instead of a bloody set- 
tlement of a quarrel between ours and the mother land?" 


In The Record of Leesburg, Loudon County, Vir- 
ginia, Mr. Balch's birthplace, there was published 
on June 29th, 1906, the following article: — 

A Virginia Pioneer in the cause of International 
Arbitration. — Editor The Record. 

•t* *F t* *P *|» sj5 sft 

It is generally known that Virginia has furnished the 
nation (using the term to include the Confederacy also) 
more great leaders in war than any other State. It is 
not so well known that she has furnished great leaders 
in the arts of peace, particularly in those arts which 
seek to render war impossible. The following quota- 
tion directs attention to a native of Loudoun whose 
chief fame rests upon his efforts to secure the establish- 
ment of an international court of arbitration. This 
quotation is from an obituary which was published in 
the Magazine of American History, New York, 1877, 
by its editor John Austin Stevens, librarian of the 
New York Historical Society, the part referring to Mr. 
Balch's suggestion of a court of international arbitration 
being quoted with approval by John Howard Brown in 
the recent edition of Lamb's Biographical Dictionary. 

5|» 5p ?J> ?J> *fc *f> Sf£ 

"Mr. Balch still found time for other studies and 
thought. In 1865 he proposed in a letter to Mr. Greeley, 
which was published in the Tribune, a Court of Inter- 
national Arbitration, as a measure of averting war, 
which is believed to have been the first step in this 
direction. In it was laid down the code of rules later 
observed by the Geneva Tribunal." 

The letter referred to by Mr. Stevens was published 
in the New York Tribune of May 13th, 1865. It is too 
long to quote here in full, but the sections that offer a 


solution for a peaceful settlement of the Alabama claims 
deserve careful study, since the principles laid down in 
them are fundamentally the same as those that have 
been adopted as a basis for procedure by the Inter- 
national Tribunal at the Hague. They are as follows: 

"Sec. III. That as to such claims, war was a bar- 
barous manner of enforcing them; that the most suc- 
cessful war would after all be a most expensive and 
unsatisfactory process of litigation; and that the civ- 
ilized and Christian way of ascertaining their validity 
and extent should be by arbitration. 

"Sec. IV. That the best manner of composing such 
a Court of Arbitration would be, that each party should 
select some competent jurist, those two to select an 
umpire. The claims to be presented, proved and argued 
before this Court, whose decisions should be final and 
without appeal." 

But the learned editor of the Magazine of American 
History is mistaken in considering this the first step in 
the direction of a court of international arbitration. 
Prof. John Bassett Moore in the History and Digest of 
the International Arbitrations to which the United States 
has been a party (Washington, 1898, vol. 2, page 2109), 
points out that the Senate of Massachusetts in Feb- 
ruary, 1832, adopted by a vote of 19 to 5 a resolution 
that " some mode should be established for the amicable 
and final adjustment of all international disputes, in- 
stead of resort to war." A similar resolution was passed 
by both houses of the Massachusetts Legislature in 
1838, and about the same time "an agitation began 
for the convoking of a Congress of nations, for the pur- 
pose of establishing an international tribunal for the 
adjustment of differences." 


However, the origination of the idea of an international 
tribunal for settling disputes did not proceed from the 
Massachusetts Legislature. Its source is lost in the 
haze of legendary history, its first practical operation 
being seen in the amphictyonic council of the Greek 
States. Another plan for international arbitration was 
the Grand Design of Henry IV. of France, projected by 
his minister Sully in 1603. But the probable originator 
of the modern idea of a permanent international tri- 
bunal was a Frenchman — Emeric Cruce, in his book, 
Le Nouvean Cyne"e, 1623. 

Since Cruc6's time the idea has been repeatedly ad- 
vocated, a notable exponent being William Penn, who 
proposed a European Diet, Parliament, or Estates in 
1693-94. Other advocates of this idea were Bentham, 
James Mill and John Stuart Mill among Englishmen, 
Rousseau among Frenchmen, and Leibniz, Kant and 
the jurist Bluntschli among the Germans. From the 
last named Thomas Balch derived some of his ideas, 185 as 
did also the Baroness von Suttner, who has recently 
received the Nobel Peace Prize of $40,000. 

Altho' not the originator of the idea, Thomas Balch 
won distinction by suggesting in Section IV. of his letter 
to the Tribune a plan which with slight modification 
resulted in the Geneva Tribunal, a direct forerunner of 
the present Hague Tribunal. If we admit the claims 
of Fulton over those of Rumsey as the inventor of the 
steamboat, on the ground of making it a practical suc- 
cess, we must by the same logic award Thomas Balch 

185 Mr. Balch did not gain some of his ideas for his plan from the 
works of Bluntschli, but he did consult the writings of Grotius, 
Sully, Castel de Saint Pierre, Bentham, Kant, and other jurists and 


the honor claimed for him by Mr. Stevens and Mr. Brown, 
that of having originated the present method of settling 
disputes between nations by an international court of 


Library of Congress. 

In 1875 Mr. Balch translated for the Bankers' 
Magazine of New York, Walowski's famous paper on 
the payment of The French War Fine. 186 On March 
1st, 1875, he became one of the founding members 
of the Social Art Club of Philadelphia, whose name 
was changed in 1888 to the Rittenhouse Club. In 
1876 he edited the Journal of Claude Blanchard, a 
translation from the original manuscript of one of 
Rochambeau's officers, and wrote for the Presby- 
terian Quarterly Review an essay on Calvinism and 
American Independence. 

In this latter essay he pointed out the important 
part that the settlers of the Calvinistic faith in 
the British North American Colonies, especially 
the descendants of the French Huguenot refugees, 
contributed to bringing on the War of Independ- 
ence with Great Britain. 

The following year Mr. Balch edited a translation 
from the original French manuscript of the Narra- 
tive of the Prince de Broglie of a visit to America in 

186 R6sultats £conomiques du payment de la Contribution de Guerre en 
Allemagne et en France par L. Walowski, membre de l'lnstitut, 
Depute de la Seine: Paris, 1874. 


In the number of The Magazine of American 
History (New York) for July, 1879, there was pub- 
lished a communication criticizing the accuracy of 
the preliminary note that Mr. Balch prefixed to 
the Narrative of the Prince de Broglie. In answer 
to an inquiry on the subject by Mr. Balch's 
daughter to the Fourth Due de Broglie 187 in 1885, 
that gentleman wrote as follows, absolutely sustain- 
ing Mr. Balch's statements 188 : — 

" Les renseignements donnes par Monsieur votre Pere 
au sujet de ma famille, sont absolument conformes a la 
verite. Le titre de Prince du Saint Empire Romain 
avait et6 donne par l'lmperatrice Marie Therese au 
Marechal de Broglie en 1759, pour etre porte" par lui et 
par tous ses descendants mdles. C'est en vertu de cette 
nomination que mon grand -pere, Claude Victor de 
Broglie, portait ce titre, que je l'ai porte moi-mgme et 
que tous mes fils le prennent aujourd'hui. 

" Le Mar6chal de Broglie est bien mort en 1804, tres- 
peu de jours apres le refus qu'il avait fait de rentrer en 
France, sur la proposition du premier Consul. 

" II n'y a done aucune modification a faire aux faits 
affirmes par Monsieur votre Pere, et toute critique a cet 
egard est d6pourvue de fondement." 188 

187 ATbert de Broglie, Fourth Due de Broglie, a son of the Third Due, 
and through his mother a grandson of Madame de Stael, was born at 
Paris, June 13th, 1821, and died there January 19th, 1901. A states- 
man and historian, his long life was a busy one. During the Presi- 
dency of Marshal MacMahon, he was, from May 1873 until May 1874 
and again in 1877, Prime Minister of France. He was a voluminous 
writer. In 1856, he published I'Eglise et V Empire romain au IV e 
Steele, which opened for him in 1862 the portals of V Acadtmie 
Francaise. He also wrote le Secret du Roi, 1878; Frederic II et Marie 
Therese, 1883, etc. 

188 This letter of le Due de Broglie is printed in The Magazine of 
American History, New York, for April, 1886, at page 407. 


On February 23rd, 1877, Mr. Balch read before 
the Philadelphia Social Science Association a paper 
on Free Coinage and a Self-Adjusting Ratio. Mr. 
Balch — who for a long time, without regard to the 
rise and the fall of political parties, was a close and 
careful student of monetary questions, and who 
enjoyed a long and intimate friendship with Michel 
Chevalier and knew many other students of mon- 
etary matters, such as George Walker and Henri 
Cernuschi — maintained in that address the advan- 
tages of opening the mints freely both to gold and 
to silver. Mr. Balch was fully cognizant of that 
unwritten, but infallible monetary law, that when 
two moneys of unequal value are in circulation 
side by side, the cheaper or poorer will drive the 
dearer out of circulation. He was thoroughly 
familiar with the statements of that law prepared 
by Nicole Oresme, Bishop of Lisieux in Normandy 
in 1364 for Charles the Fifth of France, surnamed 
the Wise, by Copernicus of Thorn in 1526 for 
Sigismund the First of Poland, 189 and by Sir 
Thomas Gresham in the latter part of the 
sixteenth century for Elizabeth of England. 190 
Mr. Balch wished to have gold and silver pieces 

188 Traictie de la Premiere Invention des Monnoies de Nicole 
Oresme, textes Francais et Latin d'apres les manuscrits de la Biblio- 
theque Itnpiriale et Traiti de la Monnoie de Co pernio, texte latin 
et traduction francaise, publics et annotis par M. L. Wolowski, 
membre de I'Institut. Paris, Librairie de Guillaumin et C. ie , Rue 
de Richelieu, 14, 1864. 

190 Bimetalism by Henry Dunning MacLeod, London, 1894. 


marked with the weight of metal they contained, 
and to leave the ratio of exchange between the two 
metals to be settled by the unwritten law of supply 
and demand, and not by legal enactment. He 
did not believe in the ratio of 15>2 to 1, nor of 16 
to 1, nor of any other hard and fast ratio prescribed 
by legislation, but only in the commercial ratio 
whatever it might happen to be at the time. He 
maintained that the ratio between the two metals 
always had varied and always would vary, but 
that if the metals were left to themselves, they 
would promptly adjust their ratio of exchange, 
and that the variation between them, unhampered 
by legislative meddling, would be reduced to a 
minimum. With a total absence of partisan bias, 
but only with a desire to arrive at a proper solu- 
tion of a difficult and complex question, Mr. Balch's 
last piece of work before his death was to begin the 
translation of Ludwig Bamberger's Reichsgold, 191 
considered by many competent judges the ablest 
argument for the single-gold standard. 

Mr. Balch died at his home in Philadelphia, on 
March 29th, 1877. He married on October Sth, 
1852, at "Woodfield" in Philadelphia County, 
Emily Swift, daughter of Joseph Swift and his wife, 
Eliza Moore Willing, and grand-daughter of Samuel 
Swift and his wife, Mary, daughter of Lieutenant- 

191 Reichsgold: Studien uber Wdhrung und Wechsel von Ludwig 
Bamberger, Leipzig, 1876. 


Colonel Joseph Shippen, who served in General 
Forbes's expedition (1758) that captured Fort Du- 
quesne. 192 

192 Joseph Swift was born December 26th, 1799, at the "Grove" 
in Philadelphia County and died July 1st, 1882, at Long Branch, 
New Jersey. He was a Director of The Philadelphia Contribution- 
ship (the Hand in Hand), The Philadelphia Saving Fund Society, 
The Philadelphia Bank, and The Pennsylvania Company for Insurances 
on Lives and Granting Annuities. He was President of the Board of 
the Philadelphia Club from April 7th, 1854, to September 16th, 18S9. 
In 184S he took the first of a number of trips to Europe, travelling 
in that tour as far as Constantinople. In June, 1851, Prince and 
Princess Metternich invited him to dinner at Schloss Johannesberg. 
During the course of the dinner, the Prince sent for a half bottle of 
the 1842 blue seal Johannesberg, which was brought to him, and he 
himself poured out the fine wine. Afterwards Prince Metternich sent 
a bronze statuette of himself to Mr. Swift in recognition of some fine 
maderia that the latter sent him. Samuel Swift was a son of 
Joseph Swift (1731-1806) and his wife, Margaret McCall, (1731-1804) 
and a nephew of John Swift, known as "the Old Collector," who 
was the Secretary and Treasurer and one of the Managers of the 
first Philadelphia "Assemblies," which were given in 1748-49. Eliza 
Moore Willing was a daughter of George Willing and a grand- 
daughter of Thomas Willing, who headed the list of Signers of the 
Non- Importation Act in 1765, was a Justice of the Supreme Court 
of the Province of Pennsylvania and as such was the last person to 
hold a commission under the colonial constitution of Pennsylvania, 
was President of the Provincial Congress of Pennsylvania which 
met at Carpenters' Hall July 15th, 1774, was the first President of 
the Bank of North America, from 1782 to 1791, when he was made 
President of the First Bank of the United States (1791-1811.) Joseph 
Shippen was a son of Edward Shippen "of Lancaster," who was 
mayor of Philadelphia in 1744, one of the first trustees of Princeton 
University, and a great grandson of Edward Shippen who was 
named by Penn in the charter of 1701 mayor of Philadelphia. 

See Letters and Papers relating chiefly to the Provincial History of 
Pennsylvania with some notices of the writers, by Thomas Balch, 
Philadelphia, 1855. 

Edward Shippen, by Elise Willing Balch in Charles P. Keith's 
Provincial Councillors of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 1883. 

The English Ancestors of the Shippen Family and Edward Shippen 
of Philadelphia, by Thomas Willing Balch, Philadelphia, 1904. 

The Swift Family of Philadelphia, by Thomas Willing Balch, 
Philadelphia, 1906. 


Issue : 

7 I. Elise Willing Balch, born at Philadelphia. 
She translated the diary of the Prince de Broglie's 
visit to America in 1782, which was published in the 
Magazine of American History in 1877 ; 193 wrote the 
part called Edward Shippen in Charles P. Keith's 
Provincial Councillors of Pennsylvania, 1883, and 
was the chairman of the Grand Opera Committee 
in Philadelphia from 1898 to 1903. 

7 II. Edwin Swift Balch, born at Philadelphia. 
He lived in Europe as a boy and received his early 
education in France and Germany. 

In 1875 he entered the class of 1878 at Princeton 
College as a Sophomore. On Sunday afternoon, 
April 2d, 1876, President James McCosh, while lec- 
turing on the Bible in chapel, made a remark — as 
is mentioned in the '78 class reports — about "ele- 
phants and other natural products of the soil." All 
the students present, nearly the whole college, smiled 
and tittered, and some of them literally shook with 
laughter. Mr. Balch only smiled, 194 but President 
McCosh happened to look at him and singling him 
out, in a fit of anger, said: "Mr. Balch, as you sin 
openly, I will rebuke you openly," whereupon all 
the undergraduates in the chapel hissed. Two days 

193 Narrative by the Prince de Broglie of a visit to America, 1782, 
translated from an unpublished manuscript by Elise Willing Balch: 
Reprinted from the Magazine of American History, 1877. 

194 See ante page 193 how his bisaieul, the Rev. Dr. Balch also 
laughed at Princeton. 


later, Dr. McCosh, in his own house, apologized to 
Mr. Balch, the latter's father being present. How- 
ever, having thus incurred the enmity of Dr. 
McCosh, Mr. Balch left Princeton, the faculty 
accepting his departure with "regret." 195 

195 The following two letters from Professor Duffield explain the 
position and the feeling of the Faculty of Princeton College in this 

"Princeton, N. J., May 1st, 1876. 
"Thomas Balch, Esq. 
"My Dear Sir: 

"Your communication to the Faculty, addressed to me as 
Secretary, of date Apr. 26th (postmarked 27th) was duly reed., and 
the first opportunity embraced of submitting it to the Faculty. 
With regret, shared I am sure by the Faculty generally, your request 
was complied with, and I enclose you the certificate of your son's 
honorable dismission. 

"With our kindest regards, and best wishes for his future welfare, 
"Very truly yours, 

"John T. Duffield." 

"College of New Jersey. 
"Princeton, New Jersey, May 1, 1876. 
"This is to Certify, that Edwin Swift Balch was admitted to the 
Sophomore Class of the College of New Jersey at the Examinations 
in June last without conditions; that he has continued a member of 
the Class in good standing to the present date; that he passed sat- 
isfactorily the examinations of his class at the end of the Second 
Term, and that he is now honorably dismissed at the request of his 
father. "By order of the Faculty, 

"John T. Duffield, 

"Mr. Balch's grades were as follows: 

In Mathematics 84 

Greek 88.5 

Latin 87 

English 96 

Natural History 86 

French 99 

Bible 86 

Average grade 88.4 

Rank 28th in a class of 90. 

Grades are given but twice a year; at the end of the First and 
Third Terms." 


In the fall of 1876, he entered Harvard University 
as a Junior, and received there the degree of A. B. 
in June, 1878. Then he studied law in the office of 
William Henry Rawle, and was admitted to 
the Philadelphia Bar in 1881. He took much 
interest in painting and exhibited several times: 
at the Philadelphia Society of Artists in the 
Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in 1886; at 
the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts yearly 
from 1887 to 1891; and at the Philadelphia Art 
Club in 1887 and 1890. In 1880 in company 
with Charles Chauncey Binney of Philadelphia, 
H. W. Seton-Karr, of England, and the guide 
Christian Tuffli, he made the first ascent of and 
christened the Piz Be vers in the Engadine. In 
July, 1881, with two reindeer hunters, he made 
the first ascent of the highest Troll of the Troll- 
tinder in the Romsdal district in Norway. In 
1882 he made, in Switzerland, with the guides 
Franz Burgener and Alois Anthamatten, the second 
ascent of the Nadelhorn and the third ascent of the 
Portienhorn near Saas with the same guides; and 
crossed with them also the Rossbodenjoch between 
the Rauthorn and the Fletschorn, making a variation 
on the usual route. He ascended also many other 
peaks and crossed numerous passes. Among these 
may be mentioned the Piz Morteratsch, the Ortler, 
the Gross Venediger, the Rympfischorn, the Drei 
Zinnen and Monte Civetta; the Gepatschjoch, the 


Langtauferersjoch, the Ramoljoch, and the Roth- 
moosjoch with the Tyrolese guide, Joseph Spechten- 
hauser; the Neues Weissthor, and with Laurent 
Proment of Courmayeur, the Col du Geant. He 
has published several papers about mountains. 196 

He has made an exhaustive study of glacieres, 
visiting over forty in America and Europe, more 
than double the number ever seen by any one 
else. His observations proved conclusively that all 
underground ice is formed by the cold of winter 
alone ; and that the heat of summer only helps 
to melt it. His researches on underground ice he 
embodied in several papers and a book entitled, 
Glacieres or Freezing Caverns} 91 

In Antarctica (1902), he christened the eastern 
and the western lands of the south polar regions 

186 1. Mountain Exploration: Bulletin of the Geographical Club 
of Philadelphia, Vol. I., January, 1893. 

2. The Highest Mountain Ascent and the Effects of Rarefied Air; 
The Popular Science Monthly, Vol. XLVI., March, 1895. 

3. Ascents near Saas: Appalachia, Vol. VIII., November, 1896. 

4. Reminiscences of Tyrol : Appalachia, Vol. VIII., March, 1898. 

5. The Highest Mountain Ascent: Bulletin of the American Geo- 
graphical Society, Vol. XXXVI., February, 1904. 

197 1. Ice Caves and the Causes of Subterranean Ice, Philadel- 
phia, Press of Allen, Lane and Scott, 1896. Reprinted in The 
Journal of the Franklin Institute, Vol. CXLIIL, March 1897. 

2. Ice Cave Hunting in Central Europe: Appalachia, Vol. VIII., 
July 1897. 

3. Subterranean Ice Deposits in America: The Journal of the 
Franklin Institute, Vol. CXLVII., April, 1899. 

4. Glacieres or Freezing Caverns, Philadelphia, Allen, Lane and 
Scott, 1900. 

5. Evaporation underground: Monthly Weather Review, Decem- 
ber, 1901. 


respectively "East Antarctica" and "West Antarc- 
tica"; and his map in that book is the first that 
shows those names. 198 

In an article entitled Rdsultats scientifiques de 
V expedition antarctique suedoise in La Geographie 
of December 15th, 1904, 199 Dr. Otto Nordenskjold, 
leader of the Swedish Antarctic expedition of 1901- 
1903, writes as follows a propos of using the name 
West Antarctica for the western half of the South 
Polar regions: — 

" Ici se pose une question de nomenclature geo- 
graphique. II est clair que le complexe de terres ant- 
arctiques que nous avons explore^ c'est-a-dire la masse 
continentale qui comprend la terre de Graham, la terre 
de Danco, celle a laquelle j'ai donne le nom de Palmer, 
la terre Louis-Philippe et la terre du Roi Oscar avec 
les iles voisines telles que les Shetlands du Sud, doit 

198 1. Antarctica, A History of Antarctic Discovery: The Journal 
of the Franklin Institute, Vol. CLI., April, May, June, 1901; Vol. 
CLIL, July, 1901. 

2. Antarctic Exploration: Scientific American Supplement, July 
19, 1902. 

3. Antarctica, Press of Allen, Lane and Scott, Philadelphia, 1902. 

4. Antarctica : Science, July 10, 1903. 

5. Antarctica Addenda : The Journal of the Franklin Institute, Feb- 
ruary, 1904. 

6. Termination Land: The National Geographic Magazine, Vol. 
XV., 1904. 

7 . Zum Kontinent des Eisigen Sitdens: (A review of Dr. von 
Drygalski's book.) Bulletin of the American Geographical Society, 
Vol. XXXVI., 1905. 

8. Antarctic Nomenclature: Bulletin of the American Geographical 
Society, Vol. XXXVII., 1905. 

9. Wilkes Land : Bulletin of the American Geographical Society, 
Vol. XXXVIII. , 1906. 

199 La Geographie : Bulletin de la Society de Geographie, Paris, De- 
cember 15th, 1904, pages 353—4. 


porter un nom particulier. Pour le designer, j'ai adopte 
la denomination Antarctis de I'Ouest proposed par M. 
Balch. Ce nom me parait devoir etre accept^ jusqu'au 
jour ou l'exploration de toute cette region sera achev£e." 

Dr. Nordenskjold, in his book, Antarctica or Two 
Years amongst the Ice of the South Pole, 200 further 
says : — 

"Even a fugitive glance at a map of the South Polar 
regions shows us that all the known land there is 
grouped about two centres. On the one side we have 
Victoria Land and Wilkes Land, with their sub-divisions ; 
on the other, the land to the south of South America. 
It is yet an wholly unsolved problem whether these two 
regions are connected with each other, but even if this 
should ever be proved to be the case, they would still, 
to a certain degree, be independent of each other, be- 
cause of their being so much more accessible than the 
land which would in that case connect them. It there- 
fore seems desirable to distinguish between these regions 
by means of some short name and, after long considera- 
tion during lonely hours amid the Polar ice, it seemed 
to me that the best plan would be to call the former 
tract East Antarctis, and the latter West Antarctis, 
following the usual plan of naming places in the several 
hemispheres in which these regions are situated, al- 
though, at the same time, I was quite conscious of the 
fact that, just in this part of the world, the terms, east 
and west, are of unusually little significance. I found, 
on my return, that an American explorer, Mr. E. S. 

200 Antarctica or Two Years amongst the Ice of the South Pole, by 
Dr. N. Otto G. Nordenskjold and Dr. Joh. Gunnar Andersson: Lon- 
don and New York, 190S, page 68. 


Balch, had, during our absence, proposed just these 
very names, only with the difference that he used the 
English form, Antarctica. Under such circumstances I 
banish all hesitation and shall, therefore, in the follow- 
ing pages, call the region which was the scene of our 
labours by the name of West Antarctica." 201 

A paper on Roman and Pre-Historic Remains in 
Central Germany that he contributed to The Journal 
of the Franklin Institute, January, 1903, was re- 
printed by the German Government for its exhibit 
at the Saint Louis Exhibition in 1905 under the 
title: The Roman Camp Saalburg near Bad Hom- 
burg vor der Hoehe. He has written many other 
papers on geographical and scientific subjects. 202 

Mr. Balch was elected in 1875 a member of the 

201 Hugh R. Mill in The Siege of the South Pole says : — 

" The whole question of American enterprise in the Antarctic 
regions has been discussed by Mr. Balch in his Antarctica, a 
work embodying a great deal of careful research into old records, 
and to this we are much indebted." 

202 1. The French in America during the War of Independence 
of the United States, a translation from the French Les Francais 
en Ame'rique pendant la Guerre de I' Independence des Eiats-Unis, 
by Thomas Balch, Vol. II., Philadelphia, Porter and Coates, 1895. 

2. A projected railroad across the Sdhara; Around the World, 
Philadelphia, 1894. 

3. Was South America sighted before 1448 : The Journal of 
School Geography, Vol. II., 1898. 

4. Ice breakers in Polar exploration : The Journal of the Frenklin 
Institute, Vol. CXLIX., 1900. 

5. Tallow Cave, North Dorset, Vt., and Marble Natural Bridge, 
North Adams, Mass.: The Journal of the Franklin Institute, March, 

6. Roman and Prehistoric Remains in Central Germany : The 
Journal of the Franklin Institute, Vol. CLV., January, 1903. 

7. About some Important Polar Navigations to High Latitudes : 
Translated from the Italian of Dr. Arnaldo Faustini, The Journal 
of the Franklin Institute, June, 1903. 


American Whig Society of Princeton University, 
in 1876 a member of the Appalachian Mountain 
Club, in 1893 a member of the Philadelphia Club 
and of the Society of Colonial Wars in the Com- 
monwealth of Pennsylvania, in 1895 a member of 
the Royal Geographical Society, and for the year 
1895-96 he was chosen President of the Geograph- 
ical Club of Philadelphia, of which he was a 
charter member. In 1897 he was elected a member 
of the Franklin Institute and was soon appointed 
to the Library Committee; in 1899 he was elected 
a member of the American Philosophical Society, in 
1900 a corresponding member of the Sociedad An- 
tonio Alzate of Mexico City, and a member of the 
American Geographical Society, in 1901 a Manager, 
and member of the Publication Committee, of the 
Franklin Institute, in 1902 a member of the Council 
of the Society of Colonial Wars in Pennsylvania, 
and a corresponding member of the Wyoming His- 
torical and Geological Association of Wilkes-Barre\ 
Pa., and in 1903 a Fellow of the American Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science, and a 
member of the National Geographic Society . To 
the celebration held by the American Philosophical 

8. American Explorers in Africa: Bulletin of the American Geo- 
graphical Society, Vol. XXXVI., 1904. 

9. Savage and Civilized Dress : The Journal of the Franklin 
Institute, May, 1904. 

10. Comparative Art: Allen, Lane and Scott, Philadelphia, Pa., 1906. 

1 1 . The Survival of the Shortest and of the Easiest in Language : 
The Journal of the Franklin Institute, December, 1906. 


Society, April I7th-20th, 1906, in honor of the Bi- 
centenary of the birth of Benjamin Franklin, Mr. 
Balch was one of the delegates of the American Geo- 
graphical Society (New York, 1852) and also of the 
Sociedad Cientifica ' Antonio Alzate " (Mexico, 1884). 

He was married on October 5th, 1904, at To- 
wanda, Pennsylvania, to Eugenia H. Macfarlane, 203 
a daughter of James Macfarlane, a geologist and an 
authority on coal, and Mary Overton, his wife. She 
exhibited pictures in the Paris Exposition of 1900 
and also several times in the Paris Salon. 

7. III. Joseph Swift Balch, born July 5th, 1860, at 
Paris, France, and died there July 3rd, 1864. 

7. IV. Thomas Willing Balch, born at Wiesbaden, 
Nassau, his certificate of birth being endorsed by 
William Walton Murphy, Consul of the United 
States of America for the Duchy of Nassau. 204 
He received the A. B. degree at Harvard University 
in 1890; and studied law with J. Rodman Paul, and 
at the University of Pennsylvania, where he was a 
member of the Sharswood Law Club. He was ad- 
mitted to the Philadelphia Bar June 8th, 1895, 

203 Mrs. Balch is a great great granddaughter of Thomas Willing, 
(see note 191), and of George Clymer, a signer of the Declaration of 
Independence, a framer of the Constitution of the United States and 
of the Constitution of Pennsylvania, a member (1786) of the Ameri- 
can Philosophical Society, and the first President (1805) of the 
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. George Clymer, whose 
grandfather emigrated in 1699 from Bristol, England, to Philadel- 
phia, was born in the latter city in 1739, and died in Bucks County, 
Pennsylvania, in 1813. 

204 Mr. Murphy's Consulate was at Frankfort-on-the-Main. 


and received three days later the degree of LL.B., 
from the University of Pennsylvania. In 1893 he 
was elected a member of the Philadelphia Club; 
in April, 1901, a corresponding member of the 
Wyoming Historical and Geological Society of 
Wilkes-Barre, Pa.; in May, 1901, a member of the 
American Philosophical Society; in May, 1903, 
Recording Secretary and a member of the Council 
of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania ; in March, 
1905, an Honorary member of the American Whig 
Society of Princeton University; in December, 1905, 
a manager of the Children's Hospital of Philadel- 
phia; on June 4th, 1906, a Director of the Chesapeake 
and Delaware Canal Company; and in January, 1907, 
a corresponding member of The Colonial Society of 
Massachusetts. He ascended the Rympfischorn, the 
Ortler and numerous peaks and crossed the Col du 
Geant and other passes in the Alps with Francois 
Devouassoud of Chamonix, Laurent Proment of 
Courmayeur, Eduard Julen of Zermatt and other 
guides. He has written and published a number of 
books and articles, mostly on questions of Interna- 
tional Law. 205 

205 1. Some Facts About Alsace and Lorraine, Philadelphia, 1895; 

2. Russian Jottings : The Red and Blue, University of Penn- 
sylvania, May, 1896. 

3. Alpine Experiences : ibid, February, 1897. 

4. Jean Casimir-Perier : ibid, April, 1898. 

5. The Brooke Family of Whitchurch, Hampshire, England, 
together with an Account of Acting Governor Robert Brooke of 
Maryland and Colonel Ninian Beall of Maryland and some of 
their descendants, Philadelphia, 1899; 


6. XI. Alexandrine Macomb Balch, born in 
1828. She married in 1847 the Rev. George D. 
Cummins, D. D., the first Bishop of the Reformed 
Episcopal Church of America. He died June 26th, 
1876. They had three children. 

" Bishop George D. Cummins, of the Reformed Epis- 
copal Church, died Monday afternoon, [June 26, 1876] 
at his residence in Lutherville, Baltimore County, Md. 206 
He was born near Smyrna, Del., December 11th, 1822, 
and graduated at Dickinson College in 1841. He was 
for two years a licentiate in the Methodist Church, but 
in October, 1845, was ordained as a deacon, and in 1847 
made a presbyter in the Protestant Episcopal Church. 
His several charges in that communion were Christ 

6. The Alabama Arbitration, Philadelphia, Allen, Lane and Scott, 

7. £me"ric Cruce', Philadelphia, Allen, Lane and Scott, 1900. 

8. La Frontiere Alasko-Canadienne : La Revue de Droit Inter- 
national, Brussels, January, 1902. 

9. The Alasko-Canadian Frontier: Journal of the Franklin 
Institute, Philadelphia, March, 1902. 

10. The Alaska Frontier, Philadelphia, Allen, Lane and Scott, 

11. L' Adjudication de la Question de la Frontiere entre V Alaska et le 
Canada : La Revue de Droit International, Brussels, January, 1904. 

12. The Alaska Adjudication: The Pennsylvania Magazine of 
History and Biography, Philadelphia, April, 1904. 

13. The English Ancestors of the Shippen Family and Edward 
Shippen of Philadelphia : ibid, October, 1904. 

14. Who saved the Gold Standard ? : The Public Ledger, Phila- 
delphia, October 31st, 1904. 

15. Philadelphia and Algeria: ibid, April 26th, 1905. 

16. The Morocco Conference: The Evening Post, New York, 
January 11th and 24th, 1906. 

17. France in North Africa, Philadelphia, January, 1906. 

18. The Swift Family of Philadelphia : The Pennsylvania Maga- 
zine of History and Biography, Philadelphia, April, 1906. 

200 Obituary notice in a newspaper, probably of Baltimore. 


Church, Norfolk, Va. ; St. James's Church, Richmond; 
Trinity Church, Washington ; St. Peter's, Baltimore, and 
Trinity, Chicago. In June, 1866, he was elected Assist- 
ant Bishop of Kentucky, and held the office till Novem- 
ber 10, 1873, when he resigned to aid in organizing the 
Reformed Episcopal Church. He was afterwards formally 
deposed. The joint communion question was the imme- 
diate occasion of this movement. When the Reformed 
Episcopal Church was organized in New York, November 
1 5 of that year, the basis of the division from the mother 
Church was described as being a return to the Prayer- 
Book of 1785, the abolition of the idea of a priesthood 
and of a definite and direct Apostolic succession. The 
new Church also set aside the doctrine that regeneration 
is inseparably connected with baptism — that the Lord's 
table is an altar on which the body and blood of Christ 
are offered anew, and that the presence of Christ at the 
Lord's Supper is a presence in the elements bread and 
wine. Dr. Cummins was chosen presiding Bishop of 
the new Church, and at the same time Dr. Chas. E. 
Cheney, of Chicago, was made Missionary Bishop of the 
Northwest. Since that time Bishop Nicholson, of Phila- 
delphia, has been added to the Church. Bishop Cum- 
mins had been since 1873 actively engaged in the mis- 
sionary work. He was below medium size, a fluent and 
effective speaker and preacher and a man of much 
tenacity of purpose and energy. The Reformed Epis- 
copal Church has now some fifty parishes and clergy- 
men in the United States and Canada." 

6. XII. Stephen Fitzhugh Balch, was born 
March 14th, 1831, at Frederick, Maryland. During 
the Civil War he was Assistant Surgeon of the Nine- 
teenth Iowa Infantry. 


5. V. George Beall Balch was born August 16th, 
1789, at Georgetown, D. C. He was a planter at 
Moulton, Alabama, and died September 12th, 1831. 
He married first, his first cousin, Martha Rogers 
Balch, daughter of (4. VIII.) William Goodwyn 
Balch (see ante page 104). They had two sons: 

6. I. Bloomer Balch, who died young; 
6. II. George Beall Balch. 

6. II. George Beall Balch, was born January 
3d, 1821, at Shelbyville, Tennessee. He entered the 
Navy in 1837 by the appointment of the Secretary 
of the Navy at the request of Major General Alex- 
ander Macomb, Commander-in-Chief of the United 
States Army. Upon returning from the sea cruise 
with which a naval career began then, he studied at 
the Naval Asylum at Philadelphia, the forerunner 
of the present Naval Academy at Annapolis, and 
passed number five in a class of thirty-nine. He 
volunteered for the American Exploring Expedition 
under Wilkes in 1838, but was not accepted on ac- 
count of his youth. From 1838 to 1840 he served 
in the Cyane, and during that cruise he saw the 
bombardment of Beirut by the English, Austrian 
and Turkish fleets. It took place at dusk, and 
from the deck of the Cyane, that was well out at 
sea, it was "a grand sight." He was in the Mexi- 
can War, taking part in the first attack on Alvarado, 
November 1st, 1846. He took part in the bom- 
bardment of Vera Cruz and was present at the 


surrender of that city and the fortress of San Juan 
d'Ulloa on March 9th, 1847. He served on the 
Princeton of the United States squadron from 1846 
to 1849 and was on board of her off the Italian 
coast during the Revolution of 1848. The Prince- 
ton was the first propeller ship to enter the Med- 
iterranean Sea. While his ship was cruising in 
Grecian waters, one evening he was invited along 
with other officers to take tea by the Rev. Mr. 
Buell, an American at the Piraus, and met there 
among the guests, Byron's "Maid of Athens;" she 
was then Mrs. Black, having married a Scotchman. 
He was a Lieutenant and Executive Officer on the 
United States Ship Plymouth with Commodore Perry 
in the Japan Expedition in 1853-54, about which 
he sent to the writer the following letter : — 

"Dear Willing: — In compliance with your request 
for some account of my personal experience in the Ex- 
pedition to Japan under Commodore Perry, it may be 
proper to take into consideration the great length of 
time which has elapsed, and the infirmities of the human 
memory, but that you may have the benefit of such 
memories for your forthcoming book, I submit the fol- 
lowing views: 

"Japan was for two hundred and thirty years a terra 
incognita; but the spirit of the age rebelled against this 
shutting out of the Nations, and the mystery surround- 
ing Japan was exciting peoples of different parts of the 
world, who were curious to learn what Japan had to con- 
tribute to the betterment of mankind, and at the time 
of which I write, an effort was made by the United States 


to open out that interesting country. It may not be 
out of the way to contrast the successful efforts of our 
beloved country, not only in respect to Japan, but as 
well of Corea, with other and more powerful nations. 
The United States with a small Navy has been able to 
bring these countries to the notice of the civilized world, 
and to me, who was an active participant as a member 
of the Japan Expedition, it is cause for great wonder- 
ment when I regard the results attained by the Perry 
Expedition to Japan. 

"The eighth day of July 1853, was to mark the ad- 
vent of Commodore Perry's Squadron into Japanese 
waters. The United States Ship Mississippi, the 
United States Ship Susquehanna, the United States 
Ship Saratoga, and the United States Ship Plymouth 
comprised the whole force on the first visit to Japan; 
it was not of great force, but our Commander-in-Chief 
was intent on opening out that hitherto unknown 
country to the world, and the results vindicate the 
wisdom of his course. 

"The day of our arrival was calm, bright and beau- 
tiful and nature seemed to sleep quietly in the haze of 
a July sun, and may we not dwell for a moment on the 
tremendous issues arising from the visit of the American 
Squadron! We see Japan throwing off her policy of 
isolation, and becoming as it were imbued with the 
spirit of the Western world, and taking example of their 
resistless energy she has now taken her place, as it were, 
by tremendous leaps in the circles of the nations of the 
world. We may well claim for Commodore Perry a great 
share in these results for Japan. 

"A surveying expedition was ordered by the Com- 
modore, each ship of the Squadron furnishing a boat 


with sextant, Azimuth Compass, lead line, spy glass, and 
last but not least, we were armed; this last was on the 
principle of being ready for any contingency. The sur- 
vey went on in a prompt and efficient manner, and we 
were making ready for the grand scene which was to 
take place, on presenting the President's letter on 
shore, near where our ships were lying quietly at anchor. 
I believe it will gratify you if I state that I had charge 
of the boat of the United States Ship Plymouth on 
the survey above referred to. Another fact, I may 
mention which will be of great interest to you; I was 
given a bronze medal by the ' Boston Board of Trade ' 
for my services in the Japan Expedition. Many officers 
on the Expedition received from that Institution simi- 
lar marks of distinction; but I mention it because your 
request is for my personal experiences, and hence will 
absolve me from the charge of vain glory. 

"I remember well the magnificent pageant when the 
letter of the President was presented to the Japanese 
Officials to be carried to the Capital City of Yeddo, as 
it was then called, but now Tokio, and yet it would not 
have entered into the heart of a man of those days to 
conceive the grand results arising from the presenting 
of that letter, for at that time, Japan, hitherto unknown, 
began to take her place among the nations, and now 
may well be proud of her wonderful achievements, and the 
United States may well rejoice in her development as a 
power in the world. It is only a few years [1889] since 
the writer of this was invited to be present at the Johns 
Hopkins University, the occasion being in honor of the 
granting of a Constitution to Japan. I was requested 
by Dr. Gilman to make an address on the occasion, 
and to express my views regarding the Japanese Empire, 


and the benefits resulting from the opening of Japan. 
As modesty forbade my speaking in public, I wrote a 
letter to Dr. Gilman, which he considered so happy in 
thought and expression that he read it aloud to the 
audience, keeping it for the last, as he pronounced it 
to be the best! The Japanese Minister was much de- 
lighted, and very cordial upon making my acquaintance, 
and invited me to visit him at the Legation in Wash- 
ington. Dr. Gilman with his usual grace and tact made 
an interesting address, as did Judge Cooley of Chicago, 
a well known Constitutional lawyer, also Japanese stu- 
dents of the University. After the meeting was over 
we were invited to a regular Japanese Tea brewing and 
drank some of the fine tea. 

"It may be proper to state that on fitting out the 
Expedition, Commodore Perry had provided himself 
with many inventions which might reasonably be ex- 
pected to interest the Japanese, and in accordance there- 
with had taken a complete working model, with poles, 
wire, etc. to exhibit the wonderful element of electricity. 
It was remarked during our visit that the Japanese did 
not seem to express surprise at what was shown them 
'till the telegraph was working! I remember the con- 
clusion I reached at the time was that these Japanese 
partook of some of the traits of our Indians, one of 
which was, never to express surprise. 

" In writing of the Perry Expedition to Japan forty- 
eight years have passed away and memory fails to 
retain many an interesting incident, but the results of 
that Expedition are with us to this day, and we may 
rejoice that to our beloved country has been vouch- 
safed the glory of opening an interesting, and at that 
time, unknown region to the brotherhood of nations, 


and furthermore, we may be glad to know that our 
Japanese neighbors stand for much that is to be admired 
in their progressive ideas, their genuine hospitality and 
refinement of manners. And as the years pass by and 
we have learned more of our Japanese friends we can- 
not fail to see that Commodore Perry has done a great 
service to his country and also to Japan. 

" In that far off country the name of Perry is a house- 
hold word, and his countrymen can do no more grate- 
ful act than to cherish his memory as a loyal, true 

" Baltimore, Md. 

March 20th, 1902." 

In 1859 when Lieutenant Balch was serving on the 
Saint Mary's of the Pacific Squadron, the Secretary 
of the Navy was anxious for advices from the 
squadron to include in his annual report. It was 
necessary to send dispatches from Guayamas to 
Acapulco, in order to intercept the Pacific passenger 
steamer en route from San Francisco to Panama and 
to deliver the dispatches to her captain to be for- 
warded to Washington. For this service Lieuten- 
ant Balch and several seaman volunteered. The 
distance was about nine hundred and fifty miles, 
down the Mexican coast from Guayamas to Aca- 
pulco, through a dangerous section of the Pacific. 
In an unseaworthy boat only thirteen feet long, 
sloop-rigged, he met the steamer on the open sea 
before she reached Acapulco. Four days later he 
arrived at that port, the steamer having proceeded 



on her way to Panama. He managed so well that 
the dispatches were carried through to Washington 
in twenty-four days, a marvellous short time then. 
At Acapulco he concluded it would be foolhardy to 
attempt to sail back the whole distance in the baf- 
fling winds then prevailing. He waited there and 
induced the commander of the passenger steamer, 
that touched at that port, to hoist his boat on board 
and lower it again at Cape San Lucas from which 
point he thought he could manage to reach the Saint 
Mary's at Guayamas. Before reaching Cape San 
Lucas the sea became so rough that the waves break- 
ing on board would have smashed his boat lying on 
the deck; so that he was forced either to take to his 
boat or lose her. The nearest land was seventy-two 
miles away. Deciding, without a thought of the dan- 
ger, he had it launched, and with his brave crew 
entered it amid the cheers of several hundred people 
on the steamer they left. That evening of the eight 
in the boat he and one other alone were able to eat 
their suppers. They passed through the group of 
the Tres Marias and were four days in reaching 
Mazatlan. Owing to adverse winds and currents 
they were compelled to remain there until a steamer 
was found to tow them to Guayamas, and Lieuten- 
ant Balch reported to Captain Porter of the Saint 
Mary's to his captain's great delight, after an ab- 
sence of two months, in which he had been given 
up as lost. 


During the Civil War, George B. Balch was at 
first Executive officer of the United States Ship 
Sabine. While the Sabine was en route in Novem- 
ber, 1861, for the attack on Port Royal, she fell 
in with the United States Transport Governor at 
night in a stormy sea with four hundred marines 
on board, under the command of Lieut. -Colonel 
Reynolds, bound also for the attack that Admiral 
DuPont intended to make on Port Royal ; but 
the Governor was flying the Union down and was 
in a sinking condition. Lieutenant Balch volun- 
teered, and asked his Captain's permission, to try 
to save the crew and the marines on the Governor. 
It was an awful night, the sea was raging. He 
called for volunteers, and many more seamen than 
he needed responded. In a small boat he went 
close to the Governor, and learnt in spite of the 
howling of the storm that she had about three 
hundred and seventy men on board and was slowly 
sinking. It was by his plan and ingenuity, the 
Captain of the Sabine having nothing to do with 
the matter except to keep his vessel lying to, that 
he was able to save all on board the Governor 
except seven marines, who not obeying his orders 
fell into the sea and were drowned. The trans- 
port sank under the stern of the Sabine. After- 
wards he was given command during the war at 
first of the United States Ship Pocahontas, of the 
South Atlantic Squadron, and then of the United 


States Ship Pawnee, of the Atlantic Coast blockading 
squadron. Admiral DuPont held him in high esteem, 
as these two letters show ; the first is addressed to 
the Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Mr. Fox: — 

"Flagship Wabash. 
"Port Royal Harbor, S. C, August 21st, 1862. 

"My Dear Sir: 

"I have reports from the Georgetown Division, and 
the Pocahontas is on her last legs; she must go north 
at once, and from there I regret to lose Balch even for 
a few days, nor does he want to go. A more devoted 
officer our Navy does not possess. With the greatest 
amount of energy and pluck and skill in handling guns, 
he is always ready, overcomes difficulties, and is ever 
genial and cheerful. He is a great favorite of mine. 
"I am yours faithfully, 

S. F. Du PONT. 
"Hon. G. V. Fox, 

"Assistant Secretary of the Navy." 207 

"Flagship Wabash. 
"Port Royal Harbor, S. C, August 21st, 1862. 
"Sir: I have received your several reports of the 
9th, 12th, and 15th instant, and am gratified at the 
manner in which you have conducted affairs in the 
waters of Georgetown. Your reconnaissance up the 
Black River was conducted not only with your usual 
spirit and energy, but with skill and judgment, and 
I have forwarded your interesting report of the same 
to the honorable Secretary of the Navy. 

207 Official Records of the Union, and Confederate Navies in the War 
of the Rebellion. Series I., Volume 13, Washington, 1901, page 268. 


" You will transmit to Acting Volunteer Lieutenant 
Baxter, of whose conduct you speak in such high terms 
in his management of the small prize steamer during 
the expedition, my warm commendation for his zealous 
and spirited discharge of duty. 

"I regret, however, to learn the helpless condition of 
the Pocahontas. We have no means of repairing her 
here, and it will not do to send her north later in the 
season. You will, therefore, on receipt of this, proceed 
with her to Philadelphia without delay. The Pembina 
takes you this order and your mails, with provisions 
for the Gem of the Sea, and you will leave Acting Vol- 
unteer Lieutenant Baxter in charge until I can send 
a steamer. 

"I regret to lose the Pocahontas from this station. 
Please say to her officers and men that I have ever 
noted the prompt manner in which she has always re- 
sponded to any call for service. 

"With regards to yourself, it is my duty and pleasure 
to say that you have come up to the highest require- 
ments of the service as a commanding officer, and I 
trust the Department, which is already informed by 
me of your merits, will give you a better vessel and 
send you back to this station. 

" Wishing you a safe run home, I am, respectfully, etc., 

"S. F. Du PONT, 
"Rear Admiral. 

"Commander G. B. Balch, U. S. S. Pocahontas, Senior 
Officer, Georgetown. 

"P. S. — I regret to hear of the wound to Mr. Hill, the 
engineer. If still living, please express my sympathy." 208 

208 Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies in the War 
of the Rebellion. Series I., Volume 13; Washington, 1901, page 260. 


When Commander Balch took his vessel into 
action, he always went up into the rigging to com- 
mand the ship. He gave his gunners on the Pawnee 
a great deal of practice, so that they ranked among 
the best marksmen in the Union Navy, and after 
he took command of her, the Confederates called 
the Pawnee "Hell and Damnation." He took 
the Pawnee into the fighting on the Stono River, 
and General Terry in one of his official reports said 
that the Pawnee on one occasion, July 16th, 1863, 
saved his command. In that action the Pawnee 
was struck forty-six times. In the Stono River, one 
night the Confederates sent down ten torpedoes 
against the Pawnee. They succeeded in blowing up 
her launch about the middle of the night. Com- 
mander Balch, who was on the forward deck of the 
Pawnee, anxious for the safety of his ship, was 
deluged with water. On another occasion his ex- 
ecutive officer, standing by his side — he was after- 
wards Admiral Philip and commanded the Texas 
during the war with Spain — was knocked across the 
deck by a splinter. On December 25th, 1863, 
he placed the Pawnee in the Keowah River in a 
position from which she enfiladed two Confederate 
batteries that had opened on the Marblehead, de- 
moralized the enemy and caused him to retreat. 
While in command of the Pawnee, Commander 
Balch took part in the combined operations of 
the Naval forces under Rear Admiral Dahlgren 


and the army under General Foster, in the Stono 
River Campaign, South Carolina, from July 3d 
to 11th, 1864, especially in the bombardment of 
Battery Pringle, on James Island, South Carolina. 
On February 9th, 1865, Commander Balch having 
under his command in addition to the Pawnee, 
the Sonoma and the Daffodil, ascended the Togoda 
Creek, North Edisto, South Carolina, and, engaging 
three Confederate batteries of eleven or twelve 
guns, drove the Confederates from their earth- 
works. In that action the Pawnee was hit ten 
times and the Sonoma and the Daffodil each twice. 
Shortly after this engagement, Admiral Dahlgren, 
in command of the South Atlantic Blockading 
Squadron, wrote to Secretary of the Navy Welles 
of Commander Balch as follows: — 

"Flagship Harvest Moon. 

"Georgetown, S. C, February 27, 1865. 

"I take the occasion of Captain Balch's detachment 
to express to the Department my appreciation of the 
services of this officer. 

" He has held command of the Pawnee during the whole 
period of my command of this squadron, since July, 
1863, and always discharged his responsible duties in 
action and otherwise with alacrity, judgment and suc- 

"This is not my first acquaintance with Captain Balch, 
as he sailed on the U. S. ship Plymouth, under my com- 
mand in 1857. 


"I desire, therefore, to commend Captain Balch to the 
notice of the Department for meritorious service in the 
face of the enemy, and hope that if advancement is 
extended to any officers beyond the usual course, he 
may be included in the number. 

"I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your 
obedient servant, 


"Rear Admiral. 
"Comd'g South Atlantic Blockading Squadron. 
"Hon. Gideon Welles, 

''Secretary of the Navy." 209 

At the end of the Civil War, George B. Balch was 
still only a Lieutenant; but in 1865, in view of all 
his meritorious services during that contest, Congress 
promoted him over the rank of Lieutenant Com- 
mander to that of full Commander. In 1866 he was 
made a Captain. In 1872, he was promoted to the 
rank of Commodore and given command of the 
United States Naval Home at Philadelphia. In 1878 
he was advanced to the rank of Rear Admiral and 
from 1879 to 1881 he was the Superintendent in 
charge of the Naval Academy at Annapolis; and 
during his term of superintendence there were four 
Japanese cadets, one of whom, afterwards Admiral 
Uriu, took part in the battle with the Russians 
at Tsushima. At Annapolis he was extremely popu- 
lar with the cadets and at the Commencement Ex- 
ercises in 1881, as the graduating class came out 

209 Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies in the War 
of the Rebellion. Series I., Volume 16; Washington, 1903, page 291. 


of the Chapel, the cadets, though it was against 
the rules and the officers tried to stop them, re- 
peatedly cheered for their Admiral. When Presi- 
dent Garfield, along side of whom the Admiral 
was standing, asked the latter, "What are the 
cadets cheering, Admiral?" the latter had to 
answer, " I must say, Mister President, they are 
cheering me." Admiral Balch was then (1881) 
assigned to the command of the Pacific Squadron 
until he was retired January 3d, 1883, having then 
reached the limit of age for active service. Dur- 
ing this cruise, his flagship was the Pensacola. 
After his flag had been saluted for the last time in 
the harbor of Panama, and he had transferred his 
command to his successor, the latter invited Ad- 
miral Balch and his family on board his flagship 
next day. All the officers came into the cabin to 
pay their respects for the last time in an official way 
to their late commander. In leaving the ship he 
was piped over the side by the Chief Boatswain. 
As soon as his boat had cleared the side of the ves- 
sel, though he was then a retired officer, the sailors 
of their own account manned the yards and cheered 
him, and Captain Joseph Fyffe gave him a salute 
of thirteen guns. His forty-six years' service in the 
Navy of his country, twenty-two of which were 
actually at sea, have been characterized in the 
words that were applied of old to the Chevalier 
Bayard of le chevalier sans peur et sans reproche. 


It has always been a characteristic of Admiral 
Balch, as it was of his old chief, Admiral Dupont, 
that he has been quick to pay tribute to the good 
work of his fellow officers, whether of superior or 
inferior rank, and this won him loving and devoted 
friends in the service. A striking instance of his 
unselfish nature is shown by a story told by the late 
Admiral Edward Y. Macauley as follows: — 

" During the course of the Civil War a small num- 
ber of vessels of war assembled to silence and cap- 
ture one of the Southern forts. Their commanders 
met and decided on a plan of action, and orders 
were given by Lieutenant Macauley, the senior 
officer. The action was to begin at daybreak, 
but shortly after dark the Pawnee commanded by 
Lieutenant Balch arrived upon the scene. Lieu- 
tenant Macauley at once went on board and re- 
ported to Lieutenant Balch as his senior officer. 
The latter listened attentively, discussed the plan 
agreed upon, and finally said, ' Lieutenant Macauley, 
I highly approve of the plan, and shall be pleased 
to serve under your orders tomorrow,' thus leaving 
his junior officer in command, and letting him 
receive the glory of the success." In narrating 
the incident, Admiral Macauley ended by saying, 
"No other officer in the whole navy but George 
Balch would have acted thus." 

Resembling in many things his grandfather, 
Admiral Balch has ever had a cheerful disposi- 


tion, laughing often like his aieul in a frank, 
open way. 

Upon the conclusion of his naval career in 1883, 
he made his home at Baltimore. There in 1884 
he cast his first vote for President for Grover Cleve- 
land, for whom he voted again in 1888 and 1892. 
Both in 1896 and 1900 he voted for William Mc- 
Kinley and against the proposition that the mints 
of the United States should be opened to the Free 
Coinage of Silver at the ratio of sixteen to one. 
In 1902 Admiral Balch became the oldest living 
officer of the United States Navy. 

He married first, Julia Grace Vinsen, daughter 
of Charles Hungerford Vinsen of Washington, D. C. 
They had five children: — 

J. I. George Vinsen Balch, born November 

11th, 184S, died August 7th, 1902. 
J. II. Stephen Bloomer Balch. 
J. III. Julia Grace Balch. 
J. IV. Margaret Cassandra Balch. 
J. V. Harriet Ann Balch. 
He married second, Mary Ellen Booth, daughter 
of James Booth, Chief Justice of Delaware, and 
grand-daughter of James Booth, also Chief Justice 
of Delaware. 

They had five children: — 

J. VI. Mary Ellen Balch, married Frederick 

Edmund Sears of Boston. 
y. VII. Alfred Balch, died young. 


7. VIII. Anna Balch, married the Rev. George 

William Lay. 
7. IX. Francis DuPont Balch, who is named 
after Admiral DuPont. He took a 
special course of two years in archi- 
tecture, 1891— '93, at the Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology. He 
married on April 26, 1905, at New 
York, Gertrude Leavitt, daughter of 
Rufus Wheeler Leavitt. 
They have a son: 

8. Francis Du Pont Balch, named in honor of 
Admiral Du Pont. 
7. X. Amy Rogers Balch, married Malcolm 
Kenneth Gordon. 
5. V. George Beall Balch of Moulton, Alabama, 
(see ante, 5 V., page 345) married second, Anna Beall, 
who died April 25th, 1850; she was a daughter of 
Hezekiah Beall. They had two daughters : 
6. I. Margaret Balch, who died young. 

6. II. Harriet Balch, who was married to 

Samuel Williamson Nevin, November 
27th, 1850, by the Rev. Joshua Pet- 
riken, at the home of Mann Randolph 
Page, of Clark County, Virginia. 
They had four children: 

7. I. Joseph Pierce Nevin, M. D. 

7. II. David Williamson Nevin, member of 
the Bar of Easton, Pa, 


7. III. Anna Mary Nevin. 

7. IV. George Balch Nevin, born at Ship- 
pensburg, Pa., March 15th, 1859. He 
composed many songs: "The Hills of 
God," "At the Cross," "The Minster 
Song," "The Phantom Horseman" 
and the duets, " Eventide " and "Twi- 
light." In 1888 he married Lillias C. 
Dean, daughter of the Rev. William 
Hawley Dean. 210 

5. VI. Hezekiah James Balch, was born April 16th, 
1791, at Georgetown, D. C, and died unmarried 
March 17th, 1821. He was named after his uncle, 
the Rev. Hezekiah James Balch, who took a lead- 
ing part in the Mecklenburg Declaration (1775). 

5. VII. Thomas Bloomer Balch was born Feb- 
ruary 28th, 1793, at Georgetown, D. C. He grad- 
uated at Princeton in 1813, where he was a member 
of the American Whig Society, 211 and was a Pres- 
byterian clergyman of much note. He received in 
1860 from Hampden-Sidney College, Virginia, the 
degree of D. D. For several years he was assistant 
to his father in the church at Georgetown, and 
then he accepted a call to the church at Snow Hill, 
Maryland, the oldest Presbyterian Church in Amer- 

210 The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, New York, 
Volume VII., page 431. 

211 Catalogue of the American Whig Society Instituted in the College 
of New Jersey, iy6g: Princeton, N. J., Printed by order of the Society, 
1893, page 11. 


ica. 212 He frequently wrote for the Southern Literary 
Messenger,™ The Christian World, 21 * and published 
Christianity and Literature, 1826 ; 21S The Office and 
Work of a Bishop, a discourse preached at the in- 
stallation of the Rev. G. Wilson McPhail as Pastor 
of the Presbyterian Church of Fredericksburg, Va., 

212 An Historic Church: Makemie Memorial Presbyterian Church, 
Snow Hill, Maryland: Mrs. Mary M. North, Snow Hill, Maryland, 1904. 

213 Summer in the Blue Ridge, Volume XV., 1849, page 80; Byron 
and Burns, ibid., page 165; The Poems of Sir William Jones, ibid., 
page 724, etc. 

214 The Christian World, a monthly publication for all denominations 
of Christians, T. H. Stockton — Editor and Proprietor, Philadelphia. 
To this magazine he contributed, Pencil Notes, Volume III., 1843, 
pages 79-85, Sketching at Richmond, ib., pages 106-111, The Wig- 
wam, ib., pages 217-226, Sabbath School Hymn, ib., pages 234-235, 
The Ivy Bridge, ib., pages 248-256, The Free Church of Scotland, ib., 
pages 256-7, Wyanoke, Volume IV., 1844, pages 94-97, Ford of the 
Shenandoah, ib., pages 110-113, Clenochre, Volume V., 1845, pages 
24-26, Woburn, ib., pages 94-98, Windsor, ib., pages 99-103, etc. 

215 Christianity and Literature: in a Series of Discourses. By T. B. 
Balch, Pastor of a Presbyterian Church in Snow-Hill, Md., Philadel- 
phia: 1826. The contents of this book is as follows: 

1. The Temptations of Literature: "Let no man say, when he is 
tempted, I am tempted of God: for God cannot be tempted with 
evil, neither tempteth he any man." James i. 13. 

2. The Literature of the Scriptures: "Search the Scriptures." John 
v. 39. 

3. Obstacles to the Piety of Literary Men: "For the Jews require 
a sign, and the Greeks seek after wisdom. But we preach Christ 
crucified, unto the Jews a stumbling block, and unto the Greeks 
foolishness; but unto them which are called, both Jews and Greeks, 
Christ the power of God, and the wisdom of God." 1st Corinthians, 
chap. i. 22, 23, 24. 

4. Christianity Miscellaneously applied: "Beware lest any man 
spoil you through philosophy and vain deceit, after the tradition 
of men, after the rudiments of the world and not after Christ." 
Colossians, ii. 8. 

5. The Relation of Christianity to Polite Literature: "For all the 
Athenians and strangers which were there, spent their time in noth- 
ing else but either to tell or to hear some new thing." Acts, xvii. 21. 

6. The superior Value of Christianity to Literature: "Again, the 


June 12th, 1842 ; 216 The Ringwood Discourses, 
1850 ; 217 Reminiscences of Georgetown, D. C, 1859; 

He was fond of geography, took a great interest in 
Liberia, and was an active member of the Coloniza- 
tion Society. Daniel Webster said of Dr. Balch 
that he was the most learned man he had ever 

Kingdom of Heaven is like unto a merchant-man seeking goodly 
pearls; who, when he had found one pearl of great price, went and 
sold all that he had, and bought it." Matt. xiii. 45, 46. 

7. Humility an Ornament to Literary Men: "Verily I say unto you, 
Whosoever shall not receive the Kingdom of God as a little child, 
shall in no wise enter therein." Luke, xviii. 17. 

8. The Church a Field for Literary Men: "For after all these things 
do the Gentiles seek. But seek ye first the Kingdom of God and 
his righteousness, and all these things shall be added unto you." 
Matt. vi. 32, 33. 

216 Printed at the office of the Virginia Herald, Fredericksburg, 1842. 

217 The Ringwood Discourses; or Sermons on Various Subjects. By 
T. B. Balch, A. M., Author of Discourses on Christianity and Litera- 
ture. Hagerstown, Md., New York, and Philadelphia. 1850. This 
book is made up of nine sermons, upon the following subjects: — 

1. The Farmer in Rural Pursuits: "But Cain was a tiller of the 
ground." Genesis iv. 2. 

2. Tlie Christian Merchant: "He is a Merchant." Hosea, xii. 7. 

3. The Christian Barrister: "Bring Zenas the lawyer." Titus, Hi. 13. 

4. Church Extension: "Enlarge the place of thy tent." /5a. liv. 2. 

5. Moses and Goethe: "Forty years long was I grieved with this 
generation." Psalms xcv. 10. 

6. An Outline of Christian Reading: "Give attendance to reading." 
1 Timothy iv. 10. 

7. Mizpah: "And Mizpah; for he said, the Lord watch between 
me and thee, when we are absent one from another." Gen. xxxi. 49. 

8. The Agency of Providence in small Events: "Are not two spar- 
rows sold for a farthing? and one shall not fall to the ground with- 
out your Father." Matthew x. 29. 

9. The Patriarch's Vision: A Discourse delivered at the dedica- 
tion of the Central Presbyterian Church, Washington City, Sab- 
bath morning, May 31, 1846: "For this is none other but the 
House of God, and this is the Gate of Heaven." Gen. xxviii. 17. 


On October 5th, 1873, the Rev. William Brown, 
D. D. read before the Synod of Virginia the follow- 
ing Memorial of Dr. Balch, which was published 
the same year. 218 

"Thomas Bloomer Balch was born in Georgetown, 
D. C, February 28th, 1793. * * * He was prepared 
for college in the school in Georgetown taught by the 
Rev. David Wiley. 

"He was graduated from the College of New Jersey 
in 1813. He united with the Presbyterian Church of 
Leesburg, under the pastoral care of the Rev. John 
Mines, with whom he afterwards studied theology for a 

"In the fall of 1814 he entered Princeton Seminary 
where he remained about two years and a half. He was 
licensed to preach by the Presbytery of Baltimore, 
October 31st, 1816, and was afterwards ordained by the 
same Presbytery, December 11th, 1817, as an Evan- 

"From the spring of 1817, to the fall of 1819, he 
preached as assistant to his father, who was then pastor 
of the Church at Georgetown, D. C. He was installed 
pastor of the Church at Snow Hill, Rehoboth, and Pitts 
Creek, Md., July 19th, 1820, where he spent nearly ten 
years in happy and useful labor. In 1824, by the action 
of the Synod of Philadelphia, he and his Churches were 
included in the resuscitated Presbytery of Lewes. He 
continued in Maryland as pastor of those Churches 
before named until 1829, after which he lived four 
years in Fairfax County, Va., preaching as he had 

218 Minutes of the Synod of Virginia. From 1866 to 1878. Wythe- 
ville, Virginia, Volume II., page 487. 


opportunity. He then removed to Prince William 
County, Va. and supplied for two years the Churches of 
Warrenton and Greenwich. He was received from the 
Lewes Presbytery into the Winchester Presbytery April 
28th, 1836. 

' ' For nine months he supplied the Church at Freder- 
icksburg, Va., then Nokesville Church four years, and 
Greenwich Church (Prince William's), Va., ten years. 
Mr. Balch was never settled as a pastor after he left 
Maryland, but preached in many places, and performed 
a large amount of miscellaneous work. 

"He had a fine literary taste, wrote much on many 
subjects and published several volumes. At the time 
of his death a series of articles was in the course of 
publication in one of our religious Journals, under the 
title of Letters of an Octogenarian, containing many 
interesting reminiscences of deceased Presbyterian Min- 

"The death of this good man was at Greenwich, 
Prince William County, which had been his home for 
many years. He was in the eighty-seventh year of his 
age. His strength had gradually declined for a long 
time, and his final illness lasted about three weeks. To 
the last his mind was clear, and he uttered many ex- 
pressions of faith and hope up to his last breath. 

"For some time before his death he was the oldest 
living Alumnus of Princeton Seminary. 

"He was married August 21st, 1820, to Susan Carter 
of Fairfax County, Va., the daughter of Charles Carter 
of Shirley, and who departed this life about six months 
before the death of her husband. ' They were lovely and 
pleasant in their lives and in their death they were 
not divided.' 


"Our venerable brother was a man of sincere piety 
and of excellent theological and literary attainments. 
His memory was so retentive as to be a perpetual 
wonder to all who knew him. His sermons were often 
uncommonly rich and interesting. His disposition was 
thoroughly amiable and his social qualities were so 
eminently attractive that his presence was hailed with 
delight by all classes of society, and those of every 

At the ordination of Dr. Balch, the ordination 
sermon was preached by the Rev. Dr. Muir of 
Alexandria, Virginia. It was entitled: 

' ' The Call; a Sermon, Preached before the Presbytery 
of Baltimore, at the Ordination of The Rev. Thomas B. 
Balch, in Georgetown, D. C, on Thursday, nth Dec. 
i8iy. 219 By James Muir, D. D., one of the Ministers 
of Alexandria. Published by request. With an Ap- 
pendix by the Rev. James Carnahan, detailing the 
proceedings on that occasion. [The expense of printing 
is defrayed by Members of the Presbyterian Church in 
Georgetown, and the whole proceeds of the sale appro- 
priated as a DONATION to the Theological Seminary 
at Princeton, New Jersey.] 

"The sermon was preached on the text of Ephesians 
3, 8. ' Unto me, who am less than the least of all saints, 
is this grace given, that I should preach among the 
Gentiles the unsearchable riches of Christ.' " 

The appendix to the sermon is as follows: 

" 'After the preceding Sermon was delivered, the Rev. 
Andrew Hunter, who according to appointment pre- 

219 Georgetown, D. O; Printed by W. A. Rind and Co., 1818. 


sided on the occasion, arose and stated to a numerous 
congregation assembled the proceedings of the Presby- 
tery, preparatory to the solemn transaction on which 
they were entering. That after a careful examination 
as to his acquaintance with experimental religion; as to 
his knowledge of philosophy, theology, ecclesiastical 
history, the languages in which the holy scriptures were 
originally written; and as to his knowledge of the con- 
stitution, the rules and principles of the government 
and discipline of the Church; the candidate had been 
licensed about twelve months ago to preach the Gos- 
pel: That having received from the churches a good re- 
port, and having by a farther examination given full 
satisfaction as to his ability to teach, the Presbytery 
had resolved to ordain and set apart Thomas B. Balch 
to the work of the Gospel Ministry, with full power to 
preach and administer the sacraments of the New Testa- 
ment. The presiding Bishop also stated the nature of 
the ordinance, and the authority which Christ gave to 
his Apostles and to their successors to ordain men to 
the office of the sacred ministry; and presented to the 
audience an impressive view of the solemnity of the 
transaction. Then addressing himself to the candidate, 
he proposed to him the following questions prescribed 
by the directory of the Presbyterian Church. 

'"1st. Do you believe the Scriptures of the Old and 
New Testament to be the word of God, the only 
infallible rule of faith and practice? 

'"2d. Do you sincerely receive and adopt the confes- 
sion of faith of this Church, as containing the 
system of doctrine taught in the Holy Scrip- 


" ' 3d. Do you approve of the government and disci- 
pline of the Presbyterian Church, as prescribed 
in the form of government and discipline of the 
Presbyterian Church in these United States? 

"'4th. Do you promise subjection to your brethren in 
the Lord? 

" ' 5th. Have you been induced, as far as you know your 
own heart, to seek the office of the holy minis- 
try from love to God and a sincere desire to 
promote his glory in the Gospel of his Son ? 

"'6th. Do you promise to be zealous and faithful in 
maintaining the truths of the Gospel and the 
purity and peace of the Church, whatever per- 
secution or opposition may arise unto you on 
this account? 

" ' 7th. Do you engage to be faithful and diligent in the 
exercise of all private and personal duties, which 
become you as a Christian and a minister of the 
Gospel ; as well as in all relative duties, and the 
public duties of your office, endeavoring to adorn 
the profession of the Gospel by your conversa- 
tion ; walking with exemplary piety before the 
flock over which God shall make you overseer?' 

"The candidate having answered these questions in 
the affirmative, kneeled in a place prepared for the pur- 
pose; and the presiding Bishop, by an appropriate and 
impressive prayer with the laying on of the hands of the 
Presbytery, according to the Apostolic example, sol- 
emnly ordained him to the holy office of the Gospel 
Ministry. Prayer being ended, he arose from his knees ; 
and the presiding minister first, and afterwards all the 


members of the Presbytery, took him by the right hand — 
saying, 'We give you the right hand of fellowship to 
take part in this ministry with us.' 

" The Rev. Doctor Inglis, who had been appointed 
to perform this duty, gave a solemn and affectionate 
charge to the newly ordained Bishop — exhorting him 
' before God and the Lord Jesus Christ, who shall judge 
the quick and the dead at his appearing and his kingdom, 
to preach the word; to be instant in season and out of 
season, to reprove, rebuke, exhort, and with all long 
suffering and doctrine.' Observing that the young 
man, deeply affected, was ready to sink under the weight 
and awful responsibility of the office with which he was 
invested, Dr. Inglis, in a very appropriate and en- 
couraging manner, directed his thoughts to that al- 
mighty arm which was pledged for his support; to 
those divine consolations which he might expect in the 
faithful discharge of his duty, and to that imperishable 
crown of glory which the Lord the righteous Judge 
shall, on the last and great day, bestow on those who 
have consecrated their lives and their talents to his 
service and the best interests of men. The whole serv- 
ice was concluded with prayer and singing a hymn. 

' ' We have seldom witnessed a more solemn and inter- 
esting transaction. All the exercises of the day were 
conducted with becoming solemnity; and the congrega- 
tion, which was numerous and respectable, appeared 
deeply interested. The audience was forcibly struck 
and felt a lively sympathy with the unaffected emotions 
of the venerable father of the young man ordained. 
When he gave his son the right hand of fellowship, 
unable to utter a word, the tears that started from his 
eyes indicated a heart too full for utterance. Mr. 


Balch saw his son, in that Church in which he himself 
had preached above forty years, consecrating himself 
to the service of the God of his father. 

' ' If the Patriarch Jacob fainted with joy when he 
heard that his son was governor over all the land of 
Egypt, what ought to be the feelings of a Christian Parent 
on seeing a son invested with an office, the faithful dis- 
charge of which shall be rewarded with a crown of glory 
as brilliant as the stars and as durable as eternity. ' ' 

Dr. Balch died February 14th, 1878, at "Macomb 
Manse," near Greenwich, Virginia. He married at 
Salona, Fairfax County, Virginia, Susan Carter, 
daughter of Charles Beale Carter of "Shirley" on 
the James River, who was an uncle of General 
Robert E. Lee, Confederate States Army. 220 Charles 

220 See Robert E. Lee and the Southern Confederacy 1807-1870, by- 
Henry Alexander White, New York, 1897, page 16. 

"When we trace the Carter line backward from Charles of the 
fourth generation, we find his father, John Carter, eldest son of the 
house, becoming the master of Shirley plantation through marriage 
with the heiress, Elizabeth Hill. This John was son of Robert Carter 
of Lancaster, familiarly known as 'King Carter' of the realm of the 
upper Rappahannock river; Robert's father was the emigrant John 
who sat as a member of the Virginia House of Burgesses as early as 
1649. 'King Carter' played his part in the public service as Speaker 
of the Burgesses, Rector of William and Mary College, and Governor 
of the Colony of Virginia. A large stone in former time stood at the 
east end of Christ Church in Lancaster County to speak of him as 
'An honourable man, who by noble endowments and pure morals 
gave lustre to his gentle birth. * * * Possessed of ample wealth, 
blamelessly acquired, he built and endowed at his own expense this 
sacred edifice a single monument of his piety toward God. He fur- 
nished it richly. Entertaining his friends kindly, he was neither a 
prodigal nor a parsimonious host.' It was the daughter of this 
house of Carter who became the mother of Robert E. Lee, and her 
prayers and tender admonitions were the forces that cast his grow- 
ing character in that mould €>f noble self control that made the 
child the father of the man." 


Beale Carter (his sister was General Lee's mother) 
married his double first cousin, Anne Beale Carter, 
also a cousin of General Lee. 

Dr. and Mrs. Balch had eleven children: — 
6. I. Annie Carter Balch. 
6. II. Elizabeth Macomb Balch. 
6. III. Robert Monroe Balch, Lieutenant- 
Colonel in the Confederate States Army; he 
served under General Forrest; he was in the 
Western Army, and at the fight at Fort 
Donelson had his horse shot under him, but 
mounted another. 221 

6. IV. Charles Carter Balch; he was a Cap- 
tain in the Confederate States Army and 
served under General Forrest; he was at the 
battle of Fort Donelson. 

6. V. Harriet Balch; died young. 
6. VI. Chalmas Page Balch. 
6. VII. Linnaeus Balch, died young. 
6. VIII. William Cowper Balch, ]_ . 
6. IX. Felix Neff Balch, / WmS ' 

6. X. Mary Landon Balch; died in 1899. 
6. XI. Julia Ringwood Balch; she died at 
Washington, August 25th, 1905. 
5. IX. Ann Eleanora Balch (see ante, page 205) 
was born at Georgetown, D. C, August 14th, 1799. 
She married Captain James C. Wilson. 

m "Balch's (R. M.) Cavalry. See Tennessee Troops, Confederate. 
18th Battalion." Miscellaneous Documents of the House of Repre- 
sentatives for the 2d session of the 49th Congress, Vol. 11, page 904. 


S. X. Elizabeth Maria Balch (see ante, page 
205) was born at Georgetown, D. C, April 15th, 
1802. She married the Rev. Septinis Tustin, of the 
Presbyterian Church, at one time Chaplain of the 
United States Senate. 

5. XI. Jane Whann Balch (see ante, page 205) 
was born at Georgetown, D. C, February 14th, 1805, 
and died March 5th, 1884. She married the Rev. 
William Williamson. They lived at Washington, 
D. C. They had :— 

6. I. Jane L. Williamson, who married Sam- 
uel Harrison Howell. 

4. VII. James Balch (see ante, page 104) was 
born on Deer Creek, Harford County, Maryland, on 
December 25th, 1750, and died in Sullivan County, 
Indiana, January 12th, 1821. He was licensed to 
preach by the Presbytery of Abington in 1787. 222 
In 1798, he was still a member of the Presbytery 
of Abington. 223 But by 1803 he was transferred 
to the Presbytery of Cumberland. 224 He was one 
of the first trustees of Greenville College, Tennes- 
see. 225 Over his final resting place in the Presby- 

222 '"pjjg Presbytery of Abington report that they had licensed Mr. 
James Balch to preach the gospel." The Synod of New York and 
Philadelphia, May, 1787. Minutes of the General Assembly of the 
Presbyterian Church, page 531. 

223 Minutes of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, page 

224 Minutes of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, 1803, 
page 32. 

225 Sketches of North Carolina, Biographical and Historical, by the 
Rev. William Henry Foote, New York, 1846, page 314. 


terian Cemetery near Graysville, a square pillar 
of marble was placed with this inscription, " Sacred 
to the memory of Rev. James Balch, who departed 
this life January 12th, 1821, aged seventy years 
and eighteen days." Below is the sentence, "Re- 
moved from near the site of Hopewell Church, west 
of Turman's Creek by a Committee of the Vincennes 
Presbytery, October 19th, 1880." About 1772 he 
married Susanna Lavinia Garrison, who was born 
February 13th, 1758, and died in 1834. 

They had ten children : — 
5. I. Amos P. Balch. 
5. II. Ann Wilkes Balch. 
5. III. Martha Balch. 
5. IV. Mary Balch. 
5. V. Elizabeth R. Balch. 
5. VI. Ethelinda Balch. 
5. VII. Albinda Bloomer Balch. 
5. VIII. Calvin Balch. 
5. IX. John C. Balch. 
5. X. Jonathan Edward Balch. 

3. II. John Balch, (see ante, page 103) "of Balti- 
more County and Province of Maryland, Planter," 
the second son of Hezekiah Balch and his first wife, 
Margaret Bloomer, was born in Saint George's 
Parish, Maryland, January 23rd, 1715-16. 228 He 
settled on Deer Creek, Harford County, Maryland, 

228 Saint George's Parish Records. 


in 1739. 227 In 1763 he removed to North Caro- 
lina. The name of his wife is unknown; they had 
one son: (4. I.) Hezekiah Balch. 

4. I. Hezekiah Balch, 228 was born on Deer Creek, in 
1741. He graduated at Princeton College, receiv- 
ing the A. M. degree in 1766; in the same class was 
his first cousin, the Rev. Hezekiah James Balch. 
After graduating from Princeton, Hezekiah Balch 
studied for the Ministry of the Presbyterian Church. 
On May 17th, 1769, New Castle Presbytery re- 
ported to the Synod that it had licensed to preach 
as a candidate Hezekiah Balch, 229 and the follow- 
ing year, May 16th, 1770, Hanover Presbytery re- 
ported that they had ordained him. 230 He was a 
representative from Orange Presbytery at the 
Synod held at Philadelphia in 1774. 231 The follow- 
ing year he represented Donegall Presbytery at 
the Synod at New York. 232 In 1781, he likewise 
represented Donegall Presbytery at the Synod at 
New York. 233 The following year, 1782, the Presby- 

227 October 1st, 1738, sale of land on Deer Creek to John Balch 
of Baltimore County, Liber E. I. No. 5, page 440, and Dec. 14th, 
739, Liber L. G. No. B., page 16. 

228 Princeton College during the Eighteenth Century, by Samuel 
Davies Alexander, an alumnus, New York, 1872, page 104. 

229 Minutes of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, page 

230 Minutes of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, page 

231 Minutes of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, page 

232 Minutes of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, page 

233 Minutes of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, page 


tery of Donegall reported to the Synod that they 
had dismissed the Rev. Hezekiah Balch to join 
the Presbytery of Hanover. 234 

In 1785, he removed to Tennessee. There he did 
a great deal for the cause of education, founded 
Greenville College, of which he was the first Presi- 
dent, 235 and was the Pastor of the First Presby- 
terian Church of Greenville. 236 In 1806, he re- 
ceived the degree of D. D. from Williams College, 
Massachusetts. He died in 1810. Dr. Sprague 
gives the following sketch of the Rev. Hezekiah 
Balch, D.D.:— 237 

"He was admitted as a student of the College of New 
Jersey, at the recommendation of the Rev. John Rod- 
gers, (afterwards Dr. Rodgers of New York,) and was 
graduated there in 1766. For a considerable time after 
his graduation, he was engaged in teaching a school in 
Fauquier County, Va. He was licensed to preach by 
the Presbytery of Newcastle between the meetings of 
Synod in 1768 and 1769. Soon afterwards we find him 
labouring as a missionary within the bounds of the 
Presbytery of Hanover, then reaching from the Poto- 
mac indefinitely towards the Pacific. For the increase 

234 Minutes of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, page 

235 Presbytery of Union: Hezekiah Balch, President of Greenville 
College. Minutes of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, 
1789-1820, page 167. 

236 Historical Sketch of the Presbyterian Churches of Emmittsburg 
and Piney Creek (1761-1876), by William Simonton, Pastor, 1876, 
pages 20-21, 50-51. 

237 Annals of the American Pulpit; or Commemorative Notices of 
Distinguished American Clergymen of various Denominations, by 
William B. Sprague, D. D., New York, 1858, Vol. Ill, page 308. 


of his usefulness, this Presbytery ordained him as an 
evangelist, on the 8th of March, 1770. The Synod of 
New York and Philadelphia, at their next sessions, con- 
stituted him and six other ordained ministers, the Pres- 
bytery of Orange. 

"It was during his ministrations in North Carolina 
that Mr. Balch first made his acquaintance with the 
young lady who became his wife. Her name was Han- 
nah Lewis. * * * They had six children, — four sons 
and two daughters. The eldest daughter became the 
wife of the Rev. (afterwards Dr.) Robert Henderson. 
After the death of Mrs. Balch, — about the year 1808, — 
he was married to Ann Lucky, a native of Pennsyl- 
vania, who removed to Tennessee in 1795 or 1796, and 
who was also a lady of excellent character. Her father 
was Robert Lucky, a native of New York. She died in 
Jonesborough, in 1835, aged seventy-two, having had 
no children. 

"Mr. Balch felt encouraged to bestow a portion of his 
labours on some of the destitute parts of Pennsylvania, 
and with a view to this, obtained a dismission from 
Orange Presbytery to join that of Donegal, between the 
meetings of Synod in 1774 and 1775. For about one 
year he supplied the Presbyterians in the village of 
York. After his return to the Presbytery of Hanover, 
which had ordained him, he received more frequent 
notices of the growing demands for ministerial services 
among the numerous Presbyterian settlers in the part 
of North Carolina, West of the Allegany mountains. 
Having made no small proof of his ministry, from 1769 
to 1784, on the Atlantic slope near their Eastern side, 
and being urged by the zeal and enterprise of the Gospel 
pioneer to present himself where most needed, he formed 


his determination to cross the mountains, and cast in 
his lot with the people of God in the West. 

" It was not much before the date of the charter of 
the Presbytery of Abingdon in 1785, — the first on the 
Western waters, within what is now Tennessee, — in 
which his name appears with those of two other peti- 
tioners and original members, the Rev. Messrs. Samuel 
Doak and Charles Cummings — that he removed with 
his family into the vast Western wilderness; where 
there roamed at large, in untamed ferocity, the Chero- 
kee Indians, — furious with jealousy of the white popu- 
lation, that were then rapidly taking possession of their 
favourite hunting grounds. Here Mr. Balch, by reason 
of his age and experience, was called to take part in 
organizing churches. Among these was the First Pres- 
byterian Church in Greenville, of which, ere long, he 
became the pastor; and it grew under his ministrations 
to be the largest in the Valley of the Holston and Ten- 
nessee. His most frequent exchanges of labour, as well 
as his most intimate consultations at this period, were 
with the Rev. Samuel Doak, who had settled somewhat 
earlier at Salem Church, Washington County; where he 
had opened a private classical school, which was the 
germ of one of the most important institutions that 
have been established in the South West. 

" It was mainly through the combined influence of 
these two brethren, that Dr. Watts' Version of the 
Psalms was introduced, instead of the former one by 
Rouse, into use in the churches in that region. The 
measure had to encounter violent opposition, and was 
not a little prejudiced by the indiscreet zeal of some of 
its advocates. Mr. Balch preached a Sermon on the 
subject, at the opening of the Presbytery of Abingdon, 


in October, 1786, which produced a great effect at the 
time, and which was published seven years afterwards, 
under the title — ' Gospel Liberty in singing the praises 
of God, stated, illustrated, and urged.' This sermon, 
with other concurrent means that were used, wrought a 
gradual change in public opinion, until the object which 
the Sermon contemplated was finally accomplished. 

"There was one procedure in which Mr. Balch and 
Mr. Doak were associated, after their removal to Ten- 
nessee, which was at once too remarkable and too char- 
acteristic to be omitted. By reason of very high waters 
keeping their brethren of the Presbytery away from 
them at the time and place of one of their fall sessions, 
they found themselves alone, except some few elders. 
The meeting was specially important, as the Presbytery 
had expected to license a candidate, whose trials had 
almost been gone through, and whose labours were 
impatiently called for by deplorable destitutions. After 
waiting in vain for absent brethren, they united with 
the elders present in prayer for Divine direction; and 
when they had held a free and satisfactory consultation, 
they opened and constituted as a Presbytery; finished 
the remaining trials of the candidate; licensed him to 
preach the Gospel, and appointed his labours for the 
next six months, or in other words, till the next stated 
sessions of Presbytery. They made a faithful record of 
their proceedings, and pledged themselves to each other, 
under consent and order of Presbytery, to attend to- 
gether the next meeting of Synod; (for it was before 
the formation of the General Assembly;) submit their 
Records for review; meet any censure for irregularity; 
and state what they believed were the justifiable reasons 
of their procedure. A journey of six hundred miles on 


horseback brought them to Philadelphia, seasonably for 
the meeting of Synod. When the Committee, charged 
with the review of their Records, were called upon to 
report, the speaker and his fellow reviewer were thrown 
into such a convulsive and half suppressed titter, at 
what they regarded the wild vagrancy of their brethren 
in the backwoods, that they could scarcely compose 
themselves sufficiently to make an announcement of the 
irregularity. But though the Assembly were at first 
prepared to condemn the procedure, yet, upon hearing 
Mr. Balch's full and pathetic explanation, they were 
perfectly satisfied, and dismissed the matter with the 
most kindly spirit, and without a disapproving word. 

" Mr. Balch identified himself with the political troubles 
growing out of the formation of the State of Franklin. 
In consequence of this, he fell into a controversy with 
the Rev. William Graham of Virginia, who addressed a 
letter to him through the press, which was made the 
ground of an ecclesiastical process against the writer 
before the Old Synod; and when the General Assembly 
was formed, the cause fell under the jurisdiction of the 
Synod of Virginia. 

"About the year 1793, Mr. Balch had conceived, ma- 
tured, and communicated to some of his friends, the 
plan of Greenville College. When the Territorial Leg- 
islature met in 1794, he applied for a Charter, and the 
granting of it — by which also he was constituted Presi- 
dent and ex-officio a Trustee — was the first act of that 
Body; and he was allowed to have a plat of ground for 
the College near his own dwelling. When a copy of 
the Charter was delivered to Mr. Balch, an influential 
member of the Assembly said to him — ' Now, Sir, you 
will have to travel and collect funds to put the College 


in operation, as George Whitefield did for his Orphan 
House.' Mr. Balch replied that he had indulged no 
other expectation. 

"The next year, (1795,) he visited New England to 
collect funds for the new institution; and in that visit 
may be said to have originated a theological contro- 
versy which gave a somewhat polemical character to his 
whole future life. The full history of that controversy 
is to be gathered only from the Records of the different 
Ecclesiastical Bodies in which it was carried on; but 
some of the most prominent facts in connection with 
it will be found in the subjoined communication from 
the venerable Dr. Coffin, whose testimony will not be 
impaired, in the view of any body who knew him, by 
the fact that he is understood to have sympathized 
somewhat with Mr. Balch in his theological speculations. 
As his account, however, terminates with Mr. Balch's 
being acquitted with an admonition from the General 
Assembly in 1798, it may not be amiss to state that 
this was by no means the termination of the controversy. 
Previous to his trial before the Assembly, a civil suit 
had been instituted with a view to dispossess him and 
his adherents of the meeting house; and while this was 
pending, it was attempted to eject him from the pulpit 
by force. In the midst of a most tumultuous scene 
that occurred the Sabbath after his return from the 
Assembly, he retired with a large part of his congrega- 
tion to a wide spreading tree, a short distance from the 
church, and there read the papers relating to his trial 
and acquittal by the Assembly. He subsequently per: 
formed Divine service there for several months; and 
such was his attachment to the spot that he intimated 
a wish to be buried there, provided it could be done 


without impropriety. Though his congregation was now 
divided into two, the greater part remained with him, 
and, as might have been expected, regarded both him 
and his theological system with increased favour. The 
decision of the law-suit restored the meeting house to 
him and his congregation, as the ascertained majority, — 
and in due time they resumed their worship in it. 

"In October following his trial before the Assembly, 
several charges were brought against him, before the 
Synod of the Carolinas, by a reference from the Union 
Presbytery, — the most grave of which was that he had 
acted with duplicity in making certain statements after 
his return from the General Assembly that were incon- 
sistent with what he had said before that Body. Most 
of the charges were pronounced unsustained, but the 
one just mentioned was considered as proved, in con- 
sequence of which Mr. Balch was suspended from his 
office as a minister, until the Presbytery of Union, to 
which he belonged, having become satisfied of his peni- 
tence, should see fit to restore him. At the same time 
the sentence of suspension from the office of elder and 
from the Communion of the Church was pronounced 
upon four of the elders who had appeared against Mr. 
Balch, 'for the impropriety and irregularity of their 
course.' Both parties expressed their submission to 
the judgment of Synod, and received a suitable ad- 
monition from the Moderator. 

"In 1800, Mr. Balch and several others, were consti- 
tuted, by their own request, a New Presbytery, by the 
name of Greenville Presbytery. The same year he pre- 
ferred a charge before the Synod against the Presbytery 
of Abingdon for having ordained his successor in the 
Mount Bethel Church, before they had settled their 


pecuniary accounts with himself, and for having or- 
dained a man of questionable orthodoxy. 

"The degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred upon 
him by Williams College in 1806. 

"When the Rev. (afterwards Dr.) Charles Coffin took 
up his permanent residence in Tennessee, about the be- 
ginning of the year 1805, he became associated with Dr. 
Balch in the labours of both the pulpit and the College. 
Dr. Balch continued to labour in both relations as much 
and as long as he was able, though for the last two or 
three years of his life, his increasing infirmities rendered 
him incapable of severe or continuous exertion. He 
died after a brief but most distressing illness in April, 

"It has already been stated that one of Dr. Balch's 
daughters was married to the Rev. Robert Henderson. 
She died, in her twenty-fifth year, on the 1 lth of March, 
1795; and, according to the account of her last hours, 
written by her husband and published in the New 
York Missionary Magazine of 1802, there has rarely been 
exhibited a more strongly marked scene of Christian 
triumph. Her father, who arrived just in time to see 
her die, asked her several questions designed to bring 
out the state of her mind in regard to his favourite doc- 
trine of 'unconditional submission;' and he expressed 
himself perfectly satisfied with her answers. 

"It is now (1857) several years since the last of Dr. 
Balch's children deceased. Several of his grandchildren 
entered the ministry, but not till some time after his 
death. His adopted son, the nephew and foster-child 
of his second wife, — Seth J. W. Lucky, was graduated 
at Greenville College ; has been, for several years, on the 
Bench in Tennessee, first as a Circuit Judge, and now 


as a Chancellor, and is not only an exemplary and in- 
fluential member, but an active and useful elder, of the 
Presbyterian Church in Jonesboro'. It was in his house 
that the second Mrs. Balch spent her last years." 

"From the Rev. Charles Coffin, D. D., 238 


"Greene County, Tenn., March 30, 1850. 
"Rev. and Dear Brother: I have been casting 
about me for some time to see if I could not find some 
person more competent to do justice to the character 
of the Rev. Dr. Hezekiah Balch than myself; but time 
has made such desolating work with his contempo- 
raries that I am almost ready to say that I am the only 
one left to testify concerning him. I have, therefore, 
determined to make an effort to comply with your 
request; though, in doing so, I feel bound to say that 
I am quite aware that I am undertaking a task of no 
small delicacy. Dr. Balch, more than almost any 
other man of his day, was involved in controversy ; and 
was called to answer for alleged theological errors at 
each of the several Church Courts to which he was 
amenable. His most vigorous opposers were undoubt- 
edly conscientious and excellent men, and I would not 
even seem to cast a shade upon their memories. But 
it is no reflection upon either him or them to admit 
that both were fallible, and that doubtless must appear 
in what I shall feel obliged to say in performing the 
service you have allotted to me. I cherish Dr. Balch 's 
memory with affectionate veneration, and am glad that 
you propose to make him the subject of an enduring 

238 This letter, written at the request of the Rev. Dr. Sprague, is 
also published in his book. 


record. I knew him most intimately, having lived 
several years under his roof, and my family with me 
the latter and larger part of the time. 

"My first sight of this interesting man was in the 
summer of 1795, in the town of Newburyport, my na- 
tive place, where I was then engaged in the study of 
Theology. The South Western Territory had recently 
been organized. At his suggestion, the charter of 
Greenville College had been granted by its first legis- 
lative Act, but without any provision of funds to 
enable him, as the President, to make it useful. After 
a successful visit to Charleston, S. C, to procure dona- 
tions and endowments, he passed through the Middle 
and Eastern States, as far as Portland in Maine ; and 
I afterwards found that both the President and Board 
of Trustees were well satisfied with the amount that 
was obtained. I heard him preach twice in different 
churches, and enjoyed his conversation at my father's 
house. His personal appearance was prepossessing, — 
with a dark coloured, lustrous, commanding eye, a full 
habit and erect frame of body; and his address was 
animating and full of benignity, both in the house of 
God and the private circle. His preaching was evan- 
gelical, hearty and impressive. The general bearing of 
his manner fastened itself on my memory as being well 
designated by the following words in his first ser- 
mon : — ' I now come to the application, which I ever 
think to be the life of preaching.' When he called the 
next day, my father, after making his donation, spread 
before him on the table Dr. Morse's first large map con- 
taining the South Western Territory; thinking to gain 
from him, as he did, some further knowledge of his 
country's Geography. I was myself very much in- 


terested while the President pointed out the ranges of 
the mountains, the beautiful valley of his residence, its 
water courses and fertile grounds; and described the 
climate as one of the most salubrious and delightful 
upon earth. The early concern for a College, amid 
the growing population soon to become a State, ap- 
peared to me a noble imitation of the patriotic care 
which made the founding of Northern Colleges so much 
a primary object. In about a year from that time, the 
new State of Tennessee was organized. In the spring 
of 1799, I was licensed to preach. A providential 
affliction in my eyes had been severely troublesome to 
me for two or three preceding years. I had suffered 
much from the wintry storms and piercing winds of the 
North, and from the overpowering reflection of the 
dazzling sunbeams from the snow and ice. A milder 
climate for the cold season was recommended by physi- 
cians. A conviction had likewise fastened upon my 
mind that some months might usefully be occupied in 
travelling, and gaining knowledge of the diversified 
population of our extensive Union, which might be. 
followed with some important advantages through life. 
My recollections of President Balch were lively and 
pleasing. I passed the greater part of the subsequent 
winter preaching in the South, and wrote Mr. Balch a 
letter, intimating that I had some thoughts of visiting 
him in the spring. In his answer, he urged me to cross 
the mountains, and made the following somewhat start- 
ling communication : — ' Since my return from New Eng- 
land, Sir, I have been cited to ecclesiastical trial for- 
errors imputed to me by my prosecutors, sixteen times 
before Presbytery; four times before Synod; and once 
before the General Assembly. I had not far short of 


one hundred scholars in the College. But my interrup- 
tions and absences to attend my trials arrested the 
progress of the institution. The students were obliged 
to go home. Nevertheless, Sir, all that I have suffered 
has only served to confirm me more and more in the 
belief that what I have contended for is God's Bible 
truth, and will stand forever. My prosecutors have 
never yet taught me the doctrine of fear. Come over, 
Sir, and I hope God will so order it that you will fall in 
love with our country.' My heart, I must confess, 
grew warm towards the man. 

" On the 11th of July, 1800, I rode up to his gate ; and 
when he had ascertained my name, he said with tears 
filling his eyes — ' I believe, Sir, there is a God in Heaven 
who hears prayer.' In subsequent conversations he 
informed me that, long before his Northern journey, he 
had felt a confidence that clearer light than he had 
attained on the cardinal doctrines of grace, as to their 
agreement and harmony with each other, their fitness 
to honour God and feed and bless his people, was in all 
probability to be found somewhere; and that he had 
often thought he would account it but a small sacri- 
fice to take his staff, and travel on foot to the ends of 
the earth, to find the man who could so unfold the 
mind of the Spirit, contained in the Sacred Scriptures, 
as to pour the desired light into his soul. He said it 
was impossible for him to travel under the rare ad- 
vantages of improving conversation with the most en- 
lightened ministers and other Christians, which he 
enjoyed, while soliciting for the College, without an earn- 
est spirit of theological inquiry. 'This,' said he, 'the 
great and good Dr. Green of Philadelphia did much to 
invigorate and direct by his kind, brotherly counsels to 


me on my way to the North, for which I have ever been 
thankful. He told me that I would find, as he did, in the 
Northern States, a class of ministers, some of whose 
religious sentiments were considered erroneous, while 
their main tenets were unquestionably Calvinistic. He 
advised me by all means to become acquainted with 
these men. 'I do not myself agree with them,' he said, 
' in every thing ; but in some things which are questioned, 
I know they are right. I found reason to esteem them 
as among the most laborious students, faithful pastors, 
successful preachers, and instructive writers in all New 
England.' 'Now,' added Mr. Balch, and often did he 
take occasion to repeat it in my ears, — 'these were the 
very ministers who most assisted me to obtain dona- 
tions ; and who afforded me, by conversations and 
books, my principal helps in the investigation of re- 
ligious truth.' He informed me that he preached, of 
course, boldly and explicitly, on his return, his most 
illustrative thoughts on Gospel doctrines, as had ever 
been his way ; keeping nothing back of the whole counsel 
of God; fully persuaded that he had learned better to 
understand it by his opportunities of receiving additional 
light. 'I took pains,' said he, 'to assure ministers and 
people, privately and publicly, that I believed more 
firmly, because more intelligently, than ever before, the 
cardinal doctrines of free and sovereign grace, which 
I had so long preached ; but I blessed God He had led me 
into a clearer knowledge of them all in their inspired 
meaning and essential harmony; that I felt myself able 
to unfold them, and defend them, in a more consistent 
manner, and to preach the truth on one topic, without 
taking it back again, when discussing another.' 

"As to the views which rendered Dr. Balch obnoxious 


to many of his brethren, it is impossible, in so brief a 
space as is allotted to me in this letter, to go into detail. 
It will perhaps be sufficient to say that he sympathized 
with that class of New England divines, who were and 
still are known as Hopkinsians. His most familiar and 
favourite sentiment was that all true holiness, both in 
God and his intelligent creatures, consists in impartial, 
disinterested good-will, love or benevolence to all be- 
ings capable of happiness; and a benevolent complac- 
ency in the moral excellence of all who possess this 
essential qualification for happiness, and for promoting 
its diffusion. The first impression which his preaching 
made upon his church and large congregation after his 
return from the North and East, as I received abun- 
dant evidence from many of them, was very generally 
favourable. But alarms were gradually excited among 
his people, and in due time, when he thought the case 
required it, he was heard by his Presbytery, — that of 
Abingdon; before whom he stated what were his views 
of Divine truth, which he fully believed were vindicated 
both by the Bible and the Confession of Faith. So 
satisfied were the majority of that body that he embraced 
nothing heretical, or dangerous to the souls of men, that 
they passed a vote to this effect ; and agreed individually 
to do what they could to quiet any alarms existing 
among the people. 

"But so dissatisfied were the minority with this pro- 
cedure, and so little did they expect any appeal could 
serve their cause, that they withdrew from the connec- 
tion of the Synod and General Assembly, and consti- 
tuted themselves an independent Presbytery. At their 
return to order, with due acknowledgment to Synod of 
the incautious step they had taken, the Presbytery of 


Union, composed of Mr. Balch and those ministers of 
Abingdon Presbytery, who had not taken ground against 
him, was constituted; and with what spirit, the very 
name by which they chose every where to be known, 
sufficiently and very truly indicates. Yet the alarms 
kept up by the remaining members of the Presbytery 
of Abingdon, extended to those who had removed from 
Washington and Greene Counties, to inviting lands be- 
low, within the bounds of Union. Yet the better spirit 
ultimately prevailed. Even the venerable fathers them- 
selves, who saw most to disapprove in Mr. Balch's senti- 
ments, and felt called upon to oppose them most sternly, 
were too good not to welcome the peaceful gales from 
Heaven, as they drew near to the promised land of 
light, love, and concord. They were able and faithful 
men, who held with intelligence and tenacity the views 
in which they had been educated; who rendered much 
important service to the Church in their day; and whom 
to know was surely to venerate and love. The oppos- 
ing and the opposed, have, it is believed, already joined 
together in the never-ending song before the throne, — 
' Not unto us, but unto thy name be the glory,' Oh God 
of our salvation! 

" In regard to Mr. Balch's most important trial at the 
bar of the General Assembly, representing the whole 
Presbyterian Church before its division, I have not one- 
tenth part of the desirable space for rendering the 
honour most justly due to the ever present Head of his 
militant Church; to that faithful and enlightened judi- 
catory which could do nothing against the truth, but 
for it ; and its imperfect yet heroic witness, enjoying the 
privilege of answering for himself. After my first visit 
to Mr. Balch and his ministerial brethren in the Presby- 


teries of Abingdon and Union, I passed two or three 
times between Tennessee and my native State, and had 
opportunities of hearing frequently about the particu- 
lars of his trial. I was informed by ministers and others 
in the Middle States, that when the charges against him 
had been publicly read, and the testimony heard, and 
his time for defense was announced, he rose with humble 
boldness, and nobly exerted his powers to distinguish, 
explain, and prove from the Bible, what he had been 
contending for as the truth of God; that he was heard 
with profound attention by that venerable body, and a 
large crowd of spectators ; and that he was much ex- 
tolled by persons present for his frankness, intrepidity, 
perspicuity, and earnestness, combined with the sub- 
missive deference due to so respectable and numerous 
an assembly of ecclesiastical judges. In order to show 
something of the impression made at the time upon men 
of improved minds and deep thinking, it may suffice to 
state one anecdote, out of a number. The celebrated 
Dr. Rush, in the midst of extensive professional engage- 
ments, had received such information of the interest- 
ing trial of a Tennessee clergyman, that he chose to take 
time, and hear the defence. At the close of Mr. Balch's 
speech, the Assembly adjourned for dinner. The Doc- 
tor procured at the door an introduction to him; though 
he had seen him on his soliciting tour, and given him 
his patronage by his name and donation. He pressed 
him to go home and dine with him. Mr. Balch made 
his arrangements with reference to others, and went 
with the Doctor. 'Sir,' said the latter, 'when a Gospel 
minister will come six hundred miles to face his prose- 
cutors, and defend the assailed principles of his religious 
faith with the zeal and intrepidity which I have wit- 


nessed to-day, before the highest tribunal on earth to 
which he could be cited, my heart cannot but beat 
warmly in his favour, whether his sentiments and mine 
are identical or not.' On my first return to the North, 
I had myself already read in Mr. Balch's papers the 
substantial history of the trial; but did not omit, while 
in Philadelphia, to call on the Rev. Dr. Milledoler who 
was at that time the Recording Clerk of the General 
Assembly, and, by his indulgence, to read in the folio 
book of Records the full account, in the corrected Min- 
utes, of the whole trial and its result. Every thing was, 
as the certified extracts I had read before, attested. 
During my first visit, after spending a few months with 
Mr. Balch, and preaching and becoming acquainted in 
the general neighbourhood, I had got thoroughly to feel 
that he understood what he contended for ; as he did not 
once, in all our conversations, give and take back any 
Gospel doctrine about which I found the controversy 
had been maintained. I began now to think seriously 
whether it might not be my duty to comply with his oft 
repeated request, and settle down by him as an instruc- 
tor in the College, and a preacher in the town and vicin- 
ity. Having, from my early attachments, some reluct- 
ance on this point, and feeling some sense of obligation 
not to decide rashly, I became the more inquisitive to 
learn more distinctly, not merely from Mr. Balch, but 
from all accessible sources of information, what senti- 
ments were supposed to be erroneous in his preaching; 
what he had been understood to maintain on the topics 
discussed, and especially, how the several judicatories 
that had tried him, had finally pronounced upon his 
religious views. I was now so happy as to find that it 
was not less his wish, than my determination, that I 


would hear every thing his opposers as well as friends 
might have to say. I was deeply impressed with the 
idea that my prospect of usefulness in the whole region, 
if I should settle in East Tennessee, would greatly de- 
pend upon my obtaining a correct knowledge of the 
minds of the people on the subjects so much debated. 
Hence I carefully sought and improved opportunities 
of free and friendly conversation with men of every class ; 
with all the brethren in the ministry, old and young, — 
whether approving or disapproving Mr. Balch's views; 
also with his adherents and opponents among the people, 
and with serious observers in other denominations. 
After this extended and persevering investigation, I 
became satisfied that he was a vigorous and earnest 
defender of the leading doctrines of Hopkinsianism ; 
that he had embraced the system intelligently as well 
as cordially, and that he had most unflinchingly and 
minutely defended before each judicatory what he had 
wittingly and confessedly held, and what he informed 
them he could not without new light renounce. Im- 
prudences, in several instances, of speech and conduct 
were confessed ; also some injudicious selections of words 
and phraseologies were reported by witnesses, and 
charged upon him. In these cases he seemed to have 
been ingenuous, docile and submissive; though he once 
or twice declared that he did not appear to have been 
understood. When the Assembly's Committee brought in 
their report upon his 'creed,' (See the Digest,) in which 
they pointed out three particulars as errors held by him, 
according to their understanding of words ascribed to 
him by witnesses, and after hearing his defence, he said 
he felt assured, when he heard them read, that he had 
never held or asserted them as truths. Hence the 


thought immediately struck him, — men appear now 
to be leaving you; if God should leave you, your con- 
dition would indeed be dreadful. 'But,' he added, 'the 
very next thought that took possession of my soul, and 
nerved me afresh, was — I will at all events stick to God's 
truth.' That very evening, a clergyman, — not of the 
Assembly, who had been a close observer of the whole 
course of the trial, — one who felt, as he perceived many 
others did, that the Committee had been led, by words 
reported as Mr. Balch's, to mistake his real sentiments, 
as he had unfolded them in his principal address to the 
Assembly, and in his more private communications to 
his friends, came to him in much excitement — we may 
hope with more love for the truth as it is in Jesus, than 
soundness of practical judgment, and thus addressed 
him — ' Sir, I am afraid you will not get fair treatment. 
My advice to you is to go to-morrow morning, and tell 
the Assembly that you have been so misunderstood by 
their Committee that you do not see much prospect of 
getting justice from them as a judicatory; and that you 
therefore appeal from their fallible tribunal to the in- 
fallible tribunal of the Lord Jesus Christ.' Mr. Balch 
had courage enough, and if left to himself, might, in his 
extremity, have had rashness enough, to have welcomed 
the suggestion. But from his large and righteous heart 
instantly burst forth the following Christian reply : — ' A 
schism in the Church, Sir, is a dreadful thing. I should 
not like to be the guilty cause of any such curse. My 
shoulders are pretty broad— I trust they will spare my 
conscience. If they will only do that, Sir, I can bear for 
the truth's sake whatever burden they may think it 
their duty to put upon me.' Others of better judgment 
came to advise him, and to pray with him for the favour- 


able interposition of Heaven. At length, Mr. Irwin 
of Neshaminy, who had, with great vigour and bold- 
ness, sustained some of his controverted sentiments 
before the Assembly, called upon him, and put into his 
hand a small piece of paper, and asked him to consider 
its contents, and let him know whether he could, with a 
clear conscience, make the import of that writing his 
final answer to the Assembly, and rest the issue of his 
trial upon it. When he had read it, and felt assured 
that he correctly understood it, he replied that he readily 
could adopt it, without the smallest reserve ; for it stated 
the truth of facts and nothing else ; but that he had been 
so misapprehended by the Committee in their adopted 
report, that he was at a loss to know whether it would 
probably be accepted. His friend answered him — ' I 
know so much of the minds of the members, that I 
have no doubt it would ; and I entreat you to make use 
of it.' Accordingly, when the Assembly called for his 
ultimate answer, he gave it nearly in the exact words of 
the paper handed him. I cannot tell who wrote it. 
Mr. Balch thought Mr. Irwin wished him to understand 
that he did not himself. From Dr. Green's personal 
friendship and conduct during the trial, he immedi- 
ately said to him, — ' It looks to me as coming from Dr. 
Green.' 'If so, it comes from a most estimable source,' 
said Mr. Irwin ; ' and that is enough for me to say. ' The 
answer was accepted by such a majority as precluded 
any need of dividing the house to ascertain it. So 
soon as the Moderator, the Rev. Dr. John B. Smith, had 
declared, in the name of the Assembly, their vote of ac- 
ceptance, and by obvious implication, of acquittal, in 
favour of Mr. Balch, and given him the admonition 
agreed upon, and a concluding prayer had been thank- 


fully offered, Dr. Green arose with a majestic benignity 
in his commanding eye and face, and kindly said — 
'Moderator, Mr. Balch is now in as good and regular 
standing as any member of this Assembly; and I move 
you, Sir, that he and the minister and elder in Tennes- 
see, now come forward in the presence of this judica- 
tory and shake hands; in token that they will go home 
with the full purpose to live in Christian love and peace 
hereafter.' Mr. Balch immediately stood on his feet, 
and, with his hand upon his generous and forgiving 
heart, said, — 'Moderator, here is my heart; and here 
are both my hands,' — extending them earnestly. They 
did shake hands forthwith, to the general satisfaction 
of that truly Christian and enlightened Body. Thus 
amicably and providentially ordered was the most im- 
portant ecclesiastical trial of Mr. Balch, leaving him, 
at its termination, in the unrestricted enjoyment of that 
faith which he had abundantly shown to the Church 
and the world was dearer to him than any thing else 
he could call his own. Should it not be considered an 
enduring honour to the widely extended Presbyterian 
Church, then an undivided whole, that under so per- 
severing a course of prosecutions, carried through 
twenty-one trials or parts of trials, Presbyterial, Syn- 
odical, and of the highest Court, an upright conscience, 
even in an imprudent man, was thus safe beneath the 
outspread wings of its constitutional protection? 

"Yes, I must acknowledge that he was an imprudent 
man. His natural honesty and intrepidity were unsur- 
passed. All the movements of his soul seemed to be 
open and direct; but, under excitement, they some- 
times savoured strongly of impulsiveness and indiscre- 
tion. His intrepidity was a bad counsellor in the mo- 


ment of provocation and temptation. I could fill sheets 
with the details of his noble, self-denying and arduous 
exertions for the good of his fellow men. But I am 
sorry to add that even I, and certainly his opponents, 
if surviving, could fill pages in stating his rash steps, 
his unwise measures, and indiscreet words, where con- 
summate prudence was demanded. His maxim, in all 
debates and controversies, was, — ' I have no contention 
with any but about holiness.' When he discovered his 
error in any thing, he was most ingenious and thorough 
in repentance, confession, and making amends. As he 
did not always meet a similar return, he was sometimes 
thrown off his guard. From much knowledge of his life 
and conduct, I was obliged to conclude that when the 
fear of God was suspended in its rule over his lofty 
and intrepid soul, he feared nothing in the universe; 
and that of course Satan was at his elbow to take 
some advantage of him. 

"An impressive illustration of the influence of Mr. 
Balch's piety upon his principal prosecutor may here 
be stated. When they were about starting to a trial 
before the Synod of the Carolinas, he proposed to the 
elder, his neighbour, who was going there to prosecute 
him, that, for safety and convenience on their long 
journey, they should travel together. They did so. 
But rains had raised a particular stream so high that 
they saw it could not be forded without the swim- 
ming of their horses. Mr. Balch then said to his fel- 
low traveller, — ' Sir, you and I have families at home, 
to whom our deaths would be afflictive; we are in the 
hands of Divine Providence — don't you think we should 
do well to kneel down here on the bank of this deep 
and rapid stream, and pray God to help us over in 


safety?' 'By all means, Sir,' answered the elder — 
'please, Mr. Balch, offer a prayer.' He did so. They 
passed over safely, and travelled on quietly together. 
This is the elder who shook hands with him before 
the Assembly; and once did so before the Synod. Soon 
after I came into the State, when Mr. Balch urged him, 
for his own satisfaction, to converse with me freely and 
fully on the disputed sentiments, which had cost him 
so much in their defence, he replied, and I doubt not 
candidly, — ' Mr. Balch, it is not necessary ; now I under- 
stand you better than I did. I have no serious objection 
to what you hold.' And he was not the only opposing 
elder who gave Mr. Balch substantially the same 

" I must say a word of the important service which 
Dr. Balch rendered to the cause of liberal education. 
By his exertions for Greenville College, interrupted, as 
we have seen, in a most unexampled manner, he pro- 
vided a commodious two storied College-Hall, a consider- 
able library, a well selected, though small, philosophical 
apparatus, daily instruction, the best text -books and 
improvements in teaching within his power to secure. 
He gave an important impulse to exertions in the same 
great cause throughout the whole South-western region, 
where there was before hardly a beginning. Greenville 
College had at one time students from nine different 
States and Territories; and a more than usual propor- 
tion of them rose to honourable eminence in the dif- 
ferent walks of life. 

"To all persons who had any familiar and intimate 
acquaintance with Dr. Balch during his last years, the 
sunshine of his Heavenly Father's countenance seemed 
to irradiate his noble soul in a manner altogether un- 


common. His numerous citations and trials were dis- 
astrous to his temporal interests. Pains of body and 
anxieties of mind, with irreparable injuries to his con- 
stitution, from his many journeys and exposures, were 
not their only consequences. The many imperious calls 
to attend trials, mostly at a distance from the whole 
circle of his home duties, as husband, father, master, 
pastor, and president, during the most exposed years 
of his younger children, the arrest given to instruction 
in the College, when most needed, the failing health 
of his wife and the increased expenses of his family, 
caused him to endure trials which touched the sym- 
pathies of his worthy opposers, and appeared to all ex- 
ceedingly rare. Like his several brethren here in the 
ministry, he then had slaves in his family; who, from 
the kindness of his treatment, dearly loved him. He 
wished to do his duty to them. But the greater num- 
ber were taken from him for family debts. The rest 
he liberated. One went to Liberia, and became useful 
there. Under all his afflictions, he so encouraged him- 
self in his God, that, submissive and cheerful, he stood 
erect and unshaken, with an unbroken fortitude that 
struck all beholders. Once, late at night, when all 
were in bed, his large and well filled barn was struck 
with lightning. A large crop of hay and a valuable 
horse were consumed with the building. Some of his 
opposers observed him bathed in tears, and supposed 
that a troubled conscience was the cause — thinking 
that he interpreted the lightning's stroke, as they did, 
to be a token of God's anger against him for his errors 
and missteps. I was then absent in the counties be- 
low. Soon after my return, I heard of the above sur- 
mise. Some of the family had given me an account 


of the fire, and said they wished I could have wit- 
nessed the scene of their family worship the next 
morning, when Mr. Balch, having read a select portion 
of Scripture, and sung a few stanzas from Watts, with 
melting emotions, instead of kneeling, as was common, 
prostrated himself at his whole length on the floor; 
and offered what they considered the most admirable 
and affecting prayer to which they had ever listened. 
In our conversations before my absence, he had so con- 
descendingly let me into his inmost soul, that I had a 
strong desire to hear what account he would himself 
give of his tears and emotions while his barn was 
burning. Taking opportunity one day when we were 
alone, I intimated my wish. 'Sir,' said he, with his 
emotions kindling afresh, ' I was so filled with a sense 
of God's love, while, in his adorable sovereignty, he 
was burning down my barn and destroying my prop- 
erty, that I felt it, and still look back upon it, as 
one of the most favoured scenes of my life.' It then 
seemed to me useless to ask why he prostrated him- 
self in a family prayer the next morning. Consider- 
ing the originality of his character, and the strength 
of his devotional feelings, I concluded, without the 
shadow of a doubt, that to exalt his God, and abase 
himself in the dust at his footstool, as unworthy of 
the love with which he had condescended to refresh 
him, was the joyful effort of his happy heart. Some 
years after that, I saw him in distress incomparably 
more extreme. The wife of his youth lay a corpse in 
his house. I found him silently and calmly pouring 
out a copious flood of tears. 'Sir,' said he, when he 
spoke, — ' I have been in many a trying condition, 
where nothing but absolute submission to the will of 


God could reach my necessity; and I am now in one 
of the most trying in my whole life. But blessed be 
God, absolute, unconditional submission to his will is 
plaster sufficient for every sore.' 

"Dr. Balch's retirement from his duties in the Col- 
lege was chiefly to the bed of languishment and death. 
But from that bed, on the lower floor of his log- 
house, shone forth all but the radiance of Heaven 
itself. When I first mentioned to him his approach- 
ing death, and his entrance into the world of retribu- 
tion, — 'Sir,' said he, 'with such a Redeemer as the 
Lord Jesus Christ for my dependence, I scorn to be 
afraid to die.' Not many days afterwards, he resumed 
his soul-rejoicing theme: — 'Sir,' said he, — 'if it were not 
for the infinite atonement of the Lord Jesus Christ, 
as the dependence of my soul before God, I would not 
go into eternity for ten thousand worlds. Without this, 
if I had strength, I would be running through the 
woods, and tearing the trees for very agony; but 
with this for my reliance, here I am, Sir, calmly wait- 
ing the Mighty Master's call.' In another interview, he 
said to me, looking up with tears towards Heaven, — 
'Sir, I cordially submit to the righteous sentence of 
God's eternal law; the precepts of which I have no 
apology for breaking. At the same time, I trust I 
have a little — oh! how little, of that holy disinterested 
love which makes the life of a justifying faith in Christ ; 
that love, Sir, that will bear the examination and meet 
the approving smile of the great Judge of quick and 
dead.' Even in his last will and testament, he gave 
his soul to his God to be made for Christ's sake, in 
boundless grace, an eternal vessel of mercy in Heaven, 
or, in righteous judgment for his sins, a vessel of ever- 


lasting wrath in hell; just as seemed good in his sight. 
I said, 'Mr. Balch, will all who may read your will, 
understand your unshaken hope of salvation through 
Christ?' 'Sir,' said he, 'I cannot allow myself to make 
conditions with God; to Him I cordially submit,, with- 
out any reserve, for time and for eternity. Let the 
words stand, Sir; they show the only way in which 
I mean to die. Those who have heard me insist on 
unreserved submission, as always involved in saving 
faith, may learn the importance of it in their own case, 
when they find how I choose to die.' So, therefore, 
the words now stand in the Register's office in Green- 

"Such is, I believe, a faithful, though certainly a 
very inadequate, miniature of that truly venerable 
man of God, Hezekiah Balch, D. D. I shall be glad 
if it answers in any degree the purpose for which you 
requested it. 

"That the Spirit of truth, grace, and holiness may 
preside over your important studies, and bless your 
diversified labours, is the fervent prayer, I doubt not 
of many, besides, 

" Dear Sir, your unworthy brother in Christ, 


The Reverend Hezekiah Balch married (see ante, 
page 375) first Hannah Lewis, and second Ann 
Lucky. He and his first wife had six children, four 
sons and two daughters. One of the sons : 

5. John Tennant Balch, served several terms in 
the Legislature of Tennessee. Among the latter 's 
children : 


6. John Tennant Balch, named after his father, 
was ordained a Presbyterian clergyman. He was 
born at Greenville, Tennessee, December 12th, 
1809, and died at Meriden, Louisiana, December 
12th, 1861. He graduated at Georgetown College, 
Kentucky, in 1833, and studied the next year at 
the Princeton Theological Seminary. In 1835 he 
was elected an Adopted Graduate Member of 
Whig Hall, at Princeton. 239 

239 Catalogue of the American Whig Society instituted in the College 
of New Jersey, ij6g. Published by Order of the Society, 1893, page 

In Jackson County, Arkansas, there is a post-office named Balch. 
It probably owes its name to some descendant of the Rev. Hezekiah 


Alabama Arbitration, The 286-297, 319-328 

Armada, Spanish 23, 48 

Assemblies, The Georgetown 206 

Assemblies, The Philadelphia 237-238, 332 

Balch Arms Frontispiece, 11, 12, 24 

Balch Motto; Cosur et courage font I'ouvrage. . .Title page, 12 

Balch, Name of 1-4, 8 

Balch Family of County Somerset, England 1-8 S 

Bridgwater Group 61 

Higham-Horton-Ilminster Group 13 

North Curry Group 46 

Wells-Bruton Group 83 

Balch, Charles, de Stoke Gumber, 1642 10 

Balch, Edward, of Chyu, 122S 8 

Balch, George, of Bridgwater,- — ■ — 1678 11, 62, 75 

Balche, George, 1S28 40, 41, 43 

Balch, Hatton, of Ling, 1621 10 

Balche, John, 1S28 40,41,43 

Balch, John, 1579 6, 61 

Balche, John, 1604 26 

Balch, Johanne, of Stapelton, 1327 9 

Balch, Robert, of Bridgwater, 1631 11, 62 

Balch, Robert, of Hazelbury, 1492 9 

Balch, Robert, of Wryngton, 1327 9 

Balch, Roger le 5 

Balch, Thomas, 1366-7 6 

Balch, Thomas, of North Curry, 1562 10, 46 

Balch, Thomas, of Wells, 1695 10, 83 

Balch, Captain William, 1560 44 

Balche, William, of Higham, 1533 10, 13, 40 

Balche, William, of Higham, 1599 43, 44 


406 INDEX. 

Balch, Willielmo, of Purye, 1327 9,61 

Balch, Willielmo, of Thrubbewell, 1327 9 

Balch, Richard, 1495 6 

Balisch, Richard, 1259 8, 46 

Balchen, Admiral Sir John 6-8 

Balch Family of America 87, et seq. 

John Balch " of Massachusetts," 1623 87, 88-93 

Balch, F. H 92 

Balch, Francis Vergnies 93 

Balch, Galusha B . . 89 

Balch, Rev. William 89, 90 

Balch, Rev. Thomas 91, 92 

John Balch "of Maryland," 1658 87, 94, et seq. 

Balch, Alexandrine Macomb 343-344 

Balch, Judge Alfred 206-211 

Balch, Captain Charles Carter 372 

Balch, Edwin Swift 333-341 

Balch, Elise Willing 332, 333 

Balch, Elizabeth 228-229 

Balch, Admiral George Beall 345-360 

Balch, Harriet 205-206 

Balch, Hezekiah 102-103 

Balch, Rev. Hezekiah 375-402 

Balch, Rev. Hezekiah James 104, 105-117 

Balch, James, 1714-1779 103-104 

Balch, Rev. James 104, 110, 111, 373-374 

Balch, John 103, 374, 375 

Balch, John Tennant 402 

Balch, Rev. John Tennant 403 

Balch, Dr. Lewis 219-228, 232 

Balch, Judge L. P. W 211-219,300 

Balch, Rev. L. P. W 219-228 

Balch, Robert 97 

Balch, Lieut.-Colonel Robert Monroe 372 

Balch, Rev. Stephen Bloomer 104, llS-passim-205 , 333 

Balch, Captain Thomas, 1685 97-102 

Balch, Thomas, 1821-1877 232-332 

Balch, Rev. Thomas Bloomer 362-372 

Balch, Virginia 234 

INDEX. 407 

Banks, General N. P 286 

Beall, Colonel George, 1695-1780 187, 203 

Beall, Colonel George, 1729-1807 203 

Beall, Colonel Ninian 94, 203, 342 

Bentham, Jeremy 286,327 

Berryer, Pierre Antoine 277 

Benson, Rev. Louis F . . iv 

Bridge of the Gods, The 92 

Broglie, Prince Claude Victor de 328-329, 333 

Brooke Family of Hampshire and Maryland 203-205 

Brooke, Robert 203, 342 

Brooke, Colonel Thomas, of Brookfield, Maryland 203 

Brooke, Major Thomas, 1632-1678 203 

Cambreling, Stephen 235 

Carter Family of Shirley, Virginia 371 

Chevalier, Michel 277, 330 

Cliosophic Society of Princeton University 105 

Clymer, George . 341 

Cobden, Richard , 287 

Coleridge, Sir John 270 

Collis, General 281, 282, 283 

Columbia College 235 

Copernicus 330 

Corcoran, William W 186 

Cruce\ EmeYic 327, 343 

Cummins, Bishop George D 343, 344 

Curtis, George William 267 

Dahlgren, Admiral 355, 356, 357 

Dayton, William L 280, 285 

DeVouassoud, Francois 342 

Dewey, Mrs. B. L 107 

Duffield, Professor John T 334 

Du Pont, Admiral 352,353,354 

East Antarctica 337-339 

England, Church of 17, 31, 62, 88, 95, 96 

Egypt, Trip to 298-310 

408 INDEX. 

Fish, Secretary 297 

Foster, Sir Thomas, Judge Common Pleas 203 

Franklin Institute 257, 340 

Frelinghuysen, Theodore 217 

Gallatin, Albert 1 78, 190 

Garfield, President 358 

Graham, Dr. George W 113 

Grant, President 297 

Greeley, Horace 288, 320, 325 

Gresham, Sir Thomas 330 

Grotius, Hugo 286,327 

Guizot, Pierre Guillaume 276, 277 

Harvard University 89, 91, 93, 335, 341 

Hewitt, Abram S 235 

Hood, Sir Alexander Acland 74 

Huntington, W. H 288, 322 

Ilminster Free Grammar School 17, 18, 24, 25, 36, 40, 41 

Introduction i— iv 

International Courts of Arbitration 319, 322 

Japan Expedition 346-350 

Jay Family of La Rochelle 228 

Jay, John 228 

Jefferson, Thomas 177, 178, 189 

Johnson, Reverdy 213 

Jordan, John W iv 

Kant, Emmanuel 286, 327 

Keith, Charles P iv, 333 

Kern, Dr 280,291 

Laboulaye, Edouard 279 

Leach, Miss M. A iv 

Lee, General Robert E 371 

Leibniz 286, 327 

Les Frangais en Ame'rique, 1777-1783 318 

INDEX. 409 

Lesseps, Ferdinand de 305, 306, 309 

Letter proposing arbitration between America and 

England 288-291 

L'Herillier, General 279, 314 

Loomis, J. T 124 

Liberia 181,212,221 

Lincoln, Abraham 286,287,320 

Lorimer, James 291,292,294 

Macauley, Admiral Edward Y 359 

Macfarlane, Eugenie H 341 

Macomb, General Alexander 206 

Maid of Athens, Byron's 346 

Makemie, Rev. Francis 96, 182 

Mariette, Monsieur 308 

McCosh, President James 333, 334 

Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence.. 106, 107, 112-118 

Moreau, Henry 279,280,320,321 

Murphy, Consul W. W 341 

Nadelhorn, second ascent of the 335 

Napoleon the Third 280 

Nordenskj'old, Dr. Otto 337, 338 

Oresme, Bishop Nicole 330 

Oxford University 6, 16, 49, 59, 60, 61, 203 

Parker, George, Mayor of Bridgwater 99, 102 

Perry, Commodore 346, 347, 350 

Philadelphia Club 332, 340, 342 

Philadelphia Cricket Club, 1854 256, 257 

Philosophical Society, American 340, 341, 342 

Pichon, Louis Andre\ French Charge" d'Affaires 178 

Piz Bevers, first ascent and christening of the 335 

Portienhorn, third ascent of the 335 

Presbyterianism 95-passim-328,362,365-37 1 ,3T 5-passim-4:03 

Prevost-Paradol, Lucien Anatole 277, 278, 279, 294 

Princeton University. . . 105, 119, 124, 175, 187, 206, 207, 211 
217, 219, 333, 334, 340, 362, 365, 375, 403 

410 INDEX. 

Rawle, William Henry 385 

Rittenhouse Club 328 

Rochambeau, Count 318 

Rodeffer, J. D 328 

Russia and the United States 178-181 

Saint Audries 12,64,73,74,88,100 

Saint-Pierre, Castel de 286, 327 

Scotland, Church of 96 

Seton-Karr, H. W 335 

Seventy-Six Society 256-257 

Shippen Family of Philadelphia 266, 332 

"Shippen Papers," The 266 

Sims, Dr 312,313 

Soenens, Juge Albert 3 

Sprague, Dr. William B 376 

Spechtenhauser, Joseph 336 

Stanley, Henry M 302 

Sully, Due de 286,327 

Swift, Emily 331 

Swift Family of Philadelphia 331-332 

Taney, Roger Brooke 211,218,265 

Trolltinder, first ascent of the 335 

Two Sermons on the Certain and Final Perseverance of 
the Saints 125-175 

Van Buren, Martin 207 

Vice-Roy of Egypt 303, 309 

Washington, George 177, 178 

Welsh, Herbert 323, 324 

West Antarctica 337-339 

Whig Society, American.. 119, 207, 211, 219, 340, 342, 362, 403 

Willing Family of Philadelphia 331, 332, 341 

Winslow, Dinner to Captain 285 

Witt, Cornells de 277 

Yeaman, George H 294, 297